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JOURNAL 




NATURAL PHILOSOPHY, 
CHEMISTRYy 

-?/ T H E ARTS. 
VOL. xxni. 

BY WILLIAM NICHOLSON. 



LOKDOy-. 



HK CDUKT, TlMf U BAH , K* 

W. NICHOLSOiV, 

CUAALOTTE STREET, BLOOaiSBUBYt 
AND tout BV 

J.STftATFOlU), No. 113, Uolmssi Hiix. 



PREFACE, 

A HE Authors of Original Papers and Communications in the 
present Vglume arc Dr. John New; Pat. Neill, Esq. F.W.S. j 
RicharU Lovell Edgeworth, Fsq. F. R..S. and M. R.l. A.; J. G.; 
^V. N. ; Mrs. Agnes Ibbetson ; Mr, James Thom.'ion ; John Gougb, 
Esq. ; the Rev. .1. Blanchard; Dr. Clarke; Mr. Peter Barlow; 
"BrJ. Acton ; J. S. K. ; Mr. Charles Silvester; Mr.T.Shcldratei 
williaiu Saint, Esq.; A Correspondenl, 

' Of Foreign Works, M. Vatiqiielin; M. Foiircroy; M.CbevnnI; 
K. Bcrtrand ; Professor Link ; M. Boullay ; Professor Lacipadius; 
L-Cordier; M. Gay-Liis^ac; M.Thenara; M. Guyton-Morvean; 
M. Aluau; Professor Mojon ; M. Rcsal ; M. Leblanc: B.G.Sage; 
L Berthier; M. Gehlen; M. DescotiHi M. Bosc; C. L.Bcrt!iolfet; 
fe. Si-guin; Professor Curaudan. 

i And of Briiisb Memoirs abri<lged or extmcted, Thomas Andrew 

nizht, Esq. F, R. S. &c.; Rev. .lofeph Townahend; Mr. 

wkicl Cicali; W.'Bond, Esq,; W. Mauhews, Esq.; Mr. 

irLinson; .1. Christ. Curtreii, Esq.f J. Franltcn, Esq.; Hfr, 

miiel Curtis; Mr. Thomas Oavjs; Mr, Samuel Ciegg; Mr. 

lOQias &iddingtnn; Mr. WagstafTi:; J. Duller, Esq.: Thoinas 

Walford, Esq. F. A. S. and US. ; Thomas Marsham, Esq. Trea. 

L, S; George Montagu, Esq. F. L. S.; John Williams, Esq.; 

i^nhur Young, Kh}. F. R i<, ; Captain Kater; Hamphry Davy, 

' " . Sec. a. S. F. R. S. Ed. and M. R. 1. A. ; Mr. WiUjam 

ell; Tlwjinas Young, Esq. M. D. For. Sec. It. S. 

[Tbe Engravings consist of J. Knight's new Method of Training 

rail Trees; 2. Mr. Cleall's Machine for Beating out the Seed of 

kmp and Flax: 3. Mr. Bond's Machine for Breaking Hemp: 4. 

'r, Samuel CIcgg's Apparatus for making Carburettert Hidrogen 

B from PitconI ; 5. His Lamp for burning the Ga^: G. Different 

eels, called Wircworms, that destroy Wheat: 7. The NaJral 

lenihranes of two Species of Horseshoe Bat : 8. tiguresto lU 

titrate the Vivificalion of ffecds, by Mrs. A, Ibbetson: 9, A 

ftry senniUle Hygrometer, liy Lieutenant Henry Kater: 10. Aq 

mproved Hygrometer, by the fame Genileman: II. Mr. Davy^y 

Apparatus for heating Potassium in Gasses, Oisiilling Potassium, 

J taking the Voltaic Spark in Sulphur and Phoaphorui, li. V*. 

us Figures by Mrs, Agnes Ibbetson, to illu5traic the Growth of 

Area, and the Divisions of the Wood in the Stem of Trees : 

I, Figures allowing the Lme of Life in Trees entering into Flower 

Budti, passing by Lenf Buds, and avoiding an injured Part: 14. 

Diseeclions of Seed Vessels: 15. Ciyptogamian PUnt^, that have 

been mistaken for Perspiration on Leaves: 16. Delmeations by 

Uk Caoiera Ubscura aaa Caa;era Lucida. 

TABLS 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

TO THIS TWENTY-THIRD VOLUME, 



MAY, I80P. 

Irui 

iluc; 3. Mr. Bond's Machine for Breaking Hemp. 



ivings «rthe folkminr Objects: 1. Knight's new Method of Training 
Fruit Trees; 9. Mr. Clealrs Machine for Beating out the Seed of Hemp and 



I. On a new Metliod of Training Fruit Trees. By Thomas Andrew Knight, 
F.K.S. &c. ..... 1 

II. On the Food of Plants, by the Bev. Joseph Townshcnd, Rector of Pewsey, 
WiUs ...... 5 

HI. Description of a Machine for Beating out Hempseed and Flaxseed, likely 
to be useful in Canada. By Mr. t£zekiei Cleall, of West Coker - IG 

IV. Observations on the Culture of Hemp, and other useful Information, re- 
lative to Improvements in Canada. By William Bond, Esq., of Canada 18 

V. Remarks on sundry important Uses of the Potato. - • 5?8 

VI. On the Dissimilarity between the Creatures of the present and former 
World, and on the Fossil Aicyonia. From Parkinson's Organic Remains S3 

VII. An Account of Improvements in the Cuhure of Vegetables, by John 
Christian Curwen, Esq., M« P. of Workington Hall, Cumberland 51 

VIII. Electrical Experiments on Glass considcicd as a Ley den Phial, and on 
coated Panes : by Mr. *** - - -' - nj 

IX. On the Identitv of Uic Hose of Charcoal and Ilidrogon, or its Base. In a 
Letter from Dr. John New - - - - 71 

X* Extract of a Letter from a Gentleman in Jersey to his Friend in Glamorgan- 
shire, on the Use of Vraic as a Manure. Communicated b) J. Franklen, 
Rq. ...... 72 

XL Account of an extensive Orchard planted at Bradwell in Essex, by Mr. 
Samuel Curtis, of Walworth - - - 75 

XIL On the Management of Marsh Lands, Irrigation, &c. in a Ijetter to a 
Friend. By Mr. Thomas Davis - - - - 77 

Meteorological Journal . • • . « so 



JUNE, 



CONTENTS. V 

JUNE, 1800. 

csnivings of the following Objects: I. Mr. Samuel Clegg's Apparatus for 
nukJDg Carburetted Hidrogeii Gas from Pitcoal : t>. His L^mp lor burning 
t::eGas: 3. Different Insects, called Wirewomis, thatdestrov Wheat: 4. The 
Ni^ Membranes of two Species of Horseshoe Bat. 

|1 Observations on the Natural History of the Divi'rs. Tn a Letter from Patrick 
Seil, Esq., Secretary to the Wernerian Natural History Society 81 

|IL Description of an Apparatus for making carburetted HidrogenGas from Fit- 
coal, and lighting Manufactories with it. By Mr. Samuel Clegg, of Man- 
chester ------ 85 

|ni. A cheap Method of Preserving Fruit without Sugar, for Domestic Uses or 
Sea Stores. By Mr. Thomas Saddington, No. 73, lower Thames Street B9 

I IV. On Reclaiming Waste Lands. By Mr. WagstatVe - - P5 

V. Account of Waste Land improved, by J. Butler, Esq., of Bramsbott^ in 
Hanip>h:re - - - - . - Pg 

M. Some Observations on an Insect that destroys the Wheat, supposed to be 
ihe Wireworm. By Thomas W.iltbnl, Msq., V. A. S. and L. S. With an ad- 
ditional Note, by Thomas Maisham, Ks(|. Trcas. L. S. • 103 




VIII. An Account of the Method of hastening the Maturation of Grapes. By 
JiviH Willianis, E«q., in a Jjeiter to the Bighl Honourable Sir Joseph Banks, 
Bart. K. B. P. R. S. &c. - - - -116 

IX. An Essay on Manure?. By Arthur Young, Esq., F. R, S. - ICO 

X. On iht: (.'on-itnirtion o( Theatres. In u Lc-Uer from Richard Lovell Edge- 
worth, L-^., I'. K. S. luia M. H. 1. A. - - - 159 

XI. n^n dr Preventing or Si:j>pri's-ing Fires. In a Letter from a Cor- 
:.->p;.'n:t'iit ------ 137 

XII. Vn tli-/ Me'hod of taking Transit Oljscrvaliijns. In a letter from a Cor- 
K>|joiii!#-ii-, v.lih a lUply by \\ . N. . - - yyj 

XIII. Kxaiiiination of the Root of Ci'laj^uala: hy Mr. Vaiiqueliu - 111 

XiV. On t!ie ChrniiLul NLlure of the ^luut in WhiMl. liV Messrs. Fourcroy 

dri'J \ auqufliii - - - - - 14c5 

XV. Of ihc Action of Niuic Acid on Cork; by Mr. Chcvreul - liP 

X\ I. MftUo<l of fabricating intirKial hlonc rnipluM il \\\ llu' Vicinity of Dun- 
i^l^^. Bv Mr. IJtrrlraiid, Apotlurary lu the Aiiin i>f the Coast. - 154 

X^ 11. Lc'ticr from Mr. Link, Profes-or of Chcmiitrs' al Rostock, to Mr. Vogel 

155 

*c .entire News - - - - - -IjtJ 

.^Ie:ecrol'Jsical Journal • - ' • • JtiO 



JULY, 



Ti CONTENTS. 

JULY, 1809. 

Engravings of the following Objects: 1. Figures to illustrate the Vivification of 
Seed^, by Mrs. A. Ibbetsion : '2. A very sensible Hygrometer, by Lieutenant 
Henry Katcr: 3. An improved Hygroxiieter^ by till* same gentlcnuiu. 

L On the Impregnation of the Seed, and first Shooting of the Nerve of Life, 
in the Embryo of Plants. In a Letter from Mrs. A. Ibbetson - idl 

IL On the Perspiration of Plants. By the same Lady - - igQ 

III. On the Analysis of Sulphate of Barjtcs. By Mr. James Thomson. Com* 
mimicated by the Autlior. - * - - 174 

IV. Experimrnts on the Expansion of moist Air raised to the boiling Tempe- 
rature. Ina Lt-lterfrom John Gough, Esq. • - 18? 

y. An Essay on Manures. By Arthur Young, Esq. F. l\. S. - 187 

VI. Table of the l^ain that fell at various Places in the Year 180R, by the 
Rev. J. Blanchard, of Nottingham ; with a Meteorological Table for the 
same Year, by Dr. Clarke, of that Town - - - 197 

VH. Observations on Sulphuric Ether, and its Preparation; by Mr. BouUay, 
Apothecary at Paris - - - - - 201 

VIII. Investigation of a Problem in the Doctrine of Pennutations. By Mr. 
Peter Barlow - • - . . j^q3 

IX. Description of a very sensible Hygrometer. By Lieutenant Henry Kater, 
of his Majesty's li'th kogimcnt - - , - O07 

X. Descrijrtion of an improved Hygrometer. By Lieutenant Henry Katcr, of 
his Majesty's I2th Rfginu'nt - - - - 211 

XL On the Germination of Seeds, In a Letter from Mr. J. Acton, of Ipswich 

21| 

XIL Analysis of the Kancrlstein ; by Professor Lampadius - 231 

Xin. Oljservations on a Lunar Rainl)ow; by L.Cordier, Mine Engineer | ib. 

XIV. On the Wr.nt of Tiiolrs of the Proportions of the constituent Principles 
ofSalt«, ami nn tin; L»unir.ous» Sinoke from Lead Smelting- Houses. In a 
Letter from a Cori"i>iM)uf:Lm - - . - 032 

Scientific News . - - . . 033 

Meteorological Tabic - • - • - 240 



AUGUST, 



CONTENTS. 



AUGUST, IS09. 
1. Mr. 



)avv'^ A|ipanitua for hntlnr 

1 taking tliE Voltaic SpttA In 

a by Mra. Agnw lbb«t>on, to 11- 

luons of iht IVood in tlw Stem 

e new anaWtkal ftesearthet on 
triv the Alkalis, PhiKohoni*. Sulphur 



inan of the foUowing Objects: 
' ' m ia Gmk*, DUtiHiiiR Potas 

^ ■ and Phosphanis: ?, Various F.gui 

_ nic the Growth of Leaves, and the Ol 
If Trees. 
I TV Bakeiun L«ctUT«. An Account nf some new analytic 
II» Nature of oertaiti Bodies, panicuiarlv the Alkalis, Pho! 
Cirbotucatus Matter, and tht; AciiU liillierlo undecompu.^ei] ; with sonic g1^• 
Mnl Ob«enratioa« an Chemioil Theorv. By Humphry Daw Em., Sec B. & 
F.R.S. Ed.and.M.R.I.A. ■ ' - - ' - SH 

LOq thcPTuiluctioDofanAciilandan Alktdi from pure WaterbyGalvaninn. 
b a Lelter from Mr. Charles Sjlvesto-, with Remarks by W. K. isn 

D. Atcount of ihe Detoraposition and Recompoiition of Boracic Acid. By 
Moan. Gay-LuMac and Thenard . , , j(jo 

IT. Oa the Inlluenc« of Galvanic Electtidly on the Transition of Minerals; 
nad M tin Meeting of the Mathematical and Physical Clan of the [iisiiiuie. 
UkcUtbof July, 1607. ByMr.Guyton - - - soj 

~ta Artifidal Sandstones, that have undergone a (vgular Contractioii ia the 
c. By Mr. Aluau - - - - - SOS 

^OtAcrvations on the Oxi^pni^ed Muriatic Acid. By Mr. Joseph Mojon, 
ir of Pharmaceutic Chemistry ia the Mvdical ScIumI of tlie ImperiiJ 
rsity of Genoa. &c - - ■ -313 

rtex of a Letter from Mr. Resal, Apothecary at Remircmcnl, to Mr. 
, Apothecarv to the Emperor, on the Coni'criion of Malt Spirit int» 
"", and on tfie Red Colour of Oil of Hinnpsced • ST> 

Muie Points ol' Hytlrojraphy, by Mr. Le-blanc, Officer iu 
iFiVDCh Navy. ----- 27« 

^tt the Sponlaneowi Igoitkia of Charcoal : bj- B. G. Sage, Member of th« 
Eilwtr, >'o(jBdcf and Direaor of the first School of Minos - S77 

%oiry of die Detonation and Explosion of Gunpowder, by the same STi» 
kilhe iiulpltatn of Lime, Barvtes, and Lead - - SB!) 

t' EMmct of a Letter from Mr. tiehlen to Mr. Descotiis, on the Igneous 
ion of Barytea ----- iSI 

( Note oil u Species of Manna, or concrete Sugar, produced by Ihe Rho- 
a Pontitiim - - - - 2S3 

tAo EsMV on Manures. Bv Arthur Young, F. R.S, - 211* 

|0b th« 1-onuation of the SVinter Leaf BuJ, and of Leaves. By Mrs. 
« IbbeUoD - - - - - 295 

[ ,A Letter on a Canal in Ihe Medulla Spinalis of some Quadrupeds. In a 
ler frooi Mr. William Sewell, to Everard Homt-, l^sq. V. R. S. 300 

. Note on the Alteration that Air and Water produces in Flesh. By Mr. 
,. Bertbollet. - - . - - 302 

ll. AjialysU of a Schist in the Environs of Cherbourg, taken from the 
caratiotu loade in Bonaparte Harbour. By Mr. Berliner, Mine Engineer 

30* 



.- .Method of rendrring'common Alum as good for Dyeii 
"t. Seguin, Cormpondiug Member of the Institute 



U Roman Alum; 



SUPPLEMENT 



tvx CONTENTS. 



SUPPLEME>a' TO VOL. XXIII. 

I. The Bakcrian I,AH:ture. An Account of some New analytical Researches oil 
the Nature of certain Bcxlios, &c. by Huuiplu-y Dav} , Esq., Sec. K. S« 
F.R.S. andM.R.I. A. - - - - 321 

II. On the Stem of Treos; witli an Attempt to discover the Cause of Motion 
in Plants. By Mrs. Agnes Jbbetson. • - • J34 

III. On the supposed Perspiration of Plants. Oy Mrs. Agnes Ibbetson. 35 1 



IV. A numerical 
of double 



rical Table of elective Attractions ; with Remarks on the Sequencci 
Decompositions. By TJiomas Young, M. D. For. Sec. R. S. 354 

V. Experiments on Sulphur and its Decomposition ; by Mr. Curaudau, Professor 
of Chemistry applicable to the Arts, and Member of several learned Societies, i 

365 

VI. Experiments in Continuation of those on the Decomposition of Sulphur { , 
by the Same ------ 369 

I 

VII. On the Camera Lucida. In a Letter from Mr. T. Sheldrake, with Remarks ^ 
by W. N. - - - - - . 37a I 

VIII. Kemarks on some of the Definitions and Axioms in Barrow*s Euclid. In 
a Letter from William Saint, Escj. ... 377 

IX. Account of a new Acid, obtained from Ginger. In a X^cttcr from a Cof« 
respondent. - ' • - • - • 3(4 



77**; 




.^■ 



'^'^■^. 



I . 

-■j 




» ■ 
*■ 



ir- 



p\3"^ 







NATURAL PHILOSOPHY, CHEMISTRY. 



THE ARTS. 



0% a new Method of traimng Fruit Trea. By Thomii 
Ajidbew KsieuT, F. R. S. ^e\ 

J; ROM the resnlt of experimeaU I have made to ascer- u,„a](^,r„,oj 
bin the influence of gruvitatioa on the descending sap of iriining iieei 
trees, and the cause of tlie descent of the radicle, and aa- ''''''"'''^ 
cent of the expanding plumule of getminatiog seedsf, I 
lure been induced to believe, that none of the forms, in 
vhich fruit trees are geoerally trained, are those best calcu- 
lated to promote an equal dislribotion of the circulating 
fluadfi; by which alone permanent health and vigour, and 
power to kflbrd a succession of abundant crops, can be 
giveti. 1 have therefore been led to try a method of train- a diawcni 
tag, which is, I believe, different from any that has been manner tried 
practised; and as the success of this method haa fully «v- '""'»""*"• 

• Trwtt of ibe HorticDltunl SocUty, p. 79. 

^ Phil. Tmu. for 180G aad I807 } or Jounal, Vol. XIT, p. 409, ai 

XIX, 94). 

Vol. XXIII. M0.101,— May, 1809> B tmtrti 



S2 



NEW METHOD OF TRAi^ING FRUIT TREES. 



'Kew metkod 
described. 



swered every expectatioD 1 h»d formed, I have thought A 
concise accomft. of it might not be unacceptable to the Hor- 
ticultural Society. I confine my account to the peach 
tree, though, with a little variation, the method of training 
and pruning, that I recommend, is applicable, evep with su- 
perior advantages, to the cherry, plhfai, and p^at tr^t abd 
Form of train. I must observe, thi^t when trees are by any means deprived 

ing trees when ^^ ^* motion, which their branches naturally receive from 

their branchei . • i • 

aredeprived of winds, the forms in which they are trained operate more 

, ■ • _ 

"* rttoLt' *™' po'^erfwl'y o^ ^^^^^ permanent health and vigour, than b 
generally imagined. 

My peach trees, which were plants of one year old onIy« 
were headed down; as usual ^ early in the spring, and two 
shoots only were trained from each stem in opposite direc- 
tions, and in an elevation of about 5 degrees ; and when the 
two shoots did not grow with equal luxuriance, I depressed 
the strongest, or gave a greater, elevation to the weakest, by 
which means both were made to acquire and to preserve an 
equal degree of vigour. These shoots, receiving the whole 
sap of the plants, grew with much luxuriance, and in the 
course of the sumnier each attained about the length of four 
feet. Many lateral shoots were of course emitted from the 
young luxuriant l>ranches ; but these were pinched off at the 
tirst or second leaf, and were in the succeeding winter wholly 
destroyed; when the ptatttft, dfter htsing prunled, appeared 
as represenfed in PI. I, i^ig^ t. This form, t shall here 

JJ^^*^^/** observe, miglit with inUch ttdvaiitdgbbe giVen to tYCfeg whHe 
In the hur^ry ; and perhaps rt is the only form, whlcfi|cAh be 
j^iven without subsequent injury ta the tree:' it is also k 
form that can be given with very Tittle trouble or expeiise to 
the nurseryman. ; ' 

In the succeeding season as ibauy brancheis weK^ sU^^V^ 
to spring. ftt)m each plant as could be trained <k>nVeniently, 
without shading each other ; and by selecting the stfongtH 
and edrticst buds towards the points of the yeaf old branches, 
and the xoedkest and latest near their bases, I was enabled h> 
give to each annual shoot nearly an equal degree of vigiDur; 
and the plants appeared in the autumn of the second year 
nearly as represented in Fig. 2. The experienced gardener 
iiill here obtervey th«t -I exposed « gireater surface of leaf 



Shbij^tMi 



e^iE 



Second year. 












■ HEW METHOD OP TBAIMNti FKEIT TREEt. 

to the light, without pUcing any of tlie leaves so as laahiule 
odten, tJiancan probubly bt doiieinuny nth«r aiodecrf iraiu- 
iBg; Bud in cousefiueiice of this arrangement, the )(r*wth«f 
the trees wns bo great, that at two yeuvg oM sonicftr tlieni 
>n« fifleeu feet «lde ; and the young wood ia every part oc- 

I quired tbe most pertci'tmntuiily. In tli« wiut«r, the shoDta 
■^f ibc )a»t seasuu ivere allernutely shortenetJt und left their 
•bole Imgth. and they were then prepared to uHbrd a tnoal 
qjModant aud regular blossom in the succeeding spring. 
In the autuDin of the third year the trees were nearly as ThiiJ jeat. 
'|f(ireseuted iu Fig. 3, tfce central part of each behi^ formed 
tl lery fine bearing wood; and the iiize and geueral health 
of ibe tree* afford evidence of u more regular dirtributioa 
of tbe tap, tbiui 1 have witnesaed in any otlier mod« of 
tniniog. 

Id the preceding method of treating peach trees very little NecessitY of 
nue »u made of the knife during winter: and X munt r*- Iho"w'be»' 
sai-k. that the necewiity of winter pruning should generally mncb u po<- 
b« avoided as iDUch as pOMible; for by laying in a much *'''''' I"""'"*" 
toi^ger qnautity of wood in the Humnier and autumn tltaa 
ctB be wialcd ia the aucctctlin^ yeur* the gardi-iier y:una ao 
Mhcr advantage, than that of having a " great choice of fine 
beatiog wood to bU his walla," sqd 1 do not see any advan- 
Hgv in bi* liariog mut.'b more than he wants; on tiie con- 
tnry, the health of the tree always sulTcri by too much use 
of the knife ihrou|^h successive seasons. 

To enter into the dctuil of pruning, in the manner in Remaiks on 
wUicb 1 tbiok it might be done with most advantage, would ["uni^'i; 
of DMOrity lead me muiii beyond the intended limits of (uy '""'^ " '"" 
pceaott commuoicatiun ; but 1 bhall take this opportunity 
of oftering a few objervatioiis on ihe proper treatnjeut of 
luxuriant »hoot« of the peach tree, the origin and olCce of 
which, u well as the right uode of pruning them, are not 
■I nil uaderttood either by the writeraou gardening of this 
country, or the Coutineni. 

Ibave showoiii the Phil. Trans, for 1805*, that the albur-^-j,^^,^j,,„^„ 
uuoii or sap wood of oak trees loves a conaidcrable part of a inervoii of 
iu weight dui^Dg the period in which its leaves are formed "'' """■'• 

• Sat Jeunta, Vol. XII, p. £33. 

Bi ia 



4 NEW SETHOD OF TRAINING FRUIT TR£E8« 

in the spring; and that any portion of the alburnum affords 
less extractive master after the leaves have been formed than 
previously. I have also shown, that the aqueous Ifluid which' 
ascends iu^ the spring in the birch and sycamore becomes 
sp^cificially heavier as it ascends towards the buds ; which, 
I think, affords sufficient evidence, that the alburnum of 
trees becomes daring winter a reservoir of the sap or blood 
of the tree, as the bulb of the hyacinth, tulip, and the tu- 
ber of the potato, certainly do of the sap or blood of thes^ 
Wall trees ge- plants. Now a wall-tree, from the advantageous position of 

tlianstsmdards. *^* *^*^^ relative to the light, probably generates much 
more sap, comparatively with the number of its buds, than 
a standard tree of the same size; and ^hea it attempts to 
employ its reserved sap in the spring, the gardener is com- 
pelled to destroy (and frequently does so too "soon and too 
abruptly) a very large portion of the small succulent shoots 
emitted, and the apis too often prevents the growth of those 
which remain. The sap in consequence stagnates, and ap-^ 
pears often to choke the passages through the small 
branches; which in consequence become incurably un- 
healthy, and stunted in their growth: and nature then finds 
means of employing the accumulated sap, which if retained 
would generate the morbid exudation, gum, in the prodnc* 
luzariant tion of luxuriant shoots: These shoots onr gardeners, from 
**^ii^r*'** Langley to Forsyth, have directed to be shortened in sum- 
coed, mer, or cut out in the succeeding spring; but I have found 
great advantages in leaving them wholly unshortened ; when 
they have uniformly produced the finest possible V^^ng 
wood for the socceding year ; and so far is this practice from 
having a tendency to render naked the low^r, or internal 
parts of the tree, whence those branches spring, that the 
strongest shoots they afford invariably issue from the buds 
near their bases. I have also found, that the laterals that 
spring from these luxuriant shoots, if stopped at the first 
leaf, often afford very strong blossoms and fine fruit in the 
succeeding season. M/lienever therefore space can be found 
to train in a luxuriant shoot, I think it should rarely or ne- 
ver bis either cut oat, or shortened : it should, however, ne» 
\$r be trained perpendicularly, where this can be avoided. 

II. 



OH THE roOD OF PLUTTS. 



IL 



Ob dke Food of PlwuUj hy the Rev. Jof bpb To wnsheii o. 

Rector of Pewsty, WUu\ 

W HAT is the food of plants ? Before we can give a sa- sc«ds Tcgettit 
tisfactory answer to this question, we must collect facts; we f^p^T >b osli- 
mast multiply experiments. For this purpot^e, in the years ^f^ -^ pn^^ 
1792 and 1793 I put various seeds to vegetate in different S^n* 
airs; in atmospheric air, in vital air» and in azote. The ge- 
Denl result was that neither wheat, oats, nor barley, Tegeta« 
ted in azote ; but in vital air vegetation was uniformly rapid. 

July IS, 17969 1 placed eleven cabbt^e-plants in pots, all (^^bace 
healthy plants, and weighing each { ounce apothecaries* plants, 
weight. The pots stood in pans with water,, and remained 
in them till June 12, 1797» when the plants were taken out 
of the pots and weighed again. 

Of these pots four had qjiartz sand, washed clean, and 
rendered perfectly free from mixture of either argil or cal- 
<:areoas earth, 

No. 1 had nothing but this sand ; the plant liyed, but did in pwe quarts 
not increase in bulk ; when examined, the radical fibres * 
were found numerous and extended, but very small ; and 
when the plant was weighed in January 1797» it bad not in- 
creased in weight. 

No. 2 had the same kind of sand and woollen-rags : the »*nd and wool- 
roots shot vigorously, the plant cabbaged, and in January ^ ^^ 
1797 weighed two ounces. 

No. 3 had the same kind of sand, with about { part char- uindandcbam 
cool in powder ; the roots were less \ngorous than the for- * 
mer, and in January 1797 the plant weighed | ounce. 

No. 4 had this sand with about ^ lime. The plant did »nd & lime, 
not increase, yet lived, and in January 1797 weighed only 
J dwts. having lost | of its original weight. 

No. 5 had brickraaker's clay alone ; the plant lived, brick day, 
looked fresh, but in January 1797 weighed only } ounce. 

No. 6 had brickmaker*s clay, with an equal proportion of clay and sand, 

• Bath Society's Papers, vol. X, p. 1, 

the 



^ on TRfe FOOD t>F PLAHTS. 

the quartz MiDd. This plant, like the fomer» livedy looked 

fresh, and in January 1797 weighed | ounce, 
clay tad char- No. 7 had brickmaker*8 clay, with about i part charcoal 
^^» 10 powder. In iantiary I7d7 Ae plant weighed) ounce. 

day and ragt, No. 8 had brickmaker*s clay and woollen rags. This 

plant cabbaged well, and in January 1797 weighed 4 ounces, 
day and liin«. No. 9 had brickmaker*8 clay, with about -^ lime. The 

plant lived till December, but never grew. 
mM and No. 10 bad clean dung from the bowels of a boirse, with 

liuiu-iiAig, quart! sand well washed. This plant dropp*d some of its 

largest leaves during the frost; and yet in January 1797 it 

weighed 4} ounces, 
peat eanh. No. 1 1 hi|d peat earth alone ; the plant continued healthy 

to appearance, and in January 1797 weighed f ounce, but 

the root was rotted off. 
Sc rich mould. No. 12 was planted at the same time in the garden, near 

the pots, in rich mould : this did not drop any leaves, and 

in January I797 weighed 4 ounces. 

; Such was the result of these experiments on cabbage 

plants. 
Wheat sown, In January 17979 having removed the cabbage plants, I 

^wed wheat in the same pots ; and 25th September of the 

same year I made the subsequent report, 
in sand. No. 1, with quartz sand alone, had Iwo stems', Sd inches 

long, and the ears 1 j- inch., 
gaod and ragi. No. 2, the sand and rags, had four stems, 38 inches long, 

and the ears 2j inches, 
nndaiidchar. No. 3, the sand and charcoal, had one stem, 18 inches 
<**lf lonjj:, and the ear 1} inch. 

sutd sad hme No. 4, the sand and lime, had two stems, 21 inches long, 

and the ear 2 inches, 
city. No. 5, the clay alone, had three stems, 97 inches long, 

and the ears 1} inch, 
flay and sand, No. 6, the clay and sand, had four stems, 25 inches long, 

and the ears 2f inches.*' 
clay mod char- No. 7, the clay and charcoal, had four stems, 24 inches, 
^^^9 and the ears 2 inches. 

jdi^vidiagi. No. 8, the clay and rags, had twelve stems, 3$ inches 

long, and the ears 2j inches. 

No. 



QJf T^ rpop OF TLAnjU y 

No. 9, the clay and liine» had one litem lerj alender, 15 eUj and Bme, 
inches^ and the ear 1 1 inch. 

No. 10, the dung and sand, had sixteen stems, 37 inches duDgmndttKd, 
longy and the ears 2 J inches, very strong. 

No. 11, the peat earth, bi^ six stems, 35 inches long, peat eartl). 
gnd the ears 2| inches. 

Tliut, it appears, that In both sets of experiments the re- 
nilts were similar. 

From these facts, compared with other facts with which |g ^j^r ti,^ 
we are conversant; such as the flowering of bulbous roots in foodof pUnw? 
water, and more especially the vast increase of the withy- 
tree, recorded by Mr. Boyle, our attention is naturally turn- 
ed in the first place to water, as the supposed nutriment of 
j>]anta. 

In the experiments before us, both the cabbage and the Water used 
wheat of No. 1 were well supplied with water; but in the ^^^'^ ^*^ ""^^ 
space of six months the former had not increased in either 
weight or bulk ; and t;he latter iu eight months produced 
only two miserable stems. 

In Catalonia, more especially in the vicinity of Barcelo- A mndy aoil 
na, the soil is principally quartz, from decomposed granite ; P^"^*'^** 
jet being well watered, and plentifully supplied with light 
and beat, the crops of eveiy kind are niost abundant. 

Mr. de Sauasure remarks, that " we deceive ourselves ex- Quality of the 
ceediagly when we imagine, that the fertility of any district and*raoisiurc 
depends wholly on the nature of its soil, because abundance important. 
and scarcity in crops arise principally from the degree of 
beat and humidity in the air, with the quantity and qua- 
lity of the exhalations with which it is charged.'* lie adds, 
•* I have seen, in Sicily and Calabria, rocks and gravel arid 
and uncultivated, such as in Switzerland would have been 
altogether barren, which there produced mare vigorous - 

plants than are to be seen on the richest and best cultivated 
lands amon£:st the Helvetic mountains.^'* 

It is astonishing to see, in a warm climate, the rapid growth EfTects of well 
of veeetables when they arc well supplied with water. The watering lu a 
amallest cutting of a vine will in the space or fifteen or hw- 
4een months cover the front of an extensive edifice, or form 

^ • Voyage dans les Alpes, 1319. 

a spacious 



8 



ON THE FOOD OF PLANTS. 



a spacioos harbour, from which the assembled family may 
gather ia abundance of the most luxuriant grapes. In such 
a situation the seeds of limes^ oranges, and lemons, will in 
four or five years produce a shady grove; and mulberry 
trees, when wholly stripped of their leaves for the nutriment 
of silk-worms, will again, in a few days, be covered thick 
with foliage. 

Adanson, in his account of Senegal, informs us, that 
** when every thing green has been devoured by locusts, not 
a vestige of their destructive progress after a few days can 
be discovered.'* 
Water decom- From the consideration of these and other facts similar to 
V^^^^^^ them, many distinguished chymists have delivered it as their 
T^feublcf. opinion, that water is decomposed by vegetables. Mr. 
Chaptal says, ** that the decomposition of water is proved, 
not only in vegetables, but in animals also.** And for this 
last he quotes the authority of Roudelet. 
But this not That water, as such, enters largely into the composition 
J^^^^^' of vegetables, is evident; but whether or not, and to what 
extent, it is decomposed, has not, as I apprehend, been yet 
demonstrated. In water meadows, with a plentiful supply 
of riiftfttfig' water, vegetation proceeds even in the depth of 
winter, and during the severest frosts; but stagnant water is 
' at alliCimes unfriendly to our meadows. Any given quantity 

may remain upon the surface for weeks or months subject to 
decomposition^ but instead of being in this state beneficial, 
it is injurious to our crops. In our water meadows we uni- 
▼ersally observe, that it is not humidity which does good, 
but a thick sheet of water flowing incessantly, night and 
day, (for a certain period) over the surface. 
Ff0btbI7.it i» a Hence it seems probable, that water is essential to the 
^^J*^^ k[ gr*^''^^^ 0^ plants, not merely as such, but as it proves a ve-? 
:«et. ' hide of other substances, which are their proper /bod. 

Ferbapt car- If we may form a judgment from their analysis, carbon 
b^their chief may be regarded as the chief pabulum of plants; and this 
^^' we know can, in a given proportion, be conveyed to them by 

water. ^ Mr. ^haptal is not only of opinion, that carbonic 
acid is essential to their growth, but he affirms, that the base 
of this acid contributes to the formation of the vegetable 
fibre. Jn support of this opinion he observes, that in fyngi, 

whiwb 



ON THE FOOD OF PLiKTt. 

^h live in subterraneous places, this acid tiboands; bat 
briDgtug them tVom almoiit pt^rrecldarkuessgrudually l» 

e Itghl, Uiis acid dbappears, und tlie Hbres proportioraiblj 
t«WH!< Thi* opinion is conttrmed by »onic cxpti-iinenl* 
Mr. Stnebier, in which he olwervw, that *' plaiil<« iibuii- 

Vitly sapplied with water, which had been inipregnuitxl 
Atb c:iirl>ouic arrid, transpired much more oxigen, than mhen 
rre supplied with common wat^r." 
Some plants take more carbou than others into their com- Some i 
atiuti; as lor instance, the agancus ^uercinut. agaricus ^^"'^ " 
lifHtr/. boleiat versicoUiT, buletui igtiiarins, ImUttia alriatus, 
tims pertmtis, ctavaria h'jpuxylan, etavaria pistUiarii, Biid 
LOT Others. All the«e contain. IVom the result of stiuly- 
I A ifuantity of carbon. Dearly equal to all their other com- 
Dcnt parts. But the lichen crupvi, phiasler granulatui, 
d bfnperdai Usseltatam, contuin a very small portion of 



Pluits do not however rettun all the carbonaeevas mat- 7^^. ^^ ^m 
■Ihey r«:*iTe: they obtain more in the day when exposed "^"a *Uth^ 
light, thanlhcy paturaHy require; but by the ahseucc of""'"'"*' 
fit ihejr part with this surplue, and therefore yield respir- 1 
le ^ only in tlie day->tinie. 

The sepamtiod of oxigeii fcora plants fay mdiant light Oii^en Mpa* 
o anwfrom the chemical affinity between ox igen and [j^'^l^l^^ 1^ 
For tfai» fact we are indebted to Dr. ln;^nboiiEz; and hidiofea. 
■t Humboldt Has the first who aM:ertained, that hidrogea 
B applied to plants, even when excluded from the li[,'h[, 
ccwnons a separation of their accumolated oxigen. 
Some ptsnts, as for instance, iremella nosloc, l[ie Jllices, Oxigen Mia;» 
aiid alga, retain their osigen weakly, nnd part with "' "f,",'"''*^ 
readily. And it is remarked by Van Uslar, to whom I affr-rutiiow 
i indebted for many of these observations, that sue!) '■""■ 
lOts as contain much oxigen, and retuin it obstinately, are 
lilp; Bsfor instance, our endive and celery, when excluded 
tm the light; while such as contain much oxigen, and 
irt with it easily, are generally green. 

Ifthft anulvbis of plants leads us to consider carfion as one pbnts require 
' ibe mo«t essential articles in their corapositton and sup- •fK'''bie 
m, tw less does the existence of ages prove to us, that the 
incip«l soonre from which they derive their nutriment, 
wbatevLT 



ID oir rai Feo» OP fLAUTi* 

^ Whatever it may be» ia to be aougbt lor invt^UaUe tMrtlp 
the prodace of animal and vegetable aubataDeea d<^yed» 
Many plants indeed require little or no earth fer their %e- 
station, such as the nanerona Udam and trmgaevUks^ of 
which genera the former were discoTered by Sanasnra on the 
highest of the Alpine granite rocks. In lower aituaidonf 
these form a soil for the geuista^ ibr the cistusesy and more 
especially for rosemary and lavender, which abound on the 
roost ele^rated mountains* of tlie Pyrenees. These again^ 
by their decay, form vegetable eartb> in which the InzuriaAl 
pine trees and the ilex grow. 
YiJl^s, This vegetable matter, being washed down into the val* 

lies, helps to form and to increase their soil to a considerablo 
depth, and to give them that fertility, which is not readily 
exhausted. 
Soil enmpoAed When we analyse a soil, we never fail to find it compoaed 
Ae »r/u &*"* ^^ substances derived frem a superior level. If the bills are 
fctable or aoi- quartsose, calcareous, argillaceous, or magnesian, so ia the 
fBsl natter. goi| in all the vallies which crommunicate with them. But 
with these earths in a rich soil we find a great proportion of 
vegetable matter, or of animal exuvite ; and as those are de> 
ficient or abound, vegetation languishes, or is exceedingly 
luxuriant. 
^fyii4. Good mould abounding with vegetable matters ia com- 

monly of a dark colour, pulverises easily, and has therefore 
what is called a mellow look ; but when exhausted or ihh- 
poverishcd by frequent crops, the richest soil, such as I have 
here described, becomes arid, of a lighter colour, comjiact, 
•SkNnewinbeir and comparatively barren. In a maiden soil, or where every 
*>n*>nval shower of rain brings down from more elevated regions a 
quantity of vegetable matter, a succession of luxuriant crops 
may be taken incessantly, without any diminution of fer- 
tility. Thus it is in the country newly occupied by tbe 
Americans, in Kentucky, on the Ohio, and in the whole ex- 
tent of territory watered by the Mississippi, or by its tribu- 
tary streams. Thus also in some parts of Spain, where an 
extensive plain happens to receive the spoils of rich circum* 
jacent bills, as in the well*watered vale of Orihuela, near 
Mureia, of which they say, *< Let it rain. or not rain, com 
never finis in Orihuela.^' Indeed^ so productive is wheat in 

this 



on tus rooo OF ri.iNTi. H 

ttufl Wghl^ftvoured district, ihnt the fartners cftmmonljf r»- 
cat* 100 for I upon their seed. 

Id my exprriments. No. 10, we see, by tlie luxuriant VrgewU* 
gnnvtti of tlie cabbn^ and the wlieat, what vegetable mat- "^""- 
Iff cikn prodircp. Fot in neither of these could any kiwi of 
nntTitDCnt be derived from the quartz sand in which they 
«prr«(l their roots. 

Tlie &*aie kind of sand, in the TtcinJty of Barcelona, is '» imoortinee- 

the assistance of a bright tuu and copiona irri^^tion ren- 
dered exceedingly productive; hut then they spread upon 
t!)« laitd all the dung They can prncure, and not only Htation 
rhildreo and old women on the highways, with little baskets 
to coUect this manure ns it fnlls from horses or from mulea, 
bat like the fanners in the south of France they pick the 
>nv«s frtxn the trees in aururao, and thic at a considerable 
npense. Of such importance do they consider vegetable 
matter as the food of plants. 

It mmt be confessed, that we have frenuently occasion to riints iffea 
ebaerve plants dependant on the nature of the earth inwhieb P™"?'"" 
tbe^ are fouod, and agecliag each its peculiar earth, in 
wbich they gitiw spontaneously and thrive. 

Thus Oft chalky and calcareous boiIh we find (Afitum/ino-uchalki 
phylluim, anihi/llu Putneraria, anpernla cynanchia, lotus cor- 
nictUBtui. hvpipoeripii romosa, poa iristala: and three of the 
smAtimj, the $. acre, I. album, and t. refleium; as on the 
"Wiltabire downs and on the hills roaoil Bath. 

On land we see armaria, rumei acetosella, and all the ""it; 
kMraU; the p/onfa^o manlimo, the planlago coronopiu, the 
«aoporrfM«t atantkium, the tedum aaglicnm, and most re- 
nuirlcBltly the iparritwa scoparium. 

On clay, if wet, the caricet, the^unct, schoenus, aira tes- wet clxf j 
fUont, and airo «FTiiUa, orchis lattfoUa, and oreh'ts cmnptea ; 
itAry, the pritnula cent, orchis mas, orckii maculala, and dij day; 
jwa praleiiriu 

Oti bogs, tlie equittla, vaccmium viiginoaum, anagaUis le- tMgti 
lallm, scirpjis patitstTU, menyanthcf trijoliata, and drosera 
debghl to dwell. 

On the sea-shore, and wherever the rnuriatic salt abounds, „ ^^ ^^ 
K DcaT Alicant in Spain, vre tind taliconiia Europxa, four iliorc. 
species 



Is eV THB fOOB OF PLAHTft. 

species of smlsolat ckenopodimm mariiimuwh uid two species 
^ of JUesembrt/anihemum. 

Fart oC the Mil These maritime plants appear to decompose a part of the 
rfecompoied. ,^^ j^ which they grow; the alkali produced by burning 
them, or the sal sods used in glass and soap* is evidently 
derived by them from the muriatic salt* 
But earths But when we see the lichen parellus fixing itself on the 

^^1^^^ siliceous rock» or the Uehen immersus affecting as it does the 

calcareous rock, in preference to the siliceous; whatever 
may influence this choice, we cannot suspect, that either of 
these rocks contribute by its decomposition to the nutritioo 
of these plants; nor as I apprehend, have we reason to ima- 
gine, that either chalk, sand, or clay, is in any form the 
aliment of the plants. 
Woollen ri)^ Woolleu rags, have been found of great utility as a manure, 
very beneficial, more especially for wheat. And in the experiments before 
us we may observe, that sand with rags produced a cabbage 
of two ounces, and four strong years of nheat* In clay with 
rags our cabbage weighed four ounces, and we had twelve 
strong years of wheat. But in what manner these rags pro- 
duced effect it is difficult to say; for in January 1797 thejr 
were not visibly decayed ; and in the month of September 
in that year they still retained their texture. The quantity 
we usually spread upon cue acre is not qiore than four or five 
cwt. ; and yet in the experience of every farmer it is found, 
that in the first year they nearly double the crop of wheat; 
and in the two succeeding years they yielded a visible in* 
crease. At present, therefore, we can merely record it as a 
&ct, that woollen rags are highly beneficial to the land : but 
we cannot pretend to say by what process they contribute to 
the nutriment of plants. 
I.ixneinjQri- Lime in our experiments was clearly .detrimental with 
&US. sand ; the cabbage lived, but weighed less in January than 

when planted in July: the wheat had two slender stems. 
In clay with lime our cabbage lived till December, but never 
grew. The wheat had one stem, which was extremely sleit- 
der, and the ear was diminutive. 

These facts appear discordant with the experience of far* 

^uDiD5>"?tt- °*^f* ^^ ^^^^ quarter #f the globe ; for lime is found to be 

an 




61* THE FOOD OF PLAKTS. 

nccllcnt mnarc. In some parts of Waks thef huvc igrM niih a 
tttrW way other itreMing for th*ir wheat. I well reni«tii- t*i'«"«- 
that in the pnrisli of Lansoinlet, in Glitmargaiuhiri^, 
fittber, who was very nttentive to a^ruUure, put most 
his •table diin^ on meadow lund, and used only lime fur 
He had (wo lime-kiln^ conslanlly burmn;; for his 
?, and with this niamire he obiAined the most BbiiQ' 
ops; but then his land was principnlly a dwk vegc- 
lanld, and much of it was peat, which before it iras 
dm:ne<i had been a bog. On this land I have counted 
Bxtc grams to ati ear, not picked and culled out of many 
«then M being longer than the rest, but taken by hondfub 
at randont. 

In his land, lime as a dressing wu paKicularty apt, b«- Aiu^mpttan. 
aast, as we know, it hastens the putrefactive process, »tid "™'^* uim«- 
jpTomotn the diffiolntion of vegetable substances, convert- 
iDg ibeni quickly into vegetable mould. 

Now in my csperimeata there was no vegetable matter 
tn be tlia^olved, ar^ therefore no benefit iiccording to diy- 
mical principles was to be expected from the lime. The 
thai was however made, and the received opinion as 19 
th« effect of lime Is thus far confirmed. 

Bnt in my experiments the lime appears to have been Injurioui bj 
delelerioDs. This was not from its CBUsticity, for the plants '■>""">(»««« 
but from its action as a cement m lormiiig a crust 
the surface of the pots impervious to air. For in these 
rmarked, tlint af\er rain the water stagnated, and 
not readily penrtrate us in the other pots. 
FreeoccfM y'oiVtothe rooWo/p/on/rseyinstobe of vast Acermoriir 
ipoftance, and almost essential to their growth. With re- '" '*"' ""* 
ird to seeds, access of air is absolutely needful to their ve* \^-^ 
Hence it is thnt charlock (liuapis arvm'uj 
will remain in the earth for centuries, if deposited below the 
vegetating distance, as we have occasion to observe on Salis- 
bniy-plnin, where no charlock is ever seen, unless when 
the downs are broken up. The land is then covered with j^^j ^ _ 
if ; but till then the seeds remain as in vacuo, and are there- tiiut| 
not liable to change. 

his deposit of seed must have happened inmost remote ofier hivinit 
^tuityi either when the hill countr)', like the low laodi, '»■" "" 1^'= 
form I'd 



14 V ^9 THS POOD or PtAK'Hm 

pvvmd for formed part of an cstetisive Ibrwt; or more ]Mro)H4>ty wlioii 
*^^ these ekteneiTe cUnrnt were subject to the plough* 

Being soiicitoms to know whether theae seeds were ante* 
dilufiao, 1 took earth from different depths^ and aoon got 
helow tiie stratam in which these seeds are foahd.* 

The necessity of air for the regetatioo of seeds will ac« 

count for effects which in agriculture are too frequently ah* 

served. 

Injarious ef- If soon after wheat or barley has been sown on iHiat is 

^cu of a har- q^\\^ ^ running sand there fifldls a dashing mn^ the sand 

runs tocher, that is, it forms a crust, which in a great 

measure is impervious to air» and scarcely a grafi)^ of com 

will grow; or if on clay land, during a time of droughty a 

gafden plot is watered^ and left exposed to the sQOcching 

beams of a meridian sun« the ground will bake^ th^t is^ the 

surface will be hardened, and being thus rendered iospervi* 

PrereoUoo* ^^* ^^ ^^* vegetation ceases. But if the surface has been 

previously covered with fern leaves, as practised by skilful 

and attentive gardeners, no such effect, will he produced^ 

The plot may be watered and vegetation will be rapid* . 

Advantage of The admission of air, and its vast importance to the 

barrewing growth of plants, will account for the good effect produced 

^ hy hanrowing our wheat crops in spring, as lately iotroduoed, 

and now universally adopted by our best farmers, fbp 

hoetne fll^^ effect produced is made apparent by the luxuriant 

them. growth of pease, heaps, turnips, ajid cabbages, after they 

have been hoed ; and is at present so well andcrstood* that 

many agriculturists hoe their turnips twice, and their beans 

four times, not merely with a view to the destruction of 

weeds, but because they observe the benefit ari^ng to their 

, crops by a free admission of air into the earth. The pal*- 

pable advantage of this practice has led many farmers to 

consider the principles on which the practice has been 

founded, and to try by experiments how far it can be 

pushed. 

^ „ . In thta pursuit, and satisfied of the benefits to be derived 

dereaoaaeces- ""om loosenmg the surface of the ground contiguous to hia 

'^T' crops, the Rev. Mr. Close has given up the broad-east bus* 

bandty^ keeps the hoe constantly in motion, and |MMr finds 

^that be )m tte%'<er occasion for a fallow. ^ 

But 



tlV TBfi F00» or PLAHTB. |J 

But the most astonishiDg effect produced by giving^ free* Astonitbkif . 
•dmission of air to the rdots of wheat was lust year ex-*^*?^**f?^ 
mbited by Mr. Bartley, secretary to the society of Arts at roots of w^eat. 
Bath. Id August 1800 he sow^ his wheat io rows with 
three feet niterralsy and aix inches distance from grain to 
grain. The proportion of seed was two quarts to au acre« 
The aoil was a deep sandy loam, but out of condition, and 
filled with couch. This wheat was hoed in autumny hoed 
again, and earthed up both at Christmas and spring. When 
it was ID bloom the ititerviaU wer^ dug .up, and it was once 
more earthed up. At harvest this crop yielded sixty-sit 
buihela per acre. Such was its luxuriancy, many of the 
plants produced 98 perfect ears, miainy of which, nine 
inches long, contained each 100 grains* 

Id the broad-cast husbandry of the hill cotinti6s of Wilts 
and Hants, the produce was formerly three or at most four 
Am- one, as it was in* the greatest part of France* By the 
drill, without hoeing, the return would not be near to 
much ; but in Mr. B&rtley^s crop we see more than 1000 for 
1 ; aod some grains yielded nearly ten times as much*. 

I shall make but one observation more upon this subject, OfcUird^. 
irhicAi is, thiitatt orchard planted on the green sward requires 
dou\>\e xbe time for its maturity as one on cultivated latnl, 
that has a more plentiful supply of air admitted to its roots. 

Thus we see that all the great agents in nature are con- Conclimon- 
cemed id the process of vegetation, and may be considered 
as the food of plants. But to determine in whnt manner 
each contributes to nutrition, must be lefl to the investiga- 
tion of succeding generations. 

* It most eYcr be with reluctance, that an exception can be taken 
against any argunent of se able a writer as the present, especially in a 
matter of aUeged IJact. fiu't in this instance it seems prop^ to remark, 
that the argument drawn from the reported successor Mr. Bartley should 
be fec^Ted with caution, on account of the peculiarity of the soiL That 
soil beiDf remarkably detp, iat, jaod productive, and within the limits of 
a aurfery-man^s garden, near a city abounding viith manure, arc circuni- 
stances not common to other situations. Consequently the result of any 
experiments made in such a spot is not to be considered as applicable to 
th« general practice of agriculture and planting, on a large and oonimon 
scale of cultifatioQ. With the necessary allowances which the local ad- 
vaiiUge aboYe-mentioned suggests, the consequences drawn by this gcn- 
tleaian may sliUbe of importance for the consideration of our practical 
readers. EDITOK. 



16 



MJlCHTIIB fob THEESMlia BEMP A1I0 VLAi, 



III. 



BfaeUnefor 

^Htwliini; 



Description of a Machine for Beating out Hempseed and 
Hdxseedf likely to be useful m Canadm, By Mr. Ezbkiel 
Cleall> ^ West Coker*. ^ 

SIR, 

JL MADE a model of a machine for thrashing out hemp- 
seed and daxseedy in the j^ear 1803; aad in the year 1805, 
■I had.&jreal maichipe made after the plan of the model, by 
Mr. John Wadman, carpenter and hemp merchant. The 
said machine has been since tried and approved by n^any 
hemp and flax merchants. 

I now send the model for the inspection of the Society, 
and leave the event thereof to their decision. It does not 
injure the stalk of the hemp so much as the common mo4a 
of thrashing out the seed, and consequently leaves it much 
better for scaling. 

I am. Sir, your humble servant, 

EZEKIEL CLEALL. 

West Coker, near YeoeS^ Somenet, 
March 22, ld06. 



Outificates. 



We whose names are hereunto subscribed, do certify, 
that we well know Mr. Ezekiel Cleall, of West Coker; that 
we have many times seen his machine at work, in thrashing 
oat hempseed and flaxseed, and think it likely to be of 
great public utility; inasmuch as two women, whose wages 
and allowance never exceed one half of what are allowed to 
two men, will do as much work in any given time as such 
two men. 

That the seeds thrashed by this machine are not so much 
bruised or injured as by the old or common way, and the 
hemp and flax are preserved from many injuries which they 
suffer from the old method. 

• Trans, of Soc. uf Arts, vol. XXV, p. 149. Twenty fninsts were 
voted to Mr. Cletll for this iaTtr^lion. 

la 



.1 ' ■'. 



/ '-QIX i 






'^ -■'/.. s , 







MACHI1IB FOa TVftASHtNQ BBMP AXD FLAX. Jf 

In witness whereofy we have hereunto added our signa' 
toresu 

JoH!V Wadman. 
Jam£S W^dxak* 
John Bakbr. 
John Pinnet. 
JoHK Cbaffky. 

SIR, 

The machine, of which a model was sent to the Society Maehinefor 
»me months ago, must be used with eight ilailBy two ou 
each arm, for beating out hemp seed. 

Wlieu required to be used for beating out flax seed, the ^°' ^** ■®*^- 
above eight flails must be taken out, and four heaters pot 
in tbetr place. 

The height of the machine firom the floor to the top of Dimensiont. 
the board on which the flax or hemp is laid, is two feet ; 
the breadth, two feet ten inches i the length of the board, 
four feet four inches ; the length of each of the arms, from 
the axis of the machine, is three fett two inches ; the flails 
for tlie hemp seed, two feet two incb^^s long; the heights of 
the uprights, seven feet two inches ; tlie beaters for the flax 
seeds, are each one foot three inches long, and seTcn inches 
broud. 

The machiae will thrash, in one day, as much hemp as Work p«r. 
^ws on an acre of land, and other crofis in proportion ; *<*'^"™** ^7 *^* 
and the work is done with less than half the expense of 
thrashing in the usual way. 

I am, Sir, your obedient servant, 

EZEKIEL CLEALL. 

Reference to the Engravvug of Mr. ClealVs Machine for 
heating out Hemp Seeds and Flax Seeds. PL II. Fig. 1, 2. 

Fig. 1. Represents the machine for beating out hemp Explanation of 
&eeds in which A is the table or board on which the hemp ^* ^*^' 
L9 to be placed ; B the axis in which the four arms C CCC 
are fixed ; D D D D, eight single flails, moving upon four 
pins near the extremities of the four arms ; these flails di- 
verge from the pins on which they move, so tha^ two of 

Vol- XXIII— May, 1809. C the» 



I 



]g ncpftOTCMBVTs nr canada. 

tiiem UDited od each arm are nearly in Ae form of the Iet« 
ter V. E 18 the winch or handle by which the machine it 
put in motion ; V F, two upright pieces of wood to sustain 
the axle of the machine ; 6» an upper cross piece, to se- 
cure the uprights firm ; H H, the two bottom pieces or 
flillt, in which the two uprigfats are mortised* also the two 
•mailer, uprights which support the board or table A ; I f^i 
two lower cross pieces to secure the machine firmly ; K K» 
two levers on which the table A rests, and by which it' 
may be raised or lowered, as thoug^ht necessary, by iron 
pins, at K K, passing through these levers said the two up* 
fights. 
Method of When the machine is used, the hemp must be laid on the 

uiinf Uie ma- t^ble A, and moved about in different directions by the 
person who holds it, whilst another person turns the ma- 
chine by the handle E ; the flails D of the machine fall in 
succession on the hemp; as the axis moves round they beat 
out the seeds as different surfaces of the hemp are exposed 
on the table, and when the seeds are all beaten out from 
one parcel of hemp, a fresh quantity is applied upon the 
table. 
Flax machine. Fig. 9. Represents one of the flax beaters, which is made 



i 



V 

.1 



of a solid piece of wood,* one of which is attached instead' 1 
of the two flails, to every arm, when the machine is employed*' 1 
for beating out flax seeds, as they require more force to ae* I 
parate them from the flax plant. ^j 



OS 



IV. 

Observations an the Cuhure i(f Hemp^ and other useful /a- 
JormatioMf relative to Improvements in Canada. By Wk^ 
LiAM Bond, £«a.» of Canada^. . i 

^ i 

Observations on the culture of hemp* ' ^ 

HE culture of hemp in Upper Canada is no doubt one < 
hempinCanada ^f ||jg pj^st desirable objects with every perdon of ditcem* ; 

* Trans, of Soc. of Arts, vol. XXV, p. 147. The ulver medai;wia i 
Toted to Mr. Bond for this commutucaitMii. 1 

% meM * i. 



\ 



.1 



IHPROYEXEVTtf IN CANADA* 2^ 

litnt settled therei and more particularly so witb those of 
tbis descriptioD in our mother country ; and though there 
ire so maoy millioos of acres so well calculated to the 
grovth of this highly vuluable article, jet 1 do not expect 
anch progress therein for some time, for the following' rea- 
«ms. 

The part of the country the oest calculated for the Obstacles to its 
|fh>wth of hemp is so lately and in so small a degree occu- ''*^' 

inedv that few have begun to use the plough, but depend 
apoa raising a sofiiciency of grain by harrowing only ; in 
tbis they are not disappointed ibr two or three crops ;^q 
the mean tin^e they clear away fresh fields from the woods, 
miay of them to a large extent, which take up so much 
time in fencing and dressing, that few of the farmers have 
beeo able to raise more than needful for their own families* 
consumption, and for tUie use of their neighbours; indeed 
diey are ignorant as to the growth and mauagenient of 
hemp, and in general so poor, that they cannot afford to 
nise any thing for sale that will not bring them ready mo* 
My as soon as brought to market ; and grain brings such a 
kigh price in cash, that few fanners are inclined to turn 
tbtir attention to any other article. Another obstacle is, 
there being no person or persons appointed to buy small 
qnantities of hemp, and pay ready money for the same. 

The tract of rich hemp land in Upper Canada is that Tract of ridi 
part west of Yonge Street*, and north of Dundas Street t. ^'"*^ *""** 
lad partly enclosed by lakes Ontario, St. Clair, Huron, and 
Simcoe, and to the east and north*east almost as far as 
Grand or Ottaway River, and to within a few miles of the 
louth and south-east side of lake Huron. I have not failed 
to make annually from one to three journeys through this 
tract; I have crossed it in all directions with Indian guides, 
great part of which no white man, except myself, has ever 
let foot in ; and I find, that the chief of the interior part 
esnsi&ta of a rich deep black soil, which I am well con- 
vinced, when well inhabited with farmers, will become one 

* A ftreet leading from York, the seat of govemincnt, to the Daviga- 
Ut waters of Lake Simcoe. 

t Leading to the Kivcr Thsmei. 

CS of 

f 



^0 IMPROVEMENTS tV CAKADA. 

of the finest countries in all his Majesty's territories for the 
growth of hemp. 
But lately be- It is only about dve years since this valuable tract began 
B""J2 ^ to be occupied at all, and though by industrious farmers^ 
yet by such as have brought little to the country. A fefv 
cows and sheep, a pair of plough oxea, one or two horses, 
a small stock of farming tools, such as two or three axes, 
as many hoes and iron wedges, one or two ox chains, being 
the most that a new settler (generally spesikin^;] possesses 
on his arrival ; with these they make a shift to clear away 4| 
the woods, lind divide and fence the land with ^plit timber 
into fields, and they are greatly eiicoura^ji^ed to continue 
clearing away the forest, in consequence of the high price 
given for the ashes by the potash makers : this eventually i 
will be vastly in their favour, in future, when hemp becomes 
the objebt, as it gives time for the roots and stum|;fe of trees 
to rot, and their stock of horses and oxen to increase, whicli 
is essentially accessary before the farmer can expect to be 
successful in the growth of hemp. It is in this progressive 
manner, that this fine country will be settled ; the nature 
of things demands the pursuit ; and the first settlers ure ia 
It situation capable of patting the same in practice; their, 
stock of horses and oxen are sufficiently strong to work the 
ground a second time over, tear up the stuitips and roots, 
inmp requires plough and pulverize the soil; and until the ground is 

nature, depends chiefly upon a tap root, and when this root 
is interrupted in its progress downwards, it will throw out 
horizontal onfes, which produce horizontal branches also, 
ftnd the open s])aces round the stumps of the trees admitting 
so hiurh air, permits these branches to grow to such a 
length and strength ks great! v to injure the bark or hemp 
of the stem. Such hemp, when it comes to the hackles- 
breaks off, and drags away at the knobs of the branches, sd 
as to leave it short, and make a very gretit wast^. Notwitiw 
standing, if there was a sure market for as small a quantity 
as 50lb., there are few farmers but would try the experi- 
ment ; and if one was more successful than the rest, his 
neighbour would endeavour to find out the^ reasons why it 
was so. Thus, step by step, the knowledge in the manage- 

A lueut 



IMPROVEMENTS IN CANADA. jjl 

neot of bemp would be greatly extended, the farmer would 
generally be in posseifsion of fre^h seed, and when ^rain 
bvcomes less an object, he would feel no fear iu timing 
kiiattentipn to the culture of heuip upon a lar^scule: and, 
in order to encoura<^e the furmeV, it would prove highly ad« 
natageous to take in any quantity, great or small, of tiound 
bemp, assorted perhaps into four or five qualities, according 
to iti length, w^hich will vary for some years to come, for the 
icuoDS before ^iven. 

The high price of labour, owing in some measure to the Hi|A pricp of 
U^ price ot* grain, is such, that hemp, agreeable to the^***^'"** ®' 
preaeut regnlations, is not an object with the farmer; if an 
addition of about u third of the present price was given, it 
imkld be uu inducement for the farmers to cultivate tlioir 
•Id fields iu a uiore spirited manner ; which bounty might 
betakeii oif a«^aiii, when grain becomes less uu object than 
it is at present, which will soon be the case in time of (leace, 
ad no doubt will affect the price of hemp in proportion in 
the Euj^lis^h market. 

In all new countries where labourers are scarce, we find Contftvances 
miny contri\'unces calculated for the purpose of reducing ["'^•'""'^^^^'^S 
Ubour, more for the sake of expeilit'iou than ease ; such, 
fur instance, asthesaw mill, the hoe ploughs, scythe and 
crwdle for catting au<I gathering grain, the wooden machine 
(drawn round by one horse] for thrashing grain, the iron 
diod shovel, drawn by oxen, and held 1>y two handles, us a 
plough, for the purpose of levelling the rosul^, &c. Nor 
are the Americans, or other settlers in this country, fond of 
any work that needs violent exercise of tlje lK)dy ; which 
the breaking of hemp in the old way certainly occasions, in Disadv:.ntag« 
conse<|aence of recjuiring a cross motion of the arm, which of break ug 
makes the breakers complain of a pain about the short ribs ^id w-^y. 
on the bide they hold the hemp ; and on the opposite side a 
little under the shoulders, so that breaking of hemp iu the 
o'.d way is a i^rcat obstacle to its increased culture. To 
render talKiur, tiieiefore, somewhat more easy and ex(>edi- 
tiouH, is an object worthy the first attention, and I consider 
it practicable at a small expense, and have sent to the So- 
nety a model of a machine for this purpose. 
I have obseried among the clothiers* and fullers' ma- Utsh wIiolIi 

•• chinery. 



22 nCPEOTfiMBlTTS IN CANADA. 

> 

•rscted acron chiDoy, grett power snd rapid motion proceeding 
'^^**"^' what it commonly called a dash wheel, erected acr 

»trea«i of rapid water, the flies or float boards of whic 
fixed in the octangular axis, from fifteen to twenty 
feet in length, and from three and a half in depth, 
fly* I have seen many com mills in Upper Canada, 
no other water wheels than such as the above descr 
which save a vast expense in raising dams, &c. 

H^^S^f^ There are a number of streams in that part of Cai 
lUfU. which I have endeavoured to describe, (as to the prec 

bility of the various ways of cultivation) that are wel! 
cqlated for such wheels; and where these streams or i 
are not too wide, the axis of the wheel might be exte 
across so as to reach the land on each side, where I pre 
the breakers to be fixed to go by a tilt the same as a : 
bammer. Such a simple piece of machinery would nol 
more than 70 or 80 dollars, as little iron would be wa: 
and timber we have for nothing ; and when in motion fi 
employ four breakers and two servers, from whom I si: 
expect as much good work as fifteen or sixteen pe 
epold possibly do in the old way, and that without x: 
bodily labour* 

Blills for break- Mills for breaking hemp, on the very same principi 
g emp. ^^^ ^^ ^ ^^ ^.|l^ ^ ^ motion only an addition of an 

crank, so as to run with two cranks instead of one, 
^ something of a larger sweep than that of a saw mill, w 

be of vast utility in a neighbourhood of a large gVowl 
hemp, and would not cost, more than a common saw 
As the brakes of the frame continue in motion the t 
as that of a saw mill, twenty men might be employed, 
would do as much as fifty or sixty could do in the old way. 
with much mora ease and pleasure to themselves ; and 
Xv-.m.' -niiateral is not the only advantage that would result from such m 
.Aiv3i;r..^'^. -^ would cousc somcthiug of a social meeting, which 
youth would be particularly fond of. At such meeting 
the defecv-^ respecting the culture and management of h 
would be -examined into, and those who raised the 
would become ambitious, and try to excel each other; 
we might reasonably expect, that Upper Canada wouh 

^xi 



IMPROVEMENTS IR CANADA. 23 

exceed sll other countries in tbe world for the growth of 
good hemp. 

Rcfertnct f9 ike Engrattng of Mr. Band's Machiue fit 
knukmg Hektp. PL II, Rg. 3, 4i 5. 

Fig. 3. a. Represents the axis of a water wheel, on whic^ DescripUeo of 
is fixed a trunnion of four lifters h h b b, each of which **^ «scliine. 
lifters raises in succession a le%'er c, which, by means of a 
chain connected srith it, pulls down another lei-cr «/, and 
thereby raises the upper part of the double brake e. As 
each lifter of the trunnion passes the lever c, it allows the 
upper part of the brake to fall upon the hemp placed on 
the lower part of the brake ff; and by its weight, and 
teeth intersecting the teeth of the lower brake y*/, the 
woody parts of the hemp plant are separated by repeated 
itroket from the filaments or fibres of the hemp proper for 
use. This completes the first operation necessary in the 
pfeparmtioD of hemp, g is a table on which the woody 
parts of the hemp blU sud which gives security and strength 
to the frame; kkjkk mm the four legs or supports of the 
frame. 

Fig. 4 shows a section of the teeth of one half of the 
double brake abovementioned : it is betwixt the uppc>r and 
lower row» of these teeth that the breaking of the hemp 
takes place^ by the repeated rise aud fall of the upper part 
of the brake upon it^ 

Fig. 5 shows the upper part of the brake, in which t i 
show the two rows of teeth, k k the two pins on which it is 
IDoredy / tbe part to which the chain which niises the uppt:r 
part of the bnike is attached. After the breaking of the 
hemp, it is wholly finished for use by scutching or swingling, 
an operation which msy be either performed by the hand or 
machinery, and is easily ex^ecuted by either mode. 

The machinery for breaking hemp should be removed 
from the rivets previous to the beginning of the frosts. 

On the breeding of rabbits. 

To include the interest of the colonists and the mother intefcsis or co- 
country also in one and the bame pursuit, is not only laud- '® *f* '"*^ **^ 
' "^ - , mother coan' 

able. 



t4 IMPROTBMEKTS III CANADA* 

« 

try should go Me^ bat tnost likely to succeed ; especially wbere ouly m 
together. ^^^jg^ ^£ property of the individuals or of the public is wanted 

to set the bountifu' hand of Nature to work in a country 
where animal subsistence and a suitable climate call for the 
industrious husbandmaot who may in various ways be use- 
ful to himself and his countr}% 
Warren rabbit* In my travels through America, I have often been sur- 
prised, that no attempt has been made to introduce, for the 
purpose ef propa^tion, that useful little animal, the warren 
rabbit, of such vast importance to the hat manufactory of 
lu fur essential England. It is chiefly owing to the fur of this animal, that 
to good hail. ^]^p English hats are so much esteemed abroad. It is a fact 
well known amongst the hatters, that a hat composed of 
one half of rabbit wool, one sixth old coat beaver, one sixth 
pelt beaver, and oue sixth Vigonia wool, will wear far pre- 
ferable to one made of all beaver, as it will keep itS' shape 

I 

better, feel more firm, and wear bright and black mucfa 
longer. 
Importance of The value of the rabbit wool, the produce of the United 
cmmt^y"* ^'^^* Kingdom only, is not less, 1 will venture to say, than 
;£250000 per annum ; but the quantity is much diminished, 
owing to the banishment and persecution they meet with 
on every side, and so many small warrens taken in for grain 
land; in consequence of which it is time, that some protec-v 
' tion should be aHbrded, if possible, to that important branch 
of British manufactory (in which rabbit wool is used) from 
• suffering any inconvenience in the want of so essential an 
article, and the accomplishment of this grand object I con- 
ceive perfectly easy. 
The warren General Observations, — When I speak of the warren rab* 

rabbit only of j^jj^ J j^ave to observe, that there are in England, as well us 
most parts of Europe, three other kinds, viz. the tame rab^ 
bit, of various colours, the fur of which is of little value, 
except the white; the shock rabbit, which has a long shaggy 
fur of little value ; the bush rabl)it, like those of America, 
which commonly sits as a hare, and the fur of each is. of a 
rotten inferior quality- 
Two forts. To return to the warren rabbit. — There are two sorts in 
respect to colour, that is, the common gray, and the silver 
gray 9 but little or no difference in respect to the strength 

and 



•nd felting qualities ^ the fur. The nature of this «ntmd Maanen. 
if to burrow deep in soady groandf and there live in fiuni- 
lies, nor will they soffer cue from a ueighbouriiii^ furnily to 
come amongst tlvein without a severe contest, in which the 
intraders are generally glad to retire witli the loss of part of 
their coats, unless when pursued by an enemy, when they 
find protectioD, 

It is scarcely worth while for me to mcrit^on a thing so Prolific, and 
generally kno^n, viz. that rabbits, particphtrly those of the ^^^^ expour 
warren, are the most prolific of all other four-footed animals 
in the world ; nor do 1 apprehend any difficulty would at- 
tend the exporting this little quadruped with safety to any 
distance, provided it was kept dr}', and regularly supplied 
with clean, sweet food, aud a due regard to the cleanliness 
of the boxes or places of confinementi 

Twelve or fifteen pair of these \'aluable animals taken to Wwild .i!^nV 
Upper Canada, aud there enclosed within a small space of fJJ^^^^lf '^ 
ground suitable to their nature, but furnished with a few 
artificial burrows at the first, by way of a nursery ; and 
.spread over those now useless plains, islands, and penin- 
sulas, so well calculated to their nature; would, 1 will make 
bold to say, the eighth year ailer their introduction, furnish 
the British market with a valuable raw material, amounting 
to a \ar;^e sum, increasing every year with astonibiiing ra- 
pidity, so as to become, in a few year:*, one amongst the first 
of national objects. 

It may be supposed by some, that the above project is 
magnified beyond possibility, or even probability ; but the 
serious attention I have paid to the subject, these many 
years past, as to all points for aud against, leavi^s me no 
room to accuse myself of being too sanguine; for if pro- 
perty managed a few years at the fir^ft, I cannot find a single 
thing likely to interrupt their progress. 

Some ifhti of the astonishing increase of the rabbit may incrca« of a 
l>e had from the following facts: — pair iii oue 

An old doe rabbit will bring forth young nine times in ^^'' 
une vear, and from 4 to 10 each time; but to allow for ca- 
fcuzltics. »tate the number at 5 each litter. 



Id 



(5 ^ tWftOTBMSllTS IW CAlTADiU 4 

Is nine months ' 45 

The females of the first litter will bring forth fife 
times the pilDportioo» of which'ts 2} female's pro- 
duce •••••••• * 6« 

Those of the second litter 4 times prodnce* • ■ • 50 

DTtt4^ of third ditto 3 ditto 37 

Ditto of second ditto 2 ditto • 25 

Total in one year Iroin one psir •••.. 210 

The third female race of the old dam* and the second of 
the first litter, sddom breed the first year, but are early 
breeders in the spring following, when we might expect an 
increase of the whole in proportion to the first pair, if pro* 
perly attended to and protected. 
IfirTi It is generally allowed, that hares are not more than one 

foarth as prolific as rabbits, notwithstanding, agreeable t# 
an experiment tried by Lord Ribblesdale, who enclosed % 
pair of hares for one yegr, the offspring was (as I have been 
credibly informed) 68 : these animals* pould they be exf •. , 
ported to Upper Canada with safety, and there protected " 
within enclosures for a few years, would soon after spread 
over a large extent of co^ntry : the fur is nearly as raluable 
as that of the rabbit. 
CUmate of la that part of Upper- Canada within 45 degrees of 

Upper Canada. jj^y^|^ latitude, and the southern and western boundaries, 
the cHmate is nearly the same as that of England, a little 
hotter a few days in summer, and a little colder a few days 
in winter, according to FahrenheiVs thermometer, which { 
have paid great attantion tp for some years, comparing tht 
same with the observations of the English. 
Animals iiK. The increase pf most aniinals appears much greater in 
create ftst ii^ proportion in America than in England, mankind not exr 
cepted. That of sheep is very apparent to those that pay 
attention to their breeding stock, which gives me hopes, thi^ 
^ ' in a few years we shall be able to pay for our woollen cloths 

in wool. Finding the eflBect of soil and cliipate so salutary 
to sheep, &c., it may be reasonably supposed, that rabbity 
will answer the most sanguine expectations; as I understan4 
the wool of tlife sheep retuns all its nature the same as in 

England^ 



IMFEOYIIlBirTf IK CAVAbl. |to 

England^; p«rticvlurly iti strength, mod felting qnalitict 
KDong tiie batten; which assures roe^ that rabbits* wool 
from those bred in Upper Canada will do the same ; and 
Ihere are some millions^ of acres, within the latitude and 
bonndanes which I haye before described, suited to the 
natare of tha warren rabbit; nor do I apprehend that the 
wolves, foxes, &c. of Upper Canada will be half so de* 
stnictire as the poachers in England* 

The Guaimco, 

or camel sheep of South America, no doubt will be a na-Thefaaasflti 
tional object at some future period* This is a tame, do- 
mestic animal, very hardy, and used wiih much cruelty by ^ 
the natives in travelling over the mountains with their bur- 
thens. It shears a fleece of wool of from ^fb. to dlb., which 
is of a dasky red on the back, on the sides inclined to 
white, and under the belly quite white; its texture is very 
fine» yet strong; its felting qualities are very powerful; and 
it b worth, when ready' for use, from five to fifteen shillings 
per lb* This animal would no doubt thrive, and do well 
in England, Upper Canada, and in particular I should «up« 
yose in New Holland* 

The Beaver 

might be propagated to great advantage in Scotland, Ire- The betver 
land, and the northern parts of England. It is an animal, might be inwa- 
when tamed, very familiar, and will eat bread and milk, «a"nfr'°r.!Sa«4, 
willow sticks, elm bark, &c., and no doubt might be im« 
ported with safety ; but as these two last mentioned animals 
•re not likely to be attended to immediately, I shall say uo 
more respecting them for the present* 

Pine Timber. 

There are many thousands of large pine trees on the pinttformaHs, 
borders of the lakes, rivers, &c„ in Upper Canada, which 
alight be marked and secured for naval purposes, and 
which might be floated down to Montreal and Quebec 
with great ea^e^^and which no doubt would be of great be» 

nefit 



gS OV THE DIE OF THE POtAT4). 

ficfit in furnishing a larg^ '^PPb^ ^ good mastB for tbe 
lUkYy of this empire. 

I am. Gentlemen, with respecty 

Your obedient servant, 

WILUAM BOND. 



*■_' ■ ■■ 



V. 

Remarks on sundry important Uses of the Potato* • 

On the ttse of JL HE potato ha8, though deservedly, occupied so much 
tbe potato ^^ ^^^ attention of different writers, and of this Society, 
that it may seem almost necessary to bring forward some 
new and important discoveries concerning it, if we attempt 
to say more on its qualities. It is not howover, a singular 
opinion, that so important is this vegetable, and so appli- 
cable to economical uses, as human food ; that it will re- 
main for posterity fully to appreciate its positive and com- 
parative value. But as no new and promising experiment, 
however imperfectly conducted, should be suffered to escape 
general notice, it will be acceptable to our readers to re* 
ceive a general statement of certain trials made by a very 
respectable British merchtnt, who is also a member of the 
SoQiety, with a view to ascertain the value of the potato for 
Ibr tea stores, sea provision and other stores^ His diffidence about having 
done justice to the subject, which he doubts of finding lei-« 
sure to prosecute, prevents his allowing his name to appear 
as to a finished Essay of his own, for this volume; but cer- 
tain statements laudably re|)orted by him to the Society, 
are deemed too important to be lost, as they may lead to 
farther discoveries and facts. The statements then arc in 
substance as follow : 

• Chfapmfth©ds " The ease with which this root is prepared by boiling 
of preserving ^j^^ f^,. immediate consumption, either in its separate form* 

potatoes have ...i 1111 111 •• . 

not been or mixed ID bread; the little trouble there is in preser^mg 

sought after. 

• Bath Society's Papers, vol. X, p. 293. 

it 



OH tH« use OF THE POTATO. M 

it throQ^h the winter TDonths ; and the jihort period between 
tfw time of planting, and the return of the crop ; have most 
probably been the causes, why less pains have beeu taken 
to find out cheap methods of preserving potatoes, as a 
store for future sustenance, than would otherwise ha^'e been 
the case. 

•• The lar^ quantity of potatoes produced in the last Experimenti 
season, and the reputed scarcity of bread corn, induced me *»**^?»««them. 
a few weeks since to make some small experiments on the 
means of drying potatoes, either in substance or in flour; 
either for future consumption at home, or for the supply of 
our seamen on long vopges. 

^* The ecse with which I found this might be done, and This may etsl^ 
die probable benefit which 1 think may be derived to the ^^®^- 
public from a fkrther pursuit of the subject, induces me to 
submit to the inspection of the Society a small quantity of 
the flour of potato sent herewith. 

** The potatoes were boiled with their skin on, dried on a Poms ftm. 
kiln, and the whole ground in a steel corn mill : none of the 
skin has been separated by dressing. 

** By experiments that have been before made on 6ne n ^ai kecy 
dried flour of potatoes, it is known, that it will keep longer bngcr thau 
than the flour of wheat, without spoiling ; that it is used as ^"^^ ^^^ 
a. substitBte for sago, and makes good biscuits without ad- 
mixture. And 1 have every reason to believe it will mix 
and make good bread, in a much larger proportion with 
wheat flour, than has hitherto been employed of the boiled 
root, in the common mode of using it, 

" The expense of preparing the flour from the root in 
large quantities, I am not prepared to speak to. The chief Wa?hin« the 
labour is washing the potatoes from the mould which ad- chief labour, 
heres to the eyes, particularly in those sorts, the eyes of 
which are much depressed. Drying them will be consider* 
ably expensive ; but I think may be reduced much below 
what at first it will be estimated at. Grinding will not cost 
more than com. 

•* From what I beliere were accurate experiments, I find g^iiinK not ne- 
that one hundred pounds of washed potatoes will produce cessary, 
fall twenty-five pounds of floui (such as the sample). The 
diiicrence in weight will be very little, whether tihe'[>#tatoeft ' ' 

are 



g^ oil VltB OSS Op ttts Mtatc^.. 

tne tjoiledy or only ground in an apple Biil)» and the juice 
tuflfered slowly to drain from then\ before they are dried« 
It might seem therefore at first view, that the koiling might 
Wladwuitife» be omitted ; my trials however have shown me, that the co-* 
*"** lour of the flour is much fidrer when boiled, and the taste 

more pleasants and that the expense of boiling in steam is 
very little* With the greatest care even some of the starch 
{the most nutritive part of the root) will separate with the 
juice; above three pounds of fine starch (weighed after 
it was dried) passed ofi^ with the water from lOOlbs. of po- 
tatoes. 

** Other persons will, I trust, ascertain such facts with 
■lore accuracy ; I myself hope soon to ascertain more satis- 
fiictory particulars. In the mean time permit me to make 
an estimate of the probable produce of an acre of potatoes 
in quantity, woen reduced to the state of floor. 
QnaoUtj of ** The average produce of an acre managed with care^ 

julTiif^Bis" ^^^°AA^^ ^ about eighty sacks of 240lbs. each. 
-toes. ** According to my experiments (as before) lOOlbs. of 

, « washed potatoes will produce 25lbs. of dry flour ; or each 

tack 6olbs» ; or one acre, two tons and upwards. 

** I am not qualified at present to carry these .calculations 
farther — if quantity alone be the question, I need not. 

** Note. The potatoes used in the foregoing trials were 
the red apple potato, 
f^aliof. ** The steel mill has not ground this flour so fine as I be« 

lieve a stone mill would have done. Some of these had 
their skins stripped off* af^er boiling. Should an expedi- 
'tious .method be found of stripping off the skins, it will 
perhaps be less troublesome than washing so carefully as 
most otherwise be practised.^* 

After giving a numerical account of the samples of flour 
of potato prepared for exhibition ; this gentleman gives also 
nmples of bread and biscuit made from difierent sorts of 
•potato flour, mixed with different proportions of wheat 
flour of different degrees of finenes ; but these would be 
uniDtelligibU in this place, in the absence of such sam- 
ples. 
ManfrctuQff ** The potato flour used in the bread and biscuit is made 
aftheflour^ ^ the wMi of the potato^ washed, steamed^ bruised 
'^ • sirghtly 



en TBS uif or tm mtato. 51 

dijbcfatly after 'steamingt dried on m malt kiln, and ground 
in a cofnmon com mill, no alteration whatever having been 
■ade in the set of the stonesy from what they were as nted 
for •• ioding wheat; it may reasonably be'snpfMMed however, 
that a miller, accnstomed to grind this artide, would make 
better work and finer floor. 

** Nothing was taken from the flour except some large 
pieces that were not ground, and a little large bran in the 
proportion of the sample sent herewith. 

** The -potatoes of which this flour was made were cer- The potaisfi 
tainlj over dried ; and having lain in a heap after steaming "^^^^Sjl^^^** 
upwards of two days before they were put upon the kilu, after l 



some degree of fermentation had begun to take place, but '^^<'^'^^"^' 

which was thought so little as to have been perfectly cor* 

reded by the drying. In the bread, however, it is certainly 

distinguishable. The baker considers, that it is from this 

caoae that the bread is not so light as it otherwise would 

have been. It rose well in the oven, but fell when the door 

was opened. He thinks that when mixed with the flour ai 

dry wheat, the potato->meal will have exactly the same efiect 

as the mixture of a certain portion of coue wheat flour, and Similar to eons 

that it will answer as well in about the same proportion. ^^^^ ^"'* 

He has no doubt, but that even with this flour he shall 

succeed better in the second attempt. With potato meal 

weli made, he believes that bread of the best quality may 

be produced. 

** The chief precautions necessary in making potato flour Precautions. 
seem to be, to prevent any fermentation taking place in 
the boiled potatoes, previously to their being dried, and to 
avoid giving them too great a heat in drying. With this 
view it seems advisable to construct the apparatus for pre- 
paiing it, so as that the steanniog tubs and kiln should be 
heated by the same fire, without loss of time or labour; the 
potatoes may then be immediately removed from the steam 
to the kiln, and means should be used to regulate the heat 
af the kiln, so that it should not much exceed 90°. 

" For the common purposes of bread, it seems evident, Peeling ooa- 
from the samples, that taking off the rind or skin is by no '^^^''sary. 
means necessary ; to wash the potatoes carefully before boil- 
ing seems, therefore, the only precaution required. 

«« From 



3S 09.TB9 tnm ar thb potato* 

More potatoes ' *^ From experimenH qb beibtre slated, the produce of dry 

ISakiS^ w" ^^^ *» *^ ^^^ ^^ potato, att 9a or 2? to 100, but let it be 

thh war tiran Cbiioiated at 25 Of 1 qiv of tlie whole* The ^eatest quaifef 

mw oc boued. ^^^ ^^ ^^^ potatoes said to be used as a mixture with wheal 

flour in bread is one third ; not much above the same quan-t 

tity of boifed potato has usually been employed. The pro-* 

portion of flour in boilod potato, exce^ that in raw potato 

by aboi^t 1 qr; As a rough ground for calculation, we may 

take 33 per cent as the proportion of flour in auy giveii 

quantity of boiled potato. 

*^ The proportion therefore which the potato meal makea 
of the whole mixture in this bread, above that in which ono 
third raw potato has been ^ised, is four timet*: that is, the 
actual quantity of potato flour in this bread is as great, as 
if 24lbs. of raw potato had been mixed with ISlbs. of 
vbeaten 'flour ; and compared with beiled potatoes, it is as 
great as if TSlbs. of potato had been mixed with 12ibs» of 
wheat flour.*' - 

ViracticalappB* From the foregoing statements, it is not presumed that 
IF''^ I much farther information is imparted, than may liave been 
gathered from some former aocouots of bread making from 
a mixture of such flours, except as to the mode of preparing 
the potato flour. Neither is it at present supposed, that for 
tummnn use, when oora is not dear, the potato will super- 
sede the use of neat wheaten flour for family bread. But io 
Tery- dear times, wh^n it may be used in some places to 
great advantage, the most economical mode of doing it is 
important; and the process of steaming, kiln drying, grind- 
in^, and dressing, seems excellent. If equal quantities of 
wheat and potato flour are found to make very good bread, 
and the potato to have the eflect of e^e ^oar in the mix-* 
ture; this may be iiet down as a sufficient regulation, and. a 
iraluable fact. 
Tottto flour But what is of great consequence to be known and fully 
almost impe- noticed is, that the flour of the potatoes so prepared, if 
•4.. barrelled up, and kept in any common dry place, will re- 

tain its virtues longer either on land or>^t sea, than the other 
sort of flour made from ^rain : in short, from frequent apr 
pearances and well attested facts, the flour of this vegetable* 

prepared 



FOSSIL ALtlYONIA. ^5 

|)Tepmred as aforesaid^ seems to possess the fingalar quality 
of being almost imptrUhahle. In addition to this quality, 
the power of preserving potatoes in barrels, after being 
kiln dried, either when whole or cut into parts, for the use 
of the table in long voyages, is very important ; and it is 
found, that, afler being so preserved, they are capable of 
being again boiled soft, and served up as a vegetable at ta- 
ble, retaining much of their original flavour, consistence, 
and other qualities. 

Editor* 

H^ For two valuable {Mpers on the fecula of potatoes, and its uses, 
bj Mc W. Skriashtre, jun., see Journal, fol. XXI, p. 71 and 162. 



VL 

On the Dissimitarity between the Creatures of the present 
and former Worlds and on the Fossil Aleycma. From 
ParkinmnCt Organic Remains* 



s 



OME of the extraordinary circumstances which have ar- Great dissimi- 
rested out attention, whilst examining into the nature of ^*"'3^ ^*J!*** 
fossil corals, now demand a few general remarks. You sH conds. 
cannot but have observed how completely I was foiled, in 
my attempt to preserve a parallel between the fossil corals 
which I have particularised, and the several corals which 
are enumerated in the Systema Naturce of Linnaeus. In- 
deed, so little could this parallel be preserved, so little a- 
greement could be traced between the recent and the fd^il 
corals, that I find myself under the necessity of acknow- 
ledging, that I am not certain of the existence of the recent 
ana]<^e of any really mineralized coral. 

This dissimilarity between the creatures of this and the This tncxpU- 
creatures of the former world, is a circumftance which ap- cal>lc* 
pears to be so inexplicable, that I can only admit it, with* 
out attempting to account for it* It however furnishes us, xhe present 
I think, witb a ftrong argument againft that theory, which suteof our 
supposes the changes which this planet has undergone are ^^^^ ©f^Jegu- 
•11 attributable to the constant, regular, and gradual pro- iar workingi of 

Vol. XXIIL— May, 1809- D cesses "*'"'* 



3^ P9S8IL ALCTONIA. 

tem/t» of natore, which have been acting from an lodefinite 
lieriod of timey aided by the occasional 'heavings of strata, 
effected by subterraneous heat. By this system — ^by the 
gradual interchange of situation between land and water, 
we might account for the mountains of fossil cotal which 
are found at considerable distances from the sea, were it 
not that so little agreement is observable between the fosbil 
and the recent corah Had the coral of the mountain and 
the coral of the sea been constantly the same, it would, in- 
deed, have furnished a powerful evidence of the gradual 
change of relative place in the strata, which were once co- 
vered by the ocean, but which are pow thousands of feet 
above its surface : the gradual receding of the sea would 
have sufficed for the explanation. 

But how, according to this theory, shall we explain the 
disagreement between the coral of the mountain and the 
coral of the sea ? I see no explanation which can be thus 
obtained : .^very thing beiqg supposed to have proceeded in 
its regular course, the animals of the first creation must then 
but of some have exactly resembled those of the present hour. Some 
tropb^ * ^^^^ change, of powerful and even universal influence, must 
be sougl)t for, to explain, ^his wonderful circumstance : and 
such, doubtless, can only be fo^ud in the deftruction of a 
former world. Thus, indeed, we shall be enabled to ac* 
count for the existence of various animals, in a mineral 
^te, ^hose analogues are unknown ; but it must be ad* 
mitted, that even this circumstance is not sufi^cient to ac- 
count for the existence of animals at the present period, of 
which no traces can be found in the ruins of that former 
world. 
Fossih of aoi- ' We DOW arrive at the examination of that class of bodies, 
II!mbUi!£°Se.<>^ "^^^^^ H ^as remarked, in the former volume, that al- 
tables. though they were decidedly animal substances of marine 

origin, yet, from the resemblance which they bore to ter- 
restrial fruits, their animal origin had been doubted, and\ 
they had been considered as petrified oranges, figs, fun- 
g^uses, nutmegs, &c. 

There is no substance which has attracted our attention, 
during the prosecutiou of these inquiries, which can yield 
so many subjects for investigation as these bodies. For 

.whether 



FOSSIL ALCrgNIA. 

•re consider ihe peculiar forma with which thej- tra 
, thv origiual humIcb of their eufiei)i.«. or thv «x- 
kDr<liiuiT} changes nbioU ihey have undergone) * rarirty 
of mbjcct* of inquiry, of the most curioua DatutC) will urn* 

That ouuy terrestrial fruili an<J sced-vesMU, contaiuing Muy 
tb« jiffnrouB mutteri have been found in a petrified iU«tC| l>^" ■< 
Ici* Ittva already nhtwu : of these, of course, it i^ not in- nei' ^ 
(ended here to tpeitk. But snlistancea have been repeatedly 
met with, tlic ijeneml appearances of which have Mt nuch 
acconlcd with those of some terriatrntt fiuitii, as to bavit 
ted s«vcnil learned and inj^euious ttten to pbce them aoMDg 
liicse sulntanccs. Thus Volkmann »a4 deceived, and fi- 
gured ttod descrihiMi one of these bodies as nui motehat* 
fimttH rotiuulo, Cisp. Bauhin *, Scheuchxer, on the «u- 
llmrity of Volkmann, adopted the sunte figure nod descvip- 
lioB. tiM will thi> erroitr be consulered as without exxuier 
vbcn the dp'eut reMmbUnce of maay of these substunces to 
terrestrial fruits is shewn. Indeed, I much sospect that, 
•Aer all the circumstaucei have been eKamined, Kome per- 
•ooi will be found who will not be r«idily dispoaed to coii> 
udvr subAauces, bearing such appearances, as subjects of 
the >uiiiial kingdom. The propriety however of doing thi« 
will perhaps appear, when other bodies will be thewn pa^ 
Mng, through aliBoll iaseohible gradations, from tlurse bo> 
tCet, wbidi so closely ap pro xi mare, in their general ap- 
pcBrmocOi to the subjects of the vegetable kingdom, up to 
Ot)ler», whose characters ore aufficiently marked, to leavo 
ao doubt whatever in the miud as to tiieir animal origin. 

No one I believe has been more industrious, or norw Guc 
MC*:«a>ful in their inquiries, respecting these hodie* than J^""^ 
M. Gwettiud, as appears by his very ingenions EMay, SuT uiru 
ga«lifw«« C0171* FotaUi pen comiu, in ibc Memoirs of the 
Ai^emy of Sciences at Paris for the year 1757- M. Gnet- 
md obaerres, that at Verrst, near Tours and Saiimur, and 
u M*ntrichar(l, in Tonraine, there are fi»uud, at soma 



=c.i*ed 



I dcpOi ia the earth. 



I bodies, which from their 



> figs, pears. 



• Silciiw Subteriuca. Tab. XXll. Fif.S. 



logea. 



3ff ^'dSSIL ALCTONlA. 

anti dther fruits, are there considered as fruits, which, ha%'* 
ing fallen from their trees, have been buried in the earth* 
where they have uridergone the process of petrifaction. 
These bodies, it appears, not only differ very much from 
each other, in their forms, but also in their ftructu re : and 
in Mons. Guettard^s judgment are divisible into two kinds ; 
" those which possess somewhat of a globular form, and those 

which are conical or funnel-formed. 
Twa kiadft of ^Yhe. former, he observes, may be divided into the body 
or globular part, and the ^pedicle or elongated part. In the 
crentre of the superior part of the body is a circular opening» 
which, in some of the specimens, is closed by extraneous 
matter^ derived from the matrix in which they lie. Thi^ 
opening, which is larger in ks upper part than it is down- 
wards, is continued almost to the pedicle, and iu some spe« . 
cimeus appears even to penetrate it. This is however very 
difficultly ascertained, since the opening is in general 
loaded with the extraneous matter. From the circum- 
ference of this opening lines may be traced, which not only 
pass over the whole of the spherical part, and inosculating, 
are continued to the elongated part, where they form striee 
more or less plain ; but they are also found to penetrate 
into the substance, both of the body and of the pedicle. 
These bodies have, in general, but one of these openings, 
but some have more ; and Mons. Guettard found one with 
three distinct openings. In this specimen, the lines or 
strise just mentioned were seen to collect around the cir- 
cumference of each of the openings, and after inosculating, 
to pass into the pedicle^ in nearly the same manner as iu 
the others. 
TheptdkU A great disproportion, it appears, is frequently observ- 

wl« greaUy. ^^Am between the size of the globular part of these bodies, 
and their pedicle ; sometimes the pedicle appearing very 
large, and sometimes very small in proportion to the body : 
this difference is however frequently the consequence of the 
pedicle having been broken 6ff ; a circumflance which in- 

I 

deed so often oacurs, that a perfect specimen is very rarely 
t^ be met with : numerous fragments of the pedicles being 
dispersed about in the places where these bodies are fouud. 

. - The 



yoSilL ALCrONIA. 



37. 



Tbe pedicles are in general of a coDical form^ and not un- 
ffequeotljr flattened. 

By grindiug the globular pari as well as the pedicle on Texture of 
a stofne, be discovered that their texture appeared to ^^J,'*^^ 
simUar, and that by the frequent ramiiiipitions of the fibres^ 
oC whick their substance was composed, a net work was. 
formed, not much unhke the parenchyma of vegetables. 
We therefore perceive that a loose resemblance, sufficient to 
excoae tbe vulgar opinion of their origin, is observable be« 
tween these bodies and the terrestrial fruits. These bodies, 
like froits, appear to have been formed chiefly of a paren« 
cbymatous substance ; their pedicfle seems to answer to the 
flalk ; whilst the opening on their superior part agrees 
with what is termed the eye of fruits. But a little atten- its dSfereoct 
tion shews that, unlike to the parenchyma of fruits, which ^^^ ^^^ ^ ' 
is formed of vessels terminating in minute points, the sob- 
staxMre of these bodies is formed of a species of net-work, 
which, OS M.Guettard observes, if all the matter contained 
withiQ tbe meshes could be removed, would resemble a 
&kain of thread, of which one part; answering to the pedi* 
de, is pinched together, and the other, answering to the 
body, is spread out without being cut. Again, the eye, in 
£ru\ta, is not pervious, as is that part which answers to it 
ID these fossils ; nor does the pedicle at all agree with the 
stalk of fruits, either in proportionate size, or in figure. 

8cheuchzer describing a fosbil of thi^ kind refers it to the FomU suj)pos- 
alcyanium stvpposum Imperati * ; but of the identity of f^ w be a sea^ 
these substances Mons. Gnettard, with much propriety, ' 
doubts ;nltbough he allows that the external form, and par- 
ticularly the opening in the upper part, might readily lead 
to this supposition. This doubt arose in the mind of 
M. Guettard, from comparing the (Iructure of one of the 
alcyonium stupposum of Imperatus with the description of 
its structure as given by John Bauhin and by Count Mar- 
billi ; the result of his comparison being, that both the 
descriptions were in some respects erroneous. Taught by 
careful examination, he states it to be composed of fibres, 
more or less fine, intersecting each other, without order or 

* Liihograp. Helvet. P. 15. 

regularity,, 



5ft FOmft ALCTOHTA. 

regulmiift maA anastoiDOticig together by thet* raaifica* 
tions, by which they form irregular meshe* •# various fi-« 
•gfires and quite empty* By this coatexture a spongy mass 
fs formed, which is covered by a thin pellicle, constituted 
^ in the same manner, excepting that the texture is more 

close and compact, and extended into a membrane-like ssb^ 
stance, which may hie detached and easily raised from the 
body, and which, when examined by a lens, appears t» 
be a mass of fhie fibres forming yery small meshes, similar 
to the large ones of which the body is composed. The foot 
slalk, which spreads out and is a species of basement by 
which the fig is attached to the body on which it grows, 
does not seem to differ from the general substance in ita 
Tha «nu%.ii conformation. Hence M. Guettard conclqdes the sea-fig to 
ftpongf . y^ merely a sponge, differing from other sponges only in 

form, and possessing like them the property of imbibing 
water and losine it by compression. 
tweenthisaM On comparing the structure of the sea-figs with that of 
|he fouil. these fossils, M. Guettard points out differences which fire 
undoubtedly very essential. In the pedicles of the fossils, 
he observes ^hat circular points may be seen, which will be 
found to be continued into the spherical part of these bo-> 
dies ; to that by different transverse sections they may \}e 
traced, passing on like so many veffels, from the pedicle 
into the substance, and evep on to the surface of the fossil ; 
whereas, in the sea-fig, the fibres have no such regularity 
of disposition, nor are they thus continued like tubes froni 
the piedicle into the subfhmce of the fig. 
FiiBgitei, or M; Guettard next describes the other kind- dP fossil, 
fri6ediimS^ which belongs to the class of fungites, and which, Iik« 
f^'os, t)ie ficoid fossils just treated of, are open at their superior- 

and wider part, and in general possess somewhat of ia coni- 
cal form : and from their varying in length, width, and size, 
frequently beiir a resemblance to cups, glasses, funnels, cones, 
ftc., whilst others are longer, cylindrical, and even fusiform^ 
This variety of figure is frelquently dependant on the cir-, 
eumttances of the fraptures which they have suffered ; these 
ftssils, like the former, being rarely found in a perfed; 
•tate. M. Guettard appears to have been entirely foiled in 
ihe attempt to discover any recent zoophyte, which migh^ 
}i^ poiiiidffed 9s bearing an^ analog)' with th^se fossils^ 



He first was disposed fo consider them as beibg similar to 
the §pomgia tUgani of Clusins, or the spiitigia duira ot 
Sloane, but this opinion he found reason to rehnquish, and 
was then induced to believe that t)iey bore a nearer resem- 
blance, in their general characters, to some species of mt^ 
drepores than to any of the sponges. In several of these 
fbanls he discovered an outer layer, which appeared to differ ' 
fiom' the general substance of the fossil ; and his opinion, 
he thought, derived support from this circumstance, for, 
cMi examining the interior lamina of these fossils, he cod- 
eeived that it much resembled the hard smooth part which 
forms the corresponding parts in mai^repores, &c. Madre* 
pores and corals, he observes, are covered by a substance 
which has been distinguished as their cortical part, and im« 
mediately beneath this, there is a smooth substance of very 
close and compact texture, in which there are no stnae nor 
traces of any fibre^. With this latter substance, he thinks* 
the external layer of these fossils exactly agrees : and he is 
coufirmed in the supposition that it originally belonged to 
them, and was not derived from the matrix in which they . 
lay, by observing that, in one specimen, several little flat 
shells of .oysters were adhering to this surface. 

Nothing, he thinks, in the fossil kingdom approaches so Siogle stirred 
near to these fossils, as the single-starred corals of the ^'*!* ^^ ^^^ 
Baltic, described by Fougt. The only ditiference, M. 
Ouettard remarks, is that the corals described by Fougt 
have ibise which extend from the centre of the coral to the 
edge, io such a manner as to form a star. This difference 
is howerer sufficient to remove all idea of similarity between 
the two bodies: since, as we have already seen, the star 
constitutes the genus Madrepora, to which those corals be- 
long, whilst in the fossil bodies now under consideration, 
there exist none of the characters which mark any of the 
i^pcyries of zoophytes, which we have hitherto cxarainad. 

>Iany of the«ie fossil bodies, it will be seen, differ so Many fotsilj 
much from any known recent zoophyte, that were it not apparently of 
that wift numbers of these muil be concealed from us, in ^^^ 
the numerous recesses of the ocean, they would be con- 
cluded to possess not the lead resemblance with any animal 
substance oow axifting; indeed, so considerable is that 

differ«DCe» 



40 FOSSIL ALCYONIA. 

difference, that soroe substances will be placed before you 9 
which, not only cannot be referred to any particular known 
species, but which would almost authorize the formatiou of 
new genera for their reception* 

We shall proceed, however, as nearly as possible, accord- 
ing to the generally accepted systematic classification ; and 
shall derive what aid can be obtained, from the examina- 
tions which have been made of living substances apparently 
of a similar nature. It is intended, therefore, to endea« 
vour to comprise, under the genus alcyonium or spongia^ 
the substances so accurately inquired into by M . Guettard, 
as well as several others which have not been spoken of by 
him, but are evidently of the same kind, 
DifficuU to With respect to the classification of these bodies, a dif- 

cyonmfrDin ' fi<^nlty almoil insuperable presents itself; since the cha* 
tpongesiathe racteristic marks by which the substances belonging to 
recen suie. ^^^^ ^^^ genera are distinguished, in a recent state, are 
frequently not to be discovered after they have sustained 
the change of petrifaction. Previously, however, to pro- 
ceeding further in an inquiry on this subject, it will be 
proper to consider the nature of both alcyonium and of 
, sponge, and to ascertain what are the distinctive characters 
of each, "" 

Chaneten of The alcyonium is an animal which assumes a vegetable 
eacyjDia, f^^j^^ ^^^ which is either of a fleshy, gelatinous, spon^gy, 
or leathery substance, having an outward skin full of cells, 
with openings possessed by oviparous tentaculated hydra ; 
the whole substance being fixed to sonie other body by a 
seeming trunk or root. 

Count Marsilli, who carefully examined not only the 
physical, but the chemical properties of these bodiesi ob^ 
serves that they are all surrounded by a jKirous leather-like 
bark ; and that the interior substance is, in some, a jelly- 
like matter, ,a|^d in others, a mass of light ash coloured 
acicular spines, which prick the hands on being handled, 
in the same manner as do the spines of the plant called the 
Indian fig. 
Mere miiiiite* Donati, in his Essay on the Natural History of the Adri- 
h IS"™*'**** atic Sea, has made, in some respects, a more minute exa- 
mination of the structure of two di£ferent species of alcy- 



POMIL AI.CT09IJU ^| 

taxm than cren tbat of Couot Marsilli^ and was able to as* 
cerUun by the aid' of a magnifying' glass, the pecniiar 
forms assumed by the spines of which these animals are in 
a great measure composed. Of these we shall soon have 
occaaioD to speak' more particularly. 

Tbe forms in which these animals exist are very nume* Exitt in ivi- 
rous ; this depending not merely on the number of species, ^^ fonas. 
bat on the different irregular forms which the same species 
imder different circumstances may assume. Thus Mar- 
si Hi observes the samealcyonium, which sometimes grows 
flat, and thus covers large pieces of rocks, is at other times 
fi>and in a rounded form. 

From the different colours as well as forms which some Named fim 
of the species of these substances possess, they have ob- ^^ "«*•• 
tained names expressive of their resemblance to certain fruit^i 
fruits. Thus the alcyomum lyncurium^ being of a globose 
form, of a fibrous internal structure, of a tubercular sur- 
face, and of a yellow colour, has been termed the sea- 
orange : the a. bursa being of a sub-gl^^ose form, of a 
pulpy substance, and of a green colour, has been termed 
the green sea-orange or sea-apple : the a. cydonium^ which 
is of a roundish form, and of a yellow colour, has been 
distinguished as the sea-quince: and the a*ficuSy from a 
Tery close resemblance to the fig in its form, has been called 
the sta-fig. 

The sponge is a fixed, flexible animal, very torpid, va« characters sf 
r) ing in its figure, and composed either of recticulated *poD£«** 
fibres, or masses of small spiculpe interwoven together, 
which are clothed with a living gelatinous flesh, full of small 
mouths or holes on its surface, by which it sucks in and 
ihrows out the water. 

The vitality of sponges had been suspected by the an- Their aninul 
cients, even in the time of Aristotle; they having Pcr-™^bTth« 
ceived a particular motion in their substance, as if from ancients, 
shrinking, when they tore them off the rocks. This opi- 
nion of their possessing a degree of animal life was also en<» 
tertained in the time of Pliny. Count Marsilli ♦ confirmed *"*! confirmed 
tills opinion by observing, on their being taken out of the ^ems, 

* Htftoire Physique de la Mer. p. 53. 

sea. 



H 



f6'i%i% Attt^inki 



WoFtniin 



iiif i tfiiolic and diastolic motiorT, ih ceftatu little roini<{ 
Kole^y ^hich lasteci until the wdter th^y had ^nt^ined was 
quite dissipated. Mons. Pe'ysbotiT iuppois^d spongecf i6 
6ay^ been formed by e^rfain wottbff, i^Kich inhabited thef 
labyrinthean windings of the ^6tipi; and believed, that 
whatever life was found in these substances, existed in th^se 
i^ormsy and not in the substance of the sponge, which he 
was convinced, was ah inanimate b6dy. Thii pofnt was, 
Bowevei", detertriiiied by Mr. ETfi^, who, in a letter t6 
Dr. Sblander^, relates the observations which- he had mude ; 
hf Whith he asceitaihed, that these n^orms, t^hicb he fonnd 
tdieiititious. in the «ponge in great numbers, Wer6 A vety ittiUll kind of 
nerelfy or sea scolopendra ; and that they were n6t the fa- 
bricators of the sponge, but had pierccid theh- way into itsf 
aoft substance, and made it only their place of retreat an<l 
security. Upon examining, in sea ^^er, a variety of thd 
erumb of bread sponge, the tops of which were full of tu^ 
bular cavities' or papillse, he could plainly observe these 
nttle tubes to receive and pass the water to and fro ; so that 
he inferr^, that the sponge is an animal sni genetis^ whose 
mouths are so many holes or ends of branched tubes, 
opening on itis surface; with these, he supposes, it re<- 
ceivcs its nourisbthent, and discharges, like the polypes, it^ 
excrements. 
Texture of Mr. Ellis also discovered, that the texture is very dif-» 

^^ges differ- f^j-gnt \^ different species of sponge : some being composed 

wholly of interwoven reticulated fibres, whilil others are com- 
posed of little masMCs of ftraight. fibres of different sizes^ 
from the moil minute spiculee to ilrong elastic shining 
spines, like small needles of one third of an inch long; 
beside these, he observes, there is an intermediate soH, 
between the reticulated and the fin^r fasciculated kinds, 
which seem to partake of both sorts. 
Pistinction be- In the substances considered as alcyonia by Donati, as 
twecn alcyonia ^^^\^ ^^ • ^^ some of those which have been described by 

Count MarsiUi, similar large bundles of elastic fibres like 
needles were difcovered. Thefe had been reckoned alcyonia 
by mod authors, but in Mr. Ellis's opinion they fhould not 



fuid sponges. 



• PUU. Trans, tol. LV. p. S80. 



be 



F«3SII. ALCYOHU. ^ff 

(%> rackonedf since ncitber Donaii nor Marsilli raentian* 

f p«iyp« suckrn exieuOmg out of tbi^ir jxirea ; be cob- 

; Uu! «\il)euce of thi-lt as llie distingniahiiij; eh«- 

iKter uf ihe gvnus alcyontutn, ua much aa tliv ]>orex witb- 

■at tbe polypes in tljeie elotUc fibroui bodies in tlie chnnn*- 

It H rritktit thut the:9e neMlle-]ib« epicultt^ cannot be . 
ttWHidrrad am bclungiiig to the genus spongia only; since 
siuORg the nlcvoniu tiome are admitted to he formed of it 
'(wngy »ab9tance, into the compvbinon of which tht>s>^ qii- 
^ulw amy of caurse be expected to enter : ou the presence 
ur abcenLV thtrvfore of polypes in the cells uf the substance 
niuH aloae d«pi:tid the necessary distiactioit. 

Bdi fhen the difficulty of distinguiiihiog belweeu the MotililficiiU 
ftUrjoaia and the spon[{;es, eieu in a recent stntr, is consi- '" '''^ '""^ 
•iervdi the orjctologist «ill eaxlly find an excuse for his in- 
ability, to majie a similur diDluction betwbeu these sub- 
ilancev, after ihey have undergone the lapidifyiu); process ; 
■ hen their |>ore>> have become filled ; and their colour and 
their subDuDce, ondi in fuct, their whole nature has beca 
(.hiu)g«d, indeed, the assumed generic difference between 
Ifie alcyouia and xpongea is such as mull be ealirely loft in 
niofiof th«M tabstances which have undei^ne the change 
of ftoiriitcbQa, Whether the pores, which are divcoverable 
iiiafoBil, nerethe dwelling of the polypous hydmornot, 
Lsn (Id loogcr be ascerlained ; since their raditition, winch 
1 1 mippoMd to charjcterize the opening's in whii;h lhe?e mi- 
iiule Biimiab exi-t, and which it freciuently fa faint in the 
lecmtalryonium as hardly to be detected, is very likely, in 
the focail snbatance, to be fetill more difficult to be made 
aau Indeed, frmn this indistinctness of the radiation, 
tBDcb difficulty appears to huve arisen in making the neces- 
«ry distinction between even the recent sponges and ol- 
Cjooia ; the (;radnation from the perfectly radiated opening 
t alcyniiiuni, to the plain opening of the sponge, 

lag *o grudnal and imperceptible, a& to render it a dif- 

M)t tIttlCi even fihere the substances are in a recent stale, 
I tbe line where alcyoniura ceases and sponge begins. 

■ The Nttuml Hluoqi ofZoophytn, \c, p. 118. 



4^ rOSHL ALCYOirilr 

Farther dif- Bat here is not the whole of the difiiculty : several of the 

^Ir'w^es. ^^^^^ which will be presently described, possess sonde of 

Bg other cha« tlie cliaracters of acidia and actinia, with those of the 

^2?"* *]?*^ sponge or alcyonium ; thereby rendering their distinct and 

aD known correct classification alraoft hopeless* Hence, altbongh I 

'V^^^^^'^ shall in general speak of these bodies as alcyonia ; 1 aia 

aware, that when their histories have been elucidated by 

the inspection of more illuftrative specimens, several of them ' 

may claim other designations. 

The consideration of another circumftance leads to the 
necefsity of giving up every idea of distinguishing the alcy- 
onia from the sponges, whilst in a mineralized state. Among 
the fossil zoophytes which' claim a situation under one or- 
other of these genera, by far the greater nilmber are such 
as are so totally different from any known species of either- 
alcyonium or sponge, as to render it almost impossible- to 
determine under which genus they onght to be placed. 
Under these circumstances, you must perceive that the at- 
tempt to separate these fossils, by specific distinctions, at 
present, would be hopeless : it can only be effected when, 
by additional observations, their nature and fhrras are'pnore 
perfectly known. 

When it is recollected what very considerable variations 
in form, are found to take ^lace in the recent individuals, of' 
the several species into which these subftances are divided ; 
and when it is considered, that whilst passing into a mine- 
, ralized state, their figure and appearance may be also much 

changed, it may be suspected that hardly any opportunity 
of fair comparison could be founds between the recent and 
fossil alcyonia. • ' 

Their change ,This however is very far from being the case; and indeed 

of form, when ^}j^n we reflect on the transmutation which has taken 
conTerted to 

»tone, woadcN place ; that a soft, gelatinous, or spongy substance, has 
fully ntilcy become a h^rd 4nd ponderous stone, we cannot but be 
affected with a high degree of astonishment; especially on 
perceiving, that this great and extraordinary change of 
substance has been accompanied by so little change of fomu 
In consequence of this I trust I shall be able to place before 
you many bodies, even in a^ilicified state, which will im- 
mediately ^ippear to have been animals of this description, 

belonging 



r- 



POiSlL AlCTOirU* ^ 

belooging to a fonner world. So great indeed will bathe 
Tariety of these bodies, anA so perfectly well preserved 
will they appear, as to render it necessary for me to say a 
Jew iRrordsy respecting the state of preservation hi which 
they are found. 

This is rendered necessary; since the comparatively fre- Attemfn to »c- 
qnent appearance of these bodies, in a fossil state, appears ^^^^ ^^ ****** 
to contradict a position laid down in the former volume, 
whilst speakii^ of fruits, that sabstances possessing a pulpy ' 

consistence were not likely to be found in a fossil state ; 
since their decomposition would most probably take place 
mth too much rapidity, to allow of that change being ef- 
fected, on which their mineralization would depend. But 
a peculiarity of structure exists in these animals, which 
exempts them from the influence of this law. It appears, 
as we have seen from the observations of Marsilli and Do- 
nati, that these animals have blended, with their gelatinous 
and cameous substance, innumerable minute spiculae, which 
may be conndered as the bones of the animaU These ma- 
nifest themselves by the prickling sensation they occasion, 
on being handled, which has obtained for some of these 
animala the name of the sea nettle. That these spicule, 
fbrmed of a hard and durable matter, may, in some, and 
especially that the spongy fibres and coriaceous covering 
may, in others, keep up the form of the animal, for a suf- 
ficient time to admit of the petrifactive process being ac- ** 
complished, seems to be not improbable; and indeed ap- 
pears to affdrd a satisfactory mode of explaining this curious 
&ct. 
That the bodies now about to be more particularly de-* They mii.<;t 

scribed are the remains of animals of a former world, seems have beJonged 

to a former 
to require no stronger proof, than the circumstance of these world. 

inhabitants of the sea being found in their changed state, 
in mountains much elevated above the level of the sea, and 
at a considerable distance from the situations which it now 
possesses. Whilst treating of the fossil corals, many were 
pointed out, whose recent analogues were positively not as 
yet known, and which were therefore conjectured to be the 
remains of certain species which might be now extinct. Any 
op'mion of this kind with respect to these animals appears 

to 



4^ TOStth ALCY01fIA« 

to ^ bardly admisuble; since from the innUmetfiable re^ 
ceBses in which they lurk, and atill more from the conapar«-» 
lively small de^ee of eagerness with which they have been 
sought, we are totally unable to form any conjecture, as to 
the number of those which may have hitherto entirely es^^ 
caped observation. Analogy indeed may lead us to con- 
clude, that by far the greater part of these fossil bodies are 
actually the remains of extinct species ; but where evidence 
of a stronger kind cannot be also obtained, the fact must be 
considered as undetermined. 

Fowll alcjoDia Having made these few prefatory remarks, I shall now 
proceed to a more particular examination of such fossils of 
thb description, in my possession, as are moat illustrative of 
the history of these extraordinary animals. 

l^uufied. Those which are of a ramified form seem. to be most 

rarely found in a mineralized state. The specimen however 
which is figured, Plate Y II, fig. 1*2*, and which was found 
in Berkshire, is undoubtedly the fossil remains of one of 
these species; although it is impossible to say to what par« 
ticular ramified species it belongs, or whether indeed it is 
at all referable to any known species. 

Silezfr chalk. An examination of the substance of this fossil, now a 
mixture of silex and carbonate of lime, affords us internal 
evidence of its origin ; since its texture is such, as I have 
found almost constantly to characterise the fossil remains of 
any individual of this genus, which had been composed of 
a sponge-like substance. This substance has evidently, like 
jiponge, been of a reticular texture ; but the disposition of 
the meshes, if so they may be called, is in the spongy aU 
^yonium much more uniform and determinate tlian in ordi- 
nary sponge, and though not to be described in words, the 
texture is so peculiar and characteristic, as directly to be 
known by those, who have been in the habit of examining 
these and. similar substances, by the aid of magnifying 
glasses* 

Pisitated. The fossil represented Plate VII, fig. 6, and which is also 

from Berkshire, appears to bear a tolerably close resem« 

* The references here and elsewhere are to the figures of the original 
work. 

blance 



FOSSIL ALCTONti. 



♦7 



V'lncc to alci/«niiim digilalum of Ltnn^eos; or thedetidmtiut 
^aui, or dealt inan'i toei of Ellis. Its lexture tiidcQlIj ap- 
peu« to be of tliat kind, being fiiii^lf reticuluted, which 
■aaid cormfpood with Uie carneous epongy substance, of 
nhii:h the recent zoophjte is formed. Ita Burfacc aliOi 
ih'ickly beset with minute openings, bearing somcwliat of % 
>telUt«d appeannce to tlie naked eye, serves to coQtiiin llie 
i«»emManre. Thin fossil is now a carbonate of lime laode- Clulk. 
nlfly hanlf but friabW. 
In th« elegnnt work of Mr. Knorr, Mr, Walsh deacnbea PriipolifH. 
il fossil elongated alcyonia, by the silly term whicb 
•nci^nlsliad adopted, o? priapolilhi. One of lliese from 
ine ie figured. Plate VII, fig. I. It had at its su- 
Wrniimtion that opening, obsen'able in many of 
animals, which served for the reception of the sea- 
froo) tfbicli, it in probable, they derived their su|>- 

On rubbing down tljis substance on a sandstone, at tUJs A feafarmim 
isation, for the purpose of exumining its struclure, its '"""^ '*''"• 
rdnesaand the partial polish it obtained, proved, thut it 
suffered aa impregnation with Eilicn: and an examiua- 
rface with a lens pliiinly showed, that tlie 
flinty part was regtiliirly distributed in conlintious mean- 
dering UoM, bearing the peculiar and cliaract eristic form 
uf the spongy part of al9yoniB, whilst the intervening epuce^ 
appeared to be filled by a softer substance, a carbonate «f 
Itine. The lubstaiice was therefore partly iminerKed in di-anJ il-o inio 
lute rouriatic acid, by which the calcareous part was speedily J)i^,:i,juJ 
removed, with effervescence, and the siliceous part Ich, j>os- 
teuing (he fine letiform texture of the spongy alcyouium, 
lurrouDding the central opening already mentioned, as may 
be teen in the upper part of the figure. 

The foMil represented Plate VII, lig. 9, approaches the 
ocareit, iu its gcnerol form and appearance, to the alcyoaium 
am Liiinffii, the alcyonium prtmum of Discoridcs, or 
to the representation of this animal as given by Do- 
ll must however be, I believe, considered, a^ differ- 
from any known animal of this genus. 

foasil is of a roundish form, rendered une<|ual by 

Haw de(iresaoos about the width of a finger, which pass 

froia 



4S I^SIL AtCYONIA* 

from tfie snperior to tbe.iliferior part of tlie fossil, and ar<^ 
separated from each otfatr by tuberculated ridges. At the 
upper part has been a circular opening more than half an 
inch in diameter; and, at the lower part, is a rugged spot 
as though the pedicle had been here separated : a circum- 
stance indeed which renders its affinity to the alcyouium 
limestone described by Donati rather more doubtfal. The substance 
?^^ ^ of this fossil appears to be a limestone, which, probably 

from some tinge of iron, has obtained a reddish brown co- 
lour. It is not of a very close texture, apparently from the 
superadded calcareous matter not having accurately filled 
all the intersdces between the fibres. Hence numerous 
small openings are, even in its present state, observable oi^ 
its surface, which on close inspection are seen to be such as 
would result from a loose or spongy texture. 
Spinci men- Whilst treating of the alcyouium, of the species to which 
^oed by Do- ^^ seems to approach, Donati particularly describes and 
delineates the curiously formed spicules, which constitute a, 
part of its substance* The body, as well as the cortical 
% party be remarks, is formed of two substances : the one of 

which is fleshy, and the other osseous. The latter, he adds, 
is formed into spines ; which, near the cortical part, are in 
great number, and closely intermingled ; being about the 
length of two lines, and even longer. They are either of a 
fusiform figure, or are finely pointed at one end, and then 
gradually enlarge towards the middle: then, diminishing 
as they lengthen, they divide into three sharp conical points, 
firoand which are fixed numerous minute globular bodies, 
which are chiefly found in the cortical part. 
StnctQBe^ OQ A very strict examination, with a lens, of the surface of 
2^"*^^' Dumerous fossil alcyonia, did not however discover any ap- 
pearance of similar spines, and almost induced me to a 
ready concurrence with Plancus, who relates, that he has 
dissected various bodies of this kind, and has seen the os- 
seous fibres disposed in a radiated form ; but as to the won- 
derful bark, the structure of which is so floridly described 
by I>onati, he says', I have not seen it, and obsen^es that 
the same thing has happened to him, with respect to the 
greater part of the figures in Donati*s book, which, he says, 
are embellishments of the designer, drawn by the rule and 

compass^ 



oompass, rather than in agreenieiit wUli tli« truth nnd s/m- 
pliciiy of nature*. 

Bring in possession of another tpecimen of llua kind, * 'P«Ini«a 
fcwDictl of » Riudi hnrdei and cloatr slune, und which from 
its Hiipcnnrtce I liujiposed to be invented ttilh its <.'ortk'iil 
part, 1 rewlvnl to sncrifite it to a more rlgoious aeart-h tor 
the Ipiflei deacrihfd by Donali, eondudiug that, nince all 
•grerd w to their diO'erJiif; in thtir bony hardness Trhm the 
Other p»rb ol this antniHl, t ehould at leust dincoi-er some 
mc«fl of tbeoit although I might not be able to make out 
tbdr fond. 

Tbis ftiisil was therefore lubjected to the only modes of by eunun, 
dbMrtion which I could eni[iloy with subabinces possessing 
■ ftOAj hardness. A polished beutiou of it wax ilblHined oa 
aStreat parts of it, and at ditlVrent depths; by which the 
pecarMT s|MngMius structure, already noticed a* belougiiig 
to iWne bodies, was perceived ; hot no appearunce of spines 
nwld be deterted. 

The specimen was then immersed in dilute muriatic acid, ""' digwiion 
tad esamtned at different periods, to ascertain whether the ^^j 
new surfares thus obtained disployed any particular appear- 
ance. After rather more than a (quarter of an inch of its 
■nbatauce waa tlius removed, I was pleased to find, with a 
leim of moderate power, several cruciform spines, formed, which exhibit- 
■a il were, by two fusiform bodies, nut an eighth of an inch '^ "" "^'oti. 
in length, crauing each other at right angles, and termi- 
DAliag at efich end in a very sharp point. 

When these bodies were first discovered, the specimen Thete lo hj- 
■ as riill wet with the water, with which the aiid had been jhti-'duuf 
removed. In this state tliey possessed a considerable degree 
«f tiansparency, which they rapidly lost, as tlie water eva- 
porsted ; m» that when dry, they were completely opaque, 
and of a chalky whiteness. From their (lossessiug this hy- 
dropbaoeus quality, and from their having withstood the 
artioa of the muriatic acid, there appears to be tlie greatest 
r««*oD for supposing, that these bodies, wbii:h were origi- 
naUf the spines of the animal, are now formed of an by- imbnWtJ in 

• Dc Canchii minus noln. App. II, p»|f IIJ. 
V«U XXIil— May, 1109. E drophasou* 



ob , POSSIL ALCTOKI A» 

dfroplianous cHalcedloDy, and im^^d^ed iq t matrix of car* 
bonate of limey which haa penraded or has supplied the 
place of the soft spongeons part. This and the pireceding^ 
fossil alcyoma are from Switzerland., 
Alcfoiiiuin le- Alcyaiuum Jlcus Linn, accurately dejpieted in the Metal- 
•a^fig"^ ^i^^ca^ of Mercatus* as J2cy<Hiticm quintum antiquorum, 
|iod particulaiiy (described &y Marsilli as figue de substance 
fepange^jf cTa/ffOiity^resemb]^ much» in form» the brown 
silicious fossil. Plate IX» fig. 4. The recent alc^onium* 
according to the Count, is of the form of a fig, being at- 
tached to the rocks by branches proceeding from its smaller 
end; its upper part bneing a little flattened, with a hole in 
the midale. Its colour, he says, resembles that of tobacco, 
and its parenchymatous substance, he thinks, cannot be 
compared to any thin^ better than to nut^lls, when well 
dried* In all these reispects, a very exact agreement seems 
to exist between the recent and fossil substances. Still, how- 
but different, ever, the fibres running over its surface, and penetrating its 
substance, with the 'grooves which appeisr to have been 
fonned by otlher fibres, wliich'are now removed, distinguish 
it, not only from this, but, I believe, from! all known alcy- 
Wholly silex. onia. This fossil is froin Wiltshire, knd appears to be formed 
entirely of flint. 

Tfie fossil, Plate IX, fig. 3, from Mount Randenberg, 

near Schafhousen, in Switzerland, possesses 'evident marks 

Reticular tex- of ib'alcybnic origin. This foissil. Tike those of the' ramose 

ftlled with kind, figured in Plate Vl I, has that reticular texture, which 

cbalk. appears to be peculiar to the spongy aI<^onia. In 'this spe* 

cimen also, as well as in those, the reticular fibres are im- 

pregnated with silica, and have their interstices filled' with 

calcareous matter. In this, as in the fossil last described, 

the remains of the' pedicle, ihe organ, by which its' attach* 

ment to its appropriate spot iras accomplished; are obserta- 

ble;' as' well as the superior opening,' which passes into the 

'substance of the fossil. ' 

Another simi- The fossil represented Plate IX, fig. 5, and which is from 

^* , the neighbourhood of Saii&ur, being a very perfect fossil 

^ Arm. 6. C. C. p. 102. f Histoire Physique de laMer, p. 87. 

. • ■ * 

of 



I 



JMruvsHeicuJvrrHECvtTiiiu or kegkuuu. 



SI 



' W lb« .kind dMCiibed ty- JVIons- Gucttard, agreci, in it* 
general cluratti^ni, as well bs ill Us texture, wjUi tlint one 
atluch has bt^ijufi described. In this specimen, at its 
aufwrior wirJitce, ^ere are, m Muos. tiuettard obwrves 
>a aoMi«UiB«G ifiu ce*e, four opeaiii^ ; and tlie pedicles, lu 
^•Hlaaitkieunkl |)roL-esses, wluch appear like loots, uevim 
to Iwre been formix) nilh a great degree of lujtur'mnce. 

A Yvr; perfect Fowil ol' litis kind, and Mmilar in its buI)- -^ ''^ perfect 
iBDce «nd texture to tlie alcyooia, nhich have been just ^uq^. i«„iir(^ 
tibtd, but or a dark red colour, where it is iiot iu- 
h its cortical part, which is or a gr«y colour, 
tded by a slight tiugt of red, is represented. Plate IX. 
Tile pedick, aud the i/pvaiag at the superior purt, 
: here i-ery perfect. Sli^t traces of lines, passing from Fibres fof 
ledtcle to the opening, are discoverable on this speci- ''.'"'!"* in»Dfl 
, wid« doubtlofisly point out the arrangement of fibres, 
bicb the aiiiiual was enabled to draw in and eject the 
•rmlerwlucti supplied it with food. This foiail, ^ 1 have tcu- 
•ou lo beheve, U Eughsh. 

t 

B^ty JOHK CBai9TI*N CURWEN, Ej'q., M. P. of fTurh- 
^M tKgtim Hailt Cumberland *. 



vni. 



SIR, 



AMfecrful you should suppose, that I am become indo* 
ind that the favours so liberally bestowed on me by 
the Society had ceased to operate as a ftimulus to the far- 
ther exertions of my humble endeavours to assist those ob- 
which by the fostering hand of the Society, have beeu 
oeentiaUy promoted. You will excuse me for wiahing ObjFC 
■scare you that 1 aro not idle, aud to inform you that the f"',"" 

• Ttsm. of the Socielj of Ait;, vol, XXVt, p. 79. The gold medal 
if Ibe Socici]' wu voted to Mt; CurweaiorUtnecemmunjcaiiaDs. 

£ 3 objtcis 



52 tHFUOVEMElltS IN THE CIJttVRB Of TEOI^AlLCS. 

objects which at present employ me are, I conceiTCi of gre«t- 
importance to agriculture. 

The firtft is by experiments to ascertdn the best and most 
productive mode of applying manure. The second i^ to de-- 
termine, whether the distances between'the stitches in drill 
husbandry may not be greatly enlarged*- without any dimi* 
nution of crop. 
Beit mode of X am strongly inclined to believe, that, where the ground 
nurc!"^ "** *• laid dry, manure can scarcely be deposited too deep; by 
so doing the evaporation is retarded, and consequently the 
manure continues for a greater length of time to fumifli 
nourifliment to the crop. 
Distance of fhe increase of the distances between the stitches per- 
drill husban- mi^ ^"^ power of continuing the operations of turning up 
4ry. the soil to a more extended period, wliich not only im- 

proves the tilth, but furnishes a gpreater degree of moisture 
by exhalation, than can be yielded from ground in that 
state of hardness it soon acquires when undisturbed in sum- 
mer. This evaporation is prodigious, though not per- 
ceptible to the eye : it is, however, fully demonstrated by 
a very ingenioos experiment of the Bishop of Llandaff; 
and I am anxiously expecting to form 6uch conclusions from 
trials I am engaged in respecting its effects on vegetatioDf 
as may deserve the consideration of the Society. 
Feeding cittle My forper objects of feeding cattle with potatoes, sup* 
*'uh*"*** plying milk to the poor *, &c.j are pursued with increased 
' success. The use of potatoes as a food for horses and cattle 
increases daily. 

I am, dear sir. 
Your fidthful and obedient servant, 

J.C.CURWEN. 

Dear Sir, 
Benefit! re- IT is with, great satisfaction, that I have the honour of 
suiting from again submitting the result of my fanning operations to 
th^ocof ^ ccmsideration of the Society of Arts. Deeply im- 
pressed with a sense of the many favours conferred upon me 
■ by them, I have found myself impelled, both by gratitude 

♦ Sso Joay&ali Vol. XVI, p. 190. 

and 



IMPEOVBMCKTS IK THE CULTURE OJP TEGET>i9LES*, 53 

«»d inclinatioDt to proceed with redoubled exertioD, as the 
best retnm in my power. 

The liberal patronage and encouragement bestowed on AfricultuKw 
agriculture by the Society has powerfully contributed to 
awaken the country to a ju8t estimation of its importance, 
aa the basis of individual happiness and national piTMperity ; 
and at this moment the empire owes its preservation and se- 
curity to it. 

I submit with great deference the result of my recent ^fi|*"^^ ^ 
opentions. I am disposed to flatter myself, that they may and working 
lead to important consequences and discoveries, highly be« S^*"^* 
neficial to agriculture. The experiments I have made tend 
to establish the double advantage of well cleaning and 
working the ground. First, as it frees the land from weeds ; 
and secondly, as it conduces to the growth of the crop. It 
affords likewise a very strong demonstration in favour of 
using manure in its freshest state, by which not only the jyf3nu,o^ . 
great usual expense of making dunghills will be saved, but 
the manure made to extend to the improvement of a third 
more lapd. 

Most of the form I occupy was in that state of foulness as Foul ground 
to require, according to general practice and opinion, a^J^***^^ 
succession of fallows to clean it. Being unwilling to adopt 
a system, which is attended with such loss, I determined to 
attempt to clean a part of it by green crops, and for such 
purpose to allow a much greater distance between the 
stitches, than had ever been in practice. My tirft expe- Cabbages. 
riment on this plan was made on a crop of cabbages ; they 
were planted in a quincunx form, allowing four feet and a 
half between each plant, in order to allow room for the 
plough to work in all directions. I adopted this plan of 
field husbandry, as affording the greatest facility in clean- 
inv the crop, though I believe it never was before so prac- 
tised. Two thousand three hundred and fifty plants were 
:>et per acre (eight thousand is not unusual in the common 
method), and each plant had, by computation, an allowance 
of a stone of manure, or less than fourteen tons per acre; Manure 
though the common quantity is generally from thirty to 
fortv tons per aero. The manure was deposited as deep as hid deep. 

the 



tlU'ptoagfh dduld penetrate, dMwn by fbar hot«e8> aad the 
plant set directly above it. 
Floufhed tnd' The plough and harrow, constmcted to work Betwixt the 
^nUt te-*^**°^ rowfc, were constantly employed during the sanmier, and 
twoea the tHe ground was as completely freed fVom weeds, as it could 
^^' have been by a naked fallow. The very surprising weight 

Great produce, of my crop, which in October was thirty-five tons sfnd a 
half per acre, and many of the cabbages fifty-five pounds 
each, were matters of surprise to alt who saw them, as well 
as to me, and I could assign no satisfiactory reason for the 
fact. The quality of the land was very indifferent, being a 
poor cold clay, — the manure was very deficient of the usual 
quantity, — the plants when set by no means good,*— in short 
there was nothing to justify the expectation of even a tole* 
rable crop. I. did not find any thing in the accounts firom cul- 
tivators of cabbages to afford me a solution of my diiScollies, 
or any clew to explain it. By mere accident I met with the 
fromtht oirth ^'^<>P of LlandaflTs experiment ascertaining the great eva* 
ftkftorbed by poration from the earth, as related in his admirable Trea- 
^ ^ tise on Chemistry ; fingular as it may appear, this very in*> 
teresting experiment had remained for thirty years without 
any practical inferences being drawn Arom it applicable to 
agriculture. It appeared to me highly probable, ^t the 
rapid advance in growth made after the hoeing of drilled 
grain was attributable to the absorption of the evaporation 
produced from the earth, and was the cause of the growth 
of my cabbages. With grtet impatience and anxiety, as I 
had the honour to inform you last year, I looked forward 
to the ensuing reason, to afford me an opportunity of con« 
tinuing my experiments. I had long been a strenuous ad- 
vocate for deep burying of manure, though my' sentiments 
rested chiefly on opinion ; this appeared to open a field for 
incontestible proofs of its advantage. My cabbages were 
last year planted on the same plan ats the former year. For- 
PotatMi tuDQtely I extended the same principle to my potatoes, 

^th"v^dk^ia* ^^^^^ ^ ^*® obliged to set on wet strong ground, from want 

teivaif. of a choice of land. My annual quantity of potato ground 

is from sixty to seventy acres. They were set in beds three 

feet long and two feet broad, leaving four feet and a half 

between 



b^ween each bed lengthways, and three feet ^eod way s. On 

each acre there were 1330 bed^. and 6150 sets, or five to 

each bed, viz. one at each comer, and one in the middle. 

The sets of potatoes, when planted accon^ing to the usnal 

moat approved practice, in three feet stitches, and nine 

inches apart, amount tp about twenty diousand. In the Ad^otsgeik 

prmcnt, aod.inde^ in all seasons when potatoes are scarce, 

the saving in planting is a consideraible object. A great 

advantage al#o arisi^s in b^os able to keep the potfttoet and 

manure firom w^^t^ In t)|e late uncommonly wet season 

1 nutaiqed little oj no lou in my mode, which was not 

t^ case in many of the driest grounds. This plan unites 

hand hoeing with, horse culture, and will be found service- 

able in wet sojls. 

Th« latfenesst of planting, together with the premature 
£rosts, ^vented mj forming a fair judgment as to the 
quantity per aci;e, which might l^e obtained, by this method. 
My view in l^xiiig qpon this plan was, to enable me to 
judge oC the ^ects of evaporation, by being able to con* 
tinnemy operations^ for a longer period. I have no doubt 
but tb^t in coip|n^p9, s^sons^ notwithftanding the increased 
distance, the whole ground would be covered. 

My expcrimeDta ou cabbages this season commenced by Cabbacss. 
planting them wiy in Apfil. From the rain which fell sub- 
sequeat/y, and continued till the be^nning of May, suc- 
ceeded by severe t^ast winds, the e^rth became so hard and 
baked, that the plants had made very little progress. 

In the first week in June the ploughs were set to work : StHVing bene- 
as they started, »Ir. Ponsonby of Hail Hall was present, f^ ^'^^^nfo- 
and saw the crop ; it was with difficulty, that the ground taig. 
was first broken, but by the end of the week it was brought 
into fine tilth. Notwithstanding the whole week had been 
dry, with a strong sun and severe east wind, yet such was 
the progress in growth of the cabbages, that when seen 
a^in by that geutleroan on the Saturday, he could scarce 
be persuaded they were the same plants. 

During these operations I had been making constant ex- Evaporation 
periments with glasses, contrived for the purpose, to ascer- ^^**'"^'^ 
tain the quantity of evaporation from the land, which 1 
found to amount, on the fresh ploughed ground, to nine 

hundred 



35 IMPftOTCXENTS IN TBI CULTURE OP VICCTlSttt. 

hundred and fifty pounds per hour on the surface of a Bta» 
tute acre : whilst on the ground ifnbroken, though the glasa 
stood repeatedly for two hours at a time*, there was not the 
least cloud upon it ; which proved, that no moisture then 
arose from the earth. 

The evaporation from the ploughed land was found lode* 
crease rapidly after the firft and second aay, and ceased 
after five or six days, depending on the wind and sun* 
These experiments were carried on for many months. 
After July the evaporation decreased, which proves that 
though the heat of the atmosphere be equal, the air is not 
so dense. The evaporation, after the most abundant rains^ 
was not advanced beyond what the earth afforded on being 
Evidently be- fresh turned up. The rapid growth of my potatoes corres* 
f etstion. ^ ponded perfectly with the previous experiments ; and their 
growth in dry weather visibly exceeded that of other crops 
where the earth was not stirred. The componmt parta of 
the matter evaporated remain yet to be ascertained ; the 
beneficial effects arising from it to vegetation cantfot be 
doubted or denied, but whether they proceed from One 
or more causes, is a question of much curiosity and im^ 
portance. 
l>o«t nst tlis Bfay riot a 'similar process here take place, as^hen water 
action of the ^* exposed to the action of the air in irrigation ? Is it too 
water, a« in much to suppose some natural operation to take place in 
ri^aon. ^^^ earth, which may decompose the oxigen tiontained io 
air from the hidrogen, auriiig the absence t»f -the 8iui» 
which on the sun*s reappearance may be'again given out in 
a state highly propitious to vegetation ? Oiigen is found 
to contain carbon ; and may not the growing plants imbibe 
it from the air, and may we not thereby account for its form* 
ing a constituent part of all vegetables? 
fibjectsofin-* The investigation of these objects presents a wide field 
t™"'/- f^jf, ioquir}', and may lead to very important discoveries. 

From more or less oxigen contained in the earth, may not 
its proportions account for the fertility of one soil above 
another ? May not the advantages supposed to be derived 
from loosening the soil, proceed from its being thus ren- 
dered in a fit state to imbibe the air ? Fallows soon be- 
come so hard upon the surface, as to-be capable neither of 

absorptioi) 



tMPEOTBIlBVTt 111 TBB CITLTiniE OF TSIlKTJUILBf. ^^ 

absorption nor eraporation. One very important result is Great erapon. 
placf-d before the eye», and within the reach of every prac- ^'®" '^* 
tical agriculturist to ascertain, namely, that the e\'aporatioii 
from dung is five times as much as from earth, and is equal 
on the surface of an acre to 5000 pounds per hour. By Dung shaM 
making ose of dung in its freshest state, the farmer may ex*'^ u>ed^redi 
tend his cropping to one third moire laud with the same ^eep,"'^ 
quantity of manure. It is with regp-et that I have viewed 
in many parts of the kingdom the quantity of manure which 
is exposed on the surface, and tends to no good. I am 
jtnmgly of opinion, that in all light soils, if the manure 
was buried iu trenches as I propose, and the turnips sowed 
above ity more abundant crops would be procured. By 
cleaning with the plough, great advantage would be de- 
rived to the crop, from the evaporation yielded by the 
earth. Hot manure might also be used. By fermentation 
dung is reduced to one half its bulk, and its quality re- 
duced in a much greater proportion. The manure now com- 
monly taken for one acre of broad cast would, if deposited 
whilst hot in drills, answer for four acres, and the crop pro* 
duced be much more. 

If the Society of Arts extend their sanction and patronage E aps i lsi sBii 
to my exertions, I shall feel bound to proceed, and to en- ^^* ^"*' 
deavour to bring the experiments to a regular system. The 
glasses I used for determining the quantity of evaporatioii 
were of a bell form, and placed with the open part upon the 
earth ; a quantity of tow was first weighed, ready to wipe 
off the moisture collected from evaporation within the glass* 
which tow was then again weighed as exactly as I could 
after the glass had fiood for a given time, and been wiped 
dry with the tow ; and from knowing the contents of the 
glass I made my calculations. Mr. Robert Wood, watch 
maker, of Workington, attended to the experiments made 
i^itb the glasses. 

I have the honour to be, with great respect, 

Dear Sir, 
Your obedient humble servant, 

J. C. CURWEN. 

Deae 



59, l1|f9l(>¥CICBIIT|IIll.t||«CVI«T»E»aRTX0«TABI«l^ 

Dear Sir, 

0()^ion that IT 18 with great plei^ure.and^ gstisfactiony that I learnt. 

S^^i^hir y^^^'^»7 '^^™ Mr. Artjiur Young, the Secretary of the 

iocncM the Board of Agriculture, tl>at he ho3 adopted npy, idea of. the, 

fivdyxu great importance of evaporatioo^ and tijat he has actufilly^ 

cirdered Mr. Blunt, optician of Corn^tll, to coDatrurt him 

an instrument for aacertainin^ the e%ap9fafion, ^A^^^ ^^ 

BtruQient I shall n^quest ^M^. Blunt to ihpyr to the Society. 

l\f r. Yonngr intends in the coyrse of the summer to make a 

Tarlety of experipi^nts on the qgautity of evaporation pro* 

(luced from ditferent soils, agreeing with me, that the greater 

or less degree of it inBueuces niost materially the luxuriance 

or growth of the crop. 

In all the yaluahle tracts whi<:h Mr. Young has given te 

the world, he has n^ver adverted to thi^, ai^d thie firsf 

knowledge of it as a, pjrinciple for promoting the growth of 

crops was obtained from my account of the Schoose Farm, 

in the report of the Workington AgricaUural Society, of 

which he is a member. 

A great Baring Being upable to account for the sur)>rising weight of my 

^TiMAwe. ■■ g^^ ^,.j^p ^£ cabbages, with only one third of the mailure 

us6a1ly given, 1 was led to make the experiments I have 

lai^ before the Society ; and I believe I um not only the 

first per^'n in Lancashire, but evep in Grtfi^t Britain, who 

ev^ thought of ploughing the ground upon the principle 

) have executed, for "promoting the growth of the crops. 

wdKiTrTia"^ I flatter myself, that yiy experiments oi> the economical 

might be ill. ap{>]i'c&tion of manure will, lead in a l)^igh degree to iacili<r 

dotted. fo^Q ^ more extended cultivation, and obviate the ob- 

jections, which have been started by some persons against 

the enclosure of waste landn, from their supposition, thai 

manure could not be furnished for more than the land at 

pre&cut cultivated. 

I remain, dear Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

J. C. CURWEN. 



Cebtificates* 



in? WBB CSXTURE OF- TeOEXABbBS* ^a-. 

Cbetificates. 

A oettiflcate from Miles Ponsonby, Esq., of Hati Hall, CeriaScatcf of 
testified, that he had seen Mr. Carwen*d statemeot of the-thebenefitiaei 
impiid pvogrest nade by his cabbages in the month of Jone m}"ciSiIwi^ 
r807; tint be perfectly recollects viewing them on the Mon- pbn. 
dmj, and* agahi on Saturday in the same week ; that the im- 
fnovenieotin the appearance of the plants was so great, that 
be imagiDed the land had been replanted, till Mr. Curweii 
explained the cause, which had produced so great a change. 

That he coilsiders Mr. Curwen^s plan of managing his 
potatoes and cabbages as very good garden husbandry, and 
the best calculated for keeping the land clean, improving 
the plant, and at the same time enriching the gpronnd, of 
anj that he had observed ; and though the mode is entirely 
new thete, be his no doubt but it wiU be found beneficiidy 
and that it will in a few years be much attended to, 

A Certificate from Mr» D. Campbell, Secretary to the 
Kendal Agricultural Society, stated, that he hod attended 
to the cultivation of potatoes in most parts of LAncashire, 
and could speak with the greatest precision respecting it in 
that part of the country which is north of Lancaster. 

That whether they were planted in the lazybed way, by 
the dibble, or with the plough, they were always set in roics 
from ome end of a Jieldy or piece of ground, to the other end 
or side, with narrower or wider intervals, as the cultivator 
might deem best suited to the kind of potato he was raising. 
That he never before saw or heard of their being cultivated 
in beds, in the manner practised and described by Mr. Cur- 
wen, and that being more particularly desiroo:? to ascertain 
whether any such method was pursued in the great potato 
district which lies south-West from Lancaster, including 
Pillin;^:, the Fclile, Rufford, and theneicrhbourhoodof Pres« 
ton, he appliifd to Georfje Clayton, Esq., of Lostock Hall, 
and Rolx'rt Hesketh, Esq., of Warrington Hall, gentlemen 
upon whose accuracy the utmost dependance may be placed, 
and who informed him, that neither from their own know- 
Mere, nor from inquiries they have made, can they learn 

that 



fiO iXFReVEHBNTS I!f TUB CULTVEB OF TB0BTABLE8« 

that the method of cultivating potatoes alluded to has been 
seen or heard of in a tract of country, where more are rais« 
ed for the market than in any other of the same extent per- 
haps in the kingdom. 
^'r^^i^fi ^^' Campbell further stated^ that Mr. Curwen*s cab- 
of pUns bages were planted at a much greater distance than any he 



wg obbfigei. bad ever before seen, and their size far exceeded, as a gene* 
lal crop, any that had fjoillen under his observation; that the 
ground was perfectly clear from weeds, and from having 
been frequently turned over by the plough in the intervals . 
the mould appeared to be in fine order for a subsequent 
, €rop„ and he conceived that in the two essential points of 
freedom from weeds, and of the land bring iq a fine tihh». 
po garden could exceed it. 

Fvtket ccrtifi- Other certificates respecting the novelty of the me^od. 
of planting potatoes^ as pr^tised by Mr. Curwen, ^rer^ 
leceived from the following gentlemen ; 

William Knott, Summerhill. 

Mr. Sunderland, Ulverston. 

J. Penny Mabsball, Bolton Oak, 



' ^ 



Further certificates, stating the method to be new as prao- 
tised by Mr. Cuewbn, for planting both potatoes and cab* 
ba^s, were received from the following gentlemen : 

Walteb Gardner, Crooks. 
William Harrison, Ulverston. 
A. Benson, Reading. 
Henry Richmond Gale» Bard^ee IlalL 
Jos. Penny, Budgefield. 
Edward Barrow, AllithwaiteLa>dge. 
Charles Gibson, President of the Lancaster AgricuU 
tura) Society. 
Rev. J. Barns, Pennybridge. , 

Rev. E. Ellerton, Colton. J * 

Jos. Yorker, Ulverston. 
Michael Knott, Thnrstonville. 
Rev. Joseph Brooks, Ulverston. 
Thomas Machell, Aynsome. 

Also 



iMPBOTBHcyn nr Tin cfrLtcM of TiMtiiLCs. ^ 

Also from tbe following fiurmers, resident in the oeigh* 
Wurhood of Lancaster: 

Thohas Tart. 
Willi AM AavsTBAo; 
William Stallkr. 

AVTHONY EinSFORTir. 
CnRISTOFHSR ATKIltSOir^ 
ROBBRT EdMONDSOV. 



Dear Sir, 

M^. CSMTwen having informed ine» Urat a question would Suljedof < 
pftilMbily iiiae in the Society of Artr&c* relative to the P<^^^. 
degree ofcihalation of water from the earth, and it appear- ^^^ 
ing* to me to he intimately connected with Tarious matters 
in aigric«lture» I think yon will not be displeased at my 
mentioning^ R few eircumstances, to prove, that the o^ect 
much deserres attention. I conceive that it bears upon the 
point of showing the great depth, to which dung may be 
ploughed with safety; for when we find, as I have done, 
that from two to three thousand gallons of moisture are ex- 
haled in a day from an acre of land, and that the quantity 
varies greatly according to the state of tillage, it should ap- 
pear, that such a vertical stream of vapour must remove all 
apprehensions of hurying dungr I also think it goes to tbe 
point of hoeing and horse-hoeing such plants as demand 
much moisture. I have found, that the dung in a farm« 
jard, laid three feet deep and hard trodden by cattle all tbe 
winter, has exhaled in the proportion of above four thou- 
aand gallons per acre in ten hours ; hence a practical con- 
clusion may be surely drawn. I could much extend these 
observations, but they are sufficient to convince so enlight- 
ened a mind as yours of the propriety of a very extensive 
pursuit of this inquiry, 

I have the honour to be. 

With much regard, dear Sir, 

Your faithful and very humble servant, 
^ ARTHUR YOUNG, 



IX 



i^ MXtcftiCAt mnnmt«lB»u mr iMb«ss« 



Eleciri^lS^fpetimeiMon Gkis considertd at a Leyden Phialg 
u»d ct^cOMtedfPcms; by Mr. « « « *• 

Eikpfrimenu Vb/HANCE having thrown in my way two papers written 

the doctrmeof ^'^ Dutch by Mr. Lpgty I*wM surprised on reading them to 

plus aad minus findy that this gentleman could admit the theory of plus 

dectnutj. ^^j minus electricity^ while almost all his experiments con* 

cur in proving, that there is an actual passage thro«gh the 

'^pores of the gltfiSy-whenit has a coaminiHttationf ma o«e aide 

'With the piime conductor of 'an electrie&l viachiae inaction, 

and on the other ^ith conducting 'bodies eomaiiiiMeattag 

'with thegroond : and fhaX to obtatn this; ^mumgt At»n not 

tdecessary for the glass' to* be coated on 'both sidesy as 'it is 

'Mficieht forthat in oontactwitfa the mtfebiaeitiFbeao^said 

'to touch at a mngle point some substance that is but^n Tai- 

perfect conductor, as thewpod of a ltfble,or the like^^hith 

' has sufficient force to commnuieiite 'the -attraction* of >the 

< farth through its poresw Thus 1 have always 'suspected 

the charge of the cascade isetFected, in the '6th experiment 

of my' first letter to 'Mr. van Mons: but^ as' the phial seems 

to I'etain in its pores b portion of the ^lectnxr^uid»'tind'e<]il« 

lect on the surface commutitcating withthe groond a large 

quantity of fluid senmble both to' the .touch and sight* 

when we charge' highly a phi4l not coated' onr that side;- 1 

Glass bas a have thought the force of attraction of glass 'for this Baid 

SiTftS'thf" was so powerful, that Abbe Nollet had* reason to suspect it 

electric fluid, attract^ electridty from the'Earth, ^hh:h however :dM not 

happen in the experiments of 'Mr. Lugt, as fov instance the 

following, which is the second of his first essay. 

Insulated phial He procured an a(>par4t«s completely -instilatedby means 

charged by aa Qf fQuf ^iQgg feet. Thus he could at 'pleasure leave die 

insulated ma- , . 

chine. ' whole insulated ; or form -^ oewmuniaation' between the 

ground and the.condac!k>r,-«r the graiind a/id the rubbers, 
wbicb'were united together by a semicircle of metal placed 
rsibo«t « ^oot from "the i nsulated plate. Rods were contrived - 



* Journal de Physique, vol. IJCIV, p. 371. 



to 



ELECtilTrAL EXPERIM^Nts ON Ct:A<^S. ^^ 

to be fixed occasionally to the conductor or the rubbers. 
In this experiment he fastened one of these rods to the 
nibbersj and made it communicate with ' the outer or innf*r 
coatingi it did not signify which, of a phial pluceli 6n kn 
insulating stand ; the other coating of {he phial cdmmuni- 
catiog with a similar rod fixed to the' conductor. The com- 
munication was made by means of a'wire in contact witli 
each coating) and terminating at' the 'btlier'end in a kfioh, 
which might be brought near or re'uiov^ed'froni th^'cPther 
rods at will. This phial, thus com pTetMy insnUt^d, "was 
charged by an equally insulated machio^. *Heriee the' i(u- 
thor infers, that {he 'grbuhd does not cbhtriblite' to' the 
cbairge of the phial ; and that, when the apparatus is liot 
'iosillafedy'the wood' of Ihe table, '^tid that'wKich supports 
the stand, are the invisible Cdtiduiftors of the fluid froni' the 
suHace'that parts'with it't6wikrds'the^tht irhere th<^ fltfid 
is.'iexcited on the plate: tliat in his iii!n!kliitdd ^xperimeh^ the 
iisebr the rods JBupplies the place of the ground, and ^n- 
' ducts the fluid : &c. 

I cannot admit the theory of taking 'the fluid frbm the Glusnot im- 
surflu?e of an impenetrable substance, ' as Dr. Fmnklin as- 5f"*T]j5!^** 
seits glass to be; because it is a fundamental law of che- fluid. 
mistry and physics, that no' movement can take plate' with- 
out a previous impulse, and consequently without innn'cdiate 
action on the substance to be deprived of the fluid. Uebides, 
what substance is there, that the igneous matter cannot 
penetrate? and no one will deny, that' llie it>;iieons matter 
forms a part of the electric fluid. Accordingly I deduce an 
opposite inference from this experiment. 

Mr. Lugt then recites several very ingenious experiments^ AffihTty of 
among others the following on the elect rophor us, by wliich g^«<*<>»' ^h^ 
he would go on to prove this singular deduction ; but which shown by 
in reality prove nothing, except that the attraction of the 
igneous fluid, developed at the disk, is strong enongh to 
supply the place of the attraction of the ground : in fact, 
that in uninsulated and insulated ex{)erlments glass has 
such an elective attraction for the fluid, as to retain the 
same quantity in both situations of the phial. It is stilt to 
be accounted for, like all chemical and phyisicul phenomena, 
by the tbeory of elective utf raction. 

lie 



^4 KLCCTAICAt ErPEEtllEMTS OB CLAil^. ' 

an experfmfiit Re takes an electrophorus* places it on ao insolatin^; 

toMlwu/**^ »tar.'l, and insulates himself before he rubs it. In this state 
of complete separation from the ground he excites it bj 
friction, touches the two coatings, and obtaiot sparks* as 
strong as if both he and the electropbonis had fl communi- 
cation with the ground. Hence be concludes still, that 
the doable contact, necessary as he says, establishes a 
complete circulation, as in his experiment with the phial. 

T^ ezpcri- There b a more simple mode of making this experiment 

mJ^JLw JL^ with a small curved exciter with a glass handle. I take aa 
clectrophorus completely insulated ; I rub it in a state of 
insulation like the Dutch philosopher ; I quit the insulating 
stool and take the exciter^ the two coatings of which I 
touch at once with its knobs; and I not only obtain a sparky ' 
but taking the exciter, leaving one of its knobs on the ex« 
temal coating, and rainng the other four or six inches so 
as to lift the cap to it in the air, a real discharge takes place. 
On laying down the cap without a fresh contact, scarcely 
does it give a very feeble spark. The beautiful experiments 

Xlectricitjr qf ^r, Libes, in which he obtains electric fluid by the mer« 

Ironi tno cos* . '^ 

t»ct of di&tcnt contact of different metals, evidently prove to me, that 

''*^'* here, where the action is triple, or between two metals and 

rubbed resin, there is a real generation of igneous matter, 

if I may so express myself, which is renewed at every don* 

ble contact. The following experiment is calculated to sup* 

port my conclusion. 

Si>«rks from I had seen in the Electrical Phenomena of Mr. Sigaud 

S*t cb^*^^ de la Fond, that some gentleman observed the gilt mould- 

drawers when ings of a chest of drawers to emit sparks every time he drew 

w^^^io^b^ one from the cap of an clectrophorus accidentally placed 

IMS upon it. on it*. This fact led me to make the experiment with an 

insulated clectrophorus, by the side of which I placed ft 

copper ball baring a rod that communicated with tile! 

ground. This ball was about a line from the outer coatings 

and I stood on an insulating stool when I took a spark* la 

this state, to prove that it is no circulation that occanons 

^ the discharge, but an fittraction of the ground, which be* 

comes ^ivellent at the moment when the fluid retained in 



Phenomines Electriques, p. 67S, j§ 174. 



tlir 



I 



I 



ELECTRtCAt EkFCKlHKSTS Oil Cl.vklt. ^f 

Ihe metal of ihectp acts no lonf^rr in rompetition vitlt the 
I^MM (e fis it til th* metul of the iaferior ■ oatin^, 1 iui»ed 
ip three or four inches, and htrld it thui a F<ew necoaiit 
loot a(«in){ the least tparit poiji between the int^nur 
itintcatMi thrr knob of the exciter; but the mometiT I drew 
■icity from the cap, a ttrong 4park was emitted toward 
the STTiand. This fnct gave me the more pleasui^, as it 
itill more eoBfirined the theory of elective altmction, un 
which hll my deductions are founded. I know not whetlier 
ffaia experiment ))e new, but I do not 6nd it in Libesi HuQt, 
«r Ac French tmnsktloti of Fischer, which hn* lutely ap- 
peared with iiuti's by Biot ; and it appears to me to merit 
Mtcotioa, M it throws li^i on the theory of thundersforms. Thund«- 
Heie the cQlamo of air interposed between the cap and tlie 
L gina prolongs the retaining power of the glass to sixt eight, 
^Mrcren fifteen or sixteen inchea in dry weather: there I 
^^^^re to mrseir a large pittte of air between those clouds 
^Hhrt travrrse the atmosphere in opposite direcltoui, tho elec-> 
^^bic fluid of which remainii insulated till the momLiit when 
' the elective attra<7tion lurpasses the retaining sLtion of the 
I atrmtum of «if, &c. This experiment also sIiowb ihe reason Doubles. 
»hy the tiew doobler of electricity, invented « few yeiire 
ti^ if» England, charges its plates Ort-appt^achiiip und se- 
parating them repeotedly, and acquires throuj^h (he alratuiu 
I <jf air that separates them so intense a chan^, thai tbeplalrs 
•i'lcliar^ Ihemselves spontaneously *. 

The glass ck-clfophorus, mentioned by Mr. Lugl as well *"•'»" eUctro.; 
u Sigaud de l> Fond, but the effects of which, an it appears 
''] me, have not been compared with those of the Leydeii 
iihial, h«s lately engaged my attention. The following wrw 
tbr enpertments [ have been led tomaJce, and in tny mind 
I tliey render still more probable the complete saturation of 
tiie Leyden phial by the retaining affinity of the substance 
I eTOMglMs itself. 

I take a scjuare of German sheet glass [verTt blanc Je Experiment. 
BaUmt] twenty or two aiid twenty inches wide, and 
place it on an ininlatiog stand seven or eight inches in dia- 

* Sm Joanul. Tol. IX. p. 19. Il I> far September, ld04, not IBUS, 
-I mit^woui bj ilia vriiai in tht Journ. dt rhfiiquc. 

Vou XXUI— M*y, 1803. F meter. 



meter, gilt or inlvered atl over, with its edgQi well rounded 
off* and supported by a glass foot at such a height, that 
the halls of the two curved tubes may rest on a little me- 
tallic circle of three or four inches diameter cemented to the 
centre of the upper side of the glass. Below I place a 
knobbed exciter against the edge, of the gilt top of the ^i^- 
'Sulating stand, leaving about a line distance between tliem* 
as in the preceding experiment* li^ this state I begin to 
charge. At the tirst turns of the plate it frequently bap^ 
pens, that we see round the little upper coating some flashes 
of electric light ; but if the glass be thin, they will fiooa 
disappear, and though you continue to turn the plate a 
thousand and a thousand times, the square will be charged 
to the whole capacity of the coated glass, but will afterward 
Pftvage of the yield a continual passage to the fluid. By this experiment 
fluid through iq the dark I have been convinced of the reality of the patf- 
gUis. Mge of the fluid through the pores of glass as through a 

filter of capillary tubes. This experiment was repeated 
several times in the presence of the friend, w^io suggested 
to me the idea of the oxidation of the metallic coatings, 
: comparing them with tliose, which probably take place ij(i 
the great in marble quarries,^ He is incliued to consider 
this as an experimeiUum cruets with respect to this passage 
Electricity de- of the fluid. It is thus be is equally convinced^ that the 
to^^oxidlng '* dectric fluid oxides the most tenacious metajls partially iai 
them. its passage, before it destroys them at the instant of the d^ 

velopemeut of the gasses, which takes place in my metallic 
cylinders. He is an excellent pneumatic chemist, and fre» 
qnently repeats to me, that caloric penetrates all bodies, 
that all consequently have pores, and that the penetration 
of the electric matter through those of glass is in no way 
inconsistent with the true principles;' but that the pre- 
tended removal of it from one side of the glass, which r^ 
ceives a superabundance of it on the other, is contrary tp 
^ * the axiom of lii^ master, Lavoisier: there is ,no motion, no 
sensation, unlets tl^e impulse acts through the thickpesa: 
.and hence, if we grant tliis expulsive action, we must adinit 
a eapacity of penetration in the fluid. 
Common (lass In his presence I repeated the experiment with comiAon 
IS^d but ^ 8^«^- Tl»« yields a passage to the fluid with less ease, but 

'■:'.'.'. on 



B&BCTEieAL EXPEUMElfTS OW OLAS0* gjT 

•n the contfaiy saturates itself infinitely more quickly : in looner ntunt- 

a little time it discharges on itself, notwithstanding thriit- ^Lute fitw. 

tie extent of the coatings. We ascribe the anomaly of these 

two diifereut kinds of v glass to different fluxes. The Ger- 

mao glass contains more metallic oxide, the common more 

aaline matter. If this inference be just, th^ English flint Flint gUai. 

glass should be like a sponge to the fluid; and il; it were 

possible to find large squares coloured with metals> these 

perhaps would furnish us with other facts. 

It must be observed > that, notwithstanding the German German glass. 
glass admits this passage, a large mass will not pass, uidess 
it be attracted in the manner related in a former letter* 
Tbift is why we see a reflux toward the machine. The fol- 
lowing experiment will in some degree account for this. 

I charge a glass electrophorus, placed on an insulating £^^^">^^. 
stand* the lower coating of which is as extensive within an 
inch as the glass, and stop the machine the moment the 
sparks announce an approaching spontaneous discharge : if 
in this state 1 cut off the communication with the ground, 
and take the cap from the upper surface, the whole charge 
will remain adliering to the glass; and on touching it a 
prickling ienayition will be felt, and something like an ig- 
neous vapour* On extinguishing the light it is visible, 
particularly if you approach the edge; but the fluid be« The fluid muf 
comes absolutely luminous, if you blow liehtly on the sur- ^ btown to- 

•' „ , 11 . • 1 wird in a Uina- 

face: then a wave of hre traverses the glass, to join the uous wave 
fluid accumulated on the other side between the glass and 
the metallic coating. What is particularly remarkable, two of two colours. 
coU>urs may be distinguished in the fluid, the lower being 
whiter and more vivid. This phenomenon takes place if 
the communication be suffered to remain : the wave of fire, 
which flows from the part blown upon toward the lower sur- 
face is stronger, but it does not continue so loog. This The cWtHc 
experiment gives rise to the question, whether all the in* po[,nd^' ^''' 
gredients pass through the substance of the gla^s, or whe- 
ther the difference of action is to be ascribed to the state of 
the glass alone. I belie\'e it is this modification, which the 
electric matter itself appears to undergo, that constitutes 
the oppoMte states, which every natural philosopher endea- 
fours to explain according to the mode in which he views 

F 3 them; 



58 EtfiCTRtCAL EXPBlltKCKtS OH OLA!%^ 

them'; Franlclin by plus an^ minus; du Fay by two fluids 
neutralized in bodies, the particles of which repel and at« 
tract each other ; &c. 
li not the fluid Does not this experiineDt demonstrate, that the attrac-* 
lit-?ici1!iu^b^* tions, which act here between the surfaces of the glass reci- 
c#eeb the two procally, retain the fluid on t^ upper aide notwithstanding 
surfkcci of the ^^ ^^^ ^ ^^ ^^^ > ^hil^^ if tl,^ opposite BoriaGe be not 

insulated, the cap takes it off at a distance of three or four 
lines above it, if we touch the cap with a metallic body 
communicating with the ground without establishing a com- 
plete circuit; because then the ground wholly absorbs that 
which is accomufated on the opposite surface. To verify 
tills fact, I have repeated the traosvasation of water, in the 
three foUewing manners. 
Wtter pomfipd I charge a bottle filled with water, and pottr the water 
imo^an uninn^ ^^^ another bottle standing on a plate of lead, that has a 
Utcd bottle^ <H>mmnnication with the gVoomL Whether I be insulated 
or not, when I do this, the two bottles divide the charge 
between them. Bbt to retain the charge in that which has 
Tost its water, I must place myself on an insulating stool 
when I pour ipto it fresh water, unless it be from a glass 
vessel; otherwise, as the electric fluid may irscape both by 
my body, and by the metal on which its outer surface rests, 
and which can conduct the opposite electricity into the 
ground, the bottle wilt discharge itself entirely on one side 
by my body, and on the other toward the ground ; in the 
same manner as a charged bottle touched by the hand, while 
there is a communication between the ground and its oppo- 
nte side. 
and into an in- On the contrary, if I charge a bottle highly, and pour its 
sulaied bottle, ^uter into an insalated bottle, the water will convey away 
nothing, and the whole charge remains in the bottle ; be- 
cause there is no attraction of any substance to act on the 
electric fluid, the glass, which I suppose to be saturated 
during its fusion, having no longer any affinity to attract it. 
It is like a full sponge, which takes up no more water, un* 
hns it can part witli some of what it contains to another 
body. It is not in the coatings then, that the fluid is re« 
tained, but in the glass itself, and on its two sides. If, as 
I have remarked above, I make the tronvasation into a bot- 
tle 



■ rLECTRICAL EXPtRlUClITS UK ClAlt. gn 

lie comnuni eating with thv ground by its cxtcrual uoBting. 
while I stuad on ua intulutiii^ stou), it neither \om» tint mt~ 

Itirea more of the elMtric fluid. Mutt we net bence vob- 
V Uut tht oulMile, wlieu uiicc chur<{«d, ueither kttracta 

Iky thing mur«! from the gruunJ, nor givM oS miy thing 

I The folhming experiment with the dectrophorus thraws 
Ul more light on all thrte tbcls. 

■ I ebwge nn plectrophoras of glass and lesin ; ( touch it Eipfrimem 
I both siiles; 1 raise the cap, and place it »^in on the„o^jiuiu^ 
tctrophoms; the mument I touch wiih my hand either the 
[tvmat coating or the cap, I perceive u spark Blmovt aj 
g as that which issues from ihr cup taken off. But if, 
e t replxce the cap, 1 touch the interior coating, I take 
1 it its superfluous elcttricity ; and when I touch it af- 
wartl the spark is nlmoitt nothing : b sign, as it seemt to 
, that the 6ngers in touching the two surftces only esla< 
Hthh ■ cooimniHcatioi) between the two coutings, which 
««Tiei UB a divellei)t interniedintn, if I tnay use the expres- 
sion, lo develope the fluid thut i» ilisengMged. 

I ofSvt ihew fiews to the iiatuml philnsupher, not to cr»- D»^ noi the 
al< • new theory, but as an inquiry whether the iirueaus ">»"«' "' ''"i 
l>henomeuaof Tuugiietisiu, gHlv-auisin, electiicily. and ae- ^,£fc„„, in^,^ 
tonulions l^e uot subordinate lo the general law nf alfinitica. *"'" ^T f""" 
The fine eipeninent» with which Lihes and Eruiang have pmlace the ' 
eoncfae*! the tieldi of science concur in luppurt uf the hy- phenomma of 
potheoia, thit there is but one igneous matter, which forms ™^"|ci^|ie.f 
lieht, the Riugnelic, galvanic, iiud electric Huids, Ace, iiiul 
I* modified ill them by difl'ereiit ingiedients. In a letter 
• Inch I wt«te to Mr. Uelainetherie about six month* ago I 
catted tboe temigrimitaling, because 1 -lee them always 
take a ceotiil'ugal force, aud accompany thii matter witen 
it n diMDga^d from cou)bu«tible budies; one of th>.'se 
flmd* takes it. like that of ether, at a certain degruo of 
h?at : another only at the strangest heat of a burning glaw, 
unknown before tluniberfj, and even in bis time, which is 
itecnKtry tu volutize gold; and so oa. The experiraeikts of 
Mr. Ern)»nu demonstratet that the flame of ulcohol con- 
Utos different iiigredients from that cf sulphur, or thut of 
phosphorus. 



7i^ Si^tTttTCAL EXFK&inrEKTS OV GLA«S. 

phosph^riM*.'! Examine^tfiegasMs, which the »an»e acids 

e^^\r^ fmifi dlfl^fent metals, ^t tlie dififerent colours of at* 

ti€cial firHr^Vkst-do tiotall dieae modifications demonstratCt 

Hint ih^ (ftJhi^t of the atr/ added to the ingredients latent 

ib conibu8tiMe9, carries off Various parttcles, the number 

of which will ever remain unknown to us ? Of the nature 

of eajrboii, ^Irogen, bi4fOt^D» oxig^Ot abundant as they 

are, we are still ignorant. -Art they bimplesv^ or are they 

.rr. ^-^ : qompoiio4b ? ,. ijow ..qi^y .varieties do the»e« Cour b^ses af- 

^ ibrd.Q^ejFeJly rby theipropqrtiMMS in Wiich.they ar^ com^^^ 

Why does the new iiiflunimable,;fj^\s:ture that alanned 

Projt}^i.anc|?prevented biitt frpm punning his experimeptsa 

Actir^n of wa- appe^ sti^more terrible :than fulminating siilver ? Before 

theel^tiic'^ ^^ esparjments, if I, ha^ spoken jof the coml)ined action of 

fluid, will bunt vaJter» lie^, and the ^electric fluid on the most tenacious 

sn7 metals. |^e^^.^s fqlders and iro9p- should I have veotured to say, 

tba^.theiguaoui^ expansion in tbeip might at length become 

^uifiicientiy (H^erful to burst a cylinder of the bj^ iron of 

ten lines i^ diameter, and two:lioes aperture consequjently 

four lines thickii fs well as. a Urge cartridge of an alloy of 

, nine paista copper and one liO'sinQilar to the former^ which 

» so.long.refSsted:;a force of abaut .forty feet» and was burst 

1 . . : byonaiofja hundred aod'forty; in. ten explosions ^ That of 

• ivoo exhibited undulations at the ninth explosion, but was 

^ not actually *cAbeked till the fortieth. I could wish, that 

some cue wonU try tira flinders of similar materials, to 

( ./ find thOipHoportion.of the nesMliance, which is not in the 

ratio, a&. the square of Ibii thickness* as I had imagined. 

The progress of the resistaace is greater on doubling the 

fhickueis.#f the iront for a cylinder of iron of h|ilf the 

Ibiokoe^: was cracked at the fourth explosion, and at the 

S«rentbt.the cracks were wider than at the fortieth in the 

thicker iryjinder. 1 cannot but be persuaded, that the ig^ 

neoua action tends' to decompose the metals subjected 

to 4tf 

• Journal de fbjsujue, Febrmrj 1807: or our Jounial, toI. XVII, 



X, 



AHALOOT BlTWllN CHARCOAIr AV0 BTDROaCV. ^j 

IX. 

Oil the Identity of the' Base if Charcoal with HiUlrogen, or 
it^ Base. In a Letter from Dr. John New. 



I 



sm. 



To Mr. NICHOLSON. 

Siapletong near Bristol, April Uth, 1809. 






N the 18th volume of your Taluable Journml, p. 4d» is Reciprocal le. 
JOMnted a paper, entitled <« Report on a Memmr of Mr. '^fi^i^' 
*^ BerthoUef, jun. entitied. Inquiries conceroing' the recir 
*^ proeal Action of Sulphur and Charcoal; by MessrSr 
^* Fourcroy, Deyeux* and Vauquelin.'* 
The n^enisral cooclusioas from the experiments are, . 
** Ist That charcoal contains hidrogen, whivh tl^e most^nutrcoalcon- 
«• intense heat we can produce will not completely expel/* .^"*» *"'**'*>f«^ 
** 9d. That aulphor at a red heat acts upon hidrogea» Sulphur formi 
and forms compounds in very different proportiops^.on ^f^^P^^"*^ 
which their properties depend." ^* ">g<?r.» 

^ 3rd. That chiMrcoal deprived of hidrogen, or at leaft with charco*! 
*• nearly so, forms with sulphur a solid compound, into J?P"**** ^ 
** which the sulphur enters m 9 small proportion. 

4th. That at a high temperature siilphur, carbon^'iomd'of wiihbothj 

hidrogen unite into a compound, which asisumes the state 

of gas." 

** $\lu And lastly. That sulphur pon^ins hidrygeo.." »nd contains 

The perusal of this important paper furnishes me with ^t^^ 

'. « . ^. I •'» ¥ 1 - Hidrogen the 

an opportunity of communicatmg aa opinion, which I have, baseotchar- 

for some years, entertained : That charcoal and hidrogen <^'^> <fr > mo- 

are modifications of one and the same substance, or thathim i^f^lcT* ^ 

drogen is the Odse of charcoal. i 

My opinion was formed from tho result of various ex pe* This op'mioa 
rinients and obervations, made at a time when experiment cxMrim^. 
tal chemistry was a favourite amusement • but which very^ 
different pursuits huye oblij^ed me reluctantly to relin« 
auish. 

Should this opinion be confirmed by accurate experi^ 
ments, (and it appears to me to have been nearly proved 
by BerthoUet in the l^emoir. above (juotedi at.lca»t by ana* 

Ivbis) 



<4 



79i OV tlAWEIP Aft MAVmUU 

Ijnt) what an important and extensive field will be opened 
to the fcientific world ! 
Th« carbon of The p^Umhum <if pknU, and ihg arigm of tha\ immense 
plant! from qua$Uity qf farbanucetms maiier ammually produced in the 
t)egetable kingdom^ will be easily and satisfactorily accounted 
for, as ori^nating from water alone* 
Pifferent ap» Although the two substances hidrogen and charcoal differ 
hidrogen and ^ mudi in appearance, yet, it may be a question whether 
charcoal no the diamond and charcoal^ or sieaMf in its greatest degrea 
argument. ^ nfrity„ and tee or moms do not differ quite aa miscb* / 
Thig uicendod I* do nat mean by this communication to lay claim to any 
fw ^n**Jl *^"** P«o"^ ^^ discovery, but oaly to famiah a bint to others, 
whiehy if impvoyed by those who bava leisure and ability to 
pursue the inquiry, might lead to the d ia c o very, * 

I took*M> ikltes of the experiments to which I hare HU 
loffed, 'trnd' certainly cannot, at this d*s|a»t ptriod, Barrate 
thetti -fro^ memory ; and, if I could, it is by no meana 
ififtrpMbafyfe; that they might be expMned in a diflbrent 

I am» Sir, your obedient servant, 

JOHN NEW, BLD. 






T 'I w ii >■ 5S38pSS T'?^*" ^Sp 



•X. 

■ • 

Extract ilfd Letter fhm a Geniteman la Jereejf t» ki$ 
' ' frifitid Jk GfamorgamHrff on rte Use qf Fraie as a Ma^ 
nnr^. Communicaiedhyi. Fraiielew, Esq*. 

fcswcfrffood Tt" 

sBsauie for V RAIC, or its ashes, we esteem here good for all man* 

i»«^«^^ »^ ^^^^ whether deep and heavy, shallow or light ; for 
»^pf. Wf Q<a it on all our lands* I think ashes agree best in the 

atrong soil, as they lighten it, and open its pores ; and the 
Tiaic. ia the light or shallow soil, for it keeps it moist in the 
summer: yet our people use both together on all lands, 
X^ti fronnd receives no benefit from the vraic but for the 

« B^rti Se:fet7'» f^iptn^ Vol, X| p. ^M. 



OM ISAWVED AS M.INTRE. y^ 

T in vfaifii it is l«i<i on ; but does Trom tbe ashea Tor iierc- 

^ Our time of KatberioK U in Bummcr is iJwuys the first «r Cullfciing ao4 
wnd Aprin^'tMle itflcr Miti:>uiiiu)er ; the Court Rxva the '^^'^"'^ "■ 

» b«^n to cut it. There are but six or Gt^veo dHji 

lowed to do il. U is doue with a noM hook, partly tut 

1 partly torn from tlic rocks, il in brought ashont just 

HTc iu|{ti-i*«l('r inark. aiid there spratd and dried in the 

e nannerai hay. Three or four duys of line weuthvr 

lughr (for it inaet not be too dry.) It t^^ put In 

3M.k«. and carried liome at leisure, and housed. If 

i« no oonveoient pluce they muke a riok, aud u cer- 

n quBotily is brougbi wilhtn at a time. A smat) bundle Burniiie ht 

t bfajnbloi Of a bttle tjiggtit, is put in the chiinoey, and 

Mce or tbriee ua muoh vruic us a man cun take in his arms 

i ont ■(. It uiakesu good tire, and as It burns must 

t BOpplieil with fresh vraii:. The nshes niuit bo drawn 

a a corner of the chininey every noir and then, fur it 

, HOI be burned too much, otherwise it would lose ihe 

t part of its virlLie. The ashes are carried away every 

tiioglot |)lare undercover. Before I leave this arti- 

I I tntuC ebaerve to you, that it mny be gathered wiiti 

a (bene ia no restraint, iiny time in the gnmnier. 

. The winter iiwc is begun to be gathered atjout the mid- Spring piber- 

e af February, and continues till alKiut the latter end of 
March. Tliat with large broad leaves, whicbusnally grows in 
deep water, ia the best to be niied green. It is carried as 
HMO KB )>osaibIe on the land for whkh it is intended, and 
(pmd oo it, if roioy wealher. If irery dry weather, it is left 
ofi ibegroand in little heaps till moist weather. 
This is the method by which we gather our vraic here. M-ihwl <rf 

r I "ill describe how we use it. After our land has """i"" 
B &II0W three or four months, about December or Ja- 
■ give a light ploughing, jnst lo torn the turf. 
spread ih'ir aahei before it is turned ; others atler, 
t is no ^rreat matter which. We alK>w forty- 
it bushels to a vergee, (two vergeea and a quarter make 
I English acre) the green vraic is brought, ai before- 
ntiooed, 90*1 spread in sucli a msnner as that the leaves 
almost 



74 <^ StAWllD AS MAVtRt. 

timost touek one anotW. We grticrally tAl&m two cart* 
lottds, or sixteen horse-loads, toavergee. 
Cfoff. in the latter end of- March, or beginning of April, this 

^ound is ploughed deep, and sown generally with barley. 
Some sow a sort of wheat which we call'^^m^, which must 
be sown the beginning of March ; others sow the common 
wheot rn the begimiiog of Deceitober,-' allowing the' 

ke quantity of dishes ; bat ifistead-«f rt^ictli^y put dung. 
Tbis is the way of oar ploughing' the first yMK The se«t 
(Mid year the soil is marmred and ploiigb^'aa'tbl^'ik'^, 
Imt alwajv sown witb b&rley, at the 'season- before<-mtfni» 
tionedw The third year-there is ho Taamir^'used, tiiiPtbe 
Miawiog years. AU the ground is eitW dbg With a Hj^dei' 
OP tar/ied with two plcrwghs, ^one followidg tbe otbdV iifr^ht^' 
saorfi furrow, that ^tha- ground may be tiirned*d^ep. Ih- 
•laouary and February besins ane* planted in ^ridge^ 9sv& 
fwnnips: sown all < over the ground i"> the wtedingand^ 
digging of which' is very expensive; but frothing thlst 'I 
know answers better than parsnipa to^ibiUaar.chbga or^btacll- 
cattle^ .■ .j.-r . ■ ■■'i> * i.-. .^--j 

Tbis ground that h4s been dug deep» ftitredrin tlMIt 
needing, nad again dag to get tbe. paraniipaf' is tecfylprt-^ 
pared to sow wheat the ibarib year* wbtdn is? dona ia D^l 
cembet and Jaaaary. I g^nterally. sow cl«ve» seed in itrin 
the beginning of April, which I think better!, than'.takiag- 
asits the fifth year ; for it impoverishes ^e. soil ,. and its pro* 
duce is not answerablmt. - However, most people sow oata. 
aCtar their wheat and clover seed. .v ■ t.- . 

IS'ow as to the produce. This cannot be exactly aaoaiK 
tainecl, as it dependit on tbe nature of the soil, gooilpeas^Qf ' 
tlu; season, &c. So 1 will fix it as near«B 1 can at a tAt» 
dium» Of barley, we have sixteen ,busbei» per vergee^ eaob . 
bushel fourteen gallons; of beiuis,. about. eight blishfsta 
(suuie measure) per vergee ; and ^ve cart-loads of parsaip^i 
The produce of ,wbf;;at is about fourteen bushels, pf teo. 
gallop each, per vergee. We have about the same number 
of bu^lufls of oats, at fourteen gallons eaclk 



en ^CiimirG ORCHARDS. 75 

XI. 

dccomui of an eTiemshfe Orchard planted ai Bradweli in E9* 
' «rx, bf^ Mr* Samuel CumTi8» of Waiwarth\ 

SIR, 



I 



Take the liberty of sending you an account of an under- 
taking, for which I hope I shall be entitled to some Dotioe 
from the ScMncty of Arts, fcc. I do not koow whether they 
have ofifered prefniums or medals for {lUnting fruit trees, 
nor do ] ««|ipeae it n always requisite, «8 I understaod the 
S oc i ety confer their favoim without such offers for mutters 
they think dtteiriin^' of them. 

Two yenrs ago I took a small farm in Essex, (a county Yvm ciKhw 
where fruit is scarce,) consisting of near^fifty acres. As the f*'***^*"^*'** 
soil appeared proper, an<^ the aspect favourable, I conTerted duid. 
the whole into an orchard, by planting one hundred trees en 
each acre, in the following manner, viz. llie fruit trees are 
phbced in rows one rod asunder; hetweeu the trees in each 
row is a space of two rods; the plants are cherries, and ap- 
ples or pears alternately, so that one half of the plantation 
consitts of cherry trees. In about twenty or thirty years' the 
apple smd pear trees will require the whole of the ground; 
the cherry trees are then to be cut out, leaving the apple 
»nd pear trees uniformly two rods asunder each way, and in 
straight lines. 

The orchard is now completed with the best kinds known 
or produced in the nurseries, in the whole nearly five thou* 
sand standard trees. They are well staked, and have been 
properly pruned twice a year. Fanning crops have been Farming crepi 
snce produced on the same ground as good as formerly, the fhegroutidat 
ploogh being allowed to go within two feet of the trees each before, 
way, so that for many years to come the land will pay the 
expenses, and yield a profit exclusive of the fruit. I have 
in one part planted medlars, quinces, plums, walnuts, and 
other trees, to make the fruit collection as complete as pos- 
^ble, and 1 have spared no expense which could tend to im* 
prove the whole. 

* Tians. of the Society of Arts, vol. XXVI, p. 123. The silver me- 
ial of tbc Socletj was voted to Mr. Curtis for this communiciitjon. 

I shall 



Q 



70 oar FLiiNTiira ^kqaepi^ 

ly t»itciiott tf r sliall make it an object t# destroy the coccos, an insect 

*^*^**' which is at present damaging aH our orchards. I know the 

application of spirits af turpentine will do it, without ior 

juring the trees ; it is by ^ the matt easy and expeditious 

lotfthod for that purpobe. 

I am> Sir, your obedient Servant, 

SAMUEL CURTIS. 

Tcstimoaics. Certificates from M. P. Carter, D, D« Rector of Bradv 
well, and Mr. Thomas Fairhead, Churchwarden, eonfirmed^ 
that Mr. S. Curtis bad planted about four tbonfland standard 
fifuit trees on about forty-eight acres of kind, and that the 
same were, on the 7th of April, 1808, in a thriving conditioo. 

' . SIR, " 

THE certificate I sent you relative to my orchard stated 

the number of trees to be about four thousand, but the real 

HfecKe in pear number is 46'-20 trees. I am sorry to have occasion to notice 

^'**^ to you a disease in pear trees, almost as destructive, although 

not so frequent as that I mentioned to be produced from the 

insect on apple trees. This upon pear trees appears as a dry 

rotten scab, which keeps increasing until it penetrates evea 

the hard wood, and as it proceeds, surrounds the limb eli« 

tbrely. The following spring the limb dies from the diseased 

part upwards. 1 have not found any insect to be concerned 

iu this disease, which frequently takes, place upon the treea 

of most luxurious growth. Its commencement seems to be 

from the thick rind of the tree becoming spongy ; it then 

begins to crack and look scabby, the inner bark becomes 

dark coloured, and the disease proceeds until the destruction 

«f the litnb takes place. Some particular sorts of peair 

trees are with me much more liable to this disease than 

ofhera: Windiior, autumn, bergamots, Catharine pears, &c« 

I suspect the disease to arise in a great measure from the soiL 

My new orchard is situate at Glazen Wood, near Cogge* 

>hall, in Essej. 1 think myself highly honoured by the in* 

qniries of her Serene Hiu:hnet<s the Margravine of Anspach 

RiiTr.wrv for concerpin<; it. As her Highness has attended to the prun^ 

this, and that rng of fhiit trees both in England and on the Continent, 

TOufii". "^^^ dooblless she is aware of the existing diseases in apple and 

pear 



MAHiCBMtKT Of MAItan LANOS.aiC. 

ftK trees,— •nj- eaajr Temcdy for them would b« of immn>»e 
tomei|ueiice ; and if h«r HiglmeM can f« niish ooy discovery 
rrtatiw theretQ, it would confer a prcnl service on tlie p«b- 
6c and be eateea>ed by me a very particular obligation <ttiJ 

I temftui, Sir, your ob^ient terrairt. 

SAMUEL CURTIS. 



^t XII. 

Ok tie Manegtment of Marth Laiuls, Irrigation, ^t 
Leiltr to It Friend. By Mr. Tuomas Davis*. 
SIR, 



Wr, 



ITH respect to tlie monnirenient of Marsh Laads tf- MaojgifBfM 
Irr drvimhtg, tht great desidemlum is to make tlieni pei^ "' 
fectly dry— 40 get rid of the coarse aquutic grass**, and to 
trpUce Uiem with the iatittt and best pp-a^es; and as the 
later root is ronch shullower than the former, they conuol 
be ta*de to thrive, unless the land in firm and close rDund 
Iheir jiM». There are but few instances where laiid of Uiis 
dcMriplioD does not contain plenty of the best grosaes, but 
ia Micli a we«k and starved etute, that you can licarculy see 
Attn niUil the land h drained, and mude eo lina Jii its aut' 
hcv as to discourage all the coarser, and encourage the finer 
CnMes, by bringing vegetation near the surface, and af. 
■'<>rdtn^a proper Didusforthe amall shallow root of the latter. 

But between the decay of the coarser gmsseB and tlie Ai tint frvr. 
'•loblithment of a better kind, there will bean trifrTr^^iiifii, '■'''.'■'pp"" 
ia which the laiul will he worked very little ; in somt instan- 
ce$ Its* than kefbrc it tcai drained at all. The enclosure! 
aud drainage of the marsh lands (culled moors) in Somei^ 
Ktihire, and the fens in Lincolnshire, have shown this clenrly, 
and tlie wme cause must produce the aaioe effect every where. 

For the first three or four years after the drainage, the 
land liaa generally groivn gradually worse; for too more, it 
lw> been stationary ; and then, if well managed, and parti- xfenmi in. 
cnlarly by the help of a dry summer, it has improved ra- iiroTM. 
pidlj, mod will never, unless ahamefully neglected, rtvcrt to 
the former state. 

• Bith Socicti'i PapcHj tol. X, p. S34. 

But 



78 VAUAOBIIBNT OF HAKBH JiAJXDS, &C« 

Thk improTe- But this hUtfregpmm may be much shortened* by reflect^ 
Mc^naed. ^°S ^^ ^^^ cause* and acting accordingly. If the coarse 
grasses are to be destroyedf th^ must not be suffered to 
seed. If the sbaUowtrooting fine grasses are to be en* 
couraged, the earth must be trodden into contact with 
their roots ; of course mowing should be avoided, and feed- 
ing tJi dr^ toeathetf um hard as possible ^ encouraged; and the 
stock should be £hat of the cow kind* Horses eat very un^- 
fairly, and are continually running about and poaching the 
ground ; and sheep will pick out all the fine grasses, and^ 
leave the coarse. But the surface water must mostly be 
drained off; and feeding in wet weather, particularly in the 
winter, avoided as much as possible. 
The ttnder ws» .1 am supposing all tliis while, that the land has been com^ 
Si^etL pletely dnuned of its under •water ^ or else it is useless to at- 
tempt any thing towards its improvement. . Manure may as 
well be thrown into the water, as put upon land, which 
(though not always under water) isJuU of voaier every win« 
ter. Besidfs, the under-water of marsh land, particularly 
under the hills which contain veins of blue lyas stone, as in 
Lincolnshire p^d Somerset, is frequently so impregnated 
with sulphur, as to be injurious to vegetation ; and tlie land 
never improves much, till this water is qompletely drained 
and kept out of it. 
ifuiuble ma- When land of this description is recovered, and well 
aure requisite, stocked with good grasses as above ^escribed ; these grasses 
should be encouraged by such manures as suit the soil, such 
as wood-ashes, peat-ashes, soot, and other tojxlressings in. 

* the spring, till the grasses are completely established ; and 
then lime, chalk, marl, clay, sand, or whatever suits the 
land best, may be used in large quantities as alterative ma^ 
nureSi but not until there is a good coat of grass on the 
land. In the choice of these manures, local manures will 
be useful ; thtor)', on the soundest principles, lb sometimes 

• fallacious. But the golden rule of agriculture — touiiesuch 
■unuriog. manures as will make heavy land li^^r, and light land 

heavier; cold laud hotter, and hot land ^older-^must never 
be lost sight of. He that knows and follows this rule, and 
he only, is a farmer. 

If any of yoyr land be capable of irrigation, and you have 

water 



.n^irAoMrtiiT or itaash lavos^ &c. ^ 

mmter emougk to do it piOfierly« (the great errour has,been in Ingtiiaw-. 
attemptiog too much land with a giveo quantity of water) 
no i ai |wo f i emept can 6e^o great* Bat the land mast not 
oolj be first dnuned df its iin4er-water> bnt ttiust be by na* 
tnir%9 or made by art, capable of draining itself, and that 
speedilyj Irom the frater to be brought on by irngation,or the 
attempt should not be made ; and marsh land is seldom ia 
tins shape, unless a rwer runs through iif and there is of course 
a Dotural (all in the land : where you hare this advantage, 
embrace it by all means ; if you have not, be shy of attempt 
log any thing on a large scale, until you have consaltt^d 
some one who perfectly understands the subject. With 
all the improvements to be derived from irrigation, 
(and it certainly is the greatest improvement in agriculture) 
local prejudices, in countries where it is but little known, 
are strong against it* Every thing may look favourably^ 
and yet t£e water may not agree with the land, or the laud 
with the water ; and the owner may be pat to a great ex* 
pence, and not only be disappointed, but what is to the 
fall as testations, be laughed at by all his oeighbottr^u 
Begin therefore with a little, and do that little welL . 
You mast not pretend to undertake irrigation by any writ-* 
ten iiffitructions, which 1 or any one else can give you. Yon 
must get a man who understands the subject practically, 
and who will undertake it at a fixed price per acre. But 
even then I would do but little at first, then wait a year, 
and see the effects, before I would go farther. And by the jf ece<»sarv !-> 
by, it is absolutely necessary, that your own workmen should cwpviocr th« 
see the effects, and understand the subject, and be fond m^a. 
of it; for every farmer, let him profess what he will, i^ go- 
verned by his own workmen ; aud whatever he may at- 
tempt to do will never fully succeed, unless he can get tbcru 
to like it as well as himself. 

I am, o<c. 
Horsingham, Oct. 1 805. THOMAS D A V IS. 



METEOROLOGICAL JOURNAL 

nr APRIL, 1609.. 

Keptb; ROBERT BANCKS.MtdbemaricalliutramnitMikeiV 
in the Stkakdi Luirdeii. 





TElEBMiJMETER 


BAROME- 
TER, 


WEA 


THER. 


MAR. 






3 ^ 


CS 








Day of 




i 


i 




9 A. M. 


Day. 


Night. 


S6 


42 


44 


48 


3S 


29-17 


Fair 


F.fr 


S7 


44 


46 


52 


40 


29-30 


Ditta 


Dilto 


m 


45 


42 


50 


35 


25-45 


Rniii 


Rain 


29 


i1 


40 


45 


Z5 


29-72 


I'uir 


Fair 


30 


3d 


42 


44 


3S 


29*83 


Diiro 


Ditto 


31 


42 


40 


49 


36 


2979 


Diito 


Cloudy • 


APRIL 
















1 


4& 


39 


45 


31 


2973 


Dilto 


Fnir 


2 


JS 


36 


43 


25 


29-SO 


Hiiilt 


Ditto 


3 


34 


37 


43 


28 


29-90 


Ditto 


Ditiu 


4 


35 


28 


40 


32 


30-0.5 


Diitu 


Ditto 


5 


34 


36 


42 


30 


30 26 


Diiio 


Ditto 


6 


,16 


36 


44 


30 


30-27 


R^iin 


lUin 


? 


-38 


3S 


46 


28 


30-16 


Cl-.u.ly 


Cloudy 


8 


40 


42 


50 


37 


30'33 


F«r 


Ditto; 


S 


42 


46 


52 


44 


30-14 


Dilio 


Rdn 


10 


46 


50 


56 


45 


29-9I 


nuui 


Cloudy 


11 


+3 


42 


J3 


32 


29-56 


DitK. 


Ditto 


Vi 


40 


43 


48 


40 


29-80 


l-Hir 


tt.iM 


13 


+■,' 


44 


52 


38 


S9-32 


Kaiii 


Cloud J- y 


14 


42 


4j 


46* 


40 


29-09 


Di.ioir 


Dirio 


15 


43 


46 


50 


40 


29-47 


Fiiir 


Ditto 


16 


46' 


47 


53 


41 


29'03 


Dillo 


Rain 


17 


41 


40 


41 


34 


29-13 


Rai>i 


Ditto 


18 


56 


37 


42 


32 


29-57 


Hail 


Fair 


19 


54 


39 


43 


35 


29-77 


Fair 


Ditto 


20 


40 


38 


42 


35 


29-73 


Sdow 


Rain" 


ei 


3S 


4t> 


4': 


35 


29-58 


Diitu 


Cloudy 


sc 


44 


4(1 


47 


45 


2y-67 


Rain 


Fair 


23 


4J 


41 


46 


40 


30-01 


Dillo 


Cloirdy 


Cl 


41 


43 


48 


38 


29 23 


Fair 


Dilto 



• With rery cold wind. 
t Fmm 9 A. M. tu i P. M. tbc 
•torn) of lisil fell t« SB, and anenriirdi 
t Vciiu* and Man vitiblr al times. 
4 Vi-ry bish wJad at II P. M. 
^ Tbund, • ■ 
•• Ucary 



', aad during the heaty 



II LightDuif at 9 P. M. 
half pant 6 A. M. ; again, with bail and ligbtaiD^ at i P. M> 
at 7 P. M. ; afala, dnriPB the night of the itlat. 



.» • • - 



V 



JOURNAL 



or 



NATURAL PHILOSOPHY, CHEMISTRY, 



A»l» 



THE ARTS. 



f. 



JUNE.iBog. • ^ 



ARTICLE I. 



O&f^rraf ioiu on the iVahcra/ History of the Divers. In a 
Ijeiier/rom Patrick Neill, Esq., Secretartf to tkt Wet* 
neriam Natural History Society* 

To Mr. NICHOLSON. 
Dear Sir^ 

fxAY ING paid tome attention to the natural history of 

the DiTerSy I hare suhjoiiied some remarks in answer to 

tour correspondent's inquiries concerning the Ember-goose* 

And am, with esteem» 

Yours, 

Edinlfurgh, March 17> I8O9. PAT. NEILL. 

The Danish clergyman, whose account is quoted by your Blundtr ia the 
correspondent; is siud to affirm, that the ember-goose ^J^^.^^^^^'St 
** lives constantly on dry land; and although it has been of th« inuaec 
often seen with grown op young, no person h&s erer found ^^'^ 

Vol. XXIII. Now lak-^VM, IS09. Q iu 



I 



82 NATURAL HIRTORT or THE DITERS* 

its nest.*V There is here, is my ophiioD, a polpable blun- 
probablyamis- der, which mnst have arisen either froaf a mUtranslatioii, 
iranslation. ^^ ^^.^^ ^^ accidental omissioD of fonae words. If the ori- 
ginal were consulted, I shonid not be surprised to find it 
run thus : ** The ember lives constantly at sea, and is never 
aeen on the dry land,'* &c. Tbatth'if muat be thcr import, 
seems evident from the rest of the account* If the ember 
lived constantly on the dry land, in the narrow and confined 
islands of Feroe, the nest and young of so large and re- 
markable a bird must bare been familiar to the natives ; 
yet we are told, that, " although it has been often seen 
with grown up young, no person has ever yet found its 
nest.*' It is indeed added, " As it has a large hole under 
each wing, many have imagined, that it there batches its 
eggs.'* 
frnprokibnity Supposing that the eggs were really hatched in bellows 
of theaccouut. under the wings, [which is too extravagant a notion to be 
granted without complete proof) we cannot for a moment 
believe, that the young could remain there till ihey were 
** grown up." But farther, if the ember lived constantly 
on dry land, there would evidently be no occasion at all for 
this singularity in the manner of hatching its eggs; which, 
on the other hand, might seem commodious, on the sappo- 
ntion that the bird lived constantly at sea. And the opi- 
nion, that it does live constantly at sea, has procured it 
sometimes the striking appellation of tlie ** herdsman of the 
sea." 
Opinioaef the If any confirmation be wanted, I may state, that, by the 
^|[^?^*?^ correctioa I have suggested, the Feroe account of the epii* 
landen. ber is biought to agree perfectly with the opiaioft enter* 

tained at this day by the common people in the Orkney and 
Shetland islands* These, it will be recollected, were for« 
merly subject to the Crown of Denmark, and ultimately t 
connected with the Feroes. That the vuigar notions, there- 
fore, prevalent in our own northern islands and in the Fe- - 
iioes should coincide, is extremely natural : that they should , 
be directly contrary to each other, seems exceedingly unna-* 
taral and improbable. ^ 

Inquiriei'ln la the course of visiting many of these islands in the | 
these ulsads. . gmnmer ff 1804, I made frequent inquiries ooaeeming the 

habits • 



KATCKAL BISTaKY OF THS DIVERS. 



83 



, by th« 



Ulrita of the etnb«r-?i>o»e, both of ihe bent iiifbmieJ getf 
tferacoi oud of ihe flahimneii aad conimoii proplr. 

B5 ib« Utter class I trii uniruriDly owiired, that the era- Thecominan 
Wr rAntinuec mtis»nily al ita, witliout ever touchin); the ['(''u^. h 
had ; aiwl tliat it hatcbM iti ej^g^o iu 1io1«b uniler ita wiui^. etp undfttl* 

1 Thif lut opinion 1 Tound (Fas adopts, bec*u«e, thou^ the *'"<' 
■ liber is octer seen on land, nor have its nest or eggs ever 
• n ditconfCFcd in the islands, yet the oKi ember is fre- 
,uefiTJr obserreil in the fnlh<< oud bnys, attended by a cou- 
ple of youug oae«. I retuarked that, buth in the Orkne/ 
ia4 the Shetland islands, the common people in general 
iMd« no diitiuctiun between the true iuinier mid the novih- 
•m diver, but included both under the name of ember- 
tre»e : some fiilieriuen, however, denominated the uorthem 
•i:Ter, the great eumer, or ember; but the hutching of tlic 
tj;^ nnder the wing was supposed to be equally characler- 
boc of both. 

From tbe gentlemen resident in both sets of islands, who Account jIti 
*ere sport SID en, or bad beeu sportsmen in their youth, 1 ^ 
Uirord, that both the true immer, colytiibus iininer, und 
tbe oarUictEt iliTefi colymbu? i^'ac-mlis, iVei^uent tht; friths 
and bays during the whole year, and very much resemble 
each oilier iu their habits; only the northern diver is ob- 
med to be more commoa in winter than in aunimer, while 
tit einmer is equally common all the year round. On this 
imniBt some gentlemen were of opinion, that this last 

4 B-i^t probably breed in some of the unfrequented Mna*: 
-. it they acknowledged, that its nest had never been found ; 
jccd nritlier s|ie«ies had ever been seen to go ashore; &r 
^» b«r& known to breed. 1 was told, that when pursued by 

i<bMt.boih kinds svrim with astonishing velocity; whenap- 
II iiwlml. ibey di*e tcry rapidly ; und occasionolly changing 
llieir coanic under water, rise to the surface at a great dift- 
'*ae», and in a quarter altogether uuexpeeted ; thus baF- 
Lng tlic efforts of their pursuers. When suddenly sur- 
-< W, or very much teamed, they sometimes, though but 
' vely, ran along lie water, beating it violently with their 
L*Viga, aud uttering cries not unlike tbe bowlings of some 



■ tissU uclabstiittd Ulsnd, uml oalj f« 

o 3 



»ii 



84i KATUEAL HIiTORT OF THB DITSRS. 

small dogs; but they have never been observed to get full 
OD wing, or even to attempt an elevated flight. The youn] 
ones* which are seen accompanying them, are always, 
learned, of sufficient size, to render it possible that the 
-PertiApt breeds may have come from a great distance, perhaps Iceland 
fartothe«»rth. ^^j^jjy^ or Greenland : this is an important remark, an< 

the testimony was uniform. 

There is DO ■ lu regard to the alleged hole under the wing^ I can a^ 

mairkabl^ 'h*!- '•^''^ your correspondent, that no such hole exists. I affirc 

low under the thisf not only from having myself examined prepared spe 

v^S* cimens of the immcr, in which no trace of such a cavit 

•existed ; but on the authority of those who have shot th 

bird, or caught it, as sometimes happens, on a baited hoo' 

on a sunk line ; and who declared, tliat on examiuatio: 

they found no greater hollow under the wing of the embei 

•tlian may be seen under the wing of tlie common goosi 

The same thing m«iy be aflirmed of the northern diver. 

have at different times procured large and full grown ape 

cimens of this beautiful bird, which were found entangle 

ID nets set in the Frith of Forth for thornback and skate, i 

the months of April and May ; and in none of these \¥er 

there any remark|ible hollows under the wing. 

Accounts given I shall close these remftrks (which have already, perliaps 

thora ™*"* **** extended to too great a length) with some slight notice c 

the accounts to be found in books. 

WaUace, sen. The elder Wallace, in his History of Orkney, 169a 

gravely states, that the emmer '' has its nest and hatchc 

Brand. its eggs under the water.*' Brand, a visitor sent to the 11 

lands by the General Assembly of the Church of ScotkuKJ 

in his I>escnption, published 170I, repeats the same story 

with equal solemnity : *Mt hath its nest wherein it hatchet) 

its eggs, one or two at once, under the water at the foot 

Sir R. SibhaM.-m rock, as they informed tne hath been found.*' Sir Rober 

Sibbald, rather incantioosly following these authors, giveii 

•similar account. The other notion, of its hatching its egg 

Pontoppidtn. .vnder the wing, is countenanced by Pontoppidan, ia U 

-History of Norway, 1751. 
Horrebow, *. Horrebow, however, in his Natural History of Iceland 
1758, gives a much more natural and rational account 
** The hnh*' he sajs, << is unmolested; for the people git 

' . themselvc 




PL! (..Lie ! ' 

I 

t 
I 




*iTEPT-.--:r. - — , 



GAB LIGHT FHOM COAL* gj 

tbemselres do trouble to look after its aest or brood, neither 
th^r flab nor eggs being fit to be eaten. Ttiey build in re« 
moilc places near fresh water ;'* so near, as we learn elsewhere, 
that the bird may almost slide into the water. It is not per* 
haps easy to determine, whether, by the term lorn, Ilorrebow 
here means the proper immer, or the northern diver; but it 
matters not. As the habits of both are in other respects 
ranch alike, and as the breeding of the northern diver is 
held to be of the same mysterious nature as that of the im« 
raer, we may reasonably conclude, that both perform the 
offices of incubation in places of the same sort, and in a 
manner somewhat similar. 

Upon consulting Colonel Montagu's Ornithological Die- CoL Montagu. 
tiouar^', (3 vols, 8%'o, 1802) a work in general of the great* 
e<t accuracy, I find, that in regard to the immer, without 
taking notice of any of the fabulous reports above detailed, 
he merely states, that ** it makes a nest on the water, placed 
amongst the reeds and flags,*' in fresh water lakes. He 
does not, however, mention any authorities. As to the 
Dortbem diver, he observes, that ** it is not uncommon in 
Iceland and Greenland, where it breeds in the fresh waters, 
and is said to lay two large eggs, of a pale brdwn colour, in 
the tnonth of June.*' He mentions that this bird seldom 
leaves the water; but that, in the spring of- 1797» one was a northern di- 
taken near Penzance in Cornwal), at some diijtance from ^^' lak'^n some 
water. It appeared incapable of raising itself from the >»ater. 
ground, yet did not seem to have any d«.^*ec-t. It lived for* 
feix weeks in a pond, eating fisl) thrown to it. 



u. 

Description of an Apparatus for making carhuretted lUdro^ 
gen Gas /rem Pitcoal^ and lighting Mannfactories VBith ff. 
By Mr. Samuel Clegg, o/Matichester*. 

Dear Sir, 

Vy HEN your son was in Manchester, he called to see Mr Clegg . 
my nephew, Samuel Clegg*s, improved ga^s lights, and was 

■ ■ 

♦ Trans, of Soc. of Arts, vol. XXVF, p. 202. The silver medal vac 
Tcic4 10 Mr. Clegs fgr this commuoication. 

dcbirous 



85 OAI I.I9BT TWOm COAU 



to bare a' plaa of his method, irbioh my nephew 

promited him, and I ondertook to get it conveyed to you. 

1 have* accordingly, taken the opportunity of sending to 

the Society of Arts a plan and explanation of bis appara<» 

tua. 

iMd gu lights He lighted a large manufactory in Yorkshira some years 

'^df^cd tb^^' ^^ ^^" ^^'^ principle, and has since lighted some builder 

from o&nsire ings in this neighbourhood, and I believe he ia the first. 

smell. person, who succeeded in rendering these lights free from 

the otifensive smell which generally accompanies them« 

My nephew served an apprenticeship to Massra. Boultoo 

and Watt, of Birmingham, in the steam engine business,. 

in which he is now engaged here on his own account, and 

baa made considerable unprorements in their construction. 

I remain, dear Sir, 

Your most obedient servant, 

ASHWORTH CLEGG. 
Slanciester, May 18> I808» 

SIR. 
Cost of \\^t ap- Your esteemed favour I have received,, and, according, to 
paratus. your request, have sent you a fuller explanation of. the gas* 

ometar and lamp, accompanied with farther drawing** 

A gasometer, containing seven hundred cubical feet of 
gps, weighs about tw^nty hundred weight* and costs about 
two pounds ten shillings the bundrad weight* 

The whole of an apparatus compl^te^ capable of supports 
ing forty lamps for four hours, each lamp affording light 
equal to ten candles of eight in the pound, will cost about 
two hundred and fifty pounda* ]EUich lamp consumes six 
cul^ical feet of gas per hour, I am happy to, find, th^t tho 
Society hav(e hononred n^y communications with tbair fitt^n* 
tion, ^d I remain, with great respect, 

SIR, 

Your most obedient servant, 

^ S.; CLJEGG, 

fitfertnc§ 



CAS LIflHT FROM COAL. 



^ 



Referemeg io Mr* S. Ckgg^s impf9v e d Apparufusjor txifaet' 
h^ Cm9*urtited Hidngeu Com from Pii Coai. See Plate 
J//, Jigs. 1, 9, 3. 4, 6, end 6. 

In fig. ly A shows the cast iron retort, into which are put DcMription of 
the coals intended to be decomposed by means of a fire ^* sppsntus. 
anderoeath it, the heat of which surrounds every part of it, 
excepting the mouth or part by which the coals are intro- 
docad. The lid or iron plate B, which covers the mouth 
of the retort, is ground on air tight, aud fastened by means 
of a screw in the centre ; C is a shield or saddle of cast 
iroD» to preserve the retort from being injured by the inten- 
sity of th« fire underneath it, and to cause it to be heated 
more uniformly. DDD represents the cast iron pipe which 
conveys all the volatile products of the coal to the refrige- 
rator}' of cast iron £, in which the tar, &:c., extracted from 
tbe coal is deposited, and whence they can be pumped out 
by means of the copper pipe J*. G is the pipe which con- 
vej's the gas to the top uf the cyliudricul vessel or receiver 
H; tbis receiver is air tight at the top, and consequently 
the gas displaces the water in the vessel //, to a level with 
the small boles, where the gas is suifered to escape and rise 
through the water of the well /, into the large gasometer 
Km The use of the vessel His pointed out as follows, viz. 
If the pipe G reached all through the water, without push- 
ing into the vessel i/, the gas would not be rendered pure 
or washed ; and if part of the pipe did not rise above the 
water, the water would have free communication with the 
tar, besides exposing the retort ^ to a veiy great pressure, 
so as to endanger its bursting when red hot. This vessel or 
receiver //, in a large apparatus, is about eighteen inches 
diameter, and two feet long ; the quantity of gas, therefore, 
which it contains, is sufficient to fill the pipes and retovt 
«hf*n cool, prevent the pipe G from acting as a siphon, and 
expose the gas to the water without endangering the re- 
tort. 

When the operation begins, the upper part of the cylin- 
drical gasometer iC, fig. 1, made of wrought iron plates, is 
sunk down nearly to a level with the top of the circular well 
/, and is consequently nearly filled with water, but it rises 

gradually 



gg GAS LIOLT FROM COAl. 

Detcription of gradfiftlljr ts the f^ enten it Hnd displaces the water ; the 
the apparKtus. ^^^ weights L L suspended o?er puUies hj chvins keep it 
steady and prevent its turning roandy otherwise the lower 
stays M of the gasometer would come into contact with the 
.vessel H. There are two sets of these stays, one shown at 
3/, and the other at N. 

There is al^o an iron pipe O, made fast in the centre of 
the gasometer by means of the stays, which slides o\*er the 
upright pipe P, by which contrivance the gasometer is Icept 
firm and steady, when out of the well ; it likewise prevents 
the gas from getting into the cast iron pipe P, and the cop- 
per ()ipe A, any where but through small holes made in th^ 
pipe at 5 at the top of the gasometer, where the gas is 
perfectly transparent and fit for itfe. 

The pure gas enters the tube at the small holes made 
^ in its top at 5, and^passes on through the tubes P and R to 
the lamps, where it is consumed and burnt* 

The beams of the gasometer are luted to make them air 
tight, and the whole well painted inside and out, toprcittvf 
it from rust. 

Fig. 2 shows a horizontal section of the lower hoop of the 
gasometer K at the part M, with its stays or arms, and the 
manner in which the iron pipe 0, before described in fig. I^ 
sliding on the tube P, passes through the ring in the centre 
of the hoop. A horizontal section of the receiver H ap-. 
pears therein* 
Lamps for Fig. 5 shows a section of one of the gas lamps. The 

burning the gpace between the outer tube Tand the inner tube F, is to 
be filled with gas supplied by the pipe Jff, shown in fig. 1, 
where a stop cock is inserted for adjusting the flame, which 
gas passes through a number of small holes made in the 
outer ed^e of a circular plate shown at fig. 6, which unites 
the tubes T and Fat their tops. Fis the inner tube which 
conveys the atmospheric air into the pentre of the flame; 
the upper part of this tube is made conical, or widening 
outwards, to join a circular plate with holes in it, ahorw- 
zontal view of winch is shown at fig. 6. 7F is a button » 
which can be placed at a small distance above the mouth of 
the lamp, and its use is to convey, in an expanded n^anner, 
all the air which rises through this tube to the inner surface 

of 



CBSA'T 1IVTB09 OP VECffEITIHG FftVIT. 

^ihm flame, wbicb nmts the combustion very much ; thit, 
batten may be set at any conTenicnt distance above the 
tabes of the lamp, as it slides io the cross bars XX, by 
which it i« supported in the inner tube. 

A cunreot of air also passes between the glass tube or 
diimney and the outer tube 7^ through holes made in the 
bottom of the gla»s holder, as in Arg;an(rs lamps; this 
sanounds the flame» and completes its combustion, as ex* 
plained by the view, fisT* 9* and section, fig. 4, which have 
a glaaa upon each. ZZZZ^ figs. 3, 4, 5, and 6, show the 
tube tfarough which tiie lamp is supplied with gas irom tbt 
pipe R, fig. 1- 



•9 



IIL 

jj Cheap Method qf Preserving Fruit tcithout Sus^aryfor 
Dwmeslic Uses or Sea Stores. By Mr. Thomas Sad dixg- 
Toif > Ab. 73f Lotfer Thames Street *m 



I 



SIR, 



SHALL be much obliged to you to lay before the So- Fr.iits 

cietv of Arts kc. the enclosed communtcatiun, and a box ^^ ^^" ^^ 

... niode. 

containing the following fruits in bottles, preserved without 
sugar, namely, apricots, gooseberries, currants, raspber- 
ries, cherries, Orleans plums, egg plums, green gages, 
dumsons, and Siberian crabs. I have also sent some fresh 
English rhubarb plant, preserved in a similar manner. The 
same mode is applicable to other English fruits, as cran- Applicaliaet 
berrifs, barberries, and many more. This manner of pre- *'^"®*'^ 
jerring fruit will be found particularly useful on ship-board Particnlvf^ 
for sea stores, as the fruit is not likely to be injured by the "*^f^ 
motion of the ship, wheu the bottles are laid down on their 
fides, and the corks kept mi)ist by the liquor, but on the 
contrary will keep well even in hot climates. 

• TfaM.of the S«c. of Art<, vol. XXVI, p. Mb, Flvi? f uiness wcrs 
roifd to Mr. Sidd^ngton fur l\\\% iavention, 

Tha 



g(^ ClfEA? .METHOD 07 PftMHA^lliO WMVIT^ 

$ai cheap. , The cheapness or the process will rtnder it desemng of 
the attention of all families from the highest .to the lowest 
Tankf« of society. If the instructioos I ha?e seot ore well 
attended to, I have no doubt, that whoever tries my method 
will find it to answer his expectation. 

I am. Sir, 

Yonr most obedient humble servant, 

THOMAS SADDINGTON. 

A new Method to preserve warions Sorts of English CfanUa 
and Orchard FrvUSf without Sugar* 

Fraiteenenilly ^^^ general utility, as well as luxurious benefit, arising 
vvefkil, from the fruit produced by our gardens and orchards, is 

well known and acknowledged at the festive board of every 
family; nor is this utility and benefit less manifested by a 
desire of many persons to preserve them for culinary pur- 
poses in the more unbountiful season of the year; and I am 
well persuaded, that this commendable desire would be 
bat presemng greatly extended in ihost families, was it not attended with 
ii eKpeosire, go much expense as is generally the case by preserving fruit 
in the common mode with sugar, this article chiefly con* 
•tituting the basis by which it is effected* In addition to 
the expense of sugar, which is frequently urged as a rea* 
■on for not preserving, there are other objections to that 
method, and what I am about to mention cannot be consi* 
dered as the least, namely, the great uncertainty of succesSf 
and the sugar occasioned by the strong fermentable qualities contained in > 
apt lo ferment, jjjjjj^y g^rtg qJ» fiP^^jt^ It may be said by some, that fruit ^ 

may be preserved for a length of time without sugar by the ^^ 
ordinary mode of baking or boiling, and being closely w 
stopped up, to which assertion 1 freely assent; but even ^ 
this method is frequently attended with uncertainty, for if a 
tbp cork or other means used for keeping the external air . 
« the fruit out of the vessel bi^conies dry, or from any other cause the ^ 
grow mouWy. atmosplioric air exchanges place with what is impregnated 

by ill'.* fniit, it soon beromcs mouldy and unfit for use. ^ 

Thr;eHis«H- - From these considerations, and a desire of preserving ;l 
■ioveS^'' '*" fruits at a trifling expense, I have made various and su^ ^'; 

cessfa) 



f 



91 




fA.F MSTHOD OV PKNIUVIVS FRUIT.- 

e U t t ul esperimcnte of doings it without togar, nnd at th« 
time fvith « certaiDty of their retaioingall those agre^ 
flavonra which they Daturally posfKMs; and it is highlj 
ppobdble* that they will keep perfectly good for two or three 
]pe»» or even a longer period, in any hot climate, by which 
it mppears to become a valuable store for shipping or expor- 
tation, as I have ezpoaed them to the action of the meridian 
ftan in an upper room, during the whole of the summer, 
after they have been so preserved (being done in 1806). I 
have now the pleasure of laying before the Society specimens 
of the fruit alluded to. 

Process fit preserving Fruit. 

The bottles I chiefly use for small fruit, such as goose- IVoces dat 
berries, currants, cherries, and raspberries, are selected*"***^ 
from the widest necked of those used for wine, or porter, 
as they are procured at a much cheaper rate than what are 
generally called gooseberry bottles. Having got them pro* 
perly cleaned, and the fruit ready picked, (which should not 
be too ripe,) fill such of them as you intend doing at one 
time, as full as they will hold, so as to admit the cork going 
in, frequently shaking the fruit down whilst filling. When 
done, fit the corks to each bottle, and stick them lightly in, 
so as to be easily taken out when the fruit is sufficiently 
scalded,, which may be done either in a copper, or large 
kettle, or saucepan over the fire, first putting a coarse 
doth, of any sort at the bottom to prevent the heat of the 
fire from cracking the bottles : then fill the copper, or kct* 
tie, with cold water sufficiently high for the bottles to be 
nearly op to the top in it: put them in sideways to expel 
die air contained in the cavity under the bottom of the bot- 
tle;, then light the fire if the copper is used, taking care 
that the bottles do pot touch the bottom, or sides, wiiich 
«ill endanger their bursting; and increase the heat gradually 
mtil it comes to about one hundred and sixty, or one 
bandred and seventy degrees, by a brewing thermometer, 
which generally requires about three quarters of an hour. 
For want of such an instrument it may be very well ma-v 
Baged by judging of the degree of heat by the finger, which 
my be known by the water feeling very hot, but not so as 

ta 



jff CHEAT ITETIfOD OT YBBSEHYTHtf rVVXT. 

l» scaTd it. If the water should be loo hot, » little cold 
nay be added to keep it of a proper temperature, or th« 
fire may be blackened. When it arnTes at a tufficient de- 
gree of heat, it must be kept at the same for about half an 
hour tonger, which will at all times be quite enoogb* as a 
longer time, or greater heat, will crack the fruit. 

During the time the bottles are increasing in heat, a tea 
lotttc full of water must be got ready to boil as soon as the 
fruit is sufficiently done. If one fire only is used, the kettle 
containing the bottTes must be removed half off the fire, 
when it is at the full heat required, to moke room for boil- 
ing the water in the tea kettle. A? soon us the fruit is pro* 
perly Bcalded, and the water boiling, take the bottles out 
•f the water one at a tin^e, and fill them within an inch of 
the cork with the boiling water out of the tea kettle. Cork 
them down immediately, doing it gently, but very tight, 
by squeezing the cork in, but you must not shake them by 
^riving the cork, as that will endanger the bursting of the 
|>attles with the hot water; when they are corked, lay them 
f?own on their side, as by this means the cork keeps 
swelled, and prevents the air escaping out: let them lie 
until cold, when they may be removed to any convenient 
place of keeping, always observing to let them lie on their 
side until wanted for use. During the first month or two* 
after they are bottled, it will be necessary to turn the 'bot- 
tles a little round, once or twic« in a week, to prevent the 
fermentation that will arise on sume fruits from forming 
into a crust, by which proper attention, the fruit will be 
kept moist with the water, and no mould will ever take 
place. It will also be proper to turn the bottles a little 
round once or twice in a month afterwards. 

Recnpituhtion. Having laid down the method of preserving fruit without 
sugar, in as clear and concise a manner as possible, I will 
recapitulate the whole in a few words, which may be easily 
remembered by any person. Fill the bottles quite full with 
fruit. Put the corks in loosely. Set them in a copper, or 
kettle of water. Increase the heat to scalding for about 
^hrec quarters of an hour; when of a proper degree, keep 
at the same half an hour longer. Fill up with boiling wa* 

ter. 



CHEAF MITSOD OF P£1SK&VXN'G fEUlT,. M 

4«>r« Cork down tight. Lay them on their siide aatH wanted 
for use. 

It may be said as an additional reasou, as well as cheap- Botde^w 

oess, for using wine, or porter bottles, instead of j^oose- 

berry, that there is a difficulty of obtain in|^ them, even •t ' 

«ny price, in some parts of the couatry ; and indeed tliey 

«re eqoaHy useful for small fruit, and uiiHwer the purpob^ 

quite as well, excepting the little inconvenience of gettiag 

the fruit out when wanted for use, which inay be cskskly 

done by first pouring all the liquor out into a bason, or any 

Mher vessel, and then with ^ hit of bent wire, or small iron 

vieat ikewer, the fruit may be raked out. Some of the 

•liquor first poured off serves to put into the pies, tarts, or 

puddiogSf instead of water, as it is strongly impregnated 

with the virtues of the fruit, and the remainder may be 

boiled up with a Uttle sugar, which makes a very rich and 

agreeable syrup. 

In confirmation of the foregoing assertions, I now pro- SpocuMat. 
duce twenty*four bottles as samples, containing twelve di^ 
ferent sorts of fruit, viz. apricots, rhubarb, gooseberries, 
enrraots, raspberries, cherries, plums, Orleans plums, egg 
plums, damsons, Siberian crabs*, and green gages^— 
whicb have all beeu prctierved in the manner above d^ 
scribed. 

In order to diversify the degree of heat, and time of con- ThelieaiiciMt 
tinuance over the fire, I have done some in one hundred ""i.,*^Jl**?^ 

great, or too 

and ninety degrees, and continued them in it for three longcootuiued. 
quarters of an hour; from which experiments it is evident, 
that the heat is too powerful, and the time too long, as the 
fruit by this degree and continuance is rendered nearly to a 

pulpt- 

In the summer of 180? I preserved ninety-five bottles of coi*. 
Truit, the expense of which, (exolusive of bottles and corksj 
was £l 9s. Sjrf. ; but having some fruit left, it will not b*-. 
right to judge them at a higher rate than Hi 9j,; and al- 
lowing 5ir. for the extra coals consumed in consequence ol' 

• Api4ed and pears m;iy be done lor shipping, &c, 

f Some of thw« nrnj-le; of -1807, w-re 4on» in I'^O i: d 100 degrr^. 



p4 CREAt» MrrnoDor^EtsEiiTiWo fmrft. 

my not having^ a conreniency of doing tnore then sfvra tft 
eight at a time, and thig being done at fourteen diflertfnt 
times, it will amount to £l IA$. ; the averogo coat of which 
is nearly 4{<f. per bottle, exclusive of the trouble «f attending 
^^^ them* But if we estimate their iraliie in the winter season 

at Is. the bottle, this being in general as low or lower than 
the market price, they will produce £4 I5i. ; but losing 
one bottle by accident, reduces it to £4 14^., leaving a net 
pro6t of £s on ninety*fotir bottles, being a clear gain c^ 
Hearty two hundred per cent* 
Tor thip'k Anoth^ great advantage resulting from this statement 

^^0*^* will appear'^y making it an article of store for shipping, or 

cxiiortation ; ond T shall submit a few ideas tending to pro* 
mote such a befieficial object by doing it in large quantities ; 
for which purpose sufficiently extensive premises must be 
fitted up, with a proper number of shelves, one above amn 
tber, at a distance of about five inches. 
Method of.do- Tho veisel ibr scalding the fruit in should be a long 
MIC loSer wooden trough of six, eight, or ten feet in lengthf two or 
three in breadth, and one in depth, fitted with laths across 
to keep the bottles upright, aud from falling against one 
another; thw trou^ of water to have the heat communi- 
cated to it by steam, through a pipe from a closed boiler 
at a little distance. The boiling water, wanted to fill the 
bottles with, may be conveyed through a pipe and cock over 
the trough, by which arrangement, many hundreds of bou 
Ues might be done in a short time. It may be prudent to 
observe, tliat this idea is only speculative, not having been 
actually practised^ but at the same time seems to carry 
with it a great probability of success, and worthy the expo* 
riment. 

It remiunt now, that I state some reason or object for 
troubling the Society, whom I have taken the liberty to ad« 
dress with these communications. The first is a desire of 
publicity, sanctioned by their investigation of the axperi^ 
ments made for preserving fruit without sugar, thereby 
lessening the expense attending an object of so much pub<^ 
lie benefit and utility. The second arises from a personal 
or private consideration ; but on this subject I shall only 
observe, that I wish to throw myself entirely on that pro* 

tection 



ox uctAnitvo wisn lands. 

liection which haft eter characterised the liberality cf the 
Society ; and that I shall feel highly hononred, if they oou* 
c«nve what I hare communicated desenring^ any mark of 
their favour. 

I am. Gentlemen, 

Your most obedient humble seniant, 

THOMAS SADDINGTON. 



M 



IV. 
0» ReeUmmg Watte Lands. By Mr. Wagstiffe *• 
GssTLEHXVy Norwick, June 27> 1801. 



A, 



S yonr influence for the enclosure of Waste Land is Waitelaiid 
confetaedf and^ I conceive, extending within the scope of 
your Sodety, and it should now seem on the eve of a Par* 
liamentary encouragement ; I ask leave to recite an expe- 
riment I made on a portion of land, of as obvious fterility 
as perhaps any present waste within the Western counties. 

This was an acclivity, which had not been cultivated described. 
within memory ; and at the foot of it a various tract, gra- 
velly and moory, broken into hollow spaces, in which waters 
rested during the summer months, which waters were 
covered with most of the aquatic plants native to stagnant 
pools. My predecessor in possession of these watery wastes, 
during a summer drought, fed their interstices with sheep, 
which became diseased, and many of them rotten. 

The mode I pursued was as much as might be to extract steps taken to 
the weeds, toots, and sediment; lay them in heaps as ai<"pro^<^^ 
preparation of manure measurably to replace and fertilize 
the barren sands and gravel, brought from the heights to 
. fill op these hollows. I then opened ditches, raised their 
sides with sand and gravel, and on them planted large out- 
tings of poplars and willows. The ditching drained the 
soil, and the materials from the heights raised thU «wamp - 

• ^ih?iipcr:«, vol. X, p. 1^. 

19 



to 
trutnts 



.^ OR RECLAIMIlia WASTE tANDS. 

><■••> tm t}ic proper condition of meadow. The upland I en^ 

cio.^ed with thorns oo a willow ley*, and within the banks 
iiiluid them with seedling trees nnd forest; divers of the 
"former have been taken down for use, and some of the 
aquatic cuttings arc grown to u timber measure; while the 
ai'verul subdivisions, meadow and upland, have been, culti* 
vated, and borne every species of grain and herbage, con* 
fessedly upon an equality with the long tillagcd circumjacent 
fields. 

By a process thus pursued, of which I have presumed to 
adduce this example, the numerous millions of waste acres^ 
which yet disfigure our nation, may and will become, the 
seasons favouring, under your and your compatriots' en* 
couragement^ a widely extended garden, replete with every 
useful production congenial to our climate; and the boun- 
dary of its fields fenced with faster thriving trees, and 
more abundant in number than the present large tracts of 
forest produce, provide for generations yet to come an \n^ 
crease of those necessary timbers, that have given this island 
•u intercourse with the inhabitants of every maritime clime, 
and an acknowledged superiority in the commercial world, 
.-which probably it would not have obtained but from the 
indigenous growth of these not sufficiently valued timbers. 
Although your extended encouragements have much in- 
creased them by multiplied plantationsi, yet their growth 
may be indefinitely enlarged by au encouragement for their 
acorn seed to be placed in every raised bank, or their aeed- 
liiigs planted in every new formed hedge-row ; which most 
efficaciously might be enforced by Parliament as a condi- 
tional obligation on all to whom they are assigned^ under 
the statute of a national enclosure. But as every semi- 
nary of oaks must be referable to a distant posterity, it 
becomes worthy of every present planter in the interior 
of his hedge-rows to have large cuttings of poplar * and 

willow, 

* A willow fence in this situation has the appearance of haprobabl- 
lity, but it is yet improving. 

D'.llereQt dod. "^ ^ poplar*, the nigra, alba, and kjfMdmmi this latter hath not, 

l^n^ I conceive, fcmnd its way into any systematical airangcmeDt of plants, 

and in course has not received any specific chacacter. The name a»- 



• ^ 



09 EECLAIMllfO WlSTfi LAUDS. 



*9 tnd an intermixture with young trees of the re« 
■inoiis tribe. Those I have already known may be taken 
down as timber during the life of the planter, and as early 
ms the inlays are grown to afford shelter and ' Shade to the 
herd and the flock, that occasMuaally feed within their en- 
closures. 

I raay just addt the fall of the autumnal leaf, with the 

manure of the depasturiug cattle, may continue the fertility 

of these fields without extraneous aid ; and where not res- The foil of ▼«« 

dily procurable, I may farther add, that io the latter end of "**"* '^■''•** 
• - J. -^ , - ,.-. not unsuitedto 

the autumn of 1799 1 procured tunres from dinerent wastes, grain. 

Tesenred them on a gravel walk« and thereon dibbled wheat, 
almost eveiy grain of which succeeded, branched into divers 
stems, which severally bore a full and perfect grain. Io 
the autumn of ISOOf I repeated the trial, which at this in- 
stant is as promising as the other proved. The early spring 
of this year, 1801, I practised the same mode with tares, 
pease, oats, and barley, which severally are promising. I 
bring forward these experiments to show, that generally 
every waste may be rendered productive by the first simple 
operation of the plough, and thereby supersede the long 
process pursued by many ; call forth to the earliest produc-. 
tion the unprofitable wastes of the kingdom ; and hence, as 
far as human foresight can discover, prevent such a sensible 

■^nfd it it OB the opinion of a (gentleman well mcqnatnted with botanic 
teCinctioii, who coaccivctt it to be a variety, perhaps of the two former. 
I MSj speak froai an enlarging; experience, that it is a handsome and 
tmt xrowing tree, multiplies itself distinctly from its roots, while its 
csttiBft take with nearly equal facility as the two former. 

• findtmdn<h Qsnrel leaved) am^iaUMOy (almond leaf) aila, (com- Willows fo: 
aoa gray leaf.) These three species I know, or presume, on the pro- timbeni 
grrsa the first has already made, will severally ^w to a timber bulk. 
The p roapect i ve dirersity of contrasted foliage can perhaps be not bet- 
to cxemphiled than in the vivid green of the laurel willow, and the 
katry leaf of the wliite poplar. 

t Thcfc it an average of four large ears to every grain dibbled, now 
in Ml ftowcr^ whieh eoaveys an expectation of more than a hundred 
fold iaoeaae, the actual increase of the preceding year. These turves 
m ilifi hava itteivad no aid from maaare, or nay artificial water- 

Tot. XXIII— JtJMBt 1S09« H scarcity 



^3 ncrftOTfiusHt of wistr lanp. 

gcarcitf as most of our provinces bare recently felt. And 
again, under die blesnog of Providence, witness a compe* 
tencf fior ourselves, and a surptas for other nations ; and 
tbence be commercially benedctal to a. large portion of 

oumkind* 

I ani, mth sincere regard, 

Yoar respectftil friend, 

JOHN WAGSTAFFE. 



Wasteland. 



V. 

I 

AceouMt qf Waste JCond improved hjf J. Butleb, Esq. of 

Bramshoitp in Hampshire^. 

SIR» 

Xn the year 1802 I purchased an ^tate, situate in the 
parish of Bramshott, in the county of Hants, of which 
seventy acres and upwards were then waste lands, growing 
a little timber, furze, and alder, and supporting a few cows 

I in the sununery but never cultivated or considered worth 

that expense. 

Geaftnl fUte» From particular engagements at the time, I did not be- 
gin any improvement till 1^04, when I found sixty*five 
acres and a half (statute) of the said waste lands in the fol- 
lowing state : twelve acres, the site of old fish ponds, 
gnawing nothing but reeds and mbbish; eighteen acres 
one rood thirty^-seven perches, afibrding a little sour grass 
and a few alders in wi>jt places; twenty-seven acres three 
roods one perch, quite a morass or bog, with a few alders ; 
and seven acres one rood four perches of very indifferent 
furze. 

flntdiatoed. As the greatest part of the waste was filled with ionu- 

merable springs that deluged the whole, and ca^j^d the 

" bog tp be s&turatcd throughout the year, I conside^ that 

« Trant. of the Soe. of Arts, vol. XXVI, p. X17. Tke sUver medal 
cf thft society was vQted to Mr. Butler. 

draining: 



MkMn^ JIUk Jtvnmt.n U 3mM.JJi^ 




T*^-'«.. 










tt^ssssssrr: 



tMFEOTSMSlIT OF WAITB LAlfBw -gg 

dnuning wtft the fint necemiy ttep to be taken. ' With 
this view I made ao open cut or ditch» of five to tevoi feet 
deep or more, in the lowest part <sf the bog» to. let out the 
stagnated water, and ascertidn with precision the cause that 
produced it. Having obtained the lowest possible fall by 
the open cut or ditch> 1 caused other cuts to be made to 
the heads of different springs which fed the land^ occasion* 
ally boring with the auger, that no spring might be passed 
over ; and I then laid the open cuts or drains with stones 
from three to twelve feet below the surface, according to cir-» 
cumstances, to carry off the water, observing always to keep 
the level. 

At the highest ground I found rocks» under which the Principal 
principal springs lay at the distance of at least .fifteen feet, '^ ^ 
and thence an immensity of water gushed out, which was 
easily pasaed off through the drains, and I had the sati^ 
faction to find, that in the course of two yeacs the whole 
waste became perfectly dry,~'and so continued. 

The extent of land thus drained being great, the cost of Cott. 
course is very considerable,^ and amounts to the sum o( 
£35S 2s. lid. 

During this I grubbed the greatest part of the land. Expense of 
which from the stems of oak and other timber that had rul^^^f* 
formerly grown there, as well as the alder, fiirze, and some 
timber standing at the time I made the purchase, was no 
inconsiderable work, and cost for each oak stem uinepencc« 
and for the soil on which the alders and furze grew, 
sixpence per rod, amounting io tHe whole to the sum of 

£95. 

The ground being now cleared, I ascertained, by the Prepared for . 
means of a water level, the position of a little brook which ^'6^^^^* 
ran through the waste land, and found that it was practical 
hie to turn water over thirty acres of it. This being an 
object of the first consequence^ 1 spared neither pains nor 
•expense to accomplish it. I removed the high banks round 
the fi(h ponds, which contained some thousand loads of 
toil; filled up very deep ditches and stew ponds, and laid 
several acres on an inclined plane ; burnt the roots and rub- 
bish, and prepared, by leveUing and making water car* 
riages, thirty acres for irrigation, of which sixteen acres, 

H« - though 



100 IkVftOTSHtHT'br WHSTfi LAKD'i 

thoQgh rmi^ and some ptoture as before deilcribed, had 
bjr druning and feeding began to improve considerably ; 
and in the spring of 1806> I was enabled to turn th.e water 
erer snch nxteen acres* from which I derived a tolerable 
crop of hay in tliat summer. Feeding it harder afterward, 
and watering it the following winter, there was a good sup- 
ply of feed for sheep till the latter end of April; wjien it 
wis laid up and watered as before, but with hr better suc- 
cess, as the crop was not only greatly improved in quality, 
but likewise in quantity, producing more than two tons to 
an acre throughout the sixteen acres. 

The residue of the thirty acres prepared for irrigation n? 

before stated, formerly fish ponds and other rough lands, 

but lately levelled and sown with perpetual grasses, is now 

looking remarkably weH, and will certainly be in readiness 

- to teceive tbe water, as soon as the land is firm enough for 

this purposei 

Cost. In accomplishing this work I had'the assistance of Joseph 

Trigger, who lived with and managed the water meadows 

of the late Mr. Bakewell of Dishley for more than twenty 

years ; and it would be an act of injustice to him not to s^y, 

that the said land is prepared for a water meadow in a mas- 

« terly style. This cost me not less than £^23. 

TutA and As soon as I perceived the efiect of my dnuns on the 

bacncd. ^ |^^ which was composed of a good deep peat, I pared by 

hand thirteen acres of it, which I burnt, and spread the 

Sowed cola* ashes ; then ploughed the land once, and sowed it with cole 

*^» teed in the montii of July. The crop turned out very good, 

' and fed one hundred and sixty two-shear bogs (Leicester) 

•nd next while for two months; after which I ploughed it once only, and 

^"- sowed it with white oats in the month of April I8O7. At 

first the oats appeared sickly, but receiving a few warm 

showers in May, they recovered and flourished exceedingly, 

making a most excellent appearance, to the astonishment 

of the neighbourhood ; for when reaped, they were estimated 

at from tea to thirteen quarters per acre, some parts being 

preferable to others, but the whole good; and I have no 

doubt, for at present they are not threshed, that the crop 

will amount to its estimate* 

in the course of last year I pared seven acres more of the 

* said 



IMPROVEXtKT OF WISTB LaKD. 

tiu4 bog, and burnt and spread the nsbes in i timilar way (o 

tb« farmer, and sowed it with cole seed from one ptout;hiag 

July Unt, irbicb likewise turned out a luoit rxcrlleot 

crop, and supported teveutylwo lBt(^e nbcep on it for more 

HtUI two mODtll:!. 

Th«rapeosc of paring and barning the Iwentjr ftctocame CspMW. 
1« £99 lOi. 

The fcoiaining waste land beiog a hghter peat, miied p^n Uiov^ 
ore with tand, I did not think it adviiable to pare and ^<" >uii^|i- . 
1)um, but contented myself with fallowing it for tunu{)», 
•rith which it was sown last summer ; bat from the indiffe- 
Teoce »r the lenson, the Crop did not prove abundant, yet 
ach so Bs I bad any reason to expect : and 1 have no 
doubt, by proper management oF it, though by far tl^e 
worst of the waste, it will shortly become very useful land, 
Aod produce in succession good lurnips, burley, and seeds. 

On a review oF the foregoing stateroeiit, it will appear Cmenl tUf^ 
lit the expense attending the improvement of the waste "'"'■ "J "JJ^ 
It bccD great; but it will be recollected, that the quantity 
of laud reclaimed i^ very considerable, the greatest part of 
which has been drained and grubbed, and the face gf it 
eutirely changed; that on the tompArisoA I now submit, I 
feci great satisfaction in being enabled to assert, iu the 
judgment of able mt^n, that at the time 1 made the pur* 
cfaoM, the waste land wu not worth more thau 6j. per acre 
noum on an average, whicb aioouuls to £l6 Js. 6d. 
■ad that it i» now worth and let as follows : 

£. t. d. 

Sixteen acres of water meadow, £3 per acre • 4B U 
teen ditto will shortly be as valuable - - 42 O 
Twenty ditto of reclaimed boc, £4 per acre - 40 
fifteen Bod a half dittolighter peat, £[ per acr e 13 10 O 
By the year --.-.--- £145 10 
1 have not pointed out minniely every step that has been 
|a1(ea lo drain, to irrigate, or improve thtr said waste lands, 
Waaw the subject is generally so well understood ; but I 
traot I have «tated sufEcient to prove, thul the soil, thus re- 
dwmcd, i* turned to a great and larting benefit. 

J. BUTLER. 

VI, 



J02 0% m wiwwoRM, 

Scpu Observations on an Insect that destroys the Wheats sup' 
posed to be the fVireworfn. By Thomas Walfori>, Esq. 
F. A. S. ^ L. S. With an additional Note, by Tbomos 
Marsham, Etq. Treas. L.S.* 

"Hie^Wcw o r m JL HE ibtfect lyhicb l» the subjert of th^ followini; meipoir 
^ h^s hey«r, I believe, be^D noticed or described by any ei|* 
iomologist or agrici|1tunft ; its depredations a^e the annual 
topic of conversation with fhc; lattec, yet few Vnow wh^t 
inse£l it is, that destroys the Whe^t in the iponths of October 
'idi^d November, under %he denomii^ation of the wireworm. 
Many suppose it to be a scohpendrat others a species of 
tufiuy and son^e the larva of a tipuia^ or of the scarabaus 
meMontha of Linnieus. I supposed it to be one of the 
above, 'till I found two insects in the very act of deilroying 
. ^ ■ . the wheat, as represented in the annexed figure (PI. IV. 
fig. 3, fi.). These I believe to be the insects commonly, 
« although very improperly," called the wirewofms in Essex 
T^trvc of t und Saffolk : they appear to me larvae of one of tlie coleop- 
coloopterous terous tribe ; but to what genus they belong can at presept 
only be conjecturied. The projecting jaws ^oqiewhat resem- 
ble those of a lucwnfs* The two jointed bristles, and the 
cylindrical tail, give it an affinity to staphyiinus ; but the 
iarva of this insect is sppposed tp be carnivorous, and not 
.graminivorous* I fear, therefore, that the genus of this 
insect cunnot b^ determined, till it is tvaced to its perfect 
state. 

I shall now proceed to relate the discovery of the insect^ 
3nd to detail the injury supposed to be done by it. 

In October 18Q£, having occasion to call upqq an agri^ 
cuUurist t, whose qkill tad judgment in farming are rarely 
equalled, he informed me, that his green wheat was dyin? 
and losing plaijt yerf much, the reason of which he coul4 
not comprehend. I immediately suspected, that it was ocv 
Cofioned by the wireworm ; but what kiqd of insect if waS| 

•Traps, of the Linnean Society, vol. IX, p 156. 
t Mr. Ttioinas Olley. of Stoke ne:(t Clare, in Suffolk. 

(coul4 



i".-.-j ii.Lect. 



ON THE WIREWOnM. 



that b« ^^^H 

injury ^^^^| 



f cottld not infonn him. I tlipriffore requested, that 

would ■rcompnny me to the field where the greatest 

WM doDc, in order that we miglit examtne into it, 

wr aceantingly did ; tod we were luvcessful in discoreritig 

Ant of the insects in question, of which t«o were in the 

•ct of destro)-iDg the wheat, u above mentioned. W5tl>I» Kiinnri cf 

their projecting jaws these insecH cut round the outside ^^'''"* 

t about an inch below the surface of the soil, to get at 
the founi; while shoot m the centre, which ihey eat ; upon 
thi*. vegetation is immediately fiopped, and the plant diet. 
I sotpect, that they first eat ihe flour in the grain* which 
baa not been drawn up by regclation i for, when we touched 
tiieCD, the? ran into the husks ; and two of the three inaects 
I carried home in the husks, which appear to be thdr habi- 
MioD*, and probably the place where they change from the 
bm to their present (tate. 

The injury which the public (ustaini by the ravages of CrMi 
tbcae intect* may, in some measure, be calculated from *""* ' 
Mr. Olley'a loss in 1103 ; he sowed fifty acres of a clay soil 
with wheat; out of these ten were detttoyed by lhem> 
which were replanted by dibbling in one bushel of teed per 
Ttic price of wheat >l that time nu eight ihilliug* 
fn butheh 

We here obserrc one fifth part of the quantit;^ »nn de- Catrulaiion at 
■Iroyed by thffe noxious insects, but the depredations of ""^iJ^l^j^* 
the wireworm, as 1 am informed by a frienJ • whose expe- frooj ii. 
lience and observation enable him to calculate with luperior 
judgment, being principally confined to wheat sown upoit 
clover leys, old pusturei recently broken up, pea and beaa 
Itnbbles, Jcc,, we may suppose the general overuse of the 
injory to amount to much less than a fifth (Mr. Olley'a 
y»3) ; a twentieth part of what is sown upou this description 
of laadt will, 1 think, be deemed a very lair and moderate 
alculation. Thu number of cultivaltil acres of land in 
England at tht: time above mcmioned was computed at 
•eren milhuns, of »hiuh 3,400,000 were calculated to be 
■own trith wheat; and as only one half of the wheat an> 
pBally sown is supposed to be upou clover leys, old pu- 

* Alien Ti;lar, Eii. WUabiih-luI), Ehcx. 



Jpj^ ON TO)^ WUlEWORil* 

toreg, icc.j our calcuUuiaoi muft be conEncd. U 1,900,000 
8cra.;in9tead of d,400/).00 : this will give.60y000 acres as 
fnapally dastroyad bj the inii^t io queftic^^i.; which re* 
|te^t^, at OB^ bushel per aciie, will^rfqiiim 6Q»W0 budiels 
c^/B^,,wbichf M eight shillings per, bi^slpudt .^re worth 
' 4C.kMOO0« Bmd^ tbisr althouf^ ik> jesitr* eitp^ofe is ii»* 
«%fr€|^ by the farmer in prept^nDg.the laady yet he h^ to 
9»y for 4ibbliDg in the peca^^ T^hj^, at.fi^ie^iiliilbn^s immI 
^r^epe^c^ per acre, wiU. 998t/^%rW0, 0tp «t the fuU 
piieff, ^ shillings per ecre* iS^MiMO^ U^e lead re^ 
qyifffi harrowing, there will t^e a:^}rtber charge of iMne^ 
]iepge ,per ^cre, or j£3,360, not>jjQ p^ma- other i^mss 
nchidi^.reQd^ it difficult precisely f tp* ascertain the l()«s of 
the ftimer. • : •' . ! i . 

. ]f th^ ^hjpve qakfllatiw l^* thought a fi^r onei». vid I see 
no reason why it should not, we fiud^the (quantity of wheal; 
lessen^ to the omrket by^ th^ depredati^os V tl^ise ios^tts 
^ very . frequently, iff mK eiipuaUyy fi^^ty thj^ysand bushele ; 
which occafioni to the fmv^^n 9A additional expense of at 

▼emin the ^ ^ ^^^ ^^^ observation^ will prove a spur to gentlemen 
injury lobe ijsore Conversant in entomology ^d agriciiUure than.«iy<s 
sought after, g^if^ iq excite them to inquire into this subjeA, the.|«salt oi 

which must ultimately 1>e beneficial to the public at large, 

by discovering some meant of preventing the injury done by 

£^y plough- these mi^chievops insects* At prebent we kn^w of no othe)E^ 

ing not ^iwsiTS . 

convenitiit. than e^ly plougbingp which is not always convenient to the 
farmer* a« he wants to feed his clover land as late as the 

I^e IncfFeo- aeasoii will admit of; Unslacked lime has been tried with* 
* out success ^; although it is well known, if la.id thick upoor 

tl;e land and ploughed in immediately, it mrill defiroy in« 
sects of every kiod^ that are in the soil ; but in many 
places the expense of procuring lime is too great to think 
of ufing it in suflicieut (][uantities to enswer the intended 
purpose t»- 

M 

♦ Fanner*f Mj^gazind, page 450. 
Grub of the " f 1 am aWare of its beViig s-ad that part of the injui^ sustained is 
tipula. done by the grub of the tipula or craue-tly ; but 1 beg leave to observe, 

that khe injury done by tht grubii in th[e spriog, ar4d not in October; 

9i 



•^ *■ 



ON TVS WIBUrORM. ^ . Jfjg 

As the diswiiiff iirftom the accanlf iiettcil of. Mr-Sow- 
frby f no d'cycnptioa "of the insect is necessary, 

Explanaticn of the Figures. 

»* * 

f^Mte TV. Fig. I. The insect, natuiul size. 

9. Thesame, magnified* 

9. It. The same, deftroying the wheat. 

— « b. Hole in the husk, into which the inseet 

ran upon being disturbed* 

Aiikum€lNote, ijr Mr. Marsh^m- 

The abore described lar?a is quite new to me, nor can I ^^^ ^*«^ 
find any thing like it in the various authors I have con- ^^ 
suited, who have written on the larvse of insects. 1 am 
therefore igpnorani to which order it belongs. The name of 
wireworm se^ns to be given to various species of larvse, biit 
what I consider to be the true wireworm was sent to me 
some time ago by.tb« right honourable Sir Joseph 3anks. 
A figure of this I have added to the plate (PI. IV, Fig. 4.). 
The history of this animal 1 fpund fully detailed in the hi Sweden 
Stockholm Transactions for the year 1777» by Mr. Cbs "^ worm, 
Bierkauder, vicar of Gotheae, near Skarra, under the ap« 
pellation of root-worm. This larv9, when full grown, issUnra 
about seven lines long, very narrow, of a yellow colour, 
shining, and very hard : the head is brown, with the extre- 
mities of the jaws black. The body is composed of twelve 
joints* on the last of which are two black indented specks. 
It has six scaly feet on the fore part of tlie body. Mr, Bier- of a «pecie> of 
kander observes, that it remains five years iq this state be- springing bee. 
iore it changes into aC pupa, whence issues el(iter segetis of ' * 

|inn«us, I have frequently found it both in fields and 

SB ntny of the flies have not deposited their egg:? till the latter end of 
September, aii<I thofu: tlut are deposited earlier arc few of them hatched 
before the sprin*;, at was proved by Mr. Str'ickney, wliose pamphfof, 
cotttkd '* Oi^ervcUumt rtspcctimg the Grub^*^ is now before me : ther^ 
fbrr the depvcdations of the grab cannot be greatly prior to that time : 
* besides, they are most plentiful in the fly state at the end of Septem- 
ber and bcginiuDg of OcU)ber» ^ 

gardeui 



gardens at' tbc roots of divers planti, but never succeeded 
ID bringing it to perfection* The author abort mentioned 
describes four other species of root-worms ; vis. musea $ۥ 
gfitSt mufia hardeit phaFana Inrco, and f qm&f olermcea. 

I flatter myself, that this valuable Essay of Mr. Walford^f 
will stimulate other gentlemen who reside in the countrft 
and who arc so materially ipterested, to enter seriously into 
a minute examination of the various cautsesa by which grain ' 
is so frequently destroyed ; so that, by a number of sneh 
inquiries and communications, we may at length be ena« 
bkd to point out a remedy— as every grain of corn that can 
be preserved in times like the present mutt be a public be* 
nefit* 

JUt. Bierkander*s papers on the different root-wprmal 
got translated by a friend ; and the translation, with some 
remarks of my own, was some time since presented tp tba 
Peard of Agriculture. 

THOMAS MARSHAAt 

VII. 

4>t Account <if the larger and leaer Specks tf Harse^d^ 
BaiSt proving them to be diitmct; together with m De» 
ecriptwn of VesperiUio Barbastellus, taken m the Sonik 
of Deoonehire. By €veorge Montagu, Eiq. F.LS.^ 

Sapposedtwo JVLOST naturalists have conceived an opinion, that there 
^rieties of the are two varieties of the Horse-^hoe bat, vespertilh/emum» 
equmum distinguished only by their size ; as 8uch> Gnaeliti 
quotes the major and minor of Schreber. 
twgnd^ The larger species only has hitherto been noticed in 

England. This was originally discovered by Doctor La* 
tham, who communicated it to Mr. Pennant, and he first 
made it public in his British Zoology, where he states it to 
be found in the salt-petre houses belonging to the powder 
mills at Dartford, frequenting those places in the evening 
for the sake of gnats ; and also observed during winter in |i 



f 



ft 



tinn«tn T^sni. vsUIXip. 16S. 

torpid 



#rpul state, dmging to th« roof. It isdetcnb^ ihin: 
" Th« leugth rrotn the note tu the tip ol' the tail i* thn« 
mchn and n half: the citeat fourtceu. At Itiv cud of the 
DO»c is at] ufin^ht uirrobrane in tho form ol'a iior>«-!.tiob 
Eari IsTgc, broad at thfir buse, incUaiug backwards, but 
«uit th« Ittlle or internal ear. The colour ol' die upper 
put of the body i> a dtep c>n«rcou»; of tbt lowet 
'dhitifti-" 

Doctor Shaw, ia his Cencral Zfjolog^, has nt-erly fiaW 
lowed Mr. Pennant, but attds, '■ There ia said to be ft 
^ater kod tmaller varitty ; perhaps the male and female: 
th« grc»(er i« above three inches and ti h&lf loiii; rrom tne 
noac iQ the tip of the tail : the extent of the nings abore 
fourteen, " 

Wtth respect to the smaller horse-ahoe bat, nothing Smillev 
tnoec appears to be known than that it is iuferior in Mze, 
but "m ether re^peets similar ; from which may be inferred, 
that it it rcry little known, and it has not, to my know- 
ledi^, been recorded as iiiili-jenous to Engluiid. It is 
therefore with no nnall degree of catiafactiou 1 hare to an- 
oooaee, ibjt ii is by no means uncoaimoii iu particular a- 
Inattow; and I have the pleasure of eongratulatint; tlie 
zoolo^at. tlwt fortunate circumOaoces have enabled me te 
pot the lon^ Mmettled opinion with respect to these two 
bats beyond all pofisible doubt; having lately taken a con- A^rtmct 
wderable oumlwr of both species, in each of which the 'P^^'^ 
irxnal distinction was evident. But to render the subject 
more clear and Jncontroverlible, 1 shnti proceed, by giving 
ade^criplion of the lesser species, and endeavour clearly to 
define the characteristic distinction between these two very 
•Bilogoaa animals. In order, however, to prevent future 
Mftfbsioin, I propose that the leaiit of these should be called 
uaptniGo MtnviK/. leaving the other in full posjesion of the 
•hginal Linnietin trivial name of Jirrum-equinma, 

VaptTtilio mijtututi 
t 

Length scarcely two inchcB and three quarters from the DttnlVeA. 
tip of the nosa to the end of the tail, of which the latter is 
bll three fourths of an inch ; extent of tlie wings nine in- 
ches 



10ft 



Found m 
WUtshire. 



chetrattd t htlf : waj^ht frttm eoe tern tbNe gfiin% to oi^ « 
4i«Qi twenty grains, . ii 

The cokmr atrore is fsle nifoas Mnrn^ nost rafons oa % 
Ae upper pert cX tbe4iead : the nose is' sunroniidtd on the a 
$iop witk e broad membrsne som^hal ib Ibrm ef e borst- ii 
flhoe; within this is a smaller, in which the noftrils^jase ,y 
filacedi betweoi^. these are two other small AieabraiM| ,^, 
standing a little obliquely, and appearing as valves to the ^ 
nostrils ; behind these stands a raucb n>pre elevated lofgi* 
tudinal membrane ; and further back ia another transversely 
pUeedt of a pyramidal shape, standing . erect behind the l 
eyes ; these laM are. covered slightly with hairt and somf 
long bristles: round the upper lip under the exterior UMsm* 
' brane of the nose is a row of minute tubercles, eadi fnf* i 
nisbed with a smiill bristle, equally wbU caleukted to golde 
the lesser winged insects to the mouth, as ]tbe i»i&rtf|if 
fettwaim observed in several species of birds: the eyiss^ffff 
very small, black, and hidden in the fur:.the eiralaige^ 
pointed, and turued a little back at their tips ; their base 
almost surrounds the opening, but at the- outer part in eadi 
is a notch, which admits of the fore part of the ear dosing 
within the other as a substitute for a valve so common fO 
fnost other species, but of which this is destitute. 
' It is now many years since I first noticed this apcrief'cf 
bat in Wiltshire ; once, in particular, I recollect to have 
seen a great many taken in the winter over the hollow of a 
))aker*s oven, having g^t in through a small ekteriNd fis» 
tare* In the year 1804, about the latter end of the mmitii 
of May, I observed several in an old biiiiding at the verge 
of a wood at Lackham, in the same county, erected far die 
shelter of cattle. In this shaded dork abode^ surromided 
by lofty oaks, it is notunusaal to see several adhering to the 
plastered roof by their hind claws ; and when apprOasdied^ 
generally erawlipg a little to one nde, and showing signs of 

* uneasiness by moving their heads about in various direo« 
tions, but not seeming inclined to take flight, till they havf 
been repeatedly disturbed. 

* At this time I had not been fortunate enough to di9cbve^ 
the haunt of vespeftUh ftrtuwi^quinnmi but my wishea 
•luve since been amply gratified^ by taking nine of ttate 



w^Jtrr um ' tq mimm , and seven of the mmutus^ many of 
*faicfa ^ere conveyed home alive : of the former there were 
imr males and fire females ; of the latter fire males and 
tvo feiaales. Of the «. firrum^qmnum the largest and The two sp*- 
faialleat were both females, one preponderating four drams J?^*'*^*'*'* 
md a half, the other not exceeding fonr drams. _The 
kngth of these to the setting on of the tail two inches and 
%%alf ; to the end of the tail three indies and three quar- 
ters : the expansion of the wings about fourteen inches and 
alnlt 

la colour these two species are perfectly similar, except Mnrcely in 
in some instances the sides and breast of the v.fermm- ^^ ^'^^ 
tfiuaMom are more of a ferruginous-brown. 

With respect to the face, which is so extremely ctirions» 
tbere appears on a cursory view scarcely a perceptible dif- 
r, except that the upper lip of the v.femm^equinum 



n mach auNPe tumid ; but the most material distinction is in ^^ chiefly m 

the Ibnaation of the nasal membranes, especially that which menbraacf. 

is posterior and transverse. To explain this no words can 

c oa wtf wbat a simple outline will, and therefore the curi- 

eas are refeire d to Pl« IV, Jig^ 5, which represents the side 

view of the membranes of v.^errum^fgamuiii, of which « 

is the posterior tianverse one; the front is seen at ^^.-G. 

The same views are given of the nasal membrane of r. mi-' 

mmiwu ^tjig* 7 and 8, where b b represent the membranes 

ia difierent points of view. In these a very striking differ- 

CDce is obser^'ables and it will also be perceived, that the 

saterior longitudinal membrane is by no means bimilar in 

bodi species. 

WMi respect to the teeth, it will be observed, that the Tectlj^ 
I yiif MSi rijSfWHiw possesses two minute distant fore teeth 
in the upper jaw, which are not to be found in the t\ mi" 
ssfsy ; a circumstance that seems to have escaped roost na« 
taialists, this genus being usually placed in the division 
deititute of upper fore teeth : the canine teeth are also much 
itioager io proportion in v. /ermm-equinum than in the 
fitoer species. 

Lianfleosy when he placed the bats in the first order of Linnzus 
w^kmaHaf doubtless considered the whole genus to agree in ^„ ^^e fint ^ 
poaessing two pectoral teats, and no others ; snd this opi- order of mam- 

^ inalia, 

nion 



110 ^^ '^^ 

mon seemg to bave been confirmed by succeeding natU''^ 
' taltsts as fkr as treading in the path oF so great a physiolo« 
gist may be cdnsidered as'a proof of the fact. It must, 
however, be acknowledged, that we should do well, if* at 
the same time we admire the wisdom and consummate skill 
of others, we were to recollect, that circumsttanees do not 
always concur to throw all the light upon a fiobject that 
might be desired, and that the wisest and most skilful phi<» 
losopher is not proof against mortal follibility* 

Those who are in the habit of searching minutely into 
the secrets of nature well know how necessary it is to be 
cautious in admitting of general rules* 

That the appearance of two pectoral teats in the hA 

genus, wit|iont any others contiguous, should lead to a 

couviction, th^t they were the only papitis such animala 

possessed, may easily be conceived ; but chslnQe ffequently 

develops what the most scrutinizing eye has sought for in- 

^ Tain. 

^Qt the W» While I was searching for some curious insects, which 

^TTwo^^do^^ were observed to move with unusual celerity amongst the 

mittal papillar. fur of theae bats*, the pectoral papillte .of one of the 

V* miHutus were very conspicuous by the space round them 

being bare, as if the animal had recently suckled its 

young; and to my utter astonishment, on turning the fur 

over in every direction, I discovered two other teats rery 

near together, situate on the lowest part of the abdo^ 

men, close to the pubis* It may readily be imagined, that 

so unexpected a discovery scarcely admitted the senses to 

determine the validity of ocular demonstration : the aid^ 

however, of glasses left no doubt of the fact, and a aden* 

Whether this tific friend confirmed my opinion. At the moment of this 

i>f the ffeiTus^'^ discovery I bad embowelled all the specimens of t./kmum^ 

Of peculiar to equinuMf and consequently cannot determine whether they 

vef^ler- ^'^^ similarly formed or not ; nor have I since procured • 

iemalc bat of any other species to examine, 8# that it yet te* 

mains to be ascertained, whether this structure is peculiar to 

one or more species, or that the two abdominal papillie aft 

really essential to the generic character of these animalif 

* Oleripts vttpertUwnit, a newly discovered insect. 

but 



ox tilt. ]|| 

tout hitherto i>v*rlookcJ, bj- being so far remored tiwa tJic 
ather*. On futuce oWrrutioa must defend the pluK l» 
viUch tlie bab should be properly coasigiied in Uie ^jstv- 
it>c arrangement of quiulruped^. If nome specie^ ouly 
found to po^sesa four papillie, it would be a very coa- 
ible violence to oatiire to divide them on ihit acconaK 
•m) yet to rcttiiii tlicm undivided in the order of ^mattt, 
tccvrding to the Linnxan deGnition, would be incon&iateot : 
iMit on till* part of the subject there is no necessity of en- 
^rS^Kg until tie become more enlightened. 

It is probable the papilla of all the smaller buts are so T<nti not 
aatmcted, except at the lime of Rdministering noarisli- "»'r^"' »' 
curot to th«ir youag, that they are not discoiemble with *"^JJ^*^ 
the utmoit attention, for even in the v. Jerrunt-etjuinum ao li>>e- 
pectoral tests were to be discovered, although the sesual 
fitinctioo was aulEclentiy evident. But this verj- con- 
tracted stale of these parts, nhen nature has no demand foe 
llie UM.- ftui^etl to them, is not peculiar to ibese volant 
igiuflrupedt, since we find the same difHculty iu di^coverijig 
than in mice. 

The»e bats were taken in a Ini^e cavern near Torquay in Tbe iwa ipt- 
Denwbirv, commonly known by the appellation of Kents- ^'T^^^^ * 
bole, and where both species arc usually observed io con- p]ic; ■irfiout 
mdermble abundance clinging to the vaulted roof of the in-iajrotliu. 
mior ■pBTttuentB. This vast cavern was explored with & 
view to obtain whatever species of ceipcrtUio might 
iidubit it, and with expectation of procuring sped- 
mens of v- larbailellus, and possibly some new species, 
hanug been informed the cave abounded in number and 
•uiety. Striinge, however, as it may appear, not a single 
iartance occurred of any other species becoming an inluibi- 
UBt of this dark &ud frightful region. 

It ahoald therefore appear, that these two bati are as con- 
gaual in their ftnimnl temperature, as they are similar in 
Unt; aod tbst in constitution they essentially differ from 
dl the other British species. 

• h ia well known, that oil places impervious to light, and R«;ort to a- 
^Mitute of a free circulation of air, con neither be sud- 'cms fiom 
faily heated nor suddenly cooled by the changes of atmos- ihangeof 
plieric tcmpei»ture, and tijat the vicissitudes of such a di- lemptriwr*. 



ili OS BATS. 

, mate are extremdy small : thus these species from instinct 
seek those dark and dreary abodes, at)d wiybll j retire from 
the face of day, their feelings being repugnant to the benign 
influence of the solar rays, which vivifies and reanimates all 
nature besides. 
Chheis only The r. noetula^ murinus, auritus, and probably batbas^ 
^f^fg^^ ^*' teiluSy wliose constitutions appear more robust, do not re- 
tire into total darkness, nor wholly remote from the vicis'* 
sitttdes of the surrounding atmosphere ; but, being formed 
by nature to bear a gpreater degree of either heat or cold , 
content themselves with such a hybemaculum as is suflSci* 
ent to protect them equally from the extremes of one or 
the other* Thus we find these in the fissures of old build- 
ings, in towers, under the eaves of houses and ^churches* 
and in the hollows of trees, and not uhfrequently congre« 
gated ;but they seldom or never enter those gloomy regions, 
which nature has consigned to the others as an exclusive 
right of inheritance. 
The bat supe- Contemplating the frolics and evolutions of these little 
Wds^nrow- c''*^^"'*^ *" our summer evenings perambulations must 
cisqf Aght* bring to recollection the extraordinary opinion of some phj^ 
losopb.ers, who scarcely admit' their progressive motion jto 
be an act of flying. How little can sucK have attentively 
obser\'ed their sudden and rapid turns in pursuit of flies ! 
It might be fairly asked. How muCh inferior are the aerial 
excursions of a bat to that of a swallow, one of the roast' 
powerful on wing of the feathered tribe ? and might 
we not pronounce, without risk of refutation, that a bat 
far surpasses the greater part of birds in its powers of 
flight? 
Supposed not ' If we arc to give the utiflost credit to the experiments 
Ykion!*"* of Spallanzani a^nd Mr. de Jurine, the conclusion would be, 
that vision is not of any apparent use to these animals, 
since they fly about with as much ease, and equally avoid 
obstacles, when their eyes are covered, or even put out, wm • 
they do previous to this operation. That their eyes, beingp ' 
minutely small, are not calculated to admit mdny raya of 
light, as in most nocturnal birds, must be allowed, bat 
then they have no occasion to distinguish their prey at a 
distance. If it be denied, that their eyes are of any use ia 

the 



0» *!*•• lis 

in the dUofemlng of objects against which thiy mig^ht strik^^ 
Surely they must be equally useless in dittcovering the 
smaller winged insects^ on which they prey iu the dusk of 
theereniug. 

Can we, hdwereri meditate on the wonderfully rapid ^"^ ^^^^* 
turns and evolutions of these creatures in pursuit of their 
prey, and not allow them the powers of sight to effect 
the first principle of life, a power not denied to aay known 
aaiuul pcasebsed of a red circulating fluid by the arterial 
system i To assent to the conclusion which Mn de Jurine 
has drawn from his experiments) that the ears of bats are 
more essential to their discovering objects than their eyes, 
requires more faith, and less philosophic reasoning, than 
can be expected of the xootomical philosopher, by whom it 
might fiurly be asked, Since bats see with their ears, do 
they hear with their eyes ? It will not be sufficient for these 
experimentalists to inform us, that the copious auricles of 
Uiis class of animals, or their delicate internal structure^ 
are adequate to the double purpose of seeing and hearing* 
when we perceiire, that they are by nature provided with 
organs of sight similar to what we not only feel most sen- 
atbly to be the most inestimable of blessings, but also per- 
ceive to be the principal fountains of locomotion in all other 
animals in the same scale of beings* 

Although it cannot be admitted, that the Almighty hand f<* djrectinf 
gave to these creatures those most wonderfully constructed daTklfesss'un. 
organs of sight, without endowing them with visual pro- accoanublc, 
pertieay yet it must be allowed, that there is something ex^* 
tiemely astonishing and unaccountable in their unembar* 
lamed flight in total darkness, whether by sealing up their 
eyci» or 1^ their natural habits of finding their way through' 
sU the smaller passages and windings into the inmost re* 
oases of their subtermneous abode* By what occult property but no more 
they diiect their course in total darkness, is periiaps a pro- ^^^^ {^i^, 
blcm of aa difficult solution as that of a swallow returning ral lustory. 
from the torrid to the frigid zone, to breed in the same 
Kst it had prepared the preceding year, and in which it 
kd performed those functions of nature. Can any human 
ttsderstanding develop the cause, that so unerringly directs 
tk carrier-pigeon to its place of nativity, when preriously 
Vol. XXUI.--JvxIji 1809. I taken 






114 



Oir BATS 



tiicen to the distmnce of five hundred milet? How ii the 

bee instructed to 6nd its hive when raptured and taken to 

• distance ? This is inexplicable, and yet no .one will dit- 

Mode of ilnd» p,j|^ ^j,g f^^^^ Indeed the practice is common in some 

wild beet/ Countries^ in order to find the wild hives ; for if two bees 
are taken near the same spot, and turned out at difierent 
points, distant from each other a few hundred yards, if 
belonging to the same hive, the two lines formed by the 
direction of their fli^^ht will discover the hive to be at the 
intersection of those lines. These are the mysteries of na- 
ture, so impenetrable to the human mind, that we are lost 
in a labyrinth of wonder at such instinctive endowments, 
which are incomprehensible to our limited faculties. We 
have only attentively to examine the operations 'of nature, 
and we shall find a thousand instances not lets astonishing, 
than that the bat should find its road without one single 
lay of light to direct its course*. 

Vespertilio Barbastellus. 

Gmd. Syst, i. p. 48. Suffon. viii. p. 130. 1. 19- / 1. 
PennoHi Quadr. ii. /»• 561. Shaw ZooL i. p. ]33« 
BrU, Miscellany^ f • v. 

foii^to 1^"* *'*'*'* species has long been known to be an inhabitant of 
land, acme parts of the European continent, especially France, 

Cm, I believe, had not been discovered to inhabit England 
till the year 1800, when I first noticed it to be indigeiMNii 
to the south of Devon, and had prepared an account of it 
for the Linnean Sodety. Since that period others hav« 
- occurred in the same county ; and we are informed in the 
Brilish MiiteUamy^ that it has been taken in the powder \ 
mill at Dartford in Kent. 

The figure and description given in that work are highly \ 
satisfiu:tory; but as it is a newly discovered quadruped in , 

Tatf not * ^^^ iht preceding account wa« written, levanl of both these spa- ^ 

perceptible, ciei of bau have been coilecled from the same cavern, and in one of the 
«p. Nmni/iM the abdominal papillx were more coaspieuout than in tke - 
fimner I but not the least vestige of such could be found in the «. Anpio- 
cfmaui: it should, however, be renarkid, that ill thess the pcctonA 
teats were equallj invisible. 

this < 



on BATS. 115 

thU i«lAiid, and of course little known, it may not be un- 
iDterefttiBg to give some additional deflcription of it from 
apecimens in my possession, and to make such further re- 
marks as may conduce to its natural history. 

The first I obtained was taken on win^ in the villsge of Described. 
Milton, which is situate near the coast, and, I believe, wns 
a female* 

■ 

The colour of this is a dusk-black, intermixed with a 
few gray-brown hairs towards the rump : the membranes of 
the wings and tail dusky. 

On the 17th of August 1805, I procured a male spe- 
cimen alive ; it was found adhering to a small tree near 



The length is nearly four inches, of which the tail mea- 
furcs one inch seven eighths; the extent of the wings 
about eleven inches : weight exactly one hundred grains. 

The colour differed a little from that of the former, es- 
pecially in having the middle of the back and the breast 
mixed with silver gray hairs; the lower belly, thighs, and 
behind the vent on the tail membrane more gray. The nose 
is rounded in front, flat, and cavernouit on the top, in 
which part the nostrils are placed : ears large Rnd black, 
famished with a linear valve, and unusually broad at the 
base» extending forwards, and meeting over the nose, so as 
to cover the forehead : eyes very small, seated within the 
membrane of the ear : the teeth numerous in both jaws, and 
mnch jagged; in the upper, four cutting teeth, but no 
camne, and a vacant space between those and the grinders : 
in the lower jaw six cutting teeth and four canine or longer 
teeth, and between these last on each side is a small inter- 
mediate one ; these longer teeth fall into the vacant space 
ia the upper jaw. 

Bnfibn appears to be the first naturalist who recorded 
thia apeciei, and hia account of it has been copied by suc- 
eeeding writers. 

It seems to partake of the habits of the common bat ; tts diifertnca 
bat it may readily be distinguished from vetperiiho rnvri- ^^^ ^^ «»^ 
mr, even on the wing, in the earlier part of the eveniug, 
¥y ita superior siie, and in being by far the darkest in co* 
Irar of all the British bats. Upon comparison, the flat* 
tcasd noae, more pointed eaiVi «id particularly the base of 

1 2 these 



1 IS ox EARLY RIPBirilfG OP GBAMI* 

the«e coming so forward on the forehead as scarcely to leave 
any space between, will be found essential characters orf 
distinction. 

I have not been able to discover the hybernaculnm of 
this species, but it is reasonable to believe its torpid state 
is passed in similar situations to those in which all but the 
r.y^mffN-e^titfttfifi and t^. minvhis retire during the colder 
months; none of which appear to be aubterrmneons. 



VIII. 

An Account of the Method of hastening the Mmturation tf 
Grapes* By John Williams Esq*^ m m Letter to the 
Right Hon. Sir Joseph Banks, Bart. K. B. P. K. S. jrc* 

SIRt 

Grapes do aot XT is a ^ict wdl known to gardeners, that mei, when es- 

wciu'ui "^y poied in this climate to the open mr, although trained to 

cliaiia. walls with southern aspects, and having every advantage 

of judicious culture, yet in the ordinary course of our seft^ 

sons ripen their fruit with difficulty. This remark, howevei^ 

though true in general, admits of some exceptions, for I havu 

occasionally seen trees of the common white Mnictt&M, and 

hlack cluster grapes, Aat have matured their fruit very wdl, 

and earlier by a fortnight or three weeks, than others of the 

, fame kinds, igid apparently po ea es si ng similar advantaget 

of soil and aspect. 

ZsrllMi OB M The vines that ripened the fruit thus early, I have geap* 

tfOMMvith fenf ^ly remarked, were old trees having trunks «ght or torn 

feet high, before their bearing branchea commenced. It 

occurred to roe, that this disposition to lipco early might 

be occasioned by the dryness and rigidity of the vessels of 

ftomtliaciisfcthe old trunk obstructing the circulation of that portion of 

atafmrlff^ ^^ ^^* which is supposed to descend from the leaf. And 
to prove whether or not my conjectures were eorrect, I madg 
laeif bni incisions through the bark on the trunks of several vinet 
wlfc^'usf bif P^^B ^ ^f ganlen, removing a circle of bark, frow, 

the alburaiua 

asksd^ • nQfftkttltanl 9osisty» val. L p. 107. 



on SAKLV UPXVtMO or SIIAPH. j]j^ 

«acbi aixl thus leaviug the naked ulburntim above an incb 

is vridtli completely exposed ; this wus done iu the mouths 

•r Jmut and Ju/y. Tlie followiag autuinu the fruit grow- oeruiancA ika 

ing on these trtes came to greut perfeilioii. Imving ripeued fruj' *»»l»<» 

timtn a r»r(iii|{ht t» three weeka earlier thvo uiual : but in 

ihe raccreding Hpriii)^, the vines did not shoot with their 

■ceiutaaied vigour, and I found that 1 bad injured then 

by cxpoding the alburnum uunecetiaurily. 

L«st BHiBDier these ex pen men Li were repeated ; at the end '^^ «xp<>i- 
tX July and beginning of Aignit, 1 took annular eKcisioni """ "^ 
ti bark fTom the trunks of several of my vines, and that 
ibe exposed alburnum might be again cov<.Tcd willi new 
bark by tW end of uutumn, the removed circles were made 
ralbu less than a quarter of ao inch in width. Two vines 
of tbe tehitM Frontiniac, in oimiliar states of growth, being 
trained ncv to each other on a south wall, irere selected 
ht iiial ; one of these was experimented on (if I may use 
tbe tefm], the other was lef^ in its naturul state, to form a 
•taiidard of cowpariaon. When the citcle of bark had 
teen iciDoved ahout a fortnight, the berries on the experi- 
aMate*] tree began I'vidently to swell faster than those oa 
(te oth«r, tiul by the beg;inning uf Septtmhtt «how«l iiidi- 
^tion* of approaching ripeness, while the fruit of the un- 
txperiioented tree continued green and small. Id the be- the fruii rlpcn- 
^oninK of Oetobrr the fruit on tiie tree that bad the hark '^"'^^^^^ 
removed TroiD it, was quite ripe, the other only Juat bej^o ,);« and 
to abo" • disposition to npen, for the bunrhes were shortly *!»'>""■ 
tftemrds destro3'ed by the autumnal frosts. In every 
ca*« ia which circles of bark were removed, I invariably 
found that the fruit not only ripened earlier, but the 
b«rric4 were considerably larger than usual, and more highly 

TTie effects thus produced T can account for only by Theory of the 

aiapliog Mr. Kn'tght's theory of the downward circulation P'o"^"* 

of th« aap, llic truth of which these experiments, in my 

•pinion, tend ilrongly to confirm. 1 therefore ima-jini; by 

CuMJag through the carlex and liber without wouiiiiin^ the 

I alboronin, that the descent of that portion of the sap which 

[ bo* undergone preparation in the leuf is obstructed and 

I tofUiDKl in the bmu:he« ijtuate above the incision ; con- 

1 leqaeatty 



]^ig OH BAKLT &IPEVIVO OF OBlMt. 

aequently the fruit ib better nourished and its nttnratiou 
hastened. It is certainly a conbideralile point gained in the 
'. , , . culture of the vine, to be able to bring the fruit to perfec« 
tion, by a process so slmplei and so easily performed. But 
lest there should be auy misconception in the foregoing 
statement » I will briefly describe the exact method to be 
followed by any person, who may be desirous of trying this 
Propar (iaie of ^^^. ^f ripening grapes. The best time for performing 
pffrforaiing tht the operation on vines growing in the open air is towards 
'^' the end of Juitfy or beginning of August ; and it is a ma- 
terial point, not to let the removed circle of bark be too 
wide: from one to two eighths of an inch will be ^ sp%ce of 
suflicient width ; the exposed alburnum will then be covered 
again with new bark before the following winter, so that 
there will be no dafiger of injuring the future health of the 
tree. 

It is not of much consequence in what part of the tree 
the incibion is mfide, but in case the trunk is very large, I 
* should then recommend, that the circles be made, in thy 
smaller branches. 
Caution. It is to be observed, that all shoots which cpme out froip 

the root of the vine* or from the front of the trunk situate 
helwD the incision, must be removed as often as they appear^ 
unless bearing wood is pfirticularly wanted to fill -up the 
lower part of the wfill, in which case one or two shoots may 
be left. 
Applicable to Vines growing in forcing houses are equally improved in 
^ine« in forcing point of size and flavour, as well as made to ripen earlier by 
taking awuy cinrles of bark : the time for doing this is 
when the fruit is set, and the berries are about the size pf 
small shot. The removed circles may here be made wider- 
than on vines growing tn the open air, as the bark is sooner 
renewed in forcing houses, owing to the warmth and 
moisture in- those places. Half an inch will not be too 
great n width to take gff in a circle froip a vigorous growing 
vine, but I do not recommend the operation to be performed 
at all in weitk trees, 
and perhapi I think that this practice may be extended to other fruits, 
wli^iSaily' *^ ^^ *^ habten their maturity, especial ly^j^i, in whiqh there 
<U'. is ^ pAOftt abundsQt 9ow of returning sap j and 'it demon- 

ytratef 



on SAftLT Einwnro or mapbi. i ig 

ftratiet to us* why old trees are more disposed to beor frnit 
thmn young ones. Miller iofbrros us, that the vine^'ardt 
in Jimfy are thought to improTe erery year by age> till they 
sire 50 years old. It therefore appears to me, that oature^ 
in the course of time» produces effects similar to what I have 
above rccomaiended to. be done by art. For, as trees be- 
come oldf the returning vessels do not convey the sap into 
the roots, with the same facility they did when young: thus 
bj occasionally removing circles <rf bark, we only antici« 
pate the process of nature* ; in both cases a stagnation of 
the true sap is obUuned in the fruiting branches, and the 
redundant nutriment then passes into the firuit 

I have sometimes found, that, after the circle of bark has No portion of 
been removed, a small portion of the inmer bark has adhered *^« ^"^ ^^. 
to ike mlbamum: it is of the utmost importance to remove ^"^ ttaaia!' 
this, though ever so small, otherwise in a very short space 
of tiine the communicatioo is again established with the 
root, and little or no effect produced. Therefore in about 
tendaya after the first operation has been performed, I 
generally look at the part from whence the bark was re<- 
•vovedy and separate any small portion, which may have 
tped the knife iM first time. 



I am, Sir, 
Your obedient humble servant, 

JOHN WILLIAMS. 
FinmaHam, Worcestershire^ 
SOfA Jpnl, 1808. 

* Ucnce we may infer, that trees thus treated i»iU baie tbelr decay 
Kcelcrated, and their natuial duration fhocteoodi C. 



IX, 



I 



ISO •" ><A»!»!|«<' 

IX. 
An £$say on Manures, tiy Art9UE Youiro» Esq. f. R. S.* 

^"i"^'Sjrct. JVIr. Yonnii^ first ^rran^i the treatmeDt of hit subject 
io the followinif qrder. I. The nature of the manure, d. 
Its prpperties. 3. Collecting. 4. Preparation, 4. I^tate 
ja whfch applied. 6. Application. 7- Sei^onwben apf 
plied. 8. Quantity. 9- On what soil. 

He next classes manures in ^wp divisions. I. Such at are 
ipade or dug on a farm. 2. Such as are usually purchased. 
The latter he subdivide into animal, vegetable, find fpsnih 
In the first division comes 

1. M^nrlf. 

MorlQ. The merles mqst common in England are play, stpnef 

and shell marie. Some distinguish them by their colour^i 
as white, red, blue, bjack, &c. ; but the colour deteryes 
no attention except a^ indicative of iron. 

Its lut^e. They are usually composed of sand, clay, and calcareoua 

earth. The red and black have a small quaptity pf iron. 
A marie from Cheshire had 1*7 per cent Even in the 
whitest prussiate of potash will alpiost always detect aome 
iron. The (calcareous earth varies frpm 'iS to 80 per cent. 
One of th^ best clay roarles contained iO calcareous earth, 
50 clay, 8 or 10 s^nd, ond clear signs of some iron. It falls 
in pure water, and by exposure to the iiir. The cl^y conr 
tains generally a small portion of iron, a little volatilf al- 
kali, and some sulphuric acid; and even when d^rivf*d of 

• Abridged from the Bttb Society's Papein, vol. X, p. 97. Thw 
tH99y was written in consequence of the folloirinfc subject being an- 
nounced for a prise, wh|cb it obtained. « Tbe Bcdfordean gold meda| 
will be presentefl to the author, who, at f>r befinre the first meeting fai 
Kovember isoi, sball prodnfc to tbe Society tbe bevt essav, (banded 
on practical experience, on |be nature and properties of manuies, and 
tbe mode of preparing and applyin| them to variouH soils ; in wbicl| 
^tsay shrill W pointci} put the cheapest manner of collecting and pre- 
pavinir the different kfnds of manures, and the state, season, and quan- 
tity, in which they should be spplicd.'! 

all 



oil MAVUESS. 121 

all orgftnic matter yields hidrogen gas. Phosphoros may be 
gained from all calcareous earths. 

MHiat renders it particolarly Taluable is the calcareous fr^cities 
emrth it contains. But we do not yet know what ought to 
be the qa^tity of cpilcareous earth in a soiU The best spe* 
cimen analyzed by Giobert had 6 per cent ; by Bergman* 
30; by Dr. Fordyce» 9; and a rich soil quoted by Mn 
Davy had !]• This is tn inquiry, concerning which the 
author has made many experiments^ gnd oq soils of the 
most extraordinary fertility. In one he found g per cent; 
in another 20; in another 3 ; and in a specimeu of famous 
land, procured fropa FIand<>rs, 17. Many poor soils how- 
ever possess nearly the same proportion as the most ftTtiie: 
and on compi^ring every circumstance he is disposed to con* 
elude, that the necesbity of a large proportion of calcareous 
earth depends on the deficiency of that organic matter^ 
which is couvertil^le into hidrogen gas. If the farmer find 
by experiment, that his soil contains but a small quantity 
of organic matter ; or know by his practice, that it is poor* 
and iu>t worth more than 10, .15, or 20s. an acre ; it ought 
to have 20 per cent of calcarequs earth in it. If on the con« 
trary it abound with organic matter, and be worth in prac* 
tice a much larger rent, it will not require marling, though 
it contains but 5 per cent of calcureous mutUr. or even le«8. 
Maries likewise give tenacity and firmness to u «oil, arid for 
this the clay marles are to be preferred. Some boils ahpund 
with acid particles, which are prejudicial; and these are 
neutralized by the calcareous earth. 

The earth foqud in vrgecables is for the greater part cal- 
careous. Hence we may presume, that this eatch should 
make a part of the ho\U Lord Dundoaald calculates, tnat 
all the calcareous earth to be obtained from the vegetable 
produce of an acre of most crops will iiot exceed eighty 
pounds: but if even this quantity be required for every 
crop, the iicccssity of occasional supply apptars. 

Marie is generally obtained by digging, but it is also Collectini;. 
dredged up from tlie beds of some rivers. White shell 
marie, and a very light white species, are found under bogs, 
and at the bottom of lakes. No person, whoite land wants 
marie., where it is not generally known to exist, should be 

satibQed 



ise 



AppticatioB, 



<|u'iatitr. 



Soil requiiiBg 



OH MAHUESi. 

•ttisfied without the most careful examinatioii by hotting^ 
A borer for twenty feet de|ith does not cost above £3» for 
80 feet not above £21^ and is used without dilBculty by aaf 

<!ommon workmon. 

Marie requires. *io preparation. It is best applied oa 
lays : and the longer it lies on them before it is ploughed 
hi» the better. It should not be ploughed ia too deep. The 
best way therefore is, to plough the ley shallow for pease* 
To turnips there is but one objectiony the giving so much 
tillage so early .after the improvement* Potatoes are mis- 
chievous for the first crop after land has been marled. Next 
tolevsy fallows are the best to receive marie. When the 
farmer has a choicoy on wet and heavy soils it should be 
sttmmer work, and on dry ones it may be winter. 

Tke quantity employed is of great importance. From 12Q 
to 150 cubical yards per acre being laid on a poor sand, the 
productiveness of the land has been injured for twenty years. 
Half this quantity would have done good. It is better to 
roarle twice, than apply too much at once. Ou poor» loose* 
wet loams more may be used than on loose sands. On loose 
peat bogs, and on moors, the greater the quantity the 
greater the improvement. Where the object is to give cal* ' 
careous earth, the quantity should be small, as from ten to 
twenty tuns. 

The defect of a soil must be understood* before a who 
farmer will put himself to the expense of marling. Everj 
day*s experience will inform him, whether his land want 
tenacity and consolidation ; but the want of an addition of 
calcareous earth as a food of plants can be discovered only 
by analysis. Other circumstances deserve attention. If 
the chrysanthemum segetum, corn marigold, rumex aceto- 
sella, sheep*s sorrel, or polygonum penusylvanicum, abound* 
the experienced fkrmer will pronounce, that the land wants 
niarliDg. Turnips producing deformed strings of roots, 
without swelling into the proper globular form; or being 
'^ subject to the well known distemper of the anbury ; both 
alibrd a proof of too much looseness of texture, and mg^ 
l^t consolidation by clay marie, afler which these evils 
vanish. The ericsi vulgaris, common heath, or ling, is ge- 
nerally a proof of an acid soil ; and all peat toils are found 

on 



•a^aalynt to contain a conudenble quantity of tbo gallit 
ocid. Some have been rendered quite sterile bjr adds. A 
Stntui of mois in Scotland was lo impregnated with Titri** 
qlic acid, that from four pouudu of it one pound of green 
vitriol was extracted. In a. bog iu Bedfordshire sulphato 
of iron abounded in aloiont equally extraordinary degree; 
yet it has been converted into one of the finest water mei^ 
dowB in England by his grace the late Duke of Bedford* 
Wherever such soils are found, niarle is sure to have great 
cflect from its calcareous earth. For wet bnt loose loomi!| 
which when manured are more productive of straw than 
com» clay marie is a cure, and attended with unquestion* 
able profit Another quality of these loams is that of being 
ancommbuly pestered with the red worm ; and it is a singu* 
lar quality of marie, to lessen this evil considerably. W hat» 
ever gives them a firmer texture ha^ a tendency to thia 
efiect* 

S. Chalks dttlk. 

Chalk in its properties nearly resembles marie, bnt it Properties. 
contains a much larger profiortion of calcareous earth. It 
renders tenacious clay more dry and friable, which stone 
marie alone will not. It is also more common to chalk 
grass lands than to marie them ; and it works a capital iin« 
provement on low, coarse, sour meadows, rendering them 
firmer, and improving the sweetness of the herbage. 

It is comn^only dug from pits like marie : but the gene- Method of ]»to- 
ral practice of Hertfordshire is to sink shafts for it. Xhe «""°f »<• 
chalk-drawers travel in gangs; chamber the shaft all round, 
leaving; columns to j-upport the incumbent earth ; and draw 
up the chalk in buckets. They will wheel it on to the land 
for Bd. the load of twenty-four bushels to the distance of 
twenty poles from tlfe shaft. 

It is generally used in much smaller quantities than marle« Qoantitv m c4« 
In Essex, whither it is brought by sea f'^oin the Kentish 
cuast, from five to eight waggon loads per acre are at* 
tended with more remarkable eilect than even dung itself, 
if the land have not been chalked before. More than forty 
Lubical yards are seldom spread on an acre. 

The most remarkable effects attending it appear to be zfktts. 

upon 



lU 



oa MANURES. 



r 



upon good soand loamB, worth from IStmto 20tf» aa acre. 
&, or seven waggon loadi per acre are seen immediately in 
the crops» and to an inch. Chalk presently gives the land 
H reddish colour, so that the part of a ftllow which has 
been chalked will be discernible at a distance firom this 
^nge. A singular circumstance observed in Essex is its 
being an enemy to what their farmers call graiing, or rnn« 
ning to turf. A field, which before chalking will mn of it- 
self to a fine head of white clovert does so no longer after 
chalking. The chalk used there is not soft, but rather 
hard. The sharpest frosts leave^ many lumps unbroken, 
which must be done with pickaxes; and the hard bits, 
which break to a clear white, are better than those that 
crumble between the finger^i. This is to be attributed to 
the nature of the soil, which is rather too stiff fbr tamips. 
Where ftpF^i- Soils tkbounding sponbineonsly with sorrel are highly im- 
abttt. provable by chalk. ' It is used successfully on all soils, on 

which marie is found to answer. It is not a general favour^ 
ite in Norfolk for poor sands, or even middling ones ; but 
some farmers of considerable note for accuracy of observa-r 
tion have of late used ver\' hard chalk, and with great suc- 
cess* On all moors, ])eat bogs, and peat fens, every species 
of calcareous earth may be applied with singularly good 
f^fiect; and as chalk abounds more tlmn marie ii| this earth, 
it b full as valuable on them, if not more so. 

9. Ume* 

Liue. Every kind of calcareous 8tone, being in fact a carbonate 

of lime, may be converted into lime by expelling its caN 
bonic acid and water by means of fire. In this state it is 
caustic, and has a strong power of reabsorbing moisture, 
and likewise carbonic acid, if exposed to the atmosphere. 
As limestones generally contain a portion of clay and sand, 
these will remain mixed with the calcareous earth in the 
lime. This is of little consequence, only diminishing the 
quantity of cnlcareoos earth. But sometimes they have % 
mixture of magnesia, and this has been said to be detri- 
mental to vegetation. Limestone that contains magnesia ia 
generally of a brownish hue, or fawn colour; but none it 
iouud in a stone that breaks blue. 

As 



Oit MAHCRBl. Iff 

'^ As lime »ft*T some months «(posMre is c«»nv*Tt«l into '" ?*•!•««'- 

>tk, it iDUht hnve simitar Hfifcls with regard to nuppli^'in); 

■loBreoiM earth -. but it will not ^i*i? tenacity to sand like 

■lie, 9* friubiUtf to ciny Itke chiillc. Wlnm Intd on in 

Auatic Ktate, it dmtrors tlie aiwiitun^ua ;;r(ifftli of 

: and tlii« \t u very vulunbl* (|<iality, vrhere thii f^mwth 

b m owKUivit. The truth of this abservutioQ is visible on 



The moat mAtcrinl distinctiou in the application of lime Apptiutno. 
ktbat ofapreBding it fW»h in ita moat cnaitic state, or 
in|; It till it IS slacked, and has reubsorbed more or ixaa 
nic acid. 
► Oa all wils in a state of nature, and greatly abeundir^ 
b undaciiyed vegetables, which ore rei^uired lo be spfwd- 
f deiiroyed, it iihoulil be spread hot from the kiln* as it is 
nnl : that is, iu its nioxt cuuatie state. In other ran« il 
I sla c ked, before it is spread. Upon waMe lands tlie caus- 
■city has ao eTid«Ht and oecnsary effect ; but not on cuki- 
il lands, which this quality of the substance irhile dv 
d of it* curbooic acid would tend to prejudice rather 
ft iiDpraire. 

t A truly practical husbandman of ^reat expeKence, ftlr. 
aiket oT Arbigland, gives directions for the ag>plintia», 
kick Bierit attention. " Let the whole quantity of Ume, 
d to be used on any given 6eld of moderate size, be 
i in one heap, where water can be hod most conveniently, 
t it be Uiere thoroughly slacked ; and ini mediately afler 
said, which it will be in a day or two, till the carts, nnd 
■piuiil the lime out of them with shovels equully over llie 
The more common method of laying it down in 
apt over the whole field, to slack by rain, is »ery 
is liable to get too much niiu, which, in 
pbce of reducing it into a fine powder, converts it iuto a 
mniitg mortar, in which state it will neither spread equally 
Mr mix with the soil*." And for the same reason, Mr. 
Wight remark*, both the ground and the lime should be 
e dry at the time of spreading. In Dumfriesshire, quick 
c being compared with some that had laiu in a heap for 

■ TtBiH. «( the Damf- Sot, Ro. II, p- at- 



11^ OK Kimnuu. 

< 

flcretal yean io coowquence of a lawsuity tha Uftl^r did 
much more good than the former* 

Stts on. Where improvementt are carrying on upon a large acale, 

and draw-kilns are kept at work throughout the year, the 
choice of season becomes of secondary importauce :'in otb^ 
cases liming should no more go on in winter than building. 
It may be continued from Anarch to October, but summtf 
is the best season. It should be spread on a ley one full 
jear before pl6ughing» that it may have time to fix itself 
irmly in the sward* If ploughed too soon it ialls to the 
bottom of the furrow, and will be the sooner lost* for it con- ; 
tinually sinks. Three yt:ars before breaking up a ley, pact .■ 
vat limed with thi-ee hundred bushels an acre; the remain- .^ 
der was Umed with an equal proportion only one year befor^ 
it was broken up» The former produced outs 10 for 1 of tj^ 
aeed, the latter 6 for 1. J:^ « 

^»BB*^*> In common cases the quantity ought to be guided |j^' a 

chemical analysis of the soil. The largest quantitier;&re 
been spread, and with piopriety, on bogs and peat* moors, 
and on mountains. The Bishop of Landaff speaks of a 
thousand bushels an acre on moors i» Derbyshire applied 
with great success. Five or six hundred are not uncommon 
there. Lord Chief Baron Foster, in Ireland, went as far as 
to three hundred barrels, on a mooiy waste ; and fbuad, 
that the greater the quantity the greater was the improve* 
meat. Dn Anderson tried from one to seven hundred 
bushels an acre, and found the g^ood effect to increase regu*> 
larly with the quantity. In more common cases the quan* 
titles vary in general practice from thirty-^iz to a hundred 
«nd sixty bushels. 

Whetc sppli- On peat bogs, peat moors, and mountains, the utility of 
lime cannot be questioned. Experiments on every scale, 
and under a very great variety of circumstances, speak a 
unifbtm language : the benefit of applying lime is great and 
decided, 6n liming Kedgley moor, in Northumberland, 
covered with ling, the ling was killed, and three tuna an 
acre of white clover were mown without sowing any. Part 
of Meriden heath, in Warwickshire, was fallowed for a 
year, ten acres trebly folded with a thousand sheep, ten 

acres 



cahlft. 



oil UATXVKJU. Ijigr 

acres well dressed with f^ood rotten dung, ten acres well 
limedy and the whole sowu with oats and seeds. The part 
folded had not a bag of oats au acre, and the seeda were 
not worth savinf^ : that which was d unseed succeeded irery - 
little better : while that which was Uined produced u very 
emellent crop of oats and seeds. 

In OlendAle ward, Northumberland, the soil is naturally 
dry, dufiy, light, full of fibrous roots, and, when in fallow^ 
on passing over it you sink to the ankles, ^fter it is suC^ 
ciently limed, the fibrous roots disappear, the soil becomes 
dcmer« firm to tread, retentive of moibture, and produces 
better and more abundant crops of grain: and, if laid to 
graM, white clover appears to an inch where the lime waa 
apread. Even on a burning sand four 'chaldrons an acre 
Imre had a striking efiect; but then the sand was covered 
with a mossy sward. 

Lime does worst on a cold hungry clay* It cannot suc- 
ceed, where in the farmer*8 language it has nothing to work 
upon ; where water deprives it of its most material proper- 
ties; or where frequent repetitons have given a full dose of 
calcareoas earth, and consumed every vegetable particle. 
After paring and burning lime is at best useless, tlie vegeta- 
ble fibres being already destroyed by fire. 

Where calcareous manures are required, powdered lime- I'imesioae, it 
stone may be employed with excellent effect. Perhaps it J™®**^* •*** 
may be questioned, whether limestone gravel be not the best 
of all manures for improving a peat bog. 

4. C/ay, Lmik, and Sand. 

The efiect of these depends on the deficiency of the soil. Clay, Ioud, k 
Clay is every where beneticial on sand : but sand is not 
equally so on clay, for many clays contain fur more sand in 
their composition, than farmers are apt to sukpect. Saudy 
loams are frequently considered as clays, because they are 
heavy for want of effectual draining. 

Sea-sand partakes of another class of manures. It con- sca caud. 
tains muriate of soda; and if it be a shelly sand it is su fur 
allied to ahell marie. 

5. Burnt 



Ifg Ok MAwdtESi 

m 

5* Butni C%» MarUf mnd £arih 

B«mtclayaii4 In variouB purls of the United Kingdom it has been t 
*^^' pnctice to bum cky, nod clay invle% in large heaps, and 

to spread the ashes as manure. The nature and properties 
of burnt earth must vary with the portion of it trtiich is 
calcareous, aa this is converted into lime by calcination. 
Burning clay breaks its cohesion entirely, and reduces it to 
a permanent state of friability, which does not permit it to 
combine with any other substance: the sulphuric acid, 
which roost clays contain^ is dissipated : the iron and the 
day itself are oxigenated : and a faculty of generating nitre 
is given in some cases. In its burnt state also it has a power 
of <9ombining with the salt of urine* fiurnt daysi says Dr* 
Darwin, when strewed on the ground, may contribute to 
vegetation, by their parting with their oxigen in m fluid# 
not a gaseous form ; which, united with carben, or phos^ 
phorus, or nitrogen, might supply nutritious fluids to the 
roots of vegetables. Its texture is extremely beneficial ill 
dividing and attenuating the harshness of stiff soihi» and 
rendering them more absorbent. These circumstances are 
amply sufficient, to account for the benefit which many 
persons have derived from the practice of burning clay and 
marles* Mr* Leslie^ in Ireland, made great exertions in 
this way : Mr* White Parsons, in Somersetshire, has burned 
the earth out of ditches and drains successfully: and Sfsi 
Boys, in Kent, has been long in the habit of doing H, 
paying his men sixpence per load of ashes for digging and 
burning* 



fTo be continued in our next.) 



X. 



on rat AjmsPcTfoir or thbatabs. ]{a 



^ 



LoT£tL EoaKWORtH Eiq., F. A. S. and M. R. I. A. 

Tq Mr. NICHOLSON. 

SIR. kdgticorthsttncH, Afareh 6, I8O9. 

J. HE pnbtie, by the toss of tno tfieatrei in one winter, The building 
nuct be anxioDs about the plans on which thoae edifices are "f* '^'"iw *" 
to be RbaiK : tliey will ncFt be satisHed with the opinion of be c(i.-i««it 
■ nn^e atchitect, they will require an open discussion of 
ibe prindplm, oud plans upon which a new theatre is to be 
eoiwtiDcted; this they have a just right to demand, f« 
their tiiei and propertTes are at utalcc. Erery faniiljr in' 
London Blight have mourned the loes of some relative, had 
A* plaj'-bouses been filled at the time of tht aecident ; 
and Ibe whole city mih-ht have been burned to aabes by 
rilher of the con Sagrat ions. 

We mn to consider not only the loss of lives bjr the im- Ii mnnot be 
mediate difoster, but also the apprehensions, which the ■o- Jh^utij'pTevBiii 
dimw nvit feel for saaie time tu roine ; anil tKe traxtiM^, *wta tppft- 
srfaich lh«« who remain at home must stifFer durirra; (h?''*"'""^ 
abwut.'e of their friends at the theatre. Nothing sFiould* 
be leFt to embitler the cup of innocent pleasure, ntiA' 
" assureuce should be made doubly aure," where ^eat 
bkiards are run, from no greater motive than the hope of 
u hoar'a amusement. 

Covnit-garden playhouse is now rebuildini; without atty The p«bUe 
previoaa appeal to the public, that I have heard of, as to t'^'X'^i ba ca!- 
Ibe plait or precautions, that are to be followed in its con- him^ 
(If DCtioa. 1 know, that some hints were sent on these snb- 
jfCtt, which were aot even considered, at least not notice, 
till after the plan was arranged. Surety it must bu inflnitefy' 
mor* aduantatteoua to the propri.'tors and to the notioii; 
ihat « short delay shoald take place before a plan is ulfi- 
Ditdjr anunged, llian that B new theatre should be openeiit 
iia dajrs sooner, or leii days later. 

*n>e glaring defect, or to apeak more properly, the obvi- Timber ihoulf 
«■■ blonder m the boilding of Drury-Iane theatre, ww the ■""' *' '"'^ 



190 ^v THS coHtT&ocrtoy op rnKATHsi. 

iwBtA ai m introdnctioii of tim{ier.ms m firmme work for bricks and stooe ; 
framcFork. |||jg \^ ^ ^^^^ commoo to boiMiDgs in London, where the 
poblic aofety b without beaitmtion Mcrificed to^the iiiterealc 
of iodividuils.— Bat to conttruct m wooden theatre is on 
sbsttrdlty too gross, to pass withoot animadversion. A 
frame-work of timber, filled with cores of brick or stone, 
and cased perhaps with brick or plaster, is opened for the 
reception of the public, who are to run the risk of sodden 
destruction from a spark of fire, or a snuff of candle, firom 
the fireworks and lightning of comedy and tragedy, of 
pantomime and fiuve, without any probable means of 
escape, or any security, except what a few. hogsheads of 
water in a cistern on the top of the house can affi»rd.— -No 
future prologue at the opening of a new theatre could re- 
assure tbe.andience upon this subject. 
Tima shoutd From a new of these considerations I hope it will appear 
b« allowed for incumbent upon those, who rebuild Drury-laae, to take 
farmatkm from time for receiving information from every quarter whenro it 
every quaiter. m^y }j^ expected : instead of hurrying forward to a begin- 
ning before they have well considered the end. A remark* 
OWerrationt Me observation made by that great engineer Mr. Siaeaton,, 
of Mr. Smea> iq his account of the building of the Eddystone li^thouse* 
*^^ should never be forgotten by those who direct, or by those 

who undertake extenmve public works.— -^^ No resolution of 
*< the proprietors,** says he, *' ever conduced more to nlti- 
'* mate success, than their leaving me at liberty /oi to time J; 
** had they been of the same temper and disposition as by 
** for the greatest part of those who have employed me, 
*' both before and since, their language would have been, 
** (mH oh, get on, for God's sake get on, the public is in 
*< expectation, get us something speedily, to show, that we 
* ^* may gain credit with the public/* 
Architects Architects and engineers arc so nearly connected with 

should be en- ^^h Q^her in the objecU of their pursuits, that it would be 
well both for them and for the public, if every architect 
were an engineer, and every engineer an architect. That 
this is not always the case, we have melancholy instances to 
prove* 
SodetfofcivU There is a society .of civil engineers in London, of wUch 
VxH^ '* ^^' Joseph Banks is president, consisting of men of uodia-r 



OB THE COSSTRDCTIOS OF TBBATRES. \^l 

jMlted talmti aod iDrormation. Would it not be adviublc, ihaati be con. 
to ctnisalt this board ^ No harm could possibly arise from •"''*^ 
•ach tpplicntioD, aiMl much frood might be the co>iset|Uetice. 
ir in (be mttltilude of counsellors there may be sonto delay, 
Ibere is ^iiobably much safety- 
Having now nnimadverteJ Upon the steps that should be Plani <houW 
tnheti, before any plnn is ultimately aettled, 1 shBll rentuie Snd^'wi'"^. 
tooffrr a few hinta upon the coastruction of » theatre. If of ihe pro- 
■ny thingi which I throw outi should become an object of ^"' 
ilt»«uasioa, I trust that I may have nn opportunity of ex- 
plaining what 1 propose ; and if any thing be adopted from 
my mggestions, that it may not be folloired, without my 
being awjoainted with the mode of execution. Man; new or fultow*d 
attenpta fcil of their object by the introduction of addi- """'l'- 
l>oo»l ideftii that appear plausible ; or by the omission of 
maJl drcatBstances, that seem in the original plan to be 
of no material consequence. 

In baitding a. theatre, Leadingoh- 

I. Security to the audience is the first and most nece*- builJmg 
tary object. ttiMiio. 

fi. Facility of ingress and egresf. 

3. Facility of seeing and hearing. 

4. CoaTeaience to the performers. 

5. Space for scenes, with progier openings for the ma- 
rbtoerf. 

6. And Uatly, eipense, 

1. To nMTt sa/etif, common sense points out, that at rnrnfatr 
little limber and ns small a portion o* possible of eombus* ■"'''' limbfr, 
tjble materiaU should be employed. The outride Halls 
^onld be constructed of stou^— the coins of large block* 
oTsloBecloaelyJointed.depeiidiogtipcin their own bearingsand 
not made apparently compact by mortar. Bricka for the 
internal structure should be mode under proper inspection, 
■ad not worked hastily up, to fulfil a contract. All ll>e jnd jubt'Iiuir 
io'Mta, raften, and principals, and the framework of the iron, 
partit»ona> ajioald be iron. The framework of the roof kooF with 
■bonid be of tlie same metal, with a covering of copper. "PP^'i 
No plomber Bhaald be permitted to e:<tercise hit dan- and admit oe 



][j^ o«. nm MNfVMcnov or nBifnu^ 

gmtmktndu^ in the oooiftnictiflaofi apjr parft^oi Ibe baild* 

{2m7«i?' irMk fiw thnhir mnife be enornHmtly •speniive— and it) 

«>• woold be enonnoost if scientifie oifr were not Ukeop to* 

celenlettithndtei^eDd «traigth e£ every period the ttmc- 

tnaa wteie iien ¥(aa. to be otedyand to freme the netorial to-- 

. gether vpenmecbenioel piineiplet' of atreiigth. and lightDesa^ 

HMf of baa ^ to tim mo( it eonld no doubt be made Kgbter and 

^||[^ ^" cbaaper of iron Ihvi of tioiber a* the preMttt prion of thet 

HoU^Wck WMrUL CoUon aaUaare ira|iientlf Snored wifebhoUowr 

toofinf . bffick% whioh ace light; and theae may be eoveped witbi 

earpettittg. 

Many olkhev* parte of the llicatre mighit* be.oQUBtnuxted of 
ireo! and oapper ; and ttucen might be intredtuaed. in wuuvp 
Wood that places inttead of wood. There are kinds* of libber than 
td^hit^^^ do not flame ; these, though not verf, dniabUi might be 
Deal fliay ba employed for floors and benches. And wbeoe deal ia abso- 
pt«pared to as lately, necessa^^ it may. be. covered oi; imbued, witb ^l-.wayb, , 
^mm^sT that in some degree will retard inflammation. After tbi^ 
wood work that requires paipti.ng has received two c<iptt%,of 
oil painty it may be finished with a coat in disteqapelr^ 
which may frequently be renewed at small expensCj and 
without the disagreeable smelt of oil paint. 
Thepritate fo heat the green room* dressing rooms, and- the with- 
^^^^^ drawing rooms, steam might be advantageously emfdoyed t 
hmitd bj and the boiler to supply the steam should be sn placed^ na 
andTbebmler ^ ^^^ ^^ ^ mpment's warning, to work a steam engpe of 
thottUi ba force suflkient to dmw water at onoe ftom the Thaine^ and- 
t^^^. ^® *nv«:m with % strong: ingipittlsn wheierer i|r shmM bed 
a^tt? ^ "JP- wanted. Thia ste«L«i. engine sbirold be strongly er^lonsd in. 
thi^C wa^ ^. bujldingp. to mi^ access, on every aide. cpuUL be eiml|; 
ter. i^btained.. 

ATenuet. 8« Sonie of the tbsptiee. atPatif.hafa. conmpdioM.edm-^. 

niti^ ; but not, ctne theatie in, London. ha» been ,so plaped», 
c[r so cpnstmcMK as. to affbid toleraUe cpnTenienfiA e^fapr 
to tl|e.hjf)ier or. lower c)ase,iof spectaton» 

privnM. proper^ intervenes sq n^nch, tli^t:it iaaciureetr 
tobeiCHiected. that any great insptowea^ 

in 



fiNSTBUCriOH OF THSITRSa. 

1 rouod ibeuteorihe 



939 



I thta revfiect, by enlarging llie t 

I Wbrtlier u more convetiicnt tituation might betelKtcd, The eniranca 
I'doool pretend to kn<w ; butnthcuUe buill on tiieold "ligh'S^-^aJe 
iQDdMHMi iniglit be rcndrrcl extremely rnniDiodiout A ta diuiu 
^«M>«bce9, or vomitorict, as the aiioenln oullcd theowe* 

I to llicir aHipliilbenlrai. 
;irtb« whole buililiug wwe fti'iafd upon irc)ieB««f • h«i^t by rai~ini ih» 
EcKntloBdoiitcarriagCB, nod iCnumerous fiig'htB»rv»tt*jj"j,,^"^'" 
«Mu1r«clt-il tntliin ihe )ii«« whic}i eupfwrt thmt 
Irbea, tbi: Mtdience might depart corrMHutlkiWily i)A dittlttb 
t^liKcUonB, wilhont confnUDneT dddy. 

: colonnadrs tbrmed by pollm prttpetly dnponil 
bould jMTniit Hlteniete rows of eurriBges. Ctnnpbnjr ' _^ 

wif^i dncend from the boxn itlniotit imniedistely iim 
t oon'tajritt: pwisit^es ior tha»e wiio were oa fo«t mi^t 
C ratted off, and rendered oecure. 

I pUui would be Bltcnded with couMdembte exjienaet Thit exptnte 
I it might be c»unt«rbalBnt'<^d by sfMring <Hie of the '"'*''' ""^ ^ . 
' gnllerick. whioti lately iujnrwd th« audi'Hlitjf of the 
re, Bithout adding mach to tlii* prolits of the 
It might be io nuLUfli^, that iitkHs fot 
t •diBtwioM of cnrna^ee uuiler tlie piaxzat Ahould be 
wtufh would cover the ex^iease of their con* 
mctiaa. 
' 3. Fariiity o/Jeeing and hearing. — As to seeiug I believe Fgriiitjrf 
t vtfy tittle can be suid. but what ia obvioot to every i'*i'>l> -^fj 
i of cotniaoa Mutter the acton nnd the apectaton ^' 

hwre iti ihia resp«>^t opponte interesta. It ia the intereit of 
(he acten. to hive ih&t part of tht; home, which containa 
tiM •odivncct •■ Urge aa {losaible. On ihe contrary it 
nuit be the wiah of the andieace, within ccrtnin bonods, 
la bv Doir the Mti^ ; mid in idl cuaea, tin- audience mufct 
•»h. th«t ev«ry purt of the pit. jj^uUeriea, and boxet, 
•bvvhl be ei|«nlhr commodious for *ein((. Now in a larf^ 
tbrstrv thia iti impmiible. To ^xteod the pit and boxei, 
ibry uiu*t revt.d« from the froMt of the v.tai;* ; they cannot 
K extended in breadth without shuttittg out the vien from 

Little 



184 on m cotriTBVCTioii or thbatrbs. 

tad of lMvfai§i Little inooDTarieitee wms felt «• to tedog at Dniry-kae ; 
bat erery body, who wished to hear, complaioed. As to 
the actors, to make any impression, thej were obli^^ed to 
raise their voices above the natnral pitch ; to substitute 
pantomimic gesticulatioQ, in tlie place of inflexions of 
voice; and to use contortions of features instead of the na* 
tnral ezpresnon of the eyes, and the easy movement of the 
coantfenancot It b in vain, that critics inveigh againat the 
had taste of those, who prefer show, and pantomime, and 
p r o cessi o ns y and dancing, and all that the French call 
spgcUKk : lOdcss we can hear the sentiments and dialogne, 
it is useless to write good plays; but all the worM loved 
jqMaCaelr. Both these tastes should be gratiftad. Garrick, 
2^^^j^J^^ as I have heard him dechre, vras alwayv eatertaiiied with a 
pantomiase: he told ma how many times he had iaen Har- 
iequm Fortunatus with delight*-4he number I forget, 
however I am sure, that it fcr exceeded the number of 
times any man could hear a good comedy or tmgedy. 
Surely the literary and the visual entertainment ri diflereut 
Audience spectators might be gmtified. In the first place, the audi- 
^*^ ence^^rt of the theatre fhould be lei% saMller, and lower, 

than it was at Drurywlane. Its shape might undoubtedUy 
be improved, by constructing it according to 4ie known 
laws of accoustics : but this, if rigorously attended to, vrouM 
contract the space so, as to affect too much the rtemis of 
the house* 
gt,^ 1 he areaforthe stage might be as largeas it was for- 

and tceaery. merly ; but fhe scenery should be ftdjutited so aa to contract 
the stage to reasonable dimensions. To confine the voice^ 
the wings should have leaves, or flaps, hinged to them, so 
as occabiooally toclo»e the space between the -wings, leaving 
sufiicient room for exits and entrances. When large objects 
require admission, these leaves might be turned back, and 
would then allow*the same-'space as usual between the 
wingii This would be an additional convenience to the 
ietora, jvbile they jftand in waiting to.euter on the stage, 
Ceilinicof the ooii^ooUiscreentbem from the cold. The ceiling of the stage, 
stage. which at present is made by strips of painted linen hanging 

perpeodicolarly, should be made of well varnished in»o or 

copper 



9 



Off m COKlTRVCTIOir OF TBBATan. J 35 



copper fmmet, turning upon centres to at to open at pi 
mre like Venetian ivioclow-blinds ; and by thit meant to 
contract; at witl, the opening of the ceiling* and to con^ 
duct the voice of the performers towards the audience. The A fratlc 



cufffcnt of air^ lo at it does not aniouut to windi should ^SLSf^,. 
flow lh>iii the stiige to the audience. By experiments tried from cIm 
upon aonod by Sir Thomas Morland and some other mem* **'^* 
beT*s 'of the Rojnd Soeiety, it appeared, that the propaga- 
tion of !ionod was prodigiously obstructed by the asiistance 
or opposition of a alifcht current of ur. We are told by ^^"^ 
Vitravin«9 and Lipsiflff» that the sound of the actor% voice bnun ^Lrk 
was increased in a stirprising manner by braaen vessels ^"^^^ ^^ 
placed under the seated the audience. 

No satisfactory aecdunt remains of the manner in i»hich 
this desirable effect was produced. It would not however 
be difficult to try experiments on this subject in any one of 
our theatres when it is vacant. 

About 40 years ago I happened to go with a friend into Soimd In- 
a large cockpit at an inn at Towcester. My friend, who created by 
waaat thf opposite side of the pjt, appeared to me toJ|^^JJ^^^^ 
speak with a voice DDcpmntonly lot|d and spnorous. Upon ditor. 
aay inquiring why be tpol^e in tliat manneri he said,' that 
he had not raised his voice above its ordinary pitch. Upop 
looking about I perceived a lurge earthen jar behind me, 
which proved the cause of this increase of sound : for upon 
repeated trials the voice of my friend sounded as usual when 
I stood in any other part of the cockpit, but that in which 
the vase was placed. To the beat of my recollection the 
jar was about tivc feet high, and twenty inches in diameter. 
I remember welt, that it rung clearly, but slowly, when 
sifuck wifh the knuckle. By what means,' and by what 
materials, the pulicii of sound may be be^t returned for thp 
purposes we have in view, is a subject for the joint efibrts 
of matliematics and experiment. 

Among other fxiiedients paunelling the backs of the E«pedirtit 
boxes with thin elabtic plates of brass might be tried. 

A saving and advantage would certainly ari:»e in all cases 
from using iron, or copper, inHtead of wood ; they would not re- 
qjiire renewal for many yearS| and they would be a preservative 

agiuti^t 



IS^ W t9l i:y>««7ri^<^i^ or tb«atm»» 

•0m*t fire* The prom|itf r*s box might cerUinly be im* 
provcNt), 9P iHi to throw tho proi^ijter** voice ipore ^nUnctly 
vpop t^« ita^^ OOd |9 piTvtQt itf bei^K he«ri by tbo 

Coin^of 4* CoyiMiJM^r m imfifrmn* NMrithitwdnv ^hr fm 

tb^iSdb? S'" ^^'^ ^ BooMiii, fiid the iMMMtiODOoT ll^ overrigbtir 

died. OMfc fct«pi,h)|ve ri|e|i Hi tkho oitim^tioa oftho imblic W« 

h»v» iMi. jffiA nt>o«(l) #nd pipotf^ pieonm thee^o^kot 

fopdpot »f iMny ftBi»i» |iet'fer iiio i i i » I coniidfr tUi itfonn 

#»hi||^y |rfiy»OUg»oiitit0 BWtpli^r jPP^ it bgco wM o Jiity 
IP (he i99fiBge«i ffa tb«90tf% ta«09o^^^ 

pith fvcry pom^le oQ9¥#oieBOf^ n%, tbut th^ jqh^ e^jqr 
that EDglish word cvH^ui^ whiph.79 oU <itimfianf of life 
Hki^ to pi»maie, ^9<kpoiid4Uioe m4> laoriUtf ^ 
It k tooccrily aooetiiury tD odd* that pipit to tpaak 

Spetkhig through ibonld be bid bpm tbo green rooqi to eveiy opart^ 

pipes. ment of the actors. 

6. I have left the articAo of expeme to the laet,' beeaote 
ExpflDM. whatever essentUUy tetods to the conTenieDce and gratiiea^ 
6on of the poblic will always find suAcient tapplies from 
the hbenditj of Britain. A small additioo to the priee of 
tickets would amply defirvy the expense, that wooM be m» 
cnrred by any reel improvements. 

If the united efforts of men of science apd taaen of prac* 
tice'were directed to this object, we might expect to see |i 
theatre superior to any on the continent, adapted both to 
the purposes of splendid exhibition and of true comedy ; 
where our children might be entertained with the *f Forty 
Thieves," and ourselves with " The Rivala"* apd •« Tho 
{School for Scandal.** 



' • 1 



XI. 



XI. 

mjbr Pmtntbtg vr Strppreisiui; Fires. In a Lattrfrom 
a CoTTttpondtut. 



^ 



To Mr. NICHOLSON. 

L HE destructive fires, that have recently takeu place In Waichmni u 
I if"'*"!' I bare iuduced uie to coiDpre» a few ideas on tlie P'"">^ ^"'' 
nlyect of waurhmg pubLic Uiildiug-, which have arisen 
rpMn ■ denre to (oiib a )<lau of aufety lor a buildiog in n hich 
I ant ntjMll interested. I aliall cooliue these oljser > ^tions 
to the prereution or suppieision at' tir^ in auch u t>'tNitrt 
a that latHy in Urury Lace, or Covt-iit Garden : aud, if 
tlii;}- are calculated fur a (iLacu io jeur vaUiable Jouruol, 
fl^y are at jour service. 

Let ii be suppaxed, that «ucli a buiUling is directed to Metho-l af «• 
he notuiuaJlf divided into coaveuieiit sectiuoa, each capable ■^'""e 'li*iiiri. 
«f btriai; and actually attended to by one watchman. A 
null ctianiber, oi' any other upace, iu addition to and (lia> 
liDctfrotD thete, in a proper utiuilion, Khali hn occupied 
by a penon to direct or iheck the^e waichmcn. The ilirec* 
\ioa Dtaj be exercised ordinarily without leaving tiiia cham- 
ber, in the following iBanner. Let there b£ one clnclt for 
e»ch watchnisn, of a certain conilructiou (which is at pre- 
sent partially in use, and proved to aceomplibh |)Urpo^i 
similar to the object of the {)resent paper) tixed in the 
chtunWr of the director of the wntchm^D ; each clock com- 
niDiiimting with the section of ito proper watihman by 
cranks and wires, or otherwise, in snch a manner, that by 
pallio;; the wire be shall be able to eflect a vieikle alteralioa 
OB ihr clock at a precise moment, as agreed upon, conforni- 
ihlv with the conatniction of the clock, but not at any 
othrr monieRl. This clock shows the usual division of tiaie, 
and has a1*n :i revolving frame in which pins are placed ia 
locktts cu)iahle of being pressed down at particular timet 
only, a* above stated. Thus, by the me of ibis clock, a 
■-atchinan's vigilance or neglect may be proved by the evi- 
'lt:ace of the clock itself. 

Suppose, 



yt 



Ite opcntloiu Sup|>of€y fbr example, thin clock be to couttructedi that 
a piD tliall be pretted down erery quarter of an bour» aod 
the proof of this beiny.dooe tbaU re«t with the director of 
the watcfameDy iu the firtt inaitaiicc^ ^iuiply by looking at 
the clock every quarter of an hour; it is evident^ that the 
neglect of a watchman iBaaoQi.aBiat logger than this space 
of time, if the director fail not in his duty. Thb man 
should himself be watched with the mo«t scrupuloua sospi* 
cion, and detected in his own failure, in the same manner 
as he should detect the failure of the watchmen ; that b, 
by the proof of a clock on the sa'iii^ principle as the above, 
placed on the outside of the building, and Under the abso- 
lute examination of the police, or any'^other nkpetintend* 
ance satishctory to those most interested. If tlie director 
be correct, instant alarm would be led to the section of any 
watchman whose duty should appear to be neglected ; and 
if the director be incorrect the alarm would be ulterior, 
and as active as in the case of poeitive danger. It may be 
thought difficult for one man to examine many clocks at 
the -same moment: if it should be fooad so each dock 
might be set difierently, aod erery watchman hare « clock 
in bis section set by Us proper clock in the dtrecter^i chAm« 
ber. 
Thm %pteAj ' Heucc, in case of fire, a discovery wottM not only soon 
^j^^<^<^^ ^"' ^^^ P^*^^» ^"^ personal assistance Would be on the spot; 
and, with proper access to water at all times ensured, with 
the best means of applying it» an increase of the first evil 
would almost certainly be prevented, until additioilal w^ 
aistance could be proeured : and alarm bells or other sig- 
nals, by the sound or character of which the particular 
building might be made known to firemen, could, if neces- 
sary, be instantly sounded or displayed, aod a constant in* 
fiux of proper persons would take place iu the ^very infiincy 
of danger. 
Theplsn \m 1^ " not improbable, that this plan may ba thought by 
acen trM. many persons too elaborate and expensive. To such it will 
be satisfactory to know, that very extensive and valuable 
buildings in my neighbourhood, the property of some 
highly ingenious and respectable gentlemen (one of whom 
is the inventor of the cIocJil) have been watched for beverat 

5 cars 



ycati by • ttogle wAtcliramny chefkcd by this ddck atone^ 
«Did wtti €ztrc«ieljrfew ciridencet of neglect. This is th« 
remit of floes, ftc, begun with judgmeat» and enfiMced 
with stfictocss. But one ofojectioo can be offered agunst OI4«etija. 
Ma* namely, that the roorniDg ooly brngt the proof of the 
wBtchasan*s condnet, when nothing; can be opposed to his 
ne gl eet bat fine or dismissal ; while the^ hours of greater 
must be left to his discretion, and the fear of punish* 



Am asMiy aodifieations of plans like* this are easily de»This pUnnuy 
vised, md bew antedgements made in application to prae- ^ti^^LeL. 
tieai not ivadily imagined before, it is deemed utmscesssiy 
ta'antier mla Mail, or to attach any specific regulations for 
each depaitocnt, or for the ultimate execution of thewholci 
If it is sstisfcetorily made out, that the plan is practicable 'I'he expeme 
and vsefnl, a slight calculation will show t(ie expense to ba °^^'''*^'^ 
insignificant, when compared with the object, or even with 
the pmnium of insurance. 

I am. Sir, 

Your obedient serrant, 
Derift May Uf 1909* M.fL 

AmMtmikm. Respecting register clocks for the useful 
purpose indicated by M. K. see our Journal, roL V, 
p. 133. 



XIL 

Om tie Mcihoi ^ taking Transit ObsertatUms. In a Letter 

J¥om a Correspondent. 

To Mr. NICHOLSON, 
SIR, 

aN the second volume of your Journal, Mr. Esekid MsChodsftak* 
Walker, after mentioning Or. Bradley *s method of Uking "^^^{^^^ 
transit obserratioDs, by noting the proportional distance of 

the 



thtfiwr Am tlie «ii» At ^ tiM tepte-ofube clocks fr^* 
fmn HBntiier,. wkkfa «fac tbiakt tiip«ri#r. Tbis ^»Mitfti m 
Utting the time when the ceot^e joT fthe itar comet to joae 
inde ef the mte; wbichy he observeif isar real line* and not 

' aata Bradley*8»A line drawn by the ttreagth of imigiiiatioQ 
liflRra the middle 4f the wire, paiallel to the sid^ I liave 
toed both these o oeth ods withaesrly the <amo sHcceUi and 
WMBt ooa&si that) afier all* I am very much at a loaa ftb 
lionjecturey how the fractional part of a second can hcetfOh 
mated in «itbiir of theie wi^a to .that 41100(7 it «|>paaia ti^ be 

., done* la 4ie obaervatioM maide at Gaaanwiob I ^hm^t^ 
tlie4iaBo of^a itar*s fNMing the miiidiao ia aNni^a'eKpreaifi 
lo-tbe haadrodth pait of a teooad. Hoyr Ai$. •Klpemtpi*^ 
oinon ia oUaiaed, as I am at aJossMto ^m^ecUHcw I aball te 
^i(od to jfiovif ar any of yoor caB[osfyadfiri% 4o ii^tan^ 

Iam» Sir» -'/,••■. 

Yonr ohadiout sdrntp 

J. 



REPJLY. 

M«tiiedof tak* ' '^ » certainly oot difieiilt to idaierve to ^nA fwits «f a 
ifig transit ob- secoM ; and of this my comspAideikt will Easily sattsly 
t^rTationi. {^j^j^if }^y (rial With a common watch of five beats ilk a so* 
cond. A phenomenon, as for example* the transit of a 
star, may take place in ony one of lhfififia.hf;ata» or. bop> 
tween any two of them. If the observer repeat the words 
(either mentally or otherwise) One, one» one, ona» one-— 
TtDOp two» two, twoy two^-7%r«»9 three^ three, three, three» 
Ijic, at each beat of his seconds oloch, the word in Italic 
at the very beat, he will be enabled to ,mark the fractions 
of seconds with great precision. Musicians^ in the rapid 
execution of prestissimo mofemeot% divide the second still 
lower. As to the hundredth parts of seconds* thoagh it 
might by some expedients be practicable to observe thea» 
thia ia not implied in Astronomical TabloB» They ana 
iimost tflwoys the resalts of moans taken b e twoo a a aomber 
iff obitrmtioois and the second decimal m$f be eonsidored 

as 



of CALMOUA^M. tLOOTm j^|^ 

tt indicstiDg the fmme Talue oC the firsfc» instead of lilie 
jigo ^.. or -^ wfakk i* MH&ethiies aoneaed' lor the like> 



W.N. 

OBHBBBBeaHii 



XIII. 
J— JiiiifiM ^lit» RMfa/CoIagtuIa t bjf Mr. VAV«OBi.tM *. 



T. 



HIS root hes s brown colour and a wrinkled surfiice in External a|^ 
c on ae qn cpce of desmcation* In some parta it ii covered P«>nncc. 
with oealea like those foond on the roots of common ferns. 
It is hardy c6riaceoll^ and difficult to powder. It appears 
to be the root of a species of polypody. 

Exp. 1. Thirty grammes (463 grains] of this root coarsely Digested in 
po w d eied were digested in three hundred grammes of dis- ^*^* 
tilled water for forty eight hours. The water acquired very 
little colour, but it had a degree of consistence and unctu- 
snty, BO that it would not easily pass the filter. Its taste 
was digfatly saccharine. "" 

The infusion having been mixed with different reagents. Action of re* 
the following effects were produced in it. tgcnte oa the 

I. By alcohol was thrown down a yellowish white floccu* 
feat precipitate. 

S; With sulphate of iron it assumed a blueish green 
coionr, bat without atiy perceptible precipitation. 

3. With aoetite of lead a very copious yellowish white pre- 
cipitate was produced. 

4; Oxalate of ammonia occasioned a very light precipitate 

lait. 

5. No precipitate occurred on the addition of nitrate of 
harytet, infusion of galls, or solution of animal gelatine. 

6. Lastly it was slightly reddened by infusion of litmus. 

Tbe eff^ of alcohol teaches us, that it contains a mucous inferences 
subiAattce : that of sulphate of iron, that it contains a resin ^^^ ^^«^ 
siaflat to those of cinchona, of rhubarb, &c.': that aoetite * 

of lead indicates an acid, which may perhaps be the malic : 



• ABi»lss>4a.Cbii&ie| fol, L V, p. Si?, 

of 



t4ft 



conobonted 
hf fiurtlier ex- 
periments. 

DifltestediA 
alcohol. 



Precipitated 



lKitiiIpd» 



Residuum. 



Resin. 






OH CA14GVALA mOOt« 

oToKolate oTaiiimooiay « little calcareoiu Mlt* The nitnite 
of buytes prores, tiiat it coDtaiot no eolphuric talt ; the 
gallsy that it hat no animalited subntancc : the soluliott of 
itiiiglass, that do tannin is present. The infurion of litmna 
■howt the presence of some acid. 

The following experimented to which I was led hy the 
foregoing, will demonstrate by their retnlts the existence of 
most of the prmciples indicated above. 

Exp. % Thirty grammes of the same root were digieated 
forty eight hours in about 300 gimmes of alcohol. This 
liqoid assumed a deeper colour than the water employed in 
the first experiment. Its taste was at first .saccharine, but 
it left behind a very strong sensation of bitterness. 

On the addition of water it became slightly milky, which 
confirms the existence of the resin mentioned above. 

This tincture subjected to distillation till it was reduced 
to six or seven grammes, a£R>ided a certain quantity tif oil 
of a deep red colour, which was precipitated to the bottom 
of the liquid. The supernatant fluid had then not so deep 
a colour, and a less bitter, but more saccharine, taste. These 
effects were owing to the separation of the venn by the eva« 
poration of the alcohol ; and to the fluid remaining as less 
volatile holding id solutiofi the saccharine matter. 

As a little alcohol still remained in the fluid, which re* 
tained some of the resin in solution, I evaporated almost to 
dryness with a gentle heat. I then washed the lesidoQia 
with a little distilled water, which enabled me to separate 
the saccharine matter pretty accurately from the renn. The 
alcohol that had come over had not carried with it any sen* 
sible portion of oil, for it was nut rendered turbid by the 
addition of water ; but thus mixed it had a peculiar smell* 
and an acrid taste^ 

The rtsin separated from the saccharine matter in the 
manner above mentioned had a brownish red colour, a very 
strong acrid and bitter taste, and was soluble in alkalis, to^ 
which it imparted a brown coloor and considerable. bitter* 
nes8« Acids decompossed this alkaline solution, and. sepa- 
rated the resin just as it was before. 

Is not this resinous substance, which ought equally to 
be foond in the other species of femsf the principle that 

destroys 



4Htt0fm tbe ta^worm ? This is not improbftble, ibr wo 
know, that alt acrid and caustic oils produce this effect. 

Tho ttccharioe aubttance, which bad been ditsolred by Saechtrlne 
the alcohol at the same time with the resia, ipves a slight matter. 
lemoa colour to water, ll is reduced to a thick and visoova 
aobatance by evaporatioo. Its taste is aweet, pleasant, and 
aBglitly add. Its smell is nearly similar to that of the juice 
•f apples when efaporated* On being h^ted it swells up. 
grows bbck, and emits a smell exactly resembling that of 
boraed sugar. I found in it perceptible traces of muriate 
of potash* Thus it appears there can be no doubt, that this 
substance is a true sugar, with which an acid, probably the 
malict is mixed ; but of this I could not satisfy myself by 
expcrimcot* the quantity being too small. 

Exp. 9. To obtain those principles of the calaguala root. Root difeitet 
which arc not soluble in alcohol, I digested in water for jj^^ij^^^;*^ 
fbrtj ci^t hours that portion of the root, which had already with iloohol. 
baCB traatcd with alcohol, as has be^ seen. The colour it 
imparted to the water was deep, as if it had given oat 
■athing to alcohol. This infusion had no bitter taste, like Propsities of 
Ihat ia akobol : it fratbed when shaken ; it precipitated ^^" uf»»>a» 
solution of silver pretty copiously in a substance which had 
aU the appearance of muriate of silver. Evaporated in a 
gentle beat, it left an extract of a brown yellow colour, 
transparent, very tenacious and stringy, on which spirit of 
wine had no efieot. This extract had a mucilaginous and 
slightly nauseous taste : mixed with a little sulphuric acid 
it grew Mack, and exhaled copious fumrs of muriatic acid : 
pot on a redhot iron it swelled up, and emitted a smell 
similar to that of gums. This matter then appears to be 
nodnng kot a mucilage coloured by a small quantity of 
extractive matter insoluble in alcohol, and mixed with a 
certain quantity of a muriatic salt, prohnbly with potash 

for its base. 

____ ^ 

Exp. 4. The root of calaguala thus successively ex- Reiiduma 
hausted by alcohol aud water 1 afterward treated with weak ^I'^f* Tj^ 
nitric acid, in order to know whether it coutatned any amy- 



laceous matter. After two days dij^tioa aith a gentle 
heat, 1 filtered the liquid, which had acquired only a ^ight 

amber 



» 



144 



AoaUndi 
•ilded. 



FvceipiUted 
with alcohol. 



The mtduuniy 
j.ofthewboli'y 

incinerated. 



The root treat- 
ed wiih the 

truafauidi/t^ 
fereDt order. 



tmber colour^ white the root hid bebome of « pn^ bftglit 
red. 

An alkali mixed with tM» flaid preapitated notbtng; bot 
it prockiced in it a veiy lively and ai^rtteable ^olet red eo^ 
lour. The filter too, througb whkh I passed this nitric ill* 
fusion, assumed on dry inj^ a pretty fine red. 

The same nitric infusion, being mixed with fbor parti of 
alcohd, yielded a light ffocculent precipitate of a rery fine 
white colour, which, when separated from the sup^rnittant 
fluid, and washed with fresh portions of alcoholi redissolved 
hi cold water. This snbftance had al! the appearance of 
common starch, that had been dissolved in nitric acid, and 
afterward precipitated by alcohol : but I had not a •nflBbiant 
quantity, to satisfy myself that it was so in a posftire maii- 
uer. At least there is erery reason to believe, that it iir not 
gnm, otherwise it would have dissolved in water, mud fur^ 
nlshed some traces of mucous acid on being treiied with 
nitric acid ; but I obtained iVom it only the dxaKc' The 
nitric acid then, according to all appearance, took up ftoni 
the calaguala root a certain quantity of amylaccimt matter, 
and a colouring substance insoluble in al(5ohdl, which a1ka4 
lis turn to a violet. 

The calaguab root treated by the tliire re irt reagents AieiK ' 
tioned above, and afterward dried*,, had fosif a- fifth cff Mb 
weight. All that remained waa the woody part, tand the 
earths insoluble in acids. To ascertain the nattire of the 
latter, and pretty nearly their qtiantity, I burned the Ati^ 
duum in a- cmcibletill it was completely incinerated; anld 
from about twelve grammes of the root, I obtained half a 
gramme of ashes, which were- composed of carbonate of 
lime, that the nitric acid' had not dissolved, afidf cetfainly 
did not exist in that state in the root itself,' wior a sitiaTl 
quantity of mnriate of potash, and some-fraces of silex. 

I treated the calaguala root n second time witfr th^ same 
menstrua, bot in an* inverted' order, beginning with* water, 
neidt employing alcolior, and* finishing with nitric add. By 
the first operation T obtained the' sagar, the" gnnr, part of 
the salt^, and a little colouring matter. By the* second I 
gotthrrasirri and a- little of the -sugar, that had escaped 
• " the 



ox CALAGUALA ROOT. ]^ 

tbe action of the water. Lastly by the third I dissolved the 

amjflac-eous punxou, nod the peouHar colouring substance t 

Iwve rotnlionetl above 

Or reciipiLii1»tin^ ull the producta obtained by the dif* 

finvat operations mentioned in the coune o( this paper, we 

fiail, that the root of calaguala is formed of 

1. A larj^equnntity of woody iDDtter : Componeri 

^ A gamuy substance, which coiti«« i)«xt in point of ro«i. 

quantity : 

3. A r«I, bitter, acrid resio, ihf next in proportion : 

4. A nccharine matter, tolerably abundant : 

5. An amylaceous part, the quantity of which I did not 
asrertain ; 

6. A coloariog matter soluble in oitiic add, toA turninj 
(ioirt on the addition of an alkali . 

7- A Miiall quantity of acid, which 1 could not diKrimi- 
aate, in coiitfquence of its being so little, but which 1 «■•■■ 
pcct to be the malic : 

8. A tolerably large quantity of muriate of potasli : 

0. Lastly lime and tilen. 

Of «I1 these substances those soluble in wiiter and alcohol Mrdicinil 
irealooe capable of producing any eHWton the animal ecu- F*"*' 
Bomy. These substHiu-'es are the lugar. tnucilsge, muriate 
of polajli, and retiin. 

Since the time when I analyaed this root at the reqwert of '■•<"«"'■»'• 
Mr. AtyODi 1 have subjected to aimilar experiments the moiiuDlyiialf 
nott of common imlypodj- and the male feni, aud obtained «"i>in ilie 
Iram them precisely similar principles nearly in (he same |,""\^ u^^ 
proportrans as from the calagunlu root. The I'onner root« nln. 
bowvi'ef contain a small quantity of tannin. Thus the ana- 
log of orgaiitiation, which led Mr. de Justieu and Mr. Ri- 
rhard to conclude, that the inedicinal virtues of the cala« 
I piala root must be similar to those of other feras, is fuUf 
roafirmed by chemical analjont. 



Vou XXIIl.— Jbsk Jfoj. 



Ijt^ ' ANALXiliOF THE mVT OF-WHEAT: 



XIV; 

On the Chemieal Nmiure ^fike Smut m fFheai. By Messrs. 

Fqukcsoy tmd Vavqublim *» 

HE smut in wheat basalteady, occu(ned the . attention of 

examined im* several chepniets. Parmeutier has fouod iu it • fetid, iat, 

perfectly. qq^ coally substance. Comet has observed its oleagincms 

nature. Girod-Chantraos, ia 1 804» announced, that it ccm- 

tained also a free^ fixed acid> which. he supposed to be of a 

pecu%yature. fu , . 

This discovery, announced to the institute in the antumn 
of that y^r, induced Mr. Vauquelin and me to uoder^ke a 
Aill examination of tliis degenerated vegetab1||e miitter. 

Described. It is well knawn, th&t the smut is iu fa.ct a corruption of 

£he griin, which eibiiib Within the Kusic of the s^, instead 
of & flirinaock>ud snbstan(!^, a black, greasy, stidUiig powder, 
the most decided and dangerous characteristic of which is 
its being eafAeibfe bf itifSkting other grains by Cdntact^ and 
imparting to them the property of propagating smotty 

Prevtfitfid by .wlicali' Ittts'kiiownitoo^ that washing with lime and alMis 

^hlng wi^ iatMMMtfcertain method of rembving its contagiows pro- 
pcrtyy*«nd p ro vc fiting the difvease from being reproduced^ 
which it constantly is, if this practice,- now gdnerally em* 
-' * _ ploycd'byialfjttdicioiis farmers, be neglected* 

^^ ...^ - 'Thesmnt, on .which we made our experiments,, was given 
i '• ttstby !lir.:Girod*Chantran8. r 

tre^ljiViriih Trttufated in an agate mortar, and separated ttom Ih^ 

hot^laiho],^^^!^^ tfan amvt impiirted to hot alcohol a yellowish gieen 
ooloar |i Qod^ without commvnicating to it any character of 
oddity, 4*!chibfted only iabotrt a hundredth part of its weight 
of a deep green oily matter, as thick aa butter,' and acrid as 
rancid grease* ':>.'*. 

^her. Ether separated from it thesamo oil. 

and water. ^^^^^ ^^** action of alcohol, the smut retained both its 

greasy feel, and filthy smell. Lixiviated with ^we times its 

-♦ La Revue Philosoque, &c, Nov.. 1805. Abridged from a paper read 
St \\it tiational Institute. 

weight 



AHALT8U 09 THE SMUT OF WHEAT.* ]4^ 

weight of boiling water, it gave it a brown red colour, a fetid 
amell, a soapy quality, and a very decided acidity. 

This acid, examined by various appropriate reagents, ex- Acid appeand 



all the properties of the phosplioric ?h^c*" ^"^ 

On lisumtiog pure smut, not previously treated by alco- This confirm- 
hoU ^ith boiling distilled water,, this liqnor, which was per* ^ 
ceplibly add, being saturated with potash, gave a precipi« 
tate of ammal matter, mixed with crystallized ammoniaco* 
■lagneiian phosphate, and every proof of an alkaline phos* 
phate. These experiments therefore con6rm the existence 
of firee phosphoric acid in smut, known by its fixedness, its 
insolubttity in alcohol, its solubility in water, its prccipitatioa 
by lime, lee. 

After the aqueous infusion had been precipitated by pot- Animal ami- 
asby it held id solution a fetid animal matter, resembling in JhjuTSm'pi 
coloiir, imell, and the phenomena exhibited by its predpita- trid gluten. 
^n with various reagents, that found in water in which the 
gluten of wheat has putrefied. 

After hanng undergone the action of alcohol and water The raaidnnm 
iDccewively» the smut of wheat still retained both its fetid ^^^^^^^ 
undl and greasy feeU Distilled on an open fire it afforded 
a third of its wdght of water impregnated with add acetate 
of ammooia; nearly a third of a deep brown, concrete oil» 
much resembling adipocere in its form, consistence, and 
fusilnlity by a gentle heat; and 0*^ of a coal, which, being 
indnerated, left 1 gramme [>5| grs.], being a hundredth 
part of the original smut, of white ashes, three fourths of 
which were phosphate of magnesia, and one fourth phos- 
phate of lime. 

We examined the smut with its husk, to compare it with Sautcxa- 
that which had been deprived of it, but we did not find dif- Se*hLk!* 
fiereuce enough to ascribe to the bran that covers it any de- 
cided influence on its analysis. 

From our examination, the leading results of which have Iti componeni 
just been given, we conclude, that the smut of wheat con* ^^' 
tainsy 

1. A green, butyraceous, fetid, and acrid oil, soluble in Oil. 
hot alcohol or ether, composing near a third of its weight, 
sud imparting to it its greasy consistence. 

i. A vegeto-animal sulMtance, soluble in water, infolublc Vef ^tn nni- 

L2 il^ OMll^teuace. 



f43 AltALYSIS OF THE SMUT OF IVUEAT.* 

in alcohol, and precipitating most of the metallic 8ah> as welt 

as galls. It composes rather less than a fourth of the smut, 

and 18 perfectly similar to what comes from putrified gluten. 

<&Btt. 3. ^ coal, amounting to one fifth of its quantity, which 

gives a black colour to the whole mass ; and is an evidence, 

as it is the product, of a putrid decomposition ; a part which 

it acts equally in mould, and in all the remnants of putrified 

organic compounds. 

Phosphoric 4, Free phosphoric acid, scarcely constituting more than 

.004 of the smut, but sufficient to impart to it the property 

of reddening blue vegetable colours. 

Fliosphates. Lastly the phosphates of ammonia, magnesia, and lime, 

iA the proportion of a few thousandths only. 
A rtsidaum of The smut of wheat then is nothing more than a residuum 
e?tiv Ducnrtio- of the putrified grain, which, instead of its original compo- 
tioD. iient parts, starch, gluten, and saccharine matter, exhibits 

only a kind of carbonaceous oily substance, very analogous 
to a kind of bitumen of animal or vegeto-animal origin* 
Putrified gUi- We must here remark, that in our examination of gluten 
(eaotlMbltff li* decomposed by putrefaction, we found characters very simi- 
lar to those of the smut of wheat ; and that the products of 
the one are so like those of the other, as to render it difficult 
in certain cases not to confound them 'together. It requires 
a man to be well practised in chemical experiments, to dis- 
cern the slight differences, that exist between these two pu- 
trified matters, because these diffi,Tence8 conust only in de- 
licate shades, that are "not easily perceivable. 
Still we are Interesting as the results of this analysis may appear, we 
ignorant of Its ^^^gj confess, there is still a grt»at distance from the know- 
ledge they give us of its nature to that of its cause ; and yet 
*' more to that of its contagious quality, which is proved by 
. . fio many experiments, as to leave no room for the slightest 
doubt* We mtist own too, .that these results, while they 
indicate the smut to hv the rcMduum of putrified farina, do 
not entir(!ly agree with the ideas of philosophical agricul- 
turists, who consider this disease as the necessary product of 
Jilay Arise contagion ; »\ncii it thus seems natural to presume it arises 
without poiv- from putrid decom portion,- which may proceed from any 
»S»n- otlier circumstance as well as a communicated germe. 

Attacks the The same rc'suUs lead us equally to infer, tliat the pu- 
^"•*^ ^ trtscency, 



ON TUE dltBCKIC ACID. 

tTesceocj't whith necessarily precedes the formation of tiie 
ant in ij| eases, wliether it dejieiid on contagion or ante 
lontBneansty, attacks paKii-ulurly the glulen ; and [ire- 
!d«>> indeiHl (irevcDts, llie formation of the starch : voce 
t IcDuw jKuitive!)', tliat this fecula, no traces gf whii:h aie 
I in the smut of wheat, sutfeiii no alteration from that 
; proct^s)!, which so poweifullj' Attacks the glutinous 



iw 



'ftAeJttioH of IS'ilric Acid on Cork ; iy Mr. Cbevrewl^. 



i 



IRUGNATELLI having Qxamined the action of nitric Hutor; oT the 
fwk. in t797i found, that the cork was converted ^^^T'^'^ ."^ 
Btio ■ peculiar acid. In 1797 Bouillon- Lagrange resomed 
Ibe inquirj of the Italian chemist, and confirmed the ex- 
utcuce of the suberic acid. In the two papers he pnbliahed 
on Um subject, Ite described the cliaractcrs of this acid, 
vad iu oombinatioQs with (he salitiable base«, which Brug- 
■wtrlli had not studied. Notwithstanding these labour^ 
*mral penons still entertained doubts of the existence of 
thi* acid. They thought, that it wus only one of the acidi 
picriomly known combined with some matter, by which its 
properties were concealed. Of the truth of this I was de- 
siion* to aatiafy myself by experiment. 

To fonn snti eric acid, 1 followed the common process; |.rpp,niic& of 
wfaich I shall here recite, with the pbeuomena that uccnrred the subciic 
M th« operation. 

In ■ retort, to which a receiter was adajiM, I beflied sit 
farts of nitric acid at S9* on one of rasped cork. The 
matter grew yellow; nitrous gas mixed with cwbonic a^ 
wu evolved ; and a pretty large quantity of prusnc acid 
«Ma fitrmcd, 1 returned the product from the recei'.'er iol» 
•be retort aereral titaes, that the cork mig)«t be acted npun 
•■flctently. When the action of the acid appeared S» 



• Aauks de Cbinle, *el. LXII, p. 333. 



abfttf. 



150 OK THE SUBERIC ACIO. 

ab^tf^ I poured the matter still hot into a porcelam cip« 
sule, where I finished the evaporation with' a gentle heat, 
siirring it coDtinually. As soon as it was fe<fuced' to the 
consistence of an extract, t put it with sonne water into a 
I largb glass phial on a sand heat. At the end of a few hours 
I withdrew it from the fire ; and on cooling two' solid sub- 
stances separated. One of these, which I shatl .call A, 
sunk'to 'the 'bottom in the form of large flocks: the other, 
B, congealed on the surface of the liquor like wax. This 
I removed with a piece of card; the other I separated by 
filtration, 
^mioation The flocculent precipitate. A, was insipid ; insoluble in 
^themauer water and in ajcohol; and of a white colour, but turning a 
.'' hfiXe brown on exposure to the ain Nitric acid at 33* did 

ihot act on it perceptibly. Placed on a red hpib coal, it 
burned without swelling up, and emitted a puugent smell 
of empyreomatic vinegar. Its coal was bulky, iud 'pretty 
liard« This substance therefore was nothing but tbe woody 
part naturally contained in the cork* 
Enmtottion The supernatant subs^nce, B, had very little tai^e. It 
ofihenuuer ^„ Tusolubje in water; but -boiling alcohol dinolved it, 
i' some portion of woody matter excepted. The filtered to* 

Jutioot OD cooling let fall a white substance resembling waac 
This .being separated by a second filtration, I added water 
to the solution, which threw down a straw coloured retinoas 
substance, that turned reddish by exposure to th^ air, and 
was acid, notwithstanding I had washed it repeatedly. On 
distillation it yielded a sort of concrete fat, find a very acid 
fluid, that precipitated acetate of lead* I could not as-» 
certain iu niUure from the smallness of its quantity. 

The water that ha^ been employed to precipitate the 

resin acquired a yellow colour by evaporation, and a taste 

resembling that of bitter almonds. It contained only a 

little ojT the yellow aaatter, an^ probabljjr a few atoms of 

pru8S]ic aad. 

^mination The ^uid from which the matter A had been separated 

pirattrftjjm'^ )iftd an acid and bitter taste ; precipitated lime water and 

^ natter A. calcareous salts ; turned solution of indigo green ; contained 

a little ironr, as appeared on the addition of galls; and. 

when the excess of acid was saturated, it did not precipitate 

gelatine, 



Off tm svssftic Acm. m 

gelatuie» oomequcstly coDtaioed nooe of the tannin of Mr* 
Ilatcbetl. 

In evEfMirating the floid with a gpentle heat, it emitted a 
l^rctty decided imell of Tioegar. This induecd me to ^ish 
the evaporation in a retort ; but I obtained only nitric acid, 
vithoot anf acetons. Whether this were diasipftted at the 
eoanaencement, or its quantity were ^ mnall for me to 
detect itr 1 eannot say. The liquor, after eiwporation' aod Suberic add* 
<9iolio^ let fall an «ctd jM/iaieiila/ na/fer, which I separated 
by filtration. Four tuccceqnre evaporations afibrded me 
fresh add. After the fifth ey^poration I obtained crystals 
of oxalic acid. I^aviug depanted the mother water, which 
was yeUowy tuid had ^ ver^ bitter taste, I precipitate the 
pxflic acid it still retaiDed by liipe water in excess, and dis- 
tilled it. The liquid that came, over into the receiTcr con- 
tained a little ammonia. 1 then pr/ecipitated the liquid left 
in the retort by carbonide of potash, and lime was thrown 
down. The filtered liquor yielded in a couple of days some 
small goM coloured cr}'8tal8 of the bitter yellow matter jcomr 
^—^ with potash ♦. • 



This i^jcid sedim^ent^l matter was the suberic acid. I 
washed off with cold water part of the yellow matter that 
colonred it, and completed i^ purificajtipn by repeated so- 
lution in boiling water, from 'which it separated by cooling 
io little white flocks. By concentrating the bitter waters 
I separated that, which they held in solution. By this pro- 
cess .1 obtained a very white acid, about fiye parts of which 
were obtained from sixty pf cork. 

The snberic acid is as white fA starph. It has an acid Properties of 
Ustfip jritbout any bitterness. Light does not alter its ^cid. 
whiteness. To dissolve one part of this acid requires 38 
parts of water at 6p^ [140*" F.], and 80 parte t^ 13" [554'' F.]. 
I^ little solul^Jlity pr/svents us from haying it crystallised ; 
so that when it is 4ry it \$ always pulverulent and opake. 

• Haiiaf istarsUd the aiother water of tliew crystals with mnri- 
Mt^ sod, I obtalBfd a precipitate, which exhibited all the character- 
istics of bcasoic add : bvt I dare not venture to assert, that this arid 
is coaflntly fofmcd^ fur in three operations ob Cdrit 1 obtained it bnt 
once, and then in a very iniaU quantity. 

Thrown 



^ 






Heftted int 

ffMOrta 



Solution in 
water. 



OM TBt tVBKftlC ACIOw 

Thrown on liotcoaU it isrolatilited, witlwmt tcavinf any 
residuuiDy and emitting a smell of suet. 

When heated iaa small glaia retort on sand, h melts like 
lit with a gentle beat If .tba retort be withdrawn from 
1;^ &v^ and the melted add -diffused over its inside^ it cty- 
stalluiea U needles by cooling*. If the di^illation be con- 
tiauedt it rises in vapours* wbicfc condense in thesummit of 
liia ralort vx white neediest some of which are half an inch 
long. This sublimate has all the characters of suberic acid. 
A aligkl coally OMric is left in the retort. 

Suberic acid disiohred in water reddens litiiius very dis- 
tinctly. It does not preceipitate lime *» strontiah, or barytes 
water, or the saline combination^ of these bases* On eva- 
porating Hme-»water saturated with suberic acid* the calca- 
reous sub^rate falls down in a white flocculent piecipitateg 
from which muriatic acid separates the suberic. .. This is 
indeed an excellent method of obtaining it perfectly white. 
He muriate of lime may be separated from it, by dissolving 
i| in a small quantity of hot water ; when by cooling we 
obtain the acid, which is always in a pulverulent form f, and 
similar to what it was before being combined with the lime ; 
only this base takes from it the remains of the colouring 
matter, which the water had not dissolved. 

• It seciiif to me, that Mr. BrugMtelli must have deceived himeelf, 
wlien lie wys, that •vberk scid precipitatei lime water, sod all the 
minetal calcareous salts. The oxalic acid, which no penOB has men- 
tioned, and which is Ibrmed with the suberic acid, was no doubt the 
occasion of the precipitate he obtained. It appears to me also, on read- 
iag the article suberic acid in Brug^atelli^s Elements of Chemistry, 
vol. II, p. 106, that the acid he describes still retains hitter matter, 
rctinoos matter, and oxafic add. 

1 1 made this experiment, in order to see whether the suberic acid 
wcfe an^kywa to the henaeic, and, in this case, to separate it from 
the matter that prevented its crystalliaation. 
f uriAestion by I repeated the same experiment with barytes instead of lime, and 



Method of 
partly jug. 



Mistake of 
Yrugnatelli. 



barytet. 



had the same reimlt. The subcrale of barytes is deposited by concen- 
tration, sad its decomposilioa by muriatic acid afforded me the suberic 
add perfectly white. A smaU excess of the scid should always be em- 
ployed, in order lo sepairat<;4hf} iMt portkms uf base,>which the sube- 
ric sdd mij^ht retain. « 

Ammouia 



oir TBC jRTBEmre "icio. I^o 

• - • 

Ammonia and the fixed alkalis dissolve suberic acid rery ActUm of 
wdL These combinations, when concentrated^ let &11 their *^^ 
acid on the addition of sulphuric add, muriatic, fcc. 

The suberateof ammonia precipitates the solution of alum, Sttbente of 
•od the nitrate and muriate of lime. But to obtain preci* •^'^^'oia. 
pitates with the latter concentrated solutions must be euH 
ployed, for the suberate of Un^e is pretty soluble. . 
• Suberic acid throws down a white precipitate from a per* At^kM «f the 

fectly neutral solution of silver, from muriate of tin at a ^^^ P^ ^^ 

metiii* 
minimum, from sulphate of iron at a minimum, from nitrate 

and acetate of lead, and from nitrate of mercury. It does 

not precipitate sulphate of copper * or of zinc. 

Soberate of ammonia decomposes almost all the metallic Action of <he 
solutions. The cupreous salts are precipitated by it of a suberate of 
pale blue; the cobaltic, rose-coloured ; those of " zinc, *"""***"** 
white; &c. 

Nitric acid has no action on the suberic. I boiled twelve {iitric aci4 
parts of the former at 32** on one of the latter, without ^oet not act o^ 
baviog any sensible decomposition. The suberic acid wm '^ 
dissolved, and this solution, 'being boiled down, deposited 
suberic acid some hours after cooling. I observed, that the 
addition of water promoted this separation. 1 thought at 
first, that I inii^ht obtuiii crystals from this acid solution, 
but I could not succeed. 

Alcohol dissolves the suberic acid very well. Allien sa-soluWcia 
turated with it, water precipitates a portion. alcohol. 

The yiberic acid does not turn green the solution of in* Misulceo' 
digo in sulphuric acid. Mr. Bouillou- Lagrange however B^'W^^^n 1-0- 
lays much stress on this property, which he considers as a 
characteristic of the acid ; aud in fact ii' this chunge of co* 
lour were owing to a chemical action, it would be very sur- 
prising, that a substance formed amidst nitric acid should 
not have attained its complete oxidation, but remain capa* 

• Bouillon Lasraiige «iys, Ann. de Chimie, vol. XXIII, p. 4S, that MifUke af 
^he sobcric acid deciiniposcs nitrate of mercar>', and the sulphates of Bouillon X«e 
copper, iion, and zinc ; and p. s6, that the Kubciic acid yields mercury S^*^* 
and xinc to the three mineral acids, and iron aud copper to sulphnric 
arid; which appears to wc contradictory. 

ble 



15(1 4BTiriciia. stone:* 

ble of deoxidiqg indigo. Mr* Boi;iil)oiirLagmnge has ascribed 
to the suberic acid a property, that foelopgs to the bitter 
yellow matter, which forms a grveo by niixtare wi^K tbf 
blue of the indigo* It is this too* that turns a solution of 
copper gte«n ; for I have satisfied myself* ^t the whit^ 
add merely dilates the \Avie colour| just as a9 equal qnaor 
tity of water would have done, 
to From what has been said I conclude, tl^at the suberic 
acid has great analogy with the sebacic, with which Mr, 
Thienard has mad^us acquainted* ; and that thi* only strik- 
ing difference between them is the crystalline form, which 
iihe subeiie acid assun^s when diffolye4 ii| v&ter or in 
ficohol. 



KVl. 

Mtthod of Fabfieaiing artificial Stone employed ia the Vici' 
. mty 9f Dunfark. By Mr. Bertraii d, Jpotkeeary io ike 
Army (jf ike Coastf. 

McAod of ^ HE materials employed for this pqrposf ar;2 the ruii|t 
making artifi* of the citade^ consisting of bricks, lime,|and sand. Tliese 
Ftrmf. ^^^ broken to pieces by means of a mill, formed of tw9 

stone wheels, following each other, and drawn by a horse. 
Water is added ; and the matter^ when well ground, is redr 
dish. This is put into a trough, and kejpt soft by means of 
Wat^r. 

When the trough is full^ some lime is burned^ and slack« 
^ by leaving it exposed to the air, and this is mixed in the 
proportion of one eighth with the cement above. 

. A wooden mould is laid on the stone^ and after a thin layer 
of sand is thrown on the stoqe, to prevent the cement's ad- 
hering to it, a layer of cement i^ poured in, and on this ^ 

* Se^ Jouroai^ wcL I, p. 34. 
t Annaks de Chi^iie, vol. LV^ p. 29^ 

Uyer 



l%yejr cf bri^s broken into ftcute-angled fragmeji^. Tl^if Metboi/i# 
two other strata are put in, before the last« ^Ipfii i? of purf 2dtt«ie^ 
cenoBt. The mould being removed, the stones thus form- 1 
ed axe laid in beaps to ixj. The lime being ^rerj gmadj^ 
vaier, and quAcUj l&ecoming solid, ^mestpnet f re not long 
in foTQiing a har^ body ^ for building;. 

Tbe liin^ >s ^ot Tfry dear, b^ng burned witb piteoal. 
The laboiar is n^t ^kar, requinng pnly one strong 9ian as** 
silted by t^o or Hturee boys of twelve years jold. The mate^ 
|ia1s, being from ol4 ruin^, are pheap : and only one hone 
is employed in this n^Qufaetory, whieh is tfo^ the only onf 
iu tbe country* I believe others exist in Prussian Poland 
ivhere these §jtones are made with much more success, be* 
/cause /rigmeo^ of basaltes, whi^ph are l^ter adapted to ibm^ 
a solid body with lime and alumine, are there used. 

The pebbles of Boulogne would be still preferable, an4 
J d9ub^ not inth these art)fi<9al stone might be m#de equal 
to natural stone in goodness. 



XVIL 

Letter from Mr, Link, Professor of Chemisfry at Rostock* 

(0 Mr. VoGELf • 

JL have just examined the pollen of the hazel nut. It pollen of 0m 
differs greatly from that of the date tree, which Messrs. **^^ "***- 
FourcToy and Vauqueliii have analysed. It contains a large 
quantity of tannin, a resin, a great ^ea] of gluten, and a 
little fibrin. There is animal niatter thereibre in this pol- 
len. 

To learn the pi^operties of the membranous part pfpitbef 
plants, I subjected to research the pith of elder, and pro* 
(Tured from it by nitric acid every thing, that Bottillon-La« 

• Aonales dt Chimie, toI. LXII, p. 29^ 

ptnge 



15^*: - I fOEKTIFIC NEW», 

grange bbtained from cork, but without this substance 
leaving any residuum* 
Suberic tcli -" As Mr. Brugnat^Ui obtained suberic acid from paper, I 
^metaMe beKere it is ^ peculiar cbaracteristic of vegetable membrane, 
nembraae. ^ furnish this acid, 

CryttaU in the In the roots of the €tnothcra Ketmis, broadleaved tree* 

'^J*®^^^ ' fliimrase, Ihove i*een by the help of a good microscope ex- 

tf emely small crystals* regularly formed, accumulated in the 

celiular texture. It was difficult to obtain a sufficient 

quantity for e chemical analysis. They appeared to me 

somewhat anidogous to the crystals obtained from indigo by 

NiohokoB : they are very little; if at all, soluble in water, 

aUohol, or many of the acids: sulphuric acid itself acts 

but vary feeUy on them ; the nitric acid alone is their true 

solvent: 

Hfurltte of %iU i have endeavoured to blacken the mnriate of silver by a 

vernot blacK- jcorrtnt of air employed in the dark, but found it impossi- 

ened without ui '^^ ^ j 

light, ble to succeed. 

BerthoIlet\ M*** Berthollet, as 1 see in his work, was able to Uacken 
hjpoth^is. it by a simple current of air. He says, that light acts upon 
this salt by taking from it a portion of muriatic acid. But 
how will this celebrated chemist account for the black co- 
lour, that muriate of silver assumes when covered with mu- 
riatic acid ? 



rr I" I ■'. . I , I ■ ! ■ I ■'^■■rT' 



m; 



SCIENTIFIC NEWS. 



Witmerian Natural History Society, 



A 



iMcfr^ttrtU XJLT the meeting of this Society on the 8th of April, was 
of Clackmsn- ,:^ad the first part of a Description of the Mineral Strata of 
'Chickmonanshire, from the bed of the river Forth, to 
the base of th^ Ochils, illustrated by a large and very accu- 
rate plan andLKCticm of those strata, done from actual sur- 
vey. 



v«j[» and froni the regkter of the borings and workings for 
coal in Mr* Erskine of Mar's estate in that ditftrtct ; oom^ 
muni(»ted by Mr. Robert Bald, civil' engineer. Alios* la 
this fiivt part, Mr* Bald treated only of the alio vial strata* 
la cootiauiag the sabject, he is to illustrate it still farther 
by exhibiting specimens of the ^ks themselves* 

Mr, Charles Stewart laid before the Society a list of the g^JP^j"*** 
found by him in the neighbourhood of £<Uoburgh, 



with iotrodaetory remarks on the study of entomdlogy* U 
wonUl appear, that the neighbouiihood'of Edinburgh pos* 
scisea no very peculiar insects, and bot.iew rare ones* The 
list contaioed about four hundred species ; which, Mr* Stew« 
art stated, must be considered as the most- common, as they 
were collected in the course of two seasons only, and with- 
out very fi&vourable opportunities. It was produced (he 
added) merely as an incitement to younger and more zealous 
eatanalogists. 

At tins meeting there were laid on the Society^s table the 
first two volumes, 4to* of Count de Boumon*s System of 
Miaeralogy, with a volunin of Outlines ; a present 'from the 
aud>or» 



AT a meeting of this Society on the 13th of May, t]»c Mineralogy rf 
second part of Mr. Bald*s interesting Mineralogical De-ghire. 
acription of Clackmananshire was read; giving a particular 
account of two very reaiarkable slipt or thlfts in the strata, 
near one hundred feet iu depth, by reason of which the 
main coal field of the country is divided into three fields, on. 
all of which extensive collieries have been erected. 

The Rev* Mr. Fleming of Bressay laid before the So- Flora of Lia^ 
ciety an outline of the Flora of Linlithgowshire, including ^ '*^'^' 
only such plants as are omitted by Mr. Lightfoot, or mark- 
ed as uncommon by Dr. Smith. This, he stated, was to be 
considered as the fir^^t of a series of communications illus- 
trative of the natural history of his native country^ 

Mr. P. Walker stated a curious fact in the liistory of the E»'1s found in 
common ecK A number of eels, old and young, were ^^^j "'* 

founds 



158 



£4iiibnargh. 



IClIVTirtC KiWi. 

found in a tnbternweout {fool at the bott6A of an old 
quarry, which had been filled u|>» and its surface ploughed 
and cropped for above a dozen of years past 

The Secretary read a letter from the Rev. Mr. Maclean, 
of Small Isles^ meotioaing the appearance of a vast sea* 
make, between 70 and 80 feet long, am6ng the Hebrides, 
in June, 1808. 

kvA he produced a list of i^bottt oiie hundred herbaceous 
plants, and two hundred cryptogamia, found in the King's 
Ptek, Edinburgh, and not enuaierated in Mr. YdUlen*s ca- 
talogue of plants growing there ; coromunicatadl by Mr. <?« 
Dow, of Forfar, late superintendant of the Royal Botanic 
Gan^enat 



Eltriientory 
treatise oa 
i^logy. 



Mr. De Luc has in the press an Ekmeniarp TreaH$e on 
Gtohgff^ wUch will contain an eEamination of some modam 
geological systems, and particularly of the Huttonian 
Theory of the Earth. We understand, that this Work ia 
translated from the French manuscript of the Rev. H« Do 
la Fite, M« A.j and wijl form an octavo volume. 



Ftench Jpor- I HAVE just received some of the French Journals, that 
'^^ have been so long in arrcar; and am informed, that the rest 

are on their way from iParis. From those that have come 

to hand I extract the following. 
Fotashiamkt* ^'* Klaproth has discovered in mica sixteen per cent of 

potash* 
Turkobiiia- I^i** John, of Berlin, has lately described and analysed an 
lyss^ oriental turquoise from Bisiapoor, near Corasan,. which he 

found to contain 

Alumine • 73 

Oxide of copper •..••.,...... ." . . 4*5 

' iron • 4 

Water • • • is 

99-5 

i^ lv4iw V. . {, "^ Thia 



aCtSVTiFIC ITBWS.] ]jQ 

This resutt rtrifiet that of the late Lowiiz. We have 
t tew feTc two distinct apecies of the mrquoiae; and may give 
to tliia DOW mentioiied Pliny*s natAe of ealaiu 

Dr* John likewUe conceives, that he has ibaiid a new Vo* Nev mct4 
Utile aad addifiable metal in the grey ore of manganete 
from Saxony. He obtained it by distilling the ore with taU 
phoiic acid. The volatile metallic acid combines with a 
weak solution of potash put into the receiver, and tinges it 
crhnaoD. From this red liquor gallic add, or infVision of 
galls» throws down a chesnut brown precipitate. Prussiates 
immediately ckinge the red colour to a fine lemon yellow, 
but without any precipitation. The carbonates do not pre- 
cipitate the red solution ; but if it be heated with a bttle 
alcohol, the «ed colour changes to a green, a smell of ether 
is gireu out, and then the carlionates throw down a brown 
oiide, which is soluble in muriatic acid. 

Mr. Bochblx has found, that the schorliform ber}! of Ba- Bstarte 
i^sria is a true beryl containing 0*18 of glucine. bayL 

Mr. Braconnot has analysed some fossile horns of an 
eztraovdinary size found in an excavation at St. Martin, 
near Commercy. He supposes the^e to have been the 
horns of the great wild ox, the urva of the ancients, curodu 
of the Germans. From a hundred parts he obtained 

Ferriferous quartz sand 4 Aiidv4b ttf 

Solid gelatine • 4*6 comel 

Bituminous matter 4*4 hosas, 

Oxide of iron 0*5 

Alumine •••• o*7 

Phosphate of magnesia* ..••••?•• 1 

Water 11 

Carbonate of lime 4*^ 

Phosphate of lime, composed of 



Phosphoric aci<l •••••• "28-3 7 

Lime 41 J ^"^ 

» ■ ■ 1 

100- 

To CORRESPONDENTS. 
Mr.Ibbetson's and Mr.Rootsey's Papers, and Mr.Tliompi- , 
wm*s Analysis of Sulphate of Barytes, vriil appear in our 
next numbcK. Metcorviv^ 



METEOROLOGICAL JOURNAL 

ForidAY, 1B09>. 
Cept by ROBERT BANCKS.M»theai«ttcsl IpftraDient Mokvn 





THERMOMETER 


BAROME. 


- WEA 


niER. 


APR. 






-5 


es 


TER, 








Day of 




oi 


11 




9 A. M. 


■ Day. 


Night, 


23 


43 


41 


46 


40 


3001 


Rnin 


aoiKly 


24 


41 


43 


4S 


38 


30-28 


Fuir 


Ditto 


US 


40 


43 


4S 


41 


30'32 


DiUo 


Dittu 


26" 


45 


44 


51 


43 


29-92 


R..iu' 


Rain 


S7 


48 


4S 


53 


4(i 


2971 


Ditto 


Clouily 


23 


4.9 


47 


52 


40 


29-41 


Ditto 


Rain 


ap 


43 


41 


46 


35 


29-67 


Fair 


Fairt 


30 
MAY 

1 


41 


45 


50 


40 


2975 


Ditto 


Cloady 


42 


42 


50 


38 


2()-35 


Rain 


Fair 


S 


43 


43 


49 


57 


29 -46 


Hail t 


Ditto 


s 


43 


45 


5i 


41 


29-80 


Fair 


Ditto 


* 


^tf 


44 


52 


42 


29-93 


Rain 


Ditto 


a 


48 


48 


55 


40 


2;)J)6 


F^ir 


Cloudy 


6 


50 


53 


f 


50 


30-22 


Dilto 


Fair 


7 


53 


58 


61 


50 


30-32 


Dittu 


Ditto 


S 


5* 


58 


64 


48 


30-30 


uiitu 


Djtlo 
Ditto 


9 


5,5 


59 


65 


49 


30-22 


IMltO 


10 


5?- 


59 


67 


52 


30-08 


Ditto 


Dilto 


11 


5.9 


6l 


ro 


56 


30-00 


Ditto 


Diiio 


I'l 


(12 


6t 


72 


55 


30-00 


Ditto 


Ditto 


13 


64 


63 


71 


56 


30.00 


Ditto 


Ditto 


14 


6* 


62 


72 


5G 


199^ 


Ditto 


Ditto § 


15 


66 


58 


68 


55 


29-86 


Raiti 


Ditto 


16' 


65 


64 


70 


57 


29-79 


Fair 


Ditto 


1? 


Si* 


65 


73 


60 


29-86 


Ditto 


Cloudy II 


IS 


65 


70 


72 


G':^ 


29-82 


Ditto 


Rain 


19 


65 


6S 


72 


^5 


29-60 


Kainll 


Ditto 


90 


58 


58 


61 


51 


29-79 


Ditl.i 


Fair 


21 


5j 


57 


6l 


50 


2y9.s 


Fuir 


Ditto 


22 


54 


5+ 


03 


53 


30-18 


Dilto 


Ditto 


23 


5S 55 


66 


50 


30.24 ■ 


Fair 


Ditto 


2+ 


56 55 


65 


51 


30-21 


Ditto 


Fair 


25 


53 53 


62 


51 


30-09 


Ditto 


Ditto 


26" 


54 


51 


6J 




29-yy 


Ditto 


Air chilly, 



• Tlie wlwlo day. 

J Too cloody ' 
Haili ■ 



obietTi tbe ccUpte. 

l'A.M.,U«bt>luua'tbn>d«'at iP. U. 

Liglinikicit II P-M. flAI 10 high wind with llshtnlni-^BhiTlwt 
la th«ineiiMOBtrtincDdoai tIiiii>dcraiidl)(htniiiKirith lieaTyrain. 



JOURNAL 



o> 



NATVRAI^ PHU.OSQPHY, CUEJyllSTET. 



Axa 



TH£ ARTS. 



««9aae 



fULT^ \ff^ 



• • • V 



.>4 



ARTICLE i; 

Ner9e of Lifi, in tAc EmtfrifO ^ P^n^. In a Letfn 
from A, Ibpetson, Esq. 

SIR. 

Jt/ OR many jear» botany and the study of the anatomy ! 

of plants have been my ^vourite occupation in toUtode, nor 

had I any indention to subject that, which was undertaken 

pn)y as a recreation, to the notice of the public : but some 

curious details having occurred, which appear to me not well 

l^nown, if you think them worthy a place in your excellent 

Journal, they are at your service. 

The very exact description that has been given hiy many Difficulties la 
intelligent botanists of th^ growth of ^ infant plant, from ***• "^^y- 
the time the seed ^ ripe for the Earthi renders it unneces- 
i^ary for any one to repeat, vfht^t has been so well detailed; 
Jbut there are curious particulars, preceding this time, of 
ifbich little is said, and still less understood ; which I hafe 

Vol. XXIIL No. |03.«^vly, ISOQ. 1^ long * 



1 5s GfOfTTH OP 9EfiDS. 

loDg mtck my patticulaff stodf, tbougb I bo^e had to en? 

0Qi|ot^r difficulties not a little ditcouragiDgy ahd.in the in* 

V(»tigatioa of which loch patience it required, as would der 

ter the n^ost laborious studenCb; beside the necessity of a 

post powerful solar microscope for opake objepts ; to which 

is addedy.iinproYemen^ not: generally tppli^' tud wUcb 

causes it greatly to excel in clearness of vision. 

lapmgastkm The invesrigatipn I mean i#| ** The impregnation of the 

0/ the iee4. g^ . gp^j ^he first shooting of the infant plant, or rather 

of the germe or vessel which preredef it." It is almost im* 

possible to ascertaiff-tbe tzact time wtien the sei^d is first 

ibrmed in the pericarp. I have always found theip in the 

winter bud, where tl^re is .ai^y J^rge enough for dissectipn. 

It is most curious to see the vessels, which may properly be 

OtttwsM Ibna called the life, ti:acing ihw w^y to each flower bud ; for a 

€f tlis MM, g^^ Qjgy ^^ ^^^ ^Q depend' for pei*(ection on /too separate 

mtnmenU : the on^ in which life ^rst enters the seed, whea 

t})e whole outward form appears to be perfeAed ; and the 

second, when the impregnation of the seed takes place, by 

the ripening of the pollen^ as 1 shall hereafter show. But 

when thp life ^nters, it leaves a little string, and afterward 

remains a long time .in a t4>rpid state. This ^nng craasas 

the coreulum, or hetrt of t.ha->c^» «> called be^qs^ it is 

the cradle of the infant plant. 

TWadbtkMt The seed is attached to the seed vessel by two distinct 

2^^**^^ organs, which the first botanists have agreed to call the 

liiAsefidvsKel. viilbilical cord ; but 1 think they t^xfs improperly so i^fimedf 

since they do not convey the nourishment to the ii^fanl 

plant, which is wholly the office pf the second set ofv^juefs. 

i Vti^ first is, I coi^onvf ft the life pf the plant^ since with* 

out it the plant dies, and ^ith it uninjured, every other part 

vsay by degrees be eradicated, ^nd will grov again. I have 

tried the experiment on many thousi|nds, and never failed. 

These delicate siqiple vessels, c^rykig a juice of a parti* 

eolar nature, arfi tp be traced in every part, lying betweeu 

the wood and the pith« Nature has plainly shown their 

consequence, by denying ihea\ to the leaf bod ; (and what 

gardlener would take tlie leaf bud to bud vciih? None; for it 

posMsses nai the ItfeJ but Providence by a sort of instjort 

pKl^X. curtoi^ teach^ it to ^mas by the leaf b^d, and proceed 

....... ^^ 



eioWTS or tztns. \6$ 

to Hyt femitte flowett where it esliiblishe* a new life in the 
Mcd. This litW will enable it to ^row, but out give life 
kgiin, without impregimtian. These vesseU are the lif« 
tbervfora, fram whioh dU flower branchts grow, and all root 
threwl* proofed. In ealling it so, I only expresa what iu 
office »e«in9 to denote. Hill traced it exactly, a.ad (.-ailed it 
the arcie of pnipnifatioiii 

The next organ, that attaches the seed to the seed vessel, The nourifh- 
connstsaf t|>e nourishing vesBeis. I qm rather inclined to in(»M«l». 
thiak, thol these proceed from the inner bark: ^t le(iBt 
tbejr amy certuinly be traced thence aftsr the infunt plant 
h«» left the seed. When intri>duc^ they enter not the seed 
at the suae place as the lif^ doe^ ; they come not into the 
nfrculiun, but pasti it, and spread theraselves over a small 
spot below it, which '^ visibly of a ditlerent nature front 
tl|e rest of the seed- }n ftinnaceous planit it is yellower, JuIcm of esth 
aodyieldsa milk whitejuice; but in other seeds it is whiter, ' ' 
and givrs a gluiinoiis water of a sweetish taste. Probably 
line retfcb come from the fruit JUled uiVA tits juice, which 
medicated with that part of the seed (which very apparently 
dinolvn] they together form ^ nouritihnient suited to the 
iftfut pbnL 

When the seed is to far perfected, it remains in an al- 
mo»t torpid state, or growing v^ry little ; while the flowec 
expands daily, tind the stamens are hastily advancing to 
their perfect state. It is nuw that beautiful process takes Costraciion of 
place, which, by an almost imperceptible contraction of the ^ 
lower part of the pistil, raises the juice to the pointal, 
whence it may be seen hanging in a large glutinous drop, 
but which never falls. As soon however as the heat of the 
nid-day ceases, this }uice, which is peculiar lo, the pistil, 
retire* again within the tube, the contraction ceasing with 
the heat that caused it. This is continued each d^', till the ^ he riilng of 
itanens are ripe, and ready to give o jt their interior povf- t''^ ilfop " "" 
tier; the greater part of which the. pistil is alwnys so placed 
aatorvceive; and as the pojien. r^u\res only miMjfure to 
twrst it, it soon yields that tinf (ind imperceptible dust, 
which qnickly melting and nixing wi^k the bejore-nientioiied 
lifmid, forms a combinat'toa of so pou'erjitl and itimiilatiHg 
% t}a)dity, that it no toooer runs down the interior of the 
M 2 style. 



1 



164^ . OSOYTIH •? miMU 

9tJ^le, Mid touch«e the nerfu of Hfe in tfie hwH efdie m»3| 

but this vessel skoeHs J^ik iti tht most mrprisng degree, 

fpnmog dinwtlj a species of cireuiar koeft within ike void; 

ft^^s void ^Hich in 1(MS thtn tvo d^yi is pftrn completely filled, thpogh 

aenf af« ripe. ^^ ''^^ pcifi^M )aiq for Aian j week* before ki <» absctnte 

tprpof , Tbif oirovkup nfvwt is> sooii covered bf^ an eoLttmh 

cence that hides it ; but if the corculvn is di^d^ ^tb a 

- fofi lancet^ tbf; pircular hook }b diseoverablei ti1l*tbey«»nlg[ 

plant is neak* leaving its dradle or trend. At the Mrb of the 

hck>k th^ cotj4edpiis grciw^ and' tUe rqot shoots frMi the 

curved end; ■ ' 

CtaAngeof pof The plant tney be qpw si^rd to' lie rn the see^ in a coq« 

STfiScir''^^ tmy difection from that in wkicbit wiH at a ftitntv Hme 

^r^i Bince the toot is aboves and thf stem below: bui 

NktYxre ht^ "proyid^d fw iheh phsnge of place^' since it i^ 

'^ cff^ted as tliej- leave the seed. I have mentioiied* befbrCt 

NoarUhment thutthenoartsbaient'of the infbnt pjnnt is ai^ifratedi be* 

of tbepl^t. ^^,^^^11 ^iip .julee brought in ^e nourishing vessels, and the 

peculiar ^pqt in- the seed*- This, liquid: cpntannca to abpnnd^ 

indeed tbe. inj^nt plant may be said to repose At k^, ttU thd 

root h^ opensd the wbolir» or part of the seed# The . i«o| 

Root ttringc then changes its directiqiiy and runs into the ^ardi^ sobft 

pump up the forming a number of string)^ l|Mrs> whicb serv« as so. maiiy 
nounsnmeiit* ii«*i«i #• » 

suckers to draw the liquid nour^shoi^nt uom the eastb, 

whilQ the pltmt quiiskly shnw^, by the rapi4 pwngitoi it 
makest the advantage it receives from its.change of diet; 
tar it soon rais^ itself from \t^ prostrate ppstnre^. dmei^ea 
from the. seed, and is How aeen in its proper direction^ 
Prore the I would not interrupt my account of the growth of tbci 

texual system, young plant, though my Utter wa#, written merely to dttail 
the first steps, which are 1 believe i|nknowB» hut wAufah 
confirm 1 think most thoroughly the sexual system, thoi^ 
some pf the syHgenpsian orders gtye, if possible, a mom 
convincing proot* of it. The pistil runs tip from the seedf 
being mostly single; and the jui^ of the pistil has no ^ther 
way of reaching the pointal but passitig through the |eed, 
|shich it does without producing any efiect, or filing up the, 
vacancy at the top of the cprculum. But nf( sooner doe^ 
this same juice get mixed vith the flower of the poHeiu 
which dissolves iu it, than the void becomes filled, the 

book 



hook is iSooD fomied^ and fhe pun^ plant is^lsed !• 
life. 

Tbey wbo doubt, tfiat «ftcb pert of the plant has its dit^ 
lei^Bt julcetj proeeedikg from and appertainitiif to the pro« 
dooeof one part alone; that k^ the wood, tvhen ruing tb 
file fldwermg part, f^ves its joice imly to /brm the •tamcna; Peculiar juicet 
the line of life to form the pbtil ; the bark to form the co- 
roly &c. ; wonld no longer deny their assent, if they would 
6iasect, and very much magnify the part of the pericarp 
Juat mbovH and beiotd the seeds, and nee the extreme paina 
nature takes, that the juices may in no manner be mixed^ 
1 haTe drawings of almost every different Jbrmed Jiowcr in 
these parts, both English and exotic; and I think I could 
prove the truth of this assertion, without having recourse to 
the rationnlia of the matter, t^hich would certainly show 
the impOBsibility, that such parts, so difHerent in their ap- tpproprhte ta 
pearance^ to opposite in thtir tendency, should grow from ** ****** 
the nme vessels, and proceed from the same juices. Na« 
tare gives us also a proof of the confusion occasioned by 
the mixture bf the juices in the double flower, which owes D^bieftowcn 
its deformity probably to tlys cause only ; as I have always o^ing to too 
found, on dissecting and comparing double and single Jlouh ^lent bumiog 
Jw cf the same species together^ that, when it is the pislit the finer Tcnel, 
that fails, the styh is discovered to be burst the whole tcay, 
so that the juices can neither pass to the stigma tor impreg- 
nation, nor return again to the seed : but when the stamens 
are imperfect, the seeds are often found in the pericarps 
but thfy never have the void in the corculum fiUed up ; and 
I hare often seen the inner ves!*el of the style hanging like indmixinsthe 
^ useless thread in the middle of the seed vessel, and a con- ^"**^^!' *ll1\ 

causuig moil* 
fosion visible in every part, which deems to prove a gencrail stem. 

mixture of the juices, from the excess of nourishment 
tmrsting the delicate fibres, that contsdned each peculiar 
liquid. 

I meant not however to enter into this digresbion, as it is 
a subject that requires many drawings to elucidate tt, and 
more rea!K>nings than a short paragraph will adroit of. I re^ 
turn therefore to the infant plant, and shall venture to add TheloMofth« 
a few of the innumerable experiments made to prove whe* ^"'^j^I"!!^!? 
thcr Ais cord rf life (or as it is g^n^tally called umbilical "^* '»1*™* 

cordj 



15€ €R6WTa OP SEEDS. 

t&ri) is or is not the life of the plant. I placed a bean in 
the earth, aod wheo the infant plant was ready to leave 
the seed ; I opened it with a fine lancet^ and cat off the 
cotyledons, just where they join the heart and the circular 
liook I have before described^ Tying a piece of threadi 
easy to be brokeny'rouod the bean, I repla<^ed it in the eartk 
The cotyledons grew again i thoogh higher up» but they ap- 
peared very weak and sickly for some time. 
rhtloMof ths I then placed another bean in the earth, and at the same 

appeared perfectly healthy. 

. To see what the effect of taking away only the noarish* 
ing Teasels would be, I separated and cut them off from 
Throws out each side of the bean ; but the quantity of hairs, that grew 
hainto convey from the wounded part, and attained the moisture to con- 
vey the nourishment, and supply the place of the part I cut 
away, is almost incredible. 

I now took a bean about four days in the earth, and 

Invariably disi Opening it with great care, I took out with a fine lancet the 

rf*^>°^«f part which I esteem the cord of life (See PL V, fig. 1, //), 

life. that is, the part which crossed the corculum, and d)ot forth 

on the first impregnation of the plant. The whole do* 

cayed. I repeated this more than a dozen times, the plant 

always died. 

1 took a flower of the lilium species, as having a large 
seed vessel easily attained ; and, being careful not to sepa* 
rate it from the nourishing vessels, I divided the line of life, 
cutting each thread between the seeds. Its seeds were 
never impregnated. 

I now tried the taking the nerve of life from the chesnut, 

the walnut, acorn, &c., first opening a seed without touch* 

ing the nerve, that 1 might be assured that the opening was 

1 nCant pUnt not the cause of its death. Those from which I took the 

killed bjTtak- jjeryg, all died; and the others, that I had merely laid 

line of life.' open, lived. It is only at the first beginning of life, that 

the plant is to be killed by this process ; when older, ifthe 

nerves decay, they shoot out above the declining part, and 

run into any part of the stem that is pure, to preserve them'* 

fiouret of life selves. This is the source of life in very decayed trees. 

^ dMtyei r -jjj^ j^ ^g cause of a double pith, or at least of the appear^ 

^^Sw| 

anoe 



GROWTH OP SEEDS. ]^ 

knee of it, • in many trees. This also io many grasses has a DooUt pitlL 

Very particular appiter&ttc^. I once foand ib the spring 

tour yards of th^ pok trivialig with a root now and then, the pgttiHIsl^ 

whole dead ; but on filrther eEamining the plant, the end 

farthest retti^ved from the robt wah beginning to shooti On 

subjecting it t6 the Solar micrbscbpe; I fbiind the n^rre Of 

life bad riin in one diroinntive string of vessels finer than a 

hair, of A bright greed, Snd defended from the iociemeDCj 

of tlii wither by the deadenkl part; As soon as tbe mild* 

nesa of the season permitted, it bhot forth ; the rest of the 

parts were added by degrees, and the decayed fell off, 

I have many curious specimens of stews io which the VeMdi of lA 
Tesse\s of life have been tnmed out of thfeir natural situa« j^^,^.?^?' 



tion : bat it requires so many drawings to give a perfect simatfoa. 
idea of them, that of course such a work as yours could 
not admit them. I once traced these vessels from the stem 
to tbe bppl^, and thence to the lin^ in the seed in one string; 
but this b extremely difficult to be dbn^. 

I shall how Conclude with noticing two extraordinary ProoA of v«ti- 
proofii of volition in some pllmts difficult to be accounted **"*^ ^ F*«»^ 
for by mc^chiimdal force Only. I divided a bten into two 
pieces, and planted that half in Which the ybung pUnt it 
found. In five days the stem had forced itself out at the 
usual place, bat the root had taken a shorter road^ and 
cottae but at the truncated part as more immediate to the 
earth. What mechanical pow^r could occasion this differ* 
ence? I took a bean in health, that had just quitted the 
teed, an<i ciit ofjp the root. The nourishiug vessels had 
been dried up a day or two. I wrapped the truncated part 
in paper, fearing that it would throw out hairs to nourish 
itself, and then replaced it in the ground. How great was 
tny astonishment to find, not only th^t the bean lived, but 
that the nourishing vessels had redssumed theit office of sup- 
porting the plant ! that the bean, which had been perftfctly 
dry, was now as moist as in its earliest state, and continued 
to support the plant till the root had again grown, and Nomithing 
forced itself through the paper ! I have ever been an ad- Tw*!^?^ 
Tocmte for mechanical power, but can scarce reconcile these 
two instances to such a cause. 

The various names given to the infant plant and its dif« 

httaX 



j^g oaotlTTH OF 8£EDS« 

ferent parts have made me very unwitting to fix on ati ftp-^ 
;^ pellatioDi till it is ascertained what are Us parts and their 

uses; as I cannot but imagine, tliat so many various appeU 
lations have the eflfect of making those that write uninteUi- 
■ gible to one another, and much more so to those, wlio wish 
for information without much previous study« I shall add 
a little account of the names used to the sketch annexed, 
.which will, I hope, make the parts easy to be compre- 
hended. 

Your obliged servant, 

BeUevue^nearEreter. A. IBBETSON. 



JSxplanation of Plate V. 

Fig. 1. Representation of the bean, oo the tourishiug 
vessels. X* to n the temiual leaves, or cotyledons* 

7 to / the embryo: what I esteem the first shoot which the 
nerve of life makes^ when it enters the corculum, or heart, 
which is more easily seen in the seed of the lily as at fig* 2, 
//, where it crosses the empty part of the corculum as before 
explained. 

When I took out the line of life in the bean, it was the 
two vessels within, from / to /. When in the lily, fig. 3, 

^ J merely divided the line /, preventing that communication 
from seed to seed, and not touching o o, which I think is 
the nourishing vessel, as may be seen at fig. 2, o, where they 

^ enter. Pig. 4 is the seed of the gooseberry, o the nourish- 
ing vessels, / the line of life, and m the corculum, or heart. 

^ F]g|* 5 is the heart taken out of the seed of a chegnut. / is 

. the circular hook, oo the nourishing vessels, and //the line 
of life, which I took out where it crosses the heart at m« 

. In almost every kind of seed it shows itself differently* la 
many it entera at or near the stalk, and runs under the aU 
bumen, or outward case. Having much more studied na« 
ture than botanical works; which indeed I began with, till 
I found that they inclined nH!'to embrace a system, which I 
wished much to avoid; I have since trusted to nature only. 
I hope therefore to be excused the contradicting any one, 
as I may truly sdy I have not advanced a thing I have oot 

trie4 



• -'J V' J 



It j7^*" ^ 




■*i"*ni> . 



oil THE I^EuMltif toN or >iiHin. 1^ 

tried a ikimbftr oT t^dite. Yet I mn but tbo sensible bow 
bpen I am to deception, and it is tvith a real feeliD^ of ho- 
mility I offer these bpinions* 

That the life of the plant is peculiarly resident in the 
vessels that run iu a circular collection between the pith and 
wood, or medulla and liber, is most strongly profed by 
the manner in %hich all fruit is killed, if exatnined the 
morning after a sudden frost. It is not the eofoHOf the ^th- 
fpx, the males, or the seeds that are hurt; but the JhttaleU 
struck with death. And if the pistil is examined with care, 
it will be found, that it is the line of i\f!e which is decayed, 
and that this is the first part in which mortificatioa com- 
mences. The peculiar liquor of the pistil turns to a blood 
reSf and the vussels that run up to the pointal turn black* 
I have marked one at fig. 7 just taken from the tree, and 
killed in the last frost. The dark lines in fig. 7> whick is 
dead, show the black and red vessels mentioned abow; 
these beiug yellow in their natural state, which is delineated 
at fig. 6. 

It is almost unnecessary to mention, that seeds must be 
examined in their first formation, to show the line of life ; 
which, when once it has done its office, detaches itself, li 
the seed is boiled, the line of life and nourishing tressels miU 
mark themselves by turning a dark colour. In very small 
seeds the mouth is often the best dissecter. 



•2:« 



11. 

On the Perspiration of Plants, By A. Ibi^ctson, Esq* 

SIR, 

xtLS my first paper is short, I shall Venture to join to it perspinti'^ ol 
to incident, that has surprised me not a little, and that P^*"^* 
may perhaps from its novelty be acceptable to yoilr read<fts. 
I have long entertained great doubts respecting the evapo- 
ration of plants; I mean not that insensible perspirtitioii 
that wiU show itself by throwing a mist On the glass that 
covers it; but that which Bonnet insists on, and whirh Du 
Hamel weighed (which in 34 hours was duuble and treble 



170 ^^ "^BS PEBSPI&ATIOik OF PLANtS. 

the weight of the plaot, even in atuuflamerf whi^h is the 
keameii of plants) ; and my experiments have so ^uUy an- 
swered my ideds respecting it, and confirmed my doubts^ 
without however throwing the least blame on the very per- 
fect experiments of th^ excellent botanists, that 1 shall 
have the greatest pltosure in offering you the result. 
I>oiibtt re- The constant habit of watching my plants at a very early 

•pvcting tu jj^jj^ Ijj ^g morning, and examining them with very power- 
iiil microacopes, had almost convinced me, toat the idea of 
their perspiring was a mistake ; stilt, being acknowledged 
by such excellent botanists, it required the most dbtolute 
conviction, to gain courage to deny a fact so universally re^ 
ceived as a truth. I rise at a very early hour, and had 
often observed, that, when tnere was no dew, the leaves re- 
mained perfectly dry, though examined with a powerful 
microscope ; that when plants rediciined within doors, they 
collected dust like any other furniture; and that this dust 
was to be blown off with ease, neither a^lutinaiting nor 
sticking, which it would do if partially wet: (hift, afl^r 
placing a leaf for 4 hours in the opake solar midrdscopet 
though it was so placed as to be in its growing siate, and 
was magnified so greatly as to show both species of pores* 
yet I could never see the smallest quantity of moisture 
exude, except what I shall now mention, and what I sup- 
pose may be the insensible perspiration before insisted on. 
IiMMMlbloper- Almost every leaf, if subjected to a large magnifier, ap- 
•piiatioo. pears covered with a very fine scurf, which 1 have seen exude 
as water with the oxigen it is continually giving out, as 
long as the sun shines. In a very short time it turns to a 
Tkkcn back, jelly ; which is, / ihinkt received again into the same pores 
with the dews of the night ; and which I dodbt not helps to 
form that beautiful combination, which changes dead and 
unorganised matter into living bodies, fitted, as Mirbel 
beautifully expresses it, for the support of the animal cte- 
Thii very tri- ation. But this is so trifling a perspiration, that it will 
^* merely account for the dew, that appears when a vegetable 

, is placed under a glass ; but will not raise, or in a veiy 

slight degree only, the hygrometer placed within it. 

These doubts suggested the idea of investigating the 
matter more thoroughly, and I set on foot a number of ex- 
periments 



•M THB nsSFIEATIOtf OF PLANTS^ 171 

pgiai g n t i » which I shall now detail, prefacing them with 

•B abkcnratioD which it necessary to begin with, because it 

ii one of the signs given of perspiration* which I cannot Filie s^ of 

asmsf to* Hales and Bonnet both obberve, that, having ^^"' 

placed m plant under a glass, the water after a time ran 

dawn or bedewed the glass* Put a wet sponge under a cy« 

fiadert and it will produce the same etfect; and yet we 

shoald not say, that the sponge perspired, but that some of 

die DKHStare within the sponge had evaporated, aiid was 

condensed by the cold of the glass* In short it is merely a 

«f», that the ctj€ci thus confined is/uil of moisture. 

I shall now mention the experiments in the order in which Experinwn 
I made them. I wished first to prove, wliich yielded most JJ^** *** 
moistuie, the §ank or pUnts. I placed a small rose tree 
nnder n large glass in a pot of earth, placing at the same 
time Captain Kater^s excellent hygrometer * with it, which 
then stood at G20 from excess of dryness. In 8 hours the 
moisture ran down the glass, and the hygrometer was at 
IIOO9 nearly excess of moisture* I then took away the 
rose tree, and* drying the glass, I put a pot of fresh earth compired wtdi 
the same size and weight, and with the same arrangement. ^'^^ cum^ 
la 8 hours the hygrometer, which had been put in at 61^ 
came out IO49, or 433 more moist than it was when placed 
there. It was the earth therefore, that gave all that excess 
af moisture, not the plant. 

I 

The next trial was made by fastening down a laurel oo * Uv«d 
branch, and pasmng it through a piece of sheet lead, with- 
out separating it from the tree ; making it to fit a very large 
glass cyUnder, then luting it round the lead, aud at its en- 
tranoe, to keep out the circulation of air, and prevent the 
wet Tapour from passing upwards. After 8 hours the hy- 
grometer was 130 nearer to dryness than when placed there, 
and though the glass was steamed, it did not run down with 
water; nor could I, with the largest maguifiers, discover any 
iem dsvps on the leaves. 

I now tried a vmft number of plants with the same result, and on vatioei 
the hygrometer never showed an increase^ which it would ^ ^ 
certainly have done, had the perspiration been so excessive; 

• Tmr a dsieriptioa of this hfgrotaeter, •€• our pieicnt nmabcr. 

end 



Xff^ air MB KBSPhiiltoii ot j^LAirtA 

and it niiist hare lK?eB perceptible on fhe Imt^ but fhii 

Fenpintion Was so hr from the case» that the tCttrf before mentioned 
sot pcic«|»th ^^ QQt t^j l,g g^g^ . ii 1^^ J certainly M settled hi dew wttbiil 

the circumference of the glass* 

I felt now perfect conTiction> thou|(h not able to acconnt 

for the misiahen cpinion that pi^ailed, till walking one 

Ptftptration of morning with my microscope in my hand, I fennd a pea 

^P*^ plant covered with bubbles of water, and there had ceN 

tainly been no dew. Here then was perspiration. I directly 

wiped off the drops, and covering the plant with a gklss^ 

treated it in the same manner as 1 had done the lanfA^ and 

many hundred of other plants. In a few hours it was again 

corered with bubblvs of water, and the hygrometer indi^ 

Tried othen of eating extreme moisture^ I then tried a number of the same 

•he genu* but genus, but without effect, no buhbfes were to be seen. I 
without effect. ^ 

' BOW concluded, that some vegetables did perspire, hxit that 

the numbers were few. 

Talking to a friend of the conviction I had gained, h^ 
idtreated me to repeat a part of the experiments before 
him ; I consented ; and haying first prepared the pea, in ftn 
hour or two it was covered with babbles ; but my friend YiOt 
being yet arrived, I cut off the branch, and laid it on ihe 
table by me, fearful the bubbles would evaporate in the 
open air. In an hour I was surprised to see them turn of * 
The suppofcd milk white. I then applied to my solar microscope, and 
buMtfsof wiF g^,^^ found, that the bubbles I hiaid taken for water wert ft 



znian pUnt. cryptogamian plant, having a regular stalk, which did n<ft 
however raise it from the leaf, for it was so heavy it tip* 
peared incapahk of rising. It lies like a long bobble, diet 
in a few hours, and is soon succeeded by a fresh set* 

This plant ds- No person could in its first state take it for any thing but 

scribed. trater ; indeed to completely did the bubbles resemble wa* 

ter, that the smallest touch broke the film Which covered 
them, and their liquor was expended. Nor would any one 
believe it was not water, without seeing the stalk dn which 

' it grew, or without beholding its change of form. Its last 

Irtate is an almost hard and long ball, which soon drops oIL 
It is to be seen by a common little microscope ; though 
stronger powers are required to view the whole process* ' 
esperially the stalks. But so entirely does it cover the leaves, 

that 



•»1 



t VERlPIBiTIOH OF PLANTS. 



m 

''at it doubles the weight of the plaot, causes the hygro- 

'^trT to indicatf^ eKtr«ni« moidture, and, contint^d under a lit liquor FOft> 
,!aw, much of its htiuorevoporatea, condenses on the in- ^"*"''* 
Kfior of the gtass, snd runs down on every nde. 1 have 
•inee tried p»*rj- plant (pecified as peCulhiT for their exce^. 
irt perspiration by Bonnet, Huks, and otliem, and have 
himd thetn oM loaded with the Frvpto[;niDina plant, so 
' tut 1 have not the smallest doubt, that tlm was hj- th^ro and hm b*M 
alieo for perspiration ; for what torrents of woler would be °"^"l"n tv 
Mcesaarv t« sapply utch a UtnapirMtonr the atr would be 
tuBitantiy loaded. Tlte possibility of ihu luiHtake any per- 
uo tn»y convince themselves of, and how very likely it waa 
ta happen, hy taking a pea plan), a eunflowrr. uud a oun- 
l«r of otiicr plants unnecessary ta mention. 

[ scid, that leaveit had tvio ipccin of ports j the first large, i.camlnYe 
■iiVeh ata opeu all the night fur the udntiasion of the den ; '"" l^ads c^ 
iha MHrond tmail, from whi<.'h the oxi^ii flows. See PI. V, 
li^ 8, rKprnentiag part of a l«af sufficiently uiagnitied, to 
ihow bolh aorta of pores. It is from Xhe.tmaUer that the 
]»Uv 1 bavB nentioQed proceeds; for wfaen the oxij^eD is on* 
turaled with moisture, it will naturally give it out in posa> 
isj; theae nairow apartiires, and thin is ihat scurf which ap- 
jMrvrfc wttfQ the leave* are not t^vercd with a K'ass; but 
■ hich flies upward, and is condensed on the interior, when 
ihi^ Kr& 

1 believe almost every air or gas has moiiture, and that a Effvct of i 
fall slnum of oxi^B directed i^ijaiiist a glass would cover '■^'^'^ '^ *"' 
it witli iltam, I huve Just tried the experiment, and it has 
taiececaled. It will of course depend upon its beiu)^ nearly 
(dlurated with moisture, or not; and upon ihe pressure it 
lAefward receives. I have endeavoured to eondcoBi^ Kiy 
Mbjmt as much as possible, without 1 hope renderin); it un« 
intellixiWe. Should I see this ia your first puhliualion, it 
■itl Mrve as ■ hint to ^ve you a farther letter on the format 
tion of the leaf, and the winter bud, I he latter certaiulf 
t* af the fiut consaquence in botany, and may be called the 
im Mtutve of lift; iu the vegetable world. 

Your obliged Bervaut, 

A. IBBETSON. 



HL 



174 AIIA1.TSM OF SULPBATI OF •ABTTU* 

III. 

Oil the Anafysis of Sulphate of Sarytts. J?y itfr. Jam«^ 
Tuoi^ftON. Communicated by the 4^1^* 

Svlpbate of J. HE ftnalyiU of splpbate of barytes has enifaged the at« 

«o^!ruelT aiT ^^^0^ ^^ many diadngiiMhed chemisto ; yet tbe problem^ 

ccittkMd. though of easy solution, may be considered a^ StiU unr^ 

solved » since the greateft discoidance prevails in their re? 

suits. The accurate determination of the reUitife proper- 

tions of its conatitueotSy as far as concerns itn chemical or 

mineraiogical history, is a matter of secondary con«dcr»« 

tins M im- tion ; but the soluble combiqations of barytes being tbamr 

iportaai object* ^yf^ important inftruments of analyns, «n detecting the 

presence and ascertaining the quantities of sulphoric acid ia 

any compound by the production of sulphate of barytes ; 

the analysis of sulphate of bar3rtes itself becomes an object 

of considerable importance, and involves in it the accvracy. 

of the analysis of almoft all compounds, into which sulphur 

or sulphuric acid enters. 

|tf rMoposU Withering, Black, and Klaproth, who hav» examined 

tieaaccorcHng ^^ composition of this salt, agree with Kirwan in stating 

>fi^^ it as composed of sulphuric acid 33, barytes 67* 

According to Fourcroy it is composed of acid 34» baiy* 
tes66. 

According to Thenard of acid 25*18, barytes 74*89. 
According to Berthollet of acid 27, barytes 73. 
And according to the exp^ments of Cheneviz, of vcid 
23 'S, barytes 76-6. 

Clement and Desormes, in consequence of the discord- 
ance of these results, engaged in a series of experiments^ 
which appear to have been conducted with great care ; and 
from which they conclude, that sulphate of barytes is CQmi» 
posed of acid 32' IS, barytes 67*82. 

And Klaproth once more revised and confirmed his fi>r» 
mer analysis, which gave 33 acid and 67 barytes^ as the 
composition of this salt. 

The labours of these distinguished chemifts, together 
with the general accordance ^f their results with those ob- 

taine<| 



I 



AilAtTSIS OF SULPHATE OF B IRYTEA. }^5 

bioeA by Richter, Bucholz, Clajfield, nnd others I have 
not particularly quoted, might have been siippoAed decJsife 
ef the quMtioii; yet in a memoir on the eompositioti of 
itniD, inbsequent to ihut of Clement and D«»ornies on th= 
borytic luilti, find posterior nl!>o to the laA experiments of 
Klaproih, Messrs. Thenard and Roard have adopted the 
proportiun of 36 per cent of sulphuric add in sulphate of 
Wrytev, Bslhe mean of the results obtained by one of them, 
s&d Uioae-of Berthollet, after experiments conducted with 
xir greatest care. 

Tbe question remaiuing still therefore undecided, and Ocr»iaaor 
katiag myself engaged in a series of experiments on the Lt^''^""' 
onnstitution and properties of the principal mordants em- 
ployed ID dyeing and calico printing, in which I had fre- 
quent occasion to ascertain the presence and quantities of 
Torioas aatphuric salts, 1 was under the neceOity of satis- 
fjing myself respecting the composition of sulphate of ba- 
lytes by direct experiments, the particulars of which form 
tlie snbject of tliis paper. 

On comparing the results of the dilFereot experiments on Compaistii* 
this SHbjecI, it will be seen, that, with the exception of "-""^off"- 
»f Theiwrd, Berthollet, and Cheiievix, they ^n ■*** *"'''***• 
1 stating the proportion of acid betweeu 31 and 34 
cent; the mean of the whole, and by far the greater 
tinmbeT, makiog it about 33. Klaproth, Ctemcit and 
l>e»omiea, and others, have deduced the composition of 
tulphvle of barytes, from that of the carbonate and ui- 
inte; and as tht» mode appeari-d to me at once simple 
moUccUonable, J followed it in the first instance 
tty. 

CaTbotiaU of BfirMtes- 
One hondred grains of carbonate of burytes were dis- csibonaterf 
tolved in dilute muriatic acid, with all the precautions ne- ''"''!'.'*''" 
taaarx to prevent (he dissipation of the solution, or loss iinjc acid, 
from Ivo rapid dibeugagemeut of the carboitic ucid. When 
tb* effwTfescence ceased, the last portions of gas were ex- 
pelled by a momentary exposure to heat. The loss 
smosintri) to 21-63 grains. The experiment repeated on 
fiOgruns of the coibouate gave 10*85 grains, or 31*7 per 



176 



The 

predpitaied 
bf caibonate 



TiMBitificBil 
cubonilit si- 
fldlirtothtt 



AlTALTfU &F SULFHATE OF BAftYTC^ . 

cent; uk) a third experiment 21-85 gnfins. The netn «f 
these results gives the proportion of carbonic acid in IQO of 
rtirbocAte of barytes as j 1*75 grains, a quantity which difr,. 
fers only | of » grain from that obtained by K^laproth^ of 
Clement and Desormes, who ma]ke U 92 per cent, 

3. The muriatic solutioDy contcuniBg 100 grains of carbor 
Date of barytes, was precipitated by carhopajte of amnwH 
nta. The precipitate^ well washed and dried al a bfia|« 
below ignition^ weighed 100*3 grains, 

3. One ht^ndred grains of artificial cnrbooate of barytes^ 
precipitated from very pure muriate uf baiyteiby 9%riiQ* 
nati' oi ammooia« and dried at 9 temperature soinewhax ber- 
low i|{uition, were redis^olved in dilute ix^uiiaUc acid* and 
the loss of weight carefully ascertainfd. The expertmeot 
vepeated afforded the same result a,^ the preceding wit|;i 
the nsit^ve carbonate, esta^libhing the identity of the two 
Goopbiii^Uous, and proving, that carbquate pf baryta bpth 
native and artificial is composed of 

Carbonic acid •••• 91'75 
Barj'tes 78-25 



Carl^eiiileQl' 

•olva^inm- 
trans add. 



100 

Nitrate of Barytas* 

One hundred grains of carbonate of barytes, dissolved iix 
nitrous acid, and gradually evaporated to diyuess, afford^ed 
132 grains of nitrate of ba^rytes. Tbe experiment repeated 
on larger quantities, with a view to th^ pjeparf^tipn of thia 
f»1t for the purposes of analysis, gave precisely the same 
results. One hundred and thirty-two grains of nitsate of 
afchcnittatc. barytes therefore contain 78*:25 grains of barytes, the quan- 
tity contained in 100 of the carbonate; and 100 parts of the 
titrate are composed of 

#9-3. barytes, 

40*7 s^cid and wa^er* 



pompwtion 



100 

Clement and Desonnes obtaiaefl 130 grains of nitrate of 
(laryttss only from 100 of the carbonate, which gives for tbe 
«oinpo]^tion of UAtrat^ pf barytes, $l0 barytes, 40 aoid and 

water. 



AVALTIIS OF BULPHiLTE OF BAErTSl. \JJ 

ifttter. It it here oar experimenU chiefly disagree; but 
thie difference does not amount to one per cent, and more 
perfect accordance will hardly he expected by those* who 
mre in the habit of making such experimeuts. 

SulpkiU9 of Bariftes, 

(Dne hundred grains of carbonate of barytes were dis^ Muriatic solo* 
folred in muriatic acid, in a platina crucible, aud preci- !*^L^ w^i**!! 
pitated by sulphuric acid. After slow and careful evapo* phuric Acid« 
ration to dryness, the crucible was exposed to a white heat 
during half an hour^ and afterwards weighed. The cal- 
cined sulphate of barytes amounted to ll6'8 grain#4 

SU One hundred grains of nitrate of barytes were de- Ni'nteofba^ 
cooapoaed by solution of sulphate of soda added in excess, |^^ ITwU 
and the mixture gently heated. The precipitate well phateofiodm. 
washed, dried, and calcined, weighed 88*6 grains. 

Now 100 grains of carbonate of barytes contain 78*95 Compoiitaoa 
grains of barytes, and pro4uce 116.8 grains of calcined ^^^^^'^ 
sulphate of Iwrytes ) ^ 

And 100 grains of nitrate of barytes, containing 59'3 
grains of barytes,, produce B8'G of sulphate ; 

f rom which it follows, that sulphate of barytes is com* 
posed of 

Sulphuric acid • • • • 33*04 
Barytes • 66-96 



100 

The results of the preceding experiments, every one of'^y*^^^ 
which was carefblly repeated three or four times, and their ment between 
perfect accordance with those of Withering, Klaproth, and «m>'>«°* «^y* 
others I hare already quoted, lefl no doubt of their accu« ^ ^ 
racy on my mind. 

Aware however, that no individual authority, however 
respectable, can add to or detract froin the confidence 
which the names of Thenard, Berthollet, and Chene^-ix 
hnpire ; and sensible that my single testimony added to 
tbe rest would weigh but little in the scale against them ; 
I was desirous, if possible, of detecting the source of this 
£icordance in their experiments* as the surest and only 

Vol. XXIII.— Jolt lt09. N means 



171 



•tVALTiu or BVM^nun or baaytss* 



Thriunl*f meant of inallj deciding the question. Id the extradf 
^ which Gnyton has given of the memoir of Thenard on tlio 



taining the 
compoiUun 
imperfectly 
gireiu 



Berthollet*! 
experiments 



diflferent states of antimony, in the 39d foluroe of the An* 
nales de Chimie, the mode in which he ascertained- the 
composition of sulphate of barytes is not stated with suffid* 
ent minuteness, to enable any one to repeat his experiment* 
One hundred grains of pure barytes* fused in a cmcible^ 
ar)* stated to have aflfbrded 133*3 grains of calcined sulphate 
of barytes; but whether by direct combination, which 
would be liable to erronr, or through the medium of some 
other solvent) is not mentioned. Nor is the mode by which 
the pore barytes was obtained noticed in Guyton*i eztract» 
though of the utmost importance in this inqairy. The 
experiment Indeed does not appear to have been made in a 
way favourable to accuracy and precision, though for 
want of sufficient details it is not possible satisfactorily to 
point out the sources of erronr. The experiraenta of Ber- 
thollet, which determined the proportion of acid in sul- 
phate of barytes at 27 per cent) 1 am wholly unaoquainted 
with ; nor do I know the mode which this celebnted chew 
mist pursued in making them ; which I regret the more, aa 
they are stated to have been conducted with scrupalottg 
exactness. 
Mr. Chenefix j^^^ Chenevix*s paper in the Memoirs of the Irish Aca^i 
demy however contains all the details necessary for the ex« 
amination of his experiments, and fortunately also fumiahea 
additional proofs of the accuracy of my own results* 

To ascertain the quantity of sulphuric acid in sulphate 
of barytesy Mr. Chenevix decomposed a given, weight of 
sulphate of lime (the composition of which ha had. aicee» 
tained by previous experiments) ; and having fouad the 
quantity of sulphate of barytes, which it affi>rded, the pt^ 
portion of sulphuric acid in the latter was readily, deduced* 
*^ Upon 100 gwns of calcined sulphate of lim^yV nys 
Mr. Chenevix, ** I poured some oxalic acid, which ^^^'Trff 
the basis with an affinity superior to that exercised: bjf a«l* 
phuric acid. Oxalate of lime was here formed, but oipr 
late of lime is soluble in a very small excess of any acid» 
A little muriatic add operated a complele soltttiop^ and 

thoa 



Ur. 



His process. 



AVALTSIS OF SULPHATE OP BARYTCfl. l/P 

thus a great quantity of sulphate of lime required but little 
water to dissolve it Into the liquor ofturii^te of bary.tes ifos ' 
pouredy and suffered to remain some time j^ently hented ; 
by these means any oxalate of barytes, that mi*^ht have 
beea formed, was retained in solution by the orit^inal ex- 
cess of acid, and the entire quantity of sulphate of barytes 
was deposited. Of the exactuess of all those methodn, 
which I used as the instruments by which I ascertained 
these results, I convinced myself by various preliminary 
experiraents. After the usual filtration, washin^^, and dry- 
log at the gentle heat of a sand bath, I obtained in one ex* 
periment 185, in another 183, and lastly in another 180* 
We may therefore take 183 as the mean proportion. Con- 
sequently we shall say, 183 {grains of siilphate of bar\'tes 
coDtaia the same quantity of sulphuric acid, as 100 of 
sulphate of lime (43) ; and 183 : 43 : : 100 : S3*5. There* 
fore 23*5 are the proportion of sulphuric acid in 100 of suU 
phate of harvtcs." 
I repeated this experiment of Mr. Chenevix with calcined ' '"' cxpen- 

- . « , • I i. men I repeated. 

sulphate of lime carefully prepared, and obtauied from 100 

graiaSy as he had done, 180*5 grains of sulphate of barytes 

dried mt the heat of a sand bath. Suspecting, however, 

that the various and complicated affinities, which are 

Inrougbt into play in this process, might be productive of 

some errour ; and thnt the mode was defective, though the 

results were correctly given; I dissolved 10 grains of cal- TIao sulphate 

cincd sulphate of lime in a pint of boiling distilled water, g^/j^^jf^'di,. 

tad poured ia muriatic of barytes. Tiie precipitate, washed, liiicd water. 

dricdy and calcined, weighed 17*7 grains. This accorded 

10 nearly with the experiment of Mr. Chenevix, that I was 

latisfied of the exactness of his method, and that it was not 

here I was to look for the source of the discordance* His 

analysis of sulphate of lime I had not verified, having aa 

indistinct recollection of its agreeing nearly with the compo- 

tttion of this salt as stated by others. On a more attentive The propor- 

examioation however I found, that the proportions, as ^^a bas^ln the 

flifra by Mr. Chevenix *, are the converse of those of sulphate of 

vu»*^4>k . l>™e *1>* cause 
*'"?">**'• of ihe4iifet. 

* Dr. Thompson, in hii excellent Syitem of Chembtry, irol. II, 
p*Sft5, ftd editivn, has, by a very natural mistake In quoting from the 

N 8 PhU. 



I 



180 



AKALT8I6 07 SULPHATE OF BAUTTfiS. 



Thete there* 
fore inirebti- 
gated. 



in muriatic 
acid and pre 
cipitated by 
sulphuric. 



Klaproth ; the former- making it contain 57 parts of lime 
and 43 ncid in a hundred, and the latter 57 scid and A3 
lime nearly. I at first imagined this was a typographical , 
or perhaps an arithmetical errour; but this is not the case: 
100 parts of pure lime afforded Mr. ChencTix 176 grains 
of calcined sulphate, which gives the proportions exactly as 
stated in his memoir. Here then evidently hinges the dif- 
ference in Mr. Chenevix's analysis of sulphate of barytes 
compared with mine ond others ; it remained therefore to 
ascertain, which of the two analyses of sulphate of lime 
was to be relied on ; that which makes the proportion of 
acid 43 per cent, or that which makes it amount to 57* 
J;;'™*^ff?J^^ 1. I dissolved 100 grains of pure lime, prepared as Mr. 
Chenevix has directed, in muriatic acid in a platina craci- 
ble; and, after precipitating with sulphuric acid, evapo- 
rated the mass slowly to dryness. The crucible was then 
exposed daring an hour to a white heat. The calcined snl- 
phate of lime weighed 240 grains. 

2. Fifty graiiTs of pure carbonate of lime were dissolred in 
acetic acid, and sulphuric acid added in excess. The mass^ 
afler slow and careful evaporation to dryness, was exposed 
to a white heat near an hour, and afforded 67*3 grains of 
sulphate of lime. 

The first experiment, in which 100 grains of pure lime 
afforded 240 of calcined Hulphate, gives for the composition 
of the latter 53*34 acid, and 41*66 lime. The second, if 
we admit with Dr. Marcct, that carbonate of lime contains 
44 per cent of carbonic acid, gives for the composition of 
sulphate of lime, acid 59, lime 41, which are exactly the 
proportions of Kirwan. I feel disposed however to place 
greater confidence in the first result; tlie ^experiment was 
several times repeated, and I think, if we state the pro« 
portions in sulphate of lime as 58 acid and 43 lime, we shall 
not be far from the truth. 
These confirm Now Mr. Chenevix found, that 100 parts of calcined 

the aiialys.ft of -^ 

Phil. Mag. vol. XT, p. 115, Ihe proportions of acid and base, as gtren 
by Mr. Chenevix in his ahalysis of sulphate of lime, and thiis restored 
thiim to accuracy. This errour has boen copied into a work of very infe- 
rior merit, the << Chiinie appliquee tax Arts** of Chaptal. 

sulphate 



Carbonate of 
time dissolved 
in acetic acid 
and precipi- 
tated by sul- 
phuric. 

Proportiont 
according to 
these experi- 
ments. 



AVAl^TSIt OP SULPHATE OF BAATT£S. ]gj 

enlphate of lime afforded 183 grains of sulphate of barytes sulphate of bi. 

dried at the gentle heat of asand bath ; but the sulphate ot'bap. ^^^I^^*^ 

lytea dried at this heat contains still near 3 per cent of water, 

which deducted leaves 178*5 grains. If we suy therefore, 

ibBt 178*5 grains of sulphate of barytes contain the same 

quantity of sulphuric acid as 100 grains of sulphate of 

bme, and that 100 grains of sulphate of lime contain 58 

sulphuric acid ; we have for the composition of sulphate of 

barytes» sa)phuri£ acid 3'2'5i barytes 67*5; which differs 

ooly half a grain per cent from what I have myself ob- 

taioed. 

m I 

Still farther to confirm the preceding results, I made the P«rt'ner con- 
foUowing experiments. Into a solution of nitrate of barytes . "***®*" ^ 
1 poured 100 gr^in^ pf sulphuric acid (the spec. grav. of 
which { on^itted to note). Cure was taken to have an ex- 
ceaM of nitrate of barytes, and the solution was slowly eva- 
porated down to dryness. The precipitate carefully washed 
from the remaining nitrate, dried, and calcined^ weighed 
331 grains. 

An equal weight of the same sulphuric acid was poured 
into a solution of acetate of lime, in which the latter was 
in excess. After gradual evaporation to dryness, the ace- 
tsktc of lime was separated by repeated washing with alco« 
hoi, and the sulphate of lime dried and calcined. It 
weighed 133 grains. 

Lastly, 100 grains of sulphuric acid were poured into a 
solution of acetate of lead in excess, and the precipitate 
carefully separated, washed, and dried. It weighed 296 
grains. 

From these experiments it appears, that 231 grains ofsul- Results of 
phate of barytes, 133 grains of sulphate of liriie, und \:06 grains these experl- 
of sulphate of lead, contain ecjual cjuantities of sulphuric "**"^* 
aci4; CL»<1 if ^" estimating the real quantities of acid they 
contain, we adopt Kluproth*s analysis of sulphate of 
lead as the standard, to which to refer them, we shall have 
296 grains of snlphute of lead, containing 78*4 grains of sul- 
phate of acid, or ^6*5 per cent; 

231 grain!^ of sulphate qf barytes, containing 78*4 grains of 
sulphate of acid, or 33*9 per cent ; 

133 grains 



182 



General con- 



OV THE EXPANSION OF MOIST AIIU 

133 grains of sulphate of 1iine» containing 78*4 gnipf of 
sulphuric acidy or 68*6 per cent. 

These results, though not in perfect accordaocfe with thpsft I 
had previoubly obtained, I considered as sufficiently exact 
to establish their general accuracy ; and I did not think it 
necessary to verify them by morecareiul repetition, in which 
it is possible these slight differences might have wholly dis- 
appeared. 

'J'he experiments detailed in this paper then confirm, with 
trifling variation, the results already •btained byWithering, 
Klaproth, Kirwan, Cliement and Desormes, and others; 
and prove, 

1. That carbonate of barj'tes, both native and artificial, 
is composed of carbonic acid 21*75, barytes 78*35* 

9. I'hat nitrate of barytes is composed of acid and water 
40*7, barytes 59*3. 

3. That calcined sulphate of lime contains sulphuric 
acid 58, lime 42. 

4. And lastly, that calcined sulphate of barytes is com- 
posed of sulphoric acid 33, barytes 67- 

Church Bridget near Blackbunu 



IV. 

JExperimcnts on the Expansion of moist Air raised fo the: 
boliing Temperature. In a Letter from John Gougu, 
Esq. 

To Mr. NICHOLSON, 
SIR, 

JTERHAPS you will recollect, that I proposed spm^ 
time ago in your Journal* various objections to the new doc- 
constitution of j^-^^g respecting the Constitution of the Atmosphere, and 
phere, the independent equilibrium of its component gasses. The 

int«?ntion of these objections was to invalidate the hypothe- 
sis, by showing its inability to explain natural phenopiena; 
and at the same time to point out certain palpable absurdU 



ObjecCtons to 
the new doc- 
tiine of tlie 



• Vol. xn, p. 4. 



tics. 



mi THB szPAimoir of mout jib. ^^3 

ticB» wUdi ftM neceisary comequencet of this norelty in 
■Mtcorology. ThU method of exunining the tubject led itupporte<l by 
^me to ase ftlrgiimetitfl,aiid to atroid experiments made by my- f^"^!^'^^^''^ 
vclf, aa much as possible. The choice was suggested by 
coaunon prudence ; for any person can form a correct judg* 
'nent of m syllbgism; the value of which does not depend 
on the character of the logician, but on qualities that ore 
mpporent^ and constitute its intrinnc merits or imperfections. 
On the contrary when an experiment is described » we have Experimcntt 
no mht to expect the reader will assent to the troth of it, |ntcnaiiicm*«f 
until he b convinced of the experimenter's abilities, and of lug, 
his candour too; which is very liable to suspicion in the 
course of a. controversy. 

The preceding reasons determined me at the time to de- Reason for re 
fer the experimental part of the refutation to a future op- currbg to 
portunity, in hopes, that some other person would under- gent.*****'^ 
take the task ; but the silence of both parties has hitherto 
disappointed this expectation, and it almost obliges me to 
publish certain experiments in my possession ; which in all 
{yrobability will place the controverted point in a clearer 
light. If air and water be confined by a pellet of mercury 
in a glass tube, closed at one end, and the apparatus be af- 
terward raised to the boiling temperature, the new hypo- 
thesis maintains, that the vapour of the water will make its 
way through the pores of the permanent gasses, and counte- 
ract the pressure of the atmosphere on the pellet of mercu- 
ry, thereby leaving the included air at liberty to expand in- 
definitely. The practical method of showing the truth of 
- this proposition by the manometer never appeared satisfac- 
tory to me, in consequeuce of which I undertook to have 
.the experiments repeated in the following manner. 

Exp* 1. Barometer 30*06, a tube one twelfth of an inch £xp. 1. 
in bore, and containing a quantity of water in the sealed 
end, measured dj inches from the surface of the water to the 
open end. A column of air -/;- of an inch in length, or 
something mora than ^ of the open space i)^ inches, was 
confined in contact with the water in the tube by a column 
of mercury, j- of an inch long, the te{ui>eruture of the in- 
strument being 46°. The open end of the manometer was 
then fixed iiito the neck of a narrow bottle by means of a 

perforated 



1 8ft MPVllE VKPAVB10V- OF MOIST Um 

Exp. I. perferated cork, which was made waterlight; niid tb^ edg^ 

of this end projected about f a line above that extremity of 
the cork which entered the bottle, m> that the scaled end ^f 
fhe tube, which was out of the bpttle, fell 4| ii^hes .belo^ 
the neck whea the bottom wa» turned vpwf^dt- Things ber 
ing thus prepared, the bottom pf the phiifl wa» cpt itway t^ 
ppen a free commuuicatiop bj^twixt the^tmpsph^re and th^ 
orifice of the manqmeter. A ^trqng w^re wat^ iheu tied 
i\i round the bottle, by which it was kept in an oblique posi- 

tion in a large pan of water, so that the opep end of th^ 
manometer W4S 3 iuclfes belpw the burface. At the 8ap:ije 
time the interpp&ition of the pprk and bottle preserved this 
apei'ture dry and exposed to the air. T)ie inteutionof thp 
preceding arrangement scarcely requires an explauatlon,for 
. it is evident, ^hat, if the pan \yere made to boil, the tul^e 
would receive al) the heat y^hich the water could cpmmuni- 
pate t4> it, find the size pf the boilipg yesspl was such, as to 
permit the manometer to h^ suspended in it free of the sid^ 
und bottom! which is a necessary precaution. Lastly, tl)e 
oblique ppsition of the tube gave the pellet an opportunity 
to roll over the edge pf the orifice, aft^r which it would re- 
main on the cork, provided the spring of the air proved buf* 
iicientto expel it* In order to find if this would really be 
the case, the pan was gradually heated from 46^ to boiling, 
with the manometer suspended in it: and after the wat^ 
had continued to boil a few minutes, the instrument wast^- 
ken out of the pan; upon which the mercury was seen to 
descend quickly, towards the seuled end of the tubp. . Ac* 
cording to this experiment the gas or gasses of the mano- 
meter were limited in expansion under the pressure of 
30*185 ificheti of mercury to twenty times their original 
bulk at most. Now the advocates of the new hypothesis 
say, that the vapour alone sustained 30*06 of this force, or 
the barometrical pressure. Consequently the dilated air 
supported nothing more than the weight of the rnercurial 
stopple, or ^ of an inch of mercury. But air rarified 90 
times will sustain more than If inch of mercury, when the 
barometer stands at 30*06; neglecting the inert ased elastic 
city, which was occasioned in the present instance by raising 

^riiebaroms> the pan and its contents from 46** to 912% Mi|y opt ife 

safely 



ON TIR BXPAVtIOV OP Mom Alt* Igf 

mMy conelnde-theD from this esperiment, that the lMir»* tr^il pTti«M 
jBctrical pressure is not counteracted by free vapour^ which "j^^^" ^" 
/eeitainly would be the case, were the hypothesis in question vaiiour, 
OMMonaDt with the operations of nature? 

After ascertaining the preceding^ fact, 1 was desirous to TVt manonaf 
i^proximate with a greater degree of exactness to the limit m^^'^'^ 
^ tlhe expansion, if a proper instrument could be procured. 
I tay a proper instrument, because the manometer appears 
to be objectiooable on two accounts. In the first place it 
would be difRcuU to graduate a tube of a moderate lengdi ■ 
•o accurately, as to discover the dilatation by it truly to two 
or three places of figures. In the next place a manometer 
of this construction may be made to give different results by 
a little management, which will be evident from the follow- 
ing experiment, 

£!sp.9. A manometer f\ of an inch in ^ameter was cooled £xp. t. 
by water to 36% and the height of the column of air was 
then marked on the glass. In the next place the tube waa 
foddenly plunged into water of 95% and the height of the 
column marked as before. On cooling the instrument again 
as suddenly to 35°, the air contracted to its former dimen- 
flons ; after which the temperature was raised a second time 
to 951* in a very gradual roanuer. The consequence was, 
that the column fell short of its former height by nearly ^^ 
of its length. This circumstance determined me, to prefer jEolipile pia» 
an aeolipile to a manometer, the method of using which will feiable. 
appear in the following paragraph. 

Exp, 3. What I have called an seolipile is a copper ves- Exp. & 
sel of a conical figure and having a flat bottom. The slen- 
der part of the truncated cone has an aperture ^ of an inch 
in diameter, which is turned directly downwards when the 
bottom of the aeolipile is parallel to the horizon. 110 grains 
of water at the temperature of 64* were put into this ves- 
sel, which required the addition of 2895 grains of water at 
the same temperature to till it. Things being thus prepar- 
ed, the teolipilc was immersed in a large pan, and suspended 
free of the sides and bottom by wires. The pan was then 
heated to '213% and kept boiling for some time; after which 
|t was reduced to.()4* as quickly- as possible by pouring cold 

water 



fgl^ .Ml T0ft BZPAirtlOV OV MONT 4IK. 

' tralariBtoit. Theaobpile was then rein0Tedfr<MBtIi* lira, 
tt« aperture being covered by the fiager of the.openitor. 
Alter being carefully wiped with dry clbtbetf it was weighed^ 
and found to contato 185 grain meaturea of 'air» which was 
ctideDtly Mturated with moiature, and at the temperature 
mt 64\ But 63 measures of air thut cireumstanced oootaiii 
M aaeasurei of dry air* Thus it appears, that 18i*5 mea^ 
of dry «r at 64*" occupy 3695 aueh neaturet when 
to 2 12** in contact with water of the same temperature: 
vhence it follows, that I measure of dry air dilates so as t# 
•liecome equal to 16*95 measures in . similar circumstances. 
it is proper to observe, that the barometer stood at 29*66 
ait the time ; and that the height of the water in the pan, 
vecfcomng from the mouth of the ttolipile, increased the 
pressure to 29*90 : therefore the true dilation of one mea^ 
aata amouats to 16*70^ But one measure of dry air at 
&t occupies no more than 0*93344 parts of a measure when 
cooled to 32^; therefore the whole bulk of one measure of dry 
air raifed from l^i* to 912^ in contact with water may be 
atated at 17*100 measures. 

I have made several experimentn both with this SKilipile 



^^^ aad a glass flask on air of 64 , wh»ch was raised to tempera* 
ofmiitai' tures less than 212 , but the results md not correspond to 
^^^t^^f^f^ the theorem given in the Manchester Memoirs for the 
parpixe of 6nding the dilatation of moist gasses confined ia 
,the manometer* Does not then the evidence of direct ex- 
periments authorize us to say, that the existence of an aque- 
ous atmoi>phere is not provoi? or more properly does not the 
same evidence show this imperceptible fluid to be not only 
invisible^ but also imagi nary ? 
Atft'BtioiT to Some of your readers may think the preceding experi- 
ments are related too minutely, particularly the first and 
third; but should an impartial person wish to repeat them, 
he will be of a difierent opinion. In fact too much precau- 
tion cannot be used to prevent the manometer or eeolipiie 
from touching the bottom of the boiler ; for if this be not 
done, the experiment will ftiil, as I have found on different 
occasions ; and this has happened when the water in the pan 
.did not boil. I should also recommend a wide cylindrical 
hMfiv in preference to a small vesbcl with a long narrow 

ne^k 



ik i'lMCuiM tlie resistence which vmponr meets with in it» 
pe from the ktter will in all probability augment its 
teaiperatare. ^ 

The ibragoing remarks are confined to the gas of water. The author 
which is supposed by the n^w hypothesis to exist independ* ^madecx- 
cotiy in the atmosphere ; but i possess observations and expe- the'pmHiMS 
riments respecting the permanent gasscs, and their mutnal S*>ms> 
penetrability, which want of room obliges me to onut at 



MUdleikmWf I iemain» &c« 

May 9Qd, IB09. JOHN OOUOH. 



V. 

^is £ffay o» Manures. By Arthur Youkg^ £09., FM.8. 

(Continued from p* 129.^ 

Paring 4md Bumingm 

J[ HESE are mechanical operations ; and though nothing Macli 

|s directly added to the soil by them» yet the efiects are in ^i^^^^^ 
many instances very extraordinary, and as such ought to sented. 
be treated of here. There is no subject in husbandry 
about which so many misconceptions are afloat^ or such 
misrepresetations hazarded, as on this* 

1. The Nature of the Ashes resulting from this Operation* 

We shall examine the result of burning 

Jst. Vegetables. I^SSdtuJ^' 

1. Clay, ing. 

2. Loam, 
Sd. Earths, including, ^3, Sand, 

4. Chalk, 

5. Peat: 

iinder one of which heads every soil may be arranged. 

These two articles will include all that generally comes DettructioA of 
within the sphere of paring and burning; for the animal ''wm* 'n<i 
substances in this case are too inconsiderable to demand at- 

tention^ 



I8S OV MAVUftEftii 

tmtloiiy although the destruction of litutg aaiiimli, mt 
vormt and insectt, is a main benefit of the work. 

Paring and barningi says Mr. Kirwan, reduces the roota 
of meg^tableB to coal and ashes, and thus prepares both a 
ftimalant and nutriment for plants. 

Lord Dnndonald observes, that <* it is only from the 
asheaof fresh or growing vegetables, that saline substances, 
or alkaline salts, are to be obtHined ; none can be got froas 
peat or decayed vegetable matter. The saline matter pro* 
duced in the process Consists of vitriolated tartar; the al* 
kali of the burnt vegetables combining with the vitriqlic 
acid, which in different states of combination is contained 
tt most soils. Vitriolated tartar has very powerful effects 
in promoting vegetation." It promotes, as Mr. Senebicr 
remarks, the decomposition of water. It will hereafter be 
seeo> that hidrogen is a roost active food of plants. What- 
ever, therefore, assists in this decomposition must act a very 
important part in vegetationt 

Mr. Fourcroy thinks, that the ashes of burnt vegetables, 
which have been supposed to consittt of earth or clay, when 
the fixed alkali is washed from them, are principally cal* 
careous phosphorus, like those of animal bones. Lord 
Dundonald is of the same opinion. This observation is a 
most important one, and ought to be pursued. In regard 
to the calcination of earths, that of clay and chalk has 
been already treated. The circumstances are (numerous 
in which this operation may be highly beiieticial. 

Loam is composed of various combinations of sand, clay, 
and calcareous earths. The effect of fire exerted on sand, 
whether mixed in the form of loam, or by itself in a sandy 
loam, has not been sufficiently ascertained ; and to draw 
conclusions from theory would be dangerous. If I were to 
reason upon the point, 1 should imagine that fire would 
add nothing to the nature of sand which could render it 
more fertile. The tendency' of its operation would be to 
lessen its small degree of cohesion, from ^^hutever cause 
arising, and might so far be prejudiciul. Iron brought 
into combination with pure air lessens the aggre^atiop *• 

• Davy. 

It 



ON HAirrUES. 1^ 

It is however a qnestion demanding the cornhined efibrU 
of the chemist and the farmer, uot reafoning but expert' 

tiimg. 
The effect of beat in this operation is remarkable. Whcrfr- S^«* ^ 
huriiing has been much practised, experience has de* 
aiODstrated the necessity of removing all the aslies where 
the fires were made ; and though careful farmers remove 
some of the uncalcined earth, still these spots manifest a 
deeper green in the crop» than is observable in any other 
part of the field. I'he general warmth diifused ma^ proba* 
biy have a greater effect than is suspected. 

5. The Properties of the Ashes resulting from Paring and 

Burning, 

Vegetable ashes imbibe carbonic acid from the atmoa- Ptopeitini 
phere*. They act in decomposition, and yield three **••*""*' 
fourths in carbonic acid, and one fourth a little inflamma* 
ble; and last many years, by reabsorbing in winter the 
principles they had lost in summer f. 

I imagine that the advantage of p»aring and burning 
some soils depends on the heat emitted from the bu ruing 
vegetable fibres uniting oxygen with the clay, which forms 
more than the half of the slices of turf as they are dug 
from the ground I. 

That the ashes produced by paring and burning operate 
as a very powerful manure, cannot be doubted ; since in 
nine tenths of the trials that have been made through the 
wide rang^ of so many counties, the crops w! ch followed 
have been found to be very great indeed, and generally su- 
perior to those procured by means of any other manure. 
It is not the want of this success that has made so many Cautioa. 
enemies to the practice, but rather the contrary ; the crops 
have been so large, and so often repeated, because greats 
that the soil has been left in a state of exhaustion. 

This is a subject that demands the attention of the expe- 
rimental chemist more than most others in the theory of 
i^cultnre. The examinations which have been made on 

• Priestley. t Fabbroui. J Darwin. 

the 



I^ OV MARURXf* 

Qood effects the osbes of ireg^ables, and of earths, will accoont for * 
•oHote/fbn C'ci^^t^ degree of benefit resulting from their use; but per* 
haps it does not fully account for the enormous crops» which 
are gained by the operation of paring and baming. I have 
gone through not an inconsiderable course of reading, with 
8 view to discover the theory of this fact; but my research 
has not entirely satisfied me. The fbrmation of charcoaU 
solphate of potash, and phosphate of lime, with the decom* 
position of water, and the oxigenation of clay, added to 
the mechanical change effected by the fire, may certainly 
account for a considerable part of the improvement. 

3. The Paring and the Burning. 

Method of The common practice is to pare from two inches on peat 

J!^^u * ^^'* ^^ half an inch on others: an inch is the more general 
depth. 

' Mr* Wilkes, of Derbyshire, has ploughed nine incfaea 
deep» and burnt the whole furrow with the assistance of 
coal sleek ; manuring double the quantity of land burnt. 
But working an immense improvement on the space thus 
deeply burnt. I have seen other cases in which four incbea 
depth was burnt with great success. In the fens of Cam^ 
Widgeshire the paring is done with a plough, and the depth 
from one inch to two. On sand the paring should be as 
shallow as possible* 

The chief attention paid in burning is to guard agahist 
too great a calcination ; as the general opinion of those who 
have most practised this husbandry is, that the turfs should 
he rather scorched or charred than reduced to ashes. If 
burned during a brisk wind, sands frequently vitrify, and 
will not afterwards in many years, if ever, be restored to a 
state capable of contributing any thing to the support of 
vegetables : hence it is a practice with those who are aware 
of it, prior to burning, to shake out, in dry weather, from 
the grass-roots, the greatest part of their substance with 
harrows. The heaps should always be small, and the' fire 
be applied on the sheltered side of them : this m^hod, in a 
degree, should be regarded in the burning of earths of al- 
most 



OH MAMURIS. 1^ 

«ver]r Idnd; as hereby alone • carbonised lubilaBce^ 
MllTtil the black ash, will be obtaioed; instead of a wA 
hiick CMthf of much lest fertility in the otttset^ afterwarda 
auaceptible of its principles as imbibed from tha alx 

ihere. 
In practice^ however, as I have found more than once 
aa my own farm, other circumstapees will govern tbia 
point ; inch as, the weather in drying the turf, the deptk 
to which pared, and the age of the grass; far these poiola 
have sdl an influence on the size of the heaps, 

4. State in which the Ashei are apfHedL 

Here oocnra a considerable variation in c o mmon practice/ Appii 
There- are two methods; one, to spread and plough in im- ^^ 
; the other, to spread immediately, but to leave 
exposed to the atmosphere some months before tam- 
iag in. Mr. Wedge, on the thin sand soil on a chalk lM«^ 
tam of Newmarket heath, had in one field a treble experi* 
meat; part was pared and burnt in the spring, and thtj 
ashes spread and exposed till ploughing in the autumn for 
wheat; part pared and burnt late, the ashc^ leOt in heaps, 
and spread just before ploughing for wheat ; the third pared^ ^ .y 

and not burnt at all, by reason of bad weather. I'he first- r 

was by far the best; the second the next; and the; thitpl 
beyond all comparison inferior. Tliis seems to be a decidedl 
proof, that the ashes absorb some matter from the atmos* 
phere, which adds to their fertilizing qualities. 

5. Application, 

The drcumstances which may with propriety be touched ^f^ 
on under this head, are, 

1st. Spreading.. 
2d« Depth of tillage. 

The fcct of the ashes improving more after having keen 
for some time exposed to the atmosphere was probably tlie 
motive* which induced Mr. Tuke, of York, to pursue on 
the avoids of Lincoln a practice that deserves attention. It 

if 



1^ 6iS MAVVREft. 

kia pare along the ceptre of the lands a width lufficient Ikfr 
die heaps and burning; to move the sods, in order to 
plough the breadth; then to plough it ; to make the heaps 
fi>r burning on the land so ploughed; by whieh means M 
the land may be ploughed before the ashes are spread^ and 
by this means kept on the silrfaCe : two material objecta 
being attained ; Ist, the exposition of theafthes; and, Sd^ 
they are not ploughed to the bottom of the furrow, but k^t 
on the surface to combine with thiJ land, and early mnkfng 
prevented. 

Evenness of spreading is always a material object, what- 
ever may be the manure* 

The universal practice (except in one very singular in- 
stance) is to plough the first time very shallower A miflti- 
plicity of observations have convinced the farmers in almost 
every part of the kingdom, that these ashes have a Uxk^ 
dency ta sink ; and the aim has therefore been to k^rep them 
9ear the surface by shallow tillage, especially at first* The. 
Hiethod of' ploughing before they are spread entirely obviates 
the necessity of such a practice; 

?• Seafon. 

^ As the work can only be done in dry weather, it is usuallv 
begun in March, in which month the NE. winds are mpre' 
drying than at any other time. When the space to he 
burned is large, it is continued till September ; and as the 
ashes are the better for exposition to the almosphere, Sny 
crop may be put in that best suits the farmer's cotive* 
niency. 

• 8« SoiL 

• 

As the quantify of the manure thus gained depends en« 
tirely au the depth of paring, I pass on ts the consideration 
of soils on which the practice may be recommended. 
, I have tried it myself but on two soils ; on mountain pefttf 
and on middling loam : on both these I had entire success* 
But the information, which the respectable society I address 
look for, must be derived from more varied sicpenence 

thaA 



lUni k if posttldc for one person id pr^tnA t6» I sk^ll 
tbcfvfore seloct a few cases whitb will eitfbrace all the 
toili. These might be multiplied tenfold, but it would 
iwell these papers to tdo great a lengttt to offei' more tbaa 
Doketcb. 

Ciajf. 

Vln Bailey, of Ndrthodiberland, sfieatcin^ irdiii great CUji 
experience. says» ** that he has found this operation the 
■MMt cffiectuAl remedy or preventive of the calamity of the 
red worm and grubs.*' The advilntage of the practice is ' 
the cert^nty of full crops; ^* I do not/' says he, ** recol^ 
lect an instance where the cultivator was evef disiif} pointed ; 
and it is this amazing fertility, that has tempted many ped^ 
pie to go dn with repeated corn crops, until the soil was 
exhansted.** 

On the enctosuk-e of Stanwell in Middle^x, the A\6U LoiiiL ^ 
inenta socceeded well under the perfect practice of paring 
lad bomtng; and ill, where the turf was plbbgh^d without 
the application of fire^i In the former case the land waa * 
jaunediately fit for turnips, tares, barley^ and clover. In 
the latter, the tough wiry bent heath, add dwarf fur^e, 
kept the land too light and spungy for any crbps; and the 
Svoaer will be plagued for many yearsi The difference be^ 
tween the two methods is more than the value of the free* 
bold in favour of burning. 1 have observed in various coun« 
ties the same decided preference f. 

In the enclosure of £o6eld Chase, (the soili loam) Dr. 
Wilkinson states, from experience^ that paring and burnibg 
laves a very heavy expense; that the ashes possess most 
feitiliatng qualities ; that grasses are thus niuch s<>oner to 
be introduced ; thas it is a Security againft the ratagei of 
the woral ; and that so far frOm raining its staple^ the land 
ku afterwards letained its fertilit|^ during five successiri 

oopst* 

* And Which wUl be the esse 99 tittet in 100 uiiif ertellf . 
t Middl«ton*t Middlesex. % Ibid. 

tet^ XXIII><^ULir 1809« O After 



ig^l •> MANURES. 

jtttet nine years cultivation of land broken up without 
burning, it has been, noticed, that on being laid down, 
, young furze sprung up generally; burning is therefore ab- 
solutely necessary*. 

Mr. Exter, near Barnstable, broke up a grass 6eld in an^ 
enclosed farm, one half by paring and burning, the other 
half by fallow. The first crop was wheat ; the burnt gave 
thirty-five bushels per acre, the ploughed seventeen ; the 
former was clean, the latter had much couch. Winter 
tares; the burnt were fourteen iuches long, when the 
ploughed were only six ; when eaten off by sheep, the se- 
coud growth was in length as twelve to four. The pext 
crop being- turnips, and dunged equally, the burnt side 
was free from the fiy. Barley succeeded, which was con- 
siderably better on the burnt part. Clover was next, which 
was closer eaten on the burnt part; and when laid to grass 
was worth ^s. per acre more than on the ploughed half. 
Dots not di- Mr. Dalton, of Yorkshire, on a dry loam on limeftone 
mmish ib« ^^^ gravel. " It is a mere chimera to suppose, that the 
soil is diminished by paring and burning. I have done it in 
the same field twice in the course of fifteen years, and could- 
'not discover it in the smallest degree f." On a light loam 
in Cornwall, Mr. Ans observes, **• I was not singuhrly mis* 
led by speculative writers (who, I fear, have much to an« 
swer for) to think that burning cansed a lasting injury to 
the earth. I fallowed three fields. I expected them to con* 
tinue free from moss beyond the common period of its re« 
ttim. . I found myself much mistaken ; besides the crops 
failing, like those of some of my neighbours who hod not^ 
burned, the moss returned as usual. Hence I and all my 
fellow suflPerers from following have totally abandoned this 
practice, and stick to the ancient one of burning." 

*« It baa been the practice of a friend of mine, and his- 
father before him, and of others before them, for near a 
century past, (theeAate having been in the family for many 
generations) on their thin limestone land, constantly to 
pare and burn after ten years grass. The soil is so thio 



• Middleton^s Middlesex, 

t Communication to the Board of Agrlculturel 



tbaf 



OV MANURES* jgf 

dittt the plough scalpa the rock; yet do dimiaution of toil 
is in the least discovered ^I*' 

'" Upon sand T have tried paring and burning, but uu« ^sm^ 
•accesafallyt**' But Colonel Vavasour speaks of it favour- 
ably OD this soil, and from experience. Query, whether 
this difference of result did not hold to their courhcs of 
crops? The former speaks, in another case, of two crops 
of wheat, and one of oats, l^he latter, 1. turnips, 2. buck 
wheaty 3. seeds. If Mr. Wrij^ht looked on sand for corn, 
mod not grass, no wonder he was unsuccessful* 

Chalki 

Mr* Boys, near Sandwich, in 1783, pared and burnt ^aUt 
twenty acres of loose dry chalk mould, four inches deep, 
on a hard cbalk rock, value Is. per acre, and sowed barley 
and sainfoin iu March. His whole expense^ barley trbp 
incladed, 531. Produce sixty-six quarters of barley, at 
96s.9 861*: hispro/?f 33l«, or the fee-simple of the land at 
twenty-two years purchase, the price at that time. The * ' 
sainfoin took well^. In 1793, he writes to the author o? 
the periodical work just quoted, " Should any of your 
friends, who so much condemn paring and burning, come 
into Kent this summer, t can show them several scores of 
teres of wheat, barley, oats, and sainfoin, now growing on 
land which has several times undergone the operation :-^ 
the crops of sufficient value to purchase the laud at more 
than forty years purchase, at a fairly estimated rent, before 
tb« ianproTemsnt. This will be ocular demonstrutiou to 
them/' 



Teat 



'i 



Twispty years past a field of coarse rUshy land was broken p^|^ 
Sp ; part pared and barnt> the rest not* Whilst in tillage, 

« 

• Mr. WrikjliU ^ Ibi4i | Annuls. 

Oa the 



l^ OH MINUKES. • 

the part burnt yielded crops nnifonnly better than tb^ 
others. It has been down to g^rass several years ; the bnmt 
part is quite free from rushes, and covered with a good 
sweet herbage ; the other part full of rushes, and the herb- 
. age coarse*." 

Mr. Simpson says, ** I ploughed ten acres of moor, on a 
lime stone bottom, in the part most free from ling, without 
burning, and I have had sufficient cause to repent it; for I 
have not had even one middling crop fince ; and although 
laid down with seed;;, they have by no means so good an 
appearance as those sown the same year on similar soils 
after burning, although I have expended as much lime and 
' manure on this as on any part of the farm f.'* 

NcarOrton, on a peat moss, six or eight inches deep, on 
a stiff bluish clay ; the only vegetable produce spongy 
moss, bent grass, dwarf rush, &c. wet and not drained : 
pared. three inches deep, and burnt in the spring; then 
manured with thirty bushels of Jime an acre ; ploughed 
slightly for turnips, which were not hoed* They were worth 
3l. an acre; and being sown with oats, produced seventy 
bushels per acre J." 

Miss Graham was the first that pared and burnt moss ia 
Monteith. Several acres, that were burnt above forty 
years ago, continue to carry a close sward of green grass 
at this day, without a single pile of heath §. 

** Of all the methods of breaking up peaty soils which I 
have practised or seen, the best mode is paring and burning. 
I have seen various methods on several thousand acrcsy but« 
none ever equalled this ||." 

fTo be ecntinued in our next. J 

• North-Riding Report. f Ibid. 

> I Todd. Society's Transactions. . § Perth Report.^ 



vi# 



i i|niimiln|! 

i iiiii 


■■|3Jnf|uipa 






■ljpo»S 


5;SSSS£RS|;3.,« 


3 


■SJiiinami 'poipKI 


SSS^??5SS3SS 


s 

S 


1 


s.$s?|iss;^ps|f£ 






ll"H "n't'' oujiiuix 


9c = G<»-nnna«n 


wi«<lJUtiM 


S.5|Si£SS:^3 2 2 


B. 

S 




ff!!!?f«S;2S5.2S 


■■■'-'"i'"i""'n 

'oilmun-iOH 




s 




sssjsssasssi 


i 

5 


•u.BiiuJ)l*q3 


il!s5:|lllll 


lonua 


SS^^^SJIg-SSS! 


3 


uoputa 




1 


■l.Ul.lliqill3 


il!f;SJt;|?- 


1 


i 




Iliii 


Mill 


1 



198 



HET^OItOLOGIClL TABLES. 



METEOROLOGICAL TABLE, 

fiy Dr. Clarke, of Nottiogham. 



,.... 


ThcnnoniiUr. BaiuincWf. 

I 


1 Wrs- 1 


Wind* 




_. 






-.u 








= 1.1 




'■^ 


lUi i 


» 


MOKTH. 


4 


I 

f 


i 




1 


1 


i 




^ 


is 

41 


-1" 


2 




s 


^ 


p. 


OSS 




E 


■jjs]- 


d 


z 


Ed »j 


U 


J»aur.- 


*9i7 


Ml? 


•8 


311-39 


s«-9/ 


3979 


'<js ai 




"s 


3 51 


37 


Febnury 


&s,aii 


3MI>S 


13 


3074 


S9-4!i 


ao«s 


-S7 91 






3 91 


4! 


H>n:h .. 


SB 


9^ 


4U»I 


6 


3039 


sgs7 


mi. 






6s 


16- 




April.... 


iB 


31^ 


43 69 


10 




29-07 2979 








47 


M., .... 


aa 




sg-tii 


11 


3017 


B947 99'B4 






90 41 




Jant .... 






5^9.1 


9 


3025 


S9-6=!Ja9'9' 




)t> 


a6 19 


i? 


Jair .... 


«9 




^'^ 




3016 


S9 SiiOg SH 


■01 a4 7 ;i9 


173b 




Aafail . . 


J6 




64 6s 




30 17 


S9ysaf)7a 


■71 Ull! 7 


94S 




Sepfciub«c ,6»l4i. 


3?'M 


9 




39-3aja!)7« 


■38 ligii qg 


Js6 




October.. '^,3* 


4631 




soaa 


aB!)8|Sg-6B 


■91 ,'9 >a '0 


6 40 


3f 


Nunmber iss snifS-ofi 




W35 


3H72 K!)-?" 


■68 17 13 U 


isa6 




Dfrrmbfr ;49'ji'37i)6 


14 


w-ge 


j!)'"<|2()76 -35 Mailiollao 




3d 


ANNUAL RESULTS. 


TiienMOMtTin, Wind. 


BAKOVtTEIt. 


HighMHll«erTBli.>D,Jiilyi3lh, ag'SW. 


HiebHlOb;FiTuiir>n, Frii. asth, so; 


Luwwt Ohstrvntii'D, Jan. 9fld, ij^SIV. 


Lowi^Kt Obtrrrktion, Nov. istb, 98-; 


CT«itMt Virialiop, in si liuun, 


GnatMl VsnatioD in 94 bonn. 






39" 


1 nr,..lvr inil..>jlh 




■! 


The Menu, . - . 





Aann IItIip M»n 




WwIhU. DA7i. W.BO.. Tints. R*,N. IxC 


Fair .... aaT-.-.K'&NE. ...isGa.... Gmteii Quaiiiiry in April, 4 
W««.... 19« .... E.&SE 12s .... Smallol ditto, in f ebniary 


S. &SW 356 


fl6s H*. i^^C. ,.3Si Total 




S3 






— 



METEOBOLOGiriL TABLES. 



REMARKS. 



199 



The town of Nottingham is situate in latitude 52" 59' 35" S:tuarion o^ 
north, and in 1* 7' 0' longitude west of London. It rises Nottingham. 
with much grandeur from the banks of the small river Z.^^ii, 
gradually increasing its elevation as it extends to the N. £., 
so that above one half stands on a considerable eminence. 
The foundation is a soft sand stone rock, eabily excavated, ^ 

and forming excellent cellars. The buildings are chiefly of . 

brick, and c6mmonly three or four stories hip;h. The 
afreets are, in general, narrow. The neighbourhood pro- 
duces an ample supply of coal, which is the only fuel used 
ID the town. The Trenty a fine navigable riyer, flows, from 
west to east, within a mile of the town ; it is subject to very 
raddf n swells, which sometimes produce floods, that iuuu^ 
date the meadow ground between the river and the town. 
The atmosphere must be, in some measure, influenced by 
the evaporation that follows, as well as by the dense haze 
orer the liver in summer evenings, and the thick fogs of 
vioter. 

The barometer, thermometer, and pluviameter (or rain Inttnimemt ft 
gmoge), are new instruments, made by Jones, of Hoi born. «*>^«^**«*- 
The thermometer, on Fahrenheit's scale, is placed outside 
a window, facing the west, in the centre of the town, but 
iu a situation protected from currents of air, or reflected 
heat. The observations were made daily, at 8 A. M., 
S P.M., and 11 P.M., and from them the averages are 
deduced.— -The barometer (of the portable kind) is firmly 
fixed to a standard wall over a stair-case, on a level of 130 
feet above the sea. The observations were tnken daily at 
2 P. M., and from these the mean was obtained. — The 
pluviameter is placed \n a garden, on an elevation of 140 
feet above the level of the sea, where it cannpt be affected 
by buildings, or .gusts of wind. The pbserv^tions are taken r 

at the end of each month. — The observations on the wind 
were made at 6 A. M., -2 P. M., and at dusk, from the vane 
of a church steeple, the most elevated part in the town. * 

The following Copy of a Monthly Journal will be t}ie j 

best elucidation of the plau that has been pursued. i 

METEOROLOGICAL 









^- mm 




-IP^I'? 


^«H 


^s^s 


?>2zz2 = a25zxsS 


'^^«»ipr-^^2 






|:j!-f4i|lo 


f^Su 


mm 


|t?^rrti| 


PHHi^^ 


^Iji^^fl 


nia?in 



mm 
mm 









? .! ??■ 



mVEOTBMBVT IV PBSFiityNG ETHBBf y^| 



VII. 

(Mprmi^iaffi on Svfphuric Ethety and its Preparation; ftjr 
A/r. BouL|.AY> Afothtearyf of Paris*. 

JL HE tiae of sulphuric ether is at present very extensive^ Th^mskiaf tf 
mud its consumption so great, that it has become a produce •»(p>>/^«OMr 
ef tlieartsin the large way. Its preparation, though much pruned. 
iiiDpIified, still merits fitteiition ; and appears capable of 
l>eing improved, not only in respect to economy, but also as 
to the parity of the product* ; 

In the formation of sulphuric ether, whether by the di»* fhe ktterpfo* 
filiation of » simple mixture of concentrated sulphuric acid ^^^'^ always 
smd alcohol, or the addition of fresh alcohol to the resi- ^^'^^ 
^ourn, all the quantity obtained is not equally dulcified ; 
•nd^ iu spite of careful rectifications, the last portious al- 
ways retain a more or less unpleasant smell, that may be 
ascribed to some oil intimately united with it, which it ia 
yery diflBcult lo separate completely. 

According to the theory of Messrs. Fourcroy and Vau- Theory of Hhm 
qnelin, founded on their learned researches into the subject, ethic?***"* 
^^ attraction of sulphuric acid for water, assisted by heat, 
determines the traiibformation of alcohol into ether. This 
reaction of the principles of alcohol, exerted under the in- Whatinjuriouf 
fluence of the bulphunc acid, precedes the carbonization of ^° *'• 
|be mixture, the formation of the oleum dulce, the extri* 
cation of sulphuric acid, and the other phenomena of the 
process cai^ried to its end. We may even venture to say, 
that ether IS no longer formed, when the^e products appear; 
and that prhat passes over after that time is only separated 
the residuum, in which it was contained ready formed. It 
would be an advantage therefore, to prevent, or at least re- This thould be 
lard, the appearance of these products, which announce a P'^''**'^*** 
complete decomposition of the alcohol; and, by adding at 
a proper time fresh quantites of this liquid, to keep up 
such proportions, that the etherification may go on much 
jfSDger. For this it appears necessary, that the sulphunc 

* Annates da Chimk| vol. LXII, p. 242. 

acid 



ffjig FHPBOTBII^IfT IN PBEPARIKG ETBE& 

acid should never compose more than two thirds of the con- 
teuts of the retort, and that the alcohol should be scarcely 
trier less than the other third*. In this way the sulphuric 
^ad is prevented from burning the' alcohol to its loss,. au4 
^ «e obtain none of the results of a decomposition carried too 

far, which is injiirious to the etherification, and immediately 
laltows' it. We shall theu hare a better product, and in 
larger^qiiantity ; aikl the production of ether will continue^ 
till, the sulphuric acid is so much diluted by the water 
formed and separated, as to be unable to effect any change 
io the alcohol. 

The -particular kind of funnel, which has facilitated my 
making^ ether by means of the phosphoric acidf, and is sp- 
plicabYe to many other chemical processes, enabled me to 
carry this theory into practice in tl>e following manner. 

To a large tubulated :glass retort, placed on a sand heat, 
I adapted a glass worm immersed in a vessel of cold water. 
The extremity of the worm was inserted into the neck of a 
large bottle, between which and a secotid bottle filled with 
water a communication was established by menDs of a si- 
phon. Into the retort I introduced ten kilogrammes [22lbs* 
iivoird.] of sulphuric acid concentrated to Sff". In the lu* 
bulure was inserted the funnel with two cocks, so that its 
pipe descended nearly to the bottom of the retort', passing 
through the sulphuric acid. Ten kilogrammes of alcohol 
at SG** of U'eaume's areometer were then poured in quickly, 
being conveyed through the pcid by means of the funnel. 
The mixture was very well effected, though with violehce ; 
and it was the less coloured in proportion as the introduce 
tioa of the alcohol was more speedy. The distillation was 
lept up by means of a fire under the retort; and as soon 
as about two kilogrammes had passed over, ten kilogrammesr 

The»flc!Te * '^^^ proportions of equal parts of sulphuric acid and spirit of 

vine, constantly adopted, appear to be most suitable. It is to be ob- 
served however, n(»twithstaiiding the utmost care taken to separate the 
a1c«h«>l, that comes over first, the product that follows does not attain 
the .lightness, that cuuKtitutcd true ether, till toward thc^middle of tUa 
process. 

t Sec Joarual, vi>L XVIII, p. 64* aad Pi. II, fig. 4. 

of 



FROBLCM IN THE DOCTRIVC OF FfeBMUTATIOHf. OQtt 

rf fresh ulcobol at 40"* were introduced drop by drop, re- 
gulating the quantity as nearly as possible by what passed 
over into the receiver. The process was continued so as to 
obtain fifteen kilogrammes of a white limpid product, of 
the most agreeable -ethereal smell and taste, contHining no « 

traces of sulphurous acid or oleum dulce, and yielding, 
when rectified on a water-bath, eight kilogrammes of pure 
ether, with some alcohol of an ethereal smell well adapted 
for future processes. 

The liquid remaining in the retort was of the colour of The residmiai. 
heer» aud very clear. It consisted of nearly the whole of 
the sulphuric acid employed, some alcohol, water, and no 
doubt a certain quantity of ether completely formed. 

This residuum, heated afresh, quickly assumed a black Purpoteaito 

colour, and became sulphurous and oily. In this state it ^^'^^^ ™^ 

!•./»*/«» "* applied* 

may enter into the composition of Honmaun^s mineral t 

anodyne liquor* The residuum might also be turned to 

account, by using it as sulphuric acid where the alcohol 

could do no harm* as for instance^ in forming different 

salts; 



tfs 



VIII. 

fuvestigation of a Problem in the Doctrine of Permutations4 

By Mr. Peter Barlow. 



I 



To Mr. NICHOLSON. 
SIR, 

N the course of a mathematical investigation, in which ProMem in the 
I was lately engaged, it was necessary for me to determine *****^^"?*°^P*' 
-—How many combinations could be fonned out of a given 
nuipber of thingS) in which there were several things of one 

* I bavc observed, that alcohol at 36^ is best ad»pted for the com- 
mon preparation of Kulphuric ether j and that the mixture is less co- 
loured when it is at this strength, than if it contain less water. Bat at 
the second addition, as the acid is already weakened, it is better to em« 
ploy it at ¥f. 

sort. 



204' FKOBLKM IN THE DOCTftlNE OF F£RMVTAT10K9» 

' sort, several thingg of another sort, &c., by taking one at 
a time, two at a time, &c«9 to any given number of things 
at a time. 
Sfei*?" T^' ' ^^^^ not been able to find, that this problem has been 
yuttaUj, ' considered by any authors, at least, that I am acquainted 
withy who have written on the doctrine of permutations and 
combinations; except indeed Emerson^ and one or two 
other authors of a later date, who have a similar problequy 
that is, a partial case of the above general one, which from 
a repetition of operations would be sufficient for the solution 
the foTe of the present question, but the rule which is given by them 
fbr determining the number of combinations in each parti- 



cular case is so long and tedious, that it is really of no use, 

being little better, or less tfotible> than finding the answer 

frwn repeated trials. 

A^rary timpla This cireumstance led me to consider the problem inde- 

^eiMni rale, p^jj^ently of the measures there adopted, and having fallen 

Upon a very simple rule, which includes the particolar case 

* of Emerson^s in the general one above mentioned ; and as 

ft has not, to the best of my knowledge, been given by any 

author, who has written on this subject, I have been t^ 

duced to submit it to you for insertion in your Journal, 

should you think it deserving a place in that useful work. 

Problem* 

FMMem. To determine the number of combinations, that can be 

formed out of a given number of things, in which there are 
m, things of one sort, n things of another sort, p things of 
another sort, &c. ; by taking 1 at a time, 2 at a time, &c., 
to any given number of things at a time. 

Rulcr 

Jtulft, P^^ce in one horizontrtl row iw -f i units, annexing Ci- 

llers on the right hand, till the whole number of units ami 
cipher^ exceeds the greatest number of things to be taken 
at a time by unity. 

Under each of these terms write the sum of the n + 1 
left hand terras, including that as one of them, under which 
the number is placed ; and uyder each of these write the 
fum of the p + 1 l^ft hand terms of the last line. Under 

each 



rMBttM m THC VOGTEINrOP RAMUf ATIOHS. 9Bf 

eodi of these last the turn of the 9 + 1 left terms, «nd to 
CMi, tfarough all the Qtember of diifereot things, and the last 
line will be the answer : that is, the second term shows tlic 
oomber of combinations taking ONtf at a time, the third terui» 
the number of combinations taking two at a time, &c* 

JSxampk* 

Given a number of the form o' b^ c* d* e*/' g^ to find EmnpK 
Iiow 4nany different divisors it has, each of which shall be 
the product of ten factors, of nine factors, of eight factors, 
&c. ; If, 6, c, &c. being prime numbers. 

Here mzzS» nzz5,p:=: 4,q =: A, r=i4,*=:3, r=:i, 
tberefiire by the rales 

m 

1111110 = m+lanit9 
1234565 4 3 2 1=11+1 terms 

13 610 15 20 83 S4 S3 SO 15r:p litems 

14 10 SO 35 54 74 9S 105 110 105 =9 + Iterms 
1 5 15 35 70 1S3 193 S75 360 435 486 =r +1 terms 
1 6 91 56 1S5 S43 4S1 661 951 1S63 1556 si + 1 terms 
1 7 57 77 IBl 368 664 108S 161s SS14 S8I9 imswera. 

That is, the aomber has seven prime divisions, twenty-seven 
that are oompoacd of two factors, seventy-seven having three 
fiurtors, &c. 

I have selected this question, because it includes the par- This rule coov 
ticular case given by Emerson in his' lost example ; inord^r P*^^^^ 
that, by a comparison of both methods, an estimate ipaay be 
formed of the labour that is saved by this rixle. It may not 
at the same time be amiss to observe, that Emerson has not 
put down a twentieth part of the work, that is necessary fov 
the operation. 

Intestigation of the Rule. 

By the deveiopemeat of the formula (l-i^a + o^ ••••«?) investigaHsa 
.(l + * + *»••••*"•) • (1 + c 4. c» — c^)/ (1 + rf + cP'^^ ^^'^^ 

• • • •d^) &c.> we shall evidently obtain all the possible com- 
binations that can be formed with ma s^nb s^pcs, qds^ 
kc ; and, as we proceed in this developement, the law 
wbcBCC tbftr above rale is 4Maoed will be teadily peroeivedN^ 

But, 



JIOS FBOBUV Iir THE DOCTBIIIB OP PEBMUTATtOlfSb 

But, for this purpose it will be best to give determinate 
values torn, «, p, 9,&c.; by which means the operation 
will be more simple, and at the same time the law of forma- 
tion will be equally obvious. Therefore suppose mzzA^n 
zz3jP=:2» then by actual multiplication we have 



.» I ^1 _l_ -4 



1 + II + a* + a* + or 
1 4- * + ^* + &* 



And again, multiplying this last product by 1 + ^ + c% 
we obtain the following result. ' 




c» + c»^? + c» 



a* 

a* 

a ' 


1 


a} 

l« 
1 


'1 

•6» 




1 
•6+c' 




{s ^ -"J-My;^-!' 



Now, without pursuing the developement any farther, we' 
shall readily perceive, that all the combinations in the se^ 
cbnd pjace, in both products, consist of one letter, in the 
third place, of ttco letters, and in the fourth of three letters, 
&0. And farther, that in any term, for example the fifth 
term, the number of combinations is equal to the number 
in the fif^h, fourth, and third, of the foregoing product; the 
number of jcombinations in the fourth term is equal to the 
number in the fodrth, third, and second : that is, the num- 
ber of combidations in each term is equal. to the number in 
the three last named terms of the foregoing product; and if 
we had used c', then the number in each term would have 
been equal to the/our last named terms of the foregoing 

jjl^oduct ; and generally, if we had employed c^, the nom« 

ber 



aogr 



TtftT SBirBItflE VTGAHIlETflL 

lier of combinations in each term woaldhave been equal to 

the number in ihep-f 1 left-band terms of the preceding 

line. And exactly the same law n observed when .we m«il« 

tiply this last prodnct by (I + rf + d* — d?), that is to say, 

each term of the new product is equal to the number of 

combinations in the 9 + 1 left hand terms of the lin^e which 

precedes it ; and so on, for any number of moltiplicationt ' 

whatever. Whence the truth of the rule is manifest. 

We may farther remark, that, if the greatest number oT 

things to be taken at a time exceeds half the number of 

things given, still, we need not pursue the operation for 

more than half the given number, as will be evident from 

a closer inspection of the above formulae. For it must be 

readily observed, that, were we to carry the operation of 

each multiplication to its whole extent, the ternjs on each 

product would increase, from the fTrst to the middle terrn'si 

and then decrease again in the same manner to the oth^' 

extremity of the line. ' 

Yours, &c. 

PETER BARLOW. 

Rcyal MiRtary Academy y Woolwich. 
MaySUi^ I8O9. 



IX. 

Description of a very sensihie Hyp^ometer, By Lieutenant 
Henrt Kater, 0/ his Majesty's 1 2th Regiment*. 

JLN the Mysoor and Camatic is found a species of grass,- An TodEbn 
which the natives call, in the Canarese language, ooheena ^^^^ 
hoolooy in the Maratta, guvataa see cooslee, and, in Tamul* 
yerudowsaal piUoo\. It is met with in the greatest abun- 
dance, about the month of January, on the hills^ but may 
be procured in almost every part of the country, and is very 
generally known. 

• Abridged from the Asiatic Rosearches, vol. IX, p. 24. 

•f- It is the andiopog(m eon'ortu/n of Linna:us, and may be easily Uls* 
tinguishH from all othcni, b. the seeds attaching theoiicWcs to the 
ciothes of those who walk where it grows. 

• Accident 



xljponi6t0f 
of iU 



TIIT tBVItUE HrmOMSTBB* 

iMt a betrd Accident led me to remark^ that the bearded seed of tlii 

•CmttSttreT fi^** po«eii<d an extreme sensibility of moisture; and 

being then in want of an hffgrometert I constructed one 

of this material, which, on trial, fftr exceeded my expec** 

tations* 

A B C D9 PI. VI, fig. I, represents a piece of wood, 
about fourteen inches long, three inches broad,, and one 
inch and two tenths thick. The upper part is cot out, 
as in the figure, to the depth of two inches, leaving the 
sides A. and B, about three tenths of an inch thick. The 
wood, thus prepared, is morticed into a square board, which 
serves as its support, 

Fig. 2 is an ivory wheel*, about an inch and two tenths 
dutmeteTf and two tenths of an inch broad at the riln. A 
semicircular groove is made in the circumference, of such 
a depth, that the diameier of the wheel, taken at the bot- 
tom of the groove, is one inch. Through the axis, which 
jfitojects on one side four tenths of an inch, a hole is madc^ 
tl^e size of a common sewing needle; and, on this, as a 
centre, the wheel should be carefully turned ; for, on the 
troth of the wheel the accuracy and sensibility of the in* 
ttrament chiefly depend. From the bottom of the groove 
m small hole is made obliquely through the side of the 
wheel, to admit a fine thread. All the superfluous ivory 
should be turned away, that the wheel may be as light aa 
possible. 

Fig. 3 represents a piece of brass wire, two inches long ; 
00 one end of which a screw is made, an inch and a half in 
length ; and, in the other, a notch is cut, with a fine saw, 
to the depth of half an inch. This part is tapered off, so 
that the notch, which is intended to hold the beard of grass^ 
In the manner hereafter described, may be closed, by means 
of a small brass riipg (a) which slides on the taper part of 
the wire. 

A little below the centres of the semicircles A and B^ 
fig. I, two holes are made, precisely in the same direction: 
one of these is intended to receive the screw, fig. d, and tha 



a In my first experiroenu I used s wheel 
axU of wood, which sniweved very wsIL 



aisds of osfd ptper^ with 



oihav 




> 7 






^^ 



X 



>^ 



^ 



\^ 



V 



V 

N 
N 



t 

T 






y 




> 



< - ■ -^- - - 



,'. - -T=3 : 






e 



n 




r 






■ - 



*.< 






•^ -J 



idler ft gbid pip, which it t6 pnojtct four tenths of an inch 
b^oud the ioidde of the pert A. The pin it made rather 
MDaller theu the bole in the exit bf the irory wheel, and it 
highly polished ; io order that the motion of the wheel may 
b« the lest impedied by frictioa. 

Two fine threads, about fourteen inches long, are passed* 
together through the hole in the groove of the wheel, and 
are prevented from returning, by a knot on the outside* 
To the ends of these threads two weights are attached, er« 
ttdfy iimilart and just heafy enough to keep the threads 
extended. 

One of the threads having been wound on its circumfe* 
rence, the wheel is to be placed on the pin, about the tenth 
of an inch from the side A, as in fig. 4. Two glais tubes* 
of a sufficient bore to admit the free motion of the weights, 
are fixed in grooves, in such a manner, that each thread 
should fall eacactiy in the axis of the tube. The tubes are 
so long as nearly to touch the ivory wheel* 

The beard of the oobeena hooloOf being prepared by cut> 
tiog ofi* that part which is useless, is inserted about the 
tenth of an inch in the projecting end of the axis of the 
wheel, and confined by a small wooden pin, which is to be ^ 
broken off close to the axis ; the other end is placed in the 
notch of the brass screw, before described, and secured by 
means of the sliding ring. 

It is evident, that when the grass untwists, the wheel will Action of the 
tarn on the gold pin ; and the thread, which is wound about 3rro«^» 
it, with the weight attached, will descend in the one glass 
tobe ; while, on the contrary, the weight on the opposite 
tabe will ascend, and vice versa. 

The beaid of the grass is now to be thoroughly wetted, A^Sottmsnl 
with a hair pencil and water ; aud when the wheel is sta* »*•••'«'• 
tionary, the weights are to be so adjusted, by turning the 
brass screw, that the one shall be at the top, and the other 
tt the bottom of the glass tubes ; which points will mark 
extreme moiMmrt^ 

The iDttrument must then be exposed to the sun, or to sad 4r/ntii, 
tome heat, not powerful enough to injure it, but sufficient 
to obtain a considerable degree of dryness. The weighu will 
DOW change situations; and, probably, on the first trial, 

\oL. XXIII.— July, IS09. P ^iU 



210 run fftKiiBtc rit6B6lisn«» 

ivill contimie to nicyve t^yoMl the gtus tubet. Should Aif 
happefiy the beard of grass is to be shortened, bj'slidhigp 
beck the ring, and advtLricing the brass sctew, so as to in- 
' dude a longer portion in the fiotcb. Other trials are , to be - 
made, and the length of the grass Taried, till the extrensea 
of dryoen and moisture are within the limits of the glass 
tobcs. 

InconTcnleiice I^ the whole df that ptrt of the aobeena KoolikO^ whioh 

of tkisfbnn. possesses |h^ hygroscopic property, be used, the scale will 

comprise ttiore tNan iwenty-fimt inches ; a length, which* 

though perhaps useful on particular occasions, will not be 

found conirenient for general purposes* 

Trial of itiao* From en (dea, that in a high state of moisture the grass 

cuncj. would not' retdin sufficient power to move the wheel equa*» 

My, it #a8' thb^ouj^hly wetted, till it indicated extreme 

moisture^ and, while in this state, the wheel was drawti 

round, by laying hold of one of the threads : on releasing 

it, it instantly regained its former situation, with considep- 

able force. The same expenment was made, in various 

other states of moisture, and it was always found, that the 

v^ghts retttrned immediately to the degree from which they 

had been removed. 

A metal wheel It would perhaps be an improrement, if a light wheel 

maj be used, of brass, or «af other metal, not liable to rust, were used ' 

instead of the ivory one; the grass having been found, bj 

,ekperiarent, to be capable of moving a wheel of lead. The 

' . Mcis of the wheel might be made very small, and supported 

on Yk, which probably would add much to the seasibUitjf 

cf the instrument. 

Adapted to ^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ "^ opportunity of comparing this with any 

•liglUtariatloa other hygrometer; but it is simple in its coiwtraction, pot 

o nmtljrci. •• ^^|y disordered, and should seem, from the extent of its 

seale,. to be porticularly adapted to experiments, in. which 

small variations of moisture are to be observed* . 

Hyfroroetrical '^^ hygrometer has been hitherto an instrument rather of 

obMnrationi curiosity than utility. But from most accounts that we* 

wiS?SSctiio;*"'*'®' it appears very probable^ that this instrument has 

more to do with the phenomeim of rrfiraetion^ thaif' either 

harnmetcr or ihcrmmiteten ' • If then we could obtain a 

number of observationt. of (ipparcut altitudes together 

with 



fftidi d^t* fraoi which to calculate the trae> notiug at the 
wme time the hygrpmeter^ bantmtterf end tkermometer$ 
perhaps •teie law might be discoverelly which might enable 
«a toeacertaio the quantity of the ^Bect of moisture on re^ 
fiACtioo* It waa with thia view the hygromtter above de*, 
acribed waa constructed ; but not having yet had an oppor- 
tunity of obtaining the requisite oU>ervationS| it is to be 
hoped they may be made by those* who. are in possession • 
of time and instruments equal to the undertaking. 

X. • 

of an imprwed Hygrometir. By Ueut^tutMi 
HsNtT Katbr, Iff his Mqjesti/'s litk Reghnmtt*. 



s 



_INCK 1 had the honour of laying before the Aiiatic Improireibenl 
Society •• a description of a very sensible Hygrometer,*' I i^ *^* ^^Be-T 
hare attended much to the improvement of the iiistrumenti ter« 
and am induced to think that some farther account of it 
may not be deemed wholly unacceptable. 

The principal objection to ^e hygrometer described iu 
my former paper arose from the necessity of shortening the 
baud of the oo6ertia A<¥>foOy in order to reduce the scale to 
a convenient length ; this was to be obviated only by giving 
the instrument a circular form, and inventing some mode 
of ascertaining without difficulty the number of revolutions 
mads by the index. 

A B C D, (PI. VI> fig. 5) is a frame, made of small Oecfiplian of 
square bars of brass or silver ; this frame is soldered to a ^^ impro««A 
sqi\are plate B £, the edges of which are torned up, as 
represented by the dotted lines, to secure the inder from 
injury : on the face of the plate is engraved a circle (see 
fig. 8) which is divided into one kundrtd equal parts. Three 
holes, 0, bi c, are made through the frame and plate in the 
nme direction ; the holes a and ft» are of a conical form as 
represented by the dotted lines> and are highly polished to 
lessen friction; the hole at c receives a screw, one end of 
which is tapered, and has a uofrA cut in it with a fine saws 
which may be closed by means of the sliding ring d. 

* lbUl» F> 994. 

P« The 



f 

J 1 



The mxis i/iB made of itWer wire, very RtiMlli wxA 
straight, aa<l of the site of a larfre kiiittihg needle ; on ili« 
axit o screui is formed, liy twisting a tmaller silver wire 
tightly around it yroai left to rig^t: this flcreir shoald be 
foorteen or fifteen threads in lenn^th ; the end of the nsu^ffi 
is ^vided, and is to be closed by a small sliding ring. Aa 
this is the -most important part of the hygrometer^ fig. 6>ra- 
|>re8entK it on an «i1arged scalew 

A ioap and drop (fig. 7) is made of fine gold wire* of such 
a siae - as^ thtti-wben -suspended on the scnrew it may slide 
along it with perfect freedom by means of the reirolulion of 
the axisy but not escape from one interval to another by any 
6tber modoa; should the loop, on trial, be found too large 
(as indeed it ought to be) it may be easily closed a little, by 
placing it on the screw, and pulling it gently by the drop, 
V H ^ill then assume an elliptical form, as in the figure. Tlria 

> . . loop is intended to register the number of revolutions made 

by the index, as it hangs freely from the axiSf and advances 
6ne hitetviU between the threads of the screw» for each re- 
Solution. 

The mdext g A, is made of fine wire, accumtely balanced^ 
and as light as {lossible ; H fits on the end of the axis e, eeif 
1/ io h€ placed at fighi angle$ with the commeneement of the 
ierew. (See fig. 6;) 

The beard of the ooheena kooloo is represented between 
f and d, (fig. ^.) The top of it, which is crooked, being 
cut off, it is first secured between the cheeks ttf the ^ixis^ 
ttfi by means of the small sliding ring; the u^h is then 
turned! ront^ till the gold loop is brought to the fifth or 
sixth interbaioi ihe nreWf cdvntfn^ from the dial plate 9 
the screw et c is then advanced, so as to receive the lower 
or thick extremity of the htttti of the ooheena hooho in tlic 
Boteh, where it is also confined by the sBdittg ring d. 
Adjtr^tmeht of The extremes of dryness and moiUnre are determined in 
thu hy^rome. ^l^^ following manner. The hygrometer is phced in a new 
e^nthen pot, which has iftever been wetted, and ^pOied tot 
a considerable tlrbe to as great a heat as tfie gfass can bear 
^ithiMit injury : when the index is perfectly steady, the hy- 
grometer is to b^ taken out of the vessel, and the screw at 
€ turned round with a pair ef pincers, so as to bring the 

gol4 



IXrEOfED HYGJIOMETER. . $li' 

gold loop to ihejirsi iuterval of the scriew on the txis^ 
coaotiDg as before from the dial plate, (which is to be 

e laced to the left* hand) aod the index to. )00, or zero. Thjc 
ygrometer must now be suffered to codl gradtially, during 
which, if the atamsphere be in a mean 'state of moisiturc» 
tlieiifdex will make four or fire revolutions; the pobeenn 
fiooloo is then to be continually wetted with a hair pencil 
and water, till the index is again perfectly steady. This 
will require somp time, as it moves very slowly when within 
a few degrees of extreme moisture. The degree at whtcfi 
the index stands is now to be noted, and the number of t»- 
tirwtls counted between the dial plate and the gold loop, 
aod this mimber prefixed to the observed degrees will give 
the extent of the scale. 

All observations made wjth this hygrometer pu« to be rer Isdoctioa of 

dnced to what they would have been had the scale consisted L^*^^*^ 

" . • tioqs to A 

of 1000 parts, or ten revolutions of the index. This is ttsiKlsfd. « 
most convenient, as it facilit^ites the comp^son of Qbser» 
Vations mad^ with different hygrometers. An example ipay 
not be thought superfluous. Suppose the scale of the hy« 
grometer to be 1 145, or eleven intervals and forty-five parli; 
and that at the time of observation, there ^re/our iniefjHtlii 
between the dial plate and gold loop, and 50 pqr4$ shown by 
the index; this would be written 450. Then, as 1145 : 
1000 : : 450 : 393 nearly, the number of degrees to be 

registered. 

If two of these hygrometers, in which the extrenies of 
dryness and moisture are well determined, be compared to- 
gether, they will seldom difler ten diaisions from each other, 
frfaich is as near a coincidence as can be expected. 

The ooheena fiooloo or andropogon contortus is found in 
every part of the country, in the mouth of January, when 
it should be gathered^ and thoroughly dried \n the sqn, be*: 
fore it is used. 

This grass appears to be far superior to any other by- SejuiWJlysfii 
grasoopic substance, hitherto discovered. In the Ency- other adranp. 
clppftdia Britannica, the scale of Saussure's hygrometer j^j^umen^ 
is said to consist of 400 degrees, or rather more than one 
revolution of the index ; the hygrometer here described 
makes elepen or twehe revolutions ; it possesses alfto the ad- 
~ * ' vantage 



S 1 4 •nmir ATtov of icEoi. 

▼antege of being perfectly portable, cannot easily be d«« 
ranged, and may be mach redaced in size, if thougbt ne^ 
pessary, without affecting the extent of the scale. 

P» the Germinatim of Seeds. In a Letter Jrofn Mr^ 

J. Acton, of Ipswich. 

To Mr, NICHOLSON, 
Dear Sir, 

V^T^ialogy dtf. AT is admitted by the m68t enlightened philosophers, that 
ticstta, ° scarcely any subject can present itself more difBcuk of iii« 
. . rebtigation than auimul and veg^able physiology. Tha 
functions depending on vitality must not be compared tothi^ 
common chemical processes, or to those changes constantly, 
taking place in nature by the action i^f inorganic bodies oa 
' each other. Life itself is a phenomenon enveloped iu mya? 
terj, and probably will ever remain so. We can fpriq no 
judgment of it but from its effects; and thot^e are of sQ 
complex a nature, that it is only by the most attentive and 
studious examination of them we can expect to withdratf 
the veil of obscurity, under which they are hidden, or at 
all approximate to the truth. Any suggestions presenting 
themselves to the mind on so important a subject should be 
encouraged ; and if we pan hope to throw the least addi- 
tional light upon it by our exertions, no obstacles should 
atop us; not even the (almost) certainty of ultimate failure 
ought for a moment to lessen the energy of our pursuits. 
Foneiieas of Perhaps none uf the functions of organic bodies deserve 
offMiic bodies q^x attention more than those tending immediately to ex- 
iMnfSi ao* >*tence, namely the respiration of animals, the germination 
1^0^ of seeds, and the consequent vegetation of plants ; as alsq 

the alterations taking place in the surrounding utniotiphere 
Maot of the during their operation. The following humble attempts, 
'•'P*' having for their object the farther illustration of these phe- 

pomena by experim.ent| are with difBdeD<:e submitted 

throueli 



tlu««gli' the channel of your widely drcnlated Jonrnal to 
the cyei of the phtloiopbic world ; and if they shall he 
finuid of tuffieient consequence to clear up any doubt, or 
iodnce one tingle efifort in others toward explaining the 
m at t e r s to he treated of; my end will be entirely answered, 
and my trouble rewarded. They have been undertaken 
and presenred amidst many interruptions and discourage^ 
mentt ; and if they shall be found not to have all the r^u« 
lari^ and accuracy to be desired, I trust they will yet hava 
some claim to attention, if not from their originality, at 
least from the persevering and disinterested industry, which ' 
gave rise to them, and brought them to a conclusion, the 
striving as much as possible to corvobprate each experiment 
by repetition, and the avoiding to mdcie any dejlofrtioQs but 
such as are fully warranted by facts only* 

Since the time of Dr. Priestley, the generally received Oensnl o|ft. 
opinion has been, that in respiration the oxigen gas of the pinSfeodfT** ■ 
atmoapheric air is absorbed, and carbonic acid gas given out; fetroji oxifsa, 
tnd that in vegetation plants are constantly absorbing ^^^SjJoiwi^ 
csihooic acid gas as their natural food, and emitting pzigen 
gas, tending to resiore the air to its original purity ; in this 
manner keeping up a regular series of compositions and de? ' 

eompoeitions, beautiful from their apparent simplicity, and 
the more deserving of admiration from seeming to harmo* 
nize with what was known of the great system of the upi?* 
Tcrsfr 

No fundamental opposition appears to have been success- JJiJL^!^, 
fully made to this doctrine, till ubout two years ago ; when 
a work on the subject was published, in which the respect* 
able and learned author* brought together in a small com- 
pass almost all thfB experiments that had been performed, 
and added a few of his own, for the express purpose of aur 
Douncing and endeavouring to demonstrate the following 
theory : •* That no air enters the plant or animal during its j^^ thcoc? af 
^ q)propriate living processes; but that, during the opera- Mr.UUi, 
" tion of their respective functions of germination, vegeta- 
^ ^on, and respiration, sglid carbon is emitted as a secre* 

* Mr. D. Ellis on Gfrminationi Blc. 

*f tion 



OfilMlVAtlOir OF SBBBS. f^lj. 

mtf Bitoatfanif After contimungtbis pnctice fiur sometiine. Air oTtlMAt* 
while eofmiNKi in the aame manner^ 1 was hastily called '"°"'*^«'" ^ 
away, and left the quill fwrtly m thejari with one end nsing mercury bf « 
out of the mercury. The jar was then two thirds full of feather, 
gUp bat on my retum in about half an hour» I perceived it 
had increased very considerably, aod on pUciug the quill 
in other jars, I distinctly heard a shrill whistling noise, like 
that of air under pressifre passing through a capillar}* tube* 
and I observed th^ mercury slowly to sink, till it was on fir 
level on the inside and outeide of the jar. I was then con* 
vinced the atmospheric an hud rushed in by means ol the 
qnill, and consequently that all the ei^periroents, in which 
this had been introduced, must have been vitiated. 1 re- 
verted the quill, and it still had the same eflect. 1 tried it but not 

in jars over water, but no^ air paiibed. I afterward made use thiough waisr, 

^ ■ String, ft other 

of string, and other substances, and they all admitted the tubtt«nc%acs- 

par through quicksilver, though in different degrees, some «l » the isiaa 

being much slower conductors than others. After consider^* 

ing this phenomenon, the best judgment I am able to form 

of it is, that tne air does not pass through the body of the 

qnill, or other substance, but between tHe mercury and its 

^es; and in water the passage is prevented by their being Mercury does 

in closer contact with each other. Whether this explanatson notfonn*clMe 

conuict* 
he satisfactory, I leave to your superior knowledge to deter- 
mine: 1 confess I was gratitiiKl with the discovery, as far as 
ooDcemed my experiments, as it enabled me to prevent their 
beine so rendered incorrect for the future. 

It having been stated as a principal argument in favour Aivument for 
of the emission of solid carbon from the seed to unite with theemiiisioaof 
the oxigen gas of the air^that the quantity of carbonic acid ^minktioa ** 
produced was found to be equal to that of the oxigen gas quesiioDed. 
disappearing; upon reflection, it appeared to me replete 
with difficulty, if not impossible* to ascertain this to any 
degree of accuracy, from the moistened seeds never ceasing 
to give out cu/bonic acid gas, whether oxigen gas be pre- 
sent or not. 1 was therefore desirous of informing myself 
upon this subject, and for this purpose I instituted the foU 
lowing method of proceeding. 

£x/>. I. Into an inverted jar, containing about 13 cubic Experiment* 
jathes carefully filled with mercury, I introduced a consi- to ascertain thf 

derable 



2|g QBRMiviTioif or *iBKBe. 

durable porttoQ of barley previoasly steeped' in water,' «id 
»u0erad to g^rmioate till the radicles had shot out aboat 
oae third of an inch. In passing tbeoi vodet the quicks 
silver it is almost impossibley eiren with the atioost care, to. 
avoid the introduction of a small portion of atmospheric 
air, which closely adheres to them ; but this beiqg trifling, 
the results i^ill not be materially affected by it. The seeds 
were suffered to remun iu this situation from the 1 1th of 
February to the 2d of April, the gas being occasioually 
taken out and tried in the following manner. 

Temp. 48% Pressure 28'68«^ 

in 24 hours* •*• 1*60 cub. in« 63-23 absorbed out of 10<^ 

parts by lime water. 
•ame time • • 6*60 •••••• 91 •oo 

48 hours* ••• 7*20 98*00 

' same time ^« 4*90 98*16 

saasetime «• 6*50 •*•••• 98*18 

3days*«**** 7'00 98*18 

several days 5*50 98*46 

several days 2*00 99*00 

^April**** l-OO 99*00 

42*dQ whole of the gap produced^ 

A cubic inch was each time exposed to lime water \m 
Fepys*s eudiometer. The remaining gas, generally consist** 
ing of several cubic inches, was removed into a narrow gra- 
duated tube, aud a small quantity of a solution of caustic 
potash passed «p. The results of both these trials were 
compared, and they were as nearly as could be analogous. 
Two smaller jars were also charged with some barley in the 
same manner : the gas produced w^s in pro]K>rtion to the 
above, and the absorption nearly similar. 
iAExp. Exp. 2. On the 19th of February, temp. 48% pressure 

Cwinsunf 30. |q, eighteen very small beans, freshly germiimting, wero 
passed up into aninverted jar full of merf^ury, hplding aboi^t 
$ cubic inches. 



QVMiiiriTiov or stvot. j ig 

1b 4B heim* • • • 0*56 cub. in. 90*17 alMorbed out of kOO» 
mrveral days 3-00 ••?••• 98*00 

M^ys**** S-OO 98-47 

wcfenHdnyt ^hOO 99-00 

several clayB 8*50 » 99*00 

11-06 

Bxp. 3. On the 24th of March, tttnp. 54^, press. 29-34, g^[^^ 
twenty germinating pease were placed in a similar situation ^ tm "^ 
aoder a jar, containing about ^^ cubic inches. 

Id 3 days 2*00 cubic inches 96*00 absorbed out of IOO9 
la 3 days 1-00 * «» 98*90 

3-00. 

By these experiments it appears, that seeds, having once C ei m'a a tl Bf 
hegun to gennioate, give out carbonic acid gas in consider- •^"^•^^•^^ 
sbie quantity, even at low temperatures, though excluded i^an^wh*^ 
from oxigen gas, and placed in the most awkward and un» ^^J^^ 
nvoarable situations. And this circumstance should be • 
kept in view, as it will have some influence in determining, 
if there be a possibility of ascertaining the moment when 
(erminatioo ceases in seeds placed in a confined portion of 
oxigen gas, or common air, or whether any other carbonic 
gss be formed^ than what is supposed to arise from the solid 
carbon uniting to the oxigen gas, and which has been as- 
turned to be in an equal proportion to the oxigen gas that 
disappears. 

Now it seems evident, that carbonic acid gas can be rea^ 
dily produced by moistened seedh without the contact of 
oxigen gas; and in several trials I have observed the gas 
beginning to appear in a few minutes after fiassing the seeds 
ap the quicksilver, and when from their being in a healthy 
vigorous state of germination there was no possibility of in« 
cipient putrefaction. In most instances on a small scale, 
00 examinatiun of the gas collected iu the first 24 hours, the 
absorption by limewater has been about 90 per cent:, and as 
this has been an invariable case, even where every precau- 
^n was taken for the exclusion of common air, I suspected, A little nitoiH 
(hat in wholesome germination a small portion of nitrogef)^^'^ •ufpcetoe 

gaa 



2J0 OSBMlNlTIOir or BtEOli 

lobe emitted gw might be emitted fropi the beed iilong with tht carbonic 
iB jpimiuauoo. y^id gas, either by the deconipositioo of some of its gluteii^ 
or by absorbiug a small qoautity with the oxigen gus of the 
atmoi(pbere. In the experiment No. 1 it will be teen, that 
tbe'tir&t tried gas left a considerable rebidue, owing no doubt 
to the casual introduction of atmospheric air in passing up 
^ the seeds : but the gas, as it formed, being trauderred into 
other jars, this erfour, after the tirat ^ hours, must have 
ceased to fjave any effect. Latterly the production of gi^. 
became more slow ; and if the seeds had been suffered tQ 
remain, most likely it would in time have altogether ceased; 
^hcfi^^^^tet y^^^^ they were withdrawn and inspected in the first expe* 
«be6r»t cxpc- riment, no sign of putrefaction appeared; they bad an ace- 
scent smelly aud distilled water poured upon them in a mo* 



i)[ient deeply reddened paper stained with. litmus. ' 

TitcMt €f the Analysis has demonstrated the principal constituent pMrt^ 
ywiitict on of of graminaceous or cereal seeds, to be a large proportion of 
C^rm^' fccula^ a littl^ ready formed saccharine mtftter^ and a por* 
tion of gluten ; 'which last has been proved to be the active 
agent in fermentation, and necessary for the conversion of 
sugar and fecula into alcohol. Therefore, to account foe 
the production of gas in germination, as in seed^ placed a^ 
in the above experiments, it appears, that, after imbibing 
a quantity of moisture, the fecula by the action of the glu? 
ten becomes gradually decomposed ; the already fonnad 
. saccharine matter is dissolved, aud assists in the instant 
commencement of germination ; water most probably is da* 
composed ; its oxigen, uniting to the carbon of th^ s^ed^ 
forms the carbonic acid evolved ; while the hidrogeu in its 
nascent state, by combining with another portion of carbooj^ 
assists the continued conversion of the fecu^ into sac:chai« 
rine matter ; the oxigen gas of the atmosphere is absorbed 
for the purpose of restoring tlie equilibrium of the elemeo* 
tury partti, which the decomposition of the matter of the 
seed, while going on, has a tendency to destroy. But i^ 
germination be impeded or stopped, by the exclusion of 
oxigen gas, or otherwise, the regular composition and de- 
Com poiiition, and consequent changes in the substance of 
the seed, presently cease. Carbonic acid gas however stil^ 
eontinues to be given out> in consequence of the action of- 



ofifmifriTioH or seedi* . 

fite •^uten oo the M^ccbaripe matter formed bv the ^rmiD»« 
tioD* When the sugar is exhaa»te<1» the acesccut first, aod 
fben the patrefactive phenomena coinmence'; but only very 
pwrtialljr» as I have found the seeds will remain for many 
moDthfl in tiie jars after the carbonic acid jga& has nearly 
ceased to be produced, without undergoing much apparent 
iJtemtioo. 

Sjtp* 4. To o^rve how far the same phenomena might Psategtve^ 
take place in matters completely disor^nised, and under ^^^^'5*^~^ 
vbat variety of circumstances this prolific gas (carbouicj gea. 
would be produced* I mixed up a little flour,, water, oi)ji 
jeast into a stiff paste» and passed a piece of it about, the 
nie of a walnut up an inverted jar filled with mercury. 
In three days I collected seven cubic inches of gras« The 
whole being submitted to lime water, an absorption ensuedi 
leaving one tenth of an inch only, which appeared to be 
mtrogcn, 

Exp. 5. I also placed in the same situation a piece of Pwte without 
paste made with flour and water only, about the same sice, 
rolled very stiff. The gas here formed very slowly* not more 
Aan 3*50 cubic inches being collectrd in ten dap. Of. this 
fine water took up 94 per cent. In 8 days, after 4 cnbic 
indies more had formed, and by the same test, 96 per cent 
were absorbed. 

* Exp. 6. Three pieces of the same paste were also placed P«^stc in «xl* 
b an inverted jar, containing^ 1*30 cubic inches of oxigeu ^^ ^**' 
gas of the purity of 9s per cent. After the paste was ii| 
the jar» the whole indicated by the graduated scale Q'7^ 
cnbic inches. In three days, the usual allowance being 
nade for difference of temperature and pressure, oti ab- 
sorption bad evidently taken place, the volume being re* 
daced to 2 cubic inches. In four days more it increased 
to 3*70 cabic inches ; and in four days after to 7. A little 
of the ur being now tried with limewatcr, 95 per cent 
were absorbed ; evidently showing, that the greatest part of 
flieoxigen gas had disappeared. To prove this still farther, 
it was suffered to remain till it *had increased to 15 cubic 
bch^, when the same test took up 99 ppr cent, which it 
could not have done, had any oxigen gas remaine<l. 

£xp.7. To be convinced no errour had ensued in Exp. 5, Exp. 5 rcpcst- 

I repeated ««*, 



§12 MkitiNiTioir bt ntku 

t repeated it with the otmottcare. After some de]rt» t 
cubic inches of gms were cellected ; and cm betn^ submitted 
to tbe usual teat, 90 per cent disappeared, la ten dayi 
after 5 cubic inchea more had formedt of i^hicfa 99 per cent 
vere absorbed; and 3*2 cubic inchea beings tried with caut« 
tic potash) only a bubble remained* 
OeraiinmtlMi These results prove beyond any doubt, with how mncb 
•*»* ■^•f*»y fadlity the particles of seeds act upon each other, erea in 

tiMofcarboBic ft pul^c^'is^ *^^» when moistened with water; and ho# 
*^^ uncertain, under any circumstances, must be the attempt 

to discorer the precise time of the cessation of ^rmination 
of seeds confined in oxigen gas, or what part of the cairbo« 
nic acid gaa is given out by that process, and what by the 
spontaneous decompostition of some portion of 'the seed* 
Hence it should seem, that such experiments, as may hare 
been made with a view to establish the identity of quantity 
between the disappearing oxigen gas and the newly formed 
carbonic acid gas, must be 'supposed to be in a great mea- 
sure fallacious, and consequently the conclusions drawn 
from them not to be depended upon. 
The seeds lost In my first essays on this subject, rendered fruitless by 
. ^'^^^ the circumstance before mentioned, I was desirous of dta* 

covering whether seeds increased or decreased in weight 
during germination. For this purpose I weighed accurately 
several parcels of barley before placing them in the air, and 
after they were taken out, having previously well dried tbeif 
surfaces with blotting paper. In every instance I found a 
deficiency of weight, but not beyond what may be easily 
fey ctspontkMi, accounted for by the evaporation of moisture frooi the 
seeds; as I could often, when the air was particularly dry 
(as oxigen ges prepared from oxigenated muriate of potash 
over mercury is), perceive some water condensed on tbe 
BotVjaerml- tides of the jars. It appears therefore impossible in thii 
■*^"***- way to come at the truth : but from all I have been able to 

observe, I am persuaded a real increase takes place. The 
following statement gives an account of the loss these seeds 
sustained, while confined for some days in jars of atno^ 
spheric air* 



200 



» 

• 



•mifvitiM or mwi ^f^^ 

too gnuDB of barie)r» lost 8*00 graiiM 

1^0 grains •• * lost 6*40 

100 grains •••••••• Ibst 5'60 

40 grains • • • lost S*SO 

30 grains • • « lost 2*90 

SO gmios ••• lost 3-10 

I merely give these results as means of prerenting finne« 
ceaaary trouble and waste of time in otbersi and not a^ of ' 
aaj other importance* The seeds were continued in the 
aar» until the increase was considerable, and the oxigen gaa 
waa for the most part exhausted, as appeared by the «o-* 
customed tests of limewatery and impregnated aulphate of 
iroQ. 

In proceeding to detail the following experiments) which Experinenti 
Appear to me decisive of the absorption of oxigen gas, I am Jj^JJ^i^ 5* 
OMnpelled to observe, I have found it impossible to vary dxif*fH» 
and continue some of them to the extent I intended, hap* 
ijig been often interrupted by the sodden intense coldnesa 
of the weather, occasional illness, and the indispensable 
cunoema of business. In most of them, where it was at aU 
■cccssafyV the osoal corrections, according to the calcula** 
tiooa of Gay Lussac, fcr change of temperature and pres^*' 
sure were made, and for this purpose the barometer and 
thermometer at the beginning of every experiment and ana* 
lyus were duty noted. 

Sincerely wishing the little experience I may have ac« 
quired in this sort of manipulation should be serviceable to 
othera just entering upon the same laudable pursuits, 1 
take the liberty here of strongly recommending the eudio- 
metrical apparatus of Mr. Pepys, as the easiest and most Mr.Pepn'st*. 
correct that can be .used for the analysis of gasses. When diometcr, 
accunitely made, and the precautions and directions adopted 
aa stated in your Journal, vol. XIX, p. 86, scarcely any 
obatacle intervenes to prevent its being managed with faci* 
Kty. Great attention should however be paid, when filling Precautioat. 
the elastic gum bottle with the eudiometric liquor, to the 
expeUiog from it every babble of air; which 1 have found 
can be effectually done no other way, than by frequently 
prewog the bottle in a vertical position, keeping the end 



tSl OKBMtHiTIOII OF «V£Dit 

oftlie bent tube in the liqoor the whole tiaie, and sufferinfip 
it to resume its proper form very slowly. Care should also 
be taken duriug the operation, to hold the apparatus firmly 
at the junction of the tubes with one hand» or cautiously 
with both; as, ivhen the greater. part or the whole of the 
gas is likely to be absorbed, and it goes on rapidly, the gra- 
duated tube will, in consequence of the pressure, some* 
times fly off violently from the other, 'and perhaps be bro- 

KodSoincirb ]^en. In making the impregnated solution of sulphate of 
iron with nitrous gas, I dissolve g^ood soft iron io snMiH 
pieces to saturation, in the purest sulpliaric acid I can g^et, 
diluted, with about twice its weight of water. The nitric 
acid is more manageable than the nitrous, and preferable 
for procuring the nitric oxide to impregnate the iron aul«* 
phate, which may be easily done with a wide mouthed bot- 
tle in a common basin. 

^^**^ m!^ '^ sometimes happens, when analydng air contnning but 

o< oxigeii in the ^^^^ oxigen gas, a great deal of nitric oxide is extricated ; . 

•if is tmall. much more than can be contained in the graduated tube, 
- 80 that some difficulty arises in attempting to transfer it* 
In such a case I suffer all the gas to ascend into the elaalie- 
bottle, then under mercary take out the tube, fill it with 
the sulphated solution of iron, replace it, and thus the m^ 
trie oxide is again separated, and the experiment com« 
pleted ; care being taken during the time to hold the bottle 
in such a position, as will prevent the escape of any air. 

trxperiment £j^^ 9^ The 14th of March, temp. 40% press* ^'Qi* 

IVItn CCTRllXUlt* — 

inf barley ia iB these processes it may not l|.e unnecessary to mention^ , 
•zigen gu. that the jars used wer% graduated with the nicest accuracy 
into cubic inches and tenths, by putting into them repaid* 
edly the weight of these measures in grains of qnicksilverf 
and then drawing a line with the diamond. The intemat : 
diameter of the largest is not more than 2 inches, and 0^ j 
the others about an inch. A quantity of freshly gOrmiDaM j 
ing barley, weighing t60 grs., the radicles protruding about j 
a quarter of an inch, were conveyed in a ooarse gau^ bag \ 
through the mercury into one of these jars inverted, coos i 
taining 17*20 cubic inches of oxigen gas, prepared from ; 
the oxigenuted muriate of potash, and of 97 per cent pu^ \ 
Hty ; the greatest pains being takeni when the seeds were, 

under 

\ 



1 



onUtlTATIOII iff MSBDt* 9g|^ 

Uli^et th^ nMreniji to exclttde the atmospheric air from the 
bag as mach as posmble^ by pnessing and tarning it roand 
many times. After the seeds were in the jar, the bulk af 
the whole was increased to 20*1 1 cubic incht^s. 1 had no 
oppartanity of making any observation for same dap. Oa 
the Slat of March it stood at 19*50» and the next day at 
U*d8s the difference of temp, and press* being allowed* A 
part of the air being then conveyed to the eudiometer, and 
washed with limewater, S7 per cent disappeared^ leaving a 
residue of 13 parts; evidently showing, that the whole of 
the ozigeQ gas was not expended. To corroborate this sus- 
picioDt I made several trials with the impregnated solution 
of iron, but owing to the test not being properly prepared, 
as I found that it acted on the quicksilver, which it should 
not have done^ the results were so anomalous and contra* 
dictory, 1 forbear to state them. 
\Exp, 9. The 18th of March, temp. 46^. press. 29*80. Germnutiag 
Cleven germinating beans, weighing 50S-3 grs., werCg^****"**^ 
passed up ajar containing 6*20 cubic inches of oxigvn gas 
of 99 per cent purity. After the beans were in, the scala 
Sndioited 7*65 cubic inches* 

Id 24 hours it had diminished to 6*80 cubic inches. 
Id 24 hours more to 6*50 

On the 24th of March the gas had considerably increased, 
tad upoe trial with limewater 88*30 parts in 100 were ab* 
torbed. The beans were then taken out, and on being 
weighed were found to have lost 6*90 grs* 

Kxp. 10. The 19th of March) temp. 48% press. 29*72. Germinating 
Twenty germinating pease, weighing 125'5 grs., were P*****°^**^** 
placed in an inverted Jar, containing 1*60 cubic inches of 
oxigen gas of 99 per cent purity. When the pease were in, 
the whole indicated by the scale 1 *95 cubic inches. 

Id 24 hours it had diminished to • • 1*70 

In 12 hours more to 1*67 

In 24 hours more it had increased to 1*79 

Oa the 24th of March it had increased some inches, and 
on a portion being examined with hmewater, 94 per cent 
difippetired. 

Vol. XXIII.~Jux.T, 1809. Q These 



i/tjS GERMINATION OP 8BBD»» 

These pease were then passed up a jar fUltd with mer^ 
eury, and in three days produced 2 cubic inches of gas, 9S 
per cent of which were absorl>ed by the same test. Another 
portion, formed afterward, g^ave a similar result. 

Barley just b*. Exp. 11. The iQth of March, temp. 48*, press. 29'72. 
SiL^inox^ Some freshly germinating barley, weighing 1127 grains, 
gen gas. radicles just bursting forth, were placed in a gauze bag, as 

in Exp. 8, in ^24 cubic inches of oxigen gas of 99 per ceut 
purity. When the barley was in, the scale indicated 27»IO 
cubic inches. In 24 hours it had diminished to 26*70, and 
ia 12 hours more to 26*15. In transferring some of the gas 
for trial, an accident prevented the farther pvrsuit of the 
experiment ; but that being exposed to limewater, 34*50 per 
cent only disappeared. 

Germinating Erp. 12. The 24th of March, temp. 54% p. 29*34. 
' pease in oxi- o • • • i • 

geitgM^lntht 2W>me germinating pease, weighing 11470 grs., were 

iukf carefully passed up an inverted jar A, covered with brown 

paper, containing 3*75 cub. in. of oxigen gas quite pure (an 

inch of it being previously exposed to the teit, only a rery 

small bubble remained, hardly appreciable.) When the 

I^ease were in, the graduated scale indicated 4*10 cub. in. 

In two days in jar A, it had decreated to 3*90 
In three days more it had increased to • • 4*20 
And the next day to 4*60 

The gas being now exposed to lime water, 94 pfT cent 
were absorbed; anl the pease, on being placed in the ba- 
lance, had lost some grains in weight as before; 
aiMl in tha The same weight of pease was placed in jar B exposed ta 

^^' light in 3*77 cub. in. of oxigefi gas. After the pease were 

in, it stood at 41*10 cub. in. 

In two days jar B stood at • • . • . 3*92 

In three davs it was increased to 4*20 

And next day to 4*60 

Being now tried with lime w^ater, 93 per cent were absorb- 
ed ; and the pease, being weighed, had lost two grains only. 

Germinating . Erp. 13. The 13th of April, temp. 46^, pres»s. 28*90. 

irwi"gas" hT the ^° J^*" ^* inverted in mercury, and covered with a wrap- 
dark, p^l 



CSEMIKATIOM OP tlBpfc jggf 

per of brbwtt pftper to exclude the light* contaidinf^ 9'30 
cob. in. of oxigeu gas of parity 98 per ceut, were placed 6 
freshly germioatiog gardea beaua. The scale theu iudica'- 
ted 3*20 cuk inches. 

In jar B» in the same situation, but the light not ex* and in the 
claded, the saiAe number uf beans were passed up \ntp 9*35 ^' 
cub. inches of oxigen gas of like purity. The sc«ile then 
iodicattd 3*30 cubic iilHies. 

In three days it had decreased in jar A» to 9'80 
lo the same time in jar By to •••••.. 9-^0 

V 

The air in jar A being now exposed to lime water, 66*30 
per cent were taken up ; and of that in jar B 55*50 per cent. 
The residues being afterward submitted to the impregnated 
sulphate of iron, the quantity absorbed in each was propor* 
tiouate to the oxigen gas not consumed, both having about 
fir^ per cent, which appeared to be nitrogeni 

Exp. 14. The 16th of April, temp. 50% press. 28-90. <iehninafin< 
* * « » bvtnfinoxig«« 

In jar A, covered as before, containing 4*60 cub. in. of?-'"A^*2^^ 

pure oxigeu .gas, lu germinating garden beans were placed. 

After they were iq, ibe scale indicated 6*15. In- jar B, ex* 

posed to light, weie.alsp put 9 beans, in 5 cub. in. oi' the 

same gas; the bcule Uun indicating 6*85 cub. inches. 

In three hours the scale of jar A indicated 6*0^ 

of jar B 6-50 

On the 18th of A^^ri^ • -^r A 5 90 

a 1 6-3(> 

Oi.e tl e 2lsl • • • • jj:r A had increased to 3 6*10 

jar li tc 0-80 

On the 22 J . . • • jar A tr 6*40 

jar Bt( 7*20 

On the 23r(' • • • • jar A t< ..*..•.. 6*75 

jar B tc • • • • 7*70 

On the 24th.«»* jar A t( • 755 

jarBtif**** •••• 8*70 

Q 9 6*15 



j2Mi. Gfifticiiiinoii or sssoi. 

6*15 cub. in. being now taken ont of jar As and eipoted 

to solution of caustic potash, 4*75 were absorbed ; and of 7 

cob« in. out of jar B, the same test took «p 5'dO cub. in. 
The residue of jar A beinti; submitted to the usual test 

for oyigeo gas, 12.04 out of 100 parts were absorbed: and 

the residue of jar B being also tried, 18*68 per cent disap^ 

peared. 
Uuad, To discover whether any hidrogei^gas were present, the 

portions left were attempted to be inflamed, but not the least 

sign of it appeared. 
The beans were afterward sown, and though the weather 

proved very unfavourable, some of them continued to vege« 

tate, and are now in blossom. 
Nitrogen emit- From the quantity of nitrogen left, I am still farther con- 
natimif^'^'" firmed in the idea, that a little is emitted from the seed ia 

germination, particularly with those of the pulse kind. 

Germinating Exp. 15. The l6th of April, temp. 50% press. 28*90« 

pc«MUio«i|t» 

1^. Fifty germinating pease were placed as above in 0*05 of 

^ the same oxigen g^^. 

The whole then indicated* • .•....»... 2*80 eub. in* 

In two hours it had decreased to 9*60 

On the 18th April, to g^OO 

■i M 19th it had increased to 2'6o 

■ I ■ gplh 2-80 

■ 2l8t •••• • 305 

■ * 22d 3'70 

— : 24th 4*60 

i— 25th 5-10 

4*40 Cub. iu. being exposed to caustic potash, only one 
tenth of a cubic inch remained, which, on being submiU 
ted to the test for oxigcii gas, was not determined. 

Expr \G. The 19th of May, I8O9, temp. 65% p. 99^0. 

Germinatimr Tlilrty germinating pease, with radicles frorarhalf to three 
pcftje in oxU quarters of an inch long,' were conveyed into an inverted jar 
gco gas. containing five cubic inches of oxigen gas of the purity of 

SI per cent. • ' 

After 



After tbe pease were in, it stood at 6*70 

In four hours it had decreased to 6*00 

In four hours more to » • • • 6*50 

In three hours more to • • • # 5*10 

And in twelve hou rs more it had increased to 7*00 

Six cobic inches of the air being now transferred for exa- Oxigen ga^ aU 
nriiMitioo, 95 per cent were absorbed. The re^ue tested ^J^^^^ 
sritb impregnated sulphate of iron remained unaltered. mcncsiBeDt, 

From experiment 8 to this last it appters evident, that* 
when genainating seeds are first placed in oxigen gas, a con* - 
^derable absorption takes place, the quantity of which is 
much ioftuenced by the state of the seeds, and the tempe* 
raturt §t the atmosphere* As all I wish to establish is this 
simple foot, | have not been anxious as to the minor parti* 
culaiSy or in entering into any tedious aud unnecessary cal^ 
culationt, only in instances where the difference of tempe* 
nture and pressure made it unavoidable; and in such thp 
proper allowances were made, as I have before stated. 

In the last experiment it is most decisive, and to an extent not to be tc- 
beyond any thing to be accounted for by the condensation ^o""**^^^''^ 
supposed to ensue from the conversion of oxigen gas aud bonic acid, 
parbon into carbonic acid gas* 

It is also demonstrated, that, if the seeds be suffered to Tbe whole of 
remain sufficiently long, the whole of the oxigen gas disap* theoxige. dis 
pears, and the carbonic acid gas notwithstanding sti{l con- foJ^Sri^ic 
tiuues to be produced. But if tlie air be examined when ^^id. 
arrived at the origiual quantity, after the decrease, a portion 
of the oxigen g-4^ may still be discovered, contradicting ;it 
once the statement qf the sameness in quantity of tlie car? 
bonic acid gas formed, and the oxigen gas consumed. 

In conducting experiments lij, iq, and 14, I thought it ^^lj^„ ^^U^^ 
might not be superfluous to institute a comparison between aniiiiporunt. 
the process of germination in the dark and in tbe light, all 
pther circulfistances being as nearly as possible the some : 
and from an attentive exunii nation 4'\nd consid^rution of the 
results I cannot find any uiuterial diil'erence, but what may 
be readily accounted for by tlie difference of moisture in the 
seeds, or some other unknown trifling incident. H^re the r^^ 
watfsr was confined tp the bt^cds ; but when they sur^ exppsed| toon kills 



^^ , QERMINATION OF f ECD9, 

in t^.e opieii air^ and ia dry weather, the evaporation, from 
tl em is rapid, they soon become corrugated, all vital action 
ceases, and they conseqyieutly die. In this manner only can 
the di;ierei)ce be satibfactorily accounted for ; as it iii self- 
evident th^t the evaporation must be qi^icker in the light 
than ti:e shade, the temperatuie on account of reflected 
heat being generally much higher^ and I have often seen 
barley seeds vegetate to a considerable height in the dark, 
vhen, if they had been thrown to the light, they would have 
been soon parched up. 
Water b1k>wb By the results of the above experiments T am well aware; 
of*aibo!^c*^" that if the seeiis, be suffered to remain long enough in the 
.^cidyftiid ah* o>i e ' gas, it at length is all absorbed. This is also easily 
•orptioD of ghown by placing the jars containing the seeds over water : 
the carboitic acid gas is then gradually taken up by the wa* 
ter, which a^cends in the jar, till no more oxigen gas re- 
mains. 1 have somefin:e> |)iaced laru: uant t e of ger«> 
minating barley in narrow jars containing from one to three 
gallons of atmospheric air, and sufl'ered them to remain 
over water many months. When the remaining air has 
been tried with the test for oxigen gas, none has been fonnd, 
nor any trace of any other ga> than nitrogen*, and this me* 
thod may he adopted for procuring thij* ^; s lor experimen- 
tal purfKDses, when not wanted in a hurry. It is certainly 
too a b It cudiometrical way ascertaining the quantity of 
o i ;e7 g «> n atmospheric a , thau that o. ab&orption by 
water sometime since suggested. 
fik^amf^^ftti^^i \,\ nf rring y arti ' • to . eriment 15, it will be seen^ 
^^ ' that the ab ^^^ \ n of ox'gen gas in eleven hours was 1 -60 

cub. in., being nearly one third of the whole quantity em- 
ployed. This evidence appears to be irresistible, and is be- 
yond what 1 c d I ave reasonably expected. I have already 
made a Tw trial o the same purpose in vegetation and re- 
spiration, an h'tl.erto with sim a esults, which as soon aa 
coiclucied I fchAll talc he liberty of laying before you. I 
fbah^at the saUije time make some remarks on fermentation, 

1 remain, 

iJcar £ir, yours &c. 

J. acton; 

XIL 



AVALTfXS or KAWBtLSTEIN.— LVNA'k ftAlNBOW. tSli 

XII. 
Anaiysis of the Kaneels'ein ; by Professor Lampadius*. 

JL HE kaneelstein has always been considered as a species AnalTsi«of ka* 
cf jadiith. Its colour is orange, approaching that of cin-"*'^***' 
xminon, whence Werner gave it this name. Its analysis by 
Prof. Lampadius leaves no doubt, that it is a variety of the 
jacinth. Ue obtained from it 

Silex 42-3 

Zircon 28-8 

Aluroine S-ij 

Potash 6-0 

Lime .^ 3*8 

Oxide of iron 3*0 

Loss by calciftation • • • • 2*6 
Loss 4*4 

lOO'O 

This analysis shows, that it does not contain much more 
than one fourth of zircon^ while the jacinth contains 0'69« 



u 






't . 



IP 



XIIL 

Ohservaiion of a Lunar Rainbow; by h. Cordier, Mine 

Engineer f. 



I 



Was lately witness of a pretty rare phenomenon, a rain- Luaarnunbow. 
bow in the uight. The 13th of this mouth, August 1807, 
I was standing with several persons ou an eminence, that 
commanded a view of the horizon. We had near us, to the 
north, the tail of a storm, that poured down a copious rain. 
At the same time the sky cleared up toward the south, and 
the moon, nearly at full, appeared. A fine luminous bow 
then appeared ou the storm ; but, though it was well de- 
fined, the seven primary colours were scarcely to be distin- 
guished in it. They seemed as if drowned in a tint of pale 
yellow. What struek us particularly was, that the whole of 
the circle encompassed by the bow was luminous, and tinged 
with a similar yellow hue, though less intense. 

• Jouma] de Pbyslqae, vol. LXV, p. 92. f Ibid, p. sos. 

XIV. 






jlSjj^ i§AMft 9w TJkJkwn 9S T9m rfti>?#i^ii9M4 or- MVfa^ 



Ok iJ^ H<W qf TViMm o/f |Ae Pr^Kntim* of tie cofYjHfit a4 

Principles of SalUt and ou the LaminQus Smoke from, 
Ijiiid SmeUmg-Uouifi. i^ q i-el/er from a V^trrespofim 

Tp Mr. NJCHOlrSON, 
Sib, 

TMtBofiht ^ HERE are few tables more usefal to a chemical inr., 
proportions of quirer, than such as point put the prQ|jortions of the coustit 
e!!t MTteof ^"^"^ P***^'^ of ttUU: not ouly the pbilospphic but the pracr 
iftltfi iroiiM be tical chemist also woylil be equl^Uy beqetiledt by having ^ 
9|4(Aiy i^sOTl. collection of tables qf this dpscTiption to refer to; and it is 
I think a matter of surpriite, that no person has attempt^ to 
pobliiih such upon a scale sufficiently extensive, to answer 
the purpose of general reference. I was i.t hopes, that |h^ 
last edition of your DictioiKiry woukl have contained, am^g 
its. other mUiiabie additions, tabJe>i of this kiud^ ; aud it in|L^ 
' not perhaps be iqapropef to suggest, that this onlls^iou may 
in some measure be supplied by inserting from time to tiiu^ 
in your interesting jouruaj, as opportunity of coliecting ibf. 
requisite materials may affprd, mi alphabetical list pf 8alt8| 
with the proportion of their ingredients agreeably to th« 
latest researches. Such an addition, whil^ it would render 
an essential ^rvice to many of your readers, would npt alitgr 
' tl(B increase the value of your Journal, 

Luainons I have observed, that the white smoke that arises from a 

fmokefrom \^^ furnace during the procc*ss pf sipelting the ore continueV 
p^^ ' "^ luminous at night fqr a great length pf time after it has left 

the chimney: sometimes I have spen the smoke retain thi$ 
luminous appearance until it has been quite ^issipated^. 
Your explanation of this phenoif^enon will oblige. Sir, 

Your mpst bumblp Servjiut, 
Jtfiiy 6/ A, 1S09? J. S. K. 

• In table 11 at therDdof iheDictiqnacir, that qf Com pounds cooskr* 
iPt »>* general of more than twoPrinciple», the pro))Ortioiis, where they bad 
^n aso8rtw«)^^^^ ^7 accuracy^ were ^veo from the best authorities. 



I mm Inclined to think, t)iBt the luminous mnolce arises Frorii talpluir 
from sulphur driven up in the first state of combubtion. For ^!!^u^2o^ 
sulphur, like phosphorus, may be burned with two kinds 
•C imne, the first not visible in day-light, at less than 300% 
US I conjecture, and not capable of setting fire to the small* ' 
«st thread or vegetable fibre, and the latter much brighter* 
fad gtneraUy known,* 

W.N. 



^•^ 



1,. , I .'i gg 



SCIENTIFIC NEWS, 

Jl HE Raasian minister for the home department has eom« Meteoric 
Buiikated to the Imperial Academy of Petersburg the fol- *.**^"i jJi^S* 
Iswing account of a meteoric stone, weighing about l60 lbs, 2007. 
that fell in the circle of Ichnow, in the government of Smo* 
koake. 

In the afternoon of the 13th of March, I8O79 a very vio* 
\eot clap of thutuier was heard in that district. Two pear 
aaots in the village of Timochim, being in the fields at the 
Mnie» say, that at the instant of this tremendous report they 
flaw a Urge black stone fall al)OUt forty paces from them* 
They were stunned for a few minutes, but, as soon as they 
recovered themselves, ran toward the place where the stontt 
fell. They could npt discover it however, it had penetrated . 
so deep into the snow. On their report several persons went 
tp the spot, and got out the stone, which was above two feet 
beneath the surface of the snow. It was of an oblong shape^ 
blackish like cast iron, very smooth on all parts, and on one 
side resembling a coffin. On its flat surfaces were very fine 
radii resembling brass wire. Its fracture was of an ashen 
gr^y. Being conveyed to the gymnasium of Smolensko, ^ 
professor of natural philosophy there considered it at once 
as ferruginous, from the simple observation of its being ex« 
ir^mely friable, a^4 staining the fingers. The particles of 

wliich 



234 8CIIKTIFIC NEl¥«fc 

which it is composed coatain a ^vent deal of lime^ and of 
suiphurie acid. 

l^malmrteo- On the l^th of April, 1808, at one o*clock in the a^ter- 
ne rtonrs iu noon, a great quantity of meteorolites fell in the commune 
ilprU» )8oa» ^ Pieve dk Casignano, in the department of Taro (formerly 
the duchies of Parma and Pluceutia). The air was calm« 
mud the sky serene, bui wi;h a few clouds. Two loud ex« 
plosions were heard, followed by several less \ioIent, after 
which several stones fell. A farmer, who was in the fields, 
saw one fall about 6fty paces from liim, and bury itself in 
the ground. It was burnint; hot. A fragment of one of 
these stones is depo)»Tted in the musenm at Paris, 

>»mli»rcta«r On the 17th of November, 1807, during an inundatio'ii 
nticbeaTei'. ^|. ^i^^ Rhone, a beaver was killed in the island of la Bar- 
thalasse, oppo^ite Avignon. Mr. Co&taing has given a very 
particular description of the aniniul, and among other things 
renMirks, that the fourth toe of each hind paw has a dcMible 
nail, the parts of which close on each other^ so as to form a 
sharp ajid cutting beak, opening and shutting like that •f a 
bird of prey. 

9^*^ poiRonfd A large swarm of bees, having settled on a branch of the 
Iv^the efflnvia poj,oi^ |^|^ f/m^ t^riifar, in the county of West Chester in 

wcuix. Ameri(ni,was taken into a hive of tir at three o*dock in the 

•i\ernoon, and removetl to the place where it was to remain 
at nine* About tive the next morning the bees were feond 
dead, swelled to double their natural size, and black, except 
a few, which appeared tor^nd and feeble, and soon died oa 
expoijitre to the air. 

CsMon tree The cultivation of the cotton tree, as well as of the sweet 

J*^?^^ *"" potato from iSt. Domingo, has been introduced in the south- 
ern departments of France, it is said very successfully. 

VapctfWuii Mrs. Lena Serpenti, of Como, to whom an honorary m<- 

noutUainflax. j^^ ^j^g <lecreed in 1806 for having improved the method of 
spinning amianthus, has fabricated paper from this fossil^ 
that answers well either for writing or printing, and is capa- 
ble of resisting the action of fire or water. 

Bfetairir thcr- Sir. Urban Joerciensen has presented to the Copenhagen 

Vfe(ra:k:t«r. Society of Karal Economy a metallic thermometer of bis 

iDvcLAiton^ in the shape of a watch. The scale^ on a circle on 

the 



the dial-plate, is graduated to 80^ of Iieat and 40* of cold; 
aud the tetu^rature ib pointed out by a liaud from the ceo* 
tre. 

Mr. Crcve of Wisbadeu has discovered a method of rcco- Soiiy,^^ 
Tering wine tiiat has turned ^our. For this purpose he em* sweetened^ 
ploys powdertKi charcoal. The inhabitants of the banks of ^ 
the Rhine have bestowed ou him a medal^ as a reward for 
ibis di^co¥ery• 

Mr. Ljun^, a Swedish naturalist, has discovered a new Diminntive 
species of mouse, which he has named sorex caniculatus. It ^l^^drapcd. 
is the smallest animal known of the mamfniferous class, 
lyeij^hiog only about half a drachm. • 

Mr. Lacepede has lately given a minute description of an j^ fta^Aam^ 
oviparous quadruped, not hitherto not iced by any naturalist, ped. 
^ut prejsen'ed in the Museum of Natural History. lie 
classes it in the genus proteus, or that of salamander, distin- 
guishing it by the name of tetradactylus from the number of 
its toes. 

A German chemist is said to have discovered another new ^, _^, 
metal among the grains of platina, to which he gives the 
Buue of vesiium. 

Counsellor Koehler, of Moscow, is busily employed in ^^ 

oleauing the old coins he is continually receiving from the ». 

Crimea. He is publishing a collection of more than Goo 
kfii}^ or cities, all belonging to Grecian colonies, or king- 
doms, that extended along the northern and western coasts 
of t^e Black Sea. 

The University of Leipsic has resolved, that the stars be- 
longing to the belt and sword of Oiion, as well as the inter- juijo^^ 
mediate stars, which have yet received no particular name, 
shall in future be called the Stars of Napoleon, or the Con- 
stellation Napoleon. 

A Voyage of Discovery to the Countries of the South, by ^ «r ak. 
Order of his Majesty the Emperor Napoleon, in the sloops cover>'. 
Geographe and Naturaliste, and schooner Casuarinn, dur- 
ing lh«\*ars t800 — 1804, compiled by M. F. Peron, Natu- 
ralist to the Hxpedition, is published conformably to a De- 
cree of the Emperor, in 2 vols. 4to, with 41 plates, 28 of 
them coloured, and 3 large maps. In this work are described 
the least known parts of van Diemen*s Laud, the large strait 

that 






£35 fftEHTinC KEWS. 

that separates it from New Holland, the discor«iy ©f thtf 
Great I^nd of NapoleMi, the Great Archipelago of Bona* 
parte, itc. 

Prof. Sue has psblished an Analytical acid Systematic In- 
dex toS<mDini*8 new edition of Bnffon, with an index to the 
names of authors. The index occupies 3 vols, dvo., and 
was hij^hly necessary to a work in 1 24 vols. 
MffxMcm. Mr. Demours published an Index to the Memoirs of tb« 
jUadcmy. Frencli Academy of Sciences in Q vols. 4to, each volome 
including ten years of the Memoirs. Mr. Cotte is no* 
«mpl/>yed on a tenth volume, which will make the index 
complete from the commencement to the year I790» with 
which thesui Memoirs finished. 

A Mr. Haradelle has constructed a pen, which he teima 
capillary, capable of tracing 144 hnes in the space of m 
French inch. 



Dublin Society, 

PobVm $o^ AT a meetinjj^ of this Society, at their house in Howkina 
*^*^' Street, on the I Itb of May, various resolutions were passed. 

AoMfiraii fir It having been suggested to tlie Society, that the tim^ 
«< vitbThatT ^ imported from North America differs very materiaUy ia 
ff JBocope. qnal ky and strength from the timber, which has for many 
jears past been used in this kingdom : it was resolved, . 

That a committe be appointed to inquire into the truth of 
tbe ab^ve suggestion ; and to report to the Society on the 
rompurative strength of Norway and Memel timber, with 
that of the timber of North America, in which the com** 
nittee will distinguish the particular states of North Ame-« 
rica, whence the Vnnber may have been imported, the oom^ 
paraliw qualities of which with those of Memel and Nor- 
way shall be reported upon. 

Kir. J. L. Foster presented the following report from tlie 

committee of chemistry : 

f^Mtatln^wfi of The committee of chemisitry and mint'nilogy, to whom it 

irisa mint rsl^i. ,j^,^ referred to report a{>on Mr. Iliggiris's manubcript catav 

Ibgues of Iririii nimeriilb, have proceeded to take the same 

mtQ coDsidcratiou, and are decidedly pf opinion, that it. will 

not 



tClfiXtlFtC HEWS* ^Sf 

BBt be expedient to incur the expense of printing nny cuta«« 
logueS) until the collections themselves shall have been reu^ 
dered much more perfect than they are at present* I'hcy 
are farther of opinion, that the nature of these collectioiift 
requires) that the catalogues should be arranged accordin^^ 
ta the topographical situation of the specimens, ratlier thaa 
by a sytteniatic distribution into classes; but adverting to 
the great labour, which would attend the making a <3atalo- 
g«e <Mi so opposite a principle from that which has beea 
adopted, they merely recommended for the present, tlmt the 
profiMSor of chemistry and mineralogy be directed to add a 
topographical index to the catalogue of each country, spe- 
cifyiog under the names of the diflerent places, tliat are 
mentioned in the catalogue, the numbers of the various spe* 
dmeoa, which have been brought from it. 

Tbecommittee have farther taken into their oonstderatioa ^^^^J^^l^ 
the resolution of the Society of the 7th day of July 1«8W UJI^SIT**'^ 
aotliorising this committee to offer a premium not exceeding 
two hundred pounds for the best geological and mineralogi*- 
cal aunrey of the county of Dublin, to be approved of by 
tbcM, ond sanctioned by the board. The committee find» 
tiMt BO penon has become a candidate for executing tho 
tarie that has been thus proposed ; and they recommend^ 
that the proposal itself be discontinued. The committeo 
are further of opinion, that the division into counties is, in 
siany instances, an inconvenient mo<le of assigning a district 
proposed for mineralogical survey ; and they should recom-* 
mend in preference an attention to the great lines of geolo- 
gical character, which hare been traced out by nature. Of C6a! <!ntiicf 
these they know of none more interesting than that which 
narks the coal district in the vicinity of Kilkenny, compri*- 
sing some portion of each of the three countries of Carlow, 
Kilkenny, and the Queens-county. 

The committee are of opinion, that no meosure would 
conduce more eminently to the advancement of the agri« 
culture, manufactures, and general commerce of this coun*' 
try, than a complete and scientitic survey of its mineral pro* 
dnctioos; but such a survey as the committee allude to 
would require a degree of geological science and practical 
kaoarlod^, such as is possessed by very few^ and^ if extcod'v 

cd 



I 



I 



£55 BCIETfTiriC NEWS. 

tA to the whoTe df Trelanc], Tiould demand an cxpei 
beyond the means of the S/nietv. 

Still, however, they think it an object well worthy ol 
tion, to make a beginning, to choose some limited d: 
to give it in charpre to some person of undisputed » 
to request from him a map on a large scale, drawn 
Tiew to represent the minerulo^ical characters of tl 
trict, accompanied with sections of tlhe strata, partis 
in the vicinity of mines, elucidated by a co))ious m 
and accompanied with collections of specimens of th 
cipal substances referred to. If such a beg:inning wei 
obtamedy printed, and circulated by the Society, it 
aen'e at a useful pattern for farther undertakings ; 
Ciecutra with that degree of science, which the con 
flatter themselves with being able to obtain, might p 
appear of such national importance, as to obtain for 
clety more ample fnnds for its furthwr prosecution. 

The committee have thought it their duty to c 

which of their present funds are more particularly a 

' ble for the purpose, and in the fir&t place they prop 

application of the j^iiOO, which had been approprii 

the execution of the survey, ^hich they have^lre 

commended should be relinquished. A more ampi 

teems to be available in a part of the j£l300 reserved 

estimate toward the completi^ig the statistical surveys 

CbMatTiat- thirteen counties which remain to be undertaken. O 

W*' . they undcrstHud but two or three are in any forwai 

and unle s the execution of the remainder should fa 

superior to that of many of those which have ahead; 

obtained, the committee are of opinion, that such a 

as they now propose would be an application of tiie h 

the Society incalculably more beneficial. 

In belociing a jxTson for the undertaking, the ch 
necessarily confinfd among %'ery few. Thecommitt 
of opinion, that Mr. Hichard Griffith Jun. 14 eminent 
litied for the undertaking; and to bim (subject to 1 
■probation of the Socie.;. ) tiny proposed to und 
It. The committee could have «%.(ii:ed to make an a 
meiit with Mr. Griffith with respect to the amount 
muneratioQ, which he should dually receive ; but on ai 



SClENtlFtC KEWi. S39 

ing to him, (subject to the approbntion of the Society] to 
accept of the j^^OO above alluded to, as soon as his map and 
metnoir should be executed and approved of. lV|r. GriiBth 
ou one hand setting a higher value on his time as a profe?^ 
skmal man, than the Society could at present adbrd to give» 
but on the other hand not desirin«^ to make this undeitik* 
io^ an object of emolument, prefers to submit to the So* 
ciety, at the c*ompletion of the work, an account of the mere 
expenses incurred in Us prosecution, proposing that the 
Seciety should discharge the amount on accepting of his 
work ; and your committee, considering the great libeitUity 
of the proceeding on the ])art of Mr. Grithth, and the great 
advantages which may bcexpected from its execution, ear- 
nestly recommend it to the adoption of tlie Society. 

Mr. Leslie Foster, who made the report, stated, that lie The lurfty 

conceived the committee were fully justified in ^<^^lc^i^<? Mr. R. Gd^^ 
Mr. Griffith for this undertaking, as he had heard the late dik. 
Mr. Greville, one of the first mineralogists in Europe, who 
was a patron of the Geological Society iu London, and Vice- 
president of the Royal Seciety, declare, that Mr. Gri£Bth''s 
proftrssiooal acquirements, as a mineralogical engineer, ren* 
dered him fitter than any other man in Great Britain or 
Ireland, that he was acquainted with, to make a minerala- 
gical survey; as such an undertaking required an intimate • 
knowledge of the most approved methods of working mines, 
as well as of the sciences of geology and mineralogy. 

This report of the committee was adopted accordingly, . 
and confirmed by the society at large. 

Mr. Davy intends to visit Dublin next winter, and give Mr. Dmy. 
a course of electio-chemical lectures on hi<« late discoveries. 



EKRATA. 

Faft. Line. 

159, 24, For p. 133, read pHges 133 and 158. 

158, 16 of by. 

179, 28 — — muriatic muriate. 

180, note before the proportions add reversed. 

181} lines 1 k 9(tom bot./or sulphate of re^d sulphuric 



METEOROLOGICAL JOUftNAt 

FarJVNE, 1809, 

kept b; ROBERT BANC KS.Mathein atiaU Iiutni meat Maker* 
in the Strakd, LoN»aN. 





THERMU METER 












BAROME 


WE A 


THER, 


MAY 






e 


= ^ 


TF.R, 










Z 


2 




- « 








D«V of 


< 


^_ 


il 


9 A, M. 


Day. 


Night. 


«7 


AG 


5S 


«■.' 


57 


2.9-60 


F«ir 


Fair 


US 


5S 


57 


61 


53 


19-63 


Huin 


Duto 


29 


57 


5S 


Si 


47 


29 56 


Dllto 


Ditto 


30 


31 


51 


01 


5J 


ion 


Ditio 


Clouily 


31 


4S 


56 


do 


51 


2978 


Ri.iii 


Onto 


JUNL 
















1 


60 


58 


7S 


50 


39-50 


Vmv 


Fair 


S 


Jl 


51 


-58 


50 


9J»-36 


R«n • 


Cbudy 


3 


il 


56 


6'Z 


46 


3003 


Fuir 


Fair 


4 


5S 


57 


71 


53 


2963 


Itmii 


Ditto 


5 


57 


53 


62 


51 


29-33 


Diito 


nai.,t 


6 


66 


53 


Co 


50 


29-61 


Dili™ 


F»ir 


7 


5+ 


55 


60 


50 


C973 


Oil to 


Diiw 


8 


55 


56 


60 


51 


29' 7 8 


Ditto 


Cl-mly 


9 


&i 


56 


6ll 


51 


29-55 


Dilla 


Dilla 


10 


6S 


56 


60 


*0 


29-57 


Ditto 


Ditto 


11 


54 


j,5 


57 


50 


29-73 


Ditto 


Ditto 


12 


58 


56 


6i 


50 


30-oa 


Fair 


Ditto 


13 


5S 


57 


6'J 


55 


30 00 


Ditto 


r.»ir 


14 


59 


JS 


67 


56 


29-97 


Dilio 


Ditto 


15 


J8 


JA 


6; 


5 a 


- 29-88 


Dllto 


Ditto 


16 


59 


53 


06 


5+ 


29-95 


Ditto 


Ditto 


17 


58 


5i) 


69 


5+ 


39-82 


Ditto 


Ditto 


IS 


3S 


5tf 


63 


40 


29-82 


Ditto 


Ditto 


19 


58 


63 


07 


57 


29-90 


nitio 


Dill., 1 


SO 


6'3 


67 


1i 


5S 


30-02 


Ditto 


Diiro^ 


21 


tj5 


65 


n 


59 


30.32 


Ditto 


Cl-Utly 


22 


(ij 


(yi 


m 


57 


30-30 


Ruin II 


FH.r 


SJ 


6+ 


(1+ 


73 


5S 


30-31 


Fair 


Ditto 


3-t 


tii 


64- 


7-2 


58 


30 33 


Diilo 


Ditto 


SJ 


6*1 


5S 


6s 


50 


3U-i3 


Ditto 


Ditto f 



• Bun, buijIeroiiH, and cold, oU tbe furcoiMni. 

•f- Evciiiug iHibtemaH and very cu)d. 

i Thi- ,1Iuun obM-unil it lotcrral*-, it II darh Knd vind]r. 

S Aftcfiiouu nuitr; ; ia tbe c*cihd( rcir««biag breelc*. 

tl H<-at ^tupi. 

% (irCBl chaiife to culdi 



Iff:-" 



^Cr 



« i I' 



T« 



i y 



' 1 : I 






JOURNAL 



OP 



NATURAL PHILOSOPHY, CHEMISTRY 



AND 



THE ARTS. 



SC 



AUGUST, I8O9. 



ARTICLE L 

TTie Bakerian Lecture. An Account of some new analytical 
Researches on the Nature 0/ certain Bodies, particularly 
the Alkalies^ Phofphorus, Sulphur^ Carbonaceous Matter, 
and the Acids hitherto undecompounded ; with some general 
Observations on Chemical Theory, By Humphry Davy, 
Esq. Sec. R.S. F.R.S. Ed. and M.R.LA. ♦ 

1. Introduction* 

JLN the following pages, I shall do myself the hoDOur bf Object of t)» 
laying before the Royal Society an account of the results «n?«»IP«^ 
of the diflerent experiments, made with the hopes oF extend'* 
iDg our knowledge of the principles of bodies by the new 
powers and methods arising from the applications of el^ctri* 
city to chemistry, some of which have been long in pro- 
gress, and others of which have been instituted since their 
last session. 

• Phllos. Trans, for 1809, Part I. p. 39. 

VoL.XXII L No. 104 — August, 1»o». R The 



242 ACTION OF POTASIIUM ON AMMONIA* 

Their lub- The objects which have principally occupied my atten* 

jectf. tion are the elementary matter of aroroonia, the nature of 

. pho8phorus» sulphur, charcoal, and the diamond, and the 
constituents of the boracic, fluoric, and muriatic acids. 

Among the numerous processes of deeoui position, which 
I have attempted, many have been successful; and from 
those which have failed some new phenomena have usnally 
resulted, which may possibly serve as guides in future in* 
qniries. ^ On this account, [ ball keep back no part of the 
investigation, and I shall trust to the candour of the Society 
for an excuse for its iiuperfection. 

The more approaches are made in chemical inquiries to* 
wards the refined analysis of bodies, the greater are the ob- 
stacles which present tfaemselres,* and the less perfect the 
results. 
Pore sub- All the difficulties, which occur in analysing a body, are 

obuiBcd**^**"* direct proofs of the energy of attraction of its constituent 
parts. In the play 9f affinities with respect to secondary 
compounds even, it rarely occurs,, that any perfectly pure or 
, unmixed substance is obtained; and^the principle applies 
still more strongly to primary combinations. 
First methods , The first methods of experimenting ou new objects like* 
imperfect. ^jg^ ^^ necessarily imperfect ; novel instruments are de- 
manded, the use of which is only gradually acquired^ and a 
number of experiments of the same kind must be made, be* 
fore one is obtained, from which correct data for conclusions 
can be drawn. 

2* Experiments on the Action of Potassium on Ammonia^ and 
Observations on the Nature ofthefe two Bodies. 

^igtn kiaoi* In the Bakerian lecture, which I had the honour of read* 
' • ing before the Society, November 19, 1807, I mentioned^ 
that in heating potassium strongly in ammonia, I found that 
there was a -considerable inci'ease of volume of the gas, 
that hidrogen and nitrogen were produced, and that the 
potassium appeared to be oxidated ; but this experimeni, 
^ I had not been able to examine the residuum with accu* 
racy, I did not publish. I stated it as an evidence, which I 
intended to pursue more fully, of the ejustence of oxigen in 
ammonia. 



ACTION OP POTASlItJM ON AMHONIAi BA9 

' , Id a paper read before the Royal Society Ust June» whicli 
they have done me the honour of printing, I have given an 
accoaut of various experiments on the amalgam from am* 
luoaia, discovered by Messrs. Berzelius and Poutin, and in Opinions of 

a note attached to this communication, 1 ventured to con- ^*7 Jt""*^ 

. ajid J henafd 

trovert an opinion of M. M. Gay Lussac and Thenard with errgno»ut« 
respect to the agency of potassium and ammonia, even on 
their own statement of facts, as detailed in the Moniteur for 
May 27, 1808. 

The general obscurity belonging to these refined objects 
of research, their importance and connection with the whole 
of chemical theory, have induced me since that time to ap^ 
ply to them no inconsiderable degree of labour and atten- 
tion ; and the results of my inquiries will, 1 trust, be found 
.Dot only to confirm my former conclusions; but likewise to 
offer some novel views. 

In the first of these series of operations on the action of Apparatus 
potassium on ammonia, I used retorts of green glass; I 
then, suspecting oxigen might be derived from the metallic 
oxides in the green glass, eu^ployed retorts of plate glass, 
and last of all, I fastened the potassium upon trays of pla- 
tioa, or iron, which were introduced into the glass retorts 
furnished with stop cocks. These retorts were exhausted by 
an excellent air pump, they were tille^ v/ith hidrogen, ex- 
hausted a second time, and then filled with ammonia from 
an appropriate mercurial gas holder *• In this way the gas 
was operated upon in a high degree of purity, which was al- 
ways ascertained ; and all the operations performed out of 
the contact of mercury^ water, or any substances tluit could 
interfere with the results. i 

I at first employed potassium procured by electricity ; but Potassiuia 
I soon substituted for it the metal obtained by the action of ^*^^' 

* ▲ representatioli of the instruments and apparatus is annexed. 
Fl. Vll. fig. 1. The retort of plate glass for heating pouaium in 



Fig. Sf> The tray of platina for receiving the potassium. 

Fig. 3. The platina tube for receiving the tray in experiment* of dis> 
tiUatioQ. 

Fig. 4. The appatttui for taking the voltaic spark in sulphur and 
pbosphoras, 

R t 



f 44 ACTION OF POTASSIUM ON AMMOKtA. 

ignited iron upon potash, in the happy method discorered 
by M. M. Gay Lnssac and Thenard, finding; that it gave the 
same results, and could be obtained of a uniform quality^, 
and In6nite1y larger quantities, and with much less labour 
and expense. 
Potissiam When ammonia is brought into contact "^ith about twice 

contact with ^^ weight of potassium at common temperatures, the metal 
ammonia. loses its lustre and becomes white, there is a slight dimina- 
tion in the volume of the gas ; but no other effects are pro* 
duced. The white crust examined proves to be potash, and 
the ammonia is found to contain a small quantity of hidro* 
gen, usually not more than equal in volume to the metal* 
H«atcd in the On heating the potassium in the gas, by laeans of a spirit 
lamp applied to tlie bottom of the retort, the* colour of 
the crust is seen to change from white to a bright 'azure, 
and this gradually passes through shades of bright blue and 
green \iito dark olive. The crust and the metal then fuse 
together; there is a considerable efiervescence, and the 
crust, passing off to the sides, suffei-s the brilliant surface of 
Cooled. the potassium to appear. When the potassium is cooled ill 

this state it is again covered with the white crust. By beat- 
Heated a se- ing a second time, it swells considerably, becomes poroos, 
con ume. ^^^ appears crystallized, and of a beautiful azure tint; the 
same series of phenomena, as those' before described, oc- 
cur in a continuation of the process ; and it is finally 
entirely converted into the dark olive coloured substance* 
Hidrogen? Iii this operation, as has been stated by M. M. Gay Los- 

aromooia dhh ^^ ^^^ Thenard, a gas, which gives the same diminution by 
appears. detonation with oxigen as hidrogen, is evolved, and ammo- 

nia disappears. 

The proportion of the ammonia, which looses its elastic 

w^k/**"*'™ * ^**®'* '^® potash used for p'-ocuring potassium in thip operation 
teminated " *** ^^ V^^^t ^^*^ t^® i^o" turnings likewise very pure and clean, and 
with a little *^® whole apparatus free from any foreign matter^, the metal produced 
iron, differed very little, in its properties, from that obtained by the Voluic 

battery. Jts lustre, ductility, and inHammabtlity were similar. Its 
point of fusion and specific gravity were, however, a Utile higher, it re- 
quiring nearly ISO* of Fahrenheit to render it perfectly fluid, and being 
to water as 7960 to lOOOO, at r>0*» Fahrenheit. This 1 am inclined to at- 
tribute to its containing a minute proportion of iron. 

form. 



ACTION OF POTASSIUM ON ' AMMONIA. jt45 

form, as 1 have found by numerous trials, varies according 
as the gas employed contains more or less morsture. 

Thlis eight grains of potassium, during its conversion into Lets of the (tt 

the oliv6 coloured substance, in ammonia saturated with "'^PP**'^ 

when moikt. 

water at 03 Fahrenheit, and under a pressure equal to that 
of 39'8 inches of mercury, had caused the disappearance of '^ 
twelve cubical inches and a half of ammonia ; but the sauie 
Quantity of metal acted upon under similar circumstances, 
except that the ammonia had beei\ deprived of as much 
moiature as possible by exposure for two days to potash that 
had been ignited, occusioncd a disappearance of sixteen cu- 
bical inches of the volatile alkali. 

Whatever be the iiegree of moisture of the gas, the Theinflamm»- 

quantities of inflammable eas generated have always ap- ?**® fw always 
* /. "^ * in proporuoQ 

peared to me to be equal for equal quantities of metal, to the metal, 

M. M. Gay Lussac and Thenard are said to have stated, ■"** .'***. '**•** 

.... * results froiD 

that the proportions in their experiment were the same as the aciton of 
would have resulted from the action of water upon potas- ''***'• 
num. In my trials, they have been rather less. Thus, in 
fD experiment conducted with every possible attention to 
accuracy ot manipulation, eight grains of potassium gene- 
rated, by their operation upon water, eight cubical, inches 
sod a half of hidrogea gas : and eight grains from the same 
mass, by their action upon ammonia, produced eight cubi' 
cal inches and one eighth of inflammable gas. This dif- 
ference is inconsiderable, yet I have always found it to exist, • 
even in cases where the ammonia has been in great excess, 
and every part of the metal apparently converted into the 
olive coloured substance. 

No other account of the experiments of M. M. Gay Lus- properties of 
sac and Thenard has, 1 believe, as yet been received in this the substance 
country, except that in the Moniteur already referred to; ihea"cnonof 
and in this no mention is made of the properties of the sub- ammonia on 
stance produced by the action of ammonia on potassium. P®'**^^"™- 
Having examined them minutely and found them curious, I 
shall generally describe them. 

1. It is crystallized, and prcBcnts irregular facets, which 
are extremely dark, and in colour and lustre not unlike the 
protoxide of iron ; it is opaque when examined in large 

ma^^ses. 



^4^ ACTION OF POTASSIUM ON AMMONIA,. 

masses, but is setnitransparent in thin films, and appears of 
, a bright brown colour by transmitted li^ht. 

2. It is fusible ata heat a httle above that of boiling water, 
and if heated much higher, emits globules of gas. 

8. It appears to be considerably heavier than water, for 
it sinl^s rapidly in oil of sassafras. 

4. It is a nonconductor of electricity. 

5. When it is melted in oxi;^en gas, it bums with great 
irindness, emitting, bright sparks. Ox i gen is absorbed,. ui«f 
tro^en is emitted, and potash, which from its great fusibility 
seems to contain water, is formed. 

6. When brought into contact with water, it acts upon it 
with much' energy, produces h<^at, and often inflammation, 
and Gvolvcb ammonia. W'hen thrown upon water, it disap- 
pears with a hissing noise, and globules from it oflen move 
in a state of ignition upon the surface of the water. It ra-^ 
pidly effervesces and deliquesces in air, but can be pre* 

I served uuder naphtha, in which, however, it softens slowly, 

and seems partially to dissolve. When it is plunged under 

water filling an inverted jar, by means of a proper tube, it 

disappears instantly with cii'ervescenc^, and the nonabsprb* 

able elastic fluid liberated is found to be hidrogen gas. 

Tht ponder- By far the greatest part of the ponderable matter of the 

abl« matter of ammonia, that disappears in the experiment of its action 

the ammonia , , • i i i <. i , 

•xists in this upon potassium, evideiilly exists in the dark fusible pro- 

prqduct duct. On weighing a tray containing six grains of fK)tas- 

sium, before and after the process, the volatile alkali era>- 

ployed having been very dry, I found that it had increased 

more than two grains ; the rapidity with which the product 

acts upon moisture prevented me from determining the 

point with great minuteness; but I doubt not, that the 

weight of the olive coloured substance and of the hidrogen 

disengaged precisely equals the weight of the potassium, and 

limmonia consumed. 

Mtdts of M- jVI. Gay Lussac and Thenard * are said to have pro- 

mj LuKac 

IfMTheoard. • No noicc is tak»n of the apparatus used by M. M. Gay Lu?sac and 
Thenard in ih^ Moniteur; but from the tenoui of the details, it secmk 
rtuit they muft have operated in glass vcf>sclA in the way licretoforc 
*j \ ft^ted over mercury. 

■ , cured 



J- 



ACTIOV OP FOTA88IUM 6K AMMOKlA.' ^4^ 

cured ffom the fusible substance^ by the application of a 
strong heat, two fifths of the quantity of ammonia that had 
disappeared in their first process, and a quantity of hidro* 
gen and nitragen in the proportions in which they exist in 
mmflMmia, equal to one fifth more. 

My results have been very different, and the reasons will, PIfferent from. 
I trust, be immediately obviou«. **'• ^*''y'** 

When the retort containing the fusible substance is ex-lhefu?ible 
hausted, filled with hidrogen and .exhausted a second time, h«ited*^Jii. 
and beat gradually applied, the substance soan fuses, e£Per- drogen. 
Teacea, and, as the heat increases, gives off a considerable 
quantity of elastic fluid, and becomes at length, when the 
temperature approaches neak-ly to dull redness, a dark gray 
aolid, which by a continuance of this degree of heat does . 
not undei^ any alteration. 

In an experiment, in which eight grains of potassium had Gtt expelled 
absorbed sixteen cubical inched of well dried ammonia in a ™** ^ ** ' 
glass retort, the fusible substance gave off twelve cubical 
inches and half of gas, by being heated nearly to redness; 
and this gass analysed was found to consist of three quar- 
ters of a cubical inch of ammonia, and the remainder of 
elastic fluids, which when mixed with oxigen gas in the pro* 
portion of 6| to G, and acted upon by the electric spark, di- 
minished to 5^. The temperature of the atmosphere, in this 
process, was 57° Fahrenheit, and the pressure equalled that 
of 30*1 inches of mercury. 

In a similar experiment, in which the platina tray contain- Heated in a 
ing the fusible substance was heated in a polished iron tube polUhcd iron 
filled with hidrogen gas, and connected with a pneumatic hidrogen. 
apparatus containing very dry mercurj', the quantity of , 
elastic fluid given off, all the corrections being made, equal- 
led thirteen cubical inches and three quarters, and of these a 
cubical inch was ammonia ; and the residual gas, and the 
gas introduced into the tube being accounted for, it appear- 
ed, that the elastic fluid j^enerated, destructible by detona- 
tion with oxigen, wus to the indestructible elastic fluid, as 
2-5 to 1. 

In this process, the heat applied approached to the dull 
red heat. The mercury, in the thermometer, stood at 6^* 
Fahrenheit, and that in the barometer at 30*3 inches. 

In 



jl4& ACTION OF POTASSIUM ON AMMONU* 

Siot'i'wr fcsalts In varioak exf erimeiits on different quant itiet; of the 

In tufferetit ^^ substance, ' so . e of whici' the heat was appli^ to the 
cxpeimeots. . . . 

tray in th*' green glass < tort, and' i otht rs, after it had 

been JDtroduced'into the iron tube; and in which the 
temperature was sometimes raised slowly and sometimea 
quickly^ the comparative results were so near these» that 
I have detailed, as to render any statement of them super- 
fluous. 
Difference be- A little more ammonia, and rather a larger proportion of 
tubeandffreen 'ofl^i^^i^hle gas*, were in all instances evolved when the 
l^us retort. iron tube was used, which I am inclined to attribute to th^ 
following circumstances. When the tray was brought 
through the atmosphere to be introduced into the iron tnbe» 
the fusible substance absorbed ^ small quantity of mois-r 
ture from the air, which is connected with the production 
of ammonia. And in the process of heating in the retort, 
the green glass was blackened, and I found that it contain- 
ed a very small quantity of the oxides of lead and iron, 
which must have caused the disappearance of a small quan- 
tity of hidrogen. 
Effects of M. M. Gay Lussac and Thenard, it appears from the 

moisture. statement, had brought the fusible substance into contact 
with mercury, which must have given to it some moisture: 
and whenever this is the case, it furnishes by heat variable 
quantities of ammonia. In one in^^tance, in which I heated 
- " the fusible subs anc^ from nine grains of potassium, in a 
retort that had been filled with mercury in its common state 
of dryness, I obtained seven cubical inches of ammonia as 
the first product ; and in another experiment which had 
been made with eight grains, and in which moisture was 
purposely introduced, I obtained nearly nine cubical inches 
of ammonia, and only four of the mixed gasses. 
With a pTDp?r I ar>i inclined to believe, that if moisture cpuld be intro- 
aiolltti^^ th ^"^*^^ ^"'y '" *^® proper proportion, the quantity of am- 
erlgin&l quan monia generated would be exactly equal to that which dis- 

m c# ^mo- appeared in the first process. 
ab wo^Icl be '^'^ r 



crated. 



♦ The iverage of six cxi>erinicnt.s made in a tube of iron is 2'4 of in- 
flammable ga« to 1 of uninflamnable The average of three made in 
f rcea gioss retoru is 2rd to I. 

This 



ACTIOK OF POTASSIUM OK AMMONIA. j|4^. 

This idea » confirmed by the trials which I hnre made, 
Vy heating, the fusible substance with potash containing 
its water of crystallization, and muriate of liuie partially 
dried*« 

lo both these cases, ammonia was generated with great 
Tapidity» and no other gas, but a minute quantity of in« 
flammable gas, evolved, which was condensed by detona- 
tiop with oxigen with the same phenomena as pure hidro- 

In one instance, in which thirteen cubical inches of am- 
monia had disappeared, I obtained nearly eleven and three 
quarters by the agency of the water of the potash ; the 
quantity of inflammable gas generated was less than four 
tenths of a cubical inch. 

la another, in which fourteen cubical inches had been 
absorb^, I procured by the operation of the moisture of 
muriate of lime nearly eleven cubical inches of volatile al- 
ka 'i, and h^lf a cubical iuch of inflammable gas; and the 
diflin^nces, there is every reason to believe, were owing to 
an excess of water iii thie salts, by which some of the gas 
was absorbed. 

lHHienever, in experiments on the fusible substance, it The fasibia 
has been procured from ammonia saturated with moisture, ■"^•*^^*** 
1 hare always fo^i.d that m re ammonia is generated from ammonia by 
it by mere heat ; and the general tenour of the experiments ^®*^ aloat, 
inchnes me to believe, thai the small quantity, produced in 
experiments performefl in vacuo, is owing to the small quan- 
tity of moisture furnished by the hidrogen gas introduced, 
and ths^t the fusible substance, heated out of the presence 
of moisture, is incapable of producing volatile alkali. 

M. M. Gay Lnssac and 1 henard, it is stated, after having Gay Lussae 
obtained three utths ol the ammonia or its elements that had ^ ThenaiO. 
disappeared in their experiment, by heating the product; 

* If warer, in i*% common form, i« brought into contact with the fusi- 
ble <:ubstance, it Is im;)ossibl to regola^e the quuntttT, so as to gain con- 
dasive result^, an-1 a v ry ^Vi^\n ixcvss ot water causes the disappearance 
of a tefy largre quantity of the amnKnia gtnerated. In potash and 
nuriate of likae. Ill certain states*, ut dryitess, the uater is too strongly 
attjacte<t by the i>ahne mutter to be given off, except for the purpose of 
fneraling the ammonia. 

procured 



25# ACTION 9F POTASSIUM ON AMMONIA* 

procured the remaining two fifths, by adding water to the 
residuum, wliich after this operation was found to be potash. 
No notice is taken of the properties of this residuum, which, 
9i» the details seem to relate to a single experiment, proba- 
bly was not examined ; nor as moisture was present at the 
.bei;iunin^ of their operations could any accurate knowledge 
of its nature have been gained. 
Ffopertkscf 1 have made the residuum of the fusible substance after 

S^JiTftsibfe ^* ^^* ^^^^ exi>osed to a dull red heat, out of the contact of 
ssbstancu atter moisture, an object of particular study, and 1 shall detail its 
«i|K*u:eio general properties!. 

It was examined under naphtha, as it 16 instantly destroy* 
ed by the contact of air. 

1. Its colour is black, and its lustre not much inferior to 
that of plumbago. 

2. It is'opaque even in the thinnest films* 

3. It is very brittle, and affords a deep gray powder* 

4. It is a conductor of electricity. 

5. It does not fuse at a low red heat, and when raised t» 
this,temperature, in contact with ])late glass, it blackens the 
glass, and a grayish sublimate rises from it, which iikeyrise 
blackens the glass. 

6. When exposed to air at common temperatares, it 
usually takes fire immediately, and burns with a deep red 
light. 

7. When it is acted upon by water, it heats, effenresces. 
most violently, and evolves volatile alkali, leaving behind 
nothing but potash. When the process is conducted vnder • 
water, a little inflammable gas is found to be generated. A 
residuum of eight grains giving in all cases about -f^^ of • 
cubical inch. 

8. It has no action upon quicksilver. 

9. It combines with sulphur and phosphorus by heat^ 
without any vividness of effect, and the compounds are 
highly iaflammable, and emit ammonia, and the one phos- 
phuictted and the other sulphuretted hidrogen gas, by the 
action of waUr. 

A compound As uu inflammable f»as alone, having the obvious proper- 
of nitrogen tics of hidroj^en, it* given off durms( tho action of potassiuYn 
u**MU^sium^ upoa aminouia, and as nothing but ga^ses apparently the 

same 



ACTION OF P0T1S6IUM ON AMMONIA. 25t 

Mme as hidrogenand nitrogen, nearly m the proportions in 
which they exist in volatile alkali, are evolved during the 
exposure of the compound to the degree of beat which I 
have specified ; and as the residual substance produces am- 
monia with a little hidrogen by the action of water, it oc* 
canned to me, that, on the principles of the antiphlogistic 
theory, it ought to be a compound of potassium, a little 
oxigen and nitrogen, or a combination of a suboxide of 
potassium and nitrogen ; for the hidrogen disengaged in the 
operations of which it was the result nearly equalled the 
▼hole quantity contained in the ammonia employed ; and 
it was easy to explain the faot of the reproduction of the 
ammonia by water, on the supposition, that by combination 
with one portion of the oxigen of the water, the oxide of . 
potassium became potash, and by combination with another 
portion and its hidrogen, the nitrogen was conv eited into 
volatile alkali* 

With a view to ascertain this point, I made several expe- Expaimanft 
riments on Various residuums, procured in the way that I ^ prove tkit. 
have jnst stated, from the action of equal quantities of pot- 
asnum on dry ammonia in platina trays, each portion of 
metal equalling six grains. 

In the first trials, I endeavoured to ascertain the quantity Quantity of ' 
of ammonia generated by the action of water upon a resi- ammonia pcikr 
duum, by heating it with muriate of lime or potash par- 
^ally deprived of moisture ; and after several trials, many 
»r which failed, I succeeded in obtaining four cubical in- 
ches and a half of ammonia* In three other cases, where 
there was reason to suspect a small excess of watei*, the 
quantities of ammonia were three cubical inches and a half, 
three and eight tenths, and four and two tenths. 

The>e experiments were performed in the iron tube used 
for the former process ; the tray wjis not withdrawn ; but the 
sah introduced in powder, and the apparatus exhausted as 
before, then tilled with hidrogen, and then gently heated in 
a small }>orlable forge. 

Having ascertained what quantity of ammpnia was given The com- 
off from the residuum, I endeavoured to discover what pound mtro- 
qoantity of nitrogen it produced in combustion, and what igen gas. 
^gsantity of oxigen it absorbed. The methods that I em- 

ployed^ 



j^S ACTION OF POTASSIUM ON AMMONIA, 

ployed, wore by introducing the trays into vessels filled with 

oxigeu gab over mercur)'. The product often inflaqied 

spontaneously, and could always be made to bum by a slight 

dejj;ree of heat. 

Cis-Ecn ab- ^" ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ ^ regard as the most i^ccurate^ two cubical 

«eebe<t »tu!n'!- inclies and a half of oxij;en were absorbed, and only a cubi- 

^*^^* * cal inch and one tenth of nitrogen evolved. 

Surprised at the smsillnesn of the quantity of the nitro- 
gen, 1 soutifht for ammonia in the products uf these opera- 
tionii; but various trials convinced me, that none was 
formed. I examined the solid substances produced, ex- 
pecting nitrous acid; hut the matter proved to be dry 
potashf apparently pure, and not aii'ording the slightest 
traces of acid. 

The quantity of nitroj^en existing in the ammonia, vrhich 

this residuum would have produced by the action of tra/er, 

supposing the volatile alkali decomposed by electricity, 

would have equalled at least two cubical inches and a 

quarter. 

jf^P^ff^ to ^ heated the same proportions of residuum with the red 

inffccn t coci- oxide of mercury, and the red oxide of lead in vacuo, ex- 

Swtky frf ni- Rating that when oxigen was supphcd in a gradual way, 

tr>fe& :uDall. the result might be diflerent from that of combustion ; but 

in neither of thes^e cases, did the quantity of nitrogen ex* 

ceed a cubical inch and a half. 

But on. what could this loss of nitrogen depend; had it 
entered into any unknown form with oxigen, or did it not 
really exist in'^the residuum in the same quantily, as in the 
ammonia produced from it? 
Bektaom ex- I hoped that an experiment of exposing the residuum to 
"J** *"" intense heat might enlighten the inquiry. 1 distilled one of 
the portions, which had been covered with naphtha, in a tube 
of wrought platina made for the purpose.' The tube had ' 
been exhausted and filled with liidrogen, and exhausted 
again, and was then connected with a pneumatic mercurial 
apparatus. Ileut was at tirst slowly applied, till the naph- 
tha had been driven over. It wnn then rdised rapidly by an 
excellent forge. When the tub** became cherry red, gat 
was developed ; it continued to he u en e rated for some mi-. - 
nates. When the tube had received the mos»t intense heat^ 

thiil^ 



ACTION OP POTASSIUM ON AMMONIA. 2JS 

that could be applied, the operation was stopped. The. 
qoanttty of ffks collected, makinc^ the proper corrections and 
reductions, would have been three cubical inches and a half 
at the mean temperature and pressure. Twelve measures Thesis i|«b». 
of it wtere mixed with six of oxigen gas, the electrical spark "^*^ 
was passed through the mixture ; a strong iuHumroation 
took place, the diminution was to three measures and a \m\f\ 
•ad the residuum contained oxigen. This experiment was 
repeated upon different quantities with the sauie compara- 
tive results. / 

tn examining the pUitina tul>e, which had a screW adapt- (^^ ^^ 
ed to it at the lower extremity, by means of which it could pou.<h and 
be opened, the lower part was found to contain potash, P^^*5««"*» 
which bod all the properties of the pure alkali, and in the 
upper part there was a quantity of potassium. Water 
poured into the tube produced a violent heat and iuflamma* 
tion ; but no smell of ammonia. 

This result was so unexpected and so extraordinary, that 
I at first supposed there was some source of erroqr. 1 bad 
calcnlated upon procuring nitrogen as the only aeriforua 
product ; I obtained an elastic fluid, which gave much more 
^minution by detonation with oxigen, than that produced 
from ammonia by electricity. • 

I now made the experiment, by heating the entire fusi- q^^ fromth* 
ble substance from six grains of potassium, which had ab- ^**p*cofthc 
forbed twelve cubical inches of immonia, in the iron tube, j,j,^j^^ hcaiei 
in the manner before described. The heat was gradually 
raised to wniteness, and the gas collected in two portions* 
The wbole quantity generated, making the usual corrections 
for temperature and pressure, and the portion of hidrogeu 
originally in the tube, and the residuum, would have been 
fourteen cubical inches and a half at the mean degree of the 
barometer and thermometer. Of these, nearly a cubical 
ifich was ammonia, and the remaihder a gas, of which the 
portion destructible by detonation with oxigen was to the 
indlestnictible portion, as 2*7 to 1. 

The lower part of the tube, where the heat had been SoUd results. 
iatense, was found surrounded with potash in a vitreous 
form ; the upper part contained a considerable quantity of 
potassium- 

la 



J254 ACTION or POTASSIUM ON AMMONIA. 

More tlian ont ^^ another similar experi.aenti made expressly for the 

third of ihe purposes of ascertain <<: the quantity of potaiibium recovered- 
potassium re- r, ' , . 1 . 1 J rr-i . . 
▼ited. ^he same elastic products were evolved. Tlie tube was 

suffered to cool, the stop-cock being open in contact with 
mercury, it was filled with- mercury, and the roercur}- di»« 
placed by water ; when two cubical inches and three quar- 
ters of hidrogen gas were generated, which proved, that 
at least two grains and a half of potati&ium had been re- 
vived. 
Catculation of Now, if a calculation be made upon the products in these 
results, operations, considering them as nitrogen and hidrogen, and 
taking the common standard of temperature and pressure, it 
will be found, that, by the decomposition of 11 cubical 
inches of ammonia equal to 3*05 grains, there are generated 
3*6 cubical inches of nitrogen equal to 1*06 grain*, and 9*9 
cubical inches of hidrogen, which, added to that disengaged 
in the first operation equal to about 6*1 cubical inches, are 
together equal to *382 of a grain ; and the oxig^ added to 
3*5 grains of potassium would be *6 of a grain, and the whole 
amount is 2*04 grains ; and 2*05 — 2*04 = *01. Bat the 
tame quantity of ammonia, decomposed by electricity, 
would have given 5*5 cubical inches of nitrogen equal to 
1*6 grain, and only 14 cubical inches of hidrogen * equal 
to *33, and allowing the sefmration of oxigen in this pro- 
cesa in water, it cannot be estimated at more than *11 or 
•12. 
tfitrvgen lost So that, if the analvhis of ammonia by electricity at all 
and oxxgctk approaches towards accuracy ; in the process just described* 
produced* there is a considerable loss of nitrogen, and a production of 
oxigen and inflammable gas. 

Nitrogen gene* And in tha action of water upon the residuum, in the ex« 
tated when' . ^ -.-^ ^l • . - . 

Water emploj- penment page 252, there is an apparent generation ef mtro- 

ed. gen. 

How can these extrnordinary results be explained? 
Suppositions The decomposition and compobitioo of nitrogen aeeOL 
^^^ piam proved, allowing the correctness of the data ; and one of its 

elements appears to be oxigen ; bat what is its other ele« 

mentary matter ? 

* See Phil. Trans. 1808, p. 40, or Joumtl, vol. xx, p. 32S. 



AtTlON OF POTASSIUM ON AMMoNlA. ||<C 

Is tbe gas, that appears to possess the properties of hiJro* 
gen, a new species of inflammable aeriform substance ? 

Or has nitrogen a metallic basis, which alloys with the iron 
or platina ? 

Or is water alike the ponderable matter of nitrogen, hi- 
drogeo, and oxigen ? 

Or 18 nitrogen a compound of hidrogen with a larger prio- 
portion of oxigen than exists in water ? 

These important questions, the two first of which seem 
the least likelv to be answered in the afFirmative, from the 
correspondence between the weight of the ammonia decom- 
posed and the products, supposing them to be known sub- 
stances, 1 shall use every efibrt to solve by new labours, and 
I hope soon to be able to communicate the results of fartlier 
experiments on the subject to the Society. 

As the inquiry now stands, it is however sufficiently de- Ammonia da* 
raoDttrative» that the opinion, which I had ventured to form c°'"P**«*.jtt 
respectiog the decomposition of ammonia in this expert- mcnt, and pG«- 
lient, is correct ; and that M. M. Gay Lussac's and The- *^'*"'" "^ \ 

"^ . compound of 

nard's idea of the decomposition of the potassium, and their hidrogin \wi 
theory of its being compounded of hidrogen and potash, are P^^^^* 
tmfoanded* 

For a considerable part of the potassium is recovered nn« 
tlteretl, and in the entire decomposition of the fusible sub- 
stance, there is only a small excess of hidrogen above that 
existing in the ammonia acted upon. 

The mere phenomena of the procesis likewise, if minutely 
examined, prove the same thing. 

After the first slight effervescence, owing to the water ab- 
sorbed by the potash formed upon the potassium during its 
exposure to the air, the operation proceeds with the greatest 
tranquillity. No elastic fluid is given off* from the potassium ; 
it often appears covered with the olive coloured substance, 
undf if it were evolving hidrogen, this must pass through the 
inid ; but even to the end of the operation, uo such ap- 
pearance occurs. 

The crystallized and spongy substance, formed in the 
first part of the process, I am inclined to consider as a com- 
bination of ammonia and potassium, for it emits a smell of 

ammonia 



iSS JLCTlOn Of POTASSIUM OK AMMONIA* 

amiBohia when exposed to air, and is considerably lightet 

than potassium. 

S^^rbtr ^ ** ^^^^ thought, that a solid compound of hidrogen ftnd 

^Irogen, but is potassium might be generattrd in the first part of this opeca^* 

aoluble in it. tiOn : but experiments on the immediate action of potafssium 

/ and hidrogen did nut favour this opinion. Potassium, aa 

1 ventured to conclude in the Bakerian Lecture for ISO?*, 

is 

Hidrogen said * ^' ^' ^^y Lu^i^<^ ^"^ Ttienard seem to be of a different opinion, 
to be mbsorbed In the Moniteur, to wliirb I hare so often referred, it is related, that 
V| potasiiium. these distinguished chemists, by exposing hidrogen to potassiom at 
a high temperature, fonnd ihat the hidrogen was absorbed, and that H 
formed a compound with the potassium of a light gray colour, frook 
which hidrogen was capable of being obtained by the action of water 
or mercury. 
Met in Mr. After a number of trials, I hare roI l>eeu able to witness this resnlt. 

I^^** expeii* In an experiment which I made in the presence of Mr. Pepya, and 
**^"- which I have often repeated, and twice before a nnmerons assembly, 

in retorts of plate glasts four grains of potassium were heated in fpur- 
teen cubical inches of pure hidrogen. At first, white fumes arose an^T' 
precipitated themselves in the neck of the retoi*t. When a consider- 
able film of the precipitate had collected, its colour appeared a bright 
gray, and after the first two or three minutes, it ceased to be fomed^ 

The bottom of the retort was heated to redness, when the poUssfam 
began to sublime and condense on the sides. 

The process was stopped, and the retort suffered to cool* The ab- 
sorption was uot equal to a quarter of a cubical inch. When the re- 
tort was broken^ the gas, in passing into the atmosphere, produced an- 
explosion with most vivid light, and white fumes. The potassium re- 
maining in the retort, and that which had sublimed, seemed unaltered 
in their properties. 

The grayish substance inflamed by the action of water, but did not 

seeos to b< combined with merctuy. I am incUiied to attribute its 

formation to the agency of moisture suspended in the hidrogen, and to 

/ consider it as a triple compound of potassium, oxigen, and hidrogen. 

When potassium is heated in a gas containing hidrogen, and from 

^ "^ L. to * of common air, it is formed in greater quantities, and a cmst 

of it covers the metal, and in the process there is an absorption belli of 

hidrogen and oxigen. It is likewise produced in experimeata oa 

the generation of potassium by exposing potash to ignited iron, at the 

tisse (1 believe) that common air is admitted, during the cuolUif of 

the tube. 

It is nonconducting, inflames spontaneously in air, and produces ]K>t- 
ash and aqueous vapour by its combustion. 



4GTION.or POTASSIUM ON AMMOMtA* 

• - • . , .. . 

it tery soluble in hidrogen ; but, under common circum« 
Skances, hidrogen does not s^^m to be absorbable by p«t- 
asMum* 



m 



When |>ot«stittni it iieated in iii<}rogeD la a ^t ^^lais retdrt» of 
tfta for a great lengtb of thnc in a grceu glass returt, th^re If an ab- Hidrogoo ab- 
toqition of the gas^ bat tbis is indq>endent of the pretence of pot- sorbed by the 
assiam, and is owing to the actioa of the mcUUie oxides in the glass ^^^^^ ^ the 
apon the hidrogen. * 

If a solid componnd of hidrogen and potassium could be formed, we 
might capect its existence in the experiment with the gun barreU i^ 
whicti potassium b exposed to hidrogen at almdst etery temperature $ 
but the metal formed in this process, when proper precautions are 
fakento cxdade carhonac%uns matters, is anifbrm in its properties, aad 
ife u e ia te s , ki cqaal quantities, equal proportions of hidrogen by the 



The geacral phenomena of this operation show indeed, that the so- 
fattion of potassium in hidrogen is -intimately connected with the gene* 
lai piinciple of the decomposition, and coniirm my first idea of the ac- 
tion of the two bodies. 

Hidrogen dissoireii a large quantity of pbtastiom by heat, but the 
greater portion is pretipitated on cooling. The attractions which de- 
ftiihiB the chemical change seem to be that of iron fiw oaigen, of iron 
lor poteiilam, aad of hidrogen for potassium ; aad in experiments, in 
whidi a eery intense heat is used for the production of potusinm by 
iroBt I bave often found, that the gas which comes over, thou^ it has 
ptsMd tbrough a tube cooled by ice, in^ames spontaneously in tbe 
atmosphere, and bums with a most brilliant light, which is purple at 
the edges, iad throws off a dHise rapour contsinittg potash. 

MUnm appears to be almost insoluble in hidrogen, and this seenis Sodium neifif 
la he one reason why it cannot be obtained, except in very minute insoluble ia 
qatatitiesy in the experiment with the gun barrel. hidrq§ea« 

Sodiam, ihongh scarcely capable of being dissolved in hidrogen 
alone, seems to be sotuble in the coitipoand of hidrogen aad potassium. 
By esporing mixtures of potash and soda to ignited iron I have ob* 
Tiinad mme very curious aHoys ; which, whether the potassium or the CarieiliaUoyib 
ssdiBm was ia excessi were fluid at common temperatures. The ^om^ 
poaad eontaining an excess of potassium was even light than pot- 
aanam (pn^bably'from its duidity). All thes^ alloys were in tbe 
highest degree inflammable. When a globule of the fluid alloy waf 
toaehed by a globule of mercury, they combined with a heat that 
sliced the paper upon which the experiment was made, and formed, 
coaly a solid so hard, as not to be cut by a knife. 

fTo be amtinued in our next J 
Vol, XXm.-^Au«»'r* IWd. 8 On 



itSft rtMUCTIOH •# Att9 AMD AtKiLI FEOM WlTBE. 



II. 

Or the Prodmetwm ^ «» ilct^ and m AlhUi fnm pun 
Waitr bff Golutmim. In a Letter fnm Mr. Chaelm 

STI,¥BftBE. 

To Mr. NICHOLSON. 
SIR« 

SdcUdd"^ AT is ntm a long time since I had the pleasim ercbitt'* 

ducvd from municating any thing to yoor raluable periodical work, aU 

wa^rby gal- though I waa under a promise to send you something de* 

eisive on the subject of the production of soda and moriatie. 

acid, from pure water, by galvanism. I should not at pre* 

sent hafe ventured to have offered any thing on tbia tub* 

ject, linswing, that the tide of opinion must have gone with- 

the decisions of Mr. Davy, who has said, that tke add and' 

alkali are produced from foreign matter in the water, or in 

tbevctsela employed; had not the truth and consequent 

reasonings of my experimenta been strongly supported byt 

many recent fiicts, brought forward by Mr. D^ bimieK' 

Mr.Da^^s AHdieeiperimentSy in which Mr. Davy has produced the* 

cxptrimenti |||^p|y.g||^ (^gj^, ^f ^n tlkali, an earth, or even acid, are tio- 

tUng more than degrees of the same process, by which the' 
alkali is produced when pore water is exposed to the gal«. 
vanic influence; audit it equally evident, diat all the 
?J^*J*J?^ bodies he has, in these experiments, operated upon, are^ 



Sm. «»iirv of hidrogeo. I have not thie least hesitatioB in wf^' 

MttfiK^^^^ ing, that the acid and alkali can be produced, from pure 
abundMice. watery in^sBch abtindance as not to admit a doubt of theiv; 



^^*y^ \ being derive* from the water, or the apparatus. The mh- 

SflSQCV IB Cos* 

mica] pi»> portance of the electrical agency in chemical' processea «p«^' 



pears principjully to consist in hidrogen and oxigen being: 
famifhod in their nascent and pure form ; for it will be re^ ' 
cUlected> that in all experiments^ in which the alkalis and' 
tte earths have appeared to be decomposed, the presence. 
of water has always been essential to the changes pro* 
duced. 
Water with It is therefore probable, that water with different por^ 
mc^E^wjO^ tkms of oxigen ibrms acid« pr^ductsj and with ^hidrogen,. 



rKODUCTION OF ICID AMD ALKALI F80M WITCH. £5^ 

nlkalls, e«rth», and metols. In the nperiment, where pure h-iroge*. il- 
nuicr » t^x}K><wd to the galranic influeDce, separated 'f'** „j"l„^Jilf'' 
two portiuns b; lome taont conductor, the axigen ii pre- 
sently ill its naiceiit form, and an acid it proitiicrd, from 
thai substance combininK with the water; and at the 
fbiat where the liidrog«(i is presentt^d, au alkuli is formed, 
by a tiroilar fixation of hidrugen. In the pretended de-' 
composition of potash, tlie alkali combines with au extra 
doate of hidrogeoi forming the metallic globulus. And 
when a metal was said to be produced from ammoaia, form" 
ing an alloy with potaasium remarkable for it» little tpeciGc 
gravity, the effect could only be attributed t» that tuetal 
cambioiDg oitfa a still greater poriinii of hidrogeo. 

The electrical doctrine of Mr. D.ivy i) >>o replete with Mr DityV 
truth and coosiatency, that 1 am every day more pleased ^'^f'"*'"'* 
with iL It would seem, that we have only two kind* of u,,] J^'l^^ 
■imple matter ; one something like oxigeo, poaiessiDg \hi o' »'>opH msi- 
effeeii of negative electricity in the greateiit degree; the "'' 
HlAer • general inflammable flubttance of the nature of hi> 
^H^ogeo. endowed with poBitive electricity: that ei:ch of 
^pben bodin has a ronaliint repulsion betwem their homo- 
r^gin««« particles, and hence ia pennanemly elastic; that 
equal portions of these bodies combined would constitntt; n 
UtdjFof the greatest possible density, fVom the attraction 
being at a maximum : and that, as one of them predomi- 
oatn, tbv attraction becomes lest. Hence it ajipcars, that \'o toii,i a 
the particles of timple matter are repellent of emh other, •""i'l" ^'^T- 
and that no solid body Cud be considered a simple body. 

A friend of mine intends soon to favour you with a more 
exiemive e^say on this subject. 

f you think the above observations will at all intereit 
-■ of yoar work, tfacir iniertioD in your nejct inll 
li sbtige. 

Sir, 
Your humble servant, 
<f,JuMiB, CHARLES SYLVESTER. 

1909. 

I letter came too late for insertion last month. It 

A proper to notice, that Mr. Davy alatas the decumpo- 

S S iition 



2tf0 DECOMPostnoTf or Bflf&Atic Acid. ' 

tiiion of potash Sec, where no water was present. With rN 
gard to tbeorieSy there must always be great difficnlty when 
inductions are ibade and generalized beyond the support 
afforded by the facts. Specific facts duly arranged in aap^ 
port of each other are the great desiderata of science. W« 
possess inany^ the happy acquisition of our own time, buC 
we are in want of many more* 

W.N. 

III. 

Account of the Decomposition and Re^ampositufn ofBoraeie 
Acid* By Messrs. Gay Lvssic and Thsvaed *. 



o» 



tion of trndc ^^^ ^^ ^^^ ®^ Jone last we announced in a note read at 

asid saaoono- the Institute^ and we published in the BuNeim de la S^ 

^' ciiti Pkilomatique for July, that by treating the fluoric and 

boracic acids with the metal of potash we obtained results^ 

which could only be explained by admitting these acids to 

be compounds of a combustible substance and osn^ciw 

However, as we had not recomposed them, we added, that we 

d|d not give this composition as completely demonstrated* 

Since that time we have continued and varied our researchesy 

and are now able to assert, that the composition of the 

boracic acid is no longer problemaUbal. In fact* we can de* 

connKiselhis acid and recompose it at pleasure. 

Method in fp decompose it, we put equal parts of the netal and 

decomposed. > ^^^^ P^^'^ ^°^ ^^^^ vitrified boracic acid into a Copper tube, 

to which a curved glass tube is fitted. I'he tube of copper 

is placed in a small furnace, and the extremity of the glass 

tube jn a jar filled with mercury. The apparatus bein; 

thus arranged, the copper tube is heated gradually, till it it 

slightly red hot. In this state it is kept for some minutes. 

The operation being then finished^ it is cooled, and the 

• Journal dc Physlqw! to November, 1808, Vol LX VII, p. 393. Mr. 
Dtvy*ft experiments on tke boracic acid will appear in the course of the 
paper, of vrhich the commencement is glvAi in our present number. 
see also Journal, Vol. XX, p. 931. and Vol. XXI, p. 375. 

msttero 



DECOMPOSITIOH OF BORACtC 1C1I». gg] 



rxpctimtnl* 



Hotter UliCD out. The fullouiiig are the pheiioinena ob- 

Bg^rr^ in thU ex|)eriiaeDt. 

Br When the temuemture is about 150' [302' F-1. the mix- Phenomem 

■:■ "^ ■ 1- I, 1 '• -■■--' 

tare on & suadep y;rows highly red, as may 

striking manner by using a glass ttjbe. There is even lo 
qauch heat produced, that the glass tube partly melts, and 
■< •ometimes brnks, aod the air of the vessels is almost aU 
^niay> exptlled with force. From the beginning of the 
^kxperimeot to the end, nothing is disenguged but atmp? 
^Hpheric air, and a few bubbles of hidrogen gas, not an- 
^Ej|prerio|[ t9 p fiftieth part of n hat the metal employed would 
Kpve out by mean* of nater, Al| the metal constantly di&- 
H^ppears in discomposing part of the boracic acid; and the 
■ %W9 substances are concerted by Ihpir reciprocal action into 
ft CO olive gray matter, which is a mixture of pot.nsh and the 
~ (^ical of the bpratic acid. This mixture is extrattej fi«in 
fhe tube by pouring in water, and healiug it gently; and 
the boracic nuliciil is separated by repeated washjng with 
n or cpid watpr, Before this nsehiug it is advisable to 
Uirate the alkali contained in the mixture with muriatic 
; for it appears, that the boracic radical can become 
led, and then dissolve in the alkali, to nhlch it gives ^ 
yerjT deep colonr. What does not dissolve is the radical it- 
self, which possesses the following properties. 

It ia of a greenish brown colour, fitted, and insoluble in rn}pet'Ki af 

^t has n(i taste ; and no action on infusion of litmus "i" t"" ''^ 

r sirup of violets. Mixed with osimurHte of potash, qt ni* 

Me of potash,' itnd projected into a red hpt crupible, a 

tvid poinbustion ensues, one pf the products of whip h is the 

ncic acid. When ■* ■■ treated with nitric pcid, a great 

rvescencp takes place, even in the cold t and ii'hpn the 

laid is evaporated, fi greiit deal of the boracic acid is ob> 

But of all the phenomena produced by the bora- 

r rwlical in its contact with different substances, the 

■Osl curious and nioft important ore those it exhibits with 

On projecting 3 decig. [4j grs.] of boracic radical into n Thi, ^^^ 
^ver cmcible scarcely at a dull red heat ; and covering the ^^"'^ ji^l^i; . 
racible with a jar holding about a litre [a wine quart], fill- '" '"• " 
xigen gas, and placed over uiercury; ac9mbu4* 
ticn 



flSH DECOMPOSITIOH OP BOKACIC 1CI»« 

tioD of the most instantaneous kind takes place, and tha 

mercury risps with such rapidity half way up the iar» as to 

raise it forcibly. In this experiment however, the combus* 

ficrtoxided, tion of the boracic radical is far from complete. What 

prevents this is, that the radical is at once converted entirely^ 

into the state of a black oxide, the existence of whicji we 

thencoDTerted think we have perceived ; and the external parts of this ox* 

uato boraeic jj^ passing afterwards to the state of boracic acid, they 

melt, and thus defend the interior parts from the contact of 

the oxiyen. Accordingly to burn them completely it it 

necessary, to wash them, and place them afresh in contact' 

with 0X1 ^n gas, still at a cherry red heat , but t}ieo they 

bum with lf»S8 violence, and absorb less oxig^n, than the 

first time, becnrse they ^re already oxided : and still the 

external parts, passing to the state of boracic acid, which 

melts, prevent the combustion of the interior parts ; to that 

to convert them all into boracic acid, they must be subject-* 

ed to a great number of successive combinations^ and as 

many washings. 

O^dftnfixttd, In all these combustions a fixation of pxigen constantly 

but po gas takes place, without any gas being disengaged ; and they 

all afford products so acid, that, in treating these prodpctt 

with boiling water, boracic acid is obtained after suitable 

evaporation and refrigeration, a specimen of which' we pre» 

sent to the Institute* 

Boms ItM vi- Lastly, the boracic radical comports itself in air precisely 

mon ^T^^' •■ ^^ oxigen, with this difference only, that the combustion 

is lest vivid. 

The Vise a From these experiroentt it follows, that the boracic acid 

combustible j^ composed of oxigen and a combustible substance. jKvery 

ptcallic' thing convinces us, that this substance, for which we pror 

pose the name of bore, is of a peculiar nature, and ought*to 

be ranked with phosphorus, carbon, and sulphur : and we 

presume, that, to acquire the state of bdracic acid, it de^ 

iptnds a large quantity of oxigen ; but, before attaining 

this state^ it becomes a black oxide. 

NoiCf by the Authors* 
IMt^ jf(iils ^veral chemists have m^de experiqients on tho decompot 

titioii 



H IKFLUtNCB OF ClLTANIlX OH MIKIRlLt. £^3 

^ iition of bormcic add, whence ihey have deduced different io<leeompo»e 
conaequeaces. 

Fabroni asserted, that tbia acid wsi only a modiGuutionof 
the muriatic. See Fourcroy'i ChemUtry, art. Boracic 
Acid. 

In the Annales de Chimie, vol, XXXV, p. 202, we find t 
long •eriea of experiinents on th« phenomena exhibited by 
boracic acid on treating it with oximuriatic acid. Theu Support te 
fxperimenu are by Crell, who inrerred frooi them, that^p|****^ 
carban waa one of the elements of thia acid. 

Ijtatlj, Mr, Davy, subjecting moistened boracic acid to 

• VulUic pile, observed traces* of a black combuitible 
latter at the negative pole; but he says, that being occu- 

" "n researches upon the aiWis, he wag unable to follow 
[aip tbisobservutiuii. See Mr. Davy 'a paper, which arrived 

I France two nionths ago, and an abatract of which waa io- ' '"^ 

lerted inthe BalUlia de la Sociite PHilomattqut for the month 
«f November, 

Thus hitherto the principlea af the boracic acid were not 
known. It ia true, we had announced to the Institute, 
that this acidcoiiiajtiedoxigen, and consequently a combua- 
tib|e substance; but, as we had nut recomposed it, we did "^ 'M 

("Ut consider its nature as deterniined, 
■ 
Pa the Injluenct of Galoanic Eleclritily on ihe Trantiltoa 
^ Uuuroli; rtad s( ike getting of the Mathtmaiical 
md Phgiical CUst of the fnititwte, the 13th of July, 
ISO?; fcyiWr. GuvTQNt^ 

vJn examining 6ve yeara ago ^ native oxide ftf antimoay Nuif, oxide 
fo«iMl in tbe province of Gullicln, which bud been aeot roe « wiimoqj 
hj Mr. Angulo, inspector general of the minea of Andalu- J^^^*" 

* Mr. Davj'r own rapceuloiii are : <' t Gild, tbal i dtrlc cok>ur«d con- 
•■ bunlble mitict ii cialved IX the negative lurfacc." Stc Journal, t«I. 
3tX, p. 331. 

t Aimilei<ieCWroie,»ol.LXIll,p.HJ, ■ t 



IV. 



i 



^5^ . Iirf|«UEVrE OF OALTANim ON MINEEALI. 

w 

ma, I was led to consider this mineral as a transition from 
fl)e state of a sulphuret to that of alqaost a pure oxkle, 
nvhich could har^ been effected only by the c]ecom position 
of water, determined by a subterranean electricity precisely 
^nilar tp that we obtain in Vplta^s apparatus. 
This shown by '^^® external appean^nce of this mineral, which still cvi- 
itf #jQ)esrsiic«. dently exhibits the structure of native crystallized sulphuret 
of antimony, and even in some parts the remains of a me- 
tallic lustre, leaves no (Jpubt, that its entire mass was origin-p 
^lly a sulphuret of antimony, the particle pf whicK had un- 
derj^oue the slo^y and successive action of some a|^eut» that 
had altered their composition^ without disturbing their re* 
spective arrangement, jprecisely as we see in petrififd wpod, 
(hat retains its organization. 
The principle 1^^ proofs on which I grounded tl^is explanation, and 
^ppUcabl« to tlje applications I have made of this principle to th^ forma- 
tion of other fossils, as the pyrites termed hepatic, gray 
popper pre, ,&c., have been detailed in a paper inserted in 
the Journal pf the Polytechnic School, for July, 1809| p, 
308. 
VLf.JHrft Mr* Davy^t .views on tlie s^me subject, given ^% the end 

*idesi similir. ^f jjjg excellent Bakerian lecture read to the Koy^l Spciety 
on the 20th of November, 1806, where he speaks of the 
slow and siUnt oparations of natural electricity even on tl^p 
mineral system*, inspired me with the idea of endeavouring 
to corroborate the inferences drawn from my former results, 
by pciformiug the experiments with the more powerful ap« 
paratus, which we at present possess. 
EzDerimentto Messrs. Hachette and Clement were so good as to assist 
confirm the me^ tlifft undertaking. We formed a battery of 64 plates 
f^^ of copper and zinc, 15 cent, [near 6 inches] long by iq 

cent, [near 4 inches] broad, affording a surface of 96OO cent. 
f^r-ttbout i36b French inches sqaare. 
/KnttAiV^ >This batterj^ was arranged in Mr. van MarumV manner* 
],v that is, distribiited in four piles, the first two of which.were 
jgilj^d in a.jjlatf? of coppjer with its edges turned up, and 
ftuppo.r^,by an insujatorj Jhe pasteboarijs placed betwe^ 
pairs of metal were wetted with a strong solution pf soda. 
fUMvrelof A piece ^ suti>hv^t of, antimony was placed iu a. small 
.> - • f)^ Journa!, toI. XIX, p. 6*^. 



INFLtJlNCB OP GAtVlKISM ON MIKCRAL9, g55 

glass two thirds {\ill of distilled water, and a communication antlmonyr ei^. 
was established between the water and the two poles of the ^****^ *^ *** 
tMtttery by means of two slips of platina. 

As soon as the bubbles b^gtin to announce the decomppsi- ^ulpharette^ 
tioD of the water, a slight smell of sulphuretted hidrogen erolY^i* 
was perceptible. In two hours this smell was very strong, ' 
the water had assumed a yellow tint, and the surface of the 
fulphuret of antiipony appeared pf a dfceper yellow, aqd as 
}t were iridescent. 

The slips of plating from the two poles were first €xed siWer tamisli» 
at some distance from the sulphuret; afterward they were ^^7^^ 
brought near enpu^^h to touch it, and the acceleration pf th^ 
disengagement of bubbles showed, that thp actirity of tho 
battery had not slackened. 

After the expiration of four hours, the smell of sulphur- 
retted hidrogen was perceptible at a distance. A slip of * 
silTer, well cleaned, being placed on the edge of the glass 
without touching the water, was in a few minutes corered 
with a deep black coating. A drop of the water in the glass Acetate ef 
immediately fprmec| a white precipitate In a solutjon of ace- ^^ F^P»t^ 
fate of lead. 

That part of the slip of platina, which was connected The plating 
with the negative pole and immersed in the water, was tarniihed* 
black: and that which communicated with the positive 
pole had a slight yellow incrustation* 

The battery having lost almost the whole of its activity Theialplnir^ 
at the expiration of eight hours, we attempted to tal:e the covered with 
piece of sulphuret put of the water; but the motion sepa- J^ ***"^' 
rating part pf the yellow powder that covered it, to collect 
this we were obliged to throw the whole upon a filter. 

TWs powder, dried in the air, exhibited the same reddish resembling tho 
vellow tint a^ the native oxide of the province of Gallicia; native oxide, 
and the fragment still retained evident traces of it on several 
points of its surface, when scarcely any remains of metallic 
lustre were distinguishable. 

Hence we ^ay presume to give this product of our imi- ^^^ aifferia* 
tation of the processes of nature as differing from the mo- onW from the 
deb she presents us only because the portion decomposed ^^•f'*"".*^ 
|iad not reached the same depth, and acquired the same " 

cpnsistency ; in other words, because the resplt of an opera* 

tion 



^iBQ IffFLDCSCC OF GAlVAVItM i>V MIHSJUUU 

tion of a few hours cannot be perfectly similar to tbi^tof 

anothisry the duration of which dependa on a uniform suor 

ceiision of a^nts, and the slowncM of which prevfUti all 

possibili/y of ita being disturbed. 

|loiUfi|! but If now we consider, that no one of the tubttancesy which 

SiS^cooW*' ^^ ™^y reasonably presume to exist in the bowelt of ^b/t 

|mv» wraoght Ji)arlh, acts in a similar monner, or produces the same cban- 

Ipccaaiige. ^^^ j^ sulj^huret of antitnoay when once formed^ as I have 

shown in the paper printed in the Journal of the PoIyt€ch« 

oic school, there appears to me no doubt, that the tranaitir 

on of the sulphuret of antimony of the province of Gallicia 

to the state of native oxide (in which it loses more than 0*17 

of sulphur, and acquires 0*18 of oxigen) results directly 

from the decomposition of water by galvanic electricity. If 

it be strictly possible for the same effect to be produced by 

• different cause, it is certain, that the instances wr mach 

more rare, than is commonly supposed; and that tbe'greater 

fiqmber appears to belong to this cluss only because wecoov 

^and the remote with the immediate cause, the proceia 

with the chemical action, the form of the agent with thenar 

ture, and, if I may be allowed the expression, (be handle 

with ^he tool. But when the effect is characterised,' as iq 

this particular case* by circumstances that imprint qa it the 

seal of a distinctcause, and excludes any other known causa, 

we have not a probability only, the certainty of the cause is 

equal to the certainty of the effect, 

FanlifrproT» We have since sought for nev proofs of this conclusion, 

^ extending our experiments to other minerals, where the 

signs of a transition of tins kind were most manifest, 

«D tnlphortt Sulphuret of iron, poor in met^l, hard, coqipact, and of 

c£ iron, great lustre, merited attention in this point of view more 

particularly, because the pyrites of Berezoff, which is found 

in the same state qf alteration, in its primitive state resists 

the action of the most powerful solvents, yielding only to 

the nitric acid and the uitro-muriatic* 

taHniT s'llvet ^° * pyrites of this kind, and the gniy silver ore (crys- 

mt, tdWyredfuhkrzJ, w^ endeavoured to produce analogous al« 

teraiio.ns. 
TheMexpoied Being ex;po8ed in distilkd water to theaction of the same 

in water to a hattci^« i(u4 coquauuicutions est^blislKd in a similar 
ftattery, were ' 

manner. 



IMFtUINCE OF GALVANISM ON MINERALS, U|67 

IDUinpr^ the tmell of mlphuretted hidro{z:en was perceived, acted upon ia 
luid the water rendered tarbid ; the slips of pktinawere co- * *'""**' "****• 



ner. 



loured^ mi in the former expeiimeDt, black on the negative 
•tdet, and brownish yellow on the positive ; the water, which 
was strongly acid, precipitated acetate of lead ; and the frag^ 
nMQts of the sulphurets were left in a state pf division, al^ 
WMt pmlverulentfaod covered with pellicles of a dull colour 
Hmd withotit Iwstre. 

The aolpluiret of iron in particular exhibited a very j^^ lulnharai 
stnkiiig lUfUerttion on its surface. Having attached the coo- of iron iB^qsw 
doctora before water was put into ihe glass, the sulphuret * 



vividly inflctmed ; which astonished us theojore because 
ia a preceding experiment a fragment of transparent na- 
tive Mil|ibiir did not exhibit the least sign of ioflansmation, 
wbcB touched with the platina exciter under a jar filled with 
OJOgm gts, though the battery w^ powerful enough to bura 
the iion wire* 

It even appeared to us, in the last experiment, that the 
ildaiamatioa of the sulphuret took place instantaneously 
after it. had been covered with water ; but the effect was so 
lafid, tiiat we dare net assert this as a certainty. 

We purpose to pursue these experiments, and in the Thew expetW 
mean time I think i may conclude, that those of which I ^^^^ ^ 
have just given an account, while they confirm my expla« 
natioB of the transition of brilliant crystallized sulphuret 
of antimony to the state of an earthy yellow oxide, without 
Issiiig its configuration, afford a new mean for interrogating 
nature respecting the composition of bodies, the propor- 
tions of their component parts, and the succession of chan- 
ges effected in their combinations* The desulphurution of 
ores is one of the most important points in metallurgy ; and 
iff in the present state of our knowledge, we can scarcely 
disceni any possibility of availing ourselves of this mean in 
processes in the large way, those of assaying cannot fail to 
iittif^ finore certain rcsultti from its application. 



V. 



96a 



f<^aMATION OF BA8ALTES, 



^■(fneseptrAtai 
iftio prisms. 



nl th« Moue. 



OnArtificial Sandftones^ that have undergone a regulttr Can* 
Irae^ion tn tkeFtre; by Mr. Alluau*. 

vJ^N examihiQg with Mr. Leopold Chev'aillers the scorite 
produced tu the operation of partings bell metal, which was 
performed itiMler his direction at Limoges, I found masses 
of artificial sandstone, which hy a regular contraction had 
difided Itself into prisms, precisely resembling tl)e basaltic 
eoiumnsy that exist in all volcanic countries. 
Coaipesiti-m These sandstones, which served as a cupel to the melting 
furnace, are composed of a fine grained sand, the remaint 
of granites ; the other compqnent parts of which had been 
decomposed. To separate them, and obtain the purest aw 
KceoQt grains, they were careltilly washed and decanted, 
they were afterward mixed with water loaded with clay, to 
impart to them the body requisite for their use; and a little 
charcoal povder was added, which, diminishing the pointy 
of contact between the siliceous particles and the metallic 
oxides, rendered them less yitrc^cible, ^nd thuf pnploQge4 
the duration of the cupel of the furnace. 

To form it, a stratum qf this mixture 15 to 2Q cent. [6 Of 
B inches] thick was placed on the floor of the furnace^ and 
strongly beaten down as it was gradually dried by a gcntlt 
heat. After being us^d a certain time, it was neoesaary to 
renew the whole stratum, and alt the sandstones arising from 
it had experienced the same contraction. 

The upper part of these prismatic sandstones is covert 
with a scorified metallic stratum 4 or 5 cent. [%bout ]|or 3 
inchei] tbipk, that serves to hold together all the prisms, 
which ar^ notwithstanding easily separable. The degree of 
heat has been more intense near this stratum, than in th^ 
inferior part : accordingly the sandstone there is harder and 
more compact, being difficult to penetrate; while the 
other extremity of the prism is easily crumbled by the fin- 
gers. The fire however has been sufficiently violent thrpugh-- 



!M arner in 
wHkh it was 



Its tcxtufe. 



-* Abridged from the Journal d« Physique^ vol. LXV, p. 238. 



out 



foEMATIOK OF BASALtti. fi^ 

tut the whole thickness of the mass, to vitrify the metallic 
fragments disseminated through the sand. 

These prisms extend to the length of 15 cent. [5*9 inch.] Figurs. 
and from 1 to S or eren 3 [0'39, to 0'78, or VIB of an inch] 
ia diameter. They are parallel to each other, and have their 
axis constantly perpendicular to the metallic stratum that 
covers them^ Though the number of their sides is not con<« 
stant, they are most frequently six. Their edges are sharpf 
and pretty straight. Their faces are not strictly planes, but 
a nttle concave ; and, what is remarkable* they appear to 
have been more powerfully heated than the interior of the 
prism, a circumstance I conceive to be ascribed to the Iftt 
molecules of caloric, which have escaped as through so ma« 
njr cb«DDd^l)y the defts or intervals, that were formed be- 
tween the adjacent faces of the prisms* 

When these sandstones have not been so strondy heated, ^^ wmeoi^ 
the aggregation and prismatic divibiod is ndt so well charac* trrangsdias^ 
terised. Then too the charcoal, deprived of the aif' deces- nlid^tnttu 
Ary for its combustion, has arfanged itself in longttudinat 
zones psrallel with the axis of the prism, and so <tf to leaf£ 
lteC#e«te them intervals of 2 or 3 millim. [0*787 or 1*18 of a 
lnK(]« lliis singular phenomenon appears to me occasioned 
by the caloric, which, absorbed by the metallic stratum, 
taking the shortest coarse to reach it, and finding itself 
stopped in its progress by the particles of charcoal ^uaJIy 
disseminated through the mass of soin^, pushed th^m aside 
to'the right and left by imperceptible degrees to open itself 
a pasflige, and has thus dispersed them in little parallel strata* 
or threads, as if they had yielded to the laws of affinity, 
which always tend to bring together homogeneal particlesy 
when suspended by a fluid in a suitable state of rest^ 

If we invert one of these masses of sandstone, it is a very Thtiandttoot 
good representation of the bottom of a basaltic stratui^^ In taltes 
short it is impossible to have a more perfect model of its 
mechanical division*. 

Naturalists have already remarked clays, that have under-t i^ore thinaay 
gonea regukr contraction in the fire: but, beside that silex obsertcd.^** 

• The piec« 1 preierTe in my collection is aboot 4 dec. [15 J inches 
Wnf ,] and 2 dec [7 inches and three qtiartert] bt^. 

xotms 



^0 rORItiftoN 6T BlSALfeiL 

forms more than nine tenths of the mass ^f this ttn dstont' 
of Mr. Chevaillers, this effect had not been observed in such' 
a constant manner on such large blocks, as Dolouieu said ia 
speakinfi^ of the conftguration of basaltes. An effect so fre* 
quentlj repeated must have its causes. 

Reflections on the cov/tguratUm of b^saHet. 

Basalts fint ^^ ^ ^Jme when men were ignorant of the first principles 

cryfuUixation. of crystallography, and but few crystals were known, it was 

difficult certainly, to avoid confounding with tbeai solids 

that exhibited some external appearance of their regularity. 

Thu8 Cronstedt,Wallerius, and other celebrated natoralists' 

thought basialtic prisms were the direct products of oystal* 

lization. 

Rom^de Lble Rome de Lisle at first adopted the mistake Ji his prede« 

l^^^l^,^ ^ cessors: but he had scarcely raised the veil, tlyit enveloped 

the mechanism of crystallization, when he sought for an« 

other cause of the prismatic divibion of basaltes^ and then 

the happy idea of a contraction offered itself to his mind. 

^^^7* But since the genius of Haiiy has developed the theory 

of crystallization in such a learned manner, may we not 

be as^nished still to find naturalists, who are desirous of as* 

similating basaltic columns with the productions of regular 

aggregation } 

Objection t# Setting aside therefore every idea of the crystallization of 

^g*fo?mi3l' basaltes, I shall confine myself to the refuUtion of a slight' 

by cooling, objection of its partizans to the numerous proofs of its 

contraction, and 1 shall attempt to follow its mechanism, in 

examining the laws to which bodies are subjected in cooling* 

frtin thdr le* They admit, that the cooling of the basaltes must have 

**'^"'^* occasioned divisions, that would naturally give rise to some 

forms; but they add, that these forms, resulting from 

chance, and a thousand different accidents, could only be 

very irregular, and not produce vajst colunms, as remark* 

able for their regularity as for the uniform arrangement that 

characteii^es their ex te .s ve masses. 

Boll they But why should these forms depend on accidents guided' 

•ughtiobe |jy ^^ hand of chance? i can conceive no reason for this; 

since, if the cause of the contraction be constant, and if 

the manner in which it operates be always the same, ought 

not 



yOfttlAtlOH OP llA9ALTEi« Sf\ 

Mi llbmf ntaltrto bear the ttamp of this uniforoiity 6f cir* 
nccs ? Do not the crackn of day dried by a scorchini^ 
etimet exhibit polygons nearly regular ? Do not the 
ikain the gtau of pottery, which superficially examined 
r destitute of symmetry, resemble on closer inspec* 
a luod of mosaic issuing from the hand of a single ar« 

If^- Vatrin even mentions a piece of ancient enamel in RefuhroadH 
ftt CollcrtloD of Mr. Dolomieu, the surface of which exhi- |^^ r jasnt 
Bli difiQiigllbat hexagonal figures, representing in mhiiuture satioa. 
^fca nx ontal tectiou of a basaltic causeway. Bat who can 
omecm with liim, that these hexagons are the effect of crys- 
tmirixa6«n? It it not evident, that the metallic base, on 
vhicb tiJe CDtmel re»ts, being capable of greater dilatation^ 
»«j under Tftrious circumstances have occasioned cracks, 
tbe wm/Mial regularity of which gives at first sight an erro« 
ncoitt idea of their causes ? 

The baaahic prisms then are the result of a regular con* ThecooUcgof 
tmctioo, and tbe hypothet^is of Dolomieu^ which ascribes it ^^l^^^ 
ta a r e if i ge ration accelerated by the contact of a body that somcthinc 
qjncUy tmbibes caloric, agrees perfectly with the division of 1|^J.^^^ ^^ 
die ■aadatone of Mr. Chevaillers, the surface of which is co« 
vered wifh a scorified metallic stratum serving as a conduc- 
tor to the caloric. 

If geolf^sts be not agreed on the formation of basal tes, ^*'*''5f? 
they cannot refuse to admit, that caloric performs one off^, p«ti^ 
the principal parts in it ; whether it act alone, or m concert 
with other solvent gasses, known or unknown to naturalists : 
and the latter, as they are extricated, may furuiiih analogous 
resnlts. 

When a body is strongly heated, if the action of caloric Etfects of a 
come to cease suddenly, the body experiences the most in- J^^^ !|f ^J? 
tense degree of heat at the instant when the caloric escapes, agcccy. 
h hct, the caloric, rushifng rapidly toward tbe body that 
tbsorbt it in proportion to the strength of its affinity, ac« 
cnmiilatefl on the parts which it thiverses as a powder does a 
neve»and sets in i^otion the particles of the body, which al- 
ncit at the same instant are briskly separated and left to the 
ittnction of cohesion, that tends to unite them. Spheres 
•f attraction tfa Xhtn e3ta>>lishcd between the particles of 

calorie 



||j^2 iPOEMATtON OP BASAlTEf. 

i^aieric that are flying off, and those of the substance itaetf^ 

which tend to onite* 
Kr tal d • ^^ ^^^' Bubdtauce be a good conductor 6f heat, and th< 
kHj cooi:2d. attractive power of its particles equal the expansive power 

of the c*a1oric, it will return to its n^tilral state without 

change of form. Such is a metdl in fusion, which is lef^ to 

cool i^raduillly* 

'^kcs »epan^. jp under the same cif-cumstancesi the caloric, rapidly ab« 
wm from caii i . . , ; a* ;.'•.• 

ixQO. sorbed, is separated m succemve strata, this substance will 

separate into planes, which will be perpendicular to the di« 
rection the caloric takes to escat>e. Such is the case with 
cast iron in fu^sion, this surface of which is wetted to separate 
thin cakes frdm it : a cause analogous to what may have di-* 
vided basal tes into leaves, br thin strata, either p^rpendi^ 
cidar to the axes of the prisms, or around a globular mass* 
Temp^lDg of Iff the motion of the caloric being unifonti, the attrttc- 
'^*^* tion of cohesion do not equal the expansile * power, tbe par* 

tides of the substance will remain dilated ; and then, if it 
• be a godd conductor 6f heat, they will maintain their situai' 
tion without experiencing any division . Such is the effect 
of tempering steel, where tde cohesive power of the (larti- 
cles of iron is broken by the interposition of carbon. But 
Quartz 'broken if the substance be not a good conductor of heat, it will 
^ ' fall to powder ; as quartz strongly heated and immersed ill 
Ivater. The first of these circumstances has perhaps never 
occiii^red in volcanic productions, but the other must have 
been very frequent, 
i^rismatjc di> To obtain prismatic divisions, let iis suppose a basaltic 
^'^^^'^ mass still in its pasty state covering a considerable plain ; 

and which, yielding to the laws of gravity, adheres strongly 
to the base that supports it. Then, if the expansive force 
of the igneous or aqueous glasses happen to eease in conse^ 
quence of their sudden or accelerated extrication, the par- 
ticles, losing their fluid state, will tend to apprbacK each 
other, yielding to the laws of gravitation, and also obeying 
the attraction of cohesion that they exert toward each other; 
and they cannot contract, but by following the diagonal di-^ 
rection resulting from these two powers. But the extent 0^ 
this mass, its gravity, and the inequality of surfaces, op- 
posing a general contraction like that which is experienced 



ETVEft FftOtf OXlMUftUTtC.AClO ALollE* S/S 

by a cake of ciuj exposed to the tire on a support, there will 
uecessariiy be a vibration, and cracks that will determine 
•pberes of attraction, round which the purticies will agvlo« 
Bierate; and the centres will be so much more numeruus^ 
and the radii less, ati the attractive force is more consider* 



VI. 

Okshvations an the Oxigenhed Muriatic Add. 6ff ffr, 
JosGPH MoJoN, Professor of Pharmaceutic (Jhemistry in 
the Medital Sthool qf the Imperial University of Genoa, 



I 



N making oxigenized muriatic acid, I have several times byimnri Ha 
had occaiiioD to oli^ne, after having emptied the receiver, *^'^ acqmret 
into which I had dibtilled the acid, and left it a few hbtifs ethtr: 
exposed to the light, that the little portion of acid, which 
commonljf adheres to the insjde df the receiver, lobt entirely 
lU peculiar suffcK-ating smell, anu acquired fiti aromatic 
Qtioar perfectly analogous to that of muriatic ether. I re<* 
igarked besides, that the oxigenized muriatic acid, though 
retained in battles well stopped, and luted so that the gas 
cannot exhale, yet, if it remain some time exposed to the 
action of the sun, not only ceases to fume, but also ac- 
quires an ethereal smell, similar to that of muriatic alcohol 
or ether« 

This transmutation of oxigenized into simple muriatic changed into 
acid, without the excess of oxigen being able to escaf)e, as "*"!? *!l*^ **^ 
also the ethereal smell it acquires by simple expo^ure to oxigen escap 
light, led me more than once to suspect, that the oxigt?n in i"f • 
this case, instead of being extricated in the form of gas, 
entered into fresh combinations, and formed ether. 

To convince njyself whether ether were really formed, I EthetobUTneA 
took a bottle filled with oxigenized muiiatic acid, which *^^"* •**™*' 
had beeu left exposed to light aln'iost two years, and bad 

• Annsles de Chimie, Vol. LXl V. p. 964. 

\9U XXIlL-^AwGUST, I8O9. T acquired 



acquire^ the ethereal iihell. I har^ mentioned, 1 saturated 
it with magnesia ; and distiUed the whole in a glass retort 
with a very gentle heat, till I had obtained a few ounces of 
a fluid, which I rectified afresh in a small retort over a lamp. 
This afforded me a perfectly limpid, colourless liqtfor, of a 
very penetrating ethereal smell, and a taste resembling that 
of muriatic ether diluted with water. It did not change 
the colour of infusion of mallow flowers; and it did not 
take fire at the flame of a candle, being still very dilute. 
FartKcr exps- The small quantity of liquor obtained by this process not 
** uS** ^^ allowing me to proceed to a fresh rectification, to deprive it 
entirely of the superabundant water it contained, I mean to 
make new triials with a larger quantity of acid. 

From the observations I have thus briefly given, and 
which no doubt deserve to be repeated and confirmed byr 
farther experiments, I am far from pretending to explain by* 
vague hypotheses the formation of acohol, or of ctber, by 
oximuriatic acid, and to point out whence it derives its com* 
Perhaps sthrr ponent parts. We may suppose, however, that a portion ^ 
^itSution ^ ether is formed at the time of distilling the oximuriatic 
acid, and that the potent and suffocating smell of this acid 
prevents that of the ether from being perceived. In tknit 
the celebrated Giobert of Turin, in distilling oximuria^e 
acid sixteen years ago, observed a volatile oil similar to that 
which Mr. Westrumb had discovered some time before 
him. Mr. Giobert tells us, that this oil is of a yellowish 

ai oleum viDi brown colour, very clear, and analogous to the o/evM vial r 
found to be. , ^ ^i ^ .^ . ,.«. ,, , . . . l ^ 

but that It. IS difficult to determine its precise qkantity, 

since when once separated it dissolves anew very readily ia 
the aqueous vapours, that fall into the receiver. Thia 
chemist imagined he might estimate the quantity of oil ob- 
tained from a mixture of a pound of sulphuric acid witib 
eighteen ounces of muriate of soda at 30 or 35 grains. 



Vllr 



c^MVEMtan OF MAt* iniu* ihtd «iii»«a«« . |[7)f. 



VII. 

Extract of a Litter from Mr. Ri^sal, Apathetary at Re* 
mirementy to Mr, Cadet, Apothecary to the Emperor^ an 
HkeConvern^m of Malt. Spirit into ytnegar^ and on the 
Hed Colour of Oil tfHempeeed \ 



I 



TAKE the liberty of inpartin]^ to yon an observntion Malt spirit 
retpecting the article of Mr. Hebert of Berlin, whose pro- conterttd inta 
cets you coald not verify without it. I connnunicated it to ^^ ' 
Mr.PanneDtier a tweWemonth ago, with several other notes^ 
part of w)uch was inserted in the month of May^ 1 806. One 
of these wis on the vinegar of brandy, which chance thre# 
in my way. I had mixed some malt spirit (alcool de hierre) 
with an equal quantity of water, and added to it some 
beech charcoal. Being set aside and forgotten, I was sur« 
prised at the end of a twelvemonth to find it converted into 
a very strong vinegar, and ihe unpleasant taste of the beer 
still subsisting. 

With your permission I will add an observation respecting 
the property of liquids to absorb different solar rays» 

It is known, that various substances absorb this or that Oil of hemp- 
luminous ray, but I do not believe that any oae has men- ?**1 f '*'^* '•^ 

IQ tht tUA. 

tioned the property, that oil of hempseed, cannabis sativ^ 
Xm, has to absorb the red rays when they are direct only, and 
to appear of a line blood*red colour ; so that, being lighter 
than rape or linseed oil, as it returns to the upper part of 
the vessel it appears equally red, without changing the 
colour of the oil it floats on. Its use in the arts, since it 
offers more resistance to the air than linseed oil, and does 
not skin \ne se crispe p<u]likeit; and its mixture with 
oils for the lamp being very common from its low price^ 
while it yields a thick smoke ; require a method of detect- 
ing it. This that I have mentioned perhaps would answer^ 
and even show the effect of the £olar rays on difij^rent sub- 
stances. 

• Anntles dt Cbimie, vol. LXIf , f. a6i. 

T 8 RemaeJst 



176 



cotEftenow of ioii eittoB^ ill ttic Wnr tumti* 



gitade in the 
Oulf of Flo- 
rida. 



Corrected. 



VIII. 

Remarks an some Points of Hydrography^ by Mr. LsBLAVCi 

Officer in the French Naty ♦. 

Errour of Ion- JL HE g^ulf of Florida, or new Bahama Cbminel, ii grttitly 
frequented by ships of all nations, that trade to or croiae io 
the Gulf of Mexico ; yet the latitudes and longitudes of 
the principal points in it hare not been fixed* They are 
not mentioned in the Tables inserted in our Connuissance 
des Temps, or in the English collection entitled ** Tablet 
requisite &c.*' Accord in<^ly we are obliged to have recourae 
to the most modern charts. French navigators use the Ge- 
Deral Chart of the Atlantic Ocean published inl7dl»<ui<^re^ 
Tised and corrected in 17d3* I think I can show, that there 
exists an errour in longitude of 52' with respect to all the 
points of the gulf. I was led to notice this on the following 
occasion. 

On the 25th of January, IS07, in the afternoon, on board 
the Foudroyant, we saw waves and breakers on the North of 
the Great Bahama. At 4 o*clock we set, at a small distance, 
Lena K^ N 80* £, and that of Azena N 45* S by com* 
pass. The longitude given by our time-keepers. No. 40 
and 76, reduced to that hour, was only SO"* 17 30'', ^hile 
that by the chart was -nearly 82** 15'. ^Whence it follows, 
that the whole course of the gulf is too far west about 5^ 
of a degree t> a considerable errour in those latitudes. The 
going and state of the two timekeepers had been cafefully 
observed during our long stay at the Havunuah. Their er« 
rours were almost nothing after we had been at sea eight 
days, when we had soundings abreaikt of Cape Henry. The 
results given by the observations taken with the reflecting 
circle gave us no reason to suspect any thing incorrect in 
t*be longitudes: and when we entered Brest the absolute 
errour of No. 40 was only 7' of a degree after a royage of 
thirty-fiive days. 

Green Koy is one of the principal marks of the Old Ba- 

• Joarnal de Physique, vol. LXV^ p. 55. 

t I give the difierence ai in the original, iM*t knowing where the 
ctiour Ifc - 

bama 



1, 



OUBaliaiDa 



•POHTANBOCS IGNITIOH OF CHAftCOAL* 9S7* 

liaiD# ChvuieL The English call it Chesterfield. Ther^ « 
is a sipall errour in the latitude of this Key» as given in our 
CoDnoissaDce des Temps. Jn our vo) age I ascertained It to 
be 9St Ti instead of 21*" 55'. The want of tolerable charts 
of this dangerous part» and the necessity of cou^paring the 
ship's place on the chart with sure data, render this observa* 
tioQ interesting for those who sail without a pilot pn board, 
A^ to the longitude, it was agreeable to what I obtained 
by the timekeepers. Thjs key must not be confounded. 
with another of the same nanie on the south of the Great 
Bank of Bjih^ma, an^ almost in the same latitude. 

The accuracy of both of the observations ^ere given { 
have ferified by comparison with two Spanish charts pub- 
lished in 1779 und^r the ministry of Mr. Langara, and de? 
rlrcd firom the llydrograph^r*s Office at the Uayannah. > 

I know not where the latitude and longitude of San Sal- San Salvador 
rador, one of the principal cities of Brazil, in the Bay of ^^* 
All Saints, are to be found. When we anchored in that 
bay, Mr. Fonsera, Captain in the Portuguese navy, and 
superintendant of that harbour, told me, that its latitude 
was Id**' and its longitude 4'2° 25'. An English work, in the 
hands pf all thp navigators of that country, gives them 1^**, 
4^ and 41^ 5'. So considerable a difference led me, to pay 
as much attc^ntion to the subject as our short stay would 
permit; and I had an opportunity of finding both by lunar 
observations and the timekeepers, that its true longitude is 
about 4i** 5'. The latitude of point St. Antony I ascer« 
taiued by several observations to be 12**o9"8'. The time of 
high watjjr is twenty ipinutes after three, mean time. The Variation of 
variation of the needle tliere in I8O6 was 10'^ 20' E. the needle. 

IX. 

On the Spontaneous Ignition of Charcoal : by B. G. Sage^ 
Member of the Institute^ Founder and Director (f the ' . 

first School of Mines*. 



M: 



,R. de Caussigni appears to have been the first who ^Ij^^^Qj^lg^ 
observed, that charcoal was capable of being set on fire by in grinding. 
tbc pressure of millstones. 

* Journal de Pbyiiqne, vol. LXV, p. 423. 

Mr. 



f79 fFOWTAKCOUf IGKITTOH OF CHAECOlL*' 

Infinopowdef Mr. Robin, coinmiMary of the powder mills o^ Eatonne, 
JJJjJ^P^' has given an account in the Annales de Chiiirie, No. 35, 
p. 9d> of the spontaneous inflammation of charcoal from the 
black berry bearing alder, that took place the 23d of May, 
1S01, in the box of the bolter, into which it had beenaifted. 
This charcoal, made two dajrs befbre, had been groiuKt in 
the mill without showing any signs of ignition. The coarse 
powder* that remained in the bolter, experienced no altera^* 
tion. The light undulating flame, unextinguishable by 
water, that appeared on the surface of the sifted charcoaU 
was of the nature of inflammable gas, which is equally an« 
extinguishable. 

Moisture pro- Xhe moisture of the atmosphere, of wbich fresb made 
charcoal is very greedy, appears to me to hate concurred in 
the derelopemeqt of the inflammable gas, and tbeeomba»« 
tion of the charcoal. 

In heaps he«u It has been observed, that charcoal powdered and laid 
• ^* in large heaps heats strongly. 

and takes 6re. Alder charcoal has been seen to take flre in the ware* 
houses, in which it has been stored. 

About thirty years ago 1 saw the roof of one of the low 
wings of the Mint set on fire by the spontaneous combustion 
of a large quantity of charcoal, that had been laid in the 
garrets. 

'"•^ \a ]\Ir. Malet, commissary of gunpowder at Pontailler, pear 

*' Dijon, has seen charcoal tqke fire under the pestle. He 
also found, that when pieces of saltpetre and brimstone were 
put ink) the charcoal mortar, the exploaion took place be- 
tween the fifth ind sixth strokes of the pestle. The weight 
of the pestles is 80 pounds each, half of this belonging to 
the box of rounded bell metal, in which they terminate. 
The pestles are raised only one foot, and make 45 strokes 
in a minute. 

laipedieflts fof In consequence of tbe precaution new taken, to pound 

iw!LS^»/1- ^^^ charcoal, brimstone, and saltpetre separately, no explav 

iMly. . sions take place ; and time is gained in the fabrication, since 

^h^ paste is inad.e in tight hours, that forpierly required four 
^nd twenty. 

I^piiftttttirt. Every wooden mortar contains twenty pounds of the 
yE^xture^ to which two pounds of water are added gradually. 

The 



IBzpUiioii OF oujtrowptt^ l^ff^ 

The fMut^ is firpt corned : it is then glued^ that is the corni 
are reuipdedy by subjecting them to the rotatory motion of m 
barrel, throagb which an axis passes: and lastly it i^ drie4 
iwk the fnn, or in a kind of stove. 

Eltperience b#s shown, that brimstone is not essential to Sulphar iisf> 
the preparation of gonpowder ; but that which is made ^^^^JmJ 
~'^*"" " itfafls to powder in the air, and will not bear car* 



riafe» There is reason to believe, that the brimstone formf 
a eqal no the surface of the powder, and preveotf the char* 
(Boat Anoip attracting the moisture of the air. 

The goodness of the powder depends on the excellence GoodncM of 
of the charcoal ; and there is but one mode of obtaining this !|^^[^ "^ 
ID perfediop, which is disullation ip close vessels, as prac* 
tised by tl|e English. 

The> charcoal of our powder manufactories is at present 
prepared in pots, where the wood receives the immediate 
|M!tion of the air, which occasions the chi^rcoal to undergo a 
alteration. 



Theory of the Detonation and Explosion ofGunpowder^ 

'By the same *• 



T. 



HESE two phenomena, which take place simultaneous- Cause of the 
ly, arise from different causes. The detonation is the nois^, ^^etonaiioo of 
that is produced hiy the combustion of two parts of iuflam- ^ ^^ *'* 
mable and one of oxigen gas. 

The explosion, or discharge, is produced by the water of and its expl^ 
the nitre, and that which results from the decomposition of '^^'^ 
the two gasses, which, being expanded by the fire, occupies 
fourteen thousand times the space it did before ; and acts 
in the same manner as compressed air, to which its elasticity 
is restored, and the explosive effect of which is produced 
without detonation. 

The inflammation of gunpowder by means of a spaik its ignition. ' 
arises from the ignition of the nitre and brimstone. 

• Ibid. p. 425.; 

The 



IMOP 



•ntPHAines ov iTm, ba^ttks'^ itrtf lead. 



Inflammable 

Foulness in 
g^a Mrels. 



The inflammalile «ra« is pro^nreH by the i^rrompbaition of 
the chorronl • ; nnd the ov-een <ras arises from part of the* 
nitre, whirh \h Hrmm posed hy the fire. 

After the explo!»^on of cronpowder, we find the inside of 
the {»unbarr€l rooted witl» a mixture of -alkaline sulphurct 
and charcoal not decomposed. 'I his alk^line-mixtn^cTaT- 
trticts the moi«tnre of the air, and ff>''msa pp^a*»y coating 
within the barrel. If it be loaded in this state, part of the 
powder adheres to the sides of the barrel J and on discharp:- 
in^ the piece, it catchep. and produces what if termed 
han^inff firek The barrel of a fowling piece therefore should 
never be used a second day without cleaning. ' 






Mr. Thomp- 
son's analysis 
conArmed by 
Mr. Berthier 



I 



XI. 



On the Sufpkales of t.im€y Barytes^ cmi Leai^ 



Component 
parts of 

gypsum. 



Chaicoal of 
lurd woods 
Vast* 



I. 



N our last number, p. 174, we gave an analysis of two 
of these salts by Mr. James Thomson, who was led to the 
inquiry by the want of agreement between chemists re- 
specting the proportions of the principles ot the sulphate of 
barytes. A similar reasuu had led Mr. Berthier, mine en- 
giueer, to an iuvestiga(*\on, which he has inserted in the 
Journal dts MineSt for April, 1807, that hub but lately 
jeaclied this country. His Hi4»l\sib (onoborates that of Mr. 
Thomson, alter whose paper it would be buperfiuous to give 
Mr. Berthier* t, I sliall therefore biipply quot^ the results 
be obtamt'd. 

** From the experimeuts I have above described it fol- 
lows ; 

" ]. That pure common gyps^im, in whatever state (^f 
mechanical division it may be, contains 21 or 22 per cent of 
pure water. 

f In France charcoal of alder, poplar, willow, See, is »lnray< U!sed for 
making gunpowder. The intensity of the fire produced by such char- 
coal is Itss than of that fom haider wood. Tlie former, being more 
pi rou4, would reqtiirt in »re C\tc m chirrjiir than tlie latter; aud they 
CHiirio: be said to be in the state of charcoal, unless ihev have been dis- 
tilled r for when prepared by smothering the fire, there is always a por- 
tion re4uced to the state of ashes [inaisc} . 

«« 2. That 



PVtlOII .OF BIRTTBS; j|gf 

* ** S« That the anbydrous solpbate of lime, whether hin sulphate of 
tnral or artiliciul, and the nonanhydrous sulphate calcined, ^^^4 
jCootain the MiDe proportioiiB of lime and sulphuric acid ; 
niifrtely, 0-42 or 0*43 of lime, and 0*58 or 0*57 of acid, near- 
ly as determined by Bergman. 

^ 3. That the sulphate of barytes is composed of at least «ulphate of 
••S3 sulphuric acid, and at most O'O? of barytes. ^ ^' 

** 4. That the mean proportions of these two salts are i wmh of both 
t^495 ot lime, and 0*575 of arid, U^ the sulphate of lime, ^^^* 
and 0?6d5 of barytes, and 0*335 of acid, for the sulphate of 
barvteft. 

** 5. And lastly, that in pure calcined sulphate of lead sulpluto €l 
there are 0*69 of metal , 0*26 of sulphuric acid, and 0*05 of 
oxigen.*' . 



■^^ 



XII. 

Extract from a Letter of Jkfr» Gehlen to Mr. Descotils, 
on the Igneous Fusiqno/Bart/tes*. 

Xt appears to me, that the French chemists are yet an*- igneous futlca 
acquainted with the fusibility of pure barytes by fire, which of barytes 
Mr. Rucholz discovered, and described in 1800, in the 2d 
number of his Beitraege zur Eriveiterung and Berichtigung 
des Ckimie. 

If pure barytes be heated in a platina or silver crucible, it succeeds tbe 
liquefies in its water of crystallization. After this water is aqueous. 
evaporated, it enters into fusion at a bright cherry red heat, 
and flows like an oil. On cooling, it becomes a gray mass, 
radiated in its fracture, which, when powdered, redissolves 
in water, beating more htrongly than lime, and recrystal- 
lizes in cooling. 

Mr. Bucholz, having hitherto prepared his pure barytes Doe« not take 

only in Pelletier*s method, did not know by experience, P^**^* ^^^^ ***- 
, , ... . 1 •. . 1 1,1 rytes obtained 

that barytes did not melt when it has been prepared by the by decompo^ 

decomposition of the nitrate by fire; which it might have "5**^** *^ ^* 

|>eeD expected to do, but which 1 have never seen take ^* 

• Annales de Chemic, Vol. LXIV. p. 168. 

place. 



{g2 PUSIOH OP PARYTC8, 

place, er^ with tbe atrbngesi heat. Mr. Bucfaohi and fbave 
made lome ezpericneDts ; to ascertain the cause of this; 
but we hare not yet attained our object. Neither an CKcet9 
of carbonic acid, nor the solution of pcurt of the tub* 
stance of the crucible, appears to be the occasion of thif 
difference, since, on dissolving the residuum of (he decom-t 
position of the nitrate in water» very little insoluble matter 
remains iu proportion to the quantity of barytes ; and an 
adding this insoluble matter to pure barytes in much larger 
proportion the latter is not prevented from entering into 
fusion. 
feflMfM pff«- We know not whether the previous crystallization of 
iT^^tion^'^M- barytes be necessary to the fusion, and consequently whe» 
piij. ther water do not act some part in it. This might be solved, 

by decomposing the nitrate in a crucible of some material 
not acted upon either by the nitrate or barytes. We made 
our experiment in a silver crucible, but obtained no decisive 
result, on account of the large quantity of silver, which the 
nitrate detached from the crucible by cohesion. As we have 
not a crucible of gold, or of platina, we cannot pursue our 
experiment. These observations, if inserted in your Annalii^ 
may perhaps tend to an elucidation of the subject, 

iVbfe &y Mr, DescotUs. 

Froportioiif of Thg French chemists have long known the igneous fusiwi 

oftbe sulphate ^^ ^i'y*^3> ^"^ i^ was with barytes thus fu8ed» that Mr* 

^**T!^ Thenavd determined the proportions of sulf^ate of barytes, 

rytes. which he gave in his Memoir on Antimony, published iu 

1800. It was likewise with fused barytes, that Mr.Berthollet 

, has since determined the proportions of the principles of tbe 

«ame salt. As to the difference in fusibility of crystallized 

barytes and that which is obtained from the decomposition 

of the nitrate, Mr. Bcrthollet will make known the cause in 

a paper, which will be inserted in the 2d volume of the Jtfe- 

moires d*ArcueiL His experiments relating to» barytes were 

already finished, when I received Mr. Gehlen*s letter; and 

they had given occasion to a series of researches, that are 

Water neces. now concluded. In Mr. Berthollet's paper it will appear, 

fi'L!r' that water is the cauj>e of the fusibility of burvtes, as the 

two celebr^iU'd chemists of Erfurt have bUbpccted ; and that 

■ • 

It 



SUGAR FftOH THI EOSEBAY. MJ 

it is likewise tbe cause •f the difference of the proportions 
of the principles of sulphate pf barytes given by the che- 
mists, who have attempted at different times to determine 
its composition. 



Xlll. 

ffaie on a Species of Manna^ or concrete Sugar^ producedby 

the Rhododendron Pontieum** 



A 



Few years ago Messrs. Fourcroy andVauquelin remark- Concrttvi 
ed, that a concrete sugar, or manna, exuded from the re-P'^^****'"*^ 
ceptacle of the flowers of the pontic dwarf rosebay. 

Mr. Bosc has lately observed it afresh, and presented to deicribcd. 
the Institute some grains of this substance collected by him 
from tbe receptacle of the fruit, several of which were up- 
ward of ^ mill. [0*70 of aline] in diameter. Their taste and 
appearance do not differ perceptibly from the purest sugar- 
caody; but it is necessary to be on our guard against this 
appearance, on account of the deleterious properties sus- 
pected in the plant. Mr. Deyeux has even found, that they 
leave an acerb smatch on the palate. 

The manna of the rosebay, according to Mr. Bosc, is dis- Resioat why 
solved during the night by the moisture of the atmosphere, ■****®™ •*•"*• 
melted i|i the day by the heat of the sun, and does not ex- 
ude from plants that vegetate vigorously. These are the 
reasons why it is so seldom seen. Plants growing in pots, 
and sheltered from the dew as well as from the sun, are most 
likely to furnish it. The grains above mentioned were col- 
lected frond a plant, in which all these circumstances united. 

Mr. Bosc intends, if possible, to collect a sufficient quan- 
tity to analyse. 

• Annales dc Chimis, vol. LXIII, p. 102. 

XIV. 



2S^ fiV MASfUKEI. 

XIV. 

An Essay on Manures. By Arthur You^jc, F. R^ 5^ 

^ Concluded /rom p, 106. J 

7. I'flrr/ and Stable Dung, 

Durg usual!)' AT has bren a common lioaoii, till very lately, both with 

coli<h.ted m ittrmers and writei-^ oa agriculture, that dung is to be accu- 

mulated on hills or receptacles tor a loiijjer or shorter time, 

till fermentation and putrefaction have brought it, after fuw 

or many months, and few or many operations of turning or 

mixing, to a certain state, in which it is ready and proper for 

applying to land. 

B^.t it W 5omt- But there is another system of management, which of late 

tiiiic-> uiied ^gg attracted a good deal of attention: and this is, to use it 

fresh as made. If tiiis method be right, uo instructions for 

' the management of dunghills are necessary, since we ought 

to have no dunghills. 

and this n Hassenfratz observes, " The management of th^farmen^ 

K, d^^^^^*^T ** ^^ Picardy is highly advantageous, in continually carrying 

ablest che- *^ their dung tp theii'land, rather than leaving it to be ex- 

»*^«*j ** hausted in their farm yard, in order to be carried Out at 

** a fixed period. 13y applying the dung quite fresh to th^ 

" land, its first fermentutioa is employed id heating the 

*' soil. The little alkiili it contains, instead of being disr 

V solved in the farm yard, and curried oiF by rain, remains 

*' in the land, and improves it, if alkali be useful to vege- 

" tution. The straw, yet entire, better divides the soil ; iti 

" fermentation proceeds less rapidly, and is less advanced 

" wli^D the seed is sown ; and conse'^juently the dung is in 

*' u better state for furnishing a j^reut quantity of carbonic 

** acid, which hitherto appears to be, witji water, the piin- 

** ciple aliment of j)lants." 

Dr. Darwin asks a very interesting question. " Do the 
" recrements of vegetable and animal bodies, buried a few 
*• inches beneath the soil, undev^'o the same deromposition, 
*» as iwiitn laid on heap^ in far.n yards ?'* lie conceives they 

do. 






iih>; and addn: ** Though this is accoiiiptished more filowl/i 
** y«t it is attended with less loss of carblouic acid, of vola- 
** tile alkali, of hidi*o(yen, and of the fluid matter of heat; 
** all which are emitted in great quantity daring the rapid 

fermentations of large heaps of lOttDure, and are wasted 

in the atmosphere, or oaiunproli&c grouod. By uHiqn 
*^ dung in a less decomposed state, though it will requii'|( 
** sionae time before it will be perfectly decomposed and re^ 
** duced tp carbonic earth, it will in the ^d totally dj^cay^ 
«» and give tlie same quantity of nutriment to the JipoUir, 
" but more gradually applied.*! i, 

The testimonies of Kirwan, Sennebier, and Df. Pe^fson^ 
are eqwdly io farour of carrying-dung fresh to the field, i 

What i$<ltill more to the pur^/ose» the theory of .these and the prac- 
able chemifts is supported by the authority of many of the ^}^^ of th« best 
moat skilful and judicious farmers founded op exteosive ex? 
periroents* 

As dung* is a compound of animal and vegetable roatters» Natura of 
but chiefly the latter, it mast be resolvable into the prioci? <iu"x- 
pies of which they are composed. ^ 

'Thaae principles, thus separated by decomposition, will j^^ proi ertiai. 
be ready again to enter into the compoMtionof the growing 
iregeUbles. The grand property of dung therefore is, to •■ 
yield immediate fuod to plants. Farther, it opens the soil, 
if this be strong; it attracts moisture; and by the fermenta- 
tioiiy which it excites in the soil, promotes the decomposition 
of whatever vegetable particles may be already in the land. 
Its effects have powerful progressive influence; for the pro- 
duction of a great crop of leaf, root and stalk, by its ^hadc 
and fermentation leaves the land in better order to produce . -a 
succeeding crops. ' ' 

The circumstances to be considered in the receptacles of Collectinfi 
yard and stable dung are few but important. 

The first object to be attended to is to spread a layer of 
earth over the surface of the yard* Peat is the best for t4iis 
porpose, with a portion of inarle, or chalk. In want of this^ 
torfy rich mould, scourings of ditches, and some marles, or 
chalk ; but not so much of either as to prevent the penetra- 
tioo of the fluids, which should enter sufficiently, to give a 
bUck colour to the whole. There is uo necessity for remov- 



in^ this erery time the dung it removed* As there ar€ no 
tidvmntoges from fermentation in the mast till earned on to 
the land, no attention should be paid to prevent treading 
and pressing the mass. But as it is beneficial to have the 
mhole as eqval as possible, it is very useful, that the stable 
dang should be spread over the surface, and not left to ac- 
cumulate at the door. The same observation is applicable 
to the riddance of the fat bullock stalls, and the hogstie:: . 
As heavy rains will at times, in spite of every precaution, 
couse some water to run from the yard, this should be re- 
ceived into a covered reservbir, and pumped up on heaps of 
earth prepared to receive it. In summer weeds of every 
kind, that do not propagate from the root, should be early 
collected and spread over the surface, as well as leaves in au- 
tumn ; and the foddering with straw, if any, and the soiling 
on green food, should both be upon it for all loose cattle. 

^itparation. From what has been said it is obvious, that dung requires 
DO preparation; but if the richness or quantity af the dung« 
>or state of the weather, excite too much fermentafeioof of 
this be apprehended, scatter every now and then over the 
surface some of the same earth with which the yard was 
bedded, but not in layers. 

Stite in nfhich j^^ soon as circumstances of crops and convenience 

^^ ' will permit, the dung should be carried to the land. In 

a business of any extent this cannot be done exactly when 
the absorption of animal matter is enough to secure a due 
fermentation in the soil, but must be directed by other cir- 
cumstances. The fanner however is not to lose sight of those 
principles, which govern the operation. 

AppUettlon. All dung should be applied to hoeing crops, to leys, or to 
grass ladd, and never to white corn. This is more easeotial 
with fresh long dung, thnn with short; as there will be ma- 
ny more seeds of weeds in it, several sorts of which are de- 
stroyed by a strong fermentation. The proper crops for 
which to apply yard and stable dung are turnips, cabbage%. 
potatoes, beans, and tares for soiling ; and the seasoot im 
putting in these crops are spring, midsummer, and Septemi* 
ber. But the farmer is not oontined to carry on bis dung 
at the time of sowing or planting: it is, on the oontrary^ 
much better, especially with long dung, to have it previously 

deported 



J 



oil itiiit;acs« ffgf 

deposited in the lancU The dung made io the 'depth of win- 
ter may be spread in March or April for potatoes: the next 
made, and what is not wanted for potatoes, may be taken 
oat in succession through April, May, and Junci as conve- 
nience suitsy for turnips and cabbages : that made in July, 
and August will be ready for tares: and what is produced 
in September, October, and part of November, is ready for 
beans. The best time for manuring grass is immediately af'* 
ter hay is cleared from the field. 

It is proper to remark, that the use of the skim coulter is Skim cwdlv. 
essential to ploughing in long dung. By means of this ad- 
mirable addition to any common plough^ every atom may be 
buried** 

B. The Sheep/old. 

The imnlediate application of dung and urine taall soils, FoldiQf shasf. 
and of treadiilg too loose ones, is well know to be productive 
of great benefit. £very one knows, sheep^s dung and urine 
are so fiir from wanting fermentation previous to their being 
applied^ that the sooner the seed is sown after folding, the 
greater is the effect : and this tendls to confirm the princi- 
ples laid down in the preceding section. 

9. Pigeon^s Dung. 

This manure is esteemed by farmers to be hot and power- P^r^**'* ^^^ 
td\. Forty or fifty bushels per acre are commonly applied. 
While in the house it does not run into those stages of fer« 
mentation, that reduce a body to mucilage ; and yet hasaa 
extraordinary effect when spread. This is another argument 
in favour of fresh dung. 

lOt Pond and River Mud. 

The quality of this must be affected by variofus circUm- ^^"^ **^ '*^ 
ttancet. In proportion as it is resorted to by cattle and wa« 
terioml, and receives the washing of towns, houses, farm 
yards, or privies, the mod must be good. In other case» 
the Buid may bt tried experimentally in small quantities^ 
Or diemically analyzed. It generally pays well, but seldom 
ar never very considerably. 

• See Journal, p. AS, ^n tlie atiltiy af Iratying dung deep. 

U. Seg 



38$ ^^ MANDRKS. 

11. Sea Weeds ."^ 

Se& veeiL. Wherever these are to be had, they are used with uniforoi 

success. The best and most durable sort is cut from rockd 
at low water. One load used fresh is more service than two« 
that have been left in a heap to ferment. I'bis is' the ca&e 
with nine substances out of ten« 

12. Pond and River Weeds. 

Pond tnd river Great advantage has been found from cutting theie weeds 
•"■*• just before the last ploughing for turnips, add spreading 

them as a manure for that crop. Some talae them load 
for load equal to dung, and have imagined the following bar*" 
ley superior to that after dunging for turnips. 

13. Hemp and flax Water. 

Itttmp tnd flax In Yorkshire they observe, that the grass grows doubly 
water. where flax is grassed. Mr. Billingstey carted flax water 

on his land, and found it superior to animal urine. 
Where there are convenient pbuds oti a farm, one at least 
should be half filled iu summer with green weeds for the 
putrid water, which would soou be the result* 

14. Burnt Vegetables. 

Burned t ege- In some parts of Lincolnshire it is usual, to spread evenly 
*^^' over land,just before sowing turnip secd,from three to 4 tuns 

of straw per acre, and set fire to it. A similar practice pre-« 
Vails in the Pyrenees. It is said to be superior to common 
dunging. In Cambridgeshire and other places very stout 
oat stubble, reaped high, is burned as a preparatioa for 
wheat, both cleaning and improving the land* 

15. Ploughing in Green Ctops. 

Hcwshtnff \u T^*s husbandry has been practised for dgfes, though miiny 
l^eea crops, have found' little advantage from it. The beiiefi| certftduly 
depencls on the crop being completely buried. The only 
way of proceeding is, to roll down the crop \vith a barley 
roller, nnd add a skimcoulter to the plough, going in the 
lame direction as the roller, to plough six inches deep. 
There should be no other successive. tillage than scuffliD|Sf 

« Ste Journal, p.*79. 

shallow 



Ihatlow 6n the surface. It usually answers better for a sum- 
tner*8 sowing, as of turnips, or early winter tar^ than for 
late autumnal sowings* 

General Remark. 

On alt arable farms the dung of the fami yard raay ma^ Genenlm. 
uure from a sixth to a fourth of it; by a proper course of "^•'^ 
crops and layers a certain portion maybe pared and burned ; 
and at least one tenth may be manured by ploughing in 
green vegetables. "Aj these three exertions a gbod manager 
may manure more than one third of his arable lana every . 
year, wtiich, with a i-ight application of calcareous manures^ 
will Veep any land in heart, i&nd regularly in a state o^ im- 
provement.' 

The preceding manures are usually to be procured on 
most farms. Under the second head, or such as are to be 
purchased, we have in the first class, or animal manures, 

, 1; Night Soil. 

This is the best of all manures, and, if dry, th^ cheapest) Nicht soil. 
It answers on all soils, and for all crops; bat the most pro- 
fitable application of it is on grass lands, spread after clear- 
ing away the hay; though it may be used in all seasons. It 
is very durable in effect. The common quantity used is 
about 200 bushels an acre. In the state of powder it is ex- 
cellent for delivering by drill cups with turnip seed. 

2. Bones. 

These do best on strong soils, and their duration exceeds tooei, and } 
that of all other manures. The effect has been seen for 
abdve thirty yfears. For potatoes they- are excellent. Five 
or six loads of fifty bushels each are commonly employed 
on an acre, alter they have been broken Htxl boiled for the 



The refuse dust of bone manufacturers is also good. boncdust 

3. Sheep's Trottwrs. 

These are a powerful manure, and usually sold by the Sheep's tt«s> 
quarter with feltmougers cuttings. Four or five quarters ^*'*' 
an acre are a common dressing, but eight have beau spread* 

Vol. XXIIL— Auo. l809« U They 



m 



They riiMild be plougjbed in not lest, Umui 6 inches i^ • 



4. Hair. 

^1^* Hog*8 hair is sold in great cities, ftom Is. to Is. 6d. per 

bnaheU pvet^ veil aquetzed dovru. From 16 to 25 boalvKls 
an acre are commonly used. 

5. Feathers, 

Fettheif. These are a powerful manure. Twenty-five bashels an 

acre h^je been spread with much success : but land, which 
nnmanured yielded but 28 bushels of white wheat> with ten 
bushels of feathers produced 49. 

6. FUh, 

Fith. Erery scfrt of refuse fish is one of the most eflbctive ma- 

imres that can be carried into our fields. 

7. Oraves* 

^fiTss. These appear to produce remarkable eflects in turnip 

cropa on poor sandy soils* 

9- Woollen Rago. 

WooUcn rags. * These do best on dry and sandy lands. From fine tt^ 
twelve hundred weight an acre, chopped small, we naeik 

lefiue of let- 9* Curriers Shavings and Furriers QSppingM, 

do best on dry soils. Thirty bushels an acre are a common 
dressing. 

- . • ■ 10. Horn Shavings. 



These are applicable- to all soils, but dp best in wet 
sons. The coarser sovtaare cheaper, but iuforior ia e|Rect, 
th^gh.mort dnrable. 

. Nature and properties of animal suhsiancee. 

Natvrt St pro- All animal substances will fertilize the soil being resolved 

* laiA**^^^ '"^^ ^^^"^ ^^^ principles, but this takes place much sooner 

cct,, . witb some, than with others. Urine begins to act tnuni^* 

diately, bones will last twenty years. AH of them should 

be laid on the fi^ld as soon as may be after collecting* 

Night toiU dry and in powder, is the only one properly ap- 

*■ ' plicable 



#11 KAMIM. fgl 

as 8000 as spread. ... 

In tht second class Mr. V^ung^ includes 

Mr. HassenlVatz having questioned whetlier ftllLaKl Alkalii set eii 
were a mannre, Mr. Yonng made many experiments on the ?^7uril aud 
subject, which convinced him, that pearlash was in a very tolutkiB in 
powerful degree ; and that it also had the property of act- ^"' 
iog oo charcoal by mere mixture and solution in water. 

Woodashes, wherever tried, have proved a valuable mt- WeodaalMS, 
nure. Mr. Young has used them on gravel i^n<l toams^both 
dry and wet, and never without good effect. The spring i| 
the proper season, and succeeding rain of much importance* 
Forty bushels an acre the common quantity^ 

^^ ■ • 

T^ vilne of thesie usually depends on the blackness and p«st sihii« 

density of the peat that is burned. Those of the Newbury 

peat are most* celebrated, and ten or twelve bushels an acre 

isre a common quantity, while in other countries from twen« 

ty to forty are usually applied. According to Mr. Davy 

their component parts are 

Oxide of iron •••••• # ^ ^ • • 48 

Gypsum • 92 

Muriate ^f sulphur and of {k)tasb • • 20 

100 

Some uncommonly ferruginous peat ashes are used with 
great success on the chalk bills of Dunstable. 

All sorts of ashes are iblind most eA?ctive when spread q^ ^^ 
te clover, sainfoin, or other seeds in the Spring. They arc 
also good bn grass lands, iind are by many used on gree^ 
#haal. The quantity frdm fifty to two hundred bushels an 
mem. The eflbct of fifty or sixty bushels on dry chalk landa 
m osneiderable. They answer best on dry, sound, rich 
hams; but on cleys> atid wet gravels or learns^ tbey nakaa 

U9 V patr 



m 



•ir iuirvR£i. 



pba^-Morm Cowte Mbet and cinders are betiertliailtlioA^ 
that are finely ni 



4. Soot. 

This is a Tery powerful mannre on most soils; but least 
upon strong or wet clay. Twenty bashels an acre are the 
common quantity applied on green wheat or clover in the 

54 Petit Duii. 

Veat dtttu From its abounding in hidrogen this should f^perate as a 

strong manure. Commonly too it contains mucfa iron. 
Having a great attraction for humiclity, it is Very advantage* 
ous on dry sandy sdils. Mr. Farey asserts it td be the best 
possible dressing for opions. 

6. Potash Waste. 

Votaih waste. The alkali having been extracted, this is not a powerful 
manure, but does good in low meadows, and on grass lands 
in general. Ten loads an acre, or 350 bushels, are a com- 
mon quantity. 

7. Svgar-hakers IVaite* 

Sugar bakers Some say this is a powerful manure, 
waste. 

8. Tanners Bark. 

Tanners btrk. The tanning principle is probably in afl caste hostile t# 
vegetation. If this bark be ufeful any where, it should be 
on calcareous soils. Sometimes it appears to ht|ve dimi<* 
nished a crop of com very considerably. 

■ • 

9. Malt Dust. 

Malt dust. Eighty bushels an acre have exceeded dung on clay land 

for wheat. From twenty to forty bushels are commonly 
. used, and with success on various soils. 

■ 

10. Rape Cake. 
la^cake. About half a tun an acre is an excellent manure, Init 

since the price has risen less is used. Mr. Coke, by dril« 
ling it in powder with turnip seed, makes a tun do for five ar 
sixacres« 

Of 



. rORMATIOir OV VHB WIirTBS LMAW'pVD. ggj^ 

Ot thefoml manures lime was included io the first din* 
l!oa» and coal ashes were classed with those of wood and 
peatf fo that only two remain. 

1. Salt. 

Little is known of this at present. In too large a quantity Ssli. 
it is injurious. It is certainly beneficial when properly ap« 
pliei}. Perfaapi it if bejit when mixed with dung or compost* 

2. GjipmiR. 

Many persons assert, that this is no manure ; others, that 
it b almoat umformly advantageous. It is said, to act as an 
immeiliato manure to grass, and afterward in an equal de* 
gree to grnn : to continue in force for several succeeding 
crops : to produce an increase of vegetation on stiff clay 
soil, hot not sufficient to pay the expense: to be beneficial 
to flax on poor dry^ sandy land : to be particularly adapted ^ 

to clover in all dry soils, or even on wet soils in a dry season : 
and to have no effect in the vicinity of the sea« 

Of Composts. 

Theae Mr. Young considers in the same light with dung* conpcgts* 
hills : he is of opinion, that th^ materials composing them 
would produce at least equal if not superior effect when ap« 
plied to the land directly. 

XV. 

Pis iha Formation of the Winter Leaf Bud, ^nd 9f Ltavtu 

By Mr#. Agnes Ibbetson. 

To Mr. NICHOLSON. 
SIB, 

JL OUR obliging notice of my former papf^rs has emboU tJgeof thebud 
dened me, to trouble you again. There is no par^of a plant sot7«ika»wn, 
or tree more various in its formation, and in its conse* 
quences more astonishing, t)ian the gemma, or bud. In spite 

oT 



•M 



which \e»ym 
•ralbrned. 



Thi< appsrept 
•o distect^g 
^pery earl/ 



Ba^ of thiee 



MftMATfOV 01^ TBS IV^Vrn I,«AP •!», 

«f Ite ttMities of s Malpigki, a Grew, and many otheili» itii 
3ce#I ilae it notyetperkmps kimwii. So delvcfive were ««r OMg^ 
nifying glasses af that time^ so iiDpossU>le wash ta feeder aa 
opake o-'jict luminous and c a , that we cannot wonder 
they did not attempt to search f .rther into the formation of 
fb^ bod : fbr there w hardly any Htudy , that requires theob- 
je«ts bejni^ sO giuch atia^fied, and opake s)peci«ieiia lib 
^bittarly deliiifBated. What fpl ows i oflbr ^ the resvft of 
many years study ; I offer it with the greatest diffidence^ but 
with the motit thorough coniriction of its truth : nor have I 
trusted wholly to my own sight, many have seen the tpeci* 
mens on which I first founded my opinioD» und drawn from 
them the same conclusiona; which, though from their no- 
relty they may surprise, will on farther examination 10 fery 
yeaa^ buds and leaves soon jgive conviction. 

This opiuion is, ** That leaves are form^ or woven by the 
f* ve^eU or cotton, thtt is g<:'«)eraUy supposed by botanists 
«< placed there to defend the bud from the severities of 
f' winter. That these vessels are a continuation of thoae 
** of the bark and inner bark in the stem of the plant, 
** That these vessels compose the various interlacing 
** branches of the leaf, which are soon filled up by theooo- 
<* centrated and thickened juices of the inner bark, which 
** form the pabuliim of the leaf/' 

The truth of this assertion is easily seen by dissecting ye* 
ry early buds, where expept two or three scale's, nothi:;gbat 
thcbe Vessels will be fouud. What then could be the use of 
them ?-**lo put them within the bud to keep the putside warm 
is against qature, for it is against reason. 1 shall begin with 
the anatomy of the bud from itH first appearance; i^rhich 
trill eitplain the whole proces.«i, as far as constant atfentioQ 
could give nie aq insight into it. 1 he gemma or bud grows 
00 the extremity of the young branches. It is a small round 
or pointed bpdy 1 tnd is fixed pq the young shoot, and along 
the branches on a sprt of bracket. There are thnee sorts. 
The leaf bud, the flpwer bud ; and the leaf and fiower bud. 
^t is the leaf bud alpne 1 mean here to dissert : for their na« 
tnres are totally different, as are the purposes for which they 
Hre intetidea. As 1 look op ibe leaf bu^ to be fpHned 



■ rOBMitTION or THE WINTEK LBAP DV*. M|g 

aJbiOJl «holly of the Imrk mid ioner bark, to th« flower bad 
16 a compoaition of t^very pari and juice of iAp Iret. 

Tbe letif bud U gcucrully BtnuUer tliun (he other two; m Tb* Iwf itti. 
its fint state it coniists of two or three scaleE, ei)closia)f a 
parcel of v«i8geU, which have the appearance of a coarM 
kiwi of cotton, very moist ; but when drawn out, and placed 
in tbe eolar microacope, (hey show (hemselves to be merely 
liie veueli of the burk and inuer bark elongated and curling 
■p IB various t'ormti. They are generally of three iiorts, like 
the bark. Sec. First three or four short thick ones that ap- 
pear to grow from the larger vessels of the inoer bark, and 
through which the ihickentd juice flows, but with this dif- 
&reti«-e. that the holes are not there. Then there are tiro 
kller Hied v^seeU, that exactly resemble the smaller rev 
f weh of the bark. The former T have ever found to be tlw 
idHb of the leaves; the latter the interlacing of the smal- 
r vewelf : and 1 have so often taken a leaf and dissected it 
b compare it with the vesselB which I the next winter found 
"'fa tW leaf bud of the same tree, that 1 cannot but feel the 
BtMt tkorottgk conrielioHithaX I have in ihe 6tid traced its ori- 
gio; though certainly much enlarged io the full grown leaf. 
The psbuluio of the leaf, or that which Via between the 
rewelit, is (oh 1 have before said,) composed of that thick 
juice which runs in the burk or inner bark of the treeiand 
ia to be found in no other part. It differs esientially from 
the sap, and may be called the blood of the tree, as it pof- 
MMCa itc peculiar virtues, is gum in one, resin in another, 
oil in a third, according to the noture of the plant. Wh«- 
dwr it flows both /orward and retrograde 1 have not yet 
bitn able to discover i iud'?ed, finding the subjevt in thv 
boodaof ■ gentleman of such abilities ai Mr. Knight, 1 Mr Eaijlit. 
k,«aited hie decision : but that the greatest part is taken up 
fhrmmg the leaves I feel the most perfwt conviction, 
e pi^mlun of the le^if, id'ler the vessels are arranged and 
TTowi over in blunders, making alternate layers with 
t anialler pipes, and with the brani^hes of the leaf, But 
tare found, and shall give, many specimens before this part 
e process is begun. 
[ I know not any tree tlwt gives a more convincing proof FomiMion of 
f the ntatiDcr of fonniog leaves in the bud than the horse*, 'hu leaf of ilie 
... tu»>«ch*stDat. 
chestnut : 



fp5 vo«iiATtoir ov vsB wivnm UAP bvh. 

ehe8tnvt : but it should be taken in NoTember 4»r .Dcccok 
ber. Sevefal difTerent midribs may be taken at once from 
the tame leaf bud, with an innumerable number of silken 
▼easels extremely fine, fastened, or growing up each side the 
midrib. When these haf e interlaced each other sufficiently^ 
the pabulum will begin to grow over them, in small blad» 
4ers full of a watery juice. The next process is the largec 
vessels crossing over them, and then another tow of blad-r 
' ders; this continuing till the leaf is at its proper thickness. 

The leaves thus formed are very small, but when once their 
shap^ is completed, they then continue growing all together* 
A drawing will so much better explain this than any de- 
tcriptiou, that 1 shall beg leave to refer to the sketch of the 
several specimens of beginning or half formed leaves taken 
^ut of the buds oC various trees. 
Mode of tr- When the leaves are so far completed, the rolling and 
yftDging the folding begins. Each tree has its peculiar mode of arrang- 
^ml^ ing its leaves in the bud, as LJnneus beautifully exempli- 

fies, scnne double their leaves, and then roll them round one 
midrib; M>me round several, each of which has its own inid- 
die vessel ; some plait, some fold the leaf. The varie^ is 
prodigious ; but it must not be supposed, that once is suf- 
ficient to complete the process; 1 have had the most thorough 
conviction, that it ib repeated several times, immersed all the 
vhile in the glutinous liquor, that runs in the bark, and 
forms the pabulum* During this arrangement, the pressure 
of the leaves is very great ; and it is this and the rolling, 
that completes them ; for if a leaf is taken from the bud, 
before this process, it will be like a piece of cloth before it 
is dressed; that it, with all the ends and knots to it; thus 
the back of the leaf will be obscured by the ends of 
▼essels^ which are at last all rubbed off, the hairs excepted, 
which remain to qiany plants, 
Ifanaitioa of The next process is the forming the edges of the leaves, 
ihydyofthe the most curious aiid the most beautiful of all. The bud, 
if ppened, will appear full of that glutinous liquor, and tha 
li^ayes folded according to the order to which they belong. 
Take out one of them, and the edges, folded as it is, wiU 
exhibit a perfect double row of bubbles following the scol« 
)pp of t|ie (i^jifs edge, aqd appearing asif set with firilliaots, 

I baldly 



TOWfATlOn OV THl WtliVBB LEAF BV9« MST 

f hmrdly know a more admirable spectacle in the microscope^ 

it requires but trifling powers to show it well. 

'. The last process, and completion of the leaf» is the form- Fpnnmtkm«( 

iog of the pores. Whether it is, that the young leaf being *a PW* 

-thicker and more hairy than it is afterward, the pores are ob* 

acored and hidden, or that the upper net grows last, 1 can* 

not say ; but in the many hundred forming leaves I have exr 

poaed to the solar micro&cope, I have never once been able tfi 

view the pores, as I have often done after the leaves had comr 

{detelj quitted the bud. I must not forget to mention, that t,^ isits cf 

there are two sorts of pores in the leaf; the large ones are them, 

those which receive the dew drops and rain, the smaller are 

those which appear in the day to give out the oxigen, and at 

night to inhale the carbonic gas. I mentioned, that I susr 

pected theie smaller pores of yielding a sort of insensible 

perspiration ; as I find, when out of doors, a scurf only to 

be seen with a microscope ; and under a glass this seems to 

rise aa water, to bedew the glass. But to place an ol^ect in Unnstonl «!> 

aa aonatural situation, in order to iudsre of its secretions, is ^u>^<^ ^*^f 

. , occasion utt* 

somethiug like potting a human being into a warm bath, to natund seoa* 

jadge how fast the blood flows. We know not what un- ^'^'^ 
jMtnral secretions we may cause in that confined air, or how 
much it may alter the nature of the plant, as I shall show at 
a future time with respect to melons and grapes. 

The two cuticles of leaves differ in most plants: for in Upper sndwi^ 
the under one I h^ve hardly ever found the large pores intp <l«rcutid«, 
which the dew or rain enters ; and but little oxigen is given 
out also from the under part of most leaves ; while this part 
has a number of very small apertures, formed 1 suppose for 
the reception of the carbonic gas. 

I cannot but notice here how strange is the contradictory ac* Contradiction 
count of the leaves now generally received. They are sup- n^ji^jng^ 
posed to perspire 17 times more than a man : water must 
therefore be yielded from each pore. They at the same time 
give out oxigen, and receive carbonic gas. Is this credible, 
or is it not contradictory ? That they give out oxigen in the 
day, and inhale carbonic gas in the night, I am convinced^ 
aod I think it requires but the simple experiment of 
keeping a plant in the window, and examining it with a 
fnicroscope 8 or 10 times in a day^ to convince a person, that 

there 



I 

i98 rosHATiov ov TBc wivTEB LtAP mm: 

thtre it do penpiratioa worthy being ao coiled. Bv 
turn to my Hul]gect« 

tf^%^"^ ^^^^ ^^^ npper and under coticlei ore groiriiii^, t) 

)«iif« of the )eof it completing ; the bobblet generally divi 

portly dry ttp» and homy pointt appear in their ttead, 

ibit ia complete, the learet bunt from the bod ; bo 

^ ore ftir that will not thow for a long time the manner < 

formation ; the planet for more than a month remain 

od wiUi the endt of vetaelt, tome attached to tbe leai 

loote: end most leavet have a bunch of vettelt fatte 

the outtide to the comer of each side rib. 

Tvopf>ruof The vesselt of the leaves (I mean those coofioed 

to the midribs and side ribs of the leaf) are 9f tmi 

the spiral and nourishing vessels. The tpiral vessel 

eorkscrew wire, that surrounds the two last rows of t 

^reasels (as I shall show when I describe the division inti 

the stem thouki, / conceive be separated)* The nooi 

eetselt are the only part formed of the wood, and coo' 

top necessary for the support of the leaf, and mn oi 

tide of the spiral ones ; which are generally divide 

little bundles of 3» 5> or 7 sets. It is impossible for a 

Troeation to be more exact, than that given in the Phil. 

by Mr. Knight, of the entrance of these vessols into tl: 

MeciTe ve»> rib of the leaf. That these spirals vessels ore the 4a 

* motion in leaves, and that they are perfectly solid anc 

pablecf carrying moisture, I hope to prove in my oost 

Vte of the Many leaves have a number of hairs fastened to the 

ouis on IcATcs 

cuticle of the leaf, and some to the upper. On the 

they appear designed to divide the raio drop to the site 
pore it is fitted for, and those at the back of the lea 
intended to guard it from moisture, that the wet 
not prevent the entrance of the carbonic gas at 
which it probably would do, without this precs 
by resting on the apertures. But it is watching nat 
Why leases )|^ natural stute, that her laws are to be understood. 
ifinU Ik to\be *^® artnd blowg with violence, the leaves turn their ba 
sua. the wind ; and when the suu sliines, they present 

fiice to it : guarding by the hrst uieiins tiie oxigen fro 
persingf finii int^e latter cose procuring a greater qui 
irom the heat of the sun siiining on tlie leaves. Wh 



PORVATIOII or TBS WIWTCE LEAP BUD, JM 

W!tf ymiiif * thry fire pmied together, their backs 
CzpOMd to the heat; probably to dry them, and clear the 
{Mras Ibr the receptioa of the carbonic gas; and as youn|^ 
gWie oat hardly any oxigen, the shade in which the 
lide is inmeraed is of little consequence. 

'I\sprove«that in forming the leaf I hare given it no features, DrmrriDtSan «/ 
but what it really possesses, 1 shall finish by showing oil the the leat 
fMta of a foil grown leaf. The colour of leaves is not to be 
fc o a d in their substance, but in the liquid with which it is 
filled. The darkest green leaf that can be taken^ has a perw 
feet white cuticle, both above and behw it. In this cuticle 
are the pores. It is rather a thicker net below than above; 
but not enough to account for the difference of the tints; 
but the under one lies not near so close to the pabulum of 
the leaf as the upper one; which may account for the co« 
lour not piercing so much through. When these two nets 
pnt taken off, the pabulum of the leaf appears. It is form- 
ed of littfe bladden, fiHed with a dark green liquid, and ij>- 
leilaeed with vessels. Take this off, and a bed of larger 
fetaels presents itself; then a collection of bladden^ 
wUdi is followed by the larger lines of the leaf; and thea 
% bed of bladders repeated, which the under cuticle covers. 
Though the blcidders differ in size and colour in different 
leaves, and in thickness also, yet the general arrangement is 
the same. 1 mean not however to include either the Jirs, 
tbe granest or those grassy leaves of early spring, the iris, 
jcrocus, snowdrop, &c., which are all of a ditferent nature, 
at I shall show hereafter. 

I cannot quit the subject without adverting to the differ- Diffi^rent lorts 
ent sortrpf hairs, that are found on the back and i'ace of the 
leaf. 1 have before mentioned some on the former part, in- 
tended to pre^rve the dryness ; but on the face of the leaf 
there appear oi\en many filled with moisture, as a kind of 
reservoir for the cuticle, and these are replete or not, ac- 
cording to the dryness of the atmosphere. 

There is uUo an innumerable multitude of things, that Microscopic 
are truly parasite plants, that grow on leaves, forming groves parasitical 
and orchards for the various tribes of insects, that live and 
breed under them. As I do not wish to mix the different sub- 
jects, I shall conclude this letter, bqt mean to trouble you 

with 



gO0 CAVIL IH THB SPINAL MAEBOW. 

with mother on the division of the «tem of plantit with^ 
o«t which I cannot well explain the discoveries I think 
J h«ve made with respect to the motion and general form- 
ation of plants, or the effect that grafting and budding of 
every kind have on trees ; a study which is now occapiyiiig 
rrery moment of my time^ and from which 1 hope to draw 
snany useful hints. 

The mistake made by my directing my letters to bo sent 
to Mr. I. has led you into an errour. It is Mrs. Aghea Ibf 
-betsoffi who has the honour of being your correspondent. 

Dear Sir, 

Your obliged servant, 
Bettevev, June 8. A. IBBETSON. 

• Explanation of the Figures. 

IxpIanitiMi Plate VIT, figs. 1, 3, 3, 4. Commencement of the growth 
^ ^ p{atc« ^f leaves, exhibited iii different stages, a^afafa, the midrib, 
^f ^t 6» the young vessels appearing like cotton. c» c, the 
spiral nerves, d, the smaller vessels crossing each other. 

Fig. 4. The formation of the pabulum, e, e, th^ fine 
vessels growing up each side of ihp midrib. /» tbp pabu<^ 

lOBI. 

fig. 5. Leaf-bnd of the limetree. 
' Fig. 6. Lei|f-l)ud qf the horse chestnut ^bput Jjiniiaiy* 

Figs. 7, 8» and, S|» with some others^ belong to two papery 
which will appear next month. » 



I«B 



XVT. 

J Letter on a Canal in the Medulla Spinal^^ of tome (^adrur 
pedt. In a Letter from Mr. William Sewell> to EvK- 
KARD HoMis, ^sq. F.R.S.* 

SIB, 

CtoilHi the jniCCORDlNG to your request, I send yon an account 
^inalaarrow ^^ ^^^ jv^^^^ I j^^^^ ascertained, respecting a canal I discor 

• FbUM.Traas. for 1809, Part I. p. 146. 

vered 



< • 



A . 










- i 



Vered in the year 1803, in the medulla spinalis of the horse, 
bollock, sheep, hog, and dog ; and should it (iippear to you 
deserving of being laid before the Royal Society, I shall feel 
Btysetf particularly obliged, by having such an hchour cdii- 
ferred upon me. 

Upon tracing the sixth ventricle of the brain, which cor- coniinunic«t- 
tetponds to the fourth in the huraaa bubject, to its appa- uigwithoae<tf 
rent termination, the calamus ten pterins, I perceived the ^^,l,„^. 
appearance of a canal, continuing by a direct course into 
the centre of the spinal marrow. To ascertain with ac- 
curacy whether such structure existed throughout its whole 
length, I made sections of the spinal marrow at different 
distances from the braiu, and found that each divide por*^ 
tion exhibited an orifice with a diameter, sufficient to admit 
a large sized pin ; from which a small quantity of trans- 
parent colourless fluid issued, like that contained in theani 
ventricles of the brain. The canal is lined by a membrane ^ ^u^ 
resembling the tunica arachiioidea, and is situate above 
the fissure of the medulla, being separated by a medullary* ^ 

layer : it is most easily distinguished where the large nerves 
are given off in the bend of the neck and sacrum, imper* 
ceptibly terminating in the cauda equina. 

Having satisfactorily ascertained its existence through the A comiawate 
whole length of the spinal marrow, my next object was to |"*^^^!lf** 
discover whether it was a continued tube from one extremity spiral marrow, 
to the other : this was most decidedly proved, by dividing 
the spinal marrow through the middle, and pouring mer- 
cury into the orifice where the canal was cut across, it passed 
in a small stream with equal facility towards the brain (into - 
which it entered), or in a contrary direction to where the 
spinal marrow terminates. ' 

By many similar experiments, I have since proved, that a The fluid kai 
free communication of the limpid fluid, which the canal ^Z**^ ^^9*™^. 
contains, is kept up between the brain and whole extent of the b»i&» 
spinal marrow. I have consulted the most celebrated au- i 

thors on comparative anatomy, but do not find any such 
structure of those parts described; and as it is not known to 
you, I may presume, that it has not been before taken 
notice of. I have the honour to be, 

Sir, your obedient faithful servant. 
Veterinary College, Nve. 26, 1808. WM. SEWELL. 



302 AiTiftATtftii at f tMt m Aim Ailii watbb. 



XVH. 
£y Mr. C. L. Berthollet*. 



I 



9t$i boUcd itt jL Boiled eome beef, renewing^ the water Anom time to thset 
wmiar Peprnft* till the water do longer afforded a precipitate with tanniD. 

CQlT* C JL posed 

tocheicuoa I then suspended it in a glass cylinder filled with atmo* 
^^•iu spheric air^ which rested on a plate filled with water. After a 

few days the oxigen wi^s found to be converted into carbo- 
nic acid : the interior of the cylinder was filled with a putrid 
sndanaaboil- •™^^'' ^^^ beef, subjected to ebullition, again afforded ir 
4d. pretty copious precipitate with tannin : the boiling was re- 

peated, till tannin ceased to render the water turbid: and 
the beef, having almost entirely lost its smell, was replaced 
in the same apparatus. 
This done re- The operation was repeated several times, and the fbl« 
^^tfdiy. lowing were the results. 

Iteiulu. The alteration of the atmospheric air, and the emission of 

the putrid smell, gradually slackened : the quantity of ge* 
latiiie formed progressively diminished: the water on 
which the vessel rested gave but slight indications of am- 
monia throughout the whole process : when I terminated it, 
no putrid smell was perceptible, but a smell resembling 
that of cheese : and in ftict the animal substance, which 
scarcely retained any fibrous appearance, had not only the 
smell, but precisely the taste of old cheese. 
lUcf sbA I distilled, separately equal weights of beef and Gruyere 

jj^2** ••PJJ" . cheese, employing two glass bodies, each of which common 
' nicated with a tube opening under water. The operation 
was conducted so as to decompose the two substances asfkr 
as possible, and retain all the ammonia, that was evolvedi 
Len smmoois On comparing the quantities of ammonia, that afforded by 
*^j^*J® the cheese was to that of the beef nearly as 19 to 24: 

whence it appears, that a distinguishing characteristic of 
the caseous substance is to contain ^ less nitrogen than 
fiesb. 

9 Joorasl de Pbf tiqu^ Vol. LXY, p. 4€S. 

If 



▲LTCIUTION OF PLfcitt W IIB AND WATlA. j^m 

If any inference may be drawn from experiments so in- Contlitiioiu 
•omplete as the preceding, it' woold appear : 

1. That the gelatine obtainable from an animal sob- Gelatine not 



does not exist completely formed in it ; but ^at» j^^o^y fomcA 
when this substance has been exhausted by the action of naoces. 
water, more may be formed by the action of the air^ the 
•xig^ of which combines with the carbon, while a portion 
of the substance, that was before solid, becomes gelati« 
nous, as a solid part of a vegetable becomes solid by the ac- 
tion of the air. 

It must be remarked however, that the property of pre- Tannin affoeis 
cipitating with tannin belongs to substances, that have very <>'**«'«"* ««^ 
diflerent qoalities in other respects. I have found, that the 
decoctioo of Gruyere cheese formed a copious precipitate 
with tanain* 

8* That nitrogen enters into the composition of the pvb* Putrid gti. 
trid gas, forming no doubt with hidrogen a combination 
IcM stable than ammonia, or perhaps taking an intermediate 
state ; biit, when its proportion is diminbhed to a certain 
degree, it is more strongly retained by the substance, and 
ceases to produce putrid gas. This substance, which is 
diaractorized by the putrid smell, appears to be rather a 
tery evaporable compound, that unites with all gasses, like 
other elastic vapours, than a permanent gas. 

3. Since the caseous part has less nitrogen than most Caseo^t qm^ 
other animal substances, we may conjecture, that this part ^^* 
becooMa more' and more animalized during life, acquiring a 
greater proportion of nitrogen and hidrogen ; which may be 
explained by the more intimate combination of the oxigea 
and bidrogen, that enter into its composition, and by the 
sepmiition of carbon in the act of respiration ; so that the 
last term of chemical action during life is the production of Uree, 
aree^ agreeably to the opinion of Mr. Fourcroy*. 

« 

* Ssrst. te ConaoiN. Chiai. torn. 10^ p. 166 ^ or Englbh cd. Vol. X^ 
lit 991. 



XVlIt 



^04 I^OTAIH tK ftCStftti 



XVIIL 

Atlatjfiis 0/ a Schist in the Envirdnf of Cherbourg^ taken, 
from ihe Excavations' made m Stinaparte HarbouK Btf 
Mr. BBRTHtEB, Mine Engineer** 

Aerockde- CyONSIDEREt) separately, and in small masses^ thfs 
rock has all the characters of the primitive formation. It 
is of a dirty green colour^ and has the greasiness and Justre 
of talci though in a very slight degree, tts texture ia slaty ,- 
and a multitude of little grains of crystalline quartz, dis^ 
■eminated between its lamiuee, are visible to the ilaked eye. 
^me have a laminated fracture, and are probably feldspar : 
we may unquestionably however consider it as of iaterme* 
fliate formation from its situation. In fadt Mr* Descotils 
has observed, that it contains blocks of granite, frequently 
pretty large and rounded ; and that it alternates with an* 
Gient breccias well characterized^ talky and argillaceoas 
schists, &c. 

It would have been impossible to separate th^ quarti, 
mixed with it, whatever pains were taken. Besides, the 
|ierson who sent it to the laboratory desired, that it should 
be analysed as it was. 

Five grammes [77 grs.] were fused with double their 
.weight of caustic potash, dissolved in pure muriatic acid» 
evaporated to dryness, and the silex seprirated. The liqu6r 
beiug filtered, and tested with sulphuric acid and stilphur- 
etted hidrogen, gave no precipitate. Hidrosulphuret of am- 
tnonia formed in it a black precipitate. Being filtei^, ox- 
alate of ammonia, afterward poured into the liquor, scarcely 
rendered it turbid ; and potash precipitated a small quan- 
tity of magnesia. The sulphurets having been redissolved 
i^ nitromuriatic acid, the whole was precipitated afresh by * 
saturated carbonate of potash. Nothing remained in the 
liquor, which proved the absence of manganese. Lastly the 
alumine and iron were separated by caustic potash. 

^ Jouroal des Miaes^ voU XXI^ p. 815. 

th^ 



rotAtU IN SCHIST. 

Tlte results of the different operations » 

Silei 

Alumine 

Oxide of irou ••-• 

M»gncsi« 

Uuie [at iuo«t) !.....;.. 



S0$ 



jUeDtly there was a loM of it per cent. I knew in- < 
tbat the wliole of the lilex wu not colli^cteui bat <=T- 

hat misht be supposed to have beeu left Was fur frOm an* 
Sweriag to this deficiency. 

Accordingly 1 took one bundled decig. of the substaoce water espdi 
tcduced to powder, and cutcined them strongly in a platina l<^- 
enidble. They lost 3 dec, and were slightly Bgglutinnted. 
>til! remained to be accounted lor, and, auapecting the 
|>K«ciice of all dkali, 1 xjught for it after Mr. Davy's nie- 
tbod. 

6 grt. were fused in a silver crucible with 10 of b6racic Snonil uitlj- 
'■Cid. The whole was diluted in water ; muriatic acid was ""' 
Mdded in excess ; it was evaporated to dryness ; an excess of 
tdd w«a added afresh ; and the silex was separated by filtra- 
Ifion. The liquor, when suflicientlyevapurated, deposited a 
freat deal of boradc acid, nhich was removed. The whole 
theu precipitated by cnrbonateof ammonia, bciiled, and 
lliered. The liquor, rendered again acid, «ud evaporated 
to a pellicle, deposited boracic acid, which was removed: 
•nd, the evaporation beiii)^ coutinued, the residuum wascal- 
dned, to drive olf the ammouiacal salts. What rem&iutd 
iftiH contained boracic acid; and, whatever precautions were 
taken, it was impossible to separate it by evaporation. Hence ^^^ ^^jj 
'Uli* method, though very convenient for detecting; the pre- idjipicd to u. 

ice of au alkali, appears to rae not well calculated for *"^'^ '^ 

diog its proportion. Into the liquor, reduced to a few »ik«U. 
'gniinmee, muriate of platina was poured, which occasioned 
■ conuderable precipitate, that was found to be the triple 
aiiri«te of platina and polaih, as will be related in the third 
inalysi», that was made of the tame schist. 



Vot. X.XU1.— Abo. isofl. 



This 



This was undertakea for the purpose of finding the quan-* 
tity of the potash, the. presence of which wai certain, and 
of the si lex, which had not been obtxuned wiA certainty. 
Third antlysis. lo gram* [154 gre.] of the fossil were kept a long time at 
a red heat with five times their weight of caiutic barytes. 
The mixture having grown pa^Qr^ it was diluted with water 
and pure muriatic acid. Being evaporated to dryness, the 
silex was collected. It weighed 7*05 gr. It was fused again 
with potash, and diluted in water and a little sulphuric acid. 
^ There wa« a residuum of 0*4 of a gr., to wbtcb muriate of 
silver gave a violet colour. It was heated red hot with car- 
bonate of potash, and washed with distilled water. Tb^ 
liquorcontained sulphuric acid. Great part of the residuum 
dissolved in muriatic acid. It contained barytes and silver. 
The 0*4 of a gr. therefore consisted of barytes, muriate of 
silver, and a little silex ; so that we may reckon the whole of 
the silex at ?•! gr. 

The barytes was precipitated from the muriatic solutiop 
by sulphuric acid ; the earths, and oxide of iron, by carbo- 
nate of ammonia. The filtered liquor having been evapo- 
rated to dryness, a residuum was obtained, which, being ci^ 
cined with sulphuric acid, was reduced to 0*65 of a gr. It 
was redissolved in a very small quantity of water, and con- 
centrated muriate of platina was added to the solution. A 
precipitate took place, which was collected. The snpemar 
tant liquor, decomposed by hidrosulphurct of ammonifi, 
filtered, and evaporated afresh, left a residuum of 0*^ of a 
gr., consisting entirely of lime and miaignesia. The least 
trace of soda was not to be found. There remained ^eo 
0*45 of sulphate of potash, containing about 0*25 of alkali, 
Mtthod of dis- I satisfied myself, that the basis of this sulphate was pot- 
th?triuW ash by a very convenient method, which Mr. Descotils has 
^ff^yiawUh made public, and which serves immediately to distinguish 
potsph froifi ^e triple muriate of platina and potash from that of platina 
moaia. , . and ammonia. It consists in boiling the precipitate in nitro- 
rWuriatic acid. If it be the ammoniacal salt, it is decom- 
.posed, the ammonia is burned, and the platina dissolvei). 
tOn the contrary, if it be the trisule with potash, it rcmaii^ 
untouched; unless the quantity of the liquor, be too great. 

■ in 



•i 



in il^hich t9J^ it dissolm^ but reappears entirely by evapo« 
ration. 

From tbeexperiitientsihat haye1>am described it appears. Component 
that the schist analysed coflmins ^L^^ *^ 

Silex ....» * *•.*«• 71 

. 'Alumipe* •••<••• ♦••»•••* J6 > f v •:• t 

t • Oiudeof iron *....*.. i..« 5 

Magaesia ....*.. .....••...*.. .4 % 

Lime (at most) ••• • O*^ 

Potash*****/ *...^«««... 2^6 t / ., 

Water *•••* •• 3 

99 
Loss ..*•••..•.•••• 1 

100 

tt is possible* that the po^h foand in this schist chines Tbe potash 
iirom the feldspar, which 1 spspect to be in it. It would be '?*^S^ ^ 
ioteresting to ascertain, wjietfaer the alkali be inherent in 
the rock, by the analyses of a more nomogeneous fragment* 

f Ilium ill' Jrj Til' 'II n' 'il* ' M !■■ ..1' ■■■Inir'ti ■ 'f ' f .■ ■ = ? 

XIX* 

Method 0/ rendering eomtnon Alum as go^ far JDyeing «i 
Bmutn Alum ^ by Mr^ Skguiv, CmresMpoindmg Memh^r ^ 
tkelmtiiule^. 



T 



O the means that have been stiggested for improving Method of 
common alum» by freeing it from the iron it contains, Mr. PurUying 
Segnin has added a new one, founded on the different so^ 
lobiiity pf pore alum and alum contaminated with irop. 
He dissolves sixteen parts of common alum in twenty-four 
parts ^ water ; crystallizes ; and thus obtains fourteen parts 
of slam, equal to the Rom&n> and two nearly equal to (hat 
af Liege. 

This process might be employed in the manufacture of Mayheadopt- 
di^ alum, so as to obtain at first an alum worth one third more ^ p ^^^ 
than in its impure state. 

* Soni^*s Bibhothiqat Phyako-^coafBi^ai^ Aafost ise7> p. 109. 

. Xa iCUUfTIFie 



30$ wtivTine «««•. 



SCIENTIFIC NEWS. 

French NoHmal lusHiute. " 

iBi^ ^'^ jStLTL Delambre, perpetutl secreCary, bat ghrcn «i ana- 
lysis of the labours of the mathematical division of the class 
of mathematical and physical sciences for the year 1807, of 
which the following is a brief acconnt. 
New cmttriio- Mr. Barckhardt has proposed a mode of constructing 
scojiflt. ^ telescopes, which he conceiTe^ will render thHr use more 
easy and conrenient, than any yet adopted. His smaller 
mirror is plane, like Newton*9> but placed perpendicular to 
the axis of the large concave mirror, and at half its focal 
distance. In this place the section of the reflected cone of 
Ifght is a circle, the diameter of which is just half that of 
the large mirror. Accordingly the small mirror intercepts 
a fourUi of the direct rays, but Mr* Rurckhardt compen* 
sates this loss, by iiicreasing the dimensions of the large 
mirror a little. The cone thus intercepted takes an in- 
Tcrted direction; and the rays, instead of proceeding to 
their focus behind the small mirror, unite at an equal dis- 
tance in front of it, passing through an aperture in the cen- 
tre of the large mirror. The telescope, thus reduced to 
half its length, will have four times as much light as a com- 
mon reflecting telescope of the same length. Many ob- 
^ jections were made to this construction, which Mr. B, an- 
swered, and it was agreed, that one should be made for 
triid. 
Sordi*kcirels. The astronomers, who have lately measured the meridian 
line between Dunkirk and Barcelona, have employed Bor- 
da*s circle to determine the time for correcdng their clocks. 
Tl^ey presume, that in an interval of four or six minutes, 
during which four or six obserfations may be t^ken, the al- 
titude of the &un or a star increases with sufficient uni- 
Ibrmity in proportion to the interval, so that a mean be- 
tween the observations may be taken, and employed mMj 
as a single observation. 
FAmiDlc fbf Mr. Delambre and Mr. Burckhardt give several useful 
Altittidet. formulse for taking altitudes of the stars, and likewise the. 

mooD» 



ICISKTIPIG NEWl. 309 

biooH) with precision. Mr. B. likewiM proposes a new me- 
thod of determining the moon's nndr. 

Mr. Biot, before his fiT»t journey into Spain, had deter- RcfraciKwi of 
mined bj- nice experiments the refracting power of the oir "'• """"" . 
nnA of j^aues, which he found to differ very little from what f^cMd b; 
Mr. Delambre had inferred from his aBtronomical obier- "l"""* '*" 
Yationi combined with those of Mr. Piazzi. It i> well '^ 
known, that refrucliou varies with the date and tetnjjerjture 
ef the fttmogj)herif ; and astronomers huve long applied two 
corrections, one from ibe height of the barometer, the other 
from that of the thermometer. Since the introductioa of 
the hygrometer, it hiu be<^n tjneslioned, whether this ought 
not to be employed for a third correction. During near > 
tnoDth, that Mr. Delambre spent in the steeple of Boi»> 
commun, at a time when severe frosts moie than ooce suc- 
ceeded lery damp mikts, he endearoured to aseertaiu, vrhe- 
ther the variation of the hygrometer were attended with any 
change in terrestrial refruction, and found not the least ja- 
diratioD of «ttch u change. Mr. Laplace had made the im- 
portant remark, thai the refractive powern of air and the 
Yapour of water, nt ei;ual degrees of elasticity, dill'ert'd very 
little; but the question waa of suSaent importance in 
Wtronomy. to be bruui^ht lo the Itrst of direct expehmeittt. 
Thta Mr. Biot has undertaken. He first ati«r(ained the 
effect of vapour alone. By means of potash he dried the 
warm air included in his prism, while that without was load- 
ed widi all the natural moisture of the atmosphere. The 
pMMure of these (no airs, indicated by a barometer within, ' 

tnd another without, was not theiame; the difference being 
•qnal to the tension of the atmospheric vapour. The deri- 
atiOD of the luminous niy in the prism then gave the refno> 
' tion produced by the vapour ; and thit never differed from 
vhnt wpuld have been produced by air alone at a similar 
I temperature more than a few tenths of a second. The 
mean waa 0-I3". Hence iMr, Biol inferm, that the refrac- 
tion produced by vapour in the atmoaphere may safely be 
neglected iu astronomy. 

[P«rt«in obsen'ations by some of the member* of th« 
isiatic Saciety at Calcutta however lead to a different 
MndustOD.] 

Mr. 



1 



310 BCfVlTTIFM VEWB. 



Nebula in 'Mv. Mesiier hat giv«i» a beaatifttl deHaettitm •f the n** 

Orion. buia in Orion, to which he bu added thai of LegentiU tfnd 

another much nore difiicult to peroeiTe, which be Umddf 
discovered in 1773. 

Tioleatil0|iM. He hat likewise collected all the particulars of the tbntw 
der storm, that burst over Paris on the 9 1st of OoloberV 
IS07 ; and the not less extrabrdinaiy gule of wind, thafe^Mir 
corred tiie nfxt day. In the obtervatioBs he has registered 
for fifty years he linda nnthingi similar. to it. The church 
of MoutiviUers vras struck by ligh||laio|p during a storm 
equally violenty that took place on :tfae 3d of November 
frflowingv 

Comst. On tna 91st of October Mr. Ponffdtscovered the coaxet 

at Marseilles. It was then austral, near the horizon, sand 
set soon after the sun. It was seen a few days alfer'by di^ 
ferent astninoraers in France and Germany, and at Mudrid, 
Mr. Bnrckhardt has calculated its orbit. 

Other comeu. Mr, Burckhardt has fbtind in the archivob of the Impe-i 
rial Observatory some uopu'blished observations of the 
cbmet of 1701, seen at Pau by Pother Pallu. He suspects 
it is the same as was seen at sea in February following. 
Having found an important observation of the comet of 
1079, he has calculated its elements afresh, and finds ita 
pierihelion distance greater than was before assigned ; whence 
he infers, that it could not be the same with tbut of 1805, 
which some had soppoiiBed. 

Tables of Ju« Mr. Boovard' has accbmplished a more important and 

Jura ***** ^*" more generally useful ta>k, corrections of the tablet of 
Jippiter fKnd Siitum ; and Mr; Delambre has avatltd himself 
of these in the ecliptic tables of Jupiter's satellites, which he 
has entirely reconstructed, and will shortly publish. 

Adhesion of The only paper in phy8ic'0->matheniatic8 mentioned ia 
Count' Riiraford's, printed in oqr Journal, Vol, XV, p. $2^ 
' fh>m his communication. 

Mssture on Beside the Memoirs of the Institute, the second volume 

tiie meridiaa. 4^ the " Base of the Detimal System of Measures * has 
been published. It contains the remainder of the obser-i 
tations of all kinds, and the calculation of the triangles 
from Dunkirk to BaTceloua; the heights of the signals 
abf^ve the surface of the two seas; the azimuths and the 

latitude 



Idtttttfiet «f tbe fiVe principal fltatio The third tfod )Mt 
Toloitfe is in the priess; 

Mr. Bertfaood,-who died in Adgnst 1807, htid pttbllshed Trettite on 
a few dkys befbrt hi« dfetth a sapplement to his treatiw^ on- **°**^^'*"' 
fi^ekeepert, With an account of his researches from 179^ 
fo ld(r7. • 

Mr. Betitnconrt presented tb the class* a model of a lodr Lock for 
<m the nite principle as that inrented hy Mr. Huddleston. ^^^*' 
fS€e JoamaU Vol. IV, p. 936.] He has likewise given a 
ikiitthematicaldiscmrsion of the principles, on which it ong^t 
to M constructed, so^ as to' be iMttageable by the strength 
of one man. 

Mr. Lancret has ^nsiderably extended Mr* Moqge*S ETolutet. 
theory of evoliJiteB, *' 

Mr. Hilus, of theoorps of engineers, has deduced from a Propagttioo of 
uaiform and general analysis die varioos circumstances of ^^K^^ 
thie pn^Mgation of light, and a solution of the fundamedtal 
pvobtems of optics. By a theory entirely new, founded on 
the properties of the intersections of a series of right linei^ 
drawn, according to a constant law, to all the points of a 
givcn'SDvfaoe, Mr. MaTus has determined the course of r0» 
fiacted and re6ected rays; the intensity of light, in all 
cases, af any given distance from the luminous point; and 
the place, fonn, and magnitude of images. He shows, 
that in certain cases, and with certain surfaces, reflection 
and' refraction produce images, that are erect in one of their 
dimensions, and inverted in the other, a circumstance never 
before noticed*. 

The propagation and reflection of sound have some re« Propagation 

* The plane mirror, or common looking-glafs, in fact sbows objects * 
erect in the perpendicular, and inverted with respect to right and Jeft. 
But this is not what the reporter means, though he does not inform ui, 
what the construction of the mirror of Mr. Malus is. It would be found ^. - 
however, that a mirror, which is a section of a concave cylinder, wirt ^^^^ ^jod. 
represent the horizoDtal dimension of an object the reverse of what a 
plane mirror uould do, without affecting the perpendicular; in other 
words, ihe speeUtoV would see the image of himself, or any other object 
in ity exactly in the same position, as if he stood facing the object, that 
occasioned the image : and thb no doubt is the mirror alluded to, which 
i> of a kind, that I do not recollect to have seen mentioned. C. 

semblance 



314. SCXEVTiriC VEWI. 

andrefloction tembkoce to those of light, but their theory ift attended 
ofioiiod. with more difficulty. As the velocity of sound is very «iDall» 
\t might hte qoestioiied hovr ffir it depepded on ft sipiple Uw* 
M^vn. Lagrange aud l^pler, who Qrittroitad tbi» prqbleip^ 
fappo|e4 it in a particular case to depend only on its di»* 
tance from the centre of motion. Mr* Poisson has j nut de» 
monttrat^ gf^Q^rally, in ^ very ingeniouK fnanner» that the 
. law is always the stipe; that the n^pTement is prQpagate4 
])y spherical pndolatiQiis with the saiqe y^loptj ^^ ^^17 
directiwp; but that tb^ Tibrjition of particles sitnatf at th^ 
same mom'*nt in the touorous wave an; made with ai'Cqoal 
rapidity, according to a law depending on the nature of 
the primary agitation ; and Gonsequeotly, thai the inteofity 
of the sound, which depends on the velocity of these vibra-i 
tions, is thus found to be different in different ptrta of the 
sonorous wave. The velocity in a given radiua decraaaea in 
^e ratio of the distance ; whence it follows, if the intensity 
be proportional to the s<}qare of the velocity, it mvtt dtp 
prease in the proportion of the square of the distance* 

Only two determinate roots of the general equation bad 
been found, but the formulse of Mr. Poisson comprise ai^ 
infinite number, by wh'ch may be verified lul the theorema 
be has obtained in the general case, to which he first paid 
attention. He afterward considers the case where there are 
aeveral causes of a simultaneous vibration; and withoni 
affecting the generality of the root, he decompoaca it s(s 
that the different parts answer to the different centres; 
which leads him to give in a novel and ir genious manner the 
theory of the reflexion of sound, and production of echoes ; 
and to show what would take place between opposite and 
parallel planes. By a similar method he explains what 
must occur in the far more difBcult case, where the mass of 
air set in motion is included in an ellipsoid. He demon- 
strates, that the t<ound, which originates in one of the foci, 
}• reflected toward the other, makii.g the angle of reflection 
equal to that of incidence, and following the same laws as 
light. These reiiults ure conformable with what we hava 
lenrned by experience of elliptical vauUs, but it was very 
difficult to demonstrate them matheitiutically, which Mr* 
poisson has done in a new and ingenious manner. 



■ * ■ 

4- 



(CIEDTIFIC KCW*. 



SIS 



It hu IttDf; bsen rem&rked, ihut ihe oIiBervec} velocity atVitotXtj 
Viund i« tuperior to what it iMured front a'jfebniiral cwU "" 
culations. It tnny be coacmed, tiisf IliP deiiBity aiiH tpm- 
p'-nturc of the air hare Mme iufluenrp in tJiiii; but Mr. 
PoiteoD demonstrate*, that they biy iuMifficiPnt to exgiUin 
the obicrvations. Hoving eiam'ned snwesfively the cHu*n 
•Uppmed by Newton and nther gttitnetrii'iaiii, hr find* 
them in compatible with the renulti of round philosophy. 
Mr. Laplftc« attribute* the acceleration of *oiind to the 
diangc of teni|(t'rsture e\|>erienci-d by the puitii \k» of air 
■II their njiidenialiau and dilalaiion, wliiib iHii.iot •ake 
place without « succeitnive evolution and sbtu'iition ol bi«t, 
CalculaViOD applied to this hypothec!*, or lallier incoiite»> 
t>bl« facti thons, from experiment!, mude by the Acndeniy 
of Science* in 1738. that a dilatation or coudeiixatiou of jts 
produce* at'hange of tenjperature equal to • ilegri'e of the 
MiiteMniHl lln:nnometeT[l-8 Fuh.}. 

Th« labours of (he phyiica] diTition of the class have 
leeo aualy^ed by Mr. Cuvier, perpetual serrctary. 

In 1804 the clam had awarded a prize to Doctors Her- fj-^ „ . 
koldt and Rafn, of Coiteitha-ien, for a paper on the winter initn^t. 
ilcpp of wiimsltt: and. in IflO;. aiiftther to Dr. Snisgy, nf 
Lyons. Prof. Prunelle. of Montpellier, has since sent a 
paper, that may rank «itli the best on the t>i beet. Still 
hnmever, notwithstanding their researcheH, and lbo»e of 
Spdlanzaiii, Mangili, and Csr1i«le, we are ifruoiunt uf the 
caoaei, by which certain animals are disposed to this sleep, 
and not others ; as vtell as of th" e that en^bie them to etc 
dare this sDS)>eDsioa of their fu ,ct ' n . 

Mr. Geoffroy-Saint-Hilwre, Prof, at tlie Muteum of Na- CaniMr.ti»i. 
taral History, elected tu succttd the ■■■te Mr. Brunnsomiet, " ""'' 
presented to the c1as!> some fragment* of a great woi k, which 
he hai underttikeii on comparative osteology. His object 
is to invc»ti)(qle more minutely the «[ialo:r|(.'« between the 
eormpoiidtng part» of various animals with vertebnr. In 
fict tho»e ptirtsoforguDs, that are at way* found more or less 
liinilar in number and position, notwithstamliiig iheir dif- 
ference ill site and use, and contradirtoriness to all upparent 
final causes, must necessarily depend on efficient and form- 
atirv cftiuesi A& these must be conuected witii the primnty 
mi'an* 



m 



51^ 



vetttiiTirtt HEWS* 



mtmXB ^mpl&fed hf ftntere, if we wmf flatter ounekes i#Ith 
ev€r throwing arty light on the origth of organi^^d bodies, 
tite itiost obticarie and ihyvteriooa points of natural history^ 
it geems to ns the ftnt wparkt must be derived fi-omthesf 
anatogies of strtietArev 

Mechftnisin of ^'** ^^™*"'» P^^' ^ anatomy at tic Medical School; 

fespiratioa ia pfesentM tfhite papcfft. In the fint he- treated* on the me4 

^^^^ chahism of respiration ill fishes^' and pointed oat BOiove iu4 

teresting sirtgularitiea^ Thofte l!hat fVom having ^h«i 

inouths sometimes affipxed to stones, or buried in niud-«r 

sand» i^unnot always n^e them for taking in water, are pro^ 

tid^ with aperture^ f6r admitting the water oa dilating tht| 

cavity of th^e moufh, and these aperttfres aire fnnnished wiik 

valves internally, to' prev^t the water from returning bj 

ftem, so that it/ has nd exitbnt by the gi)ls» ' ' 

Oipn of taste "the (econd waS on* the smeH' and taste of iisiiea. Mt. Dl 

ia6il)e«. supposes, that the tongne, froni the dryness and bardhess 

ef its integuments, and the constant passage of water Over 

it« must be insenstble to fiavours ; add that the pitniCar;^ 

. . fisaiilbran^, nt>t'bring exposed ta the impnise of elasHjcf -va* 

fbtft cannot be the seat of smell like ouris. Thif^nt^ntai^ 

bfane therefore he conceives to be the organ of taste. 

The third is a cotnparison of the various' vital' sfnd aniawA 
fliQCtions in the order of reptiles termed BiithiMan,- viUci 
justifies its division into two ftimilies. ' 

Several other papers on reptiles have been prodnce^f, 
particuTaVly on crocodiles, of which Mr. Guvier has- shown 
no less than tweha distinct species exist in t)ie old and n^ff 
world. 

The same naturalist hais endeavoured to* reriaove by dis« 
section the doubts entertained respecting sotne reptifes*of a 
singular form, which truly deserve the name of amphibfsv 
because they breathe' both with gills' and lungs. Oile of 
these is the siren lacercina, another the proteus Anguinus'*'* 
and a third the proteus ptsciformis. Tho two former of these 
at least have the sk'eleton too firmly ossified, and too different 
ftom those of any other reptile o^ their native iibodes, and 
besides their organs are too perfect, to admit of their being 



||f|lv]6S| 



It 



Ciooadiks^ 



Axpphibia* 



Sec Journal, Vol. XVllI, p. 91. 



considered 



tcitirtiFic Hiwt; 51^ 

as tadpoles, that have a change to nndergo. 
The last iahabits the lake^ of Mexico, where it is used as AxoIotL 
I foody and' resembles a water lizard , except in having gills. 
It it called there axahtl^ and was brought over by Hum- 
boldt. 

Mr. Biott while employed in measuring an arp of thq Air-bbddtnof 
meridian at the Balearic Islands, thinks he has observed, ^te* 
that part of the intestines of fishes caught by a hook and 
I Uue at great depths, and drawn up suddenly, is^ue out o£ 
their mouths, which he attributes to the expansion of the 
air-bladder. He has likewise examined the nature of the 
air in this bladder, and found it to vary from pure nitrogea 
to a mixture of this gas with 0*87 Qxigen, but he dis-t 
covered QO hidrogen. Itiappeared fo bim, that, the deeper 
the fish lived under water, the oiore oxigen the air Oou« 
tained. *^ 

Mr. Jqriue is extending hii^ new method of classing in- Entomology* 
sects*, which is found to be more mitural than could have 
been expected, to the diptera. 

Mr. Dupuytren, head of the anatomical department of Nervet of the 
the Medical School, has shown, that the concurrence of Jungs ntc«- 
the nerves of the lung^ in the act of respiration is neces- ing. 
ttry to the conversion of the venous blood into arterial. 

The science of botany has bt^en sedulously pursued. Mr. 
de Labillardiere has finished his Flora of New Holland. 
Mr.Dypetit-Thouars continues his researches on the growth g^o^iIj ^ 
of vegetables. He still thinks, that the trunk of trees has geubles. 
the principle of its increase in the buds ; and that the fibres 
composing the annual layers of wood are in home sort the 
roots of the buds, while the little medullary thread ter* 
minating each bud performs the functions of cotyledons. 
He has endeavoured to answer objections, and brought for- 
ward many interesting lacts. Among these is the germina- 
tion of the kcythi^. The evolution of the seed of this tree, 
which is dicotyledonous, cannot be referred to elthtfr of the 
three modes hitherto adopted. Its cotyledon is interior, 
tod serves as a base to the pith, which Mr. D.T. thinks a 
proof of the justice of his opinion. The cuttings of the 

* See Journal, Vol XV III. p. 2l8. 

willow. 



5I6 fCiiHTiFic v%vru 

w^low, tbat take root tboagh deprived of tbdr budft» seem 
to furnith a strong objection to it ; but be haf found, th«t 
in this case little subsidiary buds are unfolded oppoute 
|Mmits that were occupied by the i^pules of the leaves. 
Ckrbon of There is uo subject of more general importance in the 

vegetable economy than the origin of the carbon of plants. 
B|r, Crell) the celebrated chemist of Helrostadty has this 
year communicated to the class some experiments, that 
- seem to give a very high notion of the power of vegetation. 
He asserts, that he has made plants grow and produce seed 
ia pure sandy watering them only with distilled water, and 
topplying them with a given quantity of air, in which the 
carbonic acid most be almost as nothing in proportion to 
the carbon produced. It is to be observed however, that, 
tboQgb the plants were covered witn a glass, he could not 
iv^.cutthe acccsa of the external air through the sand* 



frtsrrpTiinl Messrs. Laplace, C. L. B^rtboUet, Biot, Gsj fiisiac, 

2*^*J^j^ ▼Ml Humboldt,Thenard, DecandoUe, Collet-Descotila, and 

^^^^ ' A. B. Berthollet, have formed a society under tbe namf of 

philosophical and Chemical at the village of Areqefl» ipuear 

Paris, which meets once a fortnight, and published the first 

vol. of its Memoirs in 1807* 

PoliA Society. At the iloyal Academy of Sciences at Berlin, the nxth of 

August last, a paper on the resistance of the air was read by 

Mr. Bur.a; one on the advantages and disadvantages of 

nalfonal prejudices by Mr. Klein; and a fragment on the 

great cataracts of the river Oronoko by Mr. von Humboldt 

The following prize subject is proposed for 1810. ** To 

IpkizequesHon. <* giveacomplete theory of the hydraulic ram, paying regard 

** to the adhesion of water *." 

Dr. Gauss has sent to the Royal Society of Gottingen the 
following observations of two of the new planets. 

Iti. Observation 8 of Patltu. 
1S06. Mmntime. Apparent risbt Apparait iecBos 

ktfurs. Sttceni, tioo. 

Obiemtioas ^^^' '<• 8 11' KT 70' l6' 31" 19* 59' IS" & 
«rralUs. 16- 7 S2 28 70 42 39 19 20 44 

17. 6 5e 38 70 56 44 19 1 8 

20. 7 49 35 71 39 2 18 5 O 

"* For « de^ription of its mechanism j and somo remaikt on it, set 
Journal, vol. XIV, p. 98. 

2d. Oker- 



BCllKTIFfC MWi. ^tt 

2d. OhfrwUimufffJutia. 

lto6.' Memo time. Appartnt right Apptitud te^in. 

krt. MceiM. 

Teh. 17. 9 4«' 0" 173* 46' 45' 0' 28' sr V. ^^•^ 
90. 10 49 47 O^ 54 16 

10 59 2 173 15 57 

13 la 18 173 15 15 

The feUowiDg obterrations of J ono were mtde at Oottingen* 

10Oi. Meantime. Apparent rifht at- Aptdedia. 

kn. cension, 

Uaich 10 9 «3' 56*3' 169* 46' 54-5" 3' 41' 50*^ 
11. 10 32 23*7 169 34 18 3 51 SB*S 

Or* Gavn has likewise sent new elements of the •rbit of 
Ceres, deduced from the last opposition obaerted hy proC 
FBaqnicb, which the doctor means to render more correct^ 
wiieo be has obaertations of this opposition on which be caa 
better rely. 

Epoch of the longitude, meri- 
dian of Seeberg .108* 19' 34-y' 

IKamal trofHcal motion •••• 770" 85^ 84 

Annnal*-^ 78 9 23 

Aphelion, 1806 3«6 37 59 

Annual motion ••• + 4 1*4 

Ascending node, 1 806 •••••• 80 53 23 

Ajnnnal motion -I- i*5 

Inclination of the orbit, 1806 10 37 34 
Annnal diminution •••••••• 0*4 

Eccentricity, 1806 0O78348G- 

Annual diminution • • 0*0000059 

Log. of the greater semiaxis • • 0*44207^8 

To the observations of Vesta, given in our Journal, roL 
XVIII, p. 75, we can now add the following. 

1807. Me«ii time. Apparent right as- Apparent dedin. 

in, censioa. 

April 1. 9 50' 183** 28' 12** 5' N. 

5. 11 17 «'784" 182 33 liV92 13 24 191' 2v7^*^ 
6.. 11 12 l6-02t 18ad 80 47'91 12 27 54*4 

The 



•318 



■ .1 



Elements of 
VeHi. 



Itfatbenuttctl 
ten of Hutu- 
Mdt Sc Bon. 
fiends trarels. 



Statistic^ ac- 
count of 
Mexico. 



The fint 6f ttifese is by Dr. 01benr» the other iw6 frbm 
the observatory ef Gottingfnli 

Dr. Gauss has determi&ed its dements in the following 
manner* 

Epoch of tke m4»an Ibngitude at firemep, Ilffirch 29, 1807> 

at 12 o'clobk, mei^time,* 4 igoT s' 4-6"* 

Longfitude of its perihelion £49 7 % 41. 

■ — r-— .aphelion ».. $9 $7 52 

' ascending node on 

theecliptic «.♦••• 103 S 86 

Inclination of its orbit * 7 6 49*5 1 

Diurnal tropical motion • • \6 1 8*9 i' 

logarithm of the mean distance • • • • 0*3728428 

Eccentricity \ • .« • » 0^097505 < 

Greatest distaace from the sun • Mi685 

JLestet * 9\*6U 

Period of its revolution •»-«l921 da«i» td iM«ft» 

The fourth part of von Jlnmboldt and Bonp1aiid*s Tra* 
▼els will contain in two 4to. vols, the astroadmicsil obaerva* 
tions, trigonometrical operations, and barometrical mea* 
•ures* Mr. von H. has thought it would be movtiatiiAKitory 
to give the whole of the original observattont themseivesy 
that it may be seen what degree of confideaoe the nwilts 
deduced from them deserve. The ealculatiocis have been 
made by Mr. Jabbo Oltmanns from the best tables. The 
maguetical observations, with an examination of them and 
of those of Cook, Vancouver, and other able astronomers, 
by Biot, will occupy the 2d. voK As such a number of 
figures must be a long while printing, the latitudes and 
longitudes of various places^ deduced from astronomical ob-> 
servations, h&ve been published in a separate tract in Latim 

In the third part of their travels, consisting of a statisU* 
cal Essay on the Kingdom of New Spain, they estimatatlM 
present population of Mexico at more than six millions* 






• In the Magazin Encjclop6ai<iue it Is IM* 9' 54 
t Ibid, r e' 34', i 



They \ 



•cl 



fj. 



They likewise give tbe'Atlbwifeg oompafetire table of birth* 

In Prance.. ..........•:••••• jlO 100 tablerfm- 

Id England'. .*»••••••• '»*•• IM 100 ulityiota- 

-in S»«dea • j^-.* v*.- *»*" 13Q _ xfttt. nw pl^ei. 

In FiolaqU ,;l!^ 1 00 

In the H'ussian EmpVre .••••. l^ 10(1 

lu Western Prnisia Isb lOO 

Id the goverDment of Tobol^ • • 210 10# 
In several parts of the high plains 

ofMexieo** ••••••••• ^0 100 

lothestuteof New Jersey, t^orth . . 

America '-^ •••••• •.•.300, 100 

• 

FaaHie however not unfreqaently interfered, to check tbe'F^oiiac. 
population of Mexico. In 17B4 no less than 300000 died' 
forwent The mortality among the itainers does not BP'^ineitiMCift- 
pear t9 be greater than in other clnsseb. Tbe heat of mt>8t*l>^thj. 

Heat of til* ' 

of thes^ piines is very considerable* ^t the bottom of tihat "^ ^* ^*^ 



of ValeDQiBna, at the depth of 513 met. {560 yards] th^ 
centipttde thermometer was at 34** [93*9"* Fahr.]» wiiile rn 
the open air in winter it is only 4** or 5*^ above [from 30*3* 
to 41* F.J, 

On ibe <24 of August last Mr* Andreoli And Mr. Brio9- j^^^^ ^^^ ^ 
chi went up with a balloon at Padua. When the mercury balloon to « 
bad fallen to 15 inches [about the height of 3| miles] Mr. ?^* ^^^"^ 
B. began to feel an extraorditiary palpitation of the heart, 
without ^ny painful jsepsation in breathing. Wl^en the 
mercury wps down to 1^ [4 J miles] lie was overpowered with 
a pleasing sleep, that soon became a real lethargy. Th^ 
balloon continued ascending, and when the mercury was 
about 9 inches [near 6 miles] Mr. A. perceived himself swol- 
len all over, and could not move his left hand. When the 
mercu/y bad fallen to 8*5 [about 6 miles and a quarter high J 
the balloon burst with a loud explosion, began to descend 
rapidly with much noise, and Mr. B. awoke. It fell about 
12 miles from Padua, without any injury being received by 
the aerial travelers. 

The scheme of hishoj) Wilkins 1 understnnd has bedn pur- ArtWcial 
sued with some auccess at Vienna* A watchmaker of th^ vinfi< 
name of l>egen is reported to have ascended above the 
trees in th^ Prater v^ith artificial wingti, taken .his flight in 
various directions, ai)d alighted on the ground with as UHMh 
ease as a bircL MUttoroU* 



■• 



METEOROLOGICAL JOURNAL, 

iw JVLY, 1609» 
Xoptbf ROBERT BANcKS,Mitheraatic9l liuUniiient Maker, 

■ OtbeSTftAKDi LuKQOK. 





rilE.KM>iMETbK. 


BAROME- 
TER, 


WEA 


PHER. 


JUNK 






5 . 


c -■ 








D.V 0. 


■^ 


^ 


M 


1? 


9 A. M. 


l>.y. 


Night. 




q? 


« 




41 








SS 


57 


5'' 


es 


51 


30-42 


Pair 


Cloody 


»7 


58 


59 


6; 


A2 


30 22 


Ditto 


Fair 


38 


57 


56 


62 


iO 


30i)8 


Rm>u 


ClouriT 


99 


5b' 


47 


bl 


51 


30 01 


Ditio 


Rail. 


30 


57 


56 


62 


54 


39 95 


Diilu 


Fair 


JULY 
















1 


5fi 


63 


67 


58 


3983 


F«ir 


Ditto 


2 


63 


58 


62 


51 


89-79 


R>in« 


Rut) 


> 


53 


51 


63 


49 


2y53 


Ditto 


Dit» 


4 


49 


5S 


£A 


49 


S9-48 


Diuot 


C\»mAj 


S 


52 


53 


ii 


53 


29-53 


Ditto 


Dtlte 


« 


53 


58 


60 


57 


39-70 


Dillol 


Ditto 


7 


62 


61 


6i 


60 


29'81 


Ditto 


Dittol 


« 


b'l 


^9 


66 


A3 


29 83 


Ditto 


Raia 


9 


59 


53 


i6 


52 


29-88 


Ditto; 


Cloudy 


10 


52 


53 


.S7 


50 


29-88 


Ditto 


Fair 


11 


53 


54 


6t 


5S 


30 03 


Fair 


Ditto 


12 


61 


65 


6» 


62 


30-09 


Ditto 


Ditto 


13 


62 


62 


68 


55 


30-09 


Ditto 


Dill* 


14 


62 


6a 


69 


60 


30-18 


Ditto 


Ditto 


15 


(i3 


63 


li& 


60 


30-09 


Ditto 


IKtto 


1(> 


63 


64 


?2 


59 


30-00 


Ditto 


Ditto 


17 


63 


59 


67 


53 


3976 


Ditto 


Ditto 


18 


58 


55 


O'O 


W 


29 90 


Ditto 


Ditto 


19 


56 


62 


6J 


57 


30-03 


Ditto 


Ditto 


SO 


60 


63 


66 


hi 


3013 


Ditto 


Ditto 


21 


bO 


61 


6J 


55 


30-20 


Ditto 


Ditto 


22 


61 


63 


63 


56 


30-05 


Ditto 


Ditto . 


23 


59 


61 


lis 


60 


29 89 


Ditio 


Dinw 


34 


60 


61 


by 


60 


2.4-86 


Ditto 


Cloudy 


25 


62 


05 


?■» 


6i 


29-78 


Ditto 


DiUo« 



• A.M. at I P.M. tfcandw and Itgfctatnt ifcc lhrnw»» Mu hiIiIm ■■- 
\ Haa. ikundT Bnd lif Uiuue ■! s J>.H. the IhriMwailw nUttaf «•, 

At 1 1, lislitnint, Ibuoder, and ^tvrj rain. 

Eaik tUi wliole ia.y. 

U-Vrj rain, Ihnndcr, (trd ligbtainf ia the aiikt 



JOURNAL 

OP 

NATURAL PHILOSOPHY, CHEMISTRY, 

THE ARTS. 



SUPPLEMENT TO VOL. XXBl. 



ARTICLE L 

The Sdkerian Ledure. An Account of »ome New anaijf" 
Heal Researches on the Nature of certain Bodies^ ifc. 
By HvMPHRT Datt, Esq. Sec. R. S. F.R. S.Ed, and 
JM» Rm !• A* 

(Continued from Page %S7.) 

3* Analytical Experiments on Sulphur., 

X HAVE referred, on a former occasion^, to the expert- iSnlphm sc»iii- 
ments of Mr. Qayfield and of Mr. Berthollet jnn., which ^^^J*^ 
seemed to show that sulphur, in its common form, con- 
tained hidrogen. In considering the analytical powers of 
the Toltaic apparatus, it pccnrred to me, that though 
snlphur^ from its being a nonconductor, could not be ex- 
pected to yield its elements to the electrical attractions and 
repnlsions of the opposite surfaces, yet that the intense heat 
connected with the contact of these surfaces might pos- 
utly effect some alteration in it, and tend to separate any 
daftic matter it might contain. 

On this idea some experiments were instituted in 1807. A Experiments U 
carred glass tube, having a platina wire hermetically sealed •****"^ "*• 
ia its upper extremity, was filled with sulphur. [See our 
last Number, PI. YIl, Fig. 4.] The sulphur was melted 



Lecture, 1808, p. 16; or Journal, Vol. xx»p. 30f. 
Yau XXIII. No. l06.*-SuppLCMSNT. Y over 



J2S ANALTTICAL EXPERIMENTS ON SCLPHUIl* 

• 

over a spirit lamp ; and a proper connection being made 

with the Toltaic apparatus of one hundred plates of six 

inches, in great activity, a contact was made in the sulphur 

by means of another platina wire. A most brilliant sparky 

which appeared orange coloured through the sulphur, was 

prodaced, and a minute portion of elastic fluid rose to tli* 

upper extremity of the tube. By a continuation of the 

Sulphuretted process for nearly an hour^ a globule equal to about the 

d 3*"^"^ tenth of an inch in diameter was obtained, which, when 

examined, was found to be sulphuretted hidrogen. 

"But the sulphur This result perfectly coincided with those which hare 
might haye con-- . . , • ^t i i ^i t « « • 

tained water, oe^n just mentioned; but as the sulphur that I had used 

was merely in its common state, and as the ingeoions ex- 
periments of Dr. Thompson have shown, that sulphur in 
certain forms may contain water, I did not venture, at that 
time, to form any conclusion upon the subject. 
* The expert- In the summer of the present year, I repeated the ex. 

mcnt repeated p^nment with every precaution. The sulphur that I em. 

phiir. ployed was Sicilian sulphur, that had been recently sob. 

limed in a retort filled with nitrogen gas, and that had been 
kept hot till the moment that it was used. The power ap. 
plied was that of the ba'ttcry of fiye hundred double plates 
of six inches, highly charged. In this case the action wat 
' most intense, the heat strong, and the light extremel/ 
brilliant; the sulphur soon entered into ebullition, elastic 
matter Was formed in great quantities, much of which was 
permanent; and the sulphur, from being of a pureyelfowy 
became of' a deep red brown tint. 

llulphurettcd The gas, as in the former instance, proved to be sulpha. 

ducirf*"Sdr '®'*^ hidrogen. The platina wires were considerablj 

put of the sal- acted upon; the sulphur, at its point of contact with 

phuracidiiied? fljg,^ had obtained the power of reddening moistened 
Laif e quantity .. ' * o w— 

•Tolfed. Imitus paper. 

I endeavoured to ascertain the quantity of sulphuretted 

hidrogen evolved in this way from a given quantity of snU 

.; . phur, and for tliis purpose, I electrized a quantity equal to 

about two hundred grains in an apparatus of the kind I 

have just described, and when the upper part of the tube 

was full of gas, I suffered it to pass into the atmosphere; 

so as to enable me to repeat the process. 

■■'' . . When 



"Whcii I operated in thin way, there seemed io be no • 
limit to the generation of elastic fluid, and in about two 
hoars a quantity had been e?olTed, which amounted to more 
than dve times the volnme of the sulphur employed. From 
the circumstances of the experiment, the last portion only 
could be examined, and this proved to be sulphuretted 
hidrogen. Towards the end of the process, the sulphur 
became extremely difficult of fusion, and almost opaque, 
ftnd when cooled and broken, was found of a dirty brown 
colon fk 

The experimetits upon the union of sulphur and potas. Sulphur and 
Slum, which I laid before the Society last year, prore that ^^^^'"^ph^. 
these bodies act upon each other with great energy, and retted hidrogen* 
that sulphuretted hidrogen is evolyed in the process, with 
intense beat and light. 

In heating potassidm in contact with compound in* po^Qium hest*^ 
flammable substances, such as resin^ wax, camphor, and ed with com- 
lixed oils, in close Tessels out of the contact of the air, I ^aixnabtaik 
fonnd, that a violent inflammation was oocasioned: that * ' 

Ikidrocarbonate was erohred ; and that when the compound ,■ \/« 

was not in great excess, a substance was formed, :sponta« pyrophonte. * 
Heonsly inflammable at common temperatures, the comu 
bustible materials of which were charcoal and potassium. - 

» 

Here was a strong analogy between the action of these xnalogiof. 
iNidies and sulphur on potassium. Their physical pro^^ 
perties likewise resemble those of sulphur ; for they agree 
In being nonconductors, whether' fluid or solid,' in being 
transparent when fluid, and semitrans parent when solid, 
fend highly refractive; their aflections by electricity are 
likewise similar to those of sulphur; for the oily bodies 
give out hidrocarhonate by the agency of the voltaic spark, 
tad become brown, as if from the deposition of carbonace* 
ons matter. 

But the resinous atid oily substances are compounds of a Hidrogen cer« 
imall quantity of hidrogen and oxigen, with a large quan. ^^P"^^ exisuia 
tity of a carbonaceous basis. The existence of hidrogen in 
•nlphur is fully proved, and we have no right to consider a 
substance, which can be produced from it in such Jargo 
quantities, merely as an accidental ingredient* 

ya Tu 

/ 



924 4iri«Tn€A£ snmLiMiyTf on avwrau 

Attempt to ••• TIm oilj sabstancet in conbusdoB produce two or diree 

certain whether ^i^,^ ^^ weWit of carbooic ftcid Mid 8ome water. I 
folphur form , , ^ ... # j • ^i. 

water by barn- eodeaTotired to wcertam^ whether water waa remea in Una 

inif in dry combustion of sulphur in oxigen gas, dried by exposure to 
potash ; but in this case sulphureous acid is produced ia 
much larger quantities than sulphuric acid, and this last 
product is condensed with great difiicuity. In cases, how* 
eTcr, in which I have obtained, by applying artificial cold^ 
a deposidos of acid in the form of a film of dew in glasa 
retorts out of the contact of the atmosphere, in which snU 
phor had been burned in oxigen gas hygrometricaUy dry, it 
has appeared to me less tenacious and lighter than the com* 
moB sttipfctirie acid of commerce, which in the most con* 
CMtratod form in which I hare seen it, namely^ at 1*854^ 
gave abundance of hidrogen as well as sulpbof at the 

^.- negative serface in the Toltaic circuit, and hence eiideiitly 

eDOtained w»ter. 
Tbe reddening of the litmus paper, by sulphur that b^ 
acted on by Toltaie eiectridty, might be ascribed 10 ili 
ftni tte i ni n g some of the sulphuretted hidrogen fooned i» tta 
pfoeess ; but even the production of this gas, as nqil be 
bMMdintely seen^ is an evidence of the existence of oxigea 
in sniphur. 

In my early experiments on potassium, procured by dec* 
tridty, I heated small globules of potassium in large qnaa* 
tides of sulphuretted hidrogen, and I found that snlphnret 
•f potash was formed; but thb might be owing to the 
water dissoWed in the gas, and I ventured to drasr no con* 
elision till I had tried the experiment in an unobjectkmaMc 
manner. 

taibctlj driedf I heated four gndns of potassium in a retort of the eda- 
city of twenty cubical inches ; it bad been filled after tb# 
usual processes of exhaustion with sulphuretted hidrogeBy 
dried by means of muriate of lime that had been heated ta 
whiteness; as soon as the potassium fused, 'white fnme^ 
were copiously emitted, and the potassium soon took fiis^ 
and burnt with a most brilliant flamci yellow in the centif 

and red towards the circumference*. 

Tbe 

* In the Moiuteur, May Tt, 1808, in' the account of M. M, 
Pay-Lussac and llienard's experiments, it is mentioned, that 

, potassium 



•diatiil- 
phivettei 

hidfOgCD* 



tookfiie. 



\ 



Ayu.mcA]; EXpmiHCVTs on tiTLrHrit. 



r 

H Tlw diiuinnlion or (he Tolume of IIieelaEiic mattFr, in'^vin^ Wn^ 
H (kii operation, liid not «juftl more than two inbical iuche**'^" ***" 
H and a hair. A vL-ry small quantity of the rcsidnal gas 
H an\y was ftb«orbabk by water. Tie nouabsorbable gas 
^P WM bidrogen, holding a niinote qnantity of sulphur in so. 

Imtiou. 

A ydlo* sublimate liued the upper part of the relgrt, tad luipbui 

virkh pro»cd to be suljihur. The solid matter formed was s^id'""'tttt 

»tsrfai thcsurrat^'likcsulphnrctof potash, but in the in. 
icrior it was dark gray, tike eulphurct of polaxsium. The 
(liece of the retort containing it was introduced into a jar 
biTertgd ovor mercury, and acted upon by a fcOMlt quantity 
of diSM muriatic acid, diluted with au equal weight of 
wMei\ when there were disengaged two cubical inches and 

tft^HUter of gas, which proied to be sulphuretted hiilrogen. 
In another experiment, in which eight graiiu of potas. Eiticiimcnt 
•hm were healed in a TL'tort of the capacity of twenty [ei>F&i>tl- 
MiWoJ inches, containing about oinetceu cubical inches of 
nlphnrettud hidrogiMi, and a cubical inch of phoiphu retted 
Jtnlrogen, which ivas introduced for the purpose of absorb- 
^_iBg tbo ozigen of the ouall quantity of common air ad. 
^HpitMd by the stop.cock, the inflammation took place at 
^Hbifore; there was a similar prccipitatioo of sulphur oa the 
^■•tdaa of the retort j the mans formed in the place of the 
JiMushini was orange externally, aodof adark gray colour 
(ntemlly, as in the last instance; and when acted on by a 
litde water holding muriatic acid in solulioD, there were 
•rtriTcd from it live cubical inches only of lulphurctfad 
fcidrogon. 

fioUr thcce experiments concur in proTing the existenceof ^"'X'ip'Bia 
k principle in sulphuretted hidrogeo, capable of destroying hidrogen pn^ 
partially the inflammability of potassium, and of producing docmg tha 
npon it ell the eflecta of oiigen ; for had the potassium com- oji_J^ 
Wiwd mervly inlh pure combustible matter, it ought, as 
will be seen distinctly from what follows, to baTccrolted 
liy the action of the acid a toIuioo of sulphuretted 

mium abtorlis llie tulphur and a part of the hidiogen of sul- 
Ucd hidragi^n; but lii« phcnomeDouuT inJlamnialian is not 

■ntioiieilj not aie llie i«:ulU deircibed. 

hiilrogei) 



33$ ANALYTICAL EXPERIMENTS OK SULPSUa. 

hidrogon, at least equal to that of the hidrogeo, which an 
equal weight of uncombined potassium would have pro« 
duced by its operation upon water. 

Sulphur heated Sulphuretted hidrogen, as has been long known to ch&t 

^ ^^^' mists, may be formed by heating sulphur strongly in hidro* 
gen gas. I heated four grains of sulphur in a glass retort, 
containing about twenty cubical inches of hidrogen, by 
means of a spirit lamp, and pushed the heat nearly to redp 
ness. There was no perceptible change of volume in the 
gas aftgr tlie process ; the sulphur that had sublimed was 
iinaltered in its properties, and about three cubical inches 
of an clastic fluid absorbable by water were formed: the 
solution reddened litmus, and had all the properties of a 

Oxigeninsul- solution of pure sulphuretted hidrogen. Now if we sup. 

^ ^ pose sulphuretted hidrogon to be constituted by sulphur 

dissolved in its unaltered state in hidrogen, and allow the 
existence of oxlgen in this gas ; its existence must likewise 
he allowed in sulphur, for we have no right to assume^ 
that sulphur in sulphuretted hidrogen is combined with more 
oxigen than in its common form : it is well known, thaty 
ifhen electrical sparks are passed through sulphurette4 
hidrogen, a considerable portion of sulphur is separated, 
ifithout any alteration in the volume of the gas. This ex-r 
periment I have made more than once, and I found that the 
sulphur obtained, in fusibility, combustibility, and other 
sensible properties, did not perceptibly ditfer from comnioa 
sublimed sulphur. 

accounts for Its According to these ideas, the intense ignition produced 

• • • • 

intense igriiion ^ ^^^ action of sulphur, on potassium and sodium, must 

Witl; potassium. ^ 171 , •„ 

not be ascribed merely to the affinity of the netal of the 

alkalis for its basis, but may be attributed likewise to thf 

agency of the oxigen that it contains. 

The minute examination of the circumstances of the 

action of potassium and sulphur likewise confirms th^^ 

opinions. 
Farther con- When two grains of potassium and one of sulphur were 
^"^^ heated gently in a green glass tube filled with hidrogen, 

and connected with a pneumatic apparatus, there was sk 

most intense ignition produced by the action of the two 

bodies, and one eighth of a cubical inch of gas was dis* 

engage^ 



ANALTTICAL EXPKRIMENTS ON lULPHtTB. 3^ 

-engaged, which was sulphuretted hidrogen. The compound 
was exposed in a mercurial apparatus to the action of liquid 
' muriatic acid ; when a cubical inch and a quarter of aeri- 
form matter was produced, which proved to be pure sttl. 
phu retted hidrogen. 

The same experiment was repeated, except that four 
grains of sulphur were employed instead of one. In this 
case, a quarter of a cubical inch of gas was disengaged 
during the process of combination ; and when the com^* 



-* 



J J 



pound was acted upon by muriatic acid, only three quarten 
of a cubical inch of sulphuretted hidrogen were obtained. 

Now, sulphurat of potash produces sulphuretted hidro- 
gen by the action of an acid ; and if the sulphur had not 
contained oxigen, the hidrogen eyolyed by the action of 
the potassium in both these experiments ought to hard 
equalled at least two cubical inclies, and the whole quantity 
of sulphuretted hidrogen ought to hare been more : and 
that so much less sulphuretted hidrogen was cToIved in the 
second experiment, can only be ascribed tQ the larger 
quantity of. oxigen furnbhed to the potassium by the larger 
quantity of the sulphur. 

I have made several experiments of this kind with similar SeTent exped- 

results. Whenever equal quantities of potassium were *"5"^' ™?^* 

, with similar 

combined with unequal quantities of sulphur, and cxptitsed results. 

afterward to the action of muriatic acid, the largest ^ 

quantify of sulphuretted hidrogen was furnished by the 

product containing the smallest proportion of sulphur'; and '* 

in no case was the quantity of gas equal in volume to the 

quantity of hidrogen, which would have been prodnced by 

the mere action of potassium upon water. 

From the general tcnour of these various facts, it will Composition of 
not be, I trust, unreasonable to assume, that sulphur, in^^'P^"^* 
Its common state, is a compound of small quantities of 
oxigen and hidrogen with a large quantity of a basis, that 
produces the acids of sulphur in combustion, and whichj 
on account of its strong attractions for other bodies, it will 
Jifobibly be very difficult to obtain in its pure form. 

In metallic combinations even, if still probably retains 
Its oX]g(*n and part of its hidrogen. IfCetallic snlphnrets 
can only* be piarfially decomposed by l^^t, and t|?b!smaU 

|. . ^ ' ^ quantity 



328 AVAliTTIGAL EXPBftlMlim OH TBOIFBO&US. 

qnimfitjrof sulpImr'eTolTed from them in this case wbes 
perfecdj dry and out of the contact of air, as I foond m 
aa experiment on the sulpharet of copper and iron, ensta 
fai its common state, and acts upon potassium, and is 
affected by electricitj, in the same manner as natiTe suU 
^ar. 

4* Analytical Experimenis on Phosphorus. 
Me^oluet The same analogies apply to phosphorus as to sulphnr, 

JJS*2^]** and I have made a similar series of experiments on tliis in« 

flammable substance. 
>^^cd oa4)y Common electrical sparks, passed through phosphorus, 

did not evolve from it any permanent gas ; bnt when it was 

acted npon by the voltaic electricity of the battery of five 

hundred plates in the same manner as sulphur, gas was pro. 

dnced in considerable quantities, and the phosphorosbecama 

of a deep red brown colour, like phosphorus that has been 

evolved phas- inflamed and extinguished under water. The gas examined 

JJ^]^^ f roved to be phosphuretted hidrogen, and in one experi* 

ment, continued for some hours, a quantity estimated to be 

nearly equal to four times the volume of the phosphoroa 

employed was given ofll The light of the voltaic spark in 

the phosphorus was at first a brilliant yellow, but as the 

colour of the phosphorus changed, it appeared orange. 

TMnKum heat- I heated three ^ins of potassium in sixteen cubical incbea 

^^^^^ll^^ of phosphuretted hidjrogen ; as soon as it was fused, the 

erogen. retort became filled with white fumes, and a reddish sub^ 

stance predpitated upon the sides and upper part of It. 

The heat was applied for some minutes* No inflammation 

took place*. When the retort was cool, the absorptieaa 

was found to be less than a cubical inch. The potasriua 

externally was of a deep brown colour, internally it was of 

e dull lead colour. The residual gas had lost its property 

of spontaneous inflammation^ but seemed still to contaia a 

sflsall quantity of phosphorus in solution. 

* It is stated, in the acsccNUtt bdbre referred to of M. M. Gey- 
Ziusac and Thenard's experiments^ that potassiuili inflames in 
phosphuretted hldro^en. My experiments upon this gas have beea 
eften repeated. I have never perceived any luminous appeanmctL} 
]Mt I have always ojierated in dajligfat. 

6 the 



•irith 



^^P Tbe pbosphuret acted upon o(cr mercurj' b^ solution of 
^^ptrialic acid evolfud onl^ one cubical lacti aud three quar. 
^^ers of phosphuiutlcd liiilrogeti. 

From ihui experiment there i» great reason to suppose, PhofphuroiiPd 
thit phosphurettLfl hidrogcu cuntains a minute proportion*!'!*"'*''"""' 
of oxlgen, and consequently that phosphorus likewise may 
£ontaiD it; but the action of polossiuin on phosphorus 
itself furnishes perhaps more direet avidcncus of thti cir. 
cu instance. 

One grain of potassium and one grain of phosphorus Photphorw 
were fused togethi;r in a proper apparatus. They combined [JJitj,,*',^^ 
irith the production of the most rivid light and intense 

Ditioa. During the prucess one tentli of a cubical inch of 
ilosphuretled hidrogen was ciolved. The phosphuret 
Ibrmed, exposed to the action of diluted muriatic acid over 
mercury, produced exactly three tenths of a cubical inch 
of phosphurcttcd hidrogen. 

la a iccoiid experiment, one grain of potassium was Eip'-tWtnt r*- 
foied with three grains of phosphorus ; in this ease nearly ''"' ' 
a quarter of a cubical inch of phosphuretled hidrogeu was 
gmwiited during the ignition. But from the cotnprtund ex- 
posed to muriatic acid, only one tenth of a cubical inch 
could ba procured. 

Now it is not easy to refer the deficiency of pliospbu retted Phospho-m 
hidrogen in the secu.id ca.^e to any otlier cause, than to the""'^'"'"'*'*' 
supply of oxigen to the potassium from the phosphorus: 

I and the quantity of phosphuretled hidrogco erolved in the 
IrsI case is mucli le^s than could be expected, if both 
Btawlum and phosphorus consisted merely of pure com. 
Bstible matter, 
r The phosphoric acid, farmed hy the combustion of phos. PhOTphorip acid 
Boras, though a crysUlIine solid, may still contain water. ""* ""'"n 
Whe hidrogen erolred from phosphorus by electricity proves 
TD^ced, that thit must he the cage; and though the quantity 
of hidrogen and oxigen in phosphorus may be exceedingly 
MnalJ, yet they may be sufficient (o giro it peculiar charac. 
il till the basts is obtained free, we shall hare no 
Iftowludge of the properties of the pure phosphoric ale- 



330 



•N THE CARBOSTACSOUS PRIirarLB. 



Plumbago, 
c)iarcoaI, aiid 



ronnst princi- 



but with cho- 
aiicdl (liffer- 
•ticies. 

Ftunibago 
pU 



5. On the States of the carbonaceous Principle in Plumbag9f 

Cfutrcoaly and the Diamof d. 

The accurate researches of Messrs. Allen and Pepys have 
distinctly proved, that plumbago, charcoal, and the diamond 
produce very nearly the same quantities of carbonic acid, 
and absorb very nearly the same quantities of oxigen ia 
combustion. 

Hence it is crident, that they mast consist principally of 
pally or the ^Yic same kind of elementary matter: but minute researches 
upon their chemical relations, when examined by new ana* 
Jytical methods, Mill, I am inclined to beliere, show, that 
the great diflcrencc in their physical properties does not 
merely depend upon the differences of the mechanical ar. 
rangement of their parts, but likewise upon differences in 
their intimate chemical nature. 

I endeavoured to discover, whether any elastic matter 
thrtpUe in ^ co"Id be obtained from plumbago very intensely ignited by 
the Voltaic battery in a Torricellian vacuum : but though 
the highest power of the battery of five hundred was em- 
ployed, and though the heat was such, as in another ex- 
periment ip.stantly mplted plitiua wire of ^^^th of an inch 
in diameter, 3'et no appearance of change: took place upon 
the plumbago. Its characters rrmn.ined wholly unaltered^ 
and no permanent elastic fluid was formed. 

I heated one grain of plumbago, with twice its weight of 
potassium, in a plate glass tube connected with a proper 
apparatus, and I hcate4 4n equal quantity of potassium 
alone in a tube of the same kind, for an equal length q( 
time, namely, eight minutes. Both tubes were filled will 
hidrogcn : no gas was evolved in either case^ There was no 
ignition in the tube containing the plumbago, but it seemed 
gradually to combine with the potassium. The two re^oltl 
were exposed to the action of water ; the result from tl|€ 
plumbago acted ui)qn that fluid with a§ mucl; energy as tlw 
other result, jjnd the two volumes of elastic fluids were H 
cubical inch and 1-9 cubical inch; and both gave tlia 
same diminution by detonation witli oxigen, as pure hfc 
drogen. Two grains of potassium, by acting upon watag 
would have produced two cubical inches and one eighA 



K«Jted with 
potas^iuin in 
Jkidrogcn gas. 



ON THE CARBONACEOUS PRINOIPLS, JSlI 

pf liidrogon gas ; the deficiency in the result, in which . 
ipatassiam alone was used, must be ascribed to the loss of a 
■mail quantity of metal, which must haye been carried off 
in lolation 'in the hidrogcnt and perhaps, likewise, to the 
action of the minute quantity of nietaliic oxides in the plate 
glass. The diO'cruncc in tiie. quantity of hidrogen gi?en off 
in the two results is hpwevpr too slight, to ascribe it to the 
ciittcnce of oxigen in the piumbago. 

I repeated this experiment several times with like re* The expeii- 
salts, and in two or three instances examined the compound in«nt repeated. 
formed. It was infusible at a red heat, had the lustre of 
plumbago. It inflamed spontaneously, when. exposed to 
^ir, generated potash, and left a black powdeiy residuum^ 
It effervesced most violeiitly in waiter, and produced a gas, 
which burnt like pure hidrogen. 

When small pieces of charcoal from the willow, that had Charcoal acted 

been intensely ii;nitcd, were acted upon by Voltaic electri- "P®*? ^^ **^*^ 
J " 7 r J . . p^g ji^ vacuo* 

city in a Torricellian yacuum, every precaution being taken 
to ex;ciude moisture from the mercury and the charcoal, the 
resnlts were very dililTeut from those occurring in the case 
pf plumbago. 

When plumbago was used, after the first spark, which 
generally passed through a distance of about one eighth of 
an inch, there was no contiiuiation of light, without a coUr 
tact or an approach to the same distance; but from the 
charcoal a flame seemed to issue of a most brilliant purple, ^ purple flame 
and formed, as it were, a conducting chain of light of nearly formed, 
an inch in length, at the same time t^^^ ^^^^^ic matter was ^^^^^Ij^j^^ 
rapidly formed, some of which was permanent. A fterter evolved, 
ipany unsuccessful trials, I at length succeeded in collecting 
tile quantity of elastic fluid given out by half a grain of 
charcoal; the process iiad been continued nearly half an 
hoar. The quantity of gas amounted to nearly an eighth 
pit a cubical incli ; it was inflammable by the electric spark 
with oxigen gas, and four measures of it absorbed three 
Veasures of oxigen, and produced one measure and a half 
of carbonic acid. The charcoal in this experiment had be- 
come harder at the point, and its lustre, where it had been 
lieated to whiteness, approached to that of plumbago. 

I heate4 two grains of potassium together with two grains charcoal heat- 



38S •« m CARBON ACBOUB fRXVCtfLB. 

dl with poui- of cbarcoal, for fire minutci ; and to eitimate the dfeetr of 
*^**^* the metallic oxidet and potash in the green glaaa tabe, I 

nade a comparatiTe experiment, as in the cascof plombago; 
iHit there was no proof of anj oxigen being fumiahed ti^ 
the potasrium from the charcoal in the process, far the 
oomponnd acted upon water widi grsat energy, and prodooed 
a quantity of inflamiBable gas, only inferior by one twolftk 
to that produced by tiie potassinsi, whieh had not beea 
combined with charcoal, and which gare the same diminn* 
tion by detonation with oxigen ; and the tfight diiereacs 
nay be well ascribed to the influence of foreign matters itt 
the charcoal . There was no ignition in the proeess, mmi 
no gas was erolrod. 
Compoondpro- The compound produced in other experiments of thb 
kind was examined. It is a conductor of electiicity, is of 
a dense black, inflames spontaneously, and bnins with a 
deep red light in the atmosphere*. 
Dnmond coaM The nonconducting nature of the diamond, and its taffoH* 
JJ'th**ii'^^ bility, rendered it impossible to act upon it by ToUaie 
electridty ; and the only new agents which seemed to oAr 
any means of decomposing it, were the metals 0t tht 
alkalis. 
Heated with When a diamond is heated in a green glass tube wiCb pOb 

1^^^^^*^^^ tassium, there is no elastic fluid giTcn out, and no inUiusty 
of action ; but the diamond soon blackens, and scdtt 
seem to detach thcmscWcs from it, and these scales, wtal 
examined in the magnifier, are gray externally, and of tti 
colour of plumbago internally, as if they consisted e( 
plumbago covered by the gray oxide of potassium, 
likidrogen gaSi In heating together three grains of diamonds in powdill^ 
and two grains of potassium, for an hour, in a small reWl 
of plate glass filled with hidrogen, and making the eoilq^ 
ratiTC trial with two grains of potassium heated in a sinlfltf 
apparatus, without any diamonds, I found, that the pA 
assium which had been heated with the diamonds prodnctfi^ 
by its action upon water, one cubical inch and -^ of M 

* In the Bakerian Lecture for 1 807, I have mentioned the # ft 
composition of carbonic acid by potassium, which takes place vilk W^ 
inflammation. If the potassium is in exce;is in this experiment, WW 
same pyrophorus as that described above is formed. I 

fiammaUil 



~ as tas CAR1O.MCE0U5 PRIMCIfLC. ^53 

flamiBable iit, and that which had been cxpoMiI to heAt 
alune, &II other circumslaacesbciag similar, evolved ncHrl^ 
one cubk^U iuch and ,',, both i>f wbicli were pure Iii- 
itoffta. 

In aaotber eJi|!erimeDt of a siinilar kind, in whicb frag-A 'imilir «» 
menti of diamonds were tised in the qitaniity of four grains,''^""'""' 
the poUtssiam became extremely black from itb action upon 
lluBi during an exposure to heat for three hours, and the 
dUmonds uerc covered with a grsyiih crust, and when acted 
upoQ tiy wafer aad dried, we»e found to have lost about 
,*g*, of a grain in weight. The matter separated by washing, 
and examined, appeared as a fine powder of a dense black, 
crdour. When a surface of plalina wire was covered with 
ir. and made to touch aRother wire in the Voltaic circuit, 
1 brilliant gparit with combustion occurred. It burnt, when 
LeaUd to redness in a green glass tubt; filled ivilh oxigen gas, 
ud produced carbonic acid by its combustion. 

These general resuils seem to show, that in plumbago tfaepiumka^. 
CUbooaceauf clement exists merely in combination with 
itoa, and i[i a form which may be regarded as approaching 
U tbat of & metdl in its Duture, being conducting in a high 
4grec, opaque, and posbesaing considerable lustie. 

Charcoal appears to contain n minute quantity of hidro. ChircoiL 

|M in combination. Possibly likewise, the alkalis and 

wt^ pfodnccd during its combustion eiist in It not fully 

tVttbillBd with osigen ; and according to these ideas, it is 

4m]r compounded substance, though iu tiie main it coiu 

•f the pure carhoaaccous element. 

-The expcrimculs on the diamoad render it extremely] 

Ij^ that it contains oxigen; but the quantity must be 

in^y minute, though probably sufiicient to render tha 

ipound bonconducting: and if the carbonaceous dement 

diorroai and thH diamond be considered as united to still 

foreign matter in quaniily, than in plumbago, which 

lins about ^ of iron, the results of their combustion, 

id indepundently of hygrometrical tests, will not 

perceptibly. 

Whovrer considers ibe diHerence between iron and steel, Hinnte diffcri 

trhich there does not eiist more than ^^ of plumbago, 

thfl dJffeiCQce batwaen the amaigam of ammoniuraaad 

mercury, 



Jiffc*. 



S2S ANALTTICAL EXPERIMENTS ON SCLPHUfi* 

• 

OTer a spirit lamp ; and a ])ropcr connection being made 
with the Toltaic apparatus of one hundred plates of six 
inches, in great actifity, a contact was made in the sulphur 
by means of another platina wire. A most brilliant sparky 
which appeared orange coloured through the sulphur, was 
produced, and a minute portion of elastic fluid rose to tlia 
upper extremity of the tube. By a coutinuation of the 
Sulphuretted process for nearly an hour^ a globule equal to about the 
hidr^npro- ^gnth of an inch in diameter was obtained, which, when 
examined, was found to be sulphuretted hidrogen. 

Vnt the sulphur This result perfectly coincided with those which hare 
miirhr have con-- . , . « « i i ▼ « , • 

tamed water, ^e^n just mentioned ; but as the sulphur that I had used 

was merely in its common state, and as the ingenious ex- 
periments of Dr. Thompson have shown, that sulphur in 
certain forms may contain water, I did not venture, at that 
time, to form any conclusion upon the subject. 
* The expert- In the summer of the present year, I repeated the ex- 

mcnt repeated p^tixnent with every precaution. The sulphur that I em. 

with pure sul- ■^, ^ , it^j. 

phyr. ployed was Sicilian sulphur, that had been recently sab. 

limed in a retort filled with nitrogen gas, and that had been 

kept hot till the moment that it was used. The power ap. 

plied was that ot the ba'ttery of five hundred double platet 

of six inches, highly charged. In this case the action was 

' most intense, the heat strong, and the light extremely 

brilliant; the sulphur soon entered into ebullition, elastic 

matter was formed in great quantities, much of which was 

permanent; and the sulphur, from being of a pureyelfow^ 

became of' a deep red brown tint. 

Ikilphuretted The gas, as in the former instance, proved to be sulpha. 

diwaf*"Sd^ retted hidrogen. The platina wires were considerabljr 

partof tliesul- acted upon; the sulphur, at its point of contact with 

phuracidified? fljg^ had obtained the power of reddening moistened 

huge quantitjT . ' '^ ° 

cvoWcd. limtus paper. 

t endeavoured to ascertain the quantity of sulphuretted 

hidrogen evolved in this way from a given quantity of 8al« 

phur, and for tliis purpose, I electrized a quantity equal to 

about two hundred grains in an apparatus of the kind I 

have just described, and when the upper part of the tub^ 

was full of gas, I suffered it to pass into tlic atmosphere; 

so as to enable me to repeat the process. 

. . When 



J/-. 



When I operated in this way, there seemed to be no • 
limit to the generation of elastic fluid, and in about two 
hours a quantity had been evolved, which amounted to more 
than Ave times the rolnme of the sulphur employed. From 
the circumstances of the experiment, the last portion only 
could be examined, and this proved' to be sulphuretted 
liidrogen. Towards the end of the process, the sulphur 
became extremely difficult of fusion, and almost opaque, 
knd when cooled and broken, was found of a dirty brown 
colon fk 

The experiments upon the union of sulphur and potas« ^^ulphurand 
ainm, which I laid before the Society last year, prove that ^^f^e sSphu- 
these bodies act upon each other with great energy, and retted hidrogeo. 
that sulphuretted hidrogen is evolved in the process, with 
intense heat and light. 

In heating potassium in contact with compound in* potassium heal»- 
flammable substances, such as 'resin, wax, camphor, and ed with conk- 
fixed oils, in close vessels out of the contact of the air, I ^iiiiiAblci» 
found, that a violent inflammation was occasioned; that ' i 

iddrocarbonate was evolved ; and that when the compound . 'i^ . 

was not in great ex(^ess, a substance was formed, rsponta- py^phorib. ' 
lieonflly inflammable at common temperatures, the com« 
bustible materials of which were charcoal and potassium. - 

Here was a strong analogy between the action of these Analogies. 
Iiodies and sulphur on potassium. Their physical pro* 
perties liliewisc resemble those of snlphur; for they agree 
In being nonconductors, whether' fluid or solid^ in being 
transparent when fluid, and semitrans parent when solid, 
ind highly refractive; their aflections by electricity are 
likewise similar to those of sulphur; for the oily bodies 
giro out hidrocarbonatc by the agency of the voltaic spark, 
land become brown, as if from the deposition of carbonace^ 
ons matter. 

But the resinous and oily substances are Compounds of a Hidrogen cer« 
tmall quantity of hidrogen and oxigen, with a large quan* ^^''^^y exists ia 
tity of a carbonaceous basis. The existence of hidrogen in 
•nlphnr is fully proved, and we have no right to consider a 
substance, which can be produced from it in such Jargo 
qnantities, merely as an accidental ingredient* 

y 2 Tha 



924 AMMMm^Jo^ imEiMiHTf oir tvi^xnu 

Attempt to at* Tk^ Oily tabstenGei in conbustioB produce two or three 
certun whether g^j^ ^^^ wcM*t of carboDic acid and some water. I 

•ulphur form ^ - 

water by bum- eodearoitred to ascertain^ whether water was formed in tbo 

ing in dry combustion of sulphur in oxigen gas, dried by exposure to 

potash ; but in tliis case sulphureous acid if produced in 



much larger quantities than sulphuric acid, and this last 
product is condensed with great difficulty. In cases, how* 
ever, in which I have obtained^ by applying artificial cold^ 
a deposition of acid in the form of a film of dew in giaae 
retorts out of the contact of the atmosphere, in which snU 
phor had been burned in oxigen gas hygrometrieaUy dry, it 
has appeared to me less tenadons and lighter than the com* 
man snMnrie acid of commerce^ which in the most cos* 
Cfltttrated form in which I hare seen it, namely^ at l'86#f 
gate abundance of hidrogen as well as sulphur aft tiio 
natatfve sniface in the Toltaic circuit, and hence evidently 
nsflkftained wnter. 

The reddening of tiie litmus paper, bjr sulphur that h(|d 
baen acted on by voltaic electricity, might be ascribed ti»i^ 
#Bii<ninhig some of the sulphuretted hidrogen fonned in tta 
pr neem ; but even the production of this gas, as nrill bo 
Imnnriiately seen, is an evidence of the existence of oxigea 
in snlphnr. 

In my early experiments on potassium, procured by dec. 

^^■JSiti Mcity, I heated small globules of potassium in large qnna* 

^iiOngau ^^^^ o^ sulphuretted hidrogen, and I found that snlphnioft 
•f potash was formed; but this might be owing to the 
water disiolved in the gas, and I rentured to draw no con* 
elusion till I had tried tlM experiment in an nnolijectionaUa 
■manner. 

HtAcOf dried, ' heated four grains of potassium in a retort of the capa. 
city of twenty cubical inches ; it liad been filled after th# 
usual processes of exhaustion with sulphuretted hidrogea^ 
dried by aseans of muriate of lime that had been heated to 
whiteness; as soon as the potassium fused, 'white fnuM^ 

took fire, ^ere copiously emitted, and the potassium soon took fif% 

and burnt with a most brilliant flame, yellow in tiie centrf 
and red towards the circumference *• 

Tim 

* In the Moruteur, May Tl, 1808, in'the account of M. M^ 

Pay-Lussac and Thenard's experiments, it is mentioned, that 

, potassium 



\ 



I 



JtMAlTTtCAL EKPTStXESTS ON SULi-Brit. 536 

Tit diminntion of the toIthhc of tbedutic malfcr, in'M'inE l"J— 
ttiia operaiioo, did no< equal more than two cubical indH-*""" ^"' 
and a haif. A very small quantity of the rcsidnal gas 
•nl; was absorhabic by irater. Ttte nouabsorbable gas 
hidrog;i»i, holding a niioute quantit)' of sulphitr iu ao- 
UMoa. 

A irdiow tublimare lined the upper part of the retorl, ui<) (uiptiuc 
wUcb pro»ed to bn sulphur. The solid matter formed was '"J^'i"'"'- 

' ' Solid ttaixtu 

Bt the surraiv like snlpliuret of potash, but in the in. 
tirior it wu dark trray, likcsulphuret of potufsium. The 
frieee of li>e retort cunlaining It was introduced into a jar 
laterted over mcri^ury, and acted opon by a small quanlitj 
of dense muriatic acid, diluted with an cqaaJ weight of 
water, when there were disengaged two cubical inches and 
fe^uicr of gas, which prccd to be sul]ihiiralted hidrogea. 

1b another experiment, in which eight grains of potas. Ei^nnieiit 
•l«in were heated in a retort of the capadty of twenty 'et'"'"''- 
Cukicftl iaclies, containing about oioeleiii cubical indies of 
nlphuretted bidrogcti, anil a cubical inch of phosphurelted 
llidrogen, which nas introduced fur the purpose of absorb- 
ing tbc ongea of Iht* xuall quaoUty of common air ad< 
ntittcd by the atop-cuck, tlic inllammation took place aa 
btton ; there was a similar precipitatioa of sulphur on the 
•idra of the retort ; the maKs formed in the place of the 
pMUsiam was orange externally, and of a dark gray colour 
bterntily, at in the last instance ; and when acted on by « 
little water holding muriatic acid in solution, there were 
•votrad from it five cubical inches only of tulphurettwl 
hidrogeo. 

Botb these experiments concur in profing the existence of ^n<^ple>» 
k prindple in sulphuretted hidrogen, capable of destroying hydrogen or* 
pBrtially the inflammability of potassium, and of producing blueing ths 
apon it all the eflccts of oxigeu ; for had the potassium com- ^^^^^ 
lerely with pure combustible matter, it ought, as 
seen distinclly from what follows, to bare cTut?«<J 
action of the acid a voluioo of Kulphuretted 

n sbsoibs the sulpliur and a part of the hidrogon of sul- 
1 liidrogt'ii; but ih« plienomenon of iutUmniation is not 
^, not are Lite ivnilti dncribed. 

hidrogea 



32( AKALTTICAL EXPERIMENTS OIT SULPHUB. 

hidrogen^ at least equal to that of the hidrogeD, which 'ai| 
eqnal weight of uncombined potassium would have pro^ 
duced by its operation upon water. 

Sulphur heated Sulphuretted hidrogen, aa has been long known to ch&t 

n rogen. ^jg^g^ may be formed by heating sulphur strongly in hidroe 
gen gas. I heated four grains of sulphur in a glass retort, 
containing about twenty cubical inches of hidrogen, by 
means of a spirit lamp, and pushed the heat nearly to red* 
ness. There was no perceptible change of Toluroe in the 
gas aft^ the process ; the sulphur that had sublimed was 
Yinaltercd in its properties, and about three cubical inches 
of an clastic fluid absorbable by*water were formed: the 
solution reddened litmus, and had all the properties of a 

Oxigeninsul- solution of pure sulphuretted hidrogcn. Now if we sup. 

^ -^ pose sulphuretted hidrogen to be constituted by sulphur 

dissolved in its unaltered state in hidrogen, and allow the 
existence of oxlgen in this gas ; its existence must likewise 
be allowed in sulphur, for we hare no right to assume^ 
that sulphur in sulphuretted hidrogen is combined with more 
oxigen than in its common form : it is well known, that, 
when electrical sparks are passed through sulphuretted 
bidrogcn, a considerable portion of sulphur is separated, 
without any alteration in the volume of the gas. This ex^ 
pcrimcnt I have made more than once, and I found that the 
sulphur obtained, in fusibility, combustibility, and other 
sensible properties, did not perceptibly differ fropn common 
sublimed sulphur. 

accounts for Its According to these ideas, tlie intense ignition produced 

intense ign 11 ion j^y ^^^ action of sulphur, on potassium and sodium, must 

witl) potassium. -^ i ? r y »* 

not be ascribed merely to the affinity of the netal of the 

alkalis for its basis, but may be attributed likewise to the 

agency of the oxigen that it contains. 

The minute examination of the circumstances of the 

action of potassium and sulphur likewise confirms th^^ 

opinions. 
Farther co^- When two grains of potassium and one of sulphur were 
^'°^* heated gently in a green glass tube filled with hidrogen^ 

and connected with a pneumatic apparatus, there was a 

most intense ignition produced by the action of the two 

bodies^ and one eighth of a cubical inch of gas was dis* 

engage^ 



- 1 



J a 



ANALTTICAL EXPERIMENTS ON fULPHim; gjfj 

'engaged, which was sulphuretted hidrogen. The compound 
-was exposed in a mercurial apparatus to the action of liquid 
muriatic acid ; when a cubical inch and a quarter of aeri. 
form matter was produced, which proved to be pure stU 
phn retted hidrogen. 

The same experiment was repeated, except that four 
grains of sulphur were employed instead of one. In this 
case, a quarter of a cubical inch of gas was disengaged 
during the process of combination; and when the com^ ' ' .\ 

nound was acted upon by muriatic acid, only three quarten * 

of a cubical inch of sulphuretted hidrogen were obtained. 

Now, iulphurQt of potash produces sufphu retted hidro. ^j 

gen by the action of an acid ; and if the sulphur had not 
contained oxigen, the hidrogen evoWed by the action of 
the potassium in both these experiments ought to hard 
equalled at least two cubical inclies, and the whole quantity 
of sulphuretted hidrogen ought to hare been more : and 
that so much less sulphuretted hidrogen was eroWed in the 
second experiment, can only be ascribed tq the larger 
quantity of. oxigen furnbhcd to the potassium by the larger 
quantity of the sulphur. 

I have made sereral experiments of this kind with similar Serenl expeii- 
results. Whenever equal quantities of potassium were "".^jj** "***** 
combined with unequal quantities of sulphur, and exposed resulu. 
afterward to the action of muriatic acid, the largest ■ ^ 

quantity of sulphuretted hidrogen was furnished by the 
product containing the smallest proportion of sulphur'; and • ** 

in no case was the quantity of gas equal in volume to the 
quantity of hidrogen, which would have been produced by 
Ihe mere action of potassium upon water. 

From the general tcnour of these various facts, it will Composition of 
not be, I trust, unreasonable to assume, that sulphur, in sulphur. 
its common state, is a compound of small quantities of 
t>xigen and hidrogen with a large quantity of a basis, that 
produces the acids of sulphur in combustion, and which^ 
on account of its strong attractions for other bodies, it will 
probAly be very difficult to obtain in its pure form. 

In metallic combinations even, it still probably retains 
Its oxigfen and part of. ih hidrogen. Metallic sulphnrets 
ckn onljrbe parfially decojnposcd by '^ji^it, and t{|C jsmaU 

I* ; ^ ' quantity 



^g$ AJfALTTICAL EXPUHmEMTS ON TROSPHOftUf. 

qpMififyof solphar^efolTed from than in this case wbes 
perfectlj drj and oat of the contact of air, as I foond m 
M experinent on the salpharet of copper and iron, oxtsti 
is its common state, and acts npon potassium, and is 
affected by electricity, in the same manner as natire snU 
phnr. 

4* Analytical Experiments on Phoipkorus* 
Maifohiw The same analogies apply to phosphorus as to sulphur, 

2^1^^^^ and I hare made a similar series of experiments on this in. 

flammable substance. 

^^^1^^ Common electrical sparks, passed through phosphorus, 

* did not erolTe from it any permanent gas ; but when it was 

acted npon by the Toltaic electricity of the battery of five 

bundred plates in the same manner as sulphur, gas was pro. 

doced in considerable quantities, and the phosphorosbecamo 

of a deep red brown colour, like phosphorus that hat been 

•^^ phet- inflamed and extinguished under water. The gas examined 

JJ^J^I**^ f rored to be phosphuretted hidrogen, and in one expeii< 

ment| continued for some hours, a quantity estimated to bo 

nearly equal to four times the rolume of the phosphoroi 

employed was given ofl*. The light of the Toltaic spark in 

tiie phosphorus was at first a brilliant yellow, but as the 

colour of the phosphorus changed, it appeared orange« 

TMiiiniQi hett- I heated three grains of potassium in sixteen cubical incbos 

^l^^lll^l^^^ of phosphuretted hidjrogen ; as soon as it was fused, the 

drogen. retort became filled with white fumes, and a reddish sub^ 

stance predpitated upon the sides and upper part of it. 

The heat was applied for some minutes. No inflammatioii 

took place*. When the retort was cool, the absorptiofli 

was found to be less than a cubical inch. The potasrinm 

externally was of a deep brown colour, internally it was of 

• dull lead colour. The residual gas had lost its property 

of spontaneous inflammation^ but seemed still to containa 

small quantity of phosphorus in solution. 

« It is stated, in the aoceoift bcflwe refemrd Id of M. Bi. Gay* 

Lussac and Thcoard's experiments^ that potassium inflames ia 
phosphuretted h!dio|en. My enperiments upon this gas have been 
aAen repeated* I have never perceived any luminous appeaianoe; 
jkut I havt always o^erat^ in da^r^gfat. 

fi tho 



P>6f c 



The pbosphuret acted upon oTer mercury by siiluUun of 
Uuruilic acid evolred ooly one cubical luch nod three quar. 
r ters cf phosphu retted Iildrogen, 

Prom this expenmeat there is great reason to suppose, Phoiphurutipd 
BtAt phosphuretttd hidrogcu contains a minute proportion ^'.*™ ™"' 
Tf 0x1 pen, and consequently that phosphorus likewisu may 
contain it; but the action of potassium on phosphorus 
itself furnishes perhaps more direct tvidcnccs of the eir. 
^_ eumstance. 

^H One grain of potassium and one grain of phosphorus PliMphorui 
^^Ftrcre fused together in a proper apparatus. They combiucd " * 
^Hrwith the production of the most vivid light and intense 
^Blgnilion. During the process one tenth of a cubical inch of 
^B*|iho5phu retted hidrogen was eiolicd. The phosphurct 
^1 formed, exposed tu the action of diluted muriatic acid over 
mercury, produced csacily three tenths of a cubical inch 
of phosphurctlcd bidrogen. 

In a second experiment, one grain of potassium was Eipnitnfni i*- 
fdsed with three grains of phosphorus ; in this case nearly '**"*'■ 
■ quarter of a cubical inch of phosphurettcd hidrogen was 
(uented during tbe ignition. Cut from the compound ex. 
posed to muriatic acid, only one tenth of a cubical inch 
conld b« procured, 

Nowit is nut easy to refer the deficiency of phosphurettcd PhmpWu^ 
ttdrogea in the second cafe to any other cause, than to the '^'"""''" *""*"' 
supply of oiigen to the potassium from the phosphorus: 
udthe quantity of phosphurclted hidrogen evolfed in (he 
flrst case is much less than could be expected, if both 
patasdum and phosphorus consisted merely of pure com. 
bostible matter. 

The phosphoric acid, formed by the combustion of phos.PhoiphoricacM 
plieras, though a crystalline solid, may still contain water. *"" '""""in 
Tke hidrogen evolved from phosphorus by electricity proves 
Isileed, that this muit be the case; and though the quantity 
of hidragen and oiigcn in phosphorus may bo exceedingly 
small, yet they may be sufficient to give it peculiar charac 
tets; and till the basis is obtained free, ive sball have no 
kBowIfdge of tie properties of the pure phosphoric elfr- 



330 



•N THE CjLRBOSrACKOUS niVClTLt* 



Pfumbago, 
cliarcoal, aiid 
Aanioudy 



coniost princi- 
pally ot the 
Mine element} 



but with cho- 
hiicaI differ- 
•ncies. 

PTunibago 
acted upon by 
the i>ile in 



Kc*ated with 
potasftium in 
kklrogen gas. 



5. On the States of the carbonaceous Principle in Plambage^ 

CfiarcooTy and the D tamo f d* 

The accurate researches of Messrs. Allen and Pepys hare 
distinctly proved, that plumbago, charcoal, and the diamood 
produce very nearly the same quantities of carbonic acid, 
and absorb rery nearly the same quantities of oxigea in 
combustion. 

Hence it is CTident, that they must consist principally of 
the same kind of elementary matter; but minute researches 
npon their chemical relations, when examined by new ana- 
lytical methods, will, I am inclined to believe, show, that 
the great diflcrence in their physical properties does not 
merely depend upon the differences of the mechanical ar- 
rangement of their parts, but likewise upon differences in 
their {ntimate chemical nature. 

I endeayoured to discover, whether any elastic matter 
could be obtained from plumbago very intensely ignited bj 
the Vbltaic battery in a Torricellian vacuum: but though 
the highest power of the battery of iive hundred was em- 
ployed, and though the heat was such, as in another ex- 
periment instantly melted phtir^a wire of ^^th of an incft 
in diameter, yet no appearance of change took place upon 
the plumba|j;o. Its characters remained wholly unaltered, 
aud no permanent elastic fluid was formed. 

I heated one grain of plumbago, with twice its weight of 
po(issium, in a plate glass tMbe connected with a proper 
apparatus, and I heated an equal quantity of potassium 
alone in a tube of the same kind, for an equal length of 
time, namely, eight minutes. Both tubes were filled wilk 
(lidrogen : no gas was evolved in either case^ There was no 
ignition in the tube containing the plumbc^go, but it seemed 
gradually to combine with the potassium. The two results 
were exposed to the action of wafer; the result from tl^e 
plumbago acted upon that fluid with a$ mucl^ energy as the 
other result, ^nd the two volumes of elastic iluids were 1:8 
cubical inch and 1-9 pubical inch; an.d both gave the 
same diminution by detonation with ovigen, as pure bi» 
drogen. Two grains of potassium, by acting upon wate^^ 
would have produced two cubical inches and one eightih 

ef 



ON THE CARBONACEOUS PRINOIPLS, 33} 

I 

pf liidrogcn gas; the deficiency in the resalt, ia which 
IpioUssiam alone was uscd^ must be ascribed to the loss of a 
■mail quantity of metal, which must haye been carried off 
In iolation 'in the hidrogen» and perhaps, likewise, to the 
action of the minute quai)tity of metallic oxides in the plate 
l^lass. The diflcrcnce in tiie. quantity pf hidrogen gi?en off 
in, the two results is hpwevpr too slight, to ascribe it to the 
eliitcnce of oxigen in the piurobago. 

I repeated this experiment scToral times with like re* The expei$- 
fiilts, and in two or three instances examined the compound mou repeated. 
formed. It was infusible at a red heat, had the lustre of 
plumbago. It inflamed spontaneously, when. exposed to 
^ir, generated potash, and left a black powdei^ residuum^ 
It cffeiresced most violently in water, and produced a gas, 
whicl^ burnt like pure hidrogen. 

When small pieces of charcoal from the willqw, that had Charooal acted 

been intensely i 1*0 i ted, were acted upon by Voltaic clectri- "P®° ^^ **^*^ 
rr, I J . . pjjg ,jj vacuo. 

city m a lorricellian vacuum, every precaution being taken 
to exclude moisture from the mercury and the charcoal, the 
results were very diilereut from those occurring in the case 
of plumbago. 

When plumbago was used, after the first spark, which 
generally passed through a distance of about one eighth of 
an inch, there was no continuation of light, without a conr 
tact or an approach to the same distance; but from the 
charcoal a flame seemed to issue of a most brilliant purple, ^ puroie flame 
and formed, as it were, a conducting chain of light of nearly formed, 
an inch in length, at the same time that elastic matter was g^^^^l^^j^. 
rapidly formed, some of which was permanent. After ter evolved, 
ipany unsuccessful trials, I at length succeeded in collecting 
the quantity of elastic fluid given out by h^U a grain of 
charcoal; the process iiad been continued nearly half an 
liour. The quantity of gas amounted to nearly an eighth 
of a cubical inch ; it was inflammable by the electric spark 
with oxigen gas, and four measures of it absorbed three 
measures of oxigen, and produced one measure and a half 
of carbonic acid. The charcou! In this experiment had be- 
come harder at the point, and its lustre, where it had been 
pleated to whiteness, approached to that of plumbago. 

I heate4 two grains of potassium together with two grains charcoal heat- 

of 



S8S 0n T»JL CARBONACEOUS fRmCtfLB. 

dl with potai. of charcoal, for firo minutet ; and to eitimate the «A 
*^**^* tha metallic oxidet and potash in the green glass ta 

made a comparatire experiment, as in the case of plamii 
iHit there was . no proof of anj ozigen being f umisi 
the potasriam from the charcoal in the process, fi 
oomponnd acted upon water widi grsat energy, and pre 
a quantity of inflammable gas, only inferior by one t 
to that produced by tiie potassinsi, which had nal 
combined with charcoal, and which gare the same di 
Hon by detonation with oxigen ; and the flight dii! 
nay be well ascribed to the ininenoe of foreign matt 
the charcoal . There was no ignition in the prooesi 
no gas was eroWcd. 
Compoimd pro* The compound produced in otlier experissenti e 
kind was examined. It is a conductor of electricity, 
a dense black, inflames spontaneously, and bams i 
deep red light in the atmosphere*. 
Dwinond couM The nonconducting nature of the diamond, and its i 
K^th^'ilr*^ bility, rendered it impossible to act upon it by i 
electridty ; and the only new agents which seemed U 
any means of decomposing it, were the metals e 
alkalis. 
Heated with When a diamond is heated in a green glass tube wi 

^^^^^"^""^^ tassium, there is no elastic fluid giTen out, and no inl 
of action ; but the diamond soon blackens, and 
seem to detach thcmsclTcs from it, and these scales, 
examined In the magniticr, are gray externally, and c 
colour of plumbago internally, as if they consial 
plumbago covered by the gray oxide of potassium. 
likidrogen gas. In heating together three grains of diamonds in po 
and two grains cf potassium, for an hour, in a small 
of plate glass filled with hidrogen, and making the e< 
ratiTC trial with two grains of potassium heated in a s 
apparatus, without any diamonds, I found, that thi 
assium which had been heated with the diamonds proc 
by its action upon water, one cubical inch and -^g 

* In the fiakerian Lecture for 1 807« I have mentioned t 
com position of carbonic acid by potassium, which takes plai 
inflammation. If the potassium is in excess in this experime 
aamc pyrophorus as that described above is formed. 

flam 



I TUX CARBO.Vl 



333 



ftunouble air, anil Ihal which had been cipuseit to lioat 
ftloiM, all other circumslances being similar, cToltcd iieaily 
otHS tah'tcil inch and -^'^^ both of which were pure to- 
la another cxporimeat of a similar kind, in vhich frag, a '^imllir «» 
ments ordiamonds were used in the qiiainily of four grains, '"'"'"'■'"'■ 
the potassium became extremely black from iU action upon 
them during an exposure to heat for three hours, and the 
diamontis were covered with a grayish crust, and when acted 
upon by wattr and dried, were found to hare lost about 
f^ of a grain in weight. Thp matter euparatcd by trashing, 
uid examined, appeared as a fine pc^dcr of a dense black, 
colour. When a surface of platina nire was covered with 
it, and made to touch another wire in the Voltaic circuit, 
ft brilliant spark with comliuslion occurred. It burnt, when 
heated to redness in agreeo glaestcbi: filled with oxigen gas, 
»nd produced carbonic acid by its couibustiuu. 

These general results seem to show, that is plumbago theplumbif*. 
carbonaceoui clcineut exists merely ia combination with 
iroO} and in a form which may be regarded as approaching 
It lint of ft metal iq its nature, beiug coiiUticiing ia a higk 
degree, opaque, and possessing con»dcrab!e lustre. 

Chkrcoal appears to contain a minute quantity of hidro- ChircoiL 
|CB in Combination. Possibly likewise, the alkalis and 
cstft*u produced during Its combnstion exist in it not fully 
cambincd with oxigeni aud according to thece ideas, it ia 
a rery compounded substance, though iu the main it cou- 
littt of the pure carbuaaccous element. 

The experiments on the diamoaii render it extremely DiumA 
likely, that it contains oxigen; but the quautity must ba 
aceediDgly minute, though probably suflicicnt to render ths 
CODipouod i.oQcondu cling: aiul if the carbuudceou^ clement 
in charcoal and the diamond be considered as united to stiti 
IcM foreign matter in quautilj', tlian in plumbago, which 
about i^s of iron, the results of their combuUion, 
iadependeutly of hygrometrical teits, will not 
fiSer perceptibly. 

Whoever considers the dill'erence between iron and steel, Hinnte iliflb»i 
ia wUch there does not exist more than ^^ of plumbago, "^ '" "^^ 
•r tiM diffincDGe b«t^e«in Ific iimiigan of wuuonium and e«:(iiy aim 
mercnfy,, 



external ap* ni^rcurj, in i?hich the qHantitj of new matter is not liibi 
pearance. ^^^ -jTJVv* ®' ^^** between the metals and their Suboxide 

some of which contain less than ^ of oxigen, will not I 
disposed to question the piinciple, that minute differeno 
in chemical composition may produce great differences i 
extcnial and physical characters. 

(To be continued in our next.) 



II. 

On the Stem of TVees; with an Attempt to discover tt 
Cause of Motion in Plants. Bt/ Mrs. Agnes Ibbetson. 

To Mr. NICHOLSON. 
SIR, 

Methcdofdi- JL HE matincr in which Linnaeus diTidcd the stem of trei 
•f towi. ^ ^^^"^ ^^ naturally suggested by its appearance to the eye, litt 
ttuled by glasses : cortex, the rind ; liber, the bark ; lignnn 
the wood; and medulla, the pith. But at this time, ths 
onr magnifiers are so perfected ; nature points out a moi 
regular division, and one marked not only by the fom 
but by the difference of ihe juices^ with which the parts ai 
swelled. Indeed so different are the purposes to be effcctec 
and so clear are the diTisions nature has made; that, whc 
seen much magnified, they appear to me directly to strili 
the mind, and convince the reason ; provided the study i 
pursued in a manner, that will enable the person, by 
view of the different parts properly prepared, to jud^ 
sanely on the subject. The vegetable cuttings sold with tl 
solar microscope will do very well fur superficial learner 
but no person can understand the nature of plants, or e: 
pect to profit from knowledge so obtained, who docs m 
cut his own specimens, and generally from fresh plant 
It is laborious and troublesome, and requires great cari 
but I have never a moment repented tHe time so cxpende< 
as from dried cuttings much of the real nature and all il 
Tojudgefrom motion escape. Still both arc to be consulted; and tl 
boUi dried and proper method is perhaps to compare them together. 
copy from no book, every experiment has been made I 
myself, and carefully repeated a number of times': I mi 

perhai 



eH tRE trtH OF n.Tai g^ 

fi^riiapt be accused of presumption, in venturing to ifi^ 

itvdace so many new ideas ; and depending thus on myself 

•nly; but I recount merely what I haTc seen in a yerj- 

good solar microscope \ if my deductions are false, I detail 

my reasons ; and every reader may judge for himself. It is 

to the great magnifying poxvers I am indebted ; and cTery- 

one (with the same instrument) may prove the truth of 

what I advance. 

' I shall divide the stem of trees into 6 parts ; 1st the rind; Division of the 

&d the bark and inner bark ; 3d the wood ; 4th the 8piral'^^°>* 

nerres; 5th the nerves or circle of life; 6th the pith. 

The rind is I conceive merely an outward covering to the 

tree, to preserve its moisture, that the sun may not evapo^ 

rate its juiees. It is true, that the same is continued 

nnder ground ; but it may be as useful there to prevent the 

entrance of the dust and earth, and pressure of stones, or 

the injory of insects. It is composed of rows of cylinders 

with a single line to divide them, and they arc filled with a 

dear and pellucid liquor. There are seldom more than four or 

ire layers of vessels ; but it is in general so covered with 

parasite plants, and powdered lichens, that its thickness is 

lifteB more than doubled ; and it is not fit for examination, 

mi divested of all extraneous matter. It is the rind Division of tl» 

thickened that forms much of the armature of plants. It""*^' 

ippears by no means necessary to plants, as there are a 

Bomber in which the bark serves as a covering instead of a 

liod ; it is not therefore essential to them. Though to trees 

it most be so reckoned. 

2d The bark and inner bark, though certainly very dif- Divisions of the 
ferent as to /orm, are the same in juice ; and being so nearly '^"^ 
allied, I shall treat them as one. They are truly of the 
iirst consequence in the tree. They are the origin of the 
letves; the lengthened vessils of the bark and inner bark, 
forming the interlacing vessels of the leaf, while the juice 
concentrated and thickened produces the pabulum of the 
kaf, as I endeavoured to show inT my last paper. The ^ 

jlice of the bark is I conceive the blood of the tree. It is 
here alone are produced the gums, the resins, the oil, the' 
feUky in short all that truly belongs to the tree; gives taste 
to it; all I conceive that makes ono plant different from. 

another ; 



338 ^H TR wnM OF Tmnk 

anotker; Midiii Tirtuei, if I may so express myself. Tho 
I iNurk is generaUjf graeo, the mner bark whiter yellow, or 
green. Tiie former consists of vessels crossing each other; 
tile latter of bandies of Tesiels of two sizes, the large oiiet 
being formed in a Tery peculiar manner. They consist^ of 
broad cylinders, haring a bottom with a hole in it, througk 
irhich the liquid passes, though not with perfect ease* On 
exposing several pieces of the inner bark to the solav 

Kstnerdtnuf microscope, the moment I tomed (he light on the specimen^ 

liquid. ^^ i^^^ ^^ which had before proceeded ap the pipes rather 

slowly, it was suddenly propelled forward with a forco 
truly astonishing. When I increased the heat and light by 
pmnting the full focus of the rays on the Tessels, the power 
of the heat was too strong, and broke through the sidediTi* 
lions, inundating the specimen : but when I merely kept up 
a proper degree of light and heat, it was carioas to observe 
the Hqnid pass from pipe to pipe, in one regular and easy 
flow ; making a little stop as it issued through the straitened 
l^iertures at the bottom of the Tessels. I kaTo often stood, 
more tiian an hour watching the current, (which pastes 
however much slower than the sap does) nor conU I per- 
ceire, that it required (while the heat and light were on it) 
any additional expedient to hasten it; but in the night, 
when both are wanting, the pressure Mr. Knight mentkiat 
from the bastard grain b (I shonld suppose) rery likely to 
assist or quicken its flow ; and as at night it Is pressed 
against the cylinders, it is at this time (I should Gonceive) 
it would have its efiect. This part is howerer formed in th^ 
wood only; but the contraction at the bottom of the luge 
Teisels of the inner bark, it is probable may serve the same 
purpose, that of A>reing the liquid forward, by lesseniag 
the apertures, and giving therefore more im petal to Ibi 

Cvriout fbnaa- current The vessels are also of groat thickness in piOi*. 

Teaels in the portion to their size ; and have on them a peculiar circnIlB. 



hark. thing resembling a cullender full of very diminutive heii%« 

so small that no liquid could pass them; but in viewing iha 

£tkt UQ^d!' ^^^^ juice, that runs through these pipes, I observed mi^p 
bnbbles of air, which, as the heat increased or diminfsksl 
iheir nzsy accderaUd or retarded the flow of the KqdA 
Might not these apevtnres be designed for the entrance d 

air 



.1 



^br to promote th'u purpose ? The thickness of these vess^U 
H^ Bnch, OS almost to cunceal the darkness uf the liquid 
&»t rnns Ihrougli them. To sec tlieir Tonns well, it is dome- 
tittict necenAry to clear out (heir cont«;nls, which is best 
done by plaung the siiecimens in a basket fdsteoed down 
» > runniDg stream, or boiling them Iborotighly, and thea 
UiTOninc; them into green \fa,x perfectly nieltcd. When 
tUs succeeds, it makes oxcelleut specinicna for tha 

Tbon|h half fearful to give an opinion absolutely con- 
tndictory to one whose abilities I so much respect tu 
MirbeVi, yet I mnst thiofc he is inintakcn, when he says: 
11 y idea plantes qui onl lesm^mes sues dans toutesleur par. 
tim," I never could fiod this; and though the potcntLiquidspecutiir 
mdl of the liquid belonging to tht bark will often eitend '"""'''*"• 
to other parts of the plan), it generally THnishes if kept 
uparat« fur a day, or grows so faint in comparison with 
the refti liquid, at: to prore it is not an ingredient. Nor can 
1 understand why he should snppoiie, that Ihe tubes or 
cylinders of the inner bark are aierely tucauck'S of the 
artKnary fessels ; for they are exactly the tame, and occupy 
the same place ; their peculiar shape and office attend tbent 
erery where ; and theie are no Tessels like them in any 
other part of this tree or shrub. I have mentioned only 
the vessels of the inner bark, because their form k unusual; 
but the tessels uf the bark are more simple and smaller, 
■nd divided by a line or two, running longitudinally between 
them. Uow ihe gums, resins, oils, milk, &c. are formed, 
I am not cbymist suflicicot to give any clear idea concerp. 
ing; but the labours of Dr. Thomson seem more to eluci- 
ilale this subject, than those of any other author I am 
uquainied with. Nothing can he more adiniraliie than the 
manner in which he accounts for sugar in plants ; it is ex- 
enpHlied each day in those that ate out of health. 
Mirbcl has also a Tcry valuable paper on the subject. 

3d 1 now turn to the wood of the stem. This \^ marked Fomiilioa 
bynaitireuilh such strong lincf, it is hnrdly possible lo s"*! "s^ "f 'hs 
hiifilake its parts. Place the stem of any plant in a colour, 
td liquor, and every vessel uhich conveys the fiap truin the 
•utb to the top of the tree will be marked and tinged. 

Vol. XXIII. -Si-fPL»iE.ST. i Tha 



I THE STEM OF TREES. 337 



33t 



Two different 
stripes in the 
woed. 



I^fttfMrVike 
strings of ^« 
fcaitvd ^nin. 



OS THI iTSH OF TECKS. 

The tap is Ibc nourbbnient those vessels convey ; it it a 
thia waterish liquor, which is probabij the juices of the 
earth, medicated into this form, as most suitable to the ll£e 
it is to support. 1 suppose it is'diii'ereat in each different 
soil ; bat though I have often ti-ied '^ by separating the 
wood from the rest of the stem, and (hen macerating it, to 
draw forth the liquor from the same tccc in different soils,*' 
1 never could perceive there was the change one should 
naturally expect. 

On dissecting the wood ; two different kinds of stripes 
present themselves, some circular, an a^lditianal one being 
each year added, which timber merchants call the silver 
gr^in ; and auotlier from the circunifcrence to the centre, at 
least from tlie lirst line of the wood to* the pklh, which they 
call the bastard grain. The first is the yearly stripe, and I 
had ^n opporiunity in a large wood that was felled of ob. 
f^rving the truth, not only of one stripe biding added each 
year, but that the stripe was large or smaUl, according to 
the exposure of the tree, and the favourableness of the 
season. The wood had been planted at two different times^ 
one part 88 years, and tlio other 56; and each tree mcas- 
exactly marked according to its age, except three or four 
uhkh gave not the number of stripes specified;^ and were, 
afterward proved to have been planted instead of others, 
that had been broken and cut down. In exposed situationa 
the zsiest side was much narrower in several of the trees ; 
and in the forwarder trees the N. and N. £. was the most 
crowded^ I miean, that in measuring the diameter of the. 
wood, it was less on one side of the circumferendS; than on 
the other. In several trees there was soractimes only a hatf. 
circle; and in three different oaks, a rotjtnn part having 
caused the line of life to leave its situation, partof the pitJi 
had followed it, and it had formed two piths, with many raw* 
of wood between. The bastard, stripe consists. I think Q& 
two lines, or strings, with a little scale between them; wsA 
they appear from their extreme susceptibility to be fonnpd 
of the same leatherliHe substance as the spiral vessels*! 
Mr. Knight is of opinion, that they are scales only, and he 
is too exact an observer to be contradicted lightly ; butaahei 
mentions: their pro^^Qg. <io^ (whioh they certainly do) fa 



Olf THt St£Bf OF TREBI. 



m 



the cylinders at night and in <:old weather, they would 
equally haytfthe effect required ; that of supplying by their 
pressure the want of the sun^s rays. The wood vessels 
are far more simply made than those of the bark; they are 
Tery narrow cylinders; and the last two rows next to 
the circle of life are sap Tcssels covered by the spiral ones. 
The horse chcsnut has three or four rows, and they appear 
to be in quantity according to the size of the leaves. It is 
indeed difficult to ascertain them exactly even in the solar 
microscope, as it is in unzcinding them alone they can be 
knoTcn; and thelt extreme fineness confuses. This has Spiral vesielt 
however caused the spiral vessels to be taken for sap vessels. '^ 
It was a great pleasure to me to find, that neither Mr. 
Knight nor Mirbel was of this opinion. I believe there can 
be no doubt, that they arc solid strings^ and hold no liquids 
When wood is very aged, it grows so compact, that it is dif- 
ilcnlt without preparation to sec the open mouths of the 
vessels. The wood should then be cut in thin slices, and All cut wiih 
hid ..in a very dry place ; and it is wonderful how this will ^"t^aifc*'* 
stretch the upper end of the cylinders; but fresh cut specie 
mens, if examined directly , will almost always be suf- 
ficiently visible. If much magnified^ and cut longitudinally, 
tt is truly wonderful to see the effect of light and heat on the 
wood tessels ; how immediately on turning the light on the 
liass, the fiow of sap is accelerated, and with what perfect 
ease it runs up vessels so diminutive, that to measure them 
h alniost impossible. Is it not most' wonderful to considei' 
the force necessary to carry up this sap, when the vessels 
are formed of a substance so thin^ so trajuparent^ that it 
wotifd appear impossible to confine a liquid within it; and 
yet that, without being worn out hy friction, it will bear 
ttdn force exerted against it, for eighty years together, 
without showing any signs of decay, a term which niany 
trate will sustain? This indeed proclaims its author, and 
l&duld malce the atheist fall down and worship. A few of 
fte wood vessels are separated, and run with the spiral 
vessels as nourishing vessels to each leaf, as I have shown 
il my last; but this diverts but little of the sap from it.<) 
diief current, which flows on: its last purpose being to 
Itfrm tktf itameti, and the curious powder that apertains 

Z^ 'to 



340 



QN »X ITIK O? taitl. 



The spin) res- 



to it; and ftfterward to lend its principal aid to the forma- 
tioa of the fruit and seed. For it is this last^ that is tba 
grand and finishing work of nature, to which all the rest 
tends but as a means to the great acconipUshmeat of pro* 
ducing ncvr vegetable lives. 

The spiral vessels arr. a quantity of solid strings coiled 
up into a spiral form. 1 cannot but suppose them of a lea. 
therlike substance, and to be found rolled round the last 
few rows of sap vessels. Inthis^manncr they run up the 
stems of trees and plants of every kind (with a few ezcep* 
tions) and thence into every leaf and (lower. They are 
singly too small for the naked eye ; they run into every fibre 
of the leaf, and are fastened at the edges, by which means, 
crossing like a spider's web in every direction through the 
vessels, they can draw the leaves in any way that is neces* 
sary to them. In the larger vessels they are in teti of tea 
or twelve, but in the smaller only three or four to each ves- 
sel. In, the cabbage leaf and in the burdock they are in 
bundles almost as thick as a packthread ; bat in smaller 
leaves they are properly proportioned. The more sensitive 
the leaf, the more they are coiled up. These are (I truly 
believe) the cause* 
Th^ cause of Xhe spiral vessels are (I truly believe) the cauee of mom 
and flowen. ^'^ ^ plants. I do not mean to say, that there is no mo« 
tion in plants but what arises from them ; bnt I am fnllj 
persuaded, that the greatest part of the motion in ieaoes 
and fioTJoers proceeds from the management of this spiral 
wire. I shall now detail my reasons for this persaasion. 

\st. The spiral vessels are not to be found in any plants, 
to which motion is unnecessary. They are never found in 
any of the firs, in any of the wafer plants that'spread their 
leaves on the top of the wafer^ in any of the sea weeds, or 
in any of the lichens; I think top they .are not found in the 
scolopendrums, or in the lemnas; though at first I took 
the line of life, that ttins into the leaf to form the flower, 
for one. The grasses also, having no cause for turning 
their leaves, are wholly without them. 

<id. If a plant in a window, having all its leaves with 
their backs turned from the light, is moved, and placed so 
as to turn them to the wv^ they will in a few hours regain 

their 



flpiral 

found in no 
leaves that do 
■not turn. 



•If tax tTMC OF TBia. ^ Ml 

Hidr foraer position ; reierse it^ and it will now want don* 
Me the time to bring them right; change the order a third 
time^ and though the plant will not in any manner have 
saiieredy yet the learcs will be long reg^ning their pristine 
force. Few can moTe after the third or fonrth regression; 
and whj? I because the spiral ^ like elastic vessels ^ were so 
relaxed by the operation, as io haie lost all power of coiU 
liig into thdr asual form. 

Sd, I liave obserred that those leaTes, that have the most Most motion ia 
motion, hare also the most of these spiral lessels, and haTe^^^ twitted. 
them most twisted. This is particularly seen in the populus ' 
tremula ; the leaf stalk, though small, is full of them, and 
•ohard twisted, that I hare known the stalk to measure a 
garter of an inch difference in length between the middle 
of the dojf and a cold evening. This could arise only from 
the untwisting of the spiral wire; and few plants haiemore 
notibnj indeed it has far more than can fairly be attributed 
to its long leaf stalk. 

4th. I took a Tine leaf, and without separating it from Letyef neither 
Its parent plant, I merely dirided the spiral lessels, uithoui ^^'^"^ ^"^ 
iouehing the nourishing ones; It nerer from that moment wira he cnv' 
either turned^ or contracted; and when placed with its back 
to khe light, it remained in this position, though it was long 
before it decayed. Both electricity and gaWanism draw up v 
these leares, as if they were leather : but it is the spiral 
fbres, not the cuticles ; for after I took from a leaf all the 
spiral wire, the leaf did 710/ contract at all. Bonnet was Bonnet*t eoa* 
conrinccd, that all the motion of plants might be giyen by^""^*"^- 
the means of threads, but microscopes w^re not so perfect 
then as to give him the delight of knowing, that he had 
guessed the operations of nature. He made an arHficial 
leaf and flower, that would move by the contriTance of 
ttireads that passed through all the larger yessels, and by 
this means they efTccted every movement common to either. 
But his were plain threads^ not a spiral wire, the elastic 
power of which is well known to every person : nor had 
he an idea, that such vessels existed, but thought it was the 
contraction and elongation of the upper and under cuticle 
of the leaf; but this is certainly not the case^ as I have 
arored above, that it has no such powers. There are In^. 

sects 



34S ON ^1^ fTEM OP TREES. 

Insects oontrtct s^cts io the currant, and many other leaves, that show tho 
spiral wire. p^^g,. ^f ^jj^ elastic wire, as much as dntf thing yet meru 

tioned. Nature has taught them, to draw up these spiral 
Tessels, to make themseWes nests, in which io deposit their 
eggs and young ; and any one may see in what manner it ii 
done, and how the leaf is shortened. 
Heat contracts ^^A* I ^ook a quantity of these spiral vessels from a cab- 
the spiral wire, bagc leaf, and placed them on a long netting needle in my 
solar microscope, that the motion might be extreipoJy Tisi. 
ble, and made my assistant hold a candle to the other end 
of the needle. As the heat approached it, the jessels were 
agitated inexpressibly, and appeared wreathing like a worm, 
till with one effort they flung themselves off the needle. 
The fresh water conferva, and the dodder tribe, are the 
only plants without leaves, that have the spiral vessels^ that 
I am acquainted with. The former is aluiost fonned uf it; 
and the sensitive plants have scarce more motioi) than the 
common green conferva. I have seen it draw itself op, 
then turn with -a sudden motion, and surround a pin, coiling 
up it like a worm; and it will continue to move thus for 
Streo^h of more than ao hour after it is taken from the water. In the 
ly^cak'parteof ^**^ stem of the geranium cordifolium the spiral vessels are 
vegeubles. so very tough, and so very tightly coiled, that I have by 
great care drawn up the leaf by their means; but this is dif- 
ficult to be done. Some may ipiaginc, that these spiral wires 
are too delicate to turn the leaf or flower; butcan any one 
eay this, who is in the constant habit of dissecting plants ? 
or who has seen the extreme delicacy of flowers, and yet the 
force they will exert, or the tendernoss of the young shoot- 
ing plant, and yet the strength with which it will force its 
way through brick and mortar, and even through solid 
stones? The works of man arc effected by using strong ma* 
terials, vrhcn pozoerful ends ^re in y'lcw ; but the works of 
God are performed in a more wonderful maimer, the mosi 
delicate means produce the greatest ends. Look on the 
^ vegetable cuttings ; it is the aggregate of such pieces which 

forms our ^hips, and which stands the united attacks of 
winds and waves. View the metals, as they flrst grow or 
shoot into crystallization in the Arbor Diana; or the leaden 
tree; who would recognize the destructive bomb, or the 

hardened 



OH Tirs TtBm or tbvu. MS 

Imnfoaed coin ? But the mind that is urcnstomed lo m ih^m 
in tlieir first delicate forms produce great effects, will not 
ilettbt wbat the Almighty poircr may fit them for. 

In detailing tlic arguments that tend to prore, that the A^K"^*^^ ^'*"* 
spiral wire is the cause of motion in plants^ I must suggestmetery thattii* 
one, which will at least clear it from all improttabilit^. T^a^spMrnir^isthm 
thoao to whom the energy, strength, deMcacy, and soscepw ^^ 

tiiiiHty of Captain Kater's hygrometer is known, it will 
•fier a certain proof of the possibility of such an exisin^ .. ^ 

p&wer^ naca that little instromeiit is acteJ upon by the 
power Motstwre hcas of untwisting the awn of a grass brought 
from India. Now if the most triflmg change of noistara 
can nntwist one sort of regetablo fibre, and by this meani 
■lanage an instrument, why should not a quantity of slmi* 
iarly formed fibres or. spiral wires produce the same elect 
CHI leaTes and flowers ? Captain Rater's hygrometer mitres 
ver^ sensibly if a finger is placed within half mt inch of ik^ 
JUre: now the most sensitive plant we hare will not mora 
bnt with the touch: though I doubt not in its natural soil 
and dimatc it is more sensible: but in the sensitire plants 
there is a peculiarity in the joint, which helps to product 
that regularity of moTement which is the most curious ^tm. 
Constance in its formation ; this I ho])e to explain in my 
next. My only doubt is, I confess, whether tJie power 
that gOTems the spiral wire is light, heat, or moisture? I 
am rather inclined to think it is moisture ; though of course 
Kght and heat must hare Tory great influence, as no change 
of eitiier can happen, without its increasing or diminishing 
the moisture of the atmosphere. 

I fear I hare tired the reader ; but I have not produced Fl«wer% 
half the proofs I might bring forward to show, '^ that if 
the spiral Tessels are the orifftn of motion in ioth leaves and 
fiot»erty^ flowers may be made to change their position with 
erery yariation of lii^ht and heat, even more than lectwes ; 
and in the acacia I hare made the leaves and flowers droop 
itt the middle of the day, by holdin;^ a wet napkin sus- 
pended over them after I had completely shaded them ; and 
by carrying flowers into an ico house, they will distinctly 
proT« what part is afiected. 

The 



»nl^f 



,t 



OV TVE STEM Of tftBfii. 



CM« of life 

OTOlloOlDtd* 



Is the life Of 
priDcipal part 
of the ttem. 



CMe of life. TlMXext part is the fmsll circle of Tessels sita&te betwecnf 
the wood and the pith, or rather between the spiral Tessek 
and the pith ; which plays so Tery conspicuoos a^part in ih« 
history of the beginning seed, as I hope to have proTed in 
my first letter ; and which I have Tentnred to call tike circle 
of life. 1 gare before the strongest proof I could, that a 
plant cannot exist a day without it ; and that, if taken away 
at a very early age, it will not (like erery other part) grow 
again : but when older it will certainly renew itself. It b 
▼ery curious, that every botanical anatomist has drawn these 
lines without giving them a name, or otherwise noticing 
them; they attributed all their powers to the pidi, which, 
from the scanty term of its existence, and its bdng perpe* 
tnally impeded in its progress, to make way for the flower 
bud, can evidently have little power. But it was probably 
their extreme delicacy that caused them to be overlooked 
ly all but Hillf whose admirable treatise on the woods it it 
quite wonderful should be dbregarded. The drcle of life 
consists of rows of little cylinders, that have their own pe- 
culiar jaice, generally of an austere quality. From this 
part all branches take their rise, and all wood threads grow. 
They run up (see PI. IX, Fig. 10 and 11) into all flower 
buds, but never approach the leaf bud. When they enter 
the former, they make their way distinctly to each separata 
flower, forming the pistil, and after depositing in each seed 
the line which is the first origin of life, they are afterward 
impregnated, or gain the power of giving life, by the jnice 
of the stamen, which runs through the same string into the 
seed. 

It the first part That in this p^rt resides the principal vUality of the 
plant, I think I proved in my former letter; but I mntt 
add, that it is the Jirst part thai dies, when a branch u cut 
from a tree, or a tree torn up. In watchin^^ the fmit after 
a sudden frosty if taken soon enough, it is this line alone^ 
that will appear to be burnt. In a few hours after, the rest 
of the pistil (at least the poinUl and style) will be tamed n 
reddish black ; but after the first sign it never recovers. But 
in wood, if this line gets injured (either by the decay 4>f the 
bud or other means] the circle will undulate into a thousand 
farms, to regain a wholesome situation in which to pursue 
its course. I have many curious specimens of decayed 

wood 



that dies. 



I OS TOE STEM OF TRF.es. 345 

wood rotted in this manner, that would explain this subject *^' '■'^'<' '^ 
most etideatly, anil i hafc many drawings lalten from other indp^-ed 
specimens, but too large to (rouble Mr. Nicholson with; "ood- 
but which I may at a future lime make public. 

I was once fnrtnnad: enough to see a tri-e cut down, that Mr. For^jihli 
had beeo managed according (o Mr. Forsytli'sMcellcnlme- "^'" """^ 
(had ; and procuriag some specimens of t1, tlic new wood hfid 
began to form in the middle, whore (he pith should hure come, 
but wood grew instead; and the circle of life, making \ 
l»rge circuit, left a place in the new part for the pith. I 
■bait ^re a sketch from some of my drawings, as i( may 
better explain the nature of the circle of life, which after s 
nrrtain coiir&c returned to the place in the new wood, it 
would have occupied in the old; as if it didnot vaitrtre an 
the fresh formed wood, till it was solid and secure. In the 
rotten wood (heiic vessels may hi' nlways trared by their 
taming black, or dnr^cnrd; and in un iufnut ]iUnC (if (he 
seed It boiled for diisecliun) by their dark colour; though 
often quite white when aliTc. I hiiTc now before mu an 
Anson's apricot tree, which has the extraordinary property 
fif laiing one sf its branches evny year (I belieTe it in con. 
not) to the species). lo disaecliugit I find near eight inches Plintir«nr«e 
dead, all but a small piece of the bark and inner •'^rl', n^'r'dvinfr* 
which has gi»en liquid eitotigk to fonn a ni>n_^usA of leave », 
apparently since the wood has been entirely dead (for the 
WDod is totally Yoid of moisture, aud must \\3,yc been with, 
out life some time). This .«how» whence Ike learcs pro. 
rtedy and that the only nourishment they got iras from the 
carbonic acid gas Iheg abrorbcd. It is true Ihev appeared 
Uaguishiii^ and ill ; slill tht-y showed fresh leaves. But it*^"=I< "'1* 
is most curious to see (he struggle the circle of life has made^'^^Q^^^t,,!/, 
, to maintain it^ existence in the injured part, and when I cut 
It, it w.-is wholly in the bark: but I never found any but 
delicate fruit trees able to support such Etagiiiitions in the 
wood, i( kills our forest trees ; or at least the Hmh (bat has 
it; (iiou^h they have many other complaints, qiiiie as b.-id 
as this palsy. I never see a defective limb ur branch, with, 
out endeavouring to 6nd its cause of dccny by dissectiog it. 
The cherry tree is very subject to this complaint, but I know 
ao Ixee that better shows the line of life, though of tlic 



34^ ^9 THEMTai or ruEEf^ 

* 
tiuiia colosr as the pith, it it so verf clear in Hb piido^ 

latioas, 
Cinlous grjMrth But of all the plants it hich proTe the powen of the m^m 
•fjiit poa rep- ^|^ ^^ |.f^^ nooe perhaf9.equal the grass called poa repiutUm 

It grew in a piece of jwampy rubbish ground at the bottom 
of 9iy garden. I had of (sn measured sereu or eight yarda 
In length in the winter, perfectly dead ; and yet in June^ 
or the end of May, perceited life beginning to show itself 
at th^ farthest end frontthe stalk. Surprised at this, I th^* 
]|ext spring chote two, much alike, dissected one of them 
tie tskolc ZBfti/y and found a collection of little vessels*, which 
i^ thickness was not laiiger than a Ycry^ne thread. It had 
got half way the length of the grass, which was about three 
yards* Having merely opened the cover, I laid it down 
i^gain, and the little vessels continued growing, till they got 
to the end of the length of grass. They then made a stop^ 
aii4 I perceived the grass began to thicken ; and at the end 
IKearest the roots, the dead part became inflated with juiccy 
loi^t hy degrees its dead appearance, got thickened about the 
Joints within ; and at Jast shot forth fresh leaves and fresh 
rootSf from erery joint. I have since watched it with th# 
« V • greatest care, and find it is the circle of life, that runs /Avf^ 

protected by the dead scale. When it is stopped by the 
cover ceasing, it waits till the season permits the rest to 
Dettd vegeuble grow. But it should teach more than this; it will show, 

mW^.°"^ ^ *^»* *^« ^^^ ""a"®' ™*y *>e ^nfiated with a livmg juice^ 
and live again, provided the life at bottom is not extingtmhed; 
jLnd I have since seen this in many things, as in thehydrangia, 
where the stalks appar^itly die down, and are inflated again, 
or at least a part of them ; and I doubt not a gardener must 

CAonor the know many instances. The extreme delicacy of the circle 
^ of life is the cause of the double f ith : the parts around H- 

get injured, it starts on this^account from its place, and getMj 
farther into the wood ; and if it has gone very far, instead ai^^ 
returning the pith begins .to form near it, till two complete - 
piths appear with the circio of life surrounding each on oaar 
shle; or if any wood is formed between they will each com* 
plete its circle of life. I could gireau innumerable number 
of additional proofs of the right these vessels have to be 
cabled the circle of lifcy or propagation, did I not fear to 

disgust 



ON TUE STEM^OF |((£EBf f/U 

> * 

disgust and tire my reader 3 bat I may.at a Ci^t^ire llpie,giY^ • ;, 

the rest. 

The pith, which I shall now tqrn to, I esteem merely $9 P^ ':■ 
a'soarce of moisture to the re«t of the plant when wauted : * > 

it stops with every flower bud^ anil begins again to grow a^ 
soon as the bud is past : it decreases as the strength and size 
of the tree increases; it is the only part of the tree, that 
has no vessels to contain liquor, for it is a net only, not a 
bundle of cylinikrs. It has been said, that |t is composed 
of a^reat variety of figures, but this is a mistake : take it 
out extremely thin^ and most piths will bo found of ontf 
%nre only. There are, however, a few different sprts; 
the net of the dogwood is very curious, and the pith of the 
juglans, and a few others differ in /orm, The size of the 
pith will form a tolerable division between the tree an4 
shrub. 

I have but little to say of the root, except that I look^>^wthofihe 
Upon it to be wholly formed of the rind, much thickened, 
and perhaps a very little of the bark, but to be mthout 
iimer bark^ to have a quantity of wood, no spiral vessels^ 
and hardly any pith. I searched in vain for the largec 
vessels of the inner bark, till it struck me, that the want 
of it was the reason of there never being a leaf on a 
root. In Devon this is a trial more easily made than in 
any other place ; and I have repeatedly been allured, that 
roots were foiiad with leaves, but it always turned out 
to be a branch ishich crossed the root ; and I always found 
it io^ on dissepting it, to try the trutli of the assertion. 

I shall now close, my letter with endeavouring to prove Each pirt of 
the truth of an observation made long ago by that <?we/^c;if ^^^ '^ J*! 
observer LinnaMK^i, and since so absolutely denied by many: cularpartofdift 
I mean, " that each jiart of the stem has, when it arrives ^^^' 
near the flower stalk, its peculiar juice'' for the formation 
of eacfh part of theJioKcr; that the bark produces the 
calyx of the flower; the inner bark the corolla; the wood 
the stamen ; the circle of life the pistil : an i that they all 
join in forming the fruit !{\id seed. Willdenouw says, that, 
without having recourse to the plant ^ or to dissectiony it is 
at once possible, to show the folly of supposing, that each 
pgrticular part of the plant should produce only one part of 

tha 



£adi part of the flower^ and he directly adduces the syngenesian cbftf^ 
*2lJ^Jj2 "which coBtains the vert/ plants^ that (if he had dissected 
cvlar pan of tha them) would haie proved the mistake of his argument. Bat 
as an mj opinions are formed on dissection aloncy I haTe no 
fteory to carry on, if I deduce from what I see in the mu 
croscope a false conclusion. I am Tery ready on conTic- 
tlon to gWe up the point; but as I reason from no other 
data than dbsection, I would ask him these simple questions: 
why, if the nourishment of each part of the stem b not 
confined to each different part of thejhztery does the whole 
arrangement of the stalk aitery the moment it gets to the 
flower stalk? why are there particular tcsscIs, to confine 
and carry the juice to each peculiar part, if it was not of 
consequence, that this juice should touch no other places? 
for what purpose is the curious and artificial management in 
the bottom and top of a seed lessel, which enables the 
dissccter to say, << there are five divisions of little vessela 
proceeding from the wood, I know therefore (though I do 
not see it) that this must be ^ pentandrian Jlower ; here if 
but one middle vessel proceeding from the circle of life (for 
the pith stops,) it is therefore of the order pentandria mo- 
fiogynia : here are five divisions of little vessels proceeding 
from the inner bark, it must therefore hsLfe Jive petals f 
This is a simple way of showing the truth, and may dis. 
gust, but it is truth, and should not do so; I ardently wish 
to convince; because I am convinced myself. Cut above 
Or below the seed vessel of a lily, a violet, a tulip, and 
' conviction tvHl I tKisk ceriainli/ follow. Why in cutting 
below or above the seed vessel of a syngenesian flower, can 
you directly tell whether it is superflua, scqualis, or se. 
gregata? Look at the bottom of the seed vessel of the 
sonchus ; every pin hole of the vessel of the male is carried 
up by corresponding vessels in the outward cuticle of the 
seed: this I have proved in the solar microscope, (diminu- 
tive as it is) it is thus carried up till it meets and joins the 
ligature of the males; and the female liquor is protruded 
through the inside of the seed, and is perhaps one of the 
strongest proofs of the impregnation of the female. In the 
syngenesian class (see Plate IX) the delicacy of the vessels^ 
which may be supposed too smallfor aliquid to flow through, 

must 



I OH TBE ETEW OF tfttCf. 349 

mastnol itopfde the Micf that it does to, when we con> 
kidcr the circuUlJun of blood to the diminutiTfi ftnii^al that 
(orments the bod^ or the Ilea and louse. I have seen tha 
liquor run up with the utmost celerity tlirough the upper 
ruticlr of a very aniull seed nf Ihe sjngetiesiaii order, till 
it □ii.'t tbe male and coDiiaucd ilK course. It must be under- 
stood, (hat the juice from the coruUa flows in Ihe rost of tha 
cuticle, and the largest ressels arc those fur tlie maJe liquor. 
The production uf these lilUe llosciiles, and the curious ar. 
nngeinent for the (eseelit, and fur ihc nouribtiment of cacb 
separate part, h so wonderful, that I hardly know aa 
abject that bu given me mure delight (li.in Ihe contrivaace 
manifested in (hem, or a siglit more formed to strike trilh 
wonder, wheii seen in llie microscope; aud how wholly ia 
this beautiful order of arrangement counteracted by a 
double flower; that is by finding none of these pecuUar 
Tessels, but a general confusion, that seems to make a raiK. 
lure of (he whole! I ne»cr permit myself to form any 
opinion what the thing h (o be, before I hftvc dissected it : 
my opinions are wholly taken from what I do see, which 
on this subject I have here given. The person who doubts 
■«ed only dissect a lily, a violet, or any flower, below the 
■Md vessel or above it, and, I fancy, he will be latisiied. 

In detailing the reasons I had to believe that the circle of ThpimroT life 
life formed tbe pistil, and that it is the life of the plant, or.^""'™. 
nther may be better compared to (he sjiinal marroa und ihi tuirttt. 
brain of the animal frame, I forgot ene of the strongest 
l^rouf*, which ii, *' that, though the circle of life never 
runs inio any other leaf, it is to be found in ail those 
Jcaw« Ihal have the Jioaer either on the middle or on the 
tide of (he leaf, itc, I first (o my great astonishment 
pOTCeived it in the butcher's broom, « here it leads directly 
Ip to the flower: then in Ecolopendrumg, and afierward 
in tiie xylophyllas, &c. Besides (hat there is vastly more 
VOod than in any other kind of leaves, »n every one will 
feel on breaking them, the circle of life may easily be 
Uaced, as leading from one Hower to the other. But 1 
tluil detain the reader no lunger than tu say, that these ideas 
and discoveries are not the hasty productions of momentary 
examination, but the result of many years of atudy; 1 may 
2 say 



The line of life tiiy MerUe itudy: though till now I hare not had the 

^^Ijj^j^ courage to liy the resalt before the public, till I fouud, that 

tlbeflowes. n^r dlscoTeilca were likely to be ^pcrse^dsmd published 

frtitn the study of others : as I discovered, six years ago, 

Ae iecond organ in plants, which was so well explained in 

a ptLp€r in your excellent Journal, though rathfer too ob- 

i^cif re. I hare not mentioned the sensitive plants, because 

I hate %ot yet completed my study of them; but I must 

* obsetye, they so intirely confirm my idea, that ^^ the motion 

Ct plaliits is caused almost wholly by the spiral nerres," 

fliat whUn I lay them before the public, they will I hope 

eradicate every remaining doubt that may be left in the 

^ind : ^nd that they are only more or less sensitive, as ih% 

length to which they arc fastened is more or less extended. 

Dear Sir, 

Your obliged Servant, 

A. IBBETSON. 
Betteveuj June 12M. 

Explanation of the Ffgure^* 

Plate Vltl, Fig. 7. Divisions of the wood in the sfem of 
trees; a, the rind; by the bark: e^ the inner bark| dy ttuf 
wood; e, the spinl nerves; f^ the line of life; ^, the 
pith.; A, /», the silver grain ; o, o, e, the bastard graib'. 

Fig. 8. Cylinders of the imier bark. 

Fig. 4). Cylinders of the wood. 

IMste IX. Fig. 10. Part of a branch showing the manner 
in which the line of life, cc, enters int(> the flower bud, a, 
and passes by the leaf buds li^b ; bAbo the manner in which it 
funs to avoid an injured part. 

Fig. 11. A flow^ bud, showing the fine of life, cCj 
itunning up to each flower, a, a, a, a, a^ o, cr, and th^ pith 
terminating at 6. 

Fig. 1^ A setA vessel of the class syngenesia; o^ tb4 
calyx, hj female florets, c, male and female florets. 

Fig. 19. Section just above the seeil vessel of the dian* 
thus, a, the calyx proceeding from the b^k; by the co-- 
rolla, from the inner bark ; c, Cy c, c, r, ten stamenir firont 
the wood; d, the seed iressel; e, the pistil from the circlr 
ofllfe. 

III. Om 



OH TBE ;t7PP0SID PESmSlTIOy Off PlA5Tf. jgf 

III. 

On the supposed Perspiration of Plants. Bjf Bfrs* 

AoN£S Ibbetson. 

To Mr, MCJIOI^ON, 
SIR, 

.l\ FRIEND has suggested to me, that, to aToid all mis. Moisture mi^ 

takes, I should have described thcTarious kinds of moisture* ^**^*"/"^'' W" 
' , ' spiration shottw 

that might be taken for the perspiration of plants; lest the be described, 
subject, from their appearance^ should be given up MS. 
a dream of the author's, without a fair and candid tt'iaL 
It is certainly worth it, for great must be its influence on Perspi«tion ••- 
the atmosphere, znd immense the calculation of the water ^^^^1^0^^ 
necessary to afford such a perspirationy if we take into* 
account also the quantity wanted for their grozctb. But, 
I may say, if leaves exude, in proportion to their surface, 
as much moisture as a healthy man, they must often drop- 
water in die driest days; which I never could perceive they' 
did. But if (as is insisted ox^) they yield 17 tiines as much 
as a robust subject, every tree must be a shower bath^ and 
w# could not sit under one without a complete wetting*. 

Of the various appearances of moisture, which the solar Difierent k'mdf^ 
microscope so completely elucidates, I shall first men tiott^^^PP*'®**^ 
the honey dew, though there are few not acquainted with pUnti. 
its appearance. Beside thisj there are three others^ on« 
the bladder in which a small insect infolds its larva; anothei 
tort in which an insect lays her eggs; and the third is. th^ 
sickness of a plant; for there are few plants, that, do not 
give out a sort of sugar when ill. After these I must men-< 
tion the egg of some insect. It is found on the. proteas,*. 
and one or two other plants. I have preserved the eggtir 
till the animals showed themselves. The next is the cryp- 
fogaroia found on the pea, the sun fio^fer leaf, the mimulusi,! 
and a few others; of these I have- given a sketch, jusA 
as I took them from the solar microscope, that every one 
My judge whether this looks like the perspiration of a 

* This does not follow, unless some cause were present, to con- 
dense:tbe aqueous vapour perspired j €.• • ' 

plant. 



S&S. C^V THC SXTPFOtSD PERSPIRATION OF PLAKTf# 

plant*. I hare also seen the beginning of the hairs of th« 
leaf taken for it. 
lid penpiration In the three or four years that I have been (as long as 
wy high nutg- ^® leaTes last) endeaTouring to discover perspiration, it 
■i^ingpower. appears to me impossible I should not have found it, if it 
did exist : but I hare sought it with microscopes that mag. 
nified so extremely^ as to prevent my being deceived by 
other ol(jects* I regret indeed the little use made of an 
instrument now carried to a degree of perfection, which 
must daily bring new wonders to our admiring senses. With 
respect to perspiration, it is so little shown, though the 
smallest hairs of the leaf are enlarged to the size of a ruler, 
and the water is seen running up as the rarefaction of the 
air forces it from the increased warmth of the glasfi. Nay, 
the pores of the leaf- are so enlarged, that an object fire 
times as small could be seen and eicamined : why then should 
I not sec moisture, if it existed? 

In my former papers (which were written a long time . 

since,) I did not mention (because I was not fully aware of 

it) the very defective manner made use of to- try the quantity 

of perspiration given by plants, and to evince its existence, 

till the desire of studying the effect of various degrees of 

heat on plants, made me a constant attendant on the hot* 

Hettinemses house, green house, hot walls, and glasses, &c. I then 

m'unpUn^on fo^nd, that any increase of heat helped greatly to increase 

leaves, the number of cryptogamian plants on those leares, on which 

StuS'^.'^ they were not flt«//i>ic/iiie(/ to grow; and that, beside this, 

tions. they produced secretions unknown to the plant in its na- 

The melon. tural situation. The melon gives a very curious one, found 

on the edge of the leaf of the plant every morning : but^ 

instead of covering the plant from all air, leave 1^ a little by 

raising the glass ^ and the moisture intirely ceases. It is the 

TIm cucuaber. '^"^^^ though not so much, with the encumber. There it 

not the smallest appearance of moisture without the plant 

is first rendered ill, to study its secretions. It is objected 

to me, that I left the plant so long (being three hours) tiiat 

* See Plate IX, Figs. 15, and 16, the cryptogamian plant on the 

mimulus, or monkey flower: fig. 17, those on the pea, which are 

recumbent: fig. 18, those on the sunflower. They seldom appear 

on young leaves, or on any leaf, till the plant is near flowering. 

4he 



ON THE SUPPOSED PERSPIRATION OF PLANTS. 353 

the moisture under thet^lass had ctaporatcd. Itmight perhaps 
have given a littlo more in a shorter time, and the hygrometer 
would have marked a trifle more moisture; but it is t'orccd 
from the phint^ and, so far from giving it naturally, I have 
every reason to beiie've, that it acts as heat does^ and tears 
its way through the cuticle, as animals in an air pump will 
sometimes have the blood forced through the pores of the 
•kin. 

It is certain, that a plant cannot exist without air, and We cannot 
that it languishes in a confined air. In this state how im- <^^retmns of a 
possible lo judge of its secretions. I cannot help being P**"* "* con- 
persuaded, that excellent botanist Mirbcl had many doubts Mlrbel. 
of its existence. The clear and simple account he gives of 
tht production of the gashes and juices of plants is sudi^ 
that but for one line, it would be the most perfect thing I 
cTer saw ; I hope I may be excused translating the few 
lines. ^' It is certain, that the carbonic acid gas, pro-. 
duced and renewed without ceasing by combustion, is dis- 
■oired in water, which the atmosphere hol>Is suspended in 
▼apour ; and which passes through the thin cuticle of ih% 
leaTes, and penetrates the albumen, and gains the nourish- 
ing Tcssels. This absorption takes place when the sup and 
other fluids (at first dilated by the. heat of the day,) become 
condensed by the cuhl of the night, aud fall towards the 
lower extremities of the tree ; for then the liquids take less ^ 

room, a sort of vacuum takts place in the higher parts ; 
and the vapours Ho wing around enter the leaves by the 
pores, as we see water force itself into the pipe of a 
pump by the help of the pistun, that produces a vacuum. 
But as soon as the sun appears above the horizon, these 
same fluids, joined to those the roots have pumped up from 
the earth, drawn by heat, arc carried into the leaves, and 
ticape bi/ the pores, and it is then that tlie zcatcr and caV" 
honic acid gas enforced by light are decomposed, and the 
torrent of oxigen Hows from the leaves." 

Now if the water escapes through the pores, how can it Water cannot 
be there to be decomposed by tlie light, aud to give out its |^^^'.<*'""f>n^l ose4 
ozigcn ? Setting aside therefore this line, it is the clearest through th« 
account of vegetation, and the most just, I had ever the^'^^' 
pleasure of reading. But certain it is, that, if planti per. 

V«L. XXIII. — Supplement. 9 A 0pir^~ 



ts* 



VUXERICIL TABLE OP ELECTZTB ITTRACTIOXt. 



spired| they could not gite ont oxigcn« However, though 

the appearance of perspiration has invariably proved either 

a cryptogamian plant; the bobbles which hold the per* 

fumed liquor of leaves, and which are to be found in all 

leaves that are scented ; the eggs of insects ; the edges of 

A trifling per- the pores, &c. ; I do not deny, that there may be a very 

"Tuition. trifling degree of insensible perspiration: for I think Ihai 

sort of scurf, or jelly, found on the leaves, arises from it; 

but this is trifling, and scarcely worth mentioning. 

The vine per- Of the innumerable quantity of plants I have ezaminedy 

spirM from itf tfippg |s ^n^ Q„g^ fj^i in n,y opinion realty does perspire ; 

and that not on the leaf, but the stalk. This is the tfime* 
When the vine is extremely full of juice, a bubble appean 
on the stalk, which, magnified, is nut a plant; but really 
issues from the vine as the proper juice of it, for I can 
lee no stalk. With the same truth I should have mentioned it, 
if I had found hundreds; for to attain truth is my aim, and 
I am really attached to no system whatever. Mine aro 
merely desultory discoveries, not mine indeed^ but those of 
the solar microscope^ to which I transfer all the honooFy 
if there is any. As to the sickness of a plant, any partoa 
may perceive, when a plant has been gathered an hour or 
two, how damp and moist it grows; it is the same when 
placed under a glass, it droops and grows clammy, 

I am, Sir, 

Your obliged Servant, 

AGNES IBBETSON. 
Belleveu ^6th June, 



A — .- ■: — ■ 



IV. 

ji numerical Table of elective Attractions ; with Remarks 
on the Sequences of double Decompositions^ By THOMiA 
Young, M,D. For. Sec. R,S.* 

^|^/;JJ^y^ Attempts have been made, by several chemists, to 

•f elective at* obtain a series of numbers, capable of representing the mu« 
Qaetions. 

* Philos. Trans, for 1809, Part I, p. 148. For a Memoria 

Technica of the double elective atlracUons, commuuicated by tht 

learned aullior, see Journal, Vol. XXli, p. 304. 

toal 



SVMERICAI. TABLE OP ELMTITE ATTBACTIOSS. 

fttlractiTe forces ot the componrnt parts of iltffereitt 
tits; bu( these atti-mpts h^Tc liilhertu bfna ciinlintid wiihin 
HUTow limits, antl have indeed been sti hastily abantlooed, 
feal some very imporlaDt consequences, which neceaiarilf 
pllow from tbugrneral principlu of a niimtrital represen* 
Btion, appear to have been entirely oTcrlouked. it Lt not 
npossibic, (hat there may be some cases, in which the pre* 
lenciruf a fonrlti Eubatancc, betide the two ingredionta of 
lie salt, and fhe medium in which (hey arc dissotred, m^f 
^finence the precise force of their mutual aitraction, ciHier 
iy affecting the iolubiiity of (he salt, or by someother un- 
linown means, so that the niinibiT, naturally appropriate 
|0 tiie combination, may no linger conespond to its aA'ec. 
Jons; but (here is reason to think, that such cases are 
Kre; and when they occur, Ihey may •a'lily be noticed as 
ticeptioas to the general n.les. It appt'ar.i therefore, that 
learly all the phenomena of the mutual actions of a hundred 
jilTurcot salts may be correctly represented by a hundred 
Unnbers, while, in the usual manner of relating every case a> 
I different experiment, above two thousand separate articles 
Rould be required. 

HftHngbecn engaged in the collection <if a few of the priB-Aieriaor nun- ^ 
ipa facts relating to chemistry and pharmacy, I "**''"l''*'fl<li ecinsver*** 
to attempt the iuvesligaliun of a serien of these numbers ; g^nenllr. 

id i hare succeeded, not without some ditTiculty, in obtain- 
ipgtach as appear to agree sufficiently wellwirh all the cases 
if doable decooi positions which are fully established, the 
■ccptions not exceeding twenty, out of about twelve hun- 
Ired cases enumerated by Fourcroy. The same numbers 
ID general with the order uf simple elective attrac 
ions, as usually laid down by chemical authors^ but it was 
if so macb less importance to accommodate them to these, 
J have not been very solidlous to avoid a few inconsis* 

Ihiii respect; especially as many of the bases of Common ijblw \ 
he calcolalion remain uncertain, and as the common tallies ij^ean^ctioss 
if ^mple elective attractions are certainly imperfecl. if Ihry imperfsct. 
^e considered as indicating the order of the independent 
IttracliTe forces of- the subslanres concerned. Although it 
cannot be expected, that these numbers nhonld be accurate 
leasurea of the forces which they represent, yet they may 
3A2 IM 



S56 ?n:jfERicxi. TABLi: or eli^tite attractions. 

be svpposed to be tulcrablr. a^^proximafmns to cmcIi m«t« 

cvrcs; at least if any two of th(^n arc nearly in i\ic. true 

proportion, it is probable, ihaHUo rest cannot dt^iatt* very 

far from ft: th»s, if the attractive force of the ph<»fiphoric 

<acid for potash is about eight tenthfS of that of the sulfuric 

acid for Darita, that of the phosphoric acid for biirita must 

be aboat nine tenths as great ; bat tlxty are calculated only 

to agree with a certain nmnber of phenomena, and will 

probably reqnire many altcratioHs, as wdl as addition s^ 

when all other similar phenomena shall have been accuratelj 

investipatcd. 

*nie facw mar There is, however, a method of representing the facts, which 

berciw^^^Tjusd ijj^^^g^^jjj as the bases of the determination, independently 

»ysu;l:rsif. of any by potiiesis, acid withont being liable to the contingent 

necessity of any future alteration, in order to make room for 

the ititrodnction of the affections of other substances; andtbis 

methofi enables us al.^o to compare, upon gon<!ral princip1e5y 

a wultttude of scattered phenomena, and to reject many whicb 

fcaTe been mentioned as probable, though dttubtfnl, with tht 

omiH»on of a very few only, Mhich bave been staleilas astccr. 

tained. Thisarrangemcnt simply cicpwuls op. the supposition, 

tliat the aiirartire force, which tends to uuile any two sub. 

5tances, mjiy always be r '.^presented by & certain constant 

cpiantity. 

Thcrr: wAi«!tl3c FroKi this principle it may be inferred, in the fii-st place, 

a*f/ivifrif^7a ^y^^^ there must be a sequence iu ilic simple electire attrac. 

♦ractions. tious. For e\ampK?, there mu.^t be an erronr in the common 

furonrs mf^e ^|,jgs ^f elective attr&clions, in >^ hich mairni'sia stands above 

ammonia under (he sulfuric acid, and below it under the 

■ |)hos-phoric, and the phosphoric acid stands above the Hulfnric 

under ma^ne.^iii, and below it under ammonia: since stich an 

arran«,Tmcnt implies, that the order of the attractive forces is 

this; phosphate of magnciiia, sulfate of hiagnosia, sulfateof 

ammonia, phosphate cf ammonia, aiid i:g'iiin phosphate of 

mn^w^'m; which forme a circle, and nut a sequence. We 

^ inu»i therefore cither place m&giicsia above ammonia tinder 

the phosphoric acid, oi the phosphoric acid below thesnlfn. 

xir. undrr ma^iiiesia . or 'Ae. must abandon the principle of* 

. / 04i«i;eri('3l retirecentatioH tn this piirticular case. 

la 



HtnuSHCAL TABLE OF ELrXTIVC ATTKiCTIOXS. J57 

la the second place*, there innr^t be £u ai;rocnicnf. between Tliesnpph. iv.ii 

-1 . , • 1 1 ■ 1 • . rill •«•■<■ . donb!e atTr;u:- 

lae»lm{)le and dauule olectivi.* attractions. J luis, if the lluoric ji^n,. ^^^^ 

acid stands abort* the nitric nn JtT hi&rtta, and bi:Io\T it under ^6**^' 

line, the tiuate of barita caiuiot decompose the nitrate of liaie, 

•incc the prcviou«» attractions of these two salts are res pec- 

tiTcly greater, than the divollcnt attractions of the nitrate of 

barita and the fluate of lime. Probably^ therefore^ ho ought 

to place the fluoric acil below the nitric under barita; and 

wcmay&uppote, that, when the fluoric acid has appeared to 

form a precipitate \« ith the nitrate of barita, there has becD 

tome fallacy in the expi^rimcut. 

The third proposition is somewhat loss obvions, but per- A coniinucd 
m r ••• ■ « • I sequence in ih« 

haps of greater utility : there must be a continued sequence ^^^ of douUe 

in the order of double clectiTC attractions ; that is, betweeuaLUnctioiis. 
any two acids, wr may place the different bases in such an 
order, that any two salts, resulting from their union, shall 
always decompose each other, unless each acid be united to 
the base nearest to it: lor example, sulfuric acid, barita, po- 
tass, soda, ammunia, strontia, magnesia, glycina, alumina, 
zirconia, lime, phosphoric acid. The sulfate of potass de. 
composes the phosphate of barita, bccanse the diflerence of 
the attractions of barifa for the sulfuric and phosphoric 
acids is greater than the difli^rcncc of the similar attractions 
of potass ; and in the same manner the diflerence of the at- 
tractions of potass is {greater than that of the attractions of 
soda ; consequently the difli'rence of the attractions of ba- 
rita must be much greater than that of the attractions of 
soda, and the sulfate of soda must decompose the phosphate 
of barita: and in the same manner it may be shown, that 
each base must preserve its relations of priority or posteri- 
ority to every other in the series. It is also obvious, that, 
for similar reasons, the acids may be arraii^i'd In a conti- 
nued sequence between the diflferent ba^es; and when all 
the decompositions of a certain number of salts have been 
investigated, we may form two corresponding tables, one 
of the sequences of the bases with the acids, and another 
of those of the acids with the dilFerent bases ; and if either Concction of 
or both of the tables are imperfect, their deficiencies may *'j^|*'**^ ^*" 
often be supplied, and their errours corrected, by a re- 

pcated comparison with each other. 

In 



i 



358 irVMERXCAL TABLE OF ELECTITE ATTSACTIONI. 

Tables fbtmed tn forming tables of this kind from the cases collcrtrd by 
l^ci^ 1^ ppy'j^ Fonrcroy, I have been obliged to reject some facts, which 
cf^* were evidently contradictory to others, and these I have not 

thonght it necessary to mention ; a few, which are positiTely 
related, and which are only inconsistent with the principle of 
numerical representation, I have menrioned in notes but many 
others, which have been stated as merely probable, I have 
omitted without any notice. In the tabic of simple elective 
attractions, I have retained the usual order of the different 
substances; inserting again in parentheses such of them as 
require to be transposed, in order to aroid inconsequences 
in the simple attractions : I have attached to each combina. 
tion marked with an asterisk the number deduced from the 
double decomposition, as expressive of its attractive force ; 
and where the number is inconsistent with the corrected or. 
dcr of the simple elective attractions, I have also enclosed 
it in a parenthesis. Such an apparent inconsistency may 
perhaps in some cases be unavoidable, as it is possible, that 
the difTerent proportions of the masses, concerned in the 
operations of simple and compound decomposition, may 
sometimes cause a real difference in the comparative magni- 
tude of the attractive forces. Those numbers, to which no 
asterisk is afRxed, arc merely inserted by interpolation, and 
they can only be so far employed for determining the mutnal 
actions of the salts to which they belong, as the results 
which they indicate would follow from the comparison of 
any other numbers, intermediate to the nearest of those, 
which are more correctly determined. I have not been able 
to obtain a sufficient number of facts relating to the metal- 
lic salts, to enable me to comprehend many of them in the 
tables. 
DivUions of at- It has been usual to distinguish the attractions, which pro- 
'**^ *°°'' duce the double decompositions of salts, into necessary and 

superfluous attractions; but the distinction is neither very ac- 
curate, nor very important : they might be still farther divided 
accordingly as two, three, or the whole of the four ingre- 
dients concerned are capable of simply decomposing the salt 
in which they are not contained ; am! if two, accordingly as 
they are previously united or separate: such divisions would 
however merely tend to divert the attention from the natural 
operation of the joint forces concerned. 

6 It 




KDMCKICAL TABU «I KLCCTITt 4TT«Am«>«. 



^f^t 



159 



Ittppciirs to be not improbable, that the allractiTc force Eiprewon of 
■•f ■■J' Ivro subataacos might, in many cases, be expressed j^^gft^Q 
f the quolicnl of two Dumbers appropriate to the sub- "ilwine". 
or rather by the eicess of that quotient abore 
us the altractife force of manj of the acids for 
principal alkalis might probably be correctly re- 
presented in this manner; and where the order of altrac. 
(ions is different, perhaps tbe additiun of a second, or of a 
■econd sad third quotient, derived from a diSerent series of 
numbers, would afford an accurate determination of the 
nlatire force of attraction, which would always be the 
weaker, as the two substances cuocerned stood nearer to 
each other in these orders of nnmbers ; so that, by affixing, 
to each simple substance, [wo, three, or at most fonr uum- 
bers only, its attracfiTc powers might be expressed in tho 
shortest and most general manner. 

I bafe llionght it necessary to make some alterations in the Chemical («■ 
orthography generally adopted by chemists, not from a want ™' 
of deference to their indiridual authority, but because it ap- 
pears to me, Ihut there are certain rules of etymology, which 
no rnodem aufhgr has a right to set aside. According to the 
orthography unirersallyestablished throughout the language, 
without any material exceptions, our mode of writing Greek 
words is always borrowed from the Ramans, whose alphabet 
we haTc adopted: thus the Greek Towel T, when alone, it 
always expressed in Latin and English by Y, and the Greek 
dipthung or by U, the Romans hating no such dipthong ai 
OU or OY. The French hare sometimes dcTiatcd front 
tUs rule, and if it wero excusable for any, it would be for 
them, unce their u and ou are pronounced exactly as the f 
il or of the Greeks probably were : but we have no such 
(acute. Thus the French hare used the term acour/i^uef 
wbichBome F,n gl is h authors have converted into "acoustic^;'* 
WT anatomists, howerer, speak, much more correctly, of 
■' acustic" nerve. Instead of glucine, we ought cer. 
oly, for a similar reason, to write glycine; orglycin3,if 
9 of the earths are to end in n. Barytes, as a sin> 
^fl Greeic word, means weight, and must be pronounciMl 
liujtet; but as the name of a stone, accented on the se. 
Cuitl syllable, itmust be written barites; and the pure earth 
nay properly be called harila. Yttria 1 have altered to 
ItfA, becaoie no Xiatiii word begins with a Y. 




360 



TABLE! OF ELECTITE ATTRACTIONS. 






3 






>« -S 




rr jf- 


k« 


a «. ** 

h3 i« ►= fl- cr. ^. 


-nor* 







(4 a 



i! S3 1> 2 



•'^ C ». S = 



P3 W J fa K S < O < >3 



u 

u 



9 
o 

o 



o 

X 



o 

m 






-a 



- s 

en — * 

*• an 

<D g 

6 






OS 

& 
c/: 



a 
^ 

%> 


3 

o 


c<l 


h3 

=3 


^ 


^^ 


»CS 


o 


•«•• 


oc 


'fr 


CO 

Si 
o 


^ 




»Q 


&• 


►« 


a 






S3 

•** 

H 

s 

a 



.3 



a 2 ra 

«4 •^ S ^ ^ - 

-, ™ 5 =! 6 9. r. c i= 
5-§'5 E E = «r>^3 



3 



.9 



J-. 



■i-2 «S.3 






'a 






'Zl 

ft 





c 

fa 






c »" c •-• c ^ 



X 






o 

n 

< 



U 

•< 

o 







o 

C 



OS 
O 
R 

(A 

o 



u 

H 



'C C e:. - -r ^ £ ^ £:' > ^ Cl c s 






ff •*■ 



i5i AC "i « «* .? ,5 
(H ff} M >-'WPk M 



5 5 - S 



»- m 2 
S ** o _ 

o s e o E s - 



1 1 

ii 

« o 
— U« 

♦• ^^^ 

*^ I 

'^-5 2 
^ (• 

o rt e» 

•2 S > 

5 C D 

2 = ■/. 
« • "2 

*: o 5 

©•*•«« 
111 

i "^ I 

^ rt rt 

9 -r -• 

o -( <• 

i E -^^ 

< »H 5 
'^ ^^ 

VI '•^ 



TABLF.^ or ELECTITE ATTRACTI0N9. 



361 



Nitric 
Acid. 

Bariia 
PoMss 

StToiitia 
Lime 



Nitric and Muriatic Acids. 



Pt)tass 

Socia 

Ammonia 

Magriu «ia 
Glyciiia 



Barita 

Soda 

Ammonia 

Magi"«\a 

G' vcina 

Aiuinina 

Zircduia 



Potiss 

S..cU 

Ammonia 

Mn5nt»sia 

(>lvcina 

Alumina 

7iiruonia 

Parita 



Strontia (9) Strontia 
Lime Lime 

Fluoric Sulfurous 



Barita(lO) 

P'ltnss 

SMfla 

A monia 

Mapnesia 

GJyi'ina 

Alumina 

/irc<»nia 

Strotitia 

I^iniH 

BoRACIC 



Potass 

Soila 

BariU(lO) 

Ammonia (7,113 

Magnesia (7) 

Strontia 

Lime 

Glycina 

Alumina 

Zircon ia 

Carbonic 



Magnesia (7) Alun.lna 
Ammonia (7) Zirconia ^C) 
Glycina Bar it a 

Alun.ina Strontia 

Zirc«nia Lme 

Muriatic Phosphoric 

(7) A triple salt is formed. (8) Fourcroy says, that the mnriatc of zirconia di^rom- 
poses the ph06i>hatcs of barita and struntin. (9) According to Fourcroy's account, 
the fluate of stronui decomposes the muriates of ammonia, and uf all the bases •>elow it; 
but he says in another part of the <ame volume, that the fluate of stnmtia is an unknowa 
salt, (10) According to Fonrcroy^s acconni of these combinations, bartta should stand 
iinmediately below ammonia in both of thcsf columns. (11) With hcat^ thecarbonat* 
of lime decompose! the muriate of ammonia. 



Barita 

Lime 

Ptitass 

Soda 

Strontia 

Magnesia 

Ammonia 

Glycina 

Alumina 

Zircon in 

Fluoric 



Lime 
Barita 

PtitaiS 
}>'oda 
Strontia 
IVI ignesia 
A ni monia 
Glycina 
Alumina 
Zircon ia 

St'LFUROUS 



PiiospiioRic Acin. 

Barifa Potasi 

Lime Soda 

P^'fass Barita 

Sofia Lime (10) 

Strontia Str(»n»ia 
Amm(jnia(l2) Ammonia 



Ma^in^sia 
Gl) (ina 
Alumina 
Zirconia 

BORACIC 



M.«»;nc»iA 

Glycina 

Alumina 

Zireonia 

Caubonjc 



Barita 

Lime 

Potass 

Soda 

Strontia 

Magnesia 

Glv-.ina ? 

m 

Alumina 
Zirconia 



f phosphorous) 

(12) According to Fourcroy, the phosphate of ammonia decomposes the borate of 
magnesia. (IJ) Fourcroy says, liiat the carbonate of lime decomposes ihephosphalM 
pf potash and ui' soda. 

Fluoric Acid. 



Lime 

potass 

Soda 

MugncVia 

Ammonia 

Glycina 

Alumina 

Zirconia 

Strontia 

Barita 

SULFUROUB 



Lime 

Barita 

Strontia 

Potass 

Swlu 

Ammonia 

Magnir^ia 

Glycina 

Alumina 

Zirconia 



Potass 

S)da 

Lime 

Rarit.i 

Strwitia 

Ammonia (14) 

JVIagmsia 

(ilycina 

Alumina 

Zirconia 

Carbonic 



BoRACIC 

(14) Accordinc; to Fourcroy, the carbonate of ammonia docompo.^es the fluatet of 
harita and strontia. 

SuLFUROus Acid. 



Barita 

Strontia 

Pota-s 

Soda 

Ammonia 

Magnesia 

Lime 

Glycina 

Alumina 

Zirconia 

BoRACIC 



Bbtass 

Soda 

Barita (15) 

Strontia 

Ammonia 

Lime 

Magnesia 

G.ycina 

Alumina 

Zirconia 

Carbohxc 



Lime 

Strontia 

Barita 

Zirconia 

Alumina 

Glycina 

Magnesia 

Ammonia 

Soda 

Potass 

(Nitrous) 



Zirconia 

Alumina 

Glycina 

Ammonia 

Magnesia 

Strontia 

Soda 

Pbtan 

Barita 

Lime 

(PaoiPllORODt?) 



BoRAcic Acid. 

Pi»ta&s 

Soda 

Lime 

Harita 

fitrontia ' 

Mosncr'' 

Ar 



(16 JFonmoj uja, that the sulfite of baiita decompoKi th^ 



362 



TIBLM or lUCTIfC ATTIIACTIOK9. 



ii 



rji 



S0Q CJ 0U ^ ^ CR 






u. ^. 



o 
X 

< 
II 

SP5 a: ;^ 

5 S a S 



S ^ ^ , , 

S -^ 5 ? g 8 

R o < 5 S S a 



e 
■5 3 

^ z 

t0t 



o 



S2 



.S 



» 



'^ 



Pk vi cc c#: CC i<^ ^ u o ^ N 



^ Si 



s * 

•• u 

2 "5* 



*• 2 

s *«» 

" B 

2 



» 


a 


4^ 


o 


B 


» 


S 




» 

'^^ 


JS 




■8 


^ 


CM 


e« 


O 


B 




O 


B 


B 


ce 


B 


^ 


ce 






V 


^ 


,B 



B "S 
S § 

S o* 

f g 

« § 
3 « 



a ••• 



■S o 



§ ,- 

^ o 

bo •£ 

:b o 



n u cB '^ 
•S .O -3 « 



^ rt ** « rt 



M 

s 






« 



& ^ 



cidPnci:^ 



#M« »^ *^ vx *J ^ '''■ 






1% 






O 
H 



r/5 



ao;?;S s 



U^(s<pNClQcr:S^ £ S 






O B 

••^ _ 

p .S 

« S 



&^ i 



s ° 

CQ J* 

»c o 

^ JO 

o ^ 

S en 



5 « 

C B 

8 « 



O 



5 .g 



Q •»■ 






cc ^ 



5 CT 

u o 

C o »i d. 
^ -u •= S 



P^OCCEki 



X 



09 



O O .a C H 

i: 'u t^ o K 

= o 5 J3 o 

>■* >■ fc- fa tt* 

•S j: O etf p 



8 a 



e o © 



e4 B 



E 



fa 

^ s 

c4 0) 

•fa * 



— • .S 

fa B 

O O 

.. 

en S 

& .2 

B p*« 

iS 'fa iJ 

0! -^ O 

pQ O -*- 

o> s ^ 

^ E — 

? « 2 



F 



vuxniciL T1BX.I or KLKJTITX ▲TTmACTXOVa. 



9S3 



Numerical Table of elective Attractions. 



Bartta. 
Sulfuric acid iOOO* 

Oxalic 950 

Succinic 930 
JFhtoric 

Phosphoric 906* 

Mudc 900 

Nitric B4y* 

Muriatic 840* 

Suberic 800 
Citric 

Tartaric 760 

Arsenic 733^ 

(Citric) 730 

Lactic 729 

(Fluoric) 700* 

Benzoic 597 

Acetic 594 

Bnracic (515)« 

Sulfurous 592* 

NitRKIS 450 

Carbonic 4S0* 

Fhissic 400 



Strontia. 

Sulfuric acid P03* 

Phosphoric 827* 

Oxalic h25 

Tartaric 757 
Fluoric 

Nitric 754* 

Muriatic 748* 

(Succinic) 740 

(Fluoric) 703* 
Succinic 

Citric? dl8 

Lactic 603 

Sufyuroue 521 • 
Acetic 

jlrsenic (733i) 

Boivcic 513* 

(Acetic) 480 

Nitrous? 430 

Carbonic 419* 



Potass. Soda. 
Sulfuric acid 

894* 885* 
Nitric 812* 804* 
Muriatic 804* 797* 
Phosphoric 

801*795* 
Suberic? 745 740 
Huoric 67 1 * 666* 
Oxalic 650 645 
Tartaric 616 611 
Arsenic 614 609 
Succinic 612 607 
Citric 610 605 
Lactic 609 604 
Benzoic 608 603 
Sulfurous 488* 484* 
Ac«>tic 486 482 
Mucic 484 480 
Boracic 482* 479* 
Nitrous 440 437 
Carbonic 306* 304* 
Prussic 300 298 



Lnts« 

Oxalic acid 

Sulfuric 

lartaric 

Succinic 

Phosphoric 

Mucic 

Nitric 

Muriatic 

Suberic 

Fluoric 

Arwfnic 

Lactic 

Citric 

Malic 

Benzoic 

Acetic 

Boracic 

Sulfurous 

(Acetic) 

S^itrous 

Carbonic 

Prussic 



960 

868* 

867 

806 

865* 

860 

74! • 

7S6» 

735 

734» 

733| 

732 

731 

700 

SPQ 

S37» 

516* 

470 

425 

423* 

290 



Magnesia. 


Ammonia. 


Oxalic acid 


820 


Sulfuric acid 


808* 


Phosphoric 




Nitric 


731* 


Sulfuric 


810* 


Muriatic 


729* 


(Pho>^horic) 


736* 


Phosphoric 


728^ 


Fluoric 




Suberic ? 


720 


Arsenic 


733 


Fluoric 


613* 


Mudc 


73'J{ 


Oxalic 


611 


Succinic 


73l>J 


Tartaric 


60y 


Nitric 


732* 


Arsenic 


607 


Muriatic 


728" 


Succinic 


605 


Suberic? 


700 


Citric 


603 


(Fluoric) 


620* 


Lactic 


601 


Tartaric 


618 


Benzoic 


599 


Citric 


615 


Sulfurous 


433 


Malic? 


600? 


Acetic 


432 


Lactic 


575 


Mucic 


431* 


Benzoic 


560 


Boracic 


430* 


Acetic 




Nitrous 


400 


Boracic 


459* 


Carbonic 


33.0 


Sulfurous 


439* 


Prussic 


270 


(Acetic) 


430 






Nitrous 


410 






. Carbonic 


366* 






Fruisic 


280 







Glycina? 


Alumina. 


Sulfuric acid 


718* 


709* 


Nitric 


642* 


634* 


Muriatic 


639* 


632* 


Oxalic 


600 


594 


Anw'nic 


580 


575 


Suberic? 


535 


530 


Fluoric 


534* 


529* 


Tariaric 


520 


515 


Succinic 


510 


505 


Mucic 


425 


420 


Citric 


415 


410 


Phosphoric 


(648)* 


(6J2)« 


Lactic 


410 


405 


Btii^oic 


400 


395 


Acetic 


395 


391 


Boracic 


388* 


385* 


Su'furous 


355* 


351* 


Ni'rous 


340 


336 


Carbonic 


325* 


323* 


Prudsic 


200 


258 



ZlBGONIAi 

700* 

626* 

625» 

588 

570 

525 

524* 

510 

500 

415 

405 

400 

390 

387 

382* 

347* 

332 

321*' 

2j« 



Acid$^ 



364 



KCrXCRTCAL TABIC OF etSCTITZ ATTRACTICr^f. 



Acfdx^ 



Barita lOOO* 

Strontia U03* 

Fota» 8P4« 

Soda 885# 

£ifne 868* 

Hagfiosia 8I0« 

Xmtnonia 8084= 

e\scm^ 7I8» 

Itrui 713 

illimiinB 700* 

Zircouia 700"^ 



KlTP.lC. 

Barita 

"Potass 

Sivla 

Stmniii 

Lime 

Magnt^ia 

Ammonia 

Glycina 

>\luinina 

Zirconia 



84r>» 
8i:- 

H)\* 
75-** 
7ll» 
7.i'J» 
731* 



narita 840* 

Pota« 804* 

Soda Tt<7* 

Mrontia "18* 

I.iine 7:>*j* 

Amnion: a 7Jn* 

Magnesia. 7J«* 

Ghcina fiJi'* 

Alumina (5.5 J* 

Zirconia <i'2j* 



Pnosmc* 
Barita 
Strontia 
Lime 
Potays 
Soda 

Ammonia 
Magnesia 
GWcina 
Aiuuiina 
Zirconia 



00<5- 

8:27 ♦ 

(8d5)* 

801* 

(7-J8)* 
73ti» 
«34b* 

fi3li* 



Flvotjc. 

Lime 734 

Barita 706 

fitrontia 703 

Afaguesia ((5!?0) 

Pota5» 67 1 

S$oda 6CG 

Ammonia 613 

Gfycina 53 1 

Afumina 52f> 

Zirconia 5J1 



Oxalic. 

Lime 960 

Barita .050 

StFontia 525 

Magnesia 820 

Potass 630 

Soda 61A 

Amiiionia 611 

Clyrinar COO 

Alumina bOi 

Zirconia? 5SS 



TAKf.MilC, 

8o7 

760 

7j7 

618 , 

616 

611 

600 

5:0 

510 



AusEyic. 

Lime 7331 

Rarita 733 J 

Strontia 733 J 

Magnesia 733 

Poiii5>5> 614 

boifa 60D 

Aninionia 607 

Glycina 580 

Alumina 575 

Zirconia 570 



Tt'NCTir, 

Lime 
Barita 
StrciHia 
Magnesia 

PotUiiS 

So<ha 

Ammonia 
Glycina 
Alum ma 
Zirconia 



Succncic. 
Barita 
iJmc 
Stmntia ? 
(Magncsb) 
Potass 
Soda 

Timmonfa 
Jlfagnena 
Glycina? 510 
Ahiniina 505 
Zirconia r 500 



930 

866 

740 

7321 

612. 

607 

605 



Suberic. 

Ririta 800 

l*ota<?rJ 74:1 

Soda 740 

iJme 735 

Amn\onia 720 

Maf^nci.i.i 700 

Glvcin.if D.l'-y? 

m 

Alumina 530 

Zirconia? 525? 



C.AMmORIC. 

Lime 

Potass 

t^oda 

Harita 

Ammonia 

Ghcina r 

Alumina 

Zirconia r 

Magncsia 



Crniic. 

Lime 731 

Barita 730 

Strontia 618 

Magnesia 615 

Potass 610 

Soda 605 

Ammonia 603 

Glvcina? 415* 

Alumina 410 

Zirconia 405 



Lactic. 

Barita 72P 

Potass 60.0 

Soda 604 

Strontia 603 
JJff!e (732) 

Ammonia 601 
Magnirsia 575 
lirletailic oxids 
Glycina <1l6 
.Alumina 405 
Zirconia 400 



Benzoic. 
AVhitc ON id of 

apjcnic 
Potass r03 

Soda (".);) 

Amiiirinia 5!':) 
Barita 5!»7 

Linu' 5;.'0 

Macnesia 5<'0 
Glycina- -100? 
Alumina 3;»5 
Zirconia r 31-0 ? 



SriTLPov*. 

Barita 5s;i2 ♦ 

Lime 516 * 

Volas? /,^s * 

Soda 4.^1 * 

Strontia (:• :7} * 

M:j^ii(-ia -'K^.i " 

Amnuinia -i^^ ** 



GK« inn 



3;.5 



Alumina r>M * 
Z'rcjiiia J^T » 



A« » TIC. 

Barita 5P4 

Poiav- 486 

Soda 482 

Si rout I a 480 

JjfffC 470 

Ammonia 432 

Mugnoia 43U 
Mt'tailic ox ids 

Glycina C>\)5 

Alumina 3{H 

Zirconia 387 



Mucic ? 



WVEAICAL TABLE OF SLECTITC ATllL.UTlONf. 



365 



Mrcic ? 




BOCACIC. 


Nrrcoisi 


> 


rHOSTBOfiOL^ 


Birita 


<^00 


Lime 


537 * 


Barita 


4.S0 


Lime 


i-ime 


&'J0 


Jbrita 


31j *• 


Polads 


410 


Ji-u-iU 


Putust 


48+ 


Stroiitia 


5\:, • 


Soda 


437 


Strontia 


5ioda 


4 SO 


Magnena 


(4jiO • 


btrontia 


430 


Potass 


Ammoziia 


4J1 


PutUSSk 


4S:i » 


Lime 


4l.'5 


So<la 


Cljciiia 


^•J5 


Soda 


471) • 


Magnesia 


410 


Magnesia? 


Aluinina 


4V20 


Ammonia 


430 * 


Ammonia 


400 


Ammonia 


26rcaiua 


415 


dycina 


3S8 • 


Glycina 


340 


Glycina 






Alumina 


383 * 


Alumina 


33t; 


Aliuuiiia 






Zirconia 


:}SL^ * 


Zirconia 




Zirconia 






Carcokic. 


Prlssic. 


* 








Barita 


420 • 


Barita 


400 








Strontia 


41.1) • 


Strontia 










lime 


(4'J3) ♦ 


Potass 


300 








Pota^is? 


30U '^ 


Soda 


2VH 








&>da 


304 • 


Lime 


i?yo 








Mti^nesia 


(3oo) • 


Magnesia 


cso 








Ammonia 


331) * 


Ammonia 


270 








Glyi'ina 


ZJJ » 


Glycina ? 


'JtJO 








Alumina 


Jj:j ♦ 


Alumina ? 


1»38 








Zirconia 


3iJl * 


Zir(»niu ? 


I^OCJ 





V. 

Esperifuenfs on Sulphur and Us Dccompjsi/ion; bjf Mr, 
CuRlVDAU, Professor of Chcoii Irif apjdkithle to the 
Aris^ and Member of several Icai v.ed Soticti':^ *, 

VV HEN bodies ivc attempt to docomji(»3c liavc cxpcri- ijodu* iiu|i- 
enced do alteration from (lie chemical agents, to the action of ^^^^ simple. 
^Lich they have been subjected, we are ob]i'j;ed to class 
them as simple bodies. The idea of simple substances, how. 
l^cn though there must be such, is but little reconcilabla 
wjlli the different phcxiomcua of decomposition and rc« 
compos! tJOD, 1^'hich nature is incessantly producing before 
ovr CJC6, and I ha?c never considered as sim])lc all that are 
|;racrally. deemed so. Oo the coutrary I have always thought, None in #he 
that the substances constituting the mineral kingdom, of J"""*^ '^"f' 
vhateTcr kind^ are compounds; and that the priociplcs of 

• Journal de Phy^iqpje, July, 1808, p J2, Mr. Da?y*s decom- 
po^Hion of sulphur by the Voltaic pile is given at p. '^21, of ouc 
fnseot mHn|>cr. 

vhi6k 



366 



In which the 
elementary 
matters are 
greatly coQ- 
dcnsod. 



In the rege- 
table kingdom 
Iheyarelaiso 



Mciitnictibi- 
]ity of mineral 
bcKlies. 



This property, 
9wing to the 
powerful af- 
iinity of their 
principles, 
m^riticonside- 
atiun. 



nccoifronnov or ivlphcb« 

which they arc composed are the same, as those that enter 
into the composition of substances, tiiat belong to the vege- 
table and animal kingdoms. But let me not be mistaken. 
The state in \vhich we are acquaiated with certain principles 
is very far from the great condensation they must expe* 
rionce, before they enter into the composition of the mine- 
ral kingdom. Accordingly the compounds of those that 
result from a union of these principles must differ, in pro- 
portion as they recede from the former state, or approach 
the latter. This in fact we observe in the vegetable king- 
dom. The essential oils, for example, must be considered 
as compounds, in which the principles are very near the 
gaseous state; while the elements that constitute the resins 
and fixed oils are in a state of the greatest condensation, 
with respect to the kingdom to which they belong. But 
this greatest condensation of the principles, that form the 
diffen-nt compounds of the vegetable kingdom, is far rc« 
moved from the first degree of condensation of the elements 
that constitute the substanc^ss of the mineral kingdom. Ac- 
cordingly the indestructibility of the latter seems connected 
with the ditiiculty of causing principles to retrograde towards 
a state of less condensation, that have the very opposite 
tendency 

What I have just said of the different degrees of conden- 
sation, in which the principles that constitute all natural 
bodies exist, I advanced ten years ago in the first paper I 
had the honour to present to the Institute on the composi- 
tion of alkalis: and I have seen with pleasure, that Mr. 
Berthollet, in adopting this opinion in his Chemical Statics, 
has taken it out of the rank of hypotheses. 

As to the indestructibility of mineral substances, to 
which I ascribe the difficulty ef causing the principles that 
constitute them to retrograde toward a state of less conden- 
sation, this too is an opinion, which appears to me to 
merit all the attention of chemists. In fact, what powcr^ 
except that of the mutual attraction of the principles thit 
compose all the substances of the mineral kingdom, caa 
enable them to resist the eminently dilatable action of ca- 
loric? Thus fire, to effect the decomposition of mincrd 

sabstanceiy 



■■ttbstoncn, must be wapXoyrd u >n suxiliarj, and not u 

■ immaliAte itgcnt. 

Tbe decoDipuHiiiuii of lulphur, whicli conelitntci the ^^<^'""P'''i*''°" 

[ of thit paper, will furnish an aiipiicatiua of Hie°fotiierbo^^ 

"■ri»cipkl Uavejust laid down. lltuvCTer, before we au P™"«'«' »" 
, , . oy laductiaa. 

tcnpt tlie cecompuMdon of a substuice, it is rcqiinile, to 

fca*e aome awtiuD of its composition, tJbat may indicate the 
■atnre of the experiments to be made. With respect to 
•ulphur for instance, I bad ubserred, that sulphuric acid 
itronglj saturated with nitrous gas gave a bine colour to 
watcf acidulated with it. From the appearance of thit 
colauf I inferred, that carbon must be one of the component 
parts ot snlphur: and tlicn considering the property this 
tubslance bas to dissolve in oils, I suspected, that sulpkur 
Blight be a compound of carbon and bidrogcn. These con- 
jectures were very far from a dcmonstralion ; but fron 
Ihse I could proceed as data, cither to attack the princi- 
ples themselves, or to combine them with a third principle, 
which by its union with them would form a compound aU 
t««dy known. 

Nitrogen, for example, appeared to mc well adapted Nitroe*" 
to gire rise to the compound 1 should wish to obtain, if 
bidrogen and carbon were component parts of sulphur. 

In fact, from a combination of these two principles with '''°"'.'l P™^"" 
nitrogen must not a compound be produced analogous to ,1,™ liijc the 
(be pmssic radica] ? and would not this product, the cle- pi'»««"*'i^- 
BCDts of which are known, indicate those of sulphur? 

To verify how far my conjecture* were well founded, I ^f"^^^;^"" 
made the following experiment. 

J subjected to calcination in an iron tube four parts of -A"'""' '"''^ 
animal charcoal with two parts of sulphate of potash, thcph^iieof p*tisli 
whole being intimately mixed. I heated this mixture to ^•^"""'■ 
cherry red, and having suffered it to cool to three fourths, 
I threw it into a large qnanlity of water. «nd lixivaied. 

Whi'n I had filtered the liquor, it was of a green colour, '^''^ lixivium 
inclining to blue according to the light in which it was 
Tiewed. It had but a slight smell of bidrosulphuret Its 
taste, though dill'ercnt from that of the prussic radical, pro- 

dac«d on the palate a sensation ressmbliiig that, by which 

(hi* radical is cliaract«ritcd. 

J tried 




368 »T!*0M?0SrtI03r •# IITL?RUt'. 

not precipitated I tried afterward whether acids would precipitate snlphnr 
by acidly from if, but rvon the oximuriatic scarcely rendered it tur* 

bid. Thoy only evolvfd from it a peculiar smell, insup- 
portabiy fetid. UowcTer as the nature of the solution in- 
dicated the presence of sulphur, I was willing to ascertain, 
But blue ivith whether it contained any. With this ^iew 1 let fall into it 
^Ipiuic ot ^ ^^.^. ^^Qpg q( a solution of sulphate of iron at a maximum 

of oxidation, which immediately occasioned a black pre. 

cipilate, that was speedily changed to blue by an additional 

quantity of the sulution of the sulphate. 

The sulphur From these di lie rent experiments, nii-' particularly from 
had fonutil a r t i • ii iiiii 

compound tho property oi the solution, I no longer doubted, that the 

ana'.iig )ii< to sulphur had entered into combination with the nitrogen, 
d':cal. ^^ A>i(l formed a compound analogous to the prussic radical. 

Sulphuric acid Having afterward examined, what action sulphuric acid 
tnthnrrous gjj^u,.jit4j(i ^vith nitrous Kas would haTo on this solution, I 

gas precijuiatcd © ' 

sulphur. remarked, that this acid produced a copious yellow preci- 

pitate in it, which to the eye ha<l all tb- appearance of 
sulphur, and emitted a similar smell ^then thrown on lire 
coals. This solution, like thos(> before examined with 
acjds, contained the prussic radical ; and the precipitate 
here mentioned was nothing but (his radical, which at the 
moment of its formation might be converted into Prussian 
blue by combining it with a few drops of solution of suU 
phatc of iron. 
This siib>tniK*o This compound then clearly indicates a substance ana- 
thr muT^i^c ra- '^6^*"^ ^^ ^**^* prussic radical, but diiliring from it in being 
4ic:tl. more fixed, since the strongest acids do not separate it 

from its solution, while all of them readily decompose th« 
].rus5iate of potash. Were this the ouly property, that 
ciiaracterised the radical of which i am speaking, it would 
b.> suilicient, to distinguish it from ti.e pru>rsi(\ 
Its fixedness. AVith regard to the great degree of fixedness of this new 
radical, it may be ascribed to the hidrogen, the condensa- 
tion of which appears to be as strong iu this compound, as 
it is in sulphur; a condensation however, which nilrogeo 
can diminish in forming ammonia ^\ Iih the hidrogen by th8 
decomposition of prussiate of iron. 
hi cuUon or As to the question, whether carbon or liidrogcn be th« 

hidrrigvn pre- predominent principle iu sulphur, it is obvious, that the 

proceii 



DECOMPOSITION OF SULPHUA* 369 

proceu I employed to decompose it affords little means of dominant in 
findiog the proportions of the tiro principles. " ^' 

There is one observation however, that may throw some Probr.bly hi- 
light on this question. I have remarked, that the solutions ^^1^"* 
of sulphuretted nitrogen of potash [juote sulfur^ de pot a8se\ 
all contain an excess of carbon, which they let fall, if the 
liquor remain exposed to the opoa air : whence I have in- 
ferred, that the nitrogen did not tiad in Ihe sulphur the pro- 
portion of carbon necessary for the formation of the 
liruttic radical. 

In the next paptfr I shall have the honour of commu- Future re- 
mcating to the Institute I shall make known the elements '^'^''^' 
of phosphorus, and of iron. 1 bhall likL^wise notice in it 
the alkaline metals, in which it is said ther^ is no carbon. 



VL 

Eixpcrimetiis in Contimiation of those on the Decomposition 

of Sulphur; bi/ the Savtc*. 

JlIAVING been informed, that the experiments related in Experiment* 
my paper on the decomposition of sulphur have not ap- Ji^j^J^^ *°*^®°" 
pcared sufficiently decisive, to authorize the conclusion I 
have drawn from them, I am impatient to make known 
fresh facts, that may serve to confirm the results I ob- 
tained. 

Exp, 1. Instead of lixiviating the residuum of the cal. ^"nciples of 
dnation of animal charcoal and sulphate of potash, as was bined with 
mentioned in my paper on sulphur, let it be intimately "urogen form 
with one iifth of sulphur, very dry and well levi- radi«l. 



gated; and heat the mixture, either in a gunbarrel or in a 
stone retort. If the passes produced in this operation be 
collected, it will be found, that a great deal of ammoniacal 
gas is evolred from the commencement of the experiment, 
to which will succeed hidrogen gas, and carburetted hi. 
drogen gas. When nothing more is given out, extinguish 
the fire, and, as soon as the yessel is cold, lixiviate the 
matter it contains in about ten times its weight of water, 

• Journal <le Phv-iqiir, Aiigu>t 1«')H, p. 117. 
Vol. XXlll.—ScpiM.KM; vi. 'i4* and 



31t) 



gB C OMPO t ltlOU Of tvtrtM* 



pbeoMoena 



and fliai lUteir. This lixbiim diilen from tke fMvar lH 
being of a deeper colour, wktcli announces, tiuit earbom b 
dissoWed in it in a larger proportion. It differs from it 
likewise in containing bnt little of the prnssic radical. 
However, if it remain a few months in contact with tiie 
air, it will acquire more and more the property of pred. 
pitating the solution of sulphate of iron of a blue eolonr; 
which shows, that the principles of sulphur combined with 
nitrogen are capable of forming the prussic radical. 

But what is particularly remarkable in this ezperiuMnt 
is the hidrogen produced during the operation; alio the 
carbon, which b dissolved in a large quantity in the lizi- 
Tinm ; and lastly the almost total destruction of the prnssic 
radical. 
accounted lor. In the first place the hidrogen disengaged from a mix- 
ture, which gave out none previous to the addition of tiie 
sulphur, must necessarily be a product of the latter snb. 
stance. In the second place, the carbon dissolved In the 
lixivium must likewise hare belonged to the sulphur, since, 
thu is the only substance added to the mixture. And lastly 
-^ the almost total destruction of the prussic radical b ex> 
plicable by the presence of hidrogen In the sulphur, wUch^ 
combining with the nitrogen, produces ammonia, that soon 
escapes from the mixture by iss volatility. 

Exp. 9. Solution of azotized sulphuret of potash addn* 
lated with sulphuric acid^ when mixed with a sufficient 
^quantity of sulphate of iron at a maximum of oxidation, 
yidds from a fourth to a third more prussian blue, than the 
same solution would give if acidulated with tulphuric acid 
saturated with nitrona gas. 

Such a difference in the results could not fail to eagagt 
my attention, since, from the hypothesis of the dboxfg^ 
nation of nitrous gas, this, instead of diminishing the pro- 
portion of Prussian blue, on the contrary should hare In* 
creased it. I judged from thb, that the explanation, which 
had been given of the phenomenon in question, was not 
accurate; and that it must result from some other causey 
than that on which it had been said to depend. 

To ascertain how far this conjecture was well founded, 

I made 



Sd czpcriuidit. 



Not jufUy ex- 
plained. 



DctoaiMsitioir of lULpauR. ' 871 

t mtde sereral experimeiitSy among which the following 
appeared to me the most conclusiye. 

Esp. 3. The solution of alotised sulphuret 'of potash Sd cxperimoitk 
strongly acidulated with sulphuric acid saturated with ni- 
trons gas yields a copious precipitate of sulphur, while all 
the other acids scarcely throw down any. 

Several chemists, to explain this truly remarkable pro* BzpUiiMd 
perty of nitrous gas, have supposed, that this gas was de* 
composed; and that its oxigen, by combining with the 
kidrogen that holds the sulphur in solution, favours the pre* 
cipitation of the sulphur. 

Tet if it were true, that oxigen had the property of pre-^r^wieoiiitf. . 
dpitating sulphur from its solution, why does not the oxi« 
muriatic acid act in the same manner as the nitrons gas P 
Gui oxigen possess two such opposite properties, particn* 
larly when it acts in similar circumstances ? This explana« 
tioo then presents an anomaly far from favourable to the 
different hypotheses opposed to the consequences I have 
drawn from my experiments. It is proper therefore to 
examine the question in another point of view. 

In the first place nitrous gas docs not act in the solnfion aooonnt^ ^« 
of -azotized sulphuret of potash by oxigenizing the hidro* 
gen of the sulphuret : for this solution, far from contain* 
Ing a surplus of hidrogen beyond the composition of the 
solphur, is on the contrary deprived of a part of that which 
constitutes the sulphur. Accordingly it is by hidrogenizing 
.Hie diihidrogenized carbon of the sulphur, that the latter 
is precipitated from its solution, which is very different from 
^e cKpianation that has been given of this phenomenon. 
Thus the nitrous gas acts on the solution of azotized suU 
phnret of potash only in consequence of the affinity this 
gas has for oxigen, and of that which the dishidrogeniaed 
carbon of the sulphur has for hidrogen ; an action that 
concurs at the same time to decompose the water, and with 
which is combined that exerted hj the sulphur on the 
esigen. 



5B2 VlLOn 



• *i! 



$7% OH THE CAMERA LUCIDA* 

B 

vir. 

I 

On tJie Camera Ludda, In a Letter from Mr* 

T. Sheldrake. 

To Mr. NICHOLSON, 
SIR, 

^men luttda. JlI AVING been mnch pleased with the description of the 
Camera Lucida in your 70th Number, I procured one of 
the instruments, and made experiments to ascertain the 
extent of its merits when compared with those of the Ca* 
mera Obscura. I beg leave to send the result of these ex- 
periments, for the information of your readers in general, 
and in hopes that thcj may induce the ingenious inyentor 
of the Camera Lucida to bring it still nearer to perfec* 
tion. 

Defects of thft The defects of the camera obscura are, that it is cnm. 

^^^ ^^' bersome to carry about and set up for use; that the objects 
it reflects are, under some circumstances, deficient in point 
of brilliancy, and that the objects are, under some cir. 
cumstances, a little distorted from the truth of perspective. 
For tbese defects, the skilful artist, who chooses to make 
use of the instrument, will know how to provide a proper 
remedy. The drawings that are said to have been aada 
by Abyssinian Bruce* by the assistance of this instrnment, 

the 

Bruce a good * It was once fashionable to accuse Mr. Bruce of every lund of 
dnughtfman. breach of veracity: among other things it was said, that he could 
not draw, and that the drawings he showed as his own were not 
his, but made by another person. Time has done him justice in 
many particulars, and if any one still believes that which was said 
of his drawings, I may, perhaps, contribute a mite towards 
him justice on that head. 

fietween twenty and thirty years ago there was a sale of drawings 
at Hutchins's Rooms, King Street, Covent Garden, among them 
were many drawings, some finished, and others only sketches, 
which the Auctioneer publicly declared at the sale to have been 
made by a Mr. Bruce, who had been on a public mission to one 
of the States of Qarbary, and was then absent on a Journey t§ 
Abyssinia. 
My father purchased some of these drawings, so that I had them 

wvenl 



ON THE CAMERA LUCIDA. 37S 

the drawings that were certainly made bj Mr. Daniel by DrawiDgfii»|ud|i 

nieans of this instrument, and the drawings which are said^^ ^^' 

to be made for different panoramas by the same means^ 

afford convincing proofb, that it may be of great practical 

utility in delineating objects with truth and/aa/iY^, greatly 

superior to what can be practiced even by eminent artists 

without its assistance. 

The great adrantage of the camera obscura is^ that itIts«(lTtntag«iv^ 
fixes the objects to be represented upon the surface, so that 
when the artist has taken his station, and arranged his in. 
strument^ he has nothing to do but run his pencil over the 
objects which he sees lie under his hand, and, in propor* 
tion to his capacity for drawing with correctness and faci- 
lity the objects which lie before him> will his drawings be 
masterly, beautiful, and correct. What advantages has the 
camera lucida to oppose to the disadvantages of the ca« 
mera obscura, or to put in competition with the advan- 
tages which the latter instrument is known to possess? 

The camera lucida is portable in a very small compass; it Advintafwof 
represents objects with more brilliancy and distinctness than luci^!'^^'^ 
the camera obscura; and it represents them either singly or 
in combination, with perfect truth and correctness of per. 
spective. What disadvantages has it then to counterbalance 
these particulars in which it is evidently superior, in a very 
great degree, to the camera obscura? 

This will, perhaps, be best illustrated by referring to Its disadyta- 
the annexed sketch from nature, which I have drawn with ^^ 
the naked eye; which I attempted to draw with the camera 
lucida, but could not, and which I have no doubt that I 
could have drawn with more correctness, facility, and ex. 
pedition in the camera obscura, than in any other manner. 

several years under my eye ; they consisted of figures drawn from 
nature in the fashionable dress of the time, the sketches drawn 
with much truth and spirit, the finished drawings tinted with so 
much taste, that 1 have no doubt the hand that made them was 
equal to any thing that was aflen^'ard produced as Bruce's, and as 
they were publicly sold as his before he had acquired any public 
reputation, or excited the tongue of envy to injure him, there i$ 
every reason to believe, that they were actually drawn by Mr. Bruce. 
These drawings were favourites with me so long as I had access (o 
them ; but my father^s coUectioo was told after his death, and I 
know not what became of them. 



574 ^' "^^ CAMERA LUCIDA. 

tattnoid. When I had taken my stand, arranged my paper, and 

fixed the camera lucida upon it, I had, npon looking into 
the eye glass, a distinct Tiew of the whole scene, as perfect 
as the instrument would represent it; but a different ar* 
rangemcnt was necessary, before I could hare a chance of 
copying, or, if you please, drawing it : I was to alter the 
position of the eye glass, so that I should, in the upper 
part of it, see such of the objects' as I was to ipitate; and. 
In the lower partt a distinct representation of the paper 
and pencil with and upon which I was to draw ; these two 
diyisions will admit of different proportions, but, to speak 
in general terms, we may say, the upper part contains a 
correct view of part of the objects that are to be.drawn, the 
lower part contains a correct view of the paper on which 
they are to be drawn, and the pencil by which the drawing 
is to be made : the operation to be performed is, to look 
upon the representation of the objects, and the represen* 
tation of the pencil and paper at the same moment, and to 
copy exactly upon the lower, what is seen upon the upper 
part of thQ object glass ; this every man will do in proper* 
tion to the power he has of imitating the forms of .objects 
DlffBranoe be- that are placed before him. The essential difference between 
twecn the two. ^j,g camera obscura and tlie camera lucida is, that the former 
fixes upon the paper the whole of the picture at one Tiew, 
and the artist has only to pass his pencil over it to render it 
permanent, which he has the power to do with more cor- 
rectness and expedition, and equal facility, as if he was 
dtawing without the use of the instrument. The camera 
iucida, on the contrary, places before the eye a certaia 
portion of the objects to be imitated, and a certain portion 
of the paper on which the imitation is to be drawn : the 
difference between the two operations will be exactly as 
the difference between tracing and drawing against tht 
window, and copying the same drawing if placed before 
yon upon the table: this is the difference upon a view of 
the whole proceeding, but, npon descending to minutis, 
other circumstances bear still more against the camera 
lucida. 
The piocett The circle Ft^. 3, PL X, cbntains a representation of somudi 

^rtha^- of the view as can be aeeu at the lame time, with so moch 



OH IKK CAMUU XCCIBA. 37S 

•f Ihe paper on irkirh, and (he pencil by whtcti it is to beThcpHwcM 
IntllKted: of conrtc the draughtsman will TOpy corrcrtly i>n Jjljl^'*'" 
tin lower part those ohjrcis which hi; seei in the upper purt 
of the glass; but thvsv objects constitute but a smull part 
of the whole liew ; if the remainder is to be attained II 
miiRt be with great trouble and difficulty : it is true that by 
noting my head to one side, and looking diagonally acruss 
tte eye gloM, f could see objects that were not ruiiblc 
■po* looking directly into it, and thus by moving my head 
from one &ide to the other I could get all the hoikunial 
Hnea, and those lines which approach to the horiiontaJ 
fwsition upon the paper, so that by this method 1 could 
get all tbe horiaoolal lines (hat were wilbtn the range uf the 
tnstnment or the drawing: but it was impossible, by any 
artifice to do as much with llic perpendicular lines, or 
those which approach to the perpendicular din-ctiun, with- 
out altering the position of the glass, and in doing this it 
was found impossible to connect tbe different portions of 
the scene that were l'ic^wed upon changing (he potiitiuD of 
the glass, with a degree of truth comparable to wha( may 
be attained by the camera oltscura without any truuble 
■t all. 

The reader will perhaps c(Knprebend the dtlGculty if he 
imagines the great tree in the foreground to be divided 
borizuntally into four or more parts, each of which must 
be seen by itself and drawn by itself: (he glass must then 
be shifted so as (o see and draw another portion without 
ipeing that which had lirst been drawn, and so on till the 
whole was completed. Independent of the trouble and 
waste of lime that would be necessary to shift the glass, 
if it could be done with accuracy, the circumstance of 
QOt being able to seu the whole of the scene while one 
it dnwing it, and of course comparing the eSect of (he 
whole is extremely unpleasant : the instrument must be 
tCOOTed from the paper before tbe effect of the drawing 
MMihl be seen, and if it should be necessary to correct it, 
k ia next to impossible to replace it with suffident accuracy 
la avoid making false lines, and of course dcstroyiug the 
truth of iherepretentatioa. 

I hare stated the inconTenicndes that / have fouitd, in Me-heil of 
making '*'»'^"«*» 



1 




578 ON THB CAMERA LVCTDA. 

» « 

inconveniences making QBe of this instrnment, and for which I conid not 
deiinble. ^^ ^ remedy ; others have, as I am informed, foand the 

same inconTcniences, and not been able to obmte them ; 
some may have been more fortunate; and if thej hare, thejr 
will -render a^ \6ry acceptable service by pointing out the 
means of removing these defects: but, if they should do 
so, I beliere it will still be impossible to produce a yiew, 
of any magnitude, by mean^ of the camerS ludda, with as 
much ease, expedition, and in as masterly a manner as an 
lible artist can, if he pleases, draw in the camera obscura. 
This opinion I must entertain, till I see drawings as masterly 
Mr. Duilel*8 in point of execution as Mr. Daniors views in India, made 
▼lews. i^j means of the camera lucida; I mention Mr. Daniel'» 

▼lews on this occ^ion, becau^ I have jiucn credibly in- 
formed, that they were all drawn in the camera obscura, 
and, as they are well known, they form a good public 
standard of comparison. 
Aa^nstrument . It appears then, that a perfect instrument fo be used as 
still desinble. ^ delineator is still a desideratum, and will be obtained 
when the separate advantages of the camera obscuni nod the 
camera lucida can be united in the same instrumeBt^ and nol 
be diminished by any of the inconveniences to which each 
of them is at jpresent subject. 

I am. Sir, 

Your most obliged Servant, 

T SHELDRAKE. 
50, Strand^ 

July 6thy 1809* 

Refereneei to the Drawing. 

Fig. 1. Sketch from nature as it may be seen and draws 
' immediately in the camera obscura. 

Fig. 2. Part of the same view as seen in the camera Incida : 
the upper half contains a portion of the horizontal lines in 
the view as reflected in the glass : the lower half shows the 
pE^ncil imitating the same lines upon the paper, it is obvions 
that by looking diagonally into the glass the view may be 
extended so as to take in a portion of those lines which 
cannot be seen when looking directly into the glass. 
•' . Fig* 9» Peii Pf the tree seen in the upper half reflected 




PUBLIC LiJL:^.■ 






T ?» S'' 



* : ' D \ 

..:-.J 



hk die glass, the pencil copying the same parts upon the 
paper in the lower half. It is evident that no more of 
this object can be copied.at one time than can be seen by 
looking directly into the glass, of course the whole tree 
cannot be seen at once, and cannot be copied without 
shifting the instrument seieral times, so as to take it by 
separate pieces, which cannot be seen at one time^ conse* 
4|Qently there is great danger of losing the truth of the 
whole, while one is employed on each part. 



REMARK by W. N. 

IT is certainly the iDtention and instruction of the inyentor Method of . 
of the camera lacida, that the tracing should be made upon q^J^^iu^^ 
that part of the paper where the picture and the point of 
the pencil can both be seen coincident, and notihat a copy 
should be taken in the manner described by Mr. Sheldrake. 
This requires an attention to the small stop, uhich regulates 
the quantities of light which enter the pupil from the prism, 
and from the paper in the same direction ; but I have not 
fonnd it difficult to manage the position of the eye, which 
is the principal circumstance — and this will perhaps be as 
easily acquired by a few trials, as by any minute descrip- 
tion of the process, which may be deriTed from Dr. WoU 
Jaston's paper in the 17th Vol. of our Journal, p. 1. 



VIIL 

Remarks on some of the Definitions and Axioms in Barrow^ s 
Euclid. In a Letter from William Saint, Esq. 

To Mr. NICHOLSON. 

SIR, Cromer in Norfolk^ 

August 4th J 1809. 

1 N reading OTer, a few days since, the 7th book of the Remarks om 
English edition of Dr-. Barrow's Euclid, several objections ^^* 
occurred to me against some of the definitions and axioms, 
irhich I noted down. On reriewing these objections, I , 

must 



^s 



' Sabmitted to 
the reader. 



Ition 6. 



Dcinkion?. 



■mst confess, tbat, to mr, they appeared to kare eosi* 
weight; I resolfcd therefore to send them to yoo, accom. 
panied with sock remmrks (for I dare not aspire to call 
them notes critical and geometrical) as appeared moat ap* 
plicable. 

These objections and remarks, Sir, are sahmitted to fovy 
and (shonld you deem then worthy of insertion in yonr 
widely circulated Journal) to yonr geometrical readers^ with 
the greatest humility. 

I am, Sir, 

Yonr obliged and constant reader^ 

W. SAINT, 

Of the Royal MiUtartf Academy y fVoohtick^ 

Definition 6. 

^' An eren number is that which may be dirided into two 
equal parts.'* 

Definition 7. 

<' But an odd number is that wkick cannot he divided 
into two equal parts ; or that which difiereth from an e?eii 
number by unity.'* 

Against these definitions it has bocn objected, that tliey 
are deficient in the word in/e^o/; which, it has been thought 
by some, should haTC been inserted between the words 
^^ equal parts** in each definition : for, it has been urged, 
any odd number is diTisible into two equal parts; as 5, for 
instance may be divided into two equal parts 2| and 2|. 
To this objection howerer these definitions are not Habla, 
for number is defiined to be ^^ a multitude composed of 
units,** and part to be ^^ a number of a number:** there- 
fore a part also must be ^^ composed of units,*' and hence 
the objection is obriated. 



definitions. 



Definition £l. 

<« A number ercnly CTcn is that which an eren number 
measureth by an eren number.** 



Dejutttion 



RIMARKS ON BASROW'S EUCLID. 379 

Definition 9. 
<^ Bot m number eTenlj odd is that which an e? en nnmber Definition 9. 
.Mcunreth bj an odd number/' 

' There appears to be something erroneous in these definU Remarky. 
tioas, since the same number may be found to apply to 
both of them ; for instance, the number 40 is eTcnly efen, 
bMrnose the eren number 4 measures it by the eien number 
fO; it is abo eTenly odd, because the eTcn number 8 
OMorares it by the odd number 6. These definitions would 
pwhaptbeless exceptionable, if expressed thus: Definition 8. 
A nnmber erenly eien is that which may be dinded into two 
e^nal parts, haring each part an cTen number. Defimiion9, 
But a number eTenlj odd is that which may be divided into 
two equal parts, having each part an odd number. 

Definition 15. 

'^ One number is said to multiply another^ when the Definition 15. 
■limber multiplied is so often added (q itself, as there are 
nnits in the number mnitiplyiug, and another number is 
plrodnced. 

This definition appears to be improperly expressed: for Remarks. 
ify for instance^ it were required to multiply the number 
3 by the number d, it is necessary, to obtain the product 
according to the definition, to add the number 3 to itself 
so often as there are units in the number 2, that is to say 
twice to itself; now the number 3 added once to itself gives 
6, and added txcice to itself gives 9; thus 9 would be ob* 
tained for the product of 3 multiplied by 2, which is evi« 
dently erroneous. Perhaps this definition would be better 
thus : one number is said to be multiplied by another, when 
it is taken or repeated as many times as there are units in 
tiiat other. To those, however, who may be disposed to 
contend, that the words " taken or repeated" do not suf- 
ficiently define the operation intended ; and who may farther 
insist, that multiplication is only a continued addition^ 
Euclid's definition may perhaps be preferred, if the words 
less one be inserted after the word tnultiplj/ing. 

Definition 23. 

** One number is said to measure another by a third num. Definition 23. 
bcr, which, when it either multiplies, or is multiplied by 
the measuring number, produces the number measured." 

ThU 



I 



380 • REMARKS ON BARROW*S EUCLID 

IfcmnrkB, This definition seems to be objectionable on this ground, 

that it defines a number A, to measure another number B, 
by a third number C, when cither C multiplied by A, or A 
multiplied by C, produces the number B. Now the possi- 
bility, that Cx A can he equal to AxC forms the subject 
of the 16th proposition of the very book to which this de- 
finition b prejixed. To ^ay the least, therefore, thia de. 
iinition is out of order: and as Euclid does not appear to 
baTe made any use of it, till after the 16ih proposition, to 
certainly it ought not to ha^e been given till the truth of the 
proposition Tirtually implied in it had been demonstrated; 
that is to say, till it had been prored, that C mnhiplied by 
A is equal to A multiplied by C, to which proposition it 
might hare formed a corollary. 

Axiom 7, 

Axiom 7. ^^ If one number, multiplying an«>tber, produce a thirds 

the multiplier shall measure the product by the multiplied; 
and the multiplied shall measure the same by the mnlti* 
plier.»* 
Btaaarks. The first part of this axiom is admissible, since it only 

implies, that, if any number, A, be first multiplied by any • 
other number, B, and then dirided by the same number^ 
B, the quotient will be A, — a truth which is evidentfrom 
the opposite efiTects of mnltiplication and division. Tko 
latter part of this axiom appears to be objectionable, for it 
does not, like the former part, first suppose an operation 
to be performed upon a number A, and then the efic^t of 
that operation to be done away, or withdrawn by another 
operation of a directly opposite nature; for though by this 
latter part it is required to multiply A by B as before, yet 
it is not required afterward to divide by B, but by A : and 
though it may be an obvious truth, that A first multiplied 
by B, and then divided by B, will give A ; y^t it is by no 
means so obvious, that A multiplied by B, and then iU 
iridedbyA, will give B, for here the operations of multit 

f plication and division are by different numberR. By the 

former part of this axiom, if B be first multiplied by A, 
and then divided by A, the result will be B; and if tht 
latter part of it were self evident^ namely, that A multir 

plied . 



AUAEKI .OH EABKOtr'. KUCUD. ggl 

flkd by B, and then ditided by A, would *giTe B also^ it 

t:ii_BxA AxB _, . . «, 
<ronld be = — -— , or BxAssAxB; beoceit ap. 

pearSy that the latter part of this axiom Tirtually implies the 
truth of the 16th propositioD^ and is therefore objectioQ- 
able on the same grounds as the 23d definition. 

Axiosn 8. 

^^ If one number measure another, that number bj Axiom B. 

, which it measureth shall measure the same by the units 

that are in the number measuring^ that is, by the number 

itself that measures." 

A A 

This axiom implies, thatif — = €, then Yr=B. Now Remarks. 

this IS really more o( a proposition than an axiom. By 
the former part of the last axiom it may indeed be it^erredy 

that, since -rr-^zC, Amustbe=CxB; because ^ ■ =: C ; 

bat, as it has before been shown, it by no means follows because 

— -— =:C, that therefore ■ -^ — =rB. This axiom therefore 

is objectioaahle upon the same grounds with the last 

Axiom 9. 

*' If a number measuring another, multiply that by Axiom 9. 
which it measureth, or be multiplied by it, it produceth 
the number which it measureth. 

* This axiom implies, that, if a number A measures another Remarkt: 
mnber B by a third number C, then A multiplied by C, or 
C mnltiplied by A, gives the same product B ; that is to 
say, this axiom implies the truth of the 16th proposition, 
•ad is therefore objectionable on the grounds before stated. 

Proposition 16. 
As there has been frequent occasion to refer to this pro- Proposition 1G 
position in the preceding remarks, it may not be improper aulmP^***/ *** 
In observe here, that it is one of tho^e which has engaged many eminent 
Ike attention of several eminent mathematicians of the pre- "J^^"^*"*''"- 

* a Hi. 
' tent day, and among others the celebrated Lcgendrc, who, 

la his ^^ Esioi sur la Thcorie des Nombres,'' has given a 

demonstration 



demonstration of the same; from -whith it WMJ be eott^ 
eluded, that Mr. I^egendre himself did not consider Endid'i 
demonstration of this proposition as perfect^ satisfaciofy^ 
Indeed it must be confessed, that in Euclid's demoovtra* 
tion, as given by Dr. JSarrow at least, there b an idr «f 
obscurity y which renders it difiicult to be understood. For 
the satisfaction of such of your readers as may not be in 
. possession of an edition of Euclid containing the 7th book, 
it may be proper here to giTC both the enumeration and 
demonstration of this proposition, as they are foottd la 
Dr. Barrow. 

Proposition, 

Piopotition 16. ** If two numbers, A, B, mutually B 4 AS 

multiplying themseWcs produce any num. A$ B 4 

bers AB, BA;. the numbers produced, AB 1^ BA 1^ 
A B and B A, shall be equal the one to the otirar." 



Euclid^ de- 
moDsmtion. 



Remarks. 



Demonstration. 

For because AB=AxB (a) therefore a 15 d^.'7 
shall 1 be as often in A, as B in AB, (b) 6 15 7 

and by consequence alternately 1 shall bd as c 4 Mx. 7 
often in B as A in AB. But because BA=BxA, (a) 
therefore shall 1 be as often in B, as A in B A ; therefore 
as , often as 1 is in A B, so often is 1 in B A ; and (a) so 
AB:=rBA. W. W. D. 

With respect to this demonstration it must be obserfied, 
that the attentire student meets with a difficulty in the tery 
beginning; for why does it follow, because ABx«AxB> 
that 1 shall be as often in A as B in A B? That ABctsAx^ 
is an identical proposition, and implies no more ttianiAat 
A multiplied by B is equal to A multiplied by B, from which 
no inference can be drawn. The next step of the demon- 
stration, namely, ^^ And by consequence alternately 1 shall 
be as often in B as A in AB, is deduced from the preofeding 
by virtue of the 15th proposition, which proves, that) if 
1 be contained in B as often as D is contained in £, then 1 
is contained in D as often as B is contained in E. TJiede- 
monstration proceeds with, '^ but because BAsrfixAf 
therefore shall 1 be as often in B, as A in B A.'' Neiw All 



■UlillKS OS BAIIItftW > SUCLIP. 



Ib objectionabie upon the same principle as the first itep of 
tte demonstration. The next slpp is in these wordiz 
*> Therffore aa ofttn an 1 is in AB, so aften a 1 in BA." 
But this does not appear to be the roost naturul and obTioui 
hiferencc from what hus licen preciuusly atlcmptud to be 
proved ; fur, if it had been satisfactorily shou'n, (hat I is 
contained as often in B as A in AB, and that I is contained 
«■ often in B ■£ A in BA, the natuntl inference it appears 
would be, that A is contained in AB as often as A is con> 

rfained in BA, and so Qnally AB=BA. 
From the objccliona here stated the following demon. 
itnttioQ is easily derived, which is submitted to the considc. 
tation of the lovers of geomctricaJ accuracy with the 
peatest huniilily, as seeming to aflord a more satisfactory 
proof of fhe proposition than the one above given. 

In (his dem DOS tra lion it may be proper to observe, that, 
M avoid any ambiguity, the sign of mnlti plication, or x, 
ahould be read by the words muUijilied bi/. ft has been 
thought better also, instead of referring to the proposition, 
definition, or axiom, on which any of the steps iu tha 
proceit depend, (o insurt these at length. 

Demo nst ration, 
Siaceby Axiom 5 " unity measures every nnmber byNewdi 
the units Lhat are in it, that is, by the same number,"'"^"'"' 
lliereftfre 1' measures A, A times ; and since by the first part 
^t Axiom 7, *' If one number multiplying another pro. 
es a third, the mulliptier shall measure the prodact by 
mnltiplied;" therefore B shall measure Ax B, A times; 
ce 1 shall be as often in A, as B in A x B : but by Pro. 
|»o«tion 15, if I measures A as often as B measures AxB, 
Chen I shall roensure B as often as A uieasures AxB, 
•r 1 shall be as often in B, as A in Ax B: Again by 
Axiom 5, as above quoted, 1 measures B, B times, and by 
Axiom 7, A measures Bx A, B times, therefore I shall be 
M often in B as A in B x A ; but it was shown above, that 1 
|iiall be as often in B as A iu A x B ; therefore, as oftea as 
A is inBxA, so often is A in AxB: but by Axiom 4 
•* Those numbers, of whkh the same number, or equal 
Mnmbers, are the same parts, are equal amongst them. 
■elTc*;" therefore Bx A is equal to AxB. W. W D 

IX. Account 



r. 



S84 



SINaiBEUe ACID. 



IX. 

Aocount of a New Addy obtained from Ginger, In a Letter 

from a Correspondent. 



To Mr. NICHOLSOX. 



SIR, 



And flroni 



for 
obtaining it. 



lu properties. 



X5Y the following process an acid (which I consider mm 
new, and would propose caHing the zingiberic) was ol>» 
taincd from ginger. 

One ounce of the best white ginger was infused during 
two or three days, in six ounces of nitrous acid ; after 
which rather more than an equal quantity of water was 
added, and the whole was kept at the heat of 312^ adding 
water to supply the loss by efaporaiion, till the nitrons 
smell had disappeared. Carbonate of lead was then added 
to saturation, and the solution filtered. The lead was in 
the next place precipitated by sulphuric acid, and a second 
filtration was made. 

By cTaporating the filtered liquor, an acid, similar in 
appearance to short white pieces of raw silk, was obtained, 
which oxidates zinc and iron, and dissoWes potash, soda, 
ammonia, barytes, strontian, lime, magnesia, and the 
oxides of zinc, iron, lead, and copper. 

Iti combination "^^^ ®^'3^ farther account I can at present gife of its 
with magnesia, salts is, that the (perhaps super.) zingibcrate of magnesia 
has a taste intermediate between that of acetite of lead, and 
triple snpcrsulphate of alumine. 

The zingiberic acid differs from the sulphuric, sulphurous, 
carbonic, oxalic, tartarous, citric, mucous, succinic, and 
camphoric acids, in forming a soluble salt with barytes and 
lime; 

From the nitric, nitrous, muriatic, acetic, acetous, se- 
bacic, malic, and prussic, by remaining in the solid form 
at 212*^; 
. From the benzoic and suberic, by its greater solubility; 

And it does not, like gallic acid, precipitate copper of s 
brown colour. 



Its difference 
iirom other 
acids. 



A CORRESPONDENT. 



i\ • » V 

N D E X. 



A. 

ACID9 boracic, decomposition of, 2^0 

Ad^, new, obtained from ginger, 384 

Add, nitric, its action on cork, 149 

Add, oxigenised muriatic, 273 

Adds, table of the tequence& of, wi^h 
dilKsrent bSSes, 560 

Acton, Mr. his experiments on the ger- 
mination of seeds, 214 

Adanson, on the rapid vegetatioii 6t 
plants in \rarmciitnatek, ^ 

Aerostatbn, 319 

Agncultuial improvements, 51 

Air, expansion of, irtien moist, 182 

AlcTonia, description of, 40, 46 

AAte, Mr. 330 

Anaaii, M. on artificial sand stones 
that hare undergone a regular con* 
tfiction ia tlie fire, !^68 

Altitudes, new formula f6r taking, 308 

Alum, purification of, 307 

Aljon, M. 145 

Ammonia, how operated on by potas- 
sium, 242 

Amphibia, 314 

Andjtis of calaguala root, 141— Of 
the smot of wheat, 146— Of oriental 
turquoise, 158— Of fossil horns, 159 
i^Of the sulphate of barytes, drc. 
174, 28e-iOf kaneelstein, 23l-^f 
a schist in the environs of Cherbourg, 
^(Mwi^f sulphur, 321,365,d69^0f 
pliosphorus, S28«»Of plumbago, 330 
^— Of charcoal, 33 l-«K)f the diamond, 
332 

Andreoli, M. 319 

Angulo, M. 263 

Ans, Mr. on the advantages of paring 

and burning land, 194 
Accueil, philosophical and chemical so- 
ciety of, 316 
Vol. XXni. 



Armstead, Mr. 61 
Ashes used as manure, 188 
Atkinson, Mr. 61 
Atmospheric refraction, 309 
Attractions, elective, numaiical |able 
of, 354 



B. 

Bailey, Mr. on paring and buminf , 193 

Bakeriah lecture, 241, 328 

Bald, Mr. his descrlptkn of the mine* 

lal strau of Clackmannanshire, 157 
Balloon, 319 

Biiiadelle^ Mr. his capillary pen, 29^ 
Badow, Mr. P. his investigation of a 

problem in the doctrinit of pcsimatai* 

ttons, 203 
Barrow^ Eudid, remarks on, 377 
B^irtley, Mr. on the sdvantages of ad« 

mitting the air to the roots of pUots» 

15 
Barytes, analyzed, 174, 280 
Basaltes, formation ef, 268 
Bats, varieties of, 106 
Beaveis, propagation of in North Bri* 

tain and Ireland, recommended, 27 

^Peculiarity ia the claw of, 234 
Bees poisoned by the e^uvia of tha 

rhus vemix, 234 
Benson, Mr. 60 
Bergman, on the relative propprtkms af 

the composition of soils, 121 
Berlin society, 316 
Berthier, M. on the sulphates of lime, 

barytes^ and lead, 280— His analyst 

of a schist in the environs of Cher- 

bourg, S04 
BerdioIIet, M. on backening muiiata 

of silver, 156-«On the sulphate of 

barytes, 174«-On the fosibility of 
b baiytci, 



INDEX. 



baiytes, 282— On the alteration that 
air and water produce in fle«h, 302 

BerthoUet, jun. M. on the reciprocal 
action of sulphnr and charcoal, 71 

Berthoud, M. his treatise on time- keep- 
ers, 311 

Bertrand, M. on the method of fabri- 
cating artificial stone, employed in 
theTicinity of Dunkirk, 154 

Beryl of Ba? aria, 159 

Bercelius, M. on the amalgam of am- 
Wk^ J243 

Betancourt, M. his lock for canals, 311 

Bicikander, M. on the root worm, 105 

Bk>t, M. on the refraction of the at- 
mosphere, 309— On the air bladder 
of fishes, 315 

Black on the sulphate of barytes, 174 

Blanchard, Rev. J. his cable of the rain 
that fell at various places in the year 
1808, 197 

Bond, Wm. Esq. on the culture of 
hemp, and other useful information 
relatire to improvements in Canada, 
18-*Description of his machine fur 
breaking hemp, 23— »Oa breeding 
labbittj 23— Hares, 2G— The gua- 
oaco, 27— The beaver, t^. 

Bonnet on the perspimtion of plants, 
169 

Bonpland's « Travels" 318 

Boracicacid, see Acid 

Borda's circle, 308 

Bofc, M. on the sugar of the rose bay, 

283 

Bouillon- Lagrange on the suberic acid, 
149 

BouUay, M. on the preparation of sul- 
phuric ether, 201 

Boumon's " System of Mineralogy," 
157 

Bomrard, M. bis tables of Jupiter and 
Saturn, 310 

Ifeys, Mr. his method of paring and 
burning land, 195 

pfaconnot, M. his ^n^tlyais of fossil 

.^hQiDl, 159 

^ti^iadloft Dr. his method of taking I 

« uao^t observations, 139 ' 



Brand's description o^ the ember goos^ 

84 
Brioschi, M. 319 
Brooks, Rev. J. 60 
Broussonnet, M. 313 
Brugnatelli on suberic acid, 149, 155 
Bucholz, M. on the Bavarian beryl, 159 

—His analysia of sulphate of barytes, 

175, 281 
Buds of trees, their formation, 893 
BufTon's Works, Index to, 236 
Burckhardt, M. his new mode of eon* 

structing telescopes, 308— 4iis for- 

muUi for altitudes, t6.-«On comets, 

3t0 
Burja, M. on the resistance of air, 81 6 
Burning soil, to increa#e feitUity, 187 
Butler, J. Esq. hia iaspiOTemeiU oi 

waste lands, 98 

C. 

Cabbages, culture of, on a new ph% 

55 
Cadet, M. 275 

Calaguala root, analysis of, 141 
Camera liicida, 372 
Campbell, Mr. D. 59 
Canada, improvements in, IS 
Ca2)illary pen, 236 
Carter, Dr. M. P. 76 
Carbon of plants, origin of, 72, 316 
Carbonaceous principle in plumbago^ 

charcoal, and diamond, 330 
Carlisle, Mr. 313 
Caussigni, M. De, on the spontaneous^ 

ignition of charcoal, 277 
Ceres, elements of her orbit, 317 
Chaptal, M. on the decomposition of 

water by vegetables and animals, 8 
Charcoal and hidrogcn, analogy be* 

tween, 71 
Charcoal, spontaneous ignition of, 277 

—Analytical experiments oo, 331, 33^ 
Chenevix on sulphate of barytes, 174 
Chevaillers, M. '26H 
Chevreul, M. on the action of nitrie 

acid on cork, 149 

Clackmaqnao^ 



INDEX 



Clackminnaiiy description of the mi- 

ngralftrata of^ 156, \j7 
CUrke, Dr. his meteorologicil tables for 

the year 1809, 198 
Otjrfleld'k analysis of sulphate of bary- 

ees, 175 
Ckyton, George, Esq. 59 
CleaUy Mr. his description of a machino 
|br beating out hemp and flax seed, 
likely to be useful for Canada, 16 
C3egf, Mr. his apparatus for making 
carbuntted hidrogen gas from pit coal, 
•ndUghtinpmsnufactories with it, 85 
Clement oo sulphate of barytes, 174 
dose. Rev. Mr. 14 
Coal district of Kilkenny, 237 
Coal gasy- apparatus for making, 85 
CoIIet-Desoc^ 316 
Composts, je« Manures 
Constellation recently named, 235 
Corib of the Baltic, 39 
Cordier, M. on the lunar rainbow, 231 
Comet on the smut in wheat, 146 
Cork, action of nitric acid on, 149 
Costaing, M. his accotmt of a peculi- 
arity in the formation of the beat er*s 
cUw, 234 
Cotton tree introduced into France, 234 
Crell, M. on boracic acid, 263 — On the 

origin of carbon in plants, 316 
Creve^ Mr. his mode of recovering sour 

wine, 235 
Crocodiles, species of, 314 
Cnraudau, M. his experiments on sul- 
phur, and its decomposition, 365, 369 
Curtis, Mr. S. his account of an exten- 
dve orchard planted at Bradwell in 
Essex, 75 x. 
Curwen, J. C. Esq. his improvements 

in the culture of vegetables, 51 
Cuvier, M. his analysis of the labours 
of the Class of Physics, 313— His cal- 
culation of the species of crocodiles, 
314 

D. 
PaltoUi Mr. on paring and burning 
land^ 194 



Darwin, Dr. on manures, 180,284 

Davis, Mr. Thomas, on the management 
of marjih lands, irrigation, Ac 77 

Davy, H.Esq. on soils, 121«.Hisae* 
count of some new analjrticU it»* 
searches on the nature of certain bo^ 
dies, particularly the alkalis, phos« 
phorus, sulphur, carbonaceous mat* 
ter, and the acids hitherto undeeom* 
pounded} with some geneml obseik 
vations on chemical theory, S41, 322 
"•His experiments in galvanism, S58 
-*On boracic acid, S6S-— On the d^ 
composition of sulphur by <h« Yot* 
taic pile, 365 

Decandolle, M. 316 

Delambre, M. his analysis of the labomfe 
of the mathematical dass, 308 

Delametherie, M. on the electric flidd, 
69 

Demours, M. his Index to the Meololif 
of the French Academy, 886 

Descotils, M. on the igneous fnsiott of 
barytes, 282 

Desormes on sulphate of barytes, 174 

Deyeux, M. on the reciprocal action of 
charcoal and hidrogen, 71— On the 
sugar of the rose bay, 283 

Diamond, the, analytical experiments 
on, 332, 333 

Divers, Northern, natural history of 
the, 81 

Dolomieu, M. 271 

Donati on the characters of the alcycmia^ 
40, 48 

Dow, Mr. 158 

Dupetit-Thouars, M. 315 

Dublin Society, proceedings in, 236 

Du Hamel, see Hamel 

Dumeril, M. on the respiration of 
fishes, 314 

Dundonald, Lord, on manures, 121, 
188 

Dupuytren, M. on the nerves of the 
lungs, 315 

E. 

Edgeworth, R. L, Esq. on the construc- 
tion of theatres, 129 

b 2 Edinburgh^ 



I N Q E X. 



Edinlnirgb, intiKU near, 157-^PUnU 

near, 158 
£dmo9ion» Mr. 61 
Bdi fomul ^n m, subtenaneouf ppb^, 157 

Eidslbnh* Mr. 61 

Elder pitby properties of, 155 

^cctive attn^tioDf^ d54 

ElectricUf 9 experiments in, 62 

Ellerton, Ber. £. 6Q 

suit, Mr. D. on the nature, of sponges, 

42-«Oa tbe fennination of seeds, 2 1 5 
Bmber-gposc^ natural history of the, 81 
Xmbijo of plants, 161 
Smomit^ogj, new classification of, 915 
Ermann, M. on the electric fluid, 69 
Erikine, Mr. 157 
IFspaliers, stt Fruit trees 
Ztfaer, impfoved method of preparing, 

^1—iOb^ined from oximuriatic acid 

alone, 273 
f Yipocmtion of thci e^rth, and free access 

of air to ^e roou'pf plants, essential 

to vegetation, IS, 55 
^uclid, remarks on some of the defini- 

tioof an4 Mioms in Barrow's edition 

o^ 977 
filler on ^ght and sound, 91SI 
Ester, Mr. on the advantages, of paring 

ififi bnn\ing, 194 

F. 

f abbroni on the properties of fegetable 
asheS) i^ed as manure^ 189— On bo- 
racieadd, 263 
Tairhead, Mr. T. 76 
Faj, M. Du. on electricity, 68 
Feqi roo^ examination of, 145 
Fir, American and European, compa^, 

236 
Firef|» plan for preventing or suppress- 
ing, 137 
T'ltncs, respiration of, 314 
Fite, Rev. H. De, on geology, 158 
Fleming, Mr. his Flora of Linlithgow, 

157 
Fledi, alteration prodiice^ in bj air ai^ 
Wsr, 302 



Flora of Linlithgow, 157 

Fonsera, M. liis correction of some W«t( 
India longitudes, 277 

Food of plants, ^5 

Fofdyce, Dr. on the propoition of cal- 
careous matter in good soil, 131 

Forsyth, on the culture of WpaUen, 4 

Fossil horns, analysis ri^ 159 

Fossils, dS , 

Foster, 'Mr. J. L. £90 

Fonrcroy, M. on the analogy b et weea 
charcoal and hidrogen, 71— ^On the 
chemical nature of the smut 19 wheat, 
14a-^n the sulphate of barytes, 174 
On ashes, as manure, 188— vHII the- 
ory of the formation o£ ediet, 201^-* 
Hit discovery of a co n cre te manna nr 
sugar on the rose bay, 283— On the 
alteration of flesh by air and water, 
303--TOn elective attactiona, 355 

Foust on the single-starred corals of tlie 
Baltic, 39 

Franhlen, J. Esq. on the use ef viaig 
as 9 manure, 72 

Fmnklin, Dr. his dectrical exper»> 
mems, 69 

French Natiooal Institute, proceeding 
in, 308 

J^xuit trees, new method of trainings X 

Fruits preserved without sugar, 89. 



G. 



qale, >Xr. H. R. ^0. 

Galvanism, 258, 263 

Gardner,- Mr. 60 

Gas light from^ coal, 85 

Gauss, Dr. on the new pl^^s, 316 

Gay-Lussac, M. on the action of potav 

sium on ammonia, 243, ef m^.-— On 

the decomposition and reoompoiUiofi 

of boracic acid. 260 
Geblen, M. on the igneous fusion of 

barytes, 281 
Geoffroy St. Hilaire on compasaUfe 

osteology, 313 
Geo<o|y, 158, 237 

Germination of seeds, 214 ^ 

CStSeo 



INDEX. 



Gibsoo, Mr. C. 60 

Ginger, acid obuined from, 584 

piobert, M. on soils, 121— On the 

volatile oil obiained by distilling ox|- 

muriattc acid, 274 
Giiod-Chantrans on the smut in wheat, 

146 

Glasi, electrical experiments on^ consi- 
dered as a Leyden phial, and oq 
coated panes, 62 

Gadin, on bats, 106 

Gough, J. Esq. bis experiments on the 
expansion of moist air raised to the 
boUiog temperature, 182 

Grapei, method of hastening the ma- 
turity of, 116 

Griffith, Mr. R. jun. 2.38 

Guanaco, the, or camel sheep of South 
America, might be introduced into 
Canada with adyautage, 27 

Gucttard, M. on fossils, 05 

Gunpowder, observations on the maxiu- 
Picture of, 278— Theory of itt deto- 
nation and explosion, 279 

GuTton, M. on the influence of gal- 
yank electricity on the transition of 
minerals, 263 

Gypsum, component parts of, 280 

H. 

Hac)>ette, M. 2C4 

Hamel, Du, oa the perspiration ^ 
plants, 169 ^ 

Hares, breeding oT, 26 

Hanrifon, Mr. 6P 

flassenfratz on the m«^nures of Hcardy, 
284, 291 

Hazelnut, pollep of, cxaxnined, 15& 

|]e^p, culture of, ia Canada, 18 

Herholdt, Dr. on the winter sleep of 
pertain amimals, 3^3 

flesketh, Robert, Esq. 59 

Hibernation of smimals, 313 

fligginS) Mr* his catalogue of Irish mi- 
nerals, 236 

flome, £▼. Esq. 300 

|Ionebow*s account of the lom of Ice- 
land, f«ppote4 to be th« laitMr g099e> 



Horns, $e€ Fossil 

Huddlestone, Mr. his canal lock, SI 1 

Humboldt, M. on the separation of o^» 

igen from plants, 9— On the cataract! 

of the Oroonoko, dl6-rHii travCSs 

318 ^ 

Husbandry, impmvements in, SS 
Hydrogen and charcoal, 71 
Hygrometer, a very sensible OM^ daioflN ' 

ed, 2Q7, 211 

1. 

Ibbetsfioij >(rs. A. op the iapTq(natkM| 
of the seed, and first shootiog of ^ 
nenr e of life, in the embryo of plants^ 
161 — On the supposed perspiration of 
plants, 169, 351—on the Ibnnatioo 
of the winter leaf-bud^ and ^taavM^ 
$93rrOn the stem of tioes, vith wtk 
attempt to discover the cause of mo- 
t^n in plants 3G4 

Ingenhousz, Dr. on the ^lemio)^ a^ 
finity between oxigen and li^i^ 9 

Insects near £dinb^rgh» 157 

Irrigation, 77 

Jersey, Aprlcultural economy of, 7t 

J. G. on the method of taking tnnrift 
observations, 139 

Joergenson, Mr. U. his metallic tiler* 
mometer, 234 

John, Dr. his analysis of turquoise^ lli ' 
— rOn a new metal, 159 

J. S. K. on the want of tablet of die 
proportions of the constituent pfiiw 
ciples of salts, and on the lumUiouf 
smoke from lead smelting houses, 298 

Juno, observations of, 317 ' 

J urine, M. De, mistaken ioenppo^lnf 
that bats have no occasien fiv cyef^ 
112— His new method of dassing 
insects, 315 
Jmsicu, M. 145 



Kane(dsteia, analysis of, 231 

5 K»ter, 



INDEX. 



Kiter, Lieut H. his description of a 

^ery sensible hygrometer, 207, S 1 1 
Kirtnuiy M. oa ^e sulphate of barytra, 

174— On paring and burning, 188— 

On manures, 285 
|Uapioth| M. on the potash in mica, 

158»v^n the sulphate of barytes, 1 74 
KIdn, M. on national prejudices, 816 
|Cnifht| Thomas A. Esq. on a new 

method of training fruit trees, l^On 

the circulation of sap, 295, 298 
Knbrr, Mr. 47 
Knott, Mr. 60 
JCodiler, Counsellor, his collection of 

Old coins. ZOi 



L. 



LablQaidiere, M.dl5 
liAbowr, contrifances for diminishing, 
SI 

Lacepede, M. his new species of sala- 
mander, 2S5 

Lagrange on light and sound, 312 

Lampadius, Professor, hb analysis of 
kanedstein, 2S1 

Lancretf M.SU ^ 

Langlcy on the management of fruit 
tiees, 4 

Laplace, on the velocity of sound, 313 

Latham, Dr. on the varieties of bits, 
106 

Lead, sulphate of, analyzed, 2S0 

Leaves of trees, their formation, 293 

Leblanc, M. his remarks on some points 
€^ hydrography, 276 

Libesy M. his.electrical experiments, 64 

Jjght, propagation of, 311 

JLightfoot, Mr. 157 

Lime, sulphate of, analysed, 280 

Link, M. letter from, on several che- 
mical subjects, addressed to M. Vogel, 
165 . 

Linlithgow, see Flora. 

Ljung, M. his discovery of a new spe- 
cies of mouse, 2^6 

}x>ngitudes in tbe West Indies correct- 
- ed, 276 



Luc, M» De, on geology, ibS 

Lugt, M. his electrical experiments, 6S 

M. 

Machell, Mr. T. 60 

Maclean, Rev. Mr. his description of % 

sea snake, 158 
Malet, M . on the combustion of char« 

coal from pressure, 278 
Malt spirit convened into vinegar, 275 
Mains, M. on the propagation of tight^ 

311 
Mangili, M. 313 

Manures, 12, 5£-,-57, 72, 120, 187, 284 
MarsUIi, Count, on the alcyonis, 40-^ 

On sponges, 41 
Marsh lands, management of, 77 
Marshall, Mr. J. P. 60 
Marsham, Mr. on the wireworm, 109 
Maram, M. Van, 264 
Meridian, measurement on the, 310 
Messier, M. his delineation of the No* 

bulain Orion, 310 
Metal, another new one, $35 
Metallic theimqmeter, 234 
Meteoric stones recently fallen, 2SS 
Metf-:oroIogical Journal, for April, 811 

—May, 160— June, 240-^uly, 3)0 
Meteorological tables for the year 1808, 

198 
Mexico, statistical account of, 318 
Mica, pota&h contained in, 158 
Mineralogy of Clacjpiannanshire, 156. 

157 ^ 

Minerals, Iiish, catalogue of, 236 
Mirbcl on the supposed perspiration ef 

plants, 353 
Mirror of a new kind, St 1 
M. K. on preventing and suppressing 

fires, 137 ■ 
Mojon, M. on the oxigenized muriatic 

acid, 27'3 
Montagu, G. Esq. his account of the 

larger and lesser species of horseshoe 

buts, proving them to be distinct; to- 

gcihcr with a description of vesperti. 

lio barbastellus, taken in the South 

of De?onshir«, 106 

M onugu, 



INDEX. 



MontigQ, Colonel) on the !mmer, or 
ember goose, and northern diver, 85 

BioDge^ theory of evolutesy 311 

MonSy Van, on electricity, 62 

Mortality, table of, in various places, 
318 

Motion in plants, 334 

Mowc^ a new species of, S35 

Mariate of silver not blackened without 
light, 156 



N. 



Neili, P. Esq. on the natural history of 

the divers, 81 
New, Dr. J. on the identity of the base 

of charcoal with hidrogen or its base, 

71 

O. 

Oenothera Biennis, crystals contained in 

its root, 156 
Olben, Dr. on the new planets, 318 
Orchards, management of, 75 
Orthography, chemical, 359 
Ostoology, comparative, 313 

P. 

Ptllas, observations of, 316 
Paper produced from mountain flax, 234 
Faring and burning lands, 187 
Parkinson's " Organic Remains,*' ^extract 
from on the dissimilarity between the 
creatures of the present and former 
world, and on the fossil aicyoiiia, S3 
Parmentier on the smut in wheat, 146 
Patrin, M. on the formation of basalte;, 

271 
Pearson, Dr. on manures, and the mode 

of applying them, 2S5 
Pelletier, M. his method of fusing ba« 

rytes, 281 
Pen, capillary, recently invented, 236 
Pennant's " British Zoology," 106 
Penny, Mr. 60 

P^ys, Mr. his eudiometer, 223 
PermutatioDS, problem in, 203 



P6ron, M. his account of ft yofwgtM 
discovery from the year 1800 ttf 
1804, 235 
Perspiration of plants, 351 
PeysoneU, M. on sponges, 4£ 
Phosphorus, analytical eJcpetlmratt OBy 

328 
Piazsi, M. 309 

Pine timber of Upper Canada, 27 
Plants, food of, 5 — their carbon pM- 
duced from water, 72— Their growth, 
161— 'Supposed perspiration, 169, 361' 
-^Attempts to discover the cmosa «f 
their motion, 354 
Plants near Edinburgh, 158 
Plumbago, analytical expcilments on, 

330, 333 
Poisson, M. on the propagatkm of light 

and reflection of sound, 312 
Polypody root, examination of, 145 
Pons, M. his observations of the comet 

of 1807, 310 
Ponsonby, Miles, Esq. 59 
Pontin, M.on the amalgam of ammoniaf 

243 
Pontoppidan*s •* History of Norway,** 84 
Potash in mica, 158— In schist^ 304 
Potassium, action of, on ammoab, 242 
Potato, remarks on its uses, 28, 52 
Priestley, Dr. on the properties of vege* 

table ashes as manure, 189 
Primrose tree, on the crystals containod 

in its root, 156 
Proust, M. his discovery of a new in- 
flammable mixture, 70 
Prunelte, Professor, on the winter sleep 
of certain animab, 313 



a 

Rabbit<:, breeding of, important on ac- 
count of their fur, 23 

Rafn, Dr. on the stupor of certain 
animals in winter, 313 

Rain, table of,' for the year 1808, 197 

Rainbow, the lunar, observations on, 
231 

Refraction, 



INDEX, 



Ik d t Mna of the atanosphefe, 309 

Jtanly M.oii the conTenioa of malt 
gpixiU into Tinegar, 275 

Bhododendron ponticum, the, produces 
a concreta sugar, 285 

laehafYl» M. 14ft 

llichter^ analysis of baiytes, 175 

fiowdy M. on the composttion bf sul- 
phate of bary tea, 175 

Btbin, M. his account of the sponta- 
noouainfladimatlon of eharcoEiI, 278 

Boodelety M. S 

Xoae Baj^ «fc Sugar* 

» 

Stdfingion, Mr. Thomas, his new 
ted cheap method of preserving fruits 
without sugar, 89 
Sage^ B. G. on the spontaneous ignition 
«r charcoar, 277— On the detonation 
and explosion of gimpowdei-, 279 
8aint» W. Esq. oA some of the defini- 
tions ixkd axioms in Barrow*s Euclid, 
377 
Salamander, new species of, 235 
Sandstones, aniftcial, 268 
jiaussutc, M. on fertilization, 7, 10 
Scheochzef, on fo£>i!S| 35 
Schist of Cherbourg, analysis of, 304 
Schreber on bats, 106 
Scientific News, 156, 233, 308 
Sea snake, recent appearance of one, 

158 
Sea weed, used as manure, 72 
Seeds of plants, impregnation and 
growth of» l61«*-Germination of, 
£14 
Seguin, M. his method of rendering 
common alum as good for dyeing as 
Soman alum, 30? 
Senebicr, M. on the effects of water on 
vegetation, 9-*On the powers c)f vi. 
triolated tartar in promoting vcgcta* 
lion, 188 — On manures, 2»:> 
j^j^ . Sequences of double decompositions, 
-• .354— Table of, 360 

• Srw«l1y Ms. W. on a canal in the spinal 
manow of some quatlrupods, 300 



Shaw, Dr. on the greiter and IdsSef 
bat, 107 

* 

Sheldrake, Mr. T. on the camera lucida; 

372 
Sibbald, Sir R. 84 
Sigaud de la Fond, M. his electrical 

phenomena, 64 
Simpson, Mr. on panng and burning^ 

196 
Skrimshire, Mr. on the u«ei to which 

the fecula of potatoes are applicable^ 

S3 
Smith, Dr. 157 
Sttioke, luminous, of smelting housed, 

232 
Sintit in wheat, analyM of, 146 
Soils, composition of, 10 
Solan()''r, Dr. 42 
Sound, how it may be increased, 135-i& 

Reflections of, i>\2 
Spallanzani^ M. 313 
Spinal marrow of quadrupeds, 300 
Sponges, characters of, 41 
sutler, Mr. 61 
Stem of treeMj .134 
Stewart, Mr. on tlie insects found near 

Edinburgh, 157 
Stone, artificial, manufacture of, 154 
Suberic acid, 149, 156 
Sue, Professor, his Index to Butforig 

236 
Sugar froth the rose bay, 283 
Sulphates of lime, barytes, and lead, 

analyzed, 174, 280 
Sulphur, analytical experiments oh, 

ySl, 365,369 
Sulphuric etli^r, *rt- Ether. 
Sunderland, Mr. 60 
Sylvester, Mr. on the production of aa 

acid and an alkali from pure water by 

Galvanism, 258 

T. 

Tart, Mr. T. Cl 

Telescopes, new construrtion of, 30B 

Theatres, remarks on the construcUo^ 

of, V20 . 

■ ft 

Thcnard, M. on the sulpliale of barytes, 
1 74, 2SC— On the agency of potassium 

an4 



INDEX. 



and ammonia, 243, et seq. — On the 

decomposition and recom position of 

boracic acid, 260 
Tliermometer for the pocket, 234 
Thomson, Mr. on the analysis of the 

sulphate of barytes, 8cc. 174, 280 
Threshing machine for hemp and flax, 

16 
Towashend, Rev. Joseph, on the food 

of plants, 6 
Transit observations, method of taking, 

139 
Trees, stem of, 334 
Tukc, Mr. his mode of paring and 

burning lands, 191 
Turquoise, orienul, analysis of^ 158 

V. 

Van Mons, gee Mons. 

Van Uslar on the oxigen of plants, 9 

Vavasour, Colonel, on paring and 
burning soils, 195 

Vauquelin, M. on the reciprocal action 
of charcoal and hidrogen, 71—On ca- 
laguala root, 141— On the chemical 
nature of the smut in wheat, 146-» 
His theory of the formation of ether, 
201— On a concrete sugar found on 
the rose bay, 283 

Vegetables, improved culture of, 51— 
Growth of, 315 

Vesta, observations of, 31 7 — Elements 
of her orbit, 318 « 

Vogel, M. 155 

Volkmann on fossils, 35 

Vraic used as manure, 72 

Voyage of discovery, 235 " 

W. 

Wagstaffc, Mr. on reclaiming waste 
lands, 95 

Walford, T. Esq. on an insect that 
destroys the wheat, supposed to be 
the wireworm, 102 

Walker, Mr. £. on taking transit ob- 
servations, 139 



Walker, Mr P 157 

Wallace's " History of Orkney ,•* 84 

Walsh, Mr. his description of the fossil 

alcoynia, 47 
Wa.ste lands, reclaimed, 95— Improved, 

98 
Water, a vehicle for the food of plants, ft 

—Origin of the carbon or pabulum of 

plants, 72 
Wedge, Mr. his experiment on paring 

and burning land, 191 
Wernerian Society, 156 
Wheat, diseases of, 146 

Wilkes, Mr. his method of paring and 
burning land, 190 

Wilkinson, Dr. on paring and burning 
193 

Williams, J. Esq. his method of hasten- 
ing the maturation of grapes, 116 ' 

Wine, acid, sweetened by charcoal^ 
635 

Wings, artificial, 319 

Winter leaf bud, its formation, 293 

Wireworfai, observatbns on the, 108 

Withering on the sulphate of barjrtflt^ 
174 

W. N. on the method of taking tramit 
observations, 140— -On the luminous 
smoke from lead smelting houses, 233 
—On the camera lucida, 377 

Woollen rags, useful for manure, 12 

Wright, Mr. on the beneficial effects of 
paring and burning land, 195 



Yalden, Mr. 158 

Yorker, Mr. J. 60 

Young, Arthur, Esq. certificate firom^ 
on Mr. Curwen^s improvements in 
agriculture, 61— On manures, 120, 
187, 284 

Young, Dr. T. his numcfical table of 
elective attractions } with remarks on 
the sequences of double decompoo* 
tion, 354 



END OF THE TWE5TT-THIRD TOLUME. 



ERRATA. 



161 
169 



i ffom bottom Jbr A. Ibbetson, Esq. rmi Mrs. Agnet Ibbetso*. 

215 7 /or presenred nad pursued. , 

SSO 22 ybr a& in seeds r«aii as well as in seeds. 

188 6 from bottom Jor determined rtad diminished. 

550 5 from bottom read Fig. Id. Section just above the seed ressel. a, a, the 
calvx. byf 'ii : corolla, c, c, e, e, four stamens, d^ the pbtil. 
Fif . 14. Bottom of the seed tessel of the dianthus 09 the calyxy d:e. 



Stratford^ Printer^ Crown Court, Temple Bar. 



JOURNAL 



OF 



NATURAL PHILOSOPHY, 

CHEMISTRTy , 



AND 



THE ARTS. 



VOL. XXIV. 



3lUu)eittateti toiti) engtat)ing0. 



BY WILLIAM NICHOLSON. 



LONDON t 

niNTED BY W. STRATTORO, CKOWN COURT, TEWLE lAR | IMl 

W. NICHOLSON, 

CHARLOTTE STREET, BLOOMSBURY^ 

AND SOLD BY 

J. STRATFORD, No. 113, Holborn Hill. 



1809. 



PREFACE. 

I 

THE Authors of Original Papers and Communications in the 
present Volutne are Dr. John Bostock ; James Buriievy Esq.; 
J. B.; E. F. G. H.; J. B. van Mons; Mrs. Agnes Ibbetson; 
W. Saint, Esq. ; Mr. B. Cook ; Mr. J. Acton ; Mr. R. B. Bate § 
James Staveley, Esq.; Sir George Cayley, Bart.; Mr. G. J. 
Singer; R. Z. A. ; W. N. ; M. le Comte de Bournon, F. R. and 
L.S. ; Mn Robert Lyall; Mr. P. Barlow; J. F. ; Mr. Robert 
Bancks. 

Of Foreign Works, Prof. F. R. Curaudau ; M. Gay-Lussac ; 
M. Tbenard ; M. Alex. Brongniart ;' Prof Lenormand; M. Ilossen- 
fratz; M. Hatty ; M. Rampasse; Prof. Picot; M. L. Cordier; M. 
Descotils; P. A. Steinacher; M. Bouillon-Lagrange; M. Vc^a ; 
M. Fourcroy ; M. Vauquelin ; M. Cuvier ; M. Chaptal ; M. Ber- 
thoUet^ Jun* ; M. Klaprotli ; M. Bucholz ; M. Berthier. 

And of British Memoirs abridged or extracted, Humphry; D^vy,' 
Esq. Sec. R. S. F. R. S. Ed. and M. R. I. A. ; Capt. W. BoltOD; 
Capt. H. L. Bali ; Mr. John Tad ; Mr. W. Barlow ; J. G. Children, 
Esg. F. R. S. ; Wm. Henry, M. D. F. R. S. V. P. of the Lit. and 
Phil. Soc. and Physician to the Infirmary at Manchester ; Jamee 
Rennel, Esq. F. R. S. 

* 

The Engravings consist of I. Captain Bolton's improved 
Jur3' Mast ; 2. Captain H. L. Ball's Method of Fishing an Anchor; 
3. Captain Ball's improved Anchor; 4. Mr. J. Tad's Method 
of causing a Door to open over a Carpet; 5. Mr.W. Barlow's 

^Wrench for Screw Nuts of any Size; 7. The Sting of the Nettle, 
highly magnified, in its natural State, emitting its Poison^ and' 
when broken ; 8. The Awn of the Indian Grass, used in Captain 
Kater's Hygrometer ; 9. The Leaf and Stem of the Sensitive Aant^ 
showing ineir Structure ; J 0. The Spiral Wire and its Case greatly 
magnified ; 11 • Luminous Meteors, seen during a Thunderstorm^ 
by James Staveley, Esq. ; 12. Diagrams to illustrate the Theory of 
Aerial Navigation, by Sir George Cavley, Bart. ; 13. A Machine 
that will ascend into the Air of itself by mechanical Means.; \^. 
A Machine with which a Man may raise biipself into the Air; I5« 
Figures illustrating the Crystallization of Endellion, by the Count 
de Bournon; 16. Diagrams for a Demonstration of the Cotesian 

^Theorem, by Mr. P. Barlow; 17. Various Delineations and Sections 
of Grafts and Buds, from original Drawings after Nature, by * 
Mrs. Agnes Ibbetson ; 1 8. Branch of a Portugal Laurel, from which 
the Bark had been accidentally separated; 19. Different Structures 
of several Kinds of Wood. 

TABLE 



f 
TABLE OF CONTENTS 

TO THIS TWENTY-FOURTH VOLUME. 



SEPTEMBER, |809. 




^. On the Uniou of Tan and Jdly : by John Bostack, M. D. - 1 

II. The Bakerian Lecture. An Account of some new analytical Researches on. 
the Naturcof certain Bodies, &c. By Humphry Davy, Esq. Stx:. R. S. F. R. S. 
Ed. and M. R. L A. - - - - ^ 12 

III. Remarks on the Boracic Acid, addressed to the first Class of the Institute, 
December 19tb, 1809, by F. R.Curaudau, Professor of Chemistry applicable 
to the Arts, and Member of several literary Societies. - 24 

IV. Abstract •£ a Paper on the Decomposition and Properties of Fluoric Acid, 
preseated the 9th of January to the Mathematical Class of the Institute, by 
Metnrs. Gay-Lussac and Thenard. - • - 5^J 

V. Description of a Process, by Means of which Potash and Soda may be me-f 
tallized without the Assistance of Iron ; read before the French Institute the 
18th of April, 1808 ; by F. R. Curaudau. - - - 37 

VI. Observations and Experiments on the Nature of the New Properties of the 
. Alkaline Metals ; by the same - - - - 40 

VII. Improved Method of Forming Jur}* Masts : by Captain William Bolton of 
the Royal Navy - - . - ' - - 44 

VIII. An Improvement of tiie Construction of Anchors, to render them more 
durable ^a safe for Ship : with an improved Mode of Fishing Anchors. By 
Captain H. L. Ball, of the Royal Navy. - - - 4a 

TX. ObBCrvations on the Progress of Bodies floating in a Stream : with an Ac- 
count of some Experiments made in the River Thames, with a View to dis^ 
cover a Method for abccrtaining the Direction of Currents. By James Bumey, 
Esq. ------ 49 

X. New Method proposed for measuring a Ship's Rate of Sailing. By the same 
Gentleman. - ' - - - - 57 

XL Method of preventirtg Doors from dragging on Carpets, or admitting Air 
underneath them. By Mr. John Tad . -• - 59 

XJl. Description of an improved Screw Wrench, to fit diiferent sized Nuts, or 
■ Heads of Screws. By Mr William Barlow. - - . qi 

XIII. On the Measurcment of Heights by the Barometer. In a Letter from a 
Correspondent. - - - - - 63 

XtV. On the^ilaubcrite. By Alexander Brongniart - -. 65 

XV. An excellent cohiuriess Copal Varnish. By Mr. Lenormand, late Professor 
of Natural Philosophy. - - - - - , gy 

Scientific News ----- 68 

Meteorological Table ----- 80 



4 

C O N TE NT 9. w 



OCTOBER, 1809. 

Engravings of the following Subjects : 1 . The Stin^ of the Nettle, higMy msHa^ *^ 
I Sed, in its natural State, emitting" its Poitvon, and when broken : S. The Am 
' of the Indian Grass, used in Ca[>tain Rater's Hygrometer: 3. The LenT end 
Stem of the Sensitive Plant, showing their Structure: 4. The Spiral WjKiod 
its Case greatly magnified. 

L Farther Application of a Series to the Correction of th e Height of the Ba* 
IOmeter - • - . - - Jl ' 

U. On the Action of the Metal of Potash on Metallic Salts and Oxicks, tod oa 
Alkaline and £arthy Salts/ By Messrs. Theuard and Cay-Lussac ' 09 

lU. The Bakerian Ipccturc. An Account of some new anal^cal Researches da 
the Nature of certain Bodies, &c. By Humphry Davy, £su. 80c. B. S. 
r.R.S.Ed. andM.R.I.A. . . - .- 05 ' 

IV. Extract of a Letter from Mr. J. B. van Mons, Member of the l up ti tut e i at 
France and Holland, to the Editor, on Atmospheric Phenomena - * 100 

V. Remaming Proof of the Cause of Motion in Plants explained ; and what it 
. called the Sleep of Plants shown to be Kelaxatioa only. By Mn. Agna 

Ibbetaon. - - - •- » . - iU 

r 

yi. A curious Property of Single Repetends. In a Letter from W. Saint,. EiML 

19i 

VII. On the Use of Iron for Stairs, and instead of the Timbers of Housef, as a 
Security against Fire. In a Letter from Mr. Benjamin Cook. « ISt 

VIII. On Respiration. By Mr. J. Acton. In a Letter from the Author 130 

IX. On the Camera loicida. In a Letter from Mr. R. B. Bate «- ' 149 

I 

X* Account of some Experiments performed with a View to ascertain the moit 
advantageous Method of constructing a Voltaic Apparatus, for tbe PuipoMi 
of Chemical Research. By John George Children, Em\, F. R. S. 150 

XI. Report of a Memoir of Mr. Hassenfratz respecting the Alterationa that the 

Light of the Sun undergoes in traversing the Atmosphere. By Mr. Hauj. 

^ ♦ ^ 151 

Scientific News - ; - - - 158 

Itfeteorological Table - - - - • 100 



« 
\ 



NOVJBMBEB^ 



\ 
\ 



Ti CONTENTS. 

NOVEMBER, 1809. 

Engnmngs of the following Subjects: 1. JLumiDous Meteors, seen during a 
Thunderstorm, by James Staveley, Esq: 2. Diagrams to illustrate tlie'J'heory 
of Aerial Navigation, by Sir Georee Cfayley, Bart.: 3. A Machine thajwill 
ascend into the Air of itself by Mechanical Means : 4. A Machine with which 
a Man may raise himself into the Air. 

I. Accdunt of some luminous Meteors seen during a Thunderstorm. In a Letter 
from James Staveley, Esq. - - - - - iQ\ 

II. On Aerial Navigation. By Sir George Cay ley, Bart - 1^4 

III. On Electro-Chemical Experiments. By Mr. G. J. Singer - 174 

IV. Extract of a Letter from Mr. J. B. Van Mons to Mr. Sue, on diffenmt 
Subjects relating to Galvanism and Electricity. - - yjg 

V. Description of the Process employed to ascertain the Existenccof Alumin« 
in Mfeteoric Stones, by B. G. Sage, Member of the French Institute, Founder 
and Director of the l<1rst School of Mines - - jqq 

VI. Letter fixmi Mr. Rampassc, formerly Officer in the Corsican LigSt In^tsy^ 
to Mr. Cuvier, on a Calcareous Breccia containing fossile Bonc*s found «in 
Cmsica* - - - - . . {gr^ 

VII. Extract of a Letter from Professor Picot, of Geneva, to the Editors of tlie 

Sibliotheqiie Britannique, on Comets. - - , 197 

» .• « 

VIII. On the Influence the Shape of a Still has on tiie Quality of the Prodadof 
, Pistillation : by Mr. Curaudau, Member of the Pharmaceutical and several 

other Sodeties. ----- 201 

IX. On Vegetable Astringents. By John Bostock, M. D. Communicated by 
tjie Author. - - - . . 204 

X« Question on the Pseparalion of Cork for modelling. In a Letter fiom a 
Correspondent. - - - - . q^^ 

XI. On the Dusodile, a New Species of Mineral ; by Mr. L. Cordier 223 

XII. Memoir ofi the Triple Sulohiiret of Lead, Copper, and Antimony, or 
EndelUon. By M. le Comte cle Bournon, F. B. anil L. S. - 22^ 

Xni. On Detonating Silver. By Mr. Descotils. - - 237 

XIV. Process for making a Fine Lake. - • - ' 238 

XV. On the Blue Wolfsbane, by Philip Antony Steinacher. - 235 
Scientific News. • • . - • 239 
Meteorological Table. ' - . • - 34^ 



DECEMBER* 



• 



I 



.'CONTENTS. vii 

DECEMBER, 1809. 

Eoffravin^ of the folloiviog Subjects^ (In Two Quarto Platei:) 1. FSgott 
fmtitrating the Cr}'8tallixation of £ndellion» by ^ Count de fioumon. %, 
Diagraim for a Demonstration of the CQtesian Theorem ; by Mr. P. BailoiR. 

L On Vegftable Astringents. By John Bottock, M. D. Conununiotfied by the 
Author - - - - - - 241 

• 

IL Memoir on the triple Sulpburet of Lead, Copper, and Anthoony, or En- 
dellioD. By M. le Comte aejoumon, F. R. & L. S. ^ - S5l 

III. Of tbe Irritability of Vegetables. By Mr. Robert Lyall, Sureeto. Read 
at the Literary aua Philosophical Society at Manchester, Oct. the 6th, 1S09« 
Communicated by the Author. - - • ^ff% 

IV. Demonttration of the Cotnian Theorem. Ky Mr. P. Barlov J7t 

V. On the Influence of Electricity oo Flame: by Mr. Leopold Vaoca, Cokmd 
of the 23d Regiment of Light In&ntry. - • j^ 

VI. Of the Action of Phosphorus and oxiffenized muriatic acid Oason Aflbriiss 
by Messrs. Bouillon-Lagrange and Vogel. • - ^S 

VII. On the Chemical Analysis of the Onion. By Messrs Fourcroy and Van- 
t)ueOa. - - - - - • S9# 

■ 

Vni. Abridgment of a Paper on the Species of Camivoious Animals, the Bones 
of ivhich are found mixed with those of Bears in CaTems in Genaany ao4 
Hungary. By Mr. Cuvier. - - - ' • . $^$ 

IX. Account of some Colours for P^ting, found at Pompeii ; by Mr. Chaptal« 
Communicated to the First Ckss of the Institute, March the flth» 18(H^1 

X. Remarks on the Introduction of Air into the Blood through the Lungs, in 
' Answer to Mr. Acton. In a Letter from a Correspondent • . 407 

XL Letter from Mr. Robert Bancks concerning the Meteorological JpnmaL 

Scientific News. . • • ^ • 309' 

Meteorological JoumaL • • . 3^ 



SUPPLEMENT. 



*• 



Yiii 



CONTENTS. 



SUPPLEMENT TO VOL. XXIV. 

Btagnmngs of the folTowing Objects: 1. Various Delineations and Sectiodi of 
C^rafts snd Buds, from original Drawings ader Nature, by Mrs. Agnetf 
Ibbetfion 2, Branch of a Portu.^al Laurel, from which the bark had been 
accideatally separated. 3. Different Structures of several Kinds of Wood. 

I. Memoir on the Triple Sulphuret of Lead, Copper, and Antimony^ or En" 
Mlion» By M. )c Comte de Bournon, F. R. and L. S. - 321 

H. On the Etfects produced by the grafting and budding of Trees. In a Letter 
from Mrs. Agnes Ibbetsoa., - - - - 33t 

HL On the Defects of grafting and budding. By Mrs. Agnes Ibbetson. 340 

IV. Experiments on Ammonia, and an Account of a new Method of analysiiig 
it, by Combustion with Oxi»<en. and other Gasses ; in a Letter to Humphry 
Davy, Esq. Sec R. S., &c., trt^m William llenry, M. D. F. R. S., V. P. 
of the IaL and Phil. Society, and Physician to the Infirmar>' at Manchester. 

35» 

y. Observations on the Composition of Ammonia. By Mr. Berthollet, jiin» 

374 

VL Analysis of the Chinese Rice-Stone, with some Observations on the Yn* 
By Mr. KUproth. - - ... 3^5 

_ 1 

Vn. On the Effect of westerly Winds in raising the Level of the British ChanneL 
In a Letter to the Right Hon. Sir Joseph Banks, Bart. K. B. P. R. S. By James 
Rennel, Es(|. F. R. S. - - - ' . 37^ 



Vin. On Dead Lime. By Mr. Buchoh. 



379 
3»f 



K. On the Muriates of Bar) tes and of Silver. By Berthier, Mine Engtoeer. 

383 



y 



Page. line. 



ERRATUM. 



27 



8 



14 for Thvwic read CalcuL 



JOURNAL 



OF 



VTURAL PHILOSOPHY, CHEMISTRY, 



AND 



THE ARTS. 



•• «• 
■ '• 



SEPTEMBER, 1809. 

ARTICLE I. 
the Uniou of Tan and Jelly: by JoHN BosTOCK, St. Dm 

To Mr. NICHOLSON. 
IIR, 

PURING the course of the last spring I was engi^ed in IPurposeof liht 
t of expeiiments, which may be considered as a conti- *"^^®''* "*• 
tioa of those formerly made on the analysis of animal 
is*. My object was to enable tbe operator to apply the 
3, which indicate the existence of the principal consti-* 
its of these fluids^ albumen, jelly, and mucus, so as not 
r to /discover the qualities of the compound, but the 
niities of its ingredients. The results of my experi- 
its have been, upon the whole, unsuccessful ; and I have 
)resent chiefly to announce the fiailure of the diflerent 
EHiients, which I employed to attain my object. It may 
however, be altogether useless, to lay my ex|>erience 

* See Journal, vol. IX, p. 244. 

Oh. XXIV. No. 106^Sept. 1809. B before 



<| <)lf THB UHION or tAH AMD JSLLT. 

before your readers; not merely because I have it in cbjr 
power to state lome few facts, that may be codsidered as au 
addition to our stock of kuowledfi^, but still more, because 
I may induce some one more skilful than myself, to point 
out a -method of accomplishing what I have hitherto at- 
tempted without success, 
^dly. The substance upon which I first Operated, and to which 

I shall principally confine my attention in the present pa-< 
Jtsduneten. per, is jelly; the characteristics of which are its solubility 
ID water, its forming an insoluble compound with tan, and 
the property which its aqueous solution possesses of con- 
creting by cold, and being redissolved by the application 
Inquiry wbe* of heat. The problem which I was anxious to solve was, 
^tetabr'ten^ whether the compound of tan and jelly be uniform^ so that 
M proportioo- by saturating the gelatinous part of a solution with tan^ 
•*• *^* and collecting the precipitate, we may, from its weight, 
ftnt. (the quantity of tan employed being known) ascertain the 

amount of the jelly previously contained in the fluid. From 
the experiments that had been performed on the subject, 
Mr. Big|in*8 particularly those of Mr. Biggin and Mr. Davy, I conceived, 
ecrtain tb« dtoI ^^^ ^^^^ would be found to be the case. The object of Mr. 
portion of tan. Biggin*s experiments was to ascertain the proportion of tan 
in different barks, for which purpose he formed similar iih* 
fusions of them, and precipitated the tan from each by a 
solution of glue. He employed the solution of glue always 
of the same strength, and by collecting the precipitatetf 
he judged of the quantity of tan that had united itself to 
the glue, and thus of the proportion of it in the bark*. The 
experiments are important, as comparing the different barks 
nith each other, and thus ascertaining their respective valve 
as substances to be employed in the manofectare of lea- 
dier ; but it is obvious, that, unless the compound of tan 
and glue be umform, they do not show the absolute quan»> 
Mr. Davy ttty of tan in any given weight of bark. Mr. Davy, in his 
^pUa'te^b pro^ experiments on astringent substances, has pointed out, with 
portionate to fail accustomed sagacity, the different efiR^cts that are pro* 
thcitr«ngihof ^y^j^ in the union of solutions of tan and jelly, according 

to their degree of concentration ; and has proved, that in 

• PbU. Thuw. 1799, p. S$0. 

proportion 



ON THC UKION or TAN iHO JELLT. 

proportion to the strength of the solution, either of jtlly or 
of tsn, will be the weight of the precipitate obtained". It 
would appear, that, when the solutionn are much dilatei], 
the Bitroctioii of both the jelly and the tan for the water, 
to a certain extent, countemcts tlidr atlraction to each 
Other, and ihus prevents a portion of ihein from being re- 
moved from the fluid. Mr. Dftvy, howevvr, as well an Mr. Boih luppM* 

BijMtin, evidently Bcetus to have conceived, that the tub- '''* p"cli'it»>" 

"=',.. ■* , , It-boauoiform 

Stance which was precipitated in all instances poeaeiised the cotnpouDd, 
same properties, and consisted of a uniform compound of 
the two inffredi^nta. This opinion is the very foundation of 
the method which he employed in his analyses, and is di- 
rectly asserted in different parts of his papersl. 

With this impre»eion it was, that 1 entered upon a set of Th« luihor'i 

,. , , ., , , „ pmcoeding to* 

experiments, which may be considered as the converse of con«er»eof 

those of Mr. Biggin and Mr. Davy. The object of these ">='"■ 

chemists was, by the agency of jelly, to remove all the tau 

from a vegetable infusion, and to estimate its quantity from 

the weight of the precipitate; while mine was, by means of 

tMi, to ascertain the quantity of jelly that was contained in 

«ny animal fluid. In pursuing this investigation, the first A unirarm i*^ 

point was to determine upon the most proper substance to •B«nt«qu'«i«- 

employ as the rtagent; for as it is difficult, if not absolutely 

impossible, to procure tan in a state of perfect purity, it 

became necessary to discover some vegetable infusion, which 

should always possess similar properties, and in which the 

quantity of tan should be known, without having recourse 

U> any long calculation. My attention was naturally, id 

the tirst instance, directed to galls; and I expected, that Gallii 

by employing equal weights, infusing them in equal quan'' 

titles of water, and for an equal length of time, flnida 

would have been formed always containing equal quantities 

of tan. But upon making repeated trials, I find that this 

ianot the case; and it would appear from alt the experience NDlunifatMin 

1 have hod upon the subject, that two parcels of galls will **" """"•■ 

■cfucely ever be procured, which will precisely agree in their 

• Pbil. Traiu. 180.;. 

t PhU. T»Bs. 1803. Nithalwn'i Journal, vsl. V, p. 159, S69, A 



1 



Il ON THB OVIOV or TAN ANO JELLY. 

fiatore. If finely powdered galls be infused for tvno hoars 
in 8 times their weight of boiling water* an infusion is 
formed 9 which is generally transparent, of a deep brown 
colour, and which contains about one tenth of its weight 
of solid matter. But although this is the usual result of 
the process, it is by no means constantly so. Frequently 
. the infusion will be thick and muddy, will not be rendered 
clear by being passed through the filter, nor will it become 
60 after standing at rest for several dap ; its colour also Tm- 
ries considerably, the brown tinge existing in different 
shades of intensity, and occasionally being exchanged for a 
bottle green. The quantity of solid matter contained in 
the fluid is seldom precisely the same in any two trials; al- 
though it is generally about one tenth, yet I have occasion- 
ally found it no more than one fourteenth. Although it 
may appear at first view somewhat singular, that such dif- 
ferent effects should be produced by the same substanca; 
yet, when we attend to the visible difference, that exists in 
gall nuts, we shall easily conceive how these variations may 
orhomogene- take place* The structure of galls appears to have been 
^M, ^^ '***^® attended to, and they have generally been spoken ^ 
as homogeneous bodies, before the accurate descriptioii of 
their several parts, that is given by the Mr. Aikins in tbeir 
late valuable publication*. 
An extract of As it appeared impossible to employ a recent infusion of 

mwef!^ "^^ ?*^** ^^^ ^^^ sundard fluid, I thought of evaporating the 
infusion, and making use of a solution of the dried nsi- 
duum* But I found, that this residuum, although formed 
from a perfectly transparent infusion, is not capable of be- 
ing completely redissolved, owing to some change that has 
been effected on one or more of its constituents, probably 
the extract, by which it becomes no longer soluble in water* 
Hiis circumstance forms an insuperable objection to the 
employment of the dried residuum as a standard, beeaate 
the quantity of matter, depending upon the variable pro- 
portion of the soluble and insoluble part, or of the tan and 
extract, will scarcely ever be found the same in any two 
specimens upon which we may operate. 

« Aikins' Chen. Diet. Art. Gall nut^ 

Tbf 



P OK.TUK VKION OF TAN AWD JBLLT. ^ 

Tlie infusiou of galls, however prepared, seemed inade- Mi.H«icheM't 
quale to the purpose of affordiiijf an acciirate test for jelly, »"'^'^' "" 
I thought therefore of ein|jloying the arlilictal tan disco- 
. vered bj Mr, Hatchett, because, being a sub!>tiince formed 
by a specitic chemical action, it may be supposed always 
to possess the same chemical properties. It nus accordingly 
prepared by digesting powdered charcoal in nitric acid, and 
the reenlt coincided entirely ivith the description of Mr. 
Hatchett; it was readily dissolved both in water and alco- 
hol, it precipitated jelly from its solution. Bad also the nitro- 
mariate of gold, the muriate of tin, the supeimcetate of 
Irad, and the oxisulphate of irou. All these properties 
■how its strong resemblance to tlie infusions obtuioed from 
astringent vegetables. I was however disappointed in not 
finding it tit answer the purpose that 1 hud in view. Al- 
though the artificial tan very reudily afForded a precipitate formed an Im- 
from a gelatinous solution, yet the jelly seemed to be only P?^^' P™'*' 
imperfectly thrown down, the fluid rt:maine<l mnddy after 
the operation, and the precipitated matter could not be com- 
pletely separated from it. This circumstance I found to 
take place with different portions of the artificial tun, which 
were each of them prepared with every utteution to Mr. 
Hatchett'a directions; and, 1 conceive, depends upon a owing to ih« 
qoaiitity of undecomposed acid, which remains attached to S'°*m^^fla"" 
the tan, and which cannot be entirely removed from it. >cid. 
This excess of acid was always found in my experiments, 
and mu»>t probably have existed in Mr. Hatchett'a prepara- 
tions, for he points out their property of reddening litmus 
as one that is characteristic of them *. To whatever cause 
we may ascribe it, it seemed to be a sufficient objection to 
the use of this substance as a test for jelly. 

Catechu WHS next tried, but without any better success. Catechu doa 
Independent of the difference which exists between dif. not smwcr. 
ferent specimens of this substance, which is considerably 
fireutcr than whiit is found in the infusion of gnlls, 1 hiive 
never met with any catechu which is entirely soluble in wa- 
ter, la the different trials that I made to procure stauiiard 

• Phil. Trani. for 1S05, p. 216. 



6 on THK vmoir or tav and jbllt. 

folutions of catechu, a portion appeared to be odIj sus- 
pended in the fluid, so that it remained muddy, and neither 
became transparent by standing, nor was the insoluble part 
SpvntaneoQi removed by passing through a filter. The infusions of ca<* 
^to bSSu^Mtt. ^^'^^ likewise beoime ^tered by exposure to the atmo* 
sphere more rapidly than those of galls, a considerable 
portion of the substance that hod been dissolved being 
gradually depouted. This deposition goes on so rapidly, 
as tq exhibit an appearance something similar to the 
saline vegetation of certain salts, the catechu creeping up 
along the sides of the glass to some distance above the 
surface of the fluids I was not able to detect any dif- 
ference between the part of the catechu which is retained 
ip solution, and that which is deposited, except that the last 
was of a lighter colour, and was less soluble in water ; they 
both prQduc^ precipitates with jelly and the muriate of 
It* predpiute ^^* ^^^ precipitate which the catechu forms with jelly, 
like that of tr- lil^e that produced by the artificial tan, does not in general 
fprm a compact or solid mass, but makes the fluid turbid 
srithout entirely subsiding from it, nor is it rendered trans- 
parent by being passed through 4 filter. This circua|stance» 
as well as its imperfect solubility, render^ catechu ipappli- 
cable as ^ test fpr j<^lly* 
Extract of rha- The next substance that I tried was the extract of rha- 
^*^f' tany, a preparation said to be brought from the Portuguese 

settledients in South America ; and, in consequence of its 
tonic quality, lately proposed as an addition to the materia 
medica. It contains a large proportion of tan ; from the 
experiments that I have made upon it, larger than any 
other astringent extract with which we are acquainted ; it 
appears to be more homogeneous in its consistence, it is 
completely soluble in water, and seems to remove jelly 
from its solution more readily than the other substances 
which I bad tried. These properties pointed it out as the 
mobt nearly approaching to whut I was in search of. 

Frcparttioa of Before giving an account of the result of the union of tan 

l)ie jelly. and jelly, it will be necessary to make some remarks upqn 

the preparations of this latter substance. It has been stated 

upon the highest authority, that of Mr« Hatchett and Mr. 

Pavy, 



gart 

^; 

■to < 



OV THE UNIOS- OF TiN AXB JEtLY. J^ 

Davy*, that iaingluM ronaitts nearly of pure jelly. 1 am Iilnglumr»> 
not disposed to question the geiierel fact ; but I moy men- ■'''* '''^' j 
tion, ag the result of my own experietice, thut this \i not al- iu |eiuinfl, 
ways the case ; and that, even in a majority of uiBtancei, 
the iiiiiigtssii that is procured from the fhops will be found 
to contain a coniti Icrable proportion of insoluble mutter, 
which 1 conceive t« be of the nature of <:oagulated albumen. 
The proportion of the matter soluble in wnter, which I re- 
gard as pure Jelly, and of the insoluble part, i* very various. 
instance, where the isinglass was boiled with twenty 
ts weight of water, the jelly that was formed, instead 
boldiug in solution 5 per cent of solid matter, was found 
contain not more than 3-B, and although the addition of 
more water carried oS aome of the substance which had been 
leflat the first boiling, still more than i^ of the isjn glairs was ^u, thi, „^ 
left, apparently incapable of farther soluliuu. This difli- be leimaud. 
culty is obvitited by boiling Uinglass in water, pouring ofF 
the Jelly, and evaporating it to drynesa ; by which means a 
rabijtance is procured, that is alwayi ready for experimeuta. 
flit as this operation is attended with some trouble, i wiuh 
itute for it a solution of glue, according to the pro- 
iplayed by Mr. fiiggiu. (jlue is entirely soluble in 
und therefore does not preient the objection that at- 
ichcs to isinglass, yet there are some circumstances, uhich 
an to render glue less eligible tor the purpose of esperi- 
•nts. From the mode in which glue is prepared it might cine conwini 
supposed, thut it woukl contain u quantity of albuminoua aibumco, 
itter ; and I was couhrmed in this opinion by finding, that 
solution of it has a precipitate formed in it by being boiled 
ith the oximuriate of mercuryf. The quantity of muriate muiUt* vf 

soda that exists in glue must be considered as an im- ^^^ 
lurity, which may have some effect upon the combinatioa 
jelly and tan. A more important circumstance, however, 
which appears to have been disregarded by those 
rho have employed glue as a test for tan is, that, as it is 
.Uy prepared, it contains a considerable proportion of 

• Hitchett,PhU.Tr»ni. 1800, Davy, Phil. Ttiai. 1803. 
f Tbis circumituicc had been noticed bj Dr. Tbomson, Cbeia. Vcl. 

r;7.*79. 

water. 



•ft 0« TBB raiON OF TIM AHD JELLT. 

•nd Bodi X ^^i^ter. By pennitting glue dinded into small pieces to re- 
^^M^* main in a heat of 'about 150"* for 24 hours, I found that it 

had lost lOf per ceut of its weight. And even although we 
might have the glue, in a state of complete dryness and 
''^ -^ purity, I should doubt whether it be a proper substance to 
Glue differs' employ on the present occasion. Although it possesses the 
TOnsidertbly properties which characterize jelly, yet a solution of glue 
will be found to differ from a solution of isinglass, while they 
both contiun the same proportion of solid matter. This 
difference is the most remarkable with respect to their 
power of concretion. A solution of glue, which I found by 
evaporation to contain ^V of its weight of solid matter, al- 
though strongly adhesive, remained quite fluid when cold, 
whereas a similar bolution of isinglass jelly would have been 
perfectly concrete. Glue also differs from isinglass in be- 
ing considerably more soluble in cold water. Glue broken 
into small pieces, and digested in ten times its weight of 
water, at the temperature of the atmosphere, was in 48 
hours entirely broken down, and so far dissolved, that the 
upper part of the fluid strongly precipitated the infusion of 
galls. Pieces of isinglass treated in the same manner were 
softened, and had their bulk increased, but the fluid was 
scarcely affected by tan. These circumstances led me to 
regard glue as different from isinglass jelly, and as possess- 
ing in an inferior degree the characteristic properties of 
jelly. 
Ezperiinenu From these different circumstances I determined to em- 
•olubirpaits P'oy ^^^ soluble parts of isinglass, and the extract of rhata- 
of Uinglassand ny, in my future experiments on the combination of tan and 
rhauny. J^^^Y- ^^^ before I enter upon a description of the results, 

that were obtained by the union of these substances, I think 
it necessary to point out the difficulty, which occurs in the 
prosecution of these experiments, particularly in the col- 
lecting of the precipitate. When the tan and jelly are not 
Difficulty of employed in a state of considerabK* concentnition, and when 
precipitate. t^^}' ^^^ "^* added together in that proportion, which seems 
to form the most perfect compouiul, the precipitate sepa- 
rates slowly from the fluid, or sonieti rat's remains perma- 
nently suspended; and when it is passed through u filter, it 
'^dheres to the paper so strongly, that it cannot be comr 

pletely 



OH THE tTNIOir OF TAN AND JfeLLT. O 

pletely removed from it. Nor could I obviate this objection 
by weighing the pa])er before and after the {laid bad pass* 
ed through it, and thus calculating the freight of the preci- 
pitate, t found that in this case the paper acquired weight, 
not only from the precipitated matter, but likewise from 
what was still retained in solution. When an infusion of 
rhatany in the proportion of 1 to 10 was passed through a 
paper filter, the filter when dried was found to have acquir- 
ed an addition of not less than -^^^ of its former weight. A 
solution of jelly of the same strength passed with difiicolty 
through the paper, uind a large part was detained by it. 
Hence it follows, that^ except in those cases where the fluids 
neutralize each other, so as to precipitate all their contents, 
we cannot ascertain the amount of the precipitate from the 
weight gained by the filter. What has been said will be 
sufficient to (how, that perfect accuracy cannot be attained 
in these procebses, even were the compound of tan and jelly 
in all cases a uniform substance. 

I was soon however ccrnvinced, that the substance formed The preclpi* 
by the union of tan and jelly varies considerably according J*tf "°* ""** 
to the circumstances under which it is formed, particularly 
according to the proportion in which the two ingredients are 
presented to each other. Without entering into a detail of 
tlie numerous trials, that I made upon this subject, I 
Iball think it sufficient to give an account of one expe- 
riment, that may serve as a specimen of the rest. I must 
here remark, that, although my experiments agreed suffi- 
ciently to satisfy me respecting the nature of the conclusions 
that were to be deduced from them, yet I never performed 
two, in which the results exactly coincided. 

Three equal portions of the extract of rhatany were dis- Experiment 
solved in ten times their weight of water; and three por- 
tions of jelly from ibinglass w(ere procured, beaiing re8|>ec- 
tively the proportions of 8, 4, and 2 to the three portions of 
rhatany. These were also dissolved in equal quantities of 
water, kept soluble by heat, and added to the three portions 
of rhatany. Copious precipitates were produced in all of 
them, uud after standing for some time, the supernatant 
fluids became clear. T it precipitates were collectwj and 
dried by exposure to the same degree of heat. All the resi- 
dual 



JQ Oir TBB UNION OF TAN AND JSLLT* 

dual fluids precipitated jelly, proving that they contained a 
quantity of uncombioed tan i but the precipitation was pf 
course much less copious in the one which bad received the 
smallest quantity of jelly. The weights of the precipitates 
were to each other m the ratio of 16, 9*5» and 7. As in ail 
the cases the whole of the jelly had entered into combina* 
tion, the proportion of the jelly to the tan might be esti- 
mated, la the first experiment, i. e. where 8 parts of jelly 
and 10 of tan were employed, the jelly and tan in the com* 
pound were nearly equal ; where 4 parts of jelly had been 
added to 10 of the rhataoy, the proportion in the compound 
was as 42 to 58 ; and where only 2 parts of jelly had been 
employed, the compound consisted of 28*5 parts of jelly to 
71*5 of rhatany. From these experiments we learn, that in 
proportion as the tan exists in excess more of it becomes 
Wtoi the tin united to the jelly ; so that if we were to attempt to esti^ 
nore^nhffl °"^^® *^^ amount of the jelly in any fluid by the weight of 
with the jellf. the compound which it forms with tan, we ihould much 
^ overrate the quantity of the jelly. Having found, that, 

where the solutions are employed in a state of considerable 
concentration, a compound is formed consisting of nearly 
equal weights of the two ingredients, we might conclude, 
that the quantity of jelly in the third experiment was in the 
proportion of 3*5, while in fact it was no more than as 2. 
Differences of The physical properties of the precipitates were consider^^ 
the precipi- ably different, so as to indicate a difference in their chemical 
composition. The first precipitate, which was composed of 
nearly equal parts of the two ingredients, was of a dark red 
colour, of a hard and brittle consistence, and presented a 
shining fracture. The second was also hard, but rather 
tough, and it had a brown hue ; the third, containing the 
smallest quantity of jelly, was of a bright reddish brown, 
and could be pulverized between the fingers. In order to 
establish more clearly the difference between these precipi- 
tates, they were subjected to the action of such reagents as 
might have the power of removing from them the excess of 
tan, and leave the compound in its most perfect state. This 
seemed to be effected by boiling the third precipitate in a 
large quantity of water, in consequence of which process the 
flaid was found to have acquired the property of copiously 

precipitating 



oil THS OJIIOH OF TAN AKO JKLI^T. ] 1 

> 

precipttatiDg jelly. The water exhibited a reddiih tinge« 
and was also tUgbtly affected by the addition of jroD, show- 
ingf tiiat it contained a minute portion of gallic acid ; no 
tfftd wasy however, produced on it by the muriate of tin. 
The boiled precipitate now approached in its appearance to 
the one which was ^composed of equal parts of tan and jelly ; -- 

it was of a deeper colour and harder connstence. 't'he first 
of these three precipitates was boiled in the same manner 
that this third had been, but the water was not in the least 
degrae affected by jelly* It may appear singular, that any 
part of a substance, which had been precipitated from 
water, should be dissolved by it, but it probably depends 
upon the action of the greater mass of the fluid ; and the 
fact is confirmed by Mr. Davy's remark, that the stronger 
the solutions are upon which we operate, the more complete- 
ly will their solid contents be separated from them* 

From the foregoing observations and experiments we may Accorsta mm 
infer, that the method of detecting the quantity of jelly in »«lts«iot to be 
any fluid, by the precipitate which it forms with tan, cannot ijijg 



be employed with any prospect of obtaining accurate re« 
suits ; nor can jelly be depended upon for the purpose of 
obtaining the amount of the tan in any astringent vegeta- 
ble infusion. In the animal analysis this deficiency will 
probably be found of little importance ; for, notwithstand- 
ing the proportion of jelly which enters into our solids, afed 
which may be readily extracted from them by water, I am Nojcllyintfia 
inclined to believe, that nothing, which is properly entitled snimsl fluids, 
to the name of jelly, will be found to exist in any of our 
fluids. When I first began these investigations I was in- 
duced to form a contrary opinion, and a contrary doctrine is 
maintained in our most valuable systematic works. I have, 
however, endeavoured to prove, that jelly is not found in - 
the blood, where it has been supposed to exist in the largest 
quantity*; 1 do not find any trace of it in the albumen ovi, 
in the saliva, in the fluid of the hydrocephalus, of spina bi- 
fida, or of ascites, nor in the liquor amnii. By far the 
largest proportloa of animal matter in all these fluids is al- buttlbumea, 
bumen, existing sometimes in its coagulated, and sometimes 

* MedlcQ-cbirursical Trans. V. I, p. 47. 

in 



12 

tud mucus? 



MceifPOSITION OP BORACIC ACID. 

10 itt uncoagnlated state. There appeart, howerer, to be 
some animal substance beside the albumen, at least in the 
greatest part of them, to which 1 have hitherto assigned the 
name of mucus, but whether properly or not, must be the 

a 

subject of future consideration. 

I am. Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 
Lherpool, Aug. 3, 1809. J. BOSTOCK. 



Bonetc add 
decomposed. 



II. 

ne Bakerian Lecture. An Account of some new analytical 
Researches on the Nature of certain Bodies, Sfc, By 
HuMPBRT Davy, Esq. Sec. IL S. F.R. S. Ed. and M. 
JR. /. A. 

f Continued from tol. XXIIIy p. 334. J 

6L Experimeuis on the Decomposition and Composition of 

the Boracic Acid. 

AN the last Bakerian Lecture* I have given an account of 
an experiment, in which boracic acfd appeared to be de« 
composed by Voltaic electricity, a dark coloured inflamma- ' 
ble substance separating from it on the negative surface. 
Auempt to ef- I" *^® course of the spring and summer, I made many 
feet this in attempts to collect quantities of this substance for minute 
examination. When boracic acid, moistened with water, 
was exposed between two surfaces of platina, acted on by 
the full power of the battery of five hundred, an olive- 
brown matter immediately began to form on the negative 
surface, which gradually increased in thickness, and at last 
appeared almost black. It was permanent in water, but 
soluble with effervescence in warm nitrous acid. When 
heated to redness upon the platina it burnt slowly, and gave 
off white fumes, which slightly reddened moistened litmus 
paper; and it lefl a black mass, which, when examined by 



• PhU. Tnns. for 1808, p. 485 or Journal, vol. XX, p. 031. 



the 



BEC0MP08ITI0N t)P BftEACIC IjCMD. . |3 

the magnifier, appeared vitreous at the surface, aod evidendtly 
contained a fixed acid. 

These circomBtances seemed distinctly to shoir the de- The combuttip 
compositioQ and recomposition of the IxMracic acid; but as obtianod*^lT 
the peculiar combustible substance was a nonconductor of in thia filas« 
electricity » I was never able to obtain it, except in very thin 
films upon the platina. It was not pofisible to examine its 
properties minutely , or to determine its precise natare, or 
whether it was the pure boracic basis ; I consequently ea* 
deavoured to apply other methods of decomposition, and to 
find other more unequivocal evidences upon thia important 
chemical subject. 

I have already laid before the Society an account of aa 
experiment*, in which boracic acid, heated in contact with 
potassium in a gold tube, was converted into borate of po« ' 

tash, at the same time that a dark coloured matter, similar 
to that produced from the acid by electricity, was formed. 
About two months after this experiment had been made, 
namely, in the beginning of August, at a time that I was 
repeating the process, and examining minutely the resultt, 
I wai informed, by a letter from Mr. Oadell at Paris, that 
Mr. Thenard was employed in the decomposition of that bo« Borade tcid 
racic acid by potassium, and that he had heated the tw/> decompoicd 
substances together in a copper tube, and had obtained bo- ^7 *^«**«^ 
rate of potash, and a peculiar matter concerning the nature 
of which no details were given in the communicationf. 

That the same results must be obtained by the same me^ 
thods of operating, there could be no doubt. The eviden- 
ces for the decomposition of the boracic acid are easily 
gained ; the synthetical proofs of its nature involve more 
complicated circumstances* 

I found, that, when equal weights of potassium and bo- Potmsiium and 
racic acid were heated together in a green glass tube, which ^o«^c acid 
had been exhausted after having been twice filled with hi* nier. ^T* 
dmgen, there was a most intense ignition before the tempe- 
rature was nearly raised to the red heat ; the potassium en- 
tered into vivid inflammation, where it was in contact with 

• Phil. Trans. Part II, 1808, p. SiS; or Journal, voL XXI, p. 375. 

t Gaj Lwasc laad Thsimd'».j^p«c m givaa fai oar ]ait v^ltua^ ^, £60. 

th« 



]^ WUMltO%inOW OP BOEACIC ACID*. 

Ae boracic acid. When this acid had been heated to white- 
nessy before it was introduced into the tube, and powdered 
and made use of while yet warm, the quantity of gas given 
out in the operation did not exceed twice the volume of the 
acid, and was hidrogeii. 
Luge quMti- I could only use twelve or fourteen grains of eacb of the 
kTm^*^ ^ *^^ substances in this mode of conducting the experiment ; 
for when larger quantities were employed, the glass tube al- 
ways ran into fusion from the intensity of the heat produced 
during the action* 
Sfitetof nipli- When the film of naphtha had not been carefully remof- 
^^ ed from the potassium, the mass appeared black through- 

out; but when this had been the case, the colour was af a 
dark olive-brown. 
1*iroper proper- Iq several experiments, in which I used equal parts of the 
uoa t ctwo. ^^^ ^^^ metal, 1 found that there was always a great quan- 
tity of the former in the residuum, and by various trials, I 
ascertained that twenty grains of the potassium had thar 
inflammability entirely destroyed by about eight grains of 
boracic acid. 
Apptittas. For coHecting considerable portions of the matters form« 

•d in the process, I used metallic tubes furnished with stop- 
cocks, and exhausted after being filled with hidrogen. 

When tubes of brass or copper were employed, the hest 
was only raised to a dull red ; but when iron tubes were 
used, it was pushed to whiteness. In all cases the acid was 
decomposed, and the products were scarcely different. 
Xasulti in s When the result was taken out of a tube of brass or cop- 

^•PP*' ***•• per, it appeared as an olive coloured glass, having opaqucy 
dull olive-brown specks difiiised through it. 

It gave a very slight etfervescence with water, and parti* 

ally dissolved in hot water, a dark olive coloured powder se« 

parating from it. 

In tH iron tube. The results from the iron tube, which had been mttdi 

more strongly heated, were dark olive in soitie parts, and sA- 

' most black in others. They did not effervesce with warm 

water, but were rapidly acted upon by it, and the particles 

separated by washing were of a shade of olive, 00 dark aa to 

appear almost black on white paper. 

"^MafiMM. «f||e solutions obtained, when paased through t filter, hdl 

a faint 



D&comPositiok of boracic Acin. 15 

ft faint olive tint, and contained suliborate of potaali, and 
potash. In cases when instead of water a weak solution of 
muriatic acid h.'is used for separating the suline matter from 
the inflanimable matter, the fluid came through the filter 
colourless. 

In deacribin); the properties of the new inflammable sub. Largest qmn- 
•tancc separated by washing, I shall speak of that collected [J,""^'J^^ 
from operations conducted in tubes of brasa, in the manner 
that hns been just mentioned ; for it is in this way, that I 
have collected the largest quantities. 

It appears as a pulverulent muss of the darkest shades tii propactici. 
of olive. It is perfectly opaque. It is very friable, and its 
powder does not scratch glass. It is a nonconductor of elec- 
tricity. 

When it has been dried only at 100* or 130°, it gives off Mated in air. 
moisture by increase of temperature ; and, if heated in the 
atmosphere, takes fire at a temperature bel«w the boiling 
]mint of olive oil, and burns with a red light and scintillu- 
tion* like charcoal. 

If it be excluded from air and heated to whiteness in a H»ted la n- 
tube or platina, exhausted after having been filled with hi- '^'"'■ 
drogeu, it is found very little altered after the process. Its 
Colour is a little darker, and it is rather denser ; but no in- 
' dications are given of any part of it having undergone fu- 
■on, volatilization, or decomposition. Before the process 
ita specific gravity is such, that it does not sink in snlphuric 
acid; but after, it rapidly falls to the bottom in this fluid. 

The phenomena of its combustion are best witnessed in a 1 ti sombuiiiaa 
letort filled with oxigeu gas. When the bottom of the re- '""'£«'' B". 
toti, is gently heated by a spirit lamp, it throws off most 
firid tcintiUations like those from the combustion of the 
bark of charcoal, and the mass bums with a brilliant light. 
A sublimate rises from it, which is boracic acid ; and it be- 
tomes coated with a vitreous substance, which proves like- 
wiK to be boracic acid ; and after this has been wasbed| off, 
tha retiduum appears perfectly black, and requires a higher 
temperature for its inflammation than the olive coloured 
svbstaace ; and by its inflammation produces afresh portion 
of boracic acid. 

Id oxiuuriatic acid gas the peculiar inflamm^le mib- ,^4 [„ endin*- 
stance 'i'^tic avid gis. 



25 DECOMPOSITION OF BOBACIC ACIO* 

stance occasions some beautiful pbenomeDa. When thia 
gas is brought into contact with it at common temperatures, 
it instantly takes Gre, and burns with a brilliant white light; 
a wi;ite substance coats the interior of the vessel in which 
the experiment is made, and the peculiar substance is found 
co\'iTed by a white iilm, which by washiug affords boracic 
acid, and leaves a black matter, which is not spontaneously 
inflaiumabLe in a fresh portion of the gas; but which in- 
flames in it by a gentle heat, and produces boracic acid. 
Heated in hi- The peculiar inflammable substance, when heated nearly 
d^Mi or nv ^^ redness in hidrogeo, or nitrogen, didaiot seem to dissolve 
in these gasses, or to act upon t^em ; it merely gained a 
darker shiide of colour, and a little moisture rose from it, 
which condensed in the neck of the retort in which the cx« 
periment was made. 
Its iction on On the fluid menstrua containing oxigen it produced ef« 

fluids contain- fects, which might be looked for from the phenomena of it» 
ing oxigen : " 

agency on gasses. 

nitric tcid. When thrown into concentrated nitric acid, it rendered it 

bright red, so that nitrous gas was produced and absorbed ; 
but it did not dissolve rapidly, till the acid was heated ; 
when there was a considerable eifervescence, the peculiar 
substance disappeared, nitrous gas was evolved, and the fluid 
afforded boracic acid. 

fttlphuricacid, Xt did not act upon concentrated sulphuric acid, till heat 
was applied; it then produced a slight effervescence; the 
acid became black at its points of contact with the sohd; 
and a deep brown solution was formed, which, when nentra- 
lised by potash, gave a black precipitate. 

nariaticadd. When heated in a strong solution of muriatic acid, it gave 
it a ficiint tint of green ; but there was oo vividness of actkHi^ 
or considerable solution. 

& acetic acid. On acetic acid heated it had no perceptible action. 

It combined It combined with the fixed alkalis, both by fusion and 

With fixed al- aqueous solution, and formed pale olive coloured com* 
pounds, which gave dark precipitates when decomposed by- 
muriatic acid. 

Ic« action on When it was kept long in contact with sulphnr in fusion,' 

sulphur, it slowly dissolved, and the sulphur acquired an olive tint.' 

jpl^oMinnu, I^ ^'f^ *^ 1^** acted upon by phosphorusj and after an 

bour*8 



r 



nacoUpdsiTiOK ov vokacic acio, i^ 

hour*B exposure to it( had scarcely iliuiiiiiRhed in quantUyi 
but the phosphorus had gtiinc-d a tint of pale green. 

It did Dot cDsbine with mercury, when the_v were heated and mncurr, 
together. 

These cin;un)4tancet are suflicient to hhow, that the com- Diff 'i-< fmia 
buctihle substance obtained Trom bonitic ueid by the ngency ""^' *"'"" 
of imtawiuin is different from any other known species of 
moiter; and it seeiDB, at fur as the evidence extends, to be 
the same as that procured from it by electricity; ynd the 
two teriesof fticts seem Fully to estabhsh the decomposi- 
tion, and recouiposition of the acid. 

From the large ((iinntity of potassium required todecou)- Bonric acid 
poK a •mall quantity of the ncid, it h eviileut that the bo- cuiudiiti muck 
ncic acid must contain a conciderable propoilion ot ONt^n. '' 
1 have endeiivoured to determine the relative weisshis of the 
peculiar inRainmiible luutier and uxi^n, which compose a 
gi?eu weight ol' boi-acic acid ; tind to this eud [ tnade several 
analytical and synthetical experiments ; I shall give the re- 
nulls of the two, which 1 considei' as most accurate- 
Twenty grains of boracic acid and thirty griunsof potas- ApparenitT lii 
sium, were made to act upon each other by heat in aiubeof ""'■' '"'■"""' 
brass; the result did not effervesce when washed with dilu- bite: 
ted muriatic acid; and there nere obtained after the pro- 
cess, by slight Uxiviution in warm water, two gniitis and 
aWut six sixteenths of the olive coloured mutter. Now 
thirty grains of potat^slum would require about five grains 
of oxi^en, to form thirty-five of potash ; and according to 
this estimation, boracic acid must consist of about one of 
Uie peculiar infiammable substance, to nearly two of oxi- 
gen. 

A grain of the ioflammabie substance in very fine pow- 'n laatbtt 
der, and diffused over a large surface, was set fire to in 
a retort, containing twelve lubical Indies of oxigen; three 
cubical inches of gas were absorbed, and the black resi- 
dautn, collected after the boracic acid had beeu dissolved, 
was found to equal tivc eighths of a grain. This, by a se- 
cond combuatioii, was almost entirely convertfd into boracic 
acid, with the absorption of two cubictil iuches and ona 
eighth more of oxi^eii. The thermometer in this expen* 
uteiit was at 58° Fahrenheit, and the barometer at 30-2. 
Vol.. XXIV SsPT. 1S09. C A«TOi^ 



^g SECOMPOSlflOn ^f HORACTC AClH. 

1-8 oxigen f» According to this result, bomcic add wonld consist of one 
O^de wiih ®^ *^* inflammable matter to aboyt 1*8 of oxigen; and the 
S^-SpetTfiit dark residual substance, suppof^ing it to be simply the in« 
of oxigen. flammable matter combined with less oxigen than is suffi- 
cient to constitilte boracic acid, would be an oxide, consist- 
ing of about 4'7 of inflainmable matter to 1-55 of oxigen. 
Sources of er- These estimations, 1 do not however venture to give as en- 

rour both in ^j^eiy correct. In the analytical experiments, there are pro- 
the analysis ci / *»,,. « /.i 

synthses. bably sources of errour, from the solution of a part of the 

inflammable matter; and it possibly may retaifn alkali, which 
cannot be separated by the acid. In the synthetical pro* 
cess, in' which washing is employed, and so small a quantity 
of matter used, the results are still less to be depended ap« 
on; they must be considered only as imperfect appmtxima- 
tious. 
Is tbebtse of From the general tenour of the facts it ap|^«earB, that the 
boracic acid combustible matter obtained from boracic acid bears the 
'""P^^JV,^*^*"' same relation to that substance, as sulphur and phoepborus 
do to the sulphuric and pliosphoric acids. But is it an ele*' 
mentary inflammable body, the pure basis of the acid ? or 
is it not, like sulphur and phosphorus, compounded ? 

Th d k t*vc Without entering into any discussion concerning ultimate 
substance mo«t elementary matter, there are many circumstances, which ft- 
probably a ^^^^ the idea, that the dark olive substance is not a simple 
body ; its being nonconducting, its change of colour by be* 
Ing heated in hydrogen gas, and its power of combining 
with the alkalis ; for these properties in general belong to 
primary compounds, that are k»iown to contain oxigen. 
Heated with ^ heated the olive coloured substance with potastsium, 
potassium. there was a combination, but without any luminous appear- 
' * ance, and a gray metallic mass was formed ; but from the 
eflect of this upon water I could notaflirm, that any o'xig^ 
had been added to the metal, the gas ^i\'en off had a pecu- 
liar smtll, and took up more oxigen by detonation than 
pure hidrogen, from which it seems probable, that it held 
• some of the combustible matter in solution. 
Exposed to the ^^ occured to me, that, if the pure inflammable basis were 
action of po« capable of being deoxigenated by potassium, it would pro* 
twHum m . |^b]y possess a stronger affinity for oxigen than hidrogeo, 
and therefore be again brought to its former state by water. 

.'.^ I made 



• • .« *• <• »# I 



• OlCOIiyDsnpfDir of MtLAtlC AClft/ tSf' 

}*iimde mother experiment <m tbe operation of potassitini 
en the olive coloured substance, and exposed the mixture to 
a small quantity of ether, hoping that this might contain 
only water enough to oxigenate the potassium; but the 
same result occurred as in the last case ; and a combinatidn 
of potash and the olive coloured substance was produced^ 
insoluble in ether* 

I corered a small globule of potassium with f<>ur or five iavatuo, 
times its weight of the olive coloured matter, tn a platina 
tube exhausted, after being filled with hidrogen; and heated 
the mixture to whiteness : no gas was evolved. When the 
tube was cooled, naphtha was poured into it, and the' result 
examined under naphtha. Its colour was of a dense black. 
It had a lustre scarcely inferior to that of plumbago. It 
was a conductor of electricity. A portion of it thrown into 
water occasioned a slight effervescence ; and the solid mat- 
ter, separated, appeared dark olive, and the water became 
slightly alkaline. Another portion examined, after being 
exposed to air for a few minutes, had lost its conducting 
power, was brown on the surface, and no longer prod need 
an effervescence in water. 

Some of the olive Inflammable matter, with a little potas- *^^^*? '^"If** 

witn iron fii* 
sium, was heated to whiteness, covered with iron 6 lings, a fogs. 

dark metalline mass was formed, which conducted electri- 
city, and which produced a very slight effervescence in wa- 
ter, and gave by solution in nitric aeid, oxide of iron and 
boracicacid. < 

The substance which enters into alloy with potassium, and T™* ^^ ^^ ' 

. the acki. 

with iron, I am inclined to consider as the true basis of the 

boracic agid. . , 

In the olive coloured matter this basis seems to exist in Olive cdoufod 
tinion with a little oxigen ; and when the olive coloured ""^■'* 
substance is dried at common temperatures, it likewise con- 
tains water. 

In the black nonconducting matter, produced in the com- Black matter. 
bustion of the olive coloured substance, the basis is evi- 
dently combined with much more oxigen ; and in its full 
state of oxigenation it constitutes boracic acid. ^ \ 

From the colour of the oxides, and their solubility in alka- 'Hie bonne 
lis, from their general powers of combination, and from the meulUc ^ 

C « conducting 



^ ivQiTiEiBi uincTUfo fiuomie Actn* 

eoMlactiBf nature and lurtre of the matter produced b]f tte 
action of a sinaU quantity of potasaium upon the olive co* 
loured subetance, aod frora all analogy ; there is strong rea^ 
eon to consider the boracic 'baais as metaUic in its aatuse, 
and I venture to propose far it the name of barm£hiM» 

7. Andytienl Inquiries respecting Fhi&rie AcUU 

Tint experi- ^ ^^* already kid before the Society the account of my 
mtownn fluo* gfst experiments on the action of polassinm eo fluoric add 

I stated* that the metal boras when heated in this elastic 
fluid, and that there is a great absorption of the gas* 

Since the time that this communication was made» I have 
carried on various processes, with the view of ascertaining 
aecumtely the productifi of combustion, and 1 shall now de^ 
. scribe their results. 
Fluoric sctd When fluorte aeid gas, that has been procured in coatad 
gat introdaced ^|h glass, is introduced into a plate glass retort, ezbansted 
^ '**"' after b«ng filled with hidrogen gas, and containing poCas- 
Slum, white fumes are immediately perceiTed* The metal 
loses its splendour, and becomes covered with a grayish 
crust. 
and heated. When the boMom of the retort is gently heated, the 
fumes become more copious ; they continue fbr some time 
to be emitted, but at last cease altogether. ^ 
An addition of If the gas is examined at this time, its volume is found 
bidiofsatothe to be a little increased, by the addition of a small quantity 
•*^ of hidrogen. 

Sscond appll- ^® ^^^ fumes are produced by a second application of t 

catkm of heat, low heat; bat when the temperature is raised nearly to the 

t"** ^UedT" P®'"^ ®^ sublimation of potassium, the metal rises through 

the crust, becomes flrst* of a copper colour and then of a 

bluish black, and soon after inflames and burns with a moit 

brilliant red light. 

• Phil. Trans., Part II, I80S, p. 343; [Joomal vol. XXI, p. 375,} 
The combuttion of potassium in fluoric acid I hare since seen nentioiH 
ed in the number of the Monitenr, already so often quoted, as obaoT* 
ed by M. M. Gay Lussac and Thenard ; bat no notice If taken of the 
ycialts. [They are givoi la ear pMstnt nwabcr, p. 99.] 

After 






I INOtllKIES KESPECTINa FLDOniC ACID. gj 

After this combustion, either the nhole or a part of the Ptoduciofib* 
fluoric tcid, according as the quantity ol' potuasium U great ""° '""°"- 
or Btaall, ia found to be destroyed or absorbed. A maM of 
a chocolate colour remaiua at the bottom of the retort ; and 
a tubltmate, in some parts chocolute, and in others yellow, 
j* found round the sides, and at the top of the retort. 

When the residual gaa afforded by this operation is Re«iilu»l gts, 
washed with water, and expofted to the action of an electri- ' '"' "' 

ipark mixed with osii^en gas, it detonates and affords a 
dminution, such as might be expected from hi<lrot;en gas. 

The proportional quantity of this elastic fluid differi a |k propoitiod. 

"e in different operations. WTjen the fluoric acid has 
been artificially dried, il amounts to one dixth or one ee- 
veoth of the volume of the acid ^a used ; bul when the 
fluoric ucid has been long exposed to calcined sulphate of 
•odo, it seldom amounts to one tenth. 

I have endeavoured to collect large quantities of the cho- Atiempt (o 
colute coloured Kubitttincefar minute examiuation: but some cnllect lirgo 
diftculties occurred. Xe produce. 

frhen I used from eighteen to twenty grains of pota*- 
retort containing from twenty to thirty cubical 

:heB of fluoric octd gas, the intensity of the heut wdb such 
fuse the bottom of the retort, aud destroy the results, 
a »e«y thick plate glass retort, containing ubout nine- succesrful 
rulncal inches of gas, I once succeeded in uiakiug aona- 
decisive expffiinent on ten grains and a half of potussium, 
Kud I found, that about fourteen cubical inches of fluoric 
acid disappeared, and about two and a quarter of hidrogea 
gas were evolved. The buroraetcr stood at 30-3. and the 
iher mo meter at 6L° Fahrenheit; the gas had nut been arti- 
tically dried. In this experiment there wait very little sub- 
UoiBte ; but the whole of the bottoui of the retort was co- 
vered- with a brown crust, and ntar the point ot contact Aith 
the bottom, the substance wus darker Lotoured, and ap- 
pruni hiiig ill )te tint to black. 

V\'hcn the product was examined by a magnilier, it evi- fn>ducu<ain> 
(lently appeared consiating of different kindu of mutter: a P""""" 
blackish substance, a white, apparently saline bubstunce, 
a Bubtlance haviag different ihades of biowii and fawn 




TUe 



J 



22 tKQUtRIES RC8PECTIKO FLUORIC ACID. 

A noncondac- Tlie m&ss did not concluct electricity, and noAe of ita 
'' parts could be separated, so as to examine as to this pro- 

perty. 
Actioo 00 wa- When a portion of it was throtf n into water, it eflfer- 
vesced violently, and the gas evolved had some resem- 
blance in smell to phosphuretted hidrogen, and was inflam- 
mable. 
Hsated in con^ When a part of the- mass was heated in contact with air, 
' it burnt slowly, lost its brown colour, and became a white 
saline mass, 
and in oxigea. When heated in oxigen gas in a retort of plate glftss, it 
absorbed a portion of oxigeh, but burnt with difficolty, and « 
required to be heated nearly to retlness ; and the light gi« ' 
vcn out was similar to that produced by the combustion of 
liver of sulphur. 
Znminatioa rpj^g water which had acted upon a portion of it was exa- 
/ mined; a number of chocolate coloured particles floated in 
it. When the solid matter was separated by the filter, the 
fluid was found to contain fluate of potash, and potasll, 
tnd of the re. The solid residuum was heated in a small glass retort in oxi- 
tiduuiB. g^n gas; it burnt before it had attained a red heat, and be-» 

dame white. In this process oxigen was absorbed, and acid 
matter produced. The remainder possessed the properties 
of the substance formed from fluoric acid gas holding sili- 
ceous earth in solution, by the action of water. 
Experiments In experiments made upon the combustion of quantities 
SueTnoi^'de^ ^^ potassium equal to from six to eleven grains, the portion 
cisive asiothe df matter separable from the water has amounted to a very 
pure basis. gma]! part of a grain only ; and operating upon so minute a 
scale, I have not been able to ^in fully dc-cided evidence, 
that the inflammable part of it is the pure basis of thefluo* 
ric Ticid ; but with respect to the decomposition of this body 
bv potassium, and the existence of its basis at least rorabin- 
cd with a smaller proportion of oxij;en in the solid product 
generated, and the regeneration of the acid by the ii^nition 
of the product in oxigcn gas, it is scarcely |»ssib1e to en- 
tortnin a doubt. 
Decomposition The decomposition of the fluoric acid by potassium setiBS 

of the fluoric j^,r,jj|„<rons to that of tho acids of sulphur and phosphorus, 
acid aniiojifnis ^ ^ . . 

\o that of ihtf III neither of these cases is the pure basis, or even the basjs 

in 



f IN^IRIEB KBBPICTINa VLVOHIC ACID* St% 

in its common form, evolved ; but new compounds result, and »^ph»rtc and 
iu one case salphurets, and sulphites, and in the other phos* pooip . 
phurets, and phosphites of potash, are generated. 

As silex was always obtained during thecombustionof the Silex always 
chocolate coloured substance obtained by lixiviation, it oc- o*****"^**** i^' 
curred to me, that this matter might be a result of the ope- of tht oprr»« 
ration, and that the chocolate substance might be a com* tioa. 
pound of the siliceous and fluoric basis in a low state of oxi- 
genation with potash; and this idea is favoured by some 
trials that I made to separate silex from the mass, by boiling 
it in concentrated fluoric acid; the substance did not seem 
^ be much altered by the process, and still gave silex by 
combustion. 

I eudeavoured to decompose fluoric acid gas in a perfectly- Fluotic acid 
dry state, and which contained no siliceous earth ; and for decomposed bf 
this purpose I made a mixture of one huudredgraiusof dry * 

boracic acid, and two hundred grains of flu or spar, and -^ 

placed them in the bottom of an iron tube, having a stop- 
cock and a tube of safety attached to it. 

The tube was inserted horizontally in a forge, and twenty and made to 

grains of potassium, in a proper iron tray, introduced into ■** **" potassU 
• . . * . 1 1^ f 1 «. 1 um as it was 

that part of it where the beat was only sunereu to nse to genecmttd* 

dull redness. The bottom of the tut>e was heated to whiter 

ness, and the acid acted upon by the heated potassium, as it 

was generated. After the process was finished, the result in 

the tray was examined. 

It was in some parts black, and in others of a dark brown, product. 
It did not eflervesce with wa;er: and when lixiviated, af- 
forded a dark brown combustible mass, which did not con- 
duct electricity, and which, when burnt iu oxigeu gas, af- 
forded boracic and fluoric acid. It dissolved with violent 
efiervescence in nitric acid; but did not inflame spontane- 
ously in oximuriatic acid gas. 

I havi; not as yet examined any of the other properties of a comfioond 
this substance; but lam inclined to consider it as a com- "'^^*'® ^**r**^^^ 
pound of the olive coloured oxide of boracium,and an oxide oxides, 
of the fluoric basis. 

In examining the dry fluoric acid ^as, procured in a pro- Th«dry ^% ' 
cess similar to that which has been just described, it j'ave *^" '**.'!* ****** 
very evident marks of the presence of borucic acid. 

As 



f4 DicoiiFotmoii OP busacic icim 

Attempt to ob- As the chocolate coloured substance is permanent ib ^a* 
colatecolourdi ^^* ^^ occurred to me, that it might possibly be producible 
subftsnce from concentrated liquid flnoric acid at tb^i negative surface 

in the Voltaic circuit* 

frsm the teid I made the experiment with platina snrfacest from a bat* 

act>e"lfl!d1^ tery of two hundred and fifty plates of six inches, oo fluoric 

the sulphurie aCid the densest that could be obtained by the distillation of 

•nlesden tes- Aqq^ spar and concentrated sulphuric acid of commerce io 

vessels of laad. Oxigen and hidrogen were evolved, and 9 

dark brown matter separated at the deoxidating surface ; but 

the result of an operation conducted for many hours merely 

enabled me to ascertain, that it was combustible, mid proi* 

duced acid matter in combustion; but I cannot venture to 

draw the conclusion, that this acid was fluoric acid, and it 

was not impobsible, that some St^lphurous or sulphuric acid 

might likewise exist in the solution. 

^lJ"[*coIowed . 1 heated the olive coloured inflammable substance, ob« 

>oracic acid tained from the boracic acid, in common fluoric wid gas \^ 

l^ted iufluo- a plate glass retort ; the temperature was raised till the glaw 

''^ ^^ began to fuse ; but no change, indicating a dtcompoaition, 

took place. 
Fotauiam and I heated six grains of potassium with four grains of pow^i 

heated'^hi* ^^'^ ^^^^ ^P^' ^^ ^ green glass tube filled with hidrogen; 

drogea. there was a slight ignition, a minute quantity of hidrogen 

gas was evolved, and a dark gray mass was produced^ whicl| 
ncted upon water with much etfervescence* but left no solid 
inflammable residuum^ 

fTo be concluded in ovr next. J 



, ^ ^ '-- r- , '- ... -r 



III. 

Remarks on the Boracic Acidf addressed to the first Gast rf 
the Instisute^ December the 19M, I8O9 bi/ F. R. Cuaiil? 
]> AU , Professor of phemistry applicable to the Arts, and 
Member qf several Htprary Spcieties\ 

Jf bornde acid J[ HE process, by which Messrs. Then^rdand Gay-Lussac 
Jbf potJf ium ^^^® announced, that they decomposed the boracic acid, 

'* • Jottraal de Physiquci Marcb^ 1809, p. C56. 

though 



DECOMPOSITION OF BORACIC ACID. f^g 

though the same as they made knowu the 21$t of June lost, 
baa acquired a fresh interest) from the explanation they have 
given of the phenomena, that take place duriui^ the experi- 
ment*, lo fact, if, aj^reeably to these chemists, boracic 
acid be decomposed by the alkaline metals, and lose its acid 
properties by the subtraction of the oxigen, which is admit- • 

ted to enter into its composition, this conclusion roust be thisisanoodda 
formed, that potash is an oxigenized substance ; and that the and nor acom- 
alkaline metals are not, as I think I have proved, a com- pownU of po- 
pound of alkali with hidrogen and carbon, or, if you please, and curboa: 
with hidrogen solely. We must equally infer, that the bi-and sUezisaa 

lex, with which I hare shown the alkaline metals may rea- oxigcman^ 
1'iti ■■•■•I* I* substance. 

Oily be decomposedff is likewise an oxigenizuig substance, 

which, instead of being the instrument of a decompobition» 
ia decomposed itself. These points at least follow from the 
explanation they have given of the decomposition of the bo- 
racic acid. In this point of view however my experiment of 
the decomposition of the alkaline metals by means of silex 
is interesting, since it would prove this substance to be an 
oxide. 

However, as in admitting such an hypothesis we cannot xhis bypothaf 
explain all the phenomena observed during the decomposi- ^i^^does not 
tion of the boracic acid by means of the alkaline metal h, I piJ^QnJe!^ 
/conceived it would not be amiss to make some fresh experi- 
ments oa this subject ; in order to ascertain on the one hand, . 
whether it were true, that the boracic acid is an oxigenized 
substance; and to discover on the other, if possible, what 
became of the hidrogen and carbon of the alkaline metal, 
which disappear in this experiment, without I'hcnard and 
Gay Lasaac having told us any thing of what they conjec- 
ture in this respect. The result of my labours I now sub- 
mit to the examination of the class, hoping, that it will per- 
ceive in my zeal no other motive, than that of paying a 
fresh tribute to science. 

Among the experiments I have attempted, the following 
particularly attracted my attention. 

As boracic acid readily decomposes the metal of potash, Boiacic acid 

• Sse Jouroal, vol. XXIII, p. 2G0. 

f See Art. VI of our present number. 

I thought 



f 5 DECOMPOSTTIOH OF BOKACJC ACTD. 

ihouM prerent I though!:, that, by adding this acid to a mixture capable of 
of p^tttfstum! producing the metal of potash, it would not only prerent its 
production, but likewise be converted into the new sub* 
stance obtained by decomposing the metal of potash by bo- 
racic acid. 
It does so. To prove how far this conjecture was well founded, I in- 

troduced into a gunbarrel the result of the detonation of six 
parts of vegetable charcoal, four of refined borax, and two 
of nitrate of potash. I afterward tried to extract the alka- 
line metal, but, as I had foreseen, no metal was disen- 
gaged. 
The prorlact When the matter was cold, 1 lixiviated it with a sufficient 
ux utert quantity of boiling water, in order to take up all the soluble 
substances it might contain. I afterward evaporated the 
solution till it was completely concentrated, and let it cool; 
does not yield Having obtained from the liquor only part of the borax i 
th^bli*'^**^ had employed; and the liquid itself, after having been 
slightly acidulated, yielding me but very little boracic acid; 
I concluded, that the surplus of this acid had remained 
combined with the charcoal, and must be in the state, in 
tairtofitsaetd ^^'^h Messrs. Thenard and Gay-Lussac found that, which 
Bavin; com- they had treated with the metal of potash. What seemed 
c^recMii. ***^^ ^^ support this opinion was, I observed the residuum irf 

the calcination was of a black bottle green. 
The insolublo To satisfy myself whether in fact the boracic acid wfre 

residuum contained in the insoluble residuum, I poured on the coal, 
ireaied with . 

nitiic acid, while still wet, a certain quantity of nitnc acid. I after- 
ward subjected the mixture to the action of a gentle heat 
A brisk effervescence soon took place, which I ascribed to 
the oxi^enation of the substance, that has been designated 
by the name of bore^f which resumed its former state, 
yielded there- When the acid ceased to act on the residuum, I lixivia- 
maining pro- ted the mixture. The liquors 1 obtained being afterward 
lacic aciJ. suitably evaporated, I obtained by cooling the remainder of 
the boracic acid, which was nearly the whole contained in the 
borax I had em[>loyed. 
This experi- This experiment, which I have repeated several times with 
mem «»ocs not the same success, thoupfh it has a great analogy' with that, 
lacic aciuio*^ *" which the alkaline metal is made to act immediately on 

♦ Journal, vol. XXIH, p. 2^. 

the 



[ 



BScoupoaiTioir of -boracic acid. 27 

joracic acid, is far from proving however, as bat been eonuiaoxi* 
rted, that this acid is an oxigenized body. In fact, if it*K^* 
S why, when treated alone wttli charcoal, does it not ex- 
mce the same decomfHtsition, as when it is combined 
an alkali ? How tuo can the alkali, which according to 
lypothesis is itself an oxide, promote the disoxigenation 
lother oxide? Should it not be on the contrary, from 
rery natore of my experiment, an obstacle so mach the 
:er to the decomposition of the boracic acid ; as all the 
( when combined with a base are less adapted for de- 
position ? This experiment rhen must afford sin instance 
a anomaly so mach the more striking, if it were to the 
sn that we must ascribe the action of the boracic acid 
le metal of potash. It would equally involve a mani- 
cootradiction, if we were to ndmit, that the new sub- . 
.*e, into which the boracic acid is transformed, is more 
»le than the acid was, before its state was changed, 
'e see then, that the experiment of the decomposition The ttibiiUiiM 
Mrate of soda by means of carbon is far from proving, ^^J'^^i^**^"*^ 
the oev«^ substance, which Messrs. Thenard and Gay<-^ radical, 
ac obtained from boracic acid, is the radical of that 

We see too, it proves still less, that oxigen is one of and the aJlcalii 
constituent principles of the alkalis, as the celebrated "^^ oxides, 
lish chemist, Davy, continues to believe. 

bus the experiments, from which I think I have demon- The new me- 
ed, that the alkaline metals are nothing but a compound *alscompooi»di 
le alkali with hidrogen and carbon, acquire fresh force; carbon *iuSaU 
BO that the facts, which would seem to be adverse to ^^I'* 
I, on the contrary confirm the deductions I have made 
L them. 

)r instance, does not the decomposition of the alkaline Their decom* 
lis by boracic acid, instead of proving, that the pheno- [*a*d'c*acid^ 
a observed during this experiment are to be ascribed to proves these. 
en, on the contrary show, that this principle acts no 
in it? and that it is rather a supracom position of the 
cic acid, than the loss of one of its principles, which oc- 
ms the new. properties it acquires? 

owever, if this supracom position of the boracic acid be Bore a supr^ 
ulmitted, how shall we explain why there is no hidro- compound, 
or next to none, disengaged during the decomposition 

of 



J3S DECOMPOflTIOH OF BO&ACIC ACI»; 

of the alkaline metals by this acid? How too happens it on 

the hypothesis of it disoxigenation^ that do water is produ- 

' ced ? Can we admit the disoxigenation of one substance* 

and the dishidrogenation of another at the same time, with- 
out producing water sufficient to be collected, and have its 
weight calculated ? Undoubtedly not. Thus, were this the 
only objection to the decomposition of boracic acid, it would 
auflice to prove, that the new state, in which this acid is ob- 
tained, is not owing to its disoxigenation. But as there are 
still many other objections, which the philosophy of the 
science suggests, we cannot do otherwise than consider the 
new substance, into which the boracic acid is converted, as a 
combination of this acid with the hidrugen and the carboo* 
that it has taken from the alkaline metal. 
Thissceounu According to this theory we find no difiiculy !in esplaiihp 

far the hidro- j„ ^l^ durinir the action of the boracic acid on the me* 
geB appearing o». /» o^ 

in no form, tal of potash, neither water nor hidrogen is disengaged; 
while on the hypothesis of the disoxigenation of this acid, 
we know not what becomes of the hidrogen, whid) the al- 
kaline metal must necessarily lose. 
j^,^ This explaaation, independently of its accounting for all 

' .. i. > «^ ^^ phenomena, ha« the farther advantage of leading to a 

t^ "f "' A more simple definition of an important point in chemistry, 

Z'' on which the opinion of chemists is not yet thoroughly 

M fixed. 

Phenomena of With respect to the phenomena exhibited by the combus* 
the conibus- tion of the substance, that produces the boracic acid, they 

lion of bore, ^ .1 .• <• 1 ■ • 1 1 i 

are owing to the oxigenation oi the hidrogen and carbonp 
which this acid had abstracted from the metal of potash; 
60 that by the subtraction of these two principles it be- 
comes boracic acid again, as by the same subtraction the 
alkaline metal had again become an alkali. 
H-.rlrcp^nnnrl ^^ ^^ consider too, that hidrogen and carbon, in their 
carbon mora State of combination with boracic acid, are leas oxigenixahle 

thari^inotas- *^*" *^^3^ vtete when combined with the alkali, every thing 
»iuci. leads us to believe, that this arises from the two principles 

having acquired a fresh degree of condensation at the in« 
'' stant of their union with the boracic acid: and what ap- 

pears to give some foundation to this conjecture is, that, st 
the moment when the combination takes place, the matter 

instantaneously 



^P DECOUPQSmOlt OF Pt.UOmC ACID. 

ImtsntaneouHly becomes incandescent, a ttate that xnnouiw 
c« ft (T*** emisiion of cnloric, and conBcqnently a sudden 
condensation of some principles, 

I shall n«t terminate this note, without imparting to the 
iiittitotcB fact, that appeara to ine very important, bnt 
from which I shfttl refrain from drawing any inference, tt 
il Ks follows, 

I have observed, that insereral experiments I made to de- Mf'^'^j'"*' . 
ooinpose borate of soda by means of charcoal, metallic g1o> in a mixiura 
bnles were produced, which nppenred to be formed in the ^^*'to^«' 
midst of the mixtnre: but as I found, that this metaUic ' 

|>Toduct waa of (he same nature as the Teasel in which I 
made my experiments, I intend to repeat them in a tube of 
platina, in order to ascertain, whether those of iron, which 
r employed, did not concur iu the formation of the metallic 
globules I obtained. 

However, this is not the only occasion, on which I have »"'' ■" '"^w 
found simitar globules. I hail before remarked them in""'' 

I the mixtures I bad made for the purpose of producing the 
•Italine metals with charcoal. 
.v.. 
Ahilract of a Paper an the Dfcomposition ourf Properties of 
the Fluorie Acid, presented the yth of January to the Ma- 
ihtmatieal Class of the Institute, hy Messn, Gay-Lossac 
tmd Thenard*. 

iyJLESSRS. Gay-Lussac and Tbenard, having decom- potass Id m »p- 
poeed the boracic acid by means of the metal of potashf. l'^'^'' '" "*" 
couid not but try the aame method of decompoi^ing the „f^iQ"^|'ic arid. 
fluoric and muriatic acids, the constituent priciciples of 
which were not yet known. This they have eflected icith 
mpect to the fluoric acid, and they now make public th« 
lipal results of their labours. 



^ 



Harinci 

■ .J. 

|~i1«ieni 



• Joonial de Physique, January l809, p. 95. For Mr, Dary'i exp«' 
on the (IcGompdiitioa of fiuoiic iciil, («c p. SO, of our present 
RDinber. 
t Sea Joorad, Vol. XXUt, p. «<0. 



so OBcoMPosmoir op pluoeic acid. 

AttMDpts to Our fint care, say they» w&i to obtain pure fluoric add ; 

flii^^'^cid* ^^ ** ^^^^ ^^^ existt only .combined with lime, and no one 
ha« yet been able to separate it, without its entering into 
combination with some other body, we were obliged to 
make a great number of trials, that procured to us the ad- 
vantage of observing several facts, the most remarkable of 
Gai procnrad which are the following. When air is placed in contact '* 
J^^^jJ^^'with the fluoric gas disengaged from a redhot iron tube 
neic acid pio containing fluate of lime and glacial boracic acid, vaponra 
^^StdT ^^^^ *^^ formed as dense as those arising from muriatic acid gaa 
coatainifif ^^^ ammonical gas* It produces the same with all the 
«at«. other gasses, except the muriatic acid gas, provided those 

gasses have not been dried. But it does not alter the trans- 
parency of any of them, if they have remained some time in 
contact with lime, or muriate of lime. }n the first case, where 
there is a production of strong vapours, the volume of gas 
' diminishes equally, and only a few hundredths at the tem- 

perature of T [44*6* F.]. In the second case, where the 
gasses retain their transparency, their bulk does not alter. 
Hence we may infer, that fluoric acid gas is an excellent 
mean for indicating the presence of hygrometrical water in 
gasses ; and that all contain some, except the muriatic actd 
No water pro- fS^t fluoric gas, and probably ammoniacal gas. For this 
cipiuted from reason, if we expose fluoric gas to a cold of 15° or 19* [6* 
above or 2*2* below F.], we find no trace of liquid sepa- 
rated ; while on exposing sulphurous acid gas, carbonic acid 
gas, &c., to the same degree of cold, water is suddenly de- 
posited. 
Ithatagreat The'dense vapours, produced by fluoric gas in the gatiet 
affinity for that contain bygrometric*<l water, announce iu it a great 
aflioity for this fluid: and indeed it is no exaggeration 
to say, that water can ubsorfi more of it than of muriatic 
acid gas, and probably more than two thousand times its 
Pttopertictof bulk. When water is thus saturated with it, it is limpid, 
waierMtuiated fuming, and exceedingly caustic. About a tifth part of 
what it cou tains may be abstracted from it by heat ; but, do 
what we will, it la impossible to get more. It then resem* 
bles concentrated sulphuric ucid : it has its causticity and 
appearance : like it its boiling point is much above that of 
water^ and it condenses entirely in striae, though it contains 

itill 



DBCOMPOSlTXOlf OF FLUORIC ACI9. 3} 

Still perhaps sixteea hundred times its bulk of gas. Is it Sulphuric ani 
not hence extremely probable, if not even demonstrated, "^^"c *c»*** ^ 
that the sblpburic and nitric acids would be in the state of tain water, 
eras, if they were pure ? and that they are indebted for the 
liquid state, in which we see them, to the water they con- 
tain ? 

Though our fluoric gas has a great affinity for water, ^^^^^^'^B" 

and contains none, since it is obtained from matters per- solve water. 

fectly dry, &c. ; yet it cannot dissolve or convert into gas 

the smallest quantity. We kept a quart of fluoric gas in 

contact with a single drop of water over mercury for several , 

hours ; and this drop, instead of .disappearing, increased in 

size. Hence it is proved, that this gas cannot contain water 

in any manner, either in the hygrometrical state, or in a 

state of combination. Ammoniacal gas is precisely in the Ammoniscal 

same situation, at least with respect to combined water, P^ •""*^'' 

But it is not the same with muriatic acid gas : this it is true Muriatic actd 

contains no hyjrrometrical water, but it contains water inti- 8** contains 

mately combined, as Messrs. Heuri aud Berthollet first bination. 

showed. By passing muriatic gas, in a gentle heat, through 

litharge, melted and reduced to a coarse powder, we have 

accomplished the extraction of this water, and caused it to 

appear in streams. From the experiments we have made 

on the direct combination of a certain quantity of this acid 

with an excess of oxide of silver, it must form about a 

fourth of its weight. 

The other gasses do. not comport themselves with water All other gasies 

like the precediner. No one contains combined water, but contain water 
r . . uncombine*. 

all contain hygrometrical water. Hence it follows, that 

flooric acid gas and ammoniacal gas contain neither hygro- 
metrical water, nor combined water* : that muriatic acid 
gas contains no hygrometrical water, but does contain com- 
bined water; and that all the other gasses contain only hy- 
grometrical water. 

What is mo«t striking in these results is to see, that mu- Proportiooa of 

riatic acid gas contains water, aud that the fluoric and am- ^*^®^ '^ ™"'*'* 

atic acid gas^ 

* It is certain, that, from the experiments of Mr. Berthollet jun. 
ammoniacal gas contains no combined water; but Gay-Lussac and The* 
narJ do not yet Tcnture to affirm, that it contains no water in the hy- 
f rometrical state. 

mouiacal 



3i 



DBCOMPOlITtOV OF FtUOftIC ACI0. 



monmcal ^n^sses contain none; and particularly to find^ 
that the muriatic acirl gas contains it in such proportions^ 
that, if it weie entirely decomposed by a metal, all the acid 
would be absorbed by the oxide, and cr^nverted into a me* 
tal lie muriate. This, as "we have satisfied ourselves, takes 
place, when muriatic acid is gradually and succes-sivelj 
passed through several redhot gun barrels filled with iron 
turnings. 
or w'^pr the The more we reflect on all these phenomena, the more 
^fj^^ difBcult we find it to account for them. Is it not possible 

however, that oxigen and hidrogen may be two of the con* 
Rtituent principles of muriatic acid, and that they are not 
in the state of water in it, but that this is formed when the 
acid enters into combination with bodies, so that in themu« 
riates it is ({uite dit^'erent from what it is in the state of gas? 
Be this as it may, it is certain, that all the muriates inde* 
comi'Osable by fire, and which contain little or no water* 
cannot be decomposed, even at a very high temperature^ 
either by the vitreous acid phosphate of lime, or by the 
boracic acid ; that thus the acid is retained with very great 
force, in the muriates; and that sulphuric acid itself, if 
deprived of water, very probably could not decompose 
them. But we will quit this hypothesis, and return to an 
exBtnination of the properties of our fluoric gas. 
Aetionofflu- We have considered already its physical properties, its 

RtalSe^matleT ^c^'^" ^" ^^^ ^'^» "" ^^"^ ^^*^' gasses, and on water. Let us 
now consider how it acts on vegetables matters. These it 
attacks at Iciist as powerfully as the sulphuric acid; and, 
like this acid, appears to act on them by occasioning water 
to be fornurtl, for it chars them. Thus it readily converts 
alcohol into an ether, which we })urpose to investigate ; and 
insta^aly blacken the driest paper, difl'usiug a vapour, 
which is owing to llie water that is formed and absorbs 
it. 

A t«ry potent Every thin;^ then demonstrates to ns, that this fluoric gsf 

■c>^« is one of the most pnwtTful ucids, and that it is not inferior 

in strenL;th and causticity to concentrated sulphuric acid? 

Botitwasa yet it h?^ no action oa i>1jiss. Hitherto we had supposed^ 

tih^fl uorlc a°nd ^^** *^ ^'^^ P**^^' ' ^"*^ ^'^^" ^^'^ suspected that it contained 
Wiracis acids, something, which prevented its action on silex ; and in fact 

soon 




JA. -iL'. 



DILOMfOaiTtOX OP FLUOBIC ACIU. 

1 Awnd, thut it held in soluliuii a ])rc!ty lur^t (luantily 
^jot boracic atnJ. 

The fluoric acid arising IVoio tl»e decompu-ilion of lioale F'">teonim. 
r lime by boraucacid not bemg pure, we attnnpteri to ,,h>(r of l<m> 
repare it by di-tomposini; tliis salt by the acid phosphate >".''''''^' '^'"" 
r lime. \W obtuiiifd but very liule; and what we did „i,i,,i]„jai(_ 
nbttiin contained iti the flral place the small qu»otily of 
f^ilex, that existed ii) our flnate of lime, imd secondly a ccr< 
Uin portion of the acid phosphate ol* lime Itself. What i^ 
remarkable in thin process in, thut, when we used a siliccotjs 
fluate of lime, th<^ decompoi.ition of the salt was very raiiid. 
in coDseqnence of the action of the aiies on fluoric acid, 
and jjQve rise to a great deal of siliceous flnor c gas, 

CoDbitlerlng then, that the fluoric gas ari^in^ from the Fluatenrilme 
fluale of lime and boracic acid contained no nmei, and ^""^ ^"^ 
WM Dot capable of dlMolving any, we thought, contrary to icii) H le^ea 
the generally received opinion, ihut the case would proba-"*""'* 
h\j be the same wi'h that prepared in leaden- rca a eU by 
Ojeaos of concentrated sulphuric acid. 

But instead of obtaining the acid in tjie Stale of gas by rieldcd onlj ■ 
, this mean*!, we had it in a h'quid state, and podsessiiig the '"^"''* '"^" 
following properties. In the air it emiU dense vaponts; i[, ptopeniei, 
with water it heats and even enters suddenly into ebullilion ; 
it scarcely enraes into coutact with jfUss before it destroys 
ita polish, heats strongly, boils, and is converted into tili-i 
ceous gas. Of all its properties the most«KtraordinBry is 
its action on the skin. It scarcely touches this when it die- SingularaciioD 
ort^anixes it, A white spot is immediutely seen, a great*"'""''""- 
pain is soon felt: the parts adjacent to the point touched 
Bpeedily grow white and painful; aod in a little time a 
blister is formed, covered by a thick white skin, and con- 
taining matter. 

However small the quantity the phenomena equally take 
place; only they proceed more slowly, so that sometimes 
they *re not observed till seven or eight hours after the con- 
tact ; and rtill the burn will be sufficiently severe, to cause 
acute pain, deprive the patient of sleep, and excite fever. 
The elliects of these burns, as we are convinced by our owa 
cp^rieace, may be stopped by the immediate appiicalion of n^^jj^ 
« wenk solution of caustic potish ; which we know too. by ipion bam. 
Vol. XXIV.— Sept. Isog. D expe- 



34 DECOMPOSITION OF FLUORIC ACID. 

experience^ to be ati excellent remedy ngaiuit commoif 
burns. 
Action of thii It iiuiv wadilv be supposed, tlisit we did not nejjlect to 
iqui on pot- pijj^.p surh an active liijiiid in contaet nith the metal of 
potash. This experiment was made in a eopjier tube. At 
first we threw a piece the size of a small hazel nut into 
a small (quantity of this liquid ; an<l immediately a very loud 
detonation endued, with a ^roat cvdhition of lij^ht and heat. 
Afterward, desirons of knowiny; what was the cause of these 
phenomena, we ca\i>»(.d tlie fluid to arrive at the metal 
gradually. In this way but little heat is produced, and we 
couUl collect the products of the experiment. These pro- 
ducts were hidroj^en, fluate of potash, and water. Con- 
sequently this active liquid is a compound of fluoric acid 
and water* 
It combines "\w. j^ge then, that this acid tends to combine with all 

stance!;, and is substances,, and that it forms with them solid, liquid, or 
ih v.* strongest gaseous compounds, according as it retains more or less 
* *" ' elasticity, or expansive force. It is the only acid with which 

this is the ease : and this property is even a proof, that it is 
the strongest and mos^t active of acids. 
Flunric acid Since we cannot in any way obtain fluoric acid pure, ire 

not ubtaiiia le ^ ^ study it when in combination with some substance, 
pure. . 

AVe must take it then combined with this or that substance, 

accordinir to the rr suit we wish to obtain. 

Si'iircous fluoric |f the objc(rt be to unite it with alkalis, earths, or me- 
acid forms tri- „■ . , , r i . i -i- 

plc>4iltft with tallic oxnles, we mn<«t be caret ul not to employ sniceous 

alkalis, ":i!ihs, fluoric acid, for in this case we should obtain triple salts, 
and oxidci. „,. ... • i u *. r -i 

1 hus, on pounni; ammonia into acid nuate oi silex, we 

obtain a tri[)le salt nearly Insoluble, yet in great measure 
volatile. Thus loo, on pouring muriate of barytes into 
acid ilnate of silex, we obtain after some time a crystalline 
prccipliatc, insoluble in a great (ixces.J ©f nitric acid, which 
might be mistaken for sulphate of barytes, and is nothing 
but fluate of .-ilev and barytes. 
For decompo- l]ut whi-n, instead of wiMvting to combine fluoric acid 
should be em- ^^*^^^ these substances, we wish to decompose it, as we pur- 
ployed, posed to do by means of the metal of potash, it is ei'ident^ 
that we on^Iit not to employ litjuid fluoric acid, on account 
of the water pie^ient with it ; aud thai we should prefer, ei- 
ther 



'S- 



DECOMPOSITION OF FLUORIC ACID. 55 

Ihcr the fluoric L'tis holdin'jj in solution boratir aciil ; or ra- 
ll^iT the Ml'ioeous HjKir o i^;is, l)f-i;iu»c the forciv^u rnaltfr in 
tills, coiilainin:; uotliin;; ror»»i)\ir.tlhlf», cainot lead \i- into 
c.-rroiir, anri can l»f of no injury farMier than j^ivlii*^ a-, ad- 
dition of this matter. A(Tordini;ly we cniplo. cd tlior'e 
gassf's, and chiefly the siliceonft fluoric* «jas, in our c'X:'t:ii- 
nuMits on the decomposition of tlie fluoiic aeid, ot whicii we 
iihail now proceed to j^ive an aeconut. 

When the m^tal of potsish is phired in eontact witl) sili- Action of po- 

oeous fluoric i^as at the common tt inperaturo, it ur.diTjioes ^''=*''^'"*'*' ^^^^ 

, , . ccuus tluonc 

no ])erceptil)le alteration, except brcominj*; Hliy;: tiy dull on gaa. ' 
the surface: but \\ it be nieltcl, it soon thii .';ci>s, and 
burns vividly, ^vith tke extrication of uinch hiat uiid li^iit. 
in thid com: motion there is a <;reat absorption of flue- tie 
arid, very little hidro^en j;as is disengaj^cd, the nietal ilis- 
appears, and a solid substance of a reddish brown colour is 
produced. 

If thi^ substance be treated with cold water, ^id^o;i^n The product 

uas is evolved, though it appears no loni'er to contain any ^■*"'^*-**l ^'th 
rt '.nil r> • walcr. 

metal. If, after havin*^ treated it with cold Wiiter, it is 
treated with hot, mnre hidrof^en j^as is evolved, but less 
than the tir^t time; and on the whole scarcelv a third as 
xniK'h as the metal itself would yield with water i:!» obtained. 
If tin? waters of elutriation be added to^jether and evDpo- 
ruted, we obtain from them nothin<^ but fluate of potash 
Vi\\\\ excess of alkali; and if we examine the residuum, 
which, wiien well washed, is still of a reddish broun colour, 
we find it to pos*<ess the followinjif properties. When thrown Residuum 
into a silver crucible at a cherry red heat, it burns vividly, ^""^^J^^ »»* i»"> 
and disengaj^es a little acid j^as ; after which, from b«'ing 
insoluble in water, it becomes partly soluble. The portion 
that dissolves is fluate of potash ; that which does not dis- 
solve is siliceous fluate of potash. 

If, instead of makin<^ the experiment in a crucible, it be and in oxig«n 
clone in a small bent ^lass jar filled with oxij^en ^as, and S^^* 
heated gradually, the inflammation is more vivid tiian in 
common air, a great quantity of oxi^en is absorbed, and 
the gas that remains after the combustion is nothing but 
pure oxigeui with the addition of a little fluoric acid. The 

D 9 product 



SS DICCOMPOSITION OF FLUORIC ACID. 

product is 8o1id, as in the preceding experiment, and t» 

formed of fluate of potash and silex. 

TheBuoricgas It h now evident, that, since little or no hidrogen gas it 

is cither de- evolved on bumiui; the metul of potanh in fluoric acid ffas, 
composed, or . '* ^^ ... 

combinen wi(h this conibustion cannot be asrnhea to water, lience in this 

potabsmm experiment either the fluoric acid is decomposed, or it com- 

wiihoui oxiu- _ . * ... , ■ i • 1- ■ fi^i i_ 

ng it, bines with the roetiil without oxiding it. Ihet^e two nypo- 

tlieses beiii^ the only ones that can be formed, let us dis- 
cuss them in succession. If it were the metal, that com- 
bined entire with the fluoric acid, the probable result would 
be a very inflammable compound, which with water would 
give out as much hidrogen as the metal itself. But vm ob- 
tain onlv a third of what onsrht to be evolved. Besides, a 
combination of this kind is contrary to all the facts on all 
pobsible buppositions ; whether we consider the action of the 
fluoric acid on the metals and alkalii<, or the action of the 
It IS probably metal of potash on all the other acids. Hence we must 
ecompos . ^(^,n.|y(]j^^ ^hat the fluoric acid is probably decomposed. 
Consequently in this decomposition must be formed a com- 
pound of the fluoric radical with potash and si lex. It ap- 
pears, that, when this radical i» combined only with potash^ 
it is capable of decomposing water like the phosphurets ; 
but that, when it is combined uith potash and silex, it does 
not decompose it, no doubt because this triple compound is 
itisoUible. 
Potassium ra- jjj* i]{^^ .^^ it may, it is extremely easy, to effect the coin- 
fluTiric gas m hustion of the metal of polasli in fluoric gas. When we 
small quaiui- would burn only a small quantity of the metal, the cpera- 
' tion may be performed very conveniently over mercury in a 

little glass vc^ticl blown by a lamp, to the top of which the 
metal is conveyed on an iron rod, and which is heated by a 
burning cot.l till tlie influiuniation commences, 
oriiilargf. I^^it if we would burn largo quantities of the metal, the 

opciiition KhuuUl be pe: formed in a jar holding about A 
<)uart. This is tirst to be filled to within two Angers 
breadths with fliioiic acid gas. I'he metal is then to be 
cotiveyed into it by means of an iron wire i)roperly bent 
A simill capsule, which may be made of a crucible by re- 
moving a porliiHi of the sides, being heated to a cherry red, 
is then to be introduced, holding it in a pair of tongs ; and 

whea^ 



r 



PA0CE8S FOR METALLIZING POTASH AND SODA. 3/ 

*hcn it is emptiod of tlie mercury by shaking it, the metal 
of potabli id iiuinediati-ly to be placed in it, and it will pre- 
sently bum with great force. The combustion bting 
finished, and the ca[>sule cooled, it is to be taken out, and 
the matter separated i%-ith a small spatula. 'J his dune, ano- 
ther |M>rtion of metal may be nunied in this littie cajtsule 
ill the same jar; provided a quantity ol tluoric arid, equal 
to what was absorbed in the tirst combubtion, be passed up 
into it. A third and a fourth combubtion may be accom- 
plished in the same way. Tht're is nothing to prevent this, 
since the jar may always be kept equally full of iluoric 
acid gas, and the metal is ea^^ily procured at pleasure, by 
following the process we have recommended. We will add. Care must be 
however, that for the complete succcris of these experiments, [j^ic'^l^JJ^aisLum 
great care mut^t be taken, to remove the oil from the sur- from uiL. 
face of the metal with blottini; paper ; otherwise it will be 
decomposed, and give out a little hidro«^en gas and carbon. ' 

In fact this inconvenience cannot be eiitirely avoidcil^; and 
whatever precjintion be taken, there is always a portion of 
oil interposed between the particles of the metal : but the 
quantity is ^o small, that it need not be regarded, and 
cannot be the source of any errouf' in the results. To this 

m 

oil is owing the property of rendering lime-water turbid, 
that the metals of potash and soda sometimes posse^ss. 



V. 

Description of a Process^ hy means of which Potash and 
Soda mai/ be metallized withovt the Assistance of Iron ; 
read before the French Institute the ISth of April, 1808 ; 
6y F. 11. CuaAUDAU*. 

JL H^ dei'om position of the alkalis, which I never consi- Alkalis long 
dered as simi>lc bodies, having: Ionic been an object of re- "appoMdiob* 
search with me, l was eager to repeat the experiment, in 

• Journal de Phjsique, April 1808, p. 380. 



• a ■ 



Sft 



PROCESS FOB. METALLIZING POTASH AND SODA. 



-1 
■A 



are 
Sucli 



Their metallU which ^K*>Nr«. Tl'.CLi.trcJ iiurl (^av-LviS'-Jic atiuoinu'i'd potash 
latioii by ini ans , , . i . " .11 c 

ofifMndocinoi '"^^' '■^"'■^ couifl |»f fojuvvtccl into iiiftals h> tnea.is ol iTon. 

always sue- JVot liaviiiLr tihtaiiKjl more siitL-sfa<torv rPiults however than 
otliers-, wl.nm 1 liave kiiowii to n^pcat the snine ex|K'riineHts»^ 
I thinp^lit .t riiiht to uiir.i'.io th«» re>eurchcs I hju\ already 
bot^nii on \\w. miuu' Mil*';- d, and the siucess of wliirh a))- 
peared to me tho more r« >tairu as «l>eiidy the he:intiru! 
expe>-iiiit'nts of Mr. Daw had thrown vrreat li?jht on *iome 
phepoincha, which 1 hud observed, but wliich 1 could uot 
belorei'x-ilaiii. 

Is thf pru'siate |n tad, if, accordiu'^ to tlie hypothchis of the celebrated 

com" »..ii(!^ f ^'^' n^'''^' ^'''**>"'''^> potMbl) and soda be metallic oxides, is it 

the iDtv.u! w:ih lie' .lure thiM pr()i>atih', that the prussic cah'inatious at 

carDWi. simply the eoiubiuation of tlim metal with i*hav<"Oid r Sue 

at lea.st ua^ my upiitiou at that time; and it wtli appear 

huw lar it uas well ionndi'd, siiire 1 liavc aceom)ili>l!(d the 

mcta.ii/aiiun of pota^h and of soda, by healiuL^ ^t^i»ngly 

the alkiiii \\ith ciicireual, a pioccss •.vhieii, it ib ob\iou>, ranks 

amon^ the prussir eaieinution**. 

The mft.il cf Tile metal llzatiun of pota>h or soda taking pUiee with 

^/LiT'' "I'l^" either of the two mixtures 1 shall mention, and bueeeeding 

by iw» i-ro- as well in stone retorts as in iron Tubes, the firbt or ^eeond 

ijrofess miiv be ern»'lo\ed iiK^Hli rentlv. Af» to the nature 

of th«' vessel, 1 proli r iron, bt-eaii^r it is more permeable to 

ra-t.rie. and kss Mil.ji'ct to i';i*-i.n tlian the stone ware, par* 

ticularly when tin- hiiter i- i.cm.trated with alka!i ; aa 

inroiivtMiience, that i»r«'ve;'s llie operation iVoui beiiij^ 

coMtiii'ied to the end, \\liith doei» nut happen so frequently 

witii iron. 



c«ise>. 



1st process. 



^r1 proce5?« 



Process the flrsU 

Mix iiitimately four part.-* ol' a-iim-d charcoal well pow- 
derr d with three <if e 'bonutp of soda, diied on the tire 
without ha\i ■; been fnsrd ; and mix tiie wholi? with a suf- 
ficient quantity of liii^ccd oil, bia not so as to form a 
paste. 

Pmccss lie secomh 

Taki^* two parts of lloiir, and mix them intimately with ' 
pv.v part of carbonate of ssoda prepared as iii the preeediujj 

processi 



I 



m 



PROCESS FOR METALLIZING POTASH AND SODA* S() 

process, and add to thi^ mixture as miicb lljiseed oil as it 
will l>e;ir viitliout ceushi;^ to be pulverulent. 

Whatever be tlie kind of vessel emplo\t'd to calcisie this Ma