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January Miscellaneous 

March Miscellaneous 

May Miscellaneous 

July Proceedings op the Kaaterskill Conference 

September Handbook, 1913 

November Miscellaneous 



A separate detailed index to the Proceedings of the Kaaterskill Conference 
is on pages 409-12 and its entries are not repeated here. 

Affiliated organizations, 435 

Budget, A. L. A., 1913, 3; of Publishing 

board, 1913, 5 
Charter, 414 

Chicago mid-winter meetings for 1914, 498 
Clubs, library, 439-40 
Committees, standing, 427-9; special, 

Constitution, 415-20 
Council, meeting of, 6-20; personnel of, 

Dues, 415 

Endowment funds, 430 
Executive board, meeting of, 2-4 
Finance committee, report of, 3 
Gifts and bequests, 1912, 33-42 
Haines, Helen E., letter from, 7-9; the 

proposed Los Angeles charter, 9-10 
Honor roll of attendance at conferences, 

Kaaterskill conference announcements, 1, 

29-32, 49-62 

League of library commissions, meeting 
of middle west section, 21-2 

Meetings of A. L. A., places of, 420 

Members, 440-94; new, 43-5, 63-5 

Membership, benefits of, 415 

Membership by states, 422 

Necrology, 495 

Newspapers, preservation of, report of 
committee on, 22-8 

Officers, 1913-14, 425 

Officers, past, 423-4 

Oxford conference, 1914, 500 

Periodicals, list of library, 436 

Publishing board, meeting of, 4-6; bud- 
get, 1913, 5; list of publications, 430-3 

Review of the year, 497-8 

Sections of the A. L. A., 434-5 

State library associations, 437-8 

State library commissions, 436-7 

Treasurer's report, 2 

Woodruff, Clinton R., letter from, 10-11 





Entered as second-class matter December 27, 1909, at the Post Office at Chicago, 111., 
under Act of Congress of July 16, 1894. 

Vol. 7, No. 1 


JANUARY, 1913 


A. L. A. Conference, 1913 
Executive Board 
Publishing Board 


League op Library Commissions 

Preservation op Newspapers 

A. L. A. CONFERENCE, 1913 

The Executive Board, at its meeting the 
first week in January, voted to hold the 
next conference of the A. L. A. at the Ho- 
tel Kaaterskill, in the Catskill Mountains, 
June 23 to 28, 1913. Several other meeting 
places were discussed and given careful 
consideration, but the place chosen offered 
a number of very important and desirable 
advantages which none of the others gave. 

The Hotel Kaaterskill stands in a very 
beautiful location on the top of Kaaterskill 
Mountain, at an elevation of 3,000 feet 
above the sea. From the piazza the visitor 
has an unobstructed panorama, stretching 
across the Hudson River and Valley and 
the hills of New England, covering a sweep 
of over ninety miles. The hotel is adver- 
tised as the largest mountain hotel in the 
world, having a capacity for between one 
thousand and twelve hundred guests, the 
exact number accommodated depending of 
course on how many desire to room alone. 
The A. L. A. will have the absolutely ex- 
clusive use of the entire hotel during the 
whole time of the conference. Having all 

delegates in one hotel is an important 
feature and always brings about easier and 
more frequent personal conferences and a 
general unity which is difficult to obtain 
where delegates are housed under a num- 
ber of separate roofs. Any possible over- 
flow will be accommodated at a smaller 
hotel, a mile from the Kaaterskill, con- 
veyance back and forth being provided. 
It is not likely, however, that there will be 
more ajiplications than the headquarters 
hotel can comfortably handle. There are 
700 rooms in the Kaaterskill and annex, 
100 of which have private baths. The din- 
ing room has a seating capacity for 1200 
people. In the way of amusements the 
management calls attention to excellent 
golf links, boating and fishing in a small 
mountain lake near by, tennis, bowling, 
driving and motoring, mountain climbing, 
etc. A new ball room floor was laid in 
1912. Meeting halls are adequate to ac- 
commodate the general sessions, section 
meetings and those of the four affiliated 


The following rates are offered for the tively close proximity to the Catskills 

conference week: Two persons in double makes it likely that the 1913 conference 

room without private bath, ?3 per day each; ,„ , jr., 

two persons in double room with private ^"^ ^^ ^ record breaker in attendance, 

bath, 14.50 per day each; one person in ^^^ ^^^*^^ ^- ^- ^- Bulletin will contain 

single room without private bath, |4.00 ^"rther particulars from the Travel Com- 

per day; one person in room with private °iittee, but it is hoped that library people 

bath, ?6.00 per day. ^^^^ begin at once to plan to go to the Kaat- 

All rates will be on American plan. ®^^^*" Conference. 

The Hotel Kaaterskill is reached by the 

Ulster & Delaware Railroad from Kings- EXECUTIVE BOARD 

ton, N.Y., trains running direct to the hotel Chicago, January 1-3, 1913 

grounds. Through cars are run direct A meeting of the Executive Board of the 

from New York (Jersey City) to Kaaters- A. L. A. was held at the Hotel Sherman, 

kill, via West Shore Railroad. The hotel Chicago, Wednesday evening, January 1st. 

can also be reached by the Hudson River Present, Henry E. Legler, presiding; E. H. 

Day Line boats to Kingston and thence by Anderson, Mary F. Isom, Herbert Putnam, 

rail. It is hoped that parties will be large Purd B. Wright, C. W. Andrews, Linda A, 

enough to warrant special trains from New Eastman and T. W. Koch. 

York, Boston and Chicago. The treasurer's report for the year 1912 

The large library centers in compara- v/as presented as follows: 



Balance, Union Trust Company, Chicago, Jan. 1, 1912 ? 2,005.66 

Membership dues, including exchange. 6,236.18 

Trustees Endowment Fund, interest. 350.00 

Trustees Carnegie Fund, interest 5,099.33 

A. L. A. Publishing Board, Installment on Headquarters expense, 1911 1,000.00 

A. L. A. Publishing Board, Installment on Headquarters expense, 1912 2,000.00 

Interest on bank balance, January-December 50.19 



Checks No. 28-39 (Vouchers No. 437-614, incl.) $8,246.74 

Distributed as follows: 

Bulletin $1,498.49 

Conference 493.06 

Committees 147.49 

Headquarters : 

Salaries 5,050.52 

Miscellaneous • 189.57 

Supplies 354.43 

Postage and transportation 174.22 

Treasurer's exp.: bond renewal 16.00 

Travel 97.96 

Trustees Endowment Fund (Life memberships) 225.00 

To A. L. A. Publishing Board, Carnegie Fund interest 5,099.33 $13,346.07 

Balance Union Trust Co $ 3,395.29 

George B. Utley, Balance, National Bank of the 

Republic 250.00 

Total Balance | 3,645.29 

Respectfully submitted, 
Chicago, December 31, 1912. C. B. RODEN, Treasurer. 


The report of the Finance Committee was given as follows: 

The Finance Committee, in accordance with the provisions of the constitution, have 
considered the probable income of the Association for 1913 and submit the following 
estimate, showing also the estimate for 1912 and the actual result for 1912: 

1912 1912 1913 

Estimated Actual Estimated 

Dues $ 5,600 $ 6,236.18 | 6,500 

Income Carnegie Fund 4,450 5,099.33 4,500 

Income Endowment Fund 360 350.00 375 

Interest 40 51.69 40 

Sales of Publications 9,000 15,849.29 10,500 

$19,450 $27,586.49 $21,915 

The committee are prepared to approve 
appropriations to the amount of $21,915, 
and also the appropriation to the use of 
the Publishing Board of any excess of 
sales over the amount estimated. 

The chairman has been designated by the 
committee to audit the accounts of the 
secretary and treasurer and has per- 
formed this duty. He finds that the re- 
ceipts as stated by the treasurer agree 
with the transfer checks from the secre- 
tary and with the cash accounts of the 
latter. The expenditures as stated are 
all accounted for by properly approved 
and receipted vouchers and the bank bal- 
ances as stated agree with the bank state- 

The accounts of the secretary have been 
examined and found correct as cash ac- 

The committee have designated Mr. E. H. 
Anderson to audit the accounts of the 
trustees of the endowment funds and ex- 
pect that the trustees will be ready to sub- 
mit these accounts later in the current 
month. The results of this audit and the 
final approval of the budget, as adopted, 
will be made a part of the formal report 
of the Finance Committee to the Associa- 
tion at its annual meeting. 
C. W. ANDREWS, Chairman. 

On motion of Dr. Putnam it was 
Voted to adopt the report of the Finance 


The budget for 1913 was considered as 
the next item of business and was duly 
adopted as follows: 

BUDGET, 1913 

1912 1912 1913 

Items Appro. Exp. Appro. 

Bulletin $1,500 $1,498.49 $1,500 

Conference 500 493.06 500 

Items Appro. 

Committees 400 

Salaries 4,435 

Additional serv- 
ices 625 

Supplies 375 

Postage, express, 

etc 175 

Travel 100 

Miscellaneous ... 190 

1912 1913 

Exp. Appro. 

147.49 470 

4,435.00 5,100 






Total $8,300 $8,020.76 $9,415 


Membership dues $6,500 

Income Endowment Fund 375 

Interest 40 

Appro, from Publishing Board 2,500 



Public documents $ 25 

Co-operation with N. E. A 25 

Library administration 25 

Library training 200 

Bookbuying 50 

Bookbinding 50 

Federal and state relations 25 

Travel 50 

Work with the blind .* 5 

Cost of cataloging (special appro.).. 15 


On motion of Dr. Andrews it was 
Voted, that there be appropriated for the 
use of the Publishing Board the income 
of the Carnegie Fund and the proceeds 
of the sales of publications, estimated 
at $15,000 for the year 1913 and any ex- 
cess in these sales, excepting the amount 
of $2,500 agreed upon by the Publishing 
Board as its appropriation towards the 


support of the executive office of the 

On motion of Dr. Andrews it was 
Voted, that the salary of the secretary be 

increased to $3,000 for the year 1913. 
Voted, that in accordance with the provi- 
sions of Sec. 2 of the By-laws to the Con- 
stitution, the Committee on nominations 
for 1913 be constituted as follows: Jud- 
son T. Jennings, Clara F. Baldwin, W. N. 
C. Carlton, Caroline Burnite, Frank K. 
It was 
Voted that the $200 appropriated for the 
use of the Committee on library train- 
ing in 1912, but not expended by them, be 
available for their use during 1913 in- 
stead of reverting to the general fund. 
The secretary informed the Board that 
a small bequest had been made to the As- 
sociation by the late James Lyman Whit- 
ney, with the conditions that it should be 
known as the James Lyman Whitney Fund, 
and that only the interest should be ex- 
pended. Two remittances aggregating 
$80.11 have been received. Pending fur- 
ther definite information as to the exact 
conditions of the fund and the amount the 
bequest would ultimately yield, it was 
Voted that the treasurer be instructed to 
carry on his books as a separate fund 
the remittances received from time to 

The first and second vice-presidents were 
appointed a committee to draft a resolu- 
tion relative to the exclusion of books 
from the parcel post, with the recommenda- 
tion that this resolution be also presented 
to the Council. 

Voted, that the secretary be instructed to 
extend to the Library Association of 
the United Kingdom a cordial Invitation 
for their members to attend the 1913 
conference of the A. L. A., and also to ex- 
press the hope that they may find it 
possible to send an official delegate to 
this meeting. 

The question of a meeting place for the 
1913 conference was next considered. 

After several places had been duly dis- 
cussed the Board took an informal vote 
which resulted unanimously in favor of 
Hotel Kaaterskill, in the Catskill Moun- 

Voted, that formal vote be postponed until 
a meeting of the Board, Friday, Jan- 
uary 3rd. 

Meeting of the Executive Board was 
held at A. L. A. headquarters, Friday, Jan- 
uary 3rd. Present, Henry E. Legler, pre- 
siding; E. H. Anderson, Mary F. Isom, 
Purd B. Wright, C. W. Andrews and Linda 
A. Eastman. 

The Board ratified its informal vote, vot- 
ing to hold the next annual conference of 
the A. L. A. at Hotel Kaaterskill, in the 
Catskills, June 23 to 28, 1913. 

The Board by unanimous vote of mem- 
bers present concurred with the A. L. A. 
Council in the adoption of a resolution 
relative to exclusion of books from the 
parcel post. (Note: For text of this res- 
olution see Council minutes.) 

The question of appointing a delegate 
from the Association to the next meeting 
of the National Municipal League, which 
had been referred to the Executive Board 
by the Council, was referred to the presi- 
dent, with power to appoint and to author- 
ize expenditure of a moderate amount for 
traveling expenses if necessary. 
Voted, that the Committee on deteriora- 
tion of newspaper paper (Frank P. Hill, 
Horace G. Wadlin and Cedric Chivers) 
be continued and requested to report 
from time to time any further develop- 
ments in this subject. 
Voted, that the Committee on ventilation 
and lighting be granted an appropriation 
of $25 for incidental expenses, and that 
the committee be requested to report to 
the Executive Board any formal arrange- 
ments with individuals or firms which 
they may desire to make. 

Chicago, January 1, 1913. 
A meeting of the A. L. A. Publishing 


Board was held at A. L. A. headquarters also Elva L, Bascom, editor of the A. L. A. 

Wednesday afternoon, January 1st. Pres- Booklist, and Secretary Utley. 

ent, Henry E. Legler, chairman, Mrs. H. L. The treasurer submitted the following 

Elmendorf, C. W. Andrews, A. E. Bostwick; report for 1912: 



Balance, Union Trust Company, Jan. 1, 1912 $ 561.77 

Collections from sales of publications 15,849.29 

American Library Association: Carnegie Fund, interest 5,099.33 

Interest on bank balance, January-December 6.92 



Checks No. 28-39 (Vouchers No. 604-867, incl.) $19,347.96 

Balance Union Trust Company 2,169.35 

Balance National Bank of the Republic 250.00 

Respectfully submitted, ^ 2,419.35 

C. B. RODEN, Treasurer. 
Chicago, December 31, 1912. 

The following budget was adopted for 1913: 


Salaries $ 3,180 

Preparation of "Index to library reports" 300 

Booklist 1,700 

Rent 300 

Periodical cards 1,500 

Editing of periodical cards 300 

Advertising 300 

A. L. A. appropriation, 1913 2,500 

Express and postage 500 

Addressograph 25 

Travel 300 

Stationery and printing 300 

Sundries 600 

Reprints 400 

New publications 520 

Balance available 5,859.70 


Estimated Income 

Balance, Dec. 31, 1912 $ 2,419.35 

Carnegie Endowment Fund, interest 4.500.00 

Sales of publications 10,500.00 

Accounts receivable 1,165.35 


It was The A. L. A. Booklist being under dis- 

Voted, that the appropriation to the ex- cussion, it was moved by Dr. Andrews that 

penses of the executive office be in- the secretary ask the League of Library 

creased from $2,000 to $2,500 for the year Commissions to inform the Publishing 

1913. Board for their guidance in the prepara- 



tlon of the Booklist as to the number of 
titles a year which should be indicated as 
recommended for purchase by the small 
libraries. Voted. 

The secretary informed the Board that 
a manuscript on "Periodicals for the small 
library," by Frank K. Walter, substantially 
a revision of Mrs. MacDonald-Jones' "Mag- 
azines for the small library," now out of 
print, had been received from the author- 
ities of the New York State library with the 
suggestion that it be reprinted by the Pub- 
lishing Board. The manuscript was re- 
ferred to Dr. Andrews as a committee of 

The secretary reported that Miss Moody 
had very nearly completed her "Index to 
library reports," and that it would soon 
be ready for printing. The manuscript 
was referred to Dr. Bostwick, as a com- 
mittee of one, for final approval, upon 
which the secretary was authorized to 
have it printed. 

At the recommendation of the secretary 
it was 

Voted, that 100 sets of cards for Warner's 
Library of the world's best literature be 

A report was made by Dr. Andrews, as 
committee of one on periodical cards, in 
which a plan was outlined for reorganizing 
the present method of accepting subscrip- 
tions and the list of periodicals for which 
cards are printed. The report was 

A letter was read from Dr. E. C. Richard- 
son advocating the preparation and print- 
ing of a union list of periodicals in the 
principal libraries of the United States and 
Canada, and inquiring whether the Amer- 
ican Library Association could help in 
such a project. The matter was referred 
to Dr. Andrews and Dr. Bostwick as a 
committee to investigate and report. 

The question of evaluating subscription 
books for the information of librarians was 
discussed at some length, and Miss Bascom 
was requested to ascertain, if possible, the 
approximate number of titles of subscrip- 
tion books issued annually, and whether it 

would be feasible to secure critical opin- 
ions regarding their respective merits. 
Voted, that a discount of 10 per cent on 
all orders for A. L. A. publications 
amounting to $1 or over be granted to 
all institutional members of the A. L. A. 
Henry E. Legler was re-elected chairman 
for the coming year. 


The A. L. A. Council held two meetings, 
the first on Thursday morning, January 2, 
and the second on Friday morning, Jan- 
uary 3. 

The following 33 members were present: 
Henry E. Legler was re-elected chairman 
Isom, Herbert Putnam, Purd B. Wright, 
C. W. Andrews, Linda A. Eastman, T. W. 
Koch, W. H. Brett, R. G. Thwaites, E. C. 
Richardson, F. P. Hill, A. E. Bostwick, C. 
H. Gould, Mrs. H. L. Elmendorf, Samuel H. 
Ranck, H. W. Graver, C. B. Roden, L. J. 
Burpee, Sula Wagner, Chalmers Hadley, 
Sarah B. Askew, A. S. Root, F. K. Walter, 
Margaret Mann, Caroline Burnite, Mary W. 
Plummer, W. N. C. Carlton, Grace D. Rose, 
Clara F. Baldwin, Josephine A. Rathbone, 
Mrs. Harriet P. Sawyer, and M. S. Dudgeon. 

First Session 

The first topic under consideration was 
a further discussion of the report of the 
Committee on the Relation of the Public 
Library to the Municipality (for original 
report see Proceedings of the Ottawa con- 
ference, pp. 197-199). 

Dr. Bostwick, chairman of the Commit- 
tee, read the following supplementary re- 
port drafted jointly by his Committee and 
the Committee on library legislation of the 
League of Library Commissions: 


Education -is a matter of state, rather 
than of municipal, concern. Consequent- 
ly it is a function of the state, rather 
than of the city, to provide an educa- 
tional code. Hence, whenever the consti- 
tution permits, a general state law as to 
libraries is preferable to local charter pro- 


If a satisfactory state law governing 
all libraries in the state exists and is con- 
stitutional, there should be enacted pro- 
visions which shall make it certain that 
the state law shall control in every city 
in the state, whether the city be under 
special charter, general charter, or under 
a commission form of government. 

Where there is now no existing satisfac- 
tory state law, but it is constitutionally 
competent that a state law should con- 
trol libraries, then this committee recom- 
mends that a satisfactory code (to be 
hereafter drafted along lines heretofore 
reported) be enacted by the state legisla- 

Where under the constitution the city 
must, by home rule measure in charter 
or elsewhere, control libraries, then the 
substance of the heretofore mentioned 
state code can be varied to become a part 
of the local charter. 

Dr. Bostwick stated that various mem- 
bers of the Committee had been in cor- 
respondence with Dr. Clinton Rogers Wood- 
ruff, secretary of the National Municipal 
League, and that they had emphasized the 
fact that librarians were not opposed to 
the merit system as Dr. Woodruff seemed 
to think was the case. 

Mr, Hadley stated that by the appoint- 
mission governed municipality, it need not 
necessarily follow that the library need 
dispense with a library board. While it is 
true that city affairs. Including those of the 
library, are directly under the commis- 
sioners, it has been found possible to pro- 
vide in charters for a library board ap- 
pointed by and responsible to the commis- 
sioner of education. 

Mr. Hadley stated that by the appoint- 
ment of such a library board, even with 
final authority lodged in a commissioner's 
hands, the library would have the benefit 
of special attention and advice, which ad- 
vantages were also appreciated by the com- 

In discussing the suggestion of the com- 
mittee that a city's library affairs be 
placed under state control, as were the pub- 
lic schools, Mr. Hadley said that while 
this might be desirable, in western cities 
at least, he thought such an arrange- 
ment would not be considered by the vot- 

ing population. He said that in western 
cities the entire trend of public opinion 
was against the removal of city affairs 
from the direct control of voters, and that 
recent legislation showed that instead of 
increasing the power of the state in munic- 
ipal affairs, the power of the municipality 
had been increased at the expense of state 

Dr. Andrews suggested that the attitude 
of librarians toward civil service methods 
would be better understood if the word 
"its" be substituted for "a" at the end of 
the seventeenth line on page 199, column 
2 of the Ottawa Proceedings, making the 
sentence to read, "it should provide that 
all employment should be given on the 
basis of merit alone, but that its civil 
service system," etc. 

The president read the following letter 
which he had received from Miss Helen E. 
Haines, in which she discussed the subject 
under consideration: 

Pasadena, Cal. 
Dec. 27, 1912 
Dear Mr. Legler: 

The enclosed documents will explain 
themselves. I am sending them to you in 
the hope that you may think them of suffi- 
cient interest and timeliness to have them 
read at the A. L. A. Council meeting next 
week, in connection with any discussion 
or report upon the Relation of the Library 
to the Municipality, as presented at the 
Ottawa meeting. I very much hope that 
this subject, and the report made upon it 
at Ottawa by the committee, may come up 
for Council consideration and that the A. 
L, A. will take direct action regarding it. 
The report on this subject presented at 
Ottawa deals with what seems to me a 
matter of fundamental present importance 
to the library development of this country. 
It indicated the position which the A. L. A, 
ought to have taken at least five years ago, 
with the direct purpose of shaping methods 
of library organization in communities 
where civic government was being remade 
under the "Commission" plan. But it does 



not, It seems to me, go beyond the Indica- 
tion of the position the A. L. A. should as- 
sume; and the resolution which it pre- 
sents, and which was adopted at Ottawa, 
cannot — if not further amplified and forti- 
fied — be used as an effective working 

In a recent summary of commission gov- 
ernment, the New York Times stated that 
in September of this year there were 206 
cities in the U. S. managed under this 
system — these cities being in 34 of the 48 
states. Of course they are mainly in the 
northwestern and southwestern sections — 
29 in Texas, 26 in Kansas, 28 in the Pacific 
and Rocky Mountain states — and though 
many in small places, the list includes such 
larger cities as Lowell, Mass., Oakland, 
Cal., Birmingham, Memphis, Omaha, Spo- 
kane, and New Orleans. Denver, I under- 
stand, is considering the matter, and Los 
Angeles has just passed through a "com- 
mission" campaign. So far, I do not think, 
that in one of these cities has the effect 
upon the public library of this entire re- 
making of municipal methods been directly 
infiuenced or considered by the A. L. A.; 
there has been no effort to reach the libra- 
ries and support them in their endeavor 
to preserve their library's integrity; there 
have been no oflicial relations between the 
A. L. A. and the National Municipal League 
people looking toward the safeguarding of 
the library interests. 

Unquestionably, the interest in commis- 
sion government is growing, and the ex- 
periment will be tried in a constantly in- 
creasing number of cities, while even in 
communities where the "commission" 
scheme is not adopted, there is bound to 
be a redrafting and reshaping of city char- 
ters on some more conservative plan. This 
means that a large number of the cities of 
the United States are just now engaged in 
or entering upon radical administrative re- 
organization, bringing about changes in 
scope and authority of almost all civic de- 
partments. If this is so, it is perfectly 
clear that here Is an opportunity to 
strengthen the organic structure of the 

public library throughout the country; to 
place it actualiy (not just in speeches and 
in print) upon its proper footing as an 
educational institution ranking with the 
schools; and to cut the bonds of ignorance 
that in many places keep it virtually in the 
same category with the department of 
street paving or inspection of plumbing. 
If the A. L. A. can reach the people who 
are framing these new municipal charters, 
can make clear to them what a modern 
public library ought to be, and can enlist 
them as supporters of a proper system, it 
will be actually shaping the mold for the 
public library of the future. 

My own suggestions as to means of doing 
this would be not just to pass a resolu- 
tion of endorsement, or suggestion, or 
merely continue a committee; but to effect 
a merging of the work being done sep- 
arately on this subject by the League of 
Library Commissions and the A. L. A. Com- 
mittee, and to provide for the drafting of 
provisions for library organization under 
the commission plan of government, these 
provisions to be officially approved and 
authorized by the A. L. A. and printed in 
available form for distribution (I should 
suggest two sets of library provisions, one 
for cities in which there is a state law 
providing library taxation, and one for 
cities in states without such a law); to 
arrange for several articles setting forth 
the need and importance of proper library 
recognition, to be published, if possible, in 
the National Municipal League organ 
(these articles to be available in reprint 
form as ammunition for librarians faced 
with commission problems); particularly 
to try to bring about enlightenment and 
co-operation on the part of Dr. Clinton 
Woodruff and Dr. Delos Wilcox; and to 
send notice to the librarians of all cities 
facing charter revision, offering the sup- 
port and help of the A. L. A. to them and 
to the local charter framing body. 

In the case of the Los Angeles charter 
neither the librarian nor the library board 
had anything in the way of official litera- 
ture to present to the charter framers, 



until at the very last hearing, when they 
submitted the Ottawa report of the Com- 
mittee on Municipal Relations. The pres- 
ident of the board told me that this was 
received with respect and evidently made 
an impression, and expressed his convic- 
tion that if the library representative had 
been able to present a draft of model li- 
brary provisions, authorized and approved 
by the National Association, they would 
almost surely have been accepted and in- 
corporated in the charter. The criticism 
of the president of the library board on the 
Ottawa resolution was that it did not con- 
vey sufficiently definite instructions, and he 
strongly urged the promulgation of an offi- 
cial model draft of recommended library 

I thought Mr. Woodruff's letter decidedly 
specious; also pretty vague in its refer- 
ences to library features of city charters. 
I can not see that he really met any of my 
points, or gave clear logical consideration 
to the subject. Also if he regards the city 
public library system as a minor excres- 
cence — the wart on Cromwell's nose! — I 
think he needs to be labored with firmly 
and persistently. I do not know why my 
little exposition should tend to "defeat its 
end" as he fears; but perhaps it was not 
sufficiently solemn and roundabout; at any 
rate I was glad the Independent sent it to 
him, for it will have fully served its pur- 
pose if it helps at all to a clearer under- 
standing, of the library situation in munic- 
ipal reform movements, and the need of 
some kind of effective action. I was very 
glad to see a sort of glimmering indication 
in his letter that the municipal reformers 
were beginning to see a light on the sub- 
ject of library civil service. 

I send you the warmest wishes for a 
prosperous and fruitful New Year for the 
A. L. A. under your guidance. Please give 
my affectionate remembrances and greet- 
ings to my A. L. A. friends at the Chicago 
meeting, and believe me, as ever 

Sincerely yours, 

The following communication was also 
read, which was prepared by Miss Haines 
and submitted to the editor of The Inde- 
pendent in protest against their editorial 
characterization of the Los Angeles char- 
ter as a "model." The article was not 
printed, as the editor judged its publication 
not necessary. 

The Proposed Los Angeles City Charter 
In the interests of one of the most im- 
portant existing agencies of public educa- 
tion, it is necessary to enter protest 
against the editorial on "A Model City 
Charter," in the Independent of December 
5. That the proposed Los Angeles charter 
was a "model" may be true, in the sense 
that it undoubtedly represented the ex- 
treme, in what the Independent blandly 
terms "all the new ideas in municipal gov- 
ernment;" but in its relation to the only 
subject of which I have knowledge — the 
public library — it certainly was a most 
dangerous "model" of ignorance, indiffer- 
ence and misconception. I refer to its 
provisions relating to public library main- 
tenance and administration. That it was 
defeated by a two to one majority is cause 
for thankfulness to everyone interested or 
engaged in the splendid work that public 
libraries are doing throughout the country 
— but it is not sufficient to be thankful in 
silence when journals of the intelligence 
and influence of the Independent have only 
praise for a measure that dealt a deadly 
blow to public library development. 

Had the proposed charter carried, the 
Los Angeles public library would have 
been entirely deprived of any fixed income 
from the city assessment roll, and would 
have been made dependent for support up- 
on what appropriation could be "wrung" 
from the city Council (or Commission) by 
annual appeals. Its complete control 
would have been placed in the hands of a 
single commissioner, charged with other 
important responsibilities, and its work 
and interests linked up with the adminis- 
tration of the parks, the city playgrounds, 
and "the functions of the present music 



commission." On its own internal admin- 
istration — analogous in quality and require- 
ments of service only with the administra- 
tion of the public schools — the fetters of 
city civil service would have been doubled 
and trebled. What the prospects for use- 
ful service and broad development could 
be, under such conditions, I leave any fair- 
minded person to say, only expressing the 
conviction that in this present day of ex- 
tension of educational opportunity through 
public libraries, the library provisions of 
the Los Angeles charter were a step back 
into barbarism. Nor were these provisions 
framed without information upon accepted 
principles of library maintenance. The rep- 
resentations of the local library authorities 
and the reports and resolutions of the 
national library association upon the broad 
general subject were simply ignored by 
the charter-framing body. 

Certainly it is time for the American Li- 
brary Association to devise more effective 
measures than now exist for shaping meth- 
ods of library organization in communities 
where the structure of civic government is 
being rebuilt under the commission plan. 
It is evident that with all the paper and 
print annually sacrificed in praise of edu- 
cation, with the development of great pub- 
lic library systems in so many cities, build- 
ing up character and making citizenship, 
with a network of library associations 
throughout the country, it is a natural 
enough assumption that the public library 
has found its assured place in modern life 
But the incident of the Los Angeles char- 
ter shows that this is not so, and that peo- 
ple who stand forth as leaders of reform 
and enlightenment, in whose hands the 
fate of a public library may rest, are not 
yet able to recognize that the public library 
stands on the same plane as the public 
schools and is not to be handled In the 
same way as the city street cleaning de- 

On other features of the Los Angeles 
charter I am not competent to comment. 
But it seems probable that if library in- 
terests could be so mishandled, other de- 

partments would also have suffered had 
theory been turned into practice. Perhaps 
the truly reformed citizen, sipping his mu- 
nicipal milk, nibbling a municipal roll 
spread with municipal butter (limited to 
light fare by municipal taxation), voting 
daily in municipal elections, and living his 
municipal life under the restrictions of an 
all-pervading municipal civil service, might 
well look forward eagerly to the day when 
he should be municipally buried by the 
municipal undertaker. 

Pasadena, Cal. 
(Formerly managing editor of Library 


130 Fulton Street, New York 

Editorial Rooms 

December 21, 1912. 
Miss Helen E. Haines, 

Pasadena, California. 
My dear Madam: 

I referred your letter to Mr. Woodruff 
for information and judgment and I enclose 
his reply. I judge that he in a measure 
agrees with you but regards the question 
as one yet under serious consideration. At 
present I do not think it necessary to pub- 
lish your letter. 

Very truly yours, 

Editor, Clinton Rogers Woodruff 

December 19, 1912. 
Dr. William Hayes Ward, 

The Independent, 130 Fulton Street, 
New York City. 
My dear Dr. Ward: 

I have read with a great deal of interest 
and some measure of amusement Miss 
Haines's letter about the proposed Los 
Angeles charter. I did not like the library 
provisions in the new charter myself and 
so said when I was there last summer and 
in correspondence, but to reject the whole 



instrument because one or two portions of 
it were not to my liking would be equiva- 
lent to denying Washington's greatness be- 
cause he swore, or to considering Crom- 
well's career in the terms of the wart on 
his nose. 

My feeling with regard to the Los Angeles 
charter was no doubt due to the fact that 
I am a trustee of the Free Library of Phil- 
adelphia, and as such sympathize with the 
library point of view. I must confess, how- 
ever, that most of my colleagues who ex- 
pressed themselves on the subject at Los 
Angeles were of the opinion that sooner or 
later there would have to be a change in 
library administration methods and that in 
all likelihood the library would have to be 
administered as a part of the educational 
system of the city, and the step which our 
Los Angeles friends took was intended to 
be in that direction. I have been having 
some very interesting correspondence with 
librarians throughout the country on some 
of the points Miss Haines raises and I find 
* them almost uniformly doubtful as to the 
applicability of the principles of the merit 
system to library administration. I am 
planning to have an article or two on the 
subject in the National Municipal Review 
at the earliest possible date, as I believe 
this is a subject which ought to be thrashed 

I am writing somewhat at length to you 
so that you may know a little of the situa- 
tion and appreciate that there is very con- 
siderable difference of opinion among 
students of municipal life as to the ques- 
tions which Miss Haines raises in her let- 
ter. If you had a department of corre- 
spondence, which I am sorry you have not, 
I should like to see her letter printed, al- 
though I think it would tend to defeat the 
ends she has in view. 

I think I have given you enough in this 
letter to enable you to make intelligent 
comment on it if you feel so inclined. It 
occurs to me to say that the American Li- 
brary Association is studying this whole 
question but, so far as I recall, has not yet 

made any formal pronouncement on the 

So far as they have expressed them- 
selves, however, individual librarians seem 
to be very strongly opposed to the com- 
mission form of government. Possibly this 
is due to the fact that they have not yet 
adjusted themselves to the new condition 
of affairs and this always tends to incon- 
venience and annoyance on the part of 
officials, and especially upon the part of 
those who have worked out their own 

I am returning Miss Haines's letter, 
which I am glad to have seen. 

Yours faithfully, 

DR. HILL: Am I right in thinking that 
the resolution as contained in this printed 
report of the Committee is the same as 
was passed by the Council proper in its 
modified form, and that the whole subject 
is still before this Committee, who will 
make a further report? If so, there are 
two or three points which occur to me. 
One is the very one which Dr. Andrews has 
mentioned. I would emphasize that point 
even more strongly and say that the civil 
service system should be within the library 

In the seventh paragraph of the report 
mention is made of the relation between 
the museum and library. I want to enter 
a personal protest against that recom- 
mendation, unless the two institutions are 
in the same building and their work so 
closely connected that there would be no 
difference between the two institutions. 
The ninth paragraph — election of members 
of board — also attracts my attention. 
While in the western part of the country 
everybody appears to be elected to office 
by the citizens at large, still I hope that 
this point will not be emphasized too 
strongly by the Committee in making its 
final report. I believe the appointment to 
a library board should be made by some 
individual or commission who would be 



personally responsible for the members of 
that Board. The Committee does speak 
of the bad feature. In the eleventh para- 
graph the suggestion is made that the city- 
treasurer should be ex-offlcio treasurer of 
the board. I have served as librarian un- 
der boards having their own treasurer and 
under boards having a city treasurer. We 
get more satisfactory results by having 
our own treasurer than by having a city 
treasurer, and the city is benefited in the 
long run very much more. Where the li- 
brary has its own treasurer expenditures 
are much more carefully watched than 
where expenditures are made by the city 
treasurer who has no intimate knowledge 
of the library's affairs. Page three, column 
two, in paragraph thirteen, it states that 
"The library board should have full legal 
rights for defense in the courts, etc." The 
library should be an independent corpora- 
tion, capable of suing and being sued. I 
think that individuals are much more likely 
to give to an independent than to a munici- 
pal corporation. 

MR. ANDERSON: I am inclined to agree 
with Dr. Hill. Recently I learned that 
the public library of Rochester, N. Y., 
could buy nothing amounting to $250 or 
over without advertising for bids for the 
same. City departments in New York 
have to advertise for bids for anything 
amounting to $1,000 or over. The New 
York public library, being an incorporated 
body and not a department of the city, 
does not have to advertise for bids in any 
case. This is very important. Naturally 
we have to make large expenditures dur- 
ing the year for books, etc. If we had to 
advertise for bids when we were proposing 
to buy in amounts of $1,000 or over, the 
conditions would be simply impossible. I 
think a public library should account to the 
city for all expenditures from funds pro- 
vided by the city, and this we do in New 
York in great detail. Without question, 
our board of trustees can spend the funds 
In its care to better advantage than could 
city officials. 

Mr. Brett felt that when funds for the 
library were once appropriated they should 
be entirely independent and not subject 
to the control of the council, and that when 
once received should be absolutely at the 
disposal of the library board. He thought 
it was well for the auditor of the city to 
bo the auditor of the library board, and 
that the city treasurer act as treasurer of 
the board. If a library board has its 
accounts audited by the city auditor the 
municipal authorities know absolutely what 
the library is doing and are thus satis- 

DR. HILL: We do not seem to be very 
far apart after all. The New York Public, 
Queens Borough Public, and Brooklyn Pub- 
lic send all receipted bills to the city 
treasurer as vouchers for money expended, 
and the official affairs of all these insti- 
tutions are audited by an outsider who is 
employed for that purpose. 

MR. WRIGHT: The new city charter for 
St. Joseph, Mo., (legally the law govern- 
ing cities of the first class) provides for 
two treasurers. The city treasurer acts as 
library treasurer for all tax collected funds, 
and all bills against such funds are audited 
for correctness by the city auditor. Special 
funds, such as bequests, gifts, and library 
collections, are handled by the board treas- 
urer. A detailed report of expenditure 
through the board treasurer is made an- 
nually to the city authorities. It is under- 
stood, of course, that the library board has 
exclusive authority in the expenditures of 
its moneys, being exempt from all build- 
ing and supply restrictions of other depart- 
ments. The use of the regularly consti- 
tuted auditing department satisfies the pub- 
lic, and is of no expense to the library. 

With your permission, I wish to express 
personal satisfaction at the interest shown 
in this report, and the progress made. The 
committee reporting was appointed one 
year ago at my suggestion, to formulate an 
expression of principles on matters of vital 
interest to library work, which could re- 
ceive the endorsement of the A. L. A. The 



need for such declaration of principles was 
emphasized by the situation in one city 
late last year, where a generally most pro- 
gressive charter, prepared under the di- 
rect advice of the National Municipal 
League, violated many of the fundamental 
things from the library standpoint. 

When this report is completed it will be 
possible to present to communities con- 
sidering municipal legislation, a concrete 
declaration of principles covering library 
needs, with reasons therefor. If this As- 
sociation can provide for proper committee 
representation at future meetings of the 
National Municipal League and the Civil 
Service League, this work will not have 
been in vain. In this day of changing char- 
ters and laws, none of us know how soon 
we may need help ourselves. 

Mrs. Elmendorf said that the city treas- 
urer acting as treasurer of the library 
funds does not necessarily, protect the li- 
brary, as she was formerly connected with 
a city library where the city treasurer was 
treasurer of the library, but that this did 
not prevent the embezzlement of several 
thousand dollars of the library funds. 

DR. ANDREWS: Speaking as a citizen 
and not a librarian, in regard to the di- 
rect election of the library board, I object 
strongly to any increase in the number of 
positions to be filled by election. At the 
last primary election in Chicago more than 
sixty positions had to be voted on and 
about six hundred names were offered for 
choice. It is evident that the average 
citizen cannot determine who will be the 
most desirable members of a library board. 
The method of direct election, if best any- 
where, could be so only in small cities and 

MR. RANCK: Since the Ottawa meeting 
the members of the committee have not 
exactly changed their views, but there has 
come to them a growing conviction of the 
importance of this whole subject, due in 
part to correspondence and conferences 
with members of the library profession, 
and also in part with persons outside of 
the profession and who are interested in a 

general way in the library movement. I 
feel that the American Library Association 
cannot emphasize too strongly that the li- 
brary should be regarded as an educational 
institution, and in line with this thought 
that education is a matter of state concern, 
rather than of municipal or local concern: 
in other words, that the interests of the 
state in education are very generally re- 
garded as paramount, and rightly so. In 
many of the states where they have the 
commission form of government the public 
school system is not included under the 
workings of the commission, on the theory 
that the educational functions are different 
from local government functions, and 
that the commission form of government 
belongs only to the local government func- 
tions of the municipality. This whole 
thought is in line with the provisions of 
the constitutions of some of the states, and 
particularly of the state of Michigan. From 
the very beginning the constitution of 
this state has contained two articles, one 
known as the Local Government Article, 
and the other as the Education Article. 
The Supreme Court decided that munici- 
palities are organized under the local gov- 
ernment article, and the public schools, li- 
braries, etc., under the education article. 
All of this is on the theory referred to 
above, that in matters of education the in- 
terests of the whole state are paramount. 
It, therefore, seems to me that the Amer- 
ican Library Association, in declaring it- 
self on this subject, should throw its influ- 
ence on the side which regards the library 
as an educational institution. 

Mr. Strohm said that the Supreme Court 
of Michigan had recently rendered a de- 
cision deciding that, while municipalities 
were recognized under the local govern- 
ment article, the public schools, libraries, 
etc., were under the education article. The 
Supreme Court of Michigan, having under 
consideration the right of the city of De- 
troit to issue bonds for library purposes 
to an amount over and above the limit 
applying to bond issue for general munici- 
pal purposes, held that no such restriction 



applies in case of the library bond issues, 
as they properly fall in the same class as 
school bonds. Thus in the opinion of the 
court the library is an integral part of the 
public educational system. 

Miss Ahern said that there was every- 
where a lack of decision as to where the 
public library really belongs under the 
commission form of government. Neither 
the civil service people nor the municipal 
authorities are twilling that the public 
library should be classed with the educa- 
tional agencies as a rule, and yet there is 
no question that the libraries really be- 
long with other educational agencies and 
that the municipal civil service rules 
should not apply to them any more than to 
the school management. 

Furthermore, it is often said by those 
conducting municipal affairs, that libraries 
want to stand off by themselves, and are 
unwilling for the municipal authorities to 
govern them. There is something in this, 
but the fault lies in the fact that there has 
been no definite place in city affairs where 
the library actually belongs. 

Dr. Bostwick stated that the committee 
was not so anxious that any action should 
be taken on the supplementary report as 
that it should have some kind of assurance 
of the desire of the Council that it should 
proceed on the lines indicated in that re- 
port or on some kind of definite orders 
regarding the directions of this work. 

Dr. Hill moved that the committee be 
continued and that the whole question be 
referred back to them with the request 
that they report to the next Council meet- 
ing. VOTED. 

Mr. Ranck stated the committee would 
be glad to have some expression of opinion 
at least on the first paragraph of the sup- 
plementary report pertaining to the state 

Dr. Bostwick stated that the committee 
would like to have the substance of the 
Ottawa report definitely approved or dis- 
approved by the Council. 

Dr. Andrews moved that the first para- 
graph of the supplementary report be in- 

corporated in the final report to be pre- 
sented at next summer's conference. 

The next subject considered by the Coun- 
cil was a further discussion of Mr. Strohm's 
paper at the Ottawa conference on "The 
efficiency of the library staff and scientific 

Dr. Richardson spoke on the value of 
change of occupation. He called attention 
to the modern biological study of mental 
hygiene and its practical bearings on the 
question of length and distribution of vaca- 
tion, the granting of leave for attending 
Library Association meetings, as well as 
on change of occupation within the library. 
He referred to the scientific study of fa- 
tigue and its practical bearing on the per- 
centage of error. For correction and veri- 
fication work, two hours a day is a max- 
imum of highest efllciency. We have been 
turning our attention too much to the in- 
crease of output by specializing so that 
each repeats often a few motions, and 
have tended to forget that a little more 
variety and complexity really promotes 
rather than lessens accui'acy. 

MISS AHERN: I should like to call at- 
tention to the last report of Dr. Johnston, 
of Columbia University, where he speaks 
on the subject of the organization of a 
staff. Dr. Johnston makes a strong argu- 
ment that the standards of appointment to 
the several grades in the staff of the li- 
brary should be the same as those in the 
corresponding grades of the staff of instruc- 
tion. He also argues, reasonably, for em- 
ploying skilled bibliographers as librarians 
of the several schools of the university, in- 
stead of student assistants, and announces 
that, while the students may be employed 
hereafter in clerical work of a mechanical 
character, they will no longer be employed 
in any of the higher grades of the library 
service of Columbia University. 

Dr. Johnston also recommended that the 
junior assistants be allowed each year to 
pursue at least one course of study in the 
university, as such training will not only 
further the development of the assistant. 



but preserve the unity of the service as a 
whole, which is the condition of efficient 
and economical administration. 

MR. ANDERSON: In this connection it 
may be interesting to know that in the 
New York public library an athletic asso- 
ciation has lately been organized among 
the members of the staff. It is hoped that 
the work of this association will improve 
the health, and indirectly the efficiency, of 
many members of the staff. 

Until December 1, 1912, the hours of 
service in our circulation department were 
42'^ hours a week during eight months of 
the year, and 40 hours during the four 
summer months. Upon the recommenda- 
tion of our medical officer, on the date men- 
tioned the hours were reduced to 40 per 
week for the entire year, which are the 
hours required in our reference depart- 
ment. Before December 1, assistants were 
taking only one-half hour for lunch. Now 
they are required to take a whole hour, and 
are advised to take whatever part of the 
hour they can in exercise in the open 

Miss Rathbone said that at Pratt Insti- 
tute library they had recently established 
the practice of serving afternoon tea in 
the staff room. Some one was regularly 
employed to prepare and serve it and the 
members of the staff were invited to come 
down from 4 to 5 and take a cup of tea 
if they felt like it. Five to ten minutes 
was sufficient for this, and the practice had 
been so beneficial that the library expects 
to establish it permanently. 

DR. BOSTWICK: In our new building in 
St. Louis we have a very complete set of 
rooms for the comfort of the staff, includ- 
ing locker rooms for both sexes; a lunch 
room, with kitchen and pantry; a staff 
recreation room, with piano and victrola; 
a staff rest room in a quiet, dark place; a 
handball court for the boys, and an indoor 
room for them with gymnastic apparatus. 
I know of no other place where the equip- 
ment of this kind is so complete. 

In regard to vacations, let me say that I 
have always considered them as assign- 

ments to special work. What an assistant 
does during the rest period in August is 
just as important to the library as what 
she does in cataloging during July. This 
point of view will affect various decisions 
on the part of an executive. For instance, 
he will not grant cumulated vacations, be- 
lieving that such grant would be as absurd 
as to allow a cataloger to accession twice 
as many books in one month on condition 
that she be allowed to do something else 
in another month. 

Mr. Ranck called attention to Josephine 
Goldmark's Study of Fatigue and Efficiency, 
one of the publications of the Russell Sage 
Foundation. This is a scientific study of 
the whole subject, and in reality deals 
with the fundamental principles of the 
whole matter under discussion. These 
scientific principles must be understood 
to get a satisfactory solution of the prob- 

DR. ANDREWS: Another view is that 
vacation is a part of the salary. If the as- 
sistant is not to return for the coming year 
a vacation is justified only on the ground 
that it is salary for service already per- 
formed. From this point of view cumula- 
tion of vacation is a matter to be decided 
with reference to the conditions of par- 
ticular cases. Mr. Strohm does not empha- 
size the effect of the graded salary on the 
efficiency of the staff. You may remem- 
ber that Dr. Dewey was strong in favor 
of an increase of salary with continued 
good service. Our experience confirms 
this opinion and I presume that most civil 
service systems would embody the prin- 
ciple to some extent. 

Dr. Hill said, respecting the graded serv- 
ice and the opinion sometimes expressed 
that promotion goes with length of service, 
that he thought it should be added that 
one who is both efficient and has served 
a long time should receive more recogni- 
tion than one who has merely served a long 
time with ordinary ability. 

DR. RICHARDSON: Of course in many 
occupations efficiency is on the rising curve 
for a certain length of time. There is an 



actual Increase in efficiency in some con- 
structive work for an hour or two before 
the mind reaches its best efficiency, and 
this may continue at this level for another 
hour or two before it begins to fall. The 
point is that the number of errors increases 
with the amount of fatigue, and in routine 
and repetitious occupations fatigue begins 
sooner, even if its descending curve is not 
rapid or wholly continuous. 

MR. CARLTON: In our recent experi- 
ence at the Newberry library, there have 
been at least two instances of improved 
work due in large measure, I believe, to 
"variation of occupation" within the li- 

During 1911 four persons were engaged 
on our recataloging work and their hours 
were continuous from 9 a. m. to 5 p. m. 
with the usual hour at noon for luncheon. 
In 1912, these assistants were regularly 
used for substitute service in the refer- 
ence departments for the hour following 
their luncheon period, thus giving them a 
full two hours' surcease from cataloging 
operations. One of the results of the 
change has been an increase of 4,903 vol- 
umes in the number of volumes cataloged 
as compared with the work done during 
1911. While this is not wholly due to the 
change mentioned, I am convinced that the 
two stretches of three hours each, sep- 
arated by the two hours of relief to eye, 
hand and brain, is certainly in part re- 
sponsible for it, and it must be better for 
the catalogers both physically and men- 

Until about three years ago the evening 
service of the library was performed as 
overtime work by members of the day staff. 
I am on principle opposed to people work- 
ing both during the day and the evening. 
It is not good for them and in the end I 
do not believe it is good for the institu- 
tion which permits it. In the world of in- 
dustry it is not as a rule the best and 
highest skilled labor which does night 
work or makes up the "night shift." Grad- 
ually, we organized a separate evening 
force composed of college or university 

students, whose services of course we do 
not expect to retain for more than two or 
three years continuously. They are trained 
in their duties by a member of the regular 
staff. After two years' experience with 
this changed condition, I see no reason 
whatever to regret the change, and I be- 
lieve it has been a benefit to the public 
and to the day staff. If it be objected that 
even trained and experienced student as- 
sistance cannot be the equivalent of the 
professional day staff in ability and in the 
high character of the service rendered, I 
would answer that the public has no right 
to expect such equivalent during evening 
hours, Sundays, or holidays. 

Dr. Bostwick said that in his experience 
a separate force for evening or holiday 
work had always proved objectionable, and 
that he had always endeavored to work 
away from it, rather than toward it. 

Dr. Hill said he was of the same opinion. 

Dr. Andrews stated that student assist- 
ants were used on the evening staff of 
the John Crerar Library, and two or three 
had served seven years, all through their 
college course and years of post-graduate 

Dr. Andrews, chairman of the Committee 
on affiliation with the A. L. A. of other 
than local, state, and provincial associa- 
tions reported that the Committee had 
taken up consideration of the questions as- 
signed them, had agreed upon a plan of 
procedure and expected to be able to make 
a final report at the annual meeting. Re- 
port accepted as a report of progress. 

Second Session 

At the second meeting the first topic con- 
sidered was a further discussion of Mr. 
Hadley's paper at the Ottawa conference 
on "What library schools can do for the 

In response to the request of the presi- 
dent, Mr. Hadley suggested two points for 
discussion in his paper as follows: 

First, the elimination of many non-essen- 
tials in library school curricula, to provide 



for the introduction into library school 
courses of more definite and extensive con- 
sideration of questions relating to library 
administration, such as the relation of the 
library to the community, the relation of 
the library to the municipality, the work of 
the library with other social and educa- 
tional institutions, etc. 

Second, a division of the instructional 
field between library schools to provide for 
special instruction by special schools in- 
stead of general instruction by all the 
schools. He said that while there was 
doubtless use for all the instruction given 
at present in library schools, there was 
also a great need for instruction in cer- 
tain library questions which were not being 
considered at all in library schools. 

Mr. Hadley believed that it was not 
necessary for every student to receive the 
same full instruction in library technique, 
but that a working knowledge of technique 
should be given to all, with special instruc- 
tion for those who were under appointment 
to definite library positions. Mr. Hadley 
stated that it was more important for a 
prospective librarian of a municipal refer- 
ence library or of a law library to be 
thoroughly grounded in a knowledge of 
municipal affairs and legal affairs than to 
be ignorant in these subjects and have an 
expert's knowledge of library technique. 
He maintained that the library questions 
Involved in municipal reference work, in 
law library work, and in special library 
work, were of suflScient importance to be 
recognized by library schools and that if 
prospective librarians in special fields were 
provided with a foundation in the way of 
technical work, that the special library 
problems connected with their future work 
should certainly receive attention in library 
school courses. 

MR. WALTER: The schools have so far 
not found suflBcient demand for special 
courses for many of us to feel justified in 
the extra expense necessary to provide 
such extra courses. If many should be de- 
manded, dividing the special field among 
different schools is the only practicable 

plan at present apparent and just what 
courses should be offered will naturally 
depend on the demand. At present it 
seems to be the opinion among those who 
deal with placing students that the demand 
is rather for students with general library 
training who already have preliminary edu- 
cation in special lines and who are wanted 
in a hurry. This precludes in most cases 
any sufficient period of training even in the 
technique of special lines of library work. 
Until libraries are willing to wait long 
enough for special technical library train- 
ing to be obtained or until the demand for 
definite special lines of library training 
seems fairly steady, most of us, I think, 
do not feel that we may properly induce 
students to train for special positions un- 
less such positions are likely to be forth- 
coming. It is useless and worse than use- 
less to take competent people from other 
professions and direct their attention to 
something in which they have little or no 
opportunity to exercise their special abili- 

MISS PLUMMBR: One of the difficul- 
ties in attempting to specialize in a one 
year course would arise from the fact that 
the schools feel that they cannot be re- 
positions by graduates, and a graduate who 
had specialized for one thing could not be 
prevented from taking a position which re- 
quired another sort of training, or which 
required the general training. Therefore 
the schools feel that they cannot be re- 
sponsible for any but graduates who have 
had general training as a foundation, I 
have found, as the heads of other schools 
have found, in sending questionnaires to 
graduates that they can never suggest any 
subject studied in school that they would 
be willing to do without, and would be 
sorry to have left out anything that was 
in the course. If there is any complaint 
it is of omissions rather than of superflui- 

MISS RATHBONB: The only specializa- 
tion that library schools can do, in one year 
at least, is utilizing the specialties that 
students acquire before they come to the 



school. Among the graduates of last year's 
class, all of whom had the same training in 
the school, one, who graduated from a 
technical school, is no,w librarian of the 
engineering schools of Columbia Univer- 
sity; another, who had been in a law office 
for a number of years, is at the head of a 
technical and municipal reference depart- 
ment in a public library, and a third, who 
showed unusual organizing ability, is the 
head of a branch in a public library sys- 
tem. I feel that the schools can best 
serve the profession by placing students 
wisely so that their previous experience 
can be utilized. 

Mr. Dudgeon and Miss Curtis both em- 
phasized the point that what the schools 
could give the students depends largely on 
what the students brought. 

Mr. Brett felt that the training of one 
year was a very desirable foundation for 
library work in any line, that in most 
cases students enter school without any 
knowledge of what sort of positions they 
will get, and that the general one year 
course is a valuable foundation and ex- 
ceedingly desirable. Special training was 
out of reach of many of the schools by rea- 
son of the expense involved. 

Dr. Bostwick called attention to the 
enormous expansion of the conditions of 
library work, especially in large libraries 
in the past 15 years. The question to be 
answered by the library schools is, has the 
general training of the schools broadened 
out correspondingly? Does it give as good 
a foundation for the expanded library work 
of today as it did to the somewhat con- 
tracted library work of several years ago? 
He said he was not suggesting that these 
questions would not be answered satisfac- 

Dr. Putnam remarked that he approached 
the discussion with some hesitation be- 
cause he could speak merely as an admin- 
istrator, while Mr. Hadley's suggestions 
were based not merely upon his observa- 
tions as an administrator, but upon his ex- 
perience as a student in a library school. 

The suggestions seemed to have two di- 
rections : 

First, that the present curriculum of the 
schools includes subjects which might well 
be omitted because useless in any probable 
given position; and. 

Second, that it omits studies which ought 
to be included, because necessary for cer- 
tain specialized work. 

The criticism in regard to the first did 
not seem to Dr. Putnam convincing. Per- 
haps there is a distinction between the one 
and the two years' course. 

As to the lack of further specialization: 
he cannot help thinking that our entire 
system of education from kindergarten 
through university is just now suffering 
from a curse of specialization; with the 
danger lest so many specialized courses 
would be introduced as to crowd out those 
which are general and fundamental. For 
library work, certainly, the studies of this 
latter character included in the one year's 
course seem to be the minimum. We ad- 
ministrators have assumed that they are 
and we have had confidence in them as 

Dr. Putnam did not see how they could 
any of them be omitted in favor of others 
tending to specialization, and he was re- 
lieved at the unanimity with which the 
representatives of the library schools de- 
clared that they could not. 

As to the ability of the schools to pro- 
vide specialization in addition, he con- 
curred with Dr. Andrews: that the kind of 
specialization required in a research li- 
brary — for instance, municipal reference 
work, law, medicine or technology, theol- 
ogy or civic work — could not in the nature 
of things be efficiently provided in any or- 
dinary library school. The preparation for 
such work must be either in some institu- 
tion preliminary to the library school, or 
secured after the school by direct contacts. 
In seeking specialists, it was his practice, 
and he thought that of other librarians, to 
inquire of the schools whether among their 
students were any who had had a prelimi- 
nary education in law, or medicine, or ap- 



plied science, as the case might be. [Note: 
He states that he would have added his 
concurrence with Dr. Andrews' later obser- 
vation that there is such a thing as tech- 
nique in specialized work, and that he 
thinks it very probable that opportunities 
for the study of this technique, under sys- 
tematic conduct, may later be organized, 
perhaps in the form of vacation courses at 
some appropriate center: the course con- 
ducted by specialists of experience and 
intended for and attended by those who are 
either actually engaged in such specialized 
work, or, after their general education and 
library school training, desire to equip 
themselves for it; but that such an under- 
taking would be distinct, and he thinks, 
ought to be kept distinct, from the normal 
curricula of the schools themselves.] 

MISS PLUMMER: As to the difficulty 
in securing students to go into technolog- 
ical libraries and special libraries of other 
kinds: Libraries in most of these lines call 
for men librarians, and the librarian of a 
general library, knowing that he is going 
to have a special department, and wanting 
a man to administer it, would do well to 
find first the man and induce him to go to 
a school for the training in library methods. 

Executive heads of most of the schools 
are women and it is not possible for them 
to invade the men's colleges in search 
of men students for the schools. It would 
seem to be the province of the men who 
are connected with the school faculties to 
attend to this branch of the campaign for 

I do see, however, in the light of my pres- 
ent experience, that something may have 
to be done in the way of grading students. 
In library schools with large classes of stu- 
dents, ranging from 20 years to 40, with ed- 
ucations ranging from a high school course, 
or its equivalent, to the holding of advanced 
degrees from colleges, and with experience 
ranging from none at all to eight or ten 
years of work in a good library, it can 
easily be seen that there is too much va- 
riety in students to make it desirable to 
give them all the same preparation. I can 

see that if this variety should continue a 
school might have to arrange courses even 
in the first year for the especially equipped 
and especially capable students of the 
class, but this would not mean the doing 
away with the general foundation. 

A specialized school, such as I referred 
to in my article in the Library Journal, 
called "A forecast of library training," 
would be connected with some university 
and carried on by the aid of professors' 
courses. A school otherwise connected 
could not carry on special courses, un- 
less there was sufficient demand to make 
it financially practicable. So far, I think, 
the reason that no school has offered any- 
thing very definite in the way of advanced 
special courses is that there has been no 
stated demand for them. 

Dr. Hill presented the report of the com- 
mittee on deterioration of newspaper paper 
(Printed in full: See pp 22-28.) 

DR. HILL: Before presenting the report 
I will answer the question asked by Dr. 
Bostwick at the Ottawa conference in re- 
gard to experiments made with nickel 
sheet for printing purposes. In a letter 
received from Mr. Thomas A. Edison it 
was stated that while experiments had been 
made along this line they had not pro- 
gressed far enough to warrant definite con- 

The following resolution in regard to the 
exclusion of books from the Parcel Post 
was unanimously adopted: 

Parcel Post 

WHEREAS, The Parcel Post just initi- 
ated, while providing for the various com- 
modities entering into ordinary commerce, 
excepts books, even where transmitted 
for a purpose purely scientific or educa- 
tional, and 

WHEREAS, the considerations which 
induced the establishment of the Parcel 
Post for other articles would apply equal- 
ly to books, while such objections as were 
raised against it as affecting trade could 
not apply to books circulated by public 
libraries to readers, or between libraries 
for the benefit of readers, — such circula- 
tion being a public service in the interest 
of science and education, and 



WHEREAS, the extension of this serv- 
ice is now blocked by the high rates 
charged upon boolcs as third class mail 
matter, and 

WHEREAS, a modification of those 
rates has for years been sought by the 
library interests of the United States and 
Canada, and the failure to provide it in 
the Parcel Post has been a cause of per- 
plexity and chagrin, be it 

RESOLVED, that the Executive Board 
and Council of the American Library As- 
sociation, representing the library inter- 
ests of the United States and Canada, 
respectfully urge upon Congress the en- 
actment of such legislation as will remedy 
the omission and place books upon the 
same basis as other articles entitled to 
the Parcel Post, 

A resolution of thanks was voted to the 
Chicago Library Club and to Miss Jane 
Addams and the other residents of Hull 
House for the pleasant evening spent at 
Hull House on January 2nd when Gals- 
worthy's "The Pigeon" was presented by 
the Hull House players, and opportunity 
was given for visitors to be shown over 
Hull House. 

Dr. Bostwick moved that the Executive 
Board be requested to consider the advisa- 
bility of sending a delegate to the next 
meeting of the National Municipal League, 
preferably some one residing in or near the 
place of that meeting. Voted, 

For the Committee on Ventilation and 
Lighting, Mr, Ranck, the chairman, sub- 
mitted a somewhat detailed report, indi- 
cating the whole ground that had been cov- 
ered by the committee. In this connection 
he read the list of questions which should 
be answered, or subjects which should be 
considered in connection with ventilation 
and lighting. So far as the committee 
could obtain satisfactory answers from the 
study of literature, and their own investi- 
gations, reports were made on this, but it 
was stated that before any final report 

could be made it would be necessary for 
the committee to have the benefit of the 
results of definite scientific experiments 
on the following questions: 

Questions on which scientific experi- 
ments are needed to get the knowledge 
necessary to define perfect 


1. The physiological effects of temper- 
ature and the maximum and minimum 
temperature for the comfort of the aver- 
age person working in or using a library. 

2. The proper degree of relative hu- 
midity when the temperature is between 
60 and 70 for 

a. Persons, 

b. Books and furniture, 

3. What are some of the best and most 
economical methods of humidifying the 
air of a library? 

4. What are the dangers of bacterio- 
logical elements in the air and the rela- 
tion of these to temperature and humidity 
and to dust? 

- 5. May air be overheated for purposes 
of ventilation, and if so at what temper- 
ature and with what physical and chem- 
ical results? 

6, The physiological effects of air in 
motion, with special reference to carbon 
dioxide, temperature and humidity. 

7. What is it that makes air "fresh" 
and to what extent does the psychological 
element enter into it? 


1. The physiological and psychological 
effect of various kinds of light with spe- 
cial reference to the effect of too much 
light and the effect of color. 

2. Find an expression in mathematical 
terms of the maximum and minimum 
amount of light per square inch of read- 
ing surface. 

The foregoing questions to be answered 
on the basis of scientific experiments 
made under the direction of the commit- 
tee, and these results to be checked up by 
a number of selected libraries before the 
final report is published. 




Issued in 

Jamuabt, Mabch, Mat, Jult, Sbptembbb and 


There is no subscription price, and the Bulletin is 
sent only to members of the Association. 


President — Henry E. Legler, Public library, Chicago. 
First Vice-President — E. H. Anderson, Public library, 

New York. 
Second Vice-President — Mary F. Isom, Library Asso- 
ciation, Portland, Ore. 
Executive Board — The president, two vice-presidents 


Herbert Putnam, Library of Congress, Washington. 

Purd B. Wright, Public library, Kansas City, Mo. 

C. W. Andrews, John Crerar library, Chicago. 

Linda A. Eastman, Public library, Cleveland. 

H. C. Wellman, Library Association, Springfield, 

T. W. Koch, University of Michigan library, Ann 
Secretary — George B. Utley, 78 E. Washington Street, 

Treasurer — Carl B. Roden, Public library, Chicago. 
Executive offices — 78 E. Washington Street, Chicago, 



Colorado 1 

District of Columbia 1 

Illinois 34 

Indiana 3 

Iowa 8 

Kansas 4 

Kentucky 2 

Michigan 6 

Minnesota 8 

Missouri 10 

Nebraska 3 

New Jersey ^it^i^x.... 2 

New York \^^/)Y!] 11 

North Dakota ?.'. r.'l^ "l^: .':•. 4 

Ohio ;. . :';. !^:. ::. . lo 

Oklahoma 1 

Oregon 1 

Pennsylvania 2 

Wisconsin 21 

Ontario l 

Quebec 1 

Total 134 

Representatives from 18 states, the Dis- 
trict of Columbia and two provinces of Can- 


The executive office of the A, L. A. 
wishes to know of libraries of the United 
States or Canada which have in opera- 
tion a pension system, or which may be 
planning to institute such a system. The 
librarian of any such library will confer a 
favor on the secretary if he will write him 
briefly outlining any such system or plan. 


The executive office would like to make a 
collection of library dedication programs, 
and would very much appreciate receipt of 
two copies of all such programs from all 
libraries, large or small, which have held 
dedication or opening exercises in the past 
ten years or so. 


Meeting of the Middle West Section, 

Chicago, Jan. 1-3, 1913 

The midwinter meeting of the middle- 
west section of the League of Library Com- 
missions was held at Hotel Sherman, 
Chicago, January 1-3. There were present 
representatives of library commissions 
from Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Min- 
nesota, Missouri, New Jersey, New York, 
North Dakota, Oregon and Wisconsin, with 
an average attendance at each session of 
about 40. In the absence of the president, 
Mr. Milam of Indiana, Miss Elizabeth B. 
Wales, Missouri, 1st vice-president, pre- 

The future of the traveling library was 
the subject for discussion on Wednesday 
afternoon, with special consideration of 
duplication of work by other agencies, such 
as the university, agricultural college, state 




library and reading circle; open shelf vs. 
fixed collection; getting books into the 
parcel post; sub-lending through local pub- 
lic libraries; and traveling libraries for 
schools. On Thursday afternoon a round 
table on problems of rural library exten- 
sion was conducted by Miss Baldwin of 
Minnesota, with discussion of legislative 
problems, such as tax levy, library boards, 
organization and administrative problems. 
The committee on parcel post presented 
the following resolution, which was 


WHEREAS, the parcel post measure re- 
cently enacted excluded from its priv- 
ileges all library books, much to the disap- 
pointment of the state library commis- 
sions which operate traveling library sys- 
tems, and which had strongly urged its 
enactment when books were included in 
its provisions, and, 

WHEREAS, there seems to be no sound 
reason why all articles of merely commer- 
cial importance should be transported at 
the lowest rate, while much needed ma- 
terial, educational in its nature, can be 
transported only at rates so high as to be 
absolutely prohibited for general use; 
therefore be it, 

RESOLVED, that the League of Library 
Commissions urges the passage by Con- 
gress of some measure which will include 
library books and material at the lower 
rate of transportation provided by the par- 
cel post, and that we favor either a con- 
solidation of third and fourth class mail 
matter to secure a rate for books and 
printed matter equal to that of merchan- 
dise, or some other provision giving to 
books belonging to public libraries the 
parcel post rates, to the end that those 
living in rural communities be given ac- 
cess to library privileges. 

The final session on Friday afternoon was 
devoted to committee reports and miscel- 
laneous discussion. 

The Publications Committee reported 
that a handbook to aid in library cam- 
paigns is in progress; that the list of peri- 
odicals for a small library has been re- 
vised by Mr. Walter of New York and the 
A. L. A. Publishing Board has been asked 
to print it. Miss Carey, Minnesota, re- 
ported on a list of books for the insane, 
which has been compiled by Miss Jones of 

the McLean hospital, Waverly, Mass., from 
the shelf-list of that library, with assist- 
ance from Miss Robinson, Iowa, Miss 
Waugh, Nebraska, and Miss Carey, Minne- 
sota. The publication of this list was 
recommended to the Publications Commit- 
tee for favorable consideration. 

The committee on charter provisions for 
public libraries reported that after con- 
ference with the A. L. A. committee it 
was decided that owing to variation in the 
laws of different states it was advisable 
to formulate general provisions for such 
charters, rather than outline a definite 

A letter from Mrs. Sneed, Georgia, chair- 
man of the committee on federal prison 
libraries, announced that appropriations of 
$2,500 each for the prisons at Atlanta and 
Fort Leavenworth and $500 for McNeil Is- 
land have been included in the budget for 
the coming year. The committee on study 
outlines reported progress and the expec- 
tation that a number of outlines would be 
ready for publication by the next meeting 
of the league. 

Mr. Kerr, on behalf of the Normal School 
Librarians in session, asked the co-operation 
of the league in securing the publication 
through the U. S. Dept. of Education of a 
School Library List, which could be used 
in all states, and of other special lists 
needed for school libraries and also in out- 
lining a course in library work to be given 
in normal schools. These plans were heart- 
ily endorsed by the league and referred 
to its executive board for further action. 

After resolutions of regret at the absence 
of the president and a vote of thanks to the 
Chicago Library Club for the entertain- 
ment of the previous evening, the meeting 

Report of the Committee on "The Deterior- 
ation of Newsprint Paper" Made to 
the A. L. A. Council, January, 1913 
It is unnecessary at this time to do more 
than call your attention to previous re- 
ports on the subject of the better preser- 



vation of newspapers as made by the com- 
mittee to the Mackinac and Ottawa Con- 

At Ottawa the report brought out some 
discussion by members of the Association, 
but the time did not permit of that free- 
dom of speech necessary to the consider- 
ation of a matter of such serious impor- 
tance. With the hope that more time will 
be given to the subject in the smaller body, 
this report is submitted to the Council. 

The committee has continued its work 
during the year, gathering additional in- 
formation and statistics, and is now ready 
to make final suggestions to the Associa- 
tion through the Council. 

On November 26th a conference was held 
in Brooklyn attended by one member of the 
committee and by representatives of sev- 
eral New York papers. A somewhat de- 
tailed report on "The preservation of 
paper"* was submitted to this conference by 
John Norris, chairman of the committee 
on paper of the American Newspaper Pub- 
lishers' Association. 

Mr. Norris in his report stated that the 
American Chemical Society had specified 
a grade of paper consisting of 75% rag 
and 25% bleached chemical pulp, or its 
equivalent, for the records of the society, 
and had secured the desired quality for 
approximately 6% cents per pound. 

He also stated that in 1904, Secretary 
Wilson of the Department of Agriculture 
authorized the Bureau of Chemistry to in- 
vestigate the subject of suitable papers for 
government purposes. 

The investigation covered about 5,000 
samples of paper and resulted in the issue 
of two circulars by the Bureau of Chem- 
istry. Subsequently the Joint Committee 
of Congress on Printing appointed a com- 
mission to pass upon this matter. Its 
report was adopted December 18, 1911, and 
now controls all government supplies of 
paper and printing and binding materials. 
In the following month, a public bidding 
was held. The standard specification for 

•Copies of this report may be obtained from John 
Norris, World Bldg., New York City. 

printing paper that would "endure indefi- 
nitely" was as follows: 

Weight, 25 x 40, 500; 50-pound basis 

Thickness shall not exceed .0035 inch. 

Strength shall not be less than 18 

Stock shall be not less than 75 per cent 
rag; the remainder may be bleached chem- 
ical wood, free from unbleached or ground 
wood pulp. 

Ash shall not exceed 5 per cent. 

Size — The total rosin shall not exceed 2 
per cent. 

The contract for paper supplied on this 
specification was awarded at 4^^ cents per 

A lengthy discussion followed the pres- 
entation of the report. It was agreed that 
the additional cost for the better grade of 
paper would not be serious, and that there 
would probably be no difficulty in getting 
the paper mills to produce the higher grade 
in rolls of the right size if there was a 
demand for it, but that the question of the 
cost of handling the special edition was 
one which would have to be settled by the 
individual publisher and would probably 
vary greatly in different offices according 
to the style of presses in use. 

Mr. H. F. Gunnison, for the Brooklyn 
Eagle, stated that that paper would under- 
take to publish such an edition, beginning 
with the first of the year [1913], and would 
supply a library with two copies, one on 
the regular wood-pulp paper for current use 
— the other on the special grade of paper. 
The special copies would be unfolded, 
stored in a dark place, and delivered to 
the library once a month. This he esti- 
mated could be done with their presses at 
a very small expense. 

As an outcome of the discussion Mr. 
Norris agreed to ascertain from publishers 
how many would feel justified in printing 
an extra edition, and the A. L. A. Commit- 
tee was to find out how many librarians 
would subscribe for such an edition and 
what particular papers would be taken. 

The circulars sent out, and replies there- 
to, form the appendices of this report. 

The publishers' circular was sent to 



every member of the association — 330 in 
number — while the A. L. A. circular went 
to 180 libraries. 

To the former 167 replies were received 
and to the latter 144. 

A large majority of publishers were in- 
clined to think the cost prohibitive, but ten 
publishers beside the Eagle found the proj- 
ect sufficiently attractive to justify the 
labor and cost which a special edition 
would entail. These were 

The Advertiser, Montgomery, Ala. 

The Capital, Topeka, Kansas. 

The Daily Northwestern, Oshkosh, Wis. 

The Minneapolis Tribune. 

New Orleans Item. 

New Yorker Staats-Zeitung. 

Providence Evening Bulletin. 

Providence Journal. 

The St. Paul Pioneer Press. 

The Washington Evening Star. 

The Springfield (Mass.) Republican and 
the Louisville (Ky.) Herald responded that 
they might consider the matter later. 

The letters from the N. Y. Evening 
Post, the Chicago Daily News and the Port- 
land (Maine) Evening Express, included 
herewith, are interesting as showing the 
willingness of publishers to bear their 
share — and more — of the burden. 

All librarians who answered were anx- 
ious to have newspapers for binding pur- 
poses printed on a grade of paper better 
than the ordinary edition, but most of them 
were likely to subscribe for the local paper 

J. L. Gillis, state librarian of California, 
wrote that he thought he would be able to 
interest California publishers sufBciently to 
induce them to issue a special edition. 

J. I. Wyer, Jr., state librarian of New 
York, said that before subscribing for some 
fifty daily and weekly papers in New York 
state he would help the cause by sending 
a preliminary letter* to newspaper publish- 
ers stating that he was considering their 
papers for preservation in bound form, but 
was reluctant to place a continuing sub- 
scription unless assurances should be given 
that the grade of paper on which they were 

'Appendix D. 

printed would be of the same quality as 
that of the Brooklyn Eagle. 

Editorials have appeared in many news- 
papers, most of them favorable to the gen- 
eral scheme, a few, however, have taken 
the opposite tack and ridiculed the idea. 

The New York Evening World of De- 
cember 11, 1912, whose representative at 
the conference had been in favor of the 
project, at least so far as other papers 
were concerned, printed an editorial 
against what it called "preserved" or 
"pickled" newspapers, belittling the im- 
portance of newspaper files to the future 

The Brooklyn Daily Eagle of December 
12 answered "The World" by stating its be- 
lief that newspapers would be of value to 
posterity and announced, as a proof of its 
conviction, that it would meet the wishes 
of librarians by printing a special edition 
on a better quality of paper than that used 
for the regular edition. 

The publishers of this paper through a 
circular issued December 14, 1912, an- 
nounced that beginning January 1, 1912, 
they would issue an extra edition on 75% 
rag paper at a subscription price of $15 
per year. The Eagle is the first paper to 
take a decided stand which it is hoped 
will soon be followed by a number of news- 
papers throughout the country. 

The investigation of the committee has 
brought out the fact that the preservation 
of newspapers depends not alone upon the 
quality of paper on which they are printed, 
but also upon the attention which is given 
to the binding and storage of the papers. 
This is shown in Mr. Norris's report. 

"An examination of the places of stor- 
age in the libraries and of the conditions 
of storage convinces me that while the 
ordinary newsprint paper may not be in 
any respect suitable for purposes of pres- 
ervation, the methods of handling those 
papers when bound are conducive to de- 
terioration. This criticism applies not 
only to libraries but to newspaper offices 
and substantially to all places where 
newspaper files are stored. In many of 
the libraries, the files are subjected to 
treatment which deprives the paper of its 



required moisture. The libraries dry out 
the newspapers by keeping them in rooms 
with an average temperature of 70°, 
which is bound in the course of time to 
cause deterioration. The artificial heat 
renders the paper extremely brittle and 
makes it crumble like isinglass when 
handled. Excessive dampness is also dis- 

"Improvement in the preservation of 
these historical records may be obtained: 
1st. By using a printing paper that will 
endure indefinitely. 2d. By binding with 
materials that do not attract minute or- 
ganisms. 3d. By storing under conditions 
(a) that do not deprive the paper of all its 
moisture; (b) or subject it to excessive 
dampness; (c) or subject it to chemical 
action produced by sunshine or gas or 
artificial heat or similar agencies of dete- 
rioration; (d) or propagate insects or other 

The following is a summary of the sug- 
gestions and recommendations of your com- 

a. That bound volumes of newspapers 
printed since 1880 should be printed on 
the edges with "cellit," an American prod- 
uct prepared by the Chemical Product 
Company, Boston, or a similar prepara- 

b. That they be stored in a sealed 
room, where possible, of an even temper- 
ature of 50°, free from dampness. 

c. That the volumes^ be kept flat with 
air space about them and not be exposed 
to sunlight. 

d. That current numbers be kept flat, 
and bound with a good serviceable ma- 
terial as soon as the volume is completed. 

e. That librarians endeavor to induce 
local publishers to print a special library 
edition on a 75 per cent rag paper. 

f. That librarians subscribe only to 
those newspapers which are printed on 
paper better than the regular edition. 

g. That librarians consider the desira- 
bility qf securing legislation by which 
the subscriptions of state libraries would 
be limited to papers which are printed on 
a 75 per cent rag paper. 

h. That the following circular, to be 
called "Circular No. 2," be sent to libra- 
rians with the request to send answers to 
the secretary of the A. L. A. 

Preservation of Newspapers 
Circular No. 2 to be sent to librarians 

by the A. L. A. 
Replies to be sent to the secretary, 

George B. Utley, 78 E. Washington St., 

Chicago, 111. 

1. Name of library. 

2. City. 

3. What newspapers are bound by your 

4. Would you subscribe for a special 
edition of the above papers (or any of 
them) on a better grade of paper at an 
extra cost? 

5. Which ones? 

6. Will you agree to influence the pub- 
lishers in your state to print an extra 
edition on better paper? 

7. Do you know of any publisher in 
your city or state who will print such 
fepecial edition? 

Information on the subject may be found 
in reports made at A. L. A. Conferences, 
Mackinac, 1910, Ottawa, 112, A. L. A. Coun- 
cil, 1913, and the special report of John 
Norris, World Building, New York City. 

The committee has been asked by some 
librarians to go into the question of the 
preservation of manuscripts, but has not 
done so because it felt that this was a 
matter requiring separate investigation. 

The committee in its search for a news- 
print paper which would endure indefinitely 
has learned that there is no insurmount- 
able barrier to prevent the printing of a 
special edition of a newspaper after the 
regular edition has been run off — provided 
librarians will interest themselves in the 
subject and will be willing to pay extra for 
such an edition. It now remains for libra- 
rians and state associations to take action 
in their own localities. In many states 
there are probably two or three papers 
which would be taken by at least ten or 
fifteen libraries. 

With this report, the committee considers 
its labor ended and asks to be discharged, 
leaving to local associations and individ- 
ual librarians the task of gaining further 
concessions from the publishers. 

Whatever results have been achieved are 
due to the interest, practical suggestions 
and co-operation of newspaper publishers 
throughout the country, and particularly of 
those in New York who took part in the 



conference with the committee. Our thanks 1. Nupaber of daily newspapers, the reg- 
are given them heartily and appreciatively, ular issues of which are bound and pre- 
and in the same manner to Mr. John Nor- served by the library or society, 
ris, chairman of the Publishers' Committee 2. Are the bound files stored flat or up- 
on paper, who has aided us so materially right? 

in bringing about practical co-operation. 3. Is there sunlight in the room in 

Respectfully submitted, which the bound files are stored? 

FRANK P. HILL, 4. Is gas used for illumination or any 

HORACE G. WADLIN, other purpose in any part of the library, 

CEDRIC CHIVERS. especially near that room in which the 

rii A bound files are stored? 

5. Is there any ventilation around the 

AMERICAN NEWSPAPER PUBLISHERS ^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^j^ ^^^.^ ^j ^^^ ^^^^ 

ASSOCIATION. X., ^. ^ X .^ . „ 

903 Pulitzer Building. ventilation of outside air? 

New York. ^- ^^ there artificial heat in the room in 
In the matter of preservation of news- which the bound files are stored? 
paper files for future reference, I have 7. Are the variations of humidity in out- 
been asked by the American Library Asso- . , . ^prmitted to rparh thP hound 
elation to inquire of you if the idea of lf% permitted to reach the bound 
printing a few copies of your editions up- files. 

on special paper appeals to you. The sub- 8. Are the bound files stored in sealed 

ject is treated quite fully in accompanying cases or are they kept in such manner as 

bulletin. Will you kindly advise me on . , ^ „„^+„„4.„^ f^^^ j„„+ ,„ +»,„ „s„o 

enclosed blank? "^ *^ to be protected from dust in the air? 

Yours truly, 9- Is any attempt made in building * to 

(Signed) JOHN NORRIS. guard against insects? 

ADoendix B ^^' ^^^^^^ suggestions do you offer to 

secure the preservation of records of cur- 
Reply to inquiry of American Library rent history? 
Association in iVIatter of Preserva- 
tion of Newspaper Files 
To Committee on Paper, Please send reply to George B. Utley, Secretary 
American Newspaper Publishers Assn., American Library Association 78 E. Washington St. 
AAo TTT ij T. sij- XT IT 1 /~(jj.„ Cliicago, Dcfore December 15th. 

903 World Building, New York City, ^ 
N. Y. Appendix D. 
The suggestion of the American Library ,, , „. x t^^ x, t. 
Association that we print a number of New York State Education Department 
copies of our daily newspaper on special NEW YORK STATE LIBRARY 
paper for the purpose of indefinitely pre- Albany, N. Y., Dec. 31, 1912. 
sending the files of this publication Gentlemen: The New York State Li- 
[ seem sufficiently attractive to us l>rary in re-establishing the collection de- 
does not J stroyed by fire March 29, 1911, is about to 
to justify the labor and cost which it will subscribe to twenty-five representative 

Newspaper ^^^^^ papers in all parts of the country. The 

City .'...*..'.'.*.'.*.'.'.' .' .' * .' .' .' ." .' .' name of your journal is under considera- 

State tlon as one of this number. It is our plan 

December , 1912. ^p ^j^^ g^jj^j preserve these papers and in 

Appendix C. time to secure as complete a file as pos- 

Request from American Library Association ^^^^^ °' «^^"^^ volumes. Before deciding 

_ upon your paper we wish to know whether 

^ ^^ it has, following the example of the New 

Name of Library York Evening Post, the Brooklyn Eagle, and 


State •This should have read "binding:." 



certain others, made any arrangement for 
printing a limited edition for libraries on a 
grade of paper which seems calculated to 
last indefinitely, as well for instance, as 
the Colonial papers printed in the latter 
part of the eighteenth century, I enclose 

Hill. The deterioration of newspaper 


American Newspaper Publishers' Asso- 
ciation, Bulletin 2795. 

These will acquaint you with details as to 
the recent efforts to secure for the libraries 
of the country its important daily papers in 
satisfactory form for preservation. 
Very truly yours, 
(Signed) J. I. WYER, JR. 

Appendix E. 



New York City, Dec. 9, 
Mr. John Norris, 

903 World Building, City. 
Dear Mr. Norris: Answering yours of the 
6th inst., in which you explain that you 
wrote to me at the request of the Ameri- 
can Library Association to inquire into the 
matter of the preservation of newspaper 
files for future reference, etc., would say 
that I have filled out the blank which you 
enclosed, and return it herewith. The 
Evening Post does not consider the sug- 
gestion sufficiently attractive to justify the 
labor and cost which would be entailed, 
but in forwarding you this reply, I also 
feel that I want to take this occasion to 
explain that we really are interested in 
the matter, and would like to see some- 
thing done, and would be willing to con- 
tribute in a reasonable way, with a view 
to accomplishing it if a practicable way of 
doing so could be suggested. We do not 
feel, however, that we would be justified 
in going to the expense which the plan 
suggested would undoubtedly entail, 
aside from the labor and trouble, unless 
it could be agreed that a reasonable part 
of such extra expense would be borne by 
the libraries. For example, it seems to 
me that the libraries should be willing to 
have us charge them a suflScient amount 
over and above the usual charge of $9 per 
year to enable them to pay at least one- 

half of the extra expense, but we do not 
feel that it would be proper or just to 
shoulder all of the increased cost on the 

Yours very truly, 
(Signed) W. J. PATTISON, Publisher 


Portland, Me. 
Dec. 9, 1912. 
Mr. John Norris, 

903 World Building, 
New York. 
Dear Mr. Norris: — I am enclosing the 
blank in regard to preserving newspaper 
files, and would offer as a suggestion that 
it might be possible to make photographic 
reproductions of newspapers for preser- 

Individual papers could not undertake 
this, but, if this work could be done at 
some central point by a plant specially 
equipped for the purpose, the cost for the 
individual newspapers might not be pro- 
hibitive. It might be found, however, that 
the expense would be too great to warrant 
such a thing. 

Yours truly, 

(Signed) Wm. H. Dow, 
Treas. and Bus. Mgr. 


Portland, Me., Dec. 11, 1912. 
Mr. John Norris, 

903 World Building. 

Dear Sir: — Replying further to your let- 
ter of the 7th: 

In signing the blank in the negative in 
regard to the preservation of newspaper 
files, it does not mean that the matter 
does not interest us. 

It would be most desirable, if it were 
possible, to print a certain number of 
copies of a paper for preservation on cloth 
or some permanent quality of paper, but 
in our case where we use rolls of various 
widths, according to the number of pages 
we issue, the problem of printing copies 
for preservation is much greater than in 
the case of a paper not having great vari- 
ations in the number of pages. 
Yours truly, 
(Signed) Wm. H. DOW, Treas. 



CHICAGO DAILY NEWS order to work out a proposition which will 
Victor F. Lawson, Publisher render permanency to any newspaper 
December 10, 1912. files, it will probably be necessary to set- 
Mr. John Norris, tie upon two or three papers in the United 
903 Pulitzer Building, States and furnish such papers with 
New York City, N. Y. enough subscriptions to more or less 
Dear Mr. Norris: — In answer to your cover the cost of such special printing, 
letter of December 7, I will say that I The proposition might be worked out if 
think the statement made in your Bulletin enough such subscriptions could be ob- 
that it would not pay a newspaper to tained. 

print especially a small number of copies Very truly yours, 

of its editions on special paper, is a cor- (Signed) H. L. ROGERS, 

rect one, and I believe, therefore, that in Business Manager. 





Entered sa second-class matter December 27, 1909, at the Post Of5ce at Chicago, 111., 
under Act of CJongress of July 16, 1894. 

Vol. 7, No. 2 


MARCH, 1913 


Kaaterskill Travel Announcements 
Hotel Reservations 
Gifts and Bequests, 1912 
New Members 

Proposed Amendment to Constitution 
Discount to Library Members 
Registration for Library Position 



A rate of one fare and three-fifths has 
been granted by the Trunk Line Associa- 
tion. This rate is on the so-called certifi- 
cate plan, which means the paying of full 
fare going and obtaining at the time of 
purchase of ticket a certificate. This 
certificate being deposited, with 25c, with 
the secretary on arrival at the meeting, 
will entitle the person in whose name it 
is made out to return via the same route 
for three-fifths of one fare, providing at 
least 100 such certificates are presented 
at the meeting. Ask for certificate even 
if not intending to use it, as it might be 
needed to make up the number necessary 
to secure reduced rate for those who do 
return. The Trunk Line territory includes 
points west of New England, east of and 
including Buffalo and Pittsburgh, and 
north of the Potomac River, that is, prac- 
tically the North Atlantic states and the 
District of Columbia. 

From New England the usual summer 
excursion rates will probably be in force 
and equivalent to about 2c a mile, good all 
summer, and allowing ten days stop-over 
at Albany, returning if desired. For rail- 
road rates from the middle west see under 

special western party announcement be- 

Hotel Kaaterskill station is on the 
Ulster & Delaware Railroad, and is 
reached via Kingston, N. Y., or Oneonta, 
N. Y. There is also a connection via Cats- 
kill and the Otis Elevating Railway to 
Otis Summit, about a half mile from the 
hotel. Making the trip this way is some- 
what cheaper and some two hours quicker 
from points in New England and the west 
(via Albany) but it necessitates a change 
of cars at Catskill and again at the base 
of the Otis Elevating Railway. The hotel 
carriages will meet passengers both at 
Otis Summit and at the Kaaterskill station 
on the Ulster & Delaware. 

The Travel Committee plans personally 
conducted parties from Boston, New York 
and Chicago as usual, and detailed notices 
will be given in the May Bulletin. Prelim- 
inary notice follows: 

Boston Party 

Party will leave Boston by Pullman 

sleeper on Sunday evening, about 11:15, 

June 22, due at Albany to breakfast, where 

the cars will be held and later run to Cats- 



kill. There the party will transfer to Otis 
Summit, and should reach Hotel Kaaters- 
kill about 12:30 noon, June 23. 

Pullman lower berth from Boston to 
Catskill will be $2.00; upper berth |1.60. 
.Drawing room (accommodating three per- 
sons) $7.00. 

The summer excursion rate from Boston 
to Otis Summit and return was $12.40 last 
year and will probably be the same for 

Members from Albany can Join the Bos- 
ton party after breakfast and travel with 
that party to their destination. Special 
coach will be provided if enough register. 

New England and Albany delegates 
should communicate with Mr. F. W. Faxon, 
83 Francis St., Fenway, Boston, Mass., who 
will have charge of the party. 

New York, Philadelphia and Washington 

There are many different routes for 
those attending the convention from New 
York and the south. It is possible to 
reach the Hotel Kaaterskill from New 
York by day boat to Kingston, connecting 
with train on Ulster & Delaware to the 
Hotel Kaaterskill, or by day boat to Cats- 
kill, connecting with the Otis Elevating 
Railway to the hotel. The more conven- 
ient route, however, is via the West Shore 
and Ulster & Delaware, inasmuch as 
through parlor cars are run without 
change from New York and Philadelphia 
direct to the Hotel Kaaterskill. The West 
store gives occasional views of the Hud- 
son from the west bank. The Ulster & 
Delaware is a mountain railroad running 
through the heart of the Catskills. 

The following tentative schedule is given 
as based on last year's time table. More 
detailed arrangements will be announced 
later in the library periodicals and the 
A. L. A. Bulletin for May. Through parlor 
cars will run from Philadelphia and also 
from Washington if enough register. 

Leave Washington 7 a. m., June 23rd. 

Leave Baltimore 8 a. m., June 23rd. 

Leave Philadelphia 10:15 a. m., June 

Leave New York (West Shore R. R.) 
about 1 p. m., June 23rd. 

Arrive Hotel Kaaterskill (Ulster & Del- 
aware) about 6:00 p. m. 

The round trip fare, all rail, from New 
York, is $5.79, from Philadelphia, $9.39, 
from Washington, $15.79. The parlor car 
fare is 75 cents from New York, $1.25 
from Philadelphia, and $2.00 from Wash- 

Western Party 

No special rates will be granted by the 
railroads from Chicago and the West to 
the Kaaterskill Conference. The regular 
summer excursion tickets to New York 
City may be purchased and a side trip 
made to the meeting. If ticket reads via 
Albany and the West Shore Railroad to 
New York City, delegates should stop at 
Kingston, N. Y., and buy local ticket to 
the Hotel Kaaterskill, the rate being $1.35. 
After the meeting, a local ticket to New 
York City, costing $2.66, will have to be 
purchased, as it will be necessary to vali- 
date the excursion ticket in New York 
before returning home. 

Summer excursion rates from Chicago 
to New York City and return are $27.00 
and $30.00, according to route chosen. 
Rates have been quoted by both the dif- 
ferential and standard lines, including the 
trip from Kingston, via the Ulster & Dela- 
ware Railroad to Hotel Kaaterskill and the 
journey to New York City after the meet- 
ing, of $30.56 and $33.56 respectively. 

The regular one-way rate Chicago to 
Hotel Kaaterskill via Kingston is $18.12 
or $20.67, according to route. 

Sleeping car rates, Chicago to New 
York, lower berth $5.00; upper berth, $4.00. 

It is expected that enough will register 
to enable the Travel Committee to run a 
special train from Chicago, through to 
Hotel Kaaterskill without change. Train 
will leave Chicago, Sunday noon, arriving 
at destination Monday afternoon, June 23d. 

Members from St. Louis, Kansas City, 
Omaha, and other points west of Chicago 
are expected to join the special train at 



Michigan delegates may Join the epeeial 
party at Detroit. 

All correspondence regarding transpor- 
tation to the meeting from the middle 
west should be addresed to John F. 
Phelan, Chicago Public Library, with 
whom registration for special train should 
be made. 


The committee is planning a week's 
excursion to the Adirondacks, spending a 
day en route at Albany for inspection of 
the new state library and educational 
building; then going on by rail to Rac- 
quette Lake, staying there for one or two 
days, in order to make an excursion to 
Blue Mountain Lake, one of the most beau- 
tiful in the Adirondack region. Thence 
the party will split into two sections, one 
going north around the mountains to 
Hotel Champlain, thence to Au Sable 
Chasm, and return to Albany. The other 
section will go to Lake Placid for a three 
days' stay, with opportunity to make excur- 
sions from there to various points of 
interest. One of the excursions will be 
to Ausable Chasm. 

The inclusive cost of this nine-day trip 
will be between $50 and $60. Registra- 
tion should be made with Mr. F. W. Faxon, 
83 Francis St., Fenway, Boston, Mass. 

Those from both east and west holding 
through tickets to the Catskills via Albany 
can use same on the return, with stop- 
over at Albany for this trip. 

Below is the tentative outline of the 
Post Conference itinerary. 

Leave Kaaterskill Hotel Saturday after- 
noon, June 28, spending Saturday night, 
Sunday and Sunday night at Albany. On 
Sunday, June 29, members of the State 
Library staff will be on duty to act as 
guides to the new educational building, 
and the various reading rooms will be open 
to members of the Association during 
their stay in the city. Monday an early 
start will be made for Racquette Lake, 
Adirondacks, breakfast being served on 
the train If possible. The route is pictur- 
esque and Interesting, via Old Forge and 

by steamer through the Fulton Chain 
Lakes (First, Second, Third and Fourth 
Lakes) to Eagle Bay, and thence by rail 
to Racquette Lake where Monday night, 
Tuesday and Wednesday will be spent, in- 
cluding on one of these days that unique 
trip to Blue Mountain Lake via Marion 
River, Marion River Carry Railway, Uto- 
wana Lake and Eagle Lake (with oppor- 
tunity for good climbers to ascend Blue 
Mountain). The other day here will be 
left free for individual excursions about 
Racquette Lake, or to Sixth, Seventh and 
Eighth Lakes. 

Thursday, June 3, the party will proceed 
by rail north, and the alternative will be 
offered of three days at Lake Placid, or at 
Hotel Champlain, Bluff Point on Lake 
Champlain, with opportunity to stay longer 
at favorable rates at either place as indi- 
viduals may desire. 

Party No. 1 will be entertained at Lake 
Placid Club, on Mirror Lake, one of the 
most beautiful spots in the mountains, 
and can make many interesting trips from 
there by motor, such as Saranac, Loon 
Lake, Keene Valley, Wilmington Notch, St. 
Hubert's, Ausable Chasm. This last 
named, one of the wonders of the region, 
will be included in the party ticket. Dur- 
ing the stay at Placid special entertain- 
ments will be provided. 

Party No. 2 at Hotel Champlain will 
also visit Ausable Chasm, and can make 
trips on Lake Champlain. Members can 
return to Albany via Lake George, that 
gem of mountain lakes. Instead of by rail, 
this alternative costing $1.50 extra. 

Thus a post conference trip Is arranged 
giving all a glimpse of the Racquette Lake 
region, little known to most of us, and then 
a choice enabling those familiar with 
Placid, or with Lakes Champlain and 
George, to choose the one desired, both 
parties seeing Ausable Chasm, which is 
less known and a real wonder. 

Rates at the Hotel Kaaterskill to libra- 
rians during the week of the conference 
are as follows: 


Two persons in double room without 
private bath, |3.00 per day each. 

Two persons in double room with private 
bath, $4.50 per day each. 

One person in single room without pri- 
vate bath, $4.00 per day. 

One person in room with private bath, 
$6.00 per day. 

Application for reservations should be 
made to Harrison S. Downs, Manager of 
Hotel Kaaterskill, Berkeley Lyceum, 19-21 
West 44th Street, New York City. Use 
this address until date of opening of con- 
ference. State definitely price you wish 
to pay, whether alone or with room-mate, 
and if with latter, full name and address 
of room-mate (or room-mates). It is abso- 
lutely essential, to avoid possible errors, 
that the booking ofiice should know full 
name and home address of each person for 
whom reservation is made. If ordering 
rooms for a party be sure to state names 
of all those for whom you are ordering, 
and the various persons who wish to room 
together. Small children occupying room 
with adults will be received at rate of 
$3.00 per day. 

The hotel has a number of corner, two 
and three room suites with private baths 
that would accommodate parties of five 
and seven respectively, desiring private 
bath. Also a number of rooms without 
private bath but near a public one are very 
large and can comfortably accommodate 
four persons. 

The management has agreed to give the 
librarians the exclusive use of the entire 
hotel for the week, June 23-28. Those 
wishing to remain longer can do so at the 
same rate quoted the conference. It is 
hoped that all delegates will plan to re- 
main during the entire time of the meet- 

It is probable that notwithstanding the 
size of the hotel its capacity will be taxed 
to the utmost, and it is recommended 
reservation be secured early. The Kaater- 
skill Conference promises to be the largest 
in the history of the Association. The man- 

agement has arranged for any possible 
overflow to be cared for at the Laurel 
Hotel, about a mile from the Kaaterskill. 
Transportation to and from the latter will 
be provided free. 


The executive office of the American 
Library Association has prepared a reg- 
istration form for those wishing to reg- 
ister for change of position. A copy of 
the blank will be sent to any member of 
the Association requesting it. Applicant 
is requested to enclose a two cent stamp 
for reply. While no guarantee of assist- 
ance can, of course, be made by the head- 
quarters office, it is well for those wishing 
for sufficient reasons to change position to 
have their desire registered with the sec- 
retary of the A. L. A. Information fur- 
nished will be considered as confidential 
and used only for purposes intended by 
the applicant. 

Questions asked in the blank are as fol- 

Date of this registration. 
Name in full. 
Address (permanent). 

Address (temporary, or until ) 

State fully all schools (above grammar 

grade) and colleges or universities you 

have attended, with period of attendance 

at each. 
Degrees, when and where obtained. 
Have you traveled abroad? When? 

Where? How long? 
Languages you read easily. 
Languages you read with assistance of a 

Library training and experience. 
Positions held, with approximate dates; 

and salary received. 
Nature of appointment desired. 
Salary expected. 
Part of country preferred. 
Physical condition. 




In the following list of gifts and be- Number of volumes as gifts 115,964 

quests to American libraries in 1912, are Sites for library buildings. ....... .....16 

included gifts of money, buildings, build- Buildings presented for library purposes* 13 

ing sites, books, miscellaneous and un- Miscellaneous and undescribed items 25 

described items. Unless otherwise stated the gift Is to 

The donations of Mr. Carnegie and the the public library of the place indicated 
Carnegie Corporation combined are about 
the same as Mr. Carnegie's donations in 

1911, being about $90,000 less in 1912, the ALABAMA 

total amount for the past year being $2,- Birmingham. Ensley Branch. Tech- 

236,953. Cash donations from other donors °^°^^ ^°°^^ valued at $700 from Tennessee 

total nearly three times the amount of ^°^^ ^^^ ^^°^ Company. 

1911; $3,265,825.21 being the amount in West End Branch. $500 for books 

1912 as against $1,038,452.69 in 1911. This '^°°^ *^^® ^^^^ Commissioners. 

includes the donation given to Harvard Union Springs. 296 vols, from citizens. 

University which is estimated at $1,000,- 

000. The total number of volumes given ARKANSAS 

to libraries is nearly twice as large as in Fort Smitli. 700 vols, of new books 

1911, and sites for library buildings are for the children's room from a citizen of 

more than twice as numerous. The most the city. 

conspicuous gifts of the year are the 

gift of Mrs. George D. Widener, of Phila- CALIFORNIA 

delphia, to Harvard University of a library Alameda. 91 vols, from the late Mrs. 

building to cost approximately $1,000,000 Ida Phelps Noy. 

as a memorial to her son, Harry E. Wid- Berkeley. University of California li- 

ener, who, as it will be remembered, was brary. 500 vols, relating to Dutch history, 

lost in the Titanic disaster; $750,000 to St. law, heraldry and antiquities by Mrs. 

Paul from James J. Hill; $200,000 to Trinity James L. de Fremery. 

College, from J. Pierpont Morgan; $250,- 900 vols, of Spanish philology, 

000 to Manchester, N. H., from Frank literature, history, architecture, and mis- 

P. Carpenter; the Avery building given to cellaneous subjects from J. C. Celnan. 

Columbia University, costing $500,000 from Coalinga. $10,000 from Andrew Car- 

S. J. Avery; and that of $750,000 from Mr. negie. 

Carnegie to San Francisco for a public Portervllle. $100 from Ladies Improve- 

library and branches. By a recent vote the ment Club. 

people of that city voted to accept this do- Riverside. $500 in securities from E. A. 

nation. Chase. 

Following is the financial summary: ^^" Francisco. $750,000 from Andrew 

O 3.1*11 p fir i f* 

From Andrew Carnegie and the Carnegie « 1 ' j ia/. 1 « *v ,,» 

r, x,^ «„ „„„ „^„ „„ San Leandro. 106 vols, from the Misses 

Corporation $2,236,953.00 „ ^ 

From other donors 3,265.825.21 'l ' ^. ,r , ,x i. « x «, 

' ' Santa Clara. University of Santa Clara. 

Total *K ^n9 77a 91 ^^* °^ ^^^ "^^^^ °' ^**® •^"'^S® ^^"^^^ "• 
♦o.ou^, i /5.^x Belden; $10,000 for law library from Hon. 

In addition to these money gifts the fol- John W. Ryland. 

lowing were reported: Sonoma. $894 donated toward completp 



ing Carnegie building fund by Sonoma 
Valley Woman's Club. 

Stanford University. Mrs. O. B. Dodge 
gives $5,000 to medical department library. 

Longmont. $2,500 additional from An- 
drew Carnegie. 


Haddam. Brainerd Memorial library. 
$10,000 bequest of C. S. Brainerd, Jr. 

Hartford. Trinity College. $200,000 for 
a library and administration building, gift 
of J. Pierpont Morgan. 

New Haven. Yale University library. 
6,000 volumes including manuscripts and 
notable editions of American authors, 
valued at $100,000, by Owen F. Aldis of 

Scotland. $500 bequest from Burton E. 

South Coventry. $40,000 by Henry F. 
Dimock for a building and maintenance of 
library. Name has been changed to Booth- 
Dimock Memorial Library, Inc. 

Ocala. $5,000 additional from Andrew 


Boston. $6,000 from Carnegie Corpora- 

Eatonton. $5,000 for a book fund, gift of 
W. K. Prudden of Lansing, Mich., as a 
memorial of his father and mother. 

Valdosta. $15,000 from Carnegie Cor- 

Bainbridge. $10,000 from Carnegie Cor- 


Caldwell. $12,500 from Carnegie Cor- 


Brookfleld. $10,000 from Carnegie Cor- 
poration. ^ 

Chicago. Art Institute. $50,000 through 
the will of D. H. Bumham to establish an 
architectural library. 

Glen Ellyn. $8,000 from Carnegie Cor- 

Lexington. Site for building and fund 
for income through will of Mrs. L. S. Van- 
dolah. Exact amount not known until 
estate is settled. 

Metropolis. $9,000 from Andrew Car- 

Minonk. A site and $20,000 for the erec- 
tion of a public library by the will of David 
Felger, to be known as the Felger Library, 
in memory of Christopher and Sarah Fel- 
ger, parents of the donor. 

Morris. $12,500 from Andrew Carnegie. 

Rushville. $2,500 additional from An- 
drew Carnegie. 

Spring Valley. $15,000 from Andrew 


Corydon. $11,000 from Carnegie Cor- 

Kendaliville. $12,500 from Carnegie 

Knightstown. $1,000 additional from 
Andrew Carnegie. 

Notre Dame. University of Notre Dame. 
Entire library of Rev. Hugh O'Hara Mc- 
Shane, of Chicago, consisting of valuable 
philosophical, historical and philological 

Oakland. $7,500 from Carnegie Cor- 

Thornton. $6,000 from Carnegie Cor- 


Elden. $2,500 additional from Andrew 

Mitchellville. $500 by the wUl of Cora 
V. Pinney. 

Sigourney. $10,000 from Andrew Car- 


Cherryvale. $10,000 from Carnegie Cor- 

Columbus. $10,000 from Carnegie Cor- 

Osborne. $6,000 from Andrew Carnegie. 

Wichita. $75,000 from Carnegie Cor- 




Danville. Central University. 930,000 
from Andrew Carnegie. 

Hopkinsville. |15,000 from Carnegie 

Oakland. $6,000 from Andrew Carnegie. 


New Orleans. $25,000 additional from 
Andrew Carnegie. 

Tulane University. 500 vols., 

bequest of Maj. B. M. Harrod. 


Baltimore. Enoch Pratt Free Library. 
Site for branch library No. 17, to be built 
out of the Carnegie fund, given by Mrs. 
Leon Lauer, in memory of her husband. 

Frederick. Site valued at $15,000 for 
the C. Burr Artz public library, bequeathed 
by Mrs. Margaret E. S. Hood, to be 
available only when the fund is in the 
hands of the trustees. 


Arlington. $25,000 for the preservation 
and increase of its collection of prints, 
from Winfield Robbins. 

Athol. $15,000 from Andrew Carnegie. 

Attleboro. $3,000 additional from D, H. 

Auburn. $114 from Auburn Men's Club. 

Boston. $2,000 by the will of Frank 
Clement of Newton; $10,000 as an endow- 
ment fund for books by the will of Cathe- 
rine Knapp. 

Boxford. $100 from Mrs. Sudan E. Wil- 
kins, in memory of her mother, Mrs. Eliza- 
beth W. Killam. 

Brewster. Income from $3,000 by the 
will of the late Joseph Nickerson. 

Cambridge. Harvard University. New 
library building to cost about one million 
dollars, gift of Mrs. George D. Widener, of 
Philadelphia, as a memorial to her son, 
Harry E. Widener, who was lost in the 

Titanic disaster; wing to be built on Har- 
vard University library building to house 
collection of rare books willed to the Har- 
vard library by H. E. Widener. 

Chelmsford. Legacy of $200 from Miss 
Maria L. Reed. 

Cohasset. Paul Pratt Memorial li- 
brary. $2,000 by the wiU of Miss Mary L. 

Concord. $5,000 by the will of Miss 
Martha R. Hunt. 

Dedliam. $3,000 by the will of Miss 
Catherine Lamson. 

East Bridgewater. $3,000 from estate of 
W. A. Rust. 

Easton. $10,000 by the will of Cyrus 

Goshen. $950 from estate of J. L. Bab- 
cock; $425 from estate of Emogene Pyn- 

Great Barrington — IHousatonic. $500 
from Mrs. TuUa; $600 from Housatonic 
Library and Entertainment Club. 

Hamilton. $500 by will of Dr. Justin 

Hanson. $500 by will of Mr. T. S. 

Holbrook. $5,000, the income to be 
used for the support of the library, from 
Mr. E. E. Holbrook. 

Lakeville. Site for library building by 
heirs of Mr. Luther Washburn; $5,000 
from Andrew Carnegie. 

Lanesborough. By the will of Mrs. 
Maria H. Newton, the library has received 
money, for a building. 

Lynn. $10,000 bequest from the late 
Joseph N. Smith; $1,000 from John Page 

Maiden. Bequest of $1,000 from Mrs. 
Mary W. F. Smith. 

Monterey. $476.21 from heirs of Mrs. 
Frank Conley. 

Newton. W. M. Bullivant has given 
money for a memorial library at West 

Sharon. $3,000 by will of Lucius Clapp. 

Shirley. $250 by will of Samuel Long- 

Somerville. $80,000 from Andrew Car- 



Springfield. $1,000 from the estate of 
J. L. Shipley; $500 from Miss Margaret 
Shipley; $250 from H. H. Skinner; $1,000 
toward the site of the Memorial Square 
Branch of the city library, from the 
Springfield Street Railway, Company. 

Stoughton. $1,000 by the will of the 
late Mary B. Farrington, to be used only 
for pictures, statuary, and interior decora- 

Topsfield. By the will of Dr. J. A. 
Lamson the residue of his estate goes to 
his widow and upon her death $5,000 goes 
to the library. 

Tyngsborough. $5,000 from the will of 
Miss Mary E. Bennett; $2,000 from the will 
of Frederick Blanchard, to be used for 
repairs on the building. 

Wales. Under the provision of the will 
of Mr. H. A. McFarland, his widow has the 
benefit of his estate and after her death 
a large part of it goes to the town for the 
erection of a library. 

Walpole. $500 as a perpetual care fund, 
by the will of Miss Lucy Jane Gould. 

Westminster. By the will of Manson 
Haws, $1,000 was left as a fund, the in- 
come to be used for the support of the 

Weymouth. Fogg Library. $100 from 
the Stetson Shoe Co. and $25 from the 
Old Colony Club. 

Winchendon. Bequest of $500 from 
Mrs. Helen M. Stanley. 

Worcester. Site for a branch library 
given by Messrs. M. J. Whittal and Alfred 
Thomas; $100 from estate of Miss Mary 
J. Sheedy. 


Alpena. $25,000 from Carnegie Cor- 

Cheboygan. Library site donated by 
Michigan State Telephone Company. 

Colon. $15,000 to Colon township for a 
library building. 

Grand Ledge. $10,000 from Carnegie 

Holland. Western Theological Semi- 
nary. $15,000 for a suitable library build- 
ing, by Dr. John W. Beardslee. 


Benson. $7,500 from Carnegie Corpora- 
tion; $1,500 for site by public subscription. 

Minneapolis. $125,000 from Carnegie 
Corporation for four branches. 

St. Paul. $750,000 for a special refer- 
ence library donated by James J. Hill; 
$100,000 for site by public subscription. 

Amory. $10,000 from Andrew Carnegie. 


Mexico. $12,500 from Carnegie Cor- 
poration, and site, valued at $20,000 from 
Mr. and Mrs. J. L. Llewellyn. 

St. Louis. Washington University. Law 
library by bequest of the late Gen. John 
W. Noble. 

Missoula. $9,000 from Andrew Carnegie 
for second story to building. 


Fullerton. $6,000 from Carnegie Cor- 

Gibbon. (For Gibbon township and 
town), $6,000 from Carnegie Corporation. 

Grattan Township and City of O'Neill. 
$10,000 from Carnegie Corporation. 

Seward. $8,000 from Carnegie Corpora- 

Wayne. $1,500 additional from Andrew 


Bow. New library building to be pre- 
sented by Hon. H. M. Baker, upon land 
donated by him. 

Hanover. John Curtis free public li- 
brary. $50,000 by bequest of Mrs. Emily 
H. Hitchcock. 

Manchester. Library building, probably 
to cost about $250,000, by Frank P. Car- 

Wilton. $25,000 donated by David 
Gregg; $1,000 from the estate of Hon. 
Charles H. Burns; and, by the will of 
Mrs. O. J. Lewis, the library is to receive 
Mr. Lewis' personal library, also $2,000 for 
a book fiind. 




Elizabeth. $27,703 additional from An- 
drew Carnegie. 

Hoboken. Law library valued at $10,- 
000 of the late Edward Russ. 

New Brunswick. Rutgers College li- 
brary. $1,500 for the purchase of French 
books, from Mrs. Grace T. Wells, widow 
of Dr. Wells, '78. 

Newark. $1,000 by Harry Swisher, 
through the Board of Trade, with no stipu- 
lation, except that the investment shall be 
of a permanent character and known as 
the Mabel Montgomery Swisher Memo- 
rial; also $500 by the will of William 
Patterson Young. 

Ridgewood. $35,000 for a library by the 
will of Julia Frances Pease. 


Albany. New York State library. Re- 
ceived since April 1, 1911, 62,000 bound 
volumes, 100,000 useful pamphlets, and 
40,000 maps, charts, photographs, manu- 
scripts, blanks, forms and miscellaneous 
items as gifts from institutions and indi- 
viduals from all parts of the world. 

Alden. $15,000 for library building, 
from Joseph E. Ewell and Carrie F. Ewell. 

Alexandria Bay. $100 from a trustee. 

Alfred. Alfred University. $30,000 for 
library building from Andrew Carnegie. 

Almond. $200 from various patrons. 

Aurora. $285 from unnamed givers, 

Ballston Springs. $600 for expense of 
moving to and fitting up new quarters, 
from several friends. 

Bainbridge. $185 for running expenses, 
from unnamed donors. 

Belfast. $1,000 to be added to building 
fund, from a friend. 

Bolivar. $167 for current expenses, 
from interested friends. 

Brooklyn. Institute library. $560 from 
unnamed supporters. 

Girls' High School library. 

Windows costing $400, from graduates of 
the school. 

Public Library. 1,417 volumes 

from several donors. 

Binghamton. More than 4,000 volumes, 
from the Y. M. C. A. of Binghamton. 

Buffalo. 1,499 volumes, from various 
Cambridge. $300 from unnamed friends. 
Camden. Collection of local moths and 
butterflies, from C. L. Miller. 

Canandaigua. $200 from friends. 

Canaseraga. $100 from anonymous 

Carthage. $600 for building fund from 
W. E. Kibbe; $115 from others. 

Castleton. 103 volumes of choice chil- 
dren's books from Seth Wheeler. 

Chatham. Memorial window, made by 
Tiffany, in honor of the late Dr. John T. 
Wheeler; also medical library of Dr. 
Wheeler; from Mrs. John T. Wheeler and 

Clinton. Hamilton College library. 
$100,000 from unnamed donor, for new 
building; $5,000 from bequest of A. J. Up- 
son; $2,500 from T. R. Proctor; $2,250 
from R. W. Pomeroy. $500 from T. L. 

Colton. $22,000 for building, $35,000 for 
endowment, from A. Barton Hepburn. 

Corning. Perpetual leasehold of entire 
floor of large new building, given to pub- 
lic library by Q. W. Wellington. 

Diamond Point. $215 from old friends. 

Dobbs Ferry. $190 for current expenses 
from several donors. 

Dunkirk. $350 from unnamed givers. 

East Hounsfield. Building and grounds 
worth .$4,000 from the Cleveland family. 

East Rookaway. $100 from Mrs. Rus- 
sell Sage. 

East Springfield. Site for building, from 
Mrs. M. E. G. Walradt. 

Eden. $360 from unnamed donors. 

Eld red. $170 from a friend. 

Fayettevllle. $425 from several donors. 

Frankllnvllle. $5,000 for building and 
site from H. F. Blout. 

Freeport. $240 from interested friends. 

Frankfort. $100, source unnamed. 

Fulton. $200 from Current Events Club. 

Geneseo. Wadsworth library. $560 from 
interested patrons. 

Geneva. $260 from unnamed source. 



Glen Iris. Handsome and commodious 
building, provided for in will of W. P. 
Letchworth, for library and museum to be 
maintained in connection with the 1,000 
acre park in the Genesee Valley, left to 
the people of the state in his will. 

Gloversville. Four pictures, illustrating 
well-known fairy stories, from the family 
of the late librarian, A. L. Peck. 

Goshen. $140 from unnamed patrons. 

Granville. Pember library. $200 from a 

Hamburg. $225 from several supporters. 

Haverstraw. $2,000 for endowment, 
from a friend. 

Heuvelton. $415 from various donors. 

Highland Falls. $980 from Mrs. J. P. 
Morgan and daughter. 

Hoosick Falls. $50,000 for building and 
endowment by will of the late C. A. 

Hudson Falls. $195 from several 

Huntington. $500 from Martha Loomis. 

1 1 Ion. $100 from unnamed friend. 

Ithaca. Cornell University library. 
Valuable collection of more than 5,000 
volumes of books on agriculture, belong- 
ing to the late Professor John Craig, 
donated by Mrs. Craig. 

Jasper. Site for building, from anony- 
mous donor. 

Johnstown. $140 from unnamed source. 

Jordanvllle. $300 from Mrs. Douglas 

Kingston. $400 from various donors. 

Lancaster. $200 from unnamed donors. 

Lawyersville. $100 from C. Sidney 

Lima. $250 by will of Mary L. Woodard. 

Little Falls. Law library and collection 
of maps, profile and field books and $5,000 
for endowment, by will of Watts T, 

Livingston. Building and $100 for cur- 
rent expenses, from Miss Ida Potts. 

Lyons. $12,500 for library building 
from Andrew Carnegie. 

i^ayville. Book case and 700 volumes 
from the library of the late Albion W, 
Tourgee, given by Mrs, Emma K. Tourgee. 

Miiibrook. Pledge of $600 a year, in 
lieu of that amount pledged by the village 
when the new building was erected, given 
by H. H. Flagler. 

Mohawk. Property worth $25,000, left 
to the village for library purposes by the 
late F. U. Weller on the death of his 
widow, now made available through the 
decease of the latter. 

Montgomery. $399 contributed by vari- 
ous patrons. 

Mt. Kisco. New edition of the Ency- 
clopedia Brittanica, from Atherton W. 

Naples. $500 to the Maxfield Memorial 
Library of the Naples High School from 
D. H. Maxfield. 

New Rochelie. $60,000 from Andrew 
Carnegie for new building. 

New Yorl< City. Columbia University. 
Avery building for library of architecture 
and art, costing $500,000, from S. J. 
Avery; law library of R. R. Campbell, 
numbering 1,489 volumes, given by Maria 
L. Campbell; $250 for books on the Near 
East, from C. R. Crane; library of John 
Erickson, numbering 120 volumes and a 
Moliere collection of 400 volumes given 
by W. C. Church; 150 volumes for the de- 
partment of botany, given by Professors 
Curtis and Morgan; 194 volumes, includ- 
ing the works of James Thomson, given 
by J. McL. Nash; for the Bryson library. 
Teachers' College, $100 from a friend. 

Public library. Half of his 

residuary estate, estimated at high value, 
and his private library, by will of W. A. 
Spencer; collections of books, prints, etc., 
each numbering more than 100 volumes, 
were received as follows: 992 volumes 
from the American Monthly Review of 
Reviews; 167 from the Babson System; 
409 from the Barnard School; 138 from 
Marie Caldwell; 115 from Andrew Car- 
negie; 373 from G. B. Carter; 567 volumes, 
and 1,072 plates (the latter illustrating 
French costumes), from Mrs. Henry 
Draper; 116 volumes from Wilberforce 
Eames; 1,995 volumes from the Equitable 
Life Assurance Co.; 105 volumes from W. 
L. Fairbanks; 226 from Gregg Publishing 



Co.; 179 from the Misses Griffith; 506 
from R. S. Guernsey; 222 from Isabelle 
Hardie; 185 from J. F. Kernochan; 110 
from Knickerbocker Guide Co.; 179 from 
E. Koll; 104 from Krackowizer; 123 from 
George lies; 232 municipal reports sent by 
35 Italian cities; 257 volumes and 4,396 
pamphlets from the Manufacturers' Li- 
brary; 162 from J. J. Murphy; 169 from A. 
Nardecchia; 1,884 from National Short- 
hand Reports Association; 170 from New 
York Evening Post; 214 from New York 
Herald; 200 from L. E. Opdyke; 195 from 
Publishers Weekly; 165 from Mrs. Russell 
Sage; 102 from Frances Savona; 352 from 
Students' Volunteer Movement; 172 from 
Mrs. C. E. Townsend. 

R. R. Y. M. C. A. library $1,200 

from a friend. 

Newark Valley. Tappan-Spaulding li- 
brary. $2,000 by will of Nancy Burbank, 
income to be used to keep building in re- 

Newfane. 468 volumes, from various 

Norwood. $350 by charter members of 
new library; 127 volumes from Rev. G. F. 
Bamback and 100 volumes from Mrs. J. E. 

Ogdensburg. $250 from unnamed 

Ovid. $300 for new furniture, from Mrs. 
Benedict of California. 

Owego, Coburn library. Mahogany cases 
and valuable books from Mrs. Gershon W. 

Oyster Bay. $270 from unnamed do- 

Peekskill. 200 volumes to form the 
nucleus of an historical collection, from 
S. D. Horton. 

Penn Yan. $145 from unnamed source. 

Perry. $12,000 for new building, from 
Andrew Carnegie. 

Pleasant Valley. $130 from anonymous 

PleasantvMle. $200 from friends. 

Pccantlco Hills. $200 from John D. 

Port Jefferson. $100 from unnamed 

Port Washington. $125 from friends. 

Poughkeepsle. Vassar College library. 
$1,400 from unnamed donor. 

Rhinecliff. $80,000 in high class securi- 
ties for permanent endowment of the 
Memorial Library, from ex-Vice President 
Levi P. Morton. 

Richfield Springs. $500 by will of late 
Mrs. G. W. Earn. 

Rochester. 853 volumes from the li- 
brary of the late Joseph O'Connor. 

Rockville Center. Plate glass windows 
for new building from Joseph Elias. 

Rome. Jervis library. $4,000 by will 
of the late W. J. P. Kingsley, formerly 
president of the library. 

Round Lake. $150 from various donors. 

Roxbury. $545 from Helen M. Gould. 

Russell. $2,000 for endowment, from 
S. H. Knox of Buffalo. 

St. Johnsville. 160 volumes of new 
books, from J. H. Reaney. 

Saranac Lake. $130 from unnamed 

Sherman. $350 for new furnishings of 
building, from O. W. Norton. 

Sidney. $175 from unnamed source. 

Skaneateles. $1,000 for endowment, by 
will of late Alice S. Mosely. 

Smithtown. Site for building by Mrs. S. 
C. Butler; $2,500 for building from various 

Sodus. $120 from unnamed source. 

Southampton. $200 from friend. 

Southold. $375 from various patrons. 

Stamford. $210 from unnamed friends. 

Syracuse. $5,000 for branch of public 
library for south side of city, from South 
Side Business Man's Association. 

Tuxedo. $400 from several patrons. 

Utica. $5,000 trust fund, the interest to 
be used for book purchases, has now be- 
come available through the death of Mrs. 
A. J. Upson; 259 volumes of musical 
scores, contributed by the B Sharp Musi- 
cal Club; $980 given by anonymous donors. 

Valley Falls. $100 toward cost of site 
for new building, given by Mrs. Nellie 

Watertown. Flower Memorial Library. 
Valuable library of the late Roswell P. 



Flower, consisting of 15 cases of books, 
given by his heirs. 

Westhampton. $150 from unnamed 

Yonkers. Woman's Institute library. 
$110 from unnamed source. 

Asheville. Pack Memorial library. $1,- 
700 (estimated) given by the Pack family 
for improvements. 

Jamestown. Jamestown College. Li- 
brary building presented by anonymous 


Chardon. $8,000 from Andrew Carnegie. 

Cincinnati. $20,000 under the will of 
Floris A. Sackett, which through an in- 
terest in the residuary estate, may amount 
to $50,000, the income to be used in the 
purchase of books. 

Cleveland. Western Reserve Historical 
Society. About 800 vols., including a very 
fine collection on the history of costume. 

Columbus. $1,000 and all books except 
law library by bequest of Gen. John W. 

Fostoria. $1,700 as residuary legatee of 
the estate of the late Louisa McClean. 

Gibsonburg. $9,000 from Andrew Car- 

Napoleon. $3,000 additional from An- 
drew Carnegie. 

Paulding County. $40,000 from Car- 
negie Corporation. 

PIckerington. (For town and township 
combined), $10,000 from Andrew Carnegie. 

Pomeroy. $10,000 from Andrew Car- 

Obeplin. Oberlin College library. $10,000 
anonymous gift. 

Tiffin. $25,000 from Andrew Carnegie. 

Wapakoneta. By the will of the late L. 
U. Blume, the Board of Education will re- 
ceive $50,000 for a Y. M. C. A. and library 
after the wife's death. 

Wellsvllle. $10,000 from Andrew Car- 

IVIuskogee. $15,000 additional from An- 
drew Carnegie. 


Cuthbert. $5,000 from Carnegie Cor- 

Hood River. $17,500 from Carnegie Cor- 

MclVlinnville. $10,000 from Andrew Car- 

Ontario. $7,500 from Carnegie Corpora- 

Portland. $60,000 for four branches 
from Carnegie Corporation. 

Union. $500 additional from Andrew 


Allentown. $14,000 through subscrip- 

Bethlehem. Free library of the Bethle- 
hems. A building site at Market and New 
Streets, from a group of citizens. 

Blairsvilie. Blairsvllle Free library. $200 
from Miss Millhauser for books on 

Carnegie. Andrew Carnegie free library. 
$100,000 additional endowment from Mr. 

Clifton Heights. Gift of a stone build- 
ing used as a parsonage, from the trustees 
of the New Jerusalem Church, for a free 
library and a social center. 

Haverford. Haverford College library. 
Stack building to hold 100,000 vols, by an 
anonymous donor. 

Lancaster. A gift of $2,300 in stocks 
from Frank Brenneman. 

IVIauch Chunk. Dimmick Memorial li- 
brary. $25,000 by the will of Mrs. Mary 
Packer Cummings of Sayre. 

North East. $25,000 for a memorial li- 
brary by the will of John C. McCord. 

Pennsburg. Perkiomen Seminary. $20,- 
000 from Andrew Carnegie. 

Philadelphia. Free library. $3,400 vol- 
umes of law books and $10,000 endowment 
from the collection from William Brooke 

South Bethlehem. Free Library of the 



Bethlehems. $500 for books from the 
South Bethlehem Teacher's Club to the 
South Bethlehem Branch. 

Wallingford. Furness Free library. 
$5,000 from the late Dr. Horace Howard 

York. $125,000 for the erection of a 
public library, and for its maintenance the 
income of $60,000 more by the will of Mil- 
ton D. Martin. The bequest becomes 
operative upon the death of his wife. 

Newport. People's library. George G. 
King has given his brick house, with 24,- 
000 square feet of land, for library pur- 

Redwood library. $50,000 by 

the will of Mrs. Mary E. W. Perry. 

Providence. Athenaeum library. 2,000 
vols, from heirs of the late Holder Borden 

Brown University. Corthell en- 
gineering library of 7,000 vols, and pamph- 
lets, with $5,000 endowment, from Elmer 
L. Corthell, Sc. D.; Chambers Dante col- 
lection of about 2,000 vols, and pamphlets, 
gift of Henry D. Sharpe. 

Public library. $5,000 from Dr. 

Oliver H. Arnold. 


Charleston. 1,000 vols, by bequest of 
Gen. G. G. Greenough. 

Latta. $5,000 from Carnegie Corpora- 


Hot Springs. $2,500 additional from 
Andrew Carnegie. 


Lebanon. Castle Heights Training 
School. Library building (estimated cost, 
$12,000), gift of Rutherford Parkes, of 
Dallas, Tex. 

Martin. $9,000 from Carnegie Corpora- 

Memphis. Cossitt library. $5,000 from 
Mrs. Helen Cossitt Jouillard of New 

York, daughter of the founder of the li- 

Nashville. $50,000 from Carnegie Cor^ 
poration ($25,000 for branch for white 
people, $25,000 for branch for colored 

Vanderbilt University. By be- 
quest of Dr. W. J. Vaughn, formerly of the 
chair of mathematics, his library, contain- 
ing books on mathematics and many 
Russian works. 


Corsicana. $700, gift of Capt. James 
Garitt, Capt. C. H. Allyn, and S. A. Pace. 

Gainesville. $15,000 from Carnegie Cor- 

Gilmer. $7,500 from Carnegie Corpora- 

Palestine. $15,000 from Carnegie Cor- 

Memphis. $10,000 from Andrew Car- 

Sherman. $20,000 from Carnegie Cor- 


Cedar City. $10,000 from Carnegie Cor- 

Garland. $5,000 from Andrew Carnegie. 

Richmond. $8,000 from Carnegie Cor- 


Danville. $1,000 from Mr. Morrill, of 
New York. 

Guilford. 200 vols, from Mrs. Lucy 
Glover,- and 200 vols, from Mrs. C. F. Rams- 

Pittsford-Fowler. 150 volumes from Miss 
Emily Dutton Proctor. 

Proctor. A new library building from 
Mrs. Redfield Proctor, as a memorial to 
her daughter, Mrs. Arabella Proctor 

Randolph. Valuable collection of books 
by legacy of Willis Chandler. 

Reading (Felchville). The will of Clar- 
ence W. Marks of Chicago leaves the Gil- 
bert A. Davis library a legacy of $5,000. 

St. Albans. Mrs. Oliver C. Stevens, in 
memory of her husband, has given the 



Warner Home for Little Wanderers a li- 
brary for tlie children, and has remodeled 
and refurnished the library room. 

Shelburne. $1,000 from Mrs. W. S. 

Springfield. $2,000 legacy of Mrs. Jane 
M. Dana, the income to be devoted to the 
purchase of books for the town library. 

Swantcn. King's Daughters' Circle. 
The old "Central House" lot to be used as 
'a building lot for a library given by Mrs. 
Achsa B. Cushman. 

Waitsfieid. Library room in a new town 
hall, the money for the building being given 
by a former resident, Mr. G. A. Joslyn, 
now of Omaha. 

Wiliiamstown. 125 volumes from the 
late Henry S. Baker of Boston, also from 
him a collection of curios; a case for the 
safe-keeping of these curios from Miss 
Abbie H. Baker of Boston, sister of the 


Auburn. $9,000 from Carnegie Corpora- 

Clarl<ston and Vineland. (Combined) 
$10,000 from Andrew Carnegie. 

Port Townsend. $12,500 from Carnegie 

Puyallup. $12,500 from Andrew Car- 

Spolcane. Two lots valued at $7,000 
for a site for a branch library from Sylves- 
ter Heath; also $70,000 from Carnegie 
Corporation, for two branch library build- 

Walla Walla. Whitman College is the 
recipient of the Esther Nilsson memorial 
fund for library purposes, given by Mr. 
and Mrs. Andrew Nilsson, of Dayton, 
Wash., in memory of their daughter. 

Fort Atkinson. $10,000 for a new public 
library by Henry E. Southwell, of Chicago. 
The only stipulation is that it be called 
the Dwight Foster public library, in 
memory of the pioneer settler of Fort 

Fox Lake. $500 donated by C. H. 
Eggleston for furnishing the new rooms of 
the public library. 

Kil bourn. $6,000 from Andrew Car- 

l\Ailwaukee. Library site by Silas J. and 
John J. Llewellyn. 

Monroe. Lot adjoining library has been 
presented to city by Edwin Ludlow, and 
also several hundred dollars for improv- 
ing the lecture room. 

Plymoutii. $10,000 through the will of 
Clemena E. Smith for a library building. 

Prairie du Sac. Hon. J. C. Tripp 
donated $10,000 for the erection of a 
village hall and library building. 

Racine. $10,000 from Andrew Carnegie 
for a branch library. 

Reedsburg. $1,000 through the will of 
the late Mrs. Ward. 


Beaverton. $2,000 additional from An- 
drew Carnegie. 

Chesiey. $10,000 from Andrew Car- 

Eimira. $2,000 additional from Andrew 

New Hannburg. $6,000 from Carnegie 

Watford. $6,000 from Carnegie Cor- 

Wiiitby. $4,250 additional from Andrew 


$6,500 from Carnegie Corpora- 



$9,500 additional from Andrew 




Issued in 
jAiruABT, Mabch, Mat, Jttlt, Sdftkmbbr and 


There is no subscription price, and the Bulletin is 
sent only to members of the Association. 


President — Henry E. Legler, I*ublio library, Chicago. 
First Vice-President — E. H. Anderson, Public library. 

New York. 
Second Vice-President — Mary F. Isom, Library Asso- 
ciation, Portland, Ore. 
Executive Board — The president, two vice-presidents 


Herbert Putnam, Library of Congress, Washington. 

Purd B. Wright, Public library, Kansas City, Mo. 

C. W. Andrews, John Crerar library, Chicago. 

Linda A. Eastman, Public library, Cleveland. 

H. C. Wellman, Library Association, Springfield, 

T. W. Koch, University of Michigan library, Ann 
Secretary — George B. Utley, 78 E. Washington Street, 

Treasurer — Carl B. Roden, Public library, Chicago. 

Executive ofiices — 78 E. Washington Street, Chicago, 



The executive office of the A. L. A. 
wishes to know of libraries of the United 
States or Canada which have in opera- 
tion a pension system, or which may be 
planning to institute such a system. The 
librarian of any such library will confer a 
favor on the secretary if he will write him 
briefly outlining any such system or plan. 


The executive office would like to make a 
collection of library dedication programs, 
and would very much appreciate receipt of 
two copies of all such programs from all 
libraries, large or small, which have held 
dedication or opening exercises In the past 
ten years or so. 

Abbott, Mabel Louise, asst. P. L,, N. Y. 
City. 5692. 

Adelbert College L. of Western Reserve 
Univ., Cleveland, Ohio. (George F. 
Strong, in.) 5631. 

Allen, Florence I., ref. In. Colgate Univ. L., 
Hamilton, N. Y. 5681. 

Arents, Grace E., founder Arents F. L., 
Richmond, Va. 5693, 

Avery, Maurice H., asst. Order Div. L. of 
Congress, Washington, D. C. 5634. 

Babcock, Helen S., stud. Training Class P. 
L., Chicago, 111. 5629. 

Balch, Ruth, catlgr. Newberry L., Chicago,. 
111. 5639. 

Basset, Elsie L., desk asst. Clark Univ. L., 
Worcester, Mass. 5713. 

Bingham, Jessie W., asst. Hammond L., 
Chicago Theological Seminary, Chicago, 
111. 5694. 

Black, Elizabeth L., asst. in charge Dept. 
of Sociology P. L., Brooklyn, N. Y. 5682. 

Brasch, Frederick E., asst. Stanford Univ. 
L., Stanford University, Cal. 5673. 

Brewer, Helen, stud. Carnegie L. Training 
Sch., Atlanta, Ga. 5650. 

Brown, George Dobbin, asst. ref. In. Prince- 
ton Univ. L., Princeton, N. J. 5674. 

Brown, Gwendolen, br. In. Bushwick Br. 
P. L., Brooklyn, N. Y. 5683. 

Charlton, Alice, Univ. of Minn. L., Min- 
neapolis, Minn. 5712. 

Cobb, Eleanor, In. Oak Park High Sch. L., 
Oak Park, III. 5710. 

Crandle, Inez, In. Dimmick Mem. L., Mauch 
Chunk, Pa. 5711. 

Crosier, Florence L., 1st. asst. & child. In. 
Lorain Br. P. L., Cleveland, Ohio. 5701. 

Currie, Florence B., catlgr. Univ. of Wash. 
L., Seattle, Wash. 5695. 

Davidson, Isabel, stud. Carnegie L. Train- 
ing Sch., Atlanta, Ga. 5651. 

Davidson, Anna A., asst. Carnegie P. L., 
Bradford, Pa. 5666. 

Davis, Letty Lucile, stud. N. Y. P. L. Sch., 
N. Y. City. 5667. 

Dawley, Katharine, In. P. L., Le Mars, la. 

De GrafEenried, Elwyn, stud. Carnegie L. 
Training Sch., Atlanta, Ga. 5652. 

De la Fosse, Frederick M., In. P. L., Peter- 
borough, Ont. 5703. 

Dobbins, Elizabeth Vaughn, In. American 




Telephone & Telegraph Co. Accounting 

L., 15 Dey St., N. Y. City. 5696. 
Dolezal, Frank J., head shelver, P. L., St, 

Louis, Mo. 5685. 
Drake, Ruth Bradley, asst. catlgr. P. L., 

Cincinnati, Ohio. 5659. 
Eaton, Alice L., In. The Norman Williams 

P. L., Woodstock, Vt. 5647. 
Eckel, Elizabeth, child. In. Dayton St. Br. 

P. L., Cincinnati, Ohio. 5660. 
Palley, Eleanor W., asst. Northwestern 

Univ. L., Evanston, 111. 5642. 
Fauteux, Aegidius, chief In. Bibliotheque 

Saint Sulpice, Montreal, P. Q. 5705. 
Fitch, Ethel H., advanced catlgr. & ref. In. 

P. L., Cincinnati, Ohio. 5661. 
Hammond, Otis G., supt. N. H. Historical 

Society L., Concord, N. H. 5675. 
Hayward Ruth P., asst. catlgr. P. L., Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio. 5662. 
Herrman, Bessie, head In. Tulare County 

F. L., Visalia, Cal. 5706. 
Hicks, Mary Lydia, 1st asst. In. P. L., 

Evansville, Ind. 5709. 
Hjelmqvist, Fredrik, Forste Bibliotekskon- 

sulent K. Ecklesiastik departementet, 

Stockholm, Sweden. 5630. 
Holt, Jean MacKinnon, in charge L. Dept. 

The Macmillan Co., N. Y. City. 5686. 
Hood, Ida Richardson, asst. In, American 

Museum Natural History L., N. Y. City. 

Jacobsen, Karl T., asst. class. Univ. of Chi- 
cago L,, Chicago, 111. 5641. 
Karsten, Eleanor G., sec'y to In. Univ. of 

Illinois L., Urbana, 111. 5632, 
Kemp, Emily, stud. Carnegie L. Training 

Sch., Atlanta, Ga. 5653. 
Kennedy, Robert McMillan, In. Univ. of 

South Carolina, Columbia, S. C, 5637. 
King, Elizabeth MacBride, catlgr. Legal 

Dept, American Telephone & Telegraph 

Co., 15 Dey St., N. Y. City. 5668, 
Lansing, Pauline D., order clerk P, L., 

Buffalo, N, Y. 5687. 
Lewinson, Leah, br. In. 115th St. Br. P. L., 

N. Y. City, 5697. 
Lewis, Willard P., stud, N, Y, State L. 

Sch„ Albany, N, Y. 5669, 
Lyon, Dorothy D., In. P. L., Little Rock, 

Ark, 5689, 

McCombs, Charles F,, stud, N, Y, State L, 

Sch„ Albany, N, Y, 5640, 
McCormick Theological Seminary L., Chi- 
cago, III. (Rev. Jolin F. Lyons, In.) 

Marklund, Nelson, asst, class. Newberry 

L., Chicago, 111. 5643. 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 

Boston, Mass. (R. P. Bigelow, In.) 5691. 
Masson, Annie A., chief catlgr. P, L., Ot- 
tawa, Ont, 5707. 
Metcalf, Keyes D., stud, N, Y. P, L, Sch„ N, 

Y, City, 5670, 
Morton, Mary E., catlgr. P. L., London, Ont, 

Murray, Annie May, care of Col, C, H. 

Murray, Fort Robinson, Neb. 5704. 
Murray, Clara Luema, stud. N. Y. P, L, 

Sch., N, Y. City. 5671, 
Osgood, Mrs. Edward L., trus, Hopedale 

Mem. L., Hopedale, Mass, 5699. 
Parsons, Mrs. Emma K., charging clerk 

Univ. of Missouri L., Columbia, Mo, 

Pfeiffer, Helen, head of Creative Dept. F. 

P, L., St, Joseph, Mo, 5677. 
Place, Frank, jr,, asst. N. Y. Academy of 

Medicine L., 17-19-21 West 43rd St., N. Y, 

City. 5638. 
Pooley, Mary Helen, asst, catlgr, P, L,, 

Cincinnati, Ohio. 5663, 
Potter, Alice Elizabeth, asst. in Reader's 

Dept, Univ, of Chicago L., Chicago, 111, 

Powell, Elizabeth B., desk asst. P. L., 

Buffalo, N. Y, 5688, 
Reinke, Caroline E,, chief of Useful Arts 

Dept. P. L., Cincinnati, Ohio, 5665. 
Rorer, Nellie, stud, Carnegie L. Training 

Sch., Atlanta, Ga, 5654. 
Rossell, Mary Ellis, stud. N. Y, P. L, Sch., 

N, Y. City. 5672, 
Ruzicka, Joseph, bookbinder, 106 Clay St„ 

Baltimore, Md, 5635. 
Sherman, Clarence Edgar, asst. In. Am- 
herst Coll. L., Amherst, Mass. 5644. 
Sidhashram, Swami Brahma Nath, Sri Vi- 

dyapith L., Etawah City, India, 5702. 
Smith, Mellie Morris, asst. catlgr. P. L,, 

Cincinnati, Ohio. 5664. 



Snohr, E, T., Library Bureau, 37-41 S. 
Wabash Ave., Chicago, 111. 5678. 

Spaulding, Forrest B., stud. N. Y. P. L. 
Sch., N. Y. City. 5649. 

N. Y. P. L. Sch., N. Y. City. 5646. Life 

Stevens, Isabel, stud. Carnegie L. Train- 
ing Sch., Atlanta, Ga. 5655. 

Thornton, Mary, stud. Carnegie L. Train- 
ing Sch., Atlanta, Ga. 5656. 

Thurman, William R., foreman bindery, P. 
L., N. Y. City. 5679. 

Tiefenthaler, Leo, In. Municipal Reference 
L. P. L., Milwaukee, Wis. 5645. 

Tower, Ralph W., curator of books & pub- 
lications, American Museum of Natural 
History L., N. Y. City. 5680. 

Walker, Catherine, stud. Carnegie L. Train- 
ing Sch., Atlanta, Ga. 5657. 

Walkley, Raymond L., stud. N. Y. State L. 
Sch., Albany, N. Y. 5633. 

Warner, Philip W., bookseller, Leary, 
Stuart & Co., 9 S. 9th St., Philadelphia, 
Pa. 6690. 

Williams, Willie, stud. Carnegie L. Train- 
ing Sch., Atlanta, Ga. 5658. 

Wykes, Sadie P., Univ. of Missouri L., Co- 
lumbia, Mo. 5700. 


L., Washington, D. C. 1270. 
MORRIS, LOUISE R., In. F. P. L., Summit, 

N. J. 3484. 

N. Y. P. L. Sch., N. Y. City. 5646. 
STROH, E. F., In. Academy of the New 

Church L., Bryn Athyn, Pa. 3482. 


In accordance with Sec. 25 of the Consti- 
tution of the American Library Associa- 
tion, which requires that "notice of the 
amendments (to the Constitution) be sent 
to each member of the Association at least 
one month before final adoption," the pro- 
posed amendment to Sec. 14 of the Consti- 
tution is here printed as a communication 
to the membership at large. This amend- 

ment was voted for by the constitutional 
three-fourths of those present and voting 
at the Ottawa Conference in 1912, and will 
probably be presented for second and final 
vote to the Association at the Kaaterskill 

VOTED, that Sec. 14 of the Constitution 
be amended by inserting the following 
clause after the words "and twenty-five 
by the Council itself;" 

"and one member from each state, pro- 
vincial and territorial library association 
(or any association covering two or more 
such geographical divisions) which com- 
plies with the conditions for such repre- 
sentation set forth in the by-laws." 

If the above proposed amendment to the 
Constitution is finally adopted the Asso- 
ciation will be called on to vote on the 
proposal that Sec. 3a be added to the By- 
laws as follows: 

"Sec. 3a. Each state, territorial and pro- 
vincial library association (or any associa- 
tion covering two or more such geo- 
graphical divisions) having a membership 
of not less than fifteen members, may be 
represented in the Council by the presi- 
dent of such association, or by an alternate 
elected at the annual meeting of the as- 
sociation. The annual dues shall be $5.00 
for each association having a membership 
of fifty or less, and ten cents per additional 
capita where membership is above that 
number. The privileges and advantages 
of the A. L. A. conferences shall be avail- 
able only to those holding personal mem- 
bership or representing Institutional mem- 
bership in the Association." 

Public Documents 
The Committee on Public Documents 
has arranged with Mr. F. A. Crandall of 
Washington, D. C, to present a paper at 
the forthcoming meeting of the govern- 
ment documents round table. Mr. Cran- 
dall, who was for many years connected 
with the Government Printing Office, is 
well fitted to present a paper as a basis 
for the discussion at this meeting. It is 
expected that his paper will deal prin- 
cipally with the past and present biblio- 
graphical infelicities found in our public 

GEORGE S. GODARD, Chairman. 



Library Administration 
The Committee on Administration is 
making further investigations into the de- 
tails of accessioning and charging In li- 
braries of various kinds. Additional 
questions have been sent out to the libra- 
ries mentioned in the Ottawa report, and 
a considerable number of additional libra- 
ries have been included in the scope of the 
investigation. Some interesting informa- 
tion regarding radical modification of 
these operations by some libraries has 
been received. 



The Committee on Binding frequently 
receives requests from various libraries 
for information about binding, and, occa- 
sionally, requests for an expression of 
opinion about the work of certain binders. 
It has always been impossible to give 
opinions about library binders with whose 
work the members of the Committee have 
not been familiar. The Committee has, 
therefore, established a collection which 
includes work done by many binders mak- 
ing a specialty of binding for libraries. 
Each binder has sent in samples, showing 
the manner in which he binds fiction, chil- 
dren's books and periodicals. In addition 
to these samples, each binder has an- 
swered a list of 24 questions relating to 
methods, materials, prices, etc. With 
these samples and answers to these ques- 
tions in hand the Committee is in a posi- 
tion to give definite opinions upon quality 
and style of work whenever librarians ask 
for it. 

It Is not the purpose of the Committee 
to publish opinions about the work of any 
binder, but all questions will be gladly 
answered. Librarians can help to make 
this plan more useful: — 

1. By sending to the Committee the 
names of library binders. The Committee 
already has many names, but there must 
be many more whose names it will be un- 
able to obtain unless sent by those who 
are interested. 

2. By urging binders, whom they know. 

to comply with the requests of the Com- 

3. By making use of the collection 
already established. 

The publishers of the Encyclopaedia 
Britannica are planning to publish a Year- 
book covering the year 1912, in a form to 
correspond with the India paper edition of 
the Encyclopaedia. They are not planning 
to issue an edition on regular paper in a 
special binding for the use of libraries, but 
indicate a willingness to do this, provided 
there is sufficient demand for it. Libra- 
rians who prefer the regular edition in a 
special binding should write at once either 
to the publishers of the Encyclopaedia 
Britannica, 116 W. 32d St., New York City, 
or to the chairman of the A. L. A. Com- 
mittee on Binding, who will see that the 
protest is made to the publishers. 

A. L. BAILEY, Chairman, 
Wilmington (Del.) Institute Free Library. 

Federal and State Relations 
The Committee has endeavored to se- 
cure a lower postal rate on books, from 
Congress. It ascertained that it was im- 
possible to secure inclusion of printed mat- 
ter in parcel post without new legislation, 
and it found that there was great disin- 
clination on the part of the Congressional 
Committee to pass such legislation until 
it had been seen what was the result of 
the parcel post as at present established. 
It also appeared that, while the parcel 
post rates were lower than the third-class 
rates in some instances, in other instances 
they were larger, and, for that reason, it 
was impossible to have the co-operation 
with the booksellers, which seems neces- 
sary, if a new rate is to be established. 
Your Committee also suggested that it 
might be possible to grant to books and 
other printed matter the same rate as is 
given periodicals sent by private individ- 
uals in second class matter, namely, one 
cent for four ounces, and while it found 
rather more favor for this project, of plac- 
ing at the lower rate all printed matter, 
except magrazines sent by the publishers. 



It was unable to secure any definite re- 
sults at the short session of Congress. 
B. C. STEINER, Chairman. 


The report of the committee on news- 
print paper has been reprinted from the 
January Bulletin, and any specified num- 
ber of copies will be sent free from the 
headquarters oflBce to those who can use 
them to advantage in the campaign for 
better newspaper paper, 

By a recent ruling of the A. L. A. Pub- 
lishing Board all institutional members of 
the Association will be granted a discount 
of 10% on all A. L. A. publications on 
orders amounting to $1.00 or over. 

This is an additional reason why all 
libraries having a reasonable income 
should be institutional members of the na- 
tional association. The executive officer 
of the Association has recently had printed 
a slip mentioning briefly some of the bene- 
fits of A. L. A. institutional membership. 
Benefits of Membership — 

1. Receipt of Bulletin of the American 
Library Association, six numbers a year, 
forming a volume of about 400 pages. One 
number consists of the Proceedings of the 
annual conference and constitutes the most 
important contribution of the year to li- 
brary economy. Even though the librarian 
may be personally a member the library 
ought to possess an official file of this im- 
portant publication. 

2. Free subscription to the A. L. A. 
Booklist (monthly except July and 
August,) an invaluable guide to the selec- 
tion and purchase of new books. 

3. Name of the library and librarian is 
entered in the official Handbook of the As- 
sociation, which is widely used as a mailing 
list by many enterprises in which libraries 
are interested and should profit. 

4. Every institutional member may 
send one delegate to all meetings of the 
Association, who shall be entitled to spe- 

cial travel and hotel rates and all other 
privileges of an individual member. 

5. Privilege of inserting free "For Sale" 
and "Wants" notices in the Bulletin of the 

6. By a recent ruling all institutional 
members are entitled to a 10% discount on 
all A. L. A. publications on orders amount- 
ing to $1.00 or more. 

7. The knowledge that by your library's 
membership and consequent contribution 
through the small annual dues you are 
helping the Association to broaden its 
work, increase its means of assisting small 
libraries and communities, forward plans 
of co-operation between libraries, carry on 
more extensive committee work, and en- 
deavor to bring libraries and librarians 
into positions of increased dignity and 
more adequate support and compensation. 

Dues — For institutional membership — 
five dollars a year. 

Is your library an institutional member? 
If not, why not? 


(Any library member of the Association 
may insert, without cost, a ten line notice 
of books or periodicals wanted, for sale or 


Library of McGill University, Montreal. 

Bulletin de la Soci6t6 Frangaise de 
Min^ralogie, known before 1886 as "Bulle- 
tin de la Soci6t6 Min6ralogique de 
France," Tomes 1 to 31 (1878-1908) and 33- 
34 (1909-1910) inclusive, "avec les trois 
tables." The set is in beautiful order and 
nicely bound in brown cloth. Price on 

University of Vermont Library, Burling- 
ton, Vt. 

Annalen der Chemie, vols. 1-264, with 
Registers and Supplements. 

Milton, Mass., Public Library. 
Memoir of Robert Troup Paine. By his 
parents. N. Y. Trow. 1852. 
Sotheby, S. L. Ramblings in the eluci- 


dation of the autograph of Milton. Lond. 
Richards, 1861. 

Milton, Mass., Public Library. 

New England magazine, Jan., 1912. 

Seattle Public Library, Seattle, Wash. 

Bibliotheca sacra, vols, 37-41, 42-43, 46- 
49, 51-54, 57, 59. 

U. S. review, vols. 1-2, 6-7, 1853-56; v. 41- 
42, 1858. 

Knickerbocker magazine, v. 3-6, 62, 64- 


University of Illinois Library, Urbana, 

Journal of the American Institute of 
criminal law and criminology, vol. 1, no. 3. 

Carnegie Library, Oltiahcma City, Okla. 

Outlook for August 24, 1901 (vol. 68.) 
Birds and nature, June, 1901, vol. 10, no. 
1; June, 1902, vol. 12, no, 1; March-April, 
1907, voL 1, new series no. 3. 




Entered as second-class matter December 27, 1909, at the Post Office at Cbicago, 111., 
under Act of Congress of July 16, 1894. 

Vol. 7, No. 3 


MAY, 1913 


Kaatebskill Travel Announcements 
Post Conference Trip 
Kaaterskill Program 

Schedule op Sessions 
New Members 
Recent Publications 


Final Travel Announcements 

Hotel Kaaterskill station is on the Ulster 
& Delaware R, R., and is reached via 
Kingston, N. Y., or Oneonta, N. Y. There 
is also a connection via Catskill and the 
Otis Elevating Railway to Otis Summit, 
where the hotel carriages will meet trains. 
It is somewhat cheaper and quicker this 
way from Albany and from points in New 
England, and the West via Albany, but a 
change of cars is necessary at Catskill 
and again at the base of the Otis Elevating 

From Middle Atlantic States 

The only special rate granted this year 
for the A. L. A. Conference is that of one 
fare and three-fifths for round trip, on 
the certificate plan, from points in the 
Trunk Line territory. This includes terri- 
tory west of New England, east of and 
including Buffalo, Erie and Pittsburgh, and 
south to Washington and Charleston, W. 

Va. Tickets are on sale June 19 to 25, 
good returning June 26 to July 7. So many 
restrictions are made that the Travel Com- 
mittee does not recommend their use. The 
rate is not much cheaper than the regular 
summer excursion (from New York City 
it is more expensive), it requires that 
tickets be bought only to the gateways of 
the Catskills, and there local full fare 
tickets must be purchased and baggage re- 
checked. It restricts return journey to 
within one week of adjournment, and al- 
lows no stopovers except at Albany and 
Utica (ten days), and unless one hundred 
persons use this certificate plan no re- 
duction from double the one-way fare will 
be made. The committee does not believe 
that there will be one hundred certificates. 
Don't use certificate plan. 

Therefore, the only way to save anything 
over double the one-way fare is to pur- 
chase, where possible, summer round-trip 
excursion tickets to Hotel Kaaterskill, or 
Otis Summit. These are good all summer 




(see under New York, Philadelphia and 
Washingrton party below). 

From Points in New England and the West 

From all parts of the country outside 
Trunk Line territory no rate is made us 
this year. Regular fare must be paid, un- 
less some summer excursion rate is avail- 
able. Such a rate is made from New Eng- 
land points to Hotel Kaaterskill, or Otis 
Summit, both by rail and via the boat lines 
(See also Boston party plans below). 
From the Middle West, while no rates are 
made to Catskills, a New York City thirty- 
day excursion rate is made, which will re- 
sult in a saving of a few dollars for dele- 
gates, but it will be necessary to buy local 
ticket to the meeting place from Kingston 
($1.35), and local ticket from the meeting 
place to New York City ($3.25) in order 
to have return ticket validated. A similar 
thirty-day excursion is sold to Boston which 
would mean procuring a ten-day stopover 
at Albany, and after the meeting going on 
to Boston to validate for the return. Thus 
local fare Albany to Hotel Kaaterskill and 
return would have to be paid (see also 
under Western party plans below). 

From Western points a round trip thirty- 
day ticket is also sold to Saratoga Springs, 
N. Y., which, for those not desiring to go 
to New York City or Boston, will be found 
the cheapest way to attend the conference. 
This would mean taking a ten-day stop- 
over at Albany, buying local ticket from 
Albany to Hotel Kaaterskill or Otis Sum- 
mit, and after the meeting running up to 
Saratoga, which is quite near Abany, and 
well worth seeing. 

It should be noted that all tickets read- 
ing via Utica or via Albany are good for a 
ten-day stopover at either or both of these 
cities, both going and returning. This 
may be a help to those planning to take 
the post-conference trip, provided they do 
not wish to spend more than ten days in 
the Adirondacks (see under Post-Confer- 
ence trip expense). 

The Travel Committee has planned, as 
usual, personally conducted parties from 

Boston, New York and Chicago. Detailed 
notice of these follows: 


(In charge of Mr. F. W. Faxon) 

Buy summer excursion round-trip ticket, 
and check baggage to Otis Summit via 
Boston & Albany R. R. to Albany, West 
Shore R. R. to Catskill, and thence to Otis 

Send Pullman fare and 50c for break- 
fast at Albany, to F. W. Faxon, 83 Francis 
St., Fenway, Boston, before June 15. 

Party will leave Boston Sunday evening, 
June 22, from South Station at 11.15 
(Worcester, 12.32 midnight), in special 
Pullmans (ready for occupancy at 9.30 p. 
m.), which will run through to Catskill, due 
in Albany at 6 a. m., where cars will be 
sidetracked and attached to the 9.40 West 
Shore train south. Special breakfast in 
railroad station, 7 to 9, 50c. At Catskill 
(11.02) party will transfer for the Otis 
Elevating Railway, and should arrive at 
Hotel Kaaterskill at about 12.30 noon on 

Summer excursion round trip rate was 
$12.40 last summer, and will doubtless be 
the same this year. 

Pullman Rates 

Lower berth $2.00 

Upper berth 1.60 

Drawing -room ( accommodating 

two or three persons 7.00 

Compartment (or stateroom) for 

two persons 6.00 

Special breakfast at Albany, rail- 
road restaurant 50 

The amount to cover Pullman, and break- 
fast (if desired) should be sent to F. W. 
Faxon, 83 Francis St., Fenway, Boston, be- 
fore June 15. Early application for draw- 
ing-rooms and compartments will be nec- 
essary. The committee cannot promise to 
get them, but will do its best so to do. 
Albany delegates will be welcome to join 



Note — Several New England inquiries 
have been made concerning going to the 
meeting by water. The following infor- 
mation is given for those desiring such a 

Via Fall River Line to New York City, 
and Hudson River Day Line thence to 
Catskill, and rail to Otis Summit, return- 
ing same route, round trip $12.85. State- 
rooms on S. S. "Providence," Fall River 
Line, from $1.00 upwards, accommodating 
one to three persons. Early application 
necessary for outside rooms. Boat train 
leaves Boston (South Station) 6 p. m. 
Boat leaves Fall River 7.40 p. m., due In 
New York (Pier 14) 7 a. m. Breakfast 
may be had on board, Hudson River Day 
Line steamer leaves New York (Desbrosses 
St. Pier, 20 blocks north from Fall River 
and Providence Line piers) at 8.40 a. m., 
due at Catskill 3.25 p. m. Restaurant on 
board. Sittings should be secured on port 
side for the scenery. 

Instead of Fall River Line, the Provi- 
dence Line steamers may be used, fare 
being the same. Providence Line boat 
train leaves South Station, Boston, at 6.39 
p. m. Steamer due in New York, at Pier 
15, North River, 7 a. m. 

The trip can also be made going by rail 
to Albany with the personally conducted 
party, thence by water via Hudson River 
Day Line (8.30 a. m.) to Catskill (11 a. m.) 
joining special party again there, and re- 
turning via Hudson River Day Line to 
New York, thence Fall River Line to Bos- 
ton. This ticket (Boston to Albany, Hudson 
River Day Line to New York, and Fall 
River Line to Boston, or vice versa) costs 
$10.50, and a stopover for the conference 
will be allowed at Catskill on application 
to purser of the steamer. Then local fare 
Catskill to Otis Summit and return, 99c 
each way, must be added. The transfer 
of baggage in New York is not included — 
50c each for trunks. 


(In charge of Mr. C. H. Brown, 26 Brevoort 
Place, Brooklyn, N. Y.) 

Register with him on or before June 18, 
and send him parlor car fare (75c) if seat 
is desired from New York to Kaaterskill. 

There are many different routes for those 
attending the convention from New York 
and the South. It is possible to reach the 
Hotel Kaaterskill from New York by day 

boat to Kingston, connecting with train on 
the Ulster & Delaware R. R. to the Hotel 
Kaaterskill, or by day boat or night boat 
to Catskill, connecting with the Otis Ele- 
vating Ry. to the Hotel. The more con- 
venient route, however, is via the West 
Shore and Ulster & Delaware, inasmuch as 
all other lines necessitate a change from 
boat to train at Kingston or Catskill, and 
a transfer and re-checking of baggage at 
New York. The West Shore R. R. will 
run through coaches and parlor cars from 
New York direct to the hotel. 

The Travel Committee has arranged for 
special service on the trains listed below, 
on Monday, June 23d. In order that space 
may be provided for all, it is earnestly re- 
quested that everyone who expects to take 
either of these trains will register with 
Mr, C. H, Brown, 26 Brevoort Place, Brook- 
lyn, N, Y,, on or before Wednesday, June 
18. The train leaving New York (Liberty 
Street) at 9,45 a, m, is composed solely of 
parlor and observation cars. Those who 
wish to take this train, or who wish a par- 
lor seat on the 12,40 p, m, train from New 
York, should enclose 75c for a reservation. 
No enclosure should be made by those who 
desire to use the special coaches on the 
12,40 p, m, train. 


June 23 — Leave New York, West Shore 
R, R, (Cortlandt St, ferry), 9,45 a, m, or 
12,40 p. m,; (W, 42d St, ferry), 10.00 a. .m, 
or 1,00 p. m. 

Arrive Kaaterskill, 2,33 p, m, or 6.00 
p. m. 


June 23 — Leave Washington (B, & O,), 

7 a, m. 

Leave Baltimore (B, & O,), 7.55 a. m. 

Leave Philadelphia (P. & R., 24th and 
Chestnut Sts.), 10.20 a. m. 

Arrive Liberty St„ New York, 12,35 p. m. 

Leave Cortlandt St., New York (West 
Shore R. R,), 12,40 p, m. 



Arrive Kaaterskill, 6.00 p. m. 

The Philadelphia party may also take 
the 10.00 a. m. train from the Reading 
Terminal, as follows: 

Leave Philadelphia (Reading Terminal), 
10.00 a. m. 

Arrive New York (Liberty Street), 
11.50 a. m. 

Leave New York (Cortlandt Street), 
12.40 p. m. 

Arrive Kaaterskill, 6.00 p. m. 

The West Shore ferry at Cortlandt street 
adjoins the P. & R. ferry at Liberty Street. 
A. L. A. representatives will meet the train 
from Philadelphia, Baltimore and Washing- 
ton, at Jersey City. Baggage can be 
checked direct from New York, Philadel- 
phia, Baltimore and Washington to Kaater- 
skill via B. & O., Philadelphia & Reading, 
West Shore, and Ulster & Delaware Rail- 
roads. All tickets should read via these 
lines. This route will save all charges for 
transfer of baggage in New York. The 
12.40 p. m. train from Cortlandt Street. New 
York, will wait for southern connections 
for those who register in advance. 

The following are the single and sum- 
mer excursion fares: 

One Way Excursion 

New York to Kaaterskill $3.25 $5.80 

Philadelphia to Kaaterskill 5.53 10.05 

Baltimore to Kaaterskill 7.93 14.55 

Washington to Kaaterskill 8.93 16.55 

Those intending to take post-conference 
trip had better buy one-way tickets and 
save possible inconvenience on return 

Parlor car fare from New York 

to Kaaterskill $0.75 

Philadelphia to Kaaterskill 1.25 

Washington to Kaaterskill 2.00 

The time table as announced above may 
be slightly changed, but all who register 
will be notified of any alterations. 

All Inquiries in regard to the New York 
and Southern party and all reservations 
should be addressed to Charles H. Brown, 
26 Brevoort Place, Brooklyn, N. Y. 


(Send deposit for Pullman reservation 
to John F. Phelan, Chicago public library, 
before June 10th) 

A special de luxe, electric lighted train, 
will leave Chicago via the Lake Shore and 
Michigan Southern Railway (LaSalle St. 
Station, LaSalle and Van Buren Streets), 
on Sunday morning, June 22d, at 10.30, 
and arrive at Cleveland 7.30 p. m., Buffalo 
at 11.59 p. m., and Albany, Monday morn- 
ing, June 23d, at 8.45 a. m. 

In order to allow delegates from the 
West a glimpse of the new State library, 
and the new quarters of the library school, 
a stopover for three hours has been ar- 
ranged at Albany. Special train will re- 
sume journey at 11,30 a. m. sharp, and 
arrive at Kaaterskill 3.30 p. m. 

Railroad Rates 

No special rates will be granted by the 
railroads from Chicago and the West to 
the Kaaterskill Conference, but the regu- 
lar thirty-day roimd trip summer excursion 
tickets to New York, costing $30.00, or 
Saratoga Springs tickets, costing $24.10, 
are recommended. These tickets will 
have to be validated at destination points. 
New York City, or Saratoga Springs, be- 
fore returning home. 

On New^ York City tickets, no stopover 
will be allowed, between Albany and New 
York City, making it necessary to purchase 
local ticket from Kingston to Kaaterskill, 
90c party rate, at Kingston, and local 
ticket from Kaaterskill to New York City, 
$3.25, at Kaaterskill, when returning. 

Those who do not wish to go to New 
York City, but desire a more direct and 
convenient way of returning home, are 
advised to purchase the round trip excur- 
sion ticket to Saratoga Springs, costing 
$24.10. Such tickets must be deposited 
at Albany for stopover on the going jour- 
ney, and local tickets purchased, Albany 
to Kaaterskill and return, $4.59. Upon 
arriving at Albany on return journey, tick- 


ets may be claimed, thence to Saratoga 
Springs to have tickets validated. 

The Saratoga Springs ticket is recom- 
mended for those who purpose joining 
the post conference party. Members plan- 
ning to accompany the Lake Placid sec- 
tion, will have to journey to Saratoga 
Springs from Albany, to have their tickets 
validated, before starting on the trip, 
which enters the Adirondacks via Utica. 
The Lake Placid party, upon arrival at 
Utica going, must deposit tickets there for 
stopover, and take them up on returning 
from the mountains. Those traveling 
north with the other section around the 
mountains to Hotel Champlain, thence to 
Ausable Chasm, returning to Albany, may 
have tickets validated at Saratoga Springs 
when passing through. 

New York City tickets should be routed 
via Lake Shore and Michigan Southern, 
and N. Y. C. and H. R. R. R. 

The regular one way rate, Chicago to 
Kingston is $19.32 and proportional rates, 
based upon the above, will prevail from 
points outside of Chicago. 

Delegates who buy New York City tick- 
ets, have the option of returning all rail 
back to Chicago, or Hudson River steamers 
to Albany, and steamer, Buffalo to Cleve- 

Attractive circle tours, with a sixty-day 
limit are offered, at slight additional cost, 
from New York City. Information con- 
cerning these tours will be furnished by 
local railroad office. 

Pullman Rates 
Application for Pullman reservation must 

be acocmpanied by deposit, covering the 

kind of accommodation desired, not later 

than June 10th, 

Lower berth $ 4.75 

Upper berth 3.80 

Section 8.55 

Compartment (two persons) 13.50 

Drawing room (three persons) . . 17.00 
Meals will be served in the dining car 

a la carte. 
All correspondence concerning western 

party should be addressed to John F. Phe- 
lan. Public library, Chicago. 


Apply for reservations to Mr. F. W. 
Faxon, 83 Francis St., Boston, Mass., be- 
fore June 15. Money to be paid before 
June 26. 

A very delightful eight-day trip has been 
arranged, covering a day at Albany, and 
a week in the Adirondack region. The 
latter half of the trip offers the alternative 
of Lake Placid for four days, with oppor- 
tunity for many side excursions, or four 
days spent partly at Saranac Lake, and 
partly at Hotel Champlain, with a return 
if desired through Lake George. Thus all 
will see the Fulton Chain region, Raquette 
Lake and Blue Mountain Lake, and those 
familiar with Placid, or Lake Champlain 
and Lake George, may choose the alterna- 
tive desired. 

At Albany, where we spend Sunday, 
the new Education building and State 
library will be open to the A. L. A. party, 
and members of the library staff will be 
on duty to act as guides. Informal head- 
quarters will be made here. The day be- 
ing Sunday, no set program will be under- 

Leaving Albany very early Monday 
morning, with a special dining-car break- 
fast, the journey to Old Forge will be 
through the picturesque Mohawk Valley, 
along the river and through the Adirondack 
foothills. At Old Forge the party will 
proceed by boat through the first four 
lakes of the famous Fulton Chain. This 
chain is really formed by the widening of 
the Moose River, whose Indian name was 
Te-ka-hun-di-an-do, "clearing an opening." 
The lakes thus connected form a group of 
surpassing beauty. They vary both in size 
and shape, each with a different frame- 
work of mountains. After innumerable 
twists and turns through the long, narrow 
outlet of the chain. First Lake comes sud- 
denly into view. Thus you journey on, 
alternately lost in the narrow channels, 
then floating over a broad expanse of water 



extending as far as the eye can see into 
the mountains beyond. 

Eagle Bay Hotel, at the head of Fourth 
Lalce, has been selected as a convenient 
spot for headquarters, and from that point 
a very delightful trip has been planned to 
Raquette and Blue Mountain Lakes. 
Raquette Lake, the "queen of the Adiron- 
dacks," Is a lovely sheet of water, lacking 
only the grand old mountains that some 
possess to make it all the heart could 
wish. It is 1,700 feet above the ocean, sur- 
rounded by trees of almost every variety to 
be found in the wilderness. Raquette Lake 
owes its name to a most irregular water 
line. It contains a number of islands on 
which are situated many beautiful summer 
camps. The party will proceed by boat 
through Raquette Lake into Marion River, 
which is a fair representative of a great 
many of the high country streams; deep, 
dark, still, covered with lily pads and 
bordered with reedy marsh. It is famed 
as a place for deer hunting. The portage 
to Utowana Lake is made on a funny lit- 
tle wooden railroad from which the passen- 
gers can alight, pick flowers or ferns, and 
then rush on and catch the train. Another 
boat will be waiting to convey the party 
through Utowana and Eagle Lakes, by 
the famous old eagle's nest, into Blue 
Mountain Lake, which by common consent, 
from its purity and loveliness, is esteemed 
the pearl of all the wilderness water. It 
Is three miles long and is nearly sur- 
rounded by mountains. This lake shares 
with Placid the claim of being the prettiest 
lake in the eastern states. The shore line 
is a series of alluring bays, and it con- 
tains a number of picturesque islands, 
some of them mere rocks while others are 
covered with trees of various kinds. At 
the head of the lake, towering 4,000 feet 
above sea level, is Blue Mountain, whose 
round top is always of a transparent blue. 
The Indians called It To-wah-loon-dah, 
"Hill of Storms." Its forest-covered side 
comes in an unbroken slope to the water's 
edge, and it seems to be reverently kneel- 
ing in the beautiful lake. Time will be 

allowed for experienced mountain climbers 
who wish to climb to its summit 

Aside from the special trips, the daily 
life in the Adirondacks offers attractions 
not to be equalled. The beach at Eagle 
Bay is excellent for bathing, and the 
romantic little winding waterways give 
promise of pleasant hours in a canoe. 
This Eagle Bay — Blue Mountain district is 
one not often visited. It gives visitors an 
opportunity to see the "Big woods" in a 
nearly primitive condition. 

Back of the hotel is Eagle Mountain 
with a very accessible trail leading to the 
summit, where the climbers find the 
shelter of a "lean-to," from which they 
can get a gorgeous view of the lake and 
surrounding mountains. More ambitious 
climbers will find that Rocky Mountain, a 
little further up the lake, is a delightful 
tramp. From the top of this mountain a 
more extensive view of the region is 

There will be music for dancing at the 
Eagle Bay Casino, but more interesting 
still is the Adirondack custom of gather- 
ing around the nightly campflre to ex- 
change yarns. Open camps or "lean-tos" 
lined with balsam boughs are provided for 
one's comfort, in front of which a fire is 
made of huge logs. 

Leaving Eagle Bay Wednesday after 
lunch, the party proceeds by train to 
Carter, where the Adirondack Division 
main line junction is, and thence to Sara- 
nac Inn station, where the party divides, 
Party No. 1 going on without stop to Lake 
Placid, where the rest of the week will 
be spent at the Lake Placid Club, on the 
shores of Mirror Lake and Lake Placid, a 
spot unsurpassed in beauty anywhere In 
the East. Here, at the home of several 
members of the A. L. A., gala attractions 
are planned for us, such as a campflre 
supper, feast of lanterns, lake, flre and 
water curtain, and concerts by a famous 
string quartet. There are endless tramps 
and drives available, and mountain climb- 
ers may choose from Tahawas, Mclntyre, 
Whiteface, Eagle's Eyrie, Overlook, Whit- 



ney and Cobble. Golf, tennis, boating on 
the lakes, will interest many. Motor trips 
open up, at a reasonable charge, all the 
famous Adirondack resorts — Saranac, Paul 
Smith's, Loon Lake, Keene Valley, St. 
Hubert's, Wilmington Notch, Cascade 
Lakes. A trip to Ausable Chasm is planned 
for one of the days, but is not included 
in the party ticket as was first planned, 
the committee feeling that better rates 
could be had thus. 

It is certain that many will wish to re- 
main longer than has been planned for in 
the party ticket. Such as desire may pro- 
long their stay at the Club up to July 31 
at $3.00 a day ($4.00 with private bath), 
and should any desire less expensive quar- 
ters in boarding houses near by, these may 
be had, also until July 31, at $2.00 a day. 
As a restful mountain, lake and woodland 
home for tired workers, the Lake Placid 
Club is probably unique, and the terms of- 
fered us make this a far more desirable 
place to spend a vacation than any hotel 
or boarding house. Those who care for 
nature, simplicity and health, where beau- 
tiful scenery and home comforts may be 
found together, will look back upon their 
stay here as one of their pleasantest ex- 

While Party No. 1 is enjoying the woods 
and fetes at Lake Placid, Party No. 2 
(under personal conduct of Mr. C. H. Brown 
of the Travel Committee) has spent a de- 
lightful day at Saranac Inn, on Upper 
Saranac Lake, and had an opportunity to 
visit Lower Saranac Lake en route to Hotel 
Champlain, at Bluff Point, Lake Champlain. 
Here excursions on the big lake are avail- 
able, and the trip to Ausable Chasm can 
be easily made. This has not been in- 
cluded in the party ticket, nor have the 
meals at Hotel Champlain, as it will be 
run this year entirely on the European 
plan. (The Ausable Chasm trip costs 
$2.35, not including lunch, which may be 
had at Hotel Ausable Chasm for $1.25.) 
Any desiring to stay longer than the time 
included In party ticket can do so, the 
rates for rooms being from $1.50 each per- 

son per day, if two occupy one room, or 
$2.00 a day for single rooms. Party ticket 
includes railroad ticket back to Albany, 
but any desiring to make the trip through 
Lake George may do so, and railroad tick- 
ets will be honored on steamer on payment 
of $1.50 to the purser. 


Saturday, June 28 

Leave Hotel Kaaterskill at about 2 p. m. 
(Check trunks to Eagle Bay Hotel, Adiron- 
dacks, N. Y.). 

Arrive at Albany for supper, 

(Use handbags only for the two nights 
in Albany.) 

Mail and telegrams. Hotel Ten Eyck, 

(All meals in Albany at individual ex- 
pense. Committee recommends Hotel Ten 
Eyck, and for moderate priced outside 
restaurant, Keeler's, 56 State St., just be- 
low the hotel on opposite side). 

Sunday, June 29 

In Albany. New State library and Edu- 
cation building open to party. Guides will 
be in readiness to show us about. 

Monday, June 30 

6.30 a. m. Leave Albany, N. Y. Central 
station, , for Old Forge, Adirondacks, spe- 
cial high-backed coaches. Dining-car 
breakfast between Albany and Utica. 

11.15 a. m. Arrive Fulton Chain. 

11.35 a. m. Arrive Old Forge, where 
boats will be taken to Eagle Bay, arriving 
for lunch at 1.30 p. m. Mail and telegrams 
Eagle Bay Hotel, Eagle Bay, Adirondacks, 
New York. 

Tuesday, July 1 

9.45 a. m. Leave Eagle Bay for special 
excursion to Raquette and Blue Mountain 
Lakes, with lunch at Blue Mountain House. 
Return to Eagle Bay Hotel for supper. 



Wednesday, July 2 

1.40 p. m. Leave Eagle Bay by train. 
Party No. 1 check trunks to Lake Placid 
Club; Party No. 2, to Hotel Champlain, 

3.24 p. m. Leave Carter. 

(Party divides at Saranac Inn Station). 

Party No. 1 

July 2. 7.20 p. m. Arrive Lake Placid 
Club. Mail and telegrams, Lake Placid 
Club, Essex Co., N. Y. 

July 3-6. At Lake Placid. 

Party No. 2 

5.31 p. m. Arrive Saranac Inn. Mail 
and telegrams, Saranac Inn, Adirondacks, 
New York. 

July 3. At Saranac Inn. 

July 4. 7.53 a. m., leave Saranac Inn; 
8.25 a. m., arrive Saranac Lake; 9.35 a. 
m., leave Saranac Lake; 12.10 noon, ar- 
rive Hotel Champlain. All meals at Hotel 
Champlain (European plan) at individual 

July 5-6. At Hotel Champlain. 

Parties disband Sunday afternoon, July 6. 

(Amount in cash or checks to be paid 
Mr. F. W. Faxon, during the A. L. A. Con- 
ference at Hotel Kaaterskill, before June 
26, but registration with the party must 
be made before June 15, stating if you wish 
Party No. 1 or No. 2). 

Party No. 1 

Albany and Eagle Bay to Lake Placid 
(including return railway ticket to Albany), 
hotels, transportation, transfers of passen- 
ger and baggage, meals to afternoon of 
Sunday, July 6 (except four meals in 
Albany), $40.00. 

This is for each person, provided two 
room together, without bath. For single 
room at all hotels, add $4.00. 

For private bath at Albany and Lake 
Placid, add $5.50. 

Those not holding tickets from Otis 
Summit via Albany should add $1.71. 

Anyone holding return ticket via Albany 
and Utica should deduct $2.50 from price 
of party ticket, as the return ticket may 
be deposited at Albany and at Utica, up to 
ten days in each place. 

Party No. 2 

Albany and Eagle Bay to Saranac Lake 
and Hotel Champlain (including return 
railway ticket at Albany), hotels, trans- 
portation, transfers of passenger and bag- 
gage, meals to afternoon of July 6 (except 
four meals in Albany and eight meals at 
Hotel Champlain, European plan), $40.00. 

This is for each person, provided two 
room together, without bath. 

For single room at Albany, Eagle Bay, 
Saranac Inn, and Hotel Champlain, add 

For private bath at Albany, Saranac Inn, 
and Hotel Champlain (here only double 
rooms have bath), add $5.00. 

Those not holding tickets, Otis Summit 
to Albany, add $1.71. 

Those desiring to return through Lake 
George, instead of by rail to Albany, may 
do 80 by paying $1.50 to purser on steamer, 
who will then honor railway ticket. 


General Sessions 

General theme: Specialization in library 
First session, Monday, June 23, 8.15 p. m. 

President's Address: The world of print 
and the world's work — Henry E. Legler, 
librarian, Chicago public library. 

"As Others See Us" — Brief comments 
and expressions on library work from men 
and women of affairs in this country and 
in Great Britain. 

Second session, Tuesday, June 24, 9.30 a. m. 

General theme: Work with foreigners, 
colored races, defectives and dependents. 

Address: Our fellow citizens of for- 
eign birth — Hon. William Sulzer, Governor 
of New York. 



(Paper on work with foreigners — title to 
be furnished) — Mrs. Adelaide B. Maltby, 
New York public library. 

The men in the yards — Charles E. Rush, 
St. Joseph free public library. 

Defectives and dependents. Helping 
those who cannot help themselves — ^Julia 
A. Robinson, librarian, State institutions 
of Iowa. 

What of the colored races? — ^William F. 
Yust, Rochester public library. 

Reports of officers and committees. 

Third session, Wednesday, June 25, 
9.30 a. m. 

General theme: Library influences in 
the home, in the shop and on the farm. 

Address: Special reference collections 
for housekeepers — Sarah Louise Arnold, 
dean Simmons College. 

A working library for the artisan and 
the craftsman — Edward F. Stevens, Pratt 
Institute free library. 

The woman on the farm — Lutie E. 
Stearns, Wisconsin free library commis- 

The library situation as it touches the 
rural field — Prof. Liberty H. Bailey, Cor- 
nell University. 

Reports of Committees. 

Fourtii session, Thursday, June 26, 
9.30 a. m. 

General theme: Children and young 
people; their conditions at home, in the 
school, and in the library. 

Address: The education of children and 
the conservation of their interests — Mrs. 
Frances Squire Potter, Chicago. 

Changing conditions of child life — Faith 
E. Smith, Chicago public library. 

(How the library is meeting these condi- 
tions — Title to be furnished) — Gertrude E. 
Andrus, Seattle public library. 

Normal schools and their relation to 
librarianship — ^Willis H. Kerr, Kansas State 
Normal School library. 

The enlarging scope of library work in 

high schools — Mary E. Hall, librarian, 
Girls' high school, Brooklyn. 
Committee reports. 

Fifth session, Friday, June 27, 9.30 a. m. 

General theme: The library's service to 
business and legislation. 

Address: (Subject to be supplied)— 
George McAneny, President Borough of 

The law that stands the test — M. S. 
Dudgeon, Wisconsin free library commis- 

State wide forces in the state library 
— D. C. Brown, Indiana state library. 

Present status of the legislative refer- 
ence movement — C. B. Lester, New York 
state library. 

Making a library useful to business 
men — S. H. Ranck, Grand Rapids public 

Libraries in business organizations: 
their expanding function — Louise B. 
Krause, librarian H. M. Byllesby & Co., 


Sixth session, Saturday, June 28, 9.30 a. m. 

General theme: The world of books. 
The friendly book — Genevieve M. Wal- 
ton, Michigan State Normal School. 

How to discourage reading — Edmund L. 
Pearson, Boston Transcript. 
Book symposium. 
Unfinished business. 

Executive board. 


Tellers of election. 


The Council will hold three sessions at 
Kaaterskill. The first and third meetings 
will deal with committee reports and other 
business. At the second session the sub- 
ject, "Quality of fiction," will be con- 
sidered, the discussion being led by Horace 
G. Wadlin, librarian of the Boston public 
library, and Arthur E. Bostwick, librarian 



of the St. Louis public library. The meet- 
ings of the Council will probably be open 
to the membership at large. 

College and Reference Section 

1. Main Session. Andrew Keogh (Yale) 

Bibliographic instruction in colleges and 
universities. Introduced by Lucy M. Sal- 
mon, professor of history in Vassar. 

The fundamentals of classification for 
colleges and universities. Introduced by 
H. E. Bliss (C. C. N. Y.). 

The college library and the research 
demand. Introduced by Robert S. Fletcher 

Art influences in the college library. In- 
troduced by Frank Weitenkampf (New 
York public library). 

2. Round table for reference workers. 
Sarah B. Askew (New Jersey public li- 
brary commission) presiding. 

What a city should expect and receive 
from the library. Introduced by William 
H. Allen, Ph. D., director of the bureau of 
municipal research, New York City. 

Scientific management; and the refer- 
ence department as a bureau of informa- 
tion. Introduced by Marilla W. Freeman 
(Goodwyn Institute, Memphis, Tennessee). 

What any library can do for the business 
and trade Interests of the town — Sarah B. 
Ball, Newark free public library. 

The civics room in a medium sized 
town. Introduced by Edith Kammerling 
(Chicago public library). 

Papers to be brief and general discus- 
sion expected. 

3. Round table for college librarians. 
F. C. Hicks (Columbia) presiding. 

Several subjects, to be announced later, 
will be introduced in 5 minute papers and 
time will be provided for informal discus- 
sion of subjects suggested by those 

Trustees' Section 
The Canadian trustee and the American 
trustee — a recollection. 
Should trustees abdicate in favor of civil 

service commissions in the matter of em- 
ployment of librarians and assistants? 

Duties of trustees as to library legisla- 

Trustees of a large city library, and of 
a small library — a comparison. 

Catalog Section 

First Session: Administration of the 
catalog department. 

From the librarian's standpoint — F. F. 
Hopper, librarian of the Public library, 

From the cataloger's standpoint — Miss 
Laura Smith, chief of the catalog and 
reference departments. Public library, 

Relation of departments — Beatrice Win- 
ser, assistant librarian, Free public library, 
Newark; Arthur E. Bostwick, librarian. 
Public library, St. Louis. 


The problem under discussion for this 
session is whether the methods which pre- 
vail in the catalog department can be 
more eflBciently adjusted to the changes 
in the conditions and requirements of the 
modern public library. 

The section invites to the discussion 
librarians and those not specializing In 
cataloging that the catalogers of the sec- 
tion may have the benefit of their sugges- 

Second Session: Discussion of catalog 
entries and forms of cards. 

Section on Library Work with Children 
First session — Tuesday afternoon, June 24. 
Topic: Values in library work with 

1. Clara Whitehill Hunt; superintend- 
dent of the children's department, 
Brooklyn public library. 

2. Caroline Burnite; director of chil- 
dren's work, Cleveland public library. 

Discussion. To be assigned. 

3. Report showing volume of children's 
work in the U. S., by Dr. Bostwick. 

Second session — Friday afternoon, Jime 27. 
Topic: School work. 


1. Possibilities of the rural school 
library. Martha Wilson, librarian 
Minnesota state board of education. 

Discussion. To be assigned. 

2. Round table of school librarians led 
by Mary E. Hall; librarian Girls' high 
school, Brooklyn, N. Y., and president 
library section, N. E. A. 

a. Work of a public library high 
school branch, Maud McClelland, li- 
brarian. High school, Passaic, N. J. 

b. The librarian's opportunity in vo- 
cational guidance, Samuel H. Ranck, 
librarian, Public library, Grand Rap- 
ids, Mich. 

Discussion by June R. Donnelly, Marilla 
W. Freeman, and others. 

Professional Training Section 

Specialization in curriculums, and grad- 
ing in library schools — ^Mary W, Plummer. 

Cooperation of libraries with library 
schools — Corinne Bacon. 

Report on methods of publicity for li- 
brary schools — M. S. Dudgeon, C. H. 
Milam, Josephine A. Rathbone. 

Account of the , work of the library 
school round table for 1912 and 1913— P. L. 

Agricuitural Libraries Section 

There will be an informal round table, 
conducted by Charles R. Greene, librarian 
of the Massachusetts agricultural library. 
Further announcements will be made later. 

Documents Round Table 
Paper by Frank C. Wallace, superintend- 
ent of documents, Washington, D. C, out- 
lined by him as follows: 

1. Replies to questions and resolutions 
suggested at the last conference of the 
A. L. A. (a) Distribution of bills, (b) 
Reasons why catalogs and indexes can not 
be issued more promptly, (c) Assignment 
of volume numbers to Congressional series, 
(d) Publication of a daily bulletin. 

2. Explanation of Section 8 of the Leg- 
islative appropriation act centralizing the 

distribution in the office of the superin- 
tendent of documents. 

3. Need for co-operation on the part of 
the librarians to improve the publication 
and distribution methods of government 

Paper by Francis A. Crandall on Phases 
of the public document question. 

National Association of State Libraries 

First session 

President's address, by Thomas L. Mont- 
gomery, librarian of the Pennsylvania state 

The public records of England, by John 
Thomson, librarian of the Philadelphia 
free library. 

The state library as a specialist, by John 
A. Lapp, legislative reference librarian, 

"Dreams . . . came true," a paper by 
Minnie Priest Dunton, librarian of the 
Idaho state library. 

Reports of committee on arrangement 
and distribution of state documents, by 
Johnson Brigham, librarian of the state 
library of Iowa. 

The legislative reference service, by G. 
S. Godard, librarian of the state library of 

The publication of municipal year-books, 
by J. L. Gillis, state librarian of California. 

Second session 

The care of archives material, by R. G. 
Thwaites, superintendent of the State his- 
torical society of Wisconsin. 

Public documents as a commercial 
factor, by William R. Reinick, librarian of 
the document division of Philadelphia free 

Reports of committee on cooperation be- 
tween legislative reference departments, 
by John A. Lapp, legislative reference li- 
brarian, Indianapolis. 

Public archives, by H. R. Mcllwalne, 
state librarian of Virginia. 

Systematic bibliography of state official 
literature, by W. R. Reinick of Pennsyl- 



League of Library Commissions 
First session 
Organizing small libraries — Round table 
— Zaidee Brown, Massachusetts public li- 
brary commission, presiding. 

1. Methods suggested by state orga- 
nizer for accessioning; classification; 
shelf listing; cataloging (should it be 
attempted? should L. C. cards be used?); 
loan system; mechanical preparation of 

2. Average time required for above 
processes, and average cost per 1,000 

3. Help from local sources: paid work- 
ers, trustees, volunteers, help from neigh- 
boring librarians. 

4. Kinds of supplies and cost. 

5. How the organizer may interest the 
people of the town In the library. 

6. Board meeting — ^budget — other ad- 
ministrative problems. 

Note: For this discussion, "small 
library" means any library with less than 
5,000 volumes. 

Those attending the session are asked to 
come prepared to describe actual work, 
and to give estimates on cost and time. 

Second session 

1. What the league can do to encourage 
the establishment of new commissions. 

2. Cooperation with state board of edu- 
cation, and library instruction in normal 

3. Library work in state institutions — 
prisons, reformatories, hospitals. 

4. Reports of committees and election 
of ofllcers. 

Note: A third adjourned session will 
be held if necessary. 

American Association of Law Libraries 

First session — Tuesday evening, June 

Address of welcome by Frank B. Gilbert, 
chief of the law division. New York state 
education department. 

President's address. 

Report of the treasurer. 

Report of the executive committee. 
Reports of the special committees: 
Legal bibliography. 
Reprinting session laws. 
National legislative information serv- 
Law libraries and law librarians. 
Latin — American laws. 
Lessening fees charged by clerks of 
federal courts for opinions. 
Round table — Wednesday morning, June 

Report of the committee to confer with 
Library of Congress on subject headings, 
and discussion. 

Second session — Wednesday afternoon, 
June 25. 

Destruction and rebuilding of New York 

state law library, by Frederick D. Colson, 


Election of officers for the coming year. 

Round table — Thursday morning, June 


Report of the committee on shelf class- 
ification of law text books. 

Symposium on catalogs of law libraries. 

Special Libraries Association 

First session — Tuesday afternoon, June 

Relation of the special to the general 
library — W. Dawson Johnston. 

Relation between the municipal library 
and legislators — Andrew Linn Bostwick. 

Experiences of a special collector — (Wil- 
liam Barclay Parsons (engagements per- 
mitting) . 

Special library methods of the library 
of the Prudential — Dr. Frederick L. Hoff- 

Second session — Wednesday afternoon, 
June 25. 

Address on methods of the Luce clip- 
ping bureau — Hon. Robert Luce, ex-lieut.- 
governor of Massachusetts. 

Report of committee on clippings — Jesse 

Address on clipping methods of the Wall 
Street Journal library — Dr. J. Frank 



Report of committee on special library 
training — O. E. Norman. 

Is there a demand for indexes in special 
fields of agriculture and education? — H. W. 

Third session — Thursday evening, June 

The Library of Congress as a clearing 
house for record of work done in economic 
subjects — H. H. B. Meyer. 

Some established principles in special 
library organiation — Marie F. Lindholm. 

The library of the school of landscape 
gardening at Harvard university — the 
treatment of collections relating to land- 
scape gardening including city planning — 
Theodora Kimball. 

The English book trade library — R. A. 
Peddie, St. Bride Foundation technical 
library, London, (paper to be read by a 
member of the association). 

Review of special library work during 
the year — Guy E. Marion. 

American Library Institute 
The regular meetings of the Institute 
will be held. The following topics will be 

1. Cost of library administration. John 
Thomson, Philadelphia free library; Arthur 
E. Bostwick, St. Louis public library. Re- 
port of committee. 

2. Physical efficiency. Frank P. Hill, 
Brooklyn public library. 

3. The need of specialization in library 
service — W. D. Johnston, Columbia uni- 
versity library. 


Under the auspicies of the American 
Library Association and the library de- 
partment of the National Education Asso- 
ciation there will be held a conference of 
school librarians at the Hotel Kaaterskill, 
on Saturday afternoon, June 28. If a 
sufficient number of school librarians are 
present to warrant it there will be two 
meetings, one of normal school librarians 

and the other of high school librarians. 
Otherwise there will be a joint session of 
all school librarians. 

Tentative Program 
Normal School Session 

Conducted by Willis H. Kerr, librarian of 
state normal school, Emporia, Kansas. 

Topics suggested for discussion: 

Library lessons in the grades. 

Courses in children's literature for 
normal students. 

Changes in classification to fit needs of 
normal schools. 

Question box for technical problems. 

High School Session 

Conducted by Anna Hadley, librarian of 
the Gilbert school, Winsted, Conn. 

Topics suggested: 

In what ways can the librarian en- 
courage the best use of the school library 
by the different departments? 

Training high school students in the use 
of a library. 

a. How find time for this? 

b. Methods in use in different schools. 
How can the librarian best influence the 

reading of high school pupils? 
Question box on technical problems. 

Meeting of school librarians at Salt Lake 
City, July 7-11, 1913. 

In connection with the annual meeting 
of the N. B. A. at Salt Lake City, there 
will be held a round table of school 

The round table will be conducted by 
Ida M. Mendenhall, formerly librarian of 
the state normal school, Geneseo, N. Y. 

Program will follow closely that given 
above for high school and normal school 

Miss Ball, librarian of the high school 
of Grand Rapids, will have a paper on 
"What the high school librarian may do 
in vocational guidance." Other topics 
and papers will be announced later. 




(It is emphasized that this schedule of 
sessions is only tentative and that minor 
changes are very likely to be made. By 
June 10th the secretary of the A. L. A- 
will be able on request to send an author- 
itative schedule to those desiring one). 

Monday, June 23 
Afternoon — Executive Board 
Evening — First General Session. 

Tuesday, June 24 
Morning — Second General Session 
Afternoon — Special Libraries Associa- 
tion; Children's Librarians' Section; 
College and Reference Section: American 
Library Institute. 

Evening — Council ; American A]ssocia- 
tion of Law Libraries 

Wednesday, June 25 

Morning — Third General Session 
Afternoon — League of Library Commis- 
sions; Catalog Section; American Associa- 
tion of Law Libraries; Special Libraries 

Evening — National Association of State 
Libraries; Professional Training Section; 
American Library Institute 

Thursday, June 26 
Morning — Fourth General Session 
Afternoon — Free 
Evening — Special Libraries Association; 

Trustees' Section; Council; Documents 

Round Table 

Friday, June 27 

Morning — Fifth General Session 
Afternoon — National Association of State 
Libraries; Catalog Section; Children's Li- 
brarians' Section 

Evening — League of Library Commis- 
sions; Round Table for College Librarians; 
Round Table for Reference Librarians; 
Agricultural Libraries Section 

Saturday, June 28 

Morning — Sixth General Session 
Afternoon — Council; Round Table of 
School Librarians 
Evening — ^Executive Board 


Headquarters will be at the Hotel Kaat- 
erskill, which will be the only hotel open 
at that date in the neighborhood unless 
there should be an overflow, in which case 
arrangements have been made for the 
Laurel House to be opened, which is a 
mile distant from the Kaaterskill. Free 
transportation between the two hotels will 
be furnished in case it is necessary to use 
the Laurel. 

The only rooms now available are those 
for two in a room without bath, $3.00 per 
day each. Those particularly wishing a 
room alone should register their desire 
with the manager and their request will be 
granted if it is found possible to do so 
(rate $4.00 per day each, without bath). 
All applications for hotel reservation 
should be made to Harrison S. Downs, 
Berkeley Lyceum, 19-21 West 44th St., New 
York City. 




Issued in 
Janttabt, Mabch, Mat, Jult, SupraiiBBB and 


There is no subscription price, and the Bulletin is 
sent only to members of the Association. 


President — Henry E. Legler, Public library, Chicago. 
First Vice-President — E. H. Anderson, Public library, 

New York. 
Second Vice-President — Mary F. Isom, Library Asso- 
ciation, Portland, Ore. 
Executive Board — The president, two vice-presidents 


Herbert Putnam, Library of Congress, Washington. 

Purd B. Wright, Public library, Kansas City, Mo. 

C. W. Andrews, John Crerar library, Chicago. 

Linda A. Eastman, Public library, Cleveland. 

H. C. Wellman, Library Association, Springfield, 

T. W. Koch, University of Michigan library, Ann 

Secretary — George B. Utley, 78 E. Washington Street, 

Treasurer — Carl B. Roden, Public library, Chicago. 

Executive offices — 78 E. Washington Street, Chicago, 



The post office address of the Hotel 
Kaaterskill Is Kaaterskill P. O., New York. 

The nights and perhaps the days are 
likely to be cool on top of Kaaterskill 
mountain. Those attending the conference 
will do well to carry wraps, overcoats and 
some reasonably heavy clothing. Heavy 
walking shoes and clothing suitable for 
mountain trails and woods should also be 
put in. 

The advance registration list for the 
Kaaterskill Conference will be complied 
from the room reservations Jlled with the 
manager of the Hotel Kaaterskill. Any 
person expecting to attend the Conference, 
who has not made room reservations as 
above is requested to send his name and 
address to the secretary of the American 

Library Association, 78 E. Washington St., 

G. W. Lee, librarian. Stone & Webster, 
Boston, who has written of "Reference 
Books as Public Utilities," in which he 
compared some well-known encyclopedias, 
would be glad to talk at the conference 
with those who are interested in this gen- 
eral subject, particularly with reference to 
making a comparison of some well-known 
dictionaries. "Reference Books as Public 
Utilities," will be sent by Mr. Lee to any 
address upon request. 


Armstrong, Mary E., asst. catlgr. P. L., 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 5763. 

Avery, Jessie R., Br. In. P. L., Rochester, 
N. Y. 5735. 

Barden, Bertha R., instructor in cataloging 
Western Reserve Univ. L. Sch., Cleve- 
land, O. 5804. 

Beaver Falls (Pa.) Carnegie F. L. (Hazel 
R. Clifton, In.) 5748. 

Bond, Ethel, instructor Univ. of 111. L. Sch., 
Urbana, 111. 5739. 

Brown, Mabel W., asst. In. and 1st in- 
structor L. Sch., Drexel Institute L. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 5779. 

Burroughs, Olive C, ref. In. P. L. Berkeley, 
Cal. 5780. 

Bushfield, Minnie L., child. In. F. P. L., 
Jacksonville, Fla. 5723. 

Busiek, Elinor K., asst. In. P. L., Belle- 
ville, 111. 5734. 

Byers, Mrs. Frances, In. P. L., East Chi- 
cago, Ind. 5764. 

Chamberlayne, Ellen F., asst. P. L., Bing- 
hamton, N. Y. 5781. 

Chattanooga (Tenn.) P. L. (Margaret Dun- 
iap, In.) 5760. 

Cobb, Gertrude, In. P. L., Janesville, Wis. 

Cochrane, Jennie M., catlgr. Maine State 
L., Augusta, Me. 5725. 

Colcord, Maude B., In. Loring Reading 
Room, North Plymouth, Mass. 5728. 

Collar, Herbert C, stud. N. Y. P. L. Sch., 
N. Y. City. 5751. 



Cook, Edith L., In. Alta House Br. P. L., 

Cleveland, O. 5766. 
Cook, Lillian E., In. P. L., Valley City, N. 

D. 5714. 
Cowley, Amy, jr. stud. N. Y. State L. Sch., 

Albany, N. Y. 5765. 
Critzer, Helena M., desk attendant P. L., 

Berkeley, Cal. 5767. 
Curtis Memorial L., Meriden, Conn. 

(Corinne A. Deshon, In.) 5719. 
Day, Mary B., asst. In. Southern 111. State 

Normal Univ. L., Carbondale, 111. 5803. 
Dayton, Hazel I., asst. Osterhout F. L., 

Wilkes-Barre, Pa. 5715. 
Dedham (IVIass.) P. L. (Anna P. Roiland, 

In.) 5777. 
Dick, Margaret S., stud. N. Y. State L. 

Sch., Albany, N. Y. 5782. 
Dixon, Vera M., In. Applied Science L. of 

Columbia Univ., N. Y. City. 5783. 
Dodgen, Lily M., child. In. P. L., Savannah, 

Ga. 5745. 
Dorsey, Sallie Webster, In. State L., An- 
napolis, Md. 5768. 
Du Bois, Isabel, In. South Side Br. P. L., 

Fort Wayne, Ind. 5752. 
Dunn, Abigail D., In. Young Men's Insti- 
tute L., New Haven, Conn. 5795. 
Eau Claire (Wis.) P. L. (Laura M. Olsen, 

In.) 5737. 
Farquhar, Alice M., In. Humboldt Park Br. 

P. L., Chicago, 111. 5729. 
Ferguson L., Stamford, Conn. (Alice M. 

Colt, In.) 5733. 
Fitch, Eva L., catlgr. Drake Univ. L., Des 

Moines, la. 5769. 
Framingham (Mass.) Town L. (Miss E. L. 

Clarke, In.) 5749. 
Frost, Elizabeth R., ref. In. Silas Bronson 

L., Waterbury, Conn. 5784. 
Furst, Elsie M., 1st asst. Catalog Dept. P. 

L., Rochester, N. Y. 5796. 
Giele, Nora H., In. F. P. L., New Castle, 

Pa. 5753. 
Goodrich, Dorothy A., stud. N. Y. P. L. 

Sch., N. Y. City. 5805. 
Green, Carrie P., ref. In. and asst. catlgr. 

L. of Hawaii, Honolulu, H. I. 5770. 
Hall, Agnes S., head catlgr. P. L., Denver, 

Colo. 5789. 

Handy, D. N., In. and clerk The Insurance 

L. Assn. of Boston, Boston, Mass. 5771. 
Harcourt Wood Memorial L., Derby, Conn. 

(Minnie B. Cotter, In.) 5761. 
Hatfield, Thomas F., In. F. P. 1,., Hoboken, 

N. J. 5730. 
Hayes, Florence, catlgr. and ref. In. City 

L., Lincoln, Neb. 5795. 
Hearst F. L., Anaconda, Mont. (Elizabeth 

L. Thomson, In.) 5790. 
Heins, Dorothea C, 1st asst. L. Assn., 

Montgomery, Ala. 5754. 
Hibbs, Ethel, In. L. of Medical Dept. Univ. 

of Texas, Galveston, Texas. 5797. 
Josenhaus, M. Alma, child. In. James E. 

Scripps Br. P. L., Detroit, Mich. 5798. 
Kansas Univ. L., Lawrence, Kan. (Carrie 

M. Watson, In.) 5791. 
Keating, Kathleen M., asst. P. L., Berkeley, 

Cal. 5716. 
Keith, Efiie A., catlgr. Univ. of Minnesota 

L., Minneapolis, Minn. 5755. 
Kellogg P. L., Green Bay, Wis. (Deborah 

B. Martin, In.) 5722. 
Keokuk (la.) P. L. Nannie P. Fulton, In.) 

Kessel, Martha C, stud. N. Y. State L. 

Sch., Albany, N. Y. 5786. 
Lafayette (Ind.) P. L. (Mrs. Virginia 

Stein, In.) 5721. 
LiedlofE, Ottilie L., In. Ref. L. of State 

Normal Sch., St. Cloud, Minn. 5772. 
Lippincott Co., J. B., Philadelphia, Pa. 

(William M. Lednum, adv. mgr.) 5792. 
Lockwood, Greene & Co. L., 60 Federal St., 

Boston, Mass. (Stephen R. Bartlett, In.) 

Matthews, Etta L., In. Jacob Tome Insti- 
tute L., Port Deposit, Md. 5742. 
Miller, Mrs. Warwick, In. Jefferson Br. F. 

P. L., Louisville, Ky. 5799. 
Minn. Univ. L., Minneapolis, Minn. (J. T. 

Gerould, In.) 5727. 
MInot (N. D.) P. L. (Margaret Greene, In.) 

Monro, Isabel Stevenson, catlgr. Minn. 

Univ. L., Minneapolis, Minn. 5741. 
Muzzy, A. Florence, asst. P. L., N. Y. City. 



Ogden, E. James, asst. Art Dept. F. L., 
Philadelphia, Pa. 5773. 

Olcott, Florence, asst. in charge of Science 
& Useful Arts Collection P. L., Milwau- 
kee, Wis. 5800. 

Paine, Paul M., sec'y to In. P. L., Syracuse, 
N. Y. 5731. 

Palo Alto (Cal.) P. L. (Anne Hadden, In.) 

Passaic (N. J.) P. L. (H. Elizabeth White, 
In.) 5738. 

Price, Lelah, In. Univ. Preparatory Sch. 
• L., Tonkawa, Okla. 5717. 

Radford, Mary R., In. F. P. L., Muskogee, 
Okla. 5774. 

Reno (Nev.) F. P. L. (John H. Hamlin, In.) 

Ridlon, Margaret, ref. asst. Williams Col- 
lege L., Williamstown, Mass. 5746. 

Roy, Myrtle I., asst. F. P. L., Summit, N. 
J. 5740. 

Saltsman, Sue A., In. F. P. L., Newark, N. 
Y. 5743. 

Santa Barbara (Cal.) F. P. L. (Frances B. 
Linn, In.) 5762. 

Sault Ste. Marie (Mich.) Carnegie P. L. 
(Adah Shelly, In.) 5720. 

Savage, Elta V., stud. N. Y. State L. Sch., 
Albany, N. Y. 5787. 

Schenectady (N. Y.) P. L. (Henry Glen, In.) 

Shearer, Augustus H., Newberry L., Chi- 
cago, 111. 5756. 

Sherman (Texas) P. L. (Mrs. Nora K. 
Weems, In.) 5726. 

Singley, Louise, supervisor of Div. of Home 
Libraries and Reading Clubs, Carnegie 
L., Pittsburgh, Pa. 5757. 

Smith, Elizabeth, instructor Syracuse Univ. 
L. Sch., Syracuse, N. Y. 5718. 

Spangler, H. Mary, In. High Sch. L., Hart- 
ford, Conn. 5801. 

Stetson, Ruth A., In. High Sch. L., Evans- 
ville, Ind. 5775. 

Thayer, Gordon W., asst. Shelf Dept. Har- 
vard Univ. L., Cambridge, Mass. 5744. 

Thomas, Helen L., Educational Sec'y Nat'l. 
Board Y. W. C. A.. 600 Lexington Ave., 
N. Y. City. 5788. 

Vasbinder, Lida C, asst. Leg. Ref. Sec. 

N. Y. State L., Albany, N. Y. 5758. 
Waller, Florence M., catalgr. Wash. State 

College L., Pullman, Wash. 5802. 
Washington County F. L., Hagerstown, Md. 

(Mary L. Titcomb, In.) 5793. 
Williamson, Charles C, chief of Div. of 

Economics & Sociology P. L., N. Y., City. 

Woodcock, Mabel E., purchase asst. N. Y. 

State L., Albany, N. Y. 5759. 
Young, Gladys, stud. N. Y. P. L. Sch., N. 

Y. City. 5776. 

Armstrong, Agnes, catlgr. Smith College L„ 

Northampton, Mass. 4621. 
Bell, Mary B., head Child. Dept. F. P. L., 

Louisville, Ky. 4874. 
Blair, Mellicent F., asst. catlgr. P. L., 

Brooklyn, N. Y. 4632. 
Brainerd, Jessie F., In. P. L., New Rochelle, 

N. Y. 3590. 
Houston (Texas) Lyceum & Carnegie L. 

(Julia Ideson, In.) 3983. 
Indiana State L., Indianapolis, Ind. (De- 

marchus C. Brown, In.) 1086. 
Otis L., Norwich, Conn. (Imogene A. Cash, 

act. In.) 100. 
Smith, Irene, P. L., Denver Colo. 1355. 
Spofford, Mrs. Edith F., In. Bureau of 

Mines L., Washington, D. C. 3839. 
Thomson, O. R. Howard, In. James V. 

Brown, L., Williamsport, Pa. 2006. 
Tracey, Catharine S., instructor N. Y. P. 

L. Sch. and In. of Sch. Collections, N. 

Y. City. 3303. 
Tripp, George H., In. F. P. L., New Bed- 
ford, Mass. 2664. 
Waite, Frank A., chief of Information Div. 

P. L. N. Y. City. 3104. 
Walton, Miss G. M., head. In. Mich. State 

Normal College L., Ypsilanti, Mich. 



Haynes, Frances E., asst. In. Mount Holy- 
oke College L., South Hadley, Mass. 

Parker, Phebe, In. State Normal Sch. L., 
Valley City, N. D. 2050. 



As the Bulletin is about to go to press 
we have a cablegram announcing that Mr. 
L. Stanley Jast, librarian of the Croydon 
public libraries, has been oflacially ap- 
pointed by the council of the Library 
Association of the United Kingdom as a 
delegate from that association to the Kaat- 
erskill conference in response to the in- 
vitation of the A. L. A. that such a dele- 
gate be appointed. Mr. Jast has already 
visited American libraries and his many 
friends will be glad to greet him again and 
also warmly welcome him as the accred- 
ited delegate of the English Association. 


"Buying list of books for small libraries," 
compiled by Zaidee Brown; new edition 
revised by Caroline Webster. An admir- 
able collection of about 800 books suitable 
as a guide for small libraries and the 
untrained librarian. Price 10c. 

"How to choose editions," by William 
E. Foster. (A. L. A. Handbook No. 8) 
Discusses the six points of selection: (1) 
text, (2) editor, (3) size, (4) type, (5) 
paper and ink, (6) binding. Price 15c. 

"A normal library budget and its units 
of expense," by O. R. Howard Thompson. 
(A. L. A. Handbook No. 9) The author 
believes that libraries should have a de- 
finite and skilfully prepared budget just 
as much as schools, a fire department, 
police department, and business houses. 
The budget here discussed is based on a 
medium sized library, which has an annual 
circulation of about 100,000 books. It will 
be of undoubted value to librarians and li- 
brary boards. The pamphlet is revised 
from an article printed in the "Pennsyl- 
vania Library Notes." Price 15c. In press. 

"Index to library reports," by Katharine 
T. Moody. Indexes reports of about 170 
libraries and library commissions, making 
available matter which is of general in- 
terest, but especially to the librarian along 

lines of library economy and bibliography. 
Price $1.00, cloth. In press. 

"Periodicals for the small library," by 
Frank K. Walter. An annotated selection 
of about 70 periodicals recommended to 
public libraries; recommends the first five 
and second five to be subscribed for. Price 

"List of economical editions," by LeRoy 
JefEers. Revised and enlarged edition. 
Expert advice as to the most economical 
editions of the more popular books. Price 

"The public school and the social center 
movement," by Arthur E. Bostwick. Re- 
print of his address at the Chicago meet- 
ing of the National Education Association, 
July, 1912. Price 10c. 

"List of Polish books," by Mrs. Jozefa 
Kudlicka. (Foreign book list No. 6) The 
author, who Is in charge of the Polish 
branch of the Buffalo Public Library, has 
compiled a collection of about 250 titles, 
all of which will be valuable for use to 
Polish patrons of public libraries. Price 
25c. In press. 

The following chapters of the A. L. A. 
Manual of library economy are also an- 
nounced. Price 10c each. 

Chap. V. Proprietary and subscription 
libraries, by C. K. Bolton. 

Chap. X. The library building, by W. 
R. Eastman. 

Chap. XIII. Training for llbrarlanship, 
by Mary W. Plummer. 

Chap. XXVII. Commissions, state aid 
and state agencies, by Asa Wynkoop. In 

Chap. XXXII. Library printing, by 
Frank K. Walter. In press. 


Analytical cards for the Warner Library 
of the world's best literature are being re- 
printed by the A. L. A. Publishing Board. 
There are about 900 cards in the set. 
Price $8.00. These cards distributed 
through the catalog will add very greatly 
to the usefulness and value of the Warner 




A few complete sets of the A. L. A. 
Booklist, from the beginning in 1905 to the 
end of Vol. 8, June, 1912, (with the ex- 
ception of Vol. 1, No. 1-2) may be had from 
the A. L. A. Publishing Board, 78 East 
Washington St., Chicago, 111. Price, in 
parts, with all indexes, $9.00. 

The office has been making special ef- 
forts the past year to get together com- 
plete sets and it is unlikely that many 
more can be secured as some of the early 
numbers have become very rare. 

Here is a rare good chance for any 
library which has not a complete set of the 

Vol. 2, 1886 Vol. 2, 1887, 1893 Vol. 1, 1894 
Vol. 1, 1895 Vol. 1, 1896, 1897 Vol. 2, 1898-99, 
1900 Vol. 2, 1901 Vol. 1, 1902-1905, 1906 Vol. 
1, 1907 Vol. 1, 1908, 1909 Vol. 1. 
Prices on application. 

Public Library, Derby, Conn. 

Bound Magazines — Atlantlcs, Centuries, 
and Scribner's Monthly. Some Atlantlcs 
have just been received from the binder 
and have no library markings. 

Unbound Magazines — Complete volumes 
and also single numbers of the Atlantic, 
North American Review, Connecticut Mag- 
azine and Littell's Living Age, besides the 
more popular magazines. 


(Any library member of the Association 
may insert, without cost, a ten line notice 
of books or periodicals wanted, for sale or 


Library, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 

Troy, N. Y. 

1st. annual report (1906) Carnegie 
Foundation for the advancement of teach- 

Library, University of Chicago, Chicago 

1. "Lord Kingsborough's Antiquities of 
Mexico, London, 1831-48" 9 vols., folio, 
with colored plates. Bound in dark green 
% morocco. Copy in good condition. 

2. "Philosophical Transactions of the 
Royal Society." 97 vols. Bound mainly in 
leather, a few in cloth, three or four 
volumes sprung at the back. They cover 
1803 to 1895, excepting the years 1808, 
1813, 1817, 1821-23, 1851, 1873, 1881. 

3. The Athenaeum. 91 vols. Bound 
In buckram. Cover 1833, 1858, 1865-67, 1S71 
excepting Jan.-Mar., 1872-1908, 1909 Vol. 1, 

4. Another partial set of the Athen- 
aeum containing 37 vols., as follows: 1872 
Vol. 1, 1878 Vol. 1, 1882-3, 1884 Vol. 1, 1885 


Milton, iVIass., Public Library 

Free to any Library: 

Child life in Italy. Tilton. 1866. 

Dudevant. Consuelo, 3 v. (paper.) 

Flelschmann, ed. Memoirs of Count 
Miot de Melito. Scribner. 1881. 

Goethe. Conversations with Eckermann. 
Bell. 1874. 

James, G. P. R. Richelieu, 2 v. in 1. 

Kirk. History of Charles the Bold. v. 1 
& 2 only. Lipplncott. 1864. 

Lessing. Laocoon. Roberts. 1887. 

Lever. Tom Burke of "Ours." Carey & 
Hart. 1844. 

Otis. Great white plague. Crowell. 

Prior. Edmund Burke. 2 v. Ticknor, 
Reed & Fields. 1854. 

Stael. Corinne. (paper.) 

Thackeray. Four Georges, Harper. 1860. 

Ticknor. Life of Prescott. Ticknor & 
Fields. 1866. 

Ware. Aurelian. Francis. 1854. Julian. 
Francis, 1856. 

Walpole. Anecdotes of painting. 1871. 

(The following statement is here printed 
in compliance with a recent act of Con- 
gress.— EDITOR) . 

Statement of the Ownership, Manage- 
ment, etc., of the Bulletin of the American 



Library Association, published bi-monthly 
at Chicago, Illinois, required by the Act of 
August 24, 1912. 

Editor, George B. Utley, 78 E. Washington 

St., Chicago, Illinois. 
Managing editor, same. 
Business manager, same. 
Publisher, American Library Association, 

78 E. Washington St., Chicago, Illinois. 
Owners, American Library Association, 78 

E. Washington St., Chicago, Illinois. 

Known bondholders, mortgagees, and 

other security holders, holding 1 per cent 
or more of total amount of bonds, mort- 
gages, or other securities: None. 

Sec'y American Library Association. 
Sworn to and subscribed to before me 
this 18th day of March, 1913. 


Notary Public. 


(My commission expires August, 1914.) 



AMERICAN Library Association 

Entered as seconcl-elass matter December 27, 1908, at the Post-Oflipe at ChioaKo. 111. 
Under Act of CongresB, July 18, 18M. 

VOL. 7, No. 4. CHICAGO, ILL. JULY, 1913 


Papers and Proceedings of the 




Henry E. Legler - - - _ Chicago Public Library 


E. H. Anderson - - - - New York Public Library 


Mary F. Isom - - Portland (Ore.) Library Association 


Carl B. Roden - - . - Chicago Public Library 


George B. Utley - - A. L. A. Executive Office, Chicago 










JUNE 23-28, 1913 






E. Ahem US 

C. Steiner 126 

E. Bostwick 126 

S. Root 134 

General sessions: PAGE 

President's address: The world of books and the 

world's work Henry E. Legler 73 

"As others see us" 83 

Secretary's report George B. Utley 99 

Treasurer's report C. B. Roden 103 

Reports of boards and committees: 

Finance committee C. W. Andrews 104 

A. L. A. Publishing Board Henry E. Legler 105 

Carnegie and endowment fund W. W. Appleton Ill 

Bookbinding A. L. Bailey 113 

Bookbuying W. L. Brown 114 

Co-operation with the N. E. A M 

Federal and state relations B. 

Library administration A. 

Library training A. 

Library work with the blind Emma N. Delfino 136 

Library work in Great Britain L. S. Jast 139 

The immigrant in the library Mary Antin 145 

Immigrants as contributors to library progress Adelaide B. Maltby 150 

The man in the yards .'.Charles E. Rush 154 

What of the black and yellow races? W. F. Yust 159 

The working library for the artisan and the craftsman. E. F. Stevens 170 

The woman on the farm Lutie E. Stearns 173 

Book influences for defectives and dependents Julia A. Robinson 177 

Changing conditions of child life Faith E. Smith 184 

How the library is meeting the changing conditions. .Gertrude E. Andrus 188 

Normal schools and their relation to librarianship. . . . W. H. Kerr 193 

The present status of legislative reference work C. B. Lester 199 

State wide influence of the state library D. C. Brown 202 

The law that stands the test M. S. Dudgeon 206 

Making a library useful to business men S. H. Ranck 210 

Libraries in business organizations Louise B. Krause 215 

The municipal reference library as an aid in city ad- 
ministration George McAneny 219 

The friendly book G. M. Walton 224 

How to discourage reading E. L. Pearson 230 

Report of tellers of election 236 

Executive board 237 

Council 242 

Sections: PAGE 

Agriculaural libraries 258 

Catalog 259 

Work with children 275 

College and reference 300 

Professional training 343 

Public documents round table 352 

Affiliated organizations: PAGE 

American association of law libraries 362 

League of library commissions 364 

Special libraries association 382 

Post-conference trip 386 

Attendance summaries 392 

Attendance register 393 

Index 409 



JUNE 23-28, J9I3 

(Monday evening, June 23) 

The PRESIDENT: The Thirty-fifth An- 
nual Conference of the American Library 
Association begins this evening. Custom 
has decreed that the presiding officer shall 
deliver a message, and the present presid- 
ing officer has not sufficient independence 
of mind to depart from that long-estab- 
lished custom. 


The World of Print and the World's Work 


Turning for a text to Victor Hugo's stir- 
ring epic of Paris, these words may be 
found in the section for May, and in the 
third chapter thereof: 

A Library implies an act of faith 
Which generations still in darkness hid 
Sign in their night, in witness of the dawn. 

When Johann Gutenberg in his secret 
workshop poured the molten metal into 
the rough matrices he had cut for separate 
types, the instrument for the spread of 
Democracy was created. When early Cav- 
aliers and Puritans planted the crude be- 
ginnings of free public schools, the forces 
of Democracy were multiplied. When half 
a century ago the first meager beginnings 
of the public library movement were 
evolved, Democracy was for all time as- 
sured. Thus have three great stages, sep- 
arated each by a span of two huiidred 
years from that preceding, marked that 
world development whose ultimate mean- 
ing is not equality of station or possession, 
but equality of opportunity. 

Not without stress and strife have these 

yet fragmentary results been achieved. 

-Not without travail and difficulties will 

universal acceptance be accorded in the 

days to come. But no one may doubt the 
final outcome which shall crown the strug- 
gle of the centuries. The world was old 
when typography was invented. Less than 
five centuries have passed since then, and 
in this interval — but a brief period in the 
long history of human endeavor — there has 
been more enlargement of opportunity for 
the average man and woman than in all 
the time that went before. Without the 
instrumentality of the printed page, with- 
out the reproductive processes that' give to 
all the world in myriad tongues the 
thought of all the centuries, slavery, serf- 
dom and feudalism would still shackle the 
millions not so fortunate as to be born to 
purple and ermine, and fine linen. 


The evolution of the book is therefore 
the history of the unfoldment of human 
rights. The chained tome in its medieval 
prison cell has been supplanted by the 
handy volume freely sent from the hospit- 
able public library to the homes of the 
common people. The humblest citizen, to 
day, has at his command books in number 
and in kind which royal treasuries could 
not have purchased five hundred years 
'ago. In the sixteenth century, it took a 
flock of sheep to furnish the vellum for one 
edition of a book, and the product was for 
the very few; in the twentieth, a forest 
is felled to supply the paper fqr an edi- 
tion, and the output goes to many hundred 
thousand readers. As books have multi- 
plied, learning has been more widely dis- 
seminated. As more people have become 
educated, the demand for books has in- 
creased enormously. The multiplication of 
books has stimulated the writing of them, 
and the inevitable result has been a de- 
terioration of quality proportioned to the 
increase in quantity. In the English lan- 
guage alone, since 1880. 206,905 titles of 



books printed ia the United States, have 
been listed, and 226,365 in Great Britain 
since 1882. Of these 433,270 titles, 84,722 
represent novels — 36,607 issued in the 
United States and 48,115 in Great Britain. 
Despite the inclusion of the trivial and the 
unsound in this vast mass of printed stuff, 
no one can doubt the magnitude of the 
service performed in the advancement of 
human kind. The universities have felt 
the touch of popular demand, and in this 
country at least some of them have at- 
tempted to respond. Through correspond- 
ence courses, short courses, university 
week conferences, summer schools, local 
forums, traveling instructors, and other 
media of extension, many institutions of 
higher learning have given recognition to 
the appeal of the masses. Logically with 
this enlargement of educational opportun- 
ity, the amplification of library facilities 
has kept pace. The libraries have become 
in a real sense the laboratory of learning. 
Intended primarily as great storehouses 
for the accumulation and preservation 
rather than the use of manuscripts and 
books, their doors have been opened wide 
to all farers in search of truth or meatal 

In a report to the English King, Sir Wil- 
liam Berkeley wrote as governor of Vir- 
ginia in 1642: "I thank God there are no 
free schools nor "printing, and I hope we 
shall not have them these hundred years; 
for learning has brought disobedience into 
the world, and printing has divulged them, 
and libels against the best government. 
God keep us from both." 

Governor Berkeley's sentiments, ex- 
pressed by him in turgid rhetoric, were 
held in his day by most men in authority, 
but that did not prevent the planting of 
little schoolhouses here and there, and 
men of much vision and little property be- 
queathed their possessions for maintaining 
them. Many a school had its origin in a 
bequest comprising a few milch kine, a 
horse or two, or a crop of tobacco ; in some 
instances, slaves. From such beginnings, 
with such endowments, was evolved three 
hundred years ago the public system of 

education which today prodigally prom- 
ises, though it but niggardly realizes, six- 
teen years of schooling for every boy and 
girl in the land. 

If the span of years needed for the de- 
velopment of the free library system has 
been much shorter, the hostile attitude of 
iniluential raen and the privations that at- 
tended pioneer efforts were no less 
marked. As recently as 1889 the writer of 
an article in the North American Review 
labeled his attack: "Are public libraries 
public blessings?" and answered his own 
question in no uncertain negative. "Not 
only have the public libraries, as a whole, 
failed to reach their proper aim of giving 
the means of education to the people," he 
protested, "but they have gone aside from 
their true path to furnish amusement and 
that in part of a pernicious character, 
chiefly to the young." And he added: "I 
might have mentioned other possible dan- 
gers, such as the power of the directors 
of any library to make it a propaganda of 
any delusive ism or doctrine subversive of 
morality, society or government; but I pre- 
fer to rest my case here." 

And it was somewhat later than this 
that the pages of the Century gave space 
to correspondence in opposition to the 
establishment of a public library system 
for the city of New York. 

These were but echoes of earlier antag- 


For the documentary material dealing 
with the beginnings of the public library 
movement, the searcher must delve within 
the thousand pages of a portly folio volume 
issued by the British government sixty 
years ago. It one possesses patience suf- 
ficient to read the immense mass of dry 
evidence compiled by a parliamentary 
commission and "presented to both houses 
of parliament by command of Her Maj- 
esty," some interesting facts in library his- 
tory will be found. A young man of twen- 
ty-three, then an underling in the service 
of the British Museum, afterwards an emi- 
nent librarian, was one of the principal 
witnesses. Edward Edwards had the gift 



of vision. Half a century before public li- 
braries became the people's universities, 
as they are today, his prophetic tongue 
gave utterance to what has since become 
the keynote of library alms and policies. 
Badgered by hostile inquisitors, ridiculed 
by press and politicians, he undeviatingly 
clung to his views, and he lived to see his 
prophecy realized. 

Great libraries there had been before his 
day; remarkable as a storehouse of knowl- 
edge in printed form was, and is in our 
own day, the institution with which he was 
associated. But in these rich reference 
collections intended for the student of re- 
search, the element of popular use was 
lacking. To have suggested the loan of a 
single book for use outside the four walls 
of the library would have startled and be- 
numbed everyone in authority — and with- 
out authority — from the members of the 
governing board to librarian, sub-librari- 
ans, and messenger boys. This stripling 
faced the members of parliament, and 
without hesitation proclaimed his thesis. 

"It is not merely to open the library to 
persons who, from the engrossing nature 
of their engagements of business, are at 
present utterly excluded from it, but it is 
also that the library may be made a direct 
agent in some degree in the work of na- 
tional education. Let not anyone be 
alarmed lest something very theoretical or 
very revolutionary should be proposed. I 
merely suggest that the library should be 
opened to a class of men quite shut out 
from it by its present regulations." 

Then he added: "In such a country as 
this there should be one great national 
storehouse. But in addition to this, there 
should be libraries in different quarters on 
a humbler scale, very freely accessible." 

One of the ablest members of parlia- 
ment, William Ewart, of Liverpool, be- 
came intensely interested in the views ex- 
pressed by young Edwards, and from that 
day was counted the consistent champion 
of library privileges for the common peo- 
ple. Largely through his instrumentality, 
aided by such men as Richard Cobden, 
John Bright and Joseph Brotherton, parlia- 

ment passed an act "for the encourage- 
ment of museums," Out of this measure 
grew the later public libraries' act. This 
notable step was not accomplished with- 
out bitter opposition. 

"The next thing we will be asked to do," 
said one indignant member on the floor of 
the House, "is to furnish people with 
quoits and peg-tops and footballs at the ex- 
pense of taxpayers. Soon we will be think- 
ing of introducing the performances of 
Punch for the amusement of the people." 

Events in England influenced similar 
movements in the United States. In a let- 
ter to Edward Everett, in 1851, Mr. George 
Ticknor gave the first impetus to the es- 
tablishment of a free public library in Bos- 
ton — the first in the new world to be main- 
tained permanently by the people for the 

"I would establish a library which differs 
from all free libraries yet attempted," he 
wrote. "I mean one in which any popular 
books, tending to moral and intellectual 
improvement, shall be furnished in such 
numbers of copies that many persons can 
be reading the same book at the same 
time; in short, that not only the best books 
of all sorts, but the pleasant literature of 
the day, shall be made accessible to the 
whole people when they most care for it; 
that is, when it is new and fresh." 

Sixty years after the date of Mr. Tick- 
nor's letter, and chiefly within the last two 
decades of the period, the public library 
movement has assumed a place in public 
education, which, relatively, the public 
school movement attained only after three 
hundred years of effort. When Thomas 
Bodley died, in 1613, in all Europe there 
were but three libraries accessible to the 
public — the Bodleian, the Angelo Rocca at 
Rome and the Ambrosian at Milan. In 
1841 the Penny Cyclopedia devoted about 
four inches of a narrow column to the sub- 
ject of libraries, ancient and modem, and 
limited its reference to American libraries 
to one sentence, obtained at second hand 
from an older contemporary: 

"In the United States of America, ac- 
cording to the Encyclopedia Americana, 



the principal libraries are, or were In 1831, 
that of Harvard College, containing 36,000 
volumes; the Philadelphia Library, con- 
taining 27,000; that of the Boston Athe- 
naeum, containing 26,000; that of Con- 
gress, containing 16,000, and that of 
Charleston, containing 13,000." 

It is only since 1867 that the federal gov- 
ernment has deemed it worth while to 
compile library statistics, and the first 
comprehensive figures were gathered in 
1875. It is worth noting that then they 
embraced all libraries comprising 300 vol- 
umes, and that in 1893 no mention is made 
of collections containing less than a thou- 
sand volumes, while the most recent of- 
ficial enumeration makes 5,000 volumes the 
unit of consideration. From these official 
figures may be gleaned something of the 
extraordinary growth of libraries, both nu- 
merically and in size. In 1875, including 
school libraries there were 2,039 contain- 
ing a thousand volumes, ten years later 
there were 4,026, ten years after that 8,000, 
and at this date there are in this class not 
less than 12,000, while the recorded num- 
ber comprising three hundred volumes or 
more reaches the substantial total of 15,- 
634, and 2,298 of these catalog in excess of 
5,000 volumes each. 


These figures show phenomenal growth, 
but even more impressive are the facts 
that give their full meaning in detail. 
From a striking compilation issued in Ger- 
many by Die Brucke a few weeks ago, to- 
gether with figures extracted by means of 
a questionnaire, supplemented by statisti- 
cal material gathered by the Bureau of 
Education, the facts which follow have 
been deduced: Counting the great libra- 
ries of the world, the six continents abut- 
ting the seven seas possess 324 libraries 
whose book collections number In excess 
of 100,000 volumes each, and of these 79 — 
or approximately one-fourth — are located 
in the Americas. Of the 79 American li- 
braries 72 are in the United States, Includ- 
ing university, public, governmental and 
miscellaneous Institutions, with a com- 

bined collection of 19,295,000 volumes. If 
this statistical Inquiry Is pursued further, 
a reason becomes apparent why millions 
are starved for want of books while other 
millions seemingly have a surfeit of them. 
The rural regions, save in a handful of 
commonwealths whose library commis- 
sions or state libraries actively administer 
traveling libraries, the book supply Is prac- 
tically negligible. Even the hundreds of 
itinerating libraries but meagerly meet the 
want. All the traveling libraries in all the 
United States have a total Issue annually 
less than that of any one of twenty mu- 
nicipal systems that can be named. The 
public library facilities in at least six thou- 
sand of the smaller towns are pitifully In- 
sufficient and in hundreds of them wholly 
absent. The movement to supply books 
to the people was first launched in the 
rural regions seventy years ago. Indeed 
the movement for popular education 
known as the American Lyceum, which 
forecast the activities of the modem pub- 
lic library just as the mechanics' Institutes 
of Great Britain prepared the soil for them 
in that country, flourished chiefly In the 
less thickly settled centers of population. 
The early district school libraries melted 
away in New York state and Wisconsin 
and other states, and the devastated 
shelves have never been amply renewed. 
The library commissions are valiantly and 
energetically endeavoring to supply the 
want, but their efforts are all too feebly 
supported by their respective states. In 
this particular, the policy is that which 
unfortunately obtains as to all educational 
effort. More than 55 per cent of the young 
people from 6 to 20 years old — about 17,- 
000,000 of them — live in the country or in 
;owns of less than two thousand inhab- 
itants. According to an official report from 
which this statement Is extracted, there 
are 5,000 country schools still taught in 
primitive log houses, uncomfortable, unsuit- 
able, unventllated, unsanitary, Illy equipped, 
poorly lighted, imperfectly heated — boys 
and girls in all stages of advance- 
ment receiving Instruction from one teach- 
er of very low grade. It Is plain why. In 



the summing up of this report, "Illiteracy 
In rural territory Is twice as great as In 
urban territory, notwithstanding that thou- 
sands of illiterate immigrants are crowded 
in the great manufacturing ard industrial 
centers. The illiteracy among nativeborn 
children of native parentage is more than 
three times as great as among native chil- 
dren of foreign parentage, largely on ac- 
count of the lack of opportunities for edu- 
cation in rural America." In Indian legend 
Nokomis, the earth, symbolizes the 
strength of motherhood; it may yet chance 
that the classic myth of the hero who 
gained his strength because he kissed the 
earth may be fully understood in America 
only when the people learn that they will 
remain strong, as Mr. Miinsterberg has 
put it, "only by returning with every gen- 
eration to the soil." 

If the states have proved recreant to 
duty in this particular, the municipalities 
have shown an increasing conception of 
educational values. The figures make an 
imposing statistical array. In- the United 
States there are 1,222 incorporated places 
of 5,000 or more inhabitants, and their li- 
braries house 90,000,000 volumes, with a to- 
tal yearly use aggregating 110,000,000 is- 
sues. Four million volumes a year are 
added to their shelves, and collectively 
they derive an income of $20,000,000. Their 
permanent endowments, which it must be 
regretfully said but 600 of them share, now 
aggregate $40,000,000. Nearly all of these 
libraries occupy buildings of their own, 
Mr. Andrew Carnegie having supplied ap- 
proximately $42,226,338 for the purpose in 
the United States, and the balance of the 
$100,000,000 represented in buildings hav- 
ing been donated by local benefactors or 
raised by taxation. 

The population of these 1,222 places is 
38,758,584, considerably less than half that 
of the entire United States. Their book 
possessions, on the other hand, are nine 
times as great as those In the rest of the 
country; the circulation of the books near- 
ly twelve times in volume. Closer analy- 
sis of these figures enforces still more 
strongly the actual concentration of the 

available book supply. The hundred larg- 
est cities of the United States, varying In 
size from a minimum of 53,684 to a maxi- 
mum of 4,766,883, possess in the aggregate 
more books than all the rest of the coun- 
try together, and represent the bulk of the 
trained professional service rendered. The 
great majority of the 3,000 graduates 
whom the library schools have sent Into 
service since the first class was organized 
in 1887, are in these libraries and in the 
university libraries. Forty per cent of the 
books circulated are issued to the dwellers 
in these one hundred cities, and in fifteen 
of them the stupendous total of 30,000,834 
issues for home reading was recorded last 
year. Without such analysis as this, the 
statistical totals would be misleading. The 
concentration of resources and of trained 
service in large centers of population, com- 
paratively few in number, makes evident 
the underlying cause for the modern trend 
of library development. A further study of 
conditions in these human hives justifies 
the specialized forms of service which 
have become a marked factor in library 
extension within a decade. With increased 
resources, with vastly improved Internal 
machinery, with enlarged conception of op- 
portunity for useful service, have come 
greater liberality of rules and ever widen- 
ing circles of activity, until today no indi- 
vidual and no group of individuals, remalna 
outside the radius of library influence. If 
this awakened zeal has spurred to efforts 
that seem outside the legitimate sphere of 
library work, no undue concern need bo 
felt. Neither the genius or enthusiasm of 
the individual nor the enterprise of a 
group of individuals will ever be permitted 
to go too rapidly or too far: the world'a 
natural conservatism and inherited unbe- 
lief stand ever ready to retard or prevent. 

Specialization has been incorporated 
Into library administration chiefly to give 
expeditious and thorough aid to seekers of 
informg,tion touching a wide variety of In- 
terests — business men, legislators, craftt- 
men, special investigators and students of 



every sort. This added duty has not di- 
minished Its Initial function to make avail- 
able the literature of all time, nor to sat- 
isfy those who go to books for the pure 
joy of reading. The recreative service of 
the library Is as Important as the educa- 
tive, or the informative. For the great 
mass of people, the problem has been the 
problem of toil long and uninterrupted 
The successful struggle of the unions to 
restrict the hours of labor has developed 
another problem almost as serious — the 
problem of leisure. Interwoven with this 
acute problem is another which subdivi- 
sion of labor has Introduced into modern 
industrial occupations — the terrible fatigue 
which results from a monotonous repeti- 
tion of the same process hour after hour, 
day after day, week after week. Such 
blind concentration In the making of but 
one piece of a machine, or a garment, or 
a watch, or any other article of merchan- 
dise, without knowledge of its relationship 
to the rest, soon wears the human worker 
out. There must be an outlet of play, of 
fun, or recreation. The librarian need not 
feel apologetic to the public because per- 
chance his circulation statistics show that 
70 per cent of It is classed as fiction. If 
he wishes to reduce this percentage to 69 
or 68 or 61, let him do it not by discourag- 
ing the reading of novels, but by stimulat- 
ing the use of books in other classes of 
literature. But well does he merit his own 
sense of humiliation and the condemnation 
of the critics if he needs must feel 
ashamed of the kind of novels that he puts 
upon his shelves. To quote a fellow li- 
brarian who expresses admirably the value 
of such literature, "A good story has cre- 
ated many an oasis in many an otherwise 
arid life. Many-sidedness of Interest 
makes for good morals, and millions of our 
fellows step through the pages of a story 
book into a broader world than their na- 
ture and their circumstances ever permit 
them to visit. If anything is to stay the 
narrowing and hardening process which 
specialization of learning, specialization of 
Inquiry and of Industry and swift accumu- 
lation of wealth are setting up among us, 

it Is a return to romance, poetry, imagina- 
tion, fancy, and the general culture we are 
now taught to despise. Of all these th* 
novel is a part; rather, in the novel are all 
of these. But a race may surely find 
springing up in itself a fresh love of ro- 
mance, in the high sense of that word, 
which can keep it active, hopeful, ardent, 
progressive. Perhaps the novel Is to be, 
in the next decades, part of the outward 
manifestation of a new birth of this love 
of breadth and happiness." 


Many of the factory workers are young 
men and young women, whose starved 
imaginations seek an outlet that will not 
be denied. In lieu of wholesome recreation 
and material, they will find "clues to life's 
perplexities" in salacious plays, in cheap 
vaudeville performances, in the suggestive 
pages of railway literature, in other ways 
that make for a lowering of moral tone. 
The reaction that craves amusement of 
any sort is manifest in the nightly crowded 
stalls of the cheap theaters. Eight million 
spectators view every moving picture film 
that is manufactured. It is estimated that 
one-sixth of the entire population of New 
York City and of Chicago attends the the- 
aters on any Sunday of the year. One 
Sunday evening, at the instance of Miss 
Jane Addams, an investigation was made 
of 466 theaters in the latter city, and It 
was discovered that in the majority of 
them the leading theme was revenge; the 
lover following his rival ; the outraged hus- 
band seeking his wife's betrayer; or the 
wiping out by death of a blot on a hither- 
to unstained honor. And of course these 
influences extend to the children who are 
always the most ardent and responsive of 
audiences. There is grave danger that the 
race will develop a ragtime disposition, a 
moving picture habit and a comic supple- 
ment mind. 


It Is perhaps too early to point to the 
specialized attention which libraries have 
given to the needs of young people as 



a distinct contribution to society. Another 
generation must come before material evi- 
dence for good or ill becomes apparent. 
That the work is well worth the thought be- 
stowed, whether present methods survive 
or are modified, may not be gainsaid. The 
derelicts of humanity are the wrecks who 
knew no guiding light. The reformatories 
and the workhouses, the penal institutions 
generally and the charitable ones princi- 
pally, are not merely a burden upon soci- 
ety, but a reproach for duty unperformed. 
Society is at last beginning to realize that 
it is better to perfect machinery of pro- 
duction than to mend the imperfect prod- 
uct; that to dispense charity may amelio- 
rate individual suffering, but does not pre- 
vent recurrence. And so more attention is 
being given prevention than cure. 

I gave a beggar from my little store 

Of well-earned gold. He spent the shining 

And came again, and yet again, still cold 
And hungry as before. 

I gave a thought, and through that thought 

of mine. 
He found himself a man, supreme, divine, 
Bold, clothed, and crowned with blessings 


And now he begs no more. 


If numbers and social and industrial im- 
portance warrant special library facilities 
for children, certainly the same reasons 
underlie the special library work with for- 
eigners which has within recent years 
been carried on extensively in the larger 
cities. Last month the census bureau is- 
sued an abstract of startling import to 
those who view in the coming of vast num- 
bers from across the waters a menace to 
the institutions of this democracy. Ac- 
cording to this official enumeration, in but 
fourteen of fifty cities having over 100,000 
inhabitants in 1910 did native whites of 
native parentage contribute as much as 
one-half the total population. The propor- 
tion exceeded three-fifths in only four cit- 
ies. On the other hand, in twenty-two 
cities of this class, of which fifteen are in 
New England and the Middle Atlantic di- 

visions, less than one-third of the popula- 
tion were native whites of native parent- 
age, over two-thirds in all but one of these 
cities consisting of foreign-born whites 
and their children. 

In his Ode delivered at Harvard, Low- 
ell eloquently referred to 

"The pith and marrow of a Nation 
Drawing force from all her men, 
Highest, humblest, weakest, all, 
For her time of need, and then 
Pulsing it again through them, 
She that lifts up the manhood of the poor, 
She of the open soul and open door. 
With room about her hearth for all man- 

This was written in 1865. Since then the 
rim of the Mediterranean has sent its enor- 
mous contribution of unskilled and unlet- 
tered human beings to the New World. 
There have been three great tides of mi- 
gration from overseas. The first came to 
secure liberty of conscience; the second 
sought liberty of political thought and ac- 
tion; the third came in quest of bread. 
And of the three, incomparably the greater 
problem of assimilation is that presented 
by the last comers. Inextricably interwov- 
en are all the complexities which face the 
great and growing municipalities, political- 
ly and industrially and socially. These are 
the awful problems of congestion and fes- 
tering slums, of corruption in public life, 
of the exploitation of womanhood, of terri- 
ble struggle with wretchedness and pov- 
erty. Rightly directed, the native qualities 
and strength of these peoples will bring a 
splendid contribution in the making of a 
virile citizenship. Wrongly shaped, their 
course in the life of the city may readily 
become of sinister import. Frequently they 
are misunderstood, and they easily mis- 
understand. The problem is one of edu- 
cation, but it is that most diflicult prob- 
lem, of education for grown-ups. Here 
perhaps the library may render the most 
distinct service, in that it can bring to 
them in their own tongues the ideals and 
the underlying principles of life and cus- 
tom in their adopted country; and through 
their children, as they swarm into the 
children's rooms, is established a point of 



\:ontact which no other agency could so 
effectually provide. 

Under the repressive measures of old- 
world governments, the racial culture and 
national spirit of Poles, Lithuanians, 
Finns, Balkan Slavs, and Russian Jews 
have been stunted. Here both are wanned 
into life and renewed vigor, and in gen- 
erous measure are given back to the land 
of their adoption. Such racial contribution 
must prove of enormous value, whether, 
as many sociologists believe, this country 
is to prove a great melting pot for the fus- 
ing of many races, or whether as Dr. Zhit- 
lowsky contends, there is to be one coun- 
try, one set of laws, one speech, but a vast 
variety of national cultures, contributing 
each its due share to the enrichment of the 
common stock. 


Great changes have come about in the 
methods that obtain for the exercise of 
popular government. In a Democracy 
whose chief strength is derived from an 
intelligent public opinion, the sharpening 
of such intelligence and enlargement of 
general knowledge concerning affairs of 
common concern are of paramount impor- 
tance. Statute books are heavily cum- 
bered with laws that are unenforced be- 
cause public opinion goes counter to them. 
Nonenforcement breeds disrespect for law, 
and unscientific making of laws leads to 
their disregard. So the earliest attempts 
to find a remedy contemplated merely the 
legislator and the official, bringing togeth- 
er for their use through the combined serv- 
ices of trained economists and of expert 
reference librarians the principles and 
foundation for contemplated legislation 
and the data as to similar attempts else- 
where. Fruitful as this service has proved 
within the limitation of state and munici- 
pal officialdom, a broadened conception of 
possibilities now enlarges the scope of the 
work to include citizen organizations in- 
terested in the study of public questions, 
students of sociology, economics and poli- 
tical science, business men keenly aliv« 
to the intimate association — in a legiti- 
mate sense — of business and politics, and 

that new and powerful element in pub- 
lic affairs which has added three million 
voters to the poll lists in ten states, and 
will soon add eleven million voters more 
in the remaining thirty-eight. The new 
library service centering in state and mu- 
nicipal legislative reference libraries, and 
in Civics departments of large public 11- 
biaries, forecasts the era, now rapidly ap- 
proaching, when aldermen and state rep- 
resentatives will still enact laws and state 
and city officials will enforce them, but 
their making will be determined strictly by 
public opinion. The local government of 
the future will be by quasi-public citizen 
organizations directing aldermen and state 
legislators accurately to register their will. 
When representative government becomes 
misrepresentative. In the words of a mod- 
ern humorist. Democracy will ask the Pow- 
ers that Be whether they are the Powers 
that Ought to Be. To intelligently deter- 
mine the answer, public opinion must not 
ignorantly ask. 


This has been called the age of utili- 
tarianism. Such it unquestionably is, but 
its practicality is not disassociated from 
idealism. The resources of numberless 
commercial enterprises are each in this 
day reckoned In millions, and their prod- 
ucts are figured in terms of many millions 
more, as once thousands represented the 
spread of even the greatest of industries. 
But more and more, business men are com- 
ing to realize that business organization 
as it affects for weal or woe thousands who 
contribute to their success, must be con- 
ducted as a trust for the common good, 
and not merely for selfish exploitation, or 
for oppression. As the trade guilds of old 
wielded their vast power for common ends, 
so all the workers gave the best at their 
command to make their articles of mer- 
chandise the most perfect that human skill 
and care could produce. Men of business 
whose executive skill determines the des- 
tiny of thousands in their employ, ar« 
growing more and more to an appreciation 
of the trusteeship that is theirs. A hu- 
mane spirit is entering the relationship 



between employer and employed. Great 
commercial organizations are conducting 
elaborate investigations into conditions of 
housing, sanitation, prolongation of school 
life, social Insurance and similar subjects 
of betterment for the toilers; but a brief 
span ago they were concerned chiefly with 
trade extension and lowering of wages, all 
unconcerned about the living conditions of 
their dependents. They too are now ex- 
emplifying the possession of that construc- 
tive imagination which builds large and 
beyond the present. , For results that grow 
out of experience and of experiment they 
also are in part dependent upon the sifted 
facts that are found in print. The busi- 
ness house library is a recent development, 
and in ministering in different ways to 
both employer and employed, gives prom- 
ise of widespread usefulness. 


With the tremendous recent growth of 
industrialism and the rapid multiplication 
of invention, the manifest need for making 
available the vast sum of gathered knowl- 
edge concerning the discoveries of modern 
science has evolved the great special li- 
braries devoted to the varied subdivisions 
of the subject. Munificently endowed as 
many of them are, highly organized for 
ready access to material, administered to 
encourage use and to give expert aid as 
well, their great importance cannot be ov- 
erestimated. What they accomplish is not 
wholly reducible to statistics, nor can their 
influence be readily traced, perhaps, to the 
great undertakings of today which over- 
shadow the seven wonders of antiquity. 
But there can be no question that with- 
out the opportunities that here lie for study 
and research, and — no less important — 
without the skilled assistance freely ren- 
dered by librarian and bibliographer, spe- 
cial talent would often remain dormant 
and its possessor unsatisfled. Greater 
here would be the loss to society than to 
the Individual. 


Thus the libraries are endeavoring to 
make themselves useful in every field of 

human enterprise or Interest; with books 
of facts for the information they pcssesg; 
with books of inspiration for the stimulus 
they give and the power they generate. 
Conjointly these yield the equipment 
which develops the constructive imagina- 
tion, without which the world would seem 
but a sorry and a shriveled spot to dwell 
upon. The poet and the dreamer conceive 
the great things which are wrought; the 
scientist and the craftsman achieve them; 
the scholar and the artist interpret them. 
Thus associated, they make their finest 
contribution to the common life. The 
builders construct the great monuments 
of iron and of concrete which are the ex- 
pression of this age, as the great cathe- 
drals and abbeys were of generations that 
have passed. Adapted as they are to the 
needs of this day, our artists and our writ- 
ers have shown us the beauty and the art 
which the modern handiwork of man pos- 
sesses. With etcher's tool one man of keen 
insight has shown us the art that inheres 
in the lofty structures which line the great 
thoroughfares of our chief cities, the beau- 
ty of the skylines they trace with roof and 
pediment. With burning words another has 
given voice to machinery and to the vehi- 
cles of modern industry, and we thrill to 
the eloquence and glow of his poetic 

"Great works of art are useful worki 
greatly done," declares Dr. T. J. Cobden- 
Sanderson, and rightly viewed the most 
prosaic achievements of this age, wheth- 
er they be great canals or clusters of 
workmen's homes worthily built, or may- 
be more humble projects, have a greatness 
of meaning that carries with it the sense 
of beauty and of art. 

In medieval days, the heralds of civiliza- 
tion were the warrior, the missionary, the 
explorer and the troubadour; in modern 
times, civilization is carried forward by 
the chemist, the engineer, the captain of 
Industry, and the interpreter of life — 
whether the medium utilized be pen or 
brush or voice. Without vision, civiliza- 
tion would wither and perish, and so it 
may well be that the printed page shall 



serve as symbol of Its supreme vision. 
Within the compass of the book sincerely 
written, rightly chosen, and well used are 
contained the three chief elements which 
justify the library of the people— informa- 
tion, education, recreation. 

The urge of the world makes these de- 
mands; ours is the high privilege to re- 

The PRESIDENT: We have a very in- 
teresting ending to tonight's program in 
that we have secured from eminent men 
and women in the United States and Great 
Britain brief expressions touching our own 
work. A circular letter was sent to a num- 
ber of these eminent ladies and gentlemen 
represented in professional and business 
life, to the following effect: 

"Librarians realize that they can profit 
from seeing themselves 'as others see 
them.' At the coming annual conference 
of the American Library Association to be 
held in Kaaterskill, N. Y., it is planned to 
present to the assembled librarians of the 
United States and Canada brief messages 
from leading thinkers and recognized au- 
thorities in the arts, sciences and letters, 
and in public life, commenting upon such 
library activities as are related particu- 
larly with their own special interests. Each 
message may take the form either of criti- 
cism or suggestion. We shall esteem it a 
privilege if you will consent to contribute 
to this symposium. While we shall be glad 
to hear from you on any phase of library 
work which most appeals to you, we ven- 
ture to suggest the following topic for 
your comment: (Here was inserted a spe- 
cific topic suggested for individual discus- 

Sincerely yours, 



Most of these questions will be appar- 
ent as the answers are read. We have 
distributed these responses among a few 
of our own members who will serve as 
proxies for the most distinguished contrib- 
utors to a program which the American 
Library Association, I believe, has ever 

Selections from these letters were then 
read by Dr. Reuben G. Thwaites, Mr. C. B. 

Roden, Miss Mary Eileen Ahem and Mr. 
W. P. Cutter. 

(The following is a list of the questions 
which were asked in these letters and the 
replies received follow.) 

Are our public libraries succeeding in 
their effort to bring to men and women the 
"life more abundant?" 

What can the library do to encourage 
the study of American history? 

Should our public expect the library to 
supply all the "best sellers" hot from the 

Are our public libraries making returns 
in service adequate to funds appropriated? 

How could our tax supported public li- 
braries be of greater usefulness to business 

Is the negro being helped by our public 

Does the public library do as much as 
it might to encourage the reading of the 

Is the public library helping to improve 
dramatic taste? 

Is co-operation between the public school 
and the public library developing in the 
right direction? 

Is the fiction circulated by our public li- 
braries helping to enlighten the people on 
social and economic problems? 

Is the public library a factor in the re- 
cent development of a public conscience? 

Should the public library exercise cen- 
sorship over the books it circulates? 

What is a dead book? 

What rank should the library have in the 
scale of the community's social assets? 

^What is your conception of the ideal li- 

Is it wicked for our libraries to amuse 

Are the art departments of our public li- 
braries quickening the love for the beau- 

Are our libraries helping to make better 
citizens of those from over-seas? 

Is the modern city library engaging in 
activities outside its proper sphere, e. g., 
lectures, story-telling, art exhibits, victrola 
concerts, loan of pianola rolls, etc.? 


Is the library doing as much as it might 
to be a true university to the people? 

What do you consider the most valuable 
accomplishment of the public library move- 
ment in the past decade? 

Need librarians apologize for circulating 
a large percentage of contemporary fic- 

New York, April 7, 1913. 
Dear Mr. President: 

You ask "what do you consider the most 
valuable accomplishment of the public li- 
brary movement in the past decade?" 

Answer — 

The spread of the truth that the public 
library, free to all the people, gives noth- 
ing for nothing; that the reader must him- 
self climb the ladder and in climbing gain 
knowledge how to live this life well. 


Cornwall-on-Hudson, N. Y., 

April 11, 1913. 
My father* has asked me to write to you 
in reply to your letter concerning the con- 
ference of the American Library Associa- 
tion to be held in Kaaterskill, N. Y. Nei- 
ther my father nor I have any chance to 
see in any detail what our public libraries 
are doing to make like more abundant. One 
little incident, however, has come within 
my experience. The New York Public Li- 
brary sends its discarded books to various 
hospitals and camps instead of destroying 
them. I have been able to get some of 
these discarded books for use in a Boys' 
Club here in Cornwall. They were well 
chosen for what I wanted and the boys 
have been responsive and interested in tak- 
ing them out. This is simply one of the 
things that the public libraries are doing 
with the books they are through with and 
can use no more. 

Yours very truly, 

London, England, 
April 15. 1913. 
In reply to your letter of April 1st, writ- 
ten on behalf of the American Library As- 
sociation, I do consider that to a certain 
extent the fiction circulated in the public 
libraries of the United States does help to 
enlighten the people on social and eco- 
nomic problems. But I am bound to say 
that I think that we novelists might do a 
very great deal more in this direction if 

we would avoid sentimentalizing the truth 
in order to make it seem more palatable, 
and also if we would adopt the habit of de- 
scribing more completely the general so- 
cial background against which our leading 
figures live and move. 

Believe me. 
Yours faithfully, 


* Lyman Abbott. 

Drama League of America, 
Chicago, 111. 

In the last three years the American peo- 
ple as a whole have begun to awaken to a 
realization of the vast importance of our 
amusements in the nation's life. We are 
realizing that we are far behind the other 
civilized countries in the development of 
our dramatic taste, and we are beginning 
to be uneasy over the danger of being too 
careless in regard to our recreation. The 
people at large are commencing to take a 
genuine interest in the problems presented 
by our theater, and the character of the 
plays they give. 

We have arrived at a period of pros- 
perity when we have time, at last, to pay 
attention to the arts, and especially the 
last to be developed, the dramatic art. We 
are uneasy over the conditions in our the- 
aters today. 

Vaguely the people as a whole are feel- 
ing around for one means or another to 
correct these conditions, to create a great 
national art and to restore drama to her 
proper place among the arts. One move- 
ment after another has aimed to meet 
these conditions — new theaters — municipal 
theaters, censorship laws, — every sort of 
reform. It has remained for the Drama 
League of America to place its finger 
upon the really vital issue. For the actual 
fault of the present situation lies with the 
easy going American public. You cannot 
create a New Theater without a public 
to support it; you cannot force art on an 
unwilling public no matter how large an A 
you use in spelling it. In fact, your re- 
forms must begin the other side of the foot- 
lights; and if we are to have better plays 
upon our stage, if we are to do away with 
the meretricious plays now too frequently 
there, we must work with this great pleas- 
ure-loving good-natured public, and culti- 
vate in it a taste for better drama. 

We must create a demand for good 
drama and the supply will follow — the dra- 
matist, actor and manager are only too 
willing to fall into line, if the public can be 
induced to refuse the worthless play and 
support better drama. The really vital 
and necessary thing is to secure a public 
which will enjoy and support good plays. 



Hence, it has become an Important and 
basic matter to Improve the dramatic 
tastes of the country. In fact, in the opin- 
ion of many, this is one of the great prob- 
lems we have before us as a nation today. 

Organized with this very object, the 
Drama League of America has worked for 
three years on the problem. In those three 
years it has discovered many things. One 
of these is, that there is a real and genu- 
ine response to the appeal of the written 
drama; that the message of the play need 
not be restricted to the city with a theater, 
but that through the printed play every 
community may be reached. Another point 
worked out by the league is the absolute 
assurance that the best and in fact the 
only way to improve the dramatic taste 
of the country is to inculcate a thorough 
knowledge of good drama — an intimate ac- 
quaintance with the best plays written. 
As many of these plays are rarely acted 
now, or if acted are confined to the big 
cities, the third point easily follows, that 
by means of the printed play we can grad- 
ually so inoculate the entire nation with a 
knowledge of good drama and what it 
really is that it will turn instinctively from 
the cheap and worthless play and demand 
better things. Consequently the first and 
most important matter is to make good 
drama accessible to every one. By spread- 
ing knowledge of the best plays of the past 
and present, all over the country, we are 
improving the dramatic taste of the nation 
and paving the way for better conditions 
in the theaters. 

In this effort to Increase the reading of 
plays the Drama League not unnaturally 
turned early in its career to the libraries, 
feeling itself largely dependent upon them 
for the full development of its work. The 
keenest response has come in return. Over 
73 libraries are represented in our mem- 
bership and keep on file the league litera- 
ture. The testimony from these libraries 
is most encouraging. On every side we find 
the libraries eager to help in this develop- 
ment of public dramatic taste. 

Since the only way to improve dramatic 
taste is by acquiring a thorough knowl- 
edge of plays, it is palpably apparent that 
the libraries can be the greatest possible 
help In this new movement. To illustrate 
concretely — The Drama League enters a 
medium sized town with one public library, 
inducing the two or three women's clubs 
to take up each a course in modern drama, 
Interesting the teachers in the high school 
in the league's high school course, even 
persuading the grade school to do drama 
work with the younger pupils. Usually 
there are formed also several little read- 
ing circles. Of course, the first demand la 

for the published plays. The students flock 
to the libraries to get the desired dramas. 

In Chicago the testimony has come many 
times that since the organization of The 
Drama League public interest has been so 
keen that the demand for dramas has been 
phenomenal. Is the library content merely 
to recognize this condition? By no means. 
The Drama Department has had to quad- 
ruple its supply, and even then is fre- 
quently obliged to hold the books in for 
reference only in order to meet the de- 
mand. But see what this has meant to the 
league to have that quadruple supply of 
the dramas demanded by its members. 
From Washington comes the testimony 
that the organization of the league has in- 
creased the demand for drama books; from 
Los Angeles came a large order for spe- 
cial dramas and reference books needed by 
our members. The Massachusetts State 
Library has offered to meet any demands 
made upon it. Librarians in various com- 
munities are officers and directors in this 
new movement. 

May I suggest a few ways in which the 
libraries can help us? In the first place, 
it will be a real benefit to any community 
if its library will become a member of The 
Drama League and keep its literature on 
file. In this way the community is kept 
informed through the Drama League bulle- 
tins of the best current plays by its critical 
analysis; it has access also to the study 
courses and bibliographies on drama pre- 
pared by the league's experts. Secondly, 
it would be an inestimable help in this task 
of improving dramatic taste of the com- 
munity if the library would be sure to 
have on hand all the dramas listed in our 
study and reading courses. Thirdly, if the 
libraries would arrange a handy shelf of 
worthy drama where "he who inins may 
read," where the passerby would be at- 
tracted by a drama and pick it up to 
read it, it might induce a taste for better 
plays, a knowledge of good drama in a 
previously heedless theater goer. In Evan- 
ston, Illinois, for three years this shelf has 
been maintained in the library by the 
Drama Club. Every few weeks a new 
selection of dramas Is placed on this little 
book rack which stands near the main 
call desk. It is much used and very popu- 

The library could also helpfully publish 
a separate list of Its books on drama and 
dramas, or better yet arrange them in a 
separate section. Such a list is published 
yearly by the Evanston Library and sev- 
eral other libraries have recently adopted 
this plan — notably the Newberry Library, 
Chicago, and the Kansas City Library. 

Another way in which the libraries can 



co-operate in raising dramatic taste, is 
by making it easy for the playgoer to 
read the dramas which have been pub- 
lished and are to be presented in his city. 
By co-operation with the Drama League 
the library might receive word in advance 
when a published worthy play is to be 
given in town. It could then see to it 
either that its copy of that play is with- 
drawn from circulation and held for refer- 
ence only, or it could secure extra copies 
of the play to meet the extra demand. 
If it could be thoroughly understood that 
the library was doing this, interest in read- 
ing the play could be stimulated. For in- 
stance, the library could post a notice 
stating the coming of the play to town, 
side by side with the league bulletin or 
criticism of the play, and the announce- 
ment that it could be secured at the book 
shelf. With this active help of the li- 
braries we might go far toward securing 
a trained dramatic taste on the part of 
our theater goers. There are several 
magazines of special value to the student 
of drama. It would be a very great help 
if the libraries made a special point of 
including these among their subscriptions 
and of listing them under the Drama De- 
partment — as for instance, the Drama 
Quarterly, and Poet Lore print in each 
issue a play which has never been printed 
in translation before, and which cannot be 
secured elsewhere. These are extremely 
valuable to the drama student. The Drama 
Quarterly, moreover. Is especially adapted 
to the needs of the student of drama, and 
should be accessible to him. It aims to 
criticise the various books on drama a'id 
dramas of special excellence, also publish- 
ing notices of the most recent drama move- 
ments in this country and abroad. It is 
nr t used for league propaganda, but was 
taken over by The Drama League merely 
because it was in danger of being aban- 
doned. Moreover, in Current Opinion and 
Hearst's Magazine are frequently printed 
very valuable portions of unpublished new 
plays. With every issue of L'lllustration 
is published a new French drama in 
French. It would be an excellent thing 
if the larger or better equipped libraries 
could excerpt the plays from these maga- 
zines and have them sewed up simply, eacli 
complete by itself, and kept with the other 
dramas. In this way the library could 
make an excellent modern drama depart- 
ment readily accessible to the league mem- 
bers, obtainable in no other way, and at 
very slight cost to the library. 

A very important way in which the 
Library Association might help is one 
which may not be practical, but v/hich 
your convention might be able to work 

out for us. It is In the nature of loan 
libraries. As we introduce our sludy 
courses into the small towns we frequently 
find no library facilities along our lines. 
One of our workers made an investigation 
of the Drama Department in libraries in 
small towns of five to ten thousand inhabi- 
tants in the Middle West, and found that 
without exception all of those she visited, 
had only Shakespeare and Faust, with oc- 
casionally a volume of L'Aiglon. It is easy 
to see how difficult it will be for clubs and 
individuals to take up a study of drama 
under such conditions. Is there any way 
in which the large state libraries can pre- 
pare a loan library at very slight cost, 
made up of books desired for this special 
work, which could be borrowed by the 
local library for the use of its clubs? Of 
course, in some states, as in Wisconsin and 
New York, and probably many others, this 
is covered by the traveling libraries; but 
there are very many where this is not so. 
Cannot the libraries go even farther in 
their effort to improve dramatic taste and 
meet the demand for dramas and books on 
dramas, a demand which the Drama 
League is attempting to create? 

Several libraries in various cities, as not- 
ably Chicago and Washington, have opened 
their rooms for Drama League meetings. 
Cannot this be done in other cities? Surely 
any way in which you, as public institu- 
tions, can increase the interest in good 
drama, is a part of your proper function. 
The league work must go hand in hand 
with the libraries. Without you and your 
resources, your wisdom and your co-opera- 
tion, we would be much crippled and 
sadly curtailed in our possibilities of 
achievements. On the other hand, now that 
the development of a national taste for 
better drama is becoming recognized as a 
necessity in order to effect any improve- 
nient in the conditions of our stage today, 
now that we fully recognize that the best 
way to create a better dramatic taste is 
by familiarity with the best in drama, now 
that we are working to make the reading 
of plays popular and wide spread, does 
it not become a very important branch 
of the library's activity to take every step 
possible to increase the reading of plays 
and the thorough knowledge of dramatic 
literature on the part of young and old? 

The real opportunity is with the children. 
Here we can create a fine dramatic taste 
for the future, and here, too, the library 
can help. In your junior corner, can you 
not have the plays recommended on our 
junior list, as suitable for children In order 
that they may have them for their play 
acting? Can you not start a Junior League 
Drama Circle to read and act little chll- 



dren's plays, just as you have your story 
hour? In this way the library is help- 
ing us prepare the audiences of the fu- 
ture which shall not only support better 
drama, but being thoroughly inoculated 
with an instinctive dramatic taste, will 
positively demand worthy drama. So will 
the libraries and The Drama League, rep- 
resenting the universities, schools, clubs 
and individuals in general have aroused 
the public conscience to a realization of 
its responsibilities for the amusements of 
the people. 

President, Drama League of America. 

tion of each — somewhat after the manner 
of publishers' alluring (or would-be allur- 
ing) notices of new books? 
Yours sincerely, 


The Macmillan Company, New York, N. Y„ 

May 5, 1913. 

In reply to your esteemed letter of May 
2nd I may say that the matter which seems 
to me to 'be of the greatest interest to 
publishers, and possibly also to librarians, 
at the present time is the dissemination 
among the public at large of that correct 
information in regard to the ever increas- 
ing tide of new books which will enable 
the public to learn of really meritorious 
works which are published, and avoid the 
trash which is now being so freely dis- 

Almost the only way at the present time 
of reaching large numbers of book readers 
is through the libraries, and this seems 
sufficient excuse for bringing this, which 
seems to me to be the most important mat- 
tef, to your notice and of begging that it 
may be given publicity among your fel- 
low librarians in order that we may have 
suggestions for the solution of the diffi- 

Yours very truly, 



Brown University, Providence, R. I., 

April 29, 1913. 
In reply to your letter of April 21 I 
can only say that I am not familiar enough 
with the conduct of American libraries 
to make any new suggestions on the ques- 
tion you propose. I think the plan fol- 
lowed by the Providence Public Library is 
the best one to encourage the reading of 
the standard works of literature. It has, 
as you of course know, a pleasant room, 
easily accessible, in which attractive edi- 
tions of the best authors can be read. 
Would it be feasible to supplement this 
plan by publishing, from time to time, in- 
teresting, short descriptions of standard 
books, giving prospective readers some no- 
tion of the subject and peculiar attrac- 

Northampton, Mass., 
May 16, 1913. 

Your letter of the fourteenth, inviting 
me to contribute to a symposium of thought 
concerning library work in America and 
suggesting the topic, "What is your con- 
ception of the ideal librarian," does me 
great honor. But it brings to my mind 
very clearly my inability to offer a defini- 
tion which I could possibly hope would 
be enlightening or stimulating to a con- 
vention of librarians. 

The library work of our present day 
has expanded into such liberal bounds 
and taken on such a missionary, and at 
the same time scientific, spirit that one 
who is merely its beneficiary cannot give 
himself the hardihood to offer words of 
criticism or of counsel. I know no work 
which shows such splendid contrasts to 
what it was when I began life as does 
the profession of the public librarian and 
the professional conception of the library's 
mission to the world. 

It has been my great joy and honor to 
bring up a large family whose members 
are now separated and busy in the world's 
work and it gives me great pleasure to 
say of them, as of myself, that the modern 
management of public libraries has made 
life worth incalculably more than it could 
have been under the limitations of forty 
years ago. 

With every good wish I beg to re- 
main ever 

Yours truly, 


Santa Barbara, Cal., 
May 5, 1913. 
It gives me great pleasure to attempt 
a brief answer to the question you sug- 
gest — "Is the fiction circulated by our 
public libraries helping to enlighten the 
people on social and economic problems?" 
I should be inclined to answer the ques- 
tion decidedly in the affirmative. In addi- 
tion to the letters I receive from persons 
whose only access to modern fiction is 
through the public library, concerning my 
own work, I have, in the course of political 
campaigns, and in places in various parts 
of the country where I have made another 
sort of address, held many conversations 
with men and women in the audiences. 
These have interested me greatly. My 
own experience corroborates a fact to 
which I have heard several librarians at- 



test (and it is to me the most hopeful 
phenomenon in our American life), that 
the American public — mainly through the 
libraries — is reading more widely and more 
intelligently than those who do not come 
into direct contact with a large portion of 
it guess. Pour or five months ago I re- 
ceived a letter from a poor woman who 
lives on a farm near one of the larger 
towns of Massachusetts giving me a list 
of the books she had got from the library 
during the past year. She had read them 
all; and they included, in addition to two 
good biographies and Royce's "Loyalty," 
several of the best recent novels, both 
English and American, dealing seriously 
with the problems of modern life. And 
finally, the other day when I was in San 
Francisco, I had a long conversation with 
an ex-burglar who had served a term in 
the penitentiary, and who has reformed 
and has been for the last eight years mak- 
ing an honest living, on the subject of 
such novels as you mention. His com- 
ments on them were not only interesting 
but often valuable. His source was, of 
course, the public library. Hence, I am 
glad of this opportunity to pay my tribute 
to the librarian, and to express, as an 
American citizen, my appreciation of the 
work he is doing. 

Sincerely yours, 


Bureau of Education, 
Washington, D. C. 

April 29, 1913. 

The public libraries have no better op- 
portunity for effective service than that 
offered through generous and intelligent 
co-operation with the public schools and 
especially with the high schools and the 
highest grades of the grammar schools. 
Ideas and ideals gained through reading 
in childhood and youth effect the character 
more fundamentally and more permanently, 
and determine moral conduct for a longer 
time than ideas and ideals gained later. 
It should also be remembered that chil- 
dren have more time to read than men and 
women immersed in the strong current of 
adult life. 

The public library in every city and 
town should be open on the freest terms 
to all school children and they should 
feel that they have the heartiest welcome 
to it. Not only should the teacher en- 
courage children to use the library; li- 
brarians should invite them to do so and 
make all possible preparations to serve 
them. There should be in the libraries 
a sufllcient number of reading rooms to 
accommodate children of different grades. 
In these should be assistant librarians 

who know the very best in literature for 
children and youth and who know also 
how to deal with children and how to make 
the rooms attractive. It is all important 
that the reading rooms and those In charge 
be attractive, respected, liked, and loved. 
It is especially important that children 
be led to read those things that have 
permanent and eternal value. No one 
should be permitted to direct the reading 
of children who thinks it necessary to 
have books written down to them or who 
does not know that the greatest books 
are the simplest and the most wholesome. 
The children's librarians should also be 
whole minded and whole hearted people 
with a broad and interesting knowledge 
of the yrorld and life. It will be fatal 
if they are narrow, prejudiced, sectarian, 
or over-provincial. 

The public library should have the ser- 
vices of one or more good story tellers 
who know the best stories of the world 
and can tell them in an interesting way. 
As often as once a week at least there 
should be a separate hour for all the 
children. The children should, of course, 
come in sections — primary, grammar 
grades, and high school. 

In addition to the services rendered as 
here suggested at the library, all the 
children in school or out should have li- 
brary cards and for the convenience of 
the children every school building should 
be made a branch library for the use of 
children at least. I see no reason why it 
should not also serve as a branch library 
for the older people. It would not cost 
much to have some one or more teachers 
at each school serve as librarians under 
the direction of the librarian of the central 
library. Through the branch library at 
the school many parents and other older 
members of the family could be reached 
who never can be reached through the 
ordinary central and branch library build- 
ings. Attractive statements about books, 
especially new books should be sent to 
the parents by the children and books 
might be ordered and returned through 
the children. It would not be difficult to 
induce pupils and teachers to arrange read- 
ing circles and clubs among the adult 
members of families living near the school, 
the books used by the reading circles to 
be ordered from and returned to the school 
branch library. Teachers and principals 
would also be willing to arrange for weekly 
meetings for the members of these read- 
ing circles and clubs, the meetings to 
be held at the school. Certificates and 
diplomas might be given for the reading 
of certain groups of books. 

The library should own in sets books 



helpful to teachers and children In their 
studies and should, at the request of super- 
intendents and principals, place sets of 
these in the several schools for use in 
school, but not to be taken out except over 
night or over Saturdays and Sundays and 

Libraries should also own large collec- 
tions of illustrative pictures and lantern 
slides. These should be cataloged as books 
are and lists of them should be in the 
hands of school superintendents, super- 
visors, principals, and teachers. The pic- 
tures and slides should be loaned the 
schools freely upon their request. School 
officers and teachers should be asked to 
assist in selecting these and all other col- 
lections for the use of children. 

The library should serve in this way not 
only the schools of the city, but also the 
country and village schools in the counties 
in which they are located. Through the 
country schools more good can be accom- 
plished, frequently, than through the city 
schools. Country boys and girls are more 
eager to read than city boys and girls. 
They have more time for it and will read 
better books. The library should have 
a direct relation with every school and 
every teacher in the county. Of course, 
the county should pay for this service, 
but it should have it whether it pays for 
it or not. The city cannot afford to with- 
hold it. The city depends on the country 
for its prosperity and life. The children 
now in the country will make up a large 
part of the population of the city twenty 
or twenty-five years from now. 

In many places the public libraries are 
doing all these things to some extent; in 
no place to as great an extent as is pos- 
sible. By using to the best advantage 
the opportunities here suggested, public 
libraries may double their usefulness. 
Yours sincerely, 


New York City, 
April 4, 1913. 
The Negro American is being helped 
greatly by public libraries wherever he is 
given reasonable encouragement to enter 
them. Often in the North, he is not made 
to feel welcome in these libraries and in 
most of the public and private libraries 
of the South, he Is rigorously excluded. It 
would seem that a statement from the 
American Library Association to the effect 
that the color line in literature is silly, la 
much needed at present. 

Very sincerely yours, 


Mayor's Office, 
Boston, Mass. 

Of course, the financial return for money 
expended to maintain a public library can- 
not be definitely stated, as may be done 
in connection with municipal activities 
which deal solely with material things. 

It is impossible to trace along commer- 
cial lines the influence upon the community 
of an institution whose prime purpose is 
not profit, is not even a product that can 
be expressed in terms of dollars, but is 
the enlargement of the individual life, and 
the promotion of higher standards of citi- 

On the lowest and most sordid plane 
however, an institution like the Boston 
public library is worth many times its cost 
to the city merely on account of the num- 
ber of persons from abroad who are at- 
tracted to the building as an example of 
monumental architecture, or because it con- 
tains exceptional works of art in its mural 
decorations, or who visit it as a museum 
of rare and interesting books. These visi- 
tors number thousands yearly; many of 
them stay in the city for several days, 
and their entertainment and their expendi- 
ture of money while they remain, add to 
the commercial prosperity of the city. 

In somewhat the same way, but on a 
much higher plane, directly within the 
scope of the library function, numbers of 
students are yearly drawn to the city by 
the advantages the library offers for in- 
tellectual research. And the library en- 
hances the importance and value of the 
various schools and colleges within our 
borders, by enlarging their intellectual re- 

In other directions the value of the li- 
brary to the community is evident. The 
fact that it is here adds something to 
the value of every estate in the city. Per- 
sons seeking a desirable place of residence 
prefer a city or town which has good 
schools and a well-equipped and adequately 
supported library to a place without these 
institutions, even if no direct use is made 
by such persons of either. The influence 
of a good library on the general condi- 
tions in a community is therefore a proflt- 
able asset. 

In assimilating the different elements of 
a mixed and rapidly growing population, 
the work of the library is obvious, and 
its results far outweigh their cost. And 
the increased efficiency of individuals, 
which the library promotes, has its effect 
in inestimable public benefits. For ex- 
ample, to take a single possible case 
out of many, here is a young man with- 
out money or infiuence but who has talent 
which, if properly fostered may become 



the source of power. Through the oppor- 
tunities for study given by the public li- 
brary he perfects an invention, or writes 
a poem, or enters a useful profession by 
means of which he ministers to the com- 
iort and enjoyment of his fellow-men and 
confers honor upon this city. How can 
one over-estimate the social value of such 
lives, or the part which the library has 
played in their development? Such in- 
stances are by no means few, and un- 
questionably they supply an affirmative an- 
swer to the question as to whether or 
not the library is making an adequate re- 
turn for its cost. 


Chicago, Illinois, 
May 10, 1913. 

Yoiir question, "Is the fiction circulated 
by our public library helping to enlighten 
people on social and economic problems?" 
is one which I can answer promptly and 
affirmatively. Looking at fiction in the 
mass, it is without doubt an enormous 
educational influence. Leaving out of view 
for the moment the historical novel, or 
the sociologic novel, and taking merely the 
local novel, the novel which vividly por- 
trays the life of a special village, or coun- 
try, or nation, we find it of the greatest 
service in teaching the people of one coun- 
try, or class, how the people of other coun- 
tries and other classes live. Such books 
bring the ends of the earth together. They 
unite the north and the south, the east and 
the west, in common sympathy and under- 
standing. They contribute very largely to 
the higher patriotism, as well as to the 
profounder social brotherhood. 

It would be easy to criticise fiction for 
other and less valuable content, but speak- 
ing generally, I believe it to be second only 
to the stage in its power to affect the 
young student of life and manners. 
Very sincerely yours, 


Ithaca, N. Y., 
May 16, 1913. 

You ask for comment — as "related par- 
ticularly with their own special interests" 
and at the risk of being charged with 
"talking shop," I have been brutally frank. 
Yet I hope It will cheer these splendid 
workers for civilization. 

The library is not "doing as much as 
it might to be a true University to the 
People." Books alone will not attract the 
insensitive or indifferent, nor will hand- 
some buildings. Equal to other necessity 
of the library to, be "a true university to 
the people," is that of arousing interest, 
awakening curiosity and alluring into path- 

ways that lead to books and reading. I 

know of nothing better than to have cheap, 
popular, illustrated lecture courses that 
constantly refer to books and the special 

Does the local librarian or do active 
directors, attempt seriously to tap the 
knowledge of the local specialist, profes- 
sional man, or public spirited speaker? 
Do the library people emphasize the neces- 
sity of close, personal contact, as far as 
possible, with the individuals and with 
the people? Libraries must be more 
human. No machinery, or salaried per- 
sonnel, however costly or efficient, within 
chosen lines of activity, can do without 
that same human sympathy, which in other 
professions, is known to outweigh in value, 
all edifices, or the paid professional corps; 
yes, even in religion or philanthropy. Not 
all, but most libraries — and I have looked 
in, and at, and around many — are too self- 

Yet with this criticism, honestly called 
for and as honestly given, none can appre- 
ciate the librarian more than I. To guide 
youthful reading, warning as well as ad- 
vising and alluring them to high flights, 
is to make the librarian's calling second 
to none in our complex civilization. 

With all good wishes to the librarians of 
the United States and Canada. 
Sincerely yours, 

P. S. Every library should have a lec- 
ture hall and not be afraid even of the 
"fit audience though few." 

Clark University, 
Worcester, Mass., 
May 17, 1913. 

My experience is a long one with uni- 
versity libraries, but I have had far less 
to do with public libraries. 

The greatest need of the specialist and 
expert is help in finding all, and especially 
the latest, often very scattered, literature 
on the special point on which he is con- 
ducting his research, and I believe that in 
the future every academic library will have 
a few specialists with a good knowledge 
of languages, of Ph. D. rank, who can 
do just this. We have one such here, 
to whom my work owes more than to any- 
body else. If I ask her to find me, e. g., 
all the recent references on a topic, be it 
ever so special, including perhaps a score 
of archives and special journals, back for 
three or five years as I may specify, up to 
the latest arrival, I get this list, which 
always includes many things our library 
does not have, then take it to the librarian, 
who can generally get about everything 



by borrowing far and near. These, to- 
gether with the resources here, are placed 
upon a table in an alcove where I can work 
or take the books home. This makes a 
perfectly ideal condition, and it is at the 
same time indispensable for advanced spe- 
cial work, and everything in a university 
library should be plastic to this end. 

A public librarian, it seems to me, should 
study all the changing interests in a com- 
munity or in special parts of it, and be able 
to print in the daily press whenever any 
topic is prominent a little article telling 
in a few lines the point of a few books 
or articles; e. g. a manual training high 
school is opened. The daily paper should 
state that the library has a good collection 
of literature up to date on that subject 
(if it has), and give a few points from 
a few of the best books, naming them. A 
few titles are not enough. 

Another point that interests me greatly 
, is the library story telling. I think more 
should 'be done, not less, in this line for 
children, and that books illustrating topics 
in geography, history, etc., should be not 
only laid before teachers but that the 
classes should meet there and have the 
things shown to them. Why does not the 
public library go into some of the won- 
derful illustrative material in the above 
and other topics, which is so characteristic 
of German schools, and of which American 
schools know almost nothing? Our educa- 
tional Museum here has lately spent thou- 
sands of dollars and collected thousands of 
these illustrations all the way from wall 
pictures to bound pictures, illustrating ma- 
terial from primary grades up into college, 
which we loan as we do books to teachers, 
parents and others. There is a very great 
new departure possible here. Why does 
not your Associatipn look into this? It 
has been a great find for us. And about 
everything in our large collection and its 
use, to my mind, might be done by public 
libraries although none of them that I 
'^now of has done much of anything along 
that line. I am 

Very truly yours, 


The University of Chicago, 

Chicago, May 16, 1913. 
While I am not at all a specialist in li- 
brary science and art, I am daily a debtor 
to your profession. In answer to the ques- 
tion — "What rank should the library have 
in the scale of the community's social as- 
sets?" — I should indicate the following 
hints of an argument: The income of everj' 
family is increased by the possession and 
use of a public library. This item is never 
found set down In the accounts of a family 

as a part of their income, and the students 
of budgets are too apt to overlook it; but 
all communal property, as lake fronts, 
parks, playgrounds, public schools, public 
free libraries and reading rooms, are so 
much addition to the enjoyments of all 
who have the taste and inclination to use 
them. As the library contains the very 
best thoughts of the greatest men and 
women of all time, I should say that the 
public free library is among the very high- 
est possessions of the people. 

When we consider the dangers of idle- 
ness or of a depraved use of leisure, and 
when we consider the splendid opportunity 
of spiritual growth which comes from in- 
telligent and systematic daily use of the 
library, we must place this institution 
among the highest agencies of social ame- 
lioration and progress. Every year sees 
improvement in the administration of this 
noble trust by the professional custodians 
and administrators. There is manifest 
everywhere a spirit of courtesy, patience 
and enterprise, which does honor to this 
branch of the profession of educators. The 
librarian and his assistants are colleagues 
of instructors in all institutions of every 
grade, and those of us who are teaching 
fpel ourselves to be under profound obliga- 
tions to our companions in service. 
Sincerely yours, 


Chicago, April 7, 1913. 

I have your letter of April 2nd in which 
you are good enough to ask me to write a 
few lines on the topic: "Should the public 
library exercise censorship over the books 
it circulates?" 

I suppose there is no question that the 
good public library should have somewnere 
in its shelves all books of serious intent, 
and should circulate in a restricted and 
properly guarded way any book no matter 
what its subject matter. So the question 
comes down to the propriety of circulating 
generally without restriction all sorts of 
books. I should hesitate to say that a pub- 
lic library should exercise no supervision 
over its circulation, although I myself have 
suffered from what I consider unjust and 
unmerited notoriety — due to the prescient 
sensibilities of certain librarians, as you 
know. But when you will admit the prin- 
ciple of censorship, the matter Is a deli- 
cate one, of course. It would seem to me, 
for example, unwise to circulate freely 
books of medicine. As to fiction — or what 
publishers call "the general list" of books, 
I think an Intelligent librarian should hesi- 
tate a long time before putting on his or 
her index expurgatorius any publications 
vouched for by the Imprint of a reputable 



publishing firm. For such books have ac- 
tually passed a severe censorship before 
being put out. I realize it is all a personal 
matter, for what to me is good red meat 
may be poison to my brother. I think, 
for instance, that such a novel as The 
Rosary is infinitely more pernicious than 
the Kreutzer Sonata, La Terre, or Germ- 
inal, but the average librarian wouldn't. 
So I am afraid the matter will have to 
stand just where it is today — a book will 
be censored as unfit or unclean according 
to the whim of the individual librarian. 
Presumably the public librarian is at least 
abreast of, if not superior in culture and 
idealism to his community, and as our com- 
munities improve our librarians will be- 
come persons of wider intelligence and cul- 
ture than they are now in some cases and 
exercise their censorial powers with more 
real discrimination. 

Apropos of this matter you may be in- 
terested to know that a few months ago 
the New York Post in an editorial pro- 
test against certain young American real- 
ists and their treatment of sex — instanced 
Mr. Howells and myself as examples of 
"clean American reticent realism!" This, 
after all the roar over "Together" is an 
amusing illustration of growth in critical 
opinion. Mr. Howells sent me the editorial 
but I haven't it with me. 


P. S. My own views on the proper treat- 
ment of sex in fiction will be briefly 
touched upon in an article on American 
fiction to be printed in the Yale Review 
before long. 

Chicago, May 17, 1913, 
You ask me "is the fiction circulated by 
our public libraries helping to enlighten 
the people on social and economic prob- 
lems?" That is a question which a li- 
brarian can answer better than any author. 
In general, it seems to me, magazine fic- 
tion is doing more in that line than book 
fiction. Some of the greatest circulations 
ever attained by periodicals have been 
built upon a shrewd knowledge of the 
American materialism. One editor voices 
it: — "Americans are interested about two- 
thirds in business, and one-third in love." 
That editorial policy has won in this coun- 

As to social and economic problems, 
more properly considered, I don't think 
fiction is doing much for the people. This 
really is the fault of the people, or of 
human nature, or rather of American hu- 
man nature. I think we are one of the 
most neurotic and hysterical people in the 

world, which means that presently we shall 
be one of the most swiftly decadent people 
in the world. For this reason, we have 
sudden fashions in fiction. Just now we 
like to read about "action" of heroic 
sort — precisely as we pay to see baseball 
games instead of playing baseball our- 
selves. Also, we are for the time given 
over to a wave of erotic fiction, just this 
side of indecent. At one time we were 
crazy over historical fiction, before that, 
over dialect fiction, before that over analy- 
tical fiction. Therefore, I should say that 
our book fiction does not and cannot -do 
much in the way of handling social and 
economic problems at the present day. 
Once in a while, we have a political novel, 
machine-made, and like all other political 
novels. Sometimes, we get a business 
novel, in turn like all other business novels. 
We don't have really very many thoughtful 
novels good enough to be called big. I 
fancy it would not pay authors to write 
them, or public libraries to buy them. 
We are having a period of business and 
political sack cloth and ashes, but, drunk 
or sober, broke or prosperous, the Ameri- 
can character seems to me annually to 
grow more hectic and hysterical, and less 
inclined to care for big things and good 
stuff. Part of this is the fault of our 
newspapers, but most of it is our own fault. 
We care for making money and for little 
else, and we spend money whether we have 
it or not. The public libraries would be 
the natural agency for correcting some of 
these things, but frankly I don't know how 
they could do it. 

Yours very truly, 


New York City. 
Why should not the libraries amplify the 
work they are already doing by the pro- 
motion of the public schools as well as 
libraries as social and civic centers? 
Schoolhouses should be" constructed with 
all equipments for branch libraries, just 
as they are now equipped with gymnasiums 
and baths. The library should not be an 
accident in the public school; It should be 
an integral part of it. The schoolhouse 
is the natural place for the library. To 
it the children come daily — little messen- 
gers who would secure books from printed 
slips for their parents, too tired or too 
distant from the library to serve them- 
selves. The library should be the school 
rest and reading room. It would relieve 
the tedium of regular school work. It 
would lend variety to education; it would 
nrich it and beautify It. 
In addition, great economy would be ef- 
fected by converting the school Into a 11- 



brary; there would be a saving in construc- 
tion, In maintenance, in operation. The 
fine social sense of the modern librarian 
would have a reaction on education and 
would lead to other activities being in- 
troduced into the schools. 

The American library is the model of 
the world in many ways. It has led the 
movement for the widening of public serv- 
ices to old and young. It is one of the 
most inspirational achievements of the 
American city, and it could do a substantial 
service by promoting the social center idea, 
which is so actively engaging the minds 
of people all over the country. 


New York, N. Y. 
April 30, 1913. 
In response to your kind invitation to 
send a brief message on the subject — "Can 
public libraries legitimately attempt amuse- 
ment as well as instruction of the people?" 
f would reply to the affirmative. If litera- 
ture is an art, and if libraries are to be 
as they should be — reservoirs of literature 
— they surely cannot be complete without 
giving an important place to arts' most 
human appeal, amusement. The novel, in- 
vented to amuse, stands today as the vital 
force in literature. Of course, by "amuse- 
ment" I do not mean a vaudeville. Shake- 
speare wrote to amuse; and if he does not 
offer a popular line today it is because 
modern writers are better chosen to amuse 
our century. Indeed, if you remove the 
fiction department — the amusement section 
— from your library you reduce it to the 
plans of a machine — an admirable machine, 
perhaps — but without a human soul to 
drive it. 

Sincerely yours, 


Carnegie Institution of Washington, 
Washington, D. C., 
June 5, 1913. 

The specific question which you pro- 
pound, "What can the library do to en- 
courage the study of American history?" 
is one which I suppose must have very 
different answers for different sorts of li- 
braries. In the case of libraries of moder- 
ate size in small cities, it has sometimes 
appeared to me that the money used in the 
purchase of books on American history was 
too exclusively used in buying the less 
oxpensive sort of books, those in one or 
two or three volumes, of which it is per- 
fectly easy to get a considerable number 
out of each year's appropriations; while on 
the other hand, the purchase of certain 
books of value in expensive sets was never 

made, because it could not easily be made 
in any one given year. If the purchasing 
policy were given a somewhat longer 
range, extending over several years, one 
might plan to redress this inequality. To 
avoid speaking as if I were recommending 
any one long set of Americana for pur- 
chase, let me adduce as an instance a 
library of forty or fifty thousand volumes 
with which I am familiar which has in the 
past twenty years bought a great many 
books of English history, without ever yet 
having afforded the purchase of the Dic- 
tionary of National Biography, obviously 
because it was too large a morsel for any 
one year's budget. 

If I were to proceed to make any sug- 
gestion for the larger lioraries, I might 
select for comment the relative lack of 
co-operation among such libraries in re- 
spect to the pursuit of the more expensive 
specialties. It is plain that the interest of 
students are, in respect to restricted spe- 
cialties of this class better served on the 
whole by their being able to find relatively 
complete collections in one place, rather 
than scattered fragments of such collec- 
tions in various places. The ambition of 
libraries for possession might well be tem- 
pered by some closer approach to system- 
atic organization of these things, whereby 

atain ones should be recognized as be- 
longing plainly in the field of a certain 
library without competition on the part 
of the others. I am speaking, of course, 
of things which only a few students are 
seeking, and which they must expect to 
seek by travel, and not of those things 
for which there is a separate effective 
demand in every large city. 

May I also suggest the question whether 
it is not a legitimate use of the funds 
of a public library to pay recognized ex- 
perts, resident in its city or summoned 
from elsewhere, to go over the shelves 
relating to a particular suDject and care- 
fully signalize those gaps which are al- 
most certain to occur; to name, in other 
words, any important books which have 
been omitted but which are necessary 
to make the collection a well-rounded one 
for the needs of the particular locality as 
the librarian sees them. I think also that 
university and college libraries are par- 
ticularly in need of such periodical re- 
dress, because professors are so prone 
to request books needed for the immediate 
purposes of their classes, and to exhaust 
their appropriations by such requests, for- 
p;etting the need of building up rounded 
collections for general purposes; and the 
librarian, on his part, feels a certain deli- 
cacy about suggesting books for which the 
professor has evinced no desire, though 



often he will agree they were desirable, if 
their absence were called to his attention. 
Believe me 

Very truly yours, 


Hadley, Mass., 
May 20, 1913. 

I have your recent letter asking for 
some brief comment on such phase of li- 
brary work as most appeals to me. 

At present, in accord with the trend 
of current thought in other matters, I am 
inclined to lay stress on efficiency; and 
under that head I would urge that libra- 
rians, especially in the smaller places, do 
much strenuous and persistent weeding 
among the books that find their way to the 
shelves. Feed the furnace with the books 
that are no longer useful in your particular 
library, or in some other way absolutely 
dispose of them. 

Much of the fiction, both for grown-ups 
and young people, should go, after the first 
interest in it has waned. Many also of the 
information books decline in value with 
the passing years and should not remain 
a permanent incubus. Very few of the 
government publications are of practical 
use in the average library. 

We have altogether too much venera- 
tion for printed matter. Library house- 
cleanings to discard the literary rubbish 
and misfits are a real need. Quality is 
decidedly more important than quantity, 
if you would have charm and the widest 

Yours very truly, 

Stanford University, Cal., 

April 11, 1913. 

In response to your kind letter of April 
5th, and after refreshing my mind by con- 
sultation with librarian friends, with 
your kind permission I may say a word 
on the theme, "That librarians should 
sometimes take account of stock," that 
they should consider the reasons for their 
existence and find out how nearly their 
present day activities coincide with the 
purposes for which they are established. 

With one or two notable exceptions pub- 
lic libraries in the United States are a de- 
velopment of the last quarter of the 19th 
Century. Until about 1895, or possibly 
1900 the efforts of librarians were direct- 
ed toward perfecting methods of admin- 
istration, cataloging, etc. Then having 
arrived at mutual agreement as to forms of 
procedure they devoted themselves more 
and more to library extension. They real- 
ized that only fractions of their respective 
communities were in touch with the li- 

braries. In a city of 400,000 inhabitants 
perhaps 40,000 or 10 per cent would make 
use of library privileges, and the circu- 
lation of a million volumes per year meant 
the use of only 2^ books per year for 
each inhabitant. Then commenced the era 
of branch libraries, deposit stations, li- 
braries in schools, libraries in factories, 
in fire-houses; a resort to every possible 
means to extend usefulness of the library 
throughout the whole community. Not sat- 
isfied with these expedients other forms 
of extension are being adopted. I am told 
that "one library publishes a weekly paper 
heralding the advantages of its city. It 
has established a business man's informa- 
tion branch, compiled an index to the 
products manufactured within the city, 
and holds itself ready to give information 
as to where the best tennis balls, suit 
cases and everything else can be pur- 
chased." Undoubtedly this is a public 
convenience, but it seems to be getting a 
little away from original library purposes. 
There is a tendency for libraries to so 
scatter their energies that they lose sight 
of the main objects of their being. They 
exhibit the same tendency which can be 
seen in the curricula of many colleges 
which offer courses upon every conceivable 
subject, the lasting value of which to those 
who pursue them is certainly questionable. 
Libraries are not exempt from the pre- 
valent tendency of municipal, state and 
federal agencies to extend their activities 
and increase the burden of taxes. It is 
safe to say that in many public libraries 
the budgets have been more than doubled 
in the last 15 years. It is a question 
whether the real service to the commun- 
ity has gained in proportion. It is not 
necessary to make hourly deliveries to 
downtown delivery stations of the latest 
thing in fiction, but it is essential that 
the libraries should do their utmost to 
maintain ideals. The library which has 
set apart in a separate room a collection 
of standard literature has performed a 
notable service for its community and fur- 
nished an example worthy of imitation. It 
is a part of the best work of the library 
to assist in perpetuating only that which 
is worthy of survival. 

Very truly yours, 

Th^ French Embassy, 

Washington, D. C, 

May 8, 1913. 

On the question you put me: "Are our 

libraries helping to make better citizens 

of those from over-seas?" I must decline 

to give an answer. It would be somewhat 

old on the part of one who is not him- 



self a citizen of this country and whose 
opportunities have been scant, for study- 
ing such a problem, to express an opinion. 

Concerning librarians, as such, I may 
say that my experience with them, under 
many climes and skies, has ever been of 
the pleasantest. Their keeping company 
with the thinkers and writers of all times, 
spending their days in those temples 
where the wisdom, the folly, the dreams, 
the beauty of ages is stored for the contem- 
plation or warning of' succeeding genera- 
tions, gives them, of whatever nationality 
they be, a philosophical turn of mind, a 
benevolent desire to help, a friendliness 
to the untutored who want to know more. 
For me they are the typical men of good 
will for whom there will be peace. 

Believe me, 

Very truly yours, 


Chicago, May 5. 
"Can public libraries legitimately at- 
tempt amusement as well as instruction of 
the people?" Since you ask me the ques- 
tion, I feel obliged to answer it. in all seri- 
ousness. In my opinion the public library 
ought not to be turned into a place of 
amusement. Let us have this one insti- 
tution left as a refuge from amusement. 
The general desire of the public to be 
amused has caused it to become almost 
impossible for one to go anywhere or see 
anything without becoming conscious of 
the fact that the first and generally the 
sole purpose of everything is to amuse. 
The preachers make their sermons amus- 
ing, the poets make their poems amusing, 
the artists make their pictures amusing, 
the merchants make their shops amusing; 
one cannot eat in a public place without 
being amused. Steamships and railway 
trains are operated for the amusement of 
passengers; every vacant storeroom will 
by tomorrow have become a place of 
amusement and plans are already being 
made to convert funerals into amusing 
affairs. Spare to us the one place in 
which we may hope to escape from amuse- 
ment. Let the public library remain 
grand, gloomy and peculiar. 

Sincerely yours, 

Chicago, April 9, 1913. 
In reply to your letter of April 5, 1913, 
would say — The modern city library is 
covering a most desirable field in meeting 
the needs of a large element of the pub- 
lic, which looks to it almost exclusively 
for information along library and allied 
lines. A popular library should be able 
to supply Information on all subjects of 

a general character and should not pro- 
ceed along lines of reference facilities ex- 
cept in a general way. This ground is 
covered by private gifts and educational 
institutions. The city library should, it 
seems to me, be constituted along liberal 
lines, adapted to entertain as well as in- 
struct. Any means adapted to stimulate 
the public desire for the use of its priv- 
ileges properly guarded, cannot fail to be 
of general benefit. Thus lectures, story 
telling, art exhibits, and even victrola 
concerts, loan of pianola rolls, etc., may 
serve to induct the mind into the wealth 
of knowledge embraced within its won- 
derful collection of books. The portals 
of the city library should be made insidi- 
ously alluring, with the expectation that 
once within them, the reader will go 

Very truly yours, 


Northampton, Mass., 

June 12, 1913. 
To My Fellow Workers in Libraries, 

I always feel a little bashful when I go 
into a strange library as I sometimes do 
and happen on a librarian who confronts 
me with things I say about librarians in 
the "Lost Art of Reading." Usually I 
speak up quite quickly and say to a libra- 
rian, "Oh, but you know I do not mean 

But in speaking as I am now to all the 
librarians there are in the United States 
and Canada this seems to be inconvenient. 

I am afraid that if there were any nice 
thoughtful benignant way of taking each 
librarian in this great mass meeting, of all 
the librarians there are, one side and 
whispering to him quietly, "Oh, but you 
know I do not mean YOU," I would prob- 
ably do it! 

But being driven to it and being faced 
out this way as I am today, two or three 
housand to one, there seems to be noth- 
ing for it but to face the music and to 
look you in the eye a minute and say once 
for all, "I DO mean you, I mean each of 
you and all of you," and I accuse you of not 
taking immediate, powerful and conclusive 
steps to convince donors of libraries and 
the public of the rights of librarians, of 
your right to perform your duties under 
decent, spiritual conditions as members 
of a high and spirited calling, as profes- 
sional men and women, as artists and as 
fellow human beings and not as over- 
worked, under-assisted, weary servants of 

The charges against the library donors 
and managers that I brought out In my 



new book "Crowds," more particularly the 
chapters, "Mr. Carnegie speaks up," and 
"Mr. Carnegie tries to make people read," 
are charges that are going to be answered 
most successfully by people who admit that 
they are largely true and who will then 
proceed tomorrow, before everybody, to 
turn them into lies. The sooner the li- 
brarians and trustees and public men of 
this country proceed to make what I am 
saying today about public libraries hope- 
lessly ridiculous and out-of-date, the sooner 
I will be happy. 

If I were to move into a strange com- 
munity and wanted to be a valuable citi- 
zen in it, the first thing I would do would 
be to go to the public library and ask 
the librarians and their assistants this 
question, "Who are the interesting boys 
In this town?" 

If the librarians could tell me I would 
linger around,' and in one way or another, 
get acquainted with those boys, follow 
them up and see what I could do to con- 
nect them with the men with the books, 
and ideas and ambitions and opportunities 
that belong to them. 

If the librarians could not give me a list 
of such boys I would ask them why. 

If they told me that they had not time 
to attend to such things I would ask the 
trustees why. 

If the trustees had not selected libra- 
rians naturally interested in boys and 
books and had not provided such librarians 
with the necessary assistants so they 
would have time and spirit to do such 
things I would turn to the people and 
I would challenge the people to elect trus- 
tees for their library who knew what a li- 
brary was for. 

I sometimes think of the librarian in a 
town as the Mayor Of What People Think, 
and if he does not have time to read books 
and to love ideas and Inventions in him- 
self and in other people and does not take 
time to like boys and get the ideas and 
boys together, he cannot be in a town 
where he lives, a good Mayor Of What 
People Think. 

We shall never have great libraries in 
the United States until the typical libra- 
rian exalts his calling and takes his place 
in our modern life seriously — as the ruler 
of our civilization, the creator of the en- 
vironment of a nation and as the dictator 
of the motives and ideals of cities, the dis- 
coverer of great men and the champion 
of the souls of the people. 

I candidly ask you all: What is there 
that can be done in America in the way 
of letting librarians keep on being folks? 

One almost wishes that all the members 
of the library association of America would 

write to Andrew Carnegie, snow him un- 
der with letters from the nation, asking 
him to try the experiment of having at 
least one of his libraries in the United 
States fitted up as elaborately and as ele- 
gantly with librarians as it is with dumb 
waiters, marble pillars, book racks and 
umbrella stands. 

When we go into a library — some of us — 
we want to feel our minds being gently 
exposed to cross-fertilization. We may not 
want librarians to throw themselves at 
us — come down plump into our minds the 
minute we enter whether or no, but we do 
want when we come into a library to be 
able to find (if we steal around a little), 
eager, contagious, alluring librarians who 
can make people read books and from 
whom people cannot get away without 
reading books. Every library ought to be 
supplied with at least one librarian in 
each department, stuck all over with 
books, like burrs, so that nobody can touch 
him or be near him without carrying away 
• book on him that he's got to read and 
that he will long to read and will read 
until somebody drives him to bed! 
Faithfully yours, 

Northampton, Mass. 

Greetings and good wishes to the men 
and women who hold the keys: 

I saw in England, last year, a very old 
library where the books are chained to 
the shelves. They have always been 
chained there; at first because they were 
valuable and human nature was weak, and 
now to preserve the tradition. But in gen- 
eral, either because the value of books is 
less or because human nature is less weak, 
we trust our public with its books un- 
chained. The shelves of most libraries, I 
understand, are open freely and the loss 
of .books is small — small enough to be dis- 
regarded, you tell me, in relation to the 
general good. 

And not only is the public freely admit- 
ted. In Northampton I have seen, many 
times,, the books put on wheels and travel- 
ing out to the public; they are in a kind 
of clothes-basket set on a truck with tiny 
wheels; and the janitor trundles the truck 
to the trolley, and the trolley carries the 
books to Leeds or Florence or Williams- 
burg, it may be — I do not know their des- 
tination. I only see them traveling away 
on wheels. This is only A-B-C to all of you. 
Most of you could tell me much more 
interesting things that libraries are do- 
ing. Some of you have already seen that 
it is not enough to put the books on wheels 
and trundle them out to the public, but 
that the public itdelf must be followed and 



captured. You tell me that In the future 
the library that would be really up-to-date 
must catch its readers where It can and 
chain books to them. 

Presently we shall need wings to follow 
life and bring it back to its books. For 
life moves swiftly; and you who hold the 
keys and who are putting books on wheels 
and sending them out will not stop till the 
life in books and the life of the world are 
come together again. Presently we shall 
all work for this. You have freed the 
books, you have sent them out, you have 
reached out to give them to us freely. 
Presently you will unlock the books them- 
selves and open the pages; and the time 
when a child studied only a few books 
will belong to the past; the living use of 
books will be a part of the life of every 
child that is born into the world. Present- 
ly we shall all work together for this — 
with you who hold the keys. 


New York, N. Y., 
April 3rd, 1913. 
I'd like to do as you request — but I 
have no facts to contribute. I feel sure 
that the public library is doing much to 
improve dramatic taste — but I can't adduce 
any evidence. 

Yours truly, 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

The librarian's constant difficulty is now, 
what shall a library try to collect, what 
shall It keep? This has become a grave 
question. Being myself book greedy, a 
gourmand of print, I am a poor judge of 
what to reject. 

Soon or late the average man, who is pre- 
sumed to represent common sense, will ask, 
"What is the use of these accumulations of 
books?" This average man can never con- 
sider a library with comment of imagina- 
tion. A book is for him a book, whereas 
for you or me a book is a saint, a hero, 
a martyr, a fool, a seraph of light bearing 
science. Let us drop him with a word of 
scorn. We shall not ever understand one 
another. Nor would he have the faith in 
books of that Samonicus who, for the cure 
of a tertian fever in the Emperor Gor- 
dian, ordered the fourth book of the Iliad 
to be applied to the head of the patient. 
That has long puzzled me — why the 
fourth? But Mr. Average awaits a quo- 
tation. A voice out of the splendid day 
of Elizabeth shall say it: "Sir, he hath 
not fed of the dainties that are bred of a 
book; he hath not eat paper, as it were; 
he hath not drunk ink." 


The Nation, 
New York City, 
May 5th, 1913. 
I fear you must be charging me with 
discourtesy for delaying so long my reply 
to your letter of April 19th. I have in fact 
had the intention of writing to you rather 
fully on the subject of public libraries and 
best sellers, for use in your conference in 
Kaaterskill. One obligation after anoth- 
er, however, has kept me from doing this 
and now I can only express to you briefly 
my conviction that the public library ought 
by no means to undertake "to supply all 
the best sellers hot from the press." It 
has always seemed to me that the office of 
any institution such as the library is as- 
much to direct and restrain public taste 
as it is to supply what is demanded. 

With regret that I cannot reply at great- 
er length to your flattering request for my 
opinion, I am 

Very truly yours, 
PAUL E. MORE, Editor. 

Washington, D. C, 
May 17, 1913. 
When your letter came I was, I believe, 
away from home. At least I never had an 
opportunity to answer it until just now, 
having been absent a good deal since its 
date. Although you do not set the time 
of the coming conference, I assume that it 
is not too late to answer your question and 
I am writing now simply to acknowledge 
receipt of your letter. I will, however, 
say that I believe that the circulation of 
fiction by our public libraries does help to 
enlighten the people on all problems what- 
soever, for, in the first place, fiction con- 
tains many of the standard novels which 
certainly have a tendency for good; and 
secondly, however trashy novels are, in 
the main they have an educating effect. 
Yours very truly, 

4 Newbury Street, Boston, Mass., 

April 29, 1913. 

I cannot better comply with your re- 
quest (made on behalf of the American 
Library Association) than by giving you a 
leaf from my own experience of twenty- 
five years, as President or managing di- 
rector of a rural library, which serves the 
public in a mountain town where I chiefly 
reside, and yet Is a private institution, re- 
ceiving no aid whatever from town or 
state. And my message is to libraries of 
small means and resources, so situated 
that trained librarians or assistants are 
not to be had. 

We have by this time about 5,000 vol- 
umes, all obtained through gift or pur- 



chase, of which less than half are works of 
fiction; and the list, on the whole, includes 
most standard works. From one benefac- 
tor we have a good stone building, erected 
last year upon a lot of our own; and by 
the time the testamentary provision of 
another benefactor takes effect hereafter 
we shall have an endowment fund ample 
enough to place our institution upon a 
permanent footing of liberal expenditure. 
Hitherto our annual income has been 
small and met by life memberships, spe- 
cial entertainments and personal gifts, in 
which summer visitors and the townspeo- 
ple combine. 

In order that our books should be classi- 
fied but without too much efCort I intro- 
duced, some years ago, the following 
scheme: A, denotes works of fiction; B, 
biography, history, travels, etc.; C, poetry, 
essays and miscellaneous; P, periodicals 
and pamphlets (by bound volumes or in 
cases) ; R, books of reference. Juvenile 
books under these respective heads are 
marked by an added J. 

We have no card catalog and find our 
patrons served more to their liking, and 
perhaps more econoijiically, by issuing 
printed lists, frequently, which give the 
author and the title simply; the number, 
and letter, as printed, indicating the sub- 
ject. About 1905 a pamphlet catalog was 
brought out which gave our list complete 
to that date. Since that time, supplement 
lists have been printed at convenience; 
while the latest books are always posted 
in the library on written sheets. When 
the supplements become sufficiently num- 
erous we expect to issue a second full 
pamphlet catalog; and so on. We cannot 
pay for expert assistance to keep up a 
card catalog properly, with our present 
means; and what our patrons most want 
is to have individual printed lists that 
they can readily consult. 

About 90 per cent of our circulation 
consists of A or AJ books, but we try to 
increase the demand for the B and C 
books. So, too, the books most eagerly 
sought are those last added, but we en- 
courage the reading of standard authors 
wherever we may. 

Yours very truly, 


Indianapolis, Ind., 
April 24, 1913. 
"Is the fiction circulated by our public 
libraries helping to enlighten the people 
on social and economic problems?" 

George Meredith, in a letter written In 
1884, said: 

"I think that all right use of life, and 
the one secret of life, is to pave ways for 

the firmer footing of those who succeed 
us. . . . Close knowledge of our fel- 
lows, discernment of the laws of existence, 
these lead to great civilization. I have 
supposed that the novel, exposing and il- 
lustrating the natural history of man, may 
help us to such sustaining roadside gifts." 

Merely "entertaining" fiction is compar- 
able to vaudeville or to tight-rope walking; 
its use may be to amuse the tired laborer 
of all sorts; its overuse, however, tends to 
become a habit and produce flaccid minds. 
Save for this, all fiction which depends on 
"plot" — always a hash of used meats — 
or on farcical or melodramatic "situation," 
is almost negligible. But on the whole, 
and because of this fiaccidity, I believe, it 
would be a good thing if all merely "en- 
tertaining" fiction could be destroyed. 

A very small portion of that fiction 
which is produced by artists seeking to 
know and reveal life, deals with economic 
problems. Except for the work of a few 
writers (Mr. H. G. Wells, for instance, — 
he includes economic discussions) it con- 
cerns itself with social relations and "the 
natural history of man." Its circulation 
must certainly help to enlighten people 
upon social problems. Here I must fail 
you, for I do not know what type of fiction 
has the circulation you mean; the most 
general circulation, I take it. A novel is 
helpful as it is a revelation of truth; it 
is always harmful when it is written from 
a false or assumed point-of-view ; it is 
very likely to be harmful when it is found- 
ed upon shallow observation or a cock- 
sure philosophy. Most of the fiction pro- 
duced in our country today is founded up- 
on nothing except the desire to circulate; 
therefore it shouldn't! 

Very sincerely yours, 


Elizabeth, N. J., 
May 16, 1913. 

The question you ask is not debatable. 
The public library is among the foremost 
aids the American boy has today. As 
great a help as the library is the librarian. 
Much depends upon his personal interest, 
enthusiasm, judgment, appreciation of the 
book and the boy. "The man behind the 
book," provides the power. 

Librarians undoubtedly are a help not 
only to the boy, but to the writer of boy's 
books. But like all other classes there are 
librarians and librarians. Some are effi- 
cient, some too theoretical, some visionary, 
some without the capacity to understand 
the normal boy, and a few are deficient. 
As far as I have observed, the limitations 
of the librarians are not so much in their 
knowledge of books as in their understand- 



ing of boys. Every profession has its 
special peril. The minister may become 
dogmatic, the judge autocratic. The peril 
of the purely bookish man is that of be- 
coming a prig. The pre-conceived opinion 
of what a boy ought to be sometimes pre- 
vents the discovery of what he really is. 
Among some there is a tendency to mag- 
nify the unusual boy at the expense of the 
normal boy. Such librarians would con- 
fer a benefit if they would discover what 
has become of the prodigies of our boy- 

It is sometimes forgotten that boys must 
be led into better reading, not forcibly 
transplanted. There are steps and stages 
in this journey as in every other. A taste 
for good reading is something to be culti- 
vated, not forced. A healthy boy has about 
the same appetite for observing the ready- 
made opinions of his superiors that he 
has for donning the made-over garments 
of his ancestors. Many librarians under- 
stand the boy as well as the book. The 
combination is fruitful, and divorce here 
has its own penalty as well as elsewhere. 
If the American boy (as in many places he 
is) can be made to feel that the librarian 
as well as the library are for his benefit, 
a double good will result. 


Arlington, Mass., 
May 29, 1913. 
In reply to the question proposed to me 
by your Association, "Is the public library 
helping the boy to become a useful man?" 
I reply emphatically in the affirmative. Of 
course, the degree of helpfulness must 
depend largely upon the library, and still 
more upon the character of the boy. To 
one of low tastes, with no ambition be- 
yond the hour's indulgence, the finest li- 
brary will have little meaning; but to one 
having a thirst for knowledge, and aspira- 
tions for self-improvement, access to any 
fairly well chosen collection of books can- 
not but prove of inestimable service in 
stimulating and developing his nobler qual- 
ities. My own early experience convinces 
me of this. In my recollections of a back- 
woods boyhood ("My Own Story," pages 
44-46) I have told something of my indebt- 
edness of a small subscription library. In 
which were found the works of a few great 
writers, among those Byron, Shakespeare, 
Plutarch, Cooper, and Scott, and a His- 
tory of England, which was the first book 
I turned to after reading "Ivanhoe." The 
world was transformed for me by the poets 
and romancers that smiled on me from 
those obscure shelves. I repeat here what 

I once wrote of that golden opportunity of 
my boyhood. The town has a vastly more 
attractive and comprehensive library to- 
day; but the value of such an institution 
depends, after all, upon what we ourselves 
bring to it. The few books that nourish 
vitally the eager mind are better than 
richly furnished alcoves amid which we 
browse languidly and loiter with indiffer- 
ence. This is true alike of the boy and 
the man. 


Toledo, Ohio, 
May 14, 1913. 

You ask, "Is the public library a factor 
in the recent development of a public con- 

I suppose that by the term public con- 
science you mean that undoubted quicken- 
ing of the public sense, shall we say public 
decency? — which America has felt in the 
last ten years, though as yet it has under- 
taken no fundamental reforms, and is too 
apt to degenerate into a mere hue and cry 
after some individual whom it would make 
a scape-goat for the sins of the people. 

Now, in the development of this feeling, 
or of this public conscience, it is doubt- 
ful whether the public library has been 
much of a factor. It depends altogether 
upon the librarian. There are a few in- 
stances, no doubt, in which the public li- 
brary has had this effect, and there are 
many librarians in the country who, as 
wise and intelligent men like yourself, are 
interested in vital subjects, and therefore 
able to interest others in them. By a judi- 
cious exposure of books these subjects are 
made so inviting and so attractive that 
the patrons of the library are led on and 
on in an ever widening exploration of the 
subject. The library does offer to any one 
who wishes to make inquiry the opportun- 
ity of gratifying his desires, and in this 
way it no doubt exercises a considerable 
influence. There is a profound and tre- 
mendous influence, silent and indirect, 
from its mere existence, its mere presence, 
which must do good in a city, just as in 
a home in which there are many books, 
even though they were never read, there 
is the atmosphere of culture. The libra- 
rian, however, should be a sort of teacher, 
helping the public mind, assisting in the 
development of the public conscience, for 
I fear that the public, if left to themselves, 
would rather read the six best sellers, and 
in the realm of general ideas engage, to 
recall a phrase of Henry James "in the 
exercise of skipping." 

Yours sincerely, 





(Tuesday morning, June 24, 1913) 

The PRESIDENT: We are to start this 
morning with the committee reports. Un- 
less, however, undue objections are made 
we shall read these by title and, like 
the members of Congress, ask leave to 
print. A number of them indeed are in 
printed form and have been distributed 
and you have doubtless found them on the 
chairs as you entered the hall. I may say 
that some of these reports are unusually 
strong in that they represent the work of a 
year of very careful thought and investiga- 
tion by their members. If you will take 
the time, either at this conference or after 
you get home, to read these reports, you 
will greatly profit from the labors of these 
respective committees. The printed re- 
ports comprise those of the secretary, the 
treasurer, the trustees of the endowment 
fund, the publishing board, the committee 
on bookbinding, the committee on book- 
buying, the committee on federal and state 
relations; and reports have also been 
received in manuscript, by the secre- 
tary, from the committees on co-operation 
with the National Education Association, 
library administration, library training and 
work with the blind. Unless it is requested 
that any particular one of these reports 
be read at this time we shall pass them 
over and commit them to the secretary 
for inclusion in the printed conference pro- 

The above mentioned reports are here 
printed in full. 


The third report of the present secre- 
tary and the fourth since the establish- 
ment of a headquarters office is here sub- 
mitted to the association. The material 
conditions of headquarters are practically 
identical with those reported a year ago; 
we are still the recipients of the gener- 
osity of the board of directors of the Chi- 
cago public library, the large room fur- 
nished free by them being more and more 
appreciated as we compare our commodi- 
ous quarters with those greatly inferior 

where a rent is charged which would be 
prohibitive to the funds of the A. L. A. 
For the continued courtesy and unfail- 
ing kindness of the librarian of the Chi- 
cago public library and his able staff I 
cannot find adequate words. It is unques- 
tionably a decided advantage for the exec- 
utive office of the A. L. A. to be in close 
proximity to a large reference collection 
and to a competent corps of library ex- 
perts. In these respects we are fortunate 
not only in the Chicago public library, but 
also in the John Crerar and Newberry 
libraries which so admirably supplement 
each other in forming reference facilities 
of a high order. 

The routine work of the year has much 
ot it so closely resembled in kind that of 
last year that the secretary feels it un- 
necessary to rehearse it again in detail, 
but respectfully refers inquiry on this 
point to his report at the Ottawa confer- 
ence. In quantity it is rapidly increasing; 
there are more letters to write; there is 
more proof to read; more personal calls 
from librarians and others as the estab- 
lishment of the office becomes known; 
there are more arrangements to be made 
for the many-sided interests of the Asso- 
ciation. The Publishing Board's work is 
likewise increasing, and with the removal 
of the Booklist office from Madison to 
Chicago headquarters, which will be made 
in the near future, additional duties will 
devolve on the general office, even though 
that periodical has its own special staff. 
These things, however, are as we desire 
they should be and we are pleased to see 
indications that the funds of the Associa- 
tion are going to permit the enlargement 
of the work as this is found advisable. 

The Office as an Information Bureau — 
In no way is this growth quite so notice- 
able as in the increased correspondence 
through which the executive office is used 
as an information bureau on library econ- 
omy. For a time after the establishment 
of the office this correspondence was 
naturally almost entirely with librarians. 
The letters of the past year, however, have 
shown that our existence is becoming 



known to others. We are being told the 
problems of the library committees of 
women's clubs; of manufacturers who 
wish to get their workmen interested in a 
business library; of business men who are 
thinking of establishing such a library; of 
young men and women who are consider- 
ing librarianship as a vocation and do 
not know the proper steps to take to get 
the necessary training and experience; 
and of publishers and of book-sellers who 
are referring various matters to our office. 
These things in addition to the steady 
daily stream of correspondence with li- 
brarians in every state of the union. Last 
year we recorded that our actual corres- 
pondence averaged 67 letters a day for a 
period covering several months. It has 
been considerably greater the past year. 
This includes, of course, all correspond- 
ence relative to publications, membership 
matters, and business routine. Several 
months ago the secretary printed 10,000 
little leaflets mentioning some of the ways 
in which the A. L. A. can assist in library 
informational lines. About half of these 
have been distributed, mainly in channels 
outside of regular library work and among 
those who perhaps had not previously 
learned of headquarters and of our pub- 

Membership — Last year it was the privi- 
lege of the secretary to report that the 
membership was larger than ever before 
in the history of the Association. We are 
now glad to be able to say that there is 
a substantial increase in membership over 
last year. In January, the secretary 
mailed with the annual membership bills 
an appeal to members to help again this 
year as they did last in securing new 
members. This appeal has been very ef- 
fectual; many have been instrumental in 
securing one or more new members and 
the secretary desires here to thank all 
those who have so kindly assisted in this 
campaign. During the late winter and 
early spring many personal letters were 
written to librarians and library boards 
asking them to have their libraries be- 
come institutional members of the A. L. 

A., and many have responded favorably. 
Several hundred personal letters were also 
addressed to those who had recently, ao- 
cording to the news columns in the li- 
brary periodicals, changed their positions, 
presumably for the better financially. 

When the last handbook was printed, in 
October, 1912, there were 2,365 members 
of the A. L. A. Since then to June 1st, 
1913, 192 new individual members and 
40 new institutional members have joined, 
a total of 232. On the other hand, the 
association has lost 11 members by death, 
35 have resigned, and judging by the ex- 
perience of previous years about 160 mem- 
bers will probably fail this year to renew 
their membership and will consequently 
be dropped from the rolls. It is likely that 
enough new members will join at the 
Kaaterskill Conference to offset in num- 
bers those whose membership lapses and 
that the net membership in the 1913 
handbook will probably be about 2,550 or a 
gain of about 185 over 1912. 

The income from membership dues 
in consequence steadily increasing. Fc 
the calendar year 1911 the total amoun> 
from this source was $5,325.46 (including 
exchange on checks); in 1912, |6,236.18; 
and for 1913 we hope the total amount will 
not be far short of $7,000. 

Publicity — The usual methods to secure • 
as much publicity as possible have been 
followed. The library periodicals have, of 
course, been kept informed of what the 
office was doing that would interest the 
library public. We have sent news notes 
from time to time to the Dial, Nation, New 
York Times Review of Books, Bookman, 
Education Review, American City, and 
other magazines, and to about 180 of' the 
prominent newspapers of the country. 
Several articles regarding the conference 
were given to the Associated Press, and 
to news syndicates. Before the Ottawa 
Conference, the Associated Press sent to 
all their subscribers a multigraphed por- 
tion of the president's address. The 
Association needs more money for this 
publicity work and more time should be 
spent on it than the secretary has been 



able to spend. Its results at present are 
far from satisfactory and we hope that 
with growth of income a more systematic 
publicity department can be organized, 
perhaps modelled somewhat after the ex- 
cellent methods employed by Prof. J. W. 
Searson, who conducts the publicity work 
of the National Education Association. 

Registration for library position — The 
executive office has from its inception 
been something of a free employment 
bureau for librarians and library as- 
sistants, who for proper and sufficient rea- 
sons desire to change their positions. 
This year the work has been somewhat 
more systematized by the use of a printed 
registration blank, which is sent on re- 
quest to any member of the association. 
The questions asked on this blank are as 

Date of this registration. 

Name in full. 

Address (permanent). 

Address (temporary, or until ). 

State fully all schools (above grammar 
grade) and colleges or universities you 
have attended, with period of attendance 
at each. 

Degrees, when and where obtained. 

Have you traveled abroad? "When? 
Where? How long? 

Languages you read easily. 

Languages you read with assistance of 
a dictionary. 

Library training and experience. 

Positions held, with approximate dates; 
and salary received. 

Nature of appointment desired. ' 

Salary expected. 

Part of country preferred. 

Physical condition. 


Forty-two librarians have thus far regis- 
tered on these blanks and five or six of 
ihese have been helped to new positions. 
The secretary has helped in the filling of 
some fifteen library positions aside from 
those using the registration blank. 

If, however, the service to those seek- 
ing positions, and to those seeking capa- 
ble librarians and assistants is to be as 
important and far-reaching as we wish 
to make it, the office must have knowledge 
of vacancies as well as of persons wanting 
positions. Library boards and librarians 

are cordially invited to correspond with 
the secretary when in need of library 

Library Plana — During the year a num- 
ber of valuable additions have been made 
to our collection of architects' plans of 
library buildings. We want more, particu- 
larly good plans of buildings costing from 
$25,000 to $75,000, as these are most in 
demand.' Will librarians and boards who 
have recently acquired new buildings bear 
our needs in mind? These plans have 
from the beginning proved useful, and if 
a fair number of the latest type of plans 
could be added the collection would be 
increasingly useful and used. 

Library Pension Systems — During the 
year the year the secretary has been 
making efforts to collect Information 
about pension systems in operation in li- 
braries or plans being made for pensions. 
No great progress has been made, due 
perhaps to the fact that not many libraries 
are as yet contemplating a pension sys- 
tem. The secretary will be glad to receive 
information from any librarian or board 
v/ho has not yet written him on this 

A. L. A. Representatives at State Meet- 
ings — President Legler. was the official 
representative at the Ohio meeting, 
Newark, October 21-24; at the Illinois- 
Missouri joint meeting, St. Louis, October 
24-26; and South Dakota conference, 
Mitchell, November 25-27. He also ad- 
dressed the Long Island Library Club on 
the work of the A. L. A. on October 17th. 
Mr. T. W. Koch, member of the Execu- 
tive Board, was the official representative 
to the Indiana state meeting, Terre Haute, 
October 17-19. 

Dr. Arthur E. Bostwick, ex-president of 
the A. L. A., represented the Association 
at the North Dakota conference, Mayville, 
October 1-2; Minnesota meeting, Fari- 
bault, October 2-4; and Iowa meeting at 
Nevada, October 8-10. 

Secretary Utley represented the A. L. 
A. at the Illinois-Missouri meeting, St. 
Louis, October 24-26; Oklahoma meeting, 
Muskogee, May 14-15; and was present un- 



officially at Niagara Falls, "New York li- 
brary week," September 23-28. The secre- 
tary has also lectured before the New 
York state library school, the Training 
school for children's librarians of the 
Pittsburgh Carnegie library, and the Uni- 
versity of Illinois library school. 

Necrology. The Association has lost by 
death eleven members since the confer- 
ence of a year ago. The list includes an 
ex-president of the A. L, A., and one of 
the most prominent librarians of the 
country; a business man who had for 
years taken a deep interest in library 
progress; an eminent churchman who has 
for many years maintained his connection 
with the national association; the librar- 
ian of a large university; the librarian 
of a well known public library; and 
several others who at their several posts 
have faithfully performed their duties and 
rendered their contributions to the work 
in which they were engaged. 

The list follows: 

Clarence W. Ayer, librarian of the Cam- 
bridge (Mass.) public library, died April 
12, 1913. He was previously connected 
with Western Reserve University, but had 
been engaged in library work in Massa- 
chusetts for a number of years. He had 
been a member of the A. L. A. since 1900 
(No. 1984) and had attended four confer- 

Dr. John Shaw Billings, director of the 
New York public library, died March 11, 
• 1913. Successful as an army surgeon dur- 
ing the war between the states, he later 
assumed charge of the Surgeon-General's 
library and brought it to recognition as 
one of the most celebrated medical li- 
braries in the world, and compiled an 
index catalog that has taken a place 
among the permanent monuments of bibli- 
ography. Coming to New York in 1895, he 
began the stupendous work of bringing 
the various libraries of that city under 
one great system, releasing funds tied by 
legal complications, and superintending 
the erection of a central building costing 
nearly ten millions of dollars. These 
tasks he lived to accomplish and they re- 

main as his lasting monument. He was 
president of the A. L. A. for the year 
1901-02, and presided at its Magnolia con- 
ference. He joined the association in 
1881 (No. 404) and attended six of its 
conferences. See Public Libraries, 18: 
148-9; Library Journal, 38, 212-14. 

Bertha Coit, assistant in the New York 
public library, died July 22, 1912. She 
joined the Association in 1904 (No. 3167), 
and attended the conferences of 1904 and 

Right Rev. William Croswell Doane, 
Bishop of Albany, and for many years 
vice-chancellor of the University of the 
State of New York, died May 16, 1913. He 
joined the A. L. A. in 1893 (No. 1125) and 
although he attended none of the confer- 
ences had steadily maintained his interest 
in library work and retained his member- 
ship in the Association. 

Jennie S. Irwin, first assistant in the 
Mt. Vernon (N. Y.) public library, died 
Nov. 8, 1912. She joined the Association in 
1902 (No. 2437) and attended the confer- 
ences of 1906 and 1908. 

Walter Kendall Jewett, librarian of the 
University of Nebraska, since 1906, died 
March 3, 1913. He was previously librar- 
ian of the medical department of the John 
Crerar library, and had been notably suc- 
cessful in his library work. He joined the 
Association in 1904 (No. 3109) and at- 
tended four conferences, 

Charles A. Larson, editor of publications 
of the Ohicago public library, died August 
19, 1912. He had been connected with the 
Chicago library for many years and was 
highly valued. His able work in the ref- 
erence department will be long remem- 
bered. He joined the Association in 1901 
(No. 2373) and after lapsing membership 
rejoined in 1910. He attended the Mack- 
inac conference. 

Rev. William Ladd Ropes, librarian- 
emeritus of the Andover Theological Sem- 
inary, at Andover, Massachusetts, died 
December 24, 1912. • He was well known 
to the librarians of an earlier generation. 
He joined the A. L. A. in 1877 (No. 106) 
and attended three A. L. A. conferences. 


and the London international conference interested layman. See Library Journal, 

of 1877. 38:89; Public Libraries, 18:57. 

Charles Carroll Soule, of Boston, long Nelson Taylor, bookseller of New York, 
identified with the book publishing busi- of the firm of Baker & Taylor, died June 
ness and interested in library work, died 26, 1912. He had been a member of the 
Jan. 7, 1913. He was trustee of the Brook- A. L. A. since 1906 (No. 3531). 
line (Mass.) public library from 1889-1899, Bertha S. Wildman, secretary to the 
member of the A. L. A. Publishing Board librarian of the Carnegie library of Pitts- 
from 1890-1908, second vice-president of burgh and a member of the faculty of the 
the A. L. A. in 1890; and a member of the Training school for children's librarians, 
Council 1893-96 and 1900-05. Mr. Soule was died February 19, 1913. She was a gradu- 
an expert on library planning, having writ- ate of Pratt Institute library school and 
ten a book, and numerous articles on this previous to her connection with the Pitts- 
subject. A pamphlet on "Library rooms burgh library had been the organizer and 
and buildings" was issued by the A. L. A. first librarian of the Madison (N. J.) pub- 
Publishing Board as one of its tracts. He lie library. She joined the A. L. A. in 1900 
joined the A. L. A. in 1879 (No. 216) and (No. 1945) and attended four conferences, 
had attended 18 conferences. No librarian GEORGE B. UTLEY, 
was better known to librarians than this Secretary. 


Report of the Treasurer, January 1 — May 31, 1913 

Balance, Union Trust Company, Chicago, Jan. 1, 1913 |3,395.29 

G. B. Utley, Secretary, Headquarters collections 4,555.41 

Trustees Endowment Fund, interest 350.00 

Trustees Carnegie Fund, interest 2,509.90 

A. L. A. Publishing Board, Installment on Hdqrs. expense 1,000.00 

Estate of J. L. Whitney 104.34 

Interest, January— May, 1913 28.92 $11,943.86 


Checks No. 40-44 (Vouchers No. 615-690 incl.) $3,379.74 

Distributed as follows: 

Bulletin $ 246.06 

Conference 20.70 

Committees 23.50 

Headquarters : 

Salaries 2,125.00 

Additional services 213.30 

Supplies 177.91 

Miscellaneous 155.45 

Postage 78.48 

Travel 85.00 

Trustees Endowment Fund (Life Mem.) 150.00 

C. B. Roden, Treas. (J. L. Whitney Fund) 104.34 

A. L. A. Publishing Board, Carnegie Fund interest 2,509.90 5,889.64 

Balance Union Trust Co $6,054.22 

G. B. Utley, Balance, National Bank of Republic 250.00 

James L. Whitney Fund 
Feb. 4, 1913, Principal (Union Trust Co. of Chicago, savings acct.) $104.34 

Respectfully submitted, 

C. B. RODEN, Treasurer. 
Chicago, June 1, 1913. 




To the American Library Association: 
Ladies and Gentlemen: — 

In accordance witli the provisions of the 
constitution, the Finance Committee sub- 
mit the following report: — 

They have duly considered the probable 
income of the Association for the current 
year and have estimated it at $21,915.00, 
and have approved appropriations made by 
the Executive Board to that amount. The 
details of the estimated income and of 
the appropriations are given in the Janu- 
ary number of the Bulletin. The commit- 
tee have also approved the appropriation 
to the use of the Publishing Board of any 
excess of sales over the amount estimated. 

On behalf of the committee, the chair- 
man has audited the accounts of the treas- 
urer and of the secretary as assistant 
treasurer. He has found that the receipts 
as stated by the treasurer agree v/ith the 

transfer checks from the assistant treas- 
urer, and with the cash accounts of the lat- 
ter. The expenditures as stated are ac- 
counted for by properly approved vouch- 
ers. The bank balance and petty cash, as 
stated, agree with the bank books and pet- 
ty cash balances. The accounts of the as- 
sistant treasurer have been found correct 
as cash accounts. 

On behalf of the committee, Mr. E. H. 
Anderson has checked the securities now 
in the custody of the trustees, and certi- 
fies that their figures in regard to the se- 
curities on hand are correct. He finds that 
at par value the bonds and other securities 
amount to $102,500.00 for the Carnegie 
fund, and $7,000.00 for the principal ac- 
count. He certifies that to the best of his 
knowledge and belief the accounts submit- 
ted are correct. 

All of which is respectively submitted 
for the committee. 



With the completion of the ninth vol- 
ume of the A. L. A. Booklist Miss Elva 
L. Bascom severs her connection as editor 
and as head of the editorial department of 
the Publishing Board. For five years Miss 
Bascom has carried on this work with sig- 
nal ability and with devoted industry, and 
it is with sincere regret that the members 
of the Board have accepted her resigna- 
tion. During this period of editorial activ- 
ity Miss Bascom has maintained the excel- 
lent standards established by her prede- 
cessors, Miss Caroline Garland and Mrs. 
Katharine MacDonald Jones, and has 
given to the publication a standard of 
judgment in selection and critical appre- 
ciation that has made the A. L. A. Book- 
list invaluable to thousands of librarians 
and as many library trustees in the selec- 
tion of current books for their respective 
institutions. The A. L. A. Booklist is 
everywhere recognized as a publication 
wholly untrammeled by commercial con- 
sideration in the listing of books and the 
recommendation which these are given. 

Miss May Massee has been elected as 
Miss Bascom's successor and will enter 
upon the work early in August. Her ex- 
perience as a member of the staff of the . 
Buffalo public library and her training 
prior thereto commends her for the posi- 

Concerning the A. L. A. Booklist there 
are no new facts to report, comments 
noted in previous reports being applicable 
as well at this time. While renewed rep- 
resentations have come to the members 
of the Board, suggesting a change of size, 
form, and character, and the arguments in 
behalf thereof have been given due 
weight, it has not seemed wise to alter the 
policy which has been continued for a 
period of nine years. 

With the beginning of the new volume 
the place of publication and therewith the 
editorial headquarters will be transferred 
from Madison, Wis., to Chicago. By con- 

solidating the editorial headquarters of 
the Publishing Board with the headquar- 
ters of the American Library Association 
both will be materially strengthened and 
some financial economies can be affected. 

Periodical Cards — The Board received 
word last fall from the Library Bureau 
that they would have to advance prices 
for the printing of the analytical periodi- 
cal cards. The matter was placed in the 
hands of a committee, and after some ne- 
gotiation, unexpectedly prolonged by the 
illness of the representative of the Li- 
brary Bureau, a rearrangement of the 
work was made which will enable the 
Board to continue the service to the pres- 
ent subscribers without change in prices. 
This has been accomplished by giving an 
order for sixty-five copies of all titles and 
thirty-five additional titles of the periodi- 
cals most in demand. Hereafter, subscrip- 
tions must be made either to the full set 
of approximately 2500 titles, or to the lim- 
ited set of 200. A revision of the list is 
now in progress. 

Concerning the periodicals issued dur- 
ing the past year Mr. William Stetson Mer- 
rill has submitted the following report as 

The sixteen shipments of A. L. A. peri- 
odical cards prepared and sent out dur- 
ing the year ending May 31, 1913 have 
comprised those numbered 284 to 299, 
which were received by subscribers June 
18, 1912 to May 14, 1913. These ship- 
ments have included 3459 new titles and 
136 reprints, making a total of 3595 titles. 
The time of preparation has been reduced 
from thirteen to ten and a half weeks.* 

In February of the present year the ed- 
itor took occasion to check up the work 
currently done, with the titles of periodi- 
cals given in the printed list as indexed 
by the Publishing Board. It was then dis- 

•By "time of preparation" is here meant the in- 
terval between the receipt of copy, and receipt of 
cards by the subscribers. 



covered that in the case of thirty-flve peri- 
odicals no titles had been indexed during 
intervals ranging from two to five years 
to date. These facts were brought to the 
attention of the collaborating libraries, 
which later reported upon these arrears as 
follows: Periodicals for which no issues 
later than those indexed had been re- 
ceived by the library, 12; discontinued, 3; 
now indexed by the Library of Congress, 
2; overlooked or indexing postponed by 
the library, 10; dropped, 2; record card 
wrong, 1; no indexer, 5. The collabo- 
rating libraries at once took up the work 
of bringing their indexing up to date and 
at the time of writing only three current 
periodicals are not indexed to date, with 
the exception of those for which there is 
at present no indexer. 

The preparation of the distribution and 
charges sheets has been in the hands of 
Mrs. S. L. Hitz and Miss Jane Burt under 
the supervision of the editor, who has also 
attended to all the correspondence con- 
nected with the card work. 

New Publications — New publications 
since the last report was submitted in- 
clude the following: 

Aids in library work with foreigners, 
compiled by Marguerite Reid and John 
G. Moulton. (2000 copies). 

How to choose editions, by William E. 
Foster. (Handbook 8) (2500 copies). 

Buying list of books for small li- 
braries, compiled by Zaidee Brown, — 
new edition revised by Caroline Web- 
ster. (1000 copies). 

List of economical editions, by Le Roy 
Jeffers, (2nd edition). Revised. (1000 

Periodicals for the small library, by 
Frank K. Walter. (3000 copies). 

A. L. A. Manual of library economy, 5 
new chapters. 

Chap. V. Proprietary and subscrip- 
tion libraries, by Charles Knowles 

Bolton. (1000 copies). 
Chap. X. The library building, by 

W. R. Eastman. (2000 copies). 
Chap. XIII. Training for librarian- 

ship, by Mary W. Plumnaer. (2000 

Chap. XXVII. Commissions, state 

aid and state ,agencies, by Asa Wyn- 

koop. (In press). 

Chap. XXXII. Library printing, by 

Prank K. Walter. (1500 copies). 

A normal library budget and its items 
of expense, by O. R. Howard Thomson. 
(Handbook 8.) (1500 copies). 

Index to library reports, by Katharltie 
T. Moody. (1000 copies). 

List of Polish books, compiled by Mrs. 
Jozefa Kudlicka. (Foreign Booklist 6). 
(1000 copies). 

Forthcoming Publications — How to 
start a public library, by G. E. Wire, M. 
D. Second and revised edition. (Tract 

Graded list of stories for reading 
aloud, by Harriot E. Hassler; revised by 
Carrie E. Scott. 

Reprints — During the past year the fol- 
lowing publications have been reprinted: 

Guide to reference books, by Alice B. 
Kroeger. (1000 copies). 

Cutter's Notes from the art section of 
a library. (Tract 5). (1000 copies). 

Catalog rules, compiled by commit- 
tees of the American Library Associa- 
tion and the Library Association (of the 
United Kingdom). 1908 edition (1000 

Essentials in library administration, 
compiled by Miss L. E. Stearns. (2nd 
edition). (Handbook 1). (2000 copies). 

Mending and repair of books, by Mar- 
garet W. Brown. (Handbook 6). 1000 

U. S. Government documents in small 
libraries, by J, I. Wyer, Jr. (3rd edi- 
tion). (Handbook 7). (1000 copies). 

A. L. A. Catalog — The success of the A. 
L. A. Catalog, 1904-11, has been greater 
in point of sales than the most sanguine 
of us had expected, 3471 copies having 
been sold since its publication a year ago. 
There is still a reasonably steady demand, 
321 copies having been sold during the 



first five months of 1913. The book has 
been more extensively advertised than any 
of the Board's other recent publications, 
special efforts having been made to make 
it known to high schools, college profes- 
sors and book lovers generally, but the 
sales have, nevertheless, been largely con- 
fined to libraries, library commissions and 
library schools. 

Manual of Library Economy — Fourteen 
chapters of the Manual have thus far been 
printed, each as a separate pamphlet, and 
one is now in press. The list is as fol- 

1. American library history, by C. K. 

2. The Library of Congress, by W. W. 

4. The college and university library, 
by J. I. Wyer, Jr. 

5. Proprietary and subscription li- 
braries, by C. K. Bolton. 

9. Library legislation, by W. F. Yust. 

10. The library building, by W. R. 

12. Administration of a public library, 
by A. E. Bostwick. 

13. Training for librarianship, by Mary 
W. Plummer. 

15. Branch libraries and other distrib- 
uting agencies, by Linda A. Eastman. 

17. Order and accession department, 
by F. F. Hopper. 

20. Shelf department, by Josephine A. 

22. Reference department, by E. C. 

26. Bookbinding, by A. L. Bailey. 

27. Commissions, state aid and state 
agencies, by Asa Wynkoop. In press. 

32. Library printing, by F. K. Walter. 

The chairman of the Committee on man- 
ual, J. I. Wyer, Jr., reports that seven 
other chapters are known to be in an ad- 
vanced state and may be expected soon. 

Advertising — The Board's publications 
have as usual been advertised in Library 
Journal and Public Libraries and in one 
or two special numbers of the Dial. Re- 
riew copies of publications are sent to li- 

brary periodicals and a number of other 
papers and magazines, such as the Book- 
man, American City, Nation, Dial, New 
York Times Review, Chicago Post (Friday 
review), Springfield Republican, Boston 
Transcript, etc. Our best returns, how- 
ever, continue to come from direct circu- 
larization of libraries, library commissions 
and library schools, about 11,000 pieces of 
mail advertising our publications having 
been sent out since the last conference. 

No new large publication has appeared 
since the A. L. A. Catalog, 1904-11, was 
published a year ago. Although thirteen 
new publications have been printed and 
two more are forthcoming they are all, 
with one exception, small in size and with 
price ranging from ten to twenty-five cents 
a copy. Consequently the amounts from 
sales are but small in the aggregate. 
Would it not be well for the Board to en- 
deavor to put forth at least one publica- 
tion each year which shall be of suflftcient 
size, usefulness and importance to make 
it rank as the "opus major" of the year? 
There are surely subjects enough within 
our scope that can be handled to the ad- 
vantage of the libraries and the profit of 
the Board. 

Foreign lists — The Board has not felt 
greatly encouraged to undertake the pub- 
lication of lists of foreign books because 
or the unfortunate financial experience 
with those already issued, only one 
of the five having paid for itself. This 
spring, however, when the manuscript of 
the long-expected Polish list was received - 
a new policy was adopted. The secretary 
circularized those libraries whom he 
thought would be interested in this list, 
stating that the publication of the list 
depended upon the receipt of a suflUcient 
number of subscriptions, requesting those 
libraries who were able and disposed to do 
so, to subscribe for at least four copies at 
25 cents each. By this means enough sub- 
scriptions were readily secured and the 
Polish list has been printed. If libraries 
are willing to subsidize the publication of 
these lists, or putting it another way, to 


pay for several eoplei more than they per- It hag been Buggested that a Yiddish list 

haps need, other lists can be undertaken, would be useful, also Italian, Lithuanian, 

and the Board will welcome suggestions Finnish and Spanish lists. 

as to what languages should be taken up. HENRY E. LEGLER, Chairman. 


Cash Receipts June 1, 1912, to May 31, 1913. 

Balance, June 1, 1912 ; | 1,168.46 

Interest on Carnegie Fund 6,084.90 

Receipts from publications: 

Cash sales $3,354.68 

Payments on account 9,936.85 13,291,53 

Interest on bank deposits ■, 17.36 

Sundries 1.56 $20,563.81 

Payments, June 1, 1912, to May 31, 1913. 
Cost of publications: 

A. L. A. Booklist $1,671.40 

A. L. A. Bulletin reprints ; 52.57 

A. L. A. Catalog, 1904-11 3,613.43 

Aids in library work with foreigners 38.50 

Buying list of books for a small library 40.00 

Catalog rules , . 193.19 

Essentials in library administration 242.99 

Government documents in small libraries 25.50 

How to choose editions 70.00 

List of economical editions 111.80 

Manual of library economy, Chaps. 5, 10, 13 148.60 

Mending and repair of books 22.50 

N. E. A. Reprint (Bostwick's article) 14.50 

Periodicals for the small library 93.80 

Periodical cards ; 2,038.44 $ 8,377.22 

Addressograph supplies 21.47 

Typewriter 37.50 

Advertising 177.40 

Postage and express 1,089.01 

Rent, Madison office 300,00 

Travel 189.72 

Salaries 2,658.77 

Elva L. Bascom, editing A. L, A. Catalog, 1904-11 300.00 

Katharine T. Moody, editing Index to Library reports. . . . 300.00 

Expense, headquarters (1912— $2,000; 1913— a/c $1,000). 3,000.00 

Supplies and incidentals 1,009.61 

Printing 15.25 

Royalty on Guide to reference books 279.78 

Contingencies 40.81 

Balance on hand. May 31, 1913 2,767,27 $20,563.81 


April 1, 1912, to March 81, 1913. 

A. L. A. Booklist, regular subscriptions 1385 $1,385.00 

Additional subs, at reduced rate of 50c 187 93.50 

Bulk subscriptions 853.20 

Extra copies 1110 159.10 $2,490.80 

Handbook 1, Essentials in library administration 617 124.47 

Handbook 2, Cataloging for small libraries 602 105.04 

Handbook 3, Management of traveling libraries 42 6.13 

Handbook 4, Aids in book selection (out of print) 

Handbook 5, Binding for small libraries 279 39.40 

Handbook 6, Mending and repair o'f books 395 61.02 

Handbook 7, Government documents in small libraries 528 72.35 

Handbook 8, How to choose editions 1561 97.39 505.80 

Tract 2, How to start a library 38 1.90 

Tract 3, Traveling libraries (out of print) 

Tract 5, Notes from the art section of a library - 359 17.93 

Tract 8, A village library 89 4.42 

Tract 9, Library school training 87 4.32 

Tract 10, Why do we need a public library 245 10.71 39.28 

Foreign Lists, French 54 13.32 

Foreign Lists, French fiction 38 1.90 

Foreign Lists, German 45 22.00 

Foreign Lists, Hungarian 17 2.48 

Foreign Lists, Norwegian and Danish 29 7.11 

Foreign Lists, Swedish 35 8.61 55.42 

Reprints, Arbor day list 24 1.20 

Reprints, Bird books 10 .99 

Reprints, Bostwick, Public library and public school 20 1.00 

Reprints, Cataloging in legislative reference work 54 2.89 

Reprints, Christmas Bulletin 14 .70 

Reprints, Efficiency of L. Staff and scientific management. . . 127 1.80 

Reprints, National library problem of today 13 .65 

Reprints, Rational library work with children 73 3.60 

Reprints, Relation of P. L. to municipality 1183 25.90 

Reprints, Traveling libraries as a first step 26 1.30 40.03 

Periodical cards, Subscriptions , 1,868.63 

Periodical cards. Old South Leaflets v. 14 6.30 

Periodical cards. Reed's Modern Eloquence sets 5 12.50 1,887.43 

League Publications: 

Aids in library work with foreigners 630 44.73 

Directions for librarian of a small library 712 22.05 

Graded list of stories for reading aloud 87 8.42 

Library and social movement 172 6.59 

Buying list of books for small library 385 28.47 110.26 

A. L. A. Manual of library economy: 

Chap. I. American library history 228 16.16 

Chap. II. Library of Congress 162 12.59 

Chap. rv. College and university library 178 14.19 

Chap. V. Proprietary and subscription libraries 264 23.62 

Chap. IX. Library legislation 198 15.86 

Chap.. X. The library building 381 31.02 

Chap. XIL Administration of a public library 202 16.34 

Chap. XIII. Training for llbrarianship 246 23.85 


Chap. XV. Branch libraries 

Chap. Xyil. Order and accession department 

Chap. XX. Shelf department 

Chap. XXII. Reference department 

Chap. XXVI. Bookbinding 342 27.36 $265.58 

A. L. A. Catalog, 1904-11. .- 3471 

A. L. A. Index to general literature 

Catalog rules 

Girls and women and their clubs 

Guide to reference books 

Guide to reference books, Supplement. 

Hints to small libraries ~ 

Index to library reports (advance orders) 

Library buildings *. . . 

List of editions selected for economy in bookbuying 

List of economical editions, (2nd edition) 

List of music and books about music 

List of subject headings, (3rd edition) 

List of 550 children's books 

Literature of American history 

Literature of American history, Supplements 

Periodicals for the small library 

Plans for small library buildings 

Reading for the young 

Reading for the young. Supplement 

Subject Index to A. L. A. Booklist 

Subject Index to A. L. A. Booklist, Supplement 

A. L. A. Bulletin 

Library statistics — Bulletin reprint 25 1.18 8,029.59 



























































Total sale of publications $13,424.19 


To the President and Memberb of the 
American Library Association: 

The Trustees of the Endowment Fund 
of the American Library Association beg 
leave to submit the following statement 
of the accounts of their trust — the Carne- 
gie and General Funds — for the fiscal year 
ending January 15, 1913. 

There has been no change in the invest- 
ments, and all interest has been promptly 
paid. The Trustees are pleased to call 
attention to the credit to the General En- 
dowment Fund of nine life memberships, 
and would recommend that more of such 
memberships be taken as they are about 
the only source of addition to that Fund. 

On January 31, 1913, the usual audit of 
the investments and accounts of the trust 
was made by Mr. E. H. Anderson, of the 
New York public library at the request of 
the chairman of the Finance committee of 
the Association. As evidence of the audit, 
Mr. Anderson furnished the Trustees with 
the following copy of his report made to 
the Finance committee: 

Feb. 1, 1913. 
My dear Mr. Andrews: 

Yesterday, January 31st, I went to the 
vaults of the Union Trust Company at 
Fifth avenue and Thirty-eighth street, this 
city, and with Mr. Appleton and Mr. Kim- 
ball, trustees of the endowment fund of 
the American Library Association, checked 
up the bonds now in their custody, I en- 
close herewith their typewritten state- 

ment concerning the funds in their hands, 
and I certify to the correctness of the 
figures as to the bonds on hand. These 1 
have checked in black ink after a personal 
count of them at the vaults aforesaid. At 
their par value they amount to $102,500 for 
the Carnegie Fund, and $7,000 for the gen- 
eral endowment fund. 

I have not examined the bank book of 
the trustees nor the vouchers for the 
amounts transmitted to Mr. Roden, the 
• treasurer. Mr. Roden's records should 
verify the amounts transmitted to the 
treasurer. If you think it worth while I 
can examine the bank book of the 
trustees, but personally I do not think it 
necessary. If you feel that it should be 
done, however, return the enclosed type- 
written statement for comparison with the 
bank bpok. Mr. Roden will also be able 
to check the receipts for life members. I 
think Mr. Appleton said that two more 
had been received since January 15th. 

I hereby certify that to the best of my 
knowledge and belief all of the accounts 
on the typewritten sheets enclosed here- 
with are correct. 

Very sincerely yours, 

(Signed) E. H. ANDERSON. 
Respectfully submitted, 

Trustees Endowment Fund A. L. A. 
May 1, 1913. . . • ^:t .i Jl 



Cash donated by Mr. Andrew Carnegie $100,000.00 

Invested as follows: 

June 1, 1908 5,000 4% Amer. Tel. & Tel. Bonds 96% $ 4,825.00 

June 1, 1908 10,000 4% Atner. Tel. & Tel. Bonds 94% 9,437.50 

June 1, 1908 15,000 4% Cleveland Terminal 100 15,000.00 

June 1, 1908 10,000 4% Seaboard Air Line 95l^ 9,550.00 

June 1, 1908 15,000 5% Western Un. Tel 108% 15,000.00 

June 1, 1908 15,000 3%% N. Y. Cen. (Lake Shore Col.) .... 90 13,500.00 

June 1, 1908 15,000 5% Mp. Pacific 104% 15,000.00 

May 3, 1909 15,000 5% U. S. Steel 104 15,000.00 

Aug. 6, 1909 1,500 U. S. Steel v. .106% 1,500.00 

July 27, 1910 1,000 U. S. Steel 102% 1,000.00 

102,500 99,812.50 

Jan. 15, 1913 Union Trust Co. on deposit 187.50 


In addition to the above we have on hand at the Union Trust Company $150 profit 

on the sale of the Missouri Pacific Bonds, which we have carried to a special surplus 


January 15, Balance $1,524.33 

February 6, Int. N. Y. Central 262.50 

May 1, Int. U. S. Steel 437.50 

May 10, lilt. Cleveland Terminal 300.00 

May 31, Int. Mo. Pacific 375.00 

May 31, Int. Seaboard Air Line ". 200.00 

July 2, Int. Amer. Tel. & Tel 300.00 

July 2, Int. Western Un. Tel 375.00 

August 8, Int. N. Y. Central 262.50 

September 3, Int. Seaboard Air Line ; 200.00 

September 3, Int. Mo. Pacific 375.00 

November 1, Int. U. S. Steel 437.50 

November 1, Int. Cleveland Terminal 300.00 

December 31, Int. Union Trust 39.90 


January 2, Int. Western Un. Tel 375.00 

January 15, 1913 Cash on hand 934.90 $6,064.23 


January 24, Carl B. Roden, Treas. $1,524.33 

June 4, Carl B. Roden, Treas 1,575.00 

September 18, Carl B. Roden, Treas 500.00 

October 28, Rent Safe Deposit Co 30.00 

November 18, Carl B. Roden, Treas 1,500.00 

January 15, 1913, Cash on hand 934.90 $6,064.23 


January 15, On hand, Bonds and Cash $7,286.84 

February 28, Life membership, C. N. Baxter 25.00 

March 28, Life membership, L. A. McNeil 25.00 

March 28, Life membership, A. B. Smith 25.00 

May 4, Life membership, H. L. Leupp 25.00 

May 28, Life membership, W. M. Smith 25.00 

May 28, Life membership, L. E. Taylor 25.00 

July 2, Life membership, E. P. Sohier 25.00 

September 18, Life membership, M. R. Cochran 25.00 

November 1, Life membership, S. C. Fairchild 25.00 




Invested as follows: 


June 1, 2 U. S. Steel Bonds 98% $1,970.00 

October 19, 2 U. S. Steel Bonds 102% 2,000.00 

November 5, 1 ^^ U. S. Steel Bonds 101 1,500.00 


July 27, 1% U. S. Steel Bonds 102% 1,500.00 

January 15, 1913 Cash on hand. Union Trust Co 541.84 


January 15, Cash on hand $175.00 

May 1, Int. U. S. Steel 175.00 

November 1, Int. U. S. Steel 175.00 


January 24, Carl B. Roden, Treas $175.00 

June 4, Carl B. Roden, Treas 175.00 

January 15, 1913 Cash on hand 175.00 





In last year's report it was stated 
that a special collection, showing the kind 
of work done by library binders, had been 
started by this committee. During the 
past year this collection has been materi- 
ally increased by samples submitted by 
different binders; it now includes work 
from 34 binders covering the entire coun- 
try from the Atlantic ocean to the Pa- 
cific. The collection was formed so that 
when librarians write to ask about the 
work of specific binders, the work itself 
can be examined and intelligent answers 

Notices of the collection were printed 
in the various library periodicals and a 
certain numbers of requests for informa- 
tion have been received; a smaller number 
than the committee hoped for, but suffi- 
cient to warrant keeping the collection 

In view of certain criticisms of this col- 
lection, it may be well to state that it is 
not the purpose to print criticisms of the 
work of different binders, or to grade 
them in any way. When asked for in- 
formation the committee will not com- 
pare the work of one binder with another, 
neither will librarians be advised to desert 

one binder and employ another. All that 
will be done will be to send suggestions 
as to ways in which the work of the bind- 
er in question can be improved. In order 
to do this the work of the binder must be 
available for examination. The commit- 
tee fails to see how any binder can take 
offense at this method, or claim that other 
binders are being officially recognized by 
the A. L. A. 

The announcement of the publishers of 
the Encyclopaedia Britannica that they 
were about to issue a Yearbook which 
would be printed only on India paper 
called forth a protest from this committee 
' against the use of thin paper — a protest 
which had no effect whatever until letters 
protesting against its use had been sent 
to the publishers by 50 librarians of the 
larger libraries. Even then the sole con- 
cession that the publishers made was to 
agree to bind 750 copies on ordinary pa- 
per, provided that we could guarantee a 
sale of that number. For this reason the 
committee asks that those who wish to 
purchase a thick paper edition of the Year- 
book register their orders with the com- 
mittee. If the total number by July 1st 
amounts to 750 copies, the publishers will 
.be notified to that effect. Many librarians 
have refused to buy the India paper edi- 



tion, and it is evident that if all librarians 
would refuse to get it, the publishers would 
realize that the demands of librarians in 
this respect should be heeded. 

There have been comparatively few 
reference books published or announced 
during the year which the committee felt 
would need to be bound e"specially for li- 
brai'y use. It was thought advisable, how- 
ever, to submit our specifications for bind- 
ing the new editions of the Standard Dic- 
tionary and Appleton's Cyclopaedia of 
American Biography. The publishers of 
the Standard Dictionary adopted practical- 
ly all of the specifications and the publish- 
ers of the Cyclopaedia of American Bio- 
graphy now have them under considera- 

In this connection it is worthy of notice 
that the publishers of reference books are 
not only giving studied attention to bind- 
ing processes, but they also realize more 
fully than they did a few years ago the 
necessity of using leather which is f ree- 
from-acid. Until within the last two or 
three years it has been difficult to get 
leathers tanned according to the specifica- 
tions of the Society of Arts. Recently, 
however, several firms in this country 
have begun to specialize in leathers free- 
from-acid; and in addition to this, the 
Government Printing Office insists on hav- 
ing a certain amount of such leather and 
calls for it in its proposals for bids. These 
are encouraging signs that in the future 
we may hope to get leather which will 
not disintegrate so rapidly as that which 
we have been obliged to use for many 
years past. 

With assured standards of book cloths 
and leathers, whch manufacturers, pub- 
lishers, binders and librarians each year 
are recognizing more and more as vital to 
the proper construction of a serviceable 
book, there remains only paper to be care- 
fully standardized. Some efforts are being 
made by private companies and by the 
government to discover which papers are 
best for certain uses, but at present the li- 

brarian at least knows little of the sub- 
ject and is practically at the mercy of the 





At the Ottawa meeting of the American 
Library Association this committee re- 
ported simply progress, without giving de- 
tails of its work during the past year, but 
it had submitted the following report to, 
the Executive Board, which we now sub- 
mit to the Association at large, and fol- 
low it up with a further report of the 
action of your committee during the past 

To the Executive Board of the American 
Library Association. 

The A. L. A. Committee on bookbuying 
met with a committee from the American 
Booksellers' Association in Cleveland on 
May 13, 1912 for the purpose of discussing 
book prices and discounts to libraries. As 
it was found impossible to come to any 
satisfactory understanding before the an- 
nual meeting of the associations, it was 
decided to make only a report of progress. 
It was, however, further agreed that a 
more detailed report should be made to 
the Executive Boards of the associations 
to ascertain if the Executive Boards 
deemed it wise that the discussion should 
be continued. 

The Booksellers' Association at its an- 
nual convention held in New York in May 
has accepted the report of progress, and 
has reappointed its committee. 

During the year 1910-11 your committee 
had much correspondence with the offi- 
cers of the American Booksellers' Associa- 
tion, with the librarians and with the 
booksellers throughout the country on 
questions of the upward tendency of book 
prices and the efforts which were being 
made to decrease the discounts to librar- 

At a meeting of the American Book- 
sellers' Association held in May, 1911, a 



committee on "Relations with libraries" 
was appointed to take up the matter with 
the committee of the A. L. A. Shortly 
after this committee was appointed, your 
committee asked that a time be set for 
a meeting. As the chairman of the Book- 
sellers' committee was abroad, the mat- 
ter was postponed until September. In 
September the A. L. A. committee was 
asked to prepare a statement and sub* 
mit it to the committee of the American 
Booksellers' Association, to which they 
agreed to make a reply, the two papers 
to form the basis for a discussion at a 
meeting to be held as soon as the Book- 
sellers' reply had been prepared. We 
submitted the statement requested in 
October, 1911. Although repeated requests 
for a reply were made, we did not suc- 
ceed in getting a copy until March, 1912, 
and notwithstanding repeated requests for 
a meeting to discuss the matter, none was 
held until May 13, 1912, on the eve of 
the annual conference of the American 
Booksellers' Association. 

We attach a copy of the statement made 
by your committee and the reply by the 
committee of the American Booksellers' 
Association. The attitude of the mem- 
bers of the committee of the Booksellers' 
Association at the meeting referred to did 
not differ from that taken in the reply 
excepting that they were willing to modify 
the expressions in the reply to a consider- 
able degree. It urged that special atten- 
tion should be given to the tables of busi- 
ness loss and profit, which had been pre- 
pared in the book store of Brentano's. In 
connection with these figures the net 
books should be most considered so far as 
the new books are concerned. At the 
present rate of increase of books so is- 
sued it will be but a short time before all 
books are so published. 

Your committee was asked to admit that 
it. was morally wrong to demand that the 
booksellers should do business at any such 
profits, or loss, shown by these figures. 
Your committee did not feel that it was 
justified • in taking that position, nor 

would it be even If it were more certain 
of the accuracy and fairness of the figures. 

Without doubt there is much that is 
wrongfully asked or required of the book- 
sellers by some of the library people, 
which must of necessity add materially to 
the cost of doing business, but this, we 
believe, should be paid for by those ask- 
ing the special favors, and should not be 
covered by a regular charge upon all li- 
brary business. There was much to be 
said in favor of the booksellers' increase 
of prices if it needs to cover such ex- 

On the other hand, it is thought that 
the bookseller is not justified in all of the 
increases which have been made in the 
prices of books to libraries; as, for ex- 
ample, the discounts now allowed to li- 
braries from prices of the net fiction and 
net juveniles. 

It is believed that, with the right spirit 
of cooperation, there are certain changes 
that might be made which would help the 
bookseller, as well as the librarian. If 
what we understand to be the present at- 
titude of the booksellers remains un- 
changed, if they are unable to give as well 
as to take, your committee feels as though 
the discussion might as well come to an 
end. We believe that there exists consid- 
erable difference of opinion among book- 
sellers as to the justice of the terms now 
being offered to libraries as large buyers 
-of books. 

It will be a matter of great regret if 
there cannot be established most cordial 
relations between the libraries and the 
Booksellers' Association. At the same time, 
we do not think that the A. L. A. should 
establish such relations upon terms made 
wholly for the benefit of the booksellers. 

We think that the Executive Board 
should know the present condition of the 
negotiations, so that it might, if it sees 
fit, instruct its future committee. 
(Signed) WALTER L. BROWN, 

Committee on Bookbuying. 



Statement Made by the Committee on 
Bookbuying of the American Library 
Association to the Committee on 
Relations with Libraries of 
the American Booksell- 
ers' Association. 

October, 1911. 

To the Committee on Relations with Li- 
braries, American Booksellers' Asso- 

We send you herewith a brief state- 
ment of the position of ,the Book Buying 
Committee of the American Library Asso- 
ciation in relation to the subject which 
we hope to discuss with you. 

The relations between libraries and the 
book trade should be placed upon a busi- 
ness basis, and the discussion of them up- 
on any other ground is not asked for by 
the libraries. 

There is no question as to the desira- 
bility and the necessity of improving the 
conditions of the book trade, and we are 
in sympathy with the apparently success- 
ful efforts now being made toward that 

The libraries ask that at this time of 
reorganization and radical changes a care- 
ful and just consideration should be given 
to their claims as large buyers of a special 
character. This has always been recog- 
nized in the past, and is the reason for 
the special discounts allowed them by the 

The library trade as a factor in the 
book business is of increasing importance. 
While it may not be considered as "Whole- 
sale business" if, as it is claimed, that 
term implies the purchase in quantities 
of single titles and involves a business 
risk in such purchases, yet it differs so 
much more from the character of the re- 
tail trade that in the new adjustment of 
discounts there would ^eem to be little 
justice in charging against it the expenses 
of retail trade. 

We believe that the amount of library 
trade, and its peculiar character warrant 

your association in having appointed a 
committee to consider its claims. 

In dealing with libraries many of the 
largest items of the expense involved in 
the conduct of the retail business are 
wholly unnecessary. It can be conducted 
as well by dealers on back streets or in 
lofts as it can be by those who have the 
most luxurious and expensive stores to 
attract the retail trade, it does not call 
for the advertising of their wares by the 
dealers; all skill of salesmanship is elim- 
inated, and no accounts have to be 
charged off because of failure. 

It is claimed that there are other ex- 
penses as great, perhaps, as those men- 
tioned, which are peculiar to the library 
trade, but in reality are not called for in 
the business of many libraries, and while, 
perhaps, they are customary, they are 
really necessary in but few cases, if any. 
These expenses would seem to be rather 
the result of bookselling methods than 
because of any peculiar demands of the 
business. These "bad features," as they 
were called in your recent convention, 
were pointed out as being 

(a) Very slow pay, 

(b) Its approval feature, 

(c) The practice of asking for competi- 
tive bids with the lack of ability to judge 
squarely of such bids. 

We cannot see that any of these fea- 
tures are of vital importance to the library. 
To many libraries, as we have said, they 
do not apply at all, and probably others 
would be better off if they were not al-^ 
lowed by the trade. 

The "approval feature" which was made 
much of by one of your officers, is, we 
believe, quite as much the fault of the 
dealers who wish to urge the sale of their 
stock as it is the fault of libraries who 
wish to examine the books before purchas- 
ing. Many books are sent out to libraries 
on approval which have already been 
passed upon, or are entirely outside the 
range of their purchase, and involve an 
expense of time to the library, which is 
forced upon it by the bookseller. 



We agree that no library should ask 
for competitive bids on Itemized lists, for 
the gain to the libraries who do this is 
much smaller than the expense Involved. 
It is probable that such lists would, show 
a lack of bibliographical detail and would 
require much time in wasted effort on the 
part of the bookseller. Library authorities 
purchasing books in this manner might, 
perhaps, be expected to show a "lack of 
ability to judge squarely of such bids." 
We believe that the bibliographical work 
of the bookseller in searching for the best 
(or more often the cheapest) edition to 
quote on such a list is the most expensive 
work the bookseller would have in this 
trade. Such work is wholly unnecessary, as 
the selected lists of recommended books 
published by the American Library Associ- 
ation, as well as those published by the 
state and local associations and the large 
libraries, are in the habit of stating the 
edition, the publisher's name and the 
price. It is safe to say that all libraries 
are supplied with such bibliographical aid 
to the extent of their needs and pur- 

This question, however, has little to 
do with the trade of the libraries con- 
ducted according to modern methods. The 
best libraries do not send out for competi- 
tive bids on itemized orders, and they do 
place the necessary bibliographical detail 
on their orders, and we might add that 
their officers are fully capable of judging 
squarely the editions supplied and the 
price quoted. 

We should like to see the book trade 
classify the library business as peculiar to 
itself. Taking the best library trade as a 
standard, it might suggest some require- 
ments which should be asked for in re- 
turn for obtaining the library discount. 
If the business is free from these faults 
with which it is more or less justly 
charged, it should be profitable to the 

V/e believe that libraries have a right 
to protest against the increasing charges 
made to them for the passing of the books 

of the publishers through the hands of 
the booksellers, and that some concessions 
should be made in the discounts now 
granted. We believe that there is ample 
room for Increasing the booksellers' profits 
by the reformation of Its methods, or per- 
haps we should say the library methods, 
which are now accepted by them. The 
general Increase and the tendency toward 
further increases in the charges for the 
handling of books for libraries by the rules 
of your association we believe to be un- 
just, and that we are fully justified in 
asking that a careful consideration be giv- 
en to this question with a view toward 
making more liberal discounts to this 

We do not believe that the last move 
of your association in making the same 
discount on net fiction as upon other net 
books is warranted, for we think it would 
be only fair to grant the libraries a pro- 
portion of the larger profit which the book- 
seller receives by reason of the extra dis- 
count allowed by the publishers on net 
fiction. If no other concession Is made, 
WQ believe that a better price should be 
offered to libraries on their purchases of 
net fiction. 

We should regret to have the booksel- 
lers take action which would give the li- 
braries the impression that their trade 
was a burden to the booksellers; that the 
members of your association required a 
larger profit from them than what is 
amply satisfactory to the Jobbing trade 
and many dealers. 

It Is to the interests of the library to 
foster friendly relations with the local ' 
booksellers. We believe that together 
they can be of more service than when 
working against each other; it is good 
for the community; we believe that It is 
also to the interests of the booksellers to 
keep the library trade, not only because of 
sentimental reasons, but because It pays. 
Not only are the library accounts practic- 
ally guaranteed and the requirements of 
display, advertising and salesmanship min- 
imized, as we have already stated, but the 



library is often the only buyer of many 
boolis which are received by the book- 
sellers. No other one customer keeps the 
stock moving to such an extent as the li- 
brary. None other wears out books and 
calls for so many duplications after the 
period of popular demand, taking from 
the bookseller's shelves books which he 
need not re-stock. Much of this kind of 
trade prevents actual loss which the book- 
seller would have without the library cus- 

We are not at all convinced that the 
booksellers are losers in the library trade, 
nor do we wish to be placed in the posi- 
tion of receiving special favors. The li- 
braries like to feel that the booksellers 
are giving them fair prices so they will 
not be constantly shown by out-of-town 
dealers how much cheaper they might 
have bought their new books by waiting a 
brief time after publication. 

Wide margins of profit always lead to 
the cutting of prices unless the trade is 
absolutely controlled, which is not the 
condition in the book trade at this time. 

We wish to be in a position to urge all 
libraries to buy of the regular dealers in 
their localities, and trust that your com- 
mittee may be able to see some way of 
recommending further concessions to the 
library trade. 

Answer to the Foregoing Statement 

Answer to the library Committee on Re- 
lation with Booksellers, as proposed by 
Charles E. Butler, Brentano's, New York. 

1. We agree that the relations between 
librarians and booksellers should be on a 
business basis, and that there is no ques- 
tion as to the desirability of improving the 
condition of the book trade. 

2. We are in hearty sympathy with the 
desire of the libraries, that a careful and 
just consideration should be given to their 
claims for better discount as large buyers 
collectively of a special character. 

3. It is the most earnest desire of the 
book trade to be absolutely fair and just 
toward the libraries. We fully and most 

sincerely believe that the libraries would 
not for a moment desire or expect that 
their purchases should be made at the 
sacrifice of a trade, whose very existence 
depends on what reasonable profit can be 
made by them in their business transac- 

4. The libraries believe that the book- 
sellers can make better discounts than 
they do now, if they carry on their busi- 
ness along the lines indicated by them, 
while the booksellers claim that the pres- 
ent condition of buying and selling pro- 
hibits them from making a profit, but is 
actually productive of loss, and that the 
method proposed by the libraries is not 

5. The booksellers are of necessity the 
agent of the publisher. If his business Is 
not self-sustaining, he must fail. The re- 
duction of real booksellers, by a most liber- 
al construction of what constitutes a book- 
seller, from about 3,000 when our popu- 
lation was 40 millions to about 2,000 with 
our population at 90 millions, is evidence 
of the truth of this assertion. The book- 
sellers are entitled to sell to everyone who 
buys books, libraries or others. 

6. The libraries are not booksellers, 
therefore they are not entitled to book- 
sellers' discounts, which they are now get- 
ting from certain sources. Thus, book- 
sellers are deprived of the library busi- 

7. The bookseller is an important fac- 
tor in any community in which he is 
placed. He is taxed by city and state. 
His educational influence cannot be es- 
timated. His capital, his brains and phys- 
ical effort are all invested in making his 
business a success. To do so, he needs 
reasonable profits, and it is business folly 
to do any part of his business that results 
in a loss. 

8. A great majority of the libraries are 
created and supported by direct taxation, 
by charitable contribution, endowment, 
legacies and the like. It is true, the li- 
braries have to be conducted in a careful, 
businesslike way simply keeping within 



their means. Doing this, they are free 
from the booksellers' anxieties and diffi- 
culties as a merchant. 

9. The unique position enjoyed by li- 
braries in the community as to their capi- 
tal and freedom from commercial risk, and 
exemption from taxation and rent, has 
raised the question: "Why should they re- 
ceive discounts on books?" Do they, as 
libraries, get special discounts on their 
building, their shelving, light, heat, elec- 
tricity and supplies, etc., etc.? 

10. The libraries state that in book- 
sellers dealing with libraries many of the 
largest items of the expense involved in 
the conduct of the retail business are 
wholly unnecessary. 

"It can be conducted as well by dealers 
on back streets or in lofts as it 
done by those who have the most luxuri- 
ous stores to attract the retail trade; it 
does not call for the advertising of their 
wares by the dealer; all skill of salesman- 
ship is eliminated and no accounts have to 
be charged off because of failure." 

11. The bookseller establishes himself 
in every community, in such locations as 
will attract trade — generally the best — 
limited only by his capacity to pay rent 
and expenses. This is vital to his suc- 
cess. A bookseller locating himself on a 
back street for the purpose of doing busi- 
ness to enable him to give the library a 
large portion of his small earnings would 
speedily end his career. He could not get 
enough library business to exist on and his 
chances of doing a general retail business, 
on a back street, would be very small in- 
deed. He would become solely a 25 per 
cent or 30 per cent buyer, 10 per cent 
which he gives to the libraries, with a pos- 
sible 28, 25 or 20 per cent expense account. 
We do not believe that the libraries would 
knowingly ask anyone to do business un- 
der such circumstances for their benefit. 
Will the libraries figure this out? 

12. Presuming, for the sake of argu- 
ment, a bookseller does locate himself on 
a back street for the purpose of doing li- 
brarj^ business: He must be a bookseller 

to get a wholesale rate. A mere agent 
not carrying stock, but simply buying on 
orders, would not be supported or supplied 
by the publishers, as he does not carry 
stock or assume the risk of the business. 

13. He would therefore have to carry a 
reasonable amount of stock to be consid- 
ered a bookseller. The libraries may not 
know that the discount given the book- 
seller is qualified by the quantity pur- 
chased of each item. Thus, the average 
trade discount now prevailing on net 
• books and net fiction is 30 per cent in 
small quantities. If he purchases 10 to 25 
copies of a title, he gets an extra 5 per 
cent. If he purchases 50 to 250 of a title 
(according to the publisher and the book 
offered) he gets an extra 10 per cent. The 
libraries familiar with this discount, and 
being misguided as to the results, argue 
that a better discount than they now get 
should be given them by the bookseller. 
We have not included here the great num- 
ber of books published at such discounts 
as 25 per cent, 20 per cent, 15 per cent, 
and even 10 per cent, to which must be 
added transportation and other charges. 
More of such books are bought by li- 
braries than by the retail buyer, such as 
educational books, scientific books, medi- 
cal books, law books, subscription books, 

14. Now this is what really happens to 
the man on the back street, as well as to 
Ihe bookseller on the principal thorough- 
fare. It is 'safe to say that out of the pur- 
chase of 100 new books of any one house, 
say for a period of a year, about 90 per 
cent would have to be bought in small 
quantities at a discount of 30 per cent, 
about 5 per cent at the extra 5 per cent 
discounts, and 5 per cent at the extra 10 
per cent discounts. Thus, buying 90 per 
cent of his stock at 30 per cent and selling 
to libraries at a discount of 10 per cent 
leaves 20 per cent to do business, with 
an average expense cost to the bookseller 
of 28 per cent on every dollar of sale. The 
10 per cent at better rate would improve 
matters very little, as can readily be seen. 



It. doei not Beem as if th« bookseller could 
make better discount than he does to the 
libraries and it really is a question 
whether he is justified in giving as much 
as he does now, if able to give any at all, 
except at a loss to him. 

15. The theory has been advanced by 
the libraries that all their business should 
be considered by booksellers as an inde- 
pendent element in the business and not 
chargeable with the 28 per cent cost per 
dollar of sale, but that the library busi- 
ness should be charged with a much less 
ratio of expense, thus enabling the book- 
seller to gratify the desire of the libraries 
for a further discount. They base this 
proposition on the following claims: 

1. It does not call for the advertis- 
ing of their wares by the dealer. 

2. All skill of salesmanship is elimi- 

3. No accounts have to be charged 
off because of failure. 

The facts are that the smaller libraries, 
and to some extent the larger libraries, 
are constantly supplied by publisher and 
bookseller with circular matter regarding 
new and forthcoming publications, letters 
and personal visits as to special publica- 
tions, as well as sending the new books, 
as issued, on approval, at considerable 
cost and trouble, and some loss of sale, 
because books are not available for dis- 
play to possible buyers who visit the deal- 
er's place of business. The proper han- 
dling of library orders to any reasonable 
extent requires skilled clerks with good 
knowledge of books, the use of catalogs 
and the ability to work out titles correctly 
that are incorrectly given, and which is so 
often done. It is true that no accounts 
have to be charged off, but library ac- 
counts require much care and trouble in 
making duplicate and triplicate vouchers, 
many have to be sworn to before notaries, 
in some cases depositing money as secur- 
ity that goods will be supplied at prices 
quoted, and generally a long wait before 
the bills are paid, and many minor trou- 
bles annoying to both libraries and deal- 

16. As a business proposition, the mak- 
ing of a library department a separate one 
from the business, and determining its ex- 
act cost of maintenance, and basing the li- 
brary discount thereon is not feasible, for 
the reason that the bulk of its operations 
are so interwoven with the business, re- 
quiring the assistance of the entire force 
at many stages that it would be impossible 
to pick out and determine what each oper- 
ation costs. Again, the profits and loss of 
a business can only be finally determined 
at the end of the fiscal year, when the 
stock is taken, and the books closed — a 
very anxious moment indeed for the book- 
seller. He then knows, to his joy or sor- 
row, how much it has cost him to make 
one dollar of sale, and -what profit or loss 
he has made on each dollar of sale, on 
every class of merchandise he has sold, 
the library trade included. This percent- 
age of sale is his guide for the following 
year, and as a good business man, he must 
eliminate every class of merchandise he 
sells that does not produce some profit. 
No business can work successfully other- 

17. The following table will show the 
various ramifications of a special library 
department in the business, if carried out 
as proposed. What suggestions would the 
libraries make in a case like this? 

Work of the library clerk. 


Writing to libraries 
for trade. 

Sending circulars 
and book informa- 
tion to libraries. 

Certain reference 

Receiving order for 
estimate and 


Looking up same 
and selecting edi- 
tions and pricing. 

Writing to publish- 
ers about special 
books to be 

Correcting libra- 
rian's errors. 

Store Assistance. 

Correspondence in 

Typewr iters, ma- 
chine, paper, etc. 

Advertising for out- 
of-print books and 
general advertis- 

Assistance of other 

Order department 
and laying out or- 
der and getting 

Receiving depart- 



Bookkeeping depart- 

Packing and ship- 
ping department. 

Catalog — reference. 

Freight and express 
on goods bought. 

Returns and credits. 


Loss on bad ac- 


of stock. 




Care and keep of 

Salaries and wa^es. 


Store supplies. 

Insurance and taxes. 


Cost of books on ap- 
proval — going and 

Good will and repu- 

18. The libraries state that 

They have a right to protest against the 
increasing charges made to them for pass- 
ing of the books of the publishers through 
the hands of the booksellers, and that 
some concession should be made in the 
discounts now granted. 

19. In this, the libraries should con- 
sider they are not a trade organization, 
who, like the booksellers, depend on their 
trade for a living. Publisher and book- 
seller are one iij interest — producer and 
distributor, and it is economically proper 
that the publisher's product should pass 
through, the hands of the bookseller, and 
to whom? — to their clientele, the public. 
What relation does the library have to the 
bookseller, other than as a buyer, the 
same as the rest of the community? It is 
claimed that libraries are large buyers col- 
lectively, but the general public are larger 
buyers collectively, by many millions of 
dollars. If the library theory holds good, 
would not the same theory hold good if 
the citizens of each community were to 
combine in their purchasing and demand 
discounts accordingly? Would this not re- 
sult in the booksellers' sudden and com- 
plete annihilation. Instead of a gradual 
one, as it has been? 

20. As to the "increasing charges," 
there is no more increase to the libraries 
than to the general public. What brought 
about these "increasing charges?" The 
necessity of self-preservation of both pub- 
lisher and bookseller. Till the beginning 
of the net system and for some years 
thereafter books were published at the tra- 

ditional prices of more than fifty year* 
ago (and later a period of ruinous compe- 
tition to the bookseller) the discounts to 
the trade remaining about the same, and 
this in spite of the fact that the cost of 
everything pertaining to book-making and 
its selling had greatly increased, and had 
not advanced in price, while almost every 
other article of merchandise, labor, mate- 
rial and the necessities of life, has greatly 
increased in cost, and increased in selling 

21. The libraries state: 

We should regret to have the booksell- 
ers take action which would give the li- 
braries the impression that their trade 
was a burden to the bookseller, that your 
members required a larger profit from 
them than what is amply satisfactory to 
the jobbing trade and many dealers. 

22. The booksellers do not feel that the 
libraries are a burden to them. They are 
anxious to have trading relations with 
them, but on a mutually satisfactory ba- 
sis. The library does not need profit for 
its existence, supported as it is, but the 
bookseller needs it for his very existence. 
Were the libraries aware of the actual 
facts of the case, they would undoubtedly 
learn to their surprise that the trade done 

■ by "the jobbing trade and many dealers" 
was anything but satisfactory, and were 
their dealings with the libraries closely 
analyzed they would find they had made 
small profit, if not loss, on the total of the 
books sold to them. The dealers have only 
shown existing conditions, and have asked 
for relief. 

23. The libraries are not sole buyers 
of net books. A very large proportion of 
their purchases are of non-net books, 
which are sold to them at little or no mar- 
gin of profit, and at the same discount as 
the booksellers get. This is ruinous com- 

24. Why then do the trade desire li- 
brary business under existing conditions? 
They do not seek this business for its prof- 
it-making on general publications, regular 
and net, for that is almost nil, but for 



such stock as can be bought at much bet- 
ter discount than the regular trade rates, 
such as jobs and the like, that they can 
sell the libraries, and also for the real 
value of the libraries to the bookseller 
that their orders often enable him to dis- 
pose of certain stock — even at cost — which 
might take a long time to dispose of. 
Finally, there is a certain amount of pride 
— surprising as it may seem — that the 
bookseller has. He wants to sell the li- 
brary in his own community, he wants to 
do all the business of his community, and 
he feels it keenly that his library is the 
only one with whom he cannot do busi- 
ness, except at a very small profit or loss; 
and which trade goes to some other town 
or state. 

25. We trust we have made clear to the 
libraries the exact business situation as it 
relates to the bookseller, jobber, and the 
like. To some extent, what is stated here 
is no new story. The general assertion 
has been made by the bookseller that the 
library business is unprofitable, while the 
libraries state they believe otherwise is or 
should be the case, and suggest their 
ideas as to a remedy. 

26. It can be proved, we think, to the 
entire satisfaction of the libraries, that in 
spite of the net system and corresponding 
maintenance of price, the bookseller, job- 
ber and the like, will be happy indeed if 
he can show the smallest margin of net 
profit as a result of a year's work in sell- 
ing regular and net books to the libraries 
and the public as well. 

27. The booksellers, jobbers and the 
like desire the library business. They be- 
lieve that it rightly belongs to them in 
their own locality, and to ,no one else, be 
they large or small. 

28. They believe the discount given to 
libraries by booksellers, jobbers and the 
like, should be uniform the country over, 
and leave a small margin of profit to the 

29. They believe that competitive bid- 
ding by the libraries has been detrimental 

to booksellers, Jobbers and the like, as 
well as to the libraries in many ways, di- 
rect and indirect. 

30. They believe that the libraries de- 
sire to be fair in this matter and not ask 
for unreasonable terms, and that a knowl- 
edge of the real facts of the case of the 
condition of the booksellers, jobbers and 
the like, will convince them that the book- 
sellers, jobbers and others are doing all, 
if not more than they can, in giving the 
libraries a discount of 33 1-3 per cent on 
regular books, and 10 per cent on net 
books, as at present. 

31. Booksellers, jobbers and the like 
fully believe that they can be of great as- 
sistance to the libraries and the libraries 
to them, and it is their earnest hope that 
close and harmonious relations may be 
brought about, and that they will do all in 
their power towards it. The booksellers 
most heartily endorse the great and good 
work the libraries perform to the com- 
munity, and from a selfish point of view, 
the bookseller freely admits the great as- 
sistance derived by them from the influ- 
ence of the libraries in creating a desire 
for reading and the possession of books, 
and the general educating and elevating 
of the community, and the bookseller also 
feels that his presence in any community 
is likewise educating and elevating and 
that his interests should be reasonably 

32. The booksellers complain that 
when libraries become publishers, as 
many of them do, they make their prices 
net but give the trade little or no discount 
therefrom. Such books sold by the book- 
Seller, cost him considerable in addition 
to the published price. 

33. They cordially invite the librarians 
to go into any facts and figures they may 
desire to be informed about, as to the cost 
of booksellers doing business and as to 
the conditions affecting the relationship of 
both, with a view that all difiiculties may 
be removed, to our mutual satisfaction. 


34. We are pleased to learn that the 11- 4. That the relations between li- 
braries believe — braries and the book trade should be 

1. The approval feature can be Placed upon a business basis, 
dropped. 5. That there is no question as to the 

2. That no library should ask for desirability and the necessity of improv- 
competitive bids on itemized lists. ing the condition of the book trade, and 

3. The bibliographical work is en- that they are in sympathy with the ap- 
tirely unnecessary by the bookseller parently successful efforts now being 
and can be dispensed with. made toward that end. 



The following tabulation is compiled, from actual purchases made from four promi- 
nent publishers, by a large bookseller, during a period of one year. These purchases 
included books in all classes of literature, fiction, biography, science, travel, etc., etc., 
which would fairly represent the book purchases of a number of libraries for the period 
of one year. These books were bought at varying discounts, viz.: — 2/5, 2/5-5, 2/5-10, 
1/4, 1/4-5, 1/4-10, 3/10, 3/10-5, 3/10-10, 1/3, 1/3-5, 1/3-10. Every advantage was taken 
where possible, to obtain by quantity buying, the extra 5 and 10 per cent, given by the 
publishers. The amount bought of these four publishers at published price was 
about $37,035.87, which cost the bookseller about $24,000.00, and included both regular, 
net and special books. 

Let us assume that this bookseller sold these books from his stock to the libraries, 
at a discount from the published prices, on regular books, of 1/3 and a discount of 10% 
from the published prices of net books. 

It is here shown, what the result of the operation would be to the bookseller, as 
to profit or loss. The cost point of doing business by booksellers the country over, 
has been fairly well determined to be on the same average, 28% per dollar of sale. 
This may fluctuate according to circumstances and location, between 30% and 25%. 
In order, however, to clearly and fully cover all possibilities in the matter, the expense 
per dollar of sale has been calculated at 28%, 20%, 15%, 10% and 5% per dollar of sale. 

In all these calculations per dollar of sale, no allowance is made for depreciation 
of stock, fixtures, bad accounts, etc., etc. 

It is hoped that a careful analysis of this table will help solve the library problem. 


Published gS^!5 "^^'-S 

Price ou ^u ^1 ^ ^ ^ I c 

•r^:;; o^ o© oPcs ® o "i 

OJ '<r.A aw cOk Eh J O 

Cost per Dollar of Sale 28%. 
Non Net 15.935.85 1/3 10,623.93 9,145.56 2,974.70 12,120.26 1,496.33 

Net 21,099.98 1/10 18,989.99 14,854.44 5,317.19 20,171.63 1,181.64 2,677.97 

Cost per Dollar of Sale 20%. 
Non Net 15,935.85 1/3 10,623.93 9,145.56 2,124.78 11,270.04 646.11 308.55 

Net 21,099.98 1/10 18,989.99 14,854.44 3,797.99 18,652.43 337.56 

Cost per Dollar of Sale 15%. 
Non Net 15,935.85 1/3 10,623.93 9,145.56 1,593.59 10,739.15 115.22 

Net 21,099.98 1/10 18,989.99 14,854.44 2,848.49 17,702.93 1,287.06 1,171.84 

Cost per Dollar of Sale 10%. 
Non Net 15,935.85 1/3 10,623.93 9,145.56 1,062.39 10,207.95 415.98 

Net 21,099.98 1/10 18,989.99 14,854.44 1,898.99 16,753.43 2,236.56 2.662.B4 

Cost per Dollar of Sale 5%. 
Non Net 15,935.85 1/3 10,623.93 9,145.56 531.19 9,676.75 947.18 

Net 21,099.98 1/10 18,989.99 14,854.44 949.49 15,803.93 3,186.06 4,1S8.24 
















The following tabulation is compiled on the same basis as Table No. 1, but showing 
the result to the bookseller, as to profit and loss, if the bookseller increased the dis- 
count to the libraries, on regular books, from 1/3 to 2/5, and on net books from 1/10 
to 1/5. 



o cd 



u >-< 







Non Net 



9,561.53 9,: 




16.879.99 14,! 

Non Net 



9,561.53 9,: 




16,879.99 14,1 

Non Net 



9,561.53 9,: 




16,879.99 14,1 

Non Net 



9.561.53 9,: 




16,879.99 14,1 

June, 1913 

m o 
o o 

u> o 

o o a 

per Dollar of Sale 28%. 
145.56 2.677.22 11,822.78 2,261.25 
854.44 4.726.39 19,580.53 2,700.54 

per Dollar of Sale 15%. 
145.56 1,434.22 10,579.78 1,018.25 
854.44 2.531.99 17.386.13 506.14 

per Dollar of Sale 10%. 
145.56 956.15 10.101.71 540.18 
854.44 1,687.99 16.542.43 

per Dollar of Sale 5%. 
145.56 478.07 9.623.62 62.10 
854.44 843.99 15.698.43 



337.56 202.62 


Report of the Bookbuying Committee of 
the American Library Associa- 
tion, 1912-13 

In November, 1912, your committee was 
notified by the secretary that the execu- 
tive board asked it to continue its negotia- 
tions with tlie committee on libraries of 
the American Booksellers' Convention, 

A meeting with the latter committee 
was immediately arranged for, and such 
meeting was held in New York City on No- 
vember 25th, which was attended by two 
representatives of the Booksellers' Associ- 
ation and by two members of the commit- 
tee on Book Buying of the A. L. A. A dis- 
cussion lasting over three hours, when all 
the details and conditions were gone over, 
resulted in a definite agreement, the rati- 
fication of which the committee of the 
American Booksellers' Association prom- 
ised to recommend to that Association. 

This agreement was in the nature of a 
small concession on the part of the Book- 
sellers' Committee. While the concession 
was small, it was accepted as at least 
showing a disposition on the part of the 
Booksellers to cooperate with the libraries 
in the promotion of a better feeling be- 
tween them. The Booksellers' Committee 

agreed to allow the libraries a discount of 
15% from the net price on new fiction, in- 
stead of 10%, which is now allowed. The 
15% discount was to be given during the 
calendar year in which the novel was pub- 
lished, as given on the title page. 

A few days after this agreement was 
made, the acting chairman of the Ameri- 
can Booksellers' Association committee 
announced that he could not carry it out, 
because of his finding that the booksellers 
could not afford to do what he had prom- 
ised to recommend, and at that time sub- 
mitted figures which he thought proved his 
contention. These figures differed in no 
particular from those which were formerly 
submitted, and which are a part of this 
report, and which, we believe are on a 
false basis of an exaggerated cost of do- 
ing library business, and of misleading 
statements as to discounts allowed by the 
publishers to booksellers on new fiction. 

At the annual meeting of the American 
Booksellers' Association, which was held 
in May of this year, a statement was made 
by its committee on Relations with li- 
braries, but this statement does not form 
a part of the published report of the pro- 
ceedings of the convention, and your com- 
mittee has not been able to obtain a copy 
of the stenographer's notes. The acting 



chairman of the Booksellers' Committee 
informs us that he made no report, but 
that he submitted and supplemented the 
foregoing statements of the committees, 
with quotations from the correspondence 
ot the two committees. It, therefore, prob- 
ably differed but little from the original 
statements made by the two committees. 

We would, therefore, call your attention 
to the reasons given in the Booksellers' 
"Statement" for holding the uniform high- 
er prices which the libraries are paying 
for books because of the short discounts 
allowed by the Booksellers' Association. 
As the position taken by the Booksellers' 
Association is not agreed to by ail of the 
individual booksellers, such action may or 
may not be looked upon as a "restraint of 

The estimate of the cost of doing busi- 
ness by retail booksellers is 28%, and the 
contention is that no profit is made from 
any item which does not net them a sum 
greater than 28% above cost. This would 
mean that they wish to force the libraries 
into becoming retail customers because li- 
brary business as a wholesale trade is re- 
garded by the retail bookseller^ as too 
costly, and the Booksellers' Committee be- 
lieves that it should not be welcomed by 
them. All booksellers do not take this 
view any more than they would wish to 
endorse that expressed in paragraph 8 of 
the "answer" of their committee, which 
reads as follows: "A great majority of the 
libraries are created and supported by di- 
rect taxation, by charitable contributions, 
endowments, legacies and the like. It is 
true that libraries have to be conducted in 
a careful, businesslike way, simply keep- 
ing within their means. Doing this, they 
are free from the booksellers' anxieties 
and difficulties as a merchant." 

Your committee believes that there is 
no question as to the desire of all libraries 
to encourage good feeling between the 
booksellers and themselves, nor is there 
any question as to the desirability of hav- 
ing a bookstore in every community. 

We believe that the local booksellers 

should be encouraged, but not at the ex- 
pense of the taxpayers through the li- 

The libraries, as wholesale buyers, 
should, we believe, be allowed greater dis- 
counts on the net books. As the retail 
booksellers seem not included to make 
any compromise, we believe that your 
committee on Book Buying might, in the 
immediate future, be of service to the li- 
braries by calling their attention to the 
advantages of buying many replace books 
from booksellers who are desirous of ob- 
taining and keeping the library business 
and to those who deal in remainders and 
second-hand books, both here and abroad. 
Inasmuch as the Booksellers' Committee 
on Relations with libraries did not keep 
its verbal promise, and has reassumed its 
former position which allows no conces- 
sion whatsoever, although asking and ex- 
pecting co-operation from the libraries, we 
believe that there is nothing to be gained 
by further negotiations with the Booksell- 
ers' Association Committee on Relations 
with Libraries as it is now constituted. 
Respectfully submitted, 

Committee on Bookbuying. 


The committee of the American Library 
Association on co-operation with the Na- 
tional Education Association, while having 
no special accomplishment to present, still 
seems justified in reporting the year as be- 
ing one decidedly of progress. Never be- 
fore in the experience of the committee has 
there been a more friendly expression of 
a desire to co-operate on the part of the 
N. E. A. than has been the case this year. 

President Fairchlld sent an invitation 
unsolicited for a representative of the 
American Library Association to take a 
place on the general program of the meet- 
ings of the National Education Association 



in Salt Lake City. The committee has not 
been able to find a proper representative 
to accept the invitation, owing to the great 
distance from library centers of the place 
of meeting. 

There has been an Increased amount of 
discussion by correspondence of the mem- 
bers of the committee as to the work that 
could be done more thoroughly to create 
a sympathetic attitude toward the work 
of the public library as an integral part of 
public education. 

An increasing number of schools are 
turning to the libraries for help, and one 
association of college librarians has strong- 
ly emphasized the need of instruction in 
library methods for the students of high 

The committee has been active in its ef- 
forts to co-operate with the library depart- 
ment of the N. E. A., and has received a 
written expression of thanks for its work 
this year from the officers of the depart- 




The committee reports that its chief 
activity throughout the year, has been the 
endeavor to secure a cheaper postal rate 
upon books, in which effort it has been un- 
successful. Attempts were made to have 
books included in the parcel post bill of 
1912, and also to have the rate on books 
made the same as the second class rate 
on magazines when sent by individuals. 
At the regular and extra sessions of Con- 
gress, the Chairman of the Committees of 
Congress on Post Oflices and Post Roads, 
were interviewed, and the Postmaster- 
General was urged to give the favorable 
Influence of his department toward the 
end desired. There seems to be no prob- 
ability of an immediate alteration in the 
rate upon books, unless a complete revi- 
sion of the parcel post section of the 
postal laws be made, and there is some 
question as to whether it Is desirable for 
books to be included in the parcel post. 

with the present zone system, inasmuch 
as under it, the postage upon books within 
certain zones would be actually greater 
than under the existing law. The activity 
of those desiring a one cent postage upon 
letters, also causes members of Congress 
to hesitate in making any reduction such 
as we desire. 

When the new tariff bill was introduced 
in the House of Representatives, the Com- 
mittee addressed a communication to the 
Committee on Ways and Means, so as to 
secure the retention of the privilege of 
free entry for books imported by public 
libraries. The Treasury Department on 
April 19 decided "that small importations 
through the mails for colleges or other in- 
stitutions entitled to import books free of 
duty under Par. 519 of the Tariff Act will 
be passed without requiring an affidavit in 
each instance, provided such institutions 
will file with the Collector of Customs a 
copy of its charter or article of association 
showing it to be entitled to pass such im- 
portations free of duty." Libraries desir- 
ing to avail themselves of this privilege 
should forward this information promptly 
to the Collector of Customs at the port 
where they receive books. 



Part of your Committee's report is sim- 
ply supplementary to that of last year, 
constituting with it a survey of methods 
used in certain libraries in carrying out 
two common operations — accessioning and 
the charging of issue. Last year the se- 
lected libraries were asked simply to de- 
scribe these operations closely, being 
urged to leave out no detail, no matter 
how trivial and unimportant. It was 
thought that no set of questions, however 
minute, would provide for all such details, 
and that a questionnaire might result in 
many omissions and make the operations, 
as performed by the contributing libraries, 
appear to be more uniform than is really 
the case. The event proved, however, the 
necessity of some sort of a questionnaire, 



and after a study of last year's results the 
following was prepared by Mr. George F. 
Bowerman, of this committee, and sent 
out by the chairman both to the libraries 
named in the last report and to certain 
others. Data have been received from the 
following institutions: 

Public or Circulating Libraries 

Butte, Montana 
East Orange 
Forbes Library 
Jacksonville, Florida 
Lincoln Library, 

Los Angeles 

New York 

Pratt Institute 

St. Louis 

Salt Lake City 



College or University 

Wesleyan University, Harvard 

Middletown, Conn. Kansas 

Westminster College, Syracuse 

Fulton, Mo. Tulane 

State Libraries 


New York 





John Crerar, 


Society Libraries 

Medical Society of the County of Kings 
New York Society 

New York Bar Association (accession ('*) 
We give below the questions sent out 
with a summary of the various answers by 
numbers. The original blanks are on file 
at A. L. A. headquarters, showing answers 
in greater detail, together with the names 
of the answering libraries. 

Summary of Reports on Accession Routine 

[Harvard University library did not an- 
swer each question in detail, as it keeps no 
accession record in the usual sense. A 
record is kept each day of the number of 
volumes and pamphlets received by gift 
and by purchase, from which statistics are 
made up at the end of the year. A file of 
continuation cards for annual reports and 

similar continued publications and a rec- 
ord of gifts from individuals are useful sup- 
plements to the daily record. Bills for 
books are filed alphabetically under deal- 
er's name each year, and order slips, giving 
agent, date of order and date of receipt, 
are preserved.] 

(1) When do you accession, before or 

after cataloging? Before catalog- 
ing— 14. 

(2) Are all books that are cataloged ac- 

cessioned? Affirmative, 24 (excep- 
tion, 11). 

(3) What method of keeping your acces- 

sion record do you use? 

All use accession book except Los 
Angeles and Forbes Library, 
which use bill method, and 
Washington, D. C, which uses 
order cards as accession record. 

East Orange does not believe ac- 
cession book essential. 

Pittsburgh, which accessions only 
adult books, is inclined to be- 
lieve book unnecessary. Their 
method of treating juveniles is 
especially interesting. 

Seattle notes that their book has 
fewer items than the A. L. A., 
ar.d says the use of order cards 
as accession record is an excel- 
lent method. 

Which of the following items do you 
enter in your accession record? 
The number following the item in- 
dicates the number of libraries 
reporting its use: — Author, 19; 
title, 18; publisher, 17; place of 
publication, 13; date of publica- 
tion, 18; size, 10; edition, 13; 
number of volifmes, 23; binding,' 
11; publisher's price, 8; cost, 
18; source, 20; date of bill, 
10; date of entry, 14. 

(5) Do you enter facts about re-binding 
in the accession record? 
Affirmative, 3; negative, 20. 

(6) a. Do you use your accession record 
to obtain statistics of additions? 
Affirmative, 19; negative, 5. 



b. What items do you include? 

Some of these questions were not 
answered, so it is iniferred that 
the statistics obtained are for 
total additions only. Following 
items were reported on: — Class, 
7; source, 8; branch, 2; lan- 
guage, 2; circulating or refer- 
ence, 2; adult and juvenile, 2. 

(7) Do you maintain a numerical record 

of accessions according to classi- 
fication? Department or branches? 
Does it cover expenditures for 
each main class? Department or 

Negative, 14; record according to 
classification, 6; branch or de- 
partment, 3; separate record of 
expenditures, 4. 

(8) Where do you place accession num- 

ber? Page after title page, 6; 
title page, 3; title page and first 
page, 1; title page and page 101, 
1; book plate and page after title 
page, 1. 

(9) Do you write price and date of bill 

as well as accession number in the 

book. Do you write cost of a set 

in the first volume? 

Affirmative, 6; negative, 13 (both 
questions) ; cost, 1 ; date, affirma- 
tive, 3; negative, 1; cost in vol- 
ume 1 of set, 6. 

(10) How do you indicate the branch or 

department to which a book is as- 

Not indicated, or there is no 
branch, 14; stamped or indicat- 
ed in accession book, 5; books 
stamped or marked, 5; separate 
accession book for each branch, 
3; order card and book stamped, 

(11) In case of replacements do you keep 

a record of the accession number 
which has been replaced or do you 
regard replacement as if it were 
an added entry or duplicate, dis- 
regarding old number entirely? 

Replacement is regarded as an 
added entry or duplicate, and no 
record kept of the old number, 
16; New number given to re- 
placement but make note of the 
number replaced, 6; Old number 
used, 3. 

Butte, Mont., reports: 
"We enter each new copy in the 
shelf list as copy 2-3, etc., keep- 
ing a record of each book." 

New York City Bar Association re- 
* ports: 
"Do not use numbers, but dates. 
A book added to replace is not 
counted for the annual statis- 
(12) Do you note in the accession record 

when a book is withdrawn, or do 

you keep a withdrawal book? 

Note in accession record, 9; note 
on shelf list, 4; note in acces- 
sion book and keep withdrawal 
book, 3; have withdrawal book, 
2; have no withdrawals, 2; files 
book cards, 1; keeps record on 
cards, 1; keeps cards withdrawn 
from public catalog, 1; not 
noted at all, 2. 

New York City Bar Association re- 

"We keep all books except in 
very rare cases. The only notes 
made are in catalogs and in sta- 
tistical record." 

Summary of Reports on Charging Systems 

1. What charging system do you use? 

Newark system, 12; Brown system, 
2; Borrower's record, 2; Single file 
— Book file under date or class, 4; 
Double file — Borrower's file and 
book file, 6. 

2. The process of charging. 

a.l. Do you issue books on borrowers' 

cards? 18. 
a.2. Do you charge by means of call 

slips? 4. 
a.3. Permanent or temporary book 

cards? 5. 



b. How many cards are iiBued to on« 


One card, 10; two cards, 4; three 
cards, 1; temporary borrower's 
cards, 2; temporary book cards 
and no borrower's cards, 9; bor- 
rower's pocket instead of bor- 
rower's card, 1. 

c. If a borrower presents his own 

cards and those of others also, do 
you issue books on all cards pre- 

Affirmative, 13; negative, 1 (cards, 
slips or pocket held at the li- 
brary, 12). 

d. Do you issue privilege or teachers' 


Affirmative, 9; negative, 7. 

e. How many 2-week books of Action 

are charged on one card? 
e.l. One book of fiction on a card 
• for 2 weeks — 10. 

Two books of fiction on a card 
for 2 weeks — 2. 

Three books of fiction on a card 
for 2 weeks — 1. 

Tulane University — Faculty can 
withdraw any number at one 
time; students, only 3. 

No discrimination between fic- 
tion and nonfiction — 3. 

No limit — Virginia State. 

No exact time limit — 2. 
e.2. One 7-day book on one card, 11; 
three 7-day books on one card, 
2; unlimited (East Orange), 
1; no 7-day books, 2. 
e.3. One 4-week book of fiction on 
one card, 5; two 4-week books 
of fiction on one card, 2; three 
4-week books of fiction on 
one card, 2; unlimited (East 
Orange), 1; none issued for 4 
weeks, 6. 

f. How many pay duplicate books may 

one borrower draw at a time? 

Number unlimited, 8; three at one 
time, 1; five at one time, 1; as 
many as cards presented, 1. (Li- 
braries having no pay collection, 

f. Do you issue books and magazines 
on the same card? 
Affirmative, 14; negative, 4; no 
circulation of magazines, 4. 
h. How many books are issued on 
privilege or teachers' cards? 
Unlimited, except for fiction, 5; 
12 books, 1; 10 books, 2; 5 
books, 3; no special cards is- 
sued, 16. 
i. Are books stamped on the date of 
issue — 8. 

Are books stamped on the date of 
return — 10. 
j. Do you use different colored pads 
for charging and discharging? 
Affirmative, 5; negative, 18. 
k. Do you use different colored pencils 
for different dates? 
Affimative, 5; negative, 19. 
1. Do you use different sized type for 
different dates? 
Affirmative, 1; negative, 24. 
m. Is the assistant at the charging 
desk required to use a mark or 
initial of identification on the book 

Affirmative, 11; negative, 1&. 
n. n.l. Do you stamp fiction and non- 
fiction on the same card? 
Affirmative, 12; negative, 5; 
no distinction made, 1. 
n.2. Do you stamp fiction and non- 
fiction on different parts of 
the same card? 
Affirmative, 5. 
n.3. In combination? 3. 
n.4. Do you use the same colored 
ink for fiction and nonfiction? 
Affirmative, 9; negative, 2. 
o. Are the class numbers of nonac- 
tion written on a teacher's or priv- 
ilege card? 

Affirmative, 5; negative, 4. 
p. How many places do you stamp — 
Book card? Borrower's card? 
Date flap? Book entry? Call slip? 
3 stampings, book card, borrower's 

card, date flap — 12. 
2 stampings, book card, borrower's 
card — 2. 



2 stampings, book card, date flap 

2 stampings, cajl slip, date flap 

1 stamping, call slip — 4. 

1 stamping, temporary book card 

1 stamping, borrower's pocket — 1. 
q. Do you renew books more than 


Affirmative, 11; negative, 14. 
r. Do you renew books issued for 7 


Affirmative, 3; negative, 15. 
s. Do you renew books issued for two 


Affirmative, 19; negative, 2. 
t. Do you renew books issued for four 


Affirmative, 12; negative, 3. 
u. Is the process of renewal like orig- 
inal charge? 

Affirmative, 19; negative, 2. 
3 Counting of Circulation. 

a. Do you verify your count by having 

it checked by a second person? 
Affirmative, 3; negative, 21; no 
count kept, 2. 

b. Do you verify your filing in the 

same way? 

Affirmative, 4; negative, 20. 

c. Are records kept in different de- 

parttnents combined daily in a sin- 
gle statistics record? 
Affirmative, 10; negative, 7; daily 
and monthly, 4; yearly count, 1. 

d. Do you send collections of books 

for home circulation to places out- 
side the library? 
Affirmative, 16; negative, 11. 

e.l. Do the custodians of these places 
furnish circulation figures? 
Affirmative, 14; negative, 3. 

e.2. How often? Monthly, 6; bi-month- 
ly, 1; yearly, 3; weekly, 1. 

f. Is any record kept of the reading 

(not home circulation) of these 


Affirmative, 2; negative, 14. 

g. If no circulation figures are obtain- 

able, do you count the original col- 
lections sent as books issued? 
Affirmative, 13; negative, 4. 
h. is omitted. 

i. For what periods are such collec- 
tions sent on deposit? Varied, 16; 
two Months, 2; two weeks, 1. 
4. Filing of cards. 

a.l. Are fiction and nonfiction cards 
separated under the day's issue? 
Afl[irmative, 12. 
a.2. Or are all cards filed in alphabet- 
ical order according to author or 
' otherwise. 
Accession number, 1; author, 2; 
author and accession number, 1 ; 
borrower's name, 2; call num- 
ber on slips, 2; class number, 6; 
title, 1. 

b. Do you use different colored book 


Affirmative, 13; negative, 14. • 

c. Do you have separate files for 7-day 

cards, or do you file them daily 
with 2-week bodks issued one 
week previously — also 4-week 
books issued 3 weeks previously? 
Separate files, 4; no separate files, 
5; filed daily with 2-week books 
issued one week previously, 8. 

d. Do you have separate files for cards 

issued to teachers? For renewed 

books? Foreign books? 

Teachers — Affirmative, 6; nega- 
tive, 17; renewed books — Affirm- 
ative, 1; negative, 22; foreign 
books — None. 

e. Do you use guide cards to separate 

the classes of non-fiction or do dif- 
ferent classes have different book 

Guide cards, 2; guide cards and 
colored book-cards, 1; colored 
book cards, 4; neither, 15. 

f. Have you separate files for books 

loaned to staff members, trustees, 


Affirmative, 8; negative, 19. 

g. Are special records kept of books 

In quarantined houses? 
Affirmative, 14; negative. 12. 



h. Do you keep your file of collections 
loaned as deposits separate from 
ordinary circulation? 
Affirmative, 18; negative, 4. 
5. Discharging of books. 

a. Do you stamp on borrower's card 

or slip the date book is returned? 
Affirmative, 15; negative, 2. 

b. Do you keep on file at the library 

all cards of borrowers when in 

Affirmative, 14; negative, 13. 
When not in use? 
Affirmative, 16; negative, 5. 

c. Do you retain at the library a bor- 

rower's card on which there is a 


Affirmative, 16; negative, 1. 

d. Do you issue receipts for books 

without cards? 
Affirmative, 5; negative, 17. 

e. Do you give the receipt to the bor- 

rower to be returned with card for 

cancellation of date or do you 

keep file of such receipts at the 


Receipt file k^t at library, 4. 

f. Do you discharge books before 

stamping off borrowers' cards? 

Affirmative, 5; negative, 10. Dis- 
charging and stamping off done 
at the same time, 9. 

g. If not do you look up book cards 

overdue before you stamp off bor- 
rower's card? 
Affirmative, 8; negative, 3. 

h. Do you inspect book while borrower 
waits? Affirmative, 15; negative, 

i. Are books discharged near your re- 
turn desk or away from it? 
Near or at desk, 28. 

j. Do you inspect carefully all books 
Affirmative, 18; negative, 8. 

k. Is this inspection made when books 
are discharged or when shelved? 
When discharged, 8; before 
shelved, 8; at both times, 3. 

The most interesting thing brought out 
by this investigation is the fact that it has 

taken your committee two years to ascer- 
tain and tabulate the simple facts regard- 
ing methods of procedure, in a very limited 
number of institutions, in the performance 
of only two of the many operations that go 
to make up their current work. From this 
it may be imagined how long and difficult 
a task it would be to carry out a really 
comprehensive survey of all the work of all 
kinds of libraries as currently performed. 
And yet such a survey would appear to be 
a necessary preliminary to a study of the 
subject whose aims should be definite sug- 
gestions toward the improvement of this 
work in the direction of greater efficiency. 
It would seem, at present, a task beyond 
this committee's powers, although we may 
be prepared to take general advisory 
charge of such a work if others can be in- 
duced to undertake the details. Possibly 
some of the library schools may regard 
this as profitable employment for their stu- 

In the next place we are struck with the 
complete negative that our results place 
upon the general impression that the vari- 
ous details of modern library work are be- 
coming — possibly even have already be- 
come — thoroughly standardized. No one 
thinks, of course, that everyone does every- 
thing alike; but we are apt to believe that 
there are now a few generally approved 
ways of doing each thing, and that each li- 
brary selects from these the one that suits 
its own conditions and limitations. On the 
fcontrary, we seem to be in an era of free 
experiment. Nothing in the two sets of op- 
erations that we have studied— not even 
the existence and value of the operations 
themselves — would appear to be regarded 
as sacred. Everyone has his own methods 
and is apparently satisfied, either with 
them, or with his own ways of departing 
from them and groping after something 

We cannot regard this as altogether de- 
sirable. Doubtless no one most efficient 
way of doing any of these things can be 
settled upon, so long as conditions differ, 
but we cannot believe that differences lo 
fundamental and complexities so varied aa 



those revealed in this report are due mere- 
ly to differing conditions, and that each is 
the best in the place where it is practised. 
We must conclude, therefore, that many 
of our libraries are doing these particular 
things, and by inference others also, in 
wasteful, inefficient ways. 

Having made a survey ,of the facts, the 
next step would be. to inquire concerning 
all variations from a method selected as 
the simplest in each case — possibly acces- 
sioning as practised at Pratt Institute Free 
Library or the Public Library of the Dis- 
trict of Columbia and the charging system 
at Pittsburgh or at East Orange, New Jer- 
sey. The cost of these variations in time 
and money and the skill necessary in car- 
rying them out, should be ascertained and 
the practical value of each, if it has any, 
should be found. It may then be possible 
to select, for a library of a given type, a 
standard method of procedure, which will 
be, all things considered, the most efficient 
for it. 

In regard to cost, the report of the sec- 
tional committee on the cost of cataloging, 
to be made at this conference, will doubt- 
less throw some interesting light on the 


The use of the questionnaire by this 
committee may require some justification 
in the light of the growing feeling among 
librarians that the multiplicity of such de- 
mands upon their time is becoming a nui- 
sance; and possibly some general recom- 
mendations on the use of library question- 
naires may be in order. 

We feel that the value of the question- 
naire, and the way in which it should be 
received, regarded and disposed of, depend 
primarily on the purpose for which it is 
Intended and also largely on the skill and 
tact of the questioner. We distinguish 
three main classes of library question- 
naires: (1) Those Intended to gather data 
for the information of librarians In gen- 
eral; (2) those intended for the use of sin- 
gle libraries; (3) those intended for the 
information of individuals. Those of the 

first class, it ssema to us, it is the duty of 
all librarians to answer, as far as possible. 
They include questions sent out by A. L. A. 
or state association committees and those 
put by individual libraries or librarians 
with a promise to publish the results or 
to put them into shape that will make 
them available to the public, provided, of 
course, the information sought appears 
likely to be of value when tabulated. 

Questionnaires of the second class will 
generally be answered, not so much as a 
matter of public duty as of personal cour- 
tesy. They include requests from one li- 
brarian to another about details of admin- 
istration for guidance in making improve- 
ments or alterations in method. A libra- 
rian feels usually that it is good policy, if 
nothing more, to comply with such re- 
quests so far as his rules permit, for he 
may at any time desire to make a similar 
request on his own part. It is suggested, 
however, that whenever possible such data 
as these should be asked in a way, and 
from- a sufficient number of libraries, to 
warrant throwing the results into a form 
ihat will make them generally available. 

The third category includes most of the 
questionnaires that excite the ire of libra- 
rians and cause a feeling that questions of 
all kinds are nuisances demanding abate- 
ment. They come from students writing 
theses, from assistants preparing papers 
for local clubs, from individuals obsessed 
with curiosity, from reporters, from per- 
sons of various degrees of irresponsibility. 
There is no reason why any attention at 
all should be paid to these and we recom- 
mend librarians to return to them merely 
a stereotyped form of polite acknowledge- 
ment and refusal. 

It is hoped that the Headquarters of the 
Association may become more and more 
the clearing house for systematized infor- 
mation of this kind, saving thereby much 
wasteful duplication of material and effort. 
We recommend that the originators of le- 
gitimate questionnaires send to Headquar- 
ters before making up their list of ques- 
tions, to see how many can be answered 
in this way. 



Much of the feeling against question- 
naires is due to lack of good judgment on 
the part of the framers. It is obviously 
unfair to ask another librarian to answer 
questions that could be answered from the 
resources of the questioning library, even 
if the latter would require a little more 
time and trouble. A large proportion of 
the items in questionnaires of all three 
grades specified above are of this charac- 
ter. If it is desired that all the answers 
shall appear in the same form on one 
sheet, answers obtainable in the question- 
ing library may be written in before send- 
ing out the list, and the attention of the 
correspondent may be called to this fact. 
In any case a statement should accom- 
pany the questionnaire that the informa- 
tion asked cannot be obtained by any 
other means at the asker's disposal. 

In some cases questions are asked that 
require the collection of unusual data re- 
garding the current work of the library. 
The answers to such questions can evi- 
dently not be given, even if the library is 
willing and anxious to undertake at once 
the additional work of collection, until the 
expiration of the period for which the fig- 
ures are asked — generally one year. The 
usual method seems to be to send out 
such questions to a large number of li- 
braries in the hope that a few will be able 
to answer them at once. A better way 
would be to send out to a large number of 
libraries a statement of the desired data, 
asking those willing to undertake their col- 
lection to notify the asker. At the ex- 
piration of the period of collection the 
sender of the questions would then have 
accurate data and he would not expect 
them before the end of this period — 
whether one year or less. 

It would seem to be unnecessary to re- 
mind those who receive and answer ques- 
tionnaires that returned blanks should 
bear the name of the library to which they 
refer, were it not for the fact that this is 
so often omitted. In one recent case the 
name was given simply as "Carnegie li- 
brary," with no address. 

Briefly set forth, the recommendations 

of this committee, regarding the use of li- 
brary questionnaires, are, then, as follows: 

(1) That questionnaires should always 
be for the information of librarians in gen- 
eral, or for improving the service of one 
library in particular, preferably the for- 

(2) That no questions should be included 
that can be answered in the questioning 
library or at A. L. A. Headquarters. 

(3) That questions requiring the collec- 
tion of current data over a specified period 
of time be asked proportionately in ad- 
vance of the report desired, in cases where 
the data are not such as are usually re- 

(4) That those who answer question- 
naires be careful to include the name and 
address of their library. 

Labor Saving Devices 

It is a commonplace of library history 
that librarianship has contributed the card 
catalog idea to commercial life. The library 
in turn is indebted to commercial life for 
many labor-saving devices. Very likely a 
few of the largest libraries utilize all avail- 
able labor-saving devices to the utmost. 
Your committee is, however, of the opinion 
that the medium size and smaller libraries 
might reduce the cost of administration 
through the more general use of mechan- 
ical appliances. We recommend that at a 
coming meeting of the Association there 
be held an exhibition of all available com- 
peting labor-saving devices adapted to li- 
brary use. The assembled demonstration 
of such devices should prove most instruc- 
tive to the members of the association 
A would itself be a time-saving device. 
Such an exhibition could probably not be 
advantageously assembled except in a 
large city. Your committee therefore rec- 
ommends that either it or a special com- 
mittee be authorized to arrange for such 
ui exhibition and demonstration. 
All of which is respectfully submitted. 




Committee on Administration. 




At the beginning of the year the com- 
mittee began the consideration of an out- 
line, prepared by the chairman, of possible 
points considered in the proposed examina- 
tion of library schools. Tnis outline was 
submitted to the members of the commit- 
tee individually and valuable suggestions 
obtained and was afterwards discussed by 
such members of the committee as were 
present at the January meetings in Chi- 

This outline which is appended to the 
present report is not to be considered as 
necessarily final, for the committee invites 
criticisms and suggestions from other 
members of the profession. What the com- 
mittee desires if library schools are to be 
examined, is that the schools should be ex- 
amined from the point of view of the 
needs of the profession, not simply from 
the point of view of the interests of the 
library schools. The real vital questions ly- 
ing at the foundation of the examination 
of library schools are these: Does this 
method of obtaining recruits for the pro- 
fession give the best results which can be 
secured by such a method? Do the library 
school trained workers prove in actual ex- 
perience that their training has been of the 
right sort? These questions cannot be an- 
swered from an examination of the records 
of any one or even any half dozen library 
school graduates, but only from the exam- 
ination of many such records. 

As was before said, criticisms on the out- 
line are invited from members of the pro- 
fession and from any of the library schools, 
as the desire of the committee is to make 
an absolutely thorough, and impartial 
study of the whole library school problem. 

At the January meeting in Chicago the 
members of the committee were rejoiced 
to learn that the executive board had re- 
appropriated the appropriation for 1912 
with a like amount for the work of 1913. 

With these financial limitations in mind 
the committee considered the question of 
an examiner, and one having been agreed 
upon, made the proposition with great con- 

fidence, only after considerable delay to 
have it declined. Further search through 
the field discovered another person who 
seemed equally suitable and she was ap- 
proached only to decline. 

The real difficulty evidently lies in the 
fact that we are asking the examiner to 
undertake a large piece of professional 
work and practically offering only ex- 
penses and the cost of a substitute for 
the regular work during such times as i' 
is necessary to leave it. Naturally enough, 
it is not easy to find anyone willing to takp 
this additional burden. 

The committee now have in considera- 
tion other names and hope, if re-appointed, 
to be able to announce an examiner before 
the beginning of the next library school 
year to such schools as indicate their read- 
iness to receive an examination. 
For the Committee. 
AZARIAH S. ROOT, Chairman. 


Scheme of Efficiency Tests for a Library 

(Note. — In its general outline thlg 
scheme is indebted to the admirable Test 
of College Efficiency prepared by Dean 
Charles N. Cole of Oberlin College.) 


A. Government and control of the school: 

1. Trustees: 

(a) How chosen. Fitness to di- 

rect library training; 

(b) Tenure of office; 

(c) Meetings, how often; 

(d) Ad interim power vested 

where ; 

(e) Determination of policy: 

does it lie with trustees, 
president, director or fac- 

B. Equipment of the school: 

1. Connection with other educational 


(a) With college or university; 

(b) With other institutions; 

2. Connection with a library: 

(a) Of what type; 



(b) What constituency and to^ 

what extent used; 

(c) How far equipped with mod 

ern library methods; 

(d) Actual practice work in li- 

brary by students; 

3. Bibliographical apparatus: 

(a) General reference books; 

(b) Trade Bibliographies; 

(c) Special Bibliographies; 

(d) Library economy; 

(e) Samples of library blanks 

and supplies; 

4. Housing: 

(a) Recitation rooms; 

(b) Study or work rooms; 

(c) Rest and social rooms; 

(d) Library facilities. 

C. Administration of the school: 

1. Officers: 

(a) How many; 

(b) How obtained; 

(c) Qualifications; 

(d) Tenure of office; 
(e)" Estimate of work; 

(f) Compensation; 

(g) Vacation; 
2. Faculty: 

(a) Do new teachers have a 

voice in determination of 
educational questions; 

(b) Faculty meetings, how 


(c) C o m m i 1 1 e es, how many ; 

what duties. 

D. Instruction in the school: 

1. Faculty: 

(a) How obtained; 

(b) Qualifications; 

(c) Tenure of office; 

(d) Estimate and adjustment of 


(e) Requirements of teachers; 

(f) Number of hours of instruc- 

tion given by each teacher 
in a school year; 

(g) Compensation; 
(h) Vacation; 

(i) What supervision of teach- 
ers' work; 

2. Students: 

(a) How admitted, examination, 

certificates, etc.; 

(b) How far does actual prac- 

tice differ from catalog 

(c) Requirements for admis- 


(d) Requirements for admission 

of students to advanced 
standing (in two year 
courses) ; 

3. Supervision of student work: 

(a) Regulation of amount of 


(b) Guidance in choice of 


(c) Requirements for passing 


(d) What is done about condi- 

tions and failures; 

(e) What methods for enforc- 

ing the regularity of 

(f) What provision for the indi- 

vidual help of weak stu- 

(g) Graduation; 

(h) Records, how kept, etc.; 

4. Curriculum: 

(a) Arrangement and order of 


(b) Length of time devoted to 

each subject; 

(c) System of required studies; 

(d) System of electives; 

(e) What training for special 

fields of library work, e. 
g., children's librarians, 
legislative reference libra- 
rians, etc. 

5. Class Room Work: 

(a) Size of classes; 

(b) What part of the course is 

class room work; 

(c) Method of conducting class 

room work; 

6. Practice Work: 

(a) What part of course is prac- 

tice work; 

(b) How revised and super- 




(c) What is the purpose in prac- 

tice work; 

(d) Is this purpose realized; 
7. Informal Instruction: 

(a) Lectures, etc.; 

(b) Opportunities to see work of 


(c) Actual experience in libra- 

ries other than that con- 
nected with the school. 
E. Student Life and Work: 

1. Number of students: 

2. Work of students: 

(a) What seem to be the schol- 

astic ideals of the stu- 

(b) To what extent do the stu- 

dents seem to have pro- 
fessional enthusiasm; 

(c) What studies do they elect 

when there is an option; 

(d) Outside activities of stu- 


(e) Social life and cultural de- 

velopment of students; 

(f) Environment p a r t i c ularly 

with reference to breadth 
of culture; 

(g) Room and board; are stu- 

dents housed under sani- 
tary and elevating condi- 

(h) Health; 

(i) Social conditions and stand- 
ing of students; 

(j) Previous educational advan- 

(k) Literary, musical and artis- 
tic opportunities during li- 
brary school course; 

(1) Opportunities to form per- 
sonal relationships with 
members of the faculty. 


1. What has been the professional 

success of the graduates: 

(a) To what extent have they 

taken prominent places in 

the library world; 

(b) Omitting as far as possible 

personal qualities, is there 
any general characteristic 
stamping the students of 
the school; 

(c) Do the interests of the 

graduates seem to be 
broadly professional, or 
narrowly confined to a 
particular type of work 
which they have entered; 
2. What has been the general intel- 
lectual standing of the 
graduates : 

(a) Have they shown them- 

selves equal to cope with 
their opportunities; 

(b) Have they shown a range 

of interest which has ena- 
bled them to connect their 
work with that of philan- 
thropic, charitable, socio- 
logical ; 

(c) Have they taken influential 

places in the towns in 
which they work. 


The libraries which circulate embossed 
books have continued their services 
throughout the year with ever increasing 
results, the largest circulation having been 
attained by the New York public library, 
which circulated 21,938 books and pamph- 
lets. The Free library of Philadelphia sent 
out 17,706 volumes; the Carnegie library 
of Pittsburgh, 3,218; the Perkins Institu- 
tion, 6,000; Wilmington, Delaware, 567. 

Library of Congress. The most impor- 
tant event in the history of the Reading 
Room for the Blind during the year was 
the appointment of Mrs. Gertrude T. Rider 
as Assistant in charge. 

Perkins Institution. The school Is now in 
its new home where the library is housed In 
commodious quarters, and is in charge of 
a trained librarian from Albany, Miss 
Laura M. Sawyer, and a trained assistant 
from Simmons, Miss Louise P. Hunt, who 
devote their time to the care of the valu- 



able special collection in ink print abovt 
the blind as well as to the circulation of 
embossed books. 

New York State Library. Eight new 
titles in New York point were embossed 
for the New York state library in 1912 
and an additional list of well chosen titles 
is now in press for 1913. 

Saginaw, W. S., Michigan. The Free lend- 
ing library for the blind has asked the 
legislature for $2,000 to replenish the col- 
lection with new books. Of 202 borrowers 
the librarian reports that 117 persons have 
drawn no reading matter during the lat- 
ter' half of the year. 

California State Library. Mr. Charles S. 
Greene, of the committee, sends the fol- 
lowing report of the work of the State li- 
brary and the San Francisco reading 

The California state library for the blind 
wishes to report progress during the last 
year. Although we have had very little 
money to buy books, accessions have in- 
creased from 2,309, April 1, 1912, to 2,659 
April 1, 1913, mainly through gifts and the 
regular receipt of magazines. Borrowers 
have increased from 475 to 550. The most 
satisfactory advance, however, has been 
in the increased use the blind borrowers 
are making of the library in borrowing all 
kinds of writing appliances and games to 
try before buying and in asking informa- 
tion on all subjects of interest to them. 
Such questions as what occupations are 
followed by the blind, and where different 
articles for their use can be purchased, are 
constantly being asked. With an increase 
in the State library fund, which the pres- 
ent legislature will probably grant, it is 
hoped to buy all the new publications as 
fast as possible, as well as to complete our 
collection of appliances for the blind. 

The San Francisco reading room and 
library for the blind has about 400 vol- 
umes. It conducts an emporium for the 
sale of articles made by the blind and 
teaches Braille reading and writing. Braille 
stenography, weaving, basketry and broom 

Pennsylvania. All borrowers residing in 
the western part of the state are now sup- 
plied with books from the Carnegie libra- 
ry of Pittsburgh; those residing in the 
eastern part of the state have the use of 
books deposited with the Free library of 
Philadelphia by the Pennsylvania home 
teaching society. 

Cincinnati, Ohio. Miss Smith, of the 
committee, sends the following report: 
"There seems to be nothing new here in 
the library work for the blind. The Clov- 
ernook Home, which is to be opened May 
30, has absorbed the attention largely of 
Miss Trader and her sister and this spring 
the flood interfered somewhat with the 
meetings at the library." 

Minnesota. Miss Carey, of the commit- 
tee, writes as follows of the work in Min- 
nesota: "As far as I know the entire work 
of providing books for the blind in this 
state is done through the School for the 
Blind at Faribault. The library there ia 
in excellent condition, being on a wholly 
modern basis as to classification and de- 
tails of management. It is open through- 
out the year and circulates to outside 
readers on an average 25 books a month. 
There are 80 regular readers outside the 
institution and about 90 in residence this 
year. As the school is small this is a large 
number. The librarian in charge is one of 
the teachers and for years in this school 
it has been considered something of an 
honor to hold this position, although it it 
by no means a sinecure. . . . The li- 
brary work is always stimulated by the an- 
nual summer school for adult blind which 
brings in new readers each year. At the 
close of the session the pupils, many of 
them, become patrons of the library 'for 
good.' " 

New Publications. Since the first em- 
bossed book was issued in Philadelphia in 
1833, the publishing of literature in raised 
print has been increased until there are 
now 16 presses in active use in this coun- 
try. The record of new publications for 
1912 is as follows: 

American Braille, 56 titles in English; 2 
titles in German. 



New York point, 14 titles, of which 8 
were embossed by the New York state li- 

In European Braille new titles have been 
issued in England and Scotland; in Moon 
type 11 titles have been added and 10 
other titles are in press. 

The Catholic Review, monthly, published 
by the Xavier free publication society for 
the blind, 824 Oakdale Avenue, Chicago, 
111., in American Braille. 

The Illuminator, a quarterly Braille mag- 
azine, published by the Holmes-Schenley 
literary society of the Western Pennsyl- 
vania Institution for the Blind, Pittsburgh, 

Society for the Promotion of Church 
Work Among the Blind. "Volumes 3 and 4 
of the music of the Hutchins' Hymnal have 
been finished and copies distributed to a 
number of the leading circulating libraries 
where the volumes will be available to 
those who may not wish to purchase them. 

Bible Training School, South Lancaster, 
Mass. "Some friends of the blind, in look- 
ing over the catalogs of books in different 
libraries for the blind, were impressed 
with the small amount of Christian litera- 
ture that had been placed in the embossed 
type, especially in New York point and 
American Braille, so the plan was con- 
ceived of creating a fund and printing one 
book after another as the funds would ac- 
cumulate, placing them in the circulating 
libraries throughout the United States." 
To obtain the volumes in New York point 
and American Braille, free of charge, ad- 
dress Mrs. S. N. Haskell, South Lancaster, 

Gould Free Library for the Blind, 556 
East 6th Street, South Boston, Mass. "The 
library is working under the auspices of 
the International Bible Students' Associa- 
tion headquarters, Brooklyn, N. Y., which 
supplies financial aid in the main, while 
donations have been accepted from out- 
siders. Our books are all Bible studies, 
very helpful and appreciated by the blind. 
We circulated 3,474 books and pamphlets 
last year in the three point systems and a 
few books in Line type and Moon type." 

Free Theosophical Circulating Library 
for the Blind, 32 Waverly Street, Everett, 
Mass., has issued three titles in American 
Braille; also a monthly paper of 7 or 8 

New postal law. Under an act of Con- 
gress of August 24, 1912, "magazines, peri- 
odicals and other regularly issued publi- 
cations in raised letters for the blind, 
which contain no advertisements and for 
which no subscription fee is charged, shall 
be transmitted in the U. S. mails free of 
postage and under such regulations as the 
Postmaster General may prescribe." 

The Twelfth Convention of Workers for 
the Blind will be held in Jacksonville, Illi- 
nois, June 24-27, 1913, and among those 
who will attend the conference are sev- 
eral representatives from public libraries 
interested in the circulation of embossed 
literature. Miss L. A. Goldthwaite, of the 
New York public library, has been asked 
to conduct a round table. In the general 
discussion of the subject of catalogs for 
the blind It is hoped to obtain the best 
opinion of .those in attendance upon the 
most convenient form for such catalogs or 
finding lists for use by those who read by 
touch. The Library of Congress, the New 
York public library, the Brooklyn public 
library, the New York state library, the 
Free library of Philadelphia, as well as 
institutions for the blind, will be repre- 
sented by the assistants in charge of the 
circulation of embossed books. 

At this conference there will be given 
the report of the "Uniform Type Commit- 
tee" appointed at the Overbrook confer- 
ence in 1911. The two agents of that com- 
mittee, who made an extended tour of this 
country from May, 1912, until February, 
1913, visited many schools and other in- 
stitutions for the blind and tested over 900 
readers in one or more of the three sys- 
tems^ — New York point, American Braille 
and British Braille. Scientific tests to de- 
termine the best size of type, spacing, etc., 
have been made to establish a standard 
or uniform system of writing and printing. 
The recommendations of the committee 
have been reserved until the meeting of 



the American Association of Workers for 
the Blind at Jacksonville; they are await- 
ed with interest by all. 



The PRESIDENT: As you will see from 
your printed programs we are privileged 
this morning to receive an accredited dele- 
gate from the Library Association of the 
United Kingdom, and it is our especial 
pleasure to greet as this accredited dele- 
gate an old friend of American librarians. 
He was with us at the Conference of 1904, 
and we have since that time watched with 
a great deal of interest the strong, splendid 
work which is manifest in the library over 
which he presides. I have the honor of 
introducing to you this morning the Hon- 
orary Secretary of the Library Association 
of the United Kingdom and the accredited 
delegate from that organization, Mr. L. 
STANLEY JAST, chief librarian of the 
Croydon Public Libraries. 

Mr. BOWKER: And, Mr. President, I 
move that we receive our welcome guest 
from the L. A. U. K. by a rising vote of 

Mr. Jast spoke as follows: 


Mr. President, ladies and gentlemen: I 
should like first of all to express the 
peculiar personal pleasure I feel at be- 
ing privileged for the second time to 
attend a conference of the American Li- 
brary Association. As you have said, sir, it 
was my pleasure in 1904 to attend a meet- 
ing of your body, then as now the accred- 
ited delegate of my Association, but that 
meeting of 1904 was, as you know, an inter- 
national meeting, and an international 
meeting anywhere is apt to take on general 
rather than special characteristics, and I 
have long wished to be present at an or- 
dinary meeting of the American Library 
Association, so that I might see for myself 
how you conduct your work and hear you 
discussing your own problems in your own 

way. So that I trust, Mr. President and 
ladies and gentlemen, that you will kindly 
forget that 

"A chiel's amang ye takin' notes." 

I am authorized by the Council of the Li- 
brary Association to extend to you, sir, and 
the members present their very heartiest 
greetings and to express on their behalf 
their high appreciation not only of the spe- 
cial invitation which you sent to them to 
send a delegate but for the extremely gen- 
erous offer of hospitality which was at- 
tached thereto. My Council felt that to 
such an invitation only one response is 
possible and 'that was to accept. 

We were in hope that Mr. Henry R. Ted- 
der,, who is the chairman of the Council of 
the Library Association and its honorary 
treasurer and an ex-president, — and other- 
wise the secretary of the Athenaeum Club, 
— would have come as our delegate, be- 
cause Mr. Tedder's importance is intrinsic 
and not like mine purely adventitious and 
depending wholly upon the office which I at 
the moment have the privilege to hold; but 
it was impossible for Mr. Tedder to come 
on this occasion and, ladies and gentlemen, 
I am the best that we can do for you at 
this time. 

But I am happy to say that it is the gen- 
eral feeling of the Council that in future 
we should not let many meetings of the 
A. L. A. — at all events in the eastern 
states — go by without sending one or more 
members of our Association to be present 
at them. I do not think that there is any- 
thing from which our Association is likely 
to get a more valuable return than by the 
visits of some of its more prominent mem- 
bers to America in order that they may 
see for themselves and not merely read 
about what you are doing, and how you are 
doing it and get some knowledge of the 
conditions under which you are working, 
of your achievements and of your difficul- 
ties, and so bring to library work in Great 
Britain that added power which must inev- 
itably come from a wider knowledge. So 
that I trust that the imperfections of the 
present delegate will be overlooked, in the 



hope not only of more but of better to 

I am also requested by my Council to ex- 
tend a very hearty invitation to the mem- 
bers of the American Library Association 
to attend the annual meeting of the Li- 
brary Association to be held in 1914. That 
meeting will almost certainly be held at 
Oxford, by invitation of the University and 
of the city. I need not of course point out 
the extreme suitability of the city of Ox- 
ford for a meeting of librarians, nor the 
attractions which Oxford must possess for 
everyone who likes an atmosphere of an- 
cient learning and who revels in the archi- 
tectural glories of a bygone day. So we 
hope that as many of you as possible will 
come over there for that meeting in order 
that we may make of it a sort of Americo- 
Anglican conference. Observe the order, 
please, in which I mention those words. I 
draw special attention to that because I 
believe I have somewhat of a reputation 
for an absence of tact on these occasions — 
at any rate among our own members. 

When I informed Mr. Utley that I was 
coming he was good enough to write me a 
letter, which I received just before I sailed, 
and he asked — not knowing me very well 
of course, or he might not have been so 
liberal in his invitation — that I should talk 
to you on any subject I liked. I thought 
that it would be best perhaps if I should 
say something about the present conditions 
of library work in Great Britain. Of course 
it is impossible, in an address lasting only 
a few minutes, to cover anything like the 
whole field, and if I did attempt it I should 
only bore you. But you may be interested 
in one or two of the outstanding features 
of our recent work, because they throw 
light upon conditions which are in many 
respects very different from yours. First 
of all, there are two features in what I may 
perhaps call the domestic situation, which 
to us are of considerable significance. The 
most important step which the Library As- 
sociation as an assocation has ever taken 
has been the recent reorganization of its 
membership along the lines of the profes- 

sional qualifications of the members. In 
our old grouping we took no account what- 
ever of whether a member of the Associa- 
tion was a professional librarian or merely 
a member of a library committee or just a 
person interested in library work. The 
honorary fellows of the Association and 
the fellows were any persons, whether li- 
brarians or not, whose names would add 
dignity and importance to the Association, 
or who had distinguished themselves by 
some special service rendered to the As- 
sociation or the movement as a whole. 
Then in addition Mr. Tedder himself had a 
small group of what he called very hon- 
orary fellows who were the honorary fel- 
lows who insisted on paying their annual 
dues. That was an entirely private group 
of Mr. Tedder's. Now we have changed all 
that. Fellows and members of the Asso- 
ciation are now professional librarians 
only, and non-professional librarians are 
known as associate members. The priv- 
ileges of membership including the power 
to vote and to serve on the Council are 
shared equally by all members of the As- 
sociation. The fellows consist in the main 
of librarians only, but there is a small 
sprinkling of deputy and sub-librarians. 
The by-law referring to fellows who do not 
hold chief positions states that "they must 
be librarians of approved status," but we 
interpret that phrase "approved status" in 
the widest possible way. The members 
consist of assistant librarians — all those 
assistant librarians who are not in the 
small group of fellows; they must be twen- 
ty-five years of age and have had six years' 
experience. That is so at the moment. But 
after the 31st day of December, 1914, only 
librarians who possess the diploma of the 
Association will be entitled to fellowship, 
and in order to receive the diploma you 
must have taken in addition to possessing 
practical experience in an approved li- 
brary, the six examinations held by the As- 
sociation, have obtained the six certifi- 
cates, have gone through if necessary a 
Vive voce examination and have submitted 



a thesis. Then professional librarians who 
possess four out of the six certificates will 
be entitled to membership. A good deal 
of criticism has been leveled at the scheme 
owing to the fact that the librarian of some 
pettifogging little library, with perhaps a 
total rate income of a couple of hundred a 
year or even less, because he is a chief in 
a small way, is entitled to fellowship, while 
an assista,nt in a big library system, who 
may have infinitely more responsibility, is 
only entitled to membership. But we had 
to begin somewhere and we had to draw 
the line somewhere and we drew the line 
at the sub-librarian, because when we got 
below the sub-librarian we should not know 
where on earth we were, because there is 
no accepted nomenclature of library posi- 
tions in our country. I do not know 
whether there is in yours, "Sub-librarian" 
does not always mean the same thing. The 
term "chief assistant" is used in a very 
different way in different libraries. More- 
over, the Privy Council would not have 
approved these by-laws unless we had 
opened the door as widely as possible to 
the holders of all existing chief positions. 

There is one weak point so far which we 
have discovered in our scheme. We have 
no provision for non-professional members 
corresponding to professional fellowship 
among the professional members, but we 
have a new by-law now before the Privy 
Council creating a group of associate 
fellows and the associate fellowship will 
be conferred upon chairmen of library 
committees and upon non-professional 
members of the Association who have 
served the Association in some definite ca- 
pacity as members of the Council or in 
some other way. 

That, I think, then is the most important 
domestic thing that we have ever done be- 
cause we have now made the beginnings 
at all events of a definite organization of 
the profession. 

The othet important thing will not have 
the same interest for you, but I mention it 
because it throws light upon our own con- 
ditions. We have settled, by a new by-law, 
the relations of branch associations to 

the parent body. Until recently we had a 
by-law which merely provided that 
branches in any particular district may be 
formed but it did not state what the pow- 
ers of the branches were, and owing to 
that absence of definition we have suffered 
for a great many years past from a consid- 
erable amount of trouble. One or two of 
the branches grew considerably in recent 
years, in numbers and in importance; and 
they began to resent the fact, the Inevit- 
able fact of course, that for the most part 
the actual work of running the Association 
fell upon the members of the Council who 
were resident in London or near it. It may 
seem absurd to you to speak of the dis- 
tance of London from the great provincial 
centers in Great Britain, but it is not ab- 
surd, because every country measures dis- 
tance on its own scale, and to all intents 
and purposes Manchester is just as far 
from London as Chicago Is from New 
York — because we think it is. As Hamlet 
says, you will remember — anticipating 
Mrs. Eddy by several centuries — 

"There is nothing either good or bad, but 
thinking makes it so." 
And as an illustration of the result of this 
friction I may mention that in London, at 
the library school — which is hardly a li- 
brary school because it has not the organi- 
zation that your schools have, so I ought 
not to use that term really, but a depart- 
ment of library lectures at the London 
School of Economics and Political Science, 
which is a department of the University of 
London; at these lectures all persons are 
admissible whether they are librarians or 
not, but at similar lectures in the provinces 
everybody was excluded who was not al- 
ready engaged in library work. So that 
you had the absurd situation that while 
the parent body was running one policy at 
headquarters you had branch associations 
running an entirely different policy in their 
own centers. The question of the "open 
door," as it was termed, was a very hotly 
debated one at one time in our Association. 
Well, the general effect of the stress be- 
tween the branches and the Council was 
of course bad, each branch being a more 



or less permanent storm center. While no 
absolute harm was done perhaps, and while 
the fireworks let off at the annual meetings 
were of a more or less harmless character, 
at the same time we had a general condi- 
tion of irritation which affected injuriously 
the work of the Association as a whole. 
Now we have done away with that, very 
largely at all events, at least, we hope, by 
a new by-law, the main points of which are 
these: First of all, membership of a 
branch association includes membership of 
the parent body; the parent body receiving 
the subscription to the branch association 
returns to the branch association a re- 
bate of so much a head for the expenses of 
the branch and, most important of all, the 
constitution and by-laws of a branch must 
be approved by the headquarters council 
and must in no case conflict with the by- 
laws and constitution of the parent body. 

The Council meets monthly, I may say, 
and one of the quarterly meetings is held 
on the occasion of the annual meeting. So 
that means that the expenses of the pro- 
vincial members are paid to three of th? 
quarterly meetings held during the year; 
and all the Important business — especially 
contentious business — is relegated to those 
quarterly meetings. 

Leaving the domestic question and com- 
ing to the library situation as a whole in 
Great Britain, I think that the phrase 
"marking time" fairly describes it. Thp 
public libraries in the United Kingdom 
have accomplished, I think, great things 
with extremely limited means. But though 
the first library act was passed in 1850, 
though the libraries have since then justi- 
fied themselves many times over, though 
the demands made upon the libraries have 
gone on increasing time after time, yet the 
libraries are still strangled by the statu- 
tory limitation of one-penny-in-the-pound 
on the tax leviable for library purposes 
which was imposed not by the Ewart Act 
of 1850, which limited the rate to a half- 
penny, but by the amending act of 1855. 
It is quite true that about forty of the 
large towns of the country have promoted 
special parliamentary bills giving them 

power to levy a rate of two-pence or even 
more in the pound, but in very few cases is 
two-pence actually levied, and of course 
it is the smaller towns, which can not face 
the expense of promoting special legisla- 
tion, which really need greater rating pow- 
ers even more than the larger boroughs. 

As the incidence of a library tax in Great 
Britain is quite different from yours I may 
perhaps give you some general idea of what 
it means by taking the case of my own 
town, simply because I happen to remem- 
ber the facts more clearly. Croydon is a 
town in the outer London ring, with a pop- 
ulation of 174,257 people. Its income from 
the penny rate is a little over £4,000 ster- 
ling. It circulates about 555,000 volumes 
per annum and its fiction percentage is 
about fifty. Whether that is something to 
be apologized for or not I am not quite 
clear, after the president's address of last 
evening. Then one has to remember that 
the ratable value of a place like Croydon 
is a good deal higher than the ratable value 
of most of the provincial towns. But those 
figures will give you a general idea of the 
yield of the penny-in-the-pound rate. A 
rate of that kind results, you will easily 
see. In the case of the smaller towns, in a 
condition of genteel poverty, and in the 
case of many small towns of absolute hope- 
less starvation. And this unfortunate po- 
sition has been accentuated by the tremen- 
dous growth of branches in recent years. 
Of the three b's which constitute a library 
— building, brains and books, — the ordinary 
British rate-payer thinks mainly of build- 
ings. The building usually does not cost 
him anything, because he gets it from Mr. 
Carnegie, and it is something to look at 
and something "we've got for our ward, 
don't you know," books will drop from the' 
sky, and "anyhow you don't require brains 
to hand books over a counter." Hence, 
from this you have a town, which will per- 
haps support, in passable eflSciency, one 
central building and two branches, endeav- 
oring to support one central building per- 
haps and six branches, and so on. Hence 
the limited book funds which we have in 



our libraries and hence on the whole the 
poorly remunerated library staffs. 

And that brings me to a point which it 
was suggested to me by one of your mem- 
bers I should say something about, and 
that is the position of women in English 
public libraries. I am not going to ex- 
press any opinion on the subject of women 
in libraries. After all, as George Bernard 
Shaw says somewhere, opinions are rear 
only serious when you act on them, and 
'my capacity for courage has never been 
equal to the task of acting upon many of 
my opinions. But as things are at present, 
a number of libraries employ women assist- 
ants. There are very few places where 
women are chief librarians; there are a 
few in the quite small towns. There are 
very few libraries which have women sub- 
librarians or deputy-librarians. These are 
almost invariably men. But the number 
of women employed in secondary and ter- 
tiary positions in English public libraries 
is considerable and is very definitely in- 
creasing. And whether that be a good 
thing or a bad thing, I am quite clear about 
this, that it is increasing for the wrong 
reason. Women are employed in English 
public libraries not because they are bet- 
ter, but because they are cheaper — with 
the unfortunate result that the increase of 
women in the library staffs tends neces- 
sarily to lower the already low average of 
salaries paid. 

The Library Association have long rec- 
ognized of course that the root of all our 
present difficulties lies in the limitation 
on the library income, and in order to do 
away with that they have been promoting 
for the last three or four years or more a 
library bill, the main clause of which per- 
mits a town to levy a rate, not exceeding 
two-pence-in-the-pound, that is exactly dou- 
ble the present amount. When we origi- 
nally drafted the bill we did away with 
the limitation altogether, but we have now 
put a limitation in order to placate possible 
opposition. That bill has been already 
read once before the present parliament— 
but the first reading of course is a purely 
formal matter; it is the second reading 

which is the crucial one; and owing to the 
exasperating nature of the orders of the 
House of Commons any one member has 
only to rise in his seat and say, "I object," 
to a private member's bill for that bill to 
be labeled "contentious business" and for 
its second reading to be deferred to the 
Greek kalends, owing of course to the enor- 
mous number of private members' bills and 
to the growing inefficiency of the House 
of Commons as a legislating machine. It 
is choked with bills and it can not ade- 
quately attend to the thousand-and-one 
matters which call for its attention. The 
best chance for the bill would be for the 
government to grant facilities for it. If 
they would do that I have not the slight- 
est doubt that the bill would pass because 
so far as we can see there is little or no 
serious opposition to it; but we can not get 
it discussed. The unfortunate fact seems 
to be that the government will not worry 
about anything which does not sway votes. 
Nobody is going to get excited about a li- 
brary bill. If it is true that there is no 
particular opposition to it, it is also true 
that there is no crowd of electors passion- 
ately demanding it. 

Then we suffer to a considerable extent 
in Great Britain from the attitude of the 
superior people to the public library. In 
America all the superior people are sympa- 
thetic with the public library — apparently 
so anyhow. In England usually they sneer 
at it. Why, Heaven knows! Only the 
other day a cabinet minister who was con- 
sidered to be a friend of ours, whose name 
before he reached cabinet rank was actu- 
ally a backer to a bill on similar lines to 
the present one, in a meeting which he ad- 
dressed referred to the country as being 
"drenched" with public libraries. I 
think his point was the far greater im- 
portance of public wash-houses or 
something of that sort. And, as I say, 
he used the extremely unpleasant, and 
peculiarly unappropriate adjective "drench- 
ed." Now of course no one objects to a 
cabinet minister talking nonsense. After 
all, what else can you talk to a popular au- 
dience in politics but nonsense? But this 



particular variety is pernicious nonsense. 
The press, of course, with their usual avid- 
ity for seizing on anything silly, print that 
sort of thing ad nauseam and a good deal 
of real harm is done and difficulty cre- 
ated. I think the minister in question has 
stated somewhere that he owes a great 
part of his own education to the public li- 
brary. Mr. Carnegie has said the same 
thing. Behold how differently men requite 
the benefits they have received! 

Well, Mr. President and ladies and gen- 
tlemen, I have perhaps given you the idea 
that I take a rather pessimistic view of li- 
brary conditions at the present moment in 
Great Britain, but that is not so at all-^ 
most emphatically not so. I am absolutely 
convinced that the future of the public li- 
brary in Great Britain is as certain as it is 
with you, and though the next step forward 
may be delayed, the longer it is delayed 
the bigger that step will be when it is 

The PRESIDENT: Mr. Honorary Sec- 
retary and our Guest: I would that the gift 
of speech had been given me that I might 
adequately express to you the sense of ap- 
preciation that we all feel for your coming, 
for your gracious words of greeting in be- 
half of your Association and for the view 
that you have given us of not only the con- 
ditions that obtain in Great Britain but al- 
so what the future holds forth for the li- 
braries of your country. In our American 
assemblages it is customary, when some 
procedure is taken that no one is particu- 
larly interested in, to pass it by; but when 
something transpires that requires further 
and more careful thought it is our parlia- 
mentary custom to refer this to a commit- 
tee. In this particular case I am sure that 
I am meeting the wish of the Association 
as well as my own personal desire when 
I refer your splendid message to a com- 
mittee of the whole, consisting of all the 
librarians present, all the members who 
have unavoidably been kept at home and 
that other, smaller group who come within 
the classification of Mr. Dewey's "private 
collections." What you have said to us. 

sir, has emphasized to us particularly that 
not only is there in the relationship be- 
tween your libraries in Great Britain and 
ours in this country a kinship of interest, 
brought about through identical language, 
and a kinship of literature, but also there 
are common aims and aspirations. Just 
as the language is subject to local varia- 
tions, due to the customs of geographical 
centers, so there are differences in method 
perhaps. But, after all, we are each, in 
our own way, attempting to do the same 
things and to achieve a common purpose. 
I trust, sir, that you will convey to your 
associates in Great Britain our gratitude 
for the kindly expressions which you have 
brought to us from them, and we venture 
the hope that we shall be enabled to carry 
forward the splendid precedent which has 
been set in your coming. 

As you glance at the names of those who 
are to participate at this session, you will 
note that this is practically New York 
Day; the one, sole participant who is cred- 
ited to another part of the country is after 
all perhaps merely loaned to Missouri, be- 
cause he is a graduate of the New York 
library school. I shall ask the First Vice- 
President, Mr. Anderson, to preside over 
the rest of this meeting. 

and gentlemen, I can take that kind of 
punishment with great composure. The 
subject for the regular program this morn- 
ing, as you all know, is work with for- 
eigners and with the colored races. I have 
the honor to be a neighbor of the first 
speaker and I may say to you confiden- 
tially that she has recently moved a mile 
or two farther away from me without ade- 
quate explanation. The author of "The 
Promised Land" needs no introduction to 
this audience. All of you have read with 
enthusiasm and appreciation the chapter 
of her book in which she testifies to the 
value of the service of the Boston public 
library to her. It gives me very great 
pleasure to introduce to you MARY 
ANTIN, who will talk to you on 




It is very difficult to be interesting or 
impressive while telling people things that 
they already know. I won't try to do that. 
Any one of you sitting in this audience 
could tell me a great deal more about the 
immigrant in the library than I can possi- 
bly tell you. What I am going to do is to 
ask you to have in mind what you know 
about the immigrant, to call up the figure 
of the immigrant in your libraries as you 
have seen him daily, and test by your 
knowledge what I have to say. 

You know better than I do in what 
numbers the immigrants come to your li- 
braries, how much of their time they spend 
there, what books they seek there. What 
I want to ask you is to share your knowl- 
edge of these things with as many people 
as possible; tell your neighbors every time 
you have a chance what the immigrant 
does in the library. Every little while we 
begin anew the discussion of the immi- 
grant — to let him in, or not to let him in — 
and all sorts of arguments are presented 
on both sides. Representatives of various 
organizations — capitalistic, unionistic or 
what-not — hurry their advocates to Con- 
gress to speak for or against, on this side 
and on that side. I want to ask you to 
see' to it that the knowledge that you have 
of the immigrant is also widely spread on 
such occasions. The caricaturist is always 
ready with his pencil to give us pictures of 
the immigrant in various amusing poses — 
more or less true, more or less false; the 
interesting author of the comic paragraph 
is always there; the artist of the vaudeville 
stage, and enthusiasts of one sort and an- 
other — enemies or friends of the immi- 
grant — are ready to speak up whenever the 
question comes up. You have a fund of 
knowledge on the subject which is very 
special, very different. Bring it out on 
every occasion! When the gentlemen in 
Congress want to pass a law to hold up 
the immigrant at the gate because he can- 
not read fifty lines of our Constitution, say 
to them, "Hold! Wait and see what the 
immigrant's boys and girls will read when 

they are let loose in a public library." Re- 
mind them that the ability to read is not 
in itself a test of intellectuality. You know 
scores, hundreds of boys and girls of edu- 
cated, cultured American families who do 
not take such an interest in your libraries 
as the boys and girls of these illiterate 
immigrants. You know what you know. 
Please tell it so loudly that every one 
may hear. Talk about the "five-foot shelf 
of classics"! Is it not true that the boys 
and girls of the immigrants swallow it 
whole and make no boast about it? Why, 
they are saturated with the classics the 
minute they get a chance. The mere abil- 
ity to read — what does that amount to? 
You know what book the immigrant calls 
for. Every little while I read a short 
paragraph in the New York papers telling 
that the East Side branches of the public 
library have the greatest circulation of the 
classics. I would like to see those little 
paragraphs enlarged, printed big and 
spread where everybody can see them. We 
need to know these things. 

Please let me speak today as an Ameri- 
can, and not as an immigrant. I wish I 
could efface from your memory this once 
the knowledge of my origin. Don't make 
allowances for what I say because of what 
I was. I am not speaking as an immigrant 
making an appeal for the immigrants. I am 
speaking to you as an American. My cre- 
dentials are these: I have been with you 
nearly twenty years. My father was an 
' Americanized citizen before I got here and 
I married a native American. Please ac- 
cept me as an American today. Let me 
speak as one of yourselves. 

We are so ready to classify people by 
externals — by their habits, their customs, 
by the way they dress, by their gestures. 
Why, a better test of a man than the way 
in which he makes a living is the way in 
which he spends his leisure; and to that 
you can testify in the case of the immi- 
grant. To gain our bread and butter we 
are forced to do this, that, and the other 
thing. But nobody drives us into the pub- 
lic library if the saloon is across the way. 
Speak up and tell to which door the im- 



migrant turns in his leisure hours. Peo- 
ple of dainty habits are disgusted with the 
personal habits of the poor foreigners. 
They have noticed a smell of herring and 
onions in the East Side of New York. 
The smell of onions, my friends, can be 
driven out, but a mean habit of mind is 
harder to eradicate. Many gentlemen who 
feast daintily on caviar content themselves 
with the sensational newspaper or the 
trashy novel. Are they superior to the 
hired laborers who feast on boiled pota- 
toes and herring and onions and have a 
volume of the classics propped up before 
them while they eat? There are people 
who object to the uncouth manners of the 
alien. It would do us good to make a 
study of the natural history of the per- 
sonal habits of the immigrants. There is 
a reason for the shrug of the shoulders, for 
the gestures that are so easily caricatured. 
They have a history, way back, that it 
would do us good to realize. 

You workers in the libraries, you see the 
immigrant in hundreds, you see him off 
guard; for a man in his hours of relaxa- 
tion is not posing; you see the alien as 
he is at least on one side of his nature. 
Let your neighbors know what you know 
about the immigrant. Whenever testimony 
is being taken on the subject, let your 
voice be as loud as any. Almost every day 
you will read in your favorite paper letters 
to the editor, about "the immigrant peril"; 
how the foreigners lower our standard of 
life, demoralize our habits, spoil the man- 
ners of our children in the public schools. 
Some of these things are true, to a cer- 
tain extent. But you, under whose obser- 
vation the immigrant comes, and the im- 
migrant's children, ought to be ready with 
an explanation of many of these things, 
and you ought to be ready to suggest a 
remedy. You know what kind of homes 
these immigrant children come from, and 
that explains a great deal. You sit there 
and agree with me, I can see by your faces. 
You nod and you smile and you turn to one 
another, as much as to say, "That is so." 
Don't tell it to me! I know it!! Tell it to 
those who do not know it. 

A few days ago I received a delegation 
of boys and girls from the nearest village 
high school. They represented the debat- 
ing clubs of their school. They were pre- 
paring a debate on the subject of immigra- 
tion, and who could help them except I? 
We talked very earnestly for about an hour 
at my fireside about this perennial ques- 
tion, and these young people took me at my 
word and were very much in earnest about 
what I had to say and in the way in which 
they received what I had to say. That is 
all right. As a subject for discussion in 
the high schools that question may be made 
immortal, but as a subject for national agi- 
tation it ought to be laid at rest. Why is 
it that certain questions have been settled 
once and for all and others are always be- 
ing reopened? Those questions are settled 
finally which are considered in relation to 
their underlying principles. Let us not 
confine ourselves to the superficial aspect 
of the immigration question. 

Every once in a while, when we come to 
moralize about these immigrants — there 
are too many of them, they come from the 
wrong quarters of the globe, and what not 
— let us ask ourselves. Is that the real 
thing that concerns us, or is there some- 
thing at the bottom of this agitation that 
ought to receive attention first? Are we 
really afraid that the immigrant is going 
to take the bread from our mouths? If 
so, let us stop and think about it. It is the 
law of nature that the best man shall come 
out ahead. Are we going to stop the immi- 
grant by temporarily locking the door, 
while we have possession of the key? It 
will not be for long. Right to the end it is 
going to be a struggle between the better 
and the worse, and the better will get 
ahead. We need not be afraid that the 
immigrants will take the bread from our 
mouths if we see to it that we are equally 
able or better able than they to earn our 
bread. It is said they are taking the earth 
from under our feet. Not if we are strong 
enough to stand and hold our ground. If 
they are getting the better of us, it is be- 
cause they are better than we, or else. If 
that is not so, then they can not be getting 



the better of us, and we need not be afraid 
of them. 

We will never settle this question until 
we are willing to consider it along funda- 
mental lines. Did our forefathers, when 
they launched the declaration that all 
men were created free and equal, refer to 
the few hundreds or few thousands of peo- 
ple who were then in this country? Why, 
in that case, many of you are here only 
as guests! Was there any thought in 
their minds that of all the people in 
the world, those who happened to get in 
here before they set to work to compose 
the Declaration of Independence were the 
ones who were born free and equal, and 
with equal opportunities, and all the rest 
of mankind with limitations? You heartily 
approve the sentiments expressed in our 
Constitution and our Declaration of Inde- 
pendence. How then can you limit the ap- 
plication of their principles? When did 
the day dawn when it was time to shut the 
gate? When did the hour arrive when we 
could say that all those of free and equal 
origin were already here and the rest could 
stay outside? I don't know at what mo- 
ment immigrants begin to be Immigrants 
and not pilgrims and voyagers for spiritual 

People were surprised at a phrase I 
used not long ago, and quoted it right and 
left, as if I had made a great discovery, 
when I said that every ship that brings 
over the immigrants is another Mayflower. 
Why, I can not think of it in any other 
terms. Ships are now made to run with 
steam instead of with sails, and our fore- 
fathers did not come in the steerage be- 
cause the Mayflower wasn't built that way. 

You see I am not sticking to my text — 
a proof of an inexperienced speaker. But 
I am not a speaker. I am a witness on 
the witness stand. I have been called 
from the ranks to testify. Now each of 
you is in the same position. It would have 
been an impertinence on my part to get up 
before a body of scholars without a fin- 
ished address, if I had any idea that I was 
going to make an intellectual contribution. 
I simply answer to my name as a witness, 

and each of you can do no less: testify to 
what you know. Now remember I am not 
asking this for the sake of the immigrant. 
If this were the proper time and place I 
would tell you just how, in what order, 
my interest in the immigrant on the one 
hand and in America on the other devel- 
oped. With me it was America first, and 
it still is so. I was not conscious of the 
immigrant as a special class of our citizen- 
ship until I became conscious of certain 
American problems. It is with me the 
immigrant for the sake of America, not 
America for the sake of the immigrant, 
and I beg you to believe me. And why 
do I insist that all the truth you know 
about the immigrant shall be brought out? 
I am not speaking — I can not repeat it 
emphatically enough — because I am an im- 
migrant, not even because I represent that 
specially large group of immigrants, the 
Jews. If America should go back on its 
ancient traditions and close its hospitable 
doors, the Jews would suffer bitterly. But 
what is one more disappointment in the 
history of the Jews? They have known 
how to lift up their hearts and thank God 
for disappointments before. They would 
simply adopt another dream. It is not for 
them that I speak. Nor is It because I 
am a great lover of justice. I want to see 
that justice is done to the stranger, to be 
sure; let us know all sides of the immi- 
grant that no injustice may be done. But 
the thing that makes me speak to you 
more than any other is my love for Amer- 
ica, for the ideals that I was taught to 
cherish in the public school. I took every- 
thing in my school books literally; when 
I read that this is the land of freedom; 
that the door is open to all worthy men 
and women, and that all shall have an 
equal opportunity. I want to hold you to 
that, to a literal interpretation of those 

I went back to Russia two years ago, to 
Polotzk on the Dvina, the city in the Pale 
where I was born, and again I felt as I 
felt in the beginning, when I first came 
here, after seeing how those people over 
there regard us. They still take us at 



our word. When we turn them away at 
the gate, for this and that petty excuse 
at the bottom of which is some selfish mo- 
tive that we do not dare to acknowledge, 
they are bitterly disappointed. And yet 
they are not the worst sufferers. It is we 
who suffer, we as Americans, for in turn- 
ing them away we abandon our ideals, and 
lose the consciousness that we are still 
conserving the ideals of our forefathers. 
It always seems to me that in our attitude 
towards the immigrant, more than in any 
other branch of our national policy, we 
make manifest our true ideals. In our 
formal dealings with foreign governments 
we may make blunders, we may betray 
weaknesses, but on the whole these mat- 
ters remain a secret with the foreign am- 
bassador. The people at large do not follow 
very closely these dignified negotiations 
about treaties and tariff and what-not; but 
as we meet these individual men and 
women at the gate, here we give ourselves 
away. There, at the gate of entrance, we, 
the people of America, deal directly with 
the people of the world. The immigrant 
with his million eyes is looking at us, 
and he will tell whether or not we still 
believe in the things for which we honor 
our forefathers on all our patriotic anni- 

There was a young Jewish girl working 
in my household as a cook, who had been 
through very unhappy experiences in this 
country, experiences which, unfortunately, 
have been multiplied in the lives of many 
other girls who come here unprotected. 
She told me her story once, and I saw that 
what hurt her more than her own misfor- 
tunes, more than the agony she had been 
through, more than the disgrace she had 
suffered, was her disappointment in Amer- 
ica. She found that 4n America, in this 
instance that she knew of in her own life, 
a man may do a gross wrong and there 
is no way to get hold of him and punish 
him. She had times of discouragement 
when she would talk to me and complain 
of that thing. Oh, it shook me to find that 
in the mind of this ignorant, illiterate 
child of reventeen, we, the American peo- 

ple, had lost something of our prestige. 
I talked to her — perhaps the need inspired 
me — and explained to her that our laws, 
like the laws of civilization at large, are 
not yet perfect; that law and civilization 
are things of gradual growth; and showed 
her that although we are still to blame 
for many things that here exist, we have 
done far better than other people in some 
respects. I made it my business to try to 
prove to this ignorant Russian girl, my 
cook, who waited on me every day, that 
America was still America, despite some 
mistakes and some failings, and that, on 
the whole, we have gone further in the 
quest of justice than other nations. It 
mattered to me that this one girl should 
think we were still Americans, and sure- 
ly it matters to you just as much. 

Do not let these millions that come to 
our gates get the wrong impression of 
us. Do not let people with selfish inter- 
ests to serve, who send representatives to 
Congress, speak louder than you do when 
this question comes to be discussed. Let 
the truth out every time. For the sake 
of our country I am asking it, not for the 
sake of the unfortunate foreigners. We 
ov/e them something, as a people of char- 
itable heart, to be sure, but we owe more 
to ourselves and to our traditions. 

This same girl of whom I speak also af- 
forded an illustration of some of the nobler 
traits of many of our immigrants that you 
are aware of, and that you ought to testify 
to. I mean the reverence for learning that 
is found among the ignorant, the illiterate, 
of many of our immigrants. This girl who 
could not read or write a word in any 
language until she came to me (when 
gradually, by means of the cook-book, she 
made some progress), had a genuine rev- 
erence for learning, which is in itself 
half of the material for making a scholar. 
I kept her pretty busy In my household, 
as I usually do keep our maids, and some- 
times, when there would be a rush of more 
work than I could do, I would put her to 
extra trouble, to bring my luncheon up- 
stairs, perhaps, when I could not stop for 
meals. "Oh, Miss Antin," she used to say. 



"it is wonderful that I can wait on some, 
body who can write books!" A respect 
for letters such as this is not one of our 
prominent characteristics as Americans. 
I ought to have the courage of our foreign 
visitor, who told the truth about his peo- 
ple. I can do no less. We can not boast 
of too much reverence for learning. Is it 
not a great asset these foreigners bring 
with them, this reverence for learning? 
The man behind the pushcart can't read 
fifty lines of the Constitution, but his heart 
bows in reverence before the man who can, 
and that is worth more than the ability 
to read the Constitution and forget it. 

There are so many ways of classifying 
the immigrants — as laborers, as a peril, as 
a help, according to one's point of view. 
But I always think of them as a cloud of 
witnesses in the tribunal of the nations. 
They go back and forth, in person or 
through letters; their experience is re- 
ported all over the world, and they tell 
the truth about us. The immigrant is the 
only visitor, you know, who comes to stay 
and finds us out. The tourists, the critics, 
the honorable guests of various honorable 
institutions, who are taken around in car- 
riages and shown our best front, what do 
they know about us? The letters home 
that go out from the East Side, shiploads of 
letters, some of them written at dictation, 
sent by persons who cannot write them- 
selves — (I used to write letters for my 
cook; I have never forgotten some of 
them) — those are the documents that go all 
over the world. They are forming their 
opinion of us in the far corners of the 
earth. What shall they say of us? 

If you see that justice is done in the case 
of the immigrant, they will have no evil to 
say of us. Our traditions of liberty, of hos- 
pitality to the oppressed, will be realized 
in the eyes of the world. 

Now it does not matter that the immi- 
grants today may not be running away 
from religious oppression, or may not be 
victims of political martyrdom. Martyr- 
dom of the worst kind is martyrdom of 
the spirit, and immigrants who have suf- 
fered such martyrdom are still coming to 

us by the shipload. It is accurate to say, 
in a certain way, that the immigrants in 
the beginning came in search of liberty, 
and today they come in search of bread. 
That may all be, but with most of our 
present-day immigrants, if you give them 
bread and nothing else, they are not satis- 
fied. You know it. And I know what the 
people said in Polotzk only two years ago. 
If any of you thought, from reading my 
story, that I had put down the reminiscences 
of my early childhood, with the haze of 
the past over all, that I had idealized every- 
thing in my enthusiasm, I can assure you 
that while my story was in manuscript I 
went back to Polotzk, to find out if I had 
told the truth, and I found that I had. I 
found-^there my old rabbi, my teacher who 
taught me my Hebrew letters. I talked 
with various of the old scholars, who were 
very old when I got back after seventeen 
years' absence — these old men who spend 
their time over the Talmud in the corri- 
dors of the synagogues — and I found 
among them just that attitude toward 
America which I remembered to have ex- 
isted when I came away nearly twenty 
years ago. They look on us today as on 
the upholders of justice and true liberty. 
They still believe in us. 

Do not let them lose that faith! It is 
more to us than it is to them that they 
shall be satisfied in their high longings. 
That is all I ask of you. You know the 
immigrant as he is in the library; you have 
a view of him that most people have not. 
You send your little paragraphs to the New 
York papers. They are not printed big 
enough. Nobody sees them. Speak up 
and tell what you know about the immi- 
grant, that justice may be done, that we 
may remain sound-headed and true-hearted 
in our national life, true to our traditions; 
and the immigrant will hear with a mil- 
lion ears and see with a million eyes and 
run with a million feet to the far corners 
of the earth, to cry that America is still 

ask you to rise as an expression of thanks 
and appreciation of Miss Antin's address. 



(The audience remained standing for a 

The next speaker will discuss the sub- 
ject of immigrants as contributors to libra- 
ry progress. It gives me very great pleas- 
ure to introduce to you Mrs. ADELAIDE 
B. MALTBY, who is in charge of the 
Tompkins Square branch, on the lower 
East Side, of the New York public library. 


I should prefer to let Miss Antin's per- 
sonality and accomplishments bear homo 
to you the point I had hoped to make; and 
silently let what she has said to us pos- 
sess our imaginations to the end that our 
interest and will-to-do will be vigorously 
stirred. Fortunately, this will happen in 
spite of my words. 

A little girl with a fairy book in her 
hand_gleefully remarked: "I can tell what 
kind of stories are in the book by the con- 
tinents." Would that we could so tell the 
stories of our peoples! Yet the story of 
immigrants in this country is not unlike 
that of the "Ugly Duckling;" and Miss 
Antin is living proof of the swan-like 
qualities. We, as a nation, have persisted 
in hatching the odd egg; have been appar- 
ently proud of the duckling's ability to 
swim untaught, like other ducks; and wera 
duly troubled, when because of his unlike- 
ness, he was not acceptable to closer ac- 
quaintance with cock and gander in the 
barn-yard. We have witnessed, with but 
feeble protest, his struggle to feel at home, 
his association with wild ducks and all it 
entailed. It seems as if the winter of his 
agony is enduring. He's had a stirring 
within as of something better to come! 
The question is will we make greater ef- 
fort to recognize the swan-like qualities 
and to give freedom for their develop- 
ment? In this direction lies progress. 

As contributors, I shall not single out 
great personalities from among our for- 
eigners. They will belong to history. Nor 
do I mean only the well educated groups. 
They are generally accorded recognition. 

But I do name the masses who earn just 
Consideration slowly. 

First of all, immigrants have kept us 
alive in every generation. Shall we say 
on the "qui vive" in some localities? All 
agree that living is no minor art, so to 
stimulate life is a contribution. Frank 
Warue in his book, the "Immigrant Inva- 
sion," tells how the distribution of immi- 
grants previous to our civil war practically 
determined the outcome of that struggle, 
by giving to the North balance of power 
in Congress because of larger population, 
which was made up of able-bodied men 
who replaced Federal soldiers and kept 
shops and farms going to furnish supplies 
to the army. It is interesting to note that 
Mr. Warne ascribes the trend of immigra- 
tion to the north and west very largely to 
what was read in the old countries about 
life in different parts of America, men- 
tioning "Uncle Tom's Cabin" as the one 
product of literature most influencing dis- 

Cold statistics tell us that New York, 
Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, 
Illinois and California have the greatest 
number of foreign born. With this as a 
basic fact we naturally suppose that in 
these states, at least, public libraries will 
be found catering to and helping to Amer- 
icanize and to educate these citizens-to-be; 
because, if for no other reason, we proudly 
call ourselves the "university of the peo- 
ple." If the truth were told through ques- 
tionnaire, or otherwise, about twenty-five 
out of one hundred libraries throughout 
New York state are sufficiently alive to the 
problem to supply books to attract and in- 
terest foreigners. Yet for twenty years, 
at least, the task of assimilating the al- 
most overwhelming influx of immigrants 
has been acute in the states named and in 
many localities elsewhere. A gentleman 
working for the education of foreigners in 
American ways has said that he thought 
libraries seemed most indifferent to their 
opportunities. While another, a foreigner, 
devoting himself and two fortunes to bet- 
tering conditions for immigrants, thinks 
that public libraries, when they do work 



sympathetically — I mean that In the broad- 
est sense — with the foreign born are the 
only organizations which accomplish with 
real altruism the implanting of American 
ideals and the developing of better citi- 
zens. This, he believes, is done when we 
appreciate and build on the natural en- 
dowment of the individual or race. 

Since the national government has been 
facing this stupendous problem, commis- 
sions and organizations galore, official and 
philanthropic, have sprung into existence 
as aids. So many are there in New York 
City alone, a possible list would bewilder 
one! Yet in how many reports of such 
work when educational assets of communi- 
ties are being cited, is there mention made 
of libraries as a force in educating the im- 
migrant? Through libraries, however, 
more than through most educational 
agencies may self-expression and develop- 
ment of natural gifts be realized by indi- 
viduals of all ages and nationalities. Where 
does the trouble lie? Have we been open- 
minded or eager enough to discover the ex- 
cellent contributions foreigners bring to 
the end that we respond to live issues, thus 
building progressively? 

Old habits can be changed to new com- 
punctions. There is no standardized meth- 
od of discovering or of spiritualizing men, 
of holding intercourse with aliens or of 
receiving what they bring; but we can 
develop sympathy and understanding, by 
knowing the people as individuals, their 
countries, literatures, languages, arts, 
great national characters — in a word, their 
histories, even to economic conditions. 
Thereby do we come to an understanding 
of reasons for immigration of the present 
day and of aspirations for life here. Thus 
equipped mentally for further sympathetic 
appreciation, first hand observation of con- 
ditions will help; or if that is not possible, 
an imaginative putting ourselves in the im- 
migrants' places from the time they leave 
their old world homes with all their world- 
ly goods in their hands and, in spite of 
homesickness and fears, with courage and 
hope in their hearts — with them as they 
exist in their steerage quarters and with 

them when they pass through the portals 
and mazes of Ellis Island, in the main un- 
comprehendingly but always trustfully. 1 
can not attempt here to draw the detailed 
picture; but if you cannot see it for your- 
self, Mr. Edward Steiner gives it graphical- 
ly and faithfully in his "On the Trail of 
the Immigrant." At last, the Federal gov- 
ernment accessions the immigrant. He is 
passed on, properly numbered, to be shelf- 
listed by states, cities and towns, coming 
finally to libraries and other institutions 
to be cataloged. It remains to us then to 
decide for our own work whether there 
shall be one entry under the word "alien" 
or whether his various assets shall be 
made available by analytical entries. 

Somewhat of all this we must know to 
appreciate what the immigrant can con- 
tribute to life here, and to library progress, 
if we are wise enough to call it forth or 
make opportunitiy for its expression. It is 
vain to hope for the assimilation of the 
alien as a result of conscious benevolent 
effort. We too often forget that each of 
the hundreds of thousands is a human be- 
ing! With a sense of the finest they can 
bring with them, we should have an in- 
creasing knowledge of how they live here, 
what they think and how these elements 
can be influenced by books and personal 
contact. The pressure of a congested neigh- 
borhood goads to thoughtful search for 

No one will go far along these paths 
without realizing how avid libraries must 
be to reap the benefits of such diverse 
gifts, rather than to suffer from the dregs. 
We must correlate books and people as 
never before to attain progress. 

"If we once admit the human, dynamic 
character of progress, then it is easy to 
understand why the crowded city quarters 
become focal points of that progress." As 
an earnest of what is being done in many 
libraries elsewhere, may I tell of our work 
in New York, of that only because I know 
it best. What has been done in one place 
and more, can be done in another through 
interest, desire and adaptation. 

The necessity of having the library new 



the people for whom its use is intended is, 
of course, recognized. This is more es- 
pecially true when the people are foreign- 
ers. The New York public library has 
forty-one branches and all that are located 
in districts where foreigners live have, be- 
side English books, collections of books 
in languages native to the residents. By 
so doing we believe that we convince of 
our friendship those adults who do not 
and even those who may never read Eng- 
lish, This is a fundamental necessity, op- 
ening up various possibilities for impart- 
ing American ideas and ideals. The less 
English the grown people read the more 
they need knowledge of true American 
ideas to help keep them in touch with 
their children, who rapidly take on ways 
and manners strange to their parents, 
many of whom are uncomprehending, re- 
ticent and often sad. We go still further. 
We have assistants of the nationalities 
represented in the neighborhood, whose 
special duty it is to make known to their 
peoples the library privileges, also to 
know their people individually as far as 
possible and, of course, the books. Right 
here may I say that a foreign born assist- 
ant imbued with respect for her own coun- 
trymen and with true American ideals can 
in her enthusiasm do more to make real 
citizens than many Americans. This can- 
not be accomplished if, as happens with 
so many young foreigners, their own peo- 
ple as we see them in this country, are 
held in contempt. It were pity to scorn 
the strong qualities they possess, these 
"Greenies," as they call themselves. They 
live daily too close to the vital facts of 
existence to develop self-consciousness or 
artificialities to any great extent. We talk 
of simplicity. They have it. Courage, sin- 
gleness of purpose, happiness in modest 
circumstances and astonishing capacity for 
work are elements of everyday life uncon- 
sciously developed. Their wealth of imag- 
ination, fostered by their own folk-lore 
and early traditions, could not be more 
wonderfully illustrated than it has been 
just recently in New York. The majority 
of us think of New York and other large 

cities as vast factories with the machine- 
like and vicious qualities of human nature 
uppermost, so it is most refreshing to con- 
template "Old Home Week in Greenwich 
Village" and the "Henry Street Pageant." 

"Old Home Week" successfully recalled 
Greenwich Village history in a dramatic 
way to its residents — American, Irish and 
Italian — and aroused a new sense of fel- 
lowship in sharing the district's activities. 

To celebrate the twentieth anniversary 
of the Henry Street Settlement, a pictorial 
representation of the history of the neigh- 
borhood from the days of the Indians to the 
present time was given by its residents — • 
men, women and children — before an as- 
semblage of spectators from all parts of 
the city and representative of all its activi- 
ties — civic and social. The last living pic- 
ture, or episode, was of all the nationali- 
ties that have lived in the last fifty years 
in Henry Street, once the center of Man- 
hattan's fashionable life. The Irish, the 
Scotch, the Germans, the Italians and the 
Russians appeared. They sang the songs 
and danced the dances that contribute so 
much poetry to the life of the city, while 
onlookers marveled at the temperamental 
qualities which made it possible for for- 
eigners to reproduce with unconscious 
realism historical scenes of a city and a 
country not their own! 

Such neighborhood pageants as this and 
the celebration in Greenwich Village, ex- 
ert a wholesome and a permanent influ- 
ence in our municipal life. In both these 
events the libraries of the neighborhoods 
took part. The library aimed to show that 
folk-songs and folk-dances are kept alive 
by folk-stories. The contrast between old 
New York and the present time was shown 
by the use of historical scenes — lantern 
slides — and a story; in the one case re- 
miniscent of early Dutch settlers and in 
the other a poetic interpreting of the spirit 
of service in municipal life. Those plan- 
ning the pageant felt that this was a di- 
rect help in making atmosphere or in in- 
ducing an interpretive mood in partici- 
pants. Festival occasions like these bind 
together by national ties the people and 



institutions of a neighborhood and are rich 
with possibilities for the library. To a de- 
lightful degree they broaden our under- 
standing of the folk-spirit. 

So it seems natural to have stories in the 
library told by foreigners in their native 
tongues. From time to time we have 
groups of Bohemians, Germans, Hunga- 
rians, Italians listening to old world tra- 
ditions and tales. Knowing the original 
and the translation enhances the value of 
the story in English for narrator and list- 
eners. Through these story hours we are 
reminding the foreigner of his unique con- 
tribution to life here, and are showing 
our respect for his best. For a simple 
example, our picture books and book illus- 
tration in general do not express life as 
vividly or realistically as Russian, Bohe- 
mian or Swedish artists do. Having some 
of these in our juvenile collections has 
been a distinct contribution to establish- 
ing sympathetic relations with foreigners. 

Yes, it is true that the Italian laborer 
loves Dante and Italian classics. It is 
relatively true of other nationalities. If 
we take for granted that we should know 
and libraries should havg, French and Ger- 
man standard writers — and this largely 
because their literature is older, more 
translated or their languages better known 
• — may we not also take for granted that 
literary history is still in the making? 
Should we not bestir ourselves to know 
latter-day masterpieces, if such there be, 
and the older literature which has helped 
mould or inspire writers of them, in Swed- 
ish, Finnish, Bohemian, Polish, Hungarian 
or any other language spoken by the peo- 
ple surrounding us? Perhaps the need of 
realizing what these literary contributions 
may mean can be emphasized by the fact 
that in one week, June 2 to June 9, 1913, 
thirty thousand souls, nearly five thousand 
daily, passed the man at the Eastern gate- 
way. Eighty per cent or thereabouts are 
going beyond New York City these days. 

Is the Hungarian's enjoyment of Jokai 
or their patriot poets for Hungarians 
alone? One can better appreciate how to 
sustain effort and enthusiasm in a person 

or a group of this nationality if one knows 
that much of their best poetry came almost 
from the cannon's mouth on the field of 
battle; and if one has seen the glistening 
eyes and heard the voices of kerchief- 
capped girls and boys in trousers to shoe 
tops as they sang in ringing tones "Eskiis- 
ziink!" and then heard their national song 
in English for the first time. At home 
they may not celebrate their Independence 
Day, March 15; but when they are invited 
to, here, in the library, they do it with 
much genuine feeling and true sentiment, 
which I believe leads them to appreciate 
and adopt as their own our Independence 
Day. Through such as they, perhaps, pat- 
riotic sentiment and feeling may once 
more be evident in our Fourth of July cele- 

If we try to think of a library without 
the contributions of writers of other na- 
tionalties, we must face almost empty 
shelves in some classes of knowledge. This 
makes us realize more clearly that immi- 
grants have rich possessions by right of in- 
heritance while these are ours only by 
adoption. Some of the newcomers to our 
shores may have lost their heritage tem- 
porarily; but they will warmly cherish as 
a friend the library that restores to them 
this valuable possession and for us that 
friendship is preeminently a contribution. 

There are other special ways in which 
the library seems happily successful in 
forming such friendships. With adults it 
comes through our co-operation with neigh- 
borhood associations, or organizations 
working for the benefit of foreigners, such 
as the Y. M. C. A. and Y. W. C. A. who 
conduct in our lecture rooms classes to 
teach English to foreigners. In these in- 
stances it is our pleasure to supplement 
with books the copies treated. The book 
work is, perhaps, most marked in connec- 
tion with the English classes where we 
have opportunity to watch progress and 
needs of the individual more carefully 
from the time when an eager pupil may 
ask, as one did, for a book called a "Wom- 
an's Tongue" wanting Arnold's "Mother 
Tongue" to his reading of Hale's "Man 



without a country," perhaps, or Andrews' 
"The perfect tribute." There are also many 
semi-social, semi-educational clubs, or as- 
sociations, which hold their meetings in 
the libraries. The Slavia is a Bohemian 
club, which has as its only meeting place 
the Bohemian department of one of our 
branches. Its members have done much to 
help form a splendid Bohemian library. 
Several Hungarian associations work in 
co-operation with three branches, where 
are collections of Hungarian books. A 
large Polish society gives its educational 
lectures twice a month in one branch and 
its advice in the selection of books; but 
perhaps the "German Association for Cul- 
ture" best illustrates my point. They 
state: "We are working for culture, and 
we aim to give the Germans in America 
and the Americans a better understanding 
of our contemporary German literature 
and art. We are bending our efforts more 
particularly for our members who as art- 
ists, poets, writers, etc., are producing val- 
uable works. And we want to help as 
much as possible those talented artists, 
poets, etc., who are not yet known." Their 
distinction is that they succeed! Even in 
the et ceteras! 

As concrete instances of other possible 
contributions by foreigners to library prog- 
ress, I want to tell of the discussion of 
one City History Club chapter and the ac- 
tion of a settlement organization. The 
membership in both is composed of for- 
eign-born young men from sixteen to twen- 
ty years of age, and both groups interest 
themselves in present day civic welfare. 
The Settlement Club wrote to the mayor, 
comptroller, library trustees and several 
daily papers a dignified plea for increase 
in library appropration and in salaries. 
The year's closing meeting of a certain 
City History Club was a discussion of the 
city budget, the club members represent- 
ing New York's mayor, aldermen and 
comptroller. The main contention of the 
majority was that cutting the appropria- 
tion of the public library meant seriously 
handicapping one of the city's most effi- 
cient servants and they ended with a warm 

appreciation of service rendered by library 
assistants and a vigorous plea for better 
salaries. This was later reproduced for 
an audience of representative citizens by 
the City History Club as a token typical 
of their work. Both these happenings came 
as complete surprises to librarians. It 
seems as if in their eagerness to "get on" 
young foreigners, especially, seek and use 
every possible public means for advance- 
ment. They soon appreciate what good 
service means and how to get it. They 
make us feel toward what ends they are 
tending and suggest definitely our part in 
the building for civic betterment. 

To sum up, immigrants do bring very 
rich contributions in arts and literature. 
They bring many capabilities, that of ac- 
quiring intellectual cultivation being not 
the least among them. I am not blind to 
the seriousness of the problems they cre- 
ate, having worked among them about ten 
years; but the conviction strengthens that 
knowing and understanding their racial 
and social inheritance and first hand con- 
tact with groups of individuals stimulate 
to broader thought and living. It is not 
an argument! It is a suggestive state- 
ment! Immigrants can contribute to libra- 
ry progress. 

now have a paper from Mr. CHARLES 
E. RUSH, the librarian of the St. Joseph 
public library, on 


This great country of ours has become 
within the last century a huge "melting 
pot" for all the nations of the world. For- 
f ign and English speaking tongues from 
the four corners of the earth have sought 
ur shores as a haven of relief and oppor- 
tunity. No other nation has experienced 
a like growth and none other has ever 
gained the changing cosmopolitan charac- 
teristics which have come to us from such 
widely differing component parts. Those 
of us who call ourselves Americans owe 
our life, liberty and happiness to the con- 
ditions which brought about this great 
growth and upon us devolves the great 



burden of relieving many of the unfortu- 
nate conditions wliich naturally result 
from the continued and increasing wave of 
humanity still seeking better things in our 
so-called land of freedom and equality. 

During the past ninety years nearly thirty 
millions of people have entered our immi- 
gration gates, adding to our numbers more 
inhabitants than the total population of the 
United States three score years ago, and 
almost one-third of our present total fig- 
ure. At the close of the year of 1912 the 
total and combined population of five 
states of the Union did not equal the num- 
ber of immigrants admitted during the pre- 
ceding twelve months. Eighty per cent of 
these thirty millions arrived during the 
last fifty years. Eighty-seven per cent of 
them were more than fourteen years of 
age, while only thirteen per cent were un- 
der fourteen. These figures easily demon- 
strate that the problem is a growing one 
and that the large proportion of new ar- 
rivals are destined to become citizens and 
parents of future citizens in a short time. 
Our past policy of devoting our greatest ef- 
forts to the thirteen per cent while largely 
neglecting the eighty-seven per cent seems 
very similar to the losing method of mend- 
ing a leaking boat by removing the water 
with a sponge rather than by repairing the 

Economists tell us that the "rise and fall 
of the immigration waves are very closely 
connected with the phenomenon of pros- 
perity in this country," and that the gen- 
eral causes of westward expansion lie in 
the presence of foreign political and re- 
ligious persecutions, low wages, bad eco- 
nomic conditions, ease of transportation, 
inflated rumors of great opportunities in 
America, and the appeal of separated 
i-iends and relatives. 

The early immigrants, being largely of 
Teutonic and Keltic origin, were thrifty 
-and self-reliant by nature and entered our 
American life as skilled workmen in agri- 
culture and in the trades. In the last quar- 
ter of a century the source of the tide has 
changed from the northern to the south- 
ern countries, resulting in a far different 

pe of foreigner who is generally un- 
skilled, lacking independence and initia- 
tive, and blindly submissive to authority. 
Many come from nations with a per cent of 
illiteracy rising as high as seventy, and 
notwithstanding thff fifty per cent decrease 
in the total percentage of illiteracy in this 
country during the past thirty years we 
must face the fact that some twenty-eight 
5ut of every one hundred of the new ar- 
rivals over fourteen years of age are an- 
nually classed as illiterates. In the future 
we may expect to receive an increasing 
flood of immigration from China, Japan 
and India, with problems and conditions 
even more perplexing. 

Some say that the incoming foreigner 
directly affects the entire laboring class 
native to America in that he adds materi- 
ally to the supply of wage earners, lowers 
the scale of wages due to lower standards 
of living, changes working conditions 
through the subdivision of labor, modifies 
labor organizations, influences local and 
national politics and increases social diflBl- 
culties. It has been said that "low stand- 
ards of living on the part of unskilled 
workers menace the higher standards of 
the skilled workers. The man of skill is 
recognizing this fact and he is frequently 
found joining hands with the unskilled to 
right the grievances of the latter. In the 
cotton mills, in the meat packing industry, 
in the coal mines, in the clothing industry 
and elsewhere, one nationality has been 
displaced by another satisfied with a lower 
standard of living. In turn the second has 
been displaced by a third, and so on. Wave 
after wave of immigrants may be traced 
in the history of one of these industries. 
As rapidly as a race rises in the scale of 
living, and through organization begins to 
demand higher wages and to resist the 
pressure of long hours and over-exertion, 
the employers substitute another race and 
ihe process is repeated. Each race comes 
from a country lower in the scale than 
that of the preceding until finally the ends 
of the earth have been ransacked in the 
search for low standards of living com- 



bined with patient industriousness." (Carl- 

Our civilization cannot remain unaf- 
fected by these changing characteristics 
and the threatening, industrial conditions 
confronting us. With the army of the un- 
employed rapidly growing larger and larg- 
er, it behooves the American nation to 
encourage immediate consideration of 
ways and means to prevent unfortunate re- 
sults in our industrial, political and social 

The national government, being con- 
cerned chiefly with the admission or re- 
jection of the immigrant, quickly places 
him under the care of state and local gov- 
ernments, who are duty-bound to assume 
the entire responsibility of developing him 
into an efficient worker and a good citizen. 
The regulation of private employment 
agencies, protection of the foreigner in 
transit, adoption of standard employment 
laws, creation of municipal unemployment 
commissions, etc., indicate that state and 
city governments are beginning to respond 
to this duty of offering more sympathetic 
understanding, more adequate care and 
better protection to the newly arrived, con- 
fused, unemployed and homeless immi- 
grant. These governments are slowly real- 
izing that their obligations have been sore- 
ly neglected in the past when such prob- 
lems were wholly consigned to the well 
meaning but quite inadequate field of pri- 
vate philanthropy. Public libraries, as de- 
partments of city governments, concerned 
with the dissemination of knowledge of the 
masses, must soon realize their large re- 
sponsibility in the naturalization, educa- 
tion and socialization of our foreign born 
population. It is very gratifying to an- 
nounce that the state of Massachusetts has 
very recently taken the lead in this partic- 
ular field of service by the passage of an 
act authorizing the appointment by the 
Board of library commissioners of a field 
worker to direct the educational work of 
libraries among the aliens of the state. 

Libraries, like human beings, can reach 
a high point of efficiency and service in 
a particular line only when that line is 

encouraged and promoted. The develop- 
ment of libraries favoring certain classes 
of citizens has been quite general and ex- 
tremely successful. Much has been said but 
comparatively little has been done for the 
foreigner among our laboring men. The 
"man in the yards," the unskilled foreign 
wage-earner, being taxed, while needing 
more and receiving less from society than 
others, "has done much of the rough and 
hard work of recent decades. He has built 
the roadbeds of our railways, mined our 
coal and iron, unloaded our vessels, and 
cleaned our streets. The recent immigrant 
has performed the crude manual labor nec- 
essary for the upbuilding of big industrial 
plants and huge transportation systems. 
His services in developing the resources of 
the nation have been extremely important. 
Many industries would be almost depleted 
if divested of all wage-earners of foreign 
birth and those born on American soil but 
of foreign born parents. If the foreign 
born and the native born of foreign par- 
ents were removed from our large cities, 
the latter would shrink to approximately 
one-third of their recent size." (Carlton.) 

This "man in the yards" with whom "in- 
timate contact removes prejudice, inspires 
appreciation and kindles self-respect," dis- 
plays an astounding amount of seriousness 
and earnestness in his desire to learn and 
to improve himself when once informed of 
the possibilities in our libraries. Very often 
he finds his chief delight in the best of 
books, like a child calling for good instead 
of new books, and many times he is not as 
dull and as ignorant as generally supposed, 
being more appreciative of better things 
than our average native laboring man. 
The opportunity is a great one to be of 
practical and inspirational help to an eager 
reader seeking to increase his earning 
power and joy in life, and to learn of the 
higher ideals of citizenship and the com- 
ing brotherhood of all. 

In order to devise worth-while methods 
of approaching him and securing his in- 
terest, place yourself in imagination in 
similar surroundings and conditions on a 
foreign shore. Only through direct appeals 



touching your personal needs, pleasure and 
occupation would you be attracted in like 
circumstances by strangers. The same is 
true with our new Americans. 

Foreigners who speak the same lan- 
guage largely settle in the same locality 
and move from place to place in groups. 
A thorough educational survey of these 
groups in the community tributary to the 
library or branch is of first importance to 
determine the characteristics, conditions 
and needs of each group. Whenever it is 
possible an experienced library and social 
worker should be employed. The advice 
and assistance of factory managers, labor 
leaders and social workers cannot be val- 
ued too highly. Following these stejps 
branch and deposit stations administered 
by local assistants may well be located in 
favorable shops, yards, factories, settle- 
ments, centers, and labor headquarters, 
without arousing undue suspicion among 
the men, even more extensively than in 
rilany of our progressive library systems 

The formation of the recently named 
"Creative" or "Extension" departments 
and the appointment of one or more 
trained assistants to create interest and 
regularly visit and supervise the library 
work in each district, group and institution 
will soon become a customary feature in 
the large cities. I firmly believe that it 
will not be many years until our large 
manufacturing institutions employing 
much labor will construct recreational cen- 
ters in their plants equipped with social, 
reading and gymnastic departments suf- 
ficient to meet the needs of their employ- 
ees. Furthermore, I see little to discour- 
age the establishment of traveling library 
collections on wheels, visiting certain dis- 
tricts on scheduled time, after the manner 
of the now famous Maryland wagon and 
automobile. In libraries near foreign cen- 
ters special departments are needed to 
supply practical and simple information 
in different languages on requirements for 
naturalization, instruction, employment, 
investments, American customs, travel and 
history, demands of law and order, Ameri- 

can money and banks, and friendly ad- 
vice on many things of fifty-seven or more 

The development of our present line of 
tactics, including the presentation of lec- 
tures emphasizing the possibility of in- 
creased wages through practical reading, 
the formation of classes in the study of 
English, the promotion of special foreign 
entertainment programs and exhibitions, 
the extension of the library habit to adults 
through publicity directed to their chil- 
dren, the publication of daily news for 
workers by means of special library pa- 
pers and the general press, the creation of 
more effectively printed library advertis- 
ing done in many languages, the co-opera- 
tion with individuals and societies promot- 
ing educational, social and recreation cen- 
ters, etc., will open a new era in library 
service for foreign laboring men. 

A great number of specialized and tech- 
nical industrial books may not often be 
found necessary in library collections, since 
the great need among this class of read- 
ers is a large supply of trade journals and 
more elementary mechanical books for the 
unskilled workman, the student mechanic 
and the future tradesman. 

On the other hand life as well as liveli- 
hood must be considered and met. All 
men must live while they are earning a 
living and in these days they must be 
trained for vacation as well as vocation. 
The tendency today is to place too much 
emphasis on the daily struggle for liveli- 
hood and to neglect the hours of life dur- 
ing leisure time. In defense of the "man 
in the yards" the crying answer returns, 
"but, what of the man whose soul-deaden- 
ing toil leaves little or no time for leisure 
or whose daily labor kills all mental and 
physical desire for leisure, rest and im- 
provement." This cry will return again and 
again until all labor shall be so equalized 
that all men will have more of what life 
offers and less of what it demands. Those 
who work on specialized labor done under 
intense strain and through long hours are 
destined to become weakened, brutalized 
and almost incapable of showing intelli- 



gent interest in social-betterment. Even 
"family life," the first school of morals, is 
a closed book against the man who comes 
home dead-tired late at night. 

Consider ^ome of the perils through 
which the working boy must pass from 
year to year, such as economic waste in un- 
educational trades, stinted physical devel- 
opment, early maturity, suppression of the 
spirit of boyhood, indifference towards 
knowledge and efficiency, personal weak- 
ness, and delinquency. The dire results 
due to these perils are well illustrated by 
the folowing replies made by a number 
of Chicago factory children when asked 
why they quit school: 

"Because it's easier to work in a factory 
than it is to learn at school." 

"You never understand what they tell 
you in school and you can learn right oft 
to do things in a factory." 
"They don't call you a Dago." 
"You can buy shoes for the baby." 
"Our boss he never went to school." 
"School ain't no good. The Holy Father 
he can send ye to hell, and the boss he 
can take yer job away er raise yer pay. 
But the teacher, she can't do nothing." 

Is it not true that greed, selfishness, 
privilege, injustice and neglect are five of 
the great sins of civilization? These ob- 
structions to progress are largely due to 
ignorance and indifference, two causes 
which are in themselves as great evils 
as their results. In order to attain the 
best of social conditions, positive cures 
must be found for these devastating 
evils — cures that will replace greed 
by liberality, selfishness by the broth- 
erhood of man, privilege by equal- 
ity, injustice by justice and neglect by 
service — cures that will transform ignor- 
ance and indifference into clear-eyed 
knowledge and active responsibility. Laws 
and revolutions have failed more miserably 
than we enjoy admitting and only through 
the far reaching, beneficent influences of 
education and religion may we expect to 
touch the roots of these great evils. 
Is it possible that many of our public li- 

braries, who reach the individual and his 
family long before and for many years fol- 
lowing the efforts of our public schools, 
can consider themselves excused from a 
large part of their responsibility in the ed- 
ucational movements now striving to im- 
prove the physical, mental and moral con- 
ditions of these men whd suffer for want 
of better things? How can it be that some 
librarians stand by indifferently and heed 
not the cry of need from these weaker 
members of society, who, with their dis- 
tinctive and curable social difficulties, have 
been left alone to carve their own desti- 
nies, unappreciated and unaided? The 
time is near at hand when everyone shall 
recognize that it is the "common right of 
all men to share in the culture, prosperity 
and progress" of society, and that the con- 
servation of life by raising it to its highest 
value is to be the cry of our new era of 
heightened individuality. 

In his inaugural address President Wil- 
son uttered these accusing heart searching 
words: "We have been proud of our in- 
dustrial achievements, but we have not 
hitherto stopped thoughtfully enough to 
count the human cost, the cost of lives 
snuffed out, of energies overtaxed and 
broken, the fearful physical and spiritual 
cost to the men and women and children 
upon whom the dead weight and burden of 
it all has fallen without mercy the years 
through. The groans and agony of It 
all, the solemn moving undertone of our 
life, coming up out of the mines and fac- 
tories and out of every home where the 
struggle has had its intimate and familiar 
seat, have not yet reached our ears." 

The "vision of the open gates of ap- 
portunity for all" must first be seen by 
those who lead before they who follow can 
dream dreams and go forth to realize 

next speaker, who is now the librarian of 
the Rochester public library, was for many 
years librarian of one of the most impor- 
tant libraries south of what Mr. O. Henry 
was accustomed to call "Mason & Ham- 

YUST 159 

lin's Line." I have the pleasure of intro- maintained In all social, educational and 

ducing Mr. WILLIAM F. YUST, who will religious institutions is enforced in li- 

speak to us on braries. 

WHAT OF THE BLACK AND YELLOW ™' ^^f ' ^"^ ^"^^ Primarily with the 

RACES? public library question. But account 

should also be taken of the institutional 
The form In which this subject is ex- libraries to which negroes have access, 
pressed is first a question asking for in- 
formation which has never before been Institutional Libraries 
collected. Possibly there is in It also a The report of the U. S. Commissioner of 
mild challenge to library authorities call- Education for 1910 contains a list of 189 
ing for a declaration of purpose and pol- secondary and higher schools for the col- 

^^o * u • • J- X- i. „ °^®^ ^^c® i^ 16 states and the District of 

So far there is no indication of a yellow r. , ,• ^., ., .„„ ^iotni^t ui 

-„«^ 1,1 • I,,- 1-1- • TTTi- Columbia. Of these 160 report libraries ae- 

race problem in public libraries. When .. „^ ^v^^^ i^uiaima ^^ 

foreigners enter a field which is already oc- g^^^ating 368,684 volumes with an esti- 
cupied they do not produce a real race ""^^^^ ^^^"^ °^ $295,788. Following is a 
problem so long as they are so few in num- s^'^^iary of the institutions and their li- 
ber that they are chiefly objects of curl- ^''aries arranged by states. Of these 11- 
oslty. braries 84 have less than 1,000 volumes; 56 

It Is diflTicult to understand how the Jap- ^^^® ^'^^^ to ^,000 volumes; 11 have be- 

anese can be a serious race problem in tween 5,000 and 10,000 volumes; 6 have be- 

California where they constitute only two tween 10,000 and 20,000. Two have 26,607 

and one-half per cent of the population and and 27,000 respectively, 
own and lease only twelve one-hundredths 

of one per cent of the land. And yet It Schools Vol- Esti- 

sounds as if there Is trouble there. What- Report- umes In mated 

ever may be Its nature and Its causes, the ^^S- Library. Value. 

diflUculty has not extended to public II- Alabama 14 49,522 $26,525 

braries. The Chinese on the Pacific coast, Arkansas 6 9,450 5,150 

as elsewhere, are seldom seen in a library. Delaware 2 1,900 800 

They live in their own quarter and hardly District of Columbia 2 27,253 43,569 

ever penetrate other sections of the city Florida 7 8,267 7,120 

except for purposes of trade. Georgia 14 49,025 32,181 

The Japanese who frequent the libraries Kentucky 6 3,950 2,350 

are not numerous. They belong almost Louisiana 10 14,353 16,051 

entirely to the student class and the books Maryland 5 7,250 5,735 

they take are used In connection with their Mississippi 11 18,432 14,920 

school work. In some places they "appear Missouri 3 4,950 5,500 

to be more resourceful, more polite and New Jersey 1 35 25 

more intelligent than the average high North Carolina 20 16,560 13,097 

school student" with whom the libraries Ohio 1 6,500 2,500 

come in contact. As a class of patrons Oklahoma 1 9,75 1,450 

they are not only inoffensive but desirable. Pennsylvania 2 19,500 20,500 

While the yellow man is clearly not a South Carolina 16 27,600 21,000 

problem in libraries, it is equally certain Tennessee 11 30,025 17,935 

that the black man is a problem. This Is Texas 8 13,550 17,830 

especially true in the South. In northern Virginia 18 52,030 35,950 

libraries it is the rule to admit him with- West Virginia 2 7,557 5,600 

out distinction. Throughout the South, 

with very few exceptions, the segregation Total 160 368,684 $295,788 



Many of these collections except in the 
larger institutions, have been characterized 
as "so unsuitable as to be almost worth- 
less . . . the discarded refuse of gar- 
rets and overcrowded store rooms, which 
should have gone to the paper mill, but was 
sent to these poor children through mis- 
taken kindness." 

These libraries are primarily for the use 
of the students, but they are usually open 
to the townspeople for reading and refer- 
ence. While the people thus have access 
to a collection of books for consultation, 
it can not be said that they have the equiv- 
alent of a public library, even where the 
selection is good. It is a common occur- 
rence, however, throughout the country for 
institutional libraries to operate against 
the establishment of a public library with- 
out acting as a satisfactory substitute. 

General Attitude 

The prevailing attitude toward libraries 
for negroes is one of indifference among 
the masses of both races. But the same 
conditions existed for many years and still 
exist in other parts of the country. The 
library must follow the school, it can not 
precede it. When it is remembered that 
the educational awakening of the South is 
of comparatively recent date and that any- 
thing like general education of the negro 
is still more recent, the small number of 
public libraries for negroes will not appear 
so strange. In a few places a vigorous de- 
mand has arisen. In a few places the au- 
thorities have not only supplied the de- 
mand but have endeavored to stimulate 
and enlarge it. 

It may be said, however, that there are 
still people who think that the negro is 
incapable of education and that it actually 
unfits him for usefulness. Uncle Remus 
has a saying, "When you put a book into 
a negro's hand you spoil a good plow 
hand." This notion still lurks in the 
minds of a surprisingly large number of 
people, who cite the wretched condition 
and dense ignorance of millions of negroes 

after fifty years of freedom. In 1910 thirty 
per cent of them were still illiterate. Li- 
braries can not fiourish in illiteracy as 
trees oan not grow in a desert. 

There are, however, oases in the desert, 
bright and shining examples of individuals, 
schools and whole communities, which 
have demonstrated the negro's capacity for 
the highest education and development. 
There is a growing disposition to afford 
him full opportunity for making the most 
of himself. 

While some librarians are urging action, 
others shrink from it as from a disagree- 
able task. One is endeavoring to look at 
the subject of a negro library from the mis- 
sionary standpoint and is trying to con- 
vince the trustees that such an innovation 
would be desirable, but finds it very hard 
to arouse any interest and enthusiasm. An- 
other proposes to let the question alone till 
forced to take action. Another reports 
that the city is on the verge of the ques- 
tion. Another is having difficulty to find a 
central location for a colored library where 
white people do not object. One city with 
a branch library in a negro high school 
considers it an easy way out of a difliicult 
situation. The authorities realize that the 
time is coming when these facilities will no 
longer be adequate. At present their 
funds are needed so much in other direc- 
tions that they hope to be able to postpone 
tffis added expense for some time to come. 
One library having a special room for 
negroes never pushes this part of its work, 
but does only what it is compelled to do by 
city ordinance. Another where there is no 
race distinction tells how the library is 
overrun at times with negroes and what a 
drawback this is to the work. 

Some lend books to negroes but do not 
allow them to sit in the reading room. This 
practice is not established by rule and 
regulation but rests on the disposition of 
the librarians to be helpful to all. Public 
sentiment will tolerate it in this form while 
it would rebel at an attempt to guarantee 
the same service in formal rules. 



Table of Leading Cities 

Following is a table of some of the chief southern cities showing their status with 
respect to negro libraries. The letter x denotes a negro educational institution hav- 
ing a library of 1,000 volumes or more. 


Population 1910 Public 
Total Negro Lib. 


Birmingham 122,685 

Mobile 51,521 

Montgomery 38,136 

52,305 No 
22,763 No 
19,322 No 


Wilmington 87,411 9,081 Yes 

District of Columbia 
Washington 331,069 94,446 Yes 

Jacksonville 81,640 


Atlanta 154,839 

Macon 40,665 

Savannah 65,064 


Covington 53,270 

Lexington 35,099 

Louisville 223,928 


New Orleans 339,075 


Baltimore 558,485 


Kansas City 248,381 

St. Louis 687,029 

St, Joseph 77,403 

North Carolina 

Raleigh 19,218 


Oklahoma City 64,205 . 


Chattanooga 44,604 

Memphis 131,105 

51,902 No 
18,150 No 
33,246 Yes 

2,899 No 
11,011 Yes 

40,522 Yes 

89,262 No 

84,749 Yes 

23,566 Yes 

43,960 Yes 

4,249 Yes 


Admitted to Wilmington Inst. Lib. without 

Admitted to Pub. Lib. without distinction. 
2 X. 

40,020 Yes Sep. room & sep. books in Carnegie lib. 

4 X. 

Small sep. lib. of little consequence. 

Draw bks. at same desk with whites; sep 
reading room; little used. 
$30,000 Carnegie branch of pub. lib.; 2nd 
branch $22,500 being built. 

$25,000 Carnegie branch to be built. 4 x. 

Pratt free lib. admits without distinction. 

Pub. lib. admits without distinction. 
Pub. lib. admits without distinction. 
Pub. lib. admits without distinction. 

Yes Sep. bldg. erected by city. Poorly supported. 

6,546 Yes Pub. lib. admits without distinction. 

17,942 314 vols, placed in col. high schools as a 


52,431 Yes Cossitt Lib. supplies books thru LeMoyne 
Inst. 1 X. 



Nashville 110,364 


Dallas 92,104 

Galveston 36,981 

Houston 78,800 

San Antonio 96,614 


Norfolk 67.452 

Richmond 127,618 

36,523 No 










$25,000 Carnegie Branch to be built. 2 x. 

Branch of Rosenberg lib. in col. high sch'l. 
$15,000 Carnegie bldg. under negro board. 

This city has no pub. library. 

Cities Having Colored Libraries 

Charlotte, N. C, is the first and only city 
to build a library for negroes with its own 
funds. After erecting a $25,000 Carnegie 
building it spent $5,000 on a site and a sep- 
arate building for negroes which was 
opened in 1906. But its only income for 
maintenance is $400 a year from the city. 
Most of the books have been donated. In 
1911 the librarian of the white library 
enlisted the interest of a Pittsburgh 
woman who collected about 600 volumes 
for it in the North. The librarian at Wilkes- 
Barr^, Pa., sends it the best of her dis- 
carded books. From these facts one may 
infer what kind of standard is maintained. 

The white library was incorporated by 
the legislature in a special act, which at 
the same time created a separate negro 
board. Several ineffectual efforts have 
been made to have the act changed to 
place the colored library under control of 
the white board and the supervision of the 
white librarian. This would undoubtedly 
result in greater efficiency, as now every- 
body including the colored board seems to 
be inactive and indifferent toward it. Its 
failure however can hardly be ascribed to 
the negro board alone because it is mani- 
festly Impossible with such resources 
under such conditions to conduct a library 
which would command the respect and the 
Interest of either race. 

Savannah, Ga„ also has a small library 
for negroes. It was organized in 1907 
and is housed in rented quarters, but very 
few persons seem to know of its existence. 
The city appropriates $360 a year for it. 
In 1911 it had 2.611 volumes and 1,244 

were drawn for home use. Its total receipts 
were $375.77. At the end of the year $35 
was due the librarian for salary and there 
was a deficit of $33.93. In 1910 Mr. Carne- 
gie offered $12,000 for a colored branch 
building and the city has promised an 
increased appropriation on the completion 
of the building. For a time the negroes 
tried to raise the money for a site by sub- 
scription, but so far they have not suc- 

Jacksonville, Fla., has in its Carnegie 
building a separate room and books in 
charge of a colored attendant. Of its 
81,000 population half are colored, but the 
negro registration is only five per cent and 
the circulation six per cent of the whole. 
No effort is being made to extend it. The 
opinion prevails that the arrangement Is 
a mistake and that a branch library in the 
negro quarter would bring out a much 
larger use. 

Galveston, Texas, has had a branch of 
the Rosenberg library in the colored high 
school since 1904. It contains 2,745 
volumes. With a colored population less 
than one-fifth as large as Jacksonville it 
has twice as many borrowers but circulates 
only one-fourth as many books, 2,433 last 
year. This seems a very small number and 
does not bear out the theory that a sep- 
arate branch enlarges its use. 

In Memphis, Tenn., the Cossitt library 
in 1903 entered into an agreement with 
the LeMoyne Institute, a colored normal 
school, which furnishes the room, and the 
Cossitt library furnishes the librarian and 
the books, which number about four thou- 
sand added to a like number belonging to 



the school. While these are used mainly 
by pupils and teachers of the school, it 
serves as the book supply for all interested 
negroes in the city and surrounding dis- 

The facilities thus furnished seem to 
meet the present demands pretty fully. 
Much depends on the librarian's attitude, 
which is helpful and encouraging. The cir- 
culation last year was 13,947 vols. The 
Institute is erecting a new school building, 
which will provide better library accommo- 

Louisville, Ky., was the first to establish 
a full-fledged branch on a broad basis and 
to erect a separate branch library building 
for negroes. The original plan for ten 
Carnegie branch libraries, of which seven 
have been built, included two for negroes. 
The first of these was opened in rented 
quarters the same year as the main library 
in 1905. Three years later it was moved 
into the new $30,000 building. 

In its administration the colored branch 
is a part of the general library system and 
is under the supervision of the main 
library. The branch librarian, who is a 
graduate of Hampton Institute, and the two 
assistants are colored. 

The branch serves as the reference 
library for the colored high schools and 
other educational institutions. It is in 
close co-operation with the grade schools 
through the collections of books which it 
sends to the class-rooms to be drawn by 
the pupils for home use. 

It has an assembly room which is used 
for lectures, entertainments and numerous 
other public meetings, and two class-rooms 
for smaller gatherings. There is a story 
hour for children and several reading and 
debating clubs for boys and girls and 
adults. Through its various activities the 
library not only circulates books and fur- 
nishes facts but it is an educational and 
social center from which radiate many in- 
fluences for general betterment. 

Fine work is being done with children, 
who draw 68 per cent of the books circu- 
lated. An interesting account of it is 
given in the Library Journal for April, 1910, 

25:160-61, by Mrs. Rachel D. Harris, a 
former teacher in the colored schools, who 
is in charge of this department. 

When the branch was started eight years 
ago it was somewhat of an experiment and 
there was doubt and apprehensiveness all 
around with regard to the outcome of the 
undertaking. But it has been a pronounced 
success from the beginning. It has grown 
steadily until last year 73,462 vols, were 
drawn from it for home use. It has be- 
come so popular that the second branch 
is now under construction in the eastern 
colored section of the city. 

The colored people are proud of this 
library and its achievements. Its opening 
marked an epoch in the development of 
the race which is second in importance 
only to the opening of the flrst colored free 
schools there in 1870. 

Houston, Texas, also has a separate 
branch building opened last April. For the 
past four years it was maintained in a 
small way in the colored high school. The 
new building is distinctively a product of 
negro enterprise. Booker T. Washington's' 
secretary called on Andrew Carnegie per- 
sonally and secured the promise of $15,000 
on condition that the city of Houston 
would agree to provide not less than $1,500 
annually for its maintenance. The $1,500 
for the site was raised by colored citizens 
entirely among their own people. The 
plans for the building were drawn by a 
colored architect and its erection super- 
vised by a committee of a separate board 
of trustees, which consisted of nine col- 
ored men. The librarian is a colored girl 
who is responsible only to the colored 
tr^jstees. Although she and the trustees 
consult freely with the librarian and trus- 
tees of the public library, the latter act 
only in an advisory capacity to them. They 
are therefore justly proud of the library 
as their own achievement. It contains 
5,000 volumes. From a colored population 
of 30,000 the registered borrowers were 
only 1,^61 last year and the books drawn 
5,117. These numbers seem very small, 
but no doubt there will be a large increase 
in the new building. 



While the Houston method of manage- 
ment may contribute to the negro's self- 
respect and minister somewhat to ihe 
pride and independence of a few of their 
number, the wisdom of the plan may well 
be questioned. The results are bound to 
be inferior unless experience counts for 
nothing. It is unfortunate that so many 
cities in their first venture proceed with 
such disregard of the experience of other 
places. But the limit is reached when the 
same city repeats the process with a 
second board after one board has learned 
its lesson. This applies not only to the 
details of planning, erectiflg and furnishing 
a building but equally if not more to its 
operation, the selection, purchase and cata- 
loging of books, the appointment of assist- 
ants and the transacting of its daily busi- 

The white public library boards of Nash- 
ville and New Orleans both have plans 
under way for the erection of Carnegie 
colored branch buildings, each to cost 
$25,000. In Nashville the negroes are 
raising $1,000 and the city is paying $5,000 
toward the site. In New Orleans the city 
will purchase the site. In neither of these 
places is there any public provision at 
present for supplying books to negroes. 

In Atlanta, Ga., the leading educational 
center of the South for negroes, they are 
still without public library facilities, 
although agitation on the subject began 
over ten years ago. On the day of the 
opening of the beautiful $125,000 Carnegie 
building a committee of colored men called 
on the library board. Prof. W. E. B. Du- 
Bois of Atlanta University acting as 
spokesman said: 

"Gentlemen, we are a committee come 
to ask you to do justice to the black peo- 
ple of Atlanta by giving them the same 
free library privileges that you propose 
giving to whites. Every argument which 
can be adduced to show the need of libra- 
ries for whites applies with redoubled 
force to the negroes. More than any other 
part of our population they need instruc- 
tion, inspiration and proper diversion; they 
need to be lured from temptation of the 

streets and saved from evil influences, and 
they need a growing acquaintance with 
what the best of the world's souls have 
thought and done and said. It seems 
hardly necessary in the twentieth century 
to argue before men like you the necessity 
and propriety of placing the best means 
of human uplifting into the hands of the 
poorest and lowest and blackest. 

"The spirit of this great gift to the city 
has not the spirit of caste or exclusion but 
rather the catholic spirit which recognizes 
no artificial differences of rank or birth or 
race, but seeks to give all men equal oppor- 
tunity to make the most of themselves. It 
is our sincere hope that this city will prove 
itself broad enough and just enough to 
administer this trust in the true spirit in 
which it was given." 

The chairman asked, "Do you not think 
that allowing whites and negroes to use 
this library would be fatal to its useful- 
ness?" Another member of the committee 
replied that they did not ask to use this 
library nor even ask equal privileges but 
only some privileges somewhere. 

The chairman then made these points 
clear: (1) That negroes would not be 
permitted to use the Carnegie Library in 
Atlanta; (2) That some library facilities 
would be provided for them in the future; 
(3) That the city council would be asked 
to appropriate a sum proportionate to the 
amount of taxes paid by negroes of the 
city; (4) That efforts would be made to 
induce northern philanthropists to aid such 
a library. 

Later Mr. Carnegie offered to give the 
money necessary for the erection of a 
branch library for negroes. When the 
details of its administration came up for 
consideration the negroes demanded rep- 
resentation on the library board. This was 
positively refused and the proceedings 
were so completely blocked that the 
negroes of Atlanta are still without any 
public library advantages. 

Methods of Management 

From the cases cited it appears that 
there are four distinct methods of dealing 



with this question in the South: (1) To 
admit the negro to the same building on 
equal terms with others as is done in 
Baltimore, Wilmington, Washington and 
some of the Missouri libraries. This 
method is not satisfactory to the whites. 
As one report says, "There are white peo- 
ple who are deterred from using the library 
because in so doing they must touch 
elbows with colored folks. . . . We 
could do better service to both races if 
there could be a separation, for we must 
take the people with their prejudices, 
especially in the use of the library, which 
is a purely voluntary matter." (2) To 
admit him to the same building but to a 
separate room, which is not satisfactory to 
the negro. One library which has this plan 
reports, "Many of the educated and cul- 
tured negroes (for there are some even in 
the South) will not come unless they can 
do so on the same social equality and use 
the same apartments as the white 
patrons." (3) To have a separate library 
under control of members of their own 
race. This is almost certain to produce 
inferior results on account of their inex- 
perience and lack of knowledge regarding 
every phase of the work, (4) To have a 
separate branch in charge of colored assist- 
ants who are under the direction and sup- 
ervision of one board and one librarian, 
who have control over the entire library 
including all branches and other agencies. 
This plan assures the greatest economy 
and efficiency and will probably be adopted 
by all the libraries whose funds will permit 
it. A separate colored board is as unneces- 
sary and unbusinesslike as would be a 
separate board for each white branch. 

On the advantages of a separate branch 
library one colored man writes: "In the 
South the separation is not only necessary 
for the peace and cordial relations desir- 
able to be maintained but the colored 
branches are desirable because the colored 
people would use them so a hundred times 
more than they would otherwise. The feel- 
ing of perfect welcome, ownership and un- 
qualified privilege are all necessary to 
patrons who are to get the best possible 

from libraries among them. These things 
in the South can only be had in separate 
branches as much as it is regrettable that 
there should be a mind and spirit demand- 
ing separate libraries." 

Traveling Libraries 

Delaware and Kentucky are the only 
state library commissions reporting spe- 
cial traveling libraries for negroes. Last 
year "seven traveling libraries of 30 to 50 
volumes each were arranged for the use 
of the colored schools in Delaware, and 
the entire charge and care of these libra- 
ries was given over to the State College for 
Colored Students near Dover." The Ken- 
tucky commission has two libraries of 50 
volumes each in circulation and is planning 
to send more. Hampton Institute also 
sends out traveling collections of books. 

Another system of traveling libraries is 
that established in 1910 by James H. 
Gregory of Marblehead, Mass., for dis- 
tribution through Atlanta University 
among the negroes of the South. There 
are about 60 libraries of 48 volumes each. 
They are sent to any community, school, 
church or other organization for one year 
and then exchanged for a different set. 
Two interesting articles on these libraries 
and their founder were published by G. 
S. Dickerman in the Southern Workman 
August and September, 1910. 

What the Negro Reads 

What the negro reads is in itself a large 
and interesting subject. A brief article 
on it dealing equally with what the negro 
does not read, appeared in the Critic, July 
1906, from Mr. George B. Utley, then 
librarian of the Jacksonville public library. 
The first book drawn from the Louisville 
library was Washington's "Up from slav- 
ery." The most striking feature of the 
circulation in general is the comparatively 
small percentage of fiction read. Of the 
258,438 volumes drawn from the Louis- 
ville library during its first six years only 
46 per cent was fiction. 

This may be due to the fact that the 
so-called leisure class, who are supposed to 



read most of the fiction, is smaller among 
the colored people; or that the novel does 
not appeal so strongly to the negro mind; 
or that the library is used more largely 
by pupils, teachers, ministers and other 
professional people, who come to it for 
more serious purposes. 

A book entitled "Tuskegee and its peo- 
ple," edited by Booker T. Washington, con- 
tains biographical sketches of many 
negroes who have gone out from that 
school to work for the elevation of their 
race. These sketches give a remarkable 
picture of the "conditions that environ the 
masses of the negro people," as well as 
their struggles for improvement. 

One of them describing the country 
school which he attended writes, "When 
I reached the point where the teacher 
ordered me to get a United States history, 
the book store did not have one, but sold 
me a biography of Martin Luther instead, 
which I studied for some time thinking 
that I was learning something about the 
U, S." 

Years later "I betook me to the woods, 
where I read everything I could get. It 
was during this time that accidentally, I 
may say providentially, I got hold of a 
book containing the life of Ignacius San- 
cho; and I have never read anything that 
has given me more inspiration. I wish 
every negro boy in the land might read 

Another Tuskegee graduate, a woman 
whose mother as a slave had been taught 
to read by her master's daughter, writes: 
"Sundays, v^ith my sisters gathered about 
hf.r knees, we would sit for hours listening 
as mother would read church hymns for 

The articles by Mr. Dickerman above 
referred to give the results of some investi- 
gations on their choice of books. He 
received answers from 35 leading negro 
schools in response to a request for a list 
oi such "books as had been found in the 
experience of their schools to be the most 
popular and the best and which they would 
recommend." The "Life of Lincoln" appear- 
ed on 15 of these lists; "Little women" 15; 

"Robinson Crusoe" 14; "Paul Dunbar" 11; 
"Uncle Tom's cabin" 10; "Ivanhoe" 9; 
"Souls of black folk" 9; "Ramona" 8; "Life 
of Douglass" 8; "Uncle Remus" 7. Six 
lists included "Alice in wonderland," 
Grimm's "Fairy tales," "John Halifax," 
"Last days of Pompeii," and "Swiss family 

These lists all came from schools and 
therefore bear the earmarks of the school- 
master. But the largest part of the read- 
ing by negroes is done by the pupils and 
teachers in connection with their school 
work. This would account for the pre- 
ponderance of the literature and history 
classes. Miss Sarah B. Askew observes 
that among the general readers in a pub- 
lic library "the colored people's tastes are 
for quick action, strong emotion, vivid 
coloring, and simplicity of narration." 
Books by and about their own people are 
in constant demand. The colored maga- 
zines, those devoted especially to their 
interests and those published by colored 
men are always popular. 

There is also a growing demand for 
books useful to the mechanic in his daily 
work. Chauffeurs "avail themselves of 
technical books on automobiles." An early 
experience in the Louisville library was 
with a woman who made a business of 
raising chickens. She called at the library 
for medical help because many of them 
were dying. Strangely enough this sub- 
ject had been overlooked in selecting the 
books and the librarian was unable to pre- 
scribe for sick chickens. But a book on 
poultry was ordered for her immediately. 


Following are some conclusions regard- 
ing libraries for negroes: 

(1) That books and reading are of the 
utmost value in the education, development 
and progress of the race. 

(2) That in northern public libraries 
they are admitted to all privileges with- 
out distinction. 

(3) That in southern libraries the 
segregation of the races prevails, as it 



does, in all educational, religious and other 
social institutions. 

(4) That in many places institutional 
libraries are supplying the book wants of 
the few negroes who really have need of 

(5) That among the masses of the col- 
ored race there is as yet very little de- 
mand for libraries. 

(6) That where a genuine demand has 
manifested itself and up-to-date facilities 
have been provided negroes have been 
quick to use them and have made com- 
mendable progress. 

(7) That in some of the large cities 
containing a great many negroes who are 
intelligent and who pay taxes the pro- 
vision made for them is sadly inadequate 
or is entirely lacking. 

(8) That southern librarians generally 
are kindly and helpfully disposed toward 
them and that the majority of the white 
people favor a fair deal for them, includ- 
ing the best training and the fullest en- 

(9) That in the South any arrangement 
which aims to serve the two races in the 
same room or in the same building is detri- 
mental to the greatest good of both. Com- 
plete segregation is essential to the best 
work for all. 

(10) That many libraries are not finaU" 
cially able to conduct separate depart- 
ments and so the negro loses out. 

(11) That a few cities have splendid 
facilities for them, a few others are now 
establishing branches, a considerable num- 
ber are discussing the question seriously 
and another considerable number which 
should be at work are doing nothing. 

(12) That the best solution of the prob- 
lem is the separate branch in charge of 
colored assistants under the supervision 
and control of the white authorities. 

(13) That even in northern cities which 
have large segregated colored districts 
such separate branches would result in 
reaching a larger number of negroes and 
doing better work for both races. 

(14) That the South is entitled to the 
sympathy and help of the North on this 

question, which is only a part of the larger 
question of negro education. That sym- 
pathy will come with fuller information 
and will increase as the size and serious- 
ness of the problem is more fully under- 

(Wednesday morning, June 25, 1913) 

The PRESIDENT: There is a matter of 
business to come up this morning. At the 
last conference the Association adopted an 
amendment to the Constitution which, to 
become effective, must be ratified at this 
meeting. It may be added that the requi- 
site notice required by the Constitution, of 
thirty days, has been given by the Secre- 
tary, through publication in the Bulletin, 
where you have doubtless seen the pro- 
posed amendment together with the by- 
law which is dependent, of course, upon 
the adoption of the amendment itself. The 
Secretary will please read the proposed 
amendment as adopted at the Ottawa con- 

The SECRETARY: I will also read that 
portion of Section 14 of the Constitution 
to which the amendment would apply: 

"Council. Membership. The Council 
shall consist of the executive board, all 
ex-presidents of the Association who con- 
tinue as members thereof, all presidents 
of affiliated societies who are members of 
the Association, twenty-five members elect- 
ed by the Association at large, and twen- 
•ty-five elected by the Council itself," — 

And the proposed amendment consists of 
the following words to be inserted at that 

— "and one member from each state, pro- 
vincial and territorial library association 
or any association covering two or more 
such geographical divisions which com- 
plies with the conditions for such repre- 
sentation set forth in the by-laws." 

The PRESIDENT: The amendment is 
before you for consideration. What is your 
pleasure? Are you ready for the question? 

(The question being called for and put, 
the amendment was adopted.) 

The PRESIDENT: Dependent upon the 
adoption of the amendment to the Const!- 



tution there Is now before you for consid- 
eration a proposed amendment to the by- 
laws. The Secretary will please read the 
suggested amendment which carries into 
effect now the Constitutional amendment 
which you have just adopted and which 
becomes effective, in that it has now been 
adopted by two successive conferences. 

(The Secretary then read the proposed 
amendment Section 3a, which is as fol- 

"Sec. 3a. Each state, territorial and pro- 
vincial library association (or any associa- 
tion covering two or more such geo- 
graphical divisions) having a membership 
of not less than fifteen members, may be 
represented in the Council by the presi- 
dent of such association, or by an alternate 
elected at the annual meeting of the as- 
sociation. The annual dues shall be $5.00 
for each association having a membership 
of fifty or less, and ten cents per additional 
capita where membership is above that 
number. The privileges and advantages 
of the A. L. A. conferences shall be avail- 
able only to those holding personal mem- 
bership or representing institutional mem- 
bership in the Association." 

The President then put the question and 
the above amendment to the by-laws was 
duly adopted. 

Dr. ANDREWS: I move the addition of 
the words "or to members of other affili- 
ated societies," in order not to bar these 
members from attendance at our meetings. 

The PRESIDENT: Dr. Andrews' amend- 
ment is to include the words "or to mem- 
bers of other aflaiiated societies." 

Mr. RANCK: I think, as a member of 
the Committee that had something to do 
with the drafting of the proposed by-law, 
that I can say that the purpose of that 
provision was that there should be some 
advantage to persons holding membership 
in these organizations, to get the railroad 
rates, hotel rates, etc.; in other words, to 
have some pecuniary advantage in their 
becoming members and not to be able to 
come and get those advantages without 
holding any kind of a membership. 

If I may be permitted, Mr. President, I 
should like to give a few figures with ref- 
erence to the distribution of the members 

of the Council as it now exists, as given 
in the last handbook. There were 72 mem- 
bers of the Council, counting the one or 
two who have died, representing 48 states, 
the District of Columbia and Canada. How- 
ever, in the Council only 20 States in the 
Union have representation. In other words, 
there are 28 states in the Union that are 
not represented in the Council. The popu- 
lation of these 28 states is nearly thirty- 
three millions and their area is nearly 
two million square miles, whereas the area 
of the states that ^.re represented is a lit- 
tle over a million square miles. The point 
is, Mr. President, the purpose of the 
amendment to the Constitution and these 
amendments is to give a wider geographi- 
cal distribution of representation in the 
Council; in other words, that more than 
half of the area of the United States may 
be brought in, on account of this geographi- 
cal representation, and that the thirty- 
three millions of people who live in those 
states may be able to get a representation 
which it seems at the present time they do 
not have. 

The PRESIDENT: The question before 
the conference is on the proposed amend- 
ment of the by-law as offered by Dr. An- 

(The President put the question and the 
amendment was duly adopted.) 

The PRESIDENT: The question now is 
upon the amendment to the by-laws as 

(The President put the question and the 
amendment to the by-laws was duly adopt- 

The PRESIDENT: The Association dur- 
ing the past year suffered grievous loss 
in tne passing of two of its notable mem- 
bers, members who had long been identi- 
fied with the Association and its work, 
and I may add the loss of a friend of li- 
brarians everywhere, that splendid gentle- 
man, Mr. Francis Fisher Browne, of The 
Dial, — a man gentle of soul, keen of intel- 
lect and fine of fiber. While perhaps we 
are not called upon to take official notice 
of <bis passing it seems to me very well 
that we should group him with those 



whose loss we mourn at this time. By re- 
quest of the Executive Board and of the 
Council a committee consisting of Dr. Put- 
nam, Mr. Bowker and .Mr. Wellman have 
been ^sked to draft memorial resolutions 
on the passing of Dr. Billings and Mr. 
Soule and I would ask Dr. Putnam to re- 
port at this time. 

Dr. PUTNAM: With your permission I 
will ask Mr. Wellman to read the sug- 
gested minute with reference to Mr. Soule. 
And the Committee would suggest that if 
the expression in these minutes appears to 
you just, that they be adopted by a rising 

Mr. Wellman then read the following 
resolution which was unanimously adopted 
by a rising vote. 


With profound sorrow, we record the 
death of Charles C. Soule, whose services 
and relation to the American Library As- 
sociation were in many ways unique. 
Though himself not a librarian, yet in the 
early days of the public library he was 
one of those who foresaw the great forc« 
which it might be made to exert in our 
democratic civilization; and to promote 
the wise realization of this vision, he la- 
bored unceasingly as a member of this As- 
sociation for more than thirty years and 
was a constant attendant at the meetings. 
He served as vice-president in 1890, as 
member of the Institute for six years, as" 
member of the Council for eight years, as 
trustee of the endowment fund for twelve 
years, and as a member of the Publishing 
Board for eighteen years. But his distinc- 
tive contribution was in efforts towards 
\ the improvement of library architecture; 
and here by his study and writings, as 
well as by creating the office of advisory 
expert in building, he did more than any 
other man to further the planning of li- 
brary buildings for library work. 

In reciting the tale of his accomplish- 
ment, it is impossible to forget the man. 
Unselfish and high-minded, a good counsel- 
lor and a consistent friend, he ever showed 
eager and affectionate interest in the work 

of his fellow members, and especially In 
the success of those beginning their ca- 
reers. Above all, he possessed a generous 
faith in bis associates and an unfailing 
good will. These were but a few of the 
qualities which enabled him to achieve so 
much for the public library, and which en- 
deared him to hosts of librarians through- 
out the land. 

Dr. PUTNAM: Mr. President, this is pro- 
posed as a minute for the records of the 
Association. It is therefore headed "John 
Shaw Billings." 

The resolution was unanimously adopt- 
ed by a rising vote. 


April 12, 1838— March 18, 1913 
A member of the American Library Asso- 
ciation 1881-1913 — Its President, 1901-02 

It is seldom that the death of an indi- 
vidual removes from two professions a 
unit of singular power in each. But such 
was the loss in the recent death of John 
Shaw Billings; a scientist in a department 
of science intensive and exacting, a libra- 
rian rigorously scientific in a profession 
broadly humane. To the former he made 
original contributions which constituted 
him an authority within special fields; but 
also in his great Index-Catalog of Medi- 
cal Literature, one which assured certain- 
ty and promoted advance in every field — 
and left the entire medical profession his 
debtor. As a librarian, having first 
brought to preeminence the professional 
library entrusted to him, he was called to 
the organization into a single system of 
isolated funds and institutions, achieved 
that organization, and lived to see it, under 
his charge develop into the largest gen- 
eral library system in the world, with a 
possible influence upon our greatest jne- 
tropolis of incalculable importance to it, 
and through it, to the welfare of our entire 

The qualities which enabled him to ac- 
complish all this included not merely cer- 
tain native abilities — among them, penetra- 
tion, concentration, vigor, tenacity of pur- 
pose and directness of method, but others 



developed by self-denial, self-discipline, 
and a complete dedication to the work in 
hand. It was through these that he earned 
his education and his scientific training; 
and they hardened into habits which at- 
tended him to the end of his days, when he 
concluded in toil that shirked no detail a 
life begun in toil and devoted to detail. 

Such habits, a keen faculty of analysis, 
and a scientific training kept him aloof 
alike from hasty generalizations and from 
the impulses of mere emotion; while his 
military training induced in him three 
characteristics which marked alike his 
treatment of measures and his dealings 
with men; incisiveness, a distaste for the 
superfluous and the redundant, and an in- 
sistence upon the suitable subordination of 
the part to the whole. In this combination, 
and in the knowledge of, and power over, 
men which accompanied it, he was unique 
among librarians; in his complete lack of 
ostentation he was unusual among men. 
His mind was ever on the substance, in- 
different to the form. A power in two pro- 
fessions, to have termed him the "orna- 
ment" of either would have affronted him; 
for he was consistently impatient of the 
merely ornamental. Any personal ostenta- 
tion was actually repugnant to him; and he 
avoided it as completely in what he suf- 
fered as in what he achieved; bearing, 
with a reticence that asked no allowances, 
physical anguish in which most men would 
have found ample excuse from every care. 

If such a combination of traits assured 
his remarkable efficiency, it might not have 
seemed calculated to promote warm per- 
sonal or social attachments. Yet there was 
in him also a singular capacity for friend- 
ship; not indeed for impulsive and indis- 
criminate intimacies, but for those selective, 
deep, steady and lasting friendships which 
are proof of the fundamental natures of 
men. And however terse, austere, and 
even abrupt, his manner in casual rela- 
tions, where a really human interest was at 
stake he might be relied upon for sympa- 
thies both warm and considerate, and the 
more effective because consistently just 
and inevitably sincere. 

The testimonies to these qualities in his 
character, to these powers, and to his va- 
ried achievements, have already been many 
and impressive. The American Library 
Association wishes to add its own, with 
a special recognition not merely of the 
value to the community of the things 
which he accomplished, but of the value to 
individuals in the example of a character 
and abilities so resolutely developed and 
so resolutely applied to the service of sci- 
ence and the service of men. 

The PRESIDENT: To offer a telegram 
as a substitute for a long and pleasurably 
anticipated paper is cause for regret, but 
such must be the case this morning as 
Miss Arnold finds it impossible to be with 
us. The telegram reads as follows: 

"Emergency meeting of Simmons Col- 
lege Corporation has been appointed for 
Wednesday and prevents me from attend- 
ing library meeting. Extreme regrets." 

The general theme of this morning's 
session is "Library influence in the home, 
in the shop, on the farm, and among de- 
fectives and dependents." We shall begin 
the morning's program with a paper on 
"The working library for the artisan and 
the craftsman," by EDWARD F. STEV- 
ENS, librarian Pratt Institute free library, 
and director of the school of library sci- 
ence, Brooklyn. 


It is not my privilege to speak to you 
at this time of the professional, technical, 
or practical aspects of that recent phase 
of library work wherein is attempted the 
reconciliation of shopmen with bookmen. 
In the very few moments placed at my 
disposal I may mention only that human 
relationship which enters so largely into a 
librarian's dealings with men who are con- 
cerned with and about their work. 

The straightforward, sympathetic inter- 
course of man with man may adorn to 
the point of making almost beautiful a de- 
partment of librarianship which is ex- 
tremely matter-of-fact in its essential char- 




acter and might easily become common- 
place in its practicality. The business of a 
technology department in a public library 
may best be expressed in terms of the 
statement of the policy of the Franklin 
Union established in recent years in Phila- 
delphia — "the further education of men al- 
ready employed." Such a working library 
is strictly a library of work. It is almost 
oppressively utilitarian. Yet to a librarian 
who has had the privilege of making books 
known to artisans and craftsmen, and who 
is now denied that privilege, the sense of 
the loss of the fellowships, not to say 
friendships, that formerly were a part of 
his daily occupation proves that the sym- 
pathetic was after all the potential ele- 
ment in his experience. 

I may say with Lowell, "I like folks who 
like an honest piece of steel. . . . There 
is always more than the average human 
nature in a man who has a hearty sym- 
pathy with iron." 

Theodore Roosevelt has given us a max- 
im that deserves to be written as a rule 
of life — "That which one does which all 
can do but won't do is the greatest of 

Therein is the greatness of work with 
practical men — the discernment of the 
simplest facts of life, the performance of 
the simplest acts of life in working out the 
complex things of life, recognizing, to be- 
gin with, that a man's difficulty is at once 
less a difficulty when it becomes the 
friendly concern of a fellow-man. My own 
first experience as a seeker after help in 
a public library in matters technical that 
were then of great importance to me, met 
the rebuff and disappointment that have 
given me a point of view which amounts to 
a conviction. 

In the present day, the library assumes 
considerable confidence in inviting the 
workingman into its constituency, and the 
workingman must come to it with no less 
confidence if the library expects its justi- 
fication. The mechanic, as formerly the 
scholar, must approach the library with a 
calculated expectation. The librarian 
must understand him, believe in him, and 

in turn make himself understood by him. 

In a recent issue of the American Ma- 
chinist, a writer deplores the general lack 
of sympathy and interest in the affairs of 
the "unheralded mechanic." That the life 
he lives has no place in men's thoughts 
nor in literature. This is the closing state- 
ment: "As it is, if left to themselves, me- 
chanics will by their silence continue to 
let those outside the shop think of them as 
nothing but men tied to a whistle." 

Leigh Hunt (himself very much an out- 
sider) in a familiar essay makes this 
friendly observation: "A business of 
screws and iron wheels is, or appears to 
be, a very commonplace matter; but not 
so the will of the hand that sets them in 
motion; not so the operations of the mind 
that directs them what to utter." 

But this mechanic that now nears the 
public library is coming neither as a pa- 
thetic figure in distress, nor as a myste- 
rious or heroic figure beyond our compre- 
hension. He comes as an unpretending 
man dignified by earnestness of purpose 
not to discredit an honorable vocation. 

The best of mutual understanding and 
feeling, however, will not secure the chief 
ends of librarianship except so far as they 
splendidly prepare the way. The recog- 
nition of bocks as tools comes only as the 
books stand the same practical test that 
the workman applies to his instruments. 

The librarian must furnish books shaped 
to the man's hand, books that he can use 
to perform work, that he can depend upon 
as true, accurate, precise, simple, efficient, 
economical, reliable in the same sense that 
his tools must be all these. And so, the 
selection of books for a working library 
of technology becomes not unlike the test- 
ing of instruments of precision. Care in 
selection is of supreme importance in fit- 
ting up a toolshop of books. 

Wisdom in application is scarcely sec- 
ond to intelligence in choice. A practical 
man does not often come to a library for 
this or that particular book, for the work 
of a specified author, or for a title that he 
has in mind. If he does, he cannot always 
be depended upon to know his own wishes 



In the matter. What this maa wanti 1b 
information about a topic that concerns 
him. He leaves it to the library to tell him 
in what printed form that information can 
be had — and it's risky, for the library, to 
trifle with him or to play him false. Hesi- 
tation, indecision, irresolution are fatal. If 
the library exhibits lack of faith in itself, 
who, indeed, shall have faith in it? The 
workingman will be sure to entertain the 
same contempt for the librarian's doubtful 
application of even the best books as he 
himself would of the misuse of good tools 
in his own trade. 

This necessity for books that will an- 
swer to needs is the incentive in the erec- 
tion of a working library to which men 
may resort. 

At home we have a permanent and con- 
stantly revised selection of the most useful 
technical books registered on cards of 
varying colors showing the differing char- 
acteristics of the books included. This is 
our Works Library. And within it, on 
blue cards, are listed the simplest and 
most direct texts for the man with the 
least preparation for books. This is our 
Dinner-Pail Library. And starting with 
these, we may go on with a degree of con- 
fidence in teaching men the use of tools 
the handling of which we ourselves under- 

Preparedness in attitude, preparedness 
in equipment, await the arrival of the 
man the most skeptical of the library's 
guests. Does he come and go away again 
confirmed in his skepticism? If he does, 
it's the library's fault, not his. Does he 
come, and remain, to come again? Then 
he is ready to pay the tribute of his al- 
legiance that becomes the librarian's great 

We have heard the American Machinist 
complain that the mechanic found no voice 
to sing his praises. Not less is the genus 
librarian unwept, unhonored, and unsung. 
He expects praise as little as he desires 
it, and, perhaps, I may say, deserves it. 
But the ready word of appreciation, the 
acknowledgment of the library's help in 
overcoming difficulties that drove a man 

there as a last resort, the eonfession of 
awakening to the new knowledge of the 
library's wider purpose and power, is ex- 
pressed often with a frankness and fervor 
that surprise and gratify the fortunate 
librarian who has been instrumental in 
bringing things to pass. 

I recall how men of few words and lit- 
tle sentiment have spontaneously related 
to me their experiences of misfortune, per- 
plexity, disappointment, or other embar- 
rassment that caused them to turn to the 
public library for a possible helping hand, 
and then, how the library did not fail them 
in their extremity. At such times, I knew 
that the free library was doing what it un- 
dertook to do. 

Of this sort are the few, the impressive 
instances that illustrate how, on occasions, 
a working library can meet very excep- 
tional requirements. There are also the 
very many — the students, apprentices, 
shopmen, machinists, inventors, chemists, 
engineers, manufacturers — all artisans and 
craftsmen in their various ways, who are 
coming to learn that in their usual daily 
processes they may expect from the pub- 
lic library the ordinary, indispensable serv- 
ice that the library has always performed 
for those who know the value of books. 

It is this complete idea of a library that 
still fails of development in the minds 
of these men, an idea that the library is a 
live thing, a public utility of which they 
will naturally and inevitably avail them- 
selves as they do of the street-cars to 
take them both to and away from their 
work. Nothing is needed to convince men 
that a utility is a utility save the satisfying 
use of it. When they have found that the 
library speeds them on in the direction of 
the day's occupation, then it becomes easy 
enough for them to learn that the libra- 
ry can also get them far removed from it. 
And when the workingman fully compre- 
hends the working library, and by means 
of it is introduced to the diverting library, 
he becomes a man with the greatest ca- 
pacity for usefulness, and the library's 
conquest of the community is finished and 



The PRESIDENT: Mr. Stevens has very 
forcefully brought out the factor that a 
book may be in bringing into life dor- 
mant faculties that might otherwise go to 
waste and recalls to us the remark of 
Prof. Dewey, that the loss of the unearned 
increment is as nothing compared with 
the loss of the undiscovered resource. 

Of course you know as well as the mem- 
bers of the program committee that they 
had nothing to do with the selection of the 
next speaker; the topic chose her. How 
could anyone else be asked to present the 
subject of "The woman on the farm," than 
Miss LUTIE E. STEARNS, of the Wiscon- 
sin free library commission? 


Modern programs of library extension 
through public libraries as distinguished 
from traveling library systems are prac- 
tically confined to an arbitrary line drawn 
tightly around the city's limits. Charters, 
laws, or ordinances under which many li- 
braries operate are usually interpreted to 
restrict the use of such institutions to a 
narrow area and no great attempt has been 
made through legislation, save in Califor- 
nia and a few isolated examples elsewhere, 
to extend library privileges to adjacent 
communities. It is a happy omen for the 
future that the president of the American 
Library Association, the custodian of a li- 
brary catering to two-million city dwell- 
ers with a circulation second in rank to 
Greater New York, should have seen fit 
on his own initiative to place among the 
topics of this meeting the needs of th« 
woman on the farm, the real founder of 
the city's citizenship. 

"Who's the greatest woman in history?" 
was the query debated by Kansas school 
teachers recently. They considered Joan 
of Arc, Queen Elizabeth, Semiramis, Cleo- 
patra, Cornelia, Catherine of Russia, Maria 
Theresa, Grace Darling, Florence Night- 
ingale, Susan B. Anthony, and half a hun- 
dred others. When they came to deciding, 
all the names known to fame were ruled 
out. And to whom do you suppose the 

judges awarded the palm? Here Is the an- 
swer: "The wife of the farmer of moder- 
ate means who does her own cooking, 
washing. Ironing and sewing, brings up a 
family of boys and girls to be useful mem- 
bers of society and finds time for intellec- 
tual improvement." 

These teachers knew that woman, they 
knew the drudgery she faced at four or 
five o'clock every morning the year 'round. 
There are twenty millions of her in this 
country of ours, she makes up nearly one- 
fourth of the population of the country, 
and while we are dealing with these most 
"vital statistics," we may include th« 
tragic fact that sixty-six per cent of those 
committed to insane hospitals are from 
rural districts, the farm women constitut- 
ing the great majority thereof. 

And yet the needs of this great, deserv- 
ing class of "humans" with minds and 
hearts even more receptive to ideas than 
are city women — the needs of such as 
these are as yet almost wholly unrealized 
by librarians aside from Commission work- 
ers. No committee of the American Li- 
brary Association has ever had the joy of 
working out a program of library extension 
from the great city systems to rural read- 
ers. The question put by the then Presi- 
dent Roosevelt to his Country Life Com- 
mission, "How can the life of the farm 
family be made less solitary, fuller of op- 
portunity, freer from drudgery, more com- 
fortable, happier, and more attractive?" 
- still awaits solution from the library stand 

Though agriculture is our oldest and by 
far our largest and most Important indus- 
try, it has only recently occurred to us 
In the United States that we had a rural 
problem. It Is only within the last de- 
cade or so that, we have awakened to the 
fact that there Is a rural as well as an ur- 
ban problem, and the library world is too 
prone to keep from recognizing it. We 
are not concerned in this connection with 
the problem of the retired farmer who 
moves into a town to spend his last days 
which are, seemingly, all he Is willing to 
spend; nor shall we discuss those restless 



flat dwellers in our cities who, tempted 
by such alluring and wholly immoral titles 
as "The Fat of the Land," "The Earth 
Bountiful," "A Self-Supporting Home," 
"Three Acres and a Cow," or "Three Acres 
and Liberty" — "for those to whom the idea 
of liberty is more inspiring than that of 
the cow"— attempt to start ginseng, guinea 
pig, pheasant, and peacock farms, and who 
return to the city as shorn of guineas as 
the pigs they leave behind them. 

In the serious solution of this problem, 
we may, in truth, differ as to the sort of 
farmers we would benefit. As Sir Horace 
Plunkett has said in his "Rural problem 
in America," "The New York City idea 
is probably that of a Long Island home 
where one might see on Sunday, weather 
permitting, the horny-handed son of week- 
day toil in Wall Street, rustically attired, 
inspecting his Jersey cows and aristocratic 
fowls. These supply a select circle in New 
York City with butter and eggs at a price 
which leaves nothing to be desired unless 
it be some information as to cost of pro- 
duction. Full justice is done to the new 
country life when the Farmers' Club of 
New York fulfills its chief function — the 
annual dinner at Delmonico's. Then Agri- 
culture is extolled in fine Virgilian style, 
the Hudson villa and the Newport cottage 
being permitted to divide the honors of the 
rural revival with the Long Island home. 
"But to my bucolic intelligence," concludes 
Sir Horace, "it would seem that against 
the back-to-the-land movement of Satur- 
day afternoon, the captious critic might set 
the rural exodus of Monday morning." 

To the New England librarian there 
probably comes the picture of rugged, bean- 
clad hills with "electrics" in every valley 
eager to take the intellectual rustics to 
the Lowell lectures or the Boston Sym- 
phony Orchestra. That books are appre- 
ciated in the rural districts even in a state 
that boasts a library in every town is 
shown by a letter from one who had re- 
ceived the volumes sent out by the "Mass- 
achusetts Society to Encourage Studies at 
Home." "I do not know where I should 
stop if I tried to tell how much these li- 

brary books have helped me in my isolated 
life — I have craved so much and there 
seemed no access possible to anything 1 
wanted, I have lived always with a long- 
ing for something different; life was a bur- 
den to be carried cheerfuly, yet I never 
quite conquered the feeling that the bur- 
den was heayy. Books have taken away 
that feeling and before 1 was aware, the 
load was gone, I have written thus of 
myself, not because my individual experi- 
ence is of importance enough to interest 
anyone, but because I believe the world 
is full of people with the same wants that 
I have and it may be some satisfaction to 
know how fully you are supplying them." 

To the librarian of New Jersey, the iso- 
lated dwellers of the salt marshes would 
come to mind. Maryland suggests to 
some librarian epicures the oyster farm, 
with its succulent product, but to others 
comes the vision of the "real thing" sup- 
plied as in Washington County with the 
Ideal arrangement of central library, 
branches, deposit stations, traveling libra- 
ries, and automobile delivery to the very 
doors of the Maryland farm homes — the 
most ideal arrangement of rural extension 
that exists in America today. 

To the Georgian, the "cracker" presents 
itself with its "Uneeda" book appeal. The 
"mountain-white" of Kentucky, who comes 
to Berea in his seventeenth year to learn 
his letters, would surely appreciate an op- 
portunity to go on with them when he gets 
"back home," In the north middle west, 
where farms are still surrounded by a 
fringe of pine and an "infinite destiny," a 
farmer's wife writes as follows: "For 
many years I have lived on a farm on the 
cleared land of Northern Wisconsin, and I 
have made an earnest study of the condi- 
tions that surround the lives of the aver- 
age isolated farmer and his family. I hava 
seen all of the loneliness and desolation of 
their lives, I have witnessed all the dreari- 
ness and poverty of their homes. I hava 
been with them when our nearest railroad 
station meant a twenty-eight mile trip 
through bottomless mud or over shaking 
corduroy; where our nearest post-offlce 



was eighteen miles away, over the same 
impassable roads and where we were often 
without mail for weeks at a time; when 
the nearest public library was sixty miles 
away; when the only element of culture or 
progress we possessed was the little back- 
woods school, housed in a tumble-down 
log shack and presided over by careless 
or incompetent teachers. I have watched 
civilization come to us step by step, — th« 
railroad, the rural mail delivery, the coun- 
try telephone, and other modern rural con- 
veniences. But, before any of these, right 
into the midst of our lonely backwoods 
life, came the traveling library, for it is 
characteristic of the traveling library that 
it is not dependent on modern con- 
veniences for its appearance. I can recall 
the thrill of joy with which we received 
our first case of books. I read their title* 
over and over, handled and caressed them 
in a perfectly absurd manner. Almost all 
of the books were old friends of mine; but, 
to our little neighborhood of foreigners, 
they were "brand new" and the enthusi- 
asm over that library knew no bounds. 

"We had a regular literary revival that 
winter. We talked books in season and 
out of season; and from talking about the 
books in the little library we fell to talking 
of other books; of books we had read in 
our younger, happier days. It mattered 
little if in the course of these conversa- 
tions books and authors were hopelessly 

"I cannot say that we derived any great 
amount of knowledge from our first libra- 
ry, but I do know that it brought into our 
little backwoods settlement, that which we 
needed much more — hope and courage and 
an interest in life. That was my first in- 
troduction to the traveling library, but 
during the years that have gone since 
then, I have seen much of the work of 
these little cases of books. While it is 
true that the traveling library does not 
always meet with as enthusiastic a recep- 
tion as our little settlement gave it that 
winter, yet it always comes to our rural 
communities as a help and inspiration. My 

appreciation of the worth of the traveling 
library has grown with the years." 

"Once a library meant nothing but row* 
of books and its influence was confined 
to narrow limits. However with the estab- 
lishment of the traveling library, these 
books have become veritable missionaries 
penetrating to all sorts of dreary, isolated 
places, carrying with them a culture and 
a pleasure that will aid in illuminating 
the long, dreary path of existence with 
the color of happiness." 

As one farmer's wife has It in another 
locality, "Good books drive away neighbor- 
hood discussion of the four deadly D's — 
Diseases, Dress, Descendants and Domes- 

Olive Schreiner in her wonderful and 
heart searching study of "Woman and La- 
bor," has pointed out that at first woman 
hunted with the man, and later when the 
race settled in one spot, the woman was 
the tiller of the soil and the man the hunt- 
er and warrior. Then when man no long- 
er needed to hunt or fight, the woman 
moved within the house and the man tilled 
the fields. The woman became the isolat- 
ed one. Isolation is the menace of farm 
life just as congestion is of city life. This 
isolation has a depressing effect upon the 
intellectual life of those who require the 
stimulus of contact with others to keep 
their minds active. The woman on the 
farm, as Mr. Bailey has pointed out, is 
- apt to become a fatalist. Floods, drought, 
storms, tornadoes, untimely frosts, back- 
ward seasons, blight, predatory beasts, ani- 
mal and plant diseases render a season's 
great labor of no avail, or destroy the 
fruits of it within the hour. Along with 
these perennial discouragements comes the 
interminable round of getting up before 
sunrise and cooking, baking, dishwashing, 
sewing, mending, washing and ironing 
clothes from day to day, week to week, 
month to month, and year to year, with 
additional work peculiar to the seasons, 
such as at planting times, threshing and 
harvesting, fruit gathering and preserving, 
etc., etc., etc. The work of the farm is 
carried on in direct connection with the 



home, thus differing from nearly all the 
large industries, such as manufacturing 
and the like. The fact that agriculture is 
still a family industry where the work and 
home life are not separated, differentiates 
it from life in the city with its lack of a 
common business interest among all the 
members of the family. This condition 
tends to make rural life stable. The whole 
family stay at home evenings and one 
book is read aloud to the entire family 
circle. We still find the big family in the 
country where bridge whist and race-suicide 
— cause and effect — are as yet unknown. 
But the big family puts cares and respon- 
sibilities upon the mother on the farm and 
when one sees the "bent form, the tired 
carriage, the warped fingers and the thin, 
wrinkled features" of so many farmer's 
wives, one does not at first see anything 
but cruelty to animals in urging recrea- 
tion and reading upon such over-burdened 
women. But a brighter, industrial day is 
at hand. From perpetual motion to hours 
of reasonable industrial requirements the 
daily working period of the farmer is com- 
ing to be reduced by labor saving machin- 
ery. The modern gasoline engine, to my 
mind the most important contribution to 
civilization and culture in recent times, 
now pumps the water, saws and cuts the 
wood, runs the lighting plant, the washing 
machine, the milking machine, the cream 
separator, the churn, the sewing machine, 
the bread-mixer, the vacuum cleaner, the 
lawn mower, the coffee grinder, the ice 
cream freezer and even the egg-beater. 
These, with the flreless cooker, have re- 
lieved the housewife and made time for 
reading and other recreation. Good roads, 
rural free delivery, the interurban trol- 
ley car, the automobile and the rural tele- 
phone are removing the old-time isolation 
and are making possible enjoyment and 
a culture and refinement equal to that of 
the business and professional classes of 
the cities. One thing only is still withheld 
from distinctly rural communities — the op- 
portunity to get good books. 

It has been said so often it has become 
a truism that the rural districts are the 

seed bed from which the cities are stocked 
with people. Upon the character of thii 
stock more than upon anything else does 
the greatness of a nation and the quality 
of its civilization ultimately depend. The 
importance of doing something with and 
for these people is paramount for the 
farms furnish the cities not alone with ma- 
terial products but with men and women. 
Census returns indicate that cities are 
gaining on the country all the time. We 
who wish to stop the rural exodus must 
co-operate with other agencies to make 
farm life more attractive and this we can 
do by opening our doors to farmers and 
their wives, the makers of men. It is our 
city's self-protection that there should 
come from the farms strong, well-educated 
minds, and we each should contribute our 
share to this end. A Chinese philosopher 
has said, "The well-being of a people is 
like a tree; agriculture is its root, man- 
ufacturing and commerce are its branches 
and its life; if the root is injured, the 
leaves fall, the branches break away and 
the tree dies." State universities and oth- 
er free educational agencies are recogniz- 
ing the fact that not the few but all, farm 
and city-bred alike, must be educated for 
life and through life. Commencement day 
is no longer the educational day of judg- 
ment for the individual. Rural consolidat- 
ed high schools are being built to supple- 
ment the little red school-house. Libraries, 
through extension of their service, must 
aid in the great agrarian movement of the 
day. We cannot all, perhaps, have the 
ideal arrangement as worked out in Mary- 
land by Miss Titcomb. It may not be pos- 
sible to cover other states with book wag- 
ons as Delaware proposes to do. We may 
not accomplish the California ideal of the 
county as the unit. We may not be able 
to send traveling libraries on their bene- 
ficent mission, but we each may try to let 
down the bars at our own reservoirs so 
that whosoever is athirst may come and 
drink of the waters of life freely. 

The PRESIDENT: Whenever I become 
rash enough to venture a comment upon 
any paper of Miss Stearns I always take 



the precaution to do It before she pre- 
sents it; afterwards it is entirely superflu- 
ous. Yet I venture to express a thought 
which I am sure has occurred to you like- 
wise; that there is a very strong relation- 
ship between the two papers which have 
been presented this morning; that there 
is cause and coming effect in that the one 
activity of the library, as represented by 
the first paper, is making possible the mul- 
tiplication of these various devices which 
shall make for the woman on the farm the 
new day of which Miss Stearns has pro- 

During the last few years the library 
has entered another new field, an unsus- 
pected field. Those of us who have had 
an opportunity to go about to the various 
institutions where the defectives and the 
dependents and other unfortunates are in- 
carcerated have marvelled at the — shall 
we say ignorance, which has been at the 
bottom of the book work with these peo- 
ple. But scientific methods have been in- 
troduced and during the last few confer- 
ences we have had something of the prom- 
ise which has now grown into fuller real- 
ization. I shall ask Miss JULIA A. ROB- 
INSON, who has done strong, splendid 
work in Iowa in this connection, to present 
the next paper, on 





Needy humanity divides itself into three 
classes, those whom it is said the Lord 
helps, those who will not and those who 
cannot help themselves. In no form of 
need, however, are we interested today 
save that of the book, nor with the willful- 
ly book needy. 

For are not they served by the public 
libraries which go even into the highways 
and byways and wellnigh compel the un- 
interested to come to the feast freely of- 
fered to them? And though there are still 
rural districts not yet supplied with public 
or traveling libraries, many of them have 

the ability to provide themselres with 
books had they the desire. 

But there are those, not always removed 
by space but far removed by condition 
from such privileges, because crime, weak- 
ness or misfortune has deprived them of 
their freedom and for the safety of society, 
their own restoration to health or their 
care and education they are detained be- 
hind closed doors. These are the morally, 
mentally and physically defective and the 
dependent upon the bounty of the state. 
With this class of helpless are we concern- 
ed, with their needs and with what is being 
done to bring to them the influence of 
books. Of their needs let me speak briefly 
while I define and locate the different 
classes, giving a few figures which perhaps 
may not be amiss in helping us to realize 
their numbers. 

Of the moral defectives 113,579 have 
heard the grated doors of prison, peniten- 
tiary or reformatory close behind them, 
for some never to open. For others in a 
few years perhaps these doors will swing 
outward to freedom. Shall it be to useful 
citizenship, or to become a greater men- 
ace to society and again to be put behind 
the bars? Most of these are men who are 
employed during long working hours. 
There is much time for idle thoughts dur- 
ing those hours, in addition to evenings and 
Sundays spent alone in locked cells. Large 
is the opportunity here for the book in its 
threefold mission of recreation, instruc- 
tion and inspiration to lives barren of 
pleasure and interest. 

But these are not all. We must add 22,- 
900 juvenile delinquents found in the state 
Industrial and training schools of the Unit- 
ed States, boys and girls whose steps have 
early found the downward path, in most 
cases, I believe, because of the influences 
into which life ushered them. But many 
of these are yet within the years of sus- 
ceptibility and to the other upward influ- 
ences with which it Is now sought to sur- 
round them should be added the society of 
books which will bring wholesome pleasure 
while they present high standards and 
make right living attractive. 



These numbers are exceeded by the 
mentally defective of whom 187,454, dis- 
turbed or confused, dazed or depressed, 
look through grated windows or sit in 
shadowed corners of the Insane hospitals. 
To take their thoughts from themselves 
and direct them into healthful channels 
may mean a step toward mental healing 
and adjustment. This books will often 
do and to fail to furnish them may mean 
to omit a remedial influence in their treat- 
ment. Of the feebleminded, there are 20,- 
199 in the institutions for that class of de- 
fectives. With them the task is not so 
encouraging, but a right to the pleasure of 
books is theirs and should not be with- 

There are 61,423 to whom the printed 
page must speak for they hear no other 
voice, and 44,310 to whose touch the raised 
letters bring their message. Shut out 
from so much which others enjoy shall 
these be denied this means of recreation 
and instruction? 

The charitable institutions shelter 268,- 
656 dependents which include the old, the 
sick and the children in the state public 
schools, orphanages and homes. The for- 
mer need books to cheer them in their 
fight for health and strength, or to while 
away the hours of waiting for their final 
summons. The children need them not 
only for the enjoyment which comes from 
childhood reading, but as a means of de- 
velopment of mind and character. I would 
lay especial emphasis on the importance 
of libraries in these and in the industrial 
and training schools. Useful as books are 
in the other institutions, there the help 
which they bring is but to the readers 
themselves. Here we have citizens in the 
making and the state has not only the op- 
portunity of laying the foundations of 
character, but by laying them deep and 
broad and strong of receiving returns for 
their efforts in intelligent and useful citi- 
zens. To librarians I need not speak of 
the value of books in giving the educa- 
tion which makes for intelligence and the 
ideals which make for usefulness. 

To meet these needs what do the insti- 

tutional libraries offer? I shall not give 
you figures which at best would be inac- 
curate and incomplete, but such informa- 
tion as could be obtained showing the ef- 
forts which are being made to provide 
books and reading for defectives and de- 
pendents, the adequacy and suitability 
of the libraries and their use of modern 
library methods. 

The list of states is incomplete, some 
failing to respond, others giving vague in- 
formation, and an omission may not mean 
that nothing is being done along this line. 
What is given will serve to show the gen- 
eral trend of interest in the work. 

California plans to serve the institu- 
tions through the county system of li- 
braries, but just how this is to be done or 
whether any institutions have libraries or 
have received assistance was not stated. 

Colorado reports libraries in all the state 
institutions, the best being that at the 
state penitentiary where the visitors' fees 
yield a considerable income which is used 
for books. In Georgia two institutions 
only have libraries, which are reported to 
be neither well selected, kept up to date 
nor administered according to modern 

The only information received from 
Idaho was that traveling libraries are sent 
to the industrial school. 

In Illinois libraries are reported in the 
eighteen charitable and three penal insti- 
tutions of the state, though not all are 
adequate or suitable in selection. 

In Indiana several institutions receive 
annual library appropriations ranging 
from $1,000 down to $200. No institution 
is without a library though not all are or- 
ganized or well selected or large enough 
for the needs of the institution. The li- 
brary commission lends an organizer to 
assist in this work and In some cases the 
book selection and the affairs of the li- 
brary are put into the hands of the com- 
mission. The librarian from the School 
for Feeble Minded Youth will attend the 
summer school. 

In Iowa libraries exist in all of the four- 
teen state institutions; all are classified. 



organized and administered according to 
approved library methods. All except the 
penitentiaries have appropriations of $300 
to $500 each for the purchase of books. In 
the penitentiaries the fund received from 
visitors' fees is used for this purpose. Re- 
ports are made each month to the Board 
of Control showing the reading done by- 
classes in each institution. A trained li- 
brarian appointed by the Board of Control 
gives all her time to the institutional li- 
braries, superintending the work, doing 
the book selection, supplying the techni- 
cal knowledge, instructing the librarians 
and stimulating the reading. 

In Kentucky the prisons and hospitals 
are under separate boards, neither of 
which has done much for the libraries in 
the institutions under their charge, but 
both have the matter under consideration 
and better things are looked for in the fu- 
ture. The prison libraries are represented 
as inadequate and unsuitable. One only 
has a fund for the purchase of books and 
that only $50. The only books in the 
Houses of Reform are the traveling librar- 
ies loaned by the library commission. Two 
state hospitals have very small libraries 
and no fund. One has about 800 volumes 
and an annual fund of $250. 

The chairman of the Board of Control 
of State Institutions in Kansas writes that 
considerable interest is taken in providing 
suitable reading for the dependents and 
defectives of that state and that the in- 
stitutions are urged to systematic work, 
but does not state whether all have li- 

The Maine Insane Hospital has an en- 
dowment which yields an income of about 
$600 annually which is expended for books 
for the general library, periodicals and 
medical books. According to the chaplain 
of the Maine state prison "additions are 
made to that library from three sources, a 
few volumes by purchase,, some by gifts 
from individuals, but mostly by gifts from 
the state library of books no longer useful 
in the traveling libraries." 

The Massachusetts prison commission 

reports libraries in substantially all the 
prisons. The larger ones are classified. 

Michigan has a state appropriation for 
books. All the institutions have librar- 
ies of some kind, but none are classified or 
organized" according to modern methods. 
The selections are made by the state li- 

Minnesota has also an appropriation for 
books in the state institutions. The pub- 
lic library organizer from the Library 
Commission pays regular visits to the in- 
stitutions, selects the books and supervises 
the work. Not all are classified and several 
need new books. The two asylums for in- 
curable insane and the hospital for in- 
ebriates have only traveling libraries. 

In Missouri five institutions have no li- 
braries. Traveling libraries are sent to 
the insane hospitals. In the boys' train- 
ing school the library is managed without 
system. If a boy wants a book the su- 
perintendent takes what may be at hand 
and gives it to him. 

Nebraska has a state appropriation of 
$2,000 made directly to the Library Com- 
mission to be expended by them for the 
thirteen institutional libraries. This is 
used for books, supplies and periodicals ex- 
cept in two institutions which supply their 
own magazines. The institutions are asked 
to furnish cases only and some one to loan 
the books. Books are selected by the com- 
mission and prepared for circulation in 
the commission office. 

In New Hampshire the legislature makes 
an appropriation for the libraries in the 
state prisons and state hospitals. 

The February number of New York 
Libraries was made an institutional num- 
ber and among other things contained 
reports from the institutional libraries 
of the state showing libraries in all 
but two or three institutions which are 
supplied by traveling libraries. The fol- 
lowing editorial comment is made on these 
libraries: "Of the thirty-six institutions 
from whose libraries detailed reports are 
herewith presented, there are not more 
than two or three whose library condi- 
tions would be regarded as up to the 



standard commonly expected and de- 
manded for public libraries. For not one 
of tbem does the state provide a sufficient 
appropriation for the attainment of such a 
standard." The committee appointed by 
the State Library Association on libraries 
in the penal institutions in the state of 
New York in making their report recom- 
mend a change of title for the committee 
to include the charitable as well as the 
penal and reformatory institutions and a 
request that the legislature pass an act au- 
thorizing the appointment of a supervising 
librarian for the state institutions. 

The libraries in many of the state insti- 
tutions of North Carolina are reported so 
small and poorly cared for that they are 
practically useless. The School for the 
Blind has a separate library building called 
the Laura Bridgman Library and there is 
a good library in the School for the Deaf 
classified by the teachers. The value of 
this work is appreciated by the Board of 
Charities but there is a lack of funds. 

The North Dakota Library Commission 
has recently been asked to assist in select- 
ing books and organizing a library for the 
state penitentiary where a thousand dol- 
lars is to be expended. No libraries exist 
in the other state institutions. 

The Oregon Library Commission reports 
libraries in all the state institutions except 
one just opened. All the institutions are 
located at Salem and receive direct assist- 
ance from the commission in organization 
and book selection and management of 
their libraries. Purchases are made from 
a general fund. All are reported adequate 
except one to be made so'. Three are class- 
ified and the rest are to be. 

Pennsylvania has libraries in all the 
state institutions but none are organized, 
classified or administered accgrding to ac- 
cepted library methods. The Library Com- 
mission takes the position (wisely it seems 
to me) that their part lies in stirring up 
the boards in charge of the institutions to 
active interest in these libraries, rather 
than themselves mixing in the affairs of 
another organization, though as yet little 
has been accomplished in that direction. 

Tennessee has a library In the School for 
the Blind, the School for the Deaf and the 
state prison, but none in the insane hos- 
pitals. These are organized and classified 
to a limited extent only. 

From the biennial report of the Texas 
Library Commission I quote the following: 
"Only a few of the institutions have li- 
braries and as a rule these are small and 
without reference to the purpose they are 
to serve. Some have nominal librarians, 
but none trained and a library without a 
trained librarian is like a piano without 
a pianist, valuable, even expensive, but of 
little use or pleasure." 

In Vermont an appropriation of $500 was 
made in 1910 and $200 is now appropriated 
annually. This is divided between the li 
braries in the State Prison, House of Cor- 
rection, State Industrial School and Insane 
Hospital and is under the control of the 
Free Public Library Commission which 
purchases the books and oversees the cat- 
aloging. A card catalog of each institution 
is kept at the commission ofiice. The State 
Prison also has a printed catalog. 

Washington has a library of some kind 
in all its institutions, but in none is it a 
real factor. None are classified. 

In Wisconsin no institution is wholly 
without a library. They are organized and 
classified in a limited way only. The com- 
mission assists to some extent in book se- 

From these reports we may draw the fol- 
lowing conclusions: (1-) Libraries of some 
kind exist in many state institutions. (2) 
Probably most of these libraries are only 
partially adequate, if not wholly Inade- 
quate and unsuitable. (3) Few are organ- 
ized or administered according to the best 
methods, have proper rooms or a librarian 
in charge to render even their present 
collection useful. (4) In a few states only 
is there trained supervision or systematic 
library work undertaken in the institu- 
tions. (5) Where appropriations are made 
they are seldom suflScient to properly 
maintain the libraries. 

The responsibility for this work lies (1) 
with the governing bodies, the Boards of 



Control and other boards to whom is com- 
mitted the care and welfare of the defec- 
tives and dependents of the state and the 
superintendents of the various institutions 
who are directly responsible for this care, 
and (2) with the librarians entrusted with 
library extension and the carrying of 
books to those who would otherwise be 
bookless, the state library commissions. 

That the superintendents partially ap- 
preciate the value of the book is evidenced 
by library beginnings in many institutions 
and their readiness to co-operate in move- 
ments toward the improvement and in- 
creased usefulness of the libraries. But 
they are busy men with many depart- 
ments on heart and mind and the boards 
are charged with many interests. 

It is not surprising, therefore, that it is 
the librarians who have recognized the im- 
portance of these libraries and the fact that 
if they are to become a real force in the 
institutions the work must be given to 
some one whose business it shall be, who 
is trained for it, and who has the time to 
give it proper attention. 

As few institutions are yet in a position 
to individually employ a trained librarian, 
the solution of the problem has seemed to 
be a joint or supervising librarian for all 
the institutions of a state or of a kind in 
a state. 

Iowa through the influence of Miss Tyler 
and Mr. Brigham was the first to under- 
take this work and is still the only state 
in which institutional library work is done 
by a librarian working under the Board of 
Control and giving all her time to the in- 
stitutions. The other states having institu- 
tional supervision are Indiana, Minnesota, 
where an oflScer from the commission 
gives part and Nebraska the whole of her 
time to the institutional libraries, and Ore- 
gon, Michigan and Vermont where the 
work seems to be done directly by the sec- 

If the Board of Control and the institu- 
tional heads are not affected by party 
changes the advantage, it seems to me, lies 
with the librarian employed by them, who 

goes Into the Institutions with authority 
from the board to do what needs to be 
done and not as a guest, who is sometimes 
unwelcome. The book selection can thus 
be better guarded and I believe books pur- 
chased with institution funds will be bet- 
ter cared for by both officers and inmates 
than those received by donation. Appro- 
priations are also likely to be larger if 
made directly to each institution than If 
made in a lump sum to the commission. 

The initiative, however, will undoubtedly 
lie with the library commission and the 
importance of institutional library work Is 
such that should the boards fail to use 
their opportunity it may become the part 
of the library commission to at least In- 
augurate the work, which having begun 
they will probably be allowed to continue. 

Before closing may I emphasize very 
briefly three important points in connec- 
tion with institutional library work. I wish 
I might elaborate both these and the other 
points which I have touched so hurriedly, 
but time forbids. 

1. If the libraries are to become a real 
factor for good in institutional work, the 
book selection must be differentiated to 
meet the needs of the different classes of 
readers, and great care used to exclude the 
harmful and include helpful books only. 
2. To make these libraries most useful 
there should be suitable rooms, not only 
for the proper shelving of the books, but 
for use as reading rooms where the atmos- 
phere of book lined walls may yield its 
helpful influence and prepare the way for 
public library use by the boys and girls 
at least when the opportunity shall come 
to them. 3. Though there may be a su- 
pervising librarian in the field, there 
should be a competent institutional libra- 
rian who shall not only do the routine 
work, but have sufficient knowledge of 
books and readers to be able to fit them 
together and sufficient time to do the work 

Thus shall these libraries, not only bring 
brightness and cheer to lives otherwise 
dull and colorless, for 



"This books can do; — nor this alone; they 

New views to life, and teach us how to 

They sooth the grieved, the stubborn they 

Fools they admonish, and confirm the 

Their aid they yield to all: They never 

The man of sorrows, nor the wretch un- 
Unlike the hard, the selfish and the proud. 
They fly not sullen from the suppliant 

crowd ; 
Nor tell to various people various things. 
But show to subjects what they show to 


The PRESIDENT: I am very glad to be 
dble to announce that Miss Rathbone has 
kindly consented to exhibit some extreme- 
ly interesting charts which have been pre- 
pared and exhibited in connection with the 
work of the library school at Pratt and I 
am sure that all of you will miss something 
if you do not avail yourselves of the oppor- 
tunity which is here presented to see them 
and to hear the explanation concerning 

Miss RATHBONE: I am very glad in- 
deed to tell you a little about our exhibi- 
tion because we found it an interesting 
thing to do and the people who saw it were 
interested in it. The genesis of the mat- 
ter was this: When Miss Alice Tyler was 
at the school this spring we were speaking 
about budget and other exhibitions and she 
said, "I do wish librarians could find some 
way of graphically presenting library work 
so that people could understand it as the 
child welfare work has been presented." 
That remark of hers, coupled with the fact 
the library school has never taken part 
in the exhibition that Pratt Institute has 
held for a great many years, at the end of 
the third term, suggested to me the idea 
of putting the problem to the class of de- 
vising an exhibition that should be a visual 
presentation of the school course and also 
of library work in general in a form that 
would be interesting and intelligible to the 
general public. After a visit to the Bureau 
of Municipal Research, where Dr. Allen 
gave them a talk on the value of graphic 

presentation of facts, I told the students 
that they were to have the entire respon- 
sibility of the planning and execution of 
this exhibition as a problem in the library 
administration seminar. It was, of course, 
an experiment but I was sufficiently con- 
vinced of its success after the class made 
their first and only report of progress, to 
invite the staffs of the neighboring 
public libraries to the exhibition. When 
the material was assembled and installed 
it created a good deal of interest both in 
the Institute among the librarians who 
saw it, and, best of all, on the part of the 
public at large. We had about five hun- 
dred visitors in the four days it was open 
and it seemed to awaken in the minds of 
the people who saw it some conception of 
what library work means. We heard many 
comments of this kind, "Well, now that I 
understand the work the library does, I 
am going to use it more intelligently." One 
high school boy said, "Gee! I've had an 
awful time trying to use this library be- 
fore, but I think I know what it is about 
now." That sort of a thing made me real- 
ize that the exhibition might be of value 
to some of you as showing one way by 
which people could be interested in the 
actual work done in a library, so I wrote to 
see if space could be had to install it 
here. It was too late, however, so I sim- 
ply brought up a few of the charts as ex- 

The exhibition began with the technical 
work of the library — the progress of a 
book through the various steps was illus- 
trated by a ladder the rungs of which were 
labeled. Book Selection, Ordering, Receiv- 
ing, Accessioning, Classification, etc. Books 
were shown running toward this "Library 
Ladder," nimbly climbing the rungs, while 
at the top they acquire wings and fly "off 
to the public." This chart hung over a 
table on which the successive operations 
were shown in detail the same book be- 
ing used as an illustration throughout. 
The successive steps were numbered to 
correspond to the rungs of the ladder. For 
example, Book Selection was shown by a 
group including the A. L. A, Booklist, the 



Book Review Digest and two or three of 
the reviews. The descriptive card read 
"No. 1. These are a few of the aids in 
book selection." 

Following that was a chart (exhibiting 
it) to illustrate the utility of classification, 
on which was presented a group of ten 
scientific books unclassified, followed by 
the same ten in D. C. order, with the ques- 
tion, "In which group would it be easier 
to find the books on insects." That was 
followed by another exhibit to prove the 
utility of subject cataloging. Two copies 
of the same book were obtained, one new 
and the other quite worn, the book being 
Gleason White's "Practical designing," 
which is made up of a number of papers 
on minor arts, by different authorities. 
The new book with a single author card 
lay on the table surrounded by radiating 
interrogation points, questions unanswered, 
and over the book hung this inscription: 
"This book looks new. Why? Because no- 
body knows what is in it. It is poorly cat- 
aloged." The worn copy lay on the next 
table and radiating from that were a num- 
ber of questions with the catalog cards 
that answer them attached. Over that 
was the screed: "This book shows wear. 
Why? Because it can be reached from 
twenty-four sources. It is well cataloged." 
People who had not known before what a 
catalog meant studied that thing out and 
the change of expression which came to 
their faces when they saw the new book 
and the worn book side by side and under- 
stood what it signified was delightful. It 
struck home. 

The work of the reference department 
was tellingly illustrated by an arch in 
which the reference library was the key- 
stone, all intellectual activities depending 
on it. 

(Miss Rathbone then exhibited various 
other charts and described them in detail.) 

In addition to this, children's work, the 
field work, the courses in binding and 
printing, the making of reading lists, the 
course in fiction were represented. 

Altogether we felt that graphic illustra- 
tion of library wprlc w?|,g not only possi- 

ble but distinctly worth while and that 
the exhibition had done a good work in 
educating the library's public, as well as 
the class, and we expect to make it a per- 
manent feature of the year's work. 

(Thursday morning, June 26, 1913) 

The PRESIDENT: We begin this morn- 
ing the fourth session of this Thirty-fifth 
Annual Conference and I shall ask the 
chairman of the Commitfee on Library 
Administration to submit at this time his 

(Dr. Bostwick here read the report.) 

The PRESIDENT: You have heard the 
report of the Committee on Administra- 
tion. This report embodies some recom- 
mendations which it seems to the Chair 
should be acted upon. Therefore the 
recommendation which suggests the ap- 
pointment of a committee to undertake cer- 
tain work will be referred to the Execu- 
tive Board for their attention, as, in ac- 
cordance with the terms of the Consti- 
tution, it devolves upon the Executive 
Board to name the committees. The re- 
port will be printed in the proceedings. 

(This report is printed with other com- 
mittee reports. See page 126.) 

Mr. RANCK: Mr. President, there is 
just one item, about questionnaires, if I 
may have a moment to state it, that I 
think the committee has not referred to. 
It is a matter of some importance to us 
at our library. I think we answer, in the 
form of questions of one kind or other, 
not all from libraries however, about a 
thousand a year. I should like to insist 
on the importance, when a blank is sent 
out on which spaces are left for writing 
in the answers, that a .duplicate be sent so 
that a library can keep a copy of the an- 
swers sent. Again and again we have to 
copy them because we feel it very impor- 
tant that we should know just exactly what 
we are sending out in that way. And if 
possible, in the printing of that report 
I should like to see the committee include 



that. If they ar« willing to accept the sug- 

The PRESIDENT: The suggeation is a 
very good one. 

The PRESIDENT: I feel like congratu- 
lating you this morning upon the program 
for this fourth session, the general theme 
being: "Children and young people; their 
conditions at home, in the school and in 
the library." No matter how splendid a 
structure may be reared nor how beauti- 
ful it may be, without an adequate founda- 
tion it is most insecure. We have learned 
to realize in library work that we must 
begin at the beginning if our work is to 
have any perpetuity or any permanent 
result. We feel that, splendid and admir- 
able in every way as the work with the 
adults is, that that alone is not enough. 
That work invites, as it deserves, our re- 
spect and admiration, but in the work with 
children is centered our affection. And 
when I say this I do not mean to inti- 
mate for one moment that that work Is 
enveloped in sentiment. I believe most 
firmly that the work with children is con- 
structive work of the very highest order. 
If there are any in this audience who 
doubt that I am sure that after we shall 
have heard the papers of this morning 
the doubts will be dispelled. We shall 
have this work in three volumes this 
morning, the first volume comprising two 
chapters. The title of the first volume is 
The Education of Children and the Con- 
servation of their Interests, and Chapter 
One will be contributed by Miss FAITH E. 
SMITH, of the Chicago public library, on 


It is now twenty-eight years since some 
one first recognized the fact that children 
needed to have special libraries or special 
collections of books in libraries, and there- 
upon opened a children's reading room in 
New York City. 

Some of the conditions affecting child 
life today existed then, but we know more 
about them now than we did then. We 

have many specialists in sociological fields 
who are making investigations, compiling 
statistics, drawing conclusions, and telling 
other people how to make the world a bet- 
ter place. Our rapid industrial develop- 
ment is producing many problems concern- 
ing child welfare, some of which are of 
vital interest to us as library workers; 
others we may well leave to playground 
associations, juvenile courts, health bu- 
reaus, social settlements, child labor com- 
mittees, schools and churches. It is not 
ours to change housing conditions or to do 
away with child labor, but it Is ours to 
meet these conditions, to be god-parents 
to those whose natural parents are not in- 
clined or not able to guide their reading, 
to present to the children's minds other 
worlds than the tenement or street, and 
to give to children worn with daily labor 
such books as will be within their grasp, 
and will help them to permanent happi- 

In 1885 when a children's library was 
opened by Miss Hanaway in New York 
City, there were fewer means of recreation 
than there are now. There were no motion- 
picture shows, no children's theaters, no 
municipal recreation parks with free gym- 
nasiums, swimming pools and baths. Child 
labor had only begun to be exploited by 
large manufacturing establishments (1879). 
Then there were more homes, permanent 
abiding .places, where there was room for 
children both to work and to play. There 
was more family life, where father and 
mother and children gathered about the 
evening lamp, and father read aloud while 
mother sewed and the children listened, or 
where each member of the family had his 
own book in which to lose himself. There 
were daily duties for each of the children, 
the performance of which gave them train- 
ing in habits of responsibility. 

Today such conditions may be found 
only rarely, except in small cities and vil- 

Congestion in large cities has led even 
well-to-do families to live In apartment 
houses. In Chicago this sort of life began 
only thirty-four years ago, and today one- 



third of all that city live In residences 
having six families per main entrance. 
(Chicago City Club-Housing exhibit.) This 
tendency to apartment life means the loss 
of the joy of ownership, the feeling of not- 
at-homeness and consequent restlessness, 
due to frequent change of environment. 

Book agents say that they cannot sell 
books to families in apartment houses, be- 
cause they have no room for books. Scott 
Nearing in his "Woman and social prog- 
ress" regrets "the woeful lack of provision 
for the needs of the child in the construc- 
tion of the modern city home. Huge real 
estate signs advertise the bathroom, bed- 
rooms, the dining room and kitchen, the 
library, and reception hall. But where is 
the children's room? Owners do not care 
to rent houses to people having children. 
Many of the apartment houses exclude 
children as they exclude dogs or other ob- 
jectionable animals." Yet we say, and 
rightly, that this is the century of the child. 

The complexity of modern life, the ten- 
dency to materialism, the multiplicity of in- 
terests, have deterred many parents from 
being actively concerned in the growth of 
the minds and the souls of their children. 
This part of their development is being 
left to teachers, church workers, leaders 
of boys' and girls' clubs, etc. There is 
not time for reading aloud to children at 
home, and little concern is manifested by 
many intelligent parents, regarding their 
children's choice of books. The "poor, 
neglected children of the rich" are not al- 
lowed to use the public library books, be- 
cause there may be germs hidden among 
the leaves. They may have their own 
books, but they are denied the joy of read- 
ing a book that some other boy or girl has 
read and pronounced "swell". 

Because of this lack of concern on the 
part of parents in children's reading, are 
we not justified in our hitherto condemned 

Home life among the very poor in the 
congested districts of our large cities is 
often such as is not worth the name. The 
practice of taking lodgers which prevails 
among some foreign elements of the popu- 

lation, means the undermining of family 
life, and often the breaking down of do- 
mestic standards. (Veiler, "Housing re- 
form," p. 33.) "Thousands of children in 
Chicago alone are being exposed to the de- 
moralizing influences of overcrowded 
rooms, of inadequate sanitary provisions, 
and of unavoidable contact with immoral 

"Bad housing is associated with the 
worst conditions in politics, poverty, popu- 
lation density, tuberculosis, and retarda- 
tion in the schools. It is directly related 
to many cases of delinquency of boys and 
girls, who have been brought before the 
juvenile court." (Breckenridge and Abbott, 
"The delinquent child and the home.") 

Furthermore wrong home conditions re- 
sult in driving children to the street. The 
child who finds no room at home to do the 
things that he wishes to do, not even room 
to study his school lessons, is inevitably 
forced into the street, "not only in the 
day time, but as common observation 
shows, until late at night, not only in good 
weather but in foul." Here he grows up, 
and is educated "with fatal precision." The 
saloon and its victims, the hoboes and 
their stories, criminals dodging the pq^ice, 
lurid signboards, a world of money-getting, 
all become only too familiar to him. Sin 
loses its sinfulness, and gains in interest 
and excitement. 

Are we placing our attractive children's 
rooms, clean and orderly, adorned with 
■ flowers and fine pictures, where they may 
be readily seen from the street, where pic- 
ture books placed in the windows may vie 
in alluring powers with the nickel-novel 
window displays? 

The boy of the street may be a member 
of a boys' gang, and if so, this becomes 
one of the great Influences acting upon his 
life, either for good or for ill. Mr. Puffer 
makes the statement that three-fourths of 
all boys are members of gangs. (Puffer, 
"The boy and his gang," p. 9.) 

Those boys are fortunate whose gang is 
an organized body efficiently directed, such 
as the Boys' Scout Patrol. This, Mr. Puffer 
says, "is simply a boys' gang, systematized, 



overseen, affiliated with other like bodies, 
made efficient and interesting, as boys 
alone could never make it, and yet every- 
where, from top to bottom a gang." Here 
lies an opportunity for co-operation on the 
part of the library, and many are the inter- 
ests awakened by the Boy Scout movement 
which may be encouraged by the library. 

Another influence constantly appealing to 
children of the street as well as to others, 
is the glaring advertisement of the moving- 
picture show. Moving pictures are now 
the most important form of cheap amuse- 
ment in this country; they reach the 
young, immigrants, family groups, the 
formative and impressionable section of 
our cities, as no other form of amusement, 
and can not but be vital influences for good 
or ill. In 1910 it was estimated that more 
than half a million children attended mo- 
tion pictures daily. (Juvenile Protective 
Assn. of Chicago, "Five and ten-cent the- 
aters" — pamphlet.) 

Is it not possible for the library to make 
permanent whatever good, though fleeting, 
impression may be made by educational 
pictures or pictures from great books, by 
co-operating with the picture shows, and 
beiyg ready to supply to the children 
copies of the stories, nature books, or his- 
tories to which the chidlren may have been 
attracted by the motion pictures? 

During the meetings this week our inter- 
est in the adult immigrants and their re- 
lation to the library has been aroused and 
augmented, and it has been proven con- 
clusively that the solution of the immi- 
grant problem must of necessity rest with 
the children. The change in the type of 
immigration in recent years from a large 
percentage of English-speaking and Scan- 
dinavian races having a low percentage of 
illiteracy, to a leadership among races of 
eastern and southern Europe, with a very 
high percentage of illiteracy, has had a de- 
cided influence on standards of living. 

These people of other lands do not adapt 
themselves to American ways as readily 
as their children. Many do not know the 
English language, they do not stir far from 
home or from work, and have few new ex- 

periences. "Many things which are famil- 
iar to the child in the facts of daily inter- 
course, in the street or in the school, re- 
main unintelligible to the father and 
mother. It has become a commonplace 
that this cheap wisdom on the part of the 
boy or girl leads to a reversal of the rela- 
tionship between parent and child. The 
child who knows English is the interpreter 
who makes the necessary explanations for 
the mother to the landlord, the grocer, the 
sanitary inspector, the charity visitor, and 
the teacher or truant officer. It is the child 
again who often interviews the boss, finds 
the father a job, and sees him through the 
onerous task of 'joining the union.' The 
father and mother grow accustomed to 
trusting to the child's version of what 
'they all do in America,' and gradually 
find themselves at a disadvantage in try- 
ing to maintain parental control. The 
child develops a sense of superiority 
towards the parent and a resulting disre- 
gard of those parental warnings which, al- 
though they are not based on American 
experience, rest on common notions of 
right and wrong, and would, if heeded, 
guard the child." (Breckenridge and Ab- 
bott, "The delinquent child and the home.") 

Can books not teach children to honor 
their father and mother, and "that the head 
and the hoof of the Law, and the haunch 
and the hump is obey"? 

We are told that one of the causes of 
crime among the children of foreigners is 
transmitted ambition. "The father left the 
homeland because he was not satisfied. 
. . . He worked hard and saved money, 
that the dream of better things might be 
realized. . . . The son manifests this in- 
nate tendency by a desire to excell, by the 
longings to rise and be masterful, the am- 
bition to beat the other fellow — these are 
the motives which impell him to an inten- 
sive life that carries him to excess and 
transgression." (Roberts, "The new immi- 
gration," p. 325.) 

It is for us to interest this ambition and 
turn it into right channels. We may also 
discover what special interests are upper- 
most in the minds of those of different 



nationalities, things they wish their 
children to love, traditions they have 
cherished, and which we may help the 
children to cherish. 

Driven by necessity or by the spirit 
of the age, the immigrant quickly devel- 
ops a strong ambition for acquiring 
money, supposing that he landed on our 
shores without that impelling force. 
One of the consequences is that he 
withdraws his children from school as 
soon as they are old enough to secure 
their working papers. "To the Italian 
peasant, who, as a gloriously street la- 
borer begins to cherish a vision of pros- 
perity, it matters little whether his girls 
go to school or not. It is, on the con- 
trary, of great importance that a proper 
dower be accumulated to get them good 
husbands; and to take them from school 
to put them to work is, therefore, only 
an attempt to help them accomplish this 
desirable end." (Breckenridge and Abbott.) 

In 1911 the National Child Labor Com- 
mittee conducted an investigation of tene- 
ment house work in New York City. 
Among 163 families visited having 213 
children, 196 children ranging in ages from 
3V^ to 14 years were working on nuts, 
brushes, dolls' clothes, or flowers. These 
are truly not the good old-fashioned domes- 
tic industries in which children received 
a good part of their education. Those 
v»orking in factories and tenement sweat 
shops, where labor is specialized and sub- 
divided into innumerable operations, do not 
get the variety of employment that culti- 
vates resourcefulness, alertness, endurance 
and skill. (Child labor bulletin, Nov., 

We cannot expect these children, with 
bodies retarded in development by over- 
work, and without proper nourishment, to 
be able to take the same mental food that 
is pleasing to other children of the same 
age, who have had all necessary physical 

The hours when working children, those 
engaged in gainful occupations, and those 
who are helping in the homes, are free fpr 
recreation, are in the evening and on Sun- 

day. Are we placing our most skilled 
workers on duty at these times, and are 
we opening our story hours and reading 
clubs on Sunday afternoons, when the 
minds of these children are most receptive 
of good things, when the children are 
dressed in their good clothes, their self- 
respect is high, and they are free from re- 

It is a well-known fact that the need of 
money is not the only cause of the exodus 
from school that occurs in the grades. An 
investigation made by the Commissioner of 
Labor in 1910 (Condition of woman and 
child wage-earners in the U. S., vol. 7), ex- 
aniining the conditions of white children 
under 16, in five representative cities, 
showed that of those children interviewed, 
169 left school because earnings were nec- 
essary, and 165 because dissatisfied with 
school. The Chicago Tribune (Nov. 11, 
1912) stated that in 1912 there were in Chi- 
cago over 23,000 children between 14 and 
16 years of age, who were not in school. 
Over half of these were unemployed, and 
the remainder had employment half the 
time at ill-paid jobs, teaching little and 
leading nowhere. In 1912 there were 
34,000 children of Philadelphia not in 
school, and only 13,000 were employed. 
(Philadelphia City Club Bulletin, Dec. 27, 

The curriculum of our public schools is 
in a transitional stage. The complaint of 
parents who take their children from 
" school before they have completed the 
high school course, is that it does not teach 
them to earn a living. The desire of com- 
mercial men is to have such courses intro- 
duced as will lessen the need of apprentice 
training in their establishments. These 
changes may help boys and girls to earn a 
living, but those courses which teach them 
how to live may be sacrificed. Man- does 
not live by bread alone. Mrs. Ella Flagg 
Young says, "The training must also im- 
plant in the mind a desire to become some- 
thing — I mean by that an ideal. ... It 
must make the boys and girls able to know 
that they have possibilities of greater de- 
velopment along many lines." This sort 



of training is within the sphere of the li- 
brary as well as within that of the schools. 

The children in the rural districts (which 
the 1910 census interprets as meaning peo- 
ple of towns of less than 2,500 inhabitants, 
and people of the country) are the library's 
great opportunity. In these districts may 
be found the old-fashioned home life, where 
parents are glad to be aided in the direc- 
tion of their children's reading. There are 
fewer distractions in the way of amuse- 
ments. Books are not seen by the thou- 
sands, until they have become so confusing 
that one knows not what to read or where 
to begin. Homes are owned, instead of 
rented, and a library worker is not liable to 
lose her group of children each first of 

The pleasures of city life have been 
made easily accessible to children and 
grown people by means of trolley lines, 
good roads, telephones, etc., and the music 
of grand opera has been carried to the 
country homes by means of talking 
machines. Still the distractions of modern 
life have not absorbed a large part of the 
everyday life of the children, so that their 
minds may be appealed to along the line 
of their natural interests. As Miss Stearns 
told us yesterday, there is less of drudgery 
in farm life today than there was thirty 
years ago, and children have more time 
for study and reading; but they need di- 
rection and assistance. 

The consensus of opinion among writers 
on rural sociology is that the great need 
of the people of the country is more educa- 
tion; education that will make farming 
more scientific and efficient, and less fa- 
tiguing, education that will help boys and 
girls to find amusement in the life about 
them; education that will guide that pas- 
sion for nature which every normal child 

* * * . 

Because children today have many more 
opportunities for recreation than they had 
thirty years ago; because many leave 
school long before they have acquired the 
education that will teach them how to live, 
as well as how to earn a living; because 

in many homes mothers and fathers can- 
not train their children in American ideals 
of citizenship, which they themselves do 
not understand; because in other homes 
the physical needs of children are held to 
be of most importance, while mental and 
moral needs are left to the care of teachers 
and social workers, the time seems ripe for 
the library to place emphasis upon the 
educational side of its work, rather than 
upon the recreative. Let the recreative be 
truly re-creative, giving relaxation, new 
visions, higher standards of living, and 
increased belief in one's self, but let the 
educational work meet the children's needs, 
increase their efficiency, teach them how 
to live, and to be of service in the world's 

Mr. Bostwick, in the Children's section, 
mentioned three eras in library work with 
children; first, the era of children's books 
in libraries; second, era of children's 
room; third, era of children's department. 
These concerned books and organization, 
the machinery of getting the books to the 
children. We think we have learned some- 
thing about children's books, and we know 
approved methods of administration. Pos- 
sibly we are now on the verge of the fourth 
era, when we shall know children. Not 
the child with a capital C, a laboratory 
specimen, but living children, with hearts 
and souls. Do we know the conditions 
under which the children of our own neigh- 
borhood live? Do we understand their in- 
terests, and are we sanely sympathetic? 

The PRESIDENT: We are glad to get 
Chapter Two: How the Library is Meet- 
ing these Conditions, by Miss GERTRUDE 
E. ANDRUS, of the Seattle public library. 




Every month, if the mails are regular, 
we receive assurance that the public li- 
brary is an integral part of public educa- 
tion, and the complacence with which we 
accept this assurance gives ample oppor- 
tunity to our critics for those slings and 
arrows with which they are so ready. Ideas 



and ideals of education are rapidly chang- 
ing and it behooves the librarian, and more 
particularly the children's librarian, to see 
that she keeps pace with the forward 
movement and that the ridicule of her 
censors is really undeserved. 

The old idea of education was to abol- 
ish illiteracy, "to develop the ability, im- 
prove the habits, form the character of 
the individual, so that he might prosper 
in his life's activities and conform to' cer- 
tain social standards of conduct." 

The new idea of education is that of 
social service, to train children to be not 
mere recipients, but distributors, not mere- 
ly to increase their ability to care for 
themselves, but also their ability to care 
for others and for the state. 

This perhaps sounds a note of the mil- 
lennium, but we have been told to hitch 
our wagon to a star and although the star 
proves a restive steed and often lands 
us in the ditch, we travel further while 
the connection holds than we should in 
a long, continuous journey harnessed to a 
dependable but slow-going snail. 

It may seem a far cry from these com- 
ments on education to the topic of my pa- 
per: How the library meets the changing 
conditions of child-life, but in reality it is 
only a step, for just as in philanthropy the 
emphasis is placed more and more upon 
prevention rather than remedy, so in edu- 
cation the task is coming to be the train- 
ing of the good citizen rather than the 
correction of the bad citizen. And if the li- 
brary is, as we are anxious to claim, an in- 
tegral part of public education, it must 
have a share, however small, in the preven- 
tive policy of modern educators, which will 
in time effect a change in present social 
evils. Unless the library, as it meets these 
constantly changing conditions, can do 
something to improve them and to make 
the improvement stable, it has small claim 
to be included in the educational scheme 
of things. 

In the conditions of child life which 
Miss Smith has outlined, the breaking up 
of the home is the most serious handicap 
which the children have to face. It is on 

this account that all social agencies work- 
ing with children endeavor, so far as each 
is able, to supply an "illusory home" and 
to give, each in its own capacity, the train- 
ing in various lines which ought in a nor- 
mal home to come under the direction of 
the mother and father. 

There is a spreading belief in the value 
of reading but there is a woeful lack of 
knowledge as to what should be read, and 
the children's library therefore fills a dou- 
ble role; it provides books which it would 
be impossible for many of the children to 
get otherwise, and it selects these books 
with thoughtful care of the special place 
each one has to fill, so that it becomes a 
counselor, not only to the children but to 
those parents who are anxious to assume 
their just responsibility in the guidance of 
their children's reading, and yet feel their 
inability to breast unaided the yearly tor- 
rent of children's books. The stimulation 
of this feeling of responsibility on the part 
of parents is one of the most effective 
means at the library's disposal of striking 
a blow at the root of the whole matter, for 
it is on the indifference of the parents that 
the blame for many juvenile transgres- 
sions should rest, which is now piled high 
upon the shoulders of the children. 

In this connection mention should be 
made of the home library, the most social 
of all the library's activities. This small 
case of books, located in a home in the 
poorer quarters of a city and placed in 
charge of a paid or volunteer library assist- 
ant has been proved to be a potent force in 
the life of the neighborhood, for the 
"friendly visitor," if she be of the proper 
stuff, is not merely a circulator of books, 
she is an all-round good neighbor to whom 
come both children and mothers for help 
in their big and little problems, so that 
the results have proved to be "better fam- 
ily standards, greater individual intelli- 
gence, and more satisfactory neighbor- 
hood conditions." 

But even granting that the mothers and 
fathers show a deep concern in what their 
children read, the connection between 
books and children is often left of neces- 



sity to the children's librarian who is se- 
lected with special reference to her adapta- 
bility to this particular kind of work. Now, 
no matter how strong a personality this 
young woman may possess, no matter how 
high her literary standards, nor how far- 
reaching her moral influence, it is obvi- 
ously impossible for her to come in con- 
tact with more than a few of the children 
in her community. And in order to provide 
that intimacy with books from which we 
wish no child to be debarred, she must 
depend not alone upon her children's room, 
beautiful and homelike though that may 
be, but she must place her resources at the 
disposal of other educational agencies, all 
of which are working toward a common 
end. Of these the most powerful is the 
school, and through the lessons in the use 
of the public library, through the collec- 
tions of books placed in the school-rooms, 
and most of all through the influence of 
the teacher, the public library will touch 
the lives of thousands of children who 
might otherwise be in ignorance of its re- 
sources, and who through this contact will 
receive a vivid impression of their share as 
citizens in a great public institution. In 
this correlation of school and library care 
must be taken to place an equal emphasis 
upon the library as a place for recreation 
as well as a place for study. 

Contrary to the teachings of our Puritan 
forefathers, we are growing more keenly 
alive to the imperative need of healthful 
recreation as a means of combating exist- 
ing social conditions, and our great cities 
and our little villages are gradually mak- 
ing provision for the gratification of the 
desire of the people to play. Nowhere does 
the library find an alliance more satisfac- 
tory than with these playcenters, for it is 
in the union of the physical and mental de- 
velopment that education comes to its full- 
est fruition and the striving to instill 
"imagination in recreation" can find no 
better field than in these places where 
not only muscles but minds may be exer- 

These are the well-worn channels 
through which the children's library pours 

its stream of books into a thirsty land, 
channels into which run the tributary 
streams of deposit stations, churches, set- 
tlements, telegraph offices, newsboys' 
homes, and all the rest which it would only 
weary you to repeat. 

We are constantly engaged in deepen- 
ing and broadening these channels because 
we believe in the power of books to de- 
velop character and to broaden the vision 
of that "inward eye which is the bliss of 
solitude." Now the book that does this 
most effectively is the book behind which 
lies some personality. We all know the 
popularity of "the book Teacher says is 
good." But the problem of the children's 
librarian is not limited as is the teacher's 
to two or three dozen children. She must 
lay her plans to reach hundreds of chil- 
dren and she can do this only by deal- 
ing with the children in groups: in other 
words, in clubs, reading circles, and story- 

The natural group of child life is the 
boys' gang or the girls' clique which offer 
unlimited opportunities for good or ill. The 
tendency of a neglected group is to develop 
strongly a regard for the interests of the 
individual group and make it antagonistic, 
if not actually dangerous, to the larger 
group of society. 

The possibility of touching children's in- 
terests, enlarging their horizon, and influ- 
encing their ideals through these groups 
has been utilized in the club work of many 
libraries. Although all library clubs lead 
eventually to books, the way may be a 
circuitous one and baseball, basketry, and 
dramatics may be met on the way. But 
aside from the book interest, without 
which no library club can be considered 
legitimate, there is the opportunity of 
guiding the activities of the group by 
means of debate work or similar interests 
so that their attention may be directed out- 
side of their immediate environment and 
made to include the greater possibilities of 
the larger social group. 

Very often in girls' clubs the charitable 
impulse is strong and may be so led as 



to instill a very thoughtful sympathy for 

It is for the things we know best that we 
have the most sympathy and the truest 
devotion, and we may expect real patriot- 
ism and an active civic conscience only 
when we have taught the children to know 
thoroughly their country and the city in 
which they live. This is some of the most 
valuable work that is being done by libra- 
ries, and it may be well passed on, as 
has been done in Newark, to become a part 
of the school curriculum. Indifference to 
the fatherland is not the best foundation 
on which to build the superstructure of 
American patriotism, and the confused and 
homesick foreigner welcomes with grati- 
tude the books in his own tongue provided 
by the library, the opportunity to use the 
library's auditorium for the meetings of 
his clubs with unpronounceable names, the 
respect with which his especial predilec- 
tions and prejudices are considered by 
the library in his immediate neighbor- 
hood, the display of his national flag and 
the special stories told the children on the 
fete day of his country. A people with- 
out traditions is not a people, and if we 
expect these strangers to respect our in- 
stitutions, we must show them an equal 

This regard shown by the library and 
other institutions for the national char- 
acteristics of the parents reacts upon the 
children and they grow to understand that 
though their elders may have been out- 
stripped in the effort to become American- 
ized they have behind them an historical 
background which is respected by the 
very Americans whose customs the chil- 
dren ape so carefully. 

The reading circle and the story hour 
are similar in their purpose for they are 
both intended to call the attention of the 
children to special books and to open 
up the delights of a new world to imag- 
inations often starved in squalor and pov- 
erty. Both the reading aloud and the story- 
telling have their rightful place in the 
home and are merely grafted on the li- 
brary in its attempt to supply its share 

of the "illusory home" for which we are 

If the Sunday story-tellings and clubs 
meet the neighborhood needs more effi- 
ciently as Miss Smith has suggested, the 
library schedule should be so arranged a3 
to accommodate them. 

The time of childhood is a time of un- 
bounded curiosities. Everything is new 
and wonderful and open to investigation, 
and that library may count itself blessed 
of the gods which can command the co- 
operation of a good museum. Given an 
exhibit case containing a few interesting 
specimens, a placard bearing a brief de- 
scription of the specimens, and the titles 
of a few books on the subject obtainable 
at the library, and we can all of us pic- 
ture a rosy dream of budding scientists, 
nature-lovers, and historians. 

This child-like interest is the secret of 
the popularity of the moving-picture show. 
Here we see unfolded the processes of 
nature, the opening of a flower, the life 
of a bee, we ride in a runaway train and 
in an aeroplane, and we see enacted the 
daily human drama of love and hate. Here 
is an opportunity which many libraries 
have grasped, and slides are furnished the 
picture theaters announcing the location 
of the library and bearing some such leg- 
end as this: "Your Free Public Library 
has arranged with this management to 
select interesting books and magazine arti- 
cles upon the historical, literary, and in- 
dustrial subjects treated in these pictures. 
It is a bright idea to see something good 
and then learn more about it." Mr. Percy 
Mackaye in his recent book on the Civic 
Theater, comments on this as follows: 
"A brighter idea — may we not add? — if the 
founders of the library had recognized 
the dynamic appeal of a moving-picture 
house, and endowed it to the higher uses of 
civic art! Truly, a spectacle, humorous 
but pathetic : Philanthropy in raiment of 
marble, humbly beseeching patronage from 
the tattered Muse of the people!" 

So far as the writer knows, but one li- 
brary has as yet made moving pictures 
a permanent addition to its activities, al- 



though a small town in Washington State 
has intimated that it would do so, pro- 
vided the Carnegie Trust Fund would 
give It money. It is a sign of the times, 
and one of which note must be taken, for 
it gives the library a chance to deepen 
the benefit of such good pictures as there 
are and to raise the standard of the oth- 

Unfortunately the interest of many boys 
and girls is forced prematurely to the sub- 
ject of how they may aid in the family 
support. They leave school untrained and 
unfitted for the life they have to live, and 
go into shops, factories, department stores, 
and other service. Whether they leave 
because of economic pressure or because 
of a lack of interest In their school work 
the fact remains that 32 per cent of the 
children entering school drop out before 
they reach the sixth grade, and only 8 per 
cent finish the fourth year of high school. 
Manual training and vocational guidance 
are taking a hand in the matter and the 
part of the library is evident, not only in 
its supply of books on these topics but in 
the personal interest of the library assist- 
ants and in their suggestions and advice to 
the young folks who are struggling to find 
themselves. This is of course but a drop 
in the bucket but it is an effort in the right 

So many of these young people leaving 
school prematurely are shut up at the 
crucial age of adolescence in huge facto- 
ries and stores, creeping home at night too 
.tired to move unnecessarily, or letting 
the individuality which has been so stern- 
ly repressed all day burst forth in excesses 
and indiscretions. Only a few will come 
to the library, so to make sure the library 
must go to them. 

One of the most notable examples of this 
kind of work is in the main plant of Sears, 
Roebuck & Co. in Chicago. The com- 
pany furnishes room, heat, light, and li- 
brarian's salary and the public library 
provides the books. This type of library 
may combine the Intimate personal rela- 
tionships of the small branch, the club, the 
story ho)ir, and the vocational bureau. It 

may, as the Sears, Roebuck library has 
done, publish lists of books covering cer- 
tain grades of a school course in gram- 
mar, rhetoric, history of literature, and 
study of the classics, and through the 
personal influence of the librarian it may 
make these courses really used, for always 
in work of this kind it is the personal 
equation that counts. 

Some commercial houses have independ- 
ent libraries of their own, sometimes In 
connection with their service department, 
as does the Joseph & Feiss Co. of Cleve- 
land, in which case the direction of the 
library comes under the charge of a per- 
son whose duty It is to use every means 
to deepen, strengthen, and broaden the 
capacity of every employe so that he may 
remain an individual and not become a ma- 
chine. This is an age of Industrialism 
which has early placed upon the boys and 
girls the responsibilities of life, and the 
love of books is one of the most important 
of the influences which will keep the pen- 
dulum from swinging too far upon 'the side 
of materialism and purely commercial am- 

These are some of the ways In which the 
library is trying to meet the changing 
conditions of child life in the city through 
the children's rooms, the homes, the 
schools, the playgrounds, the factories, and 
other institutions which have to do with 
the employment, amusement, or education 
of children. 

From many of these problems the life 
of the country child is mercifully free, 
but in place of them there is the isolation 
of farm life and the idleness on the part 
of the children so often found In country 
villages. As more than half of our popu- 
lation is in the country, it is but logical 
that libraries should long ago have made 
some attempt to reach a class of readers 
who, as Mr. Dewey says, "have a larger 
margin of leisure, fewer distractions, and 
fewer opportunities to get the best read- 
ing. They read more slowly and care- 
fully and get more good from books than 
their high-pressure city cousins whose 



crowded lives leave little time for Intel- 
lectual digestion." 

Long before the formation of the Coun- 
try Life Commission, librarians were send- 
ing traveling libraries to farm-houses and 
rural communities, and library commis- 
sions are now scattering broadcast the 
opportunities for reading which will do 
so much to "effectualize rural society." 
When we think of books and the coun- 
try, we think also of Hagerstown and the 
book wagon, an institution which in its 
influence on country life may well be add- 
ed to the famous trilogy of "rural free de- 
livery, rural telephones, and Butterick pat- 
terns." Greater attention is being paid 
in these days to conditions of country life, 
both on farms and in villages, and the 
work of the country librarian is as broad 
and as interesting as that of her city co- 

But whether the work is done in the city 
or the country, in a crowded tenement dis- 
trict or on a thousand-acre ranch, it has 
as its foundation the same underlying 
principle: that of co-operation with all oth- 
er available agencies to the end that the 
boys and girls may have a fuller oppor- 
tunity to become good citizens. We can- 
not be progressive if we are not plastic, 
and in the adaptation of our work to the 
changing conditions of child life lies the 
secret of the value of the children's library. 

The PRESIDENT: We give a sigh of 
satisfaction and one of regret: satisfaction 
over the pleasure we have had in listening 
to these fine, moving chapters; regret that 
they have been so brief. We are recon- 
ciled only by the fact that there are two 
fine companion volumes still to come. Mr. 
WILLIS H. KERR, of the Kansas State 
Normal School, will give us the first one, 
the subject being: 


That there is a close relation between 
librarianship and the forces of education 
is implied both in the special topic of this 
paper and in the general theme of the 

morning: "Children and young people; 
their conditions at home, in the school, 
and in the library." Indeed librarian and 
teacher have more in common than we 
yet think. For real library work is teach- 
ing, and real teaching is guidance in liv- 
ing, and to live well for thy neighbor and 
thyself is — real library work. 

The burden of this discussion will be, 
not whether the library is an integral part 
of education, but rather what modern edu- 
cation, as an art, science, and practice, has 
to say about the attitude and method and 
practice of library work. With open mind 
and modest, may we attempt a statement 
of "library pedagogy" to parallel current 
educational practice? How may we li- 
brarians knit our work more effectively 
into the educational fabric? How best cor- 
relate people and books? 

If such a statement of library pedagogy 
is possible, even though tentative, it is 
worth our while. From college days there 
rings in my ears the topic of an address 
by Dr. Samuel B. McCormick, now Presi- 
dent of the University of Pittsburgh: "We 
can achieve that which we can intelli- 
gently conceive and adequately express." 
We must see our whole job through and 
through if we are to cope with our friends 
who do not yet see what we are at. The 
good brother, a Ph. D. of one of our best 
universities, a successful city school su- 
perintendent, now a fellow professor, who 
said, "I can see how instruction of our nor- 
mal school students in library methods 
will help them in their work here, but how 
will it help them as teachers? Anyone 
can find a book in a school library." The 
superintendent who complained that all 
his pupils got at the public library was 
sore eyes and ruined minds from reading 
trashy fiction; the library trustee who 
likened library work and salary to dry- 
goods counter service and wage; the type- 
writer salesman who objected to open 
shelves and book wagons and story hours, 
because they cost — I won't say how much 
he said; what infinite patience, what skill- 
ful teaching power must we librarians 
have, to turn this tide and use it? 



Lest we paint the picture too darkly, let 
it be said with all thankfulness and cheer 
that multitudes of teachers, superintend- 
ents, boys, girls, men and women, do un- 
derstand. There is Superintendent Con- 
don, formerly of Providence, now of Cin- 
cinnati, of whom Mr. Foster says in the 
last (1912) Providence report: "Mr. Con- 
don's co-operation with the library was 
constant, intelligent, and effective." There 
is Mary Antin and her brothers and sisters, 
Americans all, to whom one of the richest 
gifts of the "Promised Land" is the public 
library. There is State Superintendent Al- 
derman, of Oregon, and Mrs. Alderman. 
There is the United States Commissioner 
of Education, Mr. Claxton, and Mrs. Clax- 
ton. In every state are men like a western 
Kansas superintendent (way out next to 
Colorado, on the prairies), who found his 
community destitute of books; even school 
books and tablets had to be ordered by the 
drug store from a distant city; no com- 
munity interest, no debating societies, no 
class plays, no school athletic teams. He 
made school vital to the boys and girls. 
Then because to his thinking education 
does not end with school days, and because 
he had the library vision, before he was 
there a year he passed the subscription 
paper, organized the library association, 
got the books and magazines, and opened 
the public library. He gave that town 
something to live for. And every state has 
librarians like the little Kansas lady in a 
country community who does reference 
work and draws patrons from sixteen sur- 
rounding school districts by the use of the 
rural telephone. 

What have the normal schools to do 
xith all this? Before answering this ques- 
tion, it may be well to note that the term 
"normal school" has not always the same 
significance. In the United States there 
are 194 public normal schools. Scholastic 
standards are of three general types: 
First, the old-time normal school, whose 
graduates have little more than completed 
a high school course including some re- 
quired pedagogy. Second, the largest di- 
vision, the two-year normal school, which 

requires two years of college cultural and 
professional work, high school graduation 
being required for entrance. Third, the 
normal college or state teachers' college, 
which grants the bachelor's degree for the 
completion of four years of college cul- 
tural and professional work. As a rule the 
graduates of the high school normal course 
go into the rural or the small-town 
schools; the graduates of the two-year col- 
lege course, into elementary schools and 
special subjects; and the graduates of the 
four-year college course, into high school 
subjects, principalships, and superintend- 
encies. The four-year state teachers' col 
leges of the United States can be counted 
on the ten fingers, and their ultimate 
sphere of influence is being debated. It 
would seem, however, that the adequate 
teacher-training Institution must be as 
broad in its facilities and standards as are 
the conditions of modern life with which 
teachers must cope. 

In the normal schools of these three 
types, student attendance varies from 100 
to nearly 3,000, the average being about 
600. Faculties vary from 8 or 10 members 
to 125. Equipment varies correspondingly, 
the better schools having very complete 
facilities. For example, the Eastern Illi- 
nois State Normal School, at Charleston, 
which is said to have a faculty ranking in 
scholarship with the universities, has 1,200 
students, 31 members of faculty, offers two 
college years of teacher-training, has three 
buildings, a library of 16,000 volumes, and 
like many other normal schools of its type 
has an assured future and a fine field of 
influence. You will pardon another exam- 
ple, I hope, cited because I can be still 
more definite in describing it: The Kan- 
sas State Normal School, at Emporia, is 
a type of the four-year normal college. It 
was established in 1865. Last year it had 
2,750 students, 350 in the training school 
(comprising kindergarten and grades one 
to eight), 1,100 in the normal high school, 
and 1,300 in the college. It had a faculty 
of 100, nearly half of these being men, 
many of the best universities being repre- 
sented. It has 11 buildings, including an 



enormous gymnasium, a library, a hospital, 
a training school, science building, etc. It 
has a department of library science, in 
charge of a professor giving full time to 
that department, and on the same plane as 
other departments of instruction. Of this 
same general type, in equipment, numbers, 
and standards, are the schools at Ypsilanti, 
Michigan; Cedar Falls, Iowa; Kirksville, 
Missouri; Greeley, Colorado; Terre Haute, 
Indiana; — I do not mean to slight other 
worthy examples. 

Aside from these three types of public 
normal schools, another important type of 
teacher-training organization is the depart- 
ment of education and psychology in our 
best colleges and universities, exemplified 
notably by the School of Education of the 
University of Chicago, and Teachers' Col- 
lege of Columbia University, the last- 
named being perhaps the most efficient 
teachers' college in the world. I hasten 
to add mention of the conspicuously help- 
ful work in educational psychology, pure 
and applied, which is being done at Clark 
University, Massachusetts, under the in- 
spiring leadership of Dr. G. Stanley Hall. 

Now, using the term "normal schools" 
to include all of these types of institutlone 
and as representing their practices and 
ideals, may we ask the question we left 
a moment ago, "What have the normal 
schools to do with librarianship?" This: 
The normal schools have now consciously 
taken up the task of preparing teachers 
who understand the life that now is and 
can teach boys and girls to live that life 
and to be useful members of society here 
and hereafter. These organized institu- 
tions of teacher-training take themselvea 
seriously, they accept the responsibility of 
their task, and they are measureably suc- 
ceeding; despite the declarations of popu- 
lar magazines and investigating commit- 
tees that our schools are a colossal failure. 
Which they are not, for didn't they train 
Mary Antin, and Miss Stearns, and you 
and me? If librarianship Is educational 
work, and it is, the normal schools may 
therefore have some suggestion of educa- 
tional practice worthy the consideration 
of librarians. 

What is the educational world thinking 
and doing? Examine the program of the 
National Education Association, to meet 
week after next at Salt Lake City. I group 
some of the topics from the general ses- 
sions: First, What is education?; Educa- 
tion for freedom; The personal element in 
our educational problems; Teaching, and 
testing the teaching of essentials; Meas- 
uring results. Second, What shall we do 
with the single-room school?; The rural 
school; Fundamental reorganizations de- 
manded by the rural life problem; Rural 
betterments; The schoolhouse evening 
center. Third, moral values in pupil self- 
government. The high school period as a 
testing time. Public schools and publio 

Relate these groups of topics with this 
definition of education from the late An- 
drew S. Draper, of honored memory: 

"Education that has life and enters into 
life; education that makes a living and 
makes life worth living; education that 
can use English to express itself; educa- 
tion that does not assume that a doctor 
must be an educated man and that a me- 
chanic or a farmer cannot be; education 
that appeals to the masses, that makes bet- 
ter citizens and a greater state; educa- 
tion that supports the imperial position of 
the State and inspires education in all of 
the States — that is the education that con- 
cerns New York." 

Mingle with educational men and wom- 
en, search the educational periodicals and 
programs, scan the educational books, vis- 
it the normal colleges ; and I think you will 
discover that something like this is hap- 
pening in the educational world: The con- 
tent of education is being adapted to meet 
the needs of all the classes and the masses. 
The method of education is being adapted 
to the individual. The result Is that edu- 
cation is being universalized, socialized, 

In this adaptation of educational mate- 
rial and method, all eyes are upon the Indi- 
vidual child. We are studying this child, 
working for him. We are playing for the 
batter, tackling the man with the ball. W« 
believe it Is more Important to develop 



the undiscovered resource than to run all 
boys and all girls through the same hop- 
per. A phrase used in the School Arts 
Magazine for May, 1913, in describing a 
notable Boston exhibit of art illustration, 
breathes this spirit: "Instruction in illus- 
tration, should be creative and individual 
from the outset. Models are posed to 
help in expressing more truthfully the con- 
ception of the illustrator rather than as a 
discipline in abstract drawing." 

The true teacher never gives up a boy or 
a girl. But mind you, we are saving the 
individual, making a man out of him, not 
that he may be a self-centered unsocial 
phenomenon, but that he may be a fellow 
among men, a useful social unit. We want 
strong' individuality willing and able to 
live in society. 

Perhaps the biggest word in current ed- 
ucation is motivation. That word mo- 
tivation covers a multitude of sins and a 
multitude of virtues. Motivation does not 
mean coddling. It does not mean allow- 
ing the child to do as he pleases. On the 
other hand, motivation does not mean 
forcing an unnatural process or situation 
upon a helpless child or a helpless public. 
It does not mean that we are to give some- 
thing to the child. Motivation is not 
didactic in attitude. 

The spring of action in all of us is im- 
pulse. There is no time here to go into 
the psychology of instinct, impulse, emo- 
tion, motive, action, and all that. Suffice 
it for example that through the play in- 
stinct and impulse the wise teacher leads 
the child to a respect for fair-play, order, 
law, justice. The child never know* 
where he got it, but he has what he need- 
ed, and he has it indelibly. This process 
assumes a God-given wisdom on the part 
of the teacher: to know how that little 
mind is working, what It needs, how it 
may be brought to feel the need, and then 
to lead, draw out, educate that mind — 
O, miracle of miracles! 

A step further in the consideration 
of the educational process: Perha'ps 
there have been committed more atroci- 
ties, more crimes in the name of 

education, in the high school than in any 
other period of school life. More fairly 
stated, the crimes have been in the upper 
six years of the usual twelve, — in that pe- 
riod which is called adolescence. Why 
do so many boys and girls drop out of the 
upper grades? Why do so many youths 
never complete high school? The voca- 
tional training people have one answer, 
and it consists in letting the boy work at 
something of which he feels the need. 
They motivate his work. The boy from 
the farm can't read Tennyson's "Prin- 
cess;" set him at the Breeder's Gazette 
or the testing of seed-corn; you can teach 
him English as readily through one task 
as the other. Only that boy never would 
learn English from "The Princess," — and 
I love Tennyson. 

As an example of skillful motivation in 
teaching may I describe a case which is 
also an object-lesson to librarians in cor- 
relating people and books? It is a third- 
year high school class in argumentation. 
After some preliminary study, one day 
the teacher remarks rather inconsequen- 
tially, "Do you know I believe the 'Boston 
tea party' was an unjustifiable destruc- 
tion of property, and that unprejudiced his- 
torians now admit it?" Now that won't 
"go" in Kansas any easier than it will 
in Massachusetts. Teacher is immediate- 
ly challenged, and she replies, "Well, I'll 
debate it with you; and I'll be fair and 
square with you and tell you of some ma- 
terial on your side. But there is one man 
whose authority I would not want to dis- 
pute; you'll surely treat me fairly, won't 
you?" A young lady member of the class 
at once puts a motion to the class that 
it will not be considered fair to use the 
writings of Edmund Burke against teach- 
er. Does that class depend upon bluffing 
its way through that debate with teacher? 
No, it keeps us busy at the library to get 
material out fast enough, even though we 
had been previously informed by the teach- 
er that the material would be wanted. 
Even Dr. Johnson's "Taxation no tyranny" 
is read with eagerness. Teacher finally 
agrees to debate even against Burke. Is 



Burke a bore to that class? Why, the li- 
brary has to buy additional copies. Of 
course, the end desired by the teacher all 
the time was Burke. 

More and more, in the instruction of 
adolescent and adult, the teacher's effort 
is being directed toward arousing a prob- 
lem to be solved. Whether by a class lec- 
ture, by a class discussion, or by a per- 
sonal conference, the pupil is brought to 
feel that it is important for him to find the 
answer. Is it not important, then, for the 
librarian to be skilled in drawing out a 
statement of the problem, or, changing the 
figure, to recognize accurately the symp- 
toms and to prescribe unerringly? I think 
librarians having to do with high school 
and college students should rather fre- 
quently visit classes and attend lectures. 
If this were done, the pupil would less of- 
ten be ground between upper and nether 
millstone, and the millstones would think 
more of each other. 

Thus far, educational ideals and prac- 
tices. Now will they help us any in at- 
tempting to formulate a library pedagogy? 
I believe they will. I believe that the 
teaching attitude, the study of the indi- 
vidual, the putting of the individual's 
needs far and away before the observance 
of inflexible rule and practice, and the de- 
termination to correlate people and books 
and life to the very ends of the earth, — 
these four stones at least will be in the 
foundation of library pedagogy. 

I am not sure that all educational peo- 
ple will agree entirely with the foregoing 
statement of educational principles and 
methods. I am quite sure that I may as 
well gracefully hand my head now to some 
of you because of the following library cor- 
relaries of the preceding educational doc- 
trines. Some of these are my own beliefs, 
some are beliefs of educational men re- 
garding libraries: 

In the training of librarians, would it 
be more in accord with modern pedagogy 
to have less lecturing, less practice work 
done in the this-is-the-only-way-to-do-it at- 
titude, and to have more of the come-on- 

and-let's-find-out, the learn-by-dolng labora- 
tory spirit? 

Educational administration Is being re- 
modeled, centralized. If library work is to 
be more and more educational, school men 
have said to me, why not make the public 
library an integral part of the city school 
system, and the state library and state li- 
brary commission an arm of the state de- 
partment of education? It is a terrible 
thought, but it will not down by denying 

When library work becomes educational 
through and through, and all library as- 
sistants are experts in psychology and hu- 
man nature, the fines system will be a 
thing of the past. 

Conservation of the individual means 
that it is better to have a book in use than 
to have it lying peacefully on the shelf 
entirely surrounded by unbroken rules. 

Conservation of society means that it 
is better to have the library open on holi- 
days and Sundays, when the working man 
isn't "dead tired," than to report an in- 
creased circulation of fiction. 

The PRESIDENT: For an object lesson 
as to the strenuous life we go to Oyster 
Bay. For library buildings we go to East 
Ninety-first street, New York, or when he 
is in Europe we go to Skibo Castle. For 
information as to the latest inventions we 
go to the laboratory of Mr. Edison. For 
full information as to the best in high 
school work we go to the Girls' High 
School in Brooklyn. Miss MARY E. HALL. 

Miss Hall spoke extemporaneously upon 
the enlarging scope of library work in 
high schools. Some of the points discussed 
were treated by her in a paper before the 
section on Library Work with Children at 
the Ottawa conference, 1912. See Ottawa 
Proceedings in Bulletin of the American 
Library Association, v. 6, p. 260-68. 

The PRESIDENT: As my eye roves over 
this audience I see it is thickly sprinkled 
with punctuation marks. It has been sug- 
gested that some of our papers ought to 
be discussed from the floor. We shall be 
glad to hear from any librarians who are 



in this audience, either in the form of ex- 
periences or comment. 

Mr. OLIN S. DAVIS: While I approve 
fully all that the last speaker has said, I 
feel very strongly that the college or high 
school library should not be too complete 
and that the student should be encouraged 
to use the public library. Work should be 
given to the students in high schools and 
girls' schools that would require their com- 
ing to the public library, because if the 
children in the grades and high schools do 
not learn to use the public library in those 
years they will not be apt to use the 
library in later years when they have left 

Miss HALL: I would like to say that 
the first thing we do with pupils is to take 
a census of the entering class to find out 
how many do not have cards in the public 
library; interview them to see why they 
have not; even to write letters to the pa- 
rents and urge them to allow their chil- 
dren to have cards; and to see before the 
end of the first term that every student in 
the entering class has a card in the public 
library, has a note of introduction from 
the school librarian to the branch librarian 
of the public library, and to see that the 
branch librarian of our big cities and the 
high school librarian work together four 
years with that student. We have the 
very closest co-operation. 

Miss AHERN: Most of you reading 
library literature lately have seen consid- 
erable criticism of the fact that when stu- 
dents go out from college they do not 
know how to use the library. That is 
sometimes the student's fault, but most 
often it is the fault of the college curricu- 
lum. That is a topic we need not discuss 
here. But I believe librarians will do a 
great service to those who are going into 
college activities if they emphasize and 
elaborate that idea of putting into the re- 
quirements for college entrance, a knowl- 
edge of how to use library machinery. 

There are a good many things that are 
necessary for students to know before they 
are able to take up the work in colleges, 
particularly in literature and language. I 

am not saying that these should be any 
less. But here is something that I won- 
der no one has ever thought of before. 
It means a good deal more to a student to 
know how to use the various reference 
books in the college library on, say, the 
works of John Milton, than to have read 
some of the things which are included in 
the entrance examination. I think the idea 
of requiring a knowledge of how to use 
the library for college entrance is the best 
thing I have heard at a library meeting for 
a long time, and I hope the librarians who 
are present will impress that idea on their 
superintendents of schools, on their high 
school principals, and on the college au- 
thorities, as far as they can. It is a good 
thing. If we should not get anything else 
out of this 1913 meeting but to impress on 
the school people that a knowledge of how 
to use the library is a necessary require- 
ment for a college course, we shall have 
gained a great point. 

Mr. RANCK: I should like to ask Miss 
Hall about her experience with reference 
to the use of the library on the teaching 
of English and literature in the high 

Miss HALL: I have been very much in- 
terested in this. Our school has been so 
large it has been very difficult to do all we 
would like to do. We have not been able 
to do what has been done in the Detroit or 
Grand Rapids high school in the way of in- 
struction. But I have been interested in 
seeing what it has done for the English 
and the history departments. In the first 
place, our teachers are coming with their 
classes for instruction and the teachers 
are learning a great many things which 
they are putting in practice. For the last 
year we have done more with the Reader's 
Guide in history than ever before. Teach- 
ers are assigned to help me in my work. 
After they heard the talk on the Reader's 
Guide they said, "We can do this: we will 
go through the Reader's Guide and we will 
bring out everything that is really inter- 
esting on the history of France, Germany, 
China, Russia and the Balkan War; we will 
look over those articles and make a card 



of the best things." They are using the 
Reader's Guide in English more than ever 
before; they are using reference books 
more. After the tallc on the Statesmen's 
Yearbook and on the almanacs and some 
of the yearbooks, such as the New Inter- 
national Yearbook, they are using them 
almost as textbooks. The Statesmen's 
Yearbook is in use nearly all the time, as 
is the New International Yearbook, since 
that talk. They are using the Reader's 
Guide for new material — essays that they 
want on special subjects, and are using it 
for debate work, informal debates on all 
sorts of interesting current problems for 
English- work, training the students to do 
oral debating without any notes, and talks 
on the topics of the day. They are using 
encyclopedias mo'-e wisely than they used 
to. Teachers used to send scholars to en- 
cyclopedias for everything. And when we 
talked about the real use of encyclopedias 
and bibliographies, how the encyclopedia 
simply gave you a certain amount of 
definite information and often led to more 
important things, they began using those 

Miss HOBART: I do not know that any 
librarian has been trying to work out the 
problem which I have of reaching the pub- 
lic school pupils and teachers. Some of 
the best things that I have found in that 
way are these: I made myself familiar, as 
early in the term as possible, with the 
teachers and the conditions of their home 
life. I found that some had very poor 
places to room, as they are apt to have in 
small communities, and to those I offered 
the use of the library rooms for evening 
use and for time out of school when they 
wished to correct papers. Our library is 
warm and light in the winter and cool and 
light in the summer. And the teachers 
were extremely glad to have a place where 
they could come and be quiet and com- 
fortable and do their own work. I think 
that last year the teachers In our small vil- 
lage practically lived in the library. Even 
those who had homes there used to make 
it their abiding place most of their waking 
hours. For the high school pupils, at the 

time of their graduating essays, we laid 
books aside in different places in the 
library. Many of those children had no 
proper places at home where they could 
write. They came to the library and did 
their work; almost all the work on their 
graduating essays was done evenings. For 
six weeks we gave the use of our catalog 
rooms to two girls who had their books 
sent there. There were several out-of-town 
children; to those we gave a room in the 
basement. They came from school as 
quickly as possible at noon, ate their 
luncheon in a very short time and spent 
the rest of the intermission in the library 
doing reference work. The expressions of 
appreciation we have received and the con- 
sciousness of the help given to those chil- 
dren in the use of the library has been a 
great source of satisfaction. 


(Friday morning, June 27, 1913.) 

The PRESIDENT: We begin this morn- 
ing the fifth session of this conference and 
the theme covering the papers is, "The 
library's service to business and legisla- 
tion." Ten years ago it would not have 
occurred to anyone perhaps that it would 
be possible to have a series of papers upon 
this subject, and the surprising expansion 
of the service in these directions is evi- 
denced by the fact that we have, in order at 
all to attempt to cover this subject ade- 
quately, a larger number of papers on this 
morning's program than we have on the 
program for any other of the subjects 
which have been scheduled. I will ask Mr. 
C. B. LESTER to start the program with 
his paper upon 


It is now more than twenty years since 
the need of specialization in the library's 
work on subjects of legislation was rec- 
ognized in New York in the creation of a 
special staff for such work, and it is just 
about ten years since the successful com- 
bination in Wisconsin of such special ref- 



erence work with the formulation of bills 
aroused most of the states to the possibili- 
ties of usefulness in this field. It would 
therefore seem worth while to examine 
the work so far done to discover if pos- 
sible such principles and tendencies as 
may be subject to generalization. 

It is at once obvious that any such gen- 
eralization in a broad sense must be difli- 
cult, for this present year shows in legisla- 
tion both east and west that we have not 
yet come to rest on such fundamental prin- 
ciples as to method even though there may 
be substantial unanimity as to policy. The 
new laws in Vermont (and I think in New 
Hampshire) in the east — in Ohio, Indiana, 
and Illinois in the middle west — and in 
California on the Pacific coast show such 
differences that it is evident that local con- 
ditions must still be very largely controll- 
ing. And to go back a full year or more 
would bring to notice the new work organ- 
ized in several states through university 
bureaus but without special legislation, 
and the proposals before the Congress. 

Comparatively little examination shows 
that the conception of the work to be done 
differs widely. Mr. Kaiser of the Univer- 
sity of Illinois, who is preparing a detailed 
study of the subject, writes me: "I find 
that in practically thirty-two states it is 
attempted in some form or other — the 
state library as a whole, a division of the 
state library created within the library, a 
division created by law, a separate bureau, 
library commission bureaus, state univer- 
sity bureaus, etc." Obviously this must in- 
clude practically all states where the state 
library is other than a law library only or 
a historical collection only, and must cred- 
it with doing legislative reference work 
those states where general reference work 
is done on subjects of legislation. But 
there is a more exact use of the term 
which takes account of the fundamental 
principle well suggested in the statement 
of the Librarian of Congress in his com- 
munication to Congress in 1911. "A legis- 
lative reference bureau goes further [than 
the Division of Bibliography]. It under- 
takes not merely to classify and to catalog, 

but to draw off from a general collection 
the literature, that is the data, bearing 
upon a particular legislative project. It 
indexes, extratCts, compiles." It breaks up 
existing forms in which information is con- 
tained and classifies the resulting parts, 
and often "adds to printed literature writ- 
ten memoranda as to facts and even opin- 
ions as to merit." 

Such work as the legislative reference 
staff should be qualified to do is distinctly 
informational rather than educational in 
its reference to the patron. It does the 
work of research, of gathering, sorting and 
uniting the scattered fact material wanted 
and presents the results ready for use. And 
to be fully -effective this work must in 
some way be co-ordinated with the formu- 
lation of legislation, so that the product of- 
fered by the legislator may be both firmly 
founded and properly constructed. This 
work is so evidently necessary that it will 
be done in an increasing number of states 
whether the state library or some other 
agency undertakes it ar4 protects its effi- 
ciency by the impartial, non-political and 
permanent organization of it which can be 
there best provided. 

Practically all legislation specifically 
providing for such work has been passed 
in the years beginning 1907 and it is sig- 
nificant that most of this emphasizes re- 
search and drafting. The laws specially 
providing for such work are as follows: 

Alabama, 1907, no. 255. 

California, 1913. 

Illinois, 1913. 

Indiana, 1913, ch. 255 (1907, ch. 147). 

Michigan, 1907, ch. 306 (1913, ch. 144). 

Missouri, Stat., 1909, Sec. 8177. 

Montana, 1909, ch. 65. 

Nebraska, 1911, ch. 72. 

North Dakota, 1909, ch. 157 (1907, ch. 

Ohio, 1913 (1910, no. 384). 

Pennsylvania, 1909, no. 143 (1913). 

Rhode Island, 1907, ch. 1471. 

South Dakota, 1907, ch. 185. 

Texas, 1909, ch. 70. 

Vermont, 1912, ch. 14 (1910, ch. 9). 

Wisconsin, Stat. Sec. 373 f. 



An analysis of the work done, whether 
provided for by legislation or by admin- 
istrative practice, shows certain other 
facts. The number of the staff in any state 
is often variable, temporary or part time 
assistance is often used, and this is true 
where this work is not a part of the work 
of a state library or other wider organiza- 
tion. Furthermore, the cost in money is 
almost impossible to estimate accurately 
in many places, because of this co-opera- 
tion with other work. In starting a new 
work this difficulty in answering the ques- 
tion of what it costs elsewhere must be 
faced. The best way to meet it seems to 
be to make the comparison on the basis 
of the work wanted, definitely planning 
what is to be done, and asking for a lump 
sum to cover its estimated cost. 

The drafting proposition is a most im- 
portant element. Some three or four states 
already have official bill-drafting agencies, 
other than legislative reference depart- 
ments, and a number of others definitely 
depend upon the attorney-general's office 
for this work. In some states there is op- 
position to putting this in the hands of a 
non-legislative agency, and in others the 
libraries, while ready to handle a special- 
ized reference work, are not ready to un- 
dertake drafting. Obviously this work re- 
quires highly specialized training, and 
equally, I believe, it will be agreed that 
this service should be rendered and that 
it must be in the closest co-operation with 
the reference work. There is no doubt in 
my own mind that the best condition is 
that of a single agency to perform this 
dual work, where the establishment of 
such is possible, and the usual organization 
seems to include both the expert drafts- 
men and the special clerical and steno- 
graphic assistance. 

This service in the primary formulation 
of bills must inevitably lead to a similar 
assistance as bills progress toward final 
enactment. This care as to form through 
the processes of amendment and revision 
will ultimately be complete if the enacted 
statute law is what it should be "to stand 
the test." 

This leads me to certain suggestions of 
other fields of service in the legislative 
process which should all tend to better the 
whole legislative product. Of course. In 
much of this service the emphasis is 
placed upon form and make-up of the final 
product, the discretion as to subject mat- 
ter resting elsewhere, but that discretion- 
ary judgment is to be based upon the most 
complete information it is possible to fur- 
nish. Most of these services are now per- 
formed by the libraries or other non-leg- 
islative agencies in some states, but of 
course not all, or indeed many, in any one 
state. They include editing, foot-noting, 
side-noting, indexing of session laws, and 
the preparation of tables of amendments, 
repeals and similar matter; the proper fil- 
ing and care of original bills, journals, 
committee records, and similar matter, 
after the work of the session is com- 
pleted; the editing and indexing of the 
printed journal; editorial work of various 
forms upon the legislative documents. 
These are all services needed by our 
states, useful to the legislative bodies, and 
only properly handled through some per- 
manent agency. Is the state library that 
agency? I leave the question for your con- 
sideration, and suggest that some uncer- 
tainty at present as to just what may be 
most desirable is evident particularly in 
the new legislation in Vermont, Ohio, In- 
diana and California. It has already been 
brought out in prepared paper and in dis- 
cussion at this conference that the state 
library should not be a central public li- 
brary in its content or its method. It is 
rather possible to express the field of its 
activities as that of a collection of special 
libraries. Into that field would come quite 
naturally the varied services to the legisla- 
tive branch of the government which have 
been suggested. As already stated some 
of them are now supplied in some states. 
What we shall ultimately work toward in 
our states is a complete organization of 
these allied branches of work, all of which 
focus about the work of the legislature. 
Some of these services are at once recog- 
nized as within the field of the library— 



about others there is a decided difference 
of opinion. But they all have many com- 
mon elements, many points of contact. 
They are most effectively to be handled 
as a group. The tendency will surely be 
toward a concentration rather than a scat- 
tering of these parts of one general work. 
Plans for such a concentration, adapted to 
a particular set of conditions, to be sure, 
have already been put into concrete bill 
form in New York and the bill was before 
the legislature this year. The question 
presents many new features, but is not 
something to be answered perhaps in the 
distant future; it is rather, I believe, 
worthy of a very real consideration in the 

The PRESIDENT: The second paper 
this morning, which follows very logically 
after the one which we have just heard, 
will be by Mr. DEMARCHUS C. BROWN, 
state librarian of Indiana, on 


The writer of this paper would be more 
than ProtsBan if he could say anything new 
on this topic. All our associations, at least 
the half dozen I belong to, meet so often 
that repetition is forced upon us. In the 
interim very few experiences or ideas 
worth recording come to us. Biennial or 
triennial sessions would lead to better 
results and save money. 

The personality and attainments of the 
librarian (and his staff) are of prime im- 
portance in making the state library a 
dominating influence in the common- 
wealth. He is the man behind the gun. 
I put him first. From the negative side, — 
his position should not be subject to par- 
tisan or personal influence. That is a 
blight to start with and will ruin any 
institution. We are still afllicted with that 
curse in places, not only in the state li- 
braries but in official positions generally. 

Affirmatively, the head of the state li- 
brary ought to be a person of scholarly 
acquirements or at least in deep and ap- 
preciative sympathy with scholarship and 
knowledge. If he is a scholar in a limit- 

ed field he should be in accord with all 
who are trained in other departments. 
He should be able to represent the state 
in its educational and scientific undertak- 
ings, by papers and addresses, whenever 
called upon. It goes without saying that 
he should be a trained man in educational 
or library or literary work and of course 
an executive officer. His library is a lab- 
oratory of all for all in the state and he 
must be in touch with the work of that 
laboratory. His library is the distributer 
of blessings to a great commonwealth, and 
according to the motto of the "Library 
Company" of Philadelphia, that is divine 
(Communiter bona profundere deum est). 
I'll not quote the Latin — it would be class- 
ic, and to be classic is against the regula- 
tions of the Zeitgeist. I want him to be an 
inspirer for all to love art and poetry, and 
study and history and politics (real) ; and 
not merely skilled in the knowledge of 
card indexes and catalog rules. A certain 
famous general in the Confederate Army 
spent so much of his time on details of 
drill and quartermaster's regulations that 
he forgot how to fight his army. 

I have put the librarian first in this 
broadening influence of the state library. 
All the volumes and equipment and staff 
will be comparatively a failure without 
this scholarly, well-trained, wide-awake 
executive oflacer. 

As to the various ways in which the 
state library can extend its influence and 
make itself useful, permit me to suggest a 
few. This institution can well be the bib- 
liographical center of the state. Every 
club, school, library, society, and all citi- 
zens can be made to know that here in- 
formation can be obtained about books. 

Our own demand is quite large and 
ought to be larger. There are libraries 
with meagre equipment, schools with 
none, people with none, colleges with lit- 
tle — all these may be taught to turn to the 
central institution for bibliographical in- 
formation. I consider this a source of 
wide-spreading influence, valuable and 
helpful to the whole state. I have placed 
it second more because I deem it impor- 



tant, not because I think all of these 
points can be listed accurately as to their 
relative positions. 

Our states heretofore have been very 
slow in preserving their history, both of 
the commonwealth and municipalities. 
This has led, perchance, to the unspeak- 
able commercial county histories with 
their unspeakable portraits and unspeak- 
able cost, which we are compelled to pur- 
chase in order to have something. 

The state library's influence should ex- 
tend over the entire state in an attempt 
to teach the preservation of history. The 
library is the natural place for the col- 
lection and organization of the history of 
the state. The archives may well be kept 
here for reference and use, though some 
states have a separate archives and his- 
tory department, 

I wish we knew how to preserve history. 
We don't keep or build memorials, we tear 
down and throw away. What we want is 
the new, the fresh, the raw. The old, the 
seasoned, the ripe, we think is effete (how 
we like that word in referring to the old 
advanced civilization of Europe). The state 
library has a great, unploughed field to 
cultivate. Personally, I find people ready 
to burn up newspapers or manuscrips, or 
sell volumes for junk rather than give them 
to an institution where they may be pre- 
served. I am trying to teach them other- 
wise, but succeeding very slowly indeed. 
I trust some of you are doing better. 

The women's clubs are a source of help 
in extending the Influence of the library. 
They are asking for information of all 
kinds at all times. , We laugh at them, I 
know. They have papers on Shakespeare, 
Goethe or Homer at one sitting and dis- 
pose of them all. But what shall we do? 
They are the conservers of culture and 
reading. Men don't want them, i, e, cul- 
ture and reading. They are bourgeois, 
"practical," (a bas with that word and up 
with refinement and culture which is just 
as meaningful in books as in a field where 
we know culture is everything). I know 
many prosperous country towns without a 
men's reading organization or club in 

them, but many women's. If the state li- 
brary in its state-wide influence, could con- 
vert men to reading, it would do a great 
work. Send your bulletin to the clubs, sug- 
gest topics for discussion, and thus dis- 
tribute the leaven. 

So much of our reading and study is 
done through periodicals of every descrip- 
tion that it is made necessary for one cen- 
tral institution to be well supplied with 
these publications. The periodicals not 
taken in the average library, college or 
club, the foreign, like Revue de Deux 
Mondes, and Dublin Review, for example, 
and particularly the learned periodicals 
used only occasionally, should be found in 
the state library. 

The state library can become a source 
of information, widespread over the state, 
by this process. Demands come sometimes 
from remote corners, from a teacher or 
some ambitious student, and he should 
never be neglected. This department, I 
fear, has been in a measure overlooked. 
We have about a hundred from foreign 
countries secured through exchange for 
the Indiana Academy of Science, They 
are not commonly called for but they form 
a tie between the library and the scientific 
men and students over the state. 

By no means limit this list to scientific 
periodicals. Make the selection as broad 
as human interest, if funds and space per- 

It is commonplace to say that the state 
library is the document depository of the 
commonwealth. You know that now. 
Many people do not realize it, however. 
Every official publication of the state, 
counties and municipalities, if preserved 
here, will be a source for historical re- 
search in the future. Nothing of the kind 
should be thrown away. Many state li- 
braries were founded with this particular 
purpose in view. The state library is the 
logical place for the preservation of all 
documents of the state. From it the mu- 
nicipal authorities, students of state his- 
tory and political science, teachers, legis- 
lators and citizens gather the information 



needed on the documentary history of the 

All the states have institutions of vari- 
ous kinds — colleges, hospitals for insane, 
the epileptic, the tubercular, reformatories, 
etc., etc. Why should the state library 
not at least supplement the small or large 
collections in these institutions? Their 
purpose is not to purchase books, though 
some are needed. The state library's in- 
fluence and assistance should enter here, 
also. Much can be done to enlarge the 
views and inform the heads of these insti- 
tutions and to make happy many of the 
inmates. No demand by a superintendent 
of a state institution for books to be pur- 
chased for and referred to by him would 
be overlooked in the Indiana state libra- 
ry. The institutions are scattered over 
the state and the library's influence would 
be spread in gathering material for the 
people connected with these institutions. 
The libraries of the state universities can 
be supplemented to great advantage, ag 
has been done at least in our own state 
and in yours, I have no doubt. 

The newspapers of the state are not kept 
with any regularity in the dilTerent locali- 
ties. They are a valuable fund of informa- 
tion for the historian, who must sift rig- 
idly of course. Our attempt is to preserve 
the papers from each county. We have 
many instances already of the value of 
our collection. We believe that a state- 
wide service is done in this way. I know 
the newspaper is not what we think it 
ought to be, but certain conditions of poli- 
tics, business and social customs are pic- 
tures which will otherwise be lost. The 
librarian in the state library has imposed 
upon him here an important duty to the 
commonwealth, and the possibility of ren- 
dering great service. 

The high schools are fond of debating. 
The boys are more easily aroused to read- 
ing by the discussion of a public or social 
problem. The local library is usually mea- 
gre. If the school principal is kept in 
close touch with the central library he 
will know where to send for material. A 
bulletin on "Debates" with bibliographical 

lists is of great service to the school men. 
The state library extends its work to edu- 
cational centers by this method. The In- 
diana state library for several years has 
followed this system and as a result has 
almost been swamped with requests for 
debate material. As many as forty high 
schools in one week tried to overwhelm us, 
but our staff stood the test womanfuUy 
and won. 

There are state-wide associations of all 
kinds in every state. Many of them pub- 
lish reports or proceedings. The state li- 
brarian may well keep his institution in 
touch with all of these. The library may 
even be a member of some of them, espe- 
cially educational, social, literary or ar- 
tistic. The presence of a member of its 
staff at their meetings or correspondence 
may lead to the use of the library by these 
organizations in a way that will show that 
the library is the thing to be used — a tool 
for every man. 

Common as it may be to say it, the as- 
sistance to the blind of the state by the 
central library must not be passed by. It 
is a great joy for any one to note the 
pleasure these unfortunate people obtain 
from the collections from which they draw 
daily. Very few, if any, are able to pur- 
chase their ow« books. The number as- 
sisted is small, but the benefit and happi- 
ness are great and lasting. 

As the state library is the document and 
the political science center, it follows that 
legislative and official information are to 
be secured here. The officials and mem- 
bers of the Assembly ought to be made 
to know that the state library is, as it 
were, the fountain head from which to 
draw. If the library is worth anything or 
its head and staff worth anything, they 
should be consulted frequently by these 
persons in their work of lawmaking. The 
library has gathered and organized the 
material and by means of its use by the 
legislator, the library exerts a state-wide 

It is the province of the traveling libra- 
ries department to lend collections of 
books to groups of citizens in localities 



apart from libraries. This does not hinder 
the state library from doing much for the 
farmer individually and in farmers' in- 
stitutes. Addresses may be delivered, bib- 
liographical lists on agricultural subjects 
sent and books loaned if the law permits 
it, and I think it should. 

In our own library we have letters and 
requests from farmers; we preserve the 
records of their institutes and granges. 
One who had only half an hour a day to 
read asked for a volume of Jefferson, 
Shakespeare, or a good book on chiggers. 
If he could find out how to get rid of the 
chiggers, I would prefer that book to Jef- 
ferson, whose apotheosis is sadly over- 
worked. That farmer's request was not 
so fascinating as that of a teacher who 
wanted a book on "the history of the hu- 
man people." This is a sample of Indi- 
ana readers. Indiana, the home of au- 
thors! (I want to express my opinion in 
parenthesis here, that this Indiana litera- 
ture talk is also sadly overworked.) 

All this concerns special classes of peo- 
ple and books. But the general reader 
must be looked after. If democratization 
of books and reading is our keynote, and 
I think it is, then the citizen who wants 
to read on history, poetry, art, sociology, 
religion, must not be neglected. State- 
wide means much. It means an open mind 
for all the demos. 

Our central library shall not be a- trade 
shop, not for the bourgeoisie, but a men- 
tor, a guide, a place of refinement and cul- 
ture. Not for the practical man only — he 
usually does not know anything and does 
not want to; he has no breadth of view. 
Looking up a trade item or a report or 
some figures is good and useful; so is lov- 
ing a poet because it is at the foundation 
of character and education. 

We have recently been informed^-no, 
we have been told — that to talk about 
reading, culture, the love of knowledge, is 
"flapdoodle." A citizen may be benefit- 
ed by knowing how many miles of rail- 
road are in his county, or what amount 
of money his city spends, but he will be 
just as much benefited by reading a lofty 

poem of Andr^ Ch^nier, Le Jeu de Paume 
for example, or a stanza of William 
Dwight Moody's, not that he will make 
money, but something far better. 

What I want to say is that the state 
library shall extend the love of learning, 
of literature, or art and all their kin to the 
furthest boundaries of the state in order 
that all may know that here is a fountain 
whence all may receive instruction and 
refreshment. Why should the business 
man not read something besides the news- 
paper, the statements of which are denied 
the next day? Yet most men read nothing 
else. If his own town library is small 
let him call upon the state library and let 
the state library be ready to help. I be- 
lieve that lending books must still be 
granted to the state library. We have 
calls from lovers of reading from every 
corner of Indiana, from men who love cul- 
ture, knowledge and literature. These we 
propose to accommodate as long as the 
law permits. This observation is made 
because it has been said repeatedly that 
the state library shall deal in documents, 
reports and reference books. 

We have many foreigners in Indiana. 
When these cannot secure what is wanted 
at their local library I want them to come 
to us, as recently happened when the Rou- 
manians wanted the text of their native 
poets and something about their provin- 
cial capital Nagygebin. 

I trust that we may all have one great 
library for reference with a minimum of 
popular fiction — a library that is a guide 
to scholarship and knowledge, a library 
where every man who loves to read may 
turn himself out to grass and browse, 
browse deeply. Herein will we have state- 
wide influence. 

May I group these influences as a sum- 
mary: — the personality, fitness and schol- 
arship of the State Librarian; the bibli- 
ographical center may well be the state 
library; the legislative reference for the 
Assembly and officials; the gathering and 
preserving of the history and archives of 
the state along with the encouragement 
among the people to preserve local his- 



torical material; the collecting of news- 
papers representing the entire common- 
wealth; the creation of a periodical center 
in the state library; close connection with 
schools, colleges and all kinds of organ- 
izations, social, literary, commercial, etc.; 
assistance for all the state institutions, 
educational, charitable, and correctional; 
close relation with the women's clubs; as- 
sistance to the farmer and the foreigner 
in isolated localities; the center for gen- 
eral culture and love of knowledge where 
every citizen may continue to go to school. 
The PRESIDENT: Mr. Lester in his 
paper referred to the bill-drafting depart- 
ment of a legislative reference bureau and 
Mr. Brown has just referred to the man be- 
hind the counter. We may perhaps feel 
that modern conditions require two men 
behind the counter in government: the one 
who prepares the ammunition and the one 
who fires it; and perhaps the more im- 
portant is the one who prepares the am- 
munition; the one who draws up the law, 
leaving to the legislature the more per- 
functory service of applying the match. 
Mr. MATTHEW S. DUDGEON has served 
in the capacity of director of the bill draft- 
ing department of the Wisconsin legisla- 
tive bureau and I believe that since he has 
assumed the duties of the executive officer 
of the Wisconsin Library Commission he 
has continued to perform that service. We 
shall be glad to hear from him this morn- 
ing as to 


In an address before the New York Bar 
Association the Honorable Joseph E. 
Choate says that we in America are suffer- 
ing seriously from plethora of legislation. 
He suggests that this whole "mass of legis- 
lation pabulum that is made up and offered 
to the people from year to year, ought to 
be more thoroughly 'Fletcherized,' more 
completely masticated, before it is poured 
into the body politic for digestion. "If that 
were done, I am sure," he says, "that we 
could get along with half the quantity and 
it would do us just as much good." The 
volume of legislation now being considered 

is, in fact, appalling. The legislature of 
one Eastern state had before it at its last 
biennial session four thousand and eighty- 
one distinct bills. A Western state this 
year has asked its legislature to consider 
three thousand, seven hundred and thirty- 
eight measures. A Southern state actually 
passed at its latest session one thousand, 
four hundred and sixty different enact- 

Unlike the hookworm, however, this dis- 
ease is neither new nor newly discovered, 
nor is it like the chills and fever, indige- 
nous to our newly settled American conti- 
nent. Over three hundred years ago Mon- 
taigne discovered a superabundance of leg- 
islation in France. "We have more laws 
in France," he says, "than in all the rest 
of the world." And going back still further 
to the first century A. D. we find Tacitus 
complaining that there are too many laws 
in Rome. "So that as formerly we suffered 
from wickedness," he says in his Annals, 
"so now we suffer from too many laws." 

We may safely conclude then that the 
enactment of many laws which are not so 
fully "Fletcherized" as they should be, is a 
complaint which long ago became chronic 
among bodies politic generally and that 
it is high time that some cure be found 
for the ailment. How can the quantity of 
laws be diminished and the quality im- 
proved? How can our legislative acts be 
masticated so that one-half as many may 
do us as much good? 

The problem of thus improving legisla- 
tion and producing "the law that stands 
the test" is indeed a most serious one. 

Requirements. Let us suggest the propo- 
sition that a law that stands the test must 
first be one which violates no provision 
of the constitution; second. It must be 
founded upon a sound economic basis; 
third, it should be capable of efficient ad- 
ministration: that is, it should be a practi- 
cal, workable, usable thing; fourth, it 
must fit into its surroundings both legal 
and social. It must, as Blackstone has sug- 
gested, fit the situation as a suit of clothes 
fits the man. Some laws which are per- 
fectly sound in good old occidental Eng- 



land have been found to be entirely im- 
possible in oriental India. A measure 
which suits the Anglo-Saxon Yankee in 
Connecticut may be entirely out of place 
among the mixed peoples of the Philip- 

The law that stands the test must have 
all these qualities and this is the law 
which all the American states are striving 
to produce. Such a law may, of course, 
possess these characteristics and yet not 
be in every sense satisfactory. It may not 
accomplish all that was hoped for it; it' 
may contain errors; it may need amend- 
ments, and still it may be a law which, in 
a proper sense, stands the test. To give 
a method by which a law may be created 
which will stand the test will not there- 
fore be to suggest that a method has been 
discovered which will produce perfect leg- 

Nature of subjects considered. It should 
be remembered also that the difficulties of 
legislation arise not only from the multi- 
tude of subjects presented, but because 
many of the subjects are in themselves 
most difficult of comprehension. The 
Right Honorable James Bryce has said 
that the task of legislation becomes more 
and more difficult and that many of the 
problems which legislators now face are 
toe hard not only for the ordinary mem- 
bers but even for the abler members of 
legislative bodies because they cannot be 
understood and mastered without special 

To illustrate: The legislature of a mid- 
dle western state has had before it at a 
single session laws upon the following sub- 
jects: A comprehensive code of court pro- 
cedure, initiative and referendum, recall of 
all officers except judges, home rule in 
cities, excess, condemnation, woman's suf- 
frage, workmen's compensation, regula- 
tion of industrial accidents by commission, 
income tax, state aid to public highways, 
conservation and control of water power, 
forest reserve, system of industrial educa- 
tion, system of state life insurance, the 
formation of farmers' co-operative associa- 
tions, limitation of the hours of labor for 

women, child labor, public school build- 
ings as civic centers, and teachers' pen- 

There does not exist in any learned so- 
ciety nor in any university in the land a 
single man who can do more than con- 
verse intelligently upon all of these sub- 
jects; yet this state expected its absolutely 
untrained legislators to understand these 
matters thoroughly, to express a wise judg- 
ment upon them, and to record their judg- 
Tient in such form as to force it upon an 
entire state. 

Lack of training on the part of the legis- 
lators. Of the one hundred members of 
the lower house of the legislature which 
voted upon all these measures sixty-five 
had never had any previous legislative ex- 
perience. Only thirty had had the advan- 
tage of any college education. While nine- 
teen of the one hundred were lawyers, they 
were for the most part young, inexperi- 
enced men, whose contact with public 
questions had been limited. Thirty of the 
one hundred were farmers, thirty-one were 
in business, six were doctors or dentists, 
eight were mechanics, three were school 
teachers. Yet these men, without experi- 
ence, or training, or special fitness were 
forced to vote upon all these difficult eco- 
nomic and industrial problems, and also 
upon about two thousand other more or 
less important measures. 

Necessity for unbiased information. It 
is of course evident that what the legisla- 
tor must have is a source from which he 
can obtain complete information upon all 
sides of a controverted question. A court 
which purports to administer justice after 
hearing the contention of oniy one party 
to a transaction would open itself to ridi- 
cule. Yet this is precisely the method pur- 
sued in legislation. The legislator begins 
without any independent knowledge of the 
subject. Such knowledge as he obtains 
is brought to him ordinarily by a lobbyist. 
He receives many private suggestions 
whose source he hardly knows. He at- 
tends a committee hearing on a bill seek- 
ing to increase the taxes levied upon rail- 
road property, for example. Here the best 



data and legal arguments that money can 
buy is ably and forcibly presented by the 
railroad attorneys. They give figures to 
show that the railroads are already taxed 
more than other forms of property. They 
Quote economists to the effect that the 
proposed taxation is unsound and unscien- 
tific. They cite court decisions demon- 
strating to a certainty that the proposed 
measure is unconstitutional. They argue, 
wheedle, misstate, and finally convince 
the legislator that the measure Is absurd. 
No similarly exhaustive arguments in be- 
half of the bill can be presented, for no 
talent comparable to that of the railroad 
attorneys, and in fact no talent at all is 
retained by the people in behalf of public 

This is the legislative librarian's oppor- 
tunity. As the Right Honorable James 
Bryce has said: "No country has ever been 
able to fill its legislatures with its wisest 
men; but every country may at least en- 
able them to apply the best methods and 
provide them with the amplest material." 

Legislation elsewliere. It is to be re- 
marked that the legislative questions be- 
fore all civilized communities are essen- 
tially similar. Everywhere are problems 
growing out of crime and pauperism; prob- 
lems relating to hours of labor, child labor, 
and wages; employer's liability; compul- 
sory insurance; workman's compensation; 
problems arising out of inheritance, in- 
come taxation, and the regulation of pub- 
lic service corporations. Nothing is so 
new, however, but that some other legisla- 
ture has worked upon the problem or is 
working upon it. Take, for example, such 
a question as employer's liability or work- 
man's compensation. Fifty legislative 
bodies are working upon or have worked 
upon this single question. In at least three 
foreign countries and in one American 
state it has been adequately solved. The 
other forty-six have failed in part or alto- 
gether, either because of uneconomic and 
unscientific approach or because of consti- 
tutional limitations. Formerly and up to 
within the last ten years no effort had 
been made to profit by the experience of 

these fifty other legislative bodies. The 
typical American way is to let the legisla- 
tors stumble along, ignorant of the results 
of similar experimentations elsewhere, try- 
ing out expensive, independent experi- 
ments, which inevitably end in ineffectual 

What the legislator most needs to know, 
then, is what efforts other communities are 
making to solve the problem before him 
and how they are succeeding, to the end 
that good measures which have succeeded 
elsewhere may be adopted and their fail- 
ures not repeated. Where successful leg- 
islative work is done the first effort is al- 
ways to get copies of every law on every 
subject which is likely to be legislated 
upon at the current session. All data bear- 
ing upon the success or failure of this leg- 
islation in other states and countries must 
be collected, digested, tabulated and placed 
in such form as to be readily available to 
the legislator. If a measure has failed or 
been repealed the reasons for the failure 
or repeal are sought. If it has been suc- 
cessful its provisions are carefully studied 
and analyzed with a view to adaptability 
to local needs. Experience shows that in 
some cases it is necessary to prepare a 
translation of good foreign legislation 
which has never before been translated 
into English. 

But no law from another jurisdiction can 
be safely transplanted without careful con- 
sideration. The local constitution must be 
studied. In such a case as the workman's 
compensation act referred to, it was neces- 
sary for a commission to make a close, sci- 
entific study of the causes and character of 
the industrial accidents within the state, to 
investigate the rates of the casualty insur- 
ance companies in the different industries, 
to discover what co-operation for the pre- 
vention of accidents could be secured from 
employers and employees. Hearings were 
held at various industrial centers within 
and without the state; scores of witnesses 
were examined; manufacturers, labor 
unions, engineering experts and econo- 
mists were called upon. In short, the prob- 
lem was treated in a thoroughly scientific 



manner. Contrary to the usual practice, 
the case was prepared and presented to 
the legislature with the same thoroughness 
and care as is usual when an important 
case is prepared and presented to the 
court. As a result the law, although not 
perfect, stands the test. 

Drafting. When the legislature has dis- 
covered what measures have proved suc- 
cessful elsewhere and what local condi- 
tions demand, it is still helpless because 
the members know nothing of legislative 
forms and cannot use with sufficient ac- 
curacy the language expressive of its con- 
clusion. Assistance in bill drafting is nec- 
essary. Experience has shown that the 
man who does this must be either a 
trained lawyer who is also a practical po- 
litical scientist or a practical political scien- 
tist who is something of a lawyer. It is 
often found too that in its original form a 
measure is unconstitutional and a lawyer's 
knowledge is necessary in order to devise 
some means of whipping the constitutional 
devil around the judicial stump. For ex- 
ample, the workman's compensation law of 
England, enacted too literally in Its origi- 
nal form, is clearly unconstitutional in 
America and has been so declared by the 
courts of our state. In another state, how- 
ever, the legislative lawyers who were en- 
gaged in drafting the bill, seeing clearly 
the judicial stump and the constitutional 
devil, by a simple but clever device passed 
what was in effect the English law, but in 
such form that when it came before the 
Supreme Court it was not only declared 
constitutional but was commended. 

Fault not with legislators but with the 
system. If legislation be bad the fault is, 
then, not with the legislator. The average 
legislator is a keen, bright, honest man, 
who has been successful in at least a small 
way in his business or profession. He is 
ignorant of legislative subjects not because 
he is an ignorant man, but because his 
knowledge is of other things. The fault is 
not with him. It is inherent in our un- 
scientific system of legislating. 

We put a group of farmers, grocers, and 
mechanics at work upon some great socio- 

logical problem. They can have no ade- 
quate knowledge of the subject. We do 
not give them compensation enough to pay 
their living expenses while they work. 
We allot them only a few hours to consider 
a given question. We provide for them 
no information. We furnish them with no 
legal counsel. Assuming, however, as is 
often true, that these men are men of in- 
tegrity and humanity and common sense 
and that their ideas are sound, they enact 
a good law that forbids, for example, the 
employment of children in hazardous and 
immoral surroundings. In this they have 
accomplished an important and intelligent 
constructive work. 

Then we hire the best trained minds in 
the state and put them in our courts. We 
pay them higher salaries than any other 
public servants. We give them large li- 
braries in which is found the accumulated 
legal lore of the past. We grant them, for 
the questions before them, all the time 
they can use, — weeks, months, often liter- 
ally years. These talented, high-minded 
gentlemen, by dint of industrious delving 
and assisted by highly paid and highly 
trained attorneys, discover at last in the 
depths of their moth-eaten law books some 
mummified eighteenth century idea which 
has become petrified into a constitutional 
provision. They shake their heads and de- 
cide that the splendid, humane, up-to-date, 
common sense legislation is unconstitu- 
tional and void because of some minor con- 
stitutional objection. They cannot be, and 
should not be, criticised, for they are clear- 
ly performing a duty. Neither can these 
judges substitute anything in place of the 
law which they destroy, for the work for 
which we pay them so well in money and 
honor and position is only critical, — and 
their function is in this case destructive. 

The law making function as important 
as the judicial. Now, creative work the 
world* over has always been recognized as 
requiring greater intelligence, better train- 
ing, keener initiative than the purely crit- 
ical. Yet, in legal matters this principle 
has been entirely ignored. In every way 
we exalt the interpretive, critical, even 



destructive, Judicial process. We neglect 
and belittle the constructive creative proc- 
ess of law making. 

The conclusion of the whole matter is 
that the making of the law is in principle 
as important, — in fact, more important, 
than the interpretation of it. 

The legislative function must be as care- 
fully performed as is the judicial. Men 
should be prepared for law making as are 
men for the judicial bench. They must be 
men of the same calibre, of good ^.bility, of 
high intelligence, of absolute integrity, of 
broad sympathies, and of big vision. Not 
until we have an agency of this type assist- 
ing in law making, not until the making of 
laws is recognized as a distinct and im- 
portant governmental function, co-ordinate 
with, if not superior to the judicial func- 
tion, not until each state has a bureau 
which will, as the Honorable James Bryce 
says, supply the legislators with the am- 
plest material and enable them to apply 
the best methods, can we hope to have 
laws which in the highest sense "stand 
the test." 

The PRESIDENT: We go now from the 
legislature to the business man, the man 
who makes the wheels turn around. Those 
of you who had the opportunity to hear the 
striking address, at a meeting of the 
Special Libraries Association the other 
day, from a business man of Boston need 
not be reminded of the tremendous pos- 
sibilities that lie in this extension of the 
library service. Mr. S. H. RANCK, of the 
Grand Rapids public library, will discuss 


On first giving consideration to this pa- 
per I was inclined to believe that the story 
of the personal use of the library (the 
public library) by business men would be 
almost as brief as the traditional story of 
snakes in Ireland. Few librarians hS,ve the 
means of knowing how many business men 
use their institutions, but where statis- 
tics of registration indicate the occupation 
of card holders it would appear that the 

library gets almost as many bartenders as 

To get some definite data on this sub- 
ject I had the library records investigated 
of the 198 officers and committees of the 
Grand Rapids Association of Commerce, 
the leading business organization of our 
city, with a membership of 1,300. These 
198 men (and a few women) represent our 
most active business concerns, as well as 
a few professions. Of this number only 53, 
or 27 per cent, have live library cards. In 
looking over the names I recognized 38 of 
those without cards as persons who either 
individually or through their employees in 
the interest of the house, have used the li- 
brary more or less for reference purposes. 
There are of course others who use the li- 
brary in this way without my knowledge. 

These figures indicate that the library 
is serving directly only about 50 per cent 
of the livest business men of the town. 
The specific questions I propose to discuss 
are, Why do business men use the library 
relatively little? What can the library do 
to get business men to use it more? 

Progressive business men use the library 
because they recognize the enormous 
value of new ideas and of new knowledge 
to their business, no matter where they 
get them. The trouble is that public li- 
braries can't always furnish them the 
knowledge they need. And furthermore 
not all business men are progressive. 
There are standpatters in the business, as 
well as in the political world. However, 
there is no class of men who have a better 
idea of the potential power of print, rightly 
used, than the business men who adver- 
tise. Such men are always ready to meet 
the library more than half way. 

In discussing this question I should have 
preferred to use the term "business men" 
in a liberal sense. We are all more or less 
"business" people at times, but for this oc- 
casion I am directed by our president to 
limit it to that one of its 24 different mean- 
ings which applies to employer rather than 
employee in "the occupations of conduct- 
ing trade or monetary transactions" and 



in "employments requiring knowledge of 
accounts and financial methods." 

Before proceeding further permit me to 
state my conviction that the greatest serv- 
ice the library is doing for business men 
is not to business men personally, but 
rather for them through their employees, — 
in supplying knowledge and in promoting 
the general intelligence and the social wel- 
fare of the community. These things are 
of the greatest importance to every em- 
ployer, for they are the foundations on 
which all efficiency is built. The social 
welfare work of the Panama Canal, much 
of it the kind libraries are doing, is a con- 
spicuous example of the immense financial 
value of such work. 

The male portion of adult society we 
may roughly divide, so far as occupations 
are concerned, into manual workers (la- 
borers and mechanics), professional men, 
business men, and drones (the idle class) 
v/ho, like the lilies of the field, neither toil 
nor spin, but who frequently outshine Sol- 
omon in the gorgeousness and variety of 
their array. They live a parasitic life on 
the productive labor of their fellow men, 
giving no adequate return. In the admin- 
istration of our public libraries most con- 
sideration has been given to the idle class 
and to the professional classes. Real serv- 
ice for the manual workers and business 
men has been largely neglected until with- 
in recent years. 

There are several reasons for this ne- 
glect. Among these may be mentioned 
the following: Working men and business 
men are expressing themselves in deeds 
and in things rather than in words and 
books; and therefore until recently there 
'has been relatively little worth-while ma- 
terial available for the libraries to put on 
their shelves for the men directly engaged 
in industrial or commercial pursuits. Fur- 
thermore there has been a long standing 
prejudice on the part of these men (those 
who are rule-of-thumb men) against the re- 
liability and the utility of things in print 
for their everyday work. And in certain 
quarters this prejudice still exists to a very 
considerable extent. They are inclined to 

look upon the writers and users of books 
as theoretical and impractical. 

A further handicap in the use of li- 
braries by business men, is the fact that 
so few of us in library work know the con- 
tents of books and things in print that 
might be useful to them in their daily 
work; and oftener we know still less of the 
problems business men must deal with. 
Therefore we cannot relate the inside of 
books with their work. 

Much of the work of the public library is 
a kind of salesmanship, even though there 
is no direct exchange of the coin of the 
country. Salesmanship in its best sense 
is service, and service is what a city is 
buying for all its people when it puts into 
its annual budget a more or less (usually 
less) adequate sum of money for its li- 
brary. As things are today I fear that in 
too many cases the public instead of draw- 
ing a plum from the library pie is not in- 
frequently handed a lemon. 

Recently I had the pleasure of dining 
with the vice-president of a department 
store that employs over 2,500 people to sell 
nothing but clothes — wearing apparel. He 
told me that the great secret of the success 
of his institution, through whose doors 
there enter from 30,000 to 40,000 people 
every day (and remember that nearly all 
these people enter with the expectation of 
parting with some of their good money), 
is the fact that every employee has in- 
stilled into him or her the fact that the 
salesmanship that brings success is serv- 
ice and that it is founded on knowledge; 
for, said he, "No one can sell goods satis- 
factorily unless he knows all about them," 
— where they are made, how they are made, 
what they are, their history, etc. And 
these things everyone in this store is sys- 
tematically taught. Incidentally, I may 
add that this department store starts its 
people at a minimum wage higher than the 
minimum in many libraries, and the maxi- 
mum for women in this store is double the 
maximum of the highest paid women in li- 
brary work in this country. This store 
uses the public library of its city and has 
a library of its own whose librarian is at 



this convention at the expense of the store. 
When a department store finds such a pol- 
icy a wise one the business men respon- 
sible for its management will be the first 
in the community to support a policy of li- 
brary service based on knowledge. But 
business men must be shown that the li- 
brary is delivering the goods. 

The business man places his establish- 
ment so far as possible where it will best 
serve the purposes of his business, and he 
spends loads of good money in the first 
place, and annually in the form of taxation, 
to get his building at the right place. Be- 
sides getting his establishment at the right 
place he also spends more loads of good 
money to arrange it for the economic and 
expeditious handling of his affairs in it. 
So far as libraries relate to serving the 
business man, as well as nine-tenths of the 
other people in the community, I am con- 
vinced that 95 per cent of the library build- 
ings of the country are badly located, and 
furthermore that the large proportion of 
these buildings are badly arranged for the 
work they have, or ought, to do. 

The place to serve the people is where 
the people daily congregate and pass by in 
the largest numbers. This is never on a 
side street or in the "best" residence sec- 
tion of the city. Your average "best" citi- 
zen today gets more satisfaction out of his 
public library in showing his visitor from 
out of town the Greek temple set back in 
a beautiful grove or garden as he whirls by 
in his six cylinder, 60 horse-power, seven- 
passenger touring car than in using the 
books and periodicals inside. Such a build- 
ing in such a setting has a value as a 
work of art, but not as a library for serv- 
ice. Incidentally, it is only fair to say that 
business men in most of our cities are 
largely responsible that we have library 
buildings for show rather than for use. 

Every block that separates the library 
from the principal lines of the movement 
of the people, every foot that people must 
walk from the sidewalk to the entrance of 
the building and then to its books, every 
step that must be climbed above the level 
of the sidewalk to reach the first floor, are 

all so many hurdles, barriers, which the 
people are obliged to overcome before they 
can get to their own books, whether it be 

o use them for business or pleasure, for 
education or recreation. The bad loca- 
tion and arrangement of library buildings 

n the United States are keeping hundreds 
of thousands of potential users and sup- 
porters of libraries away from them and 
out of them every day of the year. And 
there is no class of persons in the com- 
munity more affected by such things than 
business men, for they recognize (con- 
sciously or unconsciously) better than any 
other class the commercial value of time 
and convenience. 

Let me put this a little more concretely. 
The library building in which I work is 
better located and arranged than the aver- 
age library building of the country. And 
yet the total distance walked to and from 
the sidewalk by all those who enter that 
building daily is nearly 35 miles to the 
point where the library begins to serve 
them. Furthermore each one of the thou- 
sand and more persons who daily enter 
this building, in addition to the energy he 
uses in walking 180 feet to and from the 
sidewalk must lift his own weight and the 
weight of the books he carries seven feet 
above the level of the sidewalk. In other 
words the location and arrangement of 
this building with reference to the side- 
walk requires the people who use it daily 
to take an extra walk of almost the dis- 
tance from Baltimore to Washington and 
at the same time carry a weight equal to 
that of a ton of coal 350 feet to the top of 
a skyscraper and down again. And all this 
is in addition to the walk of 450 feet from 
the nearest car line, which few people use, 
800 feet from the car lines which are gen- 
erally used, and over 400 feet from the 
nearest thoroughfare. The library to be a 
friend to man, and to serve him, must 
"live in a house by the side of the road 
where the race of men go by." 

The business man who studies usually 
buys his own printed matter that deals 
directly with his work, and in this respect 
he is usually far ahead of the library both 



in knowledge and in material at hand; and 
the bigger his business the more is this 
iikely to be the case. The librarian will 
almost invariably find such a man a most 
helpful person in the selection of things 
to be purchased and in the relative value 
of both authors and books. It should be 
the business of every librarian to know 
intimately, as far as possible, all such men 
in the community. 

Our public libraries must largely in- 
crease on their shelves the number of 
things in print that are of real service to 
the business man in his work. First of all 
we must know what these things are, and 
next we need to have the nerve to spend 
money for them much more freely than we 
have ever done before. This is expensive 
and most such expenditures will not show 
in the statistics of circulation. As an il- 
lustration of this let me refer again to the 
institution I have the honor to serve. For 
a number of years we have been spending 
$400 a year for books in only one line of 
business. Besides the books, we take some 
two dozen current periodicals on the same 
subject. All are used to a considerable ex- 
tent and the use made of them by only a 
dozen men is of the greatest commercial 
and financial importance to our city. And 
yet so far as the figures of circulation are 
concerned the expenditure of $450 of our 
annual book fund for this one business is 
practically nothing. 

We must get away from the idea of 
measuring the usefulness or the eflSciency 
of the library by the number of books is- 
sued for home use. So long as this idea 
dominates our public library work we can 
never do our best for the community, and 
especially the business part of it. 

We need of course many books for the 
business man in our circulating depart- 
ments, but these by no means meet the 
need. Many of these books are out of date 
in a few years at the best. To keep up to 
date there is necessary a liberal purchase 
of year-books, transactions and publica- 
tions of industrial, technical and commer- 
cial associations which bring down to date 
annually, and in convenient form, the lat- 

est knowledge in their respective fields. 
For progressive business men such works 
are vastly more important than encyclo- 
pedias, important as encyclopedias of all 
kinds are. 

Then too we must pay greater respect 
to the material published in pamphlet 
form. On a multitude of subjects some of 
the latest and best things have appeared 
in this form. Most of us do not handle 
this material properly, if at all. In many 
libraries pamphlets are regarded and cared 
for with about the same degree of disre- 
spect as were public documents in most 
libraries twenty years ago, and I regret to 
say, in many libraries today. And as for 
the public use made of pamphlets, it is 
practically nothing. 

But more important for the wide-awake 
business man than books, documents and 
pamphlets, is a large collection of current 
periodicals relating to every kind of busi- 
ness activity in your city, with clipping 
files on many subjects, for it is only 
through these that it is possible to keep 
up with the latest information or for the 
library to supply the thing that is most 
needed at the minute. As an illustration 
of such use I recall several recent in- 
stances of business men getting up briefs 
in connection with the proposed Under- 
wood tariff bill. The latest information, 
even when compiled sometimes by gov- 
ernment authorities, was secured from 
technical or trade journals before it could 
be received from the Government Print- 
ing OSice. 

In short the best work the library can do 
for the business men personally is in the 
building itself, supplemented by extensive 
use of the telephone and the mails (refer- 
ence or information work if you please), 
and not by issuing to them for home use 
books whose information at the best is 
rarely less than a year old, but in reality 
is more likely to be five, ten, or even 
twenty years old. The circulating book 
has a most important place and I would 
not for one moment take from it the im- 
portance that is its due. My plea is that 
we recognize more fully for our business 



man, and especially the so-called small 
business man— the man of small business, 
or the young man who hopes to establish 
a business of his own, the great impor- 
tance of library assistants who know he 
contents and the relative value of books, 
pamphlets and periodicals, and who under- 
stand the art of library salesmanship 
whereby the business man gets the things 
he really needs. 

And then when we have done all this — 
have librarians who know, and the things 
in print the business man needs, this one 
thing more we must do, we must let the 
business man know what we have for his 
particular problem and how we can serve 
him. The library must advertise the util- 
ity of ideas and of knowledge in the every 
day work of the world as well as advertise 
its resources and its service. 

The best advertising is that which comes . 
from a well served patron. But our li- 
braries have thrown away one of the best 
means of publicity by locating their build- 
ings where people must go out of their way 
to find them and by so arranging them 
that the passerby sees nothing but stone, 
brick and glass — things that suggest noth- 
ing of the joy and usefulness of books. 
Seeing great crowds enjoying and using 
books, as well as seeing attractive things 
in print through properly arranged show 
windows, would appeal to the average li- 
brary user in a way that would simply 
compel his interest and attention in the 
things we have for him. 

The architecture of the average library 
building suggests a tomb — a place for dead 
ones — rather than a place chock-full of the 
things that appeal with tremendous force 
to the soul that is alive with the throb- 
bing impulses of this wonderful time in 
which we live. 

Since our buildings deny us this great 
means of publicity which the show window 
enables every merchant to use to such 
great advantage, we must use as best we 
may such means as we find available. In 
a general way I may state my conviction 
that we should make a much larger use 
of the specific personal appeal as over 

against general publicity, though the latter 
is also necessary. When a man has a defi- 
nite task assigned him put the resources 
and service of your library directly up to 
him for his particular problem, especially 
if the problem is one a little outside the 
circle of his regular business. It will come 
to him at the psychological moment and 
he Is most likely to act on your sugges- 
tion; whereas had it come to him as a gen- 
eral statement before he was personally 
interested most likely it would have been 
promptly forgotten. As a part of our regu- 
lar routine letters from the library go to 
all such persons, as we see their names 
in the newspapers, on programs, etc. 

At the meeting of the Associated Adver- 
tising Clubs of America early this month 
in Baltimore I had the pleasure of "get- 
ting next" to some of the livest business 
men in the country. The thing that im- 
pressed me most was not the interesting 
exhibitions there shown or the variou;^ 
"stunts" that were pulled off, but the new 
note that some of the men were striking. 
It was this: "Business and business effi- 
ciency for service rather than for profit." 
This is a high ideal, worthy of any profes- 
sion, and I venture the prediction that it 
will be men of this type who will more and 
more dominate the business world of the 
future. Such men will appreciate and sup- 
port the public library more than business 
men have ever done before; but they will 
also require more. To get their support 
we as librarians must think less of meas- 
uring our efllciency in terms of circulation 
statistics, a kind of Impersonal, bookkeep- 
ing standard, but more 6t measuring it in 
terms of human service — human service 
not only for the business man, but for 
every man, every woman and eveiy child 
in all this vast continent of America. 

The PRESIDENT: Great as is the op- 
portunity of the public library to serve the 
business man, it can't do It all, for so 
highly specialized are some of the depart- 
ments of interest of the various business 
houses that no public library without a 
treasury like that of our millionaire con- 
cerns could hope to undertake a work of 



that character. Therefore, each large 
business concern necessarily must supple- 
ment the resources of the public library by 
means of library facilities of its own. We 
shall hear something of this form of worli 
this morning in the paper which is to be 
presented by one of the most successful of 
the libraries of this type, that of H. M. 
Byllesby & Co. of Chicago, whose librarian, 
Miss LOUISE B. KRAUSE, will give us 
the paper. 


The service which books render man- 
kind may in general be designated as fall- 
ing into two classes; namely, books for in- 
spiration and books for information. Dis- 
missing the use of books as a means of in- 
spiration, because the subject does not fall 
within the scope of this paper, let us con- 
sider the most important use to which 
printed information can be put, in the serv- 
ice of mankind. At first thought it might 
seem that the use of the printed page for ' 
purposes of information reached its high- 
est service in the function of education, 
but granted that it does not play an impor- 
tant part in education, we know educa- 
tion to be something vastly larger than a 
mere knowledge of facts, and we also 
know that many men and women who are 
repositories of information derived from 
the printed page do not always put it into 
operation for the best welfare of their fel- 
lows; for, as James Russell Lowell has 
said, "There is nothing less profitable than 
scholarship for the mere sake of scholar- 
ship;" and truly scholarship without the 
ultimate purpose of practical service is one 
of the most selfish possessions in the 

Let us therefore exclude the use of 
printed information in the service of edu- 
cation as its highest form of usefulness 
and consider the following statement. The 
use of print in furnishing information per- 
forms its most important service in the 
function which it exercises in modern busi- 
ness, because it is business which lays 

hold of abstract science and knowledge 
and puts them into practical operation for 
the greatest benefit to mankind; for the 
commercial age in which we live Is not a 
sordid age, but an age which is distinctly 
marked by the development and conserva- 
tion of resources for the supplying of 
man's needs, by means of the extension of 
applied science into the field of business. 
Now lest this statement should be too ab- 
stract, and the speaker be accused in the 
words of Leonard Merrick of "voicing the 
sentiments of the unthinking in stately lan- 
guage," let us consider this proposition for 
a moment in the concrete. It is business 
enterprise that has brought about, through 
the perfection of the steam engine, the 
swiftness and convenience which we enjoy 
in twentieth century travel by railroad. It 
is business that has brought the service 
of the telephone and telegraph to their 
highest perfection. It is business that has 
developed artificial lighting by gas and 
electricity and emancipated us from can- 
dles and kerosene lamps. It is business 
that is transforming raw and waste mate- 
rials by the application of pure science, 
into products of service and value for the 
needs of innumerable homes, in addition 
to perfecting agricultural machinery, and 
producing fertilizers to enrich the land, 
thereby making possible the production of 
better crops. Thus we might continue to 
multiply illustrations of how business en- 
terprise has equipped us with the means of 
meeting great needs which at various 
times have seriously threatened the wel- 
fare of human life. This fact of the appli- 
cation of abstract science to the world's 
practical needs, through the medium of 
business enterprise, has become perma- 
nently recognized by institutions of learn- 
ing, as seen in the establishment of tech- 
nical schools, schools of commerce and 
finance, and instruction in business ad- 
ministration, for, as a recent writer in the 
Journal of Political Economy has said, 
"The methods of American industry are 
rapidly being intellectualized." 

A variety of professional work of which 
engineering and chemistry are noteworthy 



examples are also carried on by large busi- 
ness organizations, and we find profes- 
sional men of the highest rank as prime 
movers in large commercial enterprises. 
(In this connection it might not be amiss 
to state that out of an experience as uni- 
versity librarian and business librarian the 
speaker is inclined to think that the pro- 
fessional business man keeps more ade- 
quately informed and up to date on his 
specialties than does the average univer- 
sity professor.) 

An additional fact which bears directly 
on the general subject under discussion is, 
that the age in which we live is not only 
a business age, but that it is an ago 
marked by the magnitude of its business 
organizations; an age of "big business," as 
some one has called it; and because of the 
economic conditions of our advancing civ- 
ilization, business will undoubtedly con- 
tinue to be "big business" even though 
subjected to federal and state regulation. 
Now correlating these two facts, namely, 
that modern business is conducted by 
means of large organizations and that its 
success is based upon the intelligent appli- 
cation of scientific knowledge to practical 
needs, we have cleared the way for an ap- 
preciation of the function of printed in- 
formation as embodied in the work of libra- 
ries in business organizations. 

The business organization builds up its 
own library, first, on account of the con- 
venience of having close at hand the in- 
formation constantly needed by its work- 
ers, and subject to no borrowing restric- 
tions, which would be inevitable even if 
the facilities of outside libraries were 
available; and second, on account of the 
necessity for careful selection of material 
particularly adapted to its individual 
needs. Business organizations have for 
many years collected information in a des- 
ultory manner, but it has been only in the 
last few years that some of them have 
awakened to the fact that more was 
needed than mere collection of printed in- 
formation, and for the same reason that 
they were availing themselves of all mod- 
ern devices for the quick and adequate 

handling of their various products and 
were systematizing their methods to ob- 
tain more efficient results, so they must 
lay hold of modern library methods under 
experienced supervision if they were to 
keep up with the steadily growing and im- 
portant mass of printed information. 
Therefore we find business organizations 
securing the services of professional li- 
brary workers, trained to use books in the 
broadest and most practical manner. Some 
hesitation was at first expressed in vari- 
ous quarters as to whether so-called pro- 
fessional library methods used in public 
and university libraries were suited to 
business library needs, and as to whether 
library workers educated for general li- 
brary work would adequately meet the 
business library situation. In fact it was 
intimated that the business librarian was 
a worker of a different brand than the or- 
dinary librarian and therefore he had both 
knowledge and needs which set him apart 
from his library fellows, in a special class 
by himself. Out of four years' experience 
as a business librarian the speaker takes 
pleasure in stating that practical experi- 
ence has proved the fallacy of both of 
these conceptions. It is true that busi- 
ness librarians are called upon to exercise 
certain functions which the librarians of 
public and university libraries are not, but 
which any efficient head of a public or uni- 
versity library would be quite capable of 
exercising if the occasion demanded it. In 
fact the recent rise of library interest in 
business men and their needs can be di- 
rectly traced to the heads of some of our 
public libraries and the work they have in- 
augurated in making their libraries as 
helpful as possible to all classes of citi- 

The characterization of the function of 
libraries in business organizations by the 
word "expanding" in the title assigned to 
this paper by the President of the Ameri- 
can Library Association, is most apt, and 
indicative of the real status of the case. 
The business library is in a process of 
evolution, and just what the final result 



will be, it is a little too early in its de- 
velopment to state. 

The elemental idea of the function of a 
business library that was held by the offi- 
cers of the business organization with 
which the speaker is most familiar, was 
to have the books and data which were 
the property of the company, classified 
and cataloged so that material could be 
found quickly, and a librarian was em- 
ployed solely on the basis of this need. 

With the acquisition of a librarian the 
library situation soon changed from the 
inquiry for certain definite books and peri- 
odicals, to the inquiry as to whether the 
company had any specific information on 
a given subject, and if not as to whether 
printed information on the subject was 
available elsewhere and how quickly it 
could be obtained. 

The evolution in the function of a li- 
brary from that of furnishing a definite 
book asked for, to furnishing all the in- 
formation obtainable on a given subject as 
quickly as possible is decidedly expensive, 
and the what, how and where of the case 
would furnish ample material for a sep- 
arate paper. 

The evolution in the function of the li- 
brary did not stop at this point; for it 
was soon expected that the librarian would 
understand the specific interests of the 
members of the organization, and to a cer- 
tain degree think for them in keeping up 
with the field of print and in bringing to 
their attention, without a request on their 
part, certain facts of which they would 
like to be cognizant. To this duty was 
added the forecasting of possible future 
needs, and the collection of information in 
advance of rush demands. 

The magnitude of the work of modern 
business organizations requires the divi- 
sion of labor into a number of depart- 
ments, and the workers in any one depart- 
ment may not always be acquainted with 
the information which may be available in 
another department. The library, by keep- 
ing in touch with individuals in all depart- 
ments, becomes a central bureau of infor- 
mation in being able to refer the members 

of one department to those In another who 
possess the particular information desired. 

The business library also assembles and 
files the manuscript data of original re- 
search conducted by members of the or- 
ganization, materials which constitute one 
of its valuable assets. Research data in 
the possession of business corporations is 
often a worthy contribution to scholarship. 
An illustration of this fact was recently 
brought to the attention of the speaker, 
by the statement of a university student, 
who said that in making a study of the 
drinking waters of a certain state the only 
analyses of waters on record were those 
which a railroad had made primarily for 
the purpose of ascertaining the suitability 
of the waters for boiler use on locomo- 

In addition to these briefly outlined func- 
tions, which are more or less technical, at- 
tention should be directed to several oth- 
ers, lest a mistaken impression be given 
that business library work is entirely tech- 
nical in its nature. 

Business men are often called upon to 
serve the public as good citizens in vari- 
ous capacities, and also to serve as offi- 
cers or on committees of "aational business 
organizations, and thus have interests out- 
side of their regular company work. Their 
librarian is expected to assist in any need 
which arises by reason of these outside in- 
terests, and not only may be called upon 
to furnish information but also to do edi- 
torial work in preparing material for pub- 

The welfare and education of employees 
has also become a prominent feature in 
the work of many large business corpora- 
tions, and the library is expected to be a 
prominent factor in this work, as it is the 
logical educational center of the organi- 
zation. Some of our business libraries 
have recently been drawn rather deeply 
into welfare work with the result that cer- 
tain phases of practical library service are 
being neglected. It does not seem advis- 
able, however, that the business librarian 
should annex any line of welfare work 
which does not legitimately center in the 



library; for th© librarian is best fitted to 
serve the interests of the organization by 
maintaining high standards of efficient li- 
brary service rather than by annexing 
other kinds of work belonging solely to 
the sphere of a social worker. This is par- 
ticularly important at the present stage of 
business library development, as the busi- 
ness world in many sections has not yet 
learned what professional library service 
really is, and how to utilize it most efTec- 

In view of the fact that the business 
world except for comparatively few organi- 
zations is not utilizing the undoubtedly val- 
uable service which professional librarians 
are able to render, and that the American 
Library Association has always endeav- 
ored to extend the use of books and their 
widest application, it might not be amiss 
to suggest that it would be legitimate work 
for the American Library Association with 
its library prestige and well known mo- 
tives of personal disinterestedness, to un- 
dertake a campaign of education to bring 
before business men the subject of what 
library work really is, and the character of 
service it is prepared to render; for In 
these days of the over-emphasized and 
often superficial cry for more efficiency, 
there is no line of work that is more gen- 
uinely efficient than that of the trained 
librarian. The information, to be put be- 
fore business men, should be free from li- 
brary technicalities and details, and it« 
arguments should be framed, not to en- 
lighten librarians, but to convince busy 
men of affairs possessed of shrewd judg- 
ment and large foresight, as to the prac- 
tical worth of the matter as a business 
proposition. For library work in business 
organizations Is no longer a theory or a 
tentative experiment, but has proved itself 
in the firms adopting it to be an integral 
part of the successful work of the corpora- 
tion. This fact is well Illustrated by a 
bulletin recently issued by a large busi- 
ness firm, in which it endeavored to put 
before the public, in a pamphlet entitled 
"Why it is qualified" the value of the con- 
sulting services of one of its departments. 

and among the prominent reasons given 
under "Why it is qualified" is the fact of 
the commercial library maintained by the 
company, with the library's particular re- 
sources under competent supervision. 

Because printed information has proved 
to be an integral factor in the successful 
prosecution of business and because it can 
be most effectively utilized by means of 
professional library methods, therefore, 
the business library hopes to take its place 
in the ranks of the American Library As- 
sociation as one in purpose with all li- 
braries in the realization of a common 
ideal, namely, the largest possible use of 
books in the practical service of mankind. 

The PRESIDENT: I have just received 
a message that Mr. McAneny will be here 
in a very short time. In the few moments 
intervening it might be well perhaps to 
discuss some of the trenchant papers 
which we have had this morning. 

Miss AHERN: Mr. President, I would 
like to take exception to one thing Mr. 
Ranck said in his paper. I do not believe 
that the idea that the contents of books 
are useful to men in the business world is 
of recent date. I think, perhaps, the sec- 
ond statement that these things have only 
come recently into the arrangement of re- 
sources of the library is the truer one. We 
certainly have had knowledge of chemistry 
and of geology and technical knowledge in 
manufacture for many, many years, only 
many librarians have been more interested 
in the purely educational or inspirational 
part of the library and have neglected that 
large field of usefulness and that large 
company of people who contribute to the 
welfare of work and of the world, as Miss 
Krause has pointed out. The best chemists 
in the country are being sought by the 
business houses; the best knowledge of 
soils, of minerals, of woods, of lumber, of 
stone has long been sought by the men 
who are making a commercial use of these 
things. And their information is not held 
in reserve; it is all in printed form and 
only the scope of the librarian's knowledge 
of where things may be obtained in the 
world of print places the limit on this ma- 



terial for the library shelves. And so I 
hope that librarians will not say that books 
on these subjects, that material on these 
subjects is a recent product. It is our 
knowledge of them, a knowledge that this 
is a part of the province of library work, 
that makes for recent activity. 

The PRESIDENT: Mr. Ranck is here to 
answer for himself. The statement has 
been challenged and he can answer it. 

Mr. RANCK: I think there is not so 
much difference between the view I take 
and the view taken by Miss Ahem. I do 
not know that I followed my manuscript 
very closely at that point, but what I had 
in mind was the business man rather than 
the professional, technical man. I fully 
grant what Miss Ahern says with reference 
to technical subjects, scientific subjects, 
and so on. As I said, I think there is no 
radical disagreement between Miss 
Ahern's and my position. There may be a 

Miss AHERN: I was not questioning 
what Mr. Ranck had said, but, rather, re- 
moving any excuse that the library folk 
may put to themselves for a lack of inter- 
est or a lack of activity along this line by 
saying that the material was scant or hard 
to command. 

Dr. ANDREWS: There is the other side, 
that Miss Krause's paper emphasized and 
which Miss Ahern seems to neglect.- Miss 
Krause's paper states that American in- 
dustry is becoming intellectualized, and 
that this is a great factor in the develop- 
ment of business life. It ought also to be 
an extra incentive to the public library to 
meet the demands. I think that much of 
this development in the technical side of 
library work has come from the increasing 
study by business men of their own world 
and that we ought to remember that while 
the public libraries have neglected in the 
past to furnish business men with what 
they wanted, yet the latter did not want it 
then as much as they do now. 

The PRESIDENT: Those of us— and I 
assume that that means every librarian — 
who read the June number of the World's 

Work were impressed by one strong article 
therein concerning the growing magnitude 
of municipal administration and the great 
problems that confront those who are 
charged with such administration. Wfth- 
out repeating to you the very striking com- 
parisons which the author made with some 
of the governmental functions of states 
and even some of the kingdoms of Europe, 
showing the tremendous problems con- 
fronting the municipal officials, problems 
of tremendous budgets, of great public 
works, and so on, it will be sufficient for 
me to say that it is a happy omen that we 
are now getting into the public service 
men of high civic ideals and constructive 
ability and who are replacing men whose 
self-seeking interests or vanity led them to 
seek the votes of their fellow citizens. I 
am glad that we have with us today a man 
of this high type. I need not say further 
concerning him because we took advan- 
tage of his absence to get from Mr. 
Bowker a pretty good who's-who bearing 
upon himself, and I shall simply introduce 
to you at this time to speak to us upon 
the subject of "The municipal reference 
library as an aid in city administration," 
the Honorable GEORGE McANENY, presi- 
dent of the borough of Manhattan, New 


It is a very real pleasure to meet with 
the American Library Association, and to 
convey in behalf of my colleagues in the 
administration of the City of New York, 
and in behalf of other colleagues in public 
business throughout the country, our hearty 
congratulations and possibly a friendly 
warning and a word of appeal. 

Congratulations are due you for having 
established on so high a plane and in so 
short a time the profession of librarian. 
Especially are you to be congratulated for 
having welcomed the new profession of 
municipal reference librarian; for your 
adaptability in the constant extension of 
the reference work, and for the resiliency 



which is showing again in another field 
that real Father Williams never grow old. 
Could Benjamin Franklin look upon this 
gathering, and hear your reports of social 
service, through circulating, home, refer- 
ence and municipal reference libraries, I 
am sure that no fruit of his patriotism 
would seem to him more promising than 
the recent application of the circulating 
library idea to government affairs. 

My friendly warning has to do with your 
requests to fiscal bodies for appropriations. 
In many parts of the country, there is 
the feeling that the less the library has 
to do with public officials the better it is 
for the library, consequently, as a short 
cut, we find compulsory minimum appro- 
priations — so many mills or so many parts 
of mills for library development. We also 
find that too many towns are satisfied with 
this compulsory minimum tax, and that 
the only time their fiscal representatives 
hear about libraries is just before the bud- 
get appropriations are voted. You must 
be indulgent with those who vote the 
money, if the outcome of this habit sug- 
gests the man who was exasperated by his 
wife, who he said "just nagged and nagged 
him for money, when he came, when he 
left, on Sunday, always." Finally, when a 
neighbor summoned the courage to ask, 
"What in the world does she do with all 
the money?" he, perforce, must answer; 
"Well, I don't know; you see I haven't 
given her any yet." Councils and Mayors 
will understand your library problem best 
if you will help them understand at those 
quieter seasons of the year when they are 
not harassed, as they are at budget time, 
by appeals from every other city depart- 
ment and for every other thing. 

When presenting your budget, give the 
fiscal officer credit for wanting to know 
the whole truth, and for wanting reasons 
for giving you the money you request. 
Seldom will it help to ask for a great deal 
more than you need. Always, it will help 
not to present in a single total items that 
do not belong together. Classify your bud- 
get. State your program clearly. If all 
the money you want is not yoted this year. 

stick clearly to the plan that has been 
voted, and show both the fiscal authorities 
and the town where your service has been 
crippled, if at all, for want of funds. It 
will be well to begin your budget campaign 
so that the first idea which the public 
and the fiscal officers get is that of the 
service you wish to render, rather than 
the money you wish to get. Most library 
budgets, like most other budgets of the 
United States, are apt to be put in with- 
out the explanatory matter which alone 
will make the dollar-and-cent facts show 
social reasons for library support. 

Now for my appeal. In asking you to 
consider certain needs of public business, 
I want to speak quite frankly, as a city 
official who, like thousands of other city 
and county officials, must step into other 
people's business, with no time for get- 
ting acquainted with detail, and with a 
public to deal with that not only expects 
us on the first day we take office to use 
all the machinery of our predecessor and 
to get better results, but also really ex- 
pects us to fail. We inherit a stack of 
mail. We are flooded with suggestions 
and complaints; many of them in confi- 
dence and most of them confusing. We are 
urged to attend club and church meetings, 
and dinners, and graduating exercises. We 
are expected, without any change in sub- 
ordinate personnel, while giving our atten- 
tion to large community problems and to 
the political aspects of public works, to 
get an efficient product out of our em- 
ployees, no matter who they are or what 
they have been. In most places, we find 
no disinterested adviser, either on the in- 
side or on the outside. 

Such a situation would not necessarily 
be serious if we stepped into a thoroughly 
eflScient organization where every employee 
and supervisor had his place, and where 
the institution as such had its "continuing 
memory." When Mr. Rea succeeded Mr. 
McCrea as president of the Pennsylvania 
Railroad, he inherited a splendid organiza- 
tion, every part related to another part; 
a system under which experts had tabu- 
lated within a moment's reach the sue- 



cesses and the failures of the Pennsylvania 
Railroad, and the costs of its various con- 
tracts, the difference between estimates 
and final costs, and an efficiency ranking 
both of its various employees and its sta- 
tions. When the present administration 
in New York City stepped into office, we 
inherited an aggregation of departments 
and divisions then spending — if we count 
in installments and interest paid on the 
city debt— more than $160,000,000 for the 
expenses of a single year. There were 
ninety thousand employees. Side by side 
with one another were clerks paid one $600 
and another $1,800 for the same kind of 
work; in another grade were clerks paid 
$1,600 and others paid $2,400 for the same 
kind of work. When salaries had been 
increased, and why, was not a matter of 
record. Supplies were contracted for by 
no standard form. Specifications, either 
for supplies or for construction work, were 
worded differently at different times, ac- 
cording to the individual wish or whim of 
the department officer preparing them. The 
public was but poorly protected at any 
point. Plans were made for new buildings, 
for new roads, and for other vast improve- 
ments, often without estimates of cost; 
often with assurances of only slight cost, 
where, too frequently, cost had been esti- 
mated as an entering wedge only. Thus 
a great city would stumble into an experi- 
ment or public improvement demanding 
millions of dollars, without ever reckon- 
ing the ultimate amount of its obligation. 
For example it may be fair in this pres- 
ence to recall that the first bill for the New 
York public library carried with it an 
appropriation of $2,500,000, The city de- 
cided to spend this $2,500,000 and actually 
it spent $10,000,000. The New York public 
library is worth every dollar it cost, ten 
times over; I am merely emphasizing that 
the public should have had its eyes open 
and, in this case as in every other, should 
have known what it was doing. Although 
this same gap occurred over and over again 
— between estimate and actual cost — no 
steps were taken to recall the fact when 

each new amount was under considera- 

Ignorant as we have been of our own 
experience, still less informed have we 
been regarding the experience of neighbor 
cities. Some years ago, Denver, in operat- 
ing its street railway, found it expedient 
to substitute electric motor power for the 
old cables. After Denver had discarded 
these cables, Baltimore adopted the cable. 
Rochester has recently adopted a device 
to attach drinking fountains to its ordinary 
fire hydrants. The idea is a new one, and 
may prove valuable. I say it merely by 
way of instance; but if it is a good idea, 
New York City and your city should adopt 
it. Each successive experiment of the sort 
should, at least, be brought promptly to 
the attention of public officials. 

Again, New York City has worked out 
an improved system of accounting and 
budget making. The village of Dobb's 
Ferry, the cities of Duluth and Cincinnati 
have used an improvement upon New 
York's budget exhibits — recently called a 
new kind of "confidence game" — that is, 
taking the public into official confidence 
about the public's own business. Instead 
of waiting a generation for cities to adopt 
these new methods, their officials should 
promptly be given the facts they need. 

Is it not criminal waste and error for 
one city to introduce a system of sewer 
disposal, or of milk regulation, which an- 
other city has found endangering the lives 
of its citizens? If a measure has proved 
bad and dangerous for one city, modern 
science in the hands of a librarian should 
make it unnecessary for every other city 
to go through the same experience. 

To help us in ending all this waste, and 
to help us, in short, in putting city govern- 
ment upon a thorough scientific and effi- 
cient basis, the municipal reference library 
is beginning to take its highly important 
place. Without a municipal reference li- 
brary, it will in future be difficult for any 
administrative officer to do his best. I will 
not attempt to review the laborious steps 
of my colleagues in the present board of 
estimate and apportionment — our govern- 



ing municipal body — to incorporate into 
standard specifications, standard salaries 
and standard contracts the memory of our 
past failures, so that we may hold the 
gains that we have made and avoid the 
weaknesses and the errors of our experi- 
ence. But I venture some suggestions as 
to a reference library that, although gen- 
eral in their application, will indicate our 
reasons for establishing such a library in 
New York. 

Our reasons for placing the library in our 
new Municipal Building — as we propose 
to do — apply everywhere. It must b6 made 
easy for officials to get information, and 
for the librarian to get the information 
promptly and directly to the officials. It is 
not enough to know that it may be had. 
To have important information an hour 
away from the office is almost as bad as 
to have it a thousand miles away. It must 
be easier for the busy ofl^icial to get the 
information he wants than to endure the 
thought of going without it. In putting the 
library where the users are, instead of 
where they are not, we are following the 
simple rule of trade that meters city prop- 
erty by the foot instead of by the acre. 

The municipal library is a place not for 
everything, but for particular needed 
things. If it were true that Mark Hopkins 
on one end of a log and a student on the 
other constituted a college, it is even 
more true that a librarian in a bare room, 
anxious to serve the public via the public 
official and knowing where the material is, 
constitutes an infinitely better municipal 
reference library than a place perfectly 
equipped which suggests erudition rather 
than immediate help. There is great dan- 
ger that our municipal reference libraries 
will become junk shops, as interesting and 
as helpful, as out of date or as unrelated 
to today's problems as an encyclopedia or a 
"compendium of useful knowledge." A mu- 
nicipal reference library should suggest an- 
swers to today's questions; not answers 
either to yesterday's questions or to next 
year's. Will you, the librarians, consider 
the importance and the advisability of 
keeping these libraries workshops, as they 

ought to be, and of using your general ref- 
erence libraries as the place for the stor- 
age of materials. 

The ordinary city official hasn't the time 
to plough through a mass of pamphlets 
looking for what he wants. He wants the 
facts collated and marshalled, ready for 
use — and "he wants what he wants when 
he wants it." Some time ago I was in- 
terested in drawing an ordinance to license 
all vehicles using the New York streets, 
and to regulate the weight, the width and 
size of tires, etc., of our great trucks that 
have been tearing up our pavements. I 
wanted to know about the policy of other 
cities in this matter, and to devise, if pos- 
sible, a way of making those vehicles that 
destroy the streets help pay for their main- 
tenance. Similarly, today, as Chairman of 
the committee on the height, size and 
arrangement of buildings within the city 
limits, I am interested in the adoption of 
some reasonable basis for regulating our 
modern skyscraper in order to keep the 
city, literally, from choking itself to death. 

Again, we have had to restore to the 
public many miles of city sidewalks that 
had been preempted by stoops, and other 
encroachments. We have wanted to plan 
our public buildings and related matters 
with a view to the future, and to the 
grouping of building sites in a "Civic Cen- 
ter." So, in dealing with our transit prob- 
lem; in investigating the health depart- 
ment, and in improving the type and qual- 
ity of street pavements, I have wanted not 
all the information there was to be had — • 
not books or formal reports — but concrete 
answers to immediately pressing questions. 
I wanted to be referred to the latest article 
or report which would make it unnecessai'y 
to go through twenty or a hundred other 
articles, books or reports. It is enough 
to know that in a great central library 
are all the working materials for scientific 
research. Frankly, I feel that the actual 
use that will be made of the municipal 
reference library will be in inverse ratio 
to the number of books that are in evi- 
dence, and that require the time of the li- 



I would go so far as to say that any- 
thing that a public official has not just 
called for, or that the librarian is not about 
to call to the attention of a public official 
for departmental study or report, or for 
the drawing of ordinances, should be kept 
in the general library, and out of the 
municipal reference library. 

Comptroller Prendergast and Librarian 
Anderson are even planning to have 
New York's official correspondence "clear" 
through the municipal reference library — 
so far as the writing and answering of let- 
ters calling for special information goes. 
I am told that when Portland recently 
started its municipal reference library the 
mayor promptly availed himself of its 
facilities for answering innumerable sets 
of questions and special questions that 
came from outside the city, and advised 
his heads of departments to follow his 
example. I wish the Carnegie Institution 
for Scientific Research or some other great 
foundation interested in the conservation 
of national resources and human energy 
would investigate what it is now costing 
this country to fill out the innumerable 
blanks from college boys wishing help on 
their commission government debate; col- 
lege students writing theses; national or- 
ganizations compiling reports, etc. Niag- 
ara unharnessed was wasting much less 
power than are we officials, school super- 
intendents, mayors, and engineers who are 
answering such questionnaires. It would 
be lamentable enough if we always an- 
swered right; but most of us answer 
quite inadequately, and many of us an- 
swer wrong. Last year, a certain national 
society wrote me, asking certain questions 
about civil service reform. I had had 
more or less to do for some years with that 
line of public service. My instinct was to 
take time from pressing duties to answer 
these questions; but a neighbor who had 
received a similar set of questions was 
thoughtful enough to write to this nation- 
al body and suggest that before he an- 
swered he would like to know how many 
other New York officials and private agen- 

cies had received the same set of ques- 
tions. It appeared then that twenty dif- 
ferent people, including a dozen officials, 
had been asked to fill out that blank. 
Whereupon it was suggested that instead 
of drawing upon twenty people who did 
not possess the facts, the investigator 
might turn directly to the Civil Service 
Commission that did possess the facts, 
and there, no doubt, he readily found what 
he wanted. 

Now, if a municipal reference library 
could have served as a clearing house, it 
would have been brought to light at once 
that one answer would have served the 
purpose of twenty, or that one answer, at 
least, would have served the purpose of 
the dozen official answers. Moreover, just 
as the official reports give fresher ma- 
terial than published books, such corre- 
spondence, manuscript reports of investi- 
gating committees, etc., give fresher ma- 
terial than published reports. 

Such data should be kept properly classi- 
fied, available upon call or when the li- 
brarian sees its time for usefulness. 

Another practical suggestion I make 
from my experience as an official. While 
it seems to apply especially to adminis- 
trative departments or to private agencies 
specializing in certain fields, I really do 
not see much prospect of getting it unless 
from a municipal reference library or from 
the municipal reference activity of a gen- 
eral library. I refer to an up-to-date 
"Poole's" or cumulative index of the pass- 
ing subject matter of city government. You 
get, the library gets, once a month a list 
of all the articles in the principal books. 
Why should we not have a list of the ad- 
vance steps taken in public affairs? Just 
as soon as a few librarians call for such 
information, it will become commercially 
possible to reduce it. The individual libra- 
ry can then add to the material the particu- 
lar points that are of interest to its own 

Similarly, it would be of the greatest 
assistance to every city official if the mat- 



ters under his jurisdiction were listed and 
material grouped under proper heads. For 
example, the president of the Borough of 
Manhattan has jurisdiction over the streets 
and sidewalks; encroachments and en- 
cumbrances; street vaults and street 
signs; the sewer system; the public build- 
ings; the baths and markets; and the con- 
trol of private buildings through the en- 
forcement of the buildings laws. If infor- 
mation in regard to what other cities were 
doing in all these matters were listed, plus 
suggestions and advance steps taken in 
these same matters at home, the reference 
librarian would be of incalculable help to 
that office. 

Finally, just a word about the expense 
of the municipal reference library. The 
amount which it is justified in demand- 
ing will depend naturally upon the serv- 
ice it renders. The merit of our new seg- 
regated and classified budget Is that it 
calls for the work needing to be done, 
as well as the cost of not having the work 
done, and that it shifts attention from the 
personality that requests the budget allow- 
ance. A circumscribed program means 
circumscribed budget. Frankly, I believe 
that extension of program should and must 
precede extension of budget. But this 
new kind of social work which serves a 
community at those points where it is 
now least equipped to serve itself, will not 
want for financial support when it talks 
about the work that should be done — and 
not about itself. 

No municipal activity will, in my judg- 
ment, find it easier in the next twenty- 
five years to secure adequate financial sup- 
port than the municipal reference library 
which is not a compendium of knowledge 
but a forecaster of service needed and an 
ever-present help in time of trouble. 

The PRESIDENT: May I express to you, 
Mr. McAneny, the thanks of the American 
Library Association for your coming and 
the assurance that we have profited 
greatly from it. 


(Saturday morning, June 28, 1913.) 

THE PRESIDENT: During the other 
sessions of the Conference we have been 
considering people — and books. At this 
concluding session the topics on the pro- 
gram have special reference to books — 
and -people. The first paper invites our 
interest by its suggestion of the flavor 
which old books bring. Miss G. M. WAL- 
TON, of the Michigan State Normal Col- 
lege, will present this paper. 


It was Mr. Lowell who reminded me 
the other day, by quoting Ecclesiasticus 
in one of his essays, that we owe the ideal 
of the man of leisure to a book of the 
Apocrypha wherein we read, "The wisdom 
of a learned man cometh by opportunity 
of leisure." 

Our profession standing as a guarantor 
of our wisdom and our learning, I*am here 
today to bespeak a portion of our large 
opportunity of leisure for — The Friendly 

There is small fear that we librarians 
forget the books of power and the books of 
knowledge which DeQuincey (the ofttimes 
quoted) presses upon all men. And most 
of us undoubtedly possess that ardent 
zeal for knowledge which filled the soul 
of the literal-minded librarian who read 
quite seriously (and found therein a work- 
ing category for her own improvement) 
Lamb's letter to an old gentleman whose 
early education had been neglected, where, 
among the qualifications of a preceptor, 
the following will serve to refresh your 
memories: "He must be a thorough mas- 
ter of vernacular orthography, with an 
insight into the accentualities and punctu- 
alities of modern Saxon. He must be com- 
petently instructed In the tetralogy, or 
first four rules. He must have a genius 
capable in some degree of soaring to the 
upper element, to deduce from thence the 
not much dissimilar computation of the 
cardinal points. He must instruct you in 



numeric and harmonious responses, and he 
must be capable of embracing all history, 
so as from the countless myriads of in 
dividual men, who have peopled this globe 
of earth — for it is a globe — by comparison 
of their respective births, lives, deaths, 
fortunes, conduct, prowess, etc., to pro- 
nounce, and teach you to pronounce, dog- 
matically and catechetically, who was the 
richest, who was the strongest, who was 
the wisest, who was the meekest man that 
ever lived; to the facilitation of which so- 
lution, you will readily conceive, a smatter- 
ing of biography would in no inconsider- 
able degree conduce." 

I sometimes question if professions are 
not tinged with the culture epoch epidemic. 
It is not so very long since we were half 
hesitatingly taking a place among the 
other learned professions, almost with the 
apolegetic air of the young boy making 
his first appearance in long trousers, and 
wondering if his fellow-men appreciate his 
coming into their midst — but the youth 
soon assumes the aggressive attitude 
which compels attention — and one symp- 
tom of this attitude which I feel among 
ourselves is the large and learned talk 
about new books — the self-satisfied air and 
monumental confidence in our sometimes 
sophomoric knowledge and understanding 
of all things "in the heavens above, the 
earth beneath, and the waters under the 
earth," until I wonder if the pleasant coun- 
sel about reading "books at least a year 
old, that we like, and that are great 
books" must be relegated with the rest of 
our Emersonian philosophy to the lumber 
room of our many youthful joys and 

I believe we all love best to mark the 
passing years by the friends they bring us, 
and it were a barren year that brings not 
one more friend, and so with our friendly 
books, which like all friendships fill our 
lives with genial warmth and gratitude. 
Neither is really a matter of choice, for a 
book like a person yields its intimate 
charm only to the sympathizing heart. 
We have no care to answer why, other 
than, "because" — "We love them because 

we must love them." A new book friend 
comes to us now and then, and we cling to 
the old ones. Sometimes we lose the per- 
sonal touch, but we see their kindly faces 
and after a separation from them we ar- 
range them on the shelves, and we rear- 
range them, and, as Mr. Arnold Bennett 
says, "The way we walk up and down in 
front of those volumes, whose faces we 
have half forgotten, is perfectly infantile." 

I remember once in Rome a friend, se- 
lecting photographs, said, "I must take a 
good Cicero to my son Frank, who used 
to say he felt as well acquainted with Cic- 
ero as he did with Bishop Huntington," 
and dear old Dean Hook, when a lad at Ox- 
ford expresses this same intimate feeling 
in one of his lively inimitable letters, "I 
have got into a very dissolute set of men, 
but they are so pleasant that they make 
me very often idle. It consists of one 
Tuft, H. R. H., Henry Prince of Wales, 
and a gentleman Commoner named Sir 
John Falstaff, and several others. I break- 
fast with them, drink tea, and sometimes 
wine with them," and, again, on hearing 
the good news of the recovery of his 
grandfather, he writes, "The minute I 
opened the letter and saw the news, I 
pulled down my Shakespeare and had a very 
merry hour with Sir John Falstaff. I was 
determined to laugh heartily all that day. 
I asked Sir John to wine with me. I de- 
canted a bottle of my beloved grandfa- 
ther's best port and Sir John and I drank 
his health right merrily. Perhaps you 
will want to know how my old friend Sir 
John drank my grandfather's health. Why 
I took care to find out the place where he 
drank Justice Shallow's health. And so 
when I said, 'Here's to Sir Walter,' I 
looked on the book and the Knight said, 
'Health and long life to him.' " 

Among the oldest and dearest of my 
friendly books is the "Life and Letters of 
Lord Macaulay," of which I became the 
happy owner, when it was fresh off the 
press, during a sojourn in the west, far 
away from my home library. The dates along 
the margins (one of Macaulay's habits 
which I adopted as I read) bring pleasant. 



thoughts of a journey from Colorado to 
the western coast, and long before I knew 
Dean Hook (whom I first met here as the 
-Vicar of Leeds) I was pulling Macaulay 
down from the shelf, not indeed to drink 
with Sir John, but to refer to some particu- 
lar talk of men or of books — always to 
read on and on with equal delight whether 
he were breakfasting with a party of old 
Trinity College friends, reading in his 
study, or acting as a guide and escort on 
a half holiday of sight-seeing with his 
nieces and nephews, with whom he was 
always the prince of playfellows. It was 
on one of these excursions to the zoologi- 
cal gardens that Thackeray overheard some- 
one say, "Never mind the hippopotamus! 
Never mind the hippopotamus! There's 
Mr. Macaulay!" When absent he ex- 
changed long and frequent letters with 
the children, sealing those to his nephew 
at Harrow with an amorphous mass of red 
wax, which, in defiance of all postal regu- 
lations, usually covered a piece of gold. 
A scrap from one of his letters to a lit- 
tle niece will serve also as an example of 
the poetry, which he usually attributed to 
the Judicious poet, for whose collected 
works the children vainly searched the 

"Michaelmas will, I hope, find us all at 
Clapham over a noble goose. Do you re- 
member the beautiful Puseyette hymn on 
Michaelmas day? It is a great favorite 
with all the Tractarians. You and Alice 
should learn it. It begins: 

'Though Quakers scowl and Baptists howl. 
Though Plymouth Brethren rage. 

We churchmen gay will wallow today 
In apple sauce, onions and sage. 

Ply knife and fork, and draw the cork, 

And have the bottle handy; 
For each slice of goose we'll introduce 

A thimbleful of brandy.' 

Is it not good? I wonder who the author 
can be? Not Newman, I think. It is above 
him. Perhaps it is Bishop Wilberforce." 
The Macaulays and the Wilberforces liv- 
ing at Clapham Common are very real 
people to me, and my firm allegiance to 
Trinity College, Cambridge, has never 

wavered since Macaulay's undergraduate 
days, not even when Samuel Wilberforce, 
the future bishop, went up to Oriel Col- 
lege, Oxford. 

And how doubly precious is a book- 
friendship, whose introduction claims a 
personal touch; as when, with the same 
friend who bought the photograph in 
Rome, I afterwards visited Winchester 
Cathedral' and standing beside the chant- 
ry tomb of Bishop Wilberforce she said, 
"When you go home, read his life. He 
was a great and good man," and I have 
continued reading it for nearly thirty 
years. Wilberforce was undoubtedly for 
twenty-five years the greatest figure in the 
English Church. His great sorrows made 
him tender and tolerant, and many who 
saw only the brilliant man little dreamed 
of the causes and depth of his power. He 
was made Bishop of Oxford in the trou- 
blous times of the Tractarian Movement, 
and so great was the work he accom- 
plished and so devoted to him were his 
clergy that when translated to Winches- 
ter, Bishop Stubbs, who succeeded him, 
coming from quiet Chester, where his his- 
tory was his chief occupation, ruefully 
asked, "Why am I like the Witch of En- 
dor? Because I am tormented by the 
spirit of Samuel." His quickness and hu- 
mor flashed an unexpected light on many 
a question, as when asked why he was 
called Soapy Sam he answered it was 
probably because he was always in hot 
water and always came out with hands 
clean. And his whimsical reply to "Who 
are the greatest preachers in England?" — 
is one of those comical self-evaluations 
which it is generally most hard to give — 
"I must refer you to an article on a lady's 
dress — Hook and I." His absolute free- 
dom from personal animosity shows itself 
in the story I like best of all. During 
a stormy committee meeting in which he 
and the Bishop of London were violently 
opposed to each other, he threw a note 
across the table. Supposing it to be some 
point on the business in hand, the Bishop 
of London read, "My dear Bishop: You 
really should not wear such boots. Your 



life is too precious and valuable to us all 
to allow such carelessness." 

Nothing could more touchingly express 
the devoted and loving esteem in which 
he was held than these words written at 
the time of his death: "With others who 
loved him, kneeling reverently beside the 
body, was Mr, Gladstone, whose sobs at- 
tested how deeply his feelings were moved 
by the sudden loss of his long-tried friend." 

The last time I was in England I made a 
Sussex pilgrimage to his old home at Lav- 
ington. It 'was in June, and my companion 
smiled as I exclaimed with enthusiasm, 
"St. Barnabas day, the eleventh of June 
— the Bishop's wedding day!" We saw 
the trees he had planted and loved, the 
spot whence he would turn for a last 
homeward look, saying he was as proud 
of being a Sussex squire as a bishop; and 
best of all the great clumps of rhododen- 
dron which he planted with his own hands. 

Since so many librarians are gardening 
as a favorite recreation, why not have a 
friendly corner in the garden, where we 
may "Consider the lilies of the field," as 
we are bidden in that dearest of all books, 
and where each mood, whether gay or 
somber, would find echo from the "eternal 
passion" of the poets — "Rosemary for re- 
membrance, or pray you love, remember 
there's pansies, they're ' for thoughts." 
Growing next to these in my own garden is 
the fragrant Carolina allspice, because it 
was the best loved of fliowers by Henry 

I sometimes question if a book is truly 
a friendly book unless I possess it, and yet 
this in a way would cut off both Thack- 
eray and the friend whom he loved best 
of all, "dear old Fitz," for I gave away my 
"Fitzgerald's Letters" to a friend with 
whom I exchange many friendly books. A 
man of leisure and literary tastes, and in 
easy circumstances, Fitzgerald avoided 
fame as earnestly as most men seek it. 
Living in a country cottage with a garden, 
books, pictures and music, he cherished his 
many lifelong friendships, which he says 
were more like loves, by writing letters 
which have a touch of gentle humor and of 

tender and unaffected charm, as in a letter 
to Frederick Tennyson: "I have been 
through three influenzas; but this is no 
wonder, for I live in a hut with walls as 
thin as a sixpence, windows that don't 
shut, a clay soil safe beneath my feet and a 
thatch perforated by lascivious sparrows 
over my head. Here I sit, read, smoke and 
become wise, and am already quite beyond 
earthly things. I must say to you as Basil 
Montague once said in perfect charity to 
his friends: 'You see my dear fellows, I like 
you very much, but I continue to advance, 
and you remain where you are, you see, 
and so I am obliged to leave you behind. 
It is no fault of mine.' You must begin 
to read Seneca, whose letters I have been 
reading, else you will be no companion to 
a man who despises wealth, death, etc. 
I wis& you were here to smoke a pipe with 
me. I play of evenings some of Handel's 
grand choruses which are the bravest mu- 
sic after all." 

And again, to William Bodham Donne, 
when puzzled over his Agamemnon and 
the line of signal fires from Troy to My- 
cenae, he writes, "I am ignorant of geog- 
raphy, modern and ancient, and do not 
know the points of the Beacons, and Lem- 
prier§, the only classic at hand, doesn't 
help me. Pray turn to the passage and 
tell me (quotes three lines of Greek) 
what, where and why. The rest I know 
or can find in dictionary or map, but for 

Is no-where: 
Liddell and Scott 
Don't help me a jot. 
When I'm off, Donnegan 
Don't help me on again. 

So I'm obliged to resort to old Donne 

A postscript in a letter to Charles Eliot 
Norton reads — "Only a word, to add that 
yesterday came Squire Carlyle from you, 
and a kind long letter from Mr. Lowell; 
and the first nightingale, who sang in my 
garden the same song as in Shakespeare's 

And finally, to Lawrence the portrait 



painter: "Have we exchanged a word 
about Thackeray since his death? I am 
quite surprised to see how I sit moping 
about him, so little have I seen him the last 
ten years, and not once for the last five. 
To be sure I keep reading his 'Newcomes' 
of nights and now I have got hold of 'Pen- 
dennis.' I keep hearing him say so much 
of it; I really think I shall hear his step 
coming up the stairs to this lodging, and 
about to come (singing) into my room as 
in old Charlotte Street thirty years ago." 
And ten years later he writes, "A night 
or two ago I was reading old Thackeray's 
'Roundabouts,' and (a sign of a good 
book) heard him talking to me." 

I am sorry that so many people know 
Fitzgerald only because of the "Rubaiyat." 
I confess myself to be rather like-minded 

"That certain old person of Ham, 
Who grew weary of Omar Khayyam, 

Fitzgerald, said he. 

Is as right as can be. 
But this cult, and these versions, 

O, Damn!" 

And Thackeray, there is no one book 
which stands for him, save, perhaps, the 
dear little old brown volume of letters to 
the Brookfields. It is here that we learn 
much of "Pendennis." In one letter he 
writes, "I am going to kill Mrs. Pendennis 
presently, and have her ill in this number. 
Minnie says, 'O Papa, do make her well 
again! She can have a regular doctor and 
be almost dead, and there will come a nice 
homeopathic physician wha will make her 
well again.' " We who truly know and 
love him find him ever in his own pages as 
he smiles kindly at us through his specta- 
cles, or we feel the difficulty with which 
he is keeping his spectacles dry, and we 
too say, "Dear old Thackeray," as in the 
lines at the end of the White Squall, where 
with pages of nonsense, he writes how the 

"Beat the storm to laughter 
For well he knew his vessel 
With that wind would wrestle; 
And when a wreck we thought her, 
And doomed ourselves to slaughter. 

How gaily he fought her. 

And through the hubbub brought her, 

And when the tempest caught her, 

Cried, George some brandy and water. 

And when its force expended. 

The harmless storm was ended. 

And as the sunrise splendid 

Came blushing o'er the sea, 

I thought, as day was breaking. 

My little girls were waking. 

And smiling and making 

A prayer at home for me," 

One of these little girls, Minnie Thack- 
eray, became the wife of Leslie Stephen, 
of whom Mr. Lowell speaks as "that most 
lovable of men," whose Life and Letters, 
so full of rich and wondrous friendships, 
and of deep and subtle charm, is always 
a midnight companion if taken up in the 
evening. While our serious-minded libra- 
rian may find its chief value in the chap- 
ter on "The Struggle with the Dictionary," 
where as editor, I presume many of us 
first met with Stephen, (and which would 
prove invaluable to Lamb's old gentleman) 
she will find there only a small part of the 
Real Leslie Stephen, who wrote one day 
to Edmund Gosse, "No, R. L. S. is not the 
Real Leslie Stephen, but a young Scotch- 
man whom Colvin has found — Robert 
liOuis Stevenson." 

It is a temptation to linger over Ste- 
phen's letters to John Morley and Charles 
Eliot Norton (perhaps his closest lifelong 
friends), and to the rich list of literary 
men whom he knew so well through his 
long years of literary and editorial work, 
liike those of Lowell and Stevenson, his 
letters lead one constantly to the read- 
ing of his books, wherein again one al- 
ways finds himself. It were difficult to 
imagine more felicitous titles of self-rev- 
elation than "Hours in a library," "The 
amateur emigrant," and "My study win- 
dow." I cannot leave Stephen without a 
word from the "Letters to John Richard 
Green" (little Johnny Green) which he 
edited. As Macaulay used to love to 
prove the goods he praised by samples of 
quotation, I will content myself with 
Green's questioning Freeman, in a long let- 
ter full of Early English history: "By the 



way, have you seen Stubb's Hymn on 
Froude and Klngsley? 

'Froude informs the Scottish youth 
That parsons do not care for truth. 
The Reverend Canon Kingsley cries: 
History is a pack of lies. 
What cause for judgments so malign? 
A brief reilection solves the mystery, 
Froude believes Kingsley's a divine, 
And Kingsley goes to Froude for his- 
tory.' " 

Long years ago my eye caught the title, 
"From Shakespeare to Pope," Gosse, and as 
I took down the book, I asked, "Well, what 
was there from Shakespeare to Pope?" — 
a question which the book answered so 
delightfully that I read it straight through 
twice, while the Critical Kit Kats is my 
particular joy in introducing to friendly 
books my young student readers, whom 
I send off armed with it, together with a 
volume of Fitzgerald, or Stevenson, or 
the Browning sonnets. Mr. Gosse has 
such a comfortable and intimate way of 
saying things that makes one feel it is 
one's own expression of one's own 
thoughts. I suppose most of us own to 
a pocket copy of Shakespeare's sonnets, 
wherein we have marked many a line, and 
then Mr. Gosse writes for us, as he sends 
the sonnets to a friend: 

"This is the holy missal Shakespeare 

Then, on sad evenings when you think of 

Or when the morn seems blyth, yet I not 

Open this book, and read, and I shall be 
The meter murmuring at your bended ear; 
I cannot write my love with Shakespeare's 

But the same burden weighs upon my 


Do your friendly books ever find each 
other out upon the shelves? After read- 
ing in Mary Cowden Clarke's "My long 
life," of her childish, reverent awe towards 
Keats and Shelley, who were often guests 
in her father's house, the book found its 
place next to those poets, and was it Keats 
who was sitting on the sofa when the same 
little girl crept up behind and kissed his 
hand just because she had heard he was 

a poet? Gilbert White's "Natural history 
of Selborne," much in the same way stands 
beside Lowell, in whose "Garden acquaint- 
ance," I first learned its "delightful charm 
of absolute leisure," and here too, when 
it leaves my study table, stands that dear 
big book which still claims my leisure 
hours, "Charles Eliot, landscape architect," 
one Of those rare books with a subtle and 
unconscious autobiographic touch, when 
one chances upon the fact that the writer 
was Harvard's president, telling the story 
as the brief fore-note says, 

"For the dear son. 
Who died in the bright prime — 
From the father." 

But this is all very personal and my only 
hope is that while I am reading, you are 
following the example of my sometime 
youthful nephew, who, on being asked 
about the sermon one Sunday after church, 
answered, "Why really. Mamma, I don't 
know what it was about. I got tired 
listening, and withdrew my attention and 
went fishing." 

Finally, although we are admonished not 
to put new wine into old bottles, there 
fortunately is no admonition against old 
wine in new bottles, and friendliness is 
certainly the richest of wine both in men 
and in books. Nor am I at all certain that 
in the last analysis it is not the supreme 
grace which makes possible that joy in 
life, without which we are of necessity cast 
into a limbo of outer darkness, and so I 
commend to you the best of old wine which 
ever lingers in The Friendly Book. 

THE PRESIDENT: Our good old friend. 
Dr. Canfield, once told a story about a 
critic who after a life devoted to the gentle 
art of making enemies was gathered to his 
fathers. Those who had known him, and 
who had for the most part been recipients 
of his buffetings gathered about his bier, 
and compared notes and estimates of the 
special qualities which the late departed 
had possessed. Yes, said one, "he loved 
us so well that he chastised us frequently." 
True, said another, "he could never catch 
sight of one of us without administering 



a vigorous kick." At this the eyelids of 
the deceased were seen to flutter a bit, 
and he sat bolt upright and his sepulchral 
voice made this response: "Yes, but I 
always kicked towards the goal." 

Now perhaps this introduction may not 
seem to be a very happy preliminary to the 
paper about to be announced, and in some 
respects its application may not be evident, 
for certainly the speaker who is abaut 
to talk to us, on "How to discourage read- 
ing" is by no means a dead one. He has, 
however, been somewhat active in the kick- 
ing process — though always towards the 
goal. I present to you Mr. EDMUND L. 
PEARSON, of the Boston Transcript. 

Mr. PEARSON: The president has very 
kindly referred to the fact that while I 
do not practice the profession of librarian 
I tell other people how they ought to do 
it. He might have made use of a quo- 
tation or a sentence or two at the be- 
ginning of Mark Twain's "Puddin'head Wil- 
son," only I fear that Mr. Legler was too 
courteous to use it. I have no hesitation 
in speaking of it myself. Mark Twain 
says of the Puddin'head Wilson maxims: 
"These maxims are for the instruction and 
moral elevation of youth. To be good is 
noble, but to tell others how to be good is 
nobler and much less trouble." 

Mr. Pearson read the following paper: 


When the "Five Foot Shelf" of books 
were published, three of my friends bought 
the set. One of them did so without any 
pretence that he was going to read them. 
He is a somewhat naive young man, able 
to indulge his whims, and he said he 
thought that buying the books "would help 
out President Eliot." That is a very meri- 
torious sentiment to hold toward the com- 
pilers or authors of books — I wish that 
there were more persons who felt that way. 
I have no fault to find with him, at all. 

Nor have I any complaint to make 
against the other two men. Blame is not 
what they deserve, but commiseration. 
Like the girl in the song, they are "more 
to be pitied than censured." The price 

was a consideration with them, and they 
gave up their money for the sake of being 
forever cut off from all those tremendous 
"classics." For that is what it amounted 
to. One of these men has a very pretty 
office, with some nice bookshelves, painted 
white. He added to the books of his pro- 
fession and some other works of general 
literature, this "Five Foot Shelf" — which 
occupies, I believe, about eighteen feet 
of shelf room. He tried to read one of 
the books — I know he did that, because 
he admitted it — and he confided to me 
that he thought it was silly. 

The third man bought the "Five Foot 
Shelf," and announced his determination 
"to read the whole thing right through." 
He did this with set teeth, as if he might 
have said: "I'll read 'em if they kill me!" 
Well, he started one of them. He read a 
little in Franklin's "Autobiography." I 
know he did, because he told me about it. 
He and I belong to that irritating class of 
persons who get up early and take long 
walks before breakfast, and then take care 
to mention it later in the day, as if to 
cast discredit on other people. We have 
to go early, too, because we intersperse 
the walks with runs, and he has dignity to 
maintain, and it wouldn't do for him to 
dash about the streets after other people 
are up. While we walked, or dog-trotted, 
about the country roads he told me about 
the "Autobiography." But I have noticed 
that he has left the "Five Foot Shelf." I 
doubt if he even finished that first one 
of its volumes which he attempted. When 
he talks about books now, it is about the 
"History of the American people." He 
is a Democrat, and like many Democrats 
he has discovered that our history has 
been truly written only according to Mr. 
Woodrow Wilson. 

Will any one of those three men ever 
read two whole volumes from that set? 
It is doubtful — very doubtful. And their 
cases are, I believe, typical of thousands 
of others. And what is true of the "Five 
Foot Shelf" is true of a score of other 
collections — the Hundred Best Books, the 
Greatest Books of the Universe, the Most 



Ponderous Volumes of the Ages, the Se- 
lected and Highly Recommended Classics 
of All Nations. There are dozens of them* 
— you all know them — these "standard" 
sets and collections, in which learned and 
well-intentioned men have innocently con- 
spired with publishers to discourage read- 

The "Five Foot Shelf" is not picked out 
for especial disapprobation. As a matter 
of fact, I suppose it is far better, far more 
human in its selections, far more readable 
in some of its titles than most of these 
sets of "great" books. But there is some- 
thing about every one of these collections 
of classics that acts like a palsy upon the 
reading faculty. It is a little mysterious, 
rather hard to define, but that it exists 
I have no manner of doubt. It would be 
impossible to doubt, after seeing it demon- 
-strated so many times. 

Take, at random, the titles of five famous 
books — books which are apt to turn up 
in these sets or collections. Plato's "Re- 
public," the "Odyssey," the "Morte D'Ar- 
thur," the "Anatomy of melancholy," and 
"Don Quixote." Take the average man, the 
man usually known as the "business" man. 
Suppose that he has not read any of these 
books in his school days — that he has 
reached the age of forty without reading 
them. Now, the chances are at least a 
hundred to one that he never reads them. 
But let him buy one of the sets of thirty 
or forty volumes, in which these five books 
are included, and the chances against his 
reading any one of the five, instead of 
being diminished, are enormously in- 
creased. It is now certainly three hundred 
to one that he never reads any of the five 
books. There is something benumbing, 
something deadening, something stupefy- 
ing, to the average man to take into his 
house six yards of solid "culture." And 
this I believe to be true as a general state- 
ment, in spite of instances which may be 
adduced here and there. 

But, mind you, if this same man hap- 
pens to have his attention called to one 
of the books — especially to either of the 
last two, as they are a little nearer the 

temper of our time — and if he gets one 
of them, by itself, there is now a fair 
probability that he may read at least part 
of it. He may even finish it. 

If he really wishes to read the so-called 
great books let him forever beware of 
acquiring one of those overwhelming lumps 
of literature — the publisher's delight and 
the book-agent's darling — known by some 
such name as the Colossal Classics of the 
World. They breed hypocrites and foster 
humbugs. He buys them and thinks he 
is going to read them. They look ponder- 
ous and weighty and erudite upon his 
shelves — to the innocent. People exclaim: 
"My! What fine books you have!" He 
tries to smile a wise smile — to give the 
impression that they are the companions 
of his solitude, the consolation of his wake- 
ful hours. He knows that these people 
won't ask if he has ever read any of them. 
They are afraid he might come back at 
them with: "Oh, yes, of course. Now, how 
do you like Milton's 'Areopagitica'?" After 
a time he begins to think he lias read them 
— because he has looked ^t the backs, and 
started to cut one or two of them. Then 
it is all up with him. He never even 
tries to read them again. They just stand 
there and occasionally make him a little 

Making friends with books, and espe- 
cially with those famous books which re- 
quire some concentration, is like making 
friends with people. You can not do it in 
a wholesale, yardstick manner. If they 
come into our lives at all, they come 
subtly, slowly, one at a time. If a man 
should walk into this room saying: "All 
my life I have been without friends, I have 
decided that I wish to have friends — I am 
going to adopt all of you, every one of 
you, as a friend, here and now!" — you 
know how an experiment like that would 
succeed. It is the same with books. 

In the competition for the best method 
to discourage reading, the second prize 
should be awarded to that pestilential in- 
vention — the Complete Works of an au- 
thor. There was a publisher — he still lives 
— who told "one of his agents: "Books are 



not made to read; they are made to sell." 
He was probably the inventor of that dis- 
courager of reading, the Complete Works. 

If one of you wishes to keep a friend In 
total ignorance of any writer, there is an 
almost certain method — give him one of 
the sets of the Complete Works of that 
writer. It is a sure method to kill in- 

As in the case of the collections of clas- 
sics, there is something wholesale and 
overpowering about such a set. It is thrown 
at your head, so to speak, in a chunk, and 
you never get over the blow. Imagine the 
case of a man who had never read Dickens. 
If he is wise, he goes at him one book 
at a time, he tests and he tries, and at 
the end of a few years he owns eight or 
ten books — well-thumbed books, that have 
been read, and that represent pleasure. 
But if he listens to the book-agent he con- 
tracts for a yard and a half of Dickens, and 
when it comes he gazes in despair at that 
rigid row of books — as unassailable as a 
regiment of Prussian grenadiers. That is 
the end of all Intercourse between Mm and 
Charles Dickens. 

"Oh, you might as well have them all," 
says the agent, "you needn't read the ones 
you don't like." That is what the waiter 
told the man when he brought him a 
breakfast-cup full of coffee, after dinner, 
instead of a demi-tasse: "You ain't got to 
drink all of it." 

Miles upon miles of these sets of Com- 
plete Works are sold every year, and from 
one end of the land to the other, heads of 
families are sinking back comfortably up- 
on their Morris chairs, and gazing in fatu- 
ous self-satisfaction at their bookcases, 
which they have just filled, at one swoop, 
with nine yards of the Complete Works of 
Scott, Cooper, Dumas, Dickens, and Thack- 

"Look, Mother, we've got the bookcase 
filled up at last!" "Well, I am glad to 
see it! It was distressin' to see all those 
shelves so empty like." 

Will they ever look at them? Never a 
look! It is even odds they do not cut 
the pages. Now that the noble art of 

pressing autumn leaves has gone out — you 
know how it was done, with wax and a 
hot flatiron, and then you put them be- 
tween the pages of a book — now that pas- 
time' is forgotten, there isn't one remaining 
cause why those pages should ever be 
opened. The insides of those books will 
be the most secret place in that house 
henceforth. Talk about sliding panels and 
. secret drawers in old writing-desks — they 
are open and conspicuous in comparison. 
They will be great for hiding places — I 
think I will write a melodrama and have 
the missing will turn up in the fifth act, 
sixty years later, hidden between page 1 
and page 2 of one of the volumes in some- 
body's Complete Works. 

For the third place in the list of best 
methods to discourage reading there are 
two competitors. They are so nearly tied 
that it is hard to choose between them. 
I am inclined to think that the honor 
should be awarded to the custom of set- 
ting up counsels of perfection in the mat- 
ter of recommending the so-called "clas- 
sics" to possible readers, of saying by word 
of mouth, or by printed page: "These 
are the great classics, the great books of 
the world" and adding, by implication, "If 
you don't like them, after making heroic 
attempts, then you have been weighed in 
the balance and found wanting." 

This word "classics" covers a multitude 
of nuisances and perplexities. The "clas- 
sics" include books which are still alive 
with humanity, which are delightful today 
to any person who is at all bookish, and 
they include books which are s6 utterly 
alien, so far removed from our time, place 
and habit of mind, that it is absolutely 
absurd to pretend that anyone in this 
year and land, except a few, a very few, 
specialists, can read them with any pleas- 
ure, or can read them at all, in fact, except 
under compulsion. 

These lists of the great classics are too 
frequently compiled with a cowardly obe- 
dience to tradition. It matters a little what 
some great person of a hundred or a thou- 
sand years ago thought about a book — 
but it does not matter much. Recently, I 



saw in a book a list of great persons who 
had been influenced by this or that book. 
Some book or other influenced Madame 
de Maintenon — what of it? Doubtless .other 
books, far less desirable, influenced her, 
too, so what does it prove? The value 
of books, as a recent writer has pointed 
out, shifts and changes with the changing 
years. What may have been truly a great 
book a thousand years ago is not neces- 
sarily great today — no matter how many 
famous personages have embalmed it in 
their praise, and no matter how many 
other personages have praised it, not be- 
cause they enjoyed it themselves, but be- 
cause the earlier ones did. Such a book 
is interesting — to specialists — as a mile- 
stone in the history of literature, but it is 
not to be forced, however gently, upon the 
general reader as a book he "ought" to 

Museums of art, like the Louvre, contain 
paintings which ignoramuses like myself 
look upon with astonishment. Mediaeval 
pictures of the most hideous description — 
how came they in the same building with 
these other beautiful works of art? Is it 
possible that anyone is so silly as to pre- 
tend to admire them? And then the ex- 
planation dawns upon the ignoramus: they 
are here to illustrate the development of the 
art of painting. This is a museum, as well 
as a collection of beautiful things. No 
one who Is honest pretends to enjoy their 
beauty. It is thus with books. A great 
collection of books may well contain those 
writings which seemed full of meaning to 
people two thousand years ago, but they 
are not to be held up — not all of them, at 
any rate — as books which anybody "ought" 
to read today. The significance of any 
work of literature, however noble, is a 
thing to ebb and flow, and finally to vanish 
altogether. Professor Barrett Wendell re- 
minded me once that Shakespeare's plays 
and my daily themes would alike, one day, 
be dust and atoms in the void of the cen- 
turies — but I do not think that he meant 
unduly to compliment Shakespeare by this 

Since it is always better to come down 

to tacks in speaking of books, I will men- 
tion some of the classics which have little 
significance today. It is always dangerous 
to do this — somebody is sure to hold up his 
hand and exclaim: "Why, I like them, very 
much," or "I know an old gentleman who 
reads that, every night before going to 
bed." But I will take the risk, and say 
that the Greek and French dramas of the 
classic periods are works of literature al- 
most certain to appear on most of these 
lists of Best Books, and that it is almost 
sheer humbug to put them there. So few 
people can read them, there is so little 
reason — especially in the case of the French 
plays — why anyone should read them, to- 
day, that their inclusion is a pitiful ex- 
ample of lack of courage. In the matter 
of the French drama I speak especially of 
Racine and Corneille — names almost cer- 
tain to appear on these lists of the clas- 
sics. Someone will relate the story about 
Napoleon saying that if Racine (or was It 
Corneille?) had lived in his time, he would 
have made him a marshal. Then some of 
his plays are smugly entered upon the 
list. With their stiff, set speeches, their 
ridiculous unbosomings of the leading char- 
acters of their "confidantes," they are as 
out of place in our life as were their 
Caesars, Alexanders, and Pompeys, teeter- 
ing about the stage in high-heeled shoes, 
ruffles, wigs, and all the rest of the cos- 
tume of Louis XIV. 

It is good to recommend the classics, but 
it must not be forgotten that there are 
classics, and classics. There should be 
independence, and an ability to look things 
in the face, to realize that a change has 
come, when it is already here. Why should 
the people who deal with books let the 
politicians get ahead of them? There is 
a bright, clean air blowing through the 
nation, and those who worship fusty prec- 
edent are correspondingly unhappy. We 
have a president who cares not a rap for 
mouldy and senseless traditions — he has 
learned well the lesson taught him by one 
of his predecessors. If President Wilson 
has the courage to point out that the 
final authority on matters of factory legis- 



latlon and mine inspection in the year 1913 
is not necessarily Thomas Jefferson, is it 
not possible for the critics and choosers 
of books to understand that Dr. Johnson 
and Madame de Maintenon have not ut- 
tered the last word about literature? There 
might and should be a "new freedom" of 
literary criticism — not yesterday, nor to- 
day, nor tomorrow, but all the time. 

Here is another way to discourage read- 
ing. You can do it by giving a man one 
of these over-annotated editions of a book. 
I mean a book which has so many foot- 
notes that the text is crowded right out 
of bed; a book in which the editor is so 
pleased with himself for discovering that 
the father of Lady Hester Somebody (who 
is mentioned in the text) was born in 
1718 and died in 1789 that he simply has 
not the decent manners to keep his useless 
knowledge to himself. No; he must tell it 
to you, even though he elbows the author 
— a better man than himself — out of the 
way to do it. 

One of the best books of its kind — I 
speak under correction — is George Birk- 
beck Hill's edition of Boswell's "Johnson." 
It is, I believe, correct, and scholarly; it 
certainly represents a vast amount of labor, 
and it is "very valuable for reference." 
Also it is admirably arranged for driving 
a reader away from Boswell forever. It 
is positively exasperating to see page after 
page on which Boswell occupies two lines 
at the top, and Dr. Hill takes up all the 
rest of the room. Sometimes he takes up 
the whole page! Yet that edition is rec- 
ommended to readers by persons who 
ought to know better. 

Other excellent examples — I am speak- 
ing only of much-praised books — are found 
in the Furness Variorum editions of Shake- 
speare. When one of these volumes ap- 
pears it is usually greeted by a chorus of 
"Oh's!" and "Ah's!" as when a particularly 
gorgeous skyrocket goes up on Fourth of 
July night. Such scholarship! Such a 
boon to earnest Shakespeareans! Such 
labor! Such erudition! Well, a great deal 
of that praise is deserved — each volume 
is certainly a tour de force. But I wish 

to read you from a review of the latest of 
them — a review written for the Boston 
Herald, by Mr. John Macy, the author 
of that vigorous and sensible book, "The 
spirit of American literature." It deals 
with "The tragedie of Julius Caesar" edit- 
ed by Horace Howard Furness, Jr. "This," 
writes Mr. Macy, "is the latest volume 
in 'A New Variorum Edition of Shake- 
speare,' and is the first under the sole 
editorship of the late Dr. Furness' son. 
From an enormous mass of commentary, 
criticism, word-worrying, text-marring and 
learned guesswork, Mr. Furness has chosen 
what seem to him the best notes. The 
sanity of his introduction and the good 
sense of some of his own notes lead one 
to suppose that he has selected with dis- 
crimination from the notes of others. His 
work is a model of patience, industry and 
judgment. He plays well in this game of 
scholarship. But what is the game worth? 
What is the result? 

"Here is a volume of nearly 500 large 
pages. The text is a literal reprint of the 
folio. The clear stream of poetry runs 
along the tops of the pages. Under that 
is a deposit of textual emendations full 
of clam-shells and lost anchors and tin 
cans. Under that is a mud bottom two 
centuries deep. It consists of (a) what 
scholars said Shakespeare said; (b) what 
scholars said Shakespeare meant; (c) what 
scholars said about what other scholars 
said; (d) what scholars said about the 
morality and character of the personages, 
as (1) they are in Shakespeare's play, and 
as (2) they are in other historical and fic- 
titious writings; (e) what scholars said 
about how other people used the words 
that Shakespeare used; (f) what scholars 
said could be done to Shakespeare's text 
to make him a better poet. I have not 
read all those notes and I never shall read 
them. Life is too short and too interesting. 
All the time that I was trying to read the 
notes, so that I could know enough about 
them to write this article, my mind kept 
swimming up out of the mud into that clear 
river of text. It is a perfectly clear river. 
Some of the obscurities that scholars say 



are there are simply not obscure, except 
as poetry ought to have a kind of obscur- 
ity in some turbulent passages. Some of 
the obscurities the scholars put there in 
their innocence and stupidity, and those 
obscurities you can eliminate by blandly 
ignoring them." 

These learned and over-annotated edi- 
tions — they are not intended, you say, for 
the casual reader. Yet they get into his 
hand — they are sometimes recommended 
to him. And, as Mr. Macy asks, are they 
worth the labor they have cost — are they 
worth it to anybody? Looking at them 
reminds me of the ideal ascetic of the 
Middle Ages, St. Simeon Stylites. St. Sim- 
eon was considered the most religious man 
of his time because for twenty years he 
lived upon a pillar that "numbered forty 
cubits from the soil," and because he 

" 'Tween the spring and downfall of the 

Bow down one thousand and two hun- 
dred times. 

To Christ, the Virgin Mother, and the 

In spite of that, St. Simeon is not the 
ideal religious man today. Will these fact- 
collectors be the ideal scholars a century 

Are we sometimes acclaiming as great 
scholars men who are really doing" nothing 
but a tremendous amount of grubbing? Are 
some of the so-called scholarly editions 
really scholarly, or are they simply gigan- 
tic "stunts?" Whatever may be their value 
for reference and that is vastly over-rated, 
they discourage reading. 

It is also possible to drive people away 
from books, or make it difficult for them 
to get near books, by printing confusing 
things about them. It is possible to cata- 
log a book — according to the best rules— 
in such a fashion as to make It an exceed- 
ingly unattractive, not to say repellant ob- 
ject. This is bad enough when it is done 
in the formal catalog, but when it is done 
in little leaflets, and book-lists — things 
which ought to be informal and inviting — 
the case is very sad. The other day I 

saw an entry In a book-list which read like 
this: "Dickens. Whipple, E. P. Charles 
Dickens." The expert is in no doubt; the 
uninitiated may well be confused to know 
which is the author and which the subject. 
When someone defends such practices by 
saying: "But the rules!" someone else, 
whose voice is a voice of authority ought 
to say: "Fudge! And also Fiddle-de-dee!" 
The general subject today is "the World 
of Books." It is a delightful world — one 
so different from that into which we 
emerge every morning that it seems hard, 
sometimes, to realize that" the one exists in- 
side the other. It is a place of entertain- 
ment within the reach of any of us. There 
are a few obstructions around the entrance 
— some of which I have tried to describe. 
People have built up walls of impossible 
"classics"; publishers have tried to string 
a barbed-wire fence of Complete Works 
around it. Pedants stand outside, calling 
upon you to swallow a couple of gallons 
of facts before you go into the great tent. 
You can walk by them all. Inside, every- 
thing is pleasant. Over in one corner are 
the folk who like to play with first editions, 
unique copies, unopened copies, and all the 
rest of those expensive toys. Some of 
these gentlemen have about as much to 
do with the world of books as have the 
collectors of four-post beds and old blue 
china, but many of them are very good 
fellows. Most of them do not belong in 
here at all, but, like boys who have crawled 
in under the tent, now they are inside 
they think they have as much right as 
anybody. Some of them, indeed, are quite 
uppish and superior, and inclined to look 
down on the rest of us who have a vulgar 
notion that books are made to read. 

Here is all you require — a comfortable 
chair, and a pipe. And the company! Well, 
look around: 

Dear Lamb and excellent Montaigne, 
Sterne and the credible Defoe, 
Borrow, DeQuincey, the great Dean, 
The sturdy leisurist Thoreau; 

The furtive soul whose dark romance, 
By ghostly door and haunted stair, 
Explored the dusty human heart, 
And the forgotten garrets there; 



The moralist it could not spoil, 
To hold an empire in his hands; 
Sir Walter, and the brood who sprang, 
From Homer through a hundred lands. 

Singers of songs on all men's lips. 
Tellers of tales in all men's ears, 
Movers of hearts that still must beat, 
To sorrows feigned and fabled tears. 

At the conclusion of Mr. Pearson's paper 
a book symposium was conducted in which 
the following members of the Association 
briefly discussed the respective books here 

Hine. Modern organization. Reviewed by 

Paul Blackwelder. 
Crispi's Memoirs and the recent literature 

of the Risorgimento. Reviewed by Ber- 
nard C. Steiner. 
Goldmark. Fatigue and efficiency. Reviewed 

by Katherine T. Wootten. 
Tarbell. The business of being a woman. 

Reviewed by Pearl I. Field. 
Antin. The promised land. Reviewed by 

Althea H. Warren. 
Brieux. La femme seule. Reviewed by Co- 

rinne Bacon. 
The great analysis. Reviewed by Josephine 

A. Rathbone. 
Weyl. The great democracy. Reviewed by 

Frank K. Walter. 

The PRESIDENT: Before inducting in- 
to office the president-elect I shall ask the 
secretary whether there are any announce- 
ments to be made or if any new business 
is to come up at this time? 13 there any 
business for the Council to consider? 

Dr. ANDREWS: There are some reso- 
lutions from the Documents Round Table 
to come before the Council and perhaps 
ether routine work. < 

The PRESIDENT: They will be re- 
ferred to the Council. We will receive the 
report of the tellers concerning the elec- 

The SECRETARY: The report of the 
tellers states that you have elected as 
your officers for the coming year the fol- 
lowing persons: 


No. of Votes 
E. H. Anderson, Director New York 
Public Library 144 

First Vice-President 
H. C. Wellman, Librarian City Library, 
Springfield, Mass 141 

Second Vice-President 
Gratia A. Countryman, Librarian Min- 
neapolis Public Library 144 

iVIembers of Executive Board (for 3 years) 
Herbert Putnam, Librarian of Con- 
gress, Washington 146 

Harbison W. Craver, Librarian Carne- 
gie Library, Pittsburgh 137 

IVIembers of Council (for 5 years) 
Mary Eileen Ahem, Editor "Public Li- 
braries," Chicago 140 

Cornelia Marvin, Librarian Oregon 

State Library 145 

Alice S. Tyler, Director Western Re- 
serve Library School 146 

R. R. Bowker, Editor "Library Jour- 
nal," New York 1 44 

A. L. Bailey, Librarian Wilmington 

(Del.) Institute Free Library 142 

Trustee of Endowment Fund (for 3 years) 
E. W. Sheldon, President U. S. Trust 

Co., New York 143 


Tellers of Election. 

The PRESIDENT: You have heard the 
result of the election. I shall ask Mr. 
Gardner M. Jones and Mr. Harrison W. 
Craver to show the president-elect the way 
to the platform. 

(The committee escorted Mr. Anderson 
to the platform.) 

Mr. President-elect, it is with special per- 
sonal satisfaction that I have announced 
to you the result unanimously made by 
this conference in choosing you to the 
honorable position of president. I am per- 
sonally gratified in that you represent, I 
think, so splendidly many of the elements 



which have been talked about during this 
meeting. You are yourself a graduate of 
^ a library school, yet you have sympathy 
with those who have not attained to that 
distinction. You have been associated with 
a great scientific library, you have been 
in charge of a medium-sized library and are 
now at the head of the largest public li- 
brary in the world; and yet many of us 
have had evidences that you have the 
deepest and warmest sympathy for the 
small and struggling library, no matter 
where it may be. 

Mr. President-elect, the retiring board of 
officers received this gavel not as an em- 
blem of authority, but as a symbol of serv- 
ice. As such we commit it to your care 
for the next year. 

For the retiring board of officers I may 
say, in the words of Wynken DeWorde in 
one of his colophons, "And now we make 
an end. If we have done well, we have 
done that which we would have desired; 
and if but meanly and slenderly, we yet 
have done that which we could attain un- 

The wish goes from the ex-president to 
the president that the most successful ad- 
ministration in the history of the Associa- 
tion may be the one which is about to 

(Mr. Legler then handed the gavel to 
Mr. Anderson and retired from the plat- 

gentlemen, fellow members of the Associa- 
tion: In the first place, I want to express 
my heartfelt thanks for the gracious things 

the retiring president has just been pleased 
to say concerning my humble self. Fur- 
thermore, I have to thank him for giving 
me an opportunity to correct a mistake 
which has been current in this Associa- 
tion for some twenty years, namely, that 
I am the graduate of a library school. I 
was at the Albany library school — more 
years ago than I care to tell — between 
seven and eight months. My money ran 
out and I had to get a job. I did not even 
complete the first year. That is a reflec- 
tion on me, not upon the library school. 

The exigencies of trains and luncheons 
would make it unfair if not cruel for me 
to detain you here this morning with a 
speech and I shall make none. But I want 
to beg you on this occasion to forget and 
forgive the disagreeable things said or 
done by the officers-elect in the heat of 
a bitter partisan campaign. (Laughter — 
There was no opposition ticket.) 

Seriously, I want to express to you all, 
not merely for myself but for every mem- 
ber of the incoming executive board and 
the incoming members of the Council, our 
appreciation of the honor you have con- 
ferred upon us and of the responsibilities 
you have placed upon our shoulders. We 
can only hope to maintain — and it will 
require a struggle and great and arduous 
work on our part to maintain — the high 
standard set by our predecessors. I thank 

If there is nothing further to come be- 
fore us the Conference will stand ad- 



Meeting of June 23, 1913 

Meeting called to order by President 
Legler. Other members present were 
Miss Eastman, Messrs. Anderson, An- 
drews, Putnam and Wellman. 

Several matters of routine business were 
transacted, including the reception and 
adoption of the report of the Committee 
on Nominations. 

Upon motion of Mr. Anderson, seconded 
by Dr. Putnam, Mrs. H. L. Elmendorf was 
elected member of the Publishing Board 
to succeed herself for a term of three 

In behalf of the Committee on Interna- 
tional Relations, Dr. Putnam reported that 
with such information as it had been able 
to gather the committee felt unable to 



make any aflSrmative recommendation as 
to participation by the American Library 
Association in the proposed Exposition of 
^he Book and Graphic Arts at Leipzig in 

Meeting of June 28th 

Present: President Anderson, Miss 
Eastman, Messrs. Andrews, Wellman and 

Mr. Wellman presented his resignation 
as non-official member in view of his elec- 
tion to the office of first vice-president, 
which, upon motion of Dr. Andrews, was 

Upon motion of Mr. Craver, it was unani- 
mously voted that W. N. C. Carlton be 
elected to the Executive Board to fill the 
unexpired term of Mr. Wellman. Mr. Carl- 
ton was called to the meeting and took his 
place as a member of the Board. 

A meeting place for 1914 was next con- 
sidered. Miss Edith A. Phelps, librarian 
of the Carnegie library of Oklahoma City, 
appeared before the board and invited the 
Association to meet in Oklahoma City, her 
invitation being seconded by the Okla- 
homa Library Association and other or- 
ganizations of the State. Invitations were 
received also by letter from the convention 
bureaus of New Orleans, Nashville, Wil- 
mington, Del., Milwaukee, and other 
places. After Informal discussion it was 
voted that the Secretary be instructed to 
investigate facilities for holding the con- 
ference at Madison, Wis., and if, in the 
opinion of the president and secretary, 
conditions at Madison are not favorable 
for a meeting, that Mackinac and Ottawa 
Beach be investigated in the order here 

Invitations from the authorities of the 
Panama-Pacific Exposition to hold the con- 
ference at San Francisco in 1915 were read 
and from the California Library Associ- 
ation to the same effect, Mr. Everett R. 
Perry, of Los Angeles, bearing the invita- 
tion from the latter association. Invita- 
tions were also received from the library 
authorities of Seattle, seconded- by the 
business organizations of that city and by 

the convention bureaus of other cities of 
the Pacific Northwest. It was voted to re 
fer this information to the next Executive 

Mr. William Stetson Merrill presented 
the following report in behalf of the Com- 
mittee on code for classifiers, which, upon 
motion, was accepted as a report of prog- 
ress, and the request for an appropriation 
0.1* $20 referred to the meeting of the Ex- 
ecutive Board in January. 

The Committee on code for classifiers 
begs to present a report of progress. 

During the past year no general meet- 
ing of the Committee has been held, but 
the chairman has been in correspondence 
with several members of the Committee 
and considerable data have been collected 
for the proposed Manual for classifiers. 
Messrs. Bay and Merrill are more imme- 
diately concerned with this section of the 
work and over three hundred points have 
been assembled for future consideration. 

An appropriation of twenty dollars 
($20.00) to cover typewriting, postage and 
stationery is requested. 

Respectfully submitted, 


At the request of the secretary a trans 
fer of funds was authorized as follows: 
From the contingency fund to conference 
fund, $75, and to miscellaneous fund $75, 
leaving a balance in the contingency fund 
of $95. 

Upon motion of Dr. Andrews, it was 
voted that members joining the Associ- 
ation after the annual conference shall 
only be required to pay one-half year's 
dues together with the usual initiation fee 
of $1. 

Consideration of the question of issuing 
the annual hand-book in biographical sec- 
tion form was postponed until the next 
meeting of the Executive Board. 

A letter was read from Dr. Frank P. 
Hill, suggesting that a special committee 
be appointed to consider the matter of par- 
ticipating In the proposed Leipzig Exposi- 
tion and to ascertain the cost of such par- 
ticipation as well as the possibility of se- 
curing a creditable exhibit from American 
libraries. It was voted that a special com- 
mittee of three on this subject be ap- 



pointed by the president, which committee 
shall make the report to the Committee on 
international relations. The president ap- 
pointed as this committee Dr. Hill with 
power to add the other two members. 

It was unanimously voted that an appro- 
priation of $30 from the contingency fund 
be made to each of the three members of 
the Travel Committee as partial compen- 
sation for expenses incurred in the per- 
formance of association duties, and that 
the thanks of the Executive Board be ex- 
pressed with regret that the finances of 
the Association did not permit a complete 
reimbursement of expenses. 

A report was submitted from the Com- 
mittee on cost and method of cataloging, 
but owing to the lack of time for proper 
consideration the secretary was instructed 
to have the report typewritten and copies 
sent to the respective members of the Ex- 
ecutive Board. At the request of the Com- 
mittee that two other members be added 
to the Committee, one of them to be lo- 
cated in Chicago, the other to be the head 
cataloger of one of the public libraries tak- 
ing part in the investigation, the president 
appointed the following persons: J. C. M. 
Hanson and Margaret Mann. 

The request of the Committee for an 
appropriation of not to exceed $50 was re- 
ferred to the January meeting of the Ex- 
ecutive Board. 

The report is as follows: 




The present report is preliminary only. 
Before a final report can be made a more 
detailed inquiry must be undertaken of 
the way in which the work is handled in 
libraries of various types. The methods 
used in the libraries that have taken part 
in the present investigation vary to a con- 
siderable degree, and do not always seem 
to lend themselves to an accurate classifi- 
cation by character or size of library; in 
some cases this is possible, for instance 
when we find that the receipt of much 
duplicate material in the large public li- 
braries having extensive systems of branch 

libraries has developed a method of hand- 
ling these that is almost uniform for all. 
One element which disturbs the cataloging 
work in these libraries is that the with- 
drawal and cancellation of the records of 
lost and worn-out books is done by the 
cataloging departments. Five of the twen- 
ty libraries do not at present readily lend 
themselves to comparison in all respects 
with the others, the Library of Congress 
and the New York public library on ac- 
count of their size and complicated organ- 
ization, the libraries of Harvard Univer- 
sity and the University of Chicago because 
of the disturbances caused by present work 
of reorganization and recataloging, and 
the New York state library on account 
of its rapid growth since the fire two years 
ago. In other libraries recataloging goes 
on simultaneously with the current work,' 
but it does not cause the same disturb- 
ances as in the cases mentioned. 

While most libraries count classification 
and shelf-listing as parts of the cataloging, 
only four include accessioning, and three 
do not Include either of the four proc- 
esses mentioned under point 2 in the 
questionnaire sent out by the committee. 
Three libraries state expressly that the as- 
signment of subject headings is done by 
the cataloging force, but this is probably 
also the case with some who do not men- 
tion the fact. In one case the reference 
and cataloging work are combined in one 
department; in general, reference work 
seems to be the catalogers' favorite side 

In some libraries the determination of 
headings and the form of entry is deter- 
mined by the heads of the department, in 
others all the original work is done by the 
assistants and afterwards revised, while 
in at least one case such work as classifi- 
cation and the assignment of subject head- 
ings is done by specialists, each handling 
his particular subject. Two or three libra- 
ries employ a special assistant for the 
cataloging of serial publications. Two li- 
braries have all statistical recording done 
by a special assistant or clerk. 

Whether a library prints its cards or has 



them written or typewritten in several 
copies, does not seem to influence tlie 
method of work except at the final point, 
but the growing use of cards printed by 
some other library has introduced an ele- 
ment that did not exist when any of the 
libraries taking part in the investigation 
were organized. 

The cost of cataloging can not be deter- 
mined until a definite unit has been agreed 
upon. The way to reach such agreement 
might be in line with the method employed 
by the Boston public library, where a con- 
siderable number of volumes were set 
aside for this investigation and the time 
and money spent on each work carefully 
computed. By employing a similar way 
of investigating not only the cost, but also 
the routine gone through with a book in 
a number of libraries on its way from the 
unpacking room to the shelves, some defi- 
nite unit might be found. 

The work of the committee has only 
begun; it should be planned to go much 
more into details than the present ques- 
tionnaire indicates. The purpose of the 
committee should be twofold; to find out 
whether a method of handling the routine 
with a minimum expenditure of time could 
be worked out that could be recommended 
as standard, and to study how the work 
might be so arranged as to be made in 
some degree less mechanical to those who 
are capable of more or less independent 
handling of literary material for the pur- 
pose of preparing it for use by readers in 





1. Give a short sketch of your catalog de- 

partment indicating the processes in- 
to which the work is divided. 

2. How many of the following items do 

you include as part of cataloging?: 

(a) Accessioning. 

(b) Classification, 

(c) Shelf-listing, 

(d) Preparation for the shelves. 

3. Of how many persons does your catalog- 

ing force consist and how is it grad- 

4. What are the minimum and maximum 

salaries in each grade and division of 
your cataloging force? 

5. What was the total amount expended 

for salaries for the catalog depart- 
ment in 1912? 

6. a. How many of the assistants in the 

catalog department spend full 
time on the cataloging work? 
b. What other work are these engaged 
in in other departments of the li- 
brary ? 

7. a. How many volumes did you add to 

your library during 1912? 

b. How many of these were added as 

new titles to your catalog? 

c. How many of these were on printed 

cards from the Library of Con- 
gress or from other libraries? 

8. What do you estimate that it cost your 

library in 1912 to catalog a book, in- 
cluding accessioning, classification, 
shelf-listing and .preparation for the 

9. Give any special information about your 

library that will enable the commit- 
tee to understand particular phases 
of your cataloging work. 
Libraries Included in the Investigation 

University and Reference Libraries 
Columbia University Library. 
Harvard University Library. 
Princeton University Library. 
University of Chicago Library. 
Yale University Library, 

John Crerar Library. 
Library of Congress. 
New York Public Library, Reference De- 
New York State Library. 
Newberry Library. 

Public Libraries 
Boston Public Library. 
Brooklyn Public Library. 
Buffalo Public Library. 
Carnegie Library, Pittsburgh. 



Chicago Public Library. 

Cincinnati Public Library. 

Cleveland Public Library. 

Philadelphia Free Library. 

St. Louis Public Library. 

Toronto Public Library. 

A request was read from the catalog sec- 
tion, first, that the Executive Board be 
asked to appoint a permanent cataloging 
committee to which the questions in cata- 
loging may be referred for recommenda- 
tions; second, that the Executive Board be 
asked to send a request to the Librarian 
of Congress for the publication of the code 
of alphabeting used in the Library of Con- 

Voted, on motion by Dr. Andrews that 
the president and secretary be instructed 
to appoint a committee for this year to 
whom questions of cataloging may be re- 
ferred, and that the chairman of the cata- 
log section be consulted as to the proper 
form of a by-law providing for a perma- 
nent committee. 

Upon motion by Dr. Andrews, voted that 
the secretary be instructed to ask the 
opinion of the Committee on code for 
classifiers as to the desirability of a per- 
manent committee to consider specific 
questions of classification and as to the 
proper form of a by-law to provide for 
such committee. 

The appointment of members to. the vari- 
ous standing committees was next consid- 
ered, and as a result of consideration at 
this meeting and of later correspondence 
between the members of the Executive 
Board and consultation with the chairmen 
of the various committees, the standing 
committees for the year 1913-14 are an- 
nounced as follows: 

COMMITTEES, 1913-14 


C. W. Andrews, The John Crerar Li- 
brary, Chicago. 

F. F. Dawley, Cedar Rapids, la. 

F. O. Poole, New York City. 

Public Documents 

G. S. Godard, State Library, Hartford, 

A. J. Small, State Library, Dea Moines, 

Ernest Bruncken, Library of Congress, 
Washington, D. C. 

John A. Lapp, State Library, Indianapo- 
lis, Ind. 

M. S. Dudgeon, Wisconsin Free Library 
Commission, Madison, Wis. 

T. M. Owen, Department of Archives and 
History, Montgomery, Ala. 

S. H. Ranck, Public Library, Grand Rap- 
ids, Mich. 

Adelaide R. Hasse, Public Library, New 

C. F. D. Belden, State Library, Boston, 

Co-operation with the N. E. A. 

Mary Eileen Ahern, "Public Libraries," 

Mary A, Newberry, Public Library, New 
York City. 

Irene Warren, School of Education, Chi- 

George H. Locke, Public Library, To- 
ronto, Canada. 

Harriet A. Wood, Library Association, 
Portland, Ore. 

Library Administration 

A. E. Bostwick, Public Library, St. Louis, 

George P. Bowerman, Public Library, 
Washington, D. C. 

John S. Clea,vinger, Public Library, Jack- 
son, Mich. 

Library Training 

A. S. Root, Oberlin College Library, 
Oberlin, O. 

Faith E. Smith, Public Library, Chicago, 

Alice S. Tyler, Western Reserve Univer- 
sity Library School, Cleveland. 

Adam Strohm, Public Library, Detroit, 

A. L. Bailey, Wilmington Institute Free 
Library, Wilmington, Del. 

Chalmers Hadley, Public Library, Den- 

Cornelia Marvin, Oregon State Library, 
Salem, Ore. 

George O. Carpenter, trustee, Public Li- 
brary, St. Louis, Mo. 



International Relations 

Herbert Putnam, Library of Congress, 

E. C. Richardson, Princeton University 
Library, Princeton, N. J. 

Franlc P. Hill, Public Library, Brooklyn, 

N. y. 

W. C. Lane, Harvard University Library, 
Cambridge, Mass. 

R. R. Bowker, "Library Journal," New 
York City. 


The committee has not yet been ap- 


.A. L. Bailey, Wilmington Institute Free 
Library, Wilmington, Del. 

Rose G. Murray, Public Library, New 

J, R. Patterson, Public Library, Chicago. 

Federal and State Relations 

B. C. Steiner, Enoch Pratt Free Librar^, 

T. L. Montgomery, State Library, Harris- 
burg, Pa. 

Demarchus C. Brown, State Library, In- 
dianapolis, Ind. 

Paul Blackwelder, Public Library, St. 
Louis, Mo. 

C. F. Belden, State Library, Boston, 

Thomas M. Owen, Department of Arch- 
ives and History, Montgomery, Ala. 

W. P. Cutter, Library of Engineering So- 
cieties, New York City. 


F. W. Faxon, Boston Book Co., Boston, 

C. H. Brown, Public Library, Brooklyn. 
J. F. Phelan, Public library, Chicago. 


C. H. Gould, McGill University Library, 

J. L. Gillis, State Library, Sacramento, 

N. D. C. Hodges, Public Library, Cincin- 
nati, O. 

W. C. Lane, Harvard University Library, 
Cambridge, Mass. 

Herbert Putnam, Library of Congress, 

" T. W. Koch, University of Michigan Li- 
brary, Ann Arbor. 

J. C. Schwab, Yale University Library, 
New Haven, Conn. 

Work with the Blind 

Laura M. Sawyer, Perkins Institution, 
Watertown, Mass. 

Lucile Goldthwaite, New York Public Li- 

Mrs. Emma N. Delfino, Free Library, 

Mrs. Gertrude T. Rider, Library of Con- 
gress, Washington. 

Julia A. Robinson, Secretary Iowa Li- 
brary Commission, Des Moines. 

Miriam E. Carey, Supervisor of Institu- 
tion Libraries of Board of Control, St. 


E. H. Anderson, Public Library, New 

H. C. Wellman, City Library, Springfield, 

George B. Utley, A. L. A. Executive Of- 
fice, Chicago, 111. 


Meeting of June 24th 

The meeting was called to order by 
President Legler with 45 members pres- 

The Chair announced the death since 
the last meeting of the Council of Dr. John 

Shaw Billings and Mr. Charles Carroll 
Soule, and by unanimous vote of the Coun- 
cil the Chair appointed Dr. Herbert Put- 
nam, R. R. Bowker and H. C. Wellman a 
committee to draft resolutions to be pre- 
sented to the Association at large. 



Dr. Bostwick as chairman presented the 


In presenting this final report, your Com- 
mittee finds it necessary to consider and 
to give expression to two points of view, 
both of which are represented in its mem- 
bership and neither of which can be neg- 
lected — one that believes that, owing to 
diversity of local conditions and of con- 
stitutional and other requirements in dif- 
ferent parts of the Union, it is impossible 
to frame definitely a model library law 
or a model library section of a city char- 
ter, and the other, that without some such 
expression as can be given only in the 
form of a definite body of law of this kind, 
the recommendations of the Committee 
will necessarily be vague and will largely 
fail of effect. 

Your committee has therefore thought 
it best in the first place to make a state- 
ment of the things that a library law or 
charter section should, in its opinion, aim 
to do, giving reasons where necessary; 
and in the second place to present a defi- 
nite example of the way in which these 
things may be done, accompanied by a 
warning that before adopting it as a mod- 
el in any specific instance, it should be 
carefully studied by some competent per- 
son and modified to suit the necessities of 
the case. Your committee realizes also 
that every state library law should con- 
tain provisions, such as those regulating 
the State Library and Library Commission, 
which do not fall within the duties as- 
signed to this committee and hence are 
not touched upon in this report. 

And first, regarding the aims of a li- 
brary law: 

(a) We reiterate cur statement of last 
year that the library is an educational 
institution and that education is a matter 
of state rather than of local concern. If 
a state already has a good library law 
which has worked and is working well and 
satisfactorily to all concerned, local li- 
braries should be left in operation under 

the provisions of the law, precisely as the 
schools should be and generally are left, 
no matter what changes in the form of 
municipal government are contemplated 
or have been carried into effect. If the 
state law is not entirely satisfactory, it is 
better to amend it than to try to better 
matters through the local charter. The 
charter may well contain, to avoid the pos- 
sibility of conflict, some such special dis- 
claimer as the following: "Nothing in this 
charter shall be so construed as to inter- 
fere with the operation of the public li- 
brary under the library laws of the state." 
If the library law contains provisions seem- 
ingly in conflict with new charter provi- 
sions, some additional deflnition may be 

(b) Possibly we are not yet ready for 
compulsory library establishment through- 
out a state, but at all events it should be 
made simple and easy for any public tax- 
ing or governing body to establish a free 
public library and to tax itself for the 
support of that library, accepting gifts 
where necessary and obligating itself to 
fulfill the conditions under which these 
gifts are made. This would include mu- 
nicipalities, counties, townships, school dis- 
tricts, boards of education, etc. 

The library should be assured of reason- 
able and sufficient financial support, either 
through the operation of a special-tax pro- 
vision or by the requirement of a minimum 
appropriation by the authorities. In no 
case should the existence or value of the 
library be placed in jeopardy by making 
possible a capricious withdrawal or less- 
ening of support by the local authorities. 

(c) The library should be administered 
by an independent board of trustees, not 
by a single commissioner, and, in particu- 
lar, not by a commissioner who has other 
matters on his hands. In case such group- 
ing appears necessary, the library should 
be placed with other educational agen- 
cies and in no case treated as a group of 
buildings or a mere agency of recreation. 
The board should be a body corporate, dis- 
tinct from other municipal organizations 
and departments, with powers of succes- 
sion, power to sue and be sued, to acquire 



and hold property, etc. The terms of its 
members should not expire all at once, so 
that reasonable continuity in policy will be 
insured. It should have power to take 
over and manage other city libraries, 
school libraries and, by contract, libraries 
in other municipalities or communities. 

(d) The funds of the library, including 
those derived from taxation, bequest, gift, 
and library fines and desk receipts, should 
be at the board's free disposal for library 
purposes, including the purchase of land 
and the erection of buildings. They should 
be received and held by the municipal au- 
thorities, and disbursed on voucher, with 
the same safeguards and under the same 
auspices as those required for other pub- 
lic funds. 

(e) The library should be operated on 
the merit system, in the same way that 
the schools are so operated — not by plac- 
ing the selection and promotion of library 
employees in the hands of the same board 
that selects clerks and mechanics for the 
city departments, but by requiring that 
the library board establish and carry out 
an efficient system of service satisfactory 
to the proper authorities. 

The board should have entire control of 
its own working force and should initiate 
Its own policies, including selection of 
sites and planning of buildings, its libra- 
rian being regarded both as its executive 
officer and as its expert adviser, to whom 
the choice of methods and the manage- 
ment of details are naturally left. He 
should be present at meetings of the board 
and may serve as its secretary. 

We regard as satisfactory any body of 
law that will accomplish the results aimed 
at In the following sections, which your 
committee does not regard as couched in 
legal phraseology. Before being used in 
any state its provisions should be word- 
ed by a competent person experienced in 
drafting bills for the legislature of that 

Section 1 

Any taxing body shall have authority to 

levy a tax, not less than mills on 

the dollar, for the support of a free public 

library within its jurisdiction, and such 
tax shall be levied if so ordered by a ma- 
jority vote of all voters at a general elec- 
tion, on petition signed by voters. 

Any governing or taxing body shall have 
power to provide, by annual appropriation, 
for the support of a free public library, 
whether or not a tax is levied as above 
provided, or to enter into a contract for 
library service with another governing or 
taxing body or with a private corporation 
already maintaining such a library. 

Section 2 

Any library supported as specified in 
Section 1 shall be governed by a board of 
not less than five or more than nine trust- 
ees (appointed as the legislature may pro- 
vide), which board shall have the powers 
of a public corporation and shall perform 
all acts necessary and convenient for the 
maintenance and operation of the library. 

The board may receive gifts and be- 
quests, acquire and transfer property, real 
and personal, sue and be sued. It shall 
manage all libraries owned by the city 
and may contract with other public bodies 
within and without the^ city, to render li- 
brary service, adding to its number, if 
mutually so agreed, one or more repre- 
sentatives of such public body. The terms 
of the members shall not expire coinci- 
dently. Any member may be removed by 
the appointing or elective power for stated 

Section 3 

All moneys collected for the use of the 
library, whether by taxation or otherwise, 
shall be in custody of the city treasurer 
and shall be paid out by him on vouchers 
duly attested by the board and audited 
by the proper city authority. 

Section 4 

All employees of the library shall be 
appointed and promoted for merit only, 
and the board shall adopt such measures 
as will in its judgment conduce to this 

Section 5 

If a gift is offered to the library on con- 
ditions involving the performance of cer- 



tain acts annually, the municipality may 
obligate itself to perform such acts, by 
ordinance which shall not be repealed. 

Section 6 

The Board shall submit an annual report 
of its work in detail, with its receipts and 
expenditures, to the tax-levying body. 

Upon motion by Mr. Wellman it was vot- 
ed that the above report be printed as a 
tentative report in the Bulletin. 

Upon motion of Dr. Bostwick it was 
unanimously voted that the session of the 
Council on Thursday evening, June 26th, 
at which the topic, "The Quality of Fic- 
tion" Is to be discussed, be thrown open 
to the members of the Association at large. 

The Chairman called attention to the 
vote of the Council which was passed at 
the Asheville meeting in 1907, providing 
that privilege be given to members of the 
Council to reserve hotel rooms at the an- 
nual conferences in advance of the mem- 
bership at large and stated that a number 
of members of the Association considered 
this action as undemocratic and as unde- 
sirable for the Council to continue. 

Upon the motion of Mr. Thomson it 
was unanimously voted that this ruling 
be rescinded. 

The following persons were appointed 
by the Chair as a Committee on nomina- 
tions to nominate five members for the 
Council to be elected by the Council for a 
term of five years each: H. G. Wadlin, 
Josephine A. Rathbone, M. S. Dudgeon, 
Edith Tobitt, W. O. Carson. 

Mr. Ranck presented a report of prog- 
ress in behalf of the Committee on ventila- 
tion and lighting of library buildings and 
recommended that the Committee be con- 
tinued, which recommendation, upon mo- 
tion of Dr. Putnam, was adopted. 

The report here follows: 

Report of Committee on Ventilation and 

June, 1913. 
To the Council of the A. L. A.: 
Your special committee on ventilation 

and lighting can submit at this time only 
another report of progress. 

After the meeting at Ottawa the matter 
of having laboratory and other tests made 
in connection with the technical and scien- 
tific problems was taken up with certain 
industrial organizations with a view to the 
possibility of having them, in the interest 
of scientific knowledge, make the neces- 
sary tests for us, at no expense to the As- 
sociation. Objection developed against 
this line of procedure, inasmuch as it was 
feared that less confidence could be placed 
in such tests when the organization mak- 
ing them (or if the persons making them 
were in the service of such an organiza- 
tion) had a commercial interest in the re- 
sults of the tests. 

Accordingly the effort was made to have 
the tests made by the Carnegie Institution 
of Washington, and also by the Russell 
Sage Foundation, both of which efforts 
failed. The matter was then taken up with 
the Department of Commerce, and we are 
hopeful that we may be successful in get- 
ting the national government to make 
these tests for us through the Bureau of 

In the meantime the committee is con- 
tinuing its investigations and experiments 
so far as the limited resources at its com- 
mand will permit. In this further study 
the committee is strengthened in its belief 
reported a year ago to the effect that most 
of the ventilating apparatus now in use 
will have to be discarded as junk and that 
the whole art and practice of artificial ven- 
tilation will have to be entirely remodeled 
on a correct physiological basis, inasmuch 
as the present basis appears to be entirely 

We therefore recommend that the com- 
mittee be continued for another year. If 
deemed advisable the committee could pre- 
pare a preliminary report of its findings 
for publication in the Bulletin of the As- 
sociation. Such a report might be of im- 
mediate service to librarians. 

As an indication of the committee's dif- 
ficulties in this matter we may cite the ex- 
perience of Prof. Brooks of the University 



of Illinois who, after years of study and 
experience in illumination, feels less will- 
ing today to prescribe a lighting scheme 
than a few years ago. 

Respectfully submitted, 


Mr. Ranck made an informal statement 
regarding the irregular and unsatisfactory 
fire insurance rates which he had found 
many libraries of the United States were 
securing and recommended that this sub- 
ject be investigated by the Council. 

It was voted upon motion by Mr. Thom- 
son that a committee of three be appointed 
by the chair to investigate the subject of 
fire insurance for libraries. The chair ap- 
pointed as this committee M. S. Dudgeon, 
Chalmers Hadley and S. H. Ranck. 

There being no further business the 
Council adjourned. 

Meeting of June 26th 

This session of the Council was conduct- 
ed as an open meeting and was attended 
by many of the members of the Associa- 
tion at large. The president presided. 

The nominating committee presented the 
names of Willis H. Kerr, Mary W. Plum- 
mer, Mary E. Robbins, John Thomson and 
Samuel H. Ranck for members of the 
Council for a term of five years each. Up- 
on motion by Dr. Bostwick it was voted 
that the secretary cast a ballot for the 
election . of these members, which was 
accordingly done. 

The remainder of the session was de- 
voted to a discussion of "The Quality of 
fiction," discussion being led by Dr. Hor- 
ace G. Wadlin and Dr. Arthur E. Bostwick. 

Dr. Wadlin spoke as follows: 

The Quality of Fiction— I. 

The question set for our discussion is 
not new. It seems to be always with us. 
By itself, I do not think it of much impor- 
tance. It only becomes so as related to 

the much larger question of the general 
purpose of the public library — what it is 
supposed to stand for in the community. 
All details of library policy revert to that, 
and the fiction question is, after all, a de- 

"The quality of fiction" — if I may para- 
phrase the words of a celebrated writer 
of it whose works still compete with the 
latest "best seller" — 

"The quality of fiction is not strained. 
It droppeth like the gentle rain from 

It is, perhaps, thrice blessed; 
It blesseth him that writes, and him that 

prints and sometimes him that reads. 
'Tis mightiest in the mighty and — " 

But I refrain from going farther. Be-, 
yond that point we reach debatable ground 
and I shall add nothing to the sum of hu- 
man knowledge in that direction. 

When your President asked me to open 
this discussion, he was kind enough to im- 
ply that the time had arrived when repre- 
sentatives of the larger libraries, at least, 
might speak with conviction on this ques- 
tion. And I suppose I was selected for the 
reason that the library for which I am 
responsible has, through circumstances not 
entirely within its control, acquired a repu- 
tation for ultra-conservatism in respect to 
purchases of fiction; a reputation for 
which it is entitled to little praise, if the 
result be thought meritorious and for 
which it should not be blamed if the re- 
sults are condemned. 

For it is well, always, to choose the 
good rather than evil in any line of action; 
to choose it, that is, because you love it. 
But, if you don't love it, it is fortunate that 
in the general plan of nature the good so 
surrounds us and hems us in, to say noth- 
ing of the consequences which follow the 
choice of evil, that, in any case, we can 
scarcely escape the choice of good. 

With us in Boston, and I take it the con- 
ditions are not dissimilar elsewhere, the 
practical considerations of providing shelf- 
room for new accessions, of keeping the 
catalog within reasonable limits, the ade- 
quate provision for new books in other de- 
partments of literature, the constant in- 



crease in our fixed charges due to the ex- 
pansion of our work — these enforce the 
restriction of purchases of fiction within 
limits that may be deemed conservative, 
whether we particularly favor conserva- 
tism or not. 

Therefore I speak with no pride of opin- 
ion based upon the policy of my own li- 
brary, nor in criticism of the policy of oth- 
ers, nor with any hope of establishing a 
hard and fast rule. Criticism is frequently 
caustic and bitter. I would fain be persua- 
sive and kindly. It Is indeed my convic- 
tion that no invariable rule is possible on 
this matter or on other points of library 
policy. Certain principles hold, but the 
application of them must vary in different 
libraries, and must proceed in harmony 
with local environment. Any other course 
would result in a system, hard and mechan- 
ical, where it ought to be flexible, sympa- 
thetic and humane. 

It is said that in some places it is neces- 
sary to placate public opinion by liberal 
purchases of light and harmless trifies, 
"bright and snappy" stories, "big heart- 
gripping" tales of the moment in order 
that the fountain whereon the library de- 
pends for its continued life may not run 
dry. If that be so, who am I that I should 
sit in the seat of the scornful, or pronounce 
judgment on my neighbor? Any librarian 
whose hand is thus forced has "trouble 
enough without my adding to it with wild 
and whirling words. After all, such action is 
not without precedent — nay, we may go 
farther and say not without justification. 
Old Isaac Walton was not the first who 
angled successfully with a concealed hook, 
and he has his disciples in other than 
green pastures or beside still waters. But, 
speaking seriously, such bids for the pop- 
ular approval that may result in enlarged 
appropriations have nothing to do with 
the quality of fiction, and carry no lesson 
for those in more fortunate circumstances, 
who are able to exercise a sane and un- 
trammelled judgment. 

Let us admit freely, that fiction as a 
branch of literature, is today important, 
not merely as a means of relaxation and 

amusement but of inspiration and Instruc- 
tion. Whether or not that admission im- 
plies that a public library ought to pro- 
vide an undue quantity of it is a question 
of logic, and to be logical when sentiment 
will more effectively carry your point is 
today fatal in the discussion of more 
weighty matters than the one we are now 
considering. There is, indeed, a form of 
printed matter even more frequently used 
than the novel for relaxation and amuse- 
ment. I allude to that required in the 
great game of Auction Bridge, and one 
may gain instruction, perhaps inspiration 
from that, but public libraries so far ig- 
nore it. Although it has been suggested 
that a moving-picture annex, freely used 
by some millions to the same ends, might 
be profitably taken on, and unquestionably 
the suggestion has much to recommend it. 
At all events, that time may not be wast- 
ed in profitless controversy, I grant, at the 
outset, all that the most ardent advocates 
of fiction claim in its behalf. 

And since it is asserted that many per- 
sons will read nothing but fiction, and that 
such reading is especially adapted to put 
new life into the tired shop-girl, to illu- 
minate the social gloom that shrouds the 
proletariat, by taking him into worlds as 
unlike his real world as it is possible to 
make them, and to put a little more vital- 
ity into the merchant overwrought by too 
strenuous pursuit of the elusive dollar, why 
question its importance as at once a tonic 
and a sedative, a general promoter of 
bright days and peaceful dreams? 

Of course, though many think otherwise, 
it is not undeniably the business of a pub- 
lic library to act as a pharmaceutical dis- 
pensatory and to make persons read who 
might much better get a required physical 
stimulus in some other way. Mr. Dana 
some months ago put the reading of the 
classics into the limbo of out-worn tradi- 
tion — put them perpetually "on the blink," 
if I may use language similar to that em- 
ployed in fiction by Sewall Ford's popu- 
lar hero — and Miss Corinne Bacon, in a 
brilliant paper which, if you have not read 
it, I commend to your attention, keenly 



reminds Mr. Dana that it is not really nec- 
essary for any of us to read at all. 

If, however, we dispute the unquali- 
fied benefits of fiction reading, it is the , 
works of the masters which are used to 
overwhelm us — the recognized standard 
novels, quite modern some of them, for 
the production of good fiction did not stop 
with the death of Scott or Thackeray or 
Dickens — as if anybody questioned their 
influence or their power! 

If I wished, on the other hand, to as- 
sume the role of Mrs. Partington, and seek 
to beat back the on-rushing tide of print- 
ed matter, all of which claims to be imag- 
inative and romantic, I should need no 
better broom with which to attempt that 
forlorn and hopeless task than one made 
from the strands which Mr. Booth Tark- 
ington, and others actively engaged in the 
production of fiction, supplied in the letters 
read from this platform Monday evening. 

There is a trinity of things, frequently 
asserted, which I do not believe, that is, I 
do not believe them in my present state of 
mental development, though I trust I am 
still open to conviction. 

First, I do not believe that everybody is 
entitled to receive at our hands the books 
they want, when they, want them! I hear 
it put this way: The State or the munici- 
pality ought to provide any citizen who 
wants a book with the book he wants 
when he wants it. — A moment's candid ex- 
amination will, I think, show that this is 
impossible, and it being impossible, we 
need not spend time in disputing the 

Second, I do not believe that we should 
buy the book of the day, and all the books 
of the day, irrespective of merit; or, as a 
critical journal once put it, "Buy the books 
the world is talking about — merit or de- 
merit cast entirely aside." 

The talk of the people, about the books 
of the day is, 99 per cent of it, if we may 
apply a quantitive measure to that which 
is immeasurable, pure gossip, fostered by 
more or less interested, or paid notices 
in the newspapers, and the reading of 
books which for the moment are made the 

subjects of such gossip is of about as much 
real value to the average man or woman 
as was Mrs. A's inquiry after the health 
of Mrs. B's old man. Not that she cared 
anything about his health but the inquiry 
helped conversation. And when the book 
of the day rises above the plane of mere 
gossip its interest or value is frequently 
momentary. Two years ago, the cheerful 
idlers on summer hotel verandas were 
lightening the burden of persistent appli- 
cation to what, for want of a better term, 
is called "fancy work" by reading "The 
rosary." Last year, their affections were 
centered on "The harvester." This year — 
well, I refrain from advertising what is 
likely to be found there. 

But surely most public libraries in these 
days of expanding opportunity, find it dif- 
ficult enough to supply things which have 
higher civic promise in them, even in fic- 
tion, without stocking up extensively with 
that which is as evanescent as the foam 
on the wave. 

Third, I do not believe — as some do — ^that 
the indiscriminate reading of fiction, even 
poor fiction, leads finally to the selection 
of better books. Once I thought so, and I 
know that my distinguished predecessor. 
Dr. Winsor, held that opinion. But, after 
some thirty years' intimate knowledge of 
a library (outside of Boston), not too large 
to permit the study of the peculiarities of 
individual readers, this seems to me de- 
lusive. If I wanted to promote good read- 
ing, I would not treat it as a pill to be 
sugar-coated. Good wine needs no bush. 

Passing from the triad of things I do not 
believe I make one positive affirmation. 
Every public library should establish a 
standard. As a matter of fact, this is done 
now. For example, the works of Mr. 
Charles GarVice are seldom found on our 
catalogs nor those of Rev. Silas K. Hock- 
ing. These two among the most popular 
English novelists of our day, may be found 
on the shelves of the circulating libraries, 
and with several others almost equally 
well-known, appear among the miscella- 
neous attractions of the railway news coun- 
ters; but not with us. Why? They are 



clean, highly moral, in the accepted use 
of that word, and not without a certain 
literary merit. The answer to my query 
implies selection, in accordance with a 

I said some years ago on this subject, 
and have seen no reason to change my 
opinion, that while there are those who 
resent what they call "censorship" on the 
part of public libraries, nevertheless, sim- 
ply because we are public institutions, we 
have responsibilities to the public, toward 
children, at least, and toward those of 
unformed literary taste. 

Personally, I am not much afraid of the 
baleful effect of certain books usually con- 
demned by moralists. Not every one who 
reads "The pirate's own book" will take 
to piracy on the high seas; and a quiet 
elderly lady of my acquaintance who reads 
rather more erotic French fiction than 
some would approve, still preserves, so far 
as I can see, modesty of demeanor, and, 
unless skilfully dissembled, an exemplary 
private life. I was myself, in my young 
days a persistent reader of Beadle's dime 
novels, which were of size to be readily 
concealed between Euclid and Andrews 
and Stoddard's Latin Grammar, well out 
of view of the censor. Oliver Optic was 
permitted to corrupt my young mind, and 
since I had an eclectic taste, I absorbed 
liberal doses of Sylvanus Cobb, Jn, Emer- 
son Bennett, and Mrs. Southworth, writers 
almost unknown to the present generation. 
So far, I have escaped the penitentiary 
and the home for feeble-minded. But that 
does not justify the exposure of Burton's 
"Arabian nights" on open shelves, for 
which lapse of judgment we were once crit- 
icised by a reputable Boston paper, or 
prove that since life is short and art is long 
and one can not read everything, and some 
books are, from any point of view, better 
than others, judicious selection may not 
prevent lamentable waste of time. 

Before selection is attempted, the 
amount available for expenditure should be 
fixed, and this should be determined by 
the income of the library and the proper 
relation which, within that income, pur- 

chases of fiction should bear to other nec- 
essary expenses. The percentage will 
vary, I should suppose, with different libra- 
ries. Speaking for my own, it has by ex- 
perience been determined at from 20 to 
25 per cent of all expenditures for books. 
In a recent lean year, it dropped as low 
as 12 per cent, but in the last four years 
has ranged from 23 in 1512 to 25 in 1909. I 
include expenditures for replacements as 
well as for new fiction. 

All theory apart, no more could have 
been spent without impairing the up-keep 
of other departments. As I have inti- 
mated, we are always confronted, to use 
Mr. Cleveland's phrase, by conditions 
rather than theories. I need not enlarge 
upon the character of those other depart- 
ments. They are not for the use of the 
dilettante or the connoisseur. Contrary to 
an opinion that seems to prevail in certain 
quarters, we do not buy extensively, as one 
critical commentator put it, either "musty 
parchments or rare first editions in which 
not one person in 50 has the slightest in- 
terest or concern." 

No. These departments provide for the 
scholarly use of a library which is at the 
center of a group of educational institu^ 
tions accommodating probably 10,000 stu- 
dents. It is unthinkable to suppose that 
this work of education, of so much impor- 
tance to our city, could go on without the 
aid derived from the library. And I need 
only mention the various special collec- 
tions which have grown up from the begin- 
ning, which are drawn upon each year by 
students who come to us from abroad, and 
from which, on the inter-library loan plan, 
we lend annually to other libraries in the 
proportion of 1,200 to the 50 which we re- 
ceive from them in return. 

These phases of our work must be taken 
into account, just as similar considerations 
must be influential in any library, if a 
proper balance is to be kept of expendi- 
tures for fiction. And bear in mind that 
every dollar spent for fiction beyond the 
proper limit as set by a candid considera- 
tion of conditions and resources, no matter 
how insistent the demand — and it is well 



known that the demand may be so Insist- 
ent as to require, without satisfying it, all 
the money at your command — every dol- 
lar beyond this limit is a dollar drawn 
from students, from readers in courses, 
from work with the immigrant, if you have 
that problem, from work with children, 
from the artisan or mechanic who comes 
to you for the books that will add to his 
industrial efHciency, from your business 
men's branch, if one exists. The libra- 
ry cannot be made a mere depository for 
fiction. This should go without saying. 
It does not propose to include all good 
fiction in its purchases. The sum set 
apart can not all be used for new fiction, 
but must cover replacements. The library 
must also buy fiction in other languages 
than English. 

As to the work of selection, I pass in 
rapid review our own methods, concerning 
which much nonsense has been written. 
We examine with care substantially every 
book in English that comes from the press, 
which any public library is likely to buy. 
Last year, which is perhaps typical, 890 
different books in fiction were considered, 
including fiction for young readers. And 
every book was not merely examined by 
title, but was read and commented upon 
in our interest by at least 3 persons on the 
average. _ 

Of course, no such thorough examina- 
tion could be made by the library staff 
alone, and we have the services of a vol- 
unteer committee of readers not officially 
connected with the library. The commit- 
tee does not supersede the critical opin- 
ion of the librarian or his selected staff 
officers. It does not even control. It 
merely aids by an analysis of the books 
and by such opinions, expressed on blank 
forms provided for the purpose, as show 
an outline of plot and treatment, and mer- 
its or defects as they appear, not to trained 
literary critics, but to average readers of 
some cultivation in different walks of life 
or on different social planes. 

This committee was one of the excel- 
lent inventions of my predecessor, Dr. Put- 
nam, and, shortly after its establishment. 

it received wide attention from the press, 
for the most part based on complete mis- 
conception of its purpose and character. 
This resulted in creating an impression 
as different as possible from the actual, 
but which still persists, as the mother-in- 
law joke persists, or the young lady who 
plays the piano in the parlor while mother 
washes in the kitchen, or the stage 
Irishman and Yankee — stock material of 
the pseudo-humorists. 

The genial "Librarian" of the Boston 
Transcript, who on Saturday is to tell you 
how to discourage reading, still has peri- 
odic visions of the "Censors of the Boston 
public library," just as more timid souls 
have created bogies out of Col. Roosevelt 
or other historic characters. But the 
committee has no power to "censor" any- 
thing, and the Boston public library has 
no "black list" nor has it in my time ever 
had to become a censor. It has to choose, 
and so far as possible within the exercise 
of fallible human judgment to choose 
wisely. It finds itself unable to buy some 
hundreds of as good books, perhaps better 
books, than it buys, but it censors nothing, 
being fortunately relieved of a duty from 
which I would myself not shrink in exi- 
gency, by the limitations surrounding its 

It is one of the curiosities of journalism, 
this rise of the legend of the Boston fic- 
tion committee. It started from a half 
jocose article wholly inconsequential, one 
would have thought, in a western paper 
from the pen of a little-known Boston 
space writer. Numerous excellent books 
not purchased were said to have been 
"tabooed," and the list went over the coun- 
try like wild fire. None of them had been 
"tabooed," unless inability to buy is a 
taboo. Big head lines with Swinburnian 
fervor spoke of the "books banned in Bos- 
ton." From the little daily papers, the mat- 
ter spread to the big ones. The Times 
Saturday Review pointed out, after scan- 
ning some of the titles, that "in some 
New England minds exquisite pleasure was 
akin to wickedness," because of the sup- 
posed censorship of books not bought. The 



committee was irreverently alluded to as 
the "body of spinster censors who since 
they were themselves virtuous had deter- 
mined there should be no more cakes and 
ale." A critical literary journal feared 
that the committee desired "to form Bos- 
ton's literary taste on too precious a 
model," and that since the majority of 
the readers were women, "the sense of 
power may have led them into arbitrary 
decisions." A New York paper, not un- 
willing to have a shy at Boston, said : "The 
committee takes an attitude untenable, 
Pharasaic, and what the enemies of Boston 
call Bostonese." 

Harper's "Weekly, a journal of civiliza- 
tion, expressed curiosity about the com- 
mittee: 'That the majority of them are 
young, we know, because they are not mar- 
ried. But are they red, white, or blue 
stockings? Do they approve of straight 
fronts? Do hoops still gallop in the East 
wind?" Drastic comments were received 
and appeared in print from other libra- 
rians. Mr. Legler's predecessor, entirely 
in good faith, fell with the rest. He said 
he had been told that in Boston they sent 
new novels to club women and received 
their opinions on slips of paper. He imag- 
ined that a good dinner would have some- 
thing to do with such reports. 

The St. Louis Globe Democrat had 
a word of commendation, although" equally 
misled as to the grounds of praise. It 
said: "The literary lines are drawn as 
sharply and perhaps as arbitrarily as the 
social ones. Yet this New England trait 
of severe selection is a blessing to the 
country, and has leavened its crudeness 
from ocean to ocean. Puritanism has been 
more or less a critic of the rest of us, but 
the criticism has done good. * * * There 
is doubtless good reason for the rejections 
made." But the New York Sun which still 
shines for all, said: "The city was so ter- 
ribly agitated over the wicked censorship 
of fiction at the library that the reading 
committee is doomed to become an extinct 

All of this is ancient history, and I only 
recall it as showing. In little, the growth 

of a popular myth. The committee as an 
institution still lives. It has always been 
representative. As the Bookman once said 
of its lists of best sellers, so, in dealing 
with the reports, we are not under the 
impression that we are pointing solemnly 
to stupendous critical opinions. We do 
not even claim that every individual re- 
port is actually accurate and unbiased. 
But we do believe that collected and 
weighed, they are unbiased and accurate 
in the bulk. The committee in its mem- 
bership is subject to frequent changes. It 
is, as I have said, free from library influ- 
ence. Its members are appointed by the 
committee itself and we neither approve 
nor cancel appointments. At present there 
are 27 members, men and women, married 
and unmarried, (10 unmarried ladies com- 
prise the spinster element), Protestants 
and Catholics, French, German, Spanish, 
as well as those to whom English is the 
mother tongue. 

They are all fairly intelligent, not il- 
literate of course, but not offensively schol- 
arly. They include artists and teachers, 
several literary persons, at least two au- 
thors of repute, a business man or two, 
two physicians, and so on. This analysis 
shows the representative character of the 
committee; that it is made up with 
breadth of selection. Its verdict is not 
conclusive, and aims to reflect only the 
opinion which readers of intelligence 
would form after careful reading. Oth- 
er factors are always taken into account 
in determining whether or not a book 
shall be bought. Necessarily, many cur- 
rent novels approved by the committee 
are not bought. Frequently novels are 
bought which the committee did not ap- 
prove. But the experience of several years 
has shown that nearly all which for vari- 
ous reasons we have found it impossible 
to buy have failed to demonstrate their 
right to live for even a few brief months. 
The demand for some of them was insist- 
ent for a short time. Now, their very 
names are forgotten. If we had purchased 
a considerable number of them, the money, 
so far as present demand is concerned, 



would have been wasted. It may be fair- 
ly said, however, that we have bought 
meantime, so far as our resources permit- 
ted, a fair representation of the best fic- 
tion, that which is likely to remain in con- 
stant request. Our supply of standard Eng- 
lish fiction is large, perhaps 50,000 vol- 
umes, and is constantly replaced as the 
books wear out. We are liberal in provid- 
ing good fiction for the young. Were 
our funds enlarged, we could undoubtedly 
use a larger number of copies, especially 
in branch and deposit work, but, as I have 
made clear, we cannot expend a larger 
amount of our money in this way without 
impairing the growth of the library in 
other important directions. Whether or not 
you approve the method that we find help- 
ful, some plan of selection must be adopted 
since choice is imperative. 

Of course, it would be possible to buy 
two copies of 500 different books, or, as 
at present, perhaps 10 copies of 100 books; 
the expense would be the same in either 
case. But in the first instance the chances 
of a borrower getting a copy of any book 
selected would be much reduced in com- 
parison with his chance of getting one 
under the more limited range of titles. Of 
course, also, under the first plan, the li- 
brary would be free from the impression 
that many novels had been "banned," but 
the public advantage is greater under the 
present system. 

I have already taken too long. If you 
find anything in our plan helpful, I shall 
be glad. At any rate, I hope I have done 
something to lay the ghost of unreasonable 
censorship which some of you may imagine 
hovers over the Boston public library. We 
have our faults in Boston, but not that. 

Let me take a moment in summing up. 
Every librarian must determine for him- 
self how much money he ought to spend 
for fiction, under his own local conditions, 
within his own resources. He should try 
to keep a proper proportion in this expen- 
diture, not as measured in Boston or else- 
where but in that little corner of the earth 
where his own library is placed. This is 

a personal matter, not one of invariable 
mathematical relations. 

Having done that, he should establish 
a standard and select with reference to it. 
Not my standard — it may not fit the case — 
but his own. And this too, like most li- 
brary functions, is a personal matter. It 
will depend largely on what the librarian 
is trying to do with his library. For a li- 
brary should not be a dead thing. It 
should have a vital relation to the particu- 
lar community in which it is placed, and 
fit it as the glove fits the hand. Through 
the books we circulate we are directly in- 
fiuencing the men and women we reach; 
not for their personal benefit or enjoyment 
only, or to satisfy only their individual 
tastes or desires; but that they may be- 
come better fitted for their civic duties, 
may become happier, more intelligent, 
more hopeful in their human relationships. 

It is not the book that you give John 
Smith for the benefit of John Smith only, 
that counts, but the book that makes John 
Smith of greater benefit to the community. 
That sentence, which I quote in spirit if 
not in exact words from our colleague. 
Dr. Richardson, expresses the reason for 
being of the public library, the only justi- 
fication for the maintenance of such libra- 
ries by general taxation. Whatever books 
contribute to that end are the books that 
should be bought. 

There is nothing in the book itself as 
it lies on the shelf. It is neither moral 
nor immoral nor of any other intrinsic 
merit or demerit. "Three weeks," 12 cop- 
ies of which a commercial circulating li- 
brary in a small city near my home kept 
in constant circulation for a year, is as 
good as another in that inert position. But 
books in contact with the soul of humanity 
are no longer dead things. They have 
something of that vital quality which gave 
them birth, as Milton long ago said. 

It is sometimes as much our duty to 
restrain readers as to stimulate them, and 
a large circulation per capita without re- 
gard to the character of the books cir- 
culated, is as apt to be a sign of the inef- 



ficiency of a library, as it is a thing to 
be emulated. 

This is not a recital of platitudes nor 
does the subject call for beautiful phrases 
about the ideals of the librarian's profes- 
sion. On the contrary, it concerns prac- 
tical results in return for the tax-payers' 
money, which comes hard enough at best. 
It is no heart-breaking matter whether you 
buy and circulate 50, 60 or 70 per cent or 
fiction. If you bring your percentage down 
from 70 to 50, that of itself may not mean 
improvement. But it is heart-breaking if 
you fail to get the books best adapted to 
secure the results I assume you are trying 
to obtain and which you ought to obtain 
in your own community. 

It may be that what Mr. Dana once face- 
tiously called the "latest tale of broken 
hearthstones" is just the thing to give a 
fillip to the dormant sensibilities of your 
patrons — to make them sit up and take 
notice lest cracked hearthstones become 
fashionable in your vicinity. I do not know. 
But this I know. You should settle that 
point with your own conscience, and when 
you have settled it, go on, and do not apolo- 
gize. In the long run your sins whether 
of omission or commission, will find you 
out. On the other hand, believe me, virtue 
in this field as in others, will bring its own 
reward, and the reward of virtue is about 
the only one any librarian can reasonably 

Dr. Bostwick was called upon to con- 
tinue the discussion and spoke as follows : 

The Quality of Fiction — II. 

The two things that it is necessary to 
take into account in selecting literature 
are its form and its content. The former 
largely determines the literary value of a 
composition; the latter its practical useful- 
ness. Poetry and prose are the two great 
basic forms into which all literature is di- 
vided. Narrative may be cast in either 
form and when that narrative is untrue we 
call it fiction. In the usage of most of us 
the word is restricted to prose. Fiction, 
therefore, is not so much a matter of form 
as of content, or rather of the quality of 

content. Of two books telling of the lives 
of the same kind of persons in the same 
way the mere fact that one is true and the 
other not would class one as biography and 
the other as fiction. 

Of what importance is the fact that of 
two bits of narrative, one is true and the 
other is untrue? That depends on the pur- 
pose for which the narrative is to be used. 
If we desire an accurate and orderly state- 
ment of facts, the true narrative is the 
only one of value. On the other hand, the 
facts, not of the narrative but incidental to 
it, may be true in the fiction and false in 
the biography. From the standpoint of the 
seeker of recreation, the fiction is gener- 
ally, although not always, more interesting. 
The writer has the advantage of being able 
to create the elements of his tale and con- 
trol their grouping, as well as regulate 
their form; and in addition he knows that 
he must be interesting to secure readers. 
Unfortunately, historians, biographers and 
travellers have generally too high an opin- 
ion of their functions as purveyors of truth 
to stoop to make it interesting. 

As regards literary value, of course the 
mere truth or falsity of the narrative can 
have little to do with this; yet I believe, as 
a matter of fact, that fictitious narrative 
has literary value oftener than true narra- 
tive; for the reason offered above, that 
writers of truth consider it beneath their 
dignity to garnish it, like those fatuous di- 
eticians who believe that so long as we 
take so much proteid and so much carbo- 
hydrate we need not worry over forms and 
flavors. Now I am supposed to be telling 
you about fiction and about the propriety 
or impropriety of including much of it in 
libraries, but I think you see that I am sid- 
ling toward the statement that I think we 
need not consider fiction at all, as fiction, 
in this connection. The reasons for reject- 
ing fiction, when they exist, have nothing 
whatever to do with its being fiction, 'and 
would apply to non-fiction as well. If a bi- 
ography purporting to relate the events in 
the life of Oliver Cromwell is full of errors, 
that is a reason why it should not stand 
on your library shelves. If a novel, pur- 



porting to give a correct idea of life in 
Chicago, succeeds only in leaving the im- 
pression that the city is peopled with silly 
and immoral persons, that is equally a rea- 
son for rejection. If a history of the Ital- 
ian Renaissance is filled with unsavory de- 
tails, these might exclude it, just as they 
might exclude a novel whose scene was 
laid in the same period. The story of a 
criminal's life, if so written as to make 
wrong appear right, might be rejected for 
this reason whether the criminal really ex- 
isted or not. A poor, trashy book of travel 
should no more be placed on the shelves 
than a novel of the same grade. And if our 
book funds are limited we can no more buy 
all the biography or travel or books on 
chemistry or philosophy than we can buy 
all the novels that fall from the press. I 
do not deny, of course, that any or all the 
reasons for rejection that have been ad- 
duced might be overbalanced by others in 
favor of purchase, and they might be so 
overbalanced in the case of fiction as well 
"as in that of non-fiction. 

In other words I should not buy a book 
because it is fiction, or turn it down for 
the same reason, any more than I would 
buy or fail to buy a book because it is bi- 
ography or travel. I say I should not do 
this any more in one case than in another; 
I might want to do it occasionally in both. 
But I believe that the more we forget the 
mere issue of fiction versus non-fiction and 
try instead to draw the line between use- 
ful books and harmful ones, wise books 
and silly ones, books that help and books 
that hinder, books that exalt and those 
that depress, books that excite high emo- 
tions and books that stir up low ones — 
the sooner we shall be good librarians. 

Following Dr. Bostwick's remarks the 
subject was thrown open to discussion by 
members at large. 

The chairman said that at his request 
some very interesting facts had been ex- 
tracted from the annual published state- 
ments in Publishers* Weekly, respecting 
so-called best books of the year. These 
statements showed that many of the books 
which were leading books of particular 

years, ten, fifteen and eighteen years ago, 
had absolutely disappeared from the list 
of books which are now in current favor. 
Some of these books were found to be un- 
known to those who are now engaged in 
book selection. 

Replying to the question as to the per- 
centage of fiction of books bought by pub- 
lic libraries in Canada, Mr. W. O. Carson 
of London, Ont., stated that in his library 
the percentage of fiction ran from twenty 
to twenty-five per cent and he thought 
that was a fair average for other Canadian 
libraries. Mr. Carson said that the Ontario 
government bases the government grant 
on the amount of money expended on 
books and they give no grant on fiction if 
it exceed more than forty-five per cent of 
the amount expended on other books, so 
in the majority of the small libraries, they 
do not expend more than thirty per cent on 
fiction for fear of losing a government 
grant on anything that exceeds that 
amount. Replacements are included in this 

Dr. Steiner said that a number of years 
ago Mr. Ranck and he prepared a paper on 
replacements and their attention was 
called to the very large proportion of ex- 
penditure for replacements which had to 
be used for fiction and that this was par- 
ticularly noticeable in a library of some 
age, as in the case of the Enoch Pratt Free 
library of Baltimore. The speaker thought 
it should be borne in mind in connection 
with the purchase, whether the amount 
expended was mostly for current fiction, 
mostly for replacements, whether a new 
branch was being stocked or whether a 
library was being stocked which had not 
been sufficiently provided previously with 
standard works. The exact proportion of 
fiction in any one year should be governed 
by these three factors, if not by others. Dr. 
Steiner said that their library last year 
wore out in round numbers about 7,000 
books, of which at a rough guess at least 
six-sevenths were fiction. They replaced 
about 5,000 books including most of the 
non-fiction books, leaving from 1,500 to 
2,000 volumes in fiction which were al- 



lowed to expire by limitation. In every 
case where a book wears out, the circula- 
tion department reports whether that book 
is regarded by them as being worthy of re- 
placement and if the book be not a dupli- 
cate but is an original copy the recom- 
mendation is always brought to the libra- 
rian, who occasionally overrules the deci- 
sion of the circulation department in the 
case of original copies, but so far as dupli- 
cates are concerned, the opinion of the cir- 
culation department is absolutely accepted. 

Dr. Andrews said he had found it very 
useful in the work of selection to discrimi- 
nate between those books the library does 
not intend to buy at present and those 
which it will not accept even as a gift, and 
that in fiction it might be especially valu- 
able to have some line of exclusion. He 
asked whether the chairman or Miss Bas- 
com could recall what is the proportion 
of comparison between the recommenda- 
tion of the Boston book committee as read 
by Mr. Wadlin and that of the A. L. A. 

Miss Bascom replied that as she recalled 
it for 1912 of about 1,000 novels published 
about 140 were included in the Booklist, 
adding that she supposed that the greater 
number of the entire output were read. 

The chairman said that from figures 
which he had caused to be compiled, it 
was found that in this country and- Great 
Britain something like 80,000 titles belong- 
ing to the classification of fiction had been 
printed since 1882 in this country and 1880 
in Great Britain. Mr. Wadlin said that the 
A. L. A. Booklist contained titles of fiction 
which the Boston public library had not 
bought simply because they could not, hav- 
ing bought other things instead. Local 
conditions govern their book selection to a 
considerable extent. 

The question being raised whether libra- 
rians experienced any considerable press- 
ure brought to bear upon them to purchase 
certain books, the opinion was expressed 
by Mr. Ranck, Mr. Wadlin and others that 
this pressure was not nearly so great as 
one might think would be the case, that 
those demanding the purchase of a certain 

book were reminded that the library had a 
limited income and that the question of se- 
lection always had to be very carefully con- 
sidered and that books not purchased were 
not necessarily excluded for any other rea- 
son than lack of funds. 

Representatives of the library schools 
being asked to what extent the lectures 
given in library schools were intended to 
exert an influence either for or against 
the wide purchase of fiction, Miss Hazel- 
tine of the University of Wisconsin library 
school, said it was their effort to teach the 
students to buy the best books with the 
money at their disposal — those of the best 
literary value — and to buy many duplicates 
of the best fiction. 

Dr. Bostwick said that those libraries 
that have pay collections of duplicates 
ought to state whether their reports in- 
clude the pay collections of duplicates or 
not and what relation this collection bears 
to the original copies. In St. Louis it is 
the tendency to buy rather a small number 
of copies of each work of fiction for regu- 
lar use and put these books as far as pos- 
sible into duplicate collections. The pay 
collection of duplicates in St. Louis varies 
vary much. In three of the branches it has 
not even been begun, the librarians of 
these branches reporting that there is no 
demand for it. In two branches it is very 
popular and in the central library fairly so. 

Dr. Hill thought it was not wise to give 
a smaller number of copies to the public 
for free use than to the department where 
pay is requested. It seemed to him that 
the public should have just as many copies 
of a book as those who can afford to pay 
one or two cents a day. In Brooklyn they 
give the same number of copies to the free 
circulating department as to the duplicate 
pay department. Dr. Hill said the Brook- 
lyn public library last year spent for re- 
placement, juvenile and adult, $50,000 out 
of the $80,000 which was spent for books, 
or something like 60 per cent for fiction 
both new and replacements. 

The chairman said he was much inter- 
ested in a statement printed in Collier's 
about two or three years ago in which was 



enumerated the result of the publishing ac- 
tivities of the father of the present pub- 
lisher, who started the line of inexpensive 
editions of Dickens, Scott and others of a 
similar character. It was noted in that 
summary that the firm had sold in this 
country seven million copies of the works 
of Charles Dickens and four or five million 
copies of Scott's works, not individual ti- 
tles, but the complete works of those au- 
thors. This means of course that a sur- 
prisingly large number of the best novels 
by these writers must be in the homes of 
the people who use the public libraries 
and that these people use the libraries 
to supplement their own private collec- 
tions. Consequently, no particular conclu- 
sions can be drawn as to the actual char- 
acter of the reading done by these people 
from the fact that books they get from the 
public libraries are mostly the quality of 
fiction which is put out at the present time. 

Mrs. Sneed said there was one rule for 
the selection of fiction which she generally 
gave to her library school class every year. 
This was the rule of Henry van Dyke: A 
book of fiction is really worthy to be 
bought if it has not given an untrue picture 
of' life, if it has not made vice attractive 
or separated an act from its consequences. 
The speaker thought that if this rule was 
applied in reading one would not go so very 
far astray. 

Mr. Bishop said he had been greatly in- 
terested in the last five years in the selec- 
tions made by the public itself. The Li- 
brary of Congress receives, of course, all 
the copyrighted fiction and places one copy 
at least of practically every book of per- 
manent value upon its shelves. After the 
temporary agitation of the immediate ad- 
vertising is over the public itself goes back 
to lines that are surprisingly good in every 

Mr. Gould said that Mr. Dutton, the pub- 
lisher of Everyman's Library, recently told 
him that he had now sold over one and a 
half million copies of the books in Every- 
man's Library, which was a good indica- 
tion of the market found for standard 

Mr. Jast, the English delegate, being 
called upon by the chair, contributed also 
to the general discussion, after which the 
session adjourned. 

Meeting of June 28th 
A meeting of the Council was called to 
order by President Anderson immediately 
after adjournment of the conference. 

The following resolutions were received 
from the Government Documents Round 
Table and were read and adopted by unani- 
mous vote. 

The following resolutions were passed 
unanimously at the adjourned meeting of 
the Documents Round Table, Friday, 12:15 
p. m., when the Special Committee on Res- 
olutions, consisting of Miss E. E. Clarke 
of Syracuse University, Mr. H. J. Carr of 
Scranton, and Mr. H. O. Brigham of Rhode 
Island, appointed at the regular meeting 
on Thursday, reported as follows: 

WHEREAS, The American Library Asso- 
ciation desires to express the appreciation 
of its members respecting the efficient 
work that has been and is being done for 
libraries by the office of the Superintend- 
ent of Documents, nevertheless it recog- 
nizes the many hampering features that 
still control the issue and distribution of 
public documents. Believing that these 
features can be materially lessened, there- 

BE IT RESOLVED, That this Association 
approve and urge the early enactment of 
Senate Bill 825 entitled, "An Act to amend, 
revise, and codify the laws relating to the 
public printing and binding and distribu- 
tion of Government Publications," now 
pending before the Sixty-third Congress; 
strongly recommending, however, that the 
parenthetical exception now included in 
the first proviso of Section 45 of said bill 
be stricken out so that the annual reports 
of departments shall not be treated as 
Congressional Documents. 

sociation repeat its former recommenda- 
tion urging that the text of all public bills 
upon which committee reports are made, 
shall be printed with the report thereon. 
Chairman Documents Committee. 

The following report was made to the 
Council by Dr. Andrews in behalf of the 
Committee on affiliation with other than 
local, state and provincial library associa- 



Your Committee on affiliated societies 
respectfully report that they have pro- 
ceeded in the way proposed and approved 
by the Council at its meeting in January. 
They regret that circumstances have pre- 
vented them from presenting a final re- 
port but they believe that substantial prog- 
ress has been made. 

In May the Committee sent to the presi- 
dents of the four affiliated societies the fol- 
lowing letter: 

"The Council of the A. L. A. has ap- 
pointed a committee to formulate the re- 
lations which should exist between the As- 
sociation and affiliated associations other 
than state, provincial, etc., in return for 
the privileges accorded them. The com- 
mittee understand that this action was 
taken largely because one or two of the 
societies had expressed a desire to con- 
tribute toward the expenses of the Asso- 
ciation. This desire was duly appreciated 
by the council, who felt that it would be 
well to take definite and formal action. 
The committee propose that hereafter 
these privileges shall not be extended to 
other than affiliated societies without for- 
mal vote of the council, except that the 
program committee will be authorized to 
do so for the first meeting of any newly- 
formed society. They propose to recom- 
mend, also, that the present provision shall 
be continued, — namely, that each affiliated 
society shall meet with the Association at 
least once every three years. They also 
expect to recommend that some contribu- 
tion towards expenses be required, but 
wish that the manner and the amount of 
the assessment be determined after con- 
sultation with the societies, and have 
asked that I secure an expression of your 
opinion on these points. They would con- 
sider the amount suggested by one of the 
societies, — namely $25.00, as a maximum. 
The grounds for such a contribution are 
evident, but it may be well to state them 
as follows: 

"1. Participation in the special railway 

"2. Provision for rooms and meals at 
reduced rates. 

"3. Provision of rooms and time for 

"4. Participation in the activities of the 

"5. Printing programs, announcements 
in the Bulletin, and assignment of 15 pages 
in the Proceedings. 

"The cost of preparing for and holding 
a convention is about $500.00, that of the 

Bulletin and Proceedings, including editing 
and distributing, about $1,500.00. Provi- 
sion of hotel rooms and travel facilities 
is not a matter of money, but frequently 
involves disappointment to individual mem- 
bers who apply too late. 

"As stated already, the committee have 
not agreed on any amount or method. They 
have considered a flat amount of $15.00 to 
$25.00, one dependent on the number of 
members in the society, who are not mem- 
bers of the Association, and one dependent 
on the number of such members who at- 

"Personally, I think the logical method 
would be a combination of the first and 
third, and suggest that there be an initial 
amount of $10.00 or $15.00 and an addi- 
tional charge of 50 cents or 25 cents for 
each member attending who is not a mem- 
ber of the Association. Of course, this ad- 
ditional charge will not be asked for offi- 
cial delegates of libraries who are mem- 

"Kindly let me have an expression of 
your opinion on this subject at your earli- 
est convenience and oblige 
"Yours truly, 
"(Signed) C. W. ANDREWS." 

They have just now received replies 
from all and formal action has been taken 
by two. All, though perhaps with varying 
degrees of cordiality and readiness, rec- 
ognize the justice of the proposed arrange- 

"nt. There is quite naturally some vari- 
ance in their suggestions as to the proper 
amount of the contribution to be made and 
'^he method by which it is to be computed. 
The committee desire to consider care- 
fully thsee suggestions and to reconcile 
their variations as nearly as possible. 
They would like to discuss them in a per- 
sonal meeting of the whole committee, as 
well as by correspondence, and hope that 
the winter meeting of the council will af- 
ford them an opportunity to do so, and to 
formulate a by-law for the consideration 
f council. 

They therefore submit the foregoing as 
a report of progress. 

For the Committee, 

It was voted that this report be received 
as a report of progress and further consid- 
eration be referred to the mid-winter meet- 
ing in January, 1914. 





(Round Table, June 27, 1913, 2:30 p. m.) 

Mr. Charles R. Green, librarian of the 
Massachusetts Agricultural College, was 
acting chairman of the meeting, which was 
an informal one without a regular pro- 
gram. Miss Emma B. Hawks, of the U. S. 
Department of Agriculture library, acted 
as secretary. The subjects for discussion 
were (1) Catalog cards for agricultural ex- 
periment station publications and (2) The 
indexing of agricultural periodicals. 

Mr. C. H. Hastings first spoke briefly in 
regard to the printing of cards by the Li- 
brary of Congress for the publications of 
the state agricultural experiment stations. 
Cards have already been issued for the 
Illinois and Indiana station bulletins, the 
copy being supplied by the university libra- 
ries. Before going on with the work for the 
other stations, he thought it desirable to 
consult with the Office of Experiment Sta- 
tions in regard to a plan of co-operation by 
which the same card might be used both 
for the Library of Congress cards and for 
the "Card index to experiment station liter- 
ature" issued by the office. It would be 
much more economical to have only the 
one card printed, if possible. Miss E. B. 
Hawks expressed doubt as to whether 
such an arrangement could be made, inas- 
much as the form and purpose of the Of- 
fice of Experiment Stations card index dif- 
fer so widely from those of a dictionary 
catalog. Mr. Hastings thought that it 
would do no harm to make the attempt and 
said that he would consult with the libra- 
rian of the Department of Agriculture and 
the director of the Office of Experiment 
Stations in regard to it. If such an ar- 
rangement can not be made he thought 
the Library of Congress would be willing 
to print separate cards, having the copy 
supplied by the station or college libraries, 
if they are willing and able to do the cata- 

Mr. H. W. Wilson then spoke in regard 
to the publication of an index to agricul- 

tural periodicals. He stated that he has 
had a good many demands for such an in- 
dex and has delayed adding any agricul- 
tural titles to the Industrial Arts Index, be- 
cause it may be better to have a separate 
one. Those who have written to him about 
it have almost always expressed a prefer- 
ence for a separate index. Miss Hawks 
asked whether some titles might not be in- 
cluded in the Industrial Arts Index now, 
and then removed if a separate agricul- 
tural one were begun. Mr. Wilson replied 
that there was some likelihood of the Ag- 
ricultural Index being begun next year, in 
which case it would hardly pay to do any- 
thing with the agricultural literature be- 
fore this. There was some discussion as 
to the scope of the index. Mr. Wilson said 
they would wish to include only journals 
of national standing. Mr. C. R. Green 
thought that there were not more than 
about six of these. Mr. H. O. Severance 
thought there would be many more than 
this, including papers devoted to special 
phases, as poultry, bee keeping and stock 
raising. Dr. C. W. Andrews doubted 
whether the farm papers were worth in- 
dexing. He thought that the matter was 
rarely original, but that the articles of 
value are worked up from Station and De- 
partment of Agriculture publications. Mr. 
Wilson said he had had more demands for 
an Agricultural Index lately than for an 
index of any other subject. 

Inquiry was made as to how many sub- 
scriptions would be needed to justify the 
starting of a separate index. Mr. Wilson 
could not say definitely. There might be 
two plans — one, the division of subscrip- 
tions among subscribers. The basis for the 
Industrial Arts Index was 20 cents a title 
— 40 cents for a weekly. The other plan 
is a sliding scale of charges by which a li- 
brary having a great many of the period- 
icals indexed pays a higher price, thus en- 
abling the smaller ones to pay something 
but not a higher price than they can afford 



for the service rendered. Mr. Wilson stated 
that he was willing to go to the expense 
of a referendum to find out the wishes of 
libraries on this subject, with a view either 
to the starting of a separate index or the 
incorporation of some agricultural jour- 
nals in the Industrial Arts Index. If the 
idea of a separate index is abandoned, he 
would almost certainly add some titles to 

the Industrial Arts Index. Mr. Green 
thought that he might count on active sup- 
port of the Department of Agriculture li- 
brary and all the agricultural experiment 
stations. He was not sure what further 
support there would be. Mr. Wilson 
thought the demand would probably be an 
increasing one. 
Meeting adjourned. 



The first session of the Catalog Section 
was held Wednesday afternoon, June 25th, 
the chairman. Miss Harriet B. Gooch, of 
the Pratt Institute school of library sci- 
ence, presiding. As the minutes of the 
last meeting had been published, their 
reading was omitted. 

The report of the committee on the 
cost and method of cataloging was called 
for, in response to which Mr. A. G. S. 
Josephson, Chairman of the committee, 
stated the present report was but a pre- 
liminary one, to be followed by a final re- 
port next 3'^ear. The Catalog Section took 
no action on the report since the commit- 
tee was appointed by the Executive Board 
of the Association, not by the section.* 

Miss Gooch then stated that the discus- 
sion for the afternoon was the administra- 
tion of the catalog department considered 
first in its relation to the other depart- 
ments of the library, and second as to its 
management of its own affairs looking 
toward simple, inexpensive and rapid meth- 
ods of work. She explained that the dis- 
cussion was concerned with library sys- 
tems consisting of a central library with 
a number of branch libraries, and was to 
be treated both from the librarian's and 
from the cataloger's point of view. 

The discussion was opened by Mr. F. 
P. HOPPER, of the Tacoma public library. 

*The report and questionnaire is printed in 
connection with the minutes of tlie Execu- 
tive Board. 




In the reorganization of our libraries, in 
the adoption of modern progressive and 
simplified methods, in the effort to develop 
and improve service to the public, the 
catalog department has tended to be drawn 
out of relation to the other departments, to 
become in a way isolated, and as a result 
its efficiency has been impaired. The at- 
tention of librarians has been given to 
other phases of library activities and 
therefore they know less about the catalog 
department than any other. Undoubtedly 
the technicalities of the cataloging process 
make it most difficult for librarians to 
grapple with, but all the more carefully 
should we consider ways and means of in- 
creasing the efficiency of the process, re- 
lating the work more closely to changes 
in other departments, and studying meth- 
ods of possible simplification of the routine 
mechanical work that seems to have large- 
ly increased of late. 

In one of Mr. Carlton's reports to his 
board of trustees, he uses these words: "It 
has often seemed to me that in library 
administration the catalog department was 
much like the police department in munici- 
pal administration. It is frequently under 
investigation; it is constantly being re- 
formed; its defects are felt in many other 
departments; and its heads are always 
changing as one after another breaks down 
or fails to achieve impossible results." 

Surely such an unsatisfactory and un- 



wholesome condition is not without rem- 

If I can not presume to submit a definite 
plan of reformation, perhaps I may at 
least attempt to suggest possible lines of 
investigation for each librarian to pursue. 

1. The catalog room. 

In the modern organization of work, the 
first care is to provide work-rooms in which 
the highest efficiency may be maintained. 
Scientific investigation shows the extrava- 
gance of conditions which retard speed and 
multiply unnecessary motions, which do 
not provide adequate light and air and 
proper colors to conserve strength, arrest 
fatigue and support the energies. In plan- 
ning buildings we properly endeavor to 
bring the catalog department into the clos-- 
est possible relation with the order depart- 
ment, the book stack and the reference de- 
partment, to save steps which mean time 
and money. My observation is that fre- 
quently there is not the same care exer- 
cised in planning the room itself as there 
is in locating it. Often it is too small, so 
that work clogs up, books must be shifted 
too often (an expensive process), too 
many corners must be turned in getting 
about the room and the assistants impede 
one another's progress. On the other hand, 
a room may be so large that time is wasted 
in getting about it. To be sure this is a 
rare fault. I have seen cataloging rooms 
admirably placed for convenience of ac- 
cess to stack, reference room and order 
department, and really adequate in size, 
but so devoid of light and air that even a 
hardened devotee of our reading rooms 
would fear to enter such a place. Plenty of 
windows, if possible on two sides of a 
room, and ample indirect artificial lighting 
are just as important for the efficiency of 
the catalog department as like facilities for 
the public reading rooms. 

2. Relation of catalog department to 
other departments. 

When friction develops between two de- 
partments (of course it never does; this 
is merely a hypothetical case), my observa- 
tion is that the catalog department is 
pretty likely to be a party to the affair. 

Why? Simply because as organization 
within libraries has developed, the cata- 
log department has been left more and 
more to its own devices. In the depart- 
ments working with the public, the ten- 
dency has been to complexity of organiza- 
tion, perhaps, but still to elimination of 
detail, simplification of method, the sacri- 
fice of theory to practicality that the pub- 
lic may have the feeling of freedom and 
ease and be given the quickest and best 
service with the least red tape. During 
this process the catalog department has 
continued to develop theory unchecked by 
daily strenuous contact with the busy bor- 
rower, to increase routine and mechanical 
work, still opaque to the searchlight of 
scientific investigation from outside the 
department. You need publicity, but all 
you ever get is pages and pages of blasts 
against the poor old battle-scarred, but 
more-or-less-still-in-the-ring accession book, 
which in nine cases out of ten belongs to 
another department anyway. The illumi- 
nating power of publicity for the devious 
ways of cataloging and the development of 
a better spirit of co-operation, are to be 
obtained perhaps best of all by the estab- 
lishment of entirely feasible definite rela- 
tions between the departments. As Miss 
Winser will develop this topic, I will leave 
it here, simply remarking that in my ex- 
perience the opinions of one department 
about the organization and detail of an- 
other department are frequently of the ut- 
most value, but rarely the opinions of 
other departments about the catalog de- 
partment, whose problems are not under- 

3. Organization of the department. 

(1) General type of organization. 

The development of the modern elabo- 
rate systems of scientific management in 
the various forms of industry has for the 
most part superseded the best type of or- 
dinary management known as the "initia- 
tive and incentive system." Under the old 
system success depends almost entirely 
upon the initiative of the workmen, where- 
as, under scientific management, or task 
management, a complete science for all the 



operations is developed, and the managers 
assume new burdens, new duties and re- 
sponsibilities. Having developed the sci- 
ence, they scientifically select and then 
train, teach and develop the workmen. 
The managers co-operate with the men to 
insure all the work being done in accord- 
ance with the principles of the science 
which has been developed. The work and 
responsibility are almost equally divided 
between the management and the work- 
men. The combination of the initiative 
of the workmen and the new types of work 
done by the management makes scientific 
management so much more efficient than 
the old way. 

"All the planning which under the old 
system was done by the workman, as a 
result of his personal experience, must of 
necessity under the new system be done 
by the management in accordance with the 
laws of the science."* One type of man is 
needed to plan ahead and an entirely dif- 
ferent type to execute the work. Perhaps 
the most prominent single element in mod- 
ern scientific management is the task idea. 
The work of each workman is fully planned 
in advance by the management and the 
man receives complete written instructions, 
describing in detail the task he is to ac- 
complish, as well as the means to be used 
in doing the work. And the work planned 
in advance in this way constitutes a task 
which is to be solved by the joint effort of 
the workman and the management. This 
task specifies not only what is to be done, 
but how it is to be done and the exact 
time allowed for doing it. 

It is said that "the most important object 
of both the workmen and the management 
should be the training and development of 
each individual in the establishment, so 
that he can do (at his fastest pace and 
with the maximum of efficiency) the high- 
est class of work for which his natural 
abilities fit him," but it is nevertheless 
true that to some extent scientific man- 
agement contemplates the selection of the 
workman best fitted for one particular 

*P. W. Taylor, "Principles of scientific 

task and keeping him at that task because 
he can do that better than any other. 
Within the narrow domain of his special 
work, he is given every encouragement to 
suggest improvements both in methods and 
in implements. In the past the man has 
been first; under modern methods the 
system is first. 

I have attempted to summarize some of 
the principles of so-called scientific man- 
agement, because in the organization of 
our cataloging work definite principles of 
any kind of management have rarely been 
evident throughout, and if we are to ob- 
serve accurately the system of this depart- 
ment, and study it with a view to possible 
improvement, we must test its work by 
some existing scientific standards. 

The science of cataloging has been pretty 
fully developed, and at least its technique 
is taught in our professional schools. There- 
fore it may be assumed that we are now 
reasonably conforming to the first ideals 
of scientific management when we select 
with due care for the headship of our cata- 
log departments and for the more impor- 
tant positions, those trained in the princi- 
ples of the science. I personally believe 
that the principles of scientific manage- 
ment should be actively employed by the 
head cataloger in the definite planning of 
the work of the individual,