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Harbarli CoUege Itinrar? 



One half the income from thU Lcfacy, which wu re- 
ceived in 1880 under the irill of 

of WaithuD, M aiMchiuctts, b to be expended for books 
for the CoUese Librarf. The other half of the Income 
ia deroted to ■cholanhipt in Harrard Univeraltj for the 
benefit of descendants of 

who died at Watertown, Massachusetts, in 1686. In the 
absence of such descendants, other persons are eligible 
to the scholanhips. The will requires that thb announce- 
ment shall be made in ercrj book added to the Llbrarf 
under its provisions. 




KROM 15 40 TO 18 71 


"What coosUtntM ft SUte? 

Not blub ntiMd bkttlomeDls, or Uborcd naaDd, 
TUok nlU or moated ^to ; 

Hot cities proud, with up! 

biyi, and broad -armed portn, 

Where, laaghlag at the at<'rm, rich uvtea ride ; 
Nor atured not upanplod conrta, 

Wbtro low brow'd bioenosH inite parfnnto to prido I 
No ; men, hlgh-minded meo— 

Hen, who thdr dntica know, 
Bat know their righbn, ud, knowing, dara maintain." 

HiB Wiu/UM Joicn. 

Montgomery; ala. : 


OCT 1i ■<}:•,.' 

EntBBED, according to act of Congtoaa. In the year ld72, by 

In tho offloe of tho labranan of Oongrees, at Washingtoti, D. 0. 

\ . 



Wi'fh the hefirf/elt hope that they may prove themndv€8 Worthy of 

the Rich Ilerita/je of Ripened Fauie and Material Wealth, which 

have Iteen Itequcxithed to them hy tJie Founders and Defenders of 

a noUe State, thiM Vdume is RespevtfnUy Dedicated hy 

The Authob. 
Hayxeville, Lowndes County, 
Juhj SI, 1872. 



This volume is a coUoction of such facts in relation to the 
present and past of Alabama as best deserve preservation. 
Ahnost every State of the Federal Union has one or more 
volumes devoted to a like purpose ; but the task has not here- 
tofore been attempted in this State in the enlarged scope here 
presented. The result may be to familiarize the people with 
many events and facts which should not escape the memory 
of Alabamians. 

The peaceful era through which the State has passed leaves 
scant material for the annalist. It is with the glowing inci- 
dents of war and turbulence that tlie stately structure of his- 
toiy is reared. From what has transpired of such events the 
author has sifted the facts of most general interest. And the 
more striking features of the ci\il administration have also 
been winnowed from the mass with some care. 

No book about Alabama would be tolerated which failed to 
note her wondrous natural advantages, and this has been done 
herein so far as general statements will convey ideas. 

To swell out the volume with matter of interest, much mem- 
oranda is adduced relating to the pubUc men of the State. 
Analysis, or delineation of character and talents, is not 
attempted, but the current and popular estimate of these per- 
sons is appended. There has been no invidious selection of 
individuals for remembrance in this way, but all have been 


included of any considerable prominence in the State, at any 
time, in any vocation. Notoriety being the guide in the case, 
the more eminent personages could not be ignored even if such 
a desire had existed. Of many of these, only a meagie record 
could be obtained ; of others, vei*y full sketches are at hand ; 
but justice requiied that a procrustean bed should be made, 
and something approximating to equal space has been devoted 
to those of like prominence, with a due consideration of all 
the cu'cumstances. 

With considerable difficult}' a record of the achievements 
of Alabamians in war has been gathered ; a feature of the 
work which will be mentioned more at length in the latter part 
of the volume. 

The mere entci*tainment of the reader's idle houi* was not 
a consideration with the author. As a work of reference, 
however, he hiis stiiven to make it indispensable to the intel- 
ligent Alabamian. Being a collection of facts, its merit de- 
pends upon the variety and accuracy of its statements, and 
the taste with which they are aiTayed. EiTors have probably 
crept into such a large number of facts ; but, whatever else 
may be alleged of the volume, eveiy eiBFort has been made to 
perfect it that could reasonably be expected. 

In his labors the autlior acknowledges with giatitude and 
pleasure the assistance of many estimable gentlemen. Hon. 
F. S. Lyon of Marengo, Hon. N. L. Whitfield of Tuskaloosa, 
Mr. Powhattan Lockett of PeiTy, Hon. B. C. Yjuiccy of Geor- 
gia, Hon. Reuben Chapman of Madison, Hon. John T. Hefliu 
of Talladega, Col. N. H. R. Dawson of DaUas, C<51. Wm. C. 
Gates of Henry, Hon. George S. Gaines of Mississippi, Hon. 
A. A. Coleman of Hale, Hon. N. A. Agee of Monroe, Col. M. L. 
Stansol of Pickens, Hon. T. B. Cooper of Cherokee, Capt. R. 
T. Simpson of Lauderdale, Major W. T. Walthall of Mobile, 
Hon. P. G. Wood of Dallas, Capt. John M. McKleroy of Bar- 
bour, Hon. W. B. Modawell of Perry, Major S. J, Saffold of 


Dallas, Hon. R M. Patton of Lauderdale, Mr. B. Michael of 
Lowndes, and Mr. B. Bichards of (Georgia, are among those 
whom he can not omit to mention in this public manner; and 
the favors of many others are held in enduring remembrance. 
HayneviUe, July 31, 1812. 




The histoiy of Alabama begins T^-ith the invasion of the 
eountiy by the Spaniards under DeSoto in 1540, which was 
foi-t^'-three years subsequent to tlie discovery of tlie northern 
continent of America by John Cabot. Prior to the visit of 
DeSoto notliing is known of tliis region. It had in all prob- 
ability been the home of the Indians, or other savage and 
inferior race, from the remotest period. 

Hemande DeSoto,* a cavalier of Spain, athirst for the 
riches and renowTi which had crowned the valor and daring 
of Cortez and Pizarro, obtamed the consent of Charles V. to 
his project for the stibjugation of Florida. By this name was 
the continent of North America known to the Spaniards, and 
DeSoto doubted not to find witliin its broad hmits cities and 
empires which would rival those of the tropics in opulence 
and splendor. Commissioned governor of Cuba by his sov- 
ereign, and seconded in his scheme by all, he landed at 
Tampa Bay, in May 1539, with about one thousand chosen 
men. Marching northward, he wintered near the site of the 
present town of Tallahassee. He then traversed Georgia to 
the Savannah, thence as far northwest as the Conesauga.. 
Following that stream to its confluence with tiie Etowah, a 

* DeSoto was a native of Xeres, Bpain, and was of the middle class of the 
society of that country. He was the companion and subaltern of Pizarro in 
the conquest and plunder of the incas in Peru, where he signalized himself 
by his valor. Having won wealth and reputation, he returned to his native 
land, and asked permission of the court to conquer at his own expense the 
vast territory known as Florida. 


short distance further west he came to the town of Chiaha, 
supposed to have been situated where Rome, Ga., now stands. 
Proceeding thence westward along the western bank of the 
Coosa, the expedition entered what is now the State of Ala- 
bama and county of Cherokee in June 1540. The first town 
they reached within our borders was called Acostee, and the 
inhabitants of it were more turbulent than any they had 
encoimtered since leaving south Geoi^a. While at Acostee, 
two soldiers, who had been sent to explore tlie mountains for 
precious stones and ores, returned with notliing of value but 
the skill of a buffalo. Crossing to the east bank of the river, 
the Spaniards ciime to a town called Talla at the end of a 
day's march. They were now in the fruitful country called 
Cosa or Coosa hy its inhabitants, and now embraced within 
the counties of Calhoim, Talladega, Coosa, Clay, and Elmore. 
The town of Coosa was now reached. It was the capital of 
tlie kingdom, and was situated on the river between the 
mouths of Talladega and Tallaseehatchee creeks, in the pres- 
ent coimty of Talladega. Hero the invaders tarried tvvcnty- 
five days, then moved southward through the towns of Talla- 
muchasee, Utawah, Ullibahalee, and Towassee, to a town 
called Tallasee, on tlie Tallapoosa. Remaining at this place 
twenty days, DeSoto received from the king of the powerful 
tribe to the southward an invitation to visit him. This he 
proceeded to do, with his entire force. Crossing the river, 
and pursuing a southwest dii'ection, a mai-ch of two days 
duration brought them face to face with the Indian king, a 
giant, name Tuskaloosa. This haughty prince accompanied 
his armed guests to a fortified town on the Alabama river, 
called Piachee.* Crossmg the river, the Spaniards proceeded 
down the west bank to the capital of this formidable nation 

• 'I 

This town is thoaght by both Meek and Pickett to have been situated in 
the present county of Wilcox ; the former locating it **near Evans' Land- 
ing," (near Clilton), and the latter '*iu the upper part of the county of Wil- 
cox ;** but the distance traversed, some sixty miles from TaUasee, would 
seem to indicate a point nearer Selma. The impression of these authors 
that the city of Man villa was in Clarke county (Pickett says at Choctaw 
Bluff; ) is also partly confirmed by the fact, that after crossing the river at 
Piachee, they passed through a populous country on the third day. As the 
Indians nowhere resided on the alluvial lands, but always on ligUt soil, it is 
quite probable that Mauvilla was in Clarke, for much of western Dallas and 
Wilcox is of the former character. 


of savages. Tuskaloosa, whose cunning and pride were only 
equaUed by his ferocity, had here congregated thousands of 
liis warriors, and they were concealed in large sheds or houses 
witliin the wooden walls or palisades of the city. The battle 
began the morning of the 18th of October, soon after DeSoto 
and liis advance guard were admitted within the enclosure. 
Forced back and outside by ovei-whelming niunbers, they 
were soon reinforced by thc^ main body, and now stormed the 
c"it}'. The savages fought \sath stul)born and wild ferocity, 
but the sujx^rior equipments of the Europeans made a great 
carnage. The conflict raged all day, and its horrors were sup- 
plemelited by the raviiges of tlio devouring flames, for the 
houses were flied. Night closed iq)on the city in iiiins, the 
conflict having lasted nine hom*s, and residted in the repulse 
of the Indians. Eighteen Spaniai'ds were killed, and 150 
wounded, while 2,500 of the brave natives were left dead on 
the field. Otlier accounts estimate the losses on both sides 
at much higher figm*es.* Certainly no Indian battle fought 
on the soil of the United States was more blooily.t The fate 
of the king, Tuskaloosa, is not satisfactorily known ; one 
aceoimt sUvting that he perished in tlie battle ; another that 
he retii'ed fi'om the city soon after it began. 

DeSoto had determined to go to the sea at Ochus, now 
called Pensacola, the capa<?ious harbor there ha\*ing been 
discovered by a detiichment of his comnnind while he was 
winteiing in Florida. He litul ordered vessels from Havana 
t<) await him thc^re, with supplies for tlie expedition ; and they 
were tlien at that ix)int. But he is thought to have feared a 
dis})andment of tlie command should his followers see so con- 
venient a means of escajx) fi*om the privations of their fruitless 
jichievements. He therefore tinned liis face nortliwai'd. 

The country tlnough which he now ptissed was called Pafal- 
laya, and was not inhabited. Ninety miles from Mauvilla 

* Tbe acconut of the expeditiou of DeSoto is accamtely given by no le s 
than three dififerent authors. One of these was a Portuguese cavalier who 
fihari d in its perils ; a >iecond was Biedma, the commissary of the expedi- 
tion ; and the third was Garciilasso de la Vega, who tcok down its incidents 
from the lips of two of the surviving soldiers, and from journals kept by 

t ^ I know not if a more bloody Indian fight ever occurred on the soil of 
the United States."— iiaiicro/(, vol. 1. j>a//c4a 


were two towns, Tallapatawa and Cabusto. The latter was 
on the river, probably between where Eutaw and Cartih«^e 
now stand. The natives were implacably hostile, and the 
passage of the Warrior had to be forced in the face of a large 
body of them. The Spaniards then ascended the east bank 
of the Tombikbee, and passed out of Alabama. Crossing the 
latter river, thoy found the Chicacas (Chicasas), and fought 
more than one bloody battle with them, teaching the Yazoo, 
they stormed a fortiess belonging to the Alibamos, wliich was 
defended with desperate valor. DcSoto then reached the 
Chicagua river, now called the Mississippi, in May 1541.* 
Crossing it, he journeyed a year in the western wilds ; but his 
search for gold was unsuccessful, and, baffled and desjwndent, 
he returned to the gieat river. Reaching it at a })oint just 
below the moutli of the Arkansas, he began to make prepara- 
tions to reach the Gulf by water, when he died of fever, in 
May 1642. His body was consigned, at the dead of night, to 
the waters of the great river of which he was the discoverer. 
" The Wanderer," says Bancroft, " had crossed a large part 
" of the continent in search of gold, and foimd nothing so 
" remarkable as his burial place." His successor, Moscoso, 
attempted to rojujh Mexico by land, but Returned after six 
month's wandering to attempt the transit by water. They 
sailed July 2, 1543, and the remnant of 320 souls — all that 
remained of the 1000 who Itvnded at Tampa, flushed witli 
hope, and fired by the desire for gold — left the inhospitable 
shores of their weary pilgrimage. They were rei>eatedly 
attacked on the voyage, but reached the Gulf within sixteen 
days, and arrived at the town of Panuco, Mexico, Sept. 10. 
Thence tliey went to the city of Mexico. 

Tlius ended an enterprise as fruitless in its achievements 
as it was bold in its conception, and arduous in its execution. 
It was an expenditure of ti-easure and blood with no useful 

* DeSoto is generuHy couBidered the discoverer of the Missisnippi . 
Howbeit* in 1819, GarHy, theSpuuish Viceroy of Jamaicn sent an expedition to. 
explore the coast of the Mexiqne Sea, west of Florida, for a passajre to tho 
westward. Alvarez Alonzo do Pineda led this expedition, and on the charts 
made by his pilots, the cstaaries of the Mississippi are traced, and Called 
Rio Espiritu Santo. And, in 152^, Cabeza de Vaca, with part of Narvaez's 
ill-starred expedition, while coasting westward, discovered one of its outlet k^ 


result save that of throwing some light on the condition of 
Alabama at on earlier period, and to a fuller extent, than was 
accorded to any other region of the American Union for a 
century afterwards. An European army traversed what is 
now the State of Alabama, from one end to the other, eighty 
years before the Puritans landed at Plymouth, and forty 
years before the birth of Smith, the founder of Virginia. 
But it was, as Meek calls it, ''an isolated chapter in the 
annals of " the country. " The dark curtain that had 
covered her territory was suddenly lifted; a brilliant but 
bloody panorama passed across the stage ; and then all was 
" shrouded in primeval darkness."* 



DeSoto found at least tl^ree of the four great Indian tribes 
of Alabama occupying identically the territory held by them 
nearly three centuries later. Three of these, the Muscogees, 
Choctas, and Chicasas, known to writers on the subject of 
the aboriginal inhabitants of the Americas as Mobilians, are 
supposed by Col. Pickett to have migrated from northern 
Mexico when Cortez was assailing the heart of that empire. 
He bases this opinion upon the traditions of these tribes, but 
offers nothing in evidence either tangible or authentic. He is 
very certain that the Ahbamos, encountered by the Spaniards 
on the Yazoo, were the same who were subsequently known 
by a similar name in this State, and that they, too, were from 
the Aztec hive. He doubtless bestowed much mor£ thought 
upon the subject than any other who has touched the subject 
However, the fact that the Indians found in possession of the 
country by DeSoto used the same names* as were found 

*Hoii A. B. Meek of Mobile. 



in vogue two or three centuries later, implies that the 
same people were in possession. Secondly, the desperation 
with which they defended, and the tenacity witli which they 
clung to, their native land, are facts that do not sustain the 
assertion that they were nomads. Again ; from 1528 to 1536, 
the date of these supposed migrations, Cabeza de Vaca and 
lis companions were among the Indians in Texas and New 
Mexico, and would certainly have noted in their journals a 
fact so remarkable as the exodus of thousands of people. 
Even tiie beUef that the Alibamos of the Yazoo were the 
more modem Alabamas of our State pales in the light of 
Meek's opinion that the word Alaba is only the name Hillaba 
or Hillibee, (doubtless the Ullibahallee of DeSoto), with gut- 
tural exclamation nm added. It is more than probable that the 
Coosas of DeSoto were the nucleus of the Muscogee confed- 
eracy, augmented by their policy of absorbing the remnants 
of tribes they subjugated, or such as fled to them for protection. 
Of the first of these the Uchees are an illusti'ation ; of the 
second tlie Natches, Shawnees, Tuskegees, and Tookabachees 
may be mentioned. The Pafalayas or Choctas were doubtless 
so greatly reduced in numbers by their losses at Mauvilln, 
where it may be inferred from their customs that every wairior 
who acknowledged the tribal protection fought, that the 
Muscogees found it an easy exploit to drive them beyond the 
Tombikbee. The Chiciisas and Cherokees do not appear to 
have been disturbed in their occupany of the headwaters of 
the Tombikbee and Coosa resjiectively till they were removed 
to the West. 

The Chebokees, when first known to the whites, looked out 
from tiieir moimtain homes in east Tennessee and northeast 
Alabama upon the tide-water region of Virginia, and the low- 
lands of the Carolinas and Kentucky. Gradually they were 
driven into north Geoigia and northeast Alabama. DeSoto 
encountered them on the upper waters of the Coosa, and 
feasted >^th them in tiieir capital, which they called Chiaha. 
And Chiaha was the name given by the Cherokees to then* 

*DoSoto visited the towns of Talla, Tallasee, Ullibahallee, (Hillabee), and 
the coantries of Pafisdlaya and Coosa, names employed by the more modern 
savages of the same region. 


countiy to the hour they left it. They had no affinity with 
the neighboring tribes, and spoke a more liqtiid language 
than what Gbillatin chooses to term " the Muscogee-Chocta." 
Though less tractable than the Choctas, they were more hos- 
pitable than the Chicasas, less turbulent than the Muscogees, 
and more civilized than either. They had numerous wars 
with the Carolinians and white settlers of Tennessee, but were 
usually at peace with other tribes. At the period of their 
removal to the West, in 1836, they were imder the leadership 
of several chiefs, of whom John Boss, Elias Boudinot, and 
Major Ridge were the principal. They were assigned lands 
in the northern and eastern part of Indian Territory, and are 
now the most civilized and ,Lfal of all ihe aborigiaal tribes 
of the western world. Before then* removal to the West they 
governed themselves by written laws, and now control their 
domestic poUty by the forms and usages of a popular govern- 
ment. They had a delegate in the congress of the Confed- 
erate States, and manifested a strong sympathy with the 
South in that struggle. The Cherokees now number about 
19,000 souls. 

The Chigasas dwelt on the head waters of the Tombikbee 
and Yazoo. Their territory included the greater portion of 
the Tennessee Valley in this State, and the first tier of our 
northwestern counties. The excursions of their war parties 
extended from the Ohio to the bay of Mobile, and anon they 
took a scalp on the Arkansas. Their courage exceeded that 
of all the other aboriginees. Neighboring tribes found them 
invincible ; they routed the army of Bienville, and slaughtered 
that of D' Artaguette i while the more numerous Choctas were 
fain to implore the whites to succor and protect them from 
their ravages. The incessant wars in which tiiey engaged 
depleted their numbers. A half-breed family, name Colbert, 
obtained an ascendancy among th^ Chicasas early in this 
century, and yet maintain it. George, Levi and James Col- 
bert were brothers, and Levi was the chief of the tribe* at the 
time of their removal to the West. They were removed in 
1834, and now constitute one of the foxu* districts into which 
the Choctas are divided. They dwell with that tribe on the 
north side of the Canadian river, Indian Territory. 


The Choctas ocjcupied the southwestern and western portion 
of Alabama, and all of Mississippi south of latitude 33"^ 30'. 
They were the Maubilians with whom DeSoto came in collision 
on the lower Alabama and the Tuscaloosa, and partly exter- 
minated. They were the friends of the French, and other 
whites, and were not so aggressive as other savage tribes. 
They more quickly adopted the industrial habits of the whites, 
and tilled the soil to a greater extent than any other tribe. 
They lived apart, having but few villages. Polygamy was rare 
among them, and their women were chaste. Their country 
was divided into three districts. At the beginning of the cen- 
tury Homastubbee was medal chief or mingo of the northern 
district, Puckshenubbee of the western district, and Pushma- 
taha of the south-eastern district. Homastubbee was suc- 
ceeded by his son Mushulatubbee ; Puckshenubbee was suc- 
ceeded by his nephew, a half-breed, Greenwood Laflore ; and 
Pushmataha's nephew inherited his authority, but proving too 
weak for the place, was superseded by Netuckigee.t They 

■ iii» ■ ■ II.— ■— ■ ■' I ■■ ■■» ■ - " ■■ ■» -I — . ■- ■ ^-,■-^ 

* An aocount of the Colberts will be found under the head of *' The Coanty 
of Colbert." 

t Pushmataha was born in east Mississippi in 1765, bnt his dominion 
embraced our sonthwestem counties. The name Pushmataha means **He 
has won all the honors of hia race.*' Ot all the Indians of pure blood who 
have a place in American history, he blended more admirable traits in his 
character than any other. He was intelligent, affable, sagacious, brave, elo- 
quent, witty, and comparatively temperate, and, like Logan, he was truly 
* * the friend of the white man.** When told of the massacre at Fort Mimms, 
he rode to Mobile, in oompany with Mr. Ceo. S. Gaines, and offered his ser- 
vices and those of his tribe to Gen. Flonrnoy. And when they were accepted, 
he led a body of his warriors with the expedition of Gen. Claiborne the 
attack on Econochaca. While on his way to Washington, the last time, he 
rode through Demopolis, and there asked Col. G. S. Gkiines to furnish his 
nephew with a keg of gunpowder, in the event of his death, so that suitable 
honors might be paid to his memory as a chief and a warrior. Ho died in 
Washington a few weeks later. Gen. Jackson visited him in his illness, and 
he was Duried in the congressional cemetery with military honors. The 
tablet on his monument bears this inscription: '* Pushmataha, a Chocta 
** chief, lies here. This monument is erected by his brother chiefs, who were 
** associated with him in a delegation from their nation, in the year 1824, to 
<* the general assembly of the United States. He died in Washington, Dec. 
**24, 1824, of the croup, in the 60th year of his age. Pushmataha was a 
** warrior of great distinction. He was wise in council, eloquent in an extra- 
** ordinary degree, and, on all occasions, and under aU circumstances, the 
** white man's friend. Among his last words were the following : ' When I 
** am gone let the big guns be fired over me.' *' He said that his death would be 
like the falling of a great tree in the forest when the winds were still. 


were the ruling mingoB at the time the tribe was removed 
across the Mississippi The Choctas were usually on terms of 
amity with the surrounding tribes, but many years ago were 
embroiled in a series of wars with the Chicasas and Muscogees. 
In 1830 they were removed, though a remnant yet remain 
around the graves of their ancestors in the pine barrens of 
southern Mississippi. They now populate a fertile country 
immediately west of southern Arkansas, and, with the Chic- 
asas, number 30,000 souls. A written constitution and foniis 
of a republican "government are administered by themselves. 
They are divided into three districts, and the Chicasas consti- 
tute a fourth. 

But by far the most formidable of the tribes that occupied 
Alabama soil were the MuscoG££8. *^ Their political import- 
ance," says Bancroft, ^'made them esteemed as the most 
powerful nation north of the Gulf of Mexico." When first 
known to the white colonists their domain sti*etched from the 
Tombikbee to the Atlantic, but they were gradually driven 
west of the Ocmulgee and Flint Their principal towns were 
on the Tallapoosa and Chattahoochee. Their war trail 
extended to Mobile Bay, and the Florida everglades, and they 
chased the bison in the beautiful valley of the Coosa.^ 

Each town had its nUcoOy or ki^, which custom arose from 
the somewhat heterogeneous organization of the nation ; com- 
posed as it was of various remnants of tribes ; but there was 
usually a civil chief with general authority, such as McGillivray 
and Big Warrior,t and a war chief, such as Milfort,^ Weather- 

* It is tiie common opinion that the boffiftlo did not frequent Alabama ; bat 
Chinnobee, an aged Hillabee chief, bom aboat 1750, said that when a child 
be stood on a knoll two miles north of Talladega, and saw the plain now 
embraced in the plantation ef #adge Heflin covered with a browsing herd. 

t Bio Wabbios, a man of much prndeaoe and shrewdness, was a native of 
Alabama, and a pore- blood Indian. He was peaceably disposed towards the 
whites, and sided with them in the war of 1813. He died in Washington in 
1825, while in attendance there with a delegation of his tribe. 

X LacuEBO KzxjpoBT was a Frenchman who lived from 1776 to 1796 among 
the Muscogees. He married a aster of McGillivray, and often led the war- 
riors of the nation against the Georgians. Betuming to France, he was 
made a general of brigade by Napoleon, and wrote an account of his sojourn 
in **lanatum0reck.'*4 


ford and Opotheleyoholo*. The Seminoled were the " wild 
men " and refugees of the Mnscogees, and really a portion 
of the same tribe. The Hillabees, Antangas, Cussetas, Cow- 
etas, Enfaulas, Ocfuskees, Uchees, &c., were names which 
attached to the Muscogees residing in those towns. They 
differed from the Choctas in that they congregated them- 
selves in towns, the better, probably, to resist the numer- 
ous enemies whom their turbulence provoked. They were 
frequently at war with the adjacent tribes. In 1813-14 they 
waged the bloodiest war against the whites anywhere recorded 
in the annals of the United States. And the combined power 
of the whites, the Cherokees, Ghicasas, and Choctas, assisted 
by a large portion of their own people, was required to 
subjugate them ; and only then when the superior weapons of 
modem warfare had abnost annihilated the fighting popula- 
tion. Removed to the Indian Territory in 1837, they now 
occupy the central part of that country. They have instituted 
a government republican in form, with written laws, and now 
number about 25,000 souls. 

The Tensas were a small tribe of Indians who resided on 
the river of that name. They were thought to be an oflyioot 
of the Katches from the fact that they kept a perpetual and 
sacred fire. The Choctas absorbed them. 

* Ofothlbyoholo was bom in Tookabatchee, and was the son of the half- 
breed Alexander Cornells, Weatherford's brother-in-law, by an Indian wo- 
man. A braTe man and influential ohief^ he was always friendly to the whites. 
He became wealthy, and removed with his people to the West, where he was 
residing in 1861» when he sided with the North in the war between the States. 





One hundred and sixty-two years elapsed after the expedi- 
tion of DeSoto before the Europeans again appeared in 
Alabama. The peace of Byswick, in 1697, apportioned the 
continent of North America among the contending powers in 
a manner which had a material effect upon its colonization. 
Under the name " Louisiana/' France claimed all the valley 
of the Mississippi, and as 4r east as the Perdido river^ 
LaSalle having explored the course of the great river, and 
the coast contiguous to its delta, the Sieur Iberville was 
entrusted with authority to establish settlements on it. This 
man was a native of Canada, and had distinguished himself 
by a series of naval victories over the British during the then 
recent war. He sailed from Bochelle in four small vessels, 
and with two himdred colonists, and, in January 1699, was 
in sight of the bay of Pensacola. One month before, three 
hundred Spanish troops had taken possession of the site of 
the present city, and they now claimed it as belonging to the 
crown of Spain, and forbade the French to enter the harbor. 
Iberville coasted further west, and cast anchor at Ship Island. 
Shortly afterwards the colony was transferred to Biloxi, on the 
mainland. Two brothers of Iberville, Messieurs Sauvolle and 
Bienville, accompanied him, and in December the first was 
commissioned governor, and the latter lieutenant governor. 
Sauvolle died the following August, A. D. 1700, and Bienville* 
succeeded to his authority. 

* Jean Baptibte Lemoinx, siear de Bienville, the first white governor of 
the settlements of the present State of Alabama, was bom in Montreal, Feb. 
23. 1 780. He was the son of Charles Lemoine, a native of Normandy, and was 
a younger brother of Iberville. Besides the latter, he had several brothers 
who were oonspienons as pioneers in the New World, viz : Sainte Helene, 
SauToUe, Chateangne, and Serigny. 


Early in 1702, Bienville removed the settlement to the 
mouth of Dog river, on the west side of the bay of Mobile, 
for it was thus called by him because the savages who inhab- 
ited the adjacent country called themselves Mobilians. He 
here erected a fortification which he designated as Fort 
St. Louis de la Mobile. Bienville now toiled and planned to 
engraft his o&hoot of civilization on the desolate shore. His 
renowned brother, Iberville, his zealous coadjutor in the work, 
died in Havana of yellow fever, in 1706, while en route to 
attack Jamaica with a fleet. The following year the calumnies 
of some malcontents in the colony caused the home govern- 
ment to send out one Demuys as governor, but he died on the 
passage. Bienville was authorized to continue in control, 
and was indefatigable in his labors. In consequence of the 
site of the village at the mouth of Dog river being subject to 
overflow, he removed the colony, in March 1711, to the present 
location of the city of Mobile. Here he erected Fort Conde. 

The mother country nourished her colonial children, and 
almost exdnsively maintained them^vith sappUes during these 
long years. ^ But, in the year 1712, a <k)ntract was made with 
M. Antoine Crozat, a merchant of immense wealth, to reheve 
her hands of an enterprise so expensive tmd profitless, 
and control was granted to him over all the French pos- 
sessions from the mouth of the Ohio to Texas for the 
period of fifteen years. Crozat dispatched M. Lamotte Cadilac 
to supercede Bienville as governor in 1713. On his arrival 
he found a colony of 324 souls, of whom 100 were soldiers. 
He retained Bienville as a lieutenant, and the latter established 
Fort Toulousei four miles above the junction of the Coosa and 
Tallapoosa, in 1714 Three y^ars later, Cadillac was removed, 
and M. L'Epinay was appointed to the governorship. His 
adnunistration lasted about six months, when, Crozat having 
surrendered his charter^ the government replaced Bienville in 

The colony, now numbering over seven hundred persons, 
was transferred to Law's celebrated Mississippi Company. 
Negro slaves were introduced, more attention was bestowed 
on agriculture, and the prospects of the colony began to 

brighten. For the first few years of the settlement the colo- 


nists were scattered over the country and amongst the natiyes 
much of the time in quest of peltries. Now, rice, tobacco, 
and indigo received the principal attention, and the labors of 
Bienville, and the cares of the mother country, seemed about 
to be rewarded by the existence of a thrifty colony. 

In 1720 the seat of government was transferred to New 
Biloxi, on the Mississippi coast. The 'year after. Law's com- 
pany failed, and three commissioners were sent over to direct 
the affiedrs of the colonists. Acting on the suggestion of 
Bienville, they removed the seat of government to New 
Orleans in 1723, a place that officer had founded five years 

In 1724, Bienville, who had led frequent expeditions against 
the Natches and the Spaniards at Pensacola, and had been 
foremost in all the enterprises of the settlement, sailed for 
France, to answer certain charges prefer^red against him ; but 
justice was denied to him. 

M. Pbbbies succeeded to the governorship. It was during 
liis administration that the Natches, who dwelt in the vicinity 
of ike present town of that name in Mississippi, were destroyed 

The probabilities of a general Indian war caused the French 
ministry to restore Bienville to authoriiy, and he arrived in 
1733. Two years later, he established a fortress on the Tom- 
bikbee.* Making this his base of operations, he moved 
against the Chicasas in 1736, and was defeated by them in a 
bloody battle at a town called Ackia, near the present Cotton 
Gin Fort, in MississippL 

In 1735 the British, under the direction of the colony of 
Savannah, Oglethorpe governor, established a stockade at 
Ocfnskee, on the Tallapoosa, in the present county of Talla* 
poosa. It remained there several years. In 1739 Qen. 
Oglethorpe visited the Muscogees, and made a treaty with 
them at Hie town of Coweta, on the Chattahoochee, in the 
present county of Bussell. 

In 1743 Gov. Bienville asked the French gvemmentto 
relieve him. His manly letter confessed the failxu*e of many 
of his later plans. His request was granted, and he returned 

*Near the present Jones' Blnfi, Somter oonnty. 


to Prance.* He is the founder of Mobile, and of New Orleans; 
and Louisiana. Possessed of all the qualities of a pioneer 
and a discoverer, he planted colonies on the barren shores of 
a distant land which have become prosperous, opulent and 
powerful. He was more to Alabama and Louisiana than 
Oglethorpe was to (Georgia, Smith to Virginia, or Penn to 
Pennsylvania. Patient, politic, sagacious, resolute, and hon- 
orable, he was found faithful and adequate to the "high 
emprises " his country entrusted to him. The first half cen- 
tury of the history of Mobile is- the life of Bienville. 

The Marquis de Yaudreuil succeeded to the office of gov- 
ernor. An attempt to chastise the Ghicasas in 1752, on the 
same ground on which Bienville fought, and which met with 
a like disastrous result, was the only prominent incident of 
his time. Gov. Kerlerec, Vaudreuil's successor, surrendered 
the country to the British at the peace of 1763. Neither of 
these governors appear to have commended himself to the 
remembrance of posterity by the conception of any noteworthy 

By the treaty all the country east of the Mississippi and 
north of Bayou Manchac was ceded to Great Brittain. Spain 
ceded the Horidas at the same time to Britain, but acquired 
Louisiana, or so much of it as Ues south of Bayou Manchac 
and west of the Mississippi. Britain at once divided these 
new possessions into three districts ; viz : East Florida, West 
Florida, and lUinois. The second of these embraced the 
country between the Mississippi and Chattahoochee as far 
north as the line of 32*^, 28'; which line crosses the Tombikbee 
a short distance below Demopolis, passes barely north of 
Selma and Montgomery, and crosses the Chattahoochee at 
Columbus. That moiety of Alabama north of the line thus 
traced was a part of the district of Blinois ; but while so 
constituted there were no white settlers south of the Cumber- 
land, and no civil jurisdiction disturbed the repose of its wilds. 

West Florida, as defined by the new partition, had Pensacola 
for its capital. Capt. Oeorge Johnstone, a naval officer, was 

- — - ■ - - ■ — ■ - ^ 

* Bienyille died in 1668, at the age of 68 years. He manifested a warm 
kiterest in his colonies till the last moments of his life. Looisiana has named 
a oonnty in his honor. 


the first British governor, and James Macphcrson, the author 
of the poems of Ossian, £c., &c., was his secrotaiy.* Gov. 
Johnstone's arbitrary conduct aroused a spirit of discontent 
in the colony, and he soon left it. Gov. Elliott, his successor, 
died soon after his arrival, and Lieut. Gov. Montefort Brown 
administered the afiairs of the district till the arrival of Gov. 
Peter Chester. Chester was an estimable person, and the 
last British governor of any portion of the soil of Alabama. 

The occupancy of the British was made memorable by the 
cession to the whites (the British) of the first lands relinquished 
by the savages within the limits of the present State of 
Alabama. The exact place and date of the treaty is not at 
command, but the district ceded is that which is embraced 
between the Pascagoula and Chicasaha on the west, the coast 
on the south, and the Tombikbee and Mobile and Mobile bay 
on the east, and south of a line beginning " on the left bank 
** of the Chicasaha river and running thence in an easterly 
*' direction to the right bank of the Tombikbee river, terminating 
** on the same at a bluff well known as Hatchee-tikibee.'* 

During the rebellion of the American colonies, 177&-1783, 
the white inhabitants of Alabama were loyal to the crown. 
But the long struggle was not to pas^ away without a response 
from the Gidf. When Spain espoused the cause of the 
colonies, Galvez, the valiant governor of Louisiana, invested 
Mobile with two thousand men. The garrison of Fort Char- 
lotte, consisting of eighty men, reinforced by the citizens, 
resisted for several days, but capitulated March 14, 1780. 
Pensacola fell into the same hands a few days later. 

At the peace in 1783, the territory east of the Mississippi, 
and north of latitude 31^, as far east as the Chattahoochee, 
thence down that stream to the confluence of the Flint,.thence 
east to the source of the Saint Mary's, and from there to the sea, 
wasceded to the victoriouscolonies by Great Britain. This line 
is now jMtrtly the /jouthem boundary of Mississippi and Ala-, 
bama. But Spain claimed that the cession of East and Weat 
Florida, made to her at the same time, included the territory 
80uih of tiie line 32"* 28', and continued to hold the country as 

• Haopbenon had already prodnoed **Onian " when he resided m f^en* 


far north as Fort Tombikbee by a garrison at that post. 
This was a iifratter of grave dispute between the two countries^ 
and was not adjusted till 1795, when the federal govern- 
ment dispatched Qen. Thomas Pinckney of South Carolina 
to Madrid, and he induced the court of the Escurial to accept 
the line of 31^. Even then the Spaniards held the country 
tin 17&8. . 

Meantime, Geoi^a claimed, under her royal charter, the 
territory now embraced within the limits of Mississippi and 
Alabama, and in 1785 created the county of Houstoun (so 
named to honor Gov. John Houstoun of that State) out of that 
portion of Alabama north of the Tennessee. Commissioners 
were appointed to organize the county, and they proceeded 
to the Muscle Shoals with ei^ty men to effect that purpose. 
A land office was established, magistrates were appointed, 4&c., 
but the fear of the Chicasas caused the party to leave in a 
fortnight. Georgia had much trouble' with the Muscogees 
during this period, fomented by SenorMiro, who had succeeded 
to the governorship of West Florida. ' 

A treaty, concluded January 3, 1786, between the federal 
government and the Choctas, confirmed the cession of the 
district obtained by the British from that tribe. The treaty 
was signed by Gen. Andrew Pickens, Col. Benjamin Hawkins, 
and Mr. Joseph Martin, on one part, and by Yockonahoma, 
Toboko, Mingohopoyee, and seventeen other " medal and 
gorget captains" of the Choctas on the other. Three or four 
years later, a family of whites would occasionally filter through 
the intermediate wilds and make their home in this rude region. 

The controlling mind in Alabama about this time was 
Alexander McGiUivray,* the most distinguished native the 
country had yet produced, and who was at the head of the 

* AuKANDBB MeGiLUTBAT WBB bom fit Little Tallasee, four miles aboTo 
where Wetampka now stands, in 1746. His mother, Sehoy, was the daughter 
of Capt BCardiand (a French officer killed by his ftintanoos men while in 
command ofFort Toulouse in 1782) and an Indian princess. She married 
Laohlan McGHlivTay, a Scotchman, one of the numerous white traders who 
for many years infested the Indian nations. Hducteted thoroughly in 
Charleston, at seyenteen years of age the son returned to his native forests. 
His descent, wealth, and talents at once placed him at the head of the Mus- 
cogee nation. 


^ti&cogee confederacy, more compact and formidable now 
^^ at any known period of its history. During the colonial 
^belHon, 1776-1783, McQillivray was in the interest of the 
British, who gave him the rank and pay of a colonel. Averse 
to mihtary service himself, he incited his people to depreda- 
tions on llie Georgia frontier. When the Spaniards became 
possessed of Mobile and Pensacola they gave him the rank 
^d pay of a coloneL The difficxdties between the Georgians 
^d Mnscc^ees induced President Washington in 1790 to 
send CoL Marinus Willett to induce McGilKirray to visit New 
7ork, then the federal seat of government, to negotiate a 
n©w treaty. This was accomplished, and McGillivray was 
bribed with the commission of a brigadier general, and a 
expend of $1200, to consent to the sale of an extensive region 
to the Georgians for a trifling sum to be paid to the tribe. 
T^ visit and treaty alarmed the Spaniards, who not only 
coveted the trade of the Muscogees, but wished to use them 
as allies in the event of a* war. They increased McGillivray 's 
pay from $1500 to $3500, and so beset him as to thwart tiie 
effectiv^iess of ihe treaty he had assented to in New York. 
Harassed by the complications in which his duplicity had 
involved him, McGillivray died in Pensacola, Feb. 17, 1793.* 
He was accomplished, well informed, and shrewd. His 
cultivation and astuteness were of essential service to his 
people, over whom he wielded an influence not felt since the 
days of Tuskaloosa. He was a diplomatist and scholar among 
a nation of savages. 

White settlers from the States began about the year 1790 
to make their homes on the lower 'Bikbee. They came very 
slowly, however, and numbered only twelve hundred and fifiy 
souk ten years later. The trackless wilderness that lay 
between was filled with obstacles and perils that none but the 
boldest dared to encounter. Cattle herds were the chief care 
and property of these early settlers, who were obliged to 
observe great caution in their intercourse with the savage 
tribes by whom they were surrounded. 

* Oen. HoOilliTray was interred in the garden of Mr. Wm. Panton, in 
Penaacola. He left a large estate and two or three children, who died in 
yonih. He had two or three wives. In person he was taU and slender, with 
a dignified bearing. 


In 1794r-'5 the Georgia legislature authorized a sale of 
21,600,000 acres of the State's land in Alabama and Missis- 
sippi for the sum of $600,000. The purchasers were four 
companies of land speculators, and the measure was stigma- 
tized as " the Yazoo Fraud." The portion of Alabama thus 
attempted to be disposed of comprised all that lying west and 
north of the Alabama and Coosa rivers, or more than one-half 
the area of the State. But the act was expunged from the 
journals of the legislature at the succeeding annual session, 
and the manuscript bill publicly burned at Louisville, then the 
capital of Geoi^ia. 




In 1798, the congress of the United States created into a 
Territory, called "Mississippi," the region between 31" and 
32- 28' of nortti latitude, Si ihe MiLssippi river for tiie 
western and the Chattahoochee for the eastern boimdary. Of 
this Territory President Adams appointed Winthrop Sargent 
of Massachusetts the governor. Gov. Sargent repaired to the 
seat of government, Natchez, on the Mississippi, and assumed 
authority. In May 1799, a detachment of federal troops 
relieved the Spanish garrison at Fort St. Stephens, which had 
been constructed by them twelve or thirteen years before. 
Below the junction of the Alabama and Tombikbee a defence 
was erected in July, and christened Fort Stoddart. By proc- 
lamation, in June 1800, Gov. Sargent established Washington 
coimiy, the limits of which comprised all of the territory east 
of Pearl river as far as the Chattahoochee. The same year 
congress provided for a legislature for the Territory. 

The census of Washington couniy was taken the first time 
in 1800, and found to consist of 733 whites, 494 negro slaves. 


and 23 free negroes. The population of Mobile and Baldwin, 
not tiien existing as oonnties, but under Spanish rale, was 
probably as large. 

The arbitrary conduct of Gk)Y. Sargent caused the people 
to send up a petition for his removal, and, in 1801, President 
JeffeiBon commissioned William C. C. Claiborne of Tennessee 
to saoceed him. The new goyernor, a natiye of Virginia, pos- 
sessed much ability. He removed the capital of the Territory 
' to Washington, a village six miles east of Natchez. 

h 1802, (April 24,) the State of Geoi^ ceded to the federal 
government all the territory embraced within the limits of the 
present States of Alabama and Mississippi, north of the par- 
allel 31^, for the sum of $1,260,000. The commissioners on 
the part of the federal government who concluded this pur- 
chase were Messrs. James Madison of Virginia, Albert Gal- 
latin of Pennsylvania, and Levi Lincoln of Massachusetts ; 
on the part of Oeorgia, Messrs. James Jackson, Abraham 
Baldwin, and John Milledge of that State. Thus, after a vexa- 
tions controversy, the claim made by that State to this exten- 
sive realm was extinguished. 

The boundaries of the Territory were now extended north- 
ward to the Tennessee Une, whereby it was almost trebled in 
ai^. Yet the Lidian title remained to all of its capacious 
8fea, save to a slip of country above and below Natchez, and 
the one on the Tombikbee. 

A second treaty was concluded October 17, 1802, between 
the federal government and the Choctas, at Fort Confedera- 
tion, on the Tombikbee. It related principally to the cession 
made to the British, and was signed by Brig. Gen. James Wil- 
kinson of the federal army, on the part of the government, by 
Okechummee and Tuskamayabee on the part of the northern 
district, by Tuskana Hopoyo, Mingo Pooskoos, and Pushma- 
taha on the part of the south-eastern district, and by Mingo 
Homastubbee, Tuskahoma, Latallahoma, and Mooklahoosa- 
poyee on the part of the western district, of the tribe.* 

*The foUowing are the two principal artides of the four adopted at this 

AiT. L That the President of the United States may, at his disoretion, 
by a commissioner or commissioners, to be appointed by him, by and with 
the advice and consent of the Senate of the United States, re-trace, connect* 


White population still came in slowly to the 'Bikbee settle- 
ment, for the hazards of penetrating the pathless wilderness 
which lay between it and the States were augmented by the 
presence of the inhospitable Indians. Immigration was also 
retarded by the difficulty of getting the produce of the countiy 
to market, there being ei^rt duties to be paid at Fort Stod- 
dart to the United States, and a tariff at Mobile to be paid to 
Spain. The character of the population was of the rudest 
kind, and schools and churches were unknown. 

In 1801, Spain ceded Louisiana to France, but retained the 
Florida^, which extended as ha west as the Mississippi, and 
embraced the strip of country between the coast and the line 
of 31^ north latitude. The French, in 1803, sold Louisiana 
to the United States. 

Bobert Williams of North Carolina* succeeded Gov. Clai- 
borne in 1806 as govemor of the Territory. 

The same year (July 23) an important purchase was made 
from the Chicasas. Besides a great body of land in Ten- 
nessee, a small district was deeded south of the line of that 
State. It was in the shape of a triangle, caused by running 
the line from the ridge "near the main source of Buffalo 
" river in a direct line to the great Tennessee river near the 

and plainly re-mark the old line of limits established by and between his 
Britanio majesty and the said Ohoota nation, which begins on the left bank 
of the Chioasaha river, and mns thenoe in an easterly direotion to the right 
bank of the Tombikbee riyer, terminating on the same at a bluff weU known 
by the name of Hatohee-tUdbee. [The remainder refers to the appointment 
of two Indians as joint commissioners.] 

Abt. n. The said line, when thus re-marked and re-established, shaU 
form the boundary between the United States and the said Choota nation in 
that quarter ; and the said Choota nation, for and in consideration of 
one dollar, to them in hand paid by the said United States, the receipt 
whereof is hereby acknowledged, do hereby release to the said Unitod States, 
and quit claim forerer, to all that tract of land which is included by the 
before-named line on the north, by the Ghioasa river on the West, by the 
Tombikbee and the Mobile rivers on the east, and by the boundary of the 
United States on the south. 

Silas Dinsmore, federal agent to the Choctas ; Major John Pitchlynn, and 
others, witnessed this agreement. 

*€k>y. Williams passed the earlier part of his life in Surry county. North. 
Garolina. He was a member of congress from his native State from 1797 
to 1808. 

OnTLIM£ HI8T0BY. 29 

old fields or eaBtem point of the Ghioasa claim on 
** tiiat river ; thence north[ea6t]waidlj to the great ridge 
** dividing the waters running into the Tennessee from those 
'* running into the Comberland, so as to include the waters 
*^ running into Elk river/' &Ai. This was the first foothold 
'^•jcured in the beautiful valley of the Tennessee. The agree- 
lent was concluded " in the Ghioasa country/' and signed by 
ames Bobertson of Tennessee and Silas Dinsmore of New 
^ftdampshire on the part of the Federal government, and by 
^3eoi^e and Levi Colbert, Chinabee Mingo, Tishimastubbee, 
"N^m. McGillivray, aod four other chiefs, on the part of the 
dhicasas ; and was witnessed by Beuben Chamberlain, John 
^^cKee, John Pitchlynn, and others. The Cherokees, Jan. 7, 
1806, deeded their claim and title to the same territory, and 
\o all the lands west of it and north of the Tennessee, except 
two large tracts. This was done in Washington by Double- 
Head, and sixteen other chiefs, Oen. Henry Dearborn, secre- 
tary of war, acting for the federal government 

At the treaty of Mount Dexter, Nov. 16, 1806, the Chootas 
ceded a large district in southern Mississippi, and extending 
across from tiie strip on tiie Mississippi abready ceded to that 
on the Tombikbee, and across that stream to a point near the 
present postoffice '* Chocta Comer," in the present county of 
Clarke, Alabama, thence down the comb of the water i^ed 
separating the affluents of the two rivers. This was quite an 
important trea<7 to the present state of MisBissippL It was 
signed by Messrs. James Bobertson and Silas Dinsmore, on 
the part of the federal government, and Pucksbenubbee, 
Homastubbee, Pushmataha, great medal mingoes, and twenty 
chiefe and warriors, on the part of the Choctas ; with John 
McKee, Wm. Colbert, the Chicasa agent Samuel Mitchell, 
John Pitchlynn, Louis Laflore, Charles Juzant, and others, as 

Out of the Chicasa cession. Gov. Williams created the 
county of Madison by proclaipation in 1808. Already the 
smoke from the cabin of the white had b^un to ascend from 
the valley of the Tennessee, and the echo of his axe in those 
«>UtndeB heralded the onwitrd kamp of civilization. Bald- 
win county was established on the west side of the Mobile 


and Alabama in 1809. The same year David Holmes of 
Yiiginia succeeded Otov. Williams.* Mobile was yet in the 
hands of the Spaniards, with whom the more restless settlers 
maintained a predatory warfare about this time. 

In 1810 the three counties lying within the present State of 
Alabama — Madison, Washington, and Baldwin — contained a 
white population of 6422, and a negro population of 2624. A 
fraction oyer half of these were in Madison. 

Immigration was assisted by a military road which the 
Muscogees allowed the federal goyemment to cut from the 
Chattahoochee to Mimms' Ferry, on the Alabama. 

The three counties sent delegates to the Territorial legis- 
lature at Washington, Mississippi 

In October, 1812, the Shawnee chief, Tecumseh,t came 
among the Muscogees to incite them to hostilities against the 
whites. He was the emissary of the British, with whom the 
federal government was at war. The Spaniards at Pensacola 
and Mobile had already bred ill-feeling among them against 
the whites, and the fiery eloquence of Tecumseh precipitated 
the conflict It began by a series of outrages on immigrants 
and settlers. 

Spain being the ally of Britain, the United States were 
apprehensive that the ports of that power on the Ghilf would 
be used by the British. Accordingly, Gten. Wilkerson moved 
from New Orleans with a considerable force, and obliged the 
Spanish garrison of Fort Charlotte, Mobile, to capitulate, 
April 13, 1813. Thus was the soil of Alabama rescued firom 
European domination. 

The first engagement in the war with the Creeksj: or Mus- 
cogees was on Burnt Com creek, in the present county of 
Conecuh. Col. Caller, with 180 armed settlers from the 

*DaTid Holmes, the foarth and last goTomor of Bfississippi Territory, vas 
a Virginian. He held the office tiU Alabama and MissiBsippi were divided, 
in 1817, and beoame the first goyemor of the latter State. He was a member 
of the federal Senate from 1820 to 1825, and died soon after. 

fThe parents of Teoomseh, Drake says, were bom and bred at Sonva- 
nogee, on the Tallapoosa, bat removed to northwestern Ohio, where he was 
bom in 1768. 

|The name given the Muscogees by the traders because of the numerous 
streams within their territory, and applied by the whites generally. 


^ciniiy of St. Stephens, attacked double that nnmber of the 
^nemj, who were retnming from Pensacola with ammunition 
suid supplies. Though surprised in their bivouac, the savages 
■rallied and repulsed the whites, the mass of whom acted 

Apprehensive of attacks on their exposed homes, the settlers 
abandoned them and sought safety in the stockades with which 
"fthe country now became dotted. 

A month after the fight at Burnt Com, Aug. 30, 1813, Fort 

!3Iinons, a stockade defence near the east bank of the Alabama, 

:5ii the present coxmty of Baldwin, was surprised at midday by 

^me thousand warriors, led by Weatherford, Peter McQueen, 

mnd the prophet Francis. In the fort were 245 men under 

mrms, coihmanded by Major Daniel Beasley of the volunteers 

:from the Natchez country; and 308 women and children, 

siegroes, and friendly Indians. A heroic defence was made, 

Trat, unprepared and overpowered, the men were slain in fight, 

and the non-combatants were butchered in a revolting manner. 

Less than fifty escaped, and the fort was left a smoking ruin. 

It exceeded in atrociiy and barbarity any massacre that has 

ever occurred within the limits of the United States. 

Ahnost simultaneously the savages fell upon the settlers in 

" the fork," and killed twelve persons near Fort Sinquefield. 

These frightful deeds of blood filled the whole frontier 

country with consternation, and thrilled the Southern States 

with horror. 

llie inteUigence reached Gov. Blount and Qen. Jackson in 
Nashville, by a dispatch from Mr. Geoi^e S. Gaines, near 
Si Stephens. Such was the enei^ of these officers and the 
patriotism of the people of Tennessee, that, within forty days 
from the date of the disaster at Fort Mimms, Qen. Jackson 
reached Huntsville with nearly two thousand volunteers. 
Crossing the Tennessee, he established Fort Deposit on the 
elbow of that river. Nov. 3, Gen. CojBFee made a reconnois- 
sance in force of the Indian town of Tallaseehatchee, in the 
present county of Calhoun. The conflict was brief but bloody, 
and all the warriors were killed — 186 in number. " We have 
" retaliated for Fort Mimms," wrote Jackson to Gov. Blount. 


Jackson moved southward to the Ten Tslandts and» on the 
north bank of the Coosa, oonstracted Fort Strother. 

NoTember 9, he snironnded the savages again at the town 
of Tallad^a, and routed them with muoh slaughter. The 
Tudians left two hundred and ninety-nine warriors dead on 
the field, while ibe loss of the whites was fifteen killed and 
eighty wounded. 

Gen. White's brigade of East Tennesseans captured and 
destroyed the town of SUllabee, November 18, killing sixty 
warriors. They made but little resistance, as they were n^o* 
tiating with Gen. Jackson, who lay on the other side of the 
mountains. ^* We lost not a drop of blood," said White iq 
his report to Gen. Cocke, and Fort MimniR was again avenged. 

Georgia was also aroused by the fearful character of the 
pending struggle. A brigade of her sons, and a body of 
friendly Creeks, were sent across the Chattahoochee, under 
Gen. Floyd.* Erecting Fort Mitchell on the Chattahnochee, 
he proceeded into the hostile territory. Attacking the town 
of Autossee, in the present county of Macon, he routed the 
savages with a loss to them of two hundred men. He then 
fell back to Fort Mitchell for suppUes. With an increased 
force he again approached the arena of the war. At Calabee 
creek, January 27, 1814, he was assailed by the savages, and 
though he repulsed them with considerable loss, his army 
suffered severely. He again retired to Fort Mitchell, and the 
Georgians took no further active part in the struggle. 

The operations on the lower Alabama were, meantime, of 
a predatory character. Col. McGrew had been worsted and 
killed in a skirmish on Barshi creek, Oct. 4, and the far-famed 
Canoe Fight occurred Nov. 12. However, Gen. Claiborne 
moved up from that quarter with about one thousand men, 
and a body of Choctas, and, Dec. 23, 1813, assaulted the 
town of Econochaca, which was situated on the Alabama, in 
the present county of Lowndes. The savages were routed, 
and tiieir town destroyed, but the loss on each side was light. 

* John Flotd was bora in Beaufort district, S. C, in 1769. At the age of 
sixteen years he was apprenticed to a carpenter. In 1791 he settled in 
Camden county, G^rgia, where he became a boatwright. He was brigadier 
general of militia, and, as such, led the Georgians to Autossee and Calabee. 
He was in congress in 1827, and died in 1834. 


The severity of the weather compelled Claiborne to fall back 
to Fort Claiborne. 

The devoted Muscogees virere also assailed from the remain- 
ing point of the compass. Pushmataha, with a body of Choc- 
tas, and CoL McKee, vnth a band of Chicasas, marched to 
attack the town of Tuskaloosa, on the Warrior. But they 
foDnd it deserted. 

Gen. Jackson had been delayed by the expiration of the 

tern of service of his troops, and the want of supplies. 

Again moving southward vrith nine himdred whites and two 

Inmdred Cherokees and Creeks, he was fiercely assailed, Jan. 

22, 1814, near Emuckfau creek, now in Tallapoosa county, by 

fi^ hundred Indians. The fight lasted all day, both sides 

suffering severely ; but the assailants were driven oflf. The 

number of his wounded, and the scant condition of his com- 

niissariat, determined Jackson to retreat to Fort Strother. 

Beaching Enitachopco, a Hillabee village in the southern part 

of what is now Clay county, January 24, he was suddenly 

assailed with great vigor by the pursuing red men. After an 

obstinate combat, they were repelled, though the invading 

army was at one time in great peril. Jackson then retired 

without further molestation. 

Beinforced by the 39th United States Infantry, and two 
brigades of Tennessee militia, Jackson moved f^r the third 
time into the enemy's country. March 21, he established 
Fort Williams at the mouth of Cedar creek, on the Coosa. 
March 27, he attached the Creeks in their fortification on the 
Horse-Shoe Bend of the Tallapoosa, where their town Toho- 
peka stood, in the present county o£ Tallapoosa. It was the 
most sanguinary battle of the war. Having surrounded them, 
and forced their works, the Indians were routed, and left 557 
warriors dead on the field, besides others killed in the effort 
to cross the river. The whites and their savage allies lost 54 
killed, and 156 wounded. It was the finishing stroke to the 

Proceeding thence to Hickoiy Groimd, in the present 
county of Elmore, Jackson built Fort Jackson on the ruins of 
Bienville's old fort, Toulouse. Detachments of his army 


scoured the adjiicent cotuitry, and burned several villages 
which they found deserted. 

A body of Georgia and South Carolina troops penetrated 
the country, and in March erected Fort Decatur on the Talla- 
poosa, in the present county of Macon. Major Oen. Thomas 
Pinckney, in command of the southern department, proceeded 
from this point to Fort Jackson, Apiil 20. He ordered the 
mihtia to return to Tennessee, as their time was about to 
expire, and the remnant of the savages were suing for peace. 
They were scattered in the forests, without food or shelter, 
and, pending the negotiations, many Hocked to the different 
posts for a refuge from starvation. 

In July, Gen. Jackson returned to Foi-t Jackson, with 
authority to treat for peace. This was concluded, August 9, 
1814, and signed by the leading chiefs and wannors. To 
reimburse the federal government for the expenses incurred 
in the war, all the country claimed by the Muscogees west 
of the Coosa, and south of a line running southeast from 
Wetumpka to a point on the Chattahoochee below the present 
.town of Eufaula, was ceded. It was a very important event 
in the annals of Alabama, for it threw open to the whites half 
the present area of the State.* 

* This was the first cession the Muscogees made of their lands in what is 
now Alabama, dnd is the most famons of aU the Indian treaties that relate 
to her present territory. The domain to which the title of the savages was 
thus extingnished is described in an article of the treaty as ** beginning at 
** a point on the eastern bank of Coosa river, where the south boundary line 
** of the Cherokee nation crosses the same ; running from thence down the 
*' said Coosa river with its eastern bank according to its various meanders 
<*to a point one mile above the mouth of Cedar creek, at Fort Williams, 
** thence ea^'t two miles, thence south two miles, thence west to the eastern 
*' bank of the Coosa river, thence down the eastern bank thereof according 
** to its various meanders to a point opposite the upper end of the great 
** falls (called by the natives Weotumka), thence east from a true meridian 
**line to a point due north of the mouth of Okfuskee,* thence south by a 
<«like meridian line to the mouth of Okfuskee, on the south side of the Tal- 
**lapoosa river, thence up the same [the Okfuskee,] according to its various 
** meanders, to a point where a direct course will cross the same at a die- 
**tance of ten miles from the mouth thereof, thence a direct line to the 
** mouth of Summochico creek, which empties into the Chattahouchie river 
"on the east side thereof below the Eufaulau town ; thence east,'' &c., &c. 

*- This WM Okfuskee, or " Line " creek. iM it is now nsually called. 


Though the treaty of Fort Jackson terminated the war on 
the Tallapoosa, many of the Creeks fled to Pensacola. There 
they were harbored and protected by the Spaniards, who 
were incensed at the captuie of Mobile. The contest between 
Great Britain and tlie United States continued, and the for- 
mer power, the close ally of Spain in the war she was then 
engaged in with France, was permitted, August 25, 1814, to 
land three hundred men in Pensacola, and anchor an armed 
fleet in the harbor. The British oflicers were then permitted 
to equip and discipline the fugitive Indians, and to prepare 
for an aggressive campaign against Mobile and New Orleans. 
Apprised of these movements, Gten. Jackson, who had been 
assigned to the command of the new militarj' department of 
the Southwest, left Fort Jackson, August 11, and floated 
down the Alabama with a portion of his troops. Making his 
headquarters in Mobile, he called for volunteers from Ten- 
nessee, and they were promptly furnished. He reconstructed 
the defense at Mobile Point, called Fort Bowyer, which had 
been dismantled by Gten, Floumoy. 

Fort Bowyer was attacked, September 15, by a large naval 
and land force from Pensacola, the latter consisting chiefly of 
Indians. But Major Lawrence, with one hundred and thirty 
men, beat off the assailants with a loss of one vessel and two 
hundred and thirty-four men ; while his own loss was eight 

In October, Brig. Gen. Coffee reached the vicinity of Si 
Stephens with two thousand eight hundred mounted Tennes- 
seeans. Dismounting one thousand of these, and uniting 
them with his old command. Gen. Jackson marched across 
the country, and captured Pensacola and its defenses Novem- 
ber?^ ^^ 

The humiliating terms of this treaty were relactantly acceded to by the 
Creeks. It was signed by '* Andrew Jackson, major general commanding 7th 
military district," on the one part; and by ' * Tastenuggee Thlacco, [Big 
Warrior,] speaker of the Upper Creeks,** " Tostenuggee Hoppoiee, speaker 
of the Lower Creeks/* *' Timpooechee Bernard, captain of Uchees,'* '* Nom- 
atlee Emantla, or Captain Isaacs of Coosada," "Alexander Grayson of Hil- 
labee,** and thirty-one other miccos and headmen. " Done at Fort Jackson 
**in presence of Charles Cassidy, acting secretary ; Benj. Hawkins, agent 
** for Indian affairs ; Betnm J. Meigs, A. C. Nation [Cherokee agent]; Robert 
«' Butler, adjutant general United States Army,'^ &c., &c. 


Major Uriah Blue, of the Thirty-ninth infantry, was then 
detached with one thousand men, to scour the coast country, 
while the commander-in-chief repaired to the scene of his 
glory at New Orleans. Major Blue accomplished the dan- 
gerous task assigned to him very eflfectually. The savages 
were driven from their cover in the swamps of the Escambia 
and Choctahatchec, and quite a number were killed. 

Thus was ended a war so glorious to tlie brave Muscogees, 
and yet so fatal! Their formidable strength was shorn 

West Florida, as far east as the Perdido, was ceded to the 
United States, and thus the bay and town of Mobile came 
into the possession of the United States. 

Important treaties were made with the Indian tribes in 
1816 ; treaties which led to an immediate and steady flow of 
immigration into the country. 

At the Chicasa council-house, September 14, a treaty was 
entered into between the federal government and the Chero- 
kees, which was ratified at Turkeytown the 4th of October 
following. The tribe relinquished all claim to the country 
south of the Tennessee river and west of a line near the 
western boundary of the present county of Marshall, for tho 
sum of $65,000.* This treaty was signed by Gen. Jackson, 
of Tennessee, Hon. Jesse Franklin of North Carolina, and 
Gen. Merriweather of Georgia on the pai*t of the federal 
government; and by George Ghiess, Eichard Brown, and 
twenty-two other chiefs, in behalf of the tribe. 

At the Chicasa council-house, September 20, 1816, that 

*The line is described in the writing as follows : The Cherokee nation 
** acknowledge the following as their western boundary : Sonth of the Ten- 
'* nessee river, commencing at Camp Coffee on the south side of the Tennes- 
** see river, which is opposite the Chicasa Island, running from thence a due 
** south course to the top of the dividing ridge between the waters of the 
' * Tennessee and Tombikbee rivers, thence eastwardly along said ridge, leaving 
** the head waters of the Black Warrior to the right hand, until opposed by 
<* the west branch of Will's creek ; down the east bank of said creek to the 
** Coosa river, and down 'said river. The Cherokee nation relinquish to the 
** United States all claim, and cede all title, to lands lying south and west of 
** the line as described, &e,, Sto. This treaty was witnessed by * * James Gads- 
den, secretary of the commissioners ;" ** Arthur P. Hayne, inspector general, 
division of the South ; John Rhea of Tennessee, Return J. Meigs, and others. 


tnbe sold all their lands " east of a line commencing at the 
"mouth of Caney creek," [now in the county of Colbert] "nm- 
"ning up said creek to its soui'ce, thence a due course to the 
"ridge path, or commonly called Gaines' road, along said road 
"south*west\vardly to a point on the Tombikbee, well known 
"as Cotton Gin Port, and down the western bank of the 
"Tombikbee to the Chocta boundary," at the mouth of the 
Oktibbeha river, for the sum of $124»500.* This ti-eatv was 
signed by Gen. Jackson, Mr. Franklin, and Gen. Merri- 
veather, and by twenty-three chiefs and leaders of the tribe. 
The small strip of territory in Alabama reserved by the Chic- 
asas in this treaty was ceded in 1832. 

A. third treaty of primary importance was concluded with 

the Choctas, at the trading house near Jones' Bluff, on the 

Tombikbee, whereby they ceded to the federal government 

"all their title and claim to lands lying east of the following 

"boundary : beginning at the mouth of Oktibbeha, the Chicasa 

"boundary, and running from thence down the Tombikbee 

"river until it intersects the nortliem boundary of a cession 

"made to the United States by the Choctas, at Mount Dexter, 

"on the 16th of November, 1805." This was a deed to all 

the first tier of counties lying east of the Tombikbee and 

Tnskaloosa rivers, and north of the present boundary of 

Pickens. The consideration was the sum of $130,000, in 

installments, as usual. Gen. John Coffee, Hon. John Ehea, 

and Col. John McKee were tlie federal commissioners ; and 

Mushulatubbee, Puckshenubbee, Pushmataha, and ten other 

chiefs on the part of tlie Indians.t 

The red man had now been pushed across tlie Tombikbee and 
to the Big Bear on the west, behind the ell)ow of the Tennes- 
see on the north-east, out of the Tennessee valley proper, be- 
yond the Coosa on the east, cut off from contact with the 

•Thifi amonnt does not include ^L'O each paid to ** Chinnubby, King of 
the ChicasaR,*' Levi Colbert, and the eight other *• Chicasa chiifs," and the 
interpreter ; or the $100 each paid to *• Colonel George Colbert." James Col- 
bert, •* Major Wm. Glover," and ten other '♦military leaders ; '' nor to the life 
Bimaity of i 100 given to *♦ Gen. William Colbert." The gold of the white 
men could aecnre the lands of the brave Chicasas ; their steel conld not 

tThomaa H. Williams, R. Chamberlain, Silas Diusmore, John Pitchlynn , 
Tomer Brashear, and M. Mackcy witiieuscd this treaty. 


Spaniard at Pensacola, and driven fi-om his hunting grounds 
on the lower Chattahoochee. Three-quarters of the present 
magnificent domain of Alabama lay at the will of the Anglo- 


TION IN 1820. 

Assured of socuritj' from the savages, white settlers began 
to flock into the country from the States. 

By an act of eongi-ess, dated March 1, 1817, Mississippi 
Teriitoiy was divided. Another act, bearing the date March 
3, thereafter, organized tlie weskun poi*tion into a Territory, 
to be known as " Alabama," and with the boundaries as they 
now exist. This a<3t fm*ther declared that the seat of govern- 
ment of the TeiTitory should be St. Stephens vuitil otherwise 
provided ; and that the president should appoint a governor 
with the autliority to ct)nvene tliere such members of the 
legislative, council and house of representatives of Mississippi 
Territory as fell by the division within the limits of the new 

AVilliam Wyatt Bibb of Georgia was appointed governor 
by President Monroe, and enttired on the discharge of his 
duties in the spring of 1817. He possessed all the qualifica- 
tions for the important trust, and a considerable experience. 

The first session of the Territorial legislature opened its 
session at St. Stephens, Januarj- 19, 1818. The coimcil con- 
sisted of one member, Mr. Titus of Madison, who was of 

*Tbis proTision led to a singular incidcut. Mr. James Titus of Madison 
was the only member of the legislative council whose residence fell within 
the limits of Alabama. During the entire session of the first legislature of 
the territory he occupied a separate chamber, and adopted or rejected the 
various measures from the other house with all the parliamentary formalities. 


course president ; the house consisted of about ten members, 
with Mr. Gtibriel Moore of Madison as chairman. The 
counties of Baldwin, Clarke, Madison, Monroe, Mobile, Mont- 
gomery, and Washington were represented. 

Some feeling was excited about this time among the people 
of the new territory by the petition of the constitutional 
conveution of Mississippi asking congress to extend the limits 
of that TeiTitory to MobUe Bay and the Tombikbee river. 

During the year 1818, much alarm was created in the 
southern poi-tion of the Territoiy by sundry outrages and 
murders peipetiated in the county of Conecuh, by roving 
bands of Muscogees; but tliey were soon driven out and 
tranquillity restored. 

The second and last Tenitorial legislature assembled in 
St Stephens in November 1818. This body establislied the 
seat of govenunent at the mouth of the river Cahaba, and 
designated HuntsviUe as the temporary capital, till the town 
of Cahaba could be laid out, and the public buildings erected. 
Another valuable cession w^as made by the Cherokees in 
1819. Their lands north and west of the Tennessee river 
were disposed of to the federal government by an instrument 
signed in Wa.shington, February 27, by John C. Callioun, 
secretary of war, on the one paii;, and by John Boss^ Lewis 
Boss, Charles Hicks, and nine other " chiefs and head-men " 
of the tribe, on the other. That part of the district ceded 
lying in Alabama is now embraced in the counties of Jackson, 
Madison, and Marshall. 

By an act approved March 2, 1819, congress authorized the 
inhabitants of the Territory of Alabama to form a State con- 
stitution, " and that said Territory, when formed into a State, 
" shall bo admitted into the Union upon tlie same footing as 
"the original States." This act donated to the State, in 
prospective, the following, viz : the sixteenth section of every 
township of the public lands for the maintenance of schools ; 
all salt springs in the State, and lands necessary to their 
development, not to exceed thirtj^-six acres ; five per centum of 
the net proceeds of the sale of public lands in the State, to be 
apphed to works of internal improvement, three-fifths of it 
under the direction of the State legislature, and two-fifths 


under the direction of congress*; seventy-two sections of land 
'' for the use of a seminary of learning ;" and 1620 acres " to 
" be reserved for a seat of goveminent.*'t 

• The •• Two per cent, ftind " aifd ** three per cent, fund ** have their 
origin in this provision. In 1841 congress relinqoished to the State aU right 
to control the application of the ** two per cent, fund.'* 

fThis yery interesting document, in full, is as follows : 

To enable the people of Alabama Territory to form a Constitution and State 
government, and for the admission of such State into the Union, on an equal 
footing with the original States. 

[Passed March 2, 1819.] 

§ 1. Be it enacted bif the Senate and House qf Bepresentatives of the United 
States of America in Congress assembled, That the inhabitants of the territory 
of Alabama be, and they are hereby authorized to form for themselves a 
constitution and State government, and to assume such name as they may 
deem proper ; and that the said territory, when formed into a State, shall be 
admitted into the Union upon the same looting with the original States, in 
all respects whatsoever. 

§ 2. And be it further enacted, That tho said State shall consist of all the 
territory included within the following boundaries, to-wit : Beginning at 
the point where the thirty-first degree of north latitude intersects the Per- 
dido river ; thence east to the western boundary line of the State of Georg^ia ; 
thence along said line to the southern boundary line of the State of Ten- 
nessee ; thence west along said boundary line to the Tennessee river ; thence 
up the same to the mouth of Bear creek ; thence, by a direct line, to the 
northwest comer t>f Washington county ; thence, due south, to the Gulf of 
Mexico ; thence, eastwardly, including all islands within six leagues of the 
shore to the Perdido river ; and thence, up the same, to the beginning. 

§ 3. And be it further enacted. That it shall be the duty of the surveyor 
of the lands of the United States south of the State of Tennessee and the 
surveyor of the public lands in the Alabama territory, to run and out out 
the line of demarkation between the State of Mississippi and the State to 
be formed of the Alabama territory ; and if it should appear to said sur- 
veyors, that so much of said line designated in the preceding section, 
running due south, from the northwest corner of Washington county to 
the Gulf of Mexico, will encroach on the counties of Wayne, Greene, or Jack- 
son, in said State of Mississippi, then the same shall be so altered as to run 
in a direct line from the northwest comer of Washington county to a point 
on the Gulf of Mexico ten miles east of the river Pascagoula. 

§ 4. And be it further enacted, That all white male citizens of the United 
States, who shall have arrived, at the age of twenty-one years, and have 
resided in said territory three months previous to the day of election, and 
all persons having, in other respects, the legal qualifications to vote for 
representatives in the General Assembly of the said territory be, and they 
are hereby authorized to choose representatives to form a constitution, who 
shall be appointed among the several counties as follows : 


The conyention to frame a constitution for the State 
assembled in HuntsviUe, July 5, 1819. Mr. John W. Walker 
of Madison was president, and Mr. John Campbell secretary. 
Twenty-two coimties were represented, viz : Autauga, Bald- 
win, Blount, Cahaba, Clarke, Conecuh, Cataco, Dallas, Frank- 
lin, Lauderdale, Lawrence, Limestone, Madison, Marengo, 
Marion, Mobile, Montgomery, Monroe, St. Clair, Shelby, 
Tuskaloosa, and Washington. The forty-four delegates are 
named in this volume under the heading of the several 

From the county of Madison, eight representatives : 

From the coanty of Monroe, fonr representatives : 

From the coanty of Blount, three representatives : 

From the county of Limestone, three representatives : 

From the county of Shelby, three representatives : 

From the county of Montgomery, two representatives . 

From the county of Washington, two representatives : 
, From the county of Tuskaloosa, two representatives : 

From the county of Lawrence, two representatives : 

From the county of Franklin* two representatives : 

From the county of Cotaco, two representatives : 

From the county of Clarke, two representatives : 

fwm the county of Baldwin one representative : 

From the county of Gahawba, one representative : 

From the county of Conecuh, one representative : 

From the county of Dallas, one representative : 

From the county of Marengo, one representative : 

From the county of Marion, one representative : 

From the county of Mobile, one representative : 

From the county of Lauderdale, one representative : 

From the coanty of St. Clair, one representative : 

From the county of Autauga, one representative : 

And the election for representatives aforesaid shaU be holden on the first 
Monday and Tuesday in May next, throughout the several counties in the 
Mid territory, and shall be conducted in the same manner, and under the 
same regulations, as prescribed by the laws of said Territory, regulating 
elec^ons therein for the members of the house of representatives. 

§ 5. And be U further enacted. That the members of the convention thus 
duly elected be, and they are hereby authorized to meet at the town of 
HuntsviUe on the first Monday in July next ; which convention, when met, 
ihaU first determine, by a minority of the whole number elected, whether it 
be or be not expedient, at that time, to form a constitution and State gov- 
«nunent for the people within the said territory ; and if it be determined to 
be expedient, the convention shaU be, and hereby are, authorized to form a 
constitution and State government : Ptavided, That the same, when formed, 
shall be repubUcan, and not repugnant to the principles of the ordinance of 


The constitution framed was in accord with the spirit of the 
age, and in every way creditable to the able body which 
devised it. The mass of its featilres have descended to the 
instrument now in force. The substance of Magna Cliaria^ 
adapted to repubUcan principles and forms, was set forth in 
the bill of rights. Negro slavery was recognized and protected. 
Suflfrage was accorded to aU male whites of the age of twenty- 
one years and upwards. The governor, general assembly and 
county officers were made elective by the popular poll ; the 
judicial officers by the general assembly. The governor's 
term was Umited to two years, with the privilege of one suc- 
cessive re-election ; judicial officers were to hold office for a 
term of six years ; and the term of the senators was fixed at 
three years, and of the representatives at one year. The 

the thirteenth of Jnly, one thousand Beven hundred and eighty-seven, 
between the people and States of the territory northwest of the river Ohio, 
so far as the same has been extended to the said territory, by the articles of 
agreement between the United States and the State of Georgia, or of the con- 
stitution of the United States. 

§ 6. And he it further enacted, That the foUowing propositions be, and the 
same are hereby offered to the convention of the said Territory of Alabama, 
when formed, for their free acceptance or rejection, which, if accepted by the 
convention, shall be obligatory upon the United States : 

First. That the section numbered sixteen in every township, and when 
such section has been sold, granted, or disposed of, other lands equivalent 
thereto, and most contiguous to the same, shall be granted to the inhabi- 
tants for the use of schools. 

Second. That all salt springs within the said territory, and the lands re- 
served for the use of the same, together with such other lands as may, by 
the President of the United States, be deemed necessary and proper for 
working the said salt springs, not exceeding in the whole the quantity con- 
tained in thirty-six entire sections, shall be granted to the said State, for the 
use of the people of the said State, the same to be used under such terms, 
conditions and regulations as the legislature of the said State shall direct : 
Provided, The said legislature shall never sell nor lease the same for a longer 
term than ten years at any one time. 

Third. That five per cent, of the net proceeds of the lands lying within tho 
said Territory, and which shall be sold by congress, from and after the first 
day of September, in the year one thousand eight hundred and nineteen , 
after «^teductingall expenses incident to the same, shall be reserved for mak- 
ing public roads, canals, and improving the navigation of rivers, of which 
three-fifths shall be applied to those objects within the said State under the 
direction of the legislature thereof, and two-fifths to the making of a road or 
roads leading to the said State, nndeV the direction ot congress. 

Fourth, That thirty-six sections, or one entire township, to bo designated 


judges of the circuit court, collectirely, were required to con- 
stitute the supreme coui*t of appeals, and equitj' jurisdiction 
was given them; but provision was mtule for separate supreme 
and chancery tiibunaLs. 

The convention concluded its labors August 2, and for- 
warded the constitution for the approval of congress. Pre- 
paratoiy to assuming the functicms of sovereignty, an election 
was held for the choice of a giuicral iissembly, a governor, a 
representative in congress, <tc. Gov. Bibb was chosen to the 
chief magistracy over Marmaduke WilUams of Tuskaloosa. 

The first general assembly was convened at Hunts\'ille, 
October 25, 1819. There were forty-five representatives and 
twenty-two senators. Gov. liibb was inaugurated November 
9, and tlie Unja ciriJis of stati^hood was practically put on. 
An adjournment was effected December 19, after a very 
memorable session. 

by the Secretary' of the Treasury, under the direction of the President of the 
United States, together with the one heretofore reserved for that parpose, 
shall be reserved for the use of a seminary of learning, and vested in the 
legislature of the said State to be appropriated solely to the use of such 
seminary ]>y the said legislature. And the Secretary of the Treasurj^, under 
the direction as aforesaid, may reserve ihQ soventy-two sections, or two 
townships, hereby set apart for the support of a seminary of learning, in 
small tracts : Proridedy That nu'tract shall consist of less than two sections : 
And providefl ahcayMy That the said convention shall provide, by an ordi- 
nance irrevocable without the consent of the United States, that the people 
inhabiting the said territory, do agree and declare that they forever disclaim 
all right and title to the waste or^uuappropriatcd lands lying within the said 
territory; and that the same shall be and remain at the sole and entire dis- 
position of the United States ; and, moreover, that each and every tract of 
land sold by the United Statt^s, after the first day of September, in the year 
one thonsand eight hundred and nineteen, shall be and remain exempt irom 
any tax laid by the order, or uudcr the authority, of the State, whether for 
State, county, township, parish, or any other purpose whatever, for the term 
of five years from and after the respective days of the sales thereof ; and that 
the lands belonging to the citizens of the United States, residing without the 
said State, shall never be taxel higher than the lands belonging to persons 
residing therein ; and that no tax shall be imposed on lands, the property 
of the United Stf\tes ; and that all navigable waters within the said State shall 
forever remain public highways, free to the citizens of said State, and of the 
United States, without any tax, duty, impost or toll therefor, imposed by the 
said State. 

§ 7. And he it further enacted. That in lieu of a section of land, provided 
to be reserved for the seat »of government of the said Territory, by an act 


The joint resolution of congress admitting Alabama into the. 
Union was approved by President Monroe, December 14, 
1819. Alabama was now a recogniised power of earth. 

Immigi-ation had flowed into the conntr}^ since the re-estab- 
lishment of peace, and was now greatly stimulated by tlie in- 
viting aspect presented by the new and growing State. A 
hardy and superior class of people penetrated the wilderness. 
Settlements and towns sprang into existence on every hand. 
The development of the agiicultural resources of the State 
was rapid, and to that noblest branch of human industry 
alone were the exertions of the earlier settlers directed, and 
they happily found the soil surprisingly fertile, even where it 
was lightest. There had been, however, comparatively no 
improvements of a pubUc character. Highways were uncut, 
toiTcnts not bridged, and the court-houses and jails were of 
the rudest description.* The commonest necessities of life 
alone abounded. 

The population of the State in the year 1820 was a total of 
127,901 souls, exclusive of the Indians. Of this number 
85,451 were whites, and 42,450 were negroes. 

Notwithstanding the rare natural advantages afforded by 

entitled " An act respecting the surveying and sale of the public lands in 
the Alabama Territory," there be granted to the said State, for the seat of 
government thereof, a tract of land containing sixteen hundred and twenty 
acres, and consisting of sundry fractions and a quarter section, in sections 
thirty-one and thirty-two in township sixteen, and range ten, and in sections 
five and six, in township fifteen, and range ten, and in sections twenty-nine 
and thirty, in the same township and range, lying on both sides of the Ala- 
bama and Cahaba rivers, and including the mouth of the river Gahaba, and 
which heretofore has been reserved from public sale by order of the Presi- 
dent of the United States. 

§ 8. And be it further enacted. That, until the next general census, thefiaid 
State shall be entitled to one representative in the house of represe ntative 
of the United States. 

§ 9. And be U further enacted. That in case the said convention shall form 
a constitution and State government for the people of the Territory of Ala- 
bama, the said convention, as soon thereafter as may be, shall cause a true 
and attested copy of such constitution to be transmitted to congress for its 

•The first session of the circuit court in the county of Marengo was held 
in a vacated blacksmith shop. The judge sat in a chair by the furnace, the 
lawyers around the anvil, and the jurors wore arraigned during a trial on 
fallen trees that had been rolled up to the side of the building. 


her broad and navigable rivers, there was an absence of com- 
mercial facilities which greatly retarded individual and aggre- 
gate prosperity. As early as February, 1818, however, by an 
act of the territorial legislature " The St. St<3phen8 Steamboatt 
Company " was organized.* This was followed, November 
20, 1820, by the incorporation of " The Steamboat CJompany 
of Alabama,"t while a third company was incorporated a year 
later, under tlie title of " The Mobile Steamboat Company.''^ 

Steamboats of very unique shape and appearance b^an to 
supercede the flat-boats on the rivers ; but it was thirty years 
or therealwuts before the stately " floating palaces " were 
lowered from the stocks.^ The capiacity for speed with these 
early steamers was so Umited that two or three weeks were 
required to make a voyage from Mobile to Montgomery or 
Demopohs. Barges and flat-boats continued for some years 
after 1820 to convey much of the produce of the interior to tlie 

Educational advantages were also exceedingly deficient, 
though the attention of the people was drawn to them at an 
early day. ' In 1811 an act of the Mississippi Territorial legis- 
lature incorporated the trustees of an academy in St. Stephens. 
One year later Green Academy, in Huntsville, was chartered. 
The act to establish a State University was pt\ssed December 
18, 1820, but it was eleven years before that institution was 
opened. Even primary schools were rare, in consequence of 
the sparseness of the population. 

Vames Pickens, B. S. Smoot, Silas Dinsmore, David Files, Henry Bright, 
and D. P. Ripley were the directors of this company. 

fThe corporators of *'The Steamboat Company of Alabama ** were F. B. 
Stockton, F. W. Armstrong, James L. Seabury, Nicholas Pope, and Jonathan 

^he corporators of *' The Mobile Steamboat Company** were John B. 
Hogan, Stephen Chandler, Lewis Hudson, Henry Gunnison, Wm. Baser, 
and Benj. Vincent. 

§The first steamboats, having no whistle valves, were provided with heavily 
charged guns, which were discharged on approaching a landing to notify the 

liSome idea of the difficulties of transportation in these early times may 
be gleaned from the fact that the flat-boat on which Hon. Henry Goldthwaite 
•aeoended the Alabama river from Mobile to Montgomery, in 1819, was three 
months on the voyage. 


Newspapers were not numerous at that early day. One 
Parham established a press in Huntsville in 1812, the fiist in 
Alabama. Thomas Easton issued one in St. Stephens in 
1814, and became the first public printer of Alabama Territory. 
One Cotton printed a newspaper in Mobile in 1816, and 
Thomas Davenport issued one m Tuskaloosa iti 1818. Several 
existed elsewhere in 1820, viz : one in Florence, two in Cahaba, 
one in Montgomery, and one in Claiborne. 

Houses of worship were also few iq number, though the 
eccentric but gifted Lorenzo Dow had preached on the Tom- 
bikbee as early as 1803.* 

Manufactories and mining were unknown in this State in 

The financial condition of the State at that time was good, 
for, wliile the revenues were meagre, no debts of large extent 
had been contracted. In order, however, to facilitate and 
promote trade, banks were chartered, viz: one iti Huntsville 
in 1816, one in St. Stephens in 1818, and one in Mobile in 
1819. The constitution authorized the State to establish one 
principal and as many branch banks as might be deemed 
expedient, provided the State held two-fifths of the stock. 
Accordingly, a State bank was established in 1820, and located 
in Cahaba. ^ 

At this period the country east and,south-east of the Coosa, 
and east of the Tennessee was occupied and owned by the 
Muscogees and Cherokees. The Choctas owned the district 
west of the Tombikbee almost as far south as St. Stephens. 
The whites occupied and tilled the Ughter lands, for they 
found the river and creek bottoms a forest of cane, and a 
mass of tangled imdeigrowth, while the prairie lands were 
pronounced worthless, as they were comparatively destitute 
of water. 

The principal towns were HimtsviUe, Claiborne, Mobile, 
Cahaba, St. Stephens, Florence and Montgomery, and not 
one of these had a resident population of two thousand souls. 

*Pickett, VoK II, page 194. 




Cahaba became the seat of government in 1820, ami the 
second genend assembly of the State hold its session there. 

The death of Gov. Bibb in Jidy 1820, created a vacancy in 
tho executive chair. 

Thomas Bibb of Limestone, president of the senate of the 
State, saeceeded his brother in office. Possessed of more 
than averfige ability, he was a man of energy and integrity. 

During this term, the State oast her first electoral vote, 
three in nimiber, for James Monroe of Virginia for president, 
and Daniel D. Tompkins of New York for vice president^ of 
Hie United States. The electors were chosen by the general 
assembly in 1820.* 

Israel Pickens of Greene was tlie third governor. He was 
elected in 1821 over Henry Chambers of Madison. No issues, 
even of a local character, entered into the contest. It was 
the era of good feeling in the State, as well as Federal, 
political circles. Gov. Pickens was a man well fitted by 
experience and practical ability to shape the course of the 
young commonwealth. This he did for four years, for he was 
re-elected in 1823 over his former competitor* 

Daring this administration there was much dissatisfaction 
and distress consequent upon the extravagant prices paid for 
the public lands at the sales in Huntsville and St. Stephens 
in 1818 and 1819. Prices ranged as high as $60 and $70 an 
acre for unimproved lands, one-fourth of which was required 
to be in ca8h,t the remainder in three annual installments. 

•The electors in 1820 were John Scott of Montgomerj, Henry Minot of 
Hadison, and (George PhiUips of Dallas. 

f At the sale in Huntsville Gen. Andrew Jackson attended, and, when he 
bid for a valaable tract between Tascnmbia and Florence, no one would bid 
against him, and he obtained it at the minimum government price of $2 an 


Twelve millions of dollars were due to the United States 
from these purchasers, which could not be paid. The general 
assembly forwarded a memorial, and the federal government 
gave the relief sought, and saved many from bankruptcy. 

There was but little excitement at the presidential election 
of 1824 in the State, and her five electoral votes were cast for 
Andrew Jackson of Tennessee for president, and John C. 
Calhoim of South Carolina for vice president. 

The illustrious General LaFayette, of France, visited Ala- 
bama in 1824. He came through the Muscogee country to 
Montgomery, then to Cahaba, where he was received by Gov. 
Pickens as the guest of the State ; whence he proceeded to 
New Orleans, by way of Claiborne and Mobile. He was 
everywhere received with cordial demonstrations of joy and 

John Murphy of Monroe was chosen without opposition to 
succeed Gov. Pickens, and entered on the executive duties in 
November 1825. There were as yet no very distinctive 
divisions of parties in the State, though in some localities 
partisan feeling was mailifest. 

The seat of government was removed to Tuskaloosa in the 
year 1826 by a vote of the general assembly. 

Gk)v. Murphy was re-elected without opposition. He pos- 
sessed a most exemplary character, and exhibited abilities of 
a solid order. 

The disposition of the lands donated to the State by con- 
gress for the purpose of establishing a university and to open 
a canal around Muscle Shoals on the Tennessee, was the 
question which attracted the most attention in the State during 
the administration of Gov. Murphy. 

The five electoral votes of the State were cast for Messrs. 
Jackson and Calhoun again in 1828. 

Gabriel Moore of Madison, the fifth governor, began his 
term in 1829. He was elected without opposition, but as an 
avowed friend of Oten. Jackson. 

The close of the first decade of her existence found Alabama 
comparatively advanced in material prosperity. Twelve new 
counties had been formed and added to the twenty-^four 
existing in 1820. The population had been considerably 


more than doubled since that time. It was now 309,527, 
exclusive of the savages ; and of this number 190,406 were 
whites, 117,549 wore negro slaves, and 1572 were free negroes. 
The improved social system of the people was very percep- 
tible. Education, moral teachings, and general intelligence 
had almost kept pace with the material advancement of the 
young State. Several works of internal improvement were 
projected, and others were contemplated. Tlie solitudes of 
Alabama were fast awaking from tlie sleep of unnumbered 

The treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek, concluded Sepi 27, 
1830, relieved the State of another of the great tribes of 
savages which had so long occupied her soil. The Choctas, 
who had measured strength with DeSoto at Maubila, and 
with the Muscogees on ihe Tuskaloosa ; who had followed 
the lilies of Prance at Ackia, and who had fought under 
Wayne on the Maumee, and Claiborne on the Alabama, now 
abandoned the homes of their ancestors, and followed that 
emblem of their own sad destiny, the setting sun. All their 
lands in Alabama and Mississippi were ceded to the federal 
government for an equivalent area in the West. The treaty 
was signed by Gren. Eaton, Secretary of War, and Qen. CoflFee 
of Tennessee, on the part of the United States; and by 
Qreenwood Laflore, Mushulatubbee, medal mingos, and 168 
captains and headmen of the tribe. The portion of the ceded 
district that lay within the limits of Alabama is now embraced 
in the counties of Sumter, Chocta, and Pickens. 

Gov. Moore, a man of ready discernment and long expe- 
rience, filled the executive chair about fifteen months, then 
resigned the position March 3, 1831, to accept that of federal 
senator, to which he had been chosen. 

Two very interesting pubUc improvements were begun 
during this term, to-wit : the construction of a canal at the 
Muscle Shoals of the Tennessee, and the construction of a 
railway from Tuscumbia to Decatur. The object of these 
labors was to utilize the magnificent river which fiows through 
the northern marches of the State. 

Samuel B. Moobe of Jackson, president of the senate, 


became governor for the remainder of the term. Ho was a 
faithful public servant, of quite moderate ability. 

The opening of tlie State University at Tuskaloosa, April 
18, 1831, was the most notable event of this brief administra- 

John Gayle of Greene succeeded to the executive chair by 
virtue of his election over Nicholas Davis of Limestone and 
Samuel B. Moore of Jackson. He represented tlie anti-nuUi- 
fication sentiment of the people, though neither of his oppo- 
nents held contrary opinions on that question. Gov. Gayle 
was a sagacious man, of veiy decided views, and a dignified 
ofiicial. He was re-elected without opposition. 

Several notable events took place during this administra- 
tion. The supreme court was constituted with separate offi- 
cers, as at present, and the judges of the circuits were 
restricted to the subordinate jurisdiction they now hold. The 
penitentiary system was rejected by a popular poll. The 
seven electoral votes of the State were cast for Andrew Jack- 
son for president, and Martin Van Buren of New York for 
vice president, of the United States. 

The first cotton factory over erected in the State — ^the Bell 
Factory, in Madison — ^was incorporated by the general assem- 
bly of 1832. 

Tlie completion <»f the first railroad constructed in the State 
was also an important event in the annals of Gov. Gayle's 
chief magistracy. It was from Tuscumbia to Decatur, by 
way of Courtland, a distance of forty-four miles. 

But by far the most interesting item in the vieiiwrahilia of 
this period was the treaty of Cusseta,* in 1832. " The Creek 

tribe of Indians cede to the United States all their land 

east of the Mississippi river," is the fii'st article of the 
ti-eaty. The fierce and sanguinaiy Muscogee was finally to 
give up the cradle of his tiibe. The district east of the 
CJoosa, and southeast of the great bend of the Tallapoosa, 
was at last to fall to the inheritance of the white man. The 

* The preliminary negotiations were made at Gnsseta, in the present 
ceunty of Chambers, but the treaty was formally signed at Washington, 
March 24, 1832. in the presence of William R. King, Samuel W. Mardis, 
C. 0. Clay, John H. Brodnax, John Tipton, William Wilkins, Samuel Bell, 
J. Speight, John Crowell, and others. 



treaty was signed by Lei^ds Cass, secretary of war, on the 
part of the federal government ; and by Opotlileyoholo, Tuck- 
abatchee-hadjo, Tomack-micco, Tuckabatchee-micco, Effie- 
matla, William MeGilli\Tay, and Benjamin Marshall, on the 
part of the tribe. The sum of $210,000 was to be paid the 
Indians in annuities for this cession. 

Out of this treaty at once grew a very grave controversy 
between tlie federal and State govemmente. The stipulaticms 
were that the Indians were not to leave the coimtry except 
voluntarily, but were to go or stay, as they chose ; and tlie 
whites were to be kept out of the ceded country (and even 
those in it were to be removed after their crops were gath- 
ered,) " until the countiy is sur\'eyed." This was a blunder, 
for the whites not only refused to remove, but at once began 
to flock into the piewly-acquired territory. The general 
assembly promptly divided the country into tlie counties of 
Coosa, Benton, (now Calhoim,) Tall-ulega, Tallapoosa, Russell, 
Bandolph, Chambers, Macon, and Barbour, and extended the 
jurisdiction of the civil code of the State over it. The deputy 
marshal of the United States at Fort Mitchell used tovcAi to 
restrain the occupation of the land, and threatened to expel 
settlers.* In this he was sustained by the authorities in 
Washington, and by the stipulations of the treaty. Gov. 
Gayle remonstrated warmly, disputing the alleged encroach - 
Dient of the settlers, and claiming that the sovereignty of a 
State implied the control of all the people within her borders. 
Mr. Cass replied from the war office in Washington that the 
stipulations of the Cusseta treaty would be faithfully observ^ed 
^J the federal government. A collision appeared to be una- 
voidable. Gov. Gayle laid the facts and correspondence 
before the general assembly at its meeting in November 1833. 
At that time, however, a federal commissioner amved at 
Tuskaloosa to effect an adjustment of the question. This 
^as Mr. Francis Scott Key of Maryland. The basis of the 
agr^ment abated in a measure the pretensions of both sides. 
Those settiers only who had occupied lands reserved for the 

* A coUinon occarred between some federal soldiers and Hardeman Owen, 
ft oommissioner of roads and revenue in Bnssell county, about this matter, 
*&d Owen was killed. 


Indians were to be removed ; the others to remain undis- 
turbed. This compromise closed the controversy. 

Clement 0. Clay of Madison, the successor of Gov. Gayle, 
was inaugurated November 21, 1835. He was chosen as a 
friend of Gen. Jackson's administration, over Gen. Parsons of 
Monroe, who was supported by the adherents of Judge H. L. 
White. Gov. Clay possessed very fau' abiUties said a delicate 
sense of honor. 

The beginning of this administration was signalized by the 
cession of all their lands in the State by the Cherokees, at 
the ti'eaty of New Echota, December 29^ 1835. The last of 
the four great tribes that had occupied her soil for many cen- 
turies, were now to seek a home in the land of the bison. 
But, like moimtaineers in all countrtes, they clung to their 
rugged fastnesses and silvery streams tenaciously, and the 
feud engendered between tlie faction that wished to stay, and 
the one that chose to go,* is not wholly erxtingoished to this 
day. They sullenly agreed to remove within two years in 
consideration of $5,000,000, and 7,000,000 acres of land in 
the West. This treaty was signed by Gen. Wm. Can'oll and 
Mi". S. F. Schermerhom on the part of the United States, and 
by Major Ridge, EUas Boudinot, Stand Watie, John Bidge, 
Andrew Ross, and nineteen other chiefs, on the psaot of the 
tribe. The general assembly at once created the counties of 
DeKalb and Cherokee, out of that part of the ceded district 
which lay in Alabama. 

In 1836 the seven electoral votes of the State were cast for 
Martin Van Buren of New York and R. M. Johnson of Ken- 
tucky for president and vice president of the United States. 

The same year is memorable for the troubles with the Mus- 
cogees. On the eve of being removed to the West, they began 
to menace and depredate upon the frontier. Indeed, they 
massacred some of the inhabitants of the hamlet of Roanoke, 
Gteorgia, and murdered severed immigrants^ Major Gen. Pat- 
terson of Madison, was ordered by the Governor to Tuskegee, 
where volunteers and the militia began to gather. Major 
Gen. Jesup, of the federal army, arrived at Tuskegee and 

^One was led by John Boss, the other by Kidge and Boudinot. Seveml 
assassinations were the consequence. 


assomed control. Gov. Clay proceeded to Montgomery and 
held a conference with Opothleyoholo. The result was that 
this chief tendered the services of a large body of friendly 
Creeks to quell the disturbances, and they were accepted. 
About the same time, Gen. Wellborn of Barbour, with two 
hundred men, attacked a considerable party of the hostile 
Indians on the Pea river, Pike county, where they had 
camped, after committing sundry depredations near Midway, 
and killed a number of them ; while Capt. Justice of Dale, 
with a squadron, pursued and killed several of the same band, 
and drove tliem into Florida. The Georgians alsc^ had several 
bloody fights with them. The hostile party now submitted 
or fled to the Seminoles ; and, Liter in the year, the tribe was 
removed across the Mississippi. 

The financial convulsion of 1837 was another notable event 
during Gov. Clay's term. Banks and bank issues had accu- 
mulated to such an extent that every species of property rose 
far above its intrinsic value. The appeanvnces of prosperity 
were so flattering as to beguile the tradesmen into, an exten- 
sion of purchases and credits, and the planters into extrava- 
gant investments in land and slaves. These delusive antici- 
pations were not realized, and the people became deeply 
involved. Business became stagnant, confidence in bank 
issues was destroyed, and a " nin " was made on the banks; 
Every one of these suspended specie payments between the 
12th and 27th of May. Many persons were reduced to 
poverty by the depreciation of property. The governor c6n- 
Yoked the general assembly in extraordinary session to. ame^ 
Uon^te the general distress. Measures Looking to that end 
were adopted, and the disaster was checked. 

Gov. Clay resigned, in July 1837, to accept a Seat in thof 
federal senate, to which he had; beejat cliosen. 

HuQH MqYay of Lauderdale, pregiident of the senate, 
became governor apd filled out the remaining four mbnths of 
the; term. His natural dek^afiity was limited, but his expe*. 
riepce wpLS. large- 

ARnsuR P. Bagbt, <he tenth governor, was chosen as a 
Democtat over Samuel W. Oliver of Corieculi, a tVhig, fui(i 
was iiiai,i^gurated ISfovember ^X». 1837. He possessed, comr 


mancling talents, but more of the ornate than the useful IdndL 
He was re-elected at the expiration of his term, with merely & 
nominal opposition. 

Among the memorabilia of liis time, the removal of the 
Cherokees in 18t38 may be mentioned. A force of 1500 vol- 
unteers, under Major Grenerals Patterson of Madison, and 
Philpot of Morgan, of the State militia, was stationed on the 
frontier to anticipate and repress the outbreak threatened by 
the party among them opposed to removal. Happily tliis 
precaution was sufficient, and the last of the four great 
aboriginal tribes of Alabama passed from her soil forever ; 

*'' And we have built our homes on fields 
Where their generations sleep." 

Roving bands of Indians from Florida committed some 
lawless deeds in Dale coimty about this time ; but CoL 
Pouncey, with a regiment of moimted citizens, speedily drove 
them out 

The estabUshment of separate coui'ts of equity and chan- 
cery was effected in 1839.* 

The penitentiary system was adopted the same year, and 
buildings ordered to be erected at Wetumpka, but they were 
not ready for use until 1841. 

The vexed question of the boundaiy line between this State 
and the State of Georgia was luljusted in 1839 by a commis- 
sion composed of Messrs. Wm. B. Martin of Benton, Alex- 
ander Bowie of Talladega, and John M. Moore of Barbour. 

Another decade of the chronology of the State had now 
passed. During that period she had made remarkable strides 
towards development and wealth. The population had been 
almost doubled, and now presented a total of 590,750 souls. 
Of these, 335,185 were whites ; 253,532 were negro slaves ; 
and 2039 were fi*ee colored. Thirteen new counties had been 
created, making the whole number forty-nine. The removal 
of the Indians had freed the State fi'om a very foraiidable 
obstacle to her growth and tranquillity, and relieved every 

f Under the original statute, the State was divided into two divisions and 
six chancery districts. Each district vras composed of several counties, and 
the state was equally divided between two divisions. Two was the original 
number of chancellors. Within a year or two the districts were increased 
almost to the present number, and another chancellor was chosen. 


portioiL of her domain from tlie frontier status incidental to 
the proximity of a foe whose normal condition was one of 
turbulence and war. The decay of the militia system of the 
State dates from their removal; nor was tlie excitement 
attendant upon the war with Mexico adequate to its resuscita- 
tion. Improvements of a general character had been warmly 
discussed, and taken some hold on the popular mind ; but as 
yet were in their infancy. Education had received substantial 
encouragement at the hands of the people, and two or tliree 
colleges had been opened. The public revenues had been 
carefully and faithfully managed, and for several years past 
the State bank and its four branches had defrayed the entire 
expenditures, while the people were wholly relieved from the 
payment of taxes.* But the banking system which had been 
fostered by the State, and which had engrossed a major share 
of the attention of the general assembly since it was instituted 
in 1823, was fast concentrating upon itself the distrust and 
ill-will of the masses in consequence of the abuses and blun- 
ders which signalized its managemen t. 

*The ao£ abolishing the collection of taxes from the people was passed 
Janiiftry 9, 1836, and remained in force six or seven years. The taxes were 
BO light at that time that the people expressed no ardent desire to have them 
ibolished, nor did they marmor when they were again imposed. 



The seven electoral votes of the State in 1840 were again 
cast for Messrs. Van Buren and Johnson for president and 
vice-president of the Federal Union. 

The " general ticket system," by which the whole number 
of representatives in congress to which the State is entitled 
are voted for throughout the State, was adopted by the gen- 
eral assembly of 1840, amid great excitement,* but was 
repealed a year later. 

Benjamin Fitzpatiuck of Autauga succeeded to the execu- 
tive chair in the year 1841. He was chosen as a Democrat, 
over James W. McClung of Madison, who 'received the Whig 
vote. He brought to the discharge of his re8iK>nsible duties 
qualifications of a very superior order. 

Among the memorable events of this administration, was 
the act of the general assembly of 1842, which placed the 
branch banks in^ Mobile, Montgomery, Huntsville and Decatur 
in liquidation. This important measure was supplemented a 
year later by the same disposition of the mother bank in 
Tuskaloosa. Thus, the method by which the State had sup- 
plied its citizens with currency for twenty years was aban- 
doned almost without dissent. Owning the stock in the bank, 
the State issued bonds to provide means for the redemption 
of the currency issued. This was the comer-stone of the 

*Wh6n the bill was under final oonsideration in the lower house of the 
general assembly. December 30, 1840, at the call of the " previous question," 
the Whigs left the chamber, and the house was without a quorum. The 
Democrats, who were the majority party, and the advocates of the bill, sent 
out and secured the attendance of two sick members, and thus proceeded 
with the business. The bill passed by a vote of fifty to twenty-three, some 
of the Whigs having returned. The scene was one of wild confusion and 
uproar when the result was announced. 


present debt of Alabama. To this was added the ontstanding 
obligations of the bsuiks, which, by reason of the reckless 
endorsement of the worthless paper of individuals, were largely 
in excess of their assets. Messrs. F. S. Lyon of Marengo, C. 
C. Clay, sr., of Madison, and William Cooper of Franklin, 
were constituted a commission to adjust the affairs of the 
banks ; and, at the end of the first year thereafter, the former 
alone was assigned to the important trust. The State was on 
the brink of financial ruin, for she was morally and legally 
liable for the issues of the banks. Repudiation of this large 
indebtedness was openly bruited, but favored only by a small 

The nine electoral votes of the State were cast in 1844 for 
James K. Polk of Tennessee, and George M. Dallas of Penn- 
sylvania, for President and Vice President of the United 

The questions of removing the capital of the State, and of 
instituting biennial in lieu of annual sessions of the general 
assembly, were submitted to the popular vote in 1845, and 
adopted. After a warm contest over the futui-e location of 
the former, wherein -Tuskaloosa, Wetumpka, and Montgomery 
were the leading contestants, the general assembly selected the 
latter town as the future capital ; luid the archives and oflices 
were transferred to that point in 1846 and 1847. 

Joshua L. Maktin of Tuskaloosa succeeded to the execu- 
tive dignity in November 1845. He was elected over Nathaniel 
Terry of Limestone. They were both Democrats, but the 
bolder position assumed by Mr. Mai-tin on the question of the 
State's liability for the bank indebtedness gave tlie contest 
somewhat the aspect of a local issue. The talents and expe- 
rience of Grovemor Martin were very considerable. 

During this term the war with Mexico engrossed public at- 
tention. Quite a number of Alabamians paiticipated in the 
stru^le in the regiments of other States, but only one regi- 
ment as such was received into the federal ser>dce ; and that 
did not have the honor to take part fully in either of the tAvo 
brilliant campaigns of the war. 

The thirteenth governor was Reuben Chapman of Madison. 
He was elected as a Democrat over Nicholas Davis of Lime- 


stone, a Whig. His experience and practical knowledge well 
fitted him for the trust. Like his predecessor, he entered 
earnestly into the work of relieving the State of her burthen 
of debt, and had the satisfaction of witnessing the huge incu- 
bus largely diminished during his term. 

In 1848 the nine electoral votes of the State were cast for 
Lewis Cass of Michigan for president, and William O. Butler 
of Kentucky for vice president, of the United States. 

Li 1849 an amendment to the constitution was adopted by 
the popular votes whereby the choice of judges of the circuit 
and county (then changed to probate) courts was transferred 
from the general assembly to the people. 

The capitol in Montgomery was accidentally destroyed by 
fire December 14, 1849, but the archives were saved. 

The changes wrought in the condition of the State within 
the preceding ten years w^ere of the most gratifying character. 
They related exclusively to the augmentation of her power, 
wealth, enlightenment, and influence. Steadily and surely 
Alabama had moved forward in the path of human civiliza- 
tion. The population now numbered 771,623 souls ; of whom 
426,514 were whites, 334,844 were negro slaves, and 2265 were 
free negroes. Three additional counties had been laid off, 
making the whole number fifty-one. The productions were 
largely increased. Various works of internal improvement 
were either begun, or were boldly advocated. Listitutions of 
learning were increasing, and tasteful church edifices and 
dwellings were superceding tlie rough-hewn structures of tlie 
early settlement. The ruder aspects of the country were be- 
ginning to disappear with the stalwart pioneers whose enter- 
prise hiid carved an empire out of the wUdemess. Few States 
have so rapidly gathered strength, and none promised a more 
enduring prosperity. 

Henry W. Collier, who was chosen to succeed to the 
gubernatorial honors, was a learned jurist and a conscientious 
man. He was elected over an opposition merely nominal, 
and was so re-elected. He held extreme views upon no 
question, but coincided in his political opinions with the dom- 
inant party in the State. 

During this administration, the drifting of federal politics 


toward sectional issues developed a dis-union party in the 
South, respectable both in numbers and talents, and the polit- 
ical agitation was great within the State. 

The nine electoral votes were cast in 1852 for Franklin 
Pierce of New Hampshire for president, and WilUamfR. King 
of Alabama for vice president, of the United States. 

This period was also marked by the number and importance 
of the schemes of general improvement that were projected 
or put into operation.* 

John A. Winston of Sumter succeeded Gov. Collier in the 
chief magistracy. He was elected as a Democrat over an 
opposition merely nominal, and was re-elected over George 
D. Shortridge of Shelby, the candidate of the American party. 
He brought to the discharge of his official duties a sound 
judgment, great firmness, and a rigid adherence to the interests 
of the masses. 

The awakening of the popular mind to a sense of the value 
of internal improvements had given such an impetus in that 
direction that the propriety of extending the pecimiary assist- 
ance of the State to such enterprises, by lending to them her 
credit, was gravely discussed. A number of companies whose 
capital was invested in this manner, sought the channels of 
legislation for reUef and aid. The general assemblies, con- 
trolledj, in many instances, by constituencies clamorous for 
the promotion of their local interests, freely subsidized these 
projects. Entrenching himself behind the lofty principle that 
such subsidies are alien to the true objects of government, 
Gov. Winston repeatedly vetoed these measures ;t but in 
most instances without avail. 

* Among theB« may be meutioned the Mubile & Ohio Eailroad, the Mem- 
phis & Charleston Railroad, the Selma & Borne Bailroad, the Alabama & Mis- 
SLBsippi Bivers Railroad (from Selma westward), the Montgomery & Pensacola 
Railroad, the Mobile & Girard Bailroad, the Alabama & Chattanooga Bailroad, 
and the Colambns branch of the Montgomery & West Point Railroad; some 
of which were not entirely completed till years later. 

t <* Experience teaches as thot any departure from the legitimate and sim- 
ple purposes of government brings, as inevitably as a departure from 
physical and moral law, a speedy punishment, and admonishes those who 
have fixed ideas of public policy of the danger of any abandonment of prin- 
ciple in legislation and matters of government. The experience of Alabama 
is fruitful of the bitter consequences of making expediency paramount to 


The nine electoral votes of the State were cast in 1856 for 
James Buchanan of Pennsylvania for president, and John C. 
Breckinridge of Kentucky for vice president, of the United 

The State Insane Asylum was built at Tuskaloosa during 
this administration, but not opened till 1861. 

Andbew B. Moobe was inaugurated as governor in December 
1857. Elected as a Democrat, without opposition, he was 
re-elected over William F. Samford of Macon, of the same 
party. Gov. Moore was an experienced and exemplary chief 

The asylum for the Deaf and, Dumb and Blind was put in 
operation in 1860 at Talladega. 

Forty years had now elapsed since Alabama donned the 
habiliments of statehood. An unbroken career of prosperity- 
had been hers ; and this was more especially true of the pre- 
ceding ten years. A generous soil, and a human slave code, 
had conspired to produce an exemption from the extremes of 
poverty and wealth wholly unprecedented in human annaJs. 
Plenty was the rule ; want was a stranger to the himiblest. 
Life was prolonged by the feeblest exertion. Every branch 
of business yielded a maintenance if pursued with the most 
ordinary energy. Indeed, in the richer agricultural regions 
wealth was redundant, and already revealed this symptom in 
the inertness and degeneracy of the rising generation. There 
was no incentive to enterprise. The climate contributed its 
dreaminess and salubrity to mellow the picture of a land 
" flowing with milk and honey." Her citizens were hospitable, 
her officials were faithful, her slaves contented and happy ; 
and Alabama looked the future in the face with an over- 
weening consciousness of strength, and proudly self-reliant. 
Had the veil of that future been lifted, tlie awful apparition 
of war and rapine, like a gorgon-head, had changed her heart 
to stone ! 

The population in 1860 was 964,201 ; of which number 
526,271 were whites, 435,080 were negro slaves, and 2690 
were free colored. 

principle." — Eeoerpt from Gov. Winiton's message vetoing the IfUl to make a 
loan to the Memphis j" Charleston Bailroad, January 9, 1656. 


At the session of the general assembly in 1869, resolutions 
yfere adopted (February 24, I860,) requiring the governor, in 
the event of the election of a Black Republican* to the pres- 
idency of the United States, at the election in the November 
following, to order elections to be held for delegates to a 
constitutional convention of the State. 

The nine electoral votes were cast, in 1860, for John 0. 
Breckenridge of Kentucky for president, and Joseph Lane 
of Oregon for vice president, of the United States. 



The contingency contemplated by the resolutions of Feb- 
ruary 24 having occurred. Gov. Moore had writs of election 
issued in the several counties immediately after the meeting 
of the electoral college. Pending the meeting of the conven- 
tion, and after the secession of South Carolina, Forts Morgan 
and Gaines, at the entrance to Mobile Bay, and Mount Vernon 
arsenal, on Mobile Biver, were seized by the troops of the 
State to prevent their reinforcement by the northern States. 
Commissioners were also sent by the governor to the other 
southern States to consult and advise with their authorities 
" as to what was best to be done to protect their interest and 
" honor in the impending crisis." Judge Hopkins of Mobile, 
and Mr. F. M. Gilmer of Monlgomery were the commissioners 
to Virginia ; Hon. John A. Elmore the commissioner to South 
Carolina ; Mr. J. W. Garrott of Perry, and Hon. R. H. Smith 
of Mobile, to North Carolina; Hon. J. L. M. Curry of Talladega 
to Maryland ; Hon. David Clopton of Macon to Delaware ; 
Judge L. P. Walker of Madison to Tennessee ; Mr. S. F. 

*This WBfl the nomenolatare given to the politicftl party which favored the 
abolition of negro slavery in the United States. 


Hale of Greene to Kentucky ; Mr. Wm. Cooper of Franklin 
to Missouri; Judge J. G. Shorter of Barbour to Geoigia; 
Judge Pettus of Dallas to Mississippi ; Hon. E. C. Bullock of 
Barbour to Florida ; Hon. John A. Winston of Sumter to 
Louisiana^ Judge Calhoun of Dallas to Texas ; Hon. David. 
Hubbard of La^wTence to Arkansas. Commissioners were 
also duly accredited and officially received by Ahibama from. 
three States : South Carolina, represented by Hon. Andreir 
P. Callioun ; Mississippi, represented by ex-Governor J. W. 
Mathews ; Georgia, represented by Gen. John W. A. Sanford. 
LC convention began its session in Montgomery, January 
7, t^87l) Four days later an ordinance was passed, by a vote 
of sixty-one to thirty-nine, " to dissolve tlie union between the 
" State of Alabama and other States under the compact styled 
" The Constitution of the United States of America."* Del- 

*A n Ordinance to dissolve the Union between the State of Alabama and other 

States united under the compact styled ** The ConsUtmtion <^ the United States 

of America," 

Whebsas, the election of Abraham Lincoln and Hannibal Hamlin to the 
offices of president and yice president of the United States of America, by a 
sectional party, aYowedly hostile to the domestic institutions and to the peace 
and secority of the people of the State of Alabama, preceded by many and 
dangerons infractions of the Ccnstitntion of the United States by many of 
the States and people of the northern section, is a political wrong of so in- 
snlting and menacing a character as to justify the people of the State of Ala- 
bama in the adoption of prompt and decided measures for their future peace 
and security; therefore, 

Be it declared and ordained by the people of the State of Alabama^ in Conven- 
tion assembledj That the State of Alabama now withdraws, and is hereby 
withdrawn, from the union known as **the United States of America,'' and 
henceforth ceases to be one of said United States, and is, and of right ought 
to be, a Sovereign and Independent State. 

Sec. 2. Be it further declared and ordained by the people qf the Slate of Ala- 
bama^ in Convention assembled. That all the i>owers over the territory of said 
State, and of the people tnereof^ heretofore delegated to the Government of 
the United States of America be, and they are hereby, withdrawn from said 
Governmeat, and are hereby resumed and vested in the people of Alabama. 

And, as it is the debire and purpose of the people of Alabama to meet the 
slaveholdiog States of the South who may approve such purpose, in order to 
frame a provisional as well as permanent Government upon the principles 
of the Constitution of the United States, 

Be it resolved by the people of Alabama, in Convention assembled, That the 
people of the States of Delaware, Marylacd, Virginia. North Carolina, South 
Carolina, Florida, G^rgia, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas, Arkansas, Tennes- 
see, Kentucky and Missouri, be, and are hereby, invited to meet the people of 


^ates were then chosen by the convention to represent the 
State in a provisional congress of the seceded States, which 
the same ordinance invited to meet in Montgomery. 

the State of Alabama, by their delegates, in Convention assembled, on the 4th 
day of Febmary, A. D., 186 J, at the city of Montgomery, in the State of 
Alabama, for the purpose of consalting with each other as to the moat 
effectual mode of securing concerted and harmonious action in whatever 
measures may be deemed most desirable for onr common peace and security. 

And he it further reeolvedf That the President of this Convention be, and 
is hereby, instructed to transmit forthwith a copy of the foregoing Preamble, 
Ordinance and Resolutions to the Governors of the several States named in 
said resolutions. 

Done by the people of the State of Alabama, in Convention assembled, at 
Montgomery, on this the eleventh day of January, A. D., 186 J . 

WnxiAM M. Bbooks, President of the Convention, 


W. H. Davis, John Cochean, 

John W. L. Daniel, Lewis M. Stone, 

£. S. Daboan, John Beago, 

H. O. HuMPHBiES, Qeo. a. Ketchum, 

« O. R. Blue, James L. Sheffield, 

Fbanklin K. Beck, James Febguson Dowdell, 

Samuel J. Bollino, John McPhebson, 

A. P. Love, J. A. Hendebson, 

B. H. Bakeb, of Russell, Geo. D. Shobtbidge, 
Thomas Hill Watts, W. L. Yancey, 

A. A. Coleman, J. D. Webb, 

Thomas H. Hebndon, 8. E. Cattbblin, 

David P. Lewis, James S Clabk, 

Lyman Gibbons, James W. Cbawfobd, 

Wm. H. Babnes, Wm. S. Phillips, 

Geoboe Rives, sr., James G. Gilchbist, 
• Abchibald Rhea Babclay, G. C. Whatley, 

Daniel F. Ryan, John M. Cbook. 
Sam'l EDbnoebson of Macon, O. S. Jewett, 

John R (Joffry, Eli W. Stabxe, 

^ AlbebtCbumpleb, Jebe. Clemens, 

Geoboe Taylob, John B. Lbnnabd, 

James S. Williamson, J. M. McClannahan, 

John Tyleb Moeoan, Jambs G. Hawkins, 

Gappa T. Yelvebton, J. P. Timbeblake of Jackson. 

Thomas Tipton Smith, James McEinne, 

Nich. Davis, John P. Ralls, M. D., 
W. E. Clabke of Marengo, Ralph O. Howabd, 

Geoboe Fobbesteb, Hknby M. Gay, 

John W. Inzeb, H. £. Owens, 

M. G. Slaughteb, N. D. Johnson, 

Joseph Silveb, James F. Bailey, 

Julius C. B. Mitchell,* Wm. S. Eabnest, 

David B. Cbeech, DeWitt Clinton Davis, 

RicHABD J. Wood, Jeffebson Bufobd,* 

John Gbeen, sr., R. Jemison, jr , 

William A. Hood, Abthub Campbell Beabd.* 

•JnUns C. B. Mitchell and Jefferson Buford were not members of the convention 
"11 townrds the close of its session. The former succeeded Mr. Yancey of Mont- 
C^'^^ery, the latlcr succeeded Mr. Baker of Barbour, who had both rosignod. 


This provisional congress, representing, at the time of ife 
meeting, seven States, assembled in Montgomery, Februarj 
4,1861. • 

The members of the congress of the United States fron 
Alabama withdrew in a body the day after the adoption o 
the ordinance of secession.* 

The constitutional convention, after a brief recess and shor 
continuance of the session, adjourned sine die March 21, afte: 
ratifying the constitution of the Confederate States of Amer 
ica, establishing annual instead of biennial sessions of th< 
general assembly, and making other changes in the funda 
mental laws of minor consequence. 

The general assembly met in extraordinary session iz 
March, to prepare more fully for the changed condition o: 
affairs ; and a second called session was held in October. 

War was formally declared by the proclamation of Mr 
Lincoln, president of the Northern States, April 15. Ib 
response to the call of their country, the brave sons of Ala- 
bama flocked to the miUtary camps. Begiment after regimeni 
took the field with an ardor and devotion such as patriotism 
only can arouse. By the 7th of October, 1861, the State had 
furnished "fully twenty-seven thousand of her men " t — 
twenty-three regiments, two battalions, ten detached compa- 
nies of horse, and as many of foot ; and five other regimentc 
were forming. By the 10th of November, 1862, " over sixtj 
thousand " J of her citizens had enlisted in the military ser- 
vice of the Confederacy. Public opinion, which had beer 
nearly equally divided on the question of secession, wai 
almost unanimous on that of resistance to the war of invasior 
with which the South was menaced. 

*The ordinance of seoession was carefully prepared on parchment, and the mem 
bers signed their names to it during the session. Twenty-four members did no 
sign it, to-wit : John S. Braehear and W. H. Edwards of Blount ; Henry C. Sao 
ford, W. L. WhHlook, and John Potter, all of Cherokee ; Wm. O. Winston and J 
H. Franklin of DeKalb ; B. W. WUson and E. P. Jones of Fayette ; John A. Steel 
and B. S. Watkins of Franklin ; a 0. Posey and H. 0. Jones of Lauderdale ; J. F 
Cowan and T. J. McQellan of Limestone ; Lang 0. Allen and Winston Steadhan 
of Marion ; Jonathan Ford of Morgan ; A. Kimball, M. J. Bulger, and T. J. Bus 
sell, all of Tallapoosa ; Wm. B. Smith of Tuskaloosa ; Bobert Guttery of Walker 
and 0. G. Sheets of Winston. » 

t Message of Gov. Moore. tMessage of Gov. Shorter. 


In the northern part of the State the attachment for the 
Union was very warm, and, in the uhort interval between the 
adoption of the ordinance of secession and the proclamation 
of April 15, the proposition to detach the northern counties 
and erect them into a new State was openly discussed in the 
Tennessee valley. The name of " Nickajack " * was decided 
npon for the projected State ; but the rapidly coursing stream 
of events quickly dispelled the idea, and probably saved Ala- 
bama from the fate of Virginia. 

The eleven electoral votes were cast for Jefferson Davis of 
Miasisgippi for president, and A. H. Stephens of Georgia for 
^ president^ of the Confederate States in 1861. 

John Gill Shoktek of Barbour, the seventeenth governor, 
was elected over Thomas H. Watts of Montgomery, but there 
was no political significance in the choice. The new execu- 
tive was an able, conscientious, and patriotic official. It was 
liis fate, as well as that of his successor, to fill the executive 
chair during a period of great peril to the country* 

The enemy proceeded to occupy the northern portion of 
the State in April 1862» and, though harassed by a predatory 
warfare, the Tennessee valley was in their possession and lay 
ail their mercy the greater part of the time during the war. 
In August 1862 they were driven out by the movement of 
Gen. Bragg's army into Kentucky, but returned about a year 
later, when the Confederate army withdrew to the line of 
CIiattano<^a. The wanton devastation and brutal atrocities 
committed by several of the subaltern commanders of the 
Northern forces while occupying this lovely region were such 
as even the harshest definition of war cannot extenuate. 

May 3, 1863, Col. A. D. Streight, with 1700 northern troops, 
was captured in the eastern part of the county of Cherokr.e, 
by the Confederate forces (among whom were many Alabam- 
lans) xmder Gen. N. B. Forrest. They had set out to capture 
Borne, Georgia, and left Tuscuinbia a few days before. For- 
rest pursued, and their track through Moi^an, Blount, St. 
Clair, DeKalb and Cherokee was stained with blood. 
The popular discontent, growing out of the adverse results 

'Nickajack was sn Indian town on the Tennessee river, in the present 
county of Marion, Tennessee. 



of the struggle, added to the great personal popularity of hi 
opponent, defeated the re-election of Gov. Shorter. 

Thomas H. Watts of Montgomery, who succeeded to thi 
responsible position, December 1863, brought to the discharg« 
of his duties talents of a high order. He was inducted inU 
office at a time when the attrition of the federal myriads upoi 
the numerical inferiority of the South had begun to discloe^ 
to the observant the inevitable and fearful result of the stu 
pendous struggle. 

In July 1864, with a force of about 1300 federal cavalry, Gren 
Eosseau crossed the mountains, and swept through the eastern 
tier of counties, tapping the Montgomery and West Poini 
railroad at Loachapoka, July 18, and destroying much prop- 
erty, before he passed into Geoi^a. 

August 3, of the same year, 1500 federal infantry landed on 
Dauphin Island, and moved on Fort Gaines. On the 5ih, 
eighteen war steamers, carrying two hundred and two gum 
and 2700 men, and commanded by Admiral Farragut,* 
attempted to pass into Mobile Bay. The guns of Forte 
Morgan and Gaines opened upon them, and a torpedo sunl 
one of the iron-clads, with her entire crew of 120 men. The 
others succeeded in their purpose. But they had no soonei 
got into the bay than they encoimtered the Confederate fleet 
This consisted of a ram and three gun-boats, carrying twenty- 
two guns and 470 men. One of the fiercest naval combats oi 
record now took place. It ended in the capture of the ran 
and one gunboat, and the retreat of another, while the third 
sought refuge under the walls of Fort Morgan. Closely in- 
vested by land and water. Fort Gaines capitulated on the 8th. 
Thro^ving their land force, now augmented to 3500 men, ob 
the mainland, in the rear of Fort Morgan, regular besieging 
approaches, assisted by a terrific bombardment by the fleet, 
forced the garrison, imder Gen. R. L. Page, to capitulate to 
Admiral Farragut. 

A month later, September 24, Gen. Forrest captiu"ed 190C 

*David Glftscoe Farragat, who these naval operations oc 
the coast of Alabama, was born in Knoxvillc, Tenn., in 1801. At the age o 
eleven years he entered the federal navy as a midshipman, and coutinae€ 
there till his death in 1870, when he had attained to the rank of admiral, an4 
was the senior officer in that arm of the service. 


federal infantry, at Athens, Limestone county, after a short 

In March 1865, a federal army of 32,200 men, under Gen. 
Canby,* marched from Fort Morgan to attack the Confederate 
defences on the eastern shore of Mobile Bay. A second 
column of 13,200, under Gen. Steele, advanced from Pensa- 
cola towards Montgomery ; but, after severe skirmishing, and 
after he had reached PoUard, Steele turned to the left and 
reinforced the main column, then investing Spanish Fort and 
Blakely. Spanish Fort was defended by about 2800 men, 
besides the Batteries Huger and Tracy, which protected the 
water approaches in its rear. The siege began March 27, and 
ended the night of April 8, when the garrison evacuated 
it and escaped to Mobile. Huger and Tracy were evacuated 
with safety three days after. Blakely was defended by about 
3700 men. The siege began April 2, and terminated on the 
9th, when the works were stormed, and the garrison captured. 

Mobile was at once evacuated by the Confederates, and 
occupied by the federal troops April 12. The loss of the fed- 
erals in the operations on the eastern shpre was 1500 killed 
and woimded ;t that of the Confederates one-third less, but 
their loss in prisoners was nearly 5000. 

Simultaneously with this movement on the southern con- 
fines of the State, was one from the opposite point of the 
compass. Gen. Wilson, with 13,500 picked troops, over 12,000 
of whom were mounted, advanced from Chicasa, Franklin 
county, March 22. Penetrating the country by way of Bus- 
sellville and Jasper, the colunm reached Elyton on the 29th. 
After some severe skinnishing with FoiTCst's command, 
WiLson pushed it back, and stormed Selma, April 2. It was 
defended by Gen. Fon-est,! with about 3000 men, a third of 

^Edward Bich Sprigg Canby, whose military skill was d' splayed in the 
redaction of the Confederate defences in the southern part of Alabama, was 
bom in Kentucky abont the year 1817, and was f^radnated at West Point in 
the year 1839. He was twice promoted for gallantry in Mexico, and at the 
oatset of the war served in Arizona. Tr^^nsferred to the camp of instrnction 
at Pittsburgh, Penn., he was afterwards assigned to the command of the mili- 
tary department of the southeast ; and it was while acting in that capacity 
that he planned and executed the operations against Mobile. He is still jn 
the Federal army. 

jMajor Gen. C. 0. Andrews, U. 8. Volunteers. 

tNathaniel Bedford Forrest was bom in Bedford county, Tennessee, in 


whom were raw troops. After a short and sanguinary struggle^ 
the federals captured the city and over 2500 of the garrison. 
Thfeir loss was nearly 500 in killed and wounded. They 

^"mo^ed on Montgomery, and peaceably occupied it, April 12. 

^ A brigade, under Qen. Cro3rton,was detached from Wilson's 
column at Elyton. Moving southwestwardly, after some 
severe skirmishing, this command reached Tuskaloosa, April 
3, and burned the University buildings. Attempting a diver- 
sion westward, Croxton was beaten in a skirmish at Pleasant- 

The surrender of the militaiy department of which Alabama 
was part, by Gen. Bichard Taylor to Gen. Canby, May 4, 
1865, caused a cessation of active operations in the State. 
The Washington government did not recognize the civil 
administratian of the State, and for a short interval there wa& 
no authority save that of the sword. 

Alabama emei^ed from the mighty conflict of the section^ 
with the imperishable renown which attends heroic courage 
and endeavor. Her banners had floated proudly over every 
battle-field from Pennsylvania to Missouri. Manassas, 
Drainesville, Fort Donelson, WiOiamsburg, Shiloh, Seven 
Pines, Island Ten, Gtiines* Mill, Frazier's Farm, Malvern 
Hill, Boonsboro, Sharpsburg, PerryviQe, luka, Corinth, 
Hatchee, Murfreesboro, Fredericksbui^, Chancellorsville, 
Vicksburg, Gettysburg, Port Hudson, Jackson, Chicamauga, 
Mission Bidge, Rin^old Gap, Knoxville, Beane's Station, 
Besaca, New Hope, Kennesaw, the Wilderness, Spottsyl- 
vania, Tishomingo, Harrisburg, Atlanta, Jonesboro, Drury's 
Bluff", Cold Harbor, Fort Morgan, Deep Bottom, Winchester, 
Cedar Creek, Colmnbia, Franklin, Nashville, Five Forks, 
Selma, Spanish. Fort, Blakeley, Appomattox, Kinston, and 
Bentonville told the same story; that of the unsurpassed 
valor of her sons. Of these, about one htrndi-ed and twenty- 

1821. HIb became a planter and a slave-merchant, and made Memphis his 
home. At the beginning of the war between the States, he raised a cavalry 
regiment. *' His military career was thick with incident, his path of victory 
traversed many important fields, and his career occupied the whole space 
and action of the war in the West " The defense of Selma, the capture of 
Athens, and the victory over Streight, make the name of Forrest imperish- 
able in Alabama. 


two thousand* had enlisted iij the armies of the Confederacy, 
and at least one-fourth of them filled the soldier's grave. 
Her fields were desolate ; her people impoverished ; her cap- 
ital occupied by the foe ; while the blackened chimneys of 
her villas were monuments of the ruthless invasion of her soiL 
Foiled by numbers in the cherished purpose of instituting a 
government of her choice, and smitten sorely by the mailed 
hand of War, she sorrowingly, but resolutely, acquiesced in 
the decree of " Force, arbiter of the disputes of men." 

June 21, 1866, the president of the United States pro- 
claimed that the " rebellion," in " its revolutionary progress," 
had deprived the State of Alabama of all civil government, and 
he proceeded to appoint Lewis E. Pabsons of Talladega 
provisional governor. This officer was intrusted with 
authority to assemble a convention of delegates, to be chosen 
by such persons as would evince their " loyalty " to the gov- 
ernment of the United States by taking an oath of allegiance 
to it ; and this convention was empowered to alter and amend 
the constitution so as to present such a republican form of 
government as would suffice to restore the State to her consti- 
tutional relations to the federal government. Gk>v. Parsons 
took control of affairs in July, and proceeded to fill the various 
civil offices with persons of his selection. The convention 
met in Montgomery, September 12. Three ordinances of 
primary importance were adopted, viz : one -to abolish slavery, 
another to annul the ordinance of secession, a third to annul 
all ordinances of the convention of 1861 in conflict with 
the constitution of the United States. The effect of 
these ordinances was to legalize facts accomplished by the 
results of the war. The slaves were made free ''as a necessary 
war measure" t by the federal troops wherever they penetrated 
the country, during the last two years of the struggle. The 
convention adjourned siiie die September 30, having provided 
for the election of a governor and general assembly in 

BoBERT M. Patton of Lauderdale, who was chosen to the 

'Proclamation of ProTisional Governor Parsons. 
tProclamatioii of President Lincoln, January 1, 1863. 


executive chair, over William R. Smith of Tuskaloosa, and 
Michael J. Bulger of Tallapoosa, relieved the provisional 
governor, December 20, 1866. The choice was one of per- 
sonal and not of partisan merit. Gov. Patton was experienced 
in the service of the State, and possessed practical knowledge^ 
The ordeal through which he was called to pass was exceed- 
ingly severe. 

/ He general assembly and governor, thus elected, entered 
earnestly upon their duties. The congress of the Northern 
States, however, refused to admit to seats the representatives 
and senators chosen to the federal congress by the people of 
Alabama, and foreshadowed by their action the proscriptive 
features of their subsequently-pursued policy. ^ March 2, 
1867, a bill was passed over President Johnson's veto, by 
which Alabama, among other southern States, after two years 
of peace, was remanded to the condition of a conquered pro- 
vince.) An officer, " not beneath the grade of brigadier-gen- 
"eral" of the regular army, was placed in charge of the 
district of which Alabama was a part, with most ample 
powers. He was authorized to supercede the civil and judi- 
cial tribunals by military courts of his own creation, by virtue 
of which he might inflict any customary punishment on the 
inhabitants save that of death. The State authorities were 
forbidden to interfere with the conduct of this officer, who, by 
a supplemental adj — ^that of July 13 — was expressly empow- 
ered to displace any official of the State, and appoint a suc- 
cessor. The act further provided for a time when this military 
status should cease. It was to be when a convention of the 
people of the State should frame a constitution recognizing 
negro suffirage, and otherwise acceptable to the federal con- 
gress ; and when the proposed XlVth Amendment* to the 
constitution of the United States should be ratified by the 
legislature. This constitution was to be framed by delegates 

*The 80-oalled XlVth Amendment confers the privileges of citizenship on 
the blacks ; repudiates the war debt of the Southern States ; disfranchises 
those who held State or federal offices, and afterwards espoused the cause of 
the Confederate States ; and abridges the representation in congress of the 
States in proportion as their laws deprive their citizens of the voting privi- 
lege. The general assembly had reftised to ratify this proposed amend- 
ment, December?, 1866. 


to be chosen by the votes of all male citizens of legal age, 
save the numerous classes it was proposed to disfranchise by 
the so-<^ed XTVth Amendment, and was to be ratified by an 
affirmative vote of a majority of the voters registered under 
the supervision of the military commander and his subalterns. 
The convention was accordingly chosen, the blacks constitu- . 
ting an overwhelming proportion of the voters. < A constitution 
was framed by it — ^the one now in operation — ^in the fall of 
I867) in full harmony with the requirements of the congress. 
An election was held for five days, in February 1868, to ratify 
it, and the party in accord with the views of congi'ess, voted 
for State and coimty officers at the same time. But the other 
party — composed of an overwhelming preponderance of the • 
white population — ^held aloof from the election, and defeated 
the ratification of the instrument by that provision of the law 
of congress which required a majority of the registered voters 
to vote for or against it. Nevertheless, the congress decreed 
tiie adoption of the constitution, rejected in the manner it had 
prescribed, and declared that the officers voted for in Feb- 
ruary, by tiie party in accord witii its views, should be 
inducted into the places they sought. (jThis act was carried 
into effect in the summer of 1868, and Gt)v. Patton, nominally 
in office up to that time, was displacedj 

William H. Smith of Eandolph, thus selected to fill the 
office of governor, entered on his duties July J^3J^68. He 
convened the general assembly immediately, and a second 
called session was held in October. A majority of the mem^ 
bers were men of doubtful character, and wholly devoid of 
experience in public affairs. It was the most" incapable and 
incongruous assemblage ever clothed with such powers, out- 
side of bodies similarly constituted in other of the conquered 
States. Beset by greedy railroad monopolists, they voted 
sabsidies from a State treasury they had never contributed to 
maintain, and prodigally pledged a credit they had not aided 
to establish. Exercising powers delegated for partisan aims, 
their legislation was inspired by a like ignoble purpose. As 
they were not elected by the people of the State, they failed 
to feel that accountability which attaches to the functions of a 


Alabama passed into the sixth decade of her existence with 
the cloud of this misrule obscuring her future. TJie events of 
a century seem to have crowded into the ten years just past. 
The wondrous changes that had been wrought were scarcely 
conceivable ; and yet, to a great extent, were realized by the 
masses of the people. Inured by this time to the strokes of 
adversity, with the characteristic energy of the Anglo-Saxon 
race, they proceeded to grapple the material interests which 
remained to them. The blacks, too, now endowed with the 
privileges of citizenship, and left to their own resources for 
existence, found ample scope for the exercise of all the inge- 
nuity in their nature. Under the peculiar circumstances of 
their liberation from a guarded and systematized condition of 
chattel slavery, and almost immediate advancement to the 
first grade of social rights and responsibilities ; with all their 
sensibilities and race prejudices adroitly manipulated by the 
evil disposed in order to widen the abyss of caste between their 
former owners and themselves; their general conduct waa 
such as to excite the favorable comment and consideration of 
the intelligent. <With the ignorance of the present generation, 
which was unhappily incidental to their enslavement, will 
doubtless pass away, in a great measure, the credulity which 
now often makes them the dupes or prey of the designing and 
unscrupulous.^ And with their improvidence and thriftless- 
ness, so manifestly the result of a comparatively mild and 
patriarchal slave system, will of course disappear, to some 
extent, the general poverty which limits the domain of their 
usefulness. With naught in the past to mar the amity and 
accord of the two races, in Alabama they were now side by 
side in the path of progress, equal in privileges, if not in 
advantages, and the problem of their destinies was to be solved 
in the near future by the strides they should make towards 
the goal of human aspiration and perfection. 

The population of the State in 1870 was 996,992. Of these 
521,384 were white, and 476,610 were colored ; and of the 
former 9962 were foreign bom. 
/ At the election in 1870 the iucumbent of the office of gov- 

/ amor was defeated by Mr. Robert B. Lindsay of Colbert. 

\ But Gov. Smith refused to vacate the executive chambers. 


and procured the issuance of a writ restraming tlie president 
of the senate from countmg the returns of the election, alleg- 
ing that they were fraudulently made. There had been no 
election for senators, and that body was composed of the 
persons whom congress had ordamed to act in that capacity. 
Their presiding officer was one R. N. Barr of Ohio, who pro- 
ceeded, in the presence of the two houses, to count the votes 
for the officers of the State government, except those for 
governor and treasurer. When he had finished, he directed 
the senate to retire to its apartment, and himself replaced the 
returns in the office of the secretary of state. But the house 
of representatives, just elected, was composed of a laige 
majority of the representatives of the people, and viewed the 
conduct of Gov. Smith as a bold attempt at usurpation. 
With two senators who returned, they constituted a majority 
of the general assembly, and at once proceeded to qualify 
the lieutenant-governor elect, Edward H. Moren of Bibb. 
This officer immediately continued, in his official capacity^ 
to count the returns, obtained by his order from the depart- 
ment of State ; and he declared the election of Mr. Lindsay, 
and the candidate on his ticket for treasurer. Whereupon, 
Grov. Lindsay was inaugurated, and assumed the functions of 
the chief magistracy., But the old incumbent refused to 
vacate the capitol, and obtained a platoon of soldiery from the 
federal garrison in Montgomery, which was placed in the 
building for his protection. Two or three weeks were passed 
in this maimer, one house recognizing Gov. Lindsay, the other / 
Mr. Smith, as the executive. There was much excitement 
throughout the State. A writ fi-om the circuit court, however, 
ousted the ex-governor on the 8th of December. 

EoBERT B. Lindsay of Colbert, the present executive, who 

came into office despite this startling attempt to defeat the will of 

the people, is a gentleman of unsullied character and scholai'ly \ 

attainments. The wretched condition iiito which the finances 

of the State had fallen under the aggravated calamities and 

affictions of the few preceding years, loft to Gov. Lindsay a 

task encumbered by extraordinary difficulties. The lavish 

endorsement given to several railroad companies during the 

'Ministration of Gov. Smith, have brought very grave finan- 


cial embarrassments and complications, which are yet to \h 
dealt with. 

Thus has been traced, hastily, the outline history of Ala 
bama. It begins with a wilderness, inhabited by savage 
tribes, and ends with a State in the early morning of her pros- 
perity and power. And the sun of civilization does not stand 
still. Alabama is truly 

* * The heir of all the ages ; in the foremost flies of time." 

What has been accomplished is only an earnest of what is 
to be done. The future of the State is bright with the halo 
of promise. The wondrous natural treasure locked within her 
bosom, her very superior geographical location, combined 
with the energies and virtues of her people, will surely give 
her a proud pre-eminence among her sister States. The Past 
is secure ; it is only the Future that can give concern. And 
if left to themselves, and entrusted with the privilege of solv- 
ing the problem of their own destiny, the happiest results may 
even now be pre-pictured. Emulous of the achievements of a 
noble ancestry, endowed with the rich legacy of modern 
knowledge, and imbued with the spirit of contemporary 
progress, her people may well hope to compass the loftiest 
aims of mortal aspiration. 





The State derives its name from the hkige river which 
drains its centre. The word Ahbavui is the European form 
of an Indian term, probably of generic apphcation, and 
without a known meaning.* The name '* AHbamon '* was 
given to the river by the French, because a Muscogee tribe 
calling themselves by that name dwelt upon its banks, and 
who may have been the *' AllibahaUees " met in that section 
by DeSoto, or the " AUbamos '* whom he encountered on the 

Alabama Ues between the latitudes 30® 10' and 36*^ north, 

and the longitudes 7® 51' and 10*^ 38' west of Washington. 

The general length of the State is two himdred and seventy 

eight miles, or three hundred and thirty-six if measured to the 

sea. The breadth varies from one hundred and fifty to two 

*There \b a pretty legend that a tribe of Indians, exiled by fate from their 
nafciTe wilds, reached a noble river in their flight, and that a chief, when 
tbey had crossed it, stmck his weapon into the earth, and exclaimed 
Alabama /^ — that is to say, ** Here we rest !'* Where this fanciful story 
originated we cannot say, bat only notice it because it has been engrafted on 
^coat of arms of the State. Louisiana had previously adopted a legend 
of tbe ancients about the pelican, and the precedent is improved upon by 
"^tioning a fiction that relates to the wondrous people whose generations 
^ ages are interred in our soil. 

** Soft is thy name, Alabama ; and sweet is thy flower-laden gale." 


iundred miles. The area is 60,722 square miles, or about 
32,462,080 acres. The northern half is broken and mountain- 
ous, embracing as it does the southern terminus of the Alle- 
ghany chain. South of this the surface first subsides into 
declivities, then expands into plains, diversified by ridges, as 
it approaches the sea. 

There is but little sea coast — some fifty miles — ^but this is 
broken by an arm of the Gulf of Mexico, called Mobile Bay, 
thirty miles long, and from four to eighteen broad ; navigable 
to all but the largest vessels. 

The rivers are numerous, and of very considerable length 
and volume. The Mobile is the largest, and receives into its 
channel nearly five-sixths of the natural drainage of the State. 
It is formed by the confluence of the Alabama and Tombikbee 
rivers, and is navigable its entire length, forty-four miles. 
The Tensa* runs parallel with the Mobile river, from which it 
is separated by low islands, and receives a share of its waters. 
The Alabama is formed by the junction of the Coosa and the 
Tallapoosa. It flows majestically and sinuously through the 
heart of the State, and is over three hundred and fourteen miles 
in length. It is navigable for steamboats of ordinary tonnage 
during the greater portion of the jear. The Tallapoosa is a 
small river, not navigable, having its sources in west Q^orgiai 
and draining the eastern part of Alabama. The Coosa is 
formed in northwest Georgia by the confluence of the Ooste- 
naula and Etowa, and is a broad but shallow stream, three 
hundred and thirty miles long. It is navigable for one 
hundred and sixty miles, from Home, Georgia, to Greensport 
The utiliiy of the lower half is destroyed by shoals. The 
Cahaba is a tributary of, the Alabama, and has its sources in 
the north centre of the State. It is not navigable by steamers. 
The Tombikbee,t the west affluent of the Mobile, has its rise 

*The Tensa receives its name from a small tribe of Indians who dwelt oa 
its east bank. 

fThe Tombikbee derives its name from that of a creek which has its 
month at Jones* Bla£f, in Snmter county; so named by the Indian^ beoanso 
a coffin-mfikker lived on its banks. The words etomha (a box) and ikibe^ 
(maker) form the name. The French called the river Tombikbee two hnxL" 
dred years ago, but the Indians called it HaicKee till shortly before they leT^ 
the country. Pushmataha told Col. G. S. Gaines that the spot on tha.-'^' 
creek he had selected for the Ohocta factorage was weU chosen. ** The boK-^ 


in northeast Mississippi, and is navigable for steamboats the 
major portion of the year as far up as Aberdeen, Miss., a dis- 
tance of three hundred and eighty mUes. It has several tribu- 
taries of large size, besides the Tuskaloosa, viz : the Noxubee, 
Sipsee, Buttahatchee, and Sookan'atchee, but none of them 
are yet made useful. The Tuskaloosa, or Black Warrior, 
(formerly called the Ghocta), drains the north centre of the 
State, and is navigable the greater part of the year from its 
mouth at Demopc^ to Tuskaloosa. The Cherokee, or Ten- 
nessee,* is a broad and majestic river, formed in east Ten- 
nessee by a junction of the Holstein and Clinch. It waters 
the northern portion of the State for a dist^mce of two hundred 
and fifty miles, but navigation is impeded by the shoals be- 
tween Decatur and Florence. From the former point to 
Knoxville, and from Florence to its mouth the Tennessee is 
navigable.f The Elk (or Chewallee), the Paint Bock, the 
Flint, and Bear, are small rivers, tributary to the Tennessee, 
the former having been used to a limited extent for trans- 
porting purposes by small steamers. The Chattahoochee:|: is 
the eastern boundary line of the State for more tiian one hun- 
dred miles. It is navigable to Girard, where rapids obstruct 
the ascent. The Escambia, or Conecuh river, drains much of 
the south centre of Alabama, and has the Patsaliga and 
Sepulga for tributaries, but is not open to steam navigation. 
The Choctahatchee is a small river, navigable as far up as 
Qeneva. The Pea, Perdido, and Yellow rivers, as well as the 
others in southecist Alabama, are used for floating timber to 
ihe coast. Scarcely any country lying so far inland has such 
saperior advantages in the important item of water facilities. 

"maker has long been dead " said he, ''but the creek he dwelt near bears 
"his name, and everybody knows the way to Etomba-ikibee.** It is to be 
i^gretted that so noble a stream shoald bear a name acquired from a fitot so 
i&ngnifioant. It shoald have been called Ohioasa, to honor the nnconqaer- 
ible natives whose homes were on its sources. 
*Teime8$ee is said to be the Indian word for ** great bend.*' 
tSome one has said that the Tennessee appears as if its purpose had been 
to foroe its way to the Gulf, but after feebly lashing itself against the rocky 
Wriers of north Alabama, it ran away, like a Aightened horse, and plunged 
into the Ohio. 

^Chattahoochee means redstone : from the Muscogee words charta, a stone; 
vkttf red. So caUed for the bright-colored stones which pave its bed. , 


Little or no effort has been made to improye this splenc 
feature of the State's topography, but the day is not dista 
when the Tennessee, the Coosa, and perhaps other streai 
now practically valueless, will become thronged avenues 

Besides these natural channels, about fifteen hundred a 
sixty miles of railway have been constructed in the Sta 
besides seventy miles of side track, and the work is still goi 
forward. The Alabama and Chattanooga Bailroad has 
termini at Meridian, Miss., and Chattanooga, Tenn., and t 
hundred and forty-four and one-fourth miles of it lie in A 
bama. The Mobile and Montgomery Bailroad, which cc 
nects the important points mentioned in its name, is abc 
one hundred and eighty miles in length. The portion of t 
Memphis and Charleston Bailroad in the State extends frc 
Stevenson, Jackson coimty, to her western boundary, and 
one hundred and fi%-five and one-fifth mUes in length ; a 
the portion between Decatur and Tuscumbia was the fi: 
railway laid in Alabama — 1832-33.* The Selma, Bome a 
Dalton connects the cities named, and one hundred a 
seventy-two miles of its track He within the limits of t 
State. The Western Bailroad extends from Sehna, by way 
Montgomery, to the eastern boundary of the State at W< 
Point, and is one hundred and sixty and one-half miles los 
and was the second railroad built in Alabama — 1836-186! 
The Mobile and Girard Bailroad is completed from Giraid 
Troy, eighty-two and one-half miles. The Mobile and 01 
connects Mobile with the northwestern States ; has seveni 
four and two-thirds miles of its track within the State ; a 
was the third line put into operation.^ The Nashville a 
Chattanooga railroad passes through the northeastern con 
of Alabama for a distance of twenty-six and one-half mil 

*The name of Mr. Benjamin Sherrod of Lawrence is blended with 
inception and completion of this great public improvement, at a time wl 
popular faith in snch enterprises was at a low ebb. 

fTo the untiring energy of Mr. Abner McGehee of Montgomery, aim 
alone, are the public indebted for the early construction of that part of i 
road lying between Montgomery and West Point. 

{Marshall D. J. Baldwin of Mobile, the humble projector and untir 
advocate of this great enterprise, has his name preserved in that of an obso 
•tation on its line in Tishomingo county, Mississippi. 


mclnding the Jasper branch. Twenty-seven miles of the 
"Sashville and Decatur Baikoad lie between the Tennessee 
river and the northern boundary of the State. The North 
and South Alabama Railroad is projected from Montgomery 
to Decatur, and more than one hundred miles of its track are 
being used. The Savannah and Memphis railroad is meant 
to connect Opelika with the northwestern portion of the State, 
and about thiriy miles of it are in operation. The East Ala- 
bama and Cincinnati Railroad is a proposed line from Opelika 
to Ghmtersville, and about thirty miles of it are constructed. 
The Selma and Gulf Railroad is intended to connect Selma 
and Pensacola, and thirty miles of it are in use. The Selma, 
Marion and Mempliis Railroad extends from Marion Junction 
^ the Tuskaloosa river, near Eutaw, about forty-five miles. 
The Alabama Central Railroad connects Selma and York, 
Sumter county, and is eighty-one miles in length. The Selma 
*nd New Orleans road is intended to connect those cities, and 
ftbont thirty miles of the route are in operation. The Mont- 
gomery and Eufaula railroad has its termini in the cities for 
^hich it is named, and is eighty-five miles in length. The 
Mcksburg and Brunswick railroad is projected across the 
South centre of- the State, and is oi)erating from Eufaula to 
Clayton. The Mobile and New Orleans Railroad connects 
those cities, and about twenty-five miles of its track lie within 
the State. The Mobile and Grand Trunk Railroad is surveyed 
from Mobile to Elyton, and about thirty miles of it are in op- 
eration. Eufaula is a terminus of the Southwestern railroad 
of Georgia, of which throe quarters of a mile lie west of the 

The soil, climate and productions of Alabama are varied 
and attractive. Perhaps no region of like dimensions on the 
globe can boast of superiority to her in these important 
respects. The geological formations embrace the accretions 
of the remotest and most recent cycles of time. From the 
metamorphic beds of the hills to the moist alluvium of the low 
country, and in all the intermediate stratification between 
granite and mould, the surface of the State presents attrac- 
tions at once unstinted and imsurpassed. The agriculturist 
and the miner may find within this favored region those nat- 


ural advantages which conspire to crown their labors with the 
fullest fruition. The productions embrace a long list of the 
most valued staples, cereals and esculents. The orange and 
cane of the coast compare favorably with those of the tropics ; 
the wheat and apple of less genial latitudes is found in the 
mountain valleys and coves in perfection ; the texture of the 
cotton is inferior to none ; the fruit is as abundant and lus-' 
cious as elsewhere on the earth; while all the crops are 
measurably exempt from the visitations, which render those of 
other countries unreUable and precarious. The climate is 
without extremes, and varies perceptibly within short ranges. 
The thermometer seldom exceeds 9C Fahrenheit, and falls to 
the freezing point only in midwinter. The voluptuous breezes 
of the Mexican Sea penetrate the southern half, and even 
*^ Winter, sleeping in the sunshine, wears on his face a dream 
" of Spring." On the other hand, the northern portion of 
the State, from its mountainous configuration, is subject, 
throughout the year, to a more bracing and salubrious tem- 
perature. The hygiene, except in certain locaUties of the 
State, is equal to any ; while the general freedom from pul^ 
monary diseases more than counterbalances the limited mala- 
rial mortahty incidental to the development of all new coun- 

The mineral resources of Alabama are prodigious, and of 

incalculable value.* The beds of iron ore and fields of coal 
are Uterally inexhaustible. And they are not only almost 

untouched by the miner, but, to a great extent, unexplored by 
the geologist and surveyor. Alluding to the natural convul- 
sions which have adapted the earth's surface to man's wants. 
Prof. Tuomey says : " Had the underlying rocks remained 
in their original horizontal position, the whole country 
between the Coosa and Tombikbee would have been one 
monotonous sandstone plain. The coal would have been 
completely hidden, and no one could have even conjectured 

* After a carefal sarvey of the Gahaba yalley, made in 1862, by the writer, 
at his own expense, the following results were obtained: Amoant ot coal 
aboye the Gahaba valley and tributaries, seventy billions of tons; amount of 
red hematite (iron ore) in Red Mountain, from the lower terminus to the 
G^eorgia gap, five hundred billions of tons; brown hematite in Gahaba hills 
and valleys, two hundred billions of tons. — E, G. Barney, 





*' ±rlie existence of beds of iron ore below the anrfiice. But 
" tibe simple pushing up of the Silurian rocks has revealed all 
these, while it has interdicted the region with valleys of 
great fertility." To the quantity of coal, Mr. J. L. Tait,the 
present commissioner of industrial resources of the Stiite, 
bears witness. He repoi-ts to the governor that the area of 
coal lands in Alabama is, in round numbers, five thousand 
five hundred square miles, or more than one tenth of the area 
of tiie State ; that his observation leads him to believe that 
there is an aggregate of nineteen millions of tons to every 
sqnare mile ; and that if the State were to attain to a mining 
capacity equal to that of Pennsylvania, it would require two 
thousand years to exhaust the supply, if this estimate bo 
supposed to tell the whole story. The coal is in measures 
of unusual thickness, and is very near the surface, rendering 
the labor of the miner easy. Sir Charles Lycll, who visited 
A^labama in 1846, demonstrated by analysis that the coal is of 
very superior quality for the usual purposes of fuel and steam 
cheating. It is similar to that of Pittsbui^h ; being remark- 
ably free from sulphfta" and iron pyrites, two qualities essen- 
tiu.1 for steam navigation, and also perfectly suitable for use in 
^^X>n furnaces, gas making, Ac. The coal fields extend across 
the north centre of the State, embracing within their broad 
^^^loitB the iron beds, and lie almost side by side, and are of 
^l^nost equal extent with the rich alluvial belt. 

The iron beds are mainly within the rugged region between 
•I^tiskaloosa and DeKalb. In the mountains of that section — 

** Rock-ribbed, and ancient as the snn"— 

^pose blocks and masses of ore of the aggregate quantity of 
^hich no reasonable estimate may now be indulged. Mr. 
^'^ohn T. Maguire, a British publicist, who visited America in 
1866, pointed to " the ridge of iron extending over one liim- 
'* dred miles through the heart of the " State as one of the 
elements of natural wealth out of which " the brave-hearted 
" men of Alabama would fashion a glorious future of success- 
^d industry for their country." Tlie varieties chiefly kiio\^ii 
^e the brown hematite, fibrous brown hematite, red or len- 
ticular ore, Ac. The metalic iron in the ore will average 
iiearly as high as sixty per centum, and frequently more. " It 


is now past refutation that steel can be made from Alabama 
ore as cheap as iron, and that manufacturers in this State 
"can reduce the price of steel two hundred per cent, or more ; 
" and that no State in the Union can compete with Alabama 
"in manufacturing steel by the pneumatic process. Mr. 
" Mellen, president of the Cahaba Comi)any, forwarded to 
" the Paris exposition a specimen of Alabama steel, manufac- 
" tured by tlie pneumatic process, which is pronounced supe- 
" rior to any yet obtained in America." * These sumptuous 
endowments of nature in "Heaven-blessed Alabama " t con- 
stitute a vis inert m in her commercial wealth which will, when 
the process of development is fully entered upon, insure her 
prosperity in that far distant yet possible future when every 
other resource shall be exhausted. 

Besides coal and iron, there are other valuable minerals and 
substances. Qi these, Marble, Marl, Greensand, Limestone 
and Millstone Grit are abundant ; while Gold, Copper, Lith- 
ographic Stone, Plumbago, • &c., exist. There are marble 
quarries and lime furnaces in operation, but no effort has 
been made to utilize the excellent fertilizers named. 

A large propoiiion of the lands of the State are richly 
adapted to Agriculture, and ordinary skill and experience suf- 
fice to make almost any portion yield a maintenance to the 
laborer. The magnificent calcareous zone which stretches 
across the center of the State, in irregular dimensions, from 
east to west, possesses a fertility unsurpassed by tliat of any 
district of equal size east of its longitude. The " bottom " 
lands of the creeks and rivers in all portions of the State 
yield bounteously. The varietj' of the productions is only 
exceeded by the fecundity of the soil. Alabama has estab- 
lished a world-wide fame as an agricultmal region, yet not 
one-sixth of the area of her soil has at any time been in cul- 
tivation. Indeed, over 6,500,000 acres, or about one-fifth of 
the lands of the State are yet owned by the federal govern- 
ment, and are subject to entry at a nominal figure. The fed- 
eral census of 1870, only reHable in a general way, shows that 

•"Tlie Alftbama Manual and Statistical Register ; " by Col. Hodgson of 
t Hon. Henry Wilaon of Massachasetts. 


there are 14,961,178 acres embraced in farms, of which 5,062,- 
204 acres are in cultivation, and tlie residue, more than one- 
half, are " wild lands." Cotton is the great staple product, 
but sugar and indigo can be grown remuneratively. Tlie fol- 
lowing, taken from the federal censuses, will exhibit the princi- 
pal farm crops : 

1870. 1860. 1850. 

Indian Com, bushels 16,977,948 33,226,282 28,754,048 

Wheat, bushels 294,044 1,218,444 1,055,068 

Rye, bushels 18,977 72,457 17,261 

Oats, bushels 770,866 682,179 2,965,696 

Hay, tons 10,613 62,211 32,685 

Wee, pounds 222,945 493,465 2,312,252 

Tobacco, pounds 152,742 232,914 164,990 

Wool, pounds 381,253 775,117 657,118 

Peas and Beans, bushels . . 156,574 1,482,036 892,701 

Potatoes, bushels 2,033,872 5,931,563 5,721,205 

Sugar, hogsheads 31 175 8,242 

Molasses, gallons 433,281 140,768 83,428 

Butter, pounds 3,213,753 6,028,478 4,008,811 

Cheese, pounds 2,732 15,923 31,412 

Wine, gaUons 5,156 18,267 220 

Honey, pounds 320,674 47,233 

The general decrease of wealth, as shown by the last 
censuses, is the result of the uncertain and transition state 
resulting from the sudden abolition of negro slavery. The 
careless treatment of the soU, and a too rigid devotion to the 
interests of the cotton crop, have injured, and to some extent 
prematurely exhausted, the fertiHty of some lands. A more 
skillful tillage, and a rotation of crops, will restore the ele- 
ments of productiveness. 

Stock-raising is pursued in some sections, and the lately 
established fact that the clovers and some valuable grasses 
thrive in almost any part of the State, will stimulate the 
interest. Cattle find excellent pasturage in the pine bar- 
rens of the southern counties, and stock farms are not 
uncommon. The following exhibit of the live stock of the 
State is from the federal census : 


1870. I860. 1850. 

Horses 80,770 127,063 128,001 

Mules 76,675 111,687 59,895 

Hogs 719,757 1,748,321 1,904,540 

MUch Cows 170,640 230,537 227,791 

Work Oxen 59,176 88,316 66,961 

Other Cattle 257,347 454,543 433,262 

Sheep 241,934 370,156 371,880 

Value of all ..$26,690,095 $43,411,711 $21,690,102 

The value of animals slaughtered or sold for slaughter m 
the State in 1860 was $10,237,131, a considerable excess over 
the great pork-producing States of Indiana and Missouri, and 
more than two-fifths of the same item in Ohio or lUinois ; but 
this product had fallen to $4,670,146 in the year 1870. 

Fruit and vegetables are abundant and of wide varieiy. 
The peach, apple, pear, melon, fig, plum, strawberry, pome- 
granate, &c., grow to marvelous perfection ; the orange yields 
to the care of the pomologist of the sea-coast ; and there are 
many healthful and toothsome berries scattered in profusion 
through the wildwoods. The products of the orchard and 
garden in 1850 sold for $386,374 ; in 1870, $177,227 ; and 
it is a well known fact that the fewest number of people have 
bestowed attention on the culture and exportation of these 
articles. Less than a century hence they wiU be an important 
item of private revenue to thousands in the States by reason 
of the increased demand of a thickly populated continent, 
and the ease with which they can be supplied by the soil and 

Indeed, the [peaceful and frugal labors of the farm and 
plantation in Alabama are measurably sure of an ample 
return, and it is gratifying to believe, upon rational presump- 
tions, that her future in this important respect is not to be 
excelled even by the brilliant past. 

The features and character of the State government are 
set forth in a written constitution, or code of fundamental 
laws and principles. The one now (1872) in force was adopted 
by a political convention, called by the federal officer in com- 
mand of the district of which the State was part, in 1867, 


find l^islated into effect by an act of congress in June 1868. 
Every male citizen of the State, of the age of twenty-one 
years and upwards, of sound mind, and not under conviction 
of crime, who has resided therein for six months, may have a 
voice in public affairs through the instnimentaUty of the bal- 
lot or elective franchise. The freedom of religious conscience, 
of speech, and of person ; the right of trial by jury when 
charged with crime ; the right to bear arms ; the privileges of 
the writ of habeas corpus ; exemption from unreasonable 
seizure or search of his person, papers, or possessions, and 
from imprisonment for debt, all, are among the more impor- 
tant guarantees of the constitution to the citizen. 

There are three branches of the State government, to name : 
the legislative, the judicial, and the executive. The legisla- 
tive or law-making branch consists of a senate of not more 
than thirty-three, and a house of representatives of not more 
than one hundred members ; and, when assembled in their 
official capacity, these bodies are termed " the general assem- 
bly." Both houses are apportioned ^dth a sole regard to 
population, though no county can have more than one senator 
or less than one representative, They are chosen by the 
{)opular poll, the representatives for two, and the senators 
for four years. The general assembly meets annually at the 
capital to make laws ; and their highest power is that whereby 
they may impeach and remove from office any member of the 
co-ordinate departments. The judicial branch consists of a 
" supreme coui-t of three justices, chpsen by the people for 
"terms of six years each." They are entrusted with authority 
to supervise the decisions of inferior courts, and confirm or 
remand them for new trial; but the greatest stretch of its 
power, and that which renders the supreme court a co-ordi- 
nate branch of the government, is that whereby it is permitted 
to annul a statute of the general assembly if it falls within the 
inhibition of the constitution. The executive authority is 
confided to an officer , called " governor," who is chosen by 
the people for a term of two years. He is charged with the 
enforcement of the laws, and the general superintendence of 
the interests and welfare of the State. The extreme limit of 
his prerc^atiyes is that whereby he may forbid any act passed 




by the general assembly, nor can it then become a law with- 
out the concurrence of two-thirds of the members of each 
house. Besides these branches of the public administration, 
there are boards of commissioners in each coimty, to which 

are entrusted its local interests. " Circuit courts," courts of 


equity or chancery, courts of probate, Ac, complete the sys- 
tem of jurisprudence. There is a sheriff in each county, 
and h eads of bureaux at the capital, to assist in the minis- 
tration and execution of the laws. 

The debt and financial condition of the State is not so 
favorable as it has been in the past. The direct Habilities in 
1871 were as follows : 

Bonded debt, bearing an annnal interest of $321,106 $5,442,300 

Educational fund, held in trust, and bearing an annual interest 

of $223,679 2,795,995 

Floating debt, oonsisting of outstanding warrants. State certifi- 
cates, &o 523,672 

Aggregate 8,761.967 

The contingent liabilities of tlie State are confined to an 
indorseme^nt of the bonds of certain -railroad companies, and 
to an issue of bonds, by way of a loan, to two of them, 
secured by mortgages On their corporate assets. September 
1, 1871, the contingent liabilities were as follows : 

Indorsed bonds for railways, (including $580,000 issued but pro- 
nounced fraudulent) $13,120,000 

State bonds secured by mortgages on railroad property 2,300,000 

Aggregate 15.420,000 

This character of iriflebtedness is liable to a lai^e increase, 
as the State is pledged to an endorsement of the bonds of cer- 
tain railroads to the amount of $16,000 a mile, and several of 
them are in an unfinished condition. 

Taxation has never exceeded one and a half j?er centum to 
the State and county, and is much less than that at this time. 

The value of property is as follows : 

Value of real estate in 1871, estimated on town property and 

19,739,532 acres of land $81,377,967 

Value of personalty 56.049,750 

Aggregate $137,426,717 

As property is assessed at a rate at least one-third less than 
its actual value, the aggregate valuation of property in the 


state may very safely be put dow-n at $200,000,000. The 
x^eceiptB for taxes for the fiscal year ending the 30tli of Sep- 
iiember, 1871, were as follows : 

General Tax (inolading on insarance and polls) $1,095,260 

Income Tax lor>.H85 

Railroad Tax 93, (>89 

Other Boorces 1"3,848 

Total Receipts .. . $1.3Ub,W2 

The disbursements for the same period wore, viz : 

Garrent expenses of State government $459,366 

Interest on bonded debt, and expenses of payment 3:U»d20 

Educational fund 681,988 

Interest on University fund 28,299 

Freedman's hospital at Talladega 69,200 

Special appropriations 15,933 

Total disbnrsementii $1,689,606 

The enormous expenditure exhibited in the disbursements 
of the State at the present time arise from temporary causes, / 
^hich may be remedied in a great measure at an early day. 
The educational system of the State is based upon hberal 
appropriations by the State and federal government. It is 
under the control of a general superintendent at the capital, 
with a subaltern in each county ; and a board of education, 
composed of two members from each congressional disti'ict, 
meets annually in the capitol to legislate in the interest of 
public instruction. The federal congress gave the State the 
proceeds of the sale of the sixteenth section of each township 
of the public lahds for the use of public schools. In 1836 
the surplus revenue in the federal treasury was divided among 
the States, and Alabama gave the interest on the part that 
fell to her to the educational fund. Congress also granted 
certain lands to the State in lieu of the valueless sixteenth 
sections. The fund arising from these donations is held in 
trust by the State, and interest at eight per cent, per annum 
is paid to the educational fund, the said interest aggregating 
the sum of $199,679 in 1871. In addition, the State devotes 
one-fifth of her entire revenues, and a poll tax of $1.50 on 
every adult male citizen, to the cause of education. The 
total expense of the educational system from October 1870 to 
October 1871 was $681,988. This amount is appUed to the 
instruction of children without discrimination as to color. 


In proportion to means, no country or State does more for 
the cause of popular education. There are twenty-five insti- 
tutions of knowledge in the State which profess to give a col- 
legiate curriculum. Of these, twenty-thi*ee are for whites, 
and two are for bhicks ; and all but three are dependent upon 
private endowment iuid patronage. The majority of them 
are not in a very flourishing condition, but a general improve- 
ment in this respect is at present thought to be perceptible. 

The pubhc institutions are the insane asyhmi in Tuskaloosa, 
the deaf and dumb and blind asj^lum in Talladega, the univei*sity 
in Tuskaloosa, the Jigricultural college in Lee, and the peni- 
tentiaiy in Elmore. A more particular account of them is 
given in the chapter devoted to those counties. 

A strong feehng of religious devotion has ever character- 
ized the conduct of the people of Alabama. It is widely dif- 
fused, and its influence felt throughout the limits of the State; 
tending greatly to the elevation of morals, and the puiifica- 
tion of society. The laws afford every guarantee for the 
protection of religious opinions, and extend privileges to 
none. The five principal denominations among the whites 
are the Baptists, Catliolics, Episcopalians, Methodists and 
Presljyterians, and the Zion (or Northern Methodist) Church 
among the blacks. The Baptists number 579 ministers, 1095 
churches, tliree or four colleges, and 61,725 communicants ; 
besides several thousand anti-mission membere and one or 
two colored associations. The CathoUcs have a firm footing, 
and control three or four colleges, but their membership is 
not so large as in many other States. The Episcopalians 
have thirty priests and deacons, twenty lay readers, forty-five 
parishes and missions, several high schools, and about 3500 
commimicants. The Methodists have about 600 ministers, 
about 650 churches, four or five colleges, and over 46,000 
communicants. The Presbyterians have forty-five ministers, 
106 churches, two or three colleges, and 5897 communicants. 
7?he Zion Church has on its roUs the mass of the colored 
l>eople of the State. The Christians and UniversaUsts have 
some strength. 

Of the secret societies, for benevolent purposes, in the 
State, the orders of Odd-Fellows and Fiee-Masons are the 
most noteworthy, The foimer is very respectable in point 



of numbers, but is confined chiefly to the cities and towns. 
The Masons are much more numerous, having organized a 
grand lodge* in the State at Cahaba, June 11, 1821, which 

*The following were the officers of the grand lodge from its organization 
to the present time : 


la21 Thomas W. Farrar. 

1822 Thomas W. Farrar. 

1&J3 William B. Patton. 

1824 Thomas W. Farrar. 

ld2o Nimrod £. Benson. 

1(J26 Nimrod £. Benson. 

1^ Nimrod £. Benson. 

1828 Thomas B. Creagh. 

1829 Thomas B. Creagh. 
18J0 Thomas B. Creagh. 
1831 William J. Mason. 
1B33 William Leigh. 
1834 William Leigh. 
\m John C. Hicks. 

1837 John C. Hicks. 

1838 John C. Hicks. 

1839 Edward Hemdon. 

1840 Edward Hemdon. 
l84| Edward Hemdon. 

1842 N. W. Fletcher. 

1843 James Penn. 

1844 James Penn. 

1845 Felix G.Norman. 

1846 Febx G. Norman. 

1847 Rnfos Greene. 

1848 BufoB Greene. 
^^id Rufns Greene. 
I^ William Hendrix. 
18&1 David Clopton. 

1852 David Clopton. 

1853 David Clopton. 
«854 S. A. M. Wood. 

1855 8. JL M. Wood. 

1856 J. McCaleb Wiley. 
1867 J. McCaleb Wiley. 
1856 Robert H. Ervin. 

1859 Robert H.Ervin. 

1860 Stephen F. ELale. 


Horatio G. Perry.* 
Horatio G.Perry. 
Horatio G. Perry. 
Horatio G.Perry. 
John B. Hogan. 
John B. Hogan. 
Robert £. B. Baylor. 
William J. Mason. 
William J. Mason. 
William J. Mason . 
Ptolemy Harris. 
JohnG. Aiken. 
John Hildreth. 
J. L. F. Cottrell. 
J. L. F. Cottrell. 
J. L. F, CottrelL 
Armi<}tead D. Bo wen, 
John A. Whetstone. 
N. W. Fletcher. 
Felix G.Norman. 
Felix G. Norman. 
Sidney S. Perry. 
William Hendrix. 
William Hendrix. 
J. McCaleb Wiley. 
J. McCaleb Wiley. 
William Hendrix. 
David Clopton. 
Price Williams. 
Sidney Smith. 
Sidney Smith. 
J. McCaleb Wiley. 
J. McCaleb Wiley. 
Robert H. Ervin. 
Robert H. Ervin. 
Stephen F. Hale. 
Stephen F. Hale. 
William H. Norris. 


John Murphy. 
Anderson Hutchinson. 
Anderson Hutchinson. 
Anderson Hutchinson. 
Anderson Hutchinson. 
Thomas Wooldridge. 
William D. Stone. 
Ptolemy Harris. 
William Leigh. 
William Leigh. 
William W. Payne. 
Isaac Lane. 
James B. Tart. 
Doric S. Ball. 
John A. Whetstoue. 
John A. Whetstone. 
'Blake Little. 
Blake Little. 
Felix G. Norman. 
Price Williams. 
Gerard W. Creagh. 
W. P. Dejamette. 
John R. Clarke. 
John R. Clarke. 
John R. Clarke. 
William C. Penick. 
William C. Penick. 
WiUiam C. Peoick. 
Samuel H. Dixon. 
Samuel H. Dixon. 
Samuel H. Dixon. 
Humphrey S. SheltoB. 
Humphrey S. She>ton. 
Humphrey S. Sheltou. 
Stephen F. Hale. 
H. S. Shelton. 
Lewis B. Thomton. 
Lewis B. Thornton. 

•There were till 1827 three deputy K^and mautora : In 1821, Frederick Wecdon 
•od John ElMott ; in 1822, David Moore and William B. Patton ; in 1823, David 
Ifooreand Thomas Owen ; in 1824, Thoroao Wooldridge and Oordon RobinHon; in 
182S, Thomas Wooldridge and James Dellett ; in 1826, Aiidorfioii HutchinHuu and 
£> 6. Greening. 



became extinct in consequence of the anti-Ma43onic excitem^ 


1861 William H. Norris. 
18G2 William H. Norris. 

1863 John A. Lodor. 

1864 William C. Penick. 

1865 Wilson Williams. 

1866 Wilson Williams. 

1867 George D. Norris. 

1868 George D. Norris. 

1869 George D. Norris. 

1870 WiUiam P, ChUton. 

1871 William P. Chilton. 

1872 Joseph H. Johnson. 


1821 Thomas Owen. 

1822 Thomas Owen. 

1823 John B. Norris. 

1824 John B. Uogan. 

1825 Eldridge S. Greening. 

1826 William D. Stone. 

1827 Thomas B. Creagli. 

1828 William Leigh. 

1829 Lawrence 8. Banks. 

1830 Ptolemy Harris. 

1831 DorioS. Ball. 

1833 Bichard B. Walthall. 

1834 Jacob Wizer. 
18*36 Robert B. Waller, 

1837 Felix G. Norman. 

1838 Felix G.Norman. 

1839 Bobert H. Dalton. 

1840 Denton H. Valliant 

1 84 1 Denton H. Valliant . 
J 842 Denton H. Valliant. 

1843 William Hendrix. 

1844 Stephen F. Hale. 

1845 Stephen F. Hale. 

1846 Steriing A. Wood. 

1847 John M. Strong. 
.184A Thomas M. Bragg. 

1849 Thomas M. Bragg. 

1850 Thomas M. Bragg. 

1851 George W. Gaines. 

1852 George W. Gaines. 

1853 8. A.M.Wood. 

1854 Joshua H. Danforth. 


James L. Price. 
James L. Price. 
William C. Penick. 
Wilson Williams. 
David B. Smedley. 
David B. Smedley. 
Sam Thompson. 
Sam Thompson, j 
Sam Thompson. 
Joseph H. Johnson. 
Joseph H. Johnson. 
G. Frank Smith. 


Daniel MoOord. 
Daniel McCord. 
Daniel McCord. 
Daniel McCord. 
Daniel McCord. 
Daniel M. Riggs. 
Daniel M. Riggs. 
Daniel M. Riggs. 
Daniel M. Riggs. 
Benjamin B. Fontaine. 
Benjamin B . Fontaine. 
Benjamin B. Fontaine. 
Benjamin B. Fontaine. 
James Gaild. 
Horace Green. 
Luther S. Skinner. 
Luther S. Skinner. 
Luther S. Skinner. 
Luther S. Skinner. 
William Garrett. 
William Garrett. 
Edward Hemdon. 
Edward Hemdon. 
Edward Hemdon. 
Nimrod £. Benson. 
NimrodE. Benson. 
Nimrod E. Benson. 
Thomas Welsh. 
Thomas Welsh. 
Thomas Welsh. 
Thomas Welsh. 
Thomas Welsh. 


Lewis B. Thornton. 
John A. Lodor. 
David B. Smedlej. 
David B. Smedley. 
Sam Thompson. 
Sam Thompson. 
Joseph H. Johnson. 
Joseph H. Johnson. 
Joseph H. Johnson. 
G. Frank Smith. 
G. Frank Smith. 
Isaiah A. Wileon. 


Thomas A. Rogers. 
George M. Rives. 
William B. Allen. 
Daniel M. Riggs. 
Daniel M. Riggs. 
John G. Aiken. 
John G. Aiken. 
John G. Aiken. 
John G. Aiken. 
John H. Vincent 
John H. Vincent 
JohnH. Vincent. 
John II. Vincent. 
Thomas H. Vincent. 
Doric S. Ball. 
Doric S. Ball. 
AmandP. Pfister. 
Amand P. Pfister. 
Amand P. Pfister. 
Amand P. Pfister. 
AmandP. Pfister. 
Amand P. Pfister. 
Amand P. Pfister. 
Amand P. Pfister. 
AmandP. Pfister. 
AmandP. Pfister. 
Amand P. Pfister. 
Amand P. Pfister. 
AmandP. Pfister. 
Amand P. Pfister. 
Amand P. Pfister. 
Amand P. Phister. 



in 1835; but which now claims jurisdiction over the 271 
lodges and 10,822 members in the State. 


1BS5 Joshua H. Danforth. 

1866 Joshua H. Danforth. 

)H57 James A. Whitaker. 

la^d James A. Whitaker. 

1859 Stephen D. Moor^r. 

1860 Biohard J.Dudley. 

1861 Biohard J. Dudley. 

1862 James M. Bnmdidge. 

1863 James M. Bnmdidge. 

1864 Sam Thompson. 

1865 Bichard J. Dudley. 

1866 Bichard J.Dudley. 

1867 G. Frank Smith. 

1868 Q.Frank Smith. 

1869 G. Frank Smith. 

1870 Isaiah A. Wilson . 

1871 Isaiah A. Wilson . 
im Palmer J. Pillans. 


Thomas Welsh. 
Thomas Welsh. 
Thomas Welsh. 
Thomas Welsh. 
Thomas Welsh. 
Thomas Welsh. 
Thomas Welsh. 
Thomas Welsh. 
Hugh P. Watson. 
Hugh P. Watson. 
Hugh P. Watson. 
Edmund M. Hastings. 
Edmund M. Hastings. 
Edmund M. Hastings. 
Edmund M. Hastings. 
Edmund M. Hastings. 
WiUiam H. Dingley. 
William H. Dingley. 


AmandP. Ffister. 
Amand P. Pfister. 
Daniel Sayre. 
Daniel Sayre. 
Daniel Sayre. 
Daniel Sayre. 
Daniel Sayre. 
Daniel Sayre. 
Daniel Sayre. 
Daniel Sayre. 
Daniel Sayre. 
Daniel Sayre. 
Daniel Sayre. 
Daniel Sayre. 
Daniel Sayre. 
Daniel Sayre. 
Daniel Sayre. 
Daniel Sayre. 



A list of the more prominent officials, and the date of their 
service, will enable the reader to fix dates with greater accur- 


The governor holds his office for a term of two years, and is 
eligible to one consecutive term ; and this has been the law 
since the State government was instituted. In case of the 
death or resignation of the incumbent, the president of the 
senate becomes his successor. The following citizens have 
held the office of governor since Alabama was organized as a 
distinct jurisdiction : 


William Wyatt Bibb of Geoi^a, March 1817 to Nov. 1819. 


WiUiam Wyatt Bibb of Autauga, Nov. 1819 to July 1820. 
Thomas Bibb of Limestone, July 1820 to Nov. 1821. 
Israel Pickens of Greene, Nov. 1821 to Nov. 1825. 
John Murphy of Monroe, Nov. 1825 to Nov. 1829. 
Gabriel Moore of Madison, Nov. 1829 to March 1831. 
Samuel B. Moore of Jackson, March 1831 to Nov. 1831. 
John Gayle of Greene, Nov. 1831 to Nov. 1835. 
Clement Comer Clay of Madison, Nov. 1835 to July 1837. 
Hugh McVay of Lauderdale, July 1837 to Nov. 1837. 
Arthur Pendleton Bagby of Monroe, Nov. 1837 to Nov. 1841. 

•Governors of Mississippi Territory. — The following were governors of 
MisBiKsippi Territory, of which Alabama formed part : 
Winthrop Sargeaut of New England, 1799 to 1801. 
WiUiam Charles Cole Claiborne of Virginia, 1801 to 1805. 
Robert Williams of North Carolina. 1805 to 1809. 
David Holmes of Virginia. 1809 to 1817. 


Benjamin Fitzpatrick of Autauga, Nov. 1841 to Nov. 1845. 

Joshua Lanier Martin otTuskaloosa, Nov. 1845 to Nov. 1847. 

Reuben Chapman of Madison, Nov. 1847 to Nov. 1849. 

Heniy Watkins Collier of Tuskaloosa, Nov. 1849 to Nov. 1853 

John Anthony Winston of Sumter, Nov. 1853 to Nov. 1857. 

Andrew Barry Moore of Perry, Nov. 1857 to Nov. 1861. 

John Gill Shorter of Barbour, Nov. 1861 to Nov. 1863. 

Thomas Hill Watts of Monigomery, Nov. 1863 to April 1865. 

Interregnum of two months, when Lewis E. Parsons of Tal- 
ladega became governor by appointjnent of the President of 
the United States, and exercised its powers from June 1865 
to December 1865. 

Robert Miller Patton of Lauderdale, Dec. 1865 to July 1868. 

[Grov. Patton held for seven months longer tlian his term 
by permission of the miUtary commander of the district.] 
William H. Smith of Randolph was appointed governor by 
an act of congress, and held from July 1868 to Nov. 1870. 

Robert Bums Lindsay of Colbert, Nov. 1870. 


This is the highest legal tribunal in the State. Till 1832 
the supreme court was composed of the judges of the circuit 
court sitting collectively. From that year till 1852 the su- 
preme court consisted of three justices ; was then increased to 
five ; but the law was repealed two years later, and three is 
the present number. 

Clement Comer Clay of Madison ; chief justice, Dec. 16, 
1819, to Dec. 18, 1823. 

Abner Smith Lipscomb of Washington ; justice, Dec. 16, 
1819, to Dec. 18, 1823 ; and chief justice, Dec. 18, 1823, to 
Jan. 1835. 

Henry T. Webb of Greene ; justice, Dec. 16, 1819, to Sep- 
tember 1823. 

Richard EUis of Fi-anklin ; justice, Dec. 16, 1819, to Dec. 
27, 1825. 
Reuben Saffold of Dallas ; justice, Dec. 16, 1819, to Janu- 
f ary 1835. Chief justice, Jan. 1835, to — , 1836. 
i Henry Minor of Madison ; justice, Sept. 1823, to Dec. 27, 
John Gayle of Monroe ; justice, Dec. 16, 1823, to 1828. 


John White of Lawrence ; justice, Deo. 27, 1825, to Jan 
ary 14, 1832. 

John M. Taylor of Madison ; justice, Dec. 27, 1825, to - 

Sion L. Perry of Tuskaloosa ; justice, Jan. 9, 1828, . to Ja 
nary 14, 1832. 

Eli Shorfcridge of Tuskaloosa; justice, , 1828, 

, 1828. 

Henry Watkins Collier of Tuskaloosa ; justice, , 18! 

to Jan. 14, 1832. 

Harry Innes Thornton of Madison; justice, , 183 

to Jan. 9, 1836. 

Henry Hitchcock of Mobile ; justice, Jan. 1835, to 

1836 ; chief justice, , 1836, to , 1836. 

Arthur Francis Hopkins of Madison ; justice, Jan. 9, 183 
to , 1836 ; chief justice, , 1836, to June 7, 1837. 

Henry Watkins Collier of Tuskaloosa; justice, , 183< 

to June 7, 1837 ; chief justice, June 7, 1837, to July 1, 1849. 

Henry Goldthwaite of Mobile; justice, , 1836, b 

June 5, 1843. 

John J. Ormond of Tuskaloosa ; justice, June 14, 1837, b 
Dec. 31, 1847. 

Clement Comer Clay of Madison ; justice, Juno 13, 1843 
to December 1843. 

Henry Goldthwaite of Mobile ; justice, Dec. 1843 to Oct 19 

Edmund Spann Dargan of Mobile ; Dec. 16, 1847, to July 1 
1849 ; chief justice, July 1, 1849, to Dec. 6, 1862. 

William Parish Chilton of Macon ; justice, Dec. 31, 1847 
to Dec. 6, 1852 ; chief justice, Dec. 6, 1852, to Jan. 2, 1856. 
• SQas Parsons of Madison ; justice, July 1849, tp June 7 

Daniel Coleman of Limestone ; justice, June 7, 1851, to 
December 11, 1851. 

DaAdd G. Ligon of Lawi'ence ; justice, Dec. 11, 1851, to 
Jan. 1, 1855. 

George Goldthwaite of Montgomery ; justice, Jan. 7, 1852 
to Jan. 2, 1856 ; chief justice, Jan. 2, 1856, to Jan. 15, 1856. 

John Dennis Phelan of Perry; justice, Jan. 7, 1852, to 
Feb. 1, 1854. 


Lyman Gibbons of Mobile ; justice, Dec. 6, 1852, to Jan. 5, 

Samuel Farrow Rice of Mgntgomery ; justice, Jan. 1, 1855, 

to Jan. 15, 1856 ; chief justice, Jan. 15, 1856, to Jan. 25, 1859. 

Abram Joseph Walker of Talladega ; justice, Jan. 15, 1856, 

to Jan. 25, 1859 ; chief justice, Jan. 25, 1859, to July 13, 1868. 

George W. Stone of Lowndes ; justice, Jan. 15, 1856, to 
December, 1865. 

Richard Wilde Walker of Lauderdale ; justice, Jan. 25, 1859, 
to , 1864. 

John Dennis Phelan of Montgomery ; justice, , 1864, 

to , 1865. 

WiUiam McKendree Byi*d, sr., of Dallas ; justice, Jan. 1, 
1866, to July 13, 1868. 

Thomas James Judge of Montgomery; justice, Jan. 1, 1856, 
to July 13, 1868. 

In 1868, Justices Walker, Byrd and Judge were evicted 
from oflSce to give place to Elisha Woolsey Peck of Tuska- 
loosa, Thomas M. Peters of Lawrence and Benjamin F. Saf- 
fold of Dallas, who had been chosen by act of congress to the 
supreme bench of the State, and who now fill the responsible 


The separate supreme and circuit courts were established 
February 14, 1832, and the seven judicial districts have been 
gradually increased to eleven at present. The judges were 
elected by the general assembly till 1850, when the power was 
transferred to the populace. Tliey hold office for six years. 

Ptolemy T. Hands of Washington ; 1832-41. 

Horatio Gates Perrj^ of Dallas ; 1832-34. 

Henry Watkins Collier of Tuskaloosa ; 1832-36. 

Samuel Chapman of Sumter ; 1832-50. 

Sion L. Perry of Tuskaloosa ; 1832-34. 

Anderson Crenshaw of Butler ; 1832-39. 

WiUiam I. Adair of Madison ; 1832-35. 

John W. Paul of Dallas ; 1833-34, (new circuit). 

John Starke Hunter of Dallas ; vice H. G. Perry, 1834-35. 

Joshua Lanier Martin of Limestone ; vice Sion L. Perry, 


William Dixon Pickett of Montgomery ; vice John W. Paul, 

George W. Lane of Madison ; mce J. L. Martin, 1835-35. 

Daniel Coleman of Limestone ; vice Geo. W. Lane, 1835—47. 

George W. Lane of Madison ; vice Wm. I. Adair, 1835-47. 

Ezekiel Pickens of Dallas ; vice John S. Hunter, 1835-48. 

Peter Martin of Tuskaloosa ; vice H. W. Collier, 1836-43. 

Eli Shortridge of Talladega ; 1836-43. (New circuit). 

Abraham Martin of Montgomery ; vice Wm. D. Pickett, 

John P. Booth of Barbour ; vice A. Crenshaw, 1839-43. — 
(Circuit abolished). 

Benjamin Faneuil Porter of Tuskaloosa ; 1839-40. (New 

WiUiam Hale of Mobile ; vice B. F. Porter ; 1840-40. 
Edm. S. Daj^an of Montgomeiy ; vice Wm. Hale, 1840-42. 

John Dennis Phelan of Tuskaloosa ; vice P. Harris, 1841-52. 

John Bra^ of Mobile ; vice E. S. Dai^an, 1842-51. 

Walker K. Baylor of Jefferson ; vice Peter Martin, 1843-45. 

George W. Stone of Talladega ; vice EU Shortridge, 1843-49, 

George Goldthwaite of Montgomery ; vice Abraham Mar- 
tin, 1843-52. 

Lincoln Clark of Tuskaloosa ; riVv W. K. Baylor; 1845-45. 

George David Shortridge of Shelby ; vice Lincoln Clark, 

Thomas Avington Walker of Calhoun ; vice G«o. W. Lane, 

Nathan Cook of Lowndes ; vic^ Ezekiel Pickens, 1847-50. 

Sidney Cherry Posey of Lauderdale ; vice Daniel Coleman, 

Jolin Jefferson Woodward of Talladega ; vice George W. 
Stone, 1849-50. 

William Russell Smith of Tuskaloosa ; vi^ S. Chapman, 

Leroy Poi)e Walker of Lauderdale; vice S. C. Posey, 

Robert Dougherty of Macon ; vice J. J. Woodward, 1850-68. 

Ezekiel Pickens of Dallas ; vi/^ Nat. Cook, 1850-52. 


Turner Beavis of Sumter; vice Wm. R. Smith, 1851-52. 

John Edmund Moore of Lauderdala; vice L. P. Walker, 

Lyman Gibbons of MobUe ; vice John Bragg, 1851-52. 

Andrew B. Moore of Perry ; vice John D. Phelan, 1852-57. 

Nathan Cook of Lowndes ; vice Ezekiel Pickens, 1852-65. 

Backus W. Himtington of Sumter ; vice T. Beavis, 1852-53. 

John Gill Shorter of Barbour; vice Geoi^e Goldthwaite, 

John A. Cuthbert of Mobile ; vice L. Gibbons, 1852-53. 

Charles William Bapier of Mobile ; vice John A. Cuthbert, 

Turner Beavis of Sumter ; vice B. W. Huntington, 1853-54. 

Edmund Winston Pettus of Pickens ; vice T. Beavis, 1854-58. 

William S.Mudd of Jefferson; viceOcD. Shortridge, 1855 — 

Smith D. Hale of Madison ; vice T. A. Walker, 1856-62. 

Sydenham Moore of Greene ; vice A. B. Moore, 1857-57. 

William McLin Brooks of Perry ; vice Syd. Moore, 1857-58. 

Aug. A. Coleman of Sumter ; vice E. W. Pettus, 1858-65. 

Porter King of Perry ; vice Wm. M. Brooks, 1858-65. 

James Benson Martin of Talladega ; 1860-61. (New circuit). 

John K. Henry of Butler ; 1860-68. (New circuit.) 

'John Cochran of Barbour ; vice John G. Shorter, 1861-65. 

John Thomas Heflin of Bandolph ; vice James B. Martin, 

William J. Haralson of DeKalb; vice S. D. Hale, 1862— 

David P. Lewis of Lawrence ; vice John E. Moore, 1863-63. 

John D. Bather of Morgan ; vice D. P. Lewis, 1863-64. 

William Basil Wood of Lauderdale ; vice J. D. Bather, 

Sidney Cherry Posey of Lauderdale ; vice Wm. B. Wood, 

William H. Smith of Bandolph ; vice J. T. Heflin, 1865-66. 

Francis Bugbee of Montgomery ; vice Nat. Cook, 1865-66. 

J. McCaleb Wiley of Pike ; vice John Cochran, 1865-66. 

James Gobbs of Sumter ; vice A. A. Coleman, 1865-68. 

Benjamin F. Saffold of Dallas ; vice Porter King, 1865-66. 

John Moore of Perry ; vice B. F. Saffold, 1866-68. 

John Henderson of Talladega ; vice Wm. H. Smith, 1866-68. 


William Basil Wood of Lauderdale; vice 8. C. Posey, 
1866-68. • 

George Gk)ldthwaite of Montgomery; vice F, Btigbee, 

[The incumbents of the bench in the several circuits of the 
State at the present time were voted for ai the election held 
in February 1868, and were installed in the positions they 
hold by an act of congress. Their names are, Milton J. Saf- 
fold,* James Q. Smith, William S. Mudd, James S. Clark, 
Wm. J. Haralson, John Elliott, Luther R &nith, J. McCaleb 
Wiley, Littleberry Strange, Charles Pelham, Wm. L. Whit- 
lock, Philemon O. Harper. t] 


The judges of the circuit court had jurisdiction in equity 
cases till 1839, when separate courts of chancery were estab- 
lished. The original number of chancellors was two, but it 
was soon increased to three, and is now five. 

Anderson Crenshaw of Butler. 1839-1847. 

Silas Parsons of Madison. 1839 — ^Declined. 

EUsha Wolsey Peck of Tuskaloosa; vice S. Parsons. 1839- 

Alexander Bowie of Talladega ; ince E. W. Peck. 1889- 

Joshua Lanier Martin of Tuskaloosa. 1841-1845. (New 

James B. Clark of Greene ; vice J. L. Martin. 1845-1846. 

WyUe W. Mason of Coosa; vice J. B. Clark. 1845-1851. 

David Greenhill Idgon of Lawrence ; vice A. Bowie. 1845- 

J. W. Lesesne of Mobile ; vice A. Crenshaw. 1847-1853. 

Eggleston D. Townes of Madison ; vice D. G. Ligon. 1851- 

James B. Clark of Greene ; vice W. W. Mason. 1851-1863. 

Abram Joseph Walker of Calhoim ; vice E. D. Townes. 

Wade Keyes of Montgomery ; vice J. W. Lesesne. 1853- 

^Appointed by Gk)v. Smith, rice B. L. Whelan, deceased. 
tAppointed by Gov. Smith, vice B. F. Porter, deceased. 


John Foster of Calhoun ; vice A. J. Walker. 185G-1865. 

Milton Jefferson Saffold of Dallas; vice Wade Keyes. 

N. W. Cocke of Macon ; vice M. J. Saffold. 1861-1868. 

William McKendree Byrd of Dallas; vice J. B. Clark. 

J. R. John of Perry ; vice Wm. M. BjTd. 1864-1865. 

W. H. FeUows of Dallas ; vice J. R. John. 1865-1865. 

J. Q. Loomis of Coosa ; vice W. H. Fellows. 1865-1868. 

Samuel K. McSpadden ; vice Jolm Fost^^r. 1865-1868. 

The chancellors now in office were voted for at the election 
held in February 1868, and installed by an act of congress ; 
or were subsequently appointed by the governor chosen in 
the same manner. Their names are William Skinner, Charles 
Turner,* Adam C. Felder, Anthony W. Dillard, B. B. McCraw. 


From 1819 to 1865 the attorney general was solicitor for 
the judicial district in which the capital was situated. Since 
then the two offices have been separate. Till 1868 they were 
chosen by the general assembly. 

Henry Hitchcock of Washington. December 16, 1819, to 
December 16, 1823. 

Thomas White of . December 16, 1823, to De- 
cember 16, 1826. • 

Constantine Perkins of Tuskaloosa. December 23, 1825, 
io 1832. 

Peter Martin of Franklin. From 1832 to December 1836. 

Alexander B. Meek of Tuskaloosa. From 1836 to Decem- 
ber 1836. 

John Dennis Phelan of Madison. December 1836 to De- 
cember 1838. 

Lincoln Clark of Tuskaloosa. December 1838 to December 

Mathew W. Lindsay of Morgan. December 1839 to De- 
cember 1843. 

Thomas D. Clarke of Talladega. December 1843 to Decem- 
ber 1847. 

^Appointed in room of W. B. Woods, resigned. 


William H. Martin of Tnskaloosa. August 25, 1847, to 
December 1847. 

Marion Augustus Baldwin of Montgomery. December 
1847 to August 16, 1865. 

John W. A. Sanford of Montgomery. From 1865 to July 
13, 1868. 

[Joshua Morse of Chocta was voted for, and declared 
elected by an act of congress, in 1868.] 1868-1870. 

John W. A. Sanford of Montgomery. November 1870— 


The reporters are appointed by the justices of the court. 

Henry Minor of Madison. From 1819 to 1823. 

George Noble Stewart of Tuskaloosa. From 1823 to 1834. 

Bcnj. F. Porter of Monroe. From 1834 to 1839. 

[The justices acted as reporters from 1839 to 1847.] 

Jolin J. Ormond of Tuskaloosa. From 1847 to 1849. 

N. W. Cocke of Macon. From 1849 to 1851. 

John W. Shepherd of Montgomery. From 1851 to 1868. 

John L. C. Danner of Montgomery. From 1868 to 1870. 

Thomas G. Jones of Montgomery. From 1870 — 



Clm 2.— WiUiam Kufus .King'of Dallas ; October 28, 1819, 
to March 4, 1823. Elected by the L^islature. 

WiUiam K. King ; March 4, 1823, to March 4, 1829. Elected 
by the Legislature. 

WiUiam E. King ; March 4, 1829, to March 4, 1835. Elected 
by the Legislature. 

WiUiam E. King ; March 4, 1835, to March 4, 1841. Elected 
by the Legislature. 

WiUiam E. King ; March 4, 1841, to April 22, 1844. Elected 
by tlie Legislature. 

Dixon Hall Lewis of Lowndes ; AprU 22, 1844, to Dec. 10, 
1844. Appointed by Gov. Fitzpatrick. 

Dixon H. Lewis ; Dec. 10, 1844, to March 4, 1847. Elected 
by the Legislature. 

Dixon H. Lewis ; Maich 4, 1847, to Nov. 25, 1848. Elected 
by the Legislature. 


Benjamin Fitzpatrick of Autauga ; Nov. 25, 1848, to Nov. 
30, 1849. Appointed by Gk)v. Chapman, 

Jeremiah Clemens of Madison ; Nov. 30, 1849, to March 4, 
1853. Elected by the Legislature. 

Clement Claiborne Clay of Madison ; March 4, 1853, to 
March 4, 1859. Elected by the Legislature. 

Clement Claiborne Clay ; March 4, 1859, to January 11, 
1861. Elected by the Legislature. 

[There was no one to claim this seat till December 1865.] 

Lewis E. Parsons of Talladega ; elected for six years from 
March 4, 1865, but not admitted. 

[Willard Warner was elected by the so-called Legislature 
of 1868-9 to this seat, and held it tiU March 4, 1871. 1 

Greorge Goldthwaite of Montgomery; March 4, 1871 — 

CJass 5.— JolmWiUiams Walker of Madison; Oct 28, 1819, 
to Dec. 12, 1822. Elected by the Legislature. 

William Kelly of Madison ; Dec. 12, 1822, to March 4, 1825. 
Elected by tlie Legislatui*e. 

Henry Chambers of Madison ; March 4, 1825, to Feb. 27, 
1826. Elected by the Legislature. 

Israel Pickens of Greene ; Feb. 27, 1826, to Nov. 27, 1826. 
Appointed by Gov. Murphy. 

John McKinley of Lauderdale ; Nov. 27, 1826, to March 
4, 1831. Elected by the Legislature. 

Gabriel Moore of Madison ; March 4, 1831, to March 4, 
1837. Elected by the Legislature. 

John McKinley of Lauderdale ; elected by the Legislature 
for six years ; but declined. 

Clement Comer Clay of Madison ; March 4, 1837, to Nov. 
24, 1841. Elected by the Legislature. 

Arthur P. Bagby of Monroe ; Nov. 4, 1841, to March 4, 
1843. Elected by the Legislature. 

Arthur P. Bagby ; March 4, 1843, to July 1, 184^'. Elected 
by the Legislature. 

WilHam R. King of DaUas; July 1, 1848, to March 4,1849. 
Appointed by Gov. Chapman. 

William R. King ; March 4, 1849, to January 14, 1853, 
Elected by the L^islature. 

Benjamin Fitzpatrick of Autauga ; January 14, 1853, to 
Mftrch 4, lb55. 


Benjamin Fitzpatrick; March 4, 1S55, to January 11, 1861- 
[There was no one to claim this seat till December 1865.] 
Gteoi^e Smith Houston of Limestone; elected for six years 

from March 4, 1861 ; but not admitted. 
John Anthony Winston of Sumter; elected for six years 

from March 4, 1867, but not admitted. 

[Geoi^e E. Spencer was elected by the so-called legislature 

of 1868-9 to this seat for the term to expire March 4, 1873.] 


Abercrombie, James, of Eussell ; 1851-55. 
Alston, William J., of Marengo ; 1849-51. 
Battle, Cullen A., of Macon ;* 1866-67. 
Baylor, Eobert E. B., of Tuskaloosa ; 1829-31. 
Belser, James E., of Montgomery ; 1843-45. 
Bowdon, Franklin W., of Talladega; 1846-51. 
Bragg, John, of Mobile ; 1851-53. 
Buck, A. E., of Mobile ; 1869-71. 
Buckley, Charles W., of Montgomery; 1869 — 
Chapman, Reuben, of Madison ; 1835-47. 
Clay, Clement Comer, of Madison ; 1829-35. 
Clopton, David, of Macon ; 1859-61. 
Cobb, Williamson K. W., of Jackson ; 1847-61. 
Cottrell, J. Lafayette, of Lowndes ; 1846-47. 
Crabb, George W., of Tuskaloosa ; 1838-41. 
Crowell, John, of Washington ; 1819-21. 
Curry, Jabez L. M., of Talladega ; 1857-61. 
Dargan, Edmund S., of Mobile ; 1845-47. 
Dellett, James, of Monroe ; 1839-45. 
Dowdell, James F., of Chambers; 1853-59. 
Dox, Peter M., of Madison, 1869 — 
Foster, Thomas J., of Lawrence ;* 1865-67. 
Freeman, George C, of Lowndes;* 1865-66. 
Gayle, John, of Mobile ; 1847-49. 
Handley, William A., of Eandolph ; 1871— 
Harris, Sampson W., of Coosa ; 1847-57. 
Hays, Charles, of Greene ; 1869 — 
Heflin, Eobert S. of Randolph ; 1869-71. 
HiJliiwrd, Henry W., of Montgomery; 1845-51. 

*Not admitto^ to a seat. 


i 1841-49 
Houston, Gteorge 8., of Limestone ; < . 851-61* 

Habbard, David, of Lawrence ; < 1849-51* 
Lige, Samuel W., of Sumter ; 1847-51. 
Kelly, William, of Madison ; 1821-22, 
Langdon, Charles C, of Mobile ;* 1865-67. 
Lawler, Joab, of Talladega ; 1835-38. 
Lewis, Dixon H., of Lowndes ; 1829-44. 
Lyon, Francis S., of Marengo ; 1835-39. 
Mardis, Samuel W., of Shelby ; 1831-35. 
Martin, Joshua L., of Limestone ; 1835-39. 
McConnell, Felix G., of Talladega ; 1843-46, 
McKee, John, of Tuskaloosa ; 1823-29. 
McKinley, John, of Lauderdale ; 1833-35. 
Moore, Gabriel, of Madison ; 1822-29. 
Moore, Sydenham, of Greene ; 1867-61. 
Murphy, John, of Monroe ; 1833-35. 
Owen, George W., of Mobile ; 1823-29. 
Payne, William W., of Sumter ; 1843-47. 
PhiUips, PhiUp, of Mobile ; 1853-55. 
Pope, Burwell T., of St. Clair;* 1865-67. 
Pugh, James L., of Barbour; 1859-61. 
Sherrod, William C, of Lawrence ; 1869-71. 
Shields, Benjamin G., of Marengo ; 1841-43. 
Shorter, Eli Sims, of Barbour ; 1855-59. 
Sloss, Joseph H., of Colbert; 1871 — 
Smith, William R., of Tuskaloosa ; 1851-57. 
Stallworth, James A., of Conecuh ; 1857-61. 
Taylor, Joseph W., of Greene ; 1865-67. 
Turner, Benjamin S., of Dallas ;t 1871 — 
Walker, Percy, of MobUe ; 1855-57. 
White, Alexander, of Talladega ; 1851-53. 
Wiley, J, McCaleb, of Pike ;* 1866-67. 
Yancey, William L., of Coosa ; 1844-46. 


William L. Yancey of Montgomery ; February 22, 1861, to 
July 26, 1863. Elected by the Legislature. 

^^Qt admiited to » seat. fColored. 


aement Claiborne Clay of Madison ; Feb. 22, 1862, to ] 
22, 1864. Elected by the Legislature. 

Robert Jemison of Tnskaloosa ; July 26, 1863, to Mi 
1865. Elected by the Legislature. 

Bichard W. Walker, of Lauderdale ; February 22, 186^ 
March 1865. Elected by the Legislature. 


Chilton, William P., of Montgomery ;* 1861-^. 
Clopton, David, of Macon ; 1862-65. 
Cobb, Williamson R W., of Jackson ; 1864-64. 
Cooper, Thomas B., of Cherokee ; 1864r-65. 
Cruikshank, Marcus H., of TaUad^a ; 1864-65. 
Curry, Jabez L. M., of Tallad^a;* 1861-64. 
Davis, Nicholas, of Madison;* 1861-62. 
Dargan, Edmund 8., of Mobile ; 1862-64. 
Dickerson, James 8., of Clarke ; 1864-65. 
Feam, Thomas, of Madison ;* 1861-1861. 
Foster, Thomas J., of Lawrence ; 1862-65. 
Hale, Stephen F., of Greene ;* 1861-62. 
Jones, Henry Cox, of Lauderdale;* 1861-62. 
Lewis, David P., of Lawrence ;* 1861-61. 
Lyon, Francis 8., of Marengo ; 1862-65. 
McRae, Colin J., of Mobile;* lfc61-62. 
Pugh, James L., of Barbour ; 1862-65. 
Bobinson, Cornelius, of Lowndes ;* 1861-62. 
Balls, John P., of Cherokee ; 1862-64. 
Shorter, John Gill, of Barbour; 1861-62. 
Smith, Robert H., of Mobile ;t 1861-62. 
Smith, WiUiam R, of Tuskaloosa; 1862-65. 
Walker, Bichard W., of Lauderdale ;t 1861-62. 

•Member of the ProYidonal Ck>ngre88. 
fDelegate at large to the Provinonal Oongrees. 


The general aRsembly filled by election the office of secre- 
tary of state till 1868. The term is for two years. Henry 
Hitchcock of Washington was the first territorial secretary. 

Thomas A. Rodgers of Shelby ; 1819-22. . 

James Jay Pleasants of Madison ; 1822-24. 

James Innes Thornton of Madison ; 1824-34. 

Edmund A. Webster of Jackson ; 1834^36. 

Thomas B. Tunstall of Madison ; 1836-40. 

WiUiam Garrett of Calhoun ; 1840-52. 

Vincent M. Benham of Lauderdale ; 1852-56. 

James H. Weaver of Coosa ; 1856-60. 

[ In 1865, the acting governor, Lewis E. Parsons, appointed 
William Garrett of Coosa secretary of state, who shortly re- 
signed, and Albert Elmore of Montgomerj^ was appointed by 
Mr. Parsons.] 

D. L. Dalton of Lauderdale ; 1865-67. 
Micah Taul of TaUadega ; 1867-68. 

[ Charles A. Miller of the State of Maine was secretary of 
state by act of congress, 1868-70.] 
Jabez J. Parker of Monroe ; 1870. 

Stale Treasurers. 

This office was filled in the same manner as that of secre* 
tary of State, and the term was and is the same. 

Jack Ferrell Ross of Washington ; 1819-22. 

John C. Perry of Dallas ; 1822-29. 

Hardin Perkins of Tuskaloosa ; 1829-34. 

William Hawn of Tuskaloosa; 1834-40. 

Samuel Gordon Frierson of Tuskaloosa ; 1840-46. 

William Graham of Montgomery ; 1846-60. 

Ihincan B. Graham of M(mtgomerj' ; 1860-65. 

Li. p. Saxon of Coosa ; 1865-68. 

I Arthur Bingham of TaUadega became treasurer in 1868 
by the act of congress ; 1868-70] . 

James F. Grant of Calhoun ; 1870. 


State ComptrdUei'S (or Auditors). 

The length of term and mode of election was the same as 
that of the two preceding offices till 1868, when the term was 
extended to four years. Samuel Pickens of Washington was 
the territorial comptroller. 

Samuel Pickens of Washington ; 1819-29. 

George W. Crabb of Tuskaloosa ; 1829-36. 

Jeflferson C. VanDyke of Dallas ; 1836-48. 

Joel Biggs of Tuskaloosa ; 1848-55. 

William J. Greene of Jackson ; 1855-65. 

M. A. Chisholm of Montgomery ; 1865-68. 

[By authority of an act of congress of 1868, B. M. Bey- 
nolds became auditor] ; 1868. 

Superintendents of Ptihlic Instruction. 

This office was created in 1854, and the term of two years 
was filled by election by the general assembly till 1868. 

William F. Perry of Macon ; 1854-58. 

Gabriel B. duVal of Montgomery ; 1858-64. 

W. C. Allen of Montgomery ; 1864-65. 

John B. Taylor of Montgomery ; 1865-66. 

John B. Byan of Jackson ; 1866-68. 

[By act of congress of 1868, N. B. Cloud became superin- 
intendent, and filled the office till 1870]. 

Joseph Hodgson of Montgomery; 1870. 



1?here are sixty-five comities, which are noticed herein in 
the alphabetic order. One, Decatur, has been permanently 
abolished — an account of which is given in the chapter on 
J&ckson ; — and one, Baldwin, has been entirely rooted out of 
its original position. 

The following is a list of the counties, with the date of their 
organization, &c. : 


^tttaoga Prattville. 1818. .From Montgomery. 

' B«ker. , Olanton 1868. .From Autanga, Bibb, Perry and Shelby. 

Baldwin. Blakeley 1809.. Washington (and MobUe). 

^Mxmr Clayton 1882. .Pike and the Creek cession. 

Bibb GonterTille 1818. . Montgomery. 

Blonnt BkmntsTiUe 1818. .From the Cherokee cession. 

' BoUoek Union Springs. . . .1866. .Macon, Pike, Montgomery and Barbour. 

BotJer Oreenville 1818. .Conecnh and Monroe. 

^bonn Jacksonville 1883. . From the Creek and Cherokee cesoion. 

Chambers Lafayette 1832. .Flrom the Creek cession. 

Cherokee Center 1886. . Ftom the Cherokee cession. 

^octa. Bntler 1847.. Washington and Scmter. 

, ^Urke Grove Hill 1812.. Washington. 

^Uy Ashland 1866.. Talladega and Randolph. 

* ^^lebome Edwardsrille 1866 Oaihonn, Randolph and Talladega . 

' ^^Hbert Toscombia 1867. .Franklin. 

^^OfllBe. Elba 1841.. Dale and Covington. 

^necnh Evergreen 1818. . Monroe. 

^Vkma Bockford 1882. .Ftom the Creek cession. 

^^oviogton Andalnsia 1821.. Henry. 

' Crenshaw Rntledge 1865. . Bntler^ Pike,Lownde8,Montg'ry, Coffee . 

Xhle Ozark 1824. .Covington and Henry. 

DtUas Selma 1818. .Montgomery. 

DeKalb Lebanon 1886. .From the Cherokee cession. 

' Elmore Wetumpka 1866. .Coosa, Antanga, Montg*ry, Tallapoosa. 

Escambia Pollard 1868 . . Conecnh and Baldwin . 

•Stowa(orBaiDe) Gadsden 1866.. Cherokee, Calhoun, Marshall, DeKalb. 



Payetto Fayette C. H. . . .1824. .Marion, Pickens and Tnskaloosa. 

Franklin Frankfort 1818. .From the Chicasa cession. 

- Geneva Geneva 1868. .Dale, Coffee and Henry. 

Greene. Entaw 1619. .Marengo. 

. Hale Greenesboro 1867. .Greone, Perry, Murengo, Tnskaloosa. 

Henry Abbeville 1819 Coneonh. 

Jackson 8cottsboro.. .... 1819 . From the Cherokee cession 

Jefiferaon Elyton 1829. Blount. 

Laader^e Florence 1818. .From the Chicasa cession. 

Lawrence Monlton 1818. .From Chicasa and Cherokee cession. 

Lee Opelika 1866. .Macon, Tallapoosa, Bnssell, Ch&mbers. 

Limestone Athens 1818. .FroA the Chicasa cession. 

Lowndes Hayneville 1880. . Montgomery, Dallas and Bntler. 

Macon Tnskegee 1882. .From the Creek cession. 

Madison JSun tsvllle 1808 . . From the Cherokee cession. 

Marengo Linden 1818. .From the Chocta cession. 

Marion PikeviUe 1818.. Tnskaloosa. 

Marsh&U Gnntersville 1886 . . Jackson and the Cherokee cession. 

Monroe MonroeviUe .... .1815. .Washington and the Creek cession. 

Montgomery Montgomery islo. .Monroe. 

Morgan Somerville 1818. .From the Cherokee cession. 

Perry Marion 1619. .Marengo and Montgomery. 

Pickens Carrolton 1820.. Tnskaloosa. 

Pike Troy 1821.. Conecuh. 

Bandolph Wedowee 1882. .From the Creek cession- 

Bussell Scale 1882. .From the Creek cession. 

Sanford (or Jones)yemon 1867. .Marion and Fayette. 

Shelby Columbiana 1818. .Montgomery. 

St. Clair AshvUle 1818.. Shelby. 

Sumter Livingston 1882. .From the Chocta cession. 

Talladega Talladega 1882. .From the Creek cession. 

Tallapooea DadeviUe 1882. .From the Creek cession. 

Tnska.oosa.. Tnskaloosa. 1818. .Ftom the Chicasa and Chocta cession. 

Walker Jasper . 1824. .Tnskaloosa and Bloimt. 

Washington. St. Stephens. . . . 1800. .From the Chocta cession. 

Wilcox Camden 1819. .Monroe and Dallas. 

Wineton Houston 1860. .Walker. 



Autauga was established by an act of the territorial legisla- 
fare, passed November 21, 1818, and Hes in the centre of the 
State: The territory was taken from Montgomery cotmty. 

Its name is derived from the large creek which flows through 
its center, and is said to signify "land of plenty*' in the Indian 

It is bounded on the north by Baker, east by Elmore, south 
bf Lowndes, and west by Dallas. It has an area of about 
660 square miles. 

The wealth of the cotmty is assessed at $1,867,040, as fol- 
lows : real estate $1,403,300 ; personal property $463,740. 

The improved farm lands in 1870 amounted to 92,012 acres, 
the uninaproved to 146,686 acres; their cash value was 
$1,122,059, and the estimated value of the farm productions 
forl869 was $995,114. 

The Hve stock were valued at $369,056, and consisted of 
897 horses, 1,174 mules, 6,491 neat cattle, 1,677 sheep, and 
7,185 hogs. 

The productions were 191,158 bushels of Indian corn, 909 
bushels of wheajb, 5,568 bushels of oats, 38,814 bushels of pota- 
toes, 1,060 pound84>f rice, 25,542 pounds of butter, 7,965 bales* 
of cotton, 2,060 pounds of wool; while the value of animals 
slaughtered was $32,531. 

The population of Autauga since it was formed has been as 
follows — the large decrease since 1860 being attributable to 
tile loss of territory set apart to Elmore and Baker : 

1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 

Whites 2203 5867 6217 6274 7105 43^ 

Blacks 1650 6007 8125 8749 9634 7292 

The commercial facilities are the Alabama river, whose sin- 
uous course waters its southern boundary, and is navigable 
the greater portion of the year ; seven miles of the railway 
from Selma to Bome, and thirteen miles of the railway from 

*The census estimate is for a 400 lb. bale. 



Montgomery to Decatur. A branch railway is in process of 
construbtion to connect Prattville with the latter road. 

The lands of the county are generally light, with a clay sub- 
soil, and capable of the highest degree of fertilization ; but 
there are bottom and creek lands of great natural fertility. 

Prattville, the seat of justice since 1868, is fourteen miles 
northwest of Montgomery. It was named for its foimder, 
Hon. Daniel Pratt, and is a growing town of 1346 inhabitants, 
according to the census of 1870. It has two cotton factories^ 
a gin manufactory, a flouring mill, &c.. 

Washington, me first seat of justice, was situated at the 
mouth of Autauga creek, where stood the old Indian town of 
Autauga ; and it went to decay when the courthouse was re- 

Kingston, to which place the courthouse was taken, is now 
a small village. 

Autaugavme has about 500 inhabitants, and a cotton fao- 

The pine forests of the county are valuable for lumber, and 
a number of mills are in operation. 

Iron ore is abundant, and gold and plumbago have been 
found. The water power is very superior. 

The cotton factory in Prattville owned by Mr. Pratt has 
5,000 spindles and 125 looms, and works up 125 bales of cot- 
ton per month into sheeting, shirting, and osnaburgs. The 
Indian Hill factory, a mile distant, has 3,800 spindles and 70 
looms, and works up 50 bales of cotton per month into slieet- 
ing and shirting. Tiie estabUshment at Autauga\'ille has 2,088 
spindles and 64 looms, and makes sheeting and shirting. 

Autauga has but little eventful history. It was settled 
earlier than any of the counties aroimd it. The commission- 
ers appointed to select a site for the courthouse in 1819 were 
Robert Gaston, Zacheus Powell, Zachariah Pope, Alsey Pol- 
lard and Alexander R. Hutehinson. In 1866 a valuable por- 
tion of it was set apart to Elmore, and in 1868 another large 
portion was set apart to form Baker. 

The only governor of Alabama Territory, and the first 
governor of me State, lived and died in this coimt>'. Wil- 
liam Wyatt Bibb was bom in Amelia coun^, Vii^jinia, 
October 2, 1781. His father. Captain William Bibb, w^as a 
colonial officer in '76, and subsequently served in the Yit-- 

f'nia legislature. His mother was a Miss Wyatt of New 
ent coimty. The family settled in Elbert coimty, Georgia, 
where the Ifather died in 1796, leaving a widow and eight 
young children, of whom William was the eldest. Educated 
at WiUiam and Mary College, he located as a physician in 
Petersburg, Georgia. At the age of 21 years he was chosen 
to the legislature and served four years, when he was elected 


io congress though barely eligible in age. He served in the 
representative branch from 1806 to 1813, when he was trans- 
ferred to the senate. At one time he lacked but few votes of 
being elected speaker while serving in the lower house. In 
November 1816 he was defeated for re-election to the federal 
senate by Hon. George M. Troup, which so mortified Dr. Bibb 
that he at once resigned, though his term did not expire till 
March following. But he was called from retirement a few 
months later by President Monroe, who appointed him gov- 
ernor of the newly-formed Territory of Alabama. B.epairing 
at once (April 1817) to St. Stephens, he entered on his new 
duties. It may be presumed mat the people were pleased 
with his admimstration, in the absence of any thin^ to the 
contrary, and from the fact that, anticipating admission as a 
State into the Union, they elected him the first governor in 
1819. His competitor was Hon. Marmaduke Williams of 
Tuskaloosa, and the vote stood, Bibb 8342, Williams 7140. 
November 9, 1819, he was inaugurated governor in Huntsville. 
But he survived the honor only a few months, his death occur- 
ring at his home near Coosada, in this county, July 1820, in 
his 39th year. The name and fame of Gov. Bibb—thus cut 
off in the flower of his manhood — are preserved in the name 
of a county in Geoma and one in this State. He was of 
medium size, spare ngure, intellectual cast of features, and 
dignified but easy bearing. By his uniform courtesy and 
kindness he won the respect of all classes. Eariy in me he 
married a daughter of Col. Holman Freeman of Wilkes comi- 
ty, Georgia, and left a son and daughter ; the latter the wife 
of Hon. Alfred V. Scott of Montgomery. Five of his brothers 
became citizens of the State, one of whom succeeded him as 
governor, and another is Hon. B. S. Bibb of Montgomery, 

John Abgheb Elmore was also an early settler of this 
county. He was a native of Virginia, and a soldier in the 
colonial struggle of 1776. After a residence of many ye9rs in 
Laurens District, South Carolina, during which he was often 
a member of the legislature, he became a citizen of Autauga 
in 1819. He represented the county cmce in the house of 
representatives, and died in 1834. His character for candor, 

food sense and sociability are yet remembered in the county. 
[e left a large number of descendants. By his first wife, a 
Miss Saxon, he had two sons : Hon. Franklin ti., who remained 
in South CaroUna, and succeeded Mr. CaLhoim in the federal 
senate ; and Benjamin F., who became treasurer of South Car- 
olina. By his second wife, a sister of Hon. Abram Martin 
of Mon^omery, he had five sons, viz : John A., of Montgom- ; 
ery ; William A., an eminent lawyer of New Orleans ; Bush, ' 
long a practicing attorney in Montgomery ; Henry, at one time 


judge of the probate court of Macon county, now in Texas; 
ana Albert, of Montgomery, secretary of state in 1865, aad 
collector of customs at Mobile under President Johnson. A 
daughter by this second marriage wedded Hon. Benj. Fitz-. 
patnck ; another married Hon. Dixon H. Lewis of Lowndes. 

The life and services of Benjamin Fitzpatrick were blended 
with the annals of Autauga, but an acootmt of him will be 
found under the head of Elmore, as he resided in the portion 
of Autauga set apart to that county. So with Seth P. otokbs. 

EoBERT Broadnax, another early settler, came from Han- 
cock county, Georgia. Ho was quite popular, and of a prac- 
tical mind. He freauentiy served the county in the lower 
house, and in 1834 defeated Hon. Wm. R. Pickett for a seat 
in the senate. He removed soon after to the southern part 
of the State, and represented Clarke, Monroe and Balawin 
in the senate in 1H63-4. The misfortunes of his State caused 
him to remove to Brazil in 1867, and he was in destitute oir- 
cumstance^ there at last accounts. 

William Raiford Pickett, came to this coimty as early as 
1818. He was a native of North Carolina, and was honored 
by his native coimty of Anson with several official trusts. He 
became a merchant and planter in this county, and served it 
in both branches of the general assembly. T?hrice he was on 
the presidential electoral ticket of his party. He died in i860, 
aged 73 years, leaving an enviable reputation for honor, ben- 
evolence, intelligence and sociability. He had a dau^ter 
who married Gen, Moseley Baker of Montgomery, who died 
in Texas about the year 1855. Hon. Wm. D. Pickett and 
Col. A. J. Pickett of Montgomery were his sons. 

Dixon Hatj. was a prominent citizen of Autauga for some 
years, representing it m both houses of the general assembly. 
Ho was a native of Georgia, and his family wore among the 
first settlors of the county. His father also represented the 
county in the legislature. Ho was a cousin of Hon. Dixon H. 
Lewis, and was of commanding figure and fair abilities. He 
removed to Texas about tho year 1843, and died there some 

twelve years later. 


Crawford M. Jackson was a native, and for many years a 
leading citizen and planter of the coimty. He was tne son 
of Hon. James Jackson, who came from Wilkes county, Ga., 
to Autauga in 1818, and represented it in the convention that 
framed the constitution of the State, and in the senate. Gten. 
Jackson was an officer of the militia, and several times a mem- 
ber of the house of representatives, sei^ving as speaker of the 


body in 1857. He died February 27, 1860, aced about foriy 
years. He was a popular and cultivated gentifeman. 

Daniel Pratp is another distinguished citizen of the county. 
He was bom in Temple, New Hampshire, July 20, 1799. His 
father was a farmer, of limited means, and he failed to obtain 
an education that might be called such. At the age of 16 
years he was apprenticed to the trade of a carpenter, and 
served out the mdenture of five years. His time being out, 
he came to the South, and labored at his trade for fourteen 
years in Oeorgia, mainly in Savannah, Milledgeville, and Ma- 
con. In 1827 he married Miss Esther Ticknor of Jones coun- 
ty, Georgia. He came to this State in 1833, with the inten- 
tion of putting up a factory for making gins in Montgomery, 
at which business he had labored in Greorgia to some extent 
Disappointed, however, in getting lumber to put up buUdings 
he came into this county, and constructed a number of gins 
on Gen. Elmore's plantation. He then settled on Autauga 
creek, leased the water power at McNeil's mill for $125 a year,. 
and engaged extensively^ in the business of making gins. In 
1840 he removed two miles further up the creek, and laid the 
foundation of Prattville. He rebuilt here his cotton factory 
and sin factory, and in 1860 the latter had reached the capa- 
city for makinff, and that year did make, 1500 gins. He ad- 
ded a flour mill, a wool factory, an iron foundry, a sash and 
blind factory, a lumber mill, &c., &c. These labors did not 
escape tjje ^ye of the pubHc, and in 1847 the State University 
conferred on him the degree of Master of Mechanical and 
Useful Arts as "a token of respect and honor felt by the trus- 
**tee8, in common with reflecting men in every station, for that 
*liigh d^pree of intelligence, benevolence, uprightness, and 
"success which you have exercised and displayed,' as the letter 
of President Manly expressed it. Though ever attaching due 
importance topublic measures, Mr. Pratt has had littie leisure 
to take an active part in politics ; yet he was the candidate 
of his pariy for the state senate from Montgomery and Autauga 
in 1855, and was defeated. From 1861 to 1865 he represented 
the county in the lower house of the legislature. In personal 
appearance he is above ordinary heighth and size, straight and 
well built, with a roman nose and blue eyes. The State has 
. fostered tiie genius of many, but Mr. Pratt has nourished the 
resources of the State. As a practical utilitarian, he has had 
no rival in Alabama, and but few anywhere. "He has at- 
"tained, in an eminent degree, that which is the end of all let- 
**ters and all study : the art of making men around him wiser, 
"better and happier. He has shown in a substantial manner 
"that he values, and knows how to promote, the industrial and 
"economical virtues among men, rendering his own intelligence 




and honesty a blessing to all that come within the q>here of 
his influence."* It may be added that Mr. Pratt is amiost as 

well known for his piety, integrity, and hospitality, as for his 

energy and enterprise. 

The late Henly Brown came to Autauga in 1819. He was 
judge of the county and probate courts from 1833 to 1862, a 
period of twenty-nine years, and it is to the credit of the peo- 
ple of Autauga that when ihey foimd that they had in Jud^e 
Brown a faithful official — capable and honest — ^they knew his 
value, and how and where to keep him. He died in 1869 in 
this couniy. 

James Jackson represented the couniy in the constitutional 
convention of 1819 ; Gteoi^e Rives, sr., in that of 1861 ; and 
Beniamin Fitzpatrick in that of 1865, over which he presided. 

Tne following is a list of the members of the general assem- 
bly from the couniy : 


1819— Howell Rose. 1844— Sampson W. HarriB. 

] 822— Dunklin HoUiTan . ] 847— Seth P. Storrs. 

1825— James Jackson. 1849— Seth P. Htorrs. 

1828— William B. Pickett. 1853— Thomas H. Watts. 

1831— William B. Pickett. 186.5 -Adam C. Felder. 

1834— Bobert Broadnax. 1857— Adam G. Felder. 

1837— Samael 8. Simmons. 1861— Samnel F. Bioe. 

1840— Dixon Hall. 1865— Adam 0. Felder. 

1843— William L. Yancey. [No election in 1867 or since.] 


1819— P. Fitzpatrick, 0. A. Dennis. 1838— Dixon Hall, jr., J. W. Witheis, 
1820— PhillipR Fitzpatrick, J. Jackson. Thomas Hogg. 

1821— W. B. Pickett, Jno. A.Elmore. 1839— Dixon Hall, John WitheiB. 

1822— Phillips Fitzpatrick. 1840— Beuj. Davis, Absolom Doetor. 

]g23— William B. Pickett. 1841— John Steele, Wm. L. Horgan. 

1824— William B. Pickett. 1 842— John Mitchell, Wm. L. Moq[Mi. 

1 825— Bobert Broadnax, John McNeil . 1 84.3 — J . Steele, Crawford M. Jaclnon. 

1826— Bobert Broadnax, Eli Torry. 1844— John Steele, C. M. Jaolnon. 

1827— Bobert Broadnax, Eli Terry. 1845— John Steele, 0. M. Jaokaon. 

1^28— Bobert Broadnax, Bogers. 1847 — John Wood, C. M. Jackson. 

1829— Bobert Broadnax, Wm. Hester. 1849— John Wood, Boiling H&U. 

1830— B. Broadnax, Dixon Hall, sr. 1851— C. C. Howard, Boiling H»1L 

1831— Bobert Broadnax, Dixon Hall. 1853— rolling Hall. 

18:)2 — B. Broadnax, S . S. Simmons. 1855— Crawford M. Jackson . 

jfj33_Dixon Hall, jr., S. S. Simmons. 1857 — Crawford M. Jackson. 

1834— W.Bnrt, S.S.Simmons, J. B. 1859— A. C. Taylor. 

Bobinson. 1860 — Daniel Pratt, (to fill Tacaney.) 

1835— Dixon Hall, jr., S. S.Simmons, 1861— Daniel Pratt 

Bejamin DaviH. 1863 — L. Howard. 

1836— John P. Dejarnette, S. 8. Sim- 1865— Charles S. G. Doster. 

mons, Benjamin Da viit, 1867— [No election.] 

1837— John P. Dejarnette, Wm.Burt, 1870— Charles S. G. Doster. 

T. W. Brevard. 

•Bev. Basil Manly, D. D., of Tnskaloosa. 



Baker was created from portions of Autaiiga, Shelby, 
Bibb, and Perry, by an act approved December 30, 1868. It 
was named for Mr. Alfred B Aer, a resident of the portion 
taken from Autauga. 

It lies in the centre of the State, and is west of Coosa, 
north of Autauga, south of Shelby, and east of Bibb and Perry. 

It has an area of about 700 square miles. 

The assessed value of real estate is $312,023 ; of personalty 
$76,121; total $388,124. 

The improved fann lands in 1870 embraced 31,852 acres, 
the unimproved 117,136 acres ; and the cash value was $284,- 
378 ; while the estimated value of the productions of the farms 
in 1869 was $349,687. 

The live stock in the cotmty was valued at $237,442, and 
consisted of 1008 horses, 295 mules, 7348 neat cattle, 4767 
sheep, and 9171 hogs. 

The productions of the cotmty m 1869 were 131,311 bushels 
of Indian com, 11,728 bushels of wheat, 6238 bushels of oats, 
29,996 bushels of potatoes, 709 pounds of rice, 46,293 pounds 
of butter, 1360 bales of cotton, 7634 pounds of wool, and 
3256 pounds of tobacco ; and tiie value of the slaughtered 
animals was $53,483. 

The population of the county in 1870 was 5057 whites and 
1137 blacks. 

There are forty-four and a half miles of railroad in the 
coimty ; thiriy-two miles of the road from Montgomery to 
Decatur, and twelve and a half miles of the Selma & Rome 
Bailroad. The Coosa river is the eastern boundary line, but 
is not yet made navigable. 

Clanton, the seat of justice, is a village on the railroad 
which has sprung up witnin the past two years, and now has 
about 200 mhabitants. It is named to honor the late Gen. 
James H. Clanton of Montgomery. There are no towns in 

The extensive pine forests of the county are a source of 



wealth, for there are mimerous himber mills, and the trade is 
usually active. The yellow-heart pine of this region is noted 
for strength of texture, and inip(^rviousnes8 to moisture. 

Iron ore is found in consideral^le quantity, and a gold mine 
on Blue creek was worke;d at one time. 

Marble, copjxjr, and plumbago also exist. 

The profile of the county is undulatiag, Jind tlie soil gen- 
erally light. 

Baker has no history, and us yet is not entitled to separate 
representation in the general assembly. 



Baldwin was originally carved out of Washington by an 
act of the Mississippi Territorial legislature, dated December 
21, 1809. As then organized, it lay west of the Tombikbee 
(except a portion of the lower part of the "fork") ; south of 
the 5th township line, north of the parallel 31"^, and east of 
the boundary liae of Mississippi ; and the courthouse was at 
Mcintosh's Bluff. By an act of the fii-st legislature of the 
State all the country south of Little river, as ffir east as the 
line between ranges seven and eight, and nortli of the parallel 
31** was added. By an act of December 14, 1820, the portion 
of the country lying west of the Tombikbee, Mobile, and Ala- 
bama rivers was divided bet^veen the counties of Washington, 
Mobile, and Monroe ; while all that part of Mobile county 
east of the bay was added to Bakhvin. And tliis has since 
been its area, except the portion set apart to Escambia in 

It was named to honor Abraham Baldwin,* the Georgia 

Its area is over 1600 square miles, which makes it larger 
than the State of Rhode Island, and the lai-gest county in the 

*Abbahah Baij>win was born in Connecticut in 1754. He came to Georgia 
at the age of 28 years, and represented the State in the convention tbat 
framed the federal constitution. From 1789 to 18U7, when he died, ho served 
in the federal congress, and is buried in Washington. He was the founder 
of the University of Georgia. 


In 1870 Baldwin had 4919 acres of improved, and 78,232 
acres^of unimproved farm lands; having a cash valui^ of 
$140,550 ; and an estimated value of the farm productions in 
1869 of $81,210. 

The Uve stock of the county was valued at $124,137 in 
1870, and consisted of 374 hoi^ses and mules, 8091 neat cattle, 
3724 sheep, and 2745 hogs. 

The productions in 1869 were 31,025 bushels of Indijin 
com, 19,428 bushels of potatoes, 2500 pounds of rice, 2906 
gallons of molasses, 4870 poimds of butter, 87 bales of cotton, 
9864 pounds of wool. 

The population is thus exhibited : 

1810 J820 1830 1840 1850 18G0 1870 

Whites 6()7 651 965 1161 2100 3685 3159 

Blacka 760 1062 1359 1790 230tt 3854 2845 

Tlie commercial facilities of the county are excellent. The 
Mol)ile, Perdido, Alabama, and Tensa Rivers and Mobile Bay 
afford an extensive water front ; and the Mobile <fe Mont- 
gomerj' Railroad traverses it obliquely from east to west. 

Blakeley, the scat of justice, is a small Aillage, laid out in 
1814, incorporated in 1820, when the courthouse was erected 
here, and named for its founder, Josiah Bfakeley. It was 
made a port of entrj' in 1820, and for several years threatened 
to eclipse Mobile in trade and growth. I)uring the war 
between the States it was fortified oy the Confederates, and 
sustained a memorable siege in April 1865, an account of 
which is given below. 

Stockton and Montgomciy Hill are small \illages. 

The shore of the bay is dotted with cottages and hotels, 
nse^ by many as a summer resort. 

The county is a vast pine forest, with numerous himber 
mills. It exports more lumber than any other county in the 

The surface Ls undulating or flat, and the soil light; sus- 
ceptible, however, of being fertilized. There is much over- 
flowed and swamp land, which could be utilized at no great 

Baldwin has an eventful histoi-y. The armies of Bienville, 
Galves, Packenham, Jackson, Weatherford, and Canby have 
bivouacked on her soil. 

In the northern part of the county, a mile east of the Ala- 
bama river, two milos below the "cut off, " as Nannahubbee 
river is generally called, and near the present village of Mont- 
gomery HUl, occurred the most shocking massacre ever com- 
mitted by the Indians wthin the limits of the United States. 
The savages, highly incensed at the attack made on them at 


Burnt Com, July 27, 1813, resolved to avenge themselves on 
the Tensa and Tombikbee settlers. About 1000 warriors 
assembled from the different towns on the Coosa and Talla- 
poosa, and took a southwestward path, led by Peter McQueen, 
Josiah Francis, and William Weatherford. The settlers east 
of the Alabama, many of whom were half-breeds, had built 
a stockade around the dwelling of David Mims, and, in view 
of the war which had begun, had crowded into it witii their 
famiUes, slaves, and personal effects. ]!Vlien Gen. Claiborne 
reached Mount Vernon, he sent 190 Mississippi volunteers to 
the place, with orders to their commander. Major Daniel 
Beasley, to strengthen ii This was done, and the stockade 
was made to enclose about an acre ,of ground ; but the gar- 
rison was greatlj weakened by detachments sent off to man 
two or three neighboring defences. The settlers within Fort 
Mims, however, organized themselves into a companv of about 
70 men, under Captain Dixon Bailey, 'a half-breed native of 
Autossee, who had been educated in Philadelphia. The dis- 
tance to the Indian towns, and the repetition of false alarms, 
lulled the inmates of the stockade into a dream of security. 
A negro who had been captured b^ the advancing foe on tiie 
plantation of Mr. Zachariah McQirth, just below the present 
town of Claiborne, escaped, and brought the news of their 
approach ; but within a day or two the story was discredited, 
for the scouts brought no such information. August 29, two 
young negro men, who were herding cattle near the fort, 
rushed into it, and told a breathless tale of twenty-four painted 
warriors whom they had counted. A detachment of mounted 
men were at once sent to the spot, with the negi'oes as guides ; 
but no signs of the stealthy enemy were visible. One of the 
negroes was flogged for spreading a false alarm; but the 
owner of the other, a Mr. Fletcher, refused to permit his slave 
to be so served, because he beUeved his report; whereupon 
Major Beasley ordered him to leave the stockade with his 
family and effects by the next morning at ten o'clock. The 
other negro that bad been flogged was sent out again the next 
morning to attend the stock, and again saw a body of Indians ; 
but, bemg afraid to carry the report to the fort, fled to Fort 
Pierce, two miles distant "In the meantime, Fletcher*8 
"negro, by the reluctant consent of his master, was tied up, 
" and the lash about to be appUed to his back ; the officers 
"were preparing to dine; the soldiers were reposing on the 
" ground ; some of the settlers were playing cards ; the ai]B 
"and young men were dancing; while a hundred thoughuess 
" and happy children sported nrom door to door and from tent 
"to tent. At that awful moment, 1000 Creek warriors, 
" extended flat upon the ground, in a thick ravine, 400 yards 


''from the eastern gate, thirsted for American bloocL No 
''eyes saw iliem but those of the chirping and innocent birds 
"abOTe ihem. The mid-day son sometimes flashed through 
"the thick foliage, and gleamed upon their y^Uow skins, but 
" quicklj withdrew, as if afraid to longer contemplate the mur- 
derous horde. There lay the prophets, covered with feathers, 
with black faces, resembling those monsters which partake 
of both beast and bird. Beside them lay curious medicine- 
"bacsand rods of magic. The whole ravine was covered 
"witn painted and naked savages, completely armed. The 
"hour of 12 o'clock Arrived, and the dram bleat the officers 
"and soldiers of the garrison to dinner. Then, by one simul- 
" taneous bound, the ravine was relieved of its savage burden, 
"and soon the field resounded with the rapid tread of the 
bloody warriors."* Not a soldier was at his post, and the 
sudden approach of the dreaded enemy created the completest 
disorder. Major Beasley rushed to the half-open eastern 

Sbte, sword in hand, to dose it ; but the savages met him 
ere, struck him down, and poured into that portion of the 
fort which was divided from tne main portion by an interior 
line of stockade. Other bodies of them took possession of 
tiie portholes on other sides of the fort before the soldiers got 
to them, and began a destructive fire upon the inmates. But 
Captains Bailey, Middleton, and Jack, Lieutenant Bandon, 
ana James ana Daniel Bailey, soon got their men behind the 
TOoketsor in the bastions and buildings, and opened a spirited 
fire. The conflict now raged with great intensity, and the 
fiercest passions of the combatants were at their deadly work. 
The women and boys within the fort exerted themselves, the 
former in bringing water and ammunition, and the latter in 
fightiTig courageously. But the clearing was covered with 
the savages, wnose ear-piercing yells and exultant shouts 
added terror to tlie scene. 

** Snoh a din was there, 
As if men fought on ear& below 
And fiends in apper air." 

Capt Bailey cheered the defenders with his voice, and by his 
heroic conduct. He tried to induce some one to ruiah ilirough 
the lines to get succor from Fort Pierce, but none would ^o ; 
and, when he was about to start, the people prevented hun. 
The prophets cheered their people by frantic gesticulations, 
and wild songs and dances. Several of them were killed, 
which discouraged the warriors, who were taught that the 
balls of the whites would strike harmlessly upon them. The 
outer work on the eastern side was now in undisputed pos- 

*Thi8 extract is from CoL Pickett's aocoont of the massacre, obtained 
from eye witnesses, and from which we glean the principal part of this ii^or- 


session of the savages, and about 3 o'clock they began* to 
plunder it, and carry off the movables to a house in the clear- 
ing. This movement, and consequent decrease in the fury of 
the assault, was perceived quickly by Weatherford, who, 
mounted on a splendid black steed, overtook the Indians, and 
urged them to renewed exertions. The whites continued to 
fight desperately, and many feats of valor were achieved. 
Some ascended to the garret of Mims' dwelling, in the centre 
of the enclosure, knocked off the shingles; and opened a deadly 
fire from it. The assailants had now killed or driven the 
whites out of the guard-house, and from the eastern, northern 
and western sidesr of the stockade. They then penetrated the 
enclosuie, and set fire to Mims' house, and other buildings, 
amid the shrieks of the surviving women and children, some 
of whom wore caught and tomaiawked while they were fly- 
ing for shelter to the only remaining defense. This was the 
"bastion" on the south side, which Bailey and his brave 
band had defended with such superhuman valor. Tliis spot 
became crowded with the wounded and dying, with men^ 
women, iind children, and offered an unending mark for the 
bullets of the foeman. 

** The Mild confnsion and the crimson glow 
Of flames on high, and doath-moans from below ; 
The shriek of terror, and the mingling yell. 
Flung o'er that spot of Earth the air of Hell." 

The flames at length reached the bastion, and the brave Dixon 
Bailey called out that all was lost, and besought those who 
could to save themselves by flight. But few could do this, 
for tlie savages now burst in upon the survivors, and butehered 
them regardless of age or sex. Women, children, the wounded, 
and sick, either perished in the flames, or under the tomahawk ; 
and theii* warm and diipphig scalps were thrust into tlie helis 
of the merciless Creek. W omen groat with child were ripped 
open while yet living, and childi'en were taken by the feet and 
their brains dashed out agauist the pickets. None but a few 
half-breeds were spared. Of 553 souls who slept the night 
before in conscious securily, not fifty were idive wnen the sun 
went down, and veiled in darkness the smoking niins.* Five 
hundred ghastly human bodies, besides 200 of the murderous 
assailants, lay around the smouldering fires, as the result of 
the bloody day. Wyoming, so famed in song and story, pre- 

*0f the survivors, who broke throu^ and escaped. Dr. Thomas 6. Holmes 
and Mr. Jesse Steadham of Baldwin, Feter Randon^ who removed to Louis- 
iana, W. R. Chambliss and Joseph Perry of Mississippi ; Martin Rigdon, 

Josiah Fletcher, Jones, Sergeant Matnews, John Hoven, Samuel Smith, 

Mourrice, Edward Steadham, a negro woman name Hester, an Indian 

name Socca, are said to be all. The half-breed family of Zachariah McGirth 
waR saved by a friend amopg the assailants. 


sented not a scene half ho bloody.* But the rough sands of 
Baldwin drank the blood of the slain, tliere by tlie litfle lake 
of Tensa, and neither homeric strain nor sculptured marble 
tells of the most thrilliDg and nti-ocions episode in American 
pioneer history. 

September l5, 1814, a force of 730 British and Indians, and 
four men-of-war, under Col. Nichpls, from Pensacola, invested 
Fort Bowyer, on the extreme s^mthera point of the coimty. 
It was defended bv 130 men under Major Lawrence. A fierce 
cannonade from tfie ships and a land battery was replied to 
witti spirit by tlie garrison, and within two hours the enemy 
were driven off ^dth the destruction of his flag-ship, the 
Hermes^ which, being di.sabled by the fire of the fort, was 
burned by her crew. The loss of the British was 232 men 
killed and wounded ; that of the ganison was four killed and 
four wounded. Early in Ft^bruary, following, the British 
army and fleet of the ill-fated Packenh am, returning fi-om the 
bloody repulse on the plain of New Orleans, invested Fort 
Bowyer. Thirty-eight war vessels wei-e drawn up in line of 
battle, and 5000 men were landed on the shore. Seeing these 
preparations for the reduction of the fort. Major Lawrence 
surrendered it, with 360 men, Februarj' 12. Peace had been 
already declared, and the enemy held the place only a few 

The same localitj'' became still more historic during the 
war between the States. Fort Morgan, occupying the site of 
Fort Bowyer, was taken possession of by the troops of the 
State a few days before tlie ordinance of s^^cession was pa^ised, 
and was garrisoned by about 550 men, and 60 guns, Brigadier- 
General Paget commanding. On tlie point of Daupliin Island, 
four miles distant, stands Fort Gaines, also with a Confederate 
garrison at that time. August 5, 1864, a force of fourteen 
ships of war stood in to pass the forts and get into the bay. 
Both forts opened upon them, and they replied with vigor. 
The Tecitmseh, being in the lead, was simk by a torpedo, and 
her crew of 120 souls were entombed Tvdth her. The other 
vesselspassed in safety. Fort Gaines surrendered on the 
8th. The day after, 3000 federal troops, under General 
Granger, disembarked on the shore in rear of Fort. Moi^an. 
Begular approaches were made by this force, and a siege- 
train of forty-one pieces placed in position. " At dayliglit on 
the 22d, a gun from a rfionitor gave the signal for a general 
bombardment. At 9 A. M., the whole fleet was in line of 

'About 250 men were killed at Wyoming, and no women and children ; 
for the savages there killed hut one man beside those captnred in the fight . 

fThis brave o£Scer was a Virginian, who had been edacated in the naval 
ftcadeqiy {it Annapolis. 



battle, and the firing continued with unabated fury. From 
7 to 9 P. M., it was slow and irregular ; but at half-past 9^ 
P. M., a fire was discovered breaking out in the fori, 
and the firing was then intensely renewed to prevent 
extinguishment. Six or eight shells could be coimted in 
the au: at once ; and every shot appeared to take effect. 
Nor in the midst of this destructive shower was the garrison 
moved by any weak fears. When the fire broke out they 
exposed themselves to extinguish it, and threw 90,000 pounclB 
of powder into the cisterns. Between forty and fifty had 
been killed or wounded. One man had been blown ei^ty 
feet into the air by the explosion of a shell. The interior of 
the fort had become a mass of smouldering ruins ; there 
was not a space five feet square which had not been defaced 
by sliells. Many of the guns had been shattered into pieces 
by soUd shot and shells. The garrison did not reply to the 
fleet during the bombardment. They attempted, however, 
to use some of their guns on the land batteries, but were pre- 
vented by sharpshooters. Their own sharpshooters were 
somewhat troublesome to the beseigers ; out the latter 
during the operations had only five men wounded. The 
firing continued at intervals au night, and at six, A. M., a 
white flag appeared on the parapet of the fort, and the gar- 
rison was formally siurendered at half-past two, P. M."* 
There wujb no attempt to gain a further foothold on the 
coast till the March (1865) following. Then, Maj. Gren. Canbv 
landed at Fort Morgan with 32,200 effective troops. Marcn 
17, this formidable force moved up tiie eastern shore of the 
bay to attack the confederate defences opposite Mobile. On 
the 27th, after skirmishing with the confederate cavalry on 
the route, they formallv invested Spanish Fort. This was the 
name given to the worK on Conway river, an ana of the Tensa, 
in this couniy, seven miles due east of Mobile ciiy. Around 
the two forts, Old Spanish and McDermott, was a semi-circular 
line of earthworks, nearly two miles in length, resting on the 
water, or rather on the morass, at either end. The garrison 
at the beginning of the siege, and for five days thereafter, 
consisted of about 3,400 men, comprising Gibson's brigade of 
Louisianians, Ector's brigade (two regiments) of North Caro- 
linians and Texans, and Thomas' brigade of Alabama reserves. 
The latter were reheved, April 1, by Holtzclaw's brigade of 
Alabamians, who came by water from Blakeley ; and tne gar- 
rison, thus constituted, numbered 2,321 infantry and 506 artil<« 
lery ;t the whole under Brig. Gten. Bandall L. (jibson. Span-> 

*<* Campaign of Mobile: " Major-General Andrews, U. 8. YoUnteen. 

fThia was the strength the 7th of April : Gibson's brigade 674 ; Ector's 
669 ; Holtzclaw's 968 : artillery 506. Total 2,627. Nmnber of small arms, 


iah Fort had been constrncted to protect batteries Huper and 
Tracy, respectivelj, one and a hall and two miles in.the rear, 
on the low islands. They had been placed ihere to obstruct 
the ascent of the river. The day after the investment by 
land, a number of iron-clad steamers moved up the river in 
rear of the defences, but their operations were cniefly confined 
to aheUing Huger and Tracv. During the siege three of them 
were sunk by torpedoes — the MUtoaukeef ihe Osage, and the 
Bodclph. llll the evening of the last dav, the operations on 
^ore were confined to urtillery firing and sharp-shooting, en- 
livened by several petty dashes in the nature of a sortie. 
The two former were almost incessant, and taxed the courage 
and^ endurance of the garrison to the full limit April 4, a 
terrific bombardment, from seventy pieces of artillery, lasted 
for two hours, and the earth seemed to reel imder the sound ; 
but the garrison did not reply. B;^ the last day of the siege 
the assailants had ninety guns teamed on the devoted fort— 
fifty-three of which were siege cruns and thirty-seven were 
field pieces. Throughout the m^t the huge missiles of death 
traversed ihe air witn fiery wings, poised a moment over the 
silent defences, then swooped upon their human quarry with 
angiy and stunning roar. Day by day, too, the besiegers 
crept closer to their prey, as parallel after parallel was opened, 
and the sharp crack of tiie small arms grew nearer and dead- 
lier. At sunset, on the .evening of the 8th, an assault was 
made on the left of the confederate line, and, after a fierce 
grapple with Ector's veterans, overpowered them, and effected 
a lodgment within the works. They were too strong to be 
driven out, though the attempt was made. The confederates 
evacuated the works the same night, by passing over a plank 
foot-bridge, two feet in width, and about two miles in length, 
which had been laid over the marshes from the fort to the 
river opposite battery Tracy. Here they found transportation 
deficient, and at midnight about 1000 took up the line of march 
over the morass to Blakeley. The distance was five miles, 
and the men were often waist-deep in mud and water ; but 
they arrived safely at iheir point of destination, and the whole 
garrison that left the fort reached Mobile in safety. A num- 
ber were captured in the assault, and others were left by acci- 
dent Such, in brief, is the story of Spanish Fort, and its 
heroic defence for thirteen days. 

While the main body was mus engaged, a column of \ 3,200 
men, imder Major OeneraJ F. Steele, moved out of Pensacola, 
March 20, and took the road to Pollard. After some skirm- 
ishing, and especially a spirited affair with two regiments of 
Alabama cavairv at Iblun Springs, the advance guard reached 
Pollard on ihe 26ih. After burning the public property and 


tearing up the railway track for 1000 yards, Steele turned the 
head of .nis column towards Blakeley. The fortifications of 
this place were an irregular line of works, stretching along 
the river for three miles, and with the ends resting on the 
morass near the rivei"^. Nine well-built lunettes added much 
strength, and two or three lines of alnitis were some distance 
in front. The garrison consisted of t\^^o skeleton brigades of 
Missourians and Mississippians under Gutes and Barry, both 
commanded by Gen. CoctreU, and a brigade of Alabama re- 
serves under Gen. Thomas ; making a total of about 3500 men ; 
the whole under Brig. Gen. 8t. John R. Lidell. The column 
of Gen. Steele arrived before the place April 1, and the in- 
vestment was complete the following day. Reinforced by 
two divisions of Canby's immediate force before Spanish Fort, 
the assailants now numbered about 25,000 effective men — one 
division of whom were negroes. But their supply of artillery 
was limited till towards the close of the operations. An active 
and unremittent musketry fire, however, replied to the fierce 
cannonading of the garrison, and of the three gunboats — ^the 
Nash mile, Hnnfsvilk, and Morgan — lying in the river. The 
besiegers exliibited striking activity in advancing their trenches 
and the labors of every night invariably brought them within 
shorter range for the duties of the succeeding day. The gar- 
rison were equally spirited, and two or three gallant sorties 
were made ; while theii* incessant . volleys were unusually 
effectual. Tlie operations progressed niore rapidly than those 
at Spanish Fort, and, on the evening of tlio 9th, the whole 
federal force swept forward in one dense but extended mass 
to the assault of the works. Fully 1 6,000 men, in line of 
battle, three miles in length, moved like a blue billow over 
the level ground, and dashed resistlessly over the frail defen- 
ces. They were met by a leaden hail from men whose hearts 
quailed not even in an hour so feai-ful. But further resistance 
was futile, and the heroic garrison was captured, as their com- 
rades at Appomatox had been a few hours before, by over- 
whehning numbers. 

Batteries Huger and Tracy were evacuated April 11, and 
the purple tide of war ebbed from the shores of Baldwin. 

The loss of the federal forces in the reduction of these de- 
fences was fifteen himdred men killed and woimded. The loss 
of the confederates was about four hundred killed and woimd- 
ed, and about four thousand prisoners. 

Thomas B. Tunstall died in this coimty, Aug. 13, 1842, at 
the age of 54 years. He was a native of Fittsylvania county, 
Virginia, but resided for many years in this county and ui. 
Madison. He was often clerk of one branch or the other oC 
the general assembly of the State, and was secretary of Stat 



1836 to 1840. He was clerk of the house of representa- 
in 1840 and '41. He has many relatives yet living in 
md adjoining counties. 

HN G. Aiken who died a few yeai-s ago, after a long resi- 
e in this county, was the autlior of the first digest of the 
of the State — if wo consider Judge Touhnin's volume as 
npilation, which it really is. Mr. Aiken Wiis residing in 
:aloosa in 1832 when selected by the general assembly to 
are the digest, and afterwards practiced law in Mobile 
ame yeai*s. 

UTj Toulmin represented Baldwin in the constitutional 
Bntion of 1819 ; Joseph Silver in that of 1861 ; and J. H. 
ie in that of 1865. 

le following is a list of members of the general assembly 
the counly : 


-Bobert R. Harwell 
•JnliuH Hainefl. 
-FriinciB W. Armstrong. 
•James Taggert. 
-William Crawford. 
-Willoughby Barton. 
-Jack r, RoBB. 
•John B. Hogan. 
-James F. Roberts. 
•Theophilns L. Toulmin. 
-Girard W. Creagh. 
-Girard W. Creagh. 

1845— B. L. Tnmer. 
1847— Girard W. Creagh. 
1849— Cade M. Godbold. 
1851 — Lorenzo James. 
1853— James 8. Dickinson. 
1855 — James 8. Jenkins. ' 
1857 — Noah A. Agee. 
1859— Stephen B. Cleveland. 
1861— Origin 8. Jewett 
1862— Robert Broadnax. 
1865— John Y. Kilpatriok. 
[No election in J 667 or since.] 

-Thomas Carson. 
-Joseph Mimms. 
-Elijah Montgomery. 
-Lad Harris. 
-8am nel Haines. 
-Silas Dinsmore. 
-Bdward J. Lambert. 
-James F. Roberts. 
-Origin Sibley. 
-David Mimms. 
-David ^iimms. 
-James F. Roberts. 
-Joseph Hall. 
-Joseph Hall. 
-Joseph HalL 
-James L. Seaberry. 
-Joseph Hall. 
-L ee Slanghter. 
-Cade M. Godbold. 
-Cade M. Godbold. 


1839 — David Mimms. 

1840— Gerald B. HaU. 

1841 — Richard Singleton Moore. 

] 842— William H. Gasqae. 

184:^) — Richard Singleton Moore. 

1844— Gerald B. HalL 

1845— J. H. Hastie. 

1847— Reuben McDonald. 

1849- Reuben McDonald. 

1861— William Booth. 

1853— WiUiam Wilkins. 

1855— P. C. Byrne. 

1857 — Joseph Nelson. 

1859— T. C. Barlow. 

1861~Reuben McDonald. 

18G3-R. B. Bryers. 

1865— G. W. Robinson. 

1867— [No election.] 

]870— O. 8. Holmes. 



Barbour was formed from a portion of Pike and a part of 
the Creek cession of 1832, by an act approved December 18, 
1832, and has retained its present shape, except portions set 
apart to Bullock and Russell. 

It was named to honor Gov. Barbour* of Virginia. 

It is in the southeast quarter of the State, and bounded 
north by Russell, east by tne State of Georgia, soi^th by Heniy 
and Dale, and west by Pike and Bullock. 

Its area is about 850 square miles. 

Barbour Uespartly in i£e agricultural and partly in the tim- 
ber r^on. The surface of the country is rolling and undnlai- 
ing. The soils are alluvial lowland, ^ay hammock, and sandy. 

The cash value of the farm lands in the county in 1870 waft 
$2,374,493 ; of which 185,727 acres were improved, and 2ii,- 
623 acres unimproved ; and the estimated value of the farm 
productions for 1869 was $3,186,725. 

The live stock in 1870 was valued at $669,972, and consisted 
of 1442 horses, 2430 mules, 9408 neat cattle, 2436 sheep, and 
15,707 hogs. 

The productions in 1869 were 364,304 bushels of Indiaa 
com, 3648 bushels of oats, 42,749 bushels of potatoes, 26,738 
gallons of molasses, 17^011 bales of cotton, and 1266 poimd^ 
of wool. 

The assessed value of property in 1870 was $4,574,427: 
real estate $3,369,838 ; personalty $1,204,589. 

The decennial movement of population has been as follows: 

1840 1850 I860 1870 

Whites 6469 19,842 14,629 19,143 

Blacks 6556 10,790 16,188 17,165 

The Chattahoochee is the eastern boundary, the Pea the 
western, and the former is navigable for steamers of large 

*Jame8 Babboub was bom in Orange coanty, Yirffinia, in 1776, and died in 
1842. He was governor of Virginia in 1812-14, a federal senator from 181S 
to 1825, minister of war in 1825-28, and minister to Great Britain in 1888-30. 
He was an eloquent orator and an honorable man. 


Kuse. The Montgomery & Eufanla Railroad traverses the 
connfy for aboat 22 miles ; another ridlway connects Enf anla 
and (5iay ton ; and Eofanla is the terminus of a Georgia rail- 

The seat of justice is Clayton, a very interesting interior 
town of about 750 inhabitants. A female college is located 
here. The town was named for Judjge Clayton* of Geoi^a, 

Eufaulat is a small but growing city, with a population in 
1870 of 3185; of whom 1645 were whites and 1340 blacks. 
It was first settled aboiit the year 1833, and was incorporated 
in 1837 as " Irwinton," to honor Gen. William Irwin of Henry 
county ; but in 1843 the name was changed to its present one. 
The bhiff on which the city stands is 160 feet above the river 
level at its ordinary stage. There is a female college here, 
and other evidences of material and social progress. 

Louisville, the old seat of justice of Pike county, has now 
about 200 inhabitants. 

Barbour is one of the yoimger counties, and has no his^ 
torie prominence. The list of distinguished citizens of the 
county however, is lengthy. Of these 

WmuAM Wellbobn was one of the ori^al settlers of the 

town of Eufanla, and owned a portion of its site. He was a 

native of G^oigi^y And had served Houston county in the 

logisLatare of that State. He was in command of the whites 

in the affair on Pea river, in Pike, and deported himself with 

ooorage and foresight In 1837-40 he represented Barbour 

and Bussell in the State senate, defeating Hon. James Aber- 

crombie the only time that popular citizen was ever beaten. 

General Wellborn was also major-general of militia in this ■ 

State. In 1836 he removed to Fort Bend county, Texas, J 

where he was a prosperous planter for twenty years. In v 

1867 he died in Houston, Texas, at the age of 76 years. Two 

of his daughters married Jud^e Cochran of Eufaula, and a 

niunber of his relatives are m this county. He possessed 

much force of character, and judgment, ana practical sense. 

JoHK P. Booth was also a noteworthy citizen of Barbour. 
He was. bom in Elbert county, Georgia, in 1806, and was the 
son of GoL David Booth and Elizabeth Posev. His father 
served under G«n. Jackson, and died in Eufaula many yearis 
ago. The son was graduated at Franklin College, and licensed 
as an attorney in 1826. A year later he located at Woodville, 
Henry countyi this State, and there began the practice of th^ 

*Auo«miirB 8. Clattoit wai a jurist and Bcholar. Besides his senrice on 
tbfr beneh, he represented Georgia in coogress from J831 to 1835. 

fin the Moscogee tongne eufaula is said to mean *' high blaff.*' 


law ; but spent tlio \vintcrs in Apalachicola. In 1832 he 
located in Apalacliicola, and the year after was a member of 
the territorial council, and president thereof. In 1835 he 
settled in Conecuh county, this Stfit<^, as a farmer and lawyer. 
The year after, while he was escorting his family to Georgia, 
he was warned not to pass through the Creek nation, for tiiey- 
were hostile. He stopped in Pike county, recruited 150 men, 
and led them to CohmiuiLs, Georgia, in wliich vicuiity he was 
slightly wounded in a skirmish. November 22, 1836, he was 
elected solicitor of this judicial district, and a few months 
later made Irwinton (Eufaula) his home. In April 1837 he 
was elected major-general of militia. Having resigned the 
soHcitorship, he was elected to the legislature from this 
county, and by that body, January 31, 1839, elected judge of 
the cuciut comi;, defeating Messrs. Nathan Cook of Lowndes 
and H. W. Hilliard of Montgomery. In 1843 he resigned 
and left the bench. He appeared no more in public life, but 
practiced law. His death o(jcuned in Eufaula, May 23, 1851. 
He wiis twice married, first to Miss Dewitt of Georgia, then 
to Miss Hodges of Florida, and the latter, as well as several 
of his descendants, reside in this county. One of his sons 
was graduated at West Point in 1848, and died in North Car- 
olina in 1863, while serving as an officer in the Confederate 
army. Gen. Booth was liberally endowed by nature. Hii| 
mental processes were wonderfully quick and prococious, and 
his memory exceedingly retentive. His temj^erament was 
ardent, his perceptions mtuitive. He was learned in the law 
and eloquent in speech. 

The late John Gill Shorter was a distinguished citizen of 
Barbour. He was the son of Gen. Reuben C. Shoi^ter, a 
physician and planter, who was bom in Virginia, and came to 
Georgia in early youth ; was there a member of both houses 
of tlie legislatuie, a major-general of miUtia ; and whence he 
came to this county in 1833, and hero died in 1854. His wife 
was Miss Gill of (Georgia. The son was bom in Monticello, 
Georgia, April 23, 1818, and was gi*aduated at Franklin Col- 
lege, Athens. He came to this State the same year, and in 
1838 was admitted to the l)ar. Establishing himself in 
Bufaula, he gave his whole attention to his profession. In 
1845 he entered the legislature as a senator from this county, 
his majority being 87 in a countj^ which gave tlie other partjr 
a majority "of 250 the year before. Declining further service 
at the end of two years, he was jigain called to serve the 
coimty in tlie representative cliamber in 1851. A few months 
later he wtis app.ointcd by Govemor Collier to the bench of 
the circuit coui"t in the room of Judge Goldthwaite, who had 
resigned. In May 1852 he was elected to the ofBce foa* a term 


of six years over F. S. Jackson, esq., and he was re-elected 
witliout opposition in 1858. He was thus serving when Gov. 
Moore appointed him commissioner to Georgia, and he, 
lilted the legislature of that State to co-operate in tJie move- 
ment for separation. While absent on this mission he was 
elected to represent his dLstiict in the provisional congress ; 
and it wAs while he was in Richmond attending tlie sitting of 
the latter bodj', that he was elected governor of the Stiite by 
a vote of 37,849 to 28,127 for Hon. T. H. Watts of Mont- 
gomery. During his term, beheving that the future rights 
and interests of Alabama hmig on tlie success of tlie confed- 
erate cause, by no act or word of his was any obstticle tliro^ii 
into the scale advei-se to it. Coupled witJi his patiiotism 
were his unremitting efforts to provide for tlie families of sol- 
diers, and to constmct defences at Mobile for the safety of 
the country. But the morbid desire of the masses for a 
change defeated his re-election in 1863. He wa« not after- 
wardis in public life, but resumed the practice of law at the 
peace. He died May 29, 1872. 

Gtovemor Shorter was of ordinary height, with a delicate 
figure, and an intellectual cast of features. He wfuj without 
arrogance or ostentation, and had the most miaffected mild- 
ness and simplicity of mannei-s. He served the State ably 
and faithfully ; appearing to have no other puq^ose in office 
but to "execute justice and maintain truth," and therefore 
was patient in hearing argument, laborious in investigation, 
and firm in decision. To this he added the purity of life 
which so well becomes one conspicuous to the pubhc eye. 
He married a sister of G^n. C. A. Battle of Macon. 

Eu Sims Shorter, brother of the foregoing, also resides in 
Barbour. He was bom in Monticello, Georgia, in 1853, and 
came with his parents to this county in 1836. He is a grad- 
uate of Yale College, and his law studies were pursued in the 
office of his brother, John G. In 1845 he was admitted to 
the bar, and estabUshed himself in Eufaula as tlie associate 
of his brotlier. His first appearance ui pubhc life was when 
he became the nominee of his party for congress in 1855, and 
was elected over Hon. Julius C. Alford of Pike. He was 
re-elected in 1857 over Hon. Batt Peterson of this county', car- 
rying everv coimty ui the district. While in congi'ess he 
act^ with the Southern Rights' wing of the Democratic 
party. At the close of his second tenn lie voluntarily retired, 
to give his attention to his private affairs. He was an 
elector for Breckenridge, and tlie following year was appointed 
colonel of the 18tli Alal)ama infantry. He served ^ith this 
command till the spring of 18(52, when he resigned. He has 
®3ice devoted himself to his profession, to planting, and to his 


duties as president of the Vicksbui^ & Brunswick Railroad. 
During the presidential campaign of 1868 he canvassed the 
northwestern States in behalf of the Seymour ticket, and his 
interest in all public matters is imabated. 

Col. Shorter is of ordinary stature and light frame. His 
polished exterior is in accord with a refined mind, endowed 
liberally by nature. As an orator he is fluent and graceful, 
and his glowing imagination often rises to flights of thrilling 
eloquence. He is cautious and observant, and has been suc- 
cesfihil in business. He married Miss Fannin of Troup 
county, Georgia. Major H. R. Shorter of this county is a 
brother; the late Capt. Qeo. H. Shorter of Montgomery, 
State printer at one tune, was a cousin. 

James Lawrence Pugh, of this county, is a native of Butts 
county, Georgia, where he was bom December 12, 1819. His 
father was a farmer, bom in North Caroling; the maiden 
name of his mother was Tillman. His parents came to Pike 
coimty when he was about four years old, and at the age of 
eleven years he was an orphan. Cast upon the world, in a 
frontier country, he resortea to divers commendable shifts to 
make his way. At one time he rode the mail route from 
Louisville to Franklin, Henry couni^, Saturdays and Sun- 
days, to get the means to pay his tuition the other portion of 
the week. For four years he was a salesman in a dry-^oods 
shop in Eufaula, but abandoned that to attend a school, pre- 
paratory to a course of law studies. He completed the latter 
m the office of Hon. John G. Shorter in Eufaula, by the pecu- 
niary assistance of his brother-in-law, Mr. W. L. Cowan. 
Enrolled as an attomev in 1841, he formed a partnership 
with Hon. Jefferson Buford which existed for twelve years, 
and was thereafter associated with Hon. E. C. Bullock. He 
was on the Taylor electoral ticket, and the year after was 
defeated for congress by Hon. H. W. Hilliard of Montgomery. 
In 1866 he was an elector on the Buchanan ticket, which was 
his first official trust. Elected to the congress of the United 
States in 1859 without opposition, he witndrew with his col- 
leagues when his State seceded from the Union. He shortly 
after volunteered as a private in the 1st Alabama Infantry, 
and served a year at Pensacola. The same year he was 
chosen to the 1st Confederate congress without opposition, 
and was re-elected in 1863 over Mfessrs. J. McC. Wiley and 
A. W. Starke of Pike, and Dr. Jones of this county. Having 
served till the overthrow of the Confederacy, he has not since 
taken an active interest in public affairs. He married a 
daughter of Gen. John L. Hunter, a wealthy planter of this 

Mr. Pugh is large of frame, and compactiy built, with an 


abrupt but cordial address. He is an orator of much force 
and ^wer ; figuratively speaking, " a ^eat bronze battering 
ram.'* He harbors the most practical of ideiis, and his 
expressions are strikingly pointed and original. " He has one 
"of the most capacious and tenacious legal minds in the 
" State. * * He is naturally extravagant ; there is no half-way 
" house for him in anytliing. * * He is the most emj)hatic 
" man I ever knew. * * Highly sociable, no man sur})jisses 
"him in hospitaUty."* He is an interesting companion, 
instructive, wittj% and jovial, and is very generally popular. 
He is certainly one of the " self-made men" of the State. 

John Cochban also resides in Barbour. He wiis bom in 
Cocke coimty, Tennessee, and was the son of a fanner. 
Graduating at Greenville CoUoge, he read law, and in 1835 
came to Jacksonville, in tliis State, to practice. He first 
entered public life as a representiitive from Calhoun in 1839, 
and was thrice chosen to that position while residing in that 
county. In 1843 he came to Barbour, and established him- 
self in Eufaula. Two years later he was the candidate of his 
party for congress, but was beaten by Mr. HiUiard of Mont- 
gomery. In 1848 he was on the Cass electoral ticket, and in 
1851 was again defeated as the candidate of his party for 
congress, after a warm canvass with Hon. James Abercrombie 
of Russell. From 1853 to 1857 he representtMl Barbour in 
the general assembly, and in 1861 in the constitutional con- 
vention. In the latter year he was appointed to the circuit 
court bench to fill the vacancy made by Gov. Shorter's resig- 
nation ; and, being subsequently elected by the people, he 
held the position till 1865, when he was displaced oy the 
result of the war. In 1861 he volunteered into the service 
of his country, and served a year at Pensacola. Since the 
war he has given attention to his profession, in which he 
ranks among the foremost in tiie State. He has an exceed- 
ingly active as well as capacious miiid, unsurjiassed for nice 
and accurate disciimination, and powerfully analytical. 
" There is more to convince one in the mere statement of the 
" question by Judge Cochran than there is in any common 
" man's argument. Combined \\Tith tiiis happy jfaculty, he 
" also reasons well and ilhistiates clearly. He is witty, and 
" cherishes a Uvely sense of the ridiculous ; which makes him 
" an exceedingly interesting s|x^aker, and a most entert^iining 
" conversationalist. * * He is an easy, fluent, speaker ; 
" quite logical and persuasive, but never boisterous, fiery, or 
" combative in deliver}'."t Indeed, Judge Cochran's prodigal 

•Col. Wm. C. Oatos of Henry. flbid. 



endowment of mind is in excess of his physical energy ; or, to 
use one of his own expressions, " He has an immense engine 
if he only had steam enough to run it.'' His high sense of 
honor and integrity, added to a marked amiabihty of dispo- 
sition; combine to render him a useful and popular citizen, as 
well as a gifted man. He mai-ried a daughter of Gen. Wil- 
Uam Wellborn of this county, and afterwards her cousin. 
His present wife is a daughter of Mr. W. Toney, a planter of 
the county. His son is a member of the bar of Eufaula. 

Barbour cherishes the memory of " the beloved and match- 
" less Bullock. ( Wliat a splendid future was forbidden to be 
" reaUzed by Fate's harsh mandate in his untimely fall ! ")* 
EnwAiiD CouRTENAY BuLLOCK was bom in Charleston, S. C, 
December 1825. His father, a native of Rhode Island, was 
a merchant of moderate means in Charleston. His mother 
was the sister of Mr. Edward Courtenay of that ciW. The 
son was graduated at Harvard College in 1843, and me same 
year came to this State and county. Here he taught a school 
two years, and read law meantime. Licensed to practice in 
1946, he established himself in Eufaula. For several years 
he was the law paiHner of Hon. J. L. Pugh, and edited a 
weekly newspaper in Eufaula at the same time. In 1857 he 
was cnosen to represent the county in the State senate, and 
for four years filled that position. He was among the first to 
volunteer into the miUtary sei-vice of his country, and served 
some months at Pensacola. Li the summer of 1861 the 
Eighteenth Alabama Infantry was organized, and he was 
chosen colonel. He aecepted the tnist, and it was while he 
was discharging his duties at Mobile that he conti-acted the 
typhoid fever which proved fatal to him. This event occurred 
at Montgomery, in December 1861, when he was 36 years old. 

The appearance of Col. Bullock was vei*y prepossessing. 
He was well made, with full features, broad forehead, and 
large mouth. But " his noble features in repose were only 
" the princely castle at dusk before the lamps are hghted, and 
"give no idea of the magic ti-ansformation which in an instant 
"the splendid illumination of his miiilifulness and genius 
" could effect, "t " He was the best organized man I ever 
"knew. His tem})er and taste were perfect. His whole 
" nature was genial, refined, and gentle. * ** His mind was 
" remarkable for its activity and brilliancy. His pei*sonal in- 
" tegi'ity, and devotion to principle, duty, jind tiiith were very 
" striking. He was a fine lawjer, and an able advocate ; and 
" his high personal character, honorable nature, and in-esistible 

*Gen. Alpheus Baker of Eufaula. *Ibid. 


" wit* and elegance made him a lawyer and sbitesman of as 
" liigh promise as any man who ever lived in Alal)ama."t 

Col. Bullock married a Miss Snipe of South Carolina, and 
his son and two of his daughters reside in this coimty. The 
State honored his memory by bestowing his name on one of 
her fairest counties. 

The late Lewis L. Cato came to this county in 1837. He 
was a native of Hancock county, Georgia, and was a promi- 
nent citizen of Barbour during his Ufe. He dev()t<;d himself 
a-ssiduously to the law, and became an able attorney, of very 
sound opmions. From 1861 to 1865 he represented tlie 
country in the senate with credit to his constituents and to 
himself. He died December 4, 1868. His brotlier, Sterling 
G. Cato, also resided here for some years, and acquired con- 
siderable reputation as an attorney. He removed to Kansas 
during the slavery agitation there, and succeeded Hon. Rush 
Ehnore as territorial judge. He subsequently practiced in 
St. Louis, Missouri, and there died about the year 1867. 

Another strongly marked character in tliis county was 
Jefferson Buford. He was born in Chester district. South 
Carolina, in 1805 or "6. His father was a Vh-ginian, who 
came to South Carolina after attaining the estate) oif manhood. 
The son read hiw in the office of his maternal imcle, Mr. Na- 
thaniel R. Eaves, and was enrolled as an attorney in 1 828. 
In 1832 he came to this Stiite, and settled in Pike county. 
He practiced law there six years, then came to this county, 
and establislied himself in Eufaula. In 1840 he was elected 
to the State senate from Russell and Barbour, and sei-ved 
seven years in that body. He was associated in the practice 
of law with Messrs. Pugh and Bullock for some yeai^s. Dur- 
ing the memorable Kansas troubles of 1855, he saw that the 
strupj^le for dominancy betv^een the North and South had 
begun, and he urged that it was far ])ctter to solve the fearful 
problem by votes in Kansas than by bavoiu^ts on th<^ Potomac. 
Hence, at the head of a lat^e party of emigrants he sought a 
home in that territory, and labored, there and here, with pen 
and tongue, to arouse the people of the South to the real 
nature of the collision. His prophetic voice wtis not fully 

•There was no effort at wit on tbe part of Col. IJullock. It seemed to bub- 
ble lip irreHiKtibly. An instance of it will illustrate the facility with which 
be emitted Himhes of this happy faculty It was during what Mr. Pugh 
calls** the Honeymoon of the War'* at Pensacola. He and Bullock slept 
together one cold night. Early in the morning Bullock loudly complained 
of his bedfellow. *' You pulled off all the blanket on yourself, and appro- 
priated the entire mattrass." "I did n't know of it,'' said Pap;h, "why 
did n't you speak ? " *' 'eGad," said Bullock, "if I did n't speak it was n't 
because I did n't have the floor ! " 

fHon. James L. Pugh of Eufaula. 


Leedcd, Kansas was lost, and tho remainder of the story is 
Miitten in the blood of a million of combatants. He retiuned 
to this county after the question was decided, and in 18G1 was 
elected to the constitutional convention. He died suddenly 
of heftrt disease^ in Clayton, Aug. 28, 1862. 

Though not a popular favorite, few men were more highly 
esteemed than Major Buford. ''He was a man of pure private 
"character, a lii-st-ratc lawyer, a cultivat<'d gentleman, and one 
"who was true to his con\ icticms. He was somewhat eccentric, 
"but was a public spirited, energetic, njliabh*, ust^ful, and suc- 
"cessful man."* He manied first a daughter of Major Jolui H. 
White of this county, and his second wife was Mrs. McNeil. 
His widow and cliildreu reside h<u'e. J. M. Buford, esq., of 
the Eufaula bar, is a half-brother. 

Barbour is also tlie liome of At.PHEUs Baker. He was bom 
at Clover Hill,t Abbe\'ille district, S. C, May 28, 1828. His 
father, a native of Massachusetts, was eminent as a -teacher 
and a scholar. His mother, a Miss Courtney, was a native 
of Ii-eland. Possessed of nothuig but the education hLs father 
gave him, the son began to teach school before he was sixteen 
years old. He taught with success in Abl:)eville, S. C. , in Lump- 
tin, Ga., and in Glenn ville, this county, to which he came in 
1848. Having read law meantime, he was enrolled as an 
attorney in 1849, and opened an office in Eufaula. His ad- 
vancement was so rapid that at the spring term of 1855 he 
returned 105 cases to the circuit com*t of Barbour. In 1856 
he accompanied Major Buford to Kansas, and returned to 
canvass the countiy to arouse the people to the importance 
of making Kansas a slave state. He believed* with the noble 
Buford that the jvcquisition of Ktmsas would restore tlie equi- 
Ubrium of the slave and anti-slave states, and prevent the "in- 
evitiible conflict" between the two sections. In 1861 he rep- 
resented the county in the constitutional convention, but re- 
signed his seat to enter the army. This he did as captain of 
the "Eufaula Rifles,"J which he led to Pensacola. There he 
remained till November, w^hen he was elected colonel of a 
regiment of Temiessee, Mississippi, and Alabama troops at 
Foi-t Pillow, above Memj[)his. This regiment participated in 
the siege of New Madrid, and was cai)tured at Island Ten, 

•Hon. Jame8 L. Pn^jh of Eafdula. 

fClover Hill was at one time ttie home of the father of Hon. William L. 

{This company hrnl on itn rolln j\t PeuRacolu tht? niimcs of 50 persons who 
Bub8et|uently became officeiR. Amonj; the memborn were McsFrn. John Coch- 
rane. J. L. Pu«h, E. C. Hnllock and S. H. Dent, all of liarbonr, T. J. Judge 
of Montgomery, D. W. Huine of Lowndes, Prof. Parker of TnskalooRa, and 
Prof. Thornton of Porry . 


Apiil 10, 1862. Exchanged wdtli his refj^hnent iu Se])k^ml)er, 
the foui* Tennessee companies in it gavephice to fonr Alabama 
companies, and the regunent took the title of "54th Ahibama." 
It fought at Fort Pembei-ton, on the Yazoo, and at Jiaker's 
Creek, where Col. Baker was severely wounded in the foot. 
Promoted to brigadier general, March 18G4, he was assigned 
to the command of the 37th, 4:0th, 42d, and 54th Alabama 
regiments. He led them fiom Dalton to Atlanta. At Rjsaca 
his horse was killed imder him, and at Atlanta (July 28) he 
was slightly wounded. The brigade lay near Mobile till Jan- 
uary 1865, when it procoedeil to the Carolinas. At Benton- 
Aolle, though it nimibered oidy 350 muskets, it captured 204 
of the enemy. Since surrendering this brave brigade in North 
CaroUna, Gen. Baker has given his time to his ])rofession. 

Gen. Baker is full of gamins, and possesses a rich diversity 
of talents. He is a scliolar and cntic, a ])ainter, a musician, 
with superior vocal powers, and one of the most companion- 
able of men. As an orator he is perfectly captivating. He 
intersix^rses his speeches with sparkling witticisms, and laugh- 
able anecdotes, not unfrecpiently illustiated by his inimitable 
mimicry. Hestii-sup the feelings and passions of men ; alter- 
nately conviUsing them with laughter, melting them to tears, 
or arousing their indignation. "He is unquestionably the 
" finest orator in Alal)ama, but he doesn't know it, and hence 
" doesn't appreciate it."* 

Henry DeK\mar Clayton also resides in this county. He 
was bom in Pulaski county, Georgia, March 7,1827, and is the 
son of the late Mr. Nelson Clayton of Lee county. He was 
graduated at the Emor\' and Henrj^ College, Virginia, and read 
law under Messrs. John G. and Eh S. Shorter in Eufaula. In 
1849 he was licensed as an attorney, and opened an office in 
Claj-ton. Assiduous attention to hLs business kept him out 
of pubUc affaii's till 1857, whim he was chosen to represent 
the county in the legislature, and served in the popular uranch 
till 1861. At the fii-st mutterings of the war-storm he urged 
Gov. Moore to accept the volunteer regiment of train bands 
of which he had bcicn colonel, and in Febniiiry got tsvo com- 
panies accepted, in one of which he was musttu'ed in jxs a pri- 
vate. But he was at once ordered to Pensacola to take com- 
mand of all the Alabama troops fus the^y should arrive. March 
28, 1851, the 1st Alabama infantry regiment was organized 
with him fis colonel, and he remained in that capacity a year 
at Pensacola. He tlien organized the 39th Alabama, which 
he commanded m the Kentucky campaign. At Murfreesboro 
he was severely wounded, and mimediately aftenvards promo- 
ted to brigacUer. The 18th, 36th, 38th, 32d, and 58th Ala- 

•Col Wna, C. Gates of Henry. 


baina regiments were placed under him. Tlie services of this 
brigade were too varied and arduous to be recoimted here. 
The battles of Chicamauga, Rocky Face, and New Hope be- 
long to history, and the conduct of Clayton's brigade consti- 
tutes an imi)oi-tant part of each. Tlie part Gren. C. took in 
the latter battle were such as to secure his promotion to the 
rank of major general, and he took command of what had 
been Gen. Stewai-t's cUvision — Gibson's, Stovall's, Strahl's, 
and (his old now) Holtzclaw's brigiules. With these troops 
Gen. Clayton participated in all the subsequent battles and 
campaigns of the aimy of Tennessee, up to tlie surrender in 
Noi^h Carolina. After the battle of Nashville, with his divi- 
sion, and Gen. Pettus's brigade, lie covered the retreat of the 
army till Gen. Stevenson reheved him the next day. How 
well he performed this difficult task may be learned from tlie 
fact that he repulsed, with scarcely the loss of a man, eveiy 
assault of the enemy, never failuig to damage liim seventy, 
and eapturmg at different times four stands of coloi^s and more 
than 100 prisonei^s. At the close of active hostihties he gave 
his attention to planting till elected judge of the circuit coui't 
in May 18(5(5. This position he held tiU removed by congress 
in 1868, since when he has practiced law in Clayton, and 

Gen. Clayton is six feet in highth, and propcniionately stout. 
His deportment is quiet and somewhat resei'ved ; but he is 
veiy approachable. He was one of the fighting generals of 
the western aiiny , ever prompt and ever present. He is active, 
laborious, and practical m the aftairs of life ; and his philoso- 
phic temperament and steady energy are such as to give 
weight to his counsel. He is also pious and moral, and pos- 
sessed of much public s]iirit. He man-ied a daughter of 
Gen. John L. HuntiT of this county. *Capt. Joseph C. Clay- 
ton of the 39th Alabama, killed at Chiciuiianga, was a brother. 

John Cochran, Alpheus Baker,* and J. W. L. Daniel were 
the delegates fi'om Barl)our to the constitutional convention 
of 18(51 ; and Greene Beauchamp, M. M. Glenn, and B. B. 
McKenzie were the delegates to the constitutional convention 

The following is a list of the members of tlie general assem- 
bly from the county : 


1834— Lawson J. Keener. 1S5I— E. R. Flewellin. 

1837— William Wellborn. 18f)3~Batt Peterson. 

1840— Jefferson Buford. 1H57— Edward C. Bullock. 

1843— Rob't S. Hardaway of Rnssell. 18CI— Lewis L. Cato. 

1845— John Gill Shorter. I8G5— Aug. 0. Mitchell. 

1847— Jefferson Buford. [No election in 1867'or since.] 

* Alpheus Baker resigned, and Jefferson* Buford was elected to till the va- 



livprrsvn fat ives. 

1834— Osborne J. Williamfl. 

1835 — Osborne J. Williams. 

1830 — Greene Beauchamp. 

1 837 — Greene Beancbamp . 

]j^3H— John P. Booth. 

lr«l>~J. W. Mann. J. W. A. PetiL 

1840-^. W. Mann, Wm. T. Shanks. 

1841-^. L. Hunter, H. N. Crawford. 

1842--John Jackson, J. W. A. Petit. 

1843 — John Jackson. 

18t4--P. H. Mitchell, B. F. Tr«a<l well. 

l845--Adolpha8 M. Sivnford, Wm. T. 

1847— Hugh N.Crawford. R. S.Smith. 
1849— Benj. Gardner, Paul McCall. 
1851— John G. Shorter, John W. W. 


1853-^obu Cochran, Paul McCall, 

J. F. Comer. 
1855 — John Cochran. M. A. Browder, 

W. J. Grnbbs. 
1857— Henry D. Clayton, M. A. Brow- 
der, Joseph C. Mcllae. 
18r>l>— Henry D. Clayton, Wm. H. 

Chambers, W. B. Bowen. 
1861— E. S. Ott, C. A. Parker, Edward 

N. Herron. 
1803— Wm. H. Chambers, C. A. Par. 

ker, C. W. Jones. 
180)5— Henry Faulk, H. Pipkin, G. 

H. Daviri. 
1867— ("No election.] 
1870— Jacob Black, Thos.H. Digg8,(c) 

Thomas J. Clark. 



By the name of " Caliaba" tliis comity was established by 
an act passed Feb. 12, 1818, out of tenitory originally taken 
from Monroe. The name was changed by an act passed Dec. 
4, 1820, thereby to honor Dr. Wm. W. I3ibb, the first gov- 
ernor, an account of whom is givesn in the chapter on Autauga. 
Bibb as at first formed included the greater pai-t of Baker and 
about half of the present Shelby, but it was soon changed. 

Bibb lies near the centre of the Stiite, south of Tuskaloosa 
and Shelby, west of Baker and Shelby, north of Peny% and 
east of Hide and Tuskaloosa. 

Its area is about G40 scjuare miles. 

The improved farm lands in 1870 embraced 24,575 acres, 
tlie unimproved 91,824 acTes, and the cash value of all was 

The live stock in 1870 was valued at $147,466, and con- 
sisted of 519 horses, 383 midcs, 3467 neat cattle, 2981 sheep, 
and 3460 hogs. 

The productions of the county in 1869 were 82,920 bushels 
of Indian com, 6826 bushels of wheat, 13,645 bushels of oats, 
14,906 bushels of potatoes, 7395 pounds of butter, 3973 bales 
of cotton, and 3934 pounds of wool ; while the value of ani- 


mals slaughtered was $30,598 ; and that of all farm produc- 
tions was $273,777. 

The population is thus given by the federal census : 

1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 

Whites 29:K) 5113 6256 7097 8027 5061 

Blacks 746 1193 2028 2872 3867 2408 

The formation of Baker caused the decrease between the 
last named years. 

The Cahaba river, for which it was- first named, bisects the 
countj% but is not navigable. The Selma and Borne railroad 
passes through the eastern portion for fourteen miles ; the 
Alabama and Chattanooga raih'oad skirts the northwest bor- 
der, and the projected railway fi'om Mobile to Elyton is sur- 
veyed through it. 

Iron ore is abimdant, and the Briarfield Iron Works were 
of *gi'eat sei*vice duiing the late war. 

Inexhaustible beds of coal exist, the measures being in fre- 
quent instances exposed on the surface of the earth. Blue 
lime and mai'ble are also plentifid. 

Indeed, few coimties of the State may boast of equal mate- 
rial resources. 

Tliere was a flourishing cotton factory at Scotts\dlle, but it 
was burned by Gen. McCook's raid in 1865. 

Centreville, the seat of justice, has about 300 inliabitants ; 
Randolph has about 200. 

It was during the closing days of the late war that the 
clank of sabres disturbed the soUtudes of north Bibb. It 
was Croxton on his mission of destruction to the colleges and 
factories of Tuskaloosa. He encamped near the edge of the 
county, eight or nine miles north of Scotts\dlle, the night of 
March 31, 1865. He had encountered the videttes of Jack- 
son's division of Fon*est's cavalry that evening, and, at day- 
light the next morning, he began to move out of camp and 
push rapidly northward, ^\dth the intention of flanking his 
advei-sary, who he thought would move on to Selma. Just 
as he was breaking camp, a sphited charge of Jackson's 
troops on his rear hastened the movement. Croxton lost 
several killed, about thirty prisoners, several stands of colors, 
150 horses, and his papers. The affaii* was greatly magnified 
at the time by tlie hopeful people of Alabama, yet it delayed 
but a day the devastation on the banks of the Tuskaloosa. 

EDWAm) Hawthorn Moken, a leading citizen of tliis county, 
was bom in Dinwiddie county, Virginia, in 1825. His father, 
a merchant and farmer, was several times a member of the 
senate of Virginia. His mother was a Miss Crawford of 
Maryland. Graduating at a medical college in New York, he 



entered the United States army as an assistant sui^eon. He 
served in that capacity during tlie Mexican war, but resigned 
in 1848. In 1853 he settled in Bibb, and for ten years devo- 
ted himself to his profession. In 1861 he was chosen to rep- 
resent Perry and iJibb in the upper house of the general 
assembly, and was re-elected in 1865, both times without 
opposition. In 1861 he went into tlie army as surceon of 
the 29th Alabama, and was subsequently in charge oi a hos- 
pital in Greenville. In 1870 he was elected lieutenant gov- 
ernor, and now holds the position. Dr. Moren is portly and 
impressive in figure, with a grave but kind manner. His tal- 
ents are substantial and not showy, and he possesses nerve, 
energy, moral worth, and pi-actical sense. He married a 
daughter of Hon. Saml W. Davidson, of this coimty. 

In 1821 the general assembly selecteil Henry W. Stephens, 
Agrim>a Atkinson, and Ansel Sawyer to choose a site for a 

Littlepage Sims was a delegate from Bibb to the constitu- 
tional convention of 1819 ; James W^ Crawford to that of 
1861, and Jackson Gardner to that of 1865. 

The following is a list of members of the general assembly 
from the county : 


1819 — Littlepage Sims. 
IS'^I — Charles A. Dennis. 
1822— Jack Shackelford. 
1825— D. Sullivan. 
ISaS—Thomas Crawford. 
\i£i\ — Joab Lawler. 
1832— Alexander Hill. 
1834— David R Boyd. 
1835— James Hill. 
1837— Jametj HilL 

1819 — Jonathan Jon'es. 

1820— Gabriel Benson. 

1821 — Jonathan Jones. 

1822— Jonathan Jones, Jno. \YaIlace. 

1823— Charles A. Dennis, Alex. Hill. 

1824 — Jonathan Jones, Alex. Hill. 

1825— Jonathan Jones. 

1826— Jonathan Jones. 

1827— James B. Clark. 

182H— James B. Clark. Alex. Hill. 

1H29— Jas. B.Clark, Jonathan Jones. 

J830— Jas B. Clark, David R. Boyd. 

1H31— D. R. Boyd. Julius Goodwin. 

1832— James W. Davis, John E. Sum- 

1833— James W. Davis, John E. Sum- 

1834— David E. Davis. Hopkins Pratt. 

1835— David E. Davis, Robt. Parker. 

1836— John Williams. Wm. Christian. 

1837 — James W. Davis, Robt. Parker. 

1840— Daniel E. Watrous. 
1843— Daniel E. WntrouH. 
1847 — James M. Nabors. 
1849— Daniel E. Watrous. 
1853-Jack F. Cocke. 
1857— Jack F. Cocke. 
1861— Edward H Moren. 
1865- -Edward H. Moren. 
[No election in IH()7 or since.] 


18.38 — John E Summers. L. Kennedy. 
1839— John Williams, Fred'k James. 
1840— David E. Davis, 8. W. Davidson. 
1841— Da V. E. Davis, Ezekiel Henry. 
1842— Pleasant Hill, — Morrison. 
184:^— Pleanant Hill, David E. Davis. 
1844 — R. Morrison, B. L. Dnfreeso. 
184.''»— Robert Hill. 
1847 — James W. Davis. 
I849--0. S. Qninn. 
1851 -James W. Davis. 
1855--E. H.Beruhard, J.W.Crawford. 
1857— Robert Parker. 
laVJ— S. W. Davidson, jr. 
1861— Henry D. Calhoun. 
1863— J. W. Davis. 
18»)5— James W. Davis. 
1867— [No election.] 
1870— T. J. Smitherman. 



Blount was established by an act passed Feb. 7, 1818, and 
originally embraced the present coirn^' of JeflFerson, and that 
part of Walker east of tlie Sipsey Fork of the Tnskaloosa 
river. It was soon after cut down to its present limits. 

It lies in the north centre of- the State, south of Marshall 
and Morgan, west of Marshall and St. Clair, north of Si Clair 
and Jeiferson, and east of Winston and W'alker. 

It was named to honor Gov. Blount* of Tennessee, for 
whose timely aid in 1813 in sending troops against the Creeks 
the people of Alabama owe such a debt of gratitude. 

Its area is about 990 square miles. 

The assessed value of pro]>erty is $757,893; of which 
$614,552 is real estate, and ^143,3-41 is personal proi)erty. 

The population is exhibited as follows : 

1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 

Whites 2415 423.3 5570 7367 10,865 9945 

Blacks 176 351 345 426 672 682 

The farm lands in 1870—56,349 acres improved, and 186,927 
acres imimproved — were valued at 5^649,291. 

Tlie value of Uve stock — 1651 horses, 633 mules, 9558 neat 
cattle, 9507 sheep, 15,983 hogs— was $435,315. 

In 1869 the productions were 266,553 busliels of Indiiui 
com, 47,275 bus4iels of wheat, 12,779 busliels of oats, 36,347 
bushels of potatoes, 83,055 poimds of butter, 5682 pounds of 
tobacco, 950 bales of cotton, 14,088 pounds of wool ; the 
value of animals slaughtered was $109,300 ; and the value of 
faim producti(ms was $572,045. 

The profile of the coimty is rugged and moimtainous, \iith 
beautiful vallejs, where — 

-** Freshness breathes from each silver spriD^, 

Whose scattered streams from granite basins pnrst, 
Leap into life, and sparkling woo yonr thirst." 

* Willie G. Blonnt succeeded Gov. Sevier as chief magistrate of Tennessee 
in 1809. Ue was among the earlier citizens of that State, and reprenented 
it in congress from 1815 to 1819. 


These valleys are alluvial and very productive, but the larger 
portion of the county has a hglit soil, often comparatively 

The Tuskaloosa flows through the county, but is not navi- 
gable, and there has been no railways. Now, however, the 
railroad that connects Decatur and Montgomery traverses 
the western portion of the county, and the development of 
the magnificent mineral resources and advtvntages of Blount 
will begin. 

The coal and iron of this county make it one of the richest 
in the State. Coal measures cover a very considerable por- 
tion of the surface, and iron ore is wondrously abundant. 
And yet these indispensable and valuable minerals he undis- 
turbed in the womb of Nature. They Jiflbrd to tlie i)eople of 
the coimty, however, a mine of wealth that insures tlie pros- 
perity of the county for all time to come. 

Silver has been successfully sought in Brown's Valley, and 
lumber will eventually be produced in large quantities. 

Tlie greatest variety of mineral waters is fotmd in Blount. 
At Blount Springs, in the southwestern part, sixteen spiings, 
differing in a greater or less degieo, lise through tlie rock 
within a circle a few hundred feet in diameter. Bhick, red, 
white, and sweet sulplim*, limestone, and chalybeate waters, 
are all to be found at the place. 

Blomit is famous for its apples, and many are exported. 
They have no superior as fiiiit. 

Blountsville, the seat of justice since the county was 
formed, has about 350 itiliabitants. There are no other vil- 
lages of importance, though Blount Springs is being laid out 
as a town. 

There ai*e nimierous caverns in the coimty, some of which 
contain saltpetie. " One bc^lougs to that class called blowing 
" caves, in which the air takes an oi)i)osite coiu'se at difierent 
"seasons of the year; blowing outward in summer, and 
" inward in winter. * * Some of these caves were used by the 
" aborigines as burial phices, luid tlieir remains are yet found 
" in them, with fragments of lead, nuts, shells, and trinkets."* 
There are many other picturesque scenes and curiosities in 

In 1819, John Gilbraith, WiUiam Riao, Stephen Box, Moses 
Burleson, and Henry McPherson were appointed to fix the 
seat of justice ; and, a year later, John Gilbraith, John Fowler, 
Kichard Yeelding, Lewis Johnson, and Joseph H. Meiid were 
appointed to superintend the erection of public buildings. 

The mountain wall on her northern boimdary gave a feeling 
of security to the people of Blount during the progress of the 

• •* Beport on the Geology of Alabama " : M. Tuomey. 


late war. But the closii^ day of April 1863, was signalized 
by "the clash of resounding arms" in the direction of Moul- 
ton. At dusk on that day Forrest overtook Streight in the 
passes of Sand Mountain, and the fight lasted for tluree hours. 
The enemy were at lengtii driven back, and came huniedly 
down the valley hi to Blount. " The scene of this prolonged 
" and desperate conflict on the barren mountain heights of 
"north Alabama is remembered by pai'ticipants who have 
"mingled in the great battles of the war, as one of peculiar, 
" weird grandeur, impossible to paint Avith words. With the 
"thunder of artillery, the continuous peal of the musketry, 
"and thok infinitely multipUed reverberations from mountam 
" to valley, were mingled the sharp clangor of words of com- 
" mand, the cheery shouts of the men, and the uproar and 
"cries of afli'ighted and wounded animals, added to which 
"there was a splendor in the lurid volcanic flashes of the 
"rapidly served artillery, and the fiery blaze of musketiy, 
"which excited admiration, attracting notice, even in that 
"moment of fiercest passions, when the air was thick and 
"perilous with deadly missives."* Some fifty of the enemy 
were left behind, dead or wounded, as well as the piece of 
artillery they captured from the Confederates in Morgan, 
and about thh'ty wagons. The Confederates lost several 
killed and wounded, and Forrest had a horso killed under 

The pursuit was renewed, and for miles the path of the fly- 
ing enemy in the dkection of Blountsville was stre^vn with 
every conceivable portable. They were evidently frightened, 
and the confederates, like sleuth-hounds, kept at their heels. 
At 11 o'clock the raidei*s stood at bay, but a volley of artillery 
and musketiy broke their line, and hui-ried tliem on. On they 
moved, pursuer and pursued, by the light of tlie stars, and 
the eaiih was strewn with the castaway booty and baggage, 
broken-down beasts, <fec., while the woods swarmed witii the 
negroes who had collected to join the men hi blue, but who 
were dismounted in the exigency to provide for the safeiy of 
better men. At one o'clock another stand was made, but 
easily broken by a well du-ected volley, which sent them hur- 
riedly on. From two o'clock till dayhght FoiTest bivouacked ; 
and with the liglit of the May morning mshed after his prey. 
At*Blountsville, Sti-eight transferred his baggage to pack ani- 
mals, set fire to the wagons, and took the Gadsden road. 
Forrest reached the spot at eleven o'clock, saved much of the 
abandoned stores, replenished the haversack from them, and 
pushed on. Eight miles further, a nmnmg fight occurred, and 
the federals threw tliemselves across the rocky ford of the 

• ** Campaigns of General Forrest." 




Tuskaloosa, at the cost of several men killed, and a number 
of pack-mules drowned, to avoid the collision. The confed- 
erates rested three or four hours on the bank of tlie stream, 
then leaped into the saddle and moved on into the valleys of 

"Just before reaching the Warrior river, two youn^jj eomitry 
"girls, seventeen or eighteen yeai^s of age, api)eared, leading 
"three accoutred horses, and (hiving before them as many 
"federal soldiei*s, whose gims they carried on their young 
"shouldei*s. Asking for the commanding officer, tliey related 
"with much simj^heity how they had captured these men, 
"and wished to deliver them. Their captives, in extenuation of 
their situation, alleged that they had no stomach for further 
fighting. These brave girls were iK)or, dressed in homespun, 
and barefooted, though clean and neat. They said they would 
be willing to go on with the tioops, but hardly thought their 
services were necessary. The general gave each a horse, and 
they went oflF smiling and proud."* 
Brave maidens of Blount! The fit brides of heroes! Like 
fied Earl Gilbert's daughter — 

"They can a warrior's feoliogs know 

**And w«ep a warrior's shame ; 
"Can buckle the spurs upon thy heel, 
**And belt thee with thy brand of steel, 

**And send thee forth to fame !*' 

Of the more prominent citizens of Blount, Willlvm H. Mus- 
OROVE deserves remembrance. He was bom in Georgia, Jan- 
nary 15, 1796 ; but his parents removed to South Carolina the 
year after, and to Cocke county, Tennessee, in 1807. In 1818 
lie came to Alabama, and taught school near Ely ton a year, 
then continued that vocation in this county for severed years. 
In 1828 he represented the coimty in the lower house of the 
legislature, and was five times re-elected ; serving also three 
years in the senate. He was also elected judge of the county 
court by the legislature, l)ut declined the honor. In 1850 he 
was ordained a minister of the gospel, at Mount Tabor chiirch. 
He led a company to the Creek frontier in 1836, and in 1861 
was chosen captam of a company, which he led to Pensacola. 
Wliile in the service there he died, March 6, 1862, and his 
remauis are intened in Mount Tabor chiirch-yard. Colonel 
Musgrove — as he was called from a militia title — was a plain 
man, of great moral woiih. He led a holy life a« a minister 
of God, and his conduct towards his feUow-man wjis exemplary 
in tlie highest degree. He married a daughter of Rev. John 
Fowler, and has numerous relatives in Blount. Rev. P. M. 
Musgrove, of this county, who received a very complimentary 
vote for congress in 1861, is his nephew. 

'''Campaigns of General Forrest." 


Mace T. P. Brindley was also a prominent citizen and 
planter of Blount for many years. He often served in the 
btate senate, and was a very useful member of society. He 
died two or three years ago, leaving manv relatives, among 
whom is Lieut. G. R. Brindley, a brave officer of the Fifty- 
fourth Alabama regiment. Major Brindley was a man of en- 
larged views, and steady adherence to principle. His absti- 
nence and upright habits enabled him to Uve to years border- 
ing on foui*score. 

Enoch ALDRroOE is doubtless the oldest resident of the 
county. Ho was bom in Bledsoe county, Tennessee, in 1807, 
and came with his parents to Blount in December 1816. He 
grew to manhood here, and in 1836 was a private in Capt. 
Musgiove's company diu-ing the Creek troiibles. He was 
elected to the general assembly tlie same year, and served the 
county in one house or the other for eighteen years between 
1836 and 1863. In 1862 he raised a company, and at the 
organization of the Forty-eighth Alabama Infantry was 
elected major of it. He commanded the regiment at Cedar 
Him, and was there seriously woimdcd. He resigned soon 
after. He has smce resided on his farm near Brooksville. 
Col. Aldridge has ever been a faithful public sers'ant, and 
deserves much credit as a self-mjule man. He is a close 
observer of men, and possesses much sagacity and energ)\ 
Of his seven sons wIk) were in the Confederate service, one 
was killed at the second Manassas, one died in prison at Fort 
Donelson, and one was crippled permanently. Lieutenant- 
Colonel Jesse J. Aldridge and Captain Andrew J. Aldridge, 
both of the Forty-eightli Alabama Infantry, are also his sons. 

Isaac Brown, John Brown, and Gabriel Hanby served 
Blount in the constitutional convention of 1819 ; Jolin S. 
Briishear and William H. Edwards in that of 1861; and 
WilHam H. Edwards and J. C. Gillespie in tlie "reconstruc- 
tion " convention of 1865. 

The following is a list of the members of the general 
assembly fi*om Blount. 


1819— Gabriel Hauby. J 844— William M. Griffin. 

1H2-2— D. Conner. 1«47— MueeT. P. Brindloy. 

1B2,'>— John AKh. Jrt,^)l— Knoch Aldrid^'C. 

1828— D. Conner. 1853— MnceT. P. Brindley. 

1832— tlohn Ash. ]8r)7— William Thaxton. 

18:^4— Samuel Johnson. lHr>9— F. W. Stuton. 

18:i5— William H. Musprove. 18GI— W. N. Crump. 

1838— Emory Lloyd. 1863— C. G. Beeson. 

1841— Mace T. B. Brindley. 18G5— W. H. Edwards. 




1819- -John Browse, Iiiaac Brown, 

BeDJamiu Matterson. 
lt?2U— John Browne, Ifiaac Brown, 

Col. John Brown. 
1H21— John Browne, Moses Ayres, 

Washington Allen. 
1822 — Marston Mead. 
1;<23 — Marston Mead. 
1824 — Marst4in Mead. 
]ii25^Marstou Mead. 
1826— Marston Mea<l. 
1H28— William H. Masgrove, David 

]c^29— 31ar8ton Mead, David Mnr- 
]g30-.William H. Masgrove, David 

1831 — William H. Musgrove, Thomas 

1<^32 — William H. Masgrove, Samnol 

1833 — William H. Musgrove, Sam ael 

] 834 — David Murphree, Emory Lloyd. 
1835— Emory Lloyd, Middleton T. 

1836 — Middleton T. Johnson, Enoch 


1837 -Enoch Aldridge, Joseph Tiffin. 

183(^— Marston Moud, G. H. Harri- 

18:J9-Mace T. T. Brindley. Ira E. 

l84U~-Ira E. Mo Million. Godfrey 

1841— Ira E. McMillion, William H. 

1842— Godfrey Fowler, Wharton. 

1843— Ira E. McMillion, Enoch Ald- 
ridgo . 

1844— Enoch Aldridge. Aqnilla Jones 

1H45— Enoch Aldridge, 

1847 — Enoch Aldridge. 

1H49— Enoch Aldridge. 

1851— Thomas W. Staton. 

1853— Enoch Aldridgo, William P. 
St. John . 

ia55— Thomas Staton, Reaben Ellis. 

1857— Thomas H. Staton, W. H. Ed- 

1859— Enoch Aldridge. A. M. Gibson. 

1861- Enoch Aldridge, Keuben EUis. 

186;^— Reaben Ellis, A. M. Gibson. 

1865— Solomon Palmer, A M; Gib- 

1867— [No election.] 

1870— A. P. Payne. 



Bullock was created from portions of Macon, Pike, Mont- 
gonierj^ and Biuboiu* by an act approved Dec. 5, 1866. 

It is in the eastern part of tlie State, and lies east of Mont- 
gomery, west of Russell and Barbour, south of Macon, north 
of Pike and Barbour. 

It wfus named to honor Col. E. C. Bullock of Barboui* ; a 
wketch of whom will l)e found imder the head of that county. 

The area of the coimty is about 600 scjuare miles. 

The census shows that in 1870 there were 115,310 acres of 
improved land, 117,423 acres of imimproved ; the whole 
valued at $2,468,172. 

The live stock was valued at $715,225, and consisted of 


1277 horses, 2381 mules, 9333 neat cattle, 2732 sheep, and 
11,045 hogs. 

In 1869 the county produced 389,791 bushels of Indian 
com, 13,632 bushels of oats, 33,281 bushels of potatoes, 1758 
tons of hay, 12,364 gallons of molasses, 17,972 bales of cot- 
ton, and 748 gallons of wine; and the value of farm produc- 
tions was $2,008,451. 

Though young, Bullock is the eighth county in the value of 
taxable propertj% 

The poi^iilation in 1870 was 7223 whites, and 17,251 blacks. 

The surface of the county is comparatively level ; the soil 
is prairie, gray, and hghfc. Bereft of natural conduits of 
trade, there are sixtj^-seven miles of railway witliin the bor- 
ders of the coimty : 34 miles of the Montgomery and Eufaula 
raih'oad, and 33^ of the railroad from Girard to Troy. 

Union Spkinos is the seat of justice. It was founded in 
1836, incoi'porated in 1852, and now has 1455 inhabitants, the 
majority of whom are whites* It is a growing town, with the 
attractions of good society. 

Bullock has no important history. 

By the act of organization, James T. Norman, Joel T. 
Crawford, and Malaclii Ivey were appointed to hold the elec- 
tion for a seat of justice. 

Daniel A. McCall represented the county in the house of 
representatives in 1867, and Daniel A. McCall, George M. 
Drake, and L. S. Speed (colored) in the same body in 1870. 

Richard Holmes PowelIi of this county is a well knoivn 
citizen of the State. He was honi in Monticello, Jasper 
countj', Georgia, Nov. 2, 1821. His father was a physician, 
and a native of Virginia, who often represented Talbot county, 
Georgia, in the senate of that State, and who brought his 
family to Alabama in 1839. His mother was a daugliter of 
Bev. Richard Holmes. The son was educated at Emorv and 
Kandolph-Macon colleges, and was the fellow-student at the 
latter of Lomax, Dowdell, Clopton, and Benagh, all familiar 
names in this State. He settled permanently in the part of 
Macon now embraced in Bullock in 1843. Here he was a 
planter, l)ut took an active interest in social and political 
questions. In 1852 he was gi*and worthy patiiarch of the 
Sons of Temperance in the State. When the war between 
the States commenced, he led a company into the service in 
time to become a paii; of the third infantry regiment raised 
in Alabama. He served as captain tlirougli the bloody cam- 
paigns of Virginia, till after Gettysburg, when he became 
major, and afterwards lieutenant colonel of the brave Third 
Alabama Infantry. At the close of the sti'uggle, he was 


elected to the senate from Macon, and served two years in 
that body. He was licensed as a lawyer in 1867, having 
reWewed the studies of his youth, and now practices in Union 
Springs. Col. Powell is a genileman of cultivated mind, 
literary attainments, stainless integrity, agreeable and affable 
manners, and earnest but moderate opinions. As an officer 
he was a favorite with his command. He married a sister of 
of CoL Homer Blackman of this county. 

Daniel Alexander McCall, the first judge of tlie probate 
court of Bullock, was bom in Cumberland county, North 
CaroUna, in 1816, and came to Alabama in 1839. He resided 
in Barbour, and was engaged in planting, merchandizing, and 
steamboating till 1856, when he came to that part of Pike 
now embraced in this county. He was elected to the senate 
from that county in 1863, and, in 1867, when thrown into this 
coimty by the act of organization, he was elected to the office 
of probate judge. Le^slated out of office in 1868, he was 
elected to me de facto legislature of 1869 to fill a vacancy, 
and re-elected the year foUowing. He was admitted to the 
bar shortly after the peace, and is now practicing in Union 
Springs as the partner of Col. James N. Arrington, late solici- 
tor for this judicial district. He married a daughter of the 
late Judge Charles A. Dennis, one of the earliest settlers of 


the county of butler. 

Butler was formed from Conecuh by an act passed Dec. 13, 
1819, and originally embraced thirty townships, forming an 
oblong square. It is in the south center of the State, and lies 
south of Liowndes, west of Crenshaw, north of Conecuh and 
Covington, and east of Wilcox and Conecuh. 

It was named to honor Capt. Wm. Butler, one of the first 



settlers of the county, wlio was killed by Indians near Butler 
Springs in March lbl8.* 

Its area is 783 square miles. 

The population is thus given by the federal census : 

1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 

Whites 835 3004 6192 7162 11260 8590 

Blacks 570 1746 2493 3074 6tt02 6391 

The setting aside of a part to Crenshaw was the cause of 
the decrease between 1860 and 1870. 

In 1870 the improved lands in farms were 75,685 acres, the 
unimproved 125,445 acres ; the whole valued at $927,827. " 

The value of Uve stock was $363,962, and comprised 1017 
horses, 1042 mules, 7026 neat cattle, 2281 sheep, and 11,245 

The productions in 1869 were 251,512 bushels of Indian com, 
4126 bushels of oats, 61,349 bushels ofpotatoes, 5854 bales of 
cotton, 2737 pounds of wool, and 64y5 gallons of molasses; 
the value of animals slaughtered was $69,170 ; and the value 
of farm productions was $983,066. 

The surface of the coimtry is varied with ridge and flat lands. 
The soil is light, except on the creek bottoms, but susceptible 
of a high degree of artificial enrichment. 

The pine forests are extensive, and numeroiis lumber mills 
are in operation. 

The Mobile & Montgomery Bailroad passes throu^ the 
heart of the county for 34 miles, and the Yicksburg & Bruns- 
wick, and Selma& Gulf railrbads are surveyed into its center. 

Greenville, the seat of justice, has 2856 inhabitants, of 
whom 1555 are whites. It has a considerable produce trade, 
especially in cotton. It was first called Buttsville to honor 
Capi Samuel Butts, a Georgian who was killed at the battle 
of Calabee, January 1814 ; but the name was changed by an 
act of the legislature in 1822, and the present name bestowed 
because many of its early inhabitants were from that district 
in South Carolina. 

Georgiana has about 400 inhabitants. 

Butler was the scene of hostilities between the white pio- 
neers and the Indians in 1818, and several outrages and mur- 
ders were committed by the latter. The night of March 13, 
a party of Indians surrounded the house of Wm. Ogle, near 
where Fort Dale was built afterwards, and massacred him, 

*WiiiLiAM BuTLEB Wfts B native of Virgnnia. bnt bad reRided in Georgia, 
and served in the legislature of that State. He commanded a company at 
the battle of Calabee, and had been living in Alabama but a few months 
before his death. The name reported in the original bill was **Fairfield," 
but **Batlor" was inserted on the final passage of the bill. 

hVriMR COUNTY. 147 

Mra Stroud, and five children. A week later, Captains Butler 
and James ^affold, and Wm. P. Gardner, Daniel Shaw, and 

Hinson, were ambushed near Butler Springs, and Butler, 

Gardner, and Shaw were killed. Capt. Samuel Dale of Mon- 
roe reached the settlements a day or two later with a body of 
men, and built Fort Dale, strengthened Fort Bibb, and effectu- 
ally protected the settlers. 

The name Crenshaw is a familiar one in Butler. Anderson 
Crenshaw, who was on the bench of oui* State for twenty-six* 
years, resided in the county. He was bom in Newberry dis- 
trict. South Carolina, in 1786. His father wjis tax collector of 
Newberry for many years. Graduating at South Carolina 
College m '1806, he read law under Judge Nott, and was 
licensed in 1809. In 1812 he was in the legislatui*e of his 
native State. In 1820 he came to Alabama, and settled in 
Cahaba. The year following he was elected to the supreme 
court bench, a position he held twelve years. . It was soon 
after his election that he settled in this coimty. When the 
supreme and circuit courts were separated. Judge Crenshaw 
was continued on the circuit bench. He was filling this posi- 
tion in 1839 when elected to the new office^ of chancellor, 
defeating Messrs. J. B. Clark of Greene, Robert McAlpin of 
Mobile, and E. S. Dargan of Montgomery. It was whUe hold- 
ing this office that he died in 1847. Judge C. was tall and 
slim in person, with a stooping gait, and a dark complexion. 
He was kind and amiable in disposition. Honest, Just, and 
benevolent, his moral character was stainless. " Mis mind 
was stored," says a contemporary, " with a vast amoimt of 
knowledge of the principles of jurisprudence, and he strove 
"to make nis court the forum of the reason and spirit of the 
" law." The legislature of our State named a coimty in his 
honor in 1865. He married a Miss Chiles of Abbeville, S. C, 
and two of his sons have represented Butler in the legidature. 
One of these. 

Walter Henry Crenshaw, of this county, was bom in New- 
berry, South Carolina, in 1817. Receiving a good ediication, 
he read law imder his father, but did not practice. Ab early 
as 1839 he represented Butler in the lower house of the legis- 
lature, and has since been repeatedly re-elected. From loGl 
to 1865 he was speaker of the house of representatives. He 
has also represented Butler and Lowndes six years in the 
senate, defeating Hon. John K. Homy in 1851, and presiding 
over that body lor two years. He is now judge of the ciim- 
inal court of the county. He is of medium highth, with 
a dark complexion, and a harsh voice. His integrity, moral 
standing, and public spirit are widely kno^vn, and his name 


has been frequently coupled with higher official positions than 
those he has occupied. He mamed a Miss Crenshaw of We- . 
tumpka, niece of Hon. John A. Elmore, and one of his sons 
has been an officer of the county. 

John K. Henry has long been a resident of tliis county. 
He was born in Hancock county, Georgia, March 23, 1814, 
and came with his parents to this State in 1819. His father, 
^ a planter of narrow means, settled m Wilcox county, where 
the son giew to manhood with few educational advantages. 
He was m his 29th year when he began to read law, whicn he 
did in Greenville, having removed to the town previously. 
He soon prepared himself, and began a practice which his 
industiy and aljiUty rapidly augmented. In 1851 he was the 
nominee of his party for the State senate. In 1860 he was 
elected to the ch'cuit court bench over Messrs. W. B, H. How- 
ard of Wilcox, and S. J. Gumming of Monroe. This respon- 
sible position he filled with decided satisfaction to the people, 
who re-elected him for another teim in 1866 without opposi- 
tion.. But in 1868 ho was ejected from office by congress. 
Judge Henry is of ordinary mghth, and spare, flis deport- 
ment is aflfable and his nature genial. Few men have filled 
the bench of the State with greater credit, wliile his abilily 
as an attorney stands revealed by the rapidity with which he 
made his way to the high rank accorded him m his profession. 
He married a Miss Caldwell of this couniy. 

The late Benjamin Faneuil Porter resided in this couniy. 
He was a native of Charleston, South Carolina, and was bom 
in 1808. His father, a native of the Bermudas, came to 
Charleston in his boyhood. His mother was a Miss Fickling. 
The son received a very limited education, which he greatfy 
improved by study. He was admitted to the bar in 1825, and 
three years later removed to Chesterville. In 1830 he came 
to AJabama, and settled in Claiborne, Monroe county. His 
profession faiUng to support him, he practiced medicine about 
a year. Having volunteered in a criminal case, his speech so 
impressed Mr. Dellett that he persuaded him to resume the 
practice, which was now attended witli success. In 1832 he 
represented Monroe in the legislature, and the same year was 
elected judge of the county court. He was twice re-elected 
to represent Monroe, but the justices appointed him reporter 
of the supreme court, and he removed to Tuskaloosa to attend 
to its duties. The bar of the State know how faithfrdly he 
labored in this capacity. The fourteen volumes which, as a 
whole or in part, bear his name, are " a work of which any 
" man might be proud."* From 1837 to 1840 Judge Porter 

* Judge O'Neal of Soath Carolina in his Bench and Bar. 


represented Toskaloosa in the lower house, and in the latter 
year was elected judge of the circuit court for the Mobile dis- 
trict. He served only a short time, resigning because a ques- 
tion of his eligibiUty was raised. In 1842, and again in 1845 
and 1847 he was a member of the legislature. In 1848 he 
removed to Georgia for his health, and fiom thence he 
returned to Charleston in 1850. In 1858 he removed to 
north Alabama, and two years later made GreenA-ille his home. 
He resided here till his death in June 18G8. He was a man 
of bright intellect, generous impjilses, enlarged \dews and 
industrious habits. His disposition was amiable, his nature 
emotional, his mind speculative, liis heart charitable. He 
married a Miss Kydd of South Carolina, and ime of his sons 
was killed at the battle of Franklin. A daughter, a lady of 
literary culture, resides in Greenville, with others of his 

Sakuel Adams, of this county, was one of Alabama's mih- 
tary heroes. He was bom hi Abbc\Tlle district. South Caro- 
lina, in 1830, and was a graduate of Columbia College. In 
1851 he came to Butler, and for a year or two was prmcipal 
of a male and female academj' in Greenville. He tlien read 
law under Hon. John K. Hemy, and removed to Conecuh 
county, where he was the law partner of his relative, Hon. J. 
A. Stallworth. Eetumiug to Greenville in 1854, he soon after 
became the law partner of Col. H. A. Herbert. He was twice 
elected to represent the county in the legislatui-e, and was a 
successful attorney. T\Tien tne war began he entered the 
service as a second Ueutenant in the Ninth Alabama Infantiy. 
and served till February 1862 in Virginia. While on a visit 
home to recruit, he was chosen colonel of the Thirty-tliird 
Alabama, which shared the fortimes of the western army. 
At Perryville Colonel Adams commanded a brigade, and was 
severely wounded in the foot. Eejoining his regiment before 
his leave of absence expired, he led it at Murfreesboro ; asha. 
did in all the subsequent operations down to Atlanta. Here, 
while superintending the construction of outworks, July 21, a 
ball from a shan^shooter passed through his breast, kiUing 
him instantly. He was buried in Atlanta. The prominent 
traits in the character of Col. Adams were integrity, sincerity, 
courage and morality. He was unassuming m his deport- 
ment, and apparently cold and indifferent ; buthis real nature 
was genial and generous. As an oflBcer he was trustwoiihy 
and Drave, and Generals Hardee and Cleburne recommended 
him for promotion. He married a sister of Col. H. A. Hei- 
bert of this county. 



S. J. Boiling and John McPherson represented Butler in 
the constitutional convention of 1861, and Walter H. Cren- 
shaw and M. C. Lane in that of 1865. 

The following is a list of the members of the legislature : 


1822— John Dandridge Bibb. 
1825— William Jones. 
1828— John Watkins. 
1830— WilUam Hemphill. 
1833_William Hemphill. 
1836— Samuel W. Oliver. 
1837 — H. Lee Henderson. . 
1839— Joseph W. Townsend. 
1840 — Jesse Womaok. 

1842 — Asa Arrinp[ton. 
184&— Archibald Gilchrist 
1847— Thomas tJ. Judge. 
1851— Walter H. Crenshaw. 
1855— F. 0. Webb. 
1857— Thomas J. Burnett. 
1861 — Edmund Harrison. 
1865— WAiiTEB H. Cbenshaw. 

liepresentat Ives. 

1825— Nathan Cook. 

1826— Andrew T. Perry. 

1827— Nathan Cook. 

1828— Nathan Cook. 

1829^Nathan Cook. 

1830— Nathan Cook. 

1831— Nathan Cook. 

1832— Nathan Cook. 

183:j— Edward Bowen. 

1834 — Edward Bowen, Hemdon Lee 

1836— John W. Womack, Hemdon L. 

1836— Henry T. Jones, H.L.Hen- 

1837— Henry T. Jones, H. L. Hender- 

1838— Henry T. Jones, Walter H. 

1839 — Jesse Womack, Jas. W. Wade. 

1840— Edward Bowen, Walter H. 

1841— Joseph Bhodes, W. H. Cren- 

1842— Thomas Hill Watts, H. L. 

1843— Wm. H. Trawick, W. D. K. 

1844— Thomas Hill Watts, Joseph 

1845— Thomas H. Watte, W. D. K. 

1847— B.W. Henderson, Walter H. 

1849— Edward Bowen, John 8. Mo- 

1851— Brockman W. Henderson, J. 
S. Mo Mullen. 

1853 — Thomas J. Burnett, James B. 

1855— R. R. Wright, J. 8. McMullen. 

1857 — Samuel Adams, A. B, Scarbor- 

1859 — Samuel Adams* M. C. Laihe. 

1861 — Waltbb H. Cbenshaw, Thomas 
J. Burnett. 

1863— Walteb H. Cbenshaw, 8. F. 

1865— Thomas C. Crenshaw, 8. F. 

1867— [No election.] 

1870— J. L. PoweU. 

* The small capitals show that the member presided over the body at 
that session. 



Calhoun was organized by an act passed December 18, 
1832, and t^e territory taken from that ceded by the Musco- 

gees the March before. The orignal dimensions were muti- 
ited b^' parts being assi^ed to Cleburne and Etowa, at the 
formation of those counties. 

It was called "Benton" by the act by which it was estab- 
lished, in honor of Col. Thomas H. !benton,* the Missouri 
statesman ; but was changed by an act passed January 29, 
1858, to Calhoun, to honor the memory of Hon. John C. 
Calhount of South Carolina, whose political course had 
proven more satisfactory than that of Mr. Benton. 

It is in the northeastern part of the State, south of Etowa 
and Cherokee, west of Cleburne, north of Talladega and 
Cleburne, and east of St. Clair. 

Area, about 610 square miles. 

The assessed value of real estate in 1870 was $1,407,530 ; 
I>ersoDalt7 $294,798 ; total $1,702,258. 

The following has been the movement of population : 

1840 1850 I860 1870 

Whites 11.360 13,397 17,169 10,088 

Blacks 2,900 3,766 4,370 3,892 

In 1870 there were 68,234 acres of improved, and 126,071 

*Thoma8 Hart Benton was a native of North Carolina, bat remoTed to 
Tennessee when a yonnf; man. He was there a lawyer ; when the war of 
1811^*14 began he was appointed a field officer, and served in Alabama, being 
in command of Fort Montgomery, Baldwin county, for a short time. He 
removed to Missouri and was a senator in congress Irom that State from 1820 
to 1850. He died in 1858. Hie '^Thirty Years View" is a standard work on 
the public measures of the United States. 

fJoHN Caldwell Calhoun was born in Abbeville district, 8. C, in 1782. 
He became an attorney, but in 1811 entered political life as a member of 
congress. During the eight years of Mr. Monroe's administration he was 
minister of war, 1817V25, and at the end of that time became vice-president 
of the United States, to which he was twice chosen. He resigned the vice- 
presidency in 1831, and, except the two years of his service as secretary of 
state under Mr. Tyler, he was a senator in congress for much of the time tiU 
the clpee of his Ufe, He died March 31, 1850. 


acres of unimproyed farm lands, and the value thereof was 

The value of live stock was $339,112, and consisted of 1186 
horses, 986 mules, 5753 neat cattle, 3441 sheep, 9521 h(^. 

In 1869 the productions were 238,451 bushels of Indian 
com, 29,030 bushels of oats, 79,818 bushels of wheat, 20,643 
of potatoes, 88,463 pounds of butter, 3038 bales of cotton, 
1500 pounds of tobacco, 4840 pounds of wool, 10,795 gallons 
of molasses ; the value of animals slaughtered was $93,302 ; 
and the value of farm productions was $713,006. 

The surface of the countiy is broken and mountainous, inter- 
sected by vallejrs of great fertility and beauty. 

The Coosa river is part of the western boundaiT, but is 
not used for steam navigation. The Selma & Borne JElailroad 
passes through the heart of the county for 34 miles ; and the 
projected railroad from OpeUka to GuntersviUe, and one from 
Atlanta to Gadsden, are surveyed through it. 

Coal, iron ore, millstone grit, pine lumber, <fec., are among 
the abundant natural resources of Calhoun. The furnace near 
Oxford was operating with much profit till destroyed by G«n. 
Croxton's raid in 1865. 

There are also mineral waters in the county. 

Jacksonville, the seat of justice, is on the Selma & Borne 
Bailroad and is given a population of 958 soids by the census 
of 1870, but it is thought to be at least one-fourtn larger. It 
was named to honor Gen. Andrew Jackson. A college for 
males has been recently erected in the town and water works 
are being erected. 

Oxford, in the southern part of the county, is a thriving 
railroad town of about 800 mhabitants. 

Cross Plains has about 350 inhabitants, and is also on the 

In the western part of this coimty is the battle-ground of 
TaUaseehatchee. While Gen. Jackson was moving southward 
on his first expedition against the hostile Muscogees, he sent 
Brig. Gen. CoflFee in advance with about 1000 men to attack 
the town of TaUaseehatchee. Surrounding the place, Nov. 3, 
1813, the savages were drawn from then* houses by decoy 
companies, enveloped within the lines of the whites, and cut 
to pieces. Without once asking for quarter, they met their 
fate like heroes, and fought desperately. They were all killed 
— 186 in number — not a warrior escaping. Eignty-four women 
and children were captured, some of whom were carelessly 
or accidentally kiUed.* The loss of tiie whites was five killed 

*It was on this occaflion that an Indian woman was found dead with an 
infant at her breast. \^hen the oaptives were brought into oamp. Gen. 
Jackson asked the women to take care of him. They refused. '*A11 his 


and eighteen wounded. A noticeable circumstance in con- 
nection with this battle is that the Indians were aQ armed 
with a bow and quiver of arrows, besides gnns, which showed 
that they had taken to heart the advice of Tecumseh to throw 
aside the arts they had learned from the whites, and return 
to their primitive customs. 

A number of distinguished citizens have adorned the annals 
of Calhoun. Among them Miles W. Abernethy mav bo 
named. He came from Lincoln county, North Carolina, 
(which he twice represented in the legislature) about the year 
1836, and became a merchant and planter in this coimty. 
He has served it in both branches of the legislature, and has 
ever exercised a salutary influence over his fellow men. His 
solid character is made up of the cardinal \drtues, and his 
sterling sense has enlarged his capacity for usefulness. His 
wife was a Miss Hoke, and his only son fell on one of the 
battlefields of the Old Dominion. 

Thomas Avington Walker is a citizen of Calhoun. He 
was bom in Jasper county, Georgia, January 5, 1811, and was 
the son .of a wealthy planter. The maiden name of his 
mother was Smith. The parents came to the State in 1822, 
and settled in Shelby. The son was graduated at the State 
University in 1833, read law imder Hon. Anderson Crenshaw 
of Butler, and was licensed to practice in 1834. Removing 
to Elyton, he there opened a law office, but in 1836 he came 
to reside in this county. In 1835 he was elected general of 
militia at a time when the proximity of the Indian tribes 
made the office one of responsibility. A year later he was 
elected by the legislature solicitor of his district, defeating 
Messrs. Felix G. McConnell, Geo. W. Stone, and H. A. Rut- 
ledge, all of TaUadega; but he resigned the solicitorship when 
chosen to represent this county in the legislature in 1839. 
By successive elections he served in the house of representa- 
tives tin 1842, when he was transferred to the senate for a 
term of three years. In 1847 he was chosen by the general 
assembly to the judgeship of the circuit court, defeating Hon. 
Gteo. W. Lane of Madison. And when the election of judges 
was transferred to the people in 1850, he defeated Ju(%e 
Lane for the same office by 4214 majority. He continued on 
the bench till 1856, when he was defeated by Smith D. Hale, 
esq., of Madison. Shortly after, he was chosen to the presi- 
dency of the Selma & Rome Railroad, a post held by him till 

1856. From 1859 to 1865 he served the county in the State 

• — » - 

relations are dead," said they, **kill him, too." Bat* 'the war-horse of the 
Hermitage** had the child taken to his own home, where he was reared, and 
educated to basiness ; and where he died in early yonth. His name was 


senate, Dresiding over that body the last two years of the 
time. Of late years he has been engaged in planting. In 
personal appearance, Judge Walker is short and stout, with a 
protrudinff brow, and a rubicund visage. His mind is an 
exceedingly active one, fully aUve to current events. His 
reputation for hospitality, public spirit, energy and benevo- 
lence are well estaolished ; and his strong practical sense, 
acknowledged ability, and blameless life inspire confidence. 
He married a sister of Col. Wm. McGehee of this county. 

John Foster has long been a citizen of this county. He 
was bom in Troy, New York, in 1818, and was the son of a 
druggist. His maternal uncle, Samuel G. Huntingdon, was a 
judge of the circuit court of New York for eight years. 
Graduating at Williams College, Massachusetts, he read law 
under his uncle, and came to the bar in 1838. ,He at once 
came to this State, settled in Jacksonville, and practiced sev- 
eral years in partnership with Hon. Wm. B. Martin. In 1843 
he was defeated for the legislature. In 1856 he was elected 
chancellor of the northern division to succeed Hon. A. J. Walker. 
He was re-elected in 1862, and appointed to the same position 
by Gt)v. Parsons. He served till JJecember 1865, when he was 
not a candidate for re-election. He was a member of the 
reconstruction convention of 1865. Since then he has prac- 
ticed in partnership with Gen. W. H. Forney. Mr. Foster is 
of mediimi hi^hth, with an intellectual head. He is an able 
lawyer, a finished scholar, and a graceful orator. His wife 
was a Miss Scott, and his only daughter married L. W. Grant, 
esq., of this county. 

This county is the home of William Henry Forney. His 
father, Jacob Forney, was the son of Gen. Peter Forney of 
Lincohi county. North Carolina, and brother of Hon. Daniel 
M. Forney, wno represented the Old North State in congress. 
His mother was the daughter of Hon. Daniel Hoke, of Jjin- 
coln county. The son was bom in Lincolnton, November 9, 
1823, and came in 1835 with his parents to Calhoun. Here 
he grew to manliood, and was graduated at the State Univer- 
sity in 1844. He read law with his brother, D. P. Fonjiey, 
in Jacksonville, but went to Mexico in Coffey's First Alabama 
Volunteers, and was a lieutenant at the siege of Vera Cruz. 
At the expiration of his term of service — twelve months — ^he 
returned with his regiment and resumed his studies, this 
time under Hon. T. A. Walker. He obtained license in 1848, 
and formed a partnership with Gen. James B. Martin. In 
1859 he represented Calnoun in the lower house. When the 
war began ne entered the service as captain in the Tenth Ala- 
bama. At DrainesviUe he was woimded in the leg, but returned 


to the regiment within two months, having become its major. 
As such he was mider fire at Yorktown, and at Williamsburg 
receiyed a ball in the shoulder, which broke the bone of his 
right arm. He was lying in William and Mary College when 
the enemy captured him, and held him prisoner four months. 
Exchanged, he returned to find that he nad become lieutenant 
colonel m Martsh, and colonel by the death of Col. Woodward. 
At Salem Church he was sligntly wounded in the le^. At 
Getirsbu^ he led his regiment, but was severely wounaed by 
a ball which shattered his arm in the same place it was broken 
at Williamsburg ; and, after he fell, a baU carried away a third 
of a heel bone, inflicting his severest wound. He was left in 
the hands of the enemy, and this time was a prisoner for thir- 
teen months. While in Fort Delaware, he was one of the fifty 
ofiicers selected to be placed on Morris Island within ramge of 
the Confederate batteries, and was brought to Port Royal for 
that purpose ; but the retahatory measure was adjusted, and 
they were exchanged. In 1864, though on crutches, he 
rejoined his command, took charge of the brigade, and shortly 
received his commission as brigadier general. At Hatcher's 
Hun, High Bridge, and FarmviUe ho commanded the brigade, 
and surrendered it at Appomatox 1050 strong. Resuming the 
practice in Jacksonville, ne was chosen to the senate in 1865, 
and served till the reconstruction measures were put in force. 

Gen. Forney is six feet in stature, with a stout constitution, 
and a face which reveals his German origin. In deportment 
he is modest and impretentious, but kind and cheeitul. His 
character for integrity and morality is unimpeachable, while 
his reputation as a lawyer, thougn high, is more solid than 
brilliant. As an officer he displayed soldierly qualities, and 
exhibited stolid courage and heroic endurance. 

His wife is the daughter of Mr. E. L. Woodward, a mer- 
chant of this county. His brother, Lieutenant-colonel Gooi^e 
Hoke Forney of the First Confederate BattaUon, a gallant 
and promising officer, fell at the Wilderness, aged 28 years. 
Major Daniel P. Forney, who was of the Second Alabama, is 
an elder brother. Captain Alexander Brevard Forney, who 
represented Lowndes m 1847, was the cousin of General F. 

John Hobace Forney, brother of the foregoing, is also a 
resident of this county. He was bom in LLncoln county, 
North Carolina, Aug. 12, 1829, and ^ew up in Calhoun. In 
1848 he was appointed a cadet at West Pomt by Hon. F. W. 
Bowdon, and graduated four years later. He was assigned to 
the Tenth Inmntry, and was on duty in the territories tiU 
18o8, when he accompanied Gen. A o. Johnston's expedition 
to Salt Lake. In 18d0 he ranked as first lieutenant, and was 


instructor of tactics at West Point. In December he rested, 
came to Montgomery, and offered his services to Gk)v. Moore. 
He was commissioned colonel of artillery in the State forces, 
and sent to take command at Pensacola. While there he was 
appointed captain in the regular army of the Ck)nfederacy, 
and attached to Qen. Bragg's staff. June 4, 1861, he was 
appointed colonel of the Tenth Alabama, and proceeded with 
it to Virginia. For three months succeeding ihe first Manas- 
sas he was in command of Kirby Smith's brigade. He was 
commanding the regiment at Drainesville when his arm was 
shattered by a ball. In March following he was commissioned 
a brigadier general, and ordered to the department of South 
Alabama and West Florida. He remained a year in Mobile, 
when he was placed in command of a division at Vicksburg, 
and participated, in that siege. When exchanged he was 
transferred to the trans-Mississippi, and commanded a divi- 
sion under Gen. Magruder. He was thus employed when the 
department was surrendered in 1865. Since then he has 
been planting in Marengo and Calhoun. The wound Gen. 
Forney received at Drainesville was a severe one, and limited 
his sphere of active duty. In that battle he was cool and 
undaunted, and handled his men with soldierly precision. 
As an officer he was rather strict, but a thorough cusciplina- 
rian. He is extensively informed, and is an agreeable and 
instructive companion. His liighth is the ordinary, and he is 
stoutly built, with a broad brow, and distinct features. His 
wife is the daughter of Col. Henrj^ A. Rutledge of Talladega, 
of the famous South CaroUna family. 

"The gallant Pelham" was a native of this county, and 
was bom near Alexandria, Sept. 7, 1838. His father. Dr. 
Atkinson Pelham, came to the coimty from Kentucky in 1837, 
and has been for many years a prominent physician. His 
mother was a Miss Mc6ehee, whose family came fi'om Person 
county, North Carolina, to Calhoun about 1832. Their son, 
John Pelham, remained in the coimty till appointed a cadet 
at West Point in 1856. This was done by the representative 
in congress from, the district, Hon. S. W. Harris, at the 
request of Hon. A. J. Walker. He was placed in the only 
5-year class ever organized at the academy, which account 
for his presence there in 1861. His standing ui the classes 
was low, but his commission was passed on, and he would 
have received it had he remained a week longer. But the war 
was pending, and in April he crossed the Une at Louisville 
di^uised as one of Gen. Scott's couriers. Bepairing at once 
to Montgomery, he reported for duty, and was commissioned 
first lieutenant of artillery, regular army, and ordered to take 


charge of the ordnance at Lynchburg, Va. He remained there 
a few days, then was assigned as drill-master to Albertus's 
(afterwards Imboden's) battery at Winchester. He handled 
these gons at the first Manassas with duch skill and daring as 
to attract the attention of his superiors. Gen. J.E. B. Stuart 
entrusted him with the organization of a battery of six pieces 
of horse artillery, and in tne fall of 1861 he raised the requi- 
site number of men from Alabama, Virginia, and Maryland. 
Fortjr of these went from Talladega county, under Lieut. Wm. 
McGrregor, a gallant officer. At Williamsburg he was again 
conspicuous for valor and skill, managing his guns with the 
coolness of a veteran. At the first CJold Harbor he engaged 
fhree heavy batteries with a Napoleon, fighting all day with 
bloodhound pertinacity, and the warm pressure of old Stone- 
w£dl's hand told the young hero how well he had demeaned 
himself. Soon after this he had a hot encounter with a gun- 
boat at the "White House," and drove it oflF. At the second 
battle of Manassas he thrust his pieces forward almost into 
the enemy's columns and used them with fatal effect ; again 
receiving the thanks of Gren. Jackson for heroic conduct. He 
was on the left at Sharpsburg, commanding nearly all our 
artillery in that part of tne field, and directing it wim a mas- 
ter's hand. In the bloody repulse the federals received at 
Shepherdstown his guns roared for hours. A Uttle later he 
was with Stuart in the bloody track he made from Aldie to 
Markham's, fighting tlie immense odds of the foe till they 
were within a few paces of the muzzle of his pieces, then 
limbering up and ctawing off to a better position, there to 
renew the fierce struggle. But the climax of his renown was 
reached at Fredericksburg. He went to the foot of the 
bights with one Napoleon gun, opened tlie battle, and drew 
upon himself the concentrated fire of half a dozen batteries. 
He was enveloped in a cloud of shot and shell, but he 
blenched not, the steady roar of his war-dog continued, and 
the blue columns were rent and torn by it. Gren. Lee was on 
the hill above, and exclaimed, "It is glorious to see such 
"courage in one so young!" Wlien his ammunition was 
spent, he retired in obedience to a peremptory order, and was 
assigned to the command of the artillery on the Confederate 
right He adv/mced these pieces on the retiring enemy, and 
at nightfall was thundering on their bleeding nank. In his 
report of the battle Gen. Lee spoke of no one but him below 
the rank of major general, terming him " the gallant Pelham." 
His commission as lieutenant colonel was issued soon after, 
and only awaited confirmation by the senate when his death 
occurred. This was at Kelly's Ford, on the Rappahannock, 
March 17, 1863. He had gone to visit some ladies in Culpep- 


per county, when the cannonading aroused and hurried him 
to the scene. Hir artillery had not come up, but he galloped 
up to a regiment that was wavering, and shouted, " Forward, 
boys ! forward to victory and glory!" and at the same moment 
was struck by a shell fragment which penetrated the back 
part of the skull. He Ungered till after midnight, when Gem 
Stuart telegraphed to Hon. J. L. M. Curry: "The noble, the 
ohivalric, the gallant Pelham is no more. He was killed in 
action yesterday. His remains will be sent to joxi to-day. 
How much he was beloved, appreciated, and admired, let the 
tears of agony we here shed, and the gloom of mourning 
throughout my command, bear witness. His loss is irrepar- 
" able." His remains lay in state in the capitol at Bichmond, 
then were brought to JacksonviDe for intermit, Hon. John 
Foster deUvering the funeral oration. Gen. Stuart announced 
to the division ite "irreparable loss" in a general order which 
concludes : " His eye had glanced over every battle field of 
" this army, from the first Manassas to the moment of his 
" death, and he was, with a single exception, a brilliant actor 
in all. The memory of " the gallant Pelham," his many vir- 
tues, his noble nature, and purity of character, is enshrined 
" as a sacred legacy in the hearts of all who knew him. His 
"record has been oright and OT)otless ; his career brilliant and 
" successful. He fell — the noblest of sacrifices — on the altar 
" of his country, to whose glorious service he had dedicated 
"his life from the beginning of the war." 

Such is a brief but resplendent record of this boy hero, the 
American LaEochejaquelein. In person he was of ordinary 
stature and light buila, but remarkably sinewy. He was con- 
sidered the best athlete at West Pomt, and he was there 
noted for his fondness for fencing, boxing, &c. The Prince 
of Wales was struck with his horsemanship when he visited 
the academy in 1860. He had a boyish appearance, erect, 
and neat in dress. Modest as a maiden, in the social circle 
he shone with the mild eflFulgence of a pleiade, but the battle- 
field transformed him into the fiery meteor with its dazzling 
glare. He was calmly and recklessly brave, and saw men 
torn to pieces around him without emotion — his heart and 
eye were on the stern work he was performing. Even in 
early youth he fought a larger school-fello^v till he fainted 
with exliaustion. Well might old Stonewall say, " If you 
" have another Pelham, General Stuart, give him to me." ilis 
mind was of a pious turn, his language was chaste, and his 
bearing courteous. He never spoke of himself, and seemed 
to be unconscious of his own merit. 

The parents of Col. Pelham are yet residing in Calhoun, 
where a younger brother also Uves. Two other brothers are 


in Atlanta, Georgia, while a fourth was an officer in the Fifty- 
first Alabama. An uncle was surveyor general of Arkansas. 
The deeds of a son of the latter, who was a private in Terry's 
Texas regiment, caused the legislature of that State to enact 
that as he, " a hero in more than one hundred battles," had 
fallen while charging the enemy at Dalton, Gteorgia, leaving 
no issue, the name of a certain child (a nephew,) should be 
changed to Charles Thomas Pelham to i)erpetuate his name. 

John Henry Caldwell of this coimty is a native of Ken- 
tucky, but grew to manhood in Madison. Receiving a good 
education, he taught school in Limestone, and otlior places. 
He came to this county, in early manhood, about the year 
1847, and was for some years a teacher here. He read law 
meantime, and was enrolled as an attorney. In 1857 he rep- 
resented tiie county in the legislature, and was instrumental 
in having its name, changed. In 1858 he removed to St. Clair, 
and, at the outbreak of the war, recruited a company of 
which he was elected captain. It became part of the Tenth 
Alabama Infantry, with which he served, and rose to the rank 
of lieutenant colonel. In 1865 he was elected soUcitor of 
this judicial circuit, and held the office till 1868. Since then 
he has given his time to the practice of the law, associated 
witii Hon. G. C. Ellis. Col. Caldwell is a gentleman of tal- 
ents, and easy address ; a fluent speaker, and an agreeable 

Samuel J. Bradford, Moses Benson, Christopher A. Green, 
John Mattox, and Mathew W. Haustin, were the first com- 
missioners of roads and* re venue — 1833. 

Delegates to the Constitutional Convention of 18G1: G. C. 
Whatley, J. M. Crook, D. T. Ryan. 

Delegates to the Constitutional Convention of 1865 : John 
Foster, Isaac P. Moragne, Joseph C. McAuley. 

The following were the members of the general assembly 

£rom Calhoun : 


]S34_Wil1iam Arnold. 18&3— William B. Mabtin. 

183a— WilUam B. McClellan. 1855— Miles W. Abernethy. 

1839— John B. Clarke. 1859— Thomas A. Walkeb. 

1842— Thomas A. Walker. 1861— Thomas A. Walker. (1863.) 

1845^ John B. Clarke. I805~William H. Forney. 

]^7_ William B. Martin. [No election in 1867 or since.] 

188!— Abram J. Walker. 

Rejn'esentn tiveJi. 

J834— Charles Lewis. 1849— J. N. Young, Asa Skelton, G. 
1835>— John Turner. C. Whatley. 

1836— John Tnmer. 1851— Wm. P. Davis, Wm. C. Price, 
1837— ^William B. Martin. Mathew Allen. 



]B38~-William B. Martin. 

1839— Thos. A. Walker, John Coch- 
ran. John T. A. Hughes. 

1840— Thomas A. Walker, Stephen 
Kelley, John T. A. Hughes. 

1841~Tho8. A. Walker, John Coch- 
ran, Maihew Allen. 

1842— Wm.B. Martin, John Cochran, 
Miles W. Abernethy. 

1843— Wm.B. Martin, Henry T. Reid, 
Mathew Allen. 

1844 — Wm. Young, Lewis D. Jones, 
Spartan Allen. 

1845— Abram J. Walker, Elijah Can*, 
Mathew Allen. 

1847— R. H. Wilson, W. R. Hanna, 
Giles L. Drirer. 

1863- Wm. P. Davis, Asa Shelton 

J. N. WiUis. 
1865— Wm. P. Davis, Isaac P. Mo 

ragne, G. C. Ellis. 
1857— John H. Caldwell, J. J. Baugh 

John H. Wright. 
185»— Willam H Forney. WiUiam F 

Bush, John H. Wright. 
Igei^Wm. B. Martin, S. M. Camih 

a D. McClellan. 
1863— W. M. Hames, E. T.Reid,D 

T. Ryan. 
1865— Wm. J. Borden, Henry MoBee 

1867— [No election.] 
1870 — James Crook. 



Chambers was established by an act approved Decembei 
18, 1832, and was carved out of the territory ceded by tiw 
Muscogees at the treaty of Cusseta, March 24 preceding. 

It lies in the eastern part of the State, and is boundec 
north by Randolph, east by the State of Georgia, south bj 
Lee, and west by Tallapoosa. 

It was named to honor the memory of Hon. Henry Cham- 
bers of Madison, a sketch of whom will be found under tin 
head of that county. 

Its area is about 620 square miles. 

The assessed value of real estate in 1870 was $1,381,138 
personalty $306,738 ; total $1,687,836. 

The decennial movement of population has been as foUovn 
— the assignment of a portion to Lee causing a decrease ii 
1870 : 

1840 1850 1860 1870 

Whites 10,188 12,784 11,315 8974 

Blacks 7,145 1J,176 11,899 8588 

The surface of the country is rolling and hilly ; the soi 
;enerally light, but with alluvial bottoms ; the light landu 
Laving a clay subsoil. 


There were 198,945 acres of improved, and 129,498 acres 
of unimproved land in farms in 1870 ; valued at |1,286,6()5. 

The hve stock was then valued at $454,123, and consisted 
of 1382 horses, 1457 mules, 7709 neat cattle, 3861 sheep, and 
9725 hogs. 

The productions of tlie year 1869 were 205,099 bushels of 
Indian com, 39,532 bushels of wheat, 35,921 bushels of oats, 
25,314 bushels of potatoes, 7868 bales of cotton, 51,358 
pounds of butter ; the value of animals slaughtered was 
$111,081 ; and the value of farm productions was $1,258,874. 

The Chattahoochee river is the southeastern bcmndary, and 
the Tallaj>oosa flows through the northwestern comer, but 
neither are navigated by steamers. The M<mtgomcry <fe 
West Point Rcailroad passes over fourteen miles of the north- 
eastern portion. Tlie East Alabama <fe Cmcinnati Railroad is 
in operation from Opelika to Lafayette. 

Lafayette, the seat of justice, had 1382 inhabitants by the 
census of 1870, of whom 704 were whites. Tlie Baptists have 
a female college in the town. 

Bluffton, on the Chattahoochee, has nearly 1000 mhabitants. 

There are tw^o cotton factories on the Chattahoochee, both 
of which are partly in this county^, and partly in Georgia. 
One of them, the "Alabama k Georgia Manufacturing Com- 

})any," has a four-story brick and stone building, 62 by 220 
eet in dimensions, with 96 looms and 3200 spindles in opera- 
tion. The other, the "Chattahoochee Manufactming Com- 
pany/' has a four-story stone and brick building, 62 by 165 
leet, with 64 looms, and 2200 spindles in operation. 

At Cusseta, in this coimty, ten miles southeast of Lafayette, 
in 1832, were conducted the preliminary negotiations of the 
famous treaty by which the Muscogees ceded all the lands 
remaining to them in the State. This most valuable acquisi- 
tion has ^since been divided among fifteen counties, which 
were carved wholly or in part out of it, and which embrace 
the whole east centre of the State. 

Tlie last battles of the war between the States werc^ fought 

in Alabama. Tlie banks of the Chatttilioochee \\atnessed tiie 

last brave and bloody defence of southern soil in that great 

struggle. On the morning of the 16th of April 1865 — a week 

after Ap]3omatox ; a day after Johnston asked for a confer- 

i^nce^ va\h Sliennan in North Carolina — Gen. LaGrange, of 

Wilson's cavaliT C()q)S, reached the Aicinitv of West Point 

\vith about 3000 men. A defence, called Fort Tyler, had 

V>eeii erected on an eminence just within the Chamoers line, 

Und a number of convalescents fix)m a camp in the place, 

^ided by a few youths from LaGrange, Georgia, manned it. 



They numbered only 104 men, 73 of whom bore small arms 
the remainder bemg a company of Louisiana artillerists 
Gen. Tyler of Tennessee, wlio had just recovered from t 
wound received at Chicamauga, was in command, and hi 
brave 8j)iiit infused courage into all. At 10 o'clock in th< 
forenoon he cspi'ed the enemy planting a battery. Fire wai 
at once m^ened on them, and the conflict began with mucl 
ardor. Of the three guns — a 32-}X)under, and two 10-poim( 

Earrotts — the lai^est was soon disabled by the enemy. B^ 
alf-past 11 o'clock the assault was general, the federal troop 
chai-ging gallantly up to the works several times, but were a 
often repulsed. The fort was surrounded and the fire wa: 
incessant and deafening. Gen. Tyler* was resolved not t< 
surrender the fort that bore his name, but rather to make j 
Thermopylae of the western gate of Gcoma. At 2 o'clock ii 
the afternoon, however, he was killed oy a sharp-shoote 
stationed in a building near by. Capt. Gonzalez, a heroi' 
soldier, took command, but soon fell mortally woimded. Th< 
command tlien devolved on Capt. Parham, who was imbuec 
with the same dauntless courage that characterized his pre 
decessors. The struggle continued till 5:30 o'clock in th< 
evening, when the assailants scaled the walls and tlironge< 
into the defence. They demanded a suiTender, which wa 
sullenly accorded, and they hacked the confederate flag fron 
its staff — the last one that floated over any rampart or city ij 
Alabama. The loss of the garrison was about twelve kille< 
and wounded ; that of the assailants is not known, but wa 
unquestionably very heavJ^ This was the last conflict tha 
occurred during the war, if the attack on Columbus, Georgia 
which occurred the same day, and was mainly fought on Ala 
bama soil, be not an exception. 

No citizen of Chambers county has left a pleasimter memo 
ry than Chahles McLemoiie. He was l)om in Jjusper coimtj' 
(jeorgia, and wjis educated as a physician. He came to tlii; 
State in 1833, and settled on the river in Tallapxisa county 
He soon after came to Lafayette, and estabhshed himself as i 
merchant Between 1836 and '44, he was six times olectei 
to the legislature. He then entered the senate, and sei-vec 
two jears. He wtis also in that body from 1849 to 1855 
servmg as president at the session of 1851. Ho died in 1851 

•Frederick Tyler was a dcscndant of Chancellor Tyler of Virginia, 
coasin of President Tyler's father. He had been wounded at Chicamatiga 
and Bent to post duty at West Point. Again ordered to the field, the marcJ 
of Geu. Sherman cut him oflF from his command, and while waiting for ai 
opportunity to get to it, Capt. Gonzalez, in view of Wilson's approach in 
duued him to resume command. The ladies of West Point presented bin 
with a flag, and, on receiving it, ho said ho would defend it with his life*B 
blood, and never surrender it. . 


near Memphis, Tennessee, while on a visit to that section. 
Mr. McLemore had a manly and graceful figure, a warm and 
impulsive temperament, and a kind and benevolent heart. As 
a speaker he was vehement but attractive, and sometiiues 
eloquent. Generous, chivalrous, and hospitable, he .was a 
favorite with every one. He was thrice married, the last time I 
to a daughter of l^eal McCoy of this county. One of his sons ' 
represented Chambers in the house in 1853 ; another was the 
gallant Lieut Col. OwenH. K. McLemore, a graduate of West 
Point, and a field oflicer of both the Fourteenth and Fourth 
Alabama regknents, who fell at Boonsboro in the service of 
his country. ^ 

The name of James Ferguson Dowdell adorns tlio annals 
of this county. He was bom in Jasper county, Greorgia, No- 
vember 26, 1818. His father was a Virginian of Irish descent 
and a wealthy planter ; his motlier a distant relative of Henry 
Clay. The son was graduated at Eandolph-Macon College, 
and read law in the office of Gen. Hugh Haralson in Lagrange, 
Georgia. Admitted to practice iu 1841, he came to this State 
in 1846, and located in this coimty. In 1851 he was defeated 
for the legislature, his party being in a miuority ; but he de- 
veloped so much strength that the next year he was made an 
elector on the Pierce and King ticket. In 1853 he was elected 
to congress over Hon. Thos. G. Garrett of Callioim by 3,115 
majority. Two years later he defeated Hon. Thos. H. Watts 
of Montgomery after a close contest, and in 1857 defeated 
Hon. Thos, J. tJ udge of Montgomery by 80 majority. At the 
close of his six years service, he volimtarily retired from the 
position. He represented Chambers in the verj'^ able conven- 
tion of 1861, and voted for the ordinance of secession. In 
the winter of 1861-62 he raised the 37th Alabama infantrj', of 
which he was elected colonel. He led it at Corinth, and 
shared its privations and dangers up to and through the siege 
of Vicksburg. But the exposiu'e was too great for hhn, and 
when paroled he was forced by his feeble health to retire. 
He refused to resipi because he thought it an ovU example, 
but was at last retired by a medical board. Since the war he 
removed to Aubuni, where he was president of the East Ala- 
bama Female College till his deatli in September 1871. As 
early as 1848 he became a minister of the gospel, to which he 
devoted much of liis time. Upon tlie character of such men 
as Col. Dowdell the pen deUghts to dwell. None of our pub- 
lic men have been purer or more amiable than he. He was 
sincerely pious, charitable, earnest, sanguiue, and industrious. 
His mind was speculative, but he was a popular and effective 
speaker, and in his severe struggles with such men as Watts 
and Jhidge he frequently bore off the-pahn of victor}'. It 



were happy for any country could its statesmen and rulers 
conform to the talents and virtues of the noble Dowdell. In 

Eerson he was rather tall and slender, with blue eyes, light 
air, and an intellectual face. He manried a daughter of 
Hon. James Render of Georgia, and the oldest of his children 
is a lawyer in Opelika. 

James F. Dowdell and Wm. H. Barnes represented Cham- 
bers in the constitutional convention of 1861; and Toliver 
Towles and Jonathan Ware in that of 1865. 

The following is a list of members of the general assembly 
from the county : 


1834 — Lftwson J. Keener. 
1837— WiUiam WeUborn. 
1839 — Gteorge Beese. 
1843 — James £. Beese. 
1845 — Charles MoLemore. 
1847— Bobert MitcheU. 
1849— Charles McLemore, 

1851 — ChabijEs McLemobb (1853). 
IBST)— E. J. Bacon. 
1857— Robert Mitchell. 
ISCI—William H. Barnes. 
18C5— William H. Barnes. 
[No election in 1867 or since.] 


1834— Nath^ H. Greer. 

1835— Leroy McCoy. 

1836— Charles McLemore. 

1837 — Charles McLemore. 

1838— William L. Crayton. 

1839— Toliver Towles, Arnold Seals. 

1840 — Charles McLemore. Leroy Mo- 

1841 — Charles McLemore, Mathew 

1842 — Charles MoLemore, Mor- 

1843 — Charles McLemore, William 

1844— Ward Hill, Nathaniel Grady. 

1845-_Ward Hill. Nathaniel Grady, 
Green D. Brantly, Leggett 

1847— Toliver Towles, Fortune W. 
Chisholm, Green D. Brantly, 
Daniel S. Bobertson. 

1849— J. M. Kennedy, Fortune W. 
CbiRholm, Josephns Barrow, 
B. S. Goodman. 

1851 -W. W. Carlisle, P. M. Alliaon. 
George B. Hendree, Calvin 
Pr ossl ev 

ia53— Gibson R Hill, Daniel S. Bob- 
inson, Jesse B.Todd. 

1855— Toliver Towles, John B. Al- 
ford, George F. Taylor. 

1857— G. W. Allen, Samuel Jeter. 

1859— A. J. Carlisle, Warner W. Mea- 

1861 — Wm. A. Johnson, Thomas L. . 

1863— J. J. MoLemore, J. C. Towles. 

1865 — James L. Bobinson, J. C. Mea- 

1869— W. F. Browne, [to fill a vacan- 
cy in de facto legislature.] 

1870 — Jona. Ware, B« B. Lumpkin. 



Cherokee was established by an act passed January 9, 1836. 
It was carved out of the territory ceded oy the Oherokees at the 
treaty of New Echota, December 29, 1835, which was for 
a short time attached to the county of St. Clair. It was 
Beriously mutilated by the formation of Baine county in 1866. 

Its name perpetuates the memory of the most civilized 
tribe of Indians that existed north of Mexico — a tribe which 
occupied this region for centuries. The word is said to be 
derived from cluera, the Cherokee name for " fire." 

It is in the northeastern portion of the State, and is bounded 
north by DeKalb, east by the State of Georgia, south by Cal- 
houn and Cleburne, and west by Etowa and DeKalb. 

Its area is about 740 square miles. 

The assessed value of real estate is $1,051,515 ; of personal 
property 1316,838 ; total $1,368,363. ' 

The decennial movement of population has been as follows : 

1840 1850 1860 1870 

Whites 7662 12,170 15,321 9652 

Blacks IJ21 1,714 3.039 1480 

The part set off to form Etowa (Baine) caused the decrease 
as shown between the years 1860 and 1870. 

The surface is ru^ed and mountainous, and the scenery 
icturesque. The sou is generally light, with a clay subsoil, 
ut there are very fertile valleys. 

The farm lands in 1870 were valued at $1,267,036, of which 
61,408 acres were improved, and 117,983 acres were imim- 

The value of live stock was $371,513, and consisted of 1406 
horses, 772 mules, 6230 neat cattle, 5835 sheep, and 11,750 


The productions in 1869 were 68,530 bushels of wheat, 
231,946 bushels of com, 27,683 bushels of oats, 29,613 bush- 
els of potatoes, 1807 bales of cotton, 7470 pounds of tobacco, 
10,170 pounds of wool, 15,151 gallons of sorghum molasses, 
and 83,785 pounds of butter, the value of animals slaughtered 
vras $101,569 ; and the value of farm productions was $665,213. 



Coal is plentiful, but is not exported. Iron ore is also 
abundant, and Cornwall Iron Works, for smelting and casting, 
are ten miles north of Centre. 

The water power and large growth of timber will doubtless 
be utiUzed at no distant dav. 

There are several mineral springs in the coimty. 

Coosa river flows through tne heart of the county, and is 
navigated the entire distance by steamers of light draudbt. 
The Chattooga and Little rivers also water the couniy. The 
Selma & Rome Raih^oad passes over 11 J miles of its territory 
in the southeastern part. 

The courthouse is at Centre, which has about 400 inhab- 

Cedar Bluff, Hie former seat of jiistice, is about as large as 

In the northern part of the county there is a cataract of 
much beauty on Little river. A sheet of water six to ten 
inches deep, and 100 feet wide, falls perpendicularly over the 
edge of a large and flat sandstone rock, down thirty feet into 
an immense rock basin of great depth. The river then flows 
through a narrow chasm, from 90 to 120 feet in depth for six 
or seven jniles, and has mm}erous smaller cataracts. At the 
confluence of Wolf creek there is a large cave which has its 
spacious entrance in the western bank of the river, and is one 
or the most beautiful in the majesty of its proportions of all 
the caverns in America. The ante-chamber is about 100 feet 
in length by 50 in width, with a concave dome from 30 to 50 
feet in highth, supported by perpendicular walls and cretaceous 
pillars. This hall is noted for its acoustic charms, and nature 
seems to have simply executed the plan which the hand of art 

In the eastern part of this county, in the valley between 
the Coosa and Chattooga rivers, and near the Georgia line, a 
notable event took place during the late war between the 
States. A well equipped and well mounted body of federal 
troops, consisting of four regiments — two from Indiana, one 
from Ohio, and one from Ilhnois — and two companies of Ala- 
bama Unionists, and numbeiing about 2000, had left Tuscum- 
bia several days before, for the purpose of dashing on Rome, 
Georgia, and destroying the Confederate stores, etc., there. 
General Forrest had pressed them hotly, and now, pursuers 
and pui-sued, rushed suddenly into Cherokee, by way of Tur- 
keytown. Near that place the hostile forces slept the night 
of May 2, 1863. Early the next morning the pursuit was 
resximed, and the raiders were bK)ught to bay, about noon, at 
the place above designated. Forrest's force had been reduced 
by me ardor of the pursuit to about five hundred men, yet he 


demanded the unconditional surrender of the federal troops. 
Colonel Streight met the bearer of this proposal, and came 
back with him to confer with General Forrest. A protracted 
discussion ensued, the federal commander refusing to surren- 
der until he should be con^dncod that he was in tne presence 
of a superior force. General Forrest ui^ed upon him the 
hopelessness of any effort he might make to escape, as the 
mountain was on one side of him, the river on the other, the 
garrison of Rome, 20 miles distant, in his front, and a large 
force in his rear. During this conversation, by order of Gen. 
Forrest, the section of Confederate artillery was so moving 
about as to excite the apprehension of Col. btreight, who was 
further perplexed at the disposition that he overheard Forrest 
making of several imaginary bodies of men, who had appa- 
rently come up. Finally, at the request of the officers of nis 
command. Col. Streight consented to surrender, and his force 
present, numbering 1466 rank and file, were moved toward 
Kome. Soon after entering Geoma a detiwjhment of about 
230 men, sent in advance to attack Some, were met return- 
ing, baffled of their prey. They, too, surrendered. The 
curses of tlj^ federal soldiers, when they discovered the meagre 

force to which they had surrendered, were deep and loud. 


Henry C. SaKford is one of the fii'st settlers of Cherokee. 
He is from Greenville district. South Carolina, and his early 
advantages were limited. He taught writing schools for some 
years, and subsequently became a clei^vman. He repre- 
sented the county in the legislature in 1653-57, and in the 
constitutional conventions of 1861 and 1865. He is a mem- 
ber of the present de facto senate. Mr. Sanford possesses 
natural endoAvments of mind, which he has improved in the 
school of experience and observation. 

No citizen of Cherokee is more widely known than Thomas 
Butler Cooper: He was bom in Pendleton district. South 
Carolina, in the year 1807. His father, a native of Philadel- 
phia, was a merchant ; the maiden name of his mother was 
Willow. Receiving a substantial education, he taught school 
and merchandised in Habersham county, Georgia, for several 
years, reading law in the meantime. In 1835 he came to 
Alabama, and settled in Wetumpka as a merchant. Two 
years later he came to Cherokee and began to practice law. 
He entered public life in 1842, when he was elected to the 
general assembly. To the lower house of that body he has 
been six times re-elected in this county, and in 1865 he was 
unanimously elected speaker of it. In 1864 he was elected 
to the Confederate congress, to fill the vacancy caused by the 
expulsion of Hon. W. R. W. Cobb of Jackson. He was also 


a member of the constitutional convention of 1865, but since 
his disfranchisement by confess he has devoted his time 
more closely to his profession. Mr. Cooper is stout and 
rather corpment. His manner, like Ids natui'e,is full of kind- 
ness, and both are remindful of a class of men who are fast 
passing away even fi'om the mountains of Alabama. He is a 
shrewd and cool observer of men and measures, and has 
practical views, which he expresses well either in conversation 
or on paper. His wife was a Miss Powell of Georgia. 

Benjamin Cudworth Yancey, who resided in this county, 
was bom in Charleston, South CaroUna, in 1817, and was a 
brother of the late Hon. Wm. L. Yancey of. Montgomery. 
He was graduated at the University of Georgia, and read law 
in New IJaven, Connecticut. In 1837 he came to tiiis State, 
and opened a law office in Cahaba. When chancery *conrts 
were established, he was made by Chancellor Crenshaw mas- 
ter of the district embracing the counties of Dallas, Perry, 
Greene, Marengo, Sumter, Wilcox, and Lo^vndes. In 1840 
he removed to Wetumpka, and with his brother was co-editor 
of a newspaper; but returned to South Carolijfci. the same 
year, (ind opened a law office in Hamburg. He repeatedly 
served as a member of the legislature of that State. In 1851 
he came to reside in Cherokee, as a planter. Elected to the 
State senate in 1855 over Hon. J. M. Hendrix, he was chosen 
to preside over that body at its meeting. He resigned in 
1856 to remove to Atlanta, and has since resided in Georgia. 
President Buchanan appointed him minister resident to the 
Argentine Confederation in 1858, and he was there during tihie 
prevalence of the wfu* made to coerce one of the fourteen 
States (Buenos Ajtcs) into jm adoption of the new constitu- 
tion. The decree of death issued by the Parana government 
agaiQst all captains who should take foreign vessels into the 
ports of Buenos Ayres, was resisted by Mr. Yancey as an 
mfruigement of treaty rights, and he ordered the naval force 
of the United States on tlie coast to his aid. The representa- 
tives of other powers concurred in this protest, and President 
Urquiza did not attempt to enforce his meditated barbarity. 
Soon after, however, he was selected by the contending Stateis-^ 
as the arbiter of their differences, and President Urquiza'^e 
message to the congress, after Mr. Y. left the country, con — 
tained this compliment: "All Argentines owe the younj^ 
American minister a debt of gi-atitude which they cannol 
repay." Returning to the United States in December 1859 ^s 
he was requested by the President to arrange his privatcEiS 
affairs for ftu-ther service abroad ; but he declined the lienor^— 
He has not since occupied a civil position except that o'f 


mayor of Atlanta, and now resides in Athens. Ho has a son 
practicing law in Borne, Georgia. Mr. Yancey possesses a 
nigh reputation for the most sterling traits of character. The 
eloquence and talents of his distinguished brother are pos- 
sessed by liim in no small degi-ee, and had he remained in 
Alabama his promotion would doubtless have been very 

Samuel K. McSpadden, of this coimty, was born near 
McMinnville, Tennessee, Nov. 21, 1821, and was the son of a 
Cumberland Presbyterian minister. Receiving a very limited 
education, he was apprenticed to a saddler when sixteen years 
old. After working eighteen months, he bought tlie remain- 
der of his time, and worked at the business till January 1842, 
when he caAe afoot into Alabama, mtli one dollar and sev- 
enty-five cents in his pocket, and a few tools in a sack. He 
worked in Lebanon, Portersville, Mackey's tan-yard, and in 
Talladega from 1843 till 1850. Meantmiie, ha^'ing read law 
by the assistance of Hon. S. F. Rice, he was hcensed as an 
attorney in 1848. Two years later he came to Centre, and 
began the practice with Hon. Geo. S. Walden. In 1856 he 
was elected brigadier general of militia, and a year later was 
chosen to the ^ate senate over Col. Clifton ; and re-elected 
in 1860 over Hon. A. L. Woodlief. Volunteering as a private, 
he was appointed major of the Nineteenth Alabama at its 
organization. He participated at Shiloh, and served through 
the Kentucky campaign. In October 1862, he became colonel 
by tlie promotion of his seniors — Generals Wheeler and 
Tracy. He led the Nineteenth at Murfreesboro, (with a fur- 
lough in his pocket,) at Chicamauga, Mission Ridge, Dalton, 
and Resaca. In the latter battle he was captm*ed, and 
remained on Johnson's Island till the closing hours of the 
war. In 1865 he was elected chancellor, and held the office 
till displaced by congress in 1868. He now practices his pro- 
fession in Centre. 6en. McSpadden's rise from obscurity to 
his present prominence, without the aid of brilliant talents, is 
the best commentary on his character. He married a sister 
of Hon. John H. Garrett of this coimty, whose son, Hon. 
"Wm. Hall Garrett, served Cherokee in both branches of the 
legislature, and removed to Indian Territory twenty years ago. 

Henry C. Sanford, John P. Ralls, W. L. "VMiitlock, and 
John Potter represented this county in the constitutional con- 
vention of 1861 ; and Thomas B. Cooper, John La\^Tence, 
Henry C. Sanford, and John Potter in that of 1865. 

The following citizens have served Cherokee in the general 
assembly : 



1839— Solomon C. Smith. 
1841— Arthur Foster. 
1844— Solomon C. Smith. 
1847— Wm. H.Garrett. 
1849— Wm. H. Garrett. 
1853— J. M. Hendrix. 

1837— George Clifton. 

J 838— George Clifton. 

1839— George Clifton, Samuel D. J. 

1840— John H.Garrett, W.H.Hale. 

1841— John H. Garrett, Wm.Henslee. 

1842— Thomas B.Cooper, J. M. Hen- 

J343— Wm. H. Garrett, J. M. Hen- 

1844— Wm. H. Garrett, Thomas B. 

1845— Wm. H. Garrett, F. M. Hard- 

1847— Wm. W. Little, F. M. Hard- 

1849— Thos. B. Cooper, F. M. Hard- 

1851— Thomas B. Cooper, John S. 


1855— Benjamin C. Yancet. 
1857— Samuel K. McSpadden. 
1861— F. M. Hardwick. 
1865— A. L. Woodlief. 
[No election in 18G7 or since.] 


1853— James M. Clifton, G. W. Law- 
rence, Henry C. Sanford. 

1865— E. G. Brrfdley, Samuel C. 
Ward, Henry C. Sanford. 

1857— Thomas Espy, L. M.SdfE; A. 
G Bennett, W. R. Richardson. 

1859— Thomas B. Cooper, James M. 
Clifton, F. M. Hardwick, Dozier 
Thornton. ^ 

1861— Wm. W. Little, A. Snodgrass, 
A. H. Brindley, John D. MUler. 

1863— Thos. B. Cooper, John Bran- 
don, W. A. Vincent, G. W. 

1865— Thos. B. Coopeb, J. W. Bran- 
don, John Potter. John Law- 

[No election till 1870.] 

1870— James H. Leath. 



Chocta was established by an act of the legislature, ap- — 
proved December 29, 1847, and \wo tiers of its township^ 
were taken from Sumter and five from Washington. 

It is in the western portion of tlie State, and bounded nortt» 
bv Sumter, south bv Washington, east by Marengo an5 
(jlarke, and west by tlio State of Mississippi. 

The name preserves the remembrance of the most docile 
and numerous of all the aboriginal tribes of the United States, 
who possessed the soil now embraced within its limits from a 
time "whereof the memory of man runneth not to the con- 

Its area is something over 900 square miles. . 



The assessed value of property is $1,104,975, viz: real 
estate $821,732 ; Dersonalty $283,243. 

The following shows the decennial movement of population: 

1850 I860 1870 

Whites 4620 67«7 5802 

Blacks 3769 7110 6872 

The lands are rolling and flat The ridges and pine lands 
are sandy, but tiio river and creek "bottoms" are alluvial. 
The pine forests are extensive, and will be made a source of 
wealth. Grazing for cattle is excellent in the outlying lands. 

The farm lands are valued at $94(),850, and embrace 79,502 
acres improved, and 220,329 acres imimproved. 

The value of live stock in 1870 was $409,209, and consisted 
of 1313 horses, 941 mules, 10,236 neat cattle, 2940 sheep, and 
14,082 hogs. 

The productions in 1869 were 227,715 bushels of com, 
51,759 bushels of potatoes, 29,146 pounds of butter, 6439 
bales of cotton, 3356 pounds of wool ; the value of animals 
slaughtered was $67,823 ; and the value of farm productions 
was $908,562. 

The Tombikbee river is the eastern boundary Une, and is 
open to steam navigation the entire year. 

There are mineral wat43rs ih the county, and Bladon Springs 
have attained to a wide celebrity. 

Butler, the seat of justice, has about 200 inhabitants. It 
was named to honor Col. Pierce M. Butler of South Cjirolina, 
killed at the battle of Chenibusco, in 1847. Bladon Springs 
has about 350, and Mount StirUng about 300 inhabitants. 

William Woodward resided in this county. He was bom 
in York distiict. South Carolina, November 15, 1792, of a 
family well known in that State. His parents were poor, and 
his education was plain. He became a planter, and removed 
to Chester district m 1820. After sending three years in the 
legislature he removed to Georgia, and in 1834 came to this 
State. He settled in Greene county, but four years later re- 
moved to that portion of Sumter now embraced in Chocta. 
In 1841 he represented Sumter in the house, where ho con- 
tinued for 7 years. He was an advocate of the formation of 
Chocta, and in 1853 wa^ elected to the State senate from 
Sumter, Washington, and Chocta, defeating Hon. Devereux 
Hopkins. Two years later he was beaten, but in 1857 was 
elected over Mr. Micajah McGee of Sumter. He retired from 
public life in 1861, and resided on his plantation till his death 
m September 1871. About 1840 he was ordained elder in 
the Baptist church, and for 18 years was pastor of a congre- 


gatiou. Mr. Woodward was tall and stalwart in person. He 
was "a plain, blunt, man," whose early life was spent in 
manual labor ; but whose practical sense and integrity won 
the esteem of his fellow men. 

The late Thomas McCarrell Prince was a wealthy planter 
of this county. He was from North Carolina, and was a 
graduate of Chapell Hill in 1827. He resided for some years 
in Mobile, and represented that county in the legislature of 
1840. In 1855 he was elected to the otate senate from Sum- 
ter, Chocta, and Washington, defeating Hon. Wm. Woodward. 
He died at his home in this coimty in 1871, aged about 64 
years. Col. Prince possessed a fine personal appearance, and 
superior social qualities. When he was in Grlasgow, some 
years ago, he registered as "Thomas McCarrell Prince of 
Mobile," and the upper class of citizens were very attentive 
to him as a nobleman till they foimd that the absence of a 
punctuation mark, and not "blue blood," made him "prince 
of Mobile." 

S. E. Catterlin and A. J. Curtis represented this county in 
the constitutional convention of 1861. Thomas Wilkes dole- 
man and Joshua Morse represented it in the constitutional 
convention of 1865. 

The following is a list of members of the general assembly 
from Chocta since it was allowed representation : 


1853— Wm. Woodward. 1861— Turner Reavis. 

] 85.5— Thomas McC. Prince. 1865— John T. Foster. 

J859— \^ m. Woodward. [No election in 1867 or since.] 


1853— Edward McCall. 1861— J .T. Foster, J. A. M.Thompsoik^ 

ia55— John Wesley Pennington. 1863— John T. Foster, J. 8 Evans. 

1857— John W. Pennington, A. Cul- 1865— Joshua Morse, G. F. Smith, 

lum. 1869— J. S. Evans, [to fill vacancy.] 

1859-Jame8 G. SUter, J. G. Fielder. 1870— G. Frank Smith. 



This is one of the oldest counties, and was formed from 
Washington by an act of the le^shiture of Mississippi, Dec. 
10, 1812. As then estabUshed it did not include any of " the 
fork " south of the fifth township line, and only extended to 
the ridge dividing the waters of the Alabama and Tombikbee. 
It took the present shape about ten years later. 

It was named to honor Gen. John Clarke* of Georgia, or 
rather such is the general belief ; for it is more probable that 
it was named for Gen. Elijah Clarke, the colonial hero of 
Georgia in 1776-'83, as the measure of the Governor John 
Clarke's fame was not complete in 1812. 

Clarke lies in the southwestern part of the State, and is 
south of Marengo, west of Monroe, north of Baldwin, and 
e^fit of Chocta and Washington. 

Its area is about 1200 square miles. 

The assessed vjilue of real estate in 1870 was $942,296 ; 
P«r8ona% $282,118 ; total $1,224,414. 

The population, decennially, is thus exhibited : 

1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 

Whites 3778 3894 42-^8 4901 7599 7098 

Blacks 20C1 3701 4412 4885 7450 7565 

The surface of the country is undulating, and much of the 
^Outhem portion is low and flat. The soil is generally light, 
^Tat the river and creek " bottoms " are deeply alluvial. 

The value of the farm lands in 1870 wai5 $899,836, there 
*^^ing 61,539 acres of improved, and 310,898 acres ununproved. 

Tlie value of Uve stock was $374,706, and consisted of 1146 
^orses, 874 mules, 11,629 neat cattle, 4e328 sheep, and 12,646 

•John Clabke was a native of North Carolina, bat came with his father, 
^*en. Elijah Clarke, to Wilkes county, Georgia, in hia youth. Hi8 military 
^^ecT began when he was a boy of fourteen years, as a colonial soldier, and he 
distinguished himself against the Indians in Georgia. lie had civic hon- 
^■*^, and in 1812-*! 4^ as major-general, commanded the Georgia troops on the 

^^>a8t. He was governor of that State from 1819 to 1823, and died in Florida 

^^ 1832. His father died December 15, 1799. 


The productions in 1869 were 237,021 bushels of com, 49,- 
550 bushels of potatoes, 2570 gallons of sorghum molasses, 
5713 bales of cotton ; the value of animals slaughtered was 
$65,050 ; and the value of farm products in 1869 was $840,160. 

Marl, chalk, and yellow ochre (in its crude state) are 
abundant in this county, and specimens of coal and iron have 
been found. 

There are also quite a nimiber of salt wells, which, when 
the ports of the southern States were blockaded during the 
late war, to a large extent supplied the necessities of the peo- 
ple of Alabama and southern Mississippi for salt. 

Sulphur and chalybeate springs also exist, and one of them 
is a resort for invalids. 

The county is thickly wooded, especially with pine, and 
affords a good pasturage for cattle. 

The Alabama and Tombikbee rivers, which form the east- 
em, western, and southern boundaries, furnish ample facilities 
for commerce, as they are open to steam navigation at all 
times of the year. The railroad from Mobile to Elyton is 
surveyed across the heart of the coimty. and the Selma and 
New Orleans Railroad is projected through the northwestern 

Grove Hill is the seat of justice and is a village of 200 in- 

*' Clarkcs^Hille," where the courtliouse stood for some years, 
exists only in name. 

Coffecville has 280 inhabitants. 

The bones of the zeuglodon are numerous in Clarke. 
This is the name given to an enormous sea animal, something 
like the modem whale, (but which has l)ecn also caUisd the 
King Lizard,) with capacious jaws and serrated teeth. It 
existed during the older tortiai-y or eocene period, wliich so- 
nifies the da^val of the present system of created beings, and 
the race has been extinct since the distant time when tlie 
southern portion of Alabama was mostly beneath the sea. 
Judge Oreagh of this c(miity, now deceased, said the bones 
were so numerous on his plantation as to seriously interfere 
with the cultivation of the soil, and that he had caused many 
of them to be burned in log heaps when dealing the lands. 
Sir Charles Lyell and Prof. S. B. Buckley both visited the 
county t() examine these remains, and both contributed arti- 
cles on the subject to the journals of the day. Prof. Buckley 
found the bones either on the surface, where they had been 
used to piece out the fences here and there, or imbedded in 
the sanely clay subsoil. He succeeded in getting a vertebral 
column seventy feet in length, and the bones of the head, ribs, 
limbs, &c. ; all of which are now in a museum in Boston, and 


constitute the most perfect skeleton of a zeuglotlon tliat has 
ever been discovered. A Gtennan came to Clarke years ago 
and put together a skeleton of bones foimd in several locali- 
ties, which he exhibited in New York as the remains of an 
animal 120 feet in length ; and, notwithstanding that tlie fraud 
was exposed, he sold the bones for a large sum in Europe. 
This part of Alabama seems to have been the favorite haunt 
of this monster, though his bones have been found in Missis- 
sippi and Louisiana. 

In November 1818, Lemuel J. Alston, Alexander KUpat- 
rick, Joseph Heam, Solomon Boykin, Wm. Coleman, Wm. 
Andei-son, and Wni. Goode, sr., were appointed by the legis- 
lature to choose a site for the courthouse of the county. A 
year later, Wm. A. Robertson, Joseph B. Earle, John Loftin, 
Bamuel B. Shields, Wm. F. EzeU, Ilobertus Love, and Ed- 
mund Butler were appointed for the same purpose. 

At the commencement of the war with the Muscogees, many 
of the settlers collected in a stockade, called Fort Sinquefield, 
in the northeastern portion of the present limits of this coun- 
ty. Two families, however, those of Abner James and Ran- 
som Kimball, owing to the crowded condition of the fort, 
repaired to the dweUing of Kimball, two miles distant. Here 
tiiOT were siurrounded, Sept. 1, 1813, two days after the fall 
of Fort Mimms, by a body of 100 Lidians under the prophet 
Francis, and twelve of them butchered ; six escaping to the 
fort.* Two days later the dead were brought in, and while 
nearly the entire garrison and refuges were burying them 
outside the fort, the same party of savages rushed upon them. 
All escaped into the inclosure except ten women, who were 
washing at a spring. The Indians rushed towards them, but 
at that moment Mr. Isaac Heaton returned from hunting stock 
and charged upon the savages with his pack of dogs with 
such fury that they were momeiitarily diverted, and all the 
women had time to escape save one, who was butchered. 
Heaton escaped with the loss of his liorse. The Lidians then 
assailed the stockade, but were driven off with some loss.f 
The savages committed other outrages in the vicinity. Octo- 
ber 4, a party of 25 moimted citizens, under Col. Wm. McGrew, 
encountered them on Bashi creek, in the northern part of the 
county, and were repulsed with a loss of four killed. Col. 
McGrew among the number. Other operations of a miuor 
character were carried on in the county about tiie same time. 

•One of the perHons who escaped was Isham Eiraball, clerk of the circuit 
conrt of Clarke in 1833-49, and yet living in the county at the age of 75 

jTwo were left dead in front of the fort, and a negro who escaped from 
them said they bore ofif 28 bodies of their slain. 


In the southeastern part of Clarke the battle of Maubila 
was fought, October 18, 1540. The city is believed to have 
stood at Chocta Bluff, on the Alabama,* where the Confed- 
erates built Fort Stonewall during the late war to bar the pas- 
sage up the river of federal gunboats. The powerful tribe 
called Maubilians then made their home in this region, and 
this was their capital. Their chief, Tuskaloosa, a savage titan, 
hearing of the approach of DeSoto, advanced almost to the 
Tallapoosa to meet him, and in\dted him to Maubila. They 
journeyed together for several days before they reached the 
city, and durmg the time Tuskaloosa's Ul-stifled enmity to the 
strangers was augmented by the surveilance they exercised 
over him. The advance guard of the Spaniards, unaer DeSoto, 
were received into the city with songs and the dancing of girls. 
The chroniclers of the expedition state that Maubila stood on 
a plain by the river-side, and that of its eighty houses, which 
fronted on a capacious square, each could shelter a thousand 
persons ; — the whole surrounded by a lofty wall constructed 
of the trunks of trees and massive logs, interlaced with vines, 
chinked with mud, and surmounted by small towers at reg- 
ular intervals. To this sti'onghold there was an eastern 
and a western gate. The advance of the Spaniards entered 
tlie place ia the early morning. Scarcely had DeSoto and 
the swarthy emperor been seated "under a canopy," when the 
latter demanded that he should no longer be made to accom- 
pany his warlike guests. He had now brought his foe within 
the toUs he had laid for him, and he felt that his will should 
be law. And when he saw hesitancy in the reply, he arose 
and haughtily sh'ode away into one of the buUdings. A mes- 
senger sent by DeSoto to invite him to the morning meat^ 
was met with a refusal, and bidden to tell his master that it 
would be well for his safety that he should leave the country 
at once. 

**And the great chiefs, defiant, stood apart. 
As when Agamemnon fired Achilles' heart/' 

DeSoto now learned ttiat the liouses were filled with thou- 
sands of warriors, and their rude implements of warfare, and 
that even now they were debating the manner in which he 
should be captured. Warning his troops to be prepared for 

* ** The writer is satisfied that Manbila was on the north bank of the Ala- 
bama, at a place now called Chocta Bluff, in the county of Clarke, about 25 
miles above the confluence of the Alabama and Tombikbee. The march from 
Piachee, the time occupied, the distance from Maubila to the bay of Pensa- 
cola — computed by Garcillasso and the Portugese gentleman at 85 miles— 
and the representations of aged Indians and ** Indian countrymen,'' that 
here was lougbt a great battle between DeSoto and the brave Maubilians, 
have forcibly contributed to make that impression on his mind. "*"Co/. A.J- 


a collision, ho hastouHl to fu^ok the chiof to cffoct a reconcilia- 
tion. Approaching him with friendly j^reetings, Tuskaloosa 
first eyed him scornfully, then turned on his heel and disap- 
pearcci among the now excited throng. A* few minutes after, 
provoked by the insultmg words and acts of a warrior, a Span- 
iard cut him down with his sabre. It was the signal of battle. 
The pent up fury of the stwages burst foi*th, and they precip- 
itatea themselves upon the invaders with great ferocity and 
daring. DeSoto and his comrades met the shock with the 
dauntless valor that is born of high resolve. But the swarthy 
wave of foemen soon bore back the thin wall of steel througn 
the gate and into the plain. Here DeSoto received constant 
accessions from his approaching troops, and the contending 
forces were now pressing alwut the portals, and then were far 
out on the plateau. "Outnumbered, but not outbraved," 
every Spaniard became a hero, while their chivalrous leader 
" crowded with death the encumbered plain." At length the 
natives took refuge within the ramparts, and closed the pon- 
derous gates. The day was far spent when the remainder of 
the expedition reached the scene. Thus reinforced, DeSoto 
formed his troops, and led them to the assault. The walls 
were mounted, the gates battered down, and the conflict trans- 
ferred to the streets and the square of the city. Here the 
fierce passions and wild rage of the combatants were re- 
doublea. Mercy was not asked, and not granted- The 
greatly superior equipments of the invaders created fearful 
havoc, and the brave natives lay dead in heaps. And now a 
potent ally came to aid man in the work of destructi(m. The 
city was fired, and the flames soon spread a lurid glare over 
the ghastly scene. 

The carnage ended only with the day, and the winds of 
that autumn night sung the dirge of a city and a people that 
were not. A Portuguese cavalier who was with the expedititm 
.^ves the loss of the Mauhilians nt 2500 withiu the walls ; 
but Gacillasso, who writes fi'om the diaries of several soldiers 
who were participants, and from the li])s of others, ])laces 
their loss at 11,01)0. Eighty-two Spaniards were either killed 
or died of their wounds, while all of them were wounded or 
bruised. Nearly all of their baggjige and stores were de- 
stroyed. The fate of Tuskaloosa is unknown ; one writer 
having it that he was killed, another that he left the city 
before the final assault. It was the most sanguinary Indian 
battle ever fought within the ])rosent limits of the United 
States, and iis results were lai*gely felt by the savage trn)es of 
Alabama to the last mcmient of their soj(mrn on our soil. 
Nor had liberty a castfcr holocaust flian was given by these 


brave natives of Clarke in all the ages since patriotism and 
valor were known and prized among men. 

Neal Smith was one of the earlier settlers of the county. 
He was bom in Moore coimty, Noi-th Carolina, in the year 
1784, and came to settle here in 1816. He was a planter and 
physician, and a man of sound judmient and integrity. He 
represented the county in l)oth branches of the general 
assembly, serving as a senator for twelve years. While a 
member of the senate in 1836, the party of which he was a 
member was in a majority, and nominated Judge Moore of 
Pickens for president of (he body. Aware of his strong aver- 
sion to caucuses, the opposition offered to vote for him if he 
would accept the place. Either modesty or honor cnused 
him to dechne the proffer, and they achieved their triumph 
with Mr. McVay of Lauderdale, by a vote of fourteen to 
thirteen. Had Dr. Smith accepted, he, in lieu of Mr. McV., 
would have succeeded Gov. Clay in the gubernatorial chair in 
1837. Dr. Smith died in 1867, at tlie age of 83 years, in this 
coimty, and his memory will long be cherished. 

Jeremiah Austell, cme of the heroes of the " Canoe Fight," 
resides in this county, tmd is one of its first settlers. He was 
bom in Pendleton district. South Carolma, in 1794, and came 
with his father, Capt. Evan Austill, to Claike in 1813. He 
took pai-t in tlie penlous border warfare of that day, and won 
historic prominence at the early age of nineteen years by his 
participation, in the " Canoe Fight.'* He has since lived in 
Mobile and this coimty, and represented the former in the 

feneral assembly of 1845. His mother was a sister of Col. 
)avid Files of Washington county, and he has many relatives 
in the State. 

John G. Creagh was an early resident and lea<ling citizen 
of this county. His fatlier, the son of an Irish officer in 
Braddock's army, was a Vu'ginian who removed to South 
Carolhia, and came to what is now Clarke county in 1812. 
The son, bom in 1787, was educated at Dr. Wadclell's acad- 
emy in South Carolina. As early as 1820 he held a leading 
position at the bar of tliis county. Between 1823 and 1833 
he was live times chosen to the legislature, and was also judge 
of the comity coui-t. He died near Grove Hill in 1839, leav- 
ing an enviable rejmtation for moral woi-th and practicjil 
knowledge. His wife was a Miss Faulkner (or Falconer) of 
South Carolina, who survived him and mamed Hon. A. B. 
Cooper of Wilcox. Richard P. Creagh, a younger brother, 
was attorney general of Mississippi wh(^n he was killed in a 
rencontie in 1823. The late Dr. Memorable W. Creagh, who 


thrice represented Marengo in the legislature, was also a 

GiBAKD Walter CiiEAOH, brother of the foregoing, was two 
or three years younger, and a jJanter in this county. He 
was mi officer in the Creek war of 1813, and was wounded at 
Burnt Com. He witnessc<l the ** Canoe Fight," and imrtici- 
pated at the capture of Econochaca. He was one of uie first 
representatives in tlie legislature from Claike, and for eight 
years in the senate. He died in 1850. His w4fe was a Ams 
Davis of this county, and his two sons are planters here. 
Col. Stephen B. Cleveland niaixied one of his daugliters, and 
Col. Faulkner of Mississipj)i another. He possessed great 
eneiigy and tenacity of purpose, and a more mteresting com- 
panion cotdd not be found. 

James S. Dickinson is also a citizen of Clarke. He is the 
son of Mr. Richard Dickinson, who came to this Stiite from 
Virginia in 1821, represented this county in tlie legislature of 
1824, and died in 1870, at the age of 87 yeai-s. His mother 
was a sisttr of Hon. Wm. Crawford of Mobile. Bom in 
Spottsylvaniii county, Viiginia, Jan. 18, 1818, he came to this 
county with his parents, and here gi-ew to manhood. He 
received a good education and taught school for several 
years. He entered the law school of the University of Vir- 
ginia, and was licejised to practice in 1844. A year later he 
opened « law office in Grove Hill, and entered on a pi-ofes- 
sional career which has been quite profitable. In 1853 he 
was cho«en to represeait Clarke, Monroe, and Baldwin in the 
State senate, and served for two years. He was an elector 
on the Breckinridge ticket in 1860, and the following year he 
equipped a company of infantiT at his own expense. In 
1863 he was elected to tlie second Confederate congjrcss over 
Hon. C. C. Langdon of Mobile. He served till March 1865, 
when congress adjourned to meet in Georgia, and ho heard 
Speaker Bocixjk's gavel fall for tlie last time. Suicc then he 
has addressed himself to the task of mending his private for- 
tune, and is now practicing law. Mr. Dickinson is de,servedly 
popular, sociability and hyuliommic being striking charjicteris- 
tics. He unites chaiitj' and b^uievolence with piety and 
integritj% tie stiives to utilize the solemn precepts of free- 
masomy, of wliidi he is a member in high standmg, having 
served as miistc^r of his lodge since 1848. His fiist wife was 
a Miss Dickinson of Virginia ; his second a Miss Savage of 
this county. T^o of his sons are attorneys at the bar of 

John Wesley Poutis came to this coimty with his parents 


in 1818 wlien an infant. He was bom in Nash county, North 
Carolina, took a coUej^iato course in Virginia, and was admit- 
ted to tlie bar. He represented the county in the general 
assembly in 18^43 and was re-elected. In 18G1 he was defeated 
for congress by Judge Dargan of Mobile. He was a trustee 
of the State University from 1844 to 18(50, and luis held 
various honors of a pai*ty charjicter. He volunteered as a pri- 
vate in 18()1, jind was elected lieutenjint of a company in the 
2d Alabama Infantrj'. A yeai* later he was elected colonel of 
the 42d Alabama regiment, and led it at Corinth, where he 
was wounded. He resigned soon after, and has since prac- 
ticed his profession at Suggsville. Col. Portis is thoroughly 
informed, energetic, and sociable, with an excellent moral 
character. His son is a member of the bar of the county. • 

Clarke wtis also the home of Ouigin Sibley Jeweit. Ho 
was bom in Tliompson, Connecticut, Apiil 20, 1820. His 
parents removed to Georgia two years aft^r. His father died 
m 1831, and he was reared by liis mother, a sister of the late 
Messrs. Origin and Cyinis Sibley, wealthy and useful citizens 
of Baldwin, who brought her family to Alabama at once, and 
made her home in Baldwin. He was graduated at Brown 
University, Rhode Island, and read law in the office of Messrs. 
Daniel Chandler and John A. Campbell in Mobile. Establish- 
ing himself in the practice, a few years later he was appointed 
register in chiincery for Mobile. In 1857 he came to this 
county, and here mingled the occupation of planting with 
his profession. In 1859 he was an unsuccessful candidate for 
the office of judge of the circuit com-t, but Judge Rapier's 
majority was veiy small. In 1861 he represented the countj'^ in 
the constitutional convention, and the same year was chosen 
to the State senate from Monroe, Bald^vin and Clarke. Ho 
was among the first to volunteer in the service of his country, 
and in the winter of 1861- (52 he was elected major of the 
38th Alabama Infantry. "At the battle of Chicamauga, being 
'splendidly moimted, and fearlessly exposing himself to 

* d!anger, he attracted the notice of the enemy's shai-p-shoot^rs, 

* and was lulled early in the action, lea^ing a stainless record 

* as a gentleman, a soldier, and a christian. * * * Modest, 

* reticent, and unassuming in manner ; amiable in disj>osition ; 

* refined in taste ; pure and honorable in life and charjicter ; 

* gifted with a full share of native ability, which had been 
' enlarged and polished by liberal cultm'e, he commanded the 
'respect of all who knew him, and the devoted attachment of 

* his fi-ii^nds."* 

Reuben Saffold and James Magoffin represented this county 

•Major W. T. WuUb.ill of Mobile. 



in the constitutional convention of 1819 ; Origin S. Jewett in 
that of 1861 ; and Samuel Fonvard in that of 1865. 

The following is a list of members of the general assembly 
fi-om Clarke. 


3819 — JoHeph B. Chambers. 

Ic522— Neal fcimith. 

J 825— George S. Gaines. 

1827 — Joseph B. Earle. 

1828~-Neal Smith. 

J8;U—Neal Smith. 

1834 — Samuel Wilkiuson. 

1836— Neal Smith. 

1839— Girard W. Creagb. 

l842--GirRrd W. Creagh. 

1845— B. L. Turner. 

1847— Girard W. Creagh. 
1849— Cade M. God bold. 
1851 — Lorenzo James. 
185!) — James S. Dickinson. 
1S55 — James S. Jenkins. 
1857 — Noah A. Agee. 
1859— Stephen B. Cleveland. 
1 8H I— Origin S. Jewett 
1862— Robert Broadnax. 
1H65— John Y. Kilpatrick. 
[No election in J 867, or since.] 

lii*jjre>ienicd ivcs. 

1819— William Murrell, Girard W. 

1820— Wm. Murrell, G. W. Creagh. 

1821— James Magoffin, £dward Ken- 

1822 — Jamee Fitts, Edward Kennedy. 

]823 — James Fitts, John G. Creagh. 

1824 — Richard Dickinson, John G. 

1825— John G. Creagh. 

1826— Elias H. Dubose. 

J827—Neal Smith. 

1828— William Mobley. 

1829— William Mobley. 

1830— William Mobley. 

l«;n— Samuel Wilkinson. 

1832— John G. Creagh. 

183:J— John G. Creagh. 

1834— Abel H. Dubose. 

J835— Neal Smith. 

1S36— Thomas Saunders. 

1837— R. P. Carney. 
18:«~Girard W. Creagh. 
18:59— S»imuel Forward. 
1840— W. F. Jones. 
1841 — Lorenzo James. 
1842— Peter Dubose. 
184:^~John W. Portis. 
1844— John W. Portis. 
1845— Morgan Carlton. 
1847— Thomas B. Rivers. 
1849 — Lorenzo James. 
1851— A. I. Henshaw. 
1853— E. S Thornton. 
1865— James J. Goode. 
1857 — James J. Goode. 
1859— W: J. Hearin. 
1861— W.J Hearin. 
1863-John Y. Kilpatrick. 
18f!5— Thomas B. Savage. 
18(J7— [No election.] 
1870— n. C. Grayson. 




Clay was formed from portions of Talladega and Bandolph 
by an act approved Dec. 7, 1866. 

It lies in the eastern part of the State, south of Calhoun^ 
west of Randolph, north of Tallapoosa and Coosa, and east 
of Talladega. 

It was named to honor Mr. Clay,* the Kentucky statesman. 

The area is about 625 square miles. 

The assessed value of property in 1870 was $603,592, as 
follows : real estate $542,080 ; pei*sonalty $61,512. 

The population in 1870 was 8823 whites, and 737 blacks. 

The surface consists of mountain, hill, and valley. The 
soil is generally light, with a clay foundation ; but the valleys 
are fertile. 

There wore 37,348 acres of improved, and 121,971 acres of 
unimproved, farm lands in 1870 ; the value of which was 

The value of Uve stock — 959 horses, 561 mules, 6412 neat 
cattle, 3924 sheep, and 10,271 hogs— was $310,795. 

The productions in 1869 were 38,422 bushels of wheat, 
196,886 bushels of com, 17,005 bushels of oats, 8325 busheh* 
of potatoes, 123,464 pounds of butter, 9286 gallons of sorghum 
molasses, 1143 bales of cotton, 9005 pounds of tobacco, and 
6948 pounds of wool; $79,137 was the value of animals 
slaughtered ; and the total value of farm productions in 1869 
was $593,139. 

The natural resources of the county are iron ore, in abund- 
ance ; copper, in goodly quantity ; gold ; marble ; and otlier 
valuable substances. 

There are several mineral springs. 

Clay has no railways, but two are projected through it. 

*Henry Clay was bom in Hanover county, Virginia, in 1777, and was the 
son of a clergyman. Though almost without an education he became a law- 
yer at the age of twenty years, and in 1799 he removed to Kentucky. He 
entered the legislature in 1803, and in ]807-'8 served in the federal senate. 
He was returned to congrens in 1809, and served in one house or the other 
for twenty five years. This was interrupted by his mission to Europe in 
1814 to conclude a peace with Britain, and by his holding the office of min- 
ister of state under President J. Q. Adams. In 1824, 1832, and 1844 ho was 
a candidate for the presidency of the United States. He died in 1852. 


The courthouse is at Ashland, a small town named for the 
home of Mr. Clay. Lineville has about 200 inhabitants. 

The HiUabee town, destroyed so ruthlessly by the whites, 
November 18, 1813, stood in the southern part of this eoimty, 
near the creek of that name. The tribe were negotiating 
with Gen. Jackson for peace, just subs^iouent to the battle of 
Talladega, and had received a favorable response to their 
overtures. But a br^ade of moimted east Tennesseeans, 
who had come down the valley of the Tallapoosa, under Qen, 
White, were in utter ignorance of the pending negotiations. 
They surrounded tlie town and made tlie atttick witli vigor, 
killing sixty and capturing 250 women p.nd children. No re- 
sistance was made, and the whites suffered no loss. The Hil- 
labees, who had several towns in this region, beUeved this act 
to be one of the most flagrant treachery on the part of Gen. 
Jsickson, and became the fiercest and most implacable foes of 
the whites. 

A few miles further south, on the lower edge of Clay, the 
aflfair of Enitachopco was fought, January 24, 1814. Gt^neral 
Jackson, with about 1000 nien, of whom 200 were Indians, 
was retreating after the combat at Emuckfau. Beaching the 
creek, a large portion of the command had crossed, when 
a vigorous attack was made on the rear by the pursuing sav- 
ages. The raw troops, though they had fought well two days 
before, now fled in wild disorder across the creek. However, 
a nucleus under Col. Carroll held their gromid, and Gen. 
Jackson soon brought up detachments from the other side. 
After a determined and gallant stand, the brave natives were 
driven off, though they always clauneda victory. The loss on 
both sides was severe, and the bodies of twenty six Indians 
were left on the field. 

The bracing air and beauteous scenery of this region caused 
the Muscogees to dwell in its secluded dells, and by its Umpid 
streams, from time immemorial. Chinnobee, a well-remem- 
bered Indian chief, made it his home. He took part with the 
whites in the war of 1813-'14, and served under Gen. Jack- 
son till the close of the war. It was his boast that " Old 
Hickory " made him " General " Chinnobee. He was killed 
about tlie year 1835, when about 80 years old, by being 
thrown against a tree by a horse he was riding. 

J.' H. White represented the county in the legislature of 
1870. No senator has yet been elected. 



This county was fonned out of parts of Calhoun, Randolph 
and Talladega, by an act approved December 6, 1866, and was 
named to honor the memory of Gen. Cleburne* of Arkansas. 
It lies in the noi*thcastem part of the State, and is contiguous 
to Cherokee on the north, the State of Georgia on the east, 
Randolph and Clay on the south, and Calhoim on the west. 

The area is about 600 square miles. 

The assessed value of real estate in 1870 was $403,608 ; 
personalty $40,773 ; total $44^4,381. 

The population in 1870 was 7441 whites, and 576 blacks. 

The profile of the comity is mountainous jind rugged, with 
light and clay soil. The coves and bottoms are verj' produc- 

The fann lands in 1870 were valued at $497,820, and con- 
sisted of 42,267 aci-es improved, and 121,450 acres imim- 

The value of live stock — 960 horses, 524 mules, 5641 neat 
cattle, 3871 sheep, and 10,659 hogs— was $263,116. 

The productions were 36,739 bushels of wheat, 186,763 bush- 
els of corn, 19,853 bushels of oats, 17,547 bushels of potatoes, 
9999 gallons of sorghum molasses, 83,975 pounds of butter, 
873 bales of cotton, 10,997 poimds of tobacco, and 6496 pounds 
of wool ; the value of animals slaughtered was $78,896 ; and 
the value of fann i:)roductions was $460,591. 

The Tallapoosa flows through Cleburne, but is not naviga- 
ble. No railways are yet in operation, but one or two are 
projected through it. 

mo -^ ■■ — -^ ■-- —■■■■,.-■■,- ■ 1^.-., _-- 11^. ■— — ^ 

•l*ATiacK R. Clebubme was boru uear Bulincog, Ireland, iu J 827; was 
the HOD of a physician, and was well educated. After an attempt to better 
bin fortunes, he entered the British army at the age of 22 years, and served 
till he was 25. Discharged through tne influence of friends, he came to 
America, and ranked well as a lawyer in Helena, Arkansas, when called to 
the delenco of his adopted country. Entering the service as a colonel of the 
15th Arkansas Inlantry, within two years he arose to the rank of major gen- 
eral, and after sharing the fortunes of the Western army from Bowling Green 
to Franklin, was killed iu the assault on the enemy's lines at the latter place, 
November 2U, 1804. 


Though bereft of artificial advantages for their speedy 
development, this county possesses valuable natural wealth. 
Ii'on ore crops out at every turn. Gold is found in the south- 
ern portion, and there was much excitement on the subject 
about Ai'bacoochee at one time. Slate also exists m consid- 
erable quantities. 

Mineral w^aters also aboimd, and Steed-Mountain spring is 
w^ell known. 

Edwakdsville, the seat of justice, is a village, named for 
Mr. Wm. Edwards of the county, who donated the laud on 
which the couiihouse is built. 

Chulafiniiee and Arbacoochee are viUiiges. 

W. P. Howell represented Cleburne in the legislature of 
1870. There has been no election for senator suice the coun- 
ty was organized. • 



Coffee was established by an act approved Dec. 29, 1841, 
and the territory was taken from Dale. It has retained its 
original size save the portion set apart to fonu Geneva in 1869. 

It lies in the southeastern quarter of the State, south of 
Pike, east of Covington, noi*th of Geneva, and west of Dale. 

lis name perpetuates the fame of Gen. Coffee of Lauder- 

Its area is about 700 scjuare miles. 

The assessed value of property in 1870 was $352,217, viz : 
i-ejil estate $297,423 ; personal proprty $54,794. 

The population is thus exhibited decennially : 

J 850 I860 1870 

Whites 5:i80 ^-200 5151 

Blacks 560 142:5 1020 

There are 30,546 acres of improved, and 136,039 acres of 
"^^iiimproved faim lands in the coimty ; vaUied at $308,110. 

The hve stock — 938 horses and mules, 7488 neat cattle, 
^059 sheep, 9433 hogs— is valued at $214,622. 


In 1869 the productions were 121,352 bushels of com, 
8975 pounds of nee, 29,071 bushels of potatoes, 13,098 gallons 
of molasses, 2,004 bales of cotton, 6,737 poimds of wool ; the 
value of animals slaughtered was $62,961; and the whole 
value of farm productions was $511,588. 

The northern portion of the county is hilly and rolling ; 
the southern part is flat. The soil is generally light, but with 
valuable exceptions. 

There are forests of pine timber of ^eat value. 

Mineral waters exist, and Coffee Sprmgs was a resort at one 

Like the coimties contiguous to it, Coffee abounds with 
game, especially with deer. 

The Pea river flows through the county, but is not naviga- 
ble for steamers. There are no railways. 

Elba, the seat of justice since 1850, is on Pea river, and 
has a population of about 500 inhabitants. 

The courthouse was at Greneva till 1847, when it was re- 
moved to Wellborn, and thence to Elba. 

There is nothing in the history of Coffee . to interest the 
general reader. 

Gappa T. Yelveiiion represented the county in the consti- 
tutional convention of 1861. John G. Moore represented it 
in the constitutional convention of 1865. 

The following is a list of the members of the general assem- 
bly. The coimty voted with Dale till 1845 : 


1845— Jones J. Eendrick. 1857 — Daniel H. Horn. 

1847— Lewis Hutcheson. J 861— De Witt C. Davis. 

1849— Jesse O'Neal. 1865— William A. Ashley. 

1853 — William A. Ashley. [No election in 1867, or since.] 


184.5 — Abraham Warren. 1859 — Jeremiah Warren. 

1847— Irwin Rogers. 1861— Hill K. H. Horn. 

1849— William Holly. 1863— John G. Moore. 

1851— William Holly. 1865 -John G. Moore. 

1853— Gappa T. Yelverton. 1867— [No election. ] 

1855— A. L. Milligan. 1870— John G. Moore. 
1857 — Jeremiah Warren. 



By an act of the le^nlature, approved Feb. 6, 1867, the 
northern half of Franklin was erected into a new coimty, and 
Darned to perpetuate the memory of the brothers George and 
Levi Colbert, Chicasa chiefs, an account of whom is given 
below. An ordinance of the de facto convention of 1867 
abolished the county, but it was re-established in 1869. 

It lies in the northwestern part of the State, and is bounded 
north by Lauderdale, east by Lawrence, south by Franklin, 
and west by the State of Mississippi. 

The area of the county i^ about 600 square miles. 

The population in 1870 was 7898 whites, and 4639 blacks. 

Li 1870 the real estate was assessed at $1,365,347 ; personal 
property $469,376 ; total $1,834,723. 

The surface of the countiy is diversified with hill and plain, 
and there is a variety of valuable soil, susceptible of the 
Ughest scientific cultivation. 

The farm lands in 1870 were valued at $910,627, and con- 
sisted of 57,190 acres improved, and 126,606 acres unim- 

The value of Uve stock — 1190 horses, 799 mules, 4322 neat 
cattle, 2735 sheep, and 8267 hogs— wa« $306,808. 

Li 1869 the productions were 12,682 bushels of wheat, 
291,402 bushels of com, 14,347 bushels of oats, 9498 bushels 
of potatoes, 4897 gallons of sorghum syrup, 3936 bales of 
cotton, and 4026 pounds of wool ; the value of animals slaugh- 
tered was $85,680 ; and the value of farm productions was 
$677,646. . 

There are two valuable mineral springs in Colbert. 

The Tennessee river flows along the entire northern line of 
the county, but is shoally. The Memphis and Charleston 
railroad passes through tne county for 39^ miles, including 
the brancn about five miles in length to Florence. 

Ck)ll>ert claims to have given the first substantial encourage- 
nient to the construction of railways' in the State. La 1831 a 
track nearly two miles in length was laid from Tuscumbia to 
the Tennessee river, and a year or two later (1834) a road was 


in running order from Tiiscumbia to Decatur, a distance d 
forty-four miles. The foresight of the citizens of this r^on 
should not be forgotten. 

TuscuMBiA, the seat of justice, had a population of 1214 
souls u) 1870 ; of whom 764 are whites and 450 are blacks. 
It was incorporated in 1820 by the name of Ococoposa (cM: 
tvater), but the name was changed the following year to Bijf' 
Spring, and in 1822 to Tuscumbia, to pre8er\'e the name of a 
Chicasa wanior who lived near. A female college, "Deshlor 
Institut^i," is located in the town. The town is noted for the. 
wontb'ous spriQg, or subterranean creek, of freestone water, 
which gushes from under the plateau on which it is baUt;: 
and which, according to Major David Deshler, the ci^ 
engineer, discharges 17,724 cubic feet of water per minute at 
an averiigo the year round. 

Cherokee, Chicasa, and Leighton are thriving villages. ■ \ 

Near Barton Station an extensive cotton factoiT, ifoi/ 
founcby, <fec., are in process of construction, which will ocm^l 
tribute materially to the welfare of the coimty. 'I 

Lagrange College, which was situated ten miles from Toi^ 
cumbia, was chartered as early as 1828, and many of the mort! 
useful citizens of the Tennessee valley were educated thar&' 
It was m»ide a military college by the State, which was prob- 
ably the pretext for burning it two years after such use, W 
the notorious Gen. Dodge,* and it has not since been re-bizil£ 

During the late war between the States, Colbert, in cosh 
mon with other parts of north Alabama, was ravaged by the 
federal troops, and foraged upon by the Confederates. Tu»-' 
cumbia is the gateway of the Tennessee valley, and it 
made especially so while the noiihem troops held Connth. 

At Little Bear creek, near Tuscumbia, in the fall of 1862^-^ 
a spirited light took place between a body of the enemy under^ 
Gen. Sweeney, and the Confederates under Col. Koddy. 
was chiefly an artillery duel, but caused the invaders to &If| 
back to Corinth. 

A more bloody affair occurred at Barton Station, a litiie^| 
later, in which Roddy's troops repulsed the enemy very hand-^ 
somely, and drove them back to their stronghold again. 

A predatory warfare was carried on almost without cessa* 
tion, and this lovely region was left at the close of the struggle' 
in a desolate condition. It has since steadily recuperated,'^ 

* GuENviLLE M. Do DOE, whoso atrocious vandalism lit up the valley of' 
the TeDueRBce from Town creek to Tuscumbia on the memorable night of 
April 28, 1863, with the flames of burning dwellings, granaries, stablei^ 
fences, kc.^ <.V:<;., was bom in Danvers, Mass., in 1831. He entered thefed-.^ 
era] army as colonel of the fourth. Iowa infantry, and arose to tuenuikof 
major general. He is now a politician in Iowa. 


and once more its fertile plains teem with the fruits and tex- 
tures of a generous soil. 

The CoLBEiiTS were half-breed Chicasas. Geouoe, the 
eldest, lived at and owned the ieiTy in this county ^%liich is 
yet called by his name. Levi dwelt on Bear creek, in the 
jresent lirni^ of this county, a few miles from the ferry.* 
Levi was regarded as the active chief of the tribe, but was 
BHich influenced in all his pubHc acts by his brother George, 
wko possessed a strong mind and dictatorial s]^irit. Le^i was 
mild and amiable, Uberal and generous. They were "all 
"men of good sense and good principle8."t The family 
aj^ars stm to be influential vnth. the tril>e, for He^rbort Col- 
mi was recently the C/hicasa delegate to congress. 

William Cooper, the Nestor of the bar of noiih Alabama, 
k a resident of Colbert. He is a native of Brunswick coimty, 
Ibginia, and was bom January 11, 1803, but was reared m 
Biridscn countj', Tennessee, where his parents settled in 
1805. His mother was a Miss Jackson. His father was a 
|laiiter in comfortable circumstances, and he was enabled to 
nate at the University of Nashville. Ha\dng read law 
r Hon. Eph. H. Foster, he was admitted to the bar in 
, and at once came to Alabama and opened an oflice in 
"ville. Here he was the law partner of Gen. James 
ms, & prominent lawyer and poHtician, brother of Gen. 
ben Davis of Mississippi. For three or four years prior 
the removal of tlie Chickasas, Mr. Cooper was the attor- 
for the nation, and such was their appreciation of his 
ices that when they were about to remove they donated 
yaluable lands, in 1828 he removed his office to Tus- 
hla, where he has since resided. In 1845, when the banks 
placed in Uquidation, Mr. Cooper was appointed one of 
three commissioners, and he discharged the duti(^s of the 
for two years. Wlien the State st».ceded from the Fed- 
Union, he was sent as commissioner to Missomi, and ad- 
the legislatm'e of that State in favor of co-operating 
the movement of the southern States. These are the only 
1 trusts he has consented to acce])t, prefeiTing to devote 
attention to a profession in which he has long be(>n emi- 
and in which he now labors in association ^vith his 
er, Mr. Liddell B. Cooper. 
Mr. Cooper is above medium highth, without suiplus flesli, 
an open and manly face, and a weU-shaped and in intel- 

' /tines Colbert, a yonnger brother, lived thirty or forty miles further 
I, and was quite civilized and eHtimable. 

t Hon. George S.'Gaines of MiBsissippi 



lectual head. As a lawyer he has few equals, and his enlto] 
as a scholar is liberal. He has been thrice married, the se 
ond time to a sister of Col. John K. Blocker of Greene. 

Felix Grundy Norman of this county was bom in Buthe 
ford county, Tennessee, in 1808. He received an academ 
course, and in 1828 came to this (then Franklin^ county, ai 
taught school. He was afterwards a merchant, out read la 
under Hon. William Cooper, and was Ucensed in 1841. Tl 
same year he entered the legislature, and served for eig] 
successive 3'ears. From 1845 to 1847 he was master of fl 
grand lodge of Freemasons in the State. He resides in Tu 

The present chief magistrate . of the State is a citizen • 

Robert Burns Lindsay was bom in Loclmiaben, Dumfrie 
shire, Scotland, July 4, 1824. He received a classical educi 
tion, graduating at St. Andrew's University. When eightec 
years old he bade adieu to " Scotland's nameless glens," an 
sought a home " beyant the say." Arriving in North Carolin 
he read law and taught school at the same time. In 1848 1 
came to Tuscumbia, and here opened a law office. He repr 
sented the couniy (Franklin) in the general assembly in 185 
and in the senate in 1855, and again in 1865. In 1860 he wi 
on the Douglas electoral ticket, and made an extensive ca: 
vass. He seized for a part of the time during the war : 
Boddy's cavahy. In 1870 he was the candidate of his pan 
for governor, and received 77,721 votes to 76,292 for the i 
cumbent, Gov. Smith of Randolph. He has had the execi 
tive office during a troubled period, and tiie verdict of histoi 
may not yet be pronounced on his administration. Gov. Lini 
say is of ordinary highth, but stoutiy built. He has a pleasa; 
exterior, poHshed aeportment, and a high moral and soci 
standing. He is a hnguist and scholar, imparts informatic 
lucidly, and possesses much talent as an advocate. Ho ma 
ried a half sister of Gov. Winston. 

Joseph H. Sloss resides in tiiis countv, but is a native 
Morgan, where he was bom in 1826. ilis father, a Presb 
terian minister, removed with his family to Florence in 183 
and there the son grew to manhood. Having read law wi 
his mother's brother, Hon. T. J. Campbell (meml)er of congi*e 
1842-45) in Athens, Tennessee, he began to practice in £ 
Louis, (Missouri) in 1849. A ^'^ear later he removed to B 
w^ards\TLlle, Illinois. Duiing the memorable canvass for Unite 
States senator in that State in 1858, between Judge DougL 
and Mr. Lincoln, he was chosen to the legislature, and aide 


in the election of the "Little Giant." At the outburst of the 
great war between the sections, he closed up his dwelling and 
business, came to the land of his birth, and remained in her 
service till the close of the war. Locating in Tuscumbia, he 
has since given his attention to his profession, to journalism, 
and to rai&oad interests. In 18G6 he was elected mayor of 
Tuscumbia, and, though removed by Gen. Pope, was sub- 
sequently re-elected. In 1870 he was the nominee of his 
party for a seat in congress, and was chosen by a majority of 
about 5000 over Dr. B. O. Masterson of Lawrence. Major 
Sloss is short but compactly built, and possessed of genial 
tod C(mciliating maimei-s. He is moral, energetic, observant, 
and well informed. 

John Daniel Rather resides in Colbert, but is a native of 
Moi^an, and his public career behmgs to tlie annals of that 
county. BUs fatlier, Hon. John T. Kather, yet resides in 
Morgan ; his mother was a sister of Gen. W. B. McClellan 
of Talladega. Bom in 1828, he was well educated, and read 
law imder Judge Coleman in Athens. Locating first in Som- 
erviUe, and afterwards in Decatur, he practiced very success- 
fully. In 1849 he represented Morgan in the legislature, and 
was re-elected in 1851. At the meeting of the legislature the 
latter year, he was chosen speaker, the only time such a com- 

Sliment has been paid to so young a man since the days of 
bv. Bagby's first speakership. In 1856 he was a Buchannan 
elector. iVom 1857 to 1861 he was in the senate, serving as 
president during the last two years. In 1864 Gov. Watis ap- 
pointed him a judge of the circuit court to fill the vacancy 
created by Judge Lewis's resignation. At the close of the 
war he opened an office in Tuscumbia, and has since been a 
citizen of this coimty. In appearance General (a militia title) 
Kather is stout and robust, with dark complexion and dark 
eyes. His mental equals his physical vigor, and he is now 
the very energetic vice-president of the Memphis <t Charleston 
Bailroad. He is an able and reliable lawyer, and a terse and 
logical speaker. As a companion he is genial and considerate. 
His first wife was a sister Hon. W^wle Keyes of Lauderdale ; 
his second, a daughter of Mr. Edwjfid Pearsall of this county. 

There was another whose fame is the pride of Colbert, for 
he was a native son. James Deshler was born in Tiiseumbia, 
February 18, 18IJ3. His father, the late Major David Deshler, 
was an eminent civil engineer, who came from Pennsylvania 
to this section in the year 1825 ; and who died in December 
1871 in Tuscumbia, making, in his will, a handsome bequest 
for the establishment of the female college here — and now 
called "Deshler Institute." The son was educated at West 


Point, graduating in 1854. He sensed in California, and on 
the plains, and was in the Utah expedition. He was at Fort 
Wyse, Colorado, in May or June 1861, when he heard of the 
withdrawal of his State from the Union. He prouiptl^y re- 
signed, and repaired to Richmond. Appointed captain of 
artilleiy, he was ordered to western Virginia. He Wivs m the 
affair on the Greenbrier, and was shot through both thighs 
in the action on the Alleghanies, January 1862. As soon as 
he recovered, he was appointed colonel of artillery, and 
assigned to duty in North Carolina. When Gen. Holmes was 
aasigned to the command of tJie Trans-Mississippi Depart-, 
ment, the young Alabamian accompanied him as chief of 
staff. He was subsequently placed in command of a brigade 
of Texans in Churchill's division, which constituted the gar- 
rison of Arkansfis Post. This fortress, after a vigorous defence, 
was captured, with its garrison, January 12, 1863. Exchanged 
in June in Virginia, the remnant of the division rendezvoused 
at Tullahoma, where it was throwTi into one brigade, and 
Gen. Deshler, now promoted, was placed over it. As part of 
Cleburne's diAdsioA, the brigade was hotly engaged at Ohica- 
mauga. On the morning of the second day, when the other 
brigades of the division had been much cut up, and Deshler's 
had ]>een retarded by unskillful disposition of the line of 
battie, Gen. Cleburne tui*ned to Gen. Deshler, and spoke 
CTU'tiJ' : "General, your brigade has not been engaged to-day." 
A cnmson flush suffused the face of the young oflicer, but tiie 
reply was prompt ^.nd spirited : "It is not my faidt. General." 
An unmediate a<lvance was ordered, and the command was at 
once wrapped in the smoke and flame of battle. Within a 
few momenis, however, the corpse of the gallant Alabamian 
came back, with a sliell fragment tlirough the breast. 

••The paths of f^lory lead but to the grave." 

Thus, in the prime of early manhood, fell tliis noble son of the 
State. But his valor and daring were not the (mly attributes 
of his character. He was exemplary and pious in conduct, 
considerate but firm in the discharge (^f duty, and modest and 
kind in interccmrse with his feUow-men. Colbert cherishes 
the name of Deshler. 

Colbei*t is not yet separately represented in the general 



This county was carved out of Monroo by an act passed 
February 13, 1818, and originally embraced all of soutli Ala- 
bama east of its present western boundary line, and south of 
the line of Lowndes, as far east as the Chattahoochee ;* but 
it was soon sub-divided. 

It is in south Alabama, and Ues north of Escambia, east of 
Monroe, south of Monroe and Butler, and west of Butler and 

It was named for the river which flows through tliat part 
of the county lately assigned to Escamb^a.t 
• The area of the coimty is about 765 square miles. 

The assessed value of real estate in 1870 was $723,091 ; per- 
sonalty $237,292 ; total $960,383. 

The population has been as follows : 

]820 1830 1840 1850 I860 Ic^O 

Whites 3769 3812 4376 4925 6419 4667 

Blacks J944 3632 3821 4397 4892 4901 

Part of the coimty was set apart to Escambia in 1868, which 
accounts for -the decrease since 1860. 

The country is level and tmdulating ; the soil clay, sandy, 
and hammock. 

The value of farm lands in 1870 was $240,795, and consist- 
ed of 20,583 acres improved, and 91,033 acres unimproved. 

The value of Uve stock was $172,132, and consisted of 708 
horses and mules, 5398 neat cattle, 2298 sheep, 4433 hogs. 

*Kev. David L^e of t^owndes, when a boy, iu 1819, heard the tax collector 
of Ck)necuh Bay bo was about to start on his trip to collect the taxes on the 
Chattahoochee. Sach were the inconveniences of the pioneer settlers. 

tCoNECUH (or conato) is an Indian word, which means **crooked." There 
is a belief prevalent that the name was given to the river by the early settlers 
(who were mostly South Carolinians) who held iu grateful remembrance 
a creek of that came in the up country of South Carolina. The better 
opinion is. however, that Conecuh is the name the Itfuscogees applied to 
the stream long before the white man pereed into the depths of its clear 



The productions were 92,177 bushels of com, 12,623 bushels 
of potatoes, 6796 gallons of sorghum molasses, 1539 bales of 
cotton, and 3731 pounds of wool ; the value of animals slaught- 
ered was $30,088; and the value of farm productions was 

The pine forests of this county are of verj' stately growth, 
and are made to jdeld the piincipal private revenue of many 
citizens, by means of the "square timber" which is hewn, and 
rafted to the coast and to the milLs. 

The' marl deposits have attracted attention, while the green- 
sand, which exists in considerable quantity, is known to be 
exceedingly valuable as a fertilizer. 

The Mobile & Montgomery Railroad passes through the 
center of the coimty fof 24 J miles ; and the Selma & Gulf 
Railroad is projected through it. 

Evergreen, the seat of justice, has about 500 inhabitants; 
BellviUe 200 ; BrookljTi 200. 

Sparta, the seat of justice till 1866, and once the center of 
an intellectual and wealthy commimity, is now much reduced 
in size. 

Turk's Cave, near Brooklyn, is noted for the large quantity 
of bat guano it contains. In the early settlement of the 
county it was the resort for some time of the famous high- 
wayman Joseph T. Hare, and liis accomplices ; and it was 
here tliey stored their treasure, and fi'om whence they sallied 
forth to rob and murder the traders who pUed their vocation 
between Pensacola and the Indian coimtry. Their ill-gotten 
gains were generally s(j[uandered in carousal with the senoritas 
of Pensacola, who little knew the dark fountain whence flowed 
such lavish prodigality. 

A skirmisn on jBumt Com creek, eight miles below Bellville, 
in this county, between the whites and Muscogees, July 27, 
1813, was the commencement of the great Indian war. The 
settlers on the Tombikbee having heard that a i>arty of war- 
riors under Peter McQueen — afterwards ascertainea to num- 
ber about 350 — ^had gone to Pensacola to obtain suppUes from 
the British in order to attack the whites, resolved to intercept 
them on their return. Accordingly, Colonel James CaUer of 
Washingtcm, with 180 moimted volunteers, marched across 
the comitry to get in the beaten trail to Pensiicola. They 
found the savages encamped on Burnt Com, engaged in cook- 
ing. The whites assaulted them vigorously, and drove them 
into the thickets of the creek. Suq^rised, but undismayed, 
the brave natives ralhed and returned tlie fire with spirit 
The whites, having broken ranks in order to plunder the 
camp, were now in turn driven back on the hill, and dispersed 
in a most discreditable manner, witli few exceptions. They 


were driven off, and, had the Indians pursued, an overwhehn- 
ing dis^tster woidd have befallen the 'IBikbee settlement in the 
destmction of the flower of its fighting men. As it was, they 
lost but two killed and fifteen wounded. The loss of the 
Indians was also small ; but they were greatly elated by their 
success. Inspired by revenge, a montli later they fell upon 
Fort Mimms, with what resiut these pages elsewhere reveal. 

Eldbibge S. Greening was an eai4y settler, and distin- 
guished young attorney of Conecuh. He was talented and 
poptdar, serving the people in the legislature and as general 
of militia. He was also soUcitor of the circuit court, succeed- 
ing Hon. John Gayle of Monrt>e in 1821. His career was cut 
short by death about the year 1829, when he was thrown from 
his buggy against a tree while on the way to Pensacola. 

Samuel Whtte Oliver came to this county as early as 
1819, when about twenty-three years old. A native of Vir- 
ginia, he grew to manhood m Clark coimty, Georgia, was ed- ^ 
ncated at Franklin College, and read law in Litchfield, 
Connecticul He at once came to Conecuh and opened an 
office in Sparta, where he soon after became the law partner 
of Hon. John S. Hunter. Though he began life without for- 
tune, he rapidly accumulated botli property and reputation. 
He first entered the legislature in 1822, and for twelve years 
he served Cdfeecuh in tlie popidar branch of the general 
assembly, of which he was cliosen sjicaker in 1834. Two 
years after, he entered the State senate from the district com- 
posed of Butler and Conecuh, but resided when he removed 
to Dallas county the following year. He was the candidate 
of the anti-Van Buren party for the office of governor in 1837, 
and was defeated by a majority of 4000 for Hon. Arthur P. 
Bagby of Monroe. . He died at his residence on Pine-barren 
creek, in Dallas county, January' 18, 1838, in the meridian of 
an useful and exemplary life. Col. Oliver was a gentleman of 
spotless repute, of moral character, and popular bearing. 
His talents were very marked, and he was an effective orator 
on the hustings and in the forum. At the time of his death 
no one in the State stood fairer before the people as a pubUc 
man, and the highest distinctions awaited him. His wife, a 
SLster of the late Hon. John S. Himter of Dallas, survived 
him, and mairicd Mr. Sprague of that coimty. Starke H. 
Oliver of Mobile, heutenant colonel of the 24th (consolidated) 
Alabama, is a son ; and two other sons are planters of Dallas. 

The memory of John Watkins lingers in Conecuh. He 
was bom withm five miles of the present Appomattox Court- 
house, Virginia, in 1775, and was connected with mjuiy of the 
best families of that State. He was liberally educated, and 


was graduated in medicine at Philadelphia in 1804. He 
shortly after removed to Soutli Carolina, where he practiced 
in the family of Hon. J. C. Calhoun in Abbeville. In 1813 
he came to the Tombikbee settlement, and sooi after made 
Claiborne his pennanent home. At that time he wiis the only 
physician between the Alabama and Chattahoochee rivers, 
and he was fully employed. He represented Monroe in the 
cimvention of 1819 that fiamed the constitution for the would- 
be Stiite, and the same year was chosen the first senator from 
tlie county. He settled in this county soon after it began to 
be peopled, and in 1828 was elected to the senate from Butler 
and Conecuh. Three yeai-s later he served Conecuh in the 
other branch of tlie lejjislature. In 1842-'45 he represented 
Monroe and Conecuh m the senate, which was his last con- 
nection witli pubUc life. He died in 1854, on tlie verge of 
fourscore years. He was a man of extraordinary physical 
powers, and beti-ayed his age neither in his faculties nor his 
appearance. His manners were plain, and rather hrusqWy 
but his benevolence and hospitality were proverbial. HJe 
never sought popularity, but the people oi Coneciili and 
Monroe honored him whenever he was a candidate. His 
literary taste and devotion to scientific research led him to 
collate one of tlie completest private hbraries in the State, 
and his range of information was wide. In Ms 55th year he 
married Mrs. Hunter, sister to Hon. W. B. H. Howard of 
Wilcox, and one of his sons is a physician and planter of 
Lowndes, while another fell in defence of his country during 
the tate war. 

Jam£s Adams Stallworth was a native and resident of this 
county. His father, Mr. Nicholas Stallworth, was a planter. 
The maiden name of his mother was Adams. The parents 
came from South Carolina, and were among the earliest settlerB 
of the county, and here the scm first saw the light in 1822. 
He received only an academic education. In 1845, and again 
in 1847, he represented the county in the legislature. Licensed 
as an attorney in 1848, he was elected distiict solicitor the 
ensuing year, and held that positicm for six years. In 1856 
he was the nominee of his party for congress, but was de- 
feated by Col. Percy Walker of Mobile. He was again the 
nominee of his pai-ty in 1857, and 1859, and was elected; tiie 
fii'st time over Col. John McCaskill of Wilcox, the next over 
Col. Frederick B. Sheppard of Mobile. When the State 
withdrew from the Union, Mr. Stallwoi-th retired with his 
colleagues. His death occuiTed in Evergi*eeii, August 31, 
1861, of enter if is. He m allied a Miss Crosby of this oountr, 
and one of his sons is an attorney in Evergreen. Major 



Nicholas Stallworth of this county is a brother. Mr. Stall- 
worth yielded to none in the display of those genial, sociable, 
and liberal qualities which are so hi|jhly prized in the Soutli. 
And if he was less useful and efficient as a public servant 
than some others, at least none was more honorable, or free 
from every sordid vice. 

The late William A. Ashley was a native of this county, 
and the son of 'Hon. Wilson Ashley, who served Gonecuh m 
the legislature, and was presidential elector for Messrs. Davis 
and Stephens in 1861. His mother was Miss McCreary. The 
son had good educational advantages, and gave his attention 
to planting. He took an active interest in the construction 
ana management of the Mobile & Montgomery Bailroad. He 
represented the county in both branches of tlie general assem- 
bly, but died in the meridian of life, in April 1870, a^ed about 
48 jears. He possessed popular manners, and a wide range 
of information, but was reserved, and not opinionated. 

By the act of December 13, 1819, Baitlev Walker, James 
Salter, John Speir, R. L. Cotton, and Robert Smyley were 
appointed commissioners to fix on a site for the courthouse. 

Election precincts were established, between the years 1819 
and 1822, at the houses of Wm. Brewer, Wm. Blackshear, 
David Hendrick, at Cumming's mill, Zuber's store, Gteorge 
Constantine*s, Brooklyn, James Caldwell's, Rabb's store, 
James Grace's, and John Bell's. 

Samuel Oook represented Conecuh in the constitutional 
conTention of 1819 ; John Greene in that of 1861 ; and Wm. 
A. Ashley in that of 1865. 

The following is a list of the members of the general assem- 
bly from the county : 


1819— John Herbert 
1821— John W. DoTerenx. 
1826— William Jones. 
1S28— John WaildnB. 
1830— William HemphilL 
1833-~William Hemphill. 
1836— Samuel W. OlWer. 
1837 — Hemdon Lee Henderson. 
1839—8. 8. Andress. 

1842— John Watkins. 
1845 — John Morrissett. 
1847— John Morrissett. 
la^l- William Perry Leslie. 
1853— William A. Ashley. 
1857— Daniel H. Horn. 
1861— D. C. Daivis. 
1865— William A. Ashley.* 
[No election in 1867 or since.] 


1819— Wm. Lee, Thomas Watts. 
1820— 8aml Oook, Thos. Armstrong. 
1821— Eldridge 8. Greening, John £. 

1822— 8aml W. Oliver, John a Hon- 

ter, Taylor. 

1883— Sami W. Oliyer, John Fields, 

Jame* Saltcur, 

1824— Sam'l W. Oliver, Nathan Cook, 

John Greene. 
1825— Is^m'l W. OUver, Eldridge 8 

1826— Sam'l W. Oliver. Eldridge S. 

1827— 8am*l W. Oliver, Eldridge S. 




1828— Joseph P. Cloagh, Jas. Salter. 

J 829 — John Green, Henry E. Curtis. 

1830— Jos. P. Clough, Sain'l Dnbose 

IHIU— Sam'l W Oliver, Jno. Watkinn. 

1832— Samuel W. Oliver, Julian 8. 

1833— Sam»l W. Oliver.. Watkins Sal- 

J 834 —Samuel W. Oliveb. 

18:^5— Wilson Ashley. 

1836~Jeptha V. Perryman. 

1837 — Jeptha V. Perryman. 

1838— James M. BolUng. 

1839— James M. Boiling. 

1840— W. A. Bell. 

1841 — Churchill Jones. 

1842— Oburchill Jones. 
1843— Churchill Jones. 
1844— A. W. Jones. 
184''^ — James A. Stall worth. 
1847— James A. Stallwortii. 
1549— William A. Ashley. 
18.51 -William A. Ashley. 
18.53 — Andrew Jay. 
1855— Andrew Jay. 
1857— John D. Cary. 
J 859— John D. Cary. 
1861— William A. Ashley. 
18(^3- William Qreene. 
1865- F. M. Walker. 
1867— [No election.] 
1870— J. W. Etheridge. 



Coosa was created by an act approved Dec. 18, 1832, out of 
territory acquired from the Muscogees by the treaty of Cus- 
seta the previous March. 

It lies near the heart of the State, south of Talladefi^ and 
Clay, west of Tallapoosa, north of Elniore, and east of JBaker. 

It was named for the Coosa river, which in turn preserves 
the name of the fertile kingdom of "Cosa," through which 
DeSoto wandered — and lingered here on his pilgrimage, for 
the nut-brown maidens, the clear streams, ai>d tne soft breezes 
recalled the beauties of liis own sunny land — ^nearly three 
and a half centuries ago. 

The area is about 660 square miles. 

The assessed value of real estate in 1870 was $748,346; 
of personal property $195,529 ; total $943,875. 

The population is thus exhibited : 

1840 1850 I860 1870 

Whites ^ 4858 

BlaokB 2137 

10,414 14,044 8544 
4,229 5,223 3394 

A large and valuable portion of the county was set apart 
to Elmore in 1866, which accounts for the decrease in the 
last enumeration. 

The surface is hilly, with level valleys and bottoms. The 



soil is generally light with marked exceptions, and may be 
easily improved. 

The value of farm lands in 1870 was $610,653, and em- 
braced 64,905 acres improved, and 205,245 acres unimproved. 

The value of live stock— 1406 hoi-ses,' 1184 mules, 9065 
neat cattle, 4546 sheep, and 12,689 hogs— was $472,805. 

The productions were 36,066 bushels of wheat, 262,683 
bushels of com, 20,513 bushels of oats, 32,195 bushels of 
potatoes, 91,961 pounds of butter, 3893 bales of cotton, 5634 
pounds of tobacco, and 6980 pounds of wool ; the value of 
animals slaughtered was $119,843; and the total value of 
farm products was $1,040,936. 

There are no railways in Coosa, and the noble river which 
waters its western boundary has not been opened to naviga- 

Marble, gold, copper, plumbago, building stone, &c., Ac, 
exist in the county. " In Coosa there are several quarries of 

statuary granite of a superior quality, which is of a beauti- 
ful gray color, easy of access, being almost entirely above 
" the surface of the ground ; easily split, and is capable of 
"being worked into any desirable shape or size."* 

There is a cotton factory on Socapatoy creek, called " Brad- 
ford Factory," which is prosjjerous and profitable. 

RoCKFORD, thetseat of justice, is a village of about 400 
inhabitants. There are other healthy and pleasant villages. 

The historic portion of Coosa was given to Elmore. The 
facts in relation to Col. Howell Rose and Hon. S. W. Harris, 
who served Coosa, but resided in that part which now beltings 
to Elmore, will be found in the chapter devoted to that 

William Garrett is a citizen of Coosa. He was bom in 
Cocke county, Tennessee, in 1809, and was the son of a Meth- 
odist minister, who was also a trader and farmer. His mother 
was a Miss Ghray. His education was plain, but he possessed 
aptness and energy. In 1833 he came to Calhoun county, 
thifi State, and becjune a merchant. He volunteered in the 
Creek war; and in 1838 was elected clerk of the house of 
representatives of the general assembly, having held the post 
of assistant clerk at the previous session. In 1840 he was 
chosen to the office of secretary of State, over the incumbent, 
Mr. Thomas B. Tunstall, and held that responsible position 
by repeated elections for twelve years. During this time he 
resided in Tuskaloosa and Mon^omery, removing to the lat- 
ter oountj^ when the capital was removed. He came to Coosa 

f **1!he Alabami^ ^amml :" by Joseph Hodgson. 


in 1851, and two years later he was chosen to represent the 
county in the popular branch of the legislature, of which he 
was elected speaker at its meeting. In 1859 he was defeated 
for the senate, but was returned to that body at the elections 
in 18G3 and 1865, and served four years. He was secretary 
of State for a short time in 1865 by appointment of Gk)v. 
Parsons. He has employed his leisure hours for several years 

Jast in preparing a work to be entitled " Beminiscences of 
^ublic Men in Alabama for Thirty Years," which is soon to 
be issued from the press, and will be a valuable contribution 
to the literature of the State. Col. Garrett is a close observer 
of men and events, and possesses notable tact and extensive 
information. His talents are of the solid kind, and he is an 
instructive conversationalist, and a citizen of public spirit. 
He manied, first. Miss Taylor of Virginia ; and, second, Miss 
Henry of Mobile. 

Daniel GRAWFom) is a prominent and useful citizen of 
Coosa, and has represented the coimty in both branches of 
the general assembly. He is a native of North Carolina, and 
came to this State in his youth, about the year 1833. He 
was for several years connected \\dth the mills of Mr. John 
McNeil in Autauga, and subsequently with the gold diggings 
at Goldville, in Tallapoosa. About the year 1840 he made 
Coosa his home, and has been a planter and miQ owner here. 
He is an upright and moral man, with much worldly wisdom 
and foresight. 

By the act of January 12, 1833, Washington Campbell, 
Archibald Downing, and William Lovelady were appointed 
commissioners for the county, with power to select a seat of 

George Taylor, Albert Crumpler, and J. B. Leonard repre- 
sented the county in the constitutional convention of lo61 ; 
Daniel Crawford, C. M. Cabot, and Wm. A. Wilson in that of 

The following were the members of the general assembly 
from this counfy : 


1837— Daniel E. WatrouM. 1H57— Daniel Crawford. 

1840~-Dixon Hall. I a59— George E. Brewer. 

1843— William L. Yancey. J '^61— Daniel Crawford. 

1844— Sampson W. Harris. 186:^— William Garrett. 

1847— «eth P. Storrs. 1865 ^William Garrett 
1849— 8eth P. Storrs. [No election in 18G7 or since.] 

1853— James R. Powell. 



Repre^ten taJtives, 

1837— W.W. MorriP. 

]«:iS_:w. W. Morris. 

1839— A. B. Dawson. 

1840— W. W. Morris. 

1841— ^'^illiam L. Yancey. 

1842 — Anderson H. Eendrick. 

J843 -Howell Rose. 

1844— Howell Hose. 

1845— Howell Ro«e, Jae. B Powell. 

1847 — Samuel Spigener, Daniel Craw- 

184^— A. H. Kendrick, F F. Foscne. 

1851— Henry W. Cox, Neil a Gra- 

1853 — William Gabrett, James H. 

1855— George Taylor, N. 8. Graham. 

1857 -Geo. E. Brewer, Evan Calfee, 
Alexander Smith. 

la'iO— Calvin Hnmphrierf.-W D.Wal- 
den, Alexander Smith. 

186 1 — A. T. Maxwell, D. W. Bozeman, 
Albert Cmmpler. 

1863— T. U. T. McCain, E. 8. C. 
Parker, James Vanzandt. 

1865— T. U. T. McCain, John Ed- 
wards, James Vanzandt. 



This counir was formed from Henry by an act passed De- 
cember 18, lo21, and originally compnsea the major portion 
of Dale and Geneva. It was namea to honor the memory of 
(Jen. Covington,* who was killed at the battle of Crystler's 

li is in the southern portion of the State, and is bounded 
north by Butler and Crenshaw, east by Coffee and (Jeneva, 
south by the State of Florida, west by Conecuh and Escambia. 

Covington has an area of about 1025 square miles. 

The assessed value of retd estate is $144,601 ; of persqnal 
property $45,621 ; total $190,222. 

The population decennially has been as follows : 

1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 

Whites Iil8 

Blacks 402 





^Leonabd Wailer Cotinoton was bom near Annapolis, Maryland, in 1773. 
He formed an early attachment for the science and incidents of war, and 
saw service nnder Gren. Wayno against the Indians on the Manmee. He 
served a term in congress from Maryland, 1H05-6, and was made a brigadier 
(general of volunteers when the war of 1812 with Great Britain was declared. 
Daring the ill-advised invasion of Oanada from Sackett's Harbor nnder Gen. 
Wilkinson, Gen. Covington was killed in the fight at Grystler's Fields, or 
Williamsburg, NovexQb«r 11, 1813. 


' The mui^ation of the county when Crenshaw was estab- 
Ushed caused the decrease as shown in the two last enumera- 

The surface of the country is generally flat, and the soil 
chiefly sandy. 

The value of farm lands in 1870 was $123,443, and consisted 
of 14,048 acres improved, and 65,203 acres unimproved. 

The value of Uve stock — 552 horses and mules, 5696 neat 
cattle, 4250 sheep, and 7077 hogs— was $158,667. 

The productions in 1869 were valued at $315,418, and con- 
sisted of 63,389 bushels of com, 16,474 bushels of potatoeSy 
9646 gallons of molasses, 689 bales of cotton, and 707o pounds 
of wool. 

Timber hewing and stock raising are the principal employ- 
ments. The splendid growth of pine forest is cut and rafted 
to the mills or to the coast 

The "range" for cattle is considered good, and "stock 
farms" are profitable. 

The Conecuh and Yellow rivers flow through the county, 
but neither is navigable. The Mobile <fe Girard Baih'oad is 
projected down the valley of the Conecuh. 

The courthouse is at Andalusia, a small village. Monte- 
zuma was the first shire- to^vn, but the courthouse was removed 
about the year 1840. 

There are three striking artificial mounds on Conecuh river, 
in this county, from which Spanish coins have been taken, and 
in one of which was found a monstrous jaw-bone, that would 
fit over that of an ordinary adult jaw, and which is a relic of 
some aboriginal GoUath, or of an extinct human race. There 
is also a cave, on Yellow river, as yet unexplored further than 
to ascertain that it is of vast extent. 

William Carter, jr., James K. Mobley, Aaron Lockhart, 
Henry Jones, and Abel Polk were the commissioners ap- 
pointed to select a site for the courthouse in 1821 ; and, a year 
later, John M. Chapman, WilUam Arthur, and John Cruse 
were added. 

DeWitt C. Davis represented Covington in the constitu- 
tional convention of 1861 ; and Juhus G. Robinson in that 
of 1865. 

The following is a list of members of the general assembly 
from the coimty. It had no separate representation in the 
lower house till 1834, having voted \\ith Henry till 1828, and 
with Conecuh after that time : 


1822— John W. Devereux. 18.34— William Irwin. 

1825— William Irwin. 1837— Richard C. Spann. 

1828— William Irwin. 1838— James Ward. 

1831— William Irwin. 1840— Angus McAllister. 


1843— James Ward. 1853~William A. Ashley. 

1845-^ohn Morrissett. 1057— Daniel H. Horn. 

]847Wohn Morrissett. 1861— DeWitt C. Davis. 

1651— William Perry LesUe. 1865— WilUam A. Ashley. 


]83i— Abraham Warren. 1849- Alfred HoUey. 

1835 — Abraham Warren. 1851— George A. Snowden. 

1836— Abraham Warren. 1853— Alfred Holley. 

1837— ^osiah Jones. 1855— W. T. Acree. 

1838— Josiah Jones. J857— Alfred Holley. 

1839-^osiah Jones. 1859-Alfred Holley. 

1840— Laird B. Fleming. 1861— Jnlins G. Robinson. 

J 84 1 — Josiah Jones. ] 863— Alfred Holley (sest vacated .) 

1842— Josiiih Jones. 1864— Thomas P. Cottle. 

1843 — George A. Snowden. 1865 — J. D. Chapman. 

1844— George A. Snowden. 1867— [No election. ] 

184&— George A. Snowden. 1870— £. J. Mancill. 

1847— Josiah Jones. 



Crenshaw was established by an act passed Nov. 24, 1865, 
and the territoiy was taken from Butler, Pike, Lowndes, 
Ck)ffee, and Covington. 

It is in the south center of the State, and lies south of 
Montgomerjr; west of Pike and CoflFee, north of Covington, 
and east of Butler. 

It was named for Hon. Anderson Crenshaw of Butler, a 
sketch of whom appears in the chapter on that county. 

Its area is about 620 square miles. 

The population in 1870 was 8950 whites, and 2206 blacks. 

The assessed value of real estate is $655,144 ; personalty 
$136,535 ; total $791,719. 

The surface is broken and undulating. There is much pro- 
ductive land in the "bottoms," but the generality of other 
portions is light. 

In 1870 the value of farm lands was $684,870, and consisted 
of 74,115 acres improved, and 131,262 acres unimproved. 

The live stock— 1178 horses, 697 mules, 7397 neat cattle, 
2610 sheep, and 14,263 hogs— was valued at $351,618. 

The productions in 1869 were 263,615 bushels of com, 
10,855 pounds of rice, 45,671 bushels of potatoes, 4638 bales 


of cotton, and 3847 pounds of wool ; the value of animals 
slaughtered was $113,517; and the value of &rm produotionB 
was 1970,227. 

The timber forests of the county are extensive and valua- 
ble, and several lumber mills are operating. 

The commercial faciUties are poor. The Conecuh river 
cuts into the southeast comer, and the Patsahga waters the 
heart of the county, but neither is navigable. The Vicksbuig 
and Brunswick Bailroad is surveyed through the county. 

BuTLEDGE, the seat of justice, is a village of recent origin, 
that now has about 400 mhabitants. It was named for a 
family of the vicinity. 

The county was represented in the popular branch of the 
general assembly in 1870 by M. P. Calloway, the first proper- 
ly chosen member. 

Qeorge W. Thagard was the first judge of the probate 



Dale was carved out of Henry and Covington by an act 
approved December 22, 1824, and named to honor General 
Sam Dale of Monroe, a sketch of whom will be found in the 
chapter devoted to that county. 

It is a southeastern district, and lies south of Barbour, 
north of Geneva, east of Coffee, and west of Henry. 

The area of the county is about 685 square miles. 

The assessed value of real estate is $757,600 ; personal pro- 
perfrjr $150,380 ; total $907,980. 

The decennial movement of population has been as fol- 
lows : 

1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 

Whites 1757 6809 5622 10,379 9528 

Blacks 274 588 760 1816 1797 

The surface of the country is either flat or undulating ; an4, 
while tiie soa is generaUy light, there are some very product- 
ive lowlands. 


The farm lands in 1870 were valued at $437,060, and con- 
sisted of 76,083 acres improved, and 163,156 acres unim- 

The live stock— 1109 horses, 796 mules, 8220 neat cattle, 
4717 sheep, and 17,637 hogs— was valued at $393,579. 

T^e productions in 1869 were valued at $832,951, and con- 
sisted of 225,364 bushels of com, 14,444 bushels of oats, 
34,152 pounds of rice, 50,034 bushels of potatoes, 29,594 gal- 
lons of molasses, 4273 bales of cotton, 3258 pounds of tobacco, 
5046 pounds of wool ; and the value of animals slaughtered 
was $133,517. 

There exist extensive pine forests in this county in which 
the soimd of the axe has not been heard. In other portions 
there are several lumber mills in operation. 

Dale has been bereft of commercial facilities so far. The 
Ghoctahatchee flows diagonally through the county, but is 
not navigable. An attempt is now on foot to seciu'e the con- 
struction of a railway from Eufaula. 

OzAKK, the present shire-town, has about 600 inhabitants. 

Newton has about 500 inhabitants ; Clopton 300 ; Skippers- 
viUe 250 ; Echo 250. 

The courthouse was first at Bichmond, then at Daloville 
till about 1845, then at Newton ; whence it was brought to 
Ozark in 1869. 

Dale was troubled by the incursions of roving bands of 
Muscogees in 1837-'8. They were mal-contents who refused 
to remove to the trans-Mississippi with their tribe, and fled 
to the pine barrens of Florida for refuge. Capt. Axch. Justice 
of this county was conspicuous in his efforts to punish them 
for their depredations. Col. Wm. Pouncey was authorized to 
raise a mounted company to continue in arms till the dis- 
turbances were quelled, and this action of the State had the 
effect desired. 

During the progress of the war between the States, Dale 
was harassed Dv the incursions of a band of deserters, head- 
ed by Joseph Sanders. This man was a Blillwright who 
served \evy creditably during the first part of the war as 
lieutenant, and afterwards captain of tne company which 
Capt. Griffin raised, and which became part of a Georgia reg- 
iment. Having resigned, the exactions of the conscript offi- 
cers was his excuse for alljdng himself vnih a band of de- 
serters, who sought shelter near the line of Florida, and he 
became their leader. Organizing a band of fifteen or twenty 
of these outlaws, he obtained suppUes from the federal troops 
on the coast, and made frequent and daring forays into the 
county. At one time he captured a company oif militia on 
parade. At another, towards the close of the war, he dashed 



into Newton at night, at the head of about twenty men ; but 
the citizens shot down three of them and the others fled. In 
these raids, Sanders took mules, horses, and other valuables. 
At the close of hostilities he asked and obtained permission 
to return, and settled down cjuietly ; but he was suspected of 
compliciiy in the horse steahng which some members of his 
old gang were carrying on ; and, in a difficulty about it, he 
killed a son of D^u(%e Abel Echols. He removed to Georgia 
just after ; and, in 1866, was sliot dead in his house by an 
unknown hjind. 

Dale was represented in the constitutional convention of 
1861 by James McKinney and D. B. Creech ; in that of 1865 
by J. C. Mathews and Ransom Deal. 

The county voted with Henry for members of the legisla- 
ture from 1828 to 1834, and >vith Covington till 1837. The 
following is a list of the members of the general assembly : 


182f^William Irwin. 
1831— William Irwin. 
1834— William Irwin. 
1837— Hichard 0. Spann. 
1838— James Ward. 
1840— Angus McAllister. 
1843— James Waid. 
1847 — Angus McAllister. 

1837— Abraham Warren. 
1838— Abraham Warren. 
1839 — Abraham Warren. 
1H40— James J. Blair. 
1841 — A. H. Justice. 
1842— AH. Justice. 
1843— J. H. Calloway. 
1844 — John Merrick. 
1845— John Merrick. 
1847— James Ward. 
1849— E.R. Boon. 
1851— £. B. Boon. 



-Elisha Mathews. 
-James Searcy. 
-.Tames McKinney. 
-William Wood 
Reddick P. Peacock. 
William H. Wood, 
election in 1867 or since. ] 


1853— James Ward. 

1855 — James Ward. 

1857 — Elias Register, Haywood Mar- 

1859— Noah Fountain. W. Griffin. 

1861— D. B. Creech. John T. Lee. 

186:^Q. L. C. Franklin. H. I. M. 

1865— P. M. Calloway, Charles T, 

1867— [No election.] 

1870— J. M. Carmichael. 



Dallas was established by an act passed Feb. 9, 1818. The 
territory was nominally taken from Montgomery. It is one 
of the old counties wmch have changed their original dimen- 
sions but little. 

It was named to honor Mr. A. J. Dallas of Pennsylvania, 
the celebrated financier.* 

It Ues in the central part of the State, south of Perry and 
Baker, west of Lowndes and Autauga, north of Wilcox, and 
east of Wilcox and Perry. 

The area of the coimty is about 950 square miles. 

The assessed value of real estate in 1870 was $7,011,966 ; 
personal property $2,767,611 ; total $9,779,577. 

The decennial movement of population is thus exhibited : 

18*20 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 

Whites 3324 6794 7.922 7.461 7,785 8.552 

Blacks 2679 7223 17,277 22,260 25,840 32.152 

The profile of the country embraced in Dallas is either flat 
or undulating. The soil is prairie and sandy, with but Uttle 
modification of these extremes. 

In 1870 there were 168,156 acres of improved, and 251,606 
acres of unimproved, farm lands, valued at $3,112,373. 

The live stock — 1339 horses, 3496 mules, 7295 neat cattle, 
1508 sheep, and 7791 hocs^was valued at $740,737. 

The productions in 1869 were 1295 bushels of wheat, 
436,701 Dushels of com, 18,101 bushels of oats, 6000 pounds 
of rice, 41,535 bushels of potatoes, 63,122 pounds of butter, 
24,819 bales of cotton, 1926 poimds of wool ; and the value 
of animals slaughtered was $60,343. 

* Alkxamder James DAiiiiAS was born in the island of Jamaica. A. D. 1759, 
and was the son of a Scotchman. Educated at Edinburg, be read law in 
London, and came to Philadelphia in 1783. He first attracted general atten- 
tion by publishing fonr volumes of law reports, and was soon after appointed 
federal district attorney by Mr. JeflFerson In 1814 h§ was appointed secre- 
tary of the treasury, and his ability restored vitality to the finances of the 
Union, which the m/mc had almost wholly destroyed. He died Jan. 14, I8J7. 
His son, George Mifflin Dallas, was vice president of the United States, 


Dallas is, therefore, one of the great agricultural districts^ 
and stands third on the list of the counties of the State both^ 
in point of population and wealth. 

The county enjoys better facilities for commerce than any^ 
other in the State. The Alabama takes its sinuous course 
through the heart of it, and is navigable by steamers the 
entire year. The Cahaba is not, but could be made, navi- 
gable. There are about 105 miles of railway in the county, 
which is a considerable excess over any other county in this 

})articular. This is distributed among six railways, as fol- 
ows : The Sehna and Meridian railroad about 25 miles ; the 
Selma and Dalton railroad 16^ miles ; the Selma and Gulf 
raih'oad 25 miles; the Selma and Memphis four mi|es; the 
Selma and Montgomery about 13 ; the Selma and New .Orleans 
road 20 miles. 

Selma is the seat of justice. It is situated on a spacious 
plateau on the north bank of the Alabama, 100 feet above the 
ordinary stage of the river. The first settler was Thomas 
Moore, who came here in 1816, and the place was first called 
Moore's Bluff, but, at the suggestion of Hon. Wm. R. King, 
who took an active part in havmg it laid out, it was changed 
to its present mellifluous name, the original of which is to be 
found in Ossian — the "Songs of Selma." By that name it 
was first incorporated, December 4, 1820. The first brick 
house was erected for Gen. Gilbert Shearer in 1822. In 1850 
the population was 2073, of whom 973 were whites, and 1100 
were ne^'oes ; in 1860 the population was 3177, of whom 1809 
were wliites, and 1368 were blacks ; and in 1870 the federal 
census gives a total of 6484 souls, 2824 of whom are whites, 
and 3660 are blacks; and 301 were foreign bom. Th^ 
municipal government consists of a mayor and eight coun- 
cillors, two of the latter being elected from each ward. Selma 
claims to be the second cotton market, in point of the amount 
received, in the State, though the honor is disputed by Mont- 
gomery. Between 60,000 and 90,000 bales are received an- 
nually in the city, tlie number fluctuating with \]ie size of the 
crop. An iron foundry, railroad machine shops, &c., are 
among the industries located Avithiii the city. 

Cahaba, at the junction of ther Cahaba river, (whence its 
name,) with the Alabama, was the first pennanent capital of 
the State, and the seat of justice for Dallas till 1866. Under 
an act of the territorial legislature, in February 1818, Clement 
C. Clay, Samuel Dale, James Titus, Wm. L. Adams, and 
Samuel Taylor were appointed a committee to report the 
most central and eligible location for the seat of government ; 
and the winter following they repoi-ted that they had selected 
a site at the mouth of the Cahaba river. The report was 



ooncurred in, and an act dated November 16, 1818, made it 
the permanent capital It was incorporated by an act passed 
December 3, 18 1 9, having been laid off the same year by Gov. 
Bibb in conformity with an act of the legislature, and Luther 
Blake, Carlisle Humphreys, and Willis Boberts were appointed 
to hold the first town election. The State government re- 
mained here till 1826, when the general assembly voted its 
removal to Tuskaloosa. For many years Cahaba was an 
important town, with a valuable trade, and much wealth and 
cultivation among its inhabitsmts. In 1860 the population 
was 19^9; 720 whites, and 1200 blacks. Now, it is in a 
languishing condition, with a population in 1870 of 431, only 
129 of whom were whites. 

Orrville has about 400 inhabitants; Pleasant Hill about 300; 
CarlowviUe about 250. 

The first election precincts were established at Cahaba, and 
at the houses of George Tubbs, Joseph Briton, Captain Yoast, 
Mr. Frederick, Portland, Selma, and at Joseph Yann's ; all be- 
fore 1822. 

The remains of a fortification were visible at Cahaba till a 
few years ago. The traces of earthworks and even a trench 
were quite perceptible. It was doubtless the remains of the 
defence erected for the protection of the French trading-post 
established here about tne year 1750. 

Selma was a very important military depot of the Con- 
federate States. A2)owder mill, nitre works^ arsenal, shot and 
shell foundry, Ac, &c., were operated here. It was strongly 
and elaborately fortified as the war progressed, not alone to 
protect these stores, but because it was a place of great 
strategic value. A bastioned line, on a radius of nearly three 
miles, extended from the river below to the same above the 
city. The works were from six to eight feet in highth, with a 
ditch five feet deep, and a stockade five feet high, in front. 
March 18, 1865, Qen, Wilson's corps of cavalry, 14,000 strong, 
left Gravelly Springs, Lauderdale county, to attack Selma, 
and to create a diversion favorable to Canby's operations 
against Mobile. Crossing the hill country by way of Jasper, 
this splendidly equipped column overthrew the few enemies 
in their path between MontevaUo and Plantersville, and ap- 
peared before Selma, April 2. Gen. Forrest had vainly en- 
ieavored to concentrate his corps of mounted men, either 
between the fortress and its assailants, or within its walls. 
Be was only able to throw Armstrong's and Boddy's brigades 
into the city, where Gen* D. W. Adams had assembled a 
number of inilitia and stragglers. The whole force amoimted 
bo about 3100 men, of whom 1400 were in the well organized 



brigade of Gen. Armstrong; while about thirty pieces of 
artUlery were in position. Tlie enemy, reduced, by detaching 
several brigades, to 9000 men and eight guns, slept the night 
before at Plantersville, 19 miles distant. At 2 o clock p. M., 
they were in sight of the city, at 4 o'clock they had made their 
dispositions by encircling the defences, and an hour and a half 
later moved to the assault in three lines of battle, dismounted. 
The confederate artillery was poorly munitioned, but, in com- 
pany Avith the small arms, received the blue columns with a 
steady fire. Within fifteen minutes, however, the latter were 
pouring over the works and dri\Tng the attenuated line of 
the Confederates in confusion before them. A fierce hand to 
hand combat occun^cd at the works which lasted for some 
minutes on a portion of the line ; but it soon ended in the 
capture of the gamson in crowds, for the last hope of resist- 
ance was lost. "The scene generally was one of the wildest 
" confusion. The Confederates, beaten from the breastworks, 
"were rushing towards their horses ; with soldiers and citizens 
"hurrying wildly to and fro. Clouds of dust 'rose and so 
" fiUed the air that it was diflicult to distinguish friend from 
" foe. From the houses came the wails and lamentations of 
" teiTified women and children, about to be left to the mercies 
" of a storming enemy. The federals were still firing upon 
" their routed, fleeing, adversary."* Many outrages were com- 
mitted by the conquering solmery on the citizens and a part 
of the business portion of the city was consumed by fire under 
the order "to destroy everything that would benefit the Con- 
" federate cause."t A similar scene was enacted the same 
day on the banlis of the historic James : the smoke of their 
desolation was ascending from Richmond, Petersbiu^, and 
Selma at the same hour. The loss of the Confederates in 
this battle wiU never be definitely kno^n, though it was not 
considerable in casualties. The federals lost 40 kiUed and 260 
wounded in one of their two assaulting divisions, and 500 men 
is probably a fair estimate of their total loss. They captured 
2700 men and 32 pieces of artillery. Gens. Forrest, Adams, 
Armstrong, and Roddy escaped, with a few troops. The 
former, i\ith his escort, moved out on the Bumsville road, and 
during the night put to death four federals who were in a 
house trjdng to ravish some women, and killed several others 
whom they met laden vdih. plunder. A picket-party was also 
captiired, and the camp of a squadron of 50 of the enemy 
was assaulted with a loss to them of 35 killed and wounded 
and five captured ; so that a summary of the night's adven- 

•**The Campaigns of Gen. Forreat," &c., pa{?e 675. 

fGen. Andrews, U. S. A., in "Campaign of Mobile," page 256, 


tares included a loss of about sixty men to the invader; 
while the loss of the escort was one man wounded. Gen. 
Wilson's forces crossed the river and inarched to Montgomery 
a few davs later. 

Dallas has been, as is now, the home of several person- 
ages who figure conspicuously in the annals of the State, 
fte-eminont among uiese, and among all Alabamituis, was 
William Rufus King. This distinguislied man was a native 
of Sampson county, North Carohna, and was bom April 7, 
1786. His father, Mr. William Jiing, described as " a gentle- 
man of fortune and character,*' was a planter, of Irish descent, 
who frequently served in tlie legislature of the " Old Noi-th 
State." His mother had a Huguenot ancestry ; and thus the 
types of gentility and chivalry were tlie legitimate inheritance 
of one in whose character they were so strikingly blended. 
The son was educated at Chapell Hill, and read law in Fay- 
etteville, North Carolina, in the office of Hon. William Dufly. 
Admitted to the biir in 1805, he opened an office in Clinton, 
and entered pubUc life three years later as a member of the 
legislature from his native county. He was re-elected the 
succeeding year, but at tlie meeting of the legislature he was 
elected to the office of solicitor, and resigned his seat. In 
the August following (1810) Mr. King, tliough only twenty- 
four yeai's of age, was chosen to the congress of tlie United 
States, to begm its session the following year. He thus 
entered congress simultaneously with Henry Clay, John C. 
Calhoun, and William Lowndes, and his long public career 
terminated almost at the same time with that of the two for- 
mer. Mr. Kin^ gave a generous suj)port to the measures of 
Madison's admmistration ; and was in a position to do this, 
for he was twice re-elected, and served in congress till 1816. 
He was then offered the position of secretary of legation to 
the American embassy at St. Petersbui^, Hon. Wm. Pinkney 
of Maryland being the minister resident, and resigned his 
seat to accept the place. He remained abroad two years, 
much of which time he spent as a tourist in Europe. Shortly 
after his return, in the winter of 1818-'19, ,he came to this 
State, and secured a residence and plantation on the Ala- 
bama, near Cahaba. A few months later he was chosen to 
represent Dallas in the convention called to fi-ame a constitu- 
tion for the would-be State ; and he, ^dth Messrs. Hitchcock 
of Washington, and Taylor of Madison, composed the sub- 
committee which drafted that instrument. When the first 
general assembly met, in 1819, though he was on a visit to 
North Carolina at that time, he was chosen almost unani- 
mously to one of the seats in the federal senate to which the 
State was entitled. He was admitted in December, 1819, and 


entered on a lon^ career of unostentatious usefulness which 
elicited the admiration of the whole countir. He drew the 
shorter term, and his time expired March 4, 1823. When the 
election came before the general assembly in 1822, he found 
a formidable competitor in the person of Mr. Wm. Crawford 
of Mobile, an able attorney. The contest was decided in 
favor of Mr.* King by a vote of 38 to 35. This term of six 
years expired in lo29, when parties in the State were bet- 
ter defined, and when his was the dominant one ; yet such 
was his conduct that he was chosen by an unanimous vote for 
another term of six years. It was during this time that his 
" affair of honor " occurred with Mr. John C. Perry of this 
coimty, ex-treasurer of the State. Major M. J. Kenan,* also 
a planter of the county, used disrespectful words to Mr. King 
on the street in Gahaba, which the latter resented bv draw- 
ing a sword-cane and passing it cross-wise Mr. Kenan s chest, 
and refused to accept a chailetige, because of the character 
of the latter's insult. Mr. Perry bore the note of challenge 
without a knowledge of its import ; and, when it was declined, 
bore another with that knowledge. When this was declined, 
he challenged Mr. King, and a meeting was appointed out of 
the State ; but Mr. P. declined to attend it because the matter 
was too frivolous to warrant his engaging ui a deadly combat 
with a friend, and one who had done him no injury. 

The general assembly of 1834 elected Mr. King for another 
term of six years, by a vote of 97 to 13 scattering baUots. 
These repeated declarations of confidence were having their 
. effect abroad, and he was urged for the vice presidency as 
early as 1838. In* 1837 he was offered the position of minister 
resident to Austria, but declined it because he said he had 
taken a more active part ni favor of Mr. Van Buren's election 
than in any previous presidential contest, and he did not wish 
to accept anything at his hands for fear his motives mi^ht be 
misconstrued. When the election for senator came before 
the general assembly of 1840, a prolonged and desperate 
attempt was made by the Whigs to defeat him, and a scene 
of great uproar qpcurred in the representative chamber ; but 
the voting was brought on, and he received 72 to 55 for Hon, 
John Gayle of Mobile. This opposition was not of a personal 
nature to Mr. King, but entirely poUtical ; for he had, since 
1835, served as president of the federal senate, was the friend 
of Mr. Van Buren, and was the most distinguished member 

*Micbael J. Kenan, here allnded to, was bom in Dnplin coanty, North 
Carolina, in 1779 ; was an officer in the wetr of 1812-^14 ; Renredin the sen- 
ate of his natiye State ; and came to reside in Dallas in 1818. He did not 
appear in pnblio life in this State, bat died here Augnst 6, 1837, and has 
relatives yet residing in the coanty. 


of his party in the State. Before the expiration of this fifth 
term, in April 1844, the relations of the United States with 
foreign powers became very sensitive in consequence of the 
proposed annexation of Texas. The situation demanded tact 
and discretion for its adjustment, and Mr. King was prevailed 
on to accept the position of minister plenipotentiary to France. 
He remained aoroad till the autumn of 1846, when he 
resigned and came home. He found the seat he had vacated 
held by Hon. D. H. Lewis of Lowndes, who had been twelve 
times chosen to the highest public positions during apolitical 
life of twenty consecutive years, and who was not disposed 
to shrink from a contest even with him. They were the most 
distinguished men in tiie State, were of tiie same party, and 
probably neither had a personal enemy living. The struggle 
before tiie legislature was exciting, but terminated in the suc- 
cess of Mr. Lewis. The following summer, (1848) however, 
Governor Chapman appointed him to fill the vacancy in the 
federal senate occasioned by Mr. Bagby's resignation. This 
term expired March 4, 1849, and in the winter of that year he 
was chosen bv a party vote of 71, to 58 for Judge Hopkins of 
Mobile, to a. mil term of six years. During the administra- 
tion of Mr. Fillmore, Mr. King was the acting vice president, 
till ill-health caused him to resign his seat, December 20, 1852. 
Li the summer of the same year he was nominated by his 
party for the vice presidency on the ticket with Gen. Pierce 
of iNew Hampshu'e, and was elected to the second office 
within tiie gift of the American people by a large majority. 
But he was suffering from a disease of the lungs, and in Jan- 
uary 1853 he sought alleviation in the balmy climate of Cuba. 
He was there sojourning in March when the federal consul 
administered to him the oath of office. But he found, a few 
days later, that his end approached, and he came to his home 
in Dallas to die. This event occurred, April 18, 1853, and he 
sleeps beneath the soil of the State which honored and trusted 
him, and which has no cause to reproach herself therefor. 

In appearance, Mr. King was tall and slender. His fig- 
ure was gracefully erect, and his manners were as cburtiy 
as Chesterfield's. He was affable and courteous to the 
humblest, and was as careful of offending, as he was 
prompt to repel aggression. He was lavishly nospitable, yet 
was scrupulous in fulfilling pecuniary obligations. Li the 
structure of his mind he might well have stood as the por- 
trait of the British statesmen of the sixteenth century described 
by Macaulay : " No men could be more free from the faults 
"of mere meorists and pedanis. No men observed more 
" accurately the signs of tne times. No men had a greater 
''practical acquaintance with human nature. Their policy 
** was generally characterized rather by vigilance, moderation, 


" and firmness, than by invention, or the spirit of enterprise." 
And the motto — '^ ntmiocria Jinna'' — over the door of Sir 
Nicholas Bacon's hall at Gorhambury might well have been 
that of Mr. King. " His was an instance m which greatness 
" was achieved without the aid of those brilUant qualities 
"whose rare assemblage the world calls genius, but by what 
" is better far, a sound judgment, a resolute purpose to pursue 
" the right, and a capacitv to gather wisdom from experience. 
" * * He was a man whose whole soul would have sickened 
*' under a sense of personal dishonor."* " His life was passed 
"in the pubhc service, and marked throughout by its purity, 
" integrity, and disinterested devotion to the pubhc good."t 

Mr. King was never married. His nephciw and adopted son, 
Capt. Wm. E. King of tliis county, was killed at Sharpsbuig. 

One of the early settlers of Dallas was Eeuben Saffold. 
He was boni in Wilkes county, Georgia, in 1788, and was the 
son of a planter. Receiving a good education, he read law 
under Edward Pa>iie, esq., and when admitted to the bar 
opened an office in Watkinsville, Georgia. S(X)n after, in 
1813, he came to the Tombikbee settlement, and establislied 
himself in Jackson, Clarke county. He was subsequentiv a 
private at the light of Burnt Com, and, in 1814, at the head of 
a company of sixty men, he operated on the Perdido, during 
which time several Indians were killed. He represented 
Clai'ke in the legislatui-e of Mississippi ti^rritory once or twice, 
and in the convention that fi-amcd the State constitution in 
1819. The same year he was elected to the supreme court 
bench of the new State, and served in that capacity by suc- 
cessive elections till 1836. Wlion tiie supreme and circuit 
courts were sepjirat^jd in 1832, he was one of the three 
retained on the higher tribunal. He became chief justice in 
1835, but resigned tiie folloA^dng year. He did not re-appear 
in pubhc life, declining even tlie seat on the supreme bench 
tendered by Gov. Fitzpatrick in 1843. About that time he 
resumed practice at tlie bar, but gave much of his time to 
planting. He had settled in Dallas in 1820, and died at his 
Lome hi the county, Feb. 15, 1847. 

In appearance Judge Saffold was large and stout, with 
finely developed features. "Tlie reports of the supreme 
" court of Alabama are enduring memorials of his sti'ength of 
"mind, deep research, patient uivestigation, and profound 
"learning." J In the discharge of his judicial functions he 

*Hou. K. M. T. Hunter of Virginia in the federal senate at the time of Mr. 
King's death. 

IBemarks of Chief Justice Taney from the bench of the federal supreme 

I Pickett, ** History of Alabama," voL II, page 430. 


was firm, impartial, dignified, and affable. In the private 
walks of life ne was exemplar\\ He married a daugnter of 
CoL Joseph Phillips, one of tne first settlers of south Ala- 
bama, and left a large family. Oije of his sons represented 
Dallas in the legislature of 1835, but died early. Another, 
Addison J., was county court judge of Dallas in 1845-'50, 
and died in New Orleans in 1854. A daughter married Dr. 
Bernej, then of Lowndes, now of Butler, and another was 
the wife of CoL J. M. Boiling of Lowndes. 

Benjamin F. Saffold, of this county, is also a son of the 
foregoing, and a native of the county. He was bom in 1826, 
was graduated at Tuskaloosa, read law under his father, and 
came to the bar in 1847. Locating in Cahaba, he practiced 
till appointed to the circuit bench by MiUtary Gk)v. Parsons 
in 18615. Defeated the following year for this position by 
Hon. John Moore of Perrj% he was appointed mayor of Selnia 
in 1867 by Gen. Swayne, and the same year was a member of 
the convention called by the miUtary authorities to frame a 
State constitution. The following year he was placed on the 
bench of the supreme court bv an act of congress, and now 
fiUs that position. He marriea a Miss Brown, niece of Hon. 
John A. Tarver of this county. 

Milton Jefferson Saffold is also a son of Judge Reuben 
Saffold, and a native and resident of this county. Bom in 
1828, he was graduated at Tuskaloosa, read law under his 
father, and was licensed in 1847. Locating in HayneviUe, 
Lowndes county, in 1848, he was appointed district solicitor 
by Grov. Chapman to fill a* vacancy created by the death of 
Hon. A. B. Forney of Lowndes, and held the office eighteen 
months. He returned to this county in 1852, and a year or 
two later removed to Montgomery. He represented that 
county in the legislature of 1859, and was elected chancellor 
at the meeting of the legislature, defeating Hon. Wade Keyes 
o£ Montgomery. He resigned this office two years later, but 
in 1864 was elected State printer, in association with Mr. W. 
B. Figures of Madison. In 1806 he removed to Washington 
City, but returned in 1869, The same year he was appointed 
a jiidge of the circuit cotui by Gov, Smith, to succeed Judge 
B. L. Whelan, deceased, and now holds that position. He is 
possessed of an agreeable exterior, and is a gentleman of 
ability and culture. He first married a daughter of Hon. 
Edmund Harrison of Lowndes ; his second wife was a daugh- 
ter of Mr. John Whiting of Montgomery. 

Horatio Gates Pebby came to this county in 1818. He 
was bom in Sumner county, Tennessee, in 1y95, and settled 


at St. Stephens in 1815 as a lawyer, whence he came to Car 
haba. He served Dallas in both oranches of the general as- 
sembly, defeating Hon. Ezekiel Pickens for the senate in 1829, 
and was a judge of the circuit court from 1832 to 1834 He 
died in the latter year, at the threshold of a useful and hon- 
orable career. His abiUty was very considerable, and his life 
exemplary. He was a brother of Hon. Sion L. Perry of Tus- 
caloosa. Mr. John C. Perry of this county, who was treasurer 
of the State in 1822-'29, and who died in Sumter county, 
Dec. 24, 1842, was a cousin. 

Thomas Casey was the first senator from Dallas, and served 
nine years in that capacity. He was a Georgian by birth, but 
came from Abbeville district, S. C, in 1817, and was among 
the veiy first settlers of this portion of the State. He was 
a skillful physician and a most worthy man. His first wife 
was a sister of Gov. Noble of South Ciarolina ; his second a 
sister of Mrs. Jesse Beene. Dr. Casey removed te Mobile 
soon after the capital was taken from Cahaba, and there died 
a few years later. 

Jesse Beene came to Dallas as early as 1819, and opened 
a law office in Cahaba. He was a native of east Tennessee, 
and grew up in a border country in poverty and ignorance. 
At the age of fifteen years, he rode the mail from Cumberland 
Gap to Wytheville, Virginia, a distance of 150 miles. By 
dint of application at odd hours, he acquired some education, 
and became an attorney. He was judge of the county court 
in 1821, served Dallas m both houses of the general assembly, 
and was chosen to the presidency of the senate by a unani- 
mous vote in 1837. He succeeded Mr. EU Terry as district 
solicitor in 1832, but held the oflice only a few months. He 
also edited a newspaper in Cahaba a short time. His death 
occurred near Cahaba, March 4, 1845. He was a man "of 
** studious habits, accurate infonnation, good business meth- 
" ods, safe and cautious judgment, and a soimd lawyer. He 
"was a generous man, and a useful citizen."* His wife was 
a sister of Hon. WiUiam E. Bird, judge of the county court 
of Dallas in 1837, and aimt of Hon. William L. Yancey. One 
of his sons, WiUiam A. Beene, was a well known citizen of 
the county, and died the death of a patriot at the second Ma- 
nassas. Another son is a druggist in Nevada. 

No man is better remembered in this State than KzkktfJi 
Pickens, for thirty years a resident of Dallas. He was a 
native of South Carolina, and bom about the year 1795. His 
mother was Miss Bonneau ; his father, Ezekiel Pickens, was 

•Hon. B. C. Yancey of Georgia. 


Gi lawyer, and son of Gen. Andrew Pickens, for whom the 
30im1y of that name in Alabama was called. He was grad- 
oaied at South Carolina College, and read law in that State. 
About the year 1820 he came to Alabama, and located at 
Linden, Marengo coimty; whence he removed to Erie, in 
Gtreene. In 18z4 he represented Greene in the legislature, 
ind a year or two later came to reside in Dallas. In 1828 he 
was elected to the legislature, but a subsequent defeat gave 
bim a distaste for politics. He was very successful as a prac- 
titioner, and left a lucratiye business to accept a seat on the 
bench in 1835. He remained on the bench — declining a nomi- 
Eiation for congress in 1839 — ^till February, 1848, when he re- 
signed because he had been defeated by Hon. Nat. Cook of 
Lowndes for the position, though his term had not expired. 
When the election was transferred to the populace, in 1850, he 
iefeated Judge Cook by a large majority,* for the people 
seemed to wi3i to rebuke the legislature. Besigning in 1852, 
ke left public life. In 1857 he removed to Jasper coimty, 
Sdississippi, where he died Auc. 3, 1860. 

Judge i^ckens was as peculiar in appearance and manner 
as he was in expressing his ideas, and neither could be wit- 
nessed without exciting a lively interest. His figure was 
small, and attenuated, his movements wiry, and his nervous 
ejaculations, quaint ideas, and grotesque contortions of coun- 
^nance would have provoked a stoic to laughter. "He was 
"very successful before a jury. His speeches were marked 
"by a great deal of humor, and were always amusing. He 
"carried to the bench his eccentricities and humor to a great 
" degree. He was very popular with the people, and with 
"many of the bar, but liis blunt manner gave oflfence to 
"some. * * * He had much of the Atheman in his char- 
"acter. He was greatly taken with new and strange things. 
"Phrenology took his fancy, * * * and I am satisfied that 
"while on the bench his thoughts were directed to the faces 
"and heads of parties and witnesses. * * * With all his 
"eccentricities and peculiarities. Judge Pickens was one of 
"the purest of men. Kind, just, liberal, and public spirited, 
"he did not bear malice, and bowed not to power, but was 
"ever inclined to the side of the weak. He was very indus- 
"trious, and devoted his later years to agriculture.^t He 
Was never married. The late Mr. Samuel B. Pickens of this 

• When he was told of his majorities in nearly every county, ** Well, now !** 
lie exclaimed, ** this is wrong. It is a shame that Nat. Cook shoald be 
beaten so by me. He is too good a man. I wanted to be elected, but I did 
^ot want to beat him bo far. I am Tery sorry it has tamed out so.'* 

t Hon. James M. Calhoun. 


county, and the first wife of Gov, Noble of South Carolinay 
were his only brother and sister of the whole blood. 

James Martin Calhoun came to Dallas in 1826. He was 
bom in Abbeville district, South Carolina, Jan. 25, 1806. 
His father, a merchant, was a brother of Hon. John C. Cal- 
houn, the eminent statesman. His mother was a daughter of 
Dr. Martin. Ha^-ing graduated at South Carolina uollc^, 
he road law at Abbeville, under Messrs. Noble & Wardlaw, 
and at once came to Cahaba to practice. He here became 
tlie partner of his relative, Hon. Ezekiel Pickens, and was 
succeeding very well, when failing health in 1833 forced him 
to retire to his plantation. The same year he was elected 
judge of the eountv court because no one else would have it, 
and held it for nine months, (at a gross profit of less thans^ 
$14 a month,) till he persuaded a Mr. Clinton to take it. In 
1834 he represented the county in the legislature, and con- 
tinued in one house or the other till he resigned in 1840. He 
was again elected in 1842, and in 1845 was appointed a com- 
missioner to adjust the boundarj' line with the State of Flor- 
ida. He was beaten for the senate on the secession issue in^ 
1851, but represented Wilcox and Dallas in that body in 
1857-'63. In 1857 he was president of the senate, and again 
in 1862 when Hon. R. M. Patton of Lauderdale resigned. 
He was appointed commissioner to Texas in 1860 by Gov. 
Mooi-e to mvite the co-openition of that State in the seees- 
sion movement, but the onl}^ public authority he could find 
was Gk)v. Houston, an opponent of the measure, and ife ' 
accomplished but little. For the past nine years. Judge Cal- 
houn has resided on his plantation in south Dallas. He is 
lx)ssossed of a kindly manner, and pleasing exterior. His 
mind is critically observant, and subtle but active in its pro- 
cesvses. His stainless integrity, imswerving fidelity, and keen 
sagacity made him a useful legislator, and render Imn a prom- 
inent citizen. In speech he is fluent and concise, but never 
m)lix. His ^-ife was a Miss Pickens, a cousin of the late 
udge Pickens of this county. 

Georc.e PHHXirs came to Dallas from Shelby in 1819. He 
was of Irish parentage, and ^ew to manhood near Charlotte, 
North Carolma. E;u'ly in life he removeil to Georgia, then 
settled near Huntsville, and soon jifter in Shelbv. He rep- 
resent od that eountv in the convention that fi'amect the consti- 
tution for the ^Youlll-be State. He representt^l Dallas in both 
branches of the general assembly, and ilied in 1835. He was 
a planter, and a man of exemplarv character, integrity, eneigy, 
and giHxl judgment. His sons, IVtessrs. William S, and Oeoige 
C. Philli|>s, were well known citizens of the county. 



WnjJAM S. Phillips, son of the preceding, was a native of 
Gboi^ia, but came to this county with his parents at an eaiiy 
age. He received a good education, and practiced law for 
several years, but devoted his time chiefly to planting. Be- 
tween 1837 and 1844, he served the county six years in one or 
tiie other branch of the general assembly, and in 1861 was a 
member of the constitutional convention. He died in Selma, 
July 7, 1872, aged 66 years. He inherited the characteristics 
of nis fiither, and held a leading and influential position in 
Dallas after he reached matm'e years. He marriecl a sister of 
Hon. John Barron of Perry. The late Dr. George Crawford 
Phillips, his brother, twice represented Dallas in the popular 
branch s)i the legislatm*e. 

Q. W. Gayle is a well known citizen of this county. He is 
a native of AbbeviQe, S. C., and bom in 1807. He came with 
his parents to Monroe county in 1811, and there grew to man- 
hood. He read law in Tuslcaloosa, and was admitted to the 
bar in 1832, and at tmce located in Cahaba. In 1833 he rep- 
resented Dallas in the legislature, and twice subsequently. 
He was United States district attoniey under Mr. Van Biiren. 
He has several times been connected with journalism, and he 
ran^d at one time very high as an advocate. In person he 
is stalwart, with very distinct features. He married first Miss | 
Komegay of this county, neice of Hem. W. R. King ; and his I 
second Anfe was MLss Gleason of Tuskaloosa. He is a cousin ' 
of ^^4ate Gov. Gayle of Mobile. 

John Starke Huntek resided in Dallas. Bom near Cam- 
den, Kershaw district, South Cai'olina, he was the son of en- 
terprising and industrious parents. He was graduated at 
South Carolina College, and prepared himself for the bar 
under the eye of Hon. Abraham iJlanding. Enrolled as an 
attorney in 1816, he came to tiiis State two or tlu'ee years 
later, and opened a law ofiice in Claiborne, Monroe county, 
where he was the partner of Hon. A. P. Bagby. A year or 
two afterwards, he located at Sparta, Conecun county, and 
was for some time the law partner of Hon. S. W. Oliver. 
About the year 1829 he removed to Lowndes county, and con- 
tinued his professional labors in Hayneville. In 1834 he was 
elected to tne bench of the circuit court to succeed Hon. John 
^. Paul of this county, but held the office only about one 
year. He was the law partner of Hon. Nat. Cook for several 

i rears. He was an elector for Vjm Buren in 1836, but in 1840 
le presided at Tuskaloosa over the first whig State convention. 
In 1840 he represented Lowndes in the lower house of the 
l^islature, and a year later was elected to the senate. He 
resigned his seat m 1843, and came to reside in this county. 

220 DALLAS 00UNT7. 

He opened a law office in Gahaba, but gave the major portum 
of his time to planting. From this he was diverted by a omi- 
didacy for congress in 1849, but his party was in a Hiinoritjry 
and Hon. S. W. Harris of Coosa was chosen. In 1857, he 
removed to Kentucky, and there took an active interest in stock 
raising. He remained there till 1865, when he returned to 
this county, and in the fall of that year was elected to the 
constitutional convention. It was his last public service, for 
he died in Louisville the following year, having reached aej^ 
tuagenarian age. Judge Himter was as distinguished for hia 
rich and copious eloquence as for the solid and cedent reason- 
ing which were the ground-work of his propositions. Kril- 
liant and chaste in his ideas, he spoke with rapidity, anima- 
tion, and effect. Ue was reserved in his demeanor, even to 
an apparent haughtiness, but he never forgot the respect for 
the feelings of others which he exacted for himself, and hu 
coldness arose from an abhorrence of the petty arts with wbkk 
men of smaller minds are wont to beguile the populace. This 
was not fully understood, and, coupled with the fact that he 
belonged to a minority party, it barred his advancement io 
higher public employments. He married a sister of CoL Lo- 
renzo James of Montgomery, and his sons and daughters m 
in this county and Mobile ; one of the latter being the ifik 
of Mr. Robert White Smith, a prominent merchant of Mobile. 

Nor can the annalist omit to mention Geobge Btan Etabi 
of this county. He was bom in Greene county, North Oaro- 
lina, January 1, 1807, and was the son of Benjamin Evans and 
Catharine Sheppard. His parents came to this^State about 
the year 1818, and settled in Claiborne, Monroe county. Here 
he acquired a fair education ; insomuch that when his faliier 
came to Dallas in 1824, and died the same year, the son ob- 
tained a situation as a teacher. This occupied his time for 
three or four years, at the end of which period he b^an to 
read medicine. Two years later he resumed the duties of i 
teacher, and read law during the time. Admitted to the bar, 
he opened an office in Cahaba in 1834. The same year he 
was elected by the general assembly judge of the county oomt 
to succeed Judge Clmton, and held the office about twoyeaA 
He succeeded Mr. B. C. Yancey as register in chancerv fof 
this district in 1839, and held the office till 1843. In the lat- 
ter year he represented the county in the lower house of Hie 
legislature. He now devoted his whole attention to his jho- 
fession, and his abilities and culture made him unusually sno* 
cessful. Death cut short his career, however, in the meridian 
of life, June 18, 1850. "Mr. Evans was a man of great mod- 
"estjr, and unobtrusiveness of character. He was pure and 
"upright At the time of his death he stood in the front rank 


^of his profession in Alabama/'* The workings of his mind 
were deep, and not excursive, and his temperament phleg- 
matic. He married a Miss Arthur, who resides with lus 
dftughters in this county. 

BoBE^ S. Hatcheb was a native of Elbert counW, Georgia, 
but resided in this county for at least fifty years. He became 
bere a wealthy planter, and his boundless hospitality was 
abnost as proverbial as that of Duke Humphrey. He served 
Hie county in both branches of the general assembh', and 
lived to complete his three-score and ten years. Ho was 
kSled in a horrible manner by falling from a train in motion, 
Behna, March 30, 1872. 

ETHELB£Rr Watkins Satindebs came to Dallas about the year 
1825* He was a native of Bmith county, Tennessee, and broth- 
er to Hon. Bomulus M. Saunders of North Carolina, minister 
to Spain during Mr. Polk's administration. He was a planter 
of moderate means, but took an active interest in the pohtical 
questions of the period. He first entered the legislature as a 
member from Dallas in 1831, and was thrice re-elected. He 
Was i-^ister in the land office at Cahaba during Mr. Fillmore's 
administration. He died at his residence, on tne Cahaba and 
Behna road, Oct 12, 1857, at the age of about sixty years. 
Several of his descendants are yet in the county, and one of 
his daughters was the wife of Capt. W. P. Becker, a brave 
offioer of the 44th Alabama regiment. Col. Baunders was 
ncrtabhr large in size ; was a goo(f and honest man, and a use- 
ml Citizen. 

Though his bones are mouldering on the hard-fought field 
(rf Williamsburg, the name of Thomas E. Irby is not forgotten 
ifl Dallas. He was bom in Marlborough district, South Caro- 
lina, in the vear 1824, and was the seventh son of a planter 
i^o traced nis lineage through early Yir^ia colonists back 
tQ tiie twelfth centu]^, and who diea durmg the childhood of 
bis son. His mother was a daughter of Hon. Josiah J. Evans 
of South Carolina. In 1837 the family came to Alabama, 
and settled in Wilcox county. He was educated at Emmets- 
bwg, Maryland, and read law, but, being wealthy, he gave 
his time to agricultural pursuits. In 1847 he raised a com- 
pany of volunteers which he led to Mexico, and remained 
Hiere about a year, principally engaged in garrison duty. In 
18^ he was chosen to represent W ilcox in 3ie popular branch 
of the legislature. Having removed his residence to this 
oounfy a year or two later, he was again elected to the legis- 
iatiiTe in 1857, and re-elected in 1859. In the spring of 1861 

— ..-■- .. --■■■- -^^^^ ■- -— ■ ■ — ■ — — _^ — - , ^ ^^ 

*Hon. P. O. Wood of Selma. 



He opened a law office in Cabal 
of Ills time to planting. From 
didacy for conm^ss in 1849, \y 
and Hon. S. W. Harris of (' 
removed to Kentucky, and tlir? 
raising. He remained thcr 
this coimty, and in the fal' 
constitutional convention, 
he died in LonisviQe the < 
tnagenarian age. Judge 
rich and copious eloquoi 
ing which were the gv 
liant and chaste in hi 
tion, and effect, tio ' 
an apparent haughtii 
the feelings of othiM 
coldness arose from 
men of smaller uiJi: 
was not fully uiul* 
belonged to a m 
higher public em, 
renzo James of 

in this county 
of Mr. Robert \ 

Nor can th'^ 
of this count\ 
lina, Januaj-;- 
Cathaiinc S' 
the yeai* IS 
he acquiror 
came to 1 • 
taincd a . . 
tlireo 1)1" 
read Ui- ■ 
teat-li. .-^. . 

. .liv vir1 

■ !■ li ill xhv i 

. II) ird ii Miss 1 

{ ii-u'lus irby of 

.. nr Jiis brothers. 

; ■ I i liisTorHER CLvuDr 

: nirdsido from a Hug' 
..■«»linainl7J:8. His ii 
■ . Eviina, who died while 
■ ^f whom a contemporar\' _ 
i::d wise as Mansfield." TJ 
>;riot, Aug. 3, 1823, and was 
^^•i ho came to tliis State, 
»ad r^*ad law under Col. Alcxn 
, j.iiittv'vl to the bar in 1845, lie 
, •ABi tlio associate of Judge Geo. 
^ Uv'««'i^ Pottus and Dawson. Ix 
"^ is. oaptiiiu of a company in tlic 5ti 
: oiKhm^il the hardsliips of a tweh 
,,ibvu\l vH^loiiol of the regiment at its 
l!j*ai?; v»l[ IS^U. Ho was leailing the 
L Juno 'J7. when hv received a woimd 
His i\»mnins wei-e buried in Hollj 

.; »» 


;*iiiVi- ti' dn\*rHni fsf pro patria nwrL 

,%^i*"« .IS wi'll as i\\c pji^an ai)horism, b' 

*;*^^ «\,4- tlio K»ss of one so j^i^norally Ix^kn 

" '1*% lu'-kvt, tht* anuMiity of liis manners, hif 

"H^-iv^^i^vl■;dity, iutejii-ity, abilities, and o 

V.iUK*-^ whU-h iu:uk the christian gontloi] 

fl\»iii M lioaits, juul made him a favorite 

n". k '»!■». IIU i\mr;mo at Seven Pines attr 

**^ ■ * ' • while at Gaines' Mill he : 

1 bv loss of blood. Dallas 



Col. Pegues married a sister of Hon. A. A. Coleman of Hale, 
and left three children ; one of whom married Mr. John Wal- 
thall of Perry. 

Nathaniel Henry Rhodes Dawson, of this county, was 
bom in Charleston, S. C, in 1829. His father, Col. Lawrence 
E. Dawson, is flatteringly mentioned in O'Neal's "Bench and 
Bar." His mother, a ctaughtor of Dr. Rhodes of Beaufort, 
S. C, .was a pand-daughter of Gen. Paul Hamilton, secretary 
of the navy m 1812. He was educated at St. Joseph's Col- 
lege, Mobile. His parents came to this county in 1842, and 
his father, having regained his health and returned to the bar, 
was on the eve of a brilliant professional career when he died 
in 1848. The son read law under Hon. Geo. R. Evans, and 
began the practice in Cahaba in 1851. He has been associated 
at different times in the practice with Messrs. L. D. Bradley, 
C. C. Pegues, P. G. Wood, and E. W. Pettus. In l'855 he 
was defeated for the legislature, his party being in a minority 
in the county, but he ran aliead of his ticket. He was a 
del^ate to the Charleston convention, and the next year 
entered the service as captain of a company in the 4th Ala- 
bama Infantry, with which he served twelve months in Virginia. 
In 1863 he represented the coimty in tlie legislature. Towards 
the close of the struggle he commanded a battaUon of mounted 
men which operatedon the coast. Since 1858 he has resided 
in Selma, where he is now in the midst of an extensive prac- 
tice, associated with Gen. Pettus. Col. Dawson has an im- 
posing personal appearance, polished and agreeable manners, 
and stainless moral character. He has talents of a substantial 
order, combined with a cultivated mind, and' varied informa- 
tion. He first married a daughter of Mr. Joel Mathews ; 
then a daughter of Mr. Benj. Tarver ; both of tliis coimty. 
His present wife was a Miss Todd of Kentucky, whose sister 
married Gen. B. H. Holm of that State, and whose half-sister 
married the late President Lincoln. Col. Reginald H. Daw- 
son of Wilcox, who was solicitor of the circuit in 1860, and 
lieutenant colonel of the 13th Alabama Infantry, is a brother. 

Albert Gallatin Mabry came to this coimty in 1843. 
Bom in Southampton county, Virginia, September 7, 1810,* 
he received an academic education. In 1837 ho was graduated 
in the medical department of Pennsylvania University, and 
has practiced his profession in the coimty since he became a 
citizen. He was four times elected . by the people of the 
county to the lower house of the general assembly between 
the years 1857 and 1867. Dr. Mabry is plain and unassuming 
in his manner. His mind is well balanced, and he takes a 


practical and common-sense view of things. He commands 
the respect of all. 

Benjamin M. Woolsey, of this ooimty, was bom near 
Athens, Georgia, in 1823. His father was a native of New 
York, and a near relative of President T. D. Woolsey of Yale 
College. His mother was Miss Sims of Washington county, 
Georgia, who survived her first husband, mamed the late 
Bishop Jas. O. Andrews in 1844, and, being the owner of negro 
slaves, was the innocent but proximate cause of the division 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church in the United States. The 
son came to Mobile, this State, in 1835, but was educated at 
Emory College, Georgia^ where he prepared himself for the 
bar. Enrolled as an attorney in 1844, he opened an office in 
Mobile, but retired within two or three years in consequence 
of a want of health. In 1847 he came to reside in Dallas, 
and gave his attention to planting. In 1851, and a^ain in 
1855, he represented the county in me legislature, and m 1856 
was on the Fillmore electoral ticket. A year later he decline 
the nomination of his party for congress. Gov. Watts ap- 
pointed him salt commissioner for the State, and he served m 
that capacity during the leuBt two years of the war. Since 
that time he has been engaged in mercantile pupiits in 
Selma, for which his abihties, tact, and enei^ singularly 
qualify him. He is, moreover, a fluent and ready speaker, 
possessing a well stored mind, and a close obi^rvation. He 
married a Miss Swift of this county. 

Among the leading citizens of Dallas is William MgEjen^ 
DREE Byrd, sr. He was bom in Perry county, Mississippi, 
Dec. 1, 1819, and is a descendant of the Byrds of Westover, 
Virginia. His parents were Wm. S. Byrd of Sumter district, 
South Carolina, and Marttia Easley of Clarke county, Gteor- 
gia. His education was finished at Mississippi College (Clin- 
ton,) and LaQrange College, Franklin coimiy, graduating at 
the latter place in 1838. He read law in the office of Judge 
A. M. Clayton at Holly Springs, Mississippi. In 1841 he 
located in Linden, Marengo coimty, where ne practiced his 

Erofession successfully. In 1851 he served Marengo in the 
ouse of representatives. He came to Selma in 1853 and 
became the law partner of Messrs. John W. Lapsley and 
D. S. Troy. In 1865 he was elected an associate justice of 
the supreme court over Hon. Geo. W. Stone of Montgomery. 
This high position he filled till his retirement by the operation 
of the reconstruction laws in July 1868. Since that time he 
has practiced his profession in Selma. 

Judge Byrd is a dignified but affable and courteous gentle- 
man, of high moral and social standing, of much legal learn- 


ing and literary culture, and of a humane and pious heart 
He married Miss Massie of Teimessee, and his only son is 
Capt. Wm. M. BjTd, jr., his luofessional associate. 

Prominent among tlio citizens of Dallas is John Ttleb 
Morgan. He was bom in Atliens, Tennessee, June 20, 1«24, 
and his father was a merchant. His mother was a Miss Irby, 
a relative of Chancellor Tyler of Virginia. Wlien lie was 
nine years old his parents came to this State, and settled in 
Calhoun county. There he grew to manhoocl, receiving an 
academic education. He read law in Talladega, in the office 
of Hon. Wm. P. Chilton, and was licensed to practice in 1845. 
He was the associate at different times of Messrs. W. P. 
Chilton, S. F. Rice, A. J. Walker, and J. B. Martin while in 
Talladega. In 1855 he came to Dallas, locating first in 
Selma, then in Cahaba. He ]:)ecame the pai*tner of Hon. 
Wm. M. Byrd, a ccmnection which lasted till the latter was 
elected to the supreme coujt bench. His first appearance in 
political life was in 1860, when he was appointtnl elector for 
the State at large on the Breckinridge ticket. The canvass 
gave him a State reputation for extraordhiaiy oratorical tal- 
ent, and he was elected to the constitutional convention which 
dissolved the relations of our State with the Federal Union. 
In April 1861 he was elected major of the Fifth Alal)ama 
infantry, and served with it for twelve months in Virginia, 
rising to the grade of lieutenant colonel by election. He 
came back with authoritv'^ to raise a mounted re^ment. This 
he proceeded to do, and entered the service in the fall of 
18G2 with the Fifty-first Alabama, which he had liberally 
aided to equip. He went to the Tennessee tout, but was 
soon after assigned to the head of the conscript bureau in 
Alabama at the request of tlie delegation in congress. Six 
weeks later he received from G(*n. K. E. Lee a letter announc- 
ing his promotion to the rank of brigadier general, and order- 
ing him to assume command of what had been Rodes's 
brigade. He repaired to Richmond, but there hetu'd of the 
death of Col. Webl), in conjimction with whom he had raised 
the regiment, and he felt it his duty to decline the promotion 
and return to his command. This he did, but ui November 
186f3 was again commissioned a brigadier general, and })laced 
over the First, Third, Fourth, Seventh, and Fifty-first regi- 
ments of Alabama cavalry. During the wint^^r of 18()3- '(>4 
lie was for some time in command of a division. His com- 
mand operated ^ith Gen. Longstreet in east Tennessee, and 
was afterwards with the army of Gens. Johnston and Hood 
till the clase. Since the war lie has practiced his profession 


in Selma with remarkable success. He married Miss Willis, 
daughter of a deceased merchant of Madison coimty. 

Gen. Morgan has acquired a wide reputation as a la wye 
and orator. " His speecnes are marked with great cleameSg 
" and distinctness of idea. His manner is graceful, bold, and 
" at times, captivating. His voice is clear, and his enuncia-' 
" tion emphatic, while his demeanor as a speaker is agreeable 
" and impressive."* He is a close student, and a keen but 
quiet observer of current events. He is also sociable, and a 
favorite with the bar* 

The late Washington MoMiirray Smith, an useful citizen 
of DaUas, was bom in Barren county, Kentucky, in 1816- 
His educational advantages were those afforded by a then 
newly settled country. At the age of 18 years he embarked 
in commercial pursuits, and. while so employed began to read 
law imder the direction of Col. William F. Evans of Allen 


county, Kentucky. Admitted to the bar about the time he 
attained his majority, he at once came to this State, and 
began the practice, first at Dayton, subsequently at Linden. 
He arose rapidly in the profession among a county bar ever 
distinguislied for the abihty of its members. In 1844 he rep- 
resented Marengo in the lower house of the legislature. About 
three years later he retired to his plantation in Perry, and 
devoted his attention to agiiculture. In 1863 he engaged in 
commercial pursuits in Mobile, and secured a turpentine 

f)lantation in that county. In 1855 he served Mobile in the 
egislature, but the ensuing year foimd him a citizen of this 
county. He was here the president of an insurance company 
for many years. In 1860 he was on the Bell electoral ticket, 
and the following year represented Dallas in the lower house 
of the legislature, where he was influential in sha{)ing the 
legislation of that important epoch. He continued in busi- 
ness in Selma till Febmary 1869, when he died suddenly 
while on a visit to New York ci^. Mr. Smith was a man of 
fine practical sense, and was successful in every branch of 
business to which he turned his attention. He was personally 
popular, and was a member of the Baptist church " from his 
youth upwards." He manied a Miss Parker, and his family 
are residents of Dallas, except one, who is the wife of Col. 
Herbert of Butler. 

Alexander White resides in Dallas* He is the son of 

Judge John White of Talladega, and was born in Franklin, 

Tennessee, October 16, 1816. Receiving his education art 

, Jackson College and at the University of Nashville, he came 

* Hon. "W. R. Smith of Tuskaloosa. 


to the bar in 1838 as the associate of his father in Talladega. 
In 1841 he established a partnersliip with Hon. L. E. Parsons, 
which continued for fourteen years with great professional 
profit. In 1851 he was the itnion candidate for congress. 
The State's rights party brought out Hon. Samuel F. Rice. 
The canvass was the most thrilling the district has ever seen, 
but terminated in the success of Mr. White by 400 majority 
in a district largely Democratic, and where he proclaimed his 
Whig aflSliatioi\on every stump. He declined a re-nomination, 
and came to Selma in 1856, and became the law associate of 
Hon. S. R. Blake. HaAong a plantation in Talladega, his 
family remained there much of the time during the war, while 
he for some time was in the service. Captun^d when Selma 
fell, he repaired to Talladega when released, and represented 
that coimty in the reconstruction convention of 18G5. He 
soon after returned to Dallas, where he has since prju^ticed 
his profession. He has taken part in many of the public 
enterprises of the State, and handled fi-om the stiunp tlie 
various questions which have presented themselves. 

Mr. Wnite is rather tall and spare. His features are intel- 
lectual and distinctly chiselled. In the private relations of 
life he is genial, sociable, considerate, and benevolent. In 
his profession he has long ranked with the first in the State. 
His powers of elocution are extraordinary, adding to fluency 
clearness, and to earnestness the flowers of fancy ; and to all 
a strange eifect from a gutteral enunciation. Notwithstanding 
his natural gifts he is a close and industrious student. 

Mr. White first married a daughter of Mr. Daniel McAuley 
of Autauga ; his second wife was Miss Rogers of Wilcox. 

Dallas is the home of Edmund Winston Pettus, though to 
Limestone belongs the honor of his birth. He is the son of 
Mr. John Pettus, a planter, and of his wife, who was a 
daughter of Capt. Anthony Winstim, of whom some account 
is given in the sketch of Hon. Jolm A. Winston of Simiter. 
Bom July 6, 1821, Gen. Pettus lost his father in early infancy, 
but was foi-tunate enough in having the care of a wise and 
excellent mother.* He was educated at Clinton College, Ten- 
nessee, and read law in the oftico of Mr. Wm. Cooper in 
Tuscumbia. Licensed to practice in 1842, he at once located 
in Gainesville as the partner of Hon. Turner Reavis. The 
same year he was elected district solicitor, and was re-elected 
in 1849, but resigned in 1861 when he removed to Pickens. 
He labored in his profession in CarroUton till 1853, when Gov. 
Collier appointed him to the same office to fill a vacancy. In 

•Dr. Rufih, in his work on the Mind, observes that he never knew or read 
of a distingnished man whose mother was not an intelligent woman. 



1855 lie was elected a judge of the circuit court, and remained 
on the bench till January 1858. He then came to reside in 
Cahaba. Bere he pursued his professional career till the 
beginning of the war between the States, when he was ap- 
pomted a commissioner to the State of Mississippi. In the 
spring of 1861, in connection with Gen. Garrott of Perry, 
and others, he raised the 20th regiment of Alabama infantry, 
of which he was first major, and sooi;i after lieutenant coloneL 
He first saw active service in the Kentucky campaign, and 
was in command of the van of Gen. E. K. Smifh's army when 
it di'ove the enemy into Covington and Cincinnati. During 
the winter the 20tli was sent to Mississippi, and he participated 
in the battle of Port Gibson and Baker's CrecK. In the 
former he was captured, but made an escape. While the 
siege of Vicksburg was progi*essing he became colonel by the 
promotion of Col. Garrott. An incident of this siege is 
related, somewhat incorrectly, by the author of "Lee and his 
Lieutenants," in a sketch of d-en. S. D. Lee. This ofl&oer 
wished to drive the enemy fiom a redoubt they had captured 
that morning. Col. Pettus proffered his services. But he 
could get none of his own or other regiments to volunteer 
for the perilous enterprise. Waul's Texas Legion, however, 
volunteered en ma.sse. Forty were selected (among whom was 
Capt. L. D. Bradley, formerly a lawyer in Cahaba.) At the 
head of these, Pettus dashed upon the amazed federals, 
retook the works, captining 100 men and three flags. Thirty 
guns were at once trained on the spot, but the heroes brought 
off their trophies, witiiout loss. Captiured when Vicksburg 
fell, he was soon exchanged, and made a brigadier general. 
The 20th, 23d, 30th, 31st, and 46th Alabama regiments were 
placed under him. At Missionary Ridge he was on the right 
under Hardee. He was also a participant, and a conspicuous 
one, in nearly all the battles from Dalton to Atlanta and 
Jonesboro. Accompanying Hood into Tennessee, his brigade 
forced the passage of Duck river in squads, in the face of the 
enemy's rifle-pits, and carried their entrenchmentfe at the 
point of the bayonot. On the retreat fi'om Nashville, he 
covered tlie rear. Transport-ed to Noi-th Carolina, he partici- 
pated at Kinston and Bentonville, and was severelv woimded 
m the latter battle. At the peace, he returned to liis private 
puisuits in Selma, and is now in the midst of a successful 
professional career. 

The personal appearance of Gen. Pettus is impressive. He 
is six feet high, with verj*^ broad shoulders, and a large head, 
somewhat leonine in its contour. "Li general intercourse 
" he is cordial and genial, at the bar he isdmgent and laborious 
" in the prosecution of his causes. His style of speaking is 




" argumentative, clear, and convincing. While on the bench 
he was distinguished for his decision and rapid dispatch of 
business, and for his clear expositions of the law. As a 
soldier he was noted for devotion to duty, striptness in en- 
forcing discipline, and promptness in obeying orders. He 
wa^ always prudent, cool, and brave. No officer was more 
"jealous of the welfare of his men, and he was repaid by their 
"love and respect."*. Gen. Pettus married a daughter of >d^ 
Hon. Samuel Cnapman of Sumter. His elder brother, John jo ^ 
J. Pettus, governor of Mississippi, is mentioned in the chapter "^ <> > 
on Limestone county. ^ 

BoBERT A. Baker also resided in this county. He was 
bom in Tennessee in 1802, but came with hisparents to Madi- 
son county, this State, when quite young. He grew up there, 
but received onlv a limited education, as his father was a 
planter in humble circumstances. In 1826 he removed to 
Franklin county, where he was a planter. In 1835 he repre- 
sented that coimty, and was four times successively re-elected. 
In 1840, the speaker of the house (Hon. Samuel Walker of 
Madison) died early in the session, and Mi*. Baker was elected 
to succeed him. The same year he removed to Sumter, then 
to Mobile, where he became a commission merchant, and 
afterwards to this county. He died in December 1865. Mr. 
Baker had a fine personal appearance, an active mind, and 
was fluent and interesting in debate or conversation. He was 
actively identified with various religious, literary, scientific, 
and railway institutions, and was pious, temperate, and 
energetic. His first wife was Miss Lampkin of Madison 
county ; his second Mrs. Potts (nee Mimms) of Sumter. 
One of his daughters married Rev. T. C. Weir of the Missis- 
sippi conference ; and his three sons are merchants in Mobile. 

Thomas B. Wetmore came to this county in 1859, and has 
distiQguished himself in the legal profession. He is a native 
of North Carolina, and came to this State in his youth, after 
graduating at Chapel Hill in 1841. Locating in Sumter 
county, he steadily worked his way to the front rank in his 
j)rofession. For several years he was the law partner there 
of Hon. Jo. G. Baldwin, and afterwards of Hon. Edward W. 
Smith. His purity of purpose, amiability, and unassumed 
modesty commend him to the esteem of his fellow-men; 
while his learning, talents, culture, and indefatigable industry 
have reaped their proper reward. His wife is a daughter of 
the late Col. Charles R Gibbs of Sumter. 

Much of the reputation of William McLin Brooks belongs 

*^o^. N. H. R. Dawson of Selma. 


to Perry and Marengo, but he resides now in Dallas. He 
was bom in Sumter district, South Carolina, in November 
1815. His parents were Virginians, the father a planter. 
While the son was at Columbia College his parents came to 
this State, in 1833, and settled in Marengo county. A month 
afterward the father died, and yoimg Brooks was called from 
his studies to take charge of the estate, and to provide for a 
widowed mother and her seven daughters. Notwithstanding 
these obstacles, he read law and was licensed in 1837. His 
first eflfort at the bar was a wretched failure, and augured ill 
for the bright record he has since made. He remained in 
Linden till 1851, associated at one time with Judge Byrd. 
In 1840 he was elected district soUcitor, was re-elected in 
1844, and resigned in 1846. Eemoving to Mobile, he was 
associated with Hon. A. R. Manning. Two years later he 
came to Marion. Gov. Winston a])pointcd him to the circuit 
bench in 1857 to fill the vacancy caused by Hon. A. B. Moore's 
resignation, and the ensuing spring he was elected by the 
people for a full teim. Resigning in July, he formed a partner- 
ship with Hon. I. W. Ganott. In 1860 Judge Brooks was 
elected to the constitutional convention, and was chosen to 
preside over that very able body. During tlie war he was 
chairman of a committee which for two years provided for 
the sustenance of soldiers' families. Towards the close of 
the war he was for nine months colonel of a i*egiment of 
reserve ti'oops. Since that period he has practiced his pro- 
fession profitably, having resided at Selma since 186G. 

Judge Brooks' mental prevails over his physical develop- 
ment. His featm'es betoken Irish origin. He is companion- 
able and jo\dal, but is not " a man of the multitude." As an 
advocate he is impressive and fluent, and liis legal lore is very 
considerable. His private character is without reproach. 
His fii'st wife was Miss Terrell of Marengo, niece of Hon. 
J. W. Henley ; his second was a lady of Vii-ginia. One of his 
sons was an officer in an Alabama regiment during the late 
war. Judge Young and Hon. William Fluker of Marengo, 
and Mr. Jolm Vary of Perry, married sisters of Judge Brooks. 

"Beneath the rule of men 

••Entirely great, the pen in mightier than the sword." 

JoumaUsm has no better representative in Alabama than 
Robert McKee, a citizen of Dallas. He was bom in Flem- 
ing county, Kentucky, in 1830. His fatlier was a farmer and 
blacksmith. K^ceiving but a Umited education, he worked on 
a farm for wages for three years. At the age of eighteen 
yeai-s he became a clerk in a countiy store ; at twenty-two he 
became a book-keeper ; and in 1856 attracted attention by his 
articles in the Paris Flaj, A year later he was the editor and 


owner of the Maysville Express, in which position he continued 
till called to the chief editorship of the Liouisville Courier in 
1859. The course of that journal in taking part with the 
South caused its suppression in October 1861. Mr. McKee 
was a delegate to the Cnarleston couyention, and was secretary 
of the revolutionary convention which met at Russellville, in 
November 1861, to take Kentucky out of the Union. By tiiat 
body he was chosen secretary of state of the provisional gov* 
emment, but the evacuation of Kentucky by the Confederates 
made the office a nominal one. At Sliiloh he was a voluntary 
aid in the Kentucky brigade, was wounded and had a horse 
killed under him, ana received special mention in CoL Trabue's 
report. Hi-health kept him from a participation in any other 
important engagement of the war. At its close the rewards 
for his arrest had not been withdrawn, and he remained in the 
hills of Jefferson county till October 1865, when he came to 
this county, and has since resided here. During the interval 
between tnen and now he has attained to a distinction as an 
editor and writer not second to his reputation in his native 
State, and no journalist in Alabama wields a more decided 
influence upon public questions. This fact arises as much 
from his purity of purpose, and lofty sense of honor, as from 
the vigor, grace, and skill with which he uses the pen. By 
his industry, candor, and courtesy he has inaugurated a new 
school of journalism in the State ; a fact which has been read- 
ily recognized even by those not familiar with the profession. 

Though a citizen of Dallas, the fame of Charles Milleb 
Shelley belongs to Talladega. He was bom in Sullivan 
county, Tennessee, December 28, 1833, and is the son of a 
builder who brought his family to TaUadega in 1836, and who 
resides there now in the declme of an upright and contented 
life. The son received but a limited education, and was 
brought up to the trade of an architect and builder. He.was 
among the first to volunteer in the late war, repairing with a 
company tb Fort Morgan in February 1861, of which he was 
lieutenant. After serving there six weeks, the company re- 
turned to camp at Talladega, where it reoi^anized with him 
as captain. Attached to the 5th Alabama regiment, the com- 
pany went to Virginia, where it had the honor of initiating the 
coUision which ended in the battle of Manassas. The com- 
pany, under Capt. Shelley, was on picket, July 17, at Parr's X 
Boads, when it was assailed by a heavy force of the enemy. 
A spirited combat ensued, lasting several hours, when the 
company was withdrawn with the loss of two men wounded. 
The official report of the enemy made their loss 204 men ! In 
January 1862 ne was authorized to recruit a regiment ; which 
be did, and in April was elected colonel of the 30th Alabama. 


The militaiy services of Gen. Shelley were from this time 
shared with this regiment. At Port Gibson he was standing 
by Gen. Tracy when that officer fell. Gen. Lee complimented 
him on the field at Baker's Creek for gallantry, and there his 
clothes were rent by seven balls, but he escaped with the loss 
of his horse. He shared in the dangers of Vicksburg, where 
he was captured. Exchanged, he was under fire at Lookout 
and Missionary Ridge. He led his regiment into hot quarters 
at Rocky Face and Resaca, and participated in all the opera- 
tions down to Atlanta. The day after me battle of Jonesboro 
• he took command of Cumming's brigade, of which he was 
reUeved a month later. A few days after he was comtmissioned 
a brigadier general, and assigned to the command of Cantey's 
brigade — the 17th, 26th, and 29th Alabama, and 37th Missis- 
sippi regiments. Of the 1100 men of this brigade he led in at 
Franklin, 430 were left on the field. Gen. Hood has said that 
the strategy of Gen. Shelley saved Stewart's corps from cap- 
ture at Franklin. At Nashville half of the residue of his 
brigade were captm-ed. When the army was concentrating in 
North Carolina, he was sent with his brigade to protect the 
stores at DanviUe. Soon after his return he was assigned to 
the command of the twelve Alabama regiments that were con- 
soUdated. The surrender occurring a few days after, he 
retmned to his occupation, and now resides in Selma. 

Gen. Shelley is of ordinary stature, and as impretentious in 
appearance and bearing as he is sensible and sincere in con- 
duct and language. As a soldier he was faithful, efficient, and 
intrepid, beloved by his men, and piized by his superiors. 
His wife is a daughter of Gen. Felix McConnell of Talladega. 
James B. Shelley, Ucutenant colonel of the Tenth Alabama, 
killed at Petersum-g, was a brother of Gen. S., and he has 
nimierous relatives m Talladega. 

WiLLUM J. Hardee has resided in this coimty since the 
close of the late war between the States. He was bom in 
Camden county, Georgia, in 1815, and was educated at the 
military academy of West Point, and a cavah-y school in 
France. He sei^^ed in Florida, won laurels in Mexico, and 
was a major in the federal army when he resigned to offer his 
sword to his native State in 1861. He was at once sent to 
Fort Morgan, Mobile bay, and remained there several months, 
strengthening that fortress. He led a division at Shiloh and 
was wounded there. He commanded one of the two corps 
Gen. Bragg led into Kentuckv, and from that time forward 
was the " Old Eeliable " of the Army of the West through 
all its bloody and glorious career. The record oi General 
Hardee's services belong to the broadest field of history, and, 
as his only civil services to Alabama have been those of a 



auiet and useful citizen, he may well be left witli the remark 
liat he has proven fully adequate to all the " high emprises" 
that have been entrusted to him. Col. T. B. Roy of Selma 
married a daughter of General H. 

William R. King represented this county in the constitu- 
tional convention of 1819 ; John T. Morgan and WiUiam S. 
PhiUips in that of 1861 ; and John S. Hunter and Thomas M. 
Mathews in that of 1865. 

The following is a list of members of the general assembly : 


1819— Thomas Caaey. 

18r22— Thomas Casey. 

182&— Thomas Oasey. 

1«28— Horatio G. Perry. 

1829— Horatio G. Perry. 

ISast-George PhiUips. 

1835 — Jeshs Bejsne, (president 1837). 

1838-Jame8 M. Calhoun. 

1840— William S. Phillips. 

1841~William S. PhiUips. 

1844— WiUiam H. Norris. 
1847— Charles G. Edwards. 
J851 — Francis A. Saunders. 
1853— Samuel R. Blake. 
1855 — Robert S. Hatcher. 
1857 — James M. CALHOinf. 
1H59— James M. Calhoun, (1862). 
1863— Robert H. Ervin. 
1865— Aaron B. Cooper. 

[No election in 1867, or since.] 

1819-EdwinD. King. James Saffold 

1820 — Isaac McMeaus, Horatio Gates 

1821— Walter Crenshaw, RandaU 

1822— Walter Crenshaw, Thomas B. 

1823— Walter Crenshaw, Geo. Phil- 

1824 — Walter Crenshaw, Jos. Pickens 

ltt-^6 — Waiter Crenshaw, Jos. Pick- 
ens, James Saffold. 

1826— Walter Crenshaw, Jos. Pick- 
ens, Bernard Johnson. 

1827— James C. Sharp. John A. Tar- 
ver, Erasmus Walker. 

1828— Ezekiel Pickens. John A, Tar- 
ter, Erasmus Walker. 

1829— Uriah Grigsby, WiUiam Tay- 
lor, Jefferson C. VanDyke. 

1830— Peter Walter Herbert, William 
Taylor, Benj. R.Hogan. 

1831— Peter Walter Herbert, E. W. 
Saunders, John W.Paul. 

1832— Peter Walter Herbert, Ethel- 
bert W. Saunders, . 

1833— Jesse Beene, E. W. Saunders, 
George W. Gayle. 

1834— James M. Calhoun, Bernard 
Johnson, George W. Gayle. 

1835 — James M. Calhoun, Joseph P. 
Saffold, Burwell Boy kin. 

1836— James M. Calhoun, John J. 
Greening, BurweU Boykin. 

1837 — James M. Calhoun, 'John J. 
Greening, Wm. S. Phillips. 


1838— Uriah Grigsby. Wm. C. CUf- 

ton, Wm. S. PhilUps. 
1839- Daniel H. Norwood, William 

H. Norris. 
1840— Daniel H. Norwood, WUliam 

H. Norris. 
1841— Daniel H. Norwood, William 

H. Norris. 
1842— James M. Calhoun, WiUiam 

H. Norris. 
1843— R. 8. Hatcher, Geo. R. Evans 
1844— William B. King, C. B. Watts. 
1845— George W. Gayle, Ethelbert 

W. Saunders. 
1847— George C. PhilUps, Ashley W. 

1849— Robert S. Hatcher, George P. 

1851— Benjamin M. Woolsey, Heze- 

kiah Bussev. 
1853— Robert S. Hatcher, George C. 

1855 — Benjamin M. Woolsey, Robert 

J. English. 
J 857— Albert G. Mabry, Thomas E. 

1859— A. G. Mabry, Thomas E. Irby. 
1861— Albert G. Mabry, Washington 

M. Smith. 
1863— N. H. R. Dawson, Elijah BeU. 
1865— A (>. Mabry, James T. Reese. 
1866— Wm Craig (vice J. T. Reese) 
1867— No election. 
1870— George F. Marlowe, Henry 

Cochran, Edward Gee (c), Jere 
• Haralson (c), R. Johnson (o). 



DeKalb was carved out of the last Cherokee session, from 
the district attached to St. Clair, by an act of the legislature, 
dated January 9, 1836. 

It was named to honor the memory of Major-general De- 
Kalb* of the colonial rebellion of 1776. 

It Ues in the northeastern part of the State, and is bounded 
north by Jackson, east by Cherokee, and the State of Georgia, 
south by Cherokee and Etowa,west by Marshall and Jackson. 

The area is about 725 square miles. 

The assessed wealth in 1870 was $654,629, viz : real estate 
$546,755 ; personal property $107,804. 

The population, decennially, is thus exhibited : 

1840 1850 I860 1870 

Whites &589 7730 9853 6656 

Blacks 340 515 852 470 

The county is mountainous, with long and narrow valleys, 
and replete with romantic scenery. The soil is very product- 
ive in the valleys and coves, and well adapted to farming. 

In 1870 there were 44,188 acres of improved, and 67,457 
acres of unimproved farm lands, valued at $534,924. 

The live stock— 1363 horses, 397 mules, 7070 neat cattle, 
6627 sheep, 13,094 hogs— were valued at $328,799. 

The productions in 1869 were valued at $404,203, and com* 
prised 209,994 bushels of com, 36,880 bushels of wheat, 12,- 
088 bushels of oats, 28,721 bushels of potatoes, 91,042 pounds 
of butter, 12,746 gallons of molasses, 6707 pounds of tobacco, 
205 bales of cotton, 11,909 pounds of wool ; and $60,343 was 
the value of animals slaughtered. 

*Tbe Baron DeKalb was a native of the German province of Alsace, which 
at that time belonged to France and was born in 1717. He served with 
maob credit under Frederick the Great, by whom he was knighted, and 
afterwards entered the French army. He introduced the Marquis de la Pay- 
ette to the American commissioners, and resigned the commission of briga- 
dier-general to accompany La Fayette to the colonies in 1777. He was at 
once made a major-general, and served in New Jersey till ordered south in 
1780. He was mortally wounded at the battle of Camden, August 16, 1780. 


DeKalb was long isolated by the absence of commercial 
facilities. Now the Alabama & Chattanooga Railroad passes 
through almost the entire length of the county for 40^ miles^ 
and its natural advantages are now partly open to inspection. 

The mountains are fml of cotd and iron, and mines of the 
former are being opened. Granite, and stone for building 
purposes, furnaces, &c., are abundant. In the development 
of these resources it is a fortunate fact that DeKalb is suf- 
ficiently fertile to sustain a very large population. 

•Lebanon, the seat of justice, has about 200 inhabitants. 
Ck>llinsville and Portersville have probably more. 

The courthouse was first at Camden, whence it was removed 
to Lebanon. It was at Portersville a year or two, but was 
again located at Lebanon. 

The annals of DeKalb are Umited to local events of no 
general interest. 

Among the citizens of this county, William Overton Win- 
ston was prominent. He was bom in Fauquier county, Vir- 
ginia, in 1804, and was the son of Mr. John G. Winston, of 
the same family of which Hon. John A. Winston of Sumter 
was a scion. His mother was a Miss Kenner. In 1812 his 
parents removed to Hawkins county, Tennessee, where he 
gi'ew up. Having received a plain education, he read If^w in 
Rogersville under Mr. Peter Parsons, and was enrolled as an 
attorney in 1828. Ten years later he settled in DeKalb. In 
1840 he represented the county in the lower house of the 
legislature, and was four times annually re-elected. From 
1845 to 1853 he was sohcitor of this judicial circuit, succeed- 
ing Hon. William Acklen. He resigned to accept the presi- 
dency of the "Wills Valley Railroaa," now a lint in the Ala- 
bama & Chattanooga Railroad. He was the father of the 
latter enterprise, and lived to see the great work he had pro- 

{'ected brought to completion. In 1855 he was again in the 
egislature, and a year later he was a Buchanan elector. He 
represented DeKalb in the constitutional conventions of 1861 
and 1865, and in the latter year he was chosen to the State 
senate from Marshall and DeKalb, and served two winters. 
He died at his home at Valley Head, January 18, 1871. Col. 
Winston was highly respected for force of character, unswerv- 
ing integrity, and untiring energy. He was diffident withal, 
or he might have filled higher trusts. His %vife was a 
daughter of Hon. Jesse Beene of Dallas, and his children are 
among the most respectable people of this county. Two of 
his sons perished in the Confederate service, one of whom 
was a cadet at West Point when the war began. 

William J. Haralson, of this county, is a native of east 


Tennessee, but grew up in Habersham county, Georgia. He 
was plainly educated ; came here when a young man ; read 
law, and began the practice in Lebanon. In 1850 he was 
elected to the office of solicitor of the judicial circuit, and 
held the place about two years. He raised a company of 
men, and was engaged at Shiloh. In 1862 he was elected to 
the circuit court bench, and has continuously occupied that 
responsible position till the present time. He was a nephew 
of Col. J. J. Humphries, for some years a citizen of DeKalb, 
and who died while serving as Indian agent in the west. • 

In the northwestern part of the county is the faU of Little 
river. A small volume of water is thrown over an abrupt 
precipice iuto a rock basin sixty-five feet below. A short dis- 
tance below this cataract are the remains of a fortress with 
trenches and breastworks parallel, and in semicircular form. 
They enclose three or four caverns in the river bluff which 
were evidently used as the citadel, and which can only be 
approached by a foot-path overhanging the yawning chasm cut 
by the river beneath. The caverns memselves seem to have 
been enlarged by art, and occupied for some time. Tradition 
does not tell anything of the immediate purpose to which 
aboriginal valor consecrated these rude reUcs of the "last 
argument of kings." 

William O. Winston and J. H. Franklin represented the 
county in the constitutional convention of 1861 ; and William 
O. Wmston and Alfred Collins in that of 1865. 

The following is a list of those who have represented the 
county in the general assembly : 


1839-~Solomon C. Smith. 1857— S. K. Raybum. 

1841— Arthur Foster. 1859— Robert W Higgins. 

1844— Solomon C. Smith. 1H61— John P. Morgan. 

1 847— Wm. H . Garrett 1803— James Critcher. 

1849— Wm. H. Garrett. 18(55 -Wm. O. Winston. 

1853 — James Lamar. [No election in 1867, or since.] 


1837 — Solomon C. Smith. 1851— Notloy M. Warren, Alexander 

ia3.S— Solomon C. Smith. W. Majors. 

1839— Andrew Wilson, W.F.Mooney. 1853— M. C Newman, R. Murphey. 

1840— Andrew Wilson, Wm. O. Win- 1855— Jesse Bargess, Wm. O. Win- 
ston, ston. 

1841— Thomas J. Rodgers, William 1857— Alexander W. Majors, B. W. 
O. Winston. Higgins. 

1842— M. Lankford, Wm O. Winston ia59— F. J. Burgess, Seabird Cowan. 

J843—M.Lankford,Wm. O.Winston 1861— G. W. Malone, L. W. Lynch, 

1844— B. K. Webb. Wm. O. Winston. 1863— G. W. Malone, Jeptha Ed- 

1845 — Notley M.Warren, R.Mnrphey wards. 

1847— N M. Warren, Robt Murphey. 1865— G. W. Malone, N. M. Warren. 

1849— Madison Hendricks, Robert 1867— [No election.] 

Morphey. 1870— J. B. Appleton. 



Elmore was created by an act approved February 15, 1866, 
and its territory was taken from Coosa, Autauga, Montgomery, 
and Tallapoosa. 

It lies in the centre of the State, and south of Coosa, west 
of Tallapoosa, east of Autauga, and north of Montgomery. 

Its name perpetuates the memory of Gen. John A. Elmore, 
who was one of the first settlers of that part of Autauga now 
embraced in Elmore. 

The area of the county is about 660 square miles. 

The assessed value of propei-ty in 1870 was $2,307,()87, as 
follows : real estate $1,618,588, personalty $689,099. 

The population in 1870 was 7747 whites, and 6730 blacks. 

The profile of the country is hilly and rolling ; tlie soil gen- 
erally light, with alluvial lowlands that are very productive. 

The farm lands — 73,524 acres improved, and z33,684 acres 
unimproved — are valued at $924,020. 

The live stock — 944 horses, 1411 mules, 6518 neat cattle, 
1716 sheep, and 8286 swine— are valued at $440,747. 

The producticms in 1869 were 198,371 bushels of com, 
11,330 bushels of wheat, 18,078 bushels of oats, 32,895 busrti- 
eLs of potatoes, 57,673 pounds of butter, 7295 bales of cotton, 
and 2547 pounds of wool ; the value of animals slaughtered 
was $80,314 ; and the value of farm productions in 1869 was 

The Alabama, Coosa, and Tallapoosa rivers water the 
county, but the first named two are only open to steam navi- 
gation as high up as Wetumka, and that not in the summer 
months. The railway from Mcmtgomery to Decatur passes 
over twelve miles of the western portion of the county. 

There are extensive pine forests, and several saw-mills, and 
the lumber exiM)rted is of verj' superior ijuality. 

The most extensive cotton factory in the State, or in the 
Gulf States, is located at Tallasee, m this county. It makes 
sheeting, shiiiing, yarns, and rope ; has 18,500 spindles, 240 
looms, and 550 operatives ; and uses 20 bales of raw cotton 
per diem, or about 6000 bales a year. The property consists 
of two stone buildings for the factories, a substantial rock 
diiin, an iron foimdry, saw mill, machine shop, flour mill, <Src., 
and 6500 acres of land. It is owned by a company, of whom 


Messrs. B. H. Micou, T. M. Bamett, and N. D. Bamett are 
the principal shareholders, and the capital stock is $600,000. 
The business was begun about twenty years ago, and Capt. 
T. M. Bamett, sr., one of the earliest settlers of Montgomery 
county, may be regarded as the founder. 

Wetumka. is the seat of justice. The name is from the 
Muscogee: weotaa, water; tumka, rumbling; and alludes to 
the rapids of the Coosa at the spot, and extending up the 
liver. The town is on both sides of the Coosa, and its popu- 
lation in 1870 was 1137 souls ; 543 whites, and 594 blacks ; 
but it has been nearly twice as great as now, and a city court 
was in operation tnirty years ago. The penitentiary was 
located here in 1839, is a building of imposing size and large 
capacity, which received its first inmate in the person of 
Geoi^e Garrett of Autauga, w^ho was sentenced to confine- 
ment for twenty years for harboring a runaway slave, but was 
pardoned a few years after. Wetumka was the principal rival 
of Montgomery for the honor of being the capital of the 
State in 1845 when the question of removal came before the 
general assembly. 

Tallasee is located on the west bank of the Tallapoosa, and 
has about 1200 inhabitants. It is named for the ancient town 
which stood near, and the name means " a captured town." 
It is the site of the cotton factory mentioned above, and is 
one of the neatest and most beautiful towns in the State. 

Elmore abounds with localities familiar to readers of Indian 
history. Its clear streams, picturesque dells, and fruited 
forests made it a favorite sjiot with " the stoic of the woods." 

On the east bank of the Coosa, four miles above Wetumka, 
is the site of Little Tallasee, the birth-spot and home of Alex- 
ander McGillivray, the Muscogee long. It was here also that 
Gen. Leclerc Milfort resided for twenty years. The place is 
embraced within the plantation of the late Hon. Howell Hose. 

Near the present Tallasee stood the town of that name at 
which DeSoto and his army tarried twenty days. It was of 
large extent, surrounded by a wall, and the chief who resided 
here was master of a capacious region around liim. When 
tlie whites became familiar with the countiy two centuries 
later, the place was called Tookabatchee ; which eventually 
became the chief town and capital of the upj^er Creeks* 
Tecumseh, Col. Hawkins, and Gov. Bibb each hold councils 
here with the Muscogee chiefs, and its glory only departed 
when Opothleyoholo sullenly led his people across ** the father 
of waters." The name of Tallasee attached to a niodem 
Indian town on the opposite bank of the Tallapoosa. 

Hoithlewaulee, or ThleawaUee, (rolling ball,) was on the 
Tallapoosa, lower down. 


Coosada was on the west bank of the Alabama, three miles 
below the confluence of its main tributaries. The " Hickory 
Ground" is within the southern suburb of Wetumka. 

But the most interesting and historic of these localities is 
four miles below Wetumka, on the east bank of the Coosa. 
Here, in June 1714, Gov. Bienville built Fort Toulouse, which 
remained a fortified post of the French and British for sixty 
years. The Indians had at that time a town on the spot 
called Tuskegee. In 1814, just 100 years after Bienville built 
Fort Toulouse, Gen. Jackson marched his victorious legion 
from their triumph at the Horse-Shoe Bend to the place, and, 
on the ruins, built Fort Jackson. A few months later, in 
August, 1814, the remnant of the humbled Muscogecs assem- 
bled on the spot, and ceded all theii- lands in Alabama west 
of the Coosa and of a line extending southeast from Wetumka. 

E. S. Ready was the first judge of the probate court of the 
county. B. F. Benson was the first representative elected to 
the legislature — 1870. 

The name of Howell Eose is blended with the early set- 
tlement of this region. A native of North Carolina, he was 
bom about the year 1791. His parents, who were quite poor, 
removed to Putnam county, Georgia, where the son grew to 
manhood* He was first' an overseer of slaves, but naving 
married a Miss Bryant, who had property, he became a plan- 
ter and merchant in Eatonton. He came to Alabama about 
the year 1816, and settled in what was soon after Autauga 
county, three miles west of Wetumka. His thorough prac- 
tical sense, and undaunted ener^, gave him a commanding 
influence in that border commimity, and he was elected to the 
State senate in 1819, where he served for three years. But 
his attentioji for twenty years after w as chiefly given to the 
increase of his private fortune, and he became the wealthiest 
citizen of Coosa. To the latter comity he came in 1834, and 
made his home within the present limits of Elmore. From 
1843 to 1847, Col. Rose represented the county in the general 
assembly, and made strenuous eftbrts to have Wetumka 
made the capital of the State. In 18()5 a party of bnital 
federal soldiers went Uy his house and demanded the money 
he was reported to have in possession, and when he refused 
they threatened to take his life. He persisted, telling them 
that if they murdered him it would shorten his days but little. 
They hanged him till he was about to expire, but no informa- 
tion was extorted from the fearless old man, and the money 
did not fall into their hands. Col. Rose was endowed by 
nature with a strong mind, and he was thus enabled to 
triumph over the defects of education. His will was imperi- 


ous ; his maimers brusque and erratic ; and he would have 
been a man of note in any community. 

Benjamin Fitzpatrick lived and died in this county. He 
was bom in Greene county, Georgia, in the year 1800. His 
father was a member of the legislature of that State for nine- 
teen consecutive years, and his mother was the sister of CoL 
Joseph Phillips of Clarke. At the age of seven years he had 
lost botli liis parents by death, ^ntnin a few days of each 
other ; but his elder brothers and sister to some extent sup- 
pUed their places. In that early day the schoolmaster was 
not abroad in Georgia, and Mr. Fitzpatrick attended school 
only six months. Li 1816 he came to Alabama to manage 
some interest of his brothers. Their lands were on the east 
bank of the Alabama, about six miles north of Montgomery, 
and he has often pointed out tlie field where he guarded the 
hogs while they were feeding on the mast of the virgin forest. 
Shortly after, he was a deputy under Jacob P. House, the first 
sheriff of Autauga, and soon after became a clerk in a trading 
house located where Wetumka now stands. He then read 
law in the office of Mr. Nimrod E. Benson in Montgomery. 
Enrolled as an attorney in 1821, he opened an office in tliat 
town. His first case was that of an Lidian arraigned Ixjfore 
a magistrate for horse stealing, and it is in illustration of that 
primitive time to state that, after a successful plea, the young 
attorney took his client out behind the house, and urged him 
to instant flight to insure his personal safety. Judge N. E. 
Benson was the first, and Mr. Henry Goldthwaite the second, 
law pai-tner of Mr. Fitzpatrick. Electtnl solicitor of the judi- 
cial district, he held the office several years. A want of health, 
however, obliged him to retire to his plantation, six miles west 
of Wctiunka, in 1827, and he shortly after abandoned the 

{>rofession forever. The plantation was within the present 
imits of this county, and here, siurounded l)y all the comforts 
that wealtli can bring, he dispensed a boundless hospitality 
till the close of his life, foi-ty years latcn*. He sought no pub- 
lic hcmors, jind was in retii'cment for over twelve years. In 
1837, in his abseiu^e, and without his knowledge, his claims 
were very favorably considered V>v the caucus of his party 
in Tuskaloosa which selected Mr. Ba^ijbv as the candidate for 
governor. Three years later he was an elector on the Van 
Buren ticket. In 1841 he was elected to the office of governor 
of the State, receiving 27,974 votes, to 21,219 voles for James 
W. McClung of Madison, and was inaugurated Nov. 22. Re- 
elected without opposition, he retu'ed from the jx)sition in 
1845. When the banks were placed in liquidation, he wa&. 
appointed one of the commissioners, but declined to accept* 
In consequence of the death of Mr. Lewis of Lowndes, Gov- 


ernor Chapman appointed Mr. Fitzpatrick to fill the seat thus 
vacated in the federal senate, Nov. 25, 1848. A year later, 
the general assembly proceeded to fill the said vacancy, and 
to choose a senator for a new term to follow that which Mr. 
King had served out the March before. The incumbents, 
Messrs. King and Fitzpatrick, were both re-nominated by 
their party. The former was chosen by a strict party ma- 
jority of thirteen votes. Mr. Fitzpatrick was defeated on the 
sixth ballot by a combination of twelve north Alabama mem- 
bers of his party with fifty-four Whigs, which elected CoL 
Clemens of Madison. In January 1853, Governor CoUier 
appointed him to the federal senate as the successor of Mr. 
King, who had resigned, and the following winter the general 
assembly confirmed the selection by a vote of 107, to 13 for 
Hon. W. D. Dunn of Mobile. Two years later the same body 
elected him to the position for a new term of six years, by a 
vote of 79, to 45 for Mr. Luke Pryor of Limestone. Durmg 
the administration of Mr. Buchanan, Mr. Fitzpatrick was 
chosen by his fellow senators to preside over tnat eminent 
body in £he absence of the vice president. At the national 
convention of his party in 18G0, one wing nominated him for 
the vice presidency on the ticket with Judge Douglas of Illi- 
nois ; but he declined to permit the use of his name in that 
connection by one fragment of the party, foreseeing no hope 
of success for either wing. The fact that he had previously 
committed himself against the '* squatter sovereignty" dogma 
of Judge Douglas, was sufficient reason for Mr. F.*s declen- 
sion. He did not favor secession, for he conceived it to be a 
rash and impracticable remedy for the grievances of which 
lie admitted the southern States might justly complain ; yet 
he withdrew from Washington with his colleagues. Retiring 
to his home, he exerted liimself for his (jountry, receiving tlie 
weary soldier with wide-spread doors, or generously contrib- 
uting his means to aid destitute families. At tiie close of tiie 
war, he was chosen to i-epresent Autauga in the constitutional 
convention of 1865, and was unanimously elected to preside* 
over that very able body. This w^as his last official ]>osition, 
for he was disfranchised shortly after ; but lie felt and took a 
Warm interest in public affairs till his death. This event 
Occurred Nov. 21, 1869. His remains were taken to Mont- 
gomery, where they lay in state in the capitol, and were then 
committed to the tomb. 

Gov. Fitzpatrick was one of the most esteemed of our 
public men. "In his social and domestic relations he was 
** faithful and true. In all the conditions and circumstances 
^*of life he was honorable, considerate, and just. Having 
** personal honor, consideration, fidelity, truth, and warmth of 






affection, combined with a clear, sound, and practical under- 
standing, it is not surprising that he exerted a large influence 
" over all with whom he came in contact, and over the people 
" among whom he lived. The latter gave to him their confi- 
" dence, and he was eminently trustworthy. * * He escaped 
" all imputations on his personal character. No one supposed 
"that he could be corrupt, or would sacrifice a public interest 
for his private emolument. He was never accused of desert- 
ing a principle, abandoning a friend, or failing to perform a 
"puolic or personal obligation. His observation of men and 
"things was acute and discriminating. Few so thoroughlv 
"understood the nature of men, and the principles which 
" should move, and the motives that control them. * * He 
was habitually firm, prudent, circumspect, and moderate. 
He was courteous, affable, and of a genial and obliging dis- 
" position."* In the federal senate, he was attentive to the 
interests of constituents, and diligent in the performance of 
his duties, realizing in his conduct what Cicero terms the 
boni sejuitoris prudential "the wisdom of a good senator." 

Gov. Fitzpatrick first married a sister of Hon. John A. 
Elmore of Montgomery ; his second wife was a Miss Blassiii- 
game of Perry. Two of his sons by his former marriage 
reside in this county, and another, Elmore J. Fitzpatrick, esq., 
of Montgomery, was solicitor for this judicial circuit m 
1865-'8. His brothers, Joseph and Phillips Fitzpatrick, both 
served in the councils of the State, the former residing in 
Montgomery, the latter in Autauga. Judge Bird Fitzpatrick 
of Pike was a nephew. 

Seth Paddock Storrs was a prominent citizen of that part 
of Autauga now embraced in Elmore. He was a native of 
Middlebury, Vermont, where he was bom in 1800. His father 
was a prominent lawyer, and gave the college and cemetery 
grounos to the town. His mother was the daughter of Qen. 
btrong, to whom Vermont voted a sword for his military ser-^^=^ 

vices. The son graduated at the Middlebury college. Ad 

mitted to tlie bar, he at once removed to Covington, Gleorma, 
where he practiced till he came to Autauga in 1835. He 
resided in Wetumka, and was frequently mayor of the town^p- 
though he refused to receive pay for his services. His pr o — ^ 
fession was profitable and he accimiulated property. In ISi*^* 
he was elected to represent Coosa and Autauga in the senate, 
and acted in that capacity six years. In August 1854 Gk)v 
Winston appointed hmi judge of the circuit court, but he di< ' 
the following month. Judge StoiTS was shoi-t and sto^t. 

•From a sketch at the time of bin death in the New Orleans Picauune, so 
posed to be from the pen of Hon. John A. Campbell, late of Mobile. 


a large, round, bald head, and a fair complexion. He was a 
gentleman of refinement, cultivation, and close observation, 
and stood high for integrity and morality. His wife was a 
Miss Bigelow of Massachusetts, and three of his sons were 
oflScers m the Southern armies, \dz : Lieut. H. R. Storrs of 
the 3d Alabama, killed by a sentinel at Norfolk, Va. ; Major 
Geo. S. Storrs who commanded a battalion of artillery ; and 
Capt. Charles P. Storrs of the 7th Alabama cavalry. 

BoLLiNG Hall of this county was bom in Hancock county, 
Georgia, in 1813, and came to Alabama with his parents m • 
1818. His father, of the same name, was a member of con- 
gress while in Georgia, but held no public trusts in this State, 
where he died in 1836. The motlier of Mr. Hall was a sister 
of Hon. James Abercrombie of Russell. Educated at the 
University of Georgia, he read law under Mr. John H. Thor- 
ington of Montgomery, but became a planter. He repre- 
sented Autauga in the legislature from 1849 to 1855. His 
reputation for integrity, sound judgment, and public spirit is 
deservedly high. His wife was a grand-daughter of Gen. ( 
John A. Elmore of Autauga, and his son. Boiling Hall, was ^ 
the heroic colonel of the 59th Alabama regiment at the early 
age of twenty-five years, and died in January 1866 of the 
effects of wounds received at Chicamauga and Drury's Bluflf. 
Another son was adjutant of the same regiment. 

Among the earlier citizens of what is now Elmore county 
was Sampson W. Harris. He was the son of Judge Stephen 
Harris of Eatonton, Georgia, and was bom in that State 
about the year 1814. His mother was a Miss Watkins, whose 
sister married Judge Eli Shorter of Georgia. He took the 
first honor of his class in the University of Georgia, and read 
law with Judge Shorter at Eatonton. After practicing there 
a short time, he came to Alabama in 1837^ and located at We- 
tamka. He rose rapidly at the bar> and in 1841 was elected 
to the ofiice of solicitor by the general assembly. He resigned 
the soUcitorship in 1844 when elected to the senate from Coosa 
and Autauga. He served in that capacit}^ till 1847, when he 
was elected to congress as the nominee of his party. He was 
re-elected two years later over Hon. John S. Hunter of Dallas, 
and in 1851 tnumphed over Hon. Wm. S. Mudd of JeflFei-son. 
His contest in 1853 was with Hon. S. D. J. Moore of Lowndes, 
and in 1855 with Hon. Wm. B. Martin of Benton, but he was 
not once defeated. His death occurred at Wasliington, D. C, 
in the spring of 1857, after a service of sixteen consecutive 
years in the State and Federal councils. Mr. Harris was one 
of the most accomplished men whose talents Alabama has 
fostered. He was handsome in person, decorous in deport- 


ment, and genial in companionship. His elocution was grace- 
ful and flowing, exhibitmg a polished and cultivated mind. 
His capacity as a lawyer was considerable, and must have ad- 
vanced him had he not given his attention to poUtics. CatiioUc 
in his views and generous in friendships, he was exceedingly 
popular. He married a daughter of Mr. Stephen Thomas of 
Geor^a. Col. Samp. Harris of West Point, Georgia, the dis- 
tinguished colonel of the 6th Georgia uifanhy during the late 
war, is one of his sons. The late. Hon. Stephen WilUs Harris 
of Madison county was his brother. 

Samuel S. Beman is another famihar name in Elmore. He 
was the son of Bev. Nathan S. S. Beman, a learned scholar, 
well remembered as an educator in Geomia, where he married 
the widowed mother of the late Hon. Wm. L. Yancey. He 
was a well formed youth till, at the age of twelve years, he 
was thrown by a colt on a heap of rocks, and his spine injured. 
He grew no more in higlith, but was otherwise well matured. 
He could not attend school, but was taught by his mother for 
several years, then went to western New York, whither his 
father hdd returned in 1824, and there completed his educa- 
tion. In 1843 he came to Wetumka, and began the practice 
of law with his half-brother, Mr. Yancey. He soon oecame 
interested in poUtics, and canvassed with brilliant eflfect in 
1844. In 1846 he was the candidate of his party for congress, 
and, after a warm canvass, was beaten by Hon. J. LaF. Cot- 
trell of Lowndes by 29 votes. Mr. Beman also canvassed the 
State in 1848 for Taylor, and added much to his fame. In 
1849 he removed to New York. In 1853 he was a member of 
the New York legislature, but his speech in favor of the fugi- 
tive slave law during the session was his poUtical death-knell. 
He was afterwards a temperance lecturer m Ohio, and in 1856 
removed to Minnesota. He was a member of the first legis- 
lature of the State (1857), and in 1871 was again elected to 
the senate from Winona county. His strong sympathy for 
the South is a clog to his poUtical advancement, but his un- 
surpassed oratorical talents are freely admitted, and univer- 
sally admired. He is a farmer, and has a wife and children. 

George Evans Brewer is a well known citizen. He came 
to Autauga with his father, Eev. A. G. Brewer, in his youth, 
being a native of Covington, Georgia, and bom in 183^. He 
was well educated, and became tne first superintendent of 
education of Coosa in 1855. He represented Coosa in the 
general assembly from 1857 to 1861 — defeating Hon. William 
Garrett for the senate in 1859. He led a company into the 
late war, and was a captain commanding the 46th Alabama 
regiment much of the time after the fall of Vicksburg. For 


fifteen jears he has been a minister of the gospel, and now 
labors in that high vocation. And he is much esteemed by 
those who know him best, as one "whose doctrine and whose 
life, coincident, exhibit Incid proof that he is honest in the 
sacred canse." 

" BiBKETT Davenport Fry resides in this connty. He was 
bom in Kanawha connty, Virginia, in 1822, and is descended 
from CoL Joshua Fry, who figured in colonial history. His 
mother was a daughter of Hon. P. B. Thompson, M. C. from 
Virginia, 1801-'07. His education was collegiate, and he 
attended both the Vii^inia Military Institute and West Point 
Academy. He read law, and was licensed in 1846, but was 
commissioned a lieutenant when the ten new regiments were 
raised for the Mexican war. Assigned to the regiment of 
which Jo. £. Johnston was lieutenant colonel, he served as 
adjutant at Contreras and Cheinibusco, and led a company at 
Molino del Rev and Chapultepec, where he was mentioned as 
"distinguished." In 1848 his regiment was disbanded, and 
the next year he went to California, and opened a law office 
in Sacramento. Solicited to unite in Walker's Nicaragua 
scheme, he joined that officer with a body of troops, and was 
the commander sent to quiet the Matagalpa Indians. He 
fought at Bivas, and was soon after made general of brigade, 
and assigned to the largest of the three military districts. 
With 200 men he made a successful defence of Grenada when 
attacked by a large force, which lost 600 killed and wounded, 
while the garrison lost 17. Dispatched to California for rein- 
forcements, he assembled a force, but could not secure trans- 
?ortation. In 1859 he came to Alabama, and located at 
'allasee. When the war between the States began, he was 
elected colonel of the 13th Alabama. At Seven Fines he led 
his regiment, and received a wound in the hand. Be rejoined 
his regiment in time for the first Maryland campaign, and 
participated at Boonsboro and Sharpsburg. In the latter 
battle nis left arm was shattered near the shoulder. Borne 
to the rear, the surgeons decided to amputate it. "What is 
my chance of li\dng without the operation ?" " One in three 
himdred." " Then I will take it." He rejoined his command 
in time for Chancellorsville, where he led Archer's brigade on 
the second day. At Gettysburg he commanded th^ brigade 
after the first day, and in the grand assault by Pickett's and 
Heth's divisions he was struck in the shoulder and shot 
through the thigh, and captured. Confined at Johnson's 
Islana, he was exchanged in 1864. Ordered to take command 
of a Virginia brigade, he led it in the battle near Drewiy's, 
capturing Qen, Heckman and much of his brigade. Joining the 
main army, Gen. A P. Hill placed him in command of the 


brigades of Archer and Walker. He commanded these at the 
* aecond Cold Harbor. His promotion came just after, it hav- 
ing been previously urged by Generals J. E. Johnston, T. J. 
Jackson, A. P. Hill, and others, and probably prevented by 
his capture. Soon after, he was ordered to the defence of 
Augusta, Georgia, one of the most important points in the 
Confederacy, Gen. Bragg writing to the mayor mat Q^n. Fry 
had been specially selected for that responsible command "as 
"a man of gunpowder reputation, and bearing on his person 
"the marks of nonorable service." He took chaise in Sept 
1864, added new defences, and established such a rigorous 
police that within three months 1500 men had been sent to 
their commands. When Gen. Sherman was on his march to 
Savannah, Gen. Fry had 6000 men in garrison to resist him.; 
but the invader passed twenty miles to the right. Augusta 
was the only city in the Confederacy not captured by the 
federal troops, for Gen. Johnston, having ordered G«n. Fry 
to commimicate Avith the nearest force, an officer was sent 
thither to receive the public stores. At the close of the 
struggle he went to Cuba, but returned to this county in 1868. 
His military record is the best comment on his character for 
courage and fortitude. It may be added that he is enei^etie, 
kind, and imbued with public spirit. 



Escambia was estabUshed by an act approved Dec. 10, 1 868, 
and its territeiy was taken from Conecuh and Baldwin. It 
was named for the clear and broad river which is formed 
within its limits, which was christened by the Spaniards two 
centuries ago. It is bounded north by Monroe and Conecuh, 
west by Covington, south by the State of Florida, and west 
by Baldwin. 

Its area is about 960 square mUes. 

The assessed value of real estate in 1870 was $138,699 ; 
personal property $129,923 ; total $268,622. 

The population in 1870 was 3047 whites, and 951 blacks. 
Forty-tnree of the 98 Indians in the State Uve in Escambia. 


The surface is generally fiat, and covered with pine forests. 
The soil is light with exceptions in the lowlands. The farm 
lands in 1870—7783 acres improved, and 49,222 acres unim- 
proved — ^were valued at $37,000. The live stock — 483 horses 
and mules, 8785 neat cattle, 3582 sheep, and 4878 hogs — ^were 
valued at $147,226. The productions in 1869 were valued at 
$146,195, and consisted of 30,390 bushels of com, 2665 pounds 
of rice, 31,695 bushels of potatoes, 605 bales of cotton, 9965 
pounds of wool ; and the value of animals slaughtered was 

Though the least agricultural of all the counties, Escambia 
maj point to its splendid pine forests as a source of wealth 
which is even now yielding a considerable revenue. This is 
cut and floated down to the coast as ^'square timber" and 
always finds a ready market 

Forty-one miles of the Mobile & Montgomery Bailroad lie 
in the county, and two or three miles of the Pensacola rail- 
road. The Escambia, Conecuh, and Sepulga rivers all water 
its territory, but are not navigated by steamers. 

Pollard, the seat of justice, is a village of about 300 inhabit- 
ants. It was the headquarters and depot of the confederate 
troops who watched the enemy at Pensacola during the late 
war. In January 1865 a conflict took place here, between a 
body of federal raidei-s and a handful of reserves, under Qen. 
Clanton, in which several were killed, and the raiders driven 
off. In March following. Gen. Steele's army, on its wav to 
Blakeley burned the public property and railway at the place. 

Escambia has not been allowed separate representation in 
the general assembly. 



This county was formed out of fragments of Cherokee, De- 
Kalb, Marshall, Bloimt, St. Clair, and Calhoun, by an act 
approved Dec. 7, 1866, and called "Baine" to honor (Jen. D. 
W . Baine of Lowndes. It was abolished by the convention 
that framed the present constitution of the State, but re- 
established under its present name by an act approved Dec. 
1, 1868. 


It is in the northeast quarter of the State, and Kes south of 
DeKalb and Marshall, west of Cherokee, north of Calhoun 
and St. Clair, and east of Blount, St. Clair, and MarshalL 

The assessed wealth of the county in 1870 was $991,797, as 
follows : real estate $875,064, personal property $116,733. 

The population in 1870 was 8401 whites, and 1708 blacka 

The surface is rugged and mountainous, but the valleys are 
fertile, and very productive. 

The farm lands — 37,277 acres improved, and 124,545 unim- 
proved — are valued at $750,420. 

The live stock — 923 horses, 479 mules, 4723 neat cattle, 
4950 sheep, and 8649 hogs— are valued at $249,043. 

The productions in 1869 were 181,034 bushels of com, 9300 
bushels -of oats, 19,066 bushels of potatoes, 58,057 pounds of 
butter, 13,545 gallons of sorghum, 1383 bales of cotton, 4441 
pounds of tobacco, and 13,791 pounds of wool ; the value of 
animals slaughtered was $59,934 ; and $543,142 was the value 
of farm productions. 

The mmerals are chiefly iron and coal, but they are not ex- 
ported, and their extent, though known to be vast, is unde- 
veloped. The mountains bristle with timber of large growth, 
and much limiber is exported. 

The Coosa flows through the county, and is navigable to 
steamers .of light draught at all seasons. Twenty-three miles 
of the Alabama & Chattanooga Railroad, and seven miles of 
the East Alabama & Cincinnati Railroad lie in the county. 

Gadsden, the seat of justice, has a population of over 1500 
souls. It was settled in 1845, and named to honor Mr. James 
Gadsden of South Carolina, minister to Mexico at one time. 
It has seven steam lumber mUls, and is a growing town. 

Atalla h^is about 300 inhabitants, and is on the railroad. 

The scenery of this county is as wild as that " on the bold 
cliffs of Benvenue." The view from the highths above Gads- 
den vies in ai^tic effect with any east of the Mississippi 

The fall of Black creek is a rom^mtic spot. The water is 

Precipitated abruptly over a precipice nineiy feet in highth. 
'he sheet of mist and spray which thus reaches the channel 
below cm'tains a lofty and spacious cavern, in the form of an 
amphitheatre, more ample in its proportions than any human 
habitation, and with wfiJls of granite on three sides. 

*<So wondrous wild, the whole might seem 
The scenery of a fairy dream." 

Of course a legend of Indian lovers, with the usual tragic fate, 
attaches to this locaUty. 

But Black creek is also famed for an incident which lends 
interest to the annals of the county. One clear May morning, 
1863, about noon, the peaceful inhabitants of the vicinity were 


startled by the galloping of horses, the rattUsg of sabres, and 
the hurried glances and excited shouts of armed men. The 
road in the direction of Blountsville was thronged with them, 
and in the distance, coming nearer and becoming clearer, 
the crack of th^ rifle was soon heard. Amazed but curious, 
tiiie good people flocked to the roadside where passed the dusty 
and confused columns of the dreaded y ankees ! They stopped 
only long enough to seize the horses of the citizens, ana the 
hindmost passed hurriedly over the bridge. This they fired, 
and held me wooded highth beyond to guard the pass while 
the timbers blazed. A second cavalcade followea the first, 
but the deep and rapid sti'eam, with sheer and high banks, 
stopped them. Their leader, stalwart, and begrimmed with 
dust, asked a group of females if there was not a ford near 
that could be crossed. There was. He then asked if there 
was a man about who could guide him to it. " Tliere is not, 
but I can," and a cloud passed from the stem features of the 
hero as he glanced at the lithe form of a maiden at his stirrup, 
whose firm tone and steady eye bespoke uncommon resolution. 
A lady's saddle was on the piazza, and he ordered one of his 
men to dismount and make the change. " There is no time to 
be lost; I can ride behind you"; and she ascended a block, and 
sprang to " the croupe." "Why, Emma, are you going with 
strangers ?" "Mother, I'm not a&aid to trust myself with a Con- 
federate officer," and she pointed the way. The grey avengers 
were at their heels. Nearly a mile above the bridge was the 
ford, but it, too, was guarded, A volley of musket^ whistled 
over them, for they were in the advance. Dismounting, they 
walked to the bank of the creek, the leaden hail still drojn)ing 
around them. " Gen. Forrest, let me walk in front ; as 1 am 
" a lady they will not shoot at me." " Excuse me, miss ; 
" while I am willing to accept a lady for a guide, I will not 
" consent to accept one for a breastwork," was the gallant 
reply. Leaving his fair guide at the roots of a fallen tree, the 
hero descended the ravine to reconnoiter the ford, crawling on 
his hands and knees. Looking behind, he found her at his 
back, and eluded her. " I feared they would wound you, and 
"wished to be near." The spot examined, they returned as 
they came. A storm of bullets greeted their reappearance on 
the level. " They have only wounded my dress, ' she said, as 
she met his anxious glance. Then, facing the enemy, she 
waved her sun-bonnet defiantly 'roimd her head. Cheer after 
cheer came from the foe, who ceased firing at once. Re- 
mounting, the two came back, and the herome was received 
with enthusiastic huzzas by the troops, while the heartiest 
thanks came from the sun-bronzed leader. The ford was soon 
passed, and Forrest was again on the track of Streight and 
iiis uhlans. 


Near Turkeytown, in this county, stood the Cherokee town 
of that name. Here was ratified, Oct. 4, 1816, the treaty by 
which the Cherokees relinqiii^ed then* donbtful title to all 
the lands south of the Tennessee, north of a line running from 
Ten Islands on the CoQsa to Flat Eock on the Big Bear, east 
of Big Bear, and west of a Une nearly corresponding with 
the western boimdary of Marshall county. This important 
treaty threw open to the whites the region embracea within 
the present coimties of Lawrence, Morgan, and parts of 
Blount, Colbert, Franklin and Winston, to which the Chicasas 
relinquished their title two weeks before. Gen. Jackson of 
Tennessee, and Gen. Merriwether of Georgia were the federal 

The mountains of northeast Alabama not only contributed 
a Pelham to the cause of Southern independence, but the 
heroine of the incident related above. The name of Emma 
Sansom will linger in history when that of many in this volume 
will have faded even from tradition. Her parents, Micajah 
Sansom and Levina Vance, came from Georgia to what is now 
Etowa county in 1836 or 7. The father died shortly before 
the war, leaving his large family in comfortable circumstances. 
Emma was bom at Social Circle, Walton county, Georgia, in 
August 1846, and received that physical, mental, and moral 
traming, which tend so much to tne formation of a sturdy and 
resolute character. At the tin;ie of Streight's raid, she was in 
deep sympathy with the Confederate cause, for her brothers 
fought in the ranks of its veterans. That morning, she had 
just returned from Gadsden to her home, about two miles 
west of the town. The horse she rode had hardly been 
stripped of the saddle when the advance of Streight s com- 
mand came up and cieized him. Her mother, however, assisted 
by Miss Emma, was holding on to the beast, amid a torrent of 
threats, when a federal officer ordered his men to release him. 
The war-worn pageant passed her home, Forrest reached the 
spot, and then occmTed the daring achievement recorded in 
this chapter. At its meeting in November, the general assem- 
bly of the State donated a section of the public lands and 
a gold medal in consideration of her pubhc services. The 
preamble of the resolutions declares that "A nation's history is 
** not complete which does not record the names and deeds of 
" its heroines with those of its heroes, and revolutions some- 
" times throw the two in such close proximity that the history 
" of the manly bearing of the one is imperfect unless coupled 
" with the more delicate, yet no less brilliant, achievement of 
" the other, and such must ever be the history of the most 
" gallant and successful victory of the intrepid Forrest, unless 
" embellished with the name and heroic acts of Emma San- 


" som."* Hon. T. B. Cooper of Cherokee was commissioned 
to deliver a certified copy of the joint resolution to the heroine. 
This was the occasion of quite a concourse at Turkeytown, 
Hon. B. T. Pope of St. Clair responding for Miss Sansom. 
The lands were surveyed and a portion sold for Confederate 
scrip, which soon lost all value, while the adverse issue of the 
str^jiggle caused the loss of the medal and the other portion 
of the lands. Shortly after the war, she married Mr. C. B. 
Johnson, and they now reside at Cross Plains, in Calhoun. 

Prominent among the citizens of this county is William 
Buckingham Martin. He was bom in Blount county, Ten- 
nessee, in 1807, and is the son of an elder brother of the late 
Grov. Martin of Tuskaloosa. His education was good, but 
not collegiate, and he prepared himself for a professional 
career at the bar. After practicing a short time, he came to 
this State, and opened an oflSce in Jacksonville in 1834. 
Three vears later no entered public life as a member of the 

fjeneral assembly from Calhoun, where he acquired at once a 
eading position. In 1839 he was elected solicitor, and held 
the office about two years. He was one of the four able 
members sent by Calhoim to the legislature of 1842, and was 
re-elected. In 1847 he was chosen to the State senate. In 
1863 he was again elected to the senate, and was selected to 
preside over that body. He agaiQ represented Calhoun in 
the lower house in 1866, and was chairman of the judiciary 
committee. Since that time he has not taken official part in 
public affairs. He came torthis county in 1866, and has prac- 
ticed law in Gadsden. 

Mr. Martin is possessed of popular manners, and highly 
, sociable qualities. Nature has done much for him, and, 
thirty years ago, no man of his age in Alabama had brighter 
prospects of a distinguished career; but, conscious of his 
superiority, the hare, Grenius, slept, while plodding Medioc- 
riiy — the tortoise of the fable — won the race. It is related 
that a Huntsville editor sent an account to him : •" W. B. 
Martin, debtor, to Philip Woodson, for six years subscription 
(@ 12) $12. Please remit." The reply was sent, " Stop my 

Eaper." In answer the rule was quoted that no paper would 
e stopped till arrearages were paid. Mr. Martin wrote 
promptly: "Put me down as a subscriber for life." The 
paper was continued. Mr. Martin married Miss Montgomery 
of Tennessee, and Capt. James B. Martin, lately of Talladega, 
who died in Texas in 1870, was his son. 

John P. Balls is a citizen of this coimty. Bom in Greens- 
boro, Gteorgia, he passed the earlier portion of his life there. 

*Pftinphlet Acts of the Qeneral Assombly of 1863, page 213. 


He became a physician, and in 1860 came to this State, and 
settled in Cherokee county. EUs first public service was as a 
member of the constitutional convention of 1861 from Chero- 
kee. A year later he was elected to the first congress of the 
Confederate States, defeating that hitherto invincible poli- 
tician, Hon. W. R. W. Cobb of Jackson. He served out the 
two years, and was then beaten by Mr. Cobb for the place. 
He nas not since been in pubKc position, and now resides in 
Gadsden. Dr, Balls is deservedly esteemed for many excel- 
lent traits of manhood, and is a useful and intelligent citizen. 

The county has not been allowed separate representation in 
the general assembly. 



Fayette was established by an act approved Dec. 20, 1824, 
and its territory was taken from TusKaloosa and Marion. 
The western part has since been set apart to Sanford. It 
lies south of Marion, west of Walker, north of Tuskdloosa, 
and east of Sanford. It was named to honor the marquis de 
la Fayette, who was at that time in the United States, and 
whose fame is world-wide. 

Its area is nearly 700 square miles. 

The assessed value of property in 1870 was $629,417 ; as 
follows : real estate, $441,235 ; personalty, $188,182. 

The following exhibits the population decennially : 

1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 

Whites 3035 5961 8451 11,145 6059 

Blacks 512 981 1230 1,705 1077 

The surface of the country in Fayette is broken, and the 
lands are generally too light for careless agricultural opera- 
tions; but there are productive valleys that maintain a thrifty 

The faim lands — 40,897 acres improved, and 221,489 acres 
unimproved — are valued at $325,385. 

The live stock — 1450 horses, 423 mules, 6741 neat cattle, 
6354 sheep, and 10,983 hogs— are valued at $313,271. 


The productions in 1869 were 14,266 buBhels of wheat, 
201,228 bushels of com, 13,283 bushels of oate, 29,659 bush- 
els of potatoes, 6435 gallons of sorghum, 97,350 pounds of 
butter, 1909 bales of cotton, 3254 pounds of tobacco, and 
13,194 pounds of wool ; the value of animals slaughtered was 
$62,159 ; and ihe value of farm products was $498,094. 

The county is dotted with lumber and flouring mills, and 
timber is abundant 

The real wealth of Fayette consists in the boundless coal 
measures and iron ore that lie within its limits, so far unmo- 
lested. Acres of coal are entirely naked. The bed of Dry 
Creek is a mass of unknown thiclmess. About the year 1858 
a drift of logs in the channel of tliis creek was set on fire and 
the coal caught from it. It burned for several weeks, causing 
uneasiness in the vicinitv, and when extinguished by the rain 
that made the creek to now, a huge cavit^ had been created* 

Fayette has no commercial facilities, but the Columbus 
(Miss.) and Decatiir Bailroad has been surveyed by way of 
Fayette Courthouse, and will contribute wonderfully to the 
development of this region, so bounteously endowed by the 
hand of the Creator. 

Fayette Courthouse (often called Fayetteville) is the seat 
of justice, and has a population of about 250. 

Of the several prominent citizens of this county Elliott 
Priest Jones may be mentioned. He is a native of Liawrence 
county, and was bom in the year 1819. His mother was a 
Miss Wallace ; his father was a farmer who came from Ken- 
tucky the year before, and Hved in Lawi-ence. He came with 
his parents to Fayette in 1837. Having received a good edu- 
cation, he taught school three years, then read law in Moulton 
under the eye of Messrs. D. G. Ligon and Leroy P. Walker. 
Eni'oUed as an attorney in 1844, he opened an office in Fay- 
etteville. In 1848- 50 ne was judge of the county court, and 
from 1850 to 1860 he represented Marion and Fayette in the 
senate, with modesty, but with usefuhiess and efficiency. He 
was a member of the constitutional conventions of 1861 and 
1865, and in the latter year waa again chosen to the State 
senate. He went out oi office when the reconstruction acts 
were passed in 1868, and the same year was on the Seymour 
electoral ticket. He now practices law, and ranks well in the 

Erofession. Judge Jones is held in deserved esteem for his 
oBorable character, solid mental attributes, and public 

The following is a list of members of the general assem- 
bly from Fayette : 




1825— Jesse Van Hoose. 
1B27— Jamee Moore. 
1829— Bafus K. Anderson. 
1831— Bafus K. Anderson. 
1834 — Henry Burrough. 
1837— Bnrr W. Wilson. 
1840— Burr W. Wilson. 
1843— Elijah Marchbanks. 

1847—Daniel Coggin. 
1851— Elliott P» Jones. 
1853— Elliott P. Jones. 
1857— EUiott P. Jones. 
1861- A.J. Colenian. 
1865— ElUott P. Jones. 
[No election in 1867, or since.] 


1828— Samuel J. Parker. 

1829— John Shipp. 

1830— .Tamos K. McCollnm. 

J83l— James K. McCoUum. 

1832— Caswell C. Thompson. 

183:^- William 8. Taylor. 

1834— W. S. Taylor, C. C.Thompson. 

1835— W. 8. Taylor, Burr W. Wilson. 

1836— W. 8. Taylor, C. Boyd, 

1837— William 8. Taylor, Lawrence 

1838— W. 8. Taylor, R. J. Morrow. 

1839— W. 8. Taylor. Wilson Cobb. 

1840— Wilson Cobb, E. Marchbanks. 

1841— W. 8. Taylor, E. Marchbanks. 

1842 — James M. Morris, E. March- 

J 843 — J. M. Morris, Allen Harris. 

1844— Alvis Davis, Wm. W. Bell. 

1845— Alvis Davis, Elzer Williams. 

1847— Alvis Davis, J. B. Kirkland. 

I8i9— A. J. Coleman, J. K. McCollum 

1851— A. J. Coleman, Jas. K. MoCol- 

1853— E. W. Lawrence. A. M. Rey- 

1856— J. C. Kirkland, T. P. McCOn- 

1857— A. J. Coleman. James Brook. 

1859 — A. J. Coleman, James Seay. 

1861— James Middleton, A. Cobb. 

1863— J. 8eay, Alexander Cobb. 

1865— Thomas Malloy, A. Cobb. 

1866— E. W. Lawrence (vice A. Cobb 

1867— [No election.] 

1870— W. H. Kennedy, 



Franklin was established at the first session of the territo- 
rial legislature, Feb. 4, 1818. The boundaries then laid down 
remained unaltered till 1832, when the Chicasas, having ceded 
their remaining tenitory in the State, embracing all the pres- 
ent part of this and Colbert counties west of Caney creek, 
and of a line diverging gradually southwest from the head of 
that stream, (passing about a mile west of Frankfort,) it was 
annexed to Franklin, making it nearly twice its original size* 
This was the area of the county till the northern half was set 
apart to fotm Colbert. 

It lies in the northwestern part of the State, and is bounded 
north by Colbert, south by Marion, east by Lauderdale, and 
west by the State of Mississippi. 


It was named to honor the memory of franklin * the 'pbi^ 

Tne area of the coimty is about 610 square miles. 

The assessed wealth in 1870 was $793,939 : real estate 
$637,661, and personal property $156,278. 

The population decennially has been as follows : 

1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 

Whites .3308 6069 8836 11,398 10J19 6693 

BliMskB... 1680 5009 6034 8,212 8,508 1313 

The surface of the country is rugged with ridges, intersected 
by pleasant valleys. The county is not so well adapted to 
a^culture as other sections of the State, the fertile parts 
lying in small tracts, and the Ught soil greatly predominating ; 
but a large population of small farmers can be readily main- 

The farm lands — 41,036 acres improved, and 169,902 acres 
unimproved — are valued at $488,993. 

The live stock — 1382 horses, 499 mules, 5542 neat cattle, 
3705 sheep, and 8608 swine— are valued at $309,542. 

In 1869 the productions were 9070 bushels of wheat, 
264,136 bushels of com, 15,074 bushels of potatoes, 5869 gal- 
lons of sorghum, 31,061 pounds of butter, 2072 bales of cot- 
ton, 6656 pounds of tobacco, and 6142 pounds of wool ; the 
value of animals slaughtered was $79,448 ; and the value of 
farm productions was $539,049. 

The waters of Big Bear creek irrigate the county, but there 
is no navigable stream , and no railways as yet, though the 
one projected from Tuskaloosa to Tuscumbia would pass cen- 
trally through it. 

Iron ore is abundant, and there was a furnace near Bussell- 
ville at one time. 

Frankfort, the seat of justice, is 217 miles northwest of 
Montgomerv, and has 162 mhabitants. 

Russellville, where the courthouse stood till 1849, has 180 
inhabitants. It was named for Major Bussell, an early settler. 

The historic part of Franklin was cut oflf by the act which 
established Colbert. And many of those who illustrated the 
intellectual superiority of this region are the common prop- 
erty of the two counties. 

Richard Elus came to Franklin about 1818. He was of 

* Benjamin Fbamklin was born in Boston, Mass. , in 1706, and died in 
Philadelphia in 1790. Ho was a printer by trade, and became famous for his 
diiieovenes in physical science. He was a signer of the colonial decree of 
independence, embassador to France, and a member of the convention that 
^nuned the oonstitntion of the United St^ites. A traveler has said that the 
^0 American names most familiar to Europeans are those of Washington 
■ad PrankUn. 


a respectable yirg;iiiia family, was plainhr educated, and first 
located in Huntsville about the year 1817. He was a lawyer, 
of respectable talents. He represented Franklin in the con- 
stitutional convention of 1819. At the organization of the 
circuit courts, he was elected, over Messrs. John McKinley 
and Beverly Hughes to a judgeship, which he held for six 
years. His time expired in 1825, and he soon after went to 
the Southwest. He was an actor in the incipient events of 
the Texas rebeUion, and presided over the congress i«diich 
adopted the declaration of independence in 1835. His death 
occurred a little later. Judge Ellis was a " fine-looking " man, 
dignified and courteous. Ho was not an able judge, and it is 
said that he told Mr. McClung, who had occasion to quote 
Chitty in some case, that "Joseph Chitty was a very clever 
man, but he didn't know much law." He married a Miss 
Dandridge of Virginia, sister of Mrs. Gen. Garth. 

Benjamin Eeynolds came to the couniy in the year 1830, 
when he was appointed agent for the Chicasas. He was bom 
in Fayette county, Kentucky, in 1788, and settled in Mamr 
county. Tennessee, in 1807. He was a captain in the 39th 
regiment, and was wounded at Topeka. After serving in both 
branches of the Tennessee legislature, he came to this coun^, 
which he thrice served in the house of representatives. He 
was an elector for president in 1840, and died in 1843, leaving 
many relatives in the county, and a character for hospitality 
and generosity. 

Benjamin Hudson came to this county as early as 1820 or 
'21. He was a native of middle Tennessee, and a planter. 
He was one of the first sheriffs of Franklin, and represented 
the county in the legislatiue as early as 1828. He served five 
years in the lower and twelve years in the upper house of the 
general assembly before 1847. He had cancer, and died 
somewhere in Kentucky, while seeking medical advice, in 
1858 or '9. He was an honest, pious, industrious, and ener- 
getic man, and as a pubUc servant very watchful of the gen- 
eral economy and welfare of the State. He left a character 
for integrity and usefulness that will not soon be forgotten in 
the coimiy. 

John A. Nooe, the first graduate of our State University, 
was a resident of this county, and the son of Mr. John 6. 
Nooe, a planter, and an early settler here. After readinglaw 
under Judge Barry of Tennessee, he practiced, first at Ku&- 
sellville, then at Tuscumbia. In 1835 he represented the 
countj' in the legislature, and was subsequently jixdge of tiie 
county court ana district soUcitor. In lo45 he made an un- 



successful canvass for congress against Gen. Houston of Lime- 
stone. In 1855 he removed to Memphis, Tennessee, where he 
died ten years after, aged about 55 years. He possessed an 
excellent moral character, a cultivated mind, agreeable man- 
ners, and considerable talents. 


Bichard Ellis and William Metcalf represented Franklin in 
5te constitutional convention of 1819 ; John A. Steele and 
B. 8. Watkins in that of 1861 ; and C. C. Tompkins and J. 
Bums Moore in that of 1865. 

The following is a list of members of the general assembly: 


1819— WiUiBin Metcalf. 
1S21— William Lacas. 
1822— WilUam Metcalf: 
1825 — Theophilns Skinner. 
1828— Theophilas Skinner. 
]829~Qain Morton. 
18:12— Qain Morton. 
183!) — Benjamin Hudson. 
1838— Benjamin Hudson. 
1841 — Benjamin Hudson. 

1844 — Benjamin Hudson. 
1847— B. B. Garland. 
1851— Richard H. Ricks. 
1H63 — Henry C. Jones. 
IHTiT— Robert B. Lindsay. 
1859— William M. Jackson. 
1861— William M. Jackson. 
1866— Robert B. Lindsay. 
CNo election in 1867 or since ] 


1819— Temple Sargeant, Ant'ny Win- 
1820— Temple Sargeant, JoUn Duke. 
1821— Wm. W. Parham, Theophilus 

1882 — Anthony Winston, Theophilus 

1823— Temple Sargeant, Theophilus 

1824— Wm. W. Parham, Theophilns 

1825 — ^Peter Martin, James Davis. 
1826— Wm. W. Parham, Jas. Davis. 
1827 — ^Temple Sargeani, John L. 

1828 — John M. Lewis, Benj. Hudson. 
1829— Rob*t C. Horton. Benj. Hudson. 
]}:$30_Kob*t 0. Horton, Benj. Hudson. 
1831— Wm. Winter Payne, John L. 


1832 — Benj. Hudson, 

1833 — Benj. Hudson, John L. McRae* 
ia34—T. Sargeant. Gregory D. Stone 
1835 — John A. Nooe, Theophilus 

1830_|U>bert A. Baker, Theophilus 

1837— Robert A. Baker, Theophilus 

1838— Robert A. Baker, Joseph T. 

1839— Robert A. Baker, Benj. Rey- 

nolds, J. T. Richardson. 


1840— Robert A. Baksh, Benj. Rey- 
nolds, Elijah McCullough. 

1841— Felix O. Norman, Benj. Rey- 
nolds, B. R. Garland. 

1842 — ^Felix G. Norman, John Riohe- 
son, B. R. Garland. 

1843— Felix G. Norman, Henry 0. 
* Jones, Lemuel Cook. 

1844— Felix G. Norman, Henry C. 
Jones, F. C. Vincent. 

1845— Feli;K G. Norman, Wesley M. 
Smith, B. R. Garland. 

1847— Felix G. Norman, John Riohe- 
son, Richard H. Ricks« 

1849— R. S. Watkins, Thos. Thorn, 
Samuel Corsble. 

1851— R. 8. Watkins. Wesley M. 
Smith, Wm. H. Petty. 

1853— R. S. Watkins, Rob*t B. Lind- 
say, Charles A. Carroll. 

1855— L. B. Thornton, Wesley M. 
Smith, Thomas Thorn. 

1857- Wm. M.Jackson, RobtE. Bell 

1859— Wm. C. Gates, W. P. Jack. 

1861—0 O. Nelson, Adolphus A. 

1862— [Saml K. Hughes, vke A. A. 
Hughes, deceased.] 

1863— A. Orr, A. W. Ligon. 

1865— F. LeBaron Goodwin, Thomas 

1867— [No election.] 

1870— J. A Steele, W.W.Weatherford 



Gteneva was established by an act dated Dec. 26, 1868, and 
its territoiy was taken from Coffee, Dale, and Henry. 

It lies in the southeastern part of the State, and is bonnded 
on the north by Dale and Coffee, east by Henry, west by Cov- 
in^n, and south by the State of Florida. Ite length is 48 
miles, and breadth 13 miles. 

It was named for the town which is its capital. 

Its area is 624 square miles. 

The assessed value of property is $202,933, viz : real estate 
$140,732 ; personalty $62,201. 

The population in 1870 was 2732 whites, and 227 blacks. 

The surface is flat; the soil sandy, except the creek and 
river lands, which yield well. 

The fann lands— 12,758 acres improved, and 81,899 acres 
unimproved — are valued at $125,304. 

The live stock — 474 horses and mules, 7173 neat cattle, 
4222 sheep, 8874 hogs— are valued at $148,288. 

In 1869 the productioi^s were valued at $261,548, and in- 
cluded 53,642 bushels of com, 4990 bushels of oats, 40,667 
pounds of rice, 22,533 bushels of potatoes, 10,548 gallons of 
molasses, 420 bales of cotton, 6094 pounds of tobacco, and 
9001 pounds of wool; the value of animals slaughtered is 
$48,912 ; and the value of all farm products was $261,548. 

There are pine forests of great extent in the county, and 
lumber is exported in considerable quantities. 

There are no railways, but the Choctahatchee river is navi- 
gable by steamer to Geneva. The Choctahatchee and Pea 
rivers flow through the county. 

Geneva, the seat of justice, is given a population of 126 
souls by the federal census of 1870. 

Geneva has no momentous history, and as yet is not sep- 
arately represented in the legislature. 



Greene was established by an act approved Dec. 13, 1819, 
and retained the limits then prescribed till mutilated by the 
organization of Hale in 1866. At that time, however, the 
portion of Pickens south of the Sipsee was added. 

The territory was taken from Marengo and Tuskaloosa. 

It lies in the western part of the State, west of Hale, south 
of Pickens, and east ana north of Sumter. 

The name perpetuates the memory of Gen. Greene, the 
colonial hero.* 

Its ar^a is about 650 square miles. 

The assessed value of real estate is $2,763,462 ; personal 
property $850,734 ; total $3,614,226. 

The population decennially is thus exhibited— the allot- 
ment of two-fifths of the county to Hale making a material 
reduction in the figures : 

1820 1830 1640 18.50 I860 1870 

Whites 2861 7585 7,656 9,365 7.851 3,868 

Blacks 1693 7441 16,468 22,176 23,608 14,641 

The lands are rolling or level, making an agreeable diversity 
of ridge and plain. There are light lands in the northern 
part, but the prairies and bottoms of "the fork" are richly 
alluvial and fertile. Prior to the partition of the coimiy, 
Greene was the rival of Dallas and Montgomery in the pro- 
duction of com and cotton, and as late as 1845 was the fore- 
most agricultural coimty in the State* 

The farm lands — 127,856 acres improved, and 109,650 
unimproved — ^have a cash value of $1,560,652. 

The live stock — 1077 horses, 2101 mules, 5604 neat cattle, 
2576 sheep, 6674 hogs^are valued at $498,944. 

The productions in 1869 were 207,782 bushels of com, 2038 
bushels of oats, 1265 bushels of wheat, 22,943 bushels of 

* NATHANiEii Greene was bom in Warwick, Rhode iRland, in 1740, and 
WAS a blacksmith. At the age of 21 years he was a member of the Rhode 
Island legislature, and was made a major general by the colonial congress at 
the beginning of the war of 1776. He fought at Princeton, Trenton, Ger- 
man town. Brandy wine, and Monmouth ; led the colonial forces at Guilford 
and Eutaw Springs, and retook Charleston. He removed to Camden county, 
Georgia, and died at Savannah in 1786. 


potatoes, 81,187 pounds of butter, 9910 bales of cotton, 2498 
pounds of wool ; the animals slaughtered were worth $54,772 ; 
and the value of farm productions was $1,154,762. 

Nature has done much for the county in providing it with 
channels of trade, and man has lent a helping hand. The 
Tombikbee is the western and southern boimdary line, and 
the Tuskaloosa is the eastern ; and both are navigable for 
steamers of Ught draught the major portion of the year. The 
Alabama and Chattanooga railroad belts the county, giving it 
twenty miles of railway. The Memphis and Selma railroad 
is surveyed across the county from east to north. 

EuTAW, the seat of justice, claims a population of 1500 
souls. It was first called Mesopotamia, but afterwards appro- 
priately named for the spiiited fi^ht between the colonial 
forces under Greene and tlie British at Eutaw Springs* in 

The courthouse was at Erie till 1839. Erie stood on the 
east bank of the Tuskaloosa, and is now entirely deserted. 

Clinton and Pleasant Bidge are attractive villages. 

Near Pleasant Eidge, on the line of Pickens and Greene, 
one of the last fights of the war occurred. The federal jgen- 
eral, Croxton, having destroyed the public buildings in Tus- 
kaloosa a day or two before, moved out towards Columbus, 
Mississippi. While making these feints, he was met by the 
brigade of Gen. Wirt Adams, near Pleasant Eidge, April 6, 
1865, and a spirited encounter took place. The nrst cnaj^e 
of the Confederates drove back the invaders in confusion, and 
about one hundred were captured, wounded, or killed. They 
made a stand, however, and checked their foe with some los& 
Night came on, and the federal rear-guard did not draw rein 
till midnight, when thev overtook the main body far on the 
road to Tuskaloosa. The federals numbered about 1450 men ; 
the Confederates but Uttle less. 

Greene was among the earliest settled parts of west Ala- 
bama. Population began to flock into it as early as 1817-'18 — 
a population noted for its inteUigence, and which produced 
some of the leading men of the State. Of these — 

Patrick May came from Anson county. North Carolina, and 
and Uved for some years in Clarke. He fought at Burnt Com, 
and bore ofiF on his back the bleeding form of the late Hon. 
G. W. Creagh. He was among the first settlers of this county, 
was a general of mihtia, and was the first senator chosen after 

• Eataw 18 the name of a subtermneaii creek in Charleston district, 8onth 
Carolina, which discloses itself in two or three places in small basins or 
springs. At the head of these, two miles from the Santee, the British were 
encamped when assailed by the patriots. 


it was established. He was long identified with the planting 
interests of Greene, died here in 1868, aged 78 years, and his 
descendants and relatives are numerous and respectatable in 
this and adjoining counties. 

Solomon McAlpine came to this coimty in its early settle- 
ment, when quite a young man. He was a native of Georgia, 
and bom in the j^ear 1800. He read law here, and was a veir 
successful practitioner at Erie for many years. Devoting his 
energies then to planting, he amassed a large property. From 
1837 to 1847 he represented the couniy in one branch or tiie 
other of the legislature. His death occurred at Mobile in 
January 1861, but his remains are interred at Eutaw. ** His 
" character was pure, and very attractive for its genuine no- 
" bUitv, simplicity, and force. His talents were not brilliant 
" or showy, but practical and solid. He was a man of admira- 
" ble common sense, possessed a thorough knowledge of men 
" and the world, and was a splendid busmess man. * * He 
" was scrupulously honest, a sincere christian, and a truly good 
" and wise man."* His descendants are among the most wor- 
thy people of this county. 

Henby Minob, the first reporter of the supreme court of the 
State, resided in this county. He was bom in Spottsylvania 
county, Vii^inia, about the year 1786, and was a nephew of 
Judge Minor of Fi'edericksburg, under whom he read law. 
In 1816 he came to Himtsville, and entered the frontier forum. 
He served Madison in the convention that framed the consti- 
tution in 1819, and the same year was chosen to the office of 
reporter of the supreme court. He held the office tijl 1823, 
and issued two or three volumes of reports. In 1823 he was 
elected to the bench to succeed Justice Clay, and wore the 
ermine for twcf years. He then accepted the position of clerk 
of the supreme court, and held the office till his death. In 
1826 he came to reside in Greene, but died while attending to 
the discharge of his duties in Tuskaloosa, Jan. 1, 1838. Ju^e 
Minor was small of stature, and of diffident demeanor. He 
was a man of marked probity, and of very fair ability. His 
wife was a sister of Hon. John S. Barbour of Vii^inia, and 
his descendants are numerous and respectable in this county 
and State. 

No man has reflected more credit on the annals of Greene 
than William Mitchell Murphy. He was bom in Granville 
county, N. C, in 1806, but came with his parents to this coimty 
in 1821. His father. Judge Murphy, resided in Erie, and was 
a prominent citizen. His mother was the sister of Hon. Wm. 
H^ Inge of Sumter. He was educated at the schools of Tus- 

*Bon. Joseph W. Taylor of Eutaw. 


kaloosa and in the University of Virginia. Having read law 
under Hon. Seth Barton of Tuskaloosa, he opened an office 
in Erie about the year 1828. Here he was the partner at dif- 
ferent times of Messi-s. Wm. G. Vandegraff and Wm. G. Jones, 
and he arose rapidly into notoriety, in 1840 he represented 
the county in tne legislature ; in 1847 was the candidate of 
his party for congress, but was defeated by Hon. 8. W. Inge 
of Sumter, after a briUiant canvass. He served the county in 
the State senate in 1849-51, and in 1852 sought a home in 
Austin, Texas. Circumstances, however, prevented his per- 
manent removal to that State, and he returned and establisned 
himself in Selma. He died there in 1855 of apoplexy. His 
wife was a daughter of Mr. Baker Hobson of this county, and 
now resides in Mississippi : he left no son. 

Wm. M. Murj^hy was the Curran of the Alabama bar. His 
oratorical eflforts were often labored, but his ^eatest achieve- 
ments were unrivalled. At the opening of his best eflforts he 
appeared to struggle to suppress utterance, " but, in his duc- 
" tue moods, the strife was snoi-t before he succimibed to the 
" outburst that pervaded and possessed judges, jurors, lawyers, 
" Utigants, and all otliers present, and lield tkem for the liour 
"irretrievably lost to and oblivious of all things in Heaven 
* " and Earth, save the touching, thrilling, terrific, pitiless, and 
"irresistible eloquence of the spell-inspiring speaker. * * * 
"His manner and deliveiy were abnormal, and his eloquence 
"unique. Nothing like unto his great speeches ever preceded 
" them, and I dare say that nothing like unto them will ever 
"succeed them. They were peculijirly and exclusively Mur- 
"phian. * * As a jurist he had superioi*s, and many equals; 
" out as an advocate, with a case of sufficient gravity to call 
" out his full genius, his superior, if not his equal, is perhaps 
"yet to appear among men. ** His defence of the Frenchman 
wno killed young Wyzer in Eutaw cannot be forgotten by 
those who heard it. The Frenchman was unable to pay a fee 
for the defence, and the late Bishop Portier of Mobile remitted 
a reasonable sum for the service, which Murphy returned. 
The bishop laid the facts before the archbishop of Paris, who 
acquainted the French government with tliem. M. Guizot, 
the premier, transmitted to Mr. MuriJiy a letter conveying the 
thanks of King Louis Philippe for the humane and disinter- 
ested aid he had extended to a French subject. " When Mur- 
" phy showed me this letter, written by Guizot, he said, * By 
" — , Whitfield, this is the largest fee I ever received.' "t 

Another eminent citizen of this county was Haiuiy Iknes 
Thornton. He was bom in Fredericksbui^, Virginia in 1797, 
and was the son of a gentleman descended from one of the 

•Hon. Newton L. Whitflefd of Tuskaloosa. flbid! 


ori^al colonists. He went to Kentucky when young, and, 
having received a thorough education, read law with Judge 
Harry Innes, his mother's father. He practiced law a short 
time m Frankfort, but came to this State in 1823, and estab- 
lished himself in Huntsville. President J. Q. Adams ap- 
pointed him federal district attorney, and he probably held 
the office duriiig that administration. In 1833 he was elected 
to the supreme court bench of the State, to succeed Justice 
Taylor of Madison, defeating Judge Collier of Tuskaloosa. 
In 1836 he resigned the distmguished position, and removed 
to Mobile, where he formed a law partnership with Hon. 
Greorge N. Stewart. Three years later he came to this county, 
having previously purchased lands here. The next year he 
was cnosen to the State senate, and served the county in that 
body for three years. He continued in active practice in 
Eutaw till 1849, when he was appointed commissioner of 
lands in California — a verj^ lucrative office. He subsequentiy 
engaged in a very extensive practice in San Francisco, and 
died there in 1862. 

The oi>en and intellectual coimtenance of Judge Thornton 
was a just index of his character. "His talents were confess- 
edly of the highest order, well disciplined, and equal to any 
occasion. As a speaker, he was justiy distinguished for 
"clear, argumentative, and even splendid eloquence, if the 
" finest displays of language, passion, and judgment may be 
said to amoimt to such. His deportment was courteous and 
engagmg ; his disposition free from severity, and his whole 
life an iinbroken series of upright acts."* Had he not 
belonged to the minority party in the State he would doubtless 
have figured on more ample theatres of public action. He 
married a sister of Hon. John J. Crittenden of Kentucky. 
One of his soils came to his native State during the late war, 
and became the gallant major of the 58th Alabama regiment, 
commanding it at Jonesboro. 

James Innes Thornton, brother of foregoing, now resides 
in this county. He was bom in Fredericksburg, Virginia, in 
1801, and came to this State in 1821. Locating m Huntsville, 
he was the law partner there of Hon. H. W. Collier, and 
afterwards of his orother. In 1824 he was elected secretary 
of State, a position he held by successive election for ten 
years, when ne resigned. Ketiring to his plantation in this 
couiiiy, he has since resided here in the ease affluence often 
brings. He is a gentieman of the most manly traits of char- 
acter, and of extensive information. He has been thrice mar- 

*Major Stephen D. Miller : * 'Heads of the Alabama Legislatare at the 
Se88)0|i of 1842-3." The author substitates the past for the present tense, 


ried, the first time to a* Miss Glover of Marengo ; and one of 
Ids daughters is the wife of Gapi John McEee Gould of this 

BiCHARD Freer Inge was a native and resident of this 
county. His father, Dr. Bichard Inge, was a brother of Hon. 
Wm. M. Inge of Sumter. His mother was a Miss Brownlow. 
He was weU educated, and read law in the office of John W. 
Womack, esq., of Eutaw. Admitted to practice, he located 
in Forkland, this county, where he remained three years. 
Removing to Eutaw, he was the partner successively of 
Messrs. J. D. Webb and T. H. Hemdon. In 1853 he repre- 
sented Greene in the legislature, and three years later was on 
the Fillmore ticket for elector. In 1857 he was defeated in 
Marengo and Greene for the State senate by Hon. A. C. 
Jones. When the war between the States began he went into 
the Eighteenth Alabama as captain of a company. He was 
with the regiment «t Shiloh, and served faithfully up to the 
bloody day of Chicamauga, by which time he had become 
lieutenant colonel. Wliile discharging his duty on the field 
with conspicuous gallantry, his knee was shattered by a minie 
ball. He lingered three days, and expired Sept. 23, 1863. 
His remains were brought home and interred in Eutaw. CoL 
Inge was a favorite iu mis county, where his genial but earnest 
nature was fully appreciated. Li person he was six feet, one 
inch in highth, erect and spare of figure. " He had a clear 
•* and masculine intellect, a bright and fervid imagiuation, a 
" genial humor and a sparkling wit. Nature had bounteously 
"endowed him."'^ He mamed a Miss Brown of this county, 
and his three sons, minors, live here. 

James B. Clark, who has resided in this county for a third 
of a century, was bom in Bedford county, Pennsylvania, in 
1796. His parents removed to Ohio territory the following 
year, and he grew up on a farm, with limited advantages for 
ihental improvement. After " clerking " three years, he re- 
moved to Kentucky, and there read law. Licensed as an 
attorney in 1822, he came to this State the same year, and 
located at the courthouse of Bibb county, where he became a 
successful practioner. He represented Bibb in the legislature 
in 1827-31. In the latter year he removed to Cahaba, where 
he had a lucrative practice for ei^ht years. In 1839 he came 
to Eutaw, where he has since resided. Appointed chancellor 
by Gov. Fitzpatrick in 1845 to fill the vacancy caused by Hon. 
J. L. Martin s resignation, he was defeated before the legis- 
lature by Hon. Wylie W. Mason of Macon. In 1851 he was 

*Hon. T. H. Hemdon of Mobile. 


elected to the office of chancellor, in which he was contiiiued 
bv re-election for twelve jrears, defeating Hon. Stephen F. 
Hale at one time. Besigning in 1863, he has not since ap- 
peared in public life. Since the recent war he has labored 
in his profession in partnership with his son, Major T. C. 
Clark. The prominent traits of his character are untiring 
application, punctuality, and system in his professional and 
other business engagements. As a speaker he is bold and 
forcible, but not eloquent He first married a sister of Hon. 
^ John Erwin, and, at the age of seventy, married Mrs. Davis 
of Pickens. Capi. James D. Clark of Wilcox, an officer of 
the Thirteenth Alabama, killed in Vii^inia, was his son. . 
Another son was a private in the Eleventh Alabama, and lost 
his life at Frazier's Farm'; while a third lost a hand in battle. 
Capt. George Clark, late of the Eleventh Alabama, is his son. 

"Hurry Percy's spur is cold/* 

The services and fame of Sydenham Moore belong to 
Oreene, though to Madison is due the honor of his birth. 
He was the son of Dr. Alfred Moore of Madison, a brother 
of Hon. David Moore. His mother was the sister of Hon. 
John Edmimd Jones, who represented Saunter in the senate, 
and was subseauently judge of tlie city court of Mobile. 
Bom in 1817, the son was graduated at the State University, 
and read law in Huntsville. He was a volunteer in Capt. 
Otey's company durine the Cherokee troubles in 1838, and, 
a year later, opened a law office in Eutaw. In 1840 he was 
elected by the general assembly judge of the county court 
over Messrs. S. F. Hale and W. F. Pierce. This office he 
held till 1846, when he resigned to lead a company of volun- 
teers to Mexico. Returning a year later. Gov. Martin ap- 
pointed him county court judge, and the general assembly 
re-elected him. In 1850 he was defeated for the position, his 
party being in a minority in the county, and resumed the 

fractice. He was the nominee of his pajty for congress in 
853, and again in 1855, but was defeated. He was appointed 
judge of the cii'cuit court in 1857. This office he heia only a 
few months, when he was elected to congress, defeating Judge 
Smith of Tuskaloosa by 1400 majority. Re-elected without 
opposition, he left Washington with his colleagues when his 
State seceded. A few weeks later, he entered the militaiy 
service, and was elected colonel of the Eleventh Alabama 
Infantry, a rejjiment composed of the noblest material. Pro- . 
ceeding with it to Virginia, he threw his whole soul into the 
cause. Though not a good disciplinarian, his troops prized 
his fatherlv kindness to them. In the first general engage- 
ment in which the regiment participated, at Seven Pines, he 
was struck in the knee by a minie ball, another shattered his 


watch, and a third grazed his spine. He was taken from the 
field, and lay for some weeks with every prospept of recovery ; 
but suddenly grew worse, and expired. 

Chivalrous, impulsive, generous, candid. Col. Moore *fear 
" or falsehood never knew." Earnest and tenacious of pur- 
pose, he was yet courteous, obliging, and conciliatory. His 
sense of honor was delicate, his life upright, and his nature 
sociable and genial. His figuie was slender and graceful, and 
his firmly-set jaw expressed undaunted resolution. He mar- 
ried a sister of Col. Hobson, late of this couniy, (who dis- 
tinguished himself as colonel of the 5th Alabama Iiifantry,) 
and left several sons and daughters, who are in this county, 
or in the State. 

Greene was the home of Stephen Fowler Hale. He was 
bom in Crittenden county, Kentucky, January 31, 1816. 
Jb is father, a Baptist minister, was a South Carolinian; his 
mother was a Miss Mannahan of the same State. He was grad- 
uated at Cumberland University. When he first came, a pro- 
fessor asked him what he wished to study. TJie gawky youtii 
gave a confused answer ; whereupon the professor, to make 
the question plain, asked him what he wanted to know. The 
reply came slowly : "I want to know it all." He came to this 
county in 1837, and taught school about a year. Having read 
law while thus employed, he was graduated in the law school 
at Lexington, Ky., in 1839. Locating in Eutaw, he practiced 
at diflferent times in association with Messrs. Alexander Gra- 
ham and T. C. Clarke. In 1843 he was elected to the l^isla- 
ture. In 1853 he was the nominee of his party for congress. 
From 1857 to 1861 he again represented the county in the 
legislature, and was master of tlie grand lodge of Freemasons 
in the State about the same time. When the secession ordi- 
nance was passed, he was appointed commissioner to Kentuckv, 
and delivered an able address before the legislature at Frant- 
fort. The same year he was elected to represent his district 
in the pro\dsional congress of the Confederate States. While 
holding this position he was chosen lieutenant colonel of the 
11th Alabama, and repaired with it to Virginia. He shared 
the privations of this command up to the battle of Seven 
Pines, when he was temporarily assigned to the 9th Alabama, 
and led it in the battle. The fall of Col. Moore obliged him to 
return to the 11th, which he led in the fierce shock at Gaines' 
Mill. Here he was struck in the breast bv a ball which 
glanced around the ribs and fell to the ground. Stooping to 

Sick it up, two more balls struck him, one shattering his shoul- 
er, the other entering the shoulder and passing into the chest. 
Seeing his color-bearer fall, he moved foi'ward, waving his 




sword to pick up the flag, whfen he receiyed two slight wounds, 
and fell. He lingered three weeks, dying in Richmond, July 
18, 1862. His remains were interred in Eutaw some months 

Col. Hale was tall and lank, with a lai^e and knotty head. 
He was somewhat eccentric in his manners, but very generally- 
popular, and universally esteemed. " He stood at tiie bar con- 
fessedly one of its leaders, and was not an unequal match 
for the ablest lawyers of the State. * * His intellect was 
acute and analytical, rather than comprehensive; his percep- 
tion quick and subtle. * * As a speaker he had but little 
grace of delivery, * * but he was lucid in statement and 
" cogent in argument, and rarely failed to throw upon his cause 
" all the elucidation of which it was susceptible. '* 

CoL Hale married a sister of Mr. F. M. Kirsey, at one time 
sheriflF of Greene, and one of his sons is a member of the bar 
of the county. A daughter married Capt. E. B. Vaughn of 
Sumter. The memory of Col. Hale is preserved in the name 
of one of the noblest coimties of the State. 

Joseph Walters Taylor also resided in this county for 
many years. He was bom inBurksville, Cumberland county, 
Kentucky, July 12, 1820. His father was a lawyer of promi- 
nence ; ms mother a Miss Stockton ; both Virginians. Grad- 
uating at Cumberland College in 1838, he came at once to 
Greene, and here taught a classical school two years. He then 
read law in the office of Hon. Harry I. Thornton in Eutaw, and 
practiced for about twenty years. In 1844 he was on the Clay 
electoral ticket, and the year after represented the county 
in the legislatiu'e, and was re-elected m 1847. He was for 
several years the law partner of Col. Hale. In 1855 he was 
elected to the Senate from Greene and Marengo over Hon. Wm. 
E. Clarke of the latter county, and served two years. In 1860 
he was a candidate for elector at large on the Bell ticket. 

2)posed to disimion, yet, when the die was cast, he patriotic- 
y stood by his State. At the peace lie was elected to con- 
gress over Hon. C. W. Lea of Peny, but was not allowed to 
take his seat. He was subsequently for some time in control 
of the editorial columns of the Eutaw Wliig, and now edits a 
newspaper in Tuskaloosa. 

Mr. Taylor is of medium highth, but steutly built, with a 
florid complexion, and well developed facial and cranial fea- 
tures. Bis manners are easy and cordial, but resei*ved to the 
multitude. He is a close student — indeed, a book-woim — and 
his several literary addresses and productions have a scholarly 
and ornate finish. He is impassioned and fluent as an orater, 

*Hoii. T. H. Hemdon^s jemorks at a nieeiing of the bar of Eataw. 


aad one of the most earnest and effective the State has pro- 
duced. His imc^mation is vivid, his langus^e florid and fer- 
vid. In debate he is ready and able, and has few peers in 
the South. As a writer for tne press he is concise and forcible. 
Mr. Taylor married a daughter of Hon. Solomon McAlpine, 
A prominent and wealthy citizen of Greene for many years. 

John C. Calhoun Sanders resided in Greene, but was a na- 
tive of Tuskaloosa. He was the son of Dr. Sanders, a native 
of Charleston, S. C, and his wife the daughter of Dr. Mathew 
Thomson of Anderson district. The parents first removed to 
Tuskaloosa, then came to Clinton in this county. The son 
was bom April 4, 1840, and entered the State University in 
1858. He was among tiie first to leave for the army, despite 
the opposition of the faculty. He was elected captain of a 
company organized at Clinton, and entered the 11th Alabama. 
He led his company at Seven Pines and Gaines' Mill. At 
Frazier's Farm tne regiment made its famous charge across an 
open field on a battery stronglv supported by infantry. The 
columns were shockingly rent, but swept on taU they closed in 
that fierce grapple over the battery, in this bloody struggle 
a shell-fragment tore off a large portion of the deeper tissues 
of his leg, but he remained on tne field till after dark. Aug. 
10 he rejoined and took command of the regiment. At Sharps- 
burg he was struck in the face by pebbles thrown up by a 
cannon ball. When the army returned to Virginia he was 
commissioned colonel. He was imder fire at Frederioksbuj^, 
and was conspicuously gallant at Salem Church, where the 
11th again won laurels. At Gettysburg a minie ball struck 
him in the knee. During the winter of 1863-4 he was presi- 
dent of the division court-martial. He led his regiment at 
the Wilderness, and, after the fall of Gen. Perrin, led the 
brigade to the assault of the horse-shoe saUent, recapturing 
part of the lost works. He was made a brigadier for gallantry 
here, and his command consisted of the 8th, 9ih, 10th, 11th, 
and 14th Alabama regiments. In an assault on the enemy's 
lines, Jime 22, 1864, near Petersburg, Gen. Sanders was the 
first to mount the breastworks, and the brigade captured more 
men than it numbered. The brigade fought June 23d, 25th, 
29th, and 30th, the latter being the battie of the Crater, when 
it retook the lost position. At Deep Bottom, Aug. 16, he won 
fresh laurels, commanding his own and a North Carolina brig- 
ade. Aug. 21 he led the brigade against the heavy force of 
the enemy which had seized the Weldon Railroad. The Con- 
federates drove back two lines of battle, and thought they had 
accomplished their task; but, emerging from the woods, they 
were confronted by a line of defences bristling with artillery 
and crowded with infantry. Undaunted, they moved on in 



the fatal "track of endeavor" till human endurance could 
Buffer no more, and they sought shelter in the woods. Gen. 
Sanders had advanced on foot, and was struck by a minie ball 
which passed through both thighs, severing the femoral ar- 
teries. Without fallmg, he said to his adjutant, Capt. Clarke, 
"Take me back." They removed him a short distance, when 
be asked to be laid down, and in a few minutes he breathed 
his last. A neat marble tablet in Bichmond marks his resting 

Qen. Sanders was bom to command. Firm, decisive, ener- 
getic, and systematic, he possessed the first requisites of a 
soldier. His serene courage won general admiration ; while 
his sense of duiy was such that he never left his command but 
once, and that while it was in winter quarters. His morals 
were unblemished, for he had the capaciiy to govern himself 
as well as others. 

William Henry Fowler also resided in this coimty. Bom 
of humble parentage, in North Carolina, in 1826, he came 
with his parents to Tuskaloosa, and shortly after to Greene. 
He worked at different times with a tailor, a printer, and a 
druggist, and his education was meagre. He read law in the 
office of Hon. Wm. M. Murphj^ in Greenesboro, in 1849, but 
became the editor of the Jrhtg in Eutaw shortly after. In 
1855 he represented the coimty in the legislature ; and a year 
or two later he edited the Monitor in Tuskaloosa. He was 
secretary of the constitutional convention of 1861, and resigned 
the position to enter the miUtary service. He served a year 
as captain in a company in the 5th Alabama Infantry, then 
organized "Fowler's Battery." Shortly after he was promoted, 
and placed at tlie head of a bureau of statistics in Montgomery 
to collate information about Alabama troops. He was assas- 
sinated in Jefferson, Texas, in 1867. His wife was the daughter 
of Hon. John M. Bates, iiie first sheriff of Greene. 

James D. Webb and Thos. H. Hemdon represented Greene 
m the constitutional convention of 1861 ; and WiUiam P. Webb 
and A. S. Jeffiries in that of 1865. 

The following were the members of the general assembly : 


1819— Thomas Ringgold. 
1^21— Patrick May. 
18:^2— John CoatA. 
1825— Zachary Merriwether. 
1()28 — Zachary Merriwether. 
18.31— John Ebwin (]833). 
1S34— John Erwin. 
1835— Thomas Riddle. 
1837— Thomas Riddle. 
1840— Harry Innes Thornton. 

1843— Solomon McAlpine. 
1847 — Zachary Merriwether. 
184if— William M. Murphy. 
1851 — George G. Perrin. 
1853— James Daniel Webb. 
1855— Joseph W. Taylor, 
1857— Allen C. Jones. 
1861— William E. Clarke. 
1865—0. C. Huckabee. 
[No election in 1867, or since.] 




182*42— Hiram Shortridge, Zachary 

1823— Julius H. 8im8,Z. Merriwether 
1824 — Ezekiel Pickens, Zaebary Mer- 

1825— Julius H. Sims, B. H. Warren, 

James C. Neill. 
1826-.Julius H. Sims, Mathew F. 

Raney, J C. Neill. 
1827— Edward B. Colgin, Mathew F. 

Baney, D. B. Richardson. 
1828— Edward B. Colprin, James B. 

Gage, D. Bichardson. 
1829— John Gayle, George Hays, D. 

B. Bichardson. 
1830— John Gayle, Thomas Riddle, 

Thomas Chiles. 
1831 — James Snedecor, Thos. Biddle, 

Walter B. Moflfett. 
1832— William T. Fortson, Walter N. 

1883— W. C. Fortson, A. C. Horton. 
1834— Patrick May, A. C. Horton, D. 

B. Bichardson. 
1835 — John May, James Gage, John 

J. Winston. 
1836— John May, W. B. Gage, John 

1837— Solomon MoAlpin, Daniel P. 

Bestor, John Erwin. 
1838—8. MoAlpin, John M. Bates, E. 


1839— S. Mc Alpine, John M. Bates 
E. Young. 

1840—8. Mc Alpine, WilUam M. Mur- 
phy, E. Young. 

1841 — 8. MoAlpiue, James Chiles, £. 

1842— Wm.G. Jones. J. M. Wither- 
spoon, John Ebwin. 

1843— Stephen F. Hale, J. M. Wither- 
spoon, J. D. Webb. 

1844— Pleasant W. Kittrell, Isaac 
Croom, George G. Perrin. 

1845— Pleasant W. Kittrell, Joseph 
W. Taylor. 

1847— Pleasant W. Kittrell, Joseph 
W. Taylor. 

1849— Attoway R. Dayis, A. Qates. 

laoi— Allen C. Jones, J. D. Webb. 

1853 — Bi chard F. Inge, A. Benners. 

1855— Wm. H. Fowler, G. N. Carpen- 

1857—8. F. Hale, Bobert D. Buck- 

1859—8. F. Hale, Bobert D. Huck- 

1861 — Wiley Coleman, Augustus Ben- 

1863— Wiley Coleman, A. Benners. 

1865— John G. Pierce. B. B. Waller. 

1867— [No election.] 

1870--James M. Bullock, Israel G. 



Hale was established by an act dated Jan. 30, 1867, out of 
territor}^ taken from Greene, Perry, Tuskaloosa, and Marengo. 

It was named for the late Col. Stephen F. Hale of Greene. 

It lies in the west centre of the State ; south of Tuskaloosa, 
west of Perry and Bibb, east of Greene, north of Marengo* 

The area is about 630 square miles. 

The assessed valuation of property in the county in 1870 
was $4,388,825; of which $3,210,595 was real estate, and 
$1,178,230 was personalty. 

The population in 1870 was 4802 whites, and 16,990 blacks. 

HALE comrrr. 271 

The value of land in farms — 165,266 acres improved, and 
144,864 acres unimproved— is $2,639,207. 

The value of live stock— 1176 horses, 2734 mules, 6929 
neat cattle, 2626 sheep, and 9019 hqB;s— is $702,218. 

The productions in 1869 were 384,420 bushels of com, 
5240 bushels of oats, 26,787 bushels of potatoes, 74,257 pounds 
of butter, 18,573 bales of cotton, 9759 poundis of wool ; the 
total farm products having a value of $2,029,383; and the 
the value of animals slaughtered, $47,566. 

There is a variety of the best soils in this county : prairie 
river bottom, and a mulatto land, with clay subsoil. The 
surface is level or undulating in the southern part, and hilly 
in the northern. 

The Tuskaloosa river is the western boundary, and is navi- 
gable for steamers the greater part of the year. The Mem- 
phis and Selma railroad passes directly across the county — a 
oistance of about twenty miles ; the Alabama and Chatta- 
nooga railroad cuts into me northwestern quarter for seven- 
teen miles ; and the Sehna and Meridian railroad skiiis the 
extreme southern border. Hence, there is np lack of com- 
mercial facilities. 

There are mineral waters at Newbem and Greene Springs, 
and the latter was a resort for invaUds at one time. 

Greekesboro, the seat of justice, took its name from the 
county it was situated in at the time. It is now on the line 
of the Selma and Memphis raiboad, and has 1760 inhabitants, 
of whom 788 are whites, and 972 are blacks. The spot was 
first settled by Mr. John Nelson, whose descendants reside in 
the town. 

The "Southern University'* is located in Greenesboro, and 
is an imposing building ; opened in 1859; and the course of 
instruction embraces the oranches usually taught in a uni- 

Newbem has about 400 inhabitants. 

Near the hamlet of Carthage, on the line of Tuskaloosa 
and Hale, and by the river side, is a group of about twenty 
artificial mounds, which have excited considerable interest. 
They average about twenty feet in highth, (though one is at 
least forty,) and are pyramidal in shape. There is a distinct 
trace of an embankment on the side opposite the river. Prof. 
N. T. Lupton visited these mounds in 1859, and dug into one 
of them. Skeletons were found at different depths, the bones 
of which crumbled at the touch. A few stone implements, 
charred wi»od, &c., were also exhimied, and the conclusion in 
IVof. L.'s mind \¥aa that it was a burial place of the aborigines. 

At Greene Springs is the well known school of Dr. Tutwiler, 


at which many of the most useful men in west and central 
Alabama have been educated. 

The names of several very prominent public m^i are 
blended with the memoranda of this coimty, either while it 
was part of Greene, or since. 

The third governor of the State, Israel Pickens, was a 
resident of this county as it is now constituted. He was a 
native of Mecklenburg county, North Carolina, where he was 
bom Jan. 30, 1780, and was the son of a colonial officer of 
1776, who was of Huguenot descent. He was graduated at 
Washington College, Pennsylvania, where he read law. He 
was a member of tne senate of his native State in 1808-'10, 
and, from 1811 to 1817, a member of the popular branch of 
congress. In the latter year he came to. the thep territory of 
Alabama as register in the land office at St. Stephens. He 
represented Washington county in the convention which 
framed a constitution for the would-be State, but soon after 
came to reside in this part of Greene. In 1821 he was 
elected governor, receiving 9114 votes, to 7129 cast for Dr. 
Chambers of Madison. He was re-elected two years after by 
a vote of 6942, to 4604 for Dr. C. To Gov. Pickens reaUy 
feU the duty of perfecting and harmonizing the new State 
government, for both of his predecessors were in office too 
short a time to effect a great deal. It is the opinion of Hon. 
P. S. Lyon of Marengo, who was an attentive observer of 
events at that time, that he was the most useful executive the 
State has ever had. In the spring of 1826 he was appointed 
by Gov. Murphy to the seat in the federal senate vacated by 
the death of Dr. Chambers. About the same time he receivea 
from President J. Q. Adams the commission of federal dis- 
trict judge for Alabama, but he declined to accept it. In 
November 1826 he resigned his seat in the senate in conse- 

auence of lung disease. Kepairing to Cuba forthwith, he 
ied there, Apnl 24, 1827, but nis remains were brought home, 
and interred three miles south of Greenesboro. His death 
was a severe loss to tlie State at that time, for he possessed 
the soUd, ingenious, and practical talents of which all new 
States stand in need ; the experience to shape her domestic 
polity ; and the A^isdom and virtue which the foimders of all 
governments should leave as a legacy to posterity. He left a 
daughter and two sons, and his relatives and descendants are 
yet m the State. Hon. Samuel Pickens, who was comptroller 
of the treasury of the State from 1819 to 1829, was a orother 
of Gov. P. 

Henry Y. Webb, one of our early jurists, was a resident of 
what is now Hale county. He was bom in Granville coxmty, 


N.£., in 1784, and was educated at Chapel Hill. He read 
law, located in Lincolnton, and represented Lincoln county in 
the legislature in 1817. Appointed tenitorial judge of Ala- 
bama, he settled in Perr^' county in 1818, but soon came to 
Greene. In 1819 he was elocte4 a judge of the circuit and 
supreme court of the new State, ivnd was holding the distin- 
guished position at the time of his death in September. 1823. 
Judge Webb was a man of cultivated talents and natural 
ability, and nothing but his early death debari'ed him from 
occupying a more prominent position in our State history. 
He married a dau^iter of Hon. Daniel M. Forney of North 
Carolina, who died m Lowndes coimtj- in 1847. By this mar- 
riage he had a daughter (the wife of Hon. John Hampton of 
Arkansas,) and three sons, one of whom was 

James Daniel Webb, whose fame properly belongs to this 
county. He wiis bom in Lincoln county, N. C, Feb. 26, 1818, 
and came to this State with his father's family soon after. 
He took a collegiate course, and read law under Pleasant N. 
Wilson, esq., in Livingskm, Sumter county, and in Hillsboro, 
N. C. Li 1838 he oj)ened a law office in Greeliesboro, and at 
the time of his death stood in the front rank of his profession. 
He represented Greene in the house in 1843, and again in '51. 
Li 1860 he wjis on the Bell electoral ticket, and canvassed ac- 
tively. When Lincoln was elected he considered it a formal 
announcement on the part of the free States that the federal 
compact was broken, and he was elected a member of the 
secession convention over his brother. He soon after entered 
the 5th Alabama as a private, but was promoted to quarter- 
master, and served as such for a year. In 1862 he assisted 
to raise the 51st Alalmma (cavalry), and was appointed its 
heutenant colonel. Col. Morgan being on detached service 
much of the time, Colonel Wel)b commanded the 51st, and 
received Mr. Vallandigham when he was sent into the Con- 
federate lines in 1863. The regiment was guarding the rear 
of Gen. Bragg's retreat on Chattanooga, July 2, 1863, and 
skirmishing on Elk river, when Col. Weljb rode fonvard to 
his skirmish line. Gen. Martin, his brigade ccmimander, 
remonstrated with him for ex])osing 'himself. He repUed that 
his regiment was beha\ing gloriously, but that he would go 
back directly. A few minutes later lie was shot by a scjuad- 
ron of the enemy who approachc^d under cover of a cabin. 
The ball entered his chest, passed through his lungs, and out 
near the spine. He was placed in a neighboring farm house, 
and fell into the hands of the federal general, Rousseau, who 
treated him with marked kindness, and oftered to be his 
banker. He appeared to improve, but }3neumonia set in, and 



he died July 19. His remains are interred in Winchester, 
Tennessee. Col. Webb was small of stature, with dark com- 
plexion and black eyes. He was ready and active in his 
mental processes, and his talents were bright and cultivated. 
His moral character was unblemished, his professions sincere, 
and his tenacity of purpose remarkable. His wife was Miss 
Walton of Greene, and ne left several children. His brother, 
Hon. Wm. P. Webb, is a prominent lawyer of Greene. 

Hale also claims the distinction of having been the home of 
John Erwin, one of the first intellects that have adorned our 
State history. He was bom in Pendleton county, Virginia, in 
the year 1800, and removed ^ith his parents to Kentucky when 
seven years of age. He received but a six-months' schooling, 
and, at the age of thii-teen years, became a clerk in a store. 
By the time he was nineteen, he had amassed sufficient means 
to read law, which he did under Major Trimble at Mount 
Sterling in that State. Hon. Garrett bavis, the present fed- 
eral senator from Kentucky, was his fellow student. In 1821 
he came to Perry county, but, after practicing a short time in 
Marion, he opened an office in Erie, and then in Greenesboro, 
which just then had been laid out. He returned to Kentucky 
in 1822 to marry, and a glimpse is caught of the inconven- 
iences to which the early settlers were subjected" when it is 
known that he brought his bride on horseback from the mouth 
of the Big Sandy to his new home in this county. He arose 
amidst many trials, and it is said that the harshness with 
which his creditors ti'eated him increased the natural austerity 
of his deportment. But he was manly, resolute, and proudly 
self-reliant. He became a magistrate, and his fidehty and_ 
devotion to his duties soon concentrated the business of thc^ 
community (m himself. In 1831 he represented Greene in th^^ 
senate, and the year after was chosen to preside over tha€:? 
body. In 1836, '37, and in 1842 he was a member of th 
lower house of the legislature, serving as speaker in the latte 
year. In 1845 he was a candidate for congress, but was beat«Et 
by the regular nominee of the party. In 1851 he was agairm 
defeated lor congiess by a few votes. He was a delegate to 
the Nashville convention of 1850, and presided over th€> 
national convention which nominated Gen. Pierce and Mr. 
King for president and vice-president of the United States. 
His last public service was as presiding officer of the boltinfi^ 
wing of the Charleston convention which met in Richmond 
in 1860. During this time he had arisen to the highest rank ' 
in his profession, and accumulated a massive foi'tune. He 
died in Greenesboro, Dec. 10, 1860. 

Mr. Erwin had a superior personal appearance, in no way 
diminished by an austere demeanor and a dignified bearing. 


Thouch haughty and cold, ho was courteous and polished. 
As a lawyer, liis learning and logic made him a tower of intel- 
lectual sfrength, and it was this, added to the prompt and 
faithful discharge of o1)ligations to his clients, that made him 
eminent. He was a man of scrupulous honor, cool courage, 
and indomitable energy ; but resentful and unforgiving, his 
wife was a Miss Chadwick of Kentucky, and liis only son is a 
planter in this county. Col. Allen C Jones of this county 
married one of his daughters. 

Augustus Benners came to what is now this count}' in the 
year 1840. He was bom in Newbem, North Carolina, Dec. 
26, 1818, was graduated at Chapell Hill, and, when he first 
came to this State, resided for about two mouths in Marengo 
county, where ho was licensed as an attorney. He first reiv 
resented Greene in the lower house of the general assembly 
in 1853, and held the same position twice subsequently. 
" He has been successful in life, acquiring quite a large estate. 
" In his profession he has obtained and maintained a fair and 
" honoraole jx)sition. He is a cultivated scholar ; a man of 
"letters; an eloquent and effective speaker; modest to the 
degree even of a want of confidence in his own ability ivnd 
opinions ; just in all his dealings ; honorable in every im- 
pulse ; wise in counsel, and pure in his daily walk and 
** conversation. He is appreciated by and popular with the 
people among whom he has dwelt for more than thirty 

/ears."* He married a daughter of the late Alfred Hatch 
Areola, this county. 

"He was a scholar, and a ripe and good one; 
Exceeding wise, fair-spoken, and persuading." 

Henry Tutwiler, a noted teacher and philomath, resides in 
Hale. He is a native of Virginia, and was among the first 
graduates of the celebrated university of that State, which 
conferred on him the degree of M. A., its highest honor. He 
remained at the university two j^ears after ho was gi*aduated, 
then, in 1830, estabUshed a high school in the vicinity. When 
the University of Alabama was organized, in April 1831, he 
was chosen to the chair of ancient languages, a position he 
held for six years. He then accepted the chair of mathe- 
matics and natural philosophy in Marion college, Perrj- 
county, from which he retired two years later. In 1839 he was 
chosen prctfessor of mathematics and chemistry^ in Lagrange 
coUege, and there labored till 1847. In that year he came to 
this (then Greene) county, and established Greene Springs 
School, which has been in successful ojxiration ever since. 

* Hon. A. A. Coleman of Greenesboro. 



The degree of LL. D. was conferred on him by the Centenary 
College, Louisiana, and by the University of Mississippi in 
1868. The erudition of Dr. Tutwiler has been employed in 
a practical way, and his career as an instructor of youth is 
one which the people of the State have very profitably and 
wisely cherished. His ability and devotion to his most hon- 
orable vocation have a suitable monument in the improved 
attainments of the huncbeds of this State and the southwest 
to whom he has imparted his acquirements as a scholar, and 
his example as a man. 

Joseph J. Hutchinson, a prominent citizen of this county, 
was bom in Augusta, Georgia, in 1810. After graduating at 
Franklin college, he was licensed to practice law, in 1833, and 
removed to the gold region of Georgia. In 1835 he came to 
this State, and estabUshed himself in Montgomery. A year 
later he became the owner of the Alalmmo Journal, whicli he 
edited for several years. He represented Monigomery in the 
legislature in 1839, and was twice re-elected. In 1846 or '7 
he was licensed as a local clergyman, and from 1852 to 1864: 
he was a member of the Methodist itinerant ministry. In 
1848 he removed to Dallas, and, while connected with the 
Alabama conference, he sojourned in various portions of the 
State. In 1864 he became a permanent resident of Greenes- 
boro, and died here in February 1869. Mr. Hutchinson had 
a briUiant intellect, and was an eloquent speaker. He was 
hasty, brave, resentful, but forgiving, and generous to a fault ; 
and though impetuous, he was sound in judgment. His son, 
Captain James J. Hutchinson, of Gen. B-odes' staff, a brave 
and talented gentleman, was killed at Spottsylvania. Hon. 
Alfred H. Hutchinson, the fiist judge of the probate coiui, of 
this county, was also a son. 

Augustus A. Coleman resides in Hale. He was bom in 
Camden, South CaroHna, in 1826, and came with his father to 
this State in 1833. His mother died the year before, and his 
father, who was a lawyer, died in 1836, in Cahaba, where he 
had settled. He was graduated at Yale College, Richebourg 
Gaillard, esq., of Wilcox, being a classmate. Having read law 
imder Messrs. C. G. Edwards and Wm. Hunter, he came to 
the bar in 1847. Opening an office in Cahaba, he remained 
there two years, then removed to Livingston. He there labored 
assiduously at his profession, insomiich that liis health was 
seriously impaired. It was a respite when he accepted the 
appointment of circuit^ court judge in Januaiy 1858. In May 
followirig he was elected to the position for a term of six years, 
defeating Hon. Henry Stith of Pickens and Hon. E. P. Jones 
of Fayette. He represented Sumter in the constitutional con- 


vention of 1861, having been nominated and elected without 
opposition. In the dark hours of March 1802, when the fall 
of Fort Donelson and the disaster on Boanoke Island cast a 
gloom over the confederacy, he tendered his resignation to the 
governor (which was not accepted) and called for troops from 
the stump and through the press. Within four weeks a fine 
body of men rendezvoused at Mobile, organized as the 40th 
Alabama, and elected him colonel. He snared the fortunes of 
this regiment for a year, then resimed because of ill-health, 
and resumed his juclicial duties, in 1864 he was re-elected 
to the bench, this time over Messrs. J. T. Terry of Pickens, 
Geo. G. Lyon of Marengo, J. G. Harris of Greene, and A. W. 
Dillard of Sumter. He discharged his duties till the over- 
throw of the confederacy, when he came to this county, and 
has since practiced his profession in Greenesboro. Judge Cole- 
man is below the medium stature, of delicate build, and pallid 
complexion. His addi'ess is bland ; his perceptions are keen ; 
his morals unsullied. As a jiuist his decisions were almost 
invariably sustained by the appellate court, while his deport- 
ment on the bench was patient, gracious, connect, and other- 
wise exemplary. He married a daughter of Mr. John C. Phares 
of Sumter. 

George M. Duskin and J. K. Green ( colored ) were the rep- 
resentatives of this county in the general assembly of 1870. 
There has been no election for senator. 



Henry was carved out of Conecuh by an act passed Dec. 
13, 18ly, and as then constituted embraced all the territory 
now included in Coviugton, Dale, Coffee, Geneva, and the 
greater part of Pike, and parts of Crenshaw and Barbour. 
Sut these large dimensions it retained only a year or two, 
when Covington and Pike were formed, and Dale and Coffee 

soon after. 

It Ues in the extreme southeast comer of the State, and is 
48 miles in length by about 20 in breadth. Barbour bounds 


it on the north, Dale and Geneva on the west, the State of 
Georgia on the east, and the State of Florida on the south. 

It was named for Gov. Henry* of Viminia, though the 
original bill proposed to call it " Choctahatchee." 

Its area is about 960 square miles. 

The assessed value of property in 1870 was $1,404,241, to- 
wit : real estate $942,655 ; personal property $461,586. 

The population decenially has been as follows : 

1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 

Whites 2011 3005 4701 6776 10.464 9534 

Blacks... 627 1015 1086 2243 4,454 4657 

There were 106,863 acres of farm lands improved in 1870, 
and 217,753 acres unimproved ; the whole valued at $895,419. 

The Uve stock— 1240 horses, 1061 mules, 10,782 neat cattle, 
22,826 s^^ine, and 3953 sheei>— are valued at $474,769. 

Tlie productions in 1869 were 248,470 bushels of com, 5670 
bushels of oats, 48,994 bushels of potatoes, 27,732 gallons of 
syrup (half of it from cane), 7127 bales of cotton, 3411 pounds 
of wool ; the value of animals slaughtered was $124,662 ; the 
whole value of home products being $1,061,868. 

The surface of the country is undulating or flat, vdth splen- 
did forests in some parts, much of which is used. There are 
many fertile bodies of land, especially on the rivei^ and its 
tributaries ; but the great body of the lands are too light to 
cultivate without fertilizing. 

The Chattahoochee is the eastern boundary line, and is 
na^dgable for steamers the entire distance. Eftbrts to secure 
railway communication, by extending one of the roads which 
terminate at Eufaula, are being made. 

Abbeville, the seat of justice, has about 500 inhabitants, 
and is the centre of an intelHgent community. 

The courthouse was 'first at "Bfichmond," the site of which 
is now in Dale. It was removed to Columbia in 1822, whence 
it was brought to Abbeville in 1833. 

The first white settler^ came hi to what is now Henry county 
from Georgia iii 1817, when the Indians were not niin^erous 
here. The first white child bom in what is now Hemy county, 
Robert Gamble, now Hves near the spot of his nativity ; but 

•Patbick Henky was born in Hanover county, Virginia, in 1736. He was 
an idle boy, and failed in business when a young man. At the age of 27 
years he began to acquire notoriety by his eloquence at the bar. He was a 
member of the Virginia house of burgesses, and, having espoused the colo- 
nial side of the quarrel with Great Britain, he was a member of the first con- 
tinental congress, and the first governor of the State of Virginia. He was a 
member of the convention that ratified the federal constitution, and subse- 
quently declined the appointment of secretary of state in Washington's cab- 
inet. He died June 6, 1799f in Charlotte county, Virginia. 


it is not the wilderness that it was when he opened his infant 
eyes on it in 1817. 

Joel T. McClindon, Johnson Wright, S. Smith, Wm. C. Wat- 
son, and John Fannin were appoiated in 1819 commissioners 
to fix on a site for the courthouse of the county. Two years 
after, Wm. Beauchamp, Robert Irwin, Wm. Irwin, James !Uabb, 
and Stephen Mathews were appointed for a similar purpose. 

The first election precincts were established in 1819 at the 
houses of John Fannin, Wm. C. Watson, and S. Smith ; in 

1821 others were established at James's on Pea river, at 

John Turner's, and Edward Cox's on Chattahoochee ; and a 
year later others were established at the houses of John Mor- 
gan and Bobert Johnson. 

William Irwin came to this county as early as 1819, and 
settled near Franklin. He was a planter, became very 
wealthy, and exei-ted a large influence throughout southeast 
Alabama. He entered the State senate in 1825, and con- 
tinued to serve as a member from this and one or two of the 
adjoining counties for twelve years. With the rank of major 
general he commanded the militia of the State in this section 
during the Creek troubles in 1836-'37. When the town of 
Eufaula was first incorporated in 1837, his friend Hon. Law- 
son J. Keener of Barbour had it called for him, but it bore 
the name only a few years. Gen. Irwin was drowned in the 
Chattahoochee in 1849, between Columbus and Eufaula, by 
jumping from the burning steamer Ham Smith. He was a 
man of great energy and force of mind. He has relatives 
now U\dng in this count}\ 

Alexander C. Gordon was literally one of the first settlers 
of Henry. He was bom in Washington county, Georgia, in 
1811, and his father died in the military service of his country 
a year or two later. In 1817 he came with his uncle, James 
Hughes, across the Cliattahoochee to what is now Henry 
county. At the age of eleven years, he, and a younger haft 
brother, were abducted by tlie Indians, and carried off to 
their towns on the Apalachicola, where they were found and 
rescued foui* or five months later. He became a merchant 
and planter, was an officer in the "war" of 1836, led the first 
company from this countv into the Confederate service, and 
was a captain in the 6th Alabama Infantry during the first 
year of the war. He was also commander of a militia bat- 
talion which operated against Sanders and his band in Dale 
and Henry. He has served the county in the legislature, and 
as general of militia. He possesses in a high degree energy, 
courage, and sagacity. His wife was Miss Hudspeth. 


George W. WitLiAMS was a very prominent citizen of this 
county for many years. He was Dom in Abbeville District, 
South Carolina, about the year 1805, and taught a school in 
Fort Gaines, Georgia, in 1826. He went back to South Caro- 
lina, read law, and permanently resided in this county from 
1830 till his death. He was a lawyer and farmer. In 1836 
he was a major of the troops called out to suppress the Mus- 
cogees. As early as 1835 he entered the legislature, and 
served for thirteen years in the lower house. He was also 
county surveyor, magistrate, superintendent of education, and 
judge of the probate court from 1855 to 1862. He died in 
1866. Judge WiUiams possessed public spirit, a kind heart, 
and was benevolent ahd sociable, but was " sudden and quick 
in quarrel," impetuous, and combative. The poor lost a friend 
when he passed away. 

William Calvin Gates, of this county, is a native of Pike, 
where he was bora in 1833. His father came from South 
Carolina in 1828, and settled first in Montgomery, and soon 
after in Pike county. His mother was a Miss Sellers of the 
latter county. His early advantages were quite hmited, and 
at the age of sixteen years he left home, and led a roving life 
for several years in tne Southwest. H e came back, taught 
school in this coimty a year or two, and then attended a high 
school in Lawrence\ille to complete his education. He read 
law in the office of Messrs. Pugh, Bullock & Buford, in Eu- 
faula, and was enrolled as an attorney in 1858. He has since 
that date practiced the profession m Abbeville with much 
success. He was also editor of a newspaper in Abbeville in. 
1860. In 1861 he entered the Confederate service as captain 
of a company from this county in the 15th Alabama Infantry. 
He was m twenty-seven of the foi^ty engagements of tlus 
command, and led the 15th from the date of the battle of 
Sharpsburg till transferred to the 48th Alabama July 1, 1864. 
He was promoted to colonel in Apiil 1863, and was wounded 
the following October, at . Brown s f eriy on the Tennessee. 
He lost an arm at FusselFs mills, near Petersburg, while in 
command of the 48th Alabama. At the close of the war he 
resumed his professional labors. In 1870 he was elected to 
the legislature, after receiving a warm support for the office 
of governor in the nominating convention of his party ; and 
this support was again received in 1872. Col. Gates is of 
large frame and muscle. Without the gi-aces of oratory, he 
is logical and effective at the bar or on the stump. His can- 
dor, practical sense, and generous nature, render him estima- 
ble and popular. 

Anson West grew to manhood in this county. Bom in 



Hobeson cotdity, N. C, in 1832, he came here with his parents 
in 1839. He was educated at the academy in Lawrenceville, 
entered the gospel ministry in 1856, and is now residing in 
HiintsYille. While stationed in Wilcox county, as presiding 
elder of a district of his denomination, he wrote " The State 
of the Dead," a volume of much merit both for the vigor of 
its style, its theological research, and the depth of its reflec- 
tions. Mr. West is a laborious student, a fluent speaker, a 
pious man, and a master of theological polemics. He mar- 
xied a neice of Hon. Pleasant W. Kittrell of Greene, deceased. 

Bobert Irwin was elected to the legislature by the people 
of Henry in 1820, but was refused a seat because the county 
^was not organized. 

H. E. Owens and T. T. Smith represented the county in the 
cx)nstitutional convention of 1861 ; and WiUiam H. Wood in 
-that of 1865. 

The following is a list of those who have served Henry in 
'Hie general assembly of the State : 


:]822~J. W. Devereux. 
:i825— William Irwin. 
:1828— WiUiam Irwin. 
a831— William Irwin. 
a834--WiUiam Irwin. 
1H37— Bichard C. Spann. 
1838— James Ward. 
184(>~-Anga8 McAUister. 
]84;^~Jame8 Ward. 

]847 — Angus McAllister. 
1849—ElishA Mathews. 
1853 — James Searcy. 
1857 — James H. McKinne. 
185D— William Wood. 
1«6:J— Keddick P. Peacock. 
1865— William H. Wood. 
[No election in 1867, or since.] 

Iiepre8e7i tailves. 

1822 — Benjamin Harvey. 

1823 — Benjamin Harvey. 

18:24— William C Watson. 

1825— William C. Watson. 

1836— Bartlett Smith, Chas. A . Dennis. 

1827 — James Ward, Chas. A. Dennis. 

1828 — Joeiah D. Cawthom. 

1829>-Jame8 Ward. 

1830— James Ward. 

1831— James Ward. 

1832— James Ward. 

1833— Abner Hill. 

1834— Abner Hill, James Ward. 

1835— Geo. W. Williams, Jas. Ward. 

1836— James Ward, Alex. G. Gordon. 

1837— Geo. W. Williams, A.C. Gordon. 

]838--Ja8.MDrphy,A. J. McAllister. 

1839— Jas. Murphy, A. J. McAllister. 

1840— Alex. Blackshear, Jas. Pynes. 
1 84 1 — Bartlett Smith, A. J. McAllister. 
1842 — William Gamble, Jas. Pynes. 
1843-G. W. Williams, liich. McGrilT. 
1844— Wm. Gamble, Moses K. Speight. 
1845— G. W. Williams, Rich. McGriff. 
Ici47 — Geo. W. Williams, Jas. Pynes. 
1849— Mathew Perryman, J. J.Sowell. 
1851 —G.W. Williams, A. J. McAllister. 
18.53— Aaron Odom, J. F. Hays. 
1855— Aaron Odom, James Pynes, 
1857— James Murphy, James Pynes, 
ia'>9— P. M. Thomas, B. C. Flake. 
1861— Levi Parish, C. J. Reynolds. 
1863— Levi Parish. G. W. Williams. 
1865— G. W. Culver, Aaron Odom. 
1867— [No election.] 
1870— William C. Gates. 



Jackson was created by an act passed Dec. 13, 1819. 

The territory to form it was taken from the Cherokee ces- 
sion of 1816, and consisted of all the country in the State 
north and west of the Tennessee, and east of the Flint. The 
part east of the Tennessee was added just after the last Cher- 
okee cession. In 1821 its area was reduced fully one-half by 
the act establishing Decatur. 

Decatur County was established December 17, 1821, and 
aboli^ed three years later. It included the part of the great 
bend of the Tennessee east of the Flint river, and south and 
west of an irregular line running in a southwestwardly direc- 
tion from the ridge that divides the waters of the Flint and 
Paint Bock, at the Tennessee boundary line to the mouth of 
Sauta creek. When abolished its territory was about equally 
divided between Madison and Jackson, but Marshall has 
since fallen heir to a portion of it. Woodville, at present in 
Jackson, and on the Memphis and Charleston Railroad, was 
the seat of justice. Its members of tlie general assembly ( for 
the years 1822, *23, and '24 ) are placed on the journal as fbom 
" Jackson and Decatur. " 

Jackson was named to honor Gen. Andrew Jackson, * who 
was at the time visiting Huntsvillo, where the general assem- 
bly was in session. 

It lies in the northwestern quarter of the State, and is bounded 
north by the State of Tennessee, east by DeKalb, south by De- 
Kalb and Marshall, west by Madison. 

Its area is over 1,000 square miles. 

The assessed value of property in 1870 was $1,935,239 ; to- 
wit : real estate $1,615,229 ; personalty $320,010. 

The population has been as follows by the federal census : 

18-20 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 

Whites .♦ 8129 11,418 13,863 11,754 14,811 16.350 

Blacks 622 1,282 1.852 2,334 3.472 3.060 

•Andrew Jackson was born on Waxhaw creek, near the line of North and 
South Carolina, in 1767. When a mere lad he took part in the oolonial strug- 
gle against the mother country. In 1788 he removed from North Carolina to 
Tennessee, where he was elevated to the bench and became a member of con- 
gress before the century closed. When the Creek war began, he hastened to 
the Tallapoosa and Coosa, and within a few weeks conquered a peace. From 
thence lie went to New Orleans, and won a victory there. He afterwards 
served in Florida, and was military governor of that State. From 1829 to 
1837 he was pnesideut of the United States. He died iu 1845. 


The profile of the county is nigged and mountainous, with 
much wild scenery. There is much light land, but the coves, 
Talleys, and river bottoms are very productive. 

The farm lands — 77,086 acres improved, and 183,397 acres un- 
improved — ^have a cash value of $1,510,268. 

The live stock — 3,541 hoi-ses, 814 mules, 11,945 neat cattle, 
9,745 sheep, and 25,837 hogs— are valued at $620,263. 

In 1869 the productions were 506,777 bushels of com, 50,925 
bushels of wheat, 26,952 bushels of oats, 32,276 bushels of 
potatoes, 121,075 pounds of butter, 18,021 gallons of sorghum 
syrup, 24,547 pounds of honey, 2,3^9 bales of cotton, 11,107 
pounds of tobacco, and 16,809 poimds of wool ; the value of 
animals slaughtered was $213,033 ; and the farm productions 
were valued at $1,062,030. 

Jackson, therefore, leads all the otlier coimties in ther pro- 
duction of tobacco, animals for slaughter, wool, sorghimi, and 
honey ; apd has more hoi-ses and hogs than any other. 

The Tennessee river flows through the eastern part of thd 
county, for forty miles, and is open to steam navigation the 
entire distance. Paint Rock river drains the western portion. 

Forty-one miles of the Memphis and Charleston Railroad 
are in Jackson, and 24 miles of the Nashville & Chattanooga. 

There is the greatest abundance of iron ore and coal in this 
couniy, but very little attention has been given to minmg them. 
Marble, also, has been quarried, but it is not equal to that of 

A saltpetre cave near Scottsboro was utilized by the Con- 
federate authorities during the late war. A cave of vast ex- 
■ tent exists near the centre of the county, and has been partly 
explored, with results gratifying to curiosity. 

Scottsboro, the seat of justice, is on the Memphis & Charles- 
ton Railroad about 160 miles north of Montgomery. It has 
357 inhabitants, and was named to honor its founder, Hon. 
Robert T. Scott. ^ 

Sauta Cave was made the first and temporary seat of justice 
by tlie legislature in 1819. In 1822 the commissioners — Jo- 
seph Kirby, Benj. Cloud, Thomas Russell, John Hancock, 
James Scruggs, John McVary, and McLeod Cross — selected 
Bellefonte as the locality for the courthouse. Bellefonte was 
incorporated in 1821, but had only 72 inhabitants in 1870. 
The courthouse was voted to Scottsboro in 1859, but was not 
removed till after the war. 

Larkinsville has about 200 inhabitants, and Stevenson 
about 250. 

The first election precincts were established in 1819 at Sauta 
Cave, Honev-comb Spring, Riley's on Mud Creek, and Noah 
Ward's on Taint Rock. 

James Russell was the first judge of the county court. 


Like other portions of the Tennessee Valley, Jackson was 
laid waste by the ravages of the late war. The courthonse 
and several dwellings in Bellefonte were burned by the north- 
ern troops ; combate took place at Stevenson, Bridgeport, and 
other places, and a small volume might be readily filled with 
interesting incidents which had their occurrence within the 
limits of the county. The conduct of the citizens in harassing 
supply trains, bushwhacking detachments, Ac, was such that 
oflicers of the invading armies, in neighboring garrisons, were 
wont to declare that Jackson county deserved its independence. 
It was the Switzerland of the State during that memorable 

Jackson has nurtured the talents of several very useful men. 
Among these was the late Joseph P. Frazier. He came from 
Tennessee and settled in Jackson about the year 1830. In 
1835 he entered the lower house of the legislature, and the 
year after he was colonel of a mounted regiment raised to 
suppress the Creek Indians. From 1837 to 1840, and from 
1847 to 1855 he represented the county in the State senate. 
He died in 1857 or '58 highly esteemed and respected for 
many sterling quaUties of head and heart. He married a sis- 
ter of Hon. E. W. Williams of this county, and his relatives 
are here. 

Robert T. Scott was for many years a citizen of this couniy. 
He was bom in North Carolina about the year 1798, and came 
with his parents to Alabama in 1817. They settled in Madi- 
son, where Mr. Scott was a planter. In 1830 he represented 
Madison in the lower house, but soon after came to Jackson, 
and was here a hotel proprietor and farmer. In the year 1836 
represented Jackson in the legislature, and was six tunes sub- 
sequently elected. He was also clerk of the cu-cuit court of 
the county, and at the session of 1839 his seat was declared 
vacant in consequence of holding the two offices. He returned 
to his constituents, was re-elected, and presented his creden- 
tials without resigning his clerkship. This was refused, and 
he was again elected, and a third time rejected by the house. 
The adjournment of the legislature put an end to the contro- 
versy. Gov. Fitzpatrick appointed nim agent of the State to 
adjust the two and three per cent, fund, and Gov. Collier com- 
missioned him to adjust the boundary line with Georgia. He 
was also a presidential elector. His death occurred near 
Scottsboro in 1863. He was a matter-of-fact man, benevolent, 
temperate, and energetic. 

William Barclay, who figured so prominently in the local 
history of this coimiy in its early settlement, serving the counfy 
in one or the other oranch of the general assemoly for thir- 


teen years, removed to Talladega, and died in that county 
about the year 1858. His son, the late Hon. A. R. Barclay, 
was prominent in that county. 

Thomas Wilson, another true and respected citizen of Jack- 
son, who served for fifteen years as a member of the legisla- 
ture, still resides on his farm in this county. 

F. A. Hancock also resides at his home in this county at an 
advanced age. His known fidelity to his people made him an 
especial mark for the vengeance of the federal troops, and he 
suffered both in pei-son and property diuing their occupancy 
of this county. His nephew, Hon. John Hancock, bom in 
this couniy in 1824, has been on the circuit bench of Texas, 
and is now a member of congress, and a distinguished politi- 
cian at Austin. 

James Williams, one of the early settlers of the county, 
still resides here. He came from 'tennessee, in which State 
he was bom in 1808. He first entered the legislature in 1838, 
and has served tlie county ten or twelve years as a represent- 
ative. He is very highly respected for many virtues, and is 
noted for his extensive reading and ready flow of humor. 
His son. Major Jere Williams of tliis county, was a field 
officer of the Ninth Alabama InfantrJ^ 

John Snodorass is a native and resideut of Jackson. He 
was bom in 1836, and is a nephew of Gen. Benj. Snodgrass, 
long a resident of the county, who died July 21, 1872. In 
May 1861 he entered the service of tlie Confederacy as cap- 
tain of one of the fii'st companies raised m tlie county. He 
served in Martin's 2d Confederate regiment under Gen. Sid- 
ney Johnston, and thus fought at Sliiloh. A battaUon of six 
companies was then organized, witli him as lieutenant colonel. 
He led this command at Baton Rouge and Corinth, and till 
February 1863. Noi*^'ood's battalion was then thrown with 
his, and the 55th Alabama orgiinized, of which he became 
colonel. He shared the fortunes of that regiment and of the 
Western Army till the close, commanding Scott's brigade — 
the 12th Louisiana, 9th Arkansas, and 27th, 35th, 49th, 55th, 
and 57th Alabama regiments — from the battle of Franklin 
till Hood left Tennessee. He is now merchandising at Scotts- 
boro, and that has been tlie business of his Ufe. 

John H. Norwood is ' also a native and resident of this 
county. His father, the late Mr. Henry Nor\\ ood, often repre- 
sented Jackson in the legislature. Bom al)out the year 1830, 
he was well educated, and was soon elected to the oflice of 
judge of probate, which he resigned early in 1861 to enter 


the Second Alabama Infantry regiment as a lieutenant in 
Capt. Bradford's company. He served with the Second till it 
was mustered out, then raised a company in this county, 
which became part of the Forty-Second Tennessee, CoL 
Quarles, of which he was elected Uentenant colonel. He 
served for some months with that command, then became the 
commander of the five Alabama companies which separated 
from it, and which were called "Norwood's Battalion." In 
1863 this battalion was blended Avitli Snodgrass's, and formed 
the Fifty-fifth Alabama, of which he became Ueutenant colonel. 
He shared the privations of that regiment till severely 
wounded at Peacn Tree creek. In 1865 he was chosen to the 
senate, in which he served two years. He is now practicing 
law here in partnership with Col. Hal C. Bradford, and is a 
gentleman possessed of many noble traits of character. 

But the most striking figure that has yet stood among the 
mountains of Jackson was that of Williamson E. W. Cobb. 
He was a native of Madison, and his parents were among the 
first settlers of the Tennessee Valley. Bom about the year 
1808, he received very few educational advantages, for his 
parents were in obscure life. He was a peddler of clocks at 
one time, then came to Bellefonte and entered the mercantile 
business. In 1844 he represented tlie county in the lower 
house of the general assembly, and was re-elected the ensuing 
year. He was out of the pubUc employment but two years 
of the twenty that followed. He was elected to congress in 
1847 over Messrs. Wm. Acklen of Madison and B. T. Pope 
of St. Clair. In 1849 he defeated Col. Jere Clemens of Madi- 
son 2000 votes in the district, after a warm canvass ; and two 
years later triumiDhed over Hon. Robert Murphy of DeKalb. 
In 1853 Judge C. C. Clay, jr., of Madison made a brilliant 
canvass against him, but was beaten by about 4000 majority. 
Within the succeeding six years he defeated, in succession, 
Messrs. James M. Adams of Marshall, H. C. Sanford of 

Cherokee, and Boavors of St. Clair. TVTien the State 

seceded, he withdrew fi*om Washingt-f)n with his colleagues, 
though his devotion to the Union was veiy ardent. The same 
year (1861) he was defeated for the Confederate congress by 
Dr. John P. Ralls of Cherokee, the only defeat he ever sus- 
tained. Two years later he was successful over Dr. Balls, but 
did not take his seat when the new congress met in February 
1864. His fidelity was at once suspected, and, after some 
investigation, he was expelled by an unanimous vote. He 
went into the lines of the enemy several times, and it was 
rumored that he w^as commissioned mihtary governor of the 
State by Mr. Lincoln ; but it was most probably untrue. He 


"Was accidentally killed by the discharge of his own pistol in 
1864, while putting up a fence at his house in tiiis county. 

In appearance, Mr. Cobb was tall, erect, and angular, with 
& muscular physique. His knowledge of human nature was 
thorough, and he was the i>erfect type of a demagogue. Ho 
■was constantly electioneering, and was singularly jpopular with 
the humble and unlearned, whose devotion to nim was most 
ardent, and defied reason itself. Mr. Cobb was resolute, ener- 

fetic, and shrewd, and ho became a forcible stump speaker. 
lis wife was a Miss Allison of Madison, and he has relatives 
in that county. 

John B. GtORDON, a distinguished Ueutenant general of the 
late war, resided for two or three years in Jackson. He was 
engaged in coal mining here, and raised one of the first com- 
panies that went from the county — the "Raccoon Bcjughs.'* 
As captain of this company, he entered the Sixth Alabama 
Infantry regiment, of which he was elected major. Proceed- 
ing witn it to Virginia he began a career of briUiant mihtary 
achievements as the leader of Alabama soldiers which had no 
parallel among the subordinates of the immortal Army of 
Northern Virgmia. As he is now a Georgian, and was bom 
and reared in that State, and resided here but a short time, it 
is proper that his record should be left to a different volume. 
HiR brother, A. M. Gordon, a mere youth, became Ueutenant 
colonel of the Sixth, and fell while heroically leading his regi- 
ment in Virginia. 

J. P. Timberlake, John R. Coffey, and W. A. Hood repre- 
sented the coTinty ' in the constitutional convention of 1861 ; 
and Bailey Bruce, W. J. B. Padgett, and James Williams in 
that of 1865. 


1820— William D. Gaines. 1843- Thomas Wilson . 

ISW— Robert McCaruey. 1847 — Joseph P. Frazier. 

1825 — Robert McCamey. lHf)l — JoBeph P. Frazior. 

1828— Sam nel B. Moore. 1855— Thomas Wilson. 

18.31— William Barclay. ISoT-William A. Austin. 

1834— William Barclay. 1861— F. Rice. 

1837— Joseph P Frazier. 1865 — John H. Norwood. 
1840 — Thomas Wilson. [No election in 1867 or since.] 

Representati ves. 

IS21 — William Barclay, Booker Smith, Georpje W. Hopkins. 

1822 — William Barclay, Alexander Dulaney, Thomas Bailey. 

1823— William Barclay. Samuel B. Moore. Daniel Peyton. 

1824 — William D. Gaines, Samael B. Moore, Dnniel Peyton. 

1825 — Philip H. Ambrister, Charles Lewis, Daniel Peyton, John Baxter. 

1826 — William Barclay, Samael B. Moore, Wm. Lewis, Philip H. Ambrister. 

1827 — James Bassell, Samuel B. Moore, Wm. A. Davis, Daniel Price. 

1828 — James Russell, Stearnes S. Wellborn, James Smith, P. H. Ambrister. 


1829 — James Russell, William Barclay, James Smith, James Bonlston. 
1^30— William Barclay, John Gilbreath, John B. Stephens, Daniel Price. 
1831— Henry Norwood, John Gilbreath, John B. Stephens, Daniel Price. 
1832— Henry Norwood, John Lusk. Benj. B. (Goodrich, Caleb B. Hudson. 
J833— H. Norwood, Edwin H. Webster, Samuel McDavid. P. H. Ambrister. 
1834— Robert Jones, John Gilbreath, James W. Yonng, Benj. Snodgrass, 

Phillip H. Ambrister, Wyatt Ooflfey. 
ISSS—tHenry Norwood, Joseph P. Frazier, John Berry, Wm. King, Stephen 

Carter, Washington F. May. 
ia36~Robert T. Scott, Joseph P. Frazier, John Berry, Wm. M. King, Benj. 

Snodgrass, Samuel McDavid. 
1837— Robert T. Scott, C. M. Cross, Alva Finley, Wm. M King, Thomas 

Wilson, Daniel Lucas. 
1838— William Mason, James Williams, Alva Finley, F. A. Hancock, Thomas 

Wilson, McNairy Harris. 
1839— Robert T. Scott, James Williams, F. A Hancock, Thomas Wilson. 
1840— G. R. Griffin, E. W. Williams, Joshua Warren, James Smith. 
1841— William L. Griffin, Phillip H» Ambrister, Wm. M. King, James Smith. 
1842— Robert T. Scott, E. W. Williams. Alva Finley, James Monday. 
1843— Beniamin Franks, James Williams, Joseph P. Frazier, F. A. HancoclL 
1844— Robert T. Scott, James Williams, Moses Maples. W. B. W. Cobb. 
184r>— C. F. Williams, James WilUams, W. R. W. Cobb. 
1847— Robert T. Scott, James Williams, F. A. Hancock. 
1849 — Benj. Franks, Thomas Wilson, J. C. Austin. 
1851 —Joshua Stephens, Thomas Wilson, J. C. Austin. 
18.5;^-Robert T. Scott, James M. Green, H. C. Cowan. 
1865— W. R. Larkins, Moses Maples, F. A. Hancock. 
1857— John B. Talley, J. S. Eustace, J. M. Cloud. 
1859 — P. G. Grifiin, Jonathan Latham, J. M. Hudgins. 
1861— J B. Talley, Jonathan Latham, T. T. Cotman. 
1863— P. Brown, J. W, Young, W. H. Robinson. 
1865— W.J. B. Padgett, James Williams, Henry F. Smith. 
1867— [No election.] 
1870— W. F. Hurt, J. H. Cowan. 



Jefferson was established by an act of the first legislature 
of the State, Dec. 13, 1819. The territory was taken from 
Blount, and is nearly the same as when fii-st organized. 

It lies in the north centre of the State, south of Blount and 
Walker, west of Shelby and St. Clair, north of Shelby, east 
of Tuskaloosa and Walker. 

It was named for Mr. Jefferson, the Virginia statesman.* 

* Thomas Jefferbon wns born in Albemarle county, Virginia, in 1743. 
He was a lawyer by profession. In 1769 he entered the honse of burgesses, 


Its area is about 975 square miles. 

Property was assessed in 1870 at $1,350,630; of which 
$1,0721,099 was real estate, and $278,531 was personalty. 
The population decennially is exhibited as follows : 

1830 J840 1860 1860 1870 

Whites 5121 5486 6714 907H 9839 

Blacks 1734 1646 2275 2668 2506 

The farm lands — 56,964 acres improved, and 197,308 acres 
unimprovedT-were valued at $1,140,247 in 1870. 

The live stock — 1754 horses, 686 mules, 8360 neat cattle, 
5437 sheep, and 13,753 hogs— were valued at $430,702. 

The productions in 1869 were 45,219 bushels of wheat, 
251,184 bushels of com, 9336 bushels of oate, 26,082 bushels 
of potatoes, 31,566 pounds of butter, 8180 gallons of sorghum, 
1470 bales of cotton, 8135 poimds of wool ; the value of ani- 
mals slaughtered was $108,809 ; and the value of all the farm 
productions was $607,967. 

^ The surface is a succession of mountainous ridges and allu- 
viaj valleys. The soil is generally light, with a clay sub- 
stratum, and admirably adapted for small faims. 

This is one of the great mineral counties ^of the State. 
Iron ore abounds in an inexliaustible quantity, coal is plenti- 
ful, and sand-rock, marble, lime, &c., exist. 

The iron deposits attracted attention many years ago, and 
the Irondale and Bed Mountain smelting and casting furnaces 
Were in successful operation during me war between the 
States. They were both burned by the troops of Gen. Wil- 
son, but the former has be^n rebuilt. Two or three other 
industries of the kind are about to be established, and Jeffer- 
son bids fair to lead her sister counties in this important 
source of wealth. • 

The Locust fork of Tuskaloosa river flows through the 
Western portion of the county. Forty-five miles of the Ala- 
bama and Chattanooga railroad lie witliin its limits; and 
about thir^-four miles of the railroad fi'om Montgomery to 
Decatur. ■ Other roads are projected through the county. 

Elyton is the seat of justice. It was incorjiorated Dec. 20, 
1820, having been laid out just previous to that date, and 
Matthew H. Gillaspie, Samuel Hall, Wm. C. Tan-ant, and Col. 
John Martin were appointed to hold the first municipal elec- 

K&d in 1775 was chosen a delegate to the colon^il congrees. He wan the 
author and a signer of the decree of independence, and was the second gov- 
«nior of the State of Virginia. After some diplomatic service abroad, he 
^M appointed secretary of state in the cabinet of Washington, and was 
elected to the vice presidency in 179(5, and to the presidency four years after. 
He retired from office in 1809, founded the University of Virginia, and died 
J«ly 4, 1826. 



tion. It now has about 700 inhabitants. It is named for Mr. 
W. H. Ely, the agent of the deaf and dumb asylum at Hart- 
ford, Conn., who came to this section in 1819 to locate the 
lands congress had donated to the asylum, and who deeded 
to the county the quarter section of land on which the town 
stands on the condition that the courthouse should be erected 

Birmingham is the name of a youn^ city two miles north- 
east of Efyton, at the crossing of the railroads. The " Elyton 
Land Company," of which Col. J.ames B. Powell is president, 
selected the site, and called it for the manufacturing city of 
the same name in England. The lots were* exposed for sale 
June 1, 1871, the first house was built Au^st 29, and it was 
incorporated as a city December 19, with a population of 
1200 souls. Its growth continues, and the population is now 
estimated at 2500 souls. It lies in the heart of the great 
mineral re^on, and capitalists have already invested largely 
in the vicinity with the view of developing its wondrous 

Jonesboro is a village in Jones' Valley. 

Beuben Bead, WiUiam Ervin, John Adams, John Cochran, 
and William P5*ude were the commissioners appointed bv the 
legislature in 1819 to select a site for the courthouse of J'ef- 
ferson, and John Martin and Peyton King were added in 1822. 

Election precincts were first establi^ed in the counfy in 
1819 at the store of Wiggin & McWhorter, at Greer's old 
store-house, and at the store of King & Brown, A year later 
one was established at Micajah Lindsay's, and in iSSLl one at 
Squire Sanders', and Old Town. 

Jefferson has no history of general interest. 

John Brown was one of the e^liest white settiers of the 
county. He came from South Carolina about the year 1818, 
and represented Blount in the legislature before Jefferson was 
cut off from it. He was a member of both houses of the 
general assembly, and judge of the county court about the 
year 1832. In 1834 he removed to Tuskaloosa, and was there 
steward of the University till his removal to Texas two or 
three years later. He was a popular man in the counly, and 
his character was irreproachable. His wife was a Miss Brooks, 
and Mr. Waldo W. Shearer, for many years a citizen of Sumter 
county, is his nephew,. 

The late Lemuel G. McMillion came to Jonesboro, in this 
county, in 1819, from Pendleton district, South Carolina, where 
he was bom in 1794. He taught school for some twenty 
years here, was the compiler of a spelling book of a very 
superior kind, and was for ten years a member of the legis- 


latore. fle was also major of Col. Frazier's regiment whioh 
marched into the Creek country in 1836. He married a Miss* 
Freeland, and one of his daughters married Dr. Gilbert T. 
Deason of this county, who represented Shelby and Jefferson 
in the State senate in 1865-'67. Col. McMiliion died Aug. 
29, 1865, in this county. 

Walker Kktth Baylor came to this county about the year 
1820, and opened a law office in Elyton. He was a Kentuckian 
by birth, and the younger brother of the tion. R. E. B. Bay- 
lor of Tuskaloosa. In 1825 he entered the public service as 
a member of the legislature from the county. He showed a 

E reference for professional and literary rather than political 
fe ; and only re-appeared in the legislature as a senator in 
1838, having previously served for several years as judge of 
the county court. In 1843 he became a Judge of the circuit 
court, succeeding Hon. Peter Martin of Tuskaloosa, and was 
holding that office — presiding with dignity and abihty — when 
his death occurred in 1845. He was killed by the accidental, 
dischaige of a gun while on a visit to his brother in Texas. 
Judge Baylor was prepossessing in appearance ; and his cul- 
tivated mind, divereified talents, manly character, and genial 
nature rendered him justly estimable. He was a bachelor. 

Moses Kelly was for many years a citizen of Jefferson, 
and one of its earlier settlers. He represented the county in 
both branches of the general assembly, and was judge of the 
probate court for some years. He was a farmer, ana a man 
of practical ways, great influence, popularity, experience, 
and mtegrity. He cued in the county in 1866, full of years, 
leaviiig several sons. He was a nephew of Hon. Wm. Kelly 
of Madison, and uncle of the late Gen. John H. Kelly o| 

The late Sabiuel S. Eahle was one of the best and most 
prominent citizens of Jefferson for fifty years. He was a 
native of South Carolina, where he was bom in 1799, and 
came to Alabama in 1820. Locating in Jefferson, his skill as 
a physician, his many excellencies of character, his literary 
culture, and practical sense soon gave him prominence. He 
represented the coimty in the legislature in 1832, and three or 
four times subsequently; the last time in 1842, when his 

f)arty was in a hopeless minority in Jefferson. But he pre- 
erred the peace of domestic life ; 

'*And, to add greater honors to his age 
Than man could give him, he died fearing Qod.*' 

This event occurred in this county, December 20, 1870. His 
numerous descendants are in Jefferson, and are among its 
most respected citizens. 


William S. Earnest, of this county, is a native of Tennes- 
see, and came to Jefferson about the jear 1836. He taught 
school for several years, and was admitted to the bar in 18^. 
He has represented the county in the legislature, and in tiie 
constitutional convention of 1861. The same year he was an 
unsuccessful candidate for congress. He is a stalwart man, 
of sociable and popular manners ; and beneath a rough exte- 
rior conceals a mnd of practical knowledge. 

WiLLUM Swearingen Mudd came to Jefferson with his 
parents in 1831, but was bom in Jefferson county, Kentucky, 
in 1816. In 1817 the parents settled in Madison county, and 
in 1824 removed to Lawrence, thence to this county. The 
son was graduated at St. Joseph's Collie, Bardstown, Ky., 
Bead law imder the eye of Hon. Walker K. Baylor at Elyton, 
and was Ucensed to practice in 1839. He opened an office 
here and entered on a prosperous career. In 1843 he entered 
public life as a representative in the general assembly, and 
.was twice re-elected. In 1848 he was elected soUdtor of the 
judicial circtiit, and discharged its duties for eight years. He 
was defeated for congress m 1851, after a warm canvass, by 
Mr. Harris of Coosa. He was elected to the bench of the 
circuit court in 1856 over Messrs. E. W. Peck of Tuskaloosa 
and B. T. Pope of St. Clair. He was re-elected without 
opposition in l862, was appointed to the place bv Gov. Par- 
sons, and was again elected in 1866. He now filLs the office. 
In 1865 he represented the county in the constitutional con- 
vention. Juoge Mudd is of ordinary size, with a light com- 
plexion. His temperament is dispassionate, and his views are 
practical. Discretion, a strong sense of propriety, and a con- 
sideration for the opinions and motives of others, are salient 
traits of his character. His official conduct is unexception- 
able. As a jurist he is much disposed to disregard the tech- 
nicalities of the law in order to reach its eqtiity. As a citizen, 
his exemplary deportment, and amiable disposition, are the 
basis of an esteem that time has only served to build up. 
He married a daughter of the late Dr. S. 8. Earle. 

Alburto Martin is a native and resident of Jefferson. His 
father, Col. John Martin, was one of the first settlers of the 
county. He was bom in 1830, graduated at the State Uni- 
versity, and began the practice of law at Elvton in 1856. He 
represented the county in the legislature from 1859 to 1863. 
In the latter year was elected solicitor of this judicial circnii, 
was displaced by Gov. Parsons, and re-elected by the general 
assembly of 1865, and held the office till 1868. In 1861 he 
raised a company, wliich became part of the 10th Alabama 
infantry. He served with this command till dangerously 


wotmded by a shell at the second battle of Manassas, which 
has crippled him for life. Capt. Martin has very decided 
opinions, and is firm in his convictions. His scope of infor* 
mation is ''extensive; his capacity as a prosecuting officer 
unquestioned. He married a daughter of Judge Mudd. 

James Bobert Powell, of this county, is one of the best 
known citizens of the State. He was bom in Brunswick 
county, Yirffinia, Dec. 7, 1814. His father was at first wealthy, 
but suddenly lost his property, and after laboring on a farm 
for two years, the son came to this State in 1833. He had a 
hotel at Lowndesboro and at Montgomery, and removed to 
Wetumka in 1836. There he began his remarkable career 
as a stage owner and mail contractor, which lasted for twenty- 
five years, and was thick with stirring incidents. His memo- 
rable contests with Messrs. Jemison of Tuskaloosa, John G. 
Winter of Montgomery, and other rivals, for the possession of 
stage routes and mail contracts, are among the fireside stories 
of Alabama. He became sheriff of Coosa, and in 1845 rep- 
resented the county in the lower house, as he did in the sen- 
ate in 1853. Shortly after he removed to Montgomery, and 
was a leading and wealthy citizen there till he came to this 
county in 1871, as president of the " Elyton Land Company," 
to lay the foundation of a manufacturing city amidst the mar- 
velous mineral resources of this county. Col. Powell is the 
least negative and passive of men. His energy and enterprise, 
his sagacity and public spirit, are only equalled by the expan- 
sive view he takes of all questions that affect the public weal. 
During the late war he furnished an entire company witii 
horses at his own expense, and gave liberally towards their 
equipment. Having gathered a larce quantity of ice during 
the war, when it was bo much needed, and could not be ob- 
tained, he gave it to the Confederate government for the 
wounded, though offered $40,000 for it. Hon. Thomas D. 
Clarke of Talladega and Hon. J. H. Weaver of Coosa married* 
sisters of CoL Powell. 

William S. Earnest represented the county in the constitu- 
tional convention of 1861; and Wm. S. Mudd in that of 1865. 
The following is a list of members of the general assembly: 


18S3— J<^ui Wood. 1847— Moses Kelly. 

1825— John Biown. 1851— Moses Kelly. 

1838— John Wood. 1853— Moses Kelly. 

1830— John M. Dnpuy. 1855— H. W. Nelson. 

1833— John Brown. 1857— John T. Storrs. 

1836— Harrison W. Goyne. 1859— H. W. Nelson. 

1838— Walker K. Baylor. 1861— John P. Morgan. 

ISaOr-C.C P.Fftrrar. 1864— MitcheU T. Porter. 

1841— Walker K. Baylor. 1865— G. T. Deaeon. 

1843— Moaee Kelly. [No eleoion in 1867 or since. ] 

1844Wobii Aahe. 




1822— Isaac Brown, ThoB. W. Farrar. 

] 823— John Browu, laham Harrison. 

1824 — Benj. Worthington, Thomas 
W. Farrar. 

1825— John Brown, Walker K. Baylor, 
John M. Dnpay. 

1826— John Brown, John Martin, 
John M. Dnpay. 

1827— John Brown, John F. Forrest, 
Wm. E. Paaldinff. 

1828 — John Brown, John M. Dupny. 

1H29— John Brown, John F. Forrest 

1830— John Brown, Peyton King. 

1831- Emory Lloyd, H. W. Goyne. 

1832- Hugh M. Garuthers, S. 8.Ear1e 

1833— H. M. Carathers, John Brown, 

18S4— W. A. Scott, John Cantley. 

1835— L. G. McMillion, Jno. Cantley. 

1836— L. G. MoMillion, Moses Kelly. 

1837 — Ootavius Spencer, Benj. Tar- 

ia38— L. G. McMiUion. S. S. Earle. 
183d—L. G. MoMilUon, S. & Earie. 
1840— L. G. MoMiUian, Jeremiah 

1841— L. G. McMillion, Jeremiah 

1842— L. G. McMilUon, 8. S. Earle. 
1843— L. G. McMillion, W. 8. Hudd. 
1844— Octavias Spencer, W. S. Mndd. 
1845— ChriBtoph.DeTer8, J. Randolph 
1847— L. G. McMillion, W. 8. Hadd. 
l849_^ohn Gamp, Hngh Coupland. 
1851— Wm. a Earnest, 8. A. Tarrant 
1853— John Camp. 
1S55— John Camp. 
1867— O. 8. Smith. 
1^9— Alborto Martin. 
1861— Alborto Martin. 
1863— John C. Morrow. 
1865— John Oliver. 
1867— [No election.] 
1870-G. W. Hewitt 



This county was established by an dxii of the territorial 

legislature, Feb. 6, 1818, and carved out of lands purchased 

of the Gherokees and Ghicasas in 1816. The original aiae 

' is retained except the fork between the Elk and Tennessee. 

It lies in the northwest quarter of the State, and is botlnded 
on the north by the State of Tennessee, east by Idmestone, 
south by Colbert and Lawrence, and west by the State of 

It was named to honor CoL James Lauderdale* of Tennessee. 

Its area is about 720 square miles. Its length is about 66 
miles, and its breadth is nrom ten to twenty mues. 

The assessed value of real estate is $2,307,669 ; peisonal 
property $871,908 ; total $3,179,565. 

*Col. Landerdale was a brave TenDessoean, of Cofifee*8 mounted brigade. 
He wan wouuded at the battle of Talladega, and killed in the night attack oi| 
the British below New Orleans, Dec. 23. J814. 


The population has moved decenniallj as follows : 

1820 1830 1840 1860 I860 1870 

Wliites.* 3556 7960 9447 11.097 10.639 9931 

Blaoks 1407 3821 6038 6,076 6,781 5160 

The farm hmds — 93,625 acres improved, and 160,357 acres 
nnimproved — ^were valued at $1,405,630 in 1870. 

The live stock — 2380 horses, 1115 mules, 7352 neat cattle, 
5984 sheep, 10,285 hogs— were valued at $500,471. 

The farm productions in 1869 were valued at $849,029, and 
consisted of 24,126 bushels of wheat, 447,155 bushels of com, 
12,526 bushels of oats, 9511 bushels of potatoes, 34,306 
pounds of butter, 9045 gallons of sorghxmi, 5457 bales of 
cotton, 11,643 pounds of wool ; and tue value of animals 
slaughtered was $69,511. 

The profile of ihe country is rolling and hillj ; the soil gen- 
erally light, but susceptible of great enrichmeni The low- 
lands are alluvial 

The Tennessee river is the southern line of the county, but 
for much of the distance is too shoally for steam navigation. 
A canal, eighteen miles in length, was constructed around 
these shoa£ between 1831 and 1837, but was never rendered 
serviceable. The federal government is at present making 
an effort to remove the obstructions in the river. 

A branch of the Memphis & Charleston Railroad, five miles 
in length, connects Florence and Tuscumbia. 

The mineral waters of the county are of wide repute. Of 
the several ^rings resorted to, Bailey's is known throughout 
the United States. Taylor's, and one or two others, possess 
valuable properties. 

There is a salipetre cave on Chewallee or Elk river. 

The subject of material industries had taken strong hold 
on the people of Lauderdale even prior to the war, and cotton 
and wool faxstories, iron foundries, &c., had begun to spring 
np. The "Cypress Factory," by Messrs. Martin, Weakley & 
do., was workmg up about 3000 bales of the raw material per 
annum before the war ; but it was burned during that time. 
As now operated, at the old location on Cypress or Taketanoee 
creek, it has 75 or 80 looms, 3000 spinmes, about 100 opera- 
lives, and works up about 1000 bales of cotton a year. An 
extensive cotton factory is also soon to go into operation qn 
the eastern fork of the same stream, eight miles from Florence. 
fTear the town, also, there is an iron foundry. 

Florence is the seat of justice. It was laid out in' 1818, 
loid Qen. Jackson of Tennessee, and ex-President Madison 
owned lots in it about that time. For several years after its 
settlement there was a rivalry between its commercial interests 
lM)d ij^ose of Nashville, Tennessee, one being at the head of 


navigation on the Tennessee, and the other similarly situated 
on the Cumberland. A newspaper, called the Gazetiey was 
printed here as earlv as 1820. The population by the census 
of 1870 was 2003 souls, of whom 1118 were whites, and 885 
blacks. In 1860 the population was 1395 souls ; in 1850 it 
was 802. The Synodical Insidtute, and the Wesleyan^ Uni- 
versity are located here, and the former is in a flourishing 

Bodgersville, in the eastern part of the couniy, has 435 
inhabitants ; and Waterloo is an incorporated village. 

There is a conical artificial mound at Florence, of large 
size, which attracts the attention of the antiquary. 

Voting places were established in 1819 at the houses of 
Wm. S. Barton and Thomas Bamett, and in 1821 at Joel 
Burrows', Andi'ew McMicken's, and Wm. Howe's. 

Haywood's "HistoiT of Tennessee" says that the p>ortion 
of Alabama north oi the Tennessee was organized into a 
coimty by the Georgia legislature in 1785, and called Hous- 
toun, in honor of John Houstoun, governor of that State in 
1778 ai;id 1784 A party of eiglity men came down the Ten- 
nessee shortly after, and effected a settlement at a point on 
the Muscle Shoals within the present limits of this county. 
They opened a land office, elected one of their number to the 
Georgia legislature, and performed other rites of citizenship. 
But within a fortnight the new settlement was abandoned m 
dread of the warlike Chicasas. 

The region now embraced witliin this county was the scene 
of several bloody skirmishes between the Tennesseeans and 
Chicasas about the years 1787-'90. 

During the war between the States a cavalry figiht occurred 
two miles east of Florence, in which the cavahy regiment of 
Col. Wm. A. Johnson of Colbert scattered a federal command 
with some loss to it. Near the same spot the army of Gten. 
Hood lay encamped for several weeks just before entering on 
the disastrous campaign which cuhninated at FrankUn and 
Nashville. Lauderdale, then, in common with tiie other 
counties of the Tennessee valley, suffered fearfully in conse- 
quence of its exposed position. 

John Coffee was among the early settlers of this county. 
He was Gen, Jackson's right arm through all his campaigns 
against the Creeks, and led the mounted Tennesseeans at the 
battle of New Orleans. He was a planter in this countv for 
twelve or thirteen years, and died here July 17, 1833. Capi 
Alexander D. Coffee, of this county, is his son, and nearly aQ 
his children and descendants reside here. His wife was a 
sister of Mrs. Gen. Jackson, and died a year or two ago. 


One of the earliest public men of the State was for manj 
years a resident of Lauderdcde. This was Hugh McYat. 
jBLe was a native of Soui^ Carolina, and bom about 1778. 
His father was a revolutionary soldier of 1776, and a farmer. 
The son received but a limited education. In 1807 he came 
to Alabama, and first settled as a planter in Madison. As far 
back as 1811 he was a member of the territorial legislature of 
Mississippi, representing Madison county. In this capaxsity 
he servea till tlie territory of Alabama was organized. He 
came to Lauderdale in 1818, and represented the coimty in 
the convention which framed the State constitution. He was 
a member of the general assembly in 1820, and, up to 1844, 
when he left the senate, he had served five years in the lower 
and seventeen years in the upper house of the legislature. In 
1836 he was elected president of the senate by one majority 
over Ex-Gov. Samuel B. Moore of Pickens, and in June of 
the following year became governor by the resignation of Gov- 
Clay. He was relieved of its duties m Decemoer, when Gov. 
Bagby was inaugurated. His death occurred in 1851 in this 
county. He left a reputation for usefulness, moraUty, integ- 
rity, and good sense ; but laid no claims to high capacity save 
that bom of experience. His wife was a Miss Hawks of South 
Carolina, and he has a son residing near Florence. Hon. Zadoc 
McVay of Lawrence was the brother of Gov. McVay. 

John MgKinley, one of the most active of our earlv public 
men, was a citizen of Lauderdale. He grew to manhood in 
Franklin county, Kentucky, but was probably a native of Vir- 
ginia, and bom about 1778. He was a mechanic in early life, 
but read law, and practiced for some yeans in Frankfort. In 
1818 he came to Alabama, and located in Huntsville as a law- 
yer. In 1820 he represented Madison in the house. When 
Mr. Walker resigned his seat in the federal senate, in 1822, 
Mr. McKinley was beaten for the position by one majority for 
Hon. Wm. Kelly of Madison. In 1826 he was elected to the 
vacant seat in tne federal senate caused by the death of Gov. 
Pickens, the vote standing: McKinley 41, C. C. Clay 38. 
While holding this position he became a citizen of Lauderdale. 
His term having expired in 1831, he represented Lauderdale 
in the legislature the same year. In 1833 he was elected to 
represent the district in congress, defeating Gen. James Davis 
of Franklin, but was not a candidate for re-election. In 1836 
lie i^ain served Lauderdale in the lower house. During the 
session he was elected to the federal senate to succeed Gov. 
Otibriel Moore, receiving 72 votes to the 45 cast for Hon. A. 
F. Hopkins of Madison. Before taking his seat, however, he 
was appointed by President Van Buren an associate justice of 
the supreme court of the United States, May 1837. From 

298 LAUDERDALE 00X711X7. 

•that time till his death he held the exalted station, residing 
much of the time in Washington and Louisville, Ky. He died 
in the latter city in 1852. His daughter, Mrs. Donald Camp- 
bell, is now a resident of Louisyille, and his son, Andrew Mo- 
Kinley, held some important office in that State. He was a 
large framed man, stalwart and raw-boned. His ability was 
very considerable, and his tenacity of purpose and great en- 
ergy proved to be winning cards in the game of life. He was 
moody and rather irritable, but very generally esteemed. 

The memory of James Jackson will linger long in Lauder- 
dale. He was a native of Ireland, and bom in the year 1784 
His parents were in comfortable circumstances, and he was 
well educated. About the time he attained to manhood, he 
came to America, and settled in Nashville, Tennessee, as a 
merchant. He acquired properiy rapidly, and made numerous 
friends. Among them was Gen. Andrew Jackson, who prized 
him highly, but from whom he was estranged by a domestic 
incident. In 1821 he came to this coimty ana engaged in 
planting; and at his home, "The Forks" of Cypress, he dis- 
pensed a princely hospitality till his death. Li 1822 he en- 
tered pubhc life as a member of the general assembly, and 
served the county in both branches. He was president of 
the senate in 1830. His partv were in a minority in the county, 
and he was twice beaten for the senate by Hon. Hugh McVay. 
He died in the year 1840. Mr. Jackson was large and porUy, 
with very handsome features. He was possessed of great en- 
ergy, tact, and judgment, which, added to an open and manly 
deportment, wealth, and liberaUty, gave him extensive popu- 
larity and influence. He was a patron of the turj^ and un- 
jK>rted a large number of horses into the South, whose quali- 
ties he tested on all the favorite courses. His wife was Mr& 
McCulloch {nee Moore) of Tennessee. Of his several children, 
Hon. William M. Jackson has represented Franklin in both 
branches of the general assembly. 

James Jackson, son of Hon. James Jackson, is a natiye and 
resident of Lauderdale. He entered the service of his State 
as a private in the 4th Alabama Lifantry, and was shot thron^^ 
the lungs at the first battle of Manassas. A few months later 
he became lieutenant colonel of the 27th Alabama. At Fori 
Donelson, where the regiment served with course, he wa3 
captured, and not exchanged for seven months. He then be- 
came colonel by the death of Col. Hughes, and led tiie regi- 
ment during the remainder of its proud career. At Kenne- 
saw he lost an arm, which disabled him for some time. He 
was commanding the brigade in North Carolina when Qen. 
Johnston surrenaered. l%e same year he was elected to the 


Benate, and served till 1867. CoL Jackson is of ordinary 
stature; and reserved demeanor. His energy and decision of 
purpose are noteworthy traits. He prefers deeds to words. 

Henbt D. Smtth came to this county about the year 1828. 
He was a native of North Carolina, and a wealtliy planter. 
He represented the county in the general assembly first in 
1839, and last in 1862, serving twelve years. He was large 
and stout, with good natural endowments of mind, but some- 
what defective in education. He was honest and kind-hearted, 
but passionate, and often irascible in his later years. Hi» 
death occurred in 1869, at the age of about 66 years. 

William Basil Wood has been a resident of Lauderdale 
for fiffy years. He was bom in Nashville, Tenn., Oct. 31, 
1820. His father was a mechanic and afterwards a merchant. 
His mother was the daughter of Major Evann of the British 
army. The parents came to the county in 1821, and the son 
grew to manhood here. Beceiving a liberal education, he 
read law under Judge Coleman of Limestone, and was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1843. Locating in Florence, he was the 
year following elected coimtv judge, and held tiie place for 
six years. In 1849 he was the Wlii^ candidate for congress, 
but was defeated by Hon. David Hubbard of Lawrence. Li 
1860 he was the Bell candidate for elector at large. A year 
later he took the field as colonel of the 16th Alabama. At 
Wild-Cat, Fishing Creek, Murfreesboro, and Chickamauga, 
he led the 16th with great credit, and at Triime was in com- 
mand of the brigade. Gens. Cleburne and Hardee recom- 
mended his promotion, but he was soon transferred to the 
presidency oi the military court of Longstreet's corps, where 
he continued until the close of tiie war. In May 1864 he was 
elected judge of the circuit court over Hon. T. M. Peters of 
Lawrence, but held no courts. He was not re-appointed by 
Governor Parsons, but in 1866 was a^ain elected circuit judge, 
defeating Judge Posey and Col. Pickett, both of Lauderdtue. 
In 1868 ne was removed from office by the reconstruction acts 
of congress. Judge Wood is a conscientious man, of high 
moral standing and sincere pieiy. He is a lawyer of decided 
abilitjr. In stature he is six feet, and well proportioned. He 
married a daughter of Major Leftwich of Virginia. 

The name of Sidney Cherry Posey is identified with the 
annals of Lauderdale. He was bom in Pendleton district, 
South Carolina, May 1803. His mother was a Miss Brooks. 
Bis family was among the earliest settlers of Madison, and 
{here he mrew to manhood and was educated. When tweniy 
years old lie taught school in Tuscumbia to obtain money to 


enable him to read law. This he did, was admitted to the 
bar, and remained several years in Toscumbia. In 1832 he 
came to Florence, where he soon attained to prominence in 
his profession. In 1835 and *36 he represented the county in 
the lower house, and in 1837 served a session in the senate of 
the general assembly. He was again in the senate from 1844 
to '47, and had previously served as judge of the county court 
five or six years. In 1847 he was elected circuit judjge over 
Messrs. John E. Moore and Wm. Bichardson — a position he 
fiUed till 1850. He was a member of the secession conven- 
tion, and refused to sign the ordinance, but was true to the 
South. In 1861 he represented Lauderdale in the lower 
house. In 1865 he was appointed judge of the circuit court 
by Governor Parsons, and served till the following Mar. He 
died at his home four miles from Florence, Dec. 22, lo68. 

Judge Posey was a man of decided ability, and left a char- 
acter long to be respected and remembered by those who 
knew him. He married a Miss DePriest, and left descend- 
ants here. 

" Lauderdale is the home of Robert Miller Patton. He 
was bom in Bussell county, Virginia, Jan. 10, 1809. His 
father, Wm. Patton, was an Irishman who came to Yirginia 
when youn^, and there married a Miss Hays. These homUe 
but industrious people came to Madison county in 1812, and 
there brought up a number of highly respectable children. 
This son, after taking an academic course, engaged in mei^ 
cantile pursuits in Huntsville till 1829, when he came to Flor- 
ence. Here he continued the business with great profit for 
thirty vears, adding to it that of a planter, and amassinff con- 
siderable wealth. In 1836 he was elected to the lower house 
of the legislature, but held no other public trust till 1851, 
when he was chosen to the senate. For eleven years he filled 
that position, serving as president of the body in 1861. The 

Jrear following he resigned in order to save something of his 
arge estate, the enemy having over-run the Tennessee valley. 
During the war he was grievously harassed by tiie federal 
troops, who laid waste the enth-e county. In 1865 he repre- 
sented Lauderdale in the " reconstruction convention," and in 
the fall of the same year was elected governor over CoL M. J. 
Bulger of Tallapoosa and Hon. Wm. fi. Smith of Tuskaloosa. 
The vote stood : Patton 23,042 ; Bulger 16,713 ; Smith 9,219. 
He entered the executive chamber at a time when his sound 
sense and large experience were in grave demand. But his 
herculean task of organizing a government out of chaotic 
fragments was seriously impeded by the conflicting sentiments 
of the people of the State, and the hostile le^sbtion of the 
federal congress. His administration of two and a half years 


was finally ended, July 13, 1868, by the rescript of congress. 
Got. Pation retired to renew his private employments at his 
charming home, " Sweet Water," near Florence — a spot kindly 
remembered by Confederate soldiers. 

Gov. Patton is stoutly built, and of ordinary highth. His 
featores are an index of his acknowledged energy, modera- 
tion, sobrieiy, and benevolence. His life, though enterpris- 
ing, has been blameless, and the annalist of Alabama can 
pomt to none more useful and respected. 

He married a daughter of Gen. James Brahan, a very 
prominent citizen for many years of tliis coimty. Two of his 
sons were killed in the Confederate service. Dr. Charles A. 
Patton, a prominent citizen of Madison, is a brother. Col. 
Weeden oi Madison, a brave field officer of the 49tb Alabama 
infantry, married a daughter of Gk)v. Patton. 

Lauderdale was the home at one time of Mrs. Caroline 
Lee Hentz, the popular novelist. She was the daughter of 
CoL John Whitmg of Lancaster, Massachusetts, and was 
bom about the beginning of the century. In 1824 she mar- 
ried Prof. N. M. Bentz, the son of a lawyer of Metz, and who 
was at the time associated with Mr. George Bancroft, the 
after-time historian, in the conduct of a seminary in the 
vicinity. Two years later, they removed to Chapel mil, N. C, 
where Prof. H. served as professor of beRes lettres and lan- 
gaages for several years. While residing in Cincinnati, in 
1832, flie first tragedy of her maturer years ("De Lara,") was 
« written for a Boston theatre, and took the prize of $600 
offered for the best production of the kind. It was two years 
after that the family came to this State, and made Florence 
their home. Here, absorbed in family and school duties, Mrs. 
Hentz passed nine years of the most domestic portion of her 
Kfe. In 1843 she and her husband removed to Tuskaloosa to 
take charge of a female seminary ; and from thence in a year 
or two to Tuskegee, and subsequently to Columbus, Georgia. 
She died of pneimionia in Marianna, Florida, Feb. 11, 1856, 
just after completing " Ernest Linwood," and did not know of 
its great success. Of her other works, " Linda, or the Pilot 
of 8ie Belle Creole," " Bobert Graham," " Marcus Warland," 
and " The Planter's Northern Bride," are those best known. 
Mrs. Hentz was not sufficiently identified with Alabama for 
her .merits as an author to be presented here ; but none have 
biled to remark how thoroughly she had observed the salient 
traits of Southern character. She is the only novelist of her 
reputation who has laid the scenes of her stories among us, 
save Mr. Simms, and they will convey faithful pictures of 
refined life at tihe Soutli as long as the English language is 


spoken. Nor is it as a novelist that those who knew her 
Ipngest most fondly remember her. As a wife, mother, and 
educator, she had a practical existence, and brightened the 
pathway of others witn her womanly love and devotion. She 
left two daughters who have won some' distinction in literary 
circles: Mrs. Geoi^e P. Keyes of Montgomery, and Mrs. 
Branch ; and a son resides in Florida. 

Edward Asbury O'Neal is a citizen of Lauderdale, but a 
native of Madison. He was born in 1818, and is the son of a 
planter who came from South Carolina, and who was of Irish 
and Huguenot descent. His father died when he was four 
years old, but his mother ( whose maiden name was Wheat, 
also of South Carolina ) was of much force of character. He 
grew to manhood in Madison, and was graduated at Lagrange 
College. Having read law in the office of Hon. James W. Mc- 
Clung, he was admitted to the bar in 1840, and located at 
Florence. He has been associated in the practice, at different 
times, with Messrs. Robert Armstrong, W. B. Wood, and John 
E. Moore. Li 1841 he was elected solicitor, defeating Hon. 
John A. Nooe of Franklin. This position he held tiU 1845. 
Li 1849 he was a candidate for congress, but was defeated 
In 1861 he enlisted a company for the 9th Alabama raiment, 
of which he was appointed major, and of which he became 
lieutenant colonel in the fall. In March 1862 he was appointed 
colonel of the 26th Alabama, then in Bichmond. At York- 
town, Williamsburg, Seven Pines, and the battles around Bich- 
mond, he led this regiment. At Seven Pines his horse was^ 
killed under him, and he was severely injured by a shelL On 
the first march into Maryland he commanded Bodes's brigade 
till relieved two days before the battle of Boonsboro. In ihis 
stubborn conflict he received a painful wound in the thigh* 
During the winter he rejoined the army, and assumed com- 
mand of the brigade. At Chancellorsville, Gbttysbui^, and 
Mine Bun he led it, and distinguished himself for courageous 
bearing. Early in 1864 his regiment was sent back to this State 
to recruit its depleted ranks. But it was soon ordered to Dal- 
ton, where he took command of Cantey's brigade. This he 
led during Johnston's famous retreat, winning further laurels. 
He was relieved soon after Gen. Hood took command of the 
army, and was on detached service in the closing days of the 
stniggle. A commission of brigadier general was issued to him 
during that time, but the interruption of mail communication 

{)revented its reception. It had been recommended by onr 
egislature, and was tardy lustice. • 

G^n. O'Neal's frame is slight but well knit. Hir complex- 
ion is florid, and his brown eye quick and restless. 

" Age ne*er cools tho Donglas blood. '* 


Ab an officer he was indulgent, impetuous, and fearless, and 
muck beloved by his troops. He is generous and hospitable, and 
ranks high as an advocate. He married a sister of Messrs. 
Sydenham and John E. Moore. Major A. M. O'Ned of the 
1st Confederate battalion, now of New York, is his son, and 
another son is his law partner. Col. Edward McAlexander 
of the 27th Alabama, and Hon. Alexander McAlexander, both 
of this county, are nephews of Gen. O'Neid. 

The late John Edmund Moore was for many years a resi- 
dent of this county. He was an elder brother of Col. Syd. 
Moore of Greene, and was bom in Butherford county, Ten- 
nessee^ in 1815. Beoeiving a good education, he read law in 
Hnntsville, was licensed, and practiced there a vear or two. 
He then came to Florence, and here pursued his profession. 
In 1847 he represented the county in the general assembly. 
In 1861 he was elected to the bench of the circuit court, m 
which responsible position he acted for twelve years. Presi- 
dent Pierce tendered him the appointment of territorial judge 
of Kansas, but he declined it. His death occurred in Greene 
oonnty in 1864, soon after receiving the appointment of judge 
of a military court. In person he was tail and spare, with 
li^t complexion. His bearing was dignified, his manner cor- 
dial As a judicial officer he was studiously impartial, and 
filled the measure of an upright and moral magistrate and 
citizen. He has left a spotless record and an exemplary char- 
acter. Judge Moore married a Miss Watson. 

BiOHABD OmcK Pickett, a prominent citizen of this county, 
is a native of Fauquier county, Virginia, and was bom m 
1819. He was the son of Col. Steptoe Pickett ; the maiden 
name of his mother was Chilton. When he was quite young 
his parents came to this State and settled in Limestone county. 
The son grew to manhood, received a ^ood education, and 
became a merchant. Not succeeding m this, he read law 
under the late Hon. James Irvine, one of the ablest lawyers 
the bar of Florence has boasted, and came to the bar in 1847. 
Locating in Moulton, he entered on the practice. He first 
represented Lawrence in the legislature m 1849, and twice 
BUDsequently. He was a captain in the 35th Alabama Infan- 
try, and was captured at Corinth. He subsequently entered 
the cavalry, and became colonel of a regiment in Roddy's 
command. Since the war he has pursued his profession in 
Florence. Col. Pickett is tall and slender, with intellectual 
features, and a ^ave demeanor. As a speaker he is sensible 
and earnest, while his mental, moral, and social standing is 
high. He married Miss Baggs of this county. 


Henby Cox Jones resides in this county, but is a native of 
Franklin, where he was bom Jan. 23, 1821. He was gradu- 
ted at Lagrange CoU^e while Bishop Paine was president of 
the faculty, and read law under Hon. Daniel Coleman of lime- 
stone. At the session of the general assembly in 1841, he 
was elected to the office of judge of the county court of Frank- 
lin without his solicitation. In 1843 he resigned the office, 
and was elected the same year to represent the county in the 
leeislature. Re-elected in 1844, he remained in retirement 
till 1853, when he was elected to the State senate. He came 
to reside in this county in 1856, and has since practiced law 
at Florence. He represented the county in the constitutional 
convention of 1861, and refused to vote for or sign the ordin- 
ance of secession. The same year he was elected to the 
provisional ct^ngress of the Confederacy, and was an earnest 
advocate of the Soutiiem cause. He has not since taken 
official part in public afTairs. Judge Jones is stoutly boiU^ 
^nd has an impressive appearance. As a speaker he is fluent 
and effective, and vehement in utterance. He stands well as 
a lawyer and advocate, and is a gentleman of manly charac- 
ter and ardent public spirit. He married a sister of Hon. 
Wade Keyes. 

Wade Keyes also resides in this county, but is a native of 
limestone. His father. Gen. Keyes, was a planter, and mer- 
chant at MooresviUe, where the son was bom in 1821. Hjs 
motlier was a Miss Butiedge of Tennessee. Educated at Lar 
grange College and the University of Virginia, he read law 
under the eye of Judge Coleman in Athens, andinLexii^ton, 
Kentucky# After a tour in Europe, he located in Tallahassee, 
Florida, in 1844. While there he wrote a volume on contin- 

fent remainders, and another on the practice in chanceiy. 
Q 1851 he removed to Montgomery, this State. At the ses- 
sion of the general assembly m 1853 he was elected chuioellor 
of the southern division, over Messrs. Bugbee of Montgomery, 
and Sterling G. Cato of Barbour, tie fiUed this station with 
marked ability for six years. In 1861 he was appointed assist- 
ant attorney general of the Confederate States, and held the 
position during the existence of that government. He re- 
sumed the duties of his profession at the close of the war in 
Montgomery, but came to reside in this county in 1867, and 
now has an office in Florence. Chancellor Keyes is justiy 
admired for a profound knowledge of law, and for the digoity 
and impartiality witii which he presided as a judicial officer. 
His attainments as a. scholar are shown in the ease and clear- 
ness of his writings, which are restricted to professional sub- 
jects, and are valued by the members of the bar. He married 
a daughter of Gen. George Whitfield of Florida. 



Hugh McVay represented the county in the convention 
caUed to frame a constitution in 1819. Henry C. Jones and 
Sidney C^ Posey represented it in that of 1861 ; and Robert 
M. Patton and James Irvine in the convention of 1865. 

•The following is a list of members of the legislature : 

18] 9— Joseph Farmer. 
1821 —Hogh MoVay. 
1822— Hugh McVay. 
182&— James Jackson. 
185»-.Hugh McVay. 
1830-^AMn Jackson (1830). 
1832— Hugh McVay. 
1834— HuoH MoVat (1836). 
1837— Sidney C. Posey. 


1838— Hugh McVay. 
l'84l— Hugh McVay. 
1844— Sidney C. Posey. 
1847— John C. F. Wilson. 
1851— Robert M. Patton. 
1855— Robert M. Patton. 
1859— RoBEBT M. Patton (1861). 
1862— James Stewarts 
1865 — James Jackson. 
[No election in 1867, or since.] 


1819— Jacob Byler, Thos. Garrard. 

1820— H. McVay, Jonathan Bailey. 

1821— G. Masterson, John Craig. 

1822— James Jackson, F. Dnrett 

1823 — James Jackson, C. 8. Manly. 

1824— Jacob Byler, J. P. Cunning- 

1825— Jonathan Bailey, Wm. B. Mar- 
tin, George Coalter. 

1886— Hugh McVay, Samuel Craig, 
Hennr Smith. 

1827 — Hugh McVay, Samuel Craig, 
Francis Durett. 

1828— J. L. D. Smith, Wm. George, 
Francis Durett. 

1889— John Pop«, Samuel Craig, F. 

1830— Hugh McVay, Wm. George, J. 
P. Cunningham. 

1831— Hugh MoVa^, Samuel Craig, 
' John McKinley. 

1832— Cornelius Carmack, George S. 
Houston, Samuel Toung. 

1833— Cornelius Carmack, Jas. Jack- 
son, Samuel Harkins. 

1834 — C. Carmack, Jas. Jackson, S. 
Toung. J. B. Womack. 

1836— C. Carmack, S. C. Posey, L. 
Gamer, £. Sheffield. 

1836— C. Carmack, S. C. Posey, John 
McKinley, R. M. Patton. 

1637 — C. Carmack, Geo. Simmons, J. 
M. Boston, £. She^^eld. 

1838 — C. Carmack, J. Douglas, Jas. 

M. Boston, 8. R* Gamer. 
1839— Henry D. Smith, J. Douglas, A. 

O. Horn. 
1840— Henry D. Smith, J. Douglas, J. 

R. Alexander. 
1841— Henry D. Smith, J. S. Kenne- 
dy, J. R. Alexander. 
1842— Henry D. Smith, J. Douglas, 

John S. Kennedy. 
1343— B. B. Barker, J. Douglas, J. R. 

Alezan d ep 
1844— H. D. Smithj W. Baugh, J. B. 

1845— £. G. Yonng, B. B. Barker, J. 

C. F. Wilson. 
1847— L. P. Wauub, John E. Moore» 

J. S. Kennedy. 
1849— L. P. Walker, R. M. Patton, 

Joseph Hough. 
1861— R. W. Walker, V. M. Benham, 

O. H. Gates. 
1853— L. P. Walker, Wm. Rhodes. 
1855— R. W. Walxbb, H. D. Smith. 
1857— S. A. M. Wood, H. D. Smith. 
1859— S. D. Hermon, H. D. Smith. 
1861— a C. Posey, J. H. Witherspoon. 
1863— Alexander McAlexander, T. L. 

1865— Edward McAlexander, B. £. 

1867— [No election.] 
1870— B. F. Taylor, 




Lawrence was established by the first territorial l^islature, 
Feb. 4, 1818. It was carved out of the Cherokee and Chicasa 
cession of 1816, and has not changed its original dimensions. 

It lies in the northwest quarter of the State, contigaons 
to Lauderiiale and Limestone on the north, to Moigan on the 
ea^t, Winston on the south, and to Franklin and Colbert on 
the west. 

It was named for Capt. Lawrence^ of the federal navy. 

The area of Lawrence is about 765 square miles. 

The assessed value of real estate is $1,467,817 ; of person- 
alty $359,855 ; total $1,827,672. 

The decennial movement of population is thus shown : 

1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 

Whites 8301 7143 8342 7173 10,096 

Blacks 6623 6170 6916 6802 6,562 

There are 144,224 acres of improved farm lands, and 165,374 
acres unimproved ; the cash value of which is $1,413,284. 

The Uve stock— 2570 horses, 1816 mules, 8580 neat cattle, 
5095 sheep, and 18,627 hogs— is valued at $689,507. 

The productions in 1869 were 519,673 bushels of corn, 
20,233 bushels of wheat, 14,217 bushels of oats, 12,080 gal- 
lons of somhum, 21,148 bushels of potatoes, 174,063 pounds 
of butter, 6324 pounds of tobacco, 9243 bales of cotton, 8297 
pounds of wool; the value of animals slaughtered vas 
$104,235 ; and the value of farm products was $1,359,431. 

Lawrence is the most fertile county in the valley of 
Tennessee, with one exception. The Moulton and Courfland 
valleys are comparatively level and very productive. There 
are also valuable lands in the hill coimtiy. 

There is much mineral water in the county, consisting of 
chalybeate, sulphur, &c. Stevenson's Spring is said to pos- 

* Jai££S Lawbemce was born in BurlingtOD, Vermont, in 1781. At the 
age of sixteen years, he wtis appointed a niidshipman in the navy, and first 
served in the war against Tripoli. While commanding the Hornet in Ihl3, 
he foaght and captured the Peacock, a British man-o'-war. Placed in com- 
mand of the Chesapeake, he fought a disastrous battle with the British frigate 
Shannon, off Boston, June J, 1813 A^ he was being carried below mortally 
wounded, he gave the order, ** Fight her till she sinks !" 


sess curative powers. Tar Spring, 15 miles southeast of 
Moolton, has a resinous substance mingled witli it. 

MouLTON, the seat of justice, has about 450 inliabitants. 
It was named for a brave officer of the Tennessee troops, 
killed at the Horse-Shoe, and was incor^jorated first in 1819. 

Courtiand, on the r£kilroad, has about 600 inhabitants. 

Leighton is a railroad village, on the line of Colbert.* 

Election precincts were established in 1819 at Courtland 
and Moulton, and in 1821 at Geo, W. McGaughey's, Nathaniel 
Norwood's, and Joseph Scales'. 

Lawrence was desolated by the late war between the States, 
of which numerous stirring incidents took place on its soil 
between small bodies of men. Courtland was the scene of 
mote than one of these, and several were killed at Moulton in 
a skirmish between Roddy and the invaders. 

Where the railroad crosses Town creek, in tliis county, Gen. 
Forrest met Dodge's colunm of 8000 men with less than half 
that number, April 28, 1863. Eoddy, with 1200 men, had 
stood sullenly in the path of Dodge from the Mississippi line 
all tlie way, and was stiffly disputing the passage of the creek 
when Forrest crossed at Brown's Ferry, and came to his aid. 
The stream was almost unfordable, and all day long the eight 
guns of the Confederates and the eighteen of Dodge spat 
flame and shell one at the other over the woodland on the 
creek, where the active skirmishers filled the interludes of the 
cannonading witii the sharper intonation of their rifles. The 
sun was waning when news of a startling nature was brought 
to the two commanders. Dodge heard the booming of artil- 
lery down the valley in his rear, and the quick ear of Forrest 
caught the tread of cavalry on the head waters of the creek. 
The one was Dibrell sheUing the federal cantonment at South 
Florence ; the other was Streight mo^dng by the flank on the 
Confederate stores at Rome, Georgia. Before dark, Forrest 
left Roddy as a veil on the creek, and slept at Courfland ; and 
the early dawn found him on the track of the daring raider. 
Dodge fell back more deUberately that night, giving Comyn 
time to illuminate the march with the Ught of burning dwell- 
ings and granaries, and to desolate the country without mercy. 

*' Jastice mast sleep Id civil vrar.*' 

Among the many men of mark that have lived in Lawrence 
David Hubbard may well be classed. His family was from 
Virginia, but he is a native of Tennessee, and born about the 
year 1794. His parents being poor, his early advantages were 
limited. He was a voliuiteer at the battle of New Orleans, 
and, long after, on his electioneering tours, when some kind- 
heaiied voter would inquire why he limped, "Oh, nothing but 
that old wound I got at New Orleans,*' he would indifferently 


say. Just after the peace, he came to this State and worked 
in Huntsville as a carpenter. He read law there, and came 
to this county to reside as a practitioner about the year 1819. 
Elected to the office of solicitor soon after, he entered the 1^- 
islature in 1827, and within the thirty years ensuing was nine 
times chosen to one house or the other of the general assembly. 
In 1839 he was elected to congress, defeating Hon. David G. 
Ligon. Again in 1849, he was elected to congress, this time 
over Messrs. Wm. B. Wood and E. A. O'Neal, both of Lau- 
derdale ; but he was thrice defeated for the position by Gten. 
Houston of Limestone. In 1860 he was an elector for Breck- 
inridge. During the occupancy of this county by the federal 
troops they shamefully treated him, and showed no respect for 
his gray hairs. Since the peace, he has resided in midale Ten- 
nessee. In appearance Major Hubbard is stout, but stoop- 
shouldered and uncomely. His brow is broad and large, but 
disfigured by a wen. His address is rather awkward, but his 
mind was full of vigor and vitality even in his later public life. 
As an electioneerer, whether on the stump or in the bush, he 
was truly formidable, possessing many arts of the popularman. 
His heart is kind and numane, his friendship ardent, and his 
ability, chiefly developed as a politician, far above mediocrity. 
He is also a close student of mankind, and his shrewdness 
and tact are proverbial in Lawrence. He first married a sister 
of Hon. Argyle Campbell of this county, but his present wife 
was a Miss Stoddard of Tennessee. Hon. Greene K. Hub- 
bard of this county was a brother to Major H. 

David Greenhill Ligon is a name that will not soon tsde 
from the annals of Lawrence. He was bom in southwestern 
Virginia about the year 1792 of a very respectable fomily. 
He was thoroughly educated and read law in iiis native State. 
In 1823 he came to Alabama, where his maternal uncle, Hon. 
John L. Townes of Madison, had already settled. He at once 
opened a law office in Courtland, and resided there or in Moul- 
ton with the exception of a short while, till his death. He 
represented the county in 1829 in the le^slature, but removed 
to Walker couniy, shortiy after, and resided there a year or 
two. Twice he was defeated for congress, but was elected in 
1846 chancellor of the northern division, defeating Alexander 
Bowie and Thomas D. Woodward. In 1848 he publi^ed a 
" Digested Index of the Supreme Court of Alabama in Chan- 
" eery Cases, from 1820 to 1847, " a work of value to the pro- 
fession, which at once demanded a second edition. In Decem- 
ber 1851 the general assembly elected him to the bench of the 
supreme court by a vote of 65, to 61 for Hon. John D. Fhelan 
of rerry, and he performed the duties of that high station for 


three years. About the year 1846 he had entered the mini£h 
tr^ of the Christiaii Church, and it was while preaching in 
this county that he was seized with apoplexy, and died almost 
immediately — 1855. Justice Ligon was of full stature, and fair 
complexion, with the intellectual laigely predominating in ihe 
structure of his head. He was exceemngl^ affable and amiable, 
and sociability in early life led him into di^|ipation, from which 
he wholly refnedned for fifteen years before tne close of his life. 
As an orator he was one of the most gifted the State has pro- 
duced; the luxuriance and refuljgent^ow of his fancy surpass- 
ing the extraordinary.* Yet, with his splendid imagination, 
lie was, singular to say, an able attorney. He married Miss 
OreenhiU, a cousin, and his widow and daughter now reside 
in this couniy. His son, Paschal Ligon, became a senator in 
the Arkansas legislature, and died there a few years ago. 

Thomas MinoIt Petebs is one of the earlier settiers of 
this county. He was bom in Clarksville, Tennessee, in 1810, 
and came with his parents to Lawrence in 1819. His father 
was a &rmer ; his mother's maiden name was Minott. Here 
he grew to manhood, and was educated at Lagrange College 
and the State University. He then read law at Moulton with 
his brother, Samuel M. Peters, and was enrolled as an attor- 
ney*inl836. He opened a law oflSce in Moulton, and was for 
several years the law partner of Hon. D. G. Ligon. He was 
also the editor and owner of a newspaper in the town at the 
outset of his career. In 1845 he represented the county in 
the general assembly, and in 1847 served the counties of 
Walker and Lawrence in the upper branch of that body. He 
bitterly opposed dis-Union, ana went into the Federal lines 
during the war. He was the nominee in 1868 by his party 
for the position he now holds on the supreme bench of the 
State. Justice Peters is an industrious man, with a resolute 
will, and very decided in his views. 

Francis W. Sykes has been a resident of Lawrence for 
over thirty years. He was bom in Northampton countv, N. 
C, April 19, 1819, but his parents, James T. and Sarah Dancy 
Sykes, were natives of Virgmia. They came to Morgan couniy 
in 1824, and Mr. Sykes was president of the branch bank at 
Decatur for several years. The son passed his early vears in 
Morgan, and after miishing his education at Nashville Uni- 

*Justic6 Ligon was a ready debater, and quick at repartee. ^ While can- 
YasBing against Major Habbard, the latter took occasion in his speech to 
answer the charge of speculating in lands, and being sharp thereat. He con- 
fessed, and said it was the bad laws which enabled him to doit ; but that he 
knew ihe defects, and wished to go to congress to correct them. In reply, 
ligon said it was the first time he had ever heard it si^ggested tha^ the bell- 
oow abould be sent to put up the fence. 


versity, he was graduated in medicine at Transylvania Univer- 
sity, in 1840. After a brief residence in Somerville, he located 
at Courtland, this county, and successfully pursued his pro- 
fessional career. Since 1849 he has given his attention to 
planting. He represented the county in the legislature in 
1855, but was defeated two years later. During the war he 
again served Lawrence in the representative chamber, and in 
1865 he was elected to the senate from Walker, Winston, 
and Lawrence. In 1868 he was on the Seymour electoral 
ticket, and in 1870 was voted for in the genei^il assembly for 
senator to congress. The talents of Dr. Sykes are of the 
quiet but useful kind, which are always available in legislative 
assemblies. In the private walks of life he is esteemed for 
various admirable qualities. 

Thomas J. Foster, late of this county, is a Tennesseean by 
bii-th, but came to Lawrence about the year 1830, when young. 
He is a yoimger brother of Hon. Ephraim H. Foster of Ten- 
nessee. He engaged in planting, iind vemained devoted almost 
exclusively to his domestic pursuits till 1861. In that year 
he was elected to the Confederate congress, defeating Hon. 
Henry C. Jones of Lauderdale, and Capt. Zeb. P. Davis of 
Madison. He was re-elected in 1863, and served the couniy 
and district till the overthi-ow of the Confederacy. In 18to 
he was elected to the Federal congi-ess, over Gten. Garth of 
Morgan, and Hon. C. C. Sheets of Winston, but was not per- 
mitted to take his seat. A year or two later he removed to 
Kentucky and now resides there. Mr. Foster is a man of 
good appearance, bland and agioeable manners, with a prac- 
tical mmd, and superior conversational powers. He married 
a daughter of Mr. JRobert Watkins of this coimty. 

Mat. C. Galloway, the brilliant joumahst of Memphis, 
Tennessee, began his career in Lawrence, and was here reared 
and probably bom. He has many relatives in Lawrence. 

Phillip Dale Boddy is a native of Lawrence. He was 
bom ill Moulton about the year 1820. JHis parents were in 
humble circumstances, and he was deprived of educational 
advantages. He giew to manliood here, laboring as a tailor 
for several years. About the yeai* 1846 he was elected to the 
office of sheiiff, and served three years. He then engaged in 
steamboating on the Tennessee, and lived for some time at 
Chicasa, now in Colbert. He was thus engaged when the 
war began. He at once recruited a company of mounted 
men, and entered the service as its captain. He was efficient 
as a scout, and rendered important service at Shiloh, where 
his company was Qen. Bragg s escort, and where he was com- 
pUmented on the field for gtulantry. Shortly after he returned 



to the Tennessee valley, increased his oommand to a regiment, 
and made head against the numerous detachments of the 
JnTading army which' penetrated into north Alabama. In the 
fall of 1862 he recruited a brigade, and when Gen. Sweeney 
moved up from Corinth he was met at Little Bear creek by 
Soddy, and driven back to Corinth after a severe fi^ht. A 
little later he met another raid at Barton's, and drove it back, 
capturing a piece of artillery, and causing considerable loss. 
He ihen nela the valley, making several raids across the river. 
On one of these, he surprised the enemy in their camps at 
Athens, and burned their barracks and stores. On a raid to 
Corinth he captured 600 head of horses and mules, and drove 
back Col. Comyn, who followed him to luka. When Gen. 
Dodge moved up the valley, in April 1863, to cover Streight's 
movements, Boddy met him, and fought fiercely through Col- 
bert, seriously retarding his advance. While ne was m this 
viciniiy the federal troops were confined to Corinth and Hunts- 
ville, but when he was ordered to Dalton, they got possession 
of the valley, and fortified Decatur. When he came back he 
could not arive them from Decatur, but he held the south 
aide of the river. He rendered important service to Gen. 
Hood hj keeping his communications open. Early in 1865 he 
moved mto Gteorgia, and stopped a federal raid at Newnan. 
He or his brigade did gallant service with Forrest at Har- 
risburg, Tishomingo, Athens, Sulphur Trestle, &c., as weU as 
in the resistance to Wilson's column, and the defence of 
Selma. His regiments were his old coriimand xmder CoL 
Johnson, Moreland's Mississippians, Patterson's, BurtweU's, 
Pickett's, Hannon's (for a time) Stewart's Battalion, FerreU's 
Battery, and one or two other organizations. They were 
divided into two brigades, one under Col. W. A. Johnson, the 
other xmder Col. Josiah Patterson. Gen. Boddy has resided 
much of the time in New York since the peace, engaged in 
the business of a commission merchant. Me was a cautious 
commander, and is a brave man, of manly, generous, and 
unselfish qualities. His men were devoted to him. He mar- 
ried Miss McGaughey of this county. 

James S. Ciabke is a native and resident of this county, 
and was bom about the year 1830. He is the son of Dr. 
Clarke, a weU known citizen of the coun^. He was weU 
educated, and made the law his profession. In 1857 he repre- 
sented the county in the house of representatives, and was a 
member of the constitutional convention of 1861. In 1863 
he was acedn elected to the legislature. In 1868 he was voted 
for, and declared elected to me bench of the circuit court, a 
position he now holds. His brother. Dr. John M. Clarke, 
represented I^awrence in the legislature in 1865. 


WnuAM Crawford Sherrod is also a resident and native of 
Lawrence. To his father, Mr. Benjamin Sherrod, a diiissi&a 
of wealth and energr, who came to this county from North 
Carolina in 1818, and died here in 1847, is due the eariy con- 
struction of the railway from Decatur to Tuscumbia. Hme son 
was weU educated, and gave his attention chiefly to planting. 
In 1859 he represented the county in the general assemU^, 
and during the war was commissary of Patterson's brigade. 
In 1869 he was elected to congress, and Was the only member 
of the 41st congress, of his party, bom in the South. Mmor 
Sherrod is a gentleman of cultivation, and moral worth, of wit 
. talents, but modest withal. 

There was yet another whose fame is the pride of Lawrence. 
John Gregg was a native son, and bom in 1828. Shortly 
after, his father, Mr. Nathan Gregc, removed to Calhoun 
county, and resided there for several years, then resided at 
Lagrange CoUege, now in Colbert. Educated at Lagrange, 
he was for two years an assistant in Mr. Tutwiler's school at 
Greene Springs, in Hale. He then taught at Lei^hton till he 
removed to Texas in 1851. He arose rapidly to distinction as 
an attorney there, and was elected to the bench of the circuit 
court. At the beginning of the war he was elected to the 
provisional congress, and at the same time entered the service 
as lieutenant colonel of the 7th Texas. He was captured at 
Fort Donelson, and when exchanged was assigned to a brigade 
in the Army of Northern Virgima. He was promoted to the 
rank of brigadier general, and was conspicuous for his ability 
as an officer and his courage as a soldier in all the battles in 
Virginia after he joined tnat army. He was killed while 
leaodng Field's division in the desperate assault on Fort Har- 
rison, near Richmond, Oct. 7, 1864. His determined purpose 
to re-establish the Confederate line, broken by the capture <rf 
Fort HaiTison, is evinced by the careful directions he gave in 
several letters about his private affairs written the night 
before. "Of the many noble young men who perished in our 
" cause, none gave greater promise of distinction and useful- 
"ness to his country than John Gregg."* His attainments 
were scholarly, and ne was a learned and laborious attorney. 
Whilst always sufficiently self-assertive, he was singularly 
unobtrusive tor one of such heroic temper ; and he blended witi 
all his talents the requisites of a christian gentleman. 

**Mild in manner, fair in favor, sweet in temper, fierce in fight ; 
Warrior truer, gentler, braver, nevermore shall see the light." 

Qen, Gre^ married a daughter of Gen. Garth of Morgan, 
who now resides with her children in this State. 

•Henry Tutwiler, LL. D , of Hale. 


Joseph Wheeler is a diBtmgoished citizen of ibis connty. 
He was bom in Augusta, (Georgia, Sept. 10, 1836, and com- 

geted his education at West Point Military Academy in 1859. 
e was serving in New Mexico when he re&igned his lieuten- 
ancy, and was made lieutenant of artillery in the Confederate 
^regular army." After some service at Pensacola, he was 
appointed colonel of the 19th Alabama infantry, and led it 
gallantly at Shiloh. In the summer of 1862 he was placed in 
command of the cavalry of the Western Army, and distin- 
guished himself at Mumfordsville, Perryville, Murfreesboro, 
and in many daring raids into the federal lines. In the 
fight at Shelbyville he was the admiration of the oppos- 
ing forces for his intrepid courage. But (General Wheeler 
was not a citizen of Abbama at that time, and his many 
achievements are the web and woof of a more general his- 
tory. He led many Alabamians — the regiments of Russell, 
Hagan, Moi^an, H!annon, Malone, Blakey, Eeese, Hunter, 
and nearly all the moimted commands of the State that were 
not under Gen. Roddy. He arose to the rank of lieutenant 
general, and at the peace became a merchant in this county, * 
and is now enrolled as an attorney at law. '' Little Jo. 
Wheeler" was the idol of his men, and is one of the most 
attractive of gentlemen. 

Daniel R. Hundley resides in this coxmty, but was bom in 
Madison in 1832. He took a coUe^ate course, and was grad- 
uated in law at the University of Virginia and Harvard in 
1853. He soon after removed to Chicago, Illinois, to practice 
his profession. While residing there he was a contributor to 
aeveral periodicals, and in 1860 published *' Social Relations 
in our Houthem States," a work spoken of in the highest 
terms by " DeBow's Review," and other critics of the day. 
Though he was an opponent of secession, public opinion m 
Chicago forced him to come to the South, and he at once 
recruited a company with which he entered the service. At 
the organization of the 31st Alabama he was elected colonel, 
and led it with great credit till captured on the retreat from 
Dalton. Confined at Johnson's Island, ho took no further 
part in the struggle. He now resides in this county, and is a 

{)lanter and attorney. His brother, Lieut Col. Wm. H. Hund- 
ey of Madison, a brave yoimg officer, who commanded the 
battalion which was the nucleus of the 12th Alabama cavalry, 
was killed by being thrown from his horse in Morgan county 
in 1864. 

Arthur F. Hopkins and Daniel Wright represented Law- 
rence in the constitutional convention of 1819; David P 



Lewis and James S. Clarke in that of 1861 ; and James B. 
Speake and James S. Clarke in that of 1865. 

The following is a list of members of the general assembly : 


1819— Fleming Hodges. 
182*2— Arthur F. Hopkins. 
1H25— Mathew Clay. 
1827— David Hubbard. 
1828— David Hubbard. 
1881 — ^Thomas Ooopwood. 
1834— James B. Wallace. 
1837— James B. Wallace. 
1838— Hugh M. Bogers. 

1819 — Lewis Dillahunty, S. Bingham. 
1820— Mathew Clay, Samuel Bing- 
1821— M. Clay, Hugh A. Anderson. 
1822— M. Clay, Qreen E. Hubbard, 

Joseph Young. 
1823— Zadoo MoVay, Benjamin B. 

Jones, Joseph Young. 
1824 — Zadoc McVay, James McCord, 

John White. 
1825 — John P. Hickman, Joseph Coe, 

Thomas Coopwood. 
1826 — Zadoc McVay, Joseph Coe, 

Thomas Coopwood. 
1827 — Zadoc Mc\^y, Ellison A. Daniel, 

Thomas Coopwood. 
1828— David Wallace, W. Hodges, 

Thomas Coopwood. 
1829— David G. Ligon. W. Hodges, 

Thomas Ooopwood. 
1830— Harvey Dillahunty, W. Hodges, 

Thomas Coopwood. 
1831— D . Hubbard, J. T. Abemethy 
1832— David Hubbard, John J. Or- 

mond, John Stewart. 
1833— John H. Lawson, John J. Or- 

mond, John Stewart 
1834— James MoCord, James Wallis, 

Hugh M. Bogers, Isaac N.Owens. 
1835 — John H. Lawson, Wm. Beneau, 

H. M. Bogers, H. L. Stevenson. 
1836— Bichard Puckett.Wm. Beneau, 

J. T. Abefnethy, Micajah Priest. 

1840— Hugh M. Bogers. 
1843— Tandy W. Walker. 
1847— Thomas M. Peters. 
1849— H. L. Stevenson. 
1853— William A. Hewlett. 
1857— O. H. Bynum. 
1861— J. Albert HilL 
1865— Francis W. Sykes. 
[No election in 1867 or since.] 


1837— Bichard Puckett, H. M. Bo^eiB, 

H. L. Stevenson, Micajah Pnest 
1838— Tandy W. Walker, Sam'l Hen- 

derson, Manoah B. Hampton, 

Micajah Priest. 
1839— T. W. Walker, O. H. Bynum, 

H. L. Stevenson. 
1840— T. W. Walker^ James £. Ban- 
ders, Hartwell Ejng 
1841— T. W. Walker, Denton H. Val- 

liant, Charles Baker. 
1842— T. W. Walker, Denton H. Yal- 

liant, David Hubbard. 
1843— Leroy Pope Walker, Archibald 

Campbell, David Hubbard. 
1844— L. P. Walker, F. H. Jonee, C. 

C. Oewin. 
1845— Thomas M. Peters, D.Hnbbaid. 
1847— H. L. Stevenson, Jo&G.EvettB. 
1849— Bioh'd O.Piokett,O.H.BynQm. 
1851 — J. Armstrong, W. C. OrahaaL 
1853— B. O. Pickett, D. Hubbard* 
1855— F. W. Sykes, W. M. GaUoway. 
1857— James S. Clarke, Henry A. 

1859— Wm. C. Sherrod, D. Hubbard. 
186J— F. W. Sykes. B. O. Piekett. 
1863— F. W. Sykes, James 8. Clarke. 
1865— A. £. Ashford, John M. COaike. 
1866— J. M. Warren, rioeA^ Ashford. 
1867— [No election.] 
1870— James B. Speake, Philip P. 




Lee was created by an act approved Dec. 15, 1866, from 
portions of Chambers, Russell, Macon, and Tallapoosa. 

It lies in the east centre of the State, contiguous to Cham- 
bers on the north, the State of Georgia on me easf, Bussell 
on the south, and Macon on the west. 

It was named to honor Gen. E. E. Lee* of Virginia. 

The county has an area of about 600 square miles. 

The assessed value of real estate is $1,767,685 ; personalty 
$461,362; $2,229,037. 

The population in 1870 was 10,151 whites, and 11,597 blacks. 

The cash value of farm lands — 120,765 acres improved, and 
179,523 acres unimproved— is $1,405,738. 

The value of live stock — 1265 horses, 1927 mules, 9756 neat 
cattle, 2019 sheep, and 10,285 hogs— is $472,696. 

The productions in 1869 were 244,955 bushels of com, 
44,005 bushels of oats, 35,868 bushels of wheat, 63,672 bush- 
els of potatoes, 112,391 pounds of butter, and 11,591 bales of 
cotton ; the value of anmials slaughtered was $100,415 ; and 
the tol^ value of farm productions was $1,412,750. 

The surface is broken or undulating. The light soil, which 
predominates, has a clay sub-soil, and can be artificially im- 
proved to any capacity ; while there is much made loam that 
produces bounteously. 

There is a vast quantity of blue limestone, and the Che- 
wacla works are utilizing it. 

The Chattahoochee waters the eastern part of the county, 
but is not open to steamers. The Montgomery & West Point 
Kailroad extends through the county from east to west, and 
has a branch to Columbus ; the Memphis & Savannah Rail- 
road, and the East Alabama & Cincinnati Railroad extend 

[^ •Robert Edward Le© was born in Westmoreland county, Virginia, in 1806. 
His father, Col. Henry Lee, was a young officer of the rebellion of 1776, and 
afterwards governor of Virginia. Educated at West Point, the son entered 
the federal army in 1829, served with credit in Mexico, and was a colonel of 
a cavalry regiment when he resigned to tender his services to his native State 
in 1861. His subsequent career as gen oral-in-chief of the Confederate armies 
is fresh in the memory of readers of the present day. He became president 
of a college at Lexington, Va., at the close of the war, and there died in Pc- 
tober 1870. 


through the northern portion ; and these give the counly aboat 
seventy-five miles of railway. 

Opeuka, the seat of justice, is a railroad centre. It has 
grown from an insignificant village within a few years ago to 
a town of about 3000 inhabitants. It has a considerable pro- 
duce and cotton trade, an iron foundry, machine shop, &c. 

Auburn, on the railroad, seven miles from Opelika, nas 1018 
inhabitante. The East Alabama College is located here. It 
went into operation in 1858, and in 1872 was endowed as the 
agricultual college of the State by an act of the general a^ 
sembly. Its career of usefulness has just begun. There is 
also a female college at Auburn. 

The territory within the limits of Lee began to be settled 
about the year 1833, when the treaty with the Indians for 
the cession of their lands in east Alabama was at last con- 
cluded. Nothing of grave historical importance has yet trans- 
pired within its limits. Bosseau's raid, m January 1864, struck 
the railroad at Loachapoka, and moved eastward, burning the 
depot buildings thisre, and at Auburn and OpeUka, and tearing 
up the track. They were pursued througn the oouniy by a 
detachment of cavalry and a number of citizens. 

William Hodges Barnes is a citizen of this county. He 
was bom in Monroe county, Georgia, April 1824. His moiher 
was a daughter of Mr. Jethro Mobley. His father, a planter, 
removed to Merriwether county, (Ga.) in 1826, and there the 
son grew to manhood. Receiving an academic course of edu- 
cation, he taught school for tln*ee years, and then (1844) 
followed his parents, who had settled in Chambers county, 
this State. He read law in Lafayette, under Messrs. Lemuel 
B. Bobinson and James C. Beese, and was admitted to the 
bar in 1845. He at once removed to Dadeville, where he 
practiced for twelve years. In 1857, he returned to La&y- 
ette, and became the partner of Mr. James T. Brock, a 
prominent lawyer. In 1861 he represented Chambers in the 
constitutional convention, and the same year entered the State 
senate by defeating Hon. Philemon O. Harper of Chambers. 
He served as senator during the war, ana in 1865 was re- 
elected, defeating Hon. J. J. McLemore. During his last 
term he was chairman of the judiciary committee. After 
leaving the senate (1867), Mr. Barnes came to this county, 
and has practiced his profession in Opelika. He is stout, of 
medium nighth, and corpulent. His good nature is imperturb- 
able, and he has pleasing social qualities. He ranks high as 
a law}'er, and possesses clear views and a sound judgment 
As a speaker he is forcible and effective, often bringing nnmor 
to his aid, but never losing sight of W. His wife is a 
daughter of Col. Joseph Bawls, sheriff of Tallapoosa in 1847. 

UMBSTONS Gouimr. 317 

WiLLtAK Flewelltn Samfobd of this county was bom in 
Wilkinson county, Georgia, in 1818. His father, Bey. Thomas 
Samford, who died recently at an advanced age, was consid- 
ered one olf the* ablest ministers in all Georgia. He was 
graduated at Randolph-Macon College, and was elected pro- 
^88or of belles lettares in the f acultjr of Oxford College, Georgia, 
at the age of tweniy years. Admitted to the bar in 1839, he 
soon won distinction in the forensic arena. In 1844 he was 
an elector on the Polk ticket in Georgia, and made a brilliant 
canvass ; but he has never fuUy recovered from the shock his 
system received from the excitement of that politicahcatupaign. 
In 1845 he declined the mission to Borne, and a professorship 
in a college. A year or two later he came to tnis State, and 
resided in Macon county till thrown into this countv by the 
act of establishment He edited a newspaper in Tuskegee 
in 1856-7, and has written voluminously for the press. He 
received a very complimentary vote for governor in 1859 with- 
out any effort on his part. In 1867 Bimdolph-Macon College 
conferred on him the degree of LL. D. He now lives m 
retirement in this county, on his plantation. Mr. Samford is 
one of the ablest and most effective writers in the State, and 
but for his want of health his eloquence would have been the 
subject of general admiration. He married a sister" of Hon. 
James F. Dowdell of Chambers, and one of his sons is an 
attorney at the bar of this county. 

Sheldon Toomer and J. M. Simms were the first representa- 
tives elected to the general assembly. No senator has yet 
been chosen by the people. 



Limestone was created out of the lands purchased from the 
Chicasas and Cherokees, in 1816, by an act of the territorial 
legislature passed Feb. 6, 1818. 

It lies ia the extreme northern part of the State, contiguous 
to the State of Tennessee on the north, to Madison on the 
easty Morgan on the south, Lawrence on the southwest, and 


to Lauderdale on the west. It retains almost the same dimen- 
fiions as when first or;ganized. 

It is named for the large creek which flows Ihrough it, whieh 
has a bed of hard lime rocL 

The area of Limestone is nearly 600 square miles. 

The assessed value of real estate in 1870 was $2,195,921 ; 
personally $461,362 ; total $2,693,056. 

The decennial exhibit of population has been as follows: 

1820 1830 J 840 1850 1860 1870 

Whites.^ 6922 8077 7498 8399 7215 7764 

Blacks... 2949 6730 6876 8084 8001 7253 

The cash value of farm lands is $1,816,510 ; of which 115,730 
acres were improved, and 122,667 acres were unimproved. 

The Uve stock — 2213 horses, 1479 mules, 5527 neat cattle, 
3960 sheep, and 13,566 hogs— were valued at $562,739. 

In 1869 the farm productions were 404,436 bushels of com, 
24,010 bushels of wheat, 10,102 bushels of oats, 33,349 bush- 
els of potatoes, 115,982 pounds of butter, 5238 gallons of 
sorghum, 9582 pounds of tobacco, 7319 bales of cotton, 4880 
pounds of wool ; the value of animals slaughtered was $130,830; 
and the value of farm products was $1,231,157. 

The lands are rolling, and hilly, and the soil consists of 
"mulatto," clay, and alluvial bottoms. It is a soil easily im- 

The Tennessee is the southern boundary, and is navigable 
for steamers. The Chewallee or Elk flows through the north- 
western portion, and vessels of light draught have ascended 
to Elkton, Tennessee. The Decatur and JNashville Bailroad 
bisects the county, having 27 miles of its length within its 
borders. The Memphis k Charleston Railroad passes over 
twelve miles of the southern portion. 

Athens, the seat of justice, had 887 inhabitants — 549 whites, 
338 blacks — in 1870, though it claims a lai-ger population. It 
was first incoiporated Nov. 19, 1818, and the courthouse was 
located here at once. A seminary of learning for females is 
one of its advantages. The business portion of the town, 
including the courthouse, was burned, and the phice made his- 
torical diuing the progress of the late war by otiier events 
which will be recorded in this chapter. 

MooresN-ille had 1(55 inhabitants by tlie census of 1870. 

In 1819, Reuben Tillman, Thomas Redus, Jeremiah Tucker, 
Robert Pollock, and Samuel Hundley were appointed by the 
legislatui-e to superintend the erection of public buildings for 
the county. 

Limestone was the fiist portion of the State occupied by 
the federal troops during the late memorable war, and it suit- 


fered cmeQy and sadly during that time. The barbarous con- 
duct of Col. Turchin,* who for some months ruled at Athens, 
towards the unfortunate citizens of the town has no precedent 
in the history of the United States, exceeding even that of 
Gen. Mitchell at Huntsville. 

Several sharp engagements occurred in the county between 
detachments of the hostile armies. The most notawe of these 
were the captures of Athens by Gen. Eoddy in 1863 and by 
Gen. Forrest. The latter event was one of the most brilliant 
of the many daring achievements of the renowned cavalryman. 
With 3,000 men he forded the Tennessee at Colbert's JPerry, 
and was joined by 1,500 of Roddy's force as he marched east- 
ward by way of JFlorence. At sunset, Sept. 23, 1864, he ar- 
rived before Athens, and captured the horses and cantonments 
of the enemy, who fled into a fort they had erected half a mile 
from the outskirts of the town. Durmg the night the confed- 
erates surroimded the place, and took position for the attack. 
A demand for their surrender was sent in the next momirg, 
and was promptly refused. Forrest then asked for a confer- 
ence with Col. Campbell, the federal commander, which was 
accorded. During the interview, Forrest impressed upon Col. 
C. the futility of his resistance, for his force was too strong to 
be repelled. As a proof of the assertion, he offered to submit 
to review the 8,000 men he had with him. The federal com- 
mander confessed that it would be useless for him to sacrifice 
life in a hopeless encoimter, and accompanied Forrest around 
the confederate line. By adroit management, in transferring 
his men from one position t<f another, Col. Campbell was in- 
duced to bebeve that the force which confronted him was fully 
10,000 strong, and he promptiy surrendered the fortress, and 
its garrison of 1400 men. The work thus captured was a 
square redoubt on a steep hiU, with parapets eight to ten feet 
high, encompassed by a line of aixiiis, ana a ditch ten feet deep 
and fifteen feet wide, lined with sharpened palisades. Hardly 
had the capitulation been effected before a train came up from 
the direction of Nashville, and disembarked over 400 troops. 
These at once proceeded to the reUef of the invested work, 
and were fiercely engaged by a detachment of Forrest's com- 
mand. It required an obstinate fight of an hour's duration, 
in which a number were killed on both sides, before this detach- 
ment was captured. Haifa mile down the road towards Deca- 
tur was a redoubt with about fifty men, and another a mile fur- 

*Johii Basil Tiircbin was a RuBBian by birth, and a soldier by edncation. 
After serying in the Crimea, be came to America in 1856, and was an engi- 
neer on the Illinois Centrsd Railroad when he was appointed colonel of a 
Tolunteer regiment. He was tried for his infamous conduct at Athens, and 
promoted to brigadier general. 


iher sonth had a garrison of 85 men. The latter surrendered 
without a struggle, while the former only held out till a few 
shells Idlled several of the garrison. The trophies were 1,900 
prisoners, four pieces of ajrtillery, and a small wagon train. 
The enemy lost about forty killed and one hundred wounded ; 
the confederates lost not over t^i^enty killed and sixty wounded. 

The Confederates then moved northward on the raQroad, 
and encamped eight miles from Athens, capturing two more 
block houses and seventy of the enemy on the way, without 
firing a gun. A march of three miles tne next morning, Sept 
25, brought the command to " Sulphur Trestle," in this county. 
The Federal troops had here erected a strong redoubt and 
two formidable block-houses to guard the high trestle of the 
railroad, and they were garrisoned bv about 1000 men, of 
whom 600 were ne^o infantry, while the others were cavalry. 
Forrest made his dispositions, drove their sharpshooters from 
the rifle pits and opened fire on the redoubt — the block- 
houses bemg sheltered by the highths. The two pieces of 
artillery of the redoubt were soon silenced, and Col. Liathrop, 
the Federal commander, killed. The wooden works were set 
on fire and burned, adding terror to the scene of death. The 
garrison now seemed to be incapable of defending themselves, 
and ran frantically from side to side of the fort, bereft of suffi- 
cient coolness to signal their surrender. When ihis state of 
facts became apparent, the confederates at once ceased firing, 
and the garrison promptly assented to the demand for a sur- 
render, in which the forces in the block-houses were included. 
The inside of the fort presented tf sickening spectacle. About 
175 men lay dead in tne slaughter pen, and about thirty more 
were wounded. The loss of the confederates was several 
killed and wounded. The captured numbered 820 men, 350 
horses, two pieces of artillery, twenty loaded wagons, Ac. &c. 
Forrest continued his marcn northward into Tennessee, on 
what was called his " Pulaski Eaid."* 

It would require a volume to relate the numerous incidents 
of the great struggle that had their locale in Limestone, and 
they must be left to a less general history. 

Several notable men have lived in this county. 

The second governor of the State of Alabama, Thomas Bibb, 
was one of the very first settlers of Limestone. He was bom 
in Virginia in the year 1784, and grew to manhood in Georgia^ 
His education was good, and he became a planter and mer- 
chant. In 1811 he settled in Madison, and came to this county 

* Even the best informed are not accnstomed to consider that thit almost 
unnoted fight at Snlphnr Trestle inflicted a heavier loss on the enemy than 
Washington inflicted on the British at ** the battle of Trenton," whioh lo 
greatly revived the hopes of the Colonists. 


fiiortly after the territory which now constitutes it wa-s pur- 
chasea firom the Indians. He represented the county in the 
conyention ' caUed to frame a constitution in 1819, and the 
asame year was elected to the senate of the new State. At the 
meetmg of the body in Huntsville he was chosen to preside 
over it, and thus became governor by the death of his brother, 
Gov. W. W. Bibb of Autauga, in July 1820. He held the 
office till December 1821. He subsequently represented the 
counly in the legislature, but death ended his useful life in 
1838. Gk)v. Bibb possessed unbounded energy and sterling 
worth, and was well fitted by his practical knowledge and solid 

E^"\es to be a pioneer of a great State. He married a 
ter of Mr. Robert (" Blue ") Thompson of Madison, and 
Bcendants are numerous in Alabama. Hon. John Jay 
Pleasants of Madison, secretary of state in 1822-'24, married 
one of his daughters, and one of his sons is now a planter in 

The name of Nicholas Davis, sr., is blended with the an- 
iwls of Limestone. He was bom in Hanover county, Vir- 
ginia, in 1781, near the birthplace of his friend and contem- 
poranr Henry Clay. His mother was a Ragland. In March 
1817 he setfled in Limestone, and occupied his time with 
planting. He represented the county in the convention called 
U> frame a State constitution, and in the first legislature. Li 
1820 he was elected to the State senate, where he remained 
^Une years, serving st& president of the^ body nearly the whole 
time. Li 1831 he received a very comphmentary vote for 
governor. Again in 1847 he was the candidate of his party 
d^ainst Gov. Chapman, and drew out its full strength. H!e 
^as also a candidate for elector on the Harrison ticket in 1840, 
aiid the Clay ticket in '44. He died in September 1856. 

Capt Davis was tall, erect and robust, with light hair and 
J^lne eyes. He was fluent and eloquent as an orator, with a 
^Me fond of practical knowledge. He was exceedingly can- 
^fiand hospitable, and swayed the opinions of men as much 
t>y his latge-heartedness as by his strong magnetism. He was 
^ patron of the turf, and carried out in his Alabama home all 
lie other attributes of a Viiginia gentleman of the approved 
^^lool. His wife was Miss Margrave of Virginia. Of his four 
^c>ns,s three are residents of Madison : Capt. Zeb. P. Davis, 
^apt. Clint. Davis, and Col. Nich. Davis. The former has 
'^>^en mayor of Huntsville several times. Another son, 

Lawbence Ripley Davis is a native and resident of Lime- 
stone. He was bom in 1823, was well educated, and is a 
planter. In 1849 he represented the county, and agedn in 




'59. He is a man of stalwart appearance, a ready speaJker, 
and a forcible writer. In all the qualities of manhood he jjar- 
taked of the characteristics of his family : manly, fearless, im- 

Sulsive, hospitable, &c. He first married a daughter of Hon. 
ames Abercrombie of Eussell, and, secondly, a daughter of 
Hon. T. J. McCleUan of this coimty. 

The name of Daniel Coleman is connected with the annals 
of Limestone. He was a native of Caroline county, Yii^inia, 
where his family then and now stand well, and of which county 
his father was nigh sheriff. The son was bom Aug. 2, 1801, 
and when sixteen years old left his home to make his way in 
the world ; the death of his father having reduced the family 
from affluence to poverty. He taught school at the Kanawha 
Salt Works a year, and used the money thus obtained to grad- 
uate at Transylvania University. He then obtained employ- 
ment as a scnbe in a court in Frankfort, Ky., and read law 
while so engaged under the eye of Judge Bledsoe. In 1819 
he came to this State and located at Mooresville, this county. 
The following year he was chosen by the legislature (throu^ 
the influence of Hon. Nich. Davis) judge of the county court. 
He was only nineteen years old, but the gravity of his deport- 
ment led no one to question his majority, and he hela the 
office several years. In 1829 he represented Limestone in 
the legislature. In 1835 he was elected by the legislature a 
judge of the circuit court. This dignified and responsible 
position he filled for twelve years. How satisfactorily he per- 
formed his duties may be inferred from the compliment paid 
him in June 1851, when Gov. CoUier selected nim to nil a 
vacancy on the supreme bench. He served till the following 
winter, when he declined a candidacy before the legislature, 
feeling that his enfeebled health Would not permit him to un- 
dergo the labors of the post. He retired to his home in 
Athens, where he died Nov. 4, 1857. Judge ColemaQ left a 
character for spotless integrity, piety, decorum, and sobriety. 
As a judge he was dignihed, laborious, and impartiaL In 
appearance he was slender and tall, with a light complexion. 
In manner he was grave to austerity. He married Miss Pe- 
terson of this coimty, and left several children. Two of his 
sons, officers in the Southern army, fell in battle ; one is a 
minister, and a fourth is a lawyer of Athens. 

Prominent at one time among the men of Limestone was 
Nathaniel Terry. He is a native of Bedford county, Vir- 
fflnia, and was bom towards the close of the last centoiy. 
Though his parents were in good circumstances, his educa- 
tion is defective. He settled in Limestone as a planter about 
1818, and soon accumulated wealth. Hi's first appearance in 


public life was in the year 1836, when he was elected to the 
senate. In this posiuon he was continued for nine years, 
serving as president of the body for four years. In 1845 he 
was a candidate for the governorship, but was defeated by 
Hon. J. L. Martin of Tuskaloosa. In 1852 he removed to 
Texas, where he yet lives, and of which State he has been a 
legislator. The want of cultivation was the bar to Mr. T.'s 
success in this State. His natural powers are quite superior, 
and his mind active and observant. As a speaker he is bold 
and effective ; and his address easy, while his hberality and 
hospitality are yet remembered in Limestone. He was while 
here a patron of the turf, and gave much attention to such 
matters. He married a sister of Hon. Joel W. Jones of Mobile. 

William Bichardson was a weU known citizen of Lime- 
stone, and has left a pleasant memory. He was bom in 
Groochland county, Vii^inia, and came to this county in 1823. 
Entering on the practice of the law, he soon became a lead- 
ing and influential citizen. Ho represented the county in the 
feneral assembly as early as 1830, and once subsequently. 
le was also solicitor of the judicial circuit for a number of 
2 ears. He was well educated, and had fair talents ; was a good 
iwyer, but not fluent as a speaker. Ho was a quiet and unam- 
bitious man, of exemplary character. His wife was a daugh- 
ter of Capt Nich. iJavis, and one of his sons represented 
Limestone in the general assembly of 18G5. 

Nathaniel Davis, one of the early settlers, represented 
Limestone in both branches of the general assembly. He was 
a plain man, with but httle education or culture, but with supe- 
rior natural powers of observation and reflection. He died in 
1862. His only son, Rev. Nicholas Davis of Texas, is a Pres- 
byterian minister. 

John H. J. Wynn, who often represented the county in the 
legislature, was a farmer and teacher. He was a correct man 
in his conduct, and honorable in intercounse with his fellow- 
men. Hi s abilities were only ordinary, but he was a useful 
l^islator and popular citizen. He died about the year 1855, 
and some of his aescendants reside in Madison county. 

Joshua P. Coman came to Limestone in 1829. He was bom 
in Wadesboro, North Carolina, in 1811 or '12. His father was 
bom in Ireland, and his mother was a Miss Wade. In 1814 
he came with his parents to Himts\dlle, in Madison, and by the 
time he had reached the age of seven years he was an orphan. 
He was partially educated at the " 16th section schools, ' and 
became a physician. To this noble profession he has devoted 
the best years of his life. In 1835 and '37 he represented the 


county in the general asemblj of the State, and in 18Q1 and' 65 
in the constitutional conventions. He was also a member of 
the senate for four years, and is judge of the probate court of 
Limestone. He married a daughter of Rev. Jacob Lindley, 
D. D., the first president of the Ohio University. Judge Coman 
is a man of fair abihty, good sense, and moral reputation. 

Elbert H. English was for some years a resident of Lime- 
stone, and served in the lower house of the legislature wh^i 
he was a young man. He removed to Arkansas nearly tlurty 
years ago, and became very successful as an attorney at Little 
Kock, where he now resides. For several years he was on the 
bench of the supreme coiu*t of that State. He married a 
daughter of Mr. Jacob Fisher of this county. 

The late John J. Pettus passed his earlier years in this 
county, but was bom in Wilson county, Tennessee, in 1813, 
while his parents resided in Madison county — ^his mottier being 
on a visit to her parents, and his father serving in the Creek 
war. In early manhood he removed to Sumter county, where 
he practiced law a short time, then became a planter in Kem- 

ier counhr, Mississippi. He was governor of that State from 
859 to 1863, and died in Arkansas in 1867, leaving to Ala- 
bama the memory of a noble son, and to Mississippi that of a 
faithful pubUc servant. 

George Smith Houston is a resident of Limestone. He 
was bom in Williamson county, Tennessee, in 1809. His 
father was a farmer with some property, whose Irish parents 
immigrated to South Carolina. His mother's maiden niune 
was Eeagan, and she too was a Soutib Carolinian. The pa- 
rents came to Alabama and settled in Lauderdale county in 
1821, and there the son grew to manhood. Receiving an 
academic course, he read law in the office of Hon. G^rge 
Coalter in Florence, and attended Judge Boyle's law school 
at Harrodsbuig, Ky. Admitted in 1831, he opened an office 
in Florence. The ensuing year he reprcsentea his county in 
the lower house of the legislature. Gov. Gayle appointed 
him district solicitor to fill a vacancy in 1834, but the winter 
following he was defeated for the position by Hon. Wm. Rich- 
ardson. He came the same year to Limestone, and continued 
the practice. In 1837 he was elected solicitor over Mr. Rich- 
ardson, and held the office till 1841, when he was elected to 
congress on the "general ticket" of his party. Tbe election 
for representatives to congress occuiTed in May of that year 
because of the called session. Gen. John M. Lewis of Frank- 
lin had opposed him in 1841, and in 1843 it was Mr. Robert 
Armstrong of Lauderdale, in 1845 Hon. John A. Nooe of 


Franklin, and in 1847 Hon. David Hubbard of Lawrence. 
He beat these gentlemen in their order, but voluntarily retired 
in 1849, and resumed his profession in partnership with Col. 
Egbert Jones. In 1851 he again beat Mr. Hubbard for con- 
gress, and was unopposed in '53 and *55. A third triumph 
over Mr. Hubbard in 1857, and over Hon. Wm. A. Hewlett of 
Walker two years later, closed his career in the federal con- 
gress, for he retired with his colleagues in January 1861 when 
the State seceded. During the war he remained at his home. 
He was despoiled of his property by the federals, but, though 
a life-long Unionist, he remsed to take the oath of allegiance. 
In 1865 he was elected to the federal senate, defeating Hon. 
John Forsyth of Mobile, Hon. A. B. Cooper of Wilcox, and 
others, but was not allowed to take his seat. In 1866 he was 
defeated for re-election to the senate by ex-Gov. Winston. 
Since the war he has practiced law in Athens, associated with 
Hon. Luke Pryor. While in the federal congress he was 
chairman, for two years each, of the two most important com- 
mittees : that of ways and means, and the judiciary. 

Qen. Houston is six feet high, with a larffe frame, and a 
tendency to corpulency. His features are large, his com- 
plexion ruddy, and his eye brown. He ranks high as an 
attorney, is an effective advocate, and probably the best 
stump orator the State has had. His speecnes are mterlarded 
witt anecdote, and, though fearless in his demeanor towards 
his adversary, he permits nothing to ruffle his temper. He 
possesses a keen insight into men and measures, ana is saga- 
cious, considerate, and observant. Scrupulous honesly and 
moraliiy characterize his social position, and he extends that 
charity to the frailties of others for which he himself has no 
need. That he is popular in his conduct is sufficiently evinced 
by the measure of his success at the polls. 

Gen. Houston's first wife was a Miss Beatly of this county; 
his second a daughter of Hon. James Irvine, a distinguished 
lawyer of Lauderdale. 

Thomas Hubbard Hobbs was a native and resident of 
Limestone. He was the son of wealthy parents who came to 
the couniy at an early day. His mother was the daughter of 
Major Maclin, a Virgmia gentleman, long a resident of Lime- 
stone. The son was educated at Lagrange College, and grad- 
uated in the law school of the Umversity of Virginia. He 
commenced the practice in Athens, but soon abandoned it to 
devote his attention to planting. In 1853 he was defeated as 
the temperance candidate for the legislature ; but from 1855 
to '61 was a member of the lower house, and in 1860 was an 
elector for Breckinridge. His standing was such in the legis- 



lature, that, young as he was, he was urged for gubernatorial 
honors. When the war broke out he enlisted as captain of a 
company in the 9th Alabama infantry. He served vdth credit 
for a year, when, at Seven Pines he was wounded in the leg, 
and died within five weeks from the effects. He was of frail 
make and slight of frame, with handsome features. It was 
his purity of character, piety, benevolence, and sound ju(' 
ment which distinguished hun among his fellow men. I 
widow, who was Miss Benagh, niece of Hon. Wm. Bichardson 
of this coimty, resides with her fatherless children near 


Luke Pryor is a resident of this county, but a native of 
Madison. His parents were Virginians who lost their prop- 
erty and came to Limestone shortly after his birth, which 
occurred in 1821. He received a plain education, which he 
greatly improved by study. Having read law under Judge 
Coleman, he came to the bar in 1842, and has practiced in 
partnership with Messrs. E. J. Jones, B. C. BrickeU, and Gteo. 
B. Houston. In 1855 he represented Limestone in the legis- 
lature in order to secure privileges for the railroad from 
Nashville to Montgomery, of wmch he was a projector. 
While so serving he received 45 votes in opposition to ex-Gk)v. 
Fitzpatrick for federal senator. The fact that Mr. P. persist^ 
ently refuses to mix in public affairs limits this memoranda. 
He IS eminent in his profession, possessing a vigorous intel- 
lect, an active mind, and an ardent temperament. He is of 
ordinary size, with light hair. His maimers are popular and 
his address agreeable. He married a daughter of Capt. John 
Harris of this county. 

Limestone was represented in the constitutional conven- 
tion of 1819 by Thomas Bibb, Beverly Hughes, and Nicholas 
Davis ; in that of 1861 by Joshua P. Coman and Thomas J. 
McClellan ; in that of 18G5 by Joshua P. Coman and Thomas 
J. McClellan. 


ISld— Thomas Bibb. 

1820— Nicholas Davis. 

1821— Nicholas Davis ( 1822. ) 

1824— Nicholas Davis. 

1827 — Nicholas Davis. 

1829 — William Edmonson. 

1830— William Edmonson. 

1833— John W. Lane. 

1836— Nathaniel Terry. 

1839— Nathahixl Txbby ( 1841. ) 

1842 — Nathaniel Tbbbt. 
1845— Milton McClanahan, 
1847— Nathaniel Davis. 
1849— William 8. Oompton. 
1851— John N. Malone. 
1855— John N. Malone. 
1857— John D. Rather. 
1861 — Joshna P. Coman. 
1865 — Isaac M. Jackson. 
[No election in 1867 or since. ] 




1819— Nioholas DaTiB, Jas. W. Exam, 
William Whitaker. 

18S0 — Jno. 8. Doxey, Wm. Edmon- 
Bon, Qain Morton. 

1831— Benj. Mnrrell, Wm. Edmon- 
son, Qain Morton. 

1823 — J. L. Martin, Wm. Edmonson, 
Q. Morton, W. Montgomery. 

1823-^. L. Martin. J. W. Smith, W. 
Whitaker, Joseph Powell. 

J 834 — J. L. Martin, Wm. Edmonson, 
Q. Morton, James W. Exam. 

1835 — J. L. Martin, Wm. Edmonson, 
Qain Morton, Waddy Tate. 

1886 — Jas. W. Exam, W. Edmonson, 
Joseph Bell, Joseph Powell. 

1827 — J. L. Martin, Wm. Edmonson, 
Joseph Bell, W. P. Bobertson. 

1828 — ^Wm. Saunders, Wm. Edmon- 
son, Thomas Bibb. 

1839 — George W. Lane, Daniel Cole- 
man, Thomas Bibb. 

1830 — George W. Lane, Wm. Saun- 
ders, William Richardson. 

1831— George W. Lane, Wm. Saun- 
ders, Joseph Johnson. 

183^— Bichard B. Brickell, Wm. J. 
Mason, William Richardson. 

1833— Richard B. Brickell, W. Saun- 
ders, Archibald Harris. 

834— John H. J. Wynn, Wm. Saun- 
ders, Waddy Tate. 

835— John H. J. Wynn, Joshua P. 
Coman, Joseph Johnson. 

836— John H. J. Wynn, Asa Allen, 
F. B. Nelson. 

837— Robert A. High, Joshua P. 
Coman, F. B. Nelson. 

83&— John H. J. Wynn, Robert A« 
High, A. E. Mills. 

839— Elbert H. English, R. A. High 

840— J. H. J. Wynn, Nathaniel Davis . 

841— John H. J. Wynn, N. Davis. 

842— Elbert H. English, Waddy Tate 

643— Nathaniel Davis, Waddy Tate. 

844— Nath'l Davis, Egbert J. Jones. 

84&— Milton Walker, Egbert J.Jones 

847— Nath*l Davis, Frederick Tate. 

840— Nathaniel Davis, L. Rip. Davis 

851— Nath*l Davis, Nicholas Davis, jr 

863— W. R. Hanserd, W. B. Allen. 

855— Thos. H. Hobbs, Luke Pryor. 

857— T. H. Hobbs, Wm. M. Reedus. 

859— T. H. Hobbs, L. Ripley Davis. 

861— T. J. McClellan, James Shelton 

863— J. B. McClellan, J. W. 8. Don- 

865— C.W. Raisler, Wm. Richardson 

867— [No election.] 

870— Charles W. Raisler. 



This county was established by an act approved Jan. 20, 
1830, from territory taken from Montgomery, Dallas, and But- 
ler. The part taken from Butler has since been given to Cren- 
shaw, otherwise Lowndes preserves its original dimensions. 

It lies near the centre of the State, south of Autauga, west 
of Montgomery, north of Butler, and east of Dallas and 

It was named for Mr. Lowndes,* the South Carolina states- 

* William Lowndes, son of Rawlins Lowndes, the first goyemor of the 
State of Sonth Carolina, was bom in Charleston, in 1782. In 1806 he en- 
tered the legislature of his State, and was a member of the federal congress 


Its area is about 750 square miles. 

The assessed value of real estate in 1870 was $2,438,177; 
personalty $849,439 ; total $3,287,616. 
The population is thus exhibited : 

1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 

Whites 5001 6,966 7,258 8,362 6,066 

Blacks 4409 12,683 14.657 19,354 20A{3 

The cash value of farm lands — 126,185 acres improyed, and 
153,857 acres unimproved— in 1870 was $2,271,911. 

The value of live stock— 1081 horses, 2706 mules, 4167 neat 
cattle, and 8465 hogs— is $644,755. 

The productions m 1869 were 1783 bushels of wheat, 453,187 
bushels of com, 10,901 bushels of oats, 24,914 bushels of po- 
tatoes, 55,517 pounds of butter, and 18,369 bales of cotton; 
the value of animals slaughtered was $53,443 ; and the value 
of farm productions was $2,176,738. 

LowDaes stands seventh on the list of counties with respect 
to the production of com and cotton. It Ues in the agricul- 
tural belt, with a soil richly alluvial, or fertile even where it is 
light. The surface is rolling or flat, with much prairie and 
bottom land. 

The Alabama laves the entire northern boundary, and is 
navigable for steamers nine months of the year. The rail- 
ways from Montgomery to Mobile, and from Montgomery to 
Selma, pass through the county, the former having 21 J, and 
the latter 22^ miles, of its track within its limits. 

Hayneville, the seat of justice, has about 550 inhabitants. 
It was named for Hon. E. Y. Hayne of South Carolina. 

Lowndesboro — first called McGill*s Hill — has about 500 
inhabitants. Benton has about 400 inhabitants; and Fort 
Deposit is of equal size. 

The Muscogee town Econachaca (holy ground) stood on 
the river in the northern paii of Lowndes. It was of recent 
construction, but their prophets told the Indians during the 
war that the whites would sink into the earth as they ap- 

!)roached the sacred spot. In December 1813, Gen. Claiborne 
eft Fort Claiborne with about 1000 men, including 150 Choc- 
tas under Pushmataha. Marching in a northeasterly direc- 
tion, he built an earthwork at the highlands south of me Lito- 
hatchee, (Double Creek), and called it Fort Deposit* A rapid 
march of forty miles then brought this force before Econachaca. 

from 1810 to 1822. In 1820 the legislature of Soath Carolina nominated iiim 
for the presidency of the United States, which drew from him in reply the 
remark that " It is an office neither to be sought nor declined." He died in 
1824, at the age of 42 years. 

* The remains of this rude fort are yet visible at the town of Fort Deposit^ 
in this county. 


The assatdt was yigorons, the whites adyancing in a eresoent- 
shaped line, the cusps of which were meant to rest on the 
river and 'cut off the flight of the sava^s. The line on the 
lower side did not reacn the bank, and when the converging 
force began a sharp and rapid fire on the Indians in the vil- 
lage, who had been made careless of defense by the promise 
of the prophets, they made a brief but fierce resistance, then 
fled down the bank, and into the swamps. About thirty In- 
dians and negroes were left dead on ihe ground, while the 
whites lost one killed and twenty wounded. The half-breed 
chief, William Weatherford, fought till he saw his warriors 
fleeing before the whites, then turned and fled. Closely 
pressed, he spurred the powerful steed over a low bluff, ten or 
fifteen feet high, into the turbid stream,* and gained the north- 
em bank. 

Claibome burned Econochaca, then marched northward 
eijght mQes, destroyed another village, and killed several In- 
dians, then retraced his steps to Fort Claibome by way of 
Fort Deposit 

Peter Williamson, county court judge ; Franklin Armstrong, 
sheriff; John Vamer, clerk of the county court ; and Robert 
Perry, clerk of the circuit court, were the first officials. 

Peteb Williamson was a Gteoi^an, bom in 1771, who fig- 
ured as a friend of Gbn. Clarke in Q^oi^a, and came to what 
was then Montgomery, now Lowndes, about the year 1818. 
He represented Montgomery in the general assembbr of the 
State m 1821, and was judge of the county court of Liowndes 
from 1830 to 1841, when the law obUged him to retire by rea- 
son of his age. He died several years after. 

James Spullock Williamson, son of the preceding, was a 
native of Greorgia, and bom in 1808. He was a planter, and 
man of excellent intellect and sound judgment He served 
the couniy as a legislator, and in the constitutional convention 
of 1861. Entering the service of his country as captain of a 
company in the 14th Alabama regiment, he was killed, close 
to tne enemy's breastworks, in a last victorious charge at 
Frazier's Farm. He was in command of the regiment at the 
time, lieui Col. Baine, Major Wood, and three ca^tarns hav- 
ing already fallen. His widow and children reside in the 
couniy, where he has numerous relatives. 

RoBEBT B. Campbell, who represented the county in the 
general assembly in 1840, was a South Carolinian, and served 
that State in congress, 1825-1827. He was appointed by 
President Tyler consul to Havana, and was subsequently 

*A high blaff near the spot is called Weatherford's Blaff from this incident. 


consul if> Liverpool. He was a planter. He remded in 
Lowndes only a few years, was hignly esteemed, and has a 
son now a planter here. 

Dixon Hall Lewis resided during the latter part of his life 
in this comity. This extraordinary man was bom in Hancock 
county, Georgia, Aug. 10, 1802. His father — ^Francis Lewis — 
was a wealthy planter. His mother, a Miss Hall, was of a 
family numerously and most respectably connected m this 
State and Georgia. The parents settled in Autauga oonnlr 
in 1818, leaving their son to pursue his education under Prol 
N. S. S. Beaman. In 1822 he was graduated at Golnmbia 
College, and at once joined his parents in this State. Enter* 
ing the law office of Judge Hitchcock at Cahaba, he prepared 
himself for the practice, and opened an office in Montgomery 
in 1825. His aoihty as an advocate at once became manifest, 
but he gave hi& attention to politics, and the following year, 
and the two succeeding ones, he represented Montgomery in 
the lower house of the general assembly. In 1829, thoudli 
barely of the legal age, he was chosen to congress from mo 
south Alabama district. He was again elected in 1831 over 
ex-Gk)v. Murphy of Monroe. The contest was over the nul- 
lification doctrine, of which Mr. Lewis was an apostle. "The 
" canvass between them was marked by extraordinary excite- 
"ment. * * * Lewis was well adapted in the character of his 
" mind and in manners to the task of exciting the enthusiasm 
"of the masses. He had a graceful and captivating deliveij, 
" and possessed a high order of talents."* During this con- 
troversy between South Carolina and the federal govenmient, 
Mr. Lewis wrote " The Nullifier," a pamphlet which attracted 
much attention by the masterly manner in which the subject 
Vas handled. In 1833, '35, '37, and '39 he was returned to 
congress, generally without the slightest opposition. During 
the protracted contest for the speakership the latter vear, 
which lasted three months, he was seve;D times balloted ftnr 
as the nominee of his party for the position, and was only 
beaten by the faction of nis party controlled by Senator Ben- 
ton. In 1841 he was a seventh tmie elected to congress, this 
time on the general ticket, his opponent being Hon. H. W. 
HilUard of Montgomery. Two years later he defeated Hon. 
Henry C. Lee of Perry. In April 1844 Gov. Fitzpatriok ap- 

Eointed him to fill the vacancy in the federal senate caused 
y the appointment of Hon. W. E. King to the court of 
Irance. This appointment was ratified in December follow- 
ing by the legislature, the vote being 84 for him to 42 for Hon. 

I I *^ I II I ^ 

* Hon. B. F. Porter of Bailer, in a sketch of Got. Murphy in O'NmI'b 
*< Bench and Bar." 


^ F. HopkinB of Madison. But Mr. King came home in 
2846f and in Bee. 1847 offered for his old seat "It was a 
''meeting of the giants. Mr. King, with his large acqnaint- 
"ance and great popularity, at first expected an easy victory; 
''bat he fonnd on his arrival at the State capital that he had 
"work to do, and earnestly did he do it. After the most ex- 
'< citing contest that ever occurred in such an election in this 
"State, Mr. King was beaten for the first time in a long po- 
"litical career."* The Whigs supported Judge Hopkins, and 
the Democratic majorilr of about 25 were left to decide 
between the worth of their two most distin^shed leaders. 
But Mr. Lewis did not long enjoj the fnut of his signal 
faiomph. He reached New York in ill health, Oct. 9, 1848 ; but 
he recuperated, and spent several days in examining objects of 
interest. His malady returned, however, and he died Oct. 25. 
The intelligence caused the mayor of the city to coll the mu- 
nicipal boards together, and it was resolved with one accord 
to give his remains a pubhc burial. His body lay in state in 
the City Hall, whence it was borne to Greenwood Cemetery 
amid a vast procession, headed by the City and State author- 
ities, members of congress, public societies, etc. Thus passed 
away in the meridian of life, one whom every Alabamianmay 
remember with pride. Historj' furnishes the name of no one 
who united so much mental activity and depth with such phys- 
ical bulk. His figure was stout and j>orily in youth, but at 
the time of his deatli his weight must have been five hundred 
pounds. In the capitol at Washington a seat was made espe- 
cdallj for him, and friends whith whom he was accustomed to 
stay were alike attentive. He was very sensitive on the point, 
and towards the close of his life refused to be weighed. He 
was frank and sincere in his opinions ; firm and decided, but 
conciliatory, and regardful of the views and motives of tliose 
with whom he differed. With on intuitive perception, and a 
mind of uncommon vigor, he grasped the most intricate sub- 
jects; and, though he seldom spoTko pubhcly in congress, he 
gave evidence in his intercourse of the mature strength of the 
statesman and the cultivated taste of the scholar. His per- 
sonal popxdarity was general, and no public man of the mate 
enjoyed more unanimous respect. 

mi. Lewis was thrown into Lowndes when this coimty was 
created from Montgomery, but a service of nineteen years in 
congress mode him almost a citizen of Washington. He mar- 
ried a sister of Hon. John A. Elmore of Montgomery, and his 
two sons are residing in Texas. 

Jaices LaFatette Cottrell came to Lowndes in 1830. He 
was bom in Prince William county, Virginia, in 1808. His 

* Dr. H. V. Smith of Lowndesboro. 


father, the son of an Englishman who was a colonial na^ 
officer in the war of 1776, and subsequently a Baptist minis- 
ter, removed to Georgia, whence he came to Alabama with the 
Halls and Lewises of Autauga. He grew to manhood in the 
latter county, and read law at Waslungton under Hon. Wm. 
D. Pickett. Locating at Hayneville, he at once became prom- 
inent, serving the county in the general assembly, defeatmg 
Mr. Needham Smith for senator m 1838. He was presid^ 
of the State senate in 1840, and succeeded Hon. Wm. L. Yan- 
cey in congress in 1846, by defeating Mr. Sam. S. Beeman of 
Coosa. The cares of a large family caused him to retire firom 
pubUc life. Bemoving to Cedar Keys, Florida, he became a 
planter on the Suwannee. In 1865 he was elected to the State 
senate there, and during the winter was defeated by Qoy. Mar- 
vin for federal senator by One vote. He is yet a citizen of 
Florida, but has a number of relatives in this county, ffis 
wife is a sister of Hon. James McQueen of Florida, and daugh- 
ter of one of the first settlers of Lowndes. Col. Cottrell i« 
rather below middle highth, and his deportment is quiet and 
deferential. In conversation he is fluent and interesting, and 
his oratory is effective but measured. His life has been one 
of probity and sobriety, and free from immorality of any kind. 

Nathan Cook was a widely-known citizen of this o6untf. 
He was bom in Hancock county, Georgia, Dec. 10, 1798. Bi 
father, Capt. John Cook, was a planter. His mother was a 
Hampton, niece of Q^n. Wade Hampton, a colonial officer in 
1776. The parents and son came to Alabama in 1817, and 
settled in what is now Butler county. When the county was 
organized, he was appointed clerk of the county court. Dur- 
ing the four years ne held the office he read law and was 
licensed. While Butler yet voted with Conecuh, he was elected 
to the legislature — 1824. The next year he was chosen from 
Butler, and was annually returned, with one exception, till 
1833. Li the latter year he came to Lowndes, ana pursued 
his profession. In 1839 he was elected district solicitor, a po- 
sition he resigned in 1843. In December 1847 he was dected 
to the circuit bench over the incumbent. Judge Pickens of 
Dallas. But the latter resigned a month later, and the I^is- 
lature also chose Judge Cook to fill the fifteen months' va- 
cancy. The election of judges having been given to the peo- 
ple, m 1850 ho was defeated by Judge Pickens. Two yeare 
after. Judge P. resigned, and Gov. Collier assigned Judge 
Cook to the vacant scat. And he continued to hold this re- 
sponsible position tiQ 1865, when the overthrow of the south- 
em federation closed his official life. Since that time he has 
dwelt in Tennessee and Texas. His fifteen years service on 
the bench was marked by a scrupulous int^rity and impar- 


tis^ty. His conduct in the domestic relations of life was 
blameless. He had many singularities, and the one of dress 
HFfts not the least. He first married a sister of Mr. E. H. Her- 
l>ert of this county ; his second wife was a daughter of Col. J. 
jr. Midde, at one time adjutant general of the State. One of 
Ills sonSy Walter, represented this county in 1851, and was 
lolled at Ghancellorsville ; another, Gustave, was colonel of a 
Texas regiment ; and a third resides in this county. Dr. Edw. 
SL Ciook, brother of Judge C, represented this county in the 
legislature in 1844, was the first probate judge of the county, 
and died in December 1859. 

James G. Gilchkist, for thirty years a resident of this 
county, was bom in Eichmond county, N. C, in 1814. After 
taking a collegiate course and readmg law, he came to this 
county, and opened a law office. In 1847 and 1859 he was a 
member of the legislature ; a Fillmore elector in 1856 ; and a 
member of the " secession " convention. In 1862 he went into 
the service of his country as colonel of the 45th Alabama, and 
displaced signal bravery at Murfreesboro ; but soon after re- 
aigaea in bad health. He now resides in Montgomery, and 
is a planter. Col. Gilchrist possesses many quaint peculiari- 
ties. In physique and character he resemliles his courageous 
and turbment but wary Scotch ancestry. 

His brother, Hon. Archibald Gilclmst, came to Lowndes 
some years earlier, and was a lawver of scholarly attainments. 
He served in the State senate in 1845, and died in 1853, aged 
^ years. His son, Capt. John M. Gilchrist of the 5th Ala- 
bama^ was mortally wounded at the second Cold Harbor. 

The late Cobneuus Bobinson, a wealthy planter of this 
county, was a member of the provisional congress of the Con- 
federate States. He led a company from this couniy into the 
militaiy service against the Indians in 1836, which was in 
tthe battahon commanded by Col. B. E. B. Baylor of Dallas, 
in which were also the companies of Conoley from Dallas, 
McConnico from Wilcox, ana those of Elmore, and Drury 
Gtafney from Lowndes. He died in 1866, leaving many rela- 
tives in the county and State. 

Geobge Charles Freeman resided in Lowndes. He was 

bom at Athens, Georgia, in 1825, of very respectable parents. 

His education was thorough, having been completed at Emoiy 

College. At one of the primary schools which he attended, 

the tutor was Mr. Lyman Trumbull, now the distinguished 

statesman in- Tllinois. He read law at Greenville, Georgia, 

and in 1847 came to Alabama and became the principal of a 

lemale academy at Ha^eville. He taught for several years, 

ttien engaged in planting. For several years he was the 



cjounty superintendent of education. In 1860 he was on the 
electoral ticket of Bell and Everett, and entered the service 
of his countiy as captain of a company in the 45th Alabama 
Infantry of which he became major. He shared the fortunes 
of that regiment till disabled by the loss of a le^ at Atlanta, 
July 22, 1864. He represented the couniy in the constitu- 
tional convention of 1865, and in November of that year was 
elected to the federal congress without opposition. He was 
not permitted to take his seat for political reasons. He died 
at Hayneville, July 15, 1866, of an abcess caused by the 
use of crutches, thus adding another to the list of noble dead 
of that memorable war. Major Freeman was of a gentle 
nature, and siuivt manner, firm in his convictions, lofW m his 
aims ; imbued with moral courage, and a high sense of honor. 
He married Mrs. Brown of Montgomery, who, with his two 
children, reside in Lowndes. 

David William Baine, of this couniy, was a native of Ohio, 
and bom Aug. 29, 1829. His father, a native of Scotland, was 
a Methodist minister. His mother, a northern lady, was the 
sister of the late Dr. Adkins of Perry coimty. At the ^e of 
seventeen years, he was graduated at Alleghany College, Ktta- 
burg, and at once removed to Maysville, Kentucky. A few 
months later he came to this State, and taught school in 
Cherokee. Admitted to the bar in 1848, he became the part 
ner of Mr. Cooper. His professional advancement was rapid, 
and he had attained to prominence at the bar by the time he 
came to Lowndes in 1856. Here he was the law partner <rf 
Mr. S. P. NeSmith, at one time adjutant general of the State, 
and a brave officer of the Sixth Alabama Infantry, who fell at 
Seven Pines. His success at the bar was very marked. At 
the beginning of the war, he volunteered in the first compaiij 
that left the counir for Pensacola, and was afterwards a pri- 
vate in the First Alabama Infantry. At the oi^anization of < 
the Fourteenth Alabama, he was chosen Ueutenant colonel, 
and accompanied it to Virginia. He left a hospital to lead 
the regiment at Seven Pines, and on the second oay , such was 
his physical prostration, that he fainted ; but recovered, over- 
took the regiment, and led it fon^^ard. At Gaines' Mill he 
again commanded, and " Lieut. Col. Baine's daring excelled 
"that of any man I ever saw," says the historian of the regi- 
ment. At !Frazier's Farm, June 30, 1862, a federal batteiy 
repelled tlie assaults of more than one brigade. Gren. Pryor 
asKcd Col. Baine if Ids regiment could taJte it. " My brave 
boys will take it if I tell them," was the reply.* The Four- 
teenth rushed up tlie slope under such an appalling fire that 
they were finally driven back. When near the enemy, CoL 


Baine was stmck by a minie ball, which severed a blood ves- 
sd in the abdomen. " I am wounded ; tell Major Wood to 
^ take charge of the regiment ;" and, with his last thought 
fixed on duty, he was lifted from his horse and expired wii£in 
two minutes. He was buried in Bichmond. Gten. BaiQe — a 
militia title conferred in 1852 — ^was slender, and not impress- 
ive in his bearing. He was an untiring student, and prompt 
and faithful to hm clients. As an advocate he was strictly 
logical, and his rare powers of 'analysis were invaluable in a 
profession which is the science of definitions and distinctions. 
Without courting populaiitv, he was very generally esteemed 
for his manly quaUties, wnich had the basis of the heroic 
without its ostentation. He held no civil employments, and 
took no part in poUtics save in 1860, when he was a delegate 
to the Charleston national convention. He married Miss 
lELogae of Cherokee, who, with their two childi-en, resides in 
Lowndes. A countv was called in his honor in 1866, but the 
name was changed by the de facto legislature of 1868. 

James F. Clements is also a resident of this county, but 
was bom in Virginia, in 1828. At the age of nineteen years 
he came to Alabama, and read law in the office of his rela- 
tive, Hon. J. La F. Cottrell, at Hayneville. He was connected 
with the press for a short time. In 1860 he was on the Doug- 
las electoral ticket, and the following year was beaten for 
senator in Butler and Lowndes by Hon. Edmund Harrison. 
He was wounded at Murfreesboro, while captain of a com- 
•pany in the Forty-fifth Alabama Infantry. In 1865 he repre- 
sented the county in the constitutional convention, and now 
is an attorney in successful practice at Hayneville. Capt. 
Clements possesses many noble quaUties, and talents of a 
superior order. He married a daughter of the late Dr. Bur- * 
well B. Budulph of this county. 

James G. Gilchrist and James S.Williamson represented this 
county in the constitutional convention of 1861 ; and George 
C. Freeman and James F. Clements in that of 1865. 

The county voted with Montgomery from 1830 to 1834, and 
the following is a list of assemblymen since that period : 


1832— James Abercrombie. 1844 ~ Archibald Gilchrist. 

1834— Thomas B. Scott.* 1847— Thomas J. Judge. 

1835 — Lorenzo James. 1851 — Walter H. Crenshaw. 

1837— John Archer Elmore. 1855— F. C. Webb. 
1838 — Jambs LaFaybtte Coitbsll, 1^57— Thomas J. Burnett. 

(1840). 1861— Edmund Harrison. 

1841 — John Starke Hunter. 1865 — Waltsb H. Obbnbhaw. 
1843--Jame8 Bemey. [No election in 1867, or since.] 



1834-JameB LaF. Gottrell, John W. ]844~£dwftrd H. Cook, T. J. Jndge* 

Mandy, John Sally. 1846— Edward H. Oook. T. J. Judge. 

1835— Walter Drane, Thomas Daven- 1847— Jas. G. Gilchrist, A. B. Forney. 

port, Geo. W. Esselman. 1849 — Jasper M. Gonder, W. G. 8w«n^ 
183&— Jas. LaF. Cottrell, Rnssell P. son. 

McCord, Alfred Harrison. 1851--J. M. Gonder, J. S. Williamaon. 

1637— Jas. LaF. Cottrell, Bnssell P. 1853~-Walter Ck>ok, F. 0. Webb. 

MoCord, John P. Cook. 1855— Wm. Barry, Stephen D. Moorer 

1838— John A. Tarrer, Geo. W. Essel- 1857— Dnnoan MeCall, Jamas a Wil- 

man, John P. Cook. liamson. 

1839— Nathan Cook, Wm. Swanson. 1859— James G. Gilchrist, Nathan L. 
1840— John & Hanter, Robert B. Brooks. 

Campbell. 1861— Hugh C. McCall, N. L. Brooki. 

1841— Peyton S. Alexander, John W. 1863— P. T. Graves, Wm. 8. May. 

Mnndy. 1865— George S. Cox, N. L. Brooks. 

1842— Alfred Harrison, James W. 1867— [No election.] 

Duuklin, 1870— John Nininger, Wm. Gaddn* 
1843— Walter Drane, John P. Nail. (ooL), Mansfield Tylet (ooL) 




Macon was established by an act approved Dec 18, 1832, 
and carved out of the capacious region ceded by the Musoo- 
gees in that year. Large and valuable portions have been set 
apart to Lee and Bullock — to the former 180 square mileBi to 
the latter about 125. 

It Hes in the east centre of the State, south of Tallapoofla 
and Lee, west of Bussell, north of Bullock, and east of Mont- 
gomery and £lmore. Its name perpetuates the memory of 
Kathaniel Macon,* the North Carolina statesman. 

The area of the county is scarcely 600 square miles. 

The assessed value of properiy in 1870 was $2,699, 659, viz: 
real estate $2,114,940 ; personalty $584,719. 

The decennial movement is thus exhibited : 

1840 1850 1860 1870 

Whites 5,309 11.286 8,684 5,103 

Blacks 5,878 15.612 18,l77 12,620 

*NathaDiel Macon was born in Warren county, North Carolina, in l7S7f 
and died there in 1837. He was a soldier in the colonial ran^s in 1776^^ 
and was a member of the federal congress continuously from 1791 to 18V^ 
serving as speaker of the house and president of the senate. John Randolph 
of Virginia declares in his will that " Mr. Macon is the wisest and be«t mta 
I ever knew," and Mr. Jefierson said that when Mr. Macon died ''the last of 
the Bomans '* would have departed. 


The cash value of farm lands — 125,944 acres improved, and 
120,955 acres nnimproved — $1,486,811. 

The value of live stock — 872 horses, 1653 mules, 6391 neat 
cattle, 4996 hogs— was $415,097 in 1870. 

In 1869 the productions were 168,661 bushels of corn, 31,690 
bushels of bats, 20,785 bushels of potatoes, 45,894 pounds of 
butter, 11,872 bales of cotton, 1854 poimds of wool ; the value 
of animals slaughtered was $33,636 ; and the value of the farm 
productions was $1,281,587. 

Macon is one of the agricultural counties, and, before the 
dismembermeift, ranked very high on the lint. The surface 
lies well for cultivation, and the soil presents a variety of light, 
"mulatto,'* and alluvial lands. 

The Tallapoosa skirts the western boundary, but is not nav- 
igable. More than twenty-seven miles of the track of the 
railroad from West Point to Montgomery he in the county, 
and a branch road extimds from it five miles to Tuskegee. 

TusKEGEE, the seat of justice, has about 1500 inhabitants. 
James Dent built the first house at the place. It was laid out 
in 1833, and has claimed a larger population than it does now. 
The name {iuskciy warrior ; ,/ec, little,) signifies Little Warrior. 
A seminary of learning for females is located here. 

Notasulga, on the Montgomeiy and West Point Railroad, 
has about 300 inhabitants. 

Between Ufaupee and Chattabogue (Bed creek), and on the 
railroad, is the buih-place of Ussa-yohola or Oceola ("Black- 
Drink"), the famous oeminole chief, who made the everglades 
of Florida the last stronghold of his race east of the MissisT 
sippi. He was a son of an Enghshman, name Powell, and of 
Polly Copinger, a mixed-breed grand-daughter of James Mc- 
Queen, a Scotchman who died in 1811. McQueen was bom 
in 1693, and deserted from a British ship at St. Augustine in 
1716, as he told Col. Hawkins ; died at the age of 128 years, 
and is buried on Ufaupee. Oceola was a blood-thirsty chief, 
brave and relentless in his hostihty. He was decoyed mto the 
American camps, by promises of amnesty, and died in chains 
at Fort Moultne. Macon feels a pride in him. 

At Fort Decatur, on the Tallapoosa, lie the remains of John 
Sevier,* one of the heroes of King's Mountain, and the first 

*Gen. Sevier was a native of Virginia, but in early manhood settled in what 
is now east Tennessee. lie was the leader and protector of the frontier for 
thirty years, oft«n fighting the Cherokecs, and taking a conspicnons part 
against the British, and in the organization of the *' State of I^anklin. " 
When Tennessee became a State, he wns elected the first governor, nnd 
served in that position twelve yenrs. He wos sent ns commipnioner to treat 
with the Muscogees in J8I5, but did not return to the State of which he was 
the fi^ther. 



governor of tiie State of Tennessee. He came to adjust the 
troubles of the general government with the Muscogees, and 
here laid his aged frame to rest, Sept. 24, 1815. Gen. E. P. 
Gaines, then in command of the fort, had him interred with 
the honors of war — 

"They carved not a line, they raised not a stone, 
'*Bat left him alone in bis glory, '* 

and the exact spot of his sepulture was soon foi^otten* 

Near the mouth of Calabee creek, on the Tallapoosa, stood 
the Indian town Autossee. During the war of 1813-'14, Gen. 
Flojd reached the vicinity of the place wilh 950 Georgia 
mihtia and 400 tory Indians.* The savages, driven out of the 
Coosa valley by Jackson, had concentrated here in large force. 
Floyd moved to the assault, Nov. 29, 1813, with circumvaUating 
lines, but the tory Indians failed to cross the river to cut on 
retreat. The savages fought with great bravery, and the 
Georgians exliibited no want of courage. Their artillery was 
used to great advantage. The town was set on fire, and, after 
a contest of an hour or two, the Indians were driven into the 
swamp or across the river. The number of houses consumed 
was about 400, and the loss of the savages was estimated at 
200 warriors.' The Georgians lost eleven killed and fifty-four 
wounded. Gen. Floyd retraced his steps the same day to- 
wards Fort Mitchell, not, however, without receiving a fierce 
attack in the rear about a nule from the place. Such was the 
"battle of Autossee/' 

Having received needed supplies, Qen. Floyd again moved 
from Fort Mitchell. His force now consisted of nearly 1700 
men, including about 400 tory savages. He established Forts 
Bainbridge and Hull on his route, and had proceeded into the 
valley of the Calabee, about seven miles from the presenttoum 
of Tuskegee, when the savages suddenly sprung from their 
lair in the undergrowth *of the creek, and made a furious as- 
sault about dayhght, Jan. 27, 1814. Though surprised, the 
Georgians quickly formed, and, with the aid of the artillerj, 
beat back tne Indians. A charge soon drove them into tlbe 
recesses of the swamp, with severe loss. But the cautious 
Floyd was efl^ectually checked, and bus campaign brought tea 
premature close. His loss was seventeen whites and five 
tories killed, and 132 whites and fifteen tory Indians wounded. 
Gathering up his wounded, and posting a garrison in Fort 
Hull, he reti'eated to Foi*t Mitchell. The practical results of 
the fight were wholly with the brave natives. 

Fort Decatur was built, in March 1814, by the troops who 
had reached that point, imder Col. Homer V. Milton* 

Tuskegee was the rendezvous of the militia of the /State 
dming the Creek troubles of 1836. About fifteen htmdred 


men assembled here, principally from north Alabama, but 
within a few days they maielied to Fort Mitchell, in Kussell. 
During the late war iK^tween the States, a body of federal 
cavalry, estimated at nearly two thousand men, under Gen. 
Rosseau of Kentucky, left the Tennessee valley, and pushed 
rapidly down the valley of the Coosa. They struck the rail- 
road at Loachapoka, July 11, 1864, and began to destroy the 
track. The next morning, about half of them moved down 
the road to destroy the large bridge over Ufaupee creek. At 
Beasley's tank, a mile and a half from Cheha, about four hun- 
dred of the State reserves — ])rincipally youths — moved up on 
a train, but were imprudently disembarked under the tire of 
the raiders. Forming in line of battle, this force moved upon 
the enemy, but found themselves in an ambuscade, from which 
they were driven back a shoii; distance. They again advanced , 
reinforced by a number of citizens, and the raiding party ab- 
ruptly abandoned the field and overtook their comrades at 
Auburn. The raifroad track was torn up for twenty-five miles 
by this daring force, which moved in a northeasteily direction 
from Opelika, and made safe its retreat. The Confederate 
loss at Cheha was six or eight killed, and about sixty wounded. 
The Federal loss was something less. 

Thomas S. Woodward, who first settled on the ridge on 
which Tuskegee is built, was a famous character in tliis por- 
tion of the State. He wtis bom in Elbert county, Gteorma, 
and was reared on the frontier and among the Indians. He 
was in this countiy as early as 1810, and was an ofiicer in the 
Florida war of 1817-18. He was a brigadier general of mih- 
tia, and as such went to the Chattahoochee to meet Gen. La- 
Favette, whom he accompanied to Cahalm. He removed to 
AxKansas in 1841, and from there to Winn Parish, Louisiana, 
in 1853, and there died in 1861. He wrote a femall volume of 
reminiscences about the Indians, which attempts to confute 
many of the statements made by Pickett, Meek, Coxe, and 
others, which have been in part adopted in this volume. He 
\iras an interesting man, tau and erect, and brusk in manner. 
He was a cousin of Hon. Joseph A. Woodward of Talladega 
and of Rev. Wm. Woodward of Chocta, but had Indian blood 
in his veins. 

Among the best known citizens of Macon was Kobert 
Dougherty. He was a native of Clarke count}% Georgia, and 
was bom about the year 1805. He was the son of Major 
Dougherty, " one of the best and most respectable citizens of 
** Georgia." His motlier was a Mrs. Punear. lie was edu- 
cated at the University of Georgia, and read law with his 
brother, Charles, who became a distinguished jurist in that 


State. He located in Troup comity to practice his professioii, 
giving much of his time to planting, and represented that 
county in the legislature of his native State. In 1837 he came 
to reside in this State and county, and here became the law 

Sartner of the late Hon. N. W. Cocke. In 1843 he represented 
[aeon and Tallapoosa in the upper house of the legislature. 
When the selection of judges was transferred to the j)opulace 
in 1850 he was elected to the bench of the circuit court over 
the incumbent, Hon. John J. Woodward of Talladega. He 
filled the position for eighteen yeai's, defeating Hon. John T. 
Heflin of jRandolph in 1856. He died in October 1868, soon 
after he was ejected from office by the reconstruction acta 
The stout and brawny ajyearance, and large features, of Judge 
Dougherty revejiled his Irish origin even before his rich humor 
and " mother-wit" could be heard. The latter was inimitable. 
He had a story for eveiy occasion, and told it with a tone and 
manner which could excite the lisibles of the grief-stricken.* 
He was not alone companionable, however. His career on 
the bench was uniformly devoid of partiality, and he was per- 
fectly familiar with the functions and attainments of the high 
position. At the bar he was a successful advocate, always 
eflfective in his arguments. He was also a warm-hearted man, 
with the broadest charity, and was a favorite with the bar and 
the people. His wife was a Miss Watkins of Georgia, and he 
left several children. 

EoBERT FuLWOOD LiGON is a resident of Macon. He was 
bom in Clarke coimty, Greorgia, in 1824. His father was a 
circuit court clerk for some years. His mother. Miss Fulwood, 
is related to Hon. R. M. T. Hunter of Virginia. Receiving an 
academic education, he came to this county, and taught school 
a yeai\ He then read law under Hon. David Clopton, but 
when the Mexican war began he went out as captain of a com- 
pany, wliich served six months. He was Kcensed in 1847, and 
became the paiiner of Mr. Clopton. Two years later he rep- 

*Judge Dougherty was not insensible to the weight of a practical joke. In 
the sammer of 1806 he was anxious to purchase a good milch cow. Mr. 
Sampson Lanier told him Jacob Cooper had one ; and. knowing the judge's 
fondness for a long walk, remarked that Cooper lived three or four milee out 
on the Fort Decatur road. The next morning the judge strolled off before 
breakfast. At the end ol four miles, he found that Cooper lived three miles 
further on. Having gone half way he went on, only to find a cow that he 
declared would n't give as much milk as a goat. The walk of fourteen miles 
made him resolve to be avenged on Lanier. Shortly after, they came up 
from Montgomery together, and Lanier asked him to ride out in hia carriage 
from Cheha to Tuskegee, five miles. The carriage had not arrived, however, 
and the judge remarked that he would walk on and hurry it up. He mot it, 
told the driver Mr. I^nier remained in Montgomery, got in, and was driven 
leisurely to T. About two o'clock Lanier cumo in on a freight wagon, astride 
of a sack of salt, and holding aloft a black-jack bush for an umbrella. The 
judge asked him how far it was to Cooper's. 


resented the county in the legislature, and from 1861 to '66 
he was in the senate. When the war began he entered the 
service as captain of a companjr in the 12th Alabama, but an 
a>ffection of the spine caused him to resign. He is now prac- 
ticing his profession in Tuskegee. In person Capt. Ligon is 
above the medium size and somewhat stout. His manners are 
easy and popular, his mind of the practical order, and he is 
thoroughly informed. He is a good managing lawyer, and a 
succesSul practitioner. He married a Miss Payne of Georgia. 

Prominent among the citizens of this county is Cullen 
Andrews Battle. He was bom in Powelton, Hancock county, 
Georgia, June 1, 1829. His father. Dr. Cullen Battle, and his 
mother. Miss Lamon, were natives of North Carolina, the 
former being a cousin of Judge Wm. H. Battle of that State. 
In 1836 the family settled in Barbour county, where the son 

g'ew topmanhood. Educated at the State Universitj', he read 
w under Hon. John Gill Shorter in Eufaula, and was admit- 
ted to practice in 1851. The next year ho came to Tuskegee, 
and practiced for several years in partnership with Judge 
Chilton and W. C. Mclver, esq. In 1860 he was an elector for 
Breckinridge, and towards the close of that year was elected 
lieutenant polonelof the second Alabama volunteer regiment. 
He served with this command in January 1861 at Pensacola, 
and was there when Forts BaiTancas ancl McRae were evacu- 
ated. Returning in Febiniary, he was soon after elected 
major of the Third Alabama, with which he proceeded to 
Virginia. He was soon promoted to lieutenant colonel, and 
as such was first under fire at Drewry's Bluff, and led the 
regiment at Seven Pines after the fall of Col. Lomax. He* 
was also in command of it in the week of bloody battles be- 
low Richmond. At Boonsboro he was slightly wounded, and 
at Sharpsbui'g disabled for several weeks. At Chancellors- 
ville he served on Gen. Rodes's staff. Gen. EweU was so 
much pleased with his conduct at Gettysburg that he pro- 
moted nim to brigadier gener^, and this was confirmed soon 
after. Placed in peimanent command of the brigade — 3d, 
5th, 6th, 12th, and 61st Alabama regiments — he led it at the 
Wilderness, and was almost continuously under fire till Juno 
2d, when he was slightly wounded at the second Cold Harbor. 
In the Valley with Early, he led the brigade at Winchester 
where it was complimented in orders by the commanding 
general. At Cedar Creek, while in command, he was strucK 
m the knee, aijd so disabled as to prevent his return to active 
duty. His commission as mmor general dated from Oct. 19, 
1864, when he was thus wounded. Resuming his profession 
at the close of the war, he was elected to congress the same 
year, defeating Hon. R. F. Ligon and Rev. Mr. Hamill, both 


of this county, and Hon. Geo, Reese of Chambers ; but the 
majority m congress would not permit him to take his seat, 
and soon after disfranchised him. 

Gen. Battle is of ordinary stature and slender figure, with 
dark complexion and eyes. His address is coiurtly, and he is 
approachable and sociable. His oratory is graceral in man- 
ner, and florid and synthetic in matter. On the battle field 
he was deUberate and determiaed, and in camp was the friend 
and protector of his men. His moral character and pubUc 
roiiit are well known. He married Miss Williams of Georgia. 
!Kev. Archibald J. Battle of Perry is his brother. 

EvANDER McIvER Law also resided in this county. He was 
bom in DarUngton, 8. C, in 1836 ; and his father was an 
attorney at tliat place. His mother was Miss Mclver. He 
was graduated at the military academy at Charleston in 1836, 
and was professor of bdles left res in the mihtary school at 
York^dlle for three years. In 1860, he came to this county, 
and here taught school pending his preparation to practice 
law. In January 1861, he lead a company of State troops to 
Pensacola, and remained there nearly two months. Entering 
the service again as captain, he was elected lieutenant colonw 
of the Fourih Alabama Infantry. At the first battle of Ma- 
nassas, he was severely wounded. In October he became 
colonel of the Fourth by election, and led it at Seyen Pines. 
He assumed command of the brigade (Whiting's) — ^the 4th 
Alabama, 6th North Caiolina, and 2d and 11th Mississipja 
regiments — in June, and led it at Cold Harbor, and Malvern 
Hill, at the second battle of Manassas, and at Shaipsburg. 
Promoted to brigadier general in October 1862, he was placed 
in pennanent command of the brigade. In January 1863, his 
brigade was reorganized, and was henceforth composed of 
the 4tli, 15th, 44th, 47th, and 48th Alal)ama regiments. When 
Gen. Hood was wounded at Gettysburg, the command of the 
division devolved on him. He was again in command of 
Hood's division at Cliickamauga, where his old biigade cap- 
tured 13 j)ieces of artillery, and where his conduct was so 
intrepid that Gen.'Longstreet sent a note expresshig his ad- 
miration and satisfaction. At the Wilderness and Spottsyl- 
vauia he led his brigade, and at tlie second Cold Harbor 
commanded also Anderson's brigade. In the latter battle he 
received a severe wound. Shortly after, he was relieved at 
his own request in consequence of a variance T\ith Gen. Long- 
street. Ho was placed in command at Columbia, S. C, on the 
approach of Sherman's army, and in February assumed com- 
mand of Butler's brigade of cavalry. He was engaged in 
the attack on Kilpatrick's camp and at Fayetteville, served on 
the staff of Qen. J. E. Johnston atBentonviUe, and led Bufler's 


cavalry afterwards. He was promoted to major general just 
before the surrender, on tfee recommendation of Generals 
Johnston and Hampton. Since the war, he has resided in 
South Carolina, where he is now president of the King's 
Mountain Bailroad Company. 

Gren. Law won a very brilliant reputation during Hhe war. 
He was not a rigid disciplinarian, but in battle he handled his 
men in a masterlv manner, and was himself a conspicuous 
example of dauntless courage. " Nor was his courage of that 
headlong character which only displays itself in excitement. 
" * * * The excitement of battle steadied his nerves, quick- 
" ened his judgment, and sharpened his perceptions."* Few 
men have had so bright a career at so early an age. 

Macon was also the home of Wilijam F. Perry, though he 
grew to manhood in Chambers and Cherokee. His parents, 
Hiram Perry and Nancy Flake, came to this State m 1833, 
and settled in Chambers county. Bom in Jackson coimty, 
Gteorgia, in 1823, he was educated in that State. He perfected 
his education in a great measure after leaving the schools by 
assiduous study. From 1848 to 1853 he was at the head of 
a prosperous high school in Talladega. He then came to 
Tuiskegee and read in the law class taught by Judge Chilton. 
Licensed to practice in 1854, he was elected by the general 
assembly in February of the same year to the office of super- 
intendent of education for the State, then just established. 
In this important position he labored till the fall of 1858 — 
having been twice re-elected — ^then resigned to continue the 
noble vocation of a teacher. Placed in chaise of the East 
Alabama College at Tuskegee, he held that trust till the 
reverses to the Confederate army in February 1862 decided 
him to enter the service of his imperilled country. Enlisting 
as a private, he was elected major at the organization of the 
44th Alabama in May, and became lieutenant colonel by the 
resi^ation of Col. Kent in August. The 44th reached Vir- 
ginia in time to take part in the second battle of Manassas. 
At Sharpsburg Col. Derby was killed, and Col. Perry's pro- 
motion followed. At Gettysburg he led the 44th agamst the 
rocky bastions of Eound Top, where, in common wim Hood's 
whole division, it earned a bloody renown. At Chicamauga 
he commanded the brigade, (Law's), and for gallantry at 
Dandridge General Longstreet recommended his promotion. 
At the Wilderness the brigade was the first of Longstreet's 
corps to reach the field, which it did in time to retrieve the 
disaster to Heth and Wilcox by a daring chame, wherein 
Col. Perry had two horses killed under hmi. Tbe brigade 
also opened the fight at Spottsylvania, and, as part of the 
attenuatad line of the patriots, threw itself witn resistless 

" • Gen. W. F. ?efry, 


valor upon Warren's corps of 20,000 men, dislodged them 
from their position, and set them to entrenching for protec- 
tion. From the battle of Cold Harbor to the close. Gen. 
Perry, now promoted, led the brigade. At its head he went 
through all the iron hail of Petersburg, and it was the rear- 
ward of that renmant of the historic and fire-tried Army of 
Northern Virginia which retired up the southside of the 
James. Se surrendered it at Appomattox, and so well was its 
discipline and morale preserved that it constituted at least a 
tenth of Gen. Lee's eftective force on that last field. Return- 
ing to his home, Gen. Perry engaged in agricultural pursuits 
till 1867, when he removed to Glendale, Hardin counfy, Ken- 
tucky, where he is in charge of a miUtary college. Gen. Perry 
was eminent as an officer, for the highest soldierly qualities, 
displaying calmness on the battle-field, discipline in the 
bivouac, and consideration for his men everywhere. His 
administrative and executive capacity was thoroughly and 
satisfactorily tested. He is also a citizen of stainless char- 
acter. He married a niece of Hon. Wm. P. Chilton of Mont- 

The late Wylie W. Mason resided in Macon. He was a 
native of Georgia, and was educated at the State University 
there. About the year 1838 he came to this State, and began 
the practice of law# at Wetumka, associated with Hon. 
Armistead B. Dawson. In 1845 he was elected to the office 
of chancellor over Hon. J. B. Clarke of Greene and others, 
and filled the position with satisfaction for six years. In 1852 
he came to Macon, and resided at Auburn and Tuskegee. 
In 1861 he represented the county in the legislature. His 
death occurred at Tuskegee in 1870. He left a number of 
descendants in the county ; and one of his sons, the late Mr. 
Wm. R. Mason, was register in chancery here for many years. 
Chancellor Mason was a gentleman of high moral standing, 
and of fair talents. 

The late James Walter Echols, of this county, was a 
native of Georgia. His early advantages were meagre, and 
he was for several years employed in a mercantile house. 
He resided for some time at Auburn, and in 1863 came to 
Tuskegee. He thrice represented the countj- in the legisla- 
ture, and served for some time as a field officer of the Thirty- 
fourth Alabama. He was a wealthy planter, of much energy 
and strength of purpose, and with popular virtues. He died 
in 1869. 

NEnj Smith Graham came to this State in infancy, being a 
native of Cumberland countv. North Carolina, and bom in 
1818. He grew to manhoocl in Autauga, was graduated at 


Princeton, read law under Hon. Setli P. Storrs at Wetumka, 
and opened a law oflSce iiiere in 1841. In 1851 he repre- 
senteu Coosa county in the legislature, and in 1856 came to 
reside in this county. He is now a law partner of Col. R. H, 
Abercrombie. Mr. Graham is a leaoing and exemplary 
citizen, of solid talents, and moral worth. He is a brother 
of Col. Oraham of Montgomery. • 

Thomas S. Woodward, Isaac Ray, and John Thompson 
were the commissioners appointed by the act approved Jan. 
12, 1833, to select a site for the courthouse of the coimty. 

Samuel Henderson, O. R. Blue, and J. M. Foster repre- 
sented Macon in the constitutional convention of 1861 ; Linn 
B. Sanders, J. T. Crawford, and R. H. Howard in that of 1865. 

The following is a list of the members of the general 
assembly : 


1834— James Larkins. 1853— Nathaniel Holt Clan ton.* 

1836— John W. Devereux. 1855— George W. Gunn. 

1839— Solomon Washbnrn. 1857 — George W. Carter. 

1840— Samuel C. Dailey. 1859— William P. Chilton. 

1843— Bobert Dougherty. 1861— Robert F. Ligon. 

1845— Nathaniel J. Scott 1865— Richard H. Powell. 
1849— George W. Gnnn. [No election in 1867, or since.] 

liepresenta fives, 

1834— Joseph Cloagh. 1853— Charles A. Abercrombie, T. V. 

1835— Joseph Clongh. Rutherford, Sidney B. Paine. 

1836— Joseph dough. 1855— N. G. Owen, J. W. Echols, J. 

1837 — Joseph Clough. H. C/unningham. 

1838— Nathaniel Holt Clanton. 1857— Thomas F. Floumoy, J. W. 

1839 — Raney Fitzpatrick. Echols, Benjamin Thompson. 

1840— Raney Fitzpatrick. 1859— Thomas S. Tate, Charles J. 

1841— Nathaniel J. Scott. Bryan, Wm. R. Cunningham. 

1843— Whiting Oliver. 1861— Wylie W. Mason, John C. Jud- 

1843 — ^Whiting Oliver. kins, Benjamin Tompkins. 

1844— Nathaniel J. Scott 1863— Augustus B. Fannin, Chas. J. 

1845— Joseph V. Bates, Milton J. Bryan, J. C. Head. 

Tarver. 1865-^. W. Echols, J. C. Judkins, 
1847— Howell Peebles, Philip H. Rai- ^^ Alexander Frazier. 

ford. 1866— F.S.Fergu8on(tnoeJ.C.Judkins) 

1849— Robert F. Ligon, B. W.Walker. 1867— [No election . 1 

1851— John Smith. Seaborn WiUiams. 1870— Wm. Alley, H. St. Clair (c. ) 

• Died Nov. 27, 1853. Successor qualified Dec. 13. 



Madison was the second county created. This was done 
by a proclamation of Gov. Williams of Mississippi Territory, 
Dec. 13, 1808. 

The original territory of the county was that ceded by the 
Cherokees in 1805, and consisted of 615 square miles, in tri- 
angular shape. The boimdarv line crossed the line of Ten- 
nessee just north of PettusviUe, Limestone county, and ex- 
tended in a direct line to tlie Tennessee river, one mile west 
of Whitesburg ; thence up the river to the head of the island 
above Whitesburg, ( Chicasa Island, ) thence twelve niiles in 
an irregular line up the townships in range two to the Ten- 
nessee State line. These boundaries were changed in 1818 on 
the west, and several years later, after Decatur was abolished, 
took its present shape on the east. It now lies in the 
northern part of the State, and is bounded on the north by 
the State of Tennessee, east by Jackson, south by Motgan, 
west by Limestone. 

It was named to honor Mr. Madison, then secretary of state 
in Mr. Jefferson's cabinet.* 

The area of Madison is about 800 square miles. 

It ranks fourth on the list of counties in point of wealth. 
The assessed value of real estate in 1870 was 16,658,949 ; per- 
sonal propci-ty $1,311,726 ; total $7,970,675. 

The population decennially gives these figures : 

18J0 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 

^ — , 

Whites 3745 8813 13,855 12,279 11,937 11,685 15.527 

Blacks 951 8G6» 14,135 13.409 14,490 14,574 15,740 

The farm lands in 1870—139,305 acres improved, 109,515 
acres unimproved — were valued at $2,194,834. 

The hve stock— 3319 horses, 1911 mules, 8088 neat cattle, 
4062 sheep, and 17,824 hogs— were valued at $704,086. 

In 1869 the productions were 36,878 bushels of wheat, 

•James Madison was born in Orange county, Virginia, 1751. At the age 
of twenty-five years he entered the Virginia legislature, and in 1779 was i 
member of the colonial congress. He was a member of the body which 
framed the federal constitution in J 789, and of the first four ooB^creasea. He 
was minister of state during Mr. Jefiferson's two terms, and succeeded him 
as president in 1809. He was re-elected in 1817. He was afterwards a meoB' 
ber of the constitational convention of Virginia, and died in 1836. 


674,675 bushels of corn, 13,223 bushels of oats, 1200 bushels 
of baxlev, 32,824 bushels of potatoes, 78,373 pounds of butter, 
8134 gallons of sorghum, 8736 pounds of tobacco, 12,180 bales 
of cotton, 673ft pounds of wool ; the value of slaughtered ani- 
mals was $120,667 ; and the value of all farm productions was 

Madison is the richest agricultural county in the valley of 
the Tennessee. The surface is a variety of hill and plain, and 
the soil where it is not alluvial, is admirably adaptea to chem- 
ical enrichment. A spur of the Cumberland juts into the 
county, forming a picturesque range of low mountains. 

The Tennessee river, the boundary line of the county on the 
south, is navigable the entire distance ; and the Flint waters 
the eastern poiiion. The Memphis and Charleston Kailroad 
bisects the county, having thirty miles of its track therein, 
A projected branch of this road has been surveyed from Hunts- 
ville to Winchester, Tennessee. 

Coal exists in the county, in sufficient quantity for home use. 

HuNTSViLLE, the seat of justice, and the social and intel- 
lectual capital of the Tennessee Valley, is 203 miles north of 
Montgomery. It was founded in 1806 by Mr. John Hunt, who 
came from Tennessee, for whom it was named,* and whose 
descendants yet reside here. It was incorporated in 1811, be- 
ing the first town in the State' to receive that dignity. The 
first newspaper published within the limits of the present 
State, the " Madison Gazette," was printed here in 1812. The 
fir«t bank was also here, an act having passed Dec. 11, 1816, 
authorizing Leroy Pope, John P. Ilickman, David Moore, 
Benjamin Cox, John M. Taylor, Thomas Feame, Jesse Searcy, 
Clement C. Clay, and John W. Walker to open books of sub- 
scription for that purpose. In 1819 the first legislature of the 
State held its session here, and the convention that framed 
the constitution for the would-be State met here in July of 
the same year. The population in 1850 was 2863, of whom 
1500 were whites, and 1363 were blacks ; in 1860 it was 3634, 
of whom 1980 were whites, and 1654 were blacks; and in 
1870 it was 4907, of whom 2532 were whites, and 2375 were 
blacks. There are two colleges for females here ; but Greene 
Academy, t where so many ^ of the youths of the Tennessee 

*Au aet of the territorial legislature olianged the name to '* Twickenham," 
Dec. 23, 1809 ; but it was re-changed to **Hunt8vi]le" by an act dated No- 
Tember25, 1811. 

t Greene Academy wsia incorporated by an act passed Nov, 25, 1812, with 
Wm Edmondson, John Bmhan, Wm. Lesley, James McCarty, Peter Perkins, 
Charles Hnrris, Willliam Derrick, Jnmes Neeley, John Grayson, Henry Cox, 
Bennett Woods, Samael Allen, Andrew K. Davis. Wm. Evans, and Nathan 
Power as trastees ; and in 1818 Lemuel Mead. Henry Chambers, Henry Mi- 
nor, John Tftylor, Clement C. Clay, and John W. Walker were added. 


Valley were educated in the earlier days of the coimtiy, was 
destroyed by the federal troops. A large limestone ^ring 
gushes out at the foot of the low hill on which the city is buil^ 
a bow-shot from the courthouse, which supplies the town with 
water by means of hydrauHcs, and is the admiration of visitors, 
and a convenience and delight to residents. Huntsville was 
occupied April 11, 1862, by the federal troops, and held tOl 
the following September, when they were driven out by (Jen. 
Bragg's advance into Kentucky; but tiiey re-occupied it in 
July 1863, and were in possession the major part oi the time 
till the close of hostilities. Gen. Mitchell* and Col. Torchin 
were in command of the post for a short time, and their cru- 
elty to a defenseless people was brutal in the extreme. Mitch- 
ell s conduct was so odious and infamous that he was relieved 
by the humane Gen. BueU ; but other commanders of a later 
date permitted their subordinates to harass and depredate 
upon the people of Huntsville mercUessly. 

Newmarket has about 400 inhabitants ; Maysville about 250 ; 
Vienna about 200 ; and Madison Station about 200. 

The Boll Cotton Factory is located about ten miles north- 
east of Huntsville. It is me oldest establishment of the kind 
in the State, having been incorporated in 1832. It was founded 
by Patton, Donnegan ^ Co., and is owned by their descendants. 
Ijiere are 100 looms and 3000 spindles at work, operated by 
100 persons, and fifty bales of cotton are worked up every 
month into sheeting, shirting, checks and plaids, drilliiig, 
denims, woolen kerseys, twine, yam, &c. McFarland's Fac- 
tory is not at present operated fully. 

Madison felt the full weight of the burthens and woes of 
the late war. Alternately scoured by the hostile parties for 
forage, and with the negi'o laborers diiven oflf by the invaders, 
or taken away by their owners to places of greater security; 
with its citizens absent and sharing in the defence of other 
homp s while their o^v^l were being devastated ; with its fences, 
hedges, forests, and houses destroyed by a rude and hostile 
soldiery ; the fate of Madison, and the other counties of the 
valley, was a hard one. The numerous combats that occurred 
withui its limits, and the myriad exciting incidents of the mem- 
orable war that transpired here offer abundant material to tiie 
local historian. 

One of these achievements was the attack on the stockade 
erected and garrisoned by the federal troops at Madison Sta- 
tion, which occurred May 17, 1864. Col. Patterson of Morgan, 
with his regiment, and Stewart's battalion, numbering about 
500 men, with a piece of artillery, assaulted the enemy and 

*Brig. Gen. O. M. Mitchell of Ohio was an astrouomer and author of some 
celebrity. He died shortly after the close of the war. 


routed them. Eighty prisoners and some stores were taken 
across the river m the face of a superior force tiie invaders 
brought up. The garrison was estmiated at 400 men, and 
iheir loss m killed and wounded was not known. Patterson's 
loss was seven killed and wounded. 

The county, however, has begun to assume much of the 
aspect of the old time, and the charms of the region are being 

The roU of prominent citizens is lengthy, numbering many 
of the foremost men of the State. 

One of the earliest settlers of the county was Gabkiel 
MooKE. He was the scion of a respectable family in Stokes 
county, North Carolina, where he was bom about 1785. 
Coming to Huntsville as a lawyer in 1810, he represented the 
county in the legislature of Mississippi Territory for several 
years. In 1817 he was a member and speaker of the only 
territorial legislature of Alabama. Ho was also a member of 
the convention which fi'amed the State constitution, and was 
under it the first senator from Madison, presiding over that 
body in 1820. In 1822 he was elected to congress over Col. 
Bilas Dinsmore of Washington. He was re-elected in 1823, 
'25, and '27, defeating Judge Clay the last time. In 1829 he 
was elected governor without opposition, receiving 10,956 
votes. In February 1831 he resigned the position to accept a 
aeat in the federal senate to which he had been elected over Hon. 
John McKinley of Lauderdale, by a vote of 49 to 40. Gov. 
Moore entered the senate March 4, 1831, and remained there 
six years. It was in 1832 that, acting as the friend of the 
anti-Jackson party, he voted for the rejection of Mr. VanBuren 
as minister to Great Britain.* Gen. Jackson was omnipotent 
in Alabama, and Gov. Moore never recovered popular favor. 
The legislature of 1833 requested him to resign, but he 
remained in the senate as an antagonist of Qen. Jackson till 
the expiration of his term. The same year (1837) he was 
defeated for the lower house of congress by Hon. Beuben 
Chapman. It was his first de'feat. In 1843 he removed to 
Texas, where he died two years later. He had a handsome 
exterior, insinuating address, and ardent temperament. He 
was a man of the people, pubhc-spirited, hospitable, and firm 
in friendship as he was bitter in enmity. He married a Miss 
Callier of Washington county, but an immediate divorce 
occurred, followed by a duel with her brother, who was shot 
n the arm, near the Tenne8se;e line. Hon. S. I). J. Moore of 
Puskaloosa, and Judge W. H. Moore, late of the Huntsville 
jity court, are nephews of Gov. Moore. 

•Benton's •'Thirty Years View," page 215 of Volume I. 



William I. Adaib, a distinguished lawyer of this couni^) 
was a native of Kentucky, and nephew of Gov. Adair of that 
State. He came to this State in 1818 as a planter, but soon 
after read law, opened an office in Huntsvule and arose to 

i)rominence. In 1823 he represented the county in the l^is* 
ature, and was elected speaker* In November 1832 he was 
elected to the circuit court bench, and held the office till hifi 
death three veara later. Judge Adair was tall and well formed, 
with a florid complexion. He was sociable to excess, honest, 
)opular, and blunt of speech. Thcmgh a good Judge he paid 
ittle regard to legal technicalities. While holding court m 
Lawrence once, a young man was tried for killing another 
who had seduced his sister. The prosecution laid great stress 
on the fact that the deed was done a year after the seductioB 
(the erring Lothario having absented himself) arid that "cool- 
ing time" had elapsed for me passion of the brother to have 
assuaged. "Yes, gentlemen of the jury,*' said Judge A, 
"there is such a thing as "cooling time," but the allottea three 
score and ten years of man's life are not sufficient "cooling 
time" in a case Hke this." Judge Adair married a Miss Jones 
of Franklin, and left children. 

Among the. distinguished men in the early history of Madi- 
son was WiliLUM Kelly. When he came to HuntsviUe, about 
the year 1818, he was apparently 35 years old, and had been a 
circuit court judge in Tennessee, though he was probably 
bom in South Carolina. In 1821 he was elected a represent- 
ative in congress, his district comprising the entii'e State ; but 
he resigned the year following when elected to fill Mr. Walker's 
term in the federal senate, defeating Hon. John MoKinlej of 
Lauderdale. He sensed till March 1825, when he was de- 
feated for another term by Dr. Chambers of this county. 
The same year he represented Madison in the l^islature, and 
was elected speaker. His last service was in the lower honse 
in 1827. He removed to New Orleans about 1830, and died 
there soon after* He was a squarely-built man, of ordinary 
stature, wdth a popular though rough manner. He appeared 
to be morose and irascible, but on the contrary was sociable 
and humorous. His intellectual capacity was very consider- 
able, and he stood in the front raii of his profession. He 
was twice married ; the last time to Miss Brooks of the Disr 
tidct of Columbia ; and left cluldren whose fate is not known. 
Judge Kelly of Jefferson, Gen. John H. Kelly of Pickens, and 
Hon. Wm. K. Paulding of Peny were related to Judge Kelly. 

Henry Chambers, one of our early pubUc men, was a Vir- 
ginitm by birth, and came to Madison about 1815. He was 
then about 30 years old, a physician, an educated gentleman, 



Biid a man of property. From these facts we infer that his 
ancestors were persons in fortimate circumstances. He rep- 
resented Madiscm in the c6nvention which framed the State 
constitation, and in the lower house of tlie legislature in 1820. 
The year following he was defeated for governor by 2500 ma- 
jority in favor of Hon. Israel Pickens. Two years later he 
was again beaten by Gov. Pickens. In 1824 he was a presi- 
dential elector on tne Jackson ticket. In the winter of that 
year he was elected to the federal senate for a term of six 
years : Judge Kelly of Madison, the incumbent, receiving 36, 
and Dr. Chambers 41 votes. He died in Virginia, while on 
his way to Washington to take his seat, in February 1826. 
His death was much regretted, for he was a man of irreproach- 
able morals, and an eminent physician. His talents were of 
high order, his oratory chaste, and his bearing dignified and 
earnest. He was over six feet high, somewhat spare, with 
dark eyes and sallow complexion. His wife was a Miss Smith 
of Tennessee, aimt of Hon. Edward C. Betts of this county* 
One of his two sons, Hon. Hal. C. Chambers, represented 
Mississippi in the Confederate congress, and is now a distin- 
guished orator and citizen of that State, and his daughter 
married a son of Gov. Thomas Bibb. Alabama has preserved 
the memory of Dr. Chambers by naming a coimty in his honor. 

James G. Birney came to Madison in 1817, when about 27 
years old. He was of Irish parentage, and his father was a 
wealthy merchant in Kentucky. He occupied himself with 
plantii^, but, failing, he began the practice of law in Hunts- 
ville. He represented the coimty in the first legislature, but 
was once or twice afterwards defeated. About the year 1827 
he was elected solicitor, and held the office three or four years, 
when he became the law partner of Hon. A. F. Hopkins. 
The anti-slavery movement enUsted liis sympathy at an early 
day, and he became an agent for the colonization society. 
Durinc the session of the legislature at Tuskaloosa in 1834-5 
he addressed a meeting on the subject, but it was broken up 
in a tumtdt. He soon after sold his slaves, and removed to 
the North, where he became an abolition agitator. In 1840 
he was the nominee of the abolitionists for president of the 
United States, and again in 1844. In the first instance ho 
received over 7000 votes ; in the latter over 40,000. He died 
in Saginaw, Michigan, a short time before the war. In ap- 
pearance he was short and stout, with handsome and ex- 
Eressive features, and poUshed manners. His mind was of a 
igh order, and his capacity as a writer and speaker was con- 
siderable. He married a daughter of Judge McDowell of 
Kentucky, and two of his sons — natives of Madison — ^^ere 
brigadier generals in the federal army during the war. His 


sister was fhe mother of Hon. Thomas F. and Gen. Humphrey 
Marshall of Kentucky. 

John M. Taylor, one of the earlier jurists of the State, was 
bom in Orange county, Virginia, about the year 1788. He 
was a scion of an excellent family, and was moroughly edu- 
cated. After practicing law for several years in his native 
State, he came to Huntsville in 1817. Here he at first was a 
merchant, but soon resumed his professional labors. He was 
a member of the convention called to frame a constitution for 
Alabama, and was one of the three sub-committeemen who 
drafted that instrument. He was subsequently the law part- 
ner of Judge Minor, whom he succeeded on the supreme 
court bench in 1825. In this high ])osition he was retained 
for eight years, and then resigned. A year or two later he 
removed to Mississippi, where he was a leading practitioner 
till his deatli in 1859 or '60. Judge Taylor w^as of a comely 
figure and person, and of pleasing address. His mind was 
logical, and he stood at the head of his profession, while on 
the bench he sustained a high reputation. His wife was a 
sister of Mr. Philip Foote, a merchant of Huntsville. 

Byrd Brandon was another early settler of Madison. Bom 
in North Carolina in the year 1800, he spent some years of 
his life in Lincoln county, Tennessee, to which section his 
parents removed in 1812. A few years later he came to 
Huntsville, and read law in the office of Hon. C. C. Clay, ar. 
Admitted to the bar in 1822, he was at different times flie 

Sartner of Messrs. John M. Taylor, J. M. M. White, Frank 
ones, and Silas Parsons. President Jtickson appointed him 
federal attorney for the northern district of Alaoama, and he 
held the office five or six years, tlien resigned. iSresideiit 
VanBuren appointed liim consul to Campeachy and Tabasco, 
but he died oefore he could enter on the active discharge of 
his duties, Jime 3, 1838. Col. Brandon was popular as a 
man, and efficient as an official, and his early death deprived 
tlie State of a most useful citizen. His wife was a Miss 
Caldwell of Kentucky, and a son, Capt. John D. Brandon, is 
an attorney at Himtsville. Hon. WilUam Brandon, who 
thrice represented Madison in the legislature, and died in 
1848, was a brother. 

David Moore came to this county in 1815. He was bom 
in Bnmswick county, Virginia, in 1789. His father, Eev. 
John Moore, was a Metliodist clergyman, who went to Vir- 
ginia fi'om North Carolina ; and his mother was a Miss Fletcher. 
He was well educated, and was graduated in medicine at tie 
University of Pemisylvnia. Eemoving at once to Tennessee, 


he practiced in the family of General Andrew Jackson, whom 

lie accompanied on his campaign against the Indians in 

tliis State. He took a front rank as a physician and surgeon 

a.liHost from the day he came to Huntsville. In 1820 he rep- 

i"esented Madison m the popular branch of the legislature, 

Aiid was fourteen times called to that position, serving asi 

3 weaker in 1841. From 1822 to 1825 he served the coimty in 
le upper house. At the election for a federal senator in 
1841, ne was warmly urged as a suitable person for the place ; 
l>ut, after a very exciting canvass, he was defeated by Gov. 
Sagby by a vote of 66 to 59. Besides these many attestations 
of pKjpular confidence. Dr. Moore was a presidential elector 
oiic€f or twice. Just after being elected to the legislature, he 
died at his home in the county^, September 1845. Dr. Moore 
l>ore the seal of true manhood on his open countenance ; and calm bearing and considerate demeanor bespoke a gen- 
tility that nature had l)e8towed. His fund of practical sense, 
"ti^inpered by observation and experience, served him to better 
Tirpose than the showy gifts of more brilliant men. The 
Tudence and propriety of liis conduct won the esteem and 
<?gard of his fellow citizens ; while his usefuhiess, charity, 
ud benevolence were made effective by his ample fortime. 
^ " Ha^ 

[e first married a sister of Hon. John Haywood of Tennes- 
; his second wife was Miss Harrison of Virginia, cousin to 
le president of that name, who sur\aved him and married 
'. Charles A. Patton. Of his two sons, one was adjutant of 
le 26th Alabama regiment, and both arc planters of this 
'^^otmty. One of his daughters married Col. B. B. Ehett, jr., 
^t one time editor of the Charleston Mercvrij, and now resid- 
ing in Madison. 

One of the earUest settlers of Madison was John Williamb 
^Vamer. He was a native of Virginia, but gi*ew to manhood 
iai Elbert county, Geoi-gia, to which section his father, Rev. 
Ooremiah Walker, removed when he wjis a child. For a time 
lie was a pupil of Ilev. Moses Waddell, and afterwards was 
f:ip:aduated at Princeton College. Admitted to the bar at Pe- 
"tersburg, he soon after — in the year 1810 — came to Huntsville, 
^uid began to practice here. This he did with ability and 
success, but was once or t\vice inteniipted by an election to 
'the legislature of Mississippi Territory. In 1818 he was a 
xnember of the legislature of Alabama Territory, and a year 
later presided over the convention that framed the constitu- 
tion for the State. It was about this time that he declined 
the office of district judge of the federal court for Alabama, 
tendered by President Monroe. At the session of tlie first 
general assembly he was elected the first federal senator 



chosen by the State, and by an almost nnanimons vote. He 
at once took high rank in tnat then eminent body, and is one 
of the nineteen more eminent senators mentioned as holding 
a seat in that body by CoL Benton when he became a member 
of the senate in 1820. A want of health obliged him to 
resign, Dec. 12, 1822, and he died April 23, following, when 
barely forty years old. In person Mr. Walker was tall and slen- 
der, and his manner and address prepossessing and ^acefoL 
His attainments as a scholar and lawyer were very high, and 
were adorned by a refinement of taste, a scope of informa- 
tion, and a grace of elocution which conspirea to mark him 
as one of the most promising men of his age in the United 
States. He was the soul of honor and manly integrity, and 
his early death deprived the State of her most eminent citi- 
zen at mat time. A county was named in his.honor. 

While in Georgia, Mr. Walker married a daughter of Mr. 
Leroy Pope, who came to Madison in 1809, was one of the 
foimders of Huntsville, and died here in 1844. Mr. Walker's 
daughter, the wife of Dr. E. L. Feam of Mobile, was the 
momer of Mr. Walker Feam of Louisiana, secretaiy of lega- 
tion to Mexico and Belgium when Colonels Seibels and Forsyth 
were representing the United States abroad. Messrs. Percy 
and John J. Walker of Mobile, and Leroy P. and R W. Walker 
of this county are the living sons of Senator Walker. Another, 
Capt. Wm. Walker of Mobile, died at Fort Morgan in 1863. 

Lbbot Pope Walker was a native and a resident of Madi- 
son, and son of the preceding. He was bom in 1817, and 
was thoroughly educated. He read law under Judge Hop- 
kins, was admitted to the bar, and at once removed to Canton, 
Miss. He practiced there with but little promise a short time, 
then returned and located in Bellefonte, Jackson county. A 
year later he removed to Moulton and became the partner of 
Hon. D. G. Ligon. In 1843 and in '44 he represented Law- 
rence in the house, but the year after removed to Lauderdale. 
That county elected him to the house in 1847, when he was 
made speaker. In 1848 he was a Cass elector for his district, 
and for the State at large for Pierce and Buchanan. In 1849 
he was re-elected to the house, but the year after was elected 
judge of the circuit court. This position he held nine months, 
and resigned it. In 1853 he again represented Lauderdale, 
but in 1855 made his residence at Himtsville, where he has 
been the law partner of Messrs. R. C. Brickell and Septimits 
D. Cabaniss. In 1860 he was a delegate to the historic Cnaries- 
ton convention, and when the State seceded was sent as com- 
missioner to Tennessee, where his speech before the legisla- 
ture urging co-oj)eration was able and eloquent. He had jnst 
returned, when, in February, President Davis summoned him 


to a place in the cabinet of " the storm-cradled nation that 
fell." To the duties of this high position Mr. Walker brought 
inexperience, but which was to a great extent if not fully oom- 
j)ensated for by zeal and energy. The task of organizing and 
equipping armies almost without materials and with resources 
limited to the patriotic ardor of the people, was an herculean 
one. His labors were incessant, and when he resigned in the 
autumn of 1861 his health was shattered. The precise mo- 
tive for his retirement from tlie cabinet is not known, and will 
probably not be from his Hps ; but the belief is general that 
the self-conjSdence of Mr. I)a\is fii-st exhibited itself in the 
war office, and that Gen. Walker had too much respect for the 
responsibility and dignity of his position to pennit it to be 
subordinated to a mere clerkship. Gen. Walker is censured 
for his speech in Montgomerj' when announciag tlie fall of 
Fort Sumter, his utterances being regarded as official, but Mr. 
Stephens, in his " Wai* Between the States," (Vol. I, pp. 415, 
421,) exonerates him in a great degree of all blame. He was 
commissioned as brigadier general on bis retirement, and or- 
dered to repoiii to Gen. Bragg. He was placed in command 
at Mobile, but held it only a short time. In the spring of 
1862 he resigned his commission because he was not assigned 
to duty. The following year he was appointed judge of a mil- 
itary court, and served till tlie close of the war. Since that 
time he has practiced his profession very profitably and suc- 
cessfully in Huntsville. In person Gen. W alker is about five 
feet, ten inches high, with less tiian medium flesh, and fair com- 
plexion; his appearance and manners indicating cultivation 
and refinement Though he has occupied various stations of 
lionor and responsibility, it is as an orator that he has earned 
his most enduring fame. "He is the clearest, most transparent, 
speaker I ever heard, in the pulpit, on the stump, or at the 
forum," says Col. Nich. Davis, who compares Gen. W.'s skill 
in his profession to Helen's description of the son of Laertes: 

•*Thftt \H UlysseB, man of many arts, 
Skilled in every form of shrewd device, 
And action wisely planned." 

Gen. Walker first manied a lady of Mississippi ; his second 
wife ib a daughter of Hon. Wm. D. Pickett of Montgomery, 
deceased. His eldest sou, Capt. Clifton Walker, a gifted gen- 
tleman, was on Geru Tracy's staif, and died in Mississippi 
within the past few years. 

Richard Wilde Walker, brother of the fgre^oing, is also 
•a Djative and resident of this county. He was bom Feb. 16, 
1823, and was educated at Spring Hill College, Mobile, the 
Universitv of Virginia, and Princeton. Graduating at the 
latter in 1841, he returned, read law, and was licensed in 1844. 


Locating in Florence, he was elected district solicitor in 1846 
over the incumbent, E. A. O'Neal, esq., of Lauderdale. This 
position he resigned three years later. In 1851 he was elected 
to the legislature from Lauderdale, and in 1853 was nominated 
by his party for governor, but made no contest. He again 
represented Lauderdale in 1855, when he was chosen to pre- 
side over the house. Li June 1869 he was appointed by Gk>v. 
Moore a judge of tlie supremo court to fill the vacancy caused 
bj the resignation of Judge Rice, and at the succeeding ses- 
sion of tlic legislature was elected to the same office for a fall 
term. While filling this phice he was selected by the consti- 
tutional convention as a delegate for the State at large to the 
j)rovisional congress, in which he served a year. Li 1863 he 
was elected a senator in the Confederate congress to succeed 
Hon. C. C. Clay, and entered on his new duties in February 
thereafter. He was thus engaged when the downfall of the 
confederacy respited him to private life, from which he has 
not since emerged. At the close of the war between the States 
he again made Madison his home, and is now devoting himself 
to his profession, associated Avith Hon. James Robertson. 

Judge Walker is frail in physical structure, with a dart 
complexion, and Hebrew cast of features. In the social cirde 
he is noted for the quiet and unostentatious urbaniir of his 
manner. As a lawyer he has few equals, bringing to bear (m 
the absti'act principles of his profession patient and unremit- 
ting study, intense thought, and a logical mind. As an adro- 
cate he wins rather by a thorough mastery of his subject, and 
the clearness and fairness of his propositions, than by vehe- 
ment mtoner. As a jurist his decisions evince research and 
Srofound l^gal erudition. Nor are his literary attainments 
fsprpportioned to liis professional lore. To these are added 
a purity of morals, and an elevation of sentiment which alone 
are needed to finish the portrayal of one of the most distin- 
guished sons of the State. He married a daughter of Mr. John 
Simpson, one of the most respected citizens of Lauderdale. 

Clement Comer Clay was an early settler of Madison. He 
was bom in Halifax county, Virginia, Dec. 17, 1789, aijd was 
the son of Wm. Clay, a solcUer in the colonial rebellion. His 
mother was a Miss Comer, whoso mother was a Claiborne. 
During his boyhood his parents removed io Granger county, 
Teun., where he grew up. Completing his education at a col- 
lego im Knoxviue, he read law under Hon. Hugh L. White. 
Licensed in 18(J9, ho came to Huntsville two years later, and 
and here resided till his demise fifty-live years afterwards.' 
During the Indian war of 1813 he was adjutant of a battalion 
which acted as a corps of obsei'vation. Li 1817 he lepre- 
sented the county in tne ten-itorial legislature, serving in tiie 


Qplj two seasioiis of that body. He was also a member of 
me oonvention of 1819, and was cb9.Qrman of the committee 
which reported the constitution. The same year he was 
elected a judge of the supreme court by tlie legislature, and 
his associates selected him as the first chief justice, though 
he was the youngest of their number. This high dignity he 
held four years, then resigned and resumed the practice. 
Soon after this he was a principal to a duel, in which he shot 
Hon. Waddy Tate of Limestone in the leg. His retirement 
waa interrupted in 1828, when he was elected to the legisla- 
ture, and at its meeting was made speaker without m>posi- 
tion. The year after he was elected to congress, defeating 
Gapt. Nich. "Davis of Limestone after a wai-m canvass. Ho 
was twice re-elected, serving continuously till 1835, and in- 
coning no further opposition. In that year he was elected 
fovemor, over Gen. Enoch Parsons of Monroe, by a vote of 
3,297 to 12,209. The Creek troubles occurred during his 
administration, and their rej)ression m largely owing to his 
prompt exertions. Before the expiration of his teim he was 
olecteii (June 1837) to the senate of the United States with- 
out opposition. He sat in that then eminent body till 1841, 
^^hen financial embaiTassments caused him to resign. He 
"^B^as then selected to prepai'e a digest of the laws of the State, 
"Which he did, and laid it before the legislature of 1842. In 
una 1843 he was appointed a justice of the supreme court 
►y Gov. Fitzpatrick, and held the position till the ensuing 
"^TOiter. His last public tnist was as one of the three com- 
:xmssioners to wind up the business ot the banks in 1846. The 
^iremainder of his life was spent in dignified repo^, unroUeved 
V>y any important event save the harsh treatment he received 
^t the hands of the Northern troops when they occupied the 
TTennessee valley. He died at Huntsville, Sept. 7, 1866. 

Gov. Clay was of medium size, but erect, and witti dark atid 
restless eyes. His l)earing was natiu-ally austere, and, though 
sociable with a few, he was intimate with none. He was hon- 
orable in all the relations of life, and sensitive of the slightest 
imputation derogatory thereto. As a jurist and public officer 
he was verj' laborious and energetic, and his official career 
was characterized by a proper sense of responsibility, dignity, 
and fidelity. 

Gk)v. Clay manied a sister of Gen. Jones M. Withers of 
Mobile, and left thi*ee sons, well known citizens of this counirjr : 
Major J. Withers Clay, the able editor for many years o{ tne 
Hmitsville Democrat ; Col. Hugh L. Clay, a lawyer and gen- 
tleman of much talent; and — 

Clement Claiborne Clat, a statesman and a citizen of na- 
tional reputation, is a native and resident of Mad|M>n, and soq 


of the foregoing. He was bom Dec. 1817, and was graduated 
at our State University in 1834. He read law at the Univer- 
sity of Virginia and was Ucensed in 1840. He began the prao- 
tico at Himtsville, but early gave his attention to public ques- 
tions, and Entered the general assembly in 1842. in 1844 and 
'45 he was again elected to that body, and by it elected judge 
of the county court in 1846. This office he resigned two years 
after, and again betook himself to his profession. In 1853 he 
was a candidate for the lower house of congi'ess, but was de- 
feated by Hon. W. E. W. Cobb of Jackson. When the le^s- 
lature met, that winter, his party in that body nominated him 
for a seat in the U. S. Senate over several distinguished mem- 
bers of the party, and he was elected for a term of six years, 
to succeed Col. fcJlemens, receiving 85 votes, to 37 for Hon. R 
W. Walker. He at once took his seat in the federal senate, 
where he remained nine years. He wtus re-elected in 1859, 
receiving every vote cast. When his State dissolved her re- 
lations with tlie federjil Union, he withdi-ew with his colleagues. 
The legislature of 1861 elected him a senator in the 1st con- 
gress of the Confederacy, the vote standing 66 for him, to 53 
for Col. Watts of Montgomery, and 5 for Greo. P. Boime,e8q., 
of this coimty. In this capacity Judge Clay was unremittmc 
in his effoii» in behaK of Southern independence. He served 
two years, and went before the general assembly of 1863 for 
re-election. He was opposed by Col. Seibels of Montgomeiv 
and Hon. J. L. M. Cuny of Talladega, and after several bal- 
lotings, he withdi'ew in favor of Hon. R. W. Walker, who was 
chosen. In Apiil 1864 he departed on a secret and confiden- 
tial mission to the British provinces of this continent, and only 
returned in Jan. 1865. When the sun-ender of the confede- 
rate armies in Virginia and North Carolina took place, he 
started on horse-back for Texas, but hearing that he was 
charged with complicity in the murder of President Lincoki 
and that a reward was offered for his apprehension, he rode 
one hundred and fifty miles to surrender himself to the federal 
authorities at Macon, Georgia. Instead of appreciating this 
manly vindication of his honor, tlie federal authorities im- 
mured him in the casemates of Forti*ess Monroe, and retained 
him there twelve months without bringing him to trial on the 
false chaiges of treason and assassination. He w*as cruelly 
and disgi'acefully treated and relejised in broken health. Since 
that time he has been planting in Jackson county. 

Judge Clay is of ordmaiyhighth, and frail and tliin appear- 
ance. His features are of tlie refined and intellectual mould, 
and his eyes brown, with a meditative expression. His man- 
ner is easy without cordiality, and grave without austerity. 
He is a cultivated scholar, whose mind has been ripened by 


study, reflection, and experience. His letters and speeches are 
few in number, but models of their kind. He is moderate and 

Erudent in council, and, as Lord Bacon said, "not strong- 
eaded, but stout-hearted. " His moral character imites all 
the qualities of a christian gentleman, and he commands the 
respect of every one. His influence in matters of public import, 
as well as otherwise, has been always for good. 

Judge Clay married the daughter of Dr. P. E. Tunstall, then 
of Baldwin, a lady of fascinating attributes of mind, and elevated 
qualities of heart. While her husband was in Washington 
Mrs. Clay was one of the brightest ornaments of society there. 

Alabama has produced few men whose natural abilities 
would compare favorably with those of James. White Mc- 
Clung of this county. A native of Knoxville, Tennessee, he 
was the son of a merchant, and his mother was the sister of 
the distinguished statesman of that redion, Hugh Lawson 
White. He was graduated at Tale or Princeton, and came 
to p»ractice law m Himtsville in 1819, when he had just 
attained to the age of manhood. His talents soon brought 
him into favorable notice, and he served a term in the legis- 
lature from Madison as early as 1822. But his early career 
was sadly tarnished by dissipation, which justly debarred him 
from the pubUc employment which his talents commanded, 
and which are declared by the learned Montesquieu to be, in 
repubUcs, " attestations of virtue." He reformed, however, 
and frequently represented the county between 1835 and 1845, 
serving as speaker of no less than three different legislatures. 
In 1845 he was a candidate for governor, but without any 
avowed affiliation with either of tlie pohtical parties ; and he 
was defeated bj Hon. Benjamin Fitzpatrick of Autai^a by 
6765 majority m a poll of 49,000 votes. He died in BLunts- 
ville in 1849. Mr. McClung was rather short, and stoutly 
built, with a large and knotty head, and coarse, auburn hair. 
His mental endowments were lavish. As an orator he was 
luminously logical and perspicuous, and garnished his 
speeches with ornate and vivid imagery ; while his voice was 
clear and sonorous, his manner deHberate, and his ideas 
chaste. At the b^r he stood foremost for many years prior to 
his death, and while in the legislature was for several terms 
chairman of the judiciary committee. He was indolent in 
all but his mental processes, which were subtle and untiring; 
and it is a well known fact that he was always more briUiant 
on the stump or in the fonmi on a sudden emergency than 
when preparation tantalized his copious ideas with the many 
avenues of expression his vigorous mind suggested. Though 
he was sociable and humorous in his associations, the wires 
were down somewhere between him and the masses, possibly 


because of his very superior scholarly attainments. He first 
married a daughter of Gov. Mitchell of Gteorgia ; then Miss 
S|pottswood of this coimty ; and lastly Miss Patrick ; but his 
several sons and daughters reside in east Tennessee. 

Wn^LLVM Smith resided in this county, though his fame 
belongs to South CaroUna. He was born in tnat State in 
1762, and was a school-fellow of Gen. Jackson and Judge W. 
H. Cra^vford of Georgia. He was admitted to the bar in 
1784, and was for several years on the bench of South 
Carohna. He also 8erv6d that State in both branches of con- 
gress, being a member of the federal senate in 1816^*23, and 
Wl 1823-'31. In 1833 he received seven electoral vot^ for 
vice president of the United States. A year or two later he 
came to reside in this county, which he represented in the 
legislature from 1836 to 1840. In 1837 he was appointed an 
associate justice of the supreme court of the Umted States, 
but declii^ed the honor. He died in Huntsville, June 26, 
1840. Judge Smith was a man of marked abihty, energy, 
com'age, and resolution. He was the rival of Mr. Calhoun 
in South Carolina, and often baffled that eminent statesman; 

*• For from his metal wan bis party steeled.'' 

He married a Miss Duff, and his only child was the mother 
of Mrs. Meredith Calhoun of this county. 

Silas Paksons was a resident of Madison. He was bom 
in Kentucky about the year 1800, but came to tliis State from 
east Tennessee. Of his ancesti-y httle is known. He had 
very few early advanttiges, but was liberally endowed by na- 
ture. Ho fii'st settled in Jjickson county in 1819, as a fanner, 
and read law there while sheriff of the county in 1823--'26. 
After practicing a short time in Belief onte, he came to Hunts- 
ville in 1831 and fonued a partnership with Col. Byrd Bran- 
don, and subsequently witn Judge Hopkins. He arose ta 
eminence in his profession, and soon stood in the first rank. 
In 1839 he declined the pfiice of chancellor to whick the 
legislature had elected him. When Justice Collier left the su- 
premo court bench, in July 1849, Governor Chapman ap- 
pointed Mr. Parsons to the vacancy. He filled theplace two 
years, when he resigned and removed to Texas. He resided 
on a plantation al^out 10 miles from Austni, but died in Htrnts- 
ville m November 1860, while on a visit, and is here interred. 

Judge Parsons was tidl and gaunt, with blue eyes, swarfty 
complexion, and a leaden expression of countenance. He 
was ungainly of person, and abstracted in manner, whence 
arose the various anecdotes told about him. His fame rests 
on his legal firgunMjnts, which were ^naster-pieces of reason- 
ing, e^diausting every conceivable point embnvced in the cause. 


He grew wealthy from his practice, but probably never de- 
manded a fee or set the amount of it ; in no sense making a 
trade of his profession. He was generous and amiable, but 
reserved, avoiding assemblies of persons. His wife was a 
daughter of Mr. John Reed of Mamson, whose sister married 
Col. Jere Clemens ; but he was cliildless. 

Thomas Fearn was a resident of Madison for over half a 
csentury. He was bom near Danville, Virginia, about the year 
1790, and came to Himtsville in 1812. He was a physician 
and a man of scientific attainments in his profession. He 
represented Madison in the house in 1822, and twice soon 
after. He was also a presidential elector, and in 1861 waa 
elected to the provisional congress of the Confederacy, but 
resigned because of iU-health. TJTien the federal troops 
occupied HunstviUe they imprisoned and harassed him. His 
death occun*ed in 1864. He was tall and prepossessing in ap- 
pearance ; of a speculative mind ; and of a temperate and 
moral character. His wife was a Miss Shelby of Tennessee, 
and his children were daughters; one of them the wife of 
Hon. Wm. S. Barry of Mississippi. Dr. R L. Team of Mo- 
bile was his brother. 

Distinguished among the citizens of Madison is Reubett 
Chapman. He was bom in Caroline county, Virginia, in 1802, 
and is the son of Col. Reuben Chapman, a colonial soldier of 
'76. His mother was Miss Rejuolds of Essex comity, Vir- 
ginia. Educated thoroughly, he came to Hunts\ille in 1824 
and read law in the office of his brother, Hon. Samuel Chap- 
man. The same year he was selected to carry the electoral 
vote of the State — the second it had cast — to Washington. 
Admitted to tiie bar in 1825, he practiced a year in Hunts- 
ville, then removed to Morgan county. In 1832 he was 
chosen to the senate fiom Morgan ; and, at the expiration 
of his teim in 1835 he was elected ip congress over Messrs. 
R. T. Scott pf Jackson and Wm. H. Glasscock of Madison, 
by a large majority. Two years later he was re-elected over 
ex-Gov. Gabriel Moore by 6300 majority, after a close can- 
vass. In his four successive re-elections to congress Mr. 
Chapman had no opponent save in 1841, when Hon. John T. 
Ratner of Morgan was the candidate on the Whig general 
ticket. The acceptance of the nomination for governor in 
1847 terminated his career in congress. This nomination was 
wholly without his solicitation, and he was elected by a vote 
of 29,722, to 23,467 for Hon. Nicholas Davis, sr., of Lime- 
stone. Mr. Chapman entered fully into the task of reUeving 
the State from her financial embarrassments, and at the close 
of his term saw with pleasure the result of his prudent and 


economical administration. In the party convention called to 
choose his successor, Gov. C. had a majority, but the two* 
thirds rule defeated his re-nomination. Betiriug to private 
life, he returned to reside in Huntsville in 1850, and improved 
a handsome estate overlooking the city. The demands of his 
party in 1855 brought him out as a candidate for the lower 
house, the American party having acquired great strength, 
and placed its standard m the hands of Col. Jere. Clemens. 
A warm contest resulted in the success of Mr. Chapman. He 
has not since been in official place, save as an elector for Mr. 
Davis in 1862, as he had previously been for Mr. Polk 
During the war the federal troops burned his residence, deso- 
lated his possessions, imprisoned and harassed him, and 
finally forced him out of tneir lines. To fill the cup of his 
sorrow, his son fell on the battle field. 

Gov. Chapman is six feet in highth, and his frame well knit 
and sinewy. His complexion is florid, with auburn hair, and 
firmly set jaw. His maimer, though not cordial, is plain and 
agreeable ; while his conversation embraces an extensive 
range of valuable subjects. His mind is of the practical and 
active order, and his sagacity and tact are unquestioned. As 
a public sei-vant, he was of that resolute, viguant, and faiiii- 
ful tyi)e of which the present time does not appear to be pro- 
lific. He manied a sister of Hon. R. O. Pickett of Lauder- 
dale. Of his childien, one is the wife of Capi Humes, a 
lawyer of Hunts\dlle. 

The name of Jeremiah Clemens is associated with the his- 
tory of Madison. . Ho was the son of James Clemens, who 
came from Kentucky and settled in this county as early as 
1812. His mother was the sister of Hon. Arcnie E. Mills, 
who represented Limestone in 1838, and of John F. Mills, 
sheriff of Madison at one time. The son was bom in Hunts- 
ville, December 28, 1814. His parents were wealthy, and gave 
him every educational advantage. He took a course at La- 
grange, then graduated at the State University in 1833, and 
read in the law school of Transylvania University. Li 1834 
he was admitted to the bar, and opened an office in Huntsville. 
Wlicn tlio troul)le with the Chcrokees arose he volunteered as 
a privatti. In 1838 he was appointed federal district attorney 
for the northeni and middle districts of this State, an office 
he held only a few months. The tliree succeeding years he 
represented Madison in the house of representatives. In 1842 
he raised a company of volunteers to serve in Texas, and, 
soon after entering the service of the lone star republic, was 
chosen lieutenant colonel of a regiment. Betuming, he again 
represented the county in 1843, and was re-elected in '44 
mien the "ten regiment bill" passed congress, March 1847, 


he received a commission as major of the 13th Infantry. He 
soon became Hentenant colonel, and, in April '48, was pro- 
moted to the colonelcy of the Ninth Infantry. When the war 
closed he left the army. He was an nnsuccessful candidate 
against Mr. Cobb of Jackson for representative in congress in 
1849, bnt was elected to the federal senate over ex-Gov. Fitz- 
patrick for the unexpired term of Hon. D. H. Lewis. His 
career in the senate was brilliant, and he left it in 1853 with,a 
national fame. In 1856 he was a candidate for elector for the 
State on the Fillmore ticket, and the same year published 
"Bernard Lile," a romance couched in gorgeous diction, and 
abounding in thrilling episode. This was followed within two 
years by "Mustang Gray" and "The Rivals," works of a sim- 
ilar order. In 1859 he removed to Memphis to edit a news- 
paper in association with Gen. Borland of Arkansas, but the 
scheme was shoi't-lived. He was elected to the constitutional 
convention of 1861, and voted against but afterwards signed 
the secession ordinance. He was about tliat time appointed 
major general of the State forces by Gov. Moore, but was en- 

faged m no active service. During the federal occupancy of 
[untsville he again became a Unionist, and visited the North. 
While there he published a pamphlet which greatly misrep- 
resented his fellow-citizens. It was near the close of the war 
that he died in Hunisville. 

Col. Clemens was five feet ten inches in highth, slender and 
erect, with dark eyes and straight dark hair. Worn cavalierly, 
his hair gave a poetic expression to his pale and effeminate 
features, which were of a decidedly intellectual cast. He was 
not eloquent, but was poUshed and elaborate in his langu^e, 
and very winning and fascinating to persons of culture. His 
speeches required preparation, and, lixe those of Demosthenes^ 
"smelt of the lamp '; but were models of elegant diction. He 
was dissipated at times, and, when Mr. Yancey urged him in 
private to forsake his habits while they were ejectors in 1856 
and canvassing, he replied that he was obliged to drink to 
bring his genius down to a le^ el with Mr. Y*s. 

He married a daughter of Mr. John Reed, a Huntsville 
merchant. His only child married a Mr. King of Georgia, 
killed at Chicamauga, and is now the wife of Dr. Townsend 
of Philadelphia. 

The late William Acklen was one of the earliest white set- 
tlers of Madison, and of the State. He was bom in Tazewell, 
Tennessee, December 1802. His father was a Virginian, and 
sheriff of Claiborne coimty, Tennessee, at one time. Marrying 
a daughter of Capt. John Hunt, the founder of HuntsviUe, he 
settled in Madison in 1808 with his family. Wm. Acklen, the 
son of this worthy pair, was graduated at Greenville College, 


Teim., read law under Ebenezer Titos in Huntsville, and came 
to the bar in 1823. Caswell B. Clifton (afterwards a circuit 
conrt judge in Mississippi), Joseph Acklen, and Smith D. Hale 
were at separate periods tiie law partners of Mr. Acklen. In 
1826 he represented Madison in the house, and was four times 
returned ; Ijut in 1832 he was elected solicitor, a position he 
filled ^ith great credit for twelve years. In 1853 he defeated 

on. Wm. Fleming for State senator, and served four years. 

Le was a hale and stout man, though disabled for some 
years by an accident. Physically he was well constituted, with 
an intellectual Iiead, and cheeiiul expression. As a solicitor, 
he was very efficient, and as a man was honorable and ener- 
getic. He married a daughter of Mr. Edmund King of Shel- 
by, and lost a son at Gaines' Mill. His broliher Joseph was 
federal distiict attorney for Alabama, and his brother John 
sheriff of Madison. Mr. Acklen died in May 1872. 

The journals of the general assembly show the name of 
William Fleming of this county oftener than any other. He 
was a native of Botetourte county, Virginia, and was bom 
about tlie year 1790. He came to Madison in 1818, and set- 
tled as a planter. He was first a member of the legislature 
in 1821, and last in 1861 ; serving eight years in the low^er and 
fourteen in the upper house. He was also an elector for Gen. 
Jackson. He was harshly treated by the federal troops when 
they occupied the county. His deam occurred in 1865. Mr. 
Fleming was stalwaii, and in youth handsome, but a large scar 
received in a personal encounter maned his face and changed 
his voice. He was possessed of strong common sense, a warm 
heart, and public spirit ; while his hospitality was proverbial 
His wife was a Miss Le\^is of Viiginia. 

George W. Lane was a resident of this coimty. He was 
bom in Geoi^a in 1806, and was of tlie same family with Gen. 
Jo. Lane of Oregon and Gen. James H. Lane of Kansas. In 
1821 he came with his parents to Alabama, and settled in 
Limestone. His education was elementary, but he read law 
and was admitted. Opening an office at Athens he was soon 
elected to the lower house of tlie legislatuie — serving from 1829 
to 1832. In the latter year he was elected judge of the coimty 
court. In 1835 he was chosen to the circuit bench, where he 
was retained by successive elections for tlie l6ng period of 
twelve years. In 1848 he was a Taylor elector for me State 
at large. He opened a law office in Huntsville after leaving 
the bench. He was a strong Unionist, and, not long after the 
State seceded, accepted the appointment of federal district 
judge from Mr. Lincoln, but never exercised ite functions. He 
died in 1864. Judge Lane had a large frame and an erect and 


imposing presence. As a judge he was lenient but sound and 
rebable, and as a man he was always popular because of his 
kind and humane nature. His wife was the daughter of Hon, 
Nich. Davis, sr., of Limestone, and one of his sons, Capt. Robt. 
W. Lane of Forrest's cavalry, died in the service. 

Septimus D. (Xbaniss, a prominent ki>\^er of Madison, is 
a native of the county. His parents were from Lunenburg 
coimiy, Virginia, and came to reside near Hunts\dlle Jn 1810, 
Bom Doc. 18, 1815, Mr. Cabaniss was educated at Green 
Academy, and the University of Virginia. Having read law 
under Hon. Silas Parsons, he was a^bnitted to the bar in 
1838. He was the first register in chancery for the county, 
and held the position for several years. He was also the 
assimee in bankruptcy for this district in 1841-43. He re- 
tired from a lucrative practice in 1858 to engage in other nur- 
suits, being at the time associated with Messrs. L. P. Walker 
and 11. C. J&rickell. He was defeated for the office of chan- 
cellor by Hon. A. J. Walker in 1853, and in 1861 he repre- 
sented tiie county in the general assembly. He resumed his 
professionjd labors in 1865, and is among the inost industrious 
of the attorneys of Buntsville. He is highly esteemed for 
many admirable qualities. His wife is a sister of Hon. John 
W. Shepherd of Montgomery. 

Nicholas Davis is a resident of this county, but a native of 
Limestone, where he was bom Jan. 14, 1825. He is the son 
of Capt. Nich. Davis of that county. He attended the law 
school of the University of Virginia, but when war with Mex- 
ico was declared he was commissioned a lieutenant in the 
Thirteenth Infantry. He suffered severely from exposure, 
and when peace wa^ .declared resumed his studies. Admitted 
to the bar, he located in Athens in 1850, and the following 
year served Limestone in the house of representatives. He 
was a candidate for elector on the Scott ticket in 1852, and 
canvassed efTectively. Elected soUcitor hi 1855, he held the 
office for five years. Ha^'ing located at Hunts^dlle in 1853, 
he represented the county in the secession convention. He 
was a strong Unionist, but resolved to share the fortimes of 
his State. Whtm Dr. Feam resigned his seat in the provis- 
ional congress, Col. Davis was chosen to succeed him. He 
was apixnnt-ed lieutenant colonel of the Nineteenth Alabama, 
and declined it ; but commanded a battalion for a short time. 
During the war he was in Hunts^dlle much of the time, and 
was harassed by the federals, but refused to take the oath of 
allegiance. Since that time he has held no position. His 
personal appearance is that of a large, stalwart, and handsome 
man, with olue eyes and very dark hair. As an orator he is 


voluble and pointed, with a clear voice, easily modulated. 
He is open-hearted and chivalrous, self-willed and energetic. 
He married a daughter of Oten. B. M. Lowe of this county. 

EoBERT CoMAN Brickell is a resident of this county, but a 
native of Colbert. His father, who came from North Caro- 
lina, was a printer and journalist in Huntsville, Tuscumbia, 
And Athens, and represented Limestone in the house in 1832. 
His mother was the sister of Hon. J. P. Coman of Limestone. 
The son was bom in 1824, and labored in the printing office 
of his father to obtain money .to secure his education. He 
then read law under Judge Coleman in Atliens, and was ad- 
mitted about the year 1844. Repeated failures in his early 
professional career were occasioned by his diffidence, but per- 
sistence has crowned his efforts with such success that he 
ranks among the first lawyers of the State. In 1846 he came 
to Madison, where ho has since resided. Only in 1856 was 
he a candidate for office, and then within the line of hi* pro- 
fession. It Was for supreme court judge, but he withdrew his 
name. He is a " book-worm," and has a singularly retentive 
memory, which he apphes with gi'eat advantage. His argu- 
ments are profound, and he is sure " to make the worse side 
appear the better." He has long been associated in the prac- 
tice with Gen. L. P. Walker. Of late he has devoted much 
of his time to a digest of chancer}^ decisions'which will crown 
his hard-earned fame when published. Mr. Brickell is small 
of stature, and deUoate. 

Madison was the home of Egbert J. Jones, but to Lime- 
stone belongs the honor of his birth and early career. He 
was the scion of a family of humble foiiiune, who came to 
Limestone at an early date, the father being a farmer. With 
but limited educational advantages, he at last succeeded in 

f:aduating in the law school of the Univei-sity of Virginia, 
his was about 1842, and he began the practice at once in 
Athens. In 1844 ho represented Limestene in the legislature. 
When the Mexican war obliged the federal govenimont to call 
for te^n new regimentK, he raised a company for the 13th in- 
fantiy, of which R. M. Echols was colonel, Jones M. Withers 
Heuteiiant colonel, and Jero. Clemens major. Returning, he 
practiced his profession in Athens till 1853, when he came to 
Huntsville. Here he was the partner of Hon. James Robin- 
son, and iu the midst of a large business, when the late war 
began. He was chosen captain of one of the fu'st companies 
that left Madison, and which, at Dalton, in April 1861, became 
a part of the 4th Alabama infantiy, of which he was elected 
colonel. The regiment went to Viiginia. It was just before 
the battle of Manassas that the officers and men of six of the 


ten companies petitioned him to resism. This was prompted 
by a vanety of petty causes, too triiung to be remembered, 
but easily surmised when the character of citizen soldiery is 
considered. His response was truly noble. It displayed not 
the slightest emotion save that of regret that he had failed to 
satisfy their expectations ; concluding by saying that he would 
resign after the approaching battle, if they continued to de- 
sire it. After that struggle, if there was one man idolized by 
the 4th Alabama, it was Egbert Jones. Amid the shock and 
surge of the conflict, he sat with his leg carelessly thrown 
across the ponmiel of his saddle, and gave his orders with 
perfect composure. The 4th Alabama never forgot that im- 
mobile figure. It was towards the close of the day that he 
was struck by a minie ball, which entered the thigh near the 
hip, and ranged down the hollow of the bone to the knee. 
He survived several weeks, and died at Orange Cotui; House, 
Va., aged 41 years. His remains were brought to Huntsyille, 
where they met a public reception, and a numerous funeral 
concourse. Col. Jones was six feet three inches in highth, 
and weUproportioned ; with Ught hair, blue eyes, and Roman 
nose. His temperament was phlegmatic, but he was an in- 
dustrious student. As a lawyer he was not quick, and as a 
speaker prosy ; but he mastered his subject, and managed his 
cases with consummate tact. He married a daughter of Wm. 
Echols, a merchant of Huntsville, but she died a year after, 
and he was childless. 

*' Snatched, all too early, from that august Fame, 
Which on the serene heights of silvered Age, 
Waited with laurelled hand." 

Edward Dorr Tracy was a citizen of this county. He was 
boin in Macon, Geor^a, about the year 1833, and was the son 
of Judge Tracy, a native of Connecticut, who came to (Georgia, 
married a sister of Judge Campbell of Mobile, and was there 
an eminent lawyer. The son received a finished education, 
and practiced law at Macon two or three years. In 1858 or 
'59 he came to reside in Hunts\'ille, and here practiced in 
partnership Avith Hon. D. C. Humphreys. As alternate elector 
for the State at large on the Breckinridge ticket, he made a 
brilliant reputation on the stump in the northern counties. 
When hostiUties became imminent, a company was formed at 
Huntsville, composed of the flower of the youth of Madison, 
and the captaincy was tendered to him. Accepting, the com- 
pany became vart of the Fourth Alabama Imantiy. When 
the Twelfth Alabama Infantry was organized, he was appointed 
major of it, but did not accept. At the first Manassas he was 
conspicuous for his cool courage and intrepidity. He soon 
after became major of the Fourth, but a few weeks later was 


commissioned lioutenant colonel of the Nineteenth Alabama. 
He led this regiment at Shiloh, where his horse was killed 
under him. lie was at once promoted to the colonelcy, and 
shared the fortimes of the regiment on Bragg's Kentacky 
campaign. Early in 1863, he was commissioned a brigadier 
general, and placed in command of the Twentieth, Twenty- 
third, Thirtieth, Thirty-first, and Forty-sixth Alabama r^- 
ments. At Port Gibson he was in command of this noble 
brigade, when a minie ball passed over the shoulder of CoL 
Shelley of the Thirtieth, and struck him in the chest. He 
fell, and expired without a word. His remains were sent to 
Macon, Geoi^a, and there interred. His Mridow, the daugh- 
ter of Capt. (reorge Steele of this coimty, resides in Hunts- 
Tille. Gen. Tracy was taU and slender, with brown hair, and 
colorless face. He was scholarly and gifted, and the type of 
an accomplished and knightly gentleman. To Geoi^ia be- 
longs the honor of his birth, but Alabama nourished his 
talents in hfc, and cherishes his memory in death. 

Da\td p. Lewis also resides in this county, but was bom in 
Charlotte county, Virginia, about the year 1820. His parents 
came to reside here soon after, and here he grew to manhood. 
Having taken a collegiate course, he read law in Huntsville, 
but soon after removed to Lawrence county, where he prac- 
ticed with dilligence and success. He was elected to repre- 
sent that county in the constitutional convention of 1861, and 
voted against but signed the ordinance of secession. He was 
elected without opix)sition to the confederate provisional con- 
gi'css by the convention, but resigned his seat. In 1863 he 
was appointed a judge of the circuit court by Gov. Shorter, 
which position he held several months, then passed through 
the enemy's lines, apd remained in Nashville the remaining 
time of the war. Since then he has made Huntsville his 
home, and is now occupied with his professional duties here. 
Judge Lewis is tall, erect, and robust, >vith aUght complexion, 
and well cliiselled face. As a lawyer he is learned, and as 
an advocate he is logical. His laugujige is chaste, and his 
mind is fertilized by the streams of literature. He is firm but 
not obtiiisive in his opinions ; his tastes are refined, and his 
manner reserved. 

Jabez Leftwich, who resided for many years in this county, 
was a Virginian, was a colonel of a regiment in the war of 1812, 
and a member of congress from that State in 1821-'25. He 
came to this State and county about the year 1827. He rep- 
resented Madison in the general assembly two or three tim«6, 
and was an influential planter and useful citizen, and one 
gieatly respected for his piety and probity. H© died in 1855, 


^t the advanced age of 93 years, and his descendants are yet 
in the county. 

Smith D. Hale, judge of the circuit court from 1856 to 
1862, resided in Madison for many years. He is a native of 
• Tennessee, and now resides in Perry county. He has taken 
but little part in the public affairs oi State. In 1862 he was 
elected colonel of the Forty-ninth Alabama regiment, but re- 
fisgned soon after. During the war he removed to Perry. 

John Hunt Morgan, a distinguished cavalry commander of 
the late war between t^e States, was a native of Madison, and 

f rand-son of the founder of Huntsville. He was bom in 
825, but removed to Kentucky in his childhood. Sickness 
kept him from entering the confederate service tiie first few 
months of the war, but he made a brilliant reputation at a 
very early day. He was killed at Greenville, Tennessee, 
Sept. 24, 1864, in a shameful manner, having reached the rank 
of major general. 

Henby C. Lat, bishop of the diocese of Arkansas, and 
Morgan S. Hamilton, feaeral senator from Texas, are natives 
of Madison. The latter was bom here in 1808. 

Julia Pleasants Cresswell, who has won some distinction 
in literary circles, is a native of Madison. She is the 'daughter 
of Ool. James Jay Pleasants, who came from Hanover county, 
. Virginia, and was secretary of state in 1822-24; and her 
mower was a daughter of (Jov. Bibb of Limestone. Her 
works are " Aphelia and other Poems," "Poems," and "Cal- 
lamura ;" the first published in 1854, in association with a 
oousin, Mr. T. M. B. Bradley of Huntsville, and the last, an 
allegorical novel, issued in 1868. She married Mr. Cresswell 
in 1854, and removed soon after to Louisiana, Caddo parish. 
She is a gifted and accomplished lady. 

Jakes Phelan, a distinguished orator and advocate, is also 
a native of Madison, and bom in Huntsville about the year 
1819. He learned the trade of a printer in the office of Mr. 
Woodson here, and about the year 1841 became State printer, 
being one of the editors at that time of a newspaper at Tus- 
kaloosa, with Mr. Samuel A. Hale, now of Sumter, as his as- 
sociate. From thence he removed to Aberdeen, Mississippi, 
and was a meml[)er of the senate of the State in 1861 when 
elected to the senate of the Confederate States. He was sub- 
sequently judge of a miUtarv court, and now resides in Mem- 
plus, Tennessee. Col. Pheian is one of the most eloquent 
orators the South has produced, and lends the graces of a 
commanding figure, and a clear and sonorous voice, to his 

Swers of elocution. He married a daughter of Dr. Alfred 
oore of this coimty. His elder brother, Hon. John D. Phe- 



Ian, formerly of Montgomery, is better known to Alabamians. 

Peter M. Dox came to this coimty in 1855, and is a planter 
here. He was bom at Geneva, New York, in 1813, and was 
educated at Hobart College. He became an attorney, and 
was elected judge of the Ontario coimty court. He was also 
a member of the legislature of New York in 1842. He rep- 
resented Madison in the constitutional convention of 1865, and 
in 1869 was elected to congress. He was re-elected in 1870 
over Judge Standifer of Cherokee by a very large majoriiy; 
but declined further service at the end of his farm. He mar- 
ried Miss Pope of this county. Judge Dox is a gentleman of 
fine appearance, and popular manner. He is ready and able 
in debate, and a most agreeable companion. His views are 
liberal, and his reading varied and extensive. 

William Manning Lowe is a native and resident of tins 
couniy. He was bom in Huntsville, Jan. 16, 1842, and is a 
son of Gen. B. M. Lowe, president of ihe branch bank here 
for many years. He was graduated at the law school of the 
University of Tennessee in 1860, and was attending the law 
school of the University of Virginia in 1861, when Ee volun- 
teered in the Fourth Alabama Imantry. Dangerously wounded 
at the first Manassas, on his recovery he served on the staff 
of Gen. Clanton. In 1865-^68 he was solicitor of this judicial 
circuit, and in 1870 represented the county in the general as- 
sembly. Col. Lowe is a graceful orator and cultivated gentle- 
man. His brother, the late Mr. Bobert J. Lowe, represented 
Madison in the legislatiu*e in 1859. 

Madison was the home of Gen. Patterson, who commanded 
the volunteer troops against the Creeks in 1836, and was after- 
wards marshal of the federal court ; of Mr. John Vining, for 
seventeen years a member of the general assembly ; of Hon. 
Eggleston I). Townps, son of Hon. John Leigh Townes — ^who 
was a gentleman of talent, and chancellor in 1851-'53 ; of Mr. 
David C. Humphreys, now a justice of tiie supreme court of 
the District of Columbia ; of Capt. Frank Gurlev, the most 
noted of the guerrilla chiefs of this region duiing the late war; 
and of manv other useful men of less notoriety. 

The legislature, in 1809, authorized William Dixon, Edward 
Ward, Lewis Winston, Alexander Gilbreath, and Peter Perkins 
to choose a site for the seat of justice for liie county. 

Gabriel Moore, Peter Perkins, Hugh McVay, Lewis Win- 
ston, James McCartney, and John W. Walker represented 
Madison in tlie Mississippi tenitorial legislature between the 
years 1811 and 1817. 

Clement C. Clay, John Leigh Townes, Henry Chambers, 
Samuel Mead, Henry Minor, Gabriel Moore, John W. Walker, 
and John M. Taylor represented the county in the constita- 


tional convention of 1819 ; Jeremiah Clemens and Nicholas 
Davis in that of 1861 ; and John N. Drake and Peter M. Dox 
in the convention of 1865. 


]819^-Gabbisl Moobx. 183d— Dnniol B. Tamer. 

1821— Isaac Lanier. 1842 -William Fleming. 

Id2!i2 — David Moore. 1845 — Jamea W. MoClang. 

1H^5— Thomas Miller. 1849— William Fleming. 

182S— John Vining. 1853— William Acklen. 

1831-John Vining. 1857— William Fleming. 

1834-^ohn Vining. 1 86 1 — F L. Hammond. 

1836— WiUiam Fleming. 1865— John W. Drake, 


1819 — Samuel Walker, Eppes Moody, James G. Bimey, Samuel Chapman, 
Griffin Lamkin, John L. Towns, Isaac Wellborn, Fre<1erick Weodon. 

)82() — Samnel Walker, Samnel Chapman. Frederick Weedon, John McKin- 
ley, John M. Leake, John Vining, David Moore, Henry Chambers. 

1821 — Frederick Weedon, John Vining, David Moore, John Martin, Thomas 
Miller, William Fleming, John M. Leake, Henry King. 

1822 — John M. Leake, William I. Adair, John Pope, Thomas Feam, Christo- 
pher Hunt, William Saunders, James McCiung. 

1823— WiiiLZAM I. Adaib, David Moore, John Vining. Thomas Miller, William 
Fleming, Henry King, Isaac Lanier. 

1824 — John Vining, Thomas Miller, William Fleming, Samuel Walxsb, Isaac 
Lanier, James W. Camp, Anthony H. Metoaif. 

1825 — J. Vining, H. King, William Kelly, Wm Brandon, Harry I. Thornton. 

1826— David Mcore, James W. McClnng. William Acklen, jr., David Bradford. 

1827 — John Vinixig, Wm Ackle^ Wm. Kelly, Wm. H. Moore, Nathan Smith. 

1828 — S. Walker, Thos. Feam, Wm. Brandon, Clement C. Clat, James Penn. 

1829 — David Moore, Thomas Feam, Wm. Acklen, Henry King,. James Penn. 

1830 — ^David Moore, Wm. Acklen, Henir King, Robert T. Scott^ James Psnv. 

1831 — Wm Acklen, Henry King, Samuel Feete, James G. Carroll, James Penn. 

1832— Wm. Fleming, Henry King, J. W. Camp, R T. Scott, John P. Graham. 

1833 — Wm Fleming, Sam'l Walker, A. F. Hopkins. Geo T. Jones, Geo. Mason. 

1 834— Wm Fleming, Saml Walker, Henry King, Wm H. Glascock, J D. Phelan 

1835 — William Fleming, Jambs W. McClumo, George T. Jones, Jabez Left- 
vich, John D. Pnelan. 

IS36 — David Moore, Wm Smith, B. Horton, Jabez Leftwich, P. N. Booker. 

1837— John Vining, William Smith, Rhoda Horton, James W. McCluno, 
Parham N. Booker. 

1838 — John Vinine, William Smith, Datid Moore, James W. McCluno, 
Joseph Taylor. 

1839 — John Vining, William Smith, David Moore, Jere Clemens. 

1^0 — Samuel Walkeb, Thomas B. Provence, David Moore, Jere Clemens. 

1841 — George T. Jones, Thomas Haughton, David Moore, Jere Clemens. 

1842 — James W. McClung, James Robinson, David Moore, Clement C. Clay. 

1843 — David Moore, Jere Clemens, William J. Sykes, A. L. Sandige. 

1344 — James W. McClung. Jere Clemens, C. C. Clay, jr., William Brandon. 

lfl45__A.. L. Sandige, Wm, G. Miller, Clement 0. Clay, jr. 

1847— William Fleming, M. A. King, Thomas H. Hewlett. 

1849— David C. Humphries, M. A. King, William Wright. 

1S51-.H. C. Bradford, Michael A. King, C. D. Kavanaugh. 

1863 — D. C. Humphries, George W. Laughinghouse. 

18ri6 — ^Reuben Chieipman, John T. Haden. 

1857 — S. 8. Scott, Stephen W. Harris. 

1859— S S. Scott, Robert J. Lowe. 

1861— S. D. Cabaniss, C. Butler. 

1863— J. C. Bradford, J. W. Scruggs. 

1865 — William D. Humphrey, J. W. Ledbetter. 

1869— William D. Humphrey, David C. Humphries. 

]S70_Fruici8Co Rice, William M. Lowe, J. W. Grayson. 



This county was organized by an act passed Febraarv 7, 
ISlS/out of territory ceded by the Choctas, October 24, 1816. 
As originally constituted it embraced the greater portion of 
the present counties of Hale and Greene, extending to Five 
Mile creek (in Hale) on the north, and Chicasabogue creek 
on the south, and io the ridge dividing the waters ot the Ca- 
haba and Tombikbee ; but within a jeax or two it took its 
present shape, except about 85 square miles given to Hale 
m 1866. 

It hes in the west centre of the State, south of Hale and 
Greene, west of Wilcox and Perry, north of Clarke, and 
east of Chocta and Siimter. 

The name was suggested by Judge Lipscomb of Waahing- 
ton as a compliment to the first wmte settlers, who were ex- 
patriated imperiaUsts from France, and commemorates Consul 
Bonaparte's victory over Marshal Melas, June 14, 1800. 

The area is about 975 square miles. 

The assessed value of real estate in 1870 was $2,629,903 ; 
personal property $769,273 ; total $3,399,176. 

The population decennially is thus shown : 

1820 1830 1840 1850 I860 IdTO 

Whites 2052 4549 5350 7,101 6,761 6,090 

Blacks 881 3151 11,904 20,730 24,410 20,068 

The cash value of farm lands — 141,368 acres improved, and 
227,423 acres unimproved— was $2,819,711 in 1870. 

The live stock— 1,377 horses, 3,629 mules, 12,431 neat cat- 
tle, 1,763 sheep, and 16,531 hogs— was $770,674. 

In 1869 the productions were 598,938 bushels of com, 
11,538 bushels oi oats, 40,424 bushels of potatoes, 164^91 
poimds of butter, 23,614 bales of cotton, 2,135 pounds of 
wool ; and the value of farm productions was $3,034,675. 

Marengo is, therefore the third cotton producing and 
fourth corn-growing county in the State. It hes in the great 
alluvial belt, with much level prairie land. The northern part 
is the canebrake region, a district extending over nearly three 
hundred square miles, with a cretaceous loam which, when 
diy, resembles artillery powder. The first white settlers found 

iCABENoo comnr. 373 

this district covered with a thick growth of cane of marvel^ 
ous size, and ahnost devoid of other vegetation* It is one 
vast deposit of alluvinm, of surpassing fertility. The south- 
em portion of the county has a considerable area of light 
soil, intersected bv very productive creek bottoms. 

The commercial facilities are : the Tombikbee river, which 
is the western boundary line, and navigable for steamers the 
whole distance at nearly fiJl seasons ; and the Selma and 
Meridian Bailroad, which passes through the northern por- 
tion of the county. The projected Mobile and Grand Trunk 
Brailroad is surveyed througn the county. 

The courthouse is at Linden, a village of 300 inhabitants, 
named for Moreau*s victory over the Archduke John in the 
year 1800. The seat of justice was transferred to Demopolis 
in 1869 but fixed at Linden a year later. 

Demopolis has 1539 inhabitants, of whom 574 are whites, 
and 965 are negroes. The name is from Greek words which 
signify the city of the people. It was settled in 1818 by the 
Frencm and incorporated Dec. 11, 1821, and Allen Glover, 
Nathan BoUes, and John Dickson were appointed to hold 
the first election for municipal officers. 

Dayton has 426 inhabitants, and a seminary of learning for 
females. Jefferson has 233 inhabitants. 

The first court was directed to be holden " at or near the 
house of Mrs. Irby, on Chicasabogue." 

Bowen Bennett, Alien Glover, John Spinks, Nathaniel Nor- 
wood, and William Irons were appointed to select a location 
for the court-house in 1820. 

In 1818 election precincts were established at the houses of 
Tandy Walker, Jesse Birdsong, and William Hopkins ; one 
at the house of Walter Chiles a year later ; one at the house 
of Isaac C. Perkins in 1820 ; and one at Alexander McLeod's 
in 1822. 

The cotmty was first settled in 1818 by a colony of French 
imperialists. Their devotion to the fortunes of Napoleon ex- 
cited the enmity of the French government, and they sought 
a home in America. They amvdd at Philadelphia in the 
winter of 1816-'17, and at once proceeded to secure from 
congress a tract of land where they could locate in a body. 
The federal government authorized the sale of four townships 
of land to them at two dollars and a half an acre, payable 
within seventeen years, upon condition that they should de- 
vote forty acres in each section to the cultivation of the vine 
and olive. Advised to settle near the confluence of the Tom- 
bikbee and the Tuskaloosa, they resolved to do so. They 
sailed from Philadelphia, and reached Mobile in May 1818 — 
barely escaping shipwreck at the entrance of the bay. Mr. 


Addin Lewis, collector of the port, famished them with s 
large barge, on which they proceeded up the river. Landing 
at White Bluff, they were advised by Mr. George S. Gkunes, 
who resided at the Chocta factorage near old Fort Confedera- 
tion, to settle in that vicinity. Tiiey accordingly laid out a 
town, which they called Demopohs, and gave to the heads of 
families lots therein, as well as farms in the vicinity. There 
were but few settlers in the r^on, and it was a Ysst wilder- 
ness. But the French made little progress in agriculture. 
The vines (the Cataba) would grow only a year or two, and 
the olive they did not plant. Tney were very industrious, but 
their time was frittered away on trivial things. There were 
several prominent men among them, and others who had been 
wealthy in France. These spent the greater part of their 
time in social pleasures, and the others were not slow to fol- 
low their example. They made no wine, but they drank all 
they were able to import, and carried into their humble 
pioneer homes all the charms and graces of their native 
coimtry . Thriftlessness was their error, not idleness ; for the 
hands that had "flashed the sabre bare" at Borodino and 
Austerlitz were not slow to mix the mud which daubed the 
chinks of their log cabins ; and dames who had made their 
toilettes in the chambers of St. Cloud readily prepared the 
humble repast of the forest home. They were greatly an- 
noyed in consequence of ha\ing located meir improvements 
on other townships than those stipulated for, and unscrupulous 
settlers and land speculators took advantage of the tact to 
oust them from their first homes. It was with great difficulty 
and trouble that anything like an adjustment ot this mistake 
was reached. Many of tlie French were greatly inconven- 
ienced and disheartened by it. One by one the more wealihy 
and distinguished either returned to France, or removed to 
Mobile, and other cities. The descendants of others are yet 
in Marengo, and adjoining counties, and are among the wor- 
thiest class of citizens. It is believed that but two are now 
Hving in the State who cam^ with the original colonists — Hon. 
Geo. N. Stewart of Mobile and Mr. Bayal of Hale ; the latter 
being a boy of fourteen years when ho came. 

The most distinguishea of these settlers was Chables Le- 
febvre-Desnouettes.* He was bom in 1773, ai^d was aide- 
de-camp to Napoleon at Marengo. For gallantry at Auster- 
Htz he was made commandant of the legion of honor. At 
Zaragosa he was in command of a division, and was captured 
in Soult*s pursuit of Sir John Moore to Corunna. He con- 
tributed largely to the victory of Bautzen, and was wounded 

* Judge Meek mistakes this gentleman for Marshal Lefebvre, duke of 
Dantzic. — **Bomantio Passages," page 42. 


in a farilliant oharae at Brienne. He was made a count of 
the empire and a ueutenant general when Napoleon returned 
from Mba^MUid fought at miterloo and Fleurus. Napoleon 
was much attached to him, and be(][ueathed him in his will 
150,000 francs. He was the wealthiest of the immigrants, 
and expended his means lavishly here. He had a bronze 
statue of Napoleon in a small cabin in which were deposited 
a number of sabres and other trophies of many battle-fields. 
He was permitted to return to France, and in 1822 was 
drowned m the wreck of a vessel on the coast of Ireland. 

Nicholas Baoul, another of these settlers, commanded 
Napoleon's advance guard on his return from Elba. While 
he lived here necessity obliged him to keep a f errv on Big 
Prairie creek, fourteen miles fromDemopolis. He afterwards 
went to Mexico, took part in the wars there, and was after- 
wards a general in France. His wife, who resided with him 
here, was Marchioness of Siuabaldi, and maid of honor to 
Queen Ceu'oline Murat. 

John A. Piniebs, who resided here two or three years, was 
a member of the national assemblv which decreed the death 
of Louis XYI. He was appointed an agent to the Florida 
Indians, and died in that State in 1823. 

Marshal Grouchy, General Vandamme, Count Beal, Gen- 
eral dausel, and General L' Allemand, were among the patrons 
of the colony, but none of them came to Alabama, save the 
last two, and they did not reside in Marengo. 

John Bains was also one of the early settlers. He was a 
native of North Carolina, and an elder brother of Qen. Gabriel 
and CoL Gteorge W. Bams of the confederate army. Having 
read law under Jud^e Gaston, he practiced here. He repre- 
sented Marengo in both branches of the general assemoly, 
and died about the year 1841. His talents, culture, and pop- 
ular manners would have advanced him to higher honors 
had not social pleasures proven too strong. 

Foremost among the citizens of Marengo is Francis 
Stbothee Lyon. He was bom in Stokes county, North 
Carolina, in the year 1800. Early in 1817 he came to St. 
Stephens, with his brother, James G. Lyon, who represented 
Washington in 1825, and who was the father of Mr. George 
G. Lyon, a leading member of the bar of Marengo. For a 
time ne was a scru)e in the office of the clerk of the county 
court, and during the time read law, first under Judge Lips- 
comb, and subsequently under Messrs. Wm. Crawford and 
Henry Hitchcoqk, both of whom were also on the bench at a 


later period. Admitted to practice in 1821, he located at 
Demopolis. The year following he was elected secretary ci 
the state senate, an office he held by saccessiye %lection8 for 
eight years. He was elected to the senate from the Wiloox 
and Marengo district in 1833, and in 1834 from Marengo and 
Snmter. ui '33 he was defeated for the presidency of fte 
senate by one majority for Hon. John Erwm of Greeney but 
the neit year was elected over Mr. E. by seven majorib^. In 
1835 he was elected to congress over Hon. B. E. B. Baylor 
of Dallas, and Hon. Joseph Bates of Mobile ; and was re- 
elected in 1837. When not in the pubUc service, Mr. Lyon 
devoted himself assiduously to his profession, and was entirely 
successful in point of reputation and profit. It was in eon- 
nection with its finances that Mr. Lyon rendered his most 
important service to the State. When the State bank and 
its branches were placed in Uquidation in 1845, Mr. Lvon, 
ex-Gov. Fitzpatrick and Mr. William Cooper of Franklin, 
were appointed a commission to wind up their btisinesB. 
Gk)v. F. tieclining to serve, ex-Gov. Clay was substituted, and 
the commissioners entered on their arduous labors. This 
commission made its report to the legislature of 1847, and 
were discharged. Mr. Lyon was then elected as sole com- 
missioner, and continued his difficult task until he brought it 
to a conclusion in 1853. In 1861 he was elected to the lower 
house of the legislature, but resigned to serve as a member 
of the first confederate congress. These honors, with that of 

E residential elector once or twice, constitute the public record 
e has made, and sufficiently attest the public confidence in 
his fidelihr and abilitjr. His private life is a model of fra- 
gality ; while his charitable nature and urbane mannera win 
the esteem of all who come in contact with him. 

Mr. Lyon mairied a daughter of Mr. Allen Glover of Ma- 
rengo, and one of his daughters married the gallant Capt. 0. 
H. Prince of this county, who fell at Chicamauga; while 
another is the wife of Major Wm. H. Boss of Mobile. 

(Benjamin Glover Shields was a planter in this county for 
a number of years. His father, Mr. Samuel B. Shields, came 
to Clarke county from Abbeville, South Carolina, during its 
first settlement; and if he was not a native of Clarke he 

Eassed his childhood there. He entered public life asamem- 
er of the legislature from this county in 1834, and was several 
times re-elected. In 1841 he w^as elected to congress on the 
" general ticket" of his party, and serv^ed a term. During the 
term of President Polk he was the diplomatic representative of 
the United States to Venezuela. A lew years later he removed 
. to Texas, and has taken an active part m politics there within 
the past two or three years. He was, while here, a man of 

iCABsnoo cx>nirFT. 377 

handsome appearance^ and captiyating address. He '^was 
^ an aetirey araent, and well informed politician, and while he 
** resided in this State was an earnest and influential demo- 
" crat, and an effective and popular speaker."* 

Among the eariy settlers of Marengo was WilliaM Jef- 
FBETS Alston. He was bom near Petersburg, Georgia, Dec. 
Sly 1800, but his parents removed to Abbeville district, South 
Carolina, soon after, and resided there till they came to this 
State in 1818. Their son was a pupil of the famous Dr. 
Moses Waddell, and when he came to St. Stephens with his 
parente he taught school. He also read law there, and in 
1821 be^an the practice at Linden. Here he entered into 
competition with such men as P. S. Lyon, Ezekiel Pickens, 
and John Bains. But he steadily arose, and served several 

{rears as judge of the coimty court. He first entered the 
ower house of the legislature in 1836 ; was returned the next 
year, and in 1839 began a three years term in the senate. In 
1843 he again entered the house. He was the nominee of his 

Sarty for congress, and defeated his competitor, Hon. C. C. 
ellers of Wilcox. He served but one term, and in 1855 again 

served in the popular branch of the legislature. Since that 

\inmi - 
on his estate. Judge Alston has been distinguished through 

time he has minmed littie in public concerns, and has resided 

life by his urbanity, industry, pubUc spirit, and high moral 
and mental attainments. He has always been respected and 
popular, and was never defeated for any office. 

'RT.TgTTA ToTJNG of this county was a native of Augusta county, 
Yirginia, and was bom in 1796. He finished his education at 
Princeton, New Jersey, and was then employed as a tutor in 
tlie University of North Carolina. He read law with Judge 
Frederick Nash at Hillsboro, and came to Alabama in 1824 or 
'25. Locating at Marion, he practiced his profession and rep- 
resented Perry in the legislature in 1829. A littie later he re^ 
moved to Greene, and was chosen four times in succession to 
represent that cotmty in the legislature. In 1843 he was a 
candidate for congress, but was beaten, his party being in a 
minority. Haying removed to this county, he represented it 
in the l^islature m 1847. He died here, Jime 24, 1852. 

Mr. Young had a noble presence ; a countenance expressive 
of elevated motives and a capacity for the highest resolves of 
human action. He was manly, charitable, and sincere, and 
consequentiy very popular. His wife was a Miss Strudwick 
of North Carolina, and he left three sons, one of whom was 
killed in Yirginia; and the others are citizens of this and 
Greene county. 

*Hoii. F. 8. Lyon of Demopolis. 


WnjiiAM Edward Clarke is a prominent citizen of Marenga 
He was bom in Chesterfield county, Virginia, in 1815. His 
father was a planter in good circumstances; his mother was a 
Miss Pegram, of a well £iown family there. The son finished 
his education and law course at Wuliam and Mary, and came 
to this county in 1837. For many years he was a saccessfol 
practitioner at Dayton, and attained to a hi^h rank in his pro- 
fession. He was the partner at different times of Messrs. W. 
M. Byrd, W. M. Brooks, and G. G. Lyon. In 1846 he was 
elected district solicitor, an office he held seyeral years. He 
contested the senatorial district of Greene and Marengo in 
1855, but his party was in a minority and he was beaten. In 
1861 he represented Marengo in the constitutional conyention 
and yoted for the secession ordinance. From '61 to '66 he 
was a member of the State senate. Mr. Clarke is now a xeor 
dent of Demopolis. He is tall and rather spare, with yeiy 
bright eyes and fair complexion. He is one of the most com- 
panionable of gentlemen, and is a power before a jury, pos- 
sessed as he is of pith, fluency, tact, and honor. His wife was 
Miss Baincock of Virginia, and the eldest of his seyeral sons 
is his law partner. 

No man was better known in this county than Young Mas- 
shall Moody. He was bom June 23, 1822, in Chesterfield 
county, Virginia, where his father, Mr. Carter Moody, was at 
one time wealthy. The son came to Alabama in l£k2, and 
taught school in Marengo, but subsequently became a mer- 
chant. In 1856 he was appointed clerk of the circuit courts 
and was elected iu 1858 to the same office. In 1861 he en- 
tered the seryice of his country as captain in the Eleyenth Ala- 
bama Infantry. He served aoout a year in that capacity, then 
returned and assisted in recruiting the Forty-thira Alabama, 
of which he was chosen lieutenant colonel. He partLcipated 
in the duties, privations, and glories of this regiment — ^mrstin 
the Kentucky campaign, afterwards at Chicamauga, then with 
Longstreet's corps in Tennessee and around Petersbtunz. At 
Drury*s Bluff he was severely wounded in the ankle. & the 
death of Qen. Gracie, he was made brigadier general, and com- 
manded the brigade — the 41st, 43d, 59th, and 60th Alabama 
regiments, and 23d Alabama battalion — for some time before 
the close of the struggle. He was sick and with the wagon train 
when it was captured the day before the surrender at Appo- 
mattox. After the war he was engaged in business iu Mobile, 
a branch of which he was estabUshme in New Orleans when 
he died there in September 1866, of yeUow fever. Gten. Moody 
was over six feet in stature, slender and ereci His disposition 
was remarkable for its placidity, and was the basis of his 
popularity. He was generous, liberal, and benevolent, and of 



strict sobriety. He was not a disciplinarian, but his men felt 
that he was a friend and protector. Qen. Moody's wife was 
a Miss Floyd of Virginia. 

Washington Thompson represented the county in the con- 
vention of 1819 ; "William E. Clarke in that of 1861, and 
James Taylor Jones in that of 1865. 

The following is a list of members of the legislature : 


1819— Thomas Ringgold. 
1821— Fatriok May. 
1822— John Goats. 
1825 — Goorge S. Qaines. 
1827— Joseph B. Earle. 
1828— Thomas Erans. 
1830— John W. Bridges. 
1833— Fbancis 8. Lton. 
1835— John Bains. 
1836— John' Bains. 
1839— William J. Alston. 

1842— William B. Moores. 
1845— Calvin C. Sellers. 
1847— Amos B. Manning. 
1851 — James T. JohDBon. 
1853— James D. Webb. 
1855— Joseph W. Taylor. 
1857— Allen 0. Jones. 
1861— William £. Clarke. 
1865— G. 0. Hnokabee. 
[No election in 1867, or since.} 


1819— John Coats. 

1820— John Coats. 

1921 — ^Nathaniel Norwood. 

1822— Nathaniel Norwood. 

1823— Wm. Flnker. 

1824— Wm. Floker. 

1825— Wm. Floker. 

1826— Wm. Flnker. 

1827 — Wm. Anderson. 

1828^Wm. Andersoo. 

1829— Charles D. Conner. 

1830— Charles D. Conner. 

1831— John Lockhart 

1832 —John Lookhart. 

1833— John Bains. 

1834— John Bains, Bezg. G. Shields. 

1836 — JohnM. Cooper, Benjamin G. 

1836— Wm. J. Alston, Benjamin G. 

1837— Wnf. J. Alston, Benjamin G. 

1838 — Wm. B. Moores, Bezgamin G. 

1839— W. B. Moores, Robert Clarke. 
1S40— W. B. Moores, J.M.Davenport 

1841— Wm. B. Moores, James M. 

1842— John W. Henley. Pickett. 

1843— Wm. J. Alston, D. 0. Ander- 

1844— Washington M. Smith, 8. J. 

1845— Amos B. Manning, J. B. Wil- 

1847— John T. Walton, Elijah Young. 

1849— M. W. Creagh, Caleb WilUams. 

1851— Wm. M. Byrd, Benjamin N. 

1853— M. W. Creagh, F. F.Foscne. 

1855 — Wm. J. Alston, Jas. B. Jones, 

1867— N. B. Lesenr. 

1859— N. B. Lesenr. 

1861— Francis 8. Lyon, (resigned.) 

1862— James B. Jones. 

1863— Wm.B. Modawell. 

1865 — James B. Jones, (resigned.^ 

1866— H. Ashby Woolf. 

1867— [No election. 1 

1870— C. W. Dnstan, L. C. Carlin, 
Levi Wells, (c) 



Marion was formed from Tuskaloosa by an act passed Fdb- 
mary 13, 1818. It originally extended to the Sipsee fork of 
the Warrior, and to its mouth on the southeast, and emfaraoed 
a lai^e portion of the present counties of Walker, Winston, 
Fayette, and Saiiford ; but was soon cut down yery oonsideir- 
abiy, and much mutilated within the past few years by tlie 
formation of Sanford. In 1832 the northwestern comer of 
the county was added when the Chicasas made their last oes- 

It lies in the northwest quarter of the State, south of 
Franklin, west of Winston, north of Fayette and Sanford, tad 
east of Sanford and the State of Mississippi 

It was named to honor Q^neral Marion,^ the military par- 
tisan of 1776. 

Its area is about 745 square miles. 

The assessed yalue of real estate in 1870 was $236,787 ; per- ' 
sonal properiy $54,506 ; total $291,293. 

The moyement of population decennially is thus shown: 

1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 

Whites 3452 5094 6922 9893 5835 

Blacks 606 753 908 1883 8d4 

The cash yalue of farms — 18,315 acres improyed, and 96,806 
acres unimproyed — was $80,438. 

The liye stock — 820 horses and mules, 3641 neat catUe, 
2999 sheep, and 5765 hogs— were valued at $138,122.. 

In 1869 the productions were 90,429 bushels of corn, 5108 
bushels of wheat, 20,612 bushels of potatoes, 25,335 pounds 
of butter, 2713 gallons of sorghum, 1010 pounds of tobaoco, 
463 bales of cotton, and 9691 pounds of wool; the yalue of 
animals slaughtered was $48,629 ; and the yalue of farm pro- 
ductions was $149,365. 


* Fbancis Mabion war born near Georgetown, South Carolina, in ITtt. 
He first served against the Cherokees, and dnring the war between the ook^ 
nies and the mother country won much celebrity by his ^orts against fiia 
British and loyalists. He arose to the rank of brigadier general, and wsi 
the most e£fective partisan of that war. He afterwards served in tlie legida* 
tare of South Carolina, and died in February 1795. 



The Burface is hilly and broken, and the soil generally light, 
with some ^ood "bottom" lands. 

Marion is isolated with respect to commercial facilities, 
havi^ no navigable river, and no railway within its borders. 
The Buttahatchee and Bear are small rivers, and the pro- 
jected railway from Decatur to Aberdeen, Mississippi, though 
surveyed through the coimty, is not in process of construc- 

Coal exists in great quantity, the measures being frequently 
exposed on the surface. This valuable mineral is destmed to 
give the countv a large revenue, and a sound prosperity. 

Gk)ld exists fifteen miles east of Pikeville, and digging is in 

Pikeville, the seat of justice, is a small village near the 

There are two cotton factories and two wool factories in 
Marion, which send their goods to Columbus, Mississippi, and 
are prosperous and profitable. 

Samuel Bean, Jabez Fitzgerald, Barnes Holloway, Q^orce 
White, Wm. Metoalf , and Wm. Davis were appointed in 18^ 
to select a site for the courthouse. 

Election precincts were established in 1819 at Archibald 
Alexander's, — McFadden's, John Wood's, and Henry Grier's. 

John D. Terrell represented Marion in the constitutional 

• convention of 1819 ; Winston Steadham and Lang C.Allen in 

that of 1861 ; and J. F. Morton and G. M. Haley in that of 1865. 

The following is a list of members of the general assembly 
for Marion : 


1819— John D. Tebrell (1821.) 
1822— Wmiam Metcalf. 
] 825— Jesse. Vanhoose. 
1827 — Rnfos Moore. 
1^9— Knfos K. Anderson. 
1831— Bnfos K. Anderson. 
1834 — Henry Bnrongh. 
1837- Burr W. Wilson. 
1840— Burr W. Wilson. 

1843— Elijah Marchbanks.' 
]847 — Daniel Oog^j^. 
1860— Elliott P. Jones. 
1853— Elliott P. Jones. 
1857— Elliott P. Jones. 
1861— A. J. Coleman. 
1865— EUiott P. Jones. 
[No election in 1867, or since.] 


1819— Silas McBee. 
1820 — James Moore. 
1821 — Lemuel Beene. 
1822— John D. TerreU. 
1823 — James Moore. 
1824 — James Moore. 
1825— George White. 
1826— WiUiam H. Duke. 
1827— William H. Duke. 
1828— Wm. H. Duke, James Metcalf. 
1829— DeFayette Roysden, James 

1830— Thadeus Walker, Jas. Metcall 
183]— Thadeus Walker, DerriU U. 

1832— Thadeus Walker, DerriU U. 

1833— Geo. Brown, DerriU U. HoUis. 
1334- DerriU U. HoUis. 
1835— Hiram G. May. 
1836 — Joshua Gann. 
1837 — Joshua Gann. 
1838— DerriU D. HoUis. 
1839— Thomas C. Moore. 


1840— Thomas Q. Moore. 1855— Kimbrough T. Brown. 

1841— Joshna Rarleson. J857— K. T. Brown. Leroy Kennedy. 

1842— Leroy Kennedy. 1859— K. T. Brown, W. A. Mniigrove. 

1H43— John L. MoCarty. J861— M L. DaTU, J. W. Logan. 

1844— Leroy Kennedy 18<):J— M. L. Davis, Derrill U. HoUii. 

1845— Woodson Nortbcut. 1865 -John H. Bankhoad, Winston 
1847— Thadens Walker. Steadham. 

J 849— Woodson Northcut 1867- -[No election.] 

ja5l— Kimbrough T. Brown. 1870— A. J. Hamilton. 
1853— William A. Masgrove 



Marshall was established by an act passed Janaary 9, 183& 

The territory was taken from Jackson, Blount, and the last 
Cherokee cession, and has been reduced in size to form Etowa, 
but compensated for by a small portion taken from Jackson. 

It lies in the northeastern portion of the State, south of 
Jackson, west of DeKalb, north of Etowa and Blount, and 
east of Morgan and Blount. 

It was named to perpetuate the memory of Chief Justice 

Its area is about 600 square miles. 

The poi^ulation by the federal census is thus given : 

1840 1850 1860 1870 

Whites 6688 7952 9596 8501 

Blacks 865 894 1872 1367 

The assessed value of real estate in 1870 was $760 477, of 
personal property $268,311 ; total $1,028,782. 

The cash value of farm land — 48,353 acres improved, and 
86,983 acres unimproved— in 1870 was $692,799. 

The value of" live stock — 1669 horses, 560 mules, 7196 neat 
cattle, 5343 sheep, 12,597 hogs^was $390,342. 

The productions in 1869 were 187,491 bushels of com, 

* John Mabshall, the eminent jnrist, was bom in Fanqnier connty, ^ 
ginia, in the year 1755. He served in the colonial army, and at its ctote 
entered on the practice of the hiw. In 1795 he was sent on a mission to 
France. In the year 1800 ho was appointed secretary of war, then Becretuj 
of state, and the following year was made chief justice of the supreme covt 
of the United States. He died while holding this great office in 1835. He 
was the author of a biography of Gen. George Washington. 


17,228 bushels of wheat, 9445 bushels of oats, 17,787 bushels 
of potatoes, 47,995 pounds of butter, 10,229 gallons of sor- 
ghum, 5477 pounds of tobacco, 2340 bales of cotton, 8693 
pounds of wool; tlie value of animals slaughtered was 
$101,628 ; and the value of farm productions was $611,809. 

The surface is mountainous and broken, presentinfj to the 
eye much wild scenery. Much of the soil is unsuited for 
agriculture without improvement, but there are coves and low- 
lands that are very fertile. 

The Tennessee river divides the county, and is navigable 
the entire distance. The East Alabama & Cincinnati BaiLroad 
is surveyed from Opelika to Guntersville. 

Marsnall is rich in coal, which is now mined to a limited 
extent. There is iron ore, mill-stone grit, and perhaps other 
formations which will add to the wealth of the county when 

Guntersville, the seat of justice, is a village of 244 inhab- 
itants by the census of 1870. It is situated on the Tennessee, 
and acquired its name from Edward Gunter, a Scotchman, who 
settled the spot while the Indians owned the country. The 
courthouse was first at Claysville, then at Marshall, then at 
Warrenton, and was located at Giintersville in 1866. 

Nine miles from Guntersville is the fall of Short creek, a 
small but picturesque cataract. An unexplored cave near 
Guntersville, containing capacious apartments, not fully ex- 

Elored, has attracted some attention. There are several arti- 
cial mounds on the river, from one of which bones and an 
antique piece of brass have been unearthed. 

The ravages of the late war were severely felt by the people 
of Marshall. Guntersville was more than once shelled oy the 
enemy without previous warning, and a Mrs. Raybum was 
killed by a shell during one of these barbarous attacks. Fi- 
nally they burned the town wantonly. Another incident was 
the capture of Claysville by Capt. H. F. Smith of Jackson, 
the daring partisan. With sixty-five men he crossed at Gun- 
ter s Landing, the night of tibe 8th of March 1864. Moving 
Tip to Claysville, he found the federal detachment occupying 
three houses. Cutting oflf their picket without alarm, he 
divided his force into three squads, one under himself, another 
under Capt. William May, and the other under Capt. Samuel 
Henry. The assailed pariy were surprised, and, after a spirited 
resistance of about fifteen minutes, the entire force of sixty- 
six men surrendered. A^ supply of stores and propertv was 
taken, and Capt. Smith recrossed the river at ten o'clock the 
next morning with a loss of one killed and four wounded. 
The federal casualties were one killed and three wounded. 

James L. Sheffield is a resident of this couniy, but a na- 



tive of Madison, where he was bom Dec. 5, 1819. His father 
was a carriage-maker, and poor, consequently his early advan- 
tages were not good. Jit the age of eighteen 'yearsne came 
to this county, and was a clerk at Claysville for four years. 
He was then deputy sheriff from 1844 to 1847. He then be- 
came a farmer. In 1855 he was elected to the l^ialature, and 
has been twice re-elected. He was also a member of the con- 
stitutional conventions of 1861 and 1865, and signed the ordi- 
nance of secession by instruction of his constituents. He en- 
teredf the military service in the Ninth Alabama Infantry, in 
which ho became captain. In April 1862 he came back with 
authority to raise a regiment, and within the short ^aoe ot 
one month took the field with the Forty-eighth Alabama, one 
thousand strong, which had unanimously elected him coIoneL 
He at once led it to Virginia. He was for about eight months 
in command of Talliaferro's brigade, and led Law's fariffade 
at Gettysburg, Port Eoyal, and Chicamauga. He retired from 
the army by advice of a board of surgeons in 1864, but did 
not cease his efforts in behalf of the Confederacy. Oolond 
^Sheffield is a plain, but earnest and enei^etic man ; with waim 
attachments and antipathies, and canmd and manly in hiB 
conduct. He is a gentleman of pubUc spirit, and an effidctive 
stump orator. 


James L. Sheffield and Arthur C. Beard represented this 
couniy in the constitutional convention of 1861 ; and James K 
Sheffield and A. G. Henry in that of 1865. 


1839— Emory lioyd. 
1841— Mace T. P. Brindtey. 
1844— WilUam M. Qriffin. 
1847-^Maoe T. P. Brindley. 
1851— Enoch Aldridge. 
1853— James Lamar. 

1857—8. K. Raybum. 
J859— R. W. HiKgins. 
1861— John P. Morgan. 
1863— Jamee Oritoher. 
1865— William O. Winston. 


1837— Middleton T. Johnson. 
1838— Bichard Gk>lding. 
1839— Wm. M. Griffin, Wm. Barclay. 
1840- Wm. M . Griffin, Jas. M JLdaAis. 
1841— Wm. M. Griffin, Jas. Fletcher. 
1842— Wm. Xf. Griffin, Jas. Fletcher. 
1843— Wm. M. Griffin, Jas. Fletcher* 
1844 — Edmond Hays, Jas. Fletcher. 
1846—8. M. MoElroy, Jas. Fletcher. 
1847— Lewis Wyeth, Ja&. Gritcher. 

1849— Jas. M. Adams, Jas. Critcher. 
1851— Jas. M. Adams, Jas. Gritcher. 
1853— Frank Gilbreath, Jas. Fletcher. 
1855— Jas. L. Sheffield* Jas. Critcher. 
1857— J. L. Sheffield, Wm. M.Qriffin. 
1859— B. 8. Ohipp, Wm. M. Griffin. 
1861— B. 8. Clapp, Wm. If. Qriilik 
1863— John Sibley, A. 0. Beaid. 
1865— Jas. L. Sheffield^ P. M. BwAl 
1867— [No election.] 
1870— B. E. Boyd. 



lie county of Mobile was established by a proclamation of 
. Holmes of Mksissiupi Territory in the year 1813i soon 
r (Jen. Wilkinson took possession of the town in April of 

year. When the British occupied the country, 1763, they 
titated the territory between tne Pearl and Perdido into a 
ity, to which thev gave the name of Charlotte, to honor 
r queen ; but the Spaniards did not observe the sub^vision. 
lile originally extended to the Perdido, and embraced a 
3 portion of the present State of Mississippi, south of the 
oi 31^, but at its meeting in December 1813 the territo- 
legislature restricted it on the west to the rid^e between 
iraters of the Mobile and Pascagoula. In 1818 it acquired 

part of Jackson county, Mississippi, which was thrown 

Alabama by the division of Mississippi Territory. In 
), the portion of the county east of the oay was fnven to 
iWiB, Ld the ilistrict that lies between tide pre^ntlipe 
Washington and the 31", which had belonged to Baldwin, 
attached to Mobile. 

lies in the extreme southwestern part of the State, with 
Iwin and the bay on the ^east, the Mexican sea on the 
h, the boundary "line of the State of Mississippi on the 
;, and Washington on the north. 

was named for the town, bay, and river — the Maubila 
[auvila of the Spaniards, and the Mobile of the French. 

area of the counir is about 1225 square miles, 
be population is thus shown by the federal census : 

1830 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 

Whites 1653 3440 11,763 17,303 18,559 38,J95 

nBC\B 1019 28^ 6,888 ]0,297 12,571 21,107 

he assessed value of real estate is $17,576,934 ; personal 

)erty, $6,166,785 ; total $23,743,710. Mobile is thus shown 

e the wealthiest of all the counties of the State, as well 

ae most populous. 

he cash value of farm lands — 13^824 acres improved, and 

18 acres unimproved — was $548,730. 

he value of live stock — 451 horses, 492 mules, 8045 neat 

le, 3013 sheep, and 5567 hogs— was $228,520. 



In 1869 the productions were 61,350 bushels of com, 90,100 
pounds of rice, 77,504 bushels of potatoes, 1620 gaJlons of 
syrup, 317 bales of cotton, and 7532 pounds of wool, and the 
value of farm productions was $393,777. Mobile, it is seen, 
produces more rice and potatoes than any other county. 

The soil is liglit, and adapted to the culture of fruit's and 
vegetables. Oranges are produced on the coast. The sur- 
face is flat, and to a great extent the county is a ^ine forest, 
with numerous turpentine orchards. 

The commercial facilities are most excellent. The river 
and bay are the conduits of four-fifths of the navigable waters 
of the State as they flow to the sea : and the sea itself laves 
the southern coast. Four railways radiate from the city of 
Mobile : the Mobile & Montgomeiry, the Mobile & New Or- 
leans, the Mobile & Grand Trunk, and the Mobile & Ohio ; 
the latter having 38^ miles of track in the county ; and the 
total length of railway in the county is over 105 miles. 

Mobile, the seat of justice, is the commercial einporium of 
the State. It was founded by the Sieur de Bienville in the 
year 1711, and is the oldest settlement on the coast of tiie 
Gulf within the limits of the United States except Pensacola 
and Biloxi, and many years older than any omer town in 
Alabama. Bienville erected a defence here and called it Fort 
Conde.* The place was but little more than a military post 
during the first half century of its existence, though the islands 
in the river above the to^n were cultivated, and some trade 
was carried on with the Indians. In October 1863 it fell to 
the possession of the British by the treaty of Paris between 
Great Britaio and France. But few Britons came to reside 
at the place, however, and during the time thev occupied it 
the town lost scarcely any of its French cnaracteristics. 
During the rebellion of the colonies against Great Britain 
the inliabitants remained loyal, though Capt. James Willing 
and Mr. Ohver Pollock came to Mobile, by way of New Or- 
leans, in 1778, to seduce the people from their allegiance. 
But the colony was too isolated and feeble to desire inde- 
pendence, and Willing was apiirehended and confined in Fort 
Charlotte. In March 1780, Galvez, the Spanish governor of 
Louisiana, invested the town, with two thousand men, op^ed 
fire on Fort Charlotte, breached the wall, and caused it to 
capitulate, March 14. A portion of the town was bomed 
during this siege. Neither did the occupation by the Span- 
iards, which lasted a thii'd of a century, materially alter the 

* It was called Fort Charlotte by the British and Spaniards in after yetfs. 
It was bnilt of wood at first, but soon replaced by a more sabstantial build- 
ing of brick and mortar. It was between where the gnard-hoose andmtf* 
ket-house are now located. 



social aspect of tlie town. In April 1813 it was invested by 
a force of six hundred men from New Orleans, under Gen. 
Wilkinson, and capitulated to him without resistance. In 
1785 the towTi had 746 inhal)itants. In 1814 the legislature 
of Mississippi Ten-itory passed an act for the government of 
the place by seven commissioners, who were to choose one of 
their number as president. An act incoi-porating " The City 
of Mobile" was passed Dec. 17, 1819. JBetw^een 1830 and 
1850 the cit}' increased in population and wealth very rapidly. 
It had a population of 12,997 whites and 7518 blacks iirl850; 
20,854 whites and 8404 blacks in 1860 ; and 18,115 whites 
and 13,919 blacks in 1870, of whom 4239 were of foreign 
birth. The city is divided into eight wards, with a board of 
eight aldermen and twenty-four councilmeu.* The debt of 
the city is 12,546,400 ; the assets amount to $1,783,081; the 
rate of municipal taxation is one and nine-tenths of one per 
cent, on a taxable property assessed at $20,376,916. The 
first newspaper was published here in 1816 by G. B. Cotton, 
though some ascribe the honor to one Beard, a year or two 
earKer. The custom-house and market-house are ornaments 
to the city of a substantial character. The commerce of 
Mobile is extensive, aicd it is the third cotton port id the Uni- 
ted States, receiving annually between 400,000 and 500,000 

* The following is a list of commandantftand mayors of Mobile since 1722 : 


]722 — Marigny de Mandeville. 
1736 — Dmnot de Valdeterre. 

1731 Beauchamp. 

1733— Diron d'Artaguette. 

1741 Beanchamp. 

1757 — ^Pierre Annibal de Ville. 

j7(J2 De Grandpre. 

1763— Pierre Annibal de Ville. 
1763 — Robert Farmer. 
1781 — Henriqne Grimarest. 
1785— l*edTO Faurot 
1787— Vincente Folch. 
1792 —Manuel de Lauzos. 

1820 — Addin Lewis. 
1823— John Elliott. 
1824 — Samuel H. Garrow, 
1827 — John F. Everett. 
l^l.^ehn Stocking. 
1834 — John F. Everett. 
1837 — George W. Owen. 
1837 — George Walton. 
1839— Henry Chamberlain, 
1840 — Edward Hall. 
1842 — Charles A. Hoppin. 
1846— Blantoi> McAlpin. 
1848— JameH W. L. ChilderH. 

1795— Pedro Olivier, 

1798 — Manuel de Lauzos. 

18(H) — Joaquin d'Orsona. 

1805— Francisco Max de St. Maxent. 

1807 — Antonio de Salazar. 

1809--Cayetano Perez. 

1811— Francisco Max de St Maxent 

1811 — Cayetano Perez. 

1811 — Francisco Mendiota. 

1811 — Francisco Peres Muro. 

181 1 — Caryetano Perez. 

1811— Manuel Ordonez. 

1812 — Cayetano Perez. 


1848— Charles C. Langdon. 

1852— Joseph Sewell. 

1863— Charles C. Langdon. 

1856 — Jones M. Withers. 

1861— John Forsyth. 

1862— R. H. Slough. 

1866— Jones M. Withers. 

1868— Gustavus Horton [Appointed.] 

1869— Caleb Price. 

1870— Geo. F. Harrington. 

1871— Martin Horst. 

1872— Gideon M. Parker. 



bales for shipment. The public spirit of the people of Mo- 
bile city is almost proverbial. 

Whistler is a town on the Mobile and Ohio Bailroad with 
about 1500 inhabitants. 

At Mount Vernon the federal government had an arsenal 
till the breaking out of the late war. 

Fort Stoddart stood on the river bank, four miles east of Mt 
Vernon, and was built by Capt. Shaumburg, tJ. S. A., in 1799. 

At the mouth of Dog river, eight or nine miles below the city, 
Pickett and Meek locate Bienville's first settlement on the 
mainland. There htia been much variance of opinion about 
this, and it is probable that the question will never be settled 
satisfactorily. Col. Pickett died in the belief that his assertion 
was correct, after some controversy about it ; but Judge Meek 
is said to have changed his opinion after a visit to Philadel- 
phia, and an examination of many old maps. He, and Major 
W. T. Walthall, who has also given the subject much atten- 
tion, came to the conclusion mat Bienville's first settlement 
was above the city, probably eighteen or twenty miles. The 
tradition of the old Creole inhabitants does not sustain the 
opinion that it was at the mouth of Dog river, but does not 
define tlie spot. 

Dauphin island is another historic locality. Iberville's col- 
ony from Rochelle, in 1799, touched first at Pensacola, then at 
Dauphin Island, which they called Massacre Island because 
of a quantity of human bones found thereon. Three years later, 
Bienville built a warehouse there, and it continued to be a 
depot and settlement of the French for many years. The fed- 
eral government constructed a fort on it some years ago, which 
fell ioto the hands of the tioops of the State m January 186L 

There are three foundiies, an oil mill, a paper mill, a wood- 
ware manufactory, and other industries in the county. 

There is a medical college in Mobile, founded in 1858. 

St. Joseph's College, at Spiing HiU, is a weU estabhshed 
institution of learning. There is also a convent for the edn- 
cation of females near the city, and Barton Academy is another 
well known educational establishment. 

In 1810 a parir of settlers from Washington and the Tensa 
district, led by Col. Keuben Kemper of Mississippi, moved 
down to the plantation of Mr. Charles Conway, on Bay Mjb- 
ette, opposite the town, and concerted an attack by which the 
Spaniards would be diiven from the place. Dividin^^one party 
moved around with the horses to cross the river at HoDii^s 
Ferrj', while the others crossed the bay , and encamped on Saw 
Mill creek, twelve miles above Mobile. While engaged in a 
carouse one night, a body of two hundred SpaniarcLs, who had 
come up from Mobile to attack them, fired upon, and killed 


four, wounded others, and captured ten, whom they sent to the 
dungeons of Moro Castle. This broke up the scheme, and no 
farmer attempt was made to drive off the Spaniards.* 

Mobile bay was the scene of one of the most important 
naval engagements that has been fought in the waters of this 
hemisphere. This occurred August 5, 1864. The federal 
naval squadron had been blockading the mouth of the bay 
for three years. It had been reinforced recently, and Admiral 
Farragut, the most skillful naval oflScer in their service, sent 
to conduct the operations. On the 3d of August fifteen hun- 
dred land troops were disembarked on Dauphin Island, and 
moved up to Fort Gaines, where they opened besiegmg ap- 

S roaches. At six o'clock, the morning of the 5th, the federal 
eet of four powerful iron-clad monitors and fourteen steam- 
ers moved with stately pace into the pass. The monitors wore 
in single rank, in the load ; the steamers were lashed two 
abreast-t Thev opened fire on the forts, Morgan arid Gaines, 
which soon replied with a constant roar. The foremost mon- 
itor struck a torpedo, and went down opposite the forts so 
suddenly that only ten of a crew of one himdred and thiriy 
souls were rescued. The others came gallantly forwara, 
breathing flame and smoke, and undismayed. As soon as 
Admiral Buchanan, J in command of the Confederate fleet, 
saw the movements of the enemy, he boldly stood toward the 
pass with his little squadron, in line of battle. They were 
soon hotly engaged, and almost surrounded by the federal 
fleet. The enemy's steamei*s, having superior speed, passed 

^Cyras Sibley and Thomas G. Holmes of Baldwin were in this expedition. 

t The federal fleet consisted of the monitors Tecamseh and Manhattan, 
each carrying two 15-inch gnns, and the Winnebago and Chicasa, each car- 
rying four 11-inch guns; and the steamers Hartford of twentv-eight guns; the 
Brooklyn twenty-six; the Octorara ten; Metacomet ten; Bichmond twenty- 
lour; Port Royal eight; Lackawanna fourteen; Seminole nine; Mononga- 
hela twelve; Kennebec five; Osippee thirteen; Itaskafour; Oneida ten; Qa- 
lena thirteen: a total of one hundred and ninety-nine guns, and twenty- 
seTen hnndred men. The confederate fleet consisted of the ram-monitor 
Tennessee, of six guns, and the wooden gunboats Morgan, Gaines, and Sel- 
ma, the first two carrying six, and the Selma four, guns: making a total of 
twenty-two guns and four hundred and seventy ifien. 

} This brave officer was bom in Baltimore, Maryland, entered the federal 
navy in 1815, and was the first superintendent of* the naval academy at An- 
napolis. He resigned his commission in the federal navy. April 19, 1861, 
and by virtue of his previous rank took the seniority in the confederate navy. 
Ha commanded in the fierce attack made on the federal fleet in Hampton 
Roads, and therefore was captain of the first iron-clad vessel that ever went 
to war. 

"The waters bland that welcomed first the white man to our shore, 
Columbus of an iron world, the brave Buchanan bore." 

He resided in Mobile for two or three years after the peace, but now resides 
in liaryiand . His brave sulialterns, Gapt. James D. Johnston and Gommand- 
imt Hurphy, now reside here. 




the monitors, and the Tennessee tried to run them down with 
her prow, but their greater speed enabled them to avoid her. 
The gunboats Sehna, Ijieutenant Commandant Patrick U. 
Murphy, and Morgan, Commander G. W. Harrison, fiercely 
engaged the Metacomet ; but the Moman was soon obliged 
to withdraw under the guns of Fort Morgan, and the Semia 
struck her colors only when her deck was a slau^ter-pen. 
The Gaines, under Lieut. Com. J. W. Bennett, was fought till 
fomid to be in a sinking condition, then run on the beach near 
Fort Morgan. The enemy's fleet passed into the bay, beyond 
the forts, and were about to anchor about four miles inside, 
when the Tennessee,* bereft of her consorts, boldly steamed 
forth, alone, to attack her nimierous adversaries. It was the 
sublimest scene of a great war ! " Like a monstrous thing of 
Ufe, she stood up with threatening aspect for the Hart- 
ford. Seeing this, Farragut signalled the monitors, and 
*• wooden vessels best adapted, to attack her, not only with 
"their gims, but with bows on at full speed."t Deliberately 
the noble ship moved into the jaws of death ; one against 
seventeen ; six guns against nearly two hundred ! Aamiral 
Farragut speaks of what occurred as " one of the fiercest naval 
combats on record." The Tennessee fought until she was 
unable to fire a gun. Battered and brui&d and shattered 
by iron beaks and monster bolts, " she was at this time sore 
" beset. The Chicasa was pounding away at her stem ; the 
" Osippee was approaching her at full speed ;" and the Lack- 
awanna, and ** this ship (the Hartford) were bearing down 
" upon her, determined upon her destruction. Her smoke- 
" stack had been shot away, her steering chains were gone, 
" compelling a resort to her relieving tackle ; and several of 
" her port shutters were jammod.^t Admiral Buchanan was 
severely wounded, and the commander of the ship, Capt. J. 
D. Johnston, at the end of two hours, during the last hour of 
which she was unable to fire a gun, hauled down her flag. 
During this terrible time not one of the huge projectiles had 

*The Teunessee was a mctgoificent vessel of over two tboasaud tons bar- 
then. She was built at Selma, one hundred feet abv. ve low water mark, and 
launched in March, 1604, during an opportune freshet in the Alabama. Her 
armament was four 64 10-inch, and two 72 10-inch rifled, guns, each weigh- 
ing nearly 25, 000 pounds. She drew fourteen leet of water, and wan passed 
over the Dog river bar — a distance of ten miles, on which only nine feet of 
water could be found — by a rare achievement in naval science. Three huge 
floats or ** camels " were sunk on each side of her, and huge chains passed 
under the Tennessee and the ond« attached to them. The water was then 
pumped out of the floats, and they rose to the surface, elevating thd Tennes- 
see seven feet, when it became easy to tow her to an anchorage m deep water 
near Fort Morgan. 

t ** Campaign of Mobile :" (>en. Andrews. 

iBeport of Admiral Farragut : extract. 



Eenetrated her invulnerable plates. Two of her crew were 
illed, and nine wounded ; which, with the eight killed and 
seven wounded on the Selma, made up the hst of losses on 
board the confederate squadron. The lederal loss was fifty- 
two killed and one hundred and seventy wounded, besides the 
one hundi'ed and twenty that went down with the Tecumseh. 
Four of the principal vessels of the federal fleet were so seri- 
ously wounded as to cause them to be sent to the North for 
repairs. On Dauphin Island the lines were more closely 
drawn, and the fleet took part in its reduction. On the 6th, 
Col. Anderson asked for tei-ms, and surrendered uncondition- 
ally two days after. Fort Powell, on Cedar Point, was aban- 
doned by its garrison on the 5th. The events relating to the 
bombardment of Fort Morgan are given in the chapter on 

The reduction of the city was accomplished indirectly in 
April following. It had been fortified by Capt. Lieumer, Gen. 
Ledbetter, and Col. Sheliha, till Gen. J. E. Johnston is said 
to have pronounced it the best fortified post in the Confed- 
eracy. But Gen. Canby reduced Spanish Fort and Blakely, 
thus flanking the defenses, and the city was evacuated by 
Gen. D. H. Maury, Aprill2, 1865. 

Mobile has been the home of many useful and distinguished 
men. Bienville, to whose indefatigable eflforts the city owes 
its early existence, is elsewhere noticed. 

BoBERT Farmer, the only governor of the city and adjacent 
territory during the British occupancy — from 1763 to 1780 — 
was a man of peculiar acquirements. M. Aubry wrote from 
New Orleans to the French government, May 16, 1765 : " The 
"correspondence which I am obliged to have with the Eng- 
lish, * * * and particularly the governor of Mobile, gives 
me serious occupation. This governor is an extraordinary 
man. As he knows that I speak EngUsh, he occasionally 
"writes to me in verse. He speaks to me of Francis I. and 
"Charles V. He compares Pontiac, an Indian chief, with 
" Mithridates. He says he goes to bed with Montesouieu. 
"When there occur some pet^ difliculties between the imiabi- 
"tants of New Orleans and Mobile, he quotes to me from 
Magna Charta, and the laws of Great Britain. It is said the 
Finglish ministry sent him to Mobile to get rid of him be- 
" cause he was one of the hottest in tlie opposition. He pays 
" me handsome compliments, which I diily retmn liim ; and, 
upon the whole, he is a man of parts, but a dangerous neigh- 
bor, against whom it is well to be on one's guard." WiUiam 
Bartram, a botanist from Philadelphia, who visited Mobile in 
1777, and wrote a fabulous account of his journey, found Major 
Fsmuer residing on the east bank of Tensa river, near his 





plantation, which was on the west side. He died just before 
Galvez captured Mobile in March 1780, and his handsome 
residence in the town waa burned during the cannonading. 

Bertrand Clausel, who had served as a general under Na- 
poleon, resided from 1821 to 1825 in this county. The ex- 
emperor bequeathed him a large sum of money in his wilL 
He returned to France, and honors were conferred on him- 
While here, he lived on the bay, raised vegetables, and often 
brought them to market in a cart. 

William Crawford, for many years a resident of Mobile, 
came from Louisa county, Viiginia, to St. Stephens as federal 
district attorney in 1817. His ability at ( »nce placed him prom- 
inently before the public, and he was elected president of the 
bank at St. Stephens in 1818. He was a law partner there of 
Hon. Henry Hitchcock till that gentleman was transferred ta 
the bench. In 1822 he was a candidate before the legislature for 
the federal senate against two or three competitors, and on the 
first ballot ran ahead of Hon. Wm. Bu King of Dallas, but, 
the contest being narrowed down to the two, CoL King waa 
successful. In 1825 he was chosen to the senate from the dis- 
trict composed of Washington, Mobile, and Baldwin, but re- 
signed the following year to accept the office of federal dis- 
trict judge — an office ho fiUed with honor and credit till hia 
death. He came to reside in Mobile in 1827. He took no 
further active part in poUtical affairs, in full accord with the 
custom of those who wore the ermine in that day, but dis- 
charged his official duties till his death in 1849. Judge Craw- 
ford was neither sociable nor popular, for he was a, man of 
strong antipathies, and austere bearing; but he was a thorough 
lawyer, ana a dignified magistrate. His wife was a daughter 
of Judge Fitts, a North Carolinian, whose son represented 
Washington in the legislature at one time. 

Jack Ferrell Boss of this county was one of the early settlers 
of the State. He was bom near Ilalek;h, North Carolina, in 
1793, and was educated at Chapel Hul. Attaining to man- 
hood during the war of 1812, he was commissioned as captain 
in the federal army, and was in active service in tlie South 
under Gen. Jackson till the peace. He then resigned, and be- 
came a merchant at St. Stephens. He was the first State 
Treasurer. In 1823 he came to Mobile, and was here a lead- 
ing citizen and merchant. He served the coun^ in both 
branches of the legislature, the last time in 1835. H!e was also 
a planter in Greene and Clarke counties, at different tunes. 
He died of yellow fever in October 1837. Capt, Boas was 
wealthy, and exceedingly hospitable, and popular. In appear- 


SDce he was very stalwart and handsome. Of his descendants^ 
two sons, Major Wm. H. Boss and Dr. F. A. Boss, are estim- 
able citizens of Mobile. 

Among the earliest public men of the State, George W- 
Owen, of this county, deserves mention. He was a native of 
Brunswick county, Virginia, and was bom in 1795. His father 
was a planter, and was the son of a professor in WiUiam and 
Mary College. Mr. Owen grew to manhood in Davidson 
county, Tennessee, where his parents bad settled in 1808. He 
was graduated at the University at Nashville, and read law 
with the statesman and jmist, Hon. Felix Grundy. Receiving 
license to practice, he at once came (1816) to Claiborne, Mon- 
roe county. There he was the senior of a law partnership with 
Hon. John Gayle. He represented Monroe in the first and sec- 
ond legislatures (1819 and 1820) and was speaker of the house 
the latter year. He was elected to congress in 1823, and contin- 
ued there by successive elections till 1829. In that year Gen. 
Jackson appointed him collector of the port of Mobile, an of- 
fice he held five or six years. He was elected mayor of Mobile 
in 1836, and died Aug. 18, 1837, at his plantation near the city. 
His wife was a sister of Mr. A. C. Hollinger, who represented 
the county in the legidature in 1840. Several of tlieir children 
are yet residents of Mobile and Montgomery, and a nephew, 
Mr.!u. B. Owen, represented Mobile in the legislature in 1853. 
Mr. Owen was highly respected for his talents and character^ 
and esteemed for many virtues. 

George SiiiOTHER Gaines, for many years a resident of Mo- 
bile, is a native of Stokes county, lfoi*th Carolina, and was 
bom in 1784. His father was a colonial officer in 1776, and 
a nephew of Judge Edmund Pendleton of Virginia. His 
mother was a Miss Strother. The parents removed to SuUi- 
van county, Tennessee, in 1794, and the son remained there 
till appointed assistant factor of the United States at the 
Chocta trading house on theTombikbee in 1805. A year later 
he was appointed factor, a position he held fourteen years. 
When the massacre of Fort Mimms occurred, Mr. Gaines s dis- 

Satch was the first one to reach Gen. Jiickson and Gov. Blount. 
a 1816 he removed the factorage to what is now Sumter county, 
but resigned three years later, and became a merchant atDe- 
mopolis in 1822. From 1825 to '27 he served Marengo and 
Clarke in the State senate. He led the party of Choctas 
which explored their present homes beyond the Mississippi in 
1829, and assisted in the removal of the tiibe. In 1830 he 
came to Mobile, and engaged in merchandising, and was pres- 
ident of tiie branch bank. Having previously established a 
farm in southeast Mississippi, he removed to that State in 1856, 


and served in the legislature in 1861. He resides at State Line, 
with all his faculties well preserved except his eye-sight. His 
naturally superior mind is stored with tne details of the varied 
events through which he has passed, much of which he com- 
municated to Col. Pickett, ana was used by him in his history. 
He has quite a number of descendants. The late Major Gen. 
E. P. Gaines, XJ. S. A., was an elder brother of Mr. XI., and 
Hon. P. S. Lyon of Marengo is a nephew. 

One of the most cultivated and talented of the early public 
men of the State was Henby HncHCOOK of this county. He 
was a native of Vermont, or one of the New England States, 
and was a grand-son of Gen. Ethan Allen, a colonial officer of 
some repute. He had been well educated, and was already 
an attorney when he reached the Tombikbee settlement in 
1817. He opened an office for the purpose of practicing his 
profession, but was almost immediately appointed secretary 
of the territoiT by Gov. Bibb. Notwithstanding, he formed 
a law partnership with Hon. Wm. Crawford at St. Stephens, 
and entered on a successful career. He represented Wash- 
ington in the constitutional convention of 1819, and the same 
year was elected tlie first attorney general of the State. He 
held the office four years, then gave his entire time to the 
demands of a large practice, wliich was a pursuit wholly con- 
genial to his studious habits. He removed to Cahaba with 
the seat of government, and there resided for several years. 
He then came to Mobile. When Justice Lipscomb retired 
from tlie bench, in January 1835, Mr. Hitchcock was elected 
to succeed him. A year later he became chief justice by the 
resignation of Justice Saifold, but retu-ed from the high dig- 
nity a few months later, and resumed his business engage- 
ments here. He was elected to represent the county in me 
lower house of the general assembly in 1839, but died of yel- 
low fever in the fall of tliat year, at the early age of forty- 
four years. Justice Hitchcock "was not only one of the firet 
" lawyers of the State, but was enterprising, and very earnest 
" in his endeav6rs to aid in the development of the resources 
" of his adopted State, and especially of Mobile. And I look 
" upon his untimely death as a most serious loss to the cibr."* 
His elevated social and moral sentiments, blameless conaact, 
learning, and pubUc spiiit, made him an ornament to the 
State. He married Miss Irvin of Tennessee, and his only 
son, a prominent lawyer, holds a professorship in a law school 
in St. Louis, Missomi. 

Gilbert Christian Eussell, for many years a citizen of Mo- 
bile, was a native of Virginia, and born in 1782. He grew to 

* Hon. George S. Gaines of Mississippi. 


manhood in Tennessee, and was appointed to a lieutenancy in 
the federal army in 1803. He was advanced by regular grada- 
tion to the Ueutenant colonelcy of the Third Infantry id 1811, 
and some years before had been stationed id the southwest. 
He led his regiment at the attack on Econochaca, and com- 
manded«the expedition sent to Cahaba old towns. He attained 
to the rank of colonel in 1814, and, as he was the senior of 
Gten. Scott, would have ranked high had his regiment not 
been disbanded id 1815. He soon after settled in Mobile as 
a merchant, then a contractor, and spent several years towards 
the close of his life in Washington, D. C, endeavoring to ad- 
just some accoimis with the government. He died here in 
1855. He was a large and handsome man. His services to 
Alabama were such tliat a county was named to honor him 
in 1832. He married a daughter of Mrs. Hollinger, who 
owned the ferry near the " cut off," now in Washington county, 
and his descendants are in this county. 

OcTAVfA Walton LeVert has been for many years a resi- 
dent of Mobile. She is a native of Georgia, a grand-daugh- 
ter of Gov. George Walton of Georgia, and daughter of Gov. 
Walton of Florida, who was mayor of Mobile in 1887-'39. 
In 1835 she came with her parents to Mobile, and the year 
after married the lato Dr. Henry Stiachey LeVert, an eminent 
physician and scholar, who died here in 18G4. In 1853-'4 she 
spent a year in Europe, and repeated the tour in 1855. In 
1859 she ventured into print with *' Souvenirs of Travel," a 
charming book, of two volumes, which gave her popularity 
and fame. Up to that time she was the only American who 
had obtained access to the better circles of European society 
who had given an account of the impressions founded thereon. 
To this was added a freshness and ease of stjle, a glow of 
fancy, and descriptive powers which lent the finish of genius 
and taste to her wiitings. " Such a woman occurs but once 
" in the coui*se of an empire," said Washington Ii'ving of Mrs. 
LeVert. Her home in the city of Mobile was tlio centre of 
the literary circle of the State. She respects talent and moral 
worth in any condition of life ; and, witli all the plaudits that 
her own endowments have called forth, she is none the less a 
humane and sympathetic woman. She has resided much of 
the time for several years past at the North. 

The venerable John A. Cuthbert is a citizen of Mobile. 
He was bom in Savannah, Georgia, in* June 1788, and was 
graduated at Princeton College. In the war of 1812 he was 
an oflScer, and in 1819 was elected to the federal congress. He 
was for several years the editor of a newspaper at Milledge- 
viUe, and in 1837 he came to reside in Mooile. In 1842 he 


was elected judge of the county court, and was on the circmt 
court bench in 1853 for a short time. Judge Cuthbert has 
always commanded the respect of the people of Mobile. 

The late Henry Chamberlain was a resident of Mobile for 
over half a century. He was bom in Maine in 1806, and came 
to Mobile with his parents in 1816. His father, Henry V. 
Chamberlain, served as sheriff and judge of the county court 
of Mobile. The son was well educated, and commenced the 
practice of law on reaching maturity. As early as 1832 he 
was in the legislature from this county, with the courtly and 
popular Benjamin Brent Breedin as his colleague. He also 
represented the county in 1833 and 1857. In 1839 he was 
mayor of the city. He was judge of the city court in 1846 
for about a year, and again judge of it from 1860 to 1868. 
He died at Bailey Springs, August 11, 1870. His wife was a 
Miss Chamberlain of Maine, and his descendants are in Mo- 
bile. Judge Chamberlain was honest and moral, and cathoUc 
in his views. He was a dignified, impartial, and laborious 

George Noble Stewart, whose license as an attorney ante- 
dates that of any other member of the bar in the State, resides 
in this county. He was bom July 26, 1799, in Philadelphia. 
His father, a sea-captain, was a native of Londonderry, Ire- 
land ; and his mother was the daughter of an English mer^ 
chant. His educational opportunities were good, notwith- 
standing the death of his father in 1804. In 1817 he came 
with, and as secretary of, the French Emigrant Association to 
settle Marengo county. There he read law under Hon. A S. 
Lipscomb, and was enrolled as an attorney in 1821. He was 
assistant secretary of the State senate three years later. In 
1827 he removed to Tuskaloosa, became associated in ihe 
practice with Hon. Seth Barton, and was mayor of the town 
of Tuskaloosa one year. From 1830 to 1835 he was the re- 

Sorter of the supreme court, and published five volumes of 
ecisions. He resigned, and came to practice law in Mobile 
in 1835, and has been associated at different times with Messrs. 
John EUiott, G. J. S. Walker, Harry I. Thornton, and Wm. C. 
Eastland. From 1847 to 1851 he served the county in the 
senate, but professional labors have since engrossed his atten- 
tion, to the exclusion of public matters. Mr. Stewart's hale 
appearance, dark hair, ruddy visage, and ready flow of spirits, 
seem to promise many more years of usefulness. He is an 
attorney profoundly versed in the requirements of the profes- 
sion, and a man of probity, and moral standing. He speaks 
and converses with ease, and interests by the clearness of his 
propositions and the extent of his information. His wife is 


a danghter of Gen. David, an officer of the first French em- 
pire. His son, the brave Private F. G. Stewart of the Third 
Alabama Infantry, fell in the charge at Malvern Hill, at least 
forty yards in front of the entire Confederate line. 


Percy Walker is a resident of Mobile, but a native of 
Madison. He was bom at Huntsville, December 1812, and is 
the son of Hon. John W. Walker, deceased, of that conniy. 
He was educated at Greene Academy and the University of 
Virginia. After attending the medical school of Transylvania 
Umversity, he received a diploma at Philadelphia in 1835. 
He located in Mobile the same year, and was a practitioner 
here for a year or two. He then invested his patrimony in 
drugs, and lost it in the financial crash of 1837. In 1839 he 
represented the county in the general assembly, which was 
his first appearance in pubhc life. While reading law in 1840, 
he was elected solicitor of the judicial circuit. He informed 
the court that he had not been admitted to the bar, and was 
directed to have himself enrolled at once. He at once en- 
tered on his duties, and served four years. In 1847 he was 
the only member of the ticket of his parly elected to the leg- 
islature from this county, and was returned in 1853. Two 
years after, he was the candidate of his party for congress, 
and was elected over Hon. J. A. Stallworth of Conecuh. 
Though the candidate of the American party, he denounced 
any attempt to proscribe persons for their reUgious faith. 
He represented the county again in the able delegation sent 
by it to the general assembly m 1859, and served as chairman 
oi the judiciary committee. He was adjutant and inspector 
general of the forces of the State durmg the war, and has 
since devoted his time to his profession. Col. Walker has a 
tall and gr£w;eful figure, a dignified bearing, and intellectual 
features. He is very prominent in his profession, and is flu- 
ent find chaste in oratory. He is an honorable man, and a 
cultivated gentleman and scholar. He married a daughter 
of Hon. A. S. Lipscomb. 

The name of Chakles Carter Langdon is blended with the 
annals of Mobile. A native of Southiiigton, Connecticut, he 
was bom Aug. 5, 1805. His father, a farmer, often seized as 
a member of the Connecticut legislatui-e. The son received 
a common school education, having to labor on the farm in 
summer and attend school in winter. This was varied when 
he became sixteen years old by his serving as a teacher in 
winter. At the age of twenty years he came to this State 
with his brother, Mr. Levi Langdon, who estabhshed a dry 

foods house in Marion, Peny county. For this brother Mr. 
jangdon was a clerk till 1829, when he became a partner. 


The same year he married a Comiecticut lady. When the 
nullification controversy arose, Mr. L. took ^ound against ii, 
and was defeated for the legislature on that issue bot£ in 1832 
and '33 — one time by eleven majority, the next by fourteen. 
In 1834 he came to Mobile and established a commission 
house in partnership with Hon. Martin A. Lee of Perry. 
This house went down in the financial crash of 1836-7, re- 
ducing him to poverty. He was nominated for the legislature 
in the spring of 1838 by the first Whig meeting ever assem- 
bled in the State. He was defeated, but won such a reputa- 
tion that his party purchased the Mobile Advertiser from Mr. 
Sol. Smith, in October 1838, and secured Mr. L. as its editor. 
The next year he was elected to the legislature, and was re- 
elected in 1840. He then gave hiil^ attention to his paper till 
1848, when he was elected mayor of Mobile city, a position in 
which he was continued till lo55 by annual election, save one 
year. In 1851 he was defeated tor congress h^ Hon. John 
loragg after a warm canvass. In 1853 he sold his newspaper 
and retired to the western part of the coimty to cultivate 
fruit. For fifteen years he had edited the Advertiser ^ making 
it the leading Whig journal in the State during the period 
when the decisive ballot battles were fought by me two great 
parties. In 1860 Mr. Langdon re-appeared, in the pubUc 
arena as an advocate for Mr. Bell's election to the presidency. 
Opposed to secession, hfe aligned himself with his adopt^ 
section in the day of trial, and exerted both tongue and pen 
to infuse hope and courage into the people. He represented 
Mobile in the legislature of 1861, but was defeated for con- 
gress in 1863. In 1865 he was a member of the constitu- 
tional convention, and the same year was elected to congress 
over Major S. B. Cleveland of Clarke and Mr. T. M. Mamews 
of Dallas. But he was not allowed his seat, and was soon 
after disfranchised. He has since devoted his time to agri- 
cultural matters. 

Mr. Langdon is compactly built, and his frank and manly 
countenance is only a reflex of a sahent trait of character. 
Few men can point to a more industrious and useful life as 
a citizen, or a more, consistent and honorable record as a poli- 
tician and publicist. His pen is rea<ly, vigorous, and uold, 
while as a speaker, he is earnest and fluent, possessing valua- 
ble argmnentative powers. Explicit and fearless in the avowal 
of his views, he is charitable toward dissenting opinions. 
Possessing the cardinal vii*tues, he is esteemed and respected 
most where he is best known. His easy and cordial manners 
render liim popular with the masses. 

The life of Thaddeus Sanfokd was identified with the his- 
tory of Mobile for forty-five years. He was a native of 


Connectictit, and bom in 1790. Eeceiving an elementary 
education, he went to New York city early in life, and there 
engaged in commercial pursuits. In 1822 he came to Mobile, 
and here continued in a mercantile business till 1828, when 
he became editor and proprietor of the Mobile lieyuit^r. He 
continued to conduct that journal, with rare tiict and judg- 
ment, for twenty-six years, except the four from 1837 to 1841. 
In 1833 he was elected by the legislature president of the 
' branch bank in Mobile, an office he filled for eleven years. 
President Pierce appointed him collector of customs ior the 
port of Mobile in 1853, and the following year he sold the 
jReg^i^ter, Presidents Buchanan and Davis continued him in 
the coUectorship, which he held till 18G5. He died April 30, 
1867, leaving a stainless reputation as an official and as a 
journalist. " He was at heart, as well as in manner, a true 
" and thorough gentleman, m the highest sense of the term. 
««* * He was never what was considered a brilliant writer, 
but he had acquired a mastery of the English language such 
as is rarely obtained by any journalist. His siyle was dis- 
tinguished by a purity and, eloquence worthy the days of 
"Addison and Swift."* 

Henry Goldthwaiie resided in Mobile. Ho was a native 
of New Hampshire, and was bom in April 1802. His father, 
the son of an Englishman, died early m the life of the son, 
and his mother, a native of Wales, removed to Boston, where 
she opened a boarding house to maintain her family. The 
son received but a limited education, and at tlie age of thir- 
teen years repaired to Eichmond, Virginia^ where he was a 
derk m a dry goods house for two years. Betui'ning to Bos- 
ton, he soon after sailed for Mobile, and was shipwrecked on 
the voyage. Reaching the latter city in 1819, he proceeded 
to Mon^omery in a flat-boat, a journey of tliroe months dura- 
tion. He was engaged for a short time in the store of his 
brother, John, in Montgomery, then reaii law in the office of 
Nimrod E. Benson, esq. Admitted to practice, he was for sev- 
eral years tiie associate of Hon. Benj. Fitzpatrick. In 1825 
he was elected solicitor, and in 1829 represented Montgomery 
in the legislatiire. Two years later he came to Mobile, and 
for some years was the partiier of Robei-t G. Gordon, esq. In 
1836 he was elected to the bench of the supreme court by the 
l^islature without opposition, succeeding Justice Hitchcock. 
Though young, he acquitted himself admirably in this liigh 
station, and in 1842 was re-elected. He resigned in June 1843, 
and became the candidate of his party for confess. In this 
he was defeated after a biilliant canvass by Mr. Dellett of 

• Major W. T. Walthall. 






Monroe, Ex-Gov. Clay having been appointed to succeed 
him on the bench, Judge Goldtliwaite was a candidate before 
the legislature for the position, and triumphed over the distin* 
guished incumbent after a spirited struggle. He remained on 
the bench till his death, Oct. 19, 1847, of yellow fever. 

" To say that Judce Goldthwaite was an able jurist," said 
his colleague on the bench, Chief Justice Collier, " would con- 
vey a most imperfect idea of his character and his merits. 
Ho was not only a profound lawyer, but he was a man of 
extensive general attainments ; distinguished for quickness 
" of perception, bold and vigorous thought, and long contin- 
'* ued mental appUcation. * * His powers of argumenta- 
'' tion, and skill in the management oi cases, placed him in 
" the front rank of his profession." He was possessed of a 
strong will, unbounded self-reliance, and his mental processes 
were singulaily active and astute. He married a sister of 
Hon. J. M. Witherspoon of Greene, and his four sons reside 
in this State. Hon. George Goldthwaite of Montgomery is a 
younger brother. 

The late Lewis T. Woodruff was a prominent citizen of 
Mobile for many years. He was bom in Farmington, Conn., 
in 1816, and was of a good family. At eighteen years of ace 
he went to Wiunsboro, South Carolina, and became a clerk. 
In 1839 he came to Mobile,- and began business as a clerk in 
an auction and commission house. He soon became a partner 
in the business, and was engaged in mercantile pursuits till 
his death. He was several times a member of the mimicipal 
boards of the ci^. When the war began he entered the ser- 
vice as captain of a company in the Third Alabama Infancy. 
He ser\'ea about a year, then resigned and assisted in raising 
the Thirty-sixth Alabama, of which he was elected lieutenant 
colonel. He soon became colonel of it, and shared its priva- 
tions and dangers till disabled by a wound at New Hope, 
Georgia. After the war he engaged