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ane bp 
9Ut]»uiktc aaH eit^afcttt> Carp asu<f?. 

GEOLOfilCAL SKETCHES. By Lovis AausB. Tint Se- 
na. Wjih IlluitnrioDL i6iao, #1-50. 

GEOLOGICAL SKETCHES. By Loua Atuasa. Second Se- 

fick 1611W1 fi.^ok 

AcAssri. Wiib lUuMnliODL jfimOiSi-^ 
A JOURNEY tN BRAZIL. By Louis Aqassii and Elizabitk 

Carv AgasAIE. Wkh cighl (ulVp^gv llliutntiont and many 

BmaJIcr Dim. Cravn Svo, ^.jch 

DEH AcA^siE and £uiABVTH Caw Acassii. lUiuUaled. 

fivD, Ij.dd- 
LOUIS AGASSIZ: His Lin AND CoiirispoHDiim. Edited 

by his wite, Euiabith Cart Auassti. Wiih PoriTail^ IEIua- 

tnlioni, and Indfl. In two vcluRica- Crown Svo, gUl topi 

(4.00; half caJi,» 


BosTOB ABD Nbw York. 

cocotmu PALK. 


Professor akd Mrs. LOUIS AGASSIZ. 


'. : • 

And vhnvwr <hf my Hf ni*d lonj. 

Or hit br*n Iv^n To Eiil. 
Sh* ivouM ur^ a mnn wnritl"ful wn^ 

Or uUioKfTt msmJlmn biW, 




iCfe immiM Prtf A CmnlitiCgt. 


. V — 

■ > ^ 


V •• • . •.; 1^ : 

^'•' :.•.". 

« ■ * * 

^ *• CM'* OOcn of tba Di«>kt Cwii «f thi DittHct of HuachuOn 

GiHiuHt : runiD AT m kiruuni vuu. 




SM Vitstnl Valtint 





In dio winter of 1865 it bocame oeocssai? for me, on 
acootint of some dUturbance of my health, to seek a changQ 
of Boene and climate, with rest from work. Europo waa 
proposed ; but though there is much enjoyment for a 
nataralist in contact with the actire scientific life of 
the Old World, tJioro is little iulcUoctual n»L Toward 
Bnutl I was drawn by a lifcloug desire. After tlra death 
of Spix, when a student of twenty years of age, I had 
been employed by Martina to dt^^scribe tl>c GsUca they 
had brought back witli them li-om titeir celebrated Bra- 
zitiao journey. From tliat time, tlie wiish to etudy this 
buna in the regions where it belongs had been an 
erer-recurring thought with me ; a scheme deferred for 
want of opportunity, but never quite forgotten. Tlte fact 
that tlie Emperor of Brazil was deeply interested in all 
BcieatJGc undertakings, and had ezpreased a warm aym- 
pathy with my efiorta to establish a great zoological 
museum in this country, aiding mo even by sending 
oollections made expressly under his order for the pur- 
poM, was an additional incentive. I knew that the head 
of the government would giro me every facility for my 
iTaatications. Nevertheless, tempting as was the pros- 


peet of s rUt to Bruil, w a mere vtoation it had little 
ohArm for me. Single-handed, I conld make slight use 
of the opportumtics I should have ; and though tho ex- 
eonioo might bo a pleasant one for roTself, it would 
bare no important result for science. I could not forget 
that, had I only the necessary means, 1 might mako col- 
looticMtB on this jouniey which, wlienerer oar building 
could be BO onlar^>d as to give room tor thtar oxlii- 
bition, would place Uie Museum in Cambridge on a leroi 
witb the first iustitutjons of the kind. But for this a 
working force would be needed, and I saw no possibil- 
ity of providing for such an uitdei'taking. While 1 was 
brooding over these thoughts 1 chanced to moot Mr. Na- 
thaniel Thayer, whom I have ever found a generous friend 
to science. The idea of appealing to him for a scheme 
of this magnitude had not, however, occurred to mo ; 
but he introduced the subject, and, after expressing his 
interest in my proposed Journey, added, " You wish, of 
course, to give it a scientific character; take six assist- 
ants with you, aad I will be responsible for all their 
expenses, personal and scientifio." It was bo simply said, 
and seemed to me so great a boon, that at first I hardly 
tieliwed 1 had heard him rightly. In tlio end, I had 
cause to see in how large and liberal a sense be proffered 
his support to the expedition, which, an is usual in sucb 
eases, proved longer and more costly than was at first 
aiittcipatod. Not only did he provide most lilierally for 
awstants, hut, until the last specimen was stored in tlie 
Museum, lio continued to advance whatever sums were 



feUv«7s desiring mo to inform him sbonld aaj 
I expenses occur on cIoHing up tho affairs of tbs 
eipcdition. It eeema to me that the good arising from 
tlie Icuowledgo of snob facts justiGcs me in speaking licm 
uf rht>^ generous deeds, aocoiupli^bcd to unoxtentntiously 
i^Ui&t tlioj mjglit otlicrwiso pass unnoticed, 
^k AU obstacle!) thus removed from mj patli, 1 made my 
^wepAiutions for departure as rapidly as possible. Tho 
kuiiitants I selected to occotiipauy me vcre Mr. James 
Burkhardt as artist, Mr. John O. Antlionjr as conchologtst, 
Ur. Frederick C. Hartt and Mr. Orestes Sl John as geolo- 
gists, Mr. John A. Allen as oniitbologist, and Mr. Ooorgo 
Sccra as prepunitor. Busidu tlicsc, my party vas enlarged 
by several volunteers, to whom I was indebted for aaaisb- 
once as untiring and efficient as if tliey had been on- 
gaged for the purjioic. These wore Mr. Newton Dexter, 
Mr. William James, Mr. Edward Copelaud, Mr. Thomas 
^HTard, Mr. Walter Hunnoirell, mid Mr. S. V. R. Thayer. 
I should not omit to mention my brotlier-in-law, Mr. 
^niiomas O. Cury, as one of my aids ; for, tliough not uom- 
^^ally connected with the expedition, he made collections 
^^r me at Monte Video, Buenos Ayrcs, and otlier places. 
^B was also joined by my friends Dr. and Mrs. Cotting. 
^U)r. Cotting, like myself, was in need of a racatiun, and 
it was his intention to remain witli us for as long a 
time as he could spare from his professional practice. 
But tlie climate proved unfavorable to his health, and 
after passing s couple of months in Rio, uud shariug 
rilh OS all our excursions in tliat neighborbood, be 


sailed with Urs. Cottiog for Europe, wticro tho; pft^sed 
tlio eummor. His presouco with us during tliat titue 
was tDoat fortuuate, for it so happeaed tlmt tlio ouljr 
wrious esses of illness we had among us occurred before 
he left, and liis medical advice and care were of groat 
Borvico. I lost the assistance of Mr, Aullioiiy, and Mr. 
Allen al»o, early iu the expedition ; their hcaltli, always 
delicate, obliging them to leave for lioine. With thesa 
exceptiona, our working force remained intact, and I am 
happy to state that every member of llic party returned 
Lu Kafcty to the United Slatos.' 

No sooner was the Uraziltau Expedition known to tho 
public, than I received a letter from Air. Allen McLane, 
President of the Pacilic Mail Stoamsliip Company, ofTor- 
ing to m« and my wliole pai-ty the hospitality of thdr 
magniBcent ship the Colorado, tlioii just sailing from 
New York for the Pacitic coast. She was going almost 
empty of passengers, being bound by the way of Capo 
Horn for San Francisco. Wo led New York on board 
this beautiful vessel, on the 1st of April, 1866. The 
rocird of our delightful voyage to Bio de Jauoiro will 

* Thtra i* but ona nd rc>»n] 1 baTo lo nuke ooanKWd iriib thi* journey. 
Mj trimi (nil (am[iitn1on of amay mnn, Mr. Hiirklitirtll, <iM about ten 
noullu after hii reium, </f a diiciic which, ihough not contracicd la Bnuil, 
•iAM il wu or tome jcart* naiuljiig, wiu nu doubt oggravaUd bjr Ibe hot 
rJiinatD. Hii |;»tl dc«iro U •eromjiin; ma l«d bim, ij^uiul mj ■dni'o, 
lo amlcrtnko • Jouroejr wtiicli, In hi* cue, wiu n^-vroiia one. Hs tulTttvil 
nty tnocb duiiDg unr tUy on tbc Amuoni, bat I coald not pcmude bim to 
lean blj walk ; and In tha roUowiug; pagw il wUl be Ken duX bis indiurtt; 
WW nnfli^giiijc. 




fwind ia tho onrratiro ; but I wlsti here publicly to 
acknowledge tn; obltgatioo to Ur. UcLaiie for bis gener- ' 
atatf to tlie eipeiditiou. Besides tbo sjiDpalby nocordod 
mo by prirate iiidiriduals, 1 have to tliank the lion. Gideon 
WcUcs, Secretary of the Nsvy, for a general order, rocoiTcd 
un tlio eve of my departure, desiring the officera of the 
United States Navy, wlierover I should lall in witti t)i«in, 
10 aSord mo such assistanoo in my eciciitifio researcbea 
as voald not interfere with tbe regular serrice ; and 1 
learned at Rio tliat Mr. Seward had warmly recommended 
the expedition to General Webb, at that time UniteJ 
States Minister to Bratil. Anally, I would expre»s my 
tlkanks also to Messrs. Garrison and Allen for the free 
passage offered to myself and my companions for our 

turn, on board the line of steamers established be- 
tween Now York and Rio do Janeiro during our stay in 

It will bo seen liercailor what facilities wore granted 

e throughout this journey by the Brazilians themaelves, 
and tJiat the undertaking, so warmly speeded ou its way, 
was welcomed no less cordially in the country to which 
it was bound. 

One word as to the manner in which this Tolume has 
grown into its present shape, tor it has been mtlier ttie 
natural growth of circum»Uinoes than the result of any 
proconceiTcd design. Partly for the entertainntent of her 
friends, partly with the idea that I might make some use 
of it in knittiug together the scientific reports of my 
joontey by a iliread of narrative, Mrs. Igassiz began tiia 


diaij. 1 Boon fell into the habit of giving her duly the 
mon general resulte of mj scioiitilio olwon'ationx, ktiowiiig 
that sbo would allovr nothing to be loet which was worth 
proMrnng. Id oousequcuce of tliis mode of workiiig, 
our eeparato contributions have become so closelj intar- 
Hoven that we should hardly know how to disconnect 
them, and our oommun journal is therefore puhlUhed, 
with the exoeptiCMi of a few unimportant changes, almost 
a« it was origtually written. In this rolume t liave at- 
tempted only to give sucli an account of my scieiilifio 
work and itji nisults us would explain to tho public what 
were the aims of the expedition, and how far they havo 
bMQ iMXomplislicd. It is my hopo to complvto a work, 
already begun, on the Natural History, and especially oil 
the Fishes of Brazil, in which will be recorded not only 
my investigations during the journey and those of my 
■tsistauts in their independent excursions, but also tlio 
reHearches now regularly carried on in connection with 
tlio immense Brazilian collections stored in the Museum 
at Cambridge. This must, however, be the slow l^>or 
of many years, and can only bo published very gradually. 
In the mean time 1 hope that this forerunner of the more 
special reports may serve to show that our year in Brazil, 
full as it was of enjoyment for all the party, was also rich 
iu permanent results for scioncu. 







nnlSnnd*r »i Sta — Qnir S<n*s. — Gutf-WMd. — txenn** prapOMd.— 
Pint Lacnin: On Uu Gutf Stnain la tha Gnir Stnam. — AqMitom 
■iMllibaJoatmri. — SfOJodLwhira — BoB([h S«k. — Pwallir'niitif 
Walar.— Tfalnl Laclara: Lay[ns«i>l Work of Kifadidaii In Bfuil( Db- 
Mbtuka oT Fbhci In Bnillian RiTcn ; ili Daring on OrtglD «f SpMlta | 
0«Deelto(ef Egic>. — TnplcklSiiuol. — Founh LsetorviPlwiorOMtagt- 
«il InwUKaUoiii witli »pkW (•r«««n la OlMi*l FhnuofiMM In Soulfa 
Anmick. — n;la«-riih. — Fillb Leeiura; GlkOU PhanoiMiui, o«ntlaai& 
— Smm4 Sonday U S(*.-BMKb Watw. — Statb Lacnnt Etobiyo- 
to|lMl InawllftiaM m ■ Ovida to aniad ClMifloMloo. — Sowitli Lm- 
m*.— UoudifhtXiahu.— Tnda-Windk — KI«b(hLMtin«: Imponaoo* 
<rPi«eMM>]nL9uLtlnR8|weiatn<. — SoauluraOrou.— MlMhLaenm: 
rimk-mlm tiiitt ol BnulL — Ea»i«r Saadajr.— Flnl Sight oT&xAh 
AnMrJeaa Slma. — Olinila. — Pamunboen.— Oataimuint. — Ttnch L*o- 
nn: M»ihB*>nf Callacittg.— BaTaaih Laolata: CliuiifluUnn el nhm 
, M lUdMntBd bf tmbiyviogf — PrepuntlnM tar AirinL — Tnlflh Lao- 
I turn PnclHaJ Ltaaon hi BnibiTokiKjr. — Cl«»lnj{ Laclvrai TranMW- 
■Ulao n»trjt inUtUenai uid Pulliical ladapaidtiiM. — Bawlstlana and 
Bpatebaa.— StefaUiSodraicliMonUieSiirbMoriiiaSaiL l.«l 

m Anil 





Aniaiit- — Aiptei cf HirlMir aiid iNiy. — OoMoin-IbKu*. — Pint GHmpieof 
Tliaiiai iJdk — Kegro Duiea. — EOkM of Cinancipaljiin In I'cliad 
StBlaa npoo Slaiwr In BnilL — Pint Aipeet of Rio da Jaoatn) on Lam). 

— Pl Wai i H oa Strwl Ow pt. — EtSp>* of tda Son. — Al ilonHtnlto.— 
ttfielrat. — Paiwio pDAKcn. — Eicwtloa on tha Pwn Paitvn Billroiut. 

— Vlatiaf Ilia Kmfmr is tha C4o(«d». — Conllallly of ilx Govrnimant 
ti tha rtptriitloo.— Lalwalsrir. — Bottnkal Cardan. — AUry of Palm*. — 
Eleanlo* lo Ito CorcoradD. — .lul* do Pnta Raa>l. — PeiropoKt. ~ Trop- 
taal VtffMbm. — Itlda bom Patrnpslb to Jnit 4a Fen. — Voit to San- 
kor Lugo. — BstFonlMi lo liw Fottti ot Iha Empnn. — Vi<>it to Ur. 
Halfold. — Baton w Rio. — Xa«. or the Grtot NMtlicra VkUrto^ and of 
Iha PtHMnf* f-— '"■'~ M-n 


TABU, OF coyrMTS. 



Botkfbgo. — tnuiOT HiwpltiC. — Ttjiioii. — Emiiic Drift. — VnjBtatiiMi.- 
Birtlidaj Dinner. — Arrsngwnanu fur Piirtiu bi tlM luUrior. — Public 
LMtorw In Bio. — PrDecvlOD at SL George- ~ Lmt« BI» en Bxonnlon to 
Iha ForUlffu da Stnte Anna. — Looillltsi for Erratic Drift Iwtwwa Rio 
mnd Pelmpoliiu — Dapurun tram Juli <)« For*. — Arrinl mt th« Puenda. 
Kills In til* Fonnt. — Kn or Sui JonS. — Cuphn Nuu. — Kxcurxinn W 
Ibo Uppar Fnieiiilii- — Grantl Hunt. — I'IcnIo. — Coffoo PlBiiIUian. ^ 
Batiini to Rio. — Mlmla SnowTiolrlt. — CoOm tnoial ipinnlnE lu NMt> 
^ Vinil to tlifi KHK«n4lA at CfininiPTidiidur BmvMH. -.* HoTunltlii^ EKDnrafoD 
to TiJncB. — Frcpiraliotu Tor leivinE Klo. — Major Ciiutiiiba. — (k^Itgto 
Dom Ftdn> Ssgiuido. M-)JI 



th« Cnii*in> ill) Sul. — lUinbxn ct Itm Pxrtj. — AttItkI at 
Bahla. — Dk^ In tbo Couiiliy. — Iteium to lln Sltaniw. — Convomtioo 
■bcml Slmry Id Brtuil. — Nvaro MnrrLDf^. — HacQlo. — PfmBmbnoa. — 
riTKbybi do So«F — Riimbla on Sliorn. — C«*rA. — Dlfflcull Lunding. — 
Bnnilim Bull*. — Miiranliam. — AiiHl Palm. — VUlttoOrphun Aiyluni. — 
DataineJ i" Pofl- — V«.ri«i)r of SIcduxB. — Arrival of Amorloan Gunbott. 
-~ Mora Uediius — DIHDWon Sborv. — liordlalliy lovnnJ iho Expedition. 
— Art^rt] al Piiri. — KM Baorptinn. — KiiTiroiu of Pant. — Luiniiuit 

Qfovlli. — MnikE'ii IniliHii DmIii. — A|7«eiib1* t'liinala. — Kicunino 

in Iha Harbor. — Cnrtoiia Mmiimora.— Succwa In colltoHng, wiib Dm 
asaftlanca of our l]o«t and other FnonJ»- — I'UTih of the Komti.— 
rulillc Eiprtwilon* (if Svnipatliy forllie Eip^iliiion. — GvDonwity of the 
AiBaBomaa StnmaUip CompanT. ^ Owilofioul Clianintflr of Iha 5bora 
Itoca Kio lo Pari. — Ktnuic Drift. — LoUcr to Uio Kupuor. . IM-UI 

FKOM tailX to makaos. 

Fint Sandfly on the Aiauooi- — 0(ocra|)hiiwl Qunitioii. — Conrenleol Ar> 
lugemante nf SlMOiar. — Vut Dimandom of Iha Kivar. — AapaM of 

Shoiaa. — Village of Srera Lallcr about Colleclloni VtKftation. — 

Variety of Falmi. — 8«ltl«inent of Tnjapuru. — Enormoui Sitaof Laara* 
of the tllrlll Palm. — Walk oo Slinra— Indimi Buuw*.— Conrtaej of 
lodiaaa. — Bair in the Foraat. — Town of <iuni)ii. — Rim Xltura. — 
Color of Waur. — rown of Porto do Uot ~ Flol'toppod Hilii of Aliuey- 
dm. — Reantlful Suniet — Monla Altgra. — Character of Scanerv and 
Soil. — Saotarvm- — SwnlofT Futy oti Ilw Rirar Tapnjoi. — Continue np 
tb* Ainatona- — Putoral iHXiie* on Iha Raiilta. — Town of ViUa Bella. — 
Canoa Juoney at Kiiilii. — Kiperaiitt'a Oittnge. — Piciat<>i|ua Seanaal 

Nlgbt. — Sucoeu In Colleclin);. — Indian Life Unking Farintia. — Dama 

Id (be Eraolag. — Howling Moukeyi. — Religiou* linprwelam of Indiana.— 




Oolt^aarMalB. — HU bunat In EdoeMtof Mi CbiUnii. — IM«rs to 
r. — SdMlMo Bwalla «l tha EMvnlon. lU 




■1 Hwua. — HaMtasaribaSalininMnwiUitiM Bio Mapo- — Do- 
BMMlcMad 1 M«f«fri — Bctnro of Cutj ftDm tli* Tapijo*. — 0«f«ra«li]r ol 
O oTw tam t. — Wafcii. — Wataf-Cwrtafm. — Indian SeliMl. — Uan Ua- 
nifl*. — Lilk 00 board Ifaa it»Kmm-—9anHniMC»tKin-—C<»A.— 
Vfoodtni;. — A p p awa ooa ef Bank*. — Oaalngical Conititatlaa.— PanA^- 
SiimauBaira-TrM. — Anuw-QraM. — Had Drift CliiTi. — .Suil-IUaeliafc — 
Indian Hbil — TonlO'BuMlng. — Drjing PUh. — TtlTA. — Roubu aboot 
tb« JoDrixT-. — VwipM^l Ad>lwr. — Fonia Bta. — G«ulii|;ieal Cliu- 
BCW of BttAt. — Lakn. — nuoki vt Walnt Sinli. — TonanliBi. — Pl»- 
lamrqaa Oniapliig of Indiana. — Sao PanlOL — tAnd.31idc«. — CbanyoUr 
of Semxry. — Seaniy Ptipalatian. — Anlntal Life. — TibatiiiEo-— Aipaci 
of tte SetUeoient. — Uoif uitoaa. — Lnva one of t)io i'Bity to nuka Col- 
ImUm»— On eoi Way down Iha Klvar. — Ptny U> Iha Rlvan Ifa and 
Hyntikir.— Apouud In thi Amaioni. — AninJ aiTaS*. . lU-Vll 



of TcCH. — Sitsatirm. — DgBCn|iliim at HnoMB.— FUiDC Eiaur. 
I. — Aaioiiuliiiif VarMy of Plahaa. — AcarA. — Scareliy ef lAbotan. 

Out ladoon Uan. — Bruno. — Akxandttna. — rieaianl Walka UAt- 

AacA^bsd In ibo Fonat — Indim BDcampDnot on tba Baaoh.— Eaeonlos 
to Pliblai: hoigt on Uw Sellmuani. — AmUOnitLn Baanhaa. — Breading' 
PIbM> of Turtlaa. Fiibai, t*o — AJroitntia of Indiana b finding Ihain. — 
Oaacriptloo of a ■SUio." — Indiau Day-Ealcn— Culeim-Tro*. — fldi 
Boat. — Fcntt Laka. — WaMr BinI* — Summi in OollaotlDg. — Evsnlng 
Soma bi SIeIo. — Alfiaiiilriiia a* fKi«ntiflo Aid. — Flih AaacdoW. — 
Balatiotii beinaa FUba* aa abowo by tliair Kcabryolo^cy. — Nula u|>on 
tha HarluB Cbaraclar of Uia Aaamnltn Faiian. — Aoari. — Nam from 
Aa Panlaa In Ih* loHrior. — SstofB of ttrtj Itom tho If*. — I'rvpan- 
two* (br D<p«n>u» — !(««• 00 Qanvrnl IMbIi of Sciantiflc Wiirk In 
Taff<> — Wailinf fot Ifca liManiec. — Skateb of Alixandrina. — lloeoin. 
— Tbsadtr-SlonB.— Baptquota. — Gooioglcal Olaamiioni. . . 91) 




'AnlnJ al Uauaoa. — Ha* Onnan — Tli« thicuhy. — Ni>«> tmm Hnina. 
Vult ta iha Cocailb — Baohcinu ka tli« Furasl. — Kicunion to Laka 
Bfanliary--' Chancier and fnxpccDof Uia AmuoiiiaB VaXcy. — Baotp.^ 
llMKtha Lnka. — Dcaerlption of Siiin. — SuooMafol Flihlajt- — Indian 
. _In,lUa Uaii. — CbanUNT u[ tba Uansln|. — DiUvt>ad Niflit. — 



Ohm* Eteimiaii. — Setnmj. — Anotlior Siiio. — Uonlt Rnii Hisnm.— 
Tklk witb rba todiis Womm. — Lifa in ih* r«twt. — LlfHtn U« Totrna. 
IHouiii^Piirtj. — TuuM. — Fming ttaw oa tha Ijika KigbC Scmn. — 



PbolagTapblo EiCablltlioanL — ladlaa rortrelu. — Eicanlon lo Ilio Qnat 
C»OBd«- — IM QaolofcloBl FonnKiion. — Bnlhinit I'uiil. — l**rM)tlo PImiU. 
— RaRin) by tli* lititni|i<. — Putilie llaJL — Stvarilj iii Rurniiling. ■nd IB 
FJftaU. — Ca]l«cliiig I'lirEio. — Scoaiw or Indinii Llfo. — KClo ClmRi[itTr« 
tt ^ht Cua doi £cfiicfindo«« — Prlion It UdiiiiOL — IVifon 1>i«clpZliie on 
tha Amiuoiit — Eilrnoli fnxQ Pmiiianliiil Bep-icti on tlili Subjesl.— 

PrltOQ U T«IW. — C»niinil CliM-MUr uf [lnitilnm InnIitulimK Eio- 

pvivr'* fiirlti'Iir. — Il!iiiniiiiiti<i<ii snil hblic FoitivitlM. — Kcliim of Col- 
Uoi3d( Putlai iSaiiiiukt on Iha But* Lura Muibm Tur Maulioi. S'S 



Lnve )di(niu>«. — On boanl Ihi Ibiouhj. — XuTipitioD of tli« Rlrar B^ 
inoa. — Ai)incl or tlis lUnk*. — AninI at Sltiiiltni. — Siluntlon vf Miiu- 
hOL — Tuplimnibiiraniii. — Chanclvr of Popolnllon. — AppoHriuica of Iho 
Villain of Mnulic*. — Batlvlan Inillun*. — GunraiiiL — l^oiinlon 10 Mu- 
cqia^Tnb*. — Muniluruca IndliLiia. — A>p(-Ft nf VlllHm. — Cliureh. — Dlt- 
MbatiMOf PnHiiU. — (i«i>crwli]r of tin Inilian*.— Ttiiiir tmJiirarwo*.— 
Vliit I0knotl«r Seliiciiient — Botum lo tl-iiilicn. — Arrivnl of Mundnm- 
en Id tfa« VUIbgb. — liowrlpilon of TniiaDiiig, ~Uollccllan. — Iloio.— 
tfidlKii 8ap«TiIitlout. — I'lliD CollnctlDii. ~- Wiitk In ilie Forul. — I^urt 
Uitulm. — Moiidunictu Imlina Anil lilt Wife — Tlipir Mittincri and Ap- 
paanuc*. — Imliiui Tnili(i<in. — Diilinetioiiiuf Cut*. . S01>Hl 



ChritCniH Gtp Hi JIhiiho*. — Carvooniat of lbs IikIihiix Cliurchoa OD tba 

AnuKHi*. — I«avD Uaaan* for Ibn Hio Nnerv. — CuriTim Binr Funnallao. 

— AipMI of On Bim. — lu Vigotation. — Scai]!/ I'«pul»tioo. — Villajca 
of Tana I'^BHa — Padre oflbe Villigc. — Pnlmi. — VlllnH'^ or I'eilioira. — 
ltiii«a Camj). — Miking Pnlm tbat«1i. — 6ickne« md Wnui iii I'fdreirt. 

— Bow in Iha FciraL — Tni|i<Gul Sliownr. — Gaotofij' of Pfdreim. — li)d[tD 
RtcniUa — CollMlloii of Palmn. — Kalraclt fnni Mr. AeKuii't Notaam 
VegoUtloa. — n«tuniU>llHniuia.— D»ornlioiiof Iho itm K'-jrni. — It* fii' 

^tnra Pimpcol*. — Huuiboldl'* AlillOpntioiii. — Wild Flow«o. — Diilrlba- 
tiOD of Fithn in Mio Aniatonian WuMn. — lloir far duo to JHirmliiin. — 
SydresrBphic &y>iani. — Aliomailoii bMwMii Iho Uiu aud Fall of ths 
Bontbaiu and X«-iliera 'I'libolariaa. , ItS-HO 



Fn«w«n TUIt to tb» GrMl Cucad* rt HnMfc — Ohaa{«bi bAqMoL — 
ARlnl Jt Vm» Bdhk — Botoni W Ih* Hoom of (Ix Fhhiinnan Mala. — 
Ezonnioa U lb* Lv' Haiisio. — (tuuillt^ of Gtax uid Wiitorlbirl. 

— Vieliarb>r*(iii. — t.«TS Villa Ball*. — ArrlToalUbydn — lu S^malioa 
uid 6m>i^. — SannrvfD. -- VkU to Hi* Church. — Anccdau of Uartliu. 

— A BowmnluitL — Mont* Al#gra> — PletBratquo Scantr}'. — Banhsiraa. 
— Esctnkin intn ih* Ooantry. — Ltan UoM* AWfr*. — AMcdau of Id- 
Amk. — Alintinm. — Stw OMiDglcal Fmoi. — Porto do Mm. — OoUoo. 
Boot. — OnnipL — T^ipnrt.- AfrttT it Pari. — Bl% to iM PMMadOb 

— Eicnnloa to Uanjo. — Sourti. — Jcanli UlnlaDi.o Gadosf of !!*• 
njoi. — B«rled Feratb — Vi^a. — IcanpA. — VajcBiitioa and Animal Ub. 

— OaekfET. — Ralnm lo Par*. — Fhnlociaphln( f IrniU. — NoM> on Iho 
TagrtUbs «f cho Amaioni. — Pn*akDO« sf IxpnMj. UI - IM 





abool Bo At Janeiro. — DMKapMillon of nndarljing Back. — DlTtniit 
A » f* et of Ghclol rtier.omeaa !• dlOWrMt CoDtlngnia. — f trutlly of tha 
Diltt — Gaolo^oaJ Obt«rr*tioiu nf Honra. ttartt and SI. Jolin. — Con*- 
ipniMUnnn «f Dapoiit* aloni iha Ctwi with iIium of Rio and tlioaa oT tb* 
TaB^ tt ft* AaaJena.— PrimlliTa Poniuilfiin otiba Valla;.— Ffnt hoowD 
Cbapur «r IDi ninory. — Cmaccoiu Kouil FTibH. — fonnor Kxtaol 
of tba Soadi>A»«flcaa CoaM. — Craaceoui F<aiIIi frain ibs Rio Cnnia. 
— 'OMifattna b«i«Ma Kortb and S««ih AnMriea — G«o)«gl«Bl Fonov 
Ugoa aloaR Iba Buka of tha Aaaaoin. — FcbiI Lravvi. — Clkj'i and 
SandtUnaa. — Elilb cf AloM^ria. — Uoola Al<|ra. — Siluatina and 
Soaoaty. — ScrTaoTKiH*.— CMDfHtrtMa wlikSwtwSoaiNrf. — BouUan 
«( btrd.— ADCiiat ThloluNH oT AmnconliD l>«pi]*lta. — ^fbnnca ba- 
twaan Drift at the Anaaona and Ibat nf llla.-'InraraDoaadniKD fn>iD tb« 
jntm/t CoDdiOaaof tWDapeaiu.— Imiiiviv* EstantoT Saiiihtona For- 
DHtoo.— KalBia and Orinlii of Diaia Dajisaita.— Othmi (a tba (••- 
PvM.— AbMooa «f Glacial Utrkt. — Glacial Krldanco af another Kbid. 
^.Cbangta io Iba Outtiea c( iho South-Amcrtcon Caul. — Soorl. — 
1^1^ Gtmde. — Vigla. — Baj el Bnguat. — Anticipation. . WI - «4I 



LtaTtoic Pari. — Farawaa 10 Iba AmaioD*. — Eaao of TnvalllDg oo tlM 
Anuoaa. — Boaiib Pataaga. — Arrtralat Otart.— Difficolir «f Lamdbit 

— Arpael at ttn Towo. — Kiio; Saason. — Oonaaquant Siakllnaaa Our 

Pnpoaa ■■ tUf^facM C«aHb— RaponoT I)r. FdlMaboBl Uomlnaa.— 
PnfafBttoaa lir Jaarxy Into the iMarior. — Ubnoaltlaa and Dalafi In 
ftttt^oO'. — On Ika Waj. — Nfihi at Anncho. — Bad Boada. — Car- 



uaba I*>lm.— AirlTal at Monfpiba. —Clod ReMptlHQ by Sanbor Frank- 
Hod* LLioa. — OacAOKr of tba Bnnloa. — EnulnK Onion and AmiutmeDla. 

— Paoataba. — Tiao** of aiiolMil OUelan. — Satn of AniUnlit. — Otlmb 
np tba Sena- — B»plU1![T of Seobor da Ci»U. — I'iRtuiMqa* Viawa. — 

Tba Settafi. — Drought aod ftalm Epldemlci, — K«iani to UoDcaba. — 

DaCainad bjr azHacirdinarir Baloa — BeUini lo C»>4. — Overflowed Roada. 

— DlSool^orfonlins. — ArriTalat Caari. — LI b«nljty of Uie Pnaidaat 

of iha ProTiooo toward Ibo Eipcditloa Ml> Ml 


muo DtsTiTDTiOMii or wa— oncAN mouktuiu. 

Vd;*^ IVori C*ar4. — Frailial* at PamainbDcn. — Arriral al Bio, — Colla*- 
Hsn*, — Voplalion abont Rio a« oompaml with that on th« Amaioin. — 
ULutleoriJIa Hcwptlal. — ChariUaa oonneoUd wlib It. — AlauKJi'il In 
Braill. — Iiuane AiTlnm. — MlUtarir Scbool — Tho UlnL — Academj of 

ftM AfU. — Berobm of a Kapu. — Ptimarr School bt Girli Nffcloctad 

BlnoatJoa of Woman. — Bllnil ^•j'lum. — Laotnrat. — Charaolarof a Br»- 
rflLui Aodianc*. — Orgui MuunUiim. — Wslk upthaSemu — TberaiopalU. 

— Villi To the St 1«dI> Fawiida. — Cllnjiita of TliDruopoili. — DaMCotof 

tba Sem. — GeolDg; of the Orgin MoiintHini. — 1 bo Lul Word. «M-1M 



UBfloD and Claricy. — Edocation. — Law. Modicat, and Sclenliflo Sahoob. 

— Hl|[b and Cbmnum Sshoali. — Pubtl« Llbmiy and Uuieum iu Kio da 
Janalra^ — Blitorical and GeoEnipbical Initlluta. — SooU] and Doiuaatlo 
Balatiooa. — Publlo Fuuctiiraariat. — AKrlouJIcin. — Zonaa of VaxVCatlon. 

— CoSsa. — Ootun. — Tiiriliur and oilier I'roducu of tba Aiiiaian*. — 
Caltla. — Taniton'al Subdlritiou of Ibo Gmi Vailay. — Emlsratloo. — 
FoaEfoan. — Pacagnajaa War. ... ... IM-IIT 


L Tha Rolf Stiaam HI 

n. Ki:r>ng-r.ihM tn 

dL Bowlotionf pBitad on beard tha Oob>Tad» ....•• Wl 

tV. Doin PadiD 6*Kiit<<ln Rullrnvl *3T 

V. Pamianasca of Cburactiirliiica ia dliTai^st Bnnaa Spaelaa . . . U> 
TL Skatch of Separata Jounwri nDdartalcaQ b; difltevnt Uanbaia of tba 

Ezpadltioo M* 


CoooKiBO fiua 

A tftiAm of AiUIo OHMDM !■ tb* 5«m d'K*mlli. It b«v> two or 
On* ktf* buaolui «f olira-Oa baRiat, haa|fiic UnmafiUalj balow tb* 
owwn aC )•>•«>. Tb« apper pan of Iha iMtD U oftaii ovattiova «tlk 
pUBMUii, aa ta tbe tpMhnas m n aiwiiil btta. 

Fran • pbMocmph bf G. LmtlacM. 

Fmi» 1 

.Hap or tsb Jourmkt om tbb Amazon 

Tliia n^ n* ooiiiiiilcd f ram all U* bsl anlharitlM ri[im^y lur Iblt VoU 
DiDa. It anoiDranla Um tut Inm (hi lime al ihe arrival it I^in. lla 
wijrafle ta Klo Jancira and ibcncr up iha tout lo rata i> lutBcivatl)' daar 
■ftboM Ik* aU <l a map, Hul ipan ba> ilierdora btvu givsa U ili« AnU' 
*M a«d k> M/uUuim. 


IkKi nrrwixKD bt Suob 

TbMB are a paal manj paiailcai, Ih* itMiiiodnohor wbt«b art alttdial 
W b>(ar tr«*t: ilita weodout tapiVMDb «n« of thoM «tnoic* " trav^JUan," 
•f tbB7 *f* «*Ilad bj iba oaDiaa, boloofinf (a th> btailj of tb* Tig-mM^ 
vbteb, bactnalof tbair grontb Mtoog tha oppar bnnchM af Maa, |ndH- 
»lij Jaiwnl 10 lb* (traaod, Ibtow o«al braaehai araand Iba Man llwf 
•Mack, and la tb* Md bill ii in ihsir «inbrw*. On ilia itcbt an Uaoaa, 
ftw wblob hMg ptmltie damn. 

Fram a phalafn[A bj- 0. htwagir. 

Hvam TtKW or thk Aixkt or Fauis 

fart af Iba BoCaaisal Oardan in Ki« d* Janelra. la Um BM><tnaDd a 
I M*«ad *)ih frail*. Tb* Ttimt itaiidtnK la fair* <o tb* ptat 
' an eomoottf oUled Palma Baal. Th*ir bobralcal sanM la Ot«o- 
4an nhwcaa. Tb* p«ak t4 Cweonda torim Uio barkcniuail. 
Fi^ a pbotAfiifh br Kman. Suhl it Wibiucbaaa- 


TuTA i>on TflK Allbt or Palms Ci 

Tb* ctytal* »* tba win* a* (n the pncsdlag woodcat, oolf M*a al rlfht 
aoflaa, M lifunl a via* down tli« all*/. 

From a photograph by Mwm. Subl A WabntehaS'*. 



BoTATooo Bat 

T1i« great wntbauHrn Ut in lh« h»rbor of Rio de Jttnelra. Tba hlghoit 
p«^ In Iba MBO* 1* the Coreavulo, >t tlj« fool o( wliioh ttnnil tb« [naam 
Aiylum aiul tba Military School. On lh( lelt ix* th« (Ixvia itiiil tlia 3bj[U^ 
I/wft oa lb* ri|[ht, Tijiicn. A bMoh tun( ■[) roand tha bay. 
From ft phollgnpli by Q. tantlagu. 

MiHA Nrgxkmh 

Fivn ■ pliolQ(npti bf Hwan. Stihl & WahawbkSa. 

UtMA NtaftBaa aho C&ili> ft4 

Frcm ■ phDiognpb by Maun. Sulil fc Wkhotclulla. 

Falleu Trunk oveuoRowx bt PAnAvmui. ... tl 
A CMDpartooo with Uw woodcut IWnK p. b« will tbaw bow paruito* pm^ 
big apoa living ina dllTar (rem IhoM *priii|[>iig from dtad tJiuka. 
Proiu ■ pbutnicntpb by 0. Laudogor. 

Fabekda ds Sakta Axka, ut Uixas Gsrak* . . . lU 
Tbv Ibt«I gmuuda in fnnt of tbt bniUtaci are u>eil fur dn-tog lb* Mflte. 
Kmrn ft pboto|np)i by SAohat Uiuhndo. 

EaruiANCA'a Cottack ITS 

From ft wMor-colortid painting by Ur. J. BurUiardt. 

TntAXDA XXV |}u(i!to>Rfl(>N AT Turrf. .... St4 
Frooi ft drawing by Air. J. DurkbardL 


Exiiurdlaary u iba bnul of lialr of tbii girl may aaam, II la la no mj 
MUgguatodi II iioodaUi Inehaa b«yoiid tha >tai>uliliin «*ab way. 
Fran ft ikelob by Ur. Wm. Junaa. 

Dctixo-aoou AT Utaxcast Ud 

Tha palm ou tba laft i> a Pa|iiinha I Gnlliatm* tpwioui) i (bs ]vgB-1aaT«d 
tnaa bask uf tlia buUiIIng ai« Buiauaa, ftnil tho falm aa Ihe rtgbt ■ 
Jirari (Aauwaryam Janirt). 

From a wft)aik«dar«d pfttaKng by Ur. J. BnrUuudL 

Maubu Kitkr MH 

Tha Fahn la tba forcgraand t* ft Muc^ja (Acrocomla lulotpntha) ) oiai 
ibo fenM itand Banana-troet, and In tba diatenoe on tba right ■ Tueoroft 
Pa2m (AatiaoaryiuD Tucnma). 

FNm ■ watar<olor«d paJotliig by Mr. J, Borkhanlb 

BllT»l»CI»KCC IXDIAK ; Oufe tjf 

^^L ftom % phiH<nri;fc by B*. 6«iBro, of Uumb. 

^ klmDnucv IxDiAX; ftnak lU 

■ ^ AIM frfua a pboMBrBpbb7]>r- <)»(•<«. cfMuMfc 

^Vam BacoAba .... . . . . nt 

TUt him, MUed SnoeMpai dlitf«tihu b; b«tulili, !■ nmsrksbla Ibr Ih* 
■mngMMal of lb Iwni. wlilch ■» pl>Md oppodM in auta other «m Wo 
•Idw of lb* mak, wd hi^*r miI hightr aMnaM^, to ibat, Man Asa 
DDi lidiv lix t*o IV* of !••*•• an •^ftllj Tldbto, aad lixn tta ijipwi 
•DM «f a wide Ikn i atn In profile, iba; look like a aanoir plnma. 
Fran a dnwioj bj Ur. J. BctkhmlL 


TUi ookaea] In* I* kuovD to betaobCi under ths oama of Eriodendrnm 
SUBMlina, BDd n»j be laea tTO7Wb0Fa la the bails of Ibo *-""— 
FfOm a pbotograpb pieeealaJ by Seiihor rhnnntii Buaoo. 

GARAroI, uHBg the Or^ui UcantMM iSS 

TUi peak It called Iba Ffacer by the EnRlbh nudonie of Klo. Tbe t>n- 
^^^flUau laaa H ID a bodla. 
^^^^^1 Frm a pbotognph by 0. LniilB((r. 

^BOroax MooxTAim 4H 

^ Tbe loeea booldat allsded Ub Iba teslelaodaaB Iba fcurtb peak hon Iba 

Pma a pbMoipBpb by O. LeotUktw- 






SnnuT *T Ska. — Grtr SmAH. — Gvu^irxxDi. — Ijwnnm pit» 
t,— FtMBT Lkcntna! "Ok ma Qcu-Stiicam xs t>k Gbiw Sthkiv." 
'^AQOMUim iRAKuaicD ooi ■oABii. — Sivosii L&cTriiK. — Kucoa Ska. 

— pEcmJAit Turt or WAt«s.— T>iui I.«icniiui.' Latiho ocr Wors or 
ExTRPmoa n Braxil : Dotriikitioii op Pibie* is Kkaiiuas Rimtsi m 
BaARoro on UniOM or SrEciUi Oou-ccitio or Eon*. — TnoncAL !!vii- 
■Kr.— CoincTn Lacnixc : Plas or GfuouicAL livKmoAnum vith sra- 
oiAt. BsriKMCi Tu Ci^«iAi. pHKxcutuiA ■■ ii<ivni AHiaicA.— Fltivo- 
FuH. — Fimi I^icntuE: Ui.aciai. i'nunoiiKSA. coimmo. — SsounD So- 

TIOAnOB* At A OuiM Ti> •OCIII CLAnrMCATKn. — SSVtJTTN Lkctthi. — 

HoOM4<im NfiHt*. — Tkaiik-Wixim. — lliitirrn I.nmsKi IvroarAacR or 
PBBCntioii in IxiCAi.iziso Srwniucct.-'SoUTirKiui Unou.'-' KiinD t-ic 
«vaa: PKoa-WATU Fuuta or Skahu — KAnKuSirimAT. ^Ftur Stciir 

or Sovm AvUICAfl SmXS. — OumA-— PSSHASBt'CO. — CATAMAtUiaS.- 

TaxTR Licmn; lIsniDD* o* Coujurtno. — KtxVEHna Ijwntui: Cla» 
HncATToi or fnHBtiAs itunrtBATm bt Evbhtoloot.— PNar«mAnMra 
roB Akkivai. — rwxLmi LctrmaB: fKACTKriL Lsbm» u Emutoumit 

— CUWUH l.««TUn : TlUIIB»VTATtO« Tiiri>Hr ; Iktku-kctvai. abv Po 

imcAi. IsDKTisiiiixcx. — BiaounKiin aro Si-mciiea. — !)i)Hin.AK Rra 
rATCn^ OS TMk SmirACR or Tits Ssa. 

.^trU 2d, 1865. — Our first Sundaj at sea. The weatlrar 
is delidoos, tlie ship as steady as anything oo the water 
can be, and even the mo»t furlorn uf our pftrty have little 
oxouiso for Ma-«ick])«M. We liavc tiad sorvico from Bishop 
Potter tliis monihig, aiid sirioe Uicn we have boon on deck 
r««diiig, walking, watching a singular cloud, which the 
captain says is a cloud of smtAo, in the direction of Po- 
lenbuig. Wo think it may N> th« smoko of a groat deci 



sire engagement gmng on while ve sail pet^crollf along. 
What it means, or how the battle ends, if battle it be, we 
shall not kuow for two mouths perhaps.* Mr. Agusaiz is 
busy to-da; in taking notes, at rcfnilar intcrrals, of tho 
temperature of the water, as we approacli tlie GuIT StreatD.; 
To-night we cat it at riglit angles, and he will remain 
deck to continue bis obscn'ations. 

AprU Zd. — The Professor eat up last night as ho io- 
Knded, and found his watch, wliich was shared bj one or 
(wo of his young assistants, vcr>' interesting. Wc crossed 
the Gulf Strcum opposite Cape H»tt«ras, al a laUtude wher« 
it is comparatively narrow, some sixty miles only in breadth. 
Entering it at about six o'clock, wo parsed out of it a 
little after midnight. The western Imundary of tlie warni— 
waters stretching along the coast had u temperature o(^ 
about 67". Immediately after entering it. the temperature 
began to rine gradually, the maximum being about 74*, 
falling occasionally, however, when wo passed through a 
cold streak, to 68*. These cold streaks in the Gulf Stream, 
which reach to a considerable depth, the warm and cold 
waters descending togetlier in immediate contact for at 
least a hundred fathoms, are attributed by Dr. Boche to 
the Ihet that the Gulf Stream is not stationary. It sways 
as a whole sometimes a little toward Uie shore, sometimes 
a little away from it, and, in consequence of tliiv, the 
colder wator from the coast creeps in, forming these verti- 
cal layers in its midst. The eastern boundai7 i« warmer 

• Ob il* niti of Miiy. notrly « momh ultar our uitval (■ Bio. tlia doml 
woj iiiMiprWQd 10 DX. Itwu, ladMd. chnrgiHliriir itio iiwuei ortlfc Md dvnt'i. 
£m it »u on thu da; Mid tlio folloving thitt thf fin*! aiMittu oa Pcioirbiirg 
wetr ni«do, «nd ih* dood which rwirwl mn ollierwU« lUunlwiti '■ky, M wc wo™ 
pMtlne tioag (bs thora* at Vir|;inln. •ciw. no doubt. tbB mxa of tmok» guii 
tnd tliiTf ih> oppotin^; linn of llic two ariaie*. 



Iban the western one, for tlte latter is cliillcd by tli« Arctio 
eorrents, which form a band of cold water all along tho 
Atlantic shore. Their influence io felt nearly to tlie lati- 
tude of Florida. On coining out of the Oulf Stream Uio 
temperature of the water was SS", and im it continued for 
so hour longer, after which Ur. .Agassis ceased bis obsor 
ratioDs. To-day some of Ujc gulf-woed was galliered by a 
sailor, and we found it crowded wiUi life. Uydroids, in 
numbers, had their home upon it; tlio delicate branching 
plumtilaria and a pretty campanularia, very like some of 
our New England species ; beside these, bryoioa, tiny com- 
pound mollusks, crusted it« etoro, and barnacles were ubun- 
dant upon it Those are all the wonders tliut the deep hu 
yielded as to^ay, though the pretty Portuguese mon-of-war 
go 6o«Ung by tiic vessel, out of reach thus far. Such are 
the events of our lifu : we out and drink and sleep, read, 
study Portugiiwe, and write up our journals. 

April ith. — It luis occurred to Mr. Agasnz, as a means 

of preparing the young men who oocompoiiy him for the 

work before them, to give a course of lectures on sliip- 

board. Some preparation of tlic kind is the more noceKftry, 

nuc much of the work muxt 1)6 done indcfMndently of 

lim, as it will bo impossible for so large a party to travel 

r together; and the instniclions needed will be more ea-sily 
Bjiten in a daily lecture to all, tlian in separate oonren^- 
Hons with each one singly. The idea finds ftenoral fat-or. 
Ihe targe saloon makes an excellent lecture-room ; a couple 
of leares fiom the dining-teble with a black oil-clotli 
Btretehed across them serre as a blackboard. The audi- 
ence consists, not only of our own company, but includes 
the few ladies who are on board, Mr. Bradbury, the captain 
of oar steamer. Bishop Potter, some of (he ship's cfficeca, 




asd a fow additioDal passeiij^re, all of wtiotn socm Ui tUU 
the lecture a plciasuit brouk in the monotony of a sva voy- 
age. To-day the subject was naturally suggustcd by th« wa- 
veeds of tbo Gulf Stream, h> recently caught and so crowded 
with life, — "A lecture on the Gulf Stream in the QuIF 
Stream," as ono of tho listeners GUggc'sb>. It was opened, 
however, by a few wurds on the oxeoptional character of the 
poeiljon of ihis bciuntific cummissiou on board tho Colorado. 
. " Fifty years ago, when naturalists carried their inrestigk- 
tions to dislUDt lands, eilhor frovernment was obliged to pro- 
vide an ospcn»ive outfit for them, or, if tlicy had no such 
patronnge, i^cnuty opportunities grudgingly given might be 
granted ihcm on ordinary conveyances. Even if such ac- 
commodation were allowed them, their presence was looked 
upon as a nuisance : no general interest was felt in their 
objects ; it was much if they were permitted, ou board some 
vessel,to have their bucket of specimens in a corner, which 
any railor might kick over, unreproved, if it chanced to stand 
in his way. This ship, and tho spirit prevailing in her com- 
maud, opens to me a vistu such as I never dreamed of till 1 
•toad upon lier deck. Here, in place of tho meagre chances 
I remembur in old times, tho faciliticii conld tiardly be greaur 
if the ship had been built aa a scientilic laboratory. If any 
such occasion has ever been known before, if any naturalist 
lias ever been treated with such consideration, and found 
sudi intelligent appreciation of his highest aims, on board 
a merchant-ship fitted up for purposes of trado, I am not 
aware of it. I hope the first trip of tho Colorado will be re- 
memborod in the aiuials of science. I, at least, shall know 
whom to thank for an opportunity so unique. This voyage, 
•ud the circumstancos connected with it, are, to mo, the 
ngns of a good time comiug ; when men of different iul«r 


tots «ill help eacli other; wlioa natunluUs will bo mora 
liberal aiid sailors mora cultivated, and natural scioucc and 
navigation vill work hand in hand. * And now for nt; 
!«cture, — vaf Br&t lecture oa ship-board." 

The lecttiro was given, of course, spocimeu iii liaiid, the 
Tarioos iuhabitaiils of the branch of soa-veed giving their 
evidence in succ«3sion of their own Mructuro and way of 
life. To titesc living illustrations were added drawings OD 
the blackboard to show the traiisfornialions of tlio aiiinmU, 
tlieir ombr/olugical history, iie.' Since tlie lecture, Captain 
Bradbury luw fitted up a large tank as an aqiiariuni, where 
tuif tpecimcus taken during the voyage may lie preserred 
and examined. Mr. Aga»^i£ is perfoclly liappy, enjoying 
every hour of the voyage, as well ho may, surrounded as 
be is witb audi cuiiKidurate kindness. 

AprU 6th. — -Tliough 1 took notes, as usual, of the lecture 
yesterday, I had not energy enough to enter them in my 
journal. The subject was tlio Gulf Stream, — the stream 
it«eir this time, not tlio animaU it carries along with it. 
Mr. Agacoz's late observations, though deeply interesting to 
himself, inasmuch as personal confirmation of facts already 
known is always satisfactory, have nothing novel now-a- 
days ; yet the hbtory of the facts connected with the dis- 
covery of the Gulf Stream, and their gradual development, 
is always attractive, and especially so to Americans, on ao* 
co( ut of its direct connection with scieniilic inrestigalions 

* Th« qwcm of Ufdroiili imwi Damaroiu upon Ibc ffnlC-wcod haiiB not jci 
biwn ilMcnbcit, wkd XMid fans m nilanhlo uUltinii ro tlic KniunU Iluior; o( 
iba Acttltphi. For sa *i?«nuni nt itio unlmitli of iliii clau inliiiLltliigi ilie Atl*n- 
^ eoMH of Nonb Amtiira. anil H|Kriiili( iho Nnw KhkIwiiI iliore*, I ia*y nCit 
ID Iho thlnl lotamo of m; Coniributioin M tb* NMaral Watarj of ihs tJni.i:il 
Suui, kfii] to lb« BMoiut nnmlKT of tlw Dliutnucd Cslalojui? of tti« Mskwd 
«f CompifatiTe Zaahp ar C«inbrii|ge. >— L. A. 


carrii'd ou uudcr our government. Hr. AgasEit gave a slight 
sketcli of this in opening his lecture. " It was Fraiiklia 
who first EjEtcmatically observed these facts, though thej 
liiul been uoticed long before b_v navigators. He recordec 
tlic temperature of tlie water as he left tlio American con- 
tineut for Europe, and found that it continued cold for 
a certain distance, tlien rose suddenly, and after a girou 
time sank again to a lower temperature, tliougli not so low 
as before. With the comprehensive grasp of mind oharoo* 
leristic of all his scientific resulLs, he went at once beyond 
bis facts. Ue inferred that the warm current, keeping its 
waj so steadily through the bi-oad Atlantic, and carrying 
trofHcal productions to the northern shores of Europe, mast 
take its rise in tropical regions, must be heated by • trofHCal 
sun.* This was his inference: to work it out, to ascertain 
tli« origin aud course of llic Gulf Strcum, has been, in a 
great degree, the task of the United States Coast Survey, 
under the direction of his descendant, Pr. Bache/'f 

* "Thi« ilieiim." lie wrilM, "i» prolMbl]> p;»n«ni(ril hyihn it™«t *frvn»- 
^on of tratii on <)iv i-ii'li^in ooiuc of Amcricn, bnlurrun ihii tropic*, b/ (b« 
■Inde.n'ind* wiiidi coniintiilr liiow there " Thn» tiuwa, tl>ucii;li vniiaaly 
■hlntod at lif iilil Spunith navijiiiioni, m-ro Hint ditrincily h-i rorih bj t'rtnk- 
lin, anil, m i* Miticd In a recent printed rcoort of the CoH*t Stimjr E>pl»- 
niiuiiB, " iliuj rvcuirc conlirinaiion fnitn cfcry diioovci')' which the kit'inc* of 
•ei«nii(lc nacarch hnngt to aid in the •oluiion of die grcni pi-otilnn of occuiio 

t N« one uin read ilio accaani of iho oxptonttiona trndcimkcn bj the 
Coaii Survey in the Gulf Strrnia, nnil continivd darin;; a nmobi't of •uci^inra 
jaanij *nd iha innnietiona retvirnl by tht ofBi'cn tl'u^ vmploveii from iha 
Snparinloiulont. Dr. A. D. Bnche, without freling how comprfrhi'ii.iif, keen, 
and pri»»v<'fi'i;r wm tho IntnllM-i wldeh ha> long prraidcil orer ihit di-piirimnui 
of our pohlic work*. Thn rvjiuil i> a very thorough mitvi-y of the ■ir'^am. «■ 
peeinlly aluo)* iho miui of our 'I'yii conilneni. witli lenioni e'^'^S '^^ lompcr- 
Mnra M a givtt depth, Ihn relHlioii* of tho cold nnil w.irm iiienka. (he (brm af 
iIm o«aD boiiont, a> well aa vnriouB other d«iB[l) r«*p<»-l'ii|t iha Jlraetbn lad 


We »ro Hoir fairiy in the tropics. "Ttie trades" blow 
beavily, oiid ycsteniij was a drevy day for tliooe iiuiised to 
the oeean; tlie beautiful blue water, of a peculiar metallic 
lint, u reinarkablu in color, it seemed to me. as the water 
of tlio liake of Genera, did iiot console us for ilio hea,vj 
moral and plij-nical defffessiou of s«a-stck mortals. To-day 
ibe world looks brigbtar; there is a good deal of motion, 
but we are more acctit^tomed to it. 'Fliis moniing the lec- 
ture had, for the drst time, a direct bearing u|k>u the work 
of Uie expedition. The subject was, ** Uow to obsenref 
and what are the objects of scientific explorations in mod- 
ern times." 

" My GomponiDiis and myself have come togetlier so sud- 
denly and so unexpectedly ou our present errand, that we 
have had little time to organize our work. The layijig out 
of a general scheme of opcralious is, therefore, tlie first and 
one of the most important points to bo discussed betwocii 
us. The time for great discoveries is passed. Mo student 
of nature goi» out now expecting to Gnd a new world, or 
looks in tlie heaTcns for any new theory of the solar system. 
Tim work of tlie nalumlist, in our day, is to explore worlds 
the existence of which is already knowu ; to iuvcsUgate, 
Dot to discover. Tlie rin>t expiorcn, in this modern sense, 
were Humtwldt in the physical world, Ouvier in natural 
liistory, Laroisier in chemistry, La Place in astronomy. 
They have boon the pioneers in the kind of scicntiGc work 
cIianicteri.ttto of our century. Wo who have chosen Brazil 
a» our field must seek to make ourselves familiar with its 
physical features, its mountains and its rivers, its animals 
and plants. There is a cliange, however, to bo introduced 

Ihco of I'm carfMi, the donnl} nnd c«lar of tho iraicr, and i)i« luilmal and 
niptttlila |ii«duciieMi MDUliMd to li. (Soe ApgicndU No. l.) — L.A. 


A jommrr ik bbaz[l. 

in our mode of work, as compared with that of former 
invesrigatora. Wlioii less w&s known of animalii and planU 
the discovery of new specter was the gr$at object. This 
has oeeii carried too far, and is now almost the lowest kind 
of scientific work. The discoverj of a new species as such 
does not change & feature in the science of natural histoiy, 
any more than tlie discovery of a new asteroid changes 
tim character of the prolilems to be investigated by astrooo- 
mct?. It is merely adding to the enumeration of objects. 
We should look rather for tlie fundamental relations among 
animals ; the iiumbi^r of species we may find is of impor- 
tance only so far as they explain tlie distribution and lim- 
itation of diflerent geaeia and families, tlieir relations to 
each other and to the physical conditions under which they 
live. Out of sucli investigations tliero looms up a deeper 
question for scientific men, the solution of which is to be 
llie most imiHtrtant result of their work in coming genera- 
dons. Hie origin of life is the great question of the day. 
How did the organic world come to be an it is? It must 
be our nim to throw some light on tJiis subject by our pres- 
ent journey. How did Brazil come to be inhabited by the 
animttlis and plants now living there ? Who were its iuhab- 
itunts in past limtis ? What reason is thera to beUeve that 
Initio prcKOUt condition of things in tlii» country is in any 
enee derived from the pa»t ? The first step in this investi- 
gation must bo to ascertain tlio geographical disli'ibution 
of tlic present utiitnals and plants. Suppose wu first ex- 
nmine the Hio San Francisco. The basin of lliis rivor is 
entirely isolated. Aro its inhabitants, like its waters, com-' 
plotely distinct from those of other basins ? Are its species 
peculiar to itself, and not repeated in any other river of 
the continent! Extraordinary as tikis result would seem. 


uc^'crtliolcsa oxpoct lo find tt so. Tbo next water-botiin 
we sltal) Imvc to oxaroine will be tliat of tbo AmaKonii, 
which connects tlirougli llio Rio NoRro with the Orinoco. 
It liu been frequently rcpoatt-^l tliat tbo same species of 
Rsli exist ill tlic waters of tlie Sou Francixco and in those 
of Guiftua and of tbe Atoazons. At all ovcnts, our worlu 
on fislics cousuntly indiealo Brazil and Guiana as tho 
oomniDn home of many species ; but tliis obsorration jaa 
Dover boon made with sufficient aceurucy lo merit confi- 
dence. Fil^y years ago the exact toculity front which 
any animal came t^ccmcd an unimportant fact in ite sci- 
entific history. Tor tlie 1>caring of this question on that 
of origin was not llicn perceived. To say tliat any speci- 
men caine from .S^nlli Anicrica was quite enough ; to 
specify that it came from Brnsil, fi-om tbo Amnsomi, tlio 
San Frniiciaco, or tlio Im I'lata, s«emed a marvellon» accu- 
racy in tho observers. In llio museum at Pari;', for instance, 
there are many specimens entered as coming from New 
Vork or from Par& ; but all that is absolutely known about 
tlieni is tliat tliey were sliipjxMl from those sea-ports. NolKxly 
knows exactly wlicre tliey were ci^lccted. Ho tltere an 
specimens entered as coming; from tbo Rio Sau Francisco, 
but it is by no means sure that tlicy came cxclusiroly from 
that watcr-bosm. All tins kind of investigation is far too 
loose for our present object. Our work must bo done witli 
much more precision ; it must tell somethtnf; positive of 
tbe geograptttcal distribution of unimaU in Brazil. There- 
fore, my young friends who como witli me on tins expcdi- 
ition, let us be careful tliut orery specimen has a label, 
[recording locality and date, so secured that it shall reach 
ICumbridge sardy. It would he still better to attach two 
t labeU to each specimen, so Uiat, if any misclianot liappeni 


to oite, our lecord muy uot bu lost. We must try not to 
mix the GsliQS of diSbront rivvrs, erco though tlicjr flow 
into bach other, but to keep our collections pcrroctlj* di»- 
tinot. You will easily see tlie vast importunco of thua 
ascertaining the limitation of spucios, and the V.aring of 
the result on the great quoEtioii of origin. 

" Somethini; is ulrcudy known. It is uticcrtatucd that 
the South American rivers possess some fishes peculiar to 
tbem. Were these lislies tlien created in these sepanito 
watei^sfEtems as tliej now exist, or have tlioy hocu trans- 
ferred tliitJier from some other watcr-bcd ? If uot burn 
there, how did tiicjr come there? Is there, or has Uiera 
ever been, any posi^ible connection between tltesc water-sys- 
tems ? Are tlu^ir choructcrivtlc species repeated elsewhere ? 
Thus we narrow the boundaries of llio investigation, and 
bring it, by successive approaches, nearer the ultimate 
question. But the first inquiry is, Huw far are species 
distiuct all over the world, and wiiut are their limits ? Till 
this is ascortMiicd, all theories about their origin, their 
derirstiou from one auotlicr, their successive transforma- 
tion, their migration fmin given centres, and «o o«, ars 
mere beaung about the bu»h. 1 allude especially to th« 
fresh-water fisbcs, in connection with this investigation, 
on account of the precision of their boundaries. Looking 
at the matter tlieoreticolly, without a positive investigation, 
I do not expect to lind a sungloi>{Hreiesrif thn Lnwnr ;Vina/.one 
al>ove Tabatinga.* I base tliis supposition upon my own ob- 

■ Tbu ontidpDtioa «m moi* tbao coniinncd b<r the iwdU af iha joanie;. Il 
it lioo tliM Hr. Agiiuli did nm i^ bcjnnd ihc Pcmvliiii frontlur, «nd (herefbN 
tsuld not Tcctlj Ilia jicuphfcj In ihitl nrclon. But lie fonnil Um lomllDilinn al 
iporiM ill ih« AnitiMia ciKUinicrilicd witliin iiiurti norrDim- limiu ilinn lin «» 
pMMtl, tlio whulu Iciij^b of ihu CTVut alruatu, at wotl u ilB tributlrku, l«>ng 
braku up iuto namoraas durinct fauna, TtKru no )w no 4oubl thai nhat it 



^V seiTiiUotii respecting the dbtritniliou of species Id tlic Euro- 
pean rivers. I haro found that, wltile lome species occur 
eimulUncously [n the mtiaj upper wnter-oourHes wbJcli com* 
bine to Tonu tlie Rliitie, tlie Rlkorie, uid tlic Oaiuibo, most 
.of Ihem ore not found iu tbe lower course of tbcse rivers; 
tliot, agnin, ccrtuiu species are found in tiro of these vatci^ 
basins and do not occur in tlie third, or inhabit only oiid 
and ore not to be met in tlie two others. Ttie brook trout, 
I forloKtancc (^Salmo iVw), is coimnoii to the upper ooumi 
^B niid the higher tributaries of all the throe rirer-systeuis, 
but does not iishahit the tuaiu bed of their lower courM». 
So it is, alw, and in a moi-e striking degree, witli tlie Salin* 
ling (^Saimo Sah'diHtis'). The Huclion (^Salmo J/ueho) is 
oulj found in the Danube. But the dislribution of th« 
perch faiuilf in these rivers U, perlmiis, the most remark- 
able. The /ingel (^Atpro Zin^d) and the SchrstEor (^Atxri' 
na SchraUtr") are oul/ found in the Danube ; while Acaina 
etntua is found in the Danube as well as in the Rliino, 
but not iu llie Rhone ; and Aspro atper iu the Daiaibe as 
well as tu the Rtiono, but not in tlm Ithino. The Sander 
(^Lttdoptrea Sandra^ is found in the Danube and the other 
lai^e rivers of Kastcrn Europe, but occurs neither in the 
Rhine nor iu the Rlione. Tlie conuuon perch (^Perea fiw- 
viatUW), on the contrary, is fouud both in tlio Rhine and 
Rhone, but not iu the Danube, which, however, iioiii'is1ic9 
auotlior species of true Perca, already dcscribod by Schaeffer 
as Perca vulgari*. Again, the pickerel {^E*ox Lucim') is 
common to all tlieee rivers, ospocially in tlicir lower course, 
a&d 10 is also the cask (^Lota vulgwria). The special dis- 

tnigldracarl; three ifaodMndiuiUsof iboonnoU traeotso Tor tho hoa'l-water* 
oflhaAomoM; lniI««J, oiliar invatignlon hare uIicnJ]' ducribcd m>id« *p» 
caM&on )u b%her iribiiuriM diOirrmg cntlrelj from ibOM col]«cl«4 opoa Iliii 



tribution of ihe carp Tainily WDtild a0brd man; oUior 
striking fXttinplcs, but they are too uumorous aud too little 
known to bo used as ait illustralion liore. 

" T)iif is among tbe most remarkable iustances or what 
1 would call the arbjlrarj' cliaracler of gcograpbical dis- 
tributioii. Siicli facts cannot be explained by any tbeorjr 
of accidental dinperiiioii, for the uppnr ntountahi rivuloti, 
in which these great rivers take tlicir rise, liave no con 
noetioti with each other ; nor can any local circtumtaiioo 
explain the presence of some species in all (he thrCfi basins, 
while others ap[iear only in one, or perhaps in two, and aro 
absent n'om tho third, or the fact that certain species 
iuhubiting tlie head-waters of tlicisc sti-cams arc never found 
iu tlieir lower course when the descent would seem bo 
natural and so easy. In the absence of any )io«ilivc ex- 
planation, we are left to assume that tlic distribution of ani* 
mal lifii lias primary laws as delinltc and precise as tlioso 
wliich govern anything else in the system of tlie univerae. 

," It is for tho sake of investigations of this kind tliat 
1 wish our |»arty to divide, in order that we may cover as 
wide a ground as possible, and compare a greater number 
of Ihe water-basins of Itrazil. I wish tho same to be done, 
as far as may bo, for utl tlio classes of Yertobrates, as 
well OS for Molhiiiks, Articulates, and Radiates. As we 
haro no special botanist in the party, wo must be content 
to make a metliudical collection of the most charactcrialic 
families of trees, such as the palms and tree ferns. A col- 
lection of the stums of these tree? would be especially 
important as a guide to tho idontiiioatiou of fossil woods. 
Much more is known of tlio gcugruphical distribution of 
plants tban of animals, however, and tliore is, therefore, 
less to be douo that i» new in that direction. 




EOur next u!ui. niid villi tlio same object, namely, lU 
ing upon Ui« qu(Haiuii of origin, will be Uie study of (ho 
young, tlio coilectiug of eggs and embryos. This is the 
luorc im|>ortaiit, since iniiseums generally fUov only ndult 
S[»evimtu>. As fur u 1 know, the Zo^^ojncal Mi)>«uiii «t 
Cambridge it the only one containing large collections of 
enibryological BpocimenR from all the classes of the oiii- 
null kingdom. One M|ftiiticaiit fact, kowerer, is alrx^dy 
I known. In (heir enrlicHt Ktages of growtli all animals of 
^Btlie same class are mucli more ahko than in their adult 
' condition, and soraotimcts so noarly aliko as hardly to bo 
diMingiiished. Iiide<!d, there is an early )>eriod when the 
resembl3nc«!fl greatly outweigh the dilforcncGS. IIow far 
the representatives of different classes roEemble one another 
remains to be a.scertained witli precision. There are two 
possible interpretations of these facto. One is that animals 
I so nearly identical in the beginning must have be«n origi- 
^■nally derived from one germ, and aro but modifications or 
I tnnsmutations, tutder various physical conditions, of this 
primitive unit. The other interpretation, founded on the 
suno facts, is, that since, notwi(h»tauding this material i<]on- 
tily in tlic beginning, no gorm orur grows to bo difleront 
from ib parent, or diver^^ from llic pattern imposed upon 

Pit at its birtli, therefore liomo other cause besides a material 
one must coutrot its development ; and if this be «o, we liuvo 
to seek an explanation of the dilTurences between animals 
outside of phy.iical inflnences. Thvis far both llieso views 
rest chiefly upon personal convictions and opinions. The 
tmo solution of tlie problem must bo sought in the study 
of tho development of tlio animals theraselves, and embry- 
ology is still in its uifancy ; for, though a very complete 
ly of the embryology of a few animals has been made, 



jot tlieso iiiTestigations include so small a number of repro> 
ectiUitivcs from tlie difTeroiit classes of Uie animal kingdom 
tlint llicy do not yet give a basis for broad goueralJzalions. 
Very little i-s known of tb« earlier stages in tbe formation 
of liosts of iiiRCCts wiioso later metamorptioses, including,] 
tbc cliaogo of the already advanced larva, first to tlie con- 
dition of a clirysalis and tlien to that of a perfect insect, 
hare been carefully traced. It remains to be ascertained 
to what extent tbe caterpillars of different kinds of butter* 
fiies, for instance, resemble one another during the time of 
tlieir formatiou in the egg. An immense field of ob«em* 
tion is open in this order nloue. 

" I have, myself, examined over one hundred speciot 
of bird embryos, now put np tn the museum of Cambridgo, 
and found that, at a certain age, they all have bilU, wings, 
tegs, feet, Ac, &c. exactly alike. The young robin and 
tlie young crow arc web-footed, as well as the duck. It is 
only later that the fingora of tJie foot beoomo distinct. 
How very interesting it will be tn continue this inviMstig^ 
tion among tlie tropical birds ! — to see whether, for instance, 
the toucan, with its gigantic bill, has, at a certmn age, a 
bill like that of all other birds ; whether the spoonbill ibis 
has, at the same age, nothing characteristic in tho ehapo 
of its bill. No living naturalist could now lell yuu unv 
word about all tliis; neither could he give yoit any infor- 
m&tiOD about corresponding facts in the growth of the 
fishes, reptiles, or quadrupeds of Brazil, nut one of tlie 
young of these animals having ever been comparod with 
the adult. In these lectures I only aim at showing you 
what an extensive and interesting Gold of inTcstigation 
opens before us; if wo succeed in cultivating even & few 
comers of it we shall be fortunate." 



111 the evening, wliicb is always llie most oujoyable pbrt 
*)( our da;, we eat on tlie guards and watched tlie first tropi- 
cs! sunset we had yet se«i. Tbe sun wout down iu purple 
and gold, and, after its departure, sent back a glow tliat 
crimsoned the clouds almost to the leutth, dyiug off to 
paler rose tints ou tbe edges, while h«avjr masses of gray 
vapor, just beginning to be sUrered by the moon, ewcjil 
up from the soutli. 

April Itk. — To-day the lecture was upon the phy lical 
r«atares of South America, somctliuig with refereuce to 
the geological and geographical work in which Mr. Agassis 
tiopes to have ofGciout aid from his younger assistants. 
So much of the lecture consisted of explauutioiu given 
^kiipon ((oological maps that it is difficult to record iL Ite 
]in:ici|iai object, however, was to show in what direction 
they should work in order to giro greater preci^ou to tlie 
general information already secured respecUng the forma- 
tion of the continent. " The basin of the Amazons, for 
I instance, is a level plain. Thu whole uf it is covered 
irith loose materials. Wo must watvli carefully tho char 
Bcter of these loose mutoriaU, and try to track llicui to 
^eir origin. As tbero are very cluiract«ri»tic rocks in 
variouB parts of this piaiu, wo shall have a clew to thu 
nature of at least some portion of these malcrinU. lly 
own previous studios havo given mu a special interest in 
certain questions connected with ihcso facts. What power 
has ground up tliG«d loose matortals ? Are tliey llio result 
disintegration of the rock by oi'diuary atmosplivriu 
or are tliey caused by tlm action of water, or by 
of glaciers ? Was tlicro over a time when Iar(»c masecs 
of ice doMiendcd far lower than tho present snow line of 
Ibe Andes, and, moving over the low lands, ground those 



matoriiils to powder ? Wo know tliat sucli an ugciic/ 
bocu at work ou Uic iiortHeni half of tliU lierai»pli«re. Wo 
liavo now to look for its truces on tlic «oui]icni lialT, where 
110 such iurcstigatioitH htvc over beeii uindo williiii its warm 
lutitiiiles ; lhou(;b to Dsrwiii scioDCQ Ls alroudj- iudcbted for 
much Tuluitblo iiiformntioii concerning tlio glaciul plicnouciia 
of iho tunipcrato aiid coldvr portions of ihi! South Amcricaii 
continent. Wc tihmild examine the loose materials jii every 
river wo Eisccnd, und soc what relation they bear to tito dry 
land above. The color of tlie wal«r m coan«ctiou with tlie 
)mturo of tho bunks will tell iis eomcthiug. The wators of 
the Rio Branco, for iiiKtance, are xaid to l>o milky white ; 
those of the Rio Nogro, black. In the latter case Iho color 
is probably owing to the decomposition of vegetation. I 
would advise each one of our parties to pass a large amount 
of water from any river or stream along which tliey travel 
tlirough a litter, aiid to examine the deposit microecopicallj-. 
They will thus ascertain tlie character of the detritus, 
whether from sand, or lime, or granite, or mere river oint) 
formed by tho decomposition of organic matter. Kven the 
emoller streams and rivulets will have their peculiar char* 
acter. Tho KraziKaji table-hind rises to a broad ridgs 
running from went to cast, and determining the direction 
of the rivers. U is usually represented m a mountain 
range, but is in fact nothing but a hij^b flat ridge servinj; as 
a water-shed, and cut transversely by deep tissnres in which 
the rivers flow. TIicho fissures are broad in tliuir lower 
parts, but litlie is known of their upper rouge; and whoever 
will examine their banks carefully will do ou important 
work for »cie(ico. Indeed, very little is kriowu accurately 
of the geology of Brazil. Ou the geological maps almosl 
Uie whole country is rcprcscntod as coiisistuig of granite 


thU be correct, it is very inconsistcut witli what wo kaow 
the geologic*] structure of other conliuouU), wltciu tho 
straUlied rocks are in much lai^r proportiotie." 

U|nii this roUowi>d some account of the difierent hinds of 
ralley rormatioii utid of terraces. " Do tlic old terraces 
&l:ove tlie rivers of South America correspond to tho river 
terraces ou aiij- or our rivcre, — tliose of tiio Connecticut, 
Toi instance, — showing tlint tlieir waters had fornterly a 
much greater depth and covered a much wider bottom ? 
Tlicrc mii.»t of conrHc liare been a cause for this groat 
ftccumiilution of vater tn •iiciont [wnuds. I account t(a It 
in ihe uortlicrn half of the hcinisphei-c hy the melting of 
vast masses of ice in tho glacial pi-riod, causing immense 
freshets. There is no irustworthjr account of tlio riror 
terraces in Bnuil. B«tc», however, describes flat-topped 
hills between 8nntarem and PaKi iu tho narrow part of the 
valley, near Alinuynm, rising 800 ftwi above the present 
level of the Amuzons. If this part of the valley were 
flooded in old times, banks might have boon formed of which 
l))e% hills arc a remnant. But because such a theory 
might account for the facts it docs not follow that ttie 
tlicory is true. Our work must be to study the facts, tu 
sec, among other things, of u-hnt these liilU arc built, 

Iwhutlicr of rock or of loose njatcrials. No one lias told 
hs anything as yet of their geological constitution." • 
I To4ay wo hav© seen numbers of flying-fi?Ii from li,e 
Icck and were astuni^h«■d ni Iho grace and bonuiy of their 
motion, which we Imd supposed to be rather a leap than 
actual flight. And flight indeed it is not, tlieir pectoral 

Kx. Asa»H a^nrnnl riijtal lh«se liilli binucIC nnd nn occouni of tlu^li 
sa4 probable ori^ wiU b« found tn iho chapter on the pbyticd 
ttmy «f the AmuoB*. 



fills (Kting as sails ntlier tliau wings, aiid carryUig Uiom 
along ou Uio wiud. Tliejr skim over the water in this way 
to a great dii^tanco. Captain Bi-adbur^ told us he liad 
followed oiiQ with his glass and loat sight of it at a oonsidcr- 
nlile distance, without seeing it dip into tlie water again. 
Mr. Agas^z has great delight in watching tliem.' Uaring 
never before sailed in tropical seas, he enjoys every day some 
new pleasure. 

April 9fk. — Yesterday Mr. Agaesiz kcturcd upon the 
UaccH of glaciers as Ihcy cxivt in the iiorthem hemisphere, 
and the signs of the Kamc kind to be songht for in Brazil. 
After a sketch of what lias been done in glacial investigaliou in 
Europe and tlic United Slates, showing the great extension of 
jco over those regions in ancient times, ho continued as fol- 
lows : " When the polar half of both bemisphoi-cs was covered 
by such an ice shroud, tlio climate of the whole earth must 
have boen different from what it is now. The limits of thu 
ancient glaciers give ua some estimate of this diiTercnco, 
though of course only an upproxinmte one. A degree of 
teiuperaUiro in the annual average of any given locality 
oorroRponds to a degree of latitude ; that is, a degree of 
temperature is lost for every degree of latitude as we travel 
northward, or gained for every degree of latitude as we travel 
southward. In our times, tlic line at which the avemgt 
nniinal temperature is •12°, tliat is, at whicli glaciers may be 
funned, is in latitude 60* or thereabouts, ilie latitude of 
(Greenland ; while the height at whicli they may originate in 
latitude 46° i.t about )>,000 feet. If it uppirar that the uncicut 
suuthcni limit of glaciers is in latitude 36*, wo must admit 
that in liioM days the present climate of Greenland 
exteudcd to that line. Such a cliungo of climate witli 

* Sm AppcTiilli N'o. U 


refereuce to lutitudo must liaro Iwcd nUciidtMl by a oorre- 
Bpoodiug cbaogfl ot cUmAt« witli rcrercoco lo altitudo. 
Tliree dcgrccit of tempenlure corro^poad to about oiio 
thousaud feot of altitude. If, ihcroforo, it is found -thM 
Uw ancicDt limit of gtacior actioo descouds ou Iho Andoit, 
ir iDstaace, to 7,000 feot abovo Uie lurol of tlio aoa uudor 
equator, tbo prcsout Uue of perpetual suour being at 
16,000, it is cafe to infer Uiat iu tliose days tlio cUuuito 
waa some 34' or tliorcabouts below its pro!>ent t«ii)peniture. 
Tliat is, tlw tciQporaturo of tti« present snow line then pre- 
niled at a beigbt of 7,000 feet above tbe sea level, as the 
present average tempcrBturcof Greenland then prevailed in 
latitude S&'. I am as confident that we shall find those 
indications at about the limit I hare pointed out as if I liad 
already seen them. I would even venture to prophesy that 
tlie first moraines in the valley of the Slaranon should be 
found where it bends eastward above Jacn."* 
Although the weatlier is fine, the motion of the ship 
itumes to be so great diat Uiose of us who have not what 
popatarly called " sea-legs," have much ado to keep our 
balance. For my own |>art, I am bog^inning to feel a personal 
auimo^ty to " the trades." I had imagined tliom to be soft, 
genial breetes wafimg us gently soutltward ; instead of 
whicli they blow dend ahead all tlie time, and give ur no 
rest night or day. And yet we are very unreasonable lo 
grumble ; for never were greater comfcns and conveniences 

■ U f>«nd in Ite >*iiMil anii«rr«Mr7 id M«k iho gliici>l phenomena of 
IRlfaail SoDtli A» w tr« in ils liiifhiMi BionnMm*. In Bniil ihc maremci m 
V 4iUillC( aMd •• wall prawm * ! in toma of llm conal nngci on tho Atlnntic 
Mm, bM met* Aaa tvrfn ur fiA«n hunilrtd f«t( high, u in an; |>liulnl«J 
iMafitiai known u> gtoIo^E) in man nonhcni pnru of the wacld. TIio 
' liae, tmn in tkON latiludiw, ihm deKcniW lo low thai rou«i of te« 
1 above iM leral Bctntil; tonoi ibait mjr down lo the m-cdut —LA. 





provided Tor voyagorH oii tlie great deep than are tu 
found oil tliia innginric«nt ship. The stato-rooms largo and 
com modioli it, parlor and diniiig-Iiall well ventilated, cool, and 
che«rful, tlie decks long and broad enough to give a clianc« 
for ext«nKtTe " constitutionals " to ereiybody who can stand 
upright for two niinutM together, tlie attendance punctual 
and admirable in every respect; in sliort, notliiiig b left to 
be desired except a little more atahle footing. 

Apr3 lOA. — A rough sea to-d«y, uotwithstanding which 
wo had our locturv as usual, though I must say, that, owing 
to tlic lurching of the ship, the lecturer pitched about laore 
than was coiisistcut with the dignity of science. Mr. Agas* 
■iz returned to tho subject of einbrj'ology, urging upon hia 
assistaiiU the imporluiice of collecting materials for (hia 
object as a uouns of obtaining an iueigbt into the deeper 
relations txitwoeu aiiimaU. 

" Beretoforo classiGcation lias been arbilnuy, inasmuch 
OS it has rested mainly upon tha interpretation given to 
structural differencos by various observers, who did not 
measure the character and value of these difToreuces by 
any natural standard. I believe that we have a more 
certain guide in these matters tlian opinion or tJio indi 
vidua) estimate of any observer, however keen his insight 
into structural dilTerences. The true principle of classifica- 
tiou exists in Nature herself, and wc have only to decipher 
it. If Uiis conviction be correct, tho nexi question is, 
flow can wc make Uiis principle a practical one in our 
laboratories, an active stimulus in our investigations ? Is it 
susceptible of positive demonstration in material facts? la 
there any mctliod l/» be adopted as a correct guide, if we 
set aside the idea of originating systems of classilicalion 
of our own, and seek only to read that already wrilteu in 





utuiet I ausver, Yeft. The standard U to be found in 
cb&Dges auinud* uiider:go from Uieir first fonuaUon 
tlio egg to tlicir adult ooadiliou. 

" It wuuld he impoNtililc for me here aitd now to giT« 
ou tbe dctuilii of lliis inctliod of mvostignliuii, but I can 
11 you ctiough to Uluslnitc my statement. Take a homolj 
sod Tcrjr famUiar example, tbat of t}ie braiicli of ArlicuUles. 
aturaliats divide this braDcb into Uirce classes, — IiiEects, 
rustaoea, and Worms ; and most of tbem tell jrou that Worms 
arc lowest, Crustacea next in rank, and tliat Insects stand 
;be8t, while othere havo placed the Crustacea at tlie head 
the group. We may well ask why. Why doen an insect 
d above a crustacean, or, vice vena, why iti a graa*- 
bopper or a butterfly structurally superior to a lobnter or a 
slirimp ? And indeed there must be a difference in opinion 
as to tlie re>>pecdve standing of these groups so long as 
llieir clas^ificatiDn is allowed to remain a purely arbi(rat7 
one, based only upon mterpretaUon of anatomical details. 
One man tliinks the structural features of Insects superior, 
and places them highest; another thhiks die structural 
features of the Crustacea highest, and ])lace8 them at the 
lad. In eitlier case it is only a question of individual 
ion of the facts. But when we study llie gradual 
t of (he insect, and find tliat in its earliest stages 
il is worm>like, in its second, or chrysalis stage, it is crurta- 
I'like, and only in its final completion it assumes the 
character of a perfect in.sect, we have a simple natural scale 
by which to estimate tlie comparatire rank of these animals. 
Since we cannot Kupposc that tliore is n retrograde movo- 
iciit la Uie development of any animal, we must believe 
tliol the insect stands highest, and our das^ificution in this 
Inslunct' is dictated by Nature hei'sulf. Tliis is one o( the 


meat »trikiiig examples, but Uiero are others quite ks much 
>0, tiiouglt not as familiai-. TIm) Crog, for instance, ia ile 
Buoceseiro btages of develupmcnt, illustrates tlie cotnpanttiro 
staudiiig of lite urdcra composing the cla&s to wliicli it 
bvloiigs. Tliese orders arc diflTcrcDlJy classiiied by various 
naturalists, uccordiug to tlicir indindual estimate of tlictr 
Etructural fvatiircs. But tliv growtli of tlie tivg, liico tlwt 
of the inscvts, gives us tbo true grade of tbg type.* Tbcrs 
are not munjr groups iu which this comparison hw boou 
carried out 80 Mly as iu tlio insects and frogs ; but whcro- 
ever it has been tried it is found to be a perfectly sure test. 
OecKsional glimpses of tlie»: fucts, seen difti»iitiect«dly, hav 
done much to confirm the dorelopment tlieory, so grcatl; 
in vogue at present, tlioiigli under a somewhat now forui.| 
ThO!iC who sustain tlicso views bare seen tlial tlicre was a 
gradution between animals, and have inferred that it was a 
material connection. But when we follow it in tbc growth 
of the animals ibeimclves, and find ibat, close as it is, no 
animal ever misse* iUt true dereloptncnt, or grows to be 
anything bnt what it wa» meant to be, we are forced to 

■ la cop3>inj; tha Journut IVom which thcae ntiim nrv Mkon, I hare horitauJ 
i> burden tiiu nimiLito with inalomicol ikliiili. But (at iham ivhu uka 
on tnwrui in nich iniciiigatioiu it inoy hv ivdl tu ndd'livro Uiit Utc tntg, 
when llni hiilchnl. is liiuply aa oblunt; bod;, wiihuul 1,117 a{ipcnd>g«*, 
Uipuririi; tllichily lawanli in poilcrior end. In thkt tandition it rocmhlM 
Ceolio. In iCk rii^ic tuiic. iluti of ths Uulpolc. when iho cxuvniiif 
cloD^teil inlo • luil, thn |;ilU am furly <Ici'clf>p(xl, and it hu one pujr of 
itnpcrfnt h-st, il roonihlei ilio tiirun, with lu ruUiiiipnury liniU. In iu 
■uocccdins >ta;, whvn the Mniu uiiiiiii] Imm tw» ;uiirs ur li-KK and a fin atnuml 
(bo tail, it ncalla iba Pfvt«u» uud MoiiutinincbuB, Finally the gilla ara 
iiijiptuud. the nnimal brtuibn throu^jb lunj^, but l)ie tail aull rvinajna: It 
then rccnllj Hcoo|ioma and Uis Soljiuiindnn. Al Ust tbo tail thrinka auil 
diaitiipcan, ani] Uio th>|[ i* canipliitc. Thi* glvci nt a lundiknl by »hkk 
iho n'lalivu potitioa oT ibo luadtne GToapa ol (Uo cIms inajr t*tti\y hv duUW' 
niin --A. — In A. 






Vadotit that the gradation wlkicb UDquestionabI; unites oil 
animab is an intellectual, not a material one. It exists in 
be Mind which made them. Ah the works of a hnman 
tleliect are bound together by lucnUl kinship, so are tlie 
bouglits of the Creator spirttnally united. I think that 
(•osidcmtions like these should be an inducement for us all 
collect tlic young of as many animals as puMiihle on tliis 
le;. In eo doing wo may ctuingc thv fundameuta) 
indplcs of classification, and confer a lasting benefit on 

" It IS very important to Ecloct the right animals for such 
inTestSgations. I can conceive that a lifutimu should be 
passed in embrrological studies, and yet little bo learned of 
tbo prindples of classiHcation. Tlio ombryolog}* of the 
worm, for instance, would not give us Uie natural classifica- 
tion of the Articulates, because we should mc only the first 
step of the series ; we should not reach tlto sequence of the 
development. It would be like reading over and over again 
tlie fiRt chapter of a story. The embryology of the Insects, 
on tlie contrary, would give ns the whole succession of a 
scale on the lowest level of which the Worms remain foroTor. 
So tlie embryology of the frog will give us the classification 
of the group to which it belongs, but the embryology of the 
C«cilia, tlic lowest order in the group, will give us only tlie 
initiatory steps. In the same way the naturalist who, in 
studying the embryology of tlie reptiles, should begin with 
their lowest reprcsentatires, the serpents, would make a 
great mistake. But take tlie alligator, so abundant in the 
regions to which wo arc going. Au alligator's egg in the 
earliest condition of growth has never been opened by a 
naturalist. The young have been occasionally taken from 
tho egg just 'lefore luttehing, but absolutely nothing is known 



of Iheir &nt phwesof development. A couiptcte emorfulom 
of Ute alligntor would girc us uot oiil; Uio tmliiral classttlca- 
tion of rupliles m tlicy exist now, bvit might teacli us rooio- 
tliirig of their liistury from the liiue of their iutroductioa 
upon cartli to tlto present day. For embryology shows lu 
iiol only the rclulious of oxiKtiiig animuls to cacli otlior, but 
Uieir relations to extinct types nlm. Quo prominent result^ 
of Cmbryolo|^cul studies has been to show that snimaU iof 
the earlier sUtff» of tlicir growth rcscmblo auciont represent- 
alivus of tlic same type belonping to past geological ages M 
The firEt reptiles were introduced in the carboniferous epocfa,V 
and tliey were very different from those now existing. 
They were not numerous at that period ; but later in the 
world's history there was a time, justly called llic 'ago of 
reptiles,' when the gigantic Saurians, Flesiosaunaus, and, 
Icbthyosaurians abounded. I believe, and my courlctiou 
drawn from uiy previous umbryolugical studies, that ttic 
changes of the alligator in the egg will give us the clew to' 
the structural relations of the Reptiles from their first crea-, 
lion to tho present day, — will give us, iu other words, theii 
eequonce in timu as well as llicir suquunee in growth. 1: 
the class of Reptiles, then, the most instructive group wo^ 
can select with rcl'orenco to tho structural relations of the 
type as it now exists, and their history in post times, will be 
the ftlligntor. We mu»t therefore neglect uo opportunity ofjA 
collecting their eggs in as large numbers as possible. ' 

"There are other animals iu Uracil, low iu their elass to 
bo euro, but yet very important to study embryologically, oi^| 
accomit of their relation to extinct types. These are Uie 
alotlis and armadillos, — animals of insignificant size in our 
days, but aticioutly represented in gigantic proportions. 
The Megatherium, the Mylodon, the Megalonyx, were soiM 







tt thesa iir.meiitte Mammalia. I believe Dint the eu]br7(H)ie 
diuigCe of tb« sloths and nrmadillox vill explain (tie ttruo- 
tanil relations of ibose huge Edentata and tbeir coiinectiou 
rilli tlie present ones. Soulli America teems wiib tlie fbsril 
boaM of these animalx, which indeed penetrated into tlie 
iiorlliem half of tlic lieioispbere as high up as Georgia and 
Evntucfcr, where tJioir remoinR have been found. Hie 

iiif; repre»«iiUiUTes of tlie ramily are also numerous in 
Soutli America, and we sltould make it one of our cliief 
objects to get specimens of all ages and examine thorn from 
tlieir earliest phases upward. We, above all, try not to 
be led awaj from the more important aims of our study by 
the divoraity of objects. I have known many jroung natn- 
laUsls to min the highest success hj trying to cover too 
much ground, — by becoming oolleolors rather than invest!- 
gatora. Bitten by tlio mania for amassing a great numbei 
and variety of species, sndi a man never returns to the 
general consideration of uiore comprehensive features. We 
must try to set before onnselvcs certain important quexiions, 
and gire ounclves resolutely to the investigation of tlic»i> 
poiuts, even tliough we should sacrilico lew important 
things more readily reached. 

" Anotlier type full of interest, from an cmbryological 
point of view, will bo the Monkeys. Since some of our scien* 
l.fic colleagues look upon them as our aucestom, it in impor- 
tant that we should collect as many fuels as pot^lile concern- 
ing their growth. Of course it would be better if we could 
make the investigation in tlie land of the Oraugs, Gorillas, 
and Chimpanxoes, — tlie highest monkoys and the nearest lo 

lan in their development. Still even the procvsii of growth 
the South Americait monkey will bo very instructive. 
Give a mathetnattciaii tlie initial el«mvnt« of u scries, and 



bo will work out tlio wholo ; and bo I bcUcvo when Uie lawt 
of cmbrjological development are better ondorstood, oata- 
ratist« will Iiutc a key to the limits of tliceo cycles of growth, 
and 1)0 able to appoint them their natural boundaries oven 
from parliul data. 

" Next in importance I would place the Tapirs. This 
one of a fiimily whose geological antoccdents are vcrj 
important and intorcsting. The Mastodons, tlio Pal!ootli»- 
riiim, the Dinotlicrium, and otticr largo Mammalia of tb« 
Tertiarics, are closely related to the Tapir. The cU-phant, 
rhinoceros, and the like, arc of tlio came family. From its 
structural standing next to the elephant, which is placed 
highest in the group, the embryology of the Tapir would 
give us a very complete series of cbanjo^s. It would seem 
from some of tbo fossil remains of this family that the 
I'auhyderms were formerly mora nearly related to tho 
Ruminants and Rodents tb.iu they now are. Therefore it 
would be well to study tlie embryology of tho Capivari, the 
Haca, and tlio Peccary, in connection with that of the Tapir. 
Ijaslly, it will ba important to loam something of the eonf 
bryology of the Manatee or Sea-Cow of the Amazons. It is 
something like a in outline, and st-ems to be tli« 
modoru representative of the ancient Dinotherium." 

April V2lh. — Tho lecture to-day was addressed especially 
to the oruithologisbi of the psirly, its object being to show 
how the Enmo method of itludy, — that of testing the classili- 
c:itiou by tho phases of growth in llie diiTerent groups,— 
might be applied to the birds as profitably as to other types. 

We have made good progress in the last forty-eight hours, 
and are fast leaving our friends " the trades " behind. Th« 
captain promi.«e» us smooth waters in a day or two. With 
tlie dying away of the wind will come greater heat, but ii 




jcl WD have had no intensely warm wcailivr. Tlie suii, 
bovuror, keeps ua viUiin doorti « gre«l ptirt of tl>o day, 
but in the eveniiig we sit on Lite giianl«, irutcli the sumct 
over the waters, and then the moouliglil, aiid so while away 
the time till nine or ten o'clock, when one by one tlto party 
I disperses. Tlic sea has been no rough that we have no4 
lieen able to capture anytliing, but vlieii vre get into 
smoother waters, oar uaturalLits will be ou tlie loolE out 
for jolly-lish, argonaulas, and Uie like. 

April Vilh. — In today's locturo Mr. Agas>iz returned 
again to the subject of geograpliical dbtribtitton and tlie 
importanoe of localizing tlte collections witli great precision. 

P"A8 Bio do Janeiro Is our starting-point, the water-system 
in its immediate neigtiborhood will bo a3 it wore a echooU 
room for us during Uio Brst week of our Brazilian life. 
■AVo sliall not find it so eo^y a matter as it seems to keep 
our collections distinct in tliis region. The head-waters of 
Bome of the rivers near Rio, flowing in opposite directions, 
are ui such cloeo proximity that it will bo dillicult sometimes 
to distinguish tliem. Outside of tlic coast range, to whicli tho 
Organ Mountains bcloog.arv a number of short strvams, little 

JriUs, so to speak, emptying directly into the ocean. It will 
be important to ascertain whether the Nimo animals occur 
in all tliese short watcr-counes. I think this will be found 
to bo tlio case, because it is eo with corref^pmiditig »m:tll 
rivers on our nortliom coast. There are little rivers along 
f the whole coai<t from Muino to New Jersey ; all these die- 
connoctod rivers coiiluin u similar fauna. Thero is another 
extonttvo mnge inland of the conat ridgo, tlte Scrra da . 
Uanttqncra, tloping gently down lo the oceati south of the* 
Bio Itolmoote or Jcquitinlionho. Rivors arising in this 
rangtf are more coinplei ; tltey liave iarge tributaries. 


Their upper part is asnally broken by watorikUs, their. 
lower ootine being tuoro level ; probably ui the lowar ' 
coureeti of these rivers ire shnll lind fishes simiUir to Uioee 
of the short coast 8trcaiii», while in iho higher brokeu i 
waters wc shall Tiiid distinct ratinie." lite lecture dosed I 
with some iicconiit or (he cxcni-sioiis likely to be undertaken 
ill the neighborhood of Rio dc Janeiro on arriving, and with 
some pructicul instructions about collecting, based upon Mr. . 
Afjassiz's personal cxpcrieuco.* 

* On afcoUDi of tho niuij axplorine cxpcdIlJainf tar arhich the Biy ol 
Kiu lie Jnn<!in> hM beon a rnvoHlc pori, ii liiu ncquirod n ipecuJ ialcrcil An ' 
din nniuraliti. It miif Bnm n( fim »ii;lii lu if the (Kt (hat Fn-ncli, Eajflbti, 
German. Riwikii. uiil Aiu>.vicDn exp«diiiuiis hnve followi'il mcb Mlicr In ihii • 
locaikiy, during ihc bit wnlur;, «iich bringing »»oj iti rich hjirrwi of ^tmi■ 
nma, bj dimimahinj; lu noToltf nauUI laihrt Icucn ihnn increoae its inwinat 
M • coUtctlnj; u^xini!. On Ihn conlr»rj, for the vtrj renion llial Ihs BpH'i- 
mvtn Itmn which i!>k :;tvHU.'r (mrt uf iliu <)c»cri|>[inn« nnil ngurc* ronuincd in 
■hs imblislied account* oT thine rojri^M worn (il>uinu>l from Rio Ac Janeiro 
■nil iU nei|;hbarhoo(t, il btvomH biJiipenmiblo tlint trery tuJ>IU|;i('«J oinMiini 
•iminjc at scientific nccanicv and oompblcnos should ham origiiul (ptcinMiKi 
froiD ihfll wry lucolity for the idcniiflcocion of spcciw ainadjr dtKriM. 
OihcrwiM doubu roiKcline the stiict identity or t|>DCific difTennioe et tpMi- 
mcna obtninnl on uilicr pnru <iC tlic Ailnniic iihnrc. not ontj In South Amerira 
but in Central umt Niirili Amvricik. may iii any lime invalidnU! gen- 
craliutliona coiicominj; the distriliulioa of nnimab in iImm MU- From ihU 
point or T'mvr, lbs Bay of Hio da Janoire forma ■ moBI importut contra of 
«oiap«rl>on. and it wiu for thti rtiuon thnl wo made mi prolonged a tlay ihorc^ 
Atilioagh th« prospect of discovering any noivltics xiu diminished by Iho 
nionsiiro invniigations of our predecwaors. [ well knew thai ■hawrtr w« 
(ollecud ibcro would grcnilf incrcMc the tkIuo of our coUceiioni elsewhere. 
Ooe of my apedal alms wni lo ntrcriiiin how Iki dio mnrlno animals JnliaUiinit 
ihD COMI of Dnwil lo the mntb of Cupe PHa diArtd tram thow lo the north 
of It. and forilwrniorc, how iho aaimala (bund along (ho couc bctirem Capo 
Frio and Capo St. Roque difTBml from or agreed with thoM iulinbitiiic the 
■ore aonlivrTi »1io?v of iho continent and the Wcsc Indian Iilanda. In (iM 
waive of Iho fbllawin); cliaptcr* I shail haro occauon lo remrn, mora ia it- 
laB, w this fiilg'cft.^L. A. 




AprQ XAtk. — Lafit eveniug was t)te most IkeautiTu) ire 
hare liad siuce ve left home ; [Wrfectly clear with tbo 
excvptiun of soft whim mos^e^ of cloud on the horizon, 
til tlivir «dgcs tiilvered bf tlic moonlight. We looked our 
lift for maiij montlis to come oit the itortli star, and »aw tlio 
toutlieni cross for the lirst time. With the miblo iinnge I 
lost a far more woiiderftil constellation vhioli lind lived in 
mj uiiagiiiation ; it has vaiiislied with til its goldeu glorj, a 
celestial rUiou as amazing as that which converted Coiiiitao- 
tiiic, and in its place stands the veritable constellation with 
jts four little points of light. 

Tlie lecture to-daj was upon the fidhcs of South AnierioB. 

I will give you this morning a slight sketch of the charao- 
terislic Rslies In Soulh Aincriea. as compared with those of 
tlic Old World oitd North America. Tliough I do not know 
how the fiidies are distributed iti llie regions to vliich we 
tre goJng, and it is just upon llic iiive:ttigation of this point 
tliat I want your help, I know their chnmctcr as di»- 
Uuguislied from those of other continents. We must ro- 
member that tlie most important aim of all our studies in 

■this direction will be tlie solution of the qiii'stioii whether 
Any given fauna is distinct and has originated whore il now 
exists. To this end I shall make you aoquuintcd with the 
Brazilian animals ao for as I can in tlic short time we have 
before beginning our active operations, in order that yon 
may be prepared to detect the law of their geographicul 
distribution. I shall spcuk to-day mure cKpcciolly of the 
fresh-water fishes. 

" In the northern hemisphcru tlierv is a remarkable group 

of Bbhes known as the i^turgeons. They are chiefly found 

^BD the waters flowing into the Polar seiis, as the Mackenzie 

Bltiver on our own continent, tlie Lena and Yeni$««i in the 


01(1 World, and iu all tli-i nvors and Ukcs or the tomperaM 
loae, oommuuicatiBg with the Atlantic Oc«aa. Thejr occur 
iii smaUor nitmbcrs iu most tributaries of tlio Mediterra- 
nean, but are common iu the Volga uiid Danube, as well 
as in the Blississippi, iu some of the rivers on our north- 
ern Atlantic and Pacific coasts, and iu Chiua. This fam- 
ily has no ropresoulalivcs in Africa, Soullicrn Asia, Austra- 
lia, cr South Amurica, but tbcrc is a group corrospuudiug 
in a cortaui way to it in South America, — that of the Qo- 
oiodouts. Though some ichthyologists pluwi them widely 
apart iu their classifications, there is, on the whole, a 
striking resemblance between the Sturgeons and Gonio- 
donts. Groups of this kind, reproducing certiun features 
common to both, but dififcring by special structural modifica- 
tions, are called ' ropmsoutativo typos.' This name applies 
mora especially to such groups when they are distributed 
over different parts of the world. To naturalists tlio com- 
parison of one of these types with another is very interest- 
ing, as touching upon the quostaou of origin of spedes. To 
those who believe that animals are derived from one another 
tliQ alternAdve liera presented is very clear : either one (/ 
Uiese grou)i6 jgrcw out of ttie other, or else tttey both had 
common anca^tors which were neither Sturgeons nor Gont- 
odonte, but combined the features of both and gave birth (o 

"There is a third family of fishes, the Hornpouts or Bull- 
heads, called Silnroids by naturalists, which seem liy their 
BtructunU character to occupy an intermediate position bo- 
tween the Sturgeons and Qoniodonts. Hiere would seem 
to be, tlion, iu these three groups, so tiaiilar in certain fea- 
tures, so distinct in others, the elcmont^ of a series. But 
while Uteir structural relations suggest a common origin, 




({eograpiiic&l distribution seems to oxclude it. Take, 
for instance, tlie Honipouts ; tliey ftre Tory fev in the north- 
era hemijiphere, Imrdly ever occurring in tboee I'irers wliersij 
the Sturgeon!) abound, and they ar« very numerous in thai 
»out]ien) heinispti«i-e, in southern Asia, Australia, Africa, 
uiid South Amonca, where the Htiirgcons are altogether 
wanting. In South America the Silnroids everywhere eiilt 
with the Goniodontjt, in uU other parts of the world without 
Uiem ; Utc Gouiodouts being only found in South America. 
If theso were the nncextom of the Siluroids in South Amer^ 
left, they were certainly not their nnccstont anywhere else. 
If the Sturgeons were the ancestors of the Siluroids and of 
the Goniodoiils, it is strange that their progeny should con- 
sist of these two families in South America, and in the Old 
World of the Siluroids only. But if all Uiroe had soroo 
other common ancestry, it would he still more extraordinary 
that its progeny should exhibit so spocilic a distribution upon 
the surface of our globe, Tlic Siluroids lay very large eggs, , 
and OS they are very abundant in South America we shall 
no doubt hare opportunities of collecting them. Of the re- 
production of the Goniodonts absolutely nothing is known. 
Of course the embryology of both those groups wonld havfl 
a direct bearing on the problem of their origin. 

" Another family Tory abundant in Tariotis parts of the 
world is that of the Perclies. 'I'hoy are found all over North 
America, Europe, and Northern Asia ; but there is not on« 
to be found in tlie fresh waters of the southern hcmii^plmrc. 
;]n South America and in Africa tliey are rcprcsciiLcd how- 
ever by a very similar group, that of the Chromlds. Tlicso 
two groups are eo much akin that from their structure i( 
would so«m natural to suppose that the Chromids wore 
Iruisfonned Pen-hes; tlie more eo, since in tho western 

A Mctxrr ts BKAZn. 

bomtsplwre tin latter extend finm the high north to Tftxi 
Boulti or vbich tl>Q7 «re represented bjr the Chnunids. Hon. 
the gCograpbioil as well as the structural transition would 
Mem an easy ouo. But look at the eastern hemispbere 
Perclies abound in Asia, Eun^, and Australia, but thera 
are do Cbromids there. Bow is il tliat tlie Perches of this 
eontiiicni ha\-e been so fertile in producing Cliromids, and 
the Perches of all other oontinciUji, except Africa, absolitely 
sterile in iiiij respect ? Or if we rovcrw the proposition, 
and Nippon the Perclxs to liare grown oat of the Chromids, 
why hare th«r ancestry disappeared so completely on the 
A*»tto side of the world, while they do not seem to liavo 
diminished on this? And if Perclies and Chromids should 
be represented as de»oe»diiig from an older common type, 
I would answer that PulKontology knows nothing of »uch a 

" Next come the Chubs, or in scientific nocncnclature tlie 

Cypriiioids. These firfies, rariowsly called Chubs, Suckers, 

Of Carps, abound in alt the fresh watera of the northern 

hcniisiJioTO. Ti,ey are also numerous in the eastern part 

of tlie soiiUiorn hemisphew. but have not a single reprcsout- 

»tive i» Soiitli America. As tlw Goiiiodonls are charao 

Wrislic of Hu' southern hemisphere in iu western half, » 

Ihw group M-onis to be characteristic of U in its eastern 

Itair. Bui whilo the Cyprinoids hare no repteaentative in 

South Anieriea, tlwre is another griwp there, strxiclurally 

akin to them. ealU'd the Cyprinodonts. They are all small 

riiwl ; our Minnows belonc to this group. Prom Maine to 

Texas they are found in all tlie short rivere or ctwks all 

alonit the Mart. It is for (his reamii that I expect to 5nd 

the rfiort coax! ri>-»»rs of South Am<erioa ahonndine in Min 

now*. I r«>mcnilKir to have found in tlic neighborhood td 



^FJlobOo 00 loss titan six now species iu tlio course of au tS- 
ternoon'* romblo. Tlicse g^lics are almost all vinparotis, vr 
ot least luy tlicir eggs in a vory advanced state of devolop- 

^ miutt of the young. Tlio sexes diiTer so greatly in «p|)«ar- 
ancc tUat tboy Iiaro soinetimcs beou described as distinct 
species, nay, erau as distinct gonera.* We must bo on our 
guard against a similar uiiiiUikt!. Here again ve hare two 
groups, the Cypriuoids and Cypriuodonts, so similar iu 
their structural features tbat tlio development of oac out 
of tlie otiicr ualiirally suggests itself. But in ^ulli Amer* 
ica titero ore no Cyprinoids at all, wbilo tbe Cypriitodouls 

^■abound; iu Europe, Asia, and Noftb America on tlie cou* 
trary, the Cypriuoids are rery numerous and tite Cypriuo 
donts comparatirely few." Tbe Obaracines were nent con- 
sidered willi refereiiGO to Ibvir afTinitius as well as tJioir 
geograpbicol distribution; aud a few remarks wcro added 
apon tlie smaller familios knowu to bare rcprosentaUves in 
tlio fresh waters of ^uUi America, such as tlio Erytliri- 
noids, tlic Gyouiotiiios, &e, " I am ofloa askod what is tny 
chief aim iu ibis expedition to South America? No doubt 
ill a gcueral way it is to collect materials for future study. 
But tlie coiiviclion which draws me irresistibly, is timt tbe 
combination of nniinala on this continent, where tlie faunas 
are so characteristic and so di»Uiict from all others, will giro 
mo tbe meaus of fbowiiig that tbe U'ansmutatiou thcoij ii 
wltc^y without foundation in facts." The lecture cloned 
witli some account of tho Salmonidoe, foiiud all over tlie 
Dortliern lioroispbcn:, but rcpritsciited in South America by 
the Cliancines, distinct species of which may be looked for 
in the separate water-basins of Brazil ; and also of eoTcral 
Othtr important families of South American fislics, espe- 

* iloliuiaria ui<] I'u!<:il1ii. 


uiaJl; the O^teoglosstim, the Stidiit, Ac., interesting oq ac- 
count or Uicir rclatiun to aa extinct fo^l type, that of th« 

April 11th. — Ytistttrilay was Baxter Sunday, and tha daf 
ms bouutirul. The sorriccs from Bishop Potter iu tho 
moruing were very interesting ; tlra more so for lu ou ac- 
coQOt of tlie God speed he garo us. Wind and weather 
petmitting, it is tlie last Suiidaj- wo shall pass on board ship 
together. The Bishop spoke with much earoestni-^ and 
frrinpatby of the objects of Uie expedition, addres^g him- 
Belf e!*peciaily to the young meti, not only with reference 
to tlieir duties as connected with a M;iontific undertaking, 
but as American citizens in n foreign country at this tinN 
of war ajid mUupprulioasion. 

This moniin); wc were quite entertained at meeting a 
niimtior of the so-called " Catataaratis," tlic craxy crafts of 
the fishcrmcu, who appear to bo amphibious animals on this 
coast. Their boat« consist of a few logs lashed together, 
over which llie water breaks at every moment without ap- 
parently disturbing the occupants in tlie least. They fish, 
walk about, sit, lie down or stand, eat, drink, anil sleep, to 
all appearance as contented and comfortable as we are in 
our princely Nteamer. U»(ually they go into port at night- 
fall, but are occasionally drtrcn out to ttea by the wind, and 
may sometimes be met with two hundred miles and more 
from the shore. To-duy we have fairly come upon the ^uth 
American coa»t. Yesterday wo could catch sight occauoQ 

• Thin txcnirv wu iicconipuiicd bj oueftil dueripltoni kdiI drawing* on Al 
litm-kbuaril, ihtming tho itnicinrnl dl&reiMM buwocn thcw gmaps TbcM 
■n umiilnl. w ihc; iroiiU Iibvv liiilo lowmM Tor the general render. Th* 
cbiof obJKt in reiurtin;; ibiMil Ixclunu in lo khuw ibu a.iiiiii wliii-h Mr. AurawU 
placed bi^Kjn: hiiDwIf and liu compuniunB in laving ddi tho wurk af Ibo ojtpv- 
dtliat, mil Uiuw uo nude niffidoatlf clear wiihoul Curtbcr tcictiiilii: dutalU.* 






Ij of low sand banks ; but this morning we have Eai]o<t 
paot Uie pretty little town of Olinda, wiUi its convent on 
tb« hill, and the larger city of Pornumbuco, wliwe while 
houses oome quite down to tlio scorihortt. Immediately in 
front of the town lies llio reef, which runs southward along 
the coast for il hundred miles and more, oncloeiug between 
itself and the shore a strip of quiet waters, rorming admi- 
rable ancliorage for small shipping. Before Pernambuco 
tliis channel is quite deep, and directly in front of the town 
there is a break in the reef forming a natural gateway 
Uirongh wliich laige TesscU can enter. We have now loft 
the town behind, but the shore is still in ijglit ; t flat coast 
rising into low lulls beliiad, and lierc and there dotted witli 
villages and lisliing>huls. 

The lecture on Saturday was ralhur practical than scion- 
tiGc, on tlie best modes of collecting and presernng speci- 
mens, tlie instruments to I)e used, &a. To-dny it was upon 
the clussiGcation of fiishcs as illustrated by embryoloj^y ; the 
same moUiod of study as that explained the othi^r day and 
DOW applied to tlic cla«s of fishos. "■ All fishes at thu time 
wlien tliu germ becomes distinct above the yolk have a 
continuous fin over the whole back, around the tail, and 
under tlie abdomen. The naked reptiles, those which have 
110 scale*, fudi as frogs, toads, salamanders, and the like, 
share in tliis embryological feature of the fi!(lics. From tliis 
identity of development 1 liehcve thu naked reptiles to bo 
structurally nearer to the true Bshcs than to the scaly rep- 
tiles. All fishes, and indeed all Vertebrates, even the high- 
est, hare, at lliis early period, fissures in tlio side of the neck. 
Tlieeoaro the first indications of gills, an organ the basis for 
vhicli exists in all Vertebrates at a certain period of tlieir 
life, but U fully developed and functionally active only in 


long tapering tAil or the skate. Were it only tliat the; 
eoftblo Its to !>et aside nil arbitrary decisioits and base our 
clitssilicationit on tlie teachings of nature, these iuvestigati»u£ 
would he JDvnliiablo ; but tlieir importance is increased 
by the coil HI deration that we are ttius gradually led to 
recognize the true afTtnities whicli bind all organized beingR 
into one great system." 

April 20M. — Tlii^ dny afliT to-morrow we shall enter 
the Bay of Rio dc Janeiro. One begins to see already 
tliat litUe disturbance in the regularity of sea life which 
precedes arrival. People aiv making up their letters, and 
rearranging their luggage ; there is a slight stir pervading 
our small party of passengers and breaking up tlie even 
tenor of the uniform life we have been leading together 
for the last throe weeks. It has been a delightful voyage, 
and yet, under the most charming circumstances, life at 
sea is a poor exchange for life on land, and we are all 
glad to bo near onr haven. 

On Tuesday the lecture was upon the formation uid 
growth of the egg ; a sort of practical lesson in the study 
of embryology ; yesterday, upon the importance of ascor- 
t^ning, at the outj^tit, the spawning season of the animals 
in Briizil, and the ineans to Uiat end. "It will often bo 
impossible for U8 to Icorn the breeding nsoson of animals, a 
matter In which country people ore generally very ignorant. 
But when we cannot obtain it from persons about iis, 
there are some indications iu the animals thomsclvos 
which may scrro as a guide. During my own investiga- 
tions upon the dcvolopmunt of the turtles, when I opened 
many thousands of eggs, I found that in tliese animals, 
at least, the appearance of tlie ovaries is a pretty good 
guide. They always contain several sets of eggs. Thou 



vhidi will be laid tbU year are Uio largest ; Uiose of 
thw followiDg year are nest ia size ; tIio« of two ye 
beaea stitl smaller, uiiiil wo come to eggs so smalt thai* 
il \t impossible to perceive any difference between tlioir 
various phases of development. But we can roadily toll 
wbcilicr Uicre are any eggs so advanced as to be nciir 
laying, and distinguish botweon tho brood of the year 
and llioeo wliich are to bo hatched later. When tlio eg 
are nboat to be laid Uie whole surface is covered with 
ramifying btoodresscls, and the yolk is of a very clear 
briglii yellow. Before Um egg drops from the ovary this 
network bursts ; it shrivels up and forms a little R'ar 
Ofi the side of the ovary. Should we, tlifrcforo, on ex- 
amining tho ovary of a turtle, find that these scun on 
fresh, WQ may infer that tho season for laying is not 
OTCr ; or if we find some of tho eggs much larger thaii 
the rest and nearly mature, we shall know tliat it is 
about lo begin. How far this will hold good with respect 
to alligators and other animals I do not know. I haro 
learned to recognize these signs in tho turtles from my 
long study of tlieir embryology. With fiEhi>s it could 
hardly be possible to distinguish tho different sots of eggs 
because tliey lay such numbers, and tJiey aro all so small. 
But if we cannot distinguish tlio eggs of Uic diRbronl 
years, it will be somt-tlnng to learn the sixc of their broods, 
which differs very greatly in different families." 

The lecture concluded with some advice as to observing 
.md recording the metamorplioscs of insects. " Tliough 
much ha? been written on tho societies of ants and other 
likfi communities in Brazil, tho accounts of diflbrcnt natu- 
ralists do not agree. It would ho well to collect the lana 
of a great many insccis, and try to raise tliem ; but as this 



will bo difficult aiid oftou impoesiblc in inrclliug, wc muct 
nt least ^t tiie nests of ants, bees, wupe, and tlic like, in 
order to usccrtuin all wo can respecting tliolr commuuilics. 
WIiCQ tlicsc arc not too large it is <;a*y to secure them by 
slipping ft bug over tbcm, thus taking tbc wttolc settlement 
cupUvc. It uinj then be preserved by dipping into ulculio), 
and examined at luisurc, so as to ascertain tbe numlier and 
nature of the individuals contained in il, and learn soioo- 
tiling at least of their habits. Xor le us neglect the do* 
mvKtic ttstaUislimviits of spiders. There is an iinmense 
variety of spiders in Soutli America, and a great difSer> 
enee in their webs. It would be well to preserve tlieso oii 
sheets of paper, to make drawings of them, and cxofflinO 
their threads microscopically." 

April 2l»t. — Yesterday Mr. Agassiz gave his closing 
lecture, knowing that to-day all would be occupied with 
preparatiouo for landing. Ho gave a little history of Stceu- 
strupuid Sars, and cliowed the iitfluoncc their embryologi- 
col itiTCKtigations have had in reforming classification, and 
also their dii-ect bearing upon tlie question of the origin of 
species. To tllc^e investigators science owes the discorcrr 
of the so-called "alleinatc generations," in which the Hy- 
droid, either by budding or by the breaking up of its own 
body, gives riae to ntimorous jelly-Gshes ; these lay eggs 
which produce Hydruids again, and the Hyilruids renew 
tlie procewi as befoi-e." 

"These Fetalis arc but recently added to the annals of sci 

* At them ioftttiguhat haia been publbhed wtlh «o much deuil (Sino 
■tnipk Alienute Gcncnilian. San'* Fnuns Norwcjpui; h. AgiuM, Conlr. ic 
Nat Uiit. of U. S.), it liu uol liccn ihouebl naxaaTy K> reproituco thi« pan 
of tbc Ivrluro her«. Anv one ivha cum to read n 1cm cnchnii-al ncrount o( 
tbcic inTcsiigations than iIkmo oriipnally publitlicil, will fini) a in " Ucthodt 
nf Sludf ," b; L. Af oMii. 





cnou and are not yot very extensively known in tltc com. 
munily ; but when the foots are more fulljr understood, Uiey 
cannot fail to afTccI the fiiudamcutal principles of zoology, 
I have been astonished to seo Iiow little weight Darwin 
himfielf gives to tbi» series of transformations ; he hardly 
■llndes to it, and yet it lias a very direct hearing on his 
theory, sinc« it shows that, however great tlio divergence 
frocn the starting-point in any process of development, it 
ever returns to tlio road of its normal destiny; the cycle 
may be wide, but tlio boundaries are as imputable as if it 
wcrt narrower. However these processes of development 
may approach, or oven cross each other, llicy never cad in 
toaking any living being different from the one which garv 
it birth, though in reaching that point it may pus tltrough 
phases rcsemhling other animals. 

"In considering these queslions we shonld remember how 
slight arc most of iJiosc sjHScific dificrenccs, the origin of 
which gives rise to so mnch conlroverfty. In coiupariM>n wilti 
the cycle of changes undergone by every individual in tho 
ootir«e of its development. Thore are numerous genera, 
including many very closely allied t()jecies, di^tinguUhed by 
diflerences which, wero it not for tlie fact that they have 
Fcmttiued unchanged and invariable through ages, might be 
termed inf>ignilicant. Such, for instance, are the various 
species of coraU found in tlie everglades of Florida, wltoro 
ihey lived and died ages ago, and had tho identical 
ific differences by which we distinguish tl]cir succo»- 
eon in the pre&ent Florida reefs. The whole science of 
Kootogy in ila present condition is based upon the fact tliat 
these slight ditferences are maintained generation after gen- 
ion. And yet every individual on such a coral stock,— 
'and the same is true of any individual in any t lass whatso- 





over of ttie whole niiimal kingdom, whether Radiate, Mul- 
Insfa, Articulate, or VertebruU}, — before rcnching its adull 
vioriditioii and a^ttiiiniii); Uic permuucut vluiructcrs which dis- 
ciiigiii^h it rroinoDiur vpticii^, and have ticTcr been known to 
raiy, pasRCR in n coniparalircl}' short period through ui ex- 
traordinary traii!tform»tioti, tlio SlIcce»^ivc phases of which 
differ Tar more Trom each other thnii do the adult species. 
In other words, tlie same individual dilTer» more from him- 
»eir in successive stages of his growth than h« does in his 
adult condition from kindrud species of the same genus. 
The conclusion seems inevitable, tlial, if the slight differ- 
ciicos wliioh distinguish species were not inherent, and if 
tlie phasos through which every individual has to pas« were 
not the appointed means to reach that end, themselves in- 
varialilo, llicrc would he cvci recurring deviations from tlie 
normal ty[)cs. Every naturalist knows tliat tliis is not Iho 
caae. All the deviations known to us are monstrosities, and 
the occurrence of these, under disturbing influences, arc to 
my mind only additional evidence of the fixity of species. 
The extreme devialiutis obtained in domesticity are secured, 
as is well known, at the expense of the typical characters, 
and end usually in the production of sterile individuals. 
All such facts seem to show that so-called varieties or 
broods, far from indicating Die beginning of new types, or 
the initiating of incipient species, only point out the range 
of flexibility in types which in their essence are invariable. 

" In the discussion of the development theory in its prcs* 
ent form, a great deal is said of the iuipcrfcoliou of tlu) 
geological record. But it seems to me thai, however frag- 
mentary our knowledge of geology, its incompleteness do« 
not invalidate certain important points in the evidence. U 
is woll known that Uic crust of our earth is divided into ■ 




mtmber of layer?, all of which contain the reiuniiis of di*- 
Unct populatiuits- Th«se iliflcrciit mta at inlialiitauts win 
bare possessed die earUi at succcsHire periods liuvo each 
a c)iaiilcter of their own. I1te traiiSQiittatioii Uiiwry iii- 
»i>to that they owe their origin to gradual transforinutions^J 
aud are not, therefore, tlie result of distinct crvuliru acts. 
All Bgroe, Itowever, tliat we arrive at a loner sti-aliiin where 
iio trace of life ia to be found. Place it where wo will: 
suppose lliat we are inistalceti in thinking tliat wu liav« 
readied tlie beginning of life with tlio luwest Cuuibriau 
deposit ; suppose that the fml animals preceded Uiis epoch, 
and iliat there was an earlier epoch, to be called ttie Lauren- 
tiaa sj**^i''^f beside utany oUier^ older stUl ; it is nevcrtholesti 
true that gooiogy brings us down loa lorel at which thvcliar-^ 
ncter of the enrtli's crust made organic life impossible. At 
this pobil, wherever wc place it, the origin of animals hy dc- 
Tclopment ira« impoesihle, because they hnd no uncuston.. 
This is the true starting-point, and until wu have ^omc fads 
to prorc that tlio power, whato^-or it wa», which origiuuttid 
the firiit animals has ceased to act, I sec no reason for refer- 
riiig the origin of life to any other cause. I grant ihat wo 
Uavo no eucIi evidence of an active crcativo power as .Science 
requires for positive demoustruliou of her laws, and that 
we cannot explain Uic processes which lie nt the origin of 
life. But if tlio facta arc insufTici<.'nt on our side, ihey are 
absolutely wanting ou tlte other. VS'c eantiut certainly con- 
sider the dcvelopmeut tlieory proved, because a few natu- 
ralists liiink it plausihlo : it seems plausible only to the 
few, aud it is demonstrated hy none. 1 bring this subject 
before you now, not to urge upoii you this or that theory, 
H itrong as my onii convictions are. I wish only to warn 
Hyou, not against Uic development theory itself, Init against 



tlie looseness in tlic mtithoils of study upon wliicli it ia 
based. Whatever \k your ultimate opinions on this subject, 
lot tliem rc^t oit facti> and not on arguments, however 
plausible. Tliis is uot a question to be argued, it is oii4 
to be investigated. 

" As I liaro advanced in titese talks with you, 1 hare 
Income more snd more di^atislied, feeling the difTicultj 
of laying out our work without a practical familiarity 
vitli the objects themselves. But this is the iiicvitablo 
position of one wlio is seeking tlie trutii : till we hare 
found it, wo are more or less feeling our way. I am awaro 
that in my lectures I have covered a far wider range of 
subjects than we can handle, even if every man do his 
very best ; if we accomplish one tenth of the work I 
have suggested, I shall be more tliau satisfied with the 
result of the expedition. In closing, i con hardly add 
auythiiig to the iuiprcssivc admonitions of Itisbop Putter 
tn his porting word.-< to us la-sl Huuday, for which 1 thank 
hint ill your name and my own. But I would remind 
you, that, while Auiencii has rceovered her political indo- 
pcndeiiee, while wu iill have thai confidence in our insti- 
tutions which makes us secure, tliat so far as wo are 
true to them, doing what wo do conscientiously and iu 
full view of our res{)on»ibUities wo shall bo la the right 
path, wo have not yet achieved our intelluctual itidepoo- 
dencc. There is a disposition in this country to refer 
all literary and scieutilic matters to European tribunals ; 
to accept a man because he has obtained the award of 
societies abroad. An American author is often better 
satisfied if he publish his hook in Kugland than at homr. 
In uiy opinion, every man wlio publislies his work on thi* 
other side of die water deprives his oounti? of so much 


tntcllcvcual capita] to which sImj has a right. Publish 
your results ul lioini;, uiitl let Europe discover whether 
tliey ftnj worth rcuding. Not until you ai-c faithful to 
your citizenship in your iutvllvctuol as woU as your po- 
litieal liftt, will jrou be truly upright and worthy studeaC 
of uftturc." 

At the conclusion of those remarks a ect of rosohitions 
was road by Bishop Potior.* Tltey were followed by a 
few little friendly spc«ch«s, all made hi the moat mformal 
and cordial spirit ; and so ended our course of lectures 
on board the Colorado. I^ler in the <Iay wo observed 
siugulor bright red patches iu tlio scu. i^ome were not 
less than seven or eight feet in length, ruther oblong, 
and the whole mass looked as red as blood. Sometimes tlioy 
seemed to lie on the very top of the water, sometimes to 
be a little below it, so as only to tinge the rippling surfaco. 
Ouo of the sailoi-s succeodiid iu catching a portion of it in a 
bucket, when it was found to consist of u solid mass oi 
little erustaceuns, bright red in color. They were oil very 
lively, keeping up a constant rapid motion. Mr. Agassis 
examined Uiera under the microscope and found them to 
lie the young of a crab. Ho has no doubt that every such 
patch is a singto brood, floating thus compactly together 
like spawn. 

• 6m Appendix No. IIL 




Arrival — Asmcror llAunoH Axn Citt.'-~Cv«ion-Houu. — Kiiibt GuvriK 
or ltRaEiu\!i t.ifK. — Nkihio IUhcic — KrrBCTOr EiiAMirAriDx m Umtu> 
Statu urax si^vnitr im IIrazii. — t'liua' Aktkct or Km pk .Ukkiro on 

I~INII. — 1'|CTL-|IE.111UK MIII.KT LilM)L'|-E. — bCI.n'** or TUB SvH. — AT lIoUS 

IX Itio. — LA1{AM^^Jll.l•l. — i'ABniiiu PvntK'u. — Extujwiua on tiik l>i>a 

fmilO liAlI.HIlAIl. ~ V'ikIT ■>)■ TtIK KlirilRllR Itl TIIK ClllJlKAUU. — C<>H- 

DiAUTT nr liovnnMir.iiT in tiik KxrtDiriii:<. — LADOHATaitr. — llaTAstcAL 
GAKUEn. — Allky or TAi-iia — Kxci'hbios ro thk Cououvaimj. ~ J«b 

UK t'llHA RoAI). ~ 1'ETlIlII'ltl.lB. — J'llUI-IL'AL VecETATIUX — RlIlK VMOM 

l*fCTHuiMij« i'i) Ai'-ix riK KiH^A- — V'rurr 'ixi }>r:3ii>oK La<3k. -^ (tiia'iHii'M n> 

TnR " KoRBKT *Hf 1IIE It U I'll KM." — VlAIT TO Mu. HAI.I'M.n. — KkTL'IIIC TO 

Kid. — Nitwa or tkk Uhkas Koiitiikiui Victdhikii, anu or tiik l'iiKMUiWT*a^B 
Abauikatium. ^I 

April 23<f. — Ycstenliiy nt early dawn we made Cape 
Frio liglit, and al Hevcii o'clock wcro arouNOd by Die wel- 
come information lliat the Organ Mountain)) wei-e in sight. 
The coast i-ange horo, though not very lofiy, (its higheRt 
suiuDiitfl ranging only IVoni two to tlii-ee tliuiiuud feci,) is 
bold and precipitous. The peaks arc VC17 conical, an^fl 
tlie sides slojM Htoc]>ly to the watet-*!i edge, where, in many 
places, a wide beach runs along tJieir base. The Rcenerjr 
grew moi-e {ticturc-<iique as we approached the enti-ance of 
the hay, which is guarded by heights rising Gcntincl-Iike 
on either side. Once within this narrow rrjcky (lortal, 
the immense harbor, stretching northward for more than 
twenty miles, seems rather like a vast lake enclosed by 
mountains than like a bay. On one side extends tlie 
ridge which shuts il from tho sea, broken by the sharp 
|>eak5 of tho Corcovado, tho Tijncn, and the llat-t«pped 
Gam ; on the other side, und mo'o inland, the Oi-gati 




(ountatDS lift tbeir ginguUr neodI«-like poiuU, whilo 
rithin tbe ontr&ncu rises Uic bare bleak lock so well 
known as tbc Sugar Loor (_Pa54e Attvear'), Were it not 
for tbo gateway bcliiud us, tliroiigh wliidi wu still bav« a 
f^limp^: of tlio opun ocoau, udcI for tbc shipping lying 
bcrc at.aiicbor, leaving tlie port or onttiriug it, we might 
easily bclievo that we were floating ou some groat qu:«t 
dieot of Inluiid water. 

Wc reached our anchorage at deTeii o'clock, but were 
in no lub'to to leave (lift ocean home where wo have bocn 
eo happy and so comfortoklo for tlircti weeks ptust ; and 
as die Ciiptiiin had kindly iuviied us to »tay ou board till 
our pcmiaiient arrangemciiUi were made, we remained on 
deck, greatly entertained by all the i>tir and confusion 
attending our arrival. Some of our young people took 
one of the many boats wliicli crowded at ouoe around 
our steamer, and went diroclly to the city ; but we were 
satUfied with tlto impi'Gssions of the day, and not sarrj 
to leave tliera undisturbed. As night came on, sunset, 
lit up the mountains and the harbor. In this latitude, 
bowerer, tlie glory of tlie twiliglit is soon over, and as 
darkness fell upou the city it began to glitter with innu- 
merable lights along tlio shore and on the hillsides. 
Itiu city of Rio do Janeiro spreads in a kind of crescent 
bikupu around the western side of llic buy, its environs 
stretching out to a contnderahio disuuioe along tbe beaches, 
and running up on to the hilts Itelnnd also- On account 
of this disposition of the houses, covering a wide arcs 
and scattered uiion tlie water's edge, instead of being 
compact and concentrated, tlie appearance of the city at 
iiigtit \« exceedingly pretty. It has a kind of ticenic eflect. 
Tlie lights run up on the bill-slopes, a little cluster crown- 




iog tlieir summits here and there, aud ihoy (rlimmcr all 
along UiQ shore for two or tliroo miles ou either side offl 
the central, business part of the town. 

Soon afler our arrival Kr. Agasxiz received an official 
Ti»t from a custom-house agout, saying that h« had 
orders to land all our baggago without examination, and 
that a boat would be sent at any day and hour ounvcniciit 
to him to bring his efTeots on shore. This wac a great 
relief, as the scientific apparatus, added to the personal 
luggago of Ko large; u party, makes a fearful array of boxes, 
cases, &c. It would be a loug business to pass it all. 
throuKh tho ctinibrous ccri'monies of a eustom-hou: 
This afternoon, while Mr. Agossiz had gone to San Chris-' 
tovuo* to acknowledge this courtesy and to pay his respects 
to tlie Emperor, wo wero wandering ovor a little island 
(_I1ka dag Enxadat') tienr which our ship lies, and from 
which she takes in coal for her farther voyage. Tho 
proprietor, besides his co»l-wliurf, has n very pretty house 
and gai'dcu, will; a small chupcl adjoining. It was my ^ 
first glimpse of tropical rcgctutiun aud of Brazilian lifo,^ 
and had all the charm of novelty. As wo landed, a group 
of slaves, black as ebony, were singing and dancing a 
fandango. So fur as wc could understand, there was a 
leader who opened the game witli a sort of chant, ap- 
parently addressed to each in (urn as ho passed around 
iho circle, tlie others Joining in chorus at regular liilorTals, 
Prcitontly he broke into a dance which rose in wildoess 
and excitement, accompanied by crks and ejaculations. 
The movementi of the body were a singular combination 
of negro and i^panish dances. 71ie leg» and feet had tlie 
short, jerking, looAo-jointed motion of our negroes in 

* The winter paliee or the Emperor. 







bncing, wliilo the tipper part of tlie body and the nnm 
Itnd tlint swaying, rliytlimiciU moTemeiit from sido to side 
» c1iuricteri»ttc of all tite Spaninh dances. AHor lookiug 
ou for a while wo wont into the garden, whero tlicro 
were ooooaiuit and banana trees iu fruit, pasrion-Tiiiea 
eliml>iitg over the house, with here and there a dark 
urimxon flower gloaming between t)»e lenvc«. TIi« cfTecl 
s pretty, and (lie whole KC«ne had, to my vyc, nn avpect 
iftif SoulJicni, half Oriental. It was nearly dark vrlioii 
wc returned to tho l>o»t, but the iicgrocis were continuing 
timir dniico under tltc glow of n bonfire. From time to 
time, OS the dance rcoclicd its cuhninating point, titcy 
lUrrcd their fire, and lighted up Uio wild group with 
vivid blase. Tho dance and the song had, like the 
asonionts of the negroes in atl lands, an endless mo 
notonous repetition. Looking at tlieir half-naked figures 
and unintelligent faces, tho qucEtiou arose, so constantly 
suggested wlien we come in contact with this race, 
"Wliat will thoy do with this great gift of freedom?" 
IS only oorrcctivo for tho half doubt is to consider tho 
hitos side by side witli them: whatever one may think 
of tlio ootidition of slavery for tho blacks, there can bo 
no quostiOQ as to ■(« evil effects on their masters. Captain 
Bradbury a»kcd the proprietor of tho island whether t-^ 
hired or owned his slaves. "Own them, — a linndrcd and 
more ; but it will liiiiHh soon," he answered in hi» broken 
glish. "Finish soon! how do you mean?" "It finish 
with you ; and when it finieih with you, it finish here, it 
finbh everywhere." He said it not in any tone of regret 
or complaint, bat as an inevitable fact. The death-note 
slavery iu the United States was its death-note erery- 
here. Wo tltought this significant and cheering. 




April 24ti. — ToJay wo ladies wont ou tboro for n 
Iwuni, engaged our room*, and droro about tlio city a little. 
Tlic want of clcaiilinets and ttirifl in tbo general a»puct 
of Bio dc Janeiro is rcr)- striking as oompurud wUli Itie 
order, ucatucss, and regularity of our itrge tovus. TI>o 
narrow streets, willi tlie incWtable guller running down llic 
ni Idle, — a tiiik fur all kiuds of impurities, — the absence 
01 a proper sewerage, tlie general aspect of decay (parily 
due, no doubt, to the dampness of tlie climate), tlie indolent 
exprossiou of Uiq people generally, make a singular im* 
proBBton on one wbo cornea front Die midst of our -stirring, 
energetic population. And yet it lias a pictureaqueness 
tliat, to the traveller at lea&t, conij>ensates for its defects. 
All wlio have seen one of these old Portuguese or Spanish 
tropical towns, with their odd narrow streets and many* 
colored houses with balconied windows and stuccoed or 
painted walls, only the more \-ariegated from tbe &ct^| 
ttuit lierc and there the stncco has pucled u(f, know the 
fascination and the clianu which mako themselves felt, 
spite of lite dirt and discomfort. Then the groups iu ^»^| 
atreot, — the balf-naked black carriers, many of tliem 
straight and lirni as iironza statues under the heavy loads 
which rest so securely on tlieir heads, the padres in their 
loilg ooatB and square hats, tlie mules laden with baskets 
of fniit or vegetables, — all this makes a motley soeiio, 
entertaining onougli to tbc ucw-comer. I have never 
soon such cRectivo-toukiug negroes, from an artistic point 
of Ttew, as hero. To-day a black woman passed us iu fl 
Ihe street, dressed in wfaite, witli bare neck and arms, 
tlie sleeves caught up with some kind of armlet, a large 
white turban of soft musUu on ber h«ad, and a long 
bright<olored shawl passed crosswise under one arm and 



OTor the other shoulder, hanging almo^it to flw 

Plest behind. She no doubt vras of tlio colored ^ciitr;. 
Just beyond her sat a black tromau ou the curbstone, 
slmufit vithout clothing, her glossy ^kin sliining in th« 
erni, and her naked child asleep acro*s her knees. Or 
take tliis as another picture : aa old wall several feet wide, 
I coTcrcd witli vines, overhung wiUi thick foliage, the lop 

tof which seem* to be a stand for tlio venders of fruits, 
rcgvtuhlc!(, &c. ncre lies al full lenglh n powerful negro 
looking over Into t)ic street, his jcUj arms crossed on a 
huge banket of crimson flowers, oranges und bananas, 
•gainst which he half rests, sucmiugty too indolent to WH 
ft finger even to attract a purchaser. 
April ^ith. — Nature seems to welcome our arrival, not 
only by her most genial, but also by her exceptional inoods. 
Tliere has been to-day an eclipse of the sun, total at 
Cape Ftio, sixty mites from hero, almost total here. We 
Bav it from the deck of tlie ship, not having yet taken 
up our quarters in town. The oSbct was as strange as 
it was licautiful. Tliorc was a something weird, uncanny 

Iiu the pallor and cliill which cumc over tlie landscape; 
it was not in tlie least liku a common twilight, but bad 
B ghaitlly, phantom-liko clement in it. Mr. Agassis pttsscd 
the morning at tlie palace where the Emperor had invited 
liim to witness the eclipse from hitt obnervatory. Tiic clouds 
are poor courtiers, however, and unfortunately a mist hung 
over San ChrislovSn, obscuring the phenomenon at tho 

■ moment of its greatest interest. Our post of observation 
vos better for this s|>ecial occasion tlian the Imperial 
observatory, and yet, though the general scene was pcr^ 
H haps more eflecUvo in t)ie harbor than on the shore, Mr. 
H Agassiz bad an opportunity of making some interesting 



obaervatioiut on the action at animals uuder tliese .lovel 
oiroumstancoa. The following extract is from hi& notes 
"The effect of tlic wuniog light on animals was Teiy 
Etriking. The buy of Rio is daily frequented by largo uun»- 
bers of frigate-birds and gonncts, which at niglit fly to the 
outer islands to roost, while the carrion-crows (uru^iia) 
swarming in the subnrhs, and e»]iecially about iho filaughtcr- 
liouscs of the city, rullro to the mountains in ihu neighbor 
hood of Tijuca, their line of travel piu^ing over San Christo- 
tSo. As soon as the light began to diminish, llicsc birds 
bccamo uneasy ; evidently conscious that tlicir day was 
straaguly encroached upon, lltvy were unoortuin for a ino- 
meut how to act. I'l-csunlly, however, as tliu darkness in- 
creased, they started for their usual night quarters, tho watei-- 
birds flying soutliward, the vultures in a northwesterly di- 
rection, and tlicy had all left their feeding-grounds before tlio 
moment of greatest obscurity arrived. They scorned to fly 
in all haste, but were not Iiiilf-way to their night home when 
Uio light began to retunt with rapidly increasing brlg^ituess. 
Their confusion was now at itx height. Some continued 
tlioir flight towards thu mountains or the harbor, oUiers 
hurried back to tho city, while others whirled about wholly 
uncertain what to do next. Tho re-cstablishment of the 
full light of noon sccmod to decide them, however, upon 
making another day of it, and tlie whole crowd once mora 
moved steadily toward the city." 

The cordial interest shown by tho Emperor in all tlie 
objects of tho present expedition is very encouraging to 
Mr. Agassiz. So liberal a spirit in the head of the goronw 
ment will make his own task comparatively easy. He haa 
also seen several ofRcial persons on business appertaining 
to lii» scientilic schemes. Everywhere he receives tht 


nnucst vspre^f^ions of fjmpatliy, And is amiirod iTiat tils 
aOamiislratiuii will girc him every fiioility in ibi power 
to carry out bis (Jaus. To-aight fiatls us cstublislivd in 

(our rooms, and our Brazilian liro bcgbis ; with what suc- 
cess rcioauis to be »wn. While (till oa bouril tho"Colo 
rado" w« swmed to have ouc foot ou our own Koil. 
April 2G(A. — This morning Mrs. C and myself 

devoted to the arranging of our littlu donwstic mntten, 
getting out our books, desks, and otltcr kuickknacks, and 
mftkuig ourrvlvce at homo in our now qunrtvrv, where 
we suppose we are likely to bo for some weeks to como. 
KTfti* ollcniooiL wc drove out on the Laraiigciriis roiul 
"(litet«Hy, the "orangery"). Our first drive ui Rio left 
upon my mind an irapresston of picturesque decay ; tilings 
mnscd falling to pieces, it is (rue, but mindful of artistic 
effect even in tlieir lost moments. This impression waa 
quite oOaccd today. Every city has its least becoming 
aspect, and it serins we bud chosen an unfavorable direction 
■ for our lir>t tour of observation. Tlie Larongciraa road is 
lined on citltcr side by a succcision of country houses; 
low and spreading, often witli wide verandas, surrounded 
by beautiful gardens, glowing at this season with the scarlet 
leaves of tlie Poinsctliu, or "Kstrellu do Norte" as they 
call it bere, with blue and yellow Btgnonias, and many other 
shrubs and vines, tlie names of which we have hardly 
learned as yet. Often, as we drove along, a wide gateway, 
opening into an avenue of palms, would fpve us a glimpse 
of Bratiliai) life. Hero and ihcro a group of people wore 
sitting in llio garden, or children were playing in the 
grounds under tlte care of tlieir black nurses. Fartlior 
out of town tbe country houses were less numerous, but 
the scenery was mor« pictur«^ue. The road winds im 


in«()int«1; tiriilcr the mounUiiis to thu foot of tlie Cot 
oovado, whoi'e it becomes too stcop for carriages, tlio fortlici 
aitcciit buiiig iiiiidc ou mulvs or liorsvs. But it was too luto 
for lis, — tlic peak of ihc Coroovado was alresdy bathed ia 
tlio selling trun. We wandered a little way np the ro- 
mantic patli, gatlicrod a few flowers, and then droro lack 
to the t^t}', KtopftUi!^ on our return to ramble for Itatf an lioiir 
ill Uic "Fasseio Publico." This is a pretty public garden 
on the bay, not large but tastefully laid out, its great 
charm boiug a broad promenodc built up frora the water's 
edge with Tcry »olid masonry, agaiuA which tlie waves 
break with a refreshing coolness. To-morrow we are in- 
Tiled by Major Ellison, chief eiiginoer of the Dom Pedro 
Railroad, to go out to the terminus of tJio road, some hun- 
dred miles through tlie heart of the Serra do Mar. 

April 27th. — Perhaps in all our jounieyings tlirongh 
Brazil wc Hhall not hare a day more iroprcssire to lis all 
than this one ; we shall, no doubt, Hee wilder scenery, 
but tlte first time ihal one looks upon nature, under ao 
entirely new a^jiect, has a charm that c^ii hardly be ro> 
peated. The first view of high mountains, Ihc first glimpM 
of the broHd ocean, the f)r»l siglit of a tropical vegelalion 
in all it£ ruhirss, arc epochs in one's life. Tlii» wotiderful 
South Americaii forest is so matted logetlicr and Inter- 
twined with gigantic parasites Uiat it Kcems more like a 
solid, compact mass of green tlian like the leafy screen, 
Tibrating with every breeze and transparent to the sun, 
which r<>]>reBcnts the forest in the temperate zone. Many 
of Uie trees in the region we patsed through to-day seemed 
in the embrace of immense serpents, so lar^ wore the 
stems of the parasiteR winding about them ; orchids of 
Tnriout kinds an<l large size grew upon their trunks; and 


^.^ Ecnwintu 

ill iUvH- 


fines climbed to tlteir sutntnite aud threw tliemselrea 
down in garlands to tlie ground. Ou tlie embankments 
also between wiiicli we passed, vines of many varieties 
were creeping down, as if tliey would fain clothe in green 
garments tlie iiglj gaps tlie railroad had made. Yot it 
must tie conrcNfcd that, in this instance, tlie railroad has 
Dot dl^etrcycd, hut ralhcr heightened, the picturesque soen- 
err, cutlJng, as it dues, Uirougli passes which give bvauti- 
1 riftas into the heart of llie mountain range. Once, as 
we issued from a tunnel, where the darltncss seemed tan- 
gible, upon an cxtjuisite landscape all gleaming in the 
sunshine, a general shout from the whole party testiliod 
their astonishment aud admiration. Wo were riding on 
sn open car in front of the engine, so that nothing im- 
peded our view, and we had no iueouveniciice from smoke 
or cinders. During the latter part of Uie ride wc came 

Eto the region of the most t-nluuble cofleo-plantations ; 
id indeed the road is chiefly supported by the transpor- 
tion of tlte immense c|uantilies of coffee raisctd along its 
aeb or beyond it. Near ila terminus is an estensiro 
Tazenda, from wliich we were told that five or six hun- 
dred ton.i of colTcc are sent ont in a good year. These 
fuzcndas are singular-looking OKliibli»liments, low (usually 
only one story) and very spreading, the largest of them 
covering quite an extensive area. As they arc rather 
isolated In situation, they must include within their own 
borders all that is needed to keep tlicm up. There is 
eomi-tliiug very primitive in tlie way of life of those 
great country proprietors. Major Ellison told me that 
Kome time ago a woaltby Man^ucza living at some dis- 
tance beyond him in the interior, and going to town for 
slay of a few weeks, 5top]>ed at his house to res& 



tiundrod lien, reHoviiig cacli other altoniately, have been 
At work day and ni^lit, excejitiiig 8inidayR, for seeveii 
jears. l*lie sound of iiammcr oiid {lick during tliat tJiuo 
luus liordl/ ever been slill, and so hard is Uie rock tlirotigh 
vliicli ilie tdiitiel ia pierced, tliat often tlie iieavic«t blovra 
of tlie eledge yield only a UtUe dust, — no more in bulk 
than a pJiicli of situ(r.* 

On our return wo wore detained for halt an hour at 
a station on tlie bank of tlio river Poraliyba. Tbis fintt 
visit to one of tlie considerable rivcni of Brazil was not 
witliout its oieniorable incident. One of our friend;) of 
the Colorado, wlio ports from us here on his vtay to Sau 
Francisco, said 1ms was determined not to leave tlie expo- 

* Thai rood, whirh ii but tlio bcginninK of niilitiad Irmni in Braill, 
t^cn* • ridb |iro>pMt fur •rkulilic «luilv. From thi> time forwud the difficuh; 
of mBipontiijt collcrtuyn* flora iho inicrior lo itn orxUMinl will be dimiiiiBh- 
IB(. luucad ot llio (eir himU tpociaHlu of troi'ii^iil vri;vtatir)U nave prcwrvnl 
la «nr numum*. I hope ihu hcnaAer, in ovcry icboul where grolo;;y uid 
tMlaMUeJo;;]r are imicliE. <■« thutl haiv Uri;e (ii^m* ond porliani of irunka 
■d tbow Um ttmcluni of puliii). U«cTi:rna. and Ilin like. — Um* vhtcli iv|irciii.'nl 
[m nuiieni tkoKa ilio uiciFiit n^lui'l'.'nl furvw. 'I'lia liiim i' oiiiiii^ whi'ii our 
Mxtboolu of bunuiy and loology will luac tlicir lucol, liiniMd durikClrr, nud 
preacai camprelicnsivc piciurci uf Kniura in all her phmira. 1'hun uiiljr will 
it to poaiililD ID Ruko true and perdncni cumpRruuni bciwwn ibu coadi- 
rioM of the earth in dinrtrr Uirna and lU prcvnl lupcct under ditfi-rcnt lonoi 
■nd clIntnlM. To [liia <liiy ihr. fiindmiicntul ptlnrlple Buiding our ideniitiraiiun 
ttt g^la^irxl lunnaliu'ia iu difTiP'nl up;* twu upon the uiomplion tliat each 
iwrlod liai had ono cliimclLT throushuiu ; whrrrat iho imiuraiu of k«>1d2j I> 
dvty prvKtrin;* upon us the evident thui iit coi^h pvrlu^I diirerciiC lutilii<1p« xnil 
difforal rontincnta hnyt: tlwiiri hnd their rhumclriiscic aniinals anil giliiuH, if 
MM M dlicrtlilnl ai now, al Icul nncd enough lo cxcludu llm idr:ii uf aai- 
Kxtnlly. Not only do I tank for > luit im prove iimnl in our collmiiuna with 
Improivd mMtodi of traml sail lnm»i)Oruiinn in Bnuil, but I ho|)o iliil 
tdentiilc Jonnicj* in tho tropjct will «■•« lu be uccuionni nrcnta in tlio 
1*0^1 •■• awl citiliuiioB of nuioai. and will be ai much wiiliin Uio rauih of 
«l«t7 itoicatal Jotifncji in the lemporaw tony havp hithi-rlo Iwcn. Fiir 'a^ 
ite dcuib topcetlnB the balUinit of thia road, kc AppciuUic No. IV,— I. A 



dilion witlto it oontiibudng something to its reeultA. 
imprifrUvd a Gsliing ajiparatiis, wilh a stick, a string, aiid 
II crooked piu, aud couglit two li^hes, our first harvest 
from tbo Troth waters of Hiatil, one of which was eu- 
tirely uuw to Hr. Agossiz, while the other he had never 
eecu, aud only \t\icv Troiu dc»criptioi>!t. 

April '2Sth. — This iiiuniiiig we went over to the Colorado, 
which still lies iu tlie harbor, and where the visit of the 
Emperor was expected. We all felt an jiterest in tha 
occasioii, for wo have a kind of personal pride in Hid 
fuio ehip whosu fii>t voyage has been the source of so 
much ciyoymeut to us. The Inii^erinl jacht arrived puiio- 
tualljT at twelve o'clock, and was received h^ tlie captain 
with a full sulnte D^ni \m Parfott guns, fii-ed with a proni(>I- 
ucHH and accuracy wliich the Kinpnror did not fail to notice. 
His Mftjc»ty went over the whole steamer ; and really an 
exploring expedition over sucli a world in little, with il« 
provision -shops, it-t cnttto stuUs, i(s puntrius and sctillericH, 
its endless ucconiuiud&tiuns for pa^^CIlgel'S and fi'cight, its 
Tarioty of decks and its great central firc», deep below- 
all, is no contemptible journey for a tropical morning, 
Ttie arningemcntx of the vc«»el Mconicd to excite the Lii* 
torciit and admiration both of the Empcrur aiid his suite. 
Captain Bradbury invited his Mt^osty to lunch on board; 
ho very cordially acccptc-d, and ri.'maincd soniu time aUcr- 
ward, conversing chiefly about scientific subjects, and oi^ 
pccially on matters connected with the expedition. Tba 
Enaperor is still a young man ; but though only forty, 
he has been the rt-iguing sovereign of Brazil for more thau 
half that time, and lie looks careworn uud somewhat older 
than his years. He lias u dignified, manly presence, a face 
rather stern in repose, but animated and geiiial in convoreor 
tiou ; his manner is courteous and friendly to all. 

He ] 





Mat/ Ift. — We celebrated May-day io a strange land, 
where Stay uB)>crs in the winter, by driving to the Hotanical 
Garden. When 1 say we, I mean usually tlio uitprofes^ioiial 
members of the party. The scicutific corps sre too busily 
engaged to be with us on many of our little [Jeasure 
excursions. Mr. Agassis himself is chiefly occupied in 
seeing numerous persons in oflicial pn^itions, whose influ- 
ence is important in matters relative to the expedition. 
He is very auxious to comploto those necessary prelimi- 
Qarics, to despatch his various piirlics into the interior, and 
to begin his personal inrcstigutions. lie is commended to 
bo patient, however, and not to fret at delays; for, witli the 
best will iu the world, the dilatory national habits cannot 
be changed. Meanwhile ho has improvised a laboratory in 
% large empty room over a warehouse in itic Rua Dircita, 
tlie principal business street of the city. Ilcre iu ono 
comer the ornithologists, Mr. Duster and Mr. Allen, have 
tlieir bench, — a rougli bouid propped on two ca«lcs, the 
scat an empty keg ; iu anotlicr, Mr. Anthony, witli aii 
apparatus of much tlio sime kind, pores over Im sliclls ; 
a dL}«ccling-tablc of like carpentry occupies a conKpicuouti 
poKttiou ; and iu the midst tho Prorcsxor may geiieriilly bo 
seen eittio]; on a barrel, for chairs there ure none, assorting 
or examining specimens, or going from bench to bench to 
sec how tho work progresses. In the midst of the coiifiisiou 
Mr. Burkhardt bus his little tabic, where he is making 
colored drawings of tho fish as they arc brought in fresh 
frvni tho rishing-bonts. In a small ot^oiiiiiig room Mr. 
Sceva is preparing skeletons for mounting. Every one, in 
sliort, tuLs his spociul tatk and is busily at work. A very 
questionable perfnmo, an '^ancient and tish-like smell," 
strongly tinged with alcohol, guides one to this abode of 


60 A iOt'RNKY IN' BRA7II- 

ruii*t I 

Science, where, notwitliBtanding its iiiiiittrectiTe aspect, 
Sir. Ag&!i»iz receives many mitors, curious to see the 
actual working {iivcess of a laboratory of Kaluml Hi^lorj', 
and full of interest in tbe expedition. Ucre also pour io 
specimens from ail quarters and of every kind ; voluntary 
contributions, whicli daily swell tlic collections.* Those of 
tlie party vlio are not engaged here have their work els^ 
where. Mr. HorU and Mr. St. John are at various Btatioiu 
along tlte railroad line, waking geological sections erf* th« 
nod ; fCTcral of the volunteers are collecting in tbo 
country, and Mr. Hunuewell U studying at a photognplf 
ic establishment, tilling hJniwlf to a.'v'^ist Hr. Agassit io 
this way wlwi wo arc l>cyo»d the reach of professional 

Our excursion of to-day took us to anotlier of tlioso 
oxquisilo drives in the neighborhood of tlte city, always 
along the harbor or some inlet of it, alvays in sight of 
the mountains, always bordered by pretty country house* 
and jrurdcus. The Botanical Garden is about eight miles 
from llio centre of the town. It is beautiful, because tha 
situation is udmirobly well chosen, and because anything 

* Amont; iho frcqucal Tiaitora at iha l&t>or»loi7, and one to whom Mr. 
Atiwiiz wiu jti'lcbtrd for moit cflloifnt ni'l in making hii colltctinn or llabca 
from the harbor of Rio, was Dur fritMiil Dr. I'liclifco du SiItb, wIio never loat 
>n oiijKulunllf of jMying n> nil wru ot Irivnillr MIcniionB, He dJitnd qaits 
• nonilwr of iuiurica m tlic warkinit-raom ducrilicil above. Analha frinnd 
who WM oAca at tho latmrutorv wu Dr. Mijtoll. Kalwllli»tuidins liu liup) 
)rani-tii-«, lie fuuml (iiiio to aMint Mr. A):it>>if nut anty with cdltccijoni but 
Willi ilniwini^of vniiou* tpariinciii. Ilriiiu liiiiisiilf in iiT>lr iiMurnliii. hii 
oCH)pafMion wm yprj tmIumIiIv. Tho coUwiIuiiii Mvni inilwJ rnnchod by 
ovnlributiooi from >o miuiy sourvci Uial il wuulrl In impuuiblu Io cniimcriM 
ibvai oil hiTc In Iha more Mchnical icporti of the cx|ivilUion all lucli gin* 
■re rnvrdid. nith the namci of iboic pcnoni from whom tho fi'i-FiuicBt 
were niCcivti 






titt calls iUdlf B gardoD can liardty fail to be beautiful 

a climate where growlli is go luxuriant. But it U 

lot kept with great care. Indeed, tlio vciy readiness with 

Iwliich pluits respoud to the least culture bestowed upon 

Itlient here makes it very difficult to keep grounds in that 

['trim order whicli we lliink so essential. I^iis garden boasts. 

However, one feature as unique as it is lieauUful, in itn long 

ftvenue of palms, «ome eighty feet in height. 1 wi»li it were 

stble to give in words the faintest idea of tlic arclii< 

Ftectural beaut^r of thi.'t colonnade of palmii, willi their 

[green crowns meeting to form tlie roof, iftraighl, rirm, 

knd smooth as stone eoluuins, a dim vision of colonnades 

pn some aiicteul Ef^^ptian temple rises to the imagination 

one looks down the lung vista.* 

dfag Gth. — Yexterduj-, at tlie invitation of our friend 

[r. B , we ascended tlie famous Corcovadu peak. Lcav- 

ng the carriages at tbe terminus of the Larangcinui rood, 

re made the farther ascent on hoi^eback by a winding 

Inarraw path, vrliich, though a very fair road for mountain 

Itravelling in ordinary weather, had been made exceedingly 

(slippery by the late rains. The ride was lovely throtigli 

Jic fragrant fore»t, with enchanling glimpses of view bore 

ind there, giving promise of what was before us. Occa- 

('sionally a brook or ft tittle cascade mado pleasant music by 

lie roadside, and when we stopped to rest our horses wo 

licard tlie wind rustic softly in the stiff palms overhead. 

The beauty of vegetation b euliauccd here by the eingular 

character of tlio roil. Tbo color of tlio earth is peculiar 

all about Rio ; of a rich warm red, it soems to glow 

, liuniMtU Uie mass of vines and largo-leaved plants above 

lit, and every now and thou crops out in vivid, striking 

* Tie patm b ihe bcvuliful OmJomalfmMi. 

62 A Jot-i:xicy in naxaL. 

oontnst to tlie surrauutling vordure. Kre<)ueiitlf piitli 
follon'ed the base of sucli a bank, its deep ochro aiid veiN 
lutlioii Uiits looking all the softer for their fi-ainowork 
of green. Among tho larger grovrlli, the ('aixlelabi-ii-troo 
(^Ctcrvpia) wus coiispieuoui!. The »lruiigL'1y ri'giilar »lruo- 
turo of Uic braiieli(!!S and its »ilvurjr-tiutod folingv niako it 
tlftud out lu boM ruliof from tlio darker background. It 
is a Etrikiug fcatui-e of tlie forobt iu this utiighburhuiMi. 

A wide pauoratuic prospect always cludcis dcscriptiou, hut 
certainly few can combine such rare elements of beauty as 
tlio one from the summit of the Corcorado. The immeniio 
landlocked harbor, with its gateway opou to the 6ca, tJio 
broad ocean beyond, the many i&landN, tho circle of mouii- 
tainti with soft fleecy clonda floating about the nearer peaks, 
— all these features make a vonderfnl ))icture. One great 
charm of this landscape con»i»U in the fact, that, thongti 
very extensive, it i« not so distant as lo dcpi-ive objects 
of their Individ nalily. Afler all, a very distant view is 
something like an inventory : so many dnrk, green patclivs, 
forests; vo many lighter green [miIcIics, fields; so many 
whiU) spots, lakes ; so many Hilvcr threads, rivers, Ati, 
But hero special elFccts aro not lost iu the grandeur of 
the whole. On tho extreme peak of the hciKlit a wall 
has been built ai-ound the edge, iho descent on one sido 
being so vertical that a falsa stop might liurl one to instant 
destruction. At this wall we dismounted and lingered long, 
unwilling to leave the beautiful view before sunset. Wq 
wore, however, anxious to return by daylight, and, to 
confess tlie iruili, being a timorous and inexpcrienc«d 
rider at bc»l, I was nut without some anxiety as to tlie 
descent, for the latter part of tho slippery roud had bccu 
a sliocr Stii'Umble. Putting u bold face ou ibo nuitlor. 




Iiuweref, I rasuincd my scat, trjriug to look a« U* it were 
my littliif to luotiut honiCK mi ttMj topo of liigli mouiituiiis 
and slide down to tlio bottom. This is really no iaiiccurate 
dMcriptioti of our descent for tbo Grst ton minutes, after 
wbidt we regained the more level path at the little station 
called " the PnTneiras." We are told to^lay tlmt partioa 
UEually leave their hotsos at this station and ascend the 
rest of the way on foot, the rood beyond tliat being co 
steep that tt is considered unsafe for riding. However, 
we reached tlie plain withont accident, and I look back 
upon yesterday's rido wiili some complacency as a first 
lesson in mountain travelling.* 

Mai/ 20tA. — On Friday, the 12lh of May, we left Rio on 
our first excursion of any length. A day or two after our 
arrival Mr. Agassiz had received an inviiaUoii from the 
Presdeut of the Union and Iiidnstry Corajiany to go with 
MHiie of his party over tlieir road from I'otnipolis to Juis 
de Font, in the Frorince of !llinas tior^.i, a road celebrated 
iiot only for tlio beauty of its scener>') bnt also tor iUi own 
exocllenoe. A word as to the circumstances imder which it 
has been built may not he amiss hero ; and it must bo 
confessed, tliat, if tlie Brazilians are, as they arc said to 
be, slow in llicir progress, the improrenttints tlicy do un- 
dertake ore carried out with great tiioronghness. It is 
true that llie coiitttructiou of tlio road has been intrnstod 
to French engineers, but the leading man in its projco- 
tiou and ultimate comj>loliou has been a Hraxilian, Senhor 

' I>«uiii£er'* admirable ithoKigraplu of tli« iccncrjr uboai llio ComiTnilii, 
mil ■• Imm rvtropolii. iho Oritiiji Jloantuini. anil ihe noij|h1>orh<Knt of 

Itte [cMnllr. raaf aoir be hml in the jirinl >)ti>ji> or BtMton and Ncir YarL 

1 un Ilio nunv •li»iniiu ic ii]iiki^ Ihit (art known n> 1 uni Iniklileil lo Mr. 

huuiwfct for rarv )><)noiuui aiuuUiiue in tlio illuktralluii oT Kleniiltc oh 

JMU.- L. A. 



MarJuiio Procopio Fcrrcirn Lagc, n native of tlie prorincti 
of Miiias Gcriit^s. This provincu is suid to bo remarkable 
for tbu gruut energy und iiitclligcucc of its iiibabitants, 
as cumparcd witli thos(> of tlie adjoining provincen. Per- 
haps lliis muy ho owing to its cooler cliuintc, iiiottt of its 
towns lying among lliu higlilunds of the Semi8, and en- 
joying A fiiisher, more slitnnlating air than thoso nearer 
tlie £ca>«OQst. Before undcrluking the building of tliia 
road, Seiibor huge imvcUud both in Ktiropo and America 
with the pnrpose of Icnrniiig all the modem improvements 
in works of a i^imilar character. 'I'he result bears tostimouy 
to the energy and patience with whicli he has carried out 
Ills project." Twelve years ago the only means of going 
into the interior from I'etiopnlls was through narrow, 
dangerous broken mule-tracks, :md a journey of a hundred 
miles involved a difficult ride of three or four days. Now 
one travels from PotrojMli?* lo .Iniit de Fora between sunrise 
and sunset over a post-road equal to any in the world, 
changing mules every ton or twelve miles at pretty little 
stations, built somewliat in the style of Swiss chftlets, 
each one of which is a sctUemcnt for the German colonists 
who have been induced to come out as workmen on the 
road. This emigration In itself is a great advantage to 
t]]0 country ; wherever these little Oermnu villages occur, 
nestled down among the liilU, there arc the neat vege- 
table und Dower gardens, the tidy Iioiikcs, the general 
aspect of thrift and comfort, ro characteristic of the hotter 
classes of the Gorman peasantry. Koniiiially no slaves aro 

* A comiDrni'miit'4' tatiirt, let tn tlie rucki on the dlrldins lino bciwcna 
ifce proviniTf of Riu il« Junriro and Minni Grrki, rccoriliiiit itio upoecb 
or the Eiii^rtir on tliu uccniian of iho opening of iho mml, tcaiiliva tli« 
kppRciattoa in whicb thi* undcrmUng wu h«lil t>; tlia go<«rRDiFni of Bruul. 

no bE JAXCIRO AM) TTS ravnliNs. 





alUfW^ on th« sorrice of ihc roail, PorLuguose and Q«nni»i 
workmca being chicfljr i'mplojrutl. Tliis is a regulation 
wliidi appJica t>ot only here, but on other [wlilic works 
kbout Rio. TIh) contract) graiil«d by tlie govenmtcitt 
vxprcsslj cxcludi! tlie ciQidoyniunl of slaves, though uii- 
fortuiiutcly this rule is iigt adhered to striclly, liecausa 
for the pcrfonnanco of ccrtaiu kinds of work no substiluu 
fur elaro I^mt has yot bcoti found. In tho direct care 
of the road, liowoTcr, in the repaint, for in«lane«, re- 
quiring gangs of men who arc consiaiilly nt work blasting 
rock und cracking tho frugoicnls into siuall pieceti fur the 
fresh iDaeadauiizing of any impcrfcel spot, mending any 
defects in tiic einbankiucutK or walls, ic-, none but free 
labor is employed. 

This attempt to cxcludv slutes from tho jiublic works 
IS an cmaneipuUon movemeiiti undertaken with the idea 
of gradually limiting slave lubor to agricultural processes, 
and ridding the large cities and llieir neighborhood of 
tlic preseuco of slavery. Tlic subject of emancipation ts 
110 tudt political bugbear lierc as it has been with us. It 
b very liberally and calmly di^cnitsed by all classes; the 
geueial fueling is agaiuHt the iiiNtihition, and it seems to 
bo takeu for granted that it will disappear before many 
years arc oror. During this very session of tlio Assem- 
bly one or two bills for emancipation have been brought 
forward. Even nov any entorprising negro may obtain 
his freedom, and, once obLtinod, there is no obstacle to 
his rising in socio) or [lolitical station. Hut while from 
lliis piiint of view slavery is less absolute than it wu 
with us, it bus some ajipalling aspects. The tjlarcs, at 
least ill tho cities, are literally beasts of burden. One 
sees Uie oiust cumbersome furniture, — pianos and tlie like, 



A JounxEY rs brazil. 

Bad Ihe lieavi«»t trunks or Iwrrcls, piled mw oa top of 
tlie oilier, or bales uf isiigur siid cofToc wcititiing liuiidncds 
of pound;!, — luuviiig about the strcwts on tlie licuds of the 
negroes. Tlie result of this is that th.^,ir limbs onoa 
become crippled, niid it is common to boo augrocs in tins 
piimo of life who uru quiCu cruuked nud maimed, aud 
v'j.i liai'dtj' wullc ivilhout a stick to lean upoti. In justico 
1 iiiu»t add, liowevor, tliut this practice, though it shocks 
a siruiigcr cvcu now, is gruduully disappeariug. We aro 
told thst a few years ago Uicrc wurc haixll; any baggage- 
wagons except these liviug ones, aud that tlio habit of 
using the blacks iji this way is going out of voguo. lit 
tltis as iu Dtlior mattors tlio Emperor's opinione are those 
of an (inligbtenod ami Immano man, and were Iiiii |>ower 
equal to his will, blavciy would vanish from his dominions 
at onee. Uo is, however, too wise not to know that all 
great social changes must be gradual ; but lio openly 
doclareft his abhorrence of the system. • 

But to ri^Tiirii from this digression to Uie road of tho 
Union and Industry Company. It is now completed as 
for as JuIk do Fora, atfording every convonienco for the 
transport of the rich harvest of coffee conatantly traTclling 
over il from alt the fay.eiidas in the region. As the whulo 
district is very rich in colfee-plantationa, tlie improvement 
in the means of transportation is of coui-se very ini- 
[lortAut to the commercial interests of tlio country, and 

• Since ihit wiu wriiiun iho Emperor, b( a lars« pcrunJArf incriBce, hoi 
|il«ra((il nil llia (lavui Ixjlun^injt lo tlio properly of the crown, and a ([cncrtl 
Rhtint' uf onikudpntion ha» hren annuuiiccil liy t!ie Bniitili;in i;ovcmin«nt, 
Ihc wiulom, Ibrsaight, anJ bunovati-uai uf vrlm-h Cou liurdly Iw IC) liij-hljr 
|ini»«(l. V Iliin In lulapli^!. ilavt-ry jn Itmil will clJAa]ipiwr kiiIuu tha 
eeniury bj b ^tiuIuuI ptoccu, iiivolvlns no Tiolvni couvnlsion, and jwrillins 
adtbi.r the •afctf at the t1av« tior the mlrnie of hia nuitlBr. 



Seiiha; IiOgo i» making practicable roads to tlie smallest 
teulcnwnts ia his nvigliboriiood. He has not, hovcrer, 
bo«a free from llio dinictil(i«9 which men ciia>uiit«r wli<»« 
tcbcoics arc ia advfttic« of llicir siirroiitidiugs. No doubt 
& great part of tlic di^sali^fitclioii is owing to the fuel that 
tho roul u uot Ko rvuiuiiorulivu as wss unticipaU'J, the 
advsneo of llio Horn Pedro Railroad having impaired ill 
micoWK. Still it mutt be comtidervd as a moiiumoDt to 
tlio public spirit kiid energy of the men who undertook it. 
Not wishing to interrupt the course of tliv narrative, 1 have 
thought it best to preCicc the storj of our journey by some 
account of Uiis rood, tho building of which is a signiricant 
fuvt ill tJie present history of Brazil. 1 will now take up 
again llie tliroad of our personal adrentures. 

Leaving tlus city at two o'clock in Uio ferry-boat, wo 
kept up the liarbor some GFteun mile*. There was a cool 
hrecxe, uid the day, (hough warm, was not opfirefl^iro. 
Fusing the large lUia do Governador, tbo smaller but 
exceedingly pretty inland of I'aquetu, and many oihcre, 
with llieir pulms, baniina and aeacia ti'ces, dotting the 
liarl>or of Rio and adding another grueo to Ha beauty, 
we landed in iiliout an hour and a quurtor at the little 
town of SUui'i.* Hcru we look the ears, and an hour's 
ride through low and uiarMhy gi-unnds brought us to the 
fcot of the Serm (/^jij da ifrrra), where we left iho lail- 
iDod for the po^t-coacli, which nius regularly from this 
station. The drive was delightful, in oil open diligence 
drawn by four muleti on the full gallop o^itr a rood as 
smooth as a lloor. It wound ugzag uy the mouutatiu, 

* Tu the BoroD ie Uaoi, • IcaJir In ihe (treat improieiiKnU now liolog ua 
m BrkUl, ib« i-iii(cii( or Km ilc Juieira o«o iticir pnvut cuaiuuivm run*) M 
futopul^ Ibclr £i'r>riir >uniiiirr rasidcoct- 


Be comes iipou a rock, for insbuicc, or ft rounded clcniUon 
wliicli hy it9 outline )i; would suppoM! to I>e a *' noetic iiiou- 
touii<!e," Iiui appruai:liitig it more iiLiirlf lie finds ft decom- 
posed zrast iiisteud of ft glaeiated surrncc. It is tlie sam« 
with the loose malcriulti correspond Jtig to tlic drift ot tliel 
Noi-llierii heiiiispliere, and witti all boulders or detaclied 
masses of rock; on uceount of tlieir dii>iiitegralioii vlic:* 
cTor llicy ore exposed to itio fttinospliere, uoihiug is to 
be leorued from tliclr exlemol appeanuice. There is 
ft DUlurul HUrfoec of rock, unless recently brokcu, to 
found aiiywiiere. 

Tite sun had set hefore we drove into the pretty tO' 
of Pclropolis, the summer paradise of all Rio Janciraiis , 
whose circumstances enable Uiom to leave the lieut and 
dirt aud vilu EmelU of llie city, for the pure air and 
eiichatiting views of tlto Scrra. lu a central position 
stands the summer palace of tlic Emperor, a fur gayor 
and more cheerful-looking cdiliee than the puUco at San 
Chrislovao. Hero Im pusses &ix nmiiths of llio year. 
Tlirougli tite midst of tho town ruus the pretty rivo^fl 
Piabaiiha, a shallow sti-eain, now rippling along iu tlto ' 
bottom of its bed botweoii high grocii banks ; but »'o 
were told that a night of rain in tho hot season is enough 
to swell its waters till llioy overllow and flood the road. I 
could not but think how easy it would be for any one who 
cares to see tropical scenery to come liere, when tlie direct 
line of steamers from New York is established, and, iuEtoad 
of goiug to Newport or Naliant, to lake a house in PetroiK>- 
lis for the summer. It coiiimaiid!! itll the most beautiful 
scenery about Uio, and the Imnieback rides are without 
ead. During our summer the weather is delightful here, 
juHl admitting a semblance of wood-fire tuorning and eveu- 

I to 

> bofl 



'ing. whiio liifl orange orcliards are golden villi fniit, Mid 
flowers arc ovcrjwiicro. Wc had little linic to bocomu 
■oquaitilod willi Die bcaiitjr or tliu plac«, wliicli wo liopo to 
fixploro more at our leisiiro oi> srmio fnlurc visit, for siinriso 
the ooxt momiiig mr us oit our road again. Ttm soft 
clouds Iian^iiig over tito lops of t)>o motinuiiis ircre just 
tinged with tbo Gmt rays of Hw sun wlwn wc drove out 
3f tbc town on tJic top of tlie diligenoe, Uie mules at 
full gallop, llic guard sounding a gay ruvcillc as wc rattled 
over t)ic litllv bridge and pnst tlie pretty liout'vs wlicro 
closed windows aud doors sJiowod tliat tbc iiiliabilanta were 
bardly yvt astir. 

T)ic first part of our road lay througli the lorely valley of 

^tbe Pinbanlia, the river whose acquaintance wc hod ulrvady 
lado in PetropoHs, and which accompunicd us for tlio fmt 
forty or fifty miles of our journey, sometimes a restless 
Etroam brokoii into rapids and cosvadcs, somutimes spread- 
ing into a broad, placid river, but alwitys encloEvd bctwcaa 

tmouiituins ri«ug occasionally to the height of a few tliou- 
and feet, lifting here and there a bare rocky face seamed 
with a thousand scars of lime and studded with Bromclias 
and Orchids, but more often clothed with all the glory of 

ktlio Soutliem forest, or corercd from base to summit wiUi 
colTce shnibs. A thriving coffee plantation is u very pretty 
sigtit ; lite rounded, ri'gulur outline of the sitrubs gives a 
tnried look to tlio hillside on which tboy grow, and tlioir 
glittering foliage contrasts strikingly at tliis season witli 
tlieir briglit red berries. One ofWn passes coffee planto- 
jons, however, whicli louk ragged and tliin ; in this ease 

[the trees are either sufTcring from the peculiar insect 60* 
injurious lo them, (a kind of Tinea,) or have run out 

land become exlinusted. As we drove along, the soonea 



upon UiQ road were often as amusing as they wore pic- 
tui'csquc. Now we came upon a troop of paek mulea 
with a tropeiro ((ii'ifer) at their head ; if n lat^ troop, 
tlie; wore divided iulo eumpaiiies of eight, with a utan 
to guide each compaujr. The guard wound hts horn tofl 
give WRriiiiig of our coming, and a gt-neral struggle, gar- 
nished with kicks, oaths, and many lashe», ensued, to 
indnce the mules to make way foi' the coach. TluxaH 
troop!) of mnles are heginning to diflappear fruin the wa- 
board »iiice the modern improvcinenUt in railroads ajid 
stage IiiiC8, making tra»»portation t>o much «a»ior ; but, 
until lately it was the only way of bringing down th< 
produce from the interior. Or again we fell in with a1 
line of country wngona made of plaited bamboo, a kind orj 
fabric which is put to a variety of uses here, such as th^J 
buildiug of fences and lining of ceilings or roofs, a« 
as the construction of carts. Hero and there tlie laborers 
were sitting in groups at the roadside, their work suspended 
while they cooked their midday moal, their kettles hanging 
over the (ire, their coffee-pot simmering over the coals, 
and they themselrcs lying about in gy{).ty-liko freedom^ 
of attitude. V 

At Posso, the third stage of our road, after liaving 
gono some thirty miles, wo also stopped to breakfast, a 
meal which was by no moans nnacceplable after onr three^ 
hours' ride. It is on almost universal cuntoin with tlioS 
Brazilians, e^pceiuUy when travelling, to take tlieir cup of 
black coflfeo on rising, and defer their more tiolid break- 
fast till ten or eleven o'clock. I do not know whether 
my readers will sympalhiw with me, hut [ am always dis- 
appointed myself if any book of travels, having led me 
along the weary road, docs not tell mo what the hungry 


vatiderera had to eat. It HDems hardly fair, having shared 
ibeir r«tigu<!9, that I should not also sliare their rerrc&h- 
mcnt and be invited to »it down at table with them. 
Doing, tlicrcfore, as 1 would be done bj, I shall give 
our bill of fare, and take an opporluntty of fiaying a word 
at the same time of tlie charactemtio Brazilian dislics. 
In the fint place we had black beans stewed with eanu 
tgeea (dried meat), tlie invariable accoinpntiitnent of every 
meal in Brazil. Tliore in no house so poor that it does 
not have its feijott, no house so rich as to exclude thin 
homely bat ro06t excellent di»h, a favorite alilce with high 
and low. Then tliero was chicken stewed with potatoes 
and rice, almost as marked a feature of the Brazilian 
cuitine as the black beans. Beside these, there were eggs 
•enred in various ways, cold meat, wine, cofTco, and bread. 
Vegetable^ »oem to bo rare, though one would expect a 
plentiful rarietr in this climate.* At I'osse Mr. Agas^iz 
found a cordial co-operalor in Sir. Charles Taylor, who 
expressed a warm interest in his scientific reseorclics, and 
kept ono of tlio collecting cans that he might fill It with 
Sshes front the neighboring rivers and slreanis-f 

Our kind friend Senhor JoatJ Baptista da Fonsccn, 
who was onr guide and oar host on this jonmey, Imd 

I neglected nothing which could contribnto to tlie success 
I ' Thli ohtcTvaiion vtu ronlirmnl bj our jMr'i invel. TIm Bruilisas care 
Btrlo Ibra ranetj at vq;«liti>lr«, inrl dii doe ~ivu miicli ntieniiuu to their cit1d> 
Vatlan. Thont \hitj ilo uw or* chiefly iuiportml in cniu rrum Europe. 
I t On our fcluni rraiii Ida i^nintun* > vcnr later wc (icanl wiili great, irsrct 
W ih* death «f Mr. Tartur Foe mnny moniha he took no nctivo put In ilio 
bbjeeu ot Um BxpoJition, hciog hinudf « gooil nMuniul. nnil not Mil; nuul* 
faliublo coltectionn for Mr. A^puiix, but nbo imdo nJmlmtilo colored imw- 
lofi cf fl»hu uid inrcvts. irhich it it hopol nuj Im publi»lie<l u a Tatura lim* 
wllli Ik'oihcr •ciuntilicrttulliof ihlfjoumcj. 



aDil plcasaru of the party, and had so prepared tbe wa; 
for tlic scicntltic objncts of the csciirsioQ tlial at several 
points of tJie road wo found collections of fishes and otJior 
aoimnls awaiting iis by tho roadHide. Oitce or twice, as wo 
patised a Ttaenda, a negro carrying a basket came out to 
elop Uic diligence, and, lifting tlio cool green leares which 
covered tJiem, shoved freshly oaiight R&lics of all hues and 
sixes. It was ralJier aggravating, especially as we ap^ 
proached the end of our long drire, and Uie idea of 
dioiicr readily suggested itself, to see thcni disappear ia^ 
the alcohol caiis.* !| 

At about midday we bade good Ity to tlie pretty river wa 
had followed thuij far, and at the Ksta^ai'i d'Kntre Kios 
(l>elwecn the rivei-s) cro?«ed the fine bridge which spans 
ihc Paruhyhn Bl this point. The I'arahyba is tlie large 
river which flows for a great part of its course between 
the ^rra do Mar and the Sierra da Manliquetra, cinplyiog 
into the Atlantic nt San Joao da liari'a i;()iisiderab|y to the 
nortlieut of Rio de Janeiro. One is a little bewildered 
at first by the rarioty of Serras in Brazil, because the 

• My oxjwriwira of tliii ilaj iiiii;lit woll nw;ili.-ii (lie cnri- of nny nMOraliM, 
■nd I won m;n«lf no tral imtviiiilivil llian ^rntrfiil for iti ii'lciitilii' roNlu. 
Kot onlf tuid Scnhur Lap? protiilvd us uriili (ho nioK coinfotablo prrnio am- 
TCyiiTKv. bnC ba had teat tiim('nt;i?rB in nilTnnca lO all tht iilnnlcra milling 
lii^arour tine of mvcl, rrqiicitini; i)<rin lo proviilo nil llio flilici iIiki wcra to ht 
linil In ihc mljalning riven ■nd brool:*. Tlic neciiM of ilis utiiiimiji lituatcd 
ni^r unciT-vniinf* hnil alio recclred Iniiruciinna ti> tinvn liniitnr cullcrliont in 
nudinoM, anil In rin> plaix* 1 Ibnml \itrj^ innka lillnil with lirinj; qwrimena oT 
•II th( «|)rciM in Hm Dci;:lit>orhi>oil. The irnall nuinlwr of iporlps KD'm''iumtlf 
■iMiil, Qpoii n-pCraW<1 «xvurrianii ia difTi-tcnl pxrts uf tlic biuin of tho farntltrb*, 
mnrlnwd me lliui in iliii ono iaj. ttionki to ihc kindncu of our hina bdiI hi* 
fricndi, t hiul nn opponaniiy of cxaniininc ni'Arlj iu whole Iclithjologir*! 
fiuna. and of Rinklng pmhnhly na corojilolii n cuUwllon from it m inii;r bt 
Ibntid from inj of tbl^ Mntidorable riren of Enrope in (ho l>rgf r innMomt 
AflbtObl World. — L A. 



•otd is need to express uot oiilj' iinportanl cliaiiu of 
moanlaitiSf but all tiicir ispurx. Any iDoiiiilninoiui eleT»- 
tioa is a Berra ; but tliougti tlivro is an endless iiiimt>er of 
tiiem betiroen tho Serra do Mar uud Uii; Scn-a da ManU- 
(|ucira, tbcMi are tho two' most important vhuin», niniiing 
parallel witli th(j eea-oo«st. BotvfWii them (iyw^ tlie l*ura- 
lijrbs witli its msuy hnuiclios. It i» im]>ortAnt to mak« col- 
lections liorc, MS tlic peculiar cbarucl'ir of this water bosiu, 
[lie manf tributaries of vrliieh drain the »)Uth«n> wntcr- 
slied of the Scrra da Monliquetm, and llie uorUiem water- 
slied of tlio Scrra du Mar, make it of especial intorest 
for tlM naturaht't. On ae<:giint of its ueighliorliood to 
tho Bca, it is al^ dc^ralile lo compare itA inhabitants 
with those of [lie many »hort, di^cunuected rivet's whicli 
orapty iuto the Alluiitic on tho other nde of the coast 
range. In short, it giyit* a good opportunity for teslinf 
tJiose questions uf tho gi-ographieal distribution of living 
being)*, as coxnccted with their origin, which Mr. Agansix 
BO s<runii;!y nrged upon his a^sislanu during our voyage. 
^B Soon utix. cru^^ing tlie I'nrahyba, the road fitrikes tho 
^^Varaliybuna, a trlbntiiry which enters tho main river on 
^dts oor>hcru vide, nearly opposite tlie Piubanha. The latter 
part of tlw jourucy is less wihl tlum the lirst half; th« 
^Bsiiouutaius fall away in Mmewhat gentler dopes, and do 
^■'UOt shut in the njad with the stoop rugged preciinces >o 
striking in t'te valley of the riabanha. But tliough perhaps 
loss pictutcxjue on ap|>roachitig Juis d« Fora,* tho scenery 
is boantiful enough tlironghout llie whole ride to satisfy 
tho laoit •d''.idious and keep Iho attention conslanUy awake. 
Wo arrived at the end of our journey at about six o'clock, 
and 'bund mo.4 oomfortablo accommodtitions prepared for 

* Ji torn, map* tliif |>lur« it ioKrital iitidiir th« niimo of Parabj bnns^ 


lu) nt a little cottage, built somewhat in the stjle of a 
Swiss chalet, and kept by the company for the use of 
tlieir guests or for the directors of the road. An excellent 
dinner iiwuiliM) u8 at the little hotel just opposite, the door 
of whicli is shndcd by two stately palms ; and with a ramble 
iu the ncigbboriiig grounds of Sculior Lage, and a coDccrt 
by a baud of German musicians, consisting of emjtloyees ou 
tlic mul, our day closed, — a day full of pleasure. 

Tlie foUuwiiig morning we wore indebted to Scnbor Lag« 
for a walk, as instructive as it was charming, through his 
gardens and orange orchards. Kot only lias he arranged his 
grounds with exquisite taste, but has endeavored to bring 
together the shrubs and trees most characterUtio of tlie 
country, so that a stroll through his place is a valuable 
lesson to the botanist, the more so if he is fortunate enough 
to hare the proprietor as a companion, for he may theu 
team the name and history of every tree and Hower ht 
posses. Such a guide is iuraluablo here, for the liraziliaiis 
swm to remain iu blissful ignorance of systcnialic nomeit- 
datun ; to most of them all flowers are " flores," all 
animab, from a 6y up to a mule or an elephaut, '* bixoa." 
One of tlie most bouutirul features of Sen 1 tor Lago's 
ground:* is a plantation of parasites, — an extensive walk, 
bordered on cither side by a rustic fence, over which are 
aed some of the mo^t exquisite panisvtic plants of the 
nlian forest''. In the midst of this walk is the Grotto 
tho Princcsyc?, so called afU-r the daughters of tlio lUo- 
vbo, on occasion of a visit made by the Imperial 
to Jnii do Fura, at the opening of the roud, were 
jly pleased with this pretty sput, where a spring all 
with parasitic vines, Orchids, Ac. flows out from 
TTie spnng, however, is artifirio), and is a part 



■10 tx. JAKQSi) a:(d its EWtSOXS. 

of Uie admirable i^Eteni or imgaticHi tutrodaced orcr Ui« 
wlide estate. So rapid is Uiu growtli vf eTcrjtliiiig liere 
that one can bardljr beliuvc this b«aiitiful cuuiilrj place to 
liave beeu uuder cultiratioa oiilj lire or six jcan; a few 
jean more under tb« same diroctioa will make U a tropt* 
eal paradbe. 

A. Tariety of plana combiuiug plcusunt aud Ecience bad 
be9D arranged for tbe next daj. Ftnt oa tlio li«t vas a 
drive to the " Forest of the Euprcw." Evcr>-thiug of an; 
interest in the ueigbborhood recalls the risit of tbo Im- 
perial family at tbe opejtiiig of the road. From this event 
all loyal Jiiiz de Forans date, and tbe Tirgiii forest wo were 
to vi»it is consecrated by tbe fact t)iat on this great occasion 
tlio Emperor with bb family and suite brcakfai^Icd bero in 
presence of a nnmeroiu a&scmblage of tbeir loving subjocls. 
Surely a more stately bauqut-tiug-hall could scarcely be 
found. The throne was cut in tl>e broad buttresed trunk 
of a huge figucira ; tbo ntstic tabic, built of rough stems, 
ttood under the shadow of great palm-trees ; and around 
vas tbe tropical forest, tapestried with vines, and enilaoi- 
dcred witli Orchids. Those were royal accompauimente, 
even tliough tliu whole cntvrtaliimeut was conducted vith 
a amplicity lu bumiuuy witli tlic scene. Xcitlier gold nor 
silver nor glass was brought to vie with tho beauties 
of Dflturo ; llio drill kijig-cups were made from tJie hollow 
stems of the wild bamlHKvtrec, and all tbo sorrice was 
c^ tbo came rustic description, l^io tables, seats, &c. 
stand, undisturbed, as they were on that day, and of course 
Ibis spot remains a favorite resort for humbler picnics tlino 
(ho one by which it was inaugurated. We wandered about 
for some time in the cool sbudc of the wood, lunched under 
the rvstling nahus, and then drove homeward, stopping for a 



vrhtlti by Oio sido of lbs river, where a pretty cascade re 
over tbo stoucs, and a rustic house built for tlio 
niomorublc occurrence makes a pteasaut rosling-placc. In ' 
tlio aftcraooii a heavy raiu kept us wltJau doors, but wo i 
were uot sorry, for we were in danger of having a surfeit { 
sf (jleasure, and quiet was fei-y grateful. 

A groat part of our last day at .Iiiiz de Poia was spent 
Bt the hospitable house of Mr. Ualfeld, ihc German eu- 
gineor who has gained ati honorable distinction by hia^f 
explorations in the interior. His work on the Rio Sou 
Francisco was well known to Mr. Agassisc, so that tlioy h 
found themselves at once on familiar ground, and Mr. fl 
Halfeld was able to give him a great deal of valuablo 
infonnation respecting the prospects of the present expo- ^M 
dition, especially that department of it which will go to ^ 
the Amazons by way of the Rio San Francisco and the 
Tocantins. He has also an interesting collection of objects 
of natural history, and cordially offered his assistance ia 
obtaining the iixhoa of tlie neighborhood. As for ttio 
uollections, they had boon going on famously during our 
whole visit. Wc had hardly been in Juiz do Fora twenty- 
four hount bcfoi-e a dozen collectors were actively at work. 
All the iii'chiiis of the neighborliood and many of tJia 
Germans employed on the road lent a helping hand. 
Even tlie ladies did thcJr fnll »liare, and Mr. Agassis 

was indebted to our friund Mrs. K for some of tlio 

most intvresti[ig specimens from tliis locality. No doubt 
sucli as vcvc left of tl>c " bixos " of Juiz de Fora must 
have con gm tula tod themselves on our departure the follow* 
ing morning. 

Wo enjoyed ohi- return over the same road scarcely lew 
than oar first introduction to it ; but tlio latter port of 





the day waa full of an iutcrest vliicli touched as more 
nearly. At Posse, where we had hi-cnkfastud ou our way 
up, Mr. Taylor welcomed iis witli a Portuguewj paper 
contauiing a bulletin aanouiicinK the groat vielorics of 
the North. Petersburg and Richmond taken, — IjCC io 
'oU retreat, — the war rirtmilly over. Tins was t!ie sul^ 
jBtanoe of the news received with dehght and acclamation, 
'Hot without tears of gratitude aliw, nnd wo went oo onr 
way rejoicing. As wc dn>vc up to tlie Hotel Ingles a^r 
dark that cveniiif*, hoping to get a glimpvc of an American 
paper, or ut leu^t to ban- the good news confinned throngh 
llic American Jlinistcr, General Webb, whose residence is 
•t Petropolis, wc were greeted by the announcement of the 
assunination of Uiicoht and .Sewaiil, >>otli believed at 
this lime to l>c dead. Al fmt it seemed rtl)«ohitc)y in- 
credible, and the more sanguine among us persisted in 
regarding it as a gigantic street rumor, invuuted purliaps 
by Secession symiKHliizers, till on our return tu town tho 
next moraiiig our worst fears were confirmed by the Fi«nch 
steamer just arrived. The days seemed very long till the 
next mail, which reassured ns somewhat, as it brought 
tiie news of Jilr. Seward's probable recovery and strength- 
ened our faitli in the stability of the national character. 
All the accounts, public and private, assure ns tlint, though 
lliero is mourning tbron^hont the land, there is no dis- 
nce of the general regularity and order. 

— BiKMkaT tao^— tiaaanuiuni m» fAMna* *o ti«« Isrxmm.— 
tnue Ucnsn u K» — l ^ i rwi a w vm St. Gmhb. — Luv* Km m 
Bxtvanwi tu n« ronauu »« Sxvn Axxi. — iMCuiraot mm bunc 
Ptnr BKrvKu Km uib r^na»«aji. — Dsruma raoa Jcu tm Foau. — 
Armvu. ir n» FucMkA. — Cms n t«s ftesnT. — Cibvt &ui Jo*6. 

— Orm NnniL — fair»»w* «o vrm Vmm pju^ou — Cuji» Hvirr.-' 
FMmc — Cprns ri.urun>«. — Kin-a tu Kw — Htnc Saanr^taum. 

— Od»vu boarr wtxnx» n« Stat. — Xma to nn FuayiM or Cdb- 
■BiiMDuB BMm> — Boruiot** E^tK— w T« lUTK^ — TaMTttLxnaia 
warn tziTisa lbo> — lt.k«OK Cmframa. — 0'«i»«w Doa FanaD SaccKBu. 

jITdy 22if. — Tlib afternoao Dr. and Mrs. C oiid 

mjrscir vent oiit for a coiiiitrT ramble, somevbat at a 
Tentiire, it k true, but Tediug sure that in the beautiful 
»cciiery about lUo vc could tiardly go amiss. We look 
ouc of tlio in»ny foiry-boatH in tlie neighborhood of our 
hotel, and prcsentljr found our»clrc$ on tlte mij to Bdafogo. 
Almost all the environs of the city are built along bcach«s ; 
there is the beach or Praia of Bolafogo, the Pruia of Sau 
Cbriatovao, the Praia of Sun Domingo, and lialf a dosen 
otIiCRi, all of which mean some suburb of the town situated 
on the shore with a beach iu front of iu A» it is rather tlic 
fashion for the better class of people to lire out of town, the 
lioiises and gardens in tlicsc suburbs are onen do1if;litfu1. 
We enjoyed the sail exceedingly. For a part of the way 
the boat keeps close under the mountains, and no descrip- 
tion can g^ve an idea of their picturesque outlinos or of 
the woiiderfiil coloring which softens all their asperities 
and mellows the whole Irindbcape. Wo landed at a jetty 



W^ diroirn out from a romaiiticJookiiig road, «ai as ve toaud 

I M carriage oa the wharf, and ascerUmed that the boat did 

not lutum Tor two bours, wo wandered up Uib road to see 

>vhera chance would lead us. Tbo aflenioou would bave 
beou full of interest bad it coded in tli« walk along tbe 
creaceat-ebapod bay, witb tho water rippling on Ibe sands, 
and tbe moanlDiiis opposite all purple id iJic aflcmooa 
I imuhine. Tlic road brotiglit us, Itowevcr. to a magaiii- 
I cent bufpital fur tlic insane, Uie lio»pi(al of Doni Pedro So- 
Ignndo, wliicb wc bad M«n and admired from the deck of 
I the steamer on tlic daj of our arriral. We entered Uic 
kgnmnds, and as lite great door of tlie tmilding wan, open 
land tho official ou guard looked bj no nicaii& forbidding, 
' we aMcoded tbe steps and wout in. It is difficult to 
I imagiufl an edifice more appropiiate for tlie purpose to 
wbicli it i.t devoted. It i» true we saw oitt^ the public 
rooms and corridors, as a [lennit wa.s required to cuter 
tl>e wards ; but a plan luuigitig near the entrance gave 
fna an idea of tbe arraiigeoient of tlie building, and its 
general aspect bore tcstiaiony to tlie cleanliness, cboerrti)> 
nesa, and order of tlie i^tiiblisJiinenl. Some of tbe public 
rooms were very liniidsome, — especially oue, at the end 
of wbich stands a statue of tbe boy Emperor, taken, 
no doubl, at tlie time of bb coronatjon. In tbe man of 
forty you still recognize the frauk, intoUigoul, manly Cice 
of UiB lad on whom such great responsibility was thrown 
at tbe age of Gfteoii. As we went up tbo gpacinus stair 
cage, the sound of music brought us to the door of tlie 
vliapel, where tlio evening service was going on. Patients 
and nurses wera kneeling togctlier ; a choir of female 
voices was singinj; swcclly a calm, peaceful kind of 
music ; that somewhat monotonous chanting, so passtoO' 
4» r 

1«M in 1t8 regnlar movement, which one bears in Ihc 
Catholic Cliiirch ; the candl«« Tore burning bcroro tho 
•Itar, but the greet wtiidoir jii^it oubidG tb« door ww opcTi 
to the s«ttiiig Kun, and, an I tttiK>d in th« balcony tookint; 
out on the inountainit and listening to the mnsic, 1 thonght 
that a mind which had gone a'ltray might find its way back 
again En such dcciico and under such influeiices. Certainly, 
if naltiro lius any healing jK)wer, it must l>e felt here. We 
lingered and listened as long ns we dared, and stole away t» 
the services wore elwing, jiivt )ii timo to take the evening 

Mat/ 2.'>rt. — Tlic fisli-markot i(, in all seaport towns, a 
fororite haunt with Mr. Agussii, and liero it lias uu ospcirial 
inton^st for him on account of the variety and boauiy of tho 
fishes brought in every morning. I somo^mes accompany 
him in these rambles for the ploaeure of seeing tlio fre«h 
loads of orangos, flowers, and vegetables, and of watch- 
ing tlio pielnrcsquc negro group* selling llieir wares or 
sitting about in knots to go»ip. Wo liai*o already learned 
that the fine-looking athletic negroes of a nobler typo, at 
least physically, than any we see in the States, are the 
soKralted Mina negroes, from the province of Mina, in 
"Western Africa. They are a very powerful-looking race, 
and tlie women especially are finely made and hare quita 
a dignified presence. I am never tired of watching them 
in tlie street and market, where they are to be seeii in 
iiumljers, being more commonly emjtloyed as Tenders of 
fruit and vegetables than as house-servants. It is said tliat 
a certain wild and independent element in their character 
makes them unfit for domestic service. The women always 
wear a high muslin turban, and a long, bright-colored siiawl, 
oitber crossed on ttio breast and thrown carelessly over tho 


flioiilder, or, if the day bo chilly, drawn closely around 
lliem, their arms hidden in iu folds. Tha (unoiuit of ex- 
preRsion tlioy tlirow into t)io tieo of this sliawl is quit« 
amazing:. I watcliiMl a tall, snpcrlily made woman in tho 
street tOKJay who was in a Rreat possion. Gesticulating viic 
lently, she flung liur shnwl wido, tlirowing out boili asm*. 
Uten, drawing it suddenly in, folded it about her, aitd 
slretcbod her«'lf lo her full hoiglil ; presently opening it 
I morv, olio ehook her tiet in the fitco of her oppoucnt, 

Hiid ttier,, rusting one end of IiPr long drapery oTcr her 
shoulder, Htalked away with tlio air of a tragedy qnccn. 
It »err^ OS a cradle aUo, for, tyiii^r it looMtly round tlicir 
h\p», they slip tliB baby itilo the folds boliiiid, and tJicrc 
it liang^, rocked to sleep by the mother's movement as &ho 
walks on wtlh her long, swinging tread. The Mitia nc- 
grb^ i» nliiio»t invariably remarkable for her beautiful 
liaiid and nnn. She seems to bo couscious of tliis, a»d 
usually wears clothe- fit ling bracelets at the wrist, made of 



Mtno bright-colored beads, whicli set ofl* tlie fcnn of the 
hand and are cscccdinglf becoming on tier dark, shining 
tlcii: I'heoe negroes arc Mohaniinedan», and an &aid to 
remain faithful to their prophet, though surrounded by the 
observances of the Catholic Church. They do not seem 
to me so af&ble and rcsponsiro as the Congo negroes, but 
are, on the contrary, rather haughty. One nioniing T camo 
upon a cluster of them iit the market brcaklastliig after 
Uieir work was done, and I stopped to talk witli Iheni, ask- 
ing what tltey had for breakfast, and trying various subjects 
oil which to open an acquaintance. Itut they looked at 
ne coldly and suspiciously, bai'cly answering my questions, 
ftud were evidently relieved when I walked away. 

Maif 26tA. — Tijuca. lu the pleasant environs of Rio 
tliere is no resort more frequented tlian the establishment 
of Mr. liennett at Tijuca, and wo were not sorry tlie day 
before yesterday to leave the hot, du^ty city, with a pleasant 
party of friends, for tliis cluster of mountains, some eigh- 
tcou hundred feet above the sea lore! and about eight miles 
from Rio. It takes its name from the peak of Tyuca, so 
cons]>icttous an object in the coast range. On our arrival 
vc were very cordially welcomed by our host hini.''olf, who 
vaa not quite a stranger to us, for Mr. Agnssiz has hcen 
already indebted to him for valuable colloctioutt. Mr. Ben- 
uett has an English mnn'^ lovo of nature, and is vcrj- fu- 
miliar with tJie Iwtany and zoology of tlie beautiful region 
which has been Iiis home for many years. Under his giiid- 
ftnoe, we have taken » number of plca^nt raniblus and 
rides, regretting only that we cannot avail our!H>lves for a 
longer time of his intiraiUo knowledge of the locality aid 
its productions. 

1 have alluded before to the perplexing character of Uie 


86 A lOtlRhTY rN BRA7IU 

geo1o}Q-, and llic almost iinivcrml decon)po»itioo of th« 
rock surfaces, making H difliciiU to dociplwr them. Tli4 
prcseiico of tlio drill pltcnomcnu, so uiiirttri'iil in tbc Nortli- 
era liemisphcre, lias bocu denied hero ; but, in his long 
valk to-day, Mr. Agas^z lias liad an opportunitj of ob- 
serving a great nnmVwr of arratic bonldcrs, baring no 
connection with the rouks in place, and aUo a sheet of 
drift studded with boulders and resting above tlie partially 
stratilied metiunorphic rock in immodiato contact with it. 
I introdiico here a letter wriltcii by bim to bis friend. 
Professor Peirce of Uarrard University, under the first 
imprciiaion of tho day's cxporieuce, which will best esplaiu 
his Tiew of the subject, 

" My reak Peirce : — 
"Yesterday was one of tlio Iiappicst days of my life, and 
I want to share it with you. Ilere I am at Tijuca, a clus- 
ter of bills, about oiphteon biindrod feet high and some 
seven or eight miles fruro Rio, in a cbanning cottage-lihe 
hotel, from the terrace of which you see a drift hill with 
innumerable erratic bonlders, as cbaracteristic as any I 
have ever seen in New England. I bad before .wen sundry 
unmistakable traces of drill, bnt there was everywhere con- 
neetod witli the drift itself such an amount of decom])oi5cd 
rocks of various kinds, that, though I could see the drift and 
distinguish it from ibe decomixiscd primary rocks in place, 
on account of uiy fiiniiliarity witli that kind of deposits, yot 
I could probably never have satisfied AEiybody eUc that tbero 
U hero an equivalent of tbc Nurlhcm drift, bad I not found 
yesterday, near Dennett's hotel at Tiju(;n, tbc most palpable 
superposition of drift and decomposed rocks, with a di,-tinct 
line of demarcation botwcco the two, of which I shall secure 




a ipx^ p1inlo^ra|i]i. ThU lonnlttr afTorded mfi at once sn 
opiKirtuiiity o( contn^ling Uio decowjiowHi rocks whinli 
form > oliaractoristic ffiattire of tlie «lio>« country (us iar 
as I liftve yet wen it) villi t)><^ siiperincnnibCDt drift, and 
of making myself familiar «illi tlie pficiiliarllies of both 
deposits ; so that I lru»t I fliall 1>o a1il« horeaflor to 'lis- 
tin^iiih both, wlictlicr tliej are in contact with one Anoll!er 
or fbaiid soporatelj. Tlicsc decomposed rocks arc quite a 
new feature to mo in tito stmctnrc of the country. Imaf;ino 
granite. gitei««, mica slate, clay Hlate, and >ii fact nil Did 
Tarioiis kind* of rock» usually found in old metaniorphiv 
formaUons, rcdncod to tlic coitditioii of a sofl inulu. ox* 
liibiting all tlie minoraiofneol elements of Ihc rocks, as 
Diey may have iiocu Iicforc they were decoinpused, but 
now completely divinlcgrnted and resting »ido by side, as 
if tliey had been accuninlatcd artilicially in the manner 
you liavQ seen glans cylinder filled witb rarioui'ly colored 
Minds or clays to imitate llie appearance of the beds of 
Gay>IIead. And through this loose ma!u> there mn, here 
nnd there, larger or iimaller dikes of qiiartx-rook or of 
graiiiie or other rock-i c<|nally di.4iiitegratc{l ; but Ihey 
retain the arrangement of their materials, showin); them 
to be disintegrated dikes in large diMatcgratcd niaAscs of 
rock ; llte wIkJo ]>a»»ing unmislakably to rocks of tlnj 
wiine kind in wbidi the decomposition or di^intcgrutiuii 
\» only partial, or no trace of it visible, and the whole 
mass exhibiting then the appearance of an ordinary mclu- 
iiOr[tIiio set of i-ocks. 

" That such masses forming evci'}'whcro the Mirfuco of ll'o 
lounlry »hould Im U great obi^taclc to tlio study of th« 
trratic ihenomcaa b at ouco plit)n,aiid I do not tlicrofore 
vinder that those nlic scum familiur witli the country 





should HOW culorbLio Uio ides tliat tbc stirfice ty>ck3 ar« 
everj'vlicre decomposed, and that tlicrv Is no ermtic forma- 
tion or drift licro. But upon close oxuiniDftlion it is ca»y 
10 porc«ivo that, while the decomposed rocks consist of 
•mall parlicloti of the priniitire rocks which tliey rcpr«sviit, 
with tliuir dikes and all other ch»r«rt«ristic features, thcro 
U uot a trace of lai^er or suiiUier boulders in them : vliiW 
the auporincunibeiit drift, consisting of a similar pa^Vi, 
ilow not show Uie slightest sig» of the indistinct stratiScn- 
tion characteristic of the decomposed mctamorpliic rocks 
below it, nor aiiy of tlic dc<K)mposcd dikes, but is full of 
Mtrions kinds of boulders of various dimensions. I have 
licrt ^t Iraocd the boulders to tli«ir origin ; but the majority 
COitMst of a kind of gi'eei]»tanc compo^d of equal amounts 
uf n Krocni^h black honiblcndc and feldspar. In Entrc 
Hloii oil tho Puruhyba, I was told by an engineer on tlie 
pud tlmt ill Minas Goriios iron mines are worked iu a 
nwk llko llii'M* bouldi>i-s. This week I propotio to explore 
Iho Sorra da Munliiineira,* which separates the province 
(tf lUit hvm MiuAs, and may adiiiuice the question further. 
Hul you M)u that 1 nood not go to the Andes to find 
i<tnilU% ibv>U)th it may yet he necessary for mc to go, 
III unUif 1(1 tracu tlio evidence of glacier action in the 
•twiiiniiUliou of this drift ; for yon will notice that 1 
Imvh tnily itlveu you the otidonce of extensive accumu- 
UUou« of drift >)inilar in its characteristics to Northcrii 
tllin. Ihil 1 Imvii not yet won a trace of glacial autioi 
|U\<fwity k|<iv«king, If )>»lishcd surfaces and scratches and 
l\tiiMna wiv o»|HHiiiiny to ho considered as such. 

" t'hn d<>i«tni|Hkvltioii of tlio Mirfaw rucks to tho extent 
ki ttlilnli It tnko* jiIgii.'H) \wn is wry remarkable, and points 

' Ui AflMM «M |d«i«iiM4 ftwu UMkldf ikii rxmnioa. 


new gmilogicat agency, tliiis far not diiic»«>!ic<I in our 
i^jlogical tlioories. It is obrioiis liere (nn<] todaj witli 
tlie pouring rail) wliich kc«p8 ixic *.n doors I hare xaljs- 
faclory CTiiJoiicc oT it) tli»t tlic n-urm mius Tailing upon Hie 
Itesled soil imiKt liave a very [lowgrful action in aocclcrnting 
tbe dfcomposilion of rocks. It is like torrentii of hot water 
fiiUiiig for ages iu succession upon liot stonus. Tbiuk of 
the cflbct, and, instead of wondering ut tlic large amount 
of decomposed rocks wliicli yoii meet uvorywliero, you will 
bo surprised that tlicre arc any rocks left iu tlioir primitive 
condition. It is, howorer, tlie fact, that all llie rocks you 
Ece are encased, as it were, in a lining of tlio decomposed 
part of t'loir surface ; tliey are actually covered witU a 
. rotten crust of their ovu substance. 
^H " Ever truly yonrs, 

^^^^^ "L. AGAsatz." 

^P Among Uio objects of special interest wliicli to haro 
seen here for tlic fu'st time arc tbe colossal fruits of tlie 

I Sapucaia-trec, a hpccies of Lucytliis, belonging to tlie same 
family as tbe Brazilian nuts. These fruits, of which there 
are a number of species, vary from tlie size of an apple to 
that of on ordinary melon ; tbey resemble an urn closed 
villi a lid, and coutaui about fifty seeds as largo as almonds. 
The woods all over tliese Tijuca hills are beautiful and 
wonderfully luxuriant ; but I lack nunte^ for tbe vai'iotis 
trees. We are not yet familiar ciiongh uitli the aspect 
of the forcfit to distinguish readily its dilTcrcnt forms of 
vt^etatioii ; and it is besides cxecndinglv diiTicuU here (o 
ascertain tbe common names of pUnts. The Brazilians do 
not seem to me observant of nature in its details ; at all 
events, I never get a satisfactorj' answer to the question I 



am !0«R(antly putting, " What <]o yon call lliis Lrco 
noftSr?" And it you ask a butAii!i>(, he iiiTuriably gives 
f>Q tlio scientific, not tliu popular iininc, tior docs lie seem 
to be awaro llint uny siicli exists. I have a duo respect far 
iiomciiclRtiirc, but when I inquire (bo name of some very 
graccrul trco or some exquisite flower, I like to receive a 
inauHgcubla answer, sometbing thnt may fitly be introduced 
into tlie privacy of domestic lifo, rather tbaii llie ponderous 
ofTiL-rd Latin appellation. We are strnck witb ilie variety 
of Slclastomas in full flower now, and very conspicuous, 
from llieir large jmrple blon-^oms, and have remarked also 
several species of the Boinhacooe, easily di»liiigiii»l)cd by 
tticir jwculiar fulingo and largo cotton fruit*. Tlic Csjide- 
liibra-lieS (Cyclopia) is abnnilunl bcrc, as tbroug-liout tho 
iiei;rliburliu(jd uf Rii>, and is covered ut lliis st-ason with 
fruit rcscml'liiif; sumcwliut tlic frnlt of tlio broad-true, but 
more slender and cylindrical in form. Large Euphorbias, 
of tlio size of forcst-trcos, alsg attract our attt'iition, for 
it is the first time wo liavo scon them except as slirutts, 
sud> as the " Estrella do Norto" (Poinsettia). But tliero 
is before Mr. Bennett's liouso a very large iiut-troe, "No- 
piieira," of tliia family. The palnia are numorous; among 
llicin the Aslrocaiynm Cari, wlioso spiny stems and Icavoa 
make it diflicnlt to approach, is very common. Its bunches 
of bright cbcstnnt-browu fruit liang from between the leaves fl 
which form its crown, each hunch about a foot in lenglb, 
massive and compact, like a Urge cliiKtor of black Hamburg 
grapes. The Sj-ugrus palm is also fi-equcnt ; it has a 
greenish fruit not unlike tho olivo iii appearance, al«o 
hanging in large pendent bunches just Iwlow ihe leaves. 
Tlic mass of foliage is ovorywliei-c knit together by parttsitJo 
vines without number, and every dead branch or fallei; 





un ns no coxtisucd. 

Irank is overgrown by parasite*. Foreign tropical trees 
arv cultintcd about Uie Itnusn ererynburc, — bread-fruit] 

FKilai: Tnina n*«n[r*wn ly hnulM. 

pd Afiif^isas, a kind of plum of Ihu hawthorn funiilv. 
etc. The bamboo of ilio Kast Indies uho is u»cd 
to form avenues in Rio da Juiioiro and its environs. The 
allcTs of boniboo in the t^rouiids of tlie palace at San Oliriit- 
tovSo are among its must bcuuliful omnmciils. 

ilr. AgiLSsiz has been Mirprised lo fmd that Kbnmps of 
considerable sixe are cuinmon in all lh« broulcK and erea 
iu the highest pools of Tijuca. It scenis gti-ange to meet 
with Crustacea of marine forms in mountain streams. 

To-day we are kept in the house by a violent raiu, but 
ihero is enough to do in loolcing over «pccuneus, working 
up journals, writing letters, A'C, to prevoiit tbo time fn^m 
hanging heavy on our bandit. To-morrow wc return to 




A JOimNinr is brazh. 


Matf 28(*, Rio. — To^iny i« Mr. Agnssis's birlJiday, 
and it lia» beoii so afTectiooatcly rcmembercid here tliiit it 
is difficult to believe oiirseWc* in a rorcigii coimlry. The 
Svisfi ciLiaens gave liini a dinner jesterdtiy on (he eve 
or the anniveraai?, where eveiytJiing recalled the land of 
hiii birth, without excluding tlie land of hiH sdoption. T]w 
room was draped with the flags of all the Cantons, while 
t)ie exiling was covered by two 8w)^s national flags, united 
in the centre just above his own seat by the Amorican flag, 
tlms recognizing at once his Swi^ nationality and his Ameri- 
can citizenship.* Tim Brazilian flag wliicli gave thom all 
hospitality and protection had also an honored place. The 
(Sto is rcporti>d to have been most genial and gay, closing 
ivilh a number of student songs in wliich all l)ore tlmir 
sliaro, and succeeded by a serenade under our windows. 
To-day our room is festive with flower* and other de«» 
rations, and friendly greetings on every sH'i remind us that, 
though in u furcign land, we are nut among strangers. 

JuKf 14(A. — Since our return from Tijuca we have been 
almost constantly in town, Mr. Agasftz being engaged, often 
from Cftrly morning till deep into the night, in taking care 
of the specimens which come in from every quarter, and 
making the liiml preparations for tlie parties which he 
intends sending into the interior. The most important of 
these, or rather the one for which it is mo&t difficult to 
|)rocure the necessary facilities, is bound for the upper 
course of the San Prajicisco. At this poiut one or 
more of tlieir number will stnke across tlie country to 

■ Thoneh R naidont or tbe Unii«d Suim lOr ni.>arl7 twniij }*sni, Ur 
Agnmi WM only Dnturuliwd iii ISM. At tho mumviit when a (cvrifml 
dbtnil or our iuiiiiuiiont prcvark'd in Eiinip«, ii wsi a taustaethn lu IiIk 
to iciUfy b; wmiB pemiitl and public act bin coojiclcncc in ihcm. 

1 lie 


lo Tocanlins, nud descend that riv^r to tlio Amuous, 
while the otIiOR will follow Uio valley of the Piauhy to 
(he oo««t. Tim is « lutig, difficult, but, as wo are as- 
sured, not ft dnngerotis Journey for yoiitig and vigorous 
moil. But wishing lo aiiticijAto every (rouble lliat may 
befall tliom, Mr. Agasiiiz ha^ made it lii» busines!) to ns- 
certaiu, as far as pomibte, the nature of tbe route, and 
to obtain tetters to the most influential people for ever; 
step of Iho road. This has been no ligbt task ; in a 
country where there are no establi>ihod meann of internal 
oommuntcatton, where mules, guides, camaradas, and eron 
an armed escort may bo necessary, and must be provided 
fur in advance, the preparation for a journey tlirongh the 
Interior requires a vast deal of forothoiighl. Add to tliis 
Ihc natiotiul ha])it of procrnsUnation. tlic profound convic- 
tion of the Braztltun that to-morrow is better than to-day, 
and one muy undcixand how it happens that, although it 
ha? been a primary object Rince our arrival to expedite the 
parly to the Tocantin.", their departure has been dchiyod 
till now. And yet it would be the height of ingratitude 
to tpve the impression that there has been any backward- 
liess on the part of tlie Brazilians themselves, or of their 
ivemment, to facilitate tlie objects of the oipodition. On 
tlie contrary, they not only show a warm interest, but the 
utmost generosity, and readiness to give oU the practical 
id in their power. Several leading members of the Cabl- 
et, the Sonata, and the House of Ropresontatives have 
found Umo now, when they have a war upon their hands, 
and when one miniiitry ha« liecn going out and anoUicr 
coming in, not only to prepare tbe necosNary introductions 
br these pftTtict from Rio to the Amuzons, but also to writo 
lUt the TOuti», giving the mott important directions and 

jotnwET d BSA/n. 

iiironnaliOQ for tlio ««|>arat« jovirnC3rs.* Yet witJi tlic 
will in the world tlio Brazilians know comparulively little 
of the interior of their own country. It is necessary to 
collect all thut is known frtMn ■ variety of sottrccs, anil then 
to combino it m well os muy tw, so as to form an orguiized 
)>l.iii. Even then n grout deal mu^it he led to h« decided in 
nccordanco with circnmstunce^ which no one can fonwoc. 
No puini haro been spared to aiiticipotc all the prohahle 
difTioilties, Dud to pmride fur llieni as far as it is linmaiily 
jiOK^ihle to do so ; und we feel that tliis journey, a part 
of wliieh has boon made by very few jierions before, liaa 
nCTcr been undertaken under better anspiccH. Tliis party 
will explore the upper coune of the Kio [>oce, the Rio 
das Velhaji, and the San Fntncisco, with the lower conmo 
of the Tncnnlins and its tribnlnriex, as far as they cati ; 
making also collections of fossils in certain regions npoii 
the route. Another party, starting at almut the same time, 
is to keep nearer the coa»L, exploring the lower course of 
the Bio Doce and tlie San Francisco. Mr. Agassiz thus 
hopes to make at least a partial surrey of this gi-cat water 
fystom, while he himself undertakes ll>e Amazons and its 
ti-ihutarios.f In the mean lime, the rcMilt of tlie weeks 
he has been obliged to spend in Rio, while organizing tlie 
work of thc»o parties and making iJie practical arrange- 
ments for its prosecution, has been very satisfactory. The 
collections arc large, and will giro ft tolerably complete 
idea of the fauna of this pronnce, as well as a part of 

• A ihott nccoant of ihwe vxjilu ration* may be fuunil *t the «nil of >In 
latum* — 1. A. 

t I ani jMriinulaTly inilcbwl lo Scnklor Th. Oiiotii, B«nni d« Pndo*. 
tkattm l^iiip™, Sfiinior I^ranagua. Scnhor Pniiln Suum. iind Scnbor J. B. 
da ifoant^. ^ infurnnuinii, m&pt, snd oilier ilociiiiicnw rclabic u tfac nponi 
bitni'lril lit l^^ii'lorcd liy nif joun|; fricndi and myuHt. — L. A. 






un ts no coKTixuEiK 


UaI of Uiitas Geraea. A turvej of Uie Oom Pedro Ra3- 
ruad, made uuder bis directiOD by his two jroiuig friouds, 

I Messrs. Hart and St. Jobn, is also an exoidloiit Utginning 
of tho work iu this dcpai-tmoiit, aud bis own obsorvalioii«J 
on the drift phenomena bare an imporUut bl^arillg oa 
Uie great questions on wliich lie liopcd to throw uew 
light ia coming bflre. The closing words of s lecture 
deUT,ired by him last ovoniii); at (bv Collcgio Dom Pedro 
^^ i^egundo will best express bis owu c»tiiuuliou of tbc fuels 
^Bhe has collrctod in tbcir bearing on the dnft [rfionomcnu in 
B other parts of tltv world. After gicing sonic account of 
H UiO erratic blocks sud drift obncrred bjr liim at Tljuca 
W mid already described iu bis luUer lo Mr. Pfia-«, b« 
added : ** I wish licro to luako a nice distinction lliat I 
B may uot be inisunder^'lood. I a^rm that tho crralio pho- 
" uotncna, \\t. erratic drift, in innnetliate superposition with 
partially deoompowd stratincd rock, exi^l here in your 
H Immediate ueigbboHiood ; I Ulitrve that these [dienoniena 
ftre oounected, berc as eUewboi-e, with ilio action of ice. 

I It is nevertheless possible that a more intimate study of 
thcM subJQctii ill tropical regions may reveal some phase 
of tlie phenomena not hitherto observed, just as the in- 
rostigation of tho glacial action in tlie United States has 
shown that ioiinense masses of ico may movo over a 
plain, as well aa over a mountain slope. Let me now 
urge a special study of these facts upon the young ge- 
ologists of Rio, as they have ncror been investigated and 
their presence is usually deiiiad. If yon ask ine, 'To 
what end? — of what use is such a discovery?* — I UH 
ewer, It is given to no mortal man to pi-edict what may 
bo tlte result of any discovery in tho realms of nature. 
When tlie electric current was discovered, what was it I 




A curiosity. Whcu tho first electric mncliine was 
veatod, to wlint ate was it putT To make puppets dancs' 
for Uio amusement of ch'iMrea. To-duy it is the most 
poworful engiuo of civilizatiou. But should our work 
bav« no other result than tJiis, — to know that certain 
facts ia nulurc are thus and not otherwise, that tlieir 
cuuses WLTO such and no others, — this result in itself is 
good enough, and great enough, since the end of mau, his 
wm, his glory, is the knowledge of the truth." ^ 

One word upon these lectures, since wc are told by Ui8" 
Bruzilians themselves thul the iutrocluctiou of public \eo 
tures Among them is a novelty and iu & certaiu scn«« ao 
era in their educulional history. If any suhjuct of science 
or letters is to be presented to the public here, it is doiie 
Under special conditions before a selected audicuce, whero 
tha paper is read iu presence of the Emperor with all 
duo solemnity. Popular iti^trnctioti, with admittance for 
all who care to listen or to learn, has been hitherto a 
thing unknown, llie suggestion was made by Dr. Paclieco, 
the Director of the Collegio Doni Pedro II., a man of liberal 
culture and great intelligence, who has already done much 
for tho progress of education in Rio de Janeiro; it found 
favor with the Kn])>eror, who is keenly alive to anything 
which can stimulate the love of knowledge among his 
people, and at his request Mr. Agassiz has given a course of 
lectures iu French on a variety of scientific subjects. He 
was indeed very glad to have au opportunity of introdncing 
here a means of popular ed<ication which he believes to 
have been very salutary in its influence among us. At 
first the presence of ladies was objected to, as too great au 
lonovatiou on national habits ; but even that was overcome, 
■lid the doors were opened to all comers, the lectures beiug 




the true New England fashion. I must saj Uut, 
if the absolotely uninterrupted attention of au audionce U 
«nj test of its intelligence, no man could ask a better one 
thau that wliicli Mr. Agaseiz has hsd the pleasure of ad- 
dttssing in Rio de Janeiro. It has also been a great pleasure 
to ititn, after teaching for nearly twenty years iu Eiiglish, to 
iliniw ofT the Tctten of a foreign tongue and speak again ui 
French. After all, witli a few exceptions, a man's natire 

I language remains for him the best ; It is the olomont in 

^■rhich he always mores most at ease. 

^H The Emperor, witli his family, has been present at all 

^'Uiesc lectures, and it is vortliy of note, as sliowitig tliu 
simplicity of hU character, that, instead of occupying tlm 
nuscd platform intended for ttiem, he caused the dioin 
to bo placed on a lord with tho others, as if to show that 
m science at least tliero is no distinction of rank.' 

June ll(A.^To-djij has been a festa, but one tho sig- 
nificance of which it is «>mewlint ditEcult to understand, 
80 singularly Is the religious clement mingled with tho 
grotesque and quunt. In iho Ctiurch it is tlio fco^t of 
Corpus Christi, but it happous to fall on the same date as 
another fc»tiral in honor of St. George, which is kept with 
all sorts of antique ceremonies. I went in the morning 

with onr young friend, Mr. T , to the Imporinl chspel, 

where high mass was celebrated, and at the close of tho 
scrriccs we had some difGcuUy in finding our way back 
to the hotel, before which the proouKsion was to pass, for 
Ibe street wa« already draped with all sorts of gay colors 



* 8i»M U «a« R}iortol in the n«inpapen lh»t tho proi?ced( of 
Itcutta wen dnrotol to tho expedition, it miir be well (o mention hen 
that Itw; w«te fre^ giTcn nrnplj' >i the rcquat of itw Emperor, and opeg 
10 iH *ilhDat charf^. 



atui crowded witli specuton. First iu order camo tt,« 
religious part of the prooessiou ; ■ long u-ray of pri4.<sls 
aud church oflicials carrjriug lighted candles, pjratnids of 
floveni, banners, &c. Then came the lioat, under a cuaopf 
of iriiite satin aiid gold, supported h; iiiaK^iite stafEs ; tlie 
bearers vere the htghcxt dij^nitiiriits of llio laud, Grst 
among th«m being Uie Emperor hiiuNeir aiid his sou-iii- 
Uw, the Duke of Saxe. In tirangc coutnut vitli tliase 
solotuuitics wn» tlio Ktufli.-d cquestrinn %nre of St. Goor:ge, 
a huge, unwieldy shape on hor^liack, priircdvd and followed 
by ridcns almost as grotesque us hiui^clf. Willi him came a 
uumbcr of orders rvtembliug, if uol tlio samo as, tlic Free- 
UosoQG, tho Odd Fellows, aud like societies. The better 
educated Braziliuns speak of tliis procesbioti as an old 
legacy from Portugal, which has lost its siguiiicance for 
them, aud which they would gladly see pass out of use, as 
it is already out of date. 

Tills eroiiiug Mr. Agassiz gave the closing lecture of his 
course. It is to be followed uext week by a lecture from 
Or. Capanema, the Brazilian gcalogii>t, aud there will be 
ail attempt made to organize courses of public lectures on 
the same plan hereafter. Our iiujubers are gradually di- 
minisliing. Last week the party for the interior, consisting 
of Messrs. 8t. John, Allen, Ward, and Sceva, started, and 
Messrs. Hartt and Copelaiid leave iu a day or two to imder- 
take an exploration of the coast between the f'arahyba do 
Sul and Hahia. 

Juitte SOrh. — On tho 21st wc left Rio on onr way to 
the province of Allnos Geriies, whore we were to pass a 
week at the colfec fozcnda of Scnhor Lagc, who received 
U9 so courteously ou our former visit to Juiz de Fora, 
aud who wai^ so inQucnlial ui projecting and carrying out 







Vokat Bnd 1 Ldnstiy n)ad. T)i« journoj to Juis de Fors, 
ugh we had tnadc it once before, had lost notliing of its 
bcntity by familioritj', and bod gaiacd io iutercst of aiiothor 
kind ; for bis cxamiuatioii of ibc erratic drift at Tijucs has 
f^Tcn Mr. Agot^iz tlia key to tlic gcolo^cal coni^litiiUon of 
tbe soil, nnd wliat seemed to him quite iiioxpliL-nble on 
our 6ntt excursion over this rood U uow perfectly legible. 
It is intcrextiiig to watdi the progrc»t of an iuvestif^Btion of 
this character, and to ece how the mctital process gru<lu3]|y 
cleans niray the obscurity. The perception bocumcs »harp- 
enod by dwelling upon tfao Rubjoel, and the mind adapts 
itself to a difficnit problem as tho eye adapts itself to dark- 
ness. That which was confused at first presently becomes 
etear to the mental vision of tlio obecrvcr, who wafchos and 
Taits for t)ie light to eater. There is one ofloct of the 
atmospheric influcnc« hero, already alluded to in the 
proviouB pa^-es, which at first sight is very deccptire. 
Wherever there in any cut through drift, unless recently 
opened, it becomes baked at tlio surface so as to simulato 
one in such a, way as hardly to ho distingnidied from 
.0 decomposed rock surfaces in place, unices by u careful 
examination. This, together with the partial obliteratioo 
of the stratification in many places, makc» it, at firitt glance, 
difficult to reco^iize the point of contact between the 
stratilied rock and the drill resting above it. A. little 
familiarity witi> these deceptive appearances, liowever, 
makes it as ca^y to read the broken leaves of the book 
of nature here as el»cwhero, and Mr. Agassis has now 
no more diftieuUy in fullowing the erraiic phenomena in 
tbeve Southern regions tlian in the Northern hemUphere. 
All that if wanting to complete the evidence of tlio actual 
iKDce ol ice here, in former times, is tho glacial writing, 




Je fine and furrows and polish which mark its track 
ill tlie tflinporate zone. These ono can liardlj hope to 
find wliei^ Iho rock is of so pcrishnble a character oiid 
its disinU^Ri-ation ro nipid. But lhi» much is certain, — 
a sheet of drift rorcrs tlic country, oom)>osod of ■ homi^ 
gCDCouit paste without tmco uf strutiflcation, contnining 
loose materials of all sorta mid sizes, imbedded iu it 
without i-efereiicc to wciglit, krgc l)oiitder$, mialler atones, 
pchblcK, und the like. This drift is very uncrctily dis- 
trihuted ; somotimus rl^iin^ into high liilU. owing to tlie 
eurrouiiding denudations ; sumclimus covcrlnji the surface 
merely as a thin layer ; sometimos, and especially on steep 
slopea, washed complet«ly away, leaving the bare face of 
the rock; somotimos deeply gullied, so as to produce a suc- 
cession of depressions and elevations alternating with ooch 
other. To this latter cauBQ is due, iu great degree, the bil 
lowy, undnlaUng character of tlio valleys. Another causQ 
of difTicnhy in tracing ttie erratic phenomena consists iii 
the number of cietnchcd fragments which have fallen from 
tlie neighbiiriug heights. It is not always ea-oy to distJii- 
guish these from the erratic boulders. But a number of lo- 
calities exist, novcrllK'less, where the drift rests immcdiati> 
ly aliove stralificd rock, with the boulders protruding from 
it, the liue of contact being perfectly distinct. It is a curi> 
ouB fact, that one may follow the drillt everywhere in this 
rvgion hy the prosperous coHco plantations. Here as else* 
whore ice has boon the groat fertilizer, — a gigantic plough 
grinding the rocks to powder and making a homogeneous 
Eoil in which llic greatest variety of chemical elements an) 
brunglit logolhcr from distant localities. Sh) far as wo have 
rnllowed these phenomena iu the provinces of Rio and Ali- 
■jas Goriics, the thriving coffee plantations are upon crratio 



drill, llie poorer in^wt'i rpon dccompo»od ruck iu plaoe. 
Upon remarking tWtf, wc uoic ^li] tliat tliu faruiors who 
ara riiniiltar willi th« soil i>cloct ti/it in wliicli tlicr find 
loose rocks imbcdtled, UMiauSe it.- is -^le most fertilo. 
Thoy uiicoiisciouHly scok tlie erratic drill. It may not 
be amiss to point out some of tlio localities in vlucii 
thes« geological plieiiomciia may be most rraniily 'cUi'liod. 
Nince tliey lie along tbe public road, and are easy'Af .ai^^ses!. 
Tile drill is very evideut in tlic swamp between Mait&-^d.. 
Raiz da Rorra on the way to Pelrnpolis. In ascendlu^ 
the Sorra at the half-way liouse there is an excellent ' 
locality for obsorving drifl and boulders ; and beyond one 
may follow Uie drill up to the very top of the road. Tho 
whole tract between Villa Thori^Ha and Fetropolis is full 
of drift. Just outride of Pctropoliit, the Piahanha lias 
oxcarutcd its bed in drift, while the banks Imre been 
rarined by the rains. At the station of Correio, in front 
of the building, is nho an admirable opportunity for ob- 
serviug all the erratic phenomena, for hero the drift, with 
lai^ boulders interspor^ed throughout the mass, overlies 
tho rock in ])lace. A few stejis to the north of the station 
Pedro do lUo thei'e is another great accumulation of large 
boulders iu drift. These are but a few of tho localities 
where cuch facts may be observed. 

Ou Um) evening of the 22d we arrived at Juiz do Fora, 
tkid started at sunrise lliu next morning for the faEcuda 
of S<nhor Luge, some thirty miles beyond. Wo had a 
gaj party, consistiDf; of ttiu family of Senhor Lago and that 
af hie brother-in-law, Soulior Machado, with one or two 
other dnends and ourselves. Tlie children were as merry 
as posnble, for a visit to the fazenda was a rarity, i.nd looked 
upon by them as a great festivity. To transport iis all witli 



our luggage, two large co«cticff wfircproTidtid, sovemi muteii, 
and a small carriage, wliiU 3.*travclliiig photographic ma- 
chiiio, bt'loiiging to Senlierrilacliado, who is an admirable 
photograpliist, brougilrt Up the rear.* The day was beauti- 
ful and our votu} ui/,a1ang the side of the Sorra, command- 
ing fine view? of llie inland country and the cofToe plants 
tioiiti w>il9lv covered the hilUides wherever the primeval 
rorest^'Lhaitt been cut down. The road is another evidenou 
Ar^»1iit«lligRiioe and enci^y of the proprietor. The old 
. rbinl» are mere miilo trackii up one side of the Scrra and 
down ihu other, gulhcd of cours^o by all the heavy rains 
and rendered at times almost impn^jablc. Scnbor Logo 
hu) shown hiis neighbors what may bo done for th^ 
comfort in a country life by abandoning the old method, 
and, instcud of carrying the road across the mountain, 
cutting it ill ttie eide with so gradual on a«;c»t as to 
make the ride a very easy one. It is but a four hours* 
drive now from Jniz de Fora to the fazL-nda, whereas, 
until the last year, it was a day's, or even in bad weather 
• two days' journey on horseback. It is much to be de^red 
that his example should be followed, for the abucnce of any 
tolerable roads in the country makes travelling in the 
intorior almost an impos-iibility, and is the most serious 
obstacle to the general progresa and prosperity. It seems 
Ktnuige that the governments of tlie different proviw:«B, 
at Icitifl of the mure populous ones, such as Minas GoriUss 
and Rio, should not organize • system of goud highways 
for the greater facility of commerce. The present modo 
of transportation ou mule back is slow and cumbroua 

* Ur. Agnsna «ru in(Ii.>btcd to Senhur Mnchadu Tor s ntlnnblci umm of 
phouciniihi nnil ncnnicnpic view* of tliU region, begun ob tbu excutnos,, 
U>d wnipUKd iluilng < nr Hbacncc ia the Ko'ib o( Braii! 








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Um highest di^;ne ; it would smm as if, where tlie prcK 

I of the intorinr in so valuable, good roads would pa; for 

bWcs very soon. 

At about elevcu o'clock wc arrived at tlie " E^zotida," 

1)0 long, low, white buildiiifrs of wliicli euclosed ua ob- 

sng, opeti 9pwx dividud into largu sijuarot, wticru tlio 

was drying. Onl; a purt of Uiis oxtctisjvo build- 

ig ts occupied as tlio living rooms ot tlie fumil/ ; the 

is devoted to all sorts of object* connected with tbo 

of tlie coffee, provision for the ncgroeti, and Uie like. 

When we reached tlio plantation the guests had not all 

rired. The special occasion of this excursion to the fa* 

nda was the festival of San JoSo, kept always with great 

aouics in the ooniitry : the whole week was to be de- 

to bunting, and Senhor Lnge Imd invited all the best 

en io tlio iiftigliborhood to join in Iho chase. It will 

Men in tlio end tlmt those hunters formed themselves 

a mo«t raluablo vorps of collectors for Mr. Agassiz. 

sr an excellent brvakfast we sturlcd on horseback for 

forest wilti such of the company as had already as- 

nbled. The ride through tiio dunse, dt^L-p, quiet wood 

I beautiful ; and tlie dead pause when some oiiv thought 

i game was near, the hushed voices, the hrcathlc!<s waiting 

fOT the shot which announced sucoc^s or failure, only added 

. charm to the scone. They have a strange way of hunting 

; aa the forest is perfectly impenetrable, they xcatter 

in a cleared .space for the animals, and build green 

lecnions, leaving holes to look through : behind iiuch a screen 

Itlie hunter waits and watches for hours perhaps, till the 

paea, or peccary, or capivara steals out to feed. 11)e ladies 

diimouutc-I and found a cool scat in one of these forest 

, lodges, whcie thcj waited for the hunt No great success, 

^_ iuu{ju9, nui 



^ter all, this aflornooii, but some birds wliioh were valuable 
as ^ncimcns. We rodo home in tho evening la a late 
dinner, after which an enoniioiisi bonfire, built by the 
negroes in honor of Iho Eve of St. Jo&a, was lighted in 
front of tlio bouse. The scene was exceedingly picln- 
resquc, tlic whole establisbinmit, the neighboring ncgm 
huts, and tlie di^itnnt forettt being illununated by the 
blaze, around which the hlack.-< were damping, aceonipA- 
nying thuir wild gestures wilh song and drum. Every 
now and then a burst of fireworks added new brigiitness 
to it 10 picture. 

Tfic next day, the 24th, be^an with a long ride on horse- 
back boforc breukfitst, after which I acconipotiied Mr. Agassis 
DU a sort of cxplorntion arnnng the ('npim nests (tlie nests 
of the Termites). These aie mounds sometimes Uireo or 
four or even mx feet high, and ffom two to three or four 
Coet in diameter, of an exti-aordinary solidity, almost as 
hard as rock. Senhor Lage sent witfi us several nepxKS 
carrying axes to s|ilit ihcni open, which, with all their 
strength, proved no easy task. These nests apjiear u&nally 
to hare been hnilt around sonic old trunk or root as a 
foundation ; the interior, with its endless serpentine pos- 
eages, looked not unlike the convohitions of n meandrina or 
brain coral ; the walla of the passages seemed to be built of 
earth that had Iwen chewed or kneaded in some way, giv- 
ing them somewhat the consistency of paper. Hie interior 
was quite soft and bridle, so that as soun as tlie negroes 
could break through the outer enTolo[)C, abuut inx inches 
in thickness, the whole structure readily fell to pieces. 
[t had no opening outside, hut we found, oil uprooting 
one of these edifices from the V>ottom, that the whole 
Daee was perforated with liolus leading into the gioiiiid 






catli. Tlie interior of all of Uiein swarmed with the 
differeut kinds of inliabitaiibi ; the liiile vhiVb oucs, tbe 
lar^r black ones witU brown beads and powerful forvcps, 
and in each vere found ona or two rei-r lai^ swollen 
wliitc ones, quite diflTorent in dimensions and appciuanoo 
from Uio rest, probably tbe queens. Witb tlic asistuucv 
of tlio negroes, Ur. Agassiz made, for future oxamiiinliou, 
a Urge o^ection of all tlie difforeut kinds of indtvi<lnal« 
tlius living; togctbcr in rarious uuuicvic proportions, and 
}m; would gladly bare carried away one of tiic nesta, but 
tlicy arc too cnmbersomo for transporlution. Tbe Cupim 
Bests tro rcr}- different from tbe dwelling* of Uic f^nnha 
Buts, which hare large external opcningw. Hie latter 
nuke liou.ies by eicavating, and t>omctinios undermine a 
hill so extensively, witl) tlioir lon|; galleries, tliat when 
a liro is lighted at one of the entrances to citerminata 
them, tbe smoke issues at numerous openings, distant per- 
ha[is a quarter of a mile from each olber, sbowing in lioff 
many direelions they bare tunnelled out the hill, and 
lliat their winding passa^s communicate witii each other 
tbroagliont. So many travellers have given accounts of 
these ant-bouses, and of tlie activity of their iutiabitants 
in stripping and carrying off tbe leaves of trees to deposit 
tliom iu tlieir habitations, that it hardly Eevm:; worth while 
to r«|>eat tbe story. Yet no one can nic without a^ton- 
ishment one of these ant-urmics travcUiitg along tbe ruud 
Ihey liave worn so neatly for tliemsehes, those who are 
coming from tbe trees looking like a green proce»<ion, al- 
most bidden by tlio fnigincnts of leaves they carry on their 
backs, wliilo tlie returning troops, who have already da 
posited their burden, ore hurrying hack for more. Tlierc 
seems to be tinotbcr set of individuals running to and fro, 


tvhoae olfico is uot quite so ckar, ualoss it bo to marslial 
the wliole twarm aod act as a kind of pcdice. This view 
is coniirmed b; an aneudote related bj an American resi- 
dent licre, who told iis tliat liu once saw au aut, return- 
iiig witliout his loud to the house, stopped by ouo if tlio^.o 
auomalous iudividuals, sevcri-ly cbastisod and Kent back to 
the tree appsirciitly to do bis appointed task. Tbc 8auba 
auts arv very injurious to Ihu colTvc shrubs, and lifGcult to 

In tlio anornoon, tito hunters of the ncij^bborhood began 
to ooino iu and tlio party was cunsideruhly enlarged. This 
faieoda life, at least on un lufonnal jovial occu»ion like this, 
lias a fasciiinling tuudi of ihu Middio Agt^ in tt. I am 
always reminded of this when we H>M.-:iibIc for diuuer 
in the lai^ dimly lighted hnll, whnii: n lung tablCt ladou 
wilb game and witb large buuncbes of meat, .suiids ready 
fur the miicellaneou!! company, daily gi-owing in numherv. 
At the upper end sit the family with their immediate gucAts; 
bulow, with bis fiuiiily, ifl tlie " Adniinistrador," whoso ulTiee 
I suppose corresponds to tliat of overseer on a HuuUicni 
plantation. In this ini.tanco he is a large* picturesque- 
looking man, generally equipped iu a kind of gray blouso 
strapped around tho waii<t by a broad black belt, in which 
are powder-flask and knife, witli a bugle slung over his 
shoulder, a slouched bat, and high top-boots. During din- 
ner a number of chance cavaliers drop in, entirely without 
ceremony, iii bunter'a costume, as ihey return from llio 
chase. Then at night, or rather early iu the morning, 
(for the Bra2iliart habit is " early to bed and early to rise,'* 
in order to avoid Die heat,) what jollity and song, sounding 

* Tho ituiu coiuplRM nccouat oT Ibwo curiutu RnunaU ii W bo fonnd in 
Bim'* " Nuonliiit ua ltd AuiuofiB " 


le bugles long before the davii, tvanging the gaitar aai 
whistling ou ibo peculiar iustrumcnt used licro to coil Uio 
gAme. Altogether it ia tlie most uure) and iiiteroMing 
coUecdoR of social elements, mingling after a kind of pic- 
Dic fashion without the Ica^t formality, and we feel orcrj 
day bow much we owe to our kind hosts for admitting 
BB to an occasion wlioro ouo sees eo much of what is 
national and cbaructcristic The next day wo went to 
breakfast at a smullcr fazciidu belonging also to Senhor 
Lage, bigbcr up on the Surru da Babylonia. Again, start- 
ing before suuriEo, wis went slowly up the mouiitaui, tiie 
summit of wliich U over 3,000 foci ubore the sea level. 
We were prccvdud by Ihu "litciru," n quucr kind of car 
slung between two mules, in wliivh rude the gruudmuminu 
and the: Itaby ; as cnrriugus are impossible on tlicsc moun- 
tain roads, some such convcyanw! is necessary for tliose 
who arc loo old or too young for bor«uback Iriirelling. 
'riic view was lovely, the morning cool and bcuutiful, and 
after a two hours' ride we arrircd at the upper fuzenda. 
Here we left our hordes and went on foot into lite forest, 
where the ladies and children wandered ttV>out, gathering 
flowers and exploring the wood walks, while the gentle* 
men occupied thcni.solres with finhing and hunting till 
midday, when we returned to the lionso to breakra!»t. 
The result of the chase was a monkey, two caititli (wild 
pigs), and a great variety of birds, all of which went to 
swell tlie BCientiRc collections.* We returned to diiio at 

• 1 «u cfp^'ialif intorwiid In enmining ihs vepublc produciloju of a 
Uitlo itka, banll/ Utga than • mlUpDnd, ocur ihit Utcaia. li wa« ttranna 
ID we Potamegeun «nil Myriophyllsni, jilanw irliicli wn uMwiaio txdufiTclr 
«riih iie Tnih wstcn of iho icmpcnttc loni;. erowing iii tlii.' hluidnw ur in>i>led 
ferM4 vhcrc monkoji have ihdr homo. Sucli comhinatiuiit m turjr puutinf 
10 the KuJcat of thp Uwi at gcognfbieti dliiiibaiiOD. — L. A. 




the lower fazciida, and ull retired soon ufter, fui the next 
iay t)ie great liuitt of Uio woek would take place, and we 
wore to be curly astir. 

At duwu ihu horses wero ut tlie door, and we were mount- 
ing tlio Scrru before KunriHi. We were bound to a faiujuda 
on the Serni da Babylonia, some two leagues from tho one 
at wliicli we were staying, and ou liigbcr ground, too liigli 
indeed for the ciillure of cufTee, and devoted to pasture 
land. It b lierc that Senlior Liige has his horsc« and 
cattle. The ride nluiig the zr^zag road winding up the 
Sorra was deliglilfid in the early morning. The etouds 
were flushed with the dawn ; the distant hills and the for- 
OHt, spreading endlessly beneath us, glowed in tlio sunrise. 
The latter part of tlio road lay mostly througli the woods, 
and brought us out, after some two hours' ride, ou tlwi 
brow of a hill overlooking a smuU lake, sunk in a cup- 
like depression of the mountain, just beyond whidt woa 
tile fazenda. The scenic cftcct was very pretty, for the 
border of the lake was ornamented with flags, and ou 
its waters floated a little miniature steamer with tlia 
American flag at one end and tlie Brazilian at tlie other. 
Our boat invited us to ride in at the gate of the fazenda, 
in advance of the rest of our cavalcade, a reijuest which 
ve understood when, as we parsed the entrance, the little 
eteamer put into shore, and, tiring a salute in our honor, 
showed its name, Ahassiz, in full. It was a pleasant sur* 
prise very succet^sfnlly managed. After the little excite 
Dient of this incident was over, wo went to the house to tie 
up our riding-habits and ])repBrc for tlie woods. We then 
embarked in the ncwly-cliristcned boat and crossed iJie lake 
to a forest on ihc other vide. Here were rustic tables and 
teats arranged mider a tent where we w^rc to breakfast; 





rbutwliilo tho meal vas makiiif; rc&dy and a fire biiildi:ig 

Uie boiling of voQuv, tliu »lcft*irig of ctitekcii, rice, and 

Iter creature comtbrU, we wuiidcred at will in tlie wood. 

[This was tli« moel Iwauliriil, becauM tlic wildcat aud most 

I primilirc, specimen of (rupiual forest wo huvr yet seen. 

' I tliink no description prepares oiic for tlie difference 
between tliis forest and our own, even tliougli tlio latter 
be tbo " forvsl primeval." It is not merely tlie difference 
of tlie vegclation, but tlie impenetrability of tlio mass buro 
tbat makes ibe density, darkness, and »>lemnily of tlie 
woods so impressive. It seems as if tbu mode of growtli — 
many of tlie ti'ees sliooting up to an irnmensv height, but 
branching only toward the top — were meant to gire room 
to the legiou of parnsites, sipos, lianas, and climbing plants 
of all kinds which fill the intervening spaces. There is one 
fiiet which makes the study of the Irujiieal forest as inter' 
c«tiiig to the geologist as to tlie botunist, namely, its relo* 
tiou lo the vegetable world of post ages hidden in the 
rocks. Tlw tree-ferns, tlio Chomajrops, llie Pandauus, the 
Arauearias, are all modern representatives of post types, 
mnd litis walk in the forest was an important one to Mr. 
AgasMz, because he mode out one of those laws of growth 
wliicli nnitc tlie jiost and the present. Tlie Chamierops is a 
jialm belonging to the ancient vegetable world, but having 
ils reprcseiilativeji in our days. The modern Cliania)ro|is, 
with it« fan-like leaves spreading on one level, stands stnto* 
turally lowor limn tlio Pulms with pinnate leaves, which 
belong almost exclll^ivdy to our geological age, and liaTO 
numerous leaflets arraugt^d along either side of a cenlial 
nxis. The young Palmsi wcic exceedingly numerous, spring* 
iiig tip at every step upon our path, some of tlicin not more 
than two inches liigh, while their elders toweitsd fifty feet 



sboTo them. Hr. Agassis gatberod aiid examined great 
numbers of tliom, and found that tli« young Palms, to 
vhutever gODUs they may belong, iiirariably resiomblG tlio 
Chamserops, having their leaves extending faii-like oii one 
plane, instead of being scattered along a central axis, as 
in the adult tree. The infant I'alin is in fact the mature 
Chamserops in miniature, showing that among plants ua 
among animala, at least in some instances, lliena is a Uit- 
respondence between the youngest stagen of grcwtli in the 
higher species of a given type and tlie earliest introduction 
of that type on earth.' 

At the close of our ramble, from which tlie Professor 
returned lookhig not unlike an amhnlntory representative 
of tropical vegetation, being loaded down with palm-bra nich- 
es, tree-ferns, and the like, wo found breakfast awaiting us. 
Some of our })arty were niiNsing, however, the hunters 
having already taken their stntiuns at some distance near 
llio water. The game was an Anta (Tapir), u curious 
animal, abounding in the woods of this region. It has a 
spvcial interest for the naturalist, because it resembles 
certain ancicut mammalia now fouud ouly among the 
fossils, just as tlie trcc-fura, Chamsrops, Ac. rcMimble 
past vegetable types. Although Mr. Agassiz had sMu it 
in cooBucmcnt, he had a grt-at desire to observe it iu 
action under itd natural condition, and in tiw midst of A 
tropical forest as oliiLracterislic of old geological times 
as the creature itself. It was, in fact, to gratify tliis desire 
tliat Mr. Ln^^c had planned the hunt. "L'lionimo pitipo^o 
et Dicu diEpoKi," however, and, as the s<k{uc1 will sliow, 

• Id the lamc mtj. It tii%j he Mid lh« bi Iu iadpkent ffiovth the Dicnij' 
lideBOM Plant nxliibiM. in ilio Miuctar; of it* gaminatlio Icarto. ilie fharirtcr 
Wiir ftmana of Muii(KolTl«ilonout I'bau — 1> A 

I'AZtNUA uvr.. Ill 

we were not destined lo see aii AnU tbis day. llie Toi-ect 
lioiug, u I ItKvc said, impcncirabla to the liiintcr, except 
where pathg have be«ii cut, the gams U roused by tending 
the dog* into tbe wood, the sporUmeii stationing tbeui««U'es 
nt certain distaitocs on ihe ouukirts. The Aiitii has bis 
liaunu near lakes or rivere, and when wearied and licatod 
with tbe eliase l>e generally makes for tbe wal«r, and, 
springing hi, is diet a» lie swims across. As wo wei-o 
lingering over Ow break fast'tablc we beard tbo sliout of 
AniM ! Anta ! In an instant every niuti sprang to liis 
gun nud ran down to llm water-ndc, while wo all stood 
waiting, listening to tbe crie« of the dogs, now frantic 
witli nxeitemcnt, and expecting crt-ry mumcnt llio rusli 
of tlic liuulod animal and tiis spring into tbe lake. Bnt 
it WAS a falso alarm ; the cries of the dogs died uway in the 
'distance : tlic day was colder than usual, tbo Aata turned 
back fVom tlio water, and, leading Ins pursuers a weary 
chase, was lost in tlie forest. After a time tbo dogs 
returned, looking tired and dispirited. But (bough wc 
missed tbo Tapir, we saw enough of the sport to under- 
stand what makes tbe charm lo the hunter of watching 
for hours in the woods, and pcrliaps returning, after all, 
cmpty-baudcd. If he does not get the game, be lias the 
emotion ; every now and then he thinks the creature is 
at liand, and be lias a momentary agitation, heightened by 
tlM> cries of the dogs and the answering ciy of the spoi-ts- 
men, who strive to arouse tliem lo the utmost hy tlicir 
own shouts, and then if tlio animal turns back into tbo 
ttiicket all sound dies away, and to a very panclfmoniuut 
of voices sticccud tbo silence and solitudu of tlio forw>t. 
All tbcso things havo their fasciuution, und cxpUin to 
the uninitiated, to whom it seems at first incomprehensible. 





vhy these men vriW wait motionless for hoiirs, and tliitilc i 
themsolros repaid (as I h^vd ouc of them declare) if tlwf <fl 
only Iiear the crj of the di^ aiid know they have roused 
the game, evcu if ihure be no other rc»uU. However, in 
this iiintaiicu, we had plenty of other booty. The Anla lo»(, 
the hunters, who had carefully avoided firing hitherto, lest 
the sounds of ihoir i;uue should give liiiu warning, now 
turned their altculion to lesser f^auic, and wo rude homo 
in the afternoon rich in spoils, though wilhutit a Tapir. 

Tlio iioxt day was tJiat of our departure. Befoi'O leav* ■ 
ing, wc rode with Mr. Lagc through his plantation, tliat 
we might understand bomclhiug of lliu pi-ocess of colToe 
culture in this country. I am not sure that, in giving 
au account of this mode] fazcuda, wo givo a, just idea 
of fuEfindus in general. Its owner carries the same largo 
uud comprohi^nsiva spirit, the same energy and force of will, 
into all his undertakings, and has introduced esteusive 
reforms ou his jilantations. The Faitonda da Fortalcta 
do Santa Anna lies at the fwt of the Scrra da Babylonia. 
The house itself, an 1 have already said, makes a part of a 
Euecession of low white buildings, enclosing on oblong 
bquare divided into neat lots, destined for tlie drying of 
coflbe. This drying of tho coOec in the immediate vicinity 
of the liouse, tliongh it scem» a very general custom, must 
bo an uneomfortuhlu one ; for tli« drying.Iots are laid down 
in a dazditig while cement, fi-om the glare of which, iu tliis 
hot climate, the eye turns wearily away, longing for a grccii 
B)iot on which to rest. Just Whind the liousc on tlie slojio 
of the hill is tlie orangery. I am uevcr tired of tliese 
golden orchai'ds, and tins was one of especial beauty. 
The email, doep-eolorcd tangerines, sometimes twenty *r 
Uiirty ill one duster, tlie lai'go, choieo orange, " Laraiga 



W siazle buncii, aud bearing tlto branchc* to Uhj (px>uiid 

villi tlicir weight ; tlie paler " Liuuul ddce," or sweet 

lemou. nthcr insipid, but greatly esteemed Iwrv for ila 

oool, rcfrevliing propertiv!', — all llic»;, with mai)y othtire, 

— for tlte vftrielj of onuige^ is fur gruuler Uiud wc of the 

tcmpcrute zow conceive it (o bu, — luuke u muiss of color 

Kin wliicli gold, deep oraii(^, aiid piilo yellow are blended 

Btr<Hidcrriilly witb tbc Iuu:k);ruuiid of gi-eeii. Beyond Iho 

Bhousu cnelu^ure, on the opposite side of tlio roiad, are 

^tlte gardens, villi artar}*, uud ii^]l•pmlds iu tbe ccutre. 

With tlicw exceptions, uU of tlie property vbieli is not 

foreot ts devoted to coffee, covering all tlic liilUidL<3 for 

mil's nroiitid. The seed is planted iu iiurturies especially 

Bprc|arcd, wlicre it undergoes its fint year's grovrtli. It 

is t')cu transplanted to its [>ci-inanvnt home, oud begins 

Ilo b;ar ill about tlirce years, tliu first crop being of coiii-iie 
a r ry ligiit one. Freni lliut time forward, under good 
com and wiili rarorable soil, it will continue to boar and 
eve I to yield twc crops or more annually, for thirty 
yea.'s in sueccRiiun. At tliat time tbe shrubs and the roil 
an alike exhausted, and, according to the custom of tlio 
couolry, the fazendeiro cuts down a now forest and be- 
gins a new plantation, completely abaudouing his old 
one, without a tliougbt of redeoming or feitiliung the 
exhausted laud. One of tlio long-sighted reforms under- 
taken by our host 'te the miinuring of all tbe old, deserted 
plantations ou his estate ; ho has already a number of 
vigorous young plantations, which proroiiie to be as good 
as if 8 virgin forest had been saeriliced to produce tlioni. 
Ktle wishes not only to preserve tho wood on his own 
fidtate, and to show that agriculture need not be oulll- 


VBted at the cxpeuse of taste and beauty, but to remiuil 
hiB country people also, that, extensive as are the forests, 
tliey will not last forever, and that it will be necessary 
to emigi'ate before long to find new coffee grounds, if 
the old ones are to be considered wortlilcss. AnoUier 
of liis reforms is that of the roads, already alluded to. 
Ths ordinary roads in tl)e coffee plantaUons, like ttie mule- 
Iracke all over the country, are carried straight up the 
lides of the hills between the lines of shrubs, gullied by 
overy rain, and offering, besides, so steep an ascent that 
oven with eight or ten oxen it is often impossible to drive 
the clumsy, old- fashioned carts up tlie slope, and the negroes 
are obliged to bring a great part of the harvest down on 
llieir heads. An American, who has been a great deal oi|^| 
the colTeo fazendas in this region, told mo that he had seen 
negroes bringing enormous burdens of tliis kind on their 
lieads down almost vertical slopes. On Sonhor Lage's 
estate all these old roads are abandoned, except where 
they are planted here and there with alleys of orange- 
trees for the use of the negroes, and he has substitulod 
for them winding roads in the side of tlie hiU with a 
very gradual ascent, so that light carts dragged by a 
single niulo can traiisport all tlie harvest from the sum- 
mit of tlie plantation to the drying-ground. It was llio 
liarvesttiig scasoji, and the spectacle was a pretty ona^J 
The negroes, men and women, were scattered about tlio 
plantations with broad, shallow trays, made of plaited grass 
or bamboo, strapped over thuir shoulders and Miipjiorttid at 
Uieir wniKU ; into these they were gutberuig the eoObe, 
Bofue of tho burrieis being brilliantJy red, eome already 
beginning to dry and turn brown, while hero and there 
was a greiiu one not yet quite ripe, but soon to ripen in Um 



scorching ma. LiUte black children were sitting on tba 
ground ai>d gathering what fell under the buiihes, singing 
at tli«ir work a inonutonous but r»lh«r pretty siiutch uf 
BOog in whidi some took tlio first and otlien tlu) second, 
making a not intiarmoniou! miiMC. As their baskets went 
filled the; cnnie to lite Adininixtrodor to receive a little 
metal ticket on which tlte utuount or their work wns 
loarked. A task is ullottcil to each one, — so mucti to 
a fuU-growD man, so much to a woman with young ctiil* 
dren, so mudi to a cliild, — and each one is [Kiid for whaU 
ever ho may do over and above it. The ruqui»itiou is a 
TCTf moderate one, so tlial tlie industrious have an oppor- 
tuoitj of making a lilllc money independently. At night 
they all pa-sent their tickets and are paid on the spot for 
an; extra work. Prom the harvesting-ground we followed 
tlie carts down to the place where their burden is deposited. 
On their return from the plantation the negroes divide tho 
day's harvest, and dispose it in little mounds on the dry- 
ing-ground. When pretty equally dried, the coRee is 
spread out in thin oven layers over the whole enclosure, 
where it is baked for the last time. It is then hulled by 
a very simple machine in use on almost all the fazcndas, 
and the process is complete. At noon we bade good by 
to our kind hosts, and started for Juix de Fora. Our stage 
was not a bod imitation of Nonh's ark, for we carried with 
us the beasts of the Held and tho birds of llie air and the 
lubes from tlie uMicrs,* to »ay nothing of the trees from 
the forest. The party with whom we had paired sueli 
plca^^nt days collected to bid us farewell, and followed 

• S«iilior I^ge liwl cnuKtt un rxicniivn collGclioD of flihci to be ji.iiticmt 
tram ilut uuii^n oT tlic Itio Xo\o, u that tliU cxcuMion giiMilj ounildi) 
iW nngtt ot m/ tui tcy of the bonln tit ihc PanihylM. — L. A. 




US, as ve passed out fram tite gate, vith Tims and 
Wftviiig hats and liaiidkerctiiers. 

Tlio following day wo were fortuDate in having coot 
wcatlier witli a somiiwhat cloudy sky, so that our ride 
ton hours Irani Juit de Koi'a to Potropohs, on tlio top of tin 
stage, was deli);hiriil. T\\q next morning iii driving dowii^ 
llio Sorra to Mau& we witno!4scd a singular plieuonienoii, 
coniDioit enough, I suppow, to those who live iu higli re- 
gions. As wo turned the corner of the rond which Tint 
hrings us in sight of the magiiiriecnt view hclow the Serm,. 
there was a general exuliiiuution of Hurprisc and ndniiroUoii.^ 
The valley and harbor, quite out lo the t&i, were chtiiiged 
to A licld or snow, white, sofl, and fleiicy, as if tuttvn tlial 
night. Tlic illusion was perfect, and Uiough rcoogiiizedj 
at once as simply uii efFvet of the heavy morning fo^ 
trc could hardly believe tliat it would dispenso at oui 
iip])roucli and uot prove to be the tiling it sucuicd. He 
Mid tlierc (be »uniniit of a hill pierced through it lib 
ail island, making the deception more complete. Tbi 
incident wa.-i e.ipcciiilly interesting to uh as coiiuvctiug 
ititcif with our liitc discuMiious as to the possible former 
existence of glacici's in this rcfpon. In his loelurv 
few nights before, dct>cribitig tlie greater extension oTl 
tlio ice in former geological age.<t, when Uie whole plait 
of Swiizorland between the Alps and Jura must hav 
been tilled with glncicn, Mr. Aga^tftiK had said "tlicro is 
a pheiiomoiiou not unconimoii in the autumn iu Swiutcr- 
hiu<l which may help us to reconstruct this wonderfu) 
picture. Sometimes in a September moniing the wlio]o^_ 
plain uf Switzerland is filled witli vajjor which, wbeu i(w| 
pure white, undulating surface is seen from the higlter 
Siiininits of the Jura, looks like a snowy • mer de glaco,*! 




mng to descend Trom Uie peaks nt llie A1p» and cz- 

litig toward lii« Jum, while from all Ui« trlbutarj 

valleys similar mosses pour dowa to meet It." It wu 

•8 if i)ie valley and harbor of Rio had meant to oflcr m 

I a similar picture of past times, with the image of which 
our miiid« had been filled for the last few days in eoiise- 
quetioe of llie glacial phenomena constantly presented to lU 
on owrjownioy. 

Julg 6th. — To-inoi-row was to have been the day of 
our departure fur the Aninzons, hut prirate interesLf must 
field to public guud. and it seems that the steamer which 
was to have luft for Paid fo-iiiorrow has been taken by the 

Igoveniioent to transport troops to tlic seat of war. Tlie 
aspect of the war grows daily more serious, and the 
Emperor goc^i himself the day after to-morrow to Rio 
Grande do Snl, acconigjaiiiod by liis smi-in-law, the Hnke 
of Saxe, soon to he followed by the Conte d'Ku, who is 
expected by the Prcnch steamer of the 18tb of lliis month. 
Under these circumstnnoe^, not only are we prevented from 
going at the appointed diitc, but it seems not improbable 
^^that the exigencies of war may cause a still further delay, 
^Biliould other steamers 1)0 needed. A very pleasant public 
dinner, intended to be on the cto of his departure, wis 
given to Mr. Agossiz yesterday by Messrs. Fleiuss and Unde. 
Ocrmans, Sw-ii<i<, French, Americana, and Itrazihaus made 
up the company, a mingling of nationalities which resulted 
ill a very general harmony. 
^_ Ju!t/ 9lh. ~~¥or some time Mr. Agassis has been trying 
^Vto get liring vpccimonr of the insect so injurious to the 
ooffee-trec ; tlie larva of a little moth akin to tltose which 
destroy the vineyards in Europe. Yesterday he suoeeeded 
ining s<Hiie, and among llicm one .wsl spini injr 


his cocoon on tiw leaf. We watched him Tor a long tic 
with Uin Ions as he wove his liluty tent. He ha 
arched Uio Uireads upwards in Uie centre, so as to leare 
little hollow s^cfl into which he could witlidraw ; this titij 
vault seemed to be completed at the moment we saw hii 
iind he vraa drawing threads forward and fastening them : 
a »hort distance beyond, thus lashing Ins house to the lea^ 
as it were. The ex<]ui6ite accuracy of the work 
AmasiDg. Ue was spinning the thread with his mouth, 
and with erei^ new stitch he turned his body backward^j 
attached his tliread to the same spot, then drew it forwar 
and fastened it exactly on a line with tlie last, witli 
precision and rapidity that machinery could liardly imitate.' 
It is a curious question how far this perfection of workman- 
ship in many of the lower animals is simply identical with 
their organization, and tlierefore to be considered a function^ 
as inevitable in its action as digestion or respiration, rathec 
Uiau an instinct. In this case the Iwdy of the little animal^ 
was bis measure : it was ama2ing to see him lay down his 
threads with such accuracy, till one remembered that lu 
could not make them longer or shorter ; for, starting frooil 
tlie centre of his house, and stretching his body its full' 
length, they must always reach tlie same point. The sonw 
is true of the so-called matlieniatics of the heo. The biyw^| 
Bland as close as they can together in their hive for^^ 
economy of space, and each one deposits his wax around 
him, his own form and size being the mould for t 
cells, tlie regularity of which when completed excites 
much wonder and admiration. The mathematical secret 
of the bee is to be found in his stnicturo, not in hii 
instinct. Diit in tl>Q iudustrial work of BOme of Ibfl 
lower animals, tlia ant for ui&tance, there is a power of. 












loD which 19 not ftiiHC«ptible of tJie same explanft- 
Tlioir TOcial organization, too intelligent, it iM^enui, 
to be the work of any reasoning powers of tlieir own, yet 
does DOt appear to be directly connected with tlieir stnict- 
nre. While we were watching onr little insect, a breath 
stirred the leaf and he instantly contracted liim^lf and 
drew back under his roof; but presently came out again 
and returned to his work. 

July 14rA. — 1 hare passed tvo or throe days of U la 
week very pleasantly with a party of friends who invited 
me to join them on a visit to one of the largest faiendns 
in tliis neighborhood, belonging to tlic Commendador Breves. 
A journey of some four hours on the Dom Pedro Rail- 
road brought us to the " Barra do Pirahy," and thence we 
proceeded on luultvbnck, riding slowly along the luinks of 
the Parahyba through very pleaitant, quiet scenery, though 
much lesii picturesque than that in Llie intmcdiate vicinity 
of Rio. At about sunset we reached the fazenda, ttandiug 
oil a terrace just above the river, and commanding a lovely 
vi«w of watAr and woodland. We were received with a 
faospitality hardly to be equalled, I think, out of Brazil, 
tor it asks neither who you are nor whence yon oome, 
but opens its doors to eveiy wayfarer. On this) occasion 
we were expected ; but it is nevertheless true that at such 
a fazenda, where the dining-room accommodates a hundred 
persons if necessary, all travellers passing thmngh tlta 
country are free to stop for rest and rcfre.ihmenl. At tlia 
time of our vii>it there were several such tran?ieiil guests; 
among others a couple quite unknown to our hriiils, wlio 
hod 6to[^d for the night, but had been taken ill and do- 
tained there several dayr. Tliey seemed entirely at home. 
On this estate there are about two Uioiisand slaves, thirty 


Jiitlf \5lk.— A long botanizing excuntion to-day among 
tlia I'ijutia hiU« witli Mr. Olaziou, director of the Paswio 
Pulilico, x-t guide. It lias been a piece of the good fortune 
atttiiiding Mr. Ag»s»iz tliii* far on tbis expedition to find in 
Mr. Glaziou a botanist wboso praclical familiarity wit]i 
tro[)icul plaiilA is ws ttiorougb as his theoretical knowledge. 
He lias undertaken to enrich our scientific stores with a 
large collection of such palms and other trccH o-t illii»tra(o 
the relation between the prct^ent tropicnl vcgetaiion and the 
uncicnt geological forests. Sucli a collecUun will be inralu- 
ahlc as a basis for palteontolugical studies at the Museum of 
CoiQparativii Zoologj in Cambridge. 

Juli/ 2&d. — At last our plans for the Amazons eocm 
dvliiiitcty settled. Wo sail the day after to-morrow bj tb« 
Cruzeiro du Sul. The conduct of the gurerumvnt toward 
the expedition is very gcncroiut; free passages uro granted 
lo tlie whole parly, and yesterday Mr. Agussix received au 
ofHcial document enjuiiiing all persons connected with tlio 
administration to give bim every facility for his sciontific 
objects. Wo liavQ anotlior piece of good fortune in tha 
addition to our party of Major Coutinbo, a member of 
the government corps of engineers, who has been ougagod 
fur several years in explorations on the Amazonian riven. 
Buppily for us, he returned to Bio a few weeks ugo, and ft 
chance meeting at the palace, where he had gone to n> 
port the results of the journey just completed, and Mr. 
Agassix to dUcuss the plaus for that about to begin, brouglit 
tliem together. This young officer's investigations had mado 
bis name fauiiliur to Mr. AgObsiz, and when the Emperor 
a«kud the latter bow he could best assist hiui, he answered 
that there was nothing ho so much desired or which would 
so materially aid him as the companioiisliip of Major Cou< 

rAitKNDA Lira 


tiitho. The Emperor cordially consented, Major Coittiiiho 
Bigiiiiied his readiness, and the matter was voiiuludcd. 
^ice then there have been frequent confcrcuco« botwceo 
Ur. Agassiz and bis new colleague, iuteut study of maps 
and endless talk about the ntost desirable mode of laying 
out and dividing llie work. He feels tliut Major Coutiiiho's 
familiarity with t)ie scenes to which we are going will 
lighten his task of half its difficulties, while his fciontific 
loal will make him a most syinpathelic companion.* Wo 
found to-day some Urge leave* of the Terminalia Oatappa 
of the most brilliant colors ; red and gold as bright as any 
of our autumnal leaves. This would seom to confirm the 
ofMnion that the turning of llio foliage witli us is uot au 
oG^t of frost, but simply the ripening of the leaf; sinoe 
bore, where tlicre is no frost, the same pbcnomeaou takes 
place as in our northorn Intltudes. 

July 24M. — Our lust preparations for the journey an 
completed ; the collectious made since our arriral, amount* 
iug lo upwards of fiTiy barrels and cases, are packed, in 
readiness for lite first 0|>portumty which occurs for the 
United States, and to-morrow morning we »hall be on 
onr way to the great river. We went this morning to 
the Collegio Dom Pedro Segundo to bid farewell to our 
excellent friend Dr. t'acheco, to whose kijidneas wo owe 
much of our enjoyment during our stay here. Tlie Col- 
lege building was once a " serainario," a charitable iu- 
Etitution where boys were taken to be edncated as priests. 

* Ntmr <T«ra (ilMMiit aiiikipxlionii mora iIcliithtAillj ftilflllol. During 
flcnn nunitlii uf tlio iii<»t iTilicunl' i:»Riii«.n>on>htp I hi4 deil; rituM lo bo 
gratdnl for lira chaoco whicli had thrown a* ioeviIim'. I fbunit In Mnjor 
Coitinbo an aUo i^ulUborator, unliriiii; in hii McUTiir knil df^voiion tn >i^inn> 
bHg urn*, m •dminMe gnid«, and • friend wIioim rvfjonl I iru>t I tliati n«r 
nnin. — !• A. 



The rules of Ibe eetablisliment were strict ; no sorvanta 
were kept, the pupils were obliged to do (heir own work, 
cooking, Ac., and ereii to go oul iiito the streets to bcf; 
alter the fashion of the meudicuiit orders. Oue condi- 
tion only was attached to the entriuiee of the children, 
namely, that they should bo of piiro rauc ; no mulattocs or 
negroes were admitted. I do not know on what ground 
this institution waa broken up by ibc government and th«» 
building taken as a scbool-liousc. It bus stOl o slightly 
monastic aspect, though it has been greatly modified ; but 
the cloisters running around closed courts remind one of 
its origin. The recitations were going on at the roomeiil 
of our visit, and as we had seen nothing as yet of the 
•chools. Dr. Pacheco took us through the establishment. 
A college here does not signify a university as with us, 
but rather a high school, tlie age of the pupils being 
tram twelve to eighteen. It is difficult to judge of 
methods of education in a foreign language with whinli 
one is not very familiur. But the scholars appeared bright 
and interested, their iinswcrs came promptly, their di9> 
cJpline was cridcntly good. One thing was very striking 
to R stranger in xccing »o many young people collected 
together ; namely, the ubscnoo of puru type and the fee- 
ble physique. I do not know wtielhor it is in consequence 
of the climate, but a healthy, vigorous child is a rare 
Fight in Rio do Janeiro. The scholars were of all colors, 
from black tbrougli intermediate shadi's to white, and eveu 
one of the teachers having the direction of a liigticr class iu 
Latin was a negro. It is an evidence of tlie absence of any 
prejudice against the blacks, tliat, on the occasion of a recent 
Tocancy among the Latin professors, this man, having parsed 
U)e bc»t examination, was unanimously chosen in prefereuct 


u> rarcrat Brazilinus, of Eurupcan dcMent, vlto pri»«n(ed 
tticmselvcs a» caudidutcs at the same timo. Aftor beariug 
several of the classes vc went over llio rest of the building. 
Tbe order aud cxquJsito ii«alDesii of tlio whole cstablish- 
lueiit, uot for^ttiiig Uie kitchen, lyhvro tlie sliiuing brah-ses 
mid bright tins might awaki^u the envy of many a house- 
keeper, bear testiiouiiy lo the eicijlleuce of the geooral 
directtoa. Siuce the iustitiitiou passed into Dr. Pachoco's 
hands be has done a great deal to rai^o its character. 
He has iuipi-o?ed the library, pureh&sed iu)>trumeubs for 
the laboratory, and made many judicious ehangct iu the 
general armngement. 





Ok •«*»» Tint " Ctmtmxao no Sui." — Mbukeki or tk« Paktt. — Autiru 
AT Baku. — Day irtkk Couktkt.-- Retukhtu thk Stkamck. — Cojcvac- 


cdlvLaxdiho. — Ukaiiliaei HATiri.^MABAsniAii. — AwiaiPaui.— Vimrio 
Otinus Abtluh. — DnAisKP in Pout. — VAKitrr ov Mbrvka — AnuvAb 
0* Akhkicax acxBiiAr. — Moke Mkiiubal — Disam dm Siiiikb. — Couiui^ 
nr TowAKD THx KirxornON. — ANniVAi. at I'au/, — Kiu> RRCKmon. — 
KnvinniHor Paba'. — LuxuKiASfr Gnoimt, — Mahnkts. — Ibmax Hoiats.^ 


— Succitu III vuUJicrivu. with tiix aaviktamci of oijk lluicr AMfOmtB 
Fkikxii*. — KtAHiu ur Tin KoREATA, — Kxratsutiinn op SmrATiiT 
ron Till EnrXDmiMi. — UiuiKlioiiTr or tiik Axazoxian Stkaii>iiq> Cox- 
rAXT. — Gkulooioal CiuaAcnn or Tttii Suoas ntoM Bio 10 Paxa. — Em- 


A(y 25/*. — On board tiio "Cruzeiro do Sul." Wa 
niilud to-duy at 11 o'clock, biddiug good bj with regret, 
though not without hope of return, to the beautiful baj 
and Diountfliiii! on which we hare been looking for three 
months. Our parly coniists of Major Coutinho, Mr. Burfc- 
bardt, Moii«imir Bourgvt, who acuumpUHivs Mr. Agassis 
to ttic Amozons as collector aud pruparator, our two joung 
frieuds Mr. Huunewell aud Mr. James, and oureolros. At 
Baliia we shall be joined by Mr. Dexter aud Mr. Tliayer, 
two of our parly who have preceded us up llie coast, and 
have beon collecting in the ueighborhood of Baliia for two 
or three weeks. The aspect of the steamer is not very 
invitiDg, for it has been used of late for the transportation 
of troops to the south, in consequence of which it is very 
dirty; it is also overcrowded on account of tlio number of 
persons bound northward, who have been detained in Rio 


inturmpliou of the regular trips on tbis lute. Ws 
are pro(ni$«d better nccomraodations after a fcv days, bow- 
ever, as many of tbe passeugers will drop off at Rabia and 

Jultf 28(A. — Baliia. Half tbe enjoyment of life borrows 
intensity from contrast, and to tliis principle we certainly 
owe a part of our pleasure to^lay. After tliree half sea 
sick days on a dirty, crowded steamer, the change is de- 
ligbtful to a breezy country house, where we arc received 
with that most gracious hospitality wbicb relieves both 
best and guests of tlie sense of entertaining or being 
entertained. Here I have been sitting under tbe deep 
shade of a huge maiigo-tree, with & nujubor of tliu " Re- 
vue dea Deux Mondes " on my kneo, oitbur reading or 
listening laiily (o the rustle of the leaves or the cooing 
of the pigeons as tliey patter up and down on tbo tiled 
Boor of tbe porch near by, or watdiiug tbe negroes as 
thoy come and go with trays of vegetables or baskets 
of fruit oud flowers ou their beads, for tlie service of 
Uio house. In tbo moiui time, Mr. Agussiz b engaged in 
exaiuiiiiug the collections made by Mr. Doxter and Mr. 
Thayer during their visit bore. They have been uded 
most cordially by our friend Mr. Antonio de Laccrda, at 
vliose hospitable house we are staying, and where we 
found our travelling companions quite domesticated. He 
received tbom on their arrival, and has given tliem every 
tiicility during their stay here for the objects they had in 
view, his own love of natural history, to wbicli be devotes 
every i-puro hour from liis active business life, rendering 
bim an oRiciout ally. He has a large and very valuable 
C<^ection of insects, admirably arranged and in excellent 
preservat*) u. They are abo gi-eatly indebted to Mr. Nioolai, 


the resident English clergyman horo, who lias accompanied 
tbem on some of tJteir excursions, and put thorn in Uie way 
of seeing whatever was most interesting in the neighbor* 

On arriving in South America one slioiiM land first 
in Bahia, for in its aspect it is the most national and 
ohnraclcriittic of the cities. As we passed directly tbrougl) 
tlic town tliis morning, we can give but little account of 
it, and yet wc saw enough t» eonlirm all Uiat lias been said 
of its quaint and picturesque character. On first disem- 
barking, you fmd yourself at tbo fout of ao almost per- 
pendicular hill, and nogro-bcarers appear at your side 
to carry you up Uie steep ascent, almost impassable for 
carriages, in a " cadeira," or curtained ctiair. This ia 
in itself an odd experience for one to whom it is new, 
and the rest of the city, witli its precipitous streets, its 
queer houses, its old clmrchos, is as quaint and antique 
as these original carriages. 

Juit/ 29th. — To-day wo have tlie "revors dela mMaille"; 
we have returned to our prison, and a violent rain drives us 
all to take refuge in the hot, close dining-room, our only 
resort when the weather is bad. 

July SOtli. — Off Macfifl. Last evening, when the rain 
was over and the moonlight tempted every one ou deck, 
we liad a long conversation with our pleasant travelling 
companion, Mr. Sinimbn, senator from the province of 
Alagi^as, on the aspect of slavery in Uracil. It seems to 
me that we may have something to learn here in our own 
perplexities respecting the position of tlie black race among 
us, for the Prazilians are trying gradually and by install* 
ments some of the ex|>oriiuent» which arc forced upou 
us without previous preparation. Tlie absoueo of all ro- 


it upon tile tvce blacks, tlio Tact Ihnt tli«y are eligible 
to ofEce, and tliat all [H'ort-^iona] careers are open to them, 
without prejudice on the ground of color, enables ouo to 
form some opinion as to tlicir abilitj* aiid capacity for 
dereloptneiit. Mr. Siuimbu tells us tliat here tlie result 
is on the u-hole in their favor ; he says that tho (rco 
blacks compare well iu intcUigenoe and activity witli tli« 
Braxiliaj]« iind Portuguese. But it mu*t be reiuembcrod, 
iu making the comp*risou with reference to our own ooua- 
tiy, that tiem tltcj ftro brought into contact witli a lea 
euerg«tic and powerfuL race than the Anglo-Saxon. Mr. 
Sinimbn bellovcs that emancipation i& to be aocompJislied 
in Brazil bj a gradual [Hroccits vhich has already begun. 
A largo numWr of tJaves are freed every year by tlie 
vUb of their masters ; a sttU larger number buy their 
own freedom nnuually ; and as there is no longer any 
iniporlAtiou of blacks, tlie inevitable result of this musi 
bo tho nalund death of slavery. Unhappily, the process 
is a slow one, and in tlio mean while slavery is doing its 
eril work, debasing and enfeebling alike whites and blacks. 
The Brazilians thomsvlvcs do not deny this, and one cou- 
stantly licunt tlicm lament tlie iiewssity of sending thoir 
children away to be educated, on account of the injurious 
association with tlie houso-sorvauts. In fact, alttiough 
politically slavery has a nioi-e hopeful aspect lioro :han 
olsGwhure, the institution from a mora! point of view has 
stHDO of its most revolting diaracters in this country, and 
looks, if pussiblo, more odious than it did in the States. 
The ollKr day, in llio uvighborhood of Rio, I liad an 
opportunity of seeing a marriage between two negroes, 
wImwo owner made the religious, or, as it appeared to 
me ou tliis occasion, iriMlltgious ceremony, obligatory. Tlie 



bride, who was as bUcIc as j«t, was dn^ed in wbite muslin, 
with a veil of coarse whito lace, such as the negro womea 
make tbomsvlvos, and the htisbaud was in a whito linev 
Buit. She looked, and I think she really felt, diffident, 
for there were a good many strangers present, and lier 
position was umburrassiiig. The Portuguese priost, a bold, 
insolent-looking man, called Ihcm up and rattled over 
tlie marriage service witli most irreverent speed, stopping 
now and then to scold them liolli, but especially the woman, 
because she did not speak loud enough and did not take the 
whole thing in the same coarse, rough way that lie did. 
When he ordered them to oome up and kjieol at the 
altar, his tone was moro suggestive of cursing tlian pray- 
ing, and having uttered his blessing he hurled an amen 
at Uiem, slammi'd iLe prayer-book down on tlio altar, 
whified out the candles, and turned the biide and bride- 
groom out of the tiliupcl with as little ceremony as cue 
would have kicked out a dog. As the bride came out, 
half crying, half smiling, her mother met her and show- 
ered hor with rose-leaves, and so this act of couscci-atiou, 
in which the mother's benediction scorned the only grace, 
was over. I tliought what a strango confusion there must 
be in these poor creature's minds, if they tliouglit about 
it at all. They are told that the relation between maa 
and wif» is a sin, unless confirmed by the sacred rite of 
marriage ; they come to hear a bad man gabble over them 
words which they cannot understand, mingled with taunts 
and abuse whicli they understand only too well, and side 
by side with their own children grow up the little fair- 
ekinned slaves to tell tliom practically that the white man 
does not keep himsflf the law he imposes on them. What 
a monstrous lie the whole system must seem to them if they 




»vvr hd to tliink about it at al). I am far from nup- 
ig that the instance 1 have gireii should be taken as 
represenUng thi stat« of reli^ous itutruction oa planto- 
liona generally. No doubt there arc good priests who 
improve and iuslruct their black parishiouoni; but il docs 
not follow because religious services are provided ou a 
plantation, the ceremony of marrlago obwrvcd, Ac, tiiM 
there is anjrthing vhicb deserves tliu name of religious 
instruction. It would bo unjust not to adiJ tlio better 
ndo of tlie qucEtJon in tliis particular instance. The man 
was froc, and I was told that llio woman received her 
liberty and a piece of land froio lier master as her 
marriage dower. 

We arrived at Maceid this morning, and wont on shorv 
with Mr. Sinimbu, who leaves us hero, and with whosti 
family we passed a delightful day, welcomed witJ) that 
hearty cordiality so characteristic of IJrasilians in tlieir 
owii homes. Allhougb our stay was so short, a consid- 
erable additioa was made here to tlie collections. On 
arriving at any port the party disperses at once, tho 
young men going in ditferent directions to collect, Mr. 
Bourget hurrying to the fish-market to see what may 
be found Uicre of interest, aud Mr. Agassis and M. 
Coutiuho generally making a geological cxcurMon. lu 
this way, though the steamer remains but a few hours 
at each station, tlie time is not lost. 

Jtdy &\at. — Peruambuoo. Arrived to-d»y off Pcrnam- 
btico, and were too happy, after a stonny nlglit, to find 
ourHelTeH behind the famous reef which makes such a 
]uiet liarbor at tliis port. Our countryman, Mr. Hitth, 
met U3 on landing, and drove us at once out to his 
. ** diacara," (country place,) where it was delightful to 


be welcomed, liko old friondc, to an American home* 
Pernambuco is bj- no moans so (HCturcMiuc as Bahia or 
Bio de Janeiro. It lias a more modem air than eitlier 
of these, but looks also uioro cleanly atid more prosper* 
ous. MAny of Uie streets are wide, niid tlio river niiiiiiug 
tUruiigli the business port of llie city, crossed by broad, 
handsome bridge*, is itself snggestire of freslinoss. Th« 
country is more open and fiat tlian farther souUi. In 
our alternoon drive some of tlio views across wide, level 
meadows, if we could have put elms here and tliere to 
tlio plncc of palms, would liavo reminded us of scenery at 
home. - 

Avffust 2if. — Yesterday we left Pemainbuco, and this 
morning found ourselves at the inouth of the Parabyba 
do Norte, a brood, beautiful rirer, np which we steamed 
to within a few miles of tlie little town bearing the iianie 
name. Hero we took a boat and rowed to the city, where 
we spent some hours in rambling about, collecting spcci- 
moDS, examiniug drift formations, Slc. In the oonrse of 
our excursion we fell in with some friends of Major Con- 
linho's, who took us home witli them to an excellent 
breakfast of fretih fish, with bread, cotfee, and wine. T)wt 
In-ead is to be noticed here, for it is said to be the best 
in Brazil. The flonr is the same as elsewhere, and the 
people generally attribute the superiority of their bread to 
some quality of the wator. Whatever be tlie cause, there 
is no bread in all Brasil do sweet, so light, and so white as 
that of Parabyba do Norte, 

Augmt blh. — We an-ived yesterday at Cearil, where we 
were warmly welcomed and most hospitably entertained 

* Mr. A^udi wu indebted lo Mr. Uiwh Ibr vulonble ■dduiont to hii 
colkclisai nad for nuuf «,ii of kindnca iu bcholf of ibo cxpcdiuoa 


at llio house of Tir. ^tondcF, nn old acquaintance ol Major 
Coutinlio. It was blowing hard and rsiuing when we left 
tlie steamer ; our boat put into tbc ijcacb in a bcavj eurf, 
and I was wondering bow t slionid rcucb tlic shore, when 
two of our negro rowers jumped into the water, and, stand- 
ing at the side of tlic boat behind mi*, motioned me to 
come, crossing their arms basket-fashion as we do Eomo- 
times to carry children. Tbcjr looked as if it wore the or- 
dinary mode of coiiToyanoc, so I seated myself, and with 
one arm around the neck of each of my black Iwarers, 
they laughing as heartily as I did, I wax landed trium- 
pliantly on tlio sands. After the (irat greetings at tlie liouso 
of Dr. Mendes wore over, we were ofTurcd the luxury of 
a bath before breakfast. Tim bulh is a very important 
feature in a Brazilian household. This one was of the size 
of a small room, the water (about two feet deep ant) of a 
delicious, soft, vi'lvcty character) constantly flowing through 
OTcr the smooth sand floor. Tlicy are often larger than 
this, from four to fire foct dc«p, and sometimes lined 
with blue and white tiles, which make a Tory clean aud 
pretty floor. It is a great luxury iu this warm climato, 
and many persons bathe several limes a day, Tbc bath- 
houM id usually in tlio garden, it a eODTunient distaiico 
from the house, but not immediately adjouitiig it. The 
bath was followed by an excellent hrcakfa«t, after whidi 
we drove through the city. Cttar& is a wonderfully pro- 
gressive town for Brazil. Flvo yeans ago it liad not a 
paved street ; now all the atrechs arc well pared, with 
good sidewalks, and tlio city is rcry carefully laid out. 
with a view to its future growtli.* To-day wo are again 

■ Hat*. •■ obuwhtra, I found read; and wilting coidjuton aiDoag i lu- 
Hsr wHwwn. Ob dj mum Itom ttic Amoioni, maa; moi ilu lucr, 1 fcunJ 

I£t4 A JQUUiET m aiuzn. 

coasting along witliiii «ig))t of Und, witli a quiet scft 
a dolidoiu breeze Tlio ouoiui is covered with »'hit« caps, 
and of a very peculiar groeuish, aquamariiio tint, llic samo 
which I observed as soon as wo reached tJieso latitudes iu 
coming out. Tliis siugular color is said to be owing to 
tlie nature of the Eoa bottom and the sliallowucN; of tlio 
water, combined, farther north, with the adinixturo of freeh 
water along the coast. 

Auyu»t &t/i. — Arrived early this morning before Moran 
ham, and went on shore to breakfast at the hotel ; for, won 
derfiil to relato, Mnranham ]>08sejse9 a hotel, a great rarity in 
many Brazilian lowns. VV'e jmssed the greater part of the day 
ID driving about the city with Dr. Brago, who kindly under- 
took to show us everything of interest.' llio town and 
harbor are very pretty, tlio city iUtelf »taMding on an island, 
formed by two imys running up on cither side and enclosing 
it. llie surrounding country is flat and very thickly wood- 
ed, though the woodv are ruitiur low. Here, at the house of 
Dr. Bragii's lirotlior-in-law, wc saw, for the first lime, tlio 
Blender, graceful Assai palm, from which the drink is made 
80 much appreciated iu Parfl aud on the Lower Amaxons. 
It is curious to see the negroes go up the troo to gather 

coUtM^lioria rnndo iti my aliwiice by I>r. Mtiidnx nnil S^iilinf IIilitom. who 
li>J boaa uur cumiiuiiiuiui ua lioiin] [hu ilvNiaix- Al Hnralijlis iln Nurlo t 
wu inilebtcd in tliu mtna vt&j lo Dr. Juitn. TIivp? coileriioiui H-ill att->ti in- 
tulunblc mniciinli fox the tompntiton of ilw Conit pAunic. — L. A. 

• Al a Inlcr period I owid n Dr. Briwn tnr more ihan the orJiiinry etiumtj 
citcnJal Ui a Mnnijccr. 1 linil Inltirmcd hiia llml Mr. St. ,[oliii. tlicn rollawing 
the inune of ihe Rio baa frnnciKir, on liU way <•> l)ie |iri>viiico iif I'uiuliy, 
woiiM arrSvu io Miiranb-im lU llip duM of liit juunify. Whvn tio rviiclvil that 
dli he wu nry Mnuuily ill vriili fonor. Dr Btugn took lilm idcu hi* liouit, 
whtre hi; wn» ndcixlcd by him nnd liii fnmilv at if lio had 1h*ii ono of [heir kin- 
dral. I hate, indeed, little ilonht thnt my ynung friend OHod Jiii ncoraj lu 
■Iw coniidonio ora will) whiidi ha wm irMtml uuilsr Uioir kinillv roof. — 1-. A 





tuo fruit Tho trunk is perfectly smooth, the fr lit grovf iiig 
in a hoaTy chistcr of Iwirics, jast below llie crown of leaves 
ou iU summit. The negro fostoiis a cord or a strip of palm* 
loaf around his insC«p!!, thus binding his feet togetlier lliat 
tJusy may not slida apart on tlic smooth slpm, and by moans 
of this kind of stirrup he contrives to cliug to the slippery 
trunk and scramble up. 

Wo wore much interested in seeing hero an admirably 
well conducted institution for the education of poor or- 
phans. Its chief aim is to educate them, not as scholars, 
tliough they receive elementary instruction in reading, 
writing, and ciphering, but to teacli them a variety of 
oceupfltions by which they I'nn earn en honest livelihood. 
They are truncd in several trades, arc taught to play on 
a number of instruments, and there is aUo a school of 
design connected witli the establishment. A faultless or- 
der and scrupulous neatness prevailed through the whole 
building, which was not the result of on exceptional prcp- 
anitioa, sinco our visit was wholly unespMitcd. This sur- 
prised us the mon;, because, iiotwiilistandhig tlieir fond- 
ness for bathing, order and neatness in their houses arc 
not a virtue among the Bruxiliiiiis. This may l>c owing to 
slave labor, — nrely anything better than eyc-scrvico. Tbo 
large dormitories looked fresh and airy, with tho hammocks 
rolled up and laid on a shelf, each one above the peg In 
which it belonged ; the slious were hung on nniU along 
tJte walls, and the little trunks, holding the clothing of 
each scholar, were neatly arranged iK^ncath them. On the 
upper story was the hospital, n large, wcll-veittiiuted room, 
with numerous windows vomnutndiug beautiful view», and 
& cool hre(!ze blowing through it. Here were cots instead 
of hammocks, but 1 thought the sick boys might prefer 



tfaiQ Bvinging, cradle-liko beds to which th«y were accus- 
tomed, and which they ovidciitly find very comfortable. 
When Mr. Agassiz remarked, us wc pulsed tlirough tl»e 
dormitory, tlmt sleeping in a hammock was an czpcricnco 
lie had yet to make, one of tho boys took his down from 
the shelf, and, hanging it up, laughingly tlircw himi^clf 
into il, with a lazy ease which lookod quite enTiablu. The 
kitchen un<] grocery rooms were as ncut ta the rest of Uie 
hoitse, and the simplicity of the whole cstabtishment, while 
it admitted everything necessary for comfort and hcallli, 
was well adapted for its objects. A pretty little cliapct 
adjoined tlio house, and the house itself was built around 
an open square planted with trees, — a pleasant playground 
fot the boys, who have their music there in the evening. 
On our return to town we heard tliat, owing to the bi-eak- 
ago of some part of the machinery. Ilie steamer would be 
detained in this port for a couple of days. We have, how- 
over, returned to our quarters on board, preferring to spend 
tlie night on tho water rather titan in the hot, close town. 

AttffuH 7th. — To-day we hare all been interested in 
watching the beautirul MedusOA swept along by the tide, so 
close to the side of tho steamer that tlicy could easily be 
reached from the stairway. We have now quite a inimbor 
disposed altout the deck in buckets and basins, and Mr. 
Burkhsrdt is making colored sketches of them. They are 
Tcry beautiful, and quite new to Mr. Agassiz. In some 
tlie disk ho-t a brown tiiicer^' like seaweed over it, while 
its edge is deeply lobed, ever}' lube being tinged with an 
intensely brilliant dark blue ; the loben ore divided into 
eight sets of four each, making thirty-two in all, and an 
eye is placed on the margin hetwuflii each set; the lubrs 
running to the eyes are much larger than those in the- in- 





tervals belwren,and titc network of vcjwols on tlio margin is 
Tondcrrtilly fino aud dvlicutc ; tlic curhtiiis liuugiiig from itio 
mouth are vhite uad closely fringed with full flouiicos, Gouie- 
what liko our Aiircliu. Tlio movement is quick, the margin 
of the disk beatijig witli sliort, npid pants. Another is alto- 
gether brown and wliit«, the seawccd-Uko pattern being car- 
ried down to the edge of tim lobes, and tlio lobes them* 
selves being more delicate tlian tliose of the blue-edged one, 
the disk thinning out grcatif towards the periplierf. The 
brown marks are, hoiFoTcr, darker, more distinct, and 
cover a larger space in eomo specimens than in others. 
This is also true of those with tlie bluo margin, the 
brown pattern covering the whole disk in some, confined 
to a nmple zone around the di^k in others, and even 
cnlirelf absent occasionally. Mr. Agossiz inclines to think, 
from the umilarity of their other features, however, that, 
iiotwilhatanding their difference of color, they all belong to 
Uie same s|)ecies, the variety in coloration being pi-obably 
connected with difference of sex. He has, at any rate, 
ascertained tliaC all the wholly brown specimens catiglit 
to-day are males. 

We were rejoiced this morning by Uie sight of our own 
flag coming into liarbor. Wo presently fonnd that the 
fillip was tlie gunboat Nipsic. She had sailed from Boston 
on the 4th of July, and brought jxipers of a later date than 
any wo have seen. The oHicers were kind enough to »ciid 
us a large bundle of lapel's, which we have been eagerly 

AuffiM Sti. — Another quite new and beautiful Medusa 
to-day. As we were waiting for breakfast tins morning a 
number flouted post, to dark in color that in the water 
they appeired almost black. Two of our party took a boat 




aud went in searcli of them, but the tide was m HTift 
that Lltej swept pa&t like lightning, and one had hardly 
tims to point tliem out before the; were gone again. 
However, after many efforts, we sncceeded in gutting 
one, whose portrait Mr. Burkhardt is now taking. Tito 
disk is of a cbou^ale-brown, »hadiug into a darker, more 
velvet; hue toward the edge, which is slightly scalloped, 
but not cut up uito deep lobes liko thu»u of yesterday. 
His tjtx, «ighl iu uuuiber, aru di»tinclJy visible as lighter- 
colored specks on tlio mitrgin. The ftppciidagt's liuiijipng 
from the muutli are more solid and not so thickly fringed 
ss ill tlioso of yesterday. It mows rather slowly in its 
glass prison, the broad margiu shaduig from lighter brown 
to a soft chocolate color almost verging on black, as it flaps 
up Olid down somewhat languidly, but EtiU with a regular, 
steady pulsation.* 

Augiut 9c&. — We pOEScd yesterday afternoon with llis 
Braga family in town. The weather was charming, a 
oool breeze blowing throngh the veranda where we dined. 
There were a number of guests to meet us, and we had 
agaiu cause (o acknowledge how completely the stranger 
is mode to feci himself nt home among these hoKpitablo 
people. Wc suilud this morning, Mr. Agas»iz taking will) 

^ liim > valuable colleiition, though our time was so shorl. 

Ttic fact is, that, not only here, but at every town whore 
we liiive slopped in coming up the coast, the ready, cordial 

II desiro of the people to help in the work has enabled him 

Llo get together collections which it would othorwiM liavo 
boen impossible to make i» so short a time. If ho is 

These two MkIihib belong to the Ulihoiiomid*. ntid I ihiill take an Birtt 
•ppartanilf U fiulilitli • ilcivrlpUon of iticm, with iho drairiDs* ot Hr. Bull 
fconU. — L.A. 



(inexpeclcdly Kuoocssrnl in this expedittou, it is as much 
owing to Ihfi active fj'uipnilijr of th« Brazilians tlieniseWes, 
and to llieir interest in the objects lie lias so much at heart, 
OS to the eflTortt of liiniKclf aiid liis coiDpauions. 

Auffutl Mlh. — Pari. Kariy yesterday moniing, a lew 
jellowiiili patches »tAiiiiiig the oc«aii tiei'e and there gave us 
our first gliiupso of the water of the Atnaxoiis. Preseiitif 
the patdiee became broad streaks, the fre^h waters encroach- 
ing gradually upon the sea, until, at about ten o'clock, we 
fairly entered tlie mouth of ttio rirer, though, as tlie shores 
are some hundred and fiHy milea apart, ve might have 
believed ourfelfes on the broad ocean. As we ncarod the 
city, the numerous islands closing up about Piir4 and 
sheltering its harbor limited the view and broke the enor- 
mous exfanse of the fresh-water basin. Wc anchored 
off tlie city at about three o'clock, but a heavy thunder-; 
shower, with violent rain, provcntod us trom going oa] 
shore Ull the next morning. None of the party land< 
except Hnjor Couttnho. He went to announce our arrival 
to liis friend, Mr. Piinenta Bueiio, who has kindly invited 
us to make his house our home while we stay in Pari,] 
Tlte next morning was bcaulifnl after the rain, and at sercai 
o'clock two boats were sent to take us and our effects on 
shore. On lauding we went at once to Mr. Pimenta's 
large business establishment near tho wharves. Here Ito 
has provided several excellent working-rooms to serve as 
laboratories end storago-placos for tlie specimens, and be- 
sides tlieso a utimbcr of airy, cool chambers on tho floor 
above, for tlte accommodation of our companions, who 
have already vlung tlieir liammocks, arranged their ef- 
fects, and uru keeping a kind of bachelor's hall. Having 
disposed of the scivntiTic apparatus, we drovo out to Mr 





PimctiU's "cliacsn," some two nitles out of tovii, on 
tlie Rua do NazurcUi, where we were roociveil witli tlic 
utmoat kinduc«». Mr. A^iMiz and Klajor Coulinho sw>n 
roturued to town, where do ^ine is to be lost in U^io- 
ning work nt llio Uhorntorf. I remtiiied nt hoiQS and 
[MSMd a pleasaut inomiiig with Die ladies of the family, 
who made me acquainted witli llie |>cc<iliar Ixfrcrage so 
funoua in tliesto rogioas, prepai'od from the berries of 
the Anai palm. They are about the »ic of craiihemen, 
Hiid of a dark-brown color. Iteinf; boiled and crushed 
they yield a quantity of juice, which when strained has 
D^ut tlie consistency of chocolate, aiid ia of a dark puriJisli 
tint like blackberry juice. It baa a sweetish taste, and ix 
very nice eaten witli sngar and the cnap " farinha d'agiia," 
a kind of coarso flour made from the mandioca root. 
People of all classes throughout the province of Pari 
are excoodingly fond of tJiis beverage, and in the ci^ 
they have a proverb which runs thus ; — 
"Who vinti Pnni U g1iu) to (Uy, 
Who (Irinlu Assai pora ncvpr «w»y.' 

Avfftut 12fA.^This morning wo rose early and walked 
into town. Great puns Imvo been taken witli the environs 
of Par&, and the Rua dc Nozarctli is one of the broad 
streets leading into the country, and planted with lai^ 
trees (chiefly munguciras) for two or throe miles out of 
town. On otir way we saw a lofly palm-tree completely 
orerpowcred and vtiflcd in the embrttCc of an enonnouE 
paroRite. So luxuriant is the growth of the latter that 
you do tint perceive, till it is poliilcd out to you, that its 
spreading branches and thiok foliage oomplctoly hide the 
tree from which it derives its life ; only from the extreme 
summit a few fan-like palm-leaves shoot iipwai-di as if 



tryiug to escape into the sir and light. The palm cannot 
long Hin-ive, howerer, and with its dcatli it seals the doom 
of ils njiirdcror also. Tlicro is another cridcnco, and a 
more plctsing ODO, of the luxuriance of nature on tliU 
nme roud. Tlie skoleton of u house stands hj the way- 
rido : vhcllicr a ruin or unllnished, I um unahto to say, 
hot at all OTODts oaly the wall* are standing, wiili iho 
openings for doors und windows. Nature has completed 
thin imperfect dwelling; — she has covered it over vitli 
a grc«n roof, she has planted the empty enclosure with 
a garden of her own choosing, slie has trained vineo aronnd 
the open doors and window;) ; and tlie deserted lionso, if it 
haa no other inmates, is at least a home for the birds. 
It makes a rery pretty picture. 1 never pass it witlioul 
wishing for a slcetcli of it. On our arrival in town wa 
went at once lo the market. It is very near the water, 
and we were much amused in watching the Indian canoes 
at the lauding. The "montaria," as the Indian calls his 
oanoe, is a long, narrow boat, covered at one end witli 
a thatched roof, uudor which is the living-room of the 
family. Here the Indian has his home ; wife and children, 
hammock, cooking utensils, — all hit! housohold goods, in 
tuBi, lu eotne of the ho&ts the women woru preparing break- 
fkst, cooking the coBeo or the tapiocn over a pan of couls, 
lu others they were selling the course jxjltory, which tlw-y 
make Into all kinds of utensils, sometimes of quite grace- 
ful, pretty forms. Wo afterwards weut through the mar- 
ket. It is quite large and neatly kept; hut the Brazilian 
markets nro only good as compared wiih each other. 
The meat« are generally poor ; there h little game to be 
Been ; they have no variety of vegetables, which might be 
so easily cultivated here, and even the difjilay of fhiit 

142 A JOintKKY IN BBAZlt. 

iu tb« market U by no lueaus what one would expect il 
to bo. To-iiiglit Mr. Agnssis goes off with a. parly 
goutk'incu oil au csciirHioii lo NOiite of ttio islands iu th4^ 
harbor. Tliis first cspc<iitiou iii llic tieighiwrhood of Pari, 
from which the ProfuKsor proiniKCs hiitiftclf much pleasure, 
is pluimcd bj Dr. Coulo de Mogalhafis, PresidoDt of tho 

At^tt 14(A. — Wo are very agrciMibly surprised in tlie 
climatQ here. I Itad expected from the moment of our 
arriral in the region of tiio AmnzQUH to be gasping in a 
fierce, uiiinteruiitting, intolerable heat. On the con- 
trary, the mornings are frcsli ; a walk or ride betweeu 
Rix aiid eight o'clock is always delightful ; and tliough 
during the inid<)lt! of the day tJio heat is certainly very 
great, il couIm ofl again towards four o'clock ; ttie clon- 
ings are delightful, and tlie nights always comfortable. 
Even ill tlie hottest jwrt of the day the lieat is not dead ; 
there is always a bt'eexe stirring. Mr. Aga.«.ti2 returned 
this arieriiooa from bis excursion in tlie ha.rbor, more 
deeply impressed than ever with the grandeur of tliia 
entrance to the .\ninxoiis and the beauty of its many 
island)), " An archijuliigu of islands," as he says, " in an 
ooean of fresh vater." Ho describes the mode of fishing 
of the Indians as curious. They row very softly up tho 

' To Dr. Couto (lis UBgalhn&i Mr- A;;iiMiz vai indebted Ibr unrcmittiait 
ttirntioiu during our aUf in ihc region of iha Aniazoni. tin ncvvr fniird lo 
r>ciUute ihe tuccus of tliD cxpodition b^ crvry mponi in liii power, and iImi 
Isrg* collcctioni madQ under liii direction* during our (oJoBm apou thn 
Upper AniofODi were nniarri; ttiR inoti nliinbla mnliihutinn* to iM aricniiGc 
rnnlu. Whnii lin hcjinl thui Mr. Wuril. Oii« of uur younj; citiipnniunt, wM 
coming ilowii the Tol'llllUll^ hit viit ■ bunt iinil boalnurn tu mm liim, and 
«a hi) u-rival iu Pari recdtcd him in hi* onrn booM, when he ttinuined hit 
(OMt during liii ilHjr in ihc atj. 



creek, having Gnt fostoacd the wilno across fhjm si 
to shore at » lower point, und wIivd they haro gainoj 
a ottrtain di«tanco above it, thej Epring iuto the water 
with a great plash and rush down the creek in s line, 
dri^-iiig thu Bsh before tJiem into the net. One draught 
alone filled the boat half full of fish. Mr. Agassiz was 
especially interested in soeing^ alive for the first time the 
curious fish called "Tralhote" by tlio Indians, and known 
to naturalists as the Anableps tetroplithalmus, Tliis nauio, 
signifying " four^yed," is dcrired from tlie singular struo- 
ture of the eye. A membranous fold enclosing Uio bulb of 
the eye stretches across the pupil, dividing the visual 
apparatus iuto an upper and lower half. No doubt this 
formation is intended to suit the peculiar habits of the 
Anableps. These fishes gather in shoals on the surface 
of the water, their heads resting partly above, partly bolow 
tlte surface, and tliey move by a leaping motion somewhat 
like Uiat of frogs on land. Thus, half in air, half in water, 
they require eyes adapted for seeing in both elements, and 
the arrangi^nient described above just meets this want. 

Avffmt VM. — To-night at ten o'clock we go on board 
the steamer, and before davu shall be on our way up 
the river. Hits has been a delicious week of rest and 
refreshment to me. Tlie quiet country life, with morning 
walks in tlie fresh, fragrant lanes and road.t immediately 
abont us, has boon very sootliing after four months of 
travel or of noisy hotel life. Tlte other day as we were 
going into town we found in the wet gross by the road- 
ride one of the moist beautiful mushrooms I have ever 
•MO. Tlio stem was pure white, three or four inches tu 
height, and about half an inch in diameter, surmounted by 
a clu)>-shaped head, brown in color, with a blunt point. 



and from ihc base of this h«ad wms suEponded «n opeo 
vliito Dct of ciquisitcty delicate texture, falliug to witliin 
about an incli of the ground ; a Jairj web tliat lookvd lit 
for Queen Mab henelf.* Tlio week, so peaceful for mc, lia» 
been one, if not of rest, st least of intense interest for Mr. 
Agjts^z. Tlie very day of bis arrival, by tbe kiiidnen 
of our host, his working-rooms wure so «rra»g<ed a? to 
make an adoiirable laboratory, and, from th« hour ba 
entered tbum, fpcciniens have poured in upon liiu from 
alt quurters. His owu pa.r(y make but a small part of 
the scientific corps who bare worked for and with him 
here. In Par& alone he has already more tJian Btij iiev 
Cpecies of fresh-water fishes ; enougli to rereal unexpected 
and novel relations in the finny world, and to give the basis 
of an improved clasaiGcation. He is far from attributing 
this great success wholly to bis own efforts- Ready as be 
is to work, be ooald not accomplish half that he docs, except 
for the active good-will of tho^e about bim. Amoug tbo 
most valuable of tltcse coutributioua is a collection made 
by Mr. Pimcula Bueuo, of tlic so-called fishes of tbo forest, 
^beu the wat^^rs overflow after the riiiny iwasoii and fill 
the forest for a causiduraljla di»taucu on ciUier side, these 
fish hover over the depressions and hollows, and as tbe 
waters subside are left in tbe pools and channels. They 
do not occur in tlie open river, but are always found ia 

■ This muihroorn li«Ion|tii la tho tt«i"i* I^nllui. and hviiu to be an nnde- 
Klibed ipwin. I prowrvod it In ktcntiot, liut wiu annblc to hara anf drew- 
iag msdc IhiiD It bi'fore ltd bmiiijr nuil rrwlinot* '"vn qalto gone. In ths oaHj 
morolnK. while the gnui was alill Jcnp, wc ufU'ii toaai] a (icciiliar tnail, a ijio- 
dM of Bullmiu, ciropins bj the roadiide. Tho furm or tbe anturior pari oT 
the foot wnii anlika thnt of anj «p«cJ«* known thui (oi itom Uiii groDp. Buck 
Acta ihon tho dBBinbleDeM of nuking dntwlngii ftnai tbo tod parli of iImm 
•nImaU ai >rcU ar Crom thsir solid cnTvlopua, — L. A. 





llioee forest retreats, and go by tfae name of tlie " PeUe Aa 

Mr. Agassiz has not tmly to acknowledge the untiring 
kindness of indiridualB here, but also the cordial expression 
of sympathf from public bodies in tlie objecti of the expe- 
dition. A committee from tlie municipality of the city lias 
waited upon him to express tlie general satisfaction in tho 
undertakiug, and he haa roceived a public demonstration 
uf the same kind from the college. The binhop of lliu 
province and his coadjutor have also boon most eoiHlial in 
oflbrs of assistance. Nor doos tlie interest ttiiis oxpressudl 
evaporate in empty words, Mr. Pimenta Bueuo is dircctcr 
of tJie Braxilian line of steamers from Parfi to Tubatiiigu.* 
Tho trip to Manaos, at the mouth of tho Rio Negro, is 
generally made in five days, allowing only for stoppages 
of an hour or two at different stations, to taku or leave 
passengers and to deposit or receive merchandise. In order 
that we may be perfectly independent, however, and stop 
wherever it seems desirable to make collections, the com 
|>ai>y places at our disposition a steamer for one month 
belwceu Par& and Manaos. There are to be no passen- 
gers but oarselves, and t)ie steamer is provided with 
everything necessary for the whole company during tlint 
period, — food, service, ^c. I think it may foirly be said 
that in no part of Uie world could a privuto scientific uii- 
dvrtaking be grcelvd with more cordiality or rccdve a mora 
liberal hoc^pitality than has be«n accorded to the present 

* The Pnoi'lcnt of thU lia« ii tbe Burao d« Mui, otMniHl by bii eoonu'r- 
men u a flniuidur of great ■Hlitf uicl n nun of rare enci^. pi!ncTcruiw, unJ 
patriotitm. A* he wm in Kuropc during ihc jctr of my vUli la RraiSI. I Unit 
not itie pldUow of a prnonal iicfttuimEnncc wiili him. xml I ilii>n!r<ir« wi-lii.iiiii 
llil* opporluiillj ul llimikin); him fnr llin liberality tliitan in nil llivic ilcnliiiK* 
with 010 by Um muipnay or wiiivh liv ii ilio moving ipirit. — L. A. 




expedition. I dwell upon these things \ai recur to (heji 
often, not in any &pirit of egotism, but because it is due 
to the character of the people from whom tJief come to 
muke the fullest acknowledgment of their generosity. 

Wliilc Mr. Agassix lias been biisv with tlie lo&logicol 
collections, Major Cotitiiiho has been no less so in making 
geological, meteorological, and liydrographic inTestigations. 
His regular co-operation is Invaluable, and Kir. Agaseii 
blesses the da; wlien their chance meeting at the PaUco 
suggested tlie idea of his joining the cx{>oditiou. Not 
only his scientific attainments, hut his knowledge of tlie H 
Indian language (lingua gtrat), and his familiarity with 
the |)Ooplc, niako liirn a most impoitaiil coadjutor. With 
Ills aid Ml-. A^ssii liiis already opened a sort of soien* 
tide log-book, in which, by the side of tho scientific uam« 
of cvory spucimon ontored by tho Professor, Major Oou- 
tinho records its popular local name, obtained from the 
Indians, with all they can tell of its haunts aud hubits. 

I have Ettid nothing of Mr. Agassis's observations on the 
clioractcr of the soil since we left Rio, thinking it best 
to give them as a whole. Along the entire length of the 
coast he has followed the drift, examining it carefully at 
every station. At Bahia it contained fewer large boulders 
than in Rio, but was full of small pebbles, and rested 
upon undecoinpoeed stratified rock. At MaceiCi, the cap- 
ital of the province of Alag-ias, it was tlie same, but 
resting upon decomposed rook, as at Tijnca. Below this 
was a bod of stratified day, containing small pebbles. 
In Peniamhuco, on our drive to the great atiucduct, we 
followed it for tlie whole way ; the same red clayey ho- 
mogcueoux paste, resting there on decomposed rock. Tlio 
line of coutnct at ilouteii-o, the atjueduct station, was vorj 





loarly markerl, howeTer, by an intorTotiing bed of pebbles. 

Lt Parahj-ba do "Sovte the Name slioct of drift, but oon- 

uaing more and larger pobbles, rests above a decompocixl 

stone somewhat refienibling tlie decoRipoeed roch of 

Pemambuco. In the undeconipoiied rock bolov, Mr. Ag< 

found some fossil fbelU. In the neighborliood of 

St. Roque ire came upon $and-dune« resembling 

li06e of Cape Cod, and wherever ve sailed near enough 

the shore to see the banks distinctly, as wa$ frequently 

DC case, the bed of drift below iho Kliifliiig superficial 

ids above was distinctly noticenhle. The difTcrcnce la 

color bctvcen tiie white xaud aud the reddish «oii bencatli 

Hioade it easy to perodvc their relations. At Cearfi, where 

Hve landed, Mr. Agas>iz had an opportunily of satisfving 

Bbimself of tins by closer examindtiou. At Miiranhniu 

the drift i« everywhere conspicuous, and at Pnr& equally 

*B0. Tliis sheet of drift wliich he has thus followed from 
Bio de Janeiro to the month of the Amazons is erery- 
vhere of the same geological constitution. It is always 
a homugcuoous clayey paMc of a reddish color, containing 
quartz pebMes ; and, whatever be the clianicter of the rock 
iu pUce, whctlier granite, saudstuuc, gneiss, or lime, the 
cliaractor of the drift nerer changes or partakes of that 
of tlie rocks with which it is iu contact. Tills certainly 
proves that, wluitevcr be its origin, it cannot be referred 
to the localities where it is now found, but must have 
been brought from a distance. Whoever shall track it 
back to the plaeu where this peculiar rod soil with its 
OOiutitucnt elements foriu^ the pi'imitivo rock, will hare 
iiolT«<l th« problem. I introduce here b letter written 
by Ur. Agossix, a few days later, to tlic Emperor, wbi«h 
' nil) better give his riews ou tite subject. 


U W Ami. IM 
Snot : — rcrmettez nioi de rendre nn compte npode k 
Votre Majesty, de ce qne j'ai observe dc plus int^reesant 
d«pu!s nion difpnrt do Rio. La premiere cliose qui m'a 
Oappf' Cn srriraiit k Bnliia,nc fiit 4'j trmiver 1c terrain orra- 
ti()iie, CMntne k In Tijiica ct romme dans la partic mi^ridi- 
onalc de Uinas, que j'ai mit6;. ki conime li, oe terrain, 
d'uno constiUitioii ideiitiqtio, rcpoM »:iir Ic" roch«s en plaM 
1m plos dircr«tri4!e8. Je I'ai retmnvd dc m^e i Maccio, 
i Pcniamltuco, k Paralijha do Norte, i^ &^rfi, ^ Maratiham, 
ct au Parfi. Voilik done un fait <<tabli snr la plus gnmdo 
<!clicllo ! Ccla dl^montre quo Ics roatl^riaiiz siiperflciels, 
quo Ton poumit dlh^igiior du iinm dc drift, ici conime 
dans lo Nord du I'Europc et do I'Amifnqne, ne sniirniciit 
fitro Ic rc»iiltat de U d^^com position des rochcs tons-jacentes, 
puiKqiio cclloM!! font tantut du graiiit, tnntctt dii gneiss, 
tanti^t dii »c}iistc micae^i ou Ulquciix, tantJit da grd», tandia 
que 1c drift uflrc pnrtont la mvmc compOMlion. Jo n'eti 
»m pas moiiis aii^i Eloign*! que janinis de ponroir signalor 
I'origine dc CC9 niaterianx ct In direction dc Icur transport. 
Aujourd'liui que 1c M.ijor Coulinlio a nppris it diittingiier 
Ic dnd dcs rociics ddcuuipov^!i, il m'a^-stl^c que nous lo 
rctiouTorons dans touto la rall^ de TAmazone. L'imngi- 
nation la plus liardio reeule dorant toute espdcc de g4!n£m- 
lisatioii h CO sujct. Et pourtaut, il faudra biea en renir 
ft se familiariscr avcc I'id^c que la cauvc qui a dii^pCTv^ 
CCS nuti^risux, quelle qu'oUc soit, a a^ siir la plus 
grandc ^ehelle, piiisqu'oii les rclrouTcra probaMcment sur 
tout lo continent. Di^jiV j'apprcnds que mcs jcuues com- 
pagnons dc voyage ont obscrv^ Ic drift datis k-s environs 
do Barbncona ct d'Ouro-Proto ot dans la valine du Rio d.n5 



Velhas. Mcs r^sultuts soulogiquus dc tout pas utoius satis- 
faisanU; et pour no parlur quo dos poisvutis, j'&i trourfi & 
Pari senlement, |>ciidatit uno scmuint', plus d'c»p)?cc« qu'on 
ii'oD a dto-it jusqu'^ pr^-iit do totit lo biusiu d« t'Ams- 
zdno ; c. !i. d. en tout soixaiitc-trois. Ccttc ^tudo sora, Jv 
crois, utile i ricbtliyologiu, car j'ni d£ji^ pii dtE^iiguer cinq 
AmiUcs nourcUcE et dix-buit genres tioiivcaiix ct lus c«p^'ces 
in^dilos ne s'^lt^vcnt pas i moltis dc qiiarutitc'iicuf. C'cat 
une garantiequo jc fcrui encore uim riclic taoi»»oii, loracjue 
J'ontrerai daus Ic dotuaiiic dc rAniaz<)iic propremont dit ; 
car jo n'ai encore vu qu'un dixidmc dcs C8p(k;cs flimiitilos 
qac Ton oonnail dc w ha»sm et Ics qiielques eis|fi^cct( inuriticii 
qui remoutVDt jui^qu'uu ParA. Ma]liciireu!ieni4iit M. Biirk- 
liardt est moiadc ct j« n'ai eiiooro pn faire peiiidrc quo 
qualrc dcs cspiccs iiouvclles que jc roe suiR procure, ct puis 
pris dc lu moiti^ n'out 6l6 pri»c8 qu'eii exoruplnires uniques. 
II (uul absol II incut qu'i inoii retour je Tas^a un plus long 
s^Jonr ftu ParA pour n>iii]>lir ces laciiucs. Je mu* dans Iq 
•iiri88cment do la nature grandiose quo j'ai sous les jeux. 
Voire Mitjc-'^t^ rfgue sans coiitredit sur le plus bcl cmpiro 
du inoiido et toutes {icrsoucllos que soient les ntlontions quo 
je re^iR pnrlout oA jo ni'arr^te, je ne puis ni'einj>(!clier 
do croire que ii'dtait le cat-act4'^re glSn^reux et hospitalicr 
des Br^^xiliens et I'int^ret des classes sup^rieures pour le 
pn^^r^s des sciences et de la civiliMition, je n'aurais point 
rencontre les facility qui se presscnt sous mos pas. Cost 
ainsi que pour me Taciliter rcsplorntioii du fleuve, du Par& 
!k Manaoe, M. Pimenta Biicno, au lieu de m'achominer pa<- 
lo steamer r^gulicr, a mis k ma di^MiEition, pour un moid 
ou six somaines, un dee plus beaux bateaux de la compagnie, 
oil je suis instaliS aussi commod^ment que dans men Mns^o 
it Cambridge. M. Coutinbo c«t plein d'attontiim et me 



rend idoq travul doublement (acile en le pr^pamnt 
Tarauce pa ■ tcus los renseigaements (xtSBtblee. 

Mais je ne voiix pas abuser dos loisirs do Voire M&jestJ 
et jo la pric de croiic luiijotirs an d^rouoiueat le plus complet 
ct iL raffection la plus rPsper^liifiUBe 

Do SOD trfis liumUc et trds ob^issant eerTiteur, 

L. Aaiflsiz.* 


§IK>: — ATlowme Id i^w ;«iir H^cM^ a rapM ikctohortba muKt inter- 
•Hing fwru obtervnl by nie tincu lumring Rlif , Tbe lint lliin^ which ttrnck mo 
OD Brrinng at Bahin waa the presenvo of lh« (rrmuc (oil, curmponding to 
thnt of TijucB and Iho •ouihcm jmil of Miniu-Gratoa. whirh I hatie riticeil. 
Bcr«. tt there, thii aoll. Ideniicnl In lla conilitulion, mli upon rocks in 
plncc of ihc moit iltimlUnl clinrnctcr. I haro tannd It alio ■■ MictikS, 
HI I'crnatnbiiui. ■[ I'uraliylni il» Nnrlfu M Coani, at Muninbain. and at 
I'ant, Ttila it a fan, itirn. MtiililiiilKiit no tho larjj«*t acalr.. It ahow* thai 
ihn *u|>»rlii'ial iimloriaU wliicb, Li'tu lui in lliu Noilh uf Ki>rv)>o and America, 
m*j Iki de«i|j;n;it«il a* drift, cannot be ths mull of the derompuiitlon of 
MndarlfEni; rxki, •inc' iha littler are lonietinKa gnnilo. aoinctrinM snttai^ 
M>mei!ni«a luica or bikotc alnic, laoieiims* tandaione, whUo the drift preKnti 
tho uDio oompoiiiiun everywhere. I am aa far ai crer from boing able lu 
foini oui the onj;!!! ol' theic mutcriali am) the diici^tlon of ihcir trnnspon>i- 
lion. Vow That Mftjor Coiilinho hnt Icnrnivi to illili'ic"'*'' •'"' dtifl frooi 
iho de«im|ia*ml roi'ki. lie naMin't tiki iliiu wo klinll Hint Et ihmojchoui tho 
niWy of ltii> Atnaraut, 'I'hu liolitvat iniauimilion thrinki* from nn* genaral- 
UalJuri oa tliit subjn'l, hui] yvt wu uiual gmdually fuiiilmniHi uum'ivM willt 
the idvB that tbe cniiau ivhii'li hn> ilisptTHil ibvsu mnleriali. wlialuver it b^ 
baa arlvi on (ho Inrj^'at irnle, lincc ihey arc prolmbly to be found all orrr 
tho toniineni, Alrendy I Irnm thnt my young travelling compiinitina ban 
obMrvcd tbe drift In Iho onrlrona of Buhacona and Oaro-Prato, and in Iho 
ndlcy of ibc Ria dni Vellia*. My xoulo^iciil mulii arc not leu •ailifaelOTy j 
slid to (peak of tho llihci alunv, I bavi: fnund ni Vnti iliiiin;: one ncok mon 
•|>oda> than hnrc an yci li(«n dctrriijciit froin ihr >tbid« biiain nf the Aina> 
looa. — (rixtj-ibrro iti all. Tbii nluily wiQ bx uiwfii). I bu|Mi. to irhthyolcflj, 
lor I liitL- nlrrodf >uci?L'tfilt<d in diatinguiihing Urn new fumilic* and «i^hlnfa 
Pew g«neni, wliile Iho unpubliaheil B|i«iDs du not number Im thnn fony-njiie. 
tl i> a s;iiar*nTy of the rich barvcil I dinll make whcit I enter upon th* 



4(itMila of tin Aittuant propctlj to rnll'^ ; fnr 1 Iutt- tf«n m vri fmt m tenth 
put of Um Burialilo tprrii>« kniiwii rmiii iIiih ImxiTi, briI Mmp uf the inHrin* 
t pod« » which cODin up to Pnni. Unh;ip|>ilj, Mr- ttiirkhiinlt ii ill, uid hiu bm 
■bl« 10 puni bill four u( iha nsii giMcioi me tiare procnmj ; ftfid uf nivu'ly 
hair tbo Duinbcr. onlj nngle (pMnmeni have bttsa secured. Oa taj Rluin 
I min nnkc b longer iioy in Pari rn order to All thoM defielencie*. I am 
tsdimiMd vith tlie Krandeur of natntt here. Toar H^eatjr «enninlf nleiu 
orei Uw Rion lieauilfiil eujxre ot the world ; nnil. pci-ionnl ai an tho nttcn- 
Uooa aluch 1 i«oelT« wfaeitm 1 atop, 1 cannol boi believe ihai, irorc ti not for 
the ncncroiu and JioapUable eharatior or Ihe Btaiillaiu and ibe Inuiul at tha 
hlghtt clauei in the [irci|[rc«i of aclDticc and ciTJIIanllon, I ihnuM not huva 
RMl vilh the farilltlca whicli trcml mj path. Thiia. In cirdur to rcndnr the 
•xplorMhin or ilw ii'«r ftoni Vari u> Mimna* laans ciuy, Mr. l^incnu IIukdu, 
JniMeil of allowinjj mo to iak» the TV,ga\iu nirHniflr, hu« jiiit al aij diX[>uHiliun, 
fbrkMonib oriis weekt,Ofieof theflnoal booU at ilic coinpa"/, where I am 
InMalled ■« eonivnionlli- a* in nij Hutoum at Cainl<riil|;T. Mr. CoutJnho la 
fhO of attention, and rmden mj work duuM; tiKhi hy prucuring, in adranoe, 
■11 tbo infonnatiou pCDsibla. Bnt 1 will nut fnrtlior abuiq jour Majal;''* 
Icitsn, onl; bcsgiog jdo to bdicic in the complotc dcvotloa and rcqiocUiil 


Todr hunbla ud obodiuil atrra*!, 

L. AttAMU. 



PBOM PAbX to HA1IA08. 

knar SmnuT ov ms Amjiiusk.— GnuBApMiCAi. Qtmtmo*,— OoKTsmvi 
Amummp h xt* op Stumkr. — Vaii r-oHsuuKs or Till lttr», — A«vct 
or&iro«Si.— ViLLAoxoF bRKvitt. — t.nrcK Aaoirr CiwxscTtoNtk — Vaos. 


Sitsor [.EAVKBor Tiis Mtnm Vaxm. — Waui nir Sikiuu — Isdiax IbHiMt^ 
— Coi'HTKBT or limits*- — Ruw ui THK FoiusaT. — Tuwa ur limuri. — 
KirRK Xix<ii^ — C'UHi of Wathk. — Tow* or Pubio do UuX. — FlaT- 
ToprKii Kiuj OP AiJiiTUH. — HKArri'irvu Sunsrr. — Hone Ai-tuiuc. — 
CiIAIiA<:TkB or Steknut a>d Soil. — Iiaittauii. — Skhv Opr PaKtT u> 

Tilt RlVI^ TArAJ«. — <"oKTT»Ci; lip TUB AHAKnUL — l>l*TDR.ll. SCRlltS OH 

Tim Dakk*. — TowM or Viu-a Huaa. — Caxmi JtivnxKT at Khhit to tmx 
Lake or Jos^ Aibi). — Ku-Kiui>^'a CoTTAUk. — ricmiE«)VE ivtau at 

NliliiT. — Siicvm* In CoLutcriiiu. — lin<iAX Lirs. — MAKtMi FABimrA 

Dakob 1:1 THE KvKiiiMo. — Hovruao MoXKkvH.— Rkliuioui btmBHiom 


CATiiu nil Cinu>BE!C. — Rvrutui TO Srajuasu. — Scnurnnc Rimdi.t* op 
TIUE ExGituatox 

Aufftut 20th. — Ou board the " Icomiaba." Our first 
Sunday on the ^masons ; for, notwitlistaiidmg tho warm 
dispute as to wlicthcr botli tlio riven enclosing tlte island 
of Marajfi must bo considered as parts of tlio great river, 
it i.i iiitpo^ible not to feel from the moment you leave 
Pari tbat you have entered upon tlie AmaEons. Geology 
must Kettle tins knotty question. If it should be seen 
tlint the cotitiiieiit once presented an unbroken lino, as 
Mr. Agas^iz believes, from Cape St. Roquo to Cayenne, 
tlte sea having encrooclied upon it so as to give it its 
present limitti, the AmnzonB must originally have entered 
tJie ocean far to the oast of ita present mouth, at a time 
when the Island of Mur^jtf divided the river in two channela 
flowing ou eitlter side of it and uniting again beyond it 

ntOll TARA TO UASA09. 


'b Came on board last uiglit, aocompaniod to the boat by 
[a uuiuber of tlio friends wlio Iiave made our eojourn iu 
pParfi so agreeable, aiid who cauie olT to bid us farewell. 
Thus far tlie ltard»bi]js of iJiis ^ouUi American journey 
6cem to retreat at our approiacli. It U ipi{>o«&ible to travel 
witli greater comfort tlian surrounds u» here. Hy own 

I suite of rooms consists of a good-sized state-room, with 
dressing-rooiii and Inlli-i-ooiu adjoining, and, if tho otherj 
are not quite so luxuriously ocvouunodated, they have 
space enough. TIic state-rooms are hardly used at uight, 
^■for a hammock on deck is far more couifortablQ iu this 
climate. Our deck, roofed in for its whole length, and 
vitli an awning to let down on Uie sides, if needed, looks 
like A ooiufurtable, unceremonious sitting-room. A tablo 
down the middle serving as a dinner-table, but which is at 
this moment strewn with niajis, Jonrnab, books, and ]ui|)er8 
of all sorLs two or tbreo lounging-chairs, a number of camp- 
stools, and half a dosen hammocks, in one or two of wliicJi 
BOiuo of the party arc taking their ease, furnish our drawing- 
room, and supply all that is needed for work and rest. At 
oi>e end is also a drawing- table for Mr. Burkhardt, beside a 
iiumbcrof ki^ and glas.'^ jars for specimens. This first day, 
however, it is almost impossible to do more than look and 

■ wonder. Mr. Aga-isiz says: "This river is not like a river; 
the general cum^nt in such a sen of fresh water is hardly 
perceptible to the iuglit, and seems more like tlie flow of 

Iau ocean than like that of an inland stream." It is true 
we are constantly between shores, but ihcy are shores, not 
of the river itself, but of the countless ialauds mattered 
Uiroughout its enormous breadth. As we coast along 
llteir banks, it is delightful to watch the exquisite vvge- 
toliou with which we have yet to become familiar. Tho 


A jocnxrr in kbazii. 

tree which RXk-i iniaedialeljr strikes tl>e e;e, mid tfaudfc 
out thiiu llie mass of groeii with wondcrTuI grace aud 
m^estjr, is the loftjr, sl«udvr Ass»i palm, with its crown 
or light plume-like leAvcx, and its bouches of berT7-tik« 
Truil, h&ugiug from a brnndi that shoota out almost hori- 
xonlally, jtitl )>clow the Ii>uvc3. Iloiifcs on llir fhore 
break the solitude here aiid there. From this di^tauce 
Uiej look picturesque, with thatched, ovcrhangiog roofs, 
coveriog a kiud of open porch. Just now we passed a 
cleatod nook at tlic waler-side, where a wooden cross 
marked a single mound. Wliat a lonely grave it seemed ! 
We are now coasting along Uie Isle of Maraj6, kee[Hiig up 
the eo-callcd I'arfi river ; we sliall not enter the nndiiiputed 
vateiB of lite Aiuoxons till tlie daj after to-morrow. This 
part of the river goes also h; the name of the Baj of Mara}6. 
Atyvst 21((. — Last evening we stopped at our first sta* 
lion, — tlie litUe town of Breves. Its population, like that 
of all tlicse siunll settleinonts on tlio Lower Amazons, is 
made up of an amalgamttlion of ntccs. You sec the regu- 
lar features and fair :^iu of llie white man comhined with 
the Uack, coatsQ, strught liair of tlie Lidian, or Uio mulatto 
witli partly uogro, partly Indian features, hut tlic cri^p takeu 
out of Iho hair ; aiid with these combinations comes iu th« ^ 
pure Indian type, witli its low brow, square build of fuoe, 
uid straight lino of the shoulders. In the women especially 
the shoulders are rather high. In the first house we en- 
tered there was only an old lialf>breed Indianwoman, stand- H 
jog in the broad open porch of her thatched home, where 
bIio seemed to be surrounded with live stock, — parrots and 
parroquets of all sorts and sizes, which she kept for sale. 
After looking in at several of tlio houses, buying one or tw( 
monkeys, noiue parroquets. and some articles of the villagt 




ry, as ngly, I mnst say, as Uiey were cwriou*, wg 
audcrcd up into the forottt to gather plAiit« for dry- 
ing. The palniB are more abuudaiit, larger, and in great- 
er variety than we have seen tlieni tiiihcrlo. At du»k 
we Tvlunied to the st«amor, wliere we found a crowd 
of little boys and some older luembcrs of the vllligc 
population, with snakes, iibheR, insects, i»oiikey«^ Ac. 
The news had spread that ttie cnllecting of " bijcos " 
was tlie object of tliis visit to tlicir settlcnteot, aud all 
were tliroitgiiig in with their live H-aros of different kinds. 
Ur. Aga«siz was very much pleased with tliis Grst 1 arrest. 
He added a con»derable number of new species to hia 
collection of Amazonian lishes made in Parll, air ady so 
full and rare. We ronialiicd at tho Breves Ian '-ing all 
uight, aud ttiia morning we are steaming along Hetwcen 
islands, in a channel which bears the name of './lo river 
Aturia. It gives an idea of the grandeur of the Vmazons, 
tliat many of the channels dividing the islands t>y which 
its immen^ breadth is broken are themselves 1 ke ample 
rivers, aiid among tlie people here are known I y distinct 
local names. The baikks are flat; we have see.i no cl.t& 
Bs yet, and the beauty of tlie scenery is wlio'Iy in the 
forest. 1 speak more of the palms than of other trees, 
ise tliey are not to be mistaken, and from their po- 
i1i«r port they stand out in bold relief from the mass 
of foliage, often rising above it and sharply defined ugainst 
the sky. There are, however, a host of ot).er trees, tlie 
nunOB of which are unknown to us as yet, many of whicli 
1 BQppose have no place even in botanical nonionclatnre, 
fonuiog a deiutc wall of verdure along the banks of the 
river. We have sometimes heard it said that the voyage 
up the Amazons \s monotouous; but to me it Kcems do- 



of fatm, Al first the 
bat BOW oamm ia ■ Bambcr 
at othen. Tbe ICritf (Xaarilb) 'a ow af Ihe bos< beut- 
itfal, with its pendaol dvftcfs of wiffi* Cruit kbd its 
eBonaow, ^acadbg, Cia-like ka*« cat mto ribboat. one 
of which Wtlbn pan b a load fir a maa. IV Japalf 
(Bbaphia), with ita phuoe-lika learea, l oi eti iiies from fcrtf 
to Gftjr feet iu leagtb, mobs, in couicqueDee oC tta diort 
stem, to start aloaost trota the groand. Its raic-like ronn 
is peculiarly gracefol and fpametrwal- then there is the 
Bitasi (Uanicaria), with stiff, eatin leares, some thirty 
Eeet in length, more apriglit and dose in their mode of 
growtl), and serrated along tlicir edges- The stem of this 
palm also is eomparaUTely sliort. The banks iu this part 
of the river are very generally bordered by two plants 
forming sometimes a sort of hedge along the shore ; ttame- 
ly, the Aninga (Arum), witli large, heart«haped leaves on 
tlie summit of tall stems, and tlie Uurici, a lower growth, 
just on the water's edge. We are passing out of the 
Hxalled river Aturia into another channel of like cbar- 
actcr, tlie river Tajapurd. In tlic course of tlie day we 
shall arrive at a little setllcinent bearing tii« same name, 
where is to bo our second station. 
Atiffutl 22d —Yesterday we passed the day a» the 


tieioeut mcutioiied above. It coiistutt only of tlie bouse of 
u Tlraxiliftn mercliaiil,* wlio lives li«rc villi lit» family, bavmg 
no nei^htwrs except Uic iiilmbiUtiiU of a fbw Indian houses 
in tlic forest iniinediately aiwut. One wonders at Rnt wliat 
»liou!d iiidnce a man to uolale liim-sclf in tliis solitude. 
Bnt the India-niblwr trade is very productive licre. Tlic 
Indians tap Uto trees as we tap our siigar-maples, and 
give the produce in exchange for various articles of their 
own domestic consumption. Our day at Tajapurd was a 
very successful one in a scionlific point of viev, and the 
collections wore again increasod by a number of now 
speciee. Uuch as has been said of tlio number and va- 
riety of lislies in the AmaKonH, the fauna seems far richer 
than it lias been reported. For those of my readere who 
re to follow the scieotilic progress of the expedition 05 
well as the thread of personal adventure, I add hero t 
letter on the subjiwl, written a day or two later by Mr. 
Agassiz to Mr. Pinit-nta Biicno, in Par&, tlio gencron» 
friend to whom ho owes in a great dcgrco the facilities 
lie ot^oys in this voyage. 

It Aoul, Ku mUiDi snlni Tajapnra M Cniupa. 
MoN CBEB Aiii : — La journ^^e d'liier a 6l6 dos jtlua 
instruclivcs, surtout j>our los poissons " do Malo.'* Nous 
avoiis obtenu quinze espSces en tout. Sur co nombre il y 
en a dix nouvellcs, quatre qui se trouvent aussi au ParA ol 
uuu d4j& dfcrite par moi dans le voyage de Spix et Mar- 
tius ; mais co qu'i! y a do plus int^ressant, c'cst la preuvo 
|uc founiisscnt ccs esp&cos, ft los prondro dajis leur totality, 
'quo I'euGemblo dcs poissons qui luibitent tes eaux k I'ouest 

KrnlicT Sc|ia1a, ■ mMl hMpitatilc and coartcoul gcnllcman. in whom wo 
iBera in>kblisl llicn and afurwanb for much kliulnca. uul a!(o lot laluulite 
I |iDt Up darliiit air ^oumcj id tlic Ufipor Amxuni- 

A JOtmSET IK mtAZtt. 

du groupe i)*iles qu'on appelle Marajfi, diS^ de coux 
I des eaux du Rio do Par&. La Itsie dee noms que uous 
arons demandt^e aux ludieos proure encore que le noinbre 
des espices qui se trouvcnt dans ces loca)it£s est beanooiip 
plus ooDsid£rab1e que cclui des esp^ces que nous avons 
pu nous procurer ; aussi avons nous laiss^ des bocaux i 
Brores et ^ Tajapurii pour completer la collection. 

Voici quelques remarques qui rous fcront mteux sppr£- 
cier ces diGforciices, si rous voulcz les comparer avec lo 
catalogue des esp^a du ParS que je vous ai hift£. A 
tout prendre, il me parait iSvideut dOs 3k present que notrc 
iTojage fera une rdvolutiou daus I'lcbtlijologie. £t d'abord, 
lo Jactind^ de Tajapurii est diflSrent dca ofpices du Pari : 
de cnSme I'Acarii ; puis nous arons une espdce nourclle du 
Sar8p6 et une csp^cc nourelle de Jeju ; une csp^e nouvcHo 
de Rabcca, une cspSce nourelle d'Anoji, un genre Douvuau 
de Candiru, un genro nouveau de Ilagre, un genre nou^'can 
d'Acary ct une esp^cc uouvclle d'Acarj du in£nie genro 
que Ci-lui du ParA ; plus uno c«p6ce nouvello du &Iatiipirim. 
Ajout«z 3l coci uno ospitce d'Aracu dt?j^ d*5crilc, mois qui no 
se trouvo pas au Par& ot vous aiirez Si Tajapurfi oazo ospdcca 
qui n'existent pas au Pari, auxqucllcs il faut ajouter oncoro 
qo&tre espdces qui se trouvent h Tujapurfi aussl bien qu'an 
Par&, et une qui se Irouve au Par&, >i Breves, et fVTajapurd. 
En tout viiigt espSces, dont quinzo nouvclles, cii deux jo»i>. 
Ifullicurcusomout les tndiens out mal compris nos directions, 
ct nc nous out rapport^ qu'un soul cxcmplaire de cliacuiic 
de ces Mp^ces. n rcste done bcaucoup h fairc daiis cmi 
locnlili^s, Kurtout ii en juj^or d'upr^s lo catalogue des noma 
TMucillis par lo Major Coutinbo qui reufermo viiigt-six 
ccp^B "do Mato" ct quarauto-six "do Rio." II notison 
manque done au inoins diiquanle-dcux de Tnjapiiri^, mSnto 




. tnpposer que cetle locality rcnfermo aum los ciuq os[: 
de Breres. Vous voyez qao nous laisserous encote ^aorrn^^ 
ment & faire h nos successeiirs. 

Adiou pour aujourd'liui, Totre bieu afK:ctioii£ 

L. AoASSiz.* 

* Anfiix t», Bomlnf i baw^in Tajipon ud Ovnt*- 
Mt har FaiBXD: — Ttilcrttny wu a moil iiisuuctivc Jay, — above nU. in 
lb* "IbnM li«liM." Wc have ohuJncil llftorn ipccici in all. Out of ihli nmn- 
btr Hn ire uaw, toitr kk rnunil nlto in Panl, cinil imc hni hcon itrcmlv dccrilxil 
bv w in thfs roj^^ c>f 8pix nnil Marlim ; Irut whul i» riKitt iEircr^lin)j it tli« 
[iroof fnniiihed lijr iliu*e aiMcioit, uLvn iu tlivii [oiiiliiii, tIihi ilic Ii>l]u iulialiii- 
ln|[ the watcn «ri>ai nf the c>'»ip of idiinil* calliMl Minijii, when vniibkli'rtil n« 
a whola, dUTi^r IVoni tbon of tiM V'ri river, Tliu list of Dxaint wliirli «-« 
ha;*e uked from thu Indians ihowi; furtlior, itml tlw nmnlirr of ipniiM fonTi'l 
in tbow iocalitio* extonls grwil; Ibal which ye Imtv Ikvu hIiIu to [inx-Drui 
l%«r thU rcajon v« have left t«n> ■( Brevun nuiI at Tnjnpuiii in urdur lo ivuipk-i« 
tha collacikm. 1 add Miao fomoiki whUh will help you lo appmrintD iluiiia 
d a faweai. If jon wiib lo rompnrc ihrm wiili lliv cnuUoguc of ilio rnrif apccicx 
wbieh I \ttH villi yoa. Con>l<Urin)[ nil. it hcd» to mc nlruilj tpjiarciil ilmt 
oar ray's* *''" ■■>*t^o » rctxiluiion in Ichihjolo|[f. In Iho tint |il]kro, tliu 
Jil a»H cf T^npurd In lUlftircnl from ihoK of Pari ; fo u tlin Arant ; llion 
wc hlTB a new tpi^rirt of Sdraj"^, and aloi one of Jcju ; a new t]ie«ic> of Rabcm, 
a nev tpfcica of Anojii, a n«w ^nua of Candiru, a now jp^niia of Itxitrn, & 
new goniu of Acary, and a now tgm'iot uf Arsry licluiii^iii: to ibo •niuu cviint 
■a tbmt of Fori ; also a new vfuuoa uf Mnliigiiiiiu. Add w Ilii> u tju-cii-t 
of And, almdy dmcrlbcd, but whk'i i> nul fuuiiJ nt Pnrd, and yuu trill 
haTD at Tajnpunf cIot«ii sprcics n-hjvli do not exist nt Poni. to wliich iiiiiBt 
tia addod four tptrica which nra found ai Tojapurd oa urll n* at PunC, and ano 
vkicb ocean ai Panf, Btcrt*, and Tn^pnnL In all iwtniy apeciea, of wliii-h 
fiftfcn are new, in two dny*. Unluip|illy, the InJlaui buT« miiundvnnuod our 
dimtii'na, and liave lirougtit iia l>ut one •iiccimcrn of cath ipucica. Tlirrc 
nniain*, ihen. much lo do in ihcac locnlltlca, Judging from ihe ca>>ilnj;iiB 
dI ftanicl coUcetcd by Major Continho, which Indudoa iwonly-ilx cjiccle* Ihrni 
tht forot and forlyniix fruiik Ihn tinr. tVr arc tllll lufkin]; ut leu-l lt>ty-lw<i 
tp^'ic'-t frrtin Tiijajiuin, r\cn aiiiJipUtiiif thai (biv loraliCy conlitlna alio the Ave 
I fgwdc* from BmvM. Ton aao that we thall yet Ivart u larjio ilian: ol th« 
work U OUT *urr«Mor«. 

Adieu (or HMlay. yoor afiiKtionaH 




Tlw ludiaiis bcro arc rorj' skilful in fisltiag, and iustead 
of going to coUixl, Mr. Ag(i»iz, inimcdiuUiljr on arriniig 
at lui]* stu(iou, scuds off Mivural Q»liurmou of Uio place, 
rvmaiuiug liiuisclf on board lo sujicriutcud Uto drawing 
uud puttbig up of tlie specimens us tkof arrive.* He 

■ The oppominily of waiclilns thttc Itilio In ilicir natural elemeni, »a4 
kMfdny iDAnjr of rhrm nlivu r»r h»nr> or diij > In our jcIm* Uiilu, wu renr 
nwtnictira; tiicl kiiu^hh:!! i*oiii|iiu'i>un> nuE lirwiiiuit of beroni. Oar arruigo- 
nii'uu wum rcry cuiivciiiitiit; uml u llic raiuiiuind«r uf flic •ivuni-r BUonvd me 
In cncumbiT ilie di'ck wiih all >otif of trivntiltc Bppnrntuii. I hnil a number of 
Ui^c gin" iliih™ nnd wooden inbi in whicli 1 kpj.i luch ipMimtM m 1 niibcd 
lo iiiroilg^aic with (pedal cure and lo luvo ilmwn from life. One of i)>c moM 
•U'ikiiig iUun)p.-t luudL- by J.Mlillcr, lu llic daulllcdtlun of tlie iiplnv lUlio, 
vmt [Ihi Miiianiliijii 1IIUI u ilii>lit]|'l iinlvr, under llis nHiiiu of I')iiiryi>;:i>i!niilhi. 
of All tlitiM' in wliii'li Ilia iiliarj'ii^l bunc* Art *ul<knid Ic.-vllior. IViili Oum 
the llluiirloui Ocnnnn Bnntom<*l hoi aaodmKd a number of Htft-fa;^ lTT**> 
lariuiTl;^ unlli^l willi the riukercli and [lcmni;i, mill clinmftcrlwd bj iho mne 
kii'u<-Ii]ii:. It Vroiild iliiik tVKiB llini 1lii:n> i> lun: i iliilinliu BnnluinicJit ebaracMf 
viuiily cnu'ciil'l**, li> i^i' uiil uf wliji-h a \tnt nntulier of fiBlii'ii inj|:]it bv corrvcllj 
rInHtlllcd- Uul tl"' 'jiii'i'IiiiTi st oiki^ nritci, Arv thtwj fishu trulv mlattil k> odd 
Biiolbtr, mnd M combin«t in Uiii new order of l'hiU7nsagnathi w lo inclnda aH 
wlikh (jrapcttjt belong wiih ihom, and none othan 1 1 think oot. I boltcve (h«l 
Mullur liui nlwaji pliiccd loo much vuluu ujun UoUtod onalonilcitt cliamL'icra; 
Mid, wlitlc lie MM andoul>lc<IJ> oni! of llic i;rcal>t>l nnnlomiiii) mil iilitiiidogiitt 
of our ijfr. hr tw-kitl Mihi^ii'al uirt. 7'liiii it I'ljioriiilljr rv idi-nl villi rfifvronM 
10 iho unliT of PliiirjnmJK'ii'll'ii fi'r tljoiit'li i!ip t^l1>nllll■^l^MM>fB hnre fixed pli» 
r^ngi'dlB liki) ClironikU's, I'oniiXMnttf'Irs. Irfibroiilii, tluli-onotei, and Gerridtli, 
tUcy bnvc nu rcnl ulBiiiiivi Kith ihcH fiuniUci, Again, ;hc vlnunclcr MUKncd 
lo ihli order ii nol coiutunl mn in llic ivpii'al I'harvngo^nallil. 1 have founJ 
Chrnmidu and nrrrjdci with mnvatilc pharyngr-ila : In iJio gtnni Cvcltta Ihrr 
arc normnllf an. It ia ttn'rvforo not ont <•( ptnrc to itulc h«rii Ihnt Iho Clin>- 
niiJoof Soalli AiniTiou luv in nuilil; cluwlj' rvliittil b> a group u( liiliua vtij 
i;i'nDr(dJ;f fouod iu thu Uiiiivd Siaioi. known u ruiuoLiH, Brttiiu, ConcnnAiu, 
tK'., and ubuatlj rvfcrrcd lo llie fiiniily of Ferrhn, frvni which thi'f bftvti 
huwerur, bn-n ntpiiriilod by Dr. Ilolbrook undcT ihc niinic of llclithlhfoldi. 
'llipv not only leicmbli; ilic Chromidci in ihclr form, lint Crcn in tlicir hablu, 
mode of reproduction, pi'i^ullui movcmenu, and cicn In tlidr eolonnlon, 
Cuilur hat iklronilj tlionn that tbiojiloiuii it nui u nu'mlicr uf tin fiunnji 





made at TajapurA a collection of tho leaves and fruit of 
palms, of which there vera seTerol very Ikeautifiil ones 
uear tiie shore. I sAt for a long time on the deck watdi 
iDg an Indian cnttiiig a leaf from a Miritf palm, lie was 
Mtting in tlie crolcli of a single leaf, ss safe and a» perfi^clly 
•u])ported as if he had been on the branch of an ouk-lrcc, 
and it took manj blow« of his heavy axe to separate tho 
leaf at his sido which lie vas trying to bring down. TIhj 
heat dnring the day was inleitNc, but ut altout fire o'clock 

it became quite cool and 1E< and I slrulied on shore. 

Walking here is • peculiar pruci»s, aiid ttcems rather 
alarming till you beoome accustomed to it. A gi-ett part 
of the latid, cveii for up into the forest, Is overflowod, 
and single logs are thrown across the streams and pools, 
over wliidi tint inhabitant* walk with as uiiicli security 
OS on a broad road, hut which seem anything but safe 
to the ncw-coiucr. After wc hud gone a little way wo 
csmc to an Judion bouHi on lliu border of tho wood. 
Qoro wo irero rcry cordially invited to outer, and hud 
agaiu cause to commviil on the tidy aspect of (ho porch, 
which is tliair general reception-room. A doMiription ol 
one of these dwolluigs will do for all. Tlieir maleriuls arc 
drawn from the forest about them. The frames arc made 

rf CWtrfanu; md I m*/ now tdi that it ii > n«ar relatire of the Chraui Ct*. 
and ihouU HMtd hj the (iil« of I*icrO|ihTlluin in ■ nmuriiJ ivficm- Monutlr- 
tvt vt Uttkti, tMrh I conildar on ilid irpe ot ■ nniill fitniily iinilcr ilie nunc 
of FolliBlJt, it tim tXomeij kIUihI to lliuac, ibuusli jirovlilcd nilh n Inrlnl, 
■nd tlualil l« plarol wiib ]\ilr«nmii liilo lay niiln wltli die Chruiiiiilni ami 
Ilvlidillijai'l*- Tlie Biimor in which I'trroi^hytliiia tnort* i> ijuiii- |>(i-i>liRr, 
Th* profile of lln brad anil iIhi cxlnniW anU'riiir mirxin of iIm' hit;li ilcinial 
■TO bronsht on ■ lord, pinUvl to Iho »urfiiii« (if Ihc: >ilur, nliru tlis iDng 
vtalnlK and higb ankl haiif: iluwa runically, 4nil tlia litli faogmat* ■hnrl/ bj 
tbe loMfal beating of tlug (ul. ~ L. A. 



of tull, slcudvr trce-truuks, crossing eacli ollMir at rij^l 
angles. Bctwttcu ttii:s« arc woven long palin-leaves, muk- 
iDg an admirnlilc tlmtcli, or soiiiGtiiii«s the walU aro filled 
in with mud. The roof overhangs, oorering tli« wide, ^^ 
open porch, wliioli extends Uie length of one side of tl>Q^| 
house, and is n» deep as a good-sized room ; it U u^uall^ lefl 
open on the sides as veil a:* in front. Within, tlte rest 
of the lioii»c is divided off into one or luore cltainbon, 
according to its size. I have not peiielratvd intu tlicac,^| 
but can bear testiiuuny to Uie a»ual clca]ilines.s and onlur 
of the outer room. Tlie liard mud-floor iii neatly swept, 
thoru Is no litter iihuul, and, cxctrpt for the musquituu*, 
I should think it no ^ard^hip to sling my liuiniuuck tori 
the night iiiiik-r thu tliutclied roof of one of these priui-] 
itivo vcrundu-liku iipurUuenls. There is one vlemvjit^ 
of dirt common in the houses of our own poor whicli is ub- j 
sent here. Instead of the mass of old musty bedding, u1 
iie<t for venniti, ilic ludiiin!( iinve llicir cool hammoek«, 
sluug from side lu side of llie ruum. One fcuturu ; 
in Ibeir mode of building dcsurves to be mcutioiiud,.j 
Owing to the submcrgc-d stnto of the ground oa wliictM 
tbcy live, the Indians olV.'u raieo their housus on pili»i4 
sunk in tlic wuli;r. Hero wu havo tlic old lacustriiici 
buildings, so much discussed of late yoari;, reproduced 
for us. Cue even sees sometimes a little garden liftcil 
iu this way above the water. 

But lu rcLuru to our walk. One of the Indians iuWl 
us to contiouo our ramble to liis house, which he saiJ wa 
uot far beyond, in the forest. We readily complied, 
tile path he pointed out to us looked tempting in 
extreme, loading into th« depth of the wood. Liider 
bis guidance wo continued for some distauco, every 


and then crosdug one of the forest creeks ou tbe logs. 
Seeing that I was rather timid, he cut for me a long yoh, 
with the aid of which 1 felt quite brave. But at lai-t wo 
came to a place where the water was no deep tliat I could 
Dot touch bottom with my pole, and a» the round log ou 
which I was to crow was tstlier rockiug and unsteady, 
I did uot dare to advauce. I told hiin, in mj impurfuct 
Portuguese, that I was afraicl. " Nao, mia hi-anua " (No, 
my whitu) he »iid, reassuriugly ; "uau tern luedo" (doii't 
be afraid). Ttieu, as if a (hougtit struck hiin, he moliuuud 
me to wait, aud, going a few steps up the crock, ho unloosed 
his boat, brouglit it down to lh« spot where wo stood, aud 
put us across to the oppo^iite shore. Just beyond was liis 
pretty, picturCMiue hoit>e, where ho showed mo his children, 
tolling me their ages, and introduced me tu his wife. Thoi'e 
is a natural courtesy about ibeso people which is very at- 
tiactiTo, aud winch Mujur Coutiiiho, who has lived among 
tliem a great deal, tells me is a general cliaructoriiitic of 
the Amazonian Indians. Wlicn wo took loavo of them 
and returued to tlu) canoe, 1 supposed our guide would 
simply put us across to the other shore, a disuncu of u 
few feet only, as he had done iu coming. Instead of that 
he beaded the conoo up the crock uito the wood. I sbuU 
nerer forget tliut row, tho ifioro onelioutiug tluit it wa« 
so UDOxpoctod, through t]ie narrow wulcr-path, ororarclied 
by a solid roof of verdure, and bluck with shadows; aud 
jrot it was not gloomy, for outside, the sun was setdug iu 
criniK>n and gold, and its last beams stnick in under tlie 
boughs aud Ut the interior of tlio forest with a warm glow. 
Nor shall I cosily forget tho faco of our Indian friend, who 
hod welcomed us so warmly to his home, and who eriduntly 
eqjojod our exclamations of deUglit and ihe effect of the 



Eurpriso be bad given us. Tbe creok lo<l hy a detour luick 
iuto tbo riwr, a few rods above tbe buiding wbere our 
Ktcamor lay. Our friendly boatman loft us at the fitair- 
way vitb a cordial good-by, aud many tlianks from us 

We left our laudiiig early tbis rauniiiig, and at about 
bnlf past ten turuvd into tlic main Aiuaxous. Tluis far 
w« bavo bccu iu what Is ci^lcd tbe Par& river, mid tba 
brandies coimcctiug it wiib tbo Amazons proper. Tlic pro- 
portions of everything in nature amuze one here, Iwwcver 
much one luay have heard or read about tbcui. For two 
days and nights we have been foUowuig tli« isle uf Mariyo, 
wbicJi, tliougli but an island in the mouth of ibe Amazons, 
is half as large as Ireland. I add here a second letter front 
Mr. Aga.-«9ix to Mr. I'iuicnta Bueno, giving a short summar/ 
of bis scientiQc progress. 




MoN CHER AHt: — Je suis extt^nu^ do fatigue, mats je n< 
venx pas aller me i-ejx).iei- avant de vous avoir ^erit uii 
mot. Hier soir nous avons olttenu vingt-se[it espdces de 
poissoiis a. Gnnipfl et co matin, ciiiquanto-sppt \ I'orto do 
MoK, eu tout quatre-vingUquntrc esp«tect< en moins do doue^H 
bcurCK ct. Hur co nombro, il y en n ciiiqnante ct une non- 
vcUos. Cost rocrvcilleux. Jo nu puis pin* mellro on ordra, 
ce qu'on m'apporte au fur ct i mesuro que cola anive ; et 
qutuit & obtenir des dessins colori^s du lout, U n'eii 
plus question, & moiiis qu'iV nolro retour nous ue [>assion« 

Lune souiaino entit^re ici. 
Tout & vous, 
L. AOASSit* 
bdbra wriii 

• Oii nu Xixac. Aniuit tU, INI. 
Ht PK4K II^IBHIi: — 1 am WQm OUI witb iaiigue, but 1 will uul pi I-> nu 
bdbra wriling jou « wvil VMIorOa; ercnitiK wb oUlainctl lw«nti"> 



Avfftut 23<t. — Yesterday morning, bcforo rmoliing Qm 
little town of Gumpi, wo passed a forrat of Miriti palms ; 
it is Uie first time vo have seeo a palm wood esclusiTe of 
other trees. Li tlio afternoon we stopped at Gunip& and 
went on shore ; but ju&t as we landed, a violent thunder- 
storm burst upon us wiUi sheets of rain, and we saw little 
of tbe town except the iuside of the house where we took 
shelter. Mr. Agassiz obtained a meet valuable coUocUoii of 
" forest flsbes," containing a number of new species ; the 
Indians enumerate, tiowercr, some seventy distinct species 
oi fbiert fislies in tliis vicinilf, so that, not with standing bis 
success, ho leaves much to be done bj- those wlio shall come 
after him. We left during the night, and this morning we 
entered the river Xingu, stopjiiiig at Porto do Moz. Tho 
water is very blue and dark as compared with ttio muddy 
waters of the main river. Hero Mr. Agassiz found two 
collections, ono of forest fishes, the other of river lishes, 
awaiting him, Mr. Pimenta Bueno having soitt messengers 
by the last steamer to a number of ports, desiring tliat 
collections should be in readiness for him. The Iiarvesl 
uf this morning, tiowevor, was such an ono a.i makes an era 
in tlie life of a naturalist, for it contained forty-eight new 
species, — more, Air. Agassis said, than it had ever fallen 
to his lot to find in the course of a single day. Ever since 
we entered tlie Amazons the Torest seems to me, though 
more luxuriant, less sombre than it did about Rio. It 
ia more transparent and more smiling; one sees hito it, 

•peeiu of Rih itt Giim^w Hint Ihit niurnjiii; liftv-wvcii m Porio du Moi, — 
tigfttj-toar i)>Mira iii xll. in Ich ihnn twulro hoim, anil uf Tiiiii iiuin'jcr fiflf 4iia 
■re iii:w. It it wuiidprfiil. t con no lonj^cr put in onli^r n-lml ii brought id 
DM m Gut u it ■trii'u, unit «* to obtnlnlnn colored drawUjfi of >ll. It U no 
Iniscc poMtbto, Dolcu w< DU* ■ whole week hern on our ruinru. 

WlioUy joun. 

L Stixa»i ^^ 




Ititi A JOUKinrr in bsazr. 

uid s&es the siinsliiiie gliiniucriiig through it xiid liglitiiig 
up iU depthi. llio HtcAuicr has ju»t Icfl boliind the first 
open land we have passed, - — wide, extousive flats, with 
scarcely a tree, and corerod with tliick, coarse gi-a^s. 

Auffuti 2ilfi. — Yesterday aflcnioon we saw, ou thi 
north side or the river, the fir^t elevations of any ooiito- 
quenco oue meets or the Aina7X)ns, the singular flat-topped 
liills of .\lmeiri»i. They are cut off as Kjiiarely on the top 
as if levelled with a plane, and divided from each otlior bfM 
vide opeoiiigs, the e>i(Ie.i heing shaved down witli the sauio 
evennees as the Mimniit«. Much has been »aid about the 
gMlogy of Ute$e singular hills, but no one lias fairly inresti 
gated it. Von Martins landed, and ascertained their heigl 
to be about eight hundred feet above the level of the river, 
but beyond this, no one seems to know anything of their 
reftl nature. They arc generally represented as spUK of tho 
higher table-land of Guiana.* Lust evening was the tumt 
beautiful wc have seen on tl>e Amazons. Wo sat ou the 
frout upper deck as tho crimson sun weut down, his broad 
red pathway acrosK tlie water followed presently by UiO 
pale trembling line of light from the crescent moun above. 
After the .<<Lin had vanished, broad rays of rose-color, 
shooting almost lo the zenith, still attested his power, 
lending something of their glow also to a great mass of 
white clouds in the east, the reflection of which turned 
tho yellow waters of the river to silver, while between 
glory and glory the deep blue sky of night gathered over 
the hills of Ahneirim. This morning at dawn we stopped 
at the little settlement of Pmiulia, but did not land, and 
we are now on our way to Monte Al^Sgre, where we sliall 
pass a day and a half. 

* IteprcMntationi of ihuc Iillli nujr Ic found ia tho Atlu of Mnriiu and 
in Balu't "^ntaialiil on l)ia Amiumii." 

Auffvtt 25rA. — JSIonte Al^re. Wc arrired before this 
town, situated on t}ie north side of tlie Amazons, at tlie 
mouth of tlie river Qurupatul>a, yesterday at about mid- 
day, but tlio heat was so great that I did not go ou 
shore till towards evening. The town is situated on the 
summit of a hill sloping rather steej)!/ U[>war<j from tho 
Bl)ore, tmd it takes its name from a mountain some four 
leagues to the northwest of it. But though the ground 
is more broken and rarious than we have seen it hitherto, 
the place does not soem to me to desor^'e its name of 
Monte AUgre (the gay mountain}. To me tiie aspect 
of the country here is, on the contrary, rather sombre ; 
Uie soil consists everywhere of sand, the forest Ls low, 
wliile here and there intervene wide, swampy flatii, cov 
ered with coarse grass. The sand rests above the eame 
reddish drift, filled with smooth rounded quarts pcbblw, 
that we hare followed along our whole road. Here and 
there the pebbles arc disposed in undulating lines, a« if a 
partial stratilication had taken place; and in soiuo localities 
we saw indications of the drift having been worked over 
by water, though not absolutely stratified. Hotli at sunset 
and sunrise I took a walk to the village churchyard, vliich 
commands the prettiest view in the neighborhood. It is 
enclosed in a picket fence, a large wooden oroes stands 
in the centre, and there are a few other small croescH 
marking graves ; but tlie place looked uncared for, grovu 
over, wherever the sand was not bare, by the same coareo, 
rank shrubs which spring up everywhere in thi:^ ungcniul 
soil.' At a little distance from the churchyard, the liill 

■ AfWnranlHluuidi'iikiiigvritaf m Moqk Al><gtc, uidlcuaod to fcnuw In 
pklnmque nouks and dells, wbctv ■ luxuriant vejI^utlKi It niiii,Tcd by il«- 
■iantu >[)rinpi I ht\ (Imi the nhnvc dtwriiitlon b «U{i«rKclat; liiii I lit| it 
mmtii). ■* pcifccilf iriM U in; flnt impnuioni. 


dopes abruptly down, and from its brow oiio lonks ac 
a wide plain covui-cd willi low forest, to the inontitaiii on' 
the other Mdo, from which the town takc» lis nanic. Look* 
iog eouthwurd, the forcgi-oiitid U filled with lakes divided 
from each other b/ low alluvial lands, forming Uic level 
flnts alludud to above. Tliougli one of the «arlie^l stitllc- 
meats on Hw Amazons, this town is, by al) nvcoiinls, 
rather decreasing than increasing iu population. In tlio 
midst of lis public square stands what a'cms at ftnt to 
bo the mill of a largo stone church, but wbicK is, in fact, 
the framework of a. cathedral hcgnn forty years ago, and 
standing unliiiiiihcd to this day. Cows were pssturcd in 
its grass-grown aisles, and it seemed a rather sad memorial, 
bespeaking « want of prosperity in tlic place. We wens 
most kindly ontcrtainod in the house of Scnhor Manuel, 
vbo, finding that the mosquitoes were likely to be very 
thick on board the steamer, inWtcd us to pass the night 
under his roof. This morning we are sailing about in 
tlie neighborhood, portly for tlie sake of getting tish, hut 
passing also a couple of hours at a cattlc-fann near by, 
in order to bring on board a number of cows and oxcu 
for the Manaos market. It jiccnis tliat one of the cliief 
occupations here is the raising of cattle. This, with Iho 
sale of fish, cacio, and India-rubber, constitutes the com' 
merce of the place. 

Auffutt 26(A. — This morning found us again on the 
southern udo of the river, off 8antnrem, at the moutli of one 
of the great branches of the Amazons, the Tapiyoz. Hero 
we leaie a numher of our parly. Mr. Duster, Mr. Jamoa, 
and Mr. Tati^mau, a young Brazilian who Joined our party 
at ParlL, go on a collecting expedition up tlie 'I'apajoz. 
Mr. Bourget and Mr. Hunncwell remain at Saiilarcni, llie 


naa pasa to uaxaos. 


to make collections, the latter to attend to thfl 
rapaini of his pholograpliing apparatnfl, which has mot 
vith some duisten. We are all to meet again at Maiiao« 
Kfijr our fartlior voyage up to Tabatinga.* We remained 
^«t Saotarom only long enough to use the party fitted out 
vith a canoo and Uto necessary Giipplics, and as they put 
off frc»n the steamer we weighed anchor and proceeded 
on our way, reserring onr Tiait to Santarem Tor our retuni. 
As we left the port the black waters of tiifs Tapajoi; mot 
the yellow stream of the Amazons, and the two ran together 
for a while, like tlie waters of the Arve and Rhone in 
Switzerland, meeting bnt not mingling. Instead of return- 
ing at once to the main river, the Captain, who omita 
nothing which can add to the pleasure or the prolit of our 
-voyage, put the steamer throngh a narrow channel, which, 
on tlie M-s?isfippi, would be called a " bayon," but goes 
here by the name of an '* Igaraj)^." Nothing could l)0 
prettier than this ** Igarap^ Assll," hardly more than vide 
enough to admit Llie steamer, and bordered on either side 
by a thick wood, in whicli are conspicuous tlie Mtnignba, 

* I«omi bwftma conrinctil iinor Imrinc PnHi ihM (hnraimn oroiir ■liflpTNit 
Mliou wtu* not repMiliunit uf vtch othur. On tliu roncnrj, nt Brevet, Tajn- 
pnt€, Gurap^ — in ihart, at cocli Blopping-plaCP, u hu Iwen «vii, — wn fuunil 
•noihcr K( of iohabiunu in the river, if not ivbollf diili^rciit ffom Iho )iui. 
M lOMi procntins la ninnj new *pocici ihnl tho coinhinnlion ww no longer 
iktMSw- It bommc nl onrc very imporMiit to aicnrtiiin whpilipr thew iit- 
ftnact* were pRtmaiMnl and tlaXtooAtj, or mrc, in pnrt M Icmrt, an effect 
ot ntiicrallon. I lb«nS>t« dMoradncid tu ilinributu onr Torccs in inch n way u 
to Imp eoDectiiii- porlioa al illalHnt puiiic*. and lo rvpcnt eDllocliaiu from ibe 
■■■• localilin al ilillereDt wiiBoni, I jinnued this method of lnTp>tl];*iiuii 
during our whole itajr in the AmniDni. diTiilin: ihc jmrt; Cm ilic lim limo at 
SanUnun, where Mcara. Dexicr, Junwa, and Talisman nrpunitcd froin u> to 
■Mcnd the Tapajoi, nhilc Mr. Boursnt renutinnl iit Sttiimrmu, a«<l I, Kith iht 
■Htof MiycAmpanlnnii ki^.i on to Ohjdm nixl Vina Bella. — L. A. 


A jciimrr di biazu- 


wiUi its oTil, red fruit, tbo Itubaiiba-tmu, neither so lofty 
uor so regular iu form as alMut Rio, uii<l t)ic Taxi, witli ita 
musses of wbita flowers aud brown buds. For two days 
post wa hsn loet tJie palms in a great doj^ree ; about Monta 
AUgre tb«y were comparatively few, aud bore we 
scarcely any. 

Tlic sburc botweun Sautarcm aud Obydos, wliore 
sball arrive ttus evooing, seems more populous than the 
regions we have been passiiig tbrougb. As we coast 
along, keeping close to tbe laud, tbc sctiitcs revive all our 
early visions of au anciout pai-torol life. Groups of Indians 
— mon, womoD, and children — greet us from the shore, 
standing under the overarcliiug trees, usually traiued or 
purposely clioson to form a kind of arbor over the landing- 
place, — the invariable foreground of tJie picture, with tlie 
" montaria " moored in front. One or two hammocks are 
often slung in tho trees, and between the branches one 
gets a glimpse of tlie thatched roof and walU of tlie little 
straw cottage behind. Perhaps if we were to look a little 
closer at these pictures of piihtoral life, wc should find tlieffl 
hare a coarse and prosaic si<ie. But. let lliem stand. Ar 
cadia itself would not bear a too minute scrutiny, uor 
could it present a fairer aspect tlian do these Indian homes 
on the banks of the Amazons. The primitive forest about 
the houses is usually cleared, and they stand in the midst 
of little plantations of the cadio-tree, mingled with the 
mandioca shrub, from the roots of wliich thu Indians 
make tlieir flour, and occasionally aho with the Indift- 
rubber-tree, though, as the latter grow$ plentifully in tlie 
forest, it is not often cultivated. Tho caci^o and the India- 
robber they send to Parfi, in exchange for such domcstio 
goods as they require. We have passed so close to tlio 



B llKire to-ilay that it tuia been easj to make geological 

V obwrralioii8 frmu the deck. For a considerable dbtanoe 

%bove Santarem we liavo folloved drift cliffs, resting upon 

sandstoue ; the drift of the tamo reddish color, and pasty, 

^_- dajoy oonsixlencc. and iitc KUiidslone scvmiugly liiQ euinu 

^^in character, as that of Moiilc Al^r^. 

^B Av^it 2T{A. — Villa l^lla. Last QToning we stopped 

^^lo vood at the town of Obydos, but without landinff; 

1^ koeping straight ou to tJii^ port, on the southern side of the 

^Prirer, at tlio mouth of the river Tupiiiamlianuiw. Huru wo 

were very cordially recoircd by Dr. Marcus, an old corn*- 

qiOQdeut of Mr. A^assiz, who has several times fciit spec!- 

mens from thu Amazoiu to ll>u Cuuibridge Museum. To- 

uigltl wo ore to start iu canoes oa aii cxcuniou to som« 

I of the lakes in the neighborhood of this port. 
AoffiUt 28th. — Iu the porch of an Indian !iou% ou tho 
lake Jo^ Aksu. Wu paystid a pleasant day yesterday at 
the house of I)r. Marcus, keeping the Kabbaih rather after 
the Jcwi»li than the Christian rule, a.4 a rcnUibIc day of 
rest, lounging in hammocks, and the gentlemen smoking. 
Wo returned to tlie steamer at Hve o'clock, intending to 
itart at six, in order to hare the benefit of tlie night fisliing, 
said to be always tlio most successful. But a violent Uuiih 
der-storm, with heavy rain, lasting almost till midnight, 
delayed our departure. We loaded the boats, however, 
before night, that wo might be rouily to start whenever 
the wcaOicr sliould clear. Wo liavo two canoes, in (hiq 
of which Mr. Aga^siz, myself, and Mr. liurkh&rdt haTo 
^P our quarters, while Miy'or Coultiiho, Dr. Uarcus, who 
accompaniDE us, and Mr. Thayer occupy the otlier. Tito 
former, which is rallier the larfrev of ibc tuo. has a tiny 
eatu. at oue end, some tltrco feci liit;h und six feet long, 



nrnfed iu witli vood ; the oilier lias &l«r one end covered 
in, but witli thukli lusKiad of wood. In the lugger boot 
we have our lugguge, comproncd to the alinost, the lire 
stock, — a smtdl eliccp, a turkey, UDd several (ovh, — be> 
ndes a number of barrels and kegs, eontaiiiiug alcohol, for 
Bpuciiuuii^. Tliu Captain has supplied us not ouly witlt all 
tlio iiocuK»urioN. but, so far as is possible, iritb wnry luxury, 
for a week's voyage. All our preparations being made, and 
DO prospect uf clear weather, at niue o'clock we betook our- 
selves to our liaminocka, — or ibose of us who bad stowed 
their hammocks out of read), — to chairs and benches, and 
had a broken »loop till three o'clock. The stars were theu 
shining, and everything looked fair for our voyage. The 
wind had gone down, the river wa» sniuolh as glass wltoa 
we paddled uway fruin the side of tlio steamer, and, 
though wo had no moon, oiio or two planets tJinnr a 
bright reflection across the water to ciieer our way. After 
keeping for souio time down the river, we turned, just at 
dawn, into a very narrow elinnnul leading tlirough iJie 
forest. It was hardly day, but perhaps the scene was 
none the less impressive for the dim hali^light in which 
wo saw it. Prom the verdant walls, which rose on cither 
side and shut us iu, lofty truths, clothed from base to aui»' 
nit in vines, stood out hero and there like huge green 
colamns, in bold relief against the mornuig sky ; hidden 
flowers filled the air with fragrance, great roots stretched 
out into tlio water, and now and then a Soaling log narrowed 
the passage so as just to leave room for the cauoo to pass. 
After a while a bruiidcr, fuller light shone uudor the boughs, 
and wo issued from tliis narrow pathway into an extensive 
lake Hero it was found that the large net, which was to 
hare made a part of the outRt of the canoe, had been IcD 




behind, aud, after calling at two or tlircc Iitdiui Lou*cs 
to SCO if we could »iiji{jly the deficiency, wu were obliged 
to send back to Villa Bella for it. In tl>e mcau time 
wc mooreil our boats at the foot of a little bill, on wliidi 
slaadd ati lodiiiu iiou»e, where we »iuppcd to breakfast, 
aud wbere we are still waiting for the return of our 
mcsMiiger*. I tnuft eay, that a uonr view of Arcadia Uiuda 
to dUpel illusions; but it sboiild t>c added, tlmt tliis !>puci- 
mea is by no means a favorable oiie. Tbu bou»C9 at Taju- 
purii were far mure atii-actire, and the appearance of tlicii 
inluihitarits mucb neadsr and more respcclalile, tliou diuso 
of our iViend-t bere. Yet at tliis inoniciit tlic scctie la 
not altogether nninviting. Some of the party are loung* 
ing in the tiamuKicIcs, which we liave sluug under itio 
great porch, as wo aro to pass several hour»; here ; aa 
improvised rustic table, consisting of a board restuig ou 
forked etticks, stands at one side ; the boatnicu arc clciu'ing 
away tlie reniainH of our late repast ; the ludian women, 
dirty, half clad, with their liair hanging uncombed around 
Uteir faces, are tending their iiakt>d children, or kneading 
the maudioca in a huge Uougli. The men of tlie houso 
have Ju^ retunied from fisliing, the morning liaving I>een 
more su<!CCK>rul in that respect tlian was expected, and 
are now fitting up a rough forge, in which they are re- 
pairing some of tlieir iron instruments. lu the mean 
time Science has il« sacred corner, where Mr. Agassiz is 
LUTlwtigating new Hgiecies, the result of the morning's fish* 
ing, while Mr. Burkiiardt is drawing tliem. 

Auffmt 29(A. — Finding yesterday that our shelter grew 
uiorc uncomfortable as the day wore on, and being oblinud 
to wait for tlte night fishing, wc determined to cross the 
lake to a " Sitio " ^as the inhabitants call tlieir plantations) 


OD th« otiier side of the lake. Here wo fouiid one of tirt 
hotter spcciiiious or Indian houses. Oil odo sido of tiM 
houBO is the open porcli, quite gay n.t thi« mumeut witn 
our biightty colored liaiiimocks ; adjoitiing Uib is a large 
cliftmbcr, opening into the porcli hj n wide stimw, or rather 
paliu-lea.f door; wliich does not swing on hinges, however, 
but is taken down and put up like a mat. On the ullier 
side of tlic room it^ an uuglazed window, closed at will 
In Uie same way hj a palm-leaf mat. For tlic present 
this chamber is given up to my ute. On the other sido 
of the porch is another veranda-like room, also open at 
tlio sides, and apparently the working-room of the family; 
for here is the great round oven, built of mud, where the 
farinha is dried, and the boskets of mandioca-root nru stand- 
ing ready to be pii'kcd and grated, and here also is the rough 
log table wliure we take our meals. Everything has an air 
of dcccucy and cloauliness ; tlie mud-doora arc swept, the 
ground about the house is tidy and free from rubbish, the 
little plantation around it of cac&o uud mandioca, witlt here 
and there a coffuo-slirub, is in nice order. The house stands 
ou a slightly rising ground, sloping gently upward from the 
lake, and just bolow, under some trees on tlio shore, are 
moored tlio Indian's *' Montana " and our two cauocs. Wa 
were received vith the most cordial friendliness, the Indian 
women gathering about me and examining, tliongli not in a 
rough or rude way, my dresx, the net on my liair, touching 
my rings and watch-chain, and evidently discussing the 
"branca" between themselves. In the evening, after din> 
ner, I walked up and down onttido the house, enjoying ilie 
picturesqitencss of the scene. The hnshatid had just COUM 
in from the lake, and the fire on llio ground, over which tlia 
fresh fUh was broiling for the supper of the family, shone 



the Gpires of tlie wom«n and ctiildron a« the; inoTod 
ftboat, and shed its glow under the thatched roor of tlic 
workiiigr-room, making its interior warm and ruddjr ; a 
lantern in the comer of t)ie porch throw a dim, anccrtain 
light over hammocks and half-recumbent Rgiires, and with- 
out, the moon shone over lake and forest. The nioiiquitoes, 
however, fHVsently began to dif^turb the romance of tho 
scene, and, as we were all raiher tired from our broken 
rest the niglit before, we retired early. My own sleep, 
under an excellent mosquito-net, was rery quiet and 
refreshing, but thero were some of the party who had 
^Lnot provided themselves with this indispensable accompa- 
^nimont of a hammock, and they pa<i.>«cd the night in 
misery, a^ording a repast to the voracious hordes buK^ng 
about tliom. I was awakened shortly after daylight by 
the Indian women, bringing me a bonquct of reives and 
jessamine from tlie vines which grew al^out tho cottugo, 
»nd wishing me good morning. After *ucli a kindly grect- 
iuKi I could not refu<«c them the pleasure of agisting at my 
toilet, of watching tho 0[>ciiing of my valise, and hotidliug 

I every orticlo as it came out. 
Tlie night fishing was unfavorable, hut lliis morning tho 
Ssliermen have brought in new species enough to keep 
Mr. Agassis and hix arti^tt busy for nmny liuurs, so that 
^Tetre likely (o pa.<s another niglit among the^o hospilablo 
^people. I rau»t »ay that tho primitive life of the hotter 
tiaas of Indians on the Amazons is much more attroctivo 
than the so-called civilized life in tlic white Buttlcmonls. 
Anytliing more bald, dreary, and uninviting t)i»u life in tho 
[Amazonian towns, with an attempt ttt tho conventionalisms 
civilization, I ut without one of its grace*, I can hardly 
onceive. Tliis morning my Indian friends have been 


sboviiig mo tlio various procecses to wliicb the Slandioca 
is subjected. This plant is inTsluablo to these people. It 
gives Ihcm their farinha, — a coane kind of flour, their only 
substitute for bread, — their tapioca, and also a kiud of 
fermented juice called tacupf, — a more questionable bles»> 
ing, porhnpfl, since it affords them the means of getting 
intoxicated. Alter being peeled, tlie roots of the mandioca 
are scraped on a very ooane grater ; in tins condition ihcjr 
make a moiiit kind of pasta, which is then packed in eln«tioj 
straw tnbii.1, made of the fibres of tlie Jacitar& Pnim (Des- ' 
moncUus). When ber tube, which has always a loop tt 
eitlier end, is full, tlie Indian woman haugs U on the 
branch of a. tree ; she then passes a pole tliroiigli tlic lower 
loop and into n hole in the trunk of tlio tree, and. sitting 
down on the other end of tJie pole, site thus transforms it 
into n primitix'c kind of Icvor, drtiwing out the tube to itsj 
utmost length by the prv^siiro of hor owti weight. Thel 
juico is thus expressed, flowing into a bowl placed under 
the lubo. This juice is poisonous at first, but after boing 
formentcd becomes quite harmless, and is then used for^l 
the tucup'i. Tiie tapioca is made by mixing tlie grated ~ 
mandioca with water. It is then pressed on a sieve, and 
tlie fluid which flows out is left I,n stand. It soon makes 
a deposit like stnroh, and when hardened tltey taako iti 
into a kind of porridge. It in a favorite article of food 
with them. 

AuffuM 30tA. — As time goes on, wc grow more at homo 
with our rustic friends hero, and begin to understand tlieir 
relations to cadi other. The name of our host is Laudi- 
gfiri (I spell the name as it sounds), and that of his wife 
Espcrun^u. lie, Uko all tJie Indians living upon tlie Ania- 
CfNis, is a fisherman, and, with tho exception of such 







as his smiW pUutatioD requires, tliis is )iis only occupa- 
An Indian is ncvor bwii to do any of the work of tlic 
house. Dot oreu to l>ring wood or water or liil tlie heavy 
burdens, and as tlio (istiing is donu cliiotly iit certain scaiionit, 
lie is a Tcry idle follow for a grout piirt of tlio titiiv. Tl>c 
women are said, on lliv ooutraiy, to be vvi-y industriouD ; aiid 
certainly tliosc wlioin wc hare an opjjorttinity of socing horo 
jtistifr this rcpiitAlion. Esperanqa is always biwy al some 
hoiiscliotd work or other, — grating mandioca, drying farin- 
lia, packing tobacco, cooking or swoRping. Her children arc 
active and obedient, the older onen making themRclTce ata- 
fnl in bringing wat«r from tlio lake, in wo&hing the mandi- 
oca, or in taking care of the younger ones. Espcran^a can 
bardly be called pretty, but Blie has a pleasant Bmile and a 
arkably sweet voice, with a kind of child-Iiko intonation, 
vhich is Tory winning ; and when sometiraoa, aflor her work 
is over, she puts on lior white ciiemii-e, falling loose from 
hor brown ehoiildors, ber dark skirt, and a rose or a sprig 
of vliit« jessamino in her jetty hair, she is by no means 
unattraetivo in her personal appearance, though I mnKt 
oonroee tliat tlie pipe which she is apt to smoke in the 
ereniug injures tlio general eflfeet. Dor husband looks 
Homcwhat romhrc ; but liii! hearty laugh occasionally, and 
liis cnjoymiuil of llie gloss of cscha^a which rewards him 
when be bringsi in a new lot of specimens, shows tlial be 
luis his bright side. He is greatly amused at tlio value 
Mr. Agassiz attaches to the fishes, wpeeially the little 
ones, which af^eor to him only fit lo throw away. It 
seems that the other family who have been about bera 
since our arrival are neighhors, who have come in to help 
in the making of mandioca. Thoy come in the moniing 
.wilb all tlieir children and remain through the dny. The 


iiBmvs of tlio Tatlier aud motlier aro Pedro M»niivl uiid 
Micheliiia. He is a tall, Iiandsomo follow, whoso chief 
occupation eoems to be that of standing abotit in pictii- 
rcEqnc attitudes, and watching his ratlicr prctlj wife, as 
«he bustles round in her various work of grating or 
proiwing or straining the mandiocs, generally with hor 
baby attrido on hor hip, — tite Indian woman's favorite way 
of carrying lier child. Occasionally, however, Pedro Slan- 
ucl is aroused to bear some part in tlie collecting ; and tlio 
otJier day, when he brought in soin« spucinicnB which seemed 
to him quite valueless, Mr. Agassiz rewarded him with a 
chicken. Ilis surprise and delight were great, perhaps a 
little mingled with contempt for the man who would barter 
a chicken for a few wortliless lishes, fit only to throw into 
the river. 

Last evening, witli some difficulty, we induced Laudig&ri 
to play for us on a rough kind of lute or guitar, — a favorila 
instrument with the country people, and used by them 
as an accompaniment for dancing. When wo had him 
fairly en train with the music, we persuaded Esperan<;a 
and Miclieliiia to show us some of their dances ; not 
without reluctance, and with an omlMirrassmont which 
savored somewhat of the solf-cou&ciousneiis of civilized life, 
ihey stood up with two of our boatmen. The danoe is 
very peculiar ; so languid that it hardly deserves the name. 
There is almost no movement of the body ; tliey lift the 
arms, but in an angular position with no freedom of motion, 
snapping the fingers like castanetn in time to the musio, 
and thoy seem rather like statues gliding from place to 
place than like dancers. This is especially true of the 
women, who are otill more quiet than the men. One of 
the boatmen was a Bolivian, a finely formed, picturesque- 


B>p«ninta'> Coti*c*. 

(aperture for tlie head to pass through. It is belted 
around the waist, leaving the sides Often so that tlio legs 
ftnd arms are perfectly free. The &ti'aight folds of his 
hear; white drapery gave a sort of statiiesqiia look to 
oar Bolivian an he moved slovly about in the dance. 
After it was over, E»peran^a and the otJicrs urged me to 
bIiow them the dance " of my country," as they said, and 

180 A JODkNET IN BRAzn. 

my young fritnid R and I waltKcd for tlicm, to tlioir 

groat deliglit. It seomed to mc like a strange dreun. 
Tlie bright firo danced witli utt. flickering in under tlie 
porcli, fitfully lighting it? picluresquii iiitci-ior and the 
group of nroiidcring Indians around ua, who enooiiragcd 
us evory now and then witJi a"Muito bouito, mia brancn, 
mQito bonilo" (Very prolty, my white, very pretty). Our 
bail kept up very late, und after I had gone to my ham- 
mock I Ntilt heard, between waking and sleeping, tlie plain- 
tiro chords of tlio guitar, mingling with the melancholy 
note of a kind of wtiippoorwill, who sings in tlio woods all 
uiglit. This mornuig the forest is noisy with tlie howling 
monkeys. They sound very near and very nnnierous ; bnt 
we are told tbnt they are deep in the forest, utd would 
disapjfear nt the slightest approach. 

September \9t. — Yesterday morning wo bade our friendly 
liosts good-by, leaving their pretty picture-ique home with 
real regret. The night bcfoi« wo left, tbey got together 
KOme of their neighbors in our honor, and renewed the 
ball of the proviouii evening. Like things of the same 
kind in other classes, the second occasion, got up with & 
little more preparation than the first, which was wholly 
impromptu, was neither so gay nor so pretty, Trequent 
potations of caclia^a made the guests ratlier noisy, and 
tlieir dancing, under this influence, became far more ani- 
mated, and by no means so serious and dignified as the 
evening before. One thing which occurred early in the 
entertainment, however, was interesting, as showing some- 
thing of their religious observances. In the morning E»> 
perao^a's mother, a hideous old Indian woman, had coaio 
into my room to make me a visit. Before leaving, I was 
rather surprised to see her kneel down by a little trunk 





tlic comer, and, opciiing ttic lid sliglitlj, Uirov in re 
pcafcd kisses, toiicliiDg lior lips to her fingers and naakuig 
gcstun-s OS if sliv dropped the kisses into tlio trunk. Crossing 
lierscir at intervals as kIic did to. In llic evening >A\e was 
agsiti at tlic dunce, and. wilU llic otiior two women, went 
tJirougti witli a sort of religious dance, cliniiting the wliile, 
and carrying in their hund» a carved arch of wood which 
tJioy wared to and fro in lime to llic chant. AVlicu I asked 
Efiporau^a Lite meaning of tlii^ she tuM loe that, though 
tlioy went to the ncighbon'ng town of Villa Bella for the 
great fcto of onr Ladjr of Nuzurcth, they kept it also 
at home on their return, and this was a part of tlieir 
ocrcmonios. And tlion she asked mo to come in with 
her, and, leading the way to my room, introduced mo to 
the contents of tlio precious trunk ; thore was our Lady of 
Nazareth, a common course print, framed in wood, one or 
two other smaller colored prints and a few candles; over the 
whole was thrown a blue guuxe. It was the family cliapet, 
Bud she sliowod mo all the things, taking them up one by 
one witli a kind of tender, joyful reroroncc, only made the 
more touching by their want of any material value. 

We are now at another Indian house on the bank of an 
arm of the river Ramof. connecting tite Amazons, tlirough 
the Hauhes, with the Madeira. Our two hours' canoe-jour- 
ney yesterday, in the middle of the day, was somewhat hot 
and wearisome, though part of it lay through one of the 
sliady narrow channels I have described before. Tlie Iii- 
dians have a pretty name for theee channels in the forest; 
they call Oiom Igarap<?s, that is, boat-paths, and Uiey literally 
■re in many places just wide enough for the canoe. At 
a*-out four o'clock we arrived at our present lodging, which 
U by no means so protty as tlie one we have left, though it 





stauds, liko that, on the slope of a hill jurt aboTe Iho shore, 
vith the forest aoout it. But it Uuiks the vi<le porch aad 
the open work in groom vliich mad« the other house eo 
picturesque. Mosquitoes are plentiful, aiid at nightfall 
Die liouKo is clo««d tuid a ptui of turf burned before tho 

[door to drive them away. Our host nud l>o#tcs«, by uame 
Jo^<< Antonio Mnia and Maria Joaiiua Mnia, do whut tUej 
can, however, to uiako us coinfortat>le, and tlio ehildron aa 

'veil Its the parents »how that imtural courtesy vlitch lias 
struck u» 80 much among Uieoe Indians. The children aro 
coni^tautly hringing mc fluweiii and such little gidiiasthey 
have it in tlivir power to bestow, especially tlio painted cups 
which the Indians make from the fruit of tJio Crescentia, and 
use »s driiiking>cups, tjiaeins, and the like. One sees nuni- 
bors of ttioni in all the Indian houses along tlio Amazons. 
My books and writing soom to interest llicm very much, and 
while I was reading at the window of my room this morning, . 
the fnther and mother came up, and, after watching me a ^| 
few minutes in silence, the futlicr asked me, if I had any ^i 
leaves out of some old hook which was useless to me, or 
even a pari of any old newspaper, to leave it with him when 
I went away. Once, he said, he hud known how to road a 
little, and lie seemed to tliink if he had something to prao> 
tise upon, ho might recover the lost art. Ilis face fell when 
I told him all my books were English : it was a bucket 
of cold water to his literary ambition. Then he added, 
that one of his little boys was very briglit, and ho was 
sura ho could loam, if he had the means of sending him 
lo school. When I told hun that I lived in ft couutry 
whore a good education was freely given lo the clitld of 
svory poor man. he said if tho " branca " did not live «o 
fiu away, be would ask bor to take bis daughter witii her. 





a-id for liei scrviiws to haro li«r tauglit to rcaJ wid write. 
The man bas a bright, inlclUgciit fiicc, and speaks witli 
genuine foeliug of bis d«sirc to giro ut education to Itis 

S^ttmber Sd. — Tcslcrday wc started on our rolurii, 
and after a wai-m and wearisome row of four bours roacbed 
onr steamer at five o'clock in tbo ufluruoon. The scien- 
tific results of tbis cipcdilion bave boL'u most satisJactoiy. 
The collections, diOcriiig i;rcatl}' from eacb other in cbar- 
acler, are very largo from bolb our stations, and Mr. 
Burkhardt has been indcfaligablo in making colored draw- 
ings of Uio Bpccimmis while tlicir tints were yet frcsli. 
This is no easy task, for tbo mosquitoes buzz about bim 
and sometimes make work almost intolerable. This morn- 
ing Maia brought in a superb I'irarara (Dsli parro^- Tliis 
fisli is ahxrady well known to science ; it is a heavy, broad- 
bended honipout, witli a bony shield over tbu whole head; 
its general color is jet black, but it has bright yellow sides, 
deepening into orftnge here and there. Its systematic name 
isPhractoocpbalus bicolor. The yellow Put of this Itsli has 
a curious property ; Uie Indians tell us that when parrotji 
are fed upon it tlioy become tinged with yollow, and llicy 
often use it to render their " pajrtigaios " more variegated.* 

■ 1 n« tapccinlly inicrMtDd in atthig living Gjrniiiotuii. 1 itu iiut livrE 
■Usda to iho cleciric G}mn»iui. aJrciily m rulljr diniuiUi] hj lIumtKiIili tlint 
BttlkinK TcmaiDi to bo laiil ahoat it ; but to iho (ini>llcr reprrMmtalnw cf thnt 
canou riiniil;. known im Cnmpai, Stcnio|ii't[iu. Swinnrchm and Ithampliicli- 
llijK Th« Csr>ii><>s. chIIi^iI iSuTii|io< lhrou|:linu[ Bruil, oro v<irj nuRiuioui. 
■od tho moat Iin>lj of ihn wholv f;ni»|i. 1'lii'ir iiiiiiion* nro windiiijc niiil 
n|Hd lile tkon of llio Etl, but yul ilillurvnl, inoainuclk lu tlioii io not cErila 
qwkki}- lomsnl, but. lilwCcbjiia and Pctromyion. mm rrmtuint •omenpunnd 
chwign iheir dircpiion conitnnily. Thii ii ■!» the mao with tbo Siomopygu* 
Mkd Sicrnudiui, anil ctcn ilw larger nn<l mofe ilcinlrr Uiiampliichthjv liare ■ 
kind ot Mlllni; motion. Though 1 Iind expected lo find nunf Cyprinoconui 



During our absence tlie comaiander of our stMnver. 
Captain Anacleto, and one or two geittlomeu of tlic town, 
tiinong others Senltor Angiistuiliu, end nlraPutlicrTonquato, 
whoso name occurs oricu in B»t«s's work on the Amazons, 
hare been making a volluctiou of ri^'«r lishcs, iu which Mr. 
Agaisiz finds eome fifty new species. Thus the tiarrest of 
the week has been a rich one. To-day wo are on our way 
to ManaoE, whore wc expect to arrive in the course of a>- 

ym their grvMt variol; ulo ii«)icd die. anil mftl inurt <nu I unck b/ (bar 
nuicmMiiim to Mclanura, Umbrn, iihI iliu Erjthrinoiila. The prtMiico «( 
Bf'lunc nnd itllinl (omit nl*o mirpriiinl mr. Our aln; on iho thorn of Joi£ 
Auii mill La)^ Mmiinu woa pnrticiitnrl/ iiiatructivo on (cconnl of iba na- 
iiivrouB E|>cciiiii:ns of i-ucL ipnii's ilail}- brought in by Lnudigvi anil Mux. 
ll vflbnli'd ini> n wtlcucni> opgiununirjr fbr Blirilyini* tlii; illSerencra ex'iibilod 
by ihtm RbIim oli 'Iil1«nn( jnriuili ol life, fo type pa^MM, in that ratpeci, 
tliruugh groBicr rlinngpi ihnn the Cbromitio, and among thom the e«naa 
Cfchli ii pcrhnpi the nioii vnrialilc. I am lurc iluu no icliihyolos>*l oonld 
■t llrit light bL-lii^VG [|mi tlivir young aiv rvolly ttic early aUgc of the ftmu 
known In our Ithlliyntogkut worki ai Cycliln mDnocnlm. Cychla tciDMui*, and 
Cyeliln aiuiillUl. The malu anil fcmalr* nim vary crratly •turiojc iho afxwnjng 
wasnn. anil tho liurop tin (ha top of llit hoail ilotcriticvt ru a (pncllir: character 
in Cyclilu niKToniaciilata ii n pmlulx^ancci only tonnil in llie innlc, (wctlinjE 
during Uic pcriuil ul' ajiawnlns and won dbofipcating. Onco ramiliar with th« 
yuiiii;; brooilof uimc ipccluof Chromldci, It bcuime nuy for nw to dI«tin|Euiah 
■ gTHi variuty of Kiiiall lypc*. no doubt hiilirrio ovcrUmknl by nnturali*ia trav- 
elling in (lili tegiun, liniply nndi-r tlie impnuaion (liut ihi-y most be tliu yuung 
of larucr cpcckc A dmilar iiirTstigaliun of the youn){ of Scttviolmii. 
MylctM, Tvtraeonopurni, Cynodon, Anodui, &«- kd me to the diKOvtry 
of an ^uilly liir^ niitnlior of dlmlnnllrc lypci of Cbaracln», inanj of which, 
tvhi-a full i*ruivii, do nut oxccm) an« inrh in )vni;ili ; aiiiDiij; ihviii arr M>(n« of 
lh(> moit bcBUtirul lislii,'! I hail! vwr kvii, to (nr at Uic brillinni'r nnil varin; 
of ilieir colon arc coacpnicit. Thiu incryiliing contributed lo »wirU the totloo- 
tioni, — the localliic* mImwiI a* treU n« the mode of innMiigating. I ahonhl 
add htinj, that, aeverai year* before my own jaurnoy on tho AmaiM*, I had 
bnn kiidi'btnl M lk« Kvt. Mr. Klfitchrr fur ■ vdliinldo oollcclJon oT ftdio* ttvm 
tki* and othiT i niiuuuian kicaliliu. Tljv fniDiliacily tlius obtained with tlicig 
waa ver^Dicful tome in pnnuinginj tcndiu no the spot.— L. A- 





AuuvAi. JIT MAXitoa. — VKKiina nr thr Souxoiivi with rini Rio Xkohd.- 

I)!!]!^!!!^*!!!!! AX IJ.lSAUi — KEILdX OF I'AIITr riMJll tllB TjtrjUltl. — 

CmKHOBiT* or C<iTtirtuKST. — 1V.ii.Kft — Wdsii - CiBniin*. — [iiiiia> 
ScmHM.'^I^AVK Ma^aib*. ^ LiKK im Hi>AKri Tii« Stkaveil — BAfthmu 

t>.u CVOnJt*. — Cu.1111 W<iui>i\(i. — A ri-K,MiA scr. iir Kaiik*. — (iu-UH>i- 

CALCaamtTUtiiKi. — fuaiuiT — Sunkcur-inA-TuKB-— Animw-tinAw.— USD 
Dairr CurrL ^ Saxu-Hiucmm. — Ikdusi Huts. — Ti'Un.E-Hrxiu'u. ~ 
itKTiim Ftwi. — Tcrri. — Duuiira ABum- thk JoimsitT. — I'M.insnui Ad- 
vwKB. — r«irni VAa. ^ Gkouwu-h. Ciiiiuctkx up B«*k*. — I.Ain. — 
t'uacut or tVAisii Bixoa. — TuxAxnx*. — ri<TTiii(UH)un (jultnita uv l>- 
nuxi — Sas I'aou). — I.aiii>>1ii.ii>m.— CHAnAentH or I^ijiiibt. — 8<rA9rTr 
l'um.Ati«7. — Amkal I.irt — TAiiArisoA. — Awki-i ot ik* ^crruk 
MkKT. — lIuvjiiiuKa. — Lkavb oxe or riiK I'aiitt to »ikc CuUJixniKM- — 
Us .ii-^ Wat hows Ttir Rivmi- — I'aiitt t« tub Rivkk* Iva *«> HTireAiit. 


Septejt^€r 5(A, — Mtuifion. Yestorday morning wo entered 
tlut Rio Nogro and hiv the meeting of iu calm, bkck wateri 
wilb the rushing fellow current of tho AmazoiiG, or the 
Solimot>ii.s &» the Upper Amazon is called. They are well 
named by tlio Indians tlic " living and the doud rivor," tor 
the Solimoeiis pours Stsclf down upun the dark stream of 
the Rio Negro with gucIi a viuil, rcKtstless force, that the 
latter does iudocd seem like a lifeless thing by its side. 
Il is true, tliat at this season, when the water in botli 
the rivers is beginning to subside, the Rio Negro seems 
to offer some slight rosistHnce to the stronger rirer ; il 
straggles for a moment witli the impetuous flood whidi 
overmasters it, and, though crowded up against the shore, 
oootioues its course for a little distance side by eido with 
the SoUmoens. But at tlie season when the waters are 
hi^OGt, the latter closes the mouth of the Rio Negro so 


eomplctelj tliat not a drop of its inky slrenm is seen to 
mingle ivith the yellow wnters oiitfidc. It is supposed 
thnt ftt Itiia ^awii tlie Rio Nogro sinks at uncc under 
tite Suliuiocnc ; at sll events, llm latti-r t\ovrs acrws its 
moutli, seeming to bar it completely. It must not bo 
eiippoi^ud, from UiO cli&ngo of iiatnc, tUut tlia SoUmocns 
is anylliing more tliftu the coutiiiuatioii of tlio Amaions; 
just as the s(vc:iUcd river JlaranoQ is its coutiauation 
above Naiit.i, after crowing the Draztlian frontier. It is 
always the same gigantic stream, traversing the continent 
for its vliole bi-cfidlh ; but it has received in its lower, 
middle, and upper coni-se the three local nameH of tho 
Adiuoos, tlio Sulimoens, and the MaraHou. At the point 
wlierc the Braxiliuiis gi?e it tlie name of Solimoeus it 
takos a sudden turn to the south, jiiNt where the Rio Ne- 
gro enters it from the uortli, so that t1ic two fonu a sharp 

We lauded at Manaos and went at ouco (o the houM) 
which Major Coutinho, with his usual foresight, has pro- 
vided for us. As the day of our arrival was unctTt^n, 
the arrangements were not completed, and tho house wu 
entirely empty when we entered it. In about ton minutes, 
however, chairs and tables — brought, I believe, from the 
house of a friend — made their apgicarancc, tiio rooms were 
promptly furnished, and ptesently a.<isumed a very cosey and 
comfortable look, notwithstiutdiug their brick floors and bare 
walls. Wc have some pleasant neighlwrs in a family living 
almost next door to us, old and iutimuto fr![;nds of Major 
Coutinho, who receive us for his sake as if wo also had 
a claim on tlicir nflbction. Hero wo rest from our waodor- 
lags, for a week at least, until the steamer sails for Taba^ 



^m S^aAtT 9/A. — Wa haro passed sucli qiiict i]tiy£ liero, m 

^1 br aa any rariotj of incidoiit is ooDcorntx}, that ihere U little 

^M to rtxxtrd. Work has gone on as usual ; the whole colleo- 

^B tion of fislicfi, made since we left Pnr&, has been so n»- 

^^ pncked as to leave it in readiness to be sliipfied for tlint port. 

1>tir companions have rejoined us on their return from ihe 

Tapajoz, bringing with them con&iderahle cnlleclionH from 

^B .hat river also. Tliey se«in to have enjoyed their excursion 

^^ greatly, and describe the river as scarcely inferior to ihe 

Amoions itself in breadth and grandeur, having wide Hand- 

beachca where the waves roll in, when the wind is high. 

I almost as upon a sea-sliore. Mr. Agassis has done nothing 
ill tlie way of collecting here, with the exception nri>«curiiig 
such lishes as are to be had in the immediate neighboriiood ; 
he rcsorves his voyage on ttie Rio Negro for onr return. 
And, by the way, we are met hero by another practical 
evidence of the good-will of tlie Hraziliau government 
On leaving Rio, llio Kmpcror had oObred Mr. Agti^MZ the 
use of a smull goreriimcnt steamer to make explorations 
oti tho Negro ind Mudeira rivers. On our nrrival at Vark 
|h« was told that the xtA.-auier had been fonnd to bo so much 
out of rvpuir that she was considered unsafo. Under these 
drcumstanccs, lie supposed that wo should he obliged to 
resort to the small bouts gencnilly used. But to-day an 
official communication informs him that, iu> the I'iraja is 
fennd not to be serviceable, another steamer will bu fur- 
nished, which will muet us at Slanaos on our rotuni from 
the Upper Amazons. The following letter, acknowledging 
tills favor, to tho President of Parfi, through whom it was 
received, contains some account of the scientific results thus 
&r, and may not bo uninterostiug. 



1IAII4M, t Scfitombn, IW. 
J SvK &xdtet«e M. Coulo de MaytJhaet, Priiidtmi dtt Para. 

Mom CHEB Monsieiik: — Je tous rcmcrcie iogniment 
rsimutile Icttre que vous avez eu la bonUS de m'^crire 
semaine deniidre ot je m'empresse do vous (aire part des 
suocda extraord in aires qui contiiiuent ii couronner nos tf- 
forts. n e»t certain dds-fk-prt^sent que le iiombrf! dos pwnow 
qui peiipleiit rAniiuiouc excAde de beaucoiip tout oe qi 
Ton avait imaging ju»qii'ici ot quo lour distribution 
tr^s limit^o en totality, l>icu qu'il y ail un petit nombrs'' 
d'e^i^ces qui nou^ suivcnt dcpuis Purii ct d'autrcs pour 
niio ^tcndiio pluH ou moins cousid^rablc. Vous tous rap- 
pcluz pcut-utro qu'eti fuisaut allusiun jt mcs csp^raacee ja 
vous dis un jour que jo croyaiH fc U possibility de trouvcr 
deux cout ciuquante & trois coats espdoes do poissons daus 
tout lo baasin do rAmaxnue ; et bieii aujourd'bui, m&taa 
ai-ant d'avoir franclii lo tiers du oours principal dii 
Heuve, ot remont^ parci par 1^ seulenient quelques lieiicSj 
au del& do scs bords j'oii ai d^j& obtenu plus do trota 
eents. G'est inoui; eurtout ai I'ou oonsid^re que la 
iiombre total conuu des natural i^tOK no va {>as an Llor 
dc CO quo j'ai A^\ rccueilli. Cc re:<iiliat lausso i\ point 
eulrevoir vo qu'on dtScouvrira un jour lon^qu'oii cxplorcrft^ 
avcc le m£mo soin tous los afHuentJi du grand fleuve. 
Go soralt une entrepriso digno do vous dc fairo explorer 
I'Araguay dans tout son cours pour nous ai^roadre oom-^ 
bieii d'assemblages diflercnts d'espdcos distinctes so niiJ| 
contrent sucoossivomcnC depuis see sources jusqu'i sa 
jonction avec to 1V.aiitiii!> et phis bas jusqu'& rAmazono 
Vous avei d^ji une sort© do propri<!t^ sciontifique sar oe 
fleuve & laquclle tous njouterici de nouveaux droits eoj 
fournissant i la sciouce oos renseiguemeiils. 



!*emtettoz moi do tods exprinior toutc ma grntitiiHe pour 
rintfirft que Tous i>reiic2 !i inoii jciiiie compognoii d« voyi^. 
'M. Ward lo m^ritc ^galcmcnt por sa ^raii<Ic jouncn«, son 
^ coarage ct son d^voii«mcnt ft la science. M. E|)amiiioiid»s 
Tient do me Taire part dc to« gSn<!reiisc8 iiilciiUons h mon 
fgard et de me dire que von* vous propvjcz d'expMier iin 
[yapenr ik Manaos poor prendi-o In place du Piraja ot raciItt«T 
Dotro exploration du Rio Negro ct du Rio Madeira. Jo no 
Eais trop comment tous rcmorcior pour une pareille Tavcar ; 
tout CO que jo puis vous dire dib-^pr^tient o'c5t que oetto 
fareur me permcttra do laire una exploration de ces fleuros 
qui me serait impossible sans ccla. Et » to r^snltat do ces 
recliei-ches est aussi favorable que je I'atteuds, I'lionnenr 
en reviendra avaiit tout fl la libaralit£ du gourernemont 

■ Bnfsilien. EntrunJ par los rosultnts que j'ai obtenus 
JHsqu'ici, je pcnso quo si los circoii>^taiices nous sont fovo- 
rabtes en arrivant h Tabatinga, nous forons une pousslSe 
jusquo dauB la partio inWrioure du Pt^rou* tuodis que mos 

■ compagnons explorcroiit Ics (ieuvcsii)tcrm<!diairoxentre cetto 
Title et Tefle ; vn torta qui; nous nc serous proWblumcut 
pas de retour ii Manuos avaut In fin du mois d'Octobro. 

Agriez, mon clier Monsieur, ratsuraiicc dc ma liautc con- 
sideratioQ et de mon parfait d^voueiucnt. 

li. AOABSIZ-t 

* At n'.l be (Min h*i««ner. want of Mm* mil iho cncnMilnit chaneltf of 
iit work in [be Anuuuiu, coinpullod Mr. A|pmU to rwiiounco ili« Joumoj Into 
Ftta, w aba tho aKvnl of the river Ihilciru. 

t Te Wu Fiaiir,^ Jf. Canto dt Magalhah. PmiJml of Para. 

Mr i>K*H Sir: — I thitnlt von umrHy for iho kinil Uiicr toq weroto good 
m Wwrilo ma iMt vrrk, ami I liniicn ■□ Inlbrni you of tlic t)ilnordinni7 
_ lahich C0T1UIIIIM lo crown our cir.>rD- It It «crniin IVom ih» tmc fbnh, 
tllttBnmlRr of li>i)JVt inliubiun]; Ihc Amnion* DPc-itlj Meccdl oU thitt ha« 
Fhiltirtto b««n iii»|;iiial, lOil ihiii their ilimrlliutloPii very llmlcfd on tltcwhole. 



Tbeie is litlle lo be mucI ot tlic town or Haotos. Itoon- 
sists or a small collection of houses, liair of wtilcli seera] 
going to decay, and indeed one onn Imrdly lic-lp smiling 
at the tumbledown edifices, digjiified by the name of pub- 
lic buildinga, the treasury, the legislative lull, tlie post- 


thoni[hu )m>ll nuni^(>(or*|iecio» liKvn followvil ua tioce «o IcdPui andolheit 
fatTo ■ tnnp) niciro or kw» mnnisivc. Von roiattinber,)>«rhkpt, (hut, when iit< 
1u<lin];io my liopM, I luld jrou onoduv itint t brli«vrd iu the ponihilil; of And- 
iii(;rrom twu hiimlral anit tlAj u) thn» huriilrwl BpR-fm of fiih in di« wbgle bmui 
of tliD Amaioni: rrvn nuw, lmrin~ pamd ovar Im than ono ihiri of the main 
Mrmra. and onl/ Jivtr^wl Ktro und iherc » tonus point* bcj-ond iu ihorvt. I 
boTc olrt-iid/ obtained iDoro ilian throe hundred. It ii Incredible, mhoic all. If 
ona coniidcn thnt the lotnl number known to naiarnliiu dors not rcnch ono 
third of wlinl I have altvnity cnllcctod. Thl* lT*ult u'arcclv allom one to Tons- 
tia thn diicofci'lo* lo Im initdo whenever llic nlllucnl* iit tlic (rut river am 
cxi'lnivd wii.h Um Mtiaa mra. An nxjiloiiiiion (if ilie Arafunv for Ilk vhtila 
rourtv, IT) ordiT to UMcb »* liow nmny dlTi'ifAT roinliiiintirinj^ of ilibttnct fl|tfcie* 
t>e('ur in tutvcwiun, from iln suunit* to il> jitni-tiiiii nitli the Torantmt Mul 
lower dovrn tilt it meola tho Ania74)n(, wonid In sn cnturpriiw worUij of rou. 
Ton tuivD ulruJ; ■ M>ri uf ■cicntiAc prupvnjt in thia rivor, lo which yoa wwld 
kdd new ri|;l)tii in fui'iiitMng idetico with ihi> infurmntiun. 

Ttu-mit mo to cxiirvu to ;ou all ilio gmtitudo I feel tor the inii-rvsi pin take 
la my young trnvFlIing companion. Mr. Ward li worth; of it, ali^ from hif 
youth, hi* coumt^. itnd liii derotion to acieneo. Mr Rpantinondoi liaf jnx 
tummunicxtud lu nio tiiiir Keiicroii* Intsntitina loivaid* royKtf. and your 
purfiuM of MUdini; n Planner u> Mnniini to luko the placs of the rimja, 
und Cicitilitle oar vxph>iiiii(>n of tho Il'O Ncci'O and iho Kin Mmleira, I do 
nut knoiT how IU ihniik yon ■.■nullah : alt ihiit I van tar is, iIihI tlir* favor 
\>U1 allo>v me tii mnko na vxploriliijn of thrae rivnr* which ivunld be otliui^ 
wi«o imiHuuible. If tlic fwull of thwe remirehua Iw a* (•vorablo m my hopRt. 
lb« hoDOr will \<e duo, in the Ant iaitanco, lo the llbvniliiy uf the Bmziliaa 
p*omnkenL Enoounq^ hy ihcruutli thus fitr obtninMl, I think thai, if tlw 
(jtcunwlanwa are fkrorable, on orrii-ins at TalioirngiL, iro niiall mak? a paali 
intu ttio lower pail of PiTii, wliiio my companions will etplon- the tirvn inicr- 
nodiaia Wtwin-n Ilii» town and Tctti ; to that we iliall prohuhly not rctom (o 
Manno* bdoRi llic end i>ri>iol>cr. 

AnvpC, my duai Hm, 1)10 imiirvnro of my hlitti r«g;ard, Ac, iic 

h. AnAMlx. 


Lire AT UJkSXOt. 


office, Uie custom-liouse, tli« Prosident's mansion, ftc. The 
^ positiou of the ciiy, liowcrcr, at ibc juQCtioii of the Rio 
^ Negro, the Amaious, and tlio 8olimoeiis, is commandint; ; 
aud, iosigiiiGcant as it looks nt present, Mauuw will no 
doubt be a great oentre of commerce aud navigution at 
E'line future lime.* 
B But wlteu we eousider tlie vast extent of laud eoverod 
Li; almost impeiiotrabli! fore»t aud tbe great practical diffi- 
cuUies ill the way of the set4lor Iierc, arising from Ilie cli- 
mate, the insecbi, the obstacles to coiiuuui)icatioii, the day 
fiecms yet far distant when a numerous popiUatiou wiUl 

I cover the banks of the Aniazoiix, wliou fiteamere will ply 
between its ports as between tJiosc of ttie Mississippi, and 
when all nations will share in the rich products of its 
Talley.f One of my greatest pleasures in Maiiaos has been 

ito walk toward the neighboring forest at nightfall, and see 
the water-carriers, Indian and negro, coming down from the 
narrow pathways with their great red earthen jars on their 
■ Some Enxllxh RmTCllcri have criildwd the potjtjon of the utwtt, and k- 
gmttd ihat il 11 B(>1 (ilkTril lower ilowii. nt Iho immcdlnic junction of thn Rio 
X«(7Q vilh iha Solimoonit. But ll* nrlunl liiuntlon li murh bcllor, on ucronnl 
of Uw mora qn'mt |>on, rnnorcd u It l> tn>m the violent cDirenia omicd bf 
ll« tDMtin^ of iho (iro riinrt. — L. A. 

t Wbon diii was wriitua tlitn «u banll; nay |inH<pfic( of the catIj opcaing 
«f ibe Amuon* to ttra frM commnrco of tlic world. Thn clrciinwUnco Ibnt 
■iniv (he ?lti of SirpKiabcr Ixt Ihii ktvhI fimli.witlcr occnn Ikii liccn mvla 
&M to tbc cofrcnntilv thipjnng of ail niilk>n* will, no doulit, immi^nMilf tocaler^ 
MO ibo damtopnieiu of civiliiatiun in Ihew iUvtort regions. No net couM [wt« 
j«MtiIfL< nwK vncfjuiv^ciill; tlio IrbtraJ policy wliich utiiata llie Bnsiliu ■ 
fownnncnt tlun this. To compIutL' il!<< gprat work, tno diin;^ an itill mi 
Ing^ — K iKtTcc high n>ai] bctnwn th? upper iribiittrin of thn Rio Mudrirm 
and Bio Vvigaaj, and the nboliiion of ihr luiisiilips gnnlcd to priTilcg«l roia> 
panto, thit I)m ooloHiI traflk of wliich ilio whole bujn I* «iucepiible ma* 
trnlj ba iLraum open to n fair competiiion. — L. A. 


bewU. Tbev make qaita m proCTB ii a ii at monuug utd 
sTtBiag; far tin lirer water is not oooadend good, and 
tiia lowB is ehieSj wi pp D ed Imn pook and litUe strcam- 
kts ID the woods. M&ojr oT these pods, Tef7 prettily 
■itiuted and embowered in trees, are used as bathing- 
ptaces ; one, wliich is quiu large and doep, U a special 
favorite ; it has been thatched orer with palm, and kas 
also a little thatdied shed adjoining, to sem as a dressing- 

Teeterday we passed an interesting momiog at a sdiool 
for Indian children a little way out of the city. We were 
astoQisIied at the aptness tliey showed for tlto arts ot civiliza- 
tion so unoongenial to our North American Indians : it re- 
minded oae that they are the successore, oa the same soil, 
of the races who founded the ancient civilisations of Peru 
and Uexico, so much beyond any social organization known 
to have oxifitod among the more northern tribes. In one 
room they were turning out very nice pieces of furniture, — 
chairs, tables, book-stands, &c., with a number of smaller 
artidoa, such as rulers and paper-knives. In another room 
they were working iu iron, in anotlter making fine fancy 
ui'ticlea of straw. Besides tliese trades, tliey are tauglit 
to read, write, and cipher, and to play on various musical 
instruments. For music tiiey ai-e said to have, like the 
negro, a iiaturul aptitude. In the main building wen 
tbo schoul-rooms, dormitories, Gtore-room», kilobcn, Ac. 
We wore tliere just at the breakfast hour, and had ilio 
satisfaction of seeing tbem sit down to a hearty moal, 
oonaistiug of » large portion of broad und butler and a 
gencrouB bowl of cotVec. I could not help contrasting the 
expression of tliose boys, when Uiey were all collected, 
with that of a number of negro children assembled to- 



!:tli«.- ; Uie latter always so jolly aotl coivlese, tlie former 
tliy, serious, almost sombre. Tliey 1w>kc(l, however, vcij . 
[ititvlligcot, and wc wcro tolit Uiat ttiose of pure Indian 
fdcBCCtit wcro more so Uian tlio lialf-broeds. Tlie school 
is supportetl bj llic provinco, but tlio fund ia sm&ll, and 
Uie number of pupils l» very limitod. Our pleasure iii 
tliis ecbool was Mtmcwhat marred by hearing that, lliough 
it puiports to be un orphan asylum, children who havo 
parents loath to part with tlivm are eomoUnios taken by 
force from tho wild Indian tribes to be educated hero. 
The appearance of a dark cell, barred up like the cell 
of a wild animal, which was used as a prison for refrac- 
tory scholars, rather confirmed this impression. Whenever 
I have made inquiries about these reports, I have been 
an&wered, tliat, if such ca-^cs occur, >t is only whcro chiU 
dreii are taken from an utterly savage and degraded con- 
dition, and that it is butter they should be civilized by 
main force than not civilized at all. It may be doubted, 
however, whether any providence but llio providence of 
God is so wise and so loving that it may safely exercise a 
compulsory charity. Speaking of tho education of tlio 
Indians reminds mo that wo have been fortunate enough 
to meet a French i>adre here who has furnished Mr. Agassiz 
with a package of simple elementary Portugucso books, 
which be has already sent to our literary Indian friend, 
Joej Maia. Thia kind priest offers also to take tho boy, 
for whom Maia was so anxious to secure an education, 
iubj tlie seminary of which he is director, and where be 
rec«itres charity M:holars. 

S^t^mber l-th. — On r^unday wo loft Manaos in the steam- 
er for Tabatinga, and are again on our way up the river. 
I iiuert Itere a letter which gives a sort of rf»um4 of tlio 
a ■ 


imm 1 

Bcieutific work up to tliis luooieiit, and shows aUo Iww 
ooustantly we were atteixied b^ tlie good-will of tluj «m- 
ftoffi't on tbe Amazouian line of steamers, aiid that of 
their excellent dii'ector, Mr. I'iiueuU Bueno. 

Uujuw, B Svptembra, IMC 
Serihor Pimenta Bueno. 

MoN cuKit A«i : — Vous serex probablGinent surpris ds' 

lecevoir seulemenl quelques lignos do moi aprfa le tcmpa 

qui s'est ^cotil^ depuis ma demi^re lettre. Le iait est que 

depuis Objdns je stiis alld do surprise en surprise et que j'ai 

k peine en Ic tomjra de prendre soiu des collectioits qtie 

HQiis avons faites, saus pouvoir les ^tudier convonableraeiiC. 

C'est ainai quo pendant le somaino que nous arons posx^' 

dans li!9 eimroiis de Villa Bella, an Lago Jos^ As^ et 

I^ago Maximo, nous avons rocueilli ceot quatre-^ingU espik»» 

do poissons dont les denx tiers au moins sont nouvelles et 

ce.ux de mes compagnons qui sont resti^s & Saiitarem et dans 

le TapajoK en ont rapport^ une cinquautainc, ce qui fait d^h 

bien au dol^ de trois cents cspdccs ci] comptant celles do 

I'orto do Moz, do Ourupi, de Tajapurd et do Monte AUgro. 

Vous Toyez qu'avant ni^mo d'avoir pan:ouru le tiers du 

cours de I'Amasonc, le nombre des poissons est plus du triple 

de celui de toutcs les espdces counuos jusqu'i ce jour, et JQ 

commeDco & m'apercoToir quo nous ne ferons qu'effleurer 

la Eurfnce du centre de ce grand bassin. Que sera-oe lors> 

qu'ou pourra <;tudier & loi^ir et dans I'dpoque la plus fii' 

vorabtc tou» s&s adluents. Aussi je preuds dds-^-pr^nt U.| 

resolution de faire do plus nombrcuses stations dans la 

tie Mip^ricure du fleuve et de prolonger mon s^jour austli 

long-temps que mcs forces me le perniottront, Ne croyc* 

pas copondant que j'oubltc h. qui jc dois un pareil succte, 

CttA Touf qui m'avoz luis sur la voie eu me faiituit 





o«>niiKitre les r(^!i!«uroes de la (3ret et micux oncorv en 
me founiissant I03 mo^etis d'on tirer parti. Mcrct, mtllo 
toig, mcrci. Je dois aiissi tenir grand compto do Vm- 
(isUuice quo m'onl roiirnie l<*!t agoiits do la compagiiie 
8ur loii« les poiiitM oh nous nvous touclu!. N'olre aiinitldo 
comniaiKJiaiit s'fi^l %aleaieiit <!verlu£, et pendant que: j'cx- 
ploraU les Inos dos eiiTiroiis de Villa Bella il a fait liti- 
tuj-mo une trvs belle collection daiis I'Amasone inJmo, 
oil il a rcciicilli de iiombreuscs pctit&n espies quo los 
pccliours negligent toujour!. A rarrir^e du Uolein, j'ai 
ro;u TQtro oimablc Icttro et mio partio de I'nlcohot que 
j'avais dciiuuid<; & M. Bond. Je lui ^cris ai^nurd'hui 
pourqu'il m'cn cnvoic encore une purlie ilTelT^ et plus tard 
davautagc X Manaos. Jo tous rcmereie pour le oataluguQ 
des poissous du Paril ; jo vous lo rcstitucrai ^ iiotrc retouFf 
aTCC les additions que jo fcrai pondaut le rCsto du TO>agc 
Adieu, moil clivr ami. 

Tout & TOUS, 

L. AoAssiz.* 

* Sanhv PimmTa &tna. 

Ht deaii Fhjkxd: — Yon will prohablf be raipKNd to recciro ontj m 
Ibw Bn«« btm me after Iho rimo which hai clnpird dnco rojr but leiHr. 
Tte trnth ii. itial, ilnrc Ohxlo*, I linn pMHiI drain cuqiritM 10 lurpriw, 
■nil ihnt I barn urarvnly hnil limn (■> isko cnro at iho collccliona wc hiire 
Mide, wtlhoul liciiii; «liJo lu Uudif ilu'in pTOjH'dj. Tbu*, daring tbo week 
m (pmt in itio (uvituii* of Villn Bullu. at Loi;*> lot£ AmiI nnd Laen MaxIiiio, 
WB hnva coUrrli^il onu himdred and eight; ipecira of liklim, two thlnbofwhii-li, 
M teMl.aM now, wliilc thoae of dit oimpnnLQDii who tcmiiinnl nt Ssnlnifin hiiiI 
«pon ilw Tkp^K ham braught buck tomo AIW mora, inaking ala-nd^ more 
Ibu thiw hundred qiedt*. Including ihon oT Porto do Mot, of Gunipii. of 
njipunl, and ofM«nw Al^re. Ton wc Ihil bdbni haTing nKonilFil ih» 
AnMUon* Tor one tltiid of ttt rnurap, ilin nrimhcr of Ibihrii b mtiro thin trlpl* 
that of all Ibe tpccic< kooirn lliii* far, anj I bcf^a 10 porraitc ihnt wc alinll not 
do mom llian ffcin otvt iho hitUch uf thu trtun of ihl* crcnt bMin. Wliai 
«UI kbt wbcn ilbKomca pouibls toaindf nil iu aflliiont* at Icisuru uud in ili« 


Altlioiigh no lougcr on board an iudiipcndeiit Kl«:.imer, w« 
am still the guests of tlie company, having goverumeut 
paseagos Nothing can be more comfortahle than iho 
traTelling; oii llieee Aniatoiiiaii boats. They tav clean 
aud welt kept, with good-uzed ntate-rooms, which most 
persons u»e, howercr, only as dressing-rooms, since it is 
always more ngrecahlo to sleep oti tiie open deck in oiie*8 
hammock. The l^blc is Tcry well kept, the fare good, 
tiioiigli not raricd. Bread is ilic greatest ddiciency, but 
bard biscuit makes a toIcraUo subslitulo. Our life is alW 
this fasliion. Wo turn out of our hummocks ut dawu, go 
down eljiir? to m^iko our toileu, and have a cup of hot 
coffee bolow. By tliis time the decks are generally washed 
and dried, tlio hammocks removed, and wo con go abovo 
again. Botwoeit then and the breakfast hour, at lialf 
past ten o'clock, I gonerally study I'ortngueno, though 
my lessons are somewhat inturnipted by watching tho 

nKMi fanmlile aniuon ! 1 liavo ivnolrt'il to n)>k# more nuiDurous tutiona ia iIn 
npiwr jiu't lit iho rivt>r nad lo nay m laug no m/ slri'tiglh hdiI oiwiu wiH 
alluw. Ui> uui tliink. huwBVtr, that 1 forget U> whom 1 im inch a (odccw. 
It U fon wtio hava pot tiw on xlia poih, b; making luioim to me the RMurcc* 
ef tb« Smn, and, bclnr >illl, b; fumliiliinii: mc wiih tlic vwoiii lo iiroltt bf 
Ihcin. Thanliji. s iliononnil ii<nc«, ifaaiilui. I ou^hl alw lo ncltnoirI«<]^ ih* 
mllfaw aflbnlvr] ion by tliu a^citiita uf tlm (.'omi'uii.v. at lU ifae poinla wImr 
«• luit« touched. Our aniuible c(]niinnnili.'r liiu oliu uxurti'd hiutMlf, md 
whQc I oxplDnd [he Uk«« in ih« ooiehbaihooil of Villa Bella, Iw nada ■ 
Tciy flna rolirrilnn in tho Amauinii, ctp"^"".' "^ ''" nnmcmiii nnnU *pc«lM 
alwnjTH oidrlookct by ntli(irnion. On llin nrriml of ihit Dvlcm I ratvixd 
^oiir kinil lutivr aoil ■ p«n of llm alcohul I bad atkvd lh>in Mr. Bond. 1 
am wriiing unlaj' lo aik him tu lonil ma a part to TkBV, as<l, H>[iio<rhal 
Lkt«r, more lo Munaot. Thank you for iho caulo^pio of pAni Gahw ; I >1iiiU 
ip<« h bock on our reium, with the adiliilaiu 1 ihAll miiko dnriiiK the i» 
mninder of tba Tojago. Ailiea, mj ilcar fi^nnd. 

Kver yoiM, 

L. AwAaau. 

and llifi trees, a coiislJint temptation vbon ve are 
ooastuig along ue^r tlio baiik». At tiair past ten or eleveu 
o'clock breakfast is served, and aft«r lUat lIio glare of t])« 
8UU becomes trying, and I usually descend to tlie cobtii, 
wlicre wo make up onr journals, and wriio during tlm 
middle of the day. At three o'clock I consider tiiut tlio 
working hours arc over, and tliou I take a book and sit 
in m; lounging-cliair on dock, and watcli the wenerj, and 
ihe birds and tlio turtles, and tlio alligators if there aro 
any, and am lazy in a general say. At live o'clock dinner 
is sorred, (tlw meals being always on deck,) and after that 
begins the delight of the day. At that hour it grows dc- 
Uciously coot, llio sunsets are always boantiful, and we go 
to ttio forward deck and sit thure till nine o'clock in the 
evening. Tlien oomos tea, siid then to otu* hammocks ; I 
sleep ill mine most profoundly till morning. 

To^ay we stopjicd at a small elation on tliu north side »f 
the river called Barrcirudui' ('tu]<ija». Tlii; few houses stand 
on a bank of red drift, sltghlly itrutifiud in some parts, sjid 
affording a support for thu rivcr<tuud, shored up ngainst it. 
Since then, in our progrcse, we have seen the same forma- 
tion iu feCTcral localities. 
B StfUnAer IZth. — This morning tlio steamer dropped 
•ncJior at the little town of Coari on the Coari River, — 
one of the rivers of black water. We were detained at 
Ihbis plaoo for some hours, taking in wood ; so slow a process 
bore, that an American, accustomed to the rapid methods of 
work at liome, looks on in incredulous a!<tonisbment. A 
crazy old canoe, with its load of wood, creeps out from tho 
chore, tlie slowness of its advance accounted for by the fact 
tliat of ibi two rowers one has a broken paddle, tlto otlier a 
long slick, to serve as a[iologie3 for oant. When the luiat 



reaches tlie side of the steamer, a line of men is formed 
some eight or ten in number, and the wood is passed 
from hand to hand, log by log, each log counted as it 
arrircs. Mr. Agassiz timed them this momini;, and found 
tlmt tticj- avcrapcd about seven logs a minutfi. Under 
tliOKO circumstances, one can understand tJiat stopping tc 
wood is a, long affiiir. Since wo IcH Co«ri we have Iwea 
rousting along close to llic land, the contmcntal shoiO, 
and uol that of an island. The isl»nds arc so largo and 
numcroiut in the Amazons, tliat often when we bcltcvc oiir- 
«elves between the northern and southern margins of tlio 
river, we are in fact between island shores. Wo have fol* 
lowed the drill nimost oonstantlj to-dn;, — the same rod 
drift with whtoh we haTo booome so familiar in South 
America. Sometimes it rises in cliffs and banks above 
the mud deposit, sometimes it crops out throngh t)ie mud, 
occasionally mingling with it and partially stmlilied, and in 
one locaUty it overlaid a gray rock in place, the nature of 
which Mr. Agas-sie could not determine, but which wm 
distinctly stratified and slightly tilted. The drift is cer- 
tainly more conspicuous as we ascend tlie river; ia thta 
because we approach its source, or because the nature 
of the TCgetation allows us to see more of tlie soil ? 
Since wo left Mannos the forest has been less luxuriant; 
it is lower on the Solimoens than on the Amazons, more 
ragged and more open. The palms are also less numerous 
than tiithorto, but there is a tree here wliich rivals them ia 
dignity. Its flat dome, rounded but not conical, towen 
above the forest, and, when seen from a distance, has an 
almost nrch)t«ctural character, so regular is its form. Tim 
jiajestie tree, called the Sumaumeira (Kriodendron So* 
mauma), is one of the few trees in tliis rlimat? which shed 



^B thur loares pcriodicaUy, atid dow it lifts ita broad rounded 

^P fiummit abore tlie gtx:en mass ol regeution arouud it, quito 

bare of foliage. Symmetrical as it is, tiie braitcltes are 

I greatly ramilied and Tory knotty. The bark is wbito. It 
would Gccm that the EeofOii ajiproaclics when the ^^llnlilllmei■ 
ras should take ou tlieir greuii garb agsiii, for a few ai^e 
already befpuuiog to put out young leaves. Beside this 
giuiit of the forcjit, tlio Imbaubu (Cccropia), much lower 
bcrc, however, lliuu iu Southum Brazil, and tlic Tosi, 
with its white flowers and brown buds, ore very coiispiuii- 
^ft Otis along tlie hunks. Closo tipon the shore the arrow- 
^^ grass, some five or six feet in height, grows in quantity ; 
it is cullud *' frexas " here, being used by the IndiAiis to 
make t]i«ir arrov*. 

I.SepUmitr 14rt, — For tlic last day or two tiie slwre has 
beeii higher than we have Mion it »iiice leaving Manaos. 
Wo constantly pans cliffs of i-ed drift with a shallow beaull 
of tnud deposit resting against litem ; not in frequently a 
gray rock, somewhat like clay ^lale, crops out below tho 
drift; this rock is very distinctly stratilied, tilting somo 
limes to the west, wmetimes to the east, always uncoii* 
formable with the overlying drift." The color of the drift 
iges occasionally, being sometimes nearly whitd in this 
fiborhood instead of red. We are coming now to that 
|>art of the Amaxons where tlie wide sand-beaches occur, 
the breeding-places of the turtlat and alligators. It is not 
yet quite the seasoi for gathering the turtle-eggs, makiug 
the t>ir tie-butter, &c, but wo frequently see tlio Indian 


#'Id ^e oonrtc of ih« fnTMdciIion, I fiaro aMenrincd ibal tfab ilMf rock, 
■ nil H iho tiiud umditono huh nlong Ihc livcr-bank* u Mumw, fbtmi part 
of the (n&t dtlfl fdcnintion of ibo AmiRoiii. and ilial thcra li naitlior Old mt 
DdniH) nor Diu, hatv, lu older ebwrrcr* wppoMd. — L. A. 


buts on tlio beaches, aiid llieir stakes sot up for spreadini 
and drying fish, wliich is one of the great articles of 
cotnniei'Cfi liere. This luorniug we have passed several 
hours olT the town ol' Kga, or Tcflu as the Braalians 
call it. It takes its iiamo from the river TelTd, but Uie 
town itself stands on a small lake, formed by the river 
j ist before it joins the Amazons. The entrance to the 
lake, which is brokoii by a nuaibcr of little channels or 
igarapi^, and tlie approach to the town, ar» exceedingly 
pretty. The town itself, witli a wide beach in front, stand- 
ing on the slope of a groon hill, where sheep and cattle, 
a rare sight in this region, are grazing, looks very inviting. 
Wo exanuned it witli interest, for some of the party at 
least will return to this station for the purpose of making 

Seplfinbo' loth. ~~ For the last two or three days we have 
been holding frequent discnssions as to the best dispo 
sition of onr-forces af\er reaching Tabatinga; — a wui'CQ 
of great anxiety to Mr. .\gassi]!, the time we have to 
spend being so short, and tlie subjecla of invcstignttuti 
80 various and »o impurlant. Sliould lie give up tliu 
idea of continuing, in person, liLt study of the li>hes in 
the upper Amazons, leaving only some parties to make 
collections, and going himself Jnlo Peru, to visit at least 
the first spur of tlie Andes, with the purpose of asoer> 
tnining wbcther any vestiges of glaciers are to be found 
in tlie valleys, and also of making n collection of fishes 
from tlie mountain streams ; or should ho renounce Uio 
journey into Peru for the present, and, makuig u station 
BOiuewIicro ui lliis region for the next mouth or two, com* 
plcte, as far as may bo, bis iuvesligatiun of the distribution 
aud development of fishes iu the Solimocns ? Hod the 



lesnU of tbe PeruTiau journejr been more certaia, tlie 
liocisioii would hare beou easier ; but it is more tlian 
likelf tliat tlie torrential rains of this latitude have de* 
composed tlie Rurface and swept away nil trac«ti of glaciers, 
if tlicy ever exintcd al w low a level. To go on, tborcfore, 
seemed a little like giving iip a oertaiii for an uncertain 
result. Earnestly desirous of making the 1>e«t use of bis 
time tuid opimrtunitiea here, tliis doultt Iia» dislurl>cd Mr. 
Agossiz's waking and ilocping thoughts for several days 
post. Ye*t«rday morning, at Tcflif, a most unexpected 
adviser appeared in tbe midst of our council of war. 
InaiguiCcaiit in size, this individual, nevertbcless, brought 
great weight to tbe decision. Tlie intruder was a smull 
Bsh vitli his mouth full of young ones. Tbe practical 
plea was irriisi^liblu, — embryology carried llic day. A 
chance of investigating so cutxaordinury a process of de- 
velopment, not only in this species but in several oUiers 
eaid to rear tlicir young in tlio same fashion, was not to 
bo thrown away ; and, bi-sidus, tliere was the prospect of 
making a collection and a scries of colored drawings, from 
tliB life, of tlic immense variety of fishes in tlie rivor and 
lake of TcfTi!, and perhaps of studying tlio embryology of 
tlic turtles and allifnitors in tlicir breeding season. Mr. 
Agassis, therefore, decides to rcluni to TcfT^ wilb liis 
tr^st and two or three otlicr assistants, and to make a 
station tliore for a month at least, Ivaving Mr. Bourgot, 
witli out Indian fisherman, at Tubatinga to collect tn that 
.region, and sending Mr. James and Mr. Talisman to tbe 
river Putumayo, or I^a, and afterwards to the Hyulahy 
for the same purpose- This dispersion of parlies to col- 
lect simultancou!ilv in diiferi^nt areas, divided from cacb 
other by considerable distances, will sliow bow tbe Gibes 


90S A JOCCXET ut Buza. 

sre diftributed, and vtietfaer their combinfttiaiis difler iii 
thcM localities ss 1IM7 hare been foimd to do in Uie 
Lover Ainatoiu. 

I insert bere a teller to the Emperor ou the sabjeot of 
ibis curioiu (tsh, which liappeood to be one which Mr. 
had former]; dedicated to him. 

SoB: — En arriraot id ce matin j'si eu la sorprise la 
plus agr^able ct la plus inattondue. Le premier poissoo 
qui me fiit apport^ £tait I'Acara que rotro Majesti a bieu 
Toulu me periuettre da lui d^dicr et par nn bonheur inoui 
c'^tait r^poque de la ponte et il arait la boucbe pleiiie de 
pclit» vivaiitJt, eit Toie de d^veloppement. Voil& done le 
fait le pltis iiicroyable eu embryologie pleiuemciit con- 
firm^, et il ne me reste plus qu'4 ^tudtcr cu detail ct & 
k)bir tons les changements que &ubi!«sciit oes petjts jiui- 
qu'au iDoiueiit ou iU quittent leur stiigiilier nid, afin que 
je puisse pablier un rG«it oomplet de celte »ugnli£re 
histoire. Met pr^vifions sur la di»tnbutiou des poismii* 
»e oonfiriDeDt; le fleuve est habit6 par plu»iciira faunc* 
icbtiijologiques trO« distinctes, qui u'oiit pour lien coi»> 
man qu'un tr£s petit nombrc d'cspclces qu'ou rencontre 
partout. n rcste maintcnant ^ pr6cixcr Ics limites do 
oes r^ous iclilbjolof^qucs et pout-6tro mo Uieeenije 
entimiocr 3b couracrcr quclque tcmpe iV ccttc i!tudc, si je 
trOQTe lc« mojroiis d'y parTcuir. Ufa msiiitenajit uiio 
quesUoD qui dcvjeot fort int^ressante, c'est da saToir 
ju8qu'% quel point le raSme pti^uomdno se reprodiiit dans 
diacun des grands affluouts du Rio Amazonas, ou en 
d'autres term^ si les poi^sons des regions sup^rieures du 
Rio Madeira ot du Rio Negro, etc., etc., eout les mfioMtt 



i|ue ocuz du corn's infilrieur da ces fleuvos. Q-jaiit ^ la 
diversity mSmc dis poissaas du bassin tout cutier mes 
prtfvUious soDt d« beaucoup ddpu&si^. Avant d'arrivcr 
& Uuiaos j'avais d^Sji recueilli plus do trois cents espSces, 
c. >k. d. 1q triple dos espfccs coiumes jum^u'^ ce jour au 
nuHns. La moiti^ environ out pu Giro peintes sur le vivaiit 
par M. Burkhardt ; cii60rt« qus hi je puis parvenir it. publier 
tous 063 documents, les ronacigncmeiiUi qtie jn poiirrai foii^ 
uir stir ce siijot d^passoront do buauuoup tout ce que Ton 
a public jusqii'i^ ce jour. 

Je serais bicii lieureuz d'apprendre que Voire Majesti! 
a'a pas rvncontr^ de difficult<!s daus sou Toya<^a ct qu'Ello 
a attoint plciiiviuout )o but qu'Ello se propoiiait. Nous 
commcs ici siuis uourellcs du Sud, dopuis quo uous avous 
qnitt4 Rio, ot tout oe que nous avions appris alors ^lait 
qu'apr^ uiio travorsi^Q ossez oragouso votro llajost^S avait 
Itteint lo Rio Grande. Quo Dieu protege fit b^nis&o votro 
Uo|jest^! Avcc les scntiinonts du plus prafond respect et 
dc U veconnuissanco la plus vire, 

Jo GUIS de voLro Majcst^S 

lo tri!s humblo ct tr&s oboissaut scrvitcur, 

L. AdAssiz." 

• Tlrr^ 14 ScpMnUr. IM6. 
Bnu : — On MriTins licrc thii TnoniIn{ 1 had ilic most ngn^ttblc nnd uuetL- 
INCUd tnrprisc. The lint llih Umiijfhl la i»c wu ihc Ai-am. whirli VQiir 
Majonj kindlf jip-rmliicil mc to ilfdionte to jou, noil hy an UTilook«l-for 
Saod liiruinc it whu Ihn brvcilin)- buuhi", Hitd it liod lu mouih full ot Iililo 
jaiiiig onu ill ilii) pnx'ow a( ilcvclupiui'ul. Ucrv, th«n, i* ilic mohl ln(?ni]il>|e 
i»et in cnilir}(:li);;y fullj I'vuriniii^l, anil it roiiiuiiu fur nic ont/ in (iihIt, 
In dctitil unil at li'ianrr, >I1 the clinngca wliich Iho j'oun)' ondorgu up to th* 
inoniciit wlran t)i*j ttnTo thoir singular nv*i, in onlcr Ihiil I ai*y puldich 
• cvnipicu nnoiinc of Uiin curitnu lititory. M; DniicipDiiona lu to ili« 
diiiribation erf fiiliiu ore coti&miiBd ; tho tlrcr u inhabited by jcrerol rciy 
distinct idtth;?logicK] fiuua, wUeb b«Tc, m s rtsunon link, onljr « nrj 


The character of the banks yesterday and ttwlay oouUikUoi 
unchanged ; they arc ratlier high, risitig uow and thou in 
blutTs and prcsenling the same mixtiiro of reddish drift and 
mud deposit, with the gray, *hity rock below, cropping out 
occasionally. This morning wc arc stopping to wood at a 
BtaUoii opposite tlic village of FoulcBSa. Ilerc Mr. Agasitiz 
has had an opporlunily of going on sliore and cxaminhig this 
formation. He finds a thick bed of fciniginous sandstone 
underlying a number of thinner beds of mud clay, resem- 
bling old clay slate with cleavage. Tliete bod^ are overlaid 
by a bank of ochre-colorod sandy clay (defigitaled as drift 
above}, n'ith Imrdly any signs of strati licatiun. Yesterday 
we passed so^'oral lakes, shut out from the lircr by mud* 

■mull nnnibcr of ipviicii lu Ui met witli tTerywIirn:. It rcmnini dow w •■- 
<snnin wiih (irtKJsiun tin limin of iIivmi iclilliycilii^iinl rccioiin. toA I mnj' 
pcrlifipi be UmwD un to dciTHc suinv liinu lo il'in stii-ly. ir 1 fiiiil iho mooiu 
«r BftroRiplUiiiiii; it. Tlii'ro u ■ <]iipaiitin wlik'h now li'iTjinoi tiny iimn«l> 
in; ; It I* lo know hon fni tUc iitnic phciiDmcnon is rcproJucnl in each one o( 
til* £">■■ iffliicnu of ihc ilicr Amnioni, or, in otlicr wdixIi, wlwilicr ibc ti*htt 
of tb« npintr rofponi of iho Rio Jlndclta, ihe Itio Nccro, &e,, &c, %n tlin huu* 
u tbuM of Ibn lower ci/ana of lUuMt riiccf . Ai to the dlvcnity of flibu in 
tl.o wlwlu buniii, [iiycxjiorlitEiuRittiv fur turjiumitil, UofurvkrHiiRgatHuim* 
1 hnJ nlrmily collcclcil nion! tlinn tlinx liiiniln'J tpuriot. thul il to mj, bI [mH 
three times lUc numlfcrof sppcica lliua far known. About hnJf liitTn beoii piilil- 
cil fiom life Iiy Mr Burkliardc : if I cnn itiMwiI in imblishing all ilimo docu- 
Diciii*. tnu iiilVii'iiiixilon [ almtl bv iililc to fiiniiih on ilii» tubjcct will excocJ all 
that liu> bvcu thu* far made knowa. I ihould be rury gU4 Co leant Ibai jnur 
MaJcaiT liiif not mi't wiili dldiciiltla on ilic 'oyogv, and hna bcrn able flally tO 
■CCDinpIitli ilic cii<u prapouxl. We are here tritbout ne»t fhun the Soulb 
■inca we left Rio. and all uro hod Icarnol then wai, ihni afiiT a itry itonav 
pavaitc joat Majrity l>ad rcai:h«d iha Bio Oranda. Mhjt God prote« and 
bleM your Mnjoatf 1 

With aoniiiitenu of thn mutt profotuid tuaptct and llw lirdiHI gnitl- 
t«d«. I nia 

Vour M^calj'a rtrj hiusblo anil obedient urrnjit, 

L. Adamix. 

ikUOl S 



oars, and secmiagly hsunted by vaterfowl. In one ve ^w 
immouse flocks of what looked at tit&t distance eitlier 
like red Ibises or rod Bpooiibill;!, and ai»o uuiuheri of 
giilis. Our sportsmeu lookod longingly at tliom, and an 
impationl for tlie time when we shall bo settled on laud, 
and tliey can be^u to nuako havoc among the bird;). 

StpUmber ITt/i. — I^st evening wo took iu wood frcai 
the shore some miles below tliQ town of Tonautins. I sat 
watching tlie Indians on the bank, of whom there wi'ra 
BOnH} fifteen or twoutj-, men, women, and children ; the 
men loading the wood, the women and children being 
thcro apparently to look ou. 'lliey had built a fire oa 
the bank, and hung their nets or cotton tents, under which 
they sleep, on tlio trees bcliiud. They made a wild group, 
passuig to and fro in the light of tlio fire, the cai-o of which 
Goomod the special charge of a tull, gaunt, woitd-looking 
woman, who would haro mode a good Meg Merrilics. 
She seemed to have but one garment, — a. long, brown, 
stuff robe, girt round the waist; as she strode about tlio 
fire, throwing on fresli logs and stirring the dying era* 
bcrs, the flames blazed up in her face, lighting her lawny 
ekio aud long, unkempt hair, flickering over the ligurcs of 
womcu and children about her, and shoddhig a warm glow 
over the forest which undo the setting to tlio picture. This 
is the only very tall Indian woman I have scon ; usually 
the womcu arc rather short of stature- AVlicu the Indians 
Itad made their preparations for tlio night, they heaped 
damp fuel on tlie fire till it smouldered down and threw 
out thick clouds of smoke, enveloping llio slccping-tcnls, 
and no doubt driving off effcclually the clouds of mosqui- 
loee, fn»n which the natives seem as gi'cat suffurcrk- as 
Btrangei?. These upper stations on the Amazons are 


906 A JOmtNET IN BRAZtl, 

haunted by swarms of mosquitoes at night, ancl duriiis 
tho day by a little biting fly called Piuin, no lcs« annoy- 

September 18(A. — Another pause last CMmnj; at tlic vU- 
tof^e of San Paolo, standing oo • ridgo winch rises i|uito 
steeply from tlio river and tinb again into a niviuc bo- 
liind. Throughout all this region tJie bunks are eaten away 
by the river, large portions falling into the water at a titnv, 
find carrying the trees with them. Tlicse loud-slides aro 
BO frequent and so extensive as to make irarclling along 
the banks In small bouu q<jite dangerous. Tho scenery 
of the Solimocns is by no means so interesting as that of 
the Lower Amazons. Tliu banks are ragged and broken, 
the forest lower, loss luxuriant, and the palm growth very 
fitful. For a day or two past wo havo scarcely seen any 
palms. One kuid seems common, liowovcr, namely, the 
Paxiuba Burriguda — Pa-shcc-oo-ba (Iriartca vcatricoea), 
a species not unlike the Assai in dignity of port, but 
remarkable for tlio swelling of its stem ul half height, 
giving it a sort of spindle shape. Tho cut of the foliage 
Is peculiar also, each leaflet being wodge-duped. Tho 
stoamor is oftou now between the shores of the river itself 
instead of coasting along by the many lovely islands which 
make the voyage between Pari and Itlanaos so divoi-sificd ; 
what is thus gained in dimensions is lost in picturcsque&ess 
of detail. Then the element of human life ajid habitations 
is utterly wanting ; one orien travels for a day without 
meeting even so much 0.1 a hut. But if men are not to 
be seen, animals aro certainly plenty; an our stcanior puflii 
■long, great flocks of birds rise up from the shore, turtles 
pop their black noses out of the water, alligators show 
Ihemselves occosioually, and somutimcs a troop of brown 



OapiTsri »outlles up tlie bank, taking refuge in the trees 
at our ajiproach. To-uaorrow iDoniing we reach Tabatinga, 
and touch the farthest point of our journey. 

S^>temb«r 2XUh. — On Monday evening we arriTed at Tiir 
batinga, reoiaining there till Wednesday inoniing to d)»- 
chaise tlie cargo, — a loDgtby process, with the Brazilian 
method of woricing. Tabatinga is the frontier town between 
Brazil and Peru, aud is dignilied by tlie name of a uiilitai-y 
station, though wlien one toohs at the two or three sinall 
mounted guns on the bank, the niiid house behind tliein 
oonstituting barracks, vitli Imlf a dozou soldiers lounging 
in front of it, on^ i-am.ot but lliiuk that the forti^catiou is 
not a very formidable one.* The town itself standing ou a 
mud bluff, deeply rarmed and cracked in many directions, 
ooDsi&te of somo dozen rubious liousos built around an open 
square. Of the iuhabitunts I saw but little, for it was to- 
ward evening when I went uu shore, and they were already 
driTOQ under shelter by the mosquitoes. Ou« or two looked 
out from tlicir doors and gave me a friendly warnuig not to 
proceed unless I wus prepitred to be devoured, and indeed 
the buzzing swarm about mc »uun drove me back to the 

* At lllil point tlio AtniuoniMn mtvla thi^ Pcruruin (E<Mimi^r, anil llnj 
exchoBgi' earjpxt. t'oruutrlf tlui Bnuitiin cuiii|wny of Amawiiiiau iivnuicTa 
enundcd iu lino of trawl lu Lukuhb, nl tbu muutli of iho IIiialloKiL. Now 
Ihif put of lln juumuy ban puwd inio [ho lianila of ■ IVmrinn cumpanj', 
«ho«c (icoiucn run up lu UrLniaiiiuu ua ihe lliuJIaga. ^hey are, howi-vi^r, 
bf DO mwii w comfijrtabk u ihc Bruiliun Blounm, having liillo or na 
MCoiDiDodalioa for ptuscngcn. TLo upper Marnnon ia nnvi^nlilc for hitgv 
MMBMr* u fur u Jscn. ni am utia iti tribuutrlu, lUo llimlla^a atiJ 
thajmll on Ui« lonth. ibo Momnha. Pwuuui, and Nipo on iha nonb, u> 
a gttnt tUiumco nbotc llitlr janction wiih iho main clniiin. I'hcro lir 
icoHiD to bdicve thni u!l tlicM loritcr alllu<^iiu of tlie Aiatun\» will btlbn 
img hava tbeir rri^lar liiic* of iicsmi^r* liko llio j;n'jit civcr luclf. Tbt 
epoDinK of lk« Abuxuhi, ho ikiubi, will bMtuu tlii* rwult — L. A. 



fitcamcr. Tlic iao«quilocs by iiiglit and tbe Piums by day 
are eaid to rcudcr lilb almost iiitolenblo here. Under these 
cii-cum^tikiicc-s wc conM form liulc idea of the character of 
tbe vegetutioQ in our eboi't elay. But we wade tbe ac* 
quuintaiice of ouo curious pulm, tlic Tucum, a »pccics of 
Astrocaryum, the fibre of wbicb make;; an excellent tnatcrial 
for weaving hammocks, tisbiog-nctA, and tlic like. It is grad- 
ually becoming an iniportaut article of eomtnvrcc. Tlie 
approach to Tubatinga, with two or Uiroo islands iu tbe 
noigbborbood, numerous igarapds opening out of tbe rirer, 
and the Hynvitry emptying into it, i^i, however, one of tbe 
prettiest parts of tbe Solluioeiis. Wc found berc four 
members of a Spanisli scientific commission, who have 
been traTcUing seveml years in South and Central Ameri- 
ca, DJid whose truck wc Imvc ero»scd several times without 
mocliiig tliL-m. Tlioy welcomed the nrrivnl of tlie Kleamer 
with delight, liuving awaited their rclcaso «t Tabalinga for 
two or tJirco weeks. Tlic party consisted of Drs. Alma- 
gro, Spada, Martinez, and Iserii, They had just accom- 
plished an adventurous journey, having descended ilie 
Kapo 00 a raft, which their large colloclion of live aui* 
tnals had turned into a sort of Noah's ark. Aftor various 
risks and oxposurcs they bad arrived at Tahaliiigu, having 
lust almost ull their clothing, except what they wore, by 
shipwreck. Fortunately, their papers and eolWctious wore 
saved,* We arc uow on our way down the river again. 
having left Mr. Bourgtt at Tabatingn to pass a month iit 
uiiiking collections in that region, and dropped Mr. Jamca 

■ Tboe gFDtlcimvi) ili^Kvndal ilio rinrr wiih ni u far m TeSK. tad >re 
•ftcrwMib b«uil of ih«ir mft arrirol In Madrid. Tbo; bail, howsvcr, 
■uS^rcd mocii In bcalih, and Mr. Itnrn djrd toon nftci hii rDtura ta tiii umItii 

Un. AT HANA09. 


and Mr. Talismsii last eroning at San Paolo, where tliey am 
to got a cauoe and Indians for Uioir further jounicy to tlio 
I 2^ Tliia moniing, while stopping to wood at Fonte B5a, 
Mr. Agassiz vent on shore and coUiKt4>d arvrj iDlcriwtiiig 
eeries of fo>ssil [dants in the lower inud deposit ; ho wa^i aibO;] 
Tery miccessfiil iu making a small collection of fishes, ooii' 
taiiuDg several new species, during ttic few hours we passed 
at this place. 

iSeptembtr 2:tlJ,. ~Tefl%. On Fridof, tl>c daj after mj last 
date, we were within two or tlirec hours of Tc(K ; wo had 
just tiuislied packing our ntrions cflectis, and were closing 
cur letters to be mailed from Manaott, when the Ktcnnicr 
came to a sudden pause with that dead, sullen, iu^lnn• 
ta]]COUs slop which means mischief. Tlte order to rcver 
the engines was ^vcn instantly, but wc had driven with 
all our foreo into the bed of the river, and there wo 
remained, motionless. This is sometimes rather a seriont 
accident at the season when the waters are falling, steameis 
haviiig be«n occasionally stranded for a iiurabor of weeks. 
It is not easily guarded against, tho river bottom dialling 
so constantly and so suddenly that even the most experi- 
enced pilots cannot always avoid disaster. They may pa«8 
with perfect safety in their upward voyage over a place 
where, on their rctuni, they Qnd a formidable bank of mud. 
During tliroo hour* tlic crew worked ineflectually, trying to 
back tho steamer off, or sinking tlie anchor at a distance to 
drag bar bock upon it. At five o'clock in the afternooa tltc 
sky began to look black and lowering, and presently a vio- 
teut squall, witli tlmnder and rain, broke upon lis. Tho 
wind did, in an insttaiit, what man and steam together hod 
failed to do in hours. As the squall struck the steamer on 
side, alio vibrated, veered and floated free. Tliuro was 



a general Htir of delight at this sud<lou and uiioxpcclcd 
liberation, for llio delay vas serious to all. One or two 
!of tbe passengers wci-o merchants, to wliom it was impor- 
tant to meet the steamer of the 25th at Manaos, which 
connects witli otlier steamers all along tlio coast ; and ilie 
members of tho Sptinisli scientific commission, if they could 
not at once trunsfcr their cfibcts ta tlio other steamer, would 
not oiiljT miss the nest European steamer, but must bo at 
tlie expense and cure of storing their various luggage and 
maintaining their live stock at Manaos for a fortniglit. 
And la<>t]y, to Mr. Agassiz himself it was a serious di^ip- 
pointment to lose two or three days out of the precious 
Dtonth for investigations at Toflii!. nierefore, every face 
betuncd vhcii tlio liindly shock of tlic wind set us afloat 
flgain ; hut the woi'tc, so vainly spent to release ns, was 
hut too eflicient in keeping us prisoners. The anchor, 
.which had been flunk in tho mnd at some distance, was so 
[deeply buried that it was diRicult to raise it, and in tiic 
^effort to do so WG grounded again. Indeed, ciiAiroucd 
ve were by mud and sand, it was no easy matter to 
lind a channel out of thcni. We now remained motion- 
less all night, tliough the Captain was unremitting in hia 
cflbria and kept the men nt work till morning, when, at 
about seven o'clocic, tJio boat worked herself free at last, 
and wo thought our troubles fairly over. But the old prov- 
erb "There '» many a vlip 'iwixt the cap and the lip" never 
was truer ; on starting once more wo found that, in the 
strnin and shock to which the eiiip had been submitted, 
the rudder was broken. In view of this new disaster, the 
oassciigcrs for Parll gave up all hope of meeting the 
Steamer at Slauuos, and tlie rest resigned themselvoa to 
warting w*ilh such philosophy as tlicy could muster. Tlio 




whole of that day aud the following night were spent iii 
rig^ng up a new rudder, oiid it was not vutjl. eight o'clock 
on Sunday morning that we were once moro on our way, 
arrinug at TefifS at cloven o'clock. 



UF£ IS itrri. 

AiTBcrovTn'ML — SitUATton. — UiM:nimait«r Boom*. — FiHiixo Eicr*- 
M0». — AnoNiMiiica Vahckt* or Kinnia. — Acara- — Scabott or Laoo*- 


— UAIItllOCA-KlllUI tK THK FullKCT. — IjUllAR ClK'AlirilKlIT nX niM 

Bkacii. — KiCuHmoii 111 KwhixO I,<jikik or tub Rouhiihiih- — AiiAsi>nA> 
BKACiiKa. —'KS i>r Tunii.u, Filling etc. — AuRuiTiiia* tir 
ISDlAm IN riMnixo tiiui. — Diuciiii-TniN or a "Smo." — Ijinus CtAt- 
Kateiui. — CuiEinA-ritKK.— Fiiii HcNr. — KoiiiuT I.akjc. — Watkii llicn*. 

— Sticcuus tH coi.i.KCnsc. — KvKHtXu Sciisii: IX KiTto.^ Ai.ehahiiuiiia Aa 
"aii>s ■<.ii»nrtqiri:." — Kuii Akkcuote. — KiLLAiiuxt hktweiix Khhik* 

A> tllllWX lit ItlKlII EHMIItULUUr. — KvTK CIVX TUB Maiii.IK I'll AC J iTt. 11 

or mK AMAiiiHtAii Kau.v.k.— Ai:aka- — Kkwh muM nic I'AHnta ix tmk 
ixTKiiioii. — ItKTUim or I'Aiitir piuiu tiim I^. — Piiu-akatiimu roK IHc- 

FAIlTVlIi:. — NUTK OH liKIKKAI. HeiLI-T or SCIKXTiriC WunK IB ftlfli, 

— Waitwo rou TiiK Steawih. — Sketch or Alexandhuia. ~ Mootui. 


Htpumha- 27rt. — Of all tlio litllo seltlemcnts we have 
teen on tlic Amazons, Tuffd louks tlic taoul smiling and 
pleasant. Just now tlm town, or, as U should nitlicr be 
called, the village, standi;, as I liuvc said, above a broad 
cand-boacU ; in the rainy season, liowovcr, wc ore told tliat 
llio river covers this beacli completely, and even encroaches 
on the fields beyond, coming almost to the tlirosliold of somo 
of tlic dvrelling». Tlio housos arc generally built of mud, 
)ila.<itered over and roofed witli tiles, or tliat<:1ied with palm. 
Alinonl ail have a Utile ground about them, enclosed in a 
picket fence, and planted with orange-trees and dilTereal^ 
kinds of palins. — Cocoa-nut, Asstais, and Pupunhas or 
pcncli-|ialms, Tl)e latter bears, in hftiidsomo clusters, a 
fniit not unlike the peach in size and coloring ; it has a 
mcalv charactci wlicr cooked, and is very palatable, ealeu 

Un. Dl TEFFl 



ith Gugar. Tiie green hill behind Uie tovni, on wbich 
C0V3 and sheep are grazing,* slopes up to tlie forest, and 
makes a pretty background to the picture. In approaching 
the Tillage, many little inlets of tli« lake and river giro 
promise of pleatont canoo oxcimionii. Tlirougb our friend 
Major Coutiiilio w«i bad alrcod}* b«»pokuii lodgings, and 
to^aj finds ux a» comfortahlj' est«blitibcd n» U is poi^iblo 
for such wayfarers to l>e. Our boii»« stands on ui up«n 
grcon G«ld, running down to tiie water, and is oiicbx^ed 
only on tvo sides by bntldings. In front, it coiiinvaiids a 
pretty view of tlie beacb aitd of the opposite shore across 
tlie water. IMiind, it baa a little open ground planted 
with two or three orange-trees, surrounding a tnrtle-tunk, 
vhich vill be very convenient for keeping live specimens. 
A wcll-etockcd turtlo-tank is to bo found in almost every 
yard, as the people depend largely upou turtles for their 
food. Tlic interior of tlio house is very commodious. On 
Uic ri^it of the flagged entry i» n largo room alri'ady 
transfonned into a laboratory. Here arc numerous kegs, 
cans, aiid barrels for specimens, a svinging-sltelf to keep 
birds and insects out of the way of tlie ants, a tabic for 
drawing, and in immense empty packing-case, one side 
of which Horres ns a table for cleaning and prepariii)^ 
birds, while the open space beneath makes a convenient 
cupboard for keeping the instruments and materials o( 
one sort and anotla-r, used iu the process. After a little 



* It i* a cnrioui fnci. ilmt Uraugh • Urgt nunibpf of cowt wore ownci! in 
'. «Dd wtra roiiiunll; uvn fisBding nbout ttic hDUH*, inillc wu amone ihc 
mBttainablo Inxnrin. Iiii]«r<], milk i< linle mod in Bnud], «o &r u oor 
obMrralioii gwi. It is ihuu|;bt uiiiurHlihy (oi clillilnn, Miil people will 
nllwT gire tolCfn or ten to ■ tWD-jtMLr-uId balij timn pure milk. Tlic coni 
■re nextr milked legularl}-, but ths i]iuiDiilj needed Ibr ihc momcnl I* dnirs 

W IDT lilDD. 


practice ill iravelling one leama lo improvise tlte convtaj 
ieiiccs fur work almost without Uio accessories wliicli BCCin' 
iiidUpciisulili; lit lioitip. Opposite to the luboratory oti the 
otlier tudo of the entry is a room of tlio uime eix), vlieral 

Vfnadji mill l'i><<ii^-r<H'ni it TtBi. 

iho geiitlemoa tmre Blung tlioir Iiammocks ; back of tills U ^ 
my room, from the u-iudow of winch, looking into the coiirt^ 
beliind, I get a glimpse of some lovely Assai paints and oiio 
or two orange-trees in full flower; adjoining ih^it is Uio 





dining-room, with & large ctosot leading out of it, need 
u a storiLgc-placc for alcohol, and scmng at tliis moment 
as a prUou-houso for two Uvo alligators who are avaitiug 
elocution tlicrv. The ucws of our arrival has already 
gone abroad, and tlic lishormon and boys of the village 
are bringing in spoctmou» of all sorts, — alligators, turtles, 
Gsli, incects, birds. Bnongli is already gatliered to show 
what a rich hurvcit may bo expected in this noighborliood. 

iSeptemhrr 28(A. — Yesterday allcnioou, between snonit 
ftnd moonlight, our neighbor Dr. Rumualtlo invited us to go 
with him and his friend Sciitior Joan da Cuiiha on a fisliiiig 
excursion into one of ihc pivtty bnvun^ that o))cn out to the 
lake. As our coiioe entered it, \a/.\- alligators were lying 
aliout in tlte still glassy water, with their liead» jiut resting 
abOTo the surface ; a tail, gray heron stood on tlie shore, 
as if wal«tiing his reflection, almost as distinct as hintsclf, 
and a variety of watcr-liirci.s sailed over our heads as wo 
intruded upon their haunts. When we had reached a 
certain point, the Indians sprang up to their necks in the 
water, (wliich was, by the way, unpleasantly warm,) and 
stretclied the net. Aller a fow minutes, they dragged it 
into clioro with a loud of fish, which seemed almost as 
wonderful as Peter's miraculous draught. As the net was 
landed tlie fish broke from it in Iiundtvds, springing Uirough 
tlic meshes and over the edges, and literally covering tlio 
beach. The Indians are very skilful in drawing the net, 
going before it and lashing tlte water with long rods to 
frighten tlie fish and drive tlieni in. Senhor da Cunha, 
wito is a very ardent lover of the sport, worked as hard 
oa any of the boatmen, plunging into the water to lend 
A hand at the net or drive in tiie Rsh, and, when the 
di-aught was landed on the t>each, nishing about in the 



mud to catch th« little fishes which jumped in niTriada 
through the meshes, with an enthusiasm equal tc that 
of Ur. Agassiz himself. The operation va& repeated sev- 
end times, always with tlic sumo success, and wo ro- 
tumod bjF moonlight with a boat-loud of fisli, which ilr. 
iguaz is oxumiitiiig this morning, while Mr. Burkhardt 
Bakes colored drawings of llio rarer specimoDS. Uero, 
as cliwwlicro in the Amozotiinu waters, the variclj of 
qKCtcs is bowildcriug. The collections already number 
moro than four hundred, including those from PutA, and, 
while every day brings in new species, new genera are by 
DO means infrequent. The following letter to Professor 
Milne Edwards, of the Jardin des Planters gives tome so* 
count of iJie work in tliis department. 

Tawi, !■ » StpUmbre, l«M. 

Mod cber Ami kt tb^ hokoriI OoNPRiutc: — He vwci 
dopuis deux mots dans le bitSNin de I'Amftsoue et e'est 
ici que j'ai ou la douleur de recovoir la nonrelle de la mort 
de men rieil ami Valenciennes. J'eii suis d'aulant plus 
affect^ que personne plus quo lui n'aurnit appi-t^i^ les 
^r&ultats de tnon voyage, doni je mo r^jouiRsaiii di-j^ de lui 
biro part prochiunoment. Vous eoncevrez naturellentent 
quo e'est ik U cla»s>e dea pnittsons quo je contiacre la meilleure 
portie de moil temps et ma r^colte exd^do totttes mes pro- 
visions. Vous en jugerez par quelqucs donn^es. En at- 
tcignant Manaos, it la joiiction du Rio Negro et de I'Amo- 
zonas, j'avaiB d^j^ recuoilU plus de trois ceuta espdces de 
poissons, dent la moiti^ au moins ont 6t6 peinles sur b 
▼irant c. ^ d. d'apr6s le poisson nageant daas un grand 
vase en verre devant mou dessinuteur. Jo suis souvcut 
pein^ de voir avec quelle l^drebS on a public des plafiehw 
colorizes de ces aoimaux. Ce u'eet pas seulement (riplor 


un a txTFiL 


■ lo iioiLbrc dcs ccpdccs connuov, jc compte Ie$ genres nou-, 
I Tcaux par douzuiict ot j'ai cinq ou »x families nouvellM 

poor I'Amazonc ot une Toisine dc« Oobioides enti^recaent 
iiOUTclle pour i'lcliUiyologic. C'cst siirtout parmi le« petit«P 
espdces que jc trotivo Ic plus do nouveaut^. J'aj d«s Cha- 
racins do cinq k six centimetres et su-dessDUs, oni4a dcs 

Itvintcs les plus ^ii^gaiitcs, des Cyprinodontes, se rapproclmut 
un peu do ccux do Cuba ct des Elats-Unis, des Scombei-f'so. 
MS voisins da B^Ione dc la Hifditcrnui^o, un iiombro conisi- 
d^raUe de Carapoid«s, des IUic» de genres differcuts de ceux 
de I'oc&n, et qui par consequent no »ont pas d«» c«p^ea 
qui reim^nteiit le fleuvo. Uiio foule d« Qoniodontes ct 
de Chromidcs dc genres et d*e!*p^oc« in^dits. M&H ca qne 
j'appr^e snrtoat o'est la facility que j*ai d'dludier lot 
changoments que totis ces poLssoiis siilHBHeiit arec I'Jtge el 
les diflSrences do sexe qui existent ontr'Gus et qui sent 
souvent trds considiii'ables. Cest aiiisi que j'ai ob^ervS 
une espSca do Oeophagus doiit le male porta Hur lo 
front une boRse tr^s-saillante qui manque oiiti^roment h la 
fcmelle et aux jcunes. Co mCmo poisson a nn mode do 
reproduction de4 plus <>straordinnire«. has cniifx passcnr, 
je R4 Mis trop comment, dansi la bouclie dont ils tapissent 
le fond, eiitro les appcndiots inl^rieurs des arcs bi-ancliiaux 
et surtont dans une poche fonn^e par les pharrngicns tn- 
p^rieurs qu'ils remplisseiit complOtoment. L^ Us &:losont 

Iet les petits, libdr^n do kur coquo, se deroloppent jui^u'4 
CO qu'ils soiont en <Stat do Touniir i Icur cxistvuee. Jo ne 
snis pus encore combion de temps cela n durcr ; mais j'jj 
d6^ rcncontriS des exomplaircs dont les jeuiies n'avaicnt 
ft plus de sao riteliairo, qui h^be:^aient encore lour progdni- 
I ture. Comme jo panwerai environ un mois ii TefTd, j'cspi^re 

■ poUToir completer oette observation. L'exanaeu de la 
B 10 



■tructurc d'un grand uoiubro dc Oiromidcs m'a fiul 
troToir dCiS nfliniuls cntre oes poimtotis ot dircnes aatres 
ramilles dont on ne B'e»t jamnis nvi»6 do Ics rapproehcr. Et 
il'abord je me suU convaiiictL que lea Chromides, r^partis ^j 
autrefois ponni \qs Labroides et tos Scidnoidea, constilucnt^l 
bicii nfcIlemoDt un groupe uaUirel, roconuu & peu prOs eu 
mt^me temps ct d'une nuu)i£i-o ind^poiidante par Ileckol et 
J. MiiUer. Mais il y n plus; les gGiires Enoplosus, I'Dmotis, 
Ceutrarclius et quotqucs autres gonres Toisius, nwgte 
parmi Log Petxwidus pur tous les IdiUtjologistvs, tnc pa- 
raisEcnt, d'ici et eans moycu do cotDpai'aisoii diroctu, telle- 
mont voisins dos Cliromidvs quo jo qc vols pas commeitl 
CHI pourra Ics on edparcr, surtout maintcnant quo ,io sals 
quo Ics pharyiigicuB iiifdnours uo »out pas toi^uurs Koud^s 
cticz lus Cbromidcs. El puis I'cnibryologio cl Ics mdlu> 
morplioecs dcs Cliromidcs que jo vieiis d'^Eludior m'ont 
coQTaiucu quo lot "I'oisKuus it braudii(» lubyriiittuquce" 
eoparlJs dc tous Ics nulros poissoiis par Cumr oomnic uuo 
famillo cutiOrumoiit \^i>\6ii, h raisou du la structure 6tranga 
do 608 orgnnCM rcspirutolrcs, sc rnttacbctit dc tri^-pr^ aux 
Chromidos. Ce gruupe dcvicut aiiisi par ecs afii»it<!3 vari^eR, 
I'un dcs plus itiUtrossauls dc la cln?«c des poissoiis, et le 
bassiu do I'Amazoue parait Gtre la vraio patrie de cett? 
famillo. Jo no veux pas vous fntigucr do mes rccherclics 
ichtliyologiqucs ; pcrmcilez moi seulement d'ajouter que 
les poissotis uc soiit point uiiiformi^mcnt r^pandtui dans ce 
grand bassin. l>^}!>, j'ai acqui.^ la certitude qu'il faul y 
dietiiigucr phisicurs faunes iclithyologiques, trds-nettcment 
cbaract^ri»^cs ; c'cst ainsi que les espfices qui habitant la 
riTiiro du PiirA, des bords de la mer jusquc vers I'ombou- 
churo du Tocaiitin^, difl?r«iit dc cellos quo Ton rencontre 
dans lo n!scau d'anastoniosc!: qui unissent la riri^ de Pari 

urr. IX TSFFf. 


A rAnuioDfl propre. Les espdces de rAmazoncaii-dcftsoiis 
dii Xing^n, difiSrciit de (vIIps (|itn j'ai roiirontrA^ [iliii hatit ; 
celles du cours iiifiSrieiir dii Xingii, diffJreiit do cclles dii 
cours inr^rienr dii Tapajos. Cdles dcs iiotnbrenx igarapt^s 
et lacs do fttaiiaos difl?ront 4^galemciit do celles dii coure 
priDctpal du (trand flciiro et do s«s principalis aflluouts. 
II rvste maiDtcnstil it 4^tudior los cbant^mcnts qui peuveiit 
eurvenir danx cettc distribution, dans le ooutb de I'ana^e, 
Euivant la liaiitcur dcs ennx et pcut-£lrc au!!i siiivaiit 
I'^poqiic i laquclitt Ics diSurentcs e»pi^cs puiidctit leurs 
oeurs. Jusqu'i prifscnt jo n'ai rcuwnti-iS qn'iin petit 
nombre d'e^p&'cs qui aicot una aire de diKtribiilion tr^^ 
iftendue. G'cKt aiiiiii que le Sudis gij^as »e trouro lupcu- 
prds partoiit. Ccst le poi:<»ou le plus iinportniit du flciive ; 
cetui qui coinnie aliment rciiiplnce le bjtlail pour les popula- 
tions riveraincs. Un autre probl^Die ii rdHondre c'cst da 
saroir jnsqu'JL quel [wint les grands afHueiit^ de rAmaxona 
r^p^tent ce pli^nonii^UG do la distribution locale des poiwoi"!. 
Je Tdls oherclier \ le rdsoudre en remontant le Rio Negro 
et )e Rio Uadeira et comme je revieiidroi k Manaoii. ja 
poiirru comparer niei premises obaon'ations dans cctte 
locality, svec celles d'une autre saison de l'anD(!e. Adimi, 
Dion cber ami. Veuillex &ire mcs amiti^ % M. Elic dc 
Beaumont et me rappelcr aiix bon« souvenir* dc ceuic do 
mos collogues de I'Acadifmio qui voulent biou s'iut^re^ser ik 
mcs travaux actuols. Faitos aiusi, je tous pric, lues amiU^ 

^ M. Totre fils. 

Tout & voiis, 

L. AiiASfUZ.* 

Mt nmAS FsinrD abd bokoieii Collkaocb: — Here 1 linre bom for 
mo nonthi in Iho bum of Uit Anuunm, uid it in h«ra tli>t I lure hvanl 
with KirToii of ilir dcaih of Bj old ftiesd VatocfoaaM. I am the mom 


Mr. Agassiz has ulrcudy secured quite a numtxir of tli« 
singular type of Acaril, wtiicli curries its jouiig m ite nioittli, 

(AcUd b; il, bKiiuw no on« would btn •ppmiatnl more thwi ho tba 
Riulu of my juamoj', which I liud Irupvil bouu io ilmn* irilh hini. Voa 
will Dnianillir unilpistanil tlinl it is tu tiie cIubs of HihM I oaiuecnK tha 
bciier pin of mj time, anil my hnneit txct<di all mj aotidpationi^ Ton 
will judgT of il by a fow (tntcmcnu. 

On naching Mannoi. ni the junction of ih« Itio Vtgn and iho Amuon*, 
I hod alrcndr colkclol mon ilun ihrea hundred apcdca of Rihu, half of 
irhlch baro been pnlnld (rum lifi^. ihai ii. from ihc ll*h iwlmmlns in ■ 
intJCt iclaai lank hcfaro my artiit I nm ol^cn ]>Alnod to iob how carrtcwlr 
colored plotc* of llicac animali Imvn Ixvii piilihilicd. Not only haro w« trf|ikd 
lilt Diiiiilwr of RjKviva, but [ cnunt now jttnrm by iloicin, and I bava IItd or 
tiz nvw fiiniiliiNi fur thg Amunnt, Hnd onn allind to liig Goliioiilc* (atinlj 
new tu Ichthjoiojjy. Ainimi; tl..: minli ifKslcj njirciiilly 1 haie found nov- 
cltioa. I bnTf ChumHiioi nT firv nr lix cpntinieina and Ism, adoninl viih 
the most U-nutifnl tiou, Cypriiiui|i>nM rtwmbling a Uttlo lltMaof Cuba and 
tilt Uliil«l Siatci, ScunibvctHH'!.') allivd to Iba Baluov of tho Mi-diiertanniin, 
a MTQiidcrablo Dumber of Cainpoidci, niid Rny> of iljflirciit genera from thoM 
of the ocean, and thcrrforo not apocira vhjch afwad the river; and acrawd 
of GoniodoniB and Chromidu of unF>nbIiih«i grneia and (poeica. But whni 
1 aiiptTciiito mori highly i> tlic fiintily 1 have for midTing the cfaangca which 
all ihcw OabcaaadarEowith n^c nnd th« dHfbreneca of tnx among ihem; which 
OM ort^n ytrj conaldoraMc. Thm I baro obMrvad a ipccita of Qaophagnt in 
which tbn malq ha* n (crf <«ni>]iir>iAiia |in>tub«mncn on llio fOTehcad, wholly 
wanting is Iha ftmide and the yourijc- '1'!"* "Ain« ii'li Im* a moat txtraordt- 
nary modv of npinduclioD. Tlie t)Ki paM, ] know tioi bow, into tho inouihi 
the bottom of which ia 1in«d hj rhi>m, bvlwnon iho intiiT nppi:(i<l«g(-( of ihs 
bronchial archcJ, and wpedally into ■ pouth. fbrmod by tho upp« pbarjiigioH 
width tlioy completely fill. There they are hatched, and tho little one*, ftced 
from the csg-casr, are dcTelopcd nnlil ihey are in a condition to piovlde for 
Uicir own cilMeuco. I do not yel know how long thii continue* ; bnl 1 hara 
already met uilh »|)Ui^iiii>'iia whudi: yoimtt liiul no lon^r any vlutlmo mf, but 
wera iiUl bwliorvil liy ilio prot'i'iiiior. Aa I iihall htill pau a luuiiih nt Tcld 
I hopo 10 be able to complcta thin oWrrntion. The examination of ibc ttmc- 
tnia of a great number of Chroniidea hm led me to peroelve the alllnitic* he. 
tween iheae flilioa and aevFral oilier fiimilica with which wo hare neror thousbl 
of a«*oeia:1ng ihem. In ihc &nt plate, I hare convlntcd mytclf that tlic Clno- 
mUc*. formn'lT iiiallered among the l.nbiuidei and the Siinnoidi^a, really ct>n- 
MitBW a natural (roup ro:oKnl>cd nearly at the Mme time and is aa lad«pta- 




and ho has gathered & good dc»l or infonnation about ita 
habits. Th« fishenucn here aay that thin mode of cariDg 

■Imt muina bf llecWcl And J. Mdlkr. Bui. buiile thcw. tlierc htd (begcnon 
Ko>ipliMui, Pomoil*, Ctatrsmhni, and lome <>th(;r nflj>hliorini; |;rnn«, clM*cd4 
cm -*s iIm Fttrcoida by all IchihjoloGlit), which uvm ui mn. frum itiin ditcancwl 
•ml wlihoni mnni of ilSrcci romparjion. M acni (ho Chromiilc* tliiie 1 do n»( 
mta Iww ilio; can be wparaud, opccinll/ now that I know ilio lower pharjn- 
Iti'li pot 10 be lavtdnbly wlilFrcd in tho CliiomlilM. Anil ilirii Uii> Fiiilir^ul- 
ox; ■»•) oMUinorphoHi of the ClirnmliUm, whli-h I ^nva juat bmn ttndj'aig, 
ha*« convlnMil nm ilnit ih« flihn »l<h liib/riniliir hnnvhioi, >r.'|)iLriitvi>J Trom til 
Othor Stho* bj Cuvivr, u > faiiiil> ■iiiliivlj iaulslnl oii accuuut of Um •trnngo 
nxuciun of ita rM}nnK>rii urinn*, uo clowlj ruUlnl 10 tha Chivniiilc*. Thu* 
tU« c'Qdp bcoomw, by id isrioua kfliiutita, on* oT tlu nwil lulcitMing of lb« 
claa* or (Mum. and the huin of ths Amitaona aocnta to b« the truo boine of thu 
family. I sitl not fuligue yon with my ichihyoluj'iial ivM-aivhra ; let me only 
ardd, that Iho flthi-i nra not iiriifurinly apnnil over this ^nl linajn. I hnvo 
■Imul; iininircil ilio cfiminiy I)mt K« luoil iliitinjEiiieli wTcruI iclilliyologicaL i 
hnna very dourly charactenK.Nl. TIids the ipcciti inhabiting the rivu of 
Ponl. from iho bonlcn of the il-b to the mouth of ihe Tocantin*, diflfcr from 
tboic which are nwt to iho nctworl; of BniuiomoHa DnJiIax the river of Vtii 
with the Amaaona proper. The apccio of the Amozoni below ihe Xlngu 
iLtToT bom ihoMi which occur higher np; thoic of the Jowcr i^onrM of Ibt, 
XInito dif&r Oom ihoH of the lower cour>r ol' the Tapujin. TlioM of 
DunjcTou* \gampt» anJ lakra of Mnnoat dilTir a* much fmm ihoon of 
prinoipti munaef tlio urcxi titer anil nf In Kmit afflor.TiU. It rtinnin* nowJ 
l» Madj Ihe change* vhich may uIlo iilmxi in ibi* iliairibution in the courttj 
*f iLe year, ncconling to ttiu bui);1il of the waten, anil {icrhapa akn aword- 
iog lo the eiiM'h ai ithich ihu diCrvrvilt tpDcirn lay lliiur t\ift. Thui far I 
have met bni a amall niambpr of K|w(-iira ImviiiK a nry extenaivo area of <]!»- 
bibutioo. One of ihow ta the Snilt* ui|^, fonnil alinoal cvpFywhcm, Ii '■ 
the mon important liili of ihu riier, that which, a« fowl, corrtwpumla to (aiillj 
for the populaiion along the bnnkn. Anolbcr problvm tu Iw aolvotl is, liuiv ttt • 
thii phenomenon of ihe local dintribulion of fiihet la n^pratwl in the pt«al 
affluent* of the AmaioQi. I ihall try to solve it in aacunding thu Riu Negro 
and Rio Madeira, and as I return to Minooa I ihatl be able lo compam my 
Bm otMrralion* in tbi* localiiy arilh iboaa of another komio of the year 
Ufan, uy tsat ftiend. Itememb«r nw to H. Etic do Btaumont and to ihoM 
tif my eollovue* of the Academ,^ who arc tntcnued in my preaent BtniUsk 
Uy kind tcmrmbran-c a!*a to j'oni vs. 

AJwaya youn, 

L. AoAHiK 



for Uic joutig' prerailit more or less in all tlie ramily 
Acaii. Tliej* are not all born tliere, however ; somo laj 
Uioir eggs in the sand, and, hovering over llicir tn»l, 
take up the little ones in their mouth, when the/ an 
hatched. The ttshermen also add, tliat tliese fish do not 
always keep their young in the mouth, but leave tlicm 
fiometinieH in the nest, taking tliem ap only ou tlie approocli 
of danger.* 

• Wo fcFDnd Ihu M* iolbnn»t)on wi* InrarTcri, at leui fbr xxnc iipociai, ■■ 
till bn Ktn bcTTtfiQT. I lot Iho lUucmi-nt ilflnd In iIir text, howonr, » an 
Eoituncn of llio itllllcuIlT one ho* In ncttinjc corm-l facta, anil the ilnnicvr at 
truitlin|[ Ed the obtcrvnlioni even ol' pcojilc who main lo HI itic real inilli. Ke 
tluubt MiUD of tliOM AckTM do occa^ioniilljf il<-|> Uiirli ynune in tlic tanil, 
■nd conliDuu > MrUin car« at them tilt lliey nie alilc b> khin Tor lhi;nitelTM. 
Birl tlie tUtry vtiht (iHlii'riii4in wat oni^ orthow half tniilti nx lilelir lo niixltwl, 
M if it bnd bveii wliullj TalM. I oill tuld liiro a few daiaib cuiii-vniLng thiM) 
Acanw, a noina applied b; iho miliven to all ll>« oral-abapad Chramid«L Tha 
■p«ci«« which lay iSivir rgga in the aantl bulong to the gcnoni fl]rdro{[onu* ani 
Ch»lo!)rnncliui, like iho Norih Amcricun Poniutii, ilioj build a kind of flat 
ttctt in iliff Hind or mnd, in whieh ihcy dcpojit thoir rggi. horcrins otrr ihnn 
nnil) th<i jxiaiig nn hntdiod. The ■pccla which uittj ihclr jounc in tha 
(nuulli Ik-'Idiii; to •cvcnd sciicrii. forlncrlj all included under Uic esniv vf 
UiKi)'hn;[U> br llccki^l. 1 cniild ni>l Mcrrtnin how the qjjp are bi-uui^ii inw 
Uie mouth, hut tha chants miinl tiiko |ilnr« tnon alVr Ihcy nru IhiiI, Tur 1 tuiTC 
fouTid in thill fiOHilion C^^ iu ^vhivh tlip oinbrvo had Juki Imj^tn its dci-clop- 
mciit aa well nt Ihuiv In • in<>rv ndvanred »ti>j;u or crowlh. Uci'itiiunillr, in- 
■Icsd or ef,gi, 1 Imve fuimil lira cnvitj of tlie f^lki, u also iho ipncc enclMod by 
Ibo InunchioiiTsnl tncinbruie, Dlleil wicli a bruod of ytians alrvadf Iiaidied. 
The cgff* bobre hotchitig an alwa^ found In the Mine part of the moaik, 
nnmely, in the upper [mri of the bnnchini apchea. protectcil or held tngtether hj 
a ipeuil loba or tkIvd fbrmed of tlie upjier pliniTneeala. I'ho cartir ihui oo- 
cupicd by the egg* corrciiiDndi ei^ncily lo the Inbynnih of that cuiloa* fatally 
of flibo* Inbabitinit tlic Rnit Iniliiin Ocrnn, callnl Ln.h>Tinllilci by Cnvicr. Tbi* 
dTHmuUncc Iniluru me to bcMevc thni Ihe branchial Inhyrlnth of lh« oMterv 
fliho may b« a breeding poueh. like that of onr Chnnnide*, and not idniply a 
Ttcylralory appnrnlut for ivlalninj; wncrr. In Ibc Aninxuaiim flub a very ten- 
■Itive ^tI^rv^L of iiititi tprvniU uvt>r thia mnnnpiiil pouch, th<< priiicipiil iivm 
nf whicli ariwii fruui a ipiviiil nvnuui ganglion back of lliu L-vtvbclluiu. in the 


UFc a ttfrt. 

Oar liouechold is now efitnbliGhed on a pcrmiuioiit baw/J 
We had 8l lirst some difficult; ii] Qndiog ecrroots : at tliis ' 
lishing sesfon, w Iwn llio m<!u arc going off to dry and salt 
tish, and wbon Iho season for linutiug turllo^^s and 
making turtlobuUer is coming on, tlic town is almost 
dcsortod by tliu men. It is like Layiog-timo in tbe I'onn- 
try, when wvry arm is needed in ilic fields. Tlwn the 
habits of tlic Indians are so irregular, and llivy caro so 
little for money, finding, as tliey do, the ni«ans of living 
almost witlioul work immediately at>onl them, thai even 
if one doea engage • servant, he ut likely to di^uifrpcar 
the next day. An Indian will do more for good-will and 
a glass of caoha^a (mm) than he will do for wages, which 
are vaJueleRH to him. The individual, who ha.i Imen miji- 
plying tite place of indoors man while we have been looking 
for a servant, is so original in his appearance that he 
deserves a spociol description. He belongs to a neighbor 
who lias undertaken to prondo our meals, and he bi-ings 
tltem when they are prepared and waita on tlie table. 
He is rather an elderly Indian, und his dross consists of 
tt pair of cotton drawers, originally white, but now of 
many hues and usuully rolled up to the knees, his foot 
being bare ; tlte upper port of bis person is partially 

■ncdolla o4ilon|pu. TbI* ngloa at tba cvntrnl acrvoui >;>(om U tirnngvljr 
detvlopcd la diflcntit ftunillo of fltlica, anil wnJi out nerrn performing Tcrjr 
Taiitit fDiiciiaiii. FioRi i( uitc. nonnallv. the Dcrrw of movemiMit and nim^] 
um aboDl the bee; it iImi jirovlilu ihe oripini of brcaihins. tlic upper |inn 
vt th* alinicnlarv cuniU, (ho Uiroitl nml iho iu>inn(r)i. In l1>c cicrlrie fiilira ih* 
tfTCM neivn r.nli.'i ini; Ihe ckxtiic hmicr)' nritn fnnii tiie umo mvliml n'^iiiu, 
«i4 now 1 luiK fouail iliit ilic piuu';ti in wbidi tire tis; of ilw AcHra ii in- 
enbaioil and It* ymini: nunod for m lini«, rMvircn ita nvrvm from ilw tunc 
Mans. ThU wriua uf fitdg U trnly wfliiilnHul. nnil imly (hum hi>« fa> uui 
icteoe* *till U fruiu an iij>]irii1iaiiMuii uf ilie ruiicUon* of tho norruu if* 
MO. — Ik A. 



(very partiall}') concealed by m bluo rug, wbich I suppose 
m tomo early poritxl of tlio world's history must bave been 
n tbirt ; tbLs extnmrdinnry Qguro is surmouQted by an old 
Etraw hat full of Uolat, bcut bi every direction, and tied 
under the cliin by a red string. Had lie not been a tem- 
porary substitute, wo should bare tried to obtain a more 
respectable livery for biin ; but to-day bo given place to an 
Indian lad, Bruno by name, who presents a more decent 
appearauee, tliougli lie seems railier bewildered by bis new 
office. At present bis idea of waiting on the tuble seems 
to bo to sit on the floor and luok at us while we eat. How- 
ever, we hope to break liim in gradually. Uo looks as if 
1)0 had not been long redeemed from ttic woods, for his 
face is deeply tattooed willi black, and liis lips and uosc 
arc pierced witli holes, reminding one of the becoming 
vanities he has rcnuunecd in favor of civilization.* Be- 
sides Bruno we have a girl, Alcxandrina by name, who, 
by lier appearauee, has a mixture of Indian and black blood 
in her reins. ^>he pruniise^ very well, and seems to have 
tlie intelligence of tlie Indian with the great«r pliability 
of the negro. 

SepUmbrr 29th. — One of the great diarms of our resi- 
dence here is, thai we have 8o many pleasant walks within 
easy reacli. My favorite walk in the early morning is to 
the wood on the brow of tlie hill. From the summit, the 
huiirise is lovely over the \'illago below, tlie lake with 1(9 
many picturesque jxiiuts and inlets, and the forests on tlie 
opposite »horcs. From this spot a little path through the 
bushes brings one at once into a tliick, beautiful wood.J 

" It i» a v«i7 gcncnl btbii •moits the South Amoriaui Iii(biin» 10 pitr 
ihn noM, can. >n<l lipi with holM, in which ximj Jang pi«cw uf wiod 

Uf S U TEf r£. 


H Here oue may w&udor kt will, for tlicre arc a great tnauj 

H paths, worn by the Indians, Uirougli tlio Ircce : aiid ouo 

H is ooDstantly tcmptod ou by Uic cool, picasuiit iiliadc, aud 

by the perfuiue of mora aud fcm aud flower. The forest 

here is full of life and souud. Tbc buu of iusccts, the 

sJirill cry of ibo cicadas, tbc uboltcrmg talk of llio papogoioa, 

H ajid occasionally busy Toiec» of the monkeys, make the 

irodds eloquent. The monkeys are, Iiowcver, very diHicult 

of approach, aud Uiough 1 hear Uimu ufleu, I bave uol yet 

seen tlicm ou the trees ; but Ur. UuuiicwtiU told mc thai 

Itbe other day, wheu sliooting iu (his very wood, ho came 
upon a family of small white monkeys silting on a iwiigli 
together, uud talking wiUi much aniuiiitiun. One of the 
prettteet of tlie pallis, with wliicli my daily wallu made 
me familiar, leads over on iganip<: to a bouse, or ratlier 
to a largo tliatdied shed, in Ihe forest, used for prcporuig 
maudioca. It is supplied witli i'our targe clay ovens, 

Iliantig iuunoiiso shallow pans filled ou to the lop, wiib 
troughs for kueadiiig, sieves for straining, and all tlie 
apparatus for (be rarious processes to which the mandioo* 
is subjected. One utensil is very chai-acteristic ; the Urge, 
empty turtJe-shclls, which miiy bo soon in every kilcheii, 
used us basins, bowls, &c. I suppose this little establish- 
meut is used by a number of pereons, for in my moriiir.g 
walks 1 always meet troops of ludiaus going to it, tJie 
women witit their deep working boskeis, — something like 
Llio Swiss "liotle," — iu which they carry llieir tools, ou 
tltcir bocks, supported by a straw band fastened acro#s 
tlic forehead, and tlieir babies agtrido on their hips, su as 
to leave their hands perfectly free. They always giTO me a 
cordial morning greeting and stop to look at the plants and 

ilowcrs with which I am UbutUly laden. Some of the wom»o 
lo> o 





»re quite pretty, but as a geiiorul ttiiug tlio Iiidiaus ia 
port of tho country do not look Terr healtliy, and are apt tc 
Larc diseases of the eyes and skin. It is a curious tliiuf 
titat tite iialireii seoio more liable to tlio maladios of tlie 
couutiy than strangent. Tliey are very subject to inter- 
luilivut fevers, and one often sees Indians worn to mere 
■kin and bone by tlib terrible scourge. 

li iIhi omruiug walk in tlM woods U delightful, the ereu* 
iug stroll ou the buacli in front of tlw bouse is no less so. 
wtifn the water is dyed in the purple sunMiI, and the quiet 
of tho MX'UU is broken licru and tlienj by a fire on llie sands, 
arouud which a cluster of IndioiiB are eooking tliuir supper. 
As Major Couliiilio and 1 were walking ou tho shore laiit 
oveuing wo came on such a group. They were a family 
who had come over from their home on the other side 
of the lake, witli a boat-load of lisli and turtle to sell 
in the village. When they hare disposed of their car:go, 
they build their lire on ttie beach, eat tlicir supper of 
salted or broiled linh, f&iinha, and tho nuts of a particu- 
lar kind of palm (Atulea), and llien sleep iu their canoe. 
We sat down with them, and. tltnt they should not tliiuk 
we came merely out of curiosity, wo shared their nuts 
and faiintm, and they wei'e soon very sociable. I uiu cou- 
etaiitly attonished at tlie frank gouiulitj of those people, 
t»o diflerunt from our sombre, sullen Indiaiis, who are so 
unwilling 10 talk witli straitgcrs. Tho cordiality of their 
roccptiou, howovei-, depends very much on the way in 
which they are accosted. Uajor Coutinho, who has paiwod 
years among thoui, understands their character well, and 
has remarkable tact in his dealings with Uiem. lie speaks 
tlieir language a liule also, and tliis U imporhiiit hcrO 
where man; of Uto Indians speak only tlm "lingua K»ra)." 




Tbif Tss the case vitli severs] of the famitj vhofits no- 
qTiaiittance ve niado last oveiiiiig, thougli some of tlinn 
talked in Portuguese fluently oDOUgh, tclliog tis al>otit 
their lire iu the forest, ttieir success in disposing of tlieir 
lish and turtle, and inviting iib to come to tlieir bous«. 
Tlioy pointed out to uh one of the younger girls, wbo 
tlioy said had never been ba[itized, and they seemed lo 
vi»]i to have tlie rite jicrroroicd. Major Coutinho {iromisetl 
to R{>eak to the priest about it for them. So far as we can 
leant, tltc white population do little to civilize the Indians 
boyond giving them Ui« extcnuil rites of religion. U is tha 
old sad story of opprcsKion, duplicity, and license on tlio 
part of the white miin, vrhich seems likely to In^t as long 
as skins sliull dilfvr, and vhicb necc»m-ily ends in tlie 
dugradatioii of Iwih races. 

Oetaier 4tli. — On f^iitmihiy morning at four o'clock. Ma- 
jor Contitiho, Mr. Agnii^iz, luid niy>clf leflTelTt; in oonipany 
with our neighbor and lundlurd Mujor Estoluno, on our way 
to bis "sitio," a rougli cort of Indian lodge on the other 
side of tlic Solimociis, where he goes occasionally with 
his family to superintend the drying and siting of fish, 
a great article of commerce here. It Imd rained heavily 
all night, but the stars wore bright, and tlio morning wua 
oool and (resli when we put off in the canoe. Wlien wo 
issued from Te^ lako it tras already broad day, and by 
tlie time we entered the Solimoous wo begun to liavo 
adioiriiitions tliat breakfast'time was approaching. Tliora 
is somc'tiing very pleasant in these improvised meals ; the 
ooBec tastes better when you have made it your^lf, setting 
up tlie coffee-machine under the straw-roof of the cance^ 
dipping up the water from tlio river over the side ol tlia 
boat, and cooking your own breakfast. One would tltiuk 


it a great bore at bome, vitii all tlte neccstaty meaiiE aiid 
ap[)tianc«5 ; but with llic stimulus of difficulty mitl tho 
excitement of the journey it is quite plvaeaol, and gives 
a new relish to ordinary fare. After ire had had a 
cup oT hot coffee and a foriulia biscuit, being fomowhat 
cramped with Bitting in tbc cauoc, to landed for a walk 
on a broad beacli along which we vcro cooeUug. Then 
is much to be learned on tbcso Amatoutan boaclies ; tliej 
are tlie haunts and breeding-places of inauy differont kiuda^l 
of animals, and arc covered by tracks of alti^ator^, tui^^^ 
ties, and capivari. Tlicu llicre arc tlio noM», not only of 
alligators and turtles, but of tlie dilferciil kind of fi»Jies 
and birdii that lay their ^gs in tlic mud or sand. It >l^| 
curious to Ke the address of tlie Indians in finding tlia 
turllc-ue»l« : thoy walk quickly over ihc sund, but with 
B tort of inquiring tread, as if tliey vavriod an instinctive 
perception in their step, and tlie moment tliey set tlicir 
foot upwi a spot below which eggs are deposited, tliough 
tliere is no external evidence to the eye, tliey recoguiio 
it at once, and, stooping, dig straiglit down to tlie eggs, 
geuerally eight or ivn inches under tlio surface. Besides 
these traeks and nests, there are the rounded, shallow 
deprcsiious in the mud, which tlie fishcrmou say ore the 
Bloeping-places of the skates. They have certauily about 
tliG fonn and size of the skate, and one can easily believe 
that these singular impressions in tlie soft surface have 
been made in tliis way. The vegetation on these beaches 
its not less interesting than tliese Kigiis of animal life. lu 
tlic rainy leasoR more tlian half a mile of land, now un- 
covered along the margins of the river, is entirely under 
water, the river rising not only (o tlic edge of the forest, 
but penetrating fni into it. At tliis time of the year, 



howevoi, tlio iliorc consists, fii^l of tbe buacli, tlien of • 
broad band of UU grasses, buyond wliicli arc tlio lower 
shrubs and trees, leading up, by a sort of gradation, to 
the full forest growtli. During tliis dry seosou the Togo- 
tatioa makes an offort (o racoTor its lost ground ; one sees 
tlie little Imbftuba (Cecropia) and a kind of willow-ti'ce 
(Salix humboldiana), llio only familiar plant we met, 
springing up on the sand, and creeping down to tho 
valor's edge, only to bo destroyed agoin with tbo next 
rise of the river. Wliilo we were walking, tlio boalmeu 
verc dragging tiic net, and though not with such ustonisli-1 
ing success as tlie otlicr day, yet it landed not only an ample 
supply of frosli Gsii for breakfast, but also a number of in- 
teresting specimens. At about eleven o'clock we turned 
from tlie Sotimoen.t into tlie little river on which Mr. "EsUh 
luio's fishing-lodge is situated, and in a few tninule<t found 
ourselves at Uie pretty landing, where a rough flight of steps 
led up to the liousc. In this climate a very »liglit slielter 
will serve as a house. Such a dwelling is indeed uothiug 
but a vast porch ; and a very airy, pleasant, and picturesque 
abode it makes. A palm* thatched roof to shed tiie rain and 
keep oEf the sun, covering a platform of split logs thai one 
may have a dry floor under foot ; these, with plenty of posts 
and rafters for the swinging of liainmockij, aio llie cssentialg. 
It was somewhat after tliis fashion that Major Estolano's lodges 
was built. The back part of it cons sted of one very large, 
high clianiber, to whicli the family retired in tlio hottest part 
of (he day, when the snn was most .scorching ; all tho rest 
was roof and platform, the latter stretching out considerably 
beyond the former, thus leaving an open floor on one side 
for the stretching and drying of fish. The whole structure 
was lilted on piles about eight feci above the ground, t« 


A JOUSKE.' IN latAtiU 

pi-ovi lo against tim rising of Um) r:vor m Uio rain; mimhi. 
In fmut of Uio liouso, just oa tlie edge of the bank, wero 
several large, opon, tlmtclied slieds, used as kitclieii aii<l 
liring'rooms for the negroes and Indians eDiplojrcd in Uio 
preparation of the fish. In one of these rooms were scTeral 
Indian woiuon who lookitd very ill. We were told tiiby had 
been there for two months, and tliey were worn to ekiii and 
bone witli iuternjiltdnt fever, ilajor Coiilinho Kiid thcjr 
were, iio doubt, snfTtiring in part from the li^it so prcv^ 
lent among tlic^e [teople of eating clay and dirt, for whii:ii 
ihey h.ivo a morbid lore. They were wild-looking crcii- 
tures, lying in their hammocks or ^qnaltiiig on the ground, ' 
often without any clothes, and moaning as if in pain. Tacy 
wore from the forest, and spoke no Portnguese. 

We were received mo»t cordially by the ladies of the 
family, who had gone up to the lodge llio day before, and 
wcro oGTcrcd the rurrcshmeul of a hammocic, the first act 
of hospitality in this country, when otic arrireB from any 
distance. After this followed an execllont breakfast of tlie 
fresh fish wo had brought with us, cooked in a variety of 
ways, broiled, fried, and boiled. The repast was none tlie 
leas appetizing that it was surTcd in picnic fashion, the cloth 
being laid on the Boor, upon one of tlie large palm-mats, 
much in use hero to spread over tlio uncarpelcd brick floora 
or under tlie hammocks. For several hours afler breakfast 
the hcut v!iif iiitoiiiie, and we could do little hut rest in tJiO 
shade, thougli Mr. Aga.«siz, who works at all hours if speci- 
mens are on hand, was bii»y in making skeletons of some 
fish too laigo lo be preserved ui alcohcl. Towards evening 
it grew cooler, and wc walked in the baiiana plantation near 
tlie house, and tut under an iaimettso gounl-tK-e on the 
bank, which made a deep shade ; for it was clotlicd not only 



hj its bwii foliage, bitt Uie ttrtuiclics were covered wiUi para- 
aics, and with soft, dark moss, in controet villi wliicli the 
lighter green, glossy fruit Hccioed (o gain uow Iiutn. I call 
it a gourd-tree, siiDpiy Tram the use to vliicti tlie fruit is 
put. But it goes here by die name of the Cuieira-trce 
(Crcseentia Cajeput), the cup made from tlie fruit being 
called a Cuia. The fruit is spherical, of a light green, 
sluny surface, and grows from the size of au apple to that 
of the largvfit melon. It is filled with a soft, white pulp, 
easily removed when the fruit is cut iu halves ; the rind is 
titen allowed to dry. Very pretty cups and basins, of 
many sizes, are made in this way ; and the Indians, who 
understand how to prepare a variety of very brilliant colom, 
are very skilful in painting them. It would seem that tlio 
art of making colors is of aticiciit dalo among the Ama- 
louiaii Indians, for in the account of Francisco Orcllana's 
journey down tliu Ainumus ui IMl, " the two fathers of (ho 
expedition declare tiiat iu this voyage they found all tlie 
people to bo both iutcUiguut and ingvitious, which was shown 
by the works which thuy performud in sculpture and painting 
in bright colors.'" Tliuir paints arc prepared from a par- 
ticular kind of clay and from Uic juices of several plants 
which have coloring propertivs. In an AjuuEuiiiuii cotlago 
oiie hardly sees any utensils for the table except Mich as iho 
Indians have prepared and oruainenled themselves from tlio 
fruits of the Cuieira-trce. I longed to exteud my walk into 
the woods which surrounded us on all sides; but the forest 
is very tantalizing here, so tempting and so iinpcnetralilc. 
The ladies told me there were uo paths cut in tho ucigli- 
Vtrbood of tho house. 

■ boa " ExptriitiniM latt iIm Vallej «f ihn Aiuiuons," publlibtd hj tbt 
lUklujt Socieij. 



The next morning ve wore ofT early in the canoes on 
ali»li linnt; I call it a limit ailtnsedly, for tt.e dslt aro the 
captives of the bov and i^poar, not of the net and line. 
Tlio Indians are verj' adroit in shooting tlie larger Gsh 
with the bow and arrow, and in harjioouijig some of tlie 
veritable monsters of their rivers, such as the Peixe-boi 
("fish-cow"), Uanatee or Dugon, witli the spear. We 
ttiade two parlies this morning, some of us going iu the 
larger canoe to drag a forest lake with the not, while some 
of the fishermen took a smaller, lighter boat, to be able to 
approacli their larger jiroy. Our patli laj* tlirougli a pretty 
igarap^, wliere, for the first time, I saw monkeys ui a tree 
by tlie water-side. On coming to the Amazons we expect 
to see monkeys as frequently as squirrelit are .soon at home ; 
but, though very numerous, tliey are so shy that one rarely 
gets a fair view of them. After an hour's row we landed 
at a little point jutting out into the water, and wont tlirough 
tlio forest, the men cutting tliC way before us, clearing th^ 
patJt of brauches, fallen trees, and parasitic vines whidt 
obstructed it. I was astonished to see the vigor and 
strength with which Dona Maria, tlie mother-in-law of our 
host, made her way tlirough the tangled trees helping 
to free tlie road, and lopping olT btnnches with her great 
wood-knife. We imagine all the ladies in this warm 
country to be very indolent and languid ; and in Uie cities, 
as a general thing, their habits aro much les« vigorous Uian 
tlioee of our women. But bore, in iho Upper Amasous, tlie 
women who have liecn brought up in titc country uid iu 
tlie midst of the Indians arc often vt^ry energetic, bearing a 
bond at the oar or the fi^hing-net uitti the strength of a 
man. A short walk brought us out upon a :<]mllow f<H«st 
take, or, as the Indians call it, " round water." The ludiau 



names aro onen rerj eigniricoiit. I have mentioned Uie 
meaning of Igarap^, " boat paUt " ; to tiiU, wlieii Uiey wish 
to indicate it« size more exactly, ttiey affix eillier the word 
"assii" (lara;«) or "niirim" (small). But iiii igai-a[>g, 
wlietlier large or small, in alwajs a cliannel oj>ening out of 
tlie main rircr atid hariiig no oUier outlet. For a channel 
connecting the upper and loircr waters nf the sanio rirer, or 
leading from one river to anotlier, they have another word,^ 
"Paran&" (signifying river), whicli tlicy modify in iho same 
way, as Paranii'assu or Panuifi'mirtm. Panuidrassu, the Itig 
rircr, mcfuis aliso the sea. A i<^till more ttignificant name 
for a channel connecting two rivers is llic Portugnc^e word 
" fiiro," meaning Iwrc. 

Tlie take u-ojt set in the midvt of long, reed-like grass,^ 
and, as wc approached it, thouKands of white water-bird^ 
rustl<;d up from the margin and floated like a cloud abov 
us. Ttic rcniton of their numbers was plain when ynp 
roacltcd tlie lake : it was actnolly lined witli slirimps ; one 
could dip (licni out by the bucketful. The boatmen now 
bi^ii to drag th« net, and jierhaps nowhere, from any 
•inglo lake or ]>ond, ha^ Mr. AgosaiK made a more valu- 
able oolle<:lion of forest (Uhes. Among Uiom was a pipo- 
fibh.ono or tlio Ooniodont family, very similar to our ordina- 
ry Syngnatliits iji appearance, but closely related to Aw;stra, 
and (^^peci:tlly inlurcsling to bim as llirowing liglit on cer- 
tain luvestigatious of his, made when quite a young man. 
Tbis specimen confirmed a eloMiification by which he tlicn 
nnociatcil tlic pipc-n»h with the Garpikes and Sturgeons^j 
a combination whicli wa« scoulud by the best naturalista' 
of tlie titoo, and is sveii now repudiated by most of them. 
Witliont selfglorifioation, it is impossible not to bo grati- 
fied when tlie experience of later years confirms tb« pro- 


nwDitioaH >f youtli, Biid sliows Uicm to liavc becu not mere 
gucssivs, but fouudod upon an iiitiKlit into the true relations 
of thiiif^. ^Vcaricd alt«r a while willi watching the fieh- 
iiig iu the sun, I went back into tlie forest, wliere I found 
tlio cofTea-pot already boiling over the 6re. It was pleas- 
ant to sit down on a fallen, moss-grown trunk, and break- 
fast in the sbado. Presently the fisbennen came back rroai 
the lake, and we found our way to the boats again, laden 
with an immense number of dslies. TJie genticaien re- 
turned to the house in one of the smaller roonturias, taking 
the specimens with tliem, and leaving me to return in the 
larger canoe with the Sonhoros. It seemed to nto strange 
on this Sunday morning, when the bells must bo ringing 
and the people trooping to church under tlie bright October 
sky, in our for-olT New England home, to be Hooting down 
this quiet igarap^, in a. boat full of half-naked Indians, their 
wild, monotonous chant sounding in our ears as titey kept 
time to tlieir oars. In these excuraioiis one learns to un- 
derstand tlio fascination this life must have for a people 
unong whom civilization is as yet but very incoinpleto; 
it is full of physical enjoyment, without any mental cf> 
fort. Up early in the morning and oflT on their fishing 
or hunting excursions long before dawn, tliey return by 
the middle of the day, lie in Uieir hnmmocks and Muokc 
during the hours of greatest heat ; cook the fish lliey 
have brought wich them, and, uulcits sicknOKS comes to 
them, know neither want nor caro. Wc reached the liouso 
iii time for a tweko o'clock bicnkfost of a more solid cliar- 
octor than the ligttter one in the forest, and by no means 
unacceptable after our long row. In the course of the day 
two " Pcix<vboi9 " (Manatc«s) wcnj brought in, also a Bolo 
(porpoiwJ), and some large fpcdmcns of Piranicu (Sudis). 




All Umsc are too clums]r to preserve in alcol ol, eGpecially 
wheB oloobol is m liitficult to obtain and so expeusive 
as it b Iwre ; but Mr. Aga^^iz has bad bkolotons made 
of tbem, and vill preserve tbo skhis of tlio Peixe-bois 
for tDOunting. Uo oblairiod at ibo samo time an eiitiroly 
iiew gonus of tbo SUuroid family. It is a fisb woighiiig 
some ten pounds, eallcd bcro (be Pucaniura, and of a brigbt 
canary color. 

The OTCDing sceno at tbo " Sitio " was always very prot^. 
After dUiucr, when tbo ctistomao' " boa uoite," tbo univer- 
sal groeting at tlw close of tho day, bad booit esctiauged, 
the palm-mats, spread over tbc platfonnfi, Iiad cacli tboir 
BOpante group, lodiaus or iicgroos, cbildrcu, lucmltem uf 
tlie Gamily or guests, the cootial figure beiug usually tbat 
of Uajctf Coutinbo. vbo was considered to bo eHpccially 
•uocessful iu tbo making of cnlTuo and irho goiierally bad 
a mat to biRi»«ir, wbcrc be looked, as tlio blue (laino of 
his alcoliol lamp flickered in tbo wind, not unlike a ma- 
gician of old, brewing fiomo fiolent spell. Little sballuw 
cups, like ojxin antique lanijis, filled vilb oil and baring 
a bit of wick banging over tbe edge, wore placed about 
tlie floors, aud served to light tlio interior of the porcli, 
though after a glininicnng and uncertain fashion. On 
Monday moruiiig we left tho " Sitio" and returned to 
Tiifi6, where Mr. Agassiz bad tho pleasure of receiriiif; 
all bis collections, both those he liad sent ou before him 
aud those whicti accompanied us, in good condition. 

OetobiT 9t&. — Alcxaodrina turns out to be a valimbla 
addition to tbe household, not only from a doinesttic, but 
also from a scientific point of view. She bos learned to 
pieparo and clean skeletons of fisli veiy nicely, and makus 
hnrsclf quito useful in tlio laboratory. BcsideS; •>he knowt 



nuuy pailis in tho forest, and accompaoies me in all 
botanizing oxcun»ioiis ; with the keen perceptions of 
person whose only training Iioa been through the sensM^ 
she ia far quicker than I am in discerning the small 
plant in Tniit or floirer, and now that she knows what 
am Hiekiug, she is a verf efficient aid. Nimble as a monkey, 
«bo thinks nothing of climbing to the top of a tree to bring 
down a blossoming branch ; and here, vhero many of the 
trcoii shoot up to quite a. height before putting out their 
boughs, such au auxiliary is very importaut. The collec- 
tions go on apace, and every day briugs in new species ;fl 
more than can bo easily cared for, — far more than our artist 
can find time to draw. Yesterday, among otlivr specimens, 
a hollow log was brought in, some two feet and a hulf in 
'.engtli, and about throe inches in diameter, crowded with 
Anojas (u common fish here) of all rizos, from tliose 
iMjveral inches long to the tiniest young. Tlic tiling was 
DO extraordinary that one would liuro been inclined tc 
think it was prepared in order lo be passed off as a curi-] 
osity, had not the futh been so dexterously packed into 
the lo^ from end to end, that it was impossible to get them 
out without splitting it open, when they wcro all found 
alive and in perfectly good condition. Tliey could uo^| 
have been artificially jammed into the hollow wood, in 
that way, without injuring tbcm. The nshcnuon »iy that 
this is the habit of the family ; they are often found tbua 
cjowdcd into dead logs at the bottom of the river, making 
Uteir nests as it were in the cavities of the wood.* h 

Oetober 14fA. — Mr. Agas.<iiz lias a corps of little boyiA 

• Thin ■p«cin bv^rQjpi to oasof the nubrliTuioaa of (he pMiiu AndMolpcit. 
nu; Itb andnrrilKi], Mid Mr. Burkhardi hiu made Bre coloivil ■keicfac* of « 
number of RjNxiniuna of dlfltrenl (Utci, Tirfinit in iliBir maikinpi. — L. A. 




igftged In catching tlio tiniest fishes, so iiiitlg:nilicutt in 
that the rc^lar riKliermcu, who can never be mndo 
'io understand that a fis]i which U not good to eat can 
serve any tiseftil purposo, always throw them away. NeT- 
erthcless, these are among the moiit iniilructiTo specimens 
for tlto ichthvologiat, hecaiiso they often reveal tlio relations 
ot only between parent and of&pring, but wider relations 
between different gronps. Mr. Agassiz's inTcstigatious on 
Uieae little fisli here have shown repeatedly that the young 
of some species resemble closely the adult of otbcrs. Such 
s fish, not more tJian half an incli long, was brought to him 
yesterday. It constitutes a new genus, Lymuohelus, and 
belongs to the biU-Gsb family, Scombtrfsoces, witlj Bolono 
aud otliers, — tliat long, narrow type, with a long bcuk, 
which lias such a wide distribution over Ilie world. In tlio 
NorUieni United Sliilcs, as well as in the Mediterranean, it 
has a nq>n»eiiinlivo of thu genus Scumborcsox, in wliicli tliu 
jaws of its long snout are gaping; in the Mediterranean, 
and almost ororywliere in the tcmpci-ate and torrid tones, 
Bolones are found hi which, on the contrary, ttie bill ie 
closed; in Florida and on tlie IlrazHian coast, as well as iu 
tlie Pacific, species of Uemirhamphu<t occur m which the two 
jaws are unequal, the upper one bcijig very short and the 
lower one enormoufily long, while the Amazonian bill-lish 
has a somewhat different cut of tlie bill fi-om either of 
Blhose mentioned above, though both jaws are very long, 
as in Belono. When, then, the young of tliis Amazonian 
cpecies was brought to Mr. Agassiz, he naturally expected 
to Qnd it like its parent. On the contrary, he found it fur 
more like the species of Florida and tiio Ih-nzilian coast, 
having the two jaws unequal, the upper one excessively 
lort. the lower enormously long, showing tliut the Am» 


BOIIWU Epecios, 


Wrore taking on its owu ctiuracterislic 
foatures, pa&ees througli & stage rescmbljjig the [fcniia- 
nuiit adult c^iiditiou of tho Uemirbamplius. It is interest' 
iug to find that auimals, which tiavo their natural home* so 
far from each other tliat there is no possibilil; of any ma* 
tcrial connection botweeu thoiu, arc yet so Unkod togetlwr by 
blructiiral laws, that the development of one species should 
rocidl tho adult J'oi-m of another.* Tlie &tary of tlio Acaras, 

* Wlien I Mtcnijiirril ta ri^'ord my Etnprculon of the bifln of tha Anunuan, 
•nd cbaruolorinil il «!• s IVciili-wnii'T aixnn with an uclitpdai^ of inUndi^ I 
dill not tnoan lo liinii iliu toiiipuriitiiii ii> ilii^ wiilo Ufutnhc of hMct nd tliq 
Inr)^ numlwr of iHlniiilx. Tltv nutiiritilmioo cxiciiili niiu'li fiirthv.r, iinJ tho 
•rhulo bimiii miiy )« "aid to Iw ori'iiiiii' iil>u. iii iliu i-Iianicttv of ii* ftit'in, li i« 
(rna, w« an n^;<■^t(>ln('■l lu (omiilur iliu Cbrutniilo, th« Chnrujiiigs, ihu Silu- 
fuid*, nnil the tiunuxloiiii. wliitli cunsiUuiv iliu kIiii/ iHijiuliiiiun vf thia net* 
(lotk of riicn. >u (luliwuu'r fislici ; l>i>t in » duiii^ wu rliut our eyx to tkdr 
nuunU nllliiUiu*. oiiil ivincinbi-r only iliu mi'iliiMii in ivhicli ilicy live. X>:t any 
OBD cnur u|)on a inQra tcuj'chtni; r«ni|ini'i>on, anJ lie will not £t>t lo iwrtviv* 
IIme, under ihc ■latac of Chromlilo. Hthet are uiiitnl aUicIi In llivlr fona muI 
(■hmtb) ii]i|M:iiniiicv ivuiil (oicral riiniilici uf llic clriu, aiily LnuoTi uii iiilotf 
iluiu of ilw *rn. 'riic iitiiuR l'b»U)>liy11iiin, for tii*uinrii, mi|ilii In ^tiii;i>il aiiU 
b)r tiij^ with I'lu CliiutofOTLU, wiiltiiuL iipjtjin-Hily viuUtin^ lit natuml attiu. 
dot, wnuo vvcii Cii'iur I'uiiaiili'ri.ul i[ ni n riuiux. 'i'Uii (.iMiem SympliyBcdtm 
■nd Uani woiitd nut (uuni vvry mucli uut of )i)wu. Iiv tliv sidi- of lirnnia. Tli* 
Soniu Qoojtli*;^!* nnd nlJicd Tuniis n-cnll at onco iliu Spuroidi, niih wlilch 
nnu of then van aumviMvd by curliur icUtliyulugiiiu ; wbilc tin ipniia 
Crviilclchln farm* n uriking cuuiiurpnrl to I>i« gciiix Mulncnriihiii. Kinally, 
ihc jp'iim Ai'iini anil thfir kindiisd c!o«ly re^rmble tho ["omuwiiiniiilii. In- 
diii^l. hii'l (ii'i iIiK frciUi.<raicr KCRora Pomotii, Ccntrarehu*. and ihn like. bvM 
erroni^uuilr j-xwinWil with the Pcrcoiibi, llic InlitnaTu iv>«Li[iii> wliidi biutl 
thvm tu lite ClinjiniiKvi. and ihrit: ui^uin lo Ibv iniiriiio lygx'x iiiuutioiivd nlxxnii 
mmid loi>]; ajpi liaio been ui'tniou'lutluvd. Tbu (■"■■u* Muiiucirtui li ■ inimia 
lure Toxotn, ttiili u batbol. Hulymntrui, which u alM (uund in ihe Anm 
1001. clandi nuunui to Af.iim and llcroi; it hiu o'lly a Intc^r niiiiib«r of 
nal i|iin(4 In tiiii coiiiiK-iian it uu);ht nui lo b« overlooked >hat tbcM 
fl«n<t m"c not jalap*, liki: thi; ScombrruiU*. bul mihtr ncclujH''m;ifi, it 
DMf UM> ll'l* wunl (o lUii^nnlc flilim da'i'lliii;: nniona lour i*lwiitii. II 
«• ili«i;anl Uiii toiiK-pniv ailing idw of a vIuM raUlionnhip bUwiMD titf 





B*h which earnest !(« young in lis month, grows dftity 
"more wonderful. Tlii» morning \[r. Aga»sis was off beforo 

Chandnoi and Salmonida. b«i*«il fold; upon ibe fnmam of m adi|iM» 
8n, we ttuij u oncfi pcmiTO hem moniTalil on ilw adlalilM between ih* 
Chandnci on one hanil. anil on ihc Mbu the Sc^linc* anil ClujuuSd*, 
aQ of Tlileli an tawallall* narin& Thrw friailon* na; be tnifod to lb« 
dciaili of ihe ittncra; GaMcropdcciu, Troai the bmOj of CtiatarinM, b tbs 
pvO'bnt of Priui|[ul«r ■mi'inii iho Clu|>raiiti). a» Cliiilcin«a neaUi Pcltona. 
In tlie turn* m^j uiny SiuuiiM and CbanlioiliiK bo rurii|»nid Ki Cjaaiin nnd 
the Kko; or Suiliaand OwofEloamni to Mr^opi, nud Knihrinoi to 0|>hiix7li> 
•)■•, Ae., Ac The GoniodonU may at lint lighi h«rd)j iifpiii to h*iv onT 
Uodicd anions nMiino fiihoi ; but if ■« uin into anvuni tho Mnitj wbich 
■nqMHlnaaliilr b*k* Iho ccnus Loriouia and iii alliu witb I'tv**"^ '"d 
fiinfier tancmlcr that to ihU da/ all the ichthjologiit*. niili ibi- mie vxix)>- 
liea of C. DnnMI, hare tmlccd Tcsnin* In oncordor wlib the l'>|>r-ri>)im, it 
wtll no longer bo doohtrd thai tho (Jonlodanu linvc at Irtui > n'mnrkitili.' ana^ 
«ty wlib the Lophnhnuichoi, if llicy uliould not bo can^idnrnd ai bdiiin): a «1om 
Mial nlacion M tlicni. But thi> reloiiiiii irulr cxiku. The cxtrauntinarjr 
of narini; llivir jiuuiij;, wlikli vlmrai-iiTio-t iliv vnrioiiH rrpn-ovnUiiivtz of 
dw old ccnna B^npiaUiiu, ia only nulirhi^ by lliu (iquuUy curiuun inrubaiion 
of ihe egg* ht Loricatia- And a* to ibc olbtr bmilira nrprwcntiil in the bojiin 

the AnwMn*. auch at iha Skain, the Slinrks (be Tcinufdonu, the Flni- 
fttbea (Fkaroiicclidn), the Bill-flihoi (SvombcrvaocM), iho Anrhmit, Uor- 
ring*, and otlior foimi of the Bunil/ of Clupcoid*, ibo Miinenniilo, ihn i^tnu- 
too Sdiailaidi, the Goblaidi. Cc^ tc.. l)ief Ht« chicIlT known lu triurino lypm ; 
while the Cyprinodonu occur cUcwhcre Imh In mil aed ririli a^t^r. The 
Ormnotlnea are thui far only known ai ftcth-wnlrr lT>lirii. nor dii I wc any 
ffound llir i«m|iarlnit them to any maffno lJI>e- They cunnol Iw Toni)Niml 
10 tin Marsnolda, «iih which tliey hnv« tliu> fu hciia aMueiiuMl. The only 
(Ml nllinity I cui tnco in tlivrn in with the Mormyri of the NiU and Sem^al, 
a«it] with ilie Noioptt^ri of ilii' Sunda laUnda. Eel->hapnl fiilioa are by no 
mcBiui all rvlittnl to otn unutlivr. and tbeii elongntnl funn, with a ruletT of 
lullimi. lit no indicaiiuTi of thuir rvlationihip. It may, noTcnlicIan, bo in- 
from wlial prvmdvi, that thu flshra eS tlio Amaioni haic, nil ii wholo, * 
■larina chararlcr peculiarly their oirn, ajid not al all to bn met wlrV aioung 
Ibe inhatiilanta of the other grvU lirtn of the world, 

Thcw |Jceuliaritic» extend to othi-r clniin briidei llthci. Aiiiniii; the Biiuvo 
riwlli. It bu long been kntxrn (tint ihc Amiuon' nnurixhrJi ecoura iif Nwadea 

pBcnllar m iu water*, or only found hcAldci in iIir oilwr gnu rivura of SvuA 



H Ibe in) 



davn, on & (Lsliing escursion vritJi Major Kstolano, anc 
returned with immerous specimons of a dow Epecies of 

America; such u tlyrU, CwiuJia, and Jljtii-topiu, W <*hicli I woald mitt 
kooibor gvnu*. Ibundccl opon (knder, «ickl«4hn|)cd Unios, common to Kjnk' 
and SoDtb Amcriok But whnt Menu to h**e etupcd liio attention tt con- 

rlioloi^iDU !■ lliu tliikinit rtricmblsnce of U.TTia and ATJcula. of Caitali. anil 
Aica, of Mvcclaj^ui and Solcn, &c. Tliui exhibiting another rcpctlUiin of 
Binilao ty\iei <n a rnmity cxclnilrcly limited to freih wnlcn, and haTln^ ■mo 
luml charaif^ra of ilx nwn, cntiralj distinct fitim the marine )^n> .«, ih* 
nppvaninm of whidi thvy to dnnnl}' aye. In ihl* eonnertinn I rannol .apyttM 
ihv nmnrk, that it wiiiild Im pnvrila lo cnnililnr lucli mimicry m !nd*-alin of 
■ coiiimiinily of iiiipii. Some of Itiu taitd alii'lla even tvcatl iiinri .< furtna; 
■ucb utn MJinc uf t'lO KiilimiiX Irdo', wliirli nodiiliit^ llic J[f nn« l'liii;b...ri'illa Mill 
Littorinn (at nioru tiinn lliiiir own r«loiive«. Tli" liiiiilaritv of tin. irtnew of 
(be anterior murgiii of iho foot is paiiiculai Ijr 4'nkiri):- Thn jimvullarui 
Rmiod one itlM, in a meamrc, of iho nuirino ^ncrk Stmlliiulh.14, Nation* .^ 
ie., and many (oHiltoftlic lattur family have lievn confounded wiCk ftwh-'Kat«r 

Tim mmi notlccabta fealuns of the Amaioninn fonna, coniiderM irith rcffr 
tnCD lo ill oceanic chameter, u, however, the abDndnncc of Cctnccnns llin>a|^ 
iW wIioIr extent. Whctorcr 1 have narl)[nlcd ihcu walert, from lluti, n hera 
tfao tidOK (till tend (ho mIi brine u)> the river, lo Tnbnlint;n on llio 1>onieni 
of IVra, in all Cli« larger and smnller trtbiilnrici of itie j;rcal itreitm m irrll 
n> in thB many lakf* cO"ni)««l witli Iheir over-clintiainK w>iirin, I havB wwi 
and liaard thrm, j^amboling at the «urliii'a and miorlni; [IiytlimirAlly, when 
undiilurbcd In tlivlr breathing. At iti|;hr, •.>|)(ii'iiill.v, wlxm cjuinily at anchor 
In the rirer. you hnrdly oror fail lo bo jtnriW by tho noiiwj they make, whnt 
reaehlnit the inrftn to exhale fbrdblj the air they have ton); retfuned in Ibdr 
tnnp while under water. I havo notiMd five dilTtrvnt ipcdai of thii ottler 
of BiiirniilH In tlie wilrn of the Anmioai. four of which belong to tho family 
of PorpoiacR Hiid one lo that of Manatee*. Mr. Iturkhardi hni dnim thiro 
of thi'm ffim frpnh tpocimrnn for me, and I liojie bcfoie long to leennj equally 
fiLillifiil rrprrwri till ion* of tlio othon, wlien I thntl ilciirrilic them all eom- 
paratirgly. On« of iha forpoiwD Inlonic* (o tlio ifenni Inia. and may tio 
trared on tha uppot iriliuiorint of tho AmaMn* to Itolivia, nnoihtir r>i*rm- 
Uw IBOr* our romioon PorportP, irbllo stilt anolber reciUlt the I>i>lphia uf 
tin NB-eeai'i: but I hove bern unnble to njMxrlain whether any one of lhi*ni 
l> idenlk'al wiih Ibo mnrine Kpecie; At nil erents, the blnf k Porpoi«e of thu 
buy of Hanyo, frequently >ern in iho vii'inity of Vui, u lotally diffiirent fiom 
the gray apocits mro higher up 'he itroam. — L. A. 



tliut famil}*. Tlicse specimens rumished s comploto cmbry- 
ologicnl seric5, soido of them having tlioir eggs at tlie back 
of tlie gills, between llic tipp«>r pliarytigciils aiid tlie bran- 
eliuu arches, others tlieir young in the mouth in diffuraut 
stagW of d«Tclopmciit, up to those a qnnrtcr of an ineh 
long and ablo to swim about, full of life and activity, 
when removed from Uie gills and placed in water. Tlie 
most advanced were always found outside of the gilts, 
within tlie eavitj formed by the gill-eovors and tho wiilc 
l)raiichio«tcgal membrane. In examining these tlshes 3Ir. 
AgitRxiz has fouud that a fpccial lot>e of tho brain, similar 
to tho»e of the Triglas, sends large nerves to tliat part 
of the gills which protects tlie young ! thus connecting 
the core of the ofT^^pring with tho organ of intelligence. 
The specimens of this morning 6«em to invalidate tho 
statement of tho fishermen, that the young, though oflou 
found in tho mouth of tho parent, ai'e not actually de- 
veloped there, but laid and hatched in tho sand. The 
Ecrics, in these specimens, was too complete to leave any 
doubt that in this specius at least tho wholo process of 
development is begun and completed in the gill-c.tvity, 

October Vlth. — Tcffd. Yesterday, to our great pleasure, 
our companions. Mr. James and Mr. Talisman, returned 
from llieir canoe expedition on the rivers I^ and 
Hyutahy, bringing most viiluublo collections. Mr. Agassii 
has fult some anxiety nbinil their isucoens, as, in con- 
sequence of their small supply of alcohol, for preserving 
specimens, which was, ncvcrtlieless, all he could iiparo 
from the common store, a great deal of judgment in the 
choice of specimens was required in order to make a truly 
cbaracteristi': collection. The commission could not hive 
been better executed, and the re»ult raises tho uuaiber 




A JonnxRT Ts ratAzo. 

of spccicK firom Itio A-mazonian waters to more than 
hunflrcd, crcry day sliovrin;; more clearly bow distinclly 
the 8poci«H aro localized, and lliat lUh immeii^ ba^in is 
divided into numerous zodlo^cal areas, each one of which 
has its own combination of fishes. Onr stay at TeflX draws 
to a close, and to^ay W^ius the great work of packing, in 
{irepiiration for the arrival of the steamer at the end of tite 
week. Tliese days are the most laborious of all; on leav- 
ing onrry station, all the alcoholic specimens hare to be 
overhanlcd, Uioir condition ascertained, tlie barrels, kegs, 
and cans examined, to make sure that the hoojw are furt, 
and tJiat there arc no leakages. Fortunately, there are 
some of our party who are rery dexterous as coopcn and 
joiners, and at these times the laboratory is turned into 
a worftshop. We were reminded of tlic labors of the dajr 
by a circular distributed at breakfast this morning : — 

" Sift : — The ' Uuitetl Coopers' Asxiciiilion ' will meet in tlic lab- 
urnlory afler breakfttst. You arv |>iirliculiirly raquvsttil to aileml. 

"Tm-t*. Oct llih. IBl-" 

And at this moment Uic laboratory rings with click of bun- 
mer, and naiU. and iron boope. As usual, thero are a 
number of uninvited spectators watching the breaking up 
of the scientific eiitablishment, whicli lias been, during tlio 
past month, a source of constant entertainment to the ra- 
grant population of TofK. In this country of open doors 
and windows one has not the same protection against intru- 
sion as iu a colder climate, and wo have had a constant 
succoenon of curious visitors hanging about our promises. 
I have dwelt especially on the fish oolleetion ; but wo do 
not go away emplr-handed in other respcets. Mr. Dextor 
has prepared a large number of the forest birds for inoimting, 
— papagaios, toucans, and a great variety of smaller spcciei 

tire m TErrt 

of Tor> lirilUant plumage, not to speak or the less showy 
wnter-birds. Ho lias beou ortett in Uio woods shooting, 
wiUk Mr. Uanaewjll and Kr. Tliaycr, and has employed 
several sporUroen of the place lo assist him. Turtles, 
}aeari», and snakes are also largely roprcsented in the 
ooltectioiu; and Mr. Agassiz has obtoiiiod, by purchase, 
a largo and well-pi-escnwd coUcctiaii of insects, made by 
a Pi-onchraaii during a several ycurs' residence in tfaia 
little town. In Tcffi! and it's ncigliborliood we coustundy 
lr«^d in the footetcps of the English naturalist, Mr. Bates, 
*' Scnhor Henrique," a* the people call him hero, whose 
charming book, "Tlie Naturalinit on the Amuzons," has 
boon a very plenMinl oompaniou to u» in our wunderiiigs.* 

• A» ftom the brtrinnint; our nnnngnntriiu n-ci* niiidc ro bIot nt leiut ■ 
month In '[nflf. ii liccnmc pouililc lo Inv out oui waik in n mora ■ytumaiie 
rorm tliaa during our rambling intTcli. Ii wmi hen that I Kcuml the largtcN 
lumbci' ol* Dili tki^li-ioni nnd ImJ acrcnil of ihc lnr)[cr MifmnU of iho country 
linml firr llio Mmfiini; mrli ni Mn.n^ilc«, PorpoElo, l*innirni, SorulnnM^ 
nil Ihv lik<-. 1 hIm) iiii[|i'rto>>k linrr. Tor ihc lint lime, n Ki^iilur Mnreh flir Ih* 
joiinif of nil (ho |i|Hi'ii'a of IMm lluil cnulJ lie olilainoil, Ilcir *K*tti nij 
nrlt[ht«r«, niiil iiiilvMl nil ilm inlialiiiniiTx nf iliR (iliuv, vivil witli unp anothor 
In ilirir «9i>ru lo proriim aiwrinicuit for inc. tivnliur Jcku> Jn Cnnha and 
Pr. Roraaalilo riikIi' fn'qatiiit fi-hin^ cxcuraiunn fur mj bmrfil ; uiil when I 
rniilil run wr<imjmny lhi<ni. n bJintfiil of IibIi vmi nifVFrllit'lcit moored lo iha 
•hiirf, ill ihiT CTenin);. from trhjch I cuulil avli^cl wliatrvvt km UMiful or inwivit- 
i>C. 'I'hi- (cnrcvr of (Iiu place, Hr. Pniro Mrrtilw, who emplojriNl n nkilful liEh- 
cniinii (l-iil; lu iup|<lf hit lar^ fiunilf. gnro dlrwlion* dint tU llie IbhM tnngbt 
«honlil ba bronghl in, ond hufyre the kilchen i*cei<«d In prwrltioai, I had my 
dioic* of •Tnything. Thi» sru n greal furor, «ip«cUillf liurv th« Indinn liih- 
vrmno, Jm4^ whom 1 ha/l cnj^n^r^l in Mnnno* fo acctimpnnj me thTvuKh iho 
nat «f Dj jonmvj, wu now ni Tabjiilnun, luaittlng Mr. Bour^i. Hho avX 
fcwa luft thrrc wlisn I pctamod lo TcfW. An old FAiai Indinn, who wni ai 
familiar Kith the Iblica of (he walcn ■< nith tha animal* of the flinit, and 
whom M^oT CoDtinlio hnd bclVicniIrd for mm; von. renilcic J alio fnu 
Mrrica ia hnnting poitionlar kind* of Atha and rcptllr*, iIir Imunit ofwIilrJi ht 
tkoe >eein«l lo kDO*. Tho whoolmMW nnd hit bnyii, in ihott, vvvrrliody 



(KMtT 21ff. — Since Thursday afternoon our canoe tiu 
beea loaded, all the Bpeciniens, amounting to something 
more tlian thirty barrels, kege, and boxos, packed and 
waiting the arrival of the stoaoier. Wo have p^ )urj 
parting vigils to friends and ac<|uaintanccs here. I I ivo i 
taken my la&t ramhle in the woods where I have had fto 

«tio knew liow to oaicb (Ldi or fbwt, wim out al mirk, anil, iriih tbe >Muunca 
cpf ntf }«nng fVienda Disler, [IiiDnowolI, nnil Ttaajer, and tlw a»«pcnriot 
of Mnjor Coutinlio anil Mr. Biirkhnnli, our iLuly pJ O g" *» *>■• wiwhafcBblb. j 
They xcnc rally mok curvoriliD rolhctioiii of land uuimih. wMIb I ime n ti thbj 
fl*he« 10 mytelf. nnil MiOor Cominlio vnu tnaj with Ecologinl and mctMrotagt- , 
cnl obiciTacloiu. Eicn ihc ten'unu h«l)i«d In clunjnc itic ikclctona. I nuito 
boro ■ i<r/ tnicniln: collcciion of flih bruin*, cmbncinit mod scncr> Ibund 
In lliii localilr, but It Hill unfnilunalclv lost on Amiliiic nl Manuu. Awxrt 
if iho difficnlly at tmn<i>oiiiii|; pn;|>Hrnti(ina ao ilr.litiil^, I kcpl (Imn >)waia 
hy my aidn, iim|>l,T pnct-od in an open bRrrrl. in ihc hiipe of lirin|[tii|c tlium 
■afoly linnip. and alio tlint 1 mljtlit, williout ililllculty, will li> llw numUtr. la ■ 
an iiiiicuanlvd nionxmt, hnwcvnr, whilo laiiilini-. fim "f our MKad*«U cap-l 
*i«d ilio wliuli: Into (hit Rio N<;|p«. ll U tliu Unly finrl uf Mjr vollodiinia i| 
vilikh wji> com|ilc<r1* liwl. 

After icttini; my vvholu pwrly well nnilnr way in T«IH, I mnde tha ¥(17^ 
InitructivB fxciirhion with Miijur Eitolano, of vhich an aivaiuii ii givta xai 
llw laxc, 10 tivs L^u do Boeo, a small *h(«t of vawr. by iba lido of hi* «itio j 
on IhD iMTikH (if [lie main coiirw or ihc Amoxona, when I hull ■ fair opportu- 
Dily of lucvriiuning huw niiiklj ditTrrcnl ihc Hihca mny be thni ipliabit 
adjoining rnunie in ilic luimE liydnie">]iliic bnain- To ilili day I have nolJ 
jFl rccoTorcd (rom my iiirpriic at Itndlng lliu thnrta whlc^li, from a |«OBTa|>hIe j 
point of view, mttit bo conaidi-Tcd (imply n« opporilo tiankt uf ilMwmoaircam, , 
Wtre, acvci'lliclcu, llio aUxlu of an CMrnlintly diffiinnl ii;lilhyolo|[ical jiopula- i 
lion, Amon^ chc mo^l riirjoii»< tihh(-» obtojnod horn, t wExttd nii^ntJAn n nvw 
geiiDi. allied 10 rhmclorupliflliiF. of uhirh I knu» only a ainjti* irrj Uric* 
•|i«du. nunnrhabbi Tor ii* uiiilunii cmiary-j-rltuw color. Ihiraa, Aoaira, 
Pirngopliolitht'i. Jij'.. wvru particularly uoniinuii. Small hb tlii* lob i*, llie^ 
lai^Rfl oainuila known in {he wliuln bum arc fuu&il in it : Mick aj Maiinivai 
BoltM, — tb« PorpdiM) of iJiu AiuiuoDi, «hkh ha* gtt«n iU namo 10 ih« lak* ' 
Alligatar*. riiutiicut, — ihc Sudii $it;iuof •yMemmie itri(«n: Sumbiin*, iha 
[orgK rial lii'iiili'ii llOTiipouU; I'licamumi, ihc laf)[e, yellow Siluniiil above •!■ 
iadei; lu, 4.., Ac.- L. A. 

UPB ut Tsrp& 


mniiy ploasuit walk«, and now wo aro siUing in tlie tuldst 
of Taliww and carpet-bogs, waiting to sou ihc stcitmor ix>uiid 
(]io wooded point in front of tlic liou«), before wc turu lli« 
key oil our four weeks' lioiue, and close this cliapter of our 
Amazonian life. In tJiis couutrj, where time «vcais lu Im 

I W 


Htad or AlaiuidrtM. 


ol oom]Hinitively little importimce, one is iieTer fare wheth- 
er the boat will leave or arrive on the appointeJ day. One 
has only to make the necessary preparations, and then 
(tractiso t}ie favorite Braxiliaii virtne, *' paciencia." The 



u^iiing sfcetcli is o portrait oT my little Iioiifie-niaid, 
Aluxaiidriim, w[io, from her mixture of Nofrro aii<l Indian 
bluud, i» rutlicr a curious illu^lrulion of tlie am:il)cau)ati<Hi 
of races licm. She couseiitcd yuslvrday, after a good deal 
of coy demur, to liave her portrait tttk9ii. Mr. Agassis 
wniitecl it espuci:il)y on account of her extraordinary hair, 
whioli, tliungh it has lost its compact iieim) crinkle, and 
acquired somethiug of tlie length and texture of the Indiaa 
hair, retains, nevertheless, a sort of wiry elaslieity, so tliat^ 
when coiulied out, it stands ofT from her head in all direc- 
tions as if electrified. In the examples of negro and Indian 
half-breeds we have seen, the negro type seems tlio lintt to 
yield, as if the more facile di^pot^ition of tlic negro, as 
compared with the cndnring tenacity of the Indian, showed 
itfecir in their physical as well as their mental characteristics. 
A few remarks, gathered from Mr. Aga^sis's notes on UM; 
general character of the population in this region may not 
be without interest. 

" Two things are strongly impressed on tlic mind of Iho 
traveller in tlie Upper Amazons, lite ncoussity, iu the tirtt 
place, of a larger population, and, secondly, of* liL'tlcr clan 
of whiles, before any fair beginning can be made in develop- 
ing the resources of the eonntry ; and, as an inducement to 
this, the iin|)ortaiicc of taking off all restraint on the uavl* 
gation of the Amazons and its tributaries, opening them to 
the ambition and competition of other nations. Not only 
is the white papulation too small for the task bcfuro It, 
but it is no less jwor in quality than meagre in nnmliers. 
It presents the singular spectacle of a higher race receiving 
the impress of a Inwer one, of an educated class alopting 
the habits and sinking to the level of the savage. Iu UiO 
towns of the Solimocns the people who jiues for tlic wbilo 

un: IN TcrKfi. 24^ 

goutiy of tlio laiid, while itiey ]>rofil by the ignoi-ance of 
tlii; Indian to cli«at and abuse him, ucTerllicIc^s adopt bis 
social habits, sit on tfiv groniid and eat with tlicir tiiigei's 
u he does. Allhuugli il i» forbidden by law to citslavc tliu 
Indian, tlicrc is a praoiicul tdkvory by wliicli lio becomes 
as absotutvly in the powur of the inu^tvr as if he cuuld 
be bought uud sold. The while man engages uu Indtua 
to work for him at n certain ratu, at tlie same time prom- 
uiug to provide him witli clothes and food until such time 
as he shall have caruvd enough to take caru of himself. 
This oulfti, in fact, coists the employer little ; but when 
lite Indian comes to rccoire liis wages he is told that lio 
is already tu debt to his mastor for what has been ad- 
ranced to him ; iostcad of having a right to domand 
money, ho owes work. The Indians, even those wlio live 
about tlie towns, are singularly ignorant of tlie true value 
of things. They allow theuiiiolvcs to be deceived in this 
way to an extraordinary exlent, and romaiit bound to tlic 
service of a man for u lifetime, believing themselves under 
tlie burden of a debt, while they are, in fact, oreditora. 
Besides this virtual slavery, an actual traffic of iho Indians 
doos go on : but it is so far removed fi-om the power of tlio 
nutliorltii^ that tbey cannot, if they would, put a stop to it. 
A. better class of emigrants irould suppriaui many of thcMt 
evils. Americans or Englishmen might bo sordid in their 
trausuctiouG witli the natives ; their handa are certainly not 
doao ill their dealings with the dark-skinned race» ; but 
Ihey would uot degrade themselves to tl>o social level of 
the Indians as tlie Portuguese do ; tliey would uot adopt 
his habits." 

I canoot Bay good by to TcIT^ without a word in com- 
memoTstion of one class ol its iuliabitanU who haT« 


UFC tx iWfK 249 

tl>o ft.\t of about a foot a daj:. It was ea^ to measure its 
retieAt \iy the oflnct of the occasional ratiis on the beach. 
Ttift sliower of ono day, for iuatancc, would gully the taod 
to tlie water's edge, and the nest day we would fuid tlie water 
about a foot below the tcrniinUB of all the cracks and ruts 
thus caused, their abrupt close showing tlie line at whicli 
they met the water tlie previous day. Ton days or a fort- 
night before we left, and during which wo had hcary 
rains at the close of otery day, continuing frequently 
through the night, those oscillations in the river began, 
which the people here call "rcpiqueto," and which, on 
the Upper Amaions, precede the regular rise of the water 
during the winter. The first ropiqucto occurs in TeflB 
toward the end of October, accompanied by almost daily 
rains. After a week or so the water falls again ; in ten 
or twelve days it begins once more to ascend, and sinks 
again after the same period. In some seasons there is a 
third rise and fall, but usually the third ropiqncle begiua 
the permanent annual rise of the river. On board the 
jteamer wo were joined by Mr. Bourgct, with his lina 
rolloctionB from Tabatinga. Ho, lihe both tlie other pai^ 
ties, has been hindered, by want of alcohol, from making 
as largo collections as he might otherwiso liare done ; but 
they are, nevertheless, very valuable, exceedingly well put 
up, and embracing a great variety of species, from the 
KaraGon as well as from the Hyavary. Thus we have a 
rich harvest from all the principal tribntaries of the Dppor 
Amazons, within llic borders of Brazil, above the Rio Negro, 
except (he Putu^, which must be leA unexplored for waut 
of timo and a Miflicicnt working foi-ce. 

On leaving Teffi- I should say something of tl»o nature 
it the M)il in councction with Mr. Agnfsiz's previout 





''iibs[>rration& on this subject. AlUiougli he has been : 
most constantly occupied with his collections, be ba5. 
nevertheless, found time to examine Uie geological foi- 
niations of the ncighborliood. TJie more Ite considers tlw 
Amaiaiis and its tributaries, the more does be feel con- 
vinced that the vhole mass of the reddish, houiogeue 
ouEt clay, which he has called drift, ia the glacial de- 
posit brought down from the Andes and worked over by 
the melting of tlie ice wliicli ti-an^portcd it. According 
to liis view, the whole valley was originally filled witli 
this deposit, and the AmnKOiin ilsclf, a» well as tlio rivers 
coiiuccted with it, are io many channels worn through the 
mass, baring cut their way just us the igartt[)i! now wears 
its way through ihe more modern dupoviu of mud and eaiid. 
It may teem stj-ange that any o[ic !<houId compare the for- 
matioii of (ho^ insignificant forcEt-struumii with that of 
iho vast river which pours iUclf across a whole continent; 
\^l it is, after all, only a reversal uf the microscopic proovss 
of invcsligadon. We mugiiify llic microscopically smuU in 
order to sc« it, and wc must diminish tliat which trunscouds 
our apprehension by its great siso, in order to understand 
it. The naturalist who wishes to compare au eic|>liant with 
a Coni (Hyrax),* tunis (he dimiuisliing end of bis gloss 
upon the former, and, reducing its clumsy proportions, ho 
fmds that the differenco is one of size rather than struc- 
ture. The e)«cutial features are the same. So (Jio little 
igurap<^, as it wears its channel through tho forest to-day, 
explains tho early history of the great river and feebly 
reiterates tlio past. 

• Ii Bu CoTier who Bm wceruined thit the mull Iljmu belong* lo im 
MMI ordor M the ehrphtni. 




AauTAt. «T llAstos. — Kkw Qpahtua'— TVk "Imcvut." — Navt rw>M 
HoMC — Viarr to tws CwcAnc — RisiiaiiAa » tii> Forkit. — Exovn- 
■ma TD LiKB Htasvart. — Chihaothji ahu FMurocnor tnt Amaiosiar 
Vaulbv. — Kicumaii at nm I.akk. — DncKirnim ov Sitid. — Succkufiih 
fuMiMo. •- Imdum ViuroaL 'Imhub Bau. — Ciiabaotrh or tiik Iiaji- 
CM*. — DtamiHsn Niuirr. — Cawib Excukuu^ — Sfl».ht. -> Anotiikji 

Kino. — UOKAL* AXn UahsSRH. — TAt,K WITH TIIK txniAH WllHKH. — l.ll-K 

Di TW* fimoT. — l.irK IX ni« Toir»i. — UismiH-rAinr.— To*»t».- 
SmiMt Uuvr OK nm L^kb. — Nhiht Sose. — Shokixo anumq Taa 


October 24(A. — ManftOR. Wo reached Maiiaos yesterday. 
Aa we landed in the nrteniuoii, nnd 08 crnr ftrrirnl had not 
been expected with any certainty, wo hnd to wiiU a litlJo 
while for lodgings; but before night wo were fttirly estab- 
lished, our corps of o-tsi^taiits and all our sciontiRo appa- 
ratus, ill a small house near the shore, Mr. AgiiKHiz and 
myself in on old, raiutiliug edifice, used when we were 
here before for the public treasury, whicti is uow removed 
to EDOtlier building. Our abode has still ratlier the air of 
a public cetabliGhment, but it is very quaint and pleasant 
fiisidv, and, from its open, spacious character, is especially 
■grocablo ill iliis cliiualc. The apartmuut in which wo 
han taken up our quarters, making it serve liotli a* 
drawing-room and chamber, is a long, lofty hall, opening 
by a uumbor of dour« and windows on a large, green 
enclosure, called by courtesy a garden, but which is, after 
all, only a ragged space ovorgrowa with grass, and having 
a few trees iii it. Nevertheless, it makes a pleasant back- 
grouud of sliada and verdure. At tJie upper end of our 



oirf room liatig our liummocks, nnil h«rc aro dirpoeod our 
trunks, boxes, £c. ; iu tlio otlicr balT aro a couple of wridu(f^ 
lublcs. a Yankee rockliig-cbair tbut looks as if it might liara 
come out of a Maine furmur's house, a loua)^jig-cliair, and 
one or two other pieces of furniture, which giro il a do* 
rneslic look and make it serve visrj- well M a psrlor. There 
are many other aparlinoiit? in this ramhling. rickety castle 
of ours, witli its brick Hours and its rut-holes, ils lofty, bore 
walls, and rough rtifiers ovcrlicad ; but this is the ouly one 
wo have undertakoii to make habitable, and to my eye it 
presents a very hap|iy combination of the cuscy and tho 
picturesque. Wo Itavo been already urged by some of 
our Loapitahle friends lioro to take oUier lodgings ; but we 
are much pleated with our quarters, and prefer to retaiu 
them, at leant for tho present. 

On our arrival we were greeted by tlio tidings that the 
first steamer of tho liue recoutly opened between New 
York and Brazil had touched at Tard on her way to 
Rio. According to ull accounts, ibis has been made tlie 
occa^on of great rejoicing ; and, indeed, tliere appears to 
be a strong desire throughout Brazil to strengtlieu iu 
every way her relations with the United States. The 
opening of this line seems to bring us nearer homo, and 
its announcement, in connection with excellent news, pub- 
lic and private, from the United States, made the day of 
our return to Manaos a very happy one. A few hours 
after our own arrival tlie steamer " Ibicuby," provided by 
the gofornmont for our use, came into port. To our groat 
pleasure, she brings Ur. Tavares Bastos, deputy from Ala- 
goes, whose uniform kindness to us personally ever sinoo 
our arrival in Brazil, as well as his interest in the success 
of the expedttiou, make it a great pleasure to meet him 



sgaiii. Tliia morning Mr. Agasstz received the official 
dociimciii placing the steamer at his disposition, and alnn 
D visit from her commander. Captain Faria. 

OetnUr ^Gth. — Yestepday morning at six o'clock we 
made onr first excursion to a pretly spot much talked 
of in Manaos on account of its attractions for batliing, 
[uciiics, and countiy enjoyments of all sorts. It is callod 
tlie ** little cascade," to distinguish it from a larger and, 
it is said, a much more pictt)rc»}iic fall, half a league from 
the city on the other side. Half an hour's row throuj^i a 
winding rirer bringfi you to a rocky cau*cway, over which 
the water comes brawling down in a shallow rapid. Hero 
you land, and a path through tlic trees leads along the 
edge of tlie igarap<S to a succession of " bunhoiras," as 
they call them here ; and tlicy ire indeed woodland bathing- 
pools fit for Diana and her nymphs, complett'ly surrounded 
by trees, and so separated from oacti other by leafy screens, 
that a number of persons may bulliu in perfect seclusion. 
The water rushes through them with a delicious freshness, 
forming a little cueeadc in each. The inhabitants make the 
most of this forest battling cstabli^limcnt while it laxU ; 
Ihc rise of the ntcr during the rainy )>cnM>n overflows 
and effaces it completely for half the year. While we were 
bultiiDg, the bualmen had lighted a Bre, and when wo i<y 
turned to tlie landing we found a pot of cofibe simmering 
very temptingly over the embers. Thus refreshed, wo ro- 
tumed to town Junt as the heat of the <iay was bcginuing to 
bo oppressi?c. 

October 28M. — Yesterday morning, at about half part 
six o'clock, wo left lifanaos on an excursion to tJie Lake 
of Hyanuary on the western side of the Rio Negro. The 
morning was imusually fresli for these latitudes, and n 



slroiig wind was blowing up so heavy a sea in tlie rivor, 
Ihat, if it did uot make one aclnally sea^aick, it certainly 
eatled up very rivid and [)aiiiful associations. Wo wi?ra 
in a large eiglit-oared cnstoin-lionse bai^e, our comi^any 
ooHHistJiig of His Kxcellency Dr. 1']paininoiidas, President 
uf the province, his Secretaiy, Scniior Codiccra, Sonbor 
l^vares Kastos, Major Contiubo, Mr. Agassiz and myself, 
Mr. Uiirkhardt, Mr. Dexter, and Mr. James. We were 
preceded by a smaller boat, an Indian montaria, in wliicli 
vBa our friend Sonhor Ilonorio, wbo has boon so kuid as Ut \ 
allow ns to breakfast and dine with liim during our slay 
here, and wbo, having undertaken to provide for our ci'OA- 
ture comforts, had the care of a boatful of provisions. Aftci 
an hour's row we left the rough waters of the Rio Negro, 
and, rounding a wooded [Kiint, turned into an igaraptS 
which gradually narrow^-d up into one of those shaded, 
winding stream!;, which make the charm of such excur> 
sioos in this country. A ragged drapery of long, faded 
grass hung from the lower branches of tiio ti-ees, marking 
the height of the last mo of the river to some eighteen 
or twenty feet above its present level. Here and tliere a 
white heron stood on the shore, his snowy plumage glitter- 
ing in the sunlight, and numbers of Ciganas (Opiiitocoinus), 
the pheasanU of the Amatous, clustered in the bushes ; once 
a pair of large king vultures (Sarcorliamphus papa) rested 
for a moment within gunshot, but flew out of sight as our 
canoe approadied ; and now and then an alligator showed 
his head above water. As wo floated along tliraugh this 
IHCturc»)ue channel, so characterititic of the woiidciful 
region to which wo were all moi'O or less strangers. Dr. 
K[iai)iiiiondas and Senhor Tarares Ilas-tos being here also 
for the lirst time, tlie conversation turned naturally enough 



upon thfl uaturo of tliU Amazonian valltiy, (ts ptiysical con- 
formaliou, its origin oiid resources, iu Iiistorjr poft and to 
come, both tliko obscure, boUi ttio Bul>ji;ct of woiidor und 
f peculation. ScdIiof Tai'urus Baslos, altliutigli not fCt ihirff 
yoars of age, is Klrcfidy di^^linfiui^lifd in tlio politics of liis 
country, and Ironi the moment liu entered upon public Uro 
to tlie prwcnt time tlie IcgislAtioii of Ui« Ainaitons, ila 
relation to the future progrcn aiid derclopmeut of tlie 
Brazilian Kinpire, hare been the oI)Jcct of liis deepest 
interest, lie is a kader in lliat class of men who adro- 
cata the most liberal policy with regard to this question, 
and has already urged upon his countrymen the im{)ortanoo, 
evQu from scIliBh motives, of sharing their great treasure 
with the world. He was little more tlLiii twenty years of 
age when lie published his papers on tlio opening of tJie 
Amazous, which havo dune more, perhaps, than anything 
vise, of lato years, to attract uttention to the subject.* 
Tbers arc points whero tho researches of tb« stutosmau 
and tlie iurestigator moot, and natural scionco is not with- 
out a Toiec evcu in tiw practical bearings of this question. 
Sliall tliia region be legislated for as sua or laud ? Shall 
the interests of agricultiire or navigation prevail in its 
councils? Is it essentially aquatic or tcrrostnul? Such 
were »ome of the inquiries which came up in the cuurso 
of the discussion. A region of country which stretches 
across a whole continent and is Hooded fur liulf the year, 
where thei-e can never be railroads or highways, or even 
jiede&tiian travelling to any great extent, can hardly bo 

■ The tnwl MCunite inlatmntlon npon ilin Indutiri*] k«ourm «f Ihi V*rK; 
of the AiDaioiia mil; ti« roiinit In a work piiIiIihIiihI liy Si'iiliur TaivM Bulo<v 
OB hi> ratum lo Rio ilo Jancira, siSicr lliit jnuriirr, «iililli»l " U Vnllu iu Amm- 
nsuu — I^«tudo Kitira > liini Nivi';:*';'"'' ')" Aiiiatunaf , I^tatiitrcn, FruJiK^'Sov 
Comnciein, QiiMtiici Kitoua du Vallv du Aniuunoa ' Riu ili! Juwito- IM< 



considered as dry land. It is true that in tliis ocoaiiic 
rirer^ystcm the tidal action lias an annual instead of a 
daily ebb and flov, ttiat iis rise and fall obey a larger 
orb, and is ruled by the sun and not tlie moon ; but it 
is, nevertheless, subject to all the conditions of a sub- 
merged district, and mnst be trcnied as such. Indeed, 
these s«Hiiainiual changes of level arc Tar more powerful 
in Iheir influence on llie life of tlie inhabitants than any 
niariuc tides. Tenple sail half Uic year above distrtcta 
where for the other half they walk, though hardly dry 
shod, over Uie soaked ground ; their occupations, their 
dre)^, lli«ir habits are tnodified in accordance with the 
dry and wet seasons. And not only the ways of life, but 
the whole aspect of the country, the character of the 
landscape, arc changed. I1ie two picturesque cascades, 
at one of which we took our bath _ the otlior morning, 
and at this eeason such farorita resorts with the inhabi 
tants of llanaos, will disappear in a few months, when 
the river rises for some forty feet above its lowest level. 
Their bold rocks and shady nooks will have become river 
bottom. All tliat we hear or read of the extent of 
the Amazons and ibi tributaries fails to give an idea of 
its inimeiisily as a whole. One must float for months 
upon its surface, in order to understand how fully water 
has the mastery over land along its borders. Its watery 
labyrintli is rather a fresh-water ocean, cut up and dt> 
vidcd by land, than a network of rivers. Indeed, tltis 
whole valley is an aquatic, not a terrestrial basin; and 
it is not strange, when looked upon from this point of 
view, that iu forests should be less fuU of life, company 
tively, than its rivers. 
While we were discussing these poiute, talking of tti« 




time when tho banks of tlio Amnsoiis will teem nitli a 
population more active and vigorous tliaii aiij it lias ;et 
seeii,- -when all civilized nations will sliarc iji its wealth, 
when the twin ooutinonte will shako hauds and American!) 
of ttie North come to help AmericanH of the South in 
developing its resources,' — when it will be navigated from 
north to south as well as rioni ca^t to west, and small 
Reamers will run up to the licad-<jiiurturs uf all its trihih 
tarios, — while wc were speculating on these thhig«, we 
were flpproucliing the cud of our jmirney ; and as wo 
noared tho lake, thoro issued from its entrance a email 
two-utasted canoe, ovidcucly bound on some official mis- 
BUHi, for it carried the Brazilian flag, and was adorned 
with manj brightly-colored streamei's. As it drew near 
vo beard music, and a salvo of rockets, tlic favorite Brar 
dliau artUlcr; on all festive occasiouE, whether bj: day 
or night, shot up into tlio air. Our an-ival Iiad beni 
announced by Dr. Canavaro, of Maiiaos, who had conio 
out the day before to make some propai-atlons for our 
reception, and this was a welconie to the President on 
his first visit to the Indian village. When Ihoj camo 
wiUiin speaking distance, a succession of lieurly choera 
went up for the President, for Tavaros Bustos. whoso 
cliaractcr as ihu pulitienl udvocule of the Amnzoiis makes 
him cspceiAlly welcoiue here, for Major CouUnho, alr;nd]r 
well known from his former explorations lu (his region, 
and for the Etrangers within their gates, — for the Professor 
and his party. After this reception tliey fell into line be- 
hind our boat, and so we came into tlie little port with 
eomothing of state and cei'emony. 

This pretty Indian village is hardly recognized is a 
riUage at once, fur it cousists of a number of sitioa 



scattered through ibe forest ; aod tliougli tlio iiiliubitaiit« 
look ou each other u rrieods «ud ne^bbors, yol from our 
liuiduig-place oiiljr odo alio is to Se seen, — tliat at wliicli 
we are slajriug. It stands on a hUl slc^ang gently up 
from the Ukc-shoro, and coo^ists ot a tnud-house coutaui- 
tng two rooms, hosides scvcml Urge, opeii palm-Uiatched 
iDOUis outeide. One of these outer sheds is tli« maiidioca 
kitchen, another is the couimoii kitchen, and a Uiird, whidtj 
is just now mcd as our diniug-roou, serves ou ftsuH dayv 
and occasional Suudap as a diapel. It differs Truui llioj 
others in having the upper end closed iu with a ncatl 
tlialclied wall, against which, in time of need, tlie aluir* 
table may stand, with candles and rough prints or fif 
of the Virgin and saints. We were vcrj hospitably re-i 
ceivvd by tlio Seuliora of the mud-houic, an old Indian, 
woDuui, wliwM gold oruatuents, necklace, aud car-riugs were ', 
rather out of keeping with hor cuhco skirt and coltoaj 
waivt. Tbis i», liowcvor, by tio nutans aii unusual combi-J 
liatiou hero. Bcs-ido tlie old lady, iJto family consists, a(1 
this moment, of licr "afiUiuda"* (god-daughter^, with 
her httio boy, and sevei-ol otlier women employed about 
the place ; but it is difficult to judge of tlie popnUliou 
of tlio sitios now, because a great number of the men 
have bccu token as recruits for llie war with I*aragUQ> 
rand others arc hiding in tho forest for feur of being 
Pprosscd into the sume service. The situation of Uiis sitto 
is exceedingly pretty, and as we sit arouud llic table in 
our opuu, airy dining-room, surrounded by tho forest, weJ 
Gomuiaiid a view of die lake and wooded hillside oppodtal 
Bnd of the little landing below, where are moored ourj 

f * Him relation It a much niutir ono thrungtiouC Bruil Uiao wbk u*. a\ 
|ol<UU I* RwHd M B member of ilicir own funily b; Iu ^lOiuofS. I 

RErrsx TO MAiiAOa. S50 

bargQ witli its white avning, the gty canoe, and two oi 
three ludion nioiitarias. After breakfast our party dis- 
persed, some to rest in tlieir iiainmocks, others to liuitt 
or 6sh, while Hr. Agassiz was fully engaged in examining 
n Urge ba^et of Ssh, Tucanar^s (Cichla), Acaras (IleTOS 
ajid other genera), Curiniaias (Anodus), Surubinis (Fla> 
tystoma), &c, just brought up from the lake for his in- 
spection, and eliowing again, what every iuvestigation dem- 
onstrates afresh, namely, the distinct localization of species 
iu each diSbrvnt water basin, bo it river, lake, igarap4, cr 
forest pool. 

One does not see much of the world between one o'clock 
and four, in this climate. Tliese are the hottest hours of 
tlte day, and there are few who can resist tbo temptation 
of tbo cool, swinging hammock, slung in some sliady spot 
within doors or witliout. After a little talk wilJi our 
Indian hostess and her daughter, I found a quiet retreat 
by tltc lake-slioro, where, tJiough I bad a book in my 
band, tlie wind in the trees orurbcad, the water rifling 
softly around the roonturias moored at my side, lulled 
me into that mood of mind when one may Ua luzy witli- 
out remorm or ennui. The highest duty seems tlien to 
be to do notliing. The monotonous notes of a " Viola " 
came to mo from u group of trees at a little distance, 
where our boulmeii were resting iu the shade, the red 
ftiogea of their hammocks giving to tlio landscape just 
the bit of color wlncli it needed ; occasionally a rustling 
flight of parroqucts or cigunus overhead startled me for 
a moment, or a hirge pirarucu plashed out of the water, 
but except for those sounds nature was still, and animals 
an well as men seemed to pausu iu the heat and seek 
shelter. Dinner brought us all together again at the 




dose of tlie aftarnoon. As ve aro with Uio ProEidenl 
of tlio province, our picnic is of a tuucli more magiuGcent 
cliaractcr tiiaii our purely scientific oxcuraions hare boon. 
Instead of our tiMial makosliifLs, ^ teacups doing duty 
&« luDiblcrs, am) empty barrclit acting as chairs, — we 
liATO a silver soiip-tnrccit, and a oook, and a waiter, aiid 
knirv5 nnd forks eiiougli to go round, and inaiiy oilier 
luxuries wittcli Kucli wayfarerK a« ourselves learn to do 
vritliont. Wlillv wc were dining, tlic Indians began to 
oomo iu from tlio surrounding forest to pay tlicir respects 
to iJie President, for liis risit wns llic cause of great ro- 
joiciug, and Dicre was to be a ball in his honor in tlie 
oroning. Tlicy brouglit an enormous cluster of game as 
an offering. Wliat a mass of color it was! — more like a 
gorgeouH bou()nct of flowers tlian a bunch of birds. It 
was composed entirely of Toucans, with their red and 
yellow beaks, bhie eyes, and soft white brea&l^ boi-dered 
witli crimson ; and of parrots, or [npagaios as tiiey call 
thcin here, with their goi^ous phimago of green, bluo, 
purple, and red. Wlien we had dined, wo look ooffljo 
outside, while our places aiuund the table were filled 
by tlto Indian guests, who were to haro a dinner-party 
in their turn. It was pleasant to soc with how much 
courtesy several of tlie Brazilian gentlemen of our party 
waited upon these Indian Senhoros, passing them a va- 
riety of dishes, helping them to wine, and treating them 
with OS much attention as if they had been tlic highest 
ladies of the land- Tlicy secraed, however, rather shy 
and embarrassed, scarcely touching tlie nice things placed 
before Uiem, till one of the gentlemen, who has lived a good 
deal among the Indians, and knows their habits perfectly, 
took the knife and fork fn>m one of ihcm, «xcli)innng, 



** Mako JO ceremony, and don't be ashamed ; eat with 
jour fingers as your 're accu!<tonied to do, aiid llieii yoii '11 
find your appetites and enjoy your dinner." Hut adrioe 
was followed, and I must say they seemed much room 
comfortattle in consequence, and did more juflticc to the 
good Tare. Although tlio Indians who Xhe in tltn neigh- 
borhood of tlio towns have Ken too niiicli of Uui oonvcn- 
tioiiaUties of life not to imderstand the use of a knife and 
fork, no Indian will cat with one if he can help it. 

WIicii tlie dinner wa$ over, the room was cleared of the 
tables and swept ; the music, coDM^ting uf a viola, flute, and 
Tlolin, was called id, and the ball was opened. The forest 
belles were rattier shy at first in the presence of strangers ; 
but they soou warmed up and began to dance with muro 
aiiimaUon. Tlicy were all dressed in cahuo or muslin 
Bkirls, with loose, cotton waists, finished around the neck, 
with a kind of taco thoy make themselves by drawiii); tho 
tlircnds from cotton or muslin, so as to furm au open 
pattern, sewing those wliich remain over and over to sc- 
cura tltem. Some of this lace is quite elaborate and very 
fine. Many of tlio women had their hair dressed cither 
with white jessamine or witli roiies stuck into tiicir round 
combs, and several wore gold beads and car-rings. The 
danoee were different from those I saw in Espcran^a's 
cottage, and much moro animated ; but the women pre- 
served the same air of quiet indifference which 1 noticed 
there. Indeed, in all the Indian dances I have seen tlin 
l&aD mak^s tho advances, while tho woman is coy and 
retiring, her movements being very languid. Her partner 
throws hiinsolf at her feol, but does not elicit a bmito or 
a gesture; he stoops and pretends to be fishing; making 
motions at if ho were drawing her in with a line, Ite 



dances around her, Kuappiiig \m fiiigcrB as if be vero 
playing oil castaacU), mid liulf encircling her villi tiU 
ums, but sbo rcmuins reserved mid cold. Now and Uicn 
they Joiu together in Mimctliiiig like a wnltz, hut tliis 
18 only occusioiiully nud for a moment. Hoir different 
from tlte ticgio dauccii which wc saw frequently in liio 
ncif^hbortiood of Itio, luid in wliich the advunces generally 
conic from tho womon, and aro not ulvruyii of tlic most 
modest character. Tho bull was gayer tbun over at (eu 
o'clock when I went to my room, — or rutbcr to tlic room 
where my hammouk was ^lung, and which I shared witli 
Indian women and children, with a cat and her family 
of kittens, who slept oo Uie edgo of my mosquito-net 
and mado frequent inroads upon the inMde, with bona 
and chickens and sundry do^, who went in and out. 
The musio and dancing, the luuf;htcr and talking outside, 
conUiiued till the small liours. Every now and then an 
Indian girl would oume in to rest for a while, take a nap 
in a Immmook, and then rutum to the danc(>. When wo 
first arrived in South America wo oould hardly have slept 
soundly uitder such circumstances ; but one soon becoinos 
accustomed, on the Amazons, to sleeping ui rooms with 
mud floors and mud walls, or with no walls at all, whcro 
rats and birds and bats rustle about in the thatch oT«r< 
head, and all sorts of unwonted noises in the night suggest 
tliat you are by no means the sole occupant of your apart* 
meut. There is one thing, however, which makes it far 
pleasaoter to lodge in the houses of the Indians here tliau 
ill those of our poorer class at home. Ono is quite indepen- 
dent in the matter of bedding ; nobody ti-areU without 
his own hammock, and the net wliich in many places is a 
necessity oo account of the niocqiiitoea. Bedf and bedding 


are almost iinknoirii ; oDd tlicro arc none 90 po>.-r as not 
tc possess two or three or tlio strong and neat twino 
hammocks made bj Uic Indians tUvmsclvcs from the filtrcs 
of tlic palm. Thou tlw open eharactftr of ttio houses and 
tl>e personal cleanliness of Die Indians make tlto atmoi^ 
pliere froslier and purer in their houses than iii tliose of 
our poor. However untidy thej may bo in otlicr respects, 
thoj alwaj-s bstltc once or twice a day, if not oftcner, 
and wash their clothes frequently. Wo have nerer yet 
entered au Indian Iwuse where there was any disagree- 
able odor, unless it mijilit be the [>cciiliar smell from tiio 
preparation of tttc inandiooa in the working-room outside, 
which has, at a certain stage of Ihc process, a .-dightly 
sour smell. Wc certainly could not say as luucli for 
many houses where we hare lodged when travelling in 
llie West, or oren " Down Eaut," where the suspicious 
took of the bedding and the close air of tlio room often 
make one doubtful about the night's rest. 

This morning wo wei-e up at five o'clock, and at six we 
had had coilce and were ready for the various projects sug^ 
gestcd for our amusement. Our sportsmen were already in 
tlie forest, othcre had gone off on a li:<hiug excursion in a 
montaria, and I joined a party on a risit to a sitio higher 
up on the lake. Mr. Agu$siz was obliged to deny himself 
all these parlies of pleasure, for the novelty and variety 
of tli« fish brought in kept htm and his artist constantly 
at work. In this climate the process of decomposition 
goes on so rapidly, Uiat, unless the specimens are attended 
to at once, lliey are lust ; and the puintiogs must be made 
while tltcy are quite fresh, in order to give any idea of 
tltoir vividncM of tint. Ur. Burklmrdt is indefatigable, 
dwajs busy with his drawing, in soite of heat, mosquitooa, 



ftod otlior diticoni forts ; occasioiiaUj lie mnkcs not loss Una 

Ltweuty colored skclcbes of fishes in one day. Of connHS, 

iinadc will» SHcli rapidity, they are mere records of color 

P«tid oulliiio ; but they will be of inimoiLte service irt work- 

Eiig up the fiiiiiihod drawings.' Leaving Mr. Agaisiz, lli«n>- 

e, biiiiy Willi the preparation of hi.s collection!, and Mr. 

Jiirlclmrdt pointing, we wont up the lalte through a vlniiigo, 

half-aquatic, half- terrestrial region, where land »eeiued at 

odds with water. Groups of treex rose directly from tlio 

lake, their roots hidden below its surface, while uumcrouo 

blackened and decayed trunks i<iood up from tho watm 

ill all Kor1« of picturesque mid fantastic forms. Somelimek 

kti]9 trees had ttirowu down from their bmnchcs those Euigti- 

lar aerial roots so common here, and teemed standing or 

stilts. Uero and there, where we coasI«d along by lli 

bouk, we hud u glimpse into tho deeper forest, witli iL 

drapery of llnuits uiid various creeping vines, and il^ para 

rilic sipos twining close around Uie trunks or swinging 

tiiemselrcs from branch to branch like loose cordage. 

But usually tho murgiu of the lake was a gently sloping 

bank, covered with a green so vivid and yet so soft, that 

it seemed as if the earth had been boru afresh in its six 

months' baptism, and had come out like a now crcuUou. 

Hero and there a palm lifted ita head alfove the lino of 

lore»t, especially tlie light, graceful Assai, its crown of 

featliery leaves vibrating above the tall, slender, smooth 

stem with every breeze. Half an hour's row brought , 

us to the landing of the sitio for which wo wore bound. ^^ 

Ufually the sitios stand on the bank of the lake or river, ^ 

a stone's throw from Uie eliore, for convcuionce of fishing, 

• In the coorM of oiir Jonmc; on tiM Amaton*, Mr. Buiilurdt mada mon 
ihaa rigftl buniltvJ |«iutiR^ii uf Rulic*, aorc or Icis Aniibed- — - 1>. A. 





itliliig, Ae. But tills ofi« vz» at some (]i«tanr<e, witli a 
Teiy nioclj kept patli witiiiing tliroiigli tlte forest. It stood 
ou tltc brow of a IiiU wlikh dipped down on tlie other 
side iuto a wide and deep rarino ; tlirougti this rartnd 
nm an igarnpt!, hcyund which ilie land rowe ngaiii in 
an uadulatiiig line of hilljr ground, aiO(«t refnsJiiiig ta 
tlio Of after Uic flat character of tlie Upper Amazonian 
sccncrj. The fact that lhi9> fitio, Ktaiiding now on a hill 
OTOrlouking the valley and llie little stream at its bottom, 
will have Uic water nearly (liivh with llie ground around it, 
when the igarup4! is swollen hy llie riMi of tltc river, gives 
an idea of tliu dlBcrcnoo of aspect between the dry and 
wet 94iasoii!<. The cstnblislimcnt ouiisislcd of a number 
of btiildint», tin: most oouspiciiou* lieiiig a large opou 
roota, which the ludiuu Scnhora who did the honoi's ot 
tlio honi<c told mo «a.< tiivir reception-room, niid was 
oftuu uwd, slio said, by tlio "iinmcas" from Uanous and 
t]>e n«tglil>orli'>od fur nu evening dance, when they cniue 
out in a large company and parsed the uiglit. A luw 
won, some throe or four feet in height, ran along tho 
sides, wooden bencltcs Itcing placed against iheui for llicir 
vhole lengtli. Tho iwu cuds were closed from top to 
bottom will) n. wall made of palm-thatch, exceedingly 
jretty, fine, and snioolh, and of a soft straw color. At 
Ilie upper end stood au immense cmbroidery-framo, look- 
ing as if it miglit have served for Penelope's web, but 
in which was stretched an unfinished hammock of palm- 
tliroad, llie Soiihora's work. She sat down on a low stool 
liofore it and worked a little for my benefit, showing mo 
liow the two layers of transverse threads wera kept apart 
by a thick, polit^hod plecn of wood, sonicltiing like a long, 
broad ruler. Through the opening thus made the shuttle 



ts passed will (li« cross Uircad, wlitcli is tlten puslicd ilovn 
vnd stnigliteiicd iu iut plaoo bj oicaiis of Uic snmu pioc« 
of vood. Alter wc lind rested for n ntiilc, liummocks 
of vaiious color and tcstunt being ittimudtutcly brouglit 
*nd liuug up for our acvoinmodalioii, tlio geuUemcii woiil 
down (o biitlio iu tlio igarapi!, wbilo tlie Souliora and Imt 
d&ugbtcr, a very pretty Iiidiaa wgmiui, sliowod mo tlm 
reel of tlio establishment. Tlie elder of the two bad tlic 
direction of everytJiing now, as the master of tin lionsq 
wns abxcut, baving a captain's commission in tbo army. 

Iu tlic course of our courcrsation 1 was romindod of a 
social feature wliich strikes us as Lite more extraordi- 
nary tbo longer we renmu on tlie Amoiions, oil account 
of il3 generality. Here were people of gentle condition, 
allliDugli of Indian blood, iiAod above evcrytbing like 
want, living in comfort and, as compared with |)Co]>Iq 
about tliem, with a certain affluence, — people from whom, 
therefore, in any other society, you might certainly cxgiect 
a knowledge of tlio common rule^ of momtity. Yet when 
1 was introduced to the daughter, and naturally asked 
sometliing about her father, supposing him 1o be the absent 
captain, tlie mother answered, smiling, (|uite as a matter 
of coui-se, "Na€ tem pai ; 6 filha da fortuns," — "Site 
lias n't any father ; slio is the daughter of chance." 
the same way, when UiO daughter showed mo two children 
of her own, — little fair i>e(>ple, many shades lighter tha 
herself, — and I asked whether their father was at the waTfj 
like all tlie rest of liie men, she gave mo tlic same answer^ 
"They have n't any father." It is the way the Indian of' 
half-breed women here always speak of tlieir iilegitiiuiiie 
cbildreu ; and though tlicy say it without an intonation of 
sadiMM or of blame, apparciilly as unconscious of any 


wrong or Kliamc as if tlicj taid tlio futlior was attsciit or 
dead, it iiJLS till) mo»t molanclioly »giiilicancc; it socins to 
speak or Eiicli nUoIuto dofortion. i>o far is this from buiug 
fto QQiisual caso, tliat among Uio commou people tlie oppo- 
silo sv«iQS tlic exception. Cliildrcn am frequently quite 
ignorant of their parcutage, Tlicy know about their 
mollior, for all the earo and rusponsibiltt; falls upon 
bar, but tlicjr bavo no knowledge of tJioir latlicr ; nor 
doos it seem to occur to the woman that she or her 
cliildrou have any claim upon Iiim. 

But to return to the sitio. The room I have described 
stood on ouo side of a cleared and neatly swept ground, 
ftbout which, at rarioua distances, stood a number of 
little tliatchcd '* casiuhus," as tlicy call them, consisting 
mostly of a single room. Dut be»de tliese there vaa one 
larger house, with mud walls and floor, containing two 
or tlireo rooms, and having a wooden veranda in front. 
This was tlie Sonhora's private cstablishmont. At a little 
distance farther down on the hill was tlio mandioca kitchen 
and all tlie accompanying apparatus. Nothing could be 
neater tlian tlie whole area of this sitio, and white we 
were tlicro two or three black girb wore sent out to 
sweep it afresh witli their stJfT twig-brooms. Around lay 
the plantation of mandioca and cacao, witli here and 
there a few cofleo-slu-ube. It is difficult to judge of the 
extent of these sitio plantations, because they are so irregu- 
lar and comprise such a varioty of trees, — mandioca, cofTeo, 
cacao, and often cotton, being planted pellmell together. 
But this one, like the whole establishment, seemed larger 
uil better cared for than those iisualty seen. On the 
return of tlie gentlemen from tlie igarap<( we took leave, 
tliough very warmly pressed to stay and breakfast. At 




partiiig, our Indian hostess presented mo with a wickM^ 
basket of &esh eggs and some abavatj's, or uUigatcr pcan 
as W6 call them.* Wc reached tlio house just in time for 
a ten o'clock breakfast, wtiich ussemblcd all i)m ditfercul 
parties once moro from their various occupalioiiK, wtwtlicr 
of work or play. The sportsmen returned from Ui« forest, 
bringing a goodly supply of toucuiis, pupii^^aios, and parrel 
quota, with a variety of other birds, and llto fishcnaun 
brought iu new treasures fur Mr. Agairiz. 

October ^th. — Yesterday, after breakfast, I retreated to 
the room where we had passed the night, hoping to Gnd 
time and quiet for writing letters and completing my jour^ 
nal. But I found it already oceupiod by the old Senhora 
ind her guests, who were lounging in tlie hammocks or 
tquatting on tiio floor and smoking their pipes. The 
house is ind<Md full to overflowing, as the whole party as- 
aemUed for the ball are to stay during the Pre^dent'a 
T'sit. But in this way of living it is an easy matter to 
accommodate any number of people, for if they cannot all 
be received uudor the roof, tiiey can liang their hammocks 
\mdor the trees outside. As I went to my room last ereu- 
ing, I stopped to look at a pretty picture of an Indian 
mother with her two little children asleep on either arm, 
all iu cue hammock, in the open air. My Indian friends 
vera too much interested in my occupations to allow of 
my continuing them uninterruptedly. They were delight- 
ed witti my books (I happened to have "The NaturaliKt 
OD the Amazons" with me, in which I showed them somo 
pictures of Amazonian scenery and insects), and (ukcd iit6 
many questions about my country, ray voyage, and my 
travals here. In reliirn they gave uiu much luforiuatiou 
■ The fnui of thn Pciwa graiMtnta. 



ibout tlicir own wuj of life. Tltcjr said tlio (..csciit gntli* 
eriug of neigbbors and friends was uo unusual occurrence, 
for llicy liavG a great muiij festus, wliicli, Uiougli partlj 
religious in cluiractor, are also occmioiis of groat festivity. 
Tbcso fcKtas oro celebrated at diSbi-cnt sitios iu turn, tbe 
saint of tbo day bein" carried, wilb all bis ornaments, can- 
dles, bouquets, Ac., to tlie house vrlicro the ceremony is to 
take place, and where all tlie people of tbo village congre- 
gate. Sometimes tlio festa hists for several days, and is 
accompanied with processions, niuxic, and dances in the 
evening. But the women said tbo forest was very sad 
nov, becanse their men had all been taken as recruits, 
or were socking safety in the woods. The old Sonbora 
told me a sad story of the brutality exercised in recruit- 
ing the Indians. She assured me that they were takeu 
wherever found, without regard to age or circumstajicos, 
women and children often being despondent u|K>n tbcm; 
and if they made resistance, were carried oft" by force, and 
frequently bandcuRed or bad lieavy weights attaclied to 
their feet. Sucli proceedings are entirely illcgnt; but tbcse 
forest villages are so remote, tliat tbe men employed to 
recruit may practice any cruelty witltout being called to 
account for it. If tlie recruits are brought in in good 
condition, no questions are asked. These women said 
tliat oil tlie work of the sitios — the tnakiiij: of farinha, 
tlie fishing, the turtle-hunting — was stopped fur want of 
hands. The appearance of things certainly couRrms tliis, 
for we scarcely see any men in the villages, and tbe ca- 
noes we meet are mostly rowed by women. 

Tet I must say that tbo life of tbe Indian woman, so 
far 08 we have seen it, seems enviable, in comparison with 
that of the Brazilian lady in the Amazonian towns. Tbe 



former bas a licaltliful out-of-door life ; slio Iiat> lier caoofl ' 
on the lake or riror and her patlis tlirough tlio forest, with 
perfect liberty to como and go ; she lias her appoJuled daily 
occupation?, bciug busr not only ffitli the care of t>er bouso 
and children, but in waking fannha or tapioca, or in drying 
and rolUug tobacco, while the men are fishing aiid tuttle- 
bunting ; and she has her frequent feata-days to enliven 
her working life. It is, on the contrary, impossible to 
imagine anytliing more dreary and inonotonous tliao the 
life of tlie Brazilian Senhora in the smaller towns. In 
the northern prot-inces C3)»ecially the old Portuguese no*, 
tions about shutting women up and making their homo-4 
life as colorless as that of a cloistered nuu, witliont ereaj 
the element of religious enthusiasm to give it zest, still] 
prerail. Many a Hrazilian lady passes day after day with- 
out stirring beyond her four walls, scarcely ercr show- 
ing herself at tlie door or window; for she is always in a 
slovenly dishabille, unless site expects company. It is sad 
to see tlicse stifli^d existenc«s ; witliout any contact wttb 
Iho world outi^ide, without any charm of domestic life, 
without books or culture of any kind, tlio Brazilian Sen- 
hora in litis part of the country oitlier sinks contentedly 
into a rapid, empty, aimless Hfo, or frets against her chuns, 
and is as discontented as she is useless. 

On the day of our arri\'al tlie dinner was interrupted 
by the entrance of the Indians with their greetings and 
presents of game to tlie President ; yesterday it was en- 
livened by quite a number of appropriate toasts and speech- 
es. I thought, as we sat around the dinner-t^le, there bad 
probably never been gaihered under the palm-roof of an 
Indian bouse on the Amaxons just such a party beforOi 
oombiuing so many different elements and objects. Then 



«B9 the President, whoee chicr interesl was of (»arse in 
administering the sflairs of the prorinco, in wliich the 
Indians shared largely liis attention ; tliere was iIiq young 
statesman, wlioso whole heart is in (ho gixtat national 
question of peopling the Amazons and opening it to the 
world, and the o6ect this moTemont is to have apon his 
country ; there was tlie ahlo engineer, much of wliose 
scientific life has hocn passed in surveying tlie groat river 
and its tributaries with a view to their future naviga 
tion ; and tlicro was the man of pnrc science, come to 
study tlie distribution of animal life in their waters, witV 
out any view to practical questions. Tlic speeches touched 
upon all those diiforout intOR-sts. and wcto received with 
enthusiasm, each one closing with i> toast and music; 
for our little band of tlie night before was brought in 
to Qulivcu the occasion. The Brazilians are very liappy 
in tticir after-dinner i<pcuchch, cxpre»»iiig themselves with 
great facility, cither from a nnlurnl gift or because S]M!ech- . 
making is an art in which tliey have had much prac^ce. 
The habit of drinking healths and giving toasts is very 
general throughout the country, and the moAt informal 
dinner among intimate friends does not conclude without 
some mutual greetings of lliis kind. 

As wo were taking coCTee under tlio trees afterwards, 
having yielded our places, in llio primitive dijiing-room, to 
the Indian guests, the President suggested a sunset row 
oo the lake. The hour and tlie light were most tempt- 
ing, and we were soon off in the canoo, taking no boat- 
meu, the gentlemen preferring to row tlicmselves. Wo 
went through the same lo^'ety region, half water, half 
land, which we liad passed in the morning, Boating be- 
tween patches of greenest grass, and by largo forest treen. 



and blackened trunks standing out of tho lake like mint. 
Wo did not go Tcrj' fast uor very far, for our amateur 
boatmon found Uie evening wnrm, nnd tlioir TX)wing was 
rutlior plfiy llian work ; limy stopixtd, loo, every now and 
titen. (o gel a fliot at a wliite licmn or to slioot into a Hock 
of paiToqtiets or cignnas, wlici-cby lltoy wasted a good deal 
of powder to no cHect. As wc turned to come back we 
were met by one of tlie prettiest Kights I have ever snon. 
Tlie Indian women, having fini.«licd tlicir dinner, had taken 
Uie little two-masted canoe, dressed witli flags, which had 
been prepared for the President's reception, and had come 
out to meet us. lliey had the music oii board and there 
were two or thrpe men in the boat; hut the women were 
Kome twelve or fifteen in number, and seemed, like genuine 
Amazon*, to have tnlcen tilings into their own bands. They 
w<!ro rowing with a will ; and as the canoe drew near, with 
music playing and flags flying, the pur)>lc lake, dyed in tha 
.sunset and smooth as a mirror, gave back the picture. 
Every tawny figure at the oars, every flutter of tlie crim- 
son and blue streamers, every fold of the gi'ceii and yollow 
national flag at the prow, was as distinct below tlie surface as 
above it. T\w fairy boat — for so it looked — floating be- 
tween glowing sky and water, and seeming to borrow color 
from both, came on apace ; and as it approached, our friends 
greeted 118 with many a Viva, to which wc responded as 
heartily. Then the two canoes joined company and we 
ven*t on together, the guitar sometimes being taken into 
one c&noo and nomctimes into tho other, while tirazitian and 
Iiidiau songs followed each other. Anything more national, 
more complotely imhuod with tropical coloring and charac* 
tor tlian tliis evening scone on tlio lake, cau hardly ha 
oonroivcd. When wo reacluKi tlio landing, tho gold and 

Itn't'R>: TO »A\-AOS. 

roHe-colored clones wore fading into soft masses of white 
aod o-slieii gray, and moonliglit vras taking tlio place of 
suDtel. As we went up tho greoii slope to tlic sitio, u 
daiiC'i on the grass was proposed, and the ludtoii girla 
Tortncd a quadrille ; for tliiis much of civilisation has 
crept into their oativo manners, thoiigli Ihej llirov into 
it BO much of their own characteristic movomoiits, llul 
it loses something of its couvoutional aspect. Thcu wo 
returned to the house, where tite dancing and singing 
^wero renewed, wliilc hero and tlioro groups sat about on 
Jio ground laughing and talking, tlio women smoking 
with as much enjoyment as the men. Smoking is almost 
unirersal among tho common women hero, yet is not cob- 
fined to the lower classes. Many a Senhora (at least in 
this part of Draxit, for we must distJnguislk between Uta 
civilization on tlic banks of the Amazons aiid in the in- 
terior and that in tho cities along tho coast) enjoys her 
pipe, while kIic lounges in her luunmock through the licat 
of the day. 

Ortohrr 80/A. — Yesterday our party broke up. Tlie 
Indian women came to bid us good-by after breakfast, 
and dispersed to their several homcit, going off in various 
directions througli the forest-patlis in little groups, their 
babies, of whom there were a goodly number, astride on 
tlieir hips, as usual, and the older children following. 
Mr. Agassiz passed tlie morning in packing and arranging 
his fishes, having collected in those two days more than 
^seventy new species.* Hi? studies have been tho Kubject 

^M * I wu IndchKd lo ihe Pmlilcnt for manv raliuililc rpcrloim* on ihk 
^Hsxcunion, many of (lid liirrin and lintic* broa{>hl in Iij Llio Indliins Ibr the 
^^ llbtl Mag tumfd ornr lo tlin *(-ienti<tc cullcutiona. Mj iiiunij; rriiinilit 
' ZtaMf Uti Jamtnt mrru alao Ffficivnl. )iiiHiiig nln-Bii b pnrt of ihu day in 
the wooilt, ond uiiiiing ui« greatly in iIm ptvpanuioa and pru«eivaiian or tht 
!»• B 



of great cnriosity to tli« people about Die sitio ; one 
two were always hovei'ing about to look at his work and 
To wMcli Hr. Biirkbardt's drawing. Tliey seemed to think 
it extraordinary that any one ^liould care to take the por- 
trait of a fish. Tlie familiarity of these children of the 
forest with tlie natural objects about tliem — plants, birds, 
insects, fishes, etc. — is i-emarkaMe. Tbcy frequently ask to 
Gee the drawings; and iu turning over a pile containing sev- 
eral hundred colored sketches of lishes, they scarcely make 
a mistake, — even the cliildreu ginng the name instantly, 
and often adding, '' K lillio d'eslo,*' (it is the child of stich 
an otie,) thiLs distinguishing the young from tlie adult, and 
pointing out their relation. 

Wo dined rather earlier than usual, our chief dish being 
a stew of parrots and toucans, and loft tlw sitio at about 
firo o'clock, in three cauoos, tbe inu»ic acoom])anyiug us 
in the smaller boat. Our Indian friends Ktood on tho 
ftliore as we left, giving us farewell greetings, waving 
their hats nnd hands, and clie«nng heartily, llio after- 
noon row through the lake and igaraji^ was delicious ; 
but the sun had long set as we issued from the little 
riTcr, and the Kio Negro, where it opens broadly out into 
the Aioaxons, was a sea of silver. The boat with tlie 
m»)iic presently jmned our cauoe. and we liad a number 
of the Brazilian "modinhas," as they call tivsia, — songs 
which seem especially adapted for the gaitar. Those mo- 


•fiodiDcnt. Among othm ws mnde a cnrioa* ikotelMi of * largo Iil«ek Donu, 
a (pceiM leawrtlBbli) for tlic mm of powerful tvalo cncaillnit along tha itdc^ 
•adi one pnnidcd wltli a rtu<r|i hook licnl bu-kwanl. It il (ho >fcc>** I liavt 
docriboJ, IS Sjiii Bad itanlos'i s^n-^l wnrk, unilcr Ibt name or Iteiiw lluin- i 
iKililti. Tin antcfioT lerutira G»rm a bun/ kinllinc of a «poii(:v»Dt lexlura 
raMublinic ilnuu, on each lidii uTlIic lavkboinr. — L. A- 



diiilias tiaro a quite pcciilinr cliaraclor. Tlioj sm lilllo 
gruccfiil, Ij'iical Miatclies of ttoiig, wilh a ratlier melan- 
choly cadence ; even tlicse of whidi the words aro gay 
not being quite fi'Ce from this undei'toiie of sadness. 
Thia put us all into a somewhat dreamy mood, and wo 
approached tlie end of our journey ralli<!r silently. l)ut 
as wo drew near the landing, we hoard the soiind of a 
band of brass instruments, utTcctually drowning our fooblo 
etTorts, and saw a crowded canoe coming towards us. 
They were the boys from tlie Indian school which wo 
risited on our provious stay at &lanaos. Tlio couoo 
looked very pretty as it camo towards us in the moon- 
light ; it seemed full to ovcrllowiiig, tho children till 
dressed in white uniforms and standing up. This littlo 
baud comes always on Sunday evenings and fu»tii-dsys 
to play before tho President's honiw. Thoy were just 
going home, it huing nearly ton o'clock ; but the I'retiidciit 
called to lliem to tuni buck, and llicy nccoinjmntcd us to 
tlie beaclt, i4<iying all llio while. Thus our pleasant throe 
days* rw-tfif. <*iided with music and moonlight. 





nMnmoAPHio KarjtnrjMiiiinrT. — Ixomsi PniiTHAini. — Kxcdmiimi to mm 

"Ukkat Cakaiik." — Iti timuicic^r. Kdhuati»]i. — lUniuia IVwi 

pAnAtmc I'tAKW. — HicTUHJi tiT nir. Iu.iiiai-k. — PiiiiucBAtt. — SttritfTT 
IK BiCKunuio. AKii tti t-.rfKvra. — Oiui-mtimi PAHf ik*. — Kcmis ■»■ Ib- 

IMAN Lm. — t'txK CKAlll-ttllK AF 111k *" Ca*A 1H1> ttULCJHIMM." — PnMIJt 

AT HtyukO*. — PfitM'ji l>i HI Trunk on iiiK A>ia>!»>.>. — Kiriunn riioM 
FauwiDKirTiAU Khi'<>iir> .•> iiim mimect.— I'niuH Ar 1 rrri. ~ Gushoa.!. 
CiuiumiH or IIi>a/ii.U!i Imtitutiun* — Esii-riii>K'* IttKriniAi. — Illu- 

KIMATIUIIS AM> I'lHI 1C- KkhTH'ITIH. — UlCtlTllll ll^ ClU.I.r.t-TI>U pAKIIM. — 

Saturdatf, yovi-mhtr ■1(7i. — Muiiaos. Tliis week has been 
raclicr unevciilfnl. Mr. A^^nssix is prevented IVom uiidcrtak* 
iiig new oxpcdilions by Die want of alcnliol. Tbe next steam- 
er will bring a fret^b supply from Parfi.; and meanwliile, 
licitig interrupted in bis collectinns, lie in making a study 
of ihc various intRrmisttire of races, Indians and N'ogroes, 
witli tbair crossings, of which a great number are found 
here. Our picturesque barrack of a room, which we 
lia^O lell for more conifortablo quarters in Mr. Hoiiorio's 
house, serves as a photographic saloon, and hero Mr. Aga.^iz 
is at work half the day with bis young friend Mr. Huniio- 
wcll, who spent nlmost the whole time of our stay in Rio 
in learning photograpliy, and has become quite expert in 
Uiking likenesses. The grand difficulty is found in tlic 
prejudices of the people themselves, "niere is » prevalent 
superstition among tlie Indians and Negroes that a portrait 
dboarlis into itself something of tlio vitality of the sitter, 
and that any one is liable to die shoKly after his picture 
is taken. This notion is so deeply rooted tltat it has beeu 



no easj" otaUer to overcome it. ITowerer, of Uto the de* 
nro to see tliemsttWos in a pictiiro i» grndimlly gniiiiiij^ tho 
ascendant, tlio exsnipic of a fov conrngeoiiH ones Imvinj^ 
omboldciied tlie more tiniid, tnd models are mticli mom 
easily obtained now tlian tlioy were at lirst, 

Yostorda; oiir quiet lifo was intornipted l)j an ozcurrion 
to Uic great cascade, vlicre wc went wJtli u party of friends 
to brcakfa»l and dine. Wc were called wiili the dawu, 
and were on the road at six o'clock, the tervaiits foUon-ing 
laden vith ba.><kcts of proviiiions. Tlio dewy walk through 
the woods in tiie early morning was very ploofflot, and wu 
arrived at the little house above the cascade before the 
heat of tlic day bc^n. Thi; lioiitiu stands on a hill in a 
cleared ground entirely »urroiin<lc<I by forest; just below 
it tlic river comes rushing through tlio wood, and falls 
come ten feet over a thin platform of reek. By its forma- 
tion, tills cascade is a Niugnra in miniature; tliat is, the 
lower layer of rock being softer than tlio upper, the water 
has worn it away until ttiure now remains only a thin 
dlab of harder rock across the river. Deprived of its sup- 
port, ttiis slab must break down eventually, as Tablo-rock 
has done, when the cascade will, of course, rotroat by so 
much and l>«^gtn tho same process a littlo higher up. It 
has, no doubt, thus worn ita way upward already from a 
distant point. The lower deposit is clay, tho U|)pcr GonMt>t!i 
of the constantly recurring reddish sajidstone, — in other 
words, drift worked otot by water. Below the fall, tho 
■water goes (earing along through a narrow passage, over 
boulders, fallen trees, and decaying \ogs, which break 
it into rapids. At a little distance from tho cascade 
there is a deep, bi-oad basin in the wood, with a sniid 
bottom, so cTcrshadowed by great trees that it looks dark 



even ID Uvtpical mitldaj. Tbo IwUiing liere, as vo fuuud 
by expeiicuoe at « later bour, u nwet delicious. Tlio 
*hade orer tho pool is so profound aud tlie current nuia 
tlirough it so EvifUj* that tbe vaier U cxceediit^y cold, — 
an UQUsoal tiling here, — aud it scenis vary rcTrcsbing to 
tliocc coming frQin the hot sun outside. At the side of this 
pool I nw a very large parasitic plant iu flower. Since we 
bave been on the Amazons most or parajiites have been 
out ofbloom, and, tliougli we have »eeii beauLirul ooUcciions 
in prirate gardens, we lianj not tnel tlicin tu the woods, 
Thia one was growing iu tltc loltx notch of ft great tree, 
overhangii}g the water ; a tull of dark grecu Icarc* with 
large violet and straw-colored blossoms among them. It 
■wot quite out of reach, and the litUo garden locked so 
pretty in its airy peruh, that I was almost glud wo hud no 
power to disturb it. After breakfast some of tlio guests, 
and Mr. Agassis auiong them, were obUgod to raturu to 
town oil business. They rujoined us iu time for a late 
dinner, arriving in « ctuioc instead of coming on foot, 
an experiment which we had bccu prevented ii-om trying 
in the morning, because wc hod been told that, as tlte 
iganip^ was low and the bottom very rocky, it vould bo 
impossible to ascend the wliolo distance in a boat. They 
camo, however, m perfect safety, and were dehghted with 
tbe picturesque beauty of the row. After a very chcci-fnl 
dinner, closing with a cup of coflbe in tlio open air, we 
started at twilight for town, by different road». IVi^iruiis 
to see tlio lower course of the igarap<S, whidi Sir. Agossix 
reported as so beautiful, and being o^iired that llicro was 
no real danger, T returned in the little eanoo with Mr. 
Honorio. It was thought best nut to overload it, so the 
others took the forest road by which we bad come ui ttie 


iDOniing. I must say that as I went down the rntigli 
steps to the landing, in Ihe very pool whore wo had 
batlied, it struck mc that the undertaking waa somewhat 
perilous ; if this oversJiadowcd nook was dark at noonday, 
it was black at nightrall, and the turbulent little stream, 
rushing along over rocks and logs, looked mischierous. I1ie 
rost of the party went witli us to the embarkation, and, 
u wo di>ap|>cared in tlie darkness under the oveihan^ng 
btmuchos, oiic of them called after us, laughingly, 

"LaioiM* qga! *penDM, roi che 'olrtta." 

Howeror, tliore was otil/ danger onougli to laugh at, »V>ue 
to give real conwtrn, and I enjoyed the row through the 
narrow channel, whore the trees met ovcrticod, and where 
the boatmen were obliged to jump into the water to guido 
the canoe among t)io boulders and fallca trunks. We 
reached home in perfect safety, and in time to welcome 
the others wheu they arrived on foot. 

Jfouemitir 8(A. — Manaos bos been in unwonted agitation, 
for the last few days, on the subject of a public ball to be 
given in honor of Mr. Tavares Bastos. Where it should 
take place, what should be the day and hour, and, among 
tlte Seiihoras, what one should wear, hare been the subjeolA 
of dixcusnon. The doubtful questions were at last settled, 
find it was appointed for the fifth of the month, in the 
President's palace. " Palace " is the name always given 
to the residence of the Pre»ideut of the province, howerer 
little the house may be in keeping wjtli the title. The 
Dight was not so auspicious as could have beca wished ; 
it was very dark, aud, as no such luxury as a carriage it 
known here, the different parties might be seen gropiue 
through the stroota at the appointed hour, lighted with 





lanterns. Erer/ now and (lion, as we vere on oar way 
a tnll-dn>$s iroutd emerge Trom the darkness of an oppo- 
site comer, [Nckiiig its vay with great care along tlie 
muddy rats. When we had all Bs-teinliled, huwcvor, I 
did uot MC Uiat any toilet had auffeied seriously on the 
road. Tltc dresses were of every varicly, from silks oud 
satiiis to KltifT gowns, and tlic coinplcitions of all linta, 
Irom tlic gciitiiiie negro through paler stiadvs of ludiau 
and ncgr> to while. There is ahHolutcly no disUuctiou 
of color '::cro ; a black lady, always supposing licr to bo 
free, ts treated with as much consideration and maote 
with as much attention es a while one. It ie, however, 
rare to see a person ui society who can bo cullml a genuine 
negro ; but there are many mulultoes and miunolucos, that 
is, persons having lilack or Indian blood. There is little 
case in Brazilian society, even in the larger citios ; still 
less iu the smaller cues, where, to guard against mistakes, 
tlie conveotionalilitis of town life are exaggerated. The Bra- 
xilians, indeed, ihough so kind and hospitable, are a formal 
people, fond of etiquette and social solemnities. On their 
arrival, all tlio Scnhoras were placed in stifT rows around 
the walls of the dancing-room. Occasionally an unfortu- 
nate caralier would stray in and address a few words 
to tliis formidable array of feminine charms ; hut it was 
not until the cloae of the evening, when tlie dancing had 
broken up tlie company into groups, that llic scene became 
really gay. At intervals, trays of " doccs " and lea were 
handed round, and at twelve there was a more solid repast, 
at whicli all the ladies were seated, their partners standing 
behind their chairs and woitini; upon them. Then began 
the toasts and healths, which were given and received witli 
great enthusiasm. After supper the dancing was renewed 





and ctntinued till after mMnight, vtien the steamer from 
Pnti wiii) ieeii coming into port, throwing uji rockets and 
biimiiig bluo-lighta as she advancod, to announce that slio 
was llio hearer of good tidings from the war. Tlii?, of 
Courac, gave g«noral salisfantion, and tlie ball broke tip 
in great hilarity. Tlicrc were »ome vlio did not »ilccp 
at ftll that niglit, for many of the gentlemen went from 
tlto ball-room to the stesimcr in seareh of the papers, 
Tliich broiiglit tlic news of a d<;cidc<i victory over the Para- 
guayans, at Uruguayana, where the Knipcror commanded 
in person. It is said that seven tlioiisand prUonvrs wore 
taken. The next night tliu ball was renewed in honor 
of this Tictory ; so tiiat Munaos, whose inhabitants com- 
plain of the life as very dull, has had a must tmwonteii 
rush of gayety this week. 

November 9th. — The scrority in recruiting, of which wo 
heard so much at the Luke of Qyaniiary, ia beginning to 
bear its fruits in goncnd discontent. Some of the recruits 
hare made their escape, and, on Tuesday and Wednesday, 
before the steamer hi which tlicy were to go down to Paril 
Bailed, the disturbance was so gi-eat among them tliat they 
wore kept under lock and key. Tlie impression seems 
to be general here that the proriuco of the Amazonas hon 
been called upon to bear more than its share of the 
burden, and that the dcfoncelcssncss of the Indians in 
llic scattered scttlomonts has made them especially ricttma. 
As tlioro was no other armed force hero, several of tlio 
crew of the " Ibicuhy " were taken to go down to Parft 
ax guard over tlio unruly troops. Partly in consequence 
of this, wo huvo resolved to remain at Manaoe till the 
end of the month ; a delay which Mr. Agassiz does not 
r^rct, as it enables him to continue the comparison of 

SUS A JOVB.NT.V IS- m\7.\L. 

tbo noes wliieli lie has begun, aiid for whkti tlio circuni- 
itances Itcro aro unusually favonbl«. lu tli« meftu^mA! 
the Pretiidcnt has provided Iiim with cuuoet and men for 
three separate expeditious, on which lie sends off tliree par- 
ties this week: Mr. Tulisman and Ur. Dexter to the Rio 
Negro and Rio Brauco, to be alwont six weeks ; Mr. Tliayei 
and Mr. Bourgct to Lake Cudi^jas, to he gone ton days ; 
Mr. James to Mniiacupuru, for about the same lime. 
We feel the generosity of this conduct the more, know- 
ing how greatly the administralioa stauds in need of men 
and of ul) tlio resources at its commaud in the proeeut 
disturbed state of things. 

Novanla- 18fA. — One can hardly walk in any direction 
out of the town witliout meeting something characteristio 
of the people and their ways of living. At seven o'clock, 
to-day, I look my morning walk through tlie wood near 
the house to an igarap^, which is the scene of much of 
Uie out-of-doors life here, — fishing, wastiing, hathing, tartle- 
shooting. As I returned along the little [lalh leading 
by the Mde of the stream, two naked Indian boys were 
shooting fish with bow and arrows from a fallen treo 
which jutted out into the stream. Like bronze statues 
tliey looked, as tiioy stood quiet and watchful, in attitudes 
full of grace and strength, their bows drawn ready to let 
tlto arrow fly the moment tliey should catch sight of the 
flsli. Tlio Indian boys are wonderfully skilful in tliib 
Rport, and also in shooting arrows tlirough long blow-pipes 
(Sarattatanox) to kill birds. Tliis is no bad way of shooting, 
for the report of the guo startles the game so efToctually iu 
these thick forests, that after a few shots the sportenum 
finds the woods in his immediate m^ighViorhood deserted ; 
wbereas the Iiidiou boy creeps ^tcaltlillj up to lUe spot 



fW>m wliicli Ite takes aim and dischargos his noiselon 
ftrroir with such precision, tliat tlie bird or monkey drops 
down fruin among its companions, without their perceiving 
the cause of it« disappeanuioe. While 1 was watching the 
hojs, a canoe came up the stream, jmddled hy woiuen, and 
loaded with fruit and vegetahles, on tlie top of which sat 
two bright gi'eoii parrots. Two of the wotoeii were old 
and hideoua, very wrinkled and witliored, as these people 
usually are in old age ; but the tliird was the handM>nie!it 
Indian woman 1 have ever seen, with a tinge of white 
blood to bo sure, for her skin woa fairer and her fcatui-es 
more regular than those of the Indians generally. Thcj 
were coming from their sitio, as I learned aflurwuidx. 
When tiicy had moored their boat to a tree, tlio yoiuigei 
woman began to unload, tncking hor petticoat about hor 
liips, and wading to and fro with boskets of fruit and 
vegetables on her head, Ucr hair was dressed witli (low- 
en, as its U5ual with tlicse women ; however scanty tlicir 
clolhiug, they seldom forget this ornament. 

Novtnth^ 20M. — The President, Dr. Epamiiiondas, added 
justcrday to Lliu many kiudnesscs by which he has rundvrud 
our stay here doubly pleasant, in giving nu exceedingly 
pretty (uto in honor of Mr. Agassix. The place cliosou 
was the a.'tylum for Indian cliildron already described,, 
well adapted for the purpose on account of its large, airy 
rooms and beautiful situation ; and the invitation was given 
out in the name of the "Province of the Aninzonas."* 

■ I tratt iLal the iDOtix wQl not b« mlHandnritioud whtcli iTiilnvos mo [u aild 
htn a ItanjlHlion »f t1t» gvnttm] canlt uf tiiviintion ilnlriliulixl on Ihii wvuitioD, 
Tbo gjncrtbl utpnsiiun tit ■ UKiuglit m kind, and iho muxicr in which lbs 
Pnaidcni looicw liii ovn pcreonallij in ihe nnme of tltc ["mvinM of sliich 
ha b Lbo iiJininilniitTa bcwl, nn w <liDracliTiiiic cf Kit lainglcd courmjr and 
BkOdcNj, lltai I uiTi iciniiivd to inwrt the soio, notwitlutaiidintr )ti pcrtonal 



The day was most propitious ; a rain during the night 
had cooled the air, and a slightly overcast ^ky, combtucd 
with the froslinCBs of the atmosptinre, gavu juH tlio ooif 
ditiotis mo&t desirable for any such excui'sioii iii this 
climate. When we reached ttie bench frora which wo 
were to leave, people were begiiiuiiig to asscmiile, and a 
number of canoes were already on Uicir way, looking 
very gay with their white awnings above and the bright 
dresses inside. Twenty minutes* row brought us to our 
dc8tiiiiition. The scene was very pretty; Iho path from 
the landing to iho uiaiu house was liued with flags and 

chnnoier. UnRirtiiniitolj, 1 cwiaal kiwaj's do TuJI juKU'ra to tfu> UiufaMM 
ihoiru Mr. Ai^iLwit thrt)u;;liuu( Our juurnc/, oi to llio g«ii?ral ■pptnrimkm 
of big odL-ntirie oliji'cu, wliliuiii iiiirodudiig ttstimgiiiiLU inM IliU iiiini[ii*e 
thivh rt noolil pfriinps he nK-rc bctomiiig in mo lo lupprcu. But I da not 
Know how othcnviM lo ifknow-lcdge our obligiiioni, and I truat il will ba 
atUiboMd, bf Mnilid rouiuRi, u> llio iruo motive, — lo itr«iituili: und not lu 

" The aclcntlflr Ubori unilcnnkrn ni this litiin lij the lo-tmeil and Ulunhioiu 
ViafvsHoi Apiuii in thi> I'rnviDiv, (iii'iit fmiti Ili« AmiiionODa** the rnm 
•iiiccn- cniriiii'iQ niiil iicki">nIi.'<iK^"i<-''it, »iiil rUcit oil oitr part n mmiilcitaiion 
b<f uliicli we Hvk bj «liuw duo opprL-duUiin of bit lii^i iiiteU«ciiuil merit. 
J viih thu( fur tliL) olivet I could tliipoae of moev atiundjuii rcaourcci, or 
thni ilic I'roviuco huJ in reaillni:» beiicr meani of iliDwing tlic Tcncratfon 
■nd conlinl aiccin wc all bcnr lo him, tlic rsipcct und ailmiratioD wo &cl 
Ibr hil Kicntiflc rxplanlionii. Bui ihn niiccrtiilnlr or hia t*»j aniiini; iia 
ablign ID* lo ullilr at cmir wimo pro^f, liuwcvor iimiiriuflcaiit, of our prufuiiud 
ill (11 an for thin muKi di'Miviiij- American. 

"To ihii ^nd. tliu aci'omplighmciilo)' which I cannul lon^r d'Tcr, t invito nil 
to join mo in offiTinif lo l*roft«or Apuni and id hii wifr, in ihc nome of the 
Pnivindp of the Aninicmai, ■ modal rural brcnkful (n/nufv mmpHfrcl in thn 
Caudoi Ednuniloi. on Sunday, tho 18th of thia monlii, at II o'clock In tha 
momins. I hordi; inriut jou anil j^ui Ikmily lo In pncacni, in order ikat ihla 
Amiral. j^nal la tin *srnmn«w of our inwiirion*. Iinwenir iniall at ooniintTad 
•lilh Um impurtance of ihoin to whum it k offiinid, ibfjuld Iw uaf and brilliaDt 

" Amtdxici Eriiu!>oxiiaa UK IIeua 

Talaet rf Uc CoatHmaa al Vauaat, 13 .Soimiilxr, \$U." 



witli palni-lrecs brought Trom tho Torc^t Tor the occasion, 
Mid the open sides or tho large rooms out^ido, usually 
workiiig-roofQS, btit now fitted up for the hrcakfasl, wuro 
all filled ill with greon arches built or Iroes and flowers, 
so that the whole spncc wa» trunsfornicd , for the time 
being, into an arliur. We were received willi music and 
condnctcd to the main building, wlicru all tJio gursia 
graduallf assembled, some two hundred in number. At 
•boat one o'clock the PrcMdcnt led tit* way to the gieca 
arcades which, as yet, we had seen only from a distance. 
Nothing conid be more tasteful than the arrangements. 
Tlic tables were placed around a hollow square, iu Uie 
centre of which was the American flag, with the Bnt- 
zilian on either side of it; while a namltcr of other flags 
draped Uie room and made tlie whole scene bright villi 
Oolor. Hie Iniidscipc, framed in the open green arches, 
made so many pictures, pretty glimpses of wnlcr and 
wood, with here and there n [uilm-thiitehcd ruof among 
the tixrcs on the opposite side of tlio rivor. A frcsli breoso 
blcw^ through the open dining-room, stirring the folds of 
the flugs, and miiking a p1cus:int rustle in the trees, which 
added their music to that of the baud outside. Since vo 
ai-e oil tho Amazons, a tliousimd miles from its month, 
it is worth while to say a word of the breakfast itself. 
There is such an exaggerated idea of tlio hardships and 
difliculty of a voyage ou the Amazons, (at least so I infer 
from many remarks made to us, uot only at homo, but 
even in Rio dc Janeiro fay Brazilians themselves, when 
■we were on tlie eve of dcpartui-o for this joui-noy,) tint 
it will hardly be believed that a public breakfast, given 
in Uanaos, should have all the comforts, and almost all 
thu luxuries, of a similar ontertainmcnt in any other part 



of tlw vitrld. It is tnie, that ve liad ijcitli«r icen i 
cbainpagae, the former being of coui'so dillicblt to obtua 
in tliis climate; but tlieso tvo exceptions were more than 
com|icnsat«d for by the presence of tropicftl frtiits not 
to bo bad cbovliere at any price,— enomions Iliieapplcs, 
grcon and purple Abocatys (alligator pears), crimaon !*»• 
taiigas. Attas (fruta do Conde), Abios, Sajiotiti, Bnnanns 
of tlio clioimst kinds and in tbo greatest profuniou, and a 
variety of Maraci^ (tbe fruit of the pa&sioii-flawer)." 
Tlie breakfast vas gay, the loasls were numerous, tbo 
Bpeedies auimated, and long afbtr tbe Senlioras bad led tbo 
table the room still echoed willi Vivas, as liealth followed 
healtli. At llio cloee of tlte dinner there was a littloJ 
scene which Gtruck us as very pretty ; I do not know ; 
whether it is a custom hero, but, as it cxcitod rto remark, 
1 suppose it may bo. Whou ihe gontlcmou relurucd to tbo 
liouse, bringiug tbo mu»ic with thorn, all the waiters itssom- 
blcd in line before the door, docauter and gla&s in hand, to 
finish the remains of tlie wine with a toast on their own 
account. The bead-waiter then stood in front of tlicm 
and gave tlie health, first, of Uio persons for whom the 
banquet was given, followed by that of tlie Prciiideut, 
all of which wcro answered wilb Viras as they Riled tiieir 
glasses. Then one of the geiitlcmon stepping forwai-d gave, 
amid sliouts of laughter, tlie healtli of the hcad-wailer 

* A* 1 do DM with 10 miiilvad, tnil thi* nunativB ma; fitrliBiu influoiiM 
<onM 000 10 rnnlLe a jounjuj in tUi i^icio, 1 thoalil diM, th«l, whilo ilio afaoi* 
■ atricilj tniB. thtre an maajr ihing* ceaenuiil w tha cumJbrt of tb« tnTOlh» 
■01 K> be had. 'I*bi'rc U doi ■ itRvnt liu(*I tliro(i'>huul (ho wholu lon^^li of lbs I 
Atnaaoiu, and aay uiii! irba ihinlu of iraTel[ing ihcrc tunu proridw himwU' 
wiib (Mil Ictton ai *il] aecure aMonimadauoa in pritate houM*. So recon* 
mended, b« mny ufolT dqiirnd upon 1io<|iiullir, or upon ■ueh aawnnwe fami 
imlirJdiiaJj a* will cnalilo liiiii i« liiid a {itivate lod|[iuy. 



liiiuseir, which was drank iu n elosiug buinpor with per- 
haps more animation Umii either of the otlicnt. The af- 
ternoon closed vritli duiiciiig, and at stinsct the canoos 
assembled and we rctiirucd to tlie city, all feeling, I 
bciiere, tliat tlie festival hnd been a very happy one. 
It oeruinly was so for tliose to whom it was intended to 
gire pleasure, and could liai-dly fail to be likewtso for 
tliOM who bad planiicd and executed it. It will stseta 
strauge to many of my readers tlial Sunday should l>0 
cho«vn for sucb a f£te ; but licrc, as in many parts of 
coiitiiienlnl Eiirupo, even in Piutvstant districts, Sunday Is 
a holiday and kept aa such. 

Ifovemlier Hth. — Yesterday I Tisitcd tbo prison where 
t)ic wife of the chief of police bitd invited me to see some 
of tlie carved articles, straw work, ^c, made by the prison- 
en. I had expected to be pained, because I thought, from 
the retrograde character of things in general here, the 
prison system would be bad. But the climate in these 
hot oouDtrics regulates the prison life in somo degree. 
Ueu cannot bo shut up in close, dark cells, wiUiout en> 
daugering not only tlieir own lires, but tho sanitary con- 
dition of the establishment also. Tberefore the prison is 
light and airy, with plenty of doors and windows, secured 
by bars, but not otiierwiso closed. I infer, howorer, fh>m 
a passage on the prisons of the province, contained in one 
of the able reports of President Adolfo de Barroe (1864), 
that within tho last year there has been a great improro- 
meiit, at least iu the prison of Manaos. Ha says : " The 
state of tho prisons exceeds all that can be said to their 
disadvantage. Not only is it true that there is not to be 
found througliout the proyince a prison which fulfils the 
conditions iniposcd by tho law, but there is not one wliivli 


A Joi;B:{er ix bua/iu 

•tcsorres tlie uamo of prison wiUi the exce^itioii of tliat u 
tile capitaL And even ttiis one, while it does not possess 
one of the conditions exacted by similar institutions, con- 
tains so disproportionate a numboi' of prisoners of all 
classes, so indiscriminately mingled, tliat, Hettiiig aside tlto 
otiier difficulties arising from this aeisociation, it is oiilf 
\>y the mercy of Providence that the jail has not been 
converted into a focus of epidemics during the great heat 
prevailing in tliis city for a great part of tlie year. In 
four small rooms, inaufRcicntly ventilated and lighted, are 
assembled forty prisoners (including the sick) of vanons 
classes and conditions. Without air, without cleanliness, 
almost without room to move in their smothered and damp 
enclosure, these unhappy beings, against all precepts of 
law and humanity, suffer far more than the simple and 
salutary rigor of punishment." These strictui'es must 
Itave led to a great amendment, for the prison docs not 
now appear to be deGcient in light or in ventilation, and 
there is a hospital provided apart for the sick. Some of 
the prisoners, especially those who were lliore for political 
oflences, having been concerned in a recent revolt at Serpa, 
were very heavily ironed ; b«t, excepting tliis, there were 
no signs, visible at least to tlio transient observer, of cruelty 
or neglect. Al^r some remarks on the best modes of re- 
forming these abuses and the moans to be employed for 
that object. Dr. Adolfo goes on to speak of the ruinous 
I'ondition of tl>e prifons in other cities of the province. 
" Sncli is the state of the prison in the town of ToffiJ 
The edifice in which it is establislied is an old and criim 
bling house, i>elonging to the municipality, tliatched with 
straw, and so ruinous, that it seemed to me, when I 
Tisited it, retluir like a deserted liabilation than like a 



building dei^tined for ttie detention of criminals. Tlior« 
Wfira but a few prtsouen:, some of whom wore slruadjr 
condemned. I formed a faTorable judgment of tlicm all, 
for it seemed to me they must have either great conRdouco 
in liinir own innocence, or scruples aa to compromising the 
few soldiere irhn acteA aa giiardii. In no otlier way could . 
I explain the fact that tlicj- remained in prison, when ' 
fiiglit seemed so easy." I well remember one evoiiing 
when walking in TeflS seeing a number of men leaning 
against the wooden grating of a dimly lighted room in 
a ruhiou» thatched lionsc, and being told that this was 
tlie prison. I asked myself the same question which pro- 
sented itself to the President's mind, — why those wild- 
looking, half-naked creatures had not long ago made thoir 
escape from a prison whose bars and bolls would hardly 
hare imposed restraint upon a child. The report con- 
tinues : ** A more decent and, above all, a more secure 
prison at this point, the most important in the whole 
Solimoens, is an urgent and even indispensable necessity. 
Of the sixteen prisons in the whole province, only two, 
that of tlie capital and of Barcellos, have thoir own build- 
ings. With these exceptions, tlie prisoners occupy either 
a part of the houses of the legislatire chambers, or are 
placed in private houses hired for the purpose, or in the 
quarters of the military detachments. In these diScrent 
prisons 6:)S prisoners were received during the current 
year, inclusive of recruits and deserters." This lost 
clause, " inclusive of recruits and deserters," and tlie 
association of the two classes of men togotlior, as if 
equally delinquent, touches upon a point hardly to be 
overlookod by the most superficial observer, and which 
makes a very painful impression on strangers. The sys- 
13 a 


tem of recruiting, or rather tlio uttor wniit of sjr&tem, 
leads to tiie most terrible abuse of autlioritjr in raising 
men for tlio army. 1 believe that the law provides Tor a 
constitutional draft levied equally on all classes, excluding 
mou below or shore a certain age, ov having certmu rospon- 
sibilitics at homo. But if sucit a law exists it is certaial; 
list enforced ; recruiting parlicK, as bad as the old " prcss- 
i;aii»s" of England, go out into tlio forest and seize Uie 
Indians wlierovcr they can lind thcni. All who rosbt this 
(lUminnry Ireatmcut or show any inclination to escape arc 
put into prison till Uie steamer leaves, by which they arc 
ticepattihcd to Vavi and thence to the army. The only 
overcrowded room I saw at tho prison was that where 
tJio recruits were confined. Coming from a country where 
the soldier is honored, where men of bu-tli and education 
have shown that they are nit asliumeJ to serve in tlie ranks 
if necessary, it Hcomcd to mc stxangc and sad to liCC tl>e»o 
men herded with coninion criminals. Tlic record of the 
province of the Amszouos will read well in tho hiBtoiy 
of the present war, for tim number of troops contributed 
is very large in proportion to the population. But as 
most of them arc obtained In this way, it may be duubu-d 
whether the result is a very strong evidence of jiatriolitm. 
11ie abuses mentioned above are not, however, confined to 
liiese remote regions.* It is not uncommon, cvoii in tho 
* UDch of irhnt foUom upoD ludnl nbuaiui. tjnany of (ba lac>J fotirai 
[■HMD dlidplinB. Ar., though not qiioMiI in liii own irard*, baa bran gMhtnd 
fram canirrMiioni with Mr. Aguiix. or from duciiHioni betwn^n him anil hi( 
tlrulliitn fricDdi. Tho way in wUkh Ibil Tolumo hu grown np, being a* it 
■vm tbo rcfDltor ■ double experience, nuka U occtuionall/ dlfflcull U dnw 
ilie tuucl Gno DiarLini; the bouiulnric* of aniliorihlp ; Ihc dimton bdox 
iodi'nt MnmwhAl rnKnu in t)ic niiniU of (ho writer* ihemKlret. Btil ilnra 
critkitmi of thii wt wuuti! hnie litdo nine, exor[>i ni lioMil upon Isri^r 
oppocwnitioi far obitvmiiiDn thun ftll K> mj thaiv. 1 >ni ih« mora aiiKiout 
Vt -^r tbmt, «hfwv« I cut. » their right (onrr*. 


■uoi'o [topuluus Aud G«iitral parb of Brazil, to meet recruits 
oil ilic road, vo-called vohmtvcrs, cliaiiicd tvro utid two bf 
llie neck like crimirmh, under uti armed guard. Wlicu we 
first met a squad of men under (lio^o vtrcumststicvs, on 
tlic Juii (le Fora rood, wc suppuwd tlicm to be dcs«rton, 
jtit tbe Ilmziliniis who were willi ue, aud wlio t«cmc(l 
deeiily mortiried nt tbe circumstance, SDid t3iut llioy wcio 
no doubt ordinary recruits, nirestcd wilbunt inquiry ou tlio 
Olio side, or power of rci'lntaiicc on tbe otlier. Tlicy as- 
serted Uist this mode of recruiting wim illegal, but tbat 
their chains would l>e taken olT before entering tbe city, 
and no questions a»kod. A Brazilian told me that he had 
known an instance in which a. personal pique against an 
enemy liad been gratified 1>/ pointing out its object to tlie 
"Vtcniiting oflker, who had the man nt onoe enlisted, ihougli 
a large family was entirely dependent upon liim. Our 
informant seemed to know no redress for tyranny llko 

Tlie hospitality we have recciTcd in Br<i2il, t!io sympathy 
sliotrn to Mr. Agassis in bis jcioMtific undurtukings, a« well 
OS our own sentiments of gratitude and affection for our 
many friends hero, Turbid us to enl«r into any criticism of 
Braxilian manners or habits which could have a personal 
application. Neither do I believe that a few montlis' rest* 
deuce ill a country entitles any one to a Judgment upon 
the national clianiclcr of its people. Yet there are certain 
features of Brazilian instttuiioiis and jwlitics which cannot 
but strike a stranger unfuvorably, mid which explain tho 
complaints oiio conslantlir hours from fureign r»idcnls. 
The exceedingly liberal coni«tituUoii, borrowed in great 
port from our own, prepares ono to expect the largest 
prart^cnl liberty. To a dt^reu this exists ; tlioro is no 





(;enGO[ii))ip of Uie press ; tlicirs is uo constraint tipon titt 
exercise of any man's religion ; nominally, there is abso- 
lute fi'ecilom of thouf^iit and belief. But in tlio [ii'acticnl 
working of tlio laws there is a very arbitrary dement, and a 
potty tyranny of die police against whieli tliore seems to 1>0 
nn appeal. Thci'O is, in short, an nttcr want of harmony 
between llie institutions bnd th(! nctual condition of the 
people. May it not be, that a borrowed oonMitution, in 
uo war tlio growth of the sot), is, after all, like an ill- 
fitting garment, not made for tlte woarar, and banging 
loosely upon him? Tliere oan l>e nn organic relation be- 
tween a truly littoral form of govenimont and a people for 
wliom, taking tlicni as a whole, little or no education is 
provided, whose relij^on is adminitit^rcd by a corrupt clergy, 
and who, whether wliite or black, are brought up under 
iho 'nHnence of slaTory, Liberty will not abide in the 
laws alone ; it must have its life in tlie desire of tlio 
nrftion, it« strength in her re»olre to hare and to bold it. 
Another fe-ituro which makes a painful impression on the 
stranger is the enfeebled chai-actcr of the population. I 
liaro spoken of this before, hut in tlie northern provinces 
it is more evident than farther south. It is not merely 
tliat tlie children are of every hue ; the variety of color 
in every society where slavery prevails tells the same story 
of amalgamation of race ; but here tliis mixture of i-aces 
seems to have had a much luoro unfavorable influence on 
tlie physical development than in the United States. It 
is as if all clearness of typo had been blurred, and the r&> 
suit is u vague compound lacking dtaracter aud exprcs- 
siou. Tliis hybrid class, although more marked here bo- 
cause tlic Indian element is added, is very numerous in 
all the cities and on the large plantations; perhaps tlia 



fact, so liouoralilo to Bnui'I, tliat tlio free negro has full 
access to all tlic privileges of any Troc citizen, ratlicr t«nda 
to increase timn diininisli tlio immltcr.* 

Decemhgr 8rf. — Ycslcrdaj was tlio Emperor's birtlidny, 
always kept us a lioliday tliroiighnut Drazil, and this year 
villi more entlintiasm lluiti iisn:il, because lie lias jii^t 
rctnriicd from tlie urniy, and lias made liim^lf donlily 
dear to Ills people, not only hy tlic snccc»s wliicli nitend- 
1^ lits profwiice lliei-o, but by bis biimanity toward ibe 
•Oldicrs. We bad our illiimitiutiuii!t, ljoui]net», iimsic, &c., 
as well M the reM of tlie woild ; but an MnnaoB is not 
overflowing witli wealtli, tlie caiidlcf wero rather few, 
tad there were long Ia]»>e» or darkness nltcriiating with 
the occnuioiial hrilUnncy. We went out in the opening 
to make a few calls, and li»teii to tlie music in the open 
ground digiiiricd hy the name of the public square. Here 
all the Kurruunding buildings were brightly illuminati^d ; 
tliere was a very jnetly tent in tlie centi-e, where the band 
of Indian children from the Oasa do8 Kdiicandos was play- 
ing ; preparations were making for the ascension of a 

* Lcl onj and vbo doabn the evil of iliii miiturc of rticca, anJ ia incljncil. 
(h>m a mlsiakun pliilitnlluopir, lo break tiawn nil linrriFn bnwisn tliom, coma 
to Bruil. He nuinot dcnj the JctcrlDrerian cnnioqiionl upun an ainsli^mii- 
(ion at raccf, more wlili'^iircml Iicid ihnn In any other coiuilr/ in lh« wurlil. 
•aU which la ni|iii]l7 uHWini: ilic beuqunllitcaof die white nun. the Diigra, and 
ihelndiiin, lrarinj;a niimi^'I iioixlnrrlpt iypc,ilcfldenl in phyiJcnl nnd mental 
vnrr):j. Al h tiirn^ wlioii Ihit new *ii>cinl ilatii* of ihc negro li ■ subjiKt of vital 
imporuinn in our itiHIc>ina'iit!ii)i, wn xiioiilil proHi by tbc rxjii-ricnce of ■ conn- 
Ir; wlipTV, iiii)uj;!i tlnttry nxiiii, lliftru in far more lilicmliiy tuwont tlic fnw 
ntgio tlina ho Una ever eojojwl in the Uiiiiml Sutm. Let iii Icam ilio double 
letMn -, open nil iho iutv«Rijip.>a of eilm-Hliun to the tM^ro, and give him 
•Tei7 cbanre of mcorta which enlEuni giro* (o thn mnn wlio kiiOui how ro 
UM it ; bill mpccl thv law* of nnturo, and let tit our dvnlini^ witli the Hack 
nun lenil to prcmn, ai fat u ptiuiblu, the diaiinctncMB of hi) national charao- 
Wri(^>(■, and tlw iDWBiitf uf oar own, — L. A- 


A JOuitKirr IX BSAzn. 

lighted lallooii nt ft later hour, ai]d so on. Btit whenever 
wo ImTo Imjpii present at public fc«tivi(ics in Brazil, — and 
our obserratioii is confirmed by otli«r forcigiiGrH, — we have 
been stnick with tlic wuiit of gayetr, the absence of merri- 
ment Tliero i« ft kind of luck-lwislro character in thnir 
fStcs, so far as any demonittnttiou of cnjojment is con- 
cerned. I'eHiaptt it is owing lo their ciicr^'ating cUmatv, 
but the Brazilians do not sceiu to work or play with a 
will. They hare not the aclirity which, while it makea 
life a restless fever with otir people, givos it interest also; 
neither have ihey the love of anniKenicnt of lite eontincntol 
t'liropeaiiB. I 

Dectmher 6th. — Manaw. Mr. Thayer returned to-day 
from Lake Aiexo, biinging a valuable oollcction of ri«h, 
obtained witli some diDiculty on account of tlte lieight of 
water ; it is rapidly rising now, and tlie fish are in conso- 
quence daily scattered over a wider space. This addition 
with the collections brought in by Mr. Bourget and Mr. 
Thayer from Cndajos, by Mr. James from Manacapitru, 
and 1>jr Major Continho from Lake Hyanuary, Jos£-Fcr^ 
nandci, Curupira, Aic, Jtc , brings the number of Anui- 
zoniui species up to something over thirteen hundred. 
Hr. Aga»iz still carries out Ills plan of di!'pt?rsiiig his work- 
ing force in such a roauneraii lodetermine tlte limits pf the 
dUtribution of species ; to ascertain, for iu^tauoc, whetlier 
those whieh ai-e hi the Amazons at one scawn may be in 
the Solimoens at anotiicr or at the rnme lime, and aUo 
whether tliose which are found alwut Manaos extend liighor | 
up in the Rio Negro. For this reason, as wo have seen, 
while at Tefre himself he kept parties above in various locnli- 
tic«, — at Tuhntinga &nd on the rivers I^a and Hyuiahy ; 
and now, while ho and some of his assistants are collecting 


iu Oic immcdialfl ueighlwrtiond of Maiiaoe, Mr. D«xtcr 
tuid Mr. TalbiuAn are on Uio Bio N^;ro mid Rio Braiico. 
Following Itic »uiii« plui ill descending tJie ri%'or, )i« mtouds 
to cstalili^li one station at Serfia, another at Obydos, an- 
otiicr at Sanlarom, wliile bo will go liirasoir to tlio rivor 
Mautifis, whicli coiiitccis the Amaioiis with tlio Madeira. 

D«e«mher lOrA. — -To^ay Mr. Doxter and Mr. Taliinum 
leturncd from ilieir canoe excureton to the Rio Branco. 
They are ratlwr disapfiointed la the result of tlicir cxpo- 
dilioii, having found the stato of the waters most oxtruordi- 
nary for the season and very unfavorable for their purpose. 
K The Rio Negro was so full thai the bouchcs luid entirely 
^ diiiappoared, and it was impossible to draw tlio net*; wliile 
on llio Rio Braiico tlie people suted that the water had 
■ not fallen during tlie whole year, — an unheard-of pho- 
noinenon, and unfortunate for the inhabitauls, who wcru 
dreading famine for want of their usual supply of dried 
and salted fish, on which they so Urgvly dopeud for food. 
This provision is always made wlieu tlie waters arc lowest. 
Bud when tlie lai^e fish, driren into shallower and uarrowcr 
basins, are easily caught. Though tlicir collection of D&li 
is therefore small, including only tweuty-eight new Hpocics, 
Mr. Dexter and Mr. Talisman bring raveral monkeys, a mrj 
.largo alligator, some beautiful birds, among them the blue 
Uackaw, and a number of Tory fine palms. To-morrow wo 
'leave Manuos iu tliu Ibicuhy, on au excursion to the littlo 
town of Mauttcs, where ve are to pass a week or ten days. 
Tliough we return for a day or two on our way to the Rio 
Negro, yet we f<^l that our permanent iitay iu Mauaos i* 
orer. I'he $ix weeks we hare passed here hare l)eoii very 
raluahle in scientific results. Not only has Hr. Agntcyis 
largely increas«d his kuowlcdjje of llie fishes, but lie iia» had 




Ui opporiiiiiit; of acciiiuiiUtiiig a mass or new mid iiitei-o»v 
iiig iiiforinalioii ou the inanjr varieties of tlie colored nuMs, 
produced by tlie ci'oti»iii){ or Indians, negroes, and whites, 
vhich lie has recorded not only in notes, but in a very com- 
plete series of photographs. Perliajis novliero in the world 
can the blending of types among ineii be studied so fully 
ks ill tlie Amazons, where maiiiolucot, cfduzot, mulattoeh, 
caboGos, negroes, and whites are mingled in a confusion lliat 
secnis at first inextricable. I insert below a few extracts 
from his iioto$ on this subject, which lie purposes to treat 
more in detail, should he find time hereafter to work up 
the abundant material ho has cnllecled. 

" However naturalists may differ respecting tlie origin of 
species, there is at \ctwt one point on which they agree, 
namely, that the offspring fi-om two so-called different 
species is a being intermediate between tliem, sliaring tlie 
peculiar features of both parents, but resembling neitlier bq 
closely as to be mlstnkcu for a pure ropresentatire of tlie 
one or the other. I hold this fact to bo of the utmost 
importance lu estimating the value and meauing of the 
diflerenccs obsi'rvvd between the Eo-callod Immaii races. 
I leavo aside the ciuestiou of th(;ir probable origio, oud 
even tliat of tlicir number; fur luy purpose, it docs not 
matter whetlier then urs three, four, 6ve, or twcnly 
human races, and whether thoy originated indi.>|)oiidmitIy 
from one ajiother or not. TIio fact that llicy difftr by 
constant permanent features k iu itself siilTicient to justify a 
conipurison between t)ic humtui racCK and animal spodes. 
We know tlint, among animals, wlieu two iudividuals of 
diffcrfiul i>ej[ aud belonging to distinct species produce an 
oSspriiig, tlio lutlvr docs not cloncly resemble either parent, 
but shares tlw diaractcristtcs of botti ; and it seems to 



luo or i\t>s highest signiBcaiici! thai this Tact is nquali; 
true of an; two individtiaU of diiTciiiiil scxch, belonging 
to difTcreiit human races. The child born of negro and 
white parouts is neither black nor while, but a (iinlaLto ; 
the child born of white and Indian giarents iti neithor 
white nor Indian, bat a mameliico; the child born of 
negro and Indian parents is neither a negro nor an la* 
dikii, hut a cafuKo ; and the cafiiiEo, maaieluco, and mulatto 

Itlmro the peculiarities of both parents, just as tlie mule 
sliaros tlio characteristics of the \ioTf.c and as§. With 
rcferunco to their ofispriiig, tlio racos of men stand, tlion, 
to uuc aaothor in tho same relation as dilTcront Epuctes 
^ among animals ; and tho word races, in its present signi- 
^B Sconce, noeds onljr to ho retained till tho niuultcr of humaa 
^K epecicii is definitely ascertained and their true charactcrLsLice 
fully understood. 1 am aatiafict that, unless it can be shown 
tliat tile difTercncus between tho Indian, negro, and whit« 
B races arc unstablo and transient, it is not in keeping with 
tlio facts to affirm a community of origin for all tho va- 
rieties of tlie human family, tior in keeping witli scivntitic 
I principles to make a difCiirencB between human races and 
animal species in a systematic point of view. In these 
various forms of humanity tliere is as much system tt» in 
•nything else iu nature, and by overlooking the llioughtfnl 
combinations expressed iu them we place oui'selves at once 
outsido of tlio focus from which tlio whole may be correctly 
seou. In consequeuco of their coiistancy, tJicse ditferences 
^ are so many limitations to prevent a complete melting of 
I normal types into each other and consequent loss of their 
primitive features. That thcJiie difTerent types arc geneti- 
coUy foreign to one another, and do not run togctlicr by 
Impercoptiblc, intermediate degrees, appears plaiu when 
11 • 



Uieir inixturce are compared. While and negro produce 
miilattoos, while oiid Indian produce niauiducos, ii4^^ oiid 
liidLaii produce cafuwa, and tlH-»c tlirL-v kinds of hHlC- 
breods are not couiiecliug liuks between tlic pure races, 
but »taitd exactlj in Uiat relation to them in wbivli all 
liybrids stand to their parents. Tlie mamcluco is as Irulj 
a liatrhrtivd between wiiite and Indian, the cafu/x> as truly 
a buir-brutni W-lwven negi-o and Indian, as is tlie mulatto, 
commonly eo called, a ball-breed between wliile and a^ro. 
Tliey all Kttnrv equally tlie jjeculiantics of botli parents, 
and Uiougb more ferUle iJian hulf-brecds in oilier families 
of tlie animal kingdom, tliero is in all a eonvlimt ten- 
dency to revert to the primary types in a country wliero 
three di&linct races are constantly commingling, for they 
mix much more readily with Uie original stocks tlian with 
eacli oUier.* Cliildien between mameluco and mameluco, 
or between cafni'.o and cafiuo, or between mulatto and 
mulatto, are seldom met witli where the pure races occur* 
while oflspring of mulattoes with whites, Indians and no 
groea, ur of mnmelueos willi wbiles, Indians, and negroes, 
or of cafuzos with whites, Indians, and negroes, form the 
bulk ol' these mixed populations. The natural result 
of an uninterrupted contact of half-breeds witli one an- 
otlier is a cla.>^ of men in which pure type fades away 
as completely as do all the good qualities, physical and 
olMal, of tlie primitive races, engendering a mongrel 
crowd as repuUive as tlie mongrel dugs, which are apt 
to be tlieir companions, and among which it is imposible I 
to pick out a »ing)e specimen retaining tlio intelligeDoe, 
the nobility, or the afibctionutoucss of nature which makec 

* For iDine rpiunrkt ronccmlng ibe ttniclurml ixcullaridcs of i1m InilioM ] 
■adHcftOM, Ko AfptatMn No- V. j 



tiw dog or puro tjpc tlic faTorite companion of ciriUzed 
maa. Tlio qucslioii rvKpccting Lh« rclatiou of tlic liiiuiau 
races to each otlicr is cotoplicatod bj tlto want of prccisiou 
in tbfl definition of epocios. Naturalists diOcr greatly in 
their estimation of tlio characters by which species arc to 
be dislingiiisbcd, and of thoir natural limitations. I have 
publi&licd cbewliere my own views on tliis snbjoct. I 
beliuTe tlio boundaries of spcciea to bo precise and un- 
Tarying, based upon a category of charoctors quite distinct 
from tlioRo on wliich llio other groups of the aninial king- 
doni, as genera, rnniilics, orders, and cla^sos, aro founded. 
This category of characters coiisiiits chiclly in Ibo relation 
of individuals to one nnoUier and to their surroundings, 
and in the rvlalivc dimensions and |ii-u)K>rLions of parLs. 
These chaructors arc uo less permanent and constant tu 
the different species of the human famil) Ibnn in thoM 
of any otiier family in the aiiiiool kingdom, and my ob> 
liervationB upon the cross-breeds in South Amuriua have 
convinced mo tliat tlic varieltes arising from contact bo* 
twoen these human sjiccies, or so-called races, differ from 
true species just as cross- Ureeds among animals differ from 
true species, and that they retain the same liability to 
revert to the original stock as is observed among all eo- 
called varieties or breeds." 

Our visit to Maulies will be the ploasantur and doubtless 
the more successful, because Dr. Epaminondas, who has 
already done eo much to facilitate the objects of the ex- 
(ledition, takes this opportunity of visiting a region with 
which, as President of the province, he is desirous of bo- 
CDming acquainted. lie is accompanied by our host, Ur. 
Ilonorio, whose house has been such a pleasant home for 
US during our stay in Uanaos, and also by Mr. Michelis, 



lieu tenant-Colonel of the National Guard of Uaii1iC9, to- 
tiii'iiing to his liome there, after a stay of seteral weeks 
iu Maiiaos. UeMdcs ihcsc, our party conmts of Mojot 
Coiiliiilio, Mr. Uurkhardt, and ourselros. The position of 
Uaiihes, on UiQ sotithcm tide of tlie Amazons, and )t» 
proxitnitj' to Manaoa and Sorpa, may moko this excursion 
espcdall; instructive, witli rcfcroiice to tlio Htudy of tlio 
geographical dislrihiitioii of the Fishes in llto great iiot- 
vork of rivers ooniieciing tlio Rio Madeira and Iho Eio 
Tup^os vith tlio Aiiiaioiis. 



Exctmstox TO yAuiies and its neigbborhcwd. 

LXATB U*BAOI. — 0> Bci.tHII TUE " luimilT." — Ka VHUTIO* OP TIIB RlTnt 

Ramos. — AirccT or nm Daiihs. — Antftv>t. at tlAltnn. — ^truATiuji or 
UauIiK*. — Ti;i'iaAUn.iii«]i.i«. — CiiAHACTCii or I'oi-iTUnnx. — ArrCAK* 


Kxciiiiaiooi Tir Ml-cua-I'iiiia — JtusDUHL'ci: Iadiak* — An-icTi>r VitutCK 

— Ciiii»cit. — HiBiKiBirtios or r«uiiiTni. — Ui:siiit(U[Tr i>r tiik IxutAn. 


Hal'Iik*. — AiiKiVAL or &lc)iiik;Ki.-<-u« IX TIIK ViLLAt-c-^ DKAcnirTMN or 
Tattooiko — CaiA.ternan. — Koto. — Iniimk SiipaiiitTTTioxs. — pAtJi Col.- 
Ltcnon. — Walk tx tub Fonm.— Liuvk JIaiiiu. — Mui>i>uiiiini Ikoiah 
juin iiu WirK. — TriKiK Makskub ami An-EAHASCB. — InuiAH TuAurnoii. 

— PurTiNcriosit or CAtrrc. 

Jhemiher 12//i. — We Icfl Mtin&os, nvcording to our in- 
tCfitioii, oil Sutiday evening (the lOlti), ruisUig tlio anchor 
with mililnry csuctucss al fiTe o'clock, the very moroont 
appointed, soiucwlial to the disappoiutineut of a boatful 
of otHciuls from llic Natioual Guard, who were just on 
tlicir way to pay their parting compltmcnts to the Presi- 
dent, at the lioiir fixed fur \\a depurturo. In Branl it 
may safely be nssuincd that things will always be a liltio 
behind time ; on this occasion, however, otir punctuality 
wiu absolute, and the olTtcers were forced to wave iboir 
adieiix as wo proceeded on our way, leaving their canoo 
behind. The bonr was of good onicii, — a cool breeze, tho 
one blessing for whicli the tmvcllcr sighs in these iBtitudeHjii 
blowing np tho Amazons; and as we luft the Rio Negro,' 
it lay behind us, a golden pnlliway to the setting sun, which 
was going down in a blaze of glory. We were rcccitcd on 
board with all |03sible hospitality by the oommonder, Cap- 



tniii F&ria. He lias made every ai-raiigeiu«ut Tur our com- 
fort whicli a vftfiwl of war, not intended for pns^ngers, cauj 
slTonl, giving up )ii« ovn qnnrlcrii for mjr accommodation. 
On deck lio lias arranged a little rocess, »licltercd hj a tor-j 
pouUug from tlio suu and rain, to serve as a dining-room,! 
that we wuy take our meals in tlio frc!<li air iustead of* 
dining in the close cabin below dvcks intended for this 

The morning following our ilcjiarture was on iatorcsting 
one, because we found our^clvcH at tlio moutb of the Ramos, 
unknown to stcau uavigutiou, and about which the Captain 
had some approlieueions, as lie was by uo ineatis sure tliat 
he should find water enough for bis vessel. It was, tliere- 
fore, necessary to procGcd with great caution, sounding at 
every stop and sending out boats in adrance, to ascertain 
tite direction of the channel. Once williin the liscr, we 
had depth of water enough to float much larger tossqIs. 
The baiUca of this stream are boautiful. llie forest was 
gay with color, and the air ludt-n with the rich perfume 
of flowers, whicli, when we came up tlie Amar.oiis six 
months ago, were not yet in bloom. We were struck abm 
with the great abundance and variety of the palms, so 
much iitoro numerous ou tJie lower course of tlie Amazons 
tliau oil ihe Solimoeus. The slioros were dotted witli 
tlniriy-Iooking plantations, laid out with a neatness and 
earc which bes)>cak greater attention to agriculture than wo 
hare aeen elsewhere. Ilealtliy-looktng cattle were grazing 
aliout many of the siiios. As the [lulT of our steam was 
lieard, the inhabitants ran out to gaze in amazement at 
the unwonted visitant, standing iu groups ou Uie sliores, 
nliitost too much lo»l in wonder to rctui'n our greetings. 
The advent of a steamer in llicir wutiirs sliould bo to them 

KxanniuM to uauhes asd n» MEiGiitiofiaooD. 3i>fl 


Wiilvomo IiBi-biiigcr of Uiu time, pcrlmps not far <]istai)t, 
I, iii»Uml uf lliuir pri^ctit tcdioiis uiid luiucrtaiii caiioo 
jounie^s to Serpa or Villa Bella, Uicj' will be *bl« to 
Uttiivport llwir produce to vitlmr of tlicsu points in a 
fmr )t04ir$, in »niiill »lttiiuiboals, connocting ull iIium: »ot- 
Uuiiit^ttts, and adapted to llie uavjgution. Aiijr sucli pi-o- 
plictic vision w«, lioworoi-, »o doubt very far from llioir 
tlionglits ; if Uic; bad auy idea a» to llio object of our 
coming, it was probably a ffar lost wo itbonld be on a 
recruiting expedition. If so, it is ccrtniiily a very inno- 
cent ouo, fifhcs being tlio only rccniite we aim at on- 
trapping. From tlio Ramos we turned into tlio Maulios, 
ascending to tbo town of tbe saini; name, wbcro to-day 
we arc enjoying tite bospitality of Mr. Micbelis. 

If atiy of my readei-s ai-e as ignorant as I was myself 
before muking tins voyage, a bit of geograpby may not 
be out of place licre. As everybody knows, tlio river 
Madeira, Uiat groat afHueiit of tho Amazons, all wbose 
children aro giants, except wlieu compared witli tlieir royal 
father, enters tbo main streajii on its southern side at a 
point nearly opposite Serpa. Itnt this is not its only con- 
uectiou with tlio Amazons. Tho rirei- Mauhe« starting ' 
about twoiity-fivo leagues from its moulli, niiis from the 
river Madeira almost paiallcl with the Amazons until it 
joins tho river Itamos, which continues its course in tlio 
fiumo direction to a lower point, whera it empties into tho 
mail) etresm. The district of land thus enclosed betirccii 
four rivers, having tho Madeira on the we^t, the Amazon^ 
ou the north, and the Ramos and the Mauhcs ou llio south, 
is known on tlie map as the island of Tupinambaraiias. 
It is a network of rivers, lakes, and islands ; one of tbosft 
watery labyrinUis which would be in itself ou oxtoodva 



river syFtom in any ollior country, bitl is lierc absolat 
lost ii) Uio world of watei-s or wliich il fonus a p«rU 
do&d, tbo rostness of the Acnazous b not felt cbiefljr wli 
following its Diaiii coiii'se, but rather ou its lesser ttibii* 
taries, wlici'C stmams to which a place on the map is 
hard!]- accorded an found lu he iii fact lai^ rivers. 

Tlio region of Msiihes ix comiMtratJvcly little known, b^ 
cause it is oiT tlic lino of steam navigntiou; but, UtMilv 
to tlic cITorts of itJi mosi prominent dtixcn, Mr. Mtcliolis, 
who has made bis home tlierc for twcnty-livc years, lud 
contributed, by his onorgy, intclligcnco, and hononUiIo 
cliaracter, to raise tlio tone of tlio wholo district, it is one ol 
the most pros^raroiis in the praviuce. It is mclmichoty to 
ECO lioir little ib done in other districts, when an iiistauoe 
like this sliows wliai one man can do to improve the tonet 
population along the banks of the Amaions. Xlis examplfl 
and its succeRsfiil results should he nu encouragement to all 
intelligent bclLteri on the Amaxons. Thu little village of 
Uaubes stands ou a sort of terrace, in front of which, at 
this season when the waters ore still coiisidorablj belov 
high-water mark, runs a brood, white beach, rendered all 
the prettier al the moment of our arrival by a large partj 
of Bolivian IndiauK, who had built tlicir compares on itr 
sands. Wo looked at tlicso people with a kind of wonder, 
tliiukiug of tbo perilous voyages they constantly make in 
their beavUy-ladcu canoes, forced to unload their cargo 
over and over again as tbcy shoot tlio cataracts of tlie 
Madeira ou Uioir way down, or drag tlicir bouts wearily 
up them ou their return. It seems strange, when this 
river is the higliway of commerce from Bolivia, Matto- 
Gtx)S80, and tlirough Matto-Grosso from Paraguay to the 
Amazons, tliat tlio 5uggc:stioii made by Major Coutiulio 



in iiis interesting account of Iiis journey on i1i« Rio Ma- 
deira, lias not been adopted. He says llmt a roud carried 
along tlie shore of tlie riror for a dUtaucu of foi't;* leagues 
would obviate all the ditlkultf and duugcr of Uiis ardu- 
ous journey. 

Uaulies is not a cluster of iiousos, but is built in liuo 
along a broad, grass-grown street running tlio lougtli of 
tlie terrace formed by tlie top of Uio rivcr-bauk. In nu 
open space, at one end of tlib village street, stands tbo 
cliurcli, a small but neat-lookJng building, wicli a wooden 
cross in front. Most of tlie liouscs arc low and straw- 
tliatclied, but bere and there a more substantial house, 
with tiled roof, like thut of Mr. Michelis, breaks tlie 
ordinary level of the bnildiuga. Notwithstanding the mod- 
fiBt appearance of this little town, all who know souto- 
diing of its hiHtory speak of it as one of the most prom- 
Uiiig of the Amaxonian settlements, and as having a 
better moral tone than usually prevails. One of its great 
staples is the Guarani. Tliis sJirub, or ratlior vine, — \ 
tor it is a trailhig plant somewhat like our high-huslt 
blackberry, — is about eiglit feet high when full grown, 
and bears a bean tlie sise of a eofToe-bean, two being en- 
closed io each envelope. 'Iliis bean, after being roasted, 
is pounded in a small quantity of water, until it becomes, 
when thoroughly ground, a compact paste, and when dry 
is about the color of chocolate, though mucli harder. 
Io tills state it is grated, (tlie grater being always tito 
tough tongue of the Pirarucu,) and when tnJxod with 
sugar and water it makes a very plGa&unt, refreshing 
drink. It is said to have medicinal properties also, and 
IB administered with excellent eQ<»:t in coses of dianhosn. 
In ccrtaiu parts of Brazil it is very cxtcninvely used as 



well as ill Boliria, and will, do doubt, liare a iridtir dh. 
tributioii when its value is more generally hnowu. Thv 
Indians display no littlo fancy in tlie maniiCnctiirc of titii 
orticle, moulding llie pasto into tlio sliape of mouut«d 
soldiers, lioracs, birds, serpents, ^. 

Tliis morning I vas attracted by vmcm in Die street, 
Dtii going to the window 1 saw die door of tbe Iiouko 
whure the President is lodged besieged by a crowd of 
Ik>livinii Indians, lliey had brought sumo of tl>cir robon 
to sell, and it was not long before several of our party, 
amoug whom wcro ready purctiascrs, made iheir appear^ 
anee in Boliriau oo«tunie. This dresK is lavai-iablo; al- 
ways the long robe, composed of two pieces, one hang- 
ing before, the otlior bebJEid, bulled around tUo waist and 
fastened on the shoulders, with an opening for the head to 
pass through. Such a robe, with a brcxtd-brimmed, coarse 
btruw bat, constitutes llic whole dress of these poople- 
Thoir ordiimry working garb Is mado of bark; tlioir better 
tx)be, for luoro fe^tivo occiuions, coiiiusts of a twilled cotr 
ton of their own manufacture, exceedingly soft and fine, 
but very close and strong. These drosses may be more 
or less ornamented, but are always of tJte same shape. 
The Bolivian ludians seem to be more industrious than . 
those of the Amazons, or else they are under more rigor* 
ous difcipline. 

Peeember 1-lfh. — At the settlement of Mucaja-Tuba. 
Mucaja signiRes a particular kind of palm, very abuii 
dant here ; Tuba means a place. Thus we are among ih? 
woods of Acrocomia. Yesterday wo were to have le't 
Uaulies with the dawn on an cxcui-sion to tliis place, but 
at the appointed hour a flood of ruin, such as is tMu outy 
ID tlicse latitudes, was pouring down in torreuts, orro'u 



pULiud oy tliiindor fuid liglidiiiig. Tlic deliiy uoca-MOiied by 
tliis iiilcri'uplioii, liowwcr, provuil a (;oni) ft)i'iiiii<> in llie end. 
Bj ttlcveu o'clock the storm was over, but the sky oouliu- 
i.jxl ovcfXMist during llio rust of t)ie da;. Our waj lay u|i 
tliu river Maiihos, p3»t the luoiiths of iiaiiwlcss »trcuin« 
and lakes, — broad &licets of water, pcrft-ctly iiitkiiowii out 
of thoir irontediate iictgliborhood. Niglit hroiigbt us to our 
destiiiatioa, aud at about eight o'cluuk wc oucliorod buforo 
this little Tillage. As wc approacbi'd it a light or two woa 
seen gUminuriiig on Uio gIioio, and wo could not livlp again' 
woudcring what was tUo fooling of tho people who kuw tuid 
heard for the firet Urae one of thoiio puBing sUtttm uiotistcrs.! 
This moniiiig, with a boat-load of goods of all sorts, ut- 
teuded b; the President as ])resoDts for tlio Indiojis, wo 
put off for the shore. I<ai)ding on tho beach we weut 
at once to tlie houju} of tlio ciiief, a most respectable look- 
ing old man, who stood at tlie door to receive its. He 
was an old acqunintoticc of Major Coutiiiho, baring for- 
merly accompaniod him on Ins exploration of the Rio 
Madeira. Tlie inhabitauti. of this village are Mnndunicil 
Indians, one of tlie most intelligent and kindly disposed 
of tlie Amazonian tribes. Althongli they are too civil- 
ited to bo considered as illustrating in any way the wild 
life ci tlie primitive Indians, yet, as it is the Grst time w« i 
liave scon one of their isolated settlements, removed from 
every eiviliting influence except tho occasional contact of 
llio white man, the visit was especially interesting to us, 
It h aslonisliiiig to reo the sixo and solidity of tlieir honses;, 
with never a nail driven, the fmmo oon»isti<jg of rough 
trunk.s bound lo-^ei)icr by witlics made of lo<:g, clohtic sipos, I 
the cordag) of the forest. Major Couiinho tolls ns that 
they know very well the use of nails in building, and taj 



to one anotlier dorisivoly, when tlivy w&iit aiiothflr sipo, 
*' Hauil roe a nail." Tlio ridge-pole of tliis cbicf's liousa 
could not hurc boon loss Uiau twctily-livc to tliirty-ciglit foot 
liigli, and tlic room wiu> spacious iu proportion. Hammocks 
wore biuig in tlio comors, oqo of wliicii vras partitioned ofl' 
by a low wall of palin-tbate)i ; bows and arrows, guns and 
omij, bung on tlic walls or wore leaning against them, and 
adjoining tins central apartment was tbo mandioca kitclicu. 
There were a number of doors and windows in the room, 
closed by largo palm-mats. Tlio house of tlio cbicf stood 
at the head of a Unc of houses diffonng from bis only in 
being somewhat smaller ; they made one side of an opca 
square, on tho opposite side of which was a corresponding 
row of buildings. With a few exceptions Uieso bouses 
were empty, for tlio population gather only three or four 
times in the course of the year, at certain festiv&l seasons. 
Generally they are scattered shout iu their different siUos, 
attending to tlieir plantations. But at those leles Uioy 
assemble to the number of several hundred, all tlio dwell 
ings are crowded with families, and the squaro in the centre 
U cleared of gross, swept and garnished for tlieir evening 
dances. Such festivities lost for ton days or a fortnight; 
thou they all disperse to tlieir working life again. At 
this time there arc not more than thirty or forty persons 
in tlie village. Tho most iuteresting object we saw was 
tlieir church, which stands at Uio head of iJie square, 
and was built entirely by the Indians themselves. It is 
quite a large structure, capable of holding au assembly 
of five or sis hundred persons. Tlie waUs are of mud, 
very neatly finished inside, and painted in colors loade 
by tlie Indians from the bark, roots, and fruits of oortain 
Ircer^ and i\so from ft particular kind of ciny. The froat 





port of tliii cliiircli is wlioll/ iinrumi^hcii, oxc^pt fur IliO 
rough woodcu font Httiii<liiig ju^t wiihin tlie dour. Bui 
Uio farllicr end is partiUonod off to iiiako a neftt chaucci, 
villiiii w1iic]i sofcrnl steps lend up to the nllar and uicho 
filmve. whoro i» phiced the mdc imago of the Mother and 
tlic Child, or coiti-se the architecture and the ornaments 
are of tho coarsest descriptjoii ; the painting consists only 
of stripes or lines of hlutf, red, and yellow, with here aud 
tlicro an attempt at a star or a diamond, or a row o{ 
scalloping; hut there is soinelliiiig touching in the idea 
that these poor, uneducated people of tlio forest haro 
cored to build themselves a templu with their own hands, 
lavisliing upon it such ideas of beauty and taste as they 
liave, and bringing at least their best to their humlile 
altar. NoDO of our city churclii^, on which millions liavo 
been expended, have power lu move one like this church, 
the loving work of the wurxhippcrs themselves, with its 
mtid walls so coarst-ly painted, il5 wooden cross before Uio 
door, and little thatched belfry at oue side. It is sad 
that these peupk-. with w much religious sensibility, aro 
uot provided with any regular service. At long intervals 
R priest, ou liis round of visitations, makes his way to 
tlicm, but, except on such rare occasions, they have uo 
one to administer the rites of burial or baptism, or to 
give religious in^tniction to them or to tlicir children. 
Aiid yet tlieir church was faultlcGsly clean, the mud floor 
was strewn with fro^h green loaves, and everything about 
the building showed it to be tlic object of solicitude und 
^^ care. Their houses were very neat, and they themselves 
^B were decently dressed lu the invariable costume of the civ* 
^H ilized Lidian, — tlie men in trousers aud white cotton shirts, 
^B tlte womoo in calico petticoats, with short, loose ehemiites, 




oitlior uf cottou or calico, uud tlicir long, tliick black 
dfavrii up and ra^tciiod on llic top of their liead by a sooiU I 
ciiuularcotnb, brungbt so Tar forward that Uio edge u about 
oil a line Willi tlie forclmad. A. buucb of flowers is goiieral- 
1/ stuck under the cotnb oii ou« ndo. I liavo ncvur soon] 
au Indian woman wlio did nut wear one of tbcsc round 
coinb« ; allliuiigti of foreign iiianufacturCt tlicy find tlicIr 
way to tlie most iiiolatod forest sottluuienls, broiiglit, I 
suppose, by Iho tnrelling pcdler», " rcgata<S." Tbcw 
gtuitry are known cverywliere on the banks of the Am- 
azons and it« tributaries, and arc «aid to bo mo»t un- 
principled iu their du;iliiig» with iho Indians, who fiJlj 
readily into the trajjH set fur ihcm by tlio wily traders, i 
In one of tlie reports of Dr. Adolfo, who, during hia 
short but able adiniiit&tration, exposed, and as far as it | 
was ill his power reformed, abusea in tho province of 
tlie Amaxonas, ho says, nftnr speaking of tho great uocdj 
of religions instruction in tli« more remote settlements; 
"To-day who goes to mek the Indian in the depth of 
hia virgin foresl8 along tlte shores of these endless rivers? 
No one, if it be not the ' regalaii,' less barbarous certaEu- 
ly Ihuit he, but much more corrupt; who spies upon hiia, 
depraves and difrbonors him, under the pretext of trading." 
A^r our vi»t to tlio diurch, tho whole population, men, 
vomoi), and childrou, accomjuinied us down to tliu licach' 
to receive their presents, distributed by tho President iiij 
person : common jewelry, which they appreciate highly,! 
calico dresses, beads, scissors, noodles, and looking-glasses 
for tho women ; knives, fish-hooks, hatchets, and otlicr 
working tools for tho men ; and a variety of little trin- 
kets and playthings for tlio cliUdrvu. But though a cor- 
dial, kindlj people, they have tlw impassivencss of tlie 


geimuic (odian. I did not sec a change or expression on 
aiiy face or lienr a word of nclciiowludgiueiit or pleasure. 
Tlie onlj smile wus wliuii, l>eing lirud wiUi standing in the 
sun, I sat down among the vromcit, and, u t1>c tilings wen 
pa>5Gd rupidi}- around Ihu circle, I was taken for ono of 
tliom, and i-wcircd a very guy gown for my sliare. This 
caused a general ehout of Inughter, and seemed to delight 
ibwn greatly. We rotunied to Ute steamer to breakfast 
at ten o'clock, and in t)te aflcnioon the whole village came 
out to satisfy their curiosity about tlie vetiNel. Tlicy are 
a generous people. I never go among lliem witlioiit re- 
ooiving some littlu present, vliich it would be an insnlt 
to refuse. Such as itioy buve they offer to the sirangoi' ; 
it may be a fruit, or a few eggs, or a chicken, a cuia, 
a basket or a buiicli of flowers, but tlieir feelings would 
be wounded wcro you to go nway cmpty-tianded. On 
this occasion the dauglilor of the chief brought me a 
fine fat fowl, another woman gave me a liaskct, and an- 
olher a fniit wliich rcsemblos rery much our winter 
squash, and is used in the same wuy. I was glad to 
Itaro with me some large beads and a few little pictures 
of saints with which to acknowledge their gilXs. But I 
bcUeve they do not think of any return ; it is simply a 
rite of hospitality with them to muke their gue^t a 
present. Tlicy went over the vessel, lienrd tlie cannon 
firod off, and, as the captain took them on a litllc es- 
ennsioo, they saw tlie machine and tli« wliocis in action ; 
but they looked at all with tlic same calm, quiet air of 
acceptance, above, or perhaps one should rather say below, 
any emotion of siirprise. For is not tlie readiness to ro- 
eeire new impressions, to be surprised, delighted, mored, 
mie of the great gifts of the white rac«, as different from 




tlie impasnTeiiess of the ludian as tlicir rurying oomploxiuii 
from the dark skin, wliicli knows ncillicr liliisli nor pallor? 
Wo could hare but little conversation with tlicsu-pooplo, 
for, witli the csceplion of Uio chief and one or two men 
who acted as interpreters, ihoy spoke only tiie *' lingua 
gcral," aiid did not understand Portngucee. 

2>eoember l^lk. — After the Indians had left us yesterday, 
wo pi'oceeded on our way to another settlement, where wo 
expected to find a considerable village. Wo arrived after 
dark, and some of the party went on shore; but they fonnd 
only a grass-grown path and deserted houses. The wliolo 
population was in the forest. To-day, liowever, two or 
tliree canoesful of people have come off to the steamer 
to greet the President and receive their presents. Among 
Uteni was an old woman who must have come originally 
from some more primitive settlement. The tower part 
of her face was tattooed in a blnisli-black tint, covering 
the mouth and lower part of the cheeks to the base of 
die ears. Below this tlie chin was tattooed in a kind of 
network, no doubt considered very gi'oceful and becoming 
in Ivor day and generation. A black lino was drawn across 
the nose, and from the outer corner of the eyes to the 
ears, giving the eBect of a pair of spectacles. Tltc upper 
p«rt of the breast was tattooed in an opoii-work, headed 
by two straight lines drawu around the shoulders as if 
to represent a ooarso lace finish, such as one constantly 
sees around the necks of tlteir cliemises. They left us at 
breakfast, and we are now on oar way back to Uauhes, 
altar a most interesting excursion. 

Jheemler 16M. — Alauhcs. We arrived here yesterday 
al midday, and, as it happened, we found in Ihe village 
on Indian and his wife, who, as s|>ecimeuR of the genuine 


Huiidurucu!!, were more iiitei-cstiiig tlian those wv liod 
Tisitod. Tliej- came on trading busiuoss from a distant xot^ 
tlomoikt soino twenty da^s' journey from Mauhes. Tli4 

^<fm^ t 


HnndnnKn Inffian (Male).* 

man's wbole face is tattooed in bluish black, this «in 
gular mask being iiuislied on tlie edge by a fine, open 
pattern, about half an inch broad, running around lh« 

• 1 did noi iiirooHl in i.'n'ilnKCOOil likom'SKJi of tliii Miintlor;acu pair. 'Ibfl 
than wooiJ-mu ilo nu Jumioo to ihcir leaturu imd txprntiun. thonpk ihiy 
gir* ■ fMihfiil twonl of the pTculinr mo<li- o( laiiooing — LA 



j»ws nnd chin. His ears arc pierced willi rcry Iftrgil 
boles, from wliicli, whon his costume is compluio, pieces 
tif wiiod are siwpcudGd, aiid his wliolo liody is cohered 
wiUt « neat and iDtricata network of bittouiiig. Al pros- 
unt, hovever, bdng in civilized regions, he is dreufJ 'u 

Hondanioa tndtin (F«i»lt>. 

trousers and shirt. In tlie woman the mask of tattxnnl 
covers only the lowest part of the face, the uppor pari 
twng free, with the exception of the line acro«s the noio 
%ad eye*. Her chin and neck are also ornamented like 



tliat of the old iromaii wo suw yvatcrilar. Tlioy speak 
uo PortitgucM;, and seem ruUtcr rclucUiit to answer tliu 
questions of the iiitcrjtrutcr. 

Mr. AgsNiiz has been very fortuimtv iu collecting iu tliia 
region. Allliougti wo arcs at so short a dislanco from 
Mnnaos, whoro hu alroudjr kuows the Hfhes tolerabljr wcll,j 
ho linds a surprising uuubcr of now geuoi-a and specie 
about Hauhes aiid its neighborhood. As usual, wheroror 
wo go, everybody turns naturalist in his behalf. Our 
kind friend, the President, always ready to do everything 
iu his power to facilitate his researclies, has several boats 
out, manned by the be^t fishernien of the place, fishing for 
him. Tlie commander, while his ship lies at anchor, has 
his men employed in the san>e way ; and Mr. Miehelis and 
his friends are also indefatigable. Occasionally, however, 
iu tito midst of his successes, he has to bear disappointments, 
arixin;; from iho ignorance and superstition of the working 
people. Kvcr since ho came to Uio Amazons he has l>een 
trying to obtain a specimen of a pecnlinr kind of porpoise, 
native to tlicso waters. It is, however, very difficult to 
obtain, Irecansc. being useless for food, there is nothing to 
induce the Indian to overcome the diRicnIty of catching it. 
Mr. Micliolis has, however, impressed upon tlio Rshonncu 
the value of the ptiiw, and, yesterday evening, just as wo 
were ming from tlio dinner-table, it was announced that 
one was actually on its way up from the beach. Followed 
by Iho whole party of sympathizing friends, — for all had 
caught tlio infoction. — Mr. Agassiz hastened out to behold 
hie long-desired treasure; and there was his Ilolo, but 
■adly mutilated, for one Indian had cut oflT a piece of the 
fill as a cure for a sick person, another had taken out an 
eye as « love-cliann, which, if it could Iw placed near lli« 



peisoQ of Um) girl ho loved, would win him her tfxT 
aod so ou. lujurcd OS il was, Mr. Agassiz was, Deicrtb 
less, veo' glad to liavo the fpcvimcii ; but he locked it 
corofuUjT for tlio night, not knowing wliat other titbi 
miglit be covctod by the superstitious inlmbitants. 

I>eeeinhrr 18(A. — In the midi^t of the zoological worl 
the collection of pulms, which is now becoming very co' 
siderable, is not forgotten. This moniing we went into 
the forest for the purpose of gathering young palms to 
compare with the full-grown ones, already cnt down and 
put up for transportation. In thuso woods a tliou-sand u 
jects attract the eye, beside tlint which jroa especial 
seek. How many times wo stopped to wonder at Bo'tne 
lofty tree which was a world of Tarious vegetation in 
itself, parasites established in all its nooks and corners, 
npoe hanging from its branches or twining themselves so 
close against tite bark that tlicy often seem as if sculptured 
on its trunk ; or paused to listen to the quick rusUe of 
the wind in palm-leaves fifty feet abovo our heads, not a t i 
all like the slow, gathering nish of the wind in pine-tre4^| 
at home, but like rapidly running water. Through th(^^ 
narrow path an immense butterfly, of that vivid bluo , 
which excites our wonder in collections of Brazilian in* 
sects, cuno sailing towards us. Ha alighted in our imme< 
diato neighborhood, folding all his azure glories out of 
sight, aud looking, when Mill, like a greet brown moth, 
spotted with white. We crept softly nearer, but the first 
loaf trodden under foot warned him, and he was off 
again, dnzxling us with the beauty of his wonderful col- 
oriag as he opened his wuigs and, bidding us a gay good- 
-ly, Touished among tlio trees. The niluig modcn of tlutse 
Uorphos. tlwugh rapid, contrasts strikingly with the moi; 



flutteriDg flight of the Hclicoaians. Tlie forinvr giro broad, 
EtTong strokes with thuir wide wiiig^, tho luttor bcut th« air 
with quick, imputiciit, tromulotis movcmcuta. 

Dtcember 20(A. — This morning wo lc(i Muuhcs, accoDi>j 
psnied by our Mundurucu Indiun aiid his wife. Tli4 
President takes them to Manoos. in tho hopo of obtain- 
ing tbeir portraits to enlarge Mr. AgOEsix's colloction. 1 
am interested in watching tJio deportment of these people, 
whicli ia marked hy a striking propriety that wins respect. 
They have remained in the seat where the Captain has 
placed them, not moring, except to bring tlicir little bug- 
gage, from which tlie woman has taken out her woik and 
is now busy in sewing, while her husband makes cigarette 
envelopes Tram a bark used by tlie Indians Tor this purpose ; 
— certainly very civilized occupations for sarages. Afl tlioy 
speak no Portuguese, we can only corainunicale with thcin 
througlt the interpreter or through Mr. Coutinho, who haa< 
considerable tamifiarily with tlie " lingua geral." Tlief '^ 
eoem more responsive, more ready to enter into convcrsa- 
tiou now than when we first saw them; but Ihc woman, 
when addressed, or when anytlihig is oflbred to hor, in- 
variably turns to her husband, as if the decision of every- 
thing rested with him. It might be thought that the fan- 
tastic ornaments of tliese Indians would effectually disguise 
all pretence to beauty ; but it ia not so with this pair. 
Their features are fine, the build of tlie face solid and 
square, but not clumsy, and there is a pasnve dignity in 
their lieariug whicli makes itself felt, spite of their tattoo- 
ing. I havo never seen anything like the calm in the man's 
&c« ; it is not the stolidity of dulness, for his expression ta 
sagacious and observant, hut a look of such abiding tran- 
quillity that you cannot imagine that it ever has been or 



«mr will be difTerent. Tlie woman's face u> more mobilfl ; 
occasionally a simile liglits it up, aiid liet' esprcssiwi it: sveet 
and gciiUo. Krcn tior painted sipectoclcs do not destroy llio 
Moft, di-oopitig look in tlie eyes, very common among tho 
Iiidinii woniRii here, and, a» il would teem, characK^riitlic of 
tliQ women in tl)o i^onth American tribes; for Uuinltoldt 
fpeakx of it in those of tlie Spanish provinces to llic tiortlt. 
Major Coiitinlio lolls us tlmt tho tattooing has nothing to 
do with individual liisle, but that tho paltern is apjioinlcd 
for both Kcxci<. and is invarinlile througtiout the tribe. It 
Is connected with tlieir en»lc, the limits of which arc vcrf 
prociso, and witli tlicir religion. Tlie ti'odition runs thus, 
childish and iiiconscqnuiit, like all «nch primitive fubles. 
Tho Tint man, Caro Sacaihu, was also divine. Associai 
with him was liis eon, and an iiifcnor being named Rairti 
to whom, although ho was ax it woro fais prime mini 
and executed his commands, Caro Sucaihu was iniml 
Among other stratugnms he used to get rid of liim 
tho following. Be made a Rgure in imitation of a tatii 
(armadillo), and buried it partly in tho earth, leaving 
only the tail exposed. He covered the tail witli a kiiid^ 
of oil, which when touched adheres to tho skin. Ho tJioi^^ 
commanded Raini to drag the half-buried tatu out of its 
hole and bring it to him. Rniru seized it bj the tail, but 
was of course unable to withdraw his hand, and tlio tatti, 
suddenly endowed with life by the Supremo Iteing. dived 
into tho cartti, dragging Rairu with him. The story does 
not »ay how Raini found his way out of the earth again 
but, being a spirit of great cunning and invention, 
contrived to reacli the upper air once more. Oil his 
turn, he informed Caro Sacaibu tlint ho had found in tlte 
earth a great nuuiy men aud women, and that it woi 




bo &a excellent tiling to get tlicm out to lilt tlic M>il nnJ 
make llioinsclvus useful above )^ronn<l. This udTice sceuis 
10 huvu found fuvor tu the sight of Curo Sueailiu, who 
forthwith pluutod 8 seed in tlie ground. Frou thi» seed 
sprang a cottoQ-treo, for into tlib fantastic tale is thus 
woven the origin of cotton. The tree throve and grow 
apace, and from the soft white contents of its pods Caro 
Sscaibii made a long tlircad, with one end of which Rairu 
dosccnded once more into the earth hy tlie same hole 
through which he had entered before. Ue collected tha 
people togctlier, and tlioy wei'e di-a^ed up through tlta 
hole by meaiis of tlie thread. The firU who come out 
were small and iiglv, but gradually they improved in 
tJioir personal ajipearance, until at hit<t the men began 
to be fiiiety formed and handM>me, and the women licauti- 
fuL Unfortunately, by this time tlie thread was much 
worn, and being too weak to hold them, ttie greater 
number of lumdsome people fell back hito tlio liole and 
were lo!*t. It h for this leo-non tliat bcntity is so rare a 
gifl in the world. Caro Sacaibu now tiepnmtcd the |iopu- 
laiion he had thu^ drawn rroin the Ixiwi'ln of the earth, 
dividing them into dilVerent tribes, marking ihcm with 
distinct colors and {latcenis, which tliey have since ro- 
laiucd, and apjtointing their various occujiationa. At tha 
end there rmnained over a residue, conKi.«ting of the ugli- 
est, smallest, nioMt ini<ignirieant repre^oiitalivos, of the 
human race ; to these bo said, drawing ni tl>e naiaa 
time a red lino over Uicir iiosct, " You arc not worthy to 
1)0 men and women, — go and be aniiuuls," And m they 
were ciia.[iged into birds, and ever since, the MutumK, with 
Uicir rod beaks and mctanchuly wuiUng voice'), waude. 
through the woods 

A jw.i»ki a nAm. 


it DOt oolf connc 
vibiv eemntaiid ; it tf^ 
■B wfw ne^ectdd iliis 
m In tribe ; and m 
Aat, even iti ciriltted 
ii no laager pnetiscd, u 
b Ml br tUs aaik of aobUitj. A 
[SIttBdanMa lafiiB, MHoaid After tbe ascteiit Euliiou (d^| 
urn bika, amiiac m a orilnBd «31a(Ti each as Uie cuio~ 
Iva raatH, is l ae ri iad «ilb tke hoaor doe to a person of 
rank. "U Cut u a aJ f ir pear lira beaa." was never truer j 
Ittaa iBoag Umm aavafOB^ It reqaires not lea* tltaii tenfl 

i IB pBa^faH tiha Ittlaaiag of the whole hoe aiid body ; 
''tte ^eratian liwag perie n aed, however , oelj at intArmls. 
Hm edor ts iatrodoeed bf fine paneturitigs over t)i« wbcJe 
iir&M ; a ptucws vfaick is eft«ii painfol, and causes svetl- 
ling and mlbmmUHMi, •tpanall.r on mdi sraHtire parts as 
^flie eyelids. Tin purity of u^ unoog tbe ilandurucus 
b |iR>tecl«d by >triug«nt lavs a^ust close intermarriagas. 
Tbe tribe b dirided into oertaia orders or daises, mor 
or less closely idtied : aud so &r do tbejr eany tiicii 
retpeet for tliat law. which, tlwngli reoognixed in th«1 
ririliied world, is so ooustantly siiiu«d against, tliut mar- 
riagu is forbidden, not only between mcmbcrB of Uie 
same fiiiuily. but botWMu tbom of llu) same order. A 
Sluiidurucu Indian Iivats a womuo of ttie same order 
with himself us a sister ; any nearer relation between thetu 
is impossible. Major Coulinbo, who has made a very oaro- 
ful study of tlie manners and batnts of tlii>sa> people, assiuiM 
us tiiat tlie.-o is no law more sacred among Uium, or mora ' 
rigidly obs«rred, than this one. Their Gno pliysique, for^| 
which Uiey arc said to be rem&ricable, is perhaps ovritig 




to this. They are free from one great source of degener- 
ation of type. It Ls to be hoped that Major Coutinbo, who, 
while makiDg his exploratious as au engineer on tho Ama- 
EOninu rirere, has also made a careful study of Uio trihes 
living along their margins, will one day publish the result 
of his investigations. It is to bim we owe the greater 
part of the information wo have collected ou this Huhjoct. 

14 < 





Chuhtma* Ctb at )l*a«oa. — Cunmraiiu or -niit Ikm«c» ^ Citviic 
OK THK AMsKtma.— LiAVR Ujisihw roKnin IEioKkchu. — OuHioua Stvim' 
FoHUATica. — AtrvTT nr itik Rivkii. — Ith VriiiTATKiii. — Sovi>tT Ti-i-l-- 

UTIMI. — Vn.l->OB <-P TtV/l rK.loHU. — KaIiCK OF TIIS Vlt.Ltl'K. PaLMS. 

— VlUJleB l-r I'KMKP.inA. — iMlltN ClUP. — MAkUll I'AUl-niATCII. — 

Rimaru A:ri> WauT at Pkkiimiu. — Riixt i.i tiik t'nRiar. — TiuirtCAI. 

SMUWKH. — (itliUHlT 11* CKItHUIIA. — tllMATt tttCHUTTK — l/oUJ-flKUl OT 

Palmi.— K\>fiA(T* niOJi Mn. AciuiZ's K'lna ox Tim VEi>Ki.tiio> oii 
TJim AuAzon asb tii» Rio Kkciio. — RurirH* t.i Uasiaob. — DmMjmox 
«r tini Kio Mec'' — In vutuhk pHonrtctB. — nvMtu/i-" '• AfrnctrA* 

TIOKBi — V'lLd VtlTtKltt. — \HtTKII'lrrU»l Of F«*HW IN TirS AmAJIOIIUN 
JVaTBK*. — llow *AK l>IIK to MKiKATIi'M. — H YlllUHiMAnlll! (iTarU). 

AiTaKiiATiufl ■rnoitJi tub Bub axd Callot tiik Sovthu:! amv Nohtm- 
uiic Triritahiki. 

Ih^eth^' 25lh. — Manaos. Tlie IiidiiiiH have a pretty 
observance here for Christmas cto. Al iiightfail, frooi tbo 
eettleuMiiits at Hyanuary, two ilhiminatecl caiiocs oome 
acrcHsis lliu river lo Mauaos; one beuriiig the figure at Our 
Lady, Uio uUter of Suitit Rosalia. They louk very brilUaiu 

tliey come lou-anls the shore, all the light coucoutrated 
about Uic figiir«s cxrriiM) erect in ttto prows. On landing, 
llio Indians, many of whom have come to the city in 
advance, form a procession, — the women dressed iu white, 
and with flowers in their hair, the men carrying torches 
or candles; and tliey Tollow the tiered images, which are 
borne under a canopy iu front of tlic proceKiion, to tlio 
eburcb, where Uicy arc deposited, and remain during Clitist- 
mos week. Wo cnlercd witli them, and taw tlio kncvling, 
dusky congregatiou, and ttie two saints, — one a woodeii. 



coarsely painUi imngo of llie Virgin, tlie otlior a gayly 
drobscd dull, — pinccd on a small altar, where was also a 
^[ura of the infanl J«»iiit, :<iirri)iiiidcd tiy floweiTs. At n 
Ut«r hoar tho midnight mass was celebrated ; less ititcrost- 
\i\g to me thui the uarhcr coremony, boi^auso not so cxcUi- 
Givuly u service of llio Iii'lians, though they fonnod a Urge 
part of the congregation ; and the music, as usual, wau 
performed by tlie band of Indian boys from die CaES doG 
Edncaiidos. But there is nolliiii}]; hero to make the Catliolic 
serrioe iinprei»sivc; the churches on (lie Amaicoiis generally 
Are of the most ordinary kind, and in a ruinous condition. 
Tlioro is a large unfinished stone church in Manaos, stand- 
ing on the hill, and occupying a commaiullng position, 
which will make it a coiis|iicnou!t object if it is ever 
completed ; but it has stood in its present state for yeai'S, 
and seems likely to remain so for an indellnite length of 
time. It is a pity lUay have not the cu!<tom here of 
dressing their churches with green at Cliristmas, bccauso 
they have so singularly boaiitiftiE and appropriate a trco 
for it in tlie palms. The Pupunha palm, for instance, so 
archiloctursl in its symmetry, with its columnar-like stem 
and its dark-grcon vault of drooping leaves, would bo 
Admirablcj for this purpose. To-moriow we leave Manaos 
in the " Ibicuhy," in order to ascend the Rio Negro oa 
far as Fcdreira, where the first granitic formation is said to 

Deemier 27(4. — On board tlie " Ibiculiy." There waa 
little incident to mark our day yesterday, and yet it waa 
one full of enjoyment. The day itself was sucli us rarely 
occurs in these regions ; indeed, I should say it is the only 
time, during tlic whole six months we have passed oti the 
Amaxous, when we have had cool weather witli a clear 


tkj. Uool weather liore is tiMtalljr the result of loin. 
As sooit OS llic sun shows his fuc^ Uic h««t is grcut. But 
yesterday a strong wind was blowing dowu lliu Rio Nugro : 
and its usually black, still waten wore fr«»l>OQC(l to blac^l 
and their Eurfaco broken hy white caps. It is a curious I 
fact ill tiie history of this river, that, while tributary to I 
the Amazons, it also receives brauches from it. A littlaj 
above its junction with the Solimocns, the latter sends sev- 
cral small affluents into tht; Rio Negro, the etitraiice to which 
we passed yesterday. The contrast between their milky' 
white waters and tlie clear, dark, aml>cr tint of tlie main 
river uiakcs tlicin very conspicuous. It would seem that i 
this is not a i>olitary instance of river formation in this 
gigantic rrcxli-watcr system; for Ilumboldt says, »|)eakiiig 
of the double communication between the Cassiquiare and 
the Rio Negro, aud the groat number of branches by whicli 
tlte Rio Bruneo and the Rio Ilyapurii enter into the Rio 
Negro JUid the Amazons : " Al the eunflucnco of the Ilya- 
pura tliero it a much more extraordinary phctiomoiion. 
Before this river joins the Aiuuzuiis, the laltcr, which is the 
iclpol recipient, scuds olT three branches, called (Jara- 
ipu, Uanhama, and Arateparaua, to the Hyapura, which 
is but a tributary stream. Tlic Portuguese astronomer, 
Ribciro, lias proved this important fiict. Tlie Amuzons 
gives waters to the Hynpura itself before it receives tlist 
tributary stream." So does it also to the Rio Ni^ro. 

The physiognomy of tho Rio Negro is peculiar, aud very 
different from tliat of the Ainaeocis or ttie Solimocns. The 
shores jut out i» frequent promontories, which, while tlicy 
form deep bays bctwe«u, narrow tlie river from distouca 
to distance, and, as wo advance towards thorn, look likd 
(bo eutranccc to harbors or hikes. Indcinl, we have already 


passed Buveral large lakea ; but great sheets of water so 
abound liore Uiat tliev are nameleH!), and hardly attract 
alteutioii. The vegelatioii s\io is difTereiit from that of 
tbe Amaxous. As jot we have seen few palms; and tbo 
forest is charactoriwd by a great uumlior of tree*, tbo 
8umD)its of which are evenly and gently arclicd, forming 
fialtoned domes. The inost rcmarkalilu of tliose, on au- 
count of its lofty height and spreading foliage, is tbo 
Sitinatim^ra, to whiuh I have alluded before. Btil Uiis 
niubrella-likc mode of growth is by no means conGuod 
to one tree, but, like tlic buttre^sod Irunkit, cbaruvteriitui 
a number of Brazilian trees. Il is, however, more frequent 
here than we have teen it vUewbcre. Tbc Ghoroi^ seem 
very scautily inhabited ; induod. during our whole journey 
yesterday, we met but ono canoe, which we hailed, iu order 
to inquire our distance from the little hamlet of Taua 
PlJasau, where we meant to drop anchor for the night. 
It was the boat of an Iiidiiiu family going down the 
river. We were reminded tlutt wo were leaving inhab- 
ited regions, for tlie man who was rowing wax qui to 
naked; his wife and children peeped out from under the 
tolda in the stern of the boot. \V« received from them 
the welcome intelligence that wo were not far from our 
destination, where we accordingly arrived soon after night* 
fall. At this hour we could form but litllo idea of the ap- 
pearance of the phice; yet, by the moonllglit, we could see 
t]iat its few hoiLses (some eight or ten, perhaps) stood on n 
crcECont'shapod terrace, formed by the bank of a little bay 
which puts in just at Ibis point. The gentlemen went on 
shore, and hrought back the padix; of the village to tea. 
He eoems a man of a good deal of intclligcoce, and was 
eloquent upon the salubrity of tbe village, its Ireedoni 

from musquitocs, piums, »ii<l all kiii<ls of tioxtaus inscctlj 
At (ii'Hl u life so rcmolu uiid iMlatod mmum a Imtxl lot 
and onv would tbiiik only tlic (frouto^t dcroUou could 
iiiducQ a muL' to uDdcrtuIca iU But tlicro is barclljr a 
corner so rcinoto tu Briuil as not to be reached bj the 
petty local politics ; and tlie pudi-c is said to bo a great 
poliUciun, liis *aiu)|iaign before election among llie poor 
people with witom liis lot is cast being as exciting to 
him as that of any man wbo canrosM* in a more di« 
tinguitbed uruua ; tbe more satizructory, pci'haps, bucaueo^ 
he bas tbe game very miicb in liis own bands. Wo Icf 
Taua P£assu with the duwii, and are again on our waj 
to Pedroira. The weather still oontiuuos meet favorablo] 
for traroUbi^, — an overcast sky and a cool breeze. But 
to-day the black river jIocjh without a ripple; and, as wqH 
pass along, Die trees meet tbo water, and are so perfectly 
reflected in it that wo can hardly distinguish the diriding 
line. I liaro i>aid that the forest is not characterized by 
palms, aud yet we t>ce many species wliich we have not 
met before; among these is tbe Jnra-assfi, with its lailf 
blender stem, and broom-like tuft of stiff leaves, ilbr* 
Agas»is ha.<i juU gone on shore in the montaria, to cut! 
down some palma of another kind, new in him. As lit 
roturrif, the little boat Rcenis to have undergone some 
marvellous change ; it looks like a green raft tlonting 
the water, and we can hardly tee tbe figures of th4 
rowers for the beautiful crowns of tlie palni-treoi. 

DteembtT 29tA. — Pedreini. I have laid lillle about 
t}io insects and reptiles which play so largu a part in m( 
BrazUian travels, and, indeed, 1 have had muc!> Ici-. annoy 
anca irom this source than I bad expected. But I mi 
oonrees the creature whc greeted my waking sight tlus 

cxctTsioK OX Tne rid x(»:r(V 


moTniiig vas not a pleasant object Ui ooiiloniplate. It was 
ail enormous centi]>edi! dote b; my Mq, nearly a foot ia 
Icngtii, wlioM iiitiuiucrablo legs looked jiut ready for a 
Biai-l, and whose two honts or feclen were protruded witli a 
iDoed Teuomous expression. These niiimals are not 011I7 
liideoiix lo look upon, but their into \» von* [tainfnl, though 
not dnugeruuft. I crept sollly awuj froiii my tiofn without 
disturbing my ugly neighbor, who prosciiitly Tell a vicUm to 
ecieiice ; Iwing very adroitly caught under a large tumbler, 
and consigned to a gloss jar filled with ulcohol. Cuptaiu 
Farin says ihut ctuitipedcs iirc oflcn brouglit on board with 
tlio wood, among which they usually lie concealed, «cldoia' 
making Ihctr appearance, unless distHrtwd and driven out 
of tlicir hiding-place. To less noxious vi«iton of this kind 
onu gute soon nccustomed. As I >>hakc out my dress, I hear 
a cold flop on tlic floor, and a pretty tittle hoitsc-lixanl, 
who has found a warm retreat in its folds, makes his 
escape wiih all celerity. Coekl'oach(^s swarm everywhere, 
and it would he a vigilant liousekcopcr who could keep 
tier closets free of them. Ants are the greatest iiuisaucoj 
of all, and tim bite of the fir«>-ant is roully terrible. I 
remember once, in Esporan^a's cottage, having hung Eomo 
towels lo dry on the cord of my hammock; I was about' 
to remove them, when suddenly iny hand and arm 
teemed phinge<l into rue. I dropped the towels as if tliey 
liDid been hot coals, which for the moment lliey literally 
seemed to bo, and then I saw that my arm was covered 
witli little brown ants. Brushing them olf in all liasto, 
1 called Laudiguri, who found an army of tliem parsing 
urer the hammock, nnd out of Uio window, near whicli 
it hung. He said they were on their way somcwhero 
ood, if left undisturbed, would bo gone in an hour or 


two. And so it proved to bo. We saw no more < 
tbem. Major Gotiliiilio says tbat, in cortaiu Amazotiui 
tribes, tlie Indian bridegroom is Hubjcctcd to a ffiugular 
test. Ou tbe dnj of his marritgCf wbito tbe wedding 
fcsiirlticE arc going on, bis baud is tied up in a paper 
bag filled wilb firc-aiit«. If be bears lliis torture »miVuiglj 
and unmoved, bo is coiiKidorud fit for llio trials of matri- 

Yostcnluy wc urrii-cd at Podrcira, a little Tillage con- 
sisting of somo fiftcoii or twenty bouses beinmed in by 
forost. Tiio place cortuiiily dcsen'os its name of tJio 
"plnca of stones," for tbe sboi-c is fringed witb rocks 
and bonldeni. Wc landed at once, and Mr. Coutiniio 
and Mr. Agnssiz spent tlie morning In gcologixiug and 
boUniKing. In tbe course of onr rumble we came upoa 
an oxcecdingly pictnresqno Indian camp. The river is now 
6o bigti tbat tbe water runs far up into tlio forest. In siich 
on overflowed wood, a nuiuber of Indian monlarias were 
moonid ; wliile, on a tract of dry land near by, tlie Indians 
hod cleared & little grove, cutting down tlie inner trees, 
and leaving only t)te outer ones standing, so ss to make 
a sbady, circular arbor. Williiu tbis arbor the liamniocka 
were slung ; while outside were llie kettles ajid water- 
jogs, and uteusii:' of one sort and another. In tbis little 
fsuav were several Indian families, who bad left tlicir 
mandioca plautatioHS in Uie fori.'st, to pass the Cbrii^lnias 
j^jU {n tbe village. I asked the women what tliey did, 
b«v and Uicir babies, of which there were a goodly num- 
it nuucd ; for a roof of foliage is poor sbcltor 
Boaial runs, descending, not in drops, but in 
^Vh hushed, and, pointing to tlieir caiH>cs, said 
Ite tolda, tlie arched roof of palm-tli3tch 





whidi slwnys eiic]D»es the stern or aii Indian moiitaria, 
kiid w«rc safii. Even thin, in the open river, would not 
bo a prgtectiou ; but, moored as tlic boat? are in Uic luidst 
of a thick wood, thej' do not receive ilie full force of tlie 
sltowers. In returning from our walk wc stopped nt a 
house where an Indian was making palm-tlintch from [ho 
leaflets of (he Curua palm. When quite young, they ai'o 
[ockod closely around the midrib. Tlie Indians turn them 
down, leaving them attached to the axis by a few fibres 
ouly, HO tliat, when the midrib is held up, Oicj hang from 
it like so many straw-colored ribands, being, at that age, 
of a very delicate color. With these leaves they tliatch 
their walls and roofe, setting the midrib, which is strong 
ftjid sumelimcs four or five yards long, across, to serve as 
s support, and binding down tin; pendent leaves. Such a 
tliatch will last for years, and is au excellent protection 
from rain as well as sun. I should add, tliat, )ii other 
parts of tlie country, difTcreul kinds of piUnui are used for 
tliis purpose. 

On our return to the villnge ve were met hy the padro, 
who invited us to rest at his house, stopping on the way, 
at our request, to show us the church. The condiUon of 
a settlement is generally indicated by the state of the 
cluirch. Tliis one was sadly in want of repairs, the mud 
walls being pierced with more windows tlian they were 
originally hitended to possess; but the interior wuii nent, 
and tlie aliar prettier tlian one would expect to find in 
so poor a place as Pedreira appears to ho. pL*rbapH thu 
cliurcli was in better order than usual, being indeed in 
Fostival trim. Christmas week was not yet over, and the 
baby Christ lay on his gi-een hod in a U^tle arbor of leaves 
and Qowere, evidently made cxpreeeJy for the purpose. 


llie padre ol' Oi'm IiUlo village, Falltcr Samuel, aa lultoo 
priest, who bus pa»«d mutiy yeiii-» uf liU lifo among tfaa 
Itidiajis of Soulli America, partly in Bolivia and partly in 
Bnuii, liad not »o mucli to nay in favor of (Jie liealtJifol 
ncss of ttis parish as tlio padru wliom wo bad 8oen tht 
nigtit before in Taua p4!a»M. lie told us that ialermit 
tent fever, from wbicb bo bad suffered niucb bimseir, ii 
frequent, and lliut tbc people are poorly and iasuflScientlj 
fed. When tbey have had no recent arn<ral from Mattaoa 
ucitlier cufTeo, sngur, ten, nor bread are to be bad iu tb« 
village. As tbure is iio beach hero, the fiihhig is done at 
n distance on tlio otiier side of tliQ river ; and when tJie 
waters are very high, fish are not obtained even there. At 
such times the Indians live exclusively on farinha d'agua 
and water. Thi» meogfe diet, though irijiinouft io tlie iienllli, 
hatisliQs the ci-nrings of bungor witli lliose aectiHtomed to fl 
it ; but the few wbites in tliis solitary place suffer severely. 
What a coniinoiit is lhi» scarcity of food on tlic indo- 
lence and iiidilTcionec of the population in a region where 
an imnienso variety of vcgetitblcs migtit be cultiruted with 
little Iubnr, where tbc pasturage is excellent (as is attCslcd by ^ 
tlic fnie condition of the few ooirs at Pedrcira), and whcro 
^coflbe, cacao, cotton, and sugar have a gonial elimatc and 
soil, and yield more copious eropis than in many counlrios 
from which largo exports of lli«fe productions are mado! 
And ycl, in this land of abundance, tlie people live in dread 
of actual want. The village consists, as I have said, of 
some fifteen or twenty hon»«s, alt of which are at tliis 
moment occupied ; but Fatlicr Samuel tells us that we aoo 
the little place at lis flood-tide, ClirislJnas week baring 
brought ti^ether the io1ml>ilauts of tite neighborhood. 
1'hey will disperse again, after a few days, to their palm 


eil'cdssio:< on the bio KEcga 


house* And niftudioca plaulatloiis iu lliu Torcst; and UiQ 
|*A(Irc iiys lliut, uii muiiy a Suuday llirougbout llie jear, 
bb congregation conisi^U only of himself and tbo boja 
wbo assist at tlia sonicc. 

Aft«r wo bod rwtcd for tialf aii hour »t tlie priest's 
lioiisc, )iu proposed to Ki'iid us to bis little maiidioca plau- 
tatioii at a sliort distancQ in Utu foreKt. wtwro a partio- 
uW kind of pulm, which Mr. Agnssiz gi-cally coveted, was 
to Iiti obtained. Such a proposition natnrallj suggests a 
walk; but in ibis counti-jr of inundated surfacM land 
journeys, as will be seen, arc ol^cii made by water. We 
started in a montaria, and, after keeping along tlic mor 
for some tin>e, we turned into the woods and bogau to 
narigute the forc»L The water was still and clear as glass: 
tl>c trunks of the trees stood up from it, their brandies 
dipped into it; and as wo wound in and out among them, 
putting aside a l>ougb horo and tlicro, or stooping to flout 
under a green url>or, the reflection of OTcry leaf was so per- 
fect that wood and water seemed to melt into each other, 
and it was diiSeult to suy wliero tbo one l)egan and tbe 
other ended. Silence and sliudc so profound brooded over 
tbo whole scene that tlu; mero ripple of our paddles seemed 
a disturiHuico. After half aii hour's row we came to dry 
land, where wo went on »hore, taking our boatmen with 
lis; and the wood soon resounded with tbo sound of Ibeir 
tiatelivts, as tlie palms fell under tJioir blows. Wc rclumod 
with a boat'load of palms, besides s number of plants of 
Tartons kinds whicb we had not soou elsowhoro. We 
reacticd tbe "Ibicuby" just in time; for scarcely were 
we well on board and in snug quarters again, when tho 
heavens opened and tbe floods came down. I am uot 
yet accustomed to the miraculous force and profuMOa o( 



th«6e torrents of water, aud erery shower b a fresh sv 
prise. Yet the raiDf season is no sucU irojiediroeiit to 
iravottiug and working as we had RUpposcd it would be. 
Tito rain is bjr no means continuous, and there are ofleo 
BOToral days together of clear veatlier. Indeed, it no 
more rains all the time in tlic rainy season liere tlian 
it snows all the time in the winter wilh us. One word 
of the geology. The Pedreira granite, of whicli we had 
heard, proves to be a granitoid mica-slate, -^ a higlil/ 
metamorpliic rock, indistinctly sti'atified, but resembling 
granite in its composition. It is in immediate coutoct 
with tbo red drift which rests above it. 

This morning we had a melancholy proof of the bru- 
tality of recruiting here, of which we have already heard 
60 much. Several Indioiis, who had been kept in confino- 
ment in Pedreira for some days, waiting for an opportunity 
to send tliom to Manaos, were brought out to the ship. 
These poor wretches had their feet [tasaed llirough heavy 
blocks of wood, the holes being just laige enough to fit 
around the ankles. Of course they could only movtt 
with the grcutest difficulty ; and they were half pushed, 
half dragged up the side of tlie vessel, one of litem liav- 
ing apparently such a Rt of ague npon him (Imt, when lis 
wa» fairly landed on his feet, I could fee him shake frimi 
my seat at a disunce of half tlio deck. These Lidiana 
cau speak no Portuguese : tliey cannot undcrktaud why 
they are forced to go; tliey only know tliat they are 
seized ill llie woods and treated as if they wore tlie worst 
criminals; puuixhod with barbarity for no crime, and tlteo 
sent to fight for tlio goverumeut which so misuses tliom. 
To tl»e honor of our commander ho it said, ihni he showed 
the deepest indignation at tlie condition iu which t 



mon were delivered into his liandH : ho caused tlie block] 
of wood to he sawed off Uieir feet iiimicdiatel;, gavo 
tliciii wiiic Olid food, ttnd showed them every kiudiicss. 
He protected that the whole proceeding was illegal, aad 
cotitrsry to tlie iiiteiittous of the centra] aulJiority. It 
is, however, the way in whicli Itie recrniliug is accom- 
plished througliout this Iiidiuu district ; and the defenoc 
icade by tlioso who justify it i», tliat the Indians, like auy 
other citizens, mnst fight for the innintenoncc of the laws 
which protect them ; that the govcrniuent needs their scr- 
riocs; and that this is the only way to secure tliem, as 
they are very unwilling to go, and very cunning and 
agilo in osoapiDg. Beside these three men, there wore 
two others; <me a volunteer, and Ihe other from a better 
class, the pilot of the cataract on the Rio Branco. A 
man so employed ought, for Iho take of tlio community, 
to be exempt from military sorrioe, as few persons under> 
Etuad the dangerous navigation of the river, where broken 
by cascades. He will doubtless bo sent back when his 
is represented to the President of the province. 

Iteeember Z\»1. — Again on our way back to Manaos, 
having made, on our return, another short stay at Taua 
P^assu, where, during the two days of our absence, the 
padre of tJio village had prepared a large collection of 
palins for Mr. Agu^iic. Our colloctiou of palms is becom- 
ing quite tiumcrous ; and though they mutt of counr, in 
tho process of drying, lose all their beauty of coloring, wo 
hope they may retain «omcthing of the grace aud dignity 
of ihvir bearing. But ovon should this uot l>c tho coso, 
tliey will answer every purpose of study, as with each ono 
fpooimens of its fniit and fiowerj are preserved in alcohol. 
A palm lias just been brought on board — the Bacc&ba, or 




wino^m ((EiiocarpuE) — from wliicli tlie flowers Jroop lu 
loiig crJiiisoii oordii, witli brighl-grccu berries from dt»> 
lance to distAiice nlong (Jieir lttii[;tli, Utui au iuiincusd conl 
taewl, flecked liuru aud lliore witlt gnwii, hanging frooi 
tlie dark trunk ot tiic tree. The modo of Ooweriiig of 
tli6 oocuQ-inil palm, wLic)i wo svo cvurywlicn] tliough 
it is not tiidigeuons hero, is rwj beautiful. Tito lluwcn 
burst from llie hIicuiIi in a long plume of soil, crcamj^ 
vhite bloKSOUis : kugIi a phiniu \» so licavy with llic 
wciglit of pendent flowers that it can liurdljr be liftMl ; 
aiid its effect is vcrj striking, hanging high dp on llto 
inuik, just under tbc groou rauU of Icarca. I think 
ihoro is nothing among llie cliaractcrislic features of Imp- 
icol scenery of wbieb ono forms loss idea at houto tlum 
of tbu pulins. Their name is logiou ; (h« variety of thojr 
forms, of tbcir fulinge, fniit, and flowers, is iierfcctly bo^ 
wildoriiig ; and ycl, as a granp, (heir cburaclcr is uumis-" 
takablo. The following extracts are taken from Mr. Agos- 
sii's notes ou palms, written during this czcurvinn ou tlio 
Rio Negro. ^ 

** The palms, as a natural group, eUnd out among all^ 
oilier plants witli remarkable distinctness and individuality. 
Aiid yet this comtuon citamcter, uniting (bom so closely 
a nalunl order, does nut prevent tlio most striking diUVroii 
between various kinds of palms. As a whole, no family ol 
trees is more similar; generically and specilically none is 
more varied, ovon tJiough other families include a greaterd 
number of species. Tlicir dilferences seem to mc to be de- 
lermiucd iu a gi-oat mcftsurc by Uio peculiar arrangement 
uf tlieir leaves ; Uideod, palms, with tlteir colossal leaves, 
few in uumber, may be considered as ornamental disgrams 
of the primary laws according to whivli the leaves of all 





pbota ^oughout the whole vegetable kinj^om tro ar 
ruigcd ; taws now recoi^nizcd by llic most ni)vaiiCL-<J boUn- 
ists of tlic daj, and di-^igiiiitcd by tbcm us Pbyllulasiit. Tlio 
siiDplest arraiigeniciit iii tbOKs matliumatics of Um) vcgotabto 
world a tliat of tbe grasses, in wbicb llio loares are placed 
allornatcly on opposite side* of tbc Ktum, thus dtriding tlw 
apace around it in i-qiiul halves. Ks tliv stvm of tlie grasses 
elongates, Ibotc pnirx of loaves arc found scattered along its 
Icugtb ; and it is only in 4>ai'S or fipikc« of tomo goncrn that 
wo Gnd tliem growing i^o couipiiclly on tlio axis as to form a 

Full tKcktit <(CMMrpwdl<qr«tihi«ii 

Close head. Of tliis law of growtli the palm known as tlia 

Bacc&ba of Pard ((Eiiocarpus du«tyc)iiui>> i$ an admirublo 




illustrfttioM ; its leaves being disposed in pairu oi>e tlbarn 
wiotlicr ul tlie summit of Uie stem, but iu sucli iinmnJioti! 
coDtaot as to forto a thick crown. On account of this da- 
po«il!ou of the leaves, its appearauce ia totally diflureut from 
ttint of atiy other palm vitb which I am acquainted. I do 
iitU know any palm in which Ihe leaves are armnged in 
tlirce directions only, as in tlie reeds and sedges of our 
miirKlics, unless it be the Jacitara (Deamondius), irboeo 
winding slender stem, however, makes the obscmitiou ui^H 
certain. An arrangement in five difTercnt directions i^' 
common in all those palms which, when young, have only 
a cluster of five fully duveloped leaves above tlie ground, 
will] a Epade-liko «ixlh leaf ri»ing from Uie centre. Wben 
full grown, they usnnlly exhibit a crown of ten or fidcei^^ 
leaves and mor«, divided into tiers of five, one i^vc tlic otlicim 
but 80 closo together l)i»t the whole appears like ft rounded 
head. Sometimes, however, the crown is moiti open, as in 
the Maximiliona rcgia (Inaja), for instance, in which the 
stem is not very high, and the leaves, always In cycles of 
Gvc, spread slightly, so as to form an open ruse riejiig from a 
slender stem. The Assai (Euterpe edutis) has an eight- 
leaved arrangement, and lias never more than a single eycl« 
of leaves, though it may sometimes have xcvcn leaves whc 
the first of the old cycle has dropped, before the ninth, wit 
which tlie new cycle begins, has opened ; or nine, if the first* 
leaf of the new cycle (the nintli in number) has opened, 
before tlie flr»t of the old cycle has dropped. These leaves, 
of a delicate, paile green, are cut into o thousand leaflets, 
which tremble in the ligiitcst breeze, and tell you that the 
air is stirring even when the beat seems breathless. A more 
elegant and attractive diagram of the Plijlloloxis of j prob^| 
ably docs not exist in nature. The common Cocoa-nut tree 



lias its leaves arranged ftocording to the fracUoii of ^ ; but, 
tliougli tlie crovn cou)i»ts of «CT«ra] cycles of leareti, they 
do not form a close head, bceatisc tlic older cues become 
peodont, vliile tlie^oiingur ure mure erect. Tlio Pupuiiba, 
nr poocl) palm (GuilidmiL), fullows the Pli/IlotoxU of ^ ; 
but in tliis iiistaucc nil the leiives are evenly urclicd ovei, 
so that tlio whole fornix a dcep-gceoii vault, the more beau- 
tiful from tho nch color of the foHngc. When the heav; 
rluKter of ripe, red fruit bangs under (his diirk vault, the 
troc is in its greatest Iwauiy. As Uie leavi's of Uiis pulm 
are not to cIo«ely set in llie juiinj^r specimens as io tlio 
older ones, its uxpect changes at different singes of growtli ; 
the leaves in tlie yuungur trees being di^lributed over a 
l^rtruter length of tho Irimk, while, in (he adult taller ones, 
they are more cumpuet. This arrangement is repented in 
the Javari mid Titcuma CA>lrocaryitm) ; but in these iho 
clo^cly-set leaves »tnnd erect, broom-like, nt tlie licud of the 
long »talk. In tlio Mucnja (^Acrouoniiii) the leaves arc ar- 
nged acciii-diiig to the fi-action j]. Thus, under the 
fnndaiueiital principle uf growili, an infinite vtuieiv is 
iatroduced, among trees of one order, by tlio sllglit dif- 
ferences in the distribution and consiitniion of thu leaves 
themselves. In tho Musaces, or .'■I'vlnniinoic, the Bananas, 
another order of the same cla« of plants, a diversity oqnnlly 
remarkable is produced in the Aame way, namely, by flight 
modifica^ons of thi» fundamental law. What can differ 
more in appearance tlian the common Banana (Uusa par- 
adisiaca), with its large simple leaves, so loosely arranged 
uoand tlie stem, »o graceful and easy in their movements, 
and the Banana of Madagascar (Ravenala mBdagaficarieiiHis), 
commonly known as the Traveller's tree, which, like tlie 
Bacc&bft of Par&, has its leaves alternating r^iilarly on op- 





poNite sides of tlie trunk, And so cloD^ly packed toguUicr as 
to ronu an innnenTO flat run on a oo)o$»al stem ? Yet, ia all 
Ukm pknt« Uie arnuigt'nioiit of leaves obeips tlic sums law, 
wliicli is inu»trnted villi equal ditiiinctness by cucli one. 
Thii »iatliciiiatio»l <lii<j>o;itioii of tuaves is tlms shown to bs 
compatible wild a gi'vat vuriuty of c^^tHMilially difivrcnt striio- 
ttiros; aud (bough the Inw of Pbyllotaxis prevails iu all 
plants, bcmglimitf] ncithurto dim, orders. rumilics,geDeni, 
nor Kpccics, but running in various combinaliunf llirougfa 
tlic wliole kingdom, I believe it can bo studied to especial 
advantage in tlio group of palins, ou account of the proini- 
nence of their few largo leaves. The most abundant an^H 
characteristie palms of the Rio Negro are the Javari (Astro-^ 
caryum Javari), the Muru-Mnru (Astroearyum Mururouru), 
the Cauaseu (Altalea cpccioHi), the Iitaja (Slaximiliana ro* 
gia), the Bacciiba ((£iiocat')ins Uaccilba), the Pusiuba (1 
nrtea oxorhiza). the Oarana (Maurilia Ooraiia}, the Caran: 
(Mauritia horridu), the Ubim (Oeonoina), and tlio Cunt. 
(Attalea spccLiibilis) ; of these the two latter aro tlio inusil 
iiseflll. Tlio remarkable Fias«»bn (l<cu]ioldinia Piassabo) 
occurs only for above the junclinii of tlic Itio Negro aiid Riu 
Ilranco. We obtained, howoTer, a »|ieciuicii that had boeu 
planted at Ilatiassu. The many small kinds of Ubim (600- 
iioraa), and Maraja (Uactris), and even tho Jara (Leopol- 
dinia), are »o completely overshadowed by the larg«r trees 
that Ihcy arc only noticed where cluKlered alung tlic river^ 
banks. Bussus (Mauicaria), Assais (Euterpe) Uucaja 
(Acrocomia), grow aUo ou lli« Itio Negro, but it reniaing 
to be nfccrtaincd whcllier (hey are specificslly identical with 
those of the I/nrer Amaxoiis. So peculiar is the a.<tpect of 
ttuj diflcretit species of palms that, from the deck of Uw 
skamer, tlicy caii be singled out as ea«]y as tho livo-cjka 




ta peoctn-nut trees, so rcadilj dUtiogiiiislicd on tlio loner 
counc of tJic Mi»K>i>»ippi, or the diOcrcQt kiiuls of oaks, 
ttiicbes, ';c«cb«s, or walnut-trees whicli allr&ct obecrratioit 
wli«u sailiiig along tim Hliorcs of our NorUioni lakes. It 
eeeros, however, iiuposs'lilc to discrimiualc between all tlie 
trees of lliis woiiderful Ainuzoniaii forest; purtlf because 
ley grow iu eucIi bcterogviieous usKociatione. In tbe 
tomporuto zoDO wc liuvu ouk-forosts, {njie-forests, btrcb, 
beech, aiid ample woods, tho same kinds of trees coii- 
grogaUiig togellier ou one soil. Ifot so here ; tliere is 
tlic most cxlrsordiimry diversity in tlie comtHUatiou of 
pluit£, and it is u very rare thing to see tlie soil occu- 
|Med for any extent by tlie same kind of tree. A large 
number of the trees forming tliese foresu are still unknown 
to science, and yot the Indians, tJiose jimcticat botujiista 
d zoologists, ore well aoqnaiuted, not only vith their 
cxteni:il sppcaraiioe, but aJAo with tbeir various propertieii. 
Su intimate is their practical knowledge of the natural ob- 
jects about them, that I believe it would greatly contribute 
to the progress of science if a »yslcmitlic record were made 
of all tbe information thus scattered thi-ough the land ; an 
encyclopedia of tlie woods, as it were, taken down from 
tlie tribes which inhabit them. I think it would be no bad 
way of collecting, to go from settlement to settlement, send- 
ing the Indians out to gather all the plants they know, to 
dry and label Uient with the names applied to them in tlio 
locality, and writing out, under the heads of these names, 
all that may thujt be ascertained of their medicinal and 
otlierwise u»cl\il properties, a.« well as their botanical char- 
actor. A critical examination of these collections would at 
ODce correct tlio infunnatioii Uiiis obtained, especially if tlie 
penon intrusted with tin; care of gathering thefe material* 


A jovsxtr IN bba:il. 

Iiad £0 much knowledge of botauj as voiild enable him lo 
Gomplvtv tlio collections brought in by the ludiaiis, adding 
to them such p&rts as might bo wnnted for a coinpleto Sfs 
tomutic dcecriptioD. The specimens ought not to bo chosen, 
howoTcr, as they havo hitherto boon, solely willi reference to 
tlioso ports which unj ubiK>lutcly necessary to identify the 
Epecies ; the collections, to bo complete, oufHit to include the 
wood, Uio bark, the roots, and tlio soft fruits in alcohol. Tlie 
abundance and variety of timber in the Amazonian Volley 
strikes us with amazement Wo long to hear the saw-mill 
busy in these forests, whore there are several hundred kinds 
of woods, admirably suited fur constniction as well as for the 
finest cabinet-work ; remarkable for the beauty of their grain, 
for their hardness, for tlie variety of their tints and thci^H 
veiniiig. and for their durability. And yot m> ignorant ar^' 
the inhabitants of the value of timber that, when they want 
a plank, they cut down a tree, and chop it to tlio deiired 
thickness with a iiatciiet. There are many other vegetable 
products, besides tiiose already exported from the Amazon 
which will one day be poured into the market from its fi 
tile shores. Tlie clearest and purest oils are made fro: 
some of the nnts and palm fruits, while many of tlte pal 
yield the most admirable fibrous material for cordage, singu' 
larly elastic and re»istaiit. Besides its material prodncto, — 
and of these tlio greater part rot on the ground for want 
of bauds to gather them, — the climate and soil are favon- 
bio for the growth of sugar, coffee, cocoa, and cotton ; and 
I may add, that the spices of the East mSglit bo cultivated in 
tko ralley of the Amazons as well as iu the Dutch possee- 
sions of Asia." 

Sun^ff, 31st. — Manaoe. We had wished ezcc«diO| 
to extend our excursion on the Rio Negro to the moui 



r: the Riit Branco, but our pilot would not undertaka 
tc conduct the " Ibicuhjr " beyond Pedrcira, as ho said 
tlio stones in tho bed or the river were nutnernun and 
large and ti^(s cliannel at tliiH season not very deep. We 
, were, thcrcrorc, obliged to return without acconiplisliing 
tlie whole object of this voyage ; but though short, it 
was iievcrtlicless most interesting, and has left with us 
tt vivid impression of tlie peenliar character of this great 
stroam. Bcnutirul as are the endless forests, however, we 
oonld not hut long, when skirting iheni d.ij aflor dnf 
witiiout Hceing a house or meeting a canoe, for tlie sight 
of tilled soil, for po^lu^^•laHds, for open ground, for wheat- 
fields and haystacks, •— for any sign, in short, of the prcseuoe 
of mun. As we fat ut nij^ht in tho stern uf the ve«3«], 
looking u{i this vast river, stretching many tiundred leagues, 
witli ile sulitary, uninhabited «1iore« and impiinclrable for 
06ts, it wa? diFTicult to resist an opprc»»ive scn^ of loneli 
ness. Though here and Uicro an Indian seltltMiient or a 
Brazilian villugu breaks the distunce, yet the population is 
a tnoro handful in such a territory. I sitppuse the time 
will come when the world will claim it, when this river, 
where, iu a six days' journey, we have pnssed but two 
iM* three canoes, will have its steamers and vessels of all 
sorts g(Mng up and down, and iu banks will he busy 
vith life; but the day is not yet. When 1 remember the 
poor people I have seen in the watclvmaking and lace- 
making villages of Switzerland, hardly lifting their eyes 
off their work fi'om break of day till night, and even 
then earning barely enough to keep them above actual want, 
uid think how ea.sily everything grows here, on land to be 
bad for olmost nothing, it seems a pity tliat some jiarts al 
the world shonid be so overstocked that there is not nouv- 



isliownt for all, aad othen so empty titat there arc aoiie M 
gstbor tbe liarrest. We loag to sec a rigorous cau|;n- 
tion pour into tbis region so favored by Nature, to bare ot 
iuliatntaiiU. Bui tbings go slowly in these latitodes; 
great cities do not sprlug up iii half a oeulury, ax with n*. 
Uumboldt, in his account of bis Sou tb- American joamcy, 
writes ; " Since my departure from tbe banks of tliv Orinoco 
and llic Amar/in, a new era has unfolded its^f in tbe social 
state of tbe nations of the West. Tlie fury of ciril di;- 
scusioRs li&s been succeeded by tbe blessings of pc«c8, and 
a fi-eer dct-elopmeiit of tbe arts of industry. The Ufarca- 
lioas of the Orinoco, tlie isthmus of Tuamiui, bo easy to 
be made passable by an artificial canal, irill erelong fix 
tbe attention of commercial Europe. Tltc Cassiquiaro, 
brood as the Rbine, and tlie course of which is one hundred 
and eighty miles in length, will no longer forin uselessly 
navigable canal between two basins of risers whicli ha 
a Burlace of one hundred and ninety tlioutiaiid square 
leagues. The grain of New Granada will be carried to 
the banks of the Rio Ne^ro ; boats will descend front the 
sources of tlic Najm and the Ucuyale, from the Andes of 
Quilo and of Upper Torn, to the mouths of the Orinoco, — 
a diKtaiice which equals that from Timbuctoo to Marscilloft.** 
Such were tlie anticipation! of Humlwldt more than sixtf 
years ago; and at Ibis day tbe hanks of tbe Bio Negrc 
kjid llio Cussiquiarc are eUll as luxuriant and as desolate, 
as fertile and as uninbabitod, as they were then. 

JiiMnay Slh. — Manaos. The necessity for some days of 
roit, nflnr m many months of uuintermitled work, has 
dalulnpd Mr. Agauit hero for a week, it lias given us 
■H n|i]Mirtunily of renewing our walks in tiw neiglibop- 
honi of Miuiaus, of oumploting our ooltection of plants, 





and aleo of refiBslimg otir memory of weiios which wo tliall 
probably Dovor fco agaio, ud<1 among wliicli wo haro had 
a ploasaiit liomo for nearly tiirco monllis. Tlio woods ai-o 
much mora full of flowers tlian they woro when I Tint 
became aoquaintod witli tlii-ir muny plcnsaut patlis. Pa»> 
Eioii-flowers are especially ubunduot. Tliurc is ono kind 
which has a delicious porftimc, not unhko C*po Jvasamiue. 
It hides itself away iii tlio shade, tnit iUt frHgruncc bclrays 
it ; aitd if you put aside tlio brauchvs of tbc trees, you an 
Burc to find its large wliite-und-purplc Quwvrs, and durk, 
thick-learod rinc, climbing up some ucighboring trunk. 
Auother, whicb seems rather to court than uruid obseri'a- 
tion, is of a bright red ; tiud its crimsoti slurs are odcii 
seoa set, as it were, in the tbick foliage of the forest. 
But, much ta I enjoy llie verdure hero, 1 npprccinte. more 
t(uin ever before, tbc marked pufsage of the scui^oiis in our 
Xorthern hi^misphere. In tiiis iinchunging, green world, 
wliich never alters from century to century, except by u 
tittle more or less moisture, a Utile more or luxs lieiit, I 
ihink with tbc deepest gratitude of winter and t^pring, 
summer und autumn. TItc circle of nature seems iuuom- 
plcte, aud eveu the rigors of our olimute are remumberod 
vitli ftflbctiou in this continual vapor-bath. It is literally 
Inie (liat you cannot more ten steps williuut being drcncliH 
ill perspiration. However, this character of the heat pn>- 
TCuts [t iVom l>eing scorching ; and wo have no reason to 
change our first impression, that, on ttiu wliulo, the climate 
i^ much lc»s oppressive tliiut we expected to find it, and llio 
niglit^ nrc inviiriiilily l'ooI. 

At tliQ end of l\m week we resimie our voyage on board 
the " Ibiculiy," going »lowly down to Parii, slopping ataeveral 
points on the way. Our first station will bo at Villa liel' 



la, wliore Mr. Agassis wishes to make aootlicr coltection of 
, fishes. It may seem strango that, after having obtained, 
nearly five moiiiha ago. very largo collections from the Ama- 
tons itself at this iiotiil, as well as from tlic lakes in the 
ncighlxirhaod, he should ixMurii to tho same locality, instead 
of chouKiiig another region for investigation. Were his 
object merely or mainly to become acquainted witli tlie ood- 
lc«s diversity of fishes he now knows to exist in tliis im- 
moiise fresh- water luuin, such a rcjictition of S|>ecitncus from 
tho same locality would ctTlainly be supurfltious, since it is 
probable that a diSbreut point would be more prolific in new 
species. The mere accumulation of species is, however, 
eittlroly subordinate to tlie object which he has kept in view 
ever since ho began his present researches, namely, tliat or 
ascertaining by direct observation Hie geographicid range of 
the fislics, aiid determining whotlier their migrations are so 
frequent and extensive as tliey are said to be. I make aa^ 
extract from Mr. Agossin's notes on this subject. 

" I have been frequently told here that the fislies we 
Tory uomadic, tho same place being occupied at diGferent 
seasons of the year by difTercat sjiecios. My own investiga- 
tioiix have led me to believe tlint these rejmrts are founded 
on iuiperruct observationi^, and that the localization of species 
U uiore dislinel and perniaiient in these water* than has bee: 
supposed ; their migrations being, indeed, very limited, con 
M»ting chiefly in roving^ from tthnllower to deeper waters, 
and rn>m these to ttlioaU again, at those seasonti when the 
range of the shore In tlie b«rue water-basin is aflected by 
the rise and fall of the river ;-~lhiit is to say, the fisbu 
found at the bottom of a lake covering rterhaps a square 
oiile in extent, when the waters are lowest, will ap[iear near 
the chores of tlio same lake when, at tlie season of higbi 



vatan, it eiteitds over a nuicli wider nrca. In tlie same 
iraj, fishes whicli gaUior near tlie mouiti or a riTitlct, nt 
ihe time of low watery will be found as higli as its origiu 
at tlio period of lii};li waters; wliilc (islies wlnoli iiiliubit 
the larger igarap^> on the sideit of l1)0 Aiiinzutis wlicu tUcj 
are swollen h; the rise of tlic river, mnj bo Touud in tlte 
Aoiuoiis itself wlica the strcain is low. Tlicro is not a 
single ^I^1l known to ascend from tlie sea to the higher 
courses of the Amazeux at ccrtuiii seasons, anil to njturu 
rugularly to Ihe ocean. Tliero is no (ish here corresponding 
to tlie salmon, fur instance, which ascends the streams of 
Europe and North America to deposit its spawn in the cool 
head-waters of the liir^er ri\'Urs, and tlien returns to (he sea. 
The wanderings of the Amazonian fishes arc rather a result 
of Llie alieruute widening and contracliiig of their raugo 
by tlie rise and fall of the waters, than of a migratory 
luibit; and may bo compared to llie movements of those 
oocAiitc fishes whidi, at certain soomjiu, seek tlic shoals 
near tho shore, wIiQc they spend Uic rest of the year fu 
deeper waters. 

" Take our shad as an example. It is caught on the coast 
of Georgia in February, on tho Carolina shores a little 
later; iu Murch it may bo found in Washington and Balti- 
more, next in Philudt-lphia and New York ; and it does not 
make ils appcarancu in the Boston market (except when 
brought from farther south) before tlie latter part of April, 
or the bL'gianin;^ of May. This gcquuncc has led to tl»o 
belief that the shad migrates from Georgia to New Euglund. 
Au examination of tlie condition of these Gshos, during tlio 
uontlis wlieu tbcy are sold in our markets, shows at onco 
that tliis cannot be llie case. Tliey arc always fuU of roe, 
and, being valued for tlio tabic at this period, thoy are 

■iroii(;l)t to marlcot at each l<Ka]il}' until Iliv Kpawiiing 
is over. Now, us tbcjr Ciitiiiol breiMl Ivrioc within a few wcclo. 
it is evident that thu sliod wliiclt roako tlieir appcanuice sac- 
cnssively along tbo Atlantic coast from Februarf to May are 
not the same. It is tlic spring wliicb nii);^&tcs norllivanl, 
calling up the sbouls of sbud from iIhi deeper sea, aa it 
touches in sucocssioD different points along the shore. 
Such iDovemonts, if thus conniM:tc<l vitb the advancing 
itpriiig along a whole coast, appear to be migrations from 
houtli to north, when the; are, in fact, on); llie fincoc»>ii'n 
HMiig of the same species from deeper to shallower walen 
at the breeding season. In the same waj' it is probalilc tljat 
the iiie<)ualit7 in the seasons of rise and fall, between ttie 
difTorcnt tributaries of the Amazons and the vaiioiis puru 
of its own course, may give a soquenoo to the appearance of 
Uie fish in certain localities, which seems like migration with- 
out being so, in fact. 

" Keejung in view all the information I could obtain upon 
this subject, I have attempted, whcrGvcr it was possible to 
do so, to inubi^ collections siinnlunoously at dilTeronl points 
of llie Anmioiis : thus, while I was collecting at Villa Bella 
six months ago, some of my assUlaiits were engttged in tlie 
same way at Santarcm, and higlwr up on the Tapajoz ; while 
I was working at TeffiS, parties were busy in the Uyarury, the 
I;a, and the Ilyiitaliy ; and during my last stay at Mauaos, 
parties Have been collecting at Cudajas and at Manacaparu, 
and higher up on the Rio Negro, as veil as at some lower 
poinU on the main river. At some of these stations I have 
been ikblu to rejrcat my investigations at different seasons, 
tliough the intervals between the earlier and later collecUoiiv 
made at the same localities have, of course, not been tho 
Esioe. Between the 6nt ooUoctioos mode at Ta(f6 and th« 




kst, tiardly two months interrencd, w1ii]« l]iosu nude o» 
our lint arrival at Manaoe* lu i*«{>ttiin)>or up to U)o pictout 
time cover an interval of four raoiitli^ ; frotn tltc first to 
the last at VilUi Bolla more timu five mouths will have 
elapsed. On thiR account I nttacli grcnt iiuportunvc to the 
rcucwal of my iuvei(tig»iiuii» at iltat place, as wuU as to 
Uk later collections Troui Otiydo», Satitarcm, Moiito Alegio, 
Porto do Moa, Gunipil, Tnjapuru, and Piird. As far aa 
ttwae oompari»otis have gone, ihi-y sluiw that ihn distinct 
boDtt of the atiove-iiamed localities are not tlie result of 
migrations; for itot ouly have ditfcreul fishes been found 
iu all tlia'Mi basuis at lite same time, Init at diflemit times 
the Miue fishes have hccu found to recur in tlic same basins, 
whenever tlie (iaJiiug wa» cai-ricd on, not merely in favored 
hicalities, but as far as possible over ilie wholo area iudi»- 
vriroinat4:ly, ill deep and »lioal waters. Should it prove that 
at Pari, as well as at tlie intcrvciiiiig stations, after an in- 
tergal of six monllis, the fishes are throughout the same as 
when wo ascended the river, the ovidencn against tlie sup- 
posed extcnsit'o migrations of tlic Amazonian listies will 
i.~ertainly be very strong. Tl)e sinking limitation of sjieciea 
vithin definite areas docs not, Itowcver, oxclude the presence 
of certain kinds of fish nimtiltaneously throughout the wliolo 
Amazonian basiu. Tlte Pirarucu, for instance, is found 
every where from Peru to Pari; and so arc a few otlicr 
species more or less extensively dbtrihated o^xr what may 
bo considered distinct ichtiiyological fauns. But llieso wido- 
aprend species aru no! migratory; tlicy havo normally and 
pomuuimilly a wide range, ju^t as some tvrmstriul unimuls 
have an almost cosmopolite character, while others arc cir- 
cumscribed witliin comparatively narrow hnits. Though 
^B moat quadrupeds of the United States, for instaDcc. diffei 








(Irom those of llozico aud Braxil, constituting seTeral dis- 
tinct rauna!, (liere is one, tlic puma or rod lion, the pantlur 
of llio Nurtli, wliioli is fuiiiid on tlio east of the Rockj' Koao* 
tains mid the Andes, from ['nlagoiiia to Canada. 

" The nioveiii«iit of llie waters, wiiicli affficts so powerftilly 
the di»tributioii of the l)»]tcs, forms in itself a ver^ curious 
pltcnomenoa. Tliere i^, as it were, a rhjthniical oorre»poad- 
eiic« ill the ri»e and fall of the oflliicnts on citlver slioro of 
the Amazons, caning (he groat botlf of tho water, in its 
semiannual tides, to sway alternately more to Llie nortJt or 
to Uic south. On the southern side of the valley, tlio rains 
begin ill tlio months of Scptomlwr and Octolwr. Tliej pour 
down from the table-lands of Brazil and tlto monntains of 
Bolivia with cumulativo force, gathering strength as the 
rainy season prc^rossos, swelling the hcad-walers of the 
PuruB, Madeira, Tapajoz. and otltcr soiilherii tributaries, 
and gradually descending to the main sti'cain. The process 
is a slow one, however, and the full forco of the new flood 
is uot full in tlie Ainaxons until February and March. Dur- 
ing the month of March, in the region below tJie confluence 
of the Madeira, for instanec, the rise of Uje Amazons arer- 
agcs a foot in twenty-four liours, so great is the quantity of 
water poured into it. At about tlie same period with the 
eouiliorii rains, or a little earlier, say in the months of An- 
giist and September, tlio snows in the Andes begin to ntelt 
and flow down towards the plain. This contribution fi-om 
tlio Cordilleras of Peru and Equador, coinciding witli that 
from the highlands of BrsaiX and Bolivia, swells the Amo* 
tons in its centre and on its southcni side to such an extent 
that tltc bulk of the water pushes northward, crowding u|ton 
its norlheru shore, and flowing even iuto the tributaries 
which open on that side of the river, and are now at their 




lowest ebb. Prfiseiitly, however, the rains on thu uble-lands 
of Ouiana, and on the northern epuni of the Andes, where 
tho raiuf season prevails chief!; in Februai-; and Maroh, 
repeat tlic samo process in their turn. Dnring April and 
May l\v3 nortlkOrn uibntaries are ri.«iiig, and tlie; reach 
their maximum in June- Thus, at llie end of June, wlicu 
the souUicni rivcrit have already fallen considerably, tho 
iiortliorn rivers ure at their fluod>tide. The Rio Negro, for 
insianco, rises nt Meuioos to about forly-firo feet above its 
lowest level. This mara of water from the north now premes 
against that in Uic centre, and bears it sontliwurd again. 
Tho rainy season along thu course of thu Amazons is from 
December till Marcli> corresponding very nearly, in tlie time 
of the year and in duration, with our wintfii*. It must ho 
remembered that the vuUuy of tho Amazons is not a valley 
ill tlic ordinary sense, bordered by wall:* or banks cndoung 
the waters which Sow between. It is, on the contrary, a 
plain some seven or eight hnndred miles wide and between 
two and ihree thousand inilc» long, wiih a slope so slight 
that it hardly averages more than a foot iu ten miles. Be- 
tween Obydos and the ^ca-t>horc, a distance of about eight 
hundred miles, the fall is only forty-five feet; Irolween Taba- 
tinga and tho sea-shore, a distance of more than two thou- 
sand miles in a straight line, tlio fall is about two hundred 
-feet. Tlie impression to tJio eye is, therefore, that of an 
absnlulQ plain; and the flow of the water is so gentle that, 
in many parts of tlio river, it is hardly perceptible. Novor- 
tlioless, it has a steady movement eastward, dosccnduig tho 
gentle slope of tliis wide plain, from the Andes to the eua ; 
this movement, aided by the mtorflow from the south and 
uorth at opposite seasons, presses tho bulk of the water to 
its northernmost roach during our winter mouths, and to 

A JWtKrr a krazjl. 

its sou Uiisru most limit during our sutnincr moutJis. In coti- 
scquutico of Uiis, ibo bottom of tbo valley is constaiilljr stiilV 
ing, and llioru its a tendency to form diaimcls froiu tlie uitia 
river to its tributaries, such as wo bavv Mtcn to exiM be- 
tween tho Solimocus and the Rio Negro, — sucli as Hum- 
boldt mcntious between tl>e Hyuptini nnd llic Amazons. Ir»- 
deed, all tlie^o rivers are bouit<) togctlier by no extraonji- 
narj network of chaiinoU, forming a succession of natural 
highways wliicli will always moke nrtillcial roads, to a great 
degree, nnncvcs^ar^'. Whenever the country is s^^ttled, it 
will be poesiblo to pius from the Piinit, for intftaiice. to the 
Madeira, from the Uadcira to the I'apajoz, from tlic Tapo^ui 
to the Xingu, aud thence to tlie Tocantins, vithotil unleriiig 
the course of tho main river. Hie Indians call Uiose passes 
'/««>,' literally, a bore, — a jas.'^gc pierced from Gn« river 
to anotlicr. Hereafter, when tlio interests of commcrrss 
claim tliis fertile, overflowed region, llie«c channels will i« 
of inuncnso advantage for iutcrcommunication." 



Pakiwku Viin TO thi GnxAT C«muc>m at Uai»<». — Ciuirox ix ni MrvTi. 
— AnnivAt. AT Vtujk Bkuji. — Kctukm m the IIiiuie or tiis fimiKKMAB 
Uau.— Flxanttid-t no tub I.jiuo Matiw'Il — <Jij**rir» or Daue ako 
WAtrnirowu — Victoria kkhia. — Lk.imi Vim.a — Alinivs at Unr- 
DO*.— Iti SnviTlon a9U Gkoi^qT S,%«TAn»«.— VlWT TO TUB CaCHCM. 

^AfBCUUTS <»■ UaKTIUK- — A BuW UVIIlLAXIh — UUVTB Al.^OCC- — 1*10- 
TDHMQCIt ScUIKnT. — ' BtmiclKIt" — KiCl'HRKin imtt tiis Covxtut. — 


GeoUwICaI. Fact*, — roiiro no Mo*. — CoixbctIosi. — Uuhui-a'. — Taja- 
rum*. — AKitivK AT PnHjL — Rct.toioit* l'iiix-Kui"!i. ~ E\CL'K«ioH TO 11a. 
KAjo. — Sookta. — JnviT Miuioira — Giu>i.ii<it nr Makaju. — BuuiEu fan- 

BUT. — VlOIA. — ItlAKArd. — VKdlCTATlOSI AMI AMUAI. LiriL — ((KlILAXIT. — 

Retdhh to TaiiX. — PinrTocRAriimo I'luiirni — Kitiiact man Ha. Aoaa- 
•UE** NonK OK TtiK Vkuktatioii ur THB AHAxom. — fuvAuaMni «P . 

January 1.>(A. — To-day fiucls us on our way doirn ttto 
Amazons in tlio ** Ibiciiliy." The day before Ioit>'ing Slaiiaos 
we paid a last visit to the great cn^cade, bathed once inoro 
in its cool, delicious waters, and breakfs.'<tcd by tlie eidu 
of the fall. Hefore many woeks are o^er, the cascade will 
h&ve disappeared ; it will be drowned out, as it were, for 
tlie i^rap^ is filling rapidly with the rise of the rifcr, 
and will soon reach the level of the sandstone shelf over 
which the water is precipitated. Already tl.e appearance 
of the spot is greatly changed since we were tliere before. 
The banks aro overflowed : the rocks and logs wbicb stood 
out from the water are wholly covered ; and whtTC there 
was only a brawling stream, so shallow that it hardly 
afforded depth for the smallest canoo, there is now a not 
insignificant river. Indeed, everywhere we see signs of 




Uie changes wrought by the "enchcntc." Tlie very ta- 
ture of tlio Amazons b changed ; it is thicker aiid jrllowt 
than when we ascended it, and much oiore ludcn widi 
floating wood, detached grssseH, and dfhrit of all eorti 
wo-shed from tlio nhore. Wild-flowcrs are al^ more abun- 
dant thaii Uiej were when we came up llie lircr io Septem- 
ber; not dclicntc, sniail plants, growing low among mon 
and gravs, as do otir violets, anemones', and the like ; bat 
largo blossoms, oorcring tall trees, and rci^tmhliug exotica 
at homo, by their rich color and powerful odor. Indeed, 
the flowers of tlie Amazonian forests always remind me ^| 
of liot-Iwuso plants : and tiicrc often comes a warm breatti ~ 
from the doptlis of tlio woods, laden with moisture and 
perfume, like the air from the open door of a conservatory. 
Janvtanf 17M. — We reached Villa Iklla at eigiit o'clock 
yesterday morning, bui waited there only a few hours to 
tuako certain necessary arrange men ts, and then kept on 
to tlio mouth of the river ItauiuA, an hour's mil from tlio , 
town,— the sumo river which we had ascendod from ita H 
upper point of juncture with the Amaxoiis, ou our ei- " 
cui«iou to Matihes. Wc aneliorcd at a short distance 
from tlio entrance, before the house of our old acquaint' 
lUiecs, the Maias, wlicre, it may bo remembered, wo passed 
a few days when collecting in tliif ncighl>orhood before. 
Fortunately, Miia himsolf was in Manaos wlieii we left, 
employed as a soldier in tho National Guard ; and tiro 
President kindly gave liim leave to accompany us, that 
Hr. Agassis might have the adrantago of Ins familiarity 
with tlio locality, and liis experience in fi«hing. The man 
himself was pleased to hare an opportunity of visiting bh 
family, to whom liis coming was an agreeable surpriic. Wcr 
vent on sltoro tUb tnoruiog to make them a vit>il, taking 




witli as some tittle souvenirs, such as beads, triiikota, 
knives, &c. We were received as old friends, and mudo 
welcome to all the house would afTord ; but, ttiougb as 
oleaii as crer, it looked poorer tiiaii on our former vitit, 
I saw neither dried fish nor maiidioca nor farinha, aud 
tlie woman told me that she found it very hard to sup- 
poi't her lai^ family, now that the husband and father 
was away. 

The quantity of detached grass, shruhs, &0. carried 
past tlie vessel, as we lie here at anchor, is amazing, — 
floating gardens, sometimes half an acre hi extent. Some 
of theiie green rafts are inhabited ; water-birds go sailing 
by npon them, and large animals are occatiionully carried 
dowu the river in this way. The commander told mc that, 
ou oito occasion, when an English rewel was lying at 
anchor in t)ic Parana, one of these gnusy gardens was 
scon coming down the river willi two deer upon it. Tlia 
current brought It directly against tlic ship, and the captain 
had only to receive ou board the guests who arrived thus 
uncxiicclcdiy to demand his hospitality. In tho sauio river 
another Qoatiug island brunght with it a less agreeable 
inhabitant: a large tiger had possessed himself of it and 
was sailing majestically with the current, passing so near 
the shores tiiat he was di^linctly seeu from tho banks; 
and people went out iu moiitarias to get a nearer view 
uf him, though keeping always at a respectful distance, 
'riie most conspicuous of tho plants thus detaclted from 
tlic sltore are tho Canarana (a kind of wild cane), a variety 
of aquatic Aroides, Pistla among the number, I'^oriiia, 
ftiid a quantity of graceful floatiug Marsileaces. 

Jojotary ]8tA. — To-day we have Iwon on a hunt after 
"flie Victoria regia. We have made constant eflbrts \a 




e«e this raoiouB liljr growing in its natiro wati^m; 
though fref^uentl; told that it was plenty at certain sea- 
sons in the lakes and igarsp&t, we have never boeii able 
to fii.d it. Yest«itlay some of tlie officers of tlie ship, ■ 
vho had been on an excumoD to a neigliboring lake, 
rrtumed laden with botanical treasures of all sort^, and, 
among other plants, an immense lily-leaf, which, from its 
dimensions, we judged must be tlie '^'ictoria regia, titoogh 
it had not tlie erect edge so characteristic of it. Thb 
morning, accom|»nied by two or tlireo of yesterday*! 
party, who kindly undertook to be our guides, we went 
to visit the same lake. A short walk from the river- 
bank brought us to the shore of a largo slieet of water, 
— the Lago iMasimo, — which couiiecta with tl»e Ramos 
by a narrow outlet, but at a point so distant from our 
anchorago that it would have been neceesary to make 
u great detour in order to reach it in a canoe. We 
found an old montaria, with one or two broken poddlot, 
leti, OS it seemed, at the lake-shore for whom it mig)it 
Goncurn, and in that wo emlmrkcd at once. Tlie bunks 
of this lake arc bordered with beautiful forests, which do 
not, however, rise immediately from the water, but arc 
divided from it by a broad band of grass. We taw many 
water>birds on this gra^y edge, as well as on seveni 
dead trees, the branches of which were completely cov- 
ered villi giilb, all in exactly tlie same attitude, facing 
one way, to meet the wind which blew strongiy agaiiisl 
thorn. Ducks and ciganas wore plenty ; and once or 
twice we startled up from the woods small flocks of 
mackaws, — not only the gaudy red, green, and yellow 
eiiecias, but the far more beautiful blue mackaw. They 
flow by US, with their gorgeous plumage glittering in the 





mr, «nd disappeared again among tbe trees, soi-klng deeper 
and more undixUirtwd rctrraU. From tlie reedy grosMsa 
cajse also t)ra deep note o{ the unicorn, so greatly prised 
in Brazil, — a large bird, lulf wader, half Towl, belong- 
ing to Dio genus Pulanieden ; Ifut as we were only pre- 
pared fur a botanizing expedition, we could not avail 
onrselvcs of any of llic opportuuilics thus offered ; ind 
the birds, however near and tempting llie shots, luu) 
little lo Tear rrom lis. At the npfier end of the lake we 
uamo upon itie bed of wntcr-lirK? from which llie trophtea 
of yesterday had bwcii gathered. The leaves were very 
large, many of Ihem from four to lire feet in diameter; 
but, pvrhaps from having lo«t their first freshnoMt and 
KOmethiiig tliercfore of their natural texture, the edge 
of the leaf was wareely perceptibly raited, and in most 
instanocs lay perfectly flat upon the water. We found 
buds, but no perfect flower. In the afternoon, however, 
one of llie daughters of our fisherman Maia, hearing tliat 
«« wisliod to see one of the Oowors, hrouglit ns a very 
perfect specimen from another morv diMant locality, which 
ve had not time to vUil. The Indians, by the way, hare 
a eharactcristic name for the leaf. They call it "forno," 
oo axount of itti resemblance to the immense shallow 
pan» 'Ji which iticy biikc their furinha over tlio maudioca 
oreiH. The Viclnriu regis, with its formidable armor 
^of spines, its gigantic tcaves, and beniiliful tluwers, deep- 
ening in color from tlm volvety white outer leaves tlirough 
ereiy shitdo of rose to deepest crimson, and fading again 
to a creamy, yellowish tint in the heart of the flower, 
bas booL described so often that I hardly dare dwell 
upon it, for fear of wearying the reader. And yet «a 
oould not seo it growing in its native waters — a type. 


A wvKtsr a nuzn. 

as it we,v, of tlie luzuHiuice of tropical nature — wltln 
the dwpu^t interest. Wonderful as it is when »«en 
the tank of a grcentiouse, and perliaps eren mora Im- 
prcssirc, in s wrtain setiso, from its tstdatioii, iu iu 
own liome it lias the chann of barmoiiy wiiii aJI ibal 
suntmods it, — with (lie dense mass of foi-e&t, witli (Mlm 
and parasite, witli birdi of glovioj^ plumage, witli iuseeti 
of all bri^it and woiiderfut tints, and with R»he» which, 
though hidden iu tlio water beneath it, are not less brilliaut 
and raricd than tlie world of life above. I do not remember 
to have seen au allusion, iu any doscnption, to the bcauttfi 
device by which the whole immense surface of tlie ad 
leaf is contained within Uie smaller dinicustous of tW 
jouiig one ; though it is well wortlt notice, as oiie of 
tlie neatest KpecimenR of Nature's pocking. All know the 
heavy EcafTolding of ribs by which tlic colosital hiaf, when 
full grown, iH supportad ou its under side Iu Uic young 
leaf these ribs are comparatively smalt, but the whole groeu 
expanse of the adult leaf is gathered iti between them in 
regular rows of delicate puHin)^. At this period, t)ic loaf 
is far below tlie surface of the water, growing slowly 
from Uic base of the stock from which it springs. Th 
drawn up, it lias the form of a deep cup or vsso ; bi 
iu proportion ae tlie ribs gn>w, thoir ramilicationB stretcl^ 
iug in every dircclJou, llie leaf let-t out one by one its 
little folds, to fill the over-widening spaces ; till at last, 
when it roaches the surface of tlie WAler, it resl^ hori- 
zontally above it, wiUiout a wrinkle. Mr. Agaasiz caused 
several stocks to bo dragged up from the bottom (no 
w»y matter, ou account of tlie spiucs), and fonud th« 
leaf-biida just starting between tlie roots. — liulo while 
ca]>«, not mora tliau hulf an inch in height. There was 




ber Y\\j growing in tl)U Inke, wlitcli, tliougli diininu' 
hy the side of tlie Victoria, woiiUJ be n giniit niuong 
our wa:or-lilies. I1ir leaf uensurei] more tliaii a foot in du 
ameler, and was slightly acoUopcd around tlic edge. Tli«i« 
irere no open flowern, bnt the closed bud« r(»«uiblcd those 
of our fiommou white water-lilies, aud were no larger. 
The stalk and ribs, unlike tltose of tlie Victoria, weit 
quite smooth, and free from thorns. After oar visit to 
tlio lilies, we paddled iu among the trees along the iir&r- 
flowed margin of the lake, iti order that the boatntou 
might cut down several palms new to u». While waiting 
under tlie trees in the boat, we had cause to admire the 
variety and beautj of the insects Quttering about us ; ttie 
large blue buttertlies (Morplio), and the brilliant dragon* 
flies, with crimson bodies and burnished winge, glittering 
with metallic lustre.* 

January 21tf. — Obfdo«. We left Villa Bella yesterdaj' 
will) a large collection of ftiilics, and some valuable additions 
to the colhiction of palm<i. Tlie gcnoml cliaructer of the 
fish collections, both from the river Ramos and the Lago 
Uaximo, shows the faunas to be the same now as whoa wo 
were here five months ago. Certainly, during this inter- 
val, migration has had no porcoptible iiifluonco upon the 
distribution of lift} in these waters. Leavint: Villa Bulla ut 
I ight, wc reached Obydos early this muniing. Tins pretty 
town is one of the most picturesque in po»ittOD, on the 

Dnrins my iliort luj in (he nclghborliood of Villa Bella ond Obidci f wm 
[n^cliieil ID Kvcinl midniTm of tlicK lowiui for ainltMnce (a collcciing : ajx^ 
ciallj to Piutrc Tonjuulo lUiil lo Padre Anionlo MnlKw. Mv (ricn<l. tlr. lloiio- 
Ho, uha aci-omiiniMcd mc lo (h« point, willi tlic kuUtanco of tli(< Dclfgadn, at 
Villn Holla, klu n irrj rxi'cilcni rollcciion of lUlini in Uili vIciiiliT Ai 
Otiiilin Colonel Ilenuu toiitriLutcd ■ vcr; larso collccUoa of Ailict tum thi 
Itio Tronihutiti — L. A- 




Amazous. {tsUiiids uu ■ steep l>lu(r,commau<Jtitg an oxten- 
rive view of tlio river w«»t and cast, and is one * f tlte few 
points ftt wliicli tiiu southoni uid uorlbern shores ore seen 
at Uic same time. The bluff of Objrdos is crowned bj a 
fortretw, whicli liati stood hero for many joars witliout 
occnsioii to test its power. It may be doubled wlieitier 't 
would be very effectual in barring llio river against a hostile 
force, inasmuch as its )^uns. tJiougb tliey earry perfect]; 
well to tlie opposite side, arc powerless nearer lioine. The 
slope of thu cliff on whicli the fortress stands intervenes 
between it and the water below, so that by keeping well in 
to shore the enemy could pass wiili impunity immodiatcly 
under the guns. The hill consists entirely of tlie same red 
drift so conslanlly rocurruig on the banks of tlio AniaiuHis 
and its tributaries. Ilcrc it is more full of pebbles thoii al^ 
Maimos or atTeffd; and we saw these pebbles dbipo««d V^M 
lines or homontal beds, such as are found in the sauM de* 
posit along the coast and in the neighborhood of Bio. Tlio 
city of Obydos is jircttily laid out, its environs are rery 
picturesquo, its soil extremely fertile ; but it has Uio same 
aspect of neglect and hopeless inactivity so painfully stjrill 
iiig in all the Aniaxnnian towns. 

January 23(/. Yesterday, in the early morning, 
arrived at Haiilarom, and went on shore for ft walk at half Ncvcn. The town stands on a point of land div^iding 
the black wators of the Tapnjoi:, on the one side, from Ui^^ 
yellow flood of the Amazons on the otlier, and liac a veij^l 
attractive situation, enhanced by its backj^round of hilb 
siri^tching away to the eastward. Our first visit was to tlio 
church, fronting on the beach and standing invitingly open. 
We had, however, a special object in eulorlng iL In 1819 
Martius,the naturalist, on his voyago of exploration on the 





AmaMTis, since made famous by his great work on tho 
Natural History of Brazil, was wrecked off tlic town of 
SantArcm, and nevlj' lost his life. In his great dajiger ha 
took a vow to record his gratitude, sltould he lire, bj- mak- 
ing a gift to the church of Santsrcm. A(ter his return to 
Europe, he ecnt from Munich a full-length figure of Christ 
tipon the craw, wliich now hangs Bgaiiist Uie wuU, with a 
simple iuBcription underneath, telling iu a few words th« 
story of his peril, his dolircrance, and hts gratitude. As a 
work of art it has no spcdul ruluc, but it nttracts many 
persons to tlic church who never heard of Martins or his 
famous journey ; and to Mr. Agassiz it was especially inter- 
esting, as connected with the travels and dangers of hi» old 
friend and teaclier. 

After a walk through the town, which is built with more 
caro, and contains roine houses baring more pretcii.«ions to 
comfort and elegance than we hare seen elsewhere on th<* 
Amazons, we returned to the ship for breakfast. At a later 
liour we went on a very plcasantcanoeexcunion to the other 
fide of tlie Tapajoi:, again in search of the Victoria regia, 
said to grow in great perfection in this neighbnriiood. Our 
guide was Senhor Joachim Rodriguez, to whom Mr. 
as has been indebted for much personal kindness, as 
veil as for a rery raluablo colloction made since we stopped 
here on our way up the rivor, partly by himself and partly 
by his son, a bright boy of some thirteen yean of age. 
Crossing to the opposite side of tlie river, we came upon a 
fast field of coarse, higli grass, looking like an extenMre 
meadow. To our surprise, the boatmen turned tho canoo 
into tliis green field, and we found ourselves apparently 
narigating the land, for the narrow boat-path was entiioly 
eoikoealcd by tlie long reedy grasses and tall mallow plants 



witli Urge pink blowoms rising on citlior Ride, nni c^m 
pletely biding the water below. Thia inondt^, ovcHlowt)] 
ground, alwTo which [he water bad a depth of from four U 
ail feet, was full of life. As the rowers puslied our canoe 
through the ma.«$ of grass and (lowers, Mr. AgasKiz );iit)icr^ 
from tlie blades and i^talks all aorta of creatures; siuall 
bright-colored toads of seroral kinds, gns&hoppers, boctli 
dragoo'flieit, aquatic snails, bundles of eggs, — in short, 
endless variety of living things, most interesting to tlia' 
naturalist. The harresl was so jilenliful tliat wo had oul/ 
to put out our hands and gather it; ibe oarsmen, when tli«; 
saw Mr. Agassis's enthusiasm, Iiecanie almost as )nlcrc«teil 
as he was ; and he had soon a largo jar Riled with utijoulf 
quite new to him. After navigating tliese meadows foi 
some tinte, wo came upon open water-spaces where the Vii 
toria rogia was growing in great |)Crfection. Tlie speci- 
mens wei-e much Gucr than tltovo we had Ken before in llio 
Lago Maximo. One leaf measured five feet and u half in 
diameter, and another firo feet, the erect edge being three 
inches and a half in height. A number of leaves grew from 
the same stalk ; and »ccn thus together they arc rcry beauti- 
ful, the bright roKC-eolur of the outer edge vonlra^ling wit): 
the vivid green of the inner surface of the leaf. As hefo 
there wore no open flowers to bo eeen ; Svnhor Rodriguex 
told us lliat they are cut by tlio Gsherioen almost as soon as 
they open. Wlion Mr. Agassiz expressed a wish to get tlio 
roots, two of our boatmen plunged into the water with an 
alacrity which surprised me, as we hud just been told tliat 
these marshes arc the haunts of Jacar«Ss. They took tunis 
ill diving to dig up tlio plants, and succeeded in bringing to 
the surface three largo stalks, one witli a llowcr-bud. W» 
retumei well pleased with our row ovcHand. 



Onr Hve-stoch ia iDcreaiing as we descend the riTcr, and 
ire hare now qnito a m«nag%rie on board ; a aiimber of 
parrots, half a dozen monkoys, two exquisite Uttlo deer from 
the region of Monte Al^gre, and several Agamis, as tame 
and gentle as barn-jrard fuwlH, stopping about the deck with 
graceful, daint; troad, and feeding from the hand. Their 
voices are singulai-lif harsli, however, aud out of kocpiug 
with their pretty looks and ways. Every now and then 
they raise their heads, stretch their long ui^uks, and utt<ir a 
loud, gurghng sound, more like the roll of a drum than the 
note of a bird. Last, hut not least, wo Ituvo a sloth oo 
hoard, the most fusuiuatiog of all oar pots to mo, not cct^ 
tainly for his charms, but for his oddities. 1 am never tired 
of wutchiug him, ho looks so dolieiouKly Idzy. His head 
sunk in his arms, his whole attitude lax and inditTercnt, ho 
seems to ask only for raisL If you push him, or if, as 
often happens, a passer-by gives him a *mart tap to nrouso 
lilm, lie lifts his head and drops his arms so slowly, h> 
deliberately, that they hardly >cem to move, raises his heavy 
lids and Iet» his large eyes rest upon your face fora moment 
with appealing, hopeless indolonoi! ; then the lids fall feofUy, 
the head droops, the arms fold heavily about it, and he col- 
lapses again into ab^lute repose. This mute remonhtranoc 
tb the nearest approacli to activity I have seen liiin make. 
These lire animals are not all a part of the scicntilic collcc- 
Uons; many of tliem belong to the captain and ofhoors. The 
Rraiilians are exceedingly fond of pets, and almost every 
house has ita monkeys, its parrot«, and other tame animala 
and Urds. 

I January 26fA. — Uonto At^gre. Leaving Santaroni on 
Tuesday we arrived hero on Wednesday morning, and, as 
ou onr former visit, were received most hospitably at the 

A jOubxet ^s BKAzn. 

bouse of Senhor Manuel. Mr. Agassiz and Mr. Coutiubt 
have gone on a geologising excursion to the Serra d'Erer^, 
that picturesqne range of hills bounding tlio cunjpos, ur 
open sandy plain, to llie northwest of the town. Tlicf took 
different routes, Major Coutinho, witJi Captain Fariu ntid odc 
or tiro other Triouds, crossing the canipos ou ltor«ob«ck, 
while Mr. Agassiz went bj canoe. They will meet nt Uib 
foot of the Serra, and pass two or tlire« days iu that tiei^f 
l)orhood. Little is as rot known of tbe geologicail sLniclurc 
of the Amazonian Serras, — tbnse of Santarem, of Monte 
Al^gre, and of Almeyriiu. Generally tbey have been con- 
sidered as prolongations cither of the table-land of Guiuua 
on the north, or that of Itraxil on the south. Mr. Agitimit 
belieceH them to be independent of both, and more dins;ily 
connected with the formation of tlic Amazonian Valley itself. 
The solutiou of this question is liis spocial object, while 
Major Coutinho has taken barometers to deterioine tlic 
height of Uio range. In the mean time. I am pa«dug a few 
quiet days lioro, learning to bo more familiar witli the soeih 
ery of a region very justly called one of the most picturesque 
on the borders of tlte Amazons. Not only are the views ex- 
tensive, but the friable nature of the soil, so easily decom- 
poaed, combined witli tlie heavy rains, has led to tlie fornu-fl 
tJon of a variety of picturesque dells and hollows, some of 
whicli have springs running into tlicm, surrounded by rocky 
banks and overliung with trees. One of these is especially 
pretty ; the excavation is large, and has tlie form of an am* 
phitheatre ; its rocky walls are crowned with large forest- 
trees, palms, mimOAas, etc., making a deep shade; and at 
one side tlie spring (lows down from tlie top of tlie clifT, with 
B pleasant ripjile. Hero the negro or Indian servants come 
to fill their waier-jar^. They often liavo with tJiem the ch ~ 

nova THE AlUZONS. 


dren under tlioir charge ; and you may Boaietiines see the 
Urge red jare standuig under Uic moulti of the spriug above, 
whilo white babies aud dark nurses splash alout in tlie oool 
wa(«r-tKisin below. Although iu tho campus the growth ia 
low, aud the soil but scunlily coTurcd with coarse grass and 
^hrubs, yet, In some localities, aud especially iu the aetglibor- 
hood of tho town, tlie forest is beautiful. We tiare seen no- 
where larger and more luxuriant mimosas, sometimes of a 
green so rich and deep, and a foliage so olosc that it is dif- 
ficult to bchevc, at a distance, tliat its dense mass ia formed 
by the light, pinnate leftv«s of a sensitive plant. Tlie palma 
are also very lofty and numerous, including some kinds 
which we have not met before. 

January 28f/t. — Yesterday our kind host arranged an 
excursion into the country, for my especial pleasure, that I 
might see sonielliing of the cliaracteri»tio amusements of 
Monte Ai^gre. One or two neighbors Joined us, and tho 
children, a host of happy little folks, for whom anytliiiig 
out of the common tenor of erery-day life is ^'/rtta" were 
not left behind. We started on foot to walk out into a very 
picturesque Indian village called Surubiju. Here we were 
to breakfast, returning afterwards in one of the heavy carta 
drawn by oxen, tlie only conveyance for women and chil- 
dren in a country wliorc a carria-^G-road and a side-saddle 
,are equally unknown. Onr walk was very pleasant, partly 
lirough the woods, partly through tho campos ; but as it was 
early in the day, wc did nut miss the shade when we chanced 
to leave tlie trees. Wc lingerod by tlie wayside, the chil- 
dren stopping to gather wild fruits, of which thei'o were 
a number on the road, and to help mo in making a 
collection of plant.-!. It was alwit nine o'clock when wo 
nncbed the first titraw-l^ou: c, where wa stopped to re«t. 






e iso- 

ritviAn i 

I'hoiigli it bos no lougor the cliorm oT novelty Tor nu, I am 
always glad to Tisit uq ludian cottage. You &ud a cordial 
welcome ; tbe best hammock, tlio coolest comer, and a cuta 
of (reeA\ water are ready Tor you. As 3 general tiling;, tin 
houses of the Indians are also more tidy tlian tlioee of 
wliites; and there is a certain charm of picturesquQiii 
about them which never wears olT. 

After a short i-e^t, we went on through Uie -soUlemcnt, 
where the sitios are scattered at considerable diKtanccis and 
EO oompletely surrounded by treoH that they seem quite iso- 
lated in (he forest. Although the Indians are »aid to be 
lazy people, and are nnquostionably fitful and irregular 
thtur habits of work, in almost all these houses some cl 
tcrtstic occupation was going on. lu two or throe the women 
were making hummocks, in one a boy was plaiting Iho lca.Tet 
of the Curu^ palm into • tolda for his couoe, in onollier tlie 
inmates were making ucoone kind of pottery; and iu stilt an- 
other a woman, who is quite famous iu the neighborhood for 
her skill in tlio art, was painting cuios. It was tlie first time 
I hud seen the prepared colors made from a certain kind of 
clay found inUicSerra. It is just the carnival season, and, as 
every one has a right to play pranks on his neighbors, we did 
not got off without makiug a closer acquaintance than ww 
altogether pleasant with the rustie artist's colors. A* we 
were leaving the cottage, she darted out upon uh, her liauds 
fuU of blue and red paints. If tliey had been tomaliawltBt 
they could not hare produced a more sudden rout; and 
it was a complete »awK qui peut of tlie whole company 
across tlte little bridge whidi led to the hooso. Ab 
stranger, I was spared ; but all were not fortunato enou 
to escape, and some of tlie children carried their blue 
•ed b«^;ea to the end of tlie day. 



The prettiest of all Uioso Torcst Mttos was one at the bol- 
lom of a dc«p dell, reached bjr » st«ep, winding puUi UirougU 
a uiaguiUceiit wood abounding ia palms. But tliougb tliv 
Bitualtoii was most pictufewjue, tUo sickly appearance of tlie 
diildreii and Uie aocouiita of prevailing illness showed Uiat 
the locality wax too low and damp to be healUiful. After a 
verjr pleoKinl raiuble we rettirued to breakfast at our first 
VMtiug-ploco, and at about one o'clock started for town iu 
two ox-earts which bad come out to meet us. Tbey consist 
oiily of a floor sot on rury heavy, creaking wooden wltcck, 
which, from tlioir primitive, clumsy character, would seem 
to be the lir$t whcoU ever iiiTCiited. On the floor a strav- 
mat was spread, an awning was strutched over a light 
scaffolding above, and we were soon stowed away in our 
primitive rchicle, and luid a very gay and pleasant ride back 
to town. Yesterday evoniug Mr. Agassiz retuniod from his 
exconioa to the Serra Erci^. I add hero a little account 
of the journey, written out from iiis notes, and containing 
some romarlcs on the general aspect of the country, its rege- 
tation and animals. A summary of tlie geological results 
of tlie excursion will bo found in a separate chapter at the 
close of our Amazonian journey. 

" I started before daylight ; but as the dawn began to 
redden the sky lari^ flocks of ducks, and of the small 
Amaionian goose, might be seen flying towards the lakes, 
Here and there a cormorant sat alone on the branch of a 
dead tree, or a kingflsher poised himself over the water, 
watcJiing for hb prey. Numerous gulls were gathered 
in large companies on the trees along the river-shore ; 
alligatora lay on its Eurfacc, diving with a sudden plash 
at tlie approach of our canoe ; and occasicmally a porpoise 
emerged from tito water, showing himself for a moment 


A J0UK!rE7 H lUtAZn. 

aud then disappearing again. Somotimes iro startled 
herd of capivaras, resting on tlio water's edge ; and one 
ire saw a sloth, sitting upon the branch of an Imbaub 
ti-co (Cwropiti), rolled up iu its pocultar attitude, tb 
rery picture of iiidoluucc, with its head suak botwcoa it 
arms. Much of tlie river-shore connstcd of low, alluvial 
land, and wais covered with that peculiar and beautiful 
grass known as Capim ; this grass makes an excellent 
pasturage for catllu, and the ahundaneo of it i» this 
region readent the district of Moiito AJ%rc vei; favor- 
able for agricultural purposes. Here and there, where 
tlie red-clay soil rose above the level of tlte water, a 
palm-lhatched cabin stood on tlie low bluff, with a few 
trees about it. f^uch a house was usually the oeiiLre of 
a cattle-faroi, and large hords might be s«en grazing in 
the adjoining fnilds. Along the river-banks, where the 
country is chiefly open, with extensive low, marshy 
grounds, the only palm to bo seen is the Mar^a (Geonoma). 
Alter keeping along the Rio Qurupatuln for some distance, 
we turned to the right into a narrow stream, which lias 
the cliarocter of an igarap4 iu its lower course, though 
higher up it drains the country between the serra of 
Erer<S and that of Tejury, and assumes the appearance 
of a small river. It is named aAer the serra, and la 
known as tlio Rio KrertS. This stream, narrow and pic 
turcsque, aud oHUsii so overgrown with capim that the 
canoe pursued its course with dilTicully, passed through^ 
a magDilicent forest of the beautiful fan-palm, called the 
Miriti (Mauritia Qcxuosa). This forest stretched for miles 
0T«r>hadowing, as a kind of underbrush, many smaller treetj 
and inuamciablo shrubs, some of which bore bright, 
tpicuous flowers. It scorned (o me a strange spectude,- 





A forest of monocotytiHloiioiiM trees witli a dicotyl'idonoiis 
uridcr)ci-o«th ; tlic iiiforior plniiLs thus towering above uid 
ebcllering tlie superior oiii^. Amoug the lower li-ecs were 
many LcgiimiDO««, — oiic of the most striking, called Para, 

Ting a cotossal pod. The whole mass of vegetatioa was 
woven together by iniiiim«rable lianas and ci-ce|iiiig vines, 
in the midst of which llie llowers of the lilgnonia, with 
its open, trumpot-Klmpcd corolla, wore conspicuous. The 
capim was hriglil willi the blnssoins of the mallow, grow- 
ing in its midvt ; and was often edged willi the broad-leavod 
Aiiinga, a large aquatic Arum. 

"Tlirough such a forest, where the animal life was no 
less rich and varied than the vegetation, our boat glided 
slowly for lioun*. l*lie number and variety of birds struck 
IDC witli a.-'toiiishinent. The coarae, sodgy grasses on either 
nde were full of water birds, one of the most common of 
which was a small chestnut-brown wading bird, the Jai^ana 
(Parra), who&e toes are immensely long in proportion to its 
nze, enabling it to run upon tlio surface of the aquatic vege* 
[tatiou, as if it wore solid ground. It was now the niontli 
of January, tlieir breeding season ; and at every turn of 
ttio boat we started tlicm up in pairs. Their Hat, open 
166(8 generally contained livo flesh-cotorod eggs, streaked 
n zigzag with dark brown lines, TI10 other waders were 
8 Huow-whitc heron, another a*Ii-colorod, smaller species, 
ni.d a laj'go white stork. Tlie ash-colorcd herons were 

ways Id pairs; the white ones always single, standing 
quiet and alone ou the edge of tlio water, or half hidden 
hi the green cnptm. The trees and bushes were full of 
small warhlcr-liko birds, which it would bs difhcult to 
^'Characterize separately. To the ordiuary observer they 
might seem like tlio small birds of our woods; but tt^ro 



vas one species smoog tlicm wliidi altractcd my uUcntioa 
by its uumben, and abo became it builds tbu most ex- 
tntordinary nest, considering tlio rlie of tlic bird itself, 
tliat 1 lia.Tc ever BCcn. It is knowu among the country 
people by two names, as the Pedroiro or tlio Foraoiro; 
botb names referring, as will be soon, to the nature of 
its Iiabitation. This singular nest k built of clay, and 
is as hard as stone {prdra), wliile it has the form of tlie 
round nuuidioca oren (fomo') in which the country people 
prepare tlieir faritiha, or fiour, made from the mandioea 
root. It is about a foot in diameter, and stands edgewise 
upon a branch, or in the crotch of a tree. Among the 
smaller birds I noticed bright Tanagers, and also a species 
resembling the Canary. Besides these, tlierc were the 
wagtails ; the hiack and white widow-ltnches ; the Iiang- 
oosts, or Japi, as they are called hei-e, with their pen* 
dent, bog-lilte dwellings, and the familiar " Bern & n.** 
HuRimiiig-bird«, which we arc always npt to associate with 
tropical vi^talion, were very K'arcc. I saw but a few 
epodmens. Tlirushes and doves were more frequent, and 
I noticed also three or four kinds of woodpeckers, besido 
parrots and paroquets ; of these latter tl»ero were countless 
numbers along our canoe path, Bying ovcriiead in donsv 
crowds, and at limes drownbg every otiier K>uud In their 
high, noisy chatter. 

"Some of these birds made a deep impression upon me. 
Indeed, in all regions, however far away from his own home, 
in the midst of a fauna and flora entirely new to him, tlio 
traveller is startled occasionally by the mng of a bird or tli« i 
right of a flower so familiar that it transport) him at onc« 
to woods where every tree is like a friend to him. It socm* 
as if something akin to what in our own mental expcrieoee 


we call rcminisoeaoc or assooiatioo existed in the workings 
of Nature ; for Uiougti tbe orguio combinations an u> dis- 
Uoot in different cliuiatcs and countries, thejr norer wholly 
^^ exclude each other. Kvery sotUt^ical and botanical prov^ 
^^ ittco retains some link which binds it to all the others, and 
raakcs it part of the general haniionf . Tbe Arcuc lichen 
'.B fonnd growing under the shadow of the palm on tlio 
rocks of tile tropical serra ; and the song of tbe tbrufih and 
the tap of the woodpecker minglo with tbe sharp, diccord- 
I &nt criea of tbe parrot and paroquet 
^B *' Birds of proy, also, wore not wanting. Among thorn wu 
^ one about the size of our kito, and called Ibo Bed Hawk, 
{ which was so tame llmt, even when our cunoo pa»ed tm- 
mediitcly under tbe low branch on which lie was silting, lie 
did .not fly away. But, of all the groups of birds, the most 
striking OS compared with corresponding groups in the tcm* 
pertte zone, und tJie one which rcuiiuded me tiio most dis- 
tinctly of the fact that crcry region has its peculiar aniiual 
world, wtu that of the gallinaceous birds. Tito most fre- 
quent i» the Cigaiia, to be seen in groups of littcon ortweuly, 
pcrclted upon trees ovcrhauging Uiu water, and fcciliiig upon 
I berries. At night tl>oy roost in pairs, but i» Uiu daytiuie 
are always in larger companies. In their nppcaranco they 
have something of llie character of both llio pheanant nnl 
^ peacock, and yel do not closely rusomblu citlier. It j a 
^■curious fact, that, with tho excepUon of some small por- 
^ tridge-like gallinaceous birdK, nil the reprosentatireR of this 
, family in Brazil, and e.<<pocially in the rallcy of the Ama- 
zons, belong to types which do not exi.'it in olher parts o( 
I ihe world. Here wo find neither pheasants, nor cocks of tho 
[voods, nor grou^o; but in their place abound Ihe Milium, 
^tiic Jacu, the Jacamt, and the Uuicorn fCrox, Penelope, 



Fsopliia, and Palaniedea), all of whicli are so remote frmi 
the galliiiaccoiift lypeii foiiiid Tartlior iiorth that the/ rcminJ 
(Hie quite a» uiuuh of the bustard, aiid other o»trich-liJcv 
hints, as of the heu and pheasant. The/ dilTer also from 
iiortlieni gallinaceous birdit in llie gi-eatcr uinTonnity of the 
sexes, none of ttieui exhibiling those striking diOcrcncas 
bel^recii the males and females which wo »ec in the phea»> 
linls, tlio cocks of the woods, and in our born-yard fowls, 
though the plumage of the young Iuls the yellowish-mouled 
color distinguishing the females of most species of this faok- 
ily. While birds abounded in sucli numbers, insects were 
rather Morce. I saw but few and small butterflies, and 
beetles were still more rare. Ilic most numerous insects 
were the dragon-flies, — some with crimson bodies, black 
heads, and buniished wings; others with large g^ocii 
bodies, crossed by blue bands. Of land-shells I sav but 
one, crc<>ping along the lecds; and of water-shells I gatli- 
ered only a few small Ampnllario). 

" Having ascended tlte river to a point neariy on a line 
with the serrn, I landed, and struck across Ihe compos on 
foot. Here I entered upon an entirely diflercut region,- -a 
dry, open plain, witii scanty regctalion. llio most proii.i- 
iient plants were clusters of Cacti and Curua palms, a kind 
of stcmless, low palm, with broad, el<^nt leaves springing 
vaso-iikc from the ground. In these drj*, sandy fields, ris- 
ing grailually toward the scrra, I observed in tlio deeper 
guUics formed by llie heavy rains dm laminated claj-s which 
are everywhere the foundation of llic Amazoniau strata. 
They here presented again so much the character of ordi- 
nary clay-slates that I Ihonght 1 had at last come upon 
ne old geological formalioD. loetead of tliis I only ob 
tatncd fresh evidence that, by baiting them, the burning stis 


tropics may produce upon taiahiatcd clays of moDt 
ongiii Uic same cfToct as plutouic ai^ciicies have pioduced 
upou tltc ancient cln^t, — tliat is, it may cbutigo them into 
mctomorphic slates. As I upproachod tlio serra, I was 
again reminded hov, under ihe most dissimilar circum- 
stances, Muiilar features reenr everywhere in iiatiiro. I 
came suddenly upon a little creek, bordered with the usual 
TegetntioH of such shallow wnlcrcotirses, and on its brink 
stood a »and-pi[)cr, which (lew nuay at my approach, utter- 
ing its peculiitr cry, »» like wlml we bear ut home that, 
bod I not seen him, t should have recognized him by bis 
Toico. After ad hour's walk under the scorching sun, I 
was glad to find mys>>lf at the hamlet uf Ercr^, near Uio 
foot of the scrra, where I rejoined my companions. Tliia 
is.nlmost tlio only occasion in all my Amazonian journey 
when I have passed a day in the pure enjoyment of nature, 
without tlie labor of collecting, whtt-li in tJiis hot climate, 
where spocimen>> require &nch immediate and coii!>tant al^ 
tciition, is very great. I li^arned how rich a single day may 
in this woudorfu! trojtical world, if one's eyes are only 
'open to the wiialtli of animal and vegetable life. Indeed, a 
fev hours so spent in the field, in simply watching animals 
and plants, teaches more of the distribution of life than a 
month of closet study ; for under such circumstances all 
things ai-e seen in their true relations. Unhappily, it is not 
easy to present the picture as a whole; for all our written do- 
scriptions are more or less dependent on nomenclature, and 
the local names are hardly known out of the districts whore 
Ihey belong, while systematic names are familiar to few." 

January 30(A. — On board tlio "Ibtcuhy." Yesterday 
ve parted from our kind hosts, and bade ^od by f) Munla 
^l^gre. I shall long retain a picture, half pleasant, half ad, 


of its shad;, p'lctarcsqufl walks and dells; of its wide gr«en 
square, vith the unfinislied catliodra) in llie ceatre, vliere 
trees and vines mantle the open doors and windows, and 
grass grows Uiick over t)K unfrequented aiiJes ; of its iic^g- 
lected cemetery, and the roa^iifioent view it commiuidii orer 
an cndloss lahjrintli of lakce on one side, beyond wlii«li 
glitter the yellow waters of Uie Amazons, while, on the ollwr, 
the lovel campos is bordered by the picturesque beiglits of 
iho duilant Serra. I hare never been able to explain quite to 
my own satisfaction the itomowliat melancholy impressioii 
whicli this region, tov«ly as it unquestionably is. made upon 
oie when I firet sawit, — an impression not wholly destroyed 
by tt longer residence. Perhaps it is tlie general aspect of 
incompleteness and decay, the absence of energy and eiitor> 
prixe, making the lavish gilts of Nature of no avail. In tlie 
midst of a country which should be overflowing witli agri- 
cultural products, neither milk, nor Imtter, nor oheeeo, 
nor vegetables, nor fruit, are ti> be had. You constantly 
hear people complaining of the difficutty of procuring erea 
(ho commonest articles of domestic consumption, when, in 
fact, tlicy ought to bo produced by every land-owner. The 
agricultural districts in Brazil aro rich und fertile, but there 
is no agricultural population. The nomud Indian, floating 
about in his canoe, the only home to which lie has a gonuino 
attachment, never striking root in the soil, has uo genius 
for cullivating tlie ground. As an illustriition of the Indian 
character, it may not be amiss to record an incident which 
occurred yesterday when we were loaring Monto Al<!gre. Oa 
Itis journey to ErcriS, Major Couliuho bad been niquosted by 
au Indian nnd Ins wife, whose acquuiutaucc be hu<j made in 
former cxcuT^ions there, to tnkc one of tlicir boys, u child 
about eight years of age, witli him to Rio. This is very con>- 





tnon among Uio Indians ; tbcy are not unwitting to gire up 
tlici: cliildi-cn, if they can Kcaro a mainlGiianco for tliom, 
and pcrliajja sonce advantages of education besides. On tlie 
4&J of dojATture, ttio motiicr and fattier and two sistera 
accompanied Uio cbitd to tlie steamer, but I l3iink, as tb« 
tcqiiul ^llowed, rallier for tbe sake of seeing tlie ship, and 
baviog a day of amuMinciit, tliau from any sentiment aboiil 
parting witli tlic cbild. When the moment of leparattoii 
came, the motlier, with an air of perfect indifference, gave llio 
little boy tier ttand to kiss. Tlio father seemed to l>e going 
olT without rcmeuiticmig his son at a]l ; but the little fellow 
ran after him, took his hand and ki»icd it, and then stood 
crying and broken-hearted on the deck, while the whole 
family put olT in the canoe, ulking and laughing gayly, 
vitliotit showing him the least symiiathy. Such traits are 
taid to bo very cliaracteristic of the Indians. They are 
cold in tliuir fuuiily alTections; and though the mottierv are 
Tcry fond of their babies, they seem comjiaratively iiidiiTer- 
ent to them as tli«y grow up. It is, indeed, inipo!»ihIu to 
rely upon the affection of an Indian, even though isolated 
coses of remarkable fidelity have been known among tJicm. 
But I have been told over and over again, by tito«c who 
havj bud personal experience in the matter, that you may 
take an Indian child, bring him up, treat him with every 
kindness, educate him, clothe him, and find him to bu a 
u»cful and seemingly faithful tnembcr of the liouschold ; oiio 
day he is gone, you know not where, nud in every proba- 
bility you will never hear of him again. Theft is not one 
of their vicos. 0[i the contrary, such an Indian, if he 
dctcrts tlio friend who has reared him and taken care of 
him, is very likely to leave behind him uU liitt clothes, escopi 
tlioso lie ha; on, and any presents he may have received. 


He only thing Ic msy be tempted to take nUl be a csiios 
aud a puir of oara : with these as Indian 13 rieii. Ho oalj 
vauts to get back to bis woods ; and he is deterred bj no 
a'lntimcnt of aficclion. or constderatioD of interust. 

To-day we aro passing tlie hills of Almeyriia. The last 
time we saw (hem it was in tlie glow of a brilliant sunisol; 
to-dajr, ra^ed edges of clonds ovcrliang tbctn, and tii«y ato 
sombre under a leaden, rainy sky. h is delightful to Mr. 
Agassiz, in retnrniitg to ibis locality, to lind Ibat phenomena, 
whicn were a blank to him on our voyage up the river, aro 
perfectly explicable now tliat he has bad an opportunity of 
studying the geology of tiio Amntoniati Valley. When wo 
paK.Ked these »inguUr flat'toppcd hills before, he had no clew 
(o tboir structure or tlicir age,— whctltcr granite, as they lla^'0 
been said to be, or sandstone or limestone ; wl>elher primi- 
tive, secondary, or tertiary : and their strange form madv the 
problem still more dilTicult. Now ho sees lh4>m siinjily as 
the reuinanti' of a plain wliieh once filled tlie whole valley of 
the AmaiOMS, from tliu Andi's to tlie Atlantic, from Guiana 
to Central Brazil. Denudntiuns on a colowal scale, bitlicrto 
unknown to geologists, liavo turned this plain into a latiy- 
rinth of noble rivers, leaving only here and there, where tho 
formation has resisted the ru»h of waters, low motuitaiua 
and chains of hills to tell wluU was its thickness.* 

Fthruaty I»(. — On Tuesday evening wc reiiclicd Porto do 
Moz, on the river Xingu, where we bad expected to be de- 
tained Bevoral days, as Mr. Agn»siz wished especially to 
ubluio the fi&bcs fi-om this river, and, if possible, fr3m its 
ujipcr and lo-ver course, between whioh rapids intervene. 
Hi" found, however, his hnrvcet ready to his liaii.1. Scnlior 
Vinhus, with whom, wbcu stopping hero for a fon lioure m 

* tho Cti&ptnr Xin.,on the VhjiktX BitUr}' of tlw Aiaupwi. 



lip tlin river, h« bad had Home ooiiTcrsatiou reapoct- 
ing tTie scionlific ohjecUi of liitt v'mt lo tiio Auian>ii», has nindo 
during our ubscnco oiiu of tlie fiiici^t colloclioas obtained i» 
tlio wliolo course of ourjouniej", coiiliiiiiiiig, io scponto lots, 
tlto iislivs from above aud Ifvlow liic cascade. Bjr means of 
tliis double coll<;iMiou, wbidi Mr. Ajini^iz bas ulready exam- 
iiu'd carofully, be sKccrtuins ibe fact lliut tbe fuuiige ou eitber 
side of tlie falls arc entirelj Oislinct rrom cacb olbcr, as aro 
tiioso of the upper and lower courses of itiu Amaioiis, otid also 
tliosc of its tributaries, lakes, and igaru[)(5s. Tliis Is a luost 
important addition to tbc evidunco alreudy obtained of tlie 
distinct localization of spocics tlirougbout ttio waters of the 
Amazonian Valley. Wo regretted tbnt, on uccounl of llio 
absence of Senor Viiibas from tlio town, we could uol tliuiik 
bim in person for this vabiablo contribution. Finding that the 
eSbrU of this gentleman had really left nothing to bo dono 
in this locality, unless, indeed, we could have stayed long 
enough to make collections in all the water-basins connected 

tvitli the Xingu, we loft early in the morning and reached 
Gurup& yesterday. This little town stands on a low olilT 
■omo thirty feet above the river. On a projecting point of 
this cliff there is an old, abandoned fort; and in tbe open 
place adjoining it stands a church of considerable size, and 
seemingly in good repair. But tbe settlement is evidently 
tiot pi-osperons. Many of its houses are ruinous and do 
^^ scrted, and there is even less of activity in the aspect of ibo 
^f place than in moist of the Amaionian villages. We heard 
Miuch of its insalubrity, and found very severe cnacs of inter* 
mittont fever in one or two nf the houses we entered. While 
}lr. Agassiz made a call upon tlie subdclegado, who was 
bimseir confined to bis room witb fever, I was invited to rest 
ill tbe open veranda of a neighboring house, wliicli looked 





pretty aud altructivp cDougli ; for it opened into a aiauj 
gardon, where baiiaiia!i and oranges nud palm-Uccs irera 
growing. But llic old womiiD who iccvivud mc oomplaincd 
biUtii'ly of llio diuupoess, to wliieb, indeed, lier hoarsa cougli 
and rlieunuiliEiu bore tcstimouy ; and a man was lyiug in his 
hammock, Bluiig under tlio porch, who was worn to mere 
Ekiii aud bone witli fever. Here abo wc received some 
valuaMo specimens, collected, hiicc our previous visit, hy 
the Nubdelegado and one or two otlier residents. 

fdmiary Qd. — On Thursday we readied Tajapuni, whore 
w« wore detained for two days on account of some little re 
pur noedeil on tite steamer. The ^aco is intereiiliiig aa 
sliowiug wliut may be dono on the Amazons iu a »hort 
time by CIllc^p^i^e and indu^tiy. A settler iu these regions 
may, if he lm» the tn^to and culture lo appreciate it, sur- 
round himself Willi mucli Uiat i» attractive in civiliied life. 
Some seventeen yean* ago Senlior Sepeda established him- 
eelf at this sjMt, then a complete wilderne.ts. Ue has now 
a very large and pleasant country-house, with a giirdeu iu 
front and walks in the forest around. The interior of the 
house is commodious and tasteful; aud we could uot but, 
wish, while wc enjoyed Senhor Sepoda's haipilality, tlinl his 
example might be followed, and that there might be many 
euch homes on llie banks of the Amaions. This morning 
wo ore again on our way duwn the river. 

February 4t/i. — Wo reached I'aiil tt>day, parting, uot 
without regret, from the " ibiciihy," on board of whidi wa 
liaro spent so many pleasant weeks. Before we loft tlio 
Tossol, Captain Furia ordered the carpenter lo take down 
our tittle paviliou on deel:. It lind been put up for our 
accommodation, and hud served as our dintng-room and 
our working-room, our shelter from the srin, aud our su Ig 




retreat in floods or raiii.' On arriving in Pari wc foiiiid 
our>L-lres al ou«o at lioaie in Ilic lioii»e of our kind friend, 
Scnlior Fimcntu Bucuu, wlicrc wc louk furwiird to a plc*««ot 
rost froin our wandering. I insert Itorc a letter to the 
Emperor, vnltcn two or tlircB weeks l«tvr. uiid conlitining 
a bbort sutnmar; of Uio scicutilic work on tlut Ainazoti8. 

pAKi. SI r*trin. liae. 

SlBC;^ — En arrivant & Par&, au coninicitccracnt do at 
niois j'ai eu lo bonlieui- d'f trouvor roxcollonto lettre 
dfl Voire Majesld, qui m'alteadait depuia quolques jours. 
J'aiintis dd j r^pondre immfdiatement ; inais ja nYtaia 
pus un ^tat de le faire, tant j'l^tais accablu ds fatigue. II 
y n Irois ou qnatre jours scnieinont qua je commence de 
nourvau k m'occnper de mes affaires. J'avoucrai niC-nio 
que Ic pr«ssf!ntimi;nt des rcgr«ls qui ni'auraiciit poui-»uivi 
lo rcslc do mc8 jours m'a scul emp£clid de retounier di* 
rcctvmcnt auz Elate-Uiiis. Aigourd'luii eiicure J'ai do 
la pciuu Ilk vaqucr aus occupations \en [ihiit vJuiplus. Kt 
cvpciidaul jc nc mm pas nialade ; je suis sonlumunt 6pu\s6 
pur iin travail incessant et par la contemplaiion tons les 
jours plus mc cl plu.^ iinprciisivo des grandeurs et de« beiiu< 
t^s do cctte nature tropicalo. J'aurais bcsoin pour qnolquo 
temps do la vuu monotone et sombre d'une foret de sapins. 

Quo Tons £lcs bon, 8ire, do ponser k moi au milieu des 
affaires vitjdes qui absorbent votre attention el conibieii 
vos proc^d^s sont plein.i de d^liiratesso. Lo cadcau de 
DOurel-an quo voua m'anuoncoz ra'oncbanto. La persjieo- 

> II b but fining thai I diunlil cx|>n'«s hrre mj tbsnL« to Captain Full 
for Iho «Dun«)iu manner in vhivli h« ■ccoinpliihoil lln; u>k kuisncd him bf 
Ike gorrrnmcnL tlo »u not onl; ■ int»i hcnpitmble hoil on hmril lili Tcuri, 
faM he ftllnncd mc Eo FncuiiiK'r bii 'Irck wilh nil kindi of ariDnliac a)i|i<u>iluj, 
unl en* tue Tcry cffickul ueuianc* io eoUcctinc. — I. ^ 


jontn:? nt brazil. 

tire do pouToir ajoutcr quelqucs coniparai^ons dcs poissow 
da iMKsiii de t'Uruguay ^ cclles que j'ai i(j\ futes des 
csp^s dc rAmazonc ct dcs lleuve« do U cote oriootale 
dii Br^il A uu uttrait tout particulior. Co ecra te premier 
pas Tcrs U coniiui^suDCC dcs tjpfs de la zSue bcmpiSn^ daui 
rAm(!riqiic du Sud. Aiissi CKt-cc utcc udc impaticDC 
croissaiile qtio jc vois vcuir le tnomcnt oik jti pourm Ifl 
oxaminer. Eii atlciidnnt. pcrntcltuz-moi dc tous donut 
tiD aper(,'u rapidc dcs rtJ^uItats ob(«itus jusqu'i ce joN 
dans le voyage do rAinntoiic. 

Je ii« revieiidrni pas siir cc qu'il j a dc surprcuaiit da 
k gratide Tari^tti des etptkea dc puissoiis de ce bassiii, bicii 
qa'il mo soil encore diflicilo de iii« faiuiliariser avco I'id^ 
que TAmazone noun-it h pcu-pri>s deux fois plus d'cspdccs 
que la Udditfirrann^o nt un iioiubi-e plus contiid^rablc que 
rOcdan Atlantiquc d'un pdle !^ Taulre. Je ne puis co- 
pendant plus dira avec la raOuio pri!ciHion quel cxt lo 
uonibrc exact d'c^pdcos de rAmazonc quo nous nous 
eommcs procuri^cs, puR-oquo dcpiiis que je rcvions sur mes 
pas, en du^c«ndant Ic grand flenve, jo rois des poissons pr6(s 
Jl fraycr quo j'avais vus dans d'autrca circonstanoes et 
vice i-crsA, ct suns avoir recours uux collections que j'ai 
faites i1 J a six mois ct qui no me sont pns acccsaibles 
at^ourd'liui, i1 ui'cst souvuut impo»siblo do d^tormiucr de 
mdmoire si oc sont Ics mCnii^ <»p<V;cs ou d'autres qui 
m'araicnt <;cliapp^ lors do mun pi'cmicr oxamcu. J'cstiaie 
ccpendant qne lo nombro total des etpOvcs quo je pose^de 
itctucUement dt^paRi^o dix-liuit cents ct altvint pcut-Stro 
h deux milte. Mais ce n'est pas scnlcincnt Ic nombre des 
e«pi^es qui surprondra Ics naturaltHtes ; le fait qa'ell 
soot pour la plupart circonscrites dans des limites 
streintea est bieu plus surproiiaut encore ot &e laisser 



^^pu quo d'uvoir uiie iu6uencc directe i>tir Ics iilces qur 

H se f^pandcut tic nos Jours ^ur rori<rii)e dcs Ctna vivutits. 

^ Qiiu ilaiis un flcuvo commo lit Miuissippi, qai, du Nord 

au Sud, posMj micccmvcmviit pur les xoiies fruidot tcm- 

ip^n!e*vt uhuudf, qui roulc »09 caiix Ui)t<)t »ur uiic for- 
mation g<!ulogiqiie, tant')! »iir uiic mitre, ct traverte d«s 
pitines oourertes au Nord d'lnic v^gt-Ution presque aro- 
tlqiie et au Stid d'uue flore »ublropicale, — que dniis un 

Iparcil bossin on reiicotilre deii c«p^!t d'aitimaux nqua- 
tiqiies diiT^renbis, sur difli-rents points de son trn}<>t, ^a 
«e comprend dds qu'oii a'est habilu^ & envisager Ics con- 
ditiona gfii^rales d'csistcnco ct le climat en particulior 

IcomRMi la cause prcmifTo do la diversity que Icn ani- 
roaux et lea piaiit«9 ofTroiit entro fux. diui« lox diflifreiiteB 
loculit^s; mais que, do Tal>alin^a au Par&, dnns un fleitvg 
o& It's caux no vancnl ni piir k-itr tcnipt^ruturo, iii par 
la nature dc Icur lit, ni p:ir In ri^gOtation qui Ich bordo, 
quo dans do parcillea circoii»iancQs on rencontre, do dis- 
lance en distance, des aMemblng«s do pois»ons complAlement 

■ di»liiictH l«ft tins dcs antres, c'cst oe qui a linu d'^tnnner. 
Jo dirai inGms que dort^navanl colte distribution, qui pent 
Stre v6M6e par quicoiiquo voudra s'on donnor la peine, 

I doit joter boaiicoup dc doutu sur I'opinion qui attribuu 
la diversity} dcs dtrcs vivanis nux iniluenccs locale:^. 
Vn aulro cftliS de ce snjel, encore pins cimoiix peut-olre, 
ect rinlciisit<! avcc laquello la Tie s'est manifcst^e dans 
cms caux. Tons \e» fleuvos de THnropo riSiinis, depuis le 
Tagc jusqu'aii Volga, ne nonmscnt pas cent cinquante cs- 
piOMde poiRsons d'can doucQ ; ut cependant, dans un pntit 
lac dos environs de Manaos, nommd Lago Hyantiary, qui a 
it peine quatre ou cinq-conta metres carries da surface, 
Qtnu arons dScourert plus do d«ux-cejts esp^ccs dis- 




tinctei, doDt Ik plupart u'oiit pu encore 6i6 
Bttloun. Quel coiitrB«tc ! 

L'<!ludu du mlSlaiii^ dcs noes liuiuaiiics qtii sc crouwnt 
dAus CCS rcgioD« m'a «iusi bcaiicoup occupy cl je me sais 
procuri! d« iiombrcusvs pliotograpliics dc toiis lc» typo$ 
(juc j'ai pu uliscrTcr. Le pnucipol rdsultut atiquel je rui* 
nrrird est que Ics nteo M comport«iit Ick uites vis-^ni 
dcs »ut[vs coiuuic dcs espjioes distiiiotes ; c. ^ d. que let hy- 
l>ridc9 qui iiaiH$«nt du croisemeiit d'honnnes de rsc^ diS& 
reitt« noiit loiijouTs un melange dcs doux tf{ie3 primitifs 
ct jamais la !<ii»})le reproduction de& canictiires de Tun oil 
de I'autre des prog^iiiUurR, oomcDO c'est ta cas poor les 
racg» d'aiiimaux domeedques. 

Je ne dirai rieii dc mes autros coUoctioDS qui ont poor 
la plupart 6t6 faitcs par rocs jeunes coinpagnons do vojsgc, 
plutSt eu Tue d'onrictiir notro mus<!o quo do r^udra^ 
qiictqiios questious scieatiliqucs. Uais jo no satirais laisser^ 
pus»>or cctto occasion saas cxprimor ma vivo rccouiiaissaROO 
puur toutos los facilitds quo j'ai dues k la bionfcilliuice defl 
Votro Mnycstd, dans mos explorations. Depuis lo Pr^Mdcnt 
ju^u'au plus bumblett employes des province!! quo j'ai par- 
courucs, touG ont riTalis6 d'cmprcsMnKnt pour mc facJlitcr 
mon travail ot la Compagnie de» rapeuri dc TAiuazono a 
6t6 d'uno liHraliu! cxtri^iiio i^ mon ^jrard. Eiifin, Sire, la m 
g4!n^rosit4 avec laqucllo vous nrez fail mctlre un uavtre do' 
gucrro i ma disposition tn'a pcrniis do fairc de» collectioiis 
qui iseraicnt rest^es inacccKsibles pour nioi, sans un mofon 
dc transport ansa) Taste et aussi rapidc. Pei'mi?ttex-inoi 
d'ajonter que de tontes les favours dont Votra Maj«6t£ m'a 
combl^ pour oo voyage, la plus pr^ciouse a ii6 la presence 
du Major Coi.binbQ, dont la familiarity avoc toat ce qui ro- 
gordc I'Amazone a 6t6 une sooroo inlarissable de rcH!teign«- . 





taeau imporlnntt ot de directions utiles pour ifvitcr doi 
courses oiMuses et In pcrto d'uu temps pr6cicux. L'^ten- 
due dos oonnsiseanocs de cc qui louclic TAma* 
sone, Mt vraimcnl eiic/copddtquc, ct je crois quo oe scrait 
ua gmid service h rciidro 4 la Kionco que dc lui founiir 
I'ootiasioii do r^diger et dc publicr tout ce qu'il a obsern! 
pcndnnl set visitcs ripitias ct prolong)^ daiis cclte pnrtia 
dc I'Enipin;. Sa cooperation pendant cc deniicr voToge 
a 6ti do piaa Uborieuses ; il s'vst luis ^ la zoologie comme 
si Iw scieoccs plijsiqucs ii'avaivnl pus iH I'objet special 
dc tKs 4!ludes, en memc tcnips qu'il a fait par dcvcn lui do 
nombreuses ohscrTatioiis tlicriDOintftriqucs, baroiniStriqucs, 
ct aetnxiomtqucs, qui igoiitcronl dc bous jaloiis ^ cc que 
Ton poB<)do d6}\ sur 1» ni^t<:urologic et la lopograpliio da 
CCS prOTiDCes. C'cst aiusi que nous avons Ics premiers 
port<S le baromitro au niilieo des collines d'Almcyrim. do 
Monte Al^grc, ct d'Erer^ et mcsurtS Icura soinmcts les 
plus eiovjs. 

I/dtude de la formatiou de la va]\6e do I'Amaioiie 
m'a na I urcl lenient occiipd, bicn que s^condaircmcnt, d^s 
le premier jour que je I'ai abord^e. 

Mais il est temps quo jo finisso ccttc longuc <!pilrc ca 
ilemauduat pnrdou h Volro Majcet^ d'avoir mis sa pa- 
tience & U1I0 aussi rudo ^prcuvc. 

De Votro Mi^cstt! lo scrTitour lo plus d<:vou<! ct le plus 


L. AoASSiz.* 

• PiKi, Kthnuj S, ItW. 

8m:'— Oo amriiig U Pari in the bcginnin); of ihii monih, 1 had the 

,'plcmDn tn flnil joor Majaty'i kiii'I Iciitr, which hail been nwttiiing m« Tm 

1 tovcnil dA.D. 1 aughE lo fanvo tcknawloilgrit it immoliawlr. bnl I wu not in 

t ctiniitlon lo do w, btini; ocomnic !>; latiguv. It b o«lf dniinf the lui 



February %ith. — Pari, Nuarelli. Our liuic lias pa»«sl 
so quietly lierc ttiut it gives mo iiotliitig to record. Mr. 
Agassis lias round himself in siivb ntnoluto need of rvt-U 
aftoi' liariug arranged and put in order for trausportution lo 

iwo oc three da;( that I bcghi once ino«e to oceapj mjKlf at usual. I raa- 
fcN thai nnlhinjc hut the iircnmltmcnt of ngrtu which would hRTS psnuc^ 
■D* lo llic ciiil of mf Aayt his prcvDuiol mo from tciumlnf directlT to iht 
1,'ailad Stslca. Kirn uaw I llail it liifficuli to lala uji ihe diou timplo oc- 
cupoiions. And yd I am not til; I *ia oal; «xh*>i«ied by ioootMit wort, 
and b; the cuniciii)iUlion. cni.*h ila; niura viiij kiid irapr«Mif*,«rih«p«ateir 
sail Iwauty (if ihi< trojiicnl nature. I Btod to kiok Ibr • itm« apoti Uio «onibi« 
and monotonon* ic|)ki of a pine furoil. 

How gaud 7DU nrr. Site, to tliiiik of mu tn Ui« laiditof iIm ritsl a&in 
wbich abaorb jont sttention, ukI how couuJcnM an piar artiil Tbe Kov 
Toot'* pmcnt fou annouuM cnebants me.* The piaipwt of being able 
to luld lomi- wmpnruoni of the lishoi tnita the boun of the Unipiajr to auM 
u I have slroLlv made bciwmn the Anuuoniaa spociet and ikoae of die rinn 
on tho cottcm cooii of DruU hui a ipccinl ailniclion fbr mo. It will bo the 
flnt >tcp tDvanl* a knowlcd^co of the 1} \m of ibo tciupcrntc aouo in South 
America. I nit with increulnff Impailcnce fbr the moment nlicn I aiktfl be 
able la cxanlnc Ihcm. In iho mean while allow m* lu gin you ft npU 
■ketch of the results iliiis fiii olitHlnrd in mj TOraK« on the Amaaoiu. 

I will not rciQ'u to itie lutpilunjc variet; of tjieclM of IuIim naiained in 
this Inuin, ihoujcli ii it vitv difficult fnr mo to rniai&uriiD njsotf with tbo 
idea tliat Ibc AimnuiK noiirEahti* ndirljr iwiv-u lu man; (perie* aa the H<^^| 
iicnancnn, and a Im^r iiuTiibcr ili-in (be Ailaniic, lakeii from one fxria n 
the other. I can uo t«ngiT **j, Imvrvvor, with prci-iaian. what is the exact 
nmbcr of apeLin which we hmc pttxrared ftora the AmaMM, because, on 
nifactne mr sicpi u t itcfoeiidnl iho £rcBt lirvt, 1 have aeen fithcs ahoBt 
to lav tlu'ir ccv* "liieh I bad Men at Unt mdet other condliloM, and not 
nrxj; and wiihiial consulting the collocilniis made lix month* ajto, and wbivh 
aro not now aiTruible to me, it it cttm impoHihlo for me to dcetnniaa froia 
uaamj wbttbiT thvy at« the Mme •pociot. or dilltrTini oue* wbicb esraptd 
Wf OlaarTBiion in injr lint ^umiiiatiuD. Iluwevcr, t mimato the total 
number of sptcin which I actuaSj poucu at cigbieoe bnndrud, and it majr bo 

• The Emperor hnd writKn to Mr Aguni ilitt, durins tbo time wbca faa 
look annaiAnd of tbo BmUian nmj on the Itio Gfasde, ho bad ca«Ml m1 
heilont of flthet to be Hade kt bis ftvpi lottral of tbe (ooibera riTcM. 






I tlie Cnited States the collections accuniulatcd, that our iu- 

■ tended tri{i to tbe island of Uarajo has beeu postponed day 

aflor day. Tcsterday I witnessed a religious procession ia 

■on tbousAd.* Bat ll li not (MI7 lb« vaSte of iparia wbkh will MtonUh 
natnralbii ; ibe &c( Ihai ihtj an lor ihu iDMt put cimia«eribal oiiliia 
deBnlM Uaia b tlill mora niqvuiiig, Bnil cnaol but ban k dirtcl iolluwM* 
on the tdn* nov pnrafcBi ntpecti*; the oiisin of liiing b«iag«. ThM in • 
tirtr Bk« th« MiMinipjn, which from the north w thf loulh puni ncon^iely 
iktMgliooM, wnpcraM, ind warn lonM. — whom wiMn flow loinelimoa oicr 
00a gMbtiifi-itl fonuatiun, MniMiniM orrr uioUicri and icrofi pdiiiii covarol 
M |Im aonh b)^ on aliuuu arnic icgMaiiuo, and at tho wulla by ■ suh-lrepiod 
Son. — that in tuch a buia aqaaik uiimali of (liferent (pRio* ihoaU be nu-'l 
at variou* poiaU of iu cuunw is muiIj nniliinFiood bj thoae itha an te- 
caMOoivd Id oooiiitn' ina'*'^' coadiiioiu of eabienc^. anil of climnn ojicciall/, 
■a tho fint caBM of tbe [Iitl<:i«a(;u bctntvn miiiiuil) aiul plonti ialubiiini; tci** 
lata h>Talitrej. Bui thai (mm Tubalingn lol'nri, in a rJTin Hhcrc the watcn 
diflrr nritlwr in tctaiwratim aor in ilia oatiire of thair bed. nor in tlic Tqtcia- 
lion along thi:ir bordeti; — that uniirt Biich riirnmsianou thvns tbould be mei, 
from diflnnni (o diitance, anemblagv* of fiithea crmplciflf dJiTioft ftom buh 
otbtr, i> indetd aMoniahing. I would crrn tay that hencirriirth ihii disinbuilon, 
wUcb ma/ bo T«rifl<d bv an; onu iliu cans to takn iho itou die, mint ihrow 
iMuch denbl on the opiniun which aiiribuii.'i the diTvniijr o( livinf; bcin^t to 
local influence!. Anutlm aide of tbii tu1>jtvL aiiU man ciuioai pcrliajii, i* the 
illNaritj irith which Ufa ii manrrvslnl in lh«a iraieri. All ibo rlrcn of 
Evrope united, from tb» Tagiu to Ibv Voilga, do not nanriih ono bundn:!d nnil 
Al^ jpeelca of bwb-wattr ftihra ; and jvt. in a liitle Iske near Maniuii. tulWit 
Lag^ nTimonty, iho anrfitco of which noior* hnrdly four or lJ»o bunitrrj 
•quan jardi. we hate dUcoTned morr than i<id hundred diitinci ipcclca. (ha 
gicaicr pan of which have not been obicn-a) ebcirliore. What a contnui I 

Tha itod; of Iho mlxnre of haninn ntcca in ihu region haa alao occupisd 
me mnch, and I hart procarcd numnou pholognph* of all Ihc lypu which 
1 hiTo bean ablo to obMrrc. The principal mail at which 1 h»ie atriirn] ii, 
that iho niDti bear ihemKlvcs lowardi corh oiliu a* do diiilnct ajxHiiit ; that i» 
10 mj, that tliO hjbrid), which aprlnic ftou tho cioaiiii); of mon ul diflmnt 

* To4*f I cannot i:iv« a more pivciao acrount of tho Sitkl rraoti (if mj 
aamj. Though all my colttcljoii* aro mMy *Iott<1 in Iho Muai:uai, vtrj 
ptMlical toulogial uniipnliuida that a crlticul 'lamination of more than ei^htj 
ikuuuad aptcimeni cannot b« made in k-M than MTcral yan. — L- A- 



Pari, — one or die nwuy fesUis tAid to be gr&dualljr djriug 
out, aiid to be already slioni of iiiucli of llioir ancient glory. 
It represented a scene from tlie passion of Christ. 



nxxi, nro alwaj* a mixtora of th« two primilit« {fpo. ^oi mtot the limftt 
I'rutlur.tiun uf [ho cttaniciRtii o!' ono or iho other progcniior, u u Jio cue 
ih« nxM or dumotiic aniiMU. 

1 will mj iMbiaif of u]' other rollcciiaai, which have been auiie for tb« 
Dio*t port bj my younK comfnoiont, nithar with a vlow u> onricli a«r Mntoa 
Uua ii> tolie scien^fic questiooi. Bui t conoot ollow thU occatfa>ii to pu* 
wilhonl uptmiog mj tiislf j^uuludo for nil iJus fiiciliUM, iu iiij u-pluraliufU^ 
Kbkb 1 hiivc oiv«l to [lie kindiicjs of jout Mi^oitir. from the I'midsul U 
the m09l humhio cmplovifi of the prorincci 1 have vuiecil. all liavtr compcMd 
with «ich other lo reiitlcf my work more emy ; .ind iha Mounnliiii raiiipani rf 
the Atnnmni ha> ihowo nn extreme libctaliij tow&rdi in«. t'iaallj'. Sir^ tb« 
gvaenuay ivi[h which jod hive jilaceil at my ilispoutjon m r t t l ot war hit 
ollowed me lo mukc collticllani wUch, wlih kn ampkand ib[hiI moaiu of liaiu- 
pott. muit hnve ramiilnrd uurrly inu.'i'r'juiljlc to mo. Pctmit me to add. itiil, 
of all the Tnvora with •vhk'li your MujcKty hnxrowneil ihii voyage, the moct 
preeioo* bu hwu tlis pcuvoo of Mqjor Cuuiinho, i>ho«« (umillnilty with all 
triiieh concwiu iho Amiuout liu hvax an iuuxbautlibLe wiucc af important lo< 
fbnnatiaB aaid ofunerul dirt<][ioa( ; by mcoiiii uf whirb thn loti aTtloMtn u 
roniwntlTe nteursiuns hai bcsn avoiilcd. His co-upcruiion durioK lUi Job' 
ha> boen moiit LaborioiU ; he has applied himielf to ii»lo^y n> If tbs pbyi 
Kicacc* had not hi[he(la been the ijicciiU object of hi> itudy, whda at 
Mine urue he luu made iinmcttilu thcrmomctric. bdroimiliic, niid aattmoinical 
oWrfaiioni, which will lUmiKh important sditllloni lo what ij alrewlf known 
onncfmini; i)i* mct«nn>lD|>y and (aiiaemphy of thoc praiincca. We han^ for 
iiulMica, bo>u the tint lo carry th« barometer Into tho niidil of the hill* of A\- 
myrtin, of Moiiic Ali^i^nj and Erci^, and M iiiouure ihclt bljthcu iiunaJB. 
Tbo iiudy of [lie fonua[jon of ttiu lallcy of the AmiuoiiB baa aatunllT 
pied me. thoojib in a Kcoaduy dtfri^ 't>m the liiM day of mj aninL* 

Bui it to tine Ikat I (bOuld floM Ihl* \oas letter, IioucIdS Tvw MajMJ j 
pudoo ma for pnlling jonr iiatiruw lo to hanl a iHal- 

Tosr U^ealy'* mMt humble and moal HflbctioaaM Mrraot, 

L. Aouila. 

It io< 

" TlM twi of tbi* lellCT la ooiittcd. u lu loUtaac* u r«iiUin«d io Cbapl«_ 
XIIL, oo tht TbyucaJ Bitiovy of the AmoMii*. 



life-size figure of the Saviour, siuking under tlte cro«s, b 
bonio on a platform through tlio ttreeta. LitUe girls, 
draaed as angels, walk before it, atid it ia accompanied b; 
uunerous dignitaries of the Churd]. Altars ore illuini- 
uated in the different churches ; the populace, even down 
(0 the children, are dressed in black; and the balconies of 
ever; house filled with figures in mourning, waiting for the 
sad procession to pass hj. 

Fttrvari/ 28*A, — Off Marajo, in the Btcam«r Tabaiinga. 
All great rivers, as tlie Nile, tlie Mississippi, the Ganges, the 
Danube, have tlieir deltas ; but Iho larg(.>st river in the 
world, the Amazons, is an exception to this rule. Wliat, 
then, is the g«!ological clmr!ict«r of the groat island wtiicli 
obstructs its opening into the oceuu ? This is the question 
which has made a visit to Marajo of special interest to Mr 
^LAgaanx. Leaving Par& at midnight, wo reached the littli 
Htown of Sour^s early tliis morning. It is a village lying on 
Vthe E»utliea£larn side of tliu ii^laitd, and so far seaward that, 
in the dry seosou, whou the diuiinlfthod current of tJie Ama- 
zonian watci-s is overborne liy the tides, the water is salt 
enough to atlbi'd cxcelluut sen-bolliing, ami is resortvd to for 
that purpose Uy many fuuiilies from Puru. At this moment, 
■ however, the watur has not even a brackish character. The 
only building of any interest in the town is the old Jesuit 
cliurvh, a remnant of the earliest chapter in the civilization 
of Soutli America. However ttiigcd with ambition and a 
Icve of temporal power, the work of the Jesuits in Bruxil 
tended toward the c»tnt(lishmcnt of an organized systvm ot 
tabor, which one cannot but wi»li had been continued. All 
that femains of ttio Je«uit missions goes to prove that they 
KiVare oeotres of industry. Tliese men contrived to impart, 
erea to the wondering Indian, 8omo faint reDcetiou of their 




owD persJstoDnj and Btesdrabtneis of purpose. Famui nrera ' 
cunncctcd witli all ihe Indian mUtiioiis; under tlio direcDou 
of Uio falliui's, tlie liidiaii!> learned sooicUiiiig of .igriculiure, 
vUidi Uio Jesuits readily naw to bo one of Uie gi'cat cirili^ 
iug influences in a country so fertile. Tttcy iulroduced a 
variety of Tcgetables and grains, and liad herds of catUe 
wlii-ru cattle now arc bardly known. Humboldt, Epcaking 
of tliu destruction of (he Je&uit mit>sion.t, says, in rcfercaco 
to llie Indiana of AtiircR, on the Orinooo : " Formerly, being 
cscilcd to labor by the Jesuits, they did not want fur food. 
The fathers cultivated maize, French beans, aikd other Euro- 
pean vegetables. They even planted swoel oranges and 
tamarinds round the villages ; and they possessed ivreutj fl 
or thirty thousand head of cows and horses iu the cavau-V 

nas of Aturos and Caiichana Since tlto y«ar 1796, 

the cattle of the Jesuits have entirely diiiappearvd. Tberfrfl 
now remain as ntonumcnts of titc ancient Cultivation of 
these countries, and the aclire industry of the first misBton- 
aries, only a few trunks of the orange and tamarind in the 
bavannas, surrounded by wild trees." * fl 

Our walk through tlie little village of Sour^s brought tis 
to the low clilT^ on the shore, whicli we had already seen 
from Ihe steamer. Tlie same formations prevail all along 
Uic ouoit of this island that we have found everywhere oof 
the banks of Uie Amazons. Lowest, a weli-slraliGed, rather" 
coarse sandstone, immediately above which, and conform- 
able with it, are finely laminated clays, covered by a crusufl 
(7pon this lies tlte highly ferruginous sand.->tone, lu whicb 
an insular cross stratification fretjuently alternates with 
tlie regular beds ; above this, following all the uudulalioiu 

• Uatiibaldt'* Fcnoaa) Kuntin, BoW* Scicalillc Ubraiy. VaL U. Chap j 
XX. p 967. 


or its enrfaco, is tlie vell-knovn reddish randy clay, witli 
quarlz pebbles scattered tbroiigti its tmux, ntid ouly Ucro 
and lliore fuiut traces of an indistinct strutiticuliou. Tliti 
afternoon Mr. Aga$«iz bos bocii ugaiii on shore, cxaminuig 

• t)i« formation of both banks of tlio Igarapij Grande, tbe 
river at tlie moutb of wliiob stands thi> bjM-n of .Soiu-(s 
He has returned dcligbted with tlie result of tils dayV 
B vork, having not only obtained the most complete evideuoc 
^nbat llie geological formnlioii of Marajo corresponds ez< 
BuUy wilb that of tho Amawninii Valley, but having 8]«o 
obtained some very important data with respect to tlto 
present encruachments of the sea upon tbe sbore. He 
found upon the beach, pArlially covered by sea-sand, the 
remains of a forest which evidently grew in a poat-bog, and 
which the ocean is gradually laying bare. 

Febnutrff '29th. — Early this morning we croitsed the Pari 
Bivcr, and anchored at the cnlranco of the bay within which 
stands the town of Vigia. We landed, and while the boa^ 
men were dragging the net, we wandored along the beach, 
which iii bordered by thick foreiit, now full of Sowers. Here 
we found tliQ same geological formation!) as on the Marajo 
shore, and on the beach the counterpart of the ancient for- 
eat which Mr. Agassiz unearthed yeBterday on the opposite 
coast. Iliere can hardly be more convincing evidence that 
tlie rivers which empty into the Amazons near its mouth, 
Blike all those higher up, as well as the main stream itself, 
Vbare cut their way through identical formations, which 
"were once continwons. Evidently these remains of foi-csls 
on the beaches of Vigia Bay and at the mouth of the Iga- 
rap^ Grande ar« parts of one forest, formerly nnintcrruptod 
and covering the whole of the intervening space now filled 
by tl»e so-called Paril River. Wo followed the leadi to tlie 



entrance of an igarap^, whicli here opens Znto Uie river, ftud 
wbidi looked most tempting with tlie morning shadows 
darkening its cool recesses. A» the boatmen liad not been 
Teiy successful in fiiibing, I proposed we sliould put tlieir 
Mrvicea to better use and row up tliis invitiiig stream. To 
thia day, though I have become acoiutoiaod to these forc»t 
water-jiatliR nu<) have had to iDtJiy excursions tn ihvio, 
tliey have lost none of tlieir cliarm. I never see one witliout 
longing to follow its picturesque windings into the depths 
of the wood ; and to me the igarap^ remains the moet 
beautiful and the most characteristic featiin) of the Ama- 
soiiian scenery. This one of Vigia was especially prvt^. 
Clamps of the ligtit, eiquisitely graceful Assai palm shot 
up everywhere from the denser forest ; hero and there 
lite droo|Hng bamboo, never seen in the higher Amazons, 
dipped its feathery brancJies into tlie water, covered some- 
times to thoir very tips witli purple bloom of coiiv(j7uIas ; 
yellow Bignonias carried Uioir golden clustore to the rery 
summits of some of the more lofty trees; while white- 
flowering myrtles and orange>colored mallows bordered the 
stream. Life abounded in this quiet retreat. Birds And 
butterBics were numerous; and we saw an iminoiise uum- 
ber ot crabs of every variety of color and sizo upon the 
mai^n of the water. However, it vras not so easy to catch 
them as it seemed. They would sit quietly on the tniuka 
of all the old trees or decaying logs projecting from the 
batik, apparently waiting to be taken ; but the moment 
we approached them, however cautiously, they vanislied 
like lightning villior under tlie water or into some crevice 
f Dear by. Notwithstanding their nimbleness, however, Ur. 
Agasrii succeeded in making a oonsidontble colleclioii. 
We t*w alto an immense army of caterpillars, evidently fot 





lowing somfl concerted plan of acUou. Thej were Je^iend- 
ing tbe trunk of « liirg« troc in a twiid pbalunx about two 
handbreadllis iu widtli, and six or ei^Ut r<;tit in Inngth; 
no doubt oouiing down to make llieir cbi-jsolidii in ilio »aiid. 
We roturued to tite ateaiuer at ten o'clock ; and, after bi-cak- 
fast, finding our ancliorago-ground soniewliat rougli as the 
tide came in, we went a little biglier up, and cntei-ed llio 
Buhia do Sul. Here again we went on shore to see llio 
set drawn, tiiis time more succesiifully. We sliould bare 
bad a dcligbtful walk on Die beacli again, had it not been 
for hosts of minute ilioH which hovered about us, and had 
a power of stinging quite disproportionate to their slzo. On 
toturniug we met with au unfuros«cu diflicullj'. The tidu 
bad been falling during our walk, and the canoe could 
not upproucli tho buach within Mivoral yards. The gtintle- 
men pluMgud in, and walked out over kiiocs in water; 
while the hoainien made a dtudr of their arms and carried 
mo through tlie furf. 

March 6eA. — Our excursion in the harbor closed with 
a visit to the small island of Tatuatnlu, distant atwiit 
fax miles from Par&. In order to examine tlic vhorcK, we 
made the circuit of the island on foot. Here agnin tlie 
same geological structure [H«sonted itfiolT; and there was 
one spot in particular wlicro the sharp, Tcrtical cut of Iho 
bank facing tho beach prosoiited an adinirablo section of tho 
formations so charactcristio of the Amazonian Valley; 
the red, »andy clay of the upper depo&it filling iit all ijio 
undulations and inequalities of the sandstone below, the 
surface of which was remarkably irro^ilar. Tlio sea ia 
making groat encroachments on the shore of this island. 
Sonhor Figuciredo, who lives here with his family and by 
whom wo ucR received with much hospitality, told iis lluil 

wo A JOttttXET ni aRATIL 

during tlie last eighteen or twenty years, the beach hdd 
ooded o>n»ider«bljriii soma places; tho high-water line tmiD 
many yards beyond iu former limit. The ro§ult of this ex-' 
cursion has shown thai, wi()i (he exceptioD of eome low mtid- 
isJaiids nearly ierel with the water, all tlie harbor islands 
lying ill tlie montli of tlie Amazons are, geologically 
Epcakiiig, parts of the Amaxoiiiaii Valley, hariiig the same 
MriicLiire. They were, no doubt, formerly contiiiuotu 
with tho shore, but ore separated now, partly by the Trosh 
waben cutting tli«ir way through tlie land to the ocean, 
partly by ilic progress of the sea itwelf. 

March 2-il/t. — Onr (inlet life at Nazareth, though full of 
enjoyment for tired travellers, affords tittle material for a 
journal. A Mcond excursion along the coast has furnished 
Mr. Aga-^sie wiili new evidence of the rapid changes in ttio 
outline of tlie sJiore, produced by tlte encroachment of the 
•ea. So fast is this going on thai some of the public works 
»ear the coast are already endangered by the advance of 
the ocean upon tho land. During tlie past week he has 
been especially occupied in directing the work of a photo- 
grapliisl employed by Scniior Ptmenta Bucno, who, with hi 
usual tibvrulily towards (he scicnlific objects of tlie espedi 
tion, is collecting in tliis way tho portruits of some remark- 
able palms and other trees about his liouso and grounds. 
One of tlic most striking is a huge Sum&uin<!ra, with but- 
tnjssod trunk. Tbc^c bullresses start at a di^^tanoc of about 
eight or ten feet from llic ground, sprt-ading graduully to- 
ward tlie base ; they are from ten to twelve foet in dopllt. 
Tlio lower part of the trunk b thus divided into open coto-! 
parlment*, somvlimes ^o largo that two or three persons can 
stand within tliom. Tliit disposition lo throw out flanks or 
wings is not confiniKl to one kind of tree, but occurs ii 


KxcuBsioxs OH Tin: coast. 


many ramilies; it seems, indeed, a cltoracterirtio feature of 
forest vegetation hen. Ooca.«ioiinlly tlie biittreA:>e!i partially 
separate from t1>e main tnnik, i-emaiiiiug attached to it only 
■t the point from whicli ili y -t4irt,so that tliey loolt like 

Buimutd TrM (Erted«ndnim Sa<n«umn> 

distinct siipports propping tlic tree. I copy liere an ei- 
tract from Mr. AkisstzV i.jIcs upon the vegetation of the 
Amazons, in wliicli ulluMon !» made to tlie SiimaumtSra. 

" Any one coming from the North to the Tropics, if li8 
lias beeu iu Ute liubit of observing the vegetation about 



him, erea u-ithout having made boUiiy n special study, 
is, in a. measure, prepared to n^pro«iatc tlic roscmblaitce* 
and the ditioreiKeN between plants of the tropical and 
tliose of the teoapcrate regiona. An acquaintunco willi 
tho Bobinia (Locust-trees), for inManoe, or witli liio largo 
shrub-like Lotus, and other woody LegumiiiOMe, will en- 
able him to recognize tlio numerous representatives of 
tliat family, forming so large a part of the equatorial 
Tegotatiou ; and, even should he never have seen spcoi- 
mcQS of tlio Mimosa in gardens or hot-houses, their deli- 
cate, eusce|itible foliage will make them known to him ; 
he cannot fail to be struck with the inexhaustible com 
binations and forms of their pinnate leaves, as well as with 
the variety in tbeir tints of green, the diversity in ttieir 
clusters of leaves and in their [>nds and seeds. But tliere 
are families witli which he fancies himself equally familiar, 
the tropical representatives of whicli will never seem to him 
like old acquaintances. Thus tbe tree which funiisties iIm 
Indian ruhltur belongs to tho Milk-weed family. Every 
one knows the Milk-weeds of tlic Nortli, to be seen, aa 
hunilile herbs, all ahiiig the roadside^ on the edges of 
our wood» and iu the pundit of our bcach<!s. Yet ou the 
Amazons, the Buphorbiacex, so tnja]] and unobtrusive with 
ua, asmme the form of colossal trees, constituting a oou- 
slderahlc part of its strange and luxuriant forest-growtJi. 
'Hie giant of the Amazonian woods, whose majestic flat 
crown tuwers over all other trees, while its white tnuik 
stands out in striking relief from tlie surrounding mass 
of green (the ^umaumt^ra). in allied to our mallows. 
Some of the most characteristic trees of the river-shore 
belong to these two families. Our paleontologisti who 
attempt to restore the forests of older geological tim«s 






ill mind Uiis fnct of tltc striking contraeto 
iinder diflbront latitudes by the ttatiie families. 
or coume the equatorial rcgioii« teuni with plaitls and 
trees bdoiiging to ramilies oitlior enUrcly unknown or 
but poorly represented in more temperate latitudes ; and 
these distinct groups naturally arrest the ntt^ntioii if the 
botanist, and perhaps awaken bi» intorest more than those 
with which he is already familiar under other furms. 
But, while tliese dilTerent familiea are recognized as dia- 
linct, and no doubt deserre to be considered by thent- 
pelvcs as natural groups, 1 believe that much migfit be 
learned of the deeper relations of plants by studying, 
not only the representatives of the same families ia dif- 
ferent latitudes, bucIi »s tlia Mimosas and the Milk-wc«ds, 
but also what I may call botanical equivalents, ^groups 
which balance each other in the difTurent cUmutic tones. 
Tliis idea is Butrgcfled to me by my zoologicjil studios in 
tlic Amaxons, which have led mc to percuivo new rulutions 
between tlic animals of the temperate and the tropical eon«: 
It soems prohiihle that corresponding relations should ex- 
ist iu the vegetable world also. Ktruck, for instance, by 
tlie total absence of sturgeons, perches, pickerels, trouts, 
carps and other white lishes, cuaks, sculpins, &c., 1 have 
myself, while studying the fishes of the Amazons, 
>t analogy could exist bctweeu those of our Western 
rivers and those of the tropics, as well as between the 
latter and those of the inlormediate latitudes. Looking 
at them with this view. I have been surprised (o find 
how closely rclntcd tlio Gouiodonts are to the Sturgeons; 
so mtioli FO, tliut the Loricariw may he considered aa gen- 
uiuo Sturgeons, witli more extensive shields upon t)ie body. 
I am satisfied also that the Cychia is a perch to ull in'jjnta 



■ltd purposou, tLiil ttiv Acaims arc Suiifi^ies, ilie Xipho 
r)iiiiiip)iuy(FiriVpiicu)iVkerel8, and llio Curimatas genuino 
Carps. Nov, may not a kimitar relatioD exist bctwoea 
the families of plants beloii|{iiig (o tlic Nortli and tboso 
forming the motit prominent vt^etatiua of tlta Sontli ? 
What are the tropical tre&t which lake the place of oiii 
olms, maples, lindens ? By what families are our oak*, 
chestnuts, willows, poplars, represented under the Imrniug 
EUD of the equinoctial regions ? llie Roeacea in (he tem- 
perate and the MyrtaceiD in tlie Irojtical regions Keen to 
mo such botanical oquivalenls. The family of Rosacea 
gives to the North ite pears, its apples, its peadies, its 
cliorrios, its plums, its almonds; iu short, all the moi'it 
doliciuus fruits of the Old World, as well as its mwt beauti- 
ful flowers. Tlic trees of this family, by th«ir foliage, play 
a dU^nguishod part in the vegetation of the temperate zone, 
and impiirt to it u chuntcter of ihoir own. The AlyrtaccA 
givQ to the South i\s guavus, itii pilangae, its nra^i'is, the 
juicy plum-like fruit of tho swamp-myrUes, many of its 
nuts, and otlior cxcclletit fruits. This family, including 
the MelaHtomoceie, abounds in flowering shrubs, like the 
purple Queresma and many others not less beautiful; 
and eome of its representatives, nudi as the Sapucaia ajid 
tlie Bnziliau nut-tree, rim to tlie height of towcriug trees. 
Both of tlieso families »ink to iii^it^iifivaiice in the oiie 
zone, while tliey assume a digiiified port aud perform an 
important part in the oilier. If tliLs investigation bo ex- 
tended to the shrubs aud humbler plants, I beliere the 
botanist who undertakes it will reap a rich harvest." 

The day after to-morrow wo leave Pari in the Santa Cru> 
for Ceari. It will tw like leaving a sort of home to say good 
br to our kind friends in the Rua do Xatarclh. We Iiave 


oocome altnched to this ndghborhood also from its boauly. 
Tlio wide street, bordered for two or tlirec miles wilb , 
maugueiias, leads into tbo wooded couiitrj, where mniiy «' 
narrow green patb in tlie forest tempts one to loug rumHcs. 
Uiio of thesQ piitliB has been u favorite walk of niiuc oi> ac- 
count of tho beauty and luxuriance of tlio vegetation, mak* 
iug eomo parts of it thndjr even ut noundujr. 1 liarc often 
followed it for two or tliroc mile» in the otilj nioniing, bo* 
Iwecii six and eight o'clock, wltca tlic verdant witlb ou 
citlicr side are still frexli and dewy. Bcuutifnl ax it iii, it 
leads to one of tlie »adde»t of all tUmdoa. For a long timo I 
could not understand why this lane was always in siicb 
good coiiditiaii, tlie heavy rnin^ making uiiri'()()ncntcd forest- 
paths almiMt im^uisAal>le in the wet season. I found on in- 
quiry that it led to a hospital for lepers, and was kept in 
good repair because the various stores and supplies for the 
Hospital were constantly carried over it. Tlio prcvulencc of 
leprosy has made it necessary to provide separate ostablish- 
mente for its viciiius ; and hotli ut Pur& nnd Sautarom, whnra 
It 18 still more common, tboro nro hospitals devoted vxclu- 
»vcly to tins purpose. Tliis tvrrihle dlsi-asc is not confined 
wholly to the lower classes, and where it occurs in fumiltea 
whose circitmsttuiccs are good the invalid is often kept at 
homo under the care of Ins own friends. Bate« slates ibnt 
leprosy is supjH»«d to be incnrahle, nnd also adds that, diii'> 
ing his eleven years' residence on the Aniazons, he has never 
known a foreigner to bo attacked by it. We have, however, 
been told by a very iiitclligont Oennaii j)hysiciati in Rio da. 
Janeiro, that he has known several cases of it among biS' 
own countrymen there, and has been so fortunate as to 
etreot permanent cures in soma instances. He says it is a 
mistake to suppose that it docs not yield to treatment when 



taken in time, and the statistics of the disease shov tliai, 
wliore there are good plijsicians, it is found to bo gradually 

Wq must not leave Par& without alluding to our evoning 
COtioerta front the adjoining woods aud swamps. When I Gist 
heard tliis strange confusion of sounds, I tltought it camo 
from a crowd of men shouting loudly, though at a little di>- 
taiice. To my surprise, I found that the rioters were the 
frog^ and toads in the ncighWrhood. I liardlj know liow to 
describe this Babul of woodland noises ; and if 1 could do it 
justice,! am afraid my acconiil would linrdly hv Iwlicred. 
At moments it socms like the l)arkiiig of dog^, tlieu like tbo 
calling of many voices on dilToront keys, hut all loud, rapid, 
excited, full of cmphasin and variety. I think Utese frogs, 
like ours, must bo silent at certain seasons of the year; for, 
on our ftral visit to I'urfi, we wcra not struck by llii* siiigu* 
lor music, with which the woods now resound at nightfall. 

HeiK. — Bfifbrt ttavin;: ilia Auintoui. I witli lu ocluiowled^ ■Upnliom 
reccired ftom Hvor&l fricn'U, w1»mc nuiiici >li> nm appear In ilw D«mitiT«. 

Tu Sculiur Danin, Ch(>r in Polin at Parf, I <rna indebtal lor taliubl* In- 
■liaii curiiwiica, and fur apucimnn* uf otlmr kinili ; to Doctor JIaJcIwi far ft 
cullntjon of binl) ; to Scnhor I'ennu Tor itnjiorrnnt Rrlitilioni U> my rojlccibni 
of lialiM ; to Senlior Lniioo da Canka for aid in tollcctins. and for minf Intro- 
ilncijuiu 10 pMvoni of iaHucnce atong our route ; and to Ur. Kaalflu*, ■ Oct- 
maa naideni at I'arrf. for foiiili from iho Andc*. 

I hare tn Ihaiik Hi', lame* Bond, Uiiiicil SiaiM Consul ai l*ar<, for onfre^ 
rird cWaru in my bclintriluniig ilic nholc ilmc of mj »tnv in ihc Amnioni. He 
•it|i[ili«l IOC viib akoluil ; rcrolrcd tlio colln'i'Ona on llidr >rrinil ui l^irn ; c«- 
ainlnoil il>« casc> ami Imni'lt, raiitiii)! ihoiia wliicli wcte dcfifiin lo Iw fvp«nt.->1, 
tliM tliey iDi|[lil ntrli ihrir iloiiinuiion in rnlety, and (inilly dcipaichvd tlicm to 
Um UnitoJ Slxlw, fm of rhaq;«, on bonni tnlltnu-ruMl* in wlili-li lia Inid aa 
ialrml. Wo owe il in KtMl dfipi:* to him thnt our imavoHi Ainmaynmci col- 
kvtioni ■nrirt'l in CaniliruiKo In irood condition, *afforiui[ Itiil* lou or iiyu} 
m tlio pneam of Irani portation. — I.. A- 





Jtttirt Minvt Rio im JAicnn'i. — IIeciimiiwiiuis ow cKPiini.TDKi Rock. — 
liimiiEHT Airicar or Ulac-iai. 1'ii£Nv»iij> t w DtmiiiucT Ojimitein* — 
Fkbiimit oi* Tim limrr. — GK»uiuii-iuOti*BiirJiTiiiiisoi'HEMiiB. IIjiictt 

AXU St- JllHII. — C(IKKIUI1>><I>G110K UP UxrOltlTH iUintl TIIK CoiHr WIIM 

tnoHK (If Blu 'i>» iniMK or tkh Vau.kt or tiik AHAztmii. — I'MuiTrvn 
FiiRMjtTioH or rnr. Vallki. ~>ih»t kibiwh L'ii:trTER or n» lti»i">iir.— 

CHErAC-tnllll f<«MU I'lWKf- — FoBKKH ElTOT vr TUB S-llTII-A WKIIICJtH 

C«A>T. — CH»r*CE"i:» (''•'MKJi rinpii nm Rui IVkis — (.'■■hI'akihiii iik- 
tweilx Xokth *xii Snri'ii Aui^rii'-A- — Iimiujiiii'-ii. Formatiuh* aijiiho 
TIIK llAMKii or niK Amasom. - FoHii, I.LiTu. — Cukta a:<i> Saisxi- 
■Tosiiui. — Hii.i^or AbUKHiiH. — Moxrii AiJoiiK. — SnuiTioit *si> Kfnt 
KiiT. — Snit* RhkiiK. — O-tiriBiHos •ririi 8<iri» ScKirtir, — IV>i<t.i>i'ii>OF 
Eii>B& — AnciKXT Tiiii«!iii» i>r Aiitioiii^v llvi'iwik — t'lrrKiiKxi-k 
■iirTWKKX noit-r or iifK AMntosH *vD TiiAt (>r Btu. — I>r>.i[>.xcu I'Httni 
rnoM riik rKMKxT r'niDmoi or m DKiNMin. — laHRictc Kttkht or 
SAiDnmHK KonuAnoii, — Natuu: aid Obioik or luuiR l>«n>MT>. -~ K» 
miUBii To tnit lirR'PiiHimi. — Absksce or GLAriAi, Mibk>. ~ Glaual 

AmBHICAH COAHT. — IuI'kA — lOAKAnl <lllA3IDK. — VlQIA. — BaT Or BkA- 

A FEW days before we left P»rll, Senhoi- Pimenta Itueno 
invited hU friends iimt ucquAinUnocs, nrlio liad ciprosaed 
H wish to Itcur Mr. A^^iuuti/.'s views on titu gi-ological char- 
ucter cif the Am»xoni»n ViJluy, to nicct at his housu in 
tfae evi-liiti(; (or LliKt piirjioso. Tin- gii^KU w•u^l^ stiinu two 
liuiiJrcd in number, nnd tiic. wliolu niTuir va* vory iiiiccre- 
moiiinus, asaufniiig nUiier tlm viiuriLcter of » mcvting for 
conversation or tliscassion than tbat of an aiulivnoe col* 
locted to bear a studied »il(ln-s.i. The BubatHnco of thia 
tall: or [wture, aa subsequently written out by Mr. Agassiz. 
nftorward appeared in the Atlantic Monthly, itnd ia in- 
Mrtud here, with some few altamtious aader the head 



of a separate chapter. The reader will find oceasiona 
repoutioQS of facts already suited in ttie earlivr pui 
the narrative ; but tlicy are rcuiucd for tlio sake of gii^ 
ing a comploto and imDsii5ti>nt review of the subject ftt 
this poiDt of our journey, wlieii: it becarL« possible te 
oomptire the geological stnicture of the Amazonian Val* 
ley with that of tlie »onlheni provinces of Brazil and 
IhoM borderiiig on tlie Atlantic coast. 

The existence of a glacial period, however much derided 
when first announced, is now a recognized facL The 
dirergence of opinion respecting it is limited to a ques- 
tion of extent ; and nfler my recent journey in the Atna- 
lOns, I am led to add a new chapter to tlie strange Imtory 
d* glacial plienoincna, taken from the soutlient hemisphere, 
and even from the tropic:^ themselves. 

I am prepared to lind that the statement of this new 
phase of the glacial period will awaken among my scien- 
tific colleagues an opposition cvoa more violent tlian 
that by whicli the lirst announocment of my views du 
this subject was met. I am, however, willing to bide my 
time ; feeling sure that, as the theory of the ancient ex- 
teiiHioii of glaciers in Europe has gradually come to be 
accepted by geologists, so will tlio existence of like phe- 
nomena, both in North and South America, during the 
same epoch, be recognised sooner or later as port of a 
great series of physical events extending over the wholo 
globe. Indeed, when the ice-period b fully undorilood, 
it will bo seen that tlie absurdity lies in supposing tliat 
climatic condition*! 90 different could be limited to a small 
portion of ttie world's surface. If the geological wiatei 



existed at all, it must naro beou cosmic; and it U qiiita 
«8 ratioual to look for its trucvs in tito Wcsturo as io Uio 
Eastern lioinisplioro, to ttio soiitit of titc equator as to tlte 
nortli of lU Impressed by tliis wider view of tbo subject, 
coiiSriii«J by a immbor of uiipublisbcd invostigutiona 
whicli I bavo made during tbu last tliroo or four years 
in Uio United f^tatus, 1 came to Suutb America, expect- 
ing to lind ill tbc tropical rogious now evidences of a 
bygone glacial period, tbougli, of course, under diBcrent 
aspects. Sueb a result seemed to mo the logical se- 
quence of wbat I bad already observed in Europe and in 
North America. 

On my arriral in Rio de Janeiro, — tlie port at wliieh 
I first landed in Brazil, — my attention was immediately 
attracted by a very pcculiur funnntion consisting of an 
ocbracoous, biglily ferrugiiioiiM, sandy ciny. During a stay of 
three mouths in Itio, wbciico I made many oxcnrmns into 
the ncigbboriug country, I had opportunities of studying 
this deposit, botli in the province of Rio de Janeiro uod in 
the adjoining province of Minas Gerae». I found that it 
rested everywhere upon the undulating surfaces of tlie 
solid rocks iu place, was almost entirely destitute of strat- 
ification, and contained a variety of )iobblca and boiil- 
dcis. The pebbles wore cbiofly quartz, somclimes fcat- 
tered indiscriminaloly tliroughout tlie deposit, soinciiinus 
lying in a s«aia between it and the rock below ; while 
the Itouldem wore eithor sunk in its niu&s, or resting loono- 
iy on tJie surface. At Tijuca, a few miles out of the city 
of Rio, among the picturesque bills lying to the )>o<itli 
we3t of it, these phenomena may be sdcii iu great per- 
fociion. Near Bennett's Hotel there are a great uuta- 
ber of erratic boulders, having no connection whatever 



witb ttio rock in place; and b1m> a. hlxiS of tliu super 
Gcial deposit studded witli boulders, resUug abore the 
partiallf stratifiod melamorphic rock.* Other excellent 
opportunities for obserriiig ttiiii formation, also witlun 
easy rcacU from tlie city, are atToriied along the whole 
line of tlte Den Podro Segundo RailrcMd, wlicro tlie 
cuts expose admirable sectionfi, showing llio red, uustrat- 
iliod, liomogeneous mass of randy cluy resting above the 
solid rock, and often divided from it by a thin bed of 
pebbles. There can be no doubt, in ibe mind of any 
one familiar with similar facts obserrod in other parts of 
the world, that tliis is one of tlie many forms of drift 
connected with glacial action. 1 was, howOTcr, far from 
anticipating, when I first met it in the ncigliborliood 
of Rio, that I should aftorwards find it spreading oror 
the surface of the country from north to soutli and from 
east to vest, witb a continuity which gives legible 
connection to the whole geological history of the '^n- 

It is true tliat tlie extenEive decomposition of ihe ud 
dorlying rock, penetrating sometimes to a oon:.idetabl« 
depth, makes it oflen difficult to distinguish betwdou it 
and the drift; and the problem is made stili moie puz- 
zling by tlie fact tliat the surface of the dHfi,, whcr. 
baked by exposure to the hot sun, often a.<istiai^ ihtt 
appearance of decomposed rock, so ttiat great csro io 
rc4]iiircd for a correct interpretation of the fu'ts. /. 
little practice, however, trains the eye to reaJ tba^, ap. 
pearanoes aright; and I may say tliat I haie irarjed tci 
rooognite ercrywlicre the limit between the two fonnt^ 
tioDS. There is indeed one safe guide, uamely, thr CJf.- 

• 8tc Ch>j>icr III. p. St. 

rHracAi nwroBv of tbe amazoxs. 


dulatiiig liuo, remiudtug oiiu of roche* motUonnfetf* wid 
marking the irrogiUur surface of Uio rock ou wlitpli (be 
drift was accumulated ; wiiatovor modilicatJoiis llic 0ii9 
ur tlio other may liavo uinlcrgono, tliis line svcius never 
to disappear. AuoUicr dcuoittiro feature, arising from tlie 
frequent dirintcgratiun of tlic rocks and from tlie brittle 
cliaractcr of some of tliem, is llie presence of looee fi-ng- 
Dicnts, wliieh simulate erratic boulders, but are in fact only 
iletuclicd masses of tbe rock in plac«. A careful ezttmina- 
iion of their struclurc, however, will at once show the goolo 
;ist whether they bolonj; wlicrc they are found, or liave bcea 
brought from a distance to their nrescut rcstiiig-plucc. 

But, while the rciilurcs lo whicli I linre ulhidcd are 
unquestionably drift plienomoiia, they pi'esent in their 
wider extension, and especially in the northern part of 
Brazil, some phases of gineial action hitliorto uiiobecrred. 
Just us the investigation of tlie lee-period iu the United 
States has shown us that iue-fields may uiovo over open 
letel plains, as well as along the slopes of mountain val- 
leys, CO does a study of the same class of facts in South 
America reveal new luid unlooked-for feiilures in tlic his- 
tory of the ice-period. Home will say that the fuet of 
the advance of icc-fields over an open country i* by no 
means cstablifhed, inasmuch aa many geolng^Ktt belicro 
all llic so-called glacial traces — via. Mriie, furrows, |M>l!$h, 
etc., fonid in tlic United States — -to have been made by 
floating icelicrgs at a time when tlio continent was suU 

* Tli« Diimii cunsriraml lij Do Sanxan 10 dmignau eirliiin iwki iii Swiv 
mriinil whkb liavu hiil iheir turfonw rounded nadei ibo Bciioii u( iIif )*lai.-ii-r*. 
Xh/dt gunily iwcliiu^ uullinea ure thou^lil lo mctntilu aXiVV^ nrttiui; mi 1)10 
KiDUod. uid lor thu RMon tho peoplB u the Alp* uJl thvn tvt\a new 





merged. To this I can only answer that, in tlie 
of Maine, I haro followed, compass in liaitd, tlie samo 
set ot' furrows, ruuning from tiortli to soiitli in one tin 
varying line, over a surface of one liuudred and tliirlf 
miles, from ttiu Ealubdin Iron Rango to tlio wa-sliorc.* 
Tbeee furrows follow all tlio iiicquidities of tlie country, 
a3.:Qn<lijig ranges of liills varying frnui twelve to Itfteeii 
Itunilrcd feet in liciglit, uiid descending into tlio ttit«r- 
voning rallcys only two or Uirec liuudred foct atwve tiws 
sea, or somctimus oven on a level with it. I take il K 
be impossible tliat a floating niasis of ioe should travel 
onward in one routilinear direction, turning neitlier to 
tlio riglit uor to the left, for siieli a distance. Equally 
impossible would il be for ii detuclicd mass of ice, sivini- 
uiing on the surface of the water, or even with ilx basu 
siuik considerably below it, to furrow in a stiaight line tliu 
summits and eidcs of tlie liills, and tlie bottoms of llic iutor- 
Tening valleys. It would be carried over t)io inequalities of 
tlie country without toucluiig tlie lowest depressions. In- 
stead of ascending iho mountains, it would remain stranded 
agninst any elevation whieh roso greiilly above its own base, 
and, if cauglit Itotwecii two parallel ridges, woulil float up 
and down between them. Moreover, tlic action of solid, un- 
broken tee, moving over the ground i» immediate contact 
ith it, is so different from lliat of floating ieo-rafts or tee- 
'bergs that, though the latter have unquestionably dropped 
erratic boulders, and made furrows aiid slrix on the surface 
whore tliey happened to bo grounded, these phenomena will 
eanly bo distinguisltod from the nioro connected tracks of ^t 
' glaciers, or extensive sheets of ice, renting directly upon tbfl " 
fitoo of tho country and advancing over it. 

• Sm Oladal nwanainii lu Must," Alluiiic UoatUj, ItM. 



There seema thus Tar to be an inextricable coiirti»ion in 
the ideas of many geologists as to the respeclive action of 
tmirents, icebergs, aod glaciers. It is time that they ^boiUtl 
learn to distinguish between classes of facts so difTercut 
I Groni each other, and so easily recognised after the discrim- 
aation has once been made. As to llie southward moro- 
lent of an immense held of ice, extending over tlie whole 
Nortl), it BOems inevitable, tl>e moment we admit tliat snow 
may accumulate around the pole in such quantities as to 
initiate a pressnre radiating in ever; direction. Snow, 
altenialelf thawing aiid freezing, must, like water, tind its 
level at last. A sheet of snow ten or fifteen thousand feet 
in tliickness, extending all over the norUieni and southern 
portions of tlie globe, must neces-saril; lead, in the und, to 
the formation of a northern and southern cap of ice, moving 

i toward the equator. 
I have spoken of Ty'Boa and the Dom Pedro Railroad na 
favorable localities for studying the peculiar southern drift ; 
but one meets it in every direction. A sheet of drift, cou- 
iisUng of the same homogoncons, unstrutificd (>asto, aiid 
containing loose maleiialK of all sorts and »izes, covi?i-s the 
country. It is of very uneven thickness, — sometimes 
tlirowii into relief, as it were, by the surrounding denuda- 
tions, and rising into hills; sometimes reduced to a ttiiu 
l^yer; sonkctimes, as, for instance, ou steep slopes, wn»hcd 
entirely away, leaving the bare face of the ruck cxpf^^cd. 
It has, however, remained comparatively undiidurbcd on 
some very abrupt ascents ; as may be seen oti the Corcovado, 
prolong the path leading up the mountain, where there aro 
Vsome very fine banks of drif^, the more striking; from tlio 
contrast of their dceji-red color vri tit llio surrounding rcge- 
,tation. I have uiyself followed this sheet of drift from Rio 


de Janeiro to tlie top or tlie Serra do Mar, where, just 
Mdo the prellj" town of Petropolis, the river Piahanha may 
bo socii Huwiiig between hanks of drift, iii which it has ex- 
cavated it8 bed ; Uieiicc I have traced it along the beautii 
mocitdaiDised rond leading to Juiz de Fora in tlie provin 
of Hinas Gcriie», and Ifeyond tliis to the farther »dc of tlie 
Serra da Babylonia. ThrougliouttlitB wlioletractof country 
the drift may be scon along tho roadside, in immediate 
contact with tlie native crystalluio rock. Tlie fertility of 
Ute land, also, 1« « guide to llio presence of dritl. Wlioruver 
it lies thickest over tho tmrfaco, there are the mo>»t flourish- 
ing coflbe-plontations ; imd I belicvo that a more systematic 
regard to this fact would have a most licncficial influoiice 
upon the agriciiitnrul interests of tliu country. No doubt 
the fertility arises from tho great variety of clicmical ele- 
ments contained in tho drill, and tho kneading process it 
has undergone beneath the gigantic ico-plough, — a process 
which makes glacial drift cvcrywiioro iJic most fertilo soiL 
Since my return from the Amazons, my impreesioo as to 
the general distribution of these phenomena lias been con- 
firmed by the reports of some of my assistants, who hare 
been tJ^velUng in otlier parts of tho country. Mr. Fred- 
erick G. Hortt, accompanied by Mr. Copclatid, otto of tlio 
volunteer aids of tlie expedition, has been making collectiona 
and geological oVi:>or\'ii(ioii'^ tn lh« province of Spirilu Santo, 
in the valley of tiie Rio [>uce. and aftorwards in the rallf^j 
of the Mucnry. He informs me tliat he has found every- 
where tlte same sheet of red, nn!>tratifiod clay, witli peWtlcs 
and occasional boulders overlying tlie rock in place, llrj 
Orestes St. John, who, tnking the road through llie ial 
l«rior, has visited, with tlie same objects in view, llti 
valloyi ''f the Rio San Francisco and the Kio das Velliaii 




and aistj tli« vallej' of Piauby, gives the same accouut, with 
tlie exception that he found no erratic bouldcra in lliese 
more northern regions. The rarity of erratic bouldcn, not 
only in tlie depoaJts of the Amazons proper, but in tliote of 
tbe wbole region which may be considered as tlic Ama- 
zonian basin, is accounted for, as wo shall SCO hereafter, by 
tile mode of their formation. Tlie obsorrations of Mr. 
Hartt and Mr. St. John are the mora vuluable, because I 
had employed tliem both, on our first arrival in Rio, in 
making geological Eun'eys of diflcreut sections on Urn Dom 
Pedro Railroad, so that tlicy had a great famiharity with 
those formations before starling on their separate journeys. 
Recently, Mr. St. John and myself met in ParA on our re- 
turn from our respective exploration:!, and I liava had an 
opportunity of comparing on the spot his geological sections 
from the x-alloy of tlio Piauhy with tlio Amazonian deposits. 
Tlicre ciin be tin doubt of the absolute identity of the for- 
Illations in tliosc valleys. 

Hiiriiig arranged the work of my assistants, and sent 
several of them to collect and make geological examinations 
in other directions, 1 tny.'ielf, with the rest of my compan- 
ions, proceeded up the coast to Par&. 1 wa-i surprised to 
find at every step of my progress the same geological phe- 
nomena which had met me at Rio. It was my friend, 
Major Coutinbo, already an experienced Amazonian 
traveller, who first told me that this formation continued 
through the whole valley of the Amazons, and was also to 
be found ou all of its affluents which be had Tisited, 
although Im had never thought of referring it to so r> 
ccnt n period. And liorc let mo suy that the facts I new 
state are by no means exclusively the result of my own 
investigations, Tliey are m great part due to Mi^or 




CouHiibo, a member of tlio Brazilian goveroraeiit cotje 
of cnginoere, who, by tho kindness of the Emperor, *vas 
associated with me in my Amazonian expedition. 1 can 
Inily say that ho has boon my good gonius throughout tlio 
whole joiimoy, saving mo, by liis prorioiis lciiowlo<]}!:e of the 
groujid, from tho fiiUle and misdirected expenditure of 
means and time often inoTitable in a now country, wlicre 
ono is impoi'fectly acquainted both with tho people and 
thoir laiiguagu. Wc liavo worked togetlior in this investi- 
gation ; my only advantugo ovur him being my greater 
familiurity with lilco phenomena in Europe and North 
Amorica, anil consequent readiness in the practical hand- 
ling of tho fticts and in perceiving thoir connection. 
Unjor Coutiuho's assertion, that on tho banks of the Ama- 
zons I .''liould find the same red, unBtrntifiod clay as in Rio 
and along the southern coast, seemed to roo at first almost 
incredible, impressed as 1 was with the generally received 
notions as to the ancient character of tho Amazonian de- 
posits, referred by Humboldt to tho Devonian, and by 
Martina to tho Triussic period, and considered by all 
travellers to bo at least as old as tlio Tertiaries. The 
result, however, confirmed his report, at least so for as the 
component inatorials of the fonuution aro coucorned ; but, 
as will bo seen horcaftor, tho mode of ihoir deposition, and 
tho time at which it took place, have not been tlio same at 
the north and smith ; and tins difference of circumstances 
has modifiod tho aspect of a formation CiSKcntially the same 
throughout. At first sight, it would iniioed appear that 
this formittion, as it exists in the vulloy of the Amazons, is 
identical with that of Itio ; but it diflen from it in tltc 
rurity of its Ixmlders, and in showing occasional signs of 
atratification. It is alt^ oTorywhoro underlaid by coarse 



well-stra tilled dopositfl, resembling somewhat the Stc^e of 
Baliia and Peniambuco ; vhereas the unstratified drift of 
tlie south rests immediately ujion tho undulating surface 
of whatsYer rock liappeus to make the foundation of tlie 
country, wbethvr sU'ntified or crj-stalline. The peculiar 
ssndstone on whicti the Amazonian clay rests exists no- 
vliere else. Before |>rocee()ing. however, to describe tlie 
Amaxonian deposits in detail, I ou^ht to sa; something 
of the nature and origin of the valley itself. 

Tlie valley of the Amazons was first sketched out by 
the elevation of two tracts of land ; namely, the plateau 
of Guianu on tho north, and the central platoau of Broxil 
on the south. It is probable that, at the time these 
Ivo table-laffds wore lifted above the sea-lcvol, the An- 
des did not exist, and ibc ocean flowed between tliem 
Ihroiij^h an open strait. It would Kccm (and tliis is a 
onrious rcBiilt of modern geological inTcsligations) that 
llitf portions of tho earth's surface earliest raised aboTO 
llic ocuaii have trcudud from ea;^t to west. The first 
tract of land lifted abovo tlic waters in North America 
wftN also a long continental iHland, running from New- 
foundland almoiit to tho present base of the Rocky Moun- 
tains. Tiiis tendency may be attributed to vaiious oau!<e», 
— to the rotation of the earth, the consequent depres- 
sion of its poles, and the breaking of its crust along the 
lines of greatest tension thus produced. At a latnr 
period, the upheaval of the Andes took place, closing 
lt>e western side of this strait, and thus transforming it 
into a gulf. oi«;ii only town™! the east. Little or nothing 
is known of the carhcr stratified deposits resting against 
the eryirtulline masses first uplifted along tliu borders of the 
Amiisonian Valli'y. There is here no soquonce, as in North 


A JouiXEr IX taaiu 

America, of Azoic, Siluriau, Devonian, an<l CarboiiirenHU 
lonnatioos, sliorcd up ogaiitsl c«cll otlwr bjr Lbe gradual 
njJicaviU of Uic cotiLiucnt; slihougti, unquvstionaUj', o!d«r 
paleozoic aiid socoudary bods uoderlio, here and tliei 
Uio later formatioiu. ludecd, Major Coutinbo has foi 
palnoEoic dcptHJto. witb cb«ractorisUc Bracbiopods, in 
vall«7 of the Bio Tapajos, at tlic first cascade, and o^^ 
bouiferous dopoejla hare been noticed along tlie fl^^ 
Qiiapore and tbe Rio Maraore. But tlie first cba[>tcr 
in tbo valley's geological liietory about which wo hav« 
connected and triistworth/ data is that of the cretaceous 
period. It seoms certain, that, at the close of the sccon 
age, tlie wholo Amazonian basin becaino lined with a 
taceoas deposit, the margins of wliich crop ottt at varioS? 
looalitiet on its borders. Ttte; have been observed along 
its Boatliem limits, on its western outskirts aloQg the 
Andes, in Venezuela along tlie shore-lino of mountain*, 
and also in certain localities near its ca«tcm edge. 1 well 
roineiuber Uiat one of the fir^t things which awakened 
nij interest in the geology of tlie Amazonian Tallejr was 
thu sight of some crotaocous fonil fislies from the province 
of Ccarfi. Tlicse foe^il (i*hvs were colk'cted by Mr. George 
Gardner, to whom science is indebted for tlie most ex- 
tonsivo information yet obtained ri'^pucting iho geology 
of (hat |inrt of Brazil. In this connection, let me say 
that I shall tpeak of the provinces of Cear&, Piauby, and 
Maranhani as belonging geologically to tbe valley of ilw 
Amazons, though tliolr shore is bathed by the oc«an 
tlmir rivere empty directly into the Atlantic. But 
ontertain no doubt tliat, at an earlier period, the north- 
Mst«ni coast of Braxil stretched much farther seaward 
tliau in our day ; so far, indeed, that in llio«e times tlie 



rivers of all these provinces must have been tributaries 
of the Amazoiis tii its castwnrd course. Tho evidence for 
this coiicliisioii is substnatiallj- derived from the identity 
of tlie dcpoMts in tlio valleys belonging to these prorincefl 
wiUi tlioec of the valleys through wliidi the actual tribu- 
taries of the AmiLzoiis flow ; as, for instance, the Tocantins, 
the Xiugu, the Tapajos, the Madeira, etc. Besides the 
fossils alKtvc alluded to from the eastern borders of tliis 
ancicDt basin, 1 Itavc Imd rcueiitly anolber evidence of its 
cretaceous chnroctcr from it« souihcni region. Mr. Wil- 
liam Chaiidlcss, on his return fi-uio a lale journey ou the 
Bio Purus, presented mo witli a scries of fossil remains 
of the highest interest, and undoubtedly belonging to the 
creloeeouB period. Tliey were colleelcd by himself on tlie 
Rio Aquiry, »n uHluent of tliu Rio Purus. Most of then] 
were found in place between the tcutli and eleventh de- 
grefts of south laliludu, and the sixty-seventh and sixty- 
ninth degrees of west longitude from Greonwicti, in local- 
ities varying from four hundred and thirty to sis hundred 
and fifty feet above the scu-levcl. There are among tlioni 
remains of Monasanrus, uiid of fishes closely allied to those 
already represented by Fanjas in his description of Mucs- 
triclit, and cliaracteristic, as is well known to geolo^ifll 
students, of the most recent crctaeoons period. 

Tims in its main features the valley of the Ainazonti 
like that of the Mississippi, is a cretaceous basiu. Tliis 
resemblance suggests a further comparison between the 
twin continents of North and .''onth America. Not only 
is their general form the same, but their framework, m 
we may call it, — tliat is, the lay of their great monnLiin 
chains and of their talilc-land», with the extensive inter 
Teniug depressions, — preaetils a striking similarity. Indeed. 

_ IS 



a toologist, ftccustoined to tr&ce a like structure nadir 
variously' niodiRcd animal forms, cannot but have bv 
bomological studie;! recalled to liis mind by the coirtc' 
deuce botvrecn cci'taia physical features in the nurtlien 
and southern parts of the Wesiera liemispbere. Aail yo 
hero, OS throughout all nature, these corr«s[io»iJciicos ut ' 
comliiued with a distinctness of indindualization whicl. 
leaves its respectiro character, not only to each (M>Dtin«iit 
as a whole, but also to the dilTerent regions oircuinscribeJ 
within its borders. In botli, however, the highest inountain* 
chains, the Rocky Mountains and the Western Coast Range, 
VFit3i tlieir wide intervening table-laud in Nortli America, and 
the cbaiu of llio Andes, with its lesser plateaux iu Sqi 
America, niu along tiie western coast : both have a 
eastern promoutory, Novfoundland in the Nurtlieni conti- 
nent, and Cape St. Roquo in tlie ^uthem : and titougfa 
the resomblaiico botweon the inland elevations i^ pcrhapc 
leas striking, yot tJie Canadian range, tlie White Muuntaius, 
luid the Alloghanics may very fairly be compared to 
table-lands of Ouiana and Brazil, and the Serra do 
Similar oorrespondeuccs may bo traced among the river' 
systems, Tlie Amazons and the Sl Lairrence, though 
different in dimensions, remind us of each otlier by ihi 
trend and geographical position ; and while the one 
fed by tlie largest river-system in the world, the other 
drains the most extensive lake Mirfa^es known to exi»I 
ill immediate contiguity, llic Orinoco, with its bay, recaU« 
Hudson's Bay and its many tributaries, and the Rio Mag 
dalena may be said to be tlie South- American Mackenzie; 
while the Rio dc la Plata re|ircscnts geographically o 
Mississippi, and the Pai-aguay recalls the Sklissouri. T 
Parana may he coininrcd In the Ohio ; the Pilooma, 




V«nn^, and Salado rivers, to the riror Platto, tlie Ar- 
kansas, and ibe Red River in the United States ; while 
tlto rivers fartlier sotitli, emptying into the Gulf of 
Mexico, represent the rivers of Patagonia and the souUi- 
ero parts ot the Argentine RcpubUc. Not onlj is there 
tliis goneml correspondence between tlio mouutaui eleva- 
tions and the river-systcuis, hut as the larger river-basins 
of North America — those of the Si. Lawrence, tJia Mis- 
sissippi, and Ihe Mackenzie — meet in the low tracts 
extending along the foot of the Rocky Uountaius. bo do 
the basins of the Amazons, tho Rio do la PI:ita, and 
tlic Orinoco join each otlier along the eastern slope of 
the Andes. 

But while in geographical liomology the Amasons com- 
pares with tlio St. Lawrence, and tlto Mississippi witli tJie 
Rio dc la Plata, tho Mississippi and tlie Amazons, as has 
bu«ri said, rc^^omble each other in tlieir local geological 
cliaructor. Tiiey have botli received a substratum of crw- 
toccoiis beds, abo^x which are accumulated mora recent 
deposits, to that, in their mod promiaent geological fea- 
tures, both may be cousidcrcd a^ crctucuons basins, con- 
taining CJEfinsivo deposits of a very ruecnt ago. Of th» 
history of the Amazonian Valley during the periods iia- 
mediatcly following liie Cretaceous, we know little or 
DOthing. Whether the Tertiary dopo^itn arc hidden under 
the more modern ones; or wiictlicr tiicy are whollj want- 
ing, tlie basin having, perhaps, boon rahted above the 
sea-level before that lime ; or whoihor they have been 
swept awuy by the tremendous inundations in the valley, 
which liuvo certainly destroyed u great part of the creta* 
DOOus deposit, — th«y have never been observed in any part 
of the Amazonian basin. Whatever Tertiary deposits are 


ber, I 


repreMDted in geological mapa of Uiis n^ioii mn so mnrkcd 
is conwquooce of ui iiicori-ect idf-n^fieolion of slnto 
beloDging, in fnct, to s mncli more reoeot period. 

A minute uid extensive survey of the raltey of tlia A 
MM b by no nteuis an easy t^sk, and its diSiculty is great]}' 
iacrcasod by tho fact that the lower formations are only 
Moentble on tlic rircr margins during ttie vomohU, or dry 
SMSOo, when the waters slkrink In tlieir beds, leaving a greiU 
port of their batiks exposed. It happened that tlie Grst throe 
or four months of tay journey (August, September, October, 
and Norombcr) wcra tho^e when the waters are low 
— reaching thoir minimum in September and October, 
bcgiuniug to rise again in November, — so that I had an 
excellent opportunity, in seconding the rirer, of obscrvii^^H 
its gcoiogicul structure. Throughout its wholo Icngili^^ 
thrM distinct geological formatiwts may be traced, Uic two 
lower of which have followed in immediate sncocssioo, and 
■re coofbrmnblc with ouo another, white the third rests uo 
Oonformably upun tlicm, followiug all the inequalities of the 
greatly denudatcd mrfoco presented by ilie second forma- 
tion. Notwithstantling this seeming intomtption In the 
sequence of these depo»it«, the tliird, as we shall presently 
see, belongs to Uie same series, and was uccumtilated in tho 
somo basin. Tlie lowest »et of beds of the whole series Is 
ntely visible ; but it seeou everywhere to consixt of 
stone, or even u' low'e sands well stralilied, tlie 
materials lying invariably below, and the finer above. Upou 
this lower set of bods rests everywhere an extensive deposi 
of fine laminated clays, varying in thickness, but frequeuU; 
dividing into layers as thin as a sheet of paper. In 
localities tlicy exhibit, in patches, an extraordinary variety 
of beautiful colors,— pink, orange, crimson, yellow, gray. 

^ries Is 
Df saui^H 

FinrsicAL uisToKr oi" the au.viok&. 


oluo, and also black and vliite. It ia from these beds that 
the Indians prepare their paints. I'liese clay depositn as- 
sume occasionally a peculiar appearance, and one which 
might mislead the observer as to Iheir true nature. WhOD 
thoii' surface has been long exposed to the action of Uia 
atmosphere and to the hoat of tlic burning &un, they look 
so mucli like clay-slates of tlie oldest geological c]>ochs tliat, 
at first sight, I took them for primary slatas, my attentiou 
being attracted lo them by a regular cicarage as distinct as 
that of tlie most ancient clay-slates. And yet at Tonantias, 
on the banks of the Solimoens, in a locality where tlieir 
exposed surfaces had this primordial appearance, 1 found in 
tlieso Tcry beds a considerable amount of woll-(jreserved 
leaves, tlic cUaractcr of which proves tlieir recent origin. 
These leaves do not even indii:uio ns ancient a period as tlte 
Tertiaries, but roMroblo to closely tlio vegoUtion of to^lay 
that I have no doubt, when examined by competent author- 
ity, they will be idvntiQed with living plants. The pres- 
ence of such an extensive clay formation, Ed-etching over a 
Eurfaoe of more than three thousand miles in length and 
about Mveu linndred in breadth, is not easily explained 
under any ordinary circumstances. The fact that it is so 
tlioroiighly laminated shows Umt, in tlic basin in which it 
was formed, the waters laust have been unusually quiet, 
ooniaining identical materials throughout, and that tJicse 
materials must hare been deposited over the whole bottom 
in the uuao way. It is usually separated from tho superin- 
cumbent beds by a glazed crust of hard, compact sandstone, 
almost resembling a ferruginous quartxite. 

Upon this follow beds of sand and sandstone, varying iu 
tbo regularity of their strata, reddish iu color, oflou higlily 
CsiTuginous, and more or less nodulous or ponnu. They 


preront frequent traces of cross-stratificalion, tUUtrnutiiig 
with n^gulftily stratified horisoiiUil beds.witli licre and tltcn 
ut itit«n*eiiii>j; layer of clay. It would seoni as if tfaa dur 
acter of llia walcr4)a»in had now changed, and as if ti» 
waters under which this second formation wu deporitod 
had vibrated butM'oen rtomi and calm, had eometiniR 
flowed more gently, and again hud been tossed to and fro, 
giving to some of tlio beds tlio aspect of true torrential 
deposits. Indeed, these mndsbme formations prment a 
great variety of aspects. Somoliiuos lliey are very regu- 
larly laminated, or assume even llio nppcaninco of the Itard- 
est quartzite. This ie ustially tlio cose with the oppermoit 
beds. In otiier localities, and more especially iu the low«r* 
IBOCt beds, the wliolo mass is honeycombed, as if drilled by 
worms or boring shells, tlie hard parts enclosing softer sands 
or clays. Occasionally the ferruginous materials prevail lo 
such an extent that some of these beds might be mistakes 
for hog-or«, while oUiers contain a targe amount of day, 
more regularly stratified, and alternating with strata of 
aandstouQ, thus recalling the mo»t characteristic forma 
of the Old Red or Triassic formations. This ri^semblonoe 
has, no doubt, led to itte identification of tlic Amazonian 
deposits with tlio more ancient formations of Europe. At 
Monte AliSgrc, of which I shall presently spoak more 
detail, such a clay hod divides the lower from the upi 
sandfltono. The iliickocss of tiiosc sandstones is estremcly^ 
variable. In tho basin of iho Amazons proper, they hardly 
rise anywhere above tite level of liigh water during the rainy 
•aasos; while at tow water, in the summer months, they may 
^ 0b9eTtcd everytrhere along lite river-banks. It will 
Men, huwever, tJiat the limit between high and low wni 
g^ves no true measure of tho original thickness of the who! 





In tlio neigliborliood of Almcjrim, st a s)>ort dbtauce 
from Uie iiortheni bank of llie rjrcr, and nearly parallel 
vidi its course, there rises a line of low liilb, iuterruptod 
here and there, but extending in evident connection from 
Almeyrim tlirotigli the region of Monte Ali^rc to the lioigliU 
of Obydos. Hieso hills have attracted the altcnlion of 
travellers, not only from their iieigUt, which appi-ars irnmtor 
than it is, because thoy rise abruptly from an extensiio ]ilain, 
but also on account of their curious form; many of tlieni 
being perfectly level on top, like smooth tables, and vory ab- 
ruptly divided from each other by low, intervening spaces.* 
Notliing has hitlierto been known of the geological structure 
of these hills, but they have been usually represented as 
the EOulhcrnnio«t spurs of the table-land of Guiana. On 
ascending the river, I felt tJie greatest curiosity to examine 
Ihem ; but at the time 1 was deeply engrossed in stud}-uig 
the distribution of fishes in tbo Amazonian waters, and in 
making tai^o ichtliyological collcviions, for which it was 
very important not to miss the season of low water, when 
the fishes are most easily obtained. I was, thoroforo, obliged 
to leave tills most interesting geological problem, and con- 
tent myself with examining ihu structure of the ^'alley so 
far as it could bo seen on the rivcr-lmnks and in the neigh- 
borhood of my diflerent collecting stations. Ou my return, 
IrowcTcr, wlieii my collections were completed, I was free to 
pursue tliis int~C3ligatton, in which Major Coutinlio was as 
mucli intcrccted as myself. We determined to select Monte 
Al^iroas the centre of our exploration, tlio serra in that 
region being higher than cl»«wh«re. As [was detained by 

■ The otlu in Mnrciiu'i '' Joorne; lo Drull," or tho ikotch ucompnujiDit 
B*M*'i dctcnpiiuo of ihcH hilli in bli " Nataraliit on iho Aidbmu,'' *iU 
gm *a idea of thdr upecL 


indiitpwiUou at Mftiiaos for Home days at tlie time wo 
appointed for the excursion, Major Coutinho preceded idc,'i 
and had already made ono trip to the serra, nilh some Ter>] 
interesting results, when 1 joined him, and ve took a sec- 
ond journey together. Monte AliSgre lies on a side ann of 
the Amaxnns, a little off from its main ooursc. Tins stdo- 
arm, called the lUo Gunipatuha, is simply « chaiiDol, run- 
ning parallel with the Amazons, and cutting through from 
a higher to a lower \x)\nt. Its diinetiMons arc, howeiror, 
greatly exaggerated in all the maps thus far publisliiNl, 
where it i» usually made to appear as a oonxidcrablo iiortJ)- 
eni ti'ibntary of the Amazons. The town stands on aa 
elevated terrace, separated from the main stroam by tlio Bio 
Gurupatuha and by an exteiiMve flat, consisting of numer-' 
ous takes divided froiu each other by low, alluvial land, and 
mostly connected by narrow channels. To the west of tlia 
town this lerruco sinks abruptly to a wide Bandy plain 
culled the Campos, covered with a low forcst-growtli, and 
bordered on its farther limit by the picturosquo serra of 
Ercr<!. Tho form of this mountain is 60 abrupt, its rise 
from tliQ plains so bold and sudden, tliat it seemB moro 
than twice its real height. Judging by the eye and coiu* 
paring it with the mountains I had last seen, — the Corooi 
Tado, the Oavia, and Tijuca range in tho neighborhood of, 
Rio, — 1 had (.apposed it to bo three or four thousand Toeti 
high, and was greatly astonished when our barometric ob 
•ervations showed it to be somewhat less than nine hundred 
feet in its most elevated point. This, howercr, agrees with' 
Martius's measurement of the Almeyrim hills, rhioh bai 
Bays are eight hundred feet in height. 

We passed three days in tlie investigation of the Scrra 
of Brei^, and Ibuud it to consist wholly of tlie sijidstoae. 


Its nlrcai]/ dcMnibcd, and to haro exactly the uim« 
gfloUgica] couicUtutioii. In rliurt, the Surra of Algute 
AMgro, uid of course all ttiosc connected witli it on tlie 
tiortli<!m siUo of tlie river, lie in the prolongation of the 
lower beds forming tlio banlc» of the river, their greater 
height being due simply lo tlio fact that they lutvc not 
lieeii worn to the tome low level. Tlie opposite range 
of Saiitai-cm, which has the «anio general outline and 
clmracter, »hares, no doubt, the iuinic geological struc- 
ture. In one word, oil thc^e bills were formerly part of 
a continuous formation, aud owe their present outUno and 
tJieir isolated position to a colocunl denudation. Tlio eur^ 
face of the once tinhi-oketi strata, which in their original 
condition must have formed an iinincnse plain covered 
by water, has been cut into ravines or carried away over 
large tracts, to a grenler or less depth, leaving only such 
portions standing us, from tlictr liardiies», could rosisl the 
Qoods which swept over it. The longitudinal trend of 
thcNC liill» U to be ascribed to the direction of tlte cur- 
rent which caused the denudation, while their level sum- 
mits are due to die regularity of the stratification. Thoy 
are not all table-topped, however ; among them ore many 
of smaller size, in which the aides have been gradually 
worn down, pi-oducing a gently rounded surface. Of 
course, under the heavy tropical rains this denudation !j 
•till going on, tliougb in a greatly modified form. 

I cannot speak of this Serra without alluding to the groat 
Leanty and extraordinary extent of the view to be obtained 
from it. Indeed, it wa.<i here that for the lirst time tlio 
geography of the country presented itself to my mind M 
a living reality in all its completeness. Insignificaut as 
is iia actual height, the Serra of ErerS commands a 
IB* ** 


wider prospect Uian is to bo had from many a moivt 
posing mountain ; for the surrounding plain, fwvei-ed with 
Torests anil ploughed by countlees rivers, stretches away 
tiir hundreds of leagues in erery direction, wiihoiit any 
object to obstruct ttte view. Standing on tlie brow of tlM^| 
Serra, witli the numerous lakes intersecting tlie lowlands 
al its base, you look across the valley of the Amaioiis, 
Sb far as the eye can reach, and thmngh its centre you 
follow for miles on either side the broad flood of tho great 
river, carrying its yoUow waters to the sea. As I stood 
there, panoramas from the Swiss mountains came up to 
■iiy memory, and I fancied myself on (lie Alps, looking 
across the plain of Switxerland instead of tite bed of tfav 
Auiazons; the distant line of the Santarem hitls on the 
ttoutliero bank of the river, and lower tliaii tttc uorthoni 
chain, i-cprescnting the Jura range. As if to complete 
the comparison, Alpine lichens were growing among th^f 
cacti and palms, and a crust of Arctic crj-ptogamous 
growth covered rocks, between which i^pning tropical flow-^ 
en- On the northern flank of this Serra I found th^H 
only genuine erratic boulders I have goen in tlie whole 
length of the Amatoiiiaii Vullcy from Pari to tlie frontier 
of Peru, though ihero aix; tunny detached masstis of rock, 
as, for instance, at Pedrcira, near the junction of (he Ri*) 
Negro and Rio Branco, winch might be mistaken for 
them, but arc due to the decomposition of the rocks in 
place. The boulders of Ereri? are entirely distinct from Hie 
rock of the Serra, and consist of masses of compact horn- 
blende. ^M 
It would seem that these two ranges skirting a part 0^^ 
the northern and soutliem banks of the Lower Amazons lu-t 
rot the only remnants of this arenar^ous formation in itt 

rnrsicAt. uistoxy or the ahatjohs. 

pi-imiiivo altilude. On the banks of the Rio Japura, in Uio 
Scrra of Cupuli, Muj^ir Cotitinho has found ihe sarao bods 
miiijj lo tlic stine bcigliU It llius appears, by posilirc 
orideiice, tliat over an extent uf a lliot-^and diUqh tlieso 
deposits bad a rer^ coin>idcra1>le tliickncss, in tlie present 
direction of tlio valloy. How fai- llioy extended in width 
boa not boon ascertained by direct obeerration ; for wo 
have not seen how they Hiutc away to the northward, and 
towards tbo south the dciindation has boon so cainplolo 
that, except in tlio very low raii({o of liills in tho ncighbor- 
huod of Santarem, they do not rise above (ho plain. But 
tlie fact tliat this formation ouce liad a thickness of moro 
than eight huiidi-od feet within tlio limits where wo have 
had un opportunity of observing it, leaves no doubt that 
it must liavo cstondod to tho edge of tho basin, Bllinj; it 
to tl]o same height throughout its wliol« extent. Tlia 
thickness of the deposits gives a measure for llio colossal 
scale of the denudations by which tliis immense accnmu- 
liitiou was reduced to its present level. Here, tlien, is a 
eystcm of hisjh lull!), having the prominence of mountains 
in the landscape, produced by causes to whose agency 
inequalities on titc earth's surface uf this magnitude have 
never yet been ascribed. We may fairly call them denuda* ■ 
tion mountains. 

At this stage of tlie inquiry we Imvo to account for two 
remarkable phenomena, — hrst, the filling of the Amazonian 
bottom with coarse arenaceous materials aud finely lami- 
iiated clays, immediately followed by sandstones rising lo a 
height of moro than eight hundred feet above the sea, 
tho basin mcanwliilo having no rocky barrier towards the 
ocean on its ca»tcni side; secondly, the wearing away and 
reduction of these formations to tiioir present level hy a 



deiiudation more extensive tlian aiiy thus far recorded 
]ii tlio annals of geology, which lioii given rise to bU tlic 
most prouiiiieiil hills aiid mountain-chains along itiu tiortlt 
eri) bank of tho riror. Hcrore se«ktiig an cxpUuutioU .f 
these facts, let us look at tlie third and uppermost deposit. 

This deposit is essentially tlie same as tho Rio drift , 
hut in the north it presents itself under u somewhat dlf- 
fereiit aspect. As in Rio, it is a clayey deposit, coutainiug 
moro or less sand, and reddish tii color, though vailing 
from deep ochre to a hi-owni.tii tJiit. It is not so abso- 
lutely destitute of stratification hero as in its inoro soath- 
cni ranf;e, though tho traces of strutiftcatioQ are rare, 
and, when they do occur, arc faint and indittincL Tlie 
matc-riuls are nlso more completely contminutod, aud, as I 
Esid uhovc, contain liArdly any large masses, though quartz 
jHibhIos aro Eoaictimos sc^ttturod throughout tho deposit, 
and occasionally a thiu seam of pobblos, exactly as in tlie 
Rio drift, is seen roiling botwoea it and the underlying 
sandstone. In some places tliis bed of pebbles iiitorseoto 
even tho mass of the clay, giving it, iii such instances, 
an unquestionably etratifiod character. There can be uo 
doubt that this more recent formation rests unconform- 
ably upon tho saudEloiic beds beneath it; for it fills oil 
the inequalities of their denuduted surfaces, whether Ihey 
be more or less limited furrows, w wide, undulating do- 
pressions. It may be seen everywhere along the batilcs 
of tlie river, above the stratillcd sandstone, sometimes 
with the river-mud accumulated against it ; at tlie season 
of the tmchente, or high water, it is the only formation left 
exposed above the water-level. Its thickness is not groat ; 
it varies from twenty or thirty to fifty feet, and may occa- 
uonally rise nearly to a hundred feet iu height, though thi^ 



is rare]/ tlic case. It is cvideut Uiat Ibis fonsatiou also wu 
OUCC continuous, etrctcbing orur ibe wliolo busin ut oae 
tofcl. Tbougb it is now worn dowu iu matiy places, and 
lias wliuUjr disappeared iu otbcrs, its coucvctiou nuy be 
readily traced ; since it iH oTcr)-wbcra vittibk-, uot oulj 
on oppusilc banks of tlic Amazou», but also on Utoie 
of all its tributaries, as Tar as tbcir sburus liavo been uz> 
aroincd. I lunro raid tbal it rvaH always above tbe sand* 
elwio beds. Tliis is true, with on« exception. ^Vliorerer 
the sandstone deposits retain tbcJr original ihickneta, as 
in tlie bills of Monte Alifgre and Alincyriin, Ibo rod day 
is not found on their summits, but occurs only in th^r 
ravines and hollows, or resting agaiii»t their sides. This 
kIiows that it is not only po»(eriiir to the sand.itone, but 
was aecnmnlatcd in a shallower basin, and consequently 
iiofcr reached so high a level. The bonlderH of Grerd 
do not rc«t on the straliticd sandstone of Ilia Serra, but 
Are suuk in the unstratilicd muss of the clay. This 
«honld be renieraberod, as it will prosontly bo seen that 
their position associates tltom with a lat«r period than 
that of the mountain itself. Tlic unconformability of 
tha ocbraceous cluy and the underlying Bandstoiics might 
load to tlio idea Uiat the two formations belong to distinct 
geological periods, and oro not duo to the same agency 
acting at successive times. One fcaltirc, however, shows 
their close connection. The ocbraceous clay exhibits a 
remarkable identity of configuration with the underlying 
sandstones. An extensive survey of the two, in their 
mutual relations, shows olcsrly that they wore both do- 
posited by the sumo watcr-systcm within Uie same basin, 
but at diRcrcnt levels. Here and there the clay forma- 
tion has so pule and grayish a tint tliat it may be c*h>- 




Jvuiidiwl with Uie mad deposits of llio river. These laUfr, 
itowcTcr, never rifle so liigli as Uio oclimc4>ous cHj, but 
are evcrywliere confined witbin tlio limits of bigli joi 
low vater. The islauds also, in tho main course of tin 
Amazoiis, consist inrariably of rivor-tnud; while tbost 
arising from Uie inters«cttou and cutting off of portioai 
of the land b; diverging brancbus uf tho maiii stnam 
nlwafs consist of tlie vcll-kuowD sandstones, capped b; 
tho ochroKiolored da;. 

It may truly be said that tlieni docs not exist on 
surface of ibo eartb a formation known to geologists re- 
sembling tluit of tlio Amazous. Its extent is stupcndotu: 
it stititclics IVom tlic Atlantic shore, through the vh 
widtli uf Braztt, into Peru, to tin] very foot of tbo An 
Humboldt epcaks of it " in tlie vast plains of the Amazi 
ill Uifl eastern boundary of Jaen de Brooamoros," and 
says, "This prodigious extcnnon of red sandstone in tlie 
low grounds stretching along the oast of Uie Andes is 
one of the most striking phenomena 1 observed during 
my examination of rocks io the equinoctial n^ous." * 
Vfhea the great natural philosopher wrote these lines, he 
had no idea liow much ihcm deposits extended beyond 
the lield of his observations. Indeed, they are not limited 
to the main bod of the Amoaons ; tliey bare been Ibl- 

* Bohn'i edition ef Hnmboldl'ti PcrMDal Nuntiie, Clw{k IL p. lat. 
teldt ^IuJlii VI (besu fiumuion* Rfcotcdl/ : it i* tnie ihu ho R4m ilian 
lIio anriciii roii^omcrnte* of llw DenonioB tg^ b« Ut description Kgrvct >« 
ptt&nlf niifa whnt I tiav« obtcmd ktonff tha bank* of ihe Anuioas itii4 
lb« Rin Nipro Uiat there can l« m doobt tK tfetia of iIm *am Ihtnic. Il« 
wrow kt a limo whoa manj of iho raali* of Modm gixAoej wcia iia> 
knuirn, Md hit aplMtailon of thn iilienoinanA na tbcn jicrftctlr ii»tnral 
Ti-e paMC* fron which ifae fiirwltnwio tlia mm «i« taken itowit&m iham 
(li-|i»>i(i rii«nd e>«a id the LiuM 



lowed ulong tlie banks of its Iribiitarios to the south aud 
iiortli as far as tliceo haro been ascended. They occur on 
the margins of the DualUga and tlio Ucayalc, on tboso 
of ibe I(a, tbe H^nilabr, tbe Iljurua, the Hjapnra, and 
tbe Piirus. On tite banks of the Hyapiira, where Major 
Coiitinbo tias traced tboin, thoy am foiind ils far as the 
Cataract of Ciipati. I havo folloircd tbem siiimg the Rio 
Negro to its junction with the Rio Ilranco ; and Hnm* 
boldt not only describes them from a higher point on ibis 
nino river, but also from tbe valley of tho Orinoco. I''Niia)ly, 
they may be tracked along the banks of tlie Madeira, the 
TapajOM, the Xingu, and the Tocantins, as well as on t3io 
•bores of tlie Quatnma, tlie Troinbotas, and other nortli- 
eni a(1]iieiit.s of the Amazons. Tbe observations of Mar- 
tins, those of Gardner, and the recent survey above alluded 
to, made by my assistant, Mr. St. John, of the valley of 
llic Rio Gui'uguea and tliat of tlie Rio Parnualiylai, show 
tlial the great banin of Piauby is also idunliciil in its 
geological stnictiiro with tbe lateral valleys of the Amu- 
Jons. Tbe same is true of tbe large island of Mar^o, 
lying at tbe mouth of the Amazons. And yet I believe 
that oven this does not cover tbe whole ground, and 
that some future writer may say of my estimate, as I 
Iiare said of Ilnmboldt's, that it falls short of tbe (ruth; 
for, if my generaliications are correct, the same formation 
will be found extending over tlie whole Iwisin of the Para- 
guay and tbe Rio de la Plata, and along tlieir tributaries, 
to the very heart of the Andes. 

Such are the facts. The question noir asms. How 
were these vast deposits formed ? Tlio easlfist answer, 
uid tbe one which most readily suggests it^lf, is that of 
a submersion uf the coutincnl at successive periods, to 



allow tbe aocumulatiuu of tlieso maUtrials, and its sob- 
soqtieat elevatiou. 1 reject tJiis explanation for the sioi^ 
reason tlial llie depoitiU show no ^igii whatcTor of a 
luariue origiu. No set-aliells, nor remaius of aiij mariu 
animal, Iiave at yel been found tlimugliout their vfaole 
extent, over a region several Uiou.''tiud miles in leagtfc 
and from Gvo to tvven hundred miles iu width. It U 
contrary to all our knowledge of geological dcpoeita u 
itti|){)o»c tliai an oecan hatw of this fize, whicli must htn 
been suljuiorgod during au iniiuunsvly long period in ordiir 
to accuinulato formations of such a tliickiiesa, should not 
coutaiu numerous remaius of lite animals formerly iatialK 
tUug it.' The only fossil remains of any kind ti'uly belong- 
ing to it, nhicli 1 liavc found in Die formation, are leavo 
taken from the lower clays on tbe bunks of the Solimoenr 
ttt Toiiantins ; and these show a regeiatiou similar id 
geuerat cliaractcr to timt which [oevails there to-day. 
Evidently, tlion, this basin was a fresh-watvr boaiu ; these 
deposits are fresh-water deposite. But as tlic vaJley of 

* I *m awaro ibfii Bvm mtnilon* faavint tcui iku «t Objdo* al- 
orooiM ItycTs, tliicklj' ttudilril wiih bkiikc thclli. hnil been bund intemiat- 
ilivil witli tho ctny, liiil ho diil iioi liiiiiwlf viiminn ilie iinu. Tbe ObjdM 
■helli arc nol niDriiit, bill iini frtiili-wiiicr Uiiiun, (pyaili mrmbtlax AtIcsUo, 
Soldi*, nnd An'as. Hucli would b« miritie rouita bavo b«un btouxht lo no 
front llw *horo opposite to Obydo*. near Sanunin, iinil 1 bav« tu^tr rcv- 
aanlied tlicm for whai ibcj tml/ arc— ftuh-mKr AtUi «f tha ftailj- of 
KnindMi I bnTo nijiwlf rotlrjifil ■prclmcn* ot ihcH *lidt» in Uic rlay-boli 
nionic iho banLi of ilio Soliniucn*. nc*r Toinf. nnd miglil bars miiaken 
tlKin for IoimIIi or lint (bnoatioa bxl 1 not knnvn bow Naiadca bwroir ta 
tbc HiQil. Their reatMhIanM iu iIk luariuii i;«oijia mcniioMd abore iaTtty 
remiuhnlilc, anil the miMalio ■■ to tlivir true loulasical tbiratur It m aat- 
nial a« llial bv «Mch cntlicr irhthjrolo^iu, and em inrtlkn or my reeeai 
data, han conruundol *oidg fruh-BBtcr fiibca tnm ilie Vp\fT Aaiuoai, at 
tlja grnna PUmpbyllam (Uwkd). •riib ik Bariae gonaa Habk. 

le Amaxons exists to-day, it vs wiiiuly < pen to tlie ocean 
the eaet, with a gentle dopo from tlie Aiidei« lu lh« 
mtic, detormiDiiig a povfcrfiil seawnrd current. Wli«n 
vast acciiraiilatiouB look pkcVf llic basiii must liave 
been closed ; otherwise tlic loose malcriuls would coustantly 
have been curried down to llw cocao. 

It is my belief tbat all tbeso depoiitt belong to tho ic«- 
period in its earlier or later phases, and to tliis cosiaio 
wiatcr, which, jitdgiiij; from nU the plieiiomena connected 
with it, may have hunted for Uion^amls of centuries, we must 
look for the key (o ttie geological history of tho Amazonian 
Valley. 1 am aware that thiit stigge^Lion will appear extrar- 
ugaut. But is it, after all, so improbable that, when Central 
Europe was covered with ice thotii>ands of feet thick ; when 
the glaciers of Great Britain pluughod into the sea, and 
when tliose of the Swiss mountains had ten times tlieir 
preiteut altitude; when every lake in Northern Italy was 
filled with ice, and these frozen masses extended ctcii into 
Northern Africa ; when a sheet of ice, reaching nearly 
to tlie summit of Mount Washington in the White Moun- 
tains (that is, having a thickness of nearly six thousand 
feet), moved over tho coutincut of North America, — is 
it so improbable that, in this epoch of universal cold, 
the valley of the Amasons also had its glacier poured 
down into it from tho accumulations of snow in the Cor> 
dillcrus, and swollen lateiiiUy by the tributary glaciers 
descending from tho tal)le-liind8 of Guiana and Brazil? 
The movement of this immense glacier must have been 
eastward, determined as well by the vast reservoirs of snow 
in the Andes as by the direction of tho valley itself. It 
must have ploughed the valley-bottom over aud over agoia, 
grinding all the materials beneath it into a (Uio povdtT 




or reducing ticna to small pebUes. and it must ban 
HOC u ID u la ted at its lower end a moraine of jiroportiinii 
as gtf^iitic as its own ; thus building a colossal scs-waO 
iicross the mouth of the vallof. I diall be asked kt on« 
whetlier I have found lioro also tlie glacial iuscripttoiw, 
-~ the furrows, i^triie, and polished surfaces s(i clianictef- 
istic of the ground over which glaciers have irAveUoiL 
I answer, not a trace of tliem ; for tJto simple reosou thit 
there is not a natural rock-surface to be found through- 
out tlie whole Amazonian Valley. The rocks thomselrci 
are of so fHable a nature, and tlio decomposition caused 
by the wann torrential rains and bj exposure to Uitt 
bnrning sun of tlio tropics so great and unceasing, thai 
it is hopeless to look for marks which in colder cUmaie* 
and on harder substances are preserved through ogcs un* 
changed. With the exception of the rounded surfacc^B 
so well known in SwiUEurland as the rochet tiutitoniUf$ 
heretofore alluded to, which may I>o seen in xaaof locali- 
UeSt &nd the boulders of Erer£, the direct traces of gla- 
ciers as seen in other countries are wauling in Brazil. 
I am, indeed, quite willing to admit that, from tlie nntura 
of the circumstances, 1 have not here tlie positive evidence 
which has guided mo in ray previous glacial invcstigatioos. 
My Go:)viction in this instance is foandod, first, on the 
materials in the Aniozonian Valley, vlitoh correspond 
exactly ill their character to materials accumulated hx 
glacier bottoms : secondly, on tlie rcsomblancc of tlto i 
or tliird Amazonian fonuatJou to tlic Rio drift,* ol 

* A* I Lkt« tlalod in the Uemnlas, I an sutiliid lliat iha aiun 
risj ri«po«It of Kio sad iu ridnitf i$ gcnuliu glacltl drilL reiuJiioK tn 
lETindins o( llw (mm msMtial* inMrpotcd beinwn ihe sl^cic ■"'' ilw 'ol'il 
rodt in p1«aa. md ntaJdns ta ilil* dnj the potitloa En vUch it «-•■ left br i 
KK. Lik« «It inch iccnmulailoa*, ii l« touU; &m fton itraiiflcatioa. 


glacUl origin of wliich Uiere cannot, in tay opinion, be aaj 
doubt ; tliirdlj, on the fact that tliis rroi<li-water basin must 
linve bc«n clo»ed ngainftt the »ca hj some jMircrful barrier, 
the removal of which would iiaturallf giro an outlet to 
tho waten, and cause the extraordinary denudations, tlie 
criduiiot» of which moot us everywhere Uiroughout the 

Ou a smaller scale, phuuomeiin of tliia kind have long 
boon familiar to us. lu iho prcs«tit lakes of Northern 
Italy, in those of Svitzcrland, Norway, and Sweden, as 
veil as ill tlioso of New BngUnd, especially in ttie State of 
Maine, the walArs are held back in Dteir basins by morainee. 
In tlio ico-pcriod tlic»u depressions were filled with glaciers, 
which, in the course of time, accnmnlated at their lower 
end « wall of loose materials. These walls still remain, 
and ecnre as dams to prevent the escape of the waters. 
But for tlioir moraines, all these lakes would bo open 
Taileyit. In the Roads of Gleii Roy, in Scotlajid, wo have 

lio M, li i* evident, on cooiparing the two formfttioat, Uul tlie ochract.'oui 
(Hnilj' clijr of tlio Tnllcj of iho AmaMDi hut bi'cn dcpoiiKd nDilcr ilillcrcnl 
riri'nrndanciti ; (hut. wliilc ic nwM lu rciomblancQ to tho Rio drift to Iht' fui 
ihnl lu malfriali were orictnnJly jtrnuiid hj einclcn In the upper pari of tlie 
rnlky, thua miilciinli hnio >ubfc*[[uonlly boun i[)rcail ihrouglioul llio wliole 
)ioio u)J actually dcpoulcil under ilic iiifCDcy of waicr. A tuivcy of iho 
mora touttiom iiiwrinco* of Bnnil. CTtcniling lo the itnipcniie iodc, whoc the 
cumblTifil cflscU of a irupicnl sun niid of trupicnl rein* mate iinturally be wont- 
inn:, Kill, I tmtt, niinoTB all tbi <!ilBraliiM ■till ■twadini; |]il> cxiilanaifuD. 
The glatinj phcnamcDB, <ciih nil rhcii chDructeiiEiJc fvaluru. ore nlnnily known 
(o cover ihe louiScrnmon pnru of South Amaim. Tlio inwrrcnios noga, 
between 33" and 3G° of louth Iniitadc, cannot fail to cichibit th« inntiiion 
from iliD diiii of thn cold and tRmfitnta lono to ih.' Au-mntiont of a klodfod 
rtiumrlrr iln>>.ntiiMl kIkxo fruin Ihn Iropicftl tone. Tl e kno<*1odi;c of ihcae do- 
IiMii* will duflnitnlT wttilc ihn qrioiiun ; and ciihor ji~>vc iho corpcctncn of my 
piivriiliutiuiuoriliow tliuir altanllrj. I foal no Bn.-Jety aa to the rciolL I 
0!ily long fur a ■pecdj' nttnoral of all doubu. 


A JODlKtT n UAZn. 

It «wiU gndiuUly dqioiit them in tbe 
Ixitlani in hofhooUl bob imra or leas regular, or 
uid there, w here rer eddies gsre rise ta more npid 
farepihr currents, eharscteriBed hj torrential stratJficaiiM. 
Ttins has been wmsoUAeted in IIm ooiarBa of ■get iks 
nNitioaoM and tarma&m spreading orer the whole Ans 
Boaiaa baRn, and alfioing a tbicluiees of eight haQdnd 

While these accttmulatioas were tsking plaoe wilUa 

this besin, it mast not be forgottao tliat tlio sea was beat 

ing igaiast its ootcr wall, — agaiast that gif;autio morsioi 

vfatch I suppose to baro dosed it at its eastern cod 

It would seen that, cither from tbb caosc, or perhaps in 

consecjiiciice of some tnriiuleiit action from witUiu, a 

break was made iu tliis defence, and the waters nuhed 

violently out. It Is vorr possible that ths waters, gradu- 

all; ewolleo at tlic close of tliis period hy tlie furtlKT 

melting of Uio too. by the additions poured iu from latvial 

tributaries, by llie rains, and also bjr the filling of tlio basin 

with locKC materials, would overflow, and thus coiitribiKe 

to destroy the moniuc. Uoworcr this may be, it rollow; 

from my premises tliat, iu ilio end, titofe waters obtain 

a sudden release, and poured seaward with a violeii< 

wlivcit cut and denuded tho deposits already foniicd. 

iitg them down to a mucli lower level, and Icaviug only 

few rcmuaats staudiug out in tlicir original thickness, 

where tlie strata were i<olid euough to rc«i5t the aetiea 

of Uio carreiils. Such arc the hills of Monte Allegro, o( 

Otjydos, Almcyrim, and Cupaii, as well as the lower ridges 

ot 8«ata«m. Thb escape of tlic waters did not, however, 

entirely empty llw whole basin : for llio period of denudar 

lion WM again IbHowod by on« of quiet aocumulation. 



during wliicli was dcjiosilod tlie ochraccous ■andy olaj 
restiug Qpou tho donudalcd surfaces of (ho underlying 
■aiidstone. To this period I refor tlio bouldom of ErcM!, 
tnnk OB tboy are iii tlio cl^y of tliLs fiuul deposit. I t>u(>- 
poM tlicm to have bccti l>rouglil (o thoir prcKtit pimtion 
by floaUiig ice at t)i« dosu of Uic glaci*) pcrioil, wheo 
iiotliing rciiuim<»l of the icc-fic-lds esoept si ch UoUted 
massca, — ice-mfts aa it were . or perhaps bj iceborgti 
dropped into itio hanin troai glaciers Rtill nimainrng in 
tlie Andes and oti the edges of the i)lat()aiif of Gtiiana 
and Brazil. From the general aboetice of straliRcatioii 
in this clay formation, it would seem thai tho compar- 
atively shallow sheet of water in which it was deposited 
was very tranquil. Ind>.>ed, after tho waters had sunk 
much below the level which they hold duruig tho deposi- 
tiou of the sandstone, and the currents which gave rise 
to tlio denudation of the latter had oca»ed, the whole sheet 
of water would naturally become much moro placid. But 
the time arrived when the walcr broke through its boun- 
daries ^ain, perhaps owing to tlie further encroachment 
of the sea and conH>quoiit destruction of tlte tnoraine.* 
In this second drainage, however, the waters, carrying 
away a considerable part of the new deposit, furrowing 
it to its Tory foundation, and evon cutting tlirough it 
into the underlying sandstone, wero, in the end, reduced 
to something like tlioir present lerol, and conSncd witliin 
their present beds. This is shown by the fact tJiat in 
this ochrOHwIored clay, and penetrating to a greater or 
less depth the saitdsto«e below, are dug, not only the great 

* I voulit lien mniTjil ili« rwilor of ilje lerrucvt of Glon Rev, urbidi iDilicM* 
•BCcMiiiT* iTilu'-li^na of tha bamir mciuint! Ihn UI:P, Hiniliir to tbt M i 
W baro taLcn plan M tho monlh of lh« Antuini'. 



longitudinal channel of tlio AmAzoits il««ir, but also the 
Intoral furrows through which its tribiitnrios reach tli4 
main stream, and tho QUtwork of aiiastomoeing brnticlics 
flowing bctwticii tliom; tho wholu forming the most u 
traordjnary river ejstcm in Uio world. 

My asKUmptiou that tho sea. has produced very eztcnsi?e 
changes in tho coast of Brazil — chunfrcs moro tliaii ^ufB- 
ciciit to account for the disuppcurancu of the glacial wiUI 
which I suppose to have closed the Amuzonian Valley in tlio 
ice period^ is by no means hypothetical. Tliis action 19 
still going on to a remarkable degree, and is even now rapid- 
ly modifying Itic outline of Uie slior«. When I Grst arrived 
at Vav&, I was struck w'ltit tlio fact t3iat the Amazons, tlie 
largest river in the world, has uo delta. All Uk! otiier rir- 
ors which wc call groat, though somo of thein arc insignili* 
cant as eompnrcd with the Amazons, — tho UisMKiippt. 
tlic Mile, tho Gnnges, and tlie Danube, — deposit extaiisire 
deltas, and the smaller rivers also, with few exceptions, are 
constantly building up tho land at their mouths by the ma- 
terials tlioy bring along with them. Kvcu tlio little river 
Kander, emptying into tlie lake of Tltun, is not without its 
delta. Since my return from the Upper Amazons to Pari, 
I have made an examination of some of the harbor islands, 
and abo of parts of tho coast, and have satisfied myself that, 
with tho exception of a few small, low islands, never rising 
above tlio sea-level, and composed of alluvial deposit, they 
are portions of the nmin-land detached from it, partly by tlio 
action of the river itself, and partly by the encroacbmeut of 
the oceau. In fact, the sea is eating away the land much 
faster than the river can build it up. Tho great island of 
Marajo was originnlty a continuation of tite valley of tho 
Amazons, and is identical with it in every detail of its goo- 

PBTacAL uisTORr or tiik auazonil 

logical structure. Uy investigation of the island itself, in 
connection with the coast and the river, leads mo to suppose 
that, having been at one time an integral part of the depoMta 
described aboTo, at a later period it became an inland in tho 
bed of the Amazons, whicli, dividing in two arms, etioirclod 
it completely, and then, joining again to form a single 
stream, flowed onward to the sea-slioro, which in those days 
lay much farther to the eastward than it now does. I sup- 
pose the portion of the island of Marajo at tliat time to have 
corresponded very nearly to the present position of tlie island 
of Tupinambaranns, just at the junction of the Madeira with 
the Amazons. Il is a question among geographers whether 
the Tocantins is a branch of the Amazons, or should bo con- 
Kidered aa forming an indejtendRtit river system. It will be 
seen that, if my view is correct, it must formerly have homo 
the same rc-tnliun to the Amnzonti tbat tlie Mudi-ira River 
now does, joining it just where Marajo divided tho main 
stream, ite the Madeira now joins it at the licad of tho itlaud 
of Tupiuambarauas. If in countless centuries to come the 
ocean »huuld continue to cat its way into tho Yalley of the 
Amazons, ouoc more transforming the lower port of tlie 
basin into a gulf, as it was during tho cretaceous period, 
the time might arrivo when geographer)), finding tlie Ma- 
deira emptying almost immediately into the sen, would ask 
themselves whctlicr it had over beeu indeed a branch of the 
Amazons, just as they now question whether tho Tocautina 
is a tributary of the main stream or an independent river. 
But to return to Mango, and to the facta actually in our 

The island is intersected, in its soatheaslom end, by s 
considerable river called tlie [garap6 Grande. Tho cut 
made through the land by this streaAi seems intended to 
It ■■ 




ecrrc aa a i^ologkal section, so porfectljr does it ifitphj 
U>0 tliree clmraoteristic Ainaxonian formatioiiji obore d» 
wribed. Ai ibt nioutli, tiesr the towii of Sourd, unil at M- 
Taterni, on tlie oppoute bauk, may be seen, lowest, ths «dt 
etmiAed saodsUMic, witli tlio finely lamiuated cliijrs reslkf 
upon it, OTortopped by a crust ; tbeu tbe cross-strstirKd, 
liiglily ferruginous saiid^loiie, with quartz pebbtos here *Bi 
Ihere ; aud, abovo all, tlie well-known ocliraccuus, uujtra& 
fled saiidy clay, spreading orer tlie undulating suriace of 
tlie dcmidated sandstone, following all its inequnlities, aaJ 
filling all its depressions and furrows. But wliilu tUe I^ 
np6 Grande lias dug its channet down to tbe soa, cutting 
Uieso formatiooN, a.1 I aKccrlainod, to a depth of twcnqr-fita 
Gatlioins, it liaii Ibuv opened tbe way for the eucroaclimcntt 
of tbe ttdcsi, and tlie oc«aii i$ now, in it* turn, gsioin; upon 
tbo laud. Wore tlicre iiu otlicr evidence of tlic ocUou of the 
tides i» tbis lucnliiy, tlie !'tcup cut of Itit- Igarap^t Grande, 
contrasting willi Uic giMillc slope of llic banks near its mouth, 
wherever tlioy hare been modified by tJio iuTosiou of the sea, 
would enable us to dLstinguidi the work of the river 
that of tlie ocean, and to proro that tlra deuudatioit now 
iug un is due in part to both. But besides this, I wa!> so 
fortunate as to diKOver, on my recent excursion, unmistak- 
able and porfcctly convincing oWdcuce of the onward move- I 
ment of the sea. At tlie moutli of the Igarap^ Grande, bolh 
at Sour6 and at Salvalcrro, on the southern side of tlie Iga^j 
rap4, is a Hubmerged forest. Eridently this forest grew j^H 
one of tbo»e marshy lands constantly inundated, for belweer^' 
ttie stumps is acoumuUted tbo loose, folt-Uke [leat charac! 
istic uf such grounds, and oontaiuing about as much m 
as vegetable matter. Sncli a marshy forest, with the stu 
of the tree? still standing erect in tbe peat, has been 




bare on both ades of Uie Ignrap^ Orande by the enoroacb- 
mente of the ocean. Tliat this is the work of tlie sea i» un> 
deniable, for all the little depre^ioiis and indotitalioiis of tlio 
peat are filled witli »ea-tiarid, and a ridge of tidal sand diridw 
it from tlie forest still standing behind. Nor is this all. At 
Ti^a, immediately opposite to Sour£, on tho oontliicntal 
side of tlie Par& RiTCr, just where it meets tlio sea, we liav« 
the counterjKirt of ibis submerged rorc»t. Auothcr peat-bog, 
with tlie stumps of innumerable trees sunding in it, and 
encroached npon in tl>e saniQ way by tidal sand, is exposod 
hero also. No doubt tlteso forests were once all continuous, 
and stretched across the wlwle basin of what is now callod 
die Pari River. 

(^ince 1 have bcon pursuing this inquiry, I have gathorod 
much information to tho same effect from persons living on 
the coast. It is well remombcrod that, twenty years ago, 
thei-e existed an island, more than a mile in width, to the 
nortlieast of the entrance of tho Bay of Vigia, which has 
now entirely disappeare4l. Farther eastward, the Bay of 
Braganza has doubled its width in tlio last twenty years, 
and OS the shore, witliin the bay, tho soa has gainod upou 
the land for a distance of two Iiuiidrud yards during a 
period of only ton years. The latter fact is ascertained 
by tho position of some houses, which wcro two hundred 
yards farther from the *«» ten years ago than they now 
are. From these and Ui« like reports, from my own ob- 
servations on this part of the Braiilian coast, from some 
iuvestigaUons made by Major Coutinho at the month of 
tlie Amawins on its northern continental shore near Ma- 
capa, and fmm the reports of Mi-. St. John respecting tJie 
formations in tlie valley of lb« Paraiuhylia, it is my belief 
tliat Uie change.* I have been describing ai-e but a smaU 



put of tlie destnictioB vrougbt b^ tlio eea od the norlt 
pMltern shore of this continent. I think it will b« foDiui, 
vhen the coast has boon fuUr surveyed, tliat » strip of 
land not leas than a hundred leagues in vidtfi, stretcliing 
from Okpe St. Boque to the northern extremftjr of Sonih 
America, has been eaten away by the ocean. If tlits be 
•o, the Paranahyba and Uie rivers to the northwest of it, 
in the province of Maraiiham, wore formerly tributahes 
of the Amaxons ; and all that we know thus far ttf ibeir 
geological character goes to prove that this was actoally 
the case. Such au extensive oceanic denudation mu»l 
have carried away not only the gigantic glacial moraine 
here assumed to have closed the mouth of the Araazontu 
basin, but tlie very ground on which it formerly stood. 
Although the terminal moraine has disappeared, thoro ic, 
however, no reason why parts of the lateral moraines 
should not remain. .And I expect in my appruucliing 
visit to C«ar& to find traces of the aouthem lateral mo- 
raine in that neighborhood. 

During the last four or five years I have been engagod in 
a series of investigations, in the United ^itates, upon the 
^ sul^ect of the denudations connected with Uie close of tlie 
glacial 'period there, and the cncroacliments of the ocean 
upon tho drift deposits aloug the Allautio coast. Bad 
tl'Ose investigations been published In detail, with tlio ne- 
oesMry inapt, it would have been far easier for mo to 
' explain the fticts I liavo lately obscn-ed in tho Amaxoniao 
Valley, to connect ihom with facts of a like character on 
tlie continent of North Ajncncn, and to »liow bow re- 
markably they correspond with Tacts accomplished daring 
tho same period in other parts of tlie worid. While the 
glacial epoch itself has been very extensively studied in 


Bo last hulf-ceatiirjp, little attention haa been paid to 
""tlie HMiilta connected with the breaking np of tlie geo- 
logif'tU vinter snd tbe final disappearance of tbo ice. I 
boliore Umt tlie true explanation of the presence of a 
large part of the superficial doposits I&telf asoribeJ to 
tlie agency of the sea, dnring temporary subsidences of 
tlie land, will be found in tbe melting of tl>o ico-fields. 
To tbia cause I wonid refer all those deposits which I 
have designated as remodelled drift. When the sheet of 
ice, extending from the Arctic regions over a great part 
of Korth America and coming down to the sea, slowly 
melted away, tlio water? were not distributed orer the 
face of the country as tliej now are. They rested upon 
the bottom deposits of the ice-fiolds, upon the glacial pasta, 
consisting of clay, sand, pebbles, boulders, etc., underlyinf, 
tlie ice. This bottom deposit did not, of cour^, present 
on even surface, but must have had estcnsire undulations 
nod depressious. After the waters had been drained off 
from the more elovatod ridges, these depressions would 
still remain full. la the lakee and pools thus ftn-med, 
^t^atificd deposits would be accumulated, consisting of the 
nio«t miuuifly comminuted clay, deposited in tliia lami- 
nated layers, or sometimes in considorablo masses, witliout 
any «gn of stratiFicalion ; such diflkreocos tu tho fonoatioa 
being determined by the state of tho water, whether per- 
fectly stagnant or more or legs agitated. Of such pool 
deposits overlying the drift there arc many instances in 
the Northern United States. By the overflowing of some 
of the»e lakex, and by the omptying uf the higher ones 
into tlioso on a lower level, ohtuinels would gradually be 
formed between the depressions. So began Ic bo marked 
ont our independent rivor-sysloms, — tho waters always 

jot;BxeT rs braui. 

f«olcing their natitr&l level, gr^ually wideiiiiig and dcef^ 
citing the channels in which they Bowed, as tliey worked 
their way down to the sea. When tlicy reachod the shore, 
there followed that antagoiiisin betweci] tlio rush of the 
rirers and the action of the tides, — between continental 
outflows and oceanic encroachments, — which still goes on, 
and Itat! led to the formation of our Eastern rivers, with 
their wide, open eslitarics, such as tlie James, the Potomac, 
and the Delaware. All these estuaries are embanked bj 
drift, as are also, in their lower course, the jnTers con- 
nected with thcin. Where the country was low siid flat, 
and the drill extended fat- into tho ocean, the encroacl>- 
ment of the sea gave rise, not only to our large estuaries, 
but al»o to the sounds and deep bays forming tixa most 
prominent indentations of the conUncBtal ooa^t, such as 
the Bay of Fuiidy, UaKsnchu^ictts Bay, Long Island Sound, 
and otliers. The nnmistakable traces of glacial action upon 
all the islands along the coa^t of New England, sometimes 
lying at a very considerable distance from the main-land, 
give an approximate, thougli a minimum, measure of the 
former extent of the glucial drift seaward, and the sub- 
sequent advance of t)iu ocean upon tlio laiid. Liko those 
of the harbor uf Parll, all tiic^c iiilands hare tho same 
geological structure as the continent, and were orJdcntly 
continuous with it at some former period. All tlio rocky isl- 
ands along Uio coust of Maine and Massaclmtetts exhibit 
the glacial traces wlicrcvcr their surfaces are exposed by tlie 
washing away of tho drift; and where the drift remains, 
its character shows that it was once continuous from one 
island to another, and from all the islands to tlie muin-land. 
It is difficult to dctcrntino with precision the ancient 
limit of the gladal drift, but I think it coo bo shown 


that it connected tlio sboals of XawroiiridUiid with lh« 
contineot; that Xmitucbct, Martha's Vineyard, and Long 
Islaud made part of the main-land ; tlial, in like loaiiiicr 
Nora Scotia, including Sablo Island, was united to th« 
BOuthoaBEhoro of New Brunswick and Maine, and that 
(he same sheet of drift extended thouco to Capo Cod, 
and stretched southward as far as Cape Ilatteras ; — in 
abort, timt the line of shallow soundings along Uie whole 
coast of the United States marks tlie former extent of 
glacial drift. Tlie ocean has gradually eaten ita way into 
this deposit, and given its present outlines to the conti- 
nent. These denudations of the sea no doubt began as 
son as the breaking up of the ice exposed the drift to 
its invasion ; in other words, at a time when colossal 
glaciers still poured forth tlioir load of ice into the At- 
lantic, and fleets of icebergs, far larger and more numer- 
ous than those now floated ofT from the Arctic seas, 
were launched from the northeastern shore of the United 
States. Many such masses must have stranded along the 
shore, and have left various signs of their presence. In 
fact, tbo glacial phenomena of the United States and 
elsewhere are duo to two distinct periods : ttio first of 
these was the glacial epoch proper, when the ico was a 
Bolid sheet; while to the second belongs the breaking up 
of this cpouti, with tlie gradual disintegration aiid dispcr- 
<«ioti of the ice. We talk of the theory of glaciers and 
the theory of icebergs in reference to these phenomena, 
as if they were exclu>ive1y dne to cue or the otlier, and 
whoever accepted the former must reject the hitler, and 
vie* vena. When geologists have oombined these now 
disoordaiit olemeuta, and consider Uiese two periods as 
eooKCUtivo, — part of the plienomena being due to the 



gUciere, part to tba iosbergs and to frosheta conseqaent ■ 
tlieir bre&king up, — they will find tbftt tlie/ iuro oonnd 
the whole ground, and thai the two tlicories are perfeed; 
coDsistent with each otbw. I thuik tlie prusent dispntai 
upon tills eabjoct will «ud somewhat like those 0ucb d> 
Tided the Ncptuoie and Plutonic scliooU of geologists lo 
tlio fsrijr part of tikis cootury ; the former of whom woolil 
have it that all Uie rocks were due to the action oT watte, 
tlie latter thai thvy wvre wIiuU)' due lo tiie action of Gie- 
The proUcm was solved, and liurraon}- restored, wbep it 
was found that both elemonta have been equally at votk 
iu forming the solid eru»t of tlie ^obe. To llie stranded 
icebergs alluded bo above, 1 have no doubt, is to be re- 
ferred the ori]^u of tlic man; lakes without outleU e^^ 
isting all over the sandy tract along our coast, of wtu^H 
Cape Cod fonns a part Not ouly ilw formation of tb.-"^ 
lakes, but al«) tlint of our salt manlict' and crauberrj-' 
Gelds, I believe to be oouueotcd witlt the waning of 
loe period. 

I liopo at some flilare time to publish in detail, with 
the appropriate maps and illustrations, my ul>svrTaliona 
upon the cliaiiges of our coast, and other phonomoiia coii> 
uected witli the close of the glacial epoch in tlie United 
States. To give results without an acoouut of the investi- 
gations which hare led to them, inverts tito true method 
of science; and I should not havo introduced the subject 
here except to show that tlie fresh-wuter denudations and 
tlte oceanic encntacliments which have formed the Ajnaxo- 
nian Valluy, with its river system, are not isolated facts, 
but that the process has been the same iu both contiuvuts. 
The extraordinary continuity and uniformity of the Ama- 
zonian deposits are due lo the immense site of tlie iaun 



eudoBcd, and the ideoti^ of the materials contained 
ill it. 

A glance at any geological map of tlie world will gliow 
the reader that the Valley of the Amazons, so far as 
an attempt is made to csplaiti its otnicturc, Is ropni- 
scntcd as containing iiMilatod tiacts of Devonian, Tritissii.-. 
Jurassic, cretaceous, tertiary, and alluvia] deposits. Tliii 
is vliolly inaccurate, as is eliown by the above sketch, 
and whatever may bo thought of my interpretation of the 
actual phenomena, I tiust that, in presenting for Uie first 
time the formations of the Amazonian basin in their iiatu> 
ral oonnoctioii and seriuonco, as consistiug of three uniform 
sets of comparatively recent deposits, extending thi-ouglioiit 
the whole valley, tlio investigations here recorded have con- 
tributed somcLhing to the results of modern geology. 


mm AiLuiiHK. — RucuH Tuues. — Aunv^i. at CmAMjC — PirncnfT 
«r L^miuio. — Atrvt-r or tiik Tuvm. — lUlBT Ska*03i. — Cmxaqnn 
S4WUIISM. — Ou PUBvcas w RurnM> jkT C«A«i. — Kcroat -r to 
FiLicB ASDVr HoKjiiBia. — PdXrjtitjiniH* roa Jockxct turo t>i l*n- 
«M>a — Uimcn-rm asd thiuATt tn oKmsa uorr. — Dx t«* WiIT.- 
Ktomr AT Amahciio. — Dad Rojicia. — CAivMiaA Paut. — Akritjo. it 
HooNWKA — Kim RBCKimn sr Skxiiun Kmihkuk ■<« Lima. — Giim«T 

or TM* RUICOI. — KtEXINO nA>»]l AMI AaCUJtKXTS. — Pacattka ~ 

TkACMt or A»aixT Uutcniia. — Smft* or ARAtAKWA. — Cu«* L'r nn 
Swuu. — UiMriTAUTT or Smno* pa Cmrjt. — PicrcuntqirB Vicn. — 
Tna BbbtaA. — Piiucunr axd ILtin. — Ennaiuo- — KvniMi in Mo*- 
avsA. — ItaTAixni ar itXTRAoiiuiMKT Sua*. — RnvK> m CiAKi.— 

OrsMvunm Boaim. — PirritvuT or rautiiMi Akkivan at Ckaka.— 

Lninuurr of *iu PasHbEnr or ihr I'mrnc* t«wau> tmb Exrmi- 

J^ &!. — Cearfi. We left PaM oii Uie 26Ui of Uurcb, 
In tlie evening, feeling Tor th« tint time ihat ve were iudeed 
bidding good by to the Amazons. Our plcai<ant Toyages on 
iu yellov WKlers, our canoe exonnions on its {>icturo«que 
lake6 and igarap^, our lingerings in it& palm-tliutclicd cot- 
tage*, belonged to the past ; except in ineoiorj, our Amazo- 
nian traTels were over. Wben we entered npon llicro, wliat 
Tagne anticipation.*, what ri-tiony of a new and iulercstiug 
life, not, an we suppoi«cd, witbvnt its dangers and anxieties, 
were before ns. So little b known, even in Brazil, of tiie 
Amnzons, that we could obtain only very meagre and, usually, 
rather discoura^ug inrormalion ooiieerning our pntjocted 
jonniey. In Rio, if you say you are going to ascend their 
great river, yonr Brazilian friends look at you witli compa» 
fiooato wonder. Yon are threatened with aiokneas, with iu- 


tolerable lieat, with lli« abscnec of tutj Dourisliiug foi 
euitaUe lodgings, with mosquitoes, wiili Jacur^s aud vi 
Indians. If you cousuU a pby»ciuii, he gi<i*cs you a goaf 
supply of qtiitiinc, uiid tells you to take a dosc every otiiei 
day as a preventive iigaiiist fever and cliills; so lliat if you 
escape inturtnittcnt fuvcr you aro at Ictut sure of Wing poi- 
euned by u remedy whieli, ifadmiiiisterod incautiously, tuay 
cause a disease u-orse ttian Uio one it cures. It will take 
perbaps from tlie excitement and novelty of Amazonian 
travelling to know that tlie journey from Par& to Tabalinga 
may l>c made with as much ease as a rcationablo traveller 
has a rigbt to exfMjct, though of coni'se not witJiout some 
privations, and also with no more exposure to sickness than 
tlic traveller incurs in any hot climate. Tlic perils and ad- 
ventures which attended the voyages of Spix and Martins, 
or even ol more recent travellers, like Castelnau, Bates, and 
Wallace, arc no longer to be found on the main course of 
Uie Amazons, tliough thoy are met at every step on its great 
adlueuls. On the Tocantins, on the Madeira, on the Piirus, 
on the Rio Negro, the Trombetas, or any of the large trib- 
utaries, the traveller must still work his way slowly up iu 
a canoe, scorched by the sun or drenched by the rain ; sleojh 
ing on the beach, hearing the cries of the wild animaU in 
the woods around him, and waking perhaps in the morning, 
to find the Irat^ks of a tiger in unpleasant proximity to Ins 
hammock. But along the course of tlte Amazons itself, 
these days of romantic adventure and hair-brcadlh escapes 
are over; the wild beasts of the forest have disappeared be- 
fore the puff of the engine ; tlie canoe and the vucaDipmcut 
oil the beach at nighl have givou p)aoc to the prosaic cod- 
venicnccs of tiie tteamboat. It is no doubt (rue of the 
Amazons, its of other tropical regions, that a long residence 




Hdaj roduca Un vigor of tiio eonstitutioii, and perimpe tmlc 
'oiiswone liable to certain dbeases; but durintc oar jotunej 
of ciglit months none of our lat^ conipoii/ suffered frn 
btu7 MTioos tndispoution connected witti tiie climate, not 
did we see id any of our wanderings as niaujr indicatioM of 
iiilerioittetit fever as are to be met constantly on our Wofr 
eru river«. Tlie vorafi^e ou tbo Anuams proper has t^it 
Dccoma accessible to a]) wlio an williit^ to endure beat aad 
tuoequitoee for tlie sake of seeiiig llio greatest rircr ta l^ 
world, and tlie uaguilicciit tropical vegetation aloug itf 
sliores. Ttie best aeasoo for Iho journey is from tlie chw* 
of Juno to tlio middle of Novomlwr, — July, August, Sep- 
tember, and October being tbe four driest months of tbe ^ 
year, and the most salubrious tlirougliout Uial regiou. H 

We liad a rough and bcMsterous passage Iroai Pari lo 
ECoarfi, with unceasing rain, in conscqiicnco of vbicb the 
1^ decks wore oonstautly wet. Indeed, tlie cabins were not 
freo from wutor, und it was only by frequent boiling Uial 
tlio floor of our stato-rooDi was kept tolerably dry. At 
Mornnliam we had the rulicf of a night ou sboro; and Ur. 
Agassiz and Major Coulinbo profited by the oocasioa the 
following morning to examine the geology of tlie ooaat 
more carefully than tlicy had formerly done. Tbey found 
the structure idouUcal willi tliut of the Amaaoniau VaHoy, 
except that the formations were more worn down and dis- 
turbed. We arrived before Cvari at two o'clock on Sat- 
urday, March Slet, expecting to go on stiore at once ; but 
tlie sea ran bigli, the tide was unfavomblo, and during Die 
day not even a "jangada," those singular raits that liure 
take tbo place of boats, ventured out to our steamer ■■ 
»ho lay rocking in the surf. Cear& has no harbor, and the 
•ea drives in willi fvarful violence on the long Huid-beacli ^ 


fronting the tovn, making it impoeiable, at c«rt4iin state* 
of llio tide flud in stormy weather, for any boat to land, 
unless it be one of tliese jougadas (catamarans}, over which 
the wiLvcs break vitlioul swamping tliem. At about nine 
o'clock in Uio cvaiiing a custom-house boat cams out, and, 
notwitliRtaiiding the lutvnc^s of tlio hour and tho rough Rea, 
we detrrniincd to go on shore, for wc n-cro told Uiat in the 
morning the tide would Iw unfavorable, and if the wind 
continued in tho prewoiit quarter it might bo still moro dif- 
ficult, if not impoKsible, to land. It was not without some 
anxiety that I fttood wailing my ttini to enter Die boat; for 
Uiough at one moment it ro»ii, od tlic kwcU of tlic sea, close 
to Uie fltair, in the twinkling of an eye it was a couple of 
yards away. Some presence of mind and agility woro 
needed in order to make (lie leap juHt at tlie right instant; 
and I was glad to find myself in the boat and not ia tlw 
water, the chances being about oreii. As we rode in over 
the breakers, the boatmen «ntertainod us witli so many b1o> 
ries of the difiiculty of landing, the fre(]UGnt accidents, and 
especially of one which had occurred a few days before when 
three Englishmen had been drowned, that I began to think 
reaching the shovei must be more purilous than leaTing the 
phip. As wc approadied tho town iho scene was not with- 
out its picturesque charm. Tho moon. Mrnggting through 
gray, watery dunds, threw a fitful light over the long sand- 
boach, on which the crested waves were driving furiously. 
A number of laden boats were tossing in tlie surf, and tho 
roar of the breakers mingled with the cries of tbo black 
porters, as they waded breast high through the water, un- 
loading the cargoes and carrying their burdens to tlic slioro 
on their heads. We were landed much in the same way, 
tho boatmen carrying us over the surf. This Is the ordi' 



aiay mode of embarking or landing passengers; U is ImI 
rarely, nnd at particular statos of tlw tide, Uiai it is pos- 
sible to diseaibark at tlie pier which lias been ilirowo out 
from tlie »hore. Major Cuiitintio had written to a. frieiid 
to engage lodgings for us, and we found a house ready. 
1 was glad to sink into my comfortable hammock, to ci- 
obange the pitching and rolling of the steamer for its gentle 
rocking, to bo out of reach of tlie hungry waves, aud 3rBt to 
hear their di^(ant rush on the nhore as I fell asleep. 

The next morning was rainy, but in the afternoon It 
cleared, aud toward evening we took a long drive witJi our 
host. Dr. Felice. I like the aspect of CMr&. I like its 
wide, well-paved, cleanly streets, which arc briglit wiUi 
color, for tho substantial houses on either ^de are of many 
hues. If it chance to be a Suuday or a festa day, ercry 
balix>ny is lilted with gnyly-drcssed girls, while groups of 
men sit smoking and talking on the sidewalks before tlie 
doors. This towu has not tlie stagnant, inanimate look of 
many Brazilian towns. It tells of movement, life, pros- 
perity.* Beyond the city tlie otrcets strctcb out into the 
campos, bordered on its inland tide by beautiful sorras : 
the Sorra Gnmde aud the Serra do Baturit^. In front 
of the city stretches tlio broad sand-beach, and tlie mup 
mur of the surf comes up iuto the heart of Die town. 
It soenis as if, so lying between sea and mountain, Ccar& 
should be a healthy place, and it is usually »o rvputcd. 
But at tliis moment, owing, it is tlionght, to tho unmiial 
continuance of the dtj scojou and the oxtraofdinary vio- 
lence of the rains, now Uiat tliey have hi^n, ti\o towu 

* Tb* {iroqicniDi proTiDce of Ccu< Iim band fa Senator PainF«o a tronb; 
apCMU of li* Inurww ; not only doM h« nprMeot ili* prtiviM* at Kid d* 
Jamnitt, bat, br lb* paMiotioD oT canful ttalatlk)^ kt» la's*'? Maliil<nte4 W 
<M progTCH. — L. A. 



Tery sickly. Ycllow-fcvor i« p^c^■a]cllt, aud Uiore liaTO 
l>een a good many douttis from it rccciitlj, though it is 
said not to liavo assumed the cliaravter of an epidomio 
as yet. Still more fatal ib t)ie maligaant dysentery, wliicli 
has been raging both in town ajid country for llio lust 
two mouths. 

We are trying to hasten the arrangements for our inloud 
joUTMfiy, but do not lind it very easy. Mr. Agusiz'e object 
in Ktoppitig Iiuro is to satiU'y liimself by direct inrcstigation 
of thtt former oxlstenco of glnciei's in the scrrus of tliis 
provioco, aud, if possible, to tiiid soine traces of the eouUi- 
orn tuCerol moraine, marlcing the limit of tlio muss of ice 
which he supposes to have filled the Amazonian basla in 
the glacial period. In the Amazonian Valley itself he has 
»e«u that all the geological p]ienomeiia arc connected witli 
the close of the glacial period, vrith the melting of tlie 
ke and the immense freshets consequent upou its disap- 
pearance. On learuig the Amazons, the next step in the 
iuTcstigation was to seek the maases of Iooko materials 
led by the glacier itself. On arriving hero ho at once 
made iuquiries to this effect, from a number of persons 
who have travelled a great deal in tlie province, and are 
therefore familiar with its features. The most valuable 
information he has obtained, — valuable from the fact, 
lliat the precision with which it is given shows that it 
luay be relied upon, — is from Dr. Felice. Hiis occupa- 
tion OS laiid-survoyor has led him to travel u great deal 
in the region of the Sorra Grande. Ho has made a valu- 
able map of this portion of the province, and he tells Mr. 
Agassiz that tliere is a wall of loose materials, boulders, 
stones, &c., running from east to west for a distoneo of 
■Gme sixty leagues from the Rio Aracaty-Assft to Bom Jcsu, 

A joub::^! ih bbazil. 

iu tliv Serr* Orande. From liix tecouiit, litis wall 
bics greatly Ui« " Horeebacks " in Uaino, those remarkabla 
ridges accumulated by Uie aactent glaciers, and ruDoU^ 
fiometimcs uiuat«rrup(cdl]r for thirty or forty miles. The 
horsebacks are, howerer, covorod with soil and turf, where- 
as Or. Felice describes thb wall as rough and bare. Ur. 
Agassiz Itas no doubt that this aceuoiulatioa or dike of 
loo&e matei'iala, the [Msitiou aud direction of wbicli cor- 
responds exactly with his conjecture based upon the eH- 
deiice obtained iu the Amazonian Valley, is a portion of 
the lateral moraine, marking tlie soutlieostera limit of the 
great Amuouian glacier. Uuliappily, it is impoesiblo for 
him to vi»jt it hiuiseir, for even could he derote the tinw 
necessary for so long a journey in the interior, wo aro^ 
told that at this sea.<ioii the state of the roads makes it^| 
almost impossible. He mu^t tlicrefore leave the iden* 
tificatioa of this colossal moraine to some younger and 
more fortunate investigator, and content himself with a_ 
direct examination of the next link in the cliain of eri^ 
dcnce, uamoly, Uie traces of local glaciers in the serras in^ 
the more immediate neighlwrhood of Ceari. If the basin 
of the Amazon)! wa» acuially filled witli ice, all the moun- 
tains lying outside of lU limits in tlic iioighboring provincei 
most have had iheir glaciers also. It is in search of these 
local glaciers that we undertake our present journey, hoping . 
to reach the Serra of Baturiti!. 

April 6ih. — Pacaluha (at the foot of the Scrra of Ai»- 1 
tanlia). After ondle^x delays and dillicultics about borees, I 
servants, and other preparations furour jouruoy,wc succoed-' 
ed in getting off on Uie ai^nioon of the 3d. Tlie mode 
of travelling in tlio interior as well as the cliaractcr of the 
people, makes it almost impossible to accomplish any journey 




Titlt promptness nod puaclualitjr. Wliile tli« preparations 
for our escureiou were ^iiig oti, iiciglibon and ncqiiaiiil- 
uices would stroll in to rev Itov tilings were advancing; o»o 
would propose tbat wo hIiouM postpone our departuru till 
Iho day aftor to-morrow, on uccount of some troii)>Ie about 
tlio horses ; anotliur tliat we should wait u week or two 
lor more farorablu weather. ETidently it did not occur to 
auy ODO thiU it oould bo of mudi intparlanG« whetlier wq 
started to-day or to-morrow, or next wock or next montli. 
The lotns^utcrs in the "Iftiid in whieli it aocuied always 
arternoon " oould not liave been more Itaf^ily indiffisrout 
to the passage of Ume. Now this cnhu KUperiority to 
laws obeyed by tlie rest of mankind, tlils ignoring of the 
great dictum " tempvt ffffU" is rather exasperating to a 
man who has only tbe fortnight intervening between two 
steamen in which to Mtoonipli^ih his journey, and knows 
tlto time to bo all too sliort for the objects he has in view. 
These habits of procra»tination arc much less marked in 
tliose parts of Brazil where railroad and steam travel have 
bocn inU'oduoed ; though it cainiut be *aid that promptness 
and despatch ai-e anywhere familiar qnalilio in tJu» coun- 
try. Our delays in this panieular instance were in no way 
owing to any want of interest in our plans ; on t}ie contrary, 
we met here, as everywhere, Uie most cordial sympathy with 
the objects of tlie expedition, and the President of tlie 
province, as well as other persons, were ready to give eiery 
uKsistancc in their power. But a stranger cannot of coarse 
jxpcct the habits of the people to bo changed to suit his 
convcnicnee, and we did but share in the general slownoM 
of movement. However, we wore at last on the way ; 
our party consisting of Major Coutinho, Scnhor Pompeo, 
Goveniment Engineer of the province, whom the Presi- 




dent Iiail kindly dctAilcd to accompanj us, Mr. Agfl'iTit 
and myself. Wo bud a sorrant, also provided by tin: 
Prceidcut, oiio of bis (^ord, aud Iwo men, villi a co<iple 
o, pack-niuluii for luggage aiid prorisious. We sUrtcJ 
w Uto ill lli« duj, that our first rido wa» but n tcag-ie 
o: >o out of tli<! town ; Kliort us it was, hovcvvr, wc did 
n*: escapo several sbowvrs, ulways to be expected at tliis 
teawu. Yet the ride was plcusuut ; a smell as of liuckle- 
Iwrrj meadows came from tlio low growili of slirubs GOve^ 
iiig tbo fluids for miles around, aud tlio very earth wai 
frugnuit from llie rain. As wo left tlie city, low clouds, 
full of distant tliowers, hung over tlic serras, aud gaf« 
Ibcm n sombre beauty, more impressive, if less cheerful, 
tbau their sunshine look. At six o'clock we reached Aran> 
cbo, a villago where wc were to pass the tiighu As we 
rode in ut dii^k, it seemed to me only a little cluster of low 
mud-buuscs; but I found, by daylight, iboni wore one of 
two builduigs of more pretentious cliarootcr. We stopped 
at the end of tho pHncipnl street, before the venda (village 
iun). At tbo door, wliich opened across ibo middle, al- 
lowing its lower half to serve as a sort of g&t«, stood 
the host, little espectiiig guests on this dark, rainy Higbt. 
He was a fat old man, with a licad as round as a buUct, 
coverod with very short whito curly btir, and a faco 
beauiing with good nature, but reddened also by many 
poUtions. Ue was dressed in white cotton drawen with 
a shirt hanging loose orcr them ; bis feet wen stockiaj 
less, but be had on a psiir of the wooden-«oled slippers,* 
down at heel, of wliicU you hear the "clack, clack" iii 
eroiy town and village during the lainy seasoii. SJ^I 
opened tlie gate and admitted us into a small room fur- 
nished with a hammock, a sofa, aud-A few chairs, tlte 



iRtUs adorned with some coarse prints, of wliich tlie old 
gentleman seemed rerj proud. lie said if we could be 
satistied witli such accommodation aa he Imd, the gentle- 
men to sling their hammocks iii the sitting-room with him, 
tho Senhora to sleep with his wife and the children in the 
onlj other room ho bod to offer, he should be happy to 
recMva ua. I oonfees that tlte prospect was not encourage 
ing ; bat I was prepared to meet with incouTeniencea, 
koowiug tliat oven a short jounie; into tlte interior involved 
discomforts, and when the hostess presently entered and 
made me heartily welcome to a corner of her apartment, 
I thanked her with such cordiality as I could muster. She 
was many years younger than her husband, and eUU very 
handsome, with an Oriental kind of beauty, rather enhanced 
by her dresB. Sbe worn a red muslin wrapper, somewhat 
tlie worse for wear, bat itill brilliant in color ; and her long 
black hail' hung iow« and unbraided over lier shouldera. 
An hour or two Inter supper was announced. We had 
brought tlie groutor part of it with us from the city, but 
we invited all tlie family to sup with us, according to tlie 
fasliiou of tho cuiinlry. Tlie old gentleman completed 
his toilet by adding to it a gaudy-flowered cotton dress- 
ing-gown, and seating himself at tho table, oonlomplatod 
(ho roast-ehiekeits and claret with no little sutij^fatTtiou. 
From tlio appeuraiioc of things, such a meal must have 
beon a rarity in his lionse. The mud floor of tho kitchen 
whore we supped wa^ sloppy, and its leaky roof and broken 
walls were but dimly liglitoxl by the coane guttering cindlcs 
made from the Caniaukk palm. 1 presently heard a load 
gobbling clove by my ude ; and, looking down, saw by 
tlie half-light a black pig feeding at a little table wiili 
tlie two children, aflKintcd also by the dog and the oat. 


Sapper ovor. I proposed to go to the oommon t\<y 
ftpartmeot, prcrcrriiig to be in advance of tny couxpi^i -^ 
It wms a little room, srane Uui feet square, boluud tla 
one where wo had been rcceiTod, and witiioiil any windov. 
This ia not, boweror, so groat ao objection hero, when 
tin roofs are so opeu lliat a great deal of air comes lh» 
above. Once oascouoed in my hammock I began to watck 
the arriral of mjr ruom>mates wiUi some curiosity. Knt 
, sntered a young girl and her little aistor, who stow«d 
thetnselvos away iu oiio of the beds ; then came the aea- 
Tant^maid and bung hcraclf up in her hammock in • 
oorner ; aud lastly arrived ttiu landlady, who took poeaee- 
sion of Uie olhci' bed, and vomplc(«d the diarma of lite 
bcene by lighting her pipe to have a quiet smoke before 
she went to olocp. I camiot say the siluatioa was faTer- 
able to rest ; the heavy showers which rattled on tlie tilea 
througiiout the niglit pouctralcd the leaky roof, and, how. 
ever I changed my position in tlie liamntock, it nuued 
into my face ; flees were abundant ; tlio silence waa ooca- 
Btonolly broken by the crying of the children, or tlie gniut> 
iug of tlio pig at the door, and for my part I was veiy 
glad when live o'clock called us all to get op, our plan 
being to start at six aud ride three leagues before breakfast. 
However, on a journey of this kind, it is one tiling to intend 
going anywhere at a particular Umo and quite another ta 
■coomplish iU When we met at six o'clock in teadioeta 
for our journey, two of tlio horses were not to be found ; 
they hud strayed away during the night. Though accidenis 
of this kind are a constant suhjoct of complaint, it doas 
not Boem to occur to any one to secure the liorses (or the 
night ; it is indeed fur easier to lot tlioni roam about and 
provide for themselves. The scrvauts were sent to look foi 



them, and we sat waiting, aod losbg the bott hoiin 
of the raoniiiig, Ull, ia tlioir own good time, men and 
^beasts reappeared. We wera at last on the road at half 
past eight o'clock ; but, unhappily, it was jtut during 
our two hours of inaction that the rain, which had been 
pouring in torrents all night, had coaled for a timo. Ws 
Ii&d scarcely started when it Iwgau again, and accompanied 
us for a great part of tlio way on our long three leagues' ride. 
We came uow for the fir^t time on tiie Caruaitba palm 
(Copei'iiicia cerifcrn), so invaluahio for ita many useAil 
properties. It fnrnishcs ati admirable timber, strong and 
durable, iVoni which the rafters of all tiie houses in thia 
region arc made ; it yields a wax whicli, if the process 
of refining and bleaching it were understood, would make 
•Ji excellent candle, and which, as it is, is used for 
light thronglioiit the province ; from its silky fibre very 
strong thread and cordage arc manufactured ; the Itcart 
of thu loaves, when cooked, makes an oxcolieut vegetable, 
resembling delicate cabbage ; and, Gually, it provides a 
very nourishing fodder for cattle. It is a saying in the 
province of CearjL, that where the Caruanba palm alwunds 
a man has all he needs for himself and hi» horse. The 
stem is tall, and the leaves so arranged around the Mini 
mil as to form a close spherioal crown, entirely unlike 
that of any other palm.* 

If we had to lament the rain, we were fmtunaie in not 
having the sun on our journey, for the forest is low and 
affords but little shade. Tlie road was ia a terrible con- 
ditiou from the long-continued rains, and though there 

* For I rcrj inierei^nK treatiio em ihit palm, wul A« nrioni biBDcIiN 
ot indiuuj it maj bo mode to lubicrrc, toe " Noiics anr lo Palo'tr C wnMbC 
pM M A. do Maixdo, Paris, I SOT, S". 




are no rivers of any tmporuuco between the town 
Ihe Serrft of Monguba, lo which w« were bound, 
in Bereral places Uie little streams were «voIIvq to a ci 
sideriiblo depiU; aiid, owiug to tlie brokea conditdoa of ihj 
bottom, full of holes and deep ruts, tiiey were hj no me 
easy to ford. After a fatiguing ride of four hours, d 
which we inquired, two or three times, how for we had si 
to go, and alwap received tlie same answer, " uma icgua,' 
that league never seeming to diminisli witli our adraii' 
wo wore delighted to find ourvelTcs at the little bridi 
which turned off from tlie nmiii road and led us to 
fattinda. of Senhor Franklin de Lima. Tlio travollcr 
alwa>'s welcome who asks hospitality at a Brazilian cou 
try house, but Major Coiitinho had already stayed at tliij 
fozciida on previous joumcys, and we shared the welcoi 
given to him as aii old friend. The hospitalilj of oti 
excellent hoEts repaid us for uU tlio fatigues of our joui 
iioy, and our luggugo being »till oti tbo road, their kindo' 
supplied tlic defects of our toilet, which was in a laiocnta! 
condition aOer Eplashiug through muddy water two or tit 
feet deep. Mr. Agossiz, however, could not spare time 
re»t ; wo bad followed a morainic soil for a great part ol 
our Journey, had passed many boulders on tlie road, oii 
ho was anxious to examine the Serra of Monguba, 
tlio Klope of which Senhor Franklin has his oofTco plaiu 
tallon, and at the foot of which hi;) house ftandp. Hi 
was, therefore, either on foot or on horseback tlie grcaie 
pari of this day and the following one, examining th 
geological »trncture of the mountain, and satisfying hm 
Eclf that, here too, all tlio valleys have had Iheir glaeien 
and that these valleys have brought down from the hil' 
■ides into the plains boulders, pebbles, and d/brU 

kU 8orU). Ill tliis pleasant lionie, in the midst uf th« 
llriglu, intelligent circle composing the family of Scnliur 
JFran^lin, we passed two dafs. After breakfast wu dis- 
Fpersed to our various occupations, ihc gentlemen being 
engaged Jn excursions iit the ncigliborbood ; tlm Gvcniiig 
brought us togctlicr ugatn, and wus enlivened with music, 
dancing, and games. The Bratili&ns u« fond of games, 
and play tJiem with much wit and animation. One of 
their favorltu gumes is eallud "the market of saints"; 
it is very amusing when there are two or three bright 
people to act the prominent parttn. One person performs 
the tutlcsmnn, another the padre who comes to purchase 
a t^nt for his chapel ; the company enact the saiota, 
OOTering their faces with their handkerchiefs, and remain- 
ing as motioiilcs!! as possible. Tiie salesman brings in the 
padre, and, taking him from one to another in turn, de- 
scribes all their extraordinary miraculous qualities, their 
wonderful lives and pious deaths. After a few introdue- 
tory remarks on the subject of tlie purchase, the hand- 
kerchief is drawn off, and if the saint keeps his counte- 
nance and remains immovable during all the ridiculous 
tilings that are said about him, he comes off scot free; 
but if ho laughs he ts subject to a forfeit. There are 
indeed few who stand the test; for if the salesman has 
any tact in the game, he knows how to seize upon any 
fanny incident or characteristic quality connected with the 
iudiridual, and give it prominence. Perhaps tlie reader, 
knowing something of our hunt for glaciers, may guess 
this saint, Major Coutinho being salesman. "This, Sen- 
hor Piidrc, is rather a steut saint, but still of most pious 
disposition, and, mcu Padre! a wonderful worker of 
miracles ; he can fill these valleys with ice, he cover* llio 



mouDtain* with snow in tbo hottest days, ha brings tbt 
110068 from the top of tlta eerra to tbe bottom, be fia4 
animals in tlie bowels of tbe earth and brings out thai 
bones." " Ah I " replies tbe padre, " « wonderful taiat, 
truly ! sach an one as I need for my cbapel ; let me 
look upon bis face." Handkorcbief withdrawn, and the 
^aint in questiou of course lo^^es bis forfeit. YestenUr. 
After breakfast, we htt our pleasant friends and came on 
(0 tlte little village of Pacatuba, a league farther inland, 
and most picturesquely situated at the foot of tbo Sem 
of Aratanlia. Uere we are fortunate iu fuiduig an emptj 
"sobrada" (two-storied bouse), in which wo shall establisli 
ourselves for tlie two or three days we mean to spend in 
tJiia neighborhood. We have had it swept oat, have bung 
our hammocks iu tbe vacant rooms, which, witl> the exce] 
don of a straw sofa and a few chairs, are innoceut 
furniture ; and if we find it ratlter forlorn within doors. 
we have at loost beautiful views from all our wiodowe. 

April 7fA. — Pavatuba. Wo have olrcady asoertainei 
that our cxplomtiun must he confined to th« serras in i 
midst of which wv find ourselvM; for every ono tells 
that, ill the prusoiit state of t)ie roads, it would be im 
ble to go to Baturit^) and return iu tbo short time we have 
at our disposal, tlowercr, Mr. Afpissiz is not di««ppoiot«d ; 
for lie Hiys a further journey could only give him glacial 
pbeiiomciia on a larger scale, whicli lie fiuds here immedi- 
ately about Itim in the greatest perfection. On tlita very 
Serra of Aratanba, at the fool of which we happen to have 
taken up our quarters, tlte glacial pbonomena are as legible 
as in any of the valleys of Uaine, or in those of Uie moun- 
tains of Cumberland in England. It had evidently a Iocs' 
glacinr, formed by tlie meeting of two arms, wlJob do 



Mcuded from two depressions spreading rigtit and lelt on 
tlie upper part of the sorni, And joining bolow in t)ie main 
rallcj. A large part of the medial moraine formed b^ 
the meeting o( these two arms can still bo traced in the 
contra] valle;. One of the lateral moraines is porfvctly pro- 
sorred, the village road cultitig Ihrongii it; while the vil- 
lage itself is built just within the terminal moraine, u-liich 
is thrown up in a long ridge in front of it. It ia a c'.irious 
fact that, in the centre of tlie medial moraine, formed by a 
little mountain stream making its way through tlit! ridge of 
mcks and boulders, is a delicious bathing pool, orcrgrown 
b; orange-trees and palms. As Mr. Agassiz came down 
from tlie serra ycstorday, heated with his hunt after glaciers 
under a tropical sun, ho stopped to bathe in this pool. Ho 
said, as he enjoyed its refreshing coolness, ho conM not but 
be struck with the contrast bL'twcon thu origin of this liasin 
and the vegetation which now surrounds it; to say nothing 
of the odd coincidence that he, a naturalist of the nino- 
teenth century, should he bathing under tlie shade of palms 
and orange-trees on the very s[>ot where h« sought and 
found the evidence of a cold so intense tliat it heaped the 
mountains with ice. 

AprQ 9rt. — yesterday, at soren o'clock in tJie morning, 
we left Pacattiba for the house of Senhor da Costa, lying 
hnlf-way up the serra, at a height of about eight hundred 
feet above tho level of the sea. The jHith ip the serra ia 
wild and picturesque, lined with immense boulders, and 
shaded with large trcc» ; while hero and tticn) a little cas- 
cade comes brawling down over th« rocks. In this climate, 
a road so broken by bmildera is especially beautiful, on ao- 
eoant of the luxuriance of the vegetation. Bsquisit« vices, 
shrubs, and even trees spring np wherever they con find the 



ieut soil ill irliich to stiike root ; and tnonj of then t» 
latod rocks are gardens iii theoiKlTcs. One iiniii<!M 
bouldor In tlie path i» split, aiid from its centre spring* i 
palm all dnpcricd in vines- Of Uw native trees, tlt« Gtta- 
pspu (Genipa brazil iensis), tlie Iinhaiilia (Cecropia), the 
Camaub* (Copcrnicia vcriftTS), the CatoM (Attalea bu- 
milEs), and tlic Pao d'A.rco (Tccouia speciosa^ are avxt 
prominent. Tim latter Is so named because Uie Indiam 
mnko tboir bows from its tougli, ela^c wood. Though not 
native to the soil, bananas, cocoa-nut patms, orangc-LrM*. 
as woU as cotton and coSi.'e shrutit^, arc abundant. The 
cultivation of coffee, wliicb thrircs admirably on tlie slope* 
of all the serros, is the great source of prosperity hero; but, 
at least in tlic sitios wc hnvo visited, it is difficult to judge 
of the extent of tbu planttitions on account of the irrcgnlar 
manner of planting. Tho crops are, liotrover, very large, 
and tlw coflfeo superior in quality. 1 found tlie climb up tli« 
precipitous sorra exceedingly fatiguing. The peopio whe 
live on tlie mountain come and go constantly, even witli tlieir 
children, on horseback ; but as our horses were from the 
city, and niiaocnstomcd to mountain pathii, «c had preferred 
ascending on foot, especially as tlie rains had made tlie rosd 
more rough and broken than usual. A mountain wrambla 
in Uiis country is very different from tlie )>ame thing in tem- 
perate climates. Tlie Ica«t exertion induces ezcetwivo pei^ 
epinition ; and if, when thus drenched to the «kin, you stop 
rest, you are chilled by the sligtitest brooxe. I was very gl 
when, after about an Imur's climbing, we reached the ri 
of Scnhor da Onsta, on the slope of the surra. Donna Maria 
laughed at mo r>r coming up on foot, and stid I should ha 
mounted like a man, as she does, and ascended tlie serra 
horseback. Indeed, I think a lady who is obliged to mak? a 





Journey ill tlio tbterior of Brazil should dress Bloomet^fashion 
fend mount en eavaJier. A lady's seat on horseback is too 
losocure for dangerous mountain roads, or for fording 
BtrcAms; and her long skirt is auotlior iDcoiivcnience. 

Nothing can be more picturesque ttian tho situatioa of 
Ihia sitio. It is surrounded by magniGcent masfes of rock, 
which seem embedded in the forvst, as it woro ; and by its 
Bide a cascade comes leaping down through the trees, so hid- 
den by Uicm that, though you hear the voice of the vater 
ooDstantly, you only see its glimmer Iiere and there among 
tho green foliage. The house itself stands on a fme speci* 
men of moraine, flanked on one aide by a bank of red mo- 
runic Mil, overtopped by boulders. It is so built in among 
huge laasses of rock that its walls seem half natural. At 
tlte foot of the mountain spreads the Sertao, stretching 
level for the most part to the ocean, though broken here 
and there by billowy hills rising isolated from its surface. 
Beyond it many miles away may he suvn tho ycUoir lines 
of t))0 sand-dunes ou llie slioro, and the white glitter of the 
sea. Tlic Sertao (desert) is beautifully green now, and 
spreads out like a verdant prairie below. But in the dry 
eeason it jufitifies its name and becomes a very desert indeed, 
being so parched that all vegetation it destroyed. The 
drought is so great during eight months of tlto year, that 
the country people living in the ScrtaS are often in danger 
of famine ftom the drying up of all the crops.* Aiier this 
long dry season the rains often set in with terrible violence, 

' Bin for thj dbicnce of a ihroh ntllcil ro oar hnirthom, anJ kno«m lo 
bolanlilii u Zixjphnii Jnou-iro, thii auito iroutd (nlTur cxuMilrcl^p (luiinjc lh> 
iboDgbt. Thii iihrub [* odr of llin tf" iilnnu vomiiiuii to I'lia liiiiiiiilR if liich 
dam not I(m« it* Miisn ^urini; Iha ilrj icaMn, iti^J, liMj>[>it_r fur ilm >iiii«!iiunM. 
•n iIhi h*rlHtrima* itomralicaMil aniiniih drlii-ht to Tmyl njion H- — U A. 


aad it IB at this time that epidemics are develupCKi, tucb 
prevail dow. It raius inj and nigtit for woeks at u time, till 
ereiTtliiiig is penetnted with dampnees ; aud wIiud the hot 
«UQ comes out upoti the soaked and Bteaming earth, it is far 
more iojurious Uiaii in tb« dr; season. One cannot irooder 
at the prevailing sickness, for the humidity seems to pc^ 
meats evorytbiug with subtle power. The walls, tlto floors, 
the very furniture, — your hammock at nigbt aiid your 
clothes in the morning, — feel damp aud have a sort of 
clammy chill; and ibe sun comes out with such fitful 
gleams, that, intense as is its heat while it lasts, nothing be> 
oomos thoroughly dried. 

Toward nightfall we vent to see the sunset Trom a bouK 
der of enormous size, which seems to have stopped inexpli- 
cably on the steep descent. It juts out from tlie moiintaiii- 
ado, and commands oren a mora extensive view than the 
bouse aboTo. I could not hulp tliiiiking, as wo ^tood on the 
0dgo of ibis immcuKo mass of rock, that, as it seemed to 
have stopped for no particular reason, tt might start again 
U any minuto. and bring one to the bottom erf' the serra 
vith unpleasant rapidity. 

Aprii \OtJi. — Yesterday afternoon wc returned to Paca- 
tuba, descending the serra much more rapidly and with far 
losN ftttigue than we had ascended. Wo would gladly have 
availed ourmIvcs longer of t)ie pleasant boepitaUly of our 
hosts, who very graciously urged us to stay ; but time i* 
procious, and we are anxious uot bo miss the next steamer. 
Donna Maria's kindncfs followed us down the mountain, 
however, for scarcely had we reached tlio bouso before ao 
excellent dinner — stewed fowls, beef, vogctables. t*c — ar- 
rived, borne on the beads of two negroes. WW" I saw the 
load these moi) had brought so steadily down th' ^me path 



over wliich I Iiad wtaa rolling, pitching, tumbling, eliding,— 
any way, in sliorl, but walking, — 1 eitvied lli«ir dexterity, 
and longed to bo fts snre-fooied as these ^lioelc^a, half naked, 
ignorant blacks. To-day we learo Pocatuba for tlie house 
\i( S«tihor Franklin, on our way back to Ceard. 

April l2lK. — On the lOlli we rctunied to Monguba, 
where we passed that day uud the following night at tho 
fazeiida of our friends, tlie FrunklinK. Tho nvst morning 
we bad intended to start at six o'clock on our way to tbo 
city. No Soulier were the Iwisus at llie door, how«Tor, and 
the psLck-mulcs ready, tlian a pouring rain btignn. Wo 
waited for it to paM, but it was followed by ohower oiler 
ghower, falling in solid aheeta. So the day wore on till 
twelve o'clock, when tliero was a lull, with a prospect of 
fine weather, and we stai'ted. I could uot help feeling sonio 
anxiety, for 1 remembered tho sti-eanis we bad forded ia 
coming, and wondered wltat tlioy would be after lliese tor- 
rents. Fortunately, before we reached the Gi-st of them, we 
met two negroes, who warned us that there was a great deal 
of water on the road. We liirod tbcm to como on witli us, 
and guide my borsc. When wo reucbed llic spot it really 
looked appalling. Tbo roud wus inundated to a couMder- 
able distance, and the wator ruKhod across it with grcut vio- 
lence, having in many places a depth of four or fivo fnoti 
and a strong current. If there hiid been a sound bottom 
to rely upon, the vettlug would have been uvtiiiug; but 
the road, torn up by ilie rains, was (Ull of holes aud deep 
gollieK, NO that the liorses, coming unex|>ectedly on ihcM 
uiequalities, would suddenly flounder up to tiieir neoks in 
watei, and recover their footing only by kicking and plung- 
log. We crossed four such streonis, one man Unding my 
hono while the gentlemen followed close behind, and the 




second atgro walking in front to soc where it was prKtfiiblo tl 
pass without getting complotolj out of depth. These iitreomfl 
not quite deep enough to allow the hone to swim, and wilq 
such a broken liottotn that he is in constant danger of fallJ 
ing, are sometimes more difticiiU of pwsagu than a riTerJ 
We met with onlj- one accident, however, whidi, as it did ntf 
harm, was rather ludicrous tlian oUiorwisc. T)io n<^roes haJ 
loft us, saying there was no more deep water in tho road, and 
when wo came presently to a shallow stream we entered i^ 
qiiit« confidently. It was treactieroiis, however, for just oi^ 
its edge was a soft, adhesive bog-mud. In entering, tlio horsed 
stopped across this quagmire, but tlieir hind le^ were ia4 
stantly caught in it. Major Coulinho, who was riding at mf 
side, seized my bridle, and, spurring his own horse violent- 
ly, both the animals extricated themselves at onco by *> 
powerful effort. Our servant, who followed bohind, woe nod 
so fortunate ; he was mounted on a small mule, whicln 
seemed hkoly to be swallowed up bodily for a moment, ht 
suddenly did tt disappear in the mire ; tho man fell off, ond^ 
it was some minutes before he and his animal regained thoi 
road, a mass of mud and dripping witli water. We reached 
Cear£ at five in the afternoon, having made a journey of fiv«' 
Icaguos. Every one tella iis that tho state of tho roads isi 
most unusual, such continuous rains not having been known] 
for many years. Tlie sickness in the dty continues un j 
abated, and a young man who was attacked with yellow*^ 
fever in tho next house before we led has didd in ourj 
absence. Bvcrywhcro on our journey we have hoard that 
same complaints of prevalent epidemics, and the authorities'] 
are beginning to clo«e tho schools in the town ou aooouiit ofl 
tliein. The steamer is due in a day or two, and we aie tnak ] 
ing our pivparations for departure. Wc should not bid good 



by to Ccar4 wUliout acknowledging tli« sftnpaih}' shown b; 
the I'resident of the I'rovincfl, Seiihor Houicm do Mullo, in 
tlic objects of the expedition. Mr. A^fasMi has received a coU 
lection of palms and fn^lies, the dircctiotiH for rhtch ho hod 
giTcii before starUitg for the Scrra, but the expenses of 
whicli are defrnjed by the President, who insist& tipan their 
being received as a contribution from the proriuce. M.-. 
Agassiz is also greatly indebted to Seuhor Felice, at whoitQ 
house we have lodged, for efficiont help in collecting, and to 
Eenlior Cicero du Lima for a collection of fishes and iufiects 
front the interior. I conclude this chapter with a few pas- 
sages from notes made lijr Mr. Agni^iz during Im examina- 
tion of the Scrra of Aralanha and the ^ite of Pacatulia. 

" I spoilt the rest of the day in a special examination ol 
iJio right lateral moraine, and part of tlio front uioraino of 
llio glacier of Facatnba; my object was 6.speciany to awer- 
tain whether wtiat appeared a moraine at dii't might not. 
after all, l>o a spur of the serra, decom[K>scd in place. I as* 
ccnded llie ridge to its very origin, and there crossed into an 
adjoining depression, immediately below the Sitio of Captain 
Henriquez, where I found another glacier bottom of smaller 
dimensions, tlie ice of whieli probably never reached the 
plain. Everywhere in tlie ridgcK encircling these dcpros- 
Bions the loose materiulH and large boulders arc so accumu- 
lated and embedded in clay or sand that their morainic 
chaiactei is unmititakalile. Occasionally, where a lodge 
of the underlying rock crops out, in places where the drift 
has been removed by denudation, the dilterence between th« 
moraine and the rock decomposed in place is recogniiwd at 
Onoo. It is equally easy to distinguish the boulders which 
hero and there have rolled dowu from the mountain and 
itopped against the moraine. Tho throe things are ride by 


jovssrr m brazil. 

Bido, and mjglit at first be easily confounded ; but J> Itltle 
familiarity- makes it easj* to distinguish them. Wl>on At 
lateral moiitine turns toward the front of the ancient gladcr, 
near tlio point at which tli« brook of Pacatuba cutj< through 
the former, and 8 tittle to tlic west of tlio brook, there an 
odoesal boulders leaning against tlic morajuc, from the suio- 
mit of which they bare probably rolled down. Near the 
cemetery the front moraine convivts almost entirely of small 
quarts pebbles ; iticrc are, however, a few larger blocks 
among thom. The medial moraine exteuds nearly through 
the centre of the village, while the left-hand lateral moraine 
lies outride of (he village, at its eastern end, and is trarenod 
by the road leading to Ccard. It ia not impomUe that ea.<4- 
wardK a third tributary of tlic serra may have reached the 
main glacier of Pacatuba. I may say, that in llie whole 
ralley of HaslJ there are no accumulations of moraiuic ms- 
tcnals more characteristic than tliose I have found here, — 
not c^'Gn about tl>o Kirchot ; neitlicr are tliere any remaius 
of ihc kind more striking about the valleys of Mount Dcmrt 
in Maine, where the glacial phenomena are so remarkable, 
nor in the valleys of Louf^ti Pine, Lough Augh, and Lough 
Long in Scotland, where the traces of ancient glaciers are 
to distinct. III none of these localities are the glacial pt»- 
DOnicna more legible than in the Serra of Aratanha. I hop* 
that before long some mcmberi of the AI|Hne Club, thor- 
oughly familiar wilh the glaciers of tlio Old World, not only 
in their present, but alto in tlieir past condition, will come 
to these mountains of Coari and trace the outlines of thctr 
former glaciers more eitcn^^ively Uian it lias been possible 
for m» to do in tliis ^liort jouniuy. It would be an easy ex- 
cursion, since slcainera from Liverpool and Bordeaux reaob 
Pernambuco in about (en days, Arriving twice a month, whil« 




Brazilian Eteamers make tho trip from Fernambuco to Cear& 
in two days. The nearest serra in which I liavc observed 
traces of ancient glaciers is reached from Cearfi. in one day 
ou horseback. The best season for such a journey would be 
June and July, at the close of the rainy season, and before 
tlie ereAt droughts of tlio dry season have bogao." 






ToTios n»« Ca*iU. — Kruiiktii at Pnxuiacoo. — AMtvAt. at Rm — 
CuuxcTKun. — VKorrATiMi Aoocr Itio a* conrAUCO with tiut ok nn 
AaAtois. — MiMMictjKtiu IknnTAL. — Oiahities txunaurTKo wmi n. 

— Auitonnm n BRAin. — I;<xask Autu'H- — Mii.ttaht 5moau — 
Tim Kan. — Acadkmt vir Ftn Abti. — Hkbuum or a Kimiko. — ranun 
School tok Gibli. — NacLacrau Ei>c4tattck op Wonaic m Bkajii. — 

BUID AfTUCH, — tjiCTUKIU, — ClIAILACm OT mil Bkaxiuaji AitDnotc* 

— OnoAK UouxTAtxi. -~ Wauc CI- nia. moha-— rimKJUriMj* — Votr tv 
Till "St. Lowib" Faieko*. — Cij"at« or Timiii^ik>li» — IiKM-txt «r 
TiiB Sbhxa. — CaoLOOT <»■ m* Orqas VnnrTAixa. — Tna La>v Woitv. 

Mat/ 2%\ — Wo arrived iii Eio tnoru Uun a moiiUi sgO| 
having left Ccarii on tlio 16Ui of ApriL Tbero was notlii: 
worth rcoortliiig U, our voyago dowa tlio coMt, cocpt tl 
ot Pornaiubiicu we found Llio country even i»oro overflowed 
by tlie recent rains than it had bcci) at Ceari. Going to 

breakfast with oar rHoiidv, Mr. and Mt«. B , only four 

or livo miles Troin tlie city, wo passed throiigii portions of 
tlie road whore llie water was ncflrly level with the floor of 
the carriage ; and temporary ferries were CHtablislted by 
ncgroos, who were plying rafts and canoes between tiie 
shores for tite benefit of foot-passengors. A mile or two 

beyond Mr. R 's house wo were told that tlio road 

though one of the most frequented in the uoigtiborhood 
tito city, had become quite impassable. We saw many over* 
flowed gardens uud houses abandoned because the wi 
was already above tlio windows of llio gronnd-Boor. 

We had a warm welcome back to the beautiful bay 
Rio, on board the " Susquehanna," jti»t then iit the barl 


roriLic ixsTiriTioss of rio dk jaseiro 

Captain Tuylor «eiii his boat at ouce to our Et«aiiivr, aiid 
wc wero soon on liis deck, received eo cordially by biia and 
his officers, and hy a party of American frieuds wlia wcro 
making a visit to his ship, that it Gocmed like un andcipo- 
Uon of our am\'al at home. Tlicrc is uolhing eo pleasant 
08 au UDespcctcd meeting with one's own fcllow-citiieua on 
coming into a rorcigii port, and this was a delightful sui- 
prisc to us. 

We ore again in our old qunrtcra in the Rua Diroita, 
and, except that our rellov-traveUeni are all scattered, it 
would seem aa if we had stepped hack a year. Sinca our 
return, Mr. Agassis has boeu arranging and despatdiing to 
the United States the numerous specimens which hare been 
eciit in duriug our absence. Among them is thu largo and 
very complete collection made for him by tho Emperor last 
summer, when in command of the army at itie South. It 
cuiilaiii» rallies from several of tiic touthera frcsh-walcr 
basing, and includes a great number of new vpecics. Taken 
in connection with Uie Amazonian collections and those 
from the interior, it affords material for an cxtonslve com* 
parison of tho faimie of the southern and northern fresh- 
waters in BraKiI. 

Our excursions since our return have been only in the 
neighborhood of tho city to Petropolis and tho Dom Pedro 
Railroad. We are »urpri»cd, on returning to this road 
while our Amaeonian impressions are fresh in our mindst 
to find tliat the vegetation, the richness of winch amazed us 
when we first arrived in Brazil, looks almost meagre in com- 
parison to that with whicli we have siuco been &miliar. It 
is dwarfed, to our oyo, by tho still more luxuriant growth 
ol the north. 

Vevterday wai Ur. Agassiz'e birthday, again made vtrj 


bright to us kj tlic cordinl testimony of kind feeling and 
sympathy from liis friends and cotmtryjieople. In tliQ enu' 
ing wo wvre plcAsaiitly nurprived by a torchlight prooesnon 
in his honor, fonnvd by tlie Gerinui and Swiss rosldeats of 
Rio dc Janeiro. Tlie festivities concluded with a serenade 
iiiidcr o«r windows by the German club. 

Jutu 4tA. — Whe« we were in Rio de Janeiro last jwu-, 
Mr. Agassis was so much occupied witli the |dans of the 
expedition Uint lie was unable to risit tliu schools of tlie 
city, its chariublo iiislitutiofls, aiid the like. Being unwill- 
ing to leave Brazil without knowing sometliiug of the pub- 
lic works ill its largest capital, we are now engaged in 
*' sight-seeing." This morning we visilcd the Misericordia 
Ho!<pital. Pcrliaps it will give a better idea of itng institu- 
tion, and of the influences under which it at present exbts, 
to speak of it first as it was formerly. Nearly forty years 
u);o there was in Rio dc Janeiro a hospital called ** Dc ta 
SliKOriconliu." Its wards were low, its entries were coo- 
Rnod and clo»e, its staircases stocp and narrow. Aooording 
to tlie aocounts of phy^cians who were medical students 
there in those days, its internal organization was as sordid 
u its genera] ai<{K.-ct. Tlic floor* were wot and dirty, the 
beds wretched, the linen soiled ; and the absence of a system 
of ^xntilation nude itself the more felt on account of the 
want of general cleanliness. Tlie corpses awaited burial in 
a room whore tlie rats hold high festival ; and a physician, 
wlio has since occupied a distinguished position in Rio de Ja- 
ueiro, told us that when, as a student, he went to seek there 
U» materials for his anatomical studied, he often found life 
ttin-liig in this chamber of the dead, and startled away these 
uu<>eomly rioters. Sucli, in brief, was tlie Uiscrioordia IIoa- 
Iilla) at the lime when Brazil secured her independence 

ruBLi] ncsnTtmoKS of bio de jankiio. 


Liet u* SM vliat U is now. On the same £]>ot, tliough occo- 
pjiiig a mucli larger space, stands tlie prcEciit hospital. 
Wlien completed, it will consist or tlirc« pumllcl buildings, 
long in proportion to thoir breadtli, connected bj- cross cor- 
ridors enclosing courts between them. The central odifioo, 
intended for male patient^!, has been long in use. Tlie Trout 
building, looking on the bay, is nearly completed, and is to 
be devoted to the stores, to accommodations for hospital 
pbyaicians, nurses, &c. The rear building, not yet begun, 
will be for the use of women and children, who now occupy 
the old hospital. Let us Ionic first at the central dirision. 
We enter a spacious hall tiled with marble. A smaller 
hull, loading out of it, cotmccts with one or two rcception- 
rooms, whera visitors arc received, and medicines given 
out gratis to poor applicants. A broad stuircaiw of dark 
wood brings us to tlie wide corridors, on which the wards 
open, and which look out upon green gardens enclosed 
botweou the buildings, whore convalescents may he soou 
strolliog about, or resting in the shade. At the first 
ward we are received by a Sister of Charity, who, in tlie 
absence of the Superior, is to show us the establishment. 
A description of one ward will answer for all, since they 
are identical. It is a long, lofty room, the beds in rows 
on either side, facing outward, and having a brood, open 
space down the centre. The beds arc arranged two and 
two in pairs, each pair being divided by a door or win- 
dow. Between every two beds is a little niche in the 
wall, with a ebelf to draw out underneath. In the niche 
are one or two pitchers or goblets holding the patient's 
drink ; on the shelf is his mug, ready to his hand. To a 
height of some six or eight feet the wall is wainscoted with 
blu«-and -white porcelain tUes. They are easily washed, do 



uot coutract dampnfic*, and look very cool and TrcKh. rU 
floor i» made c^ the dark Brazilinii wood, )Mirlly inlaid, aad 
wtixod carefuUj ; PoL a staiu is to t>6 »u«o aiijwhvre oo in 
sliiiiiiig Aurftoe. The bedding consists of a well-staSed 
%lraw-iuattre!i!i boloff, wilb a thick hair-mattross above. 
Tiio &liceU aud pillow-cases are spotless. Indeed, everj^ 
itiiug in this fresh, well-aired, spflcioua room bespeaks aa 
exquisito order aud iieatuefis. Tbo bath-rooms oro in coa- 
Totiient relation to the wards, funiithod villi large muUe 
bath-tubs, and will) hot aud cold vatcr iu abuudi 
From the public wards we pus Into largo corridors, 
which open privato apartmouts for tlw use of persoiu wlio^ 
uot hariiii; convenient arraugcmcuts at liome, or bciiui 
strangers iu tlie citjr, prefer, in case of illnv^ to go to tbt 
hospital. Tlie rent of thcso chambers isexcuodiiigly nted- 
urate; — for a room to one's »elf, 91>&0 a day ; for a rooca 
shared with one otlier person, tl a day; for a bed in a 
larger room occupied hj half a doten, but withdrawn from 
the general throng, 75 cents. These charges include medi- 
cal attendance, nursing, and food. From Uic words de- 
rated to ordinary diseases, fevers aud the like, we went tc 
the surgical wards. It need not be smd that hero the Eamc 
neatness and care prevailed ; the operating rooms, tlie sar- 
gory lined with cases containing instruments, lint, bondages, 
&c. were all in faultless order. 

From this building — looking, as we went, into the kitchen, 
where the contents of Iha great shiny copper ketUcs smelt 
very invitingly — we passed through a pared court to lira 
old hospital, in which aro the wards for women and cliU- 
dren. Tliis gave us «n opportunity of comparing, at least 
in its general arrangement, the ancient cstablisbment witlr 
the Tiodem one. The neatness and order prevailing througlf 



dut make orou this part of Uie hospital attroctiTe and clicer- 
ful ; but OHO feels at onco the diCTeroiico between the high, 
airy rooms and opoii corridors of tlic new building and 
tliQ more coufinud quarters of Uiu old ouc. In both parlii 
f>f tlio hoepital tlio miugling of color impresses the Ktraugor. 
Blacks and whites lie side hy side, and the proportion of 
negroes is consideruhio, l>olh among the men and women. 

The charity of the Mi^cricordia is a very comprchen- 
live one ; it inclnden not only maladioa susceptible of 
cure, but has aUo it!i ward for old and infirm persons, 
who will never learo it except for tlieir last homo. The day 
before our vioit a very aged woman had been buried thence, 
who had lived under this roof for seventeen years. There 
is also a provision for children whoso pai-euto die in the 
hospital, and wlio hare no natural protector. Thoy remain 
tliore, receive an elementary educatiou, being tauj^ht to 
read, write, and cipher; and arc not turned into lh« world 
until they are of ago to marry or to enter into service. 
There is a chapel connected with the hospital, and many of 
tlio wards arc furnished with an altar at ono cud, above 
which is placed a statue of the Virgin, a crucilix, or a pic- 
ture of some saint. I could not help a^kuig mywlf if regu- 
lar religious services would not lie a who addilioii to all 
churitablo institutions of this kind, whether Protestant or 
Catholic. To the respectable poor, their church is a great 
dca]. Many a convalescent would he glad to hear the 
Sunday hymn, to join in the prayer put up for his i«> 
iwverv ; and would tliink himself the bettor, body and 
sou), because he had listened to a sermon. To be uure, 
in o»r country, where creeds are so various, and almost 
everv patient might have his own doctrinal speciality, there 
might t-e some difficulties which do not exist where there 




is a Elate religion, sod one rorm of senrioe is siire In 
Buit all. Still, uauj would be comfortod and consoled, md 
would oome wiUiout asking nhetlior U>e dergjmttn wm 
of tUis or that deuomination, if tliey felt him to be geoaioe 
and truly devout. 

1 have presented the old hospital and the present one m 
direct contrast, bocuuso the comparison gives a measure of 
the progress which, in some directions at least, Iioit taken 
placo duriiiR the last tliirty or forty years in Rio de Juteiro. 
It is true, tliat all Uiuir iii^litnttotis have not advanced in 
proportion to tlieir benevolent esubli^limcnts ; charitj, Uke 
hoepitalily, may be said to be a imtional virtue aioODg 
tlto Brazilians. Tlicy hold almsgiving a religious duty, 
and arc more liberal to their cliurcbej and to the public 
charities connected with tlicra ttinii to their institutions 
of loamhig. Unhappily, a great deal of tlioir liberality 
of this kind is expended upon church fc»las, street pro- 
cessions, itaint daj-s, and the like, more calculated to feed 
superstition than to Rtiniulalc piirc religious sentiment. 

Wo fthoiild not Icaro tlic Uiserioordia without some allu< 
sioii to tlie man to whom it chiefly owes its present character. 
Jos6 Clcmente Pcreira would liave been gnttefutly rcmem- 
l>cred bj the Kraziliaiia as a statesman of disttngui&lied 
merit, who was intimately associated witli more than one of 
the most important events in their hiittory, even had he no 
other claim on tlieir esteun. He was bom in Portugal, 
and distinguished himself as a young man in the Penin- 
Biilar war. Thoiigh he was already twenty-eight years of 
age when ho IcA Europe, be seenos to have be«n as true 
a lover of Brazil as if bom on lier soiL His merit was 
soon rcco^iited in his adopted country, and he occupied, 
at differoiit times, some of the highest ofTices of tlic 

I'uituc iNSTiTimoss OK nro de jASErea 


realm. Tim wirlj- part of his political career fell iipoii tlie 
■turm^ limes wlieii Brazil was Htriiggliiig for bcr nutioiial 
existence a.!' an iiide{>eiid»nt Kiii[iirc ; but during t)>u more 
ti-Qtiqiiil close of liis life be seems to bare boon cliiiiOy 
occiipiod ill works of boiiorolence, lu founding charitublo 
tnstiltitioiis, and even in personal attendance upon tJic »ck 
Slid sufliiring. 

Tlio name of tbia benevolent Brazilian in associated not 
only villi tlio Misericordiu liospital, but also wltli tlio ad- 
mirable asylum fur tlio insane ut Botafogo, wliicli bears 
tbo name of tbo present Emperor. A groat port of tlie 
funds for tbis establi$ltmcnt vcro obtained in an original 
way, wbicli eliows tliut Porciru knew bow to tnni llic 
woakucs^s of lii« comilrymuii to gnod account. Tbo 
Brazilians are addicted to title:t, nnd the government of- 
fered dittiiictions of tbis kind to wealt]iy citizens who 
would endow tbo iTisane a»ybim. Tliey were to l)C eitlier 
ironiineiidndorcs or barons, ttic importance of Ibe title l>oing 
in proportion to tbe magnitude of tbcir donations. Large 
sums wore actually obtained in tbis way, and several of 
tlio titled men of Uio thus purchased tbeir patents of 
nobility. When I first arrived in Rio do Janeiro, mere 
clian-JO led mc to visit Ibis asylum. Entering as a stran- 
ger, 1 Mw only tlio outer rooms, listened to tbc evening 
scn'ice in tbc cliapcl for a few moments, aud was struck 
witli the order and quiet which seemed to prevail. It 
certainly never wotild have occurred to mo tliat I was 
in an )n.Hane hospital. To-day Mr. Agaimit and myself, 
accompanied by our friend Dr. I'acbeco da Silvn, passed 
Bovcral hours there, and saw the whole e$tabIiK)iment Id 
detail. The building faces upon Botafogo Bay, having the 
boocli immediately before it ; on its right the pictaresqiio 




[gap, one si<Ie of ithicli is made b; llie PaS do Astucar, 
On ito left ll)« beaudriii rallcjr ruuiiing up lowftrd 
vado. Tims, looking on the »» and surroiiiidod by nn 
tains, it coiniuaitds exquisite riews on every side, 
(ilau of tJie building, iu its goiicrol arrangement, is 

'uuJike Ukat of tlie Siisericordia. It is a handsome i 
stone sttucture, talber loug in proportion to Its beiglit, 
and consists of tvo paralld buildings, connected hj ooh 
corridors. Tlieeo corridons cticlo«o oourts, ptauted vitb 
troos aud llowcrs, and making vcr^ pleasant gai-dens. Tbs 
eulroiico hall Is iu the coutrc, and lias on vither side tlis 
Ktutucs of Piuul aud E»quirul, the two French maslen a 
the treatment of uioutal disen&cs. Tbe statues have no 
merit as vorks of art ; but it was pleasaut to see them 
tliero, an showing a recognition of what tliese men bate 
done for scicuca aud for humanity. A hnoad, low &imt- 
ease of dark vood leads up to tlie chapel. Here «e 
looked with interest at the ornaaients on the altar, because 
tliey are the work of tlie patients, who take great pleasure 
in making artificial flowers and oilier decorations for tlio 
church. On tlio same Hour vrMi tbe chajwl is a largo liall, 

L where stands tlie statue of tlie youthful Binpcror Hoai I*edra 
Seguudo. Opposite to it U lliat of Pereira. It is wortliy 
of note that this statue was presented by the Emperor, 
and at his request placed opposite his own. Tho face, 
quite iu keeping with the history of the mau, is oxprossire 
both of great bcncvolouue and remarkable decision. Con- 
nected witli lliis liull are screral rcocptiou-ludls, pariors, 
and antccliambcrs ; indeed, too muclt room is otuigncd 
to mere state apartments in an cstabli^-^hiuent whura 

I ipaco must be precious. One of thin suite of rooms wm 
devoted to the totious fancy-work made by the patients. 



PU8UC iNsrtTirnoss or wo pe jANcika 

-■cmbi-utijciy of all sorts, artificial Qowen aud the like. 
licnce we ptt»scd to tbe wards. &» in tlie Mtsencordia, 
'thu rooms am very larg« and Ingli, wniiisoutvd with tiles, 
and opcuiug upon wide corridors, which look out into the 
enclosed garden*. Some of the dormitories have fifteeu 
or twenty bods, btit many of the ileeping-roonis avo 
cninller, it being belter, no doubl, to separate tite [mtieuts 
k,t night. We saw but little indication of suffering or 
Jidtress among them. There were one or two cases of 
religious melancholy, with the look of fixed, absorbed sad- 
ness cliaracteristic of tliat form of insanity. Wo wore 
met once or twice by the vacant i^taro, and beard the 
senscloBS chatter and laugli always to be found in the<)B 
sadd<»t of all asylums for buman suflcriog. But, on the 
vbole, an air of cheerfultioss prevailed ; with few excep- 
tions all tbe paticiita were occupied, Iho women with plain 
Bcvring or embroidery, tlic mcu with carpentering, Khoo- 
making, or tailoring, mukiug cigars for the use of ti»> 
eKtablisbmeut, or pickuig orer old oordago. Tbo Supericn' 
told UB tbut occupation was found to be the moi<l cfTicicnt 
remedy, and that though woi'k was not couipulsory, with 
few exceptions all the patients preferred to Hhare in it. 
Tlie whole service of the house — washing, sweeping, wax* 
iiig the {loci's, cleaning the chambers and putting Uiem in 
order — is perlbrmed by them. Sunday is found to be the 
most difficult day, because much of the ordinary occupation 
is suspended, and the patients become unruly in proportiou 
as they are unemployed. From these apartments, where alt 
were busy and comparatively quiet, wo passed to a corridor 
enclosing a lar^e court, where some of the lunatics, too rest- 
loss for cmploymout, were walking about, gesticulating and 
talking loudly. The corridor was lined oti ita i inersido wilfa 



ehambens deroted to Die use of those wbosc riolence Badtl'l 
Doceosary to cotifiuc them. Tti« doors and windows «al| 
gral«d, th« rooms empty of furniture, but well IJgiited, tf 
cious, mid nirr ; not at all tike cells, except in betng ■ 
Ftrongtr secured. Tbef were mostly without i>ccupaiits ; bnl 
ID) we pused cme of Uiom a man rushed to the door,uil 
called out to us that he was not a prisoner becuue hi 
was mad, but that be bud killed Lopez, and wai no* 
Uie rightful Emperor of Br««il. TliLs corridor led as M 
tlie bath-rooms, which are rvally on a mngnificent Msk. 
A nuutber of immense marble tab« are sunk in the tiUd 
floors. Ther are of different depths, adapted for standing, 
inttin^, OP lyiuff down, and hare crerj variety of arraqge- 
tnent for douche, showur, or sponge batlw. 

Iliis hospital, like the Miscricordia, is under the care of 
tlie Sisters of Cliaritr, and is a model of neatness and order. 
The Superior has a face remarkable for its serenity, expm- 
rire at once of sweetness and good sense. Prom her we 
learned some iuterestiuf; facts respecting insonity in this 
comitry. She says furious maniacs arc rare, and that rio- 
lence generally yields readily to treatment. 8lie also told 
us that insanity is more common among the poor than 
ninoiig the better classes. Though the asylum contains 
apartments for private patients, there are seldom more than 
eight or ten persons of this description to occupy them. 
This is not because they have any choice of establishments, 
for there is no other insane hospital in Bio de Janeiro, though 
there are one or two " Miii6ons da Saut^ " where insane per- 
sons are received. There wore more blacks anrang the 
patients than we had expected to see, the general impres- 
sion being that insanity is rare among the negroes. Wo left 
tliis hospital impressed by its superiority. A country which 


has HO liigti a standard of excellence in its charities can 
hardly fail, sooner or later, to bring its institutions of learn- 
ing and its public irorks generally up to the same level. 
Exvellonce in one department leads to excellence in all. 

From the hospital we continued our walk to the military 
chool, some quarter of a mile farther. It stands in the gap 
'Iwtweoii the Pao dc Assucar and the opposite range of hills, 
wid has the Botafogo Bay on one side, the Praia VenneUia 
on the other. Ilere, as elsewhere in the public schools of 
Kio do Janeiro, tliore is a progressive movement ; but oW 
and theoretical methods still prevail to a great degree. 
The maps are poor ; there are no bas-reliefs, no large globes, 
few dissocttoiiB or clicmicul analysos, no philosophical ex- 
porimnits, and no library dcfcn'ing the name. The school, 
however, has been in cfTicicnt oporation only six years, and 
improvements in the building, as well as in the apporatiu 
for instruction, arc made daily. So far as its domestic 
economy is concerned, the appointments of the establisti- 
ment ore oxcollent; indeed, one is nitlior inclined to criti 
else it as over-luxurious for boys educated to bo soldiers. 
The school-rooms and dormitories, as well as the dining- 
room, where the tables were laid with a nice service of 
crockery and glass, and also tlio kitchens, were clean and 
orderly. We cannot but wonder that the streets of Rio 
de Janeiro should In; dirtier and more offensive tiian 
those of any other city we have vitiilcd, when we see 
thn sonipulous neatness characteristic of ult its public 
establishments. The ob^iervance of cleanliness In litis re- 
spect shows that the BraKiliAns recognize its importanco, 
and it seeniH strange that they (thould tolerate nmsancM 
in their streets which make )t almost impossible to poaa 
througti niniiy of them on foot 



Junettk. — Testenlaj we visited llio Mint, tlw Ac 
of I<liiQ Arts, and a primarf school for girls. Of Uu 1 
U scarcely fair to judge ia its proseut coudilion; i: 
hiilding is nearly completed, and all ttnproTemeDtt 
macliincry are wisely deferred until the establisluniul ii 1 
removed. When lliis change takes place, much tJutB' 
antiquated irili be improved, and its uiaiiy defidaoaii 

There is little knowledge or, or iiitorest in, art in 
I'ioturcR are as rare as books in a Brazilian house: 
lliotigli Rio de Janeiro lias an Acadein/ of Fiuo Arts, in- 
cluding a school of dosign and sculpture, it is still in too t)» 
mcntury a condition lo warrant criticism. Tlio only iiittr 
cbting picture in the culloction derives its attraction vboU; 
from tlio circumstances conneclod with it, not at all (rua 
■uiy merit in the czoouttou. It i» a likeness of a negro «bo, 
in a sliipwreck off llie coa»t, saved a number of Ijros at tlw 
risk of his own. When lie had brought soreral passeo^im 
to the stiore, he was told that two children remained in tiie 
ship, lie swam back onoe more and brought them safetf 
to tlie bcacli, but sank down himself exhausted, and ww 
seised with hcmoiThage. A considerable 6um wax raited 
for him iu tlto city of Kio, and his picture was placed iu 
[lie Academy to comincmorate liis heroism. 

Of tlio public lichuol for girls not much can be 
The education of women is little regarded in Brazil, and llic 
stBudard of instruction for girls in tlie public schools is 
Even in tlie prirato schools, where the children of tlie het^^ 
chus are sent, it is tlie complaint of all teadiors that tlii 
are taken away from school just at the time wliea 
minds begin to dovelop. The majority of girU iu Brazil 
who go to school at all are sent at about seven or oia 

cu Ul 


d tlie J 



ean oragc, and arc coiiKidercd to have finished tlioirvdii- 
itJoii at tliirtccii or foiirtoeii. The next stop in their life i» 
jarriagc. Or course there are exceptions; Bome parents 
riscly leave their children at school, or direct their in- 
tructiou at liomo. till thej nre seventeen or eighteen yean 
^Of Igc, and others send their girls nbroad. But usually, 
iritJi the exception of one or two accomplish mente, such 
as French or mnsio, the education of women is neglected, 
and this neglect affects the whole tone of society. It docs 
not change the general truth of this s^tatement, that there 
are Brazilian ladies who would be reeogniEed in the btmt 
society as women of the highest intelligence and culture. 
But they are the exceptionn, as they inevitably must be 
under the present system of instruction, and they feel its 
influence upon their social position only the more bitterly. 

Indeed, many of the women I have known most intimate- 
ly hero have spoken to me with deep regret of their limited, 
imprisoned existence. Thero is not a Brazilian senhora, 
who has over thought about the subject at all, who is not 
aware that her life is one of repression and constraint. She 
cannot go out of her house, except under ccrtuiu conditious, 
without awakening seaudal. Her education leaves her 
wholly ignorant of tlie most common topics of a wider iutcr^ 
est, though perhaps witli a tolvrablo knowledge of French 
and muMc. The world of hooks is closed to licr ; for there 
is little Portuguese literature into which she is allowed to 
look, and that of other languages 1* still less at her com 
mand. She knows little of the history of her own country, 
almost nothing of tliat of others, and she is hardly aware 
that there is any reli^ous faith except the uniform one 
of Brazil ; she has probably never heard of the Reforma- 
tiou, nor does she dream that there is a sea of thought 



coigbig In the worid outside, coiutanUf dovcloping ki| 
^»aia of naUoual u»d indmdual life ; indeed, of all u| 
bcr ova narrow domc&Uc existeuce slie is profinindlj i(»| 

Ou one oocuioOi when sla^ng at a fazcnda, I todc 9 1 ' 
voluiDfl which was lying aa the piano. A book bncki 
nu« right, iu the roomit occupied bj- Uia family, thit I v* 
curioas to see its cooteots. As I stood turQiog orer Ae 
tcares <it proved lo be a romance), the master at lie 
boose came up, uiid remarked tliat llie book wu oot M^ 
ible readiug Tor ladi^ but that bore Cputting into mf lori 
1 tmalt volume) wax a work adapted to the use of vootf 
uid childreu. wbicli lie had proTided for tlie soobom d 
lti» family. I opeucd it, and found it to be a sort of tai 
book of morals. GLIcd will) coinnioiipUco seiitimoots, eo}?- 
book phrases, wrilli^u in n tune of coiidoscenditig iudul- 
t^iice for the reminim' uitellect, women bcjng^, ufitsr all 
tlio motliers of men, aiid niidcrvtood to Iiavo some liDb 
infiucuve 011 tlioir eiliicatirtii. I coutd hardly wonder, afta 
socuig ibis »peeiincii of their intellectual ftwd, that the wife 
and doughtcn of otir lio^t vere not greatly addicted 0> 
reading. Notliing strikes a strsiiger uidtg tliaii ibo abseoM 
of books in Brazilian houses. If the fatlier is a professiootl 
wan, be has his small library of mediciiio or law, but books 
are never Eccii Ecattorcd about as if iu coounon use ; tfag' 
make no part of tlie daily Ufo. 1 rcpoat, lliat there are ex- 
ceptioDB. I woU remember Gudiug in tlio sittuig-room of a 
young girl, by whose bmity wo had bcea most cordially re- 
ceived, a wcUsulectcd library of the best literary and his- 
torical works in German and French ; but tlili is the ouly 
instance of the kind wo met with during our year tn BrazU. 
Even whan the Brazilian women have received the ordinary 


rantages of education, there is something in their hom» 
eo restricted, go shut out from natural contact with ex- 
ternal influences, that this in itself tends to cripfilo their 

■2flTe1opment. Their amusemente are as meagre and scant; 

las their means of instruction. 

Id writing these things I but echo tho thought of manjr 
intelligent Bruziliuns, who lament a Hwiul evil which they 
do not well know how to rorurm. If among our Bnizilian 
IViends there arc some who, familiar with tho more pro- 
gressive ojipect of life in Rio de Janeiro, question the 
accnntcj of my stntcineiilji, I can only say tliat tliey do 
not know the condtltou of society iu the northern ciUes 
and prorinccs. Among my own tcx, I hare neTcr soca 
such sad lives as became known to dm Uiere, — liree do- 
prived of healthy, invigorating happiitem, and inlolorahly 
monotonous, — a negative sufTering, having its source, it u 
true, in the absence of ei^oymeut rather than in the pres- 
ence of positive evils, but all the more to be deplored be- 
OtuM M stagnant and inactiTe. 

Behind all defects iu methods of instruction, there lies a 
fault of domestic education, to Ito Inmontcd throughout 
Brazil. This is the coni^tant ussociution with black ser- 
vants, and, worse still, with negro ehildren, of whom tliere 
are usually a number in every liouMi. Whether the low 
and vicious habits of the negroes are the result of slavery 
or not, llicy cannot bo denied ; and it is singular to see 
porwns, otherwise careful and couscieiitious about tlieir 
children, allowing tliem to live in the constant companion* 
ship of tlteir blacks, waited upon by the older ones, play- 
ing all day wiih tlie younger ones. It shows how blind we 
may become, by custom, to tlie most palpable dangers. A 
rtraugcr observes at once the evil results of this contact 




witli vulgarity aud vico, though often unn ' 
paruiits. In tli« caiMtal, »oinc of these evils __-_ 
peariiig ; indeed, those vho remomber Rio do Juiein I 
years sgo liave wituesRCd, during that short period. t»| 
tnarkable change for the better in the state of socictj. >'"] 
should it be forgotten that die highei^t autliorilf 'ate\ 
oonimunitf is extjrted in the cause of a liberal eultoK br | 
voinen. It is veil known that the education of llie IisF 
rial princesses has been not only siipcrintendod, but ii"{ 
great measure prasoDally conductt-d, by their fatlwr. 

JuneSth. — I iras prerented ywtorday from going to t)t| 
Blind Asylum vith Mr. Agassis, but I traQscril>e luf Mtal 
upon Uii», as well as upon the Moriae Arsenal, vlikii w 
also visited without mO. 

" llio building IK old and in a ruinous condition. I m| 
not allowed to go over it, OTcrything being brought to 
noeptioii-room for my inspection, tlKnigh I told tlie dir 
tliat I did not care about the external arrangomeuts, bai 
simply wished to know by what means tlto privations of ih 
hltnd were alleviated in Ins eeta)>li()itnent. Tlio same ptD> 
cesses of routine prevail here as in other scbook and col- 
leges I IwTU seen in Rio. Tliis, however, is not peculiar to 
Portuguese or Brazilian habits of insiniction. Tfae oU 
habit of overrating memory, aud neglecting tho more actin 
and productive faculties of tlic mind, still prevails more or 
less in education cverywltero. I learned little of tho gon- 
eral system pursued. The teacliers were more anxious to 
show off tho ability of special pupils in reading, writing 
from dictation, and music, tliau to explain their methods 
of instruction. Vocal and instrumental music seemed the 
favorite oc<;iiiwlion ; but tJiough it is very pathetic to hoar 
tho blind deplore their misfortune and express their craving 


Cor light ill Imrinonioiis sminds, it does not, alter all, giro 
k^ mucli iiirormation as to Uid wny in wliicli Uioir calamity i< 

»relii>\<-<I. I should add, tliat their miisicnl performance ia 
exc«lle>it, and does great credit to tlieir Gorman professor. 
. It i^tnick mo that very Uttlo use was made of objoct-teach- 
I iiig, such as is so miicli in vogue fur children in Oermoay. 
j There arc not as many models in liiu wliolc Ofitsblishmont 
. as would bo found in any nursery in certain parts of Ger- 
many. TIiL' miips also arc rcry poor. 

" One of tlic most ititorcsting of tlio public cstublixhments 
at Rio dc Janeiro is the Marine Arscual. From tlio Gulf 
of Mexico to Cape Horn tlicro is not to 1w found on tlie 
Atlantic coast another port where ft vessel of war, or cron a 
merchant vcswl of large tonnage, could undergo important 
repairs. The macliinc^liops aud STiw-mills nrc well diri^cted, 
and arc dcftcient in none of the improTemetits bolongingto 
modern cstabli^'limcnts of the kind. Tlio dock is largo and 
con>tructud of granite. A con)<idcrablu number of large 
vessels have been built at this sliipyurd during the last 
few years, and oil its appointments have been constantly 
improving under the direction of several sncccE^ivu minis- 
ters of the navy. 8uch an c?tabli^hment is, in fact, a 
necessity for Brazil ; po^se^sing as she does eleven hun- 
dred leagues of coast, it is InipoKisible for 1>er to depend 
Mpon other countries for her maritime Bupplies. IliO 
Murine Arsenal sends out from its sclmol and shipyard 
many abfe en^neers and clever artisans, who carry into 
ordinary branches of industry tlie ability they have ac- 
quired in the public service. Indeed, this est&bhshmcnt 
may be considered as a sort of school of industrial arts, 
furnishing tlie country with good workmen in various do- 
parimeiics of labor," 

Thia mxk Mr. Agtssiz ttu concluded anolbcr connc 
ax kctares giren «t the College uf Dom Pedro U.; lii 
nil9ect,"Tbe PonDstion of the Amazouian VallefjUlii 
Productions." It is vorthj of remark, that the ippcanMl 
of ladies on such occuuhik no longer excites rmniT* 
Thorc were nuuij more eooboras sunong Uie tMcan 
lliaa at Uie prerious tectares, vltoa ihejr pr«seaet m 
a novdt;. A BruUiaa tudtenea is rety i^nipatbetic;* 
lliis th«r resemble a European assembly more tliaa our on 
quiet, uii<lcmoiistrutive crowds. Tfaors is alvars a Bull 
stir, a respousiTo tlinll, wticn anjUiing pleases tbeto, hJ 
often a spoken word of eonunendatioa or criticism. 

Jtuu lOrA. — TIiero*opoH». Yesterday, no^^oinfwinied tf 
Mr. Olazioii, Director of the Passeio Publico, uud Dr. 
Kigali, we started on an excursion to the Organ Uounttia^ 
leaving Rio in tbc boat for Picdade. and stopping on a*r 
waj at the little island of Paquctd. Tbis is one o{ tbt 
prettiest islands of the harbor, abounding iu palms, pn^M- 
lous with pleasant country-houses, and haTing a reiy jno- 
turasque shore, broken into bays and iulcls. Wo reached 
tlw littJe duster of houses called Piedade about firo o'clock, 
and look the omnibus to the foot of the serra. The boui 
of public couvoyanoe on tliis road soem ingeniously iir> 
nxngod to proTcnt the traveller from seeing its beauties. 
The greutcr part of tlie four hours' drire is made after 
nightfall ; and Uie roturu oflcrs no compensation, the second 
journey takiug place before daybreak. We passed the nijd^fl 
at the foot of ilic wrra, and started at seven o'clock tfiP 
next morning to walk up the mountain. It is impossible to 
describe the benuty of this walk, especially on such a day tm 
we were favored with, rur^-ing between sunshine and ^liaJe, 
and wi(h a fre*h breetc which >av«d us any discomfort front 



tiio h>3t. The root] iriiids gvatly up Uie serra, turning 
sometimes with so sliiirp an angle tliat below we could 
see all the ground wc Itud tmvfillud over. On one band is 
Uie mouutuiii-sidu, cbtlicd witli a vcgvuitioii of surpassing 
beauty, bright with crimsou parusitus, with tlic rich pur- 
ple flowers of tliu Quurcsma und lliu delicate blue blossonia 
of tlie Utrlculiina, ae frngilc and as graccfiil aft tlio harebell. 
Oh tbc oUicr band, we looked dowii sometimes into narrov 
gDi:gcs, clotliud with lungtiiGceiit forest, from which huge 
maiwos of rock projected 'icre and tbcro ; sometimes into 
wider vallcp opening out U'fl the plsiin below, and giving 
a distant view of the Imrbor and its archipelago of islanda 
surrounded by mountains, the whole scene glittering in the 
funsbine, or veiled by »]iadows, as the fitful day showed it 
to us. 

The aaceiit may bo easily accomplished on foot in three or 
four hours. We had nothing to urge us forward, howcvar, 
except a growing desire for breakfast, appeased every now 
and then by an orange, of which we had a good supply in 
the tin case for plants, and many a slow train of laden mules 
paised us in their upward march, and left us far behind as wc 
loitered along, though not lazily. On tbc contrary, Mr. Agas- 
sis and Ills friends found plenty of occupstlion in botimizing 
and geologizing. Tliey stof^d conBtantly to gatlnsr para- 
situs, to study ferns and mossuE, to break boulders, to collect 
insects and the little land-shells found hero and tlierc along 
the TXMtd. Wfi saw one mo«t beautiful Insect, hardly larger 
than a lady-bug, but of the most exquisite colors and gleam- 
ing like a jewel ou the leaf where it had alighted. lu 
brtinkiiig the stones along the roadside Mr. Agassiz found 
many evidences of erratics, several of them being Diorite, 
eutirely distinct from the rock in place. Tlie iiurfaceeof 



tlie boulders vere tinivcmll; decomposed and eorend ' 
a uniform crust, so Uiai U was necessary to split thtc 
order to ascertain tbcir true nature. From distance 
distance ilong iJic road were immense fragnienis of i 
sometimes twenty or liuttj feet ia height TboM lia 

matmcs wcro frcquciitiy men hanging on the brink < 
dccliviliet, as if, having broken off from the heights aboroi 
and rolled down, they Iiud been prevented from adtftncinj 
Eartber by rame obstacle, tod had become gradually eni 

bedded ill liie »o\\. Slanj of these boulders were clotlibd 
in soft, tliick reindeer moss, jo like tlie reindeer moss of tbe 
Arctics Uial, if spccificuUy distiuct, tli« difference could not 
be detected except by tJic most cftrurul examination. It 
suggests ibe qii<»liou wlietlier there »ro ai:y rcpresenlativos 
of tbQ tropicid tlum siiioiig tlie liebeus and piucs of tbe 
bigh north. As wo advanced, llic cburacter of the vegeta- 
tion changed considerably, and we bcgaji to feel, by the in- 
ciea^iing frchlmcss of the fttr, liiat we were getting into 
higher regions. The near view becatuo more beautiful aa 
we approached the heart of tlic mountains, coiuuig under 
tlie shadow of tlieir strange peaks, which looked &liarp and 
attenuated from a dii<tance, but clinngud into wouderfut 
mosses of bare rock, very giand in their efluct, as we dro« 
closer to thorn. We reached the hotel at Thvresopolis at 
about two o'clock. After our long walk, iho answer w^ 
received to our inquiry about breakfa!<t at the liltlo grocery 
adjoining the inn wa.t rather disoou raging. What could 
they give lU on short notice? "Only four eggs and somu 
sausage." However, tlie nuii^tor of the hotel made liis ap- 
poaranee, opened bis hoiu^, where, to judge from its closed 
doors and windows, the advent of guests is rare, and com- 
forted us with tlie infoniiation that breakfast " j>ode se ar> 
raiijar." Indeed, from the di.^h of eggs which luado ita 
Bp|iearance ^oon afterwards, wo might have supposed thai 
all the bens in the village had been called upon to contrib' 
ute, and wo enjoyed a breakfast for which mountain aii 
and exercise hnd supplied the best sauce. 

1'he village of Thercsopolis is very prettily situated, lying 
iu a dip between the mountains and commanding a mag- 
uiftcent view of tJie peaks, one of which stands out like a 
tall, narrow tow«>r against the sky. Xear it is another sharp 




summit, on the extreme point of which m lar^ e 
placed. It looks 08 if & touch woold dislodge it; »1 
Tor liov many a long year has it bdd its place tbeiv 
elorm and suusltine! Wc looked up at Uiis hu^ 
of rock on its diuy height, and wondered whether it 
erratic, or simply an eflect of decomposition on Um tpH 
a point impuuiUe of decifion at that distance. If the 
tor, it ect'ms Mranf^ tiistl the weather should han 1 
and excantvd Mtch a masR midenieath, witUoul dcstni}«| 
ita upper surface, thus detaching it from tlie mountain.^ 
it stands, as now, in bold relief, only supported by a m^ 
point of attacbment on the extreme summit. We spent 111 
rei^t of the day in a walk lo a vcr}' pretty cascade wtneh 
comes rusliing down through the wood a mile or two fi 
tlie Tillage. 

Jnnt! 1 \th. — We left the iim at half po^t seren this 
ing, lo pass the day again in ramhling. Following the 
road for a quarter of a mile or so beroud tlie Tillage, wi 
presently turned to tlie left into ft narrow, cihadj (Mthway, 
It lei] us through the woods to tlie edge of a deep baui 
sunk betwocii tlic mountains, on the slopes of which wen 
strewn many immense boulders. A curious feature of Um 
Organ Uounluius which we have ol"wrTfd repeated]/ oven 
in this short excursion is, that between their stningdy 
fautastic forms the country sinks down into weU-deGned 
Itafinit, wliicli usually have no outlet. Following tlie brink 
of such a btmin for a couple of miles, and crossing an in- 
tervening ridge, we came out upon a kind of plateau orer- 
hanging anotlier depression of tlie same oliaracter, and com- \ 
ouuiding a magnificent view of ilio cIimd, In tlie vet; centre | 
of which it seems to he, for tlte mountains rise tier upon 
tier around it on every side. On thin plateau niands the 





Ela called St. Louir, belonging to Mr, d'EscragnoIle. 
!xquisit« beauty of Uio 8tt« and tlio lioepitalitjr of iU 
^i>iriivr liave made this fazeiida a favorite rceort for travol- 
^^en. The grounds ore laid out with mucli taste, and Ur. 
I a^'EHCragiiollii's cucocns 'm raising maoy of the European 
^fruits aiid vegetables, as well as tiioeo of bis own country, 
t I makes it the more to bo regretted that this boauUful region 
f J should ho so Utile culliratod. Pears, peaches, strawhorrics, 
I llirivo admirably, as also do greou peas, asparagus, ai-ti- 
f cliokcs, and cauliflowers. Tlie climate strikes a happy 
I medium bctwccu the heat iu the neighborhood of Rio de 
I Janeiro, which bruigs these products to too ra{Hd a de- 
TOlopmcut, drying tlicin up before they have time to 
mature, aud tlie shaqi cold of higlier mountain regions. 
But thougli at so short a distance from the capital, tlie 
ti-ansport is so difficult and expensive tJiat Mr. d'Escrag- 
noIle, instead of scndiug tlie produce of his (arm to tJte 
city market, us he would gladly do, feedi his pigs with 
cauliflowers. We passed the rest of the day moot delight' 
fully in Uiis charming country place. Mr. AgastUz and 
Mr. Glaziou ascended one of tlte near mountain summits, 
but did not gain so extensive a view as tJiey had hoped, on 
account of an intervening spur. Ttiey were able to distin- 
guish three parallel ridges, however, separated by interven- 
ing dopresNons. Toward evening, while the mountaius were 
still bright with the purple glory of the sunset, lliuugh 
shadows were settlhig over the valleys, we started ou our re- 
turn, bidding good by willi great regret (o our kind host, 
who warmly prcsst-d us to stay. The path wo had XoUowod 
ill the morning, witliout giving a tliought to its irregular- 
ities, seemed quito broken and difliculb by night. TIio 
slopes along which it ran were changed, in the dim light, to 




auddcu precipices, and wo (Hckfid our stops wiUi aue 
twe«n rocks aiid orer fallen lugB and rivulets. It was br 
starlight as wo caaie out of tlio woods upoD tixo tilgh n 
Tbfl Tillage lay below, its lights iwiiikltng chcorilr, and 
peaks and u>wei-s behind It drawn with Btraiige distuicti 
against tlie night ckjr. 

•/mm 12th. — Barrcira. This ntorning at Bereo o'clo< 
we wore on our way down the sena. Mr. A^ssiz dnplor 
the Dooessitj which obliges him lo leave this rogtoo after 
short an examination of its striking features. A natiinii 
might pass months here, and find ovcrjr day rich id re«ull 
As wo led the hotel tlie snn was just gilding the bigbo 
■ummits, while white clouds ra«o sofU; from the valley 
and, floating upward, hroko into ficccy (ragmcnts again 
tho mouiitata-sides. Haring ilio day before us, we 




u sluwly fts wu liad mounted the serra, stopping 
t at every Elup to gatlier plants, to oxaioine rocks, ti- 
er at tliu EtniDge positiuti of the immcnso boiildcn; 
ing often just oo tlie brow of some steep declivity, 
wandered on bcyoiid tlio otliors und sat down to wait for 
iiem on the low stoao wall, foriDiiig a pampet on tlie edge 
fjf tlie road. Directly liefore ino rose tlio bare, rocky sup* 
of one of the great peaks; a vapory white cloud hung 
idway iifjon it; sliadowa flouted over it. Ou ibc other 
Isida I looked down upon wooded valleys and mouut&iiis in 
sUange coafusioa, while far below, stretching out to tlto sea, 
lay the billowy plain tossed into endless soft green wares. 
The stillness made the scene more iiuprossivc, the silcuco 
being only occasionully broken by the click of hoofs, as a 
train of mules came cautiously down the flagged road. 
'While I sat there a litoira passed me slung between mules ; 
a mode of travelling fast disappearing with the improve- 
uonts of the roads, btit still in use for women and children 
in certain parts of the country. We stopped to breakfast at 
a little venda about half-way down the serra ; here the boul- 
ders are most remarkable from their great size and singular 
(Kffiition. We reached the inn at tlie bottom of the serra 
between two and throe o'clock, and are now dttiiig in the 
little piaiza, while a drenching rain, which fortunately did 
not begin Ull wo were under shelter, swells the stream near 
by, and is fust changing it to a rapid torrent. 1 will add 
here such observations respecting the geological slmctui-e 
of this mountain range as Mr. Agassiz has been able to 
moke in our short excursion. 

" The chain is formed by tiie sharp folding up of strota, 
fometimes quite vertically, in other iustanocs with a slope 
bore or loss steep, but always rather eoiddcu. To one stand- 



ing on tlic tiiU lu the eoKt of TltcresopoUs, ttie whole 
pi-escDtfi it«cir in ft porfiMt proGIe ; Ute axis, oa either 
of vtiicb Oip tlio fthnost rcrtitiftl beds of metamorphio 
oomjHifiiDg Uio cliain, occupies slxnit the centru of tlie 
To the uorlh, though vcrjr steeply inclined, llio beds are ni 
BO Tortica) as in the soullieru prolongation of the rmug 
Tlio consequence of this difltTcncc is tlte fonnutiou of moi 
massive and loss disconnected sitmtniu on the iiortli ^Hn 
while ou tlie south sido, where llie strata are uearljr ( 
quite vertical, tiie harder sets of beds alone have rcmuitifl 
standing, the softer intorvcniug beds having boou gTaduiiU| 
disintegrated. By this process have bceu formed tlioi 
Btnuige peaks which appear from a distauce like a roi 
of orgnii-pifies, and have sug^stcd tlio name by which tb 
chuiii is known. 'I'lie/ cousiat of vortical beds jsotalo 
from the general moss in coni>cqaonce of tlie dumppcaranc 
of contiguous Btrnta. T\iQ as])ccl of tliosc tnounuiiiis frou 
Rio is much the same as frnni Thercsopi^lis, only ihat frou 
the two points of view — one being ly tlio northeast, tlii 
other to the soutliwest of the range — their eummits pre 
sent themselves in the reverse order. When seen in com 
picte profile tlicir Mender appearance is roost striking. 
Viewed from the side, tlio broad surfaces of tlie strata 
though oi]uolly steep, exhibit a triangular form rather thai 
that of vertical cohiums. It i» strange that tlie height of 
the Oi^ii Mountain peaks, so coneipicuous a feature in 
the landscape of Kio de Janeiro, should not have beeu ao 
curately uioasiired. The only precise indication I liavi 
been ablo to find is recorded by Liais, wiio gives 7,000 feel 
as the maximum height observed by him. 

" those abrupt peaks frequently surround closod basio 
verj symmetrical in shape, but without auy outlet. 



or t1ki.s singiilnr rormation, the glacial plienomona 
labouiid ill tlic Organ Moiiiitams an ot a jiectilinr 
«tcr. At first, I was at u loss to explain liow loo^ 
I of rock, descending from the beights above, should 
jigbt ou the edges o( these basins, instead of rolling 
je botriim. But their position becomes quite natural 
wc remember that the ico must have remained in 
fK depressions long after it bad disappeared, or nearly 
Btppcared, from llic slopes above. Iliudered from ad- 
ng, these hugo masses of rouk Iiave become gradually 
Ided in tlic soil, and are now solidly fixed in positions 
iicli would be perfectly inesplicablo, unless wo stipposo 
jie basin to have boon formerly filled with somctlnng which 
Scrcd an obstacle to tlicir farther descent. Moraines also 
kit upon these depressions, coming to an abrupt close 
ipoii their margin. Moraiuic soil — that is, masses of drifl 
ritli all sorts of loose mtitiTials buried in it — abounds 
fovcrywhcro in this region ; but, on the wliole, tJio glacial 
phenomena aro diflicult to study, because tho heavy growth 
of forest has covered all inequalities of the soil, oud, except 
whoro sections have boon made or ground has been cleared, 
tho outlines arc lost." 

This was our Gnal excursion in Brazil. The next morn 
iug wc returned to the city ; and the few remaining days 
were spent in preparations fur departure, and in bidding 
farewell to the friends who had made Rio dc Janeiro almost 
like a home to us. Among the pleasant uicidcnts of this 
last week, was a breakfast given by Mr. Lcdgerwood, who 
was then conducting the business of tlie AmcricMi li^tiou 
in tlie temporary absence of our Minister, General Webb. 
This occa-sion, at which Mr. Agassiz was invited to meet 
several members of the Brazilian administration, gave him 



au opportunity of ozpressing bis sense of tiicii uuifon 
kindness and consideration in furthering to tlio utmost Ui 
scientific objects which had brought liitn to Brazil. On tli 
foUowinfr day (the 2d of July), we sailed for tlie Unite 
States, carrying with us to our northern homo a store c 
pleasant momories and vivid pictui'cs to ouricli our li( 
hereafter with tropical warmtli and color. 




BauaiUK jxn Ci-khot. — F-oiicjTn>N. — Law, Miixctu *)>i> Scisimna 
Scnooiji. — llinii aho Cuuuuh Soiooi.*. — Public I.inKAttr xso Mnncoit 
n Uio nm Jaskiiid. — HiitToiiii;Ai. axd GBooKAriiiCAL iMtrrun. — Saoui< 
juin Douuno Bnuinini*. — I'cuuo fusiciiosAioD — A<iuimiltu»b.— 
Zo«u or Veuktatiox.— CorrtK. — C'lmiji. — Tiuun ash vthu PiKii>ccTt 


1 CANXOT close this book, written for the most part by 
anotlier hand, witliout a few words as to mj* goiicrul impi'cs- 
sions of Brazil. No one will expect from nie an esgitj on 
die social ajid political a)^])Gcts of the whole couutry, oron 
had I remained there louj^ enough to acquire tlie right 
of judgment on these matters. I am so unaccustomed to 
dealing with them tliat my opinions would bo entitled to 
little weight. There is, howorer, anottior point of view, 
mors general, but perhaps more comprehensive also, from 
which ever; iutetligent man may form an estimate of tho 
character of a people which, if siucero, will be iu the maiu 
sound and just, without including an intimaio knowledge 
of their institutious, or the practical working of their laws. 
iiy scientific life has brought mo into rclutions witli a world 
■wholly ntiknown to mo before ; under conditions more favor- 
able than were possible for my prclccesairs in the same 
region, 1 have studied this tropical nature, m> rich, so 
grandiose, so instructive ; I have seen a great Empiro 
founded in the midst of unlimited material resources, and 
advancing to higher civilization under the inspiiation of a 




eovereigu as onligtitcnod as he is huoituie. I luusi liaw 
bocu blind to cvorytliing except m; science, bad I not i 
word to say of Brazil aa a nation, — of licr prescut ooit- 
diuoi) and her future prospects. 

Tliere is much that is discouraging ia the aspect of 
Brazil, eren for those who hope and believe as I do, thai 
she has liefore hor an honorable and povrcrful career. 
There Is niucli al»o tliat is Tcry cheering, that leads mo to 
belicTc tliai her life as a nation will not belie hor great gilb 
as a <:ount.ry. i^iould her moral aud iuIellL-ctual endow- 
ments glow into harmony with her wonderful natural 
beauty Olid wcaltli, tho world will not have toon a falrcr 
iand. At present tliere are several obstacles to tins pro- M 
grcKs; obstacles which act like a moral disease ujran the 
people. Slavery still exists among Uiciu. It is true that it 
is oil tliu wane ; true that it has received a morul blow ; 
but the natural dcatli of slavery is a liugcriog Ulneis, 
wasting and destroying the body it has attacked. Next 
to lliis 1 would name, amuug the infiuciicvs unfavorable 
to progress, the character of the clergy. In saying tins I 
disclaim any reference to the national religion. It ia of tlio 
character of the clergy I speak, not of the church tlicy rep- 
resent. Whatever be the church orguniiatiou in a couutr, 
where instruction is still so Ultimately linked with a 
religion a? it is in Brazil, it is of inhnito importance that llto 
clergy themselves should not only be men of high moral 
<;haracter, but of studious, thoughtful lives. They are tlio 
teachers of the people, and as long as tliey believe that Uie 
mind can be fed with tawdry street prooosaicms, with lighted 
candles, and clieap bouquets ; and as long as the people 
accept tlii8 kind of instruction, they will be debased and eit- 
fcebled by it. Shows of this kind are of almost daily occur- 




tWiOe ill n!l U)c Inrge cities of Brmzil- The; interfere with 
the ordiiinry ouciipatioii!i, iiii<] make wurking days Itic ex- 
eeplion rather th»i] the nilo. It must he rc-mviiiI>crod (hat 
iit Krnul there is no laborious, ciiUiviitcd clnss of prifists, 
sach as liaro been an honor to ecclesiastical literature in 
tha Old World ; there arc no line institutions of learning 
connected wiLli the Cliurch. As a gonei'al tiling, tlto i^io- 
ranee of tho clergy is unicfir^al, their immorality patent, 
their influence very extensive and deep-rooted. There are 
honorable exceptions, but tliey are not nurocrotis enough to 
derate the class to which they belong. But if their private 
life is open to blame, the Ilra7.iliau priests arc distinguished 
for their patriotism. At all times Ihey have occupiod high 
public stations, serving in the Legislative Assembly, in the 
Senate, and even nearer to tlio throne ; yet their power has 
never been cxcrtod in favor of Ultramontane tendencies. 
Independent religious thought seems, liowevor, rare in 
Brazil. Tlivrc may perhaps bo soopttcism ; but I think 
this is not likely to lie extensively the case, for tlio Bra- 
zilians are instinutively a bulicving people, tending ratlier 
to superstition th&n to doubt. Oppression in matters of 
faith is contrary to tlie spirit of their institutions. Prot- 
estant clergymen are allowed to preach* frooly ; but, as a 
general thing, Protestantism docs not attract thcSoulhtrn 
nations, and it may bo doubted whether its advocalaa 
will have a very wido-spread success. However this may 
bo, orery friend to Itraxil must wish to see its present 
priesthood replaced by a more vigorous, iuteUigent, and 
laborious clergy. 

In order to form a just estimate of tlie present condiUou 
of education in Brazil, and its future prospects, wc must 
not consider it altogether from our own stond-poiut. Tb« 



truth is tliat all eteiuly progress in Ilrazil dates frou> <'i 
dodaratioii of iiidependeiicc and tlmt is a very rccvol ^| 
iu her lii!>torj. Since Umj boh {Hut»cd from culouial la : 
tioiial life Iter relatio>t!i willi other coiiulriea hare 
antiquated prejudices haTe been eflfaccd, and with a 
intense indiridtinl existence site lias assumed also a 
oosmopoliuin breadth of ideas. But a political ravols 
is raoro rapidly acconi|)Iished tltaii the rcmouldiog of < 
nation vliich is its rusiilt,~~its coiiiiRqiionce miher 
its acoompanimont. Ktoii now, after half u ceuiurf ota^ 
dcjiendent existence, ititellectual progress in Brazil is duu- 
ifested rather as a tetideucjr, a desire, so to 8p«a]:, ginuf 
■ R profiresiiivo utoremcnt to soci«:lT, than as a positiro SaO. 
The intellectual life of a nation when fully dorelopod lis 
its material existence in largo and various iii^titulioisj 
of IcArniiig, scattered tlirougliout the country. Kxocpc lal 
a ver; limited and local sense, this is not yet the com in^ 

I did not Ttsit Sail Faclo, and t cannot tlicrofbre spook 
from personal obser\'«tio(i of tlie Faculty which stands 
highest in general e.«tiiiiation ; I can, Itowever, testify to 
the sound looming and liberal cnlluro of many of il« 
gnidufttcs wlioui it has boon my good fortuno to knov, 
and w)h3»o chnnicters us gcutlemen and as students bear 
testimony to llic superior instrnotion they have received si 
tlio hands of their Alma Mater. I was told tltat the best 
schools, after tliosc of San Paolo, were those of Baliia and 
Pemanibnoo. I did not rtxit tliom, as my time was too 
bhort; but I should think llvnt tlic presence of tlic proftis- 
eional faculties established in botit lbci« i»ties vo<ild tend 
to raise the character of t)to lover grades of education. 
The regular faculties embrace only medical and legal 


Btndies. The iustntcUoii in lioU) is tliorough, tliougli por- 
haps limited ; at Icust I fcU that, in the form>^r, in which 
my own studies have prepared mo to jndgo, tlioso sccos- 
eory brandios which, atiar all, lio at the foundatioik of a 
superior medical cdiictttion, uro cillier wanting or arc 
tauglit very iinporfcclly. Neither zoiilogy, comparalive 
anatomy, botany, pliysics, nor chemistry is allowed suF- 
Gciont weight iu tlic medical schools. Tlio cdueatioit is 
one rutlicr of books tlian of facts. Indovd, as long as the 
prcjudico against manual labor of all kinds i-xists in Bra»], 
priicticul instruction will bo deficient ; as long as students 
of natiiro think It unbecoming a gentleman to handle hitt 
own specimens, to carry his own geological hammer, to 
make his own Rcientiiic preparations, he will remain n mere 
dilettante in invesUgation. He may be very familiar with 
recorded facts, txit he will mabo no original rcscarchos. On 
this account, and on account of their personal indolence, 
field studies arc foreign to Urazilian habits. Surrounded as 
they are by a nature rich beyond comparison, their natural- 
ists ai'Q theoretical ralhor than practical, lliey know moru 
of the bibliography of foreign scienoe than of the wonder 
fnl fauna and flora with vliicli they are surrounded. 

or the schools and colleges in Bio de Janeim 1 have ntoro 
right to judge than of tlmso above mentioned. 5^everal of 
lliem are excellent. I'he Kcole Centrale desorTes a special 
notice. It corresponds to what we call a scientific .<icl)ool, 
and nowhere in Bratil hare I seen an educational institu* 
tion where improved methods of teaching wore so highly 
appreciated and so generally adopted. The courses of 
mathematJCB, chemistry, physics, and tlio natural sdenoos 
are comprehensive and thorough. And yet even in this 
institution I was struck with tito scantiness of means ftu 


schoolK blacks and wliitcs arc, so to spenlc, Industrially 
united. IndtMid, Ilicro is uo ontipatltj of raw lo bo over- 
come iu Bruiil, eillwr among tlio luboring people or iii tlic 
higbcr walks of life. I was pleased to sec pupils, without 
distiuetioii of race or color, mingling In tlic exercises. 

It is surprising tliat, in a cuunCr}' w ricli ii. mineral 
woaltli, there should exist no spcciiil Mining School, and 
tliat CTCrjlhing connected with the working of the iiiincs 
should be under tlie immediate 8tipcrvi$ion of the Miiiistei 
of Public Works, without the assiKtaucc of a special office 
for tlie superiulendenco of mining operations. Nothing 
would more specdil; increase the toIuc of tlie mineral lands 
of the whole country than a regular geological sun'cy, 
which has not yet been begun." 

The Imperial Library at Riu de Jaiieiro should itot b« 
omitted from nn enumeration of its educational establish- 
ments. It is very fairly supplied with books in all depart- 
ments of learning, and is conducted in a very liberal spirit, 
Euflcring no limitution from religious or political prcjudico. 
Id fact, toleiiiiicc and benevoleucc arc common diaracteris- 
tics of the institutions of learning in Brazil. The Imperial 
Museum of Natural History in tlic Capital is antiquated ; 
to any one acquainted with Museums which are living and 
progressim, it is evident that the colleclioiis It contains 
have been allowed to remain for years in their present con- 

■ I (teciily leprae tltnt 1 muld not t!«)i iIir niitiini; dintricu of Rniirl. Et- 
pninlli woulJ I buri) liiMil to «xanunD for nijtitir tlio Catcall 3, in wliiih ilit 
^wmondii >ra fouad. Prom tio1l«r4iona wliidi 1 owe u> ilm kindueu or Dr. 
Vwira <lo Miiitot in Rio il« Janeiro, aii'l !?unIior Aninnio df LocnL) in Rnliiii, 
I aid pnpnrrd to Itnil that tha whole diamonil-lKaring foimatioD u gtaeial 
biift. I do not moan i)io nrk.^ in vfaicli iho dinmoaita ocrnr in iluir priiuacj 
pMitkin, bnt the uccndiv)t agglonicnuiiHU of loiwo nialciinl* 6*tin whkt. lliif 
arc vaihod 





ditiou witliout iwlditiotis or improvomente. 'I lie mou 
ainn]a]&, muumalla aiicl birds, «n> Taded ; and tlio fi 
Willi tho cmepUoii of a few beautifully stuBed specii 
from lli(! Amuzons, givo uo idea of the variutj b 
found in tbo Bruziliui waters. A better coUccliou n 
bo iuad« uiij' moriiiiig in the (isii-marfcQt. Tho Mut 
w>iitaiD8 HoiiM) very riiio fwsil romaiiis from tliu valli;^ o 
San Francisco and from Ceard, but uo attempt lius a 
beou made to arrango tluMD. 

Tlie onI>- Icarni^ society doscrving a Epociol mcntit 
tbe Historical aiiil Geographical Iniilitulc. It« Ti-aiisac 
are regiiltirlj' published, and form alrt-adf a series of n 
vohimcs. full of Taluablc documents, clueflf rcIatiTC U 
bblory of .Soutli America. The meetings arc held in 
Ini|>criiil I'alace of Rio, and :Lru liabituully presided otq 
Iiis Majesty Uie Emperor. 

I cannot close wliut I have to say of instruction 
Brazil wittiout adding tliat, in a country where only I 
tlio nation is educated, there can bo no complete inte 
tual projjrcss, Wlicrc the diiTerenco of education m: 
an intelligent nymputhy between men and women alu 
impossible, «> that tlieir relation is iiocoSKarily limitci 
that of the domestic aQbctionH, never raised except in sd 
very exceptional ca^os to that of cultivated companions 
the development of tbo people as a whole must remain 
porfcct and parliat. I believe, however, that, especial!] 
this direction, a rapid reform may be expected. I have he 
so many intelligent Brazilians lament the want of suit 
bslruetion for women hi their schools, that I think 
standard of education for girls will steadily lie raised. 
memDcring Uie antecedents of the Bnuilians, their in 
itod notions as to what is beceniiiig in tlie privacy 


iTestmiut of a woman's life, ire aro not jtisUticd, tiovcrcr 
Jeo these ideas mn; seem to n», id cousidgriug tlio pnsviit 
ciiei-ation its refponsiblo for Uiem ; the; arc also too 
ieoii\y rooted to be changed in a day. 

Oil soToral ocrasioiis I hare alluded in terms of praise to 
tlio wnrkiiig of the institutions of Brazil. Nothing can be 
mora liberal than the Constitution of the land ; every 
guaranty is tlieroiu secured to the freest assertion of all 
the natural riglita of man. And yet tliere are Mine f«*- 
turcs in the habits of the people, probably tlio results of 
an antiquated social condition, which impede tlic progress 
of the nation. It should not bo foi^tlcn that the white 
population of Brazil is chiofly descended from tlic Portu- 
gui.«c, and that of uU Kuropc Portugal U ttie country wliivli 
at the time of the discovery and settlement of Brazil, bwl 
least been affected by the growth of our modern civiluwtion. 
Indeed, the great migrations whieli convulsed Europe iu 
the Middle Ages, and the Rcfonna^on, upon which the now 
social order ebiefly rests, have scarcely aflcctod Portugal ; 
so that Roninn ways, Roman architecture, and a di^aerate 
Latin were still flotirishing when lier Ti-nnt^atlanlic colo- 
nics were founded ; and, as in nil colonies, the conditions 
of tlie mother country were but slowly modified. No 
wonder, therefore, that the older structures of Rio de 
Janeiro should recall, in the most surprising manner, 
the ardiitecturc of ancient Rome, as disclosed by the ex- 
carations of Henmlaneum and Pompeii, and that the social 
condition of Brazil should remind us of the habits of a 
people among whom women played so subordinate a part. 
It Tocms to me tliat even now the administration of tlie 
[»y)Tinccs, as iu the Romau civilization, is calculated to eo- 
force the law, ralhcr than to develop the materia' resources 



of the couDtty. I liave bcon surpmcd to 6nd yoiia% 
jen almost invmriabi/ at tlie bead of tlie adminii 
Uw provinces, wliere procticul men, coiiTcnaut wiiJi 
tcrvsto of AgriculUire, commerce, and the meciiauiul 
would, ia tay ofHuioii. have beeo better adapt«d u 
preniug duly of stimululing all pureuite counectod 
tba active life of ayouiig uid aspii-itig nation. 

TTie eia^eraled appreciation of political empk^aM 
prevailing everywhere is a misrorttine. It tbron into ti 
diadeall oilier occiipatK)ii!,aud loads the Bovepmncnt mi 
a crowd of paid oflficiiLbs who usctc^ly cucumber the pi^ 
service and are a drain upon the public funds. Evefv na 
who has received an education seeks a political caner 9 
■t oDve the moat aristocratic and the easiest war of niniM 
a livelihood. It is hut rvcculljr that gentlemen liave b^H 
to engage ui wercatilile pursuits. ^H 

It soomB to me, that, though the character and l^m 
of tltc BraziliaDs are not tltow of an agricultural people. 
Brazil is un essentially agricultural country, and sodk 
occurrences in her recent history oonfinn this view. Bra- 
zil had formerly a groat variety of agricultural products, 
but itow the number of plants under culture is rather 
limited. Agricultural operations are at present ooatnd 
upon OO0OC, cotton, sugar, tobacco, maudioca, some oervah^ 
beans, and cocoa. Owing to her climate and her geograpid* 
cal position, the vegetable zones of Braiil are iK>t so marked 
as those of other countries. It would not be ditficuli to 
divide tlie whole Empire, witli reference to its productious, 
into three great regions. Tlic first of those, stretching from 
ttif: borders of Guiana to Bahia, along tlie great riven, ia 
more especially characterized by tlie wild producU of tho 
Ibreet: Indiaii-rubbcr, cocoa. vaniLla, »arsapaiiUa, and an 



iiiito Tariety of gams, resins, barhs, and textile fibies still 
"unknown to commerce in Eurojie and Uio United States. 
TO these Brazil might add spices, llio nionopolj of whicli 
belongs now to tlio Suiida Islands. Tlie second region, 
'6Xtending from Batiia to Santa Catarina, is tbnt of 
' ooffee- The ttiird, from Santa Catarina to Rio Granite, 
nud in the interior of the high jilatcaux, is that of tJio 
grains ; and, in connection with their culture, the raiting 
of cattle. Rico, which is easily grown throiigtiout IJrazil, 
Mid cotton, which yields magnilicont crojis in all the 
proTinces, bind together these three zones, sugar and to- 
bacco following in their train. An important step willt 
reference to agriculture, which lius scarculy beou thought 
of as yet, is the cultiratiou of the heights of the Organ 
Mountains, as well as tliose of the Scrra do Mar and tlie 
Serra do Mnntiqiicira. On ihcso high lands might be 
raised all the products characteristic of the warmer poi> 
^ons of the tempcriitc zones, aud Rio do Janeiro wonld 
receive daily from the mountains in her immediate neigh 
borhood all those vcgotftbles mid garden fruits which she 
no(F procures in small quantities and at high prices from 
the provinces bordering on tlto I^a Plata. Tlic slopes of 
these Sorros might also be covered with jilantations of cae- 
canUa, and, as the production of quinine must sooner oi 
later he greatly diminished by tlie devastation of the Gin- 
clioim-trL'es on the upj)cr Amazonian tributaries, it is the 
more important that tlieir culture sliould be introduced 
jpon the largest scale on the heights above Rio. The 
attempts of Mr. Glaziou in that direction deserre e<tery 

Tlie sugar-cane has long been the diicf object of cul* 
tivation in Brazil, and the production of sugoi i« ^'.itl 


A joouinr IN MtAzn. 

eoaadenUe; bat within aevcnl yean the jJuti^ 
•ogir-caDe has pnn wsy in man/ districts to thtt o( 
I hare taken pains to ksoertain tins Tacts nspeetiag tk 
lure oT co^e during tbe last Btly jean; tin > 
dcrelofuneot of this brmoch of industry and tin 
oT the EDOTement, especially iu a country when 
'» M scarce, is among tbe most striking eeanaaneal 
uoinena of our ceotury. Thanks to their 
and to lliQ favorable conditioiu presented by tJte 
tiou of tlteir Mil, tlie BniUiuia have obtained a 
monopoly of coffee. Uoro tluiD half the coflbe eons^ 
in tile world is of Brazilian growth. And yet tbe coflbe^ 
Brazil hu Uttlo reputation, and is oven greatly undemtti 
Why is tliis! Simply beeeoso a groat deal or tlie best icv- 
duL-c of Brniilion plantations is M>Id nudor the nainoof Jtn 
or &locUa, or as tlic cofTco ot Uartinitiiie or Bourbon. Mtf- 
tinique produces only six hundred eoAx or coO'ce anooaHj; 
Guadaloupc, whose coffee is sold inidcr tlto name of ite 
ncigliboring inland, jdelds six tliousund backs, not cnoa^ » 
pi-ofidc Uic market of Rio de Janeiro fur twentj-rour hoata, 
und the island of Bourbon hardly more. A irrcat part 0/ 
iho coffee which is bought under ihcso namt-s, or under thai 
of Java eofft'C, is Brazilian, while Utc so-called Moclia ooficc 
is often nothing hut the »mall round beans of tho Bnuilisa 
plant found al the summits of tlic hranchcs and vory earo- 
fully selected. If tho fuzondeiros, like tho Java plAnten, 
sold tlmir crops undor a special mark, the great purcliann 
would learn with what mcrcliandise they have to dual, and 
the ngricullurc of Brazil would bo greatly hcnofilod. But 
tlicrc iiiCcrvenes between tirc fuzcndeiro and tl>e exporters 
class of merchants — half bankers, half broker* — known as 
commistorios, who, by mixing different harvctto, lower iha 



I Iftrd of the crop, t1iu8 relieving the prodnoor of all 
lonsibilitf and depi'iriug the product of its true diarao* 


If tlie provinces adjacent to Hio de Janeiro ofior natural- 
ly the most favorable soil for the culture of ooSee, it muHl 
not be forgotten that coffee is planted witli advantage in 
the stindc of the Aiuaxoiiian forest, and even yields two 
annual crops wlierever pains are taken lo plant it. In the 
province of Coari, where the coffee is of a superior quality, 
It Is not planted on tlie plains, or in the low grounds, or in 
the shadow of the forest, as in tlio valloy of the Amazons, 
but on the slopes of the hills and on the mountain heights, 
to an elevation of from fifteen hundred to two thousand 
feet and more above the level of tho sea, in tlie Serraa of 
Aratanha and BaluritiS and in the Sen-a Grande. The 
ohaiuiels opened to thcsu products should uugmont tlioir 
importance, and should giro rise to numerous establish- 
ments in tho valley of tho Ahiiiioss. 

The increased cspurlutton of cotton from Brazil during 
tlie last few years is a still more marked feature lu its indus- 
trial history than the large coffee crops. \V|icii, towards the 
close of the last century, collon began to assume tn England 
an importance which lias over since been increasing, Urazil 
naturally became one of tlio great providers of the English 
market. But it !«on loi<t this advantage, because our 
Southern States acquired, with an extraordinary rapidity, 
an almost complete monopoly of this prodnct. Favored by 
exceptional circumstances. North America succeeded, about 
the year 1846, in furnishing cotton at such lov rates that 
all competition became impossible, and the culture of cotton 
WBf Almost abandoned in other countries. Brazil, how- 
ever, persisted. Elnr annual prodrction showed a slow bat 



steady progress; even tlta cessation of Uie slaTo-ti 
not internipt this adTnnoc. Indeed, U is a striktii 
which DiKf well bo mentioned in thia connection, th: 
statistics of Brazilian agriculture have Iwcn ntcadil; 
ever since the abolition of Ihe slave-trodQ. Whe 
Rebellion broke out in our Sonlhern States, BrasU 
Toiind herself prepared to give a considorable impu 
the cultiration of a product as much sought fur as 
ill time of famine. Spite of the want of populution 
is an obstacle to all industrial enterprises in Brazi 
(bund labor, and, what was still more important, free 
for this object. It seoincd as if it were a point of nni 
honor to show wliat conld be done. Provinces liko 
Paolo, where a foot of gronnd had nercr befora 
planted with cotton ; others, as for instaiico AIj 
Parati^rba do Norto, Cear&, wticre the ciiliivaiion of c 
had boon nboiidoncd, produced cxtnumlinar; qminlitM 
«<) Urge, indeed, tliat two lines of steamers w«ro 
livhcd, and hare prospered, between Liverpool aai 
abovo-menlioned jrarls, chiofty for the transport of 
crop. It will bo remembered that during the wbot 
this time Brazil was in want of lalwrcrs, that site rooi 
no foreign cnpital for this uiiderliiking, thai Mic impc 
noitlier Coulies nor Chinese, tliat almost immediately 
Uie movement began her war with Paraguay broke 
and yet her production of cotton has qtiodntpled 
qaintuplod. TIiIn fact assumed such jmporlanoe in 
estimate of industrial interests at Die lato Ports Exposi 
that au exceptional prize was award<>d to Brazil, on 
ground that, in supplying the European mnrfcct so lai 
witli this indi.'ijKiisable staple, she had rendered it 
poudent of the former monopoly of tlio United States. 



true Uiat the same prixa was also itrntited to Algsrfi 
id to Kg^^it. But tlio Brazilian planter lind not, like the 
olonistd of Africa, tlie stimulus of a largo fuWtcIf from 
avcrnment ; he could not, like the Viceroy of Egypt, ecizA 
' 80,000 men in a single district and transport them to his 
plantations; noitlier did he. liko tlio Egyptian fellah, aban- 
don all other branches of agriculture in order to dcfoLe 
himself exclusively to that of cotton. In fact, the general 
interests of agriculture prospered in Brazil, in the midst 
of this new enterprise. 

I hare in»ist«d on these facts, which I think are little 
known, because they seem to me to show a greater energy 
and ritalily than is usually supposed to exist in tiio pro- 
ductive forces of Brazil. To stimulate this movement, 
Uio govoriimcut has rt-ccnlly takon the initiatory steps in 
tlie organization of au Agiicultural School in the vicinity 
of Bahia, iu which all thu modurn improvements suggest- 
ed by the jirogrcss of scicnco and invention, are to bo 
tested in tlieir application to the natural products of the 

The importance of tlio basin of tlic Amazons to Braxil, 
from an itiilu^trial point of view, can hardly be over> 
Gstimatod. Il» woods alouo have uti almost pricclese value. 
Nowhere in tha world is th«ro finer limber, either for solid 
K^ntlnicliou or for works of ornament ; and yet it is scarco 
ly used even for the local buildings, and makos no port 
whatovcr of the exports. It is strange that tlw development 
of this branch of industry should not even have begun in 
Bruil, for the rivers which Row past tliese magniGcont 
forMts Be«m meant to serve, first as a wator-power for 
tlie eaw-iuilU which ought to bo established along their 
borders, and then as a moans of transportation for the 




mat«riftl bo provided. Setting aside tlie woods as rii 
what slinll I mj of the mass of fniits, resins, oils, cola 
raattors, textile fibres, which tlief field? Wlieu I sto 
at Par&, on my way homo to the United States, an ex 
tion of AniBzoDian products, brought togctlicr in pre 
tion for llie World's Pair at Paris, was still open. 
as I had admired, during my jonniey, tlio richness 
variety of the materials native to the soil, I vtas ami 
when I saw them thus side by side. There I noti 
among others, a coDcclioa of no less Uiaa one bniidred 
aovoiitccn diS^rent kinds of higiily valuable woods, 
from a piece of land less ihan half a mile square. 
these many wore dark-colored, veined woods sitsoepl 
of m high polish, — as l>eitutiful as roeewood or eb< 
Tliere was a great variety of vegetable oils, all rema 
ble for their clearness and purity. There were a nu 
of fabrics made from the fibres of the palm, and an t 
less variety of fruits. An empire might esteem itself : 
in any one of the sources of indue^lry which aboiinm 
this valley, and yot the greater part of its vast gro 
rots on the ground, and goes to form a little more ri' 
mud or to stain ttie waters on the shores of which 
manifbld products die and decompose. But what i 
prised me moat was to find tl)at a great part of ' 
region was favorable to the raising of cattle, ^ne sli 
are fed on the grassy plains and on the hills which stn 
between Obydos and Almeyrim, and I have rarely ca 
better mutton Ulan at Ererd, in tlie midst of these s«ri 
And yet the inhabitants of this fertile region suffer Ti 
hanger. The insufRciency of food is evident; but 
■rises solely from the inability of the people to ai 
themfBlvea of the natural productions of the soil. 



iiiKtatice of tliis, I uuij mention tliat, tbougfi lirJRg on 
he bniik8 of rivoTf. wtiicli abound in delicious lish, the; 
aake large uto of Mall cod, imported from other countries ! 
While traTclhiig upon the Amuzons, I liaro otlon ntkeA 
tyself what would hu the best plan for dovolopiDg the 
fttura] resources of that incomparable region. No (louht 
1)0 opening of the great river to the commorixt of lU 
Ltions was ft Grst Ftcp in the right direction ; and this 
'■IMiare in itself shows what cxtraordinar; progress Bra- 
sil \» making, for it is hardly more than half a centurj, 
since, owing to the narrow poHcj and jealous disposition 
of the Portuguese government, the greatest traveller of 
modern times was forlitdden to enter tlic rallej of the 
Aniazonii ; while tn-day a. scientific errand of a similar 
cliaracter is welcomed and fostered in everjr possible way 
by the goverimienl of a nation now independent of Eu- 
rope. But a free competition U u necessary complGmenI 
to the freedom already granted, and competition is scanxjiy 
posiiiblfl wher» monopolies are kept up. I hold, tlierefore, 
tliat all the exceptional facilities granted by tite Braziliui 
government to private companies are detrimental lo ita 
best interests. There is, liowever, another direct obstacle 
to progress which ought at once to be removed, since tlie 
change could in no way injure tlte general welfare. Tho 
proBont limitation of tlie provinces of Pari and of the Ama- 
zons is entirely unnatural. The whole valley is cut in two 
trannersoly, so tliat its lower half is of nocORsity a bar 
to the independent growtli of the upper half. Pari, being 
made the centre of everything, drains the whole country 
without vitalizing the interior. Tlie great river which 
should be an international highway has become an inland 
btream. But suppOM for a moment tliat tlie Amazona, 



like our Misussippi, were made Ute boutidarjr betwMB^ 
succes^ou or independent proriDcea oa eitlior side of 
suppose that on the southern hanks of the Atoaaous 
province of Telf^ slioutd extend from tbe borders of P< 
to the banks of the Madeira, the proviueo of 8nii(an;ui 
the Madeira to the Xingu, and Uiat of VaT& be red 
t(i Uie country east of the Xiiigu, including tlie Island tt 
Marajo; each of these separate pronnccs would then kt 
at once bounded and traversed hj- great streams, secoriig 
th« douUe activity- of oompclitioii and Ui« etimiiliu ofis- 
turnol conveniences. In hkv manner Hhoiild tbe lauds oa 
tbe northern ba