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I***? FROM 



and FRANCE. 


Secretary for Foreign Correfpondence to. the Royal 
Academy of Painting, Sculpture, and Architecture. 


VOL l 


Primed for T. Da vies, in Ruffel-Strcet, Coyent* 
Garden; and L. Dayis, inHorborn. 



Slon&nefs of mules, Tago and Dom Manuelo. 
A defart. Eftallages alias Staples. Fe- 
male coynefs. The conquering barber. 
Fools and thieves. 

YienUfnuevai, Sept. 18, 1760* 

GO late to bed and rife early, and a 
ftraw-bag will prove as comfortable 
as any matrafs. I have flept five hours on 
that ftraw-bag j and as to the vermin of 
Mdeagallego they only put one in mind of 
the Pafquil-makers at Rome, or the 
Monthly and Critical Reviewers of Eng- 
land, who would do mifchief if they had 

It was near feven this morning when I 
ftepped into a chaife drawn by a flout pair 
of black mules. The Calejfeiros were 

Vol. II. B obliged 

t » ] • 

obliged to (hackle that of the (hafts, be- 
caufe h6 is a new mule $ that is, a mule 
who never was between the (hafts. The 
moment they let him loofe he ran as if 
his intention had been to perform in a 
day the talk of a fortnight. Yet mules are 
like other people. They will begin an 
^undertaking with a great (how of vehe- . 
mence: but their ardour foon abates 
and languor enfues. The mule foon. ceas- 
ed gallopping j fo that patifte in the other 
chaife, and a Dominican Friar in a thif4> 
-loon overtook me, and the three vehicles 
(lowly following each other,' in about fix 
houfs time brought u$ to a -place calkd 
Peagones. ;" 

But before I go a ftep further I muft 
bring you acquainted with my good 
friends the Cakjfeiros. One of them is a 
Portuguefe named Dom Manuelo, the 
other a Galician plainly called Tago, with- 
out, any Dom or Don. Whith is the , 
greater rogue I cannot as yet determine. 
A fhop-lifter was once hang'd in England 


■t i 1 

«rhdfe phiz bore fbmerefembtaftde to that 
of Tago, and 1 remember & fellow in the 
gallies at Villtifranca who had juft fudi 4 
Crooked nofe as Dom Manuela. They 
may be very good men, faid Kelly when 
he faw them firft, but beware of Calejftu 

- As there ire neither poft-chaifes nor 
ft age-coaches between the capital of Por- 
tugal and that of Spain, thofe who do not 
chufe to go on mule-back or a-foot from 
either town to the other/ hire fuch vol- 
tures as ours, which are pretty well hung 
ZTtd tolerably neat ; but fo leifurely drawn 
on by the mules, that a man lately ufed to 
the poft-chaifes and flying-machines of 
England, has time enough to exert his 

During the two firft miles I faw the 
land all covered with vines* on each fide 
of the road. Then thfe fcene changed 
though not for the better, arid a county, 
begun which called back to my memory 
the defcription given by Lucart of Catf% 
B2 ' jour- 

t 4 ] 

Journey to Vtica through the fands of 
Africa. To fay the truth, J did not fee 
gs I went oi> ^ny ajf>, cencbris, bemorroid, 
cbety4er y or any other ferpent : but in all 
other refpefts Lucatis verfes might do 39 
well for the country I crofled to-day. A 
heavy, deep, and wide-ftretched fendy 
plain, thinly fcattered with low buflies, 
and here and there a fmall thicket of fir-* 

A little after twelve we reached the 
' above-named EJlallagt of Peagtmes, fiftefen 
miles from Aldeagalle^a. It is with great 
reafon the Portuguefe call their inns 
Ejiattages ; that is, Stables. There is room 
enough in them for mules, afles, and 
other quadrupeds : but there is no room 
at all for the reception of fuch bipeds as I. 

They fay that Peagones was formerly 
a confiderable town, nor have I any dif- 
ficulty to believe it. But time ran away 
long 3go with that town, and together 
with its n^me has left but two building* 
behind: .which two buildings cannot 


[ s V 

properly be called houfes, as they do not 
referable any thing that goes by that name 
in other countries, having fcarcely any 
roof or cielings left, but brick -walls full 
of fucli large holes, that kites and vul- 
tures might eafily pafs through. 

At that where we flopped, a kind of 
landlady offered us a mefs of chick-peas, 
and fonie falt-fifh, by way of dinner. The 
chick-peas feemed feafoned with rank 
oil, and I think that the fifh has been faked 
after it was rotten. What a fmell ! It 
would have poifoned the Trojan horfe J 
Vet Yagoahd Dpm Manuelp fell ravenoufly 
upon both difhes, while Batiftc, the friar, 
and I, made fhift with madam Kelly's 
provifions, Nor did we want a dcfert, 
as, while I was running away with the 
new mule, my two mefs-mates had flopped 
jat the vine-yards, and filled a bafket with 
excellent grapes. * 

* At teagohes we refted full two hours j 

then paced it again for twelve or thirteen 

jiiiles more; (ftiH through the fendy defart 

3 3 like 

r 6 ] 

like to many Cato's) and came td> thi$ 
Vientafnuevas, where wc are to pafs tht* % 

During the whole afternoon we met 
with no living creature, except a fmall N 
flight of birds, half a dozen fheep, with 
a goat, and two men following thre£ 
wretched afles, heavily loaded, As to tu 
vers, ponds, fprings, or any other fort of 
water, none is to be feen from Aldeagallega 
here, look which way you will. Pleafant 
travelling ! An inceflant mournful fing~ 
ing of the Caleffeiros, accompanied by the 
inceflant tinkling of the mules' bells, to-» 
gether with an inceflant fun hotly rever- 
berating from the inceflant fand through 
an inceflant folitude J But what encreafes 
the delight of fuch a journey are thofe 
charming .EJl ullages where you flop tq 
bfiit at noon and to fleep at night. 

How long I am to enjQy thefe manifold 
bleflings I cannot precifely tell, as I never 
q-offed this country before. But this J 
Itfww, thgt I have weakly yielded to 3 


- [ 7 ] 

foolifh fpirit of curiofity when I came to 
vifit the Pqrtugufcfe kingdom. However, 
let us go on without lofing our temper*. 
A man needs but have patience, and time 
will put an end to any diftrefs. Soon or 
late we fhall make a fire of the ftraw-bag, 
and the hqur will come when my journey 
through the province of Allemtejo will be^ 
a good ftory to tell. If I .fret now, I 
fhall then blame myfelf for having fretted. 
Juft by this wretched village of Vim* 
. tafnuevaSy there is a royal country-houfe, 
that was built, they fay, by Philip III. 
King of Spain, when Portugal belonged to 
his crpwn. It is one of thelongeft edifices 
that ever I law $ but has nothing remark- 
able befides that great length. The back- 
windows command an extenfive profpeft 
over naked ftones and fandy plains. The 
King of Portugal never comes here, a? he 
has other country* houfes much better 
built and fituated. The Dominican Friar 
tells me, that about twenty leagues fur- 
ther his Mayfly has another rurall man-: 
B 4 lion 

lion called Villa Vizofa, very well worth a 
vilit f but to go and fee it; would force me 
to ftay a day more in Portugal, which I 
am loath to do. Of ifiy journey through 
this difmal region, though it i* but be- 
gpn, I am already quite fick. 

At the feveral Eftallages where I have 
alighted $ that is, at Caieza, Mafra, Cin~ 
tra, Peagcnesi and here, you cannot coiw 
cflive how I was teazed by begging wo* 
meru , There are always fome that come 
ajxmt you with a fimpering took ; hope 
yoahave had a good day's journey 5 wifli 
you may Kve a thoufan v d years $ . then afk 
you lomt^hing to buy themfelves Alfikret* 
that is, Pins. Comply with the firft de- 
mand j and they have a fecond ready, 
EleaTeJ^S* Stnborifli ovVoffa Meffi H to give 
me fomething for a little babe I have at' 
home. Well ; here is for the little babe* 
But pray, good fir, give me fomething for 
my dear mother, f6r my younger lifter, 
fer my coufin, for -my niece* There is- 
jk>- end* of their languid coquetry, and of 


t 9 ] 

their demands, efpeciafly if the wenches 
happen to befomewhat young and fightly. 
At Ptagones one of them came in while 
I was at dinner, and firft begged for fome 
pm-money as ufual ; then for a loaf of 
bread ; then for a bit of the pafly • then' 
for the wing of a fowl; then for a fliceof 
cheefe; ; there for a bunch of grapes. Hav- ' 
ing complied' with each demalid, fhe fat 
down by me on the floor and ate heartily: 
then returned to the attack and fmiled 
prettify again, and alked for ibme more 
money. Well : take this, fweet Senbora. r 
H&ve you' enough how ? Oh Senhor, Fojfa 
fflefl Be iam querido (Sir , you are Jo gentle) 
that I hope you will give me that little 
trunk to , put my things in. Machlefs 
impudence 1 A new trunk covered with 
^uflia-leather ! But give me this fan. 
The weather, fir, is fo intolerable hot ! 
JPor this reafon I muft keep it : but come 
next winter, fweet miftrefs, and you fhaU 
jigyp lu J verily believe, had I given her 


[ io ] 

an eye, that (he would have.aflaed for the* 

, Take this as a fpecimen of female Por- 
tuguefe coynefs. As for the EJialkgeirQs y 
Caltfeirti* and in general all men of low 
condition, they will fpeak ,to you unco- 
vered 5 but always with a familiar fmile 
oi> their faces, nor do they appear at all, 
baihftfl or timid. In Lijbon I fent once 
fpr a barber. The fellow came with a. 
handfome fimper on his plump cheeks. 
Sir, I give you joy of your £ife arrival in 
Portugal, faid he, while placing the. nap-; 
kin under my chin; Then aflced leave to 
take a pinch of {huff out of my box* 
While he was (having he informed me of 
many things of which hefuppofed me ig- 
norant, as, that in Portugal the weather is 
very fyot 5' that there are figs and grapes in 
abundance; that there is likewife plenty of 
fjfhbecaufe thefea is near. His razors, he 
faid, he always got from Barcelona* be- 
<aufc in Portugal they make none goofj, 
' He 

He ftppp'd when the right fide of my face 
was done, and afked me what opinion I had 
of his countrymen ; and upon my anfwer- 
jng that as yet 1 knew them not, being 
but juft come, he feized that opportunity 
to inform me that as Partuguezesfam mu- 
ttta % valerozas y and, flourifhing with his 
Barcelona weapon,added with a lofty tone 
that the Spaniards tremble at the name of 
the Portuguefe, and that one Portuguefe 
is Sufficient to put to flight half a dozen 
Spaniards : nor was I fully lhaved before 
be had quite conquered both the Caftiles. 
Of fuch rodomonts I am told that Por- 
tugal has even a larger number than of 
idlers, which is faying a great deal. 

Neighbouring nations have in general 
3 ftrong antipathy to each other : but 
that of the Portuguefe to the Spaniards 
(Jfpeak of thip Portuguefe rabble) is car- 
ried to fuch a degree, that borders upoi* 
madnefs. The reafon is obvious. What 
chance the Portuguefe have of conquering 
Spain is next to nothing; and people will 


f « ] 

always hate thofe'^ho* muff fometimes 
be fought againft without any hopes of 
final vi&ory. On the contrary were the 
Spaniards 1 to be left unrtiolefted by the 
other European powers, Portugal' would 
foon be theirs if they toad' a mind • drid 
for this reafon I fuppofe they defpife tW 
Portuguefe fo much, as proverbially to 
fey of them that they are j^to *ndf6olijh % 
Portuguefes pocos y . hcou How far this 
Caftilian faying is ju#, let thole determine 
who know the Portuguefe beter than I. 
• If I am to believe Tagd> there are 
thieves enough in this country. As I 
Wis* getting this morniirg- ihttf my cfraife 
I alked him why He had : nft ~&ep tb l let* 
down, that I might 4 itioUnt' wirti'lefs-froU, 
ble. En ejfa tiefrafuran tide* anfwef ed 
fagor j that is, in this tdMfrf, people Jteaf 
every thing; and fo tficf Had broken *ftd^ 
ftolen the ftep of his chaife". Atiii au Lec- 
teur, faid I to rtyfelf. Hafk ye, BstifteY 
mind what Tago fays, afrd take ftef tkular 
3 cars' 

£ 13 ■] 

care of our things, at leaft uatil we ar$ 
out of ffa tierra* 


4/$$ adventure in a wiUtrwff. Ntwes tf 
great toyms. Vfefyfnefi tflytt* Ante* 
, neji cu/ate. Pack->fad4ie fiuft ft x twite 
Jeep.. ; . . 

Arrtyolos, Sept, 19, tyfa, 

IB E ME V E that of Portugal fevwral 
parts are very fjne : but 3jn$&ft tho» 
we muft not reckon any of the forty 
miles I have crpfled yeftercfeiy an4 to-4ay/ 
which are little lefs than a continued wil- 
der nefs. 

In this wildernefs, however, I have 
met this morning with as pretty a love- 
adventure as any in 4madi$ dt Gaul a, or 
T'be Prowefes of Splandiano, and was with- 
in an inch of. having a battle with two 
knights for the fake of a lady. 

I had fcarcely raifed my weary limbs 
this mqrning from njy ftraw-bag, when 

a dirty 

t «4 ] 

a dirty woman (call her a fair lady for 
romance-fake) entered my room vlrithdtit 
any previous meflage or embaffy. I pre* 
fently knew her for that fame wench who 
laft night had gotten fome peices of mo- 
ney out of me by dint of importunity:) 
that is one piece for herfelf, one for her 
little girl, another for her little boy, 
and ftill another for another little boy or 

On feeing her again, I prefently guefT- 
ed at her errand, and railing my voice 
haftily and peeviflily* ¥eneos> faid I, of rot 
mucbacbos y tnucbacbas, cara de putaf 
That is, Have you got any more boys and 
girls, youfrontlefs bujfy ? . 

I wifli I had never uttered the cara it 
futa ; becaufe the wench (the fair lady, 
I mean) ungratefully forgetting my re- 
peated kindnefs of laft night, and hating 
perhaps to hear truth as well as her bet- 
ters, broke out into fuch a terrible voci*- 
ferationi that her cries brought dire&ly 
vupftairs two barefooted rafcals^ (for ro- 

4 mance- 

i '! ) 

mance fake tore will call them knights) 
who, hearing from her I had called her 
cam de put a, looked fo fternly at me, 
and opened their difcourfe with fuch a 
tone of voice, that I thought it necefiary 
to draw a ftiort piftol out of my pocket 
and cock it. 

So unexpefted a reception, and the few 
fweet words I uttered with a tone full as 
high as theirs, filled the two Jieroes with 
lbch a panick, that they fprung out of 
the room, and tumbled on each other 
down flairs along with the woman. Ba- 
tifte was with me in lefs than a moment, 
and brandishing his fhining hanger, gave 
me an opportunity of rufliing down, n<$ 
to follow the two men, but to leap into 
my chaife: and before they or the heroine 
had time to recover from their fudden ter- 
ror, the mules had trotted half a league 
from Fientafnuivas : and this was the glo- 
rious end of that frightful encounter* 

We dined at a town called MoniemSr, 
where the Dominican Friar left us to go 


[ i6 ] 

another . way. We parted very great 
friends, as he had been pleated with the 
fhare he had of our Englifh vi&uak, and 
I am much obliged to him for his (laying 
it while behind at Vientafnuevas to quiet 
the woman, and hinder the bravos from 
following my chaife. We came to pafs 
tfie night here at Arraytlos* What fine 
polifyllabical names in this Portugal]' 
ArrayoloS) Peagones, Vientafnuevas, £ldea- 
gelltgfr ! One woqld think they are names 
of great capitals. 

At this Arraplos we found fo perfidi- 
ous an EJiallage % that I looked quite dif- 
mayed, I fent Batifte to try if he could 
induce the fuperiour of a neighbouring 
convent to give us a lQdgiqg for this 
night, offering a fair number of mafiej 
f<?r the poor fouls in purgatory* But the 
pitilefs friar did not chufe to have an 
Heretic under- his roof, Foolifli Batifte, 
to give me importance, had told him that 
I was an Englifh Fidalgo ; and the impor- 
tanc which I got by his lye> was then 


' [ *7 ] ' 

appellation of Hereiick, Never did I fee 
any body profper by petty lyes. Yet fer- 
vants and the ignorant rabble never will 
be perfuaded of their ufdeflhefs. I font 
likewife to the curate, who, far from . 
proving fo hard-hearted as the Friar, put 
himfelf to the inconvenience of coming 
to me through the rain that fellcopioufly, 
only to alTure me that he abfblutely had 
no fpair-room. Not fatisfied with fo 
pretty an aft of politenefs, he went to 
(how Batifte another EJiallage that had a 
floor and a roof, and thither I had my 
things prefently carried iafter a ftiort but 
warm altercation with the firft Efiatta- 
geiro, who thought it a great affront that 
I (hould leave hishoufe for that of another 
in order to avoid deeping Under a cicling - 
thkt admitted the rain. Did he not fleep 
there himfelf with his wife and children ? 
Surely we are as good Chriiftiafls as any 
JLjlrangeiro ! 

After fupper I fell a- writing, and thus 
I divert every night that ill humour which 

Vol. II. C other- 

ctherwife might make me mad on re- 
fle&ing what an error I committed vfrhen 
I refolved to come and vifit thefe diftnal 
Arroyolos and Montemdrs, thefe Peag6ms 
and Aldeagallegas ! 

From Vientafnuevas hither the country 
h notfo flat as from Aliegallega to %^ 
tafnuevas. At fome diftance from the 
road on either fide, there are fome fmall 
hill* with a few trees. All the houfes in 
Montemr are painted white, which makes 
that town look very neat : but by what 
1 could fee as I ftrolled about it while 
dinner was making ready, there is not an 
inhabitant there that has an opulent look* 
The earthquake has not done any great 
damage to Montemor * and no wonder, 
as the town is built after die Cbtnefemm- 
Her. I mean that the belt part of its ha- 
bitations have but the ground-floor. 
This Arrayohs I could not vifit lpecaufe 
of the rain. If I do to-morrow, I fliall 
tell it at night. 

A Pqst. 

t '9 ] , 

A Postscript, at four if dock in the 
* mornings Sept. 20, 1760. 
I thought myfelf very lucky laft night 
When by means of the honeft curate I got 
intelligence of this Eftallage\ and my 
comfort was great when, entering this 
room, I faw iff a corner a heap of tfiatraf- 
fcs that had a tolerable clean appearance, 
Batifte, faid I, do not fill the ftraw-bag 
to-night 5 but form me a bed out of half 
a dozen of thefe matraffes. Take notice, 
faid he, that each matrafs here is confi-* 
dered as a mma or bed, and you fhal! pay 
for as many comas as you make ufe of. 
No matter for that, 4aid I : it is an odd 
cuftom this ; but ftill, do as I bid you : 
and when the time came of lying down I 
undrefled with as much hurry as Ruggiero , 
when he alighted from the Hippogryff 
with the fair Queen of Catajo. But alas ! 
The matraffes which in other countries ' 
ftre filled with wool, here are filled with 
a kind of pack-faddle-ftuff as hard as 
ftones. Such penitential couches no 
€2 An* 

Anchoret ever had in the defarts <rf 


JSfo botanift* Ma/querades and their vari* 
1 ous wit. PiBures drawn with a pen* 
Pretty dancing. A proclamation. 

Eftrcmor, Sept. *o, at nighf, 1760. 

' I s H E robbef s wife does not always 
*■* laugh, fays the proverb, nor does 
he always cry who travels through Por- 
tugal • I have to-night fomething plea- 
fant to tell after fo much pain endured. 
But, that I may* proceed methodically, I 
muft begin my ftory from my fetting out 
this morning* 

As I crofled Arrayolos I faw an old 
caftle on an eminence, the battlements 
of "which are all broken. 

The, hills thatfurround Arrayolos, look 
very well at a diftance. As far as Vientd 
do Duque you fee many green oaks Scat- 
tered here and there, and even fome olive- 


£ 2i j 

trees in the, lower parts of thofe hills. 
At ten we reached that Vienta do Duque, 
Vienta in Portuguefc (as Venta in Spa* 
nilh) means an habitation that Jtands alone 
in the midji of the country for the reception^ 
rf travellers. To that called Do Duque I 
have a notion that famine and wretched- 
nefs repair very often* Why fuch a lodg- 
ment is dignified by the appellation of 
the Dukes I cannot guefs. Perhaps it 
was the lurking place of Duke Gano, the 
famous traitor in Cbarlemaines days (ao* 
cording to Ftdci ? Boiardo, and Ariojlo) 
that ufed to fide with the Kings of Spain 
^nd Portugal, who were then Mahomeu 
ans, againft his lawful fovereign who 
was a Chriftian. 

. To that Vienta we alighted to eat feme 
of our provifions, which. (as it is cufto- 
mary \a this country) we then paid to the 
Venteiro as if they had been his. After 
dinner without waiting for the Calejfeiros, • 
who had- not done knawiog the bortes df 
» le^n .rabbit, I went onwards a-fopt, and 
C 3 - had 

c « i 

had flowly walked two leagues before the 
mules could overtake me. The "fun pro- 
ved very hot, and would have burnt me 
alive, but for a foft breeze that tempered 
his ardour. Going through by-paths* I 
took notice of feveral plants which as"far 
as I can remember do not grow in Eng- 
land, nor perhaps in Italy. However I 
am not pofitive. Amongft others, a fmall- 
leaved fort qf rofemary in great quantities, 
that has a moft pleating fmell, and a 
ftinking kind of herb which feels as vif- 
cous as a rag dipped in tar. What a pity 
not to be a botanift when a man travels' 
a-foot ! Signor Allione of Turin and doc- 
tor Marfili of Padua, were they apprifed 
of my journey, would envy me the good 
luck of wandering about the defart in the 
neighbourhood of Fienta do Duque. In 
England I ufed once to walk about CbeJfea 
garden with Do6tor Marfili, and often 
afked him the name of this and that plant, 
but forgot them as foon as heard, having 
unluckily miffed in my youtfger days to 


E 23 ] 

habituate my mind to this fort of recollec- 
tion : i (b that I cannot now rtgifter here 
the name of the vifcous and {linking plant, 
'which I was afterwards told is ufed by 
tanners inftead of bark. 

From the height of each hill that I 
mounted fucceffively, I could imperfe&ly 
fee fbmething on another diftant height 
that appeared like a range of buildings. 
I loojc'd and look'd as I advanced, 'and 
at laft knew it to be a fortified town* 
To him who goes for three live-long days 
through iiich a wild region as this, fees 
nothing but fuch places as Peagones or 
Vunta do Duque> and meets with no body 
but two or three afTes, goats, and fpar~ 
rows, you cannot conceive how the fight 
of a town proves rejoicing- ' 

About four we were at the gate of 
Qjlrtmcr (fuch is the name of the fortified 
town) where a Jittle officer coming 
boldly up to the chaife-fide, afked me 
witji a peremptory tone of voice OPeffjz- 
forte : and it was lucky the Britifh Am- 
C 4 baflador 

[ Hi 

baffaclor had been fo good as to procure 
fne one froiA Dom Lewis da Cunba, other-* 
wife the little fellow would have taken 
file to a jail. You cannot even go from 
Lifbon to one of the neighbouring coun- 
try-houfes but by a paflport from that fe- 
cretary of ftate without incurring the 
danger of being imprifoncd. tfodas at , 
peffoas que quizerem fakir da corte e cidade 
lie Lijbou, feraln obrigadat a tirar pajfa^ 
portesy fays an edift publiftied here on the 
49th of laft Auguftj that is, " every per- 
" f on g°™g out of this town, jhallbt obliged 
v to provide himfdf with a pajfport? Such 
is the jealoufy of this government, and 
fuch is the confequence of wicked Aveirxts 
treacherous attempt 

On entering this town of Eftrewor, I 
faw feveral hundred malks, a group of 
which furrounded my chaife hallooing, 
roaring, and playing anticks. .- .Many 
things they fpoke with a fqueaking voice' 
that I did not underftand, butfuppofe 
they were witty, The noife drew tb* 

^ women 

Women to- their windows, and I wa$ 
plcafed to fee them laugh no left than the 
taen in the ftreets. I look'd at them 
through ray gkfs, and they did not,feen* 
to teke offence at my* way of looking. 
Our Italian ladies are in the wrong when 
they angrily clap their fans before their 
faces if look'd at through a glafs, as if 
the beholder was a bafiliik. It is not my 
fault if I am njjar-fighted, and I do not 
fee why I am more to he deprived of the 
hleffing of looking at the fair thaa tholjb 
whp have good eyes. 

The women at their windows and the 
ttiaiks in the ftreets* all laughed their full, 
and I with them for company. At the 
JLJtettage I was taken up ftairs into a room*, 
the floor of which was fo cracked, that I 
could fee the folks below through feveraJ 
iphinks, and its windows had ih utters, *g 
\afual, inftead of glafs. I lock'd down in 
the fquare before the E$elfyge* and there 
were mafks in abundance. One was 
{fceffaj like a bear* and one like 3 monkey. 


[ * ] 

One wore horns on his head, and one had 
a tail hanging behind. One had tied hi$ 
cloak round his waift petticoat -wife, and 
one wore ftockings of different colours* 
Some had the Golilla after the Spanifti 
manner, fome large breeches after the 
Swift. Some (hook the caftanets, and 
fome played on the guittar. Several 
ftooped down in a row that others might 
jump over them, and feveral run round 
the fquare, throwing their hands and legs , 
about like madmen. Two of them came 
under my window, and raifed up their long 
flicks, on which they had fattened wooden 
parrots, ill-fhaped afid ill painted : then 
laughing moft immoderately, cried, to mc 
Monfu, Monfu. What their parrots or 
.their cries meant, I cannot tell, but think 
that this is one of their witty ways to 
turn the French into ridicule, and they 
probably miftook me for a Frenchman. 
Many fhowed their humour by pulling off 
their hats to me and bowing to the ground 
With a mock refpeft. . In fine they made 

3 them* 

I *7 ] 

themfelves very merry at the cxpence d» 

Batifte returnedwith my paflport from 
the governor, to % whom he was ordered 
at the town-gate to go with it. A kind 
of gentleman came with him (fent by his 
Excellency) who was to take down the 
marks that diftinguifh my figure from 
thofe of my fellow-creatures. That gei*- 
• tleman fat himfelf down at a table, pulled 
a bit of paper and an ink-horn out of his 
pocket, and bidding me to ftand up be- 
fore him, looked at me fcveral times* I 
fuppofe that he regiftered down the moft 
remarkable parts of my perfon, noted 
the plainnefs of my face, the colour of 
my hair, the fi«e of my nbfe, the fmalk 
?iefs of my eyes, the height of my body, 
and other fuch things, The fame cere- 
mony he performed with Batifte $ then 
marched off with much compofure, after 
having clapped in my hand a permiflion 
for us to go out of EJitemSr to-morrow, 
None of this petty policy in England, 


C *8 ] 

ajicL yet it is a pretty well-governt;4 
kingdom. L 

To fuch methods every foreigner mu ft 
fobnrit. . There is a rigid law, publifhecj 
in Lifbon pn the 26th of laft June^ which 
orders .every mafter or captain of ftiip not 
to land any body on Portuguefe; ground 
withopt giving previous information to a 
magiftrate newly created (called Intenr 
4enie geral da.policia da corte e do reino) 
of the quality and profeflion of the peopl? 
whom he is to land. Should he negleQ: 
to give it, he would be liable to have hig 
ihip confifeated and himfelf fubjeft to 
fuch puni(hment as that Intendant-ger 
nerai thought fit. Captain Pawn landed, 
me without conforming to that law, and 
no. body gave him or me any trouble, 
poflibly becaufe Engliih packets gounder, 
the denomination of fhips of was, and 
their captains are confidered as exempt 
froin the Jaws of other countries. How- 
ever, had J been apprifed of that law, I 
would cerfaiqly have gone. to acquaint 


t *9 1 

tfcat Senbor intendente geral of my Arrival; 
in order to avert all poffible moleftation* 
Strangers who enter this kingdom by land, 
are by that lawfubje&ed likwife to many 
tor oublefome formalities, But this govern- 
ment, like all others, has a right to enaft 
^vhat laws are thought proper, and it is a 
traveller's bufinefs to obey them rather 
than find fault with them. 

When the gentleman was- gone that 
had painted me with his pen, I pat my- 
felf in foffle order and went, about to fee 
the town. Its houfes are all fmall aritf 
low, and all white- waftied like thofe of 
Monfemor. I met with mafks at every 
ftep, and none would let me go by with-' 
out a mock-bow, A number of them 
ftopp'd in a ftreet where fome ladies fat 
in a balcony^ and there they began a 
dance. A young fellow amongft them 
Angularly attraffced my attention, and in- 
deed that of the whole company with 
his nimble capers ahd graceful motions- 
I have already feert the Portugeeze dance 


' t 30 ] 

lift Lijbon, and to give thefti theif 
doe, no nation (of thofe that I havd ' 
feen at leaft) hasany dance performed by 
two perfons, fo exhilarating as their Fan*' 
dangOi The Ttefcone of - the Tufcans, 
theFurlana of the Venetians, the Correnti 
of the Monferrines; and the Minuet 6t 
the Amiable of the French, ate flat per* 
fprmances in coraparifcn of that gallant 
one which I faw executed before that bal- 
cony by that youiig mail and a boy dreffed 
in woman's cloaths. But dances cannot 
be deferibed by words, nor can I convey 
to yda Any idea of the Fandango* but by. 
telliag you that every limb was in fuch a 
motion as might be called with propriety 
a regular and harmonious corivUlfion y>f the 
whole body. I have heard a French- 
ihafter ih Lifixm blarrte it much, arid fay 
it was fio dance at all : but what dance 
will be approved by a Frenchman that is 
not a produ&ion df his couritry ? He has 
no idea of graeefulaefs but what is prac- 
tifed on the opera**ftage at Paris. 
h - . " r The 

[31 1 

The inhabitants of this country as well 
As the Andalufians and the Granadaw* 
were, famous for dancing fo far back as 
the times of the Romans, and their young 
wonjen ufed then to go and dance at 
Rome and in other parts of the Roman 
empire, where they eaiily captivated k the 
hearts of confuls and proconfuls, as the 
female dancers of France go now to Italy, 
Germany* and England to enamour Big- 
nvrs^ Mtnbeers, and Mylords^ Martial 
mentions with fatyrical peeviihneft th« 
Betick and the Gaditan female-dancers * 
and the elded Scaliger, fometohere in his 
poeticks* fdys fomething of the dancing 
anciently ufed in the provinces that lie 
this way. You are lucky, my brothers, 
that 1 travel without a Martial and a 
Scaligtr. Had I their books, I would not 
let this opportunity flip without making 
as great a wafte of erudition as our Bar- 
tali the antiquariatl docs fo often. 

The dance being Qver and the roaflte 
difperfed, I went to vifit the two -princi- 

I 3* 1 

|>al convents in the town, but faw nothing 
worth noting in either* Only from fomtl 
windows of the Auguftine there is a prof* 
pe& over fame hills pretty well ornament-* 
ed with trees, which one 1 of the friars caU 
le&tbejineft proJpeSl in the world* 

As I was returning home I met with 
another mafquerade $ nor was is difficult 
to know it for a military one. The foldiers 
of the garrifon had difguifed themfelves 
as well as they <:ould with handker- 
chiefs, towels* and cloaks. Some of them 
had ornamented their hats with abundance 
of hen-feathers : Yet the men of war 
broke through the difguife. Their pipers 
and drummers made a horrid noife on 
their inftniments. ' 

As the whole mafquerade came to the 
lquare, one of them (a corporal or ferje- 
ant, as I thought, commanded a halt and 
a filence : then read in aloud tone of voice 
a proclamation, which ordered the inha<- 
bitants of JLftrem6r tb mafk and be merry 
for a.wholeweek in. honour of the prin* 


r ay j 

cefi (fBruJHwho about two montlis ag6 
wis married to heriliicle Dom Pedro.' 

Iconld not wdfl fcdthprehefid the whole 
import of that pfoclamafion, in whkh 
theiKkig, Queen,. Princefs, and Dom Pe- 
dro were, repeatedly named, along with 
the blefledLady, St. -Anthony, &h Fran- 
cis, tthex friars, the nuris, the peace and 
liberty of the kingdom, the mfcflcs and 
the dances; with I bnow not what. 

Night at laft tame on, and I went to a 
fpkndid fupper which Batifte had got 
ready, to make himfelf amends for the* 
poor diimer.we had- made at the V tent a do 

I go now to ftretch my limbs on the 
ftraw-bag : but I have feen 51 joyful maf- 
querade, and am pleafed. I wanted to 
know why thefe rejoicings were~ delayed 
fo long after the marriage, but no body 
could tejJL me. 

After ~fome debate with myfelf I have 
at laft refolved to go to-morrow to Villa 
Ftzofa. This will keep me a day longer 

Vox. II. D in 

£ 3* I 

in Portugal : but what fignifies an incon- 
venienceitfejEt will fep over hi a day ? It 
is therefore probable that my letter of 
to-morrow night wMl prove, pretty long. 
Yet ypuxare not to. than!? me. fqr.the 
length of my letters, as I write rather to 
divert the difagreeahle effett my dhagree- 
able journey might produce on my fpi- 
rits, than with a view to- prove inftrvfc- 
tive or entertaining. - It is to this neeef- 
fity that you will owe the knowledge if 
a thoufand trifles and a thovdand remarks, 
which I let flow from 'the pen, thougil 
I am pretty ferrfible of thenmnimpori 
tance. . .1 


t *s 1 


J£ Military tuftm; WhifMni A puktt. 

" : &b irdvcfots expeBed. A bog-Jty. 
<* ' fine dantirtgXnd fta qei. 

-:•.:«;;. • • ' „ 

• £lv», Sept. 21, 1760. in the morning. 

EA IN haw* proved the efforts i 
made to procure a copy of the pro* 
fcjamatibn that vras read the other day at 
J$rttnw, and you muft do without the 
tcanihtion, which I intended to give yarn 
as ^ fpremtett^f theLufitanic eloquence, 
had I been able to get it. I offered* 
pretty piece of money to a poor foldier, 
on condition he could obtain it for me 
from his corporal* But nothing can be 
(lone when we have no time to fpare. 

Yefterday morning at five I was awak- 
«4 by the drummers and pipers of that 
garrifon, who came to wifh me a good 
journey with a noify march on their in- 
ftruracnts* that i*» to get a little drink- 
• . t> z moneyj 

' I -3? 1 

money : a cuftom introduced here by 
military) poverty, J" wJiixh ^fhineS forth 
through the ragged coats of this wretched 
.iofaatiy, Indeed the poof -feUros^haftp 
.Wthipg.tibout them that jfcay be called 
good, except their whifkefs. If Jthey 
were better drefled, fuch bufhy and curl* 
ed fcare-crows would" have a fine effe6b 
It was once iifual : for ; fdt#ki:s livall c$i$- 
trie? to wearthat virile ;orh4iii€flt ; find 
I know rt'bt W% it has bfeeri4*ft eff r * a&a 
thick pair of w&ifkers gifres & moft info& 
pid air J:o the f olio wefs-ctf-Ma*^ : — -* 
I am told that the'trbbp* kept tip ift 
this kingdom; amount to no' ftiore thfiti 
eight thoufand ; and if the private flileri &$$ 
ail like thofe whom F havd feett- it Efirethor 
ftftd Lijboti, theteis no where in Europe ad 
equal nuiiiber that look fo wretchedly (a}i 

(a) . / have been , /tfte/p informed that the effeStvue 
troops in Portugal amount now- to twenty tftoufarid% 
that they are all 'pick 'd men , all very well dreffed^ and 
full, as well difciplined as the Prufftans themfelves\' 
The loft unexpected war has forteH the Portuguefe g9* 
vtrnm^ttifformmiitepupfoctnfida'flbleanarmy, . 


* 37 1 

TFhe 1 greateft part of them are abfolutely 

irfrags and patdievand*' fir hijbon many 

of thtem aflced 1 my charity not only in the 

•fleets, but evert when they ftood cehti- 

nels; nor did their officers appear to any 

greit advantage when I few them on duty 

before the wooden edifice, (fee vol. I. p. 

*r 60.7 though they vifibly endeavoured to 

pffct on a martial look and fet their legs iri 

poftures of defence. As to their generals, it 

Is faid that not xaie (h) .has the ieaff repu^ 

(*) In a forked reply given by the' hng 'ofPoYtu* 
get on April 5, 1762, to' a memorial \ jrtfenfed by the 
fyanijh Ambajadors, there are the following words. 
* " u F01 precizamente rieceflario prezervar fua ma- 
& geftade fidelifflma o feu real decoftf cbhtrti os , 
** cfatnore.s dor feus vaflallos, c contra as cricicas 
*«' que em toda a Europa reduhdavanVate encheremi 
*«< as mefmas novas pubKeasj fabendo todo o mundo 
•* ojue'efn Portugal Hob havid generaes' riem officiaei 
* c que'' tiveffeni experiencla das campanhas, mandou 
*? eonyidar para o feu fervi^o* o Lord Tyrawli ; 
« affim comb fe praticou fempre fcefte reino, e fe 
>* -praticou agora a jpefpeito de outros differentes of- 
<*\i$toi& Y naa foulaglezcs, ma& de todas a&outra* 
» na?oens da Europe para difci^Uaatf m as tr^pas 

{ 3* * 

tatioa far military-ikilL But we raufi 
not wondee at the great negkft of tip* 
gorcnmnt .with regard : to the army. 
This country is fo fitaated, as to be at 
moil quite out of danger of any wart if 
they keep hut fair with Spain ; and Spaia 
is poffeflbd of two many dominions t* 
think much of this. The Portuguefe 
navy, they fay, is in much better order, 
having failors in good plight and com- 
panders- of great capacity. 

• In Englifi> ibis.* IC It was incumbent on his maft 

V faithful Maje^y to take care of his own honour 
«• againft the clamour of his fubje&s and the cen- 
** fores of ,a!I Eurooe, which were even conveyed 
u .tp the public Gazettes. It is notorious to. the 

\ " whole world th^t ip . Ppr;ug5iL tfare are f nutjher 

V Geturals nor Officers of experience. Therefore the 
u King invited Lord Tyrawli (thus is this nana 
<* fpeltj to his fervice 3 add the fame ha* heen done 
u with 'Sgtfd. t(».o(tarofe;w who arc np* all 
u Sngjifo, b»t of other, nations. of, fturopf? 5 arv} it 
" has always been the Quftoip in thi* kipgdom 4 fo 

*•• to do whenever it was thought proper." Tins 
^Migemem e^hfitfim dues great bpmur to the Pmrivgnefo 

\» ■ ; , . : I went 

1 19 i 

,1- went yBfterdiy morning to Villa Vi+ 
#pfb, which is not far from Mftrew6r> and 
ftnt from tixzEftailage dmeiFage to the 
Sceriffe^ begging the favour to have the « 
palace fhewri me. Sceriffe they call the 
gentleman, to whole care that palace is 
*ntrufted ; and a very polite gentleman he 
jb. He fent a man to me with the keys, 
and met me at the gate. 

My vifit did not laft long, becaufe there 
5s but little to be fecn. In a great hall 
{hdre are portraits of Kings and Queens. 
Some cardinal virtues are painted in the 
deling of one room, and Hercules fight- 
ing the lion in another. Indifferent pen- 
formances, this laft efpecially. There fe 
nothing ftrrprifing i in the dlfpofitibn of 
the apartments within, no more thaja hi 
, the architefhire without, which at the 
firft glance looks Gothkfc ( though not fo 
* 4f th$ fecond, being a bdd Thfcan or 
Jonick, * have already forgot which* The 
furniture Js.athcr mean than old, and 
there are a hundred boufes at Genoa itw 
m ' D 4 comparably 

comparably better* However we mu& 
not confider it as a royal villa. It was 
not built by any King, but by an ancnwit 
duke of Braganza, from whom his pre- 
sent Majefty is defcended j . and during 
the time that Portugal was only a pro- 
vince of the vaftSpanifh monarchy uncler 
the fucceflive reigns of. three Philip 
Villa Vizofa was one of the country T feats 
of the Braganza family, . No perfon of 
the royal family ever goes there, eycepfc 
fometimes Dom Pedra for £ few days* 
and on fuch oc^alionsjie does not Jqdge 
in the palace, x but iq, a fmpll, houfe. ad- 
joining,, which I am told is elegaqtly At- 
t^d up. The mqft remarkable thing I 
faw there, are fome old lamps and caji- 
.dlefticks, in what they .call the Royal* 
Chapel, whi^h are of pure filver and he** 
,vy enoqgh. Before Dom ^edros hoiaife 
.there is a fmall and n^gle&ed parUrre* 
jand behind the. palace a large kitchen- 
gardeji very well flocked with fruit and 
leguines, ; ^he village adjoinipg ^s Jjfeer 
/ wife 

wile indifferent, and on a neighbouring 
hill there is a citidel wholfe waifs are 
tumbling down into the ditches like thofe 
of EftremSr. Many Roman coins, in- 
fcriptions, and other antiquities, have 
keen found in this place. In fhort, the 
g& the beft thing there, and I am 
much, obliged to him for his urbanity* 
He was fo good as to giVe me leave to 
crofe the park with the chaifes to (horten 
the way. That park runs round fcveral 
miles, but looks more like a wildernefe 
th#n a park. There are fome few deer 
in it r which Tago and Dom Maruieh took 
great delight in frightening with their vo- 
ciferations and claps of their whips. 

Having got out of the park we came 
(up and down many rugged and pathlefe 
hills) to this town of Ehas> or Tehas y 
and reached it late at night. About a 
league from it an aqueduft begins, which 
jnade me almoft forget that magnificent 
ohe over f the valley of Alcantara. What 
I feifr of it appeared very grand, and had 


it not been too late I wotjld have flopped 
and taken floors rtotice of it, They fay 
ft is a Jgoorifb work* If it is true, it does; 
them much honour, 

$has, XiktEftremir, ftands on an curt* 
ijence. It is fortified after the ttiod«n! 
feflion j but the fortifications are going; 
to ruins. Happy Portuguefe that want 
^either fortreffes nor. fbldjers I 

Out of the gate at whidvwe *ntew& 
th,ere was a great concourfe of people, J 
a(ked the reafon of it, and was informed 
th^t a fair is this week kept there for 
horfes and black-cattle. On both fides jjf 
the road there were many cloaths fpread 
by way of tents, and the ropes which 
Supported therji, eroded the road in fuch 
a manner, that we had not a little to do 
to pafs under them with the chaifes. 
The merchants who had erected thofe 
temporary conveniences, expired not 
that any carriage would come that way, 
asi it is bqt very feMom tjiaft they fee a 
traveller going by, either towards Madrid 


r 43 3 

or toward* Ltjhm y therefore they hat 
made no fcrtfpfe to; embarraft the road. 
- On feeing fo many people my heart 
mifgavc me, as it ocurred immediately 
that no room mould I be able to get at 
fhe Eftatiagc; nor did my conjecture 
ftfove wrong, which puzzled me the more 
tt» He began to rain very hard. However 
plucking up a courage and trotting to the 
Jaced-coat I had put on to vifit with de- 
cency the palace at Vilh Ftzofa, and 
taking it for granted that the Efiallageiro 
would he better pleated to give a room 
"to a laced ftranger than to Tome bare- 
footed native, I had him called at Ms 
gate as I alighted, and muttering up all 
the Portuguefe I poffibly could, repre- 
feiited to Sua Mejfif in a very ferious and 
pathetic tone of voice, that SuaMeJfe 
coiild not ref ufe me a room in Sua MtjfPs 
houfe, if Sua Mejfe would but confide^ 
fhit I had an ample paffport (I pulfd it 
out) frbm his moft faithful 'Majifty ; 
fubjoinbrg that I hoped Sua Mejfthzd too 
i much 

[ 44 I 

Iriiich good-ienfe to oblige 'me to go art4 
cafry any complaint agaihft Sua Me][t-\b 
the governor, vt\o;\ was fm? /would com- 
pel: Sua Mep. taie hofpitable to a fo* 
xeign Fidalgo: ::l If-. ~* ' - ■' '* 

- TJiis nonfenfe,' delivered with' a flow 
monotonous found of voice, procured m$ 
fnany advocates with the* Eftallageiro, as 
pfcrfe& a tatterdemalion aseverwasfeen'} 
and 2» dealer in cows who ftood by, had 
fagacity enough to find, that 1- had ati , 
pndifputable right to pufh -out* qf th« 
1 jtface any body I! pleafed, and 1 put myfelf 
in th'e ftead, upon the ijiere ftrength of 
my paffport. Such is the power of rhe- 
toric even on dealers in cows. ;• 

But the fa£t is, that the Efiellageirt 
wanted only the colour of a reafon to aft 
in favour of my coat ; and partly with 
g6od, partly with bad words, forced a 
poor afs-driver out of a clofet, which any 
fow might have miftaken for her mother's 
habitation,. Poor afs-driver ! Drink thou 
the littfe 1 money I gave thee, to make 

..;;i - thee 

I *• ] 

$& ionteajjieods for th$ grbat tnju&i* 
I, was i«4i«&ly gpilty&ofc. when jbhfr 
profound quiet was. /d$urb£d ! H^fS 
patience foe thw time, and -*erle&r that 
although the gceatfeft< part of the.jfl^ 
dern poet* he'!but..<:ompa*ftWe. tc* t$$ 
bfrfts to poiat pf genuSs,- yet w : hen •:*> 
pleafes fpjftuwjfcofput&li&teitte o&.lift 
tqat of any One of r thejn >( not only! jafl& 
S&uft give hi*n;jhe. wall^.fcvtt even a&i, ' 
denjefs ig&outof hog*fties:t© n*ake. rpftfii 
f^r. him. j-..v i>... •...•.; >-, 

-: With that apartment I ^w.pWigfti 
tp put up. .anji be thjmkfuj. Ba&fe 
found fome mats, .which he;: laid, on jiga 
floor; the*> turned his .theugh^s towards 
getting me a.fupp<?r. .^,? t ,.. , . { . n 
;, wojild be ,ridicu3p^*tfiha$d;bij 
dream of any eatables jtgaffy!a& any £^ftft 
%*. No fuoh.cuftpms w» tlws.cftuntry, 
But little. did, w^ care, a$. w^.hpd a tur^j 
key in ftore. repdy-for the (pifvA-Uftx^lt 
ham, and; other things fsJLilbon-hagu 
are in high reputation, ^ad.;.& has.}°*lf 


C 4* 1 

that they are {till (bpcriour to thofe of? 
Btycna iad Wtfpbatu, ■ m 

I'was (hewn up*ftair* into a kind erf 
gallery, which opened into&veral rooms 
foil of people. This gallery wa* iprtart 
with men who flept wrapped op in their 
cloaks. As I advanced amongft thennst 
felt the floor (baking; and as my head 
has been filled with earthquakes eve* 
fince I retched Portugal, it occurred On 
a fudden that the ground was fhaking: * v 
but prefttirty was fenftble that the con*, 
taffion was caufed by my tooving along 
that ill-conftru<5ted noor. 
-As I wi* walking and waiting for 
my tapper, forae young muleteers camn 
out of the fide-rooms; One of them 
began to fkMe his guittar, and another 
produced a fottjg to the tune. They had 
fcarcely gone' oa three minutes with 
their perrorrJiance, when the deeper* 
{fated up^ white more than thirty .peon 
pie cam* out of thofe fide-rooms j atn4 

a dance 

I 4? ) 

ardance waa btgtm. Atnidt^cufra-e** 
per by way o£ rcwcrenceT to a woman, 
and the woman advanced immedktery 
to dance the Fandango with him. There 
is aio poflibilky of conveying to you- any; 
jaft Idea of their hilarity, nimbtends^ 
aad elafticity. There were four Spanifl* 
and>fifc Portuguefe females. Out of the 
ten I took only notkii of -^tree. One 
was a brownHh girl called' Terefuela, 
whom I foon found, to be the Jjeft Jih^e? 
«f themaIL« The other two were ftf+ 
tors ; the younger fo renowned in the 
«ow» around for a beauty, that fhe goes 
under the appellation of la bdhtCalUfind., 
The eldeft is mot fo jbandfonae, but hay 
fitch eyes-! • What a pitythe comparison 
of the ftars it no more in faflaion 4 : 
i The dreffes of thefe women wete^aH 
gaudy, especially the Spaniffe, who are 
come from Baiy4z with iqgne mate 
friends to fee Eitiat-fair. ivnuift repeat 
fa that J havefeea-Tarioua-danoex from 
Berenzo m ifiria to Derby :ht BagJend} 
''-> •:••••- ■-. . but 

E 4 I 

but^rie 9f thefn/is cfl*»f^abkvto-wifit 
I faw here to-night. It is truevthffc 
their geftures and attitudes are fame- 
times not fo compofed as oae_c<4ftld 
wifh : : yet, if I wafcppfiefl^l of the abi- 
lities of Martial, inftef d-pf running down 
the Fandango and the Seguedilla) .ty&telt I 
fuppofe were the dances. he fatyyij^^L 
would write a thoufend epigrajna \\\ 
praife of them, of T'erefuela^ of Cat^lim^ 
and moft particularly of Paotita, who 
has thpfe eyes I mentioned ! Oh this 
P^olita! — • 

JBoth the Fandango and the SegueJilia 
are danced either at the found qi the 
guittar alone, or the,,guittar accompa- 
nied by the voice, which is an advan- 
tageous addition when the guittarift hap- 
pens, to Jbave a good voice* Both men 
and- womeni white danckig, give a dou- 
blp clap with their thumbs and middle- 
fingers at every cadence, and both dashes 
(the Fandango efpecially) are rathfr ipade 
up with graceful motions and quick ftrik- 


t 49- I 

ing of their heels and tots on the ground, 
than with equal and continued .jfteps* 
They dance clofe to each other, then 
wheel about, then approach each other 
with fond eagernefs, then quickly re- 
tire, then quickly, approach again, the looking the woman fteadily in the 
face, while fhe keeps Jier head down, 
and fixes her eyes on the ground with 
as much modefty as fhe can put on* _ 
• I had flept but poorly for three nights 
: together,- and was fo much tired witlv * 
this day's journey, performed a-foot for 
the greateft part, that I was juft debat- 
ing whether I fhould, or not, go fupper- 
lefs to bed. But this unexpected feaft. 
changed my thought^ inftantly, and in- 
ftead of going to reft, 1 flood there gaz- 
ing with my whole foul abforbed in de- 
light. x ' 

The fellows who but a moment before 

were fleeping on that floor, without the 

leaft Ceremony, or theleaft fhame of their 

rags, danced away with the gaudy', ,4s 

Vol. IL # E .*&. 

t so 3 

Well as with the dirty women (for fome <*f 
them were dirty- enough) ;, nor did any of 
the company fhow the leaft partiality to 
age, to drefs, or to beauty, but all feem'd 
to dance merely for dancing-fake. I 
was a little furpized to fee a fhabby 
rafcal take up fo clean a girl as T!erefuela % 
who was the fineft of them all, and look 
fweeter upon her than any petit tnaitre 
Would at Paris upon a rich and tender 
widows This would not have been al- 
lowed in any of the countries I have 
vifited, where the ill-dreffed keep cQm?- 
pany with the ill-drefled, and , the fine 
with the fine, without ever dreaming of 
fuch mixtures as are pra&ifed in this part 
of the world. 

In a corner of this gallery there is a 

large table. Upon the table the doth 

was laid, and my fupper placed. There 

1 fat down to eat without ceremony or 

ihame in my turn. 

Having almoft done, Batifte put be^ 
fore me a large Englifh cake made by 
*» . - , • . Madam 

r p ] 

Madam Kelly. This cake I cut up into 
flices, and placing them pyrtmidically 
tipoh a plate, I went to prefent it round 
to the ladies, paying them < a Caftilian 
compliment that I had been a quarter 
ef an hour in compoling. Each of them 
with the moft difembarrafs'd counte- 
nance picked up her flice, fomc with 
a bow, fome with a fmile, and fome 
with a kind word. 

The cake being thus difpofed, I turn- 
ed to the Gentlemen (muletteers, afs* 
driversi and all) and calling them FMal- 
goe's and* Cavalierv's, invited them to 
drink the health of the amables Bayla- 
rinas (amiable Jhe-dancers) which they 
all did with the nobleft freedom and 
greateft alacrity; and much was the 
general joy encrealed by this fudden 
piece of outlandifti manners. Several 
of them, who till then had fcarceljf 
deigned to look on the Eftrangiiri> or 
feemed afraid tofpeak to him, now (hook 
him by the hand, and each had fome- 
E 2 . thing 

I s*.1 

thing to fay to me either in fpanifli or 

To the ladies after the cake I ordered 
glafles of water, becaufe I knew that to 
offer them wine would have fpoiled all 
the good I had done, and the offer con- 
ftrued into a grofs affront $ in filch ef- 
teem is' fobriety amongft thefe people. 
One of them who was with child, fent 
to afk a flice of the Tram, and her ex- 
ample was folfo wed by the reft. 

About midnight the dance was inter- 
rupted by a bonfire which was out of the 
town in honour of the Princefs. marriage. 
We all went to fee it from a baftion: but 
to my great fatisfadtion the rain fpoiled 
it, fo that we came back to* the EJiallage 
where the dance began again with a 
greater fury than before, and lafted two 
hours ' longer. Cat#linas fifter, together 
with the befteyes had alfo the moft pliant 
body and the nimbleft' heels, and being 
willing {as her figpificant looks told me) . 

4 to 

[ 53 3 

to repay me my little civility to her com- 
pany, danced a dance without a partner, 
and difplayed fo many graces in it that 
never was my poor heart in fo imminent 
a danger. 

. When fhe had done, I clapped hands 
with fuch violence, and was fo power- 
fully feconded by Batijle, Tago, and Dom 
Mdnuehy that the fpe<Skators were forced 
out of their cuftomary phlegm on fuch 
occafions, and with a moft formidable 
ihout of applaufe gave her the reward 
ihe had fo well deferved. A young Fidalgo 
took then her place, and difplayed his fur- 
prizing agility, clapping thumbs, cutting 
capers, and throwing his body into a 
thoufand pi£torefque attitudes. . fcrefu- 
ela then gave us.fome Cafiilian fongs, 
:her voice fo fweet, and her manner fo 
eafy, that it would have done honour to 
the beft of our theatrical queens. Fair 
Catilina-ixmg likewife, but not fo well 

as her friend. 

E 3 When 

[ 54 1 

When they had done I fent word til 
Paotita, that I fhould be obliged to her if 
flxe would favour me wiih a copy of 
her fitter's laft fong. Thisr I did, not only 
becaufe I had liked feveral things in that 
fong, but alfo becaufe I wanted to try 
whether at was poflible to enter into 
fome converfation with her, and fee whe- 
ther her fenfe and wit bore any pro- 
portion to her eyes* The anfwer fhe 
returned was, that fhe would not fail 
to fend me a whol$ book qf fongs the 
next day at the Bojada (the Inn) at Bada- 
jdz y as the next day they were to go there as 
Mrell as myfelf. 

To make this requeft I had employed 
one of the company, who by hi$ fa- 
miliarity with her I judged a proper 
meffenger. But, brother, could'ft thou 
not go to her, and talk to her thyfelf ? 
No; I could not. Had this been fea- 
sible, I had not ypaited for your encou- 
ragement. Tn thefe regions the manners 


I 55 ] 

arc different from thofe of England, 
prance, and Italy * and I can allure you 
tjiat I would have given I know not 
vfhat for the fatisfa&ion of interchang- 
ing a few words with that Paolita, whofc 
eyes in the fortieth year pf pay age I 
could hardly refift. 

, Jt was near three when an end was put 
to the feaft, and each went to lie down 
Qn the ground. Yes, all on the ground, 
fome on mats, fome on ftraw-bags, foms 
qn the naked flbojr, all without taking off 
their clothes, Terefuefa, ' Catalin# % and 
her black-ey'd fifter not excepted. All 
on the ground after the piannef of the 
golden age. 

< I was the only perfon that did not do 
like them. My fpirits had been fo raifed 
by this unexpe£ted pleafure, that having 
not the leaft inclination to deep, ihr- 
ftead of going, to my couch I called for 
pen and ink, and have now been full 
three hours writing this account* It is 
broad, day, and I am ftill here in this 
E 4 quak- 

[ 56 ] 

quaking gallery, which I expcfted every 
moment to go down : and it had been 
a lingular adventure if the muletteers, 
Nafs-drivers, caleffeiros, the brownifh girl, 
fair Catalina, her fifter, and every male 
anc| female there,, had tumbled all iq. 
a confufed heap into the-ftory below. 

It rains now very hard ; and as every 
body round me is afleep, I will go and 
try if I can get fome reft. The next 
ftation to Badajdz is - but three fhort 
leagues, and I don't care how late I £ct\ 
out this afternoon. 


]Love-tnatters> white cows, a cardinal, an- 

oU friend, and ■ a Portuguefe letter. • 
« * 

* • Badaj6z, Sejft. 22, 1760, in the evening. 

T.T is lucky that I am going from thefe 
•* regions. Were I to make the leaft 
#ay, I fhould infallibly grow taad > 
though I am old enough to be wife. 

Yes : * 

. I 57 1 


Yes : was I to tarry here ever fo fhort a 
time, my philofophy which has, bravely 
withftood for ten years the repeated hot- 
tilities of Britifh beauty, my poor, my 
filly, my contemptible philofophy, would 
fufrender to a poorer I am alhamed to 
name. But let me follow the thread of 
my ftory with my ufual method. 

It was nine o'clock this morning when 
I had not yet clofed my eyes. The 'fight 
of dancing and the hurry of writing 
had inflamed my mind too much. I got 
lip and went into the fhaking gallery, 
where feveral of the men were eating 
fait meat and pickled olives with the four 
Spanifh women. An odd breakfaft, I 
thought. The women bowed and fmiled 
as I entered, and the men "invited 
me to do as they did, which I declined. 
People fay that the Spaniards conftant- 
ly breakfaft on chocolate. Perhaps they 
do when they are at home : but here the 
general report was effe&ually contradi&- 


[ 58 ] 

After breakfyft they had another touch 
at the Fandango in compliment to me, 
having feen how much I had been pleafecj 
with \t : a piece of Spanifli civility that 
fhould not pafs unnoticed. But while 
fome were thus dancing, others werg 
fliaving in the fame, room. This in other 
countries would be deemed an intolerable, 
want of manners $ but here it is nothing. 
Thefe people live \ixxXyfansfc$on> or to fay 
better, * la Tar fare. 

That fliort dancing being over, the 
^yomen would go to mafs though it con- 
tinued to rain hard. The Spanifli wo r 
men, it feems, lijce the Portuguefe, love 
to hear a mafs every day in the year : 
The Italian only on Sundays and holi- 
days, efpecially when young.. They, 
went accordingly to fetch their mantillas $ 
that is the white veils with which they 
cover their heads and the upper part of 
their bodies. I need not tell you, that 
during the night I had looked rather too 
often at Paolitas eyes, and that fhe had 


I sr ,1 

given me clearly to underftand feveral 
times, that (he was not difpleafed at the 
preference I gave her to the brownift* 
fferefuela> and even to herownhandfome 
filler : and fince I am about it, I may as 
well tell you, that when we went to fee 
the bonfire, fomebody in the dark gave 
me a flight pinch in the arm, and ran her 
hand againft mine, 

Well both men and women quitted the 
gallery and went to church. But tliey had , 
fcareely reached the bottom of the 
{fairs, when back returns Paolita to fetch 
a glove. The fteps (he mounted with 
fuch celerity, and ftood before me (o un- 
jexpe&edly, that I almoft loft my fight in 
the furprize. Dios te dta mil ahos de bicn* 
Eftrangerci,&id1he, throwing up her veil 
andfpeaking in my ear. I had no other 
anfwer ready but a kifs on her right eye, 
and another on her left $ and before I 
/rapid recover my thoughts, pff ih$ was 

v Shfr 

[ 6o ] 

She is gone f and has left me, I cannot 
tell in what condition ! What bufinefs 
had flie to forget a glove, or to come 
back and wifh me well ! I wifh her well 
too, and with a thoufand hearts if I had 
them : but I am a mere traveller in this 
country : and what is worfe I have al- 
ready travelled beyond my fortieth year. 
Why then did flie think of het glove ! 
Oh ye Seneca's, ye Boetius's, ye feges all, 
whofe pages I once read with fome {atten- 
tion, I humbly beg your pardon for hav- 
ing read them, as I now find, to very 
little purpofe ! A glance, a pinch, a no- 
thing', has proved ftrongerthan any dozen 
of ybuj and has inftantaneoufly thrown 
topfy turvy that vaft colle&ion of wifdom, 
which I have been making for years and 
years out of your volumes ! But let me 
think of her no more, and go on with my 

The long vigil had made me refdve 
to fet out late, and thus I left Efoas at 
three in the afternoon. The rain conti- 

t 6 * 3 

nued pouring. Having gone on about 
two hours, we croffed a torrent called 
Caya y which is the boundary on that fide 
between Portugal and Spain. Though 
that, torrent may be pafled with a dry foot 
alnioft the year round, it was now fo 
fwollen by the rain, that it waftied the 
bellies ^of , my muless fo that I -loft all 
hopes of having the fongs that Paolit* 
had promifed, feeing plainly that the afTes 
oq which the two fillers are to ride back 
t6 Badajtz, will not :be able to yyfadj? the 
Cay a to-night. But fee ! Here fhe is 
again. Begone, girl, begone ! I wiU 
think of thee no more. I am forty years 
of age ! 

My thoughts had not been agreeably 
employed from Ehaj to that torrent : 
Yet I felt a flufli of joy as I peached the 
oppofite fide of it. Portugal at laft was 
behind me, and the Cakjfeircs' (nQ more 
Calefeiros) aflured me that travelling 
would now prove much better. No 
more EJtelhges in Spain, but Pofajas. 


t .«* 1 

No rtiorfe lying on the floor and uport 
mats and ftraw* but in Camas altas fluffed 
with wool, ahdjavana s limpias cada mchei 
Jt lifted qiiiete : that is, high beds and clean 
Jheets every night at choice** 

Badajoz, anciently Pax Auguftn, is a 
fortified town built on a fraall eminence 
about a league from the Caya. We en-* 
' tered it by a ftone-bridge over the river 
Guadiaha. • That bridge is one of the 
longeft and moft magnificent I have as 
yet ieen. Were it a little wider it would 
do honour to the Thames itfelf* 'Tis 
the favourite evening-walk of the Bada*- 
jozians. I was much pleafed on my 
reaching the Guadiana to fee along the 
bank oppofite the town a large heard of 
milk-white cows. Their number a*- 
mounting to no lefs than five hundred, 
which is more than Alkmtejo and the 
EJiremadura Portugueza contain* At 
leaft I can aver, that I did not fee one 
from Aldeagallega to Villa Vizofa inclu- 
sively. At Elvas indeed I faw a few : but 


that was becaufe of the fair which wat 
kept there. Where do the PortUguefe 
get thofc many bulls they flay in the am~ 
phitheatre at Campo Pequeno on fundays? 
and where the oxen that draw their 
Creaking carts, or the butcher's meat 
that is eaten in their metropolis ? I fup~ 
pofe they have fome province on die 
weftern-fide of the Tagus more fertile 
than the two above-named, and abound- 
. ing in paftures* 

At the north end of Badajoz-bridge 
there is a gate flanked by two round 
ftone-towers or dungeons. Behind that 
gate I was welcomed to Spain by two fel- 
lows, whom at firft fight I miftook for 
two Jefuits, as they were both covered 
with black cloaks that reached the 
ground, and wore flapp'd hats on their 
heads. But their errand to me made me 
prefently fenfible that they were cuftom- 
men. They begged I would order the 
Caleflerosto drive to the Aduana (Cujiom* 
boufe) . where roy trunks were opened 
3 and 


find fearched; .butnot in the favagemaiip 
tier that is prafiifed in England, where 
a rude fcoundrel difcompofes all ybur 
things * without any difcretion, unfows 
-even your coats, if he has the leaft fufpi* 
cion of lace concealed between the lining 
and the cloth $ and when he has vexed 
you much, extorts from you fome {hil- 
lings as a reward for his coarfenefs and 

This, ^mongft numberlefs other, is an 
inconvenience which difhoneft travellers 
have brought upon the honeft. The 
* grofs of mankind are thieves ; and many 
of them are perpetually endeavouring to 
defraud fovereigns of their rights by what 
i$ called fmugglixg. vThofe who are de- 
puted to levy thefe rights, cannot read 
honefty or difhonefty in the faces of go- 
ers and, comers, and diftinguifh the 
fmuggler from the gentleman: There- 
for^ they put every body indiftin&ly *to 
the trouble of being fearghed, Thefe 
fearches are more or lefs rigorous in this 


[ 65 ] 

and that ftate. In England they are quite 
infufferable. There I have been often 
fhocked to fee even ladies treated with 
an indecency that the rougheft Barbarians 
would be aftiamed to pra&ife. The Spa- 
nish government, it feetiis, a£ts with more 
geherofity in this refpeft than the Eng- 
lish, and does not think fuch contrabands 
as travellers may conceal in a trunk* 
an objeft "of much attention, or a dimi* 
notion worth minding of the public re- 

The P of ad a of Santa Lucia where I 
alighted, is not much better than a Por- 
tuguefe Efialkge. However its walls are 
found, the roof not cracked, and the floor 
not paved with pebbles ' like a ftreet. 
Here, • as in Portugal, the windows have 
no panes, but only Abutters, which ex- 
clude the light if you exclude the rain, 
the wind, or the cold* No drawers, 
Wardrobes, or iooking-glafles. Here, 
qaoth Batifte, fuch pieees of furniture are 
not la mode eomme en France. Here the 

Vol. II. F chairs 

t 66 3 

chairs tdtter and the tables are greafy, 
exadtly as in the EfiallagesJ But the 
Camas alias are fomething that the Eftafc 
lages had not ; .and as to this Senor (no 
more Senbor) Pofadero y we fliould be th« 
beft friends in the world, was I to fix my 
refidence in Badapz. He plays upon the 
guittar better than any body I have as yet 
heard, and his civility is equal to his fkill 
in mufic. He would play while I was 
fhavittg para difenfadar a Vfied % faftl he j 
that is, to' divert me the while. Could he 
pufti politenefs further ? 

As foon as alighted I difpatched Ba* 
tifte with a note to Cardinal Acciaioli> in- 
forming his eminence of my arrival, beg- 
ging leave to be admitted al bacio della 
facra porpora, and to offer my fervice for 
Itajy, whither I was going forthwith, 
While I waited for an anfwer, a gentle-? 
man rufhed into my room and threw his 
arms about me before I was aware, crying 
ben trwato, ben trovato. I ftared, and 
look'd, and knew him not, . How ? : 



t>on*t you know your old Milanefe frietld 
Merofio? Ah Doftor, is it you ? Indeed 
it was himfelf, one of the favourite com- 
panions of my youth. He had met with 
Batifte in the ftreet, whom he had known 
in Lifbon. What do you here, Batifte ? 
Sir, I am with my old matter, Mr. Such 
a one, and we go to Italy. What ? ,My 
old friend from Turin ? Yes, Sir, he is 
of Turin* If you are his friend, ftep to 
the Pofada, and you will fee him* This 
proved a delightful furprize to the Doc- 
tor and me, as you may well imagine. 
We afked each other numberlefs quef-* 
tions in a moment, and could not recover 
from the amazement of fuch a belt in~ 
centre in fo remote a corner of the world 
as Badajoz. m ' * 

The cardinal, to whom my name hap- 
pened not to be quite r unknown, fent me 
word that he would be glad to fee .me, 
and to him I went with Merofio, who is 
has phyfician. He received me with af- 
fability* and feemed much pleafed at the 
Fa plea- 

I 68 ] 

pleafure that fparkled in the eyes of two 
friends who had unexpectedly met oft 
the banks of the Guadiana. There 
I pafled a moft agreeable evening, and 
Portugal, Rome, and England furnifhed 
u§ with topics of converfation for five 
hours. With his eminence thefe is a 
young Monfignore his nephew, and fe- 
veral other Italian gentlemen, all heart- 
ily tired with their long ftay here, and 
all wifhing to exchange it for Rome. 
Badajiz y they fay, is no very cardina- 
li'tan refidence. Excepting the governor 
Conde <Jie la Roca, and two or three of- 
ficers of the garrifon, who have feen the 
world, there are no people in it much 
fit for converfation * The Badajozians 
who perhaps never faw a-cardinal withirt 
their walls ever fince they were built, 
pay his* eminence a fort of refpeft, that . 
approaches adoration, or idolatry^ as he 
termed it himfelf, which he returns with 
riumberlefs benedictions whenever he 
goes out. But this interchange of kind- 


[ 6 9 3 

jjefs does not mend matters with him, 
$qd his days pafs on in languor rather 
than in quiet. And how does he pafs 
the nights ? Happy we, obfcure mortals, 
vyho have nothing to difturb our fleep, 
but the hardnefs of a mattrafs, and a 
thought of Paolita ! It is not always a bad 
thing tabe an obfcure mortal, and below 
the notice of Kings and Popes. - 

J need not tell you by what accident a 
mm of his importance was brought to 
this town. The public papers have in- 
formed you of the treatment be met at 
Lifbon, and how roughly he was driven 
from thence with all his retinue, I was 
bold enough to afk him the reafon of it. 
J verily think, faid he, that thofe who 
did it, know it no better than myfelf. An 
order was brought me in writing tp quit 
Lifbon in an hour $ but the fifty foldiers 
'who brought that order, did not al- 
low me a minute. Their commander 
hurried me into a boat without giting 
me time to fhut my writing-defk, made 
F 3 mc 

[ 7° ] 

me crofs^the Vagus, and faw me to the 
Cay a in four days. On the road I had no 
bed, and fcarce any thing to eat ; and all 
this without my knowing* why. But 
come to fee me when I am in Italy, and 
then I will tell you more. Here, added 
he with a fmile, I muft be a great politi- 
cian, and hold my tongue. 

To-morrow I intend to do as I did to- 
day, and go no more than three leagues. 
I fliall pafs the whole morning with my 
friend, who, like a true Milanefe, grieves 
at his mailer's iituation, though he knows 
po more of his affairs than myfelf. 

I will end this with the letter written 
by Dom Luiz da Cunba, Secretary of State 
to the Cardinal, and fent by the officer 
that was to accompany him fo far as the 

« Carta; 

• •« Sfye * Qrdem de S. Mageftade tfcrevjo o fecretario 
f c de ejlado Dom Luiz da Cunba ao Cardinal jfcrfaiajli 
f« para fakir' da Corte de Ufioa. 

«< EminentiJJimo e reverendijfimo Senhor. 

« Sup Mageftade, ufando do jujio, real, e 

V fufrem 

L 71 1 

fupremo poder> que for to Jos oi Mreitos Ibe 
compete, para confervar illeza a fua au- 
<c tboridade regia, e prefervar os feus vaf- 
fallos de efcandalos prejudiciaes & tran- 
quilidade publica dos feus reinos: Me 
n manda intimar a Voffa Eminencia que logo 
€c immediatamente a apprefentafao dejia 
carta baja Voffa Eminencia de fahir dejia 
corte para a outra banda do 'Tejo, e haja 
de fakir via reft a defies reinos no precizo 
termo de quattro diets. 
" Para o decente tranfporte de Voffa Emi- 
nencia fe achao prompt os os rentes efcaleres 
na praya fronteira a caza da habita^ao 
u de Voffa Eminencia. 

" E para que Voffa Eminencia po fa entrar 
* cc neileS) e feguir a fua viagem e caminbo y 
u fern o menor receyo de infuttos eontrariof & 
c< proteccao que Sua Mageftade quer fempre 
" que em todos os cazos ache em feus domi- 
u nios a immunidade do, car after de £« 
cc ^offa Eminencia fe acha reveftido: Manda 
V' o dito Senbor ao mefmo tempo acompanbar 
II * Vyjfo Eminencia at I a fronteira defte 
F 4 • £ reim 





I an 3 

* € rmm por buma decoroza e cmprtmie ef* 
*' coita militar. 

" Fkopqra fefvir a Voffa Eminencia com 
^ $ trigior o&feguio. Deos gtfarde a Voffa 
€€ Eminencia tnuitos annos. Pago a 14, dt 
cc Jmbo de 1760. De Voffa Eminencia 
" ohfequioziffmo fervidpr, 

D. Luiz da Cunh a. 

In Englifh thus. 

c< A Letter, 

c « Which by order of his Majefly Dom £uiz 
«* it Cunha Secretary of State, wrote to Cardinal 
f c Ac<;i#iolli, ttyt he may fortjbyitfe 4«ftut, fr<W 
« the Court of Lifbon. 

u M oft eminent and moil reverend Sir. 

<* His Majefty, making ufe of the juft, 
f f royal, and fuprerae power which he has 
« c «U forts of right to, that he may fceep 
" inviolate his royal authority ftfld pre- 
' ** ferve his fubjefls from fuch fcandgk as 
** might prove, prejudicial tp the public 
**• tranquility of his kindoow, onto me 
!! to let Your Eminence know, that, on 

« c your 

r 73 3 

«yc«v having this prefeHjci to yao, you 
"quit immediately this court and croft 
c * over to the o£pofite fide of the Tagus, 
« to depart ftrait from thefe kingdoms 
c i within the term of four days. 

"For the decent tranfport of Your 
cc Eminence, the royal barges will be 
" ready before the houfe inhabited by " 
u Your Eminence, 

c< And that Your Eminence .may en- 
** ter them and. continue this journey 
" without the ieaft fear' of infrdts con~ 
* t**ry tp the protection which his M*- 
* fcfty on every occafion grants in his 
" own dpminions to the immunity of 
" the character invefted in Your Emi- 
<c nence, the faid locd orders at the fame 
<*timc th# Your Eminence be accom- 
"paniedfo far as the frontier of this 
" kingdom by an honourable and com- 
«< ptfcnt military efcort;" 

cc i am at Your Emintnee's firvice 
<* with the utmoft c^equioufheft. God 

guard v Your Eminence many years. 
4 From 


I 74 ] 

« Fcom the palace, jane 14, 1760. Your 
« Eminence's moft obfequious fervant, 

" D. Luis da Cunba"' 


A lejfon to itinerant writers. 

Badajoz, Sept. a 3, 1760, early in tlje morning. 

LAST night I had the curiofity to 
read over all thofe of my* letters 
that have Portuguefe dates : then ruminat- 
ing a while on their contents, c< Welf, 
*f faid I to myfelf, let us fuppofe that 
" you fhould take into your head fome 
* c time or other to print thefe letters, 
" what do you think that people would 
" fay to them ? You know, Mr. Tra- 
veller, that, before he ventures to 
<f prefs, every confiderate man ought to 
" afkhimfelf this queftion twice. There- 
s c fore give me leave to. afk you again, 
** what mil people fay to your work when 
*< it is printed?) 
' y.~. "• Self* 

i 75 1 

Sfelf-love anfwcrs without hefitation, 
that every mortal will be glad of this 
publication. That the moft bufy men 
and the moft attentive women will quit 
their affairs as well as their pleafures 
to enjoy fo delightful a performance. 
That all will unite in chorus to extol 
the elegance of my language, the rapi- 
dity of my ftyle, the variety of my 
thoughts, and the juftnefs of my re- 
marks. That every body will call me a 
pleafing painter of material objefts, con- 
fider mea^a fkilful indagator of cuftoms 
and manners, and infallibly rank me 
amongft the neateft, brighteft, and moft 
inftru&ive writers that Italy or any coun r 
try ever produced. 

But felf-love, brothers, felf-love is a 
treacherous rafcal whom no body ought 
ever to truft. Self-love will feize every 
opportunity to footh and flatter and lead 
a man into error, and there ia no one liv- 
ing but who has had many reafons tp 
jnijftruft his fuggeftions; and now that I 


bav« calmly iafpe&ed the tout enfemUe 
of my Portuguefe letters, and foregone 
an hour the eflSeft they may produce in 
the mindsof the generality of my readers, 
I own I am npt quite fo pleafed witji 
that touLenfetnble as I was \yith each let- 
ter frogly, when I wrote them at inter- 
vals four and twenty hours diftant from 
each other. J am under fame appre- 
henfion leaf): any reader fhould think 
jne top fajcaftical* and, what would be 
wprfe, that he fhould be led into opi- 
nions with regard to the Portyguefe 
that I do not intend to give hinv 

Was each of thefe letters to be read 
ahftra&ed from the reft, I am pretty 
fure that no body would fufpeft me of 
roajigmty and ill- will to the Portuguefe 
and their country. The defcription of 
had inns in a region unfrequented by 
travellers, the account of a barber's ab- 
furdity, or a wench's impertinence, and 
qther fuch things, would perhaps prove 
diverting tfwripg the (hprt tiine fimplpy- 
# ed 

C 77 3 

ed in the pcrufal, and leave no hrtpref- 
fion behind to the difhonour of Porta- 
gal and the generally of its inhabitants. 
Each letter would have no other effett 
than is produced in the mind of him 
who reads the burlefque Capitol*, written 
by our poet Berni to his friend the fa+ 
motis Fracaftorius in dilpraife of Settig- 
nano (a village in the Veroneje territory \) 
- and every man would poffibly laugh at 
the fubjeft of the pi&ure, as well as* at 
the humour of the painter, as it is the 
cafe in that Capitolo. But I fear left 
my burlefque accounts, taken all toge- 
ther, fhould produce a different efFe& 
from that which would be produced by 
only one, and bring me upbn d level 
with thofe peevifli ahd infolent travel- 
mongers, who in the countries they de~ 
fcribe look only for fubje&s .of Wame and 

That my reader therefore may not form 
from my letters (if I print them, as it 
is my intention) more unfavourable idea? 


[ 7 g 1 

of the Portuguefe than I intend, I wilt 
warn him here to take notice, that, 
though the proportion of cenfure and ri- 
dicule may prove greater in them than 
that of praife and commendation, yet he. 
. muft not be too quick to infer upon my 
teftimony, that both the country and 
the nation of the Portuguefe are un-- 
deferring his "efteem. I have * feen but 
little of either, and have had no means 
of giving any judgment of the middle 
.or of ' the higheft clafs. Therefore if 
any reader ftiould find himfelf difpofed 
to take my word and give implicit cre- 
dit to my letters, let him reftrain his ima- 
gination, and not confound thofe two 
ciaffes with the lowefh Cardinal Acci- 
aioll (whofe fincerity is much greater 
than his politics) and the gentlemen 
of his retinue, t who have no great rea- 
fon to be in love with the Portuguefe, 
have allured me. that, both of the high 
and noddle rank, there are many efti-r 
mable perfbns in Lijbon and the little 

I have 

t 79 r 

1 have faid of the hermits of the Cork* 
cwwnt> the curate of Arrayobs> the 
lheriff of Villa Vizofa* and fome othert, 
Qught to convince my readers that I 
do not intend to make them; look on 
Portugal as a country quite deftitute 
of politenefs and hpfpitality. I certainly 
have no great opinion of its literature 
and arts, or of its populace ; and my 
contempt is the natural confequence of 
my obfervations, though quite curfory, 
quite fuperficial. Let us however not 
forget, that arts and literature can ne- 
ver be greatly cultivated in countries of 
fmall extent, as Portugal is ; and with 
refpedt to the low part of any nation, 
there is always a wide difference between 
the manners prevailing in a large metro- 
polis and in the country depending on it. 
Every metropolis abounds in vices al- 
moft unknown to the inhabitants of 
petty towns and villages ; and this re- 
flection muft ferve as a counterballance 
to thofe I have made in condemnation of 
; the 

[ 8* ] 

the uogues who ftang ffone* at me in th« 
> valley of Alcantara. I am perfuaded 
that with fuch an adventure I fhould not 
have met, but in the neighbourhood of a 

I -wifli it had been in my power to 
go and vifit the univerfity of CohiffAra % 
and the kingdom of Algarve mentioned 
ahuoft no where but on the Portuguefe 
coin. An account of that kingdom and 
that univctffif y would poflibly have raifed 
my ideas of the Portuguefe people : and 
I wiffa alfo, that it had been confident 
with the plan of my prefent journey to 
go and waqder a while on the banks 
of the Minba artd the Douro y and care- 
fully examine the cuftoms and manners 
of tbofe that drink of their ftreams. Bui 
what avails wiftiing, when we are not 
rich enough to fatisfy either our own 
or our friends' curioftty ? However, fiaee 
I am about wifhkig, I will wifti that 
fotoe future traveller, pofleffed of fuffi- 
cient leafure, wealth, and fagacity, may 


t *« ] 

come to this part of Europe, and give a 
more ample and more circumftantial ac- 
count of it. The literary world wants 
a complete information of a country, of 
which not even the capital has been yet 


Ajketcbof the adventures of a lady. Com 
to fee the waftb. tfalaverolan poetry; 

;» ftkveroia, Sept ^3, I7$d, 

MEROSIO came early this morn- 
ing to me, and informed me moft 
minutely of what has happened to him 
fince we parted at Milan, and by what 
Tucceffion of accidents he was at laft 
brought to Badajoz with Cardinal jiccia~ 
ioli. Befides his own he related the ad- 
ventures of his wife, an Englifhwoman 
whom he married in Lijbon fome years 
ago. I had indeed heard her mentioned 
at the Englifh coffeerhoufe there ; but 
did not fufpeft that fhe was my friend's 
; . Vol, II. G wife, 

s *■ 1 

wife as his name had been inaccurately 
pronounced by thpfe who fpoke of her. 
She is a moft wonderoua being, it feems/ 
She has been, in the four quarters of the 
world, and fpeaks feveral languages, 
amongft which that of the Indians in the 
neighbourhood of Goa> wh?re fhe refided 
as a maid of honour to the unfortunate 
vice-queen marchionefs tfdvora, who was 
beheaded in Lijbon with the duke of 
Jboeiro* She has alfo been in Japan with 
her %ft hufhand, a Dutch phyfician, to 
whom (he was married at Batavia : and 
ft is hut lately that fhe was . redeemed 
from a long flavery, and paffed from 
Morocco to Gibraltar in the Englifh fhip 
that went to Barbary to fetch many cap* 
tives of the Britifh nation, fhipwrecked 
laft year (if I am not miftaken) in a 
man of war called the Litchfield. Ma- 
dame Merofio had been taken three years 
before in a Portaguefe veffel by a Saleteen 
pirate, and would probably have faffed 
her whole life in captivity, had flic not 


[83 J 

been an Engfifhwoman. As fuch, fhe 

was redeemed along with the crew of the 

Litchfield. Soon after fhe had been fold 

at Morocco j fhe became a great favouf- 

ite with a favourite Sultana there, and 

ftayed there long fenough to learn that 

language* She has informed her huf- 

band from Gibraltar, that the prefentsf 

her miftrefs made her when forced to 

part with her, will prove more thai* 

Sufficient to live the remainder of their 

days in quiet. He has defired her to 

take the road of Italy, and. meet him aft 

Genoa or Milan. A narrative of her life 

would make a fine book, and if 1 fee 

Aer any where in Italy, I will fpirit her up 

to it, and offer her my fervke towards 

the work. 

The Cardinal has obligingly drawn 

from nae a promifc that I will pay him (a) 


(*) I kept that prmifs in As year 1765, andptjpda 
few months at Antona with him. He diedfoon after I left 
. tbeplace> and univerfally regretted) as my Anconitanfxiends 
write to me. 

G 2 a 

C «4 ] 

a vifit when we come to be all on the 
good fide * of the Alps. I really was 
forry to leave him in a place, which 
ifluft on ' many accounts prove very dis- 
agreeable to a man of his parts, habit* , 
and fecial temper. I am afraid the 
croffes he has met with in Lifbon will 
impair his health. I took my leave about 
one in the afternoon of hip, of my 
friend, and of Paolita's native place with 
a heart full of the moft fincere forrow, 
and after two hours riding croffed a 
torrent called Guadixa. Only one cot- 
tage have I feen to-day in the fpace 
of three leagues. This village of 7^- 
laverola is but fmall, and the only thing 
pompous in it that I have obferyed, is 
the ihort infcription on the gate of the 
Pofada. Me/on por los Cavalkros. It 
would be properer faid, por les Mu- 
letter os. However, it may be confider- 
ed as an enchanted caftle built by Armi- 
da for Rinaldo, when compared to the 


[ *5 3 

As I was loitering before that Me- 
fon waiting for my fupper, a parcel of 
poor little girls came to look at the 
Efir anger o. Aflcing them their names 
and other fuch important queftions, I 
happened to look at my watch. One 
of them on feeing it, alked me what 
it was. Un relox, faid I, que me dize las 
boras. " A watch that tells me the hour." 
JSabla el relox f replied the pert thing; 
" Does the watch /peak?" Look here, my 
dear, faid L When this hand points 
at this mark, it is one : when at this, 
it is two ; and fo on. But how does 
the hand, faid the girl, go from one 
mark to the other, and tell you the 
hour you want to know ? The queftion 
was fomewhat puzzling, as I knew not 
.what words to ufe to fatisfy her curi- 
ofity. . To fpare myfelf the trouble of 
a long explanation, which might at lad: 
prove incomprehenfible, I put the watch 
to her ear, and made her take notice 
of the c(ack within it. You cannot 
G 3 con- 

C «6 ] 

conceive how (he was ftruck on hear- 
ing it. No furprize was ever fo ftrongly 
marked in any face* All her little friends 
would have the watch clapped at thdr 
ears, and it was very diverting to fee the 
effeft it produced in their little minds. 
Unable t9 contain the aftonifliment 
caufed by that little noife, fome of them 
ran along the ftreet, called the infantry 
of the village, and brbught it all about 
me to fee and hear el relox del cawlkro., 
Happy the, boy or girl that could hear 
it twice out of my princely condefcen- 
fion! Who could ever have thought, 
that I had with me the ready means of 
making them all fo happy! And feveral 
of the men and women who ran at the 
creatures' buftle, took me for a mod 
refpe&able Hidalgo upon the mere credit 
of my watch. . Thus I beguiled an hour, 
immensely delighted with their aftoniih*- 
ment and innocent joy. Meafure you 
now the proportion of knowledge that 
there is between London* Peris, op Rome, 


r 87 l 

, and the village of Halaverold in the Spa- 
atfh Bftremadura. . 

Re-entering the Mefon, and infpedling 
its furniture, I faw in a corner an alms* 
box fixed to the wall with this infcrip- 
tion upon it ; 

O tu hour ado Cavallero 
%ge llegais a efte Mefon, 
Da un ocbavo a las almas* 
Tponlo en efte Cajon. 
Mir a que la obra es buena 
Del divino Conciftorio, 
T lo admite de mano ajena 
' Para que falgar de pena 
Las almas del Purgatorio. 

In Englifh thus : Te noble cavalier, who 
have reached this inn> give a half -fenny to 
the fouls, and put it in this box* Take no- 
tice that this aft will prove acceptable to 
the heavenly confiftory, and it will be worth 
the liberality of any foreigner to deliver^ 
the fouls out of Purgatory. 

G 4 There 

£.» ] 

There are no watchmakers here, faid 
I, but there are poets: and to pafs 
another moment I tranflated thefe verfes 
into Italian thus : 

Signer dabbene e bello 
Qui giunto a fuo grand* agio. 
Deb lafci un quattrinello 
Dell 9 anime in fuffragio ! 
Vojfignoria Illujlrijftma 
Far a cofa gratijfima 
Al fanto Concijtorio 
Con pecunia pocbijjima 
Per chi ft a in Pur gator to. 

And with this I take my leave of the 
Pindar of the Guadixa, or the falaverolan 
hard; call him as you like. 


I «9 ] 


^tedioufnefs of uniformity. Leanders. Melon- 
feeds. General Muza. 

TH E Englifh Spectator advifes us 
to keep a minute account of our 
daily doings, that by reading it a while 
after* we may fee how our time has 
elapfed, be afhamed of the manner in 
which we fpent it, and employ it better 
for the future. 

v Why of the many that have heard of 
fo good a piece of advice, not one perhaps 
would ever take it, many reafons may be 
given. But the beft in my opinion Is, 
that fuch a journal would prove uniform, 
and uniformity is a moft wearifome 
thing. Each page of it would be like 
the former, becaufe men in general do 
to-day and will do to-morrow, what they 
4id y?ft?rday and tine day before. Very 


few are the lives fo diverfified as to afford 
quick paflages from actions of one kind 
to anions of another ; and to write and 
to read over and over the fame ftory, 
would only aggravate the tedioufnefs of 

It is however providential tl\at uni- 
formity is difguftiiig, Were not man 
aftuated by an inviiicible averfioh to it, 
he would certainly fit down in idlenefs 
after having provided for the prefent ne* 
ceffityi and his care would fcarcely ever 
preclude the wants of to-morrow. Otlr 
averfion to uniformity makes Us hate a 
jail above all other things, becaufe life is 
. paffed with ft greater uniformity in a jail 
than any where elfe. And why do we 
all wjfh for an inceffant increafe of riches, 
but becaufe we know that riches' afford 
the readieft means of varying life ? In- 
deed all our efforts tend to this end, and 
I think that *m men Wouidj if they could, 
devote part o( their life to travelling, be-* 
caufe they fuppofe that it affords a great 


t 91 1 

deal of variety. But I, who have tried 
it feveral times, am not quite of this 
opinion* What am I doing now, but die 
fame thing over and over ? I get up be- 
times in the morning from a bad couch, 
$nt«r a chaife, go on till dinner-times 
then alight and eat; then enter the 
chaife again, go on till fupper-time } 
then alight and fup j then go' to lie down 
upon another bad couch. Nor do I con- 
vcrfe more, or fee more objects, than 
when I was in the immenfe metropolis of 
England, where a man may live a hun- 
dred years, and yet fee every day many 
and many things which will prove new 
to the man that has moft feen. 

Amongft my expedients to deftroy as 
much as pofilbfc of this uniformity, I 
Jiave betaken myfelf to that of writing a 
' minute narrative of this journey ; but, 
amongft the many inconveniencies of my 
expedient, one is, that 1 okn fcarcely help 
beginning my letters uniformly with this 
warning To avoid To difguftfui a fame- 
( ~ 4 nefs 

t 9* ] 

nefs I am driven to the hardeft fhifts. I 
put my mind to no fmall torture every 
night, and have recourfe to various flou* 
rifhes in order to efcape it both for your 
fake and mine. Sometimes the flouriih 
will be gay, fometimes will be dull. 
Dull or not, I miift now fay that this 
morning I fat out from Palaver ola at 
eight, and that I have neither faid, nor 
fcen, nor done any thing in this whole 
day that could relieve me from wearifome 
uniformity. I have only obfcrved that 
the Leandro {laureUrofe) which is culti- 
vated with fo much care in our Italian 
gardens for its beautiful flower, grows 
fpontaneoufly on the banks of the Guadi*- 
anop Next to this unimportant informa- 
tioo I muft give you another, quite as 
unimportant ; and it is, that about noon 
we fat down, Batifte, the Calefleros, and 
I, upon the bank of the Guadiana, to eat 
a dinner we had brought with us, as 
there is no kind of habitation between 
J'alaverSla and Mirida> though fix leagues 


t 93 1 

diftant from each other, except one called 
Lob6n % which I have already forgot whe- 
ther it is a Venta or i hamlet. 

About eight at nitht we entered this 
Mirida by a bridge near as fineas that at 
Badajost. Few rivers in Europe can 
boaft of two fuch noble bridges as deco- 
rate the Guadiana. Not far* from Takve- 
rcla we bought of a peafant fome melons, 
which proved as good as the very beft at 
QmtalupOy in Romagna, Malamocco near 
Venice, Caravaggio in . Loriibardy, ot 
Cambiagno in Piedmont : and this is ano- 
ther of to-day 's unimportant tranfa&ions* 
I had charged Batifte to fave the feeds, 
which I intended to have fowed at home, 
in order to contribute my mite towards 
the propagation of the good things of 
this world : but the hair-brained fellow 
forgot my order, and has thrown them 

I have taken a tour about the ftreets of 
Mirida. Father Mariana fays in his hi- 
ftory, that Muza> a general of Morocco^ 


I 9* 1 

taking a view of this town from a diflaiiee* 
was fired with a defirc of making himfclf 
matter of it, which he effected by a ftra-' 
fagem after this manner. As the inha- 
bitants defended themfelves with the 
greateft obftinacy, knowing hinfi to be 
oldi and hoping he would foori did, and 
the fiege 4>e raifed of courfe, General* 
Muza tinged his white hair to black j 
then fent them'word he would be glad to 
treat with them, and put an end to the 
fiege* They (a) complied with his de- 
fire, but their deputies, feeing him grown 
yoling, were Co terrified that they advifed' 
a furrenden 

I believe Mhida to have been a noble 
place in former ages; when it was called 

(a) Abulcacitn Tarif j&mtarique 9 Muzfo coiw 
temporary, in his Arabick Hi/lory* of King Rodrigo^ 
tranflated into Spanifh by Miguel de Luna 9 does not 
mention this ftratagem, though he takes particular 
notice of that.fiege, and feyeraj particfila-* 
rities of it. De Luna's tranflation was printed fojf 
the fourth time at Valencia m 1646. I fltalt fpeak 
of it in another place* 


I 9! 1 

Augufia Emerita f and was the metropolis 
of Lujitania » but time has changed it* 
Many antiquities are here to be feen, as 
this was once a flourifhiqg colony of the 
Romans. The Meridans feem to cars 
but little for thofe remains, and are ne* 
vcrthelefs proud of them* At leaft the 
Pofadero feemed fo to me. He is what 
they call inSpanifh, unagradabk babla* 
dor. ** A fair-fpoken man % a fpecious 
€€ prater. v And has told me that even 
their bridge is a Roman work. I have 
not time to verify his aflertion ; but in- 
deed it is a noble bridge, long, fpacious, 
and all of f ree-ftone. 


An odd colonel and a kind curate. Boys 
and girls jumping at my quartillos. 

Meaxaras (or Miajadas) Sept. 47, 17^ 

WH E N I fhall have told you that 
I am in a village fcarcely contain- 
ing foar hundred fowls, you will prefently 


[ 9* 1 

Conclude that my letter of to-day will 
prove quite as infipid as that of yefterday, 
I wifh I could fill up my daily accounts 
with interefting matter: But confider 
that I travel on without flopping through. 
a country very thinly peopled, and that 
little can be faid when but little is to be 
feen. However, this day's letter will 
prove more entertaining than my laft. 

This morning (I cannot avoid this ex- 
predion ) we croffed early the eaftern 
part of MJridas territory, which is 
pretty fertile in fome places, and flop- 
ped at a hamlet called San Pedro about 
two leagues diftant, and there dined, 
though it was bpt nine o'clock, becaufe 
we were fur e to find no more habitations 
from thence to this Meaxaras % which is 
five long leagues diftant from San Pedro. 

While we were employed in taking off 
the rind of a large Merida-tfxelon, 
(whofe feeds (hall be certainly preferved) 
a moft ugly coach, drawn by two half- 
ftarved jades, entered the Pofada. An 


[ 97 ] 

old gentleman was in it, who is colonel 
of a regiment of cavalry called De fa 
Reyna. N He was preceded by half a dozen 
of his horfemen. As Toon as alighted he 
came into the room where I was at din- 
ner with my people ; that is, Batifte 
and the Calefleros, I got up, offered 
him a feat, and invited him to partake 
of my fare, which was not bad, as pa- 
tridges and other game are very plentiful 
iri thefe defarts, and to be bought of the 
country- people or the Pofaderos almofl: 
for nothing. But the Colonel was iri* a 
pet, thanked me coldly, turned his back, 
went to wait without for my going, that 
he might take pofleflion of the room, 
which is the only • one in the Pofada* v 
Then growing impatient, as I fuppoie, 
he ran to the ftable ; and that he might 
do fomething towards difcharging his ill- 
humour, he ordered that my four mules 
fhould be inftantly driven out of it, to 
, make t;oom for his two jades and for the 
horfes of his cavaliers- It was lucky that 
Vol. II. H f he 

[ 98 ] . 

fee ftopp'd there, and djd not I'lke^fe 
^hiok of driving me out of the room. 
Had, he thought of that, and commanded 
his warriors to inveft it, I had certainly 
furrendered at difcretion, as well as Ba^ 
tifte, as we are quite ignoraqt of the jart 
9f attacking and defending places- How- 
ever, his indignation was all vented agajinflf 
the mules : and here I would have you 
take notice by the by, bow fkijl prevails 
over bodily ftrength* The four beaiis 
have certainly ten, if qpt twenty times, 
mare ftrength than he and any of his 
fellows put together 5 yet they were pre- 
sently turned out into the yard, though the 
Cakjeros ran to tell him, in a moft fub- 
miffive ftrain, that they had jufl: afcafada 
la cevada (eaten their chopped fir aw) and 
that el CavfUero (meaning me) was going 
in three minutes. In England this would 
not have happened, as the common- 
people fhere are more upon a par with 
qqlonel$ and generals than that of Spain* 
An Engliflv Tago, or a' Welfti Dom 


t 99 y 

Mnnuelo, would upon fuch an occafion 
have (hown a clenched fiffc to the peevifh 
old fellow j and his foldiers would no 
more have thought of touching th^n of 
eating the mules. But all countries 
have^eonftitutions of their own, which 
$re productive, of this and that good, and 
fubfeft to this and that evil. 

My poor conductors, each of their 
limbs fhaking with terror, came run- 
ning 4 to tell me, that they had put to ; 
and begged I would inftantly run away 
from that formidable enemy to mures. 
But I had feen from the window the 
whole regiment advance towards the Po+ 
fada, and being willing to view it, bade 
them go flo wly on and wait for me at 
fomc diftance. The regiment is indeed 
yery fine. Fine horfes, fine men, all well 
fcrmed, and very well drefied. 

, Having fatisfied njy curiofity, and 

looked at fome of the oncers ladies who 

came on in chaifes and alighted at the 

PofaJa, 1 went to join my timid Calefle- 

H 2 ros % 

[ IOO ] 

ros, and, continuing our journey through 
a defart, we peached Meaxdras pretty 
late in the evening. Here I fupped in 
cbntpliance with that unavoidable uni- 
formity of which I talked yefterday* 
Then I went to take a walk about the 
village. I; fpied the ruins of a caftle, 
and thither dire&ed my fteps. Near thofe 
ruins a clergyman was fitting on a ftone 
quite alone. I bowed, he bowed. Criado 
de^vojled, Senor Cur a: Criado de vofted y 
Cava/lero.* Pray, what are thefe ruins ? 
Thofe of a Moorifh caftle, faid the curate 
with an air of t affability ; and without 
any further ceremony he entered upon 
the hiftory of it, and informed me of the 
rife and fall with as rapid a volubility of 
fpeech as ever I heard, to my no fmall 
fatisfaflion. I wifti I could meet often 
with fuch men during the remainder of 
my journey. We parted after a full hour's 
confabulation about the Moorifh people, 
that were once powerful in this very 
province of EJiremadura Efpacnla. He 


thinks that fome of their defendants are 
fjtill lurking in feveral parts of the coun- 
try* openly living like ch^iftians, but fe- 
cretly pra£tifing fome Mahonaetanifm. 
Yet,, faid he, their fear of being difco- 
vised has always been fo great, ever fince 
the edi&, of, general expulfion in j6io, 
that, daring not to fpeak Arabick even 
amongft themfelves for fear of being 
overheard, they have loft it, and with it 
the greateft part of their religion, which 
will totally perifh of itfelf before it is 
long, and all 9f us be {a) CbriJlianosViejos> 
probably before another century is elap- 
feid. Could I vifit the moft unfrequented 
parts of Granada and Andalvfia^ I would 
enquire more about thefe Morifios and 
their remains. By the monuments they 
have left in all parts of this kingdom they 
<eem to have been a brave breed of men. 

(a) Old Christians, is a title which Spaniards 
give themfelves^ U let. others know that they are mt de- 
fended from Jews or Mmfcos^ wbo> when converted^ 
are called ChrisTianos Nuevos, Njew Chris- ' 


H 3 'As 

t tot ) 

A 5 the tooon (hone bright, I rambled 
abbut the village a while, after having 
parted with the good curate. In turning, 
a corner I met with fonae met! and women 
who. fat on benches talking together and 
enjoying the frefhnefs of the night, 
while fotae children of both fexes were* 
playing in the midft of the ftreet. Mue- 
chachita, faid I to a fprightly girl who 
curtefted to me of her own accprd, will 
you tell me toy way to the Pofada of Tia 
Moreno? In this country they give the 
appellation of T'ia (Aunt) to all old wo- 
men of low rank. Turn that corner, 
f&id the girl, and it is the fecond houfe oii 
your left hand. Take this for your kind- 
nefs, faid I, giving her a fmall coin. 

Her play-fellows who faw me reward 
an anfwer, were prefently about me. 
Sehor y Senor y deame un quartillo ■ tambien* 
l$ give me a farthing too? I distributed 
aS many as I had, arid each of them 
would have had one but that their cries 
drew more boys and girls from tjie neighr- 
-* — : i * -... bourhood 

Bourhood in ah inftant. T a mi tambien> 
ikftoty y a mi, y a mi. One pulled me by 
the coat, one took me by the hand or 
arm, one called me by a foft name, one 
by another. Finding my coins run fhort ' 
of their numbers, I told them I had none 
Jfrft ; but that I would find more if they 
would come with me to Tia Morena. Do 
you think I fpoke to the deaf? No. 
One and all fhewed great joy at the un- 
expected offer, and environed by them I 
went to the Ita. She had heard the 
noife at a diftance, and trembled to hear 
it approach $ and Batifte, who diftin- 
guifhed my voice amongft fifty, prefently 
concluded I had brought myfelf into 
fome diftrefs, and ran up ftairs for his 
hanger. I called the If a out with a moft 
imperious voice, and ordered her to bring 
me inftantly all the ityartillos Ihe had in 
her till. Then pufhing the boys and 
girls pell-mell into the Court-yard, bid 
two tall fellows to fliut the g^te and 
leave only the wicket open for my little 
Hi folk* 

f 104 J 

folks to go out one by one, giving them 
a ftrift charge not to let any in of thoffe 
I fhould fend out. The boys and girls 
prefs'd all upon me for a $uartillo y and 
each would be firft to receive it. How- 
ever, beckoning- to one of them, Who 
art thou ? faid I in a thundering tone of 
voice. To foy Phelipito> Senor. . Well.: 
Phclipito, falta y grita, Biva el Rey. 
" J um P fnd c*y> Long live, the King'' 
Little Philip jump'd and cried, had the 
$uartillo % and was turned out at the 
wicket. Who art thou? Soy Tere/ita, 
foy Maffia y foy Pepito, foy Antonieto* foy 
this and foy that, (foy means / am) Salt a 
y grita. They all told their names one 
after the other, all gave 9. jump, ail cried 
Biva el Rey, and all were fucceffively 
turned out with a guartillo a-piece, efpe- 
cially the boys ; becaufe as to the girls, 
and the taller ones -moft particularly, I 
have fome notion that they had more than 
one. Alas ! It is impoffible to keep one's 
integrity, when maidens tempt -, and to' 1 

/ be 

lie perfc&ly impartial is no innate quality 
in man when they are in his way ! 

Be this as it will, ever fince Meaxarus 
was fo named by the Moors in Atderba^ 
mens days, never have its inhabitants had 
fo joyful a night as this. Great was the 
tumult, and many were the ears both of 
boys and girls that I pulled, as the little 
rogues creeping between the legs of the 
men rhat guarded the wicket, came back 
again for another jump, another Bivh t 
another ^uartilh. I caught feveral of 
them that were thus ftealing in, and they 
pretended they were but juft come and 
had' not had their due : but it was not 
difficult to find inftantly out thofe who 
told a lye, becaufe afking abruptly their 
names, thofe who had already given 
theirs, could not immediately offer ano- 
ther ; and I caught their ears as they he- 
fitated, andpuird, and made them fquea^: 
like pigs. It is true that out of tender- 
nefs to the girls I did not hurt them 
much and even ran a tyartillo into their 


[ J<* ] 

hands while I held tltem by an ear • bttt 
the wicked little wenches creed as loud ad 
if I had flead them, and thus concealed 
to the boys the diftinftion they received. 
Upon my credit you would have beert • 
aftonifhed at their fagacity, and how rea-* - 
dily they caught my meaning. Some of 
^them would even fqueeze the hand of 
the donor, aftd look up to him with a 
fweet fmile without ceafirig their mock 
fcreams. Muft I tell you all ? * One of 
them had more than ten ^uartillos at , 
once j and why becaufe her name was 
Paolita. That name was too powerful^ 
for my impartiality. 

The Quartiltis being at laft all gone, 
I difmiffed them with a fhort exhortation 
to be all good boys and good girls, and 
the feaft ended with a univerfal fhout 
to the Ca^allero. All went away much 
more pleafed with the manner of the 
thihg than with the thing itfelf, and I as 
iifual got to my pen and ink. 


T ««r 3 


J9a^ ^ ^awi wift tfr^fo. An odd way 
of comfefing infcriptions* A brave Eng~ 
lift) girl. 

Truxillo, Sept, t 7 , i 7 6«. 

THE little ^are that is taken in % 
thefe provinces of the public 
roads, would have put my neck in dan- 
^ger, had I not alighted often during 
the fix leagues from Meaxaras to this^ 
town. Yet they might be mended and 
rendered durable at no great expence in 
ipy opinion, as the ground is every 
where dry and firm. The "truxillo (in 
antient times Turris Julii) has a very fine 
afpeft from a diftance, as it ftands on 
a high ground : but when you are in it, 
you find it a very difagreeable town. 
The ftreets are ill paved with broken 
flints, the houfes are irregularly built and 
very low. 

A bow-fhot from the gate at which 
1 entered, fhere are many heaps of 


flows ill-cemented together with mor- 
tar, difordcrly fcattered on each fide bf the 
great road. Oft each heap a woodieh crofe 
has been erefted, I fuppofe the Truxi- 
Kans have more devotion to tbe.crofs 
"than their neighbours, fince they have' 
ihore than thirty fuch crofles before that 
gate. Few of their houfes have glafs 
in their windows, but fhutters only, 
after the manner of the Portuguefe coun- 
try-tow ns. 

Over the gate oppofite to that at 
which we entered, I fpent half an hour, 
endeavouring to decypher an infeription 
over an arch, though to no purpofe. 
Both ^the infeription arid the arch are 
mpdern. The abbreviatures of the in- 
feription are in a very odd tafte. Perv 
haps its author thought he imitated thofe 
of the ancient Romans ; but between 
the ancient Romans and the mo- 
dern Truxilians/ there is fcarcely fo 
much difference, as between their ways 
of compofing inferiptions. Suppofe one 


I 10* ] 

of thefe learned wants to exprefc Charles 
Emanuel king of Sardinia, he firft writes 
the diphthong CE of a proportionable 
(ize ; then in the bunch of the diph- 
thong he writes a fmall k and a fmali s 9 
and thus his meaning is clearly exprefled 
in his opinion. See what labours are 
here prepared to future Gravius's and 
Gronovius's ! 

I forgot to tell you that the Pofada 
at Meaxaras (or Miajadas* as others pro- 
nounce) is a tolerable good inn, and 
Tia Mvrena a very cordial and ferviceabfc 
woman. This Pofada of Truxilb is (till 
better than that of Meaxaras: but at both 
you muft fend for whatever you want 
to the (hops in the neighbourhood ; and 
it feems that it is the general cuftom 
of Spain to furniih you with nothing 
at fuch places but lodging and light, 
together with the' ufe of the fire-place 
to drefs your viftuals, which will be 
drefs'd by the people of the houfe if you 
have no fcrvant to do it. This Pofadera, 



who is a ypUng and handfome \froman, 
is aftuaily diflblving in te*rs$ and flic -.has 
reafbn enough for grieving, as the fmall 
pocs has killed both her children this 
Very morning. When fhe was told of 
it, (he fell into a fwoon, from which 
they eould hardly recover her in an hour. 
Then fhe ,fat a long while penfive and 
quiet ; then ftorra'dj then fwoon'd \ then 
was penfive and quiet again. She has 
been ftorming in my hearing this half 
hour, and has really awakened my whole 
commiferation. Never have I feen grief 
fo frantickly exprefled, nor heard fuch 
piercing words* The Spaniards have the 
reputation of being endowed with the 
greateft fenfibiiity of heart ; and I think 
this charafter of theirs ftrongly expreffed 
in their faces, univerfally full of meaning 
both in men and women * Poor Poff* 
dera ! I wifh her children had been in* 
oculated like many in England. But in 
this part of the world, far from being 
introduced, inoculation has not yet beert- 


mentioned. It is afloniihing how How 
is the progrefs of any new pra&ke, be 
it ever fo ufefuL! I have heard when 
I was in England, that ovir countrymen 
^egiu to adopt inoculation, and am glad 
qfit. This is almoft 'the only rational 
thing, of which the Italians have no% 
let the example to the other nations of 
Europe. Had it been known by thea* 
in the golden Mtdicean days, it had prp* 
bably teen pra&ifed by this time ail over 
Europe, and this poor woman would not 
ba overwhelmed by the terapeft of grief 
that is no\$r ihaking her. whole foul* 

Having nothing to add of Trwcilla^ I 
pay as well, for the fake of filling a 
page, tell you a pretty thing thaf a young 
wbman of my acquaintance did in Lon- 
don. She was very handfome, but very 
poor, and obliged to work h^rd at hffl 
iieedle for h$r brgad. A gentjemarj in 
good circumftancesj flattered her with 
hopss of marriage $ but, as I had rea- 


I »« ] 

Ibti to think, with -a view to have her*: 
on woffe te^ms. : i~: 

After many months courtfhip he went- 
one dayto tell her, that he was going** 
in the -country for a while, and repeated r 
his promifes with the greateft warmth.- 
fitit why.don&you marry me before yoal 
go ? faid thei ingenuous girt. You have* 
been promifmg and promifing every day, 
and:i don't -'fee why you /hould proraife, : 
king your -own maften 
' My artful fpark was fbmewhat fur- * 
prifed at this plain fpeech, which he-, 
thought maidenly modefty would nefer 
permit her to utter, for fhe was cer«*l 
taifllya medeft young woman. Butfind->v 
ing himfelf thus puffied home, to put 
it ftill off with decency, he told her 
th*t he would not have protra&cdtfebft 
bufinefs fo 'long, but for Ja/reafon* that l 
he had never dared to tdl her. And I 
what is that reafon ? faid'fhe in an alarm; * 
Why, my d«ar ft you have nit yet had the; 

[ "3 ] 

fmtll-pox; and fhould you have it af- 
ter marriage and your beauty be deftroycd 
by it, I arii but a man like another, 
and (hould probably repent, as you know 
that beauty is what chiefly induces men 
to love women, and all other good qua* 
Ikies go for nothing without it. Well, 
faid. flie, your reafons are juft. Go into 
the country ; come to fee me when you 
come back, and we will talk of mar- 
riage no more, until I have had the fniall- 
pox, that we may fee what effefh it 
will produce. 

He was no fooner gone than flie had 
herfclf inoculated, In a few weeks Ihe 
was quite well, nor was her pretty face 
at all impaired* The lover came back, 
and was quite fubdued by this coura- 
geous proof of her afFe&ion. He , mar- 
ried her without delay, and very happy 
he is now in his worthy wife. Our 
Italian girls may love with mre ardour 
than the Britifh, but do you know any 

Vol. II. I who 

[* H4 f ■ 

who could love Jo 'well as my Englifti 
friend ? Let the Englifh alone for na- 
tural good fenfe, whatever you may fay 
in favour of Italian imagination. 


* < < 

A tumble-down-hill. Borracho or Bota. 

Zarayttjo* Sept. *S, 1760% 

TT 7E left fruxitto at ten this morn- 
ing, and during . three leagues 
the road was very well. But as we af>H 
j^roached La Sierra de Mirabete y which 
is a long chain of mountains, I was 
obliged to alight and walk the other, two 
leagues to this Zarayzejo. We mounted 
fome hillocks ; then defcended $ then 
pafled a torrent oyer a bridge $ then 
mounted again* As , we went down to 
the torrent, we were obliged to Support 
'the chaifes, which was not done with-- 
*mt a great deal of fatigue. . On the op~ 
jjofite rugged rife; the fatigue was ftill 


greater, and, what was worfe, proved 
vain. The road on the declivity was So 
broken and fo narrow, x that one of thd 
wheels could riot find room enough, and 
down went the chaife, the mules, arid 
Tago -, and down would* have been drag- 
ged Dom Manuelo, Batifte, and his mat 
ter,' had! we not let go the ropes with 
which we fupported the chaife, mak- 
ing the greateft efforts to keep it uprighti 

L really thought that the hardrieis pf 
the ftones would have proved fatal to 
poor Tago $ yet he got but two or three 
faiall contufions, though he fell from 
a very fteep height, 2nd rolled down it the 
length <tf twenty feet at teaft. The chaife 
had part *& its tackle, broke, but was 
foon mended with ropes, and the mules 
get off quite unhurt v With the affiftance 
of the other two that had happily drag- 
ged the other up the fteep, we got mine 
est of ithat bottom, all pf us putting at 
la h$&$ 

C n6- ]! < 

i > 

hand to the work, and not without dan* 
gerof falling ourfelvei among the craggs; 
of the declivity. . , .• 

Subject to fuch accidents are* thofe 
who go in chaifes about thefe defola&e 
regions, where few people travel becaufo 
tKe>Toads are bad, and where the roads 
are badbecaufe few people travel. 
' Half an hour after having mounted 
this Idi&cuh.Czte/ia, I came ftill a-foot 
tb Zarayzefty quite fpent with fatigue and 
With talking in the rage of the fun 
that; reverberated from the continued 
rocks. The man jof the Pvfada told roe 
en my arrival, that this is a fmall and 
wretched village, where nothing is to 
be feen that deferves notice $ therefore 
I threw myfelf on a bed and flept till 
it was quite dark. I forgot to tell you, 
that yeflerday we dined at Puerto Santa 
Cruz, another wretched village, which 
lies at the foot of a high and naked 
hill : but to-day's dinner was eatery on 


[ "7 ] 

that craggy declivity, fitting on itsftones 
after having got: the chatfe off* We;, 
drank our wine tour a tour out. of a Sati* 
btg^ which is called Berracboaod Bit a, 
both by the Portuguefe and the Spaniards. 
Ow/s holds aboiit, five gallons, ind wefiil 
fe v wherever * rwe find the liquor .good* 
Yefterday at: Santa. Cruz we cooled- thti 
bag in r a ftream, leaving it there a full 
htovtr: but to-day were forcad to drink 
warn*, which -was uncomfortable enough 
on { fa hot a day; \ How^greatiiaiihe dif* 
ference between travelling through; Spaiti 
arid England! -u -: ;;:-iy- 

no "-•'^'. . *••■ . . • * r ■ • 

t "8 J 


$fftcb to be feen. Countries trioft fertile 

« in authors. 7%e tyuejtibn of the ediSi 

' difc'ujjed. ffrould they cut canals. Vir-* 

ttie wants fl rub. Alms-boxes. Swekt- 

fmelling plants. Goats and Jheep, N* 


Ahnaraz, Sept, 19, 1769, 

HE who goes a long journey ought 
to rife early, and not do as I have 
done this morning. I could travel but 
four leagues to-day. It is true they have 
been bad enough to ftand in ftead of 
eight. The two firft we went on mount- 
ing, the other two defcending : but both 
the yife and the fall were fo fteep and 
ftony, that I was ,obliged to walk little 
lefs than the whole way, and through 
fqch byrpaths, as proved longer than the 
main road. At two in the afternoon we 
reached a village called las Cafas del Pu- 
frto 9 where with a few quartillos I pro- 
cured myfelf the company of fome boys 



and girls, who came to (how me the 
way crofs a. thick foreft, dancing and 
capering before me for more than a 
league. This was a pleafant diverfioa 
wtych rendered my walk lefs difagree- 
^ble: yet it was nothing at all when 
^compared to the mirth at Meaxaras. 

We have now goiie three days over 
mountains very high, and part of them 
very woody. The weather was this morn- 
ing fomewhat rainy. Had it 1>een fine 
J would h^ve clambered up a craggy 
hilj and vifited the CaJliUo of Mirabete, 
which ftands on the moft elevated fum- 
jnit in this province. The caftle is a 
. league diftapt from Zayrazejo> pnd was 
a work of the Morifcos. They had given 
Arabic names to sjlmoft all the towns, vil- 
lages, mountains, vallies, a.nd rivers of 
this diflrift, which they pofleffed for many 
centuries, and many of thofe names are 
iliU pjreferved. I wifh I. knew Arabic, 
.that I might trace thpir meaning and ori- 
I 4 gmal : 

4tofft->te**th«b is ncwr Van end of nay 
y&tt wifhte,; v.-. , .y\x ■;:.. - * v 
L ,Th#.iO*#Jeof MVd^rby which tte 
whole 5/pr^Wtafcen its rdenomraatiofti 
is no 1 ??; satiety ^inhabited, though: not 
initrely^njjned, A ftttpherd told me} 
that there ipy piucko qucwr (much pt\i$ 
to ie Jem) particularly -forae mofaicfe 
#onea and walls encrofted with 'parti* 
c^lopred pieces of marble. : - Indeed, if I 
pould afford the expence, I would run 
f ovcr all%wn, in fpight of its bad ac->< 
cpmmcdatkwi^ and vifit moft particu* 
lafly the tops of its numerous moun* 
i##s, on which the Morifctn chiefly de-* 
lighted to build. The fetisfa&ion that* 
would be the confequenceof my difco* 
veries and_ remarks, would amply re- 
pay me the fatigue of fuch a ramble. 
Innumerable are the obje&s of curiofity 
up and down this large kingdom that 
defer ve to be feen, examined, and de- 
(cribed* Italy, France/ and.. England 
may juftly be cQniidered as countries the 


rsBofafertite of authors that eVef exUtcd;; 
yet it is 4ftonifhing how littte is f o be 
found in their languages abotit the ftatc 
tffSpain, either before or after the Mortf- 
cGsnqukttd it. Of that nation which pof- 
fotfed.the greateft part of it far few- 
ral centuries, and were in it from 713 
toi6io> we fcarcely know any thing 
with regard to their domeftick way of 
living, their laws, arts, feiendes, trade; 
manufactures, and agriculture. Vet about 
a million of them ftill exifted not fo much 
as two centuries ago, according to fome 
authors. Mariana, in the fupplement 
to his ownhiftory, does but fay in gene- 
nil terms, that the number of thofe who 
were driven out of Spain was incredible. 
* That incredible number, of that mil- 
lion was expelled this kingdom in i6i<§ 
by a formidable edi& of Philip III. fti 
this age which: abounds iri mighty phi- 
lofbphera infinitely more than any ever 
did, it has been, and is Hill, a fafhion 
to ftigtnatwe the Spaniards of that age 
i ; "' ' for 

I 122. ] 

£6fchaving been guilty. c£ ftich a political 
error as to deprive their kingdom at one 
blow of that vaft number of inhabitants. 
Monfieur de Voltaire and th^ whole tribe 
-of ;his admirers, hare Very gravely def- 
canted on this fubjefl, and endeavoured 
to make the people confickr that ex- 
.puffion, -as no lefs inhuman than im*- 
political. What ?, fay thefe wife heads : 
Deprive a million of people of their na- 
tive homes, and drive them away, men, 
women, and children? Folly aever to 
:bc retrieved,, and cruelty nevjer to be 
v paralleled but by St. Bartholomew's maf- 
iacf e l 

Thefe exclamations appearfo plaufible, 
that I am almoft afraid to .offer a word of 
apology for Philip III. though I enter* 
tain feme fufpicion that the parade of 
humanity made, by our modifli wits, has 
Ibme tendency towards fbiwaidingirre- 
-ligion and countenancing rebellion. Let 
us however recolleft, with regard to 
that famous edi£t, -that all .the Spanilh 


[ "3 ] 

reprobates of thofc times, their rebels, 
traytdrs'and rogues 6f ail denominations, 
u&d to take refuge and fitidconroedtncnn 
if hot pfrdte&ioh, atflongft the Morifcos ; 
fcndltliat thofe Mahometans, thoaghlohg 
fdbduedy ilill looked upon 
ikwfiil mafters;of the whole country, arid 
Wodld in conference of that perfuafion, 
co-opdiftte openly or fecretly with the 
French, the Englifh, the Africans, and 
with every enewvy to Spain : and thus 
keep it In inceflant difqttiet, ftrfpicion 
sand alarm. Confidefing ohly this wkh 
impartiality, cati we really blame that 
•<cdi<$, which only drove them to their 
original country ? Nay more, can we 
forbear to pfaife the Spaniards for their 
£rteat moderation in only banishing the 

it 16 true that by a&ing as they did, 
the Spaniards deprived themfelves of a 
tfaft number of artifts/ huibandmen, and 
Soldiers. But ftill they a&ed as the go- 
vernor of a citadel would &>i who be- 
' 4 lieve d 

f 124 } 

lieved a' part of his ganifen? rrfdved to; 
revolt and fide with his befiegers the mo* 
ment they fhould come to a general af- 
fault. I muft, fays the governor* ekher 
drive thtfe tray tors out of thefe wa'116; or* 
put them all to death, &r periftj* myfelfar 
If I put them to death, the world will 
tax me with cruelty ; and if : I drive them 
out, they will augment the army with- 
out. Brother-foldiers, what muft I do ? 
Let us not.embrue our hands in fomucb 
bteod~^but they are traytors, and we 
muft get rid of them. They will go 
and encreafe the army of our enemies and 
lea w our garrifon incomplete $ but thofc 
that remain will aft wrth unanimity t 
W£: fhall then have 1 only our enemies to> 
fear : we lofe numbers but we get 
ftrength. J .■ - \ 

- Tfcis in all probability was> the reafon- 
, ing of Philip and his council, when the 
eipulfion of the Mortfcot ..was refotved 
upon. One of two great evils was to be 
fuffered, and the leaft was chiofen. Why 


[ I2J 3 


they are to be called barbarous dfor rt f is 
beyond my comprehertfion. 

j Of the many ^writers wha* have . made 
nmftdon of the Mcrifcos, rianeeter gave 
m* ?rty fotiifa&ion, except pfavagtre > and 
y*t Jje fpoke but very little of them ia 
diofe tetters Which he wrote* to our great 
Golle&or of Travels Giambattifta Ramufa 
when he went ambaffador from the Ve* 
netians to the Emperor Charles V; From 
thofe letters, cotnpofed by Navagero out 
of his own journal, we colled that thfeg 
Msrifcos in their drefs, cuftotihs ami man* 
ners, as well as in their language, . vwere 
juueh difFercivt f rom any of the European 
nations ; worthy; therefore to haw banfc 
examined by > an European, philofophW 
with a much greater attention than Nova* 
giro feems to have had. Their arts and 
Iciences were neither few nor contempts 
bte. The learned have oftpn in ; their, 
mouths the names of fome of their hi* 
ftorians and phyficians* but indeed their 


names only*. Tradition informs the Spa* 
riiards, that the Mori/cos h«d likewife 4 
great many poets. But their productions 
are now loft "to Europe, and we know 
not whether Africa h?s preferved the*n* 
Their knowledge of agriculture is $!* 
-lowed on all hands, and the remains, of 
their buildings, efpecially thofe at Gfa,-. 
nada, defcribed by Navagtro and others, 
bear witnefs to their fkill in archite&we* 
But European incuiioufneis has fufjferecf 
their excellencies to fink into oblivion** 
We are at prefent perfe&ly ignorant of 
the Arabick dialect which they fpoke; 
ignorant of their fciences, arts, and eta* 
ra£teriftical peculiarities. Yet an atten- 
tive and curious traveller might iliU 
glean about this country fufficient mater 
riads for an interefting account .of that 
-people, by defcribing with exa&nejk 
thofe ruins of their former habitation 
that ftill exi&, by fetching for tradition 
in the<okl fcngs, romances, and chronicle, 


r '1*7 3 

both Spanish \md Arabick, that bave iliR 
a run amongft this people, or lie concealed . 
in their libraries, and forming (kduftiofts 
of what was once from what is ftill left. 

If a King of Spain knew well what 
country he has, he would in my opinion 
be one of the moil: powerful monarch* o£ 
the world. Let canafe be cot through 
the provinces that tiiey maybe e^ly ini* 
gated, which maybe done in a few years 
by an abfolute and rich 'King, as thfi 
Kings of Spain are, and will long be. Let 
ftri& cecottomy be eftabfiftied, and agri- 
culture encouraged with Hberalky $ and 
the natural fecundity of the Spanhh* - 
ground. will feed many more millions 
than it now contains. This is the uni- 
form cry of all the judicious Spaniards 
With whom 1 have converted before I, 
came to v$t thefe regions ; and I think 
them right fince I have feen EJiremadura; 
1 have obfefved amorigft other things, 
that the higher parts of thisprovince na? 
tufaUy^oduce green-oaks, whofe acorns 


[ 128 ] 

•re almpfiras good to eat as our almonds, 
or rather otir chefnilts. But nothing is 
done towards augmenting the number of 
thofe trees. If they were cultivated' 
wherever they would grow, Eftremadura 
alone would be able to furnilh half Eu- 
rope with good hams, as numberlefs 
fwine might be Fed here at almoft no ex- 
pence, as I am told it is done a little fur- 
ther towards Madrid; and the fwine that 
feed upon the acorns of the green oak, 
are you cannot think how good. But 
neither that, nor any other kind of culti- 
vation is much thought on in thefe parts, 
and both mountains and vallies are mife- 
rably negle&ed* therefore the province 
has a great fcarcity of inhabitants, and 
few or none of them opulent* They eat 
little, are covered with rags, and lodge 
meanly. It is true that a very little fuf- 
fices them to keep foul and body together, 
becaufe they arc doubtlefs the raoft tem- 
perate people upon the face of the globe. 
Nor are they ambitious of drefs, for not 


: f 1*9 ] 

$f$D ,thtir prfeftshaye good cgat&on jheitf 
Jracks> ; Their they are fa indurated, by. 
tjjjeir hard, manner of living, that thejr 
fcui lie on their naked floors in winter* 
«u>d even in, the open air in fuoKnerrwith,-. 
out inconvenience.. They certainly en* 
j#y»a kind of. happin,*fs by Jiving in thifr 
carelefs manner, fatisfied wiiJb the pre^ 
fen&fqr want ofJoiowing better, and.pr6?j 
j^ly. urtoaindf ul of the future y and. that, 
tljgy.ace. notary unhappy j tlje^ chearfuj 
%£s a*.w$L*#sn theix. general health^ 
nefs, ^fuffideot^y. teftify. , But. it is nqfc 
th^ ; inl;ere££ their King . that r they;. 
(h#uldJ$ad a.hfetof indolence,. hovyeve£ % 
taPX'^y. way. he * nou ij ijr, J, thijj^ 
#ejr own to: .ba|k through #fij in/o/djtdj 
a#d, hungry .negligence^ w%n thjgy,. 
nought have ^enty^and perhaps ^eganay; 
•ftifh care Oioijt^of ^anxieties, and labjujj, 

^^(^^^ #*? marbles ^C,djpj»y$$|- 

;t3 2&>£. II. K ■ • out 

[ *3° ] 

otit^ perhaps not a. {ingle edifice of mar- 
ble ha* ever been raited throughout this 
province. It is apparent that the Mo- 
rifcoi were infinitely more laborious and 
-indqftrious than their fucceflbrs, if we 
credit the innumerable remains of caftfes 
*nd toners which they have left all about 
theie cliffs and rocks* The -caftle of 
Mirabel already mentioned, was not only 
a large building, but was furroonded witft 
a large garden, the walls of which are 
yet (tending in a good riieafure; and 
thofe who made it; nauft certainly have 
had fame dream to water it upon the 
elevation on which it was. But the Span-* 
*&rd&, who during their wars with the 
Mt>rifcK> were a valiant- race of men,, 
grew idfe as foon as they got rid of them, 
and degenerated into an inactivity not to 
be well conceived but by rambling over 
EJlremadura y and comparing its prefent 
.with its former ftate* . Thus did the 
Romans after they had annihilated Car- 
thage. They dwindled away, propor- 


tionably as faft as Che Spaniards a&er the 
foil recovery and peaceable pofleffion df 
their ancient kingdom. Thus have other 
nations funk from their grandeur as foon 
as their ,enemies and rivals were bereft of 
the power of hurting* That virtue may 
preferve itfelf alive and bright, obftacks 
tod contention are neceffary ; otherwife 
it will grow rufty and perifh. Thus will 
%ht Englifti do, die braveft nation of th« 
prefent world, let them be onee pof- 
feffed of the, whole circuit of commerce, 
at which they have l6ng aimed, and 
which they are iria fairway of obtaining* 
The firft CQnfequence of that wifti'd-for 
pofleffion will be immenfe riches, the 
fccond emafculatioh, and the thkd fo 
many vices and follies, as will totally 
annihilate their induftry as well as their 
bravery j and lome poor defperate nation 
will' at laft do to them what they are ac- 
tually doiiig to others. But let us not 
lofc ourfelves in this fort of telefcopic 

K 2 A* 

t 132 1 

As foon as you reach any habitation iri 
this EJtremadura, fome male on female 
beggar com?s about you, holds up an 
alms-box, and craves with much earneft- 
neft for a Lemofnita 'por las almas, " A 
* fmall alms for the fouls in purgatory" 
The number of thofe who have ne> othe* 
trade but that of pedirpor Dios, is indeed 
too large in this region, as they think it 
Very meritorious, befides that they fiftd it 
convenient. Yet inftead of begging f of 
God's Jake, or for the fouls y and inftead 
of tormenting the living for the relief of 
the dead, they would do much, better to 
give themfelves other concerns* Befides 
the oaks on their mountains, they have 
other trees in their vallies that would 
cafily f urnifh them with efFe&ual means to 
live better than cafual alms. But things 
have now been brought to fuch a pafs in. 
their province, that if they fhould' be- 
come willing to apply to culture, it 
would fcarcely be ia their power fo to 
work unleis the government* would 

4j provide 

[ *33 3 

provide them both with implements and 
;with inftru&ors. 

About half a league from Cafas del 
JPuerte, the Vagus is croffed again over a 
bridge compofed of two wide arches, 
.which they fay, was a work of the Ro- 
mans. There the waters of that river 
^are of a brick colour, but fo deep> that 
they might poffibly be made navigable ; 
.and fo might thofe of the Guadiana down 
from tytrida to the fea- But not a' boat, 
great or fmall, have I feen on thofe. two 
ftreartis in Spanijh EJiremadura y nor any 
kind of dike, dai», nor othj?r invention to 
fubftraft any part of thofe ftreams, and 
turn it from its natural channel for the 
purpofes of agriculture. 

Rofemary, lavender, fage, thyme, and 
other fweet-fmelling plants," grow plen- 
tifully about the wildeft parts of thefe 
mountains and vallies, and make journey- 
-ing oti foot very pleafant with" their 
iragrancy. I have feen yefterday and 
Jo-day Tome fmall heards of goats and 
K 3 fheep, 

[ w 1 

iheep, and am fatisfied that larger might 
be had, would thefe people be at the 

This village of Atmardz is as poor as 
that of Zarayzej&i and has nothing re- 
markable but the romaiiticaJnefs of its fi- 
tuatioh. The fighfe from the Pvfada's 
windows runs over a traft: of rocky coun- 
try not totally deprived of trees* Scarce 
any wheat-land is to be feen from Trux* 
i% y and I nlay fay from Mfrida to thi^ 


«• - ... * 

JVat ground Vgfli*. Holy friers and pretty 
girls. Cbtnpin^ of acorns* \4n odd or- 
„ gan. Jjfidowf lighting candies, fitqff! 
ffldjftffi'Wkn I have nothing etfe. 

IT is eleven 1 in the morning, and I am 
only two leagues from Ahnardz, be- 
feirafe I cannot refolve upon rifing bejimes; 
It ieems as if the I<Henefs off this country 

was catching. White the nu4e$ are cafe 
ing their ehopged ftraw, I may as well 
be at my quill. 

I am at Jaft put qt th« mottnjtaing, and 
to-day's journey has been and w ill he 
performed on flat-rgreund. At the difr 
tanc* fif a league from 4bnfrfa J went 
afong fpme wide vineyards that belong |p 
e convent of Dominican Friars." How 
beautiful the grapes that hung all about ! 

Adjoining to thofe yiaeyards there are 
houfes where thofe grapes are colle&ed, 
«nd the wine made. That wine I had 
beard much commended by my Ctkfleru, 
and I mu# tell yon by the by, that th* 
two fellows love to drink rather in the 
German than in the Spanish way* As 
our Boracho was new? empty, I alighted 
at thofe houfes to fill it. I mean, that! 
alighted at an inn, and was fyrprized to 
. find, not that it belongs to thole friars* 
but that they themfelves have the fuper? 
sntqndance of it. .Three or four of tfcwm, - 
middle-aged and grave perfbnages, were „ 
K 4 in 

jri that inn, chatting with the fervant* 
inaids, aroongft whorA I could not help 
to take notice of one very lively and 
finart, her head high, hfer neck of fnow, 
betides an eye fo full of luftre ! None of 
Calypfis nymphs would any poet dare to 
compare to fuch a Senora. Shfc is niece 
(one of the friars told it me) to an old 
froman there, who is as lean as a gothid 
pillar ; but it is the niece and not the 
aUnt that plays the landlady and receives 
the customers* money, I never would 
tnarry that \ might turn friar, and never 
turn'd friar that I might marry whenever 
I fhould lift ; but. there I was hear lofing 
Ihy liberty one way or the other. r 
■• jefting a part: A man ought iftt to be 
!iafty in thinking ill of his neighbours j 
but my neighbours ought alfo to take 
fome care not to give a man any motive 
for thinking ill. If 1 had feen friars in 
Italy fuperirttending an inn of their own, 
with handfome . wenches in it by way of 
feryants/I quejtion whether I fliould 


gver have had the good opinion I have at 
their e*a£hfefs in the ofofervance of their 
vows. Whatever coat we may wear* we 
are all fragile, and much holinefs is re** 
quired to refift near temptations. 

The dame that refemWes a gothic pil- 
lar, aflced hie if it was true that theFflptf 
has *xci>njniunicated the- Portuguefe and 
prohibited them to tell their beads. She 
has lteard it feems of ; the prefent fqudb-* 
bles< between -the courts of Rome and Lip- 
ion s and I fuppofe that befides thtf : dm 
fepathy which animates -the Spanifti aad 
Portugtiefe vulgar againft each otfier r her 
good- landlords the friars fide with his ho- 
linefs, when they difcourfe over luch 
matters at their inn. This in all probabi- 
lity put her upon afking me thofe ridicu- 
lous queftions. I anfwered them in the 
negative, got again into my chaife, 
croffed a large foretf of green oaks, and 
bit their acorns to beguile the way. In- 
deed they tafte very much like chefnuts. 
There are none fuch in our weflern parts 
- of 

r. «« ) ' 

affcaly, and J new heard of my m. jfo; 
e*fter^whi^Ibj*v$»ptyetYtt1ted, Qfit 
* pinch I ehl»%i they wwld do. for food* 
both iaw and roafted. 

At iVi«># Mir*} we Righted to hwfc 
and, while the cakfferpf were eating, I 
went to fee * chnwjft jsft by the Pofajtok 
There they were fiaging a gmt mafi 
at the found of an organ, of which tbfe 
tubes, M&d of pointing {Straight n$r 
wards, to in *!i of gi«s J jey«r few, he 
wrihwd . ©Btwards and hang down to- 
wards the people below, presenting their 
enremities in the form of ttwapte' ends, 
A friar was playing so that odd organ 
with aftoniflung jnaft«*y, I wondered 
to lee many women In the chweh whs 
£>X abjujt on their heels, whoWy h«Ww 
by their black mantles, and with many, 
fmall wax candles lighted before tbeafc 
1 aiked the meaning of thofe lights, and 
was anfwered that the women who had 
them J#fore, were widows who lighted 
them in order to eafe the (bnis of their 


f .139 ] 

<te*d huftands. I don't know whether 
the number of their refpe&iYC candles 
implied the number • of their refpe&ive - 
hufbands. Some had byt one, fome two 
or three, fome fo for as fevfen. Perhaps 
they only indicate their greater or lefs de- 
grees of devotion or affe&ion. 

Nrffarnal Postck ipt from the Calza- 
4&>de Ofofe&a. Coming out of Navdl 
M*rdi> we entered another foreft quite 
as fine as that of Ardtnna, fo celebrated 
In our romances, in which knight-er- 
rants' ufed formerly to go in fearch of 
adventures* After a good league it open- 
ed into ft vaft plain limited on both 
ifctes by high mountains, the tops of 
Which, tfpecially thofe on my left, were 
covered with fnow> in defiance of the 
futt thatfliJneg again very hot. I had not 
been fenfible of its force thefe three days 
$>aft, becaufe the moraiftg rains and the 
evening mifts blunted the fharpnefs of 
its heams. But to-day I have felt its 
fyry again, as much as when I was on 


[ ?4° ] 

•the other fide of iht'EJIvcmttduran Julfe. 
It has made me fo tawney fince I firft 
few the mouth bf the ¥agus> that, if it 
continues to roaft me a: fortnight longer, 
;you fcill on my, readhing home nuftake 
me for the black king in 'Metaftafio** 
Dido ; or at lea ft for -an outgrown Sayoy- 
.arcUboy of thofe who roll down Mount 
Cents and Mount-Genevre every year ajbout 
:G£tober, and go to play the Chimney- 
fweepersabout Piedmont and Lombardy. 

This Calzada is the Jbeft village I have 
a& yet feen fince I left Lijbon ; and my 
.prefent Pofadera, though a young wo- 
man, is not fo ihy as all the young wo* 
men I have met with on this road* , She 
•loves to talk and afk questions, and we 
prated together for above .an; hour, 
Amongft other things fhe has allured 
me, that the women in this place are 
the mod modeft in all Spain. She pities 
me for going to Madrid, where Las Mu<- 
geres fon muy atrevidas, women are *oery 
audacious y as her hufband has told her, 


[ H. ] 

who was there but laft month for £ whole 
week. To calm her kind uneafinefs with 
regard to my journey, there* I have given 
her my word, that,, if ever I marry ill 
Spain, I will pofitively come to the CaU 
zada for a wife, and beg of her to help 
me to the beft, which (he has cordially 
promifed to do, and wifhes it may be 

M^y be you will find fault with my 
telling this and other petty tranfaftions 
of mine. But confider that I cannot 
every moment have an earthquake ready 
at hand, nor pompous patriarchs at every 
ftep, nor kings playing the mafons, nor 
loads of Jefuits fliipp'd off for C$v{ta 
Veccbia: Such -grand topics do not oc- 
cur every day, and of fomething I njuft 
fill my letters, or break the plan of my 
journal. Thus I write about literature 
when 1 am juft come outof a library, 
and fcribble about my landlady when at 
an inn. A man who is giving a full ac- 
count of his travels I hope you con- 

[ H* ] 

fider asaaa hiflorian; and you know that 
hiftoriaas, tike death, muft knock aquo 
pede> at ^ the beggar's as at the king's 


Hogs ip numbers. A Spanijh countefs^ A 
fellow Jlill fiber, and the piftol lojl* 

1 * ; ' % T4tvtoi ltZeyntf Oft. x 9 1760. 

FROM the Calzada to this town 
the country is greatly better than 
that which l\had left behind me j nor do 
thefe people lode fo wretchedly poor as 
thofe who inhabit the hitts of Eftrema- 
tlw;d. Many herds «>f fwine afie to bt 
feen all along the way I have gone to* 
day, efpeeirilly k a vaft phon that lies 
under the Cuejia dt Orope&a- and about 
llie ftswfc PerUhmtgas, where the coun- 
jfery tft a diftance appeared like a black 
carpet for a very confiderable fpace. 
Thou&nds of thofe animals (aB very 
black) are fent every week daring the 
X winter 


[ '43 J 

winter to Talaver*, *fokd* % Madrid, and 
even to Zamgozza. 

Orapeza is a town that giyts k$ name 
to thatf Cot/?* or H/fl. A lady lives there 
in a caftle juft by the town, and is called 
La Condefa ie Orgpeza. She is much be* 
loved throughout the country for her ex- 
tenfive charities' and liberalities. From 
het windows a vaft profpeft is commanded* 
I wanted to mount the hill, go to put 
myfelf (a) a fas piesy and be a witnds 
to the Hate kept by a Spanifli counted 
when at her own country manfion: bat 
the Gdtjferox perfuaded me to the con- 
trary. She is very old, they fay, and has 
retired frotia court fome years. Tho' (he 
£a$es the grcatcft part of her time la 
the Company of fome Fnmifum nuns, 
whofe monaftery is juft by her caftle, 
yet (he lives with great fplendour, and has 
duenas, maids, chaplains, fecretaries, 
pages, and livery-fervants to the auhh . 

[a) At her feet. // is the phrafi ufed ]/i Sjuum 
XtUh the ladies, tolntbofi of the middk daft: 


t *44 \ 

her of a ^ndred at leaft. Her incqnjg 
amoupts to ^ear fifteen thou fand pounds 
as I am told> and her eftate is to be fhared 
after her death between the duke of Alhd 
and that of Medina Sidonia. 

In the plain adjacent to the, hill, 
aqdE on the left fide of the great road 
as vou come from the Cahada y the. Fran- 
cifcan friars have a convent which con* 
tains forty of them. It intakes a grcft 
figure from without, but I did ijbt ftpp 
to vifit it. A little further is Vmta Pe* 
tahagenas a forry houfe, where I threw 
myfelf on a bed and made my Siefta j that 
i?> I flept an hour, becauf?" the weather 
was irifupportably hot. ' My dinner I had 
catea in the chaife two hours befjpre,* and 
we had flopped at a petty town or village* 
caUed-Torra/zw, to drink "an azumhre y fo 
they call a wine-meafure, which contains 
about half a gallons, but in feme places 
this meafure is more and in others leff 
than atTorraha, as I am informed by the 

calefleros, who have this fort. of know* 

- • - >' . ■ •• * 

' kdgflf 

I 145 3 

ledge at their fingers' end. When I want 
to be familiar with them, I call one of 
them el Conde Borracho, (that is, DomMa- 
nuelo) the other el Marquis Bota> and Ba- 
tifte el Senor Don Azumbre. They are 
now fo well accuftomed to thefe appel- 
lations, that they , call each other by 
thefe names j arid thefe are fome of my 
petty expedients to folace my journey. 
They had jointly told me that at Tar- 
ralva the wine - was excellent ; and the 
lovers of Lipari or Genfdno, one a Ro- 
man, the other a Neapolitan wine, would 
find that my men are rights 

Here you will fay, that I am grown 
very ftudious about wines, and are going 
to imagine that the Englifh have fpoiled 
me. The Englilh have indeed accuf- 
tomed me to drink a little more than I 
would perhaps ever have done, had I 
never quitted home. The bottle is their 
thief incitement to fociabfcnefs ; and too 
great is the number of thofe amongft 
thqjn who could fcarcely ever .be chear- 
. Vol. IL L fui 

I 14* ] 

ful without it. Yet I am ftill temperate* 
and my notice of the wines produced by 
thefe regions is not out of T kindnefc,ifcot 
tfee bottle* >\ but; in humble imitation* of 
all other travellers, merely to. heap up r 
petty information when nothing more: 
intereft ing is at hand. 

After the Siejla I bad the cakfferos to 
follow jme at their kifure, and went out 
of the Fevia with an intention to w$!k 
two or thrss. miles. I had not gone th«t 
a-foot a whole mile when I overtook & 
finall, body of foldkrs who were. for 2«* 
lavera like myfelf. » 

t " Soldiers are people who will talk to 
you if you will talk to them : and I who 
am as much a friend to oonverfation as the 
beft of theiji all, prefently joined thsnn 
told them almoft without any- preamble 
who I was, whence I came, 'and whither;! 
vyas going, and heard as much of them* 
together with the name of their regiment 
and of their colonel. They -did not walk 
very faft, to keep pace with a couple 


[ H7 J . 

aflfe that carried their luggage. An 
officer commanded them who marched 
before, rriounted upon a nag fo very lean, 
that (a) Rozinante had been a Brigliador§ ' 
to it. . The gentleman did notfeemde- 
fiwus td enter into <converfetion with 
me ; fo c let him alone, and mixed with 

Amongft many other things I afked 
whether any of them had ever travelled 
ottt of ttieir kingdom. Two of them 
had, one by fea, the other by land. He 
who had been at fea, fell once into the 
power of an Englifli privateer. But, faid 
he, en la tierra de aquellos bereges la cared - 
es cofa tfpanta&k y de muy grande horror* 
'** In the land of thofe bereticks a jail is a 
c< frightful thing and of the greateft hor- 
c * rw :" and to avoid being thrown into 
it, he took party amongft the failors, and 
lived on* board the privateer better than 
d year, during which time he applied 

{a) Rozinante was Don Quixote's htrfe> and Brig* 
liddoro was Orlando's. 
>• L2 fo 


fo clofely to tlicir language, that he can 
now tell: from <wa? to twenty. ThftHgb 
the English are hereticks, added he* yeti 
they are muy valsentes, <c wrjr valiant" 
manage a (hip a9 well as the Spaniards, 
jp W'jtiencn miedo' de aquelks (a) Ga<wfchos: 
de Francefes; que^ for vida de Santo^AntiH 
mo/on peore$ de los Inglefes ; " and 4rt\ 
€ f npt \ at ail afraid of the contempt tide \ 
u Freneby who, by St. Anthonys life % are 
€ f worfe than -the Fftglifh? Their way.of 
eating; ;jo4ntihued the foWier, is dif- 
ferent from ours. They don't like much 
. gar lick, onions, pimenton (SpanUbt! pep- 
per) gervdnum (chick-peas) or ahadtjo 
(&lt-fifh), fo that I accuftomed myfelf to. 
%dXfahe beje yvith them, and co»ld drAnfa 
dtr\bcre- % which is im Hno beeho dt ague ; 
u a wine made with water? The Bag- 

(a) Gavacho is an injurious appellation be/lowed on 
the French by the Spanijh vulgar. I know of nd fatfa* 
faflory.etym^lgy of this word< T^bt P^montefi caff 
the Savoyards (and often the French) Gavafs j and 
Gavafs means a Derby-neck^ cr a man that has d 


r 149 i 

lilh Tailors, inftead of Pedro Ctipin> ufed 
tOrtitXt me Spani Monqvi ; whtth words, 
by the help of his face, I oould eafily 
traaflate into * Spani jb monkey. v 

. The other feliow ' was ftiil more di* 
verting than Pedro Capon. No man have 
lever heard lye with fo brazen a face, and 
with fo great a volubility of tongoe. He 
{iad been a corporal in the wars of Italy 
(now he is cap&Jquadra y a fergeant) and 
was in the fiege of Cuneo that was tarried 
ort by the joint armies of Spain and France 
irithelaft war. { " 

.Iflftead of being a town (as it is), and 
inftead of being chiefly furrounded with 
a inound of earth and faggots, (as it x was 
at that time) Cuneo, faifl my Capo-fquadra % 
is a caftle encompaffed with no lefs than 
feyisv marble-walls, each very high and 
very thick; fo that, after having taken 
the -. firft, as we did . in the firft attack, ' 
we had only th« feventh part of the bu- 
$nefs done. AqueJ \mdtditQ Cajlillo, con- 
tinued the man, es fin duda mas grande y 

A . ' s L 3 mas 

mas fuerte del ton nombradb Cafiillo de Af?- 
v Ian : " that curfed caftle is doubtlefs notch 
u larger and fironger than that mojl re- 
u nowned at Milan? Both his compa- 
nions and myfelf were ready to cry a{ 
his pathetic defcription of the; hardships 
he had there undergone, along with the 
infant Don Philip, que fe mofirb alia tan 
bizarro en peledr cotno qualquiera de noq 
otros *, " who there Jhowed himfelf as fiout 
" in fight as any of us" Bombs, carcafles, 
and cannon-balls cayan a diluvio en ei 
campo del Cafiillo 7 de lo Exercito Savoy ano, 
y de niuchas otras partes* y con todo ejfc 
los pobres foldados- no tenlan que comer fi no t 
la nieve de. aquellas malditas montahas qu$ 
llaman los Apeninos : " fell as a deluge 
4 c from the caftle ', from the Savoyard army, 
€< and from divers other parts ; andf&r aU 
c< that the poor foldiers bad nothing ttfeat 
" but the frozen fnow of thofi curfed 
c< mountains called this Appenines" 

It was with difficulty that I put a feri- 
pus fa<£ upon thefe aivd other lies and 


£ w 3 

• ♦ 

3tyttf<fek» of the br!Lye captfqu&ira, each 
rgjied upon the. back of the other with an 
3#onifbing velocity of imagination. Lit- 
#% did. the fellow think thptjie wa? talk- 
ing *P one* who had teen two years %t 
Gunfo^ a0iftiijg at thofe .fortifications, 
>vjii£h I left but a few days before that 
liege: but ipfl^ad. of fpoiling $ny fport 
with untimely contradi&ion, I gave him 
fo much encouragement by my remarks. 
«H hi$ accounts, that l.ipatfe him ro- 
domontade away a hundred, times mors 
than he would, otherwise have done, 
* With tbefe difcoyrfes, intermixed with 
jfopie fingpg and playing front* time to 
tjroe; we had advanced littls lefs than 
three leagues before r was. aware of it, 
&ch was the pjeafnre I took i# the com- 
pany of kiy fellow-travellers.. . The calef- 
$m did not appear, and I gave myfelf 
ne trouble about them. We few a $uin- 
ta ; that is, a wuAtry-hpufe, . which be- 
ings to fcme friajrs, vecy largQ and very 
well built The heat, waljc, aqd talk, 
,.. . L 4 had 

I 150 

kali by thifftmifi made-toiaB very thir&yV 
therefore *ws $oft the gwi* *oad y wenb4» 
k, and begged of the lay-friar who hai 
ifc iia cuftody, to let us hwe fome wi&ft 
for love or ; money. The rude fellowi 
calikg a look bf difdaiivtipQii us y ahd 
pointing to a: certain plaoe^ informed m 
tfeatthene was a well there, I doat't knovtr 
whetfeer I g«w pale or red with anger tit 
this unex^e£ted reception. / However I 
eipoftulated in the mild eft terms ; but ht 
was. inexorable with regard to the officer 
and foldiersy and would do>tio ratore thaft 
(fcrdfer an old witch of a maid to fetch 
me fomc wine in an earthen pot I was 
within an inch of throwing the pot into 
his face; btifc abftaihed, beeaufe I ? few 
the officer and foldiers Hand iilent. The 
officer only faid da gradias a tu baMtv'i 
^.thank t1ty<caat % \ and beckoned to his tnto 
to ^go to the well. Such a, number <«£ 
foldiers am Fiance, would* in inch a cafe 
We bfefaavodf Tlvith muck rWs mbdeca^ 
t\<m i or,: t6 fay better; nb French friar 
?■• would 

wcfaid dara <brbehav« as ttetS^anMh did 
witlr French ioWicrs. Thfcjr told me afar 
tcr that in iSpaln (oldiers^aod fiiars 
Me no friends* ;i and they ipighta9 well 
baare faid that they are mortal enemies; 
flhefriar refufodabribeJ offered, confix 
dsrabie eiiougfa* as I thought for a iayw 
friar- Indignation ruffled tlw forehead 
of my companions, and a defire of re* 
trenge was' prefently fhadowed: after th& 
ftrong manner txf Caravaggid ia all thetP 
eye$. . We turned our backs in fulkn fi* 
fence, the foldiers with -a fcheme m 
liheir heads, and I much fcandalized a* 
th& feVageinurhaftity of the friar. 

About half a mile from the Quinta 
tob found ourielves by the fide of an aca* 
pld vineyard, which the foldiers knew to 
helotig to the good fathers of the $>uirtfai 
The liqtzoi: they had not drank, kindled 
their military fpirit in a moment, and 
the demon of devaftation took peffeffion of 
the, whote detachment. They broke thro 1 
»thieka»dl thorny hedge that fcreened 
.. : ,.>..- the 

' I 154 ] 

the, vineyard: fron* the pafiengers* rapa* 
city, tore down the grapes, trampled up* 
t». thee*, broko of pulled oi*fc the vine* 
together with the poles that fupported 
them, and,ui:3f ibojt timet did fo.muak 
laifUiief, that f 3r fome yeara not half an 
fswmire will begot in the fpgce of a mile* 
jjor did they give over until they.wef e.per* 
kgkly tired, taking care however to carry 
eot as many bundles as it was poffible 
for each to hold in. both haads. 

The officer all this while. rode calmly 
fbrwards> and never turned his head to 
them, that he plight not know what 
they were a doing, and I ftopd by theafles, 
a witnefs of their fury. 

Another hpur brought tfs to $alaver4i 9 
yery well refreshed with eating the plm*- 
dered graces, and at the gate we parted 
company. They went I know ,not 
frhere, and I to the Pofada, where my 
caleflferos arrived*,a little, after .with Ba- 
ffle, Iaflced t^em if they, had takjen 
notice of' the ruined vineyard, Thejt 
\ j m had ; 

had j but could hot imagine how it bad 
happened: 1 told them in the prefene^ 
pi the Pofadero and his wife, 'and afked 
if the fpldif rs were liable to be punifhed 
for filch an offence. Pubifhed I feid the 
woman. v Jt is the friar that ought to be 
puniihed, not the poor men. Every body 
there w$s pfeafed to hear of this exploit^ 
and it feems. {hat the low people here 
bear as great a hatred to the friars as the 
foldiers themfelves, though I had brought 
a nation with me, that the Spanifli vul- 
gar have all friars in the utmoft venera*- 
tion. * 

To this adventure which made me 
*laugh, I muft add another that vexed 
jne. After having walked three or four 
fsniles from the Venta PeralvanegaSy I 
found that' my coat grew infupportably 
heavy.; One of the foldiers offered t<> 
farry it fpr me, and I readily ftripped, 
por did T think of putting it on again 
until we were in fight of this town. In. 
|he pockets of it there was a fhort piftol 


1 **6 ] 

with ^m&Sttehk¥ wfe&h' I did rtdt 
inifo till we reached the Pofada.' This 
xftade tae go about in fear^h of the fidk 
tows. I iribt with one 5 then with two $ 
then tritfrittto more* Cava Her os, faid I, 
one of you deforces not to be your fellow^ 
fcldietV He* has robbed me of a pifto§\j 
but 1 the theft will be of no life to hifti* 
It is the-feHow to this ; and you fee that 
it cannot be charged if it is not unfcrewed' 
*yith this iron 5 befides that the balls 
mttft be>of a particular mould : To that 
iaiftead of a £iftol, he has ftolen but a bit 
of fteel that will fend him to the gallies.. 
"They feemed much difpfeafed at this 
piece of intelligence, and could have no 
guefs at the thief \ as my coat had l>eeSi' 
carried by turns, now byonfe, how : : bf\ 
another $ but they promifed to go anfl 
enquire after it, and to come to the Pel- 
fada if the piftoi was found, as they 
t&iought it would be* r • 

c Two bmx% after, as I was at fuppet, 
four of them came, every one fo drunk* 
"'v^'j that 

[ *S9 1 

that tbcy could hardly fta«4 - Where is 
myjfiftol, .Camalkroa ? Sertor wfc are coma 
ta telL^QUthat the piftolisnot yet found,' 
bat yoa (bay certainly, ha^e-k a mamrmi 
"tfohvurrow" Very well* laid I peevi&ly 
anddifgufted ta fee them ibnwichin liquoro 
Come <z manaxa, and you flwtt have the 
doubloon I promiied. Si •$£#• Si Sfmr i fib good to order us feme ttttlewino 
tp drink your -health. Saying this one otf 
them extended a. dirty paw, ahd.ftized.-a . 
geo*t handful ofa fallad I had btfiwe.rae* 
whale another grafped one of my Jfoaftatf 
partridges. What is this, ye Majodervs 
del DiafbiWy'd I. v I. beat: a brafe can- 
dfeftick into the face of the fellow that 
had brought the fallad to his mouth, and 
pulling and cocking the pitta), theterror 
of it delivered jne of them in an inftant, 
one- with. ,a mouth full, one with the par- 
tridge, one with a fiioiilder half denio-k 
lifted by a tumble againftthe door, and 
one witk as hard a kick in hispofter&rs 
as Batifte could give.- -: . 4 : • '* ' 


t t 5 S. T 

. Many people rah at thb woife, but the; 
jrafoals were gone ; and thus ended awrt 
tender fricndfliip. I fat down again to? 
my fbpper with words quick, angry, audi 
loud : tot coo|ed by degrees, and endtd 4 
my repaftintolcr^ixfe goddhumour, very 
glad that no worfc bad happened. The" 
Pqfadero and her maids danced a Fm+. 
dango under the portico, and when that 
was over I went to my quill as ufuaL \t 
Iras now flruck eleven, and no foldier 
has appeared j fo that I ;give up thejAftofc 
for loft. . . . r 


Another ugly affair* Silk and earthen ma- 
nufactures. A dialogue with d Corre~* 
fp^> { 4ndu new cakjfeto. 

A Proverb fays that he who reckon* * 
without his hoft reckons twice % 
and this is my preient cafe. I intended, 
to fet out early this morning and had 

3 S iven 

I *S9> 1* 

given- order to -fee awakeVi at jroun. At 
four I was awaked, not to be toid that 
the moks^wtre put to, faint that I cortld 
not fet out, becaufe that live chaifes rtad 
teen ordered to ftay where they were. ' •* 
, By whdnvand why? BythsComgiikt 
«mtbecaufe>of. yourPortoguefeCakflerb: 
Tbeiogileihas quarrelled Jail 'night, and 
given a ftab wkh his knife to a* young 
crtan of the hoofc. Anil where is the fei- 
hasr ? The Poffadero caufed him to be 
arretted, and xktGorrtgidor being itnttie«< 
diatdy apprifed of it, has fent him to 
jail. I wonder you did not hear the noife: 
but you were tired with walking and flept 

And to, Dora Manuel6 is-ln jail ? I ani 
farry for the ilab : but it is very well 
that he is dapp'd tip. We tffraH -be trou- 
bled no longer with him. The bid raf- 
cal has made nie mad enough, getting 
drunk at every Pofada, and Quarrelling 
every night with every body. 
' •'*• While 

[ I** 1 

While I was thus difcowfing with Ba* 
tide and fome others, a lady whotn by 
hpr Mantilla (white veil) I thought Spa-* 
irifh, though fat was not, adftrcffed me 
in Caftilian; and told me that as a Ca~ 
vatlero I ought to go to the Corregidor, 
and folicit him to take off the embargo 
on the chfufts, amongft which there was 
hers, which gaveher the greateft concern, 
as foe waited to be at AWr/dLupon bufi- 
nefs of the utmofl: importance. The 
Cerregidwi jhe faid, is the chief magistrate 
in this town, . arid . i'f you do not go to 
him, you may poffibly: ftay in fakvera 
much longer than you have, a mind. 

This piece of advice was moft wete 
eome. Without giving myfelf time to 
recoiled tifat it was too early, I went 
ftraight to the Corregidor's, but could not 
fee him becaufq he was afleep, and was 
told that he would not be vifible till ten, 
perhaps till eleven, or perhaps till 
twelve* ' ' ' 


r *3i j 

• ^his was provoking, but could not be 
helped; . I wdnt back to the Pofada, and 
thc^e breakfafted and chatted with the 
fedy, a very gentleiVdman-like perfon. 
* She t6ld me that (he was a native of Swif- 
jferland rind married to a Frenchman who. 
had lived abbut ten years in tfalavtra* 
iuperintehding a filk mamjfa&ure. That 
theDire&or-general of that manufacture, 
another Frenchman, had been for feveraj 
years a great man there, as Marquis £>e 
la Enfenada* proved his* fteady friend 
during all the timet he wps Prime Minifter. 
That after the Marquis's fall, the power 
of that Director fuffered fome diminu^ 
tion, and that but a- few days ago he had 
been arretted and font in irons to Madrid 
under . a charge of malversation. That 
it was her opinion he would get poorly 
off- as it was notorious that he had iquan- 
dered } fome millions of reals in giving 
tteats; gaming, gpwd maintaining theatri-; 
cal princefles. That in his bright days- 
he had conceived a. great friendfhip for 
Vol. II. . M her 

her hufband, and made him his Secretary 
and chief confident, for which reafon her 
hufband had likewife been arretted and 
fent to Madrid three days before. 
. I am forry for this, interrupted I, and 
I wifh that your hufband had never been 
acquainted with a man of the character 
you give to the'Dire&or-general. I hope 
he is not involved in the crime, but am 
afraid his judges wiH think him an ac- 
complice, as he has long been acquainted 
with the Director's bad practices, yet 
has not given notice of them to the 
King's minifters time enough to fave a 
part of thofe millions* 

As to this, anfwered the ladyi I ana 
perfectly eafy, becaufe the DireCtor had 
obtained from the laft King fuch adefpo- 
tick power over all the perfons employed 
in the manufacture, that he .could, 
without appeal^ fentence to jail, arid 
even to the gallie^lkwhomfoever he 
thought proper ; and as that power had 
never been recalled by the new King, 


[ t63 J 

jtvery body's mouth was effectually 
flopped, as it would have been moft 
dangerous to offend him, or only to fall . 
under his fufpicion. 

But, befides this, continued the lady, 
my hufband has another reafon to plead, 
and that is, that during the laft four years 
he has inceflantly follicited his own dif- 
miffion, which tha Director would never 
grant. My hufband will now tell the 
motive that induced him to wifh for that 
difmiflion, which was that on one fide 
he faw the DireCtor fquander away the 
monies affigned to the manufacture, to- 
gether "with the profits arifing from it,^ 
and on the other he dared nqt open his 
Jips for fear of a jail or worfe. 

How far thefe reafons will operate in 
favour of her hufband, I know not* But 
as lhe intends to fet out forthwith and 
go to* Madrid to complain aloud of the 
treatment he has met with, I raifed no 
objedion, that I might not damp her fpi- 
fits, well knovying that it is always ad- 
M 2 vanfageou& / 

t i6 4 J 

Vantageous in fucfr cafes not to apperff 
difmayed, and to fet off injured inno- 
cence with bold and energetick rheto- 

1 was niueh taken with the good fenfe 
and nimblenefs of tongue of my Swifs 

- lady, artd giving her room for further 
difcourfe, ftie informed me that about 
ten years ago, fome Frenchmen, fugitives 
from Lyons, went to eftablifh the above 
fdken manufa&ure at Tdlavera. They 
were greatly encouraged by the Spanifh 
miniftry, efpecially by the Marquis De 
la Enfenada, who put it upon fo refpeft- 

' able a footing, that it became an import* 
ant objeft in a very little time. 

It muft be owned to the honour of the 
French, that in thefe forts of affairs they 
are the moft induftrious, a&ive, and en- 
terprifing people under the fun, Eng- 
land; Holland, and other countries know 
it, fome to their advantage, fome to the 
contrary. I have known fev^ral of thetfi 
in feveral parts, who had this Angular 


[ i«5 J 

turn of mind ; but the reverend fathe* 
Norkrt, already mentioned, was my 
hero above them all in this refpeft. 

Without a penny when he landed in 
England, without knowing a word of 
the language, and with only a few let- 
ters of recommendation in his pocket, 
father Norbert beftirred himfelf fo well, 
that he began a tapeftry manufa&ory, in 
which I faw little lefs than an hundred 
people employed. He found means of 
getting into favour with the principal no* 
bility .and gentry of that kingdom, and 
went on in his undertaking at fuch a 
rate, that had he been lefs vain and vi-r 
cious, he would have raifed in a few 
years a "defirable eftate. But who can 
give wifdom to a Frenchmah whom for- 
tune befriends ? The man, like the above 
direftor-general, gave himfelf up to all 
manner of expence, was foon obliged to 
fly the country, keep himfelf concealed 
jn feveral places, and at laft take refuge 
in Portugal, where ftill he has fo well 
M 3 con* 

[ ite ] 

contrived as to obtain a large penfipn* 
which he is to deferve by fcribbling 
againft his old enemies the Jefuits. I 
had a glimpfe of him in the Englijh 
cofFee : houfe at Lt/bon, and heard that 
he had changed his name from Parifot 
to Platel y as he had done before from 
Norbert to Parifot. It is not in Portugal 
and in other countries as in England, 
where there are laws againft * changing 
one's name : but the good capuchin ne- 
ver troubled himfelf much with any law, 
A wonderful man ! Neither the monak 
tic life, nor the long beard 5 neither the , 
ftudy of theolbgy, which he was obliged 
to follow for more than twenty years, 
nor his miflionary peregrinations in many 
parts of the Eaft-Indies 5 neither ficknefs, 
nor old age, could ever fubdue that na- 
tional fpirit of enterprize which led him 
to fet up as a manufacturer in England, 
where he managed all his numerous de-* 
pendants with as much facility as I do 

3 And 

[ 167 I 

, And here let me fay it by the by, that 
J fliould be glad to have the point tho- 
roughly difcufled* by fome able cafuift, 
how far the prejudice caufed to one's 
own native country by carrying into ano- 
ther fome peculiar branch of ufeful trade, 
is reconcilable with the laws of morality. 
The clock at laft flruck ten, and I 
quitted the lady to go to the Corregidor. 
At his door was a tall fellow wrapp'd 
up in an ample black-cloak with a large 
fl^pp'd hat on his head, exadtly after the 
manner of the cuftora-officers at Badajoz, 
He had a white rod x in his hand and 
looked very grave. Cavallero, faid I, can 
J pay my re(pects to the Senor Corregidor^ 
He turned his head another way, Can I, 
repeated I in a louder tone, and pulling 
him lightly by the cloak, can I pay my 
jefpe&s to the Corregidor ? I know not, 
anfwered he : but you may knock and 
alk Sejiara Fernando. I knock'd, and the 
jSeqora came to the door. She is old and 
»gly ? What does UJied want ?* (UJled 
M 4 ftands 

[ ,68 ] 

{lands for you Sir J Will you pleafe, St* 
nora, to let the corregidor know that a, 
ftranger would be glad to fpeak a word 
withStf MercJd? I recollected after, that 
fhe look'd four at the word Merced. 
. And who is your Merc4d> afked the 
old madam. 

I am a ftranger, I tell you, quite 
Unknown to the corregidor. But an ac- 
cident happens that forces me to give 
him this trouble. 

He is getting up, replied Fernanda, 
. and I will go to tell him that you want 
to fee him, 

Mil gracias a fu cortejta, faid I : but 
the cortejia was, that (he made me wait 
in the ftreet for more than an hour, 
though it rained a little, and though I 
h*d no capa (black cloak) as the fellow of 
the white rod, whom I never could in- 
duce to interchange a" period, with me by 
way of paffing time, though I addreffed 
Jlim repeatedly* 

I 169 ] 

The door at laft was unbolted, and 
Fernanda fhowed me into a large room 
on the ground- floor, the whole furniture 
of which confifted of little more than a, 
thick chefnut- table, and an old-fafhioned 
arm-chair made of the fame wood. The 
corregidor fat there pro tribunali> • with 
paper and ink before him. 

Having been told that he was the chief 
magiftrate of the place, and a kind of 
governor in it, I was a little ftartled to find 
him dreffed in a very dirty night-gown 
with a white cotton cap not very clean 
on his head. The reception he gave me 
was juft fuch as an emperor would give 
a hangman, I made 'my beti bow, but 
he look'd me fteadily in the face, and was 
mdtioiilefs; Yet I fummoned up all 
my temper, and told my cafe in the' moft 
laconic terms, which brought about the 
following fcene. 


C >7* I 

Dramatis Perfona. 

Myfelf and Corregidor. 

Af. " I come to intrgat Ufied that you 
* c order my calefiero to be hanged if yop 
" think it proper ; but that you give 1E9 
'* leave to look for another/' 

C. <c To be fure, UJled is to look for 
u another not I. I cion't look for calef- 
« feros." 

M. " UfUA miftakes my meaning. 1 
<€ don't want UJi/d to do it. I want only 
" to be gone: but cannot, if JJJied does 
"not,recal the order given lail night 
" that no chaife leave the Pofada* an4 
" this is the only thing I catne to beg pf 

« vpdr - . 

C. \ c And is Talavera la Reyna fo very 
" bad a town, that you want to leave it 
c< in fuch a hurry ? x 

M. " I think XJJted is in jeft. Good or 
" bad, that is nothing to me. I want to 
cc be gone, and cannot without your re-r 


t >7i ] 

< c vocation of that order j fo far at leaft 
u as it regards me." 

C. " I am not in jeft when I tell JJfftid % 
u that this is a very agreeable town to 
"five in." 

M* (Speaking internally) <f What fort . 
" of a man is this ? Is he ferious or in 
"jeft?" (Speaking loud)*, "Be it fo. 
cc That again is nothing to me. I am 
c< not come to Spain to admire or depre- 
" date Talavera. I want to go to Ma- 
" drid i and an obftacle being put to my 
cc journey, I come to the magiftrate 
" that has power to remove it, arid alk 
" him this plain queftion, Whether he 
* c will permit me to go or not." 

(This was uttered in a fretful tone.) 

C. " And who are you, 6ir, who will 
'* have every thing done dire£lly, and in 
*' your own way ? 

Af. <f Who I am is no great matter : 
^but here is a paflport which will tell 
* c you I am $ traveller, and not a vaga- 

t bond " 


[ 172 ] 

Saying this I pull'd it out,' and put 
it into his hand. It had been given me 
by Count de Fuente$> the Spanifh ambaf- 
ftdQr to the Britifh court. 

The corregidor read it through with 
great compofure $ then returning it with 
an .air of mockery, difmifled me with 
thef$ ■ words : Vftid faldrd a T iftante, fi 
gut ere y pqra Madrid. Vfi^dfabe muy bien 
Efpanolf Vaya Ufted con la Madre de Dios. 
u Ton fiall inftantly Jet gut for Madrid^ 
" if y QU fihvfe* Vou know Spanijh very 
" welL Be gone in the name of Gods mc\- 
u ther." With thefe words he got up 
jhaftily, and walked off. • I did the fame 
another , way, after having m^de a moft 
refpeftful how to Seqora Fernanda^ who, 
forfoothj would be a witneljs to the in-i 

What an odd proceeding! thought J 
as I was going along the ftreet. To 
Ihpw himfelf to ftrangers in a night-gown 
a>nd a greafy cap ! ^And what did he m^n 


f *73 3 

by his fneering praife on my (kill in Spi- 

nifli ? The man is a riddle. 

I reached the pofada and gave an ao- 

iCount to the Swifs lady of the reception I 

-had obtained, and was going to extol 

the corregidor's good'fenfe &nd polite - 


Hold, hold, faid (he freely. You have 

behaved amifs all the while. Speaking 
Spanifh, as you do, you ought to have 
known better than to term him UJied, ek 
pecially with his houfe-keeper as fbon as 
you faw her. A man of his rdnk and 
dignity is not to be addrefled with a fa- 
miliar Ufted, or Vuefa Mercid^ but with a 
Viiefenoria> or \Jsia> or Vueft'ra Seno'ria. 
How can you be ignorant of thefe dif- 
tin&ions ! He has certainly been offended 
at your haughtinefs, or rather he wanted 

-to divert himfelf with your clownijfh* 
nefs, ahd puzzle you with difpardtes, 
(with nonfenfej) as he is a man to my cer- 
tain knowledge of Very good parts, very 


t 174 1 ' ." - 

.Well bred and not averfe. to foreigners, 
as many Spaniards are. 

Be 'my knowledge of Spanifh ever fo 
great, faid I, ftill the corregidbr was 
wrong in taking a thing amifs, of which 
he might eafily fuppofe me quite igno-> 
aant. He knows no language but his 
own, if he does not know that ftrangcrs 
can feldom be acquainted with fuch petty 
formalities but by practice, let them be 
ever fo well acquainted with books. He 
ought at leaft to have afeed me whether I 
had ever been in Spain, and it had been 
generous and worthy v in him to have Set 
me right at once. 

To be fure, faid (he, he had done bet- 
< ter to do fo : but fometimes he has whims 
of his own. 

And the greafy cap, faid I. What have 
you to fay to the greafy cap ? 

You are a new man in Spain, replied 
the lady, and do not know that people 
4of ftill greater rank than his, in Madrid 
itfelf, will receive even grandees and la- 

[ «7S 3 

dies in that manner. This ctiftom of 
(howing themfelves in a cap, night* 
gown, arid flippers, is fo general in this 
country, and, old men efpecially, ftick 
fo clofc to it, that no body ever dreams 
of finding fault with It. 
\ While we were thus difcourfing, the 
man of the white rod came in, andfearcely 
tailing his mufhroom-hat, told us that 
the embargo was taken 6ff, and we could 
depart when we peafed. The lady told 
me in French that it would haye been 
proper* to give him fomething, but I 
would not, becaufe the fellpw would 
noffpeak to "me when I firft faw him. 

I had my landlord called, and defired 
hint to find me another caleflero. Here 
is one ready, faid he, pointing to a young 
fpark whofe face I liked little better than 
old Dom Manuelo's. What "is thy name, 
friend? Francifco is my name. Well, 
Francifco, wilt thou take me to Madrid 
in that chaife? Yes. How much muft 
I give thee ? So much* Done. Go and 


i 176 5 

fcall TagOy put to, and let us be gonii 
Your bill* Senor Pofadero. Here it is. 
And here is the money ; and this ponlas 
Alfileres a la Muchjxcha •, u for pin-money 
" to the maid" 

' I took my leave of that fenfible lady* 
and wifhed her fuccefs at Madrid with all 
my heart. She was prefently in her 
diaife ; but I could not get into mine 
an hour after, as Taga was gone to fee his 
imprifoned friend. It was four when he 
came back, and would have pafled th? 
night in falavera, but I would not. 

Of that town I have not much to fay, 
though Iwas almoft a whole day in it. 
Mriana, the famous Spanifh hiftorian, 
was a native of that town, called Elborh 
by the ancient Romans. It feems a po- 
pulous place and of much bufinefs. Be- 
fides the filken, there are fever al other 
manufa&ures, one in particular of earthen 
ware much efteemed throughout the 
country, that gives employment to fome 
hundred of people. Some of its houfes, 


[ *77 I 

churches, and other public build- 
ings make a good appearance from 
without, an hofpital efpecially, which, 
as I was told, receives between fix and 
feven hundred fick, both from the town 
and from the adjacent country. Its ter- 
ritory, particularly from the vineyard 
plundered yefterday by the foldiers, to 
the town-gate, is one of the fined trafls 
of land I have yet fecn, full of vines and 
fruit-trees of various kinds. A league 
from Taiavera, and on this fide, the 
Vagus is crofled again over a long wooden 
bridge. Stopping there to pay a # fmall 
toll, I heard from Francijco that length- 
ening my journey only three leagues I 
could fee Vole Jo aijd Aranjuez. Is it fo ? 
Then turn the mules* heads towards 

To-morrow night therefore I fhall fee 
that celebrated city, if none of my calef- 
feros brings me acquainted with fome 
other corregidor. Mean while I am in 
this village of Zevolla, four leagues dif- 

VOl. II. N tant 


[ 178 ] ' 

taht from Halavera. I can fay Nothing 
of it, becaufe I reached it late at night* 
I want my fupper, having had no dinner, 


Extempore Poetty.. Obfervations upon ird- 
veiling gentlemen. Towns gro'W thicker. 

Toledo, 0&. 3, 1760, 

DESIRING to reach Toledo be- 
times, I rofe long before the>fun : 
but as my people were not yet ready, F 
went; part of the way a- foot, taking a lad 
of the pofada to (how it me. 

The weather was delightfully calm and 
cool, and the moon couid not be brighter* 
The lad had taken his guittar with him, 
*and played as 'we went on. Having lis- 
tened a while to his playing, I alked if 
he. could fing; but inftead of an anfwer 
fie gave me a long firing of Seguedillas 
or Coplas. The firfl I took immediately 
down> and it was thus : 

f J 7? I 

La Luna ft a dorad&i 
T las eftrellas 
Haziendonos favor eti 
Alumbran Bellas. 

A thought fo happily and fo delicately 
exprefled, made me judge it to be the 
beginning of fbme composition univer-^ 
fally known, and I was juft going to 
admire his ingenuity in applying it fri 
quickly to the prefent circumftance, wheii 
he went on without hefitating the tenth 
part of a minute. 

tin rata de pajjeb 
Bien de manana 
Si la gente no mitntt 
Es cofa fana; 

This was eafily exprefled likewise, 
though not fo elegantly as the firft ; yet 
it began to ftartle me more than that; 
He went on too faft for my pencil to 
follow ; and of the many ftanzas that 
fucceeded, I could only catch this, wbicli 
was the laft of a confiderable number* 

Kz L<* 

[ i8o ] 

La Virgen del Rofario 
Mi Cavallero 
Accompane de pajfo 
Hafta Toledo. 

My fpirits were thrown into a fort of 
a hurry the moment I found out that the 
fellow was making his Seguedillas extem- 
pore, arid perceived him to go on with 
fuch a rapidity, as if he had been op- 
prefled by the keeping of them in his 
mind, and had wanted to relieve him- 
felf from a, burthen by difcharging them. 

Here I muft tell you, that for feveral days 
paft I had entertained a ftropg fufpicion, 
that this country fwarrned with extem- 
pore fingers or poets, call them as you 
pleafe. Yet that fufpicion I fcarcely 
dared to own to myfelf, for fear of ap* 
pearing ridiculous in my own eyes, (till 
calling to mind, that, of the many who 
have given us accounts of Spain, tiotit 
ever dropped the leaft hint about it, and 
that there is no Spanifh writer who ever 


let foreigners into this extraordinary cha- 
ra&eriftick of his nation. 

It was in the town of Elvas that fuch 
a fufpicion firft Hole into my mind : and 
I well remember, th^t, when the brown- 
ifh tterefuela fung, I thought it very 
ftrange (he ihould touch upon fome ac- 
tual particularities, *nd, amongft other 
things, bring the names of Catalina and 
Paolita into one ftanza, with a word of 
afFe&ionaie praife to each of them. 

This fufpicion became ftronger and 
ftrongcr almoft every time I heard peo- 
ple frag, which was generally twice a 
day. One of the foldiefs the day before 
yefterday was very near putting an end 
to my doubts, but that I could not bear 
the obfcenity of his Seguedillas, and bid 
him to forbear, which he did inftantly. My 
young ruftick has at laft happily changed 
my doubts at once into the moft abfo- 
lute certainty. 

; The pleating fellow went on, faying 

(always to the guittar) that / <was mfe 

N 3 for 

t 182 ] 

for walking while it was cook and* riding 
when it grew hot. He mentioned feveral 
birds that welcome the morn with their 
chirping* and fpoke of the fowler who gets 
up' betimes to go and Jhoot partridges. By 
degrees he came to fpeak of me, and 
affured me that he valued much the bo* 
nour of Jhowing me part of the way. He 
took notice of my liberality to an old beg- 
gar at the Pofada, to whom I fuppofe I 
gave an ochavo or two; and, by way of 
a hint, brought in his own mother, who 
is old and poor. What fignifies enumeratr 
ing his fimple thoughts I He concluded 
his compofition with the above prayer in 
my favour to his Virgen del Rofario. 

His thoughts to be fure were fimple, 
and the greateft part of them cloathed with 
uncouth words. The firft and third lines 
of every quatrain never rhymed together. 
In the feeond and fourth fometimes the 
rhime came in exafr, as in eftrellas and 
bellas j fometimes there was only a fimi- 

' ferity of found, as in Qavellerjo and tfokr 

1 '. do: 

[ i*3 1 

do. That fimilarity of found was ftill 
more imperfe6fc in fome other of his Af- 
financiasy (as the Spaniards term them) 
one of which was dicho and finos^ and 
another prendas and fena. Yet he broke 
oat now and then into fuch prettineffes, 
and even elegancies, as would have 
done honour to fome of our Roman Ar- 
cadians. For my part, I did not much 
mind the propriety or impropriety of his 
expreffions, and the accuracy or inaccu- 
racy of- his rhimes. It was the fudden 
difcovery of extempore poetry in Spain, 
that fwallowed all, my attention ; and 
had his performance been ten times bet- 
ter or ten times wbrfe than it was, ftill 
I could only confider it on this account. 
This was to me of great importance, as 
national peculiarities are the game which 
a traveller ought chiefly to purfue. 

I alked him whether he could fing any 

of thofe romances that are in books. By 

a romance the Spaniards commonly mean 

a competition made up of fuch ftanza* 

N 4 as 

I 184 ] 

as thofe that are termed Capias or Segue- 
dillas, which they often fing, or of Abort 
unrhymed verfes, which they only recite 
in a particular chaunting tone* Such ro- 
mances generally relate fome miracle, fome 
devout ftory, or fome adventure of lovfc 
and wan The number of thefecompo- 
fitions is inconceivable in this country. 
. I know romances enough, faid the lad : 
but no de libros, que yo no ft leer. c< None 
" of thofe contained in books* becaufe Xtan- 
** not read" • j 

His reafon for his ignbranct was fatis- 
fa&ory : but I wanted to know whether 
every body in his village could fing ex- 
tempore Hke him, and never could make 
him understand my meaning, as I knew 
of no word in his language equivalent to 
our verb improwifare, ** to fing extempore" 
or to o»r noun itnprovvifatore, ** an ex- 
** tempore finger ." 

Cantan tus paifmos y tus amigos de re- 
pute y fin libra coma tu ? " Do your tawnf- 
5* men and friends 'fing without premedita- 

" tion 

[ i«5 1 

€C dim and without the ajfiftance of booh as 

To no ft cantar de repente, faid he« 

i^y* « repente f To no fe lo que es. Vfii 

per done, yo no entiendo la habla de fu mer- 

xed* He did not know the meaning of 

the word repente, and begged my pardon 

for not knowing my worfhip's language. 

In mi aldea, continued he with great 

fimplicity, pocos libros hay. Hodot cantan 

fin l&rb* Todas cantan y pocos ken. «■ Li 

€t my tvillage there are hut few books. All 

u fog without a book. Few can read, 

" butallcanfing" And this was all that 

I could poffibly get out of him for my 

want of a vulgar equivalent of die word 

extempore i which I knew not how to 

tranflate, but by the adverb de repente. 

However, from this imperfeft infor- 
matics] I think myfelf intitled to pro- 
nouncb> that from the torrent Caya to 
. the town of Toledo many people can iing 
extempore, fome better, fome worfe than 
toy informer, each according to his pro- 

[ 1 86 ] 

portion of parts and abilities* It is pro- 
bable at leaft, that all attempt to do it ; 
and; if fo, that many fuccecd hi this 
kind of exercife of the imagination. That 
k is very common in the village of Ze-r 
volla, and that the greateft part of its 
inhabitants can fing extempore as well as . 
this lad, I do not doubt, , It is very plain, 
that if he was any way lingular, and did 
what his towtifmen could not do, they 
would . have made him aware of it by 
their admiration, and given him by de- 
grees abetter opinion of his abilities than 
he feems to have. But he is by them 
confidered in proportion to his rank in 
fife ; that is, he is not confidered at all : 
and this to me is a conclufive proof, that 
with regard to them he does nothing ex-* 
traordinary When he throws his thoughts 
fuch as they are, extemporarily into me^ 
tre, or, to fpeak more exaftly, he does 
only that, which every body elfe can do 
with as much facility as himfelf. How- 
ever, I ihall ibop be in Madrid, where I 


r 187 j 

liope to do more than argue. Bear with 
the eagernefs of my temper. I fear I 
fliall fcarcely fleep until I have cleared 
up this matter to my full fatisfaftion. 

Mean while I am fure of this, that this 
faculty of finging extempore does not 
belong exclufively (as I always thought) 
to the Italians, pr, to fpeak with more 
corre&nefs, to the Tufcans. Perhaps 
the extempore poetry of the Tufcans & 
better upon the whole than that of the 
Spaniards, becaufe the rules qf criticifin 
are more generally fpread, as far as I 
could isbferve, through Tufcany than 
through any part of Eftreipadura, and 
frighten a fmaller number of people therf 
than in our country : But thefe are con- 
je&ures, grounded $s yet upon flight in- 
formation, which I muft endeavour to 
enlarge. Mean while it feems, that the 
Spaniards, neyer employ in their finging 
that fort of ftanza which we call ottava, 
though they have it a§ well as ourfelves, 
ami though th?y make ufe of it, as we 


f 188 ] 

do, in compofitions of the epic kind. We 
employ it in our extempore compofitions 
oftener than any other metre, but the 
Spaniards only make ufe in theirs of 
fhort lyrick mcafures, chiefly fixings of 
Seguedilla s, each confifting of four fhort , 
lines, fometimes all four of equal mea- 
fore, fometimes the fecond and fourtK 
fhorter than the firft and third, fometimes 
the contrary. To fuch ftahzas erf four 
lines they will fometimes tag an Eftfevilh> 
which is a kind of fecond part confifting 
of Only three tines. But all this, I fup- 
poie, depends on the tunes to which they 
chufe to fing ; and of fuch tunes I have 
already taken notice that they have feve- 
ral. Here you have, the Seguedilla fol- 
lowed by the E/irevillo. 

Torque todes me dicen 
Que eret muy fino 
To for * ejfo be pen/ado 
Que feas mio. 


[ i8 9 ] 


§lue quiero fea 

El que a mi me llevare 

Como jalea. 

This was one of the many Seguedillas 
fang by Terefuela at Ehas. Whilq 
finging fhe ftole a pretty fmile upon 4 
young fellow, to whom, as I was told„ 
(he was foon to be married, and he bowed 
to her for it. The words, the fmile, and 
the bow gave me the firft hint of the 
Spanifh extempore finging, and a few 
more of that girl's lines put it in my 
mind to turn my attention towards the 
ascertaining of this Spanifh character- 
iftick, which I think is now nearly 

In a language however, fo verfatile as 
the Spanifh, fo eafily thrown into mea- 
fure, and ufed by people who will not 
ftick clofe to regular rhymes, it cannot 
be very difficult to form fuch compofi- 
tions as thofe quoted above. But the 


[ 190 J 

greater the facility, the lefs muft like?- 
wife) be the delight to a delicate ear ; and 
it is fure, that, if inftead of taking great 
Eberties with their meafures as they do, 
and ufing rimas and ajfonancias jufl as it 
fcaj!>p£rte, they would fubjeft themfelv'es ' 
(like the Tufcans) x to exa& forms of 
ftanzas and exaft rhymes $ it is evident, 
I fay, that the pleafure of feeing feveral 
gpeat difficulties give way at once x before 
a warm and rapid imagination, would be 
little fliort of ecftafy to him who k fen- 
fibfe to the charms of poetry. Thil 
would be an approach towards the per- 
fection of the art of improwifare, which 
would prove the mpft cjelightfui of all 
art$, was it ever carried to perfection i 
but this, I am afraid, will never be done 
cither By Spaniards or Italians. - The 
man among thofe I have heard, who car- 
ried this power furtheft, was one Gio- 
vanni Sifolifto in Venice. Though hut a 
mean tradefman, he was a riaan of very 
great parti, and a clofe and conftant 


reader bf our bed: poets. It is not im- 
poffible but that many in Spain fub]e& 
themfclves to ftri& rhymes and regular 
metres, as the Tufcans generally do ; but 
I fear it will not be in my power to flay 
fo long in this kingdom as to decide with 
tolerable juftnefe which of the two na- 
tions deferves * the preference upon this 

Be the Spanifli Improvvifittari better 
or worfe than ours, don't you think 
it ftrange that no traveller ever men- 
tioned them? That no native ever did, 
I am pretty certain , as I never found 
any thing approaching towards fiich an 
information in the many Spanifli books 
that I have looked into when I was 
young. * Yet I am not furprized at 
the general filence of Spanifli authors 
upon this head. Little do people thiak 
of writing to the world what they fup- 
pofe generally known ; and if extempore 
finging is quite familiar, as yon will be- 
gin to believe, to the generality of the 


[ *9* ] 

Spaniards, no wonder if they all think, 
that 3II nations can do in their refpe&iv© 
languages what their countrymen can do 
ki their own, the ioweft individuals not 
excepted, • and of courfe omit to give the 
*rorld ibch an information. 

But that no ftranger travelling amongft 
them fhould ever have taken notice of a 
pra&ice fo very uncommon > in other 
tiotifttries* and iikewife fo eafily to be 
noted throughout this, is what appears 
to me Ml more furpriAng than theprac«- 
tice kfelf. Yet foch is thd inattenttoft 
with which travellers ordfs countries, 
4ven thofe wh&do it with their quills in 
<&elr haadfi ! When they have copied out 
of ^ach ©Shcr's books that the Spaniards 
are proud, grave, and idle ; the French 
valattk, confident, and talkative $ the 
Italians canning, jealous, and fuperfti- 
-tiotis; the Englifli rude, infoofpitable, 
and Jihiioibphtoal, the greateft part of 
itinerary wtitcfrs think they have doue 
great-matters 5 and that they aite intitfed 

'/-• 4 ■:.. m." tO 

t 193 I 

to challenge abundance of refpedi from 
their o wn countrymen. For my . part I 
have long looked upon one part of them 
with the ^bhorance due to propagators 
of prejudices, fa 1 (hoods, and calumnies ; 
and upon the other with that contempt 
that ought to be the lot of fuperficial, im- 
pertinent, and carelefs obfervers. Think 
of the thoufands and thoufands, who have 
vifited Greece and Turkey century after 
century ! Think of their abilities in de- 
fcribiqg broken, ftones and copying de- 
faced inferiptions, or in unravelling the 
politicks of the Divan, fnd the intrigues 
of the feraglio ! Yet a cuftom of Greece 
and Turkey no lefs lingular than ufeful, 
none of our numberlefs travellers could 
ever difcover $ and it was a lady at laft, , 
who brought the weftern world acquaint-* 
ed with inoculation, to the eternal honour 
of half a milion of travelling gentlemen* 
The Galefferos overtook me at a vil- 
lage called Carichez, about twp leagues 
from Zevolla * and there I was obliged 
Vo^ II. O to 

t 194 ] 

to part company with my poetical kcL 
Were I a man of fortune, I would have 
taken him along with me, and made him 
rather my companion than my fervant. 
But being, as Henry IV. ufed to fay of 
himfelf, more provided with liberality 
than with the means of ufing it, I 'was 
•forced to let him go back. However, if 
I could not treat him in the manner his 
pretty genius deferved, I did not forget 
what he had fo timely fuggefted, that he 
had a poor mother. 

I got into my chaife, .eroded Zenindote, 
faw thecaftle ofSarziente on an eminence 
' at fome diftance, and about nine flopped 
to bair at Riahes. The country, I fee, 
grows populous as I go on. At Rialvos 
,1 entered into converfation with the Cu- 
rate, whom I found talking with the Pa- 
fadero, and a(ked him feveral queflions 
about the cuftom of improiruifare ; but 
not having Spanifh enough to explain my 
meaning, never coulcLI make him under- 
' ! ftand the difference between premeditated 


And extempore poetry. I was dill puz- 
zled by the word extempore, for- which I 
could not find an intelligible equivalent. 
He called me can ami go (dear friend) at 
every "word: a piece of urbanity for 
.which I thank him \ and difplayed a 
'.great deal, of poetical knowledge, which 
I did not want.- 

At four in the afternoon we crofled a 
river called Guadarrama, over an indiffer- 
ent bridge, and at five reached Toledo. 
At the gate my trunks were vifited, but 
only pro forma \ that is, only opened and 
fhut. From that gate we mounted an 
afcent confiderably fteep for a quarter of . 
a mile, and alighted at a Pofada, the ap- 
pellation of which, literally tranflated 
into Italian, French, or Englifh, would 
. found very profanely : but the Spaniards 
deal in religious expreffions in a manner, 
. that would fhock even atheifts in othpr 
. countries ; and thus they call La Sangre 
deCbrijlo an inn, which in any town of 
Q z England 

[ i 9 6 ] . 

Er.gUnd # wouM fcarcely be thought a fit 
habitation for the loweft of mankind. 

X E T T E R L. 

A cathedral grand and rich. An Alcazar. 
The Moxarabick right. Ximenes deeds. 
Abulcacims hijiory. A brafs-giant in a 
cave. A fynagogue. Charles V and 

Toledo, 0&. 4, 1760, 

AS this town is built upon a confix 
derable eminence, it ftrikes frorfi 
afar with its cupolas and fteeples, with 
what is ftill ftanding of its Alcazar, and 
with its furrounding wall, ornamented 
with a large number of turrets* But the 
greateft part of its houfes are meanly 
built, the fquares irregular, the ftreets 
narrow, badly paved, and not very clean. 
However, I do not grudge the three 
leagues I have added to my journey, as 
■ this cathedral alone is well woifh going 

3 hun- 

I 197 ] 

a hundred. It is a gothic {a) edifice 
that <can almoft vie for amplitude with 
that of Milan. It has .three wide naves ; 
and fome of its lateral chapels would be 
reckoned to be pretty large churches in 
many an European town. It is pity that 
it "is not high enough for its width and 
letigth. The nofelefs figures in the front 
of that at Exeter I could eafily count ; 
but not fo thdfe that are in the front of 
this, which are all nofelefs likewife. It 
is obfervable that gothic afchite&s fel- 
dom failed to croud the fronts of chuithes 
with ftatues or figures in bafs-reliefi 

We cannot wonder at this cathedral 
being all built of free-ftone> nor at the 
quantities of marble in feveral of its parts, 
becaufe marble and free-ftone, abound on 
every fide in this rocky region. But we 
muft wonder at the multitude and coftli- 
nefs of its decorations. Think «f the 

( a ) Mr. Clarke fays that it is " mi remarkably 
,«* large ;" yet it is larger than any Gothic cathedral 
in his country. 

O3 fteps 

[ I?* ] 

fleps of an altar made of filver, and b£ 
fome filyer flatues enriched / with dia- 
monds, rubies and emeralds ! The hand 
of profufion fhows itfelf in fuch a man- 
ner throughout thefe decorations, as if 
thofe who ordered them had been at a 
Ibfs what to do with the ampleft trea- 
fures, Befides thofe filver fleps, there is a 
very large grate, the bars of which arq 
of filver likewife ; and befides thofe fil- 
ver-ftatues, there is a pretty confiderable 
number of thofe that are of brafs or of 
marble, fome of which came from fo far 
as Rome, which, together with their ex- 
qifite. workmanftrip, makes them be 
rated as high as if they were of filver. 

Then there are tabernacles, fhrines, 
oflenfories, lamps, candlefticks, crofiers, 
mitres, chalices, crucifixes, reliquaries, 
&c> &c. fome of gold and fome of filver, al- 
moft all fparkling with many large jewels 
of the moft precious kind, befides aninfini- 
ty of fmall ones. But what do yon fay to 
3 tabernacle of fo enormous a weight, a§ 

t *99 1 

to require the united ftrength of thirty 
men to carry it in proceffion ? Nor muft I 
forget many changes of prieftly veft- 
ments, made heavy by embroidery of 
pearls and precious {tones. Thofe that 
are only embroidered with gold, are here 
confidered fo little, that they are put 
on every day ; and the priefts who cele- 
brated the great mafs this morning, I al t - 
moft 'miftook at a diftance for fo many . 
moving images of gold. 

The greatefl part of thefe {a) riches, 
thg enumeration of which would take a 
large volume, are kept in feveral rooms 
and clofets, and produced only on folemn 
feftivals. What an indignation muft rife 
in the breaft of a needy tradefman at the 
fight of fo large a ftook ufelefly locked. 

(a) Mr. Clark, /peaking of this cathedral>flily 
obferveS) that <c much plunder might be got out of it" 
'The remark cannot be retorted upon St. Paurs-church, 
or Wejlminjler- abbey,, and it is well that it cannot* 
Yet a clergyman of Mr. Clark's rigid way of thinking . 
might have decently omitted fuck a fuggeflion y whatever 
, his dbhorrence of popijh pageantry may be* 

P 4 up 

Vp in a c^ftirch ! A ftocfc that, brought 
into commerce, would render opulent 
many thoufandg of individuals, and the: 
whole nation happy I What a pity the 
Spaniards are not wife I 

There are alfo feveral grand monu- 
ments of Kings, Queens, Archbiihops; 
and other great people ; and both the 
cieling-and walls of the church are adorn- 
ed with a vaft number of pictures, of 
which the moft furprizing is a St. Chris- 
topher fo very gigantic, that Boyafdos 
Caligorante was but a dwarf in compari- 
fon. It is enough to tell you, that the 
toe of that faint is as big as my whole 

A rite is ufed in this temple, which is 
called Mozarab or Mogarabick, originally 
inftituted by a biftiop of Seville called St. 
Ifidore, who was a contemporary and 
friend tp St. ; Gregory furnacaqd The Great. 
It feems as if St. Gregory had given St. 
Ifidore the Prefatias. (as they call them) 
©f the mafe which referable much thofe 


that arc pra&ifed in the Milanefe church, 
and diftinguifhed from the Roman rite 
by the appellation of Ambrofian. 

This rite acquired the name of Moza- 
rab, becaufe it was preferved by thofe 
chriftians, who, after the conqueft made 
of Spain by the Morifco's, or Arabs, did 
not chufe to forfake their country, - i>ut 
lived amidft their conquerors, who fuf- 
Fered them to continue in the religion of 
their *anceftors, and were fo indulgent as 
to leave them the greateft part of their 
churches. There is a&ually at Rome 
one father LeJIeo, a man of much eccle- 
fiaftical erudition, who is preparing for 
the prefs a Mozarabick miffal, which he 
intends to illuftrate with notes, and,mark 
the difference between the Mofarabick, 
the Ambrofian and the Roman rites. 

How. much the prefent fervice of To- 
ledo differs from the aniient/inftituted as 
I faid, by St. Ifidore, I am not able to 
telh The famous Mosarabitk miflal arid 
Breviary, which were printed by cardinal 
'" Ximenes 

[ 202 ] 

Ximens at the requeft of the Toletans, 
have, I think, been lohg out of ufe ; 
and are perhaps only remembered by ec-r 
clcfiaftical antiquaries. Something how- 
ever feems ftill to be retained in their 

I fancy you will flare at thefe para- 
graphs when you come to read them, and 
think it very odd I fhould lb familiarly 
talk of Mozarabickj Ambrcjian and Ro- 
man rites, well knowing that my fludies 
never turned that way. But it was our old 
friend Canonico Irico t who helped me to 
what I have here written about thofe 
rites. As I apprized him fome months 
ago of my fcheme to vifit Spain, he 
wrote me a long letter from (a) Trino 
upon this fubje£t qf church-rites, and 
defired me, if ever I came to $cledo> to 
procure for him* fome information about 
the Mofarabick.- 

In compliance with this requeft I went 
early this morning to a learned prieft, who 

(a) A /mall town in MontferraU 


[ *o3 3 

holds an employment in the library of this 
cathedral, and on my fhowing him my 
friends letter, he proniifed kindly to fead 
me to Madrid the beft hiftorical account 
that fhall be poffible of that rite, and of 
the fever al changes it has undergone ever 
fince Its firft inftitution. If he keeps his 
word, as I am Aire he will, the Canonico will 
be made very happy, by fuch means as 
would give happinefs to few other mefr. 
But there are people in this world, whofe 
tndntalpleafures appear odd to- the grofs 
of mankind', and yet are far from being 
tinreafonable. To fearch as our Canonico 
does, after antient inftitutions and cu£- 
toms that can contribute to difplay the 
various hues and turns of the human 
mind, and to mark the gradations of 
"the changes they have undergone in the 
revolution of human* affairs, will often 
be ridiculed and defpifed by men Qf 
fhallow and circumfcribed iritelle&s \ but 
will always deferve and obtain fome de-. 

I S ree 

f >°4 J 

grec of commendation by men of liberal 
and extcnfive views, 

I wanted to fee the library of the ca- 
thedral, which, as I am' told, contain? an 
immenfe treafure of literature : but to-day 
it could not be opened, and tomorrow I 
intend to be gone. A man cannot ftay 
long enough in every place to fee every 
thing, especially when he has four men 
and four mules to feed. 

Cardinal Xrmenes above-named, was - 
fo great & benefa&or to this cathedral,* 
that a prayer for his foul is ftili faid a* 7 
the end of every mafs celebrated in it? 
He was one of the greateft men that ever 
appeared . At once a great ftatefaaan , ari 
intrepid foldier, a profound '-{Scholar, aftd 
a tolerable faint* Having been m ade arch^ 
bifliop of Toledo out of a poor Francis 
can friar, and created cardinal foon after, 
h*\i /undertook two great things of a 
very diffimilar nature, that charaflerife 
him, much- to his honour, as they fhow 


F *>5 3 

the vaft capacity of his fool. The one 
was his ordering an edition of the Poll- 
glot Bible, a work that employed for ma- 
ny years the moft learned rneii of Spain : 
the other was that he raifed an army at 
his own expencc, and fent it to conquer 
Oran in Africa for the crown of Spain, 
which has poflefled it ever fince. Y<Su 
have heard, that next the pope, the atch- 
biftiop of Toledo is the richeft ecclefiaf- 
tick in the worlds Within this century 
however, a confiderable part of his re- 
venue has been curtailed; yet it is ftill fo 
ample as not eafily to be compared any 
where elfe in the church. 

About forty cannons officiate in this 
cathedral, befides archdeacons, chaplains, 
' and other priefts, all provided with liv- 
ings and falaries, that enable them to liv^ ? 
with becoming dignity, I fuppofe that all 
thefe people's maintenance, together ^ith 
the archbifhop's, come from diftant parts 
of Spain, as the whole territory of tiiis 
town, did it belong entirely to them, 


{ 2o6 ] 

would, not produce the third part of what 
tKey have. 

Jt is upon record, that St. Peter's 
church at Rome, with all that is contained 
in it, has coft near thirteen millions fter- 
ling, and St. Paul's at London about thir- 
teen hundred thoufand pound. I wanted 
to know how much the expence bellowed 
upon this, exceed the Englifli, or came 
fhort of the JRoman : but the gentle cler- 
gyman, to whom I applied for the men- 
tioned information about the Mozarabick 
xite, could not fatisfy my curiofity, as, to ' 
Ills certain knowledge, no exa6l account 
of it was ever kept, nor the value ever cal- 
culated of the feveral coftly things in it, 
which wer'e gifts from kings and queens 
of Spain and other great perfonages, be- 
fides thatonany ancient memorials have 
been deftroyed by the revolution of cen- 
turies, the cathedral having been built 
about nine hundred years- ago, and de- 
clared the firft church of Spain about 
two hundred years after it was builL 


[ 20 7 ) 

The fecond grand edifice in Tokdo is 
the archiepifcopal palace. But inftead 
of going to fee it, I went to the Alcazar ; 
that is, a royal palace built on the edge 
of a hill almoft perpendicular, and about 
five hundred feet higher than the Tagus 
which runs beneath it. 
» Prom the large fquare before the Alca- 
zar, or from its windows you have a 
vaft profpeft over a country not very fer- 
tile, as it is chiefly compofed of rocks, 
which however render the coup £ oeuii 
very romantick. There is a printed jour- 
ney [a) through fome parts of Spain, 
written by a French countefs about four 
fcore years ago. She has given a defcrip- 
tion in her work of this Alcazar, and 
told us how it was then : and I think I" 
have looked out of that very window, 
from which fhe infpefted the adjacent 
, country. The Alcazar was then in good 

(a) It bears this title, " Relation du Voyaged* 
" Efpagne, a P^aris. MDCXCIX." It is in thru 

Vols. $VQ. , 


[ 2o8 ] 

tondition, and inhabited by a Spanifh 
queen. But the fucceffion-war proved 
fatal to it* as the Englifh, and Portu- 
gtiefe penetrated unluckily fo far as To- 
ledo, and fet fire to it : fa that nothing 
of it now remains but the lateral walls 
greatly damaged, fbme of its marble pil- 
lars, a fmall part of the grand flair-cafe 
and five or fix rooms. Within eighty 
years more, even thefe poor remains will 
not exift in all probability, and only faint 
veftiges will be left of them, as they are 
vifibly decaying and covering with mofs, 
nettles and weeds. - ' 

From that high hill you fee the 
two largeft hofpitals in Toledo, one for 
the reception of foundlings, the other for 
hi que ft an tnal de mugeres, as a man phra r 
fed it of whom I afked what it was. This 
fecond, however, has at prefent but a very 
fmall number of patients, as the diftem 
per that is cured in it, has within this 
century greatly abated of its original fury 
all over Spain, ae I am told. 


[ 2c 9 j 

You fee likewife from thal> hill $ fine 
bridge of two arches over* the 1 Tagus» 
the waters of which run thereabout witlr • 
the greateft noife and rapidity* They 
call it the Alcantara -bridge, beyond 
which there is a ruiged buying called 
el Caftilh de San Cervantes. 

Under the ruins of that caftle, the 
vulgar of Toledo is firmly perfuaded that 
there is an opening, which, was cut into 
the rock and fhut with a ftrong brafs- 
gatfc. Was you to enter that gate, fay 
they, you would be led into an enchant- 
ed rocky cavern that cpntains- many hor- 
rible things. No body ever dared to vio- 
late that brafs-gate and intrude in the 
cavern, except the defperate Don Rodrigo, 
who, was the laft gbthic King of Spain. 

Don Rodrigo had been infqnxied by tra- 
dition, that whoever ftiould enter it would 
be made acquainted with the nhipiate 
fate of the kingdom he then poffeffi^dL; and 
♦finding himfelf brifkly attacked: by a for- 
midable army fenragainft him by Mif$- 

Vol. II. P mdmblin 

[ 2IO ] 

fndmolin emperor of Africa, he would 
needs to know how that war was to end* 
The gratification of his curiofity was at- 
tended with the anticipated knowledge 
of his own impending ruin, becaufe he 
found a brafs-giant in the cavern, who 
held a large brafs-label in his hand, in 
which the death of his majefty was fore- 
told, together with the conqueft of his 
kingdom, to be foon efFe&ed by the Afri- 

The whole of this abfurd ftory is told 
at large in the fixth chapter of a book en- 
titled Historia verdadera del Rey Don 
RodngOy &c. compuefia por el fabio Alcayde 
Ahulcacim Tarif Abeutarique, de nation 
Arabe ; nuevamente traduzida de la legua 
Arabiga por Miguel de Luna, &c. 

In Englifh. The true History of 
King Don Rodrigo, &c. written by the wife 
Alcayde Abulcacim T'arif Abentarique, an 
Arabian by birth ; newly tranjlated from 
the Arabick tongue, by Michael de Luna, 

I have 

[ «» ] 

I have the 4th edition of this book 
printed en Valencia 1 646, * with the ori- 
ginal dedicatory letter in the front of it, 
addrefled by the tranflator to King 
Philip III, : 

, It appears by that dedicatory letter, 
that Miguel de lAma had ftudied Ara- 
bick from his infancy, and was Arabick 
Interpreter to that King. The book is 
divided in two parts. The firft ends 
with this information to the reader* 

Acabofe de traduzir ejle libro por m( 
Miguel deLuna, Interprete de Su Magejlad* 
a trienta dias del mes de Noviembre, ano> 
&c. 1589. 

In Englifh. < tbe tranjlation of this book 
was compleated by me Miguel de Luna, In- 
terpreter to bis Majejty, on November 30, 

The fecond part ends with this ftill 
more interefting information. 

Acabofe de efcrivir ejle Libro de la Hijlo^ 
ria de Efpana en la Ciudad de Bucara, a 
v P z tres 

[ 212 ] 

ttes dias del fnes de Ramadan* debanb cient& 
y quarenta i dos de la Hixera. 

In Englifti. tfhe 'writing of this Hijlorf 
of Spain was ended in the town of Bucara y 
on the third day of the month of Ramadan* 
the hundred nnd forty fecond year of the He- 
$vra\ which day, according to a mar- 
ginal note of the tranflator, anfwertf to 
fomfe d'ay September 763 ; r that is, ex- 
aftly fifty years after the firft ifivation of 
Spain by the Morifco's, with whom this 
feme 'hiftorian Abitlcacim" tfatif Ahenta- 
rique came over, and was a helper in the 
conqueft' made by his countrymeA, as he 
repeatedly tells in the courfe of his 
Biflfcry- ' 

r*'A^thiS book by the generality of the 
{Jpamafcds is looked upon as a genuine 
hiftory, give me leave to make here a few 
Gbfervatioris' updn it. I havfc rfcad it 
through with attention, and am per- 
fueled "that De*Luna tranflated it from 
*ke Arsbfck.' There is nothing in it but 
-* " what 

[ 21.3 I 

what indicates it to be the performance 
of a Mahometan ; and it is to be fuppo- 
fed, that De Luna would never have dared 
to tell his King a lye in print, or offer 
him a, work, of his own for a tranflatioii 
of an Arabick original. 

However, as to that original, taking 
for granted that the tranflation is- faith- 
ful, it is not poffible to confider it as 
any better than a romance, and a ro- 
mance of a much more modern date than 
it is pretended by its Arabick author, 
whoever he may have been. How cotold 
Abulcacim be a contemporary with the. 
Mooriih conquerors of Spain, when he 
tells us of fleets that carried numerous 
armies backwards and forwards from 
Arabia to Tunis, and other parts of that 
region which we now call the coaft of 
Barbary ? 

Befides that it is queftionable whether 

the town of Tunis exifted at that time, 

thofe fleets cannot have failed roynd the 

Cape of Good Hope, as that Cape was 

P 3 then 

t "4 3 

then as much unknown to the Arabian* 
as to the Europeans. They muft there- 
fore have failed from fome port fituated 
at the very end of the Mediterranean. 
But what hiftorical voucher have we for 
the exiftence of a port in that part of the 
world poffeffed by the Arabians? Yet^ 
granting that this was the cafe, we muft 
take into confideration that the Greeks as 
well as the Venetians could at that time 
both navigate and fight $ but neither na- 
vigated nor fought againft thofe great 
enemies of the chriftian name, and, what 
is ftill more furprizing, never made the 
leaft mention of thofe pretended Arabick 
expeditions in the memorials they left us 
of the tranfa&ions of that age. 

It may be anfwered, that the Greeks 
had neither the courage nor the ftrength 
required to face the Arabians, and that 
the Venetians were the Arabians' friends 
for fome reafon of commerce. But be- 
iides that hiftorical vouchers are alio 
Wanted for fuch an anfwer, it is iippof- 


[ 215 ] 


ifiblc to believe that the Venetians could 
be induced by fuch a motive to let Ma- 
hometan fleets pafs unmolefted through a 
fea, of tirhich they were mailers in a 
great mtafure, and fuffer them to go and 
conquer a chriftian country. 

Let us confider then what fhipping is 
required to carry forty five thoufand foot, 
and eight hundred horfe (Abulcacim> p: 
129) to fuch a prodigious diftance as 
from Arabia to Tunis. I cannot believe % 
the Arabs of thofe times, or indeed of 
any time, to have had fuch fhipping as 
could not even be muftered up by the 
modern Englifh themfelves, whofe naval 
force is not to be parallel'd even by that 
of the Carthaginians when at their high- 
eft, nor indeed by any power whatfoever 
that was ever mentioned in hiftory. 

What renders that faft a thoufand 
times ftili more improbable, is the ac- 
count of Muza the viceroy of Africa, 
who from Morocco dio buelto hazia el Le- 
vante (went away to the Levant) with a 
P4 fleet 

[ 216 ] 

fleet that had * twenty thoufand fbldiers 
on board; wentfo far as that port at the? 
bottom of the Mediterranean to meet 
his Royal Mafter Abilgualit, who waited 
there for his coming with twenty five 
thoufand foot and eight hundred horfc $ 
then failed back with that King and thofe 
troops to the place from which he had de- 
parted; landed fafely and without oppo- 
fition at, or near Tunis, and prefcntly 

. effected the conqueft of that kingdom, 
though it was defended by the Tunifian 

. army compofed of forty thoufand men* 
and commanded by a defperate rebel. 

What need had viceroy Muza to go fo , 
far as the bottomof the Mediterranean to 
meet his King ? By what means could he . 
give him previous intelligence of his 
coming, that he might be ready tfyere to 

. embark with his troops ? Could he not 
ftay at home for his coming ? Yes, he 
could $ but it was better to go and fecqre 
his paflage with fuch a reinforcement. 
Yet if there was any danger of obftru&ion ' 


I 217 ] 

from feme enemy in that paffagg, tk%% 
danger was exa£lly equal whether the 
viceroy went to meet; his king, or the 
king to meet the viceroy. But how could 
an army that had failed fcveral thoufan4 
miles, without flopping to refrefh any 
where, preferve itfelf in fo good a con- 
dition as to rout that of Tunis in the very 
firft battle, and rout it fo effe&ually, 
though their numbers were almoft equal, 
as to put a final flop to all its further 
operations ? 

Thefe are, amongft other, the objec- 
tions I would offer to any Spaniard that 
fliould infill upon the genuinenefs of A* 
bulcacim's hiflory, and tell me ihainun* 
que infiel y bar bar (though an infidel and 
a barbarian) as Roda fays, in his Croniea 
de los Moras en Efpana> yet Abulcacim was 
a faithful relator of fa£ls. 
' It was quitedark when I returned from 
my vifit to, San Cervantes s caftle, of which 
nothing 15 now left but a heap of moulr 


[ uS ] 

dered bricks intermixed with large pieces 
of free-ftone that will foon become duft. 
Could I flay in this town longer, it is 
moft prpbable that I fhould fee -many 
more things very well worth fome ac- 
count. I am told that here is a fyna- 
gogue, which had once many Hebrew 
fayings and fcripture-pafiages written on 
its walls within, according to the prac- 
tice of the Jews in all their places of pub- 
lic worftiip. When that fynagogue was 
fome centuries ago turned into a church, 
its walls were plaftered over and white- 
washed, fo that the infcriptions remained 
loft for a long time to the world. But in 
procefs of time fome of the plafter fell 
down i and a learned canon of this ca- 
thedral obferving Hebrew charatters left 
there undifcovered, has lately found 
means to read feveral of thofe paflages 
and fayings, which he intends foon to 
publifh with notes. The Jews that were 
formerly in poffeffion of the fynagogue, if 

. they 

I 2I 9 1 

they were not African by birth, were at - 
fcaft fo by defcent $ arid it appears by the 
chara&ers read by the canon on thofe 
walls, that their manner of writing their 
tongue was partly different from that 
which is generally ufed by the modern 
European Jews. An account of that Af- 
rican manner of writing it, will render 
the work of the canon very interefting 
to the ftudious of the facred tongue. 

Toledo is one of the moft antient ci- 
ties in Spain, and during feveral centu- 
ries it held the rank of its metropolis. 
But the neighbourhood of Madrid has by 
degrees ftripped it of its numerous inha- 
bitants, and it would have long been 
almoft entirely deferted but for its cathe- 
dral, the income of which, being fpent 
here in a good meafure, contributes 
chiefly to the maintenance of the few 
thoufands that are left, and affifts a little 
thofe fmall manufactures of fword-blades 
and filk-ftuffs eftablifhed in it. The em- 
peror Charles V. made Toledo his almoft 


I MO ] 

conftant refidence whenever he returned 
to Spain from his various rambjes about 
Europe ; and here it was that tha learn- 
ed Navagero was fent to him as ambaffa- 
dor by the "Venetians. There was then 
an engine.contrived by an Italian, which 
raifed the water of the tfagus up to the 
Alccfzar and the reft of the town. But 
time deftroyed that engine, and the To- 
ktans are now put to a great" inconve- 
nience to procure water, which is kicef- 
fantly called up to them from that ri- 
ver by afTes heavily loaded with fix earthen 
pots each, and bought at two Maravedis 
a-pot; that is, two- thirds of an Englifh 

I fhall go to-morrow to Aranju(z> fe- 
vsn leagues beyond this town; Seven 
more the next day will carry me to Ma- 
drid, where I intend to ftay a while, and- 
ftribble a great, deal. But the- 'queen, 
unluckily for my journal, died fix' or 
feyen days ago ;. fo that I fhall find the 
court gone into mourning, a reftraint put 


[ 221 ] 

* * ' 

upon many private diverfions, and a 
fiill flop to all the public for a while. 
This will cut me off from many amufing 
topicks, for which I am very forry both 
for your fake and mine. 


Political meditations. 

Aranju^z, 0<5h 5, 1760. 

ABOUT a ftorie-throw from the 
great road, and a league from To- 
ledo, I faw on my left-hand anpther 
poor caftle, called Pelavenegua, went to 
infpeft it, and found its ruins, like thpfe 
of San Cervantes^ quite ready to perifti. 
The few walls that remain are in fuch a 
condition, that I could eafily throw down 
the Corner of one with alight pufh, and 
it appears that the flat ground on which 
it (lands will foQn be ready for the plough. 
Indeed, as one ranges over this coun- 
try, it is fad ' to recoiled how rich and 

1 po- 

{ 222 ] 

populous it was in former ages f Lewis 
IX. king of France, as Guevara tells us 
in his letters, after having feen many parts 
of Europe and Afia at the time of the 
Crufades, affirmed that no court was fo 
fplendid as that of Caftile, which was 
then a much fmaller kingdom than what 
is now called Spain. But, though it was 
fmaller, one of its kings {Guevara calls 
him Aiphonfo III.) who kept his court 
at Toledo, was able to fend to the holy 
land an army of a hundred thoufand foot, • 
ten thoufand horfe, and fixty thoufand 
carts loaded with baggage. There may 
be, and I believe there is, fome Spa- 
nifh exaggeration in this account. The 
number of the carts at leafl: bears evi- 
dently no proportion to that army* But 
coming down to the reign of Ferdinand 
and Ifabel, Cajlile and Arragan ftill af- 
forded men enough to fubdue the Moor- 
ifh king of Granada^ who muttered up 
on that occafion no lefs than fifty thou- 
fand horfe and feverai thoufand foot. 


[ 223 1 

How thick muft have the population beet* 
during thofe periods in thefc provinces ? ' 
But as foon as the Spaniards had the 
misfortune to be rid of thofe enemies, and 
to matter all the riches of America, 
as they did foon after the conqueft of 
Granada, fuch quantities of gold and fil- 
ver poured into their enlarged empire' 
from Lima and from Mexico, as to make 
it for a while the moft opulent that ever 
exifted in Europe fince the downfal of 
the Romans. 

The confeqUence of that opulence to 
Spain was, that her foldier hung up his 
fword and buckler, her hufbandman for- 
fook the plough, her artift flung away 
his tools, and the whole nation fell a* 
dancing and enjoying the fudden pro- 
duftions of their mighty atchievements. 
Quiet fucceeded to motion for a while, 
and idlenefs' to attivity. Inftqad of 
continuing to work for themfelves, the 
rich Spaniards fent to their neighbours 
not only for numberlcfs fuperfluities, but 
4 even 

t ^4 I • 

evert for many fteceflaries, whicfi pra&ice 
impGvefifhed them much fafter than one 
tyould have imagined. 

That conduft however, would not have 
proved fatal, and defolation Would npt v 
have fpread over the internal, parts of this 
kingdom, if the Spaniards had not flock 'd 
ftway by thoufands and ten thousands to 
the newly difcovered World. It was their 
"precipitous emigration to America, that 
deprived Eftremadura, Toledo^ the tw& 
CajlileSy Arragon^ and Lecn^oi too many 
of their inhabitants 3 and had not the 
government been timely alarmed at it', 
and pM fottie limits to it, it is probable 
that not a foul but what would have ran 
away to the countries of. gold and filver. . 

Yet notwithftanding this universal in- 
dolence and precipitous emigration* Spain 
^ould ftift -have continued to bear great 
proportion to its neighbouring nations in 
£oint of population, had not a ruinous 
fyftem of policy been keenly ftteffued by 
her during more than tWd centuries. 


£ **5 ] 

The ambition that moved, of the need* 
fity that forced the Spaniards to keep and 
enlarge the countries which they poffeifc 
cd beyond the Pirenees, proved much 
more deftru&ive than their annihilation 
of the Morifcos, and their conqueft of 
America. Flanders and Italy involved 
them in drftant wars that drained their 
provinces of mimberlefs men, afld of 
more gold and filter than America could 
afford. If inftead of going for viftp- 
rious laurels to Pavia and St. %uintin> 
the Spaniards had given up whatever they 
poffeffed beyond their mountains, and kept 
their armies and flotas at home, their 
kingdom would have ftill been formid* 
able, and the ambaffadors of France 
would not eafily have gotten precedence ' 
of theirs. But fucceffive vi&ories en- 
feebled them, and the progeny of the 
royal prifoner they made at Pavia, got 
the upper hand of their monarchs a 
very lktle time aftef the rebellious 
Vol.IL Q_ Con- 

[ 226 ] 

faj Co^netable had put an end to all 
French pretentions to the countries that 
lie on the warmer fide of the Alps, l 
But are the Spaniards to be blamed for 
not having given up thpfe diftant poflek , 
lions that were at laft wrefted from them 
by the force of war? No. The affairs 
of nations become gradually fo entangled 
by a ftrong concurrence of fucceffive ac- 
cidents, that the unravelling of them is 
at laft out of the reach of human pru*- 
dence : nor is it always in the power of 
nations to do what isbeft, even onthefup*- 
pofition that they had it in their will. Let 
us imagine, forinftance, that Charles V, 
had been willing to give up all he pof- 
fefled in Flanders and in Italy* do you 
really think that it would have been in 

(a) The confequence of s the great battle near Pavia 
in Lomhardy y won by the Connetable de Bourbon* and 
the falling of Francis I into the hands of Charles V, 
put an effectual end to the claims of France on federal 
Itdlian provinces. The French never could get any dura- 
ble footing in Italy everjince that fatal day. 


t i*7 I ' 

bis power ? What would the world, and 
Spain herfelf, have (aid to him, had he 
ever come to fuch a refolution ? What 
woul4 have been faid *to his fon Philip^ 
and to each of his fucceflbrs, had any of 
them- thought of doing what Charles 
ought to have done for the advantage of 
his Spanifh fubje&s, and lopp'd off thofe 
exuberant branches of the monarchy that 
proved injurious to the trunk ? Nay* 
what would the world and Spain fay to 
this very king, fliould he take into his 
head to give up that fmall part of the Baf- 
bary-coaft he adtu'ally pofiefles, which 
every man in Spain and out of Spain knows 
to be rather detrimental than ufeful to his 
kingdom? Was any minifter to advife 
filch a meafure, he would be looked upon 
as a ridiculous politician, if not as the 
vileft of traitors ; dnd that fabe people, 
to whom the keeping of Or an and Ceuta 
proves onerous, would exclaim againft 
fuch an a£l, was it to take place, and con- 
fider it as their greater difhonour for cen- 
Qj turies 

[ *2g ,] 

turies to come. Nor is there any nation , 
but what would think like the Spaniards 
in a fimilar cafe ; and with good reafon 
too, as the giving up without abfolut 
compulfion what is their own, in nations 
as in individuals, will always be reckoned 
difhonourable. Such is the nature of 
man, and fo is the world conftituted* 
Kings muft marry, kings muft die, and 
kings muft make war and peace. Thefe 
events will produce events, and nations 
will thus acquire rights that cannot af- 
terwards be relinquifhed without hard 
ftruggles, or without incurring blame 
and cpntempt. The wars that in our 
days gave the two Sicilies to a Spanifh in- 
fante, and the dutchy of Parma to ano- 
ther, proved moft ruinous to this mo- 
narchy 5 and well did the Spaniards fore- 
fee that ruinous they would be. But 
how could they have helped themfclyes 
and forborn thofe wars ? A coflfee-ftate£- 
man, a Machiavel rich in after* wit, will 
eafily fey, that it had been wife, fince that 


[ 229 ] 

was the cafe, not to tjiink of Naples and 
Parma, and let any body take them that 
could : and fo would the council of Ca£- 
tile have reafoned, had each of its mem- 
bers been chofenotft of a breed of men not 
lineally defcended from Adam and Eve. 
Unluckily Adam and Eve were their pro- 
genitors ; and whoever is defcended from 
that pair, will in like circucnftances do 
like the members of that council, and ad- 
vife what they advifed. 

Revolving thefe and other fuch fool- 
eries in my 'head for the fpace of a league, 
I reached a venta whetfe my calefleros 
intended to flop and bait ; but the venta 
was fhut, and our knocking at its door 
was in vain. So we went forwards ano- 
ther league to Villa Mej6r t a hamlet of 
four houfes that might as well be called 
Villa peir, as none of the four families 
in it had a loaf of bread to fpare us. 
However they had wine enough to fill 
our Borracbpy which my folks had al- 
tnoft emptied in the fpace of three 
Q 3 leagues, 

[ W ] 

leagues, on the ufual pretence of the 
weather* being infufferably hot, an4 
drinking a^ good remedy againft thirft. 
We proceeded two leagues more, got 
intoa fine for eft, fpread 9. napkin unr 
der its (hade, produced fome cold vic- 
tuals, and dined very comfortably. 

That done, we entered a long alley of 
very tall elms that led ftraight to Aran- 
juez, trotted along it merrily, and w$re 
at the pofada jjuft a$ th? fui} was going 


A charming fpot. Le Jardinier S9avant., 
Bufts ancient and modern. Ladi e s well 
behaved. A theatre. T'he adventures 
of the green bird. A pretty village. 

Araajuez;, Oft. 6, 1769. 

I Have feen a great many delightful 
places in many parts, but none more 
fb than the royal palace and garden of 
Amajuez. A poet would fay that V$n«s 


C *v J 

and love confulted here with Catullus 
and Petrarch about buildipg a rural man- 
tfion for Pfyche, Lefbia, Laura, or fomQ 
Spanifh infanta. 

Imagine a park many leagues round, 
cut acrofs in different parts by alleys of 
two, three, and even four miles extent. 
Each of thofe alleys * is formed by two ; 
double rows of elm-trees, one double row 
on the right, and one on the left, which 
renders the (hade, thicker. The alleys 
are wide enough to admit of four coaches 
a-breaft, and betwixt each double row 
there is a narow channel* through which 
runs a ftream of water, fo that the trees, 
never wanting moifture, are grown very 
tall and very leafy. 

Between thofe alleys there are thick 
groves of fmaller trees of various kinds, 
and thoufands of deer and wild-boars 
wander there at large, befides numberlefs 
hares, rabbits, pheafants, partridges, and 
feveral other kinds of bird^ The wild~ 
boars however are not quite fo favage in 
Q4 this 

[ *3* ] 

this place ' as where no care has been 
taken of them. Here they have been 
ufed to repair on certain hours to fome 
places, where oats are plentifully diftrl* 
buted to them j and they are grown fa 
familiar with the voice of their* feeder 6 , 
that they will run sifter him whenever 
they hear him call. 

There is no wall round this park, as 
too many bricks would have been re- 
quired to form fo vaft an enclofure. Yet 
the various animals that live in it, cannot 
be tempted to forftkd it # as the country 
found does not abound either in ftude or 

The river Tagus which I have crofled' 
at Lifbon, Cafas del Puerto, Talavera, 
and Toledo, runs through this place 
and divides i't into two unequal parts. 
The water it carries is not very confider- 
able ; • fo that it was cafily divided, con- 
fined between artificial banks, and turned 
wherever it was thought necefiaty* 


I *33 ] 

The central point of this great park is 
the King's palace, which is partly for-* 
rounded T>y the garden. Of that palace 
we fhall fpeak anon. Let us. firft take a 
walk round the garden. 

'The chief entrance into it is through a 
partem cut into feyeral compartments; 
that have borders of box and myrtle, and 
contain a vaft variety of the moft beau- 
tiful flowers both American and European, 

There are five pieces of water in this 
parterre, each adorned with bronze figures 
as big as the life, that raife the water in 
fpouts to a confiderable height. In the firft 
piece there is a Neptune with Tritons, in 
the fecond a fwan with boys playing about 
h, in the third I have forgot what, and 
the fourth and fifth have each a nymph 
riding on a ferpent. 

Beyond the parterre on the right hand 
there is an artificial cafcade of the Tagus 
amidft artificial rocks. The eye is no lefs 
charmed by the broken wave, than delight- 
ed by the daihing noife. 


[ *34 J 

From hence you enter an alley that 
leads to Apollo s fountain. It is fo called 
from a ftatue of that god ftanding on a 
high pedeftatl, with Pegafus by him. The 
bafon of the fountain is o&agonal, and 
on each angle there is a naked genius 
that feems to fqueeze the head of a dol- 
phin with his foot, to force the water out 
of his jaws. Apollo, the genius's, the 
dolphins, and the bafon are of the whiteft 

The alley de las burlas (of the tricks) 
is beyond it, and it is fo called becaufe, 
as you crofs it, if the gardener pleafes, 
you are fprinkled with water fpouting 
from under your feet, which cannot be 
avoided when you have once entered the 

The Fuente de la Efpina follows next. 
It is formed by four pillars round a ba- 
fon. Each pillar has an harpy on its 
top, vomiting water on a young man who. 
fits in the midft of the bafon, packing an 
efpina {a thorn) out of his foot. Both th* 


f 23s ] 

young man and the harpies are reckoned 
matter- pieces in ftatuary; but I don't 
like the conceit of rnonfters pouring war 
ter upon a young man that minds his 
thorn and not them. Some figure in an 
attitude of horror had done better than 
one in that qui?t pofture. Nor do I like 
the exotic birds painted rpund this foun*- 
tain a* top of the green lettice that fur- 
pounds it a as I cannot difcover any analo-r 
gy between the birds, the harpies, and 
the youijg man. There is nothing in 
my opinion that has a worfe effefit in 3 
garden, than paintings, except it be 
fome perfpedtive on fome wall at the end 
pf fome alley. 

From the ^born-fountain you fee foiir 
enclofures for fruit-trees ; and amongfi 
them there are a&ually fuch numbers of 
oranges ^nd lemons hanging on their 
branches, as the Hefperides might envy* 
To thofe enclofures you are led through 
paffages fo well fcreened by a thick foil- 
$£P> that the fun-beams can no more 


f w ] 

touch you, than if you were under 
ground 5 And the freftinefs is there fo 
great, that it forced me to button up my 
coat, although without the garden the ' 
weather was very hot. 

In one of thofe paffages I could not , 
help taking notice of a large Indian-tree 
which they call Lyr6n. Its trunk feem& . 
compofed of half a dozen ffcems, and the 
circumference of it I take to be little left 
than four fathoms. 

Leaving the fruit indofures on the 
right, we advanced to the Bath of Venus. 
The goddefs is there reprefented as com- 
ing out of the bath, and her hair drops 
water into a fine marble bafon fupported 
by Cupids. 

A little further there is the fountain of 
Bacchus. Both the tub and the god are of 
bronze, and of a moft perfeft wor&- 
manfhip. But he is fo fat, that I would 
rather call him Silenus, as I do not recoi- 
led any ancient Bacchus fo fiefhy. 

* ■ % The 

[ *37 ] 

The fountain of Neptune follows : But 
his figure, as well as thofe of the Tritons 
round it, is much fmaller than the life, 
which infuch open places always produce 
a bad effeft. If nature is to be departed 
from, let us in open places make itgi- 
gantick rather than dwarfifh, Nor did 
I like to fee this fubjeft occurring a fecond 
time in the (hort fpace that theie is from 
the parterre to this fountain* 

Beyond this Neptune there is the flWv 
rao, a wide and almoft circular bowling- 
green with four trees in the midfl: of it 
confiderably large and tall, which with 
their ample {hade, joined to that of the 
high and thick hedge that furrounds the 
whole bowling-green, renders it very 
qooi and pleafant. 

v On the right fide of this Terr Jo there 
is a fine bridge of five arches over the 
Tagus, and at the eaft end of that bridge 
another inclofure. for fruit, which Ldid 
not chufe to enter, liking better to con- 
tinue my walk along the river, the bank 


t 2*8 J 

tff Which is there defended by iron-rails 
Coloured green, divided fromfpacetofgacd 
by fmall marble pillars, each of which fup- 
ports a large flower-pot of a very find 
fort of earthen- ware ttiaple at Talavera, and 
the arms of Spain painted upon each pot. 
.Their forms might eafily have been bet- 

Not far from that bridge there is a 
fountain called the Tritons, becaufe three 
of thofe fabulous beings ftaftd in the mid- 
dle of it with their backs to each 
other, fupporting two marble bafons,one 
over the other, the water falling from 
both in large fheets. 

Near this fountain a fmall branch' of 
the Tagus that has been parted higher 
up, joins to it again under a wooderi 
bridge painted green, on which no <5oaches 
are allowed to pafs but thofe of the Roy- 
al Family. 

From this bridge you have a delight- 
ful profpe£t of a wild foreft on the left 
fide of the river. But before you come 


[ *S9 1 

to the bridge, there is a kind, of pavilion 
fupported by green-painted wooden co* 
lumns, called el Cenavr (a fupper-place) 
intended for the Royal Family to fup 
under when they have a mind. So. 
charming a fpot there is not in the whole 
garden, and it is impoflible to fay how 
pleafant it is * made by, trees irregularly 
planted on each fide of the river, and by 
the river itfelf, that runs there with fome 
impetuofity againft rocks, and breaks in 
a moft delightful murmur* 

From the Cenaor you enter a wide 
bower formed of lime-trees. The 
ground under it is particularly firm and 
fmooth, which adds much to the plea- 
fure of walking. But turning about, 
and leaving the bridge of five arches on 
cur right, let us go along the iron-rail, 
where the little pillars fupport the flower-, 

ThlLiron-rail, as I faid, runs along 
the t fmaller branch of the river, and 
reaches another pretty bridge. of a fiogle 


t *4© 3 

arch, which is ltkewife left on the left 
hand. From thence you enter the Terrfo 
again, in order topafs to a fpot that has 
been enibellrftied with numberlefs exo- 
tick flowers, the greateft part of unfpeak- 
able beauty intcrfperfed with orange* 
trees, the fruks of which are juft ripe, 
and hang in fuch clutters from all the 
plants, that you can fcarcely fee their 

A few fteps beyond that flower-fpot 
there is the gardener's houfe. A pretty 
building, fronted by a pleafant meadow* 
perfe&ly (haded by fome of tfoe talleft 
and moft leafy trees that ever I faw- A 
narrow * ditch that runs on one fide of 
that meadow, produces thoiifands of mufti- 
rooms, which, they fay, are very good to 
cat when newly fprung, but grow tough 
if they are not foon gathered* The gar- 
dener refufed to tell me how he contrives 
to have fuch an aflioaiftung bed of mtifti- 
rooms in that ditch. They lie upon 
each other like a thick bed of oyfters. I 

4 fu(1 

t 2 4* ] 

fufpeft, that the bottom of the ditch ia 
artificially formed of thofe ftones that 
are called at Naples Pietre Furfeaje (tnujh* 
room-jlones) which will, produce ,mufti- 
rboms when watered and expofed to the 

Beyond the gardener's houfe you meet 
with another cafcade of the Tagus, that 
no lefs charms the eye with the tranfpa- 
xency of its water, than the ear with the 
inequality of its noife, one rtioment 
quick and loud, and the next foft and 

By that cafcade there is another Cenafo 
painted green* and yellow, no lefs well 
fituated than the other already mentioned* 
having the cafcade behind, and the great 
fountain of Hercules before. A 

This fountain is the grandeft thing ia 
the whole garden./ It is a decagon orna* 
mented with a confiderable number of 
(tatues, the principal of which is that 
of the Theban hero killing the hydra. 
Both the ftatues and the feveral bafons 
Vol. II. R ia 

I 242 ], 

in which they- are placed, are p£ the 
\yhiljeft marble, and the water that tum- 

v hies in and fcut, ravifhes the fight with 
its romantick falls, 

From hence you afcend fome grand, 
fteps adorned likewife with fine ftatues, 
apd turning round a corner of the Royal- 
Palace, enter a parterre belonging to the. 
Infant Don Luis, furrouncfed by a wait 
full of niches v each containing^ a marble^ 
buft. * 

The firft of thefe bufts (as the garden- 
er faid) reprefents a Roman Ernperor r 
called Hannikal the Carthaginian. 

This piece of intelligence made me 
aware, that the honeft fellow was rather 
lefs; an hiftorian, than a gardener. It was- 
he, that had added with his chalk the 

.noble title of Emperador Romano to the' 
engravqd name of Hannibal ; ^nd this he. 
had done, he faid, for the quicker. infer-, 
mation of the Letrados who flock incef^ 
fantly from all parts of the world to fee> 
thofe bufts> all made at Madrid by Greeks 


[ 243 I . 

and Roman ftatuaries, efpecially thofe 
of Queen Ifabella, Charles V. and Phi- 
lip rw ' 

The faft is, that there is a fine col- 
lection of antient and modern bufts. 
Amonjjft them Antoninus Pius, Sergius 
Galba, Lucius Verus, Vefpafian, Marcus 
Aurelius, Titus, Trajan, Tiberius, Vi- 
fellius, Domitian, and many other, all 
placed at random, and out of all chrono- 
logical difpofition, intermixed with Alex- 
ander, Parmenio, Lyfimachus, and feve- 
rar Kings and Queens of Spain. 

Having left the parterre of Don Luis, 
and difmifled the gardener with a prefent, 
I went to fee the palace. A Spanifli 
gentleman with his lady and two mar- 
riageable daughters waited at the gate 
for my. coming with the palace-keeper, 
who was to fhow it us. 

As thefe were the firft people of note 
that I faw in Spain, I watched them nar- 
rowly during the whole time the 'vifit 
lafted, but' found nothing in them that 
R, 2 be- 

betrayed any remarkable Angularity, either 
in drefs, manner, or behaviour. The 4 
father and inothef anfwered my N cafual 
queftions with plain civility, nor did the 
young ladies appear fhy or bafhful when 
I dropped a word of compliment, but 
curtefied with a fmile or thanked with a 
word, without fttffnefs, prudery, for- x 
wardnefs, or falfe modefty. This began 
to give me a better opinion of the Ma- 
drid-manners than I had brought with 
me. Having read many things of the 
habitual gravity and haughtinefs of the 
Spaniards, I expelled fome odd and ridi- 
culous treatment * but to my difappoint- 
ment they behaved very well. 

As to the Royal Palace I have not 
much to fay. It is rather an elegant than 
a magnificent building, confidering its 
Owner, and what may be called a com- 
fortable King's houfe. The apartments . 
are well difpofed, and decorated with 
much tafte. Were I to chufe, I would 
have this in preference to all the houfes 
4 and 

t^45 ] 

and palaces I ever faw. ' No carving, 
gilding, or painting is wanted any where 
in it. The furniture, and indeed every 
thing in it,, is juft as 1 would have it. 
In one of the rooms there is a clock of 
curious workmanfhip, 'that has a canary- 
bird at top made of clock-work. The 
canary chirps like a true bird whenever 
the hour ftrikes. An ingenious trifle, 
that makes a man fmile, and a child 

By the drawing- room there is a little 
theatre, which in the late King's reign 
was often trod by our moft celebrated 
fingers, fiich as Farihello, Caffarello, Ca- 
reftini, Mingotti, and others : but no 
,ufe is now made of it, as his prefent Ma- 
jefty has no tafte for mufic. 

In a large 'room that has its walls co- 
vered with looking -glafles, we had a kind 
pf adventure ; and it would have been 
ftrange if we had met with hone, as this 
may really be called un Palacio encantado-. 
Entering that room we fpy'd a green 
R 3 bird 

[ ?^6 J 

bird fluttering about as if endeavouring to 
find the opening at which he had got in. 
It feemed as if the many mirrors embar- 
raflfed the poor thing by the multiplica- 
tion of objejfts. We prefently gave it 
chace, and ftrove to catch it. After ma- 
ny ufelefs efforts intermixed with a great 
deal of female fcreaming, as is ufual on t 
fuch occafions, the eldeft fifter irtade the 
little creature her prifoner: but infteaidof 
holding it faft, flie ran without hefit^- 
ting a moment to the window, opened 
her generous hand, and let it fly away, 
much to N the difappointment .of us all. 
It was impoflible not to praife fo pretty a 
deed. Her father comipended her for it, 
and I was ftrongly fgmpted to give her a 
•kifs. But, faid I with a ferioiis face, you 
are miftaken Sir, if you think^the Senqrita 
has done this out of mere generality. 
He flared, and did not know my meaning. 
Sir, faid I in an angry tone, this was an 
appointment made by her with foipe 
young magician difguifed under a pretty 


' t H7 3 

bird, and ihe fet him at liberty for fear 
her fitter fhould catch it, and caufe a 

This foolifh conceit had no bad effeft, 
and made us fuch good friends, that be- 
fore we parted they offered trie letters for 
their friends at Madrid, and every thing , 
in their power to make me pafs agreeably 
what time I intended to flay there. See 
how eafily a man may get acquaintance 
in a. foreign country, if he but dares to 
be in a gbod humour ! 

I was no lefs pleafed with the village 
of Aranjuez, than with the palace, gar- 
den, -and park. Every houfe in that 
village, is new and white, with windows 
that have green fhutters placed without, 
and the'ftreets are all ftraight. The King 
has given and ftill gives the ground gratis 
to v any body that will build, provided 
they conform to the plan that was ori- 
ginally made, which requires great uni- 
formity in the buildings. The world 
cannot fhow a more regular little town, 
>/ R 4 and 

and it is eficreafing every -day. There 'if v 
a fine round church and a fine covered 
market, both placed in the v midjl of the 
village for the greater convenience of the 
inhabitants that amount already to two 
thoufand. They generally live upon what 
the court fpends when there;, and with 
letting part of their houfes at that time. 
It is pity that the air is not very good in 
the hotteft months. People are then 
much fubje£t to tertian and quartan agues. 
The King and court pafs here the months 
of May and June. In all his other coun- 
try-plates, his Majefty's retinue and the 
Foreign Minifters get but mean accom- 
modations 5 but here the cafe is different, 
as the beft people in Madrid have built 
themfelves houfes in order to pay their 
court to the King, who loves Aranjuez 
in preference to all his other feats, and 
with very good reafon in my opinion. 

Not many years ago a confidefabJe 
breed of camels was kept here for gran- 
deur rather than for ufe : but it was neg- 


t 2 49 3 

le&ed by degrees, and none are now left. 
We had the fame thing in Tufcany dur- 
ing the reign of the two laft Grand* 
Dukes of the Medicean family. 

To defcribe material obje&s with the ' 
pen, and give an exaft idea of gardens 
and houfes, is utterly impoffible. % No- 
thing can do that but the pencil. Yet 
by what I have here faid, I hope you will 
be able to conceive that Aranjuez is one 
of the moft pleafing fpots in Europe. 
A more pleafing (a) I have feen no 
where. The French travelling countefs, 
who faw it eighty years ago, was charmed 
. with it : Yet it was not then half fo 
beautiful as now, 

{a) Mr. Clark fays, that the Royal Palace at.' 
Aranjufe** " a tolerable edifice" and the garden* 
" a dead flat" . , There are unlucky people in this 
world, whom nothing can pleafe out of their own 


£ 25° ] 


I'rifles, fuch as travel and fuch as life 

,ViIlaverde, 0&. 6, ijfo> at night. 

I AM to pafs to-night in a very bad" 
lodging. At the diftance of only 
three miles from fuch a capital as Ma- 
drid, I expe&ed to find a better, and 
could not have thought that the ftraw- 
bag would be of ufe. 

Coming out of Aranjuez I croffed the 
Tagus over five boats fo well contrived 
and painted, that ynlefs a man is told, 
he will miftake them for a ftone- bridge 
of four arches. Thofe fame boats are 
taken from thence ujton particular ot!ca- 
fions, ^drawn higher up the river, and 
placed in fuch a manner a(s to form a 
quadrangular fortification, which when 
illuminated, as it is often done for the 
diverfion of the court, exhibits a fine (how 
tlpoti the water. , 

* i At 

\ ■ [ ts« .3 ■ 

At that bridge begins one of the men- 
tioned alleys formed with double rows of 
elm-trees. We entered it, and going 
along it daring more than a league, 
reached another bridge which old age 
has rendered ruinous: but it is foon to 
be demolished, * as another jufl by -it is 
nearly Jfiniflied that will afford a fafer 

That new bridge is all macje of white 
marble, and fo wide arid magnificent* 
that the Ganges itfelf would be proud 
of it. The water under it, though per- 
eniiial, is at prefent but a lleiider brook : 
yet at times, is very large, when a thaw 
encreafes it with the fnow of the neigh- 
bouring mountains. 

•' Along the road from Aranjuez to that 
bridge there is an amazing nur»ber of 
marble-blocks fcattercd about. What 
will be done with fuch a quantity of ma- 
terials np body could tell me. I fuppofe 
it. is the king's intention to do greater 

. and 

[ 2 5 2 1 

and greater things about his favourite 
villa. Happy he, who, amongft other 
things, can give a vent to the paffion 
of building ! That paffion, one of the 
moft univcrfal, aftuates me fo ftrongly, 
that, if my will were equalled by my 
power, the world would be addrned with 
fabrick$, to which the ancient capitol or 
the modern St. Peter would be but trifles. 
Never did Bibienas fanciful pencil draw 
,fuch vaft edifices as I woulderedl: nor 
is there any thing fo truly royal, in my 
opinion, as to heap blocks upon blocks 
in the various forms of palaces, temples, 
aquedu&s, theatres, amphitheatres, and 
other fuch things. 7 

You will poffibly think me ridiculous 
for laying my vain thoughts thus open. 
But, was every body to tell what often 
fills his mind, and fufFer a curfory view 
to be taken of his airy caftles, many a 
man whofe reputation for the right ufe 
of his thoughts is much greater than 

mine a 

£ 253 f 

mine, would' not be deemed a yaft deal 
wifer than myfelf. 

From the marbld-bridge to this ViU> 
la<verde there are but two villages, Valde- 
moro and Pinto y both very indifferent^ 
The intermediate country looks ftrangely 
barren, which is another thing I did not 
expeft to find fo near the Spanifh metro- 
polis. I hear the bells of Madrid ring, 1 
which gladdens the heart after having 
croffed fo many tra&s of filent defart. 

To-morrow I fhall fee a couple of 
friends, all that I now have in Madrid. 
One is the Britifh "conful-general, the 
other Eton Felix d'Abreu, who was for 
fevefal years envoy-extraordinary from 
Spain to 1 England. I knew them both 
in London, and they both know of my 
coming. I hope they will be as glad to 
fee me, as I (hall to fee them. 


t m 1 


Afiinking town that gives fir angers the 
head-acb. Locanda means an inn. I#- 
JlruEtions to travellers who happen not to 
be overloaded with money. 

THE three miles from Villavccde 
to this metropolis I chafe to walk 
this morning, early, that I might con- 
template it at leifure. , 

Madrid Jies in a gpod meafure art » 
Hoping ground, which makes it appear to 
great advantage, from that fide by which- 
I came. Its form approaches the circular, 
and its diameter is a little more thaat^ro 
Englifh miles, ? The numerous fpircs and* 
cupolas promife well at a diftance, and 1 
feveral ampl^ edifices fill your figbrt a* 
you approach. * 

I entered it by the magnificent ftone- 
bridge built by Philip II. over the river 
Mjmzanares.' A, French traveller has 


[ *SS ] 

made himfelf very merry at the expence 
of that bridge, and cnck'd fome jefts 
upon the difproportion of it to the wa- 
ter that runs under. But Frenchmen, 
like other people, will eafily catch at op- 
portunities of being cenforious in other 
people's countries. The fa& is, that the 
Manzanares beccmes fometimes a confi- 
derable river by the fudden melting of 
the foow on the neighbouring hills, and 
is often half a mile broad in winter. 
Philip therefore did a very proper thing 
when he built a large bridge over it, 
and ridiculous are thofe who pretend to 
ridicule him on this account. 

Prom the bridge to the gate of the 
town there is a (trait and wide avenue 
of fine trees, which renders the entrance 
on that fide very noble. But it is im- 
poffible to tell how I was ihock'd at the 
horrible ftink that feized me the inftant 
I trufted myfelf within that gate ! So 
offenfive a fenfation'is not to be defcrib- 
gd. I felt a heat all about me, which 


I 256 3 

was caufed by the fetid vapours exhal* 
ing from numberlefs heaps of filth lying 
all about. My head was prefently di£* 
ordered by it, and the head-ach conti* 
nued very painful from that moment. 

I came to alight at an inn called la 
Locanda del Principe, which is kept by 
one Zilio,' a merry Venetian, and have 
taken pofleflion of the higheft apartment^ 
in it, that I may be as diftant as poflible 
from .the, polluted grounds But $h$ 
whole of the atmofphere is fo impreg- 
nated with thofe vapours, that. I. think 
them unavoidable, was I to mount to 
the third region of the air. This h^s dif- 
gufted me fo much, that inftead of ftay- 1 
ing here a whole month, as I propofed, 
I have already refolved to run away with* 
in five or fix days at moft. 

As I wanted fome reft after the fatigue 
of a fortnight's journey, I kept within 
$oors the remainder of the day, fo that 
I cannot as yet tell you any thing of Ma- 
drid, but that it (links like a CloacaMaxi*. 


[ *S7 ] 

ma. The few ftreets which I have feen 
as I was coming to the inn, are all ftraight 
and wide, and many of the houfes and 
churches very fightly. Was it not for 
the abominable ordure that fcarcely leaves 
a paffage to foot-paflengers along-fide 
the walls, I fjiould judge Madrid to 
be one of the nobleft cities in Europe : 
but the fhocking ftink has made tne re- 
pent I came to fee it. I had read and 
heard much of its filth, but thought 
that there was a great deal of exaggera- 
tion in the account. My own eyes and 
noftrils have now convinced me that I 
was miftaken. 

But why fhould we vex at what can- 
not be helped ? Inftead of increafing 
my prefent pain by tejling, the beft 
thing I can do, is to be gone as foon 
as I can. Should I flay here but a 
month, I fear my organs of fmell would 
be deftroyed, and chufe not t<? run the 
rlk. My landlord Zilio laughs broadly, 
after the manner of his country, at my 
vexation, and fwears that his nofe (which 
Vol. II. S he 

he pulls while he fwears) has been fb 
long ufed to this fragrancy, that he can 
walk about thefe ftreets with as much 
indifference as he would in a field. Long 
*cuftora to be fure will reconcile $ny 
body to any thing $ but I would not ac*- 
quire it upon any confutation. Much 
might here be heard and feen in a month, 
very well worth hearing and feeing, arid I 
am perfuaded that a while hence I (hall be 
forry to have loft the opportunity of bring- 
ing myfelf tolerably acquainted with this 
metropolis -, but cannot endure the thought 
of fatisfying my idle curiofity at the price 
of a month's tQrment. I will not blame 
the Spaniards for having fufFered this evil 
to encreafe upon them, age after age, in 
iuch a manner, as to be now almoft paft 
remedy : but I will be gone, and never 
think to fee this town again, except the 
King fucceeds (a) in the fcheme they 

(«) The King has carried his fcheme into execution 
'four or five years after the date of this letter •, and Madrid 
is now one §f tht ileane/l tozimi in Mtfrope. 


N I *59 } 

fey he has refolved upon to cleanfe kv 
which will prove a truly Herculean h± 

Mean while, to fill tip my evening, let 
kne fet down here fome inftru&ion to the 
traveller going the journey from Lifbon 
to Madrid, that whofever chances upon 
thefe letters may go that road with more 
facility and comfort, than I did for want 
of fuch an ihftrii&ion. 

The firft thing you muft do before you 
quit Lifbon, is to procure a paflport frqm 
the fecretary of ftate, as without it you 
♦would not be fufieredto go beyond Ejtre* 
*nor> but forced to turn back feft: one, and 
even be in danger of a jail. The Portu- 
giiefe is perhaps the moft jealous v of Eu- 
ropean governments, and will minutely 
kn6w who and what the ftrangers are 
that^come into the country, or go opt of 
it:« and people are there oaff in prifon 
with Very little serdmony> as the public 
voice informed me. Befides then the 
*voldittg df danger,* there is this ^ddi- 
S 2 tional 

[ *6o J 

tional advantage in having a paflport, 
that by fhowing it to the cuftom-men, 
they will- not open your trunks, especi- 
ally if yoa are dexterous enough to flip 
a (liver- coin into the paw of any of them. 
It is very difagreeable to have one's 
things difcotnpofed by fuch vifiters, who 
mud be civilly fpoken to both in Portu- 
gal and Spain, that they may not take it 
into their heads to give you the trouble 
which it is always in their power to 
give. Yet take very great care to have 
nothing i fubjcft to pay cuftom, no new 
flints, no niew handkerchiefs, new ilockr- 
ings, ncwihoes, new any thing * or you 
will in (brae place or other be vexed more 
than you are aware. Have no books 
with you but what are Spanilh, Portu- 
guese, or Italian. A friend of mine who 
wanted to carry an Englifh book to Ma- 
drid, took care to pafte the image of St. 
Anthony on the firft leaf, and thus feved 
it from con&fdation. If you have Eng- 
U(h, Dutch, eleven French books, or 
: * any 

i Mt ] 

any thing that is quite new, though ap- 
parently for your perfonal ufe, declare it 
to the cuftom-men before they begin 
their fearch if you fee them refolved upon 
it, and even before § or youi may re* 
pen* it. 

The paflport being got, fend for-thofe- 
^alefciros who live at Aldeagallega, and 
ijot for thofe of JLifbon, whom you muflj 
only hire when you intend to travel on 
tlie weftern fide of the Tagus., On the 
eaftern it is much better to have the Al* 
deagallegans, who keep their beafts and 
vehicles in that village, as their conftarit 
occupation is to go backwards and for* 
jvards on the Madrid-road, which make* 
them better acquainted with it than the 
Lifboners, befides that they hire them* 
felves cheaper likewife. 

With them you muft have yoijr bargain 
in writing. Any chaife with two mules 
from Aldeagallega to Madrid is com- 
monly paid at thje rate of fix thkty-fix^ 
{hillings pieces in fummer, and feven in 
S 3 winter* 

1 26a } 

winter. Forget not the condition that 
they go through Toledo and Aranjuez^ 
if you have a mind to go through fhofe 
ttvo places, which are certainly worth 
ybtor feeing. When your -bargain is 
figned, the artful fellows will tell you 
that you fhall want oxen at the Puertot 
de *frtixillo to draw you up that fteep and 
broken hill. Hearing this, \ was fimple - 
tnough to give two or three crufadoes 
above my bargain on their verbal pro- 
mtfe that they would look themfelves 
for the oxen. But, when at Truxillo, 
they pretended that no oxen could be 
got,- and kept the crufadoes. The con-* * 
fequence of it was, that my chaifb was 
overturned, and my trunk behind almoft , 
broken to pieces down the rocky decln 
vity. Therefore keep your money, and 
when you reach Truxillo, bid them to 
look for the oxen, and pay a crufadq 
3-piece to the two men that (hall come 
with them to drag your chaifc up that 
h<*rd and dangerdus pafs r 

J always 

[ 26 3 ] 

I always found it a very great inconve- 
nience to carry many conveniencies on a 
long journey. Inftead therefore of pro- 
viding myfelf with a bed and feveral 
pieies of kitchen-furniture, as fome 
people had advifed me, I chofe to take 
my .chance as to eating, and would have 
nothing extraordinary but a ftraw-bag 
and iheets. Should you be more dell* 
cate you may have x a knife, fpoon, and 
fork, a drinking-glafs, fome towels, a 
pot to boil meat, and a hand-caadleftick 
with fome wax-tapers. 

If you have a fervant who can 'play 
the cook, fo much the better ; if not, 
you muft fhift as well as you can. At 
the eftallages and pofadas you will find 
in general no other vittuals, but a mefs 
of gardvanzos and judias (dry chick^peaje 
and French ieam) boiled in oil and wa- 

*ter, witha/ftrong dofe of pepper, and 
a diflv of bacalho and fardinas (flock- 

fijh and pilchards) feaforied likewife with 

pepper and oil. Not an ounce of butter 

§4 will 

[ a6 4 r 

will you feM during the whole journey 
except at Aranjuez. This at leaft was 
T my cafe. If you have na mind to put up 
with fuch dainties, be careful whenever 
you come to a town or village to buy 
meat, fowls, and game. Gairte eipeci- 
ally I found in abundance wherever! 
flopped, and excellent partridges above 
all. New-laid eggs you will often find 
likewife. If you have no fervant, there 
is always fome woman who will drefc 
you any thing for a fmall reward. In a 
bungling manner, 'tis true t but what 
fignifies that ? Their way of roafting is, 
to truls the meat or bird on the point of 
a fhort hand-fpit, and turn it round and 
round over a flame niade of rofemary 
or thyme, which abound every where 
in Allentejo and Eftremadura; !Tis an 
odd way j yet not fo bad as one may 
imagine, efpecially when helped by a 
good appetite 1 and an appetite is never 
wanting through thbfe regions, where 
the air is purtfc and (harp. In largf ' 
■" •' " . • towns, 

Jowns, fuch as Badajoz, Mcwda, Tak- 
vera, and Toledo, the ^rt of cookery is 
pra<aifed in a lefs Tartarick manner ; but 
in villages, venta*, and eftallages, that i$ 
the common method. Were any of their 
kitchens ornamented with a jack, it is 
my opinion that the inhabitants of the 
provinces round would flock tp fee it for 
a wonder, as the boys and girls ran to 
look at my watch at TalaVerola. 

If you- travel in a proper feafon, as 
\yas my cafe, provide yourfelf with a 
bafket. You meet th«i with grapes, 
figs, melons, and other fruit in the neigh- 
bourhood of almoft every habitation. 
Fill your bafket with them, and they 
will be .of ufe againft the heat, which 
often proves troublefome. The peafants, 
both in Portugal and Spain, I have found 
very kind. They would fill my bafket 
,with the beft fruit they had as I went by 
their vineyards, and bq thankful for a 
real; nay, fome were fo generous as to 
reftife money, though they had given me 
i what ... 

[ *w ] 

what wattld have fold for guineas in 
England. It is one of the bleffings of 
unfrequented regions, that the peasants 
are hofprtable: but where every trifle 
may be turned into money, money will 
J* expected for every trifle. . 

Whether you have a bed, or only a 
ftraw-bag, take care to have the room 
well fwept' where you are to lie, and 
have your conch placed at a diftance 
from the walls •, or you will have your 
fleep interrupted by various kinds of in- 
&£ts, which propagate wonderfully in 
fo warm and poor a country. 

Some people are apt to figure dangers 
in diftant regions, fancy robbers fwarm-> 
iftg on every road, and cut-throats at 
every inn. For my part I never met with 
any in my various rambles through feve-» 
ral regions of Europe. However, it, 
will be prudent to carry piftols, and fo 
place them in the chaife, that they may 
eclfily -be feen. Have them in you? 
hands as you alight, that people may ' 


f *«7 ] 

take notice how well you ar6 prepare4 
againft any attack. My Batifte Wears a 
broad hanger by his fide, and is poflefled 
befides. of a frightful mufket, which he 
has always in view. The low people of 
every rtatkai I never obfetve^ to be mtieh 
daring agahtft .ftrangers when the leaft 
refiftkriee isr appreh&nded * therefore the 
precaution of ftiowing fire- arms will ge- 
nerally preclude all temptation to affaujt a 

Aboie ; alIy do not forget a good Bor^ 
rdcfo in vfrarfa weather. Both in Portu- 
gal and Spain, good wine is to be found 
ifi taany places. Fill it with the beft t 
and cool it by a plunge into fome brook 
or river. The "running waters from AU 
4?agallega to Madrid I found to be all vejy 
cold,, They would refrefli fny wine in 
a few mihutes, But foffer not youu ea- 
lefferos to meddle with it as often as they 
would chufe, otherwife they become 
^uarfelfotne or impertinent; befides that 
they. are already too apt to ffcep on their 
. -". • mules, 

[ 268 ] 

riiules, and endanger your neck together* 
with their Own for want of vigilance.* 
If you cannot keep* them awafye, abftain 
from fleeping yourfelf in your vehicle^ 
efpecially amidft the mountains; . Thpi 
mules are fure-footed, and feem to hare? 
a full fenfe of danger when there* is dwiia 
ger: yet 4 man mull take care of hirH^ 
felf. -^ 

You will meet with beggars in various: 
places ; and I am far from difcomrtiend r , 
rag liberality to thofe who could fcarcdy 
find employment if they had ever fo 
great a mind to work. But there is a 
breed of them in Eftremadura, who, be* 
fides afking your charity, infift upon your, 
kafling their greafy crucifixes and mado- 
nas. Give nothing to them, except you 
intend to kifs their images, becaiife they 
have much more at heart the credit of thole 
linages, than are defirous of your ocbavci 
mdquartillos. If you give theni good word tf 
inftead of money, they will eafily let yon 
alone j but if you give any thing and re* 


ftrfe to kifs, you will have a deal of foul 
language, be your alms ever fo great 

Have aljvays fome fpare-rope in the 
box of your chaife to tie your trunks again 
upon occafion. In a country where no- 
thing ,13 ever at hand that you may 
chance to need* the want of a bit of rope 
will ibmctimes put a traveller to a great 
deal of trouble. I am even ufed to carcy 
feme naib and a hammer ; nor will it be 
amifs to look whenever you alight, whe- 
t^ifer the trunks are fafely tyed, efpecialjy 
in jolting roads. / 

Trifling as thefe advices may appear, 
you may poffibly find them ufefuL Xeno- 
pbon thought it not unworthy to be de- 
livered to pofterity, that Cyrus, amidft 
his other military provifions, took care 
that his foldiers fhould have fpare thongs, 
by which they might bundle up their 
aeceffaries or their plunder. However, 
I do not intend them for thofe Who have 
money at command, who, inftead of go- 
ing a flow mule^pace, may fend men and 

j ; mules 

I *5* J 

ftwles before, to have them ready wher&- 
fever they pleafe, and change them from 
ftage to ftage. He who can afford the 
txpence, will be thus able to go in five 
or fix days the journey which I employed 
a full fortnight in performing. 

Nor muft you .grumble at numerous 
inconveniencies on that coad, which has 
its pleafures as well as pains* Befides the 
fatisfadtion naturally afforded by the in- 
fpe£tion of new modes, of life* he that 
goes from Lifbon to Madrid has or may 
have almoft every night the pleafure of a 
dance, which to a well-difpofed mind is 
not a fmall enjoyment, as dancing gene- 
rally fufpends all feelings of mifery, and 
friakes people happy for the time v > Th6 
beholding of content in others cannot 
but raife pieafing fentiments in ourfelves; 
Wherever you come at night, there is 
Always fornebody that plays on the guif- 
tar, or if there is none, you may have 
©lie for the leaft trifle : by which meafts 
you prefemiy gather together all the 


young men and women tlutt are within 
reach; and an hour- is thus agreeably 
fpent. This at lcaft has been my cafe 
for feveral nights* 


A tunning queen, 'the palace almojlfintjhedh 
Confidence in priejls. A vaft many 
pictures, and why. Mijfals like Atlas si 
Neither grave, nor over-civil, nor re* 
ferved, 'nor jealous. A Tcrtulia is, 6 
pretty thing* Leave alia Spagnuola* 
Rice a la Valenciana, 

Madrid, Oa. *, 176a, 

LAST night I fent a note to mf 
,frisiid Don Felix d'Abreu, &t* 
quainting him with my arrival, and pro* 
tnifing him my company to-day at din* 
tier, on condition he would forbear his 
French ragoos for once, and give, me a 
true Spaniih dinner. His anfwer was, 
that he would comply with my whim, 
And eaH upon me early this morning. 
4 . He 

t 2ft J 

He did fo, and took me to fee the 
King's new palace that was what I 
wanted moft to fee in Madrid, not only 
becaufc it had (truck me as I beheld it 
yefterday at a diftance, but alfo becaufe 
I have not forgot Signer Sacchetti the ar- 
chitcft of it, who was our father's inti- 
mate friend and fellow;-ftuttent in archi- 
tecture under Don Philip Juvara the 
famous Sicilian, who left fo many fpe- 
cimens of his abilities in and about Tu- 
rin, But befdre I attempt to give you ? 
fomeidea of that edifice, let me tell you. 
the reafon why it was erefted upon Sac- 
chetti's plan inftead of Juvara's. 

In the }ear 1734 the antient royal pa- 
lace in Madrid was burnt down, I know 
not by what accident. King Philip V. 
wanting another, and being told that 
Javara wa* reckoned the beft architefbof 
the age, requefted him of oar King', in 
whofe ftrvice he had bein for many years*. 

On Juvara's arrival at Madrid He was 
ordered to make a model. But while he 


was about it,: it lb happened tfcst Elka- 
beth Farnefe, the King's %ond_ wif^ 
who managed her hufband as fhfe gjeafecf^ 
began tp think of a' war which was to 
procure a, fettlement in Italy to her fern. 
Charles- Inftead therefore of laying out 
in building, according to the King's in- 
tention, the feveral milions ^eftined to ' 
thftt purpofe, fhe thought ,to have them 
kept fojr the occafioris of that war. 

This \fcheme of the queen you may 
«afily,guefs that Juvara was not to be ap- 
prised; of, nor was he ever politici^ . 
erigugji. tp giv^ the leafl guqf? at it. He 
haftened to compofe his model, which he 
did not in th^ leaft doubt but would be 
brought into execution, as the Queen 
herfelf affected to follicit the completion 
of it. ..;. 

The model took tjme in ipaking : but 
Vfhen it.v^a? brought under the King's 
eye fpr approbation, Patino who was his 
ftrft xninjfter having b?en*entrufted f by 
tfre Qjjfen, with huer fecret^ and refolved 

Vol. II, T to 


[ 274 I 

to ftickby her, . reprefehted to the King* 
thatjuvara had contrived an habitiontoo 
final! for a monarch of Spain to live in* 
and infilled upon the archite&V giving 
a plan more proportionate to the gfandeur 
of its future inhabitants, 

Phillip was the dupe of Patiflo's flatter- 
ing objection, efpecially as the QuefeA 
declared for the fame opinion 5 hot was 
Juvara himfelf much difpleafed when he 
heard it was their niajefties intention 
that he fhould go to the utmoft of hi* 
powers, and think of a houfe more proJ- 
portionate both to his own abilities and 
the King's treafures. 

Within three years Juvara produced 
another model, fb very grand; that he was 
fure no objection could beraifed againft it 
either on account of its fize or its magni- 
ficence s and he had the momentary fatis- 
ia&ion to hear himfelf muth praifed by 
the whole court for the greatnefs of hfe 
ideas. But dn his delivering the <ralcu-* 
lation of tire expense which the building 

- - would 

&duld require, amounting to more tliait 
thirty millions fterling, the Queen and 
her confidant raifed the obvious objec- 
tion that thfe King's finances could not 
reach fo high. The poor architeft was 
therefore ordered to think of a third plajl 
jthat kept equidiftant from the littlenefs 
of thefirft and thegreatnefs of the fecond* 
Xp repionftrate againft this decifiqn 
had >been perfeftly abfurd i but while $6 
was bufy about it, the war broke out that 
had been, long hatchings the Spanish 
doubloons began to flow faft into Italy* 
&nd Juvajra with his plans were of courfei 
hegle&ed. Scarcely was he fuffered td 
Opfen his lips about building when he ap- 
peared at court* and Patino in particular 
raifed fo many difficulties whenever Jjef , 
dared to lhow any of his drawings to the 
King, that at laft he died broken-hearted* 
probably to the great fatisfa&ion of the 
crafty minifterwho had long fpirited hint 
up to be very grand in his fecond model* 

T a Sooit , 

■ [ 2 7 6 ] 

Scon after Jurava's death, the King, 
who was really in earrieft about having a 
palace, enquired whether Juvara had left, 
behind any difciples capable to make ufe 
of the defigns of their mafter. The King 
of Sardinia had two ; that is, Sacchetti 
and our father. Sacchetti being reckoned 
the beft, was fent to Spain, where he 
made the model of this prefent palace, 
which was approved of, as the war was 
approaching to its end. The impatient 
King would have it begun in fpight of 
feveral difficulties raifed by his minifter ; 
yet the continuance of the war made it 
be carried on fo very leifurely, , as if rhe 
intention had been to have no palace at 
all. However as foon as the peace ' was 
concluded, the queen herfelf pufhed on 
the work at fuch a rate, that Sacchetti 
had the fatisfa&ion to fee it advance very 
faft. # He is ftill alive, but fo old and in- 
firm, that I fear I fhall quit this town 
without feeing him, as no body is now 


/ [ *77 ] 

admitted to the fide of that bed to which 
he has long been CQnfined, Within five 
or fix years at moft, the palace faijl be 
entirely finifhed, and fit to receive its. 
royal gueft ; with all his family. 

This anecdote would probably have been 
buried in perpetual filence, had npt the 
prefent King told it himfelf in a fit of goo£ 
humour to fome of his attendants, the 
firft time he went to fee the palace after 
his return from Naples : and I think it 
fingukr enough to delerve a place in this 
letter, ats it fets off the long reach of Queen 
Elizabeth's politicks, the craftinefs of a 
ftatefman, and the Ample* credulity of a 
celebrated artift. 

To give you now an accurate defcrip- 
tion of Sacchetti's huge work, is what I 
cannot even attempt. It is enough Jto 
fay, that its form is exa&ly quadrangular, 
and each of the four fronts very near 
alike. The firft floor has twenty one 
windows in each front. It has a large 
regular fquare before, and a fpacious 
T 3 field 

[ *7 S 1 

field behind. Orte 6f its iides is turned . 
towards the town, and the oppofite has 
£n exteniive profpeft of the country, 
which it overlooks even from the loweft 
windows, $s it ftands on an eminence 
£bout piftol-fhot from the river Manza-r 
hares. It is compofed of three fforfes 
under-ground, and five above-ground, 
^he rooms (or cellars) of the, lower ftory 
tinder-ground are fo cold, that I did not. 
chufe to vifit many. I thought myfelf 
In an ice-houfe. They fay that the whole 
pf that lower ftory is -to ferve as a repoA 
fitory of the eatables. The kitchens will 
take up the ftory over it ; and over,th§ 
kitchens all the people employed in them 
will be lodged. 

Thofe three ftories arc fo well corw 
trived, that even the lowermoft is not to- 
tally deprived of light. But its 'great 
depth renders it fo damp, that though 
jt is very cold, tbey fay it breeds abun- 
dance of fcorpions and fpider^ afid even 
ftftny infe&s nev?r known before in the 


[ *79 ] 

kingdom; which will make the whole 
ftory (a) be filled up. 

As to the apartments over the kitch- 
ciis-ftory, theiy zft fo lofty and fo well 
lighted, that they feem intended for 
much higher perfons than cooks and 
fculiion&. I have not counted the fteps 
from the ground-floor to the bottom of 
that wonderous fubterranean j but there 
are fo many, that the fatigue of coming • 
up was far from inconfiderable. 

If the underground apartments are 
.grand, jou may eafily think that thofe 
above-ground cannot be mean. Thofe 
.on the ground-floor are already inhabited 
.by fome of the great officers at court. 
The King's apartments are over thofe of 
the great officers. The King's brother 
and chddn?n will be lodged in the thii;d 
• ftory, and the fourth and fifth occupied 
by their attendants. 

(0) They didfo not long after the date of this letter* 

T 4 As 

£ 28* ] 

As none of the four upper ftories ia 
as yet entirely finifhed, .but all 1 are en- 
cumbered with the fcaffolds, materials, 
and tools of feven hundred workmen dai- 
ly employed in them, I could fee no- 
thing fo diftin6Hy as to receive much 4a- 
tisfa£tion from the infpeftion : but this 
I could eafily comprehend upon a ou*fory 
view, that when the whole (hall be com- 
pleated, the king of Spain will be at leaft 
as magnificently lodged as any monarch in 
Europe, efpecially if the two wings are 
continued that fhall enclofe the .fquare 
court before ihe palace. 

Several of the rooms and halls of the 
King's apartments will then have their 
ceilings painted, fome by two Italians 
called Corrado and tfepolo, fome by a 
German called Mengs, fome by a French- 
man called Bayeu, and fome by a Spa- 
niard called Kclafquez. Emulation, it is 
to be fuppofed, has made them all do 
their beft. In my private opinion, Cor* 


[ *8i ] 

fjado's invention is more fanciful and vaw 
rious than that of the reft : but Mengs is 
by far the beft painter, as his invention 
is not much inferior to Corrado's, his 
defign much more correft, and his 
colouring quite magi'ck. The King 

• thinks him the greateft painter of the age, 
and as His JVIajefty has been from his 
infancy ufed to live in apartments rich in 
pi&uresof the beft kind, his opinion muft 

* certainly carry a great weight, what- 
ever contempt fome cynicks may affe£l 
for the connoiffeurfhip of a king* Some 
other of thofe ceilings are to be orna- 
mented with various carvings, gildings, 
and ftucco's, and fome other ftill in 
other manners. But, as I faid, every 
thing is at prefent in the utmoft confu* 
fion, as nothing is yet pejrfe£tly finiftied.' 

Several of the room-walls efpecially 
in the King's apartments, are encrufted 
with various kinds of Spanifh marbles. 
Thofe brought from Andalufia in parti- 
cular, take a molt furprifing polifh, and 


I zSz ] 

look as beautiful asr any antique marbles. 

It would be endlefs to fpeak x>f the 
variety and beauty of the flowers, feme 
competed by curious affemfclages of fe- 
veral -Indian woods, fome by. a great va- 
riety of the moft lingular ftones, and 
marbles ihpt Spain and Italy can afford. 

But befides the rich ftorniture defined 
to each of the royal apartments, fome 
pieces of yrhich are already placed, the 
Xing is poflefled of an immenfe collection 
of Italian and FJemifli pi&ures, part of 
which is intended for thofe apartments. 
I was ftiown foipe RtpbaePs , Titians, 
Giordano* Vandikes and Ruben\ that 
lire aftonifliingly fine and well preferved* 
T>efidesfcme old Felafqvexs and MurjHo\ 
juftly held in the higheft eftimation. It 
is to be hoped, when the palace is per- 
fectly finifhed and furnifhed, that the 
King wHl order a catalogue and defcrip- 
*k>ij of them, .along with the plan and' 
-elevation of this magnificent fabrick, for 
the ferther advancement of the polite 
; - • arts. 

arts, and the fktisfa&ion of tbofe who 
Jove them. 

What (truck me tnaft there, was the 
entrance at the great gate, and the royal 
chapel. That entrance, fupported by a 
good number of lofty ftone-pillars, has 
been contrived after the Italian and not 
after the French manner* I mean th^t 
the King, when coming home, will 
alight from his coach under cover, which 
is what the king of France cannot do 
at Verfailles, where he muft alight in 
the open air, and be wet for a moment 
in rainy weather. 

As to the royal chapel it. will HkewiJjb 
be much finer than that at Verfailles. 
No coft has been fpared to make it the. 
richeft thing in the world : yet its rich- 
nefs, does not take -from its elegance. 
Maffes are already celebrated in it. But 
it ftartled me a little to read in a label 
over the door, Oy fe faca anima $ that is, 
*to-day afoul is drawn out of purgatory , 
jneaning that a privileged mafs is cele- 

I *«4 ] . 

brated there, which is to bring- about 
fuch a wonderful deliverance. I have 
not forgot in ten years of Englifli life 
what the effeft is of papal indulgencies, 
but have never obferved our priefts in 
Italy to be fo peremptory on this fubjeft, 
as that infeription comes to. Since the 
Spanifh priefts are fo pofitive about the 
power of fome particular maffes faid in 
this chapel, the King would do well to 
keep them conftantly employed ^in that 
good work, and force them to empty 
that excruciating place as faft as it fills. 

The facrifty belonging to the chapel 
is likewife very fine and already deco- 
rated with feveral of the beft pi&ures 
that ever our beft m afters painted. . 

As I feemed furprifed at the vaft num- 
ber of the Italian and Flemifh chef- 
d'eeuvres .pofleffed by this King, Don, 
Felix informed me that a great jnany o| 
them had been fucceffively brought over 
hi former times by the Spanifh Viceroys 
-of Naples and the Governors of Flanders 
I and 

I «*5 '] 

and Milan, who generally took care when 
in thofe employments to collect as many 
as they could. 

This accounts very well for their fuf~ 
prifing number. The greateft part* df 
thofe pictures fell one after another into 
the hands of the fucceffive Kings, and fo 
many of them are now in Spain, that, 
were they all collefted together in a fuit- 
able place, the galleries of Orleans and 
Luxemburg at Paris would be no great 
matter in comparifon. Nor muft I for- 
get that in this King's colle&ion there 
are fome, which belonged to the unfor- 
tunate Charles L of England, vilely 
fold to Spain by his rebellious fubje&a. 

Befides thofe many pictures that were 
brought over by thofe Governors and 
Viceroys, and thofe bought from the 
Englilh, the emperor Charles V, called 
over to Spaia the illuftrious Virion, who 
left both in Madrid and the EfcurialftiU 
greater works than thofe he left at Ve- 
nice. Then Jacepo Baffano, - Giovanni of 


f *.a86 ] 

Bergamo, Jacopo tfrezzo, the two Leom'i 
of Milan, Luccbetto of Genoa, Pellegrini 
of Bologna, Zuccaro of Urbioo, Lw 
Giordano, and fcvcral others, who refided 
long in Spain during the reign* of threes 
fucceffive Philips, have left nuittberlefs 
performances at Madrid, the Efcurial* 
Aranjuez, St. Idefonfb, and other parts 
of this kingdom. 

In the organ-place of die royal fchapcl 
there are feventy different mifials, which 
contain whatever is fuog therethrough- 
out the year by the numerous band of 
the King's muficians. *Thofe miffals are* 
all as large as the largeft atlas's, their 
leaves of vellum, all nobly bound, and 
rolling on fcrafs-puHeys fixed to their 
bottoms, that they may eafily be taken 
*>ut of their fhebres and replaced. 

But. what is furprifing in the greateft 
f>art of them, are, the miniatures round 
nia&y ^f ihe margins of their lea ves; 
Thdfe painted by Dan Lids , Melendep 
specially ^re fuperiqr to amy thing of 


P *«* 1 

that kind. I gazed over feveral of them 
with admiratiofy The man is ftiU alive: 
but king Ferdinand and queen Barbara* 
wha kept him long employed in that 
work, forgot to make any provifkm for 
him, and I am told that he lives now ia 
poverty and obfeufrity. Indeed, it is great 
pity if this is true ! So excellent an artift 
would have made a great fortune in JEng* 
land, and in a little time. 
, The court-yard -of the palace, eavi* 
, roned by a very grand portico, is fo verf 
wide that fifty coaches might wheel to- 
gether in it without much obftru&ing 
each other. On the outfide of the great 
gate, and along the chief front of the 
edifice, there are. placed on high pe» 
deftals eight pedeftrian ftatafes, feme of 
which represent thofe amongftthcantiefit 
Roman emperors who were /native* df 
Spain. Thefe ftatiws are of tfiat fizb 
that fculptors call beroical. Not b&ng 
gigantic enough hi the opinion of 
the king, and diiproportionate to the 
4 palace, 

[ 288 ] 

palace, I am told that his Majefty has 
already ordered to have (a) them taken 
away. t 

. Having fpent about four hours in my 
vifit to this royal palace, I went to pay 
my refpe&s to my other friend, the Bri- 
tifh conful- general, whom I hadlikewife 
apprifed laft night of my arrival, and 
converted two hours with him, chiefly 
about the prefent ftate of literature in 
this kingdom, with which I want % to 
bring myfelf a little acquainted, but 
ihall not have time enough to do it. 
Then, after a tour in Don Felix's coach 
through feveral fine but nafty ftreets, 
which eficreafed much my head-ake and 
deftroyed ray appetite, I went to eat his 
Spaniih vi&uals. We were five at dinner; 
that is, Don Felix, one of his younger 
brothers who is ah officer, two other 
Spaniih gentlemen, and myfelf. The 

(a) This was effefted not long after the date $ this 
Utter. , ' 


t zB 9 } 

table-talk ran on the royal palace jand th? 
prefect war. As to the palace w$ wer$ 
foon of a mikd, that it will fee one pf 
the grandeft things in Europe when it is 
finished 3 and with regard to the war* 
none of them feemed much inclined to 
the French fide, but hoped that the courf: 
of France would never fucceed in their 
efforts to bring' them into it, now sfpeci- 
ally t^at the Engiilh have beeri long vic- 
torious both in Germany and at fea. Don 
Fejix, who has been in England eleven 
years in a public chara&er, and is as well 
^c^uainted with its force as % any of the 
King's minifters, cannot bear the thoughts 
9f going tp wjar vri jh it, though fufficienti- 
ly provoked by the infolence, as he calls 
it, of fonie Englifh minifter who has been 
bullying them long with contemptuous 
fpeechea in parliament, 6efides the into- 
lerable abufe of fome Englifh fcribblers 
poured upon the Spanifli nation on occa- 
. fion of a French fhip taken by an Englifh 
privateer in fight of the Spanifh coaft, 
Vol, II. U whicl\ 

which the magistrates of Spain declared 
to be an illegal capture. We have beet* 
more than once provoked by the EngUfh, 
both in Europe and America, fays Don 
Felix : yet I think we ought to keep our 
peace for the prefent. The French navy 
is very near deftroyed, and it is a jeft to 
fay that ours alone can cope with th^tof 
England. This is his opinion : yet he 
freely s owns, that his influence in the 
King's council is below nothing, though 
he is a Confejero de guerra (a member of 
the council of war), and he is ftill per- 
fuaded that other notions (a J will pre- 

But let us drop politicks. At the end 
of this letter, and for the ufe of a certain 
houfewife at home, I will write down 
the receipt of one of the difhes we had 
at dinner. It was almoft the only one 
1 could touch i not out of any diftafte to 

1 (a) 7hit was the cafe foon after, which proved 
very detrimental to Spain, and of n$ advantage U 


[ 291 1 

the genuine Spanifti cookery, which I 
think as good as any by the fpecimen I 
'had of it to-day, but becaufe my ftomach 
was much difordered by the horrible 
filthinefs I had feeh again, and the ftink 
I had again colletted. in my noftrlls. £ 
fee plainly that I fhall neither enjoy good 
victuals nor good compahy in this town, 
and will be gone as foon as I can. It is 
impoffible to yield to the follicitations of 
my two friends, who would have me 
keep up to my original plan of flopping 
Tiere a full month. That ftink is in* 

When the table-cloth Was removed* 
we did not amufe ourfelves with circu- 
lating the bottle after the Englifh manner, 
but drank a difh of coffee, and upon that 
a dram of marafchino ; then leaving our 
table- companions to contrive a folid peace 
between the belligerant powers, Don 
Felix took me to fome of his relations, to 
whom lafl night, on receiving my notej 
he had promifed my acquaintance. They 
U 2 all 

[ 2 9 2 J 

all received me in fucIjL a manner, as to 
make me give up at once my old notion, 
t^hat the Spaniards were a gr^ve, pve£~ 
civjl, and referyed people. As foon $p 
the firft compliments were over, jpotij 
men and ladies talked round with raucl* 
volubility and fprightlhjefs, aijd feemedto 
confider ipe at once as an. old acquaintr 
#nce # . Another of my notiQns w^is, tlxafr 
fbe Spaniards are jealous y t but $J?pij£ 
ihirty ladies wfyom I faw tQ T n}ght a£ 3 
fTertylia, behaved /with fuch ajertgefc^ 
fpoke and were (poken to wjtfc fych %\\ 
unconcernednefs by •, every ma» thefft 
that I cannot fofter any linger tjiat 
potion neither. That there are Spaniards 
fubjeS to the paffion of jealoyfy., jis pro** 
bable ; but that it is one of Jtljeir c^jrftc- 
ierifticks t<> be ,fubje<9t to it, I ha,ve fep% 
already enough of them to contradict k r 
J £ip cpnfident thft you will be p£ my 
pjind on reading the following ^cc^upf 
q£ xhsSfertulia at v$ick I hzjye z$U|e$ 
^O^jght. ' ' 

■"'." ^r\ * It, 

I m 1 

It is a cuftom amohgft the Spanifh la- 
dies to Have their friends at their houfes 
feveral titties every month,, fome oftener, 
and fome feldomer. 

When a lady intends this, fhe fends 
libtide to Her female acquaintance, that 
on fuch a night file fhall have a "teriulia. 
The notice implifes an invitation. She 
that receives fuch a meffage, fails not' to 
tell her male-acquaintance, that on fucli* 
a night (he (hall be at fuch a Tertulia, 
and this likewiffe implies an invitation. 
A coufin of Doh Felix had the goodnefs^ 
to explain to me this piece of Spahifh 
manners; as^we both attended heir at a 1 

Oh our alighting out of her coach' t 
could* not help obferving, that the gate of 
the lkdy's houfe 'where fhe carried lis, 
\tfa& wide open, and no porter or any 
body there to guard it, as is ufual in 
England at every door you. intend to en- 
ter. Two fervants who rode behind her 
coach With flambeaux, lighted us up a 
U 3 large 

[ m 1 

Urge jftair-cafe. , The matter of the hcwfe 
received us sit the door of his firft apart* 
m?nt, handed our lady to the room where 
his wife was withthofe of her feipajeac-, 
quaintance that had got thither before 
us j and having feen her in, came back 
to us to p^y me fuch civilities as are ge^ 
ijerally yfed to ftrangers. 

The room where Don Felix and I were 
ijtfj-oduced, was full of gentlemen almoft all 
in laced coats. Some flood, fome fat, fbrnq 
talked, and fome gazed, as it happens in 
large companies. Half an hour after* 
feveral fervants who had waited on the 
ladies in the miftrefs's chamber with {UVr 
frefco's, brought fome to us. The cere* 
mony of ferving them 1 was this. A foot* 
,jnap. fifft put a filvprrplate into the hand? 
of each m^n prefent ; then anqther pre- 
(ejited filyer pup -boards lo?ided with bif- 
cuitsmade of fugar, after ?i manner I ne- 
ver faw elfewhere. They are full of hol- 
lows like a fponge, and extremely lighjv 
P^ch of «s topk one along with a gla/s of 


[ 2 9S ] 

lemonade, and brought it to our plates 
then dipping it ; into the lemonade, in 
which it inftantly diffolved, drank the 
lemonade out* Chocolate then was diftri- 
buted round, which being drank, the fer- . 
vants cam? for the empty difhes and the , 

We then continued in converfationfor 
another half hour 3 when, behold ! The 
lady of the houfe comes out of her room 
followed by all the ladies fhe had with 
her. We formed ourfelves in two rows 
one on each fide of them: As the lady 
went by me her hufband prefented me 
to her as a ftranger, which procured mc 
a chearful fmile and fome very pretty 

None of the ladies went by but had 
fomething refpeftful or afFe&ionate fwd 
to her by fome man or other, and their 
anfwers ran in the fame ftrain. At the 
end of the room in which we were, there 
Was another, where the ladies entered 
peU-mell, without making the leaftcere^ 
U 4 mony 

ritony at the door, but tfce neareft getting 
i* dire&Iy, whether youeg or old, mar- 
ried 1 or unmarried: 

* As foon as they were in, we followed, 
and found them all fitting on the Efirad% 
which: i*a continued feat that runs round 
the room clofe to the wall. 

In a corner of that room there was a 
large table covered with as many difhes 
afs ; it could hold ( , filled with various' eat- 
afbfer A large Perigord-pafty in- the „ 
rtrt&Hej % couple of rdaffed Turkeys on* 
ffeefidfes of the pafty, with' ham, fowls, 
gaAiej faufages, fallads, eaparrones (a kind 
of capers as big as filberts,) xeBrero fa r 
kind 1 of cheefe from the kingdom of Ga-> 
lkia) &c. &c. In fhort this was a coldf f 
*ollatibri rib- left pleritifal' than elegant. 

The , mailer, with the help of fbme of 
the company, all 1 ftanding, quickly fell 
ahearving, while the remainder of U9 
fliatched napkins out of aheap of then* 
that was on anoWier tablfe, ran to 1 fpread 
tHem on* the ladies knees j then 1 went 


[ 297 ] 

back for plates, knives, and forks j £fe*. 
cfed them on their napkins $ then Went 
to get ftich victuals as they bid*' us to get ; 
then ftoopkig or kneeling by fhem white 

*. ,they were eating, amufed them as well as 
we could; faying what came upperpioft, 
with fuch hilarity and pleafantnefs, that 
I* never was prefent at any fcene more de r 

Artiongft fo many ladies you may ea- 

.. illy imagine that fome there were, who had 
* neither youth nor beauty. Yet none had 
re&fon to lament the abfence of either, as 
they were all ferved without the leaflf ap- 
parent predile£lk>n, which I thought a 

. very remarkable piece of Spanifli polite- 
riefsv No fervant meddled with them 
during that kind of fupper. They all ate- 
heartily, and the greateft part drank wa- 

The merry meal being ended' (and £ 
jnerry one it was) they all got up, and 
ftill following the Lady of the houfe, went 
put of that room intoa much larger, leav- 

[ .*9SJ 

5»g us all behind. They were no foonep 
gone, than we fell on the remnants with' 
a chearfuliiefs no where to be met with 
fyit in this country. The moft jolly fet of 
Venetian? would have appeared grave ih\ 
companion of my Spaniards at the 7er+: 

, TTh? rple is to have a concert after /up- 
per, partly compofed of hired muficians, 
and partly of the gentlemen who can 
blow PT fipger any inftrumenfc Some of 
thp ladies would alfo have fung, and a 
^all would have followed, as th^ conftif 
tuent parts of a fcrfylia are the fupper* 
tjie concert and the ball. But as the 
Queen is juft dead, mufick and dancing 
were forborn, and recourfe had to cards 
t$ fonfume the evening. Several card- 
tables were placed in the rpom, and we 
played -at Manillia, a fafhionahle game 
here, not unlike* Quadrille. The lady of 
" the houfe did me the honour, as granger 
to chufe me for her partner, and laughed 
prettily off a few blunders' I committed as 

a nq- 

[ 299 J 

a novice at ,that game. Bat, as far as 
I could fee, neither ladies nor gentlemen 
nimded much their cards, the Spaniard* 
delighting much more in talking than in 
playing. No card-money was put under 
tjie candleftick as there is no fuch cuftom 
in this town. 

About eleven the company began to 
ileal away alia Spqgnuola, as. we fay in 
Italy : that is, without giving the lead 
warning of their going either to the mat- 
ter or miftrefs of the houfc. It was twelve 
when Don Felix fat me dpwn at my 
liocanda with a promife to call again ear- 
ly on me to-morrow morning. Here you 


* ■ .. 

A Receipt to drefs v A**6z a la Valencia 
ana i that is, Rice after the manner of 

ftake pigs-feet, mutton-trotters, bacon* 
newfaufages and bogs-blood-puddings. Boil 
all together fo long, that the bones be eafily 
takeq of. Cut the whole into/mall pieces. 

4 Boil 

t s 66 i 

mil rice in fhfbrotB tMe 5? ttiefe ItigMdt* 
S% t&ro&ing tim pkihes of faff}o# in it' 
tobife boiling. tfTteii the rice' is- half dorie, 
tali it off 'the fire, -Jlramit Uglify; put it in-. 
idafiewiftg fan, fhVow the dbfrdi thinp rinti 
/#, reddenirig Bi whole <totth Mplktofi^ 
cr three eggs. Leave then tMfah tdfirh* 
Merfor abolti'faflf ah botfr> ntitove^,- but un- 
der a bfijk c&iar coal fire.- 

t E f T £ R tVt. 

Churches y convents^ nunneries y hofpitals % 
Queen Barbara** chief pajfions. Bafquina 
and Mantilla* Capas and Sombreros. 
Santa Hermandad. Lifts of prohibited 

. ^„;\„ Madrid, Oft. 9. 176A , 

TH E proportion of towns confi- 
dered, there are no where, except 
at Rome, fo many monuments of Chriftian 
piety, as in Madrid. 

- Befides twelve parochial^ we find here 
rtidre than a hundred churches, many 
public chapels and oratories, forty 


C 39? J 

ftpmgto, thirty »u#aenps ; fe# #?!&#» 
or feipinaries ' jfor- tlje e4up$tt£pn q£ t£k? 
youth of both fejces, and feveateea hpfpi? 

That this mtf ropoiis isfcgfctlpe vepy j&y 
ligious tjipygh the nujpajjef of fi#& edi* 
ft:e$ ,yr as (waller, 1 w#l e^ly attpw ? J 
will even take it for granted, &tf »3Hf 
pf theqa were Veiled by the hand of fu r 
perftition, which is one o£ the moft co^ir 
fljoji reproaches that protpftaats, efpsci- 
ally thofe of the Calvinift communictp, 
make to the roman catholics* But whil? 
they find fault with an unneceffary mulr 
|ip|icity of places oP worfhip amonft usi 
]e£ tfiem recollefr that put of the many fa-*' 
gred edifices to be feen jyi this town, 
th^t fame h^nd of fuperftition has defti#e4 
§ye hpfp^als to the relief of as many fo- 
reign pjtfipp* j that is, the Italian, 
French, Portjaguefe, Fiemifti, apd Irifli, 
yftder \vhifh laft denomination .English 
apd Scots are incited. Sur§Iy the Sp^- 
|uar$$ $re ^titled to fpmp fiegrse pf re? 

• fpe£fc 

t 3° 2 ) 

(peftfrom ill, whether Calvihifts or not; 
dt* account of that extend ve benevolenctf 
which made them ereft afylums to ftran- 
gcrs diftreffed by poverty and afRi&ed with 
difeafe. It maybe that policy as well as 
fuperftitiori contributed a (hare towards iht^ 
building of thofe five hofpitals. But in 
What country ihall we find the a6Hons of 
men efttirely defecated from human weak- 
tiefs and human vices ? 

I have fpent the whole of this day in 
vifiting feveral o{ thofe edifices, that I , 
might form an idea of the Spanifh mu- 
9 nificence on this particular. 

The general hfpital for tnen> as they 
call it, contains no lefs than fifteen hun- 
dred iron-beds, which are diftributed 
through feveral large rooms and long 
galleries. It is a rule here to receive 
every body that comes at any hour of the 
day or the night $ nor is any follicitation 
required to admittance : nay, there are 
porters belonging to the hpfpital, whofe 
only duty it is to be always ready to go 
• and 


t 3 6 3 ] 

and fetch whatever fick perfon fends fat 
them. There is alfo a phyfician, con* 
ftantly attending at the grand gate, who 
enquires after the complaint of any mail 
that comes, and orders him up to the room 
or gallery afiigned to his difeafe. 

As I flood at that gate, an old matt , 
was brought thither in a kind of covered 
fedan. The phyfician uncovered hint* 
and alked him this plain queftibii. HieHe 
ufted gdllico f " Are ydu poxed, Sir ?" * It 
ftirprifed me a little to hear the ftiameleft 
fexagenarian anfwer in the affirmative 
with the cleared: tone of voice, and the 
greateft tranquility of countenance. I 
have already had feveral opportunities to 
obferve, that the Spaniards are in gene- 
ral lefs bafhful than the Englifh by many 

Wandering about the apartments of the 
fick, I could not but take notice of their 
great cleannefs. I wifh the^ Spaniards 
would take as much care of their metro- 
polis as they do of their chief hofpital. 


I 3°4 3 

J#y jhead-^ch wpuld not then be incefl|tnk 
as it has been eyg: fince I entered at the 

I eaquired of fev^r^l ilck men about 
th$ treatment they receive, and was 
pleafed w&h their anfwers. AmongfJ: 
the feveral articles of their maintenance, 
c%& man i? allowed every rooming by 
way qf breakfaft a large dilh of chocolate, 
Jjpgfther ynfh f flicp. of br,ead or a fweet 
fcifcuit. This I thought a ret»aj*kable 
Angularity* • -Nor are they iljnted in 
point of foo4 ; when they begin to recover, 
?*cept the phyficiaijs be very pofitiye in 
their orders to the ^ontrfyy. 

Jp is pot the cjjftom here to fupport 
any hpfpjtaj . by. volipitary wntril^ution?, 
^jEf^afttiy cc4|e63te4 from the people as 
they do in England. Here each hofpit^tl 
has an income arijfog from land? and 
other Jrijids pf property* In England it 
is a&ualjy the fafhion amongft the better 
fort to .<<?qn£rihute towards the naftinte- 
Hiflnc§ of hofpitals, roany of which h**e 


{ 3°S 3 

jbeen but lately ere&ed, ftnd ere&ed by 
the fame means that are employed to fup- 
port them. Thofe who have difburfed 
moft money towards the building of them, 
as well as thofe who give moft money to- 
wards their maintenance, may have, if 
tbey chufe the dire&ion of them, and 
the jnfjse&ion- over their welfare, toge- 
ther with the privilege of recommending 
patients to admittance. Nothing of this 
is pra&ifed in Madrid. Fafhion may 
here undergo any viciffitude, and charity 
grow hotter or colder. Never will the 
change afFe£t thefe hofpitals. Various {a) 
Confradiashzvt an eye over them. Some 
of their members vifit them by turns, 
take care that they be kept in their ufual 
order, and that no fick perfon may have 
reafon to complain of negleft or ill-ufag$ 
from the hofpital-attendants. The chief 

(a) A Confradia in Spain, like a Confraternity in 
Italy, is an union of Parijhioners of the higher rani, 
who contribute both with money and attendance to the 
advancement *f religious purpofes in their refpe&jpg 

Vol. II. X noble. 


noblemen and gentlemen do not difdaij* 
to be members of thofe Confradias, tp 
audit the accounts of this and that hof- 
pital (generally without the intervention 
of government) and to mind that no 
part of their income be embezzled or 
mifmanaged. The church grants fomc 
indigencies to thofe who attend to fuch 
forts of pious deeds, and it feems this is 
all the recompence they care to have, for 
their trouble, 

Amongft thofe Confradias there is one 
called I<a Santa Hermandad " the Holy 
" Brotherhood" or more commonly La, 
Qonfradia de Pan y Huevos> <f the br other ~ 
" hood of bread and eggs' 9 A number of 
its members, headed by fome confider^ble 
man (not feldom a grandee) ramble about; 
the ftreets of this town during the firft 
part of every night* in order to collect 
the houfelefs poor of both fexes, who 
lay themfelves down to fleep under the 
porches of churches, or the entrances of 
houfes. The Santa Hermandad take wp 


t $°7 ] 

Ml thofe whom they find in this diftrefs* 
ful condition, carry them to fome hos- 
pital to fleep, and give them the next 
morning a penny loa£ with a couple' of 
eggs by way of breakfaft ; from which 
pra&ice is derived their appellation i 
then, if thofe poor are in health, they 
are difmifled, or kept to 4 be cured when 
they happen to be difeafed. I wifh fome- 
thinjg of this kind might be eftablifhed 
in London, where the houfelefe poor are 
pretty numerous. 

You may eafily imagine that the-above- 
mentioned general hofpital is endowed 
with a very considerable revenue. They 
fay that it. amounts to forty thoufand 
doubloons, which makes up no lefs than 
thirty thoufand pounds ftcrling. Amongft 
its attendants there are many friars of the 
order called De San Juan de Dios. A ve- 
fy proper employment for a fet of men, 
who profefs a total difregard for the va- 
nities of this world- It would poffibly 
not be atnifs, were the greateft part of 
X2 our 

r 308 j 

our friars incorporated in that order, and 
forced by inftitution into the fervice oi 
the fiek in our hofpitals/ Their time 
would thus he much better employed, 
than in beating their bare backs on a fcaf- 
fold in the time of (a) miflion. 

It is faid in Madam £>' Aunofs travels 
through Spain^ that every baftard brought 
up in the fdundU«ig*hofpital at Madrid, 
is looked upon as a gentleman by the This affiertion the authors 
of the Di&ionaire Encidopedique hav^ 
creduloufty repeated* But the fa£t is not 
true ; and a baftard is as much a baftard 
in Madrid as any where elfe* No nobi- 
lity, nor any other kind of honour is con- 
ferred by law upon any poor creature 

(a) A miffion confijls of form friars going by of At 
rf their fuperiors to this and that place lo -tomert the 
pi$ple as they call it. Upon thefe occajions they erec? 
fcaff*ldsy in the midjl of /quarts and other open places, 
and there they inveigh with their furious tone of vote • 
againft ftnners y beating tbetnfelvts the nihil* until -their 
blood trickles down their bare lacks to enforce their de- 
famations* ¥befe mijfiom have been forbidden in f eve* 
rai parts of Italy within thefe few years. 


[ 3°9 ] 

brought up. as a foundling in that hofpi- 
tal. How thofe learned. gentlemen could 
reft upon fo ilender an authority a faft of 
fo Angular a nature, is pretty furprifing. 
As to the churches in Madrid, they are 
in general not fo grand as I expe&ed to 
find them in a country fo much renowned 
for the piety of its inhabitants/ The 
greateft part are oddly decorated with 
thoufands of things that are not admits 
ted to adorn churches in other countries. 
Their walls are generally covered with 
fmall and artlefs works of the pencil and 
the rhiflel, diftributed as chance direfted, 
pr at leaft without much order or fym* 
jnctry. Jn that which belongs to the 
Padres 4* h Merced, there is a kind of 
large drawer, which contains various toys 
and baubles that were gifts from peo- 
ple who have repented their attachment 
to trifles, and mad? a facrifice of them to 
a Utile waxen Saviour fhut up in that 
drawer. Amongft the contents of it, 
there is 4 large fragment of a fugar-cake, 
X3 that 

[ 3*° ] 

that was prefented (they tell you) by a 
lady who thought hcrfelf too fond of 
fweet- meats, and a mufliri apron given 
by another who caught herfelf in a fit of 
pride the firft time flie put it on. Both 
ladies fell upon the expedient of fuch of- 
ferings, in order to chaftife themfelves 
for their unruly vanities. I could eafily 
give you many other inftances of this mi- 
nute fpecies of Spanifh devotion, which 
here is very common in women, and not 
rare in men. I wonder the methodifts of 
England have not yet adopted this prac- 
tice in confequence of their rigid notions v 
of chriftian mortification. ' 

The grandeft church in Madrid is that 
which belongs to the Monjas Sale/as, 
«' the Salejian Nuns:' That church, to- 
gether with its fine nunnery, was built 
by Queen Barbara, remarkable for little 
elfe than her love of mufick and her de* 
yotion. Her love of mufick made her to 
give little lefs than four thoufand- pounds 
fterling % year to the celebrated FarineSi^ 

I 3" ] 

who was her moft conftant favourite du- 
ring a good number of years, and to 
whom amongft other things, (he be- 
queathed all her mufical inftruments and 
vaft colle&ion of mufick, the greateft 
perhaps that ever was in the world. A- 
mongft her tutelary faints, of whom (he 
had chofen a large number, the moft be- 
loved was St. Francis de Sales, commonly 
ftyled the Holy Bijhop of Geneva, though 
the Genoefe never acknowledged him for 
their bifhop. To honour this fecond fa- 
vourite, Queen Barbara, about the year 
1748, laid out feveral thoufand doub- 
loons in that church and nunnery, both 
^dedicated to his name. She then called 
x>ver from Annecy (a fmall town in Savoy) 
a few of thofe women who follow the in- 
ftitution of that faint, and put them in 
poffeffion of both edifices,endeavouring 
ever after to augment tlieir fifterhood 
with Spanifh recruits. Thofe Savoyard 
Nuns ("two of whom are ftill alive) co- 
operated fo well with her, by enticing 
X4 girls 

[ I** J 

girls to be tf their number, that the 
ntulnery has at prefont near thirty in* 
habitants, though no plebeian female* 4s 
admitted amongft them. The income 
fettled upon them by that tjueen, i* 
fomewhat encreafed by their receiving 
boarders, who are sell young ladies of 
quality. The nuns teach them to read, 
write, .work, and pray •, but, above all* 
4© believe thgt St. Francis De Sales it 
jtfae greateft font in heaven, and the racxft 
feeloved by the blefled virgin. 

Queen Barbara had an apartment in 
ibat nunnery , where fhe intended to re^ 
lire incafe (be fhoujd furviveher huftaad, 
JBut her intention did not take effe£, as 
j&e died before him, Her remains how* 
ever were not carried to the Eicurial, 
where all thofe of the Royal Family an 
lent, but wece depofited in that church, 
^Jong with \&t hulb^nd's in % (tytely mo* 

. TheSalcfkn is the only temple ki Ma* 
d*id» the ornaments pf \vhich pre neither 


t 3.J ) 

*firer*n»merou$, nor childUh.^ The aU 
tars in it are not, as in all .other churches, 
adorned with little noftgays of natural 
or artificial flowery nor is it hung with 
pretty cages of canary-birds, that keep 
chirping the whole day long, to the great 
tfiverfion of thofe who go to he?ir raaffes 
in the morning, or take benedi&ions in 
the evening. There arc many coftly de- 
corations in that church. The moft re* 
markable, befides the royal monument^ 
is a fUver lamp hanging by three long 
filver-chains before the great altar, which 
lamp and chains weigh fourteen arrobm\ 
that i»/ three hundred arid fifty, pounds. 
The three pi#ur$s over its three altar% 
arc by three modern painters ; that i% 
Vtlafquex of MfidrjdS Signardi of Verona^ 
gad Frmctfihielh of Naples. 
. The nuns (howed me in the facrifty 
fame furplices for the inafe-pricfts, that 
fire made of the- fined Flanders-lace* 
J£ach furpliee> they iky, has coft above a 
$bou&»d doqblpoils, and I can eafily be** 


[ 3'4 ] 

Heve it. They fhowed me befides feve- 
ral chalices, croffcs, oftenfories, pixes, 
and vafes, ornamented with fo many dia- 
monds, rubies, emeralds, and other jew- 
els, as to raife aftonifhment even in f hofe 
who have feen the richeft pieces at Lo- 
retto. Many fine pictures and coftly 
ornaments have I feen alfo in the church 
that belongs to the Jefuits. 

'There are neither pews, benches, nor 
chairs in the churches at Madrid. At 
kaft I faw none in thofe that I entered. 
Their floors are covered with ftraw-mats, 
upon which men and women kneel pro- 

, tnifcuoufly, and without any diftinclion 
of place, whether they be grandees or 
coblers, duchefles or wafherwomen„ The 
rtien will often ftand during the mafsr, 
but the women fit negligently on their 

-/own heels the greateft part of the time 
they pafs at church, holding their rbferies 
in their hands, telling their beads with a 
whifpering ¥oke, and .a moft rapid mo- 
tion of their lips. I wonder how aoy 
v •> body 

[ 3iS 3 

1>Ddy tan keep up a devout recollaftion 
amidftthat geheral hiding, often accom- 
panied by the chirping of the canary- 

Women of all ranks wear their rofarits 
in their hands whenever they go to 
church, and always in fuch manner that 
every body may fee them. They are a 
part of their church-drefs. J am told 
that it is cuftomary, amongft the lower 
ranks, for the young men to prefent fine 
rofdries to their fweet -hearts. Women 
of whatever condition never go to church 
>but with the bafqufna and the mantilla on. 
The bafquina is a black petticoat; com- 
monly of filk, which covers their gowns 
from the waift down, and the mantilla 
is a muflin or cambrick veil that hides 
their heads and the upper part of their 
bodies. If they do not turn up their 
* veils, as fojne of them will do both at 
church and in the ftreets, it is difficult, 
if not impoffible, even for hufbands to 
fciow their wives. 

4 With 

[ 3i* ] 

With regard to the men> a gentleman 
generally drefies after the French man- 
ner, wearing his hat under his arm, as 
they do in France. But the lower clafs 
wrap themfelves up to the eyes in their 
caputs which are brown cloaks that reach 
down to the ground. The .grandees 
themfelves will fometimes wear (a) thofe 
Ugly capes by way of dHguife." He who 
wears a capa, wears alfo his hair con- 
cealed under a cotton cap, or a filk net* 
and ^azftmbrtro over ; that is, a hat with 
the flaps down* But as no man is al- 
lowed to enter a church, except bare** 
headed, it is no left indecent than ridi- 
culous to fee a number of them come 
out of a church, and under the porch or 
gate of it bufy themfelves in tying- up 
thofe nets they had pqt in their pockets 

(a) Since the daid of this letter the King has prohi- 
bited to wear in Madrid the flapped, batSj fa that the 
hejl fort have totally left offfwh q difguife. ' 


t 317 ] 

$$ they went in, which the gfeateft part 
<rf theriv wear until they are offthfively 

It is jnotorfous tfiat the King hates to 
feed man wrapped up in a wide cloak 
with a Sapped ban But his people feem 
to care bat little for his majefty'e di&p^ 
probation «rf their unfightly drefs> and 
meet his eyes thus accoutred with the 
greateft uncoacernediiefs. Such is the 
force of iveterate cuftoms, that they 
cannot ufeolifhed by the fcow»s. 
of an abfolute monarch, who is unwii* 
liog to force compliance by a<pofitivecoai* 

On the gates of many churches them 
are often labels pafted up, that inform 
the by-goers of what is doing within 
whenever -any thing is done a little more 
folemn than ufual. In one of thole la- 
bels I read tfcefe words written 'in cubital 
letters *. Aqut ejtd manifejto el SantiJJttno Sa~ 
cramento* " Here the moji holy facramerit 
• is 

I 318 J 

hin *b$ew" On another I faw a catalogue 
of thofe books which cannot be read 
without incurring excommunication. It 
k fomewhat odd, that they were all 
French, and all of that clafs that cannot 
do any harm with regard to religion but 
to the irioft (hallow readers* Few of Vol- 
taire's and Roufleau's works have efcaped 
the catalogue, and I am told that their 
names are growing no lefs terrifying in 
this country, than thofe of Luther and 
Calvin. Don Felix d'Abreu, who has 
lived many years in England, and loft in 
a good meafure the native dread of hete^ 
rodox books, cannot help difapproving 
this Spanifh method of advertiiing what 
is thought to dcferve a prohibition. * Our 
grandees, fays he, " will read all modifh 
cc French authors in fpight of our priefts 
" and Friars. The greateft part of them 
" do not care a ftraw for the anathema's 
" fulminated ag&inft the readers of pro* 
* c hibited books. Our middling gentry 

« are 


t 3*9 J 

L 1 ' 


c * are not yet very ftudious of foreign 
" languages j and as ta our common 
<c poeple, they will certainly not trouble 
<c their heads about French learning. 
€ l Our ecclefiaftic faperiors are therefor^ 
<c egregioufly wrong in inviting difctbe* 
<c dience by their catalogues on their doprs 
" of churches, which ferve only to make 
" known to all what would otherwife be 
c< known but to a few." 

There is fcarcely a church in this town 
but • what can boaft of fome excellent 
pifture. In the facrifty of that which i$ 
called Los RecoUetos, there are fome 
which a connoifleur would go a hundred 
miles to fee, efpecially a Mary Magda- 
len fupporting a dead Chrift by Corregio, 
and a Madona with thjs child by Raphael. 
The friar who fhowed me the facrifty, 
never mentioned the name of Raphael 
without the previous appellation of di~ 
vino. It made me fmile to. find, that our 
Italian cant has travelled thus far be- 

t 3" 1 

yohd the Alps. Yet it vexed- rtie to fee 
in the church of the Trinitarians a printed 
declaration in favour of the Virgin's im- 
maculate conception, that was ftuck with 
a pin, in a fine picture attributed to Luca 

The End of the Second Volume