(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Aladdin Manual of construction : containing practical methods covering every step necessary in the erection of Aladdin houses, barns, garages, etc. / prepared and illustrated by David S. Betcone"

antial 

Cmstructiok 




THE AHDDIH CO. 



ivJTL-TH It/ - </7 



Aladdin Manual Of 
Construction 



THIRD EDITION 



CONTAINING PRACTICAL METHODS 
COVERING EVERY STEP NECESSARY 
IN THE ERECTION OF ALADDIN 
HOUSES, BARNS, GARAGES, ETC. 



PREPARED AND ILLUSTRATED BY 

DAVID S. BETCONE 



DEDICATED 
TO OWNERS OF ALADDIN BUILDINGS 



PUBLISHED BY 

THE ALADDIN COMPANY 

BAY CITY, MICHIGAN 

COPYRIGHT 1918 BY THE ALADDIN COMPANY. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 

LYRASIS members and Sloan Foundation 



http://www.archive.org/details/aladdinmanualofcOObetc 



Foreword 




T is now nearly twelve years since the 
Aladdin Company started in the business 
of manufacturing and selling readi-cut 
houses. At that time little was known of 
the adventure and it has taken many years 
of hard work to build the successful and 
thriving business which this Company now 
maintains. One of the many things which has brought 
about this wonderful success is the service which our 
company gives to its customers, covering every step from 
the placing of the order to the completion of the home. 

Many of the most important steps have been written 
in a serviceable form and published in this, our Aladdin 
Manual of Construction. 

So remarkable was the success of the first editions 
of the Aladdin Manual of Construction that we kept at 
work enlarging its scope, perfecting its details and incor- 
porating many additional and valuable features for this, 
the third edition. Exhaustive study was made of the 
thousands of records of home building which our cus- 
tomers have sent to us from every section of the country. 
Then facts were deducted from these vast experiences 
and reduced for your guidance, into the pages of this 
book, wherein you will find answered almost every 
question or situation that may arise in the work of 
building your home. 



Notice 



THE information contained in this booklet 
is very valuable and was compiled from 
practical experience and at great expense. 
This expense is justified if Aladdin customers 
will hand this booklet to the men in charge of 
the erection of their buildings so that they may 
acquaint themselves with the best and quick- 
est methods of construction employed by the 
Aladdin System. Be sure and have the car- 
penters erecting the house, read all of Part 
III carefully as this information has direct 
bearing in the satisfactory completion of your 
home. 

The Aladdin Company 

Bay City, Michigan 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 5 

General Introduction 

THE purpose of this book, the third edition of the Aladdin Manual of 
Construction, is to help purchasers and builders of ALADDIN houses 
do away with the costly mistakes often made by contractors and home 
builders. 
There is a popular demand for simple and practical methods for taking 
care of the different steps necessary in the erection of an ALADDIN building, 
outside of the general instructions and blueprints sent out to purchasers of the 
same. 

In presenting this book to purchasers and builders of ALADDIN build- 
ings, we will try to improve where we can, to make the erection of these 
buildings a success and a credit to all concerned, and will give practical 
methods of taking care of every step necessary in the erection of a modern 
dwelling house, and also estimates on some of these steps, which will help 
the builder and give a general idea of what the different steps should cost. 
But we wish it distinctly understood that these are average figures and will 
not apply to buildings in every part of the country, but will help to find out 
approximately what the different steps in the erection should cost and the 
best methods to use to obtain the results desired. 

Today, the average man confronts many serious problems when he starts 
out to investigate the building of a home, and serious thought and study are 
necessary if he is to avoid costly mistakes. Taking into consideration beauty, 
strength, convenience and cost, it really takes an expert now-a-days to obtain 
the desired results. Our aim is to incorporate in this book and to give our 
customers the knowledge we have gained by years of actual experience in 
Home Building and Industrial housing projects, and it is our hope that the 
suggestions and methods contained herein, will steer the home builder clear 
of many pitfalls he might otherwise come to grief in. 

The many gratifying letters we receive would seem to indicate that our 
methods of erection are fast becoming the standard of the home-building 
problem thruout the country. These methods have been perfected and will 
insure our customers better and quicker work at a much lower cost. 

There may be some criticism as to some of the methods given, and the 
size of the book, understanding that volumes could be written on the subjects 
contained herein, and knowing that some prefer quantity to quality and would 
rather have a long drawn out subject which they could not understand easily, 
than a compact, easily understood article which will benefit them. 

We understand "time is money" and we will make it a policy to handle 
each subject in as brief and simple a way as possible, to give a clear under- 
standing in the most serviceable form. 

Part i of this book is devoted to instructions and illustrations on the 
different steps necessary in the erection of ALADDIN houses not furnished 
in the GENERAL Instructions, such as excavating, foundation, chimney, 
etc. 

Part 2 is devoted in detail to the making of lawns, flower gardens and the 
general beautifying of the surroundings of the building. 

Part 3 is devoted to the General Instructions on the carpenter work, 
such as framework, exterior and interior finish, shingling, plastering, etc. 

Part 4 is devoted to garages, barns and summer cottages. 



6 ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 

Part 1. 

Selecting the Location 

THE most interesting subject in the average man or woman's mind is that 
of owning a home. There is a strong inducement in most everyone's 
nature which, sooner, or later, expresses itself in the desire to own a 
place called "Home." Many things should be taken into consideration 
when you are about to build one. One very important feature is the selection 
of the lot upon which your home is to be located. 

Many people make a mistake in the start by selecting a lot not in the least 
desirable for the home they have decided to build, or vice versa. You should 
take into consideration the advantages and disadvantages of the location to 
make the home a place to cherish. 

Do not be too hasty in selecting your lot. Decide first upon the approxi- 
mate location which you consider the most desirable residential district ; take 
into consideration the location of the schools for your children, the dirt or 
odors from the nearby factories and freedom from encroachment of business. 
Take into consideration the kinds of families, socially, that you would be will- 
ing to have associate with your children, the location of the churches, car serv- 
ice, and the people who patronize the same. 

Neighborhood and locality should concern the home owner very much. 
Desirable real estate should gradually increase in value. If conditions exist 
in a neighborhood or locality that will tend to decrease value on real estate 
contained therein, the owner should be fully aware of the fact, and either 
avoid the neighborhood, or be reconciled for defects. 

Do not buy a lot because it is cheap ; a few hundred dollars more in the 
cost of your location is money well spent, as it will be one strong talking point 
should you ever wish to sell or rent. 

This question of selling is seldom considered by most owners. The con- 
vertibility of the proposition into cash is a very important one. While there is 
usually no chance that there will be immediate desire to sell, the foresighted 
purchaser sees a possible pressing, and where advisable lets that thought guide 
him in his purchase. In short, the reasonable man does not disregard totally 
the realization that some day the material, time and labor expended may be 
desired to be converted into cash. 

Give due consideration to improvements such as water, sewer, gas, and 
sidewalks. Be sure they are there, or satisfied that they will be when you are 
ready to build. 

Keep away from lots near mills, factories, shops, saloons, stables, black- 
smith shops, cemeteries, sanitariums, medical colleges, noisy streets, etc. These 
may not be objectionable to you, but will affect the sale should you ever desire 
to dispose of your property. 

Of course in many building operations, there will be exceptions to the 
above, as in some new locations houses and property located near and conven- 
ient to factories, mines, etc., are much more in demand and more easily dis- 
posed of. 

Home building can be put into two classes. One to secure income, and 
the other to secure comfort and convenience. The builder who is an investor, 
cares little about comfort and convenience of the property except that it re- 
turns him a greater income because he does not live there, and his every effort 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 7 

is to conserve toward an increasing return of revenue. The owner, however, 
who is to build a home in which to reside, will, to his utmost extent, seek in- 
creasing comfort and convenience, and money will be sacrificed to bring them. 
Therein lies the discrimination to be sought and guided by, one to secure in- 
come, and the other to have comfort and convenience. 

Be sure that the property you are interested in has a clear title. If you 
are not familiar with abstracts and conveyances, it is certainly money well 
spent to employ someone who is conversant with titles to look over the paper 
offered you for your money. Often property is encumbered by back taxes, and 
if they are not settled before purchase is made, you will be obliged to pay for 
same. 

Title is something that, while not in the least intangible, it is to some peo- 
ple a little visionary, and is very liable to become disregarded. The buyer's 
protection is to require an abstract of title showing how the property stands 
on the records. If a person cares to go to the added expense, he may secure a 
warranted abstract of title. If, in the future, any question should arise, the 
concern issuing you the warranted abstract will adjust any defect at their own 
expense. 



Contracts 



IN order to build and obtain entire satisfaction and profit, and to prevent 
any holding up of payments, law-suits, or delays of any kind in the erection 
of the building, it is essential that the owner or builder should have written 
specifications with contractor or carpenter, which should settle the follow- 
ing questions : 

(1.) What work is to be done? 

(2.) What material is to be used? (ALADDIN in your case.) 

(3.) How is it to be done? 

(4.) When is it to be completed? 

(5.) What is it to cost? 

(6.) The manner of payment? 

General Conditions 

The contracts and specifications signed between the party of the first part 
(as the owner) and the party of the second part (as the contractor) should not 
contain conditions which involve any unnecessary trouble or expense to the 
contractor or builder. 

The best results will be obtained by the party of the first part, if said 
contract will read so as to modify all conditions in order that a feeling of co- 
operation to obtain the desired results will exist between the two parties. The 
result desired should always be visible in the wording of the contract : the 
means of obtaining the result should be left to the contractor. 

Except in a few cases, we would not advise the owner to let a "General 
Contract," that is, a contract to one man to do all the work necessary to com- 
plete an ALADDIN house. 

Invariably, we have found that the owner will have better success by 



8 ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 

letting the contract for the erection of the frame and all necessary carpenter 
work of an ALADDIN house to a couple of good, handy men, or hire them to 
work by the day. Of course, contracts for foundation, plumbing, excavating, 
footing, etc., should he given to men who make this line of work a specialty. 
How to make contracts for the work mentioned above, will be dealt with later. 
It is always wise to ask the carpenter to show you a house he has built, and to 
talk with the owner of it. 

While a contractor is under obligations, after taking the contract, to carry 
out the work to the best of his ability, as worded in the contract, it is well to 
remember that the acceptance of the contract was a purely voluntary act on his 
part, and that he was under no obligation to take it. 

What Is To Be Done 

It is his right to know before he puts in his bid, just what he is expected 
to furnish and to do, and not to be left to furnish what in the mind of some 
party not interested in him, are materials of "good quality" or work of "best 
quality." Nothing will bring better results from him than to have a feeling 
of co-operation. As to the kinds of material to be used, it is always better to 
s-pecify the best. Do not take a chance with inferior grades. They will not 
last and will have to be replaced in a short time. You should always specify 
just what kind of material you want furnished, as contractor when making 
estimate, might figure on one kind while you will expect another. 

In the erection of ALADDIN HOUSES, the general instructions for 
erection contained in Part III of this manual will state just how work is to be 
done and what material the contractor will have to work with. 

If there are any changes to be made in plans, it is best to make them on 
the blueprints and to have a distinct written understanding with contractor 
before he starts work. This will do away with the "extra" charges which you 
will have to pay after the job is completed, and which you have not been figur- 
ing on. 

Payment 

The payments of the contracts, while so arranged as to protect the party 
of the first part from over-payment, should also be worded in such a manner 
as to require a certain amount of the capital on the part of the contractor, which 
will make it possible for him, if his capital is limited, to take care of all his 
bills and pay his labor promptly. This co-operation is mainly for the interest 
of the owner, as he will find himself able to get a better class of workmen to 
figure on his work, than when said contracts seem to point to a domineering 
spirit. 

In letting contracts, the owner will find that it is not always the best 
plan to give his work to the contractor who hands in the lowest bid. It is 
seldom that satisfactory results can be obtained from a man who is losing 
money; generally he so manages by furnishing inferior material and work- 
manship, that the owner is the loser. 

When It Is To Be Completed 

Although it is a good plan to specify when you wish your work com- 
pleted, which will do away with the contractor neglecting your job in order to 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 9 

hold some other one, allowances should always be made for bad weather. 
shortage of materials, etc. 

The following are examples for different contracts : 

Form of Agreement Between Owner and Carpenter 

Bay City, Mich., Feb. 1, 1918. 

An agreement entered into this 1st day of February, 1918, between 

, of Bay City, Mich., as 

owner and party of the first part, and , 

also of Bay City, Mich., as builder and party of the second part. 

The said party of the second part, for and in consideration of the sum 
of Three Hundred Seventy-five Dollars and Fifty Cents ($375.50) in pay- 
ment, to amount to the valuation of the work satisfactorily completed and in 
place at date of payment, agrees to construct the ALADDIN dwelling house. 

Style , at , for 

the said party of the first part, in accordance with drawings and instructions. 
(Owner) 



In presence of : 



(Builder) 



Example of Contract Covering Excavating, Foundation, 
Cement Floor and Chimney. 

Bay City, Mich., Feb. 2, 1918. 

An agreement entered into this 2nd day of February, 1918, by and 

between , of Bay City, Mich., 

owner and party of the first part, and , 

also of Bay City, Mich., contractor and party of the second part. 

The said party of the second part, for and in consideration of the sum 
of Four Hundred Twenty-eight Dollars ($428.00) in payments to amount 
to the valuation of the work satisfactorily completed and in place at date of 
payment agrees to excavate, erect foundation and chimney and lay cement 
floor according to the following instructions. 

Excavation 

Contractor to excavate, as shown to be necessary by drawings, for base- 
ment, grade cellar entrance, etc., depth of excavation to be so as to bring top 
of foundation 3 ft. in. above sidewalk level. (Grade line to be 1 ft. in. 
above sidewalk level.) The black dirt is to be kept separated from clay so 
that it can be utilized in grading lawn, and after masonry is thoroughly set 
and dry, "back fill" in around foundation so that carpenter will not be incon- 
venienced while working around building. 



Footings 



All footings are to* start on solid soil and to be size shown on blueprints. 
Drain tile is to be laid around entire building, and connected with sewer, 
drain tile to be embedded in crushed stone; connections to be made with 
drain tile to run up to grade to take care of drop outlets in eave trough as 
indicated on blueprints. Footings to be made of concrete of a mixture of 
one part Portland cement, two parts sharp sand and five parts crushed stone, 
or if made of coarse gravel, to be one part cement and seven parts gravel. 

Walls 

Walls are to be constructed as shown on blueprints together with all 
girder and porch piers. Walls to be constructed of Zagelmeyer System Dry 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 

Tamp 8x24 in. blocks. Seven courses to be laid below grade, with water 
table and two courses above. Walls below grade to be plastered on outside 
with cement plaster containing sufficient water proofing to insure wall im- 
pervious to water. The joints of blocks above grade to be neatly pointed off. 
Openings to be left in walls for windows as shown on blueprints. Frames 
to be set in walls while under construction and bedded in solid. Walls to be 
protected from elements by contractor while under construction. 

Cement Floor 

Cement floor in basement to be grouted with 3 in. of broken stone, sand 
and Portland cement, finished with l / 2 in. fine Portland cement mortar mixed 
in proportion of half and half, grouting to be left rough so that finishing 
will adhere to same readily. 

Chimney 

Fire place chimney to be constructed with two flues, one for fire place 
and other for furnace. (Detail of fire place shown on blueprint.) Flue, 
fire place and ash pit to be constructed as shown on blueprints, all to be 
built of good hard, sound, burned, common brick laid in lime mortar. 

Where chimney is shown above roof, face same with selected, cherry red, 
sand mold brick of even color and neatly point and clean down on comple- 
tion. 

Top six courses to be laid in cement mortar. If flue lining is not to be 
used, all flues should be well plastered on inside. Bricks are to be wet if 
laid in warm weather and must be dry if laid in damp or freezing weather. 
All joints are to be flushed solid, chimney to have galvanized iron flashing 
let into brick work around roof and to be counter flashed into shingles of 
roof. 

Fire place to have cast iron damper and firebrick lining. Brick for 
facing fire place to be selected by owner. 

Mortar 

All brick mortar to be made of best lime (1 part), clean sharp sand 
(2 parts). Cement mortar to be composed of Portland cement (1 part), 
clean sharp sand (2 parts). Too much water must not be used in mixing, 
and only mortar as is required for immediate use should be mixed at one 
time. None that has stood over night will be satisfactory. 

(Owner) 

(Contractor) 

In presence of : 



Form of Furnace Contract 

Bay City, Mich., Oct. 13, 1915. 
Furnace Contract to H. W. Murdy for 
Special Style House now being con- 
structed at Bay City, Mich. 

An agreement entered into this 13th day of October, 1915, by and be- 
tween H. W. Murdy, of Bay City, Mich., party of the first part, and Anthony 
Burns, also of Bay City, Mich., contractor, and party of the second part. 

The said party of the second part, for and in consideration of the sum 
of One Hundred Dollars ($100.00) net on completion of the job, agrees to 
furnish and install 1-A No. 130 "Sovereign" Steel Radiator Warm Air 
Furnace according to the following instructions. 

Connect furnace and chimney with galvanized pipe, L-8 inch cold air 
pipe connecting with wood cold air face located in dining room. To run 
12 inch warm air pipe connecting same with two way box and two registers 
between kitchen and dining room. 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 

To run a warm air pipe (12 inch) connecting to a two way box between 
living room and front chamber, two registers. 

To run a 10 inch warm air pipe connecting with a two way box between 
center and back chambers, two registers. 

To run an 8 inch warm air pipe to a single box, floor or base board 
connection in bath room. 

To cover all warm air pipes with asbestos. 

Living room and dining room register to be brass finish, other registers 
to be B. J. base board. 

Completed job guaranteed to properly heat the above house to be com- 
pleted as per blueprints, in zero weather without excessive firing. 

(Owner) 

(Contractor) 

In the presence of: 



Other contracts should be drawn up in a similar manner and there always 
should be a distinct understanding between both parties as to just what is to be 
done and the price to be paid. 

Laying Out Building Lines 

THE first step is to determine exactly where you wish your building to be 
located upon the ground. This is generally governed by the surround- 
ing property. Try as much as possible to line up your building with 
those adjoining you. It will increase the value of your property and 
also of that next to you. Nothing looks more unsightly than to have one 

house close to the public walk and the . v/ a \v. hne. i 

next one set back away from it. Always 
take into consideration side porches, 
driveways, and sidewalks. Keep your 
building as far away from other build- 
ings as possible, as this will reduce dan- 
ger of fire, give you a lower insurance 
rate and more privacy. 

When you are absolutely sure of the 
position of your building, you are ready- 
to stake out for your excavating. 

First, we find a starting point. This 
starting point should be the center of the 
front wall. For example, refer to Fig. 
1. 

We wish the building to be placed 25 
feet from the walk line. Measure back 
25 feet from the walk and place a stake 
as shown by letter A. Now your build- 
ing is, say 28x30 feet. Place a stake 14 
feet on each side of letter A as shown by 
letters B, and C. These stakes will also be 25 feet from the walk line. Then 
place a line parallel to B and C 30 feet back from these points. Now from 
one of the measured points, B and C, draw a tape to as nearly square from the 



•sk 



X 



\ 



\. 



Tig. 1 shows method of staking out huilding-. 



12 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 




Plan of lines, stakes 
batter boards. 



center point A as can be guessed at, and place a stake there. Then measure 

the same distance from the other measured point B and place in another 

stake. Divide the distance between these two stakes and you will have squared 

across from the center point A. Then measure 14 feet on each side of the cen- 

ter and your stakes will be 28x30 feet as shown by letters B, C, D, and E. 
Another method which is often used is the 6, 8. and 10 rule, which can 

be used to square the excavation without the use of other stakes and lines. 

li is very simple and can be done very quickly by three persons, placing them 

at points A, B, and C. See Fig. 2. This distance between A and B on the 

staking lines should be 8 feet, then from A to C, 6 

feet. Then place a tape from B to C. The tapes 

will form a rectangle with sides measuring 6, 8 and 

10 feet. This method can also be employed to 

square up many other parts of the building such as 

joists, walls, partition, etc. 

Angles measuring 12-16 and 20 feet for the side 

and hypotenuse can be used, the larger the angle the 

more accurate your result. 

Another method which is more convenient and 

accurate is that of erecting batter boards around 

the site of the building. This is a rough fence 

erected by driving stakes into the ground about 3 

or 4 feet outside the walls of the building or far 

enough away so that it will not interfere with work- 
ing around building. They should also be placed 

high enough so that when lines are placed from one to the other, they will 

come above top of foundation walls. 

By referring to Fig. 3, you will notice that points can be indicated on 

these batter boards for outside of foundation walls, center line of girder piers 

&' - o" .& (mark center line of pier) and outside 

porch piers. Nails are to be driven in 
at these points indicated on batter boards 
and then chalk lines can be stretched in 
place. From the chalk line plumb lines 



Fig:. 2 shows method 
of staking- out building 
using- 6, 8 and 10 rule. 

can be dropped to indicate points at the 
bottom of your excavation, giving very ac- 
curate location. It is much easier to put u 
batter boards with a transit and level, but 
they can also be erected by using the metho< 
illustrated in Fig. 2. 

Different markings can be used on the 
batter boards to indicate location ; for ex- 
ample — a nail will represent outside of 
foundation — a notch, center line of pier, 





Fig. 4 — Construction of 

batter boards and how to 

chalk and plumb lines. 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 13 

and a "saw curf" center line of chimney footings, etc. In this way the work- 
men are not liable to make any mistakes. 

On the upright stakes of the batter boards, nails can be placed to indicate 
top of finished grade, water table and top of walls and piers. The batter 
boards can be left in place and used until after the joists have been laid and 
then removed so as not to interfere with material and men moving around the 
building. 



Excavating 



AS this work is largely a matter of judgment based on actual experi- 
ence in this line, a teaming contractor is generally better posted as to 
the condition of the soil and the circumstances under which he has 
to work, that is, if material has to be hauled from building site, if the 
soil is clay or sand, etc. He also knows about what to expect from a man 
and a team under these different conditions on different classes of work. He 
generally is in a position to quote prices on the excavating by the yard or for 
the job complete. It is always best to have an agreement with the excavating 
contractor as to where and how the dirt is to be placed, that is, if your lot is 
covered with rich black dirt which you wish to use for grading your lawn, he 
should understand that this dirt is to be laid aside and not covered up with 
clay or sand which is generally found in the bottom of excavations. 

In the absence of full instructions, it is best to figure to excavate a foot 
outside of all walls or footings to give ample working room for laying brick, 
cement blocks, putting in cribbing, etc. 

The cost of excavating will depend upon the nature of the soil, and 
placing of excavated material. 

We will not devote much space to this subject, but will give the method 
of getting cubic contents of cellar, the average price per cubic yard and a 
day's work in this locality. 

To get the number of cubic yards contained in a cellar, multiply the floor 
space by the depth of the cellar from the grade down; divide the result by 2 7 
'there being 27 cubic feet in one cubic yard) . The result will be the number 
of cubic yards. 

For example : Building 20x30 feet and we wish to excavate 4 feet be- 
low grade. 

20x30 is equal to 600. 

4x600 is equal to 2400. 
2.400 divided by 27 is equal to 88.8 cubic yards. 

Allowance, of course, will have to be made for dirt excavated in order to 
give working room around walls. 

The following is the average day's work from one team and two men in 
this locality; figuring $4 a. day for team and $3 a day for each man, making 
$10 in all. 

Sand — 50 yards per day at $10 equals 20c per cubic yard. 

Sand and clay — 40 yards per day at $10 equals 25c per yard. 

Hard clay — 20 to 30 yards per day at $10 equals 33c to 50c per yard. 

These prices have been given for cellars that are not to be over 6 feet in 
depth, where a plow can be used. If the cellar is very deep, you will have to 
allow for carting material out of cellar, which would be considered an extra. 



14 ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 

In inspecting the excavation, the builder should first examine the lines 
to see that the building has been correctly staked out and that the excavation 
has been carried at least one foot outside of the wall lines so as to give room 
for pointing or cement plastering on the outside of the walls. 

If the walls are built against a bank, it will be impossible to point the 
joints on the outside, and the back of the wall not being exposed, the masons 
are apt to slight this part of the work to the future detriment of the building 
when complete, ready to be sold or occupied. 

Again, if the excavation is not made large at first, it causes much trouble, 
as the work cannot be done as cheaply afterwards, and the masons will very 
likely complain about being delayed. 

When quicksand or water is encountered in making the excavation, pro- 
vision for taking care of the same will be dealt with under the subject of 
footings. 

Tips on the Cost of Excavating 

On a 25 ft. haul, one man with a team and drag scraper will make !a 
round trip in \y 2 minutes, and will excavate 50 cu. yds. of earth in 10 hours. 

On a 50 ft. haul, it will require 2 minutes for a trip, and one man and 
team will excavate 45 cu. yds. 

On a 100 ft. haul, it will require 2]/ 2 minutes per trip, and one man and 
team will excavate 40 cu. yds. 

On a 200 ft. haul it will require 2 l / 2 minutes per trip, and one man and 
team will excavate 35 cu. yds. in 10 hours. 

A man with team and plow will loosen about 400 cu. yds. of earth in 10 
hours. 

One man with a pick will loosen about 4 cu. yds. of earth per hour. 

In excavating you will find the following methods most economical for 
the distances given : Drag scrapers, up to 200 ft. ; wheelbarrows, from 200 to 
300 ft. ; wheel scrapers, 300 to 600 ft. ; one-horse carts, 600 to 800 ft. ; two- 
horse dump-wagons, 800 to 1,000 ft. and up. 

The capacities of different carriers used in excavating are as follows : 
Drag scrapers, 4 to 7 cu. ft. ; wheelbarrows, 3 to 4 cu. ft. ; wheel scrapers, 10 
tc 16 cu. ft.; one-horse carts, 14 to 20 cu. ft.; two-horse dump-wagons, 27 to 
36 cu. ft. 

The average team will walk from three to four miles per hour. 

The cost of team hauling is about 26 cents per mile of haul. 

One man will spread or level 75 cu. yds. of loose earth in one 10 hour 
day. 

A man with team, scraper and helper will spread or level 50 cu. yds. of 
loose earth per hour. 

One man will shovel into wheelbarrows or carts, about 2 cu. yds. of loose 
material per hour. 

Excavating in trenches not over 6 ft. in depth can be estimated at 1 cu. 
yd. per hour per man. Where the depth is over 6 ft. but under 10, you can 
figure y 2 cu. yd. per man per hour, and where the depth is greater than 10 ft. 
but less than 14, you can figure 1/3 yd. per man per hour. These figures 
do not include piling. 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 





£ 


















<D 






u 






C 






c 


(d 




o 


O 




*J 






cfl 


9m 




> 


o 




cS 


o 






tJU 




UJ 


r 




o 


Uh 




</) 


CO 




T3 


-o 




> 


c 






« 




3 
U 


10 


l - H 


o 


rf 




>M 

CD 


CO 


DQ 


-Q 


T3 


< 


£ 


C 


H 


3 






^. 


O 




1) 


lO 

o 




V) 


^ 




<V 


o 




> 












O 


a 

3 




0) 








CO 

X 
CM 




W) 


l-H 




c 


s 

o 




o 


s- 






U, 




o 






u- 






0) 






JC 






H 







c 


.0 I- 


S8.88 
100. 
111.11 


| 


gj 


J 


is 


o 

i 


R 


188.88 

200'. 

211.11 


| 




* 


8 

3 it 


CO _ vO 


& 


§ 


5 


g 


s 


6 


CO vg 

s s s 


CC 




sO 


3 8 


a 8§ 


I 


* 


® 


S 


s 


S 


!" S 


s 




5 


CO CO 
IC sD 


?! f: 




CO 


2 


J: 


3 


M> 


I a i 


In ! 






* 3 


O '0 

s s s 


^0 

o 

o 


3 


a 


3 


o 




S 'i ! i 


^ 

s 




£ 




3 r. i 


£ 




a 


g 


2 


S 


lO S o 


E 




£ 


8 3 

o g 


i- o ^r 


1 


3 


0V 


l 


o 


CO 


! .-, I 


s 


ri 


* 


oo 


vO K 00 


J: 


o 


I 


s 


o 


2 


S 2 s 


5 
: 


u 

> 


S 


« 1 


O GO lO 


s 


8 

8 


1 


s 


'i 


8 

o 


a z 


2 




g 




CO _ rf 
g j H 


CO 


s 


1 


18 
8 


* 
» 


i 


og _ S 


g 


CO 


S 


o 
o o 


CO O 

i i i 


CO 


s 


sO 
33 


gj 


8 


-a 

i 


CO o v? 


CO 


s 


s 


& $ 


9 s SJ 


SB 


o 


CO 

o 

00 


$5 


CO 
g3 


GN 


O ^ 52 


j 




v0 


3 5 

-r ©■ 


p - .; ;: 


CO 


CO 

s 


lO 


8 


vO 


CT. 


C< O O 


s 




a 


CO CO 


5 5 S3 


vO 


o 


CO 

s 


o 


8 


CO 
CO 


^ . 2 
O \0 o 
OS ON O 


o 

O 




?! 


ri to 


-H _ CO 


a 


o 


3 


S 


;< 


00 


CO CO Os 


O 




o 


^ 3 


B . 5 


% 


gj 


s 


3 


1 


2 


12 CO X 


X 




2 


* CO 


8 £ § 


5 


CO 


s 


^0 


S 


o 


00 0» vO 


o 




vO 


3 s 


T lO 


CO 


8 


4 


CJ 


CO 

CO 

8 


VO 


5 8 

S 3 5 


" 






- s 


a oo c 


:! 


a 


8 


CO 


o 


g 


"* *° °° 


£ 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



Q 

z 

o 
u 

en 



o 
>o 


J. 


o 

3 


CO 


3 1 


sO 
OS 

sO 


s 


OS 


o 
o 


r\ 


8 


CO 


sS 


5 ; : 

i-5 so 

X OS 


9 


3 
3 


R 


R 


3 1 


sO 


o 


X 


OS 


8 


8 


! j 


& 


f- 1 


vO 


'a 


o 


8 

o 


s R 


0> 


.0 


^ 


§ 


O 


o 

X 


o 


IO 




- 


I 


<3 


OS 

c 


2 S5 


© 


so 


Cs 


"? 


IO 


OS 
1 


2 


so 


C -T 


3 


- s 


S3 


ON 

ON 


<Z 1 


CO 

SO 


OS 


§ 


3 


SO 
SO 
SO 


OS 


2 


8 


iT / 

■i 4 


o 


s 


8 


cs 


sO rt 
VO IO 
SO CO 

O -H 


8 


g 


q 


Os 




Cs 


o 


1 


og g 


3 


i? 


J 


s 


CO vo 


X 


^ 


i 


3 




i 


o 

0> 


8 


OS 2 


g 


3 


8 


8 
X 


8 

$ 8 


CO 

CO 


§ 


sO 

CO 

CO 


OS 


s 


1 


1 


OS 


i 8 


s 


o 

SO 


« 


5 


8 8 


o 


s 

o 


8 

s 


8 


3 


2 


5 


3 


o x 

OS O 


S 


8 


8 




CO OS 


OS 


a 


CO 


CO 


§ 


\n 


M 


SO 

SO 

o 


i-l so 


8 


8 

2 


r 1 


5 


S x' 


Cs 


o 


8 


2 


CO 


l\ 


i 


3 


K t> 


s 


§ 


l 


2 


SO sO 
O Os 


s 


IO 

OS 


3 


sO 


l 


l 


q 


CO 
OS 


& 3 


ft 


so 


OS 


3 

SO 


co s 


X 


OS 


8 


X 

o 


8 


IO 


8 

8 


SO 

SO 


co q 

sO -* 


s 


* 


3 


! 


3 S 


CO 


CO 
X 


Ss 


IO 

gs 


8 

8 


CO 


X 

o 


i 


8 i 


8 


CN 


o 


3 


8 2 

ira so 


g 


s 


Jt 


s 


{; 


OS 

s 


- 


CO 


X CO 

8 8 


o 


>o 


5 


5 


CO >£ 


2 


2 


O 


SO 
OS 


X 
X 


3 


8 


8 


1 1 


CO 


si 


R 


8 


$? s 


CO 


3 


8 

sO 


s 


o 

CO 


CO 
X 


so 

si 


8 


8 i 


\D 


1 


to 


OS 
CO 


co i» 


IO 


§g 


SO 
SO 


SO 
sO 


3 


1 


OS 

c 

X 


to 


o a 

8 OS 




- 


3 


2 


x o 


g 


S 


s 


X 


8 


s 


s 


fo 


s ° 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 





a 


3 


3 


SO 2 


o 


;; 


s 


a 


f; 


Os 


» 


3 


9 S 


9 


3 


§ 


3 


sO CO 


s 


?! 


I 


W5 


a 


sO 
OS 


S 


3 


-H O 

to to 




58 


4 


r! 


£; 


3 


3 


a 


CO 


58 


5 


a 




£ 3 


"* 


a 


3 


s 


s s 




a 


a 


1 


9 


a 


o 


° 


jo 3 




ri 


a 


^ 


3 S3 


o 


5 


* 


- 


9 


S3 


SO 


f 


O t -T 


" 


C 


3 


2 


3 8 


s 


c 


a 


to 


9 


8 


Os 


1 


" 




£ 


o 


£ 


3 £ 


a 


In 


s 


3 


5 


s 


o 


3 


sO 0- 


"■ 


0> 


3 


2 


■* SO 


CTs 


OS 


a 


CO 


? 


8 


a 


Os 


1 3 




to 


CO 


5 


3 


a 


3 


;; 


£ 


to 


CO 


5 




3 2 


"* 


OS 


8 


a 


1 3 


a 


| 


© 


a 


a 


-? 


3 


o 


? 5 


o 


CO 


© 


55 


3 s 


S 


f: 


S 


o 


a 


s 


9 


sO 


CO OS 


X 


o 


a 


2 I 


2 




Os 


© 


r! 


a 


a 


sD 


a a 




sO 
Os 


s 


,> 


i ,t 


CO 


8 


& 


o 


a 


2 


a 


3 


O 00 


3 


8 


OS 


a 


SO O 


2 


9 


CO 


c^ 


a 


a 


to 


a 


a a 






£ 


2 


g 


i 




3 


5 




3 


9 




3 3 






s 


o 


c co 


z 


s 


" 


2 


8 


to 


sO 


o 


a a 




In 


~ 


s 


S -V' 


- 


a 


o 


a 


9 


" 


O 


9 


a 3 


r,: 


fi 


00 


8 


a ~ 


m 


a 


3 


8 


9 


o 


2 


cS 


a a 




a 


$ 


CO 


so 53 


m 


?; 


© 


Os 


- 


3 


s? 


CO 


2 3 


""- 


- 


S 


Cs 




8 


s 


2 




f; 


Os 


© 


2 


ts) to 




3 


f: 


CO 

CO 


a 


?l 


to 


5 


9 


sO 

sD 


£ 


9 




- a 


''• 


58 




/. 


8 a 


; J 


to 






9 




I 


8 






r! 


os 


* 


3 8 


o 


5 


CO 


2 


9 


Os 


OS 


SO 
so 


3 § 


r. 


£ 


R 


f- 


8 s 


3 


2 


ro 




2 




sO 


9 


Os o 




s 


£ 


o 


so as 


CS 


3 


2 


£ 


a 


O 


o 


3 


^ S3 


" 


: . K 


so 




35 £ 


c 


>o 


s 


co 


a 


2 


2 


a 


00 o- 1 




3 


S 


a 


CO 


£ 


5 


3 


Z 


s 


r\ 


a 




3 K 


r ' 


8 




s 


S §8 


Os 


o 


2 


S 




3 


2 


© 


2 S 




S 


3 


00 


3 5 


sO 


- 


o! 


o 


a 


CO 


53 


9 


CO OS 


" 


" 


S3 


!g 


to .H 


X 


CTs 


8 


2 




o 




s 


2 1 




5 


3 


a 


58 S 


CO. 


8 


Os 


o 


a 


53 


§» 


3 


S - 




5 


« 




i S 


53 


/: 


S 


3 


a 


a 


2 


3 


? $ 






SO 


CO 


3 


co 




3 


3 




9 


3 




5 3 


~ 


o 


5? 


s 


g : : 


S 


© 


* 


S 


8 


1 


to 


2 


a 2 




3 


£ 


o 


3 a 


2 


a 


o 


J 


CO 


CO 


- 


; : 


S3 53 


rt 


" 


- 




5 £ 


9 


s 


- 


CO 


00 


OS 


o 

r 


© 


2 2 






* 


SO 


og c 


3 


s 


a 


CO 


8 


3 


a 


-0 


* ° 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



C 

o 

■■a 



CD 
X 

2 



8 




- 


sg 


g 


5 


3 


j- 


o 


- 


5 


SO 




5 


a 


s 


B 


| 8 


s 


i 


| 


3 


s 


■e 


§ 


I S 


3 






S3 


3 


g 


i 




CO 


$ 




a 





CO 


2 




8 


g 


© 


|s 2 


8 


X 


s 


* 


c 


a 


sc 


I % 


X 




f. 


o 


7 


5 


8 


g 


£ 


8 


'f. 


o 


10 


5 


X 




J! 


2 


2 


2 ?, 


8 


1? 


3 


1 


1 


CO 


3 


| | 


1 




S3 


§8 


5 


3 


o 


sS 


8 


sO 


CO 


8 


5 


10 





* 


'2 


sO 


sO 


r2 os 


2 


8 


ir> 


to 


to 


a 


§ 


8 S 


OS 






5 


"0 


s| 


'0 




s 


to 




o 


r, 1 


so 


g 




3 


o 


OS 


3 8 


I 


8 


" 


3 


8 


CC 

OS 


a 


8 3 


CO 


- 


s 


5 


8 


-o 


s 


g 


o 


00 


SO 
sO 


5 


8 





7: 


* 


2 


r, 


s 


§ 8 


£ 




a 


™ 


sO 


| 


S 


| !;■ 


^ 


* 


S3 


a 


g 


S3 


j5 


o 


,7 


5 


g 


8 





X 


■a 




o 


- 


fE 


C-J X 


S3 


8 


Os 


8 


S 


o 


8 


8 1 


% 


8 


$ 


2 


2 


■* 9 


g 


OS 


g 


g 


o 


1 


8 


°° ° 


— 




a 


g 


So 


2 


zi 


- 


5 


3 


sS 


X 


CO 







o 

ON 


o 


o 


n ~ 


o 


S 


o? 


a 


so 


5! 


sO 


8 8 


g 




So 


s 


£ 


a 


5 


3 


CO 


o 


CO 


<s 


s 


8 


5 


■ 


S3 


OS 
OS 


3 


cc n 


2 


© 


00 


2 


2 


8 


?, 





s 






CO 


s 


S3 


$ 




g 


ig 




CO 


SO 

sO 


to 


5 


rO 


o 


s 


s 


o to 


sO 


o 

sO 


8 


so 


8 


a 


O 


S E 


sS 




$ 


o 


s 


? 


CO 




s 


8 


$ 





3 


5 


x 




rt 


- 


Os 

Cs 


c d 2 


2 


" 


3 


.1 


2 


2 


a 


8 8 


1 




r v 


33 


? 


£ 


c 


SO 


8 


SO 


S3 


>•_ 


- 


s 







s 


o 

30 


Os 


2 S 


a 


00 


2 


3 


2 


3 


? 


O0 OS 
C — 


a 






$ 


to 


S 


g 




SO 


g 




sg 


g 


O 


r j 




1 


S 


00 


* 2 


5 


8 


2 


Cs 


| 





2 


2 1 


a 




so 


? 


8 


£ 


■j 


r^ 


o 


S3 


o 


g 




sO 


s 




Eg 


S 


8 


8 'cs 


2 


'= 


s 


2 


s 


i 


5 


c2 "/ 


~- 




g» 


8 


o 


SB 


sO 


sO 


s 


- 


g 


g 





go 


sO 




M 


3 


£ 


8 S3 


OS 


1 


2 


S 


CO 


3 


2 


5 3 


i; 


2 


00 


SO 


3 


c-i d 


i 


sO 


3 


a 


§ 


§ 


S 


5 r, ; 







3 


so 


00 


O 


8 


g 


Zf 


g 


3 


£ 


S3 


g 






5 


Os 


J§ 


« t- 


cc 


'?. 


s 


8s 


o 


3 


p 


8 So 


S 






3 


s 


X c 




s 


8 


/, 


8 


v 


3 




° 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



Footings 



THE footings of all buildings are determined by the size of the founda- 
tion and the bearing power of the soil. We will give a practical 
method of how they are'to be constructed and the cost of the same. 

In larger buildings, it is necessary to study the soil under the 
footings and determine its bearing power, but in ordinary frame buildings, 
this is not necessary unless specified by the building laws of the state. Still 
you can find a large number of concrete, cement block or brick foundation 
walls which have cracked and settled down, this being caused by the poor 
method used in putting in the footing. 

The writer has often had arguments with contractors about the size of 
footings. When a certain size is specified, they will say, "Now, I always use 
a 16x4 inch footing." 

They have formed a habit of using a certain size footing regardless of 
the size of building and the bearing power of the soil. Now, this footing 
might be all right in some cases, but they certainly should take into considera- 
tion the size and weight of the building and the nature of the soil upon which 
the building is to rest in order to furnish a foundation which will not crack 
and settle to the future detriment of the operation. 

The method we will use will be given assuming that the soil under the 
footing is composed of sand, sand and clay, or hard clay. 

In our buildings, it will sometimes be found that the width of the foot- 
ings will be less than that required by the building ordinances, in which case 
it will be necessary to comply with such ordinances or building laws. 

As a rule, the footings under a foun- 
dation wall should be at least 8 or 10 
inches more than the thickness of the 
wall, to give it stability and always pro- 
portioned according to the size of the 
wall in order to give it the same pres- 
sure per square foot on the ground. 
That is, for an 8 inch wall, the footings 
should be from 16 to 18 inches, for 10 
inch wall, from 18 to 20 inches, etc. 

For house construction, using as an 
example 8 inch hollow concrete block 
walls, the footings require 2x6's staked around the bottom of the cellar so as 
to make the footings below the bottom of excavation. Fig. 5 shows method 
of placing 2x6's in trench for footings. Then if cement floors are to be used 
the underside of the same will be on a level with the top of the footings, and 
it will not be necessary to fill in again for the cellar floor. 

These forms made of 2x6's are to be put in level, then the concrete put in 
place. Two good carpenters will put down these forms for 50 lineal feet of 
footing in an hour, which makes the cost (55c per hour in this locality) ap- 
proximately 2^4c per foot. The lumber used for the forms has not been 
figured in, as same can be used again after the concrete in the footings has 
set. 




trench to form footingrs. 



20 ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 

The concrete mixed, placed in ft inns and tamped level, costs per cubic 
vard as follows for mixture one part cement, two parts sand and five parts 
crushed stone. The prices used are quotations of Jan. 1st, 1918, at Bay Citv, 
Mich. 

5 Sacks of Cement at $2.40 Barrel $3.00 

1/3 Yard Sand at $2.00 Yard 67 

5/6 Yard Crushed Stone at $3.00 Yard 2.50 

6 Hours Labor at 30c per Hour 1.80 

Total $7.97 

Then if one yard costs $7.97, one cubic foot would cost $7.97 divided by 
27, or about 29y 2 c. 

The concrete mixed in the following proportions of one part sand and 
seven parts coarse gravel. 

5 Sacks Cement at $2.40 per Barrel $3.00 

1 ) 4 Yards Coarse Gravel at $2.50 a Yard 3.13 

6 Hours Labor at 30c per Hour 1 .80 

Total, per Cubic Yard $7.93 

Example: To find the cubic feet in 125 lineal feet of footing 16 inches 
wide by 6 inches thick. 

16 inches equals 1 1/3 feet. 
6 inches equals Yi foot. 

(1 1/3 x y 2 equals 2-3 cubic feet) x 125 equals 250/3, or about 83 
cubic feet. 

83x29^ equals $24.48 

Labor on Forms 2.81 

Total $27.29 

cost of 125 lineal feet footing 16 inches wide, 6 inches deep, or about 22c per 
lineal foot. Of course, this price will vary according to the cost of material 
and labor. 

Drainage of Footings 

Under all footings for dwelling houses, draintile should be placed, un- 
less the soil is very sandy, so it will carry off the water. These tiles arc 
placed so as to carry off the water which will run down the side of the foun- 
dation wall. The tile conducts the water to the sewer and prevents it from 
washing in under the footings and weakening them. It also helps to keep 
the cellar dry and free from moisture and water. 

The tile generally used is about 3 inches in diameter. The draintile 
should be connected with the sewer pipes in order to drain the water from 
around the foundation walls and connections made from the down spouts of 
the eaves. 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 21 

The draintile should be laid on the outside of the footing and the top 
should come below the cellar floor. Over the top of the draintile, crushed 
stone should be placed so as to allow the water to wash into the joints and 
also keep them from clogging with mud. In case crushed stone cannot be 
obtained to cover tile, a good grade of cinders can be substituted with good 
results. See section of foundation walls which shows location of tile. 

The draintile will cost 3 l / 2 c per lineal foot. 

If the building is to be erected where no sewer is available, the drain- 
tile can be connected with a "Septic Sewage Disposal" or into a drain barrel 
set far enough from the building to prevent back flow. See construction of 
"Septic Sewage Disposal." 

Footings over Quicksand 

When putting in the footings, if quicksand is encountered, piles can be 
driven down until you strike clay or solid earth. Cedar posts can be used for 
this purpose, thus avoiding the unnecessary expense of excavating down to 
clay or rock. In places where only small stretches of quicksand are en- 
countered, the footings can be reinforced by inserting steel rods or steel wire 
to bind the part over the quicksand with that which comes over solid ground. 

However, it is not very often necessary, in ordinary house construction, 
to go to any precautions of this nature except in places where very poor, 
loamy or made-soil is encountered when excavating. 

Inspecting Footings 

As stated before, too much care cannot be bestowed upon the footings 
and foundation. The mortar, cement and lime want to be fresh, and sand of 
a good, clean, sharp grade. Be careful to see that the footings are well tied 
together. If the walls which are to be erected upon the footings are to be of 
poured concrete, plenty of three-quarter rough stones should project above the 
top of the footings so as to bind the walls and footings together. Be very 
careful to see that no dirt or loam is left upon the footings before the walls 
are constructed. If there is, it will work out and form a crevice through 
which water will work into the cellar. An old broom can be used to clean 
the footings if it is found necessary. It is also a good plan to wet them 
thoroughly, as this will help the concrete or cement mortar from the upper 
wall to adhere to them. Also see that proper footings are placed under fire 
place chimneys, girder piers, etc. 

Footings under chimney should be much larger in comparison than foun- 
dation wall footings, as the height of chimney, places a more direct load at this 
particular point. 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



Concrete 



CONCRETE, practically speaking, is a manufactured stone, the active 
element of it is cement which is mixed with the aggregate consisting of 
sand, stone, gravel, clay, cinders, etc. 
Concrete has increased in value and usefulness every year until today 
it is the most valuable of building materials being used to advantage in most 
every form of building construction. 

The durability of concrete depends largely on its density and hardness. 
Round particles properly graded from the finest to the largest size permitted, 
give a denser mixture than angular shaped. 

Gravel, crushed rock, cinders or shale are used according to the availabil- 
ity of the materials and character of the work. Granite and trap rock are the 
most desirable crushed stone, as they make a harder and denser concrete. The 
size of the particles varies with the kind of work. The larger they are, 
(within the limits) the stronger the concrete. For ordinary work, which is 
over six inches thick, they can run up to three inches in diameter. The diame- 
ter of the largest one should never equal half the thickness of the piece of 
work under construction. On some work, the specifications state that the 
stone should not exceed l l / 2 inches in diameter. 

Another very important thing to consider is the sand. Sand should not 
contain impurities. Where there is much fine material, the sand should be 
washed. If compelled to use sand containing a high percentage of fine grains, 
first mix the dry materials very thoroughly, add water and avoid too much 
troweling; otherwise it will in time develop "hair cracks" on the surface. 
These are seldom more than 1/16 of an inch deep and will not weaken the 
concrete to any great extent, but are unsightly and should be avoided. Do 
not use sand that can be pulverized between your fingers, nor sand that soils 
the hands, or that smells, indicating decayed organic matter. A good way 
to test sand is to stir it in a glass of water : good sand settles at the bottom, 
leaving the water clear. 

Cost of Washing Sand 

If the sand isn't clean it is always advisable to wash it before using. A 
very simple way is to build a loose board platform 10 to 15 ft. long with one 
end 12 in. lower than the other end. On the lower end of this platform and 
on the sides, nail a 2x6 on edge to keep the sand on the platform. Spread 
the sand out in a layer 3 or 4 in. deep and then wash by applying water from 
the garden hose or pail. The washing should be started at the high end and 
the water allowed to run through the sand and over the 2x6 piece at the bot- 
tom. A small quantity of clay or loam will not injure the sand to any great 
extent, for general purposes, but any amount over 5% should be washed out. 

The strength of the concrete is always limited by the strength of the sand 
and if fine or dirty sand in quantities is used, only a part of the full value of 
the cement can possibly be developed. 

On large operations, much time and money can be saved and better re- 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 23 

suits accomplished by studying the proper proportions of the ingredients 
obtained in that locality for the most economical, yet densest concrete; as 
density means strength, impermeability, and durability. If all the materials 
are of a good quality, the mixture will not have to be made as rich as if the 
materials were of an inferior grade. 

Knowing what ratio of sand and stone will make the most dense mixture, 
the proportion of cement to be used can easily be determined. For example, 
if 2*/2 parts of sand will fill all the voids in 5 parts of stone, their ratio 2y 2 :5 
would make the most dense possible mixture of these two ingredients, that is, 
no more sand or stone could be added to this mixture without increasing its 
bulk. If we want to add 1 part of cement to 7^2 parts of sand and gravel, 
we will have the proportion of 1-2^-5 meaning 1 part cement, 2^ parts 
sand and 5 parts stone. 

It is also very important that the cement be of a very good quality. Do 
not think that you are going to save money by buying a cheap cement. It 
will be a detriment to the operation later on. The writer has always received 
good results from Alpha Portland and Atlas Portland cements. 

The following table gives practical suggestions for proportioning con- 
crete for general purposes. 

Table II 

Material Required per Cubic Yard to Concrete Cubic Yard 

Prop, by Bbl. Sand Stone 

Volumes Cement Cu. Yd. Cu. Yd. 

1 :2 :3 1.57 0.52 0.78 

1 : 2 :4 1.33 0.44 0.88 

1 :2 : 5 1.15 0.38 0.95 

1 : 2 :6 1.00 0.33 1.00 

1 :3 :4 1.07 0.53 0.70 

1 :3 : 5 0.96 0.48 0.80 

1 :3 :6 0.89 0.44 0.88 

The following mixture to be used where the ground may be moist and 
extreme weight must be carried. 

1 Part Portland cement. 

2 Parts clean, sharp sand. 

3 Parts broken stone (not over two inches in size). 

The following combination will give you a concrete strong enough to 
carry the tallest building. 

1 Part Portland cement. 

2 Parts clean, sharp sand. 

4 Parts broken stone. 

The Following mixture will be found to be strong enough for most all 
ordinary construction. 

1 Part Portland cement. 

3 Parts clean, sharp sand. 
6 Parts broken stone. 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 

Note on Handling Concrete 

Average load broken stone or gravel for wheelbarrow. . . .2.4 cu. ft. 

Average load sand for wheelbarrow 2.5 cu. ft. 

Large load of broken stone for iron wheelbarrow on hard 

land 3.0 cu. ft. 

Large load of sand in iron wheelbarrow 3.5 cu. ft. 

Average load of ordinary concrete for iron wheelbarrow. . 1.9 cu. ft. 
Large load of ordinary concrete for iron wheelbarrow. . . .2.2 cu. ft. 

Number shovelsful of concrete per barrow, average load 13 

Number shovelsful of concrete per barrow, large load 15 

Average quantity of concrete tamped in forms by gang of 10 men, 

per day of 10 hours 22 cu. yds. 



Data on the Cost of Handling Sand or Gravel 

The cost of loading sand or gravel onto cars is approximately 20 cents 
per cu. yd. 

The cost of shoveling sand direct from car to storage bins is generally 
from 6 to 10 cents per cu. yd. 

One man will usually load from 15 to 20 cu. yds. of sand onto wagons 
in 10 hours. 

The cost of hauling sand by team is about 26 cents per mile. 

A cu. yd. of sand, gravel or crushed stone is a fair load for a team. 

A man and team using ordinary dump board wagon, will load and haul 
on an average of 5 loads of sand a distance of 1% miles from pit to storage 
in 9 hours. 

The cost of loading sand, stone or gravel into wheelbarrows is approxi- 
mately 12 cents per cu. yd. 

The cost of washing sand or gravel is about 20 cents per cu. yd. when 
work is done by hand. 

Mixing Concrete 

On most small jobs, the concrete is mixed by hand unless a mixing 
machine can be obtained easily. 

A batch of concrete is the term applied to a mixture containing so many 
bags of cement, the cement denoting the basic unit. Thus, a two-bag batch 
contains two bags of cement, plus the sand and stone in correct proportions. 
The following shows the quantities of materials required for a two-bag batch 
of different proportions, and the resulting amounts of concrete. Four bags 
of cement equal a barrel, and a barrel contains 3.8 cubic feet: 

For a 1-4 mixture that will make 9 cubic feet of concrete use two bags 
of cement, 3.8 cubic feet of sand, 7.6 cubic feet of stone. 

For a 1-2^-5 mixture that will make 10.9 cubic feet of concrete, use 
two bags of cement, 4.8 cubic feet of sand, 9.6 cubic feet of stone. 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



25 



For a 1-3-6 mixture that will make 12.8 cubic feet of concrete, use two 
bags of cement, 5.8 cubic feet of sand and 11.6 cubic feet of stone. 

In mixing concrete by hand, the mixing board is equally as important 
as the measuring box. Concrete should not be mixed on the ground. It is 
never permitted on professional building operations. It is wasteful of both 
materials and labor and fails to produce good work. Dirt is almost certain 
to enter the mixture, the cement grout runs off and is lost in the ground, 
and the work of shoveling and turning the mixture is made unnecessarily 
difficult. 

The mixing board is a simple wooden platform, made fairly water-tight 
by the use of matched lumber. Inch roofers will do nicely and, being sur- 
faced, they will reduce friction in shoveling and turning. If any old sheet 
iron or tin is available, it is a good plan to cover platform with same. Fasten 
the boards together with four or five cleats, using two-by-three or two-by- 
four stuff, and see that no nailheads project to interfere with shoveling. Side 
boards extending about six inches above the platform will help to keep the 
concrete materials under control. The boards should be blocked up level to 
keep the cement grout from running off to one side, and supported in the 
center to keep the weight from breaking it. For two-bags batches a platform 
ten feet square is ample. 



WoVer barrels 



CM) ooooo 

\g/ \*S nooqnn 



Meov 



i^ont. 




Fig. 6 shows convenient layout for mixing platform material. 



Refer to Fig. 6 which shows a correct lay-out of mixing platform and 
materials. 

In selecting a site for the mixing platform choose, a place as close to the 
work as possible, also one that is convenient to the piles of sand and stone. 
Better select a site for the platform first, and then have the concrete materials 
dumped alongside. 

The next step is to provide wheelbarrow runs for carrying the ingred- 
ients to the platform, and for conveying the concrete from the platform to 
the job. These runs should consist of rough boards or planks 12 inches wide. 
When layed on the ground, boards an inch thick will do. If elevated above 
ground or made to span openings, two-inch planks are necessary. Runs twelve 
inches wide will do for the ground work, but on inclines or elevated positions, 
they should be not less than twenty inches wide, preferably twenty-four inches. 



26 ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 

Narrow runs arc dangerous; they make the laborers timid, consequently too 
much time is lost in being careful. 

It is a mistake to assume that any old thing in the way of boards will 
answer for runs. The wheelbarrows will slip from poor runs or be over- 
thrown, or else go bumping along over the irregular surfaces in a precarious 
gait. Experienced builders find that it is economy to build smooth, substantia! 
runs. They lighten and quicken the work to a remarkable extent. 

Assuming that the forms for the concrete are completed, that the ma- 
terials and implements are all on the site and everything is in readiness, the 
next step is the actual process of mixing. System is required for this work 
above everything else if the different operations are to be maneuvered with 
any degree of facility. Clumsy methods are the greatest time killers. Avoid 
operations in which the laborers are constantly getting in one another's way, 
and having the materials so near the platform that they interfere with free- 
dom of action. In short, see to it that there is plenty of elbow-room. 

One man should be assigned to the sand, another to the stone, and a third 
to the cement and water. All three combine when it is time for mixing and 
turning. First load the sand in a wheelbarrow and dump it into the measur- 
ing-box, which is placed on the mixing board about two feet from one side. 

When the sand box is filled level, loosely, without packing it down, re- 
move it, and with the aid of a rake, spread the sand about half the area of the 
platform in a layer three or four inches deep. 

Next empty two bags of cement on top of the sand, and in so doing, aim 
to distribute the cement as uniformly as possible. 

With two men — one on each side of the pile — mixing -the sand and 
cement in a dry state, each laborer will turn over the half of the mass on his 
side. Never use water at this stage of the work. To do so makes it impos- 
sible to distribute thoroughly the cement throughout the mass. 

In turning over the mixture, do not simply dump each shovelful in a heap 
— rather broadcast it with twisting motion which aids greatly in mixing the 
materials. The pile should be turned over completely at least twice, or until 
the sand and cement are thoroughly mixed, which will be indicated by a uni- 
form color. The last time they are turned the pile should be in the center of 
the platform and leveled with the rake to receive the crushed stone or larger 
aggregate. 

Place the measuring box on top of the leveled mass, fill it with stone level 
with the edges of the box, remove the box, level the stone pile with a few 
strokes of the rake, replace the box and fill it once more, for it should be 
remembered that twice as much stone is required as sand, and the measuring 
box is dimensioned for the latter. 

Some operators use two measuring boxes, one twice the size of the other, 
but this is not necessary. Again, the ingredients are sometimes measured 
by using a wheelbarrow, first determining the capacity of the barrow, and 
then using this capacity as a unit of measurement. It takes a practical eye 
to fill the barrow uniformly, consequently this method is not nearly so accurate 
as the measuring box. 

When the stone is added to the pile, it is time for the water. Pour it 
on top of the stone, and while one man is doing so the other laborers turn 
mass from one side of the platform to the other, working about the same as 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 27 

with the sand and cement mixture. Add water to the dry spots, as this turn- 
ing proceeds until the mixture is of the desired consistency. Dash the water 
on with buckets filled from barrels, not with a hose, though a hose is conven- 
ient for filling the water barrels. Water can be measured in pailfuls, whereas 
there is no way of estimating the supply from a hose. 

It is possible to prescribe a definite quantity of water for a given batch 
for each job, for the reason that the sand and stone are both likely to contain 
varying percentages of moisture to start with. From ten to twelve gallons 
is about the average quantity for a two-bag batch, 1-2-4 mixture. The point 
about measuring the water is this : Once a batch has been mixed to the de- 
sired consistency and the number of pailfuls of water is counted, a process 
that must be approached with more or less caution, all subsequent batches can 
be given the same number of pailfuls without further concern. 

Competent laborers should have the concrete thoroughly mixed in three 
turnings, whereupon it is ready to be placed in the forms, and no time should 
be lost in getting it there, or the concrete will take on its initial set and it is 
then worthless. 

Do not heap or pile concrete; this would let the coarse particles roll to 
the outer side of the pile. 

Do not mix too much concrete ahead, or more at a time than can be 
bandied readily, and be sure not to use too quaky a mixture. 

The water should be at a temperature of about 65 or 70 degrees, and be 
clean and free from alkalis or oil. Cold water below 40 degrees retards the 
setting of concrete. The amount of water to use varies according to condi- 
tions. Concrete can be divided into three groups, "Wet," "Medium," and 
"Dry." 

"Wet" concrete requires but little tamping in the forms and pours read- 
ily into corners and crevices. It is used mostly in reinforced work, as the metal 
can be easily embedded. It will require a bucket or similar vessel for hauling. 

For general use, a "Medium" mixture gives the most dense and strongest 
concrete. It quakes like jelly and can be carried on shovels. 

"Dry" concrete should contain just enough water so that when tamped, 
it will come to the surface. The dryer and hotter the weather, the more water 
should be added. 

As soon as the concrete is mixed, it should be wheeled to the forms 
and deposited in layers of not over 6 inches and well tamped. Do not allow 
the concrete to dry too rapidly, as it will not reach its maximum strength 
unless kept damp until it has set properly. If the concrete is allowed to dry 
too rapidly, it is liable to crack from contraction, and when exposed to the 
weather, will be affected by the elements. After the concrete has set, it is 
best to keep it wet for about seven days, as this will aid in strengthening it. 



How to Measure Sand, Gravel, Etc. 

A barrel averages 3.8 cubic feet. Therefore, for a mixture of one to 
seven, that is, one barrel of cement to seven parts of sand and gravel or stone, 
there would be 3.8 cubic feet of cement to 26.6 cubic feet of sand and gravel. 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



^ 




A frame or bottomless box as shown 
by Fig. 7 is the best way to measure. 
A box 5 feet long, 3 feet, 6 inches wide 
and 18 inches deep will contain about 
26.6 cubic feet, and can be used for a l~~ 
1 to 7 mixture. L ( 

Mark off the side of the box, seven „. „ ^ 

' Fig. 7 — Box used in measuring sand, 

spaces if you are going to use that pro- gravel, etc. 

portion of sand and gravel to one part 

of cement. If 6 parts of sand and stone to 1 part cement, mark off 6 spaces. 

If you want two parts sand, fill up to top of second space. If five parts 

stone, fill up to top of fifth space, etc. 

Place the frame upon the mixing board or platform and fill with the 
material to be used. Then lift out of place, leaving the material on the plat- 
form. 

Atmospheric Influences and Laying Concrete in Freezing 
Weather 

The setting time of cement is hastened by heat and retarded by cold. 
Cement that has been stored in a close, unventilated building has been known 
to become quickly set on extremely hot days. It is always advisable to pro- 
vide ventilation and shelter from the sun, excessive heat and dampness. Keep 
the cement in a dry, moderate atmosphere. The walls and floors of storage 
shed should be lined with paper, so the cement will not take up moisture from 
the air or ground. In hot weather concrete should be mixed with more water 
than in cold weather and kept wet for about the first seven days ; this will add 
to the density and strength of the mass. 

A good general rule is to avoid laying concrete when the temperature is 
below freezing, unless it is absolutely necessary. But mass concrete, when 
made of Portland cement, can be laid in almost any temperature, providing the 
proper precautions are taken to keep the frost off until it has set properly. 
There are a number of different opinions regarding the injury of concrete from 
freezing and thawing. Some say that it will not be affected ; but as there are a 
number of examples of concrete construction which show serious injury from 
freezing, it seems advisable to lay it when the temperature is above freezing. 

Concrete can be protected in freezing weather by adding common salt or 
chloride of lime to the water which will lower the freezing point. The amount 
of salt or chloride of lime should not exceed 10 per cent, of the weight of the 
water. A good rule is to add 1 per cent, of salt for each degree below 32 
degrees F. 

Hot water can be used for mixing and the sand and stone can be heated 
before mixing. 

Cold does not affect concrete already set, but will freeze the water in 
green cement and prevent setting till the frost has been thawed out. 
Then the same reaction occurs as though water had been added and the mass 
will set properly unless frozen a second time. It should not lie allowed to 
repeatedly freeze and thaw. 

Time for Removing Forms 

No exact time schedule for removing forms is wise in concrete work, for 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 2Q 

the consistency of the mixed batch and the climatic conditions must neces- 
sarily govern this to a great extent. 

The nature of stresses in the member to be relieved of support, must 
also be given consideration. As an example of individual practice the follow 
ing from a large firm of contractors is given : 

Walls and mass work, one to three days, or until the concrete will bear 
the pressure of the thumb without indentation. 

Thin walls in summer, two days ; in cold weather, five days. 

Slabs up to 6 ft. span, in summer, six days; in cold weather, two weeks. 

Beams, girders and long span slab, in summer, ten days or two weeks ; 
in cold weather, three weeks or one month. If shores are left undisturbed, 
the sheeting can be removed in the summer time after one week. 

Column forms, two days in summer ; in cold weather four days, provid- 
ing girders are shored to prevent appreciable weight reaching columns. 

Conduits, two or three days, provided there is no heavy fill upon them. 

Arches of small size, one week ; large arches with heavy dead load, one 
month. 

We want it understood that these suggestions are general and must be 
followed with good judgment. The method of removing forms must neces- 
sarily vary according to the character of the structure. The forms will or- 
dinarily come away from the concrete with a moderate amount of sledge and 
barwork. We would by all means recommend that a competent man be put 
in charge when the forms are removed. 



Water Proofing Concrete 

When mixing concrete, no little consideration should be given to the water 
in the soil. If the soil is wet and generally saturated with moisture, the water 
is very apt to rise in the walls. Many different methods are used to prevent 
tin's with varying results. 

Like all other building stone, concrete contains many voids through 
which a small quantity of water seeps. Water proofing is done by either ex- 
ternal or internal methods. In both methods the concrete should be very 
dense in consistency, and rich in cement. When it is impossible to pour con- 
tinuously as on monolithic construction, roughen the surface of the old cement 
before resuming and then apply a neat cement or rich mortar. This should 
make a watertight joint. 

Internal water proofing is accomplished by the following methods : 

(1.) By proportioning the aggregate to the greatest possible density. 

(2.) By adding a mixture of soap and alum; for a mortar of 1 part of 
cement to 3 parts of sand, add 1 part of alum to every cubic foot of sand and 
from ]/ 2 to 24 pound of soft soap to every gallon of water. 

(3.) By adding patent water proofing compounds. 

(4.) Some Portland cements are claimed to be water proof. 

(5.) By replacing part of the cement with a small portion of wefll 
slacked lime — not more than 10 per cent, of the weight of the cement. This 
not only increases the water tightness of the cement but also adds to the 
strength. 

External water proofing is applied to the water exposed surface after the 
concrete is in place. Various methods are used, such as: 



30 ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 

(1.) Plastering, troweling, or a gravolithic finish. A plaster of neat 
cement applied to the surface with a brush. 

(2.) Two or three coats of hot asphalt applied with a brush after the 
walls have set and dried out. Common coal tar is often used, but as it be- 
comes hard and brittle, and gradually breaks away from the walls, it is not 
considered to be very good. 

(3.) Oil or paraffin washes; layers of paper or felt applied either to 
the surface or between successive layers of concrete. 

(4.) Liquid compounds applied like paint. Some of these act like 
paint or glaze, others are absorbed by the concrete, filling the pores. Some 
are claimed by the maker to act chemically on the cement. 



Colored Concrete 

In using concrete for decorative purposes it is frequently desirable to 
have the finish surface colored. The average contractor is, as a rule, not 
thoroughly familiar with the processes by which the various tints may be ob- 
tained. The coloring effects are obtained by adding certain coloring matter 
to the cement and sand before the water is added. Great care, however, 
should be exercised in the promiscuous use of coloring materials in order to 
obtain the desired colors and also to guard against the addition of injurious 
substances. Cement Age gives the following methods for obtaining various 
colors, these recommendations being based upon the experience of a noted 
American authority. Statement is made that the quantities given are per 
barrel of cement, the coloring matter in each instance being mixed dry with 
the cement and sand. Caution is given that Venetian red and common lamp- 
black should not be used, as the color obtained with these materials will run 
and fade. The various colors and quantities of coloring material per barrel 
of cement are as follows : 

For brown, 25 lbs. of best roasted iron oxide; or 15 to 20 lbs. of brown 
ochre. 

For black, 45 lbs. of manganese dioxide. 

For blue, 19 lbs. of ultramarine. 

For buff, 15 lbs. of ochre. (This is likely to considerably reduce the 
strength of the mixture.) 

For green, 23 lbs. of greenish blue ultramarine. 

For gray, 2 lbs. of boneblack. 

For red, 22 lbs. of raw iron oxide. 

For bright red, 22 lbs. of Pompeiian or bright English red. 

For violet, 22 lbs. of violet iron oxide. 

For purple, 20 lbs. of Prince's Metallic. 

The objection is sometimes made to the use of mortar colors in that they 
are not as strong as white mortar or concrete and that the color always fades. 

These objections, no doubt, have some truth in them, when a cheap grade 
of color is used. But at the present time, a good grade of color can be ob- 
tained, which will not affect the strength of the mortar and cement, and the 
colors hold fast for a considerable length of time. 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



Foundations 

General Conditions 



—c 



J 



S3 



I 



(i 



Q 



TJ 



Fig. 8 — Foundation of 
poured concrete. 



1 

si 



3 



TOO much attention cannot be given to the construction of the founda- 
tion for your building, and many things have to be taken into consider- 
ation in order to get good results. As mentioned in the previous 
chapter under footings, it is essential that you study the character of 
the soil and be sure that proper footings are put in place first. The sizes of 
footings and piers given on blue prints furnished with an ALADDIN house 
have sufficient strength to support the buildings for which they have been de- 
signed, under ordinary conditions, that is, providing the soil has a fair amount 
of bearing power. They have also been designed to meet the requirements in 
most parts of the country, but in some states, the building codes specify the 
sizes of walls and footings, and in such cases, they will have to be complied 
with in order to pass inspection. 

No little considera- 
tion is to be given to 
the amount of water in 
the soil. If the soil is 
wet, the water is apt to 
rise in the walls. If 
this condition is found, 
the walls should be 
water proofed (refer 
t o waterproofing o f 
concrete). All founda- 
tions should be handled 
in the same manner. 

The bottom of the 
foundation should be 
carried well below the 
local frost line, as frost 
acts upon the soil and 
would crack the walls 
if they did not have 
bearing on solid 
ground not affected by 
frost. 

Consideration should 
be given to the depth of 
the sewer, so as to in- 
sure good drainage to 
the cellar. Many cel- 
lars have been con- 
structed in such a man- 
ner that a great deal of trouble is encountered by the backing up of the 
sewage which is a great menace to sanitation and to the health of the occu- 
pants. 



T77^ 



Fig:. 9 — Foundation of 
poured concrete and ce- 
ment blocks or stone. 



32 ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 

There are a number of different types of foundation walls which are 
practical and which are now accepted in general use. Illustrations of the 
construction of the ones most often used are shown on the pages following. 
They are : 

First: The entire foundation of poured concrete. (Refer to Fig. 8.) 
This shows a 10 inch wall of poured concrete placed upon an 18 inch footing. 
It also shows the manner in which the cellar frame is placed in the wall. 

Second: Part of foundation wall of poured concrete (that is, from foot- 
ing up to grade) with cement blocks or dressed stone from grade up to top of 
wall. (See Fig. 9.) 

Third: Entire foundation wall constructed of cement blocks. (See 
Fig. 14.) 

Fourth: A concrete wall of monolithic construction. (See Figs. 18, 
19, 20.) 

Fifth: Wall of cobbler stone. (See Fig. 21.) 

Sixth : Ashlar wall, main part of wall, brick or stone, with veneer of 
stone. (See Figs. 22, 23, 24, 25.) 

Seventh: Foundation wall of brick construction. (See Fig. 41.) 

Eighth: Construction of wall for brick veneer. (See Fig. 42.) 



Building Forms for Concrete Walls 

THE forms which are used for poured concrete walls are a very import- 
ant step to insure a good foundation wall. They must be well squared 
up, tied together and braced so that they will not spread or sag when 
the concrete is being tamped into them. 
As a rule they are built by carpenters, and like any other construction, 
all carpenters don't understand it. They often use too much material, and 
sometimes not enough. The way to build forms is to use the simplest possible 
method with the least material that will guarantee the job. 

Of course, concrete in its pouring stage has quite an outward 
pressure, and it requires that no weak spots are left in the forms 
to burst out. 

Plumb lines dropped from the lines or wires placed on batter 
boards will enable you to keep forms well plumbed up and 
square during erection. 

Matched lumber, if it can be obtained, is the best to use for 
forms, as this will prevent the water from carrying off any of 
the strength out thru the cracks which would be between the 
boards if the forms were constructed of ordinary sheathing. 
Do not place the 2x4's which hold the forms in place, too far ie ' tying forms 
apart, as this will cause the boards in between to give away to oee 

some extent and make an uneven wall. If good sheathing is used for forms. 
they should be placed about 18 or 20 inches apart. 

Tie the 2x4's together with good strong fence wire. If you wish a 10 
inch wall, cut a lot of small pieces of wood about 1x2 inches and 10 inches 
long and place them in between the sheathing of the inside and outside forms 
(these are called spreaders), drawing the forms tightly together by the use of 
the form ties or pieces of wire placed around the 2x4's of the forms and 



H 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



33 




Fig. 11 — Construction of form 
when built against bank. 



drawn together by twisting them in the cen- 
ter. (See Fig. 10.) The small pieces of 
wood should be removed with a rake as the 
concrete is poured into the forms. 

Many times it is possible to use the bank 
around the excavation as one form, not 
starting the outside form until you have 
poured up to grade. This can be done 
when the soil is of hard clay and there is 
no danger of it caving in while you are 
working around it. (See Fig. 11.) In 
wet climates, we would not advise using 
this method unless a good water proofing 
can be obtained and mixed in with the con- 
crete. Little is saved in this manner as it 
is much more difficult to work around the 
walls. 

After erecting the forms for the founda- 
tion as shown by Fig. 12, measure up from 
the footings the height you wish the wall to 
be, and nail around on the inside of the 
sheathing of the outside forms, small pieces 
of wood in the shape of a right angle about 
an inch on each side. These pieces will 
want to be leveled up around the building, 
the top of which will be the top of the wall. 

(See letter A of Fig. 12.) These pieces will cut the corner of the wall on 
the outside and will also act as a drip when the water table has been nailed in 
place. 

Under ordinary conditions, the 
forms can be removed from the wall 
in from 36 to 48 hours after the wall 
is completed, or just as soon as the 
top of the walls cannot be dented by 
poking a stick into them. But no 
great weight should be placed on 
walls until after they have been ex- 
posed to the air three or four days. 

Be very careful to see that your 
forms are well squared up and se- 
curely blocked before pouring, as 
weak forms are bound to be forced 
out of place when cement is put in 
place. 

If window and door frames are 
to be placed in wall, sub-forms will- 
have to be used to make openings or 
the frames nailed in place between 
the two walls of the form. This is 
the best plan if you can secure the 
frames in time as thev can be imbedded into the green cement securely. 




12 — Cross section of concrete form. 



34 ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



Concrete Foundations 

EXCEPT in few localities, where native stone is to be had very cheaply, 
practically all walls are now being constructed of concrete. Experience 
has taught for strength, warmth and enduring qualities, foundations 
and basement work constructed of this material is far superior to brick 
and wood piles, and for economy and ease in construction, it has an advantage 
over stone. 

This growing popularity for foundations and basement work for frame 
houses, makes it very desirable for all builders to become familiar with the 
many ways in which it can be used to advantage. 

It is not necessary for a builder to employ the services of a concrete 
specialist to show him how his foundation or basement work is to be put in. 
This work can be done by good, handy men or by the builder himself. 

It is impossible for us to advise any particular kind of construction, as 
materials differ in price according to the localities in which they are to be used. 
We will, however, give the approximate cost and how to construct the different 
kinds of foundation walls previously mentioned. 

First : The entire wall constructed of poured cement : You will note 
by referring to Fig. 8, that this shows a 10 inch wall 7 feet high con- 
structed upon an 18x6 footing. For example, we will take a foundation 20 
feet wide, 30 feet deep, 7 feet high and 10 inches thick, erected upon 18x6 
footing. 

If the soil is firm as it should be, no forms will be needed for the footing, 
the concrete being poured into a trench dug around the building 6 inches be- 
low the level of the cellar bottom. Let this footing become thoroughly set 
before starting to put up your forms for walls. This will make the cost of 
the footings about 22c per lineal foot, not including forms. (See footings.) 

The cost of the lumber in forms for the erection of a foundation of this 
kind will not be included in the estimate as this material can be used again, 
and oftentimes a foundation contractor will have forms which he can use. 

In a foundation 20x30, there would be 100 lineal feet footings 18x6 
which would contain 75 cubic feet of concrete. 

Cost of labor and materials on 75 cu. feet of footing at 29^c: 

75x29^c $22.13 

564 Cu. feet of concrete in walls at 29J/2 166.38 

Total $188.51 

This does not allow for window openings. 

The window frames should be fastened in the forms and the concrete 
poured around them. It is a good plan to drive a few spikes on the sides of 
the frames and let them extend into the concrete. This will hold frame firmly 
in place or if frame cannot be secured when foundation is being erected a sub- 
form can be used and wood lugs placed in concrete to nail frame to afterward. 
(See Fig. 13.) 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



The cost of the wall can be greatly 
reduced by filling in the center with old 
brick or tile, which will not weaken it 
to any extent. Do not use pieces too 
large. They should not exceed y' 2 the 
thickness of the wall. The outside of 
this wall above the grade line, can be 
plastered over with cement plaster and 
pointed off to represent blocks, or will 
look well if stuccoed from grade up. 

If you do not intend to cover the out- 
side of the wall with cement plaster or 
stucco, gravel should be used instead of 
stone, from the grade up, in order to give 
the wall a good appearance. In this case, 
the outside of the wall can be rubbed 
down with a rough fire brick before it has set hard in order to take out any de 
fects made by cracks or knots in the lumber used for the forms. 




Fig. 13— Method of 
fastening cellar 
frame in wall. 



Block Foundations 



EXPERIENCE has proven that concrete blocks, when properly made, can 
be sold and laid up in a wall much cheaper than bricks of similar grade. 
While concrete blocks or artificial stones have been manufactured for 
many years, it is only recently that the use of concrete building blocks 
has rapidly developed. 

There is an increasing" demand for concrete or cement blocks for various 
uses in the building trades, but they are used with the best results at the 
present time, for foundations. Concrete blocks are generally manufactured 
in factories which have been equipped with forms and machinery for making 
and thoroughly curing them before they are brought to the building site. In 
using concrete blocks, the main portion of the expense in connection with 
plain concrete walls built in place, that is, the construction of the forms and 
the handling of the concrete, is avoided. 

Another great advantage in concrete block walls is the use of forms, 
which results in hollow walls, that is, blocks with one or more hollow spaces, 
or blocks so constructed that their combination in a wall produces hollow 
spaces in it. These act as a dead air space, and also make the wall more im- 
pervious to moisture and act as an insulation against heat and cold and saves 
material. 

We stated before, that the blocks were generally made in factories, but 
sometimes it is possible for builders to obtain machinery and forms and make 
their own blocks. Therefore, we will devote a little space to how they are 
constructed and the materials required. 

The size of the contents is generally small, the gravel or stone not ex- 
ceeding y^ inch to y 2 inch in size. At least 1/3 of the whole mixture should 



36 ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 

be coarser than ]/% inch, and a block made of such gravel and mixed in the 
proportion of one part of concrete to five parts of sand and gravel will give 
much better results than a mixture of one to three of sand only. These coarse 
fragments will not show on the surface of the block when the material has 
been properly mixed, and they also add to the density and strength of the 
blocks. 

Sand and gravel are generally the cheapest materials for concrete blocks. 
Stone screenings, when of good quality and not too large, will make as strong 
a concrete as sand and gravel and will make the block lighter in color. 

Dr\ slacked lime or Hydrate lime added to the mixture of concrete for 
blocks in the proportion of about one-fourth of the amount of cement used, 
gives the blocks a much lighter color and also makes them much denser and 
they will be less liable to be soaked with water. 

Alpha Portland cement is the best and cheapest cement which can be 
used for cement blocks and is the only kind used to any great extent. It is 
strong and will reach its maximum strength whether used in air or water. 
The proportion of water is an important matter and affects greatly the quality 
of the work. The water should flush to the top of the block when tamped and 
should be a "quaky" mixture. 

Some manufacturers of blocks make them with too dry a mixture so that 
the forms can be removed at once. If this material used does not have enough 
water the ingredients will not adhere and the block is very porous. 

Some blocks are faced with fine crushed granite of different colors 
and are used on foundations from the wall up and gives a more stone like ap- 
pearance to the wall. 




ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



Proportion of Material for Concrete 
Building Blocks 

N the proportion of materials used for concrete blocks, the most important 
considerations are strength, appearance and cost. 

It is not impossible to make blocks of a mixture of 
about 1 to 8 or 1 to 10 and have them strong enough 
to put into a wall, but you will find that they are ex- 
tremely porous and will not stand the elements of the 
weather and the rough handling that they may have 
until laid in the wall. The strength of the block de- 
pends altogether upon the kind and proportion of the 
material used. 

Experience has taught that good blocks cannot be 
made of any poorer proportion than 1 to 5. Even in a 
mixture of this kind, it is necessary to use a small 
amount of Hydrate lime and have the best quality of 
properly graded sand and gravel and a good deal of 
water and tamping in order to make them non-porous. 

Mixtures for concrete blocks should be wet as pos- 
sible. Do not allow the blocks to dry too fast ; they 
should be protected during the ageing (curing and 
v\ ^f-%f, hardening) period from sun and excessive temperature. 

For the first few days of ageing, it is well to sprinkle 
daily. An atmosphere of steam hastens the process. 
Do not use 




i 

.4 



/// 



WP7 



Fig. 



14 — Concrete block 
foundation. 



t h e blocks 

until properly 

aged. This 

precaution is 

often ignored. 

Cement and 

sand veneer 

should be 

suf f icientl y 

moist, not too richly proportioned, nor 

contain too fine sand, and should be 

kept well moistened while ageing. 

The term "gravel" means a good 
mixture of sand and stone screening: 
up to ]/ 2 inch in size. Good blocks 
cannot be made with fine sand alone, 
without using a good deal of cement, 
which makes the cost of the block 
too expensive. 




Fig. 15— ALADDIN Hand Batch Mixer. 



38 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 




ALADDIN Power Batch Mixer. 



1 to 5 mixture cubic measure. 
1 Barrel Cement (3.8 cu. 



The following mixtures have been 
used with the best success, for con- 
crete blocks. (Proportion of from 1 
and 1 to 1 and 3 are used for facing 
of the blocks.) 

to 4 mixture by weight. 
Cement 150, Gravel 600. 
Cement 125, Hydrate Lime 25, 
Gravel 600. 

1 to 5 mixture by weight. 

Cement 120, Gravel 600. 
Cement 100, Hydrate Lime 20, 
Gravel 600. 

to 4 mixture by cubic measure. 
1 Barrel Cement (3.8 cubic feet) 

Gravel 15.2 cu. ft. 
3 sacks Cement (2.85 cu. ft.) 1 
bu. Hydrate Lime, (15.2 cu. 
ft. Gravel). 



ft.), 19 cu. ft. Gravel. 



3 Sacks Cement (2.85 cu. ft.), 1 Bushel Hydrate Lime, 19 cu. ft. Gravel. 



When concrete blocks are used for foundations, they are usually started 
upon footings of wet concrete of the proper width and thickness for the size 
of the wall. The blocks are usually made 24 inches long, 8 inches high and 
8, 10 and 12 inches thick, according to the size of the building and building 
codes of the different parts of the country. 

The blocks should be laid up in courses so that one joint will not come 
over another. The outside of the wall 
from footing up to grade, can be made 
absolutely waterproof by plastering with 
cement plaster which contains water 
proofing, or can be given a coat of hot 
asphalt. 

The material required for laying 
the blocks must be of a good grade and 
mixture, about one to four or one to five 
mixture for this purpose. Using a one 
to four mixture, the proportion of ma- 
terial will be l_yard sand to 1-2/3 bar- 
rel of cement. 

The following material will be re- 
quired to lay one thousand 24 inch and 
16 inch blocks, figuring that the joints 
will be about 3/8 inch thick. 




Fig. 17— ALADDIN 

Concrete Block 

Machine. 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



39 



Cost of 100 Blocks Made with 1: 2: 4 Mix. 





Gravel 


Sand 


Cement 


Labor 
Making 


Total 
Cost 


Block 
Inches 


Amt. 

Yds. 


Cost 


Amt. 
Yds. 


1 

Cost 


Amt. 
Bbls. 


Cost 


8x 8x16 


1.05 


$2.10 


0.79 


, $1.58 


2.02 


$4.84 


$3.44 


$11.96 


8x10x16 


1.40 


2.80 


1.06 


2.12 


2.62 


6.28 


3.75 


14.95 


8x12x16 


1.68 


3.36 


1.27 


2.54 


3.08 


7.39 


4.06 


17.35 


8x 8x24 


1.62 


3.24 


1.23 


2.46 


3.12 


7.48 


5.00 


18.18 


8x10x24 


2.02 


4.04 


1.53 


3.06 


3.80 


9.12 


5.31 


21.35 


8x12x24 


2.43 


4.86 


1.82 


3.64 


4.46 


10.70 


5.63 


23.83 



Above blocks are made with a mixture of 1 part cement to 3 parts sand, 
and 4 parts gravel and are faced with J^-inch facing, of 1 part cement to 2 
parts sand. 

Cement is figured at $2.40 Bbl. 
Sand is figured at $2.00 per yard. 
Gravel is figured at $2.00 per yard. 
Labor is figured at $2.50 per 10 hour day. 



Cost of 100 Blocks Made with a 1 to 5 Mix. 





Sand 


Cement 


Labor 
Making 


Total 
Cost 


Inches 


Amt. 

Yds. 


Cost 


Amt. 
Bbls. 


Cost 


8x 8x16 


2.03 


$4.06 


2.75 


$6.60 


$2.00 


$12.66 


8x10x16 


2.73 


5.46 


3.68 


8.83 


2.68 


16.97 


8x12x16 


3.26 


6.52 


4.40 


10.56 


3.20 


20.28 


8x 8x24 


3.13 


6.26 


4.23 


10.15 


3.08 


19.49 


8x10x24 


3.74 


7.48 


5.06 


12.14 


3.68 


23.30 


8x12x24 


4.14 


8.28 


5.60 


13.44 


4.48 


26.20 



Sand used is bank run, well graded. 
Cement figured at $2.40 per bbl. net. 
Sand figured at $2.00 per yd. 
Labor figured at $2.50 per 10 hour day. 



10 



CO 

< 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



= I z 7 i 8 i s 7 = = = 



o 




<x> 




X 




o 




lO 




o 








a 




3 




<x> 




r— 




X 




<£> 




1— 1 




fi 


B 


o 


-* 


*-. 


CM 




X 


W) 


on 


C 


X 


-o 


00 










3 


<D 


_D 


-0 






C 


co 


"• 


_* 


T3 


o 


<U 


o 






D 


OQ 


C7 




<U 




v- 


-C 


(A 


hf> 


-* 




O 


_c 


o 
3 


(A 




u 


c 


o 


0) 


_o 


£ 


o 




1-H 










o 


(0 




£ 


-Q 




s 




3 




C 





g, 



o 



-O 



? 8 8 8 



3 f £ 



§ I ? 



I I I I I I I 



7 7 5? 



= o o o 



o o q 



> ! 



5 i 



8 8 ? 3 



I I i 



i z 



o o o 



§ s 



8 8 8 ? 3 

00 O Cv Cs 1 



■*88?8888°-888 8'§ 



8 8 ? 



9 2 2 2 



S 3 S 3 



8 8 



3888?3888 

SSinvDvOvOvOvoKl-. 



o o o o 



o o © o 



8 8 8 ° 8 



© © o © 



8 § 8 8 | 



? 8 8 



? 8 8 



©©oo©©o©o 



3 3 8 8 



© © o 



© © © © 



8 8 



885888?.? 



© © © 
3 3 i 



I I S 



8 8 



© © © o 



§ i 3 «8 8 ? 



3888°888 



2 9 



© © o 

3 3 S 



© © © 
3 3 8 



v0 00 o 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 41 

Special designs are made for water table, corners, porch and girder piers. 
When ordering or making blocks for your foundation, you will have to figure 
out number of plain, which are to be used below grade, number for water 
table, number for girder piers, porch piers and corners. Table IV gives 
number of blocks in foundation of 16x16 up to 50x60 in size for the walls 
alone. No pier blocks have been figured in. The number of plain, water 
table and smooth or rock face will have to be governed by the height of walls 
and grade. 



Foundation of Monolithic Construction: 

FOUNDATIONS constructed in this manner as shown by Figs. 18, 19 
and 20 are economical and are not alone confined to a saving of con- 
crete, but of material and construction of the forms as well. 

This monolithic construction, or walls constructed of hollow piers 
and curtain walls, is most successfully used when it is necessary to construct 
a wall only from grade up. 




m 




Fig. 20 — Shows 
section of mono- 
lithic wall. 



Fig. 18 — View 
showing connection 
of pier and curtain 
walls, monolithic 
construction. 

Providing the ground in the trenches is solid enough, no forms will be 
needed for the footings. If the piers are constructed of blocks instead of 
poured concrete, which is often done, forms will be needed for the curtain 
walls only. 

The piers should be constructed with grooved sides so as to allow the 
curtain walls to set into them. The forms for the walls and also the piers, 
if they are constructed of poured cement, can be built in sections and used 
over and over again, without any re-sawing or wasting of lumber. Where 
two men use three or four sets of forms for curtain walls and piers, no stop 
need be made. 

The water table at the top is not put in place until after the piers and 
curtain walls have set. 

The appearance of this wall is sometimes preferable to a straight wall. 
The piers are usually made about 12 inches square and the curtain walls about 



42 ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 

i) inches thick, although walls of this type have been made as light as 4 inches 
for curtain walls and 10 inches for piers, according to the weight they have 
to carry. 

Fences, retaining or terrace walls can be constructed in the same manner, 
with good results. 

The curtain Walls can be made darker by adding a pound or two of blue 
or black pecora, (a powder used for coloring) or a mineral paint to each bar- 
rel of cement used in making the curtain walls of the foundation, which will 
make the water table and piers of a much lighter color and give them a more 
massive appearance. 

Walls of this construction, if used below grade, should be carefully 
plastered with a cement mortar containing water-proofing in order to insure a 
water-proof wall. 

In designing a foundation of monolithic construction, be sure to have the 
piers placed so they will support the sills or girders of the building. 

Monolithic construction is often used under houses which have been 
erected upon piers with no excavation for cellar. Then if a basement is de- 
sired, the excavation is made, footings placed and walls erected between the 
piers. 



Cobble Stone 



FOUNDATIONS constructed of cobble stone are not only very expen- 
sive, but require considerable time to construct, and skilled workmen 
must be employed. 

The main point which will have to be noticed in this construction 
of cobble or field stone foundation walls or piers, are the character of the stones, 
the filling in of the spaces between the stones, the mixture of the mortar and 
the pointing between the stones of the exposed parts. 

Fig. 21 shows foundation of cobble 
stone. 

Stones which are porous should not 
be put into a wall. It is generally said 
that stones having the least absorption .. Huwri , "'M ^^ ?J 

are the best. To test the absorptive ^ _ 

power of the stone, take a few samples j m l t ' ^ fJ* 

and dry them for many hours in an oven, JflBl! 

weighing the stone after it has dried out, ^JiPr 

then soak it in water for say, twenty-four 
hours and weigh again. The increase 




iiuuis cuiu. wcigii again. jl iic jii^icasc 

in weight of the soaked slime (due to the 

weight of the water absorbed) divided .. a ^j ^p iaJS 

by the weight of dry stone will give i*SA*^ |k? 

the ratio of the absorption. Good stone \Jk '--Jfa dJk -*^£ a*- MtB 



weight of the water absorbed) divided \ ' <f $ 

by the weight of dry stone will give 

the ratio of the absorption. Good stone 

will not take up water equal to more than 

1/600 of the weight of the stone. * ie ' n-^™*™ ° f c °™ 6 stone wal1 - 

If stones are not impervious to 
water, they are very apt to take in a considerable amount of frost which might 
result in breaking off small pieces of the stone or fracturing it. Porous stones 
are also apt to allow efflorescence, which will discolor and weaken the wall. 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 43 

There are two ways of laying cobble stone walls ; that of laying them up 
in layers in the same manner as you would a brick wall, and by the use of 
forms. If the former method is employed, it will be impossible to lay more 
than two feet of wall a day, that is, in height. If more than this is laid in 
one day, the weight of the top stone is very apt to push the lower ones out 
of place. 

By using forms the wall can be erected as fast as is desired. In this 
case, the pointing up of the wall will have to be done after the forms have 
been removed. 

If the stones are round or small, they should be split so that the part 
which is embedded in the mortar will be rough and give the mortar a good 
chance to adhere to it. 

The mortar should be a "dry" mixture and of a good quality of cement 
mortar, and the spaces in between the stones should be well filled up and 
neatly pointed upon exposed work. 

The mortar used below grade should be of a mixture of coarse sand, Hy- 
drate lime and Portland cement, while above grade, good, common lime, or 
lime and cement can be used. 

Sometimes a good appearance may be obtained by coloring the mortar 
used in the pointing. Of course, this will depend on the color of the stones 
used. The mortar can be colored with a powder called pecora, or a mineral 
paint which is obtainable in most any color. ( See coloring of concrete. ) 

In laying the wall, level it off about every 2 feet so as to keep the stones 
laid in courses. 

Together with the quality of stones and mortar used, the wall must be 
properly built in order to insure strength. About every 5 feet or 6 feet in 
each course, a bonding stone should be used, that is, one which runs thru the 
thickness of the wall, or a three-quarter bond, this being a stone which goes 
■;4 thru the wall, and adds greatly to its strength. At the corners of the wall, 
use long stones, laying them alternately. As this will be the weakest part of 
the wall, it is a good plan to save the largest and best stones for this purpose. 

All stones, large and small, should be embedded in mortar and no air 
spaces left in between them. 

If the walls are built in a damp country, they can be plastered on the 
outside below grade, with hot asphalt, this being applied after the mortar in 
the joints has been allowed to dry perfectly. 

Portland cement is sometimes used for plastering walls below grade in 
localities where the soil is not too damp, but as it is porous to some extent, is 
apt to become affected by the elements. 

Cobble stone foundations are constructed from 12 inches to 20 inches 
thick and the footings will have to be made accordingly. 

Cobble stones will cost from $1.50 to $2.00 per perch (24^4 cu. ft.). 



Ashlar 



A FOUNDATION of Ashlar construction is one that has the outside 
faced with cut stone, that is, the main part of the wall made of con- 
crete, brick or stone, and then a veneer of stone placed on the outside. 
This kind of foundation is not used very often, unless for large dwell- 
ing houses and public buildings, except in a locality where the stones can be 
cheaply quarried. 



44 ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 

Course work as shown by Fig. 22 is probably the cheapest to construct 
where stones of specified size can be had easily, as is the case with sand and 
limestone. 



Fig. 22— Ashlar wall. 



Fig. 23 — Ashlar wall. 



A wall laid up as shown by Fig. 22 is called "Regular Coursed Ashlar." 
It has, you will notice, stones of regular size laid up with plumb joints. This 
kind of Ashlar construction is expensive on account of the stones being of 
one size, unless they can be quarried to size according to specifications. 

This method is used mostly in the 
construction of office buildings and banks, 
and gives a very pleasing appearance. It 
is not used very often for foundations on 
account of the expense. 

Fig. 23 shows another kind of Regu- 
lar Coursed Ashlar with a plumb joint. 
Two sizes of stone are used in this wall. 

Fig. 24 shows the wall laid up with 5 
or 6 different sized stones. This is what 
is called "Irregular Ashlar." This method 
saves on cost of material, as most any size 
can be used. But the labor cost would 
be much more than in the regular coursed walls. 

Fig. 25 shows a broken Ashlar wall. 
which is sometimes used when stones of 
uniform size cannot be obtained cheaply. 
Although this wall costs much more to lay, 
as it takes much longer, it gives the most 
pleasing appearance when the work is done 
very carefully. 

The stones which are placed at 

the corners are called "quoins" 

and are for the purpose of 

!|^ strengthening the wall. In some 

WF cases, these quoins may be made of 

brick, and the sills and jambs of 

| the windows and doors should be 

— — made of the same material as the 



Fig. 24— Ashlar wall. 






Fig. 25 — Ashlar wall. 



quoins. 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 45 

Concrete Floors 

NO matter what kind of a foundation wall is used, the floors of an up-to- 
date basement should be of concrete. The floor should not be put in 
until the building is practically complete, that is, all plumbing and 
piping finished. It is a good plan to allow the cellar floor to dry with 
the interior plaster. No sub-foundation is needed, as a general rule. Level 
and pack the earth surface and lay down from 2 to 5 inches of concrete of a 
proportion of one part of cement to two parts of sand and five of crushed 
stone or gravel. Float smooth, giving all sections a slight slope toward a 
cess pool or drain in the cellar. 

When concrete has become sufficiently hard, apply a top dressing about y 2 
inch thick, of cement mortar. This dressing should be about 1 to 3 mixture 
and rounded up and made continuous with side wall finish. Sometimes it is 
advisable to use a little water-proofing in concrete floors. 

Contractors now charge (Jan. 1, 1918) from eight to twelve cents per 
square foot for this kind of work according to the thickness of the floor. How- 
ever, the floor can be made for about nine cents per square foot. 

To grout one square of cellar floor, it will require the following material 
mixed to the proportion of 1 :2 :5, 1 part cement. 2 parts sand, 5 parts crushed 
stone. 

5 sacks of cement at $2.40 barrel $3.00 

1-3 yard sand at $2.00 yard 67 

5-6 yard stone at $3.00 yard 2.50 

6 hours labor at 30c hour ] .80 

Cost of facing one square 1.05 

Total. ; $9.02 

or about 9c per sq. ft. 

For the finish, or facing of the floor, it will require about \V 2 sacks of 
cement and 4 cubic feet sand, which will cost about $1.05. 

Of late, contractors have allowed a one-piece floor in many cases, and have 
found it very satisfactory, as there is no top dressing to chip off, which is 
often the case in a floor made of concrete over which a top dressing of cement 
has been placed. 

When a one-piece floor is put in, use sand and gravel, eliminating the 
crushed stone. Stakes should be driven around the cellar bottom to give the 
level to the floor. 

When a cement floor surface begins to wear it is often desirable to patch 
it. 

Cut down the worn place at least one and a half inches. This cutting 
should be carried into the strong unbroken concrete and the edges should be 
cleanly undercut. The bottom of the cut should then be swept out clean, 
blown out with compressed air or a pair of bellows, if available, then thor- 
oughly wet and scrubbed with a broom. In this way, small, loose particles of 
broken material which the chisel has driven into the surface, are removed. A 
grout made of pure cement and water about the consistency of thin cream, 
should be scrubbed into the pores with a broom or brush, both at the bottom 
and sides of the cut. Following this a stiffer grout, about the consistency of 
soft putty should be thoroughly compressed and worked into the surface 



46 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



which has already been spread with grout. Finally, before the grout is set a 
mortar made of one part cement to three parts crushed stone or gravel, con- 
sisting of graded sizes from l / 2 inch down to the smallest excluding dust, 
should be thoroughly mixed and put in place, then floated to a proper surface. 
Cover with wet bagging, wet sand, sawdust, or other available material. All 
trucking should be kept off and the surface kept thoroughly wet for at least 
one week or ten days. 

If a particularly hard surface is required, 6-penny nails are sometimes 
mixed with the mortar and other nails stuck into the surface when the patch 
is finished. This will produce a surface which is extremely hard and durable. 

Materials for 100 Sq. Ft. of Concrete Floor 



Thickness in 


Base 1: 2y 2 : 5 Mixture 


Wearing Coat 1: 2 Mixture 


Inches 


2^ 
1.10 


3 
1.30 


sy 2 

1.50 


4 

1.78 


1.99 


5 
2.21 


0.56 


H 

0.85 


1 
1.13 


IX 
1.41 


1.69 


2 


Barrels Cement 


2.26 


Cu. Yards Sand 


0.40 


0.47 


0.55 


0.63 


0.70 


0.73 


0.16 


0.24 


0.32 


0.40 


0.47 


0.64 


Cu. Yards Stone .... 


0.80 


0.94 


1.10 


1.26 


1.40 


1.56 















Porch Concrete Floors 

CONCRETE porch floors can be had for about 15c to 18c per square 
foot, the work being done by a contractor. The floors should be made 
about 4y 2 inches thick. This includes about Y\ inch of cement mortar 
face. 
One square (100 square feet) will cost as follows: (This does not in- 
clude the work on the forms or cinders for filling in. as concrete porch floors 
are usually filled in underneath, if they are supported around the outer edges 
by foundation walls.) 

1 yard sand $2.00 

1 yard gravel or stone 2.50 

, 2 barrels cement 4.80 

1 5 hours labor at 30c 4.50 

Total $13.80 or 13^c 

per sq. ft. 
If the walls of the foundation are constructed out around the porch, it is 
always advisable to place a couple of small grate ventilators in the walls so 
that the underside of the porch floor will have a chance to dry out. Other- 
wise the dampness will deteriorate the concrete to some extent. 

The concrete and cement mortar should be mixed in about the same pro- 
portion as for cement floors. 

The floor should be well bedded into 

( . . ) the supporting piers or walls. Fig. 26 

y^y':^/ -'y^ ^^ r p f^ ^ e '^v'y/ shows method of using channel iron or 
l w«w»^»viiiiJgy^^^,/>^»/y>/^^J^;-„,v, ^ I-beam in the construction of porch floor. 

If it is possible to get under porch after 

Fie. 26-Porch floored in place with ^ floQr ^ been formed> yQU can re _ 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



47 



move the boards in between the I-beams; if not, it will clo no harm to leave 
them in. 

For tile porch floor, the floor would be constructed in the same manner 
as for cement. The rough floor should be laid and let set, then the tile em- 
bedded in the finish or top dressing. 



Concrete Steps 



IN determining the materials needed for steps, a careful study of plans will 
show that a division into simple parts is possible. The treads and risers 
may be figured by finding the section area and length. Then the amount 
of material needed for one step should be multiplied by the number of 
steps. 

Providing the material used is of a good grade and mixture, it will not 
be necessary to use re-inforcements of steel of any kind on ordinary concrete 
steps. 

The cost of concrete steps will depend upon the size. We will use, for 
example, steps with 8 inch riser, 6 feet wide, 4 steps high and 12 inch tread, 
steps to be built between the walls or pedestals with riser and tread \y 2 inches 
thick, including face. (See Fig. 27.) 

]/ 4 yard sand at $2.00 yard (about) $0.50 

y 2 yard of gravel and stone at $2.50 yard 1.25 

4 sacks of cement at $2.40 barrel 2.40 

Lumber and work on forms 3.25 

1 5 hours labor at 30c 4.50 



Total 



$11.90 or 

54c per lineal foot for each step. 



The steps will want a solid footing below and good 
connection to the porch floor at the top. 

By referring to Fig. 27 you will notice that the 
forms are constructed with two pieces of boards 
held in place between the temporary stringers 
of the forms. Both pieces are placed be- 
tween the stringers, the inside piece to 
be nailed just enough to hold it in 
place. Then after the concrete or 
grouting of the steps has set, it 
is removed. The outside 
piece then makes the form 
for the top dressing or 
finishing of the steps. 
This outside riser of the 
forms is constructed with 
a groove at the top which 
forms a nosing for each 

tread. If the concrete steps are constructed between masonry pedestals a 
form will have to be constructed for the bottom and the two risers held in 
place by temporary wooden risers or forced between the pedestals. 




Fig. 27 — Construction of 
concrete step. 



48 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE III 

Quantities of Material for One Cubic Yard of Rammed Concrete 
Based on a Barrel of 3.8 Cu. Ft. 









PERCENTAGE OF VOIDS 










Proportions 
by Parts 


50% Broken Stone 
Screed to Uniform Size 


45$ Average 
Conditions 


40# Gravel 


a 

V 

s 

U 


o 
a 




o 
to 


s 

e 

<u 
U 


a 
to 


u 

c 
o 

CO 


a 
B 

a 


T3 

a 
to 


<v 

a 

o 

to 


c 
u 

S 
o 


T3 

I 


1> 

a 

o 








Bbl. 


Cu. 
Yds. 


Cu. 
Yds. 




Bbl. 


Cu. 
Yds. 


Cu. 
Yds. 


Bbl. 


Cu. 
Yds. 


Cu. 
Yds. 




1 • 


1.5 


3.19 


0.45 


0.67 


3.08 


0.43 


0.65 


2.97 


0.42 


0.63 




1 


2 


2.85 


0.40 


0.80 


2.73 


0.38 


0.77 


2.62 


0.37 


0.74 




1 


2.5 


2.57 


0.36 


0.90 


2.45 


0.34 


0.86 


2.34 


0.33 


0.82 




1 


3 


2.34 


0.33 


0.99 


2.22 


0.31 


0.94 


2.12 


0.30 


0.90 




1.5 


2 


2.49 


0.53 


0.70 


2.40 


0.51 


0.68 


2.31 


0.49 


0.65 




1.5 


2.5 


2.27 


0.48 


0.80 


2.18 


0.46 


0.77 


2.09 


0.44 


0.74 




1.5 


3 


2.09 


0.44 


0.88 


2.00 


0.42 


0.84 


1.91 


0.40 


0.81 


1 


1.5 


3.5 


1.94 


0.41 


0.96 


1.84 


0.39 


0.91 


1.76 


0.37 


0.87 




1.5 


4 


1.80 


0.38 


1.01 


1.71 


0.36 


0.96 


1.63 


0.34 


0.92 




1.5 


15 


1.69 


0.36 


1.07 


1.60 


0.34 


1.01 


1.51 


0.32 


0.96 




1.5 


5 


1.59 


0.34 


1.12 


1.50 


0.32 


1.06 


1.42 


0.30 


1.00 




2 


3 


1.89 


0.53 


0.80 


1.81 


0.51 


0.76 


1.74 


0.49 


0.74 




2 


3.5 


1.76 


0.49 


0.87 


1.68 


0.47 


0.83 


1.61 


0.45 


0.79 




2 


4 


1.65 


0.46 


0.93 


1.57 


0.44 


0.88 


1.50 


0.42 


0.84 




2 


4.5 


1.55 


0.44 


0.98 


1.48 


0.42 


0.94 


1.41 


0.40 


0.89 




2 


5 


1.47 


0.41 


1.03 


1.39 


0.39 


0.98 


1.32 


0.37 


0.93 




2 


5.5 


1.39 


0.39 


1.08 


1.31 


0.37 


1.01 


1.25 


0.35 


0.97 




2 


6 


1.32 


0.37 


1.11 


1.25 


0.35 


1.06 


1.18 


0.33 


1.00 




2.5 


3 


1.72 


0.61 


0.73 


1.66 


0.58 


0.70 


1.60 


0.56 


0.68 




2.5 


3.5 


1.62 


0.57 


0.80 


1.55 


0.55 


0.76 


1.49 


0.52 


0.73 




2.5 


4 


1.52 


0.54 


0.86 


1.46 


0.51 


0.82 


1.40 


0.49 


0.79 




2.5 


4.5 


1.44 


0.51 


0.91 


1.37 


0.48 


0.87 


1.31 


0.46 


0.83 




2.5 


5 


1.37 


0.48 


0.96 


1.30 


0.46 


0.92 


1.24 


0.44 


0.87 




2.5 


5.5 


1.30 


0.46 


1.01 


1.23 


0.44 


0.95 


1.17 


0.41 


0.91 




2.5 


6 


1.24 


0.44 


1.05 


1.17 


0.41 


0.99 


1.11 


0.39 


0.94 




2.5 


6.5 


1.18 


0.42 


1.08 


1.12 


0.39 


1.02 


1.06 


0.37 


0.97 




2.5 


7 


1.13 


0.40 


1.11 


1.07 


0.37 


1.05 


1.01 


0.36 


0.99 




3 


4 


1.42 


0.60 


0.80 


1.36 


0.36 


0.77 


1.30 


0.55 


0.73 




3 


4.5 


1.34 


0.57 


0.85 


1.28 


0.55 


0.81 


1.23 


0.52 


0.78 




3 


5 


1.28 


0.54 


0.90 


1.22 


0.52 


0.86 


1.17 


0.49 


0.82 




3 


5.5 


1.22 


0.52 


0.94 


1.16 


49 


0.90 


1.11 


0.47 


0.86 




3 


6 


1.16 


0.49 


0.98 


1.11 


0.47 


0.94 


1.05 


0.44 


0.89 




3 


6.5 


1.12 


0.47 


1.02 


1.06 


0.45 


0.97 


1.01 


0.43 


0.92 



From "Concrete— Plain and Reinforced" by Taylor and Thompson 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



49 



Cement Walks 



CEMENT walks are extensively laid all over the country. They are 
preferred on account of their smooth and even surface, and when 
properly laid, are very durable and much cheaper than stone or bricks. 
They should be laid, however, where there is no danger of the grade 
being altered and only after the earth has become thoroughly settled. 

Their durability will depend upon the thickness and kind of cement used. 
Portland cement is to be preferred. 

For first class work, cement walks must be laid as follows : 
The ground should be leveled off from 8 to 15 inches below the finished 
grade of the walk and well settled by tamping or rolling. The colder the 
climate the deeper the excavation. Then remove all top soil or sod. If nec- 
essary to obtain the desired grade make the sub-base thicker. If the sub-soil 
is water tight (clay for instance) use blind drain leaders so no water can stay 
under the walks and lift it when freezing. Then construct the form on each 
side of the walk. Pieces of 2x6 held in place with stakes are all that will be 
necessary for this work. The top of these pieces of 2x6 should be kept on a 
level so they can be used for leveling top of walk. Then a foundation should 
be laid of coarse gravel, stone chips, sand or cinders, well tamped, rolled and 
wet down. These materials are excellent for sub-base as they facilitate drain- 
age. This material should be from 3 to 7 inches thick. Then prepare the 
concrete by mixing one part of cement, one part of sand and three or four of 
coarse gravel and stone, in a dry state. First mix the sand and cement thor- 
oughly together; then mix in the stone. Now add sufficient water from a 
pail or sprinkler, to make a good mortar. The concrete should then be placed 
in layers and thoroughly tamped. See paragraph on mixing concrete. 

Before the concrete has set, the finishing coat should be applied. If the 
concrete gets dry, the finishing coat will not adhere to it in the proper man- 
ner. The top should be prepared by mixing one part of Portland cement to 
one and two parts of fine, sharp sand or to one part of sand and one part of 
crushed granite. Apply this top coat carefully with straight edges and trowel 
down to a smooth surface. 

TABLE 
Materials for 100 Sq. Ft. of Cement Sidewalk 

Concrete Base or Grout. 





Proportions — 1, 2 


1 c 
2, 3 


Proportions— 1, 


3,6 


Thick- 
ness 
Inches 


Cement 
Bbls. 


Sand 
Cu. Yds. 


Stone 
Cu. Yds. 


Cement 
Bbls. 


Sand 
Cu. Yds. 


Stone 
Cu. Yds. 


2\ 


1.10 


0.39 


0.78 


0.94 


0.40 


0.80 


3 


1.33 


0.47 


0.94 


1.13 


0.48 


0.96 


3| 


1.55 0.55 


1.10 


1.32 


0.56 


1.12 


4 


1.77 0.63 


1.25 


1.51 


0.64 


1.28 


H 


1.99 0.70 


1.41 


1.70 


0.72 


1.44 


5 


2 21 0.78 


1.56 


1.89 0.80 


1.60 



50 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



Wearing Surface or Top Coat. 





Proportions— 1, 1 


Proportions — 1, l\ 


Proportions — 1, 2 


Thick- 
ness 
Inches 


Cement 
Bbls. 


Sand 
Cu. Yds. 


Cement 
Bbls. 


Sand 
Cu. Yds. 


Cement 
Bbls. 


Sand 
Cu. Yds. 


2 


0.85 


0.12 


0.68 


0.14 


0.50 


0.16 


3 


1.28 


0.18 


1.02 


0.21 


0.85 


0.24 


1 


1.70 


0.24 


1.36 


0.29 


1.13 


0.32 


H 


2.13 


0.30 


1.70 


0.36 


1.41 


0.40 


U 


2.56 


0.36 


2.04 0.43 


1.69 


0.47 


2 


3.41 


0.48 


2.72 0.57 


2.26 


0.63 



Table Taken from "Concrete Plain and Reinforced," by 
Taylor and Thompson. 



Example : What materials will be required for a walk 8 ft. wide and 
150 ft. long, the base to be 3 in. thick, of concrete in proportions 1 :3 :6, and 
the wearing surface 1 in. thick, in proportions 1 part cement to 1 part sand ? 

Solution: Referring to the table, we find directly that for 100 sq. ft. of 
base 3 in. thick, 1.13 bbls. of cement, 0.48 cu. yds. of sand and 0.96 cu. yds. 
broken stone are required. Similarly, for 100 sq. ft. of wearing surface 
1 in. thick you should require 1.70 bbls. of cement and 0.24 cu. yds. of sand. 
For each 100 sq. ft. of completed walk there would therefore be needed 2.83 
bbls. of cement, 0.72 cu. yds. of sand and 0.96 cu. yds. of broken stone; and 
since there are 1,200 sq. ft. in an area of 150x8 ft., for both base and wear- 
ing surface we should require 34 bbls. of Portland cement, 9 cu. yds. sand, 
12 cu. yds. broken stone. 

After the walk has been troweled down to a smooth surface, mark it off 
in sections from 5 to 7 feet square with a tool made for that purpose. This 
adds to the appearance and allows for expansion or contraction. They ex- 
tend through the full thickness of the concrete and are sometimes filled with 
tar paper or some other water-proofing material. A water tight (contraction) 
joint may be made by leaving a slit about ^ inch wide and filling this with 
plastic material, one of the best for this being pure asphalt of medium hard- 
ness. Stone dust is sometimes mixed with the asphalt. Another way of 
forming a joint is to insert two or more thicknesses of tarred felt. The edges 
next to the 2x6's should be rounded, as this will prevent them from break- 
ing off. The walks should be kept covered with straw, shavings, paper or 
canvas to prevent them drying too quickly. It is also a good plan to sprinkle 
with hose for five or six days. 

Trees are not injured in the least by cement sidewalks. The roots should 
be cut away to the depth of 6 or 8 inches below the excavation and the concrete 
kept away from the trunk, exposing enough soil to absorb the necessary moisture 
and allowing for growth of tree. 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



51 



Actual Costs on 1000 Square Feet of Sidewalk 



Thick- 




Yds. 


Bbls. 


Cost 


Cost 


Cost 


Cost 


Total 


ness 


Mix 


Sand 


Cement 


Water 


Sand 


Cement 


Labor 


Cost 


2" 


1 


2 


6.17 


20.81 


$.39 


$12.34 


$49.94 


$6.35 


$69.02 


2" 


1 


3 


6.17 


13.88 


.37 


12.34 


33.31 


6.35 


52.37 


2" 


1 


4 


6.17 


10.41 


.35 


12.34 


24.98 


6.35 


44.02 


2" 


1 


5 


6.17 


8.33 


.34 


12.34 


19.99 


6.35 


39.02 


2" 


1 


6 


6.17 


7.11 


.33 


12.34 


17.06 


6.35 


36.08 


2^" 


1 


2 


7.71 


26.02 


.44 


15.42 


62.44 


7.67 


85.97 


2K" 


1 


3 


7.71 


17.35 


.41 


15.42 


41.64 


7.67 


65.14 


2^" 


1 


4 


7.71 


13.01 


.39 


15.42 


31.22 


7.67 


54.70 


2^" 


1 


5 


7.71 


10.40 


.38 


15.42 


24.96 


7.67 


48.43 


2^" 


1 


6 


7.71 


8.67 


.37 


15.42 


21.20 


7.67 


44.66 


3" 


1 


2 


9.25 


31.21 


.49 


18.50 


74.90 


9.20 


103.09 


3" 


1 


3 


9.25 


20.82 


.47 


18.50 


49.96 


9.20 


78.13 


3" 


1 


4 


9.25 


15.61 


.46 


18.50 


37.46 


9.20 


65.92 


3" 


1 


5 


9.25 


12.49 


.45 


18.50 


29.97 


9.20 


58.12 


3" 


1 


6 


9.25 


10.66 


.44 


18.50 


25.58 


9.20 


53.72 


4" 


1 


2 


12.34 


41.62 


.59 


24.68 


99.88 


12.70 


137.85 


4" 


1 


3 


12.34 


27.76 


.57 


24.68 


66.62 


12.70 


104.57 


4" 


1 


4 


12.34 


20.82 


.55 


24.68 


49.96 


12.70 


87.89 


4" 


1 


5 


12.34 


16.66 


.53 


24.68 


39.98 


12.70 


77.89 


4" 


1 


6 


12.34 


13.88 


.52 


24.68 


33.31 


12.70 


71.21 



The above table was completed from about 10 miles of sidewalk at the 
following prices. Common labor cost $2.50 per ten hour day and the finisher 
was paid $3.50 per day. Cement cost $2.40 per bbl. Stone and sand at an 
average price of $2.00 per yd. The above table you will notice does not al- 
low for any sub-soil and material for forms. The material was also mixed by 
a machine. Hand mixed would cost considerably more. 



Piers 



THE girder piers which are to support the girder or sills are generally 
constructed with the same kind of material as the foundation, upon 
footings of the proper size. Forms for girder piers are shown by Fig. 
28 and should be constructed of the proper height and thickness as 
shown on blue prints furnished for your building. Be sure that all piers 
have good footings and are set on solid soil. 

Concrete piers will cost about 35c per foot in height for a 12x12 inch 
pier, which includes the cost of constructing the forms. 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



To find the amount of material necessary for 
your piers take the total number shown on plan 
and multiply by the length of each and add the 
amount in the footings. For example : If your 
foundation plan shows 7 — 12x12 piers supporting 
the girders and each pier is 6 ft. 4 in. high. 

6 ft. 4 in. x 7 44 1/3 cu. ft. 

7 footings, 20x20x8 13 cu. ft. 



Total 57 1/3 cu. ft. 

57 1/3 cu. ft. at 35c $20.07 

For 8x8 in. piers : 

6 ft. 4 in. x 7 44 1/3 lineal ft. 8x8 piers 

1 ft. of 8x8 in. piers 4/9 cu. ft. 

4/9x44 1/3 19 2/3 cu. ft. 

7 footings, 16x16x8 8 1/3 



Total 28 

28 cu. ft. at 35c 



cu. ft. 
610.60 




-Forms for girder 
crete piers. 



In some localities, if it can be obtained, 6 inch 
gas pipe with a flange screwed on top and bottom, 
makes a good girder pier, much easier to con- 
struct and takes up much less room. It is to be doweled into concrete footings 
and fastened to sill at top with lag or set screws. 

Brick piers are also used considerably for 
girder supports and vary in cost according to 
size. Use the following to find the number of 
bricks required. 

No. of Bricks 
Size of Piers. per Foot of 
Inches. Height. 

8>4x sy 9 




sy 4 xi3 



14 



8^x17^ 19 



8%x22 
13 xl3 

ny 2 xny 2 

22 x22 
26^x26^ 



23 
22 
40 
62 
90 



30^x30^ 120 

Example: If you have 7 piers 6 ft. 4 in. 
high. 

7 x 6 ft. 4 in 44 1/3 lineal ft. 

44 1/3 x 22 (for 13x13 pier) 975 bricks 

Cu. ft. concrete in footings 13 cu. ft. 

(See cost of laying brick under chapter 
"Brick.") 
When using brick piers as in other brick work it is always advisable to 
use a "course stick" which is a measuring pole the total height of the work. 



Fig. 29 — Construction of tapering 
concrete pier. 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 53 

Upon this pole you can divide off your different courses so as to have the 
bricks and joints come out evenly at top. 

Porch piers and pedestals are constructed of cement, brick and stone, 
and this work will cost considerably more than material of the same nature 
when worked into foundation. 






Fig-. 30— Construc- 
tion of straight 
concrete pier. 



Fig. 31 — Construc- 
tion of brick pier 
with stone cap. 



Fig. 32 — Construction of 
cement block pier 
with cement cap. 



The piers should be constructed to harmonize with the foundation walls, 
not necessarily out of the same material, as combinations, when properly used, 
look well. A brick and stone or stucco and cement blocks will look very good. 

The porch piers should be made in size to harmonize with the columns 
resting upon them and also by the weight (in appearance of the balance of 
the porch). Nothing looks quite so unsightly as a large, heavy porch frame 
supported by small, scrawny columns or vice versa. 

Figs. 29, 30, 31, 32 give illustrations of the construction and method of 
building different porch piers. 

Fig. 29 shows construction of tapering pier of concrete. Considerable 
material can be saved by using wood core on inside of the pier. 

Fig. 30 shows construction of straight concrete pier with concrete cap. 
The larger pier can be filled in with large stones, cinders or old brick to cut 
cost and will not affect strength as long as they are well embedded in con- 
crete. 

Fig. 31 shows construction of brick pier with stone cap. 

Fig. 32 shows cement block pier with cement cap. (See paragraph on 
Cement Blocks.) 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



Brick 



BRICKS are classified according to the manner of molding; the place 
they occupy in kiln during the burning or curing, and according to their 
shape or the size in which they are to be made. 

When distinguished according to the manner of molding, bricks 
are named : 

Soft mud brick : Made of very wet mud. 

Stiff mud brick : Made of mud with less water. 

Dry pressed brick : Made of clay containing about 6 per cent, moisture. 

In the old style kiln, the bricks were not all burned alike. Those adja- 
cent to the fire were overdone, those farthest away from the fire, underdone, 
and only the ones in the center were burned satisfactorily. These conditions 
placed many grades of brick on the market, some of which were classed face, 
ornamental, compass, feather edge, paving, sidewalk and sewer. 

Bricks are more extensively used than any other material in building 
construction in general, and are fast taking the place of wood in the construc- 
tion of larger buildings. In frame dwelling houses, their use has been con- 
fined mostly to the building of foundations, piers and chimneys. 

Good bricks are preferable to stone, as they are practically indestructible, 
either by fire or the elements in the atmosphere or ground. They may be 
bought or made in any shape, size or color and in some localities are much 
cheaper and easier to handle in the building of a wall than stone. However, 
all bricks are not the same ; many are porous and soft and cannot be used ex- 
cept in the driest climates. 

We will not go into detail as to the manufacturing of brick as the average 
builder does not care how and from what brick are manufactured, just as long 
as the desired results are obtained by using them. Bricks are colored by the 
use of mineral paints and can be obtained in all shades of red, pink, brown, 
cream or yellow. Some of these colors can be used together and an artistic 
appearance obtained. 

There are no legal standard sizes of brick used in this country and they 
will vary in sizes from 7^x3^x2^ to 9^x4^x2^, according to the make 
and kind. The standard brick which has been adopted by several builders' 
associations and makers is 8%x4-x2% for common, and 8^x4^x2^ for face 
and fancy brick. 

The weight of a brick will also vary according to the kind of clay used 
and, of course, to the size. Common brick will weight from 4j4 to 4^4 pounds, 
or about 120 pounds per cu. ft., and pressed brick from 5 to 5^4 pounds, or 
about 130 pounds per cubic foot. 

Good building brick should be sound, free from cracks, pores, stones or 
lumps of any kind, especially of lime. 

To have a good looking job when finished, all the bricks should be of 
uniform size and with sharp, square edges. Some bricks, when allowed to dry 
in the open, are occasionally caught by a shower, which will give a pitty effect 
and sometimes take off the sharp edges. 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



55 



All surface brick should be sound and well burned. Good brick will give 
out a ringing sound when they are hit together. A dull sound indicates that 
the brick is soft. The poorer grades can be used sometimes for filling in on 
the inside of the wall. 

A good brick will not absorb more than from five to eight per cent, of its 
weight while a poor and unsound brick will sometimes absorb as much as 25 
per cent of its weight of water. 

If a brick stands in still water for an hour and the moisture rises more 
than y 2 an inch, it is not a first class brick; if the moisture rises 2 inches its 
use for facing is questionable ; if the moisture rises 3 inches it should not be 
used on any outside work of importance. 

In order to build any kind of a strong and durable piece of work, it is 
necessary to have some kind of a bed of mortar placed between the bricks. 
Therefore, brickwork consists of two things, brick and mortar. 

The durability and strength of any piece of work depends on the kind of 
brick and mortar used and also the bonding and joints. 

The mortar used in laying brick below ground should be made of 
hydraulic lime or cement mortar, while above grade, common white lime to 
which a little cement has been added, will give sufficient strength to the wall. 

The mortar joints of common brick vary from about 3-16 to ^ of an 
inch in thickness. The brick should be well embedded in mortar so as to 
form a solid mass and kept from dampness as much as possible so that the 
mortar will not lose any of its strength. 

The mortar has three functions in brick 
work. 

( 1 ) To keep out wet and change in tem- 
perature by filling all crevices. 

(2) To unite the whole into one mass. 

(3) To form a cushion to take up any in- 
equalities in the bricks and to distribute the 
pressure evenly. 

Fig. 33 shows the different kinds of B 1 
joints of brickwork. All of these have been 
used more or less in this country. The joints 
used will depend upon the kinds of brick and 
also the conditions to which they are exposed. __ 

Fig. 33 (A) shows a smooth plumb joint ; 
(B) shows a rough plumb joint; (C) a 
smooth inset joint; (D) a rough inset joint; 
(E) a round or curved joint; (F) a beveled 
or V shaped joint; (G and H) show two dif- 
ferent patterns of "struck" joints. 

Good brickwork depends much on work- 
manship. It is impossible to make a good 
looking wall with poor material ; it is easy to 
make a poor looking job with the best brick 
and mortar obtainable. 

The bonding of the brick is very important. In using the word "bond" 




r o 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



we mean the manner in 
or "backing-up" wall, and 
tar on the face of the wall 



TT 



^ 



rrr. 



rri 



^ 



T~T 



hich brick is connected with the rough brickwork 
also the pattern which is worked in brick and mor- 



i — r 



The most common bond used in 
this country is the running bond, 
which is illustrated by Fig. 34. This is 
not a good method of laying brick as 
it does not look artistic and the "face" 
wall does not have sufficient tying to 
the "backing-up" wall or rough brick- 
work. It is used mostly in ware- 
houses and factories. 

There are a number of different 
ways of bonding brick, which will 
give a pleasing and artistic pattern to 
a wall. 

Fig. 35 shows the bonding of 
brick with a header brick placed between every other face brick. This gives a 
very pleasing appearance and is often used by some of the best bricklayers in 
the country. 



T~~r 



running bond of brick wall. 




Fig. 35— Bonding brick wall. 



ECgDDDC 
)□□□□□□□□£ 



LTDDDC 



:□□□□□□□[: 



[□□□□□□□□□□□□□C 



IDDCZQOQE 



[3zn 



innnnnnnnnnnn 

Fig, 36 — Method of bonding brick. 



Fig. 36 shows a layer of brick and one of headers tying brick to the rough 
wall. ^ A header brick placed in between every other face brick will give an 
artistic pattern when it is of a lighter shade than the face brick, as shown by 
Fig. 37. 





Fig. 37— Bonding brick wall. 



Fig. 38— Bonding brick wall. 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 57 

Fig. 38 shows practically the same brick as Fig. 36, but bonded in a little 
different manner. 

Fig. 39 and 40 show different ways headers can be placed in a wall, chim- 
ney or pier in order to give an artistic pattern to the work. 

Bricks are often made of cement and are on the market in many places. 
They are generally used for facing purposes. They have about the same char- 
acteristics as cement blocks and the results of one product are generally true 
of the other. They are manufactured by machine, by hand or power press. 



Hi 



ICZZCZX 



BfflfflE = 



n — ii ir 



r^p: 



3=n 



ppp too ozo □□□ t 



jtzzx 



Tig. 39— Pattern of brick wall. 



Fig. 40 — Pattern of brick wall. 



Other conditions being equal, wet concrete mixture tends to density, non- 
absorption and fineness of face. 

Concrete attains its normal strength when it is seasoned. Cement brick 
should not be used earlier than two weeks after being manufactured. They 
should be wet down each day for about ten days and not allowed to dry in 
too fast a temperature. 

Cement, sand and stone mixture are much stronger, more dense and less ab- 
sorbent; and require less cement than cement and sand alone. One part of 
cement to four of sand, or one part of cement to three- of sand and three of 
aggregate from % to X A an mcn m si ze > are given as minimum proportion of 
cement for cement brick. 

Much depends on the character of the sand. It should contain both fine 
and coarse grain and be clean and sharp. (See paragraph on sand.) 

By the selection of the color, shape and size of the aggregate and by the 
subsequent treatment, either by working with acid or with water and stiff 
brushes, the faces of the bricks may be given various textures and colors. Va- 
rious colors also are used in the cement. 



Material Required for 1000 Brick 

In regard to the cost of making Brick, which may vary in different local- 
ities, one can figure cost from the following data for each thousand brick. 



Mixture Cement 

3 brick takes 3.8 Bbls. 

4 brick takes 3.05 Bbls. 

5 brick takes 2.55 Bbls. 

6 brick takes 2.18 Bbls. 

7 brick takes 1.9 Bbls. 





Sand 


and 


1.7 Cu. Yds 


and 


1.8 Cu. Yds 


and 


1.9 Cu. Yds 


and 


2.0 Cu. Yds 


and 


2.0 Cu. Yds 



58 ALADDIN MANUAL OK CONSTRUCTION 



Laying Brick Foundation 

It is first necessary to prepare a footing which will be of good propor- 
tion to the size of the wall that is to be used. Ordinarily, a foundation wall 
of brick is not made less than the length and width of a brick, which will be 
about 12 J/2 to 13^2 inches, according to the size of the brick, and thickness 
of the joints used. 

In laying brick, it is absolutely necessary that the spaces between them 
are well filled up with mortar. It is advisable, in most cases, to use a mortar 
that is thin enough to "spread", but not so thin that it will run. 

The brick should be laid so that there are no straight joints, that is, one 
joint over another, and the corners should be bonded together in good shape, 
as this is the weakest part of the wall. 

Different colors of mineral pigment or pecora can be mixed with the mor- 
tar so as to color it to make a contrast with the brick. For instance, dark red 
face brick embedded in a black mortar will give a good appearance. 

All the joints of face brickwork above grade should be "struck" and made 
with a drip joint. If this is not done, water is apt to work into the mortar and 
weaken the wall. (See Fig. 33.) 

Except in freezing weather, brick should always be laid wet. In hot 
weather, it is impossible to get the brick too wet. If this is not done, the bricks 
that are porous to some extent are liable to adhere all the moisture in the 
mortar and thereby prevent its proper setting. 

The wetting of very porous brick is one of the most important steps of 
obtaining a strong wall, but as this makes the work and handling of the brick 
much more difficult, the masons do not like to wet them in many cases, unless 
they are obliged to. 

Brick should not be laid in freezing weather unless it is necessary. In 
such cases, the materials should be heated with the use of Salamanders and 
the wall protected from the frost at night by covering it with straw and paper. 
If the top layer should freeze before it sets, it should be removed and the 
brick cleaned off before used again. 

A wall should also be protected from rain as much as possible because if 
the mortar has not set, the rain will wash some of it out of the joints, and will 
also stain the wall. 

In laying out your brick work, always take into consideration your open- 
ings, spaces between openings and height up from starting point. Use a 
course stick and lay out upon it the number of courses and thickness of joints 
accordingly so that the work will look even around the entire building. A 
variation in the thickness of the joints will not be noticeable if worked in 
gradually, but put them as even as possible. Keep plumb lines and level con- 
tinually in use. No brick work will look well unless kept square, plumb and 
level. 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 59 



Cost of Brick Work 

Of course, the cost of brickwork will all depend on the kinds of brick 
used. They will vary in cost from $8.00 to $60.00 per thousand. 

Retail price quoted at Bay City January 1st, 1918: 

Common Brick $12.00 

Common Cherry Red 18.00 to $20.00 

Select Cherry Red 25.00 to 30.00 

Fire Brick 60.00 

Fancy Tapestry 50.00 

Fire Clay 1.00 per Hundred 

Lime 50 per Bu. (Lump) 

Hydrate 1 5.00 per Ton 

Hair 60 per Bu. 

A mason should lay about 1,400 bricks per day, working & l / 2 hours, that 
is, on small, ordinary wall work. The number, of course, will be more for 
large walls, and for face or fancy pressed brick it will sometimes drop to 300 
per day, such as work on fireplaces, fancy porch piers, cornice work, etc. The 
following table will be based on common brick such as are used in a basement 
wall. 

A 13 inch wall requires about 21 bricks per square foot. Cost of 13 inch 
wall, common brick : 

1,000 Bricks. Average price $15.00 

Mortar 2.25 

Mason laying 1,400 per day, at 60c per hour 3.64 

Helper at 30c per hour 1.82 

Total $22.71 per M. 



Brick Piers 

For example, we will use 13 inch pier 7 feet high, which will require 
about 22 bricks to the foot. 

154 Bricks at $15.00 per M $2.31 

3 Hours Mason and Tender at 90c 2.70 

Mortar 20 

Total cost of 13 inch pier 7 feet high $5.21 

The following tables give the number of bricks in 8 inch, 12 inch and 
16 inch foundation walls under buildings 16x16 to 50x60. 



ALADDIN MANUAL 

5 § 



u 
00 



CM 





£ 


^t 


> 


c 
o 










UJ 


a 


00 


J 


T3 




< 


c 
S 
o 


y 


H 


Uh 


CO 




c 


T3 












C 
CO 



ca en 



i I i I 



OF CONSTRUCTION 



S S 



00 PJ 3 

S S 3 



8 8 3 3 

S 8 3 gg 






?i ~ o 8 S 



0> (J\ OS 



o <-i *-r 

ic ^ 2 



sO 00 O 

8 S " 






s s 



O ri -t 



111 



3 § 






£ s s 

S 2 5 



so oo o 



o 8 



sO 00 O 

'?' li 'J 



a s 



I K 3 

in so Oj 



8 S 






8 S 



2 S 3 

8 S 2 



s s s 



00 O 04 g 

to to 5 t 



£ g 5 



§ 3 



sO 00 O CM 

(-4 t<2 tO 5 



8 


sD 


o 


8 


8 
9 


Os 

o 


3 
c 


1 


1 


1 


1 


IO 


8 

Os 


-': 


o 


a 


1 


1 s 


sO 


00 


i 


SO 


1 


1 

CN 


OS 

a 


1 


sD 

1 


8 


| 


s 


1/3 


so 


00 


o 
to 


| 


S X 

95 o 


3 


oo 


oo 


s 


8 


8 

? 


i 


s 

r 


1 


sD 

1 


00 


I 


l 


l 


1 


1 


o 
to 


1 1 


3 


§ 


o 


» 




sO 

8 


8 

Cs 


o 

X 


OS 

o 


1 


SO 
l 


00 

s 


8 


1/0 


110 


£ 


s 


P (si 


o 


SO 

s 


1 


o 
7 


s 


>' 


SO 

8 


8 


8 

OS 


OS 


l 


SO 


8 


8 


1/3 


1 


5 


OO o 


2 


1 


so 
8 


00 


1 


00 


7 


o 

OS 


1 


OS 


0s 

o 


7 
8 


1 


1 


8 


1/3 


1/3 


SO CO 

a a 


so 


s 


1 


| 


X 


o 


to 


1 


so 

o 


8 
5s 


Os 


Os 


1 


SO 
1 


1 


8 


1/3 


1 1 



SO 00 o 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



M Q 00 -*S t 
00 ^ O \0 gl 



IB 

V 

J3 

o 

CM 



c n*k 

+3 00 

a 

no J* 

c 

3 



o 


CQ 


Uu 






TJ 


c 


u 




«J 


C/5 

u 


C 

cd 



CQ 



0) 

e 

3 

2 



en 



I a S s 

CO to CO CO 






K 8 









ION ON O 



3 5 



S K 8 



3 £ 



# S £ 



8 S 



I/O -H O 



J? 5 



8 S £ 



CO T T 



5 3 

38 a 



o oo vo n- 



oo ■* o \0 



S § 3 



i/O 3 



S S 



00 ON 



O CO 

8 2 

O H 



co : £ § § S 



O GO vO 



O CO o 



O CO \D 



3 8 3 



§ 8 
8 



t^ CO ON 



8 S 



3 33 



8 a 






s s s 



8 3 



3 8^ 

3 O O 



3 ff 



O O0 \D 



\0 w t^ 



2 3 



■* \D 00 O 



62 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



y 
IB 

H 



u 

JC 
CD 



« £ 



CQ 



-o 

c 

3 

o 



y 

CQ 



£ 

3 






•43 00 



J* 
U 

•B 

CQ 



•& sO 00 o 



5 $ § I 



a o oo 
S S K 



I I 



so oo o 



3 3 3 



IO « 






I g I 

to « tC 






so 1 5 



g so 00 

.H CS t- 

CO to CO 



S 8 

CO CO 



CO CO to 



5 J - 



OV O tH 

3 3 3 



I § 



8 £J. 3 



s 


o 




* 


so 


3 


8 


CO 


* 


3 


o 

<Js 
CO 


CO 


o 
1 


CO 


3 

So 

CO 



I § 

» c 



CO to 



S £ § 
C£ r; \o 



J- 2 



SO 00 © 
CO co to 



3 s 



» n J 



g 



I I 

CO co 



to CO co 



3 9 



8 I 



<-| co 2 

3 S 8 



O CO o 
to CO CO 



Sis 

3 3 3 



!.§.!.£ I 






CO CO CO 



Sis 



CO CO CO 






3 | | 



8! 3 

3 3 



s s a 



3 § 



a 8 



CO CO CO CO 



CTs O -i 



-1- SO 
lO SO 



g 8 



■* sD CO 
'I to -T 

2 £3 3 



§ 8 



Cs P- IO co 



r^ cb ' cS o 



O f) -cf SO 



§8 8 

S 8 






S S 8 

£ 3 8 



-H t> t^ 



l g 






8 a 



so I-- 1-- 



~ S 



$ a 



3 O 'CO o 



3 5! 3 8 






T sO 

r-' p. 



3 3 



C c-1 -T sC 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



63 



Brick Veneer 

It is quite common in many parts of the country to build dwellings with 
the frame work of wood and the outer walls of brick veneer. Houses con- 
structed in this manner have the same appearance both outside and in, as a 
solid brick wall. 

The advantage of brick veneer construction over the 
solid wall is the low cost, and the air spaces between 
the brick and wood frame. The latter prevents any 
possibility of the passage of moisture and also makes 
the house much warmer in winter and cooler in sum- 
mer. 

The cost of brick veneer construction varies in diff- 
erent parts of the country, as in some parts lumber will 
be cheap and brick expensive, or vice versa, but it is 




W^%& 




generally considered much cheaper to use brick veneer, 
although not considered a good method by builders in 
general. 

The advantage of brick veneer over frame walls is 
that it will reduce the insurance rate considerably over 
an ordinary frame building, as the veneered walls pro- 
tect the wood frame from fires in the surrounding prop- 
erty. 

You will notice by referring to Fig. 42, which shows 
the construction of a foundation wall for brick veneer, 
that it is necessary to make the wall much heavier and it should be built so as 
to project 6 inches around the frame of the building. 

It is very important that the frame of the building be well braced and 
perfectly plumb and straight. 

The bricks are tied to the frame in a number of different ways. A tie, as 
shown by Fig. 43, which is an example of the method in which the bricks are 



^w^y^ 



Fig, 41 — Foundation wall, 
brick construction. 



64 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



tied to the frame, is often used, 
although a number of builders 
use an ordinary spike. Each 
brick in every fourth course 
should be tied to the frame. 

In damp climates, it is a good 
plan to lay a 2 inch V shaped 
drain underneath the air spaces 
in the wall and drain this into 
cellar in order to take care of 
any moisture that might work 
thru the veneer walls. (See 
Fig. 44.) 





Fig. 44 — Isometric 

view of brick 

veneer wall. 



DRAIN 



Fig. 45 — Section of brick veneer wall showing 
copper flashing. 



Another method is often 
used to drain off any 
water that may work its 
way thru the wall, into the 
air spaces; that is, by 
placing a copper flashing 
against the sheathing, let- 
ting it run down over the 
stone sill or water table. 
The water will then run 
out thru the holes which 
are placed occasionally 
on the top of the water 
table. (See Fig. 45.) 

The brick for a veneer 
wall should be laid with 
a "struck" drop joint 
which will help to pre- 
vent any water from 
working its way thru the 
wall. 

Above every window 
and door of a brick ve- 
neer wall, angle irons are 
used in order to support 
the stone or brick over the 
openings. (See Fig. 46.) 

The metal ties are em- 
bedded into the mortar 
joints. It is very impor- 
tant that non - porous 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 65 

bricks are used and that a good joint is made and is well filled with a good 
mortar. 

Figs. 47 and 48 show 
metal ties used in bond- 
ing veneer walls. 

In order to indicate 
brick bonds, and solid 
brick walls, half brick 
are occasionally used in 
the wall. This will 
also aid the appear- 
ance. 

In using brick ve- 
neer a "course stick" 
should be used in the 
same manner as in or- 
dinary brick work to 
space the brick evenly 
between the openings 
and the top and bottom 
of the walls. 

The frame work of 
a brick veneer building 
should be constructed 
as rigid and as dry as 
possible. The frame 
should also be given 
time to settle before 
bricks are veneered on. 
To obtain the cost of 
brick veneer for a wall, it will first be necessary to find the number of square 




Fig:. 46 — Section of brick veneer wall showing construction over 
window opening-. 





Fig. 47. 



Fig. 48. 



yards of wall you will have to cover. The following table will give you the 
Pi umber of brick per surface yard : 



Thickness of No. of Brick per 

Size of Brick. Toints. Surface Yard. 

8y 4 x4x2y 4 1/2 52 

8i4x4x2}4 1/4 58 

Pressed brick 

8^x4^x2^ 3/16 62 



66 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 




$'4x4x2%" brick 



A good bricklayer will 
lay 500 common or about 
375 pressed bricks on a 
veneer wall in a day of 
eight hours, with one 
helper. Therefore, it will 
cost $14.40 to lay 1,000 
common bricks (mason 
at 60c per hour and 
helper at 30c per hour), 
and about $19.20 to lay 
1 ,000 pressed bricks. 

Common bricks will 
cost from $8.00 to $16.00 
per M., pressed brick from 
$18.00 to $30.00 per M. 

It takes about \ l / 2 barrels of lime and one yard of sand to lay 1,000 
1 -ricks. Of course, this will depend upon the size of joint used. 

If you wish the mortar 
to be colored, refer to par- 
agraph on coloring con- 
crete. 

The angle irons which 
are used to support the 
brick or stone above the 
window and door open- 
ings will cost about 20c 
per foot. 

Cut stone which is used 
for window and door sills. 

caps and water table is measured by the cubic foot and will cost from $1.35 
to $1.85 per cubic foot, cut and surfaced. 




Fig. 48-B shows diagram of coursing for 8'4x4xl%' 
3/16" joint. 




ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



67 



Chimneys 



J 




\ 


1 


Pi 

A " 


{' 




1 


t /,<s ' > 


J 


«. 2^ >- 




THE chimney is probably one of the most important parts of a dwelling 
house. It is essential in order to obtain the proper degree of heat and 
also to discharge the waste products caused by the combustion of the 
fuel in such a manner so as not to cause any inconvenience to the sur- 
rounding property or to the dwelling itself. 

It is necessary that the chimney be erected with as good 
material and workmanship as possible. There are mistakes 
made in the erection of chimneys, which are too numerous to 
mention. 

The most important things to look after when building a 
chimney in crder to obtain good results are : 

(1.) To have the flue of proper size and the chimney of 
the proper height. 

(2.) To build the chimney of good material and have 
the joints well filled so that no gas will 
escape into the building. 

(3.) To have the inside of the chim- 
ney well lined or plastered, which will 
do away with friction and insure a 
smooth flue. 

(4.) Build a straight flue if possible, 
that is, do not have an offset in chimney 
unless absolutely necessary. 

Every furnace and fireplace should 
have a separate flue extending to the top 
of the chimney. Two or three stoves 
may be connected with one flue and the 
kitchen range connected with the furnace 
flue without bad results, providing the 
flues in both cases are large enough. For 
ordinary stoves and small furnaces an 
8x8 inch flue is sufficiently large, pro- 
viding it is built so that the inside is 
smooth, but it generally is better to build 
furnace and fireplace flues 8x12 inches, 
unless for a very small fireplace or heat- 
ing plant. We have found that the best 
flue is one which has been lined with fire- 
clay tiles, as they are imperishable and 
cannot be rotted away by rust or acid as 
is the case with galvanized iron or any metal flue lining. 
Flues smoke or draw poorly more often on account of the 
insufficient height of the chimney than from any other cause. 
A chimney should always extend a little above the highest 
point of the buildings surrounding it, otherwise eddies form- 
ed by the wind may cause downward draughts in the flues, 
causing them to smoke. If it is impractical to carry a chim- mfnner^co" 
ney above the highest point of the roof, it should be topped striI °hood! mney 




Tig. 49 — Faulty 
chimney top. 



Footing 

Fig. 51 — Con- 
struction of 8x8 
inch flue 
chimney. 



PI 

1 
1 

1 

1 




, 1 



68 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



"ii with a hood, open on two sides, the sides parallel with the roof being 
closed. Be very careful that the hood is properly constructed. Fig. 49 shows 
a faulty top. Fig 50 shows the proper manner in which to construct a hood. 
The walls and partitions of a chimney should be built with the greatest 
care and the joints carefully filled with mortar. Where no flue lining is used, 
the joints should be "struck" and the walls of the flue made as smooth as pos- 
sible. It is also a good plan to plaster smoothly on the inside of the flue with 
Portland cement mortar, as this will increase the draught, prevent sparks and 
gases from passing thru the chimney and will not become affected by the heat. 
In building a chimney, more or less mortar and pieces of brick will lodge 
in the bottom of it. An opening should be left here in order to clean the 
material out after the chimney is finished. This opening can be bricked up 
afterward or covered with a metal door. If chim- 
neys have to be built with a bend or offset in the 
flue, openings should be left here in order to clean 
out any mortar and pieces of brick that may lodge 
there during the construction of the chimney. 

Fig. 51 shows the construction of the 8x8 one- 
flue chimney. 

Fig. 52 shows the construction of a two-flue chim- 
ney which may be used for furnace and range. 
Fig. 53 shows the construction of a wooden ledge 
or bracket upon which 
chimneys are often built in 
small cottages. This will 
cut out the cost of con- 
structing chimneys from 
grade up. 

The work of building 
chimneys is usually let to a 
mason contractor, by the 
lineal feet in height. The 
average price for labor on 
an 8x8 one-flue chimney is 
75c per lineal ft. in height, 
double flue, $1.15, and fire- 
place, $2.00 to $3.00, de- 
pending upon the size and 
construction. 
If the builder wishes to handle the chimney work himself, he can esti- 
mate a good brick layer and helper will lay five or six hundred brick a day, 
working 8^4 hours. 

If you desire to obtain a fairly close estimate as to the number of brick 
necessary for a plain chimney, one of the methods described below can be 
used. 

If it is figured that five courses of brick in a chimney will make one foot 
of height, taking into account the thickness of the mortar joints and that five 
bricks in a course will make a 4x8 flue, then 5x5 equals 25 bricks necessary 
for one foot of height, in chimney with a 4x8 inch flue. 

For a flue 8x8 inches, six bricks will be necessary for each course or 30 
bricks for one foot in height. 





Tig. 53 — Bracket for 
chimney. 



FQDTiNB 



Tig. 52 — Construction of two 
flue chimney. 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



69 



For a 8x12 inch flue, seven bricks will be necessary for each course, or 
35 bricks for one foot in height. 

For a 12x12 inch flue, eight bricks will be necessary or 40 bricks for one 
foot in height of chimney- 
By remembering the size of bricks to be used, with the aid of a cross 
section of the chimney shown by Fig. 54, no matter if it has one, two or three 
flues, the above method of figuring the number of brick needed can be used. 
The method consists in finding the number of brick necessary to enclose the 
area desired and then multiplying by five to get the number of brick for one 
foot of height in chimney. Table VIII shows the number of brick required in 
different size chimneys. 

For example, suppose it is desired to find 
the number of brick needed for a plain chim- 
ney 25 feet in height, having one 8x8 and one 
12x8 flue. It will require eleven bricks for 
each course or 55 to one foot in height of 
chimney and 1,375 for 25 feet in height. 

Fig. 54 shows number of brick in section 
of chimney. Another very simple method of 
figuring single flues is to find the number of 
cubic feet in the chimney by multiplying the 

area (in square feet) of cross section of the chimney considered as solid, by 
the height in feet and subtract the contents of the flues indicated as follows : 
For an 8x8 flue, subtract one-half of the length of the flue in feet. 







•••*'. : 






0** 


;,' 


ft** 


,' 


'•:'• ■*■.'■ 


; . , 




" '• i • 



Fig-. 54 — Shows number of brick in 
chimney with 8x8 and 12x8 flue. 



Table No. VIII 
Number of brick in chimney 

1 Flue 1 Flue 

8x8 12x12 

Hgt. 1 Flue 1 Flue 1 Flue 2 Flues 1 Flue 2 Flues 1 Flue 

8x8 8x12 12x12 8x8 8x12 12x12 12x16 

12 360 420 480 600 660 812 870 

14 408 476 544 680 748 952 1020 

16 462 539 616 770 847 1078 1155 

18 522 609 696 870 957 1218 1305 

20 576 672 768 960 1056 1344 1440 

22 636 742 848 1060 1166 1468 1590 

24 696 812 928 1160 1276 1624 1740 

26 750 875 1000 1250 1375 1750 1875 

28 810 945 1080 1350 1485 1890 2025 

30 864 1008 1152 1440 1584 2016 2160 

32 924 1078 1232 1540 1694 2156 2310 

34 984 1148 1312 1640 1804 2296 2460 

36 1038 1211 1384 1730 1903 2422 2595 

For the 8x12 inch flue, subtract 2/3 of the length of the flue in feet. 

For a 12x12 inch flue, subtract the length of the flue in feet. 
Two flue chimneys built with tile need no center partitions, therefore, 
from 1^4 to 2^2 bricks on a course will be saved. 

8x8 square flue lining tile costs about 18c per lineal foot. 



70 ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



8x12 flue lining tile costs about 27c per lineal foot. 

12x12 square flue lining tile costs about 35c per lineal foot, and 12x16 
flue lining costs 53c per lineal foot. 

Fire clay stove thimbles may be obtained in sizes varying from 4 to 12 
inches in diameter and from A l / 2 to 1 2 inches in length. These stove thimbles 
are constructed about 34 mcn larger than sizes given to receive stove pipe. 

It is hard to estimate the exact amount of brick it will take to a lineal 
foot of fireplace chimney, as it will vary according to the size and construc- 
tion. It will average from 80 to 120 per lineal feet. 

The builder should take care to see that the chimneys are built accord- 
ing to the size specified. On our blueprints we suggest location and size of 
chimneys, but they can be changed if desired. The flues should be carried 
straight up and independent of one another and uniform without, with proper 
thimble and stoppers put in where required. 

The witches or partitions in chimneys should be four inches thick and 
bonded to the sides of the chimney and extended in every case to the top. 

The flue for the furnace or heating apparatus should be carried from 
cellar to top of chimney independent of all other flues. 

Be sure the chimney is constructed of good hard, sound, burned, common 
bricks and laid in lime mortar. Where chimney shows on outside wall of 
building it should be faced with a good grade of sand mold brick of even color 
and neatly pointed. 

The mortar used for chimney should be made of best lime one part, and 
clean sharp sand two parts and the top courses laid up in cement mortar 
composed of Portland cement one part, clean sharp sand two parts. Too 
much water must not be used in mixing, and only mortar as is required for 
immediate use mixed at one time. None that has stood over night should 
be used. See that the mortar is made thin enough so it will spread, but 
not run. 

Chimney brick should be laid so that there are no straight joints and each 
layer of brick be well leveled. 

Except in freezing weather, the brick should always be wet down with a 
hose before being layed into the chimney, as this will prevent them from taking 
up all of the moisture in the mortar. If the moisture is drawn out by dry, 
porous brick, it will not set properly. If necessary to build your chimney 
in freezing weather, it is always advisable to heat your material by the use 
of Salamanders. 

The footings under the chimney should be from 4 to 6 inches larger than 
the base of the chimney, and from 8 to 12 inches deep. (See paragraphs on 
footings.) 

In smaller summer houses and cheap dwelling houses, tile chimneys are 
often used. A bracket is constructed as shown by Fig. 53 and the tile placed 
on top of it, extending up thru the roof. The tile for chimneys costs 85c 
each for the top and bottom, and 50c each for the straight lengths. A top 
and bottom and from 1 to 3 straight lengths are necessary to construct a chim- 
ney. The joints can be made tight with a little fire clay which will cost about 
$1.00 per hundred pounds. 

The building should be framed so that there is about a V/ 2 inch space be- 
tween the frame and the chimney. Some building codes require more. 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



The Fireplace Crane 

The lights are out, and gone are all the guests 
That thronging came with merriment and jest 
To celebrate the Hanging of the Crane 
In the new house, — into the night are gone, 
But still the fire upon the hearth burns on, 
And I alone remain. 

O fortunate, O happy day, 
When a new household finds its place 
Among the myriad homes of earth, 
Like a new star just sprung to birth, 
And rolled on its harmonious way 
Into the boundless realms of space! 
So said the guests in speech and song, 
As in the chimney, burning bright, 
We hung the iron Crane to-night, 
And merry was the feast and long 
from "The Hanging of the Crane." 

— Longfellow 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 




Fireplaces 



FIREPLACE oddities are as fascinating to-day as of long ago when the 
fireplace was the most attractive part of the home. Never since the 
Colonial days of this country has the wood burning fireplace been so 
popular as to-day. It has again come into its proper place in relation 
to our home and has come to stay. We say this with confidence and with 
sincerity, because there is nothing that can give that particular touch of cozi- 
ness, comfort and cheer which a few sticks or logs blazing on the hearth can 
give. The artificial gas log does not give it, and certainly a steam or water- 
radiator does not give it, but the hearth fire is a magnet which draws and 
charms one irresistibly and creates that atmosphere of comfort and cheer, 
which makes the distinction between a house and a home. 

Man's original use of the fireplace in the camp or good fire will forever 
remain, as it is the most practical of all forms in its gathering together with 
all great force of nature for comfort and pleasure. Like the thing of beauty 
which it is, and to be a joy forever, the fireplace must be honest, genuine, built 
for use and capable of burning without smoking, that is, the smoke must be 
directed into the flue and not in the room. 

What is home without a fireplace? Everyone loves the open fire, as there 
is something fascinating and pleasant about one that is lacking in any other 
system of heating. The fact is that to-day it is the most predominating form 
of heating in European countries, and in our own country, is a strong argu- 
ment in its favor. Not only must it be built for comfort, but made a spot of 
beauty as well. It is not necessary to sacrifice the beauty of the fireplace and 
mantel in order to obtain an efficient one. 

A coal grate is perhaps the best substitute for a wood fire, but lacks much 
of the charm of blaze. Oak or hickory stick and also wood have the advantage 
that they can be kindled and blazing in two or three minutes and allowed 
to die out and rekindled at will. As a ventilator and circulator of air in 
the house, the fireplace has no equal, as it is constantly changing the air in the 
room and drawing in a fresh supply. Where the house is heated by a warm 
air furnace or indirect radiation, the fireplace assists the heater by withdraw- 
ing the lower and cooler strata of air from the room and drawing down the 
warm air which immediately rises to the ceiling, equalizing the temperature to 
a large extent. A room in which there is a fireplace will never become study. 

The most prominent place in a home for the fireplace is either in the 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



living room or dining room, but they are also of great advantage in bedrooms 
especially in case of sickness. 

In the Spring and Fall months, 
essary to have the heater going, as a 
house comfortable. 



there are many days when it is not nec- 
small fire in the fireplace will make the 




We believe in brick for the con- 
struction of the fireplace, as burned 
clay is the material par excellence for 
this work, it being fire-resisting and 
therefore perfectly adapted for this 
purpose and also thoroughly artistic. 
Fire brick or ordinary hard-burned 
common brick are suitable for lining 
the fireplace, but on the other hand. 
stone with the exception of soap stone 
will chip and disintegrate under heat, 
and iron linings will warp and check. 

However, the faults of fireplaces 
are very common and everyone is fa- 
miliar with them to some extent. The 
worst of these is a smoky fireplace. 
In most cases this is caused by the 
flue not being large or. high enough. 
Even a poorly constructed fireplace 
will not smoke if the chimney is an 
exceptionally good one. 

There are doubtless many who at 
this season of the year turn to their 
fireplace for comfort and are disap- 
pointed as volumes of smoke enter 
the room instead of taking the course 
intended by the builder, who, how- 
ever, has carefully constructed the 
fireplace in full accordance with the 
ideas of the architect, the latter with 
rare taste and skill having designed 
the fireplace and mantel with elabor- 
ate architectural treatment. 

To produce a fireplace, however, 
that is satisfactory in every respect, 
requires that the flue be properly pro- 
portioned to the opening according to 
certain rules and that the throat and 
smoke chamber be correctly fashioned. 
The depth of the fireplace should 
never be less than fifteen inches, pref- 
erably twenty inches and for large 
fireplaces twenty-four inches. A 
greater depth than this is unnecessary, 



74 ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 

except for very large fireplaces. The opening should not have a height greater 
than two feet, six inches. 

We will give certain rules and suggestions for the construction of fire- 
plates, which arc the result of considerable actual experience along this line. 





Fig. 56 — Brick Fireplace. 

One of the most important things is the shape. Splayed jambs or sides 
and sloping back have a tendency to direct the heat rays into the room and are 
much less stiff in appearance than those constructed with straight sides and 
plumb backs. 

It is very difficult to estimate the exact size of flue needed for a given size 
fireplace, because there are so many facts to take into consideration, such as 
kind of flue, height of flue, whether inside or outside chimney, kinds of mater- 
ial used, and many other questions that need be considered. 




ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



75 



It is a very wise plan to line fireplace flues with fire tile which will reduce 
friction and insure a smooth flue that will not clog. In some parts of the 
country, flue lining of tile is very expensive. In such cases, chimneys plastered 
up smoothly on the inside of the flue with a good cement plaster will answer 
the purpose. 




Fig. 58 — Brick Fireplace with bookcase at sides. 

When chimneys and fireplaces are properly constructed, the table below 
will give the size necessary for the different size openings needed. 

Size of Opening. Size of Flue. 

24 inch 8xS 

30 inch 8x12 

36 inch 8x16 

42 inch 12x12 

48 inch 12x16 



The construction of the chimney itself is not the only cause for a smoky 
fireplace. Refer to Fig. 55. You will notice the overhang of the fire brick 
in the back of the opening. We have found that many masons will construct 
the opening improperly, instead of giving the overhang a gradual slope, start- 
ing from the center of the opening, will break it off sharp at the top, holding 
the brick in place by the use of angle iron. This is a very poor method and 
invariably will not give the desired results. 

The sloped back produces a narrow throat and gives a wind break on 
shelf back of it, which is the best device for stopping a down draft. 

The throat, or that part of fireplace where it contracts just above the 
arch, is very important, for if it is not properly shaped, there will be trouble 
in the form of smoke working its way out into the room no matter how good 
a draft a fireplace may have. 

The throat should be provided with a valve or damper to shut off down 
drafts and control ventilation. "Is a damper necessary in a fireplace?" This 
<|uestion has often been asked. Our experience has been that all flues are sub- 
ject to down drafts at times, owing to atmospheric conditions, and at such 
times, the damper is a necessity. When the outside atmosphere is warmer than 
the inside, especially in the summer months when the fireplace will not be 
used, very often the air in the flue will drop, producing a down draft, and 



76 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



admit particles of soot which will cause damage to carpets, rugs, floors, and 
furniture. There are many other causes for down drafts such as the re- 
bounding of air currents from the sloping roof when the wind is from a cer- 
tain direction, or a large tree overhanging the house. 

In warm months when the windows are kept open, the ventilation of the 



.-,., lllHf IfWIMIilllMllBt 




Fig-, 59 — Brick Fireplace. 



fireplace is nut required and the damper can be kept closed, shutting off the 
down drafts effectively. In the cold months, the down drafts are not likely 
to occur and the fireplace will provide the best of ventilation even if there is 
no fire in it. 

The gradual slope of the back wall of the opening has a tendency to 
direct the heat out into the room and also concentrates the smoke, giving it a 
better draft up the flue. The back wall should also be carried well above the 
fireplace opening. 

A fireplace should not be too deep, for a deep fireplace will not radiate 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 77 

so much heat into the room as the one which is properly proportioned as to 
depth. 

The following table will give the proper proportion of depth for the 
different width of opening : 

Width of Openings. Depth of Openings. 

26 inches 16 inches 

30 inches 18 inches 

34 inches 20 inches 

38 inches 22 inches 

42 inches 23 inches 

48 inches 24 inches 

With the sides or covings of proper depth and proper angle to the back, 
the breast and throat of the required height in proportion to the width of the 




Fig. 60 — Brick Fireplace. 



opening in front, very surprising results are obtained and leave nothing what- 
ever to be desired, especiallv when thev are made of a material which will re- 
flect rather than retain heat. 



78 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



Of late a newly manufactured product has been put on the market which 
meets all the requirements for fireplace construction. This product is largely 
composed of asbestos and is made in large slabs which can be cut and molded 
in the necessary shapes. It is fire proof in every sense of the word, a perfect 
insulator and will not warp and get out of shape under most severe condi- 
tions. This material makes it possible for fireplaces to be manufactured and 
shipped in a knock-down condition. 

The size of the footings upon which fireplace chimneys are to be built, 
will be governed by the size and height of the chimney. They should be made 
from 6 inches to 8 inches wider than the chimney itself, and about 10 inches 
deep if placed on good clay for an ordinary two-story dwelling house. 

The bottom of the chimney is usually built hollow in order to form a 
receptacle for the ashes from the grate. An iron door is placed at the bottom 
of this opening in order to clean it out. This door is usually about 10x12 
inches, just large enough to take a small shovel in cleaning. 




Fig. 61 — Brick Fireplace, 



In buildings where wooden frames are used, the hearth of the fireplace is 
usually supported by an arch which is constructed of wood or brick. The 
hearth of the fireplace is commonly 18 inches deep by the width of the chim- 
ney in length. 

The smoke chamber should not be larger than necessary and drawn in at 
first toward the center of the chimney, otherwise, the fire will burn in a one- 
sided manner, then it can be drawn over to whatever side you wish the flue to 
pass up. The sides of the smoke chamber should be reasonably smooth and all 
square angles or shoulders avoided, reclining gradually in area until it con- 
nects with the flue. 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



79 



If the metal or reinforced cement smoke chamber is not used, the sides 
should be well plastered with cement lime plaster. 

There is much difference in opinion as to how wide the throat of a fire- 
place should be. The throats vary from four to eight inches, depending upon 
the size of the fireplace and the kind of fuel used. 

To estimate the proper width of the throat is a difficult matter. Build- 
ers will use 4 inches as a general rule, but it will not be sufficient in all cases, 
it depending upon the fuel and the depth and height of the fireplace opening. 
Four inches is most always used, five inches is nearly always sufficient, while 
six or seven inches will meet all conditions. 

Hints on Construction 

It is a good plan to put in a damper so that the throat of the fireplace can 
be regulated and to prevent the loss of heat when the fireplace is not in use. 

It is essential in a good fireplace, to have an air space in back of it, as 
this will prevent the loss of heat and will also keep the moisture out of the 
fire brick. Note air space in Fig. 55. Care must be taken that all dead air 
spaces are tightly closed up at top. 




Fig. 62 — Brick Fireplace. 



It is a fact that heat will travel in a direct line, therefore, the slope which 
is given to the back and sides of the fireplace will have a tendency to radiate 
the heat into the room. The sides can be sloped about three or four inches 
to a foot. 

Do not put a thimble in a fireplace flue. Be sure that the mason builds 
the chimney so that the mantel does not rest entirely on the trimmed arch. 
The chimney should be constructed so as to support it. See that the 



80 



VLADDEN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



overhanging back wall is built with lire bricks laid in Hat, with as 
thin a joint as possible. Do not let an inexperienced man build your fire- 
place. 

We have shown a number of fireplaces of different designs which may be 
suggestive to our builders. 




Figr. 63 — Fireplace constructed of cobblestone. 



Figs. 56 and 5 7 show fireplaces which have been constructed of chern 
red brick with a heavy wood shelf and brackets. These fireplaces though 
plain, will give a very pleasing appearance. 

Fig. 58 shows the elevation and construction of a Colonial design of fire 
place with bookcases at sides. Fireplaces of this design will give the most 
pleasing appearance providing the colors used will harmonize. Dark red 
brick embedded in black cement plaster with the bookcases stained mahogany 
is one of the many color schemes which can be used. 

Fig. 59 shows elevation and construction of a beautiful art mantel and 
fireplace, using a combination of cement plaster and paving brick capped with 
heavy wood shelf and brackets. A very harmonizing effect can be brought 
out in this mantel by coloring the cement plaster with mineral paint or pig- 
ment. 

Fig. 60 thru Fig. 62 shows different methods in which brick can be used 
in an artistic manner in fireplace construction. 

In Figs. 59 and 60 you will notice that the hearth is raised above the floor 
and is constructed of brick. Fig. 62 shows another design, in which stone has 
been artistically used in connection with brick. 

Fig. 63 shows construction of cobble stone fireplace. Fireplaces con- 
structed in this manner are much more expensive than those constructed of 
brick, but will give a very rustic and pleasing appearance when completed. 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



■SBBHHfiHJl 



R|| 
















:— M^HC ■WIHBWMB — 








^ 






















^1 
























































P^^^i 




























- ffi_ 
















































Si 






















*8L I 








jBB H 




i ljU 














^wssiwJ^S^aaajB 


ESm ■ 






■ 





























































Fig. 64 — Tile Fireplace. 



■ffll 


., , I — 














i 


.'>m ' 


R3Pr^5i 


HHHHi 


r lll^f * 


|LywlH| 



Fig. 65 — Tile Fireplace. 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



The main points that will have to be taken into consideration when build- 
ing a fireplace out of cobble stone will be the character of the stones, the fill- 
ing of the space between the stones, the mixing of the mortar and the pointing 
between the stones, of the exposed parts. Refer to paragraph on cobble stone. 
Figs. 64 and 65 show fireplaces constructed of tile. 

The fixtures of fireplaces add considerably to the appearance. The 
basket or grates in which the fire is kindled should be proportioned and har- 
monize in design with your fireplace. This basket is for the purpose of keep- 
ing the fire up off of the base of the fireplace. The grates in the baskets allow 
the ashes to pass thru and lie discharged thru the automatic ash doors in the 
base of the fireplace. 

Andirons add considerably to 
the appearance of the fireplace 
and they are manufactured in 
many shapes and forms, some of 
which are made to support the 
fireplace baskets, others are es- 
pecially suitable for gas logs for 
burning wood without a fire 
basket. 

A few designs of fireplace 
baskets and andirons are shown 
by Fig. 66. These fixtures 
should be selected so they will 
harmonize with the design of 
vour fireplace and also be in 
keeping with the size of open- 
ing. Fireplaces should also be 
equipped with screens or guards 









Fig. 66 — Andirons and Baskets. 



to be placed over the opening to prevent sparks from being drawn out into the 
room. Fig. 67 shows a common form of black or brass screen. Fig. 68 shows a 
more elaborate guard which can be folded up and laid away in a very small . 
space. The screen, when properly selected, will add to 'the appearance of 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



83 




fireplace, especially when it is not burning, 
as it will hide the unpleasant appearance of 
charred brick and ashes. 

Fig. 69 shows a very handy firewood 
holder. This can be purchased at any fur- 
niture store. 



Spark Screen. 




Fig. 70 shows fireplace set usually constructed 
out of brass or cast iron, each set consisting of 
small shovel, prongs and poker. 





Fig. 69— Wicker Wood Holder. 



Fig. 70— Fireplace Set. 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



Stucco 



TH E importance of stucco construction is fast becoming prominent among 
the different home builders of the country. Undoubtedly, the reason 
for this large measure of popularity lies in its wide range of uses. This 
material is fast becoming one of the most generally utilized products 
for domestic architecture. 

A few designs in our catalog have been shown finished with stucco walls 
which give a very pleasing appearance. But stucco can be used to advantage in 
many different ways in beautifying the home. 

Today we see many homes erected with a stucco exterior. It might be 
added that some of these and a goodly percentage, are lacking in the very 
essential for which we were originally striving, the attractive exterior. This 
is due to several things. In the first place the style of the house might be 
such as to make the exterior inharmonious. The lines and angles are out of 
proportion and the setting lacking in important respects. The exterior is de- 
void of proper color effect and the material sometimes of poor qualitv, not 
properly applied, gives the structure a hideous appearance. 

To make the stucco exterior home of real attractiveness and to make it 
durable, we cannot afford to use inferior materials. The logic of this is so 
plain as to need no comment. Then, with good material in the hands of care- 
less workmen, there will be an unsatisfactory job and the house will be, to the 
owner, what it is to the beholder — a miserable makeshift. 

It might be added that with the use of the best stucco, the effects possible 
are wonderful and with the use of contrary kinds, there is nothing that will so 
mar the value and outward appearance of your home. Instances of this arc- 
common, and furthermore, there are to lie seen vast cracks, even loose sections 
and sometimes large sections falling off. Many times these defects are laid to 
the foundation, or to the lath, by the man who has applied the stucco, and he 
thus seeks to hide his own inferior material, or lack of conscientious labor. 

There was a time when we thought all walls, foundations, pedestals and 
chimneys must be constructed of brick or stone, but experience has taught us 
that very proper effects can be brought out by the use of stucco, whether the 
spirit of the house happens to be Spanish. French, English or any other of the 
many types commonly used. 

Stucco is composed of the following material: Sand, wash gravel, lime 
hair, water proofing compound and cement. 

Specifications for stucco should be as follows : 

The cement shall meet the requirements of the Standard specifications 
for Portland cement of the American Society for Testing Materials, and 
adopted by the American Concrete Institute. (Standard No. 1.) 

Fine Aggregate shall consist of sand, crushed stone or gravel screenings, 
graded from fine to coarse, passing when dry, a screen having % inch diameter 
holes, shall be preferably of silicious materials, clean, coarse, free from loam, 
vegetable or other deleterious matter. 

The lime shall be thoroughly hydrated either by the manufacturer, or the 
contractor. If hydrated by the contractor, it shall be slaked in sufficient water 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 85 

to make a soft paste and allowed to stand at least one week before being ap- 
plied to the wall. 

There shall be used only first quality long cow hair, free from foreign 
matter, or long cocoanut fibre well combed out. 

Only mineral colors shall be used, but no coloring matter which is affected 
by lime, Portland cement or the elements is permissible. 

Water shall be clean, free from oil, acid, strong alkalies or vegetable 
matter. 

SHEATHING — Sheathing boards shall not be less than six inches or 
more than eight inches wide, dressed on one or both sides to a uniform thick- 
ness of 7/i inch. They shall be laid horizontally across the wall studs and fast- 
ened with two nails at each stud. 

INSIDE WATKRPROOFING— Over the sheathing boards shall be- 
laid in horizontal layers, beginning at the bottom, a substantial paper well 
impregnated and thoroughly waterproofed with tar or asphalt. The bottom 
strip shall lap over the base board at the bottom of the wall and each strip 
shall lap the one below at least two inches. The paper shall lap the flashing at 
all openings. When required, the lower horizontal edge of each strip shall be 
cemented with hot or liquid tar or asphalt compound, to the strip below and to 
the grounds of flashings at all openings. All tacking shall be within two 
inches of the top horizontal edge, where tacks will be covered by the lap of 
the strip above. 

FURRING— Sykes Expanded Cup Lath (furnished with ALADDIN 
houses) is self-furring. The mortar gets a perfect key when the lath is fast- 
ened directly to sheathing boards without the use of furring strips. 

The first coat shall contain not- more than two and one-half (2 l / 2 ) parts 
of sand to one (1) part of Portland cement by volume. If lime putty is ad- 
ded, it shall not be in excess of one-fifth (1/5) of the volume of cement. 
Hair or fibre may be added in sufficient quantity to bond the mortar. 

For second coat, the proportion of sand to cement shall not be greater 
than 2y 2 to 1 by volume, nor shall more than 1/5 part of lime putty be added. 

For third coat, if used, the proportion of sand to cement shall not be less 
than 2 to 1 nor more than 7 l / 2 to 1, by volume, nor shall more than 1/5 part 
of lime putty be added. 

When a special waterproofing is to be added to mortar for stucco work. 
it shall be added in strict accordance with the specifications of the manu- 
facturer. Lime should be omitted in the coat in which waterproofing may 
be used. 

The plastering should be carried on continuously in one general direction, 
without allowing the plaster to dry at the edge. If it is impossible to work 
the full width of the wall at one time, the joint should be at some natural 
division of the surface, such as a window or door. 

The first coat shall be applied to the outside of the lath and pushed thru 
sufficiently to give a good key. Over the face of the sheathing, the plaster 
should be forced well thru the lath in order to fill entirely the space between 
the lath and the sheathing. The backing coat shall be applied to the back of 
the lath and shall be thoroughly troweled so that the lath shall be entirely 
covered. The final coat shall be applied to the face of the first coat. 

Soon after applying and before the initial set has taken place, the surface 



86 ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 

of the coats which are to receive succeeding coals, shall be roughened with a 
saw-toothed paddle or other suitable device. 

Before applying mortar the surface of the preceding coal shall be thor- 
oughly wetted to prevent absorption of water from the fresh mortar. This 
can be done by keeping a pan of water and a large brush handy. 

In applying, keep in mind the following: 

The first coat should be applied of such a thickness that it will cover the 
metal lath or fabric and fill the crevices. As soon as this coat has hardened 
sufficiently, it should be scratched at right angles and at about 45 degrees to 
the horizontal. 

The scratches used should not cut a sharp line in the plaster, but should 
form grooves with ridges on the sides, so as to present a rough surface for the 
following coat to adhere to. 

The second, and all the following coats, should be applied after the 
preceding coat has hardened, but preferably before it has had time to dry out. 

When placing stucco over a masonry surface, special care must be taken 
to thoroughly saturate the masonry with water, and the paste applied at once. 
When stucco is applied to dry masonry walls, the walls will take up mostly 
all the moisture that should stay in the stucco and this will have a tendency to 
reduce the strength of the same. 

The water compound or waterproofing which is applied with the out- 
side coat, renders the wall impervious to water, insuring greater durability 
and dry walls. 

Do not apply stucco when there is any danger of the temperature falling 
below freezing and preparations should be made to prevent too rapid setting. 
In hot weather, it is often necessary to cover the wall in some manner to pre- 
vent the stucco from setting too rapidly which can be done by the use of a 
damp canvas, or burlap, and when sufficiently resistant, should be frequently 
sprinkled with water. 

MIXING — -The ingredients of the mortar shall be thoroughly mixed to 
a uniform color, sufficient water added to obtain the desired consistency, and 
the mixing shall continue until the cement and lime are uniformly distributed 
and the mass is uniform in color and homogeneous. 

The hair or fibre shall be added during the process of wet mixing. 

MEASURING PROPORTIONS— Methods of measurement of the 
proportions of the various ingredients, including the water, shall be used, 
which will secure separate uniform measurements at all times. All propor- 
tions stated are by volume. A barrel of cement shall be assumed to contain 
3.8 cu. ft. Lime when used shall be measured in the form of putty. Hy- 
drated lime shall be made into putty before being measured. A cubic foot of 
lime putty contains .31 cu. ft. of hydrated lime weighing 45 lbs. and .69 cubic 
feet of water weighs 43 lbs. 

QUANTITY — There shall not be mixed at one time more mortar than 
will be used within one hour. Mortar which has begun to stiffen or take on 
its initial set shall not be used. 

HAND MIXING — The mixing shall be done on'a water-tight platform 
and the materials shall be turned until they are homogeneous in appearance 
and color. 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



87 



CONSISTENCY — The materials shall be mixed so as to provide suffi- 
cient water to insure a proper bonding and a dense mortar free from voids. 

RETEMPERING — Retempering mortar, i. e., remixing with water aft- 
er it has partially set, shall not be allowed. 

PREPARATION OF ORIGINAL SURFACE— All roof gutters shall 
be fixed and down-spout hangers and all other fixed supports and fasteners 
put up before the plastering is done, so there will be no break made 
in the plastering where they are permanently fixed. 

Wall copings, balustrade rails, chimney caps, 
cornices, etc., shall be built of concrete, stone, 
tile or metal with ample over-hang drip grooves 
or lip, and water-tight joints, to keep water 
from behind the plaster. 

If wood sills are used, they should project 
well from the face of the plaster and have am- 
ple drip, groove or lip. 

Metal lath shall be stopped far enough above 
the level of the ground to be free from ground 
moisture. 

Care should be taken to provide for placing 
all trim the proper distance from the sheathing 
to show its right projection after the plaster is 
on, that is, furring strips should be used behind 
window casing, etc. No exterior plastering 
should be permitted until all the interior frame- 
work has been finished and the building com- 
pletely braced. 

Many kinds of wood and metal lath are on the 
market to-day. Be sure to select a good grade 
for your building. Wood lath are often used for 
stucco work, but unless they have been treated 
to take care of shrinkage and warping, we would 
not advise using them to any extent unless they 
are first wet down so that they will not take up 
the moisture of the stucco. The lath should be 
furred out so that the stucco can form a "key" 





Tig. 71 — Sections through stucco walls. 

or clinch in back of them. Metal lath are usually made self-furring so that 



88 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 




Fig. 75 — Expansion Metal Lath, 



It is furnished in 2 7-, 26-. 24-gauge painted and 



they can be nailed over side walls without using furring strips. Figure 71 
shows section of stucco wall. 

The metal lath furn- 
ished with Aladdin houses 
when stucco is furnished 
for outside walls, is Svkes 
Expanded Cup Lath. It 
is self-furring and you get 
a perfect key when fast- 
ened directly to sheathing 
board or when passing 
over wood studding with- 
out the use of furring 
strips. Sykes metal lath 
is manufactured in sheets 
18x96 in. and packed in 
bundles of 15 sheets each, 
containing 20 square yards, 
galvanized metal. 

The sheets of reinforcement or metal lath should be placed horizontally, 
that is, rib material should have the ribs run across the studding. The ex- 
panded metal should be placed with the long dimension of the mesh horizontal. 
In expanded metal, the dip should be inward and downward away from the 
workman, so that a perfect "key" can be formed. 

Grounds should allow at least y% inch over face of sheathing. Edges of 
sheets should lap about the width of mesh and no more, simply to make the 
sheets stiff, and the meshes should nest. For best results, metal weighing not 
less than three pounds per square yard should be used. If a vertical corner 
bead is not used, there should be six inch strips of metal lath bent around the 
corners and stapled over the side of lathing, or the sheets of side lath as ap- 
plied, can be bent around the corners and fastened. A combination of corner 
bead and strip of lath is often recommended. 

The lath should be fastened to sheathing with ^xl4-gauge staples and 
nailed about 6 inches apart, into the studding as much as possible. The sheets 
of Sykes metal lath should be locked or lapped at least 1 inch and tied at 
joints between studs vertically and horizontally with 18-gauge wire. 

In mixing, the cement and hydrated lime should be thoroughly mixed 
together first in a dry state until of a uniform color. Then add this to the 
dry sand and the whole manipulated until evenly mixed. The dry mixture 
should then be tempered to the correct oozing consistency, with water to which 
waterproofing has been added. The mortar is now to be thoroughly worked 
and mixed together until uniform. Make this mixture up in lots that can be 
immediately applied and any material that has been mixed with water over 30 
minutes before applying, is not to be used. 



Finishes 



SMOOTH TROWELED— The finishing coat shall be troweled smooth 
with a metal trowel with as little rubbing as possible. 

STIPPLED — The finishing coat shall be troweled smooth with a metal 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 8<J 

trowel with as little rubbing as possible, and then shall be lightly patted with 
a brush of broom straw to give an even, stippled surface. 

SAND FLOATED — The finishing coat, after being brought to a smooth, 
even surface, shall be rubbed with a circular motion of a wood float, with the 
addition of a little sand to slightly roughen the surface. This floating shall 
be done when the mortar has partially set. 

SAND SPRAYED — After the finishing coat has been brought to an even 
surface, it shall be sprayed by means of a wide, long fibre brush — a whisk 
broom does very well — dipped into a creamy mixture of equal parts of cement 
and sand, mixed fresh every 30 minutes and kept well stirred in the bucket by 
means of the whisk broom or a paddle. This coating shall be thrown forcibly 
against the surface to be finished. This treatment shall be applied while the 
finishing coat is still moist and before it has attained its final set, i. e., within 
3 to 5 hours. To obtain lighter shades, add hydrated lime of 5 to 15 per cent, 
of the volume of the cement. 

SPLATTER DASH OR ROUGH CAST— After the finishing coat has 
been brought to a smooth, even surface and before attaining final set, it shall 
be uniformly coated with a mixture of one part cement and two parts of sand 
thrown forcibly against it to produce a rough surface of uniform texture when 
viewed from a distance of 20 feet. Special care shall be taken to prevent 
the rapid drying out of this finish. 

PEBBLE DASH — After the finishing coat has been brought to a smooth, 
even surface, and before attaining initial set, clean round pebbles or other 
material as selected, not smaller than J /\ in. or larger than ^4 m -> previously 
wetted, shall be thrown forcibly against the mortar so as to imbed themselves 
in the fresh mortar. They shall be distributed uniformly over the surface of 
the final coat and may be pushed back into the mortar with a clean wood 
trowel, but no rubbing of the surface shall be done after the pebbles are im- 
bedded. 

EXPOSED AGGREGATES— The finishing coat shall be composed 
of an approved, selected coarse sand, marble dust, granite dust or other special 
material, in the proportion given for finishing coats and within 24 hours after 
being applied and troweled to an even surface, shall be scrubbed with a stiff 
brush and water. In case the cement is too hard, a solution of one part hydro- 
chloric acid in four parts of water by volume can be used in place of water. 
After the aggregate particles have been uniformly exposed by scrubbing, care 
shall be taken to remove all traces of the acid by spraying with a hose. 

MORTAR COLORS — When it is required that any of the above finishes 
shall be made with colored mortar, not more than 6 per cent, of the weight of 
Portland cement shall be added to the mortar in the form of finely ground 
coloring matter. 

A predetermined weight of color shall be added dry to each batch of dry 
fine aggregate before the cement is added. The color and fine aggregate shall 
be mixed together and then the cement and lime mixed in. The whole shall 
then be thoroughly mixed dry by shoveling from one pile to another thru a ^4 
inch mesh wire screen until the entire batch is of uniform color. Water shall 
then be added to bring the mortar to a proper plastering consistency. 

Many beautiful color effects can be obtained on walls, chimneys, or piers, 
with stucco, some of them by applving cement paint to the completed walls 



90 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



and others by mixing coloring to the materials. Vegetable or oil color weakens 
the cement, while colors containing acid act upon the alkalis. 

Nothing but mineral colors are suitable. 

The following table will give the proportion and kinds of minerals used 
for coloring stucco : 



Color. 



Mineral. 



Pounds of Color 
Barrel Cement. 



( Jray Lamp Black 2 

Black Manganese Dioxide 48 

Blue Ultramarine 20 

( ireen Ultramarine Green 24 

Red Pompeiian or English Red 24 

Bright Red Iron Oxide 24 

Sand Stone Red Purple Iron Oxide 24 

Violet Violet Iron Oxide 24 

Brown Brown Ochre or Roasted Oxide. . 24 

Yellow or Buff Yellow Ochre 24 



Overcoating 

During recent years there has come into vogue a method of remodeling 
old frame houses. This "overcoating," as it is called, is used extensively in all 
sections of the country and the following practice is recommended: 

Every house has its own defects and characteristics and each must be 
treated according to its physical condition. 

A tight roof is essential. 

Sometimes in this class of work, it becomes necessary to make some pro- 
vision for extending the old window and door frames to correspond with in- 




Fig. 73 



J t i T J N A A 

Fig. 74. 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 91 

creased thickness of the wall. In some cases the plaster is brought over the 
old frames in such a manner that a recess window or door opening is made. 
Another manner of taking care of the extra thickness of wall is shown in 
Figures 72, 73 and 74. 

If the weather-boarding is in poor condition it should be removed and 
metal lath applied over the sheathing, to which waterproof paper has pre- 
viously been fastened. 

Another method would be to fasten the metal lath to the weather-boards, 
after applying waterproof paper over the weather-boarding. 

In preparation for any of these methods the house should be gone over 
carefully to determine if the framework is well enough preserved to justify 
the improvement. 

The doors should be looked after, the studding inspected, partitions and 
outside walls lined up and brought into plumb. 

The area over which a barrel of Portland cement in various mixtures 
will cover with coating of various thicknesses is shown as follows : 

TABLE IX. 

Proportion. Thickness of Coat. Square Feet. 

1 cement 1 inch 67 

1 sand 24 inch 90 

y 2 inch 134 

54 inch 268 

1 cement 1 inch 104 

2 sand Y\ inch 129 

y 2 inch 209 

Y A inch 418 

1 cement 1 inch 140 

3 sand 3/i inch 184 

y 2 inch 280 

y inch 560 



Cost of Stucco 

At the present writing, building materials are considerably higher than in 
former years. An estimate on stucco can be worked out from the present pre- 
vailing prices and the cost of labor in your community. 

Metal lath will cost from 25c to 40c per yard, depending upon the gauge 
used (24-, 25-, 26-, 27-gauge). 

Cement at (3.8 cu. ft.) at $2.40 per bbl. 

Sand at $2.00 per yard. 

Fine Gravel (for pebble dash) at $3.50 per yard. 

Lime (hydrated) at $15.00 per ton. 

Hair at 50c per bushel. 



92 ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



Keene's Cement 



WHERE it is desired to finish plastered walls, ceiling, etc., with a very 
hard and highly polished surface, Keene's cement is generally used. 
This cement has been in use for a period of seventy years and is 
now recognized as an indispensable material for interior finishing. 
1 1 is made in four grades. 

"Regular," which is the grade used fur all general plastering and finish- 
ing purposes. 

"Fine" is made from specially selected hard polished rock to insure pur- 
ity of color and is ground a little finer than the regular. It is used for cast- 
ings, running mouldings, finishing columns and other ornamental plastering. 

The "Coarse" grade is a very slow setting, coarsely ground material, used 
for backing up artificial marble. 

The "Superfine" grade is used for facing artificial marble. It is slow 
setting, exceptionally fine ground, pure white and has a high tensile strength. 
There are no universally recognized standards for Keene's cement. Each 
manufacturer makes his own. The time of setting and fineness of grinding 
are occasionally varied to suit the conditions under which the material is to 
be used. Tensile strength in the "Regular," "Fine," "Coarse," "Superfine," 
per square inch seven days in air, 350, 400, 500, 550. 

With the exception of lime, practically all plastering materials for in- 
terior use may be broadly divided into two classes, both having their origin in 
Gypsum rock — namely, hard wall plasters and Keene's Cement. 

In the manufacture of hard wall plaster, the Gypsum rock is first ground, 
then calcined for a short period at a low temperature, forming a very quick- 
setting material known as plaster of paris. To this are added chemicals to 
retard the set, also hair, fibre or such other ingredients as may be necessary. 

With Keene's Cement the process is entirely different. At no state of the 
manufacture does Keene's Cement resemble in any manner plaster of paris. 
and no free chemicals or retarders enter into its composition. In the hands of 
experienced workmen, the material goes through the various processes neces- 
sary to produce Keene's Cement, and it is packed in a pure form without the 
addition of hair, fibre or any other materials. From the moment the rock 
enters the mill, until the finished product pours into the sacks ready for ship- 
ment, the process differs at every point from the method of manufacturing 
other plastering materials. 

Keene's Cement contains no retarder ; can be retempered as often as nec- 
essary; is comparatively slow-setting, and is very hard and strong, without 
being brittle. It can be worked over thoroughly until all marks of joinings 
or other inequalities are removed ; and as it can be retempered, there is no 
danger of "dead" plaster being applied to the walls, thus doing away with a 
fruitful source of future trouble. 

The hard, close grained surface of a wall plastered with Keene's Cement 
forms an ideal base for painting or enameling. The expense of sizing is un- 
necessary, and the work can be started within a few days after the plastering 
is completed, thus dispensing with the usual delay. The most delicate colors 
may be safely applied, as there is no free alkali in Keene's Cement. 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 93 

Keene's Cement is occasionally regarded as merely a superior variety of 
retarded hard plaster, whereas it is the direct opposite of this. It is the ab- 
sence of unsanitary retarders, and the close, firm, germ-proof texture of the 
plaster that have been responsible for the use of this material in so many large 
hospitals, schools and other buildings where sanitation plays such an impor- 
tant part. 

We do not recommend the use of Keene's Cement of any brand for ex- 
terior purposes. While it will stand very much more moisture than any other 
interior plastering material, it is not hydraulic, and will in time wear away 
when exposed to severe weather conditions. 

Properly applied, Keene's Cement is permanent. It not only sets slowly, 
but hardens slowly, and a wall plastered with it grows stronger and more 
durable the longer it stands. 

Keene's Cement does not deteriorate with age, as do ordinary plasters. 
If stored in a dry warehouse, it actually improves with keeping. 

Named after the discoverer of the process, Keene's Cement has for 
nearly three-quarters of a century been the acknowledged standard in high- 
class plastering materials. 

Wainscoting in Bathrooms, Kitchens and Corridors 

To secure absolute sanitation, the base and cap moulds should first be run 
in Keene's Cement "Fine," and the space between filled in as in ordinary 
plastering. It is customary to run the cap mould about 4 feet 6 inches from 
the floor. 

As the wainscoting is the part of the wall most likely to sustain injury 
from rough usage, it should be as strong as possible, and very little, if any. 
lime should be used in the finish coat. 

When laying off wainscots in imitation of tiling, the finish should be 
sufficiently hard for the marking tool to cut sharply defined lines without tear- 
ing the wall. In the absence of a proper tool, the handle end of a file will 
usually give satisfactory results. As a general rule it is well to wait for twelve 
or fourteen hours after the plastering is completed before using the marking 
tool. 

Another method is to allow the finish coat to dry out thoroughly, then 
mark it off into blocks of the required size with a blue pencil, such as car- 
penters use, making the lines about one-eighth of an inch wide. The work is 
then finished with two or three coats of a good transparent varnish. 

While the above methods are often followed, a more pleasing and durable 
effect is obtained by leaving the finish in a smooth state, and not marking it 
off to reproduce tiling. A Keene's Cement wall is good enough to stand on 
its own merits, without being made in imitation of a less satisfactory material. 

Keene's Cement is not waterproof. It will stand more moisture than 
any other interior plastering material, but where it is desired to wash the walls 
or wainscoting frequently, the same should be either enameled or given some 
other surface treatment. 

Painting Keene's Cement Walls 

If it is desired to give the plastering a decorative or waterproofing treat- 
ment, Keene's Cement will be found to possess many advantages over ordinary 
plasters for this purpose. 



94 ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 

A Keene's Cement wall can and should be painted or enameled as soon as 
ii is thoroughly dry; thus dispensing with the usual delay. 

Keene's Cement makes a compact, close-grained surface that forms an 
ideal base for any kind of decorative work. 

There is no free alkali in Keene's Cement, and the most delicate colors 
may be safely applied over it. 

If it is desired to size the walls before painting, a primer of varnish, 
thinned down, will lie found satisfactory. 

Enameling Keene's Cement Walls 

There are many excellent makes of enamel now on the market which are 
most suitable for use over Keene's Cement, and the manufacturers of such 
products will gladly furnish on request full directions for the use of their 
enamels in connection with Keene's Cement. 

In general, however, it is safe to say that at least three undercoats should 
be used, preferably of white lead in oil, although it is quite customary to com- 
bine with the lead a certain preparation of zinc, increasing the amount of zinc 
used with each successive coat. 

Undercoats should be allowed sufficient time to dry out thoroughly, and 
then be lightly sanded with sand paper. If the undercoats have been properly 
applied and finished, one finishing coat of white enamel should be sufficient. 

Keene's Cement Blackboards 

The strength and durability of Keene's cement makes it particularly suit- 
able for blackboards in schools and lecture rooms, where it is not desired to 
go to the expense of installing slate blackboards. 

When used for this purpose, the base coats should be applied as in or- 
dinary plastering ; the brown coat being brought to a true and level surface. 

The finish coat should be composed of pure Keene's Cement and water, 
with the addition of sufficient lamp black to make the coat dark gray in color. 
This finish coat should not be less than one-eighth inch thick and should be 
troweled until perfectly smooth and level. 

When dry, the finish coat should be painted with one of the preparations 
that are made and sold for this purpose, or instead, it may be given three 
coats of the following mixture : Dissolve one pound of white shellac in one 
gallon of wood alcohol, and add four ounces of lamp black and eight ounces 
of powdered pumice stone. This produces a surface to which chalk will 
leadily adhere, and one that can be easily cleaned. 

Cost of Using Keene's Cement 

So many factors enter into the cost of finished plastering that it is not 
practicable to name prices that would apply equally over any large part of the 
country. The cost of materials and labor in the local market, and the state of 
business, will frequently cause marked variations in plastering estimates. 

As a general rule, three coat work done with Keene's Cement will cost 
about 5c a square yard more than hard wall plaster. This estimate applies 
generally throughout the Central states. In the Pacific and Atlantic coast 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 95 

states it would be better to figure about 8c per square yard more for Keene's 
Cement than for hard wall plaster. 

Ornamental plastering executed in Keene's Cement is usually figured at 
about 10c per square yard more than when ordinary casting plaster is used. 

In using Keene's Cement for wainscots, very little, if any lime should be 
used in the finish coat, which can either be left smooth or marked off in imita- 
tion of tiling. The total cost of this class of work, including enameling, will 
usually run about 90c per square yard, with an additional 10c a running foot 
for cap and base mouldings. This is only a fraction of the cost of tiling, and 
it eliminates the cost of repairs, which are so frequently necessary when tiles 
are used. 

Important 

Do not try to trowel a Keene's Cement finish as soon as it is applied. 
Let it stand for a few minutes — then trowel to a hard smooth finish. 

Do not throw a Keene's Cement mixture away because it starts to SET 
either in the box or on the board. Add more water and retemper. You can't 
kill Keene's Cement. 

Sanitary Floors for Bathroom and Kitchen 

Many materials are being manufactured today to make permanent sani- 
tary floors for kitchens and bathrooms of dwelling houses. Some of those 
most commonly used are tile, mosaic tile, asbestone, marbleoid, and many 
others. 




96 



U.ADIHN MANUAL OK CONSTRUCTION 



Tile 



















L 


•ji 










ft i j j^^T I AW'rwLff-k{M 


^JML'^y'lm^e 


jgpifSa jW?|S?^ i h!b 








* iYi'i'i'i'iiikor HlTJW 


ffl$£ 





THIS material is made of vitreous clay. It is made in regular tile forms 
of square and hexagonal shapes and of many shades of pink, blue, 
green, black, white and gray, which can be laid into very pretty de- 
signs for floors of bathrooms, kitchens, vestibules, stores, etc. 
It is practically indestructible, very easily laid, will last a lifetime and is 
not only the best, but the cheapest floor you can buy. It is very easily cleaned, 
and therefore very sanitary. The even and regular texture of tile admits the 
adaption of Damask designs which have become identified and associated with 
this material. The minuteness of the tile admits a great variation of design 
and can, therefore, follow each line in architecture. It is also absolutely imper- 
vious to any acid or the elements to which it is exposed. 

A few de- 
signs have 
1 >een shown 
by Fig. 76 
whichwill 
give a general 
idea of the 
pleasing effect 
that this tile 
will give to a 
room. 

The tile is 
laid in a very 

Fig. 76 — Tile designs. 

easy manner. 

In the rooms where it is to be used, it will be necessary to notch out the joists 
so as to lower the wood floor about iy 2 or 3 inches below the main floor. This 
will allow for a bed of concrete upon which the tile should be laid. Fig. 80 
shows the way joists should be constructed to support concrete bed for tile. 

A good foundation is always necessary and should be solid and perfectly 
level, free from spring or vibration. 

Tile must always be laid upon a concrete foundation prepared of the best 
quality of Portland cement and clean, sharp, crushed level sand and gravel. 
Cinders should never be used as they tend to destroy the life of the cement, 
but if used, all ashes removed and the vitrified cinders and chunks thoroughly 
washed. The sulphur in cinders will destroy reinforcing in concrete. 

Before laying the floor, the concrete should be allowed to thoroughly 
harden. Brush it well to remove all .dust, and soak good with water. First, 
dust on concrete a thin coat of fine Portland cement before applying mortar 
for laying tile. Concrete should be allowed to stand more than three or four 
days before laying tile. Never mix lime mortar with the concrete. 

Concrete should consist of one part Portland cement, two parts clean, 
washed, sharp sand and four parts gravel. Mix cement and sand thoroughly 
dry, add gravel and mix, adding sufficient water to form a medium mixture. 
Tamp concrete well around joists. Sometimes it is a good plan to use rein- 
forcements of metal lath or wire. 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 




Fig-. 77 — Method of laying guide strips for laying tile. 



^Zg^^ 



The bed should not be less than 2 x / 2 or 3 inches thick. Surface of concrete 
must be level and finished within one inch of finish floor line (when tile y 2 
inch thick is used) which will leave a space of y 2 inch for cement mortar. 

Next comes the floats consisting of one part cement and two parts clean, 
sharp, washed sand into which the tile is to be embedded. 

Semi- vitreous or vit- 
reous tiles for floors ^S^S 
are first laid out to as- 
certain if they are all 
right and compared 
with plan provided for 
laying floor. Strips 
are then set, beginning 
at one end and at the 
center of the room, 
and level with intended 
finished floor line. Two 
sets of floor guide strips 
running parallel about 
18 to 30, inches apart 
should be set first. See 
Fig. 77. Mortar is then 
spread between them for 6 to 8 feet at a time, and leveled with a screed notch 
at each end to allow for thickness of tiles. See Fig. 78. Tiles are placed 
upon mortar which must be stiff enough not to work up between the joint. 
Tiles are properly pressed into mortar and tamped down with block and ham- 
mer until exactly 
level with strips. 
When space between 
strips is completed, 
strips on one side of 
tile are moved out 
18 to 30 inches and 
placed in proper po- 
sition for laying another section of tile, using tile which has been laid as guide 
for one end of screed and laying of tile continued in the same manner until 
the floor is finished. 

When cement is sufficiently set, which should be in about two days, see 
that floor is well scrubbed with clean water and broom, and joints thoroughly 
grouted with fine cement, mixed with water to the consistency of thick cream. 
As soon as this begins to thicken, it should be rubbed off with sawdust, or fine 
shavings and floor left perfectly clean. 

Tile for fireplace hearths should be laid in the same manner. 

To estimate the number of tile necessary, we will take for example a room 
10x16 feet composed of oblong tile 6x1 ^j inches in size and a border around 
the edge composed of 6x6 inch blue and white tile. To find the number of 
tile necessary we proceed as follows : 

The area to be covered by the oblong tile 6x1^ inches is 9x15=135 



— SCREED 




■ CONCRETE 

-Method of leveling cement -with screed. 



98 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



square feet. There are 144 square inches in 1 square foot; therefore 135x144 
=19,450 square inches. One oblong tile 6x1^2 inches=9 square inches. 

19,450-^9=2,161 tile. 

It would be better to order 2,200 to allow for breakage. 

The border would take 2 to each lineal foot around the room which would 
be 100 tile for border. 

Table X will give the size of many standard tile and the number re- 
quired per square foot of surface to be covered. 



TABLE X 



Number of Tile Required Per Square Foot of Area to be Covered 



Shape of Tile 



Square 

Oblong 

Oblong 

Oblong 

Oblong 

Oblong 

Square 

Square 

Square 

Square 

Square 

Diagonal Y* 
Diagonal Yz 
Diagonal ]/ 2 
Diagonal %. 
Diagonal yi 
Diagonal l /z 

Oblong 

Oblong 



Size in 
Inches 



6x6 
6x4 
6x3 
1x2 
6x1^ 
6x1 
4>(x4X 
3x3 
2x2 
1x1 

%^A 

6x6 

4^x4X 
3x3 

2ysx2^ 
l^xl J4 

4Xx2/s 
4Xxl-A 



Number 
in Sq. Ft. 



8 

12 

16 

24 

8 

16 

36 

144 

576 

8 

16 
32 
64 
128 
256 
16 
32 



Shape of Tile 



Oblong 

Oblong 

Oblong 

Octagon Diagonal l /z 
Octagon Square Yz... 
Octagon Square %... 

Hexagon 

Hexagon Long Y 

Hexagon Short % ... 

Octagon 

Hexagon 

Hexagon Diagonal >2 

Triangle 

Half Triangle 

Triangle 

Half Triangle 

Triangle 

Half Triangle 



Size in Number 
Inches in Sq. Ft. 



3x1/ 
3x1 
2/sxl t V 
6x6 
6x6 
6x6 
6x3 
6x3 
6x3 
3x3 
6x5 ft 
6x5^ 

3 

3 

Ifi 

III 

1A 

1 5 



18? 
10| 

2iy 2 

21 H 

m 

61 
12# 
37 
74 

109? 

219? 

249 

298 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



99 



Mosaic Tile 

Mosaic tiles are first examined to ascertain if design is right. They are 
laid in the same manner as ordinary tile, that is, a concrete foundation is pre- 
pared between the joists and the tile are set into the cement mortar. Cement 
mortar is spread evenly and leveled with screed. Sheets of papered mosaic tile 
are laid carefully on mortar with paper side up. After space is covered, the 
tile setter should press tile into mortar gently at first, firmly afterwards, using 
block and hammer, leveling tile as much as possible. 




Fig. 79 — Neat appearance of Bath Room with sanitary floor and wainscoting. 



In 
be laid 
finished 



large areas of floors, about every third or fourth row of sheets should 
to a chalk line to avoid bad kinks in line of tiling after the floor is 



Tile should be beaten 
down until the mortar is 
visible in joints through 
paper, however, without 
breaking it. Paper is then 
moistened and after being 
well soaked, can be easily 
removed. It is pulled off 
backwards starting at the 
corners. After removing 
paper, tile should be 
sprinkled with white sand 




, 80 — Shows construction of joists for tile floor, 



100 ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 

before finishing the beating so that tiles will not adhere to beater owing to 
paste which is used in mounting them. Connections of surface are then made 
by leveling with block and hammer. The filling of joints and cleaning of 
surface are delicate operations, as the looks of the floor will depend largely 
upon them. 

Joints are to be filled with clean Portland cement mixed with water. 
This mixture is forced into the joints with a flat trowel. Do not use a broom. 
After joints are filled, surplus cement is removed from surface by drawing a 
wet piece of cotton flannel over it. This cloth must be washed frequently with 
clean water. After floor is clean, it should be allowed to stand for a day or 
two ; then the whole floor is to be rubbed off with sharp sand and block of soft 
.lumber. This treatment removes the last trace of cement. 

In laying these mosaic tile sheets, care should be taken to see that spaces 
between them are the same as between small tiles on sheets, so as not to give 
floor a block appearance. 

Mosaic tile will cost from 20c to 30c per square foot and are made in 
many pleasing colors and designs. A great saving can be made by using this 
method of laying tile, but only the smaller sizes are so mounted. 

Cleaning Floor Tile 

Remove with sawdust, and afterwards wipe off with flannel cloth and 
water, all traces of cement left on surface of tile, as it is hard to clean after it 
is set. After thoroughly cleaning floor, cover with sawdust and keep boards 
placed on floors for several days where it is necessary to walk upon it. 

A white scum sometimes appears on the surface of tile, caused by the 
cement. This generally can be removed by washing frequently with plenty of 
soap and water. If scum or dirt cannot be removed by washing, then use a 
solution of muriatic acid and water (6 ounces of acid to a bucket of water) 
applied with a scrubbing brush. Allow acid to remain on floor only a few 
minutes and then wash off. 

Caution should be taken not to allow anyone to walk upon or not to carry 
anything heavy over the floor or have any pounding about the work for sev- 
eral days or until the tile is firmly set. Unless these precautions are taken, it 
will be impossible to guarantee a first class job. Tile work is often condemned 
when the fault lies in the rush of other contractors to finish their work. 

Do not allow tile to get wet and lie in sawdust, as it will stain the tile. 



Asbestone 

This is a composition flooring which is sanitary, fireproof and durable. 
It is applied like cement or plaster, to floors, and walls (as wainscoting). It 
consists of a dry powdered material which is shipped in paper lined bags. 
This powder is mixed with a soluble crystal compound. The soluble crystal 
compound is dissolved in water and mixed with the dry powdered asbestone, 
in an ordinary mixing box such as plasterers and bricklayers use. The plastic 
mixed material is spread over the floor in an even layer and troweled to a 
smooth, even surface with an ordinary finishing trowel. 

It may be laid on wood, concrete, brick or steel with equal success, but it 
must not be laid over lime mortar or any compound of lime. 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 101 

When laid over a wood foundation, it is necessary to first apply a number 
26 or number 27 gauge painted expanded metal lath. To secure a firm bond 
with the under floor, asbestone should be applied x /i inch thick. If a greater 
thickness is required the manufacturers of this material make a cheaper filler 
to level uneven floors. When laid y 2 inch thick asbestone weighs little more 
than ordinary wood flooring or about 3 pounds per square foot. 

Ordinarily, this material will set over night and will be ready for use if 
applied in a heated building. However, it is a non-freezing material and can 
be applied in freezing weather, but better results are obtained if applied when 
the temperature is 40 degrees Fahrenheit or above. 

Asbestone is resilient and therefore not slippery. It is the same consist- 
ency throughout and will not show wear. The cost is about \A]/ 2 c per square 
foot for a coat y 2 inch thick. This is for sufficient material of the dry powder- 
ed asbestone and soluble crystal compound. 

It is furnished in six different colors — light and dark red, light and dark 
buff, gray and black. Very pleasing and attractive results may be obtained by 
combining a dark colored border (or base and border) with a lighter color for 
the main portion of the floor, (known as the field). In this connection we 
would suggest : 

Black Border Gray Field 

Black Border Red Field 

Black Border Buff Field 

Red Border Gray. Field 

Red Border Buff Field 

Any additional information about this material can be obtained from The 
Franklin R. Muller & Co., Waukegan, 111. 



Marbleoid 

Marbleoid is a standardized, permanent, light weight, fireproof and re- 
silient covering for floors, coved sanitary base, wainscoting, trim, etc. It is 
laid plastic, usually y 2 inch thick, and sets in a few hours into a seamless, 
tough body, possessing a fine grained, smooth surface. Thus the marbleoid 
forms a hermetic seal, offering neither joints nor crevices for the accumula- 
tion of germs, dirt or moisture. 

The fact that it is jointless and remarkably free from cracks caused by 
uneven settlement, working or vibration of buildings, gives it unusual sanitary 
value. It is easily kept clean ; is quiet under tread ; owing to its elasticity, 
it possesses high resistance to abrasion ; is not slippery ; is waterproof ; 
owing to its plasticity, it is not fatigueing to walk on; is a non-conductor of 
heat, and therefore, never cold and it has great crushing and structural strength. 

Marbleoid adheres firmly to wood, concrete or iron, and may be used to 
reinforce old floors, as well as new. It is made in all colors, the fastness, 
softness and variety of the mineral colors used offer unusual possibilities in 
the working out of any color scheme. 

Additional information can be obtained from the Marbleoid Co., Marl- 
bridge Building, Broadway and 34th Street, New York, N. Y. 



102 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



Special Roofing Materials 

Slate Shingles 

SLATE is mined along the Blue Ridge Mountains in Pennsylvania, Vir- 
ginia, Maryland ; also in Vermont and New York. By far the greater 
bulk of the output used in the United States comes from these regions. 
Slate roofs are used considerably at the present time, with good re- 
sults, in localities where they can be obtained cheaply. Although we do not 
furnish slate roof covering, we do not think that it would be out of place to 




M a J J ^ 



Fig. 81 — Shows lap, gauge and bond of slate Shinj 



give a little helpful information in regard to applying and cost of slate shin- 
gles, as many of our customers use them on ALADDIN buildings and have the 
regular wooden shingles omitted. When a good quality is obtained and ap- 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 103 

plied in the proper manner, it no doubt will give a very satisfactory and last- 
ing roof covering. 

Slate shingles can be obtained in different colors, black, green, natural, 
unfading green and unfading red. Sometimes different colors are used in or- 
der to obtain an ornamental effect. 

The sizes of slate shingles vary from 6x12 inches up to 24x44 inches. 
The common sizes in general use are 6x12 inches to 12x18 inches. The thick- 
ness of the slate shingles vary from Y% to ^ inch, but the usual size is 3/16 
inch in thickness. 

Slate may be laid either on regular sheathing laid tight or on roofing 
strips 2 to 3 inches wide and 1 to \% inches thick, fastened to the rafters the 
same distance apart corresponding to the gauge of the slate, that is, if shingles 
are to be laid 5 inches to the weather, the roofing strips should be placed on 
5 inch centers so that the nails will come into them. 

Where sheathing is laid solid, a layer of tarred felt or waterproofing 
paper is usually placed between slate and roof sheathing to act as a cushion 
for the shingles, which will prevent them from cracking, should there be any 
vibration to the roof. 

We would advise that your sheathing be laid tightly over building, and 
also be sure 'that your roof is properly braced, as slate shingles will add con- 
siderable weight for rafters to carry. 

Start at the eaves of the building and work upwards and lay with a 3 
inch lap, that is, the slate shingles in the third course will overlap those in the 
first course by 3 inches. See Fig. 81 for lap, gauge and bond of slate roofing. 

The shingles should project over the eave of your building about \y 2 
inches. They are usually punched for nails before delivered so that it is 
possible to lay them only one way. 

The nails should be three or four D and must not be allowed to project 
up above the surface of the shingles, in which case it would damage the over- 
laying slate. Galvanized nails should be used. 

As the courses of slate approach the ridge, a slight variation in lap is per- 
missible so as to finish at the ridge without cresting. 

The ridges and valleys of roof are generally of metal. Flashings should 
extend well in under slate shingles to prevent back flow of Avater from heavy 
rains. 

The cost will vary in the locations where they are purchased, according 
to the size, color and quality. 

The labor charge may be based upon \]/ 2 to 2 squares of slate per day 
of 10 hours per man. 

Where Elastic cement is used, the cost of that part of the roof, which is 
laid in cement, will be increased from $1.50 to $2.00 per square. 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE XI 
Number of Slate Shingles and Nails for 100 Square Feet of 

Roof 



Size. Exposure Laid, Inches. 
6x10 3y 2 

7xi<> zy 2 

sxio zy 2 

6x12..., 4^ 

7x12 4^ 

8x12 4^ 

7x14 sy 2 

8x14 $y 2 

ioxm sy 2 

8x16 6y 2 

9xi6 ey 2 

1 Ox 16 6]A 



No. to 100 Sq. Ft. Lbs. 3D Nails. 



686. 
588. 
514. 
533. 
457. 
400. 
374. 
327. 
261. 
277. 
246. 
222. 



,ey A 

6 

AH 

Ay 

■ W 

,3 

3/ 8 
,3 
■2/ 2 



TABLE XII 
Weight of Slate Required for One Square of Roof 



Length 


Weight in pounds, per square, for the thickness 


in 
inches 


%" 


A" 


%" 


rt" 


w 


H" 


y<- 


1" 


12 


480 


725 


968 


1450 


1938 


2420 


2900 


3870 


14 


460 


688 


920 


1370 


1845 


2300 


2760 


3685 


16 


445 


668 


890 


1336 


1785 


2230 


2670 


3568 


18 


435 


650 


870 


1305 


1740 


2175 


2608 


3480 


20 


425 


638 


850 


1276 


1708 


2130 


2555 


3408 


22 


418 


625 


836 


1255 


1675 


2094 


2508 


3350 


24 


412 


616 


825 


1238 


1655 


2066 


2478 


3307 


26 


408 


610 


815 


1222 


1630 


2039 


2445 


3265 



TABLE XIII 
Weight of Slate per Square Foot. 



Thickness 
Inches 


y% 


3-16 


X 


H 


% 


% 


X 


1 


Weight 
Lbs. 


1.80 


2.70 


.3.62 


5.47 


7.2?, 


9.06 


10.9 


14.5 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



105 



Semi-Slate Shingles 




-Shingles as they appear when 
properly laid. 



OWING to the ever-increasing demand for a good substitute for wood 
shingles, that will have both fire and weather-i esisting qualities and 
give a pleasing appearance, we recommend ALADDIN semi-slate 
shingles, which, when applied, have none of the undesirable features 
of prepared roofing, but will give the appearance of slate roof and a more 
beautiful and better appearing roof is hard to obtain. 

The base of this shingle is very heavy, three-ply, long fibre, 
wood felt, thoroughly saturated with fine Trinidad asphalt. 
The surface is natural colored crushed rock worked 
into the roofing so thoroughly that it becomes a part 
of the body of the roof and will never wear 
off. 

Each shingle is 8x12^4 inches and 
should be applied as follows : For the 
first course across the roof, use one- 
third of the shingle. For the second 
course, use two-thirds of the shingle, 
and above that, use the full shingle. 
(See Fig. 82.) As they are laid 4 
inches to the weather, you can readily 
see that there will be three thicknesses 
of these shingles on every point of your 
roof. 

When laid, the roof is approximately one-half inch thick, three coats of 
long fibre felt, fine Trinidad asphalt and slate. This roof will last as long as 
the foundation upon which it is applied and is one which will resist fire, water, 
acids, and alkalies. It will not warp, curl or scale off. 

The shingles should be laid with about one-half inch between each one 
and nailed with the large head roofing-nails furnished for that purpose. Ke 
sure to drive the nails straight into the roof, but do not drive them down so 
that they will cut shingles. It is advisable to lay roof sheathing solid on the 
roof when semi-slate shingles are to be used. 

The shingles are packed in cartons, four of which will cover a square of 
roof. It takes about three pounds of nails to lay each square. When semi- 
slate shingles are furnished with your building, we advise using semi-slate 
roofing to flash the valley, hip and ridge. This roofing should be cut into 
strips and flashed under the shingles in the valleys, and over the shingles on 
hip and ridges. Flash back far enough to prevent water from flowing under 
the shingles. 

It is advisable for the workmen to wear soft rubber soled shoes, when 
working on the roof, so they will not damage the shingles. 

A chalk line can be used in spacing, which will prevent pounding nails 
into wood spacing strips. A slight difference can be made in the lap to bring 
the layers out even at the end of the roof or at the ridge of the building. 



106 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 




Fig. 83 — Showing One Section of Shingles. 



T h e semi - slate 
shingles are also 
furnished in dia- 
mond point slabs. 
Instead of being put 
up like individual 
shingles, they are in 
gangs of four shin- 
gles to the sheet. 
Width, 32 inches; 
length, 12^4 inches 
from point to point. They give identically the same protection that individual 
shingles give, but a far more handsome appearance. Many artistic effects are 
obtainable with these 
slab shingles which 
cannot be produced 
by individual shin- 
gles. For an exam- 
ple of this, the roof 
which we illustrate 
can be laid with half 
red shingles and 
half green shingles, 
making a striking 
appearance w h e n 
completed. 

Aladdin Diamond 

Point Slab Shingles, 

when compared to 

the individual shingles, show a saving of about 75 per cent, in labor, because 

it only takes 112 pieces to cover 100 square feet. 

They automatically space and gauge themselves to 

the weather, — save about 35 per cent in freight, on 

account of the difference in the amount of material 

per square, they weigh sixty pounds per 

square less, and about 38 per cent in nails. 

is saved because four shingles are laid with 

lails. To sav nothing of the time and 

labor which can be saved 

of handling only 

when ordinarily 

would handle four 

pieces. Fig. 83 shows 

one slab of Diamond 

Point semi-slate ; Fig. 

84 shows slabs laid 

Diamond style; Fig. 85 

shows shingles laid 

Showing Shingles Laid Block Style. block style. 




Fig. 



ng Shingles Laid Diamond Style, 




n account 
ne piece 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 1C7 

Tin Roofing 

IN some cases, where low pitched roofs are used, it is necessary to use tin 
for the roof covering, which, when properly applied, will be lasting and 
give a fairly good appearance. It is a good protection against fire and is 
subject to less contraction and expansion than any other metal used. 
Tin plates for roofing are made of coating plate iron, or steel sheets with 
tin, or with amalgam of lead or tin. 

In applying the tin, it is necessary to bend or fold the edges so that one 
sheet will intersect with the other. The sheets should also be laid so that the 
joints will alternate, that is, start one row with a full sheet and the next with 
a half sheet. A sheet of tin, say 18x24 inches with y 2 inch edges, measure 
when edged or folded, 17x23 inches or 391 square inches, but its covering 
capacity when joined to other sheets on the roof, is only 16} / 2x22^2 or 371 r 4 
square inches. In other words, it requires about 1/7 more tin than the actual 
surface of the roof to allow for edging and folding the sheets. If the surface 
of the roof measured 350 feet, it would take about 400 feet of tin to 
cover it. 

There are two general methods of laying tin roofing. The flat seam 
method has the sheets of tin locked into each other at the edges, with the seam 
either flattened and fastened with the tin cleats or nailed firmly and soldered 
water tight. In flat roof work, the tin should be locked and soldered at all 
joints and held in place by tin cleats. 

Two good average workmen will put on and paint about three squares of 
tin roofing in a day of ten hours. It will take about five pounds of solder, 
one pound of rosin and from one to one and a half pounds of roofing nails 
for each square of roofing where the sheets are 20x28 inches. If sheets are 
14x20 inches allow about 7^4 to 8 pounds of solder to a square. 



Paradux 



o 



N some roofs where the pitch is not sufficient to shed water from wood 
shingles, as you find many times on flat porch or dormer roof, we furn- 
ish a composition roofing, which should be laid according to the 
following instructions. 



Directions for Laying Regular Paradux 

Paradux should be laid with the canvas side up. 

It must be given one coat of paint immediately after laying, fol- 
lowed by another coat of paint as soon as the first coat is dry. Do not paint 
before laying. 

Never allow Paradux to get wet or to lay over night without having had 
at least one coat of paint. 

The roof surface should be smooth and even and swept clean. Use dry 
boards of uniform thickness, laid close together. 

Lap the sheets two inches along the edges and four inches at ends or butts. 
Do not allow two butts to come end to end. 



108 ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 

IMPORTANT: Cut the sheets to the proper lengths and allow them 
to lay flat for several hours before nailing them in place. This is done to re- 
move the "creep" or form of the roll from the sheet. 

NAILING: Use large head nails placed 1^2 inches apart and x /i inch 
from edge of sheet. Commence nailing at the middle of sheet and nail toward 
the ends. 

CEMENTING: Cement thoroughly between all laps, butts, in valleys, 
etc., using cement furnished. Be careful that cement is not daubed beyond the 
lap onto the canvas surface which is to be painted. Do not allow cement to 
ooze out beyond edge of lap. If it does, wipe it off with a rag moistened with 
turpentine. 

Paradux on Sleeping Porch Floors, Balcony Floors, Roof 
Garden Floors and Decks of All Kinds 

The surface to be covered should be smooth and clean. Lay the Paradux 
so that the strips will be walked on lengthwise more than across the seams. 
When Paradux is laid adjacent to a wall, it should be flashed up against the 
wall at least six inches with metal. 

When walls are finished with shingles or clapboards, carry the Paradux 
up under finish at least six inches. 

If there is a door opening out from the balcony, run Paradux under the 
door sill. 

When Used in Valleys 

Fold into each valley a strip of Paradux 18 inches wide. See that it fits 
snugly against the boards at center of fold in valley. Then put a few nails 
along each edge of strip to hold it in place. 

Laying Across the Slope 

If the roofing is to be laid across the slope, lay the first sheet along the 
eaves and parallel to them. Bend the lower edge of the sheet over the eaves 
and nail every two inches. A wooden batten can be nailed along the eaves to 
hold the roofing. This first sheet should lap over the gutter lining and valley 
strip. Bend the ends of the sheet two inches over gables and nail on batten as 
at the eaves. 

Strike a chalk line along this first sheet two inches from the upper edge 
and roll out the second sheet, using chalk line as guide to make a two inch lap. 
On a steep roof put a few nails at the top to hold sheet, then cement the lap 
thoroughly.. Use plenty of cement. Commence nailing the lap at the middle 
of the sheet and nail toward the ends. This is important. Continue up the 
loof in this manner, carrying top sheet over the ridge, nailing it securely. Lap 
the ends of each sheet over the valley strip at least five inches. Cement thor- 
oughly and nail. 

Laying Up and Down the Slope 

Lay the first sheet parallel to the gable edge, projecting two inches be- 
yond it. Bend it over the edge and fasten with nails or wood battens. Lap 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 109 

each sheet two inches over the preceding sheet. Cement thoroughly between 
laps and then nail, commencing at the middle of the sheet and working toward 
both ends. Carry the sheet over the eaves and nail as at gable edge. At the val- 
leys, cut ends of the sheets at the proper angle to fit the valley and lap ends 
over the valley strip at least five inches. Cement and nail. Finish or cap ridge 
with a strip of Paradux eight inches wide. 

FLASHINGS: When a wall is encountered, a flashing formed with a 
strip of Paradux Roofing should be extended up the wall for about six inches 
and out onto the roofing, forming the main body of the roof for about six 
inches. This should be thoroughly cemented on the under side and carefully 
nailed. 

It should be fastened on the wall with a strip or wooden batten. This 
also applies to chimneys, skylights and other projections. Take special care 
with flashings, in order to avoid all possibility of leaks. Any counter- 
flashings used should be of metal. 




110 ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



Heating 



MANY improvements have been made of late in the methods used in 
heating dwelling houses and also in the apparatus used for that pur- 
pose. Rut it is only of late that any thought has been given to the 
ventilation of the home, which is a very important thing to take into 
consideration when planning your heating plant. 

While it is impossible for us to go into detail on the question of heating, 
it is believed that the following information will be of value to an ALADDIN 
builder. 

With each furnace that is sold by us, we send a detailed blue print and a 
set of instructions explaining just how the furnace is to be installed, but the 
following information will be of value in helping our builders decide upon 
the kind of heating to be used, and in selecting an economical and efficient 
apparatus and seeing that it is properly installed. 

In deciding upon a heating plant for a dwelling, the builder should con- 
sider the following conditions : 

(1.) The size of the building. 

(2.) The first cost. 

(3.) The operating cost. 

We would recommend a hot air furnace for smaller houses and hot water 
and steam for the larger dwellings. Of course, this will depend largely upon 
the location, the weather conditions and the fuel which can be obtained. 

For warming residences not exceeding 1,200 square feet of ground area, 
we believe a warm air furnace properly set and with hot-air pipes of proper 
size, suitably located, will give the best satisfaction, as it is economical in the 
first cost, easy to manage, costs little for repairs, and will furnish a pleasant 
and healthy heat at no greater expense of operating than steam or hot water. 

The most common defects observed in warm air furnace heating plants 
are overheating of the air, bad air caused by gases of combustion and uneven 
distribution of the heat. The first two defects may be done away with if 
care is given to the setting of the furnace and tending of the fire. The last 
one can be reduced by proper placing of registers and proper sized flues. 

Furnace heating may be divided into two parts : the production and the 
distribution of the heat. The former depends largely upon the furnace, its 
setting, cold air supply, draught, kind of fuel and attendance. 

A hot air furnace is simply a stove or heater encased with brick or iron 
so as to form an air chamber between the heater and the casing. The air 
enters the bottom of the chamber thru a cold air shaft, passes over the heated 
surface of the heater and is conducted by the hot air pipes, to the various 
rooms. The external surface of the fire pot and all portions of the heater 
which receive heat from the fire or smoke, are called the radiating surfaces. 

The cold air inlet is at the bottom, and the hot air pipes at the top. These 
are all provided with dampers for shutting off or regulating the amount of 
air flowing thru them. The feed or fire door is at the front with the ash door 
beneath it. A cold water pan is also placed in each furnace, to moisten the 
air before it is forced into the rooms. 

A furnace should be so placed that the warm air pipes will be of nearly 
the same lengths. The air travels most readily thru pipes leading toward the 
sheltered side of the house and to the upper rooms. Therefore, pipes leading 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



toward the north and west as to the rooms on the first floor, should be favored 
in regard to length and size. 

Furnace smoke pipes range in size from 6 to 9 inches and should be 
carried to the chimney flue as directly as possible so as to insure a good 
draught. Avoid bends in smoke pipes as much as possible, as they increase 
the resistance and diminish the draught. Smoke pipes should be covered, if of 
any length, so as to prevent the loss of heat and the condensation of smoke. 

The cold air box should be large enough to supply a volume of air suffi- 
cient to fill all the hot air pipes at one time. If the supply of cold air is too 
small,.the cellar will become overheated from the loss of air to carry away the 
heat generated. The intake for the cold air should be so placed that the pre- 
vailing winds will blow into it. It is sometimes a good plan to bring cold air 
from underneath a porch or from the inside of the house close to a window. 

The hot air pipes should all be covered so as to prevent the loss of heat 
and to insure all the heat generated being carried into the rooms. These' 
pipes should contain checks or dampers so that the heat can be regulated. 

From the above, we can easily see that the following instructions should 
be carried out in order to have a successful warm air furnace. 

First, proper size furnace for cubical contents of house. A 20 inch fire 
pot is large enough for a building up to 8,000 cubic feet ; 22 inch for building 
from 8,000 to 15.000 cubic 
feet; 24 inch for building 
from 15,000 to 20.000; 26 
inch for building from 20,000 
to 25,000 cubic feet and 28 
inch for building from 25.000 
to 35,000 cubic feet. The sec- 
ond important point to con- 
sider is the supply of cold air 
which should be equal to the 
supply of air in the warm 
air pipes. It is best to bring 
the supply from the coldest 
point of the house and some- 
times better to have two cold 
air shafts, one from inside and 
one from outside of the build- 
ing. Do not place cold air 
shaft where it is apt to be 
partly checked with rug or 
pieces of furniture, as this will 
reduce the radiation. 

The third important item is 
to utilize and get the benefit 
of every heat unit possible. To 
do this, the furnace must be 
well covered. The galvanized 
jacket should be tight seamed 
and heat-resisting. It is a 

gOOd investment tO COVer the Fig . 86-Typical warm air furnace. 




112 ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 

jacket with asbestos and cover the top of furnace with sand if the jacket does 
not extend over it. 

If the depth of the cellar is not sufficient to give a good fall to the warm 
air pipe, the furnace should be lowered into a pit, as warm air will have a 
tendency to travel up and the circulation will be very poor if the air pipes are 
not set properly. 

Another very important thing to consider in the location of the furnace to 
have an even temperature. The furnace and register should be located so they 
will be as near as possible an equal distance apart. 



Care of Furnaces 

The fire should be thoroughly shaken two or three times daily in cold 
weather. It is well to keep the fire pot full at all times, for in this way, a 
more even temperature can be maintained, less attention is required, and no 
more coal is burned than when the pot is only partially filled. In mild 
weather, a mistake is often made by carrying a thin fire which requires a great 
deal more attention and is likely to die out. Instead, in a moderate tempera- 
ture, keep the fire pot filled and allow the ashes to accumulate upon the grate. 
The ashes will hold the heat and render it an easy matter to control the fire. 

Keep the ash pit free or cleaned out, so as to prevent the melting or warp- 
ing of the grate. 

In case the warm air fails at times to reach certain rooms, it may be forced 
into them by temporarily closing the registers in the other rooms. The cur- 
rent once established will generally continue after the other registers have 
been opened. 

It is a better plan to try and keep an even heat in your house during the 
twenty-four hours of the day. When heat is shut off at night and building al- 
lowed to partly cool, heat in walls is dissipated and must be replaced each time 
building is to be heated. Therefore, if an even temperature is maintained 
throughout the twenty-four hours, the loss of heat by absorption and dissipa- 
tion thru walls is greatly decreased. 



Formula and Rules for Installation of Warm Air Furnaces 

TABLE XIV. 

Table of Warm Air Pipe Diameters for Residence Heating 

Contents of Room. 1 Outside Exposure. 2 Outside Exposures. 
Cu. Ft. 

Up to 1300 1 — 8 in. pipe 1 — 8 in. pipe 

1300 to 1800 1— 9 in. pipe 1—10 in. pipe 

1900 to 2400 1 — 10 in. pipe 1—11 in. pipe 

2500 to 3000 1 — 1 1 in. pipe 1 — 12 in. pipe 

3100 to 3600 1 — 12 in. pipe 1 — 14 in. pipe 

3700 to 4200 1 — 14 in. pipe 2—1 1 in. pipe 

4300 to 4800 2—11 in. pipe j 2—12 in. pipe 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 113 

For rooms with unusual exposure, figure one size larger pipe than called 
for in the above table ; for the second and third floor rooms, one size smaller. 



Rules for Pipes 

1. Each warm air pipe should have an upward pitch from the heater of 
not less than one inch per foot. 

2. The pitch of all warm air pipes should be alike. Equalize by bring- 
ing down lower into the cellar the boxes of the shorter warm air pipes. 

3. The table of warm air piping in this formula applies where cellar or 
basement pipes are not over 15 feet in length. 

4. When a warm air pipe in cellar is more than 15 ft. long, add ]/i inch 
to the diameter of such pipe for each 5 ft. or part thereof, of length in excess 
of 15 ft. (or, when odd ^ inch sizes of pipe are not used,) add 1 in. to diame- 
ter of pipe for each 10 ft. or part thereof, of length in excess of 15 ft. In 
such case, the capacity of a riser should be increased to equal the capacity of 
the cellar pipe. 

5. An offset in the riser pipe is equivalent to an addition to the length 
of the cellar pipe, and should be counted in when measuring the total length 
of the cellar pipe. 

6. All warm air pipes in cellar or basement should be covered with non- 
heat-conducting pipe covering. Not less than ten pound sheathing is recom- 
mended. 

7. All warm air risers should be carried up in inside partitions, wher- 
ever possible. 

8. In cases where it is absolutely necessary to carry up warm air risers 
in outer walls, such risers should be so thoroughly protected as to be com- 
pletely insulated. 

9. In using double wall pipe, the capacity should not be reduced. 

10. A separate compartment should be made in the crown or bonnet of 
the surface for each extra long or winding air pipe, thus insuring a positive 
supply of warm air to that pipe. 

11. NEVER USE SMALLER THAN EIGHT (8) INCH PIPE. 

12. When warm air pipes are taken out of the top of the bonnet of the 
heater, the tops of all the elbows should be on a level, so that an equal current 
of air can fill all the pipes. 

NOTE: As a 12 inch elbow is so much higher than an 8 inch elbow, in 
order to have both pipes work properly, the top of the 8 inch elbow should be 
as high as the top of the 1 2 inch. This applies to all pipes taken from the 
top of the heater. The same rule applies as nearly as possible where pipes are 
taken from the side of the bonnet. 

13. Rooms on the sides of the house exposed to prevailing winds should 
always have one size larger pipes and registers than the same size rooms on 
the sides of the house not so exposed. 



114 ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 

14. Rooms having bay windows and considerable more than the average 
glass surface on the northern side of the house, should have two sizes larger 
warm air pipes and registers than the same sized rooms without this extra 
glass surface on the southern side. 

15. Where warm air pipes pass thru the wall in the cellar, an air space 
around the pipes should always be left. Never mason a pipe in solid, that 
passes thru a wall in the cellar, as the wall chills the pipe and makes that pipe 
almost worthless. 

16. All warm air pipes should have dampers close to the heater, so the 
heat from them can be regulated. 

17. All rising pipes in partitions or walls should be enlarged or boxed 
out where cellar pipes enter them. This is necessary to avoid friction and in- 
sure a rapid flow of air. 

18. All rising warm air pipes running from second to third floor should 
always have damper above the register on second floor. Rising pipes should 
be wrapped with asbestos and studs lined with tin, using wire or iron lath to 
plaster on. 

19. The friction from abrupt bends or acute angles in warm air pipes 
must be avoided. 

20. Fireplaces in rooms having flues 12x12 ins., which is equal to 144 
square inches, or 8x12 ins., which is equal to 96 square inches, or 8x8 ins., 
which is equal to 64 square inches, will in cold or windy weather, pull off more 
air from a room than the warm air pipes can deliver. In such cases, use sheet 
iron throat pieces with sliding damper in fireplace flue. The ventilation can 
thus be regulated as desired. 

21. In heating a room on the cold side of the house, or a room having a 
large amount of glass surface, place one register in the floor as near as pos- 
sible to the furnace and place a cold air register face in the floor under or near 
a window and connect this cold air register by means of a separate duct to the 
bottom of casing, thus removing the cold air out of the room and at the same 
time providing a flow of warm air into the room. 

22. The heater must be attached to a chimney flue of correct construc- 
tion, one that will furnish sufficient draft to insure a good combustion of fuel. 

23. THE FRESH AIR SUPPLY TO THE HEATER MUST BE 
ADEQUATE. 

Pipe and Register Sizes 

The table below is printed in order that installers may be able to see at a 
glance, equivalent areas of round pipes, flat register pipes, risers and registers. 

Risers to rooms above the first floor should be large enough to supply to 
the room to be heated the proper volume of warm air. 

On account of this increasing velocity on the upper floors of a residence, 
smaller pipes can be used than those to the first floor, but the necessary free 
air opening into the upper rooms must not be overlooked. 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



115 



TABLE. 
All Measurements In Inches. 



Diameter 


Area 


Size 


Size 


Size 


Size 


of Round 


of Pipe. 


Flat Riser 


Side Wall 


Round Floor 


Rect. Floor 


Pipe. 


Sq. In. 


Pipe. 


Register. 


Register. 


Register. 


8 


50 


3^x14 


8x12 


12 


8x12 


9 


64 


4 


xl6 


10x12 


14 


10x12 


10 


78 


4 


x20 


12x12 


14 


10x16 


11 


95 


6 


xl6 


12x15 


16 


12x15 


12 


113 


6 


xl9 


14x15 


18 


12x20 


13 


132 


6 


x22 


14x18 


18 


14x18 


14 


154 


8 


xl9 


16x18 


20 


14x22 


15 


176 


8 


x22 


16x20 


24 


16x20 


16 


201 


8 


x25 


18x20 


24 


16x24 


17 


227 


10 


x23 


18x24 


24 


18x24 


18' 


254 


10 


x26 


20x24 


24 


18x27 


19 


283 


12 


x24 


20x26 


28 


20x26 


20 


314 


12 


x26 


22x26 


28 


20x30 


21 


346 


12 


x29 


24x27 


30 


22x30 


22 


380 


14 


x27 


24x30 


30 


24x30 


23 


415 


14 


x30 


27x27 


30 


24x32 


24 


452 


14 


x32 


28x28 


36 


24x36 



Registers 



1. The proper size registers to be used for any given number of square 
inches pipe capacity, may be determined by referring to the Table of Pipe 
Sizes, shown above. 

2. The velocity of warm air carried to rooms on upper floors, is greater 
than the velocity at first floor registers, and for that reason, it is apt to cause 
unpleasant drafts, if register faces are used smaller than is proper for the de- 
livery of that increased velocity. 

3. It is good practice to select a register for a room on the upper floors 
as though it were a first floor register, running the riser pipe to a register box 
enlarged sufficiently to take this size register. 



Table of Averages 

If it is desired to ascertain the approximate size of pipe required without 
reference to the cooling surfaces, but only taking into consideration the dimen- 
sions of the room, the following table may be used. 

Table below shows the proper size of furnace pipes (the lower number 
shows the size pipe for first floor, the upper number the size pipe for second 
floor) to heat rooms of various dimensions, when two sides are exposed, tem- 
perature at register 140 degrees, room 70 degrees, outside zero. Rooms 8 to 
17 feet in width assumed to be 9 feet high. Rooms 18x20 feet in width as- 
sumed to be 10 feet high. For other heights, temperatures or exposures make 
a suitable allowance. When first floor pipes are longer than 15 feet, use one 
size larger than that stated. 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 

TABLE XV 





8 


9 


10 


11 


Wid 

12 


th of 
13 


Roor 
14 


ti in 
15 


Feet 
16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


8 


8 
8 


8 

8 

























9 


8 
8 


8 
8 






















10 


8 
8 


8 
8 


8 
8 






















11 


8 
8 


8 
8 


8 
8 


8 
9 




















12 


8 
8 


8 
8 


8 
9 


8 
9 


8 
9 


















13 


8 
8 


8 
9 


8 
9 


8 
9 


8 
9 


8 
10 
















14 


8 
9 


8 
9 


8 
9 


8 
9 


8 
10 


8 
10 


8 
10 














15 


8 
9 


8 
9 


8 
9 


8 
10 


8 
10 


8 
10 


9 

10 


9 
10 












„ 


16 


8 
9 


8 
9 


8 
10 


8 
10 


8 
10 


9 
10 


9 
10 


9 
11 


9 

11 










fa 



17 




8 
10 


8 
10 


8 
10 


9 
10 


9 
10 


9 
11 


9 
11 


9 
11 


9 
11 








E 
o 
o 


18 




8 
10 


8 
10 


9 
10 


9 
10 


9 
11 


9 
11 


9 
11 


9 
11 


10 

12 


10 
12 








19 






9 
10 


9 
10 


9 
11 


9 
11 


9 
11 


9 
11 


10 
12 


10 
12 


10 
12 


10 

12 




a 


20 






9 
10 


9 
11 


9 
11 


9 
11 


9 
11 


10 
12 


10 
12 


10 
12 


10 

12 


11 
13 


11 
13 


21 








9 
11 


9 
11 


9 
11 


10 
12 


10 
12 


10 
12 


10 

12 


11 
13 


11 
13 


11 
13 


22 








9 
11 


9 
11 


10 
12 


10 
12 


10 
12 


10 
12 


10 
13 


11 
13 


11 
13 


11 
13 


23 










10 

12 


10 
12 


10 

12 

10 
12 


10 

10 
18 


10 
13 


10 
13 

"To" 

13 


11 
13 

11 
13 


11 
13 


11 
13 


21 








10 
12 


10 
12 


10 
13 


11 

13 


11 

13 


25 












10 
12 


10 

13 


10 
13 


10 
13 


10 
13 


11 
13 


11 
13 


12 
14 


26 












10 
13 


10 
13 


10 
13 


10 
13 


11 
13 


! a 

13 


12 
14 


12 
14 


27 














10 
13 


10 
13 


11 
13 


11 

13 


12 
14 


12 
14 


12 

14 


28 














10 
13 


11 
13 


11 
13 


11 
13 


12 

14 


12 
14 


12 

14 


29 
















11 
13 


11 
13 


11 
13 


12 
14 


12 
14 


12 
14 


30 
















11 
13' 


11 
13 


12 

14 


12 

14 


12 il 
14 


12 
14 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 117 



Aladdin Pipeless Furnace 

OUR furnaces are always very carefully prepared for shipment similar 
to illustration Fig. 87 and which should insure all castings arriving at 
destination in good condition ; customers are cautioned, however to 
thoroughly inspect shipment before accepting same from the railroad 
company, to see that no damage has resulted while in transit. Shipments al- 
vays leave our factory in perfect condition and any damage you may possibly 
find must be reported to your freight agent before accepting furnace, who will 
ssue the proper notation on your freight expense bill, and enable us to adjust 
our claim satisfactorily. 



I o 1 ft I 



Fig, 87 — Aladdin Pipeless Furnace as it arrives at destination. 

After transferring the shipment to your home, we presume you are anx- 
ious to install the plant at once. The furnace being "knocked down" can 
easily be taken thru a two-foot door and carried by one person, if necessary, 
into the basement. We will now proceed to set up the outfit. 

First, choose the room which is nearest to the center of your home, pref- 
erably the living rcom, or, if conditions make it otherwise, a dining room 
which adjoins the living room. It is to be noticed that there will be less than 
three degrees difference between temperature of the room in which the register 
is placed and that of any other room in the house ; but it is always wise to 
place the register in that room which is occupied the greater part of the time. 

Select a desirable corner where the register will not interfere with rugs, 
carpets or furniture, preferably a point near the door which leads to the din- 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 




Fig-. 88 — Base located and showing ashpit 
being placed in position. 




Fig. 90 — Dome and radiator are now in place. 
Side rods prevent sections from shifting. 



No, 89 — Firepot and feed-section are next added. 

ing room, if the register is in the liv- 
ing room, or vice versa. 

The size of the warm air floor 
register being 14x20 inches, mark off, 
on the floor, the exact size of this 
register. Then, from the exact cen- 
ter of where the register will be 
placed, bore a hole thru the floor and 
drop a plumb line. This will give 
you the exact center of the foundation 
for your furnace in the basement. 

The next step will be the cutting 
of your floor to receive the register 
box. Simply saw thru the floor, fol- 
lowing the mark of the register. In 
doing this, it may be necessary for 
you to cut off one or more floor joists. 
In this case the end of the joists you 
have cut must, of course, be supported 
by a leader, that is, the parts of the 
joists which have been cut off may be 
nailed to the ends of the shortened 
joists and also to the full length joists 
on each side, thus supporting the 
shortened joists. 

The distance between the bottom 
of the floor joists and the foundation 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



119 




Fig. 91 — Front can now easily be bolted on. 



especially to use a suffi- 
cient amount of iron ce- 
ment in the various joints 
to insure smoke-tight con- 
nections between the cast- 
ings. We furnish a lib- 
eral amount of this ce- 
ment and it is extremely 
important that its proper 
application is observed, 
or smoke is bound to 
work its way thru the 
joints and pass up thru 
the hot-air register into 
your house ; a smoky fur- 
nace is surely not only a 
great annoyance to every 
one concerned but has its 
deteriorating effects on 
interior furnishings and 
decorations. 

The fire-pot, feed 



of the furnace may be anywhere from 
6 feet to 9 feet 6 inches. We supply 
a register box deep enough to be fitted 
for any height between the above 
figures. 

Make a smooth foundation of 
cement or brick directly under the 
register box with point indicated by 
plumb bob as the exact center. After 
your cement foundation has properly 
set, lay on the cast iron bottom of 
furnace with front in direction you 
desire to face furnace. Of course, the 
location of your coal bin has some 
hearing on the direction in which the 
furnace will face. The front of the 
furnace need have no bearing on the 
direction in which smoke pipe must 
run from furnace to chimney, as 
smoke pipe can run from the furnace 
at any angle desired. 

Next place the ash-pit in position 
as shown in Fig. 88. . In setting up 
the furnace, we desire to caution you 




-Directions should be closely followed in constructing 
the brick jacket. 



120 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



section, dome and radiator can now 
be added in the order mentioned. 
Here again a bit of further precaution 
must be taken; before adding the 
radiator and after dome is in posi- 
tion, insert the tie-rods in holes 
drilled to receive them and securely 
clamp the bottom sections together 
to prevent their shifting and jarring 
the cement loose. The next opera- 
tion of adding the radiator we con- 
sider one of the most important, as 
the connection between dome and 
radiator offers probably a greater op- 
portunity for a smoke leak than 
found at any other point of the outfit. 
Before setting the radiator in place, 
pack a quantity of cement around 
neck of dome; so that all space will 
be fully taken up between neck of 
both radiator and dome. After radi- 
ator is in position and pressed down 
firmly, pack cement all around out- 





Fig:. 94 — Aladdin Pipeless Furnace with 
galvanized iron jacket. 



Fig. 93 — Aladdin Pipeless Furnace before adding 
galvanized iron jacket. 



side of joint and smoothing off to 
present a finished appearance. It is 
also well to reach thru feed door 
opening up into dome and wipe off 
the surplus cement which may have 
jeen forced thru, being careful not to 
injure the cement in the joint. The 
cement will harden in a comparatively 
short time holding the castings firmly 
in place; care should, of course, be 
exercised to not jar castings more 
than necessary until the cement is 
hardened. 

Next bolt on the front as shown 
in Fig. 91 and for this purpose you 
will find included in shipment a num- 
ber of bolts with nuts of proper size. 

Hang the smoke deflector in the 
feed opening just inside the feed 
door. This deflector is a flat oblong 
shaped casting, having two small 
holes drilled in it. Corresponding 
with these holes, there are several 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 121 

small drilled holes in top of the feed section just inside the feed door and 
from which the casting can be hung by means of short wires. The purpose of 
this deflector will readily become evident when the furnace is in operation, 
in that it affords a means of keeping smoke issuing from furnace -when feed 
door is opened. 

We are now ready to place the register box in the hole cut in the 
floor of room above. Assemble the box from four sheets of galvanized iron 
which you will find crated and bend over upper edges so that the box can 
be supported by the floor and held suspended directly over the furnace; be- 
fore placing assembled box in hole, take the strip of asbestos paper which 
is furnished and paste securely around upper part of box, letting it extend 
around to outside of bent-over edge, so that it will thoroughly protect the 
flooring and floor joists from the heat ; the piece of asbestos paper should 
extend from a point just below bottom of joists and up around flooring sev- 
eral inches, so that at no point will the galvanized box come into direct con- 
tact with wood. The box can now be placed in position and register over 
this. To secure best heating results from the furnace do not allow bottom 
end of the register box to drop too close to radiator of furnace; if possible 
allow one foot between them, but this can be varied to suit your special case, 
and in no case allow the box to rest directly on the radiator or have less than 
six inches space between end of box and furnace castings. 

Now start the brick work for the jacket. This should be Sj4 bricks in 
width across the front and back and 4J^ or 5 bricks on either side. Figure 
92 illustrates very clearly this step showing cold air grating in place ; two of 
these grates are supplied, one for each side of the jack and which will supplv 
the necessary air to operate the plant. Brick up square with single course 
to top of front. At this point the trussed bar casting for supporting brick 
over the furnace front should be placed in position and then jacket should be 
continued up to second course above the bracket, holding the bracket securely 
in place. Connect the same pipe, letting the check damper come thru and 
outside of the brick work. 

From this point draw in the next ten or more courses of brick, so that the 
top course will fit securely up to the register box ; continue jacket up around 
register box so far as convenient. 

The grates as illustrated in 
Nos. 7-8-9, of Figure 95 can 
now be placed; casting "7" is 
to pass thru feed door opening 
and lugs of which will rest on 
the ash pit. On this ring, place 
casting 9 after which draw- 
center casting 8 should be pas- 
sed thru ash-pit door opening 
and will slip thru lugs on bot- 
tom Of Casting 10; then force Fig. 95— Pipeless Furnace parts. 

end of draw center up over 

bottom of draft door opening just above ash-pit door. Casting 10 is a shaker- 
handle for shaking grates. 

Water-pan and hot water coil may be next placed if the latter is to be 
used. A cover has been furnished for that part of the water pan projecting 
outside of furnace front. 




122 ALADDIN .MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 

With chain furnished, connect the check damper and draft door to wall 
plate, which should be fastened to the wall of a room directly over the furnace. 
By means of these chains, many trips to the basement are saved, as the fur- 
nace dampers may be regulated from upstairs. This done, the furnace is 
ready for operation. ' The whole work of setting up the furnace should not 
take more than four or five hours. 

Our instructions for operating should be carefully followed out and will 
be of great assistance when the furnace is started for the first time. 

Bear in mind our guarantee: If, after giving the furnace a thorough 
trial, you do not feel satisfied and willing to heartily recommend it to your 
very best friend, we give you the privilege of returning the furnace to us at 
any time within 365 days from date of purchase and we will refund full 
purchase price and pay transportation charges both ways. 

IF IN DOUBT AT ALL ABOUT THE PRACTICABILITY OF 
THIS TYPE OF HEATING SYSTEM FOR YOUR HOME, SEND US 
A SKETCH OF YOUR FLOOR PLANS AND OUR HEATING EX- 
PERTS WILL ADVISE YOU BY RETURN MAIL. 

A Few Operating Hints 

CAUTION : — Where hot water coils are used, be sure they are filled 
with water before starting the fire. 

Before firing the furnace see that "check" on side of pipe is closed tight 
and pipe-damper turned open; also that draft-inlet just above ash-pit door 
is open. After fire is thoroughly burning, close draft inlet ; turn pipe-damper 
almost shut and open "check" on side of pipe from one to three inches, de- 
pending on chimney draft ; these positions of regulators require no further 
attention. When more heat is required, close "check" on side of pipe and 
open draft-inlet. 

Before shaking grate, loosen ashes with a poker around fire pot. If 
coal forms clinkers, draw out the bar to dump them thru. Shake ashes out 
thoroughly. Let ashes remain in ash box until furnace is fired again before 
wetting to remove. 

To prevent dust entering rooms when removing ashes, close all registers 
and thoroughly dampen ashes before removing same. It is very important to 
keep ash-pit clear of ashes at all times; furnace will naturally have a better 
draft, preventing "blow-outs" and also prevents grates from becoming dam- 
aged by overheating. 

Thoroughly clean smoke pipe from furnace, to chimney at regular in- 
tervals, according to grade of fuel consumed. 

Be sure and keep the water-pan filled with water at all times to preserve 
the proper degree of humidity in the air of your residence and not only pre- 
vent your furniture from drying out and falling apart, but safe-guard your 
health. 

To meet the demand for a furnace complete with a galvanized iron 
jacket instead of the less portable brick jacket, we are producing an outfit 
fully illustrated in Figs. No. "93" and "94". You will observe that the cast- 
ings of this outfit are almost identically similar in construction to our other 
furnace and it therefore follows that with the exception of the jacket, prac- 
tically the same suggestions for setting up can be followed. 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 123 

The assembling of the galvanized jacket is a simple matter. Jacket is 
of double construction, having a heavy outside shell with an inner corrugated 
lining, between which has been placed asbestos paper producing a covering 
for the furnace which reduces loss of heat through radiation to a minimum ; 
jacket is shipped in three sections, the side walls in two sections and the as- 
sembled hood. The two sections forming the side walls are bolted together, 
holes having been punched for this purpose. Bottom iron ring which bolts 
to base-plate of furnace and which receives bottom edge of casing is plainly 
illustrated in Fig. 93. Ends of casings are carefully bolted to opposite sides 
of furnace-front, holes having also been provided for this purpose. On up- 
per edge of casing the large iron circular ring is placed and on this the hood 
rests which will fit properly. 

Top of hood has been fitted to receive the register-box. The register- 
box of course will have to be cut to proper length according to depth of base- 
ment and is installed just as stated in former directions. 

However, before setting up the entire casing permanently, holes must 
be cut for the two cold air intakes, smoke pipe and damper rod, all of which 
can be determined by a little careful figuring. The cold air intakes should 
be placed on either side of the furnace near bottom of casing and openings 
cut to proper size to receive the bolts passing through the castings supplied 
for manipulating the cold air slides. Openings for smoke pipe must be 
governed by direction it is desired to conduct the smoke, being sure to place 
check draft opening in smoke pipe just outside of casing. The hole for dam- 
per rod will, of course, be most conveniently placed in front of furnace casing 
and as seen in Fig. "94" passes through the hood of casing. 

A question may arise in the minds of our customers as to the purpose of 
this damper-rod. This special type of furnace has the additional advantage 
of a damper device in the radiator which proves itself a great convenience 
when firing the furnace. When feeding fuel to the fire-pot in the ordinary 
furnace, smoke and gas will invariably belch out through the fire-door ; our 
new damper control which operates a recolving smoke deflector within the 
radiator overcomes this nuisance in a great measure. When firing the fur- 
nace the damper-rod should be pulled out as far as possible which revolves 
the smoke deflector into such a position that all gases and smoke are conducted 
directly into the smoke pipe; when the fire is under way, the rod is again 
pushed in, revolving the smoke deflector to position just opposite and causing 
the heated gases to travel around the radiator, before passing off into the 
smoke pipe which makes it possible to obtain maximum heating efficiency from 
fuel consumed. 

Furnace front of this outfit is cast in two pieces, which should facilitate 
handling somewhat. 

Care should be exercised to see that the cold air slides are not allowed to 
close the cold air openings for any length of time when the furnace is in opera- 
tion ; your failure to observe this may result not only in burning out of the 
furnace castings from lack of air, but your house will not heat up satisfac- 
torily. The opening can be closed temporarily while cleaning basement or 
removing ashes to prevent dust being forced into the rooms, if the furnace is 
not allowed to overheat. 



124 ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 

Hot Water 

THERE is probably no better system of heating today for larger houses, 
than hot water, and it is being used to a large extent every year. 
The system of hot water heating is by circulating « , 

hot water into the radiator, instead of steam. The 
boiler pipe and radiator are all filled with water, the outlet 
or circulation pipe being attached to the top of the boiler 
and the return pipe at the bottom. The water in the boiler 
when heated, becomes lighter, rises and circulates thru the 
pipes and radiators, leaving a portion of its heat, thus be- 
coming colder and heavier, and passes down thru the return 
pipes where it is again heated and starts in circulation once 
more. (Fig. 96 shows how heat causes circulation of water.) 

Water at 32 degrees Fahr. will not contain any heat T 
units and will weigh 62.42 lbs. per cu. ft. Below 32 degrees heatfng of - wat<£ 
water exists in a solid state as ice. At 60 degrees Fahr. it causes circi,lation ' 
will contain 28.01 heat units and will weigh 62.37 lbs. per cubic foot. 

At 100 degrees Fahr. it will contain 68.08 heat units and will weigh 
62.02 lbs. per cubic foot; at 212 degrees Fahr. it will contain 180.90 heat 
units and will weigh 59.76 lbs. per cubic foot; which shows the more heat 
units the water contains the density diminishes and it becomes lighter in weight, 
thus causing it to rise in container. 

There are two kinds of hot water systems ; one with an open and the other 
with a closed expansion tank. 

The system with an open expansion tank is one which is connected with 
the water pipes so as to reserve the increase of the volume of water which is 
due to the expansion by heat, and is connected with the outside air by a vent 
pipe, so that there is no pressure upon the tank. 

A similar tank is used in the second system, only the vent pipe is closed 
and a safety valve is placed on the tank, which will open when the pressure 
reaches a certain point. 

The closed system is not often used, as it is open to the danger of a serious 
explosion caused by the safety valve refusing to operate. 

Tank should always be provided for the reason that when the water has 
reached boiling point (which depends upon pressure about 212 degrees Fahr.) 
it has increased in volume so that it occupies a space of 5 per cent, greater than 
it did at 40 degrees. 

The expansion tank should have the capacity containing from 1-30 to 
1-20 of the total volume of water contained in the entire system, and should 
be located, if possible, where there is no danger of freezing and placed so as 
to bring the bottom of the tank at least 24 inches above the highest radiator 
in the system. 

The expansion tanks should be made of boiler steel, double riveted, 
caulked and galvanized and tested to two hundred pounds pressure. They 
should be tapped, top and bottom, for 1 inch overflow and expansion pipe, the 
latter to be connected with the system in such a manner as to conduct the sur- 
plus water into the bottom of the tank. A 1-inch connection for a filling at- 
tachment should be made on the side near top of tank, and a 12-inch water 
gauge glass should be connected on the side near the bottom. 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



125 



The radiators used in a hot water heating system are constructed a little 
different than those used in steam heating, in order to improve the circulation. 
The two-pipe system of hot water heating is one which has been most suc- 
cessfully used by us. By referring to Fig. 97, you will notice that the return 
pipe starts out from a low point in the 
boiler and is parallel to the feed or 
radiating pipes. 

A feed is taken off the supply pipe, 
radiates up thru the radiator and re- 
turns back into the return pipe, not 
into the supply pipe as is the case in 
one-pipe system. The one-pipe sys- 
tem is very impractical, as it is im- 
possible to heat the radiators farther 
away from the boiler at anywhere 
near the same temperature as those 
near it. 




Fig. 98 — Steam system of piping-. 



Fig-. 97 — System of hot water piping. 

In taking a supply off the main 
radiating pipe to go to the radiator, 
never take it off the top, as this will 
cause an irregular and uncertain cir- 
culation. It must be taken off the 
side. It will be found that the prin- 
cipal current of heated water will 
take the path of least resistance and 
that a small obstruction or irregu- 
larity in the piping, is sufficient to 
interfere generally with the amount 
of heat received in different parts of 
the building. 



126 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



The expansion tank should be placed somewhere above the highest radi- 
ator. When water is heated, it expands and the tank should be so placed in 
order to take care of the increase in volume. 

The thorough insulation or covering of all piping on a steam or hot water 
heating apparatus— as well as the covering 
of all exterior surfaces of the boiler not oc- 
cupied by the various pieces of plate work 
(the clean out, fire, and draught door, etc.) 
is essential to the economical operations of 
the apparatus. Tests have often proven 
that the insulation of such surfaces affect a 
saving of from 15 to 30 per cent., the 
amount depending upon the character of 
the covering applied. 

Water rates are based on maintaining 180 





Fig-. 99 — For hot water heating. 



degrees water temperature at the 
boiler. 

Radiating surface should be 
sufficient to maintain a tempera- 
ture of 70 degrees. 

If the boiler is to burn soft 
coal or if it is located in an ex- 
treme end or corner of building, 
it should be increased one size. 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



Ml 



Radiators 



Twm 



■ 



Radiators are generally made of iron and may be any shape that will al- 
low a good circulation of steam thru them, and also permit the air to circulate 
freely about the outside. 
It is also desirable that jf|| 
the thickness of the metal 
shall be only enough to 
give sufficient strength. 
Hot water radiators have 
the same appearance as 
those used for steam, but 
as a rule there is a slight 
difference in the interior 
to improve the circulation. 
Radiators are divided 
into three classes, first, di- 
rect radiation; second, di- 
rect - indirect radiation ; 
and third, indirect radia- 
tion. 

Direct radiating sur- 
faces embrace all heaters 
placed within a room or 
hall to warm the air al- 
ready in the room. 

Indirect radiating sur- 
face embraces heating sur- 
faces placed outside the rooms to be heated, and should only be used in con- 
nection with some system of ventilation. 

Direct-indirect radiation is a means between the other 
two methods. The radiators are placed in the rooms to 
be heated, as in the first methods and a supply of fresh 
air brought to them, thru openings in the outside wall of a 
room, or thru a space under the lower sash of a window. 

Radiators are rated, or measured, not according to their 
size, but according to the amount of heating surface com- 
pQfltefcJ I*- ing in contacl with the air. The size of radiators for a 

given amount of heating surface will depend entirely upon 
the form or shape of the radiator. They are manufactured 
in one, two, three and four columns in large varieties. 
The following table will give the heating surface per 
square feet for two and three column radiators. 





Fig. 102 — 3-cohimn radiator. 




Fig, 103— Window 
radiators. 



128 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE XVI 
Heating Surface per Sqare Foot, Two Columns 



No. of 


Length of 


45" high 
5 sq. ft. 


38" high 
4 sq. ft. 


32" high 
3% sq. ft. 


18" high 
2 sq. ft. 


vSections 


radiator 


per sect. 


per sect. 


per sect. 


per sect. 


2 


5 


10 


8 


6% 


4 


3 


7% 


15 


12 


10 


6 


4 


10 


20 


16 


13% 


8 


5 


12% 


25 


20 


16% 


10 


6 


15 


30 


24 


20 


12 


7 


17% 


35 


28 


23^ 


14 


8 


20 


40 


32 


26% 


16 


9 


22% 


45 


36 


30 


18 


10 


25 


50 


40 


33% 


20 


11 


27% 


55 


44 


36% 


22 


12 


30 


60 


48 


40 


24 


13 


32j/ 2 


65 


52 


43% 


26 


14 


35 


70 


56 


46% 


28 


15 


37% 


75 


60 


50 


30 


16 


40 


80 


64 


53% 


32 


17 


42% 


85 


68 


56% 


34 


18 


45 


90 


72 


60 


36 


19 


47% 


95 


76 


63^ 


38 


20 


50 


100 


80 


66% 


40 



TABLE XVII 

Heating Surface per Square Foot, Three Columns 



No. of 
Sections 


Length of 
Radiator 


45" high 
6 sq. ft. 
per sect. 


38" high 
5 sq. ft. 
per sect. 


32" high 
4% sq. ft. 
per sect. 


18" high 
2% sq. ft. 
per sect. 


2 


5 


12 


10 


9 


5% 


3 


T'A 


18 


15 


13% 


8% 


4 


10 


24 


20 


18 


11 


5 


12% 


30 


25 


22% 


13* 


6 


15 


36 


30 


27 


16% 


7 


17% 


42 


35 


31% 


19% 


8 


20 


48 


40 


36 


22 


9 


22'^ 


54 


45 


40% 


243% 


10 


25 


60 


50 


45 


27% 


11 


27% 


66 


55 


49% 


30% 


12 


30 


72 


60 


54 


33 


13 


32% 


78 


65 


58% 


35% 


14 


35 


84 


70 


63 


38% 


15 


37% 


90 


75 


67% 


41% 


16 


40 


96 


80 


72 


44 


17 


42% 


102 


85 


76% 


46% 


18 


45 


108 


90 


81 


49% 


19 


47% 


114 


95 


85% 


52% 


20 


50 


120 


100 


90 


55 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 129 

To determine the amount of radiation necessary for your building many 
things have to be taken into consideration and no rule given will be authentic 
in all cases. The best way is to consult a reliable concern and let them figure 
it out for you. The Aladdin Company will furnish any information desired if 
you submit a rough sketch of your building and the material from which it is 
constructed. 

First in consideration is the location of building, one built out in the open 
such as farm houses will naturally take a large heating plant and more radia- 
tion than one which is built in the city and sheltered on one or more sides by 
other buildings. 

Second in consideration is the outside wall and glass area of the different 
rooms ; third, the location of heating plant for equal distribution of heat units; 
fourth, prevailing winds an average low temperature; fifth, purpose of build- 
ing or rooms. 

Hot water radiation will require about 50 per cent, more than radiation 
for steam. 



Steam^Heating 



THE steam system of heating is very similar to that of hot water, only 
steam instead of hot water, radiates thru the pipes. The same systems 
of piping are used with it except that steam pipes do not have to be as 
large as those used for hot water. 

A system of direct steam heating consists of a furnace and boiler for the 
combustion of fuel and generation of steam, a system of pipes for conveying 
the steam to the radiator and for returning the water of condensation to the 
boiler, and radiators or coils placed in the rooms to distribute the heat given 
off by the steam. 

Then a steam heating plant may be divided into three distinct parts ; 
first, the boiler or steam generator ; second, the radiators ; and third, the sup- 
ply and return pipe connecting the two. 

A boiler used for heating purposes is constructed to carry a low steam 
pressure of from two to ten pounds and the condensation in the radiator flows 
back to the boiler by gravity. 

The general forms of the radiators used in steam heating are those made 
up in sections, the number depending upon the amount of heating surface re- 
quired. These sections are connected at the bottom by special nipples, so that 
the steam entering on the end fills the bottom of the radiator, and, being 
lighter than the air, rises thru the loops and forces the air downward and 
toward the farther end where it is distributed thru an air valve placed about 
midway of the last section of the radiator. 

To get the best results from wall radiators, they should be set out at least 
\ l / 2 inches from the wall so as to allow a free circulation of air in back of 
them and should, if possible, be placed in the coldest part of the room as under 
\\ indows or near doors. 

Fig. 98 shows the way of piping a building with a two-pipe system. 

Give all pipes a good test before putting them in use and be sure that all 
threads are well drawn up into their connections. 

Do not try to bend a pipe. 

Do not use unions on concealed work. 



130 ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 

Use adjustable hangers as these will allow the entire Line to be drawn a 
little if necessary. 

Be sure that the threads of all connections are well filled with piping 
lead. 

Long-turn or long radius fittings will greatly aid circulation and reduce 
friction in a system of piping and should he used wherever possible. 

A steam main should have a pitch of at least y 2 inch for every 10 feet 
of length and branch off main should have a pitch of 1 inch for every 5 lineal 
feet. Care should he exercised to secure as near a perfect alignment as pos- 
sible in the running of pipes, and pockets should be avoided. When absolutely 
necessary to make a direct rise for the purpose of securing head room or to 
pass some obstruction, a small bleeder pipe y% inch or y 2 inch should he tapped 
into the lowest point of the pocket there formed in order to cardy off the con- 
densation. A check valve should always be placed in the return, near the 
boiler when radiators are located near the water level of the boiler, if the 
water level of the boiler shows a disposition to vary, it may be kept steady by 
connecting a pipe called an equalizing pipe from the steam dome or top of the 
boiler to one of the return openings, below the water line of the boiler, or it 
can be connected to the main near the boiler and tapped into the return pipe 
near its entrance into the boiler. Check valves should always be located in a 
horizontal position of the return and as near the boiler as possible. 

Branches should be taken from the top of the main, or they may be taken 
at an angle of 45 degrees. They should be run with a pitch up from main to 
riser. 

Where reductions in size of main are to be made, eccentric connections or 
couplings should be used. If this is not done, place a drip at each reduction 
to the wet return. 

Main returns for a two-pipe system should increase in size as branch 
enters it. It should be kept one size smaller than the corresponding supply 
pipe. When a drip is connected with a dry return, a loop or trap should be 
inserted to prevent short circuiting of the drain, which would block return 
water. 

Doubling the diameter of pipe increases the capacity four times. 

The Boiler 

The requirements of an economical and satisfactory working boiler for 
house heating are as follows : 

1. They should contain a quantity of water sufficiently large to fill the 
pipes and radiators with steam, to any required pressure, without lowering the 
water in the boiler or require an addition when steam is up, for if the steam 
should go down suddenly there will be too much water in the boiler. This 
occurs in boilers made with very small parts, or pipes which have a small ca- 
pacity at the water line ; such boilers require great care, for should the boiler 
have an automatic w T ater feeder set for the time water line, it will fill up, hut 
cannot discharge again when the steam goes down, while if it has no feeder, 
there is danger of spoiling the boiler, as the water is in the pipes in the form 
of steam. 

It is true that a boiler which contains a small amount of water in pro- 
portion to its heating surface will get up steam quicker, than one containing 
a large amount, but the latter will hold its steam much better when fire is re- 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 131 

newed ; boilers having a small water capacity are quickly chilled and will have 
to be fired often. 

2. The fire box should be of iron with a water space around it, and 
should be below the fire door to admit a thick fire to last all night and keep 
up steam. The fire box should be spacious to allow good combustion of fuel. 



The Care of the Furnace 

No hard and fast rules can be laid clown for the care of every furnace. 
Furnaces themselves differ and chimney flues vary as to draft, etc. The qual- 
ity of coal is the third factor to be taken into consideration and the size of 
coal, the fourth. Allowing for all the differences and assuming that there is 
a fairly good draft to furnace and a good quality of coal and the proper size 
being used, the following rules should help insure good results. 

Clean all pipes and chimneys every fall. If soft coal or semi-soft is 
burned, the pipes may need cleaning more frequently. When anthracite or 
hard coal is used, an annual cleaning should be sufficient. 

See that the fire always has a good draft. There is an almost universal 
idea that a partial draft reduces consumption of coal. This is true, but it also 
decreases production of heat so that nothing is gained. Unless the draft is 
unusually strong, as it is in exposed situations in the country, it may be left 
partly open and the rapidity of consumption regulated by the door below the 
grate. 

The half draft is particularly bad in damp, muggy weather. To burn, 
fuel requires a certain amount of oxygen ; otherwise it smoulders and forms 
poisonous gases which pass off unburned. Coal gas in a house means a defect- 
ive draft, so that even in exposed situations, it is better to open the draft wide 
in damp weather. The occupant of a new house with an unused chimney will 
have need of all the draft that can be created. New chimneys never draw 
well. In building fires in furnaces in new houses, all cellar windows should 
be left open to insure as good a current of air as possible. 

To build a new fire, clean the grate, remove all ashes from beneath, open 
drafts wide and see that the kindling is well started before adding coal. The 
poorer the coal, the slower it must be added. When the grate shows a bed of 
red coals, check drafts. 

To insure an even, good fire, see that the ash pan is cleaned daily. Never 
allow ashes to accumulate. Keep a good bed of coals. The best rule is to 
keep the fire box full constantly. Add coal from two to four times daily, ac- 
cording to the rapidity of consumption. Add very little coal to a low fire. 
Avoid shaking a low fire severely. Open drafts and defer shaking until the 
new coal has caught. 

The fire desired in moderate weather is one which gives a slow, steady, 
mild heat. To get this, keep drafts open, but allow an ash deposit to form 
upon the grate. According to the furnace, this may vary from two to four 
inches. Add to this a layer of coal but keep the bed deep. Avoid shaking 
down except at night, and then allow a layer of ashes to remain upon the 
grate. 

In crisp, severely cold weather with high winds, when a maximum heat 
is desired, keep live coals upon the grate, add coal in large quantities and 
when burning well, check draft below grate. 



132 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



To keep the house warm overnight, let the fire be attended to as late as 
possible. Shake down the grate so that it shows a bed of live coals. Then 
open the drafts, fill the fire box with coal and shut the door. Then remove all 
ashes from the ash pan, and during this time, the gases will burn off and the 
lower door of the firebox may be left open a crack. Enough coal should be 
added to burn all night and start morning fire without additional filling. A 
fire cared for in this manner late at night, will keep a house evenly heated in 
the coldest morning hours, and avoid forcing a hasty fire in the morning. 

Aladdin Hot Water Boilers are furnished as follows: 



Rating, 
Water. 
300 ft. 
375 ft. 
450 ft. 
525 ft. 
600 ft. 
650 ft. 
775 ft. 
850 ft. 
950 ft. 
1125 ft. 



Height, 
Outlet. 
43 in. 
48 in. 
53 in. 
45 in. 
50 in. 

55 in. 
50 in. 

56 in. 
62 in. 
58 in. 



Size, 
Tappings. 
2—2^ in. 
2—2^ in. 
2—2^ in. 
2—2^ in. 
2— 2]/ 2 in. 
2— iy 2 in. 
2 — iy 2 in. 
2—2^ in. 
2—2^ in. 
2—3 in. 



Water 

Line. 

38 in. 

43 in. 

48 in. 
40 in. 
45 in. 

49 in. 
47 in. 

53 in. 
59 in. 

54 in. 



Smoke 
Pipe. 
7 in. 
7 in. 
7 in. 
7 in. 
7 in. 
7 in. 
9 in. 
9 in. 
9 in. 
9 in. 



Shipping 
Weight. 

500 lbs. 

535 lbs. 

550 lbs. 

600 lbs. 

800 lbs. 

900 lbs. 
1040 lbs. 
1100 lbs. 
1200 lbs. 
1400 lbs. 



Aladdin Steam Boilers are furnished as follows : 



Rating, 
Steam. 
175 ft. 
225 ft. 
275 ft. 
325 ft. 
375 ft. 
425 ft. 
475 ft. 
525 ft. 
575 ft. 
650 ft. 



Height. 
Outlet. 
43 in. 
48 in. 
53 in. 
45 in. 
50 in. 

55 in. 
50 in. 

56 in. 
62 in. 
58 in. 



Size, 
Tapping. 
2—2^ in. 
2—2^ in. 
2— iy 2 in. 
2—2^ in. 
2—2^ in. 
2— 2y 2 in. 
2—2)/ 2 in. 
2— 2y 2 in. 
2 — iy> in. 
2—3 in. 



Water 
Line. 
38 in. 
43 in. 

48 in. 
40 in. 
45 in. 
50 in. 
43 in. 

49 in. 
55 in. 
52 in. 



Smoke 
Pipe. 

7 in. 

7 in. 

7 in. 

7 in. 

7 in. 

7 in. 

9 in. 

9 in. 

9 in. 

9 in. 



Shipping 
Weight. 

560 lbs. 

630 lbs. 

675 lbs. 

800 lbs. 

825 lbs. 

970 lbs. 
1100 lbs. 
1200 lbs. 
1300 lbs. 
1400 lbs. 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



133 



Heat Controller Directions 

Placing the Controller 

IN putting up the Regulator, place the Controller in the room most gener- 
ally used, about five feet from the floor. Locate Controller on an inside 
partition not too near an outside wall, a fire grate, hot chimney, hot pipe, 
register, gas jet, or where it will be subject to drafts of cold air. The 
most convenient place will usually be found next to a door casing. 



The Motor 

The motor must stand level, and it can be 
mounted upon the brackets anywhere convenient to 
the heater ; if possible it ought to be placed so the 
cranks will travel in line with the chains, to avoid 
excessive friction; if this is not practical and the 
cranks must throw at right angle to the chains, then 
the motor should be at least two feet below the pul- 
leys or the pulley friction will be heavy, owing to 
the chains being drawn out of line too much. 



Wiring 

The wires from back of Controller may be passed 
through a hole made in the plastering and down 
through the floor in the following manner. Attach 
a weight to a firm length of string and pass through 
hole in wall, where Controller is to be located, al- 
lowing weight to drop between plastering to the 
floor ; bore a hole up from the basement and use wire 
with hook on end to locate string and weight, and 
pull through to basement. Wind wires together in 
one strand at the end, and form loop of wire just 
large enough to pass string through, and draw back 
up through the floor between the partition and Fi ^ 104> 

through the hole where Controller is to be located. 

Or, if more desirable, they may be brought out through the hole in side of 
Controller base and run along any woodwork to a point more convenient for 
entering the basement. 

Do not allow wires to rest against any metal. All connections should 
have a clean contact and be firmly made, but the insulations on wires should 
never be removed further than is absolutely necessary to accomplish the same 
For if the bare wire touches the metal of Controller or another bare wire it 
forms a short circuit, causing the motor to run continuously until run down. 

Run cable from back of Controller connecting wires to posts 1, 2, 3, (see 
Fig. 104), to battery located directly beneath motor, connecting same colored 
wire to zinc of one cell as connected to post 1 of Controller, then another wire 
from carbon of same cell to zinc of second cell, and another wire from the 




134 ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 

remaining carbon to post 1 of Motor. Run wires from post 2 and 3 of Con- 
troller to post 2 and 3 of Motor. 

Adjusting the Controller 

After Regulator has been applied wind the Motor clear up and adjust the 
Controller as follows: Turn the knob on Controller until indicator points to 
figures on scale corresponding to the degrees of temperature indicated by the 
thermometer, lossen the jam screws, screw back the contact points a consider- 
able distance so they will not touch the metal strip, hang a thermometer up 
(lose by the Controller, and allow it time — say ten minutes — to correctly in- 
dicate the temperature. Press strip against left hand contact point to be sure 
of contact on cold side for three or four seconds and then let go the strip, 
screw the right hand point forward very slowly until contact is made with the 
strip and the Motor starts, but no further. Turn indicator two degrees above 
the temperature and screw in the left hand point to a contact in the same 
manner and Motor starts. Then tighten the jam screws to prevent the points 
from changing. Neither point should be screwed in so far as to jam the strip 
against the other one, as it injures the contact surfaces and causes Motor to 
continue running. While this is being done do not allow the indicator or 
pointer to move, nor breathe on or handle the Controller unnecessarily, as it is 
very sensitive. After the adjustment is made, it is well to allow the instru- 
ment to again settle to the correct temperature, when the adjustment should 
be proved by moving the pointer either way slowly to note that when turning 
pointer toward the left it starts the Motor (closing dampers) when arriving at 
the figures corresponding with those indicated by the thermometer, and when 
turning pointer toward the right to operate the Motor at a point two degrees 
above the temperature (opening dampers). This is the proper test to be used 
at any time, when necessary, to demonstrate that the Controller is in proper 
order, but of course the Motor must always lie wound up at such time, as it 
contains an automatic circuit opener and when Motor is nearly run down the 
line is thrown open permanently to prevent polarizing the Battery. As the 
line is thus opened the Controller is rendered inoperative, until the Motor is 
wound up again to close circuit at that point. 

If the Controller should fail to act, all the work must be carefully in- 
spected from beginning to end in search of an error as it never fails to work if 
properly connected. 

After the Regulator is in working order, set the Controller for the degree 
of temperature desired and let it alone. Turning the indicator to the highest 
degree on the scale when the room is cold, or to its lowest degree when hot, 
will not produce heat or cold any quicker than moving the indicator one or two 
degrees higher or lower than the temperature of the room. The draft will be 
opened or closed just as wide in one case as the other. 

Adjusting the Motor Cranks 

After proving the adjustment of the Controller turn the indicator up 
scale to the extreme above the temperature of the room, wind the Motor and 
adjust the crank as follows: Put crank on Motor with arm pointing up. Run 
chain from crank arm to front damper, this will give you the right length of 
chain, then reverse the crank arm and this will hold your front damper open 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



135 



as called for by controller, connect chain to remaining crank arm with arm 
pointing up and check draft closed and leave in that position. Then turn 
pointer of Controller five degrees below temperature and front damper should 
be closed and check damper opened. Set the sliding pins in crank arm as near 
the hub as consistent to obtain the proper opening to dampers, which will en- 
able the Motor to exert more power in pulling chains. 

Do not attempt to operate old rusty and corroded dampers which do not 
work easily. 

Automatic Stop Dampers Closed 

The Motor is provided with an 
automatic check, which causes the 
cranks to always stop in the same 
position when Motor is run down. 
To find this position make a con- 
nection between Motor posts 2 and 
3 and allow the Motor to run until 
it automatically checks, and this 
will be the way it will always stop. 

Hot Water Heaters 

Fig. 105 shows the plan for con- 
necting to house hot water boiler. 
Allow front draft to open very lit- 
tle and usually not more than one- 
half inch. Give check on pipe full opening. Run chains from "A" to "B" 
and from "C" to "D." Some experimenting is necessary in order to determine 
how much the check damper and draught door should be opened. If the 
temperature runs by after the damper is closed, decrease the amount of the 
opening in the front draft and increase the check draft opening. Over half 
the trouble with Controllers is due to neglect in observing the above points. 
Connect Hot Air Furnace in same manner as Hot Water. 




Steam Heaters in Conjunction with Diaphragms 



The best plan for connect- 
ing to house heating steam 
boiler is shown in Fig. 106. 
The letter "H" shows a 
common awning pulley con- 
nected to top of piece of 
chain from front draft "B." 
Run chain from the motor 
crank "A" over pulleys to 
pulley "H" and through 
sheaves up to the end of dia- 
phragm lever "E" and con- 
nect to it at that point. Run 
another chain from motor 
crank "C" and connect to 
check damper at "D." Run 




136 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



another chain from end of diaphragm lever at "E" over pulley and connect at 
"Y." This arrangement enables the diaphragm and Controller to work in 
harmony producing the best possible results as follows : When the tempera- 
ture of the house rises above the desired degree (when pointer is set) the motor 
"M" at once pulls the check damper "D" open and lengthens the draft chain 
"A-E," closing the front draft damper. As long as the temperature of the 
house stays at this point, it is impossible for the diaphragm to close the check 
"D" or open the front draft "B." When the pressure of steam depresses the 
end of the diaphragm lever it will lengthen the chain "A-E" and close front 
draft and pull on chain "E-Y" and open the check. 



j— 


sr 


'- »-•:. 


9fr 


E 


7> 




60 i 




SCh 




4<y 




30- 


k-€ 


* 


* 1 



Management of Fire 

Shake the grate very little in mild weather and burn 
the coal over quite a depth of ashes ; this will give a mild 
heat and save fuel. As the weather becomes steadily 
cold keep grate reasonably clear by shaking, and the 
furnace well filled with coal. When filling the furnace 
with coal see that the Controller is set so that the front 
draft under the grate will be held open, otherwise the 
furnace will be liable to throw out gas. 

When out-door temperature is at zero or lower, wind 
the motor twice a week and when above that point wind 
weeklv. 



Cleaning Contacts of Controllers 

When the fire is started up in the fall, draw a piece of 
thin paper through between each contact point and the 
blade of the Controller to remove any substance that may 
have accumulated and the Regulator will be ready again 
for the season. 



Caution 

To avoid injuring the Motor or getting an erroneous 
idea as to its action do not attempt in any way to start 
it except by turning the knob of the Controller. Letters 
are frequently received from people who trip the Motor 
by some other means, stating that the "Motor does not 
stop upon one-half revolution of the crank shaft," and 

■ , , T r , Fig. 107 — Shows Thermo- 

mjuestmg an explanation or remedy. If the Regulator stat with clock attachment. 
is allowed to act automatically or an action be forced by 

turning the knob of the Controller only until the pointer passes the tempera- 
ture point to get the electric contact, the proper action will be produced. Do 
not shift the Controller pointer except when it is absolutely necessary. The 
Regulator is self-acting or automatic, and will operate every time the temper- 
ature ascends to or drops two degrees below the point at which the Controller 
is set. 




ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 137 

Motor Running Down 

Should a Motor fail to stop until entirely run down, a cross somewhere 
between the wires (described in Fig. 104 as running "from posts No. 2 and 
No. 3") can be found or the contact points of Controller are both touching 
the blade. 

These wires at Motor or Controller cannot touch any metal except the 
posts to which they are connected, or the blade of Controller have contact 
with both points at once, or the electric current will continue to flow and keep 
the Motor running until it opens the line. 

Note — Do not strip insulation too far back on wires where connected to 
back of Controller. If bare wires touch each other or base of Controller, the 
Motor will run down. This sometimes occurs when pointer is turned up or 
down, causing wires to crowd and touch each other or base of Controller. 

Important Suggestions 

Leave open constantly all doors or passageways between the rooms to 
be controlled, so the air can freely circulate. 

Do not entertain the idea that because a thermometer in another room 
does not agree exactly with one by which the Controller was adjusted, or 
because you feel warm or cool, the Regulator necessarily is not working, but 
when in doubt from any cause, just step to the Controller and observe whether 
the mercury register or temperature corresponds to the figures indicated by the 
Controller pointer. If so, all is well. If the temperature is found to be 
above the pointer and the front draft door is closed, or below it and the draft 
is open, the Regulator is not at fault, unless, after the Motor has been wound, 
it will not operate when the pointer is shifted each side of the temperature 
point sufficiently to make the contacts. Do not move pointer after you have 
Controller working satisfactorily, keep it in the same position day and night. 

If the Motor operates at the temperature point when the pointer is being- 
turned down the scale and again when it is turned two degrees above the 
temperature point, the Controller is properly adjusted and the Regulator in 
working order. 

When the Regulator is in such working condition as described and, 
after front draft has been closed, the temperature rises or carries by. do not 
shake grate too much, but allow the ashes to remain in the coal. If the tem- 
perature does not rise the two degrees required after front door has been open 
two hours, free the grate a little more. By carefully experimenting in this 
manner a few days, any one can fire so a heater will require attention but 
once or twice each day. 




ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



Plumbing 



THE plumbing of a building marks a very important step in its ((in- 
struction, and must be installed in the proper manner in order to have 
proper ventilation and drainage, which is necessary in order to make 
it healthy to live in. In most cities, the plumbing work is governed by 
the building code issued by the city building department, and is also inspected 
and passed or condemned by a city plumbing inspector before the builder is 
given a permit for service by the city department. Even though the work is 
to be installed by an experienced plumber, there are many things which the 
builder should inspect and lie sure are clone correctly. We will give such 
information as we think will be of value to our builders, on plumbing, avoid- 
ing as much as possible, the use of technical terms that might tend to confuse 
the mind of the average workman. 

There is not an item entering into the construction of a building of such 
vital importance to the occupants as the plumbing installation ; poor work- 
manship, improper or imperfect materials, or faulty fixtures, any one or all 
of these may be present, permitting insidious, poisonous gases to permeate the 
house, breeding malaria, typhoid and other diseases, ending often in the death 
of one or more members of the family before the trouble is detected and cor- 
rected. 

The builder should reserve for plumber, a well worded contract or letter 
of specifications stating exactly what is to be done and the kind of materials 
to be used. The following is an example of worded specifications ami con- 
tract between plumber and builder for the installation of a small outfit for 
an ordinary house. 



Form of Contract and Specifications Between Owner and 
Plumber 

Bay City, Mich., 
Jan. 25, 1918. 

An agreement entered into this 25th day of January, 1918, between John 
Smith of Bay City, Mich., as owner and party of the first part, and the Bay 
City Plumbing Co., also of Bay City, Mich., as contractors and party of the 
second part. 

The said party of the second part, for and in consideration of the sum of 
One Hundred Thirty-Eight Dollars and Fifty Cents, ($138.50) in payment, 
to amount to the valuation of the work satisfactorily completed and in place 
at date of payment, does hereby propose and agrees to furnish all labor and 
material necessary to do the plumbing in the John Smith Bungalow on 4th 
Ave., specified as follows : 

Beginning where sewer enters basement, place a 4 inch double hand 
hole running trap. On inside opening of trap, calk in a 4 inch brass cover 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 

cleahout. In other opening of the trap, run 4 inch soil pipe out thru side of 
house above grade, placing a vent cap on same for fresh air inlet. From end 
of trap run over to partition under bathroom and up thru house and roof, 
flashing with galvanized iron flashing making roof water tight where soil pipe 
passes thru same. Use all the necessary ties and branches to receive the 
plumbing fixtures which are to be installed. 

Place in the basement floor one 9 inch cess pool properly connected to the 
sewer; place in the kitchen one 20x30 white enameled Aladdin sink, sink to 
have finished brass faucets for hot and cold water connections. Sink to be 
connected to sewer with a continuous waste pipe running up thru roof and 
flashed with a galvanized iron flashing making roof water tight where vent 
pipe passes thru same. 

Place in bathroom on first floor one 5 foot white enameled Aladdin bath 
tub, tub to have nickel plated faucets with china index top, nickel plated sup- 
ply pipes and nickel plated waste and overflow to the floor. Also place in 
bathroom one 18x21 white enameled Aladdin lavatory with D shaped bowl, 
lavatory to have nickel plated faucets with china indexed top, nickel plated 
waste and overflow and nickel plated supply pipe to the floor. 

Also place in bathroom one Syphon wash down Aladdin closet with 
golden oak tank and seat and nickel plated supply pipe to the floor. Place 
in bathroom floor one 4x8 inch down trap (lead) with nickel plated cover 
set flush with finished floor of bathroom. Place one Y\ inch lead waste pipe 
from trap under floor and connect with tub and one *4 i ncri l ea d pipe from 
trap to sewer. Run one '4 inch galvanized iron vent pipe from trap 5 ft. 
above floor and connect with vent pipe for venting tub. Place one % inch 
nickel plated vented S trap under lavatory and connect to sewer with one x /\ 
inch lead pipe. Run one l /\ inch vent pipe from trap and connect with vent 
pipe in wall. 

Plumbing to include all necessary water connections to supply sink and 
bathroom with hot and cold water. Hot water pipe to run to furnace and to 
connect with heating coil which is to be included in same. It also includes 
two nickel plated soil cocks to be placed one at front and one at back of 
building. Water pipes to have all necessary waste cocks and shutoffs. 

A forty gallon range boiler is to be placed where desired and necessary 
connections made to same for supply for hot water pipes. 

All work put in complete and in a first class workmanlike manner. 
(Signed) Bay City Plumbing Co., 

Per E. C. Rock. 
Witnesses: 



In this book we will endeavor to explain in as simple a manner as pos- 
sible, the valuation of the plumbing in an average home in which a closet. 
lavatory, bath tub. kitchen sink and laundry tub are installed : 

We have also shown several plumbing layouts illustrating the above 
fixtures in a sanitary, substantial manner. 



140 ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 

The system commonly known as the "revent system" is generally specified 
in plumbing contracts as this system will overcome any possibility of breaking 
the water seal which sets in the different fixture traps and causes a siphonage, 
back air or gas pressure when flushing any one of the fixtures. This system 
is highly recommended and gives good results, but the "non-revent system" 
will also give very satisfactory results under ordinary circumstances, and is 
much cheaper to install. 



Drain Pipe and Sewer 

Certain terms are applied to different parts of the piping system of a 
plumbing installation, some though they may be connected together into one 
continuous line; this becomes necessary, in order that the different sections 
shall be properly designated. 

The house sewer is that part of the main drain pipe, or sewer line, 
extending from a point about two feet from the outer house wall, to the 
street sewer, or cesspool, as the case may be ; the house drain is the main 
horizontal line extending from the vertical soil line to the house sewer. The 
fresh air inlet is a line of pipe of same diameter as the house drain extending 
from a point outside the outer wall about one foot above grade, and about 
ten feet from the nearest window, or other opening into the house, where it 
is surmounted with a return bend, or some patented air inlet device to a 
connection on the house drain just inside of the main house trap, and is 
intended to provide fresh air for the ventilation of the drainage system. The 
end of the fresh air inlet should never terminate in a so-called street box, a 
metal box placed at the street level, usually near the curb, and covered with a 
metal grating ; the box soon becomes filled with dirt, the grating often broken, 
and the air inlet absolutely inoperative. 

The soil line is the line to which the water closets are connected. It is 
extended thru the roof, and above the last fixture becomes a vent line. The 
waste line is the one to which the waste lavatories, bath tubs, sinks and wash 
tubs is connected, and it in turn is connected to the soil line, if its termination 
is above the first floor, or to the house drain if at the lower floor. The waste 
line is not always a vertical line, it usually connects at each floor to the soil 
line. The vent line is a vertical line extending as a loop from its connection 
to the house drain below the lowest fixture, to its connection to the soil line 
above the highest fixture; to this line the back vents are connected from the 
various fixtures. If there are no plumbing fixtures above the first floor, this 
line becomes unnecessary and may be omitted, but if there are water closets 
in the house, the soil line must be extended full size thru the roof. Where 
no water closets are installed in the house, only such fixtures as lavatories, 
sinks, etc., the vent line, if such is used, or its equivalent, the waste line must 
be extended thru the roof enlarged not less than twelve inches below the roof, 
to four inches in diameter, and extending at least four feet above the roof. 
Under no circumstances should the termination of this soil, or vent line, be 
placed near, or in line with any window or other opening into the house, nor 
should it be placed near a chimney, as the poisonous gases discharging from 
the vent pipe are very likely to be carried down the chimney poisoning the air 
in the rooms, when the chimney is not in use. No cowl, bend, or covering of 
any kind should be placed over the top of the vent line. 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 141 

The vent line is intended to ventilate the drainage system, and to prevent 
breaking of the seals in the traps by syphonic action. Its proper installation 
is therefore most important. If it is extended thru the roof of less diameter 
than four inches, it will not be of sufficient area to answer the purpose, and in 
winter will almost surely be entirely closed by hoar frost. The writer has seen 
country houses with the vent line carried two inches in diameter a short dis- 
tance above the roof, surmounted by a short increaser to four inches in diam- 
eter, presenting the appearance of a funnel, and making an excellent receptacle 
for leaves, birds' nests, etc., utterly defeating the object for which it was in- 
tended. 

About the first thing to be considered and one of very much importance 
is the sewer. It is usually constructed of vitrified tile pipe from the main 
sewer of the street up to a point inside foundation wall. When the sewer is 
being laid, the builder should be sure that the joints of the pipe are well 
connected and that they are well swabbed out so that no waste matter can 
catch on the cement which may have worked its way thru the joints of the 
pipe and hardened on the inside. 

The sewer should be laid with a good decline from the house toward 
the main sewer of the street and carried well below the cellar floor so as to 
prevent any "backing up" in rainy weather. But also be careful that the 
sewer does not get too much of a decline, as the water travel will be so rapid 
that the water will run ahead of the solid matter. The pitch should be about 
one-fourth of an inch to each running foot. 

The sewer pipes on the inside of the foundation should be of iron and of 
sufficient size to carry off all waste matter. Place a cleanout on the inside 
of the foundation and have a vent cap in the same for fresh air inlet. All 
Y's and T's used in sewer connections should be well calked and given a good 
water test before put in use. Connections should be provided in sewer to 
carry off all water from the draintile under foundation, conductor pipes, from 
eaves and cistern overflows. The cistern overflows should be so connected that 
there will be absolutely no danger of the sewer "backing up" into the cistern. 

There is no hidden force in the sewer pipes to keep carrying away the 
sewerage, and solid matter requires a force of water to dispose of it. There- 
fore, if a 5 inch pipe is large enough, do not use a 6 inch, for the same 
amount of water will be deeper in a 5 inch pipe and will have a better force 
to carry off the solid matter. 

If the house is situated in a low lying district, where the sewer is likely 
to overflow during a heavy rainfall, or if the house sewer discharges into a 
river, a lake, the sea, or any body of water affected by tides or freshets, a flap 
valve should be installed near the end of the house sewer to prevent the 
sewage from backing up into the house. In such cases the house sewer should 
be graded one-half inch per foot, to secure a flow sufficiently rapid to carry 
paper and sludge past the valve without clogging it. 

Be sure that good joints are made between the clay pipe and iron pipe, 
as leaky joints are a menace to the health of the occupants. The floor of the 
cellar should contain a cess pool properly connected with the sewer so as to 
carry off any water that may collect there, thus insuring a dry cellar. Damp- 
ness is the chief enemy of mankind. Where there is dampness, there is decay ; 



142 ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 

where there is decay, there is disease'; and where there is disease, there is 
death. Eliminate dampness and fully over half the ills that flesh falls heir 
to will disappear. 

Three and four inch sewer tile costs 12c per lineal foot and five and six 
inch will cost about ISc per lineal foot. 



Ventilation 

All sinks, washstands. hath tubs and closets should he well ventilated 
by vent pipes running up thru roof. The kitchen sink should he connected 
with the sewer with a conductor waste pipe and should have a vent pipe run- 
ning up thru the roof and flashed with a galvanized iron flashing or patent 
flashing which will prevent the roof from leaking where the pipe passes 
thru same. 

The lavatory, hath tub and closet should all have vent pipes running up 
thru roof and flashed in proper manner. 

A four inch soil pipe connection is usually brought into the building from 
sewer pipes and is carried over to a point which is most convenient for all 
connections and is then carried up thru roof for ventilation with the necessary 
Y's and T's placed in same to take care of other fixtures. The main soil pipe 
should have a vent pipe running up to grade at the point where it enters the 
building, same should be fitted with patent cover so line will not become 
clogged up. 

A two inch soil pipe is used for receiving the waste from plumbing 
fixtures other than the closet and for ventilating purposes and the four inch 
soil pipe for receiving the waste from plumbing fixtures including closet, also 
for underground sewer line inside building. 

It is always a good plan to place a stack increaser on the vent pipes 
which go up thru the roof, as moisture rising from stack in cold weather 
freezes in the form of hoar frost on inside at top of stack and prevents 
proper air circulation unless increaser is used. The adjustable roof flange 
will give the same results as an increaser. 

In soil pipes or stacks at any point where stoppage is liable to occur 
should be placed a clean-out Y with brass screw cover. By unscrewing cover, 
pipe can be rodded or cleaned out. « 

Traps should be placed in the drain pipe of all fixtures whether made of 
cast iron, lead or brass ; all serve the same purpose. 

They are so constructed that sufficient waste remains in the trap at all 
times to entirely close the opening, that is, seal it, preventing sewer gas from 
backing up thru the waste pipe and coming out of the fixtures into the room. 

The kitchen sink should be furnished with a grease trap. If it is not, the 
pipe is apt to become choked with grease and must ultimately be opened and 
cleaned by hand, often at material expense when long lines are deep under- 
ground. To avoid this, many traps have been designed to separate and 
collect the grease either by flotation or by chilling, generally by the former. 

Traps to collect the grease by flotation were formerly improvised by the 
plumber and were placed in the drain pipe just outside the foundation. This 
location of trap left too much pipe subject to choking between the grease trap 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 143 

and sink. The grease traps now commonly furnished are placed in the kitchen 
under the sink and frequently serve as a regular trap for the fixture. The 
grease is easily removed by lifting out the container or by skimming from the 
top. Hinged bolts with thumb-nuts secure the covers so they can be easily 
and quickly opened and closed. 

Water Supply 

The water main is usually tapped and brought into the building and 
meter placed by the local water company. Kinds of pipes used are generally 
governed by local building codes. 

The iron pipe which is to run into the building should not be connected 
directly with the coil in water main. A short piece of lead pipe should be 
used to make the connection, as this will give, and prevent the setting of the 
earth from breaking off the iron pipe. 

The water service pipe should be laid below the frost line and should be 
carried as directly as possible to the building. Where it enters the building, 
it should be fitted with a good serviceable stop and waste cock so that the 
water can be shut off easily in case of leaks, bursting of pipes, etc. 

The water pipes are to be put in and plumbing tested out before plaster 
has been put on building, so as not to damage walls, should there be any leaks. 

After the pipes have the shut-off on the inside of the walls, they should 
run up underneath the joists, being held in place by hangers so that they 
will not sag. Make proper connections to connect with bath tub, lavatory, 
closet, sink, slop sink and hot water boiler. These connections should be made 
to carry the hot water to the different fixtures in the building. Do not use 
lead pipe for hot water. 

After the job has been roughed in, and before it has been covered up and 
fixtures installed, it should be thoroughly tested in order to do away with any 
tearing up of floors or removal of plaster to locate and repair leaks which 
may show up after the fixtures have been set. Tins is usually done by a water 
test as any defects in material or leaks in joints will be readily detected when 
the system is filled with water. All openings should be plugged up and the 
testing done slowlv and any leak found, fixed immediately. All joints should 
be well leaded and drawn up. Galvanized pipe has been used with the best 
results for water supply. 

Always begin the water pipe supply in basement and work up to fixtures. 
Allow sufficient fall to all horizontal piping to insure a thorough drain back 
to basement when the stop and waste cock at the source of supply are closed. 

Be very careful to see that no traps are allowed in any horizontal runs of 
pipe. A trap is caused by the pipe sagging in the wrong direction. This 
keeps part of the water from returning to basement and is apt to freeze should 
the house be kept without heat during cold weather. 

Run the supply pipes to fixtures with as few turns and fittings as pos- 
sible. Every turn and fitting means a certain amount of pressure lost by 
friction. 

The pipe generally used to supply water to plumbing fixtures is -]4 inch 
in diameter. From the supply pipe, branches are run to the different fixtures 
and T connections made with side openings required by fixture. 



144 ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 

It is generally customary to use the fy inch supply as far as laundry tub 
and sink and then extend up or over the bathroom with y 2 inch pipe. The 
connection to be made as follows : Laundry tub and sink, fyi ox l / 2 inch pipe, 
the closet tank -}i inch, the lavatory V% inch and the bath tub V 2 inch. 



Installing 

In the piping of a plumbing system, three materials enter largely into 
the construction, and they are cast iron, galvanized wrought iron, and lead. 
Brass pipe makes a somewhat more durable, and a very nice job, but its 
high first cost makes its use very rare ; next in desirability and in cost comes 
galvanized wrought iron, but that too is too high in cost for general use on the 
drainage system, and its use is therefore usually restricted to the water supply, 
and perhaps a few short waste and vent connections from the fixtures to the 
main cast iron stacks ; but even in these cases lead is more generally used, 
largely because of the ease of handling. Cast iron, consequently, is left as the 
most universally used of all materials in the installation of a plumbing drain- 
age system. No earthenware or tile of any kind should be used inside a 
building in connection with a drainage system. It is too liable to fracture, 
and is likely to be carelessly installed. 

The operation of calking soil pipe joints is very simple and does not 
require any experience in order to obtain good results. By using the proper 
amount of oakum and packing it well into the hub of the pipe with lead and 
calking it, a solid joint can be made. After placing the pieces of pipe into 
the hub of the piece to which it is to be joined, place sufficient oakum into 
the joint to make a good foundation for lead to rest upon. The oakum should 
be packed down solid into the joint. Heat your lead sufficiently to run 
entirely around the hub before becoming solid. Pour lead into joint as 
quickly as possible. After it has cooled and become solid, calk it in place. 

When pipes are being fitted in horizontally, an asbestos lead joint runner 
should be used to prevent the lead from running out at the bottom. Until 
recently, putty, or a rope coated with wet clay was used for this purpose, but 
now an asbestos lead joint runner is put on the market, which is not affected 
by the heat, and lead may be poured into joints as fast as runner can be re- 
moved. 

The best joint is made by pouring in only part of the lead and after 
calking it down solid, putting in the remainder, calking it but lightly. 

Never plunge a cold ladle of water into a pot of hot lead because the 
great difference in temperature will cause the metal to explode and fly in all 
directions. 

For flashing around the vent stack where it comes thru the roof, lead 
pipe or seamless drawn copper tubing a little larger than the outside diameter 
of the stack hub should be used, soldered to a flange of the same material ex- 
tending about ten inches beyond the pipe on all sides ; this flange should be 
carefully soldered to a metal roof, or laid under the courses of a shingle, slate, 
tar or other similar roof. The section of vent stack to which the flashing is to 
be made, should extend about 15 to 18 inches above the roof, the hole thru the 
roof made as large as the outside diameter of the pipe hub ; the lead or copper 
tubing is then placed in position, and it must be long enough to rise about 2 
inches above the vent stack ; the flashing is secured to the roof by solder, or 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



large headed tacks and the end of the tubing turned into the hub of the vent 
stack ; a section of cast iron soil pipe of proper length is then calked into the 
hub of the vent stack with oakum and 
molten lead, the same as the joints be- 
low the roof are made. This makes a 
good water tight job, and has a tendency 
to protect the vent stack from frost. 

Where it can be avoided, plumbing 
pipes should not be run between the 
ceiling and floor above ; it is next to im- 
possible to get the proper grade, and if 
any stoppage occurs, or repairs become 
necessary from any cause, it makes a 
troublesome and expensive job, and is- 
very likely to ruin the ceiling below. 
It is better to run the pipes vertically in, 
at the side wall, or in a partition, and 
connect to the house drain in the cellar ; 
this applies of course, to where fixtures 
are placed on opposite sides of the build- 
ing. For this reason it is a good plan, 
when designing the building to have the 
bathrooms or toilets on the upper floors, 
directly over those on the floor below. 
It is far more economical and more sat- 
isfactory in every respect. In moder- 
ately large houses where lavatories are 
placed in inner rooms, or in large rooms 
away from the side walls, it becomes 
necessary to carry the waste pipe under 
the floor, but the horizontal run should 
be well and evenly graded away from 
the fixture, be as short as possible 

and securely held in place. Always bear in mind that every fixture in the 
house must be provided with a trap placed as close to it as possible, and with 
proper ventilation. Where wash tubs and a sink, or basin adjoin each 
other, it is all right to have the tubs discharge thru the sink trap, but the 
connection must be made to the trap below the water seal and to the inner, 
or house side of the trap. 

The branch vent connection should be made to the waste pipe, with fix- 
tures other than water closets, and these should be made to the soil 
pipe about 18 inches from the closet, and only to the upper side of the pipe. 
If connected at the side, it is liable to be become clogged up, particularly 
with the soil pipe. It has been the general rule in the past to make the vent 
connection for waterclosets as near the closets as possible, and for other fix- 
tures, to the crown of the trap, or very near to it. This is a bad practice in 
both cases. When placed at the crown of the trap, evaporation of the water 




Non-revent system of plumbing. 



146 



ALADDIN' MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



seal is increased, and in that location or near it, the splash when the fixture is 
flushed, will carry grease, paper, lint and other light articles into the vent open- 
ing, completely choking it up in a short time, rendering it ahsolutely ineffective. 
It is a safe rule to make 
this connection about 6 or 
S inches from the trap for 
smaller fixtures, and 
about 12 to 18 inches for 
water closets. The branch 
vent must connect to the 
main vent stack above the 
fixture to insure that it 
shall never become a 
waste pipe in case the 
proper waste or soil pipe 
s h o u 1 d become tempo- 
rarily stopped up. The 
overflow pipes from all 
fixtures must be con- 
nected to the inner or 
house side of traps to in- 
sure protection against 
sewer gas. 

It is impossible by a 
few illustrations, to ex- 
plain the method of in- 
stalling plumbing fixtures 
under all conditions. The 
"roughing in" and supply 
piping of course will be 
different according to the 
location of the fixtures 
and their respective posi- 
tion to each other. 

The layouts which we 
show in these pages are 
good examples of aver- 
age one and two story 
houses. They indicate 
the locating of the fix- 
ture and the running of the pipes so as to use the least number of bends and 
turns. Run all your piping in as straight as possible. 

Complete detailed blue prints and instructions are furnished with all 
plumbing outfits furnished by this Company. 




Tig. 109 — Revent system of plumbing-. 



Non-Revent System 



Fig. 108 shows a bath 


•oom outfit c 


onsistmg 


with connections to a 4 inc 


i soil pipe. 


This met 


used considerably, does ik 


t allow for 


reventing 


shows the same layout with 


revent pipe 


in place. 



f lavatory, tub and closet 
>d of plumbing, although 
your fixtures. Fig. 109 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



If all the 

fixtures are to 
located on the 
first floor, the 
pipe vent and 
length of soil 
pipe are 
placed on 
cleats suffi- 
ciently below 
the floor to al- 
low for a T 
branch into 
the hub of the 
soil pipe and 
still keep the 
top of the branch on 
branch, the soil stack 




/\ 



i 



Fig. 110 — Roll rim cast iron porcelain enameled tub. 

a level with the floor line. From the top of the T 
is continued up to the roof by calking one length into 
the other. The stack is 
brought to within a foot 
or so of the roof and an 
increaser is calked into 
it. which makes the in- 
side of the stack larger 
where it passes thru the 
roof and prevents the 
stack from freezing and 
promotes the proper cir- 
culation of air. Where 
the stack passes thru 
flashed with galvanized iron flashing to make a water-tight 




Fig:. Ill — Roll rim cast iron tub with base 

oof, it should 



job. 

Into the 4 inch opening of the branch, a closet bend should be calked. 
The end of the bend should come on a level with the finished floor line. 



1 J 



^P^ 



Fig. 112 — Corner Lavatory. 



Fig-. 113— Wall Lavatory. 



Over the end of the bend, a collar is screwed with a calked lead joint and 
is held firmly in place. Putty is then packed on and around the collar and 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 




ft it* 





Pig-. 114 — Pedestal Lavatory. 



Fig. 115 — Closet Combination, 
wood tank. 



the closet bowl is set in place. Enough soft putty should be placed around 
collar to make a tight connection between the spud of the closet bowl and 
the bend, but be careful that no putty drops into the bend. 

The lavatory should be fastened to the wall by means of a concealed 
wall hanger. This hanger is first securely fastened to grounds on wall and 
then fixtures hung in place. 

As the bath tub has no trap, it is necessary to provide a seal of some 
kind to prevent sewer gas from backing up into the room. A draw trap 
should be placed in the waste line as near the tub as possible. 




Fig-. 116 — Closet Combination 
with china tank. 



Revent System 

Illustration, Fig. 109 shows a bathroom out- 
fit with the same layout as Fig. 108, but it has 
a revent connected to the 4 inch soil stack and 
doubly insures the Water seal in the traps from 
being broken when bath tub and lavatory are 
emptied and closet flushed. Where it is im- 
possible to run vent pipe between the walls over 
to the soil stack on account of windows or doors, 
the T branch can be placed in attic for revent 
connection. 

Fig. 109 shows a bathroom outfit on first 
and second floor with revent system. You will 
notice that each revent is placed so that empty- 
ing or flushing one fixture will not affect any of 
the others regardless of the amount of water 
which passes thru pipes. 

When installing a bathroom outfit on both 
first and second floors, it is necessary to run a 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 149 

second revent from a Y branch in the soil stack below the sanitary T for the 
first floor outfit. This revent is connected to the first revent by a cross. 




Fig-. 117 — Kitchen sink with attached drain. 



Fig. 118 — Two compartment laundry sink. 



«H 



* 



When a kitchen sink alone is connected with the soil stack, it is not 
necessary to revent it as the stack itself takes the place of a revent. 

The soil stack of all fix- 
tures except closet can be 
2 inches, but the closet stack 
wants to be a continuation 
of the main soil without 
any reducers. 

The 2 inch soil stack is to 
be installed in the same man- 
ner as main soil, that is, with 
an increaser where it passes 
thru roof. 

The sink is placed on con- 
cealed wall brackets, ordi- 
nary sink boards or sink legs, 
depending on style used. 
The top of sink should be placed from 2 ft. 6 in. to 3 ft. from floor. 

Where the kitchen sink is located on the first or second floor and the 
laundry tub in basement, it is best to revent the laundry tub. Otherwise, 
the water poured into the sink will be apt to first blow the air and gases in 
the soil stack thru the laundry tub connections in the stack syphon or suck 
the water out of the trap. 



|i t 



Fig. 119 — Cast iron porcelain enameled laundry tub. 




150 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



Hot Water Heater 



IN houses that have been piped with gas for light- 
ing or cooking purposes, it is a good plan to in- 
stall a gas hot water heater either automatic or 
in connection with the range boiler. During the 
summer months when the furnace is not in use, and 
the range boiler has a furnace connection, it is very 
inconvenient to secure hot water for bath and 
kitchen use. 



These gas water heaters 
are constructed in different 
sizes according to the re- 
quirements of your building, 
and can be installed in your 
house during the course of 
construction at a very small 
additional cost. Fig. 120 
shows a single copper coil of 
the hour glass type. Fig. 
121 shows a double coil 
heater. Either of these 
heaters will work out very 
satisfactorily in connection 
with a 30 gal. range boiler. 





Fing. 120 — Single copper 
coil heater. 



Fig. 121 — Double copper coil 
gas water heater. 



Eave-Troughing 



IN most instances, the simplest method of taking care of the water from the 
roof, is to place a galvanized metal gutter under the outer edge. There 
are many different eave troughs and hangers on the market. The thickness 
of the metal is standardized for all the different sections and parts. In 
some places where there are no 
shops for making gutters, tin 
or wooden gutters 
are often used. 

Eave - trough - 
ing is made with 
t w o d i f f e r e n t 
joints, slip joints 
and la]> joints. 
The slip joint is 

most satisfactory and much easier to apply, as it ran be put together without 
soldering. The eave-troughing is furnished in 10 ft. lengths and will have to 
be cut on the job to lit. The water from the eave is usually conducted to a 
wooden or cement reservoir to be used for domestic purposes, or is conducted 




Fig. 122 — Slip joint of eave trough. 




No. 2 

-Galvanized elbows. 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 

into sewer or drainage system. The 
trough must be placed on building 
with sufficient pitch to cause the water 
to flow to the down spout or conductor 

pipes. The slip joints of each length 

should be laid so that the water will 

run over each joint. See Fig. 122. 

If this was not done a certain amount 

of water would work thru the joint. 

In ordering eave-troughing with slip 

joint you must state if you want it furnished right or left hand, so the joints 

can be laid properly. The standard sizes furnished are in 3 l / 2 . 4, 5 and 6 inch 

widths, and weigh from 4- T / 2 to 7 pounds per foot. 

The house drain, and all horizontal pipes, including the 
header connection, must be evenly graded not less than *4 
inch per foot : ' 2 inch per foot is better as that will in- 
crease the capacity of pipe 50 per cent., due to the more 
rapid flow ; for instance, a four inch horizontal header 
connection, if graded % inch per foot would drain 3,000 
sq. ft. of roof surface with a moderately heavy rain fall ; 
if graded l / 2 inch it would drain 4,500 sq. ft. 

In localities having a heavy rainfall, it is better to 

grade l / 2 inch per foot, or use a size larger pipe than with 

but never use a main header less than 3 inches in diameter, 

or a house sewer or drain less than 4 inches in diameter. A safe rule to follow 

for size of header, is to allow 1 sq. 

inch of pipe area for each 250 sq. ft. 

of roof area. 

In ordering the corners it is always 

necessary to state whether they are to 

have inside or outside bead and if they 

are right or left hand. On the end of each run of trough a cap is placed to 




the 



inch srade, 




Galvanized eave trough slip joint. 






Fig. 126— Wire eave trough 
hangers. 



complete the trough. Drop outlets are also placed in the runs of trough whicl 

are pieces of trough about 6 or <S 

inches long with an outlet soldered in 

the under side to connect with the 

conductor pipe. The conductor pipes 

are corrugated to prevent bursting if 

they are frozen full of water. With Fig ' 129 ~ Galvan ized corrugated conductor pipes. 

Z l / 2 or 4 inch trough a 2 inch conductor pipe is used with a 5 inch trough, a 

3 inch conductor and 4 inch conductor for a 6 inch trough. Different angles 




152 ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 

shown are furnished to take care of any turn necessary in the conductor pipe 
as shown by Fig. 123. When ordering state which angle is desired. 

When the conductor pipe is connected with 
cistern or reservoir it is advisable to place a 
cut-off near the top of foundation and make 
another connection with the sewer or drainage 
system. If the cistern starts to overflow the 
cut-off is fitted with a safety spring to conduct 
the water from one pipe to the other. If this 
cut-off is not used it is advisable to place a F i e . 130— Drop outlets, 

overflow connection in cistern. 

The troughs are fastened to eave of building by heavy wire hangers, as 
shown by Fig. 126. Be sure these are securely fastened and that trough has 
sufficient fall toward outlet. To fasten the conductor pipe to wall of build- 
ing malleable iron hooks are used. Draw these up closely to conductor pipe 
so it will not rattle, but do not bend pipe. Complete estimate and lists of 
material will be furnished by our Hardware Department upon request. 




Cisterns 



CISTERNS are constructed out of wood, concrete or brick, for the pur- 
pose of collecting the rain or soft water for domestic uses. They 
should be located so that the water from the eave can be drained into 
them, and also easily accessible to supply laundry tub or plumbing 
fixtures. It is a good plan to supply them with overflow drains connected to 
the sewer, so as to take care of any oversupply of water in rainy seasons. 

Wood cisterns are made square or round. When made square or box 
shaped they are usually constructed of a wood frame and lined with a gal- 
\anized metal or sheet lead. Round or barrel shaped ones are manufactured 
1 if cistern staves which have been creosoted to preserve the wood. Wood 
cisterns should be blocked up from floor so they will have ventilation on all 
sides, and will not become water soaked. 

If cistern is constructed on outside of building, it should be covered over 
the top with 2 inch planks with the joints lapped with 1 inch material. This 
will prevent dirt from working its way into water. A man hole should be left 
a; top and covered with a batten door. 

Brick or concrete cisterns will cost considerably more than wooden ones, 
hut will last a life time and are much easier to keep clean. 

If cistern is built of brick, it should be lined with a plastering of good 
water-proof cement on the sides and bottom. Table XX will be found of serv- 
ice in estimating the number of bricks required for circular brick cistern, with 
open top. It also gives number of yards of excavation necessary, allowance 
having been made for sufficient room for'men to work on outside of wall. 

To find the capacity of a tank in W. S. gallons, multiply the length, by 
the square of the diameter and by 0.0034. For example : A tank 60 in. deep 
and a diameter of 96 inches : 

The square 96 inches (the diam.) equals 9,216 inches. 

9,216 inches by 60 inches (the depth) equals 552,960. 

552.960x0.0034 equals 1,880 W. S. gallons. 

(231 cu. in. to each gallon.) 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



153 



S 2 

r- 1 bo 

> ™ ^ 

^N £ en 

OQ U pa 

2 ° ° 

"3 •§ 

to g 

& I 





„ 






^ 


* ., 


p. 


r-, in 




^ 


w 


-1 


p. 


- 1C 


- 


.- 




;', 


a 


3 


§ 


8 £ 


X 


1 




'J 


30 


- = 






























in 


^. 


CO 


r , 


rt 


o- 


qo r^ 


* 


m 


^ 


w 




_ 
































N 


" 


"■- 


■* 




& 


3 8 


'- 


7 


X 


o- 




o o 


^ 


m 






p_ 


ri 


On I- 


N 


p, 


p. 




_ 




























0> 




































r ' 






"* ~ 


"• 


U". O 


w 


t ~" 


*"" 




J " 


ON 0> 


























































ft 
























































N 


" 




-t 






"' 


° 


*" 


*"" 


" 




Jj 




c^ 


„ 


IC 


^ 


O Cl 


00 


". 


o 


„ 




IC — 










3 






















J 






8 # 






"■- 


""- 


& 


o 


$ 


ON "3 


o 


„ 


c 


rt 


i- N 


p. 


'i t~ 


to 


X 


P3 


x 


K 


_,. 




a 


on 


o 


8 


S 2 

n to 


| 


* £ 


* 


§ 


3: 

s 


1C 

u5 


§ 


s i 
























































H. r, 


'' 


— 




=C 


l~ c 


"»■ 


r-l 




x 


*" 


^o 


•* 


rt 


























ffl 


























































U 




























u 




























E 




























rt S 


r ; 


^ 


y" 


- 


ir 


■J 


- .; 


1/3 


y' 




„ 


; 


r 








































CM '1 


















,, 


ON 






g, „■ 


„ 


j. _,. 


rt 


y 




rt 


p. 


n 


































































^ 








N 




r ' 










■o 




p. 


^ 


rt 


P1 


« 


1/3 


o 


p_ 


a 




„ 




|5 


£ 


s 


o 


ro in 


£ 


7 5 


3 


>s 


£ 


V0 


•;: 


£ S 


















M 








rl 


r, r. 




,, 








« » 


M 


M n 








_, 


x 


X „ 






































ON 


y s 






- 




s 


'"' 






































































































- 












- 


J5 2 










p_ 


„ 


J, 


O f 


„ 


p_ 


, 




J, 






$ 


o 


5 


;?: 


3 5 


R 


? £ 


3 


8 


s 


2 


o 


s 2 




„ 




p. 




p^ 




p_ 


.,. 




p_ 


„ 




r^ 






































































































































































































"~ 


























— ri 


3 
























































- 





























ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



a 

Q 



o 
o 



c 

O 



c 

jo 

13 

a 








CI 


«-JOOOCO'*KHOJt»tO'<t 

ic^cor-ioosooc-ic^coc 
os* ■<* os ■* os' co co' co co' co* ao" V 

l-M(0^i0O-tifflC000(Mt- 


1- 
f 


c 


r 

X 

c 


c 


-r 
•o 

0! 
X 


CO 

>- 
a 


c- 

/ 
a: 


c 

c^ 

S3 
| 


o 

CI 

§ 




[t- -H CO 'd 00 « t- H IO T« 00 (M (D - S3 ■<* 
,_| lO t- 00 H f 1 TK lO t-00 H W il O t- M l-H 

1-1 Un" id co" ao' os © i-<" ci co" th io t-' cd o" o — ■ ci "# in 

'(O O t* ffi « t- -< i^ ffi tQ t- H O O ■* K (M CD o 
HNNiMMn^^^iOintD(DCCt-t-Q000ffl 






o 


coo~*aocicoo-tiaocicDo-ncocicoo 

OS t- -ti i-l OS* Co' ■>*" i— i go' co" CO* ^H CO* IO* CO* O* GO 

^CCiMtDoCOt^HTHQOCltDfflnt-rt^ 










os 


lOrit-noDfiooTKOhnoieiN 
cocooscoccoscociascociasiocios 

-*" GO* ci >o OS* CI «o* O CO* t-' -h* tH* GO* CI lO' 

CO CD O CO CD — 'Mt-OCOt-OMhO 
-^i-HClClClC0C0C0-*Tfi^fliOiOiOCD 












b/) 


<u ao 

4) 


05r-ICQiCt-O(N^©00HC01O 
(DOiO^COKClr- 1 O O O) 00 t- 

osososcsosososososccccgogo 
i-i •# i— o y co os ci ic co — ' -jh t~ 
















o 

00 

-1- 

'/. 
15 

-£_ 

a; 


o 

4-1 


c 
'o 


co -^ os t- iO co ci coco-* 

t- OS © CI ■* CO GO .— CO lO 

-*+■ o" t-' co os' id ~-' ad ■*' o" co' 

OCCiOQOOKCDQO-tiO 
i-H r-i -H i-H CI CI CI CI CO CO CO 




















bo 




L— — J iC OS CO C— -* CO O 
t^CICDOiOOS^aoCO 

os" ci "*' i-' os" — " -*' co" os" 

00-C0iOt-O(N^CD 
i-H i-l i-H t-h CI CI CI CI 
























3 


LO 


co lo ci o: co co o 

«*" CO ci o' OS' ao' 1"-' 

C~ OS —> CO -* CD CO 






























■* 


^ o t- co os 

CO GO C- C- CO 

os -^i os -ti as 

lot-coon 
















' 


















CO 


00 © <M 

co .-1 co 
■*' co' c-' 
■* io co 






































CI 


^ —,:::::::::::::::::: : 
as -ti ...::::::::::::.:: : 
o [-':::::::••::::::::: • 
^ ^ :::::::::::::::::: : 






lO lO 

ci ci" co' CO 


* 


IO 


IO 




co 


lO 
CO 


t- 




co' 


ia 

co" 


os" 


os" 


d 


IO 

d 


3 


IO 


ci 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE XX 

No. of Brick required for circular cisterns. 



Inside diam. of 


Thickness of 
side walls 


No. of brick 


No. of brick 


Cu. ft. 


cistern in ft. 


in inches 


in side walls 


in bottom 


excavation 


4 


4 


84 


50 


21 


'4 


8 


180 


50 


27 


5 


4 


104 


80 


30 


5 


8 


220 


80 


37 


6 


4 


124 


110 


40 


6 


8 


260 


110 


48 


7 


4 


145 


154 


52 


7 


8 


300 


154 


62 


8 


4 


165 


200 


66 


8 


8 


340 


200 


76 


9 


8 


400 


255 


92 


9 


12 


610 


255 


104 


10 


8 


456 


312 


110 


10 


12 


672 


312 


122 


11 


12 


735 


380 


143 


12 


12 


800 


450 


165 


13 


12 


865 


530 


188 


14 


12 


924 


616 


216 


15 


12 


990 


705 


240 


16 


12 


1050 


800 


270 



156 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



Septic Sewage Disposal 

THE general use in country homes of the modern conveniences of bath 
and toilet, has made necessary some effective and inexpensive means. 
in which to dispose of the sewage. Otherwise the drinking water will 
become polluted, and the health of the family endangered. 
Entire satisfaction is obtained by the use of a septic tank, which is noth- 
ing but a long water tight cistern thru which the sewage passes very slowly 
and evenly. A septic tank consists of a water tight underground enclosure 







filR TIGHT 

, n , 














\ZENTlLflTED 




. ■ 

•V 


■_. _ — r 
* z '-°" > 












■6 


I 


.V 
6 - 

49 


1 




+' 


;:-Jv>'.->i"V.'i»:",:ri 






p 


s 






i*i , 










J= 


'a 
'i 








r h — «!> 


r~ 






< '' \ 










> 





v.- 

', o 

O. i 

1 

■ ■■■' 




''0 






~^=r 




* 




— / 






1 




1 


1 


j 




a 


i-Y :- 


K< 


;*. y<Vr~*i\i i;> y-. ) 




'■■<•••:> :5 





























Fig. 131 — Construction of Septic Sewage Disposal. 



OUTLET 



used for the storage and purification of sewage. The enclosure is usually con- 
structed of concrete or brick, or may be made of large drain tile or barrels. 
Some are constructed with but one chamber or compartment and others have 
as many as four or five. The more compartments fhe tank has the purer the 
sewage disposed in the tile field. 

By referring to Fig. 131 you will note that connections are made with the 
soil stack of the plumbing with sewer tile, which is laid out to the septic tank. 
The pitch of these tile should be from % to ^ an inch per foot. Do not have 
too much pitch, for if you do the liquid will run away from the solid matter 
and the pipes will plug up. The connections into the septic tank should be 
made near the top of the first chamber. See Fig. 131. The joints of this con- 
necting pipe into the septic tank, should be well cemented and swabbed out on 
the inside. 

In the two chamber tanks which arc ordinarily used for residences, the 
sewage enters the first chamber thru a curved pipe, which extends below the 
normal water level of this chamber. The first compartment is provided with 
a tight fitting cover, which keeps out the light, air and falling materials which 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



would otherwise disturb the scum that forms on the surface of the fluid in 
this chamber. 

The first compartment is closed off from the second by a wall as shown 
in Fig. 131. Connections between the two chambers exist thru the bent pipe. 
The second chamber should be well ventilated. It also contains a connection 
which allows the discharge from the tank to pass out into the line of drain 
tile connecting with a running stream, or with the beds in which the last part 
of the purification process takes place. 




Fig. 132 — Layout of tile field for septic sewage disposal. 

The connection between the second compartment and the drain usually 
consists of an automatic siphon as shown in Fig. 131. This siphon works in- 
termittently, depending on the depth of the liquid in the second compartment. 
The pressure on top of the ball of the siphon automatically regulates the 
periodic discharge of liquid into the drains leading to the beds for final 
disposal. 

The action for the septic tank is based upon the fact that in nature, or- 
ganic matter is broken down into inorganic compounds by certain types of 
bacteria. These bacteria are very small vegetable organisms which are widely 
distributed. They are so small that a single drop of water may contain 
thousands of them. 

In starting a septic tank, the first sewage to come into the tank is seeded 
with bacteria from the air, water or soil. This army of little workers is 
divided into different classes, each class having its own special function. One 
class of bacteria is known as aerobic and lives only in the presence of free air 
and oxygen. Another class is called anaerobic, since it thrives only in the ab- 
sence of air and oxygen. A third class is known as facultative, since bacteria 
of this class can live either in the presence of air or without it, as the case 
might be. 

Each one of these classes has its own work to perform in the purification 
of sewage. The aerobic bacteria prepare the way for the anaerobic army by 
using the supply of oxygen which exists in the sewage as it comes into the 
tank. It is also bacteria of this class, which finishes the work of purification 
when the sewage has passed thru the tank and reached the beds where the 
effluent or discharge is finally deposited. The anaerobic bacteria, though com- 



158 ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 

pafatively few in number, arc very active, and bring about the reduction or 
breaking up of solid matter which settles to the bottom of the tank. 

From the above, it may be seen that the septic tank is a laboratory, in 
which a great number of busy little chemists are changing foul materials into 
comparatively (dean and unobjectionable ones. 

[f we trace a quantity of sewage from the time it leaves a residence until 
it reaches its final destination, we shall find that it arrives in the tank in 
nearly the same condition as when it started from the house, except that pos- 
sibly a small part of the oxygen has been removed by the aerobic bacteria in 
the drain pipe. When the sewage passes into the tank, the heavier parts sink 
to the bottom, while the lighter parts rise to the top of the first chamber of the 
tank, there forming a thick scum. This scum is the workshop of the aerobic 
bacteria, and also serves as a cover, shutting off lights and air and thus pro- 
tecting the active anaerobic bacteria who are at work on the solid material in 
the interior and at the bottom of the tank. 

The aerobic bacteria, at once set to work in the scum, and those parts of 
the sewage which are exposed to the air, or on new sewage containing oxygen, 
and by a putrefactive and fermentative process, change this part of the sewage 
to a liquid which contains no oxygen. After the incoming sewage is deprived 
of its oxygen, the anaerobic bacteria begins to work on the solid matter in the 
interior, and the bottom of the tank, and change it into material, which is 
again to be acted on by the aerobic bacteria at the surface, or at a later stage. 

When a new change of sewage enters the tank, a part of that which has 
been acted on by the bacteria escapes to another chamber of the tank. The 
pipe or passage which takes this treated sewage from the first tank to the sec- 
ond, is so arranged that the quantity of sewage passes from the first tank, and 
is taken from that part of the tank, midway between the scum at the top and 
the sediment at the bottom. 

The partially purified sewage in the second chamber, is removed at in- 
tervals by means of a hand-operated plug, or an automatic siphon, connected to 
the drain pipe used to conduct the liquid away from the tank. The final step 
in the process of purification is completed by allowing the liquid which is with- 
out oxygen to flow out into the porous, air-filled bed of material to become 
thoroughly charged again with oxygen and acted upon once more by the aero- 
bic bacteria in this bed. The result of this last action is the changing of the 
effluent into clear, practically pure and harmless liquid, and can be discharged 
into ordinary farm drain tile. 

Although the odor from a small septic tank is practically unnoticeable, 
yet it is best to locate it at least one hundred and fifty feet from the house. 
Choose a spot where it can be sunk to ground level and will be out of danger 
of flood waters. 

The tank should be large enough to hold the entire sewage for one day. 
For a family of eight or ten, plan a two compartment tank, each compartment 
4x4x5 feet long. The top and bottom are 4 in. thick, the division and side 
walls from 6 to 8 inches; dig the pit 4 ft. 8 in. deep, 5 ft. 4 in. wide and 
about 12 ft. in. long. 

If the ground stands firm, only one inside form will be needed. Make 
two. each 4x4x5 ft. long. Old 1 in. lumber will do for the form. Cut the 
proper openings for your connecting tile, man holes, siphon and overflow out- 
lets. 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 159 

Mix the concrete 1 part Portland cement to two parts sand and four parts 
crushed stone, or one part cement to four parts pit gravel. Mix to a quaky 
mixture and put in forms. 

The man-hole at the top can he made for wood, iron or cement cover. 
A good cover can he made for the man-holes at the top. by having your tinner 
make two round bottomless dish pans 18 in. at the bottom and 24 in. at top. 
Grease these tin molds and set them on the form over each compartment. Then 
make two concrete forms to fit into these. The first cover should he air tight 
and the second one ventilated. 

It is a good plan to use some heavy woven wire fencing or y$ hi. iron rods 
to strengthen the concrete on the top of the tank. 

It is often considered a good plan to have two gates from the diverting 
chamber, so that they can he used alternately and thus allowing one field to 
dry out while the other one is in use. The tile held is the final place or the 
completion of the bacterial action. These tile fields should be located as far 
away from your well or water supply as possible to prevent any possible chance 
of pollution of the water. The joints should be covered with coarse gravel or 
crushed stone to allow the liquid to gain access to the ground. Figure 132 
shows arrangement of tile field. 




160 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



Wiring and Lighting 

General Conditions and Notes 

ELECTRICITY has become one of the most valuable aids to modern 
housekeeping. Safety, convenience, cleanliness, efficiency and economy 
— these are its advantages, which ought to be enough to convince the 
most skeptical of house builders, that his new home should be wired. 
As the work of an electrician is invariably inspected by a public building 
inspector, and must be done to comply with the building codes of the city, in 
order to receive a service permit, the builder will most always receive a satis- 
factory job along this line, but there are many things which we know will be 
of help to our customers, even though they do not plan on putting in their own 
wiring system. 

It is the best plan to first have a lay-out, or plan of the wiring which will 
show the location of switch, light service, entrance switch box and meter. We 
have shown on drawings, a lay-out which 
is merely suggesting the different loca- 
tions, but as we do not know how many, 
and the kind of fixtures to be used, we 
cannot do this with any degree of ac- 
curacy. 

It is always considered a good plan to 
keep the baseboard receptacles on separ- 
ate circuits. This arrangement will give 
every room two circuits, so that in the 
event of an interruption on one circuit, 
the room will not be left entirely without 
service, and a fuse being blown by a 
faulty development in a w r orn flexible cord 
will not interrupt the lighting of any reg- 
ular ceiling outlet. This gives a some- 
what larger number of circuits than is 
absolutely necessary, and takes a few feet 
more wire, but it has the advantage of al- 
lowing a liberal capacity on every circuit 
so that if any unexpected large load is 
taken from any outlet, that circuit is not 
likely to be dangerously overloaded. 

The location of the lamps, will in a 
measure, depend upon whether they are to 
give a general illumination, or whether 
the light is to be directed to certain areas, such as reading table, side light for 
dressing table, etc. In locating lights, take into consideration the location of 
different pieces of furniture in the room, shadows, etc. Nothing looks quite 
so unsightly as to have to run an extension in order to get light to proper place 
in room. In locating lamps and outlets, remember that each additional lamp 
or switch means, additional cost in wiring. Arrange your lights so they will 
illuminate as much of the house as possible and give a good appearance. Do 
not have any dead outlets in your home. 




Fig. 133 — Suitable central illuminating 
fixture for large living room. 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



161 



The living room should be the one given the most consideration, as this 

is probably the room used the most. A large 

ceiling fixture which contains four or five 

lights is generally placed in the center of 

the room. The size of the fixture and the 

light, of course, will be governed by the 

size of the room. Do not get them out of 

proportion. In addition to this fixture, are 

sometimes installed at least two wall 

brackets. These are placed alongside of 

fireplace if the room contains one. It is 

also advisable to place at least one auxil- 
iary outlet to use for reading lamp. 

The dining room is most satisfactorily il- 
luminated with a central cluster, or semi- 
indirect dome, placed over the dining room 

table and, if the room is large enough, wall 

brackets with pull sockets can be used on 

each side of china closet or buffet, with 

good effect. The central fixture should be 

controlled with a push button switch, which 

you want placed so that it will be handy in 

leaving and entering the room. 

If the kitchen is small, one ceiling 

fixture placed in the center of the room, 

should be sufficient if a high wattage lamp 

and reflector are used. If, however, the 

kitchen is large, a wall bracket should be placed over the range and sink, 

these wall brackets to be controlled by pull sockets, and center fixture by push 
button switch. Always provide the kitchen with at least 
two outlets, to be used for electrical toasters, iron, or any 
of the useful electrical improvements now commonly in 
use. 

The illumination in the sleeping rooms is quite a prob- 
lem, as it is sometimes impossible to decide where the 
different pieces of furniture are to be placed. Generally, 
the plan should indicate a central ceiling fixture, and one 
or two wall brackets, placed so they can be used at sides 
of dressing table or dresser, to properly illuminate the 
mirror. A wall bracket placed at the head of bed is also 
very handy for reading purposes. 

Bathroom should be fitted in about the same manner as 
bedroom, that is, with central fixture and wall brackets, 
the brackets to have pull sockets, and central fixtures push 
button switch, brackets to be located above lavatory. 

The halls should be provided with general illumination 
with central fixture, controlled by push button switch lo- 
cated to be accessible on entering house. Upper halls are 
to be fitted with two-way switch so that it can be con- 
Fig. 135— Han and trolled from down and upstairs. 

central bed room fix- Thg pQrch ]ight should bg controlled f rom lower hall 





162 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 




near front door. Porch outfits, consist of central fixture and two brackets, 
one on each side of front door being very appropriate. 

The cellar should be wired for sufficient light to illuminate all dark 
corners. Outlets placed at foot of cellar stairs and in front of furnace will 
be appreciated. Switches for central light should be located at head of cellar 
stairs, so that it can be operated on leaving and entering. 

In addition to the fixtures for general illumination, it is a good plan to 
have a small light in each closet. The additional expense for the outlets is 
very small, the current consumption will be negligible and an 
added convenience, especially in closets where clothing or sup- 
plies are placed on shelves. A good lighting is necessary to 
maintain a proper tidiness. 

After the outlets have been located on plan, we pass to the 
location of the switches, cut-out boxes, service switches and 
meters. 

The switches want to be located where they will be the most 
convenient is using on entering and leaving room. Do not place 
a switch behind a door ; place it near the door but on the opposite 
side from which the door is hung. 

. The arrangement of switches in the main halls, should ap- 
pear to be especially convenient without over elaboration. Three- 
way switch should be installed, to control the lights from lower 
main hall, to upstairs hall or entry. The upper hall should be 
equipped in the same manner to use on returning. The rear en- 
trance light, should be operated from the same switch, as the 
basement hall, it being considered that the former will rarely be 
needed except when going down cellar, and also that it will serve -.**?• ]? 6 r 

•i i f i i i-iii i r i • Kitchen fixture. 

as a pilot, to show when the basement light has been left burning. 

In some cases the service should be made heavy enough to stand the addi- 
tion of an electric range. On the back veranda, kitchen and laundry where 
ironing is most likely to be done, outlets should be placed high (about 6 ft. 
from floor) so that the ironing cord will not interfere with'the work. The 
outlets will be equally valuable for any other work. 

A liberal number of baseboard receptacles should be installed at con- 
venient places. These will carry lamps, 
toasters, water heaters, vacuum clean- 
ers and above all, small electric heaters 
for Spring and Autumn use 'before the 
furnace is operating. 

The cut-out boxes should be made 
fire-proof, provided with doors and 
fastenings, and then cut-out and service 
switches located in the circuit as near 
where the wire enters building as pos- 
sible. The service cut-out and switch, 
should be arranged to cut off all cur- 
rent entering building. 
On small voltage lines, approved indicating snap switches are advised in 
preference to knife switches. The meter should be situated in the circuit just 
inside the service switch. 

The wiring should all be "roughed in" before the lathing of the building 




Fig. 137 — Porch 
lantern. 




ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



163 



is started, or plaster board applied, so that the work can be concealed as much 
as possible. The wiring must be installed in accordance with the latest rules 
and requirements of the National Board of Fire Underwriters, and approved 
by the local building inspector. 

The size of wire to be used, will be governed by the number of lights and 
the amount of current to be furnished. No. 12 or 14 B. & S. gauge is 
generally heavy enough for ordinary dwelling houses. 

The cost of installing is generally based, on the number of outlets and 
switches (not lamps). On new work where it is easy to run lines, it will cost 
about $1.25 to $1.50 per outlet, which will include switch cleats and all 
roughing in material. 

The builder should see that wood blocks are nailed in place 
around the outlet of switches and fixtures, to fasten switch plates 
and fixtures to. No wiring of any kind should touch any wooden 
portion of the building. Carry wiring on porcelain cleat or thru 
conduit. Have wire drawn up tight between cleats ; do not allow 
it to sag. All joints should be well soldered and insulated. 

A means of protecting the wires that is being recommended 
by many underwriters, is to place them in conduit, which is noth- 
ing more than a strong, smooth, water tight tube having its inner 
surface coated with an insulating compound ; or second, to use 
what is known as flexible armored cable. There, pipes are in- 
stalled and fas- 
tened in place by means of a 
strap. 

The chandelier, fixtures, 
switches, etc., should not be 
put in place until the interior 
of the building has been com- 
pleted. This will prevent them 
from becoming spotted by 
paint, varnish, etc. 

Typical Specifications 

These specifications are in- 
tended to cover the supply of 
all necessary material and la- 
bor for the installation of a 
complete wiring system for 
lighting, etc., in the new resi- 
dence of 




Boudoir lamp. 



Qg Outlet for Outdoor Standard. Electric only 



Special Outlet, as described i n Specifications. 
>=> Ceding Fan Outlet. 



Standard Wiring Symbol*. 



Celling Out lei Electric qnly. If Gas ft 



Ceiling Outlet, Combination 



Bracket Outlet, Electric only . If Gas t~ft 



Bracket Outlet. Combination 



tH Wall or Baseboard Receptacle Outlet. 



M Floor Outlet 



Outlet for Outdoor Standard Combination. 



Drop Cord Out lei 



One Light Outlet , for Lamp Receptacle . 



O Arc Lamp Outlet 



Single Pole 5 witch Outlet 



Double Pole Switch Outlet 



S> 3- Way Switch Outlet 
S 4 4-Wau Switch Outlet 



5 D Auiomaiic Door Switch Outlet 



5 g Electrolier Switch Outlet 
B Meter Outlet. 



Distribution Panel. 



Junction or Pull Box. 

Motor Outlet JYumeral indicaUsMorsePower. 



Motor Control Outlet. 



^o'" Transformer 



Main orFeeder run under Floor. 



-Main orFeeder run under Floor aboue. 
Main or Feeder run exposed 



Jfumerals indicate number of 16 



candle power Electric ojr^ Ga sL lobis 



Working Conditions : 

House is located at 

House is framed and roof- 
ed, but not finished. 

Electrical work may be 
started immediately. 

House is frame construc- 
tion. 



164 ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 

Plans 

Plan No. - — shows the "Wiring plan" of residence and sh'all be consid- 
ered as forming an integral part of these specifications. 

Circuits, outlets, etc., are indicated by the "Standard Wiring Symbols" 
illustrated here. 

Detail Specifications 

(1.) Install standard service pipe in rear of house as shown, same to 
consist of three No. 8 wires and 1 inch conduit. 

(2.) Install meter board 3 ft. wide by 2 ft. high covered with a clear 
sheet of *4 i ncn asbestos painted black. 

(3.) On meter board install 3 p. s. t. 250 volt, 60 amp. knife switch and 
five three to two wires double brand fuse blocks with fuses and make all nec- 
essary connections ready for meter. 

(4.) Install 10 branch circuits thruout the house as shown on the plan 
and detailed in the summary. 

Nature of Work 

(1.) All work shall be standard "knob and tube" construction, in all 
respects of the most up-to-date practice and best workmanship. 

(2.) All wires brought down walls of basement to switch, etc., must be 
run in metal moulding. 

Location of Outlets 

(1.) Ceiling outlets must be accurately located so as to bear proper re- 
lation to the decorative detail. 

(2.) Bracket outlets in all closets to be located immediately above the 
center of the doorways. (To equip these with pull receptacles.) 

(3.) Other bracket outlets in pantry and top landing to be located 5 ft. 
6 in. above floor. 

(4.) Baseboard receptacles to be mounted 6 inches above floor, except 
in kitchen and back veranda, which are to be 6, ft. above floor. 

(5.) All switch outlets to be mounted 4 ft. above floor unless special 
wall details require other wiring. 

(6.) In any case where the directions of door swing is reversed from 
that shown on plan, the switch must be changed to the opposite side corres- 
pondingly. 

(7.) Switch outlets located on any panel wall must be carefully 
centered. 

Control 

(1.) All switches indicated on the plan will be of a standard single- 
pole type controlling one outlet only, with the following exceptions : 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 165 

(2.) Both laundry outlets can be controlled on the same switch at en- 
trance to laundry. 

(3.) Rear entrance and basement hall to be controlled together by the 
same switch at first floor entrance to cellar. 

(4.) Main hall to be controlled by a pair of 3-way switches in the lower 
and upper halls and also with a single button switch to be located convenient 
to stairs. 

(5.) All wall brackets and base plugs should be direct in and not con- 
trolled by switch to main fixtures. 

Fittings 

(1.) All switches in the main rooms of the building should be of push 
button type of best quality. 

(2.) Basement and closets can be of the rotary snap switch of approved 
type. 

(3.) All switch plates should be the same finish as the other hardware 
of the room. 

(4.) Finish of face plate of plug receptacle to be same as other hard- 
w are. 

The above specifications can be altered to meet your requirements. 




166 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 




ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



167 




Part II 

Our Landscape Department of 
Service 

11 FT*) HE first sure symptom of a mind in health, is rest of heart, and 

pleasure felt at home." Did you ever consider the vast difference in 

the meaning of the words house and home? A house is a structure 

to live in, a home is the dearest place on earth; it is a part of yourself and 

expresses your taste and character. 

Aladdin's interest does not stop when the order has been received — but 



168 ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 

ever hearing in mind the many nice discriminations to be made in the locating, 
adorning, and surrounding of the home, the Department of Service was early 
established — to advise, direct or take full charge, as the home builders may 
desire, of this part of home making. As we have so often said, it is the use 
of such skill that changes a place to stay — a house, to the dearest place on 
earth, a HOME. 

Perhaps you find it difficult to express your tastes, as you feel them, when 
ii comes to the arrangement, furnishing, and decoration of your home. You 
may not be sure of yourself. Right there is where our Department of Service 
can help. 

This department is in the hands of people trained in the planning and 
arrangement of artistic exterior and interior effects for the home — design, 
decoration, landscaping, etc. It is organized and maintained for a single pur- 
pose — to serve our customers. There is no charge for this service. 

If you have a general idea of color in the exterior painting plan that you 
would like to follow, let the service department work out the details. In the 
interior finish and wall colors you may etiher put the responsibility entirely up 
to the department, or by suggesting general preferences, it will work to your 
suggestions and carry out the details. 

By furnishing the department with the size of your grounds, sketches will 
be worked out for attractive planting of shrubberies, plants, trees, etc., with 
lists of seeds and vines. 

In fact, the Department of Service will help to make your Aladdin house, 
home, in every sense possible. 

In seeking this service you have only to address the Department of Serv- 
ice, care of this company. The service this company renders its customers in 
decoration and planting would cost Fifty Dollars to Five Hundred Dollars if 
you consulted the average landscape architect. It is but one of the links in 
the chain that forms such a close bond between our customers and us. 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



/J 







^ W 




Helpful Hints in Gardening 



Introduction 

IT is the intention of the author to make this part of the Aladdin Manual as 
complete as possible, giving practical information dealing with the home 
maker and amateur gardener. Careful study and planning before begin- 
ning will have much to do with results accomplished along this line — de- 
veloping the exterior of the home. 

The beginning of a garden is about the most important part of it, for un- 
less the beginning is good, all that follows will fall short of the excellence 
which should be obtained. Well begun, a truly beautiful garden is possible 
almost anywhere, even within a decidedly limited space. 

The real beginning of a garden, especially on a small place, lies away 
back of the time when the initial steps toward making it are taken, however, 
this is the stumbling block lying in the way of everyone who has not given the 
subject of his garden making more than an average thought. The design, size 
and beauty of all small gardens depend almost entirely upon the position and 
plan of the home in which they are a part, hence such a garden's beginning in 
the truest sense is contemporary with the planning and locating of the house. 

The term "garden" does not mean an acre lot full of vegetables, nor 
oven an open space full of flowers, but rather that part of the grounds ad- 
jacent to the house which is treated in a manner to display it to its best ad- 
vantage. The garden is that part of a home which gives it a true artistic ap- 
pearance and is, therefore, a characteristic partly natural and partly conven- 
tional. Some attempt at an attractive treatment at the grounds is almost al- 
ways made by the home builder and the tendency today is to discuss the plac- 
ing of shrubs, flowers and paths so as to best display the good qualities of the 
building and to mask as far as possible, its weak points. 

No house, however small, should be left without some serious effort at 
arranging the surroundings to harmonize with the house. These may be of 
the smallest description, a few shrubs, vines against the house and some small 
trees, or, as is the case with some of our large country houses, the surroundings 



170 ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 

may be treated for miles to lead up to the heart of the whole, the house of the 
owner. 

The exterior of your house is far more important than the interior. It is 
seen first and last and by more people. Whether large or small, old or new, 
the attractive yard takes the leading part of a charming home. 

One of the most important features of a city home or country estate is a 
well kept lawn. You may have flowers in profusion, and great forest trees in 
just the right location, but the thing which really adds to the beauty of the 
home is a smooth, velvety lawn. 

It would be impossible to give detail information regarding the prepara- 
tion of the soil and planting of trees, flowers, shrubs and other garden plants 
suitable to all our varied climates, nor will one planting scheme be suitable for 
all our different houses, but suggestions will be made as to exterior decorations 
which we hope will be helpful to the builders of our ALADDIN homes. 



Lawns 

No matter how much care is exercised in the selection and planting of 
Rowers, shrubs, etc., the beauty of the garden depends mostly on the lawn. 
Who has not been captivated by the lengthening shadows over an unbroken 
area of closely cut grass in the late afternoon of a bright summer day? The 
glory of the magnificent parkways and boulevards are great lawns stretching 
away into mazes of shrubbery and woodlawn. 

What might be termed a corollary to a good lawn are perfectly kept side- 
walks and drives. The beauty of each is enhanced by the perfect condition of 
the other. W T alks should be properly drained and accurately edged and above 
all things, rolled frequently to make them hard and pleasant to walk on. 

To the thousands of anxious inquiries seeking solutions of lawn difficul- 
ties, it would be more than delightful to say that a fine lawn could be had by 
very hard wishing, but honesty compels one to change "hard wishing" to "hard 
w 7 ork." A well made lawn is a very good testimonial to a hustler and one who 
takes pride and comfort in his home. 

The majority of inquiries about lawn needs, come from people having 
some place from a few hundred to a thousand feet, and the symptoms described 
can be divided in tw T o classes : one where it has never grown before, and the 
other where the call is for information to assist in restoring old lawns that have 
petered out. The first condition is the only one that will be of value to new 
Aladdin builders, but we will also discuss the second for future reference. 

Restoring Old Lawns 

Where grass has grown for some years, it is conclusive evidence that there 
must be soil beneath, which, perhaps because of neglect, has ceased to supply 
the nourishment necessary to maintain the vigor of the sod grown upon it. As 
a consequence, weeds gradually creep up and finally crowd out every blade of 
grass. A condition like this is easily remedied and an improvement brought 
about in a short order at a very small expense. In the first place, make a gen- 
eral cleaning up of the weeds and do it as thoroughly as possible. Take them 
out with a strong knife, cutting deep into the ground. An asparagus knife is 
the best for this purpose. 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 171 

If the places under treatment were to be spaded up, this weed cleaning 
with the knife would not be necessary but the object in this instance is to dis- 
turb the soil as little as possible. 

With the weeds out of the way, go over the whole place with a sharp rake 
and scratch the earth to the depth of half an inch. In doing this, remember 
not to be too severe on spots where there is any grass growing, applying the 
rake lightly here. After the raking, sow grass thickly and evenly, raking it in, 
and finish it by raking, watering and rolling. Be sure to roll heavily, water 
regularly, and good results will surely come. 

If, however, you should find that the ground shows patches of moss and 
sorrel, the treatment just suggested will not apply. The land is probably 
sour, and should be plowed up, limed and allowed to lay rough all winter. 
Use about \]/ 2 bushels of air slacked lime to a thousand square feet. 

On small places where the necessity for radical treatment is apparent, yet 
where it is not advisable to upset the premises at that particular time, results 
can be reached in a way that will be effective. 

Take a round stick about one inch in diameter and sharpen one end to 
point. At frequent intervals about the grounds drive the stick to a depth of 
about 18 inches and into these holes ram a mixture of finely powdered manure, 
hardwood ashes and bone meal. Cover the holes with leaves. In a short time 
the good effects will be noticeable and during other seasons the same treat- 
ment can be extended to the parts not touched before. 

What is the secret of having a good lawn? If we are about to make a 
new lawn, much care must be given to the proper preparation of the soil. The 
ground should be plowed and thoroughly worked from ten to twenty-four 
inches deep so that the grass roots will have ample opportunity to take deep 
hold and not dry out in the baking hot days of midsummer. Start the prepara- 
tion for a new lawn in the fall, during the winter the frost and snow will 
greatly improve conditions, killing the weeds and mellowing the soil, as noth- 
ing else can. 

A liberal application of good manure should be incorporated in the soil, 
as it supplies moisture-retaining properties which are invaluable. Before 
sowing the seed, which should be a mixture of the finer grass seed and clover, 
a liberal application of bone meal and wood ashes should be raked into the 
surface thoroughly. Then on a calm day, sow the seed thickly and after rak- 
ing it in, roll well several times with a good hand roller until the surface is 
perfectly firm and smooth. 

Lawns made in this manner are ready for use almost as soon as a lawn 
made from sod, and the results from seed are infinitely superior. 

For a new lawn, use one quart of seed to three hundred square feet. 

No lawn can reach perfection on sour, wet soil. If these conditions ex- 
ist, the ground must be drained with tile before there can be hope of success. 
Plow it, lime it and allow it to lie rough all winter. 

After all heavy rains, especially during the hot summer months, a care- 
ful rolling is of the greatest benefit to a lawn. It not only makes the surface 
even and so perfects the work of the mowing machine but also firms the ground 
and discourages the ravages and insects. Rolling also saves much wear and 



172 ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 

tear on the mowing machine that comes from shoving it over hard, lumpy 
ground. 

Draining Land 

Where the soil is soggy and retains too much moisture, this condition must 
be remedied before making it into a lawn. The remedy is found by drainage 
and this can be done by digging ditches or laying tile underground at various 
distances apart and all receding toward the lowest part of the land, to which 
the water will have a tendency to flow. 

Grass Seed 

While many people can talk freely on the preparation of thfc land for 
lawns, they are not so confident on the treating of grass seed. It seems strange 
that this is the case when so much depends on the suitability if the grass seed 
to the land for the making of a successful lawn. There is, however, just as 
much individuality in a plant produced from a grass seed as in the choicest 
plant in a green house. One kind of grass seed will produce a low growing 
plant, while another grows high; one wants a moist location, and another 
thrives in a dry place, some will germinate in the shade, others will not. If a 
person knows each kind and its requirements, he will be able to choose the 
grass best suited for his soil and location. If you are spending considerable 
time grading and preparing your lawn it would be advisable to secure a sam- 
ple of each kind and make a number of small patches in different places on 
your plot. Then use the one which shows the best results under all conditions. 

Kentucky Blue-grass (Poa Pratensis) — Fine for lawns; grows slowly, but 
vigorously almost everywhere but in an acid soil. 

Red Top (Agrostis Vulgaris)- — Shows results more quickly than Blue- 
grass; will thrive on sandy soil; fine when mixed with Blue-grass. 

English Rye Grass (Lolium perrum) — Grows quickly and shows almost 
immediate results ; good in combination with slow growing Blue-grass. 

Various leaved Fescue (Festuca heterophylla) — Good for shady and 
moist places. 

Rhode Island Bent (Agrostis Canina) — Has a creeping habit ; good for 
putting-greens, sandy soils. 

Creeping Bent (Agrostis Stolonifera) — Creeping habit good for sandy 
places and to bind banks or sloping places. Combine with Rhode Island Bent 
for putting-greens. 

Crested Dog's-tail (Cynosurus Cristatus) — Forms a low and compact 
sward ; good for slopes and shady places. 

Wood Meadow Grass (Poa Nemoralis) — Good for shady places; is very 
hardy. 

Red Fescue (Festuca Rubra) — Thrives on poor soils and gravelly banks. 

White Clover (Trifolium repens)- — Good for slopes; not to be recom- 
mended for a lawn. 

Sheep Fescue (Festuca Ovina) — Good for light, dry soils. 

Now with the above information you will have sufficient knowledge as 
to the kind of seed to draw from to make combination to fit any situation. 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 173 

When you get your samp-le from your dealer, make a careful comparative 
examination of the seeds, holding a little in the palm of the hand. As you 
look at each kind of seed, repeat its name a few times and study its character- 
istics and you will be surprised to find on the second or third trial every name 
will suggest itself the moment your eyes rest on the seeds. You will then be 
a better judge of what kind of seed you want than your dealer. 

If you should go to a dozen people and ask them to suggest a combination 
of seeds, they would all give them to you, but no two proportions would be 
alike. If you should ask for a single grass the majority would suggest Ken- 
tucky Blue-grass. For a single grass there is nothing better suited for all 
conditions. There is one objection to it, however. You cannot plant it today 
and have a lawn next month. If you can afford to wait, sow Kentucky Blue- 
grass and your patience will be well rewarded. It makes a permanent lawn. 

To introduce a ready-made lawn, use a combination of Kentucky Blue, 
Red Top, and English Rye. The Blue-grass is slow, but the Rye and Red 
Top produce speedy results: The first month will see the newly seeded space 
a carpet of green. In time the Rye passes, the Red Top continues to cover, 
while the Blue-grass grows sturdier each day until it crowds everything out by 
virtue of its own strength. Use twelve pounds of Kentucky Blue-grass, five 
pounds of Red Top, and three pounds of English Rye to the bushel, and sow 
3^2 to 4 bushels to an acre. This makes a reliable combination. It is common 
to hear people ask for grass seed that will grow in shady places, but it is al- 
ways difficult for the dealer to determine the degree of shade. A place may 
be shaded, but yet suitable for growing grass and it may be shaded so that no 
seed known would grow there. 

In places where there is no heavy dripping and where the ground is not 
absolutely dark, use the following : 

Kentucky Blue-grass, Wood Meadow, Various-leaved Fescue and 
Crested Dog's-tail. Use about 35 per cent, of the first two and 15 per cent, 
each of the last two. 

For conditions that require a quick growing grass and something that 
will bind and make a holding upon slopes under difficult conditions, the fol- 
lowing is recommended : 

Kentucky Blue-grass, 30 per cent. ; Rhode Island Bent, 30 per cent. ; 
Creeping Bent, 25 per cent.; Sheep Fescue, 10 per cent., and White Clover, 
5 per cent. This is one place when White Clover is essential. Under this 
condition it fulfills its duty perfectly. While all other kinds named may not 
flourish, there will be enough of each to make the combination successful. 

Never buy grass seed by the bushel. Buy it by weight, or state that there 
should be so many pounds to a bushel. It may cost you a high price, but it 
will be far cheaper in the end than to buy something inexpensive that will 
have a lot of sweepings and useless bulk. Use the very best seed you can 
obtain. 

Do not be ashamed to get samples from different concerns before buying, 
and compare the different seeds. Spread them out in your hand and see if 
they are clean and without chaff. A seed with a large proportion of dust and 
chaff is not worth buying. Do not balk at the price charged for recleaned 
seed. It means that you are going to get something for your money. It is 
worth much more than the seed sold in bulk that is not recleaned. 



174 ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 

Sowing the Seed 

Grass is nothing but a collection of thousands of little plants crowded to- 
gether, which must have nourishment and from which the weeds must be taken. 
Likewise the soil must be given water as it is needed, and the earth must be 
made mellow for the roots, to a good depth. It makes no difference how much 
you pay for your grass seed, how good or how bad it is, or what kind of fer- 
tilizer you use, if the bed is not properly prepared in the first place. Without 
this fundamental preparation, grass plants will not grow or if they do, will 
not thrive. 

It is quite a trick to sow grass seed evenly so that it will germinate with- 
out giving the plot a spotty effect. It should be spread at the rate of about 
three bushels to an acre, and this sowing can be successfully done only on a 
quiet day. Even a very light wind is liable to pile up your seed on your neigh- 
bor's lot as on your own in places not wanted. Keep the seed in a pail while 
sowing, and after taking a handful, bend close to the soil and let the seed feed 
thru the fingers as the arm swings back and forth in a semi-circle. This is 
very much easier to say than to do, but a little experience will make one quite 
proficient. To help still more, sow the seed two ways, at right angles to each 
other. After sowing rake lightly and then finish by putting a heavy roller 
over it. 

While thick sowing has the advantage of discouraging a growth of weeds, 
there is a limit that cannot be safely passed. Seed sown too thickly will mat 
and damp out, leaving great bare patches on the lawn. 

Spring sowing should be done just as soon as the frost is out of the 
ground. This early sowing gives the young grass a chance to establish itself 
before the severe summer heat comes on. Careful watering is necessary, with 
a fine spray, and if regularly done will induce rapid germination. In water- 
ing, do not wash out the seed by too heavy a stream. 

Good Loam and Fertilizer 

Good loam is scarce. In the fall when the leaves are falling from the 
trees, it is a good plan to gather them up from the gutter and put them in a 
pile. These will decompose in time to a much desired humus. This might be 
a little trouble, but you will feel fully repaid for the time, when you 
will want some good loam. In some cities loam of very inferior quality will 
cost about two dollars per cubic yard and if one has a quantity of this leaf 
mold, made as suggested, and will mix it with the loam, a very desirable qual- 
ity can be produced. The leaf mold is the life of the soil and absolutely es- 
sential to satisfactory results. 

When a top dressing is necessary on soil that is good, Canada hardwood 
ashes and bone meal will supply all the nourishment necessary. Spread the 
ashes thickly on the lawn until they show white on the grass and do this 
preferably before a rain, so the nourishment may be washed into the soil. The 
hardwood ashes should contain from 7 to 9 per cent, of potash. When it is 
impossible to get a good grade of hardwood ashes, mix muriate of potash with 
a finely sifted loam, and spread it over the lawn. 

Nitrate of soda is a very vigorous stimulant and produces quick results. 
It is economical, requiring but small quantity to cover large areas. Spread 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 175 

about 175 pounds to an acre; or if dissolved three pounds to 100 gallons of 
water. The dry applications should always be made before a rain, otherwise 
much burning is apt to result to the grass. 

Lawn Mower, Roller and Hose 

Young grass should not be cut before it is three inches high and this 
means that a scythe should be used in preference to a lawn mower, as it is 
difficult to get the blade high enough to allow this length. In cutting for the 
first time try to do it on a cloudy day, as this will prevent any possibility of 
scorching or burning. After a few weeks the grass will become toughened and 
will be beautified by frequent cutting about every 5 or 6 days. 

The roller should be used after every cutting if possible and although it 
may, seemingly, be working injury by crushing down the tender grass, it is 
really making sure a solid and compact sod. In the middle of the summer 
when the sun is very hot the grass should not be cut close, as the roots are 
liable to be killed by the sun. 

When cutting your grass you will find it a great saving to have some sort 
of a grass catcher on your lawn mower. One can be made easily, but a very 
handy one can be purchased for about fifty cents. They prevent the wear and 
tear on the lawn by hard raking. If you prefer to rake use a wooden one, as 
iron teeth damage heavy sod. Where the grass is cut often the clippings may 
be left on the ground, but heavy cuttings should always be gathered up. 

Once or twice during the season give your lawn mower a good over-haul- 
ing. Grass and grit will work its way inside and if not removed will reduce 
the efficiency of the machine. Oil well with a good grade of oil. 

Although this part of making a lawn is often sadly neglected, it is a very 
important one. In using the roller, use a heavy one on your lawn early in the 
spring to repair the damage done by freezing and thawing. The early rolling 
levels the surface, packs the earth around the grass roots and makes it possi- 
ble for them to draw the moisture from deep down in the ground. The con- 
sistent use of a roller will mean that you will have fewer weeds, thicker and 
better colored grass ; the disfiguring moles will find the ground too difficult to 
burrow thru, moisture will be retained longer and a noticeable better condition 
will be seen thruout the whole lawn. 

The hose is a subject to which considerable attention should be given. A 
first quality hose will cost from twenty to thirty cents a foot and should last 
for years when properly cared for. When a hose bursts, it is best repaired by 
cutting entirely thru it and removing the damaged part and then joining the 
ends with a little brass sleeve that is easily inserted into each of the severed 
ends, and which has reverse prongs to prevent its slipping out. Keep your 
hose on a reel. Empty it of water before winding up and never allow it to lay 
baking in the sun. The latter is a common fault and is the cause of much good 
hose being spoiled. Another seemingly small, yet important thing, is to cau- 
tion against so fastening the hose to the tap that it pulls away from it at right 
angles. 

Weeds and Worms 

Even when you purchase the very best grass seed and take care of your 
lawn, you are bound to have more or less weeds. The thing to do when you 



176 ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 

have them is to get rid of them. The knife is the only real weapon for this 
purpose. After digging out your weeds, sow in grass seed with the idea of 
making the grass grow so thick that there will he no place for the weed to 
creep in. On newly made lawns the weeds are easily removed and they should 
be carefully watched so as not to allow them to get too far ahead. 

Very often earth worms become very disfiguring on a grass plot. Where 
there are many present it is an indication that the earth is in poor condition, 
compacted and needing humus. An application of strong lime water will 
drive many to the surface, where they can be swept up ; or a heavy rolling will 
do much to discourage them. 

It is surprising how much damage a colony of ants can do on a lawn. 
They should be looked after the first time they are noticed, for they work rap- 
idly and the longer neglected the more difficult it is to get rid of them. There 
are many remedies but the best one lies in the use of bisulphide of carbon. 
This is very effective, but it has come into such common use, that a word of 
caution should be given as to its handling. It is very explosive when near 
flame, due to the gas it contains. Pour it into the run ways or hills of the ants, 
and then cover with a mat. The fumes will soon kill all the ants. Another 
way is to drive sticks into the ground and fill holes with the carbon and then 
plug up the holes tightly. 



Trees 



IT is best to select trees and shrubbery that are known to endure naturally 
the conditions of soil and drainage that one has to offer them, rather than 
attempt any expensive preparation for plants not fitted by nature to such 
conditions. Generally speaking, trees and shrubbery will thrive in any 
soil that will grow good vegetables. 

Recently graded areas are apt to be void of fertile humus, bearing "top 
soil," and when such soil is provided, trees and shrubbery cannot be expected 
to have a vigorous, healthy growth in it. 

No difficulty will be experienced in transplanting trees if the following 
directions are followed. The most inexperienced men can set out orchards or 
trees of any kind with the highest degree of success. A large per cent, of the 
trees that die when planted, do so because the persons who planted them did 
not have directions for transplanting to follow, or did not follow the ones 
they had. These directions are invaluable to you', for if you follow them your 
trees, plants, etc., can be set out with the surety of a reasonable degree of 
success. 

The proper preparation of the soil is necessary to successful planting. 
Very few trees or plants will do well on ground that is naturally wet or cold, 
without artificial draining. 

If the soil is rich, it will not require any fertilizing, but if it is poor, add 
manure or artificial fertilizer. For town lots, where there is much clay or 
sod, dig holes much larger than the roots would require and use good black 
dirt for planting. This will give the trees good soil to start in. Do not al- 
low sod to grow around the trees nearer than three feet for two or three years 
at least, as this will prevent the water from working its way down to the 
roots of the trees. 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



How and When to Plant 



Fall planting is advisable 
where winters are not ex- 
tremely severe. By planting 
in the fall, the tree estab- 
lishes itself and is ready to 
start growth early in the 
spring, thus acquiring 
strength to withstand sum- 
mer droughts. 

As soon as the trees are 
received from the nursery 
they should be unpacked, 
shaking out all packing, and 
if possible, planted at once. 
However, if they arrive dur- 
ing frosty weather, place 
them unpacked in a cool, dry 
cellar, but free from frost. 
When weather moderates, 
unpack as above. Do not ex- 
pose the roots to sun, air, 
wind or frost. If the trees 
have been delayed in ship- . 
ment and have become badly ' ^L 
shriveled, bury in moist earth JJJ 
and pour on water, keeping ):, 
them wet a few days. When 
plump and fresh, plant at 
once. Refer to Fig. 140 and 
use the following directions. 

( 1 ) A piece of burlap 
or canvas should be spread 
over the grass, so that the 
dirt from the holes may be 
thrown upon it. 

(2) Holes must be made so large that the ruots may be spread out nat- 
urally without cramping. See also No. 6. 

(3) Dig holes larger in circumference at the bottom than at the top to 
prevent water laying about the roots. 

(4) Good, fertile top soil must be used about the roots. If the tree 
is to be planted in impoverished ground, good soil should be provided for it. 

(5) Plant a tree just as deeply as it stood in the nursery row. This 
depth is very easily determined by the dirt line always shown at the bottom of 
the trunk. Failure to plant in accordance with this rule probably results in 
the loss of more trees than any other cause. 

(6) Lay the roots out naturally and cut off all the broken or bruised 
parts. See also No. 2. 




Fig. 140 — The way to plant a tree. 



178 ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 

(7) Be sure to press earth firmly about the roots, especially about the 
crown (where the arrow points), so that every particle of the roots will be 
embedded in compacted soil. 

(8) A tamping stick may be used to work the soil firmly about the roots. 
With small trees and plants the dirt will settle firmly if the plant is gently 
lifted up and down, when the hole is half filled, so that the dirt will work its 
way between the roots. Just before filling in all the dirt, press it firmly. Be 
sure that the dirt is well compacted, excepting three or four inches at the top 
of the hole, which should be loosened by occasional cultivation. 

(9) If buds have begun to swell at time of planting, or if the ground 
is dry, watering when the hole has been three-quarters filled will not only 
moisten the roots but help settle the soil firmly about them. Should drought 
ensue afterwards, occasional watering will be necessary until the tree becomes 
established ; watering is, however, frequently overdone and death from this 
cause occurs to trees and plants almost as frequently as from neglect to water. 

(10) Trim broken or bruised branches, also two-thirds of the previous 
year's growth, because the roots in their disturbed condition cannot at the 
outset nourish as large a top growth as before they were disturbed by mov- 
ing. Marks among the branches of the diagram show where this tree should 
be trimmed. 

(11) It is often best not to trim the leader or central stem, as a forked 
tree may result. Hardwood trees, like the oak and beech especially, should 
not have their central leader trimmed. 

(12) If the tree is large or in an especially exposed place where winds 
may loosen it, support it with wires and provide some protection where the 
wires come in contact with the tree trunk. A piece of burlap with a few 
sticks, is useful to prevent the wires chafing the tree where they come in con- 
tact with it. 

(13) After planting, it is better to leave a cultivated area about the 
tree than to sod close to it. This cultivated area should be from three to 
five feet in diameter. 

(14) Fertilizer, in the form of stable manure or compost, may be used, 
but should not come in direct contact with the roots. A mulch applied after 
the planting is usually the best way to supply this fertilizer, as it then also acts 
to conserve the moisture. 



Placing the Trees 

In places where there are strong winds, the trees should lean slightly 
toward the direction of the prevailing wind. Leaning the tree toward the 
southwest enables it to stand up against the wind and protects it from sun- 
scald. However, it is probably not necessary to lean the tree if the heavy 
side is planted toward the wind. To determine the heavy side of a tree, 
balance it in the hand : the side which settles next the hand is the heavy 
side. Plant the heavy side toward the prevailing wind. 

In planting, one man should hold the tree in position, firming the dirt 
which the other man throws into the hole. The dark ring on the base of the 
trunk shows the depth that a tree was formerly planted, and in transplanting, 
the tree should be placed about two inches deeper than before. 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



179 



Pruning 

Pruning is absolutely essential. This should be done any time between 
mid-summer and the time the buds swell in the spring. Very little equip- 
ment is needed: a small pruning saw (which will cost you from sixty cents 
to Two Dollars, according to the size or type), a good stout knife and a pair 
of pruning shears. Cut out any dead, broken or rubbing branches, suckers, 
or sprouts. 

Currants or gooseberries, especially the latter, should be quite severely 
pruned, but take out only such wood as is over three years old, or new 
growth where it is too thick, as the best fruit is borne on two or three year 
old wood. All branches which droop over and touch the ground, should be 
cut off, and any which cross each other or rub together. Keep the gooseberries 
cut to a single stem or two, at the most. 

Grapes require comparatively severe pruning. Where they have not 
been trained to a trellis by a regular system of pruning, that is, where the vines 
have been against a wall, house or even an arbor, the laterals should be cut 
back to within a few buds of the trunk. 

In pruning, always keep an eye for "Black Knot" or diseased dark cav- 
ities. All holes should be dug out clear and filled with cement as soon as the 
weather gets warm enough for it to set without danger of freezing. 

Root pruning is essential to the best results of planting trees. This con- 
sists in trimming off the broken and bruised ends. Any long, slender roots 
should be cut back to about eight inches. Make a slanting cut with a sharp 
knife, cutting from the under side so that the cut surface will rest against the 
soil. Cut off the ends of any bruised roots and trim off any dry fibrous ones. 



How to Set Out Trees for an Orchard 



There are two ways to lay out an orchard. First, is the old method of 
planting in squares, which was one so generally used in the past ; the second 
is the new triangular method, which is far better. By the old method, trees 
were planted on the four corners of a square, by the triangular method, 
trees were planted on 
three corners of an equal 
sided triangle, and are 
so planned that the trees 
of any row are opposite 
the open spaces of the 
two rows adjoining it. 

By referring to the 
above illustrations, it will be seen that in both methods, the trees are an equal 
distance apart, but in the triangular method, the trees in the center rows can 
be planted closer to the top and bottom rows and at the same time all the trees 
will be the required distance apart. This method also permits of the cultiva- 
tion in three directions instead of two, as in the old way. It also accommo- 
dates a greater number of trees to an acre. 

The land should be well loosened and smooth on the surface. Dig the 
holes large enough to receive the roots easily without crowding and bending. 



Fig:. 141 — Arrangement to plant 




180 ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 

Orchard Fertilizer 

All over the United States practical orchardists and various Experiment 
Stations are trying to determine the value of fertilizing materials in orchards. 
Some experiments tend to show that in certain soils no fertilizer is needed, 
while in other cases it has seemed to prove of great value. 

It is, of course, impossible to recommend a fertilizer that would be ideal 
for all soils, but it is possible to give suggestive formulae. 

In Bulletin No. 121, the Pennsylvania Station recommends the following 
general fertilizer : 

Nitrogen — Potash — 

30 lb. (N) 25 to 50 lb. (K 2 0) 

carried in carried in 

100 lb. Nitrate of Soda 50 to 100 lb. Muriate 

and or in 

150 lb. Dried Blood 100 to 200 lb. 

or in of 

150 lb. Ammonium Sulphate. Low-Grade Sulphate. 

Phosphoric Acid — 
50 lb. P 2 5 ) 

carried in 
350 lb. Acid Phosphate 

or in 
200 lb. Bone Meal 

or in 
300 lb. Basic Slag. 



After studying the present available prices of fertilizer materials the fol- 
lowing general recommendations for 1918 seem very reasonable: 

1. A fairly liberal application of barnyard manure is the best fertilizer 
to use. 

2. In a bearing orchard, where barnyard manure is not used, 200 to 300 
pounds of acid phosphate per acre, with 1 to 2 pounds of nitrate of soda on 
trees indicating a need of nitrogen by pale foliage, small fruit, and continued 
small amounts of fruit. 

3. On young trees ^ pound acid phosphate and 1 ounce nitrate of soda 
for each year the trees have been set. For example, a tree set three years 
would receive 1^ pounds acid phosphate and 3 ounces nitrate of soda. 

4. The application should usually be made soon after the buds swell in 
the spring. 

Spraying 

Spraying is absolutely necessary to grow clean, first-class fruit. It has 
become as much an essential orchard operation as pruning, cultivation, etc. 
Spraying saves the crop this year and keeps the trees healthy so they can bear 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 181 

good crops next year. Spray thoroughly- — careless, insufficient spraying is 
worthless. Study the insects and disease and know what you are going to 
spray for. 

By writing your state experiment stations, they will give you directions 
for spraying that will suit your particular case. 



Spray and Other Formulas 

To kill fungi on potatoes and fruit trees use : 

Bordeaux Mixture. 

5 lbs. copper sulphate (blue-stone). 

5 lbs. fresh lime. 
50 gallons water. 

Suspend copper sulphate in a cheese-cloth bag, in 3 gallons of hot water 
in a wooden tub or earthen jar ; pour into barrel and fill half full with cold 
water. Slake the lime in a separate tub, add 4 or 5 gallons water and stir 
freely. Pour this milk of lime thru a cheese-cloth or brass strainer, into 
the diluted copper sulphate, stirring constantly. Fill the barrel with cold 
water. 

To kill plant lice, sucking insects, soft skinned worms, etc., use: 

Kerosene Emulsion. 

2 gallons kerosene. 1 gallon water. 
y 2 lb. common soap. 

Dissolve the soap in hot water, add the kerosene and churn all together 
until a white creamy mass is formed, which thickens on cooling. Dilute 
nine times before using. 

To kill worms and biting insects use : 

Paris Green. 

34 to Yz lb. Paris Green. 

3 lbs. lime. 

50 gallons water or Bordeaux mixture. 

Mix the Paris Green with 1 pint of water, forming a paste; then add to 
the whole quantity of water. If used with Bordeaux mixture, the extra lime, 
mentioned above, is not required. 

OR: 

Arsenate of Lead. 
l T / 2 lbs. arsenate of lead (dry). 
3 lbs. arsenate of lead (paste). 
50 gallons water, or Bordeaux mixture. 

Arsenate of lead is in the form of a thick white paste, which dissolves 
readily in water. It adheres to the foliage for a long time and does not 
"burn" the leaves. 



182 ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 

To poison cut worms, grasshoppers, crickets, etc., use: 

Poisoned Bran. 

Mix 1 pound Paris Green or white arsenic with 20 pounds of bran. Add 
to zy 2 gallons of water, juice and chopped pulp and skins of 3 oranges or 
lemons, also add 2 quarts of molasses. Mix the poisoned bran with the 
sweetened water. Use 4 or 5 pounds per acre, or more. Locate it chiefly in 
the line of march or travel. 

Suggesting a list of varieties to solve your planting problems, the follow- 
ing list is generally found suitable for the several purposes mentioned. 

Trees for Avenue and Suburban Planting: 

American Elm Oriental Plane 

European Lindens Pin Oak 

Horse Chestnut Sugar Maple 

Norway Maples Western Catalpa 



Some -dines for retaining banks and terraces: 



Engleman's Ivy 
Honeysuckles 



Virginia Creeper 

Wichuriana Rose and its varieties 



Bright Berried Shrubs: 

Barberries 
Callicarpa 
Coral Berry 
Cornelian Cherry 
Cotoneaster 
Euonymus, Cork-barked 



European Mountain Ash 

Hawthorns 

High Bush Cranberry 

Honeysuckles 

Oleaster 

Snowberry 



Dry and Shallow Soils — Plants for Shrubs: 

Aralia Pentaphylla 
Fragrant Bush Honeysuckle 
Great Panicled Hydrangea 



Japanese Bush Honeysuckle 

Mock Orange 

Privets. 



Trees- 



Ash-leaved Maple 
Black Locust 
Catalpas 



Mulberries 
Poplars 



Flowering Trees — 

Black Locust 

Crab Apples 

Dogwoods 

European Flowering Ash 

Hawthorns 



Horse Chestnut 
Magnolias 
Varnish Tree 
Western Catalpa 
Yellow Wood 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



183 



Ground Covers — 
English Ivy 
Euonymus Radicans 
Ferns 
Mountain Pink 



Periwinkle 
Stonecrop 
Yellow Root 



Hedge Plants — Evergreens — 
American Arborvitae 
Compact Arborvitae 
Parson's Compact Arborvitae 
Boxwood 
Golden Retinospora 



Green Retinospora 
Silver Retinospora 
Hemlock Spruce 
Norway Spruce 
White Spruce 



Deciduous — 
Altheas 
Great Panicled Hydrangeas 



Some Plants for Moist Places- 
American Arborvitae 
Austrian Pine 



Japan Barberry 
Privets 



-Evergreens- 



Double Balsam Fir 
Hemlock Spruce 



Deciduous — 
Alders 

Blad Cypress 
Red or Water Birch 
Red Maple 



Silver Maple 
Sweet Gum 
Willows 



Shrubs — 

Button Bush 
Douglas Spirea 
Elders 
Hardhack 



Osier Dogwoods 
Spice Bush 
Willow-leaved Spirea 
Witch Hazel 



Rapid Growing, Inexpensive Trees for Quick Results — 

Ailanthus Lombardy Poplar 

American Ash Oriental Plane 

Ash-leaved Maple Western Catalpa 

Carolina Poplar Willows 

Plants for Seashore Planting — 

This list is not advocated for ocean-front plantings, about which we in- 
vite correspondence. 



Evergreens — 

American Holly 
Japanese Euonymus 
Japanese Holly 
Pines 



Red Cedar 
Savin Juniper 
White Spruce 



184 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



Deciduous — 
Ailanthus 
Catalpas 

Chinese Cork Tree 
Japanese Maples 
Mulberry 



Oriental Plane 
Oaks 
Poplars 
Siberian Maples 



Shrubs — 
Altheas 

Golden-leaved Elders 
Hawthorns 
Hydrangeas 



Privets 
Salt Bush 
Spice Bush 
Tamarisk 



Vines- 



Boston Ivy 
Clematis paniculata 



Honeysuckles 



Some Plants Tolerant of Partially Shady Places- 



Evergreens— 
Andromeda 
Azaleas 
English Ivy 
Mahonias 



Mountain Laurel 

Periwinkle 

Rhododendrons 



Shrubs — 

Aralia Pentaphylla 

Azaleas 

Eider 

Forsythias 

Honeysuckles 

Japan Maples 



Mock Orange 

Privets 

St. John's Wort 

Viburnums 

Yellow Root 



Street Trees for the City- 
Ailanthus 
Ginkgo 
Norway Maple 



Oriental Plane 
Poplars, Carolina 
Red Oak 



Trees Especially Adapted for Windbreaks— 

American Arborvitae Scotch Pine 

Norway Spruce White Pine 

Pyramidal Arborvitae White Spruce 



Deciduous — 

European Cork Maple 
European Beech 



Hornbeam 
Purple Beech 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 185 

Shrubbery and Vines 

SHRUBBERY, small trees and vines are essential to the proper decora- 
tions of the lawn and garden. We have found that it is a better plan to 
use more shrubbery and vines and less flowers for beginners. 

Of the shrubs, azalias are the most satisfactory. Their range of 
brilliant colors and the large size to which they eventually grow, suit them well 
for the kind of gardening which is here taken up. Rhododendrons, both in their 
natural and cultivated varieties are also useful and the fact that they are ever- 
green makes them valuable for decoration in the winter. Altheas, or as they 
are more commonly known, "Rose of Sharon," bloom in August at a time 
when few other shrubs are in flower, and as they increase in age, the stems take 
on a gnarled and twisted appearance which is very attractive. The spirea, 
hydrangea, and snowberry are also excellent shrub varieties. No attempt can 
here be made to give anything like a full catalog of the better shrubs and 
flowers for planting. The few mentioned and those which most closely re- 
semble them are spoken of only to illustrate the effect which one should aim 
for in gardens close to the house. 

A garden should have a boundary high enough to insure privacy. For 
this purpose, one may have a fence, hedge or masses of shrubbery, trees, etc., 
which may be planted to form the necessary boundary. 

The lawn should be large enough to provide some stretch of uninter- 
rupted green. Arrange paths and make useable for damp weather and on 
dewey mornings. A place for outdoor lounging with plenty of shade as well 
as bloom, and so furnished as to encourage living in the open is a very de- 
sirable feature and should be interesting in winter as well as summer. 

The boundary or walls of garden may be of various heights and w T idths. 
They may be of trees, shrubs, hedge-plants or of vine covered walls and fences. 
Their success depends upon the feeling of continuity and upon the amount of 
beauty and interest they can express. Even the boundary of a narrow lot 
need not be a matter of arbitrary success. The plainest board fence, if prop- 
erly handled, can serve as a background for a garden border. It can be made 
a thing of rare beauty, with vines and flowers. There can be wistaria and 
trumpet vines for the posts, rose climbers or honeysuckle, Boston ivy or wood- 
bine ; for autumn reds, clematis, both purple and white, the turquoise berry, or 
if naught else the more than willing morning glory. The very wires and 
strings on which the vines are trained can be made a matter of pleasing design. 

If the walls of the garden have interest of coloring or of bricklaying, if 
they can be made to give suggestions of well spaced piers or of cool concrete, a 
dark vine like the English ivy can be trained so as to adorn the wall. 

Another attractive boundary for the garden is one of trees and un- 
trimmed shade-loving shrubs, such as the viburnums and privets. Taller 
varieties of trees should be planted at the rear of the garden rather than at the 
sides, with, for instance, a row of trees for the very back, and smaller shrubs 
in front of them. 

Many attractive color schemes can be worked out, with flower blooming- 
trees and shrubs, such as snowball, lilac, hydrangea, snowberry, syringa, bar- 
berry, etc., should you desire a hedge border for the walls, the barberry will be 
found excellent for this purpose. 



186 ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 

If the shrubs are to be arranged in groups or colonies, the area they are 
to occupy should first be thoroughly spaded and prepared as if for flowers, af- 
ter which the planting may be done in the usual manner. A cultivated area 
between closely planted shrubs stimulates their growth and is easier to keep 
in order than grass, which succeeds poorly beneath their shade, and is, in such 
places, difficult to mow. 



Trimming Shrubbery 

Those shrubs that bloom before the middle of June bear their flowers on 
twigs of the previous season's growth. When these twigs are trimmed in 
winter, the very branches that would have flowers the following spring are 
destroyed and the bloom sacrificed. Trim such shrubs, if they need trimming, 
immediately after they have finished blooming, by removing dead twigs, 
cutting out short, weak ones and clipping back long, ungainly branches to pre- 
serve the natural, graceful form of the plant. 

Shrubs like hydrangeas and altheas, which flower after the middle of 
June, carry their bloom on twigs of the same season growth. This growth 
and the number of branches that will bear flowers is increased by priming in 
winter, the season of the year in which all shrubs that flower after the middle 
of June should be trimmed. 

Newly planted shrubbery should be cut back severely at time of planting. 
This treatment reduces the number of buds to be supplied with nourishment, 
and has a tendency to make the growth much more vigorous than if it were 
not so pruned. Generally from 1/3 to 1/2 of the top should be removed. 
While this may seem to spoil the shrub, it really is the making of it. The 
plant will be more bushy and can be trained, as it grows, into the shape of 
plant desired. 

When shrubbery is planted in the spring, this trimming is perhaps most 
easily done before the plant is set in the ground. When planted in the autumn 
it is usually best to defer the trimming until early in the spring. 



The Way to Plant and Trim Hedges 

Dig a trench wide enough and deep enough to accommodate the roots 
without cramping (usually about 15 to 18 inches). 

If it is preferred to place well rotted ma- 
nure in the bottom of the trench, dig it about 
y 2 foot deeper than otherwise, and put in two 
or three inches of manure, shoveling over it a 
layer of top soil until the trench is refilled to 
the depth sufficient to admit proper planting. 
DO NOT LET ROOTS COME IN DT- 

Fis. 142-Because the tops of hedges '< ECT CONTACT WITH MANURE. 

theTase. 'sun.i^Ve? nVt'^Sh* tK 1 1 is a g°° d P raCtice t0 ™lch the hedge of ten 

bottom tranches. while being planted, so that the manure will 

conserve the moisture, and the strength-giving 
elements from it will percolate around and about the roots. 





ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 




Place the plants so 
that their branches will 
touch one another, or, 
if a thicker hedge and 
immediate effects are 
desired set them even 

Closer, SO that their Fi&. 143— Sunlight reaches the bottom branches of hedges trimmed 
1 -, . . like these, and they remain dense and healthy. 

branches can inter- 
lace. Press soil firmly 
about the roots and otherwise plant in the usual manner. 

Probably more hedges become thin and ugly at the base for want of sun- 
light than from any other cause. This condition is often the cause of trim- 
ming improperly. In Fig. 142 the tops of hedges trimmed like these are 
broader than the base. Sunlight does not reach the bottom branches. 

On hedges trimmed, as shown by Fig. 143, the sunlight reaches the 
bottom branches and the hedges remain level and healthy. 

Twenty Shrubs for General Effect 

The berried shrubs are winter features ; only those which hold berries 
all winter are mentioned. 

Blooming in April 

Daphne Mezereum — Three feet high ; lilac flower. 
Forsythia Fortunei — Eight feet; yellow flowers. 
Cercis Japonica — Twenty feet ; rosy-pink flowers. 

Blooming in May 
Berberis Thunbergii — Four feet; yellow (berries). 
Primus triloba — Five feet high ; pink flower. 
Lonicera Morrowi — Six feet ; white flowers. 
Spiraea Van Houttei — Eight feet ; white. 
Viburnum opulus — -Twelve feet; white (berries). 
Syringa vulgaris — Twelve feet ; white and lilac. 

Blooming in June 
Fotentilla fntticosa — Three feet ; yellow. 
Philadelphus Pekinensis — Five feet ; creamy. 
Diervilla floribunda — Eight feet; crimson. 
Cornus sanguinea — Twelve feet; white (berries). 
Crataegus Crus-galli — Twenty-five feet ; white. 

Blooming in July 
Spiraea tomentosa — Four feet; purple-pink. 
Hydrangea quercifolia — Six feet; white. 
Amorpha fruticosa — Ten feet; blue. 

Blooming in August 
Callicarpa Japonica — Four feet ; pink. 
Hibiscus Syriacus — Twelve feet ; white and pinks. 

Blooming in September 
Caryopteris mastacantJius — Four feet ; blue. 



188 ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 

Ten Shrubs Furnishing All-Summer Bloom 
April 

Forsylhia Fortunei — Yellow, eight feet. 

May 
Azalea calendulacae — Flame; six feet. 
Azalea Vaseyi — Rosy white; seven feet. 
Spiraea Van Houttei — White; eight feet. 

June 
Diervilla floribunda — Crimson ; eight feet. 
Azalea arborescens — Pink; eight feet. 

July 
Clethra alnifolia — White ; six feet. 
Tamarix Gallica, indica — Pink; fifteen feet. 

August 
Hibiscus Syriacus — White ; pink ; twelve feet. 

September 
Caryopteris mastacanthus — Blue; four feet. 

A Planting for Winter Beauty 

Blooming in April 
Andromeda floribunda — White; four feet; evergreen. 
Azalea amoena — Claret; five feet ; evergreen. 
Cornus Mas — Yellow ; twenty feet. 

Blooming in May 
Berberis aquifolium — -Yellow ; four feet ; evergreen. 
Berberis Thunbergii — Yellow ; four feet. 
Berberis vulgaris — Yellow ; six feet. 
Leucotheo Catesbaei — White; six feet; evergreen. 
Lonicera fragrantissima — Cream; eight feet; half -ever green. 
Viburnum opulus — White; twelve feet. 

Blooming in June 
Kalmia latifolia — -Pink; eight feet; evergreen. 
Cornus A mom urn — White; ten feet. 
Cornus sanguinea — White ; twelve feet. 
Rhododendron — Pink, white, mauve; eight to thirty-five feet; evergreen. 

Blooming in July 
Rhododendron, in certain varieties. 

Blooming in August 
Call una vulgaris — Pink ; two feet ; evergreen. 

Also 
Ilex opaca — Twenty feet; red berries; evergreen. 
Ilex aquifolium — Twenty feet ; red berries ; evergreen. 
Rosa Wichuraiana — Trailing ; red hips. 
Rosa lucida — Six feet; red hips. 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 189 



A Rose Garden 



WHEN one considers the fact that there are over four thousand species 
of roses, it will readily be understood that this chapter can give but 
a rough working knowledge of the groups and species. If there is 
any secret in connection with the growing of beautiful roses in 
abundance, it lies in the strict observance of a few fundamental principles 
thru which the rose plants, or bushes, are given a location and soil which 
they will find congenial and nourishing. Be generous in the amount of 
thought and care you give in producing health, food and strength for your 
rose plants, and as a result you will have to give very little thought and care 
to curing disease and killing off the rose bugs and slugs. 

Location 

In selecting a location for your Rose Garden, the ideal location is to be 
found neither on a hilltop where the winter winds will play havoc with your 
winter protection, nor in a low hollow where frosts are always more frequent. 
A rose garden must be kept away from any tree. It is generally known that 
the root system of a tree will spread out as far from the base as the height 
of the tree and takes up all the moisture in the ground. Therefore, we will 
have to use the wall of a house or a garden wall for protection. 

Sun is very essential, though it will be found that if the beds are in shade 
for the first part of the morning, one will have the opportunity of enjoying the 
roses at their best, before the dew has been taken from their petals by the sun. 
Make your rose garden a separate garden; do not crowd in or near any other 
plant or vine. 

Preparation and Planting 

Now as to preparation of the rose bed itself : First of all, dig the soil out 
to a depth of two feet at least, keeping the top soil and sods, and the sub soil 
in separate piles as they are taken out. Loosen up the floor of the trench with 
a pick, and on this, if the ground needs draining, which it will if it is a 
compact, sodden surface, put a layer of stones, cinders and other material 
that will not decompose. On top of this, place the best of the sub soil mixed 
with a generous dressing of well-rotted manure, finally all the sod, well 
broken up, and the top soil, also enriched with manure. Then fill in the bed 
with enough good top soil to bring it two or three inches above the adjoining 
surface. Make sure that the surface bed, after it has settled, will be about 
one inch below that of the adjoining sod in order to retain the moisture from 
rain. This preparation of the bed should be done at least several weeks in 
advance of planting time. 

In composing the soil for the rose bed, it is well to remember that the 
Hybrid Perpetuals require a heavy soil containing some clay. For Teas and 
Hybrid Teas a lighter, warmer soil is better. 

Top soil from an old pasture, if it be a moderately heavy loam, taken 
with the grass roots and chopped very fine, will do excellently for the Hybrid 
Perpetuals. For the Teas and Hybrid Teas, mix with soil of this kind about 
% of its bulk of sand and leaf mold to lighten it. Remember that all the 
manure that is used should be incorporated with the lower two-thirds of the 



190 ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 

bed; the upper third should not contain any recently added manure as it is 
apt to harm the roots of new plants. 

If spring planting is chosen the plants must be put in the ground early, 
at the first opportunity, so that they will have time to become firmly estab- 
lished before hot weather. 

Pot grown plants from green houses cannot, of course, be set out until 
all danger from frost is past. 

Before setting the plants, examine each carefully and cut off all the 
broken roots with a sharp knife, as well as all eyes that may appear 
on the root stock, in order to forestall suckers. They should be set imme- 
diately upon their receipt from the nurseryman, so that the roots will not 
dry out. If they seem dry it might be well to puddle the roots in thin mud 
just before setting. Make the holes large enough to accommodate all the 
roots without crowding, remembering to put the budding point not less nor 
more than two inches below the surface, and with the roots spread out almost 
horizontal, but inclining downward toward their ends and without crossing 
one another. This will not be an easy matter, for in shipment the roots will 
have previously been so compressed that they extend almost directly down- 
ward from the collar. After the plant has been firmly set and the earth care- 
fully packed in around the roots, rake the soil to loosen it up over the whole 
surface. 

With the pot grown plant, the moist ball of earth that comes about the 
roots is carefully retained intact and placed in the hole prepared for the 
plant. Set the plant firmly in place by pressure with the soles of your shoes, 
give a generous watering, and finally break up the surface of the soil with a 
rake. 

It is absolutely essential to keep the surface of the ground loosened with 
a hoe and a sharp steel rake, thruout the summer. After very hard rain loosen 
the soil as soon as it is dry enough to work, to conserve the moisture. 

Fertilizing 

In contrast to the beauty of the rose, is the food that we must give it in 
abundance if we would have the most healthy plants. 

The theory of this manurial feeding will make clear the fact that a 
proper application of liquid manure has practically all the advantages of the 
solid method without its drawbacks. For solid manure, if applied to the beds 
in quantities sufficient to be of real value, has a tendency to keep the needed 
air out of the top soil and to bring in its train an abundance of weeds that 
will be hard to exterminate. So that with the exception of light sandy soils, 
where the humus is needed, we shall do well to feed the rose garden liquid 
nourishment. 

The time when this stimulant will be most effective is in the months of 
May and June, when most of the plants are putting all their efforts into the 
forming buds. Withhold the liquid in dry spells, for it is most appreciated 
immediately after a good soaking rain. 

Avoid getting the manure on the foliage and make sure that it errs on the 
side of weakness rather than strength. Suspending a burlap sack containing 
a bushel of cow manure in a barrel of water for two days, will give a solution 
that needs dilution with its own bulk of water. A half gallon to a plant each 
week will be a sufficient normal feeding. 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 191 

Immediately after dosing the beds, go over them with a rake or prong 
hoe and loosen up the surface to prevent evaporation. 

Pests 

By far the most effective campaign against the insects and other pests 
that infest rose plants is to be found, not in sprayings and dustings, but 
rather in maintaining to the best of our ability a condition of health in the 
plant itself. Prevention here, as always, is better than cure. Nor can it be 
too strongly emphasized that the daily use of a powerful, but finely divided 
spray from the hose will make life on the rost plant miserable for practically 
all the parasites. The following are the chief enemies that we may find in the 
rose garden. 

Alphis or' Green Fly 
The alphis is a small, pale green louse, winged or wingless, with a soft, 
fat, oval body, apparently too heavy for its legs. To exterminate it, use tobacco 
smoke. If spray is found more convenient, a solution of four ounces of cheap 
tobacco stem boiled ten minutes in one gallon of soft water is effective. Strain 
the solution and four ounces of soft soap while it is still hot, stirring well to 
dissolve the soap. 

Mildew 

Dusting flowers of sulphur upon the foliage, taking care to reach the 
under side of the leaves as well as the upper and upon the ground about the 
plant, is a well established remedy. 

Rose Thrip 

This is a small, yellowish white insect, with transparent wings, usually 
found on the under side of the leaves. 

Spray with tobacco solution. If this does not prove effective, dust the 
under side of the leaves with white hellebore in a powder gun. Whale-oil soap 
solution in the proportion of five ounces of soap to one gallon of water, is 
a good remedy. 

Rose Caterpillar or Leaf Roller 
Several kinds of caterpillars may appear, varying from ^ to ^ of an 
inch in length and either green, yellow or brown in color. They have a habit 
of enveloping themselves in the rose leaves, or boring their way into the 
flower buds. In the latter case, they are very apt to be overlooked. 

Powdered hellebore will hinder their progress, but by far the most 
effective weapons are the fingers and thumbs. 

Rose Chafer or Rose Bug 
This brown beetle, less than one-half an inch in length is one of the best 
known rose pests. It is a slow moving creature that appears suddenly in 
armies in the blooming season in June and is the more annoying for the reason 
that it elevates its attention almost entirely to the flowers themselves. 

Paris green dusted over the plants will kill the pest. Knock the creature 
off the flowers into a tin of kerosene and then burn it. 



192 ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 

Rose Slug 

This is the larvae of a sow fly which comes up out of the ground in May 
and June. The female makes incision in the leaves and deposits her eggs, 
which hatch in about two weeks. The slugs will eat an astonishing amount of 
leaf if not checked. They are about a half inch long, green and will be found 
on the upper side of the leaf. 

Powdered white hellebore, dusted on the foliage, or the solution of 
whale-oil soap mentioned for the Rose. Thrip, will keep it in check. 

White Grub 

This is an underground enemy that feeds on the roots of the Rose bush. 
The withering or sickliness of the plant is sufficient reason to cause a thorough 
search to be made by lifting it. The grub, which is prouded with six legs 
near the head, and which coils itself into a crescent shape when in repose, is 
particularly fond of strawberry plants, so it will be well to keep those some 
distance from the rose garden if you have any planted. 

About the only thing that can be done with the White Grub is to lift 
the plant and remove it. 

Black Louse or White Scale 
This appears when the bush is grown in a shady, damp place. It is snow 
white and the individual scales are about one-tenth of an inch in diameter. 
Cut off and burn badly infested shoots. Spray with one pound of soap in one 
gallon of water in early winter and again in early spring. Weaker summer 
applications may be used also ; one pound to four or six gallons of water, once 
in three weeks, thruout the season will help. 

Helpful Animals in Rose Gardens 
The toad, lady bug, ground bird, and swallow will help wage war on the 
pests of the rose bush. It may be well to scatter a few crumbs in the rose 
garden to attract birds there, not too many, but just enough to create a real 
appetite for the insect pests. 




ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



193 




Flowers 



THERE are three great classes of plants, of flowering plants, let us say, 
from which a garden may be stocked ; these are perennials, biennials, 
and annuals. Perennials, once established, either from seed or root, 
persist and bloom year after year; biennials start from seed one year, 
do not bloom until the next and then die at the end of the second year ; 
annuals come from seed, mature, blossom, produce seed and die, all in one 
year, or more accurately speaking, in one summer. 

Flowers, more so than any other form of nature life, must have the 
proper attention and food. They must be looked after from early spring till 
the seeds are ready to pick in the fall, or they are ready to be covered for the 
winter. 

Careful study and preparation should be made for the different kinds 
of plants you wish to use. 

Soil in which seeds are to be sown cannot be too fine and delicate in 
texture, and all things considered, more seeds fail because of unsuitable 
soil than from any other cause. It makes no difference how sturdy a plant 
will become when it grows up, it starts as a tender, wee infant ; and its 
puny strength must not only send the imprisoning earth above it, but it 
must put forth the arms with which this is going to be done. The less vitality 
that need be used, therefore, in breaking thru, the more there is to use in 
growing, hence the greater vigor, the more luxuriant growth, and greater 
strength. 

Very rarely is even a good garden soil quite the ideal soil for starting 
seeds in boxes, for it is not mellow enough. Rotted sod is the skilled gar- 
dener's hobby — sod taken from rich old roadsides, where grass grows thick 
and soft,— but this is not to be had for a this-year garden. So the next best 
thing, which is the scraping from the under part of a good rank sod, must 
be taken. Scrape with a rather sharp metal edge, thus breaking all the root 
particles up into a fine mass. Screen one part of this soil to one part of dry 
leaf mold from the woods, or two parts of the soil to one part of thoroughly 
rotted, fine manure, thru a quarter-inch mesh sieve. A wire basket, such as 
the household departments sell for lowering eggs or potatoes into a kettle to 
boil, is just the thing. Then add sand enough to the mixture to make it 



194 ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 

crumble apart readily, even when moistened. Usually one-third sand is about 
right. 

Flats made from cracker boxes are just right in size and weight and 
two boxes will make several. Cut one into three-inch sections lengthwise : the 
top section, with the cover nailed on it, is already one fiat, the bottom section 
another. Onto one side of the other sections nail bottoms made from the 
other box ; bore half a dozen holes in the bottom of each of them for drainage 
and they are ready. 

Cover the bottom an inch deep with, first, a layer of cinders or gravel 
— anything that will be loose and stay so ; then put screenings over this. On 
top of this drainage layer spread the prepared soil and jounce the fiat onto the 
table to settle it all well. Sow the seeds according to the directions which 
each packet bears, covering them usually to the depth of their own diameter. 
Some give them twice this cover, but a little is better than too much. Sift the 
earth onto them and pat it down gently with a float or flat board, or the hand, 
held very flat. The float is better, because it leaves no little furrows into 
which even a little water can wash the seeds. 

Soil that has been well watered the day before planting is in just the 
right state of moisture to receive seed and to be sprinkled over them. Water 
the flats after seeding, either with a fine sprayer that will spread the moisture 
in a mist, or else thru two or three thicknesses of coarse cloth, like burlap, 
with a watering-pot. This is to prevent the force of the water from washing 
the seeds out and messing things up generally, as it most certainly will if 
poured from the pot directly upon the soil. 

Put the flats in a warm place; a sunny window will do if direct sun is 
kept from the earth surface by means of a semi-transparent curtain, and 
keep them evenly moist — NOT wet— until the seedlings are above the surface. 
After they appear keep very careful watch upon their moisture supply and 
water them whenever the soil is dry, before they have had a chance to wilt. 
Give as much water at such times as the soil will take up — then do not water 
again until it once more looks dry. And be very careful to keep the little 
plants themselves dry — their stems and leaves. 

Transplant them to flats an inch deeper than the original seed flats, or 
flats having an inch more earth in them, or to pots (the little paper pots are a 
great convenience, especially when setting out finally), when the second true 
leaf appears, unless the directions on the packet stipulate differently. Water 
the soil (this must be similarly prepared) into which they are to go, the day be- 
fore transplanting, and, likewise, water that in which they already are planted. 
Then they will loosen readily from it. Take them up by shoving a knife or 
trowel down at the edge of the flat and loosening a chunk of earth, plants and 
all. Then crumble this gently apart in the fingers, detaching the little roots 
carefully. They will come out quite easily this way, with seldom a fracture 
of even the most delicate. 

Set each little plant into its new quarters with the aid of a dibble, a 
round tapering-pointed affair made from eight inches of old broom-handle, 
sharpened to a slim point, the slimmer it is the better, for tiny seedlings. Or 
something much smaller may he used — any stick whittled down to this form ; 
the large form is necessary for heavy work, but a match will serve for this 
kind. Thrust it down into the earth to make the hole to receive the plant and 
make this as deep as the length of the roots, plus half the stem. Lower the 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 195 

little plant into it until only half the length of its stem remains above ground ; 
then press the dibble into the soil again, an inch from the first hole, and 
crowd the earth over and against the roots by tilting the top of it. Firm it 
finally by pressing lightly down on each side of the stem with the balls of 
the thumbs, but do not pack it as tightly as you can. The idea is to get all 
the little root hairs in contact with earth and to do this without dragging 
against them from any direction ; and this final pressure down is only to close 
up all gaps in the earth that may be anywhere about the plant, not to push it 
down into the earth. 

Water the soil thoroughly, not the tops of the plants, after transplant- 
ing, and then give the seedlings all the fresh air possible, without chilling 
them, all the time. Remember it is the breath of life to them as well as to 
us. Water them whenever the soil looks light colored and dry on top, not 
oftener, and shade from the noonday sun for a day or two after transplanting. 

Cut flowers for the house should have freshly cut stems in order that the 
water can gain access to the cell walls of the stem thru the action of osmosis. 

Keep your flower garden free from weeds, not only for the purpose of 
beautifying it, but keep them from crowding the plants and taking the 
moisture from the ground. Plants must be kept free from dead leaves and 
flowers, and it is also a good plan to keep the blossoms well picked off on 
plants such as pansies, sweet peas, nasturtiums, etc. 

As we stated before, the beginning of the garden is almost the most 
important part^ but care and work is also necessary on the garden in the fall. 
If your garden has been a success, gather the seeds and take up the bulbs for 
the next season and remove the dead plants, etc. Fertilize the ground in 
the proper manner. 

Comparative List of Annuals 

Trailing and up to six inches in height 

Ageratum — Floss Flower; light and dark blue, also rose; start indoors; 
set out May 1 . 

Alyssum Mad-wort — All varieties white; start indoors or early outside. 

Ionopsidiitm acaulc — Diamond Flower; violet; sow out in May; cool 
moisture. 

Lobelia compacta — Lobelia; white, blues, maroon; start indoors, set 
out May 1. 

Phlox Drummondi ; nana compacta — White, pink, scarlet; start indoors 
or out. 

Portulaca — Sun Plant ; various ; likes poor soil ; sow late May, outside. 

Sanvitalia procumbens, fl. pi. — Bright yellow, double flowers; start 
indoors or out. 

Silene pendula compacta — Catch-fly; white, pink, red; sow fornightly, 
April 1 to July. 

Six inches to fifteen inches 

Adonis aestivalis- — Pheasant's eye; crimson; sow in March; set out 
May 1. 

Ageratum — Imperial varieties; white, blue; start indoors; set out May 1. 

Asters — Dwarf and Waldersee varieties ; various ; lime the soil in beds ; 
sow in March- April ; set out May. 



196 ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 

Calendula — Marigolds ; white, yellows, reds, browns j start early indoors 
or out. 

Phlox Drummondi, grandiflora — White, pink, lilac, red, yellow ; start 
indoors or out. 

Calliopsis — Yellow, crimson, red-brown, brown; start outside; thin out. 

Candytuft — White, rose, lavender; sow fortnightly, April 1 to July 1. 

Dianthus — Annual pinks; various; start indoors; set out May 1. 

Eschscholtzia Calif omica — California Poppy ; white, orange, rose, scar- 
let ; sow only in the ground. 

Gomphrena — Globe Amaranth; red, yellow; "everlastings;" start 
indoors or out. 

Gypsophila — Baby's Breath ; white, pink ; sow fortnightly, April 1 to 
July 1. 

Linum coccineum — Scarlet Flax; scarlet; start indoors; set out May 1. 

Pansies — Various; start indoors March. 

Schizanthus — Butterfly Flower; various; sow from April 1 fortnightly. 

Schizopetalon Walkeri — Maze Flower ; white ; sow outdoors in perma- 
nent location. 



Fifteen inches to huenty-four inches 

Acroclinum — Everlastings; white, pink; single and double; sow indoors 
or out. 

Antirrhinum — Snapdragons; white, yellow, pink, scarlet, etc.; start 
indoors in April. 

Asters — Giant Comet type; peony-flowered type; tassel or Japanese aster. 

Calliopsis coronata—Vuve yellow ; sow in permanent location ; thin out. 

Carnations — Marguerite type ; white, yellow, rose, crimson ; start indoors 
in April. 

Centaur ea imperialis — Sweet Sultans ; white, rose, purple ; start seed 
indoors in April. 

Gaillardia — Blanket Flower ; brilliant crimson, orange, etc. ; sow where 
they are to bloom. 

Matricaria Capensis — Feverfew ; white ; start indoors or out. 

Nasturtiums — Bedding varieties ; yellows, browns, scarlets, etc. ; sow out- 
doors. 

Petunia (save weakest seedlings) — White, pinks, reds, variegated; start 
indoors; set out May 1. 

Saponaria vaccaria — Bouncing Bet ; pink ; start in April ; set out in May. 

Satpiglossis — Painted Tongue ; white, rose, crimson, purple, gold ; start 
in April ; set out in May. 

Vinca rosea — Periwinkle; white, rose, mixed; start indoors; set out in 
May. 

]Vallfloicer — Yellows and yellow-reds ; start in March ; set out April 20. 



Twenty-four inches to thirty-six inches and up, as noted 

Arctotis grandis — African Daisy; white, lilac beneath, large; start in- 
doors in April. 

Asters — Late, branching type; various; start indoors in April. 
Balsams — Lady Slipper; white, pink, violet, etc.; start indoors in April. 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 197 

Bartonia aurea — Golden Bartonia ; golden-yellow ; sow in May in per- 
manent location. 

Chrysanthemums — Garden type; white, yellow, and various; start in- 
doors in April. 

Cleome pun gens — Spider Flower ; rosy-lilac ; start indoors or out. 

Cosmos (grows to seven feet) — White, pinks, crimson; start indoors; set 
out May 1. 

Datura — Trumpet Flower; white, yellow; start indoors; set out May 1. 

Delphinium ajacis — Larkspur; white, pink, blue, lilac, dark blue; start 
early indoors or out. 

Mirabilis Jalapa — Four O'clock; various; sow where they are to bloom. 

Pa paver- — Annual Poppies ; white and various ; sow where they are to 
bloom, as they seldom survive transplanting. 

Scabiosa— Mourning Bride ; white, pink, red, lilac, purple ; sow indoors 
or out. 

Stocks — Cut-and-come-again ; white, yellow ; rose, blue, red, lilac ; start 
in March ; set out April 20. 

Zinnias — Youth-and-old-age ; white, pink, yellow, red^ etc. ; start in 
April; set out May 1. 

Annuals for Shady Places 

Under twelve inches 

Adonis aestivalis (already described). 

Asperula azurea setosa — Sweet Woodruff ; lavender-blue ; start indoors 
or out. 

Nemophila — Love Grove ; various ; start indoors in March ; must have 
cool place and not rich soil. 

Twelve inches to twenty-jour inches 
Fuchsia — Fuchsia ; coral ; well known ; start indoors ; also house plant. 

Twenty-jour inches up 
Clarkia — Clarkia; white, salmon, pink; start indoors or out. 
Lupinus — Lupines; various; start indoors or out. 

Annuals for Sandy or Poor Soil 

Under twelve inches 
Abronia umbellata — Sand Verbena; rosy lilac; start indoors or out; 
trailing. 

M esembryanthemum — Ice Plant; various; start indoors or out; drv soil. 
Portulaca — Sun Plant ; various ; sow outdoors, late May. 

Twelve inches to twenty- four inches 
Antirrhinum (already described) will grow in a light soil, but dues nut 
necessarily prefer it. 

Godetia — Godetia ; white, red, pink ; start indoors or out. 



198 ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 

Twenty-four inches up 
Amaranthus — Love-lies-bleeding; red; start indoors; set out in May. 
( 'elosia cristata — Cockscomb ; crimson or variegated; start indoors or out. 



Annuals for Boundaries 

Cleome pungens, gigantea — Giant Spider Flower; rose, lilac; forty 
inches high; start indoors. 

Mirabilis Jala pa (already described). 



Foliage Plants 

Kochia tricophylla — Summer Cypress; green to scarlet; thirty-six inches 
high ; sow outdoors. 

Pennisetum longistylum — Fountain Grass; greenish-white; twenty-four 
inches high ; sow outdoors. 

Pennisetum Rueppelianum — Green, purple plumes; thirty-six inches 
high ; sow outdoors. 

Ricinus Borboniensis — Castor Bean; green foliage; fifteen feet high. 

Ricinus Phillippiensis — Very large leaves; ten feet high. 

Ricinus sanguineus — Red stalks and fruit ; eight feet high. 

Ricinus Cambodgiensis — Black stems; foliage changing; five feet high. 

Ricinus Gibsoni — Deep red foliage; five feet high. 



Annual or First- Year Vines 

Adlumia cirrhosa — Climbing Fumitory; pink; July; for trellises, trees, 
etc. 

Bryonopsis laciniosa — Small Gourd ; fruit ornamental ; for trellises or 
arbors. 

Cardiospcrmum Halicacabum — Balloon Vine; inconspicuous flowers; 
trellises or arbors. 

Cobaca scandens — Cups-and-saucers ; purple; julv; start indoors in 
April. 

Convolvulus major — Morning-glory; various; July on; arbors, etc. 

Dolichos Japonica — Hyacinth Bean; white, purple; July; trellises, etc. 

Echinocystis lobata — Wild Cucumber; white; July; arbors, trellises, etc. 

Humulus Japonica — Japanese Hop; inconspicuous; screens, trellises, 
arbors, etc. 

Sweet Peas — Get orchid type; various; plant in trench and "hill up." 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 199 



Bulbs 



BULBS will indeed grow almost anywhere ; but wherever they are and 
whatever conditions of moisture they may like, always remember that 
a bulb itself must have free drainage. 

However wet the location into which they are to go, and however 
heavy and muck-like the soil, this is readily accomplished by setting the bulb 
onto a cushion of sand or of fine coal ashes. This cushion may be shallow or 
deep according to conditions, the denser soil and greater moisture requiring 
the deeper layer of loose drainage medium. True bulbs, especially those of 
the open, scaly class, should be bedded upon a two or three inch layer ; indeed 
it is well to bring an inch wall of sand up around such as these, leaving only 
the top to come in contact with the soil. The roots which the bulb puts forth 
will go thru the sand, of course, immediately, in their search and reach for 
moisture, while the bulb remains safe and snug and dry. 

Fertilizer is appreciated by all bulbous plants, but manure ought never 
to touch a bulb of any kind. Usually the gardener is advised to apply cow 
manure liberally and spade the ground very deep, then grow something else 
for a season before planting the bulbs. This insures the decay of the manure 
but it delays the garden ; consequently it is not a method with which one has 
much sympathy. 

Bone meal is really the safe and, therefore, the best thing to use, when 
the bulbs are being planted. It may be mixed into the earth below and 
around each one, and worked in over the surface after they are buried. Once 
they are underground and established, however, well rotted cow manure may 
be applied to the ground above them, and worked in each spring ; or even 
left to lie loose on the ground. It will leach thru the soil under the rain, and 
enrich it down to where the feeding roots are. 

Bulb plants are different from all others in that they make and store 
away each season's bloom during the preceding season. This is the process 
that is going on when we speak of the bulb's "ripening;" and unless it is 
absolutely uninterrupted, no flowers can be produced during the succeeding 
year. Every bulb, as it comes from the ground in a dormant state, contains 
next season's flowers, every one of them — tiny, rudimentary embryos to be 
sure, yet nevertheless, the actual blossoms. Bulbs that do not, are immature 
and cannot bloom until they have been given time and opportunity, in the 
ground, to reach maturity. 

Hardy Bulbs 

Blooming in January, February or March 

Galanthus nivalis — Snowdrop; white; plant in September, under trees 
or in cool shade under 2 in. of earth; set bulbs 1 in. to 2 in. apart: scatter 
by hundred or thousands; 3 in. to 4 in. high. 

Galanthus Elwesii — Giant Snowdrop; white; as above, only cover bulbs 
with 3 in. of earth; the double variety will extend the season of bloom; 
6 in. to 9 in. high. 



200 ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 

Blooming in March 

Anemone blanda — Grecian Anemone; blue; plant in fall, under 2 in. 
of earth ; set bulbs 4 in. apart ; likes rocky heavy soil ; said to bloom earlier 
when facing the west ; 4 in. — 6 in. high. 

Eranthis hyemalis — Winter Aconite; yellow; plant in autumn under 2 in. 
of earth ; likes half shade and will grow under deciduous shrubs ; 5 in. — 8 in. 
high. 

Crocus — In variety ; crocus ; various ; plant in September under 2 in. 
to 3 in. of earth ; likes well drained open soil, no manure ; use named varie- 
ties rather than the Dutch hybrids ; 3 in. — 5 in. high. 

Chionodoxa Lucilaea — Glory-of-the-Snow ; white, rose, principally blue ; 
plant in September under 3 in. of earth ; set bulbs 1 in. to 2 in. apart ; use in 
quantity ; any ordinary soil not too dry ; 3 in. — 6 in. high. 

Scilla In folia — Squill ; blue, also a white and rose ; plant in September 
under 3 in. of earth; set 1 in. to 4 in. apart; use in quantity (avoid var. 
Peruviana) ; 4 in. — 6 in. high. 

Puschkinia Libanotica — Striped Squill; blue and white; plant in fall. 
same as Scilla; 10 in. high. 

Blooming in March and April 

Erythronium Americanum — Dog's Tooth Violet, adder's tongue; yellow; 
plant in fall under 6 in. of earth; likes light soil and part shade; 10 in. high. 

Leucojum vernum — Spring Snowflake ; white; plant in fall in masses, 
under 3 in. of earth, 4 in. apart. Rich soil. 12 in. high. 

Blooming in April 

Narcissus pseudo-narcissus — Daffodil, trumpet Narcissus, Lent lily ; yel- 
low ; plant in fall under 3 in. of earth ; do not disturb after once established ; 
likes deep soil and semi-shade, but thrives everywhere ; the double forms of 
this are what in America we commonly call daffodils; 12 in. — 18 in. high. 

Narcissus jonquila — Jonquil; dark yellow; plant same as above; 12 in. 
high. 

Fritillaria Meleagris — Snake's Head, checkered lily ; cream and purple ; 
plant in fall, under 3 in. of earth ; likes warm, sandy loam ; lift and divide 
every 3 years when in border, but do not touch when naturalized; 10 in. to 
18 in. high. 

Muscari Botryoides — Grape Hyacinth ; purple ; plant in fall under 2 in. 
of earth ; any ordinary soil ; 6 in. high. 

Muscari comosum. monstrosum — Feathered Grape Hyacinth; claret 
purple; plant same as above; 12 in. high. 

Muscari Moschatum — Musk Hyacinth ; blue ; same as above ; 12 in. high. 

Hyacinthus orientalis — Hyacinth ; various ; plant early in October under 
5 in. of earth, in soil worked to depth of 15 in. — 12 in. high. 

Tulipa suaveolens — Tulip ; various ; plant in fall, under 4 in. of earth ; 
the double varieties remain longer in bloom than the single; 12 in. high. 

Anemone coronaria — Poppy Anemone; white, scarlet, purple; plant in 
November under 2 in. of earth ; prefers sandy loam but thrives in ordinary 
soil; 6 in. — 12 in. high. 

Muscari Botryoides — Carneum ; pink grape hyacinth ; pink ; same as 
other Muscari; 8 in. high. 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION . 201 

Blooming in April and May 

Leucojum aestivum — Summer Snowflake ; white, tipped with green ; same 
as Leucojum vernum; 12 in. high. 

Narcissus poeticus — Poet's Narcissus ; white ; plant in fall under 3 in. to 
4 in. of earth ; will not do well in very dry or poor soil, as disease attacks it 
under such conditions; likes deep, rich loam ; 12 in. — 18 in. high. 

Blooming in May 

Tulip turcica — Parrot Tulip; various yellows and scarlets; plant in 
November under 2 in. of earth ; prefers a light, sandy soil, but thrives any- 
where in full sun; 6 in. to 12 in. high. 

Tulipa Gesneriana — -May-flowering Tulip; various; plant in September 
under 3 in. of earth, in soil worked to a depth of 15 in., on a cushion of 
sand ; prefers sandy loam, but thrives almost anywhere ; 6 in. — 24 in. high. 

Ornithogalum umbellatum — Star of Bethlehem; white; plant in fall, 
under 3 in. of earth ; thrives in any soil, poor or rich ; 1 2 in. high. 

Fritillaria imperialis — Crown Imperial ; red, yellow, orange ; plant in 
fall, under 6 in. of earth on a 1 in. layer of earth above 6 in. of rich manure ; 
likes warm, sandy loam ; locate where shady at noon ; group by twos, threes 
or more, and do not disturb ; 2 ft. to 3 ft. high. 

Fritillaria recurva — California Fritillaria ; scarlet lined with yellow ; 
treat same as Fritillaria Meleagris; 24 in. high. 

Trillium grandiflorum — Wake Robin, wood lily ; white, changing to 
rose ; plant in August or later in deep, loamy soil, under 4 in. of earth ; likes 
shade and moisture; native of woods; 10 in. to 12 in. high. 

Scilla campanulata — Wood Hyacinth ; blue ; plant in fall in partial 
shade ; endures very poor soil ; treat same as Scilla ; 6 in. high. 

Allium aureum (Allium MolyJ- — -Golden Lily Leek; yellow; plant in 
September under 3 in. of earth; any ordinary soil; 10 in. high. 
Blooming in May and June 

Iris Xiphium — Spanish Iris ; various ; plant in September under 3 in. of 
earth. 6 in. apart ; lift about every third year as new bulbs form beneath the 
old; likes moisture; 18 in. to 24 in. high. 

Blooming in June 

Allium azureum — Blue Lily Leek; blue; plant as Allium aureum; 24 in. 
high. 

Iris Xiphioides (.or Anglica) — English Iris; white, purple; plant in 
fall, same as Iris Xiphium; any good soil, not necessarily moist; 24 in. high. 

Eremurus robustus — Desert Lily; pink; plant in October under 3 in. of 
earth, in deep, sandy loam, enriched with cow manure ; locate in sunny place ; 
give winter cover to protect the early spring shoots; 6 ft. to 10 ft. high. 

Eremurus Himalaicus — White Desert Lily; white; plant as above; 
leaves of Eremurus disappear after it has flowered; 4 ft. to 8 ft. high. 

Lilium longiflorum — White Trumpet Lily; white; plant in November 
under three times the bulb's depth of earth, after working the ground twice 
as deep ; set on cushion of sand and cover with sand ; locate where ground is 
shaded from midday sun; 2 ft. to 3 ft. high. 

Lilium candidum — Madonna or St. Joseph's Lily; white; plant in August 
(or before Sept. 15) under 4 in. of earth; always dust the bulbs first with 
powdered sulphur ; set in 3 in. pocket of sphagnum moss ; 2 ft. to 4 ft. high. 



202 ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 

Iris Laevigata (Kaempferi) — Japanese Iris ; various ; plant in November 
under 3 in. of earth; succeeds anywhere but likes deep, rich, moist soil; 
2 ft. to 3 ft. high. 

Blooming in June and July 

Hemerocallis auriantica — Yellow Day Lily; orange yellow; plant in fall 
under 3 in. of earth; any soil, but prefers part shade; this is hardier than 
var. major; fragrant; 2 ft. to 3 ft. high. 

Hemerocallis Florham — Golden Day Lily; yellow; as above; fragrant; 2 ft. 
to 3 ft. high. 

Hemerocallis flava — -Lemon Lily ; pale yellow ; as above ; fragrant ; 2 ft. 
to 3 ft. high. 

Blooming in July 
Hemerocallis fulva — Tawny Lily ; orange ; as above ; not fragrant ; 

2 ft. to 3 ft. high. 

Calochortns venustus — Mariposa Tulip ; white, yellow, purple ; plant in 
late autumn under 2 in. to 3 in. of earth, in well-drained, light soil and 
partial shade; mulch well in fall ; 10 in. to 20 in. high. 

Blooming in July and August 
Hemerocallis Thunbergii — Yellow Day Lily; lemon yellow; same as 
other Hemerocallis; fragrant; 2 ft. to 3 ft. high. 

Blooming in August 

Lilium aurantum — Gold-banded Japanese Lily; creamy, gold bands, pur- 
ple spots ; plant in fall in 3 in. pocket of sphagnum moss ; mulch with leaves 
to protect ground from sun, or set where ground is shaded ; 4 ft. to 6 ft. high. 

Lilium Henrui — Lily ; yellow, green-banded, brown spots ; as other lilies ; 

3 ft.— 5 ft.— 8 ft. high.' 

Lilium speciosum — Japanese Lily ; white overland with pink, red dots ; 
plant in fall under 6 in. of earth, in pocket of sand ; 2 ft. to 4 ft. high. 
Blooming in August and September 

Lilium Speciosiim, rubrum — Lily ; pinkish, red dots ; plant in fall under 
6 in. of earth in sand pocket; 2 ft. to 3 ft. high. 

Blooming in September 

Colchicum autumnal e — Meadow Saffron, autumn crocus; various; plant 
early in September in deep, sandy loam, under 2 in. to 3 in. of earth ; will 
do well in part shade but likes full sun ; naturalize only where grass is not 
too thick nor frequently mowed; 3 in. to 4 in. high. 

Colchicum Parkinsoni — Autumn Crocus; white, checked, purple; plant 
in fall, same as above ; 4 in. high. 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 203 



Vegetable Gardens 

NO home is complete without a garden for the growing of vegetables and 
fruits, and the average person takes as much pride in caring for his 
garden, as he does in beautifying his lawn and other home surround- 
ings. It is impossible to give detailed directions for the culture of 
these crops which would apply to all of our varied conditions, but general 
hints on the growing of the common vegetables and fruits will be of use to 
the amateur gardener. 

The first essential to a good garden is a carefully prepared soil. We 
cannot always choose the most desirable type of soil for the garden, but we 
can usually improve the condition of our soils by proper culture methods. 
One of the best and quickest methods of improving the condition of the soil 
is by the addition of fertilizer. To get the best results, the fertilizer should 
not merely be spread on the surface of the soil and plowed or spaded under, 
but should be well mixed with the particles of soil by careful cultivation with 
a harrow or a hand rake. 

Plowing or spading should never be done when the soil is wet enough to 
be sticky. Dig up a handful of soil and squeeze it in the hand ; if it is moist 
enough to form a ball of earth which will break into fine particles when 
dropped, it is in good condition to work. Plowing or spading should be 
deep and followed by harrowing or raking, as soon as possible. It is much 
better to turn over a furrow six inches wide, three inches thick and ten 
inches deep than one six inches wide, six inches deep and six inches thick. 
with a spade. Most amateur gardeners make the mistake of spading shallow 
and then raking only the surface of the soil. The particles of soil should be as 
fine near the bottom of the furrow as on the surface. 

In planting, use only fresh seeds. It never pays to save unused seeds 
from year to year. The time to plant the vegetable garden will depend upon 
the locality and the particular kinds of vegetables. In general, most of our 
vegetables could be put into one of two classes, hardy and tender. 

The hardy kinds would include such vegetables as radish, parsnip, beet, 
carrot, onion, peas, lettuce, spinach, parsley and potato. Cabbage and cauli- 
flower would also be included in this list. These crops can usually be planted 
as early in the spring as the soil can be worked and in many localities, some 
of them may be planted in the fall. It is quite a common practice among 
market gardeners in Western Washington to plant onions, peas and cabbage 
in the late fall for early spring markets. 

Such vegetables as pumpkins, squash, sweet corn, beans, pepper, egg 
plant and tomato, would be classed as tender kind. It is not wise to plant 
these crops until there is very little danger from spring frosts. 

There was a time when gardeners thought it necessary that cabbage, 
cauliflower, tomato, egg plant, pepper and like plants should be seeded in a 
warm room or under glass six or eight weeks before time to seed in the field, 
and when they had formed a good root system and a stocky little plant with 
from two to four leaves, they should be set in the garden, but equally good 
results are obtained by sowing the seed in the ground, and we do not all 



204 ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 

have a place convenient for sowing seed to be transplanted. The amateur 
gardener can usually obtain what early plants he desires at a local store. 

When the young seedlings are well up, they should be thinned so that 
no two plants will touch. When transplanting, it is best to choose a cool, 
cloudy day for the work or at least late in the afternoon. The tender seedling 
will then be able to recuperate somewhat before being exposed to the hot sun. 

Small fruits and often tree fruits are as desirable in the back yard garden 
as vegetables. 

The soil for fruits should be as well prepared as for vegetable crops. 
The time for planting will depend upon the locality. In a mild climate, 
planting can be done either in fall or spring. In some localities, spring 
planting is more desirable. 

Strawberries, gooseberries and currants should have a place in the gar- 
den. Where plenty of room is available, the cane fruits, such as raspberries 
and blackberries or some of the tree fruits, may be planted. 

Although the time of planting and distances of setting the plants may 
vary somewhat in different localities, the methods of planting are practically 
the same in all. 

Strawberries should be planted in rows from thirty to thirty-six inches 
apart, with a space of from twelve to eighteen inches between each individual 
plant. This is what is commonly known as the hill system. When setting 
the plants, the uneven roots should be trimmed back, leaving a rounded, well 
developed root. Prune back the top also, leaving only the growing point of 
the plant and the next youngest leaf. Strawberry plants should be set just 
at the crow or point of meeting of the roots and top. Do not allow runners 
to form with this system of growing strawberries. 

Currants and gooseberries for the garden may be planted in rows four 
feet apart and the same distance between plants in rows. 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



205 



Table for Planting Vegetables 

The following planting table will be helpful to you in placing your 
garden, no matter what size. 



Vegetables 
(Hardy) 



Beet 

Carrot 

Lettuce 

Onion (seed) . . 
Onion (sets) . . 

Parsley. 

Parsnips 

Peas 

Potato. 



Radish . . 
Spinach . 
Turnip . . 



Depth to 
plant 



y^ to i" 

l 4 " 

1" to VA" 

Y n 

2" to 3" 
3" to 5" 



£■ to 1" 
1" 



Distance of 
rows apart 



12" to 15" 

18" to 20" 
12" to 15" 
12" to 18" 
12" to 18" 
12" to 18" 
18" to 20" 
24" to 30" 
24" to 36" 

12" to 15" 
12" to 18" 

18" to 24" 



Seed required 
for 50' row 



Vz oz. 

% oz. 

Va oz. 

V2 oz. 

1 pt. 

yi oz. 

Va oz. 

1 pt. 

2^ to 3 lbs 



Y-2 OZ. 

Va oz. 
Va oz. 



Distance of 
thin plants 



l"to V/P 
3" to 4" 
4" to 6" 
3" to 4" 
3" to 4" 
4" to 6" 
3" to 4" 

3 A n apart 

in hills 14"- 
18" apart 
in rows 

l"tol^" 

4" to 6" 

3" to 4" 



Ready 
for use 

20-40 days 
75-110 " 
60- 90 " 

130-150 " 
90-120 " 
90-120 " 

125-160 " 
40- 80 " 



80-140 " 
20- 40 " 
30- 60 " 
60- 80 " 



Cabbage and Cauliflower should be set in rows 24 to 30 inches apart and 
plants 15 to 18 inches apart in the row. 



Vegetables 
(Tender) 



Beans (Bush) 
Beans (pole) 



Cucumber . . 
Muskmelon 
Pumpkin . . . 

Squash 

Sweet Corn . 



Depth to 
plant 



2" 
2" 

1" to 2" 
1" to 2" 
1" to 2" 
1" to 2" 

2" 



Distance of Seed required 

rows apart for 50 ' row 



18" to 24" 
3' to 4' 



3' to 
3' to 



6' to 8' 
6' to 8' J 
30" to 36" 



Va pt 

Va. oz 
V2. oz 
Yi oz 
Yz oz 

y pt 



Distance to 
thin plants 



2" in row 

3' to 4' in 
row 

3' to 4' 

3' to 4' 

6' to 8' 

6' to 8' 

30" to 36" 



Ready 
for use 

40-55 days 
50- 80 



60- 80 ' 
120-150 ' 
100-140 ' 
100-140 ' 

60-100 ' 



Tomatoes may be set 30 to 36 inches each way. 



206 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



T 



Making a Hotbed 



HE hotbed consists of the sub-frame of wood, brick, stone, concrete 
or some other material admitted into the ground to retain heat. This 
is filled with fresh fermenting stable manure. On top of this manure 
is a layer of soil in which the seedlings are ground. The sash which 
are the essentials of the whole affair rest on the frame and have a slope of 
about 15 degrees to the south. It would scarcely pay a beginner to attempt to 
make the sash, as they can be bought for about twenty-five cents per square 
foot from sash mills. 

Very often the terms "Hotbed" and "Coldframes" are used interchange- 
ably and considerable confusion results. More often in practice the two 
types actually merge into each other. They are both miniature greenhouses 
where artificial conditions of temperature are maintained. The essential 
difference between the two is this : the hotbed is warmed artificially by means 
of heat generated from fermenting manure, while the coldframe derives its 
heat solely from the sunlight. The manure plays no part in the fertility 
of the bed and very often in place of the manure brewer's grains or some 



fumes 



the fermentation 

sufc - 



other material is 
would gradually 
kill the tender 
rootlets of long 
seedlings if they 
came in contact 
with it. There- 
fore, in a hotbed 
the fermenting 
manure is used 
solely as a source 
of heat and not 
for fertilizing. 

The cold frame 
is warmed merely 
by utilizing the 
principle that if 
t h e sun's rays 
pass thru glass 
into an enclosed 
place, the temper- 
ature is raised. 
Hotbeds are 
sometimes warm- 
ed by other means 
such as coils of 
steam or hot 
water pipes. 

In selecting 
the site for your P L A H - 

hotbed VOU must Construction of Hotbed. 

remember that if properly built it is there to stay and cannot easily be moved. 
Besides being sheltered at the north, the southern exposure must not be shaded 
by trees or buildings. It may be placed where it will not interfere with 




ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 207 

plowing or cultivation of your garden, and for the appearance of your place, 
a rather inconspicuous site is preferable. A good size for hotbed sash is three 
to six feet. Your frame will therefore be six feet in width and some multiple 
of three feet in length. A very good working standard consists of four sash 
which means a frame 6x 1 2 feet. 

In the actual construction of the hotbed a pit should be dug about four 
feet deep and a foot or more larger than the dimensions of the frame itself. 
After the pit is dug and drainage provided, the next step will be the sub-frame. 

It is not advisable to use plank if you want a permanent bed. If you 
do not care to go to the expense of making a masonry frame, use 2 in. planks 
of some lasting wood such as chestnut, cypress or white pine. The life of the 
planks will be greatly increased if an application of coal tar or asphalt is 
applied before being embedded into the ground. The sash should be given a 
slope of about 5 in. from the back of the frame to the front. This will shed 
the water and catch the maximum of sunlight. The sash should be painted 
in order to preserve them. They should not be hinged to the frame, but 
merely rest on parting strips and stay in place because of their own weight. 
After the frame has been completed secure a heap of fresh stable manure, 
securing sufficient quantity at one time so that the preliminary fermentation 
can be done in a uniform manner. The fresh manure is piled in a heap and 
mixed with half its bulk of dry leaves. Those from hard wood trees are 
the best. 

The manure must have a slow, moist-enduring heat. You will need 
about 2 cubic yards for each sash of the standard size. This may seem to 
be an excessive amount but you must not lose sight of the fact that in beds 
the manure is packed in very solidly. After the heap has fermented for a 
day or two it should thoroughly be forked over to cool it down. During a 
fermentation the temperature will sometimes rise to 110 degrees. A degree 
of heat, of course, would be fatal to growing plants, rafter forking, a second 
fermentation will take place and then after two days more the manure is 
ready to be placed in the pit of our hotbed. This pit should be filled within 
18 in. of the sash frames. The manure must then be packed down sol- 
idly, special care being devoted to the sides and corners. Then put the sash 
in the frames and take the temperature of the hotbed, and when it cools down 
to 90 degrees Fahrenheit, the bed is ready for the top dressing of soil in 
which to plant the seeds. On the outside of the bed a bank should be piled 
against the frame, using soil or coal ashes. This will help to retain the heat 
and to exclude the cold. 

The top dressing should be from 6 to 10 in. deep. The ideal soil is 
somewhat sandy which will prevent baking and will remain pliable and 
crumbly. A mixture of green mold sand and well rotted manure will accom- 
plish this result. Some gardeners do not plant the seed entirely into the hot- 
bed soil, but use shell boxes, technically called flats. This is very satisfactory 
but not absolutely necessary. Hotbeds and coldframes will require some pro- 
tection at night to retain the heat. During the day a certain amount of heat 
is contributed to the hotbed by the sun, but at sun-down the temperature 
invariably falls and to retain a temperature of, say, 60 degrees in the hotbed 
when it is below freezing outside, we must give some protection other than 
that furnished by the glass. This can be done by using double sash, old car- 
pets, matting, blankets, burlap bags or even straw which are simple expedients. 
The best plan, tho, is to make a permanent mat fitting over the top of your 
frame. This can be rolled back each morning with very little trouble. 



r 



Part III 

Contains Instructions 

for the Erection of 

Building Proper 






k: .~ .: • - -^ 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 2(W 



Introduction to General Instructions 

THE purpose of these instructions, which are furnished with all Aladdin 
buildings, is to help purchasers and builders of our houses, eliminate 
lost motion and also do away with many of the costly mistakes often 
made by carpenters. We have pointed out a large number of labor sav- 
ing steps which will save many dollars for our customers. 

These instructions, together with blue prints, should be carefully read 
over by the men in charge of the operation, so that they may become familiar 
with our methods of erection, and do away with the "studying out" which 
generally takes place on building operations. 

In this manner any little step which is not thoroughly understood can 
be taken up with our Construction Department, from which any information 
will be furnished immediately. These instructions in some instances may 
sound amateurish, but they have been furnished for general use among all 
classes of builders from the so called "Wood Butcher" to the mechanic in 
carpentry. 

You will notice on blue prints, notes referring you to different pages in 
the Aladdin Manual of Construction. It is necessary for you to study thru 
only such paragraphs as are referred to by these notes. The general con- 
struction is the same in most cases, but you will appreciate that instructions 
have to be furnished for many kinds of roofs and porches and houses of 
different designs. The kinds of porches and roofs you will notice are 
marked with Style A or Style B, so that one may be distinguished from the 
other. In addition to having them indicated by a style letter, we also have 
placed a note on blue prints to refer to a certain page in this book. On the 
first sheet of the blue prints you will find the different steps of erection to be 
followed and the page or paragraph to refer to, to find out just how to go 
about it in order to obtain the best results. 

Any step in erection which our customers have been able to handle in a 
quicker and better method than stated herein, will be appreciated if sent to 
our Superintendent of Construction. 



Par. 1 — Unloading and Caring for Material 

Immediately after the car of material has been secured from the Railroad 
Company, inspection should be made to see that the seals have not been 
broken and if any material has been damaged in transit. If seals have been 
broken, this should be reported to the railroad agent at once. If any material 
has been damaged in transit, claim should be filed with Railroad Company so 
that you may be able to secure reimbursement for same. 

The material should all be checked while it is being unloaded from the 
car (not after it has been drawn to building site). Claim should then be 
filed immediately so that we can replace any shortage which may occur. We 
cannot be responsible for material after it has left car. If it is necessary to 
have material in car over night after it has been received from Railroad 
Company, a lock should be placed on the doors. 



210 ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 

A loading copy of material contained in car is furnished and should be 
used in checking the material out of the car. The same should then be for- 
warded to Aladdin Co. immediately after car has been unloaded, and should 
contain notation of any material you have found damaged, or any material 
that checks short in your shipment. Often material has been lost or stolen 
after it has been placed on building site. We will not reimburse any claim 
of this nature. 

To insure quick erection and to keep material in good shape, the follow- 
ing instructions should be carried out: Many of our customers have made the 
grievous mistake of unloading all material in one big pile, taking no pains 
to sort out different kinds and lengths of material, leaving finish material, 
hardware, mill work, etc., exposed to the elements of the weather, very much 
to their sorrow. 

All the material should be carefully piled and sorted while it is being 
drawn to building site. All the 2x4's should be sorted out from the rest of 
the material, and they in turn sorted according to the lengths which have 
been marked on each piece, that is. all 16 ft. 2x4's in one pile and 3 ft. in 
another, etc. Then when you see that blue prints call for a 2x4 16 ft. long, 
you do not have to go thru a whole carload of material to find it. All the 
sheathing, rafters, etc., should be sorted in same manner. By referring to 
Fig. 144 you will notice that this material has been carefully sorted and 
placed in convenient piles. 

All the hardware and finish, such as flooring, windows, doors, etc., should 
be placed under cover, as all this material has been thoroughly kiln dried 
before shipment. If you have no barn or shed in which to place this material, 




Fig-. 144 — Construction of temporary shed to cover material. 



a rough shed can be constructed in a few minutes as shown by Fig. 144, which 
will only have to be used until your roof has been shingled over. A shed can 
be constructed in this manner 16 ft. long and 10 ft. deep for about $6 or $7. 
Kiln dried stock, however, after being exposed to the air a short time, 
will absorb a certain amount of moisture from the air itself. We earnestly 
advise, therefore, if it is possible for you to do so, to put your finishing lumber 
and flooring in a hot room for several days before it is to be used, so that as 
much of the moisture as possible which has accumulated from the air, will be 
taken out of the material. This will insure joints in flooring and finish from 
opening up after job is complete. 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 211 

Par. 2 — Special Note Regarding Change on Blue Prints 

To avoid trouble in erecting your Aladdin house, follow these rules ab- 
solutely : 

Do not cut material intended for one place and use it in that of another. 

Do not change plans. If you do, you cannot expect material to fit and 
work out as intended. 

All work is carefully laid out on blue prints, and explained by these 
instructions, and is so simple that many women have erected Aladdin houses 
without male assistance, and as one of. them remarked: "Any man should be 
ashamed to admit having any difficulty in erecting an Aladdin house, so 
simple are the blue prints, and all he has to do is to follow instructions. 
Good sense is the main requirement." 

Do not take anyone's advice as to how your building should be erected. 
We have found upon investigation that this causes more difficulty in the 
erection of our buildings than all the other things put together. Erect your 
buildings only as provided for on blue prints and instructions and you will 
encounter no difficulty. 

Every piece and kind of material for your complete building is care- 
fully checked and loaded into your car. You cannot expect this company to 
replace any material which has been lost or stolen after shipment has been 
accepted from Railroad company. Take care of everything, as some one may 
need a bundle of shingles or a roll or roofing and will not bother to buy it. 

Do not leave blue prints exposed to sun, as this acts on the chemical 
surface of paper and reduces the strength of the blue surface. Keep them 
carefully rolled up when not in use, and at night they should be placed in 
tool box or some safe place. 




Fig-. 144A — Shows material carefully placed in convenient pile near foundation. 



No scaffolding material has been furnished with this shipment; only the 
material for the building itself has been furnished, except a few pieces of 
each kind of material which have been marked "Extra" are included. These 
are the only pieces which can be cut up to be used in building in case of a 
necessity. 



212 ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 

With each set of blue prints we furnish an itemized list of material, 
divided up according to the figure numbers shown on blue prints. It shows 
the different lengths of material which are to be used with each figure. In 
erecting each figure on blue prints refer to this itemized list of material and 
use only such pieces in this figure as are contained on list under the figure 
number. For example, you will find all the studding for the outside walls 
listed under the different figure numbers which will correspond to those shown 
on blue prints. Under no circumstances make any change in the erection of 
your building, for only such items as are listed on bill of material are fur- 
nished. 

Explanation of Blue Print Measurements 

As stated previously, it is very important, before starting the erection of 
your building, to separate all the different kinds of material into separate 
piles. It is also important that you separate each different length of material 
into distinct piles. This will enable you to find every piece as fast as you 
require it in the erection of your building. 

The different lengths of material have all been marked, and only such 
material as might possibly be confused with other kinds is furnished, marked 
with figure number or place in which it is to be used, or name stamped upon 
same. For example: the porch floor is marked "Porch Floor," flooring for 
first floor, "First Floor Flooring," and flooring for second floor. "Special Floor 
Flooring." All mitered material is carefully bundled and marked to indicate 
the exact place in which it is to be used. 

On the blue prints, you will notice the measurements given between the 
joists, studding and rafters have the fraction J /l, ]/%, V& or V 2 added to the 
measurement. The purpose of adding on this fraction of an inch is that 
two inch material when dressed, usually dresses to the thickness of L}4 inches. 
In giving the distance between two pieces of 2x4 placed on 16 inch centers, 
that is, 16 inches from one piece to center of the other, we have added %. of 
an inch for the reason that in reality 2 inch material is only 1^4 inches. 
Therefore, when making your measurements, it is a good policy to measure 
from center to center of each stud, joist or rafter. This will insure each piece 
coming exactly as it should. 

Hardware 

The term "Builder's Hardware," to-day, covers all metallic mechanical 
fitting used in building construction. The purpose of "Builder's Hardware" 
may be classed under three heads : Protection, Convenience and Decoration. 
Locks, latches, catches, bolts and hooks are used to hold temporarily some 
adjustable part of the construction in a fixed place, for a certain purpose, and 
to further the convenience of these members. 

Many different patterns and designs of the different hardware parts have 
been invented, but all serve to accomplish the same purpose in construction. 

In the following paragraphs we will explain and cover in detail all the 
different items of hardware furnished with Aladdin buildings. Each piece and 
kind is furnished for a certain purpose in the erection of your building and 
the following paragraphs should be studied carefully in order to secure the 
desired results. 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



213 



An itemized hardware bill is furnished with each order, and should be 
used to check the hardware out of the boxes and different packages. On 
each package is placed a slip stating what is contained in it. Each hardware 
bill has been carefully compiled, and the material checked into container by 
a double check system. Everything necessary for your building should be 
shown on hardware list and everything on list should check out of car. 

All the hardware should be placed under shelter to prevent it from becom- 
ing rusted and stained from damp or rainy weather. 



IB^ 



:s> 



CKS.1MC.. 



I>^ ^ 



Nails 

Nails are made in 
great varieties for va- H on mm ' ' 
rious purposes. As a ls~ 
general distinction they 
are called spikes when 
very large and brads if 
very small. When 
small with large heads. 
they, are called tacks. 
A staple is a double 
pointed nail. 

To-day nails made 
from steel wire have 
almost superseded the 
use of cut and forged 
nails. They are made 
in a great number of 
kinds and sizes. The 
common varieties are 
known as 6 penny, 8 
penny, 10 penny, etc., 
which meant at the 
time the name was 
given them, that 1,000 
nails weighed five 
pounds, eight pounds, 
ten pounds, etc. Of late 
the sizes have been 
standardized in length, 

which makes the number in a pound somewhat different than formerly. The 
lengths are made to conform to the standard size of material, and to fit into 
the different places for which thev are intended. 

Standard lengths of nails : 



T=~ * t^US»Y-U MC«. 






^e.(ko Roor\i>*<i. 



Fig. 145 — Cut of wire nails. 



Sizes ..2d 3d 4d 
Length 1" 1%" 1V 2 ' 



5d 6d 7d 8d 9d lOd 12d ljBd 20d 30d 40d 50d 

1%" 2" 2X" 2/ 2 " 1%" 3" 3X" 3>£" r i'A" 5" 6" 



All the kinds given in the tables are put up 100 pounds to a keg. Coated 
nails are from 70 to 80 pounds per keg. 



214 ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 

Number of nails per pound: 

Plaster \%" 
2d 3d 5d 6d 8d lOd 12d 16d 20d 30d 40d 50d board brads 

Common 664 685 252 204 93 78 60 48 31 16 12 10 212 

Finishing 300 168 140 

Casing 340 210 130 88 80 62 45 40 35 706 

All the nails which have been furnished for your building are for a 
certain purpose, and the following table should be used. 

Do not leave your nails out over night, for if it should rain they will 
become rusty and hard to handle. 

Kind of Nails To be used for 

2d common Shingles 

3d common Lathing 

5d common Siding 

8d common 1 in. Sheathing material 

I6d common 2 in. material 

20d common Timbers 

8 casing Flooring, door and window, frame, trim 

6 finishing Ceiling, door and window frames, interior trim 

1^4 i n - brads Window frames 

Plaster Board nails. .Plaster Board 

Roofing nails Roofing 

The number of different nails furnished for each kind of material is as 
follows, and if the nails are not wasted and used as directed, there should be 
enough of all kinds : 

2J4 lbs. of 2d galvanized for each 1000 shingles. 

6 lbs. of 3d fine for each 1000 32 in. lath. 

15 lbs. 5d common for each 1000 bd. ft. S}6 in. bevel siding. 

12 lbs. 5d common for each 1000 bd. ft. 6 in. T. & G. siding. 

15 lbs. 5d common for each 1000 bd. ft. 3 J / 2 in. bevel siding. 

35 lbs. 8d common for each 1000 bd. ft. 1 in. sheathing. 

15 lbs. I6d common for each 1000 bd. ft. 2 in. material. 

15 lbs. 8 case common for each 1000 bd. ft. flooring. 

15 lbs. 8 case common for each 1000 bd. ft. outside finish. 

10 lbs. 6 finishing for each 1000 bd. ft. ceiling. 

10 lbs. large headed nails for each 1000 sq. ft. plaster board. 

1 11). large headed nails for each carton semi-slate shingles. 

Additional 6 finishing and 8 case are furnished for interior trim, window 
and door frames. By referring to the table giving the number of nails 
in a pound you will find for example : 

252 — 5d nails in a pound. Now on SjA in. bevel siding we furnish 
12 lbs. per 1000 bd. ft. or 2000 lineal ft. 

3024 nails in 12 lbs.; 2000 lineal ft. siding. 

2000-f-3024 equals .66. 

This will allow you to have a nail about every 8 in., which is not nec- 
essary, but just serves as an example to explain if the nails are carefully used 
there will be a great sufficiency. 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 215 

Building Paper 

White fibre building paper has been furnished to go between the siding 
of the outside walls and the sheathing, and between the finished floor and 
.sub-flooring. The paper should be placed on horizontally over the sheathing, 
letting one layer overlap the preceding one about two inches. Bring the 
paper down tight to the sheathing; a few lath can be used to hold same in 
place until the siding has been put on. Place the lath or small strip of wood 
over the paper in such a manner that they will serve as a guide to nailing the 
siding directly over the studs, as much as possible. When placing the pieces 
of wood on paper to hold it, they should be placed alternately so that one 
piece is placed on top and the next near the bottom of layer of paper. Then 
after the siding has been laid onto the bottom of the roll, the lower pieces can 
be moved and it will be held firmly in place by the remaining pieces at the top. 

Carefully strip around all the window and door frames when they are 
being set in place, letting the strip of paper extend out far enough to form a 
good lap with layer under the siding. 

On buildings that have the side walls covered with stucco, tar paper 
should be placed over the side walls instead of white fibre, to insure against 
damp walls. 

No more paper should be put on in one day than can be covered with 
siding or flooring, as the wind will tear it off very easily. Caution should 
also be taken to keep paper dry. If the siding or flooring is placed on over 
wet or damp paper it will take up moisture from the paper and is very apt 
to warp. 

Building paper comes in rolls of 400 square feet each and will weigh 
about 30 pounds per roll. 

Window Hardware 

Check rail windows : Many fasteners have been manufactured and pat- 
ented to operate check rail windows with more or less success. The two 
methods most commonly used, and, no doubt, the most practical for check rail 
sash are the spring window bolts and weights and pulleys. On the smaller 
and cheaper houses, the spring window bolt is used with satisfactory results. 

It is simply constructed and easily 

applied. Fig. 146 shows a type of 

sash spring bolt which is placed in 

the center of the side rails of the 

Fig. 146 — Spring Window Bolt. 

sash, extending out from the side of 

sash about one-half inch. Small holes about the same size in diameter as the 
end of the bolt are then bored into the side style of the window frame to 
receive the projection of the spring bolt. When the sash is to be lowered or 
raised, the small handles on the inside of the sash are drawn so as to bring 
the opposite end of the bolt flush with the sash, permitting it to be moved in 
the desired direction. In placing the holes in the side style of the window 
frame, be sure to have them centered directly opposite each other so that the 
sash will hang evenly. The holes bored into the sash should be just large 
enough so that the bolt will fit into them tightly. The spring bolts should be 
centered in the O. G. part of sash or in the center of that part of sash from 





216 ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 

the inside of glass to the inside of sash. It should also be centered between 
top and bottom rails. The proper application of the hardware to the window 
is very important to the successful operation of same. 

Windows, unless carefully made and fitted, are apt to be a very weak 
point in the building. Sash which are not properly hung will bind and sag, 
and will cause considerable trouble. When sash are 
equipped with weights, they should be well fitted to start 
with and properly balanced with weights, operating over 
sash pulleys. Fig. 147 shows a sash pulley of ordinary 
type. The face of the pulley housing is set in flush with 
the face of the pulley style, thus setting the bearing cen- 
ter of the pulley wheel back into the weight box. In 
order that the weight may hang properly the diameter 
should be so that it will allow the weight to hang in a Fig-. 147— Sash 

position so it will not be scraping against the sides of 
the weight box, and also prevent the continual bending of the sash cord over 
an arch of small radius which is injurious to cord. Care should be taken that 
the pulleys are smooth on all surfaces where the cord touches and that they 
are fit properly in housings. It requires two pulleys to each sash. 

Braided cotton sash cord is strong enough for all light windows, chains 
only being necessary on large plate glass construction. The sash cord should 
be securely fastened to the weight and also to the side of sash which has been 
plowed to receive same. It should be cut the proper length so that when lower 
sash is raised the weight will not strike sill, and when upper sash is lowered 
it will not strike the pulley in side style. The amount of cord required for a 
window will depend upon its height. It takes four pieces the length of the 
window to equip it, allowing a little extra to run into the side of sash where 
it has been plowed out, and also enough to knot on weight. The cord should 
not be left projecting out of the grooved part of sash at top, as this will cause 
the sash to bind. 

Window weights are usually made of cast iron and weigh from two to 
twenty pounds each, and from \ l / 2 in. to 2 in. in diameter, and from 5 in. to 
25 in. in length. Lead weights are often used where a heavy weight is required 
in a small space. It requires four weights to each window. The following 
table gives the size of weights required for the different size sash furnished 
with Aladdin houses. 

Glass measurement Weight 

12 x 16 iy 2 

14 x 20 3 

14 x 28 ' 4 

20 x 28 5 

26 x 16 4 

26 x 24 5 

26 x 28 6 

30 x 20 sy 2 

30 x 28 7 

30 x 36 9 

38 x 20 7 

38 x 28 9 

38 x 36 11 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



217 



If the sash are divided into small lights, add one pound to each weight. 
Securely fasten the weight to the lower end of the sash cord so the weight 
will hang as near the center of the pocket as possible. 




Fig. 148— Bar Sash Lift 



149— Flush Sash Lift. 




Sash Lift: If the sash are properly balanced, no great effort is nec- 
essary to raise or lower same, yet some device which can be gripped easily is 
desired. There are three types of sash lifts commonly in use. Fig. 148 shows 
small bar lift; Fig. 149 shows a flush sash lift and Fig. 150 
shows a hook lift. These fixtures are fastened to the center of 
the lower rail of the bottom sash and are held in place by small 
screws. 

They should be used at all times and are a protection to 
your sash, as they help keep your sash from becoming finger Fig. 150-^ook 
marked, and also when the sash is forced open by pushing up on 
the check rail or down on the lower rail, you are very apt to spring the rails 
and putty away from the glass and the putty will eventually drop out and the 
glass will rattle in the sash. If it is necessary to push on the sash to raise or 
lower them, be sure to apply the force at the corner, not in the center. 

Sash fasteners are for the purpose of fastening the 
sash for protection and to draw the check fails of the 
upper and lower sash tightly together. Fig. 151 shows 
the type of sash fasteners furnished with Aladdin 
houses which are generally considered as good as any 
manufactured. It fulfills the requirements of drawing 
the two sash together, to prevent rattling, and leak- 
age of air. When properly screwed in place they will 
hold sash securely together. The cam action of these 
fasteners also brings the top sash tightly up against the head style of frame 
and the lower sash down to the sill. They should be placed in the center of 
the check rails of upper and lower sash. 




Fig. 151— Sash Lock. 



Casement Window Hardware 



Casement sash are equipped and are adjustable upon a pair of butts. 
Most casement sash are hinged at the side and swing in. Fig. 152 shows a 
2>4x2^ in. loose pin butt commonly used on casement sash. The opposite 
side is equipped with a small fixture called casement fastener, which is placed 
in the center of sash to lock sash when closed. The fastener is placed on 



21S 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 




the inside surface of the side 
rail of sash and the strike is 
fastened to the side of the win- 
dow jamb. The butts should be 
placed so that when the sash are 
closed they will swing com- 
pletely into the frame and fit 
tightly. When the casement 
sash are made in pairs, the sash 
are hung on butts in the same 
manner but the fastener is 
placed on the side rail of the 
riyht sash and the strike on the 




^ 



Fig. 154 

Casement 

Flush Bolt. 

side rail of the left sash. The sash on the left side is also equipped with a 
pair of flush bolts, one for the top and the other for the bottom. 

The sash are housed out so that the bolts will set flush and the small 
strikes are placed one on the head jamb and the other on the sill so as to 
receive the projecting rod of flush bolt. Fig. 153 shows a casement fastener 
and its strike, while Fig. 1 54 shows a casement flush bolt. 



Transom Sash 

Transom sash are equipped with a pair of butts, 
which hold the sash in place at the bottom or top,, which- 
ever the case may be. The sash are connected with a 
rod held in place by brackets. This rod can be lowered 
or raised and holds the sash in the desired position. The 
lower bracket of the rod is equipped with a catch which 
holds it any fixed position, when the sliding rod is passed 
thru it. This clamp or catch in the lower bracket will 
hold the sash securely in place when closed. Fig. 155 
shows the construction of the transom rod and brackets. 
The brackets of the rod are fastened to the side casing 
of the door or window frames and the end bracket to the 
inside of the sash. In raising or lowering the sash, al- 
ways push the thumb clamp together so the spring will 
not lose its tension and destroy its power to hold transom 
rod firmly. 




Fig. 155 



Recessed 
o t t o m 
Opening in. 



ALADDIX MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



Cellar Window Set 



For cellar sash which are 
generally hinged at the top we 
furnish a pair of 2x2 in. Slack 
Japan butts to fasten the sash 
to the frame. The windows 
should swing inward, and in the 
set is included a hook and eye 
to hold the sash to the floor 
joist when it is open. A but- 
ton is furnished to lock the 
sash when closed and should be 
placed in the center of the bot- 
tom sill of frame so that it will 
turn up and on sash. Fig. 156 
shows a cellar window set. 
These pieces of hardware are 
all packed in a small box and marked "Cellar Window Set." 




3— Cellar Window Set. 



Hardware For Roller Slat Blinds 

The hardware set for roller slat blinds is shown by Fig. 157 and con- 
sists of a pair of special hinges and a special catch for each blind. The 
hinges are constructed so that 
when the sash are opened the 
special catch automatically 
catches and holds the blind back 
against the side of house. Then 
when you want to close same, 
the blinds have to be lifted out 
of their catches on the hinges. 

The fasteners consist of an 
arm and a bracket which hold 
the blinds securely in place 
when closed. Tig - l57 ~ 

The gravity hinges are fastened to the face and side of the blind and to 
the side casing of the window frame, so when closed they will set flush with 
the casings. 





Storm Sash Hardware 

Storm sash set consists of two hangers and an adjustable bracket and arm. 
The two hangers are fastened to the head casing of the window frame and to 
the top style of the storm sash. The arm adjuster is fastened to the sash near 
the bottom and the small bracket thru which the arm slides is fastened to the 
side of the window frame. To open up the sash this arm is let down and passed 
thru bracket and catches in little slat at the end. When the sash is closed the 
arm is raised up alongside of frame so that it will not interfere with window 
sash, and also hold the sash securely in place. Storm sash should fit between 
and set flush with the outside casings of window frame. 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 




ffl^ 



Fig:. 169— Sash 
Center. 



Pivot Sash Hardware 

Pivot sash or sash that are fastened in the center of the 
side rail or in the center of the top and bottom rails are 
furnished with fixtures which act as a pivoted center upon 
which the sash can swing to open or close. Fig. 159 
shows two common forms of sash centers. One part of the 
fixture is attached to sash and the other 
to the side jambs of frame. Fig. 160 
shows a fastener which holds sash in 
place when it is closed. 

A more simple way to equip pivot sash 
is to place two spring window bolts on 
the rails of the sash instead of the sash 
center and then bore small holes in the 
jambs of the window frame to admit the 
end of the bolts. 




— Pivot Sash 
Fastener. 



Hardware Equipment of Doors 



Mortised Locks and Knobs : A mortised lock consists of the following 

parts: Two knobs, one for each side of the door, these two knobs are con- 
nected with a spindle which in turn con- 
nects the knobs with the latch or lock. The 
spindle is usually made in the shape of a r 
bar, and has two small holes tapped near 
each end for the insertion of a screen from 
the shank of each knob. Small washers 
are furnished on the bar to make up for any 1 
inequality of spacing. m 

On each side of the door are placed H 
plates called escutcheons which have a 
small screen hole at the top and bottom and 
a hole for spindle to pass thru and one for 
the key hole, depending on the construction 
of the lock. Some lock sets are constructed 
with small key escutcheons. When locks 
are equipped with these small key plates, 

the spindle is finished with a rose where it passes thru the door. 

The lock itself is placed in the mortise of the door so the pl ate is flu s 

with the edge. Mortised locks are constructed so that the 

plate can be removed and the latch turned up side down and 

ran be used on door swinging right or left hand. 

The small strike is placed on the side jamb of the frame 

to receive the projection of the latch and projecting bolt of Q 

the lock. nj| 

It is a good plan to hang door on the butts and leave the 

lock set off untjl after the door has been painted or varnished. 

Then if it has to be refitted the lock will not be in the way. 

and if it is attached while painting or varnishing is being 

done, it will be smeared up to some extent. 





Fig. 161 — Cylinder 
Door Lockset. 



Fig. 162— Front 
Door Lockset. 




ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



221 



Butts 

On doors which are 3x7 ft. and one in size, or those which are extra 
heavy on account of extra glass, we furnish 4x4 in. butts. On all other doors, 
2> l /2x2>y 2 in. butts are furnished. The side jamb of the frame and swinging 
edge of the door should be housed out enough to admit top of butt to come 
flush. 

These butts are constructed with a loose pin and the door can be re- 
moved very easily if necessary, without taking off the hinge. 



Sliding Door Lock Sets 

Sliding doors or doors which slide on tracks and rollers into recesses be- 
tween the partitions are fitted with hardware as shown by Fig. 164, which 
consists of two separate locks which are placed into the 
mortise of the door. One side has a key attachment to lock 
the doors. The other side has a hole in plate to take project- 
ing bolt of lock. Both sides of lock are fitted with small 
handles to use in bringing the doors together. 

These handles or disappearing pulls are controlled by 
small push buttons at the bottom of the plates. 

Two pair of escutcheons are furnished with each sliding 
door set. One pair with key recess and one pair without. 

When sliding door set is furnished for single sliding 
doors, the set consists of two escutcheons and a strike similar 
to those furnished with a swinging door which are furnished 
to go on side jamb of frame to take the lock bolt. 

Track and hanger of sliding door is shown 
by detail of Fig. 165. Care should be exercised 
to see that track is set and doors hung so these 
will not bind in recess of partition. 

NOTE : That key can be adjusted to fit any 
size door by unscrewing set recess and pulling 
out bolt. 




Fig. 164— Sliding 
Door Lockset. 




Fig. 165 — Track and Hanger for 
Sliding Door. 



Screen Door Set 



This set consists of a small handle which is placed on the outside of door, 
a hook and eye which is to be placed on inside of door to lock same, the spring 
to close door and a pair of butts. Screen door should be hung so as to swing 
free of sill and fit together between outside casings of door frame. The thick- 
ness of the door should be the same as the outside casing. 



Ball Bearing Surface Floor Hinge 

The carpenters are not required to do any mortising in the door for the 
tongue of the hinge, which is a saving of work and time. 



222 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 




The attachment to the door is stronger 
than any other makes, as the screens in 
the tongue are ahout 8 inches from the 
back edge of the door, eliminating all 
chances of the door checking or splitting. 
Fit the door to the size of the opening 
in width and y 2 in. shorter than the 
height. Round the back edge to allow 
it to swing close to jambs of frame. In, 
the bottom of the door and in the back 
edge, cut out a rectangular block 
8^xiy^ in. Mortise in the small at- 
taching plate, flush, leaving the rounded 
end 1/16 in. from the back edge of the 
door. Enter the round headed stud on 
the top rib into the large hole in the at- 
taching plate and push the hinge for- Fig . 166i 
ward until the back end of top rib is 

flush with rounded end of the attaching plate, and fasten it to the door with 
two wood screws at the front end of top rib. 

Apply the pivot at the top of the door ; the part with the pin should be 
sunk flush in the head jamb. The distance from the side jamb to the center of 
the pin should be 1^ in. after the hinge is secured to the door. Set the door 
in place by entering the pivot at the top of door first, then flush the bottom in 
until the door is plumb ; before securing the plate to the floor see that the door 
is in line with the jamb. 

The spring tension can be regulated with the tension met at the end of 
spring. 

Next apply the side plates to the surface of the door and flush with the 
bottom, letting the heel of the plates in flush with the back edge of the door, 
and fasten the small plate over the joint at the back. 

For tile and cement or combination floors use expansion screws to fasten 
to floor. 



Top and Bottom Bolts 



On pair of swinging double doors a top and bottom 
nished to hold one door securely in place. Fig. 167 shows 
the different parts of the two bolts. The bolt with the 
chain attached is to be placed at the top of the door. The 
chain guide has been furnished so chain will not catch 
between the two doors when they are being closed. Two 
different styles of catches have been furnished with the 
top bolt. The round one to be used when the bolt comes 
flush with casing, and the flat catch is used when the bolt 
is placed on inside of door or toward the center of jamb. 

The other bolt is placed at bottom of door and the 
catch is let into the floor so that the top will come flush 
with top of floor. 



bolt has been fur 




ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



223 



Foundation, Pier and Built-up Sill or Sills 



IT would be difficult to adopt a standard for foundations in this country to 
meet all requirements, as the conditions in the different parts of the coun- 
try and the material available make this almost impossible. We have fur- 
nished detailed information on the construction of those most commonly 
in use. You will also find tables giving the amount of material necessary for 
concrete, brick and cement block foundations under the caption of the differ- 
ent materials. Of course the cost of material will vary in different parts of 
the country, but with the information given it ought to be an easy matter for 
you to figure out the material required and approximate cost. 

All our houses are furnished and constructed to set on permanent foun- 
dations with walls, unless otherwise specified. The foundations can be con- 
structed of whatever kind of material you prefer. Fig. 2 on the set of blue 
prints shows the foundation plan of the building with the exact outside dimen- 
sions of the walls. It also shows location and size of all porch and girder 
piers, the construction of built-up sill or sills, suggested location for chimneys 
and sectional views and construction of foundation walls. 

The foundation should be constructed exactly as shown on blue prints. 
Care should be taken to 
see that the walls are 
perfectly level and 
square with each oth- 
er: this is very essen- 
tial in order to have 
material work out and 
fit as it is intended. 

Most of the porch 
piers you will notice 
are to be constructed so 
as to give a fall to the 
porch joists in order 
that the water will run 
off the porch floor. 

As stated before un- 
der the subject of foun- 
dations in Part I, if 
you find that the size of 
footings and walls 
given will not meet re- 
quirements of the 
building codes of the 
community in which 
the building is to be 
erected, they will have 
to be changed. Most 




ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 




Fig. 169 — Position of sill in 
foundation wall. 



of. the foundations are 
drawn with 8 in. walls 
and 16 in. footings on 
our prints; the thick- 
ness of the walls will 
not make any material 
difference in the con- 
struction of building, 
so long as the outside 
dimensions are kept the 
same. The walls can 
be made 10, 12 or 18 
in. if required to meet 
local conditions and 
building codes. 



Carefully study the construction of the foundation you wish to erect be- 
fore starting, and you, no doubt, will be able to save considerable in time and 
cost. 

The built-up sill or sills should be placed exactly as shown on blue 
prints, so that the break in the joists will come in the center of them. See 
Fig. 168, which shows break in joist resting on center sill. The foundation 
walls are also to be notched out so as to receive the ends of the sill, that is, the 
top of the sill will be level with the top of the foundation wall. Note Fig. 
169. 

The piers which support 
the sills will have to be con- 
structed the depth of the sill 
below the top of the founda- 
tion walls — that is, if the sill 
is 6x8, the girder pier will be 
8 in. below the top of walls. 

The cellar windows can 
be placed in the' walls where 
desired. It is the best plan 
to set frames while walls are 
under construction, so that 
they can be cemented firmly 
in place. If the frame can- 
not be obtained so they can 
be placed in walls while un- 
der construction, 2x2 inch 
blocks can be set in wall, and 
the frame nailed to these 
blocks. See Fig. 13. Cellar 
windows are not included in general specifications unless specified. 




ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



225 



The sizes on the foundation plan show the outside dimensions to be 2 in. 
larger than the frame of the building. This is done so that when the sheath- 
ing is put on, it will come flush with the foundation walls, and the water table 
which is placed over the sheathing will carry the water out over the foun- 
dation. 

The foundation is a very important step in the erection, and if it is not 
properly constructed is apt to cause more trouble than any other part of the 
house. First, it is essential that the footings are constructed to carry weight 
of building, and withstand the bearing power of soil. (See "Footings.") 
Carefully study the soil, water and frost lines. Location and depth of sewer. 
Be sure you are going to have a dry basement. Read over all the different 
subjects under "Foundations." 



Framing 



Considerable time can be saved in the erection of your house, by the 
proper use of the steel square in laying out the location of joists, studding, 
rafters, etc. 

The steel square consists of a blade which is 24 inches long and 2 inches 
wide, and the tongue which is from 14 to 18 inches long and iy 2 inches wide. 
A square with the tongue 1 6 inches long can be used to the best advantage for 
the work described in this book. 

When properly used, it requires but a very short time to lay out the loca- 
tion of the studs in a wall of the building. You will notice that the spacing 
of studs, joists, ceiling joists, etc., on the blue prints is as near 16 inches from 
center to center as possible. Sometimes it is necessary to drop back in order 
to take care of an open- 
ing in wall or joist. In 
spacing, use the tongue 
of the square and start 
from "in" to "out," 
meaning to space from 
the inside of one joist 
to the outside of the 



wmmaaammmm 




Fig. 171. 



Figs. 171 and 172— 
Methods of marking- lo- 
cation of studs and 
joists. 



226 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



The square in position as shown by Fig. 171 will space studding or joists 
on 16 inch centers. If it is necessary to drop back in order to take care of 
studs or joists for sheathing to break on, simply move square over as shown by 
Fig. 172. When one becomes acquainted with its many uses in the erection of 
a building, the steel square is a much better and quicker way of marking loca- 
tion than the old method of using folding rulers. But one must remember that 
it is very easy to get spacings wrong and openings in walls and joists should 
be "proved up." In marking it is always a good plan to use a sharp pointed 
instrument and not a big, heavy pencil, as the width of a heavy pencil line 
added or taken from each spacing will throw you out considerably in the long 
run. A good method to use in proving your spacing is to have a measuring pole 
4, 8 or 12 ft. long. Four feet is the equivalent of 3 16-in. spaces, eight feet to 
6 16-in. spaces, and 12 ft. to 9 16-in. spaces. Lay the measuring pole on your 
plates when marked off and see if the four, eight or twelve ft. points come in 
the center of the third, sixth, or ninth 16-in. space. 

It is also a good plan to make a couple pair of i 

horses, which can be constructed very easily as fea — I 

shown by Fig. 172-a, and also a ladder as shown by 
Fig, 1 73, which will be very useful during the erec- 
tion. 




Fig-, 172A — Here is a practical saw horse which can 
he easily made. 




Fir. 

Handy Ladder 



Laying Joists First Floor 

Fig. 3 of the blue prints will show the construction and arrangement of 
the first floor joists as they are to be placed across the top of the foundation 
wall and built-up sill or sills. It also shows the arrangement of the sub-floor- 
ing over the joists with lengths alternated ; the lengths of finish floor 
furnished ; and the construction of the porch joists if porch is included. Note 
that the joists are to set in on foundation one inch. For example, on our Stan- 
hope No. 2, the foundation is 24 ft. 2 in. \ 36 ft. 2 in. and the joist frame is 
24 ft. in. x 36 ft. in. 



Pay no attention at this time to the porch joists. Instructions 
for the erection of the porch joists will be given later under 
the porch instructions. To lay the joists, space off on the joist headers the 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 




Fig. 174 — Arrangement of building. 



correct distance where 
the joists are to be 
placed, also mark these 
distances on the sill or 
sills. The joist head- 
ers are the pieces nailed 
on the end of the joists 
supporting them over 
the foundation walls. 
On buildings which 
have been furnished to 
set on posts, no joist 

headers are necessary as the ends of the joists can be spiked to the sills. If 
the sections of joists on both sides of the house are spaced the same, it is a 
good plan to lay the two sets of joist headers alongside of each other and 
mark them both at one time. One set of the joist headers can also be used to 
mark off the spacing on the center girder. This will insure the joists being 
laid parallel with each other. 

At the side of the joist plan, you will notice there are dimension lines 
which indicate the joists that the sub-floor will break on. Be very careful to 
have these joists placed as shown, then nail them in between the headers, 
spiking thru the header into the end of the joist and toe-nailing the joist to 
the sill or sills. In case any of the joists should have a bow in them, be sure 
to place joists with bow up. The weight of the floor and walking on it will 
bend in back straight. If the bow were placed down, it would make an uneven 
floor. 

Well openings in the joists should be placed exactly as shown and of 
correct size in order to have the stairs fit properly. It is a good plan if you 
have decided the location of chimneys to cut the openings for same before the 
joists are floored over. Be sure to cut these openings so as to leave about an 
inch or \y 2 inches between headers and chimney. 

We have shown on plans where it is necessary, double joists or inserted 
extra ones to take care of bearing partitions. It is also a good plan if you 
are going to place some extra heavy piece of furniture in a certain place to 
have that part of the joist doubled up with material marked "Extra." 

It is a good plan after you have the joists laid, to be sure that they are 
perfectly level and square before starting the erection of the building, as it 
is very difficult to build a foundation and have it perfectly level on top. 
Should this be the case, the joists can be wedged up so as to make them per- 
fectly level. Sixteen "D" nails have been furnished to nail joists. This will 
complete the laying of the first floor joists. 

If it is necessary to notch out any of the joists in order to complete runs 
in plumbing or heating pipes, the balance of the joists should be doubled up 
to prevent a shaky floor. This probably would not be noticed so much on the 
first floor joists, but the plaster is very apt to be damaged if such were the 
case on tin' second floor. 



228 ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 

Wood Bridging 

After the floor joists are leveled up, and securely nailed in place, and be- 
fore the sub-flooring is laid, they should be bridged at the middle of the span 
for span from 8 to 16 ft. single row of bridging and two rows of bridging 
should be placed in span over 16 ft. in length. Note nailing of bridging in 
Fig. 174. For dwelling house floors, 1x3 in. bridging is sufficient. The pieces 
are cut on a miter at each end and to exact length. Each end of piece is to be 
nailed with two 8 "D" nails. Both ends of each piece of bridging should be 
nailed at the same time, and before the joists are loaded in any way, and the 
bridging should be continuous and in a straight line across building. 

It must not be understood that bridging increases the strength of a floor 
so that it will carry a greater distributed load than it will support without. 
for this is not the case, except that it will prevent the joists from twisting or 
buckling sideways. The principle advantage derived in the use of bridging is 
in a case of concentrated load, such as legs of heavy pieces of furniture, and 
also in the case of suddenly applied live or dead loads not equally distributed. 
In such cases the joists directly under the weight are moderately assisted thru 
the bridging by the joists on each side of it, which in many cases prevent the 
cracking of plaster. 

Bridging is cut to exact length and in cases where the first and second 
floors are of different dimensions, the bridging is furnished accordingly. 

First Floor Sub-Flooring 

The material to be used for first floor sub-flooring has all been stenciled 
"Sub-flooring First Floor." It is intended that the sub-floor sheathing shall 
be laid directly over the first floor joists. You will find that the sheathing has 
been cut to length as indicated on Fig. 3 or joist plan of blue prints. Care- 
fully nail this sheathing to joists and draw it tightly together, using 8 "D" 
nails for this purpose. When laying the sub-flooring work over from one side 
of the building about 9 or 10 ft. and then part of the building crew or men in 
charge can be getting material laid out for the wall which is to be erected on 
that side while the other men are finishing laying the balance of sub-flooring, 
working from the other side. The finish flooring has been furnished to run in 
the opposite direction to the sub-flooring, and has been cut to extend across the 
entire building. It is not advisable to lay this until after the plaster or plaster 
board has been put on, in which case it will have to be cut to go in between 
partitions and walls. The foreman in charge should always have sufficient 
work laid out or planned ahead on an operation of this kind so that the men 
will be busy at all times ; a stop of work for five minutes at a time amounts to 
considerable when the job is completed. Don't let your carpenters spend their 
time sorting out or collecting material; this can be done by common labor or 
boys. 

Erecting Frame Outside Walls 

You are now ready to erect the frame for the outside walls. Carefully 
study the figure on blue prints, and note that the walls are so constructed as to 
interlock at the corners. The walls consist of floor plates or the plates which 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



229 



are nailed to the sub- 
floor of the building, 
upright studs, win- 
dow and door head- 
ers and two sets of 
wall plates, or plates 
which cap the up- 
right studs. The 
longest walls of the 
building, or the 
walls which run the 
same way as the sub- 
floor, should be 
erected first. In this 
manner, time can be 
saved, as one man 
can be laying out the 

walls as soon as a few feet of sub-flooring have been. laid across the joists. 

To lay out the walls, first lay the floor plates on top of the sub-flooring 

and lay one set of top wall plates alongside of them ; now space off with a 




Fig. 175 — Methods of laying out wall plate 




Fig, 176 — Wall nailed together on floor of building. 



steel square, the location of the upright studs in the wall. Space the window 
openings first, and also be careful to see that the studs indicated by arrows 
on blue prints for sheathing to break on, are placed exactly as shown. This 
will do away with any cutting of sheathing. See Fig. 175, which shows 




Fig. 177 — Wall being raised into position. 



230 ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 

methods of using steel square for laying out spaces on plates. After this is 
done, lay these plates on the floor of the building and nail the upright studs 
in between them ; then nail in place the window and door headers, cap wall 
with second set of plates. Note Fig. 176, which shows all the frame for one 
wall nailed together ready to be raised into position; raise it into position 




HI lis) 



Tig. 178 — Wall in position. Note temporary supports. 

and spike to floor of building. Carefully study Fig. 177 and Fig. 178, which 
show wall being raised into position and wall raised and held in place with 
supports. Square and plumb the wall and nail in place sufficient temporal} 
supports until the remaining walls and partitions have been erected. 

You will note that temporary supports are tacked on upright 
studs before they are raised in place. In this manner the wall can be raised 
with less men. The opposite end of supports is tacked to a small block on top 
of the sub-flooring and securely nailed after wall has been squared up. 

All the outside walls should be erected in the same manner. If the build- 
ing has two stories, the second story outside walls will be erected on top of 




Fig. 179— N 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



231 



the sub-flooring of the second floor m the same manner as the first story walls. 
At the corners where the wall plates intersect, they should be carefully spiked 
together. 

Sixteen "D" nails have been furnished for frames of walls. 

It is always a good plan to space off on top of the walls the location of 
the second floor or ceiling joists before raising them into position. The loca- 
tion of the rafters can also be indicated in the same manner. 



Partitions 

After the frames of the outside walls have been finished, the partitions 
should be erected so as to strengthen the walls before nailing on the sheathing. 
You will notice that the different partitions have been given a figure number 
which will corres- 
pond with the figure 
number on the floor 
plan of the build- 
ing. There is also 
a scale around the 
floor plan which 
shows the exact lo- 
cation of each parti- 
tion. Erect these 
walls in the same 
manner as the out- 
side walls by nail- 
ing them together 
upon the floor of the 
building and then 
raising them into 
position. Be very 
careful that the par- 
titions run square 
with the outside 
walls. The neces- 
sity of having all 
walls and partitions 
square and plumb 
will be appreciated 
in case you wish to 
place some article of 
furniture or built-in 

fixture in the corner Fig . i 8 o_mtersection of P a 
of a room. The tition and outside wail, 
scale on the floor 

plan of the building, you will notice, gives the distance from outside to center 
or from center to center. For example, suppose a partition is to be set back 1 2 
ft. from the front wall ; measure back 12 ft. at each end of partition and then 
drop back 2J/& inches and drive a nail in at each of these points ; place a chalk 
line across these nails and bring your partition up to within 1 inch of the line 
and then try a 1-inch block in between the line and partition. Carefully spike 




232 ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 

the partition to floor of building, plumb it up with the use of a "plumb bob," 
and try a steel square in the corner that it forms with the outside wall before 
spiking it to the other partition and outside walls. 

Another thing to remember is to pick out straight studs for forming doors 
and arch openings and be sure they are plumbed up. This will make it much 
easier to set frames. The temporary supports holding the outside walls are 
apt to interfere with the erection of the partitions to some extent, but they 
should not be removed unless absolutely necessary until after the partitions 
have all been erected, and outside walls have been sheathed over. 

On bearing partitions or partitions which support the break in ceiling or 
second floor joists, it would be a good plan to mark off the spacings of the 
joists on the top plates before the partition is raised into position. It will be 
much easier than climbing across the top of them. 

All bearing partitions, that is, partitions which carry the break in second 
floor joists, or an extra amount of partition material above them, should be 
supported by the foundation girder or extra joist placed to even up the load. 

All interior partitions are constructed of single 2x4 studs excepting 
special arch partitions and those for sliding doors. Partitions for Arch 2A-1, 
3A-1, 2B-70 and 2B-72 are constructed of 2x8 in. studs or two partitions con- 
structed out of 2x4's. Partitions for sliding doors are made out of 2x4's, but 
these partitions are double and are placed with sufficient space between them 
to allow for recess to admit the track and doors. 

For the ends and tops of the partitions we have furnished pieces of 
sheathing so as to form corners to take the lath or plaster board. These should 
be nailed in place before the outside walls are sheathed up. 

Sixteen "D" nails have been furnished for nailing partitions. 

In a two story house the second floor partitions will be erected in the 
same manner as the first floor, only on top of the sub-flooring of the second 
floor. 

Fig. 180 shows method of using steel square in corners formed by par- 
titions and outside walls of two partitions. It also shows it in position to 
space second floor joists. As mentioned before, it is a good plan to space off 
the location of the second floor or ceiling joists on top plates of outside walls 
before raising them in place. 



Sheathing Outside Walls 

The sheathing which has been furnished to sheathe outside walls is 1x6 
in. and is furnished in lengths as shown on blue prints; it is intended to 
be placed horizontally over the studding. The outside wall sheathing has been 
marked "Outside Wall Sheathing." Commence at the bottom of the walls 
and sheathe up, alternating the lengths as shown on blue prints and dodge-nail 
the sheathing, that is, nail near the bottom of a piece on one stud and near the 
top on the next stud. Put two nails in the end of each piece. Considerable 
time can be saved in putting on sheathing if these strips of sheathing running 
the length of the building are just tacked while being put in place. Then you 
can start in nailing up on each stud and a man will become very efficient in 
nailing, and also do away with the lost motion of putting away his hammer 
each time he wants to put a board in place. Although it is not necessary to 
fill each board up with nails, all should be securely fastened to the stud- 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 233 

ding. We furnish 35 pounds 8 "D" nails to nail on 1,000 board ft. of sheath- 
ing. There are 93 8 "D" nails in a pound. 

Therefore, you will have about 3,250 nails to nail on 1,000 ft. of sheath- 
ing. In 1x6 in. material there will be 2,000 lin. ft. in each thousand board 
feet. 

2,000 divided by 3,250 equals 0.615 ft. or 1 nail to about every *l l / 2 in. 
The joints of the wall sheathing should break on the studs as shown by in- 
dicating arrow on blue print plans. If you find that the studs have not been 
spaced properly to take the joints, other studs should be set in. 

On short runs, such as between a window and corner of building, all the 
pieces can be tacked in place first and then you can start in nailing down a 
stud. In this manner the building can be sheathed up very rapidly. When you 
find that the piece of sheathing extends into the window or door openings at 
top or bottom, it is much quicker to nail piece on wall and then chop out with 
small hand axe than it is to mark and saw out before putting it on wall. 

Besides being marked "Outside Wall Sheathing," the sheathing also has 
the lengths marked on the different pieces. Pick out all those necessary for 
one wall, that is, the correct number of pieces of each length, and put them 
up close to walls where they can be reached easily. 

The gable sheathing or any section of sheathing with a special miter will 
be bundled together and marked for "gable sheathing," or the figure in which 
it is to be used. The pieces are also numbered consecutively in the order they 
are to be used. 

The second story walls will be sheathed in the same manner as the first. 
The gable sheathing, of course, cannot be placed until after the rafters and 
gable studs have been erected. On some buildings with boxed eaves you will 
notice on blue prints that the "Return" extends back into the wall stud; in 
such cases you will not sheathe up to the top of walls. 

The sheathing has been bundled with five to ten pieces in each bundle, 
but the lengths contained therein will only be marked on the top piece. There- 
fore, it is a good plan if you break open the bundle to leave the piece with the 
length on it or mark the remaining top piece of the pile. This small precau- 
tion will save a lot of unnecessary measuring. 



Second Floor Joists 

The second floor joists are shown by the figure following the first floor 
partitions. This figure shows the arrangement of the joists as they are to be 
placed across the top of first floor partitions and first story outside walls. It 
also shows the arrangement of the sub-flooring across top of second floor joists 
and the lengths of finish flooring. Space off on the top plate of the outside 
walls, the correct distance where the joists are to be placed; also mark off the 
distance on the bearing partitions or partitions that the joists break on. At 
the side of the joist plan, you will notice dimension lines which indicate the 
joists that the second floor sub-flooring will break upon. Be very careful to have 
these placed exactly as shown; then nail the joists in place, carefully spiking 
them down to the top of partitions and walls. Next, put in the wood bridg- 
ing on the second floor joists in the same manner as you did on the first floor 
joists. Be sure that the well opening for stairs comes exactly as shown. In 
case any of the joists should have a bow in them, be sure to place joists with 



234 ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 

bow up. The weight of the floor and walking on it will bend it back straight. 
If the bow were placed down it would make an uneven floor. 

Lay sub-floor for second floor in same manner as you did first floor, using 
1x8 inch material marked "Sub-flooring Second Floor." Work in from the 
ends of joists ; this will enable the foreman to have the two side walls laid out 
by the time the other men are thru laying sub-flooring. 

In two story buildings the next step will be to erect the frame of outside 
walls, second floor partitions and then sheathe second story outside walls. 



Ceiling Joists 

On a one story house the ceiling joists will be shown by the figure fol- 
lowing the first floor partitions, and on a two story, by the one following the 
second floor partitions. This figure will show the arrangement of the ceiling 
joists as they are to be placed across the top of the outside walls and parti- 
tions. It will also show pieces of sheathing nailed on top of partitions to 
form corners on which to nail lath or plaster board, wherever it is needed. It 
is a good plan in a one story building to space off the location of the rafters on 
top of the outside walls at the same time that you do the ceiling joists; then if 
it is necessary to "off set" one of the ceiling joists, you can do so before it has 
been nailed in place. After carefully nailing the ceiling joists in place, the 
temporary supports of the outside walls can be removed. Nail the ceiling 
joists on the bearing partitions first, and then if the outside walls have sprung 
put in additional braces to straighten them up until the ceiling joists have 
all been securely nailed. If any of the ceiling joists have a bend or bow in 
them, be sure to place the bow up, to insure an even ceiling. In two story 
buildings the ceiling joists should not be put on until after the outside second 
story walls have been sheathed over. 




ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



Roof (Kinds) 

THE style of roof, method, and cost of construction, and the easiest and 
quickest way to erect, is a matter of considerable importance to car- 
penters and builders. The styles of roofs and the proportion of their 
shape and size to fit the house, have a great deal to do with the appear- 
ance when the building is complete. It is also very important that the roof be 
erected in the proper manner so that eaves, ridge, hips and valleys are all in 
line. 

Figs. 181, 182, 183, 185, and 187 represent five styles of roofs in general 
use on ALADDIN buildings. These when used singly or in combination and 
with variation to meet the requirements of different buildings, constitute the 
larger part of the roofing of the average building. 

Fig. 181 represents a plain gable roof, Style "B." 
Fig. 182 represents a four gable roof, Style "E." 
Fig. 183 represents a shed roof, Style "A." 
Fig. 185 represents a hip roof, Style "D." 
Fig. 187 represents a gambrel roof, Style "C." 

Gable Roof— Style "B" 

The gable roof is one of the most common roofs in use and is very easily 
constructed. It is of the plainest type, yet when given the proper pitch and 
proper width of cornice, will give a satisfactory and pleasing appearance. 

The rafter plan on the blue prints will show the arrangement of the 
rafters over the walls of the building and the correct distance between them. 
It also shows the ridge which is to go between the rafters at the top. The 
different lengths of roof sheathing are shoAvn laid across the top of the rafters 
with lengths alternated. 




Fig. 181— Plain gable roof. Fig. 182— Shed roof. 

To erect the roof, first place sufficient planks on top of the ceiling joists 
to enable a couple of men to move around with horses of sufficient height so a 
man can reach up to the ridge. Then take the pieces of material the correct 
length shown on blue prints for ridge pole and measure off on them the same 
distance marked off on the top plates of the outside walls, or where the heel 
of the rafters is to set. Then start at one end of building and commence nail- 
ing the rafters on both sides of the roof. Be very careful to see that the ridge 
is kept perfectly level and in line. A chalk line should be placed on the end 
of the rafters, and if when all rafters have been erected, you find that one does 
not line up. trim it off. A few pieces of roof sheathing should be nailed on the 



236 ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 

rafters as they are being erected, so as to help keep them in line and to be sure 
that the rafters on which the sheathing is to break, are placed exactly as indi- 
cated by dimension lines on blue prints. The rafters have all been cut on a 
patent rafter machine, making them uniform in length and the miter exact. 

If the walls of the building are out of plumb, it will affect the rafters and 
ridge, and sometimes this' makes it necessary to lower one rafter and raise the 
one opposite it in order to bring the ridge in line. 

It is a good plan to find the center of the two gable walls and raise a tem- 
porary stud at each end of building and stretch a chalk line with plum bob. 
bringing the center of the ridge in line with bob. Pieces can also be nailed 
on walls below the two gable ends, so that the first and last pair of rafters 
will be plumb with the framing of the side walls. 

Gable roofs are constructed in three styles. First, with exposed eaves ; 
second, with boxed eaves, and third, with straight return boxed eaves. See 
paragraph on eave construction for different eave constructions. 



Shed Roof— Style "A" 

Fig. 182 is a shed roof, which is one of the simplest forms of roofs. It 
is principally used on additions to the main roof and in the construction of 
dormer roofs, particularly on roofs of the bungalow type. The upper end of 
the rafters generally rest against one of the side walls of the building or run 
up on the main roof. The same care should be taken in keeping the rafters in 
line and correctly spaced as in the gable roof. The shed roof is just a half 
gable roof. Sometimes it is constructed with a ridge and it is also constructed 
so that the top of the rafters will rest against the sheathing of the walls or 
part of the building it is constructed on. The eaves of the shed roof are con- 
structed to correspond with the eaves of the main building. 

Four Gable Roof-Style "E" 

This roof is constructed in exactly the same manner as a common gable, 
only it is to cover a building which has four gables, similar to the design 
"Yale." This style of roof is 
constructed of ridge, main 
rafters, valley rafters and valley 
jacks. See Fig. 183. It is more 
difficult to erect than the plain 
gable on account of the roof 
forming valleys. In erecting 
this roof, the pieces of ridge 
should be selected and the loca- 
tion of the rafters spaced off on Fig. m— Four-eabie roof, 
them same as on the top plates 

of the walls. Then commence raising the rafters at each end of the main roof 
until you get up to the point where the valleys and valley jacks are to come. 

Now start in the same manner to erect the other two gables ; first lining 
up the ridge and then set in place the first pair of gable rafters. The valley 
rafters will be set in place and then the valley jacks, which are the small 
mitered rafters that go from the ridge down to the valley rafters. Be careful 




ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



when nailing the valley jacks in place that you do not crowd the valleys 
out of line. 

Be sure that all the rafters are 
placed the exact distance apart 
and nail on temporarily enough 
pieces of roof sheathing to keep 
them lined up. Chalk line and 
plumb bob should be raised over 
the ridge to insure the rafters 
being placed in the exact center 
of the span, and guide studs 
nailed on the side walls to bring 
the first set of rafters in line 
with the frame of the side walls 
of the building. 

Four gable roofs have the ad- 
vantage that the gable space 
can be utilized as head room on 
the second floor of the building. 
When this is done the "collar 
beams" which form the ceiling 
joists over the second story 
rooms will strengthen the roof. 
Fig. 184 shows a detail frame 
of a four gable roof, and the 
location of the different rafters. 
Letter A indicates the ridge ; B 
the main rafters; C the valley 
rafters, and D the valley jacks. 

'~ 184 — Construction of four-gable roof. 




Fig. 
clined pi 



Hip Roof-Style "D" 

185 shows the outline of a plain hip roof which rises by equally in- 
anes rising from each other. This style of roof is used considerably 

and is probably the 
most difficult and ex- 
pensive to erect. A 
hip roof consists of 
four different kinds of 
rafters, namely : ridge 
rafters, or the pieces 
which run along the 
top of the roof in be- 
tween the main rafters ; 
Letter "W," main raft- 
ers, or rafters which 
run from the ridge 
down to side walls ; 
-Hip roof. Letter "X," hip rafters, 




238 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



/ 




// 
















\ 




\ 





or the pieces of timber placed in an inclined position at the corners or angles 
of roof; Letter "Y." jack rafters, or rafters which run from the hip down to 
the side walls of the building; Letter "Z," the hip and main rafters are all 
cut the same, while the jack rafters are cut in pairs with right and left cut. 

To erect a hip roof, first mark off on the top walls of the building the lo- 
cation of the rafters, or where the heel of the rafters will set. Then take the 
ridge and mark off on it 
the location of the main 
rafters which run up to it. 
Next raise the ridge into 
position and place at each 
end of it, three main raft- 
ers, two at each side and 
one at each end. Get this 
part of the roof leveled up 
and braced in good shape, 
then nail in place the rest 
of the main rafters. Now 
put up the hip rafters, 
tacking each one in place 
until they are all up and 
you are sure they have not 
forced the ridge out of 
position. The jack rafters 
should be put on in pairs 
so that the hips will not 
be thrown out of line. 
Work the rafters around 
the building so you will 
not have it one sided, that 
is, when a pair of jacks 
have been placed on one hip, place another pair of the same length on the next 
hip and so on around the building. 

Care should be taken to see that the ends of the rafters are kept in line 
where they project over the side walls to ferrm eaves of building- A chalk line 
should be placed from one hip to the other and the rafters lined up to it. 

The eaves of hip roof are constructed in three ways : First, exposed 
caves; second, boxed eaves, and third, straight return boxed eaves. (See para- 
graph on eaves.) 

Pieces of roof sheathing should be nailed temporarily over the rafters as 
they are being erected, to keep them spaced properly and in line. 

Fig. 186 shows detail construction of a hip roof. Letter "W" indicates 
ridge; "X," main rafters; "Y," hip rafters, and "Z," jack rafters. 



K 


\ 






/ 


* 




\/ 










>^-w 




•*■-* 


L/7 


7^2 


^ 


/ 






\ 


^ 



Tig. 186— Construe 
tion of hip roof 




Gambrel Roof— Style "C" 



big. DS7 shows a sketch of a "gambrel" or "curb" roof, which is a roof 
that has two pitches, the first run of rafters in most cases forming the side 
wall for the second story of the building. At the top of the ceilings of the sec- 
ond story the roof breaks and continues up to the ridge by a second 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



239 




run of rafters. These two sets of 
rafters are notched, so as to fit at 
the break in the roof and strength- 
ened by a 1 inch piece of sheathing 
mitered for tie plates. This kind 
of roof is strong and is used con- 
siderably as it will almost make a 
two story building out of a one 
story, because the first section of Fisr ' 187 - Gambrel r °° f - 

the roof is so steep that it makes the second story space nearly all available for 
rooms. It is typical on colonial designs. 

In constructing this roof, it will be necessary to use some temporary sup- 
ports to hold rafters in place at the break in roof until after the tie 
plates and collar beams have been nailed on. Oftentimes partitions 
are located under these breaks in the roof, and in that case they should be 
erected before rafters are put up. To be placed between the raft- 
ers which run up to ridge of 
building there have been furnished 
some pieces of 1 inch or 2 inch ma- 
terial marked "Ridge Pole," which 
will aid in strengthening the roof. 

First place a chalk line and 
plumb-bob in the center of your 
building as a guide to line up the 
ridge. Then if the building has 
partitions which will support the 
break in the roof, erect them at this 
time; if not, erect some temporary 
supports at this point. Mark off 
the location of the rafters on the 
top plate of the side walls and the 
pieces of ridge. Then raise the 
rafters on each side of the roof in 
pairs, nailing the tie plates to the 
rafters at the break. The collar 
beams running between these raft- 
ers should also be nailed in place 
as the rafters are being erected. 

Place pieces of roof sheathing 
temporarily over the rafters to keep 
them lined up and spaced properly. 

Fig. 188 shows detail construc- 
tion of gambrel roof. Letter "A" 
indicates lower rafters ; "B," upper 
rafters; "C," ridge; "D," tie 
plates ; "E," collar beams, and 
"F" shows furring strips to nail 
lath or plaster board to. Place 
chalk line on ends of rafters to 

keep them lined Up. Fig . 188-Construction of Gambrel roof. 



F=r 


~~ '- 


Y ~ L ~ 


:p3 




-t 










s^~ t 














\ 










' ' 1 — 






.XT' 


^-r-^ 






— =1 


n — ■ 


±=t 




240 ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 

Collar Beams and Furring Strips 

When collar beams have been furnished to strengthen the roof or to form 
ceiling joists over the rooms of a building which does not run up full two 
stories, you will find a cross section of roof on blue prints, which will show 
the location of the collar beams and size of material that they are made out of. 
You will find that the collar beams have been mitered at each end on the same 
pitch as the rafters of the roof. To put in the collar beams, place one at each 
end of the roof between the rafters, measuring up the correct distance from 
the top plates of side walls shown on blue prints. Place a level on them and 
then stretch a couple of chalk lines the length of the building on the top or 
bottom edge of these first two collar beams and bring all the rest of them up 
to the lines, carefully spiking them on the side of the rafters. 

In buildings where the collar beams form the ceiling joists of the second 
story rooms, they will be placed on the 24 inch center the same as the rafters 
of the roof. In this case the plaster board or lath and plaster will not fit on 
them, and 1x3 in. furring strips have been furnished to be placed on 16 in. 
center under the rafters and collar beams to which will be nailed the lath or 
plaster board. This will save cutting the wall covering. Refer to Fig. 188 
which shows furring strips nailed to rafters and collar beams. 

Gable Studding and Sheathing 

In gable, four gable, shed and gambrel roofs there will be a certain num- 
ber of mitered studs in the gables of the buildings. These mitered studs you 
will find tied together and marked with lengths to correspond with lengths 
shown on pieces in gable on blue prints. The bundles will also be marked 
with a figure number to correspond with the figure number on the blue prints 
to which they belong. 

R1QGE 




Fi^. 189 — Position of collar beams. 

In nailing the mitered studs in gables, always start in the center of the 
roof or ridge and work down toward end of rafters. This will prevent you 
from driving them in place too tight and springing rafters out of place. You 
will also find that the gable sheathing has been mitered and tied up in bundles 
and marked for the gable to which it belongs ; the pieces are also marked with 
a length and a number to correspond to the number shown on pieces in detail 
of gable. You may find three pieces marked No. 1. By referring to detail of 
gable sheathing, you will notice that these pieces when properly placed will go 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



241 



across your building and the break will come on the gable studding. The next 
set of pieces will be marked No. 2 and so on up the gable. 

The gable sheathing has all been cut to go from the top plate of side wall 
' up to ridge. Do not start to nail on the gable sheathing below the top plate ; 
if the last piece of side wall sheathing does not come up to top plate, a piece 
should be ripped to fit in here. If the gable studs are properly placed and the 
gable sheathing put in place according to set numbers, the breaks will always 
come on the studs as intended. 

After the gable sheathing is all nailed in place, it is a good plan to use a 
straight edge and level or plumb-bob to be sure the gable section is in line with 
the main walls. 

Do not let any pieces of gable sheathing project up above top of rafters, 
as these will raise the roof material out of line. 

Roof Sheathing 

The covering of the roof is the next step in erection. The roof sheathing 
lias all been marked "Roof Sheathing," and has been furnished in lengths to 
correspond with those shown on blue prints. When wood shingles are 
furnished, the roof sheathing comes in 1x4 inch widths and is to be placed 
over the rafters, laying it two inches apart, that is, a piece of sheathing and a 
space should cover six inches. The sheathing is so spaced in order that air can 
get underneath the wood shingles and help in drying them out after they have 
become soaked by heavy rains. If the roof sheathing is laid tight, the space 
between the shingles and the roof sheathing is very apt to become moldy in 
damp weather. In placing the sheathing over the rafters, each run should be 
alternated as shown on blue prints, that is, no two joints should come directly 
above the other on the same rafter. 

On hip or valley roofs where sheathing is to be mitered, 
you will find a detail on last sheet of blue prints. These 
mitered pieces will all be bundled together and marked with 
the lengths which will correspond to the lengths shown 
on blue prints. Where the roof sheathing projects 
out over the edge of the rafters, as in a gable roof, 
a piece of sheathing should first be nailed up at 
the ridge of building 
and one at the lower 
end of rafters, giving 
them the exact projec- 
tion over the eave, and 
chalk line run from one 
piece to the other. This 
will keep the pieces of 
sheathing in line and it 
will not be necessary 
to trim up after all 
the sheathing has 
been put on. 

It is a good 
plan to make 
two or three 

little blocks Qiy/ f / F te- 190— Method to use in spacing 

roof sheathing. 




242 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



such as shown in Fig. 190 to use in putting on roof sheathing; tie short pieces 
of string on these blocks and fasten one end of string to buckle of overalls or 
any handy place. This will do away with the handling of rule and save con- 
siderable time. 

When semi-slate shingles, roofing, tin or slate are to be used for roof 
covering, the roof sheathing is usually furnished in 1x6 inch width, to be laid 
tight together over rafters. This is necessary because these roofing materials 
are flexible and the weight of snow on roof would spread material between 
roof sheathing if it were spaced. 

On roofs that have exposed eaves, that is. where the end of the rafters are 
not boxed in, we furnish narrow beaded ceiling to cover rafters wherever they 
can be seen from underneath, so as to give the eaves a neat appearance. 

The different lengths of ceiling will be shown on blue prints with lengths 
alternated same as roof sheathing. It is intended that the ceiling is to go from 
ends of rafters up to top plates of side walls, and roof sheathing is to be placed 
from there up to ridge. It has also been furnished to extend out over eaves on 
gable roof buildings, in which case it is cut long enough to extend back and 
give it a bearing on the second set of rafters. 

In putting on the ceiling, commence at ends of rafters and be very care- 
ful to drive each piece tightly down against the preceding one, and toe-nail the 
ceiling in place. This will prevent the joints from opening up. 

The roof sheathing should be "dodge-nailed" in the same manner as the 
side wall sheathing. The isometric detail of eave will show if the roof has 
exposed eaves which are to be covered with ceiling or if the eaves are to be 
boxed in. Refer to last sheets of blue prints, and carefully study eave para- 
graph and detail. 

Eaves 

The eaves of the building deal considerably with the general ap 
of the building. Correct projections and construction must be used 
to carry out satisfactory and pleasing lines. 

Three styles of eave construction are in general use on 
Aladdin buildings. "Exposed Eaves" are eaves 
where the rafter ends are left exposed as 
shown by Fig. 191. This form of construction 
is very simple and pleasing to the eye on 
buildings requiring a rustic appearance, 
such as bungalows with wide over 
hanging eave projection. The full 
width of the rafter is 
left projecting over the 
side walls of the 
building with a 
plumb cut on the 
end ; that is, the 
end of rafter will 
be mitered so it 
will lie in line 
w i t h the side 
w alls of the 

building. Fig _ l9l_DetaiI of exposed cave. 



pearance 
in order 




ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



The gable ends of this style of roof are finished with a heavy facia (some- 
times termed "verge" or "barge board"). This "facia" is nailed on the under 
side of the ceiling which projects out over the gable ends. A molding is fur- 
nished for the ends of rafters to give them a finished appearance under the 
shingles or roofing covering. 

The rafters on exposed eaves are covered with narrow beaded ceiling, 
which is also furnished for the eave projection over gables on gable roofs to 
give the eaves a neat appearance from underneath. 

Fig. 192 shows a boxed eave which is constructed by boxing around the 
rafter ends or projection with finish material. On the end of the rafters is 
nailed a 1x4 or 1x6 inch piece (depending on the size of the rafter) of finish 
called facia, (sometimes termed "verge" or "barge board"). These pieces 
close up the end of rafter and extend up into the gables 
of the building and are nailed on the ends of the roof 
sheathing projecting out over the gables. 

For the under side of the rafters, pieces of 1 
inch material are furnished called 



"plancier." These pieces close up 
the under side of the boxed eave, 
and also continue up into 
gable. The bottom side 
of the facia is nailed into 
the edge of the 
plancier. Short 
pieces of 2x4's 
have been fur- 
nished to go be- 
tween the roof 

sheathing and plancier to furr it down 
to same thickness as end of rafters. 
In Fig. 192 "A" shows facia, "B," 
plancier, "C," frieze, and "D" moldings. 

Small moldings have been furnished to finish eave between roof shingles 
and facia and between plancier and frieze. These moldings continue around 
the entire building on the eaves. 

Fig. 193 shows detail construction of a straight return eave commonly 
used on houses of hip roof construction and also on porches. This eave is 
constructed by nailing a one or two inch piece of material straight back from 
the end of rafter to side wall sheathing, or sometimes nailed to side wall 
studs. A piece of 1x4 or 1x6 inch material is furnished to go on the end of 
the rafters called "facia." The under side of the return is boxed in with nar- 
row beaded ceiling or 1 in. material for plancier. If narrow beaded ceiling is 
furnished, it should be toe-nailed to return and drawn tightly together so the 
joints will not open up. The joints of the ceiling or pieces of finish material 
should all break on the return. 

Pieces of molding have been furnished to go between the facia and roof 
shingles and between the plancier and frieze. 

On the last sheet of the blue prints you will find a quarter or half full 




Fig. 192— Detail 

of boxed 

eave. 



244 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



size detail of eave construction showing the exact size and kind of material to 
he used for this purpose. All the material will be marked "Eaves." 

Be sure that 
the ends of these 
rafters are all 
lined up with the 
building, so when 
the cornice is fin- 
ished it will not 
have waves in it 
and will give a neat ap- 
pearance. 

Finishing, eight case 
or small headed nails 
should be used on eave 
construction and the 
nails set into the wood 
so they can be puttied 
up. 



Shingling 

The first and most 
essential thing to take 
into consideration in 
order to have a lasting 
shingled roof is the 
quality of the shingles. 
The shingles used with 
Aladdin buildings are 
of the best grade of cedar shingles which can be obtained, and when laid ac- 
cording to following instructions will give satisfaction and long service. 

The second is the manner in which they are laid on the roof and the 
method employed in laying them. Considerable time and labor can be saved 
by carefully studying over the following instructions ; but do not risk work 
on shingling with inexperienced men, for you are very apt to get a leaky, un- 
satisfactory roof if you do. 

The shingles are to be laid 5 inches to the weather and nailed with a 2 
"D" galvanized shingle nail furnished for that purpose. The shingles are to 
start at eave with the first course 2 -ply and giving the first course about l}/> 
inches projection down over eave at end and about 1 inch over eave in gables. 
Break all joints at least 1*4 inch and be sure that no break comes directly 
over another break in any three consecutive courses, thereby covering all nails. 
The shingles should be nailed about 6 l / 2 inches from butt and about V/> inches 
from side. Use two nails on each shingle. Shingles which are wider than 10 
inches should be split before being placed on roof. Lay shingles so that water 
in running down roof will run with the grain and do not drive heads of nails 
into shingles or let them project up; they should be just flush. 

Flat grain shingles should be split much narrower than vertical grain 




Fig. 193 — Construction of 
boxed eave, straight return. 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



245 



ones and laid right side up, or thrown away, that is, the layer of the grain 
should lap the same as the layer of shingles already laid on roof. 

Shingles which have been 
dry kilned should be wet 
thoroughly before laying on 
roof. If it is inconvenient to 
do this, lay them about *4 °f 
an inch apart, so that they 
will not bulge up when they 
become soaked with water in 
rainy weather. Green shin- 
gles can be laid close to- 
gether. When they dry out 
they will give the necessary 
space to allow for swelling. 

A good shingler looks at 
the butt of the shingle and 
then lays it on the roof as 
shown by "A" in Fig. 194. 
If this shingle has any ten- 
dency to warp or curl, it will be downward as shown by "B," and will keep 
the roof tight. If the shingle is laid as shown by "C" it will curl up as shown 
by "D," and will allow the elements to work under it. 







C D 

Fig. 194 — Proper and improper method to lay shingles. 



GALVANISED 

RiQEE: 
ROLL 





Fig. 195— Metal ridge roll capping ridge of building. 




Fig. 196— Shingle seat. 



246 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 





Fig. 197— Shingle 
hatchet and gauge. 



Fig. 198 — Proper way to lay shingles. 

Valley tin has been furnished for roofs which 
have valleys, and hip shingles for hip roofs. The 
valley tin will be placed before the shingling 
starts, but hip shingles are to flash over wood 
shingles. If you do not care to use tin hip shin- 
gles, finish hips by using a course of even width 
narrow shingles on both sides of hips over regular courses. 

Metal ridge is also furnished to cap the ridge of the roof wherever it is 
intended. See Fig. 195. The lengths of ridge roll should lap each other 
enough to prevent leaking and are better if soldered. 

In shingling it is very essential especially to the appearance of the roof, 
to keep the courses lined up. Some carpenters prefer a chalk line, some a 
straight edge, and the greater number use a gauge or shingling hatchet and 
only line up about every 10th or 15th course. By using a gauge or shingling 
hatchet, the time it takes to change chalk lines and straight edge is eliminated 
and cuts the cost. 

A shingling gauge which is as good as many of the patented ones, can be 
made out of a common -, „ 

n n n 



nut from a y% inch bolt. 
Cut a slot with a hack 
saw, as large or larger 
than the thickness of the 
hatchet blade, then close 
up with hammer until it 
will make a good fit. Now 
drive it on the blade the 
same distance from the 
sharp edge of the hatchet 
as you want to lay the 
shingles to the weather. 
See Fig. 197. 

An easily made shingle 
seat can be constructed as 
shown by Fig. 196, which 
makes it a lot more com- 
fortable to stay on the 




Fig. 199 — Use of short straight edge. 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



247 



roof. This is built by using a piece of 2x8 and a piece of % inch material 
nailed on top as shown in sketch ; in the end, drive some shingle nails and 
bend over so the heads will stick out. For steep roofs a piece of old saw can 
be screwed on end so as to make a seat more safe. 

Speed in everything is acquired by the use of proper methods and hard 
v.-ork. A great deal of time is often lost in getting started. 

If it is possible on low pitched roofs, do away with raising of scaffolding. 
On a quarter pitched or less, put a shingle on each end of building, stretch a 
line, then put on five or six courses with a ladder at one end, just enough to 
set jack or shingle seat on. Then shingle across, carrying five or six courses 
at one time. This will get you started without the use of scaffolding. 

A good method to keep shingles in line without the use of gauge or 
hatchet is to place a straight edge on about every 5th or 6th course and cut 
some short pieces about 2^2 or 3 ft. long and five inches wide and just slide 
one in above the other. Do not nail them. See Fig. 199. In this manner 
one man can carry five or six courses across and keep them well lined up. 

Fig. 200 shows the method of laying one shingle in valley on a line with 
a valley tin, which makes it necessary to miter but one shingle to a course. 

Hip shingles will not have to be sawed 
off, as a sharp hatchet will do the trick 
nicely. When nearing the ridge of the 
building, it is always a good plan to use 
a pole and gauge off on it the courses of 
shingles so that they will come even at 
top. 

About 2% lbs. of 2 "D" shingle nails 
are furnished for each thousand shingles, 
and figuring out that the shingles fur- 
nished by us are wider than the average, 
they will run about 700 shingles to 4 
bundles (which have a covering capacity 
of 1,000 average width shingles). 

There are 664 2 "D" nails in each 
pound, and 2^4 lbs. to a thousand shi ti- 
des. You should have sufficient nails to properly lay all shingles furnished. 




Fig-. 200 — Method of shingling valley. 




248 ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



Outside Finish 



BY referring to the figures which show views of the sheathing and outside 
finish placed over side walls of building, you will notice at the bottom 
of these figures pieces marked "Water Table Cap" and "Water Table." 
The cap over the water table is for the purpose of carrying the water 
out over the foundation walls. First run a strip of building paper around 
your walls and hold in place with a few laths, then pick out the pieces of 1x4 
inch water table the correct length shown on the blue prints and nail them in 
place. These pieces have been cut long enough so that you can miter the cor- 
ners or let one run by the other, just as you prefer. In nailing these pieces on, 
be sure to have them set level so that when you start your siding, it will be in 
line. Then nail the pieces of cap in place at top of water table. 

At the top of the different figures, you will notice pieces of 1 inch ma- 
terial marked "Frieze." In buildings with boxed eaves, these pieces will come 
just under the plancier of the eaves ; in buildings with exposed eaves, they are 
to be notched out so as to fit up around the rafters and close up the space left 
between the top plates of side walls and roof ceiling. These different pieces 
of frieze also have been cut long enough so that the corners can be mitered if 
so desired. 

On gable roof buildings, these 1 inch pieces of frieze are mitered to fit 
the pitch of the roof ; on buildings that have stucco side wall covering, the 
pieces of outside finish should be furred out about y§ of an inch in order to 
give the metal lath and stucco a bearing under them. 

The siding as furnished is cut so that it is long enough to go underneath 
the casing of the window and door frames and the corner boards, which means 
that the casings and corner boards can be nailed on over the siding if desired. 
The frames have been constructed with an extra Y\ inch siding stop which is 
the same thickness as the siding at the lap. In case you do not want to trim 
the siding, this stop should be left in frames and the siding nailed on at this 
time. We would advise that you trim the siding, as it makes a much warmer 
job when the building is completed, and gives a better appearance. 

The corner boards should be next put in place if you trim the siding. 
The pieces of 1x3 inch and 1x4 inch material should first be trimmed so as to 
make a good joint between the water table cap and frieze. Then nail the two 
pieces together before nailing in place on corner of wall. When the side walls 
are covered with shingles, all the exterior trim will be placed directly over 
sheathing. 

Sometimes a belt is furnished to form a break between the exterior cov- 
ering of the first and second story; these pieces should be nailed directly 
against the sheathing. Be sure that you flash under all outside sheathing with 
building paper and counter-flash with paper under siding. The outside finish 
should be put on with 8 case nails and all nail heads set into wood so they 
can be puttied up. 

Outside Window and Door Frames 

The window and door frames of your building are a very important part. 
They must be properly constructed and "set" in order to have the sash and 
doors perform the work for which they are intended. The window frames in 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



249 



general use on Aladdin buildings are check rail, casement and stationary. The 
check rail frame is constructed to take two sliding sash adjustable in the 
frame, the upper sash drops down and the lower sash can be raised up. Check 
rail frames are furnished with or without pockets and pulleys, depending on 
the style and price of the design. The frames are constructed the same, with the 
exception that when the frame is intended for pockets and pulleys, the side 
jambs are bored out to take the pulleys. 

The frames are carefully 
bundled together before 
shipping and are stenciled 
for the size window in 
which they are to be used. 
The best way to put the 
frames together is to use a 
few planks set up on saw 
horses for a work bench. 
Untie the bundles and pick 
out all the interior trim 
first, such as casings, apron, 
stool and inside stops. 
These pieces should be tied 
together and marked with 
the window size on them, 
so when you are ready to 
use them they can be found 
easily. Keep the pieces of 
trim in a dry, clean place. 

Refer to Fig. 201, which 
shows an isometric detail of 
check rail window frames. 
Letter "A" shows outside casing. 

Letter "C" shows siding stop which is to be used when you wish the cas- 
ings to overlap the siding. This stop is not to be used in frame if you wish 
to trim siding to go between casings and corner boards; this stop is 3^x1 in. 
Letter "D" shows outside stop, %xl^4 i n - 
Letter "E" shows side jamb. 
Letter "F" shows check stop, y^x}^ in. 
Letter "G" shows sash. 
Letter "H" shows inside stop. 

Letter "I" shows plaster stop, which is only to be used in case that lath 
and plaster are furnished. Where plaster board is used it is to be kept out of 
frame. This stop is 5/16x3/4 in. 
Letter "J" shows inside casing. 
Letter "K," lath and plaster. 
Letter "L," outside wall sheathing. 

Letter "M," sill ; letter "N," stool ; letter "O," apron ; letter "P," back 
sill, 24 i ncn thick, which is to be left out of frame when casings come directly 
against sheathing, and one end of the siding is trimmed. 




Tig. 201 — Checkrail window frames. 



250 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



Letter "R" shows bark sill, which is only to be used when lath and plaster 
are furnished, 5/16 inch thick. 

After carefully studying the detail of frames, pick out the sill, the head 
and two side jambs. Nail these together and square them up. Be careful that 
you place jamb right ; note on detail that distance from groove for check stop 
to the outside of jamb is less than the distance to the inside edge. If lath 
and plaster are used on your building, nail on the small plaster stops next 
shown by letter "I." The braces can then be nailed on the inside of the frame 
to hold them square. Next nail on the outside stops and outside casings, head 
casing and drip cap. The check stops should be fitted in frame at this time, 
but should not be nailed in solid; a few small brads will do. 

The small \]/\ in. brads, 6 finishing and 8 case nails are intended to be 
used on the frames. The brads should be "set" so they can be puttied up to 
make a neat job. 

Casement Frame — 

Detail of casement frame is 
shown by Fig. 202. 

Letter "A" shows outside 
casing. 

Letter "K." jamb. 

Letter "C," sash. 

Letter "D," sheathing. 

Letter "E," lath and plaster. 

Letter "F," casing. 

Letter "G," plaster stop. 
This stop is used only on lath 
and plaster walls. 
Letter "H," siding stop. 
This stop is not used when you 
trim siding. 

Letter "I," sill. 

Letter "J," stool. 

Letter "K," apron. 

The casement frame is nailed 
together in the same manner as 
the check rail ; first nailing the 
head, side jambs and sill together and squaring them up. The two stops shown 
by letters "G" and "H" are to be nailed onto frame if you use lath and 
plaster and have outside casing overlap siding. Otherwise, they can be used 
for braces to keep frame squared up. 

In nailing up frame, a very important thing to remember is never to 
nail two pieces of the frame together so they make a flush joint unless cov- 
ered with a stop. Note how the casings are set back on jamb on Detail 
No. 202. 




Fig. 202 — Casement window frame. 



Door Frames — 

Figs. 203 and 204 show dour frames. 

Fig. 203 shows detail of outside door frame with J/g inch jamb. 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



251 



Letter "A" shows outside 
wall sheathing. 

Letter "B," outside cas- 
ings. 

Letter "C," siding stop 
which is to be left out in 
case you wish to trim one 
end of siding. 

Letter "D" shows plaster 
stop, not to be used with 
plaster board. 



Letter 
Letter 
Letter 
Letter 
Letter 
Letter 
Letter 
Fig. 



d( 



it() 




Fig. 203 — Outside door frames, % inch jamb. 



"F, 

"G," casings, 
"H." plaster. 
"I," finish floor. 
"J," sill. 
"K," sub-floor. 
204 shows detail 
of outside door frames with \y'\ in. jamb. 
Letter "A" shows outside casing. 

siding stop which is to be left out if you trim siding, 
plaster stop not to be used with plaster board. 
' jambs, 
finishing flooring, 
lath and plaster, 
inside casing, 
sill. 



Letter "B," 
Letter "C," 
Letter "D,' 
Letter "E," 
Letter "F," 
Letter "G," 
Letter "H,' : 



Two different out- 
side door frames are 
furnished with our 
houses, one with J/g in. 
jamb and fitted with 
door stop as shown by 
Fig. 203, and the other 
frame with a heavy 
rabetted jamb as shown 
by Fig. ' 204. This 
heavy frame is fur- 
nished for large front 
doors 3x7 ft. in size, 
and sometimes on 
smaller doors if they 
are fitted with heavy 
plate glass.. 

To nail the door 
frames together, first 
pick out the inside trim 
and tie together, and 
mark for it the door on which it is to be used, and put it in a clean, dry place. 




frames, 1% inch jamb. 



252 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



Then nail jambs and sill together, squaring them up and nailing on braces. 
Next nail on stops and outside casings, head casing and drip cap. 

In setting the frames in the openings, be sure they are set plumb and 
square. It is impossible to have window sash on a door work properly in a 
frame that is not true. Keep the under side of sills and top of head casings 
in line as much as possible, so the siding will work out the same all the way 
around the house. Flash casings of window and door frames with building 
paper as they are being set in the openings, and let this paper extend out far 
enough to counterflash with paper under siding. 



Siding 

In order to give the building a neat appearance on the outside, the 
exterior of the frame buildings is usually covered with one of the many 
patterns of siding. The patterns furnished with Aladdin buildings are 
Bevel S l / 2 in. Siding; Bevel ZV 2 in. Siding, 8 in. Bungalow, and Novelty 
Standard pattern No. 106 or No. 105. 




Fig-. 205 — Shows method of laying and nailing 
hevel siding. 



When 5j/2 in. Bevel Siding is 
furnished, it is intended to be laid 
\ x / 2 in. to the weather, that is. one 
piece will overlap the other 1 in. 
When 2>y 2 in. siding is furnished, 
it is intended to be laid 2 l / 2 in. to 
the weather, which also gives a lap of 1 in. Fig. 205 cross section thru 
sheathing and siding showing method of overlapping and nailing. 

It is very essential to begin with, that the building paper is put on 
smoothly; if you are not careful it is apt to bulge between the sheathing and 
siding, and the wall when finished will have a wavy appearance. This will 
probably not be noticeable until after the building is painted, but is detri- 
mental to its appearance and should be avoided as much as possible. 

In putting on the siding it makes a much better appearing job if you 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



253 



will lay the siding so that it will just come underneath the window sill and 
over top of drip cap and windows. See Fig. 206. In order to do this, 
measure the distance from top of water table cap to top of groove in under 
side of window sill. For example : Suppose this distance were 2 ft. 3^4 hi., 
six pieces of siding laid 4^ in. to weather would only cover 2 ft. 3 in. : 
therefore, if you would lay the siding with 7/% in. lap or 4§^ in. to weather, it 
would take up this extra ^4 °f an ^ch and make a much nicer job. 

When one side has been sided up, square around the corner boards with 
tri-square so that the rows of siding will line up around building. 

A good deal of time can be saved and lost motion eliminated by using 
the proper methods. The usual charge for putting on siding is -about 
$16.00 per M. The writer has superintended work where it has been put 
on for $3.00 per M, simply by watching the unnecessary steps and moves 
of the carpenters. 

For instance, putting on siding between a window casing and corner 
board, the average carpenter working by the hour will take a piece of 
siding, put it up between casing and corner board and mark it, pick up his 
tri-square and square it; then he will lay his square down, pick up his ham- 
mer, put piece of siding in place, take out a nail, drive it into siding, take 
out nail set and set nail, put away nail set and take out another nail. This 
may sound exaggerated, but you will find many carpenters who will do it 
when working by the hour. Instead, use a little system while cutting one piece, 
and cut all that is needed for that length 12-15 or more, whichever it happens 
to be, then put pieces of siding in place and just put enough nails to each 
piece to hold it, now start in driving the sufficient number of nails into each 
board ; take out nail set and set heads all at one 
time. By doing this a man will become efficient in 
each operation and eliminate a great deal of lost 
motion. 

Three or four gauges can be made out of an old 
yard stick by cutting it into lengths of about 6 in. 
and putting a couple of sharp brads into each 
piece, letting them extend thru about 3/16 of an 
inch. In using these gauges, though, it would be a 
good policy to put a chalk line on about every fifth 
or sixth row of siding to be sure that the rows are all 
lining up. Be very careful to make good joint on 
each piece of siding. 

Fig. 207 shows 8 in. bungalow siding laid over 
walls — notice that nailing is to be just above groove 
in lower end of siding. The lap on this pattern is al- 
ways the same as the tongue, and groove should 
always fit tightly. The pieces of siding will have 
to be notched out around window and door frames 
if they do not space evenly. 

Fig. 208 shows standard patterns of Novelty 

or Drop siding commonly used on barns, summer 

cottages and garages. In putting on these patterns, 

Tig. 207—8 inch be sure that the pieces are driven tightly together so 

Bungalow siding. ,-, ... .-,-, 

shipiap pattern. the joints will not open up. 




254 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



All siding should be carefully butted, and for 
best work the ends should be dipped into white lead 
and oil, and should lap over a stud where "possible. 
This will give a good bearing for the end nailing. 

The 5 "D" box nails are furnished for siding. It 
requires about 15 lbs. for each thousand feet of 2>y 2 
in. siding, and about 12 lbs. for each thousand feet 
of 53/2 in. The nails should be placed in the center 
of the lap and close enough together to bring each 
piece of siding tightly down on the piece which it 
overlaps. Redwood or cedar siding does not split 

easily, but should be nailed carefully and the nails directed almost straight in. 

Pound your nail heads up to the siding and then use nail set. Do not have 

three or four hammer dents around each nail. 




Figr. 208 — Standard patterns 
of drop or novelty siding. 



greater resistance 



Shingle Side Walls 

Until of late clapboards or siding appear to have been considered the 
only suitable covering for walls of frame buildings of any pretensions. With 
the coming of the modern houses, however, shingles came rapidly into 
favor for covering the walls of buildings. 

The choice of shingles or siding for wall covering is generally deter- 
mined by the architectural design. Some designs give a pleasing appearance 
with walls entirely covered with shingles ; others are semi-fitted in design 
by using siding first story and shingles for second story covering, or shingled 
gables often help to break the sameness of wall coverings. As a rule, it 
costs a little more to shingle the side walls of a building than it does to put 
on siding, but the difference usually is not a big item. 
Walls covered with shingles undoubtedly offer 
heat and cold than do those covered 
with clapboards, because when 
shingles are used there are usually 
three thicknesses at all points, while 
where siding is used there is but one. 
Another reason, aside from the re- 
quirements of design, why shingles 
have been so much in favor as a 
covering for dwelling houses, is that 
they are particularly adapted to the 
absorption of oil or creosote stains, 
by means of which texture effects are 
produced to give a pleasing appear- 
ance not possible with siding. 

The kinds of shingles used for wall 
covering are the same as those used 
for roofs. The manner of applying 
shingles to a wall is the same as that 
used for roofs, but a greater exposure 
of butt is permissible, as wall shingles Figl 209 - M ^°' J ^ t M n ^ n n g f es corners of buiUling 




ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



255 



are generally laid with an exposure of from 5 to 6 inches to the weather. 
We have furnished our shingles figured to lay 5 inches, but the exposure to 
the weather should be altered so that the courses will come out evenly under 
and over window and door frames. For example: If the distance from 
the under side of the window sill to the top of the drip cap is 5 ft. 9 in. 
or 69 inches, divide this space equally, which will give you fourteen 4-15 16 in. 
spaces. This slight difference in the butt will not be noticeable. In starting 
to lay shingles on the walls, the first row should be double coursed above the 
water table (or if water table is not used at the bottom of the wall.) In fur- 
nishing external angles the shingles are usually lapped over each other alter- 
nately as shown by Fig. 209. 

Dormers 

Many different types of dormers are constructed on frame dwelling- 
houses. Some are constructed to add to the appearance of the building by 
breaking the long spans of plain roof, and others are used to give additional 
head room and light in buildings of bungalow type and those with \]/ 2 story 
height side walls. 

The style of dor- 
mer should always 
be constructed so 
that it will be in 
keeping with the 
general appearance 
of the main roof. 
Its size should be 
governed by the 
area of which it is 
a part. 

Three styles of 
dormers are commonly used on Aladdin houses. First, the split roof or shed 
roof dormer which is illustrated by Fig. 210. This type is generally used to 
add to the appearance of the building and is of blind construction ; that is. 
the dormer is constructed upon the sheathing of the main roof, no opening be- 
ing framed, and the light or head room of dormer is not used. This type is 
also used to give additional space to second floor or attic of building, in 
which case the main roof is framed to form opening and making additional 
room in dormer accessable to balance of second floor. 




Fig. 210— Shed 





Fig-. 211 — Hip roof dormer. Fig. 212 — Gable roof dormer. 

Fig. 211 shows a' hip roof dormer typical on buildings constructed with 



256 ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 

hip roofs. This type also has two functions, namely: ornamental (of blind 
construction) and to add head room to second story. 

The third type is gable roof and is shown by Fig. 212. 

All the material for the dormers is marked "Dormer" in addition to 
other markings; that is, material is marked "Dormer Studding," "Dormer 
Sheathing," etc. Detail drawings of construction are furnished with blue 
prints which also show location of dormer on building. 

All dormers should be carefully flashed to the main roof with tin flash- 
ing furnished for that purpose, so they will not leak. 



Porches 



THE building of the porch involves two kinds of work, the rough work 
which supports the floor and roof, and the finished work, which is the 
part exposed to the eye. Care should be taken to see that the work on 
the porch of your building is neatly done, as this part of the building is 
seen first and last by the critic. 

There are a number of different style porches furnished with Aladdin 
houses, and it will be necessary to give instructions on the erection of each 
different kind, but in erecting your house, only refer to the style indicated on 
blue prints. The different kinds of porches can also be distinguished by a 
style letter. On the blue prints each porch will be marked style "A" or style 
"C." Each descriptive paragraph will also be marked with a style letter. 

The construction of the porch joists and supporting piers on all porches 
is practically the same. The roofs designate the difference in type. 

Porches are built and finished in so many different ways, that it is im- 
possible in a book of this size to consider more than a few of the types most 
commonly in use on Aladdin houses. The blue prints furnished will explain 
in detail all the construction features and materials to be used. 

Porch Piers, Joists and Flooring 

By referring to paragraph on Piers, you will find general information on 
the construction of porch piers, cost and the quantity of material needed. 
By referring to blue prints you will notice that porch piers are constructed to 




give a fall to the porch floor, which will allow the 
water to run off readily. The piers should be 
placed exactly as shown on plans, and footings car- 
ried well below front line and rest on solid rail. 

If the porch is constructed with masonry pedestals, that 

is, the piers extend up above the porch floor, they should Fig. 213— Method of 

be constructed up to line shown on under side of joists 

then the joists framed in to the pier. 

After the piers have been constructed, refer to porch joist plan. Th 



giving proper incline to 
porch joist. 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



257 



construction should he framed with the joists parallel with the walls of the 
house, so that the floor hoards will lie at right angles to these walls and pitch 
outward. One to two inches in from 6 to 8 ft. will be sufficient to shed the 
water. The top of the porch joist frame should also be constructed so it will 
come 2 in. below the top of the house joists. Fig. 213 shows method of us- 
ing level and block to 
give proper pitch to 
porch joists. Fig. 214 
shows isometric view 
of connection of house 
and porch frame. 16 
"D" nails should be 
used for the porch 
joist frame. 

The correct length 
of porch flooring is 
shown over porch joist 
plan. When laying 
the porch flooring, com- 
mence to lay it, placing 
the first piece about 
1^4 inches in from end 
of joist frame. In 
other words, leave the 
first piece off until 
after the porch is com- 
pleted so that it will not 
on it, etc. Be sure to dr 

ing one and securely "toe-nail" it. It is a good plan to paint the joints while 
the flooring is being laid as this will keep it from warping. The porch floor 
should be given its priming coat of paint as soon as possible after it is laid. 

If the porch is furnished with solid porch rail, the construction of the 
frame around porch and arrangement of sheathing and outside finish will be 
shown on the same sheet of blue prints as the rest of porch. After the joists 
have been erected, nail in place the frame of the porch rail, then nail on 
sheathing and outside finish and ceil up on inside above porch floor. 

In most cases the porch joists and porch overhead joists are to be nailed 
on over the sheathing of the building, but on some houses when the main roof 
covers the porch, such as Kentucky, Marsden, etc., the porch frame at the top 
will be a continuation of the frame of the main building, in which case the 
porch joists will have to be constructed against the frame of the building. A 
note on blue prints will tell you if porch joists are to be nailed against frame 
work or sheathing, and the sheathing will he shown between the porch joists 
and house joists if so constructed. 




Fig. 214 — Isometric view of connection of house and porch frame. 

he broken or cracked by some heavy timber falling 
ve each piece of flooring tightly against the preced- 



Porch Roof Covering 

If the porch roof has sufficient pitch it will be covered with shingles or 
the same material as on the main roof of the building, in which case the roof 



258 ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 

sheathing will he 1x4 in. spaced 2 in. apart to allow air to get under shingles 
and dry them out after heavy rains. (See paragraph on shingling.) Unless 
otherwise specified on hlue prints the porch roof covering will be shingles. 

On low pitch roofs we furnish roofing paper, and the porch roof sheath- 
ing in this case should be laid tight with no spacing between. (See para- 
graph on roofing.) A note on blue prints will tell if the roof covering is to 
be of roofing. 

On extremely flat roofs such as are used on pergolas and deck roofs, we 
furnish rex canvas. Deck roofing instructions for applying are furnished in 
the Hardware Chapter. 



Porch Style "A" 

This style is of very simple construction and is furnished on some of the 
smaller and cheaper designs. Fig. 215 shows an isometric view of the con- 
struction of the roof. This frame, you will notice, is constructed out of 2x4x8 
and 2x4 inch pieces of 
material. The different 
lengths are shown on blue 
prints, and material is 
marked "Porch Overhead 
Joists." The frame is con- 
structed a few inches 

smaller than the joist frame if tapering columns are furnished. The porch 
columns should be raised in position and held in place by temporary supports 
and the frame constructed on top of them. 

To cover the porch overhead joists, porch roof flooring has been fur- 
nished which is to be laid in the same manner as the porch floor ; that is, by 
painting the joints, and toe-nailing one piece against the other. Carefully 
study the detail of end and section of porch and read all notes on same. 




Fig:. 215 — Isometric detail Porch Style "A. 



Porch Style "B" 

This style of porch roof construction is used in buildings where a low 
pitch, neat appearing porch is desired. Fig. 216 shows an isometric view of 
the construction of the porch overhead joists, all material for which has been 
marked "Porch Overhead Joists" and the different sizes and lengths of ma- 
terial to use. 

The porch overhead 
joists of porch Style "B" 
are usually shown on the 
same figure as the ceiling 
joists of the house, and 
should be nailed against 
the sheathing of the build- 
ing in the same manner as 
porch joists. 

The porch overhead joists are constructed of pieces of different size as 
shown on blue prints, so that when nailed together they will give a fall to 
porch roof. Carefully study isometric detail of section of porch. You will 
notice that the under side of all the pieces of 2x4, 2x6 and 2x8's are to be on 




Fig-. 216 — Isometric detail porch Style 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



a level so that the porch ceiling can be nailed to them. The top of these pieces 
will come so as to give an equal bearing to the roof sheathing. The frame 
should be held in place with temporary supports until it has been boxed in and 
you are ready to set porch columns. 

The next step will be to nail on the porch roof sheathing, which is usually 
furnished in 1x8 in. widths, and should be nailed with two nails at each bearing 
on the frame. The projection of the sheathing is usually 4 in. at the sides and 
8 in. at the front. Next, ceil up underneath the porch overhead joists with 
material marked "Porch Ceiling," toe-nailing each piece at all bearings. 
Be careful to drive the joints tightly together. The material to be used to box 
in the eaves is marked "Porch Eaves," and the material to be used to finish 
around porch overhead joists is marked "Porch Overhead Boxing." Nail 
these pieces of finish in place. All joints should be made so they are not ex- 
posed to the weather, and the various pieces neatly jointed and well nailed to- 
gether. Then nail moldings in place, set columns and cover roof with roofing. 
(See paragraph on roofing.) 

Porch Style "C" 

Fig. 2 1 7 shows isometric section of a hip roof porch with a straight return 
boxed eave. The first figure on blue prints for this style of porch is the porch 
overhead joists or the frame which is constructed at the top of porch to sup- 
port the roof. This 
frame is usually con- 
structed out of a dou- 
ble set of 2 in. pieces of 
material, the size and 
length of which are in- 
dicated on blue prints. 
Nail this frame to- 
gether and put in place 
at the top of porch, 
supporting the outer 
ends with temporary 




Fig. 217 — Isometric detail porch Style 



supports until the frame has been boxed in and you are ready to set the col- 
umns in place. The other end of frame is to be nailed to the sheathing of the 
wall of building, against which the porch is to be erected. If the porch joists 
are entirely roofed over, be sure that the center of this frame is placed in the 
center of the porch joists. This is absolutely necessary in order to have the 
columns set properly; then refer to porch ceiling joists which are shown by 
next figure on blue prints. These ceiling joists are for the purpose of sup- 
porting the lower ends of the porch rafters and also to nail the porch ceiling 
to. Be sure to have these spaced exactly as shown on detail. A chalk line 
should be placed on outer ends so they will all be set in line. Then take all 
material marked "Porch Rafters" and erect in the following order: 
Ridge, main rafters, hip rafters and jack rafters. Securely nail the rafters to 
the ceiling joists and to each other. 

Now refer to detail of mitered porch roof sheathing and sheathe over the 
rafters with lengths shown in order. If shingles are furnished for porch roof, 
the sheathing will be spaced same as main roof to allow air to get under shin- 
gles and dry them out after heavy rains. When roofing is furnished the 
sheathing will be laid solid. 



260 ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 

Then take material marked "Porch Ceiling" and ceil up underneath the 
porch ceiling joists, toe-nailing each piece to all bearings, and be careful to 
drive the joints tightly together. 

The material to be used to box in the porch eaves is marked "Porch 
Eaves," and the material to be used to finish around porch overhead joists is 
marked "Porch Overhead Boxing." Nail these pieces of finish in place; all 
joints should be made so they are not exposed to the weather, and the various 
pieces neatly jointed and nailed together. Then nail moldings in place, set 
columns and cover roof. Refer to shingle paragraph or instructions on roofing. 




Fig. 218— Isoraetrio de 
tail of porch Style "D ' 
Gable roof. 



Porch Style "D" 

Fig. 218 shows a gable roof type of porch which is constructed with 
boxed or exposed eaves, according to the style of house. The first figure on 
blue print details shows the construction of the porch overhead joists or the 
frame which is constructed at the top of the porch for the purpose of support- 
ing the porch rafters. 
This frame is usually 
constructed out of a 
double set of 2 inch 
pieces of material, the 
size and length of 
which are indicated on 
blue prints. Nail this 
frame together and put 
in place at top of 
porch, supporting the 
outer ends with tem- 
porary supports, until 
the frame has been 
boxed in and you are ready to set the porch columns in place. The other end 
of the frame is to be nailed to the sheathing of the wall of the building, 
against which the porch is to be erected. Be sure to have the frame at top 
centered over the porch joists. This is absolutely necessary in order to have 
the columns fit properly. 

Next refer to porch ceiling joists which are shown by next figure in blue 
prints. These ceiling joists are for the purpose of nailing the porch ceiling 
to. They have been mitered so they will not extend above the porch rafters. 
Nail them in place spaced as shown on blue prints. Next space off on the 
porch overhead joist frame, the location of the ends of rafters, and place the 
same spacings on the porch ridge. Raise the rafters in position on the proper 
pitch and carefully nail them; then take material marked "Porch Gable 
Studding" and place studs in the gable or gables and sheathe over with ma- 
terial marked "Porch Gable Sheathing." If the sheathing extends down over 
frame at front of porch, the sides will have to be furred out so the porch box- 
ing will be the same thickness all the way around the porch. After the gable 
sheathing has been put on, take material marked "Porch Roof Sheathing" and 
sheathe over the rafters in the same manner as you did on main roof. 

If the eaves of the main building are exposed, the eaves of the porch will 
be constructed the same. If they are boxed eaves, the porch eaves will be in 
keeping with them. On exposed eave porches the ceiling to be placed over the 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 261 

rafter ends and over exposed projection at gable, will be marked "Porch Roof 
Ceiling," and the lengths to use indicated on blue prints. 

If shingles are furnished for porch roof, the sheathing will be spaced 
same as main roof sheathing so the air can get underneath the shingles and 
dry them out after heavy rains. When roofing is furnished the sheathing will 
be laid solid. 

Then take material marked "Porch Ceiling" and ceil up underneath the 
porch ceiling joists, toe-nailing each piece to all bearings, and be careful to 
drive the joints tightly together. 

If the porch has boxed eaves, the material to be used for this purpose is 
marked "Porch Eaves," and the material to be used to finish around porch 
overhead joists is marked "Porch Overhead Boxing." Nail these pieces of 
finish in place. All joints should be made so they are not exposed to the 
weather and the various pieces neatly jointed and nailed together; then nail 
in place small moldings, set columns and cover roof. (Refer to shingle para- 
graph or instructions on roofing.) 

Porch Style "E" 

Deck roof porches similar to the side porches on Pasadena, Strathmore, 
Lamberton and front porch of Roseland, are constructed to give pergola effect, 
but are also roofed over to give protection. The frame for the top of these 
porches is constructed of fancy end rafters framed together and supported by 
columns. These rafters are covered with matched ceiling or flooring so as to 
make a tight roof and give the porch a neat appearance from underneath. In 
nailing on this ceiling or flooring, be sure to drive the joints tightly together 
and toe-nail each piece at all bearings. This roof material is then covered with 
a canvas deck roofing. (See instructions for applying rex canvas deck roof- 
ing-) 

Porch Rail Balusters and Steps 

The standard steps furnished for Aladdin houses are for 2 ft. in. and 
2 ft. 8 in. grades. If your building is constructed with a grade different from 
these, it should have been specified in order, so steps could be made accord- 
ingly. The material for steps is all bundled together and marked with the 
size. They are constructed with wood stringers, the number of which will 
depend on the width of steps. The stringers should be squared in place and 
resting on a foundation at the lower end. The best way is to run side walls 
under steps far enough to support stringers. Next nail the risers and treads 
in place. The treads are constructed in two pieces which are to be nailed in 
place with about % inch between ; this will allow water to run thru and treads 
will not warp. The treads are rounded to form a nosing on the front edge 
and ends, and a cove molding is usually placed under the nosing. The nail 
heads should be set and well puttied. 

The porch rail furnished is molded out of 2x4's and 2x6's in. and the 
pieces are intended to be nailed between porch columns with the bottom mem- 
ber placed just above base of column, and the top member gauged in place by 
the length of balusters. The balusters are furnished \y% in. square for 2x4 
rails, and 1^4 i n - square for 2x6 in. rails, and are intended to be placed on 6 
in. centers or two to each running foot. It is a good plan to divide the pieces 
of porch rail off into as many equal spaces as near 6 in. as possible : this will 
do away with unequal spacing at end of rail. 



262 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



Plaster Board 




Fig. 219— Sample 
ALADDIN plaster 
board. 



ALADDIN plaster board is not a new material, for it lias been manu- 
factured for many years, and the fact that it is rapidly taking the place 
of wood lath and plaster, is proof enough that it is what we claim it 
to be, an improved fireproof lathing material. It is a composition of 
alternate layers of calcined gypsum and strong felt and comes in sheets 32x36 
inches, one-quarter of an inch in thick- 
ness. Each sheet has a surface of 8 
square feet. It will fit studs placed on 
16 inch or 18 inch centers. It is prac- 
tically fireproof and a non-conductor of 
heat, cold and sound, and can be applied 
in a quick and easy manner. 

The most important factor in the ap- 
plication of this material is the framing 
to which it is applied. Rigid and level 
studding and joists, headers and all ad- 
ditional framing members have much to 
do with the finished job, much more 
than if lath and plaster were to be used. 
The sheets of the plaster board should 
not be placed less than *4 inch apart on 
all sides and each edge must have a bear- 
ing on the stud of not less than Y\ inch. Nail the board directly to the stud- 
ding, furring strips or joists. First nail the center of the board and then the 
outer edges. The nails should be placed 4 inches apart around the edge of 
the piece, and 8 to 12 
inches apart in the cen- 
ter, with each one 
driven home firm and 
light. The joints must 
be broken horizontally 
on the walls and at 
right angles with the 
ceiling joists. Perpen- 
dicular joints on oppo- 
site sides of partitions 
must not be placed on 
same stud as on first 
side, but should come 
on next stud, thus giv- 
ing more strength to 
the wall. 

Use 1 J4 inch large 
head galvanized nails 
for applying the board. 
It takes about 10 
pounds of nails to each thousand feet of plaster board. 

When it is necessary to cut the sheets to fit around openings, this can be 




Fig. 220 — Applying ALADDIN plaster board. 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 263 

done with an ordinary hand saw, but be careful that you do not break the 
outer fibre surfaces away from plaster. 

The joints between the board should be filled with the plasto filler fur- 
nished for that purpose. If a putty coat is to be used, do not wet the board 
before applying the plaster, as the bond between the plaster and the board is 
perfect, and the plaster will adhere to board readily. 

The joints between the board should always be filled and allowed to set 
before the putty coat is applied. By doing this, a perfect bond is formed be- 
tween the plaster in the board and the putty coat, which will avoid any crack- 
ing at the joints. Fig. 220 shows how the sheets of plaster board are to be 
placed over studs. 





Fig-. 222 — Plaster board with joints plastered. 



The plaster board is usually applied by carpenters, as they can do 
a careful and efficient nailing job. When plaster board is used in \ l / 2 
story buildings and the roof rafters form the ceilings over part of the rooms, 
we have furnished 1x3 in. furring strips to be placed on 16 in. centers to re- 
ceive the joints of the sheets of plaster board. 




264 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



Lath and Plaster 



w 



OOD laths are put up in bundles of fifty laths and should be nailed 
upon the studding of the wooden frames with a space of about *4 
inch between them. This distance is sufficient to allow for lath 



ihrinka 




"D □ Q" 

Fig. 223— Applying- 32 inch lath. 



provide a firm clinch for the 

If the space is made less than *4 
inch, the clinch will be weakened. 
1 f much more space is allowed, the 
laths may possibly sag down on the 
ceilings with the extra weight of 
plaster and allow the plaster to 
run down between them before it 
lias set properly. In no instance, 
should these spaces between the 
laths exceed the width of ^ inches. 
rmed by the mortar being pressed 
spreading out over each of the lath 
nch which holds the mor- 



The clinch or key of the plaster is f 
thru the spaces between the laths and then 
upon both sides of the cracks, so forming a tie or 
tar in place. 

Good laths should be only partially seasoned and free from sap and dea 
of the plaster 



iable to be stained from pitchy knot-holes 

D d n n 




Fig. 224 — Applying 48 inch lath. 



knots, or the fa 
or sap. 

If the laths are too dry, the wet 
mortar is likely to cause them to 
warp and twist, and if it hardens 
or sets before the laths become 
saturated, their swelling is likely 
to produce cracks. Better results 
can be obtained by using wet 
laths; then both mortar and lath 
will dry out together and make a 
perfect wall. Remember that 
wood laths get very thirsty in hot, 

dry weather and require a lot of water. If this thirst is not quenched before- 
hand, they will adhere the water that belongs to the gypsum, and prevent its 
proper setting, frequently causing soft or chalky spots. Wet the lath the 
night before if convenient or about 4 hours before plastering and give them a 
chance to soak. Then sprinkle them again about one hour before they are 
applied. 

For the upstairs rooms, or wherever the rooms are open to the rafters, we 
are furnishing 1x3 in. furring strips to nail on the rafters and collar beams on 
16 in. centers to take the joints of the lath. 

We have furnished Y% in. plaster grounds which are to be placed around 
all window and door openings and to back up the base molding. These 
grounds are V/a, in. wide which will leave y 2 inch of stud on which to nail lath 
around openings. The grounds backing up the base molding are to be placed 
so as to take the nails from top and bottom of molding. The plaster grounds 
will also act as a gauge to finished plastered wall. Refer to Fig. 225 which 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



265 



.shows isometric section of finished wall and position of plaster grounds for 
base molding. 

Some specifications call for two nails at each end of lath. Our exper- 
ience has been that this requirement does not produce the desired results, as 
two nails are likely to start a split, which may be increased by the force ap- 
plied to the mortar, and may become partially or wholly loosened from the 
stub before the plaster is all on. The studs are placed on 16 inch centers; 
therefore, each 32 inch lath will receive three nails, and 48 inch lath four 
nails. 

Do not use too large a lath nail as this will weaken the wall in same man- 
ner. The common 3-penny inch and one-eighth long nail will fasten the lath 
securely. About six pounds are needed to a thousand 32 inch lath, and about 
eight pounds to one thousand 48 inch lath. 

The joints of the lath should be alternated about every eight courses. 
This means that not more than eight adjoining lath ends are nailed upon one 
stud furring strip or joist, the next eight lath in both directions being carried 
to the next stud. See Fig. 117. 

When all the material is furnished by the builder, a lather can be em- 
ployed to do the work for about 3y 2 c per yard for 32 inch lath and 3c for 48 
inch lath, which is the usual charge in this locality. 

If the above precautions are followed in lathing, it will aid in securing a 
good wall. 



Plastering 

The starting of the interior plastering, marks the division between the 
"roughing in" work and the beginning of the finish which is to follow. 

The plastering should not 
start until all the lath have 
been applied and carpenters 
have stopped pounding on 
building. Sometimes it will 
save a considerable amount 
of time but is not always ad- 
visable to set the interior /^ c ^r -^ 
door jambs before the plas- 
tering is started. In this case 
they should be well blocked ^ 
so that the dampness from ftp 



plaster will not cause them 
to warp. The lath and plas- 
ter can then be carried up to 
the jambs, and the projection 
of the jambs beyond the stud 
wall will act as a guide to 
the plasterer for the thick- 
ness of coat to be applied. This, of course, will not be necessary if you apply 
the furring strips which have been furnished with each house. 

If this is done, the face of the jambs should be covered with a strip of 
building paper to keep them clean. 

The wood pulp plaster furnished is one of the best grades of plaster on 




Fig. 225 — Isometric 

view of 

finished wall. 



266 ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 

the market to-day, and when properly applied will give perfect satisfaction as 
to strength and appearance. It does away with much of the work that is nec- 
essary in preparing ordinary lime plaster, as there is no slacking of lime. All 
that is necessary is to mix water and sand with the plaster until you have it to 
the proper mixture. The plaster has been figured to be used to the proportion 
of 2/3 plaster and 1/3 sand, but if an extra good, clean, sharp sand can be 
obtained it can be mixed down to one part plaster and one part sand. The more 
plaster and the stiffer the mixture, the harder it is to apply and the faster it 
will set. 

If good, clean sand cannot be obtained, it should be washed so as to free 
it from impurities. Do not use sand that you can pulverize between your fin- 
gers, or sand that soils hands, indicating decaying organic matter. A good 
way to test sand is to put it in a glass of water ; good sand will settle in the 
bottom of glass leaving water clear. 

This plaster is a non-conductor of heat and cold, is absolutely sound and 
vermin-proof and cannot be damaged by frost, electricity, water or fire. It 
contains no lime, hair, acid or chemicals. 

A large per cent of wood pulp plaster is pulverized stucco rock, which, 
when dried out becomes very hard and will prevent the plaster from cracking 
or crumbling. The plaster when properly applied will have a tensile strength 
of from 200 to 285 pounds. 

It can be finished to a rough sand finish or can be trowelled down to a 
smooth, glossy finish, leaving a good surface for fresco or tinting. It can be 
applied in any kind of weather, as it does not become affected by the heat or 
cold and is a good saver of time, as the finish can be applied very soon after 
plaster has been applied. It will set in about three hours and will become 
hard in about eight hours in warmer weather. 

Do not apply the plaster too thick. It is intended that the lath and one 
coat of plaster will be ^ of an inch thick. Do not put on too much before 
trowelling or darbying it down. 

A good figure for applying this plaster one coat and finishing to a good 
surface would be about 7c per yard. 

It is well be bear in mind that wood fibre plaster is made from pure rock 
Gypsum. Rock Gypsum is part water, about 20 per cent, of it. In the manu- 
facturing process, the water is taken out ; it is then no longer Rock Gypsum — 
it is Plaster of Paris. In the mixing and application, water is the chemical 
force that causes recrystallization, or "setting up." The Plaster of Paris in 
mortar changes back into Gypsum Rock. 

Before applying plaster, all openings should be screened with cloth or 
other means of preventing blasts of hot air from drying up the water in the 
plaster. Wood fibre plaster will set, no matter how long it holds if it is kept 
from drying out before it sets. If it does dry out before it hardens, spray the 
wall with water or sprinkle liberally with a brush. Give it plenty of water. 

Plaster should not dry out before it sets. But don't be alarmed if it 
doesn't set on schedule time. Keep damp till set. Should it show signs 
of drying out before setting, spray with clean water. Soft or chalky spots, 
when dry, mean lack of water. Sprinkle them — give them plenty of water, 
and the wall will come out sound and hard. If wall dries out or refuses to set, 
a solution made by adding four or five ounces of zinc sulphate to a pail of 
water, thoroughly whipped in with a brush, or sprayed, will harden soft or 
white spots within an hour or two. 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 267 

If the plaster is applied too thin, the dry lath will quickly absorb the 
water from the small body of mortar and it will not set until enough water 
has been thrown on it to thoroughly wet the lath and leave enough to set the 
plaster. 

After plaster has set, open windows or doors and allow free circulation 
of air to dry out moisture expelled from the plaster. In damp or rainy sea- 
sons, provide artificial or other means of drying out the rooms, after plaster 
has set. This is important. 

Our Gypsum plaster is not sent out unless it measures up to a set standard 
of quality. For this reason, "quick set" or "slow set" is due to local causes. 
Where hurried or quick action is required, the following remedies may be 
employed : 

Quick set caution : do not confuse "dried out" mortar with "quick set" 
mortar; distinguish carefully. "Dried out" mortar crumbles between the 
fingers, while "quick set" mortar feels hard and firm. In case of "quick set," 
dissolve one pound of pulverized glue in one gallon of hot water. Thoroughly 
mix the solution into the water that is to be used in mixing the plaster, combin- 
ing the proportion of one pint of the solution to the water required for each 
sack of plaster. 

If, however, quicker setting is necessary, mix four pounds of alum or 
two pounds of commercial zinc sulphate to a barrel of water, using from ten 
to twelve quarts of the solution to the water necessary to mix each bag of 
plaster, varying this proportion to the amount of plain water used as condi- 
tions require. 

General Instructions for Mixing and Applying Wood 
Fibre Plaster 

Use only clean water, free from alkali and impurities ; keep tools clean. 

Do not mix more material than can be handily used in about one hour. 

Do not mix one gauging with another, and never retemper plaster after 
it has commenced to set. Clean the mixing box after each gauging. 

Beware of dry lath, they cause much trouble. A good rule is to thor- 
oughly sprinkle the lath the night before, then sprinkle again about one hour 
before plastering. 

Never place plaster on the ground, against a damp wall, or store in damp 
place. Plaster must be kept dry until used, before setting or crystallizing. 
Should white or chalky spots appear, sprinkle them with clear water. Dur- 
ing summer months all openings in building should be closed to prevent drafts 
of hot winds from drying out plaster. During the winter months, keep plaster 
from freezing until thoroughly set. After plaster has set and become hard, 
allow free circulation of air so it will dry quickly. 

Directions For Mixing 

Use a clean, tight mixing box about 3^x7 ft. x 12 inches deep. Clean 
box thoroughly after each mixing and keep it free from dirt and lumps of old 
plaster. Raise one end of box about 4 inches. 

Proportions of Sand 

This plaster is unadulterated and should be mixed with four 10-quart 
buckets of sand to every one hundred pound sack of plaster. 



268 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



Mixing 

Throw in bottom of raised end of box, first a layer of sand and then one 
of plaster until you have the required amount. Hoe dry from one end of box 
to the other and back again. Then put water in lower end of box and hoe the 
mixture into the water and allow it to soak 10 or 15 minutes without hoeing. 
After this period of soaking, mix thoroughly, adding sufficient water to bring 
to proper consistency. 

The following table will give you the number of yards of plastered walls 
in each Aladdin house, which will assist you in making and paying plaster and 
lath contracts. 

Table — Shows number of yards of plastered walls in standard Aladdin 
Houses. 



Brentwood 721 yards 

Boulevard 434 

Burbank 411 " 

Carolina 564 " 

Charleston 676 " 

Colonial 884 " 

Chester 217 " 

Cadillac 420 " 

Duplex 636 " 

Devon 876 " 

Detroit 467 " 

Dresden 350 " 

Erie No. 1 128 " 

Erie No. 2 174 " 

Edison 269 " 

Franklin 423 " 

Florence 390 " 

Finley 378 " 

Georgia No. 1 383 " 

Georgia No. 2 415 " 

Gretna Nos. 1 and 2 200 " 

Herford 441 " 

Hudson 602 " 

Kentucky 497 " 

Lamberton 733 " 

Leota 225 " 

Michigan 365 " 

Maples No. 1 304 " 

Maples No. 2 214 " 

Merrill 400 " 

Marsden 547 " 

New Eden 345 " 

Pasadena Plan A 511 " 



Pasadena Plan B 364 yards 

Plaza 517 ' 

Pomona ( 1 story) 468 

Pomona (2 story) 556 

Princeton No. 'l 286 

Princeton No. 2 334 

Plymouth 322 

Raymond 261 

Rodnev No. 1 140 

Rodney No. 2 183 

Richmond 685 

Rochester 656 

Roseland 287 

Shadow Lawn 673 

Sheridan No. 2 485 

Sheridan No. 1 422 

Stanhope No. 1 300 

Stanhope No. 2 352 

Sheffield 578 

Selwyn No. 1 133 

Selwyn No. 2 192 

Sunshine 446 

Strathmore 484 

Standard 541 

Thelma 214 

Tucson 267 

Virginia 528 

Venus No. 1 378 

Venus No. 2 416 

Warren 350 

VVinthrop 378 

Vale 463 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 269 



Interior Trim 



THE application of interior trim, hanging of doors and erecting stairs 
are the most important steps in the erection of your building. This 
work should be done very carefully and by experienced workmen. It 
should not be started until after the plaster is thoroughly set and dried 
out. The interior trim should then be sorted out and gone over carefully, to 
be sure that it is dry before applying. All raised grains or defects in trim 
due to careless handling and improper storage should be planed and sanded 
down smoothly. The manner in which interior finish is put on or fixed in 
place, varies with the quality of work desired and greatly affects the appear- 
ance of the finish, particularly when this is in its natural color. 

In ordinary jointers' work, the different parts of finish are nailed to the 
walls or grounds and to the edge of the frames with finish nails which are 
sunk beneath the surface of the wood for puttying to conceal the nail holes as 
much as possible, for they cannot be entirely concealed by the putty even when 
finish is painted ; the nails should lie driven into the quirks of moldings wher- 
ever practical. Hardwood finish, if nailed, should be bored for the nails in 
order to prevent splitting of the wood. 

Hanging Sash 

It is a good plan after the building is thoroughly dried out to hang the 
window sash and outside doors, so that the building can be closed up and kept 
dry. First look over the sash to see that the putty is still intact and that the 
glass does not rattle. The sash when manufactured are made from % to l / 2 
inch larger, so they can be trimmed to fit any variation in the size of the frame. 
They should be trimmed so they do not bind in frame, but should not be 
planed down too much, or the sash will rattle. The pieces forming the top 
and bottom of the sash are called rails, and the side pieces stiles ; the small 
bars dividing the sash into lights are usually called mutins or the trade name 
"sash bars" is often used. 

The size of the sash or windows is usually indicated by the size of the 
glass and the number of lights, in the sash. Carefully fit the sash in the open- 
ings and apply the hardware. (Refer to instructions on application of win- 
dow hardware.) 

Be sure that the sash are equipped with the proper size weights. The 
following table should be followed in balancing the sash with weights. If 
the top sash are divided into small lights, one pound should be added to each 
weight attached to it. 

Size of Window Weights to Be Used with Different Size Sash 

12x16 glass 2 r 2 lbs. each 30x20 glass W 2 lbs. each 

14x20 glass 3 lbs. each 30x28 glass 7 lbs. each 

14x28 glass 4 lbs. each 30x36 glass 9 lbs. each 

2().\28 glass 5 lbs. each 38x27 glass 7 lbs. each 

26x16 glass 4 lbs. each 38x28 glass 9 lbs. each 

26x24 glass .' . 5 lbs. each 38x36 glass 11 lbs. each 

26x28 glass 6 lbs. each 



270 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



The casement sash are intended to swing into the building and should be 
fit to work smoothly into the rabbet of the jambs and sill. Single sash are 
equipped with one pair of 2^x2^2 in. butts and casement lock set; the hinges 
should be applied so they will carry the weight of the sash. Do not have the 
sash drag on the sill of frame. The fasteners should be placed so when locked 
they will force the sash all the way into the rabbet of the frame. Casement 
windows if constructed in pairs, are equipped with a pair of 2^x2^ in. butts 
for each sash unless extra large, then three butts should be used on each sash. 
Be sure that each is applied so that the sash will have a bearing on it : a dead 
butt is of no value to the sash. The flush bolts should be placed at the top 
and bottom of the sash that swings into the frame. First, be sure they are fitted 
so they hold the sash entirely into the rabbet. The strike of the casement lock 
set is to place in the center of the side rail on the same sash with the flush 
bolts, and should be set so when the arm of the lock is turned into it, the sash 
will then be closed tightly. 






Fig. 226 — Detail check rail window frame. 



Fig. 228 — Detail of miter cuts on casings. 

WINDOW TRIM: Carefully 
study Fig. 226, which shows detail 
section thru head and sill of a check 
rail window frame. If lath and plas- 
ter has been used on your building, first nail in place the small furring 
stops on edge of jamb to bring same out flush with plastered wall/also nail 
small stops on back edge of sill. These stops are indicated by letter "A" 
of detail. Next, fit in place the stool shown by letter "B;" the stool should 
be trimmed so that it has a slight projection beyond the two side casings, and 
the ends should be rounded off the same as the front edge. The casings should 
then be fitted in place; the intersection of the head and side casings can be' 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



271 



mitered straight across on 45 degrees, or if a better job is desired, they can be 
fitted as shown by letter "B" of Fig. 228. 

This style joint will take more 
time, but does away with any possi- 
bility of the casing opening up at this 
joint, as is often the case on the 
straight miter. 

In making this joint you will notice 
that you only miter thru the O. G. 
back band of the head and side cas- 
ings. The bodies of the casings are 
then notched to fit into each other. 
Nail thru the back band of the side 
casing into the edge of the head cas- 
ings: this will hold them firmly to- 
gether. 

In detail 226 you will note that the 
casing sets back on the plaster stop. 
If the stop is not used in frame, the 
casing will be moved forward and is 
overlapped by the inside stop of the 
frame. The inside stops should be 
nailed in place next. It is advisable 
to miter them at the corners as it 
makes a better looking job. Letter 
"E" shows the apron of frame which 
finishes over the opening left between 
the sill and plastered wall under win- 
dow. 

Set all nails into the wood and 
putty them up smoothly. 

In the casement frame shown by 
Fig. 227, first nail in place the plaster 
stops — Letter "A," if they are to be 
used. Note that sill is notched out to 
receive stool shown by Letter "B." 
The stool in a casement window- 
should be trimmed so it will extend a 
little beyond the side casing and 
should be rounded off on the ends 
same as the front edge. Next fit in place the head and side casings and apron. 




J^fr- 



Tig. 227 — Detail casement window frame. 



Outside Door Frames and Trim 

The front and back doors should be hung in place so the building can be 
closed up to prevent trim being damaged by damp weather. If the building 
has been furnished with a 3x7 ft. front door, you will find that the jambs of 
this door frame have been rabetted and are extra heavy. The door should be 
dressed down to fit opening smoothly and hung on three 4 in. butts. Be sure 
that each butt is placed so it assists in carrying the door ; a dead butt is of no 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



value. The 2 ft. 8 in. x 6 ft. 8 in. outside doors are hung on one pair of 
3 l /2x3y 2 in. butts. The jambs of tin's frame are % in. thick and are finished 
with 'j in. stops. The outside doors should be painted or stained and var- 
nished as soon as they are hung in place to prevent any dampness working into 
the wood and destroying the grain or veneer. 

Blocks should be nailed between the door iambs and the studding in back 
of the butts, and also in back of the strike on the opposite side to strengthen 
the frame. 

The casings of the door frames are to set back on the jambs so they will 
not interfere with the butts. A small piece of flooring should be set under 
bottom edge of casing, so when floor is laid it will come under it. 

Interior Doors and Frames 

First take jambs of door frame and nail them together, place a small 
brace across bottom of frame until it is squared and nailed in opening. In 





Fig-. 230 — Interior door frame. 

setting jambs in opening, place as near 
center as possible so the casings will nail 
into plaster grounds. Place a small piece 
of flooring under the ends of the side jamb 
to keep frame Y\ of an inch above sub- 
floor, and the finish flooring can then be 
worked under frame. Have the frame set 
perfectly square and nail in place. Small blocks should be placed between the 
jambs and the studding in back of the place where the strike of the lock and 
butts will come. The casings and door stops can then be fitted in place, care- 
fully setting all nail heads so they can be puttied up. The door should then 
be planed down to fit opening and hardware applied. (See instructions on 
interior door hardware.) The doors can be hung to swing right or left, as 
they are the same on both sides and the latches in the lock sets are interchange- 
aide. Fig. 230 shows isometric section of door frame. 

Cased arches are framed in the same manner as door frames, and should 
be set the same way. Fig. 231 shows isometric detail of cased arch. The 
jambs of arch frames and door frames are 4-\s in. for plaster board walls 
and 5 in. for lath and plaster walls. 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 




Frames for sliding doors are constructed in two sections, one to be placed 
on each side of recess left in partition to admit doors. These frames are fur- 






Fig. 233— Standard 5X panel door. 



Fig-. 234— Standard 2 panel door. 



274 ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 

nished with stops to be placed on each side of doors to form finish. Note 
isometric detail shown by Fig. 232. 

Laying Finish Flooring 

The first step necessary is to thoroughly clean off the sub-flooring, scrape 
off all the plaster and be sure you have a smooth foundation to start with. It is 
intended that the finish flooring be laid opposite to the sub-flooring, as this 
will make a more even surface to work on. 

For between the sub-floors and finish floors we have furnished building 
paper, which will act as a deadener to sound and also add warmth to the 
building. Each piece of flooring should be toe-nailed about every 14 or 16 
inches and should be brought tightly down to the piece preceding. In making 
joints, always use a square on ends before nailing in place. 

In starting to lay the flooring, it is recommended that a small space be 
left between the first strip and the studding or wall : this will be covered with 
the base moulding and base shoe. This space should be left at the ends and 
opposite side also, so that in case the flooring swells it will have room to 
spread without crowding the studding or wall and then buckling and spoiling 
the~ surface. Care should be taken to see that the first strip is laid straight 
across the room and that each succeeding one is laid in the same manner. If 
the flooring is not laid straight, it will throw off the end matching, which is 
at right angles, and leave an opening between the ends. To make sure you 
are getting it straight, after three or four courses are laid, one edge of a 4x4 
inch piece should be placed against the tongue and the opposite end fit with 
a sledge. This will force each strip to shoulder up tight against the preceding 
one, and insure an absolute tight joint and perfect alignment. It should not 
be forced so tight that it will buckle. The appearance of the floor can be im- 
proved if a little care is exercised in not putting together strips that show too 
great a contrast in color and grain. 

The nailing is very important and should be given special attention. The 
flooring should be nailed at least every 16 inches with 8 case nails. Before 
the nail is driven home the strip should be "shouldered up" against the pre- 
ceding one. The nails should be driven in at an angle of about 55 degrees; if 
the nail is driven too straight, it will split the tongue and will not draw the 
flooring up, and if driven too slanting it will cause the flooring to buckle. Af- 
ter the nail has been driven almost its entire length, it should be given a final 
blow with the hammer, to set it and to draw the flooring tightly together. It 
should not be continually tapped with the hammer after it is driven up, as 
this will work the nail loose again. 

In setting the nail, care should be taken not to bruise the surface or 
tongue of the flooring, as this will leave an opening between the strips and 
mar the appearance of the surface. If the tongue is damaged it should be cut 
off so that it will not prevent the groove of the next piece coming over it 
tightly. 

Hardwood Floors 

Hardwood flooring is always end notched and is furnished in much nar- 
rower widths than pine. The flooring should be bored for the nails to pre- 
vent splitting. 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



275 



In ordering flooring it is always well to bear in mind that an extra per- 
centage should be ordered to take care of tongue and groove. 

On \y% in. face add 47 per cent. 
On 2 in. face add 37 y 2 per cent. 
On 2 l /\ in. face add 33 1/3 per cent. 
On 3)4 hi. face add 25 per cent. 

Hardwood flooring should be laid in the same manner as instructed for 
pine flooring, but usually requires sanding and scraping before applying finish. 
After all the floors are laid and swept, the scraping can be done by ordinary 
scrapers, used by cabinet makers, or by one of the many types of hand or 
power scraping machines that are generally used by carpenters and contractors. 
The scraping should always be lengthwise of the wood and not across the 
grain. A floor properly scraped looks very smooth, but to obtain the best re- 
sults it should be thoroughly gone over with No. \V> sand paper. After this, 
the floor should be swept clean and dust removed with rag or soft cloth. The 
floor is then ready for finish. 



Base Molding and Beam Ceiling 

Base molding is furnished in widths of 6 and 8 inches and is intended to 
be nailed to the plaster grounds at the top and bottom. It is furnished with 
base shoe, which should be nailed on separate. In nailing on the base molding 
bring it down as tightly as possible to the finish floor, and scribe base shoe 
down to floor. 




If it is necessary to splice the base molding, it 
is always a good plan to miter splice. Refer to 
Fig. 235 : the finish flooring "A" passes under the 

Fig. 235 — Base moulding. , c , . ,° ,, x ... 

base and as near plastered wall as possible. 
In some places when the flooring is not level, it is advisable to scribe floor 
to fit flooring. "F" is the plastering against which the base sets, and "EE" 
the plaster grounds or furring which are nailed to studs before lath and 



276 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



plastering is done, so as to provide something against which the base can be 
nailed. 

The base should not, however, be nailed at top and bottom, directly op- 
posite, nail alternately so it will not crack if it should swell. The plastering 
can be carried down behind the place where the base is to go, or not, as de- 
sired. A warmer building can he obtained by plastering down on outside 
walls, but it is not necessary on inside partitions. 

If beam ceilings are furnished for any part of your building, it is always 
a good plan to place plaster grounds on the joist above the beams, so they will 
have a solid nailing. Fig. 236 shows isometric detail of beams and location 
of the different members. Full beams are furnished for center of room and 
half beams to be placed against the walls. 



Stairs 



THE stairs are an important feature of a building. On entering the house 
they are usually the first object to meet the eye and claim attention. 
A pretty, well balanced stairs surely is an asset to the interior of a 
home. Many terms are used in stair construction, and it would be a 
good plan for the reader to make himself familiar with them in order to under- 
stand the instructions which follow. 




Fig. 237 — Front view of standard stairs. 



The terms riser and run arc often used to indicate the horizontal and ver- 
tical dimensions of the stairway, the riser meaning the height from the top of 
the lower floor to the top of the second floor ; and the run meaning the hori- 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



277 



zontal distance from the fare of the first riser to the face' of the last or top 
riser, or, in other words, the distance between the face of the first riser and 
the point where a plumb line from the face of the top riser would strike the 
floor. It is, in fact, simply the distance that the treads would make if put side 
by side and measured together — without, of course, taking in the nosings. 

The body of the stairway in this- room or space in which the stairway is 
contained : 




Fig-. 239 — Side view of standard stairs. 



The Tread: This is the horizontal upper surface of the step, upon 
which the foot is placed. In other words, it is the piece of material which 
forms the step and is made of a width and length to suit the position for which 
it is intended. 

Riser : This is the vertical height of the step. Its duty is to connect 
the treads and to give the stairs strength and solidity. 

String Board : This is the board forming the side of the stairway, con- 
necting with, and supporting the ends of the steps. Where the steps are 
housed, or grooved into the boards, it is known by the term housed string, 
or boxed tread. An open tread is where the stringer is cut out so the treads 
will set on top of it. 



278 ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 

Standard Stairs 

The standard stairs of Aladdin houses is a semi-open stairs; that is, the 
first flight from floor to platform is open, and the second flight from platform 
to second floor is enclosed by partition walls. 

You will find that all the material for the stairs has been crated together 
and should be kept separate from the rest of the material and put in a dry 
place until ready to use. The stairs is not to be erected until after the interior 
walls have thoroughly dried out, and house has been enclosed with sash, and 
outside doors hung. 

Carefully study Figs. 237, 238 and 239 before starting the erection. 
These photographs show the stairs as you would see it if all the walls were 
removed. 

The first step will be to erect the ^4 P ost on the end of the partition next 
to the stairs. This post is constructed of three pieces of Y\ in. finish material, 
and should case around and form a finish on the end of the partition. It also 
supports the upper end of the outside stringer of the first run of stairs. Note 
letter "A." Second step will be to erect the platform; carefully study Fig. 
239 and you will see that the pieces marked "B," "C," "D," are grooved out 
to take the flooring of the platform. Pieces shown by letters "B" and "C" form 
the stringers and platform, and pieces shown by letter "D" form the first 
riser of the second flight of stairs. You will also notice a piece of 2 in. mate- 
rial marked "K" bracing the flooring in the center of the platform. To erect 
the platform first pick out the pieces shown by letters "B," "C," "D," "K," 
and the flooring for platform; nail this together on the floor of building be- 
fore raising into position. Drive the pieces of flooring tightly together and 
toe-nail to the 2 in. brace which comes in the center of the platform. The 
pieces shown by letters "C" of Fig. 239 and "L" of Fig. 237 are notched out 
to receive the ends of this 2 in. brace. The flooring will have to be secured 
into the grooves of pieces shown by letters "B" and "D" by nailing thru these 
pieces into the ends of the flooring. After the platform has been nailed to- 
gether it is ready to raise into position. 

On the floor plan of your building you will notice that the standard 
stairs contains 15 risers, seven from first floor up to platform and eight from 
platform up to second floor. Take a measuring pole and mark off on it the 
distance from first floor to second floor and divide into 15 equal parts. The 
seventh mark up from the bottom will be the top of the platform. Put plat- 
form in place, nailing temporarily at first until you are sure that it is in the 
right position. You are now ready to erect the first flight of stairs. 

Carefully study Fig. 237 and set in place wall stringer "E." Note that 
the top of this stringer forms a finish with the top of platform stringer "B." 
Next, set in place the circle tread "F" and newel post. The outside stringer 
"J" of first flight sets into the newel, and the ^4 partition post is notched out 
to receive the upper end. Then nail in place the two wall stringers of the 
second flight "G" and "H." Note in Fig. 239 that stringer "H" intersects 
with platform stringer "C" and stringer "G" notched into f^ post "A." 

Then nail in place the risers and treads between the different stringers 
and note by letter "M" of Fig. 238 that they are held in place in the routing 
of the stringers by small wedges. Be sure that each riser and tread is square 
and level, and nail the lower edge of each riser to the back of the treads. 

The front edge of each tread is rounded off to form a nosing, and the first 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



279 



piece of flooring on platform and on second floor should be rounded in the 
same manner. Cove molding is furnished to form a finish under the nosing 
of each tread. Next nail in place the molding on the top of the outside 
stringer of the first flight, and also the hand rail running from newel up to Y\ 
post "A," and nail the balusters between these members. The top of the 
stringers is finished with a piece of molding, which, when nailed in place, gives 
them the same appearance as the base molding ; nail these in place and your 
stairs will be complete. 

Standard Attic Stairs 

The term "Standard Attic Stairs" is used to designate the stairs which 
leads from second floor to attic and is usually constructed over the stand- 
ard first floor stairs. It is a closed stairs and is erected between the partition 
surrounding the well opening on second floor. All 
the material has been crated and bundled together 
and marked "Attic Stairs." You will note by study- 
ing detail that this stairs has 12 risers, four from 
second floor to platform and eight from the platform 
to attic floor. The platform is constructed out of 
pieces of 2x6 in. material and is covered with floor- 
ing. Nail the platform together and set in place ; 
take a measuring pole and mark off on it the total 
distance from second floor to attic and then divide 
into twelve equal spaces. The top of the fourth 
space will be the top of the platform. 

Next nail in place the stringers from second floor 
to platform and from platform to attic, and be sure 
they are perfectly level and square. Then nail the 
risers and treads between the stringers, driving the 
small wedges in place to hold them, and nail the 



4 HI A - 

a 

1 3 

3 



Fig-. 240— Standard 
attic stairs. 



lower e 



nd of the risers to the back edge of the treads. The treads have been 




Fig-. 241 — Grade entrance stairs. 



280 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 




Figr. 242 — Grade entrance stairs. 



rounded off to form a nosing over the risers, and small moldings have been 
furnished to finish between the treads and risers. 



Standard Grade Entrance Stairs 

This stairs is used to enter at grade under standard stairs, with one flight 
from grade platform to cellar floor and other flight from grade platform to 
first floor of building. 

All the material for the stairs has been crated or bundled together and 
marked -'Grade Entrance Stairs." The standard stairs is intended to be used 
on a 2 ft. 8 in. grade. Carefully study Figs. 241, 242 and 243. 









y D< 


>WN 






11. 


1 




t. 


7 


& 


9. 


10 


1 


+. 







5. 






a. 






l 









i 


12. 








£ 


11. 




a 

D 


3. 


IB. 




f 


* 


9. 




l 


1 * 


^Y^S 














"■■»■'> ' ' A '■ 






n 









Fig-. 243 — Standard gTade entrance stairs. 



Fig. 244 — Standard No. 4 addition 
grade stairs. 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



281 



The opening in the wall for the grade door should be 2 ft. 8 in. below 
the top of wall, and the platform should not flush with opening. The plat- 
form is constructed of 2x6 in. material and is covered with flooring. Nail 
the frame together and floor over, being careful to toe-nail each piece of floor- 
ing to all bearings and be sure that each joint is drawn up tightly into the 
ing to all bearings, and be sure that each joint is drawn up tightly into the 
preceding piece. The platform, you will notice, on Fig. 242 is supported by 
placing a 2x4 at each corner ; spike these pieces in place and be sure that the 
platform sets perfectly level. Next nail in place the stringers that go from 
platform to cellar and from platform to first floor and be sure they are per- 
fectly level and square. Then nail in place the risers and treads. The front 
edge of the treads is rounded off so as to form a nosing over risers. The 
first piece of flooring on platform and first floor should be rounded off in the 
same manner to form a nosing over last risers of first and second flights. 

Fig. 244 shows another style of grade entrance stairs, commonly used 
in the "Style No. 4" addition, and is to be constructed in the same manner as 
the "Standard Grade Entrance." This stairs is constructed to fit 2 ft. in. 
and 2 ft. 8 in. grades. You will find all the material fur same bundled to- 
gether and marked "Grade Stairs." 



Fig. 245 — Packing- of Aladdin olosette. 




Aladdin Closette 

THE material for Aladdin closettes is 
all crated and bundled together in 
one package as shown by Fig. 245. 
To assemble the closette refer to Fit;. 
246, which shows the two side panels at- 
tached to the top and bottom and the part- 
ing shelf nailed in place. When this much 
of the frame is nailed together, square it up 
and nail on a few braces on the front edges 
of panels, then refer to Fig. 247, which 
shows the back ceiled over and the frame or 
casings nailed on front with one door hung 
in place. Note method of inhering mold- 
ing around the top of closette. 

The casings around the top and bottom 
are set so that the bottom and top boards 
form a stop for the doors. Fig. 248 shows 
closette complete with hardware attached. 
The hardware is all placed in a small bag 
and marked "Closette Hardware Set." 



Fig. 246 — Nailing closette togtheer. 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 





Fig. 247— Aladdin closette. 



Fig-. 248 — Aladdin closette complete 




ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 283 



Painting 



THIS step in building construction is a very important one, but is often 
neglected because some people do not realize the difference in value 
and appearance between the proper decorating of the exterior and in- 
terior of the building. 

It is very important that the building get the proper attention in this 
matter, as it is absolutely necessary in order to insure the work against the 
elements to which it is exposed. 

The outside of the house is painted either in whole or in part ; the in- 
terior may be painted, stained and varnished, oiled and varnished or enameled. 
Some houses have the outside walls partly covered with shingles, which are 
always stained or painted, but the stain or paint is applied for the purpose of 
preserving the shingles. 

Paints are furnished either in a liquid form ready to use, or a readi-col- 
ored lead which has to be thinned out before using. 

It is our purpose on this subject, to describe only the best and approved 
methods. It will be understood and certainly observed in practice, that these 
methods may be abbreviated by the omission of some details. For instance, it 
is" difficult to get an interior finish sand papered or rubbed between coats, but 
this is the right practice and will depreciate the value of the building if it is 
not done. 

The methods herein described are not extravagant ; they are for fairly 
good structure, truly economical, and we are not considering temporary build- 
ings, but those that will last for years. 

As to making selections that will harmonize, we will not try to do so, 
as the selections of paint will depend largely upon the locality and the sur- 
rounding property. 

Readi-colored Lead 

The readi-colored lead which is furnished by us, is ground in pure raw 
linseed oil, to the consistency of white lead. It is durable, economical and 
practical and is one of the best paint pigments made in a lead or paste form. 

The surface to be painted must be clean, dry and free from grease, dust 
or dirt. All the knots and pitchy spots or places containing sap if any, should 
be well shellaced in order to prevent the heat and elements of the air from 
drawing them out over the surface of the paint. 

In mixing the lead into a liquid form, use a large keg or can so that 
enough paint for one coat can be mixed at one time. This will enable you to 
have the different coats placed over the wall uniformly. 

In mixing or breaking up the paint, use a flat paddle, as large as can be 
handled easily. Paint cannot be thoroughly stirred with a round stick ; neither 
can it be mixed thoroughly with a round motion. It must be stirred from the 
bottom up in order to thoroughly combine the oil and lead. 

The oil or thinner should be added gradually to insure a smooth and uni- 
form result in the mixture. If all the thinner is placed in the lead at one 
time, it will become lumpy and will necessitate straining before using. 

It is a very good plan to mix the lead a day or so before it is to be used, 
;is this will allow all the materials to become thoroughly mixed. After it is 



284 ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 

mixed, keep the keg well covered so that a skin will not form over the top. 

Do not apply the paint too thick, as it will not adhere to the wood as it 
should, and then will peel off in a very short time. 

The various surfaces to he covered, differ as to the amount of paint they 
will take, as some woods will take up more than others ; but under ordinary 
circumstances \2 l / 2 pounds of lead mixed to the proportion given below will 
cover three hundred square feet, or about 4 pounds to a square, for two coats. 

The following will tell how to figure the amount needed, using for ex- 
ample a building 30x40 feet with an average height of 18 feet: 

Front wall 540 feet 

Back wall 540 feet 

Side walls 1,440 feet 



2,520 feet, 
or about 25 squares. 

25x4 equals 100 pounds required to paint a house 30x40 feet, two coats. 

For outside work, mix the paint in the following proportions : Priming 
coat, 100 pounds of lead, G]A gallons pure boiled linseed oil; Finishing coat, 
100 pounds lead, 5 gallons pure boiled linseed oil. 

Applying Paint 

The first step is to see that the surface to be painted is perfectly clean, free 
from sand, grease, oil or stain. Then all the knots and pitchy spots should be 
covered with shellac which prevents the heat and elements of the air from 
letting the pitch come thru and show upon the surface of the paint. After 
this is done, apply the first or priming coat. 

This coat should be put on very thin, that is, it should be mostly oil, as it 
is almost all taken up by the wood and will require a great deal more paint 
than the second coat. The second coat, well brushed out, will cover about 
twice as much surface as the first. Priming coats are used on both exterior 
and interior painting. 

Each coat should be given sufficient time to dry out thoroughly before 
the next one is applied. This will take a week or ten days. 

Between the priming and the second coat, all the nail heads and cracks 
should be filled up with putty. Many painters neglect the nail heads, but 
this is a bad practice, as they will rust and stain the walls. 

Do not use the paint too heavy. 

Do not use in damp, cold weather, especially on new wood, as it will be 
damp to some extent and the oil in the paint will not adhere to it as it should. 

To get uniform results, the paint must be kept a uniform consistency. 

Brushes 

A brush which has only a low price to recommend it will prove a poor in- 
vestment. If properly cared for, brushes will last a long time, and therefore, 
it pays to have good ones. Inferior brushes contain inferior bristles and will 
not insure a good job. "A good workman must have good tools." 

Paint brushes are made round, flat and oval. The favorite brushes for 
outside work have bristles about 2 l / 2 inches long, oval brushes or round 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 285 

brushes, 2, that is, large, round brushes with long bristles. These brushes are 
recommended by the paint committee of the American Society of Testing Ma- 
terials. A fiat brush is heavy and hard to work the paint with. A few round 
or flat brushes of smaller sizes called "sash tools" are needed for work around 
trim, window frames and sash. Flat brushes from one to 2y 2 inches in width 
are the best to be used for varnishing and interior work. 

Brushes should be kept clean and soft and not allowed to become dry with 
paint or varnish in the bristles. To prevent this, wash them out in oil or tur- 
pentine as soon as you are thru using them. If used in shellac, wash out in 
alcohol, or they may be left in the paint or varnish for a few days, but when 
you are ready to put them away, wash out thoroughly, first with oil or tur- 
pentine and then soap and water. 

Fillers 

The surface to be stained should be dry. smooth and free from grease, 
dust or dirt. Apply a thin coat of shellac to all knots, pitchy or sappy places. 

This filler is a composition dye and filler. It should be poured out of 
bottle into can and thoroughly mixed before applying. Stir the contents from 
the bottom up, with a flat wooden paddle. It is very important that all the 
pigment in the stain become thoroughly mixed in order to get a uniform dye 
on wood. Stain if left exposed to the air, has a tendency to become fatty. 
This makes it work hard under the brush, retards its drying and in some cases 
causes it to run. To prevent this, the stain not used should be poured back 
into bottle and cover put on in order to keep air from the stain. This is im- 
portant, as it prevents oxidation and evaporation, also keeps the stain a 
uniform consistency. The slip cover fits the bottle snugly. 

After jthe stain has been applied to the wood, it should be rubbed off with 
a wad of excelsior, a clean cloth, or piece of felt, which will do away with any 
dust that may have settled upon the stain, and also a part of the pigment in it 
which stays on top of the wood. 

If any thinner is needed in the stain, do not use linseed oil. Add a very 
little turpentine. The addition of turpentine will lighten the color of the 
stain. 

A free circulation of air is needed in a building in order to have any kind 
of stain, paint or varnish dry properly. 

After the stain has been properly applied and dried out, the shellac, 
varnish or wax should be put on. The shellac or varnish applied in a cold 
temperature becomes thick and it cannot be applied easily. 

All the nail heads and cracks should be well filled with putty which has 
been stained the same color as the wood. Do not apply the putty before the 
wood has been stained. 



Flat Finish 

The flat finish paints which are furnished by us are very practical and 
sanitary. They will produce a smooth, velvet, dull surface which can be put 
on new walls, burlap or walls which have been kalsomined. They are very 
sanitary as they can be washed with soap and water, and will not become 
spotted by the water, as they are moisture proof. 



286 ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 

Painting Plastered Walls 

Old plastered walls may be painted with oil or enameled paints as though 
they were wood, remembering that the priming coat will have almost all of its 
oil absorbed by the plaster. Newly plastered walls do not take paint well, on 
account of the alkaline character which will gradually disappear when ex- 
posed to the elements of the atmosphere. 

It is well to have a wall remain unpainted at least a year; but if it is 
necessary to paint a freshly plastered wall, it can be prepared by washing with 
a solution of sugar in vinegar, the sugar uniting the lime to some extent ; or, 
more commonly, by washing it first with a strong solution of soap. After 
this is dry, it is washed with clear water, allowed to dry and then painted. 
The alum and soap form an insolvable compound which closes the pores of 
the plaster to some extent and prevents the lime from acting on the paint. 



Re-painting 

If the old paint has been on a long time, it is liable to be permeated by 
small cracks which admit moisture to the surface of the wood and will loosen 
the paint. Thus, if you paint over this, the new paint, which shrinks in dry- 
ing, tends to peel off the old paint, and of course, the whole peels off in places. 
If the old paint is in this state it should be removed before the new paint is 
applied. This can be done by burning it off. 

For this work, a painter's torch is required, which is a lamp burning al- 
cohol, gasoline, or kerosene, and is so constructed that a blast of flame can be 
directed against the surface. This melts or softens the old paint and it can 
be easily scraped off with a steel scraper or wire brush. 

SHINGLE STAIN: The shingle stain furnished by us is one of the 
best brands obtainable. It is made of creosote and other wood-preserving and 
penetrating oils, and can be used on all shingles, or exterior wooden surfaces 
(rough or smooth) . It brings out the grain of the wood in an artistic manner, 
and for producing a soft, velvet effect, is unequaled. 

Some people prefer to dip the shingles into the stain, but this method has 
not given satisfaction, in that too much time is wasted. We advise that the 
stain be applied to the shingles with a brush. The shingle stain has been 
furnished in an oil and coloring form. When mixing be sure to work to a 
consistent color before applying; try your stain on a few shingles first to be 
sure that it is the shade you desire. In applying be sure to brush it into and 
between the shingles, so all the exposed surface of shingles will be colored. 
It requires about 1 gallon of shingle stain to brush coat 1,000 shingles if care- 
fully applied. 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 287 



Varnishing 



A VARNISH is a liquid made to be applied to a surface in a thin form, 
which, when exposed to the air, hardens into a protective coating 
which is usually gloss}' and almost transparent. It preserves the 
wood to which it is applied from being affected by the elements of 
the air. Varnish is made in two forms, shellac and resinous varnish. 

The two kinds of shellac are orange, which is the natural shellac color, 
and white shellac, which is made by bleaching with chlorine. Orange shellac 
is the better of the two. 

Before applying the varnish, the wood should be perfectly dry. For this 
reason, it is necessary to clean it by sanding. Avoid water on wood as much 
as possible. 

Under proper conditions, it should first receive a filler, if it is an open 
grained wood. A close grained wood does not need a filler, but a filler is some- 
times used. When such is the case, rub it in well so as to get it into the pores 
of the wood. This rubbing should not be done until the stain has set, say in 
15 or 20 minutes after it has been applied. It is a good plan to let it stand 
a couple of days before the shellac or varnish is put on. 

Window sills, jambs, inside stops and other surfaces exposed to the direct 
rays of the sun and light should be treated as interior woodwork and are to be 
varnished. 

The varnish should be put on in a thin coat, well brushed out and ap- 
plied with the grain as much as possible. Always apply varnish in a warm 
temperature, as it will get gummy if put on in cold weather. Do not allow it 
to dry too quickly. Sufficient time must be given each coat to dry thoroughly. 
Under ordinary conditions, this will take about one week. 



288 ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



Instructions for Reversing Buildings 

MANY of our customers, when purchasing houses, wish to have them 
furnished so they can he erected reversed, or just the opposite to the 
original layout. This is often done in order to have the main rooms 
come on the pleasant side of the street or lot. This change does not 
require any change in material excepting on stair work. The same bill of 
material will work out either way. 

If possible, we try to retrace the plans so they will be shown reversed, 
but if this cannot be done we stamp the blue prints so there can be no mistake 
in erection. 



Part IV 

Garages, Barns and 
Summer Cottages 






290 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



Garages 

Introduction 

First read over paragraph I. on page 209, pertaining to unloading and 
care of material, and introductory paragraph on page 209. Paragraph II, on 
page 211, special note regarding change on blueprints, paragraph on page 
212, explanation of blueprints and measurements. Carefully read the para- 
graphs on page 213. 

For the roofing, shingling and painting of garages, the instructions will 
be the same as those furnished for the house, and by referring to these para- 
graphs on these subjects, complete information can be obtained. 

If windows are furnished with the garage, the details are practically the 
same as those for houses, with the exception of interior trim. This is not fur- 
nished in garage construction. 



Instructions for Erection of Buick Garage Size 8x14 



Paragraph 1 
Explanation -of Different Figures 
Fig. 1 shows floor plan of building. 
Fig. 2 shows construction of 2x4 studding, 
tersection of 2x4 plates at top and bottom. 

Fig. 3 shows arrangement of siding and out: 



on Blueprints 

in right side wall. Note in- 
side finish over Fig. 2. 




Fig. 4 shows construction of 2x4 studding in left side wall. 
Fig. 5 shows arrangement of siding and outside finish over Fig. 
Fig. 6 shows construction of studding in front wall. 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 291 

Fig. 7 shows arrangement of siding and outside finish over front wall. 

Fig. 8 shows construction of studding in back of building. 

Fig. 9 shows arrangement of siding and outside finish over back wall. 

Fig. 10 shows arrangement of rafters as they are placed over both sides 
of building; also shows length of 1x4 in. roof sheathing. 

The four details show — gable siding, double doors, section thru eave of 
building at gable and section of eave at side of building. 

Paragraph 2 

It is intended that this garage is to set on a foundation of posts, a foun- 
dation wall or cement floor bolting the 2x4 sill plates to same. 

These 2x4 sill plates are shown at the bottom of Figs. 2, 4, 6 and 8. If 
the building is to be erected on a cement floor, bolt the 2x4's shown at the 
bottom of Figs. 2, 4, 6 and 8 to the cement. Then the second 2x4 sill plates 
can be nailed up with wall, and then the wall nailed to the 2x4 plates fastened 
to cement floor. 

If the garage is to be erected on posts, both sill plates can be nailed up 
with wall and then spiked to posts. 

First refer to Fig. 2 and take two 2x4's 14 ft. in. long and mark off on 
them the distance showing location of studs as shown by this figure on blue- 
prints. Then nail the 2x4 studs 7 ft. in. long in between them. Nail in 
place the second set of 2x4's 13 ft. A l / 2 in. long. (Note this second set drops 
back 3^4 in. from each end to allow intersection of 2x4's from front and back 
walls.) Then raise the wall in position on foundation posts and hold in place 
with temporary supports until remaining walls have been erected. Then in 
the same manner erect Figs. 4, 6 and 8, carefully nailing them together at the 
corners, and see that they are perfectly square and level with each other. 

Paragraph 3 

It is a good plan to place siding on studding before rafters, as it will 
strengthen the walls. Two pieces of 2x4's 8 ft. in. long and mitered off at 
each end so they will not extend above rafters, have been furnished to tie 
side walls of building together. These have been marked "Collar Beams." 
Nail them in place at this time. 

Next take siding and start putting it on from the bottom of the build- 
ing; being very careful to drive each piece tight against the one below, and 
securely nail it so the joints will not open up afterwards. Carefully read 
paragraph on Siding in Part III. 

Paragraph 4 
Next refer to Fig. 10, which shows construction of roof plan of building. 
First space off on top plates of side walls the location of rafters. Then take 
1x4 in. pieces of sheathing marked "Ridge" and space off the location of 
rafters on it. Start at one end of building and commence nailing the 
rafters on both sides of the roof. Be very careful to see that the ridge is kept 
level and in line with building. A chalk line should he placed on ends of 
rafters where they project down on building, and if when all rafters have been 
erected you find that one does not line up with the rest, saw it off. A few 
pieces of roof sheathing should be nailed on rafters about in the center so as 
to help keep them in line. Be sure that the rafters on which the sheathing is 
to be nailed are placed exactly as shown on blueprints. 



292 ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 

Paragraph 5 

The next step will be to place the mitered studs in the gables of the build- 
ing. Place the center stud first and then nail in place the two at each side. 
You will find this mitered studding marked "Gable Fig. 6" and "Gable Fig. 
8." 

Then take siding marked "Gable Siding Fig. 7" and "Gable Siding Fig. 
9" and side up the gables in the same manner as you did the side walls of 
building, being careful to nail each piece tight down against the one below it. 

Paragraph 6 
The covering of the roof is the next step in erection. The roof sheath- 
ing has all been marked "Roof Sheathing" and has been furnished in lengths 
to correspond to those on blueprints. When shingles have been furnished to 
cover roof, the sheathing has been furnished in 1x4 in. widths, and is to be 
placed over the rafters, laying it 2 in. apart, that is, a piece of sheathing and 
a space should cover 6 in. The sheathing is so spaced in order to allow air to 
get underneath the wood shingles and help in drying them out after they have 
become soaked by heavy rains. If the roof sheathing is laid tight and wood 
shingles furnished, the space between the shingles and roof sheathing is very 
apt to become moldy in damp weather. When semi-slate shingles, roofing, 
tin shingles, or slate are to be used as roof covering, the roof sheathing is 
usually furnished in 1x6 in. widths and is to be laid tight together over the 
rafters. 

Paragraph 7 
On the blueprints you will find an isometric quarter full sized detail of 
eaves at sides of building, illustrating boxing in of rafter ends and of eaves 
that extend out over side walls, showing boxing in of end of roof sheathing 
that projects out over gables. The material for boxing in the eave has all been 
marked "Eaves." Take this material and box in the eaves as shown by details. 
Finishing, eight case or small headed nails should be used for this purpose, 
so that the heads can be set into the wood and puttied up. Next nail together 
material for doors and hang doors in place. 

Paragraph 8 
The next step will be to place on the roof covering. Refer to shingling 
or roofing paragraph of General Instructions. 

Paragraph 9 
Last step, paint the building. Refer to Paint Paragraph of General 
Instructions. 



Instructions for the Erection of Buick Garage 10x16 

Paragraph 1 
Explanation of different figures on blueprints 
Fig. 1 shows floor plan of building. 

Fig. 2, construction of 2x4 studding in right wall. Note intersection of 
plates at top and bottom. 

Fig. 3, arrangement of siding and outside finish over Fig. 2. 
Fig. 4, construction of 2x4 studding in left side wall. 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 293 

Fig. 5, arrangement of siding and outside finish over Fig. 4. 

Fig. 6, construction of studding in front wall, also arrangement of gable 
studding and position of rafters in gable. 

Fig. 7, arrangement of siding and outside finish over front wall. 

Fig. 8, construction of studding in back wall. 

Fig. 9, arrangement of siding and outside finish over back wall. 

Fig. 10, arrangement of rafters as they are placed over both sides of 
roof, also shows lengths of 1x4 in. roof sheathing. 

The four details show gable siding, double doors, section thru eave of 
building at gable and section of eave at side of .building. 



Paragraph 2 

It is intended that this garage is to set on a foundation of posts, a 
foundation wall or cement floor, bolting the 2x4 sill plates to same. These 
2x4 sills are shown at the bottom of Figs. 2, 4, 6 and 8. If the building is to 
be erected on a cement floor, bolt the 2x4's shown at the bottom of Figs. 2, 4, 
6 and 8 to the cement, the second 2x4 sill plates can be nailed up with 
wall, and then the wall nailed to 2x4 plates fastened to cement floor. If the 
garage is to be erected on posts, both sill plates can be nailed up with wall 
and then spiked to posts. 

First refer to Fig. 2 and take two 2x4's 16 ft. in. long and mark off 
on them, the distance showing the location of studs as shown by this figure 
on blue print. Then nail all the 2x4 studs 7 ft. in. long in between them, 
nail in place the second set of 2x4\s 15 ft. 4^ in. long. (Note this second 
set drops back 3$4 m - from each end to allow intersection of 2x4's from front 
and back wall.) Now raise this wall in position on foundation posts and 
hold in place with temporary supports until remaining walls have been 
erected. Then in the same manner erect Figs. 4, 6 and 8, carefully nailing 
them together at the corners, and sec that they are perfectly square and level 
with each other. 

Paragraph 3 

It is a good plan to place siding on studding before rafters, as it will 
strengthen the walls. Two pieces of 2x4's 10 ft. in. long and inhered off 
each end so they will not extend above rafters have been furnished to tie 
side walls of building together. These have been marked "Collar Beams." 
Nail them in place at this time. 

Next take siding and start putting it on from the bottom of the building, 
being very careful to drive each piece tight against the one below, and securely 
nailing it so the joints will not open up afterwards. 

Paragraph 4 

Now refer to Fig. 10 which shows construction of roof plan of building. 
First space off on top plates of side walls the location of rafters. Then take 
1x4 in. pieces of sheathing marked "Ridge" and space off the location of 
rafters on it. Start at one end of building and commence erecting the 
rafters on both sides of the roof. Be very careful to see that the ridge is kept' 



294 ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 

Level, and in line with building. A chalk line- should be placed on ends of raft 
its where they project down on building, and if, when all rafters have been 
erected, you find one does not line up with the rest, saw it off. A few pieces 
of roof sheathing should be nailed on rafters about in the center so as to help 
keep them in line. He sure that the rafters, on which the sheathing is to break. 
are placed exactly as shown on blueprints. 

Paragraph 5 

The next step will be to place the inhered studs in the gables of the 
building. Place the center stud first and then nail in place the two at each 
side. You will find this inhered studding marked "Gable Fig. 6" and "Gable 
Fig. 8." ^ 

Then take siding marked "Gable Siding Fig. 7" and "Gable Siding Fig. 
9" and side up the gables in the same manner as you did the side walls of 
building, being careful to nail each piece tight down against the one below it. 

Paragraph 6 

The covering of the roof is the next step in erection. The roof sheathing 
has all been marked "Roof Sheathing" and has been furnished in lengths to 
correspond to those shown on blueprints. When shingles have been supplied to 
cover roof, the sheathing has been furnished in 1x4 in. widths and is to be 
placed over the rafters, laying it 2 in. apart ; that is, a piece of sheathing and 
a space should cover 6 in. The sheathing is so spaced in order to allow air to 
get underneath the wood shingles, and help in drying them out after they have 
become soaked by heavy rains. If the roof sheathing is laid tight, and wood 
shingles furnished, the space between the shingles and roof sheathing is very 
apt to become moldy in damp weather. 

In placing the sheathing over rafters, each run should be alternated as 
shown on blueprints. 

When semi -slate shingles, roofing, tin shingles or slate are to be used as 
roof covering, the roof sheathing is usually furnished in 1x6 in. widths and 
is to be laid tight together over the rafters. 

Paragraph 7 

On the blueprints you will find an isometric, quarter lull sized detail of 
eave at sides of building, showing boxing-in of rafter ends, and of eave that 
extends out over gable illustrating boxing-in of end of roof sheathing that 
projects out over gables. The material for boxing-in the eave has all been 
marked "Eaves." Take this material and box in the eaves as shown by detail. 
Finishing, eight case, or small headed nails should be used for this purpose, 
so that the heads can be set into the wood and puttied up. Then nail together 
material for doors and hang the doors in place. 

Paragraph S 

The next step will be to place on the roof covering. Refer to roofing or 
shingling paragraph of General Instructions. 

The instructions for painting garages are the same as those furnished for 
houses. Refer to Par. on Paint. 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



Instructions for the Erection of the Maxwell Garage 10x16 



Paragraph 1 
Explanation of different ftgrurt 
1 shows floor plan of building. 



Note inter - 

2. 



on blueprints 

Fig. 

Fig. 2 shows construction ol 2x4 studding in right wal 
section of plates at top and bottom. 

Fig. 3 shows arrangement of sheathing and outside finish over Fi 

Fig. 4 shows construction of 2x4 studding in left wall. 

Fig. 5 shows arrangement of sheathing and outside finish over Fig. 4. 

Fig. 6 shows construction of studding in back wall, also arrangement 
of gable studding and position of rafters in gable. 

Fig. 7 shows arrangement of sheathing and outside finish over back 



Fig. 
Fie. 



snows c< 



itruction of stu< 



Lg in front wal 



hows arrangement of sheathing and outside finish over front 



Fig. 10 shows arrangement of rafters as they are placed over both sides 
of roof, also shows length of 1x4 in. roof sheathing and roof ceiling. 

The four details show gable sheathing, double doors, section thru eave 
of building at gable and section of eave at side of building. 



It is intended that this 
foundation wall or cement fl< 



Paragraph 2 
garage is to set on a foundation of 
or bolting, the 2x4 sill plates to same. 



posts, a 
These 
2x4 sills are shown at the bottom of 
Figs. 2, 4, 6 and 8. If the building is 
to be erected on a cement floor, bolt the 
2x4's shown at the bottom of Figs. 2, 4, 
6 and 8 to the cement, the second 
2x4 sill plates can be nailed up with 
wall, and then the wall nailed to 2x4 
plates fastened to cement floor. If the 
garage is to be erected on posts, both 
sill plates can be nailed up with wall 
and then spiked to posts. 

First refer to Fig. 2 and take two 
2x4's 16 ft. in. long and mark off 
on them, the distance showing the location of studs as illustrated by this figure 
on blueprint. Then nail all the 2x4 studs 8 ft. in. long, in between them, 
nail in place the second set of 2x4's 15 ft. \]A in. long. (Note this second 
set drops back ZV\ in. from each end to allow intersection of 2x4's from front 
and back wall). Now raise this wall in position on foundation posts and 
hold in place with temporary supports until remaining walls have been 
erected. Then in the same manner erect Figs. 4, 6 and 8. carefully nail- 
ing them together at the comers, ami see thai they are perfectly square and 
level with each oilier. 




The Maxwell. 



It is a good plan to j 
as it will strengthen the w; 



Paragraph 3 

sheathing on studding before erecting rafters. 
Two pieces of 2x4's 10 ft. (> in. long and mi- 



296 ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 

tered off at each end so they will not extend above rafters have been furnished 
to tie side walls of building together. These have been marked "Collar 
Beams." Nail them in place at this time. 

Next take sheathing and start putting it on from bottom of the building, 
being very careful to drive each piece tight against the one below, and secure- 
ly nailing it, alternate the lengths as shown on blueprints. 

Paragraph 4 

Now refer to Fig. 10 showing construction of roof plan of building. 
First space off on top plates of side walls the location of rafters. Then take 
1x4 in. pieces of sheathing marked "Ridge" and space off the location of 
rafters on them. Start at one end of the building and commence nailing 
the rafters on both sides of the roof. Be very careful to see that the ridge 
is kept level and in line with building. A chalk line should be placed on ends 
of rafters where they project down on building, and if. when all rafters have 
been erected, you find that one does not line up with the rest, saw it off. A 
few pieces of roof sheathing should be nailed on rafters about in the center, 
so as to help keep them in line. Be sure that the rafters on which the 
sheathing is to break are placed exactly as shown on blueprints. 

Paragraph 5 

The next step will be to place the mitere'd studs in the gables of the 
building. Place the center stud first and then nail in place the two at each 
side. You will find this mitered studding marked "Gable Fig. 6" and "Gable 
Fig. 8." 

Then take sheathing marked "Gable Sheathing Fig. 7" and "Gable 
Sheathing Fig. 9," and sheath up the gables in the same manner as you did 
the side walls of the building, being careful to nail each piece down tight 
against the one below it. 

Paragraph 6 

The covering of the roof is the next step in erection. The roof sheathing 
has all been marked "Roof Sheathing" and has been furnished in lengths to 
correspond to those shown on blueprints. Roof Sheathing has been furnished 
to go in center of rafters, but over the eaves at gable ends and end of rafters, 
roof ceiling has been furnished so as to give the eaves a neat appearance. When 
shingles have been supplied to cover roof, the sheathing has been furnished 
in 1x4 in. widths and is to be placed over the rafters, laying it 2 in. apart, 
that is, a piece of sheathing and a space should cover 6 in. The sheathing is 
so spaced in order to allow air to get underneath the wood shingles, and help 
in drying them out after they have become soaked by heavy rains. If the 
roof sheathing is laid tight, and wood shingles furnished, the space between 
the shingles and roof sheathing is very apt to become moldy in damp weather. 

In placing roof ceiling on rafters be sure to drive each piece down tightly 
against the one below it, and securely toe-nail it in place. 

When semi-slate shingles, roofing, tin shingles or slate are to be used as 
roof covering, the roof sheathing is usually furnished in 1x6 in. widths and is 
to be laid tight together over the rafters. 

Paragraph 7 
( )n the blueprints you will find an isometric, quarter full sized detail of 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 297 

eave at sides of building showing small cove mold on ends of rafters, and at 
top of frieze. Take material marked "Outside Finish" and nail in place as 
shown on Figs. 3, 5, 7 and 9. The pieces of 2x6 furnished to go in gable ends 
for facia are to be nailed on underside of roof ceiling. The side walls of build- 
ing are to be shingled in same manner as roof. If siding is furnished instead of 
shingles it should be nailed in place just after roof has been shingled. Then 
hang door in place and set sash. 

Paragraph 8 
The next step will be to place on the roof covering. Refer to roofing and 
shingling paragraphs. For painting and shingle stain instructions refer to 
Part III. 

Instructions for theQErection of the Winton Garage 12x20 

Paragraph 1 
Explanation of different figures on blueprints 

Fig. 1 shows floor plan of building. 

Fig. 2 shows construction of 4x4 sills. 

Fig. 3 shows arrangement and construction of 2x4 studs in right wall. 

Fig. 4 shows arrangement of siding and outside finish over Fig. 3. 

Fig. 5 shows construction of 2x4 studding in left wall. 

Fig. 6 shows arrangement of siding and outside finish over Fig. 5. 

Fig. 7 shows construction of studding in front wall. 

Fig. 8 shows arrangement of siding and outside finish over front wall. 

Fig. 9 shows construction of studding in back wall. 

Fig. 10 shows arrangement of siding and outside finish over back wall. 

Fig. 11 shows arrangement of rafters as they are placed over both sides 
of roof. It also shows position of the two 2x4 collar beams or ceiling joists. 

The four details show Roof Sheathing, double doors, section thru eave of 
building and boxing in end of rafter. 

Paragraph 2 
It is intended that this garage is to set on a foundation of posts, a 
foundation wall or cement floor, bolting 4x4 sills to same. These 4x4 sills are 
shown at the bottom of Figs. 3, 5, 7, 

9 and in Fig. 2. If the building is to be £ | ... t^ g 

erected on a cement floor bolt the 4x4 f ^y 
shown at the bottom of Figs. 3, 5, 7 and ^gBKSSwmmm 
9 to the cement, and erect the walls by I 111! 1110 

toe nailing the studs to the sills. I 1111 ► ____ 

If the garage is to be erected on 9 ■■■■ ■■■■ 

posts, the sills can be nailed up with I 
walls and spiked to posts after the walls w^L 

First refer to Fig. 3 and take 4x4's 1^ ■■■- 
20 ft. in., one 2x4 12 ft. in. and one The winton> 

8 ft. in. long and mark off on them the spaces showing the location of 
studs in this figure on the blueprints. Then nail all the 2x4 studs 8 ft. in. 
long in between them, nail in place the second set of 2x4's 12 ft. in. and 
7 ft. 4y 2 in. long. (Note this second set drops back 3^4 in. from each end to 



298 ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 

allow intersection of 2x4's from front and hack wall.) Now raise this wall 
in position on foundation posts and hold in place with temporary supports 
until remaining walls have been erected. In the same manner erect 
Figs. 5, 7 and 9, carefully nailing them together at the corners and see that 
they are perfectly square and level with each other. 

Paragraph 3 

It is a good plan to place siding on studding before erecting rafters, 
as it will strengthen the walls. Two pieces of 2\4's 12 ft. in. long and 
mitered off at each end, so that they will not extend above rafters have been 
furnished to tie side walls of building together. These have been marked 
"Collar Beams" or "Ceiling Joists." Nail them in place at this time and 
be sure that they are placed so that they will not interfere with rafters. 

Next take siding and start putting on from the bottom of the building, 
being very careful to drive each piece tight against the one below and securely 
nailing it so that joints will not open up afterwards. Use 5d common nails 
for the Siding. 

Paragraph 4 

Now refer to big. 11 which shows construction of rafter plan of build- 
ing. First space off on top plates of side walls, the location of the seat 
of rafters. Then take 2x4 pieces marked "Ridge" and space off the location of 
rafters on both sides, and place at each end a pair of main rafters 
and raise this part of roof in position on l '\ pitch. Then place another 
pair of main rafters, one at each end coming down over front and back 
walls. Securely nail this section of roof, and set in place four 2x4 hip 
rafters. Then the rest of main rafters and jacks. A few pieces of roof 
sheathing should be nailed on rafters about in center so as to help keep in line. 

Be sure that the rafters on which the sheathing is to break are placed 
exactly as shown on the blueprints. Be very careful to see that the ridge is 
kept level and that each rafter lines up. When all rafters have been erected 
and you find that one rafter does not line up with the rest, saw it off. 

Paragraph 5 

The covering of the roof is the next step in erection. The Roof Sheath- 
ing has all been marked "Roof Sheathing" and has been furnished in lengths 
to correspond with the Roof Sheathing details. When shingles have been fur- 
nished to cover roof, the sheathing has been supplied in 1x4 in. widths and 
is to be placed over the rafters, laying it 2 in. apart, that is, a piece of 
sheathing and space should cover 6 in. The sheathing; is so spaced in order that 
air can get underneath the wood shingles, and help in drying them out after 
they become soaked with heavy rains. 

If the Roof Sheathing is laid tight and w-ood shingles furnished, the 
space between the shingles and roof sheathing is very apt to become moldy in 
damp weather. 

When semi-slate shingles, roofing, tin shingles, or slate are to be used as 
roof covering, the roof sheathing is usually furnished in 1x6 in. widths and is 
to be laid tight together over the rafters. 

On the blueprints you will find an isometric quarter full sized detail of 
eave of building, showing boxing-in of rafter ends. The material for boxing- in 
the eaves has all been marked "Eaves." Take this material and box in the 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 299 

eaves as shown by details. Finishing, eight case, or small headed nails should 
be used for this purpose, so that the heads can be set into wood and puttied up. 
Then nail in place pieces of outside finish, door frames and two small window 
frames. Hang door and fit sash in frames. 

The next step will be to place on the Roof Covering. Refer to roofing 
or shingling Par. of General Instructions. For painting instructions refer to 
Part III. 

Instructions for the Erection of the Packard Garage 20x20 

Paragraph 1 
Explanation of different figures on blueprints 

Fig. 1 shows floor plan of building. 

Fig. 2 shows construction of 4x4 sills supporting building. 

Fig. 3 shows arrangement and construction of 2x4 studs in front wall. 

Fig. 4 shows arrangement of siding and outside finish on Fig. 3. 

Fig. 5 shows construction of 2x4 studding in back wall. 

Fig. 6 shows arrangement of siding and outside finish over Fig. 5. 

Fig. 7 shows construction of studding in left wall. Also construction 
of gable studding. 

Fig. 8 shows arrangement of siding and outside finish over left wall. 

Fig. 9 shows construction of studding in right wall and right wall gable 
studding. 

Fig. 10 shows arrangement of siding and outside finish over right wall. 

Fig. 11 shows arrangement of rafters as they are placed over both sides 
of roof. 

.The four details show gable siding, roof sheathing, section thru eave of 
building and boxing in of end of rafters. 

Paragraph 2 
It is intended that this garage is to set on a foundation of posts, a 
foundation wall or cement floor, bolting the 4x4 sill to same. These 4x4 sills 
are shown at the bottom of Figs. 3, 5, 7 
and 9 and by Fig. 2. If the building is 
to be erected on a cement floor, bolt the 
4x4 shown at the bottom of Figs. 3, 5, 
7 and 9 to the cement, and erect walls 
upon same, toe-nailing studs to sill. If 
the garage is to be erected on posts, the 
sills can be nailed up with wall and 
then spiked to posts, after the wall lias 
been raised. 

First refer to Fig. 3 and take 4x4. 
20 ft., one 2x4 12 ft., and one 8 ft. long 
and mark off on them the distance show- 
ing the location of studs in this figure on blueprint. Then nail all the 2x4 
studs 8 ft. in. long in between them, nail in place the second set of 2x4's 12 
ft. in. and 7 ft. \ l / 2 in. long. (Note this second set drops 3j4 in - f rom eacn 
end to allow intersection of 2x4's from front and back wall.) Now raise this 
Avail in position on foundation posts and hold in place with temporary supports 
until remaining walls have been erected. In the same manner erect 




300 ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 

Figs. 5, 7 and 9, carefully nailing them together at the corners and see that 
they arc perfectly square and level with each other. 

Paragraph 3 

It is a good plan to place siding on studding before erecting rafters, as 
it will strengthen the walls. Two pieces of 2x6 20 ft. in. long and mitered 
off at each end so they will not extend above rafters, have been furnished to 
tie side walls of building together. These have been marked "Collar Beams" 
or "Ceiling Joists." Nail them on at this time and be sure that they are 
placed so they will not interfere with rafters. 

Next take siding and start putting it on from the bottom of the building, 
being very careful to drive each piece tight against the one below and securely 
nailing it so the joints will not open afterwards. Use the 5d common nails 
for the siding. 

Paragraph 4 

Then refer to Fig. 1 1 which shows construction of rafter plan of build- 
ing. (Before erecting the rafters of building, it will be necessary 
to nail in place the square cut studs in the gables. Refer to Figs. 7 and 9, and 
nail in place the studs in the 6 ft. center section of these walls. Then nail 
in place the rafters which run from plate of front and back walls up to these 
studs.) Now space off on top plates of front and back walls the location of 
the seat of rafters, then take 2x4 piece marked "Ridge" and space off the 
location of rafters on both sides, and place at each end a 
pair of main rafters, and raise this part of roof in position on 
1/3 pitch. Then place another pair of main rafters, one at each end coming 
down over gables studding of right and left walls. Securely nail this section 
of roof and then set in place four 2x4 hip rafters, and the rest of the main 
rafters and jacks. A few pieces of roof sheathing should be nailed on roof 
about in the center so as to help keep it in line. Be sure that the rafters 
on which the sheathing is to break, are placed exactly as shown on blueprints. 
Be very careful to see that the ridge is kept level and the ends of rafters lined 
up. When all the rafters have been erected, and you find that one does 
not line up with the rest, saw it off. 

Paragraph 5 

The covering of the roof is the next step in erection. The roof sheathing 
has all been marked "Roof Sheathing" and has been furnished in lengths to 
correspond to the roof sheathing detail. When shingles have been furnished 
to cover roof, the sheathing has been supplied in 1x4 in. widths and is to be 
placed over the rafters, laying it 2 in. apart, that is, a piece of sheathing and 
a space should cover 6 in. The sheathing is so spaced in order to allow air 
to get underneath the wood shingles and help in drying them out after they 
have been soaked by heavy rains. If the roof sheathing is laid tight and wood 
shingles furnished, the space between the shingles and roof sheathing is 
very apt to become moldy in damp weather. 

When semi-slate shingles, roofing, tin shingles, or slate are to be used 
as roof covering, the roof sheathing is usually furnished in 1x6 in. widths and 
is to be laid tight together over the rafters. 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 301 

Paragraph 6 

On the blueprints you will find an isometric, quarter full sized detail of 
eave of building showing boxing-in of rafter ends. The material for boxing- 
in the eave has all been marked "Eaves." Take this material and box in the 
eaves as shown by details. Finishing, eight case, or small headed nails should 
be used for this purpose, so that the heads can be set into wood and puttied 
up. Then nail in place pieces forming door frames and the two small window 
frames. Hang door and fit sash in frame. 

The next step will be to place on the roof covering. Refer to roofing or 
shingling Par. of General Instructions. 

Instructions for Erection of 30x20 Packard Garage 

Paragraph 1 
Explanation of different figures on blueprints 

Fig. 1 shows floor plan of building. 

Fig. 2 shows construction of 4x4 sills supporting building. 

Fig. 3 shows arrangement and construction of 2x4 studs on front wall. 

Fig. 4 shows arrangement of siding and outside finish over Fig. 3. 

Fig. 5 shows construction of 2x4 studding in back wall. 

Fig. 6 shows arrangement of siding and outside finish over Fig. 5 

Fig. 7 shows construction of studding in left wall, also construction of 
gable studding. 

Fig. 8 shows arrangement of siding and outside finish over left wall. 

Fig. 9 shows construction of studding in right wall and right wall gable 
studding. 

Fig. 10 shows arrangement of siding and outside finish over right wall. 

Fig. 11 shows arrangement of rafters as they are placed over both sides 
of roof. 

The four details show gable siding, roof sheathing, section thru eave of 
building and boxing-in of end of rafters. 

Paragraph 2 

It is intended that tin's garage is to set on a foundation of posts, a founda- 
tion wall or cement floor, bolting the 4x4 sill to same. These 4x4 sills are 
shown at the bottom of Figs. 3, 5. 7 and 9 and by Fig. 2. If the building is to 
be erected on a cement floor, bolt the 4x4's shown at the bottom of Figs. 3. 5. 7 
and 9 to the cement, and erect walls upon same, toe-nailing studs to sills. If the 
garage is to be erected on posts, the sills can be nailed up with wall and then 
spiked to posts, after the wall has been raised. 

First refer to Fig. 3 and take 4x4 20 ft., 2x4 12 ft. and one 6 ft. long and 
mark off on them the distance showing the location of studs in this figure on 
blueprints. Then nail all the 2x4 studs 8 ft. long in between them, nail in 
place the second set of 2x4's 12 ft. and 5 ft. 4 T /> in. long. (Note this 
second set drops back 3^4 m - from each end to allow intersection of 2x4's 
from front and back wall.) Then raise this wall in position on foundation 
posts and hold in place with temporary supports until remaining walls have 
been erected. In the same manner erect Figs. 5. 7 and 9, carefully nailing 
them together at the corners and see that they are perfectly square and 
level with each other. 



302 ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 

Paragraph .3 

It is a good plan to place siding on studding before erecting rafters, as 
it will strengthen the walls. Four pieces of 2x6 20 ft. long and inhered off 
at each end so that they will not extend above rafters, have been furnished to 
tie side walls of building together. These have been marked "Collar Beams" 
or "Ceiling Joists." Nail them on at this time and be sure that they are 
placed so they will not interfere with rafters. 

Next take siding and start putting it on from the bottom of the building, 
being very careful to drive each piece tight against the one below and securely 
nailing it so the joints will not open up afterwards. Use 5d common nails 
for the siding. 

Paragraph 4 
Before erecting the rafters of the building it will be necessary to nail 
in place the square cut studs of the gables. Refer to Figs. 7 and 9 and 
nail in place the studs in the 6 ft. center section of these walls. Then nail 
in place the rafters which run from plates of front and back walls up to the 
studs. Next refer to Fig. 11. which shows construction of rafter plan of 
building. First space off on top plates of front and back walls the location of 
the seat of rafters, then take 2x4 pieces marked "Ridge" and space off the 
location of rafters on both sides, and place at each end a pair 
of main rafters and raise this part of roof in position on 1/3 pitch. 
Then place another pair of main rafters, one at each end coming 
down over gable studding of right and left Avails. Securely nail this 
section of roof, and set in place four 2x4 hip rafters, then the rest of the 
main rafters and jacks. A few pieces of roof sheathing should be nailed on 
rafters about in the center so as to help keep them in line. Be sure that the 
rafters on which the sheathing is to be nailed, are placed exactly as shown on 
blueprints. Be very careful to see that the ridge is kept level and the ends of 
rafters line up. When all the rafters have been erected, and you find that one 
does not line up with the rest, saw it off. 

Paragraph 5 

The covering of the roof is the next step in erection. The roof sheathing 
has all been marked "Roof Sheathing" and has been furnished in lengths to 
correspond to the roof sheathing detail. When -shingles have been supplied 
to cover roof, the sheathing has been furnished in 1x4 in. widths and is to be 
placed over the rafters, laying it 2 in. apart, that is, a piece of sheathing and 
a space should cover 6 in. The sheathing is so spaced in order to allow air 
to get underneath the wood shingles and help in drying them out after they 
have become soaked by heavy rains. If the roof sheathing is laid tight and 
wood shingles furnished, the space between the shingles and roof sheathing is 
very apt to become moldy in damp weather. 

When semi-slate shingles, roofing, tin shingles, or slate are to be used as 
roof covering, the roof sheathing is usually furnished in 1x6 in. widths and is 
to be laid tight together over the rafters. 

Paragraph 6 
On the blueprints you will find an isometric, quarter full sized detail of 
eave of building, showing boxing-in of rafter ends. The material for boxing- 
in the eave has all been marked "Eaves." Take this material and box in the 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 303 

eaves as shown by details. Finishing, eight case, or small headed nails should 
be used for this purpose, so that the heads can be set into wood and puttied 
up. Then nail in place pieces forming door frames and the two small window 
frames. Hang door and fit sash in frame. 

The next step will be to place on the roof covering. Refer to roofing 
and shingling Par. of General Instructions. 

Instructions for the Erection of Peerless Garage 20x20 

Paragraph 1 
Explanation of different figures on blueprints 

Fig. 1 shows floor plan of building. 

Fig. 2 shows construction of 4x4 sills supporting building. 

Fig. 3 shows arrangement and construction of 2x4 studs in right wall. 

Fig. 4 shows arrangement of sheathing, outside finish over Fig. 3. 

Fig. 5 shows construction of 2x4 studding in left wall. 

Fig. 6 shows arrangement of sheathing, outside finish over Fig. 5. 

Fig. 7 shows construction of studding rear wall, also construction of 
gable studding. 

Fig. 8 shows arrangement of sheathing, outside finish over left wall. 

Fig. 9 shows construction of studding in front wall and front wall gable 
studding. 

Fig. 10 shows arrangement of sheathing and outside finish over right 
wall. 

Fig. 11 shows arrangement of rafters as they are placed over both sides 
of root . 

The four details show gable sheathing, brackets, section thru eave of 
building. 

Paragraph 2 

It is intended that this garage is to set on a foundation of posts, a concrete 
foundation or cement floor, bolting the 4x4 sills to same. These 4x4 sills are 
shown at the bottom of Figs. 3, 5, 7 and _ _____ 

9 and by Fig. 2. If the building is to 
be erected on a cement floor, bolt the 
4x4's shown at the bottom of Figs. 3, 
5, 7 and 9 to the cement, and erect walls 
upon same, toe-nailing studs to sills. If 
the garage is to be erected on posts, the 
sills can be nailed up with wall, and 
then spiked to posts, after the wall has 
been raised. 

First refer to Fig. 3 and take 4x4 
20 ft., one 2x4 12 -ft. and one 8 ft. and 

mark off on them the distance showing the location of studs in this figure on 
blueprints. Then nail all the 2x4 studs 8 ft. in. long between them, nail 
in place the second set of 2x4's 12 ft. in. and 7 ft. 4>' 2 in. long. (Note this 
second set drops 3^4 in - f rom eacn end t0 allow for intersection of 2x4's from 
front to back wall.) Now raise this wall in position on foundation posts and 
hold in place with temporary supports until remaining walls have been 
erected. In the same manner erect Figs. 5, 7 and l ), carefully nailing them 
together at the corners and see that they are perfectly square and level with 
each other. 




304 ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 

Paragraph 3 

It is a good plan to place sheathing on studding before erecting rafters, 
as it will strengthen the walls. Two pieces 2x8 20 ft. in. long and mitered 
off at each end so they will not extend above rafters have been furnished to 
tie side walls of building together. These have been marked "Collar Beams" 
or "Ceiling Joists." Nail them on at this time and be sure that they 
are placed so they will not interfere with rafters. 

Next take sheathing and start putting it on from the bottom of the 
building, being very careful to drive each piece against the one below and 
securely nailing it. Use the 8d common nails for the sheathing. 

Paragraph 4 
Then refer to Fig. 11, which shows construction of rafter plan of build- 
ing. First space off on top plates of right and left walls the location of the 
seat of rafters. Then take 1x4 in. pieces marked "Ridge" and space off the 
location on both sides, and place at each end a pair of rafters 
and raise this part of roof in position on \\ pitch. Securely nail 
this section of roof and then set in place the rest of the rafters. 
A few pieces of roof sheathing should be nailed on rafters about in center so 
as to help keep them in line. Be sure that the rafters on which the sheathing 
is to break are placed exactly as shown on blueprints. Be very careful to 
see that the ridge is kept level and the ends of rafters line up. When all the 
rafters have teen erected, and you find that one does not line up with 
the rest, saw it off. 

Paragraph 5 

The next step will be to place the mitered studs in the gable of the 
building. Place the center stud first and then nail all the rest in pairs. You 
will find all the mitered studs marked "Gable Studding Fig. 7" and "Gable 
Studding Fig. 9." Then take the sheathing marked "Gable Fig. 8" and 
"Cable Fig. 10" and sheathe up the gables. 

The covering of the roof is the next step in erection. The roof sheathing 
lias all been marked "Roof Sheathing" and has been furnished in lengths to 
correspond with those shown on blueprints. When shingles have been fur- 
nished to cover the roof, the sheathing has been supplied in 1x4 in. widths 
and is to be placed over the rafters, laying it 2 in. apart, that is, a piece of 
sheathing and a space should cover 6 in. The sheathing is so placed in order 
in allow air to get underneath the wood shingles, and help in drying them out 
after a heavy rain, and they have become soaked with water. If the roof 
sheathing is laid tight and the wood shingles furnished, the space between the 
sli ingles and the roof sheathing is very apt to become moldy in damp weather. 

When semi-slate shingles, roofing, tin shingles or slate are to be used 
as roof covering the roof, sheathing is usually furnished in 1x6 in. widths and 
is to he laid tight together over the rafters. 

Paragraph 6 

( >n tlie blueprints you will find an isometric, quarter full sized detail of 
eave of building showing rafter ends. Nail in place pieces forming door 
frames and the window frames. Hang the door and put sash in frames. 

The next step will be to place on the roof covering. Refer to roofing and 
shingling Par. in General Instructions. 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 305 

Instructions for the Erection of Aladdin 
Summer Cottages 

ALADDIN summer cottages are constructed in the same manner as the 
Standard Homes with the exception that, first, they are furnished to 
be erected on post foundations; second, no sub-flooring is furnished; 
third, no wall sheathing is furnished ; fourth, novelty tongued and 
grooved siding is used instead of bevel siding ; fifth, no interior wall covering 
or trim is furnished and partitions are constructed out of matched ceiling. 

In erecting summer cottages, first read over carefully the instructions in 
Part III, the paragraph on "Unloading and Caring for Material" and 
"Special Notes Regarding Blueprints." 

Use the following steps for the erection of the different cottages : 

1st Erect post foundation. 

2nd Lay sills. 

3rd Lay joists over sills. 

4th Lay finish flooring (refer to paragraph on flooring in Part III.) 

5th Erect frame of outside walls. 

6th Erect porch joists (refer to paragraph on porch joists in part III). 

7th Lay porch flooring. 

8th Nail on siding of outside walls. The siding furnished with sum- 
mer cottages is novelty tongued and grooved standard pattern Nos. 105, 106 
or 115. This is to be applied directly to the studs of the outside walls. Each 
piece should be driven tightly into the preceding one and nailed with 5d 
nails. Drive the nails in just above the tongue and groove and at an angle 
of about 15 degrees; this will assist in drawing the joints together. Each 
joint of all the courses should break on a stud and the ends of the pieces 
squared to make a good joint. 

9th Nail in place the braces furnished to be placed on top of the walls 
supporting the rafters, .which are for the purpose of holding the walls 
together, and taking up some of the strain caused by the span of the roof. 

10th Erect the roof rafters (refer to different style roofs in Part III). 

11th Erect gable studs and siding. 

12th Lay roof sheathing (see roof sheathing paragraph). 

13th Nail on outside finish. The outside finish of summer cottages is 
placed over the siding. (See paragraph on outside finish.) 

14th Apply roof covering (see paragraph on shingling and roofing 
materials) . 

15th Erect porch roof. If main roof does not cover porch, refer to 
the different styles of porch roofs for instructions. 

16th Nail together outside window and door frames, hang sash and 
doors. The window and door frames furnished with summer cottages are the 
same as those for Standard Buildings, but are furnished without trim. 

17th Erect interior matched ceiling partitions. By carefully studying 
blueprints you will find that the summer cottage partitions are constructed of 
matched ceiling, held in place at the floor by pieces of l \ round molding 
and capped with a grooved partition cap. Be careful to see that joints of 
each piece are closely drawn up and securely nailed. The same care should be 
exercised in placing and squaring up the partitions of summer cottages as 
with those of frame construction. 

18th Painting (refer to paragraph on painting in Part III). 



306 ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 

Barns 

Introduction 

BETTER farm methods require better buildings, hot necessarily expen- 
sive ones, but buildings that are well planned and properly adapted to 
the work for which they are intended. A farm building should be first 
a property saver, second a labor saver. Farm buildings may be consid- 
ered in a sense as a necessary expense, but they should also be considered in 
the light of an investment. 

Aladdin barns are furnished in many sizes from 16x24 up to 30x100, 
both with gambrel and gable roof construction. To the purchaser of each 
barn is sent a complete set of blueprints illustrating in detail the construc- 
tion and location of all the different kinds of material. 

General specifications of material furnished for Aladdin barns : 
Sills, 6x8. 

Studding outside walls and gables, 2x6. 
Rafters, 2x6. 

Collar beams and braces, 2x6. 
Cross braces outside walls, 2x6. 
Anchor braces, 2x6. 
Top wall plates, double, 2x6. 
First floor joists, 2x12. 
Flooring first floor, 2 in. planks. 
Second floor joists, 2x8 and 2x10. 
Flooring second floor, 1 in. lumber, 
Stall studding, 2x4. 
Stall siding, 1 in. lumber dressed. 
Mangers and stalls, 1 in. lumber dressed. 
Roof sheathing, 1x4 and 1x6 in. dressed. 
Roof covering, red cedar shingles or roofing. 

Siding, perpendicular 1x10 in. barn boards with battens or novelty 
tongued and grooved standard patterns. 
Windows, 18x24, glass measurement. 
Doors, batten in pairs and single. 
All hardware. 

In quoting prices on Aladdin barns, the material for hrst and second 
floors and mangers are listed as extras, as many people prefer to erect their 
barns with cement first floor, and patent stall equipment, and the variety of 
uses to which a barn is put, makes it possible to use or not use a second floor. 

Before starting the erection of your barn, first carefully read over the 
instructions on "Unloading and Caring for Material" and "Special Notes 
Regarding Blueprints" in Part III. 

Barn Foundations and Sanitary Floors 

Pier Foundations: All Aladdin barns arc constructed with 6x8 in. sills 
so they can be erected on posts, piers or solid foundation walls as desired. I! 
you intend to erect your barn on a pier foundation, use the following instruc- 
tions : First, clean up building site and stake out location of piers; we will 



ALADDIX II AN UAL OK CONSTRUCTION 



b\~t \m m\ m m\ 



m 



m 



m 



m 







m 



B 



m 



iq; 



ilJ 



ill 



ED 



I '• I II 

U — &• U <=" — -J- o,' o - ~4- G.' o * ■ I ■ <b' o' —\ 

:i!_L:fii 61 Si ri'i 



fl^-~-~-H 






Fig. 249— Details of construction for barn pier foundation. 



308 ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 

use for example a barn 24 ft. wide and 30 ft. long. A barn of this size will 
require piers placed on 6 ft. centers and should be 12 in. x 12 in. square. 
Square up site 24x30 in size, using the methods described in paragraph "Lav- 
ing Out Building Lines" of Part 1. Then drive in stakes, showing location 
of piers. ' Carefully study details shown by Fig. 249. 

W you construct your piers 12 in. x 12 in. in size, the footings should he 
about (> in. longer each way, that is, 24 in. x 24 in. square and from <S in. 
to 10 in. deep. It is a good plan to construct a templet 24 in. x 24 in. square 
ao shown in Fig. 249 to use in digging pier trenches. Place the templet so the 
•-take indicating the middle of the pier will come in the center of it. then mark 
the size of the excavation with spade, remove templet and complete trench. 

The footings should be placed below the frost line of your community. 
No forms will be necessary for footings, as the banks of the trenches will 
hold them in place. Stretch a chalk line in position over the row of pier 
trenches and use measuring pole to be sure that excavations are the same 
depth. Then drive a stake in the bottom of the trench, letting it extend up 
8 in. or 10 in., the desired thickness of the footing, and pour in concrete until 
it is flush with the top. 

Next construct some 12 in. x 12 in. wood pier forms and set them in 
place, holding them plumb by driving in 2x4 stakes and nailing on cross 
braces. It would be almost impossible to set these forms so the tops would 
all come level. Therefore, it is a good plan to construct them a little higher 
than necessary and drive in nails to indicate the top level. Construct the pier 
forms as shown by detail in Fig. 249 — note that a small piece of 1 in. material 
can be nailed in place across the center of the form into which is bored a 
hole to support dowel in position while concrete is being poured. The dowels 
or bolts should be held perfectly straight because, it would be difficult to bore 
hole in sill at an angle. If you tried to straighten them up after concrete is 
set. the piers are apt to be cracked. 

The cost and amount of material required can be worked out from 
instructions given in Part I. 

If no first floor is to be used, the piers shown in the center of Fig. 249 
will not be necessary as there will not be a center sill. 

Concrete Foundations 

The same care should be exercised in the construction of foundations for 
barns as for dwelling houses, that is. the walls and footings should be of the 
proper size and materials used of the best grades. 

First the building must be properly laid out and excavations made for 
walls. The footings should be carried down below frost line of ground 
so they will not be damaged by tin- cracking and settling of the soil. 

Refer to Fig. 250 which shows foundation plan of a 24x30 ft. barn, 
together with cross section of walls, floor and construction details. The 
walls of any ordinary barn should be 10 or 12 in. thick and the footings 
about 12 in. wider than the walls and from 10 to 12 in. thick, depending 
upon the bearing power of the soil. 

First, erect batten boards at the corners of your building site as shown 
by detail "C" of Fig. 250 and stretch in place chalk lines to give the exact 
outside dimensions for walls. If you arc to use a 12 in. wall, dig a 
24 in. trench around your building down below frost line or to 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



309 







. ' : ■" • "'. ■" 


' • " ■', '.■■•• • ■. ' " ..' " ' 






1 

i 


1 
1 

i 

1 
1 

■< 


1 
1 
1 

! 
i 

i 
i 
i 

> 

» i 






) 




i 
j 


j 






1 




• ;•'."* ». 


■ * . ■-. • ■„ * * • • '■ i • * . ' » 


. 













»'. r. ■*• a" .|, ''-fa" .|, 3 '- ^~ . p '•". I H - *- ( *'4 * ^. ;v p 



Oi^afc: 




w 



D. t" 




r 



- .^:/* T 



^l^S 



m^ 



iK 



Fig. 250 — Details of construction for barn wall foundati 



310 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



sub soil. In the bottom of the trench, drive some small stakes to gauge 
the thickness of the footings. The stakes should be driven in the ground 
so they will project up 10 in., or the thickness of footings you plan on using. 
The tops of the stakes should all he on a level, in which case they will act 
as a guide to give even footings to start the walls upon. 

Detail "B" of Fig. 250 shows method of erecting forms for concrete 
walls. 

Matched lumber, if it can be obtained, is the best to use for forms, as 
this will prevent the water from carrying off any of the strength out thru the 
cracks, which would he between the boards if the forms were constructed of 
ordinary sheathing. Do not have the 2x4's which hold the forms in place, 
too far apart, as this will cause the boards in between to give away to some 
extent and make an uneven wall. If good sheathing is used for forms, they 
should be placed about 18 or 20 in. apart. 

Tie the 2x4's together with good strong fence wire. If you wish a 12 in. 
wall, cut a lot of small pieces of wood about 1x2 in. and 12 in. long and 
place them in between the sheathing of the inside and outside forms, drawing 
the forms tightly together by the use of the form ties or pieces of wire 
placed around the 2x4's of the forms and drawn together by twisting them in 
the center. The small pieces of wood should he removed with a rake as the 
concrete is poured into the forms. 

Dowels should be placed in the walls to tie the sills down. To do this. 
a small piece of 1x3 in. material 12 in. long can be nailed in place between 
the two sides of the forms and the bolts held in place by boring a hole in this 
piece to admit bolt. The bolts should be set in the wall plumb because it will 
be difficult to bore holes in sills on an angle. 

Carefully read over the instructions in Part I. on mixing concrete, 
materials necessary, etc. 

Sanitary Floors 

The floor material in Aladdin barns is quoted as an extra, because 
concrete floors are in general use thruout the country and are much more 
sanitary and serviceable than a wood floor, when barn is used to house cattle. 
The cost is so small and the cash returns are so great that the floors soon pay 




>■ * -r 4'— G." -|«'|— 2' o ,L J<si- *'— C."- 



mm 



Fie:. 251 — Cross section of concrete floor for dairy barn. 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 311 

for themselves in preventing the breeding of Hies, in the saving of liquid 
manure, in the reduction of labor, and in the healthier condition of the stock. 

Detail "D" of Fig. 250 shows cross sections of construction of concrete 
floors for cow stalls. Fig. 251 also shows sections of construction of dairy 
barns with usual dimensions. The following instructions can be modified to 
suit conditions. 

For average conditions lay out the stalls on 3 ft. 6 in. centers, 
4 ft. 6 in. in length and 6 in. from manger wall to drop-gutter. The manger is 
2 ft. 6 in. wide at the top and 2 ft. at the bottom, with one face sloping up to 
the feed-alley floor. The depth is 7 in., measured from the stanchion setting, 
and 8 in. from the alley floor. The feed alley is 4 ft. 6 in. wide. The drop- 
gutter has a width of 18 in. It is 8 in. deep gauged from the stall floor, which 
is 2 in. higher than the 8 ft. driveway. For establishing grade lines a car- 
penter's spirit level (or a water level) and a chalk line are very helpful. 

To prevent possibility of the floor settling, remove all manure before 
grading the surface of the earthen floor. Carefully tamp back the dirt around 
water pipes and the drains which carry waste water and liquid manure to the 
water-tight concrete manure pit. Do all filling as long as possible before 
building the concrete floor. As a foundation for the stall floors proper, place a 
6 in. thickness of coarse broken stone or screened gravel to keep the floor 
from direct contact with the ground. Since the stall floors are of prime 
importance, it is well to make them first. During this operation the unpaved 
driveway and alleys can be used as working space. Then finish, in order 
named, the feed alleys, the driveways, the mangers, and lastly the gutters. 

Mixing and Laying the Concrete 

For the plan given, 5 ft. 6 in. from the center line of the driveway stake 
on edge (and to line and grade) a 2x12 in. plank to serve as a form for the 
stall floor at the gutter. Likewise set a similar board, 5 ft. distant, to mold 
the 6 in. manger wall and stanchion setting. Bear in mind that the stall floor 
has a slope of 1 in. toward the gutter and that the stanchion setting rises 7 in. 
above the stall floor. Drainage for gutters and mangers will be provided by 
sloping their concrete bottoms. 

Proportion the concrete 1 bag of Portland cement to 2J/ 2 cubic feet of 
sand and 5 cubic feet of crushed rock, or 1 bag of cement to 5 cubic feet of 
clean pit gravel. At one operation lay the full 5 inch thickness of the stall 
floor and finish three stalls the same as one section of sidewalk. No surfacing 
mortar is needed. For setting patented stall divisions, follow the manu- 
facturer's directions; for home-made divisions, make mortises by tamping 
the concrete around greased tapering wooden cores, which are withdrawn as 
soon as the concrete stiffens. A wooden float is best for finishing the floor. A 
steel trowel yields a surface entirely too smooth, and such a finish should al- 
ways be roughened by brushing with a stable broom. 

While the concrete of the three stalls is still soft, mold the stanchion 
setting (6 in. thick) upon it. As forms use the projecting 7 in. height of 
the 2x12 piece already in place and two 1x6 in. boards toe-nailed together so 
as to provide another 7 in. height and a bearing plate to rest on the green 
concrete. These forms may be made dish-shaped for swinging stanchions. 
Fill the forms with mushy wet concrete, trowel the surface, round the corners. 
and set the stanchion holders. Repeat the operation until all stall floors are 



312 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



completed. The feed alleys and driveway are easily built; they are merely 
rough-finished sidewalks. Place the waste-water outlets in the mangers at 
intervals of 28 ft. and give the bottom a slope of 1 in. toward each outlet for 
a distance of 14 ft. on each side of it. The drop gutters may be drained in 
like manner or can be sloped slightly in one direction for their full length. 
For ease in cleaning, round all angles and corners (except at the bottom of 
the drop gutters) by applying a 1 to 2 cement-sand mortar immediately 
after removing the forms. 



Caring for Cattle and Floor 

Regardless of the kind of floor, bedding of straw or litter is an absolute 
necessity; it keeps the cow clean and absorbs the valuable liquid manure. If 
the help cannot be depended on to bed the cows properly, it is advisable to 
use a removable wooden grating or platform. Cork bricks also give satis- 
factory results, but are somewhat expensive. They are set in a 2 in. depression 
in the floor and are held in position on all sides by the concrete acting as a 
curb. 

With the proportions and thicknesses given above, 4 bags (1 barrel) of 
cement, 10 cubic feet of sand (say }i cubic yard), and 20 cubic feet of 
crushed rock (about Y\ cubic yard) will lay 45 to 50 square feet of floor. 



Sills 




Figr. 252 — Intersection of sills at corner 
building. 



All Aladdin barns are furnished with 6x8 in. sills to support the frame 
of the barn. It is intended that they extend around all sides of barn and 
are to be fastened to the piers or wall 
foundation by placing bolts or dowels in 
the piers or walls during construction. 
Bore holes in the sills the same diameter 
as the bolts, and securely fasten them 
when set in place. The sills are fur- 
nished with the corners notched out, so 
one sill will intersect with the other. 
See Fig. 252. 

6x8 in. sills over 16 ft. in length 
have to be spliced together in order to make the required length, and you will 
find that the different pieces have been numbered to indicate the manner in 
which they are to go together. For example: a 60 ft. sill might be furnished 
in 5 or 6 lengths; the pieces will be marked as follows in the order they are 
to be laid— "60 ft. sill No. 1," "60 ft. sill No. 2," etc. 

If the building is furnished with wood first floor joists and flooring, you 
will find that sills have been furnished to go thru the center of building to 
support the break in joists. If no first floor is purchased the outside wall sills 
are the only ones furnished. 

After the sills have been laid and securely fastened, be sure that they are 
perfectly level and square; this is absolutely necessary in order to have the 
material work out and fit as intended. 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



313 



First Floor 

As stated before the prices on barns are quoted with the first floor joists 
and flooring as an extra. If they have been furnished they should be erected 
as the next step. The first floor joists are 2x12 and are spaced on two foot 
centers; use square and space locations on sills, then set joists and securely 
nail them in place. The flooring for the first floor is 2 in. material and 
usually in 8 in. widths. The lengths furnished are shown on joist 
plan. Nail this flooring over the joists, alternating the different lengths as 
shown on blueprints. 16d nails are to be .used for first joists and flooring. 



Erecting Frames of Outside Walls 



Mud 



First carefully study Fig. 253. Detail "A" of Fig. 253 shows section of 
wall showing construction. When floor joists are not furnished, the studs of 
side Avails are erected upon 

-A- 

Jtud 



the wall sills. Detail "B" of 
Fig. 253 shows construction 
of wall when first floor joists 
and flooring are furnished. 
The walls are erected upon 
the flooring of first floor. 

To erect wall on top of 
sills, use steel square and 
mark off on top of sills the 
different locations of the 
wall studs, and then space 
off the same distances on the 
first set of wall plates. Nail 
wall plates on top of studs 
while they are laying on the 
ground and then raise wall 
into position, toe-nailing the 
lower ends of the studs to 
the sills. The wall frames should be squared 




up and held in place with 
temporary supports until all walls have been erected. See method of sup- 
porting walls in Part III. 

To erect walls on top of floor: Carefully study blueprints and note that 
the walls are constructed to interlock at the corners. The walls consist of 
floor plates or the plates which are nailed to the floor of building, upright 
studs and two sets of top wall plates. If the building is furnished with 
perpendicular barn boards, short studs are furnished to go between the 
upright studs to give more bearings to wall covering. The longest walls of 
the building, or the walls which run the same way as the flooring, should be 
erected first. In this manner time can he saved, as one man can be laying 
out the walls as soon as a few feet of flooring has been laid across the joists. 

To lay out the walls, first lay the floor plates on top of the floor of 
building and lay one set of wall plates along side of them. Now space off 
with a steel square, the location of the upright studs of the walls and also 
the door openings. Then lay these plates on the floor of building and nail the 
upright studs between them ; then put in place the window and door headers. 



;i4 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



cap wall with second set of plates, raise into position and spike to the floor 
of building. Square and plumb the wall frame and nail in place sufficient tem- 
porary supports until the remaining walls have been erected. All the walls 
should be erected in the same manner, and the corners where the walls inter- 
sect should be carefully spiked together, 16d nails have been furnished for 
frames. 



Second Floor Joists and Flooring 



second floor joists extei 
a full second floor is 



;>ver one 
uired thi 



;nd only, 

material 



'Mt'/fWt/x m 



In our standard barns, the 
generally a 12 ft. section. If 
is quoted as an extra charge. 

It is a good plan to erect the second floor joists at this time, as it will 
strengthen the outside walls. In gambrel roof barns the second floor joists 
set on top of the outside walls and in gable roof construction they are sup- 
ported by joist hangers nailed on the inside of the wall studs. First pick out 
the material marked "Girder" and "Girder Supports" and erect in place as 
shown by location on blue prints. The lower ends of the girder supports 
should be set on a solid foundation of concrete, brick, or supported by a mud 
sill. 

If your barn is gambrel construc- 
tion, mark off the location of the sec- 
ond floor joists on top of the girder 
and top plates of outside walls, and 
securely nail them in place. If your 
barn is gable construction mark off 
location of joists on top of girder and 
on top of joist hangers and nail the 
joists in place. The ends of the joists 
that rest on joist hanger should also 
be spiked to the sides of the upright 
studs of the side walls with which 
they intersect. 

The flooring for the second floor 
is 1 in. and has all been marked 
"Second Floor Flooring" and the cor- 
rect lengths furnished shown on sec- 
ond floor joist plan of blueprints. 
Nail this flooring in place on second 
floor joists, alternating the lengths. 



Siding 



fe 








, 

1 






\ 




f 


L 












1 


1 




M 


■i- 






J- 






-V 

/ 






1 


\ 




-i 


"P 






\ 






\ 




r 






















ks^S 


-_^ 



Aladdin barns are furnished with 
horizontal tongued and grooved sid- 
ing or perpendicular barn boards and battens 
coverings be nailed directly to the frame of t 
If novelty siding is specified, one of t 
Fig. 2(hS is furnished. On the blue prints, i 



Fig-. 254 — Method of placing 2x6 brace 
studding of walls. 



th: 



ie standard patter 
he different lengtl 



shown bv 



are shown the way they are to be nailed over the frame alternati 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 315 

lengths. In nailing on this siding, use 5d nails and be very careful that each 
piece is nailed tightly down against the preceding one, so the joints will not 
open up. All siding should be carefully butted and for best work the ends 
should be dipped in white lead and oil and should always lap over a stud. 
This will give a good bearing for the end nailing. It will require about 15 
lbs. 5d nails to lay 1,000 ft. of novelty siding. The nails should be placed 
just above the joint of the tongue, and nailed carefully with the nails directed 
almost straight in. Pound your nail heads up to siding and then use nail set. 
Do not have three or four hammer dents around each nail head. 

If the outside wall covering of the building is perpendicular barn boards 
and battens, short studs have been supplied to be nailed between the studs so 
each piece will have a bearing about every 2 l / 2 or 3 ft. The barn boards have- 
been furnished to extend full height of the walls in lengths as shown on blue 
prints. The joints between the boards are to be covered with battens as shown 
by Fig. 254. Securely nail each board with at least two nails on all bear- 
ings, and place battens so they will be centered over the joint. 



Roofs 

Two styles of roof construction are furnished on Aladdin barns, gable 
and gambrel. Carefully study Fig. 255, which shows construction details of 
gable roof barns. 

The rafter plan on the blueprints will show the arrangements of the raft- 
ers over the walls of the building and the correct distances that they are to be 
placed apart. It also shows the ridge which is to go between the rafters at 
the top. The different lengths of roof sheathing are shown laid across the top 
of the rafters with lengths alternated. 

To erect the roof, first place sufficient planks to enable a couple of men 
to move around with horses of sufficient height to allow them to reach up to 
ridge. Then take the pieces of material the correct length shown on blue- 
prints, for ridge pole, and measure off on them the same distance marked off 
on the top plates of the outside walls, or where the heel of the rafters is to 
set. Then start at one end of building and commence nailing the rafters on 
both sides of the roof. Be very careful to see that the ridge is kept perfectly 
level and in line. A chalk line should be placed on the end of the rafters, and 
if when all rafters have been erected, you find that one does not line up, trim 
it off. A few pieces of roof sheathing should be nailed on the rafters as they 
are being erected, so as to help keep them in line and to be sure that the ones 
on which the sheathing is to break, are placed exactly as indicated by dimension 
lines of blueprints. The rafters have all been cut on a patent rafter machine 
making them uniform in length and the miter exact. 

If the walls of the building are out of plumb, it will affect the rafters and 
ridge and sometimes this makes it necessary to lower one rafter and raise the 
one opposite it in order to bring the ridge in line. 

It is a good plan to find the center of the two gable walls and raise a 
temporary stud at each end of building, and stretch a chalk line with plumb 



316 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 




Fig. 255 — Details of construction of gable roof barn. 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 317 

bob, then bring the center of the ridge in line with bob. Pieces can also be 
nailed on walls below the two gable ends so that the first and last pair of 
rafters will be plumb with the framing of the side walls. 

Fig. 2 56 shows construction details of a gambrel roof barn. The con- 
struction varies in this style building according to the width and span of the 
roof. Roofs constructed in this manner have to be well braced and tied to- 
gether. Detail "A" of Fig. 256 shows the bracing of a roof when full second 
floor is used and detail "B" shows bracing when the second floor is furnished 
in one end section only. The building in this case, especially if it has a large 
span should have the top rafters collared together ; the top rafters should be 
securely tied to the lower rafters and the lower section of rafters tied to the 
side walls. To erect this style roof, first refer to blueprint showing con- 
struction of the studs in gables of building and raise them into position. This 
will give you supports for the first set of rafters which run from the top of 
the side walls up to the break in the roof. Then take the pieces of 2 inch 
material shown forming ridge of building, and mark off on these pieces the 
correct distances that the rafters are to be spaced. Also mark off the spacing 
on the top plates of the side walls of the building. The rafters of the gable 
which go from break in roof up to ridge can be erected now and one end of 
the ridge should be placed between them; the other end will ha\e to be sup- 
ported by temporary supports until the balance of the rafters aic erected. 

All the remaining rafters will have to be erected in pairs, that is, the 
upper and lower rafters should be nailed together with braces and then raised 
into position against ridge and the collar beams nailed between them. A few 
strips of roof sheathing should be nailed in place over the rafters as soon as 
they are raised to help support, and also keep them the correct distance apart. 
Have a chalk line suspended from ridge to keep it in line with center of build- 
ing. A large detail section of building is shown on blue prints, giving the 
location, size and length of all the braces on the rafters. Nail them in place 
accordingly. 

Gable Studding and Siding 

In gable and gambrel roofs, there are a certain number of mitered studs 
in the gables of the building. These mitered studs you will find tied together 
and marked "Gable Studding," and the lengths marked upon them, corres- 
ponding to the lengths shown on blue prints. In nailing the gable studs in 
place, always start in the center of the wall and work down toward the end of 
rafters. This will prevent you from driving them in place too tight and 
springing rafters out of line. 

Yon will also find that the gable siding or perpendicular barn boards 
have been mitered, bundled together and marked for the gable to which 
they belong, the pieces are also marked with a length and a number to cor- 
respond to the number shown on pieces in detail of gable. You may find three 
pieces marked No. 1 and by referring to detail of gable siding, you will notice 
that these pieces when properly placed will go across your building, and the 
joints will break on gable studding. The next set of pieces will be marked 
No. 2. and so on up -the gable. Do not let any pieces of siding extend above 
the rafters, as this will raise the roof material out of line. 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 




Fig. 256 — Details of construction for gambrel roof barn. 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



319 



Roof Sheathing 

See paragraph on Roof Sheathing ii 
Part III. 



Eaves and Outside Finish 

See paragraphs in Part III, also study 
details shown bv Figs. 255 and 2 56. 



Roofing and Shingling 

See paragraph in Part III. 

Painting 

See painting paragraphs in Part III. 

Window and Door Frames 

Fig. 257 shows construction of a barn 
window frame. These frames are con- 
structed of 1 in. material in lengths 
shown on blueprints and are bundled to- 
gether and marked "Window Frames." 
The material for doors and door frames 
has been bundled together and marked 
accordingly. 





| F 


1 


' : A 

■r 

" D 


A 


A 




1 F 






Tig. 257 — Details of tarn window frame. 




2 - 1 


' J 



J- 5' o" 

id 

i i 








-V <o' 

3 


) 







Fig. 258 — Details of barn stall. 



320 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



Weights and Measures 



Measure of Angles or Arcs : 

60 seconds equals 1 minute 
60 minutes equals 1 degree 
90 deg. equals 1 rt. angle or quadrant 
300 degrees equals 1 circle 

Avoirdupois Weight : 

437.5 grains equals 1 ounce 
1 6 ounces equals 1 pound 
100 pounds equals 1 hundredweight 
20 cwt. or 2,000 lbs. equals 1 ton 

Long Ton Table : 

16 oz. equals 1 pound 
1 1 2 pounds equals 1 hundredweight 
20 cwt. or 2.240 lbs. equals 1 ton 

Troy Weight : 

24 grains equals 1 pennyweight 
20 pennyweights equals 1 ounce 

1 2 ounces equals 1 pound 

Dry Measure : 

2 pints equals 1 quart 
8 quarts equals 1 peck 
4 pecks equals 1 bushel 

Liquid Measure : 

4 gills equals 1 pint 
2 pints equals 1 quart 
4 quarts equals 1 gallon 
3\ T / 2 gallons equals 1 barrel 
2 barrels equals 1 hogshead 



Linear Measure : 

1 2 in. equals 1 foot 

3 ft. equals 1 yard 
5.5 yards equals 1 rod 
40 rods equals 1 furlong 

8 furlongs equals 1 mile 

Square Measure : 

144 sq. in. equals 1 sq. ft. 

9 sq. ft. equals 1 sq. yd. 

30^4 sq. yds. equals 1 sq. rod 

160 sq. rods equals 1 acre 

640 acres equals 1 sq. mile 

Surveyor's Measure : 

7.92 inches equals 1 link 

25 links equals 1 rod 
4 rods equals 1 chain 
100 links equals 1 chain 

60 ft. equals 1 chain 

80 chains equals 1 mile 

Surveyor's Square Measure : 

625 sq. links equals 1 sq. rod 
16 sq. rods equals 1 sq. chain 
10 sq. chains equals 1 acre 

640 acres equals 1 sq. mile 
36 sq. miles equals 1 township 

Cubic Measure: 

1728 cu. inches equals 1 cu. foot 
27 cu. feet equals 1 cu. yard 
128 cu. feet equals 1 cord 
2 1 ! 4 cu. feet equals 1 perch 



ALADDIN MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION 



Miscellaneous Weights 



Wgt. in Lbs. 
Material per Cu. Ft. 

Bbl. Lime 50 

Bbl. Cement Plaster 73 

Box Tin 278 

Box Glass 60 

Paving Brick 150 

Common Building Brick .... 1 20 

Soft Building Brick 100 

Granite 170 

Marble 170 

Limestone 160 

Sandstone 145 

Slag 40 

Gravel 120 

Slate 175 

Sand, Clay and Earth (dry) . 100 
Sand, Clay and Earth (wet) . 120 
Mortar 100 



Wgt. in Lbs. 
Material per Cu. Ft. 

Stone Concrete 130 to 150 

Paving, Asphaltum 100 

Plaster of Paris 140 

Glass 160 

Spruce 25 

Hemlock 25 

White Pine 25 

Douglas Fir 30 

Yellow Pine 40 

White Oak 50 

Common Brick Work 100 to 120 

Rubble Masonry 130 to 150 

Ashlar Masonry 140 to 160 

Cast Iron 450 

Wrought Iron 480 

Steel 490 

Portland Cement 90 



After-word 




E will be glad to receive any arti- 
cles from our builders, on any 
subject which they think would 
have been a help to them, had 
it been contained in this book; 
any unforeseen cost which we 
can publish to guard our builders so that 
they can get value received for every dollar 
spent in the erection of their homes; any 
suggestion or error, typographical or other- 
wise, in order that they may be corrected 
before the next edition goes to the press. 

We desire to thank all those who sent us 
suggestions and criticisms for this edition. 

The Aladdin Company 



INDEX 



A 

Page 

Abstracts 7 

Aladdin closettes 281 

Aladdin Summer cottages 305 

Andirons 82 

Asbestone 100 

Ashlar Foundations 43 

B 

Ball Bearing Floor Hinge 221 

Barns 306 

Barn Foundations 306 

Barns. Sanitary floors for 306 

Sills for 312 

Floors for 312 

Care of 312 

" Frame for 313 

Floor Joist 1st floor ... 313 

2nd floor . . 314 

Siding 314 

" Roofs 315 

Gable Studding & Siding 317 

Roof Sheathing 319 

" Faves . . 319 

" Window & Door Frames 319 

Base Molding 275 

Beam Ceiling 275 

Blackboards-Cement 94 

Blocks, Cement 37 

Piers 52 

Boilers 130 

Bolts— Floor and Chain 222 

Blue Prints, Changes on 211 

Brick 54 

Cost of 59 

" Fireplaces 72 

" Foundations 58 

" Number required ..60-61-62 

Piers 51-59 

" Veneer 63 

Bridging 228 

Building Paper 215 

Butts 221 



c 

Page 

Casement Window Hardware.. 217 

Ceiling Joist 234 

Cellar Window Hardware 219 

Cement Wainscoting 93 

Chimneys 67 

" number of brick in 69 

Cisterns 152 

Closette 281 

Cobble stone 42 

" " Fireplace 80 

Collar Beams 240 

Concrete 22 

" Atmospheric Influence on 28 

" Blocks 37 

" cost of 39 

" number required... 40 

" Coloring 30 

" Floors 45 

" Foundations 34 

" Forms for 32 

" Material required for . . 23 

Mixing 24 

Piers 51 

Steps 47 

" Walks 49 

" Water proofing 29 

Contracts 7 

" Forms of 9 

D 

Doors 273 

Door Frames 248 

Doors. Hardware for 220 

Dormers 255 

Double acting door. Hardware 

for . 221 

E 

Eaves 242 

Eave Troughing 150 

Excavating 13 

Excavating, cost of 14 

Excavation, cu. yds. in . . 15-16-17-18 



INDEX -Continued 





174 


Fireplaces 


72 


" Cobble stone . . . 


80 


" Tile 


81 


Andirons 


82 


" Screens 


83 


" Baskets 


82 


Flooring, Porch 


256 


" Interior 


274 


Floors, Hardwood 


274 


Floor Joists 


225 


Floors, Concrete ........ 


45 


" Concrete porch . 


46 


Flowers 


193 


Flowers, Bulbs 


199 


Footings 


19 


" Drainage of . . . . 


20 


" over Quicksand . 


21 




21 


Foundations ( General 


Condi- 


tions) 


.. . .31-223 


Ashlar 


43 


Brick 


58 


Cement Blocks 


35 


Concrete 


34 


Cobble 


42 


Monolithic 


41 


Forms for concrete walls 


32 


Framing 


. .225-228 


Furnaces 


110 


" Care of 


112 


" Hot water 


124 




117 


" Rules for piping 


113 



Gable roof 235 

Gambrel roof 238 

Gable Sheathing & Studding. . . 240 

Garages 290 

Buick 8x14 290 

" 10x16 292 

Maxwell 10x16 295 

Winton 12x20 297 

Packard 20x20 299 

30x20 301 

Peerless 20x20 303 

Gardening 169 



Garden, Rose 189 

Vegetable 204 

General Instructions 200 

Grass seed 172 

" " Sowing 1 74 

H 

Hardware 212 

Heating 110 

Hot water 124 

Steam 129 

Heat Controller 133 

Hip roof 237 

Hose 175 

Hot Bed 206 

Hot water heater 150 

I 

Instructions for Reversing build- 
ing 288 

Interior doors 272 

" Frames 272 

Trim 269 

Introduction, General Instruc- 
tions 209 

Introduction Part I 5 

J 

Joist, Ceiling 234 

1st floor 225 

2nd floor 233 

K 

Keene's Cement 92 

L 

Landscape Service 167 

Path and Plaster 264 

Lawns 170 

Lawn Mower 175 

Laying out Building Lines 11 

Lock Sets 220 

Lighting 160 



INDEX— Continued 



M 

Mantel bookcase 75 

Marbleoid 101 

Measurements, explanation of . . 212 

Monolithic foundations 41 

Mortise lock set 220 

Mosaic Tile 90 

N 

Nails 213 

o 

Oak Floors 274 

Outside Finish 248-271 

Outside Window and Door 

Frames 248-27 1 

P 

Painting 283 

Paint Brushes 284 

Fillers 285 

Flat Finish 285 

Painting Plastered Walls 286 

" Readi-colored lead .... 283 

Partitions 231 

Piers, Block 53 

Brick 52-59 

" Concrete 51 

Pivot sash, Hardware for 220 

Plaster 265 

Plaster Board 262 

Plumbing 138 

Plumbing Contracts 138 

" Drain Pipe and Sewer. . 140 

Installing 144 

" Non-Revent system .... 146 

" Revent system 148 

" Ventilation 142 

" Water supply 143 

Porches 256 

Porch, Balusters 261 

" Concrete floors 46 

" Flooring 256 

Joists 256 

Rail 261 

" Roofs 257 



R 

Radiators 127 

Registers 114 

Reversing Building 288 

Roofing, 1 " Tin . ..' 107 

" Canvas duck 107 

" Semi-slate 105 

Roofs 235 

Gable Style B 235 

Shed " A 236 

" Four gable style E 236 

" Hip style D 237 

Cambrel style C 23S 

Roof Sheathing . .' 241 

Roller. Lawn 175 

Roller Slat Blinds, hardware 

for 219 

Rose Garden 189 

s 

Sand, cost of washing 22 

" How to measure 27 

Sash 269 

Screen door, hardware for 221 

Seeds. Grass 172 

Selecting the location 6 

Semi-slate shingles 105 

Septic sewage disposal 156 

Sewer 1 40 

Sheathing Outside Walls 232 

Roof 241 

Shed roof 236 

Shingling 244 

Shingles^ Side walls 254 

Shingles, Semi-slate 105 

Shrubbery and Vines 185 

Siding .'. 252 

Sills 2l3 

Sliding door lock set 221 

Slate " 102 

Spark screen 83 

Stairs, attic 279 

" grade entrance 280 

" Interior 276 

Steps 261 

" Concrete 47 



INDEX— Continued 



Storm sash, hardware for 219 

Stucco 84 

Cost of 91 

Sub-flooring 228 

Summer Cottages 305 



Tile Floors 96 

" " cleaning of 100 

" fire-places 81 

" Mosaic 99 

Tin Roofing 107 

Top and bottom bolts 222 

Transom sash 218 

Trees 176 

How to plant 177 

Placing 178 

Pruning 179 

Fertilizer for 180 

Spraying 180 

Trim, Interior 269 



u 

Unloading and caring for 

material 209 

V 

Varnishing 287 

Veneer, brick 63 

Ventilation 142 

w 

Walks, cement 49 

Water Supply 143 

Weeds and Worms 175 

Weights and measures 320-321 

Window, casement 250 

" Check rail 249 

" frames 248 

" Hardware 216 

trim 270 

" Weights 269 

Wiring and lighting 160