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Full text of "Alaska, its neglected past, its brilliant future;"

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ALASKA 

ITS Neglected Past 
Its Brilliant Future 



Works by the same Author 



American Resorts and Climates 
Alaskana — Alaska's Legends. 
Echoes of Battle 
Dawn of a New Era in America 




Icy Mountains. 



Hlaska 

ITS NEGLECTED PAST 
ITS BRILLIANT FUTURE 



BusHROD Washington James 

Member of the Sons of the Revolution , Pennsylvania ; Historical Society oj 
Pennsylvania; American Academy of Political and Social Science; 
American Association for the Advancement of Science; Amer- 
ica n Public Health A ssociaiioti ; A cademy of the Natu- 
ral Sciences, Philadelphia ; The Franklin Insti- 
tute; Historical and Ethnological 
Society, Sitka, Alaska, 
Etc. 



* 



PHILADELPHIA 

THE SUNSHINK PUBLISHING COMPANY 
1897 



Copyrighted, 1897, 
By Bushrod Washington James. 



Copyrighted in Great Britain, 1897, 
By Bushrod Washington James. 



All Rights Reserved. 



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Map No, 



I. 




Map No. I — Territf 




in the Arctic Circle. 



MAP No. I. 

The Arctic Circle. 

THE Arctic Ocean Map, which we have had drawn to 
show the proximity of nations occupying possessions 
witliin the Arctic Circle, is one of great interest to Americans. 
It shows the great importance of adjacent lands to the country 
that discovers the North Pole, and plants its discovery banner 
thereon, provided, there is land at that point. In this event, 
this will be the pivot for this region, because Russia, Great 
Britain and the United States all hold a large amount of Arctic 
Territory. 

One will be struck with the ease of access from Stockholm, 
Christiana, Copenhagen, St. Petersburg, as well as London, 
Havre, Paris, Bremen, Berlin, and other Oriental cities and 
countries, and the United States, provided the ice-barriers, now 
existing shall some day be overcome or quite generally removed 
or be melted away, as they most certainly will be in the cen- 
turies to come. 

Observe the vast Arctic Territory owned by Russia and 
the extensive possessions of England, while the United States 
holds the key along with Russia to the western entrance to 
these Polar waters. 



PREFACE. 

THE object ill issuing this work is mainly to 
supply a present need for a finely illustrated, 
thoughtfully prepared, descriptive book on 
Alaska, including such reliable information as is now 
obtainable in reference tO' the more recent discoveries 
of gold in British Columbia and Eastern Alaska. 

It is offered in a style suitable for the library and the 
general reader. 

It will be a companion to those visiting this land of 
wonders and wealth, as well as to all who take an in- 
terest in our vast province of the Great North-West. 

It is presented in a more interesting readable form 
than guide books are, and at the most reasonable cost 
that such a work can be issued. 

The writer is aware of the legislative inactivity re- 
garding the recognition of Alaska as an important 
Territory of the United States, and of the opposition 
upon the part of some to devoting either money or 
talent to its advancement. Yet he has decided to risk 
the publication of this work, a portion of which ap- 
peared from time to time under the non-de-plume of 
"Bushrod," in articles written at intervals when the 
crying need of the country and its people impelled him 
to write or to speak. 

3 



4 ■ PREFACE. 

The descriptive parts were mostly written on the 
spot during a visit amongst the majestic and charming 
scenery of this beautiful country several years ago, 
while the loveliness and grandeur were actually spread 
before the author's eyes in a glorious panorama. 

The knowledge then obtained by constant study 
and observation, together with subsequent reading of 
all the information attainable concerning the District, 
led to the writing out of the legends, of which he had 
heard and read, in his book called "Alaskana," now in 
the third edition. Also of the several articles that were 
permitted to appear in the current journals of the 
day since that time, as well as the pamphlets and 
books he has since issued. 

The author does not profess to superior powers 
of far-seeing, but while the interests of both Govern- 
ment and people have been confined to other chan- 
nels he has been keenly watching the growth and 
development of Alaska with eyes jealous for the real 
interests of the country at large as represented by 
the noble resources contained in that neglected North- 
Western possession. 

Serious neglect has been allowed regarding 
the proper legislation for the protection of this 
distant Territory as well as that which has been 
made concerning the Bering Sea Arbitration and 
the Eastern Boundary Line. But at last, the time 
has come, that active and prompt attention must be 



PREFACE. 5 

given to the matter. That the pubHc may have some 
idea of the grave responsibility of the Government 
and the great importance and value of this property, 
the author has concluded to send this work forth hop- 
ing that it may engage the attention of some of those 
who are sufficiently powerful in political circles to 
make their influence felt toward the prompt and care- 
ful ratification of the Boundary Lines, as stated in 
the Treaty of Cession executed by the Russian Gov- 
ernment, likewise to the definite marking of the exact 
line by permanent landmarks placed so closely as to 
make future contentions impossible; and then to the 
creation of wise and efficient laws for the govern- 
ment and safety of the present inhabitants, as well 
as for the newcomers into Alaska and its adjacent 
Islands, included in the purchase made in 1867. 

The Author. 



Map No. 2. 




Map No. 2 — Bering (or Heliring) Sea and Strait and Norton Sound, tin 




on River and part of Alaska, Siberia, Wrangell Island and Lawrence Island. 



^ 



MAP No. 2. 

Arctic Ocean, Siberia, Bering Sea and Straits, 
St. Michaels, The Yukon River, and 

Northwestern Alaska. 

MAP number 2 is a sketch taken of the principal points of 
interest drawn from the general chart, issued in June, 
1 897, under the superintendence of W. W. Duffield, and verified 
by O. H. Tittman and E. D. Taussig, compiled from the United 
States and Russian authorities, and shows the Siberian and 
Alaskan Territories as they approach each other in the Arctic 
Ocean and at the Bering Strait with Cape Prince of Wales at 
the western end of our mainland territory on the Strait and the 
East Cape, the western extremity of the Siberian coast line. 
The islands that lie in Bering Strait are not shown, but St. 
Lawrence, opposite Norton Sound, and St. Matthew, which is 
farther south, are on the American side of the boundary line. 

The Yukon being the great outlet of the northern district 
of Alaska and British Columbia, will in all probability be the 
commercial highway from the United States, and then it will 
likely extend across Bering Sea to the outjutting point of land 
below the Gulf of Anadir. This would make a longer water 
transportation than at Bering Strait, but commerce will probably 
reach the oriental and occidental populations at a lower degree 
of latitude than at Bering Strait, and in all probability just 
above the sixty-second degree. This would be nearer of access 
to the present Hues of Alaskan travel, which would probably 
then be from Cape Navarin or Archangel Gabriel Bay directly 
across to the lower mouth of the Yukon or whichever mouth 
proves on thorough survey to have the deepest and most navi- 
gable channel for sea-going vessels. 

On the south shore of the Yukon, above the confluence of 
its mouths, we would locate a city as an Alaskan distributing 
centre. 



\ 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Ic}' Mountains Frontispiece. 

PAGE. 

Sitka Harbor 19 

Mountain and Channel 25 

Alaskans at Home — An Alaskan Interior — Chief's House . 33 

Life in a Mining Camp 49 

An Alaskan Bay 65 

Totem Poles, Fort Wrangel 81 

Fine Chilkat Blanket and Worked Totems 97 

A View on Glacier Bay 103 

Sitka— Creek Church in Centre 113 

A Seal Rookery, St. Paul's Island, Bering Sea 129 

Group of Native Alaskan Women 145 

Wrangel Narrows 161 

Section of Muir Glacier .... 177 

Sitka, Alaska, and Mount Edgecumbe .... 193 

Placer Mining 209 

Alaskan Landscape and Water Way 225 

Alaska Hunting Implements and other Curios 241 

Fine Totem Worked Chilkat Coat 257 

Interior of Stamp MiU, Douglas Island 273 

Alaskan Snow Shoes and Utensils 289 

Gastineau Channel near Juneau 305 

In front of Muir Glacier, Alaska 321 

Main Street, Sitka 329 

Juneau, Alaska 337 

New Icebergs 353 

Alaskan Block House .... 363 

Placer Mining Sluice 369 

Auk Glacier 385 

Alaskan Burial Place 391 

Davidson's Glacier 401 

Icy Bay 421 

Totem Poles, Fort Wrangel 433 

7 



LIST OF MAPS. 

No. I. Arctic Circle. 
" 2. Bering (or Behring) Sea. 
" 3. Upper Yukon River, the Klondyke and the Stewart 

Rivers, North-western British Cokimbia and Alaskan 

Areas. 
" 4. Entrance to the Inland Passage to Alaska from Puget 

Sound and Gulf of Georgia ; from Cape Mudge to 

Port Alexander, through Discovery Passage, John- 
stone Strait, Broughton Strait, Queen Charlotte 

Sound, Christie Passage and New Channel. 
" 5. Seymour Narrows and vicinity. 
" 6. Port Alexander to Point Walker, through vSouth 

Passage and Fitzhugh Sound. 
" 7. Point Walker to Swanson Bay, through Lama 

Passage, Seaforth Channel, Milbank Sound and 

Finlayson Channel. 
" 8. Swanson Bay to Chatham Sound, through Fraser 

Reach, McKay Reach, Wright Sound, Grenville 
Channel and Malacca Passage. 
" 9. Dixon Entrance, through Chatham Sound, Oriflamme 

Passage and Revillagigedo Channel — Old Fort 

Tongas. 
" 10. Portland Canal and Observatory Inlet, Southern Limit 

and Boundary Line of Alaska. 
" II. Behm Canal and Clarence Strait. 
" 12. From Cape Northumberland to Point Agassiz, through 

Clarence Strait, Stikine Strait, Sumner Strait and 

Wrangel Strait— Old Fort Wrangel. 
" 13. From Point Agassiz to Point Craven, through Dry 

Strait, Frederick Sound and Chatham Strait. 
" 14. From Point Craven to Sitka, through Peril Strait, 

Neva and Olga Straits. 
" 15. From Point Craven to Lynn Canal, through Chatham 

Strait, Juneau and Douglas Island. 
" 16. Lynn Canal, Chilkoot and Chilcat Inlets, Dyea and 

Skaguay — Starting Points for the Trails to the 

Upper Yukon Gold Fields. 



Map No. 3. 




Map No. 3 — Thf Upper Yukon, the Klondike and other Gold I 



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between the Gulf of Alaska and North western British Columbia. 



MAP No. 3. 



The Upper Yukon, The Klondyke and Stewart Rivers, 
and other gold bearing streams. 

THIS Sketch-Map is drawn after the official United States 
Government map, and includes the region from the 
Gulf of Alaska, directly through to the Rocky Mountains in 
British Columbia. 

The Kenai Peninsula is shown at the left-hand lower 
corner of the map, and the situation of the Copper River, 
Mount St. Elias and its coast range of mountains, extending 
northwestwardly to the above river and southeastwardly through 
the Thirty-Mile Purchase Strip. At the right hand will be seen 
the Alexander Archipelago extending to Dixon Entrance and 
Hecate Strait, showing the location of the Naas River. 

Portland Canal being that stretch of waterway extending 
towards the northeast, north of this river. The Canal is the 
southern boundary line of Alaska. 

Baranoff Island, on which Sitka is situated, will be seen on 
the margin of the Gulf; while Lynn Canal is seen extending 
from Admiralty Island in a northeasterly direction and termin- 
ating in two important inlets, the one to the left being the 
Chilkat from the upper end of which the Dalton Trail begins. 

The inlet extending to the right or to the northeast is the 
celebrated Chilkoot Inlet, from which the Taiya or Dyea Inlet 
extends, and on which the station or town of Dyea is located. 

Skaguay is another point at the head of navigation, about 
six miles from Dyea, on the White Pass trail. 

The Hootalinqua, Big Salmon, Little Salmon, Lewis River, 
and the Pelly River where it joins with the Lewis, and the 
Yukon, into which the White River, Stewart River, Sixty Mile 
Creek, the Klondyke River, Forty Mile Creek and Seventy Mile 
Creek and other streams run, are shown. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE. 

Preface 3 

List of Ili^ustrations 7 

List of Maps 8 

CHAPTER I. 

ALASKA'S ATTRACTIONS. 
Area and Resources of Alaska 19 

CHAPTER II. 

NEEDS OF ALASKA. 

Government's Duty to Alaska — Extent of Alaska 25 

CHAPTER HI. 

HOW TO REACH ALASKA AND ITS GOLD FIELDS. 
Routes : The Inland Passage — Chilkoot Pass — Chilkat Pass 
— White, or Skaguay River Pass — Taku Inlet — Canadian 
Pacific Railroad to Lake Tesliu, Slave and Mackenzie 
Rivers. Water Routes : San Francisco to Bering Sea 
and Yukon River — Klondike, Klondyke, or Clondike 
River — Cost of trip to Klondyke — Gold Fields .... 30 

CHAPTER IV. 

A FEW IMPROVEMENTS FOR ALASKA. 

Railroad and Telegraphic Communication Demanded — -John 
Jacob Astor — Astoria — Alaska Fur Trading Company 
Hiiman Pack Carriers — Superintendent of Education — 
Dr. Sheldon Jackson — Reindeer — Burros for Alaska — 
T-^mperature of Alaska 38 

CHAPTER V. 

GOLD MINING IN ALASKA. 

Gold Discovered by the Russians — Forbidden to Make the 
Eiscovery Public, under Penalty of severe Punishment 
by Count Baranoff — Mines about Juneau Discovered in 
i'8o — Gold Found on Douglas Island — The Mining 
Camp "Shuck" Abandoned 43 

9 



lo CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER VI. PAGE. 

THE STORY OF ALASKA. 

Vitus, or Veit Bering — Vessels with which he sailed — 
Bering Strait — Discovery of the Aleutian Islands — Dis- 
covery of the Pribylov Islands — Russian Sway — Pur- 
chase of Alaska — Treaty of Cession — Patrol of Bering 
Sea— Fortifying Alaska— City of Tacoma 51 

CHAPTER VII. 

A JOURNEY TO OUR NORTHWESTERN FRONTIER. 

Itinerary from Eastern States to Alaska 59 

CHAPTER VIII. 

A VOYAGE THAT SHOULD SATISFY THE MOST ROMANTIC. 

Itinerary of the Inland Passage 67 

CHAPTER IX. 

PECULIAR SIGHTS IN INDIAN VILLAGES. 

Dixon Entrance — Alaska, Alakshan, Great Country — Fort 
Tongas — Totem Poles — Government Buildings — Tongas 
to Fort Wrangel 73 

" CHAPTER X. 

VOYAGING ON THE LOVELY WATERS. 

Clarence Strait — Stikine Strait — Fort Wrangel — Curios at 

Fort Wrangel 79 

CHAPTER XI. 

A TRIP FROM FORT WRANGEL TO JUNEAU. 
Wrangel Straits — Dry Strait — Patterson Glacier — Frede;ick 
Sound — Stevens' Passage — Admiralty Island — Stockade 
Point — Grave Point— Taku Inlet— Gastineau Channel 
— Juneau . 84 

CHAPTER XII. 

AMONG THE GOLD MINES— JUNEAU AND DOUGLAS ISLANDS. 

Juneau in the Morning — Gold Creek — Treadwell Mines — 
Douglas Island — Output of Gold — Bear's Nest Vein — 
Ivoreua Mine 90 

CHAPTER XIII. 

LYNN CANAL AND CHILKOOT BAY. 

American Alpine Scenery —Chilkoot Bay — Eagle Glacier — 

Dyea or Tayia — Chilkat 94 



COXTENTS. II 

CHAPTER XIV. PAGE. 

OVER MUIR GLACIER — A BIRTHPLACE OF ICEBERGS. 

Glacier Bay— Icy Strait — Muir Glacier, a Crystal Citadel — 

Deep Crevasses — Moraines — Grottoes— Icebergs ... 99 

CHAPTER XV. 

AMONG THE ISL.A^NDS FROM MUIR GLACIER TO SITKA. 

Glacial Magnificence Surpassed only in Greenland — Swiss 
Alpine Scenery less Grand— Taking an Iceberg on 
Board— Often done by Vessels in the Pacific — Chatham 
Sound — Peril Strait — Why so Named — ^ Beautiful 
Seen erjf— Sitka Sound — Mount Edgecombe — Baranoff 
Castle — Count Baranoff— Sitka Training School — Greek 
Church — Beauty of Sound and Islands 106 

CHAPTER XVI. 

SITKA AND ITS LOVELY EXCURSION GROUNDS. 

First View of Sitka and its Euvirons^Inhabitants of Sitka, 
Natives, Creoles, Russians — Houses in Sitka — Sitka 
Harbor — Stars and Stripes in Sitka — Alaskan Society 
of Natural History and Ethnology — Sight-seeing — 
Vostovia, Edgecombe — Indian River, Bridges, Walks, 
etc 113 

CHAPTER XVII. 

FROM BERING SEA TO THE SEAL, OR PRIBYLOV ISLANDS, 

Ocean Voyage — ^Sounds from Seal Islands — Seal Rookeries 
or Hauling Grounds — Touching Island of St. Paul — 
Landing on the Island — Pribylov Islands — Aleuts — 
Customs — Greek Crosses 119 

CHAPTER XVIII. 

THE FUR SEALS OF PRIBYLOV ISLANDS, BERING SEA. 

A Visit to the Rookery — Aleuts' Delight— A Foggy Day- 
Mingled Voices of Seals — Appearance of the Seals — 
Herding the Seals — Killing the Seals— Preparation of 
Skins for Fur — Importance of Seal Fisheries — People 
of the Islands 1 26 



12 CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER XIX. PAGE. 

THE REAIv FAR WEST — THE AI^EUTIAN CHAIN 
OF ISLANDS. 

Tempestuous Sea — Cloud-dimmed Islands — Attoo, Attn — All 
Aleutians Pleasant and Contented — Otter Skins — Blue 
Fox Fur — Attoo, or Attu, Western Limit of the United 
States — Boundary Line Passes Between Attoo Island of 
United States and Copper Island of Russia — Alaskan 
Archipelago — Natives of all those Islands have Partic- 
ular Love for Home — Mountains and Extinct Volcanoes 
— Oonalaska, Large Town— Myriads of Islands — Foxes 
and Sea Birds — Kodiak or Kadiak — Its Importance — Its 
People— Commerce — Scene of Greatest Battle Ever 
Fought in Alaska — San Francisco Ice Company — First 
Church and School in Alaska, Established by Sheillikov 
— Cows Raised on the Island — Timber Line of Alaska — 
Salmon, Halibut, Cod— Cook's Inlet on the North . . . 133 

CHAPTER XX. 

THE YUKON RIVER, THE MIGHTY STREAM, NEARI^Y 
THREE THOUSAND MII.ES I,ONG. 

Deltas of the Yukon — Dreary loneliness of the Country, 
Low, Flat, Swampy — Trading Posts — St. Michaels, 
great centre of traffic — Gold and Silver in the Yukon 
Region — Furs, Water-fowl and Fish in abundance — 
New Mining Camps of the Yukon and Its Tributaries — 
Richness of Some Valleys on the Yukon — Grandeur of 
Interior Region Along the Great River 140 

CHAPTER XXI. 

THE NEW METLAKAHTIvA MISSION AND SETTI^EMENT ON 

ANNETTE ISLAND. 

Old Metlakahtla, British Columbia — William Duncan, 
Missionary and Governor of the Mission — Trials of the 
Leader of His People — Interference by Church of 
England — Departure of Mr. Duncan — Successor Ap- 
pointed — Sorrow of the People — Mr. Duncan's Return 
—Gift of Annette Island — Departure of the Missionary 
and His Followers to the United States Territory — 
Senator Piatt Recommended Immigrating Icelanders 
to Populate the Cold Regions of Alaska — Victoria, 
Vancouver Island — Steamer for San Francisco— Puget 
Sound — Into the Golden Gate — California — Home . . 146 



CONTENTS. 13 

CHAPTER XXII. PAGE. 

THE BERING SEA CONTROVERSY — ITS PRINCIPAL POINTS. 

Pribylov Islands not Public Property — Bering Sea held by 
Russia for Ages — Russell Duane on Seal Question — 
Extermination of the Seals Imminent if Pelagic Sealing 
Continues— Death of the vSeals — Professor Elliott's As- 
sertion — London Companies the L,osers — Only Present 
Aggrandizement — Retaliation not to be Thought of in 
the Matter— Right is Might in the United States — Arbi- 
tration not Just — Treaty — Ask Russia What Property 
She Sold and Settle all Disputes— Revenue from Seals 
Large — United States vStrong in Yoiith and Justice — 
Calmness of United States not a Sign of Pusillanimity 
— Triple Alliance in Europe — Alliance of United States, 
Russia, Japan and China Proposed — Protect Rights 
with Dignity — Japan has Seal Islands to Guard as Well 
as Russia and United States 153 

CHAPTER XXIII. 

OUR ALASKAN INTERESTS. 
Preparation for War in Time of Peace Insures Peace — 
England Fortifying Points Along the Yukon Questioned 
— Gold in Upper Yukon — Unwise for United States to 
Permit such Forts as Tongas and Wrangel to fall into 
Decay — Reason for England Desiring a New Boundary 
Line — United States must watch well Her Commercial 
Interests on the Pacific — Siberian Railroad will open 
Immense Trade Between United States and the Orient 
— Build Forts Equal in Strength to Esquimault, the 
British Fortification on Vancouver — United States 
Should Not Arbitrate the Eastern Boundary — Russia 
Never Run a Boundary Line Through Uncertain Islands 
— Calmness of United States not Cowardice — The Past 
Disproves that Possibility 160 

CHAPTER XXIV. 

OUR .ALASKAN PROPERTY. 

The Question of Alaska Territory vShould Be Continually Ad- 
vanced Until it is Settled Indisputably— Wealth of Alaska 
Cannot be Computed— Effect of the Gold Excitement on 
the Russian Continental Railroad — Important Changes 
in Alaska — United States Should Have Uninterrupted 
Communication with Powers of the Orient — It would 
Lead to Better Understanding — Neglect of Alaska not 



14 CONTENTS. 

PAGi:, 
Intended by Government — Towns Should be Built for 
Miners — Money for Alaskan Improvements Would be 
Well Spent — Need of Armed Cruisers in the Pacific as 
Well as in the Atlantic — Never Break Friendship Be- 
tween Russia and the United States 165 

CHAPTER XXV. 

CURB THE WAR SPIRIT. 

Present Agitation Need not Lead to Warfare — United States 
Must Lend an Extent of Sympathy to Those Who Are 
Struggling . for Freedom — Foolish to Goad the Public 
to an Idea of War With Any Nation - United States 
Never Fought Simply for Territory — Conscious in 
Integrity She Will Hold Her Own, Leading to Peace 
and Prosperity ... 172 

CHAPTER XXVI. 

OUR GREAT NORTHWESTERN TERRITORY AND 
ITS NATURAL RESOURCES. 
Value of Alaska Assert! ng Itself—Governor Sheakl ey 's Report 
Very Favorable — Alaska Will One Day be as Important 
as Norway, Sweden or Finland— Russia Valued the Land 
and Sold It — United States Bought It — Boundary was 
not Questioned until Gold Was Found — A System of 
Railroads Should at Once be Planned for Alaska — Com- 
munication Must be Held Between It and Great North- 
western Cities — Commence Improvements and the 
Land Will Prosper at Once — There Must be Homes, 
Schools, Churches, Plenty of Food, Making Interstate 
Commerce a Necessity — No Reason for the Territory to 
Remain Unpopulated — Coal, Petroleum, Fish, Canned 
Goods and Timber Will Soon Make Vast Changes in 
Population — Oil Stoves for Cooking Until Coal is At- 
tainable — Permit No Squatting — Land Reserved for 
Government Disposal- Educate the People — Value the 
Land, Legislate Carefully, and Alaska Will Soon be 
Worthy of a Place Among the States . 176 

^^ CHAPTER XXVII. 

^ THE FUTURE OF ALASKA. 

Impossible to Check Immigration to the Territ(5fy — Tourists 
Praise It — No Wonder Men Out of Work Turn to Its 
Gold Fields— Duty of the Government to Care for the 
Men Who go to the Territory— The Trial Must be Made 
to Prove Whether Mining is Possible - Give Strong, 
Willing Men Work and Let Them Colonize Alaska . . 



CONTENTS. 1 5 

CHAPTER XXVIII. page. 

THE RESOURCES OF AI^ASKA. 

In Spite of Procrastination Alaska is Pushing to the Front 
— Prediction of a Rush to the Territory Comes True 
After vSeveral Years of Waiting — Education is Already- 
Aiding Development — Governor Swineford Told of the 
Riches of Alaska, and Returned to the Country to Prove 
it — Dr. Jackson's Imported Reindeer Thrive — Gold, Sil- 
ver, Copper, Coal, Oil, Furs, Fish and Marble — Money 
and Talent Must Lead Labor— Work, the Password to 
Fortune — Brawny Frames, Strong Hearts, and Perse- 
verance Necessary — All Joined With Industry Will 
Make Wonderful Changes in a Few Years 189 

CHAPTER XXIX, 

BERING SEA AND ITS SEAI^S — QUESTIONS WHICH HAVE 
TO BE SETTLED FOR THE FUTURE AS 
WELL AS PRESENT. 
The Question of Bering Sea Will Continue to Assert Itself 
Until it is Settled Once For All— The Seal Not the Main 
Object — Modus Vivendi a Mistake — England's Diplo- 
macy Transparent — Bering Strait May One Day be 
Compassed so as to Make Land Communication With 
Siberia Possible — Chinese Exclusion Approved by 
England — Why — Indemnity Paid by United States an 
Act of Justice, Nothing Else — Arbitration, to be Just. 
Will Ratify the United States Claim— Broad Inter- 
national Policy Best — Number of Seals Taken by the 
Government of the United States and the Pelagic 
Sealers 195 

CHAPTER XXX. 

ALASKA FUR SEAL PROTECTION. 
Pelagic Sealing Should Be Stopped — Cruelty of Such Seal- 
ing — Young Die of Starvation — Unborn Seals De- 
stroyed — Proposition Made to Kill Off the Seals if Such 
Cruelty Continues- Poaching Works Its Own Destruc- 
tion in the Depletion of the Herds — In Legitimate Seal- 
ing Only Proper Furs Are Obtained, and the Killing is 
Instantaneous — Extermination Will Not Result if only 
Legitimate Means Are Used, and Proper Animals Se- 
lected — Pelts Thus Obtained Alwaj'S Marketable and 
Beautiful — Until Boundaries Are Well Surveyed and 
Located No Arbitration Could Be Executed — Why Not 
Select At Least One Republic in Arbitrating Any Point 
Concerning This Republic's Interests 200 



1 6 CO ATE NTS. 

CHAPTER XXXI, page. 

RECENT ROUTES TO THE GOI<D FIELDS OF THE YUKON RIVER, 
AFTER REACHING ALASKAN PORTS. 

The North Canadian Route — Over the Chilkoot Pass — 
The Chilkat Route — The White Pass, or Skaguay Route 
—Lake Teslin Route— The Taku Route— A Canoe Route 
from Dease Lake 206 

CHAPTER XXXII. 

INTERNATIONAL LAW AS AFFECTING ALASKA. 

Justly Unselfish Legislation — Countries Should Respect 
Each Other's Claims — Russell Duane on International 
Law 224 

CHAPTER XXXIII. 

CLIMATE OF ALASKA — ITS HEALTHFULNESS. 

Moist and Temperate Climate of the Coast — Rigorous, Pure 
Climate of the Interior — Possibilities of Vegetable Cul- 
ture — Plan for Propagation 236 

CHAPTER XXXIV. 

MISSIONS. 

Summary of Missions and Mission Work — Greek the First 
Church in Alaska — Mission Schools — Teachers and 
Employees in Church Misson Schools in 1896 242 

CHAPTER XXXV. 

EDUCATION IN ALASKA. 

Education, as Carried on in the Past — Progress and Plans 
for the Future — Schools Under Government Super- 
vision 248 

CHAPTER XXXVI. 

CANADIAN LEGISLATION. 

Mr. W. Ogilvie, Land Surveyor for Canada, and Chief of Gov- 
ernment Explorers — Klondyke Protected by Mounted 
Police Under Major Walsh— Laws Governing Yukon 
and Klondyke Districts— Taxations — Penalties — Duties 
— Claims — River, Creek and Bar Claims — Canadian 
Mining Regulations 255 



CONTENTS. 17 

CHAPTER XXXVII. page 

AI^ASKAN LEGISLATION. 

The Alaskan Purchase — Summary of all Laws Relating to 
Alaska— Extracts from United States Statutes : Lands, 
Surveys, Mineral Lands, etc. — Seal Islands made a 
Reservation— Reservations in Alaska : Lands, Forest 
and Fish— Salmon Protection and Revenue-Cutter 
Service — Education in Alaska — Traveling Expenses — 
Revenue Service — Customs, Commercial and Naviga- 
tion Laws — Enactment Concerning Alaska Statistics — 
The Boundary Line — Boundary Line Commission — 
Award of Arbitration Tribunal, Paris, on Fur Seals — 
Killing of Fur-Bearing Animals — List of Statutes Con- 
cerning Alaska 260 

CHAPTER XXXVIII. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

Summary of Topics of Other Chapters — Temperature of 
Different Parts of Alaska — Kuro Siwo — Japan Current — 
No extreme cold in Sitka and Like Places on Coast of 
Alaska — Beauty of Scenery — Military Rule Questioned 
— Canadian Police— AlaskansWhen Civilized Are Honest 
and Faithful— British to Carry Supplies Across the Ter- 
ritory' Without Duty Right if Reciprocal Prerogatives Are 
Given — British Plan of Holding Part of Lands as Reserve 
Consistent With Plan Suggested for all States of the 
Republic — Miners Will be Caught by the Winter 
Weather — Suggestions for Their Safety — Road Over 
White Pass Begun — Horses for Draught Not Advisable 
— Burros Better — Reindeer Bestof All— Food Important 
Freight in Former Cases— Reindeer Forage for Them- 
selves — Dogs Must Also be Fed, and They Are Trouble- 
some — Reindeer Stations Yet Limited — Increase of 
Herds Promising — These Deer Are Good for Food and 
Clothing as Well as for Hauling — Swift, Docile, Faithful 
— Care of the Reindeer — Siberian Lapps and Dogs 
Brought From Russia for Herders — Number of Deer 
Distributed at Stations — Names of Stations Teller 
Station Named for Hon. Henry M. Teller, of Colorado 
— Port Clarence — Success With Reindeer Assured . . . 328 



1 8 CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER XXXIX. page. 

SUPPr,E;MENTARY DATA. 

Important and Recent Data Relating to Alaska in General 
— Klondyke — Yukon — Dawson — Circle City — Arctic 
Region — The Passes — The Frozen Zone— General Data 
— Officials of Alaska, 1897 349 

CHAPTER XL. 

DISTANCES — APPROXIMATE. 

Between East, West and Alaska — Fare, Freight, Personal 

and Probable Expenses for Outfit, Food, Clothing, etc. 398 

CHAPTER XLI. 

POINTS OF INTEREST. 

From Puget Sound to Chilkoot Pass and Sitka 402 

CHAPTER XLII. 

BIBWOGRAPHY OF AI^ASKA. 
Summary of All Books Relating to Alaska 420 



CHAPTER I. 

Alaska's Attractions. 

IN a geography of comparatively recent date I 
find : " Alaska is a cold country, and is valuable 
only for its furs and fisheries. Most of its in- 
habitants are Indians." 

Such is the description of a land whose aggregate 
area is five thousand one hundred and seven square 
miles; whose extreme width, from east to west, is two 
thousand two hundred miles, in an air line; whose 
breadth, from north to south, is one thousand four 
hundred miles; whose coast, if extended in a straight 
line, would belt the globe, and whose great river, 
the Yukon, running away into Canadian ter- 
ritory, is computed to be not less than three 
thousand miles long, two thousand of which is navi- 
gable, while its width ranges from one to five miles 
for fully one thousand miles of its course. Its five 
mouths and intervening deltas exceed seventy miles 
in extent. The size of this great river should be 
sufficient for national pride alone in its possession, 
but that is not all. Its shores, or at least the country 
traversed by it, is teeming with virgin mines of gold, 
silver and copper. The Indians find in its neighbor- 
hood beautiful furs which they carry many miles in 

19 



2o ALASKA. 

their canoes to the trading posts. The supply would 
naturally be much greater if there were less laborious 
modes of conveyance. Prospectors tell us that there 
are almost inexhaustible mines of coal of excellent 
quality, actually jutting out before those who have 
explored the islands and more inland places. 

The trip to Alaska is safe and comfortable by the 
inland passage. Fine passenger and safe freight 
steamers sail periodically along the sounds, straits 
and bays protected by the islands of tbe Brit- 
ish Columbian and the Alaskan coasts, giv- 
ing the excursionists the opportunity of gaining the 
full benefit of a sea water voyage without the accom- 
panying nausea, such as results upon the broad roll- 
ing ocean, while the tourist is constantly feasting his 
eyes upon one picture after another of the exquisite 
beauty or sublimity. 

Think of steaming up to the very base of a glacier 
whose grand extent and beauty puts to shame the 
glaciers in Switzerland, which tourists are quite will- 
ing to make trips across the Atlantic to s'^isit. And 
the ocean trip thither is not all. Count the miles of 
railroad travel, the weary hours of climbing, and the 
comparatively few persons who can accomplish the 
feat and really behold the glacier fields in their quiet 
grandeur. While, upon the Muir Glacier of Alaska, 
the largest accessible one in the world, women 
and even children may safely accompany the 



ALASKA ' S A TTRA CTIONS. 21 

stronger excursionists, roam over the vast moraines 
and among the gHttering ice fields and even up upon 
the pinnacles of ice and hear the thunder of the im- 
mense blocks and crumbling cliffs and crags of solidi- 
fied water as they break away and plunge deep into the 
bay below. One can, on a clear summer's day, watch 
them as they leap into the clear waters, and then dip 
and dive as if enjoying their bath before reappearing, 
when they shoot up their crystal peaks in beauti- 
ful azure majesty, assuming the name and preroga- 
tive of icebergs and bidding defiance to approaching 
vessels and cautioning them to beware of their pres- 
ence. In Icy Bay the waters are so deep, however, 
that vessels may with safety sail between and among 
these iridescent and rock-like dangers. 

Alaska is "a cold country" in some of its more 
northern parts, but in others it has a summer burst- 
ing forth in green and almost inaccessible jungles of 
luxuriant undergrowth topped by magnificent trees 
of valuable commercial wood, with wonderful facili- 
ties for its transportation. Birds, beasts and fishes 
can here attract the ambitious camping sportsman, 
with no venomous tropical snakes to mar the hope of 
a good night's rest after a day of successful hunting. 

One pessimistic tourist writes: "I could not stay 
here, for it is nearly always night. There is no use 
in any one trying to make a living in such a place 
where there is no light to work by." He did not 



22 ALASKA. 

stay long enough to see the "land of the midnight 
sun" in all its glory. He did not think of the miners 
in our own State, who scarcely ever see the light of 
day, nor did he give a thought to the many thousands 
of mechanics and tradesmen who are compelled to 
work by artificial light a considerable portion of each 
day during the winter. 

Even considering all its disadvantages, the wealth 
contained in the bosom of that large Territory should 
be suflficient cause for the Government to take a deep 
and permanent interest in it, and to survey and claim 
and amply mark its full and proper boundary lines. 
Think of the possibility of the truth of a statement 
made by travelers, that the British Dominion actually 
has government buildings and officers in active em- 
ployment many miles outside of the legal limits of its 
jurisdiction. That is, taking Fort Tongas, for instance, 
as the pivot upon which the boundary line should rest, 
instead of the thirty-mile claim east of that pivot 
along the line being left as the property of the United 
States, according to the treaty, the land was encroached 
upon at one time many miles beyond that point by am- 
bitious Canadian map makers, who can see in the 
"barren waste" sufficient facilities for money-making 
to render it possible to face all the objectionable 
points that are harped upon by those who reckon 
without the host of mines, stamp-mills, saw mills, and 
fur trading posts that would be erected, and of the 



ALASKA'S ATTRACTIONS. 23 

hundreds of workingmen that would be willing to 
face the dangers and hardships of settlement, if the 
boundaries were an actual undisputed existing fact, 
and capitalists and others found themselves fully 
guarded by a protecting government force. The valu- 
able placer gold mines discovered on theKlondyke and 
other tributaries of the Upper Yukon will compel Con- 
gress to definitely act in the matter. 

If our sister country takes such an interest in the 
border between our province and hers, it is really time 
to discover what are the objects for which she is will- 
ing to work so faithfully and enlist our attention more 
deeply and fully therein. While we are holding the 
"cold country" as a kind of disdainful possession, 
bought in a moment, as some thought, of rash extrav- 
agance, but really in thankfulness to Russia for her 
friendliness during the great rebellion, we are quietly 
letting starve to death the valuable "goose" that 
would willingly supply us with the * ' golden eggs ' ' 
which might go far towards helping fill Alaska's and 
the nation's coffers. 

The inhabitants are mostly Indians in type. It is 
still a question from whom most of these people are de- 
scended, and it would only give rise to controversy to 
attempt to speak definitely upon the subject. But 
their carvings in stone, metal, bone and ivory display 
wonderful talent, and the blankets of the Chilkats 
are surely but slowly gaining world-wide reputation. 



24 ALASKA. 

not only on account of their texture but by reason 
of the beautiful colorings and designs in which they 
are wrought by the native women. So much is 
thought of these blankets that a Chilkat's wealth is 
gauged by the number in his possession. Here, too, 
would be a considerable source of revenue, for trade 
would not only increase the production, but many 
a cunning chief or medicine man would be tempted 
by the glittering silver and gold coins of our treasury 
to sell his store of wealth, and put into the market 
what would, for a while at least, become a fashion- 
able decoration for many a foreign-decked boudoir. 
In fact, my description would become tediously lengthy 
if I should try to make even passing mention of the 
many reasons why our boundary should be a fixed, 
unalterable line; why our half-scorned Territory 
should have a government of its own, and why the 
natives should have at least more notice taken of the 
rights that were intended to be secured to them by the 
terms of the purchase of Alaska and why its commerce 
should not rapidly increase. 



CHAPTER II. 

The Needs of Alaska. 

IT is a matter of interest to those who have seen 
Alaska, who have a kindly feeling toward that 
distant portion of our countr}^ and who are 
deeply anxious for its welfare, to know whether the 
United States is intending to give this tract of land a 
territorial form of government that will protect its set- 
tlers, as well as the savage or native portion of its pop- 
ulation. They surely have the rights of citizens as to 
claim, and should receive the protection of the Govern- 
ment to which they belong. 

As it is, there seems to be no thorough safeguards 
for any enterprise, excepting that secured by patents 
for mining claims, so that practically, in the mining 
regions are to be found the only inducements so far 
offered to settlers. A bill for the formation of a terri- 
torial form of government was introduced in the 
House of Representatives some time ago, but no de- 
finite arrangement concerning it seems to be near 
completion yet. It certainly needs representation. 

I have looked in vain for years in each President's 
message for any mention of the neglected land, except 
as regards the legal boundary between it and the Brit- 
ish possessions. It would certainly be well to have that 

25 



26 ALASKA. 

matter settled once for all. At the same time it 
would be well for our government to take the steps 
that would stamp Alaska as one of its Territories, 
and thus provide proper laws for its government, and 
then furnish a sufficient number of officers, civil and 
protective, and troops, and an ample naval equipment 
to guard the coasts and rivers and see to their en- 
forcement. It is not read}^ for subdivision yet. 

It is natural to suppose that there would be need 
for some difference in ruling a people so diverse from 
ourselves in language, customs and methods of liv- 
ing. But legal arrangements, should be made to 
show them the authority under which they live; let- 
ting them see that the law must not only be obeyed, 
but that the same government that will punish 
an offender against its majesty will also vigorously 
protect him from interference from outsiders, and 
secure the rights that no one ma}^ dispute. As it is 
now, the interior natives are to a great extent as much 
"a law unto themselves" as before, and in all these 
years there has been but a limited improvement among 
the more civilized natives. 

Some advocate that the Territory be left in the 
hands of missionaries for some time to come, that 
their teachings may fit the people to become citizens. 
So far, it is well ; but do not the missionaries need pro- 
tection and assistance? Will their work be any the 
less effective if they have the strong arm of a present 



THE NEEDS OF ALASKA. 27 

power to lean upon? Argue that God has promised 
to be with those that do His work. But He made 
laws Himself for the government and protection of 
His people. 

When the Alaskans — notwithstanding many are 
wild and cruel, yet all are human — find that the land 
is under one power, irrespective of position, tribe, or 
color; when they know whether it is a white man or 
a native who commits a crime, he will be equally pun- 
ished; when they are made confident that each one 
who holds property by right will be protected in its 
possession by common law for all, mission work will 
be wonderfully aided. How often has it been that 
the poorly remunerated, overworked teacher has to 
neglect the spiritual education of one while settling 
some dispute among others, whereas, if the proper 
civil authorities were there, he could send the dispu- 
tants to them and have more time to devote to his 
own calling. 

So far the Government has been perhaps uncon- 
sciously requiring double duty of that noble band of 
missionaries and teachers in Alaska. Now let it 
rise and give them the support of their own laws, with 
enough officials for their fulfilment, and it will be re- 
warded by a far greater progress in civilization in the 
next decade than has been shown in all the previous 
years since the purchase. 

Think of a country whose area equals one-sixth 
the extent of the remaining portion of the United 



28 AL.lSk:i. 

States, being under a sort of law of origin, and even 
that liable to individual demands at any time. For 
instance, a prospector observes an apparent barren 
waste or forest, but he also sees facilities for its great 
improvement. There is no visible owner. He hews 
his logs, builds his house and in time makes a pleas- 
ant home for himself, and the spot grows under his 
care to be a credit to any country. A dark-faced sav- 
age comes along, by whose advice we cannot say, and 
demands possession, or perhaps takes it without any 
question, and with it the settler's hard earned im- 
provements, for under the purchase the natives have 
a prior claim to lands they have occupied. 

Is it any wonder that such laxity is ruining instead 
of making the country prosperous? Is it strange 
that some parts, which years ago gave promise of be- 
coming places of importance, have fallen ofif in popu- 
lation, leaving as monuments to promised industries 
the deserted buildings? It is not like American en- 
terprise so to act, nor will it be so when the proper 
protection is ofifered to individual projects. By many 
the blame is attached to the climate. Investigation 
will prove that we have greater variations in the 
climate, in our part of the country, than there are in 
many parts of Alaska. To be sure there are glaciers 
and icebergs in some places in the northern posses- 
sions, but so are there waving trees and luxuriant vel- 
vet-like grasses in other parts. 



THE NEEDS OF ALASKA. 29 

In the future there will be many who will prefer 
Alaska or Dakota to Florida, and vice versa. 
As far as my own experience led me to ob- 
serve it was lovely and healthful. I can see 
no reason why a tract of land teeming with wealth 
should be neglected by government and people alike. 

From the mines of silver, gold and coal, from the 
mighty forests of cedar and pine, from the beautiful 
furs of seal and otter, from the great fisheries of seal, 
whale, salmon and cod, from the enormous, inex- 
haustible supply of pure ice, comes the one voice: 
"Give us the protection of an interested Government 
and we will not only support ourselves, but will re- 
turn to the United States a revenue, many times mul- 
tiplying the amount of her investment by the pur- 
chase of the district of Alaska." 



CHAPTER III. 

How TO Reach Alaska and Its Gold Fields. 

TOURISTS visiting Alaska have such a choice 
of routes that each individual may consult 
his own taste until he arrives at Tacoma or 
Seattle, on Puget Sound, but after that he will find 
but one route, by the inland passage, to the Territory, 
— of which so much has been recently written — by 
steamer to Port Townsend, and thence to Juneau, Fort 
Tongas, Fort Wrangel and Sitka. Commodious, 
well equipped steamers ply between Tacoma, 
Seattle and Port Townsend, and freight steam- 
ers make stoppages at small towns and sal- 
mon canneries on their way, as well as at the 
principal towns. Sitka is, and has always been, the 
capital, but Juneau is the principal commercial city 
and business centre, because it is adjacent to Douglas 
Island, the location of the large Treadwell Gold 
Mine. Fort Wrangel is also a stopping place, 
though it was long since abandoned as a fort, and is 
now only noticeable for its curious native houses and 
their peculiar totems. Fort Tongas, at the lower 
border of the Territory, is also now quite forsaken, 
though it was once quite important. 

The pleasure seeker will find enough of beauty and 
grandeur even this far to repay many times over the 
30 



HOW TO REACH ALASKA. 31 

expense of the trip, while inconvenience is almost a 
thing of the past, except when it is calculated with 
regard to the gold hunters, who must pass beyond the 
jurisdiction of the steamers and for whom railroads 
have not yet been constructed. 

The accompanying map will give a slight idea of 
the direct course from Juneau to the Klondyke River, 
but onl}^ experience can fully describe the journey. 

The distance from Juneau to this river is about 700 
miles. There is steamboat passage from Juneau to 
a place called Dyea, possibly a perversion of the na- 
tive name, as Klondyke certainly is. From this point 
goods are borne by carriers, horses or burros, until 
the limit of Chilkoot Pass and the adjacent level land 
is reached, when they are again placed in boats and 
taken through a chain of lakes, varying in size, on 
to the Lewis River, through which they reach the 
Yukon River; after that they have comparatively 
easy boating down the stream until they enter the gold 
district. A portion of this route is accomplished by 
shooting rapids, one of which leads through a narrow 
canyon, the passage being accompanied by a few min- 
utes of terrible danger. But the saving of many hours 
in making a detour to avoid it is considered sufficient 
compensation to the men who are eager to get to their 
destination. The dangers, inconveniences and diffi- 
culties of this trip are supplemented by the impossi- 
bility of being able to carry sufficient provisions and 



32 ALASKA. 

tools to last any great length of time. The conse- 
quent deprivation, failure and loss of life will, for a 
time, have a depressing effect upon the enterprise. 
At the same time it must not be supposed that these 
adverse conditions cannot be obviated if active meas- 
ures are immediately instituted to improve the road 
and make it more easily passable. In fact, we hear 
that this improvement has already begun. There is not 
a doubt that the time is not distant when this part of 
the Territory will be as accessible as are the Mission 
fields of the Yukon, or Point Barrow, the extreme 
northern limit of the North-West. This way is the in- 
land route to the Gold Regions. The San Francisco 
route is made by steamer up the Pacific Ocean into 
Bering Sea, viaUnalashka, thence up the Yukon River 
to St. Michaels, the only town of any importance so far 
interior at which the regular Yukon steamers, plying 
between the upper country and St. Michaels, can be 
taken for the mining towns. The greatest objection to 
this route is that it is available only about two, or at the 
most, three months in the year. The great river begins 
freezing in September and from that time until the 
warm days in May or June it lies completely locked 
in its icy vestment. Its tributaries share the same 
fate, so that the route cannot be very popular for 
those who start out to seek fortunes with empty 
pockets. 

A third route is by way of Taku Inlet. An entrance 
is made to the bay thirty miles south of Juneau, and it 




Alaskans at Home. 




An Alaskan Intkrior. — Chief's House. 



HO IV TO REACH ALASKA. 33 

is the course proposed by Schwatka on his way to explore 
the great Yukon River. It leads through a flat, com- 
paratively level country to the Lewis river, thence 
over that stream to the Yukon and down the Yukon 
to Dawson City at or near the mouth of the Klon- 
dyke. The Dyea or according to Schwatka, Dayay 
River route leads across the mountains from Chilkoot 
Inlet to Lake Teslin. Here flat boats for freight, and 
light canoes for passengers, ply over a good waterway 
direct to Dawson City. Except by the San Francisco 
route it is impossible to reach the Gold Region without 
passing through British domain. A fourth route is 
made quite desirable by the Canadian Pacific Rail- 
road, which carries the traveler and his belongings 
over the high plateau to the Teslin Lake and River, 
whence the journey is the same as the route pre- 
viously mentioned. 

Other routes are now being planned. The bal- 
loon project is rather visionary as yet. 

Klondyke, or Clondike, is a perversion of the na- 
tive name claimed by one authority to be Thron- 
duick, or river with plenty of fish. This seems prob- 
able because of the abundance of salmon found therein 
at the fishing season. By another it is said to be 
Clan-dack, or Rein-deer River. The latter is more 
doubtful as the reindeer has not been known in that 
region within the memory of man. However, Klon- 
dyke it is called, and that name rings around the 
3 



34 ALASKA. 

world to-day tempting old and young, rich and poor, 
with its golden melody. 

To such a pitch has the excitement reached that 
many a poor, deluded man has started forth to push 
his fortune with very little money and very scant pro- 
vision for the trip, and literally without even know- 
ing in what manner he shall find his way to the tempt- 
ing gold fields. In imagination, wealth in shining 
nuggets and yellow dust await his coming. But 
he will find no room for such hopes as he steps upon 
the crowded steamer; no food for him who has not 
plenty of cash with which to pay exorbitantly for 
every creature comfort, however rude ; no room for his 
provisions and outfit unless ample compensation is 
forthcoming. It follows then that a man must weigh 
well all the requirements for the journey, and calculate 
to a nicety all the expenses before deciding upon enter- 
ing the race for the Alaskan, or Klondyke Gold 
Fields. One should await the spring weather and 
better conveyance. 

Health, strength, untiring energy, endless patience 
and considerable money are the only possible guides 
to success; while a prolonged absence from all the 
refinements of cultivated society must also be duly 
considered. The very sight of a linen shirt would 
be greeted with derision, and any of the delicate ac- 
cessories of the toilet would call down an avalanche 
of cutting sarcasm. By this he must know that flan- 



NOW TO REACH ALASKA. 35 

nel shirts — not dainty Ceylon flannel, — tough suits, 
heavy boots, snow shoes, mud moccasins — really long 
boots of beaver or seal skin with the fur inside and 
costing all the way from ten to twenty-two dollars, — 
close fitting caps with ear covers, plenty of good 
warm stockings, numerous gloves, and fur outer gar- 
ments are all absolutely necessary. Food in abund- 
ance must be taken for fear of famine. To pro- 
cure such an outfit it will require at least six hun- 
dred dollars. Dogs and sleds must be had to accom- 
plish the overland transportation, for which five hun- 
dred dollars more is requisite. Then fare and boat 
hire must be computed. $67.75 will land you by rail 
at Seattle, on Puget Sound, from any of the sea board 
cities of the East. From Seattle $75.00 will give you 
every comfort on the steamer until you reach Juneau. 
From Juneau a small boat is taken to Dyea. 
After that comes the use of the sleds, or the pack 
carriers if you prefer their services to purchasing 
dogs and sleds; then the services of the boats on the 
lakes and rapids and the wages of assistants in caring 
for the goods. This latter is a most important ser- 
vice, because there is danger of losing every thing 
while shooting the rapids of the Portage and Lake 
Lebarge. These latter expenses are not computed 
for us, but they must amount to quite a little sum. 
After all difficulties and dangers are successfully sur- 
mounted and Klondyke, or Dawson City dawns upon 



36 ALASKA. 

the eyes, the first consideration must be some kind 
of residence, for the building- of which you will re- 
quire lumber, procurable at the modest sum of $750 
per thousand feet. These facts are somewhat dis- 
couraging, but we are assured that they are true. 
If so, poor men must stay at home, unless capitalists 
undertake to fit out and send colonies to the 
mines. When they do, there will be a great demand 
for strong, able-bodied, willing men. Others must 
stay among the more civilized communities, and be 
content to let the dazzling pictures of instantaneous 
fortune pass before them without losing their mental 
equilibrium in the contemplation. "Grub-stake" min- 
ers are men employed by others for a consideration to 
prospect or work and thus make a division of their 
finds. 

Many fortune seekers may, however, find it con- 
venient to content themselves in South-Eastern Alaska, 
where the climate is much like that of Boston and 
possibly of cities a little further south. This tempera- 
ture is owing to the warm Japan current, called the 
Ivuro Siwo, which sweeps northward like the Gulf 
Stream of the East, washing tine shores of the myriad 
Western Islands and modifying the temperature for a 
considerable distance inland. This warm stream, flow- 
ing from the mild coasts of Asia, curves around the 
bleak Aleutian Islands and tempers with its gentle 
breath the whole southern region. There is a great 



HOW TO REACH ALASKA. 37 

deal of good mining in this neighborhood, now aban- 
doned by miners for the more promising fields further 
north and east. Just here the belated miner may find 
some balm for his disappointed hopes, and doubtless 
the day is near when thousands of men and women 
will find comfortable homes and a good living as the 
country becO'm,es more settled, which is now certain to 
happen in a short time. Miners will go so far, find it 
impossible to get north, and in desperation take work 
in the mines in which such hands are now in great 
demand, or find other more profitable occupations. 
The consequence will be that they will find the climate 
agreeable, the work lucrative, and they will 
soon gather their families around them. Thus the 
wildly boiling fever for Klondyke gold will become 
the calmer desire for home and competence, and the 
benefit accruing to one part of the Territory will be 
a steady advancement to the honor and dignity of 
both commercial and financial importance in Alaska, 
while the natives will at last be brought into com- 
munion with the true and honorable type of citizenship 
and of our home-like life. 



CHAPTER IV. 

A Few Improvements for Alaska. 

AT LAST there comes a crj^ from Alaska for the 
^ railroads and telegraphic communications that 
the writer has been earnestly advocating as 
absolute requirements for its development for a num- 
ber of years. The folly of claiming that it is impossi- 
ble to build railroads in places where men can carry 
loads like pack horses is distinctly evidenced by the 
magnificent engineering on the Denver and Rio 
Grande Railroad and the railway over Marshall Pass 
and other parts of the mountains of Colorado, while 
the single example of the Cog Wheel Road to the top 
of Pike's Peak, as well as similar wonderful enterprises, 
is sufficient demonstration of what may here be done 
if the demand for it was authoritatively pronounced. 
Civil engineering can surmount all the difficulties, 
the only question now is when shall capital be thus 
directed. Allowance must at this time be made for 
the exaggerations in reports regarding the extensive 
finds of coal, oil, and especially gold, in the Territory. 
At the same time such evidences have been given 
that no one can doubt that the products are truly 
there and in large quantities. And now the disastrous 
results of procrastination are beginning to fall upon 
-,8 



A FEW IMPROVEMENTS FOR ALASKA. 39 

the hundreds to whom the prospect of riches, held 
towards them in such glowing colors, has completely 
eclipsed the gloom of certain hardships and possible 
disappointment, if not starvation and death next 
winter. 

To-day the Government itself would be powerless 
to stay the human tide that is even now swelling on- 
ward toward the wonderful El Dorado in the Klon- 
dyke Region, but it certainly could have prevented 
the bold announcement that is setting the New World 
almost insane, if measures had been started to open 
the way before the on-rush came, for it was authenti- 
cated reports of valuable gold fields along the Upper 
Yukon that set the wheel in motion that should have 
been kept in check until good roads and proper 
means of transit had been provided. The success 
of every enterprise undertaken on the Pacific Coast has 
been assured, but it was through the stubborn perse- 
verance of the Russian, the acute, farseeing deter- 
mination of John Jacob Astor, and the men selected 
by his keen knowledge of requirements; and the ex- 
traordinary business tact of the men working under 
the Alaska Fur Trading Company, that combined in 
a chain of mighty links to make each enterprise a 
surety. Mr. Astor in particular was never prodigal 
of human life. He always warned those to whom 
he entrusted the work of all the hardships and priva- 
tions attending their duties. He equipped them lux- 



40 ALASKA. 

uriously, he paid them well, and he selected careful, 
competent and experienced men to pioneer the way. 
The consequence was that many of them were willing 
to risk their lives in his service, while one or two 
held on to the enterprise against such odds as seldom 
were met by men who lived to tell the story. The 
work so well begun and of late advancing with less dil- 
atory pace could have been continued until a proper 
number of boats had been prepared for the carriage 
of men and provisions, and some other plan could 
have been devised for the transportation of freight 
over Chilkoot Pass, other than human carriers. If 
the little burros, or donkeys, who have done so 
nobly at mountain climbing in other parts of the 
United States and Mexico had been taken to that 
point, at the proper season, it is more than probable, 
that they would have been found as faithful aids as 
they have ever been elsewhere. But the greatest of 
all considerations must hinge upon that season. All 
preparations should be made toward it. Boats made 
ready and provisioned, tools laded, burros trained to 
the Pass and guides — faithful native guides — secured. 
Then when open weather arrives there would be 
no loss of time in preparation. Upon the arrival of 
the men, there should be companies appointed to 
take turns in preparing and provisioning tenements 
for the rugged winter, so that the miners may re- 
main to be ready for the work in the summer, instead 



A FEW IMPROVEMENTS FOR ALASKA. 41 

of attempting to make the dangerous journey in 
winter. 

A cursory glance will show that every private prop- 
erly organized plan for the improvement of the Terri- 
tory has also been successful. Missionary work pro- 
gresses favorably at every point. Steamers have 
made successful touring trips for years. The Fur 
Trade has had phenomenal success. The fisheries are 
among the finest in the world. Dr. Sheldon Jackson 
has proved the benefit of introducing reindeer into 
the bleak and barren North-West. The Treadwell 
Mine and Stamp Mill on Douglas Island are ranked 
among the most advantageous enterprises of the kind 
ever organized in this region, or even in the 
world. Therefore the fever for gold should be 
calmed down to a reasonable realization of the 
ways and means of reaching the spot first; 
afterward the manner of obtaining the metal should 
be systematically considered, and men wiho have not 
capital may hope to obtain work that will insure a 
living until such times as they too may be able to 
strike rich claims. 

While advocating this the author does not lose 
sight for an instant, of the plan, that in his view 
should be adopted by the Government — that is to 
take possession of all new gold regions, holding them 
as vast banks for the benefit of its Treasury, and pay- 
ing men fair prices for their claims, at the same time 



42 ALASKA. 

developing the mines through the aid of properly 
remunerated workmen. 

To the men who are won by the glaring stories of 
fortune awaiting them, we would say, better take ad- 
vice, and make a smaller profit by staying nearer the 
bounds of civilization along the coast line of Southern 
Alaska, than to risk both health and life in an unsuit- 
able climate, where the thermometer often runs 
down to 60 or 70 degrees below zero, and where 
pneumonia, or the hardships and dangers of a heed- 
less, reckless life among a very lawless population, 
may end in your bones being laid beneath the pitiless 
snows of some frigid valley. 

Alaska is one-sixth the size of the whole of the re- 
maining portion of the United States, so there is 
room for all who desire to go, only lay your plans de- 
liberately and carefully, equip yourself with every con- 
venience and wait until the next season opens, when 
ample provision will be made for you as to transporta- 
tion, as well as for your support and comfort. 



CHAPTER V. 

Gold Mining in Alaska. 

THE sudden and uncontrollable excitement in 
connection with the discovery of rich placer gold 
mines on the Klondyke River, a branch of the 
Upper Yukon, that extends eastward into British Co- 
lumbia Territory, by no means demonstrates the first 
finding of gold in and adjacent to Alaska. There 
have been localities all along the coast from which 
gold and silver in paying quantities and of more or 
less purity, have been obtained for many years. It is 
almost a matter of wonder that the traders, who trav- 
ersed both the water and land of this neighborhood 
for over a century, did not become enthusiastic in its 
search, for evidently they must have known some- 
thing of its presence. Possibly they thought it better 
policy to ignore the knowledge, than to arouse the 
antagonism of the owners of the soil, for it has been 
said, that an individual told the Russian representa- 
tive. Count BaranofT, of finding gold and showed him 
a portion of it, when the tyrannical old ruler threat- 
ened him with severe punishment if he either delved 
for more or told of his discovery. This may be only 
a legendary fragment touching upon the despotism of 
the blustering Governor, but it is undoubtedly true 

43 



44 ALASKA. 

that so far as the development of mining in the Terri- 
tory is concerned, there was no attempt made in that 
direction, while it was under Russian government. 
But when we take into consideration the enormous 
wealth in furs, both from amphibious and forest 
animals and the comparative ease with which the pelts 
were obtained, together with the impossibility of 
working for metal without tools we can comprehend 
the reasons for the apparent indifiference. Not only 
were the beautiful furs plentiful, but they were in de- 
mand, and when the voyageurs loaded their canoes 
to their fullest capacity they were certain of their 
profitable sale. Perhaps even to-day if there were 
the old time millions of seal, otter, fox and other fur 
bearing mammals, the great enthusiasm concerning 
gold would not reach to such a height as at present. 
Let the reason have been what it might, certainly 
the first real discovery of gold in quantity was made 
after the Territory had been in the possession of the 
United States for several years, for it was in 1872, that 
two soldiers, named Nicholas Haley and Edward 
Doyle found treasures on the shores of Silver Bay, 
where it cleaves its beautiful way through the moun- 
tains near Sitka. Doyle never succeeded in making 
a fortune but Haley, who in fact was the first to at- 
tempt blasting the rocks of the Alaskan mountains 
for gold, continued for many years a faithful miner 
and one who expressed peculiar characteristics for 



GOLD MINING IN ALASKA. 45 

one of his class. He remained in the neighborhood of 
his discovery and increased his claims as his toil was 
rewarded with success sufficient to insure the further 
expense of developing the ledges. Doyle has been 
dead for a number of years, but his companion be- 
came one of the reliable citzens of Sitka, whose stories 
of perils and successes have interested many an em- 
bryo miner and hunter. 

It was not until October, 1880, that the mines about 
Juneau were discovered, and they were actually lo- 
cated by Indians, who found the metal in the sands 
of the creek near Auk Glacier. Richard Harris and 
Joseph Juneau were authorized by a business man of 
Sitka, namied Fuller, to examine into the prospect of 
the find. The men made such a satisfactory investi- 
gation that they concluded to go into business at once. 
So the two held a meeting, organized a corporation 
called the Harris Mining District of Alaska. The 
company consisted of these two, Harris being elected 
Recorder of the District. Juneau was the location of 
the mining camp. It was named for Harris at first, 
but it gradually became settled as Juneau, and its pro- 
pinquity to the mines insured its growth, which has 
raised it to the importance of a trade centre for the 
gold output of Alaska, as well as a starting point at 
which provisions, dog teams and general out-fits can 
be secured, if one has taken a sudden resolve to go to 
the mines, though he must consider that the prices 



46 ALASKA. 

at Juneau are so exorbitant that it would be better to 
have obtained them at Tacoma or Seattle, if not at the 
principal market, San Francisco. For years the 
basins, gulches and creeks around Juneau and in the 
close neighborhood of Taku Inlet were worked with 
rich results, but the lawlessness of the ungoverned, 
therefore unprotected, district was the scene of many 
a crime of murder, debauchery and rascality. This con- 
tinued until a Governor was appointed for Alaska and 
a certain shadow of law made itself known, and pros- 
pectors found that they could have some hope of con- 
trolling their claims against the odds of daring en- 
croachers, or the threats of native gold hunters. 
Placer mining was, except in a few places, the only mode 
resorted to in obtaining the dust and possible nuggets. 
When the rocks were washed off clean and there were 
no more glittering grains in the sandy bottoms, the 
men left the diggings and moved on to new fields. 
Such in fact has been the dependence in placer mining 
that the solid beds of rock have been forsaken, when 
the small seams of gold were actually in sight. The 
reason is readily explained. Very few had tools. It 
was easy to go from point to point with basins, or 
rockers, picks and shovels, but shafts, engines and 
stamps, being neither cheap nor readily transportable, 
there was nothing to be done but march on through 
mountain gullies and beside running streams, each 
hunter gleaning as much as his rapid movements and 
his patient endurance could obtain. 



GOLD MINING IN ALASKA. 47 

Later gold was found on Douglas Island, a spot 
of land lying in the channel apparently only a fair ad- 
junct to this prettily situated town. It was prospected 
by some late comers who turned in its direction when 
they found the points around Juneau fully occupied. 
Disheartened at their late arrival it was probably 
merely a half desperate chance that led them to strike 
the Island. Their discovery amounted to the taking 
up of some placer claims. So little was thought of the 
rich quartz lode that the claim established as the 
"Bean and Matthews Claim" became the property of 
John Treadwell, who had loaned the men one hun- 
dred and fifty dollars. Treadwell was a builder, 
whose business laid mostly in San Francisco. He 
scarcely knew what to do with the claim w^hen 
it came to him instead of the money. Evidently 
he either could not dispose of it, or he resolved 
to risk his fate in mining, for he soon after bought 
the claim which ran into the seam on the op- 
posite side of a small stream from his property. He 
paid three hundred dollars for it, thus becoming pos- 
sessed of the right on Douglas Island for the sum of 
four hundred and fifty dollars. He soon proved that 
it was a business man who had taken hold of these 
claims, for in a short time he had so far discovered 
their possibilities that he, Senator J. P. Jones of Ne- 
vada, and three others, of San Francisco, obtained a 
title from the Government and then invested eight 



48 ALASKA. 

hundred thousand dollars in the preparation for devel- 
oping the mine. Success was assured from the first, 
though the gold is not as plentiful as in many other 
places, but as it is proportionately easy to obtain it the 
enterprise has been extremely lucrative. The output 
is called low grade ore, but two hundred and forty 
stamps work night and day grinding the unwilling 
rock. The copper discs, with their quick-silver cover- 
ing, greedily seize and hold the precious dust which is 
amalgamated from the imprisoned quick-silver, and 
then separated afterwards, realizing on an aver- 
age from sixty to seventy thousand dollars or more 
per month. The grade of the mine and the man- 
ner in which the tunnel, and drifts, and shafts are run, 
make the work a matter of gravitation, after the rock 
is blasted. It is stoped down, descends to the cars 
through chutes, from the cars it runs to the mill 
and here into the hoppers; it is then crushed and pow- 
dered by the ever going stamps, and from the stamps 
to the plates or amalgamators and riffles, and by a con- 
tinuous process it is gathered and passes from the 
mines to be sold or sent to the smelters, where it is 
separated and made into bars of yellow gold'. From 
the "finds" of a few. discouraged gold seekers has ema- 
nated a harvest of wealth to the men who grasped the 
situation with systematic energy, and doubtless many 
another such source of revenue is lying within easy 
distance of properly regulated labor and management. 



GOLD MINING IN ALASKA. 49 

In direct contrast to the Treadwell success is the 
Bear's Nest faihire, or apparent failure. Possibly it 
will one day prove equally valuable, when the right 
hands turn to work and bring its hidden treasures to 
light. Within a few miles of Juneau and Douglas Is- 
land there are several mills patiently grinding out the 
precious deposit, unmindful of the half-crazed rush 
hither and thither by uninitiated gold hunters who 
leave one spot in the wild hope of doing better at 
others. So hundreds of them start out as pros- 
pectors, while the mines of Berner's Bay, Taku Inlet, 
the region about Sitka, Cook's Inlet and its surround- 
ing country, and the rich promises from the Yukon 
River and other districts, show that there are spots to 
which they could go where they can locate and from 
which they will certainly obtain rich results if they are 
gifted with endurance and perseverance, and use 
proper tools and machinery. 

The fate of "Shuck," a mming camp situated about 
seventy miles south of Juneau, will prove the uncer- 
tain stability of character of a great number of 
gold seekers. It was the first scene of actual placer 
mining in the Territory. Work was begun there in 
1876, when there was quite an extensive camp includ- 
ing between thirty and forty miners. The returns were 
very satisfactory, and all went well for Shuck's mines, 
until the noise of richer prospects further on left its 
cabins forsaken, and its work in the hands of the few, 
4 



50 ALASKA. 

who chose to remain. There is gold there still, but 
the boom of another region makes the place dull al- 
most to lifclessness. More perseverance, a greater 
outlay of money, and the ore might pan out more 
richly, with transportation convenient and no fear of 
perishing with cold and starvation. Why will Ameri- 
can citizens risk their lives and their all, in prospecting 
the Klondyke and other streams on British territory, 
when those waters are really only branches of the 
grand trunk that belongs within entirely undisputed 
United States property? Like children trampling 
beauteous blossoms underfoot, while reaching for 
others beyond, so are the miners of the United 
States, when they clamber over the mountains and 
row through the waters of their own land to reach that 
of another nation, when if the country through which 
they travel was searched and prospected as eagerly as 
they intend to investigate the Klondyke region, they 
will surely find sufficient riches to pay them for stop- 
ping under the flag whose protection is theirs by right, 
and no international entanglements or suits for mining 
claims would be likely to ensue. 



CHAPTER VI. 

The Story of Alaska. 

THE spirit of adventure, that has been so often 
the incentive to achievements, surprising even 
to those who have accompHshed them, led 
Vitus, or Veit Bering to turn his attention toward 
the West, in which direction geographers of the Old 
World began to look for the authentication of the 
theory of the earth's completely rounded form. He 
set forth with the determination to prove the exist- 
ence of another continent, with two vessels, named 
respectively St. Peter and St. Paul, each manned with 
sturdy sailors ready to meet every hardship. He 
commanded the St. Peter in person, while his Lieu- 
tenant, Tschericov, controlled the St. Paul. The 
hardships and sorrows of those fated sailors give a 
color of sadness to the story of the discovery of 
Alaska, though none of the sailing party ever landed 
upon its shores. The vessels were swept apart dur- 
ing a fierce storm and nothing more was ever heard 
of the St. Paul or its crew. But the St. Peter, after 
actually touching either the coast of the mainland, 
or of one of the larger islands, was cast out to sea 
again, landing at last, after days of frightful storm 
and privation on one of the Kommander Islands, a 

51 



52 ALASKA. 

small group off the coast to which the eyes of the 
Discoverer turned so longingly. After all his suffer- 
ings and hardships he never accomplished his heart's 
desire, to reach and explore a new continent, but it 
will ever remain in history that he, Vitus Bering, dis- 
covered in 1 741 the inland sea that separates the Old 
World from the New, and some of its now 
important islands. It was named the Sea of 
Kamtcliatka, but afterward, in his honor, received his 
name. This he never knew, for heart-broken and 
discouraged at his supposed failure he pined and died, 
leaving his weary body to rest for all time upon 
the desolate land, against which his storm-tossed 
ship was cast in its extremity — for a few more hours 
of wind and surf and it too would have gone down 
forever. By the strange contrariety of circumstances 
that some call fate, some of the crew survived to ac- 
complish the discovery of the proof for which their 
Commander had staked his life, and in a few months 
they returned to Russia laden with furs and other 
valuable samples of the riches of the new country, 
sufficient to induce their Government to take posses- 
sion of the islands and the coast. 

Vitus Bering was a Russian subject, sailing under 
the Russian flag. From the date of that discovery 
until the purchase of Alaska in 1867 Russia held un- 
disputed sway over the sea. 

In 1745 the Aleutian Islands were discovered, and 
in 1768, the interest of the Russians becoming more 



THE STORY OF ALASKA. 53 

fully awakened, the sea, its islands and coast, were 
explored by order of Queen Catharine. 

In 1790 the Pribylov Islands were found. They 
were desolate and uninhabited, but the Government, 
finding them to be the great assembly ground of the 
fur seals, transferred Aleuts from their native homes 
to these islands. After a time they became contented, 
and finally settled on the fog-dimmed Pribylovs. After- 
wards nothing could induce them to forsake their 
adopted home. 

Having found otter, seal and other valuable ani- 
mals within the limits of its territory, Russian pro- 
tection was extended, and as early as the year 1764 
the right to trade with the islands was granted to 
merchants by Russia, the Government always requir- 
ing a percentage of the gains. From 1725 to 1867, 
a period of 142 years, Russian monarchs held as ab- 
solute a sway over Bering Sea as over any other part 
of their domain. If individual or company desired 
to trade within its boundary, the permission came 
from the Czar, with rules and stipulations to which 
they were compelled to adhere. 

In the Treaty of Cession to the United States, the 
western limit of Russian America, or Alaska, is as 
positively stated as that of the eastern limit, viz: 
"The western limit within which the territories and 
dominions conveyed are contained, passes through 
a point in Bering Straits on the parallel of sixty-five 



54 ALASk'A. 

degrees thirty minutes north hititiidc, at its inter- 
section by the meridian which passes midway between 
the island of Krusenstern or Ingalook, and the island 
of Ratmanoff, or Noonarbook, and proceeds due 
north without limitation into the same frozen ocean. 
The same western limit, beginning at the same initial 
point, proceeds thence in a course nearly southwest, 
through Bering Strait and Bering Sea so as to pass 
midway between the northwest point of the island of 
St. Lawrence and the southeast point of Cape Chou- 
kotski, to the meridian of one hundred and seventy- 
two west longitude, thence from the intersection of 
that meridian in a southeasterly direction so as to 
pass midway between the island of Attou and 
the Copper Island of the Kormandorsky couplet 
or group in the North Pacific ocean, to the meridian 
of one hundred and ninety-three degrees west longi- 
tude, so as to include in the territory conveyed the 
whole of the Aleutian Islands east of the meridian." 

Thus it will be seen that Bering Sea is recognized 
as a part of the territory divided between Russia and 
the United States. No other country has claimed 
islands or other possessions within its limits, nor 
can they now, and its topography makes it impossible 
that it should be claimed as an open highway. Ber- 
ing Strait is a passage between Siberia and Alaska, 
and beyond that is the Arctic ocean and unexplored 
regions. It is therefore practically an inland sea 



THE srORY OF ALASKA. 55 

subject to the dominion of the nations bordering 
upon its waters. And here the question strikes one 
rather forcibly, if the United States side of the sea 
is free foraging ground, why is not the Russian por- 
tion equally free? 

If the sea was Russia's to give, then the portion 
sold is as truly the property of the purchaser as it 
was her own previous to the negotiation. If the 
Alaska side was not legally hers, neither is the re- 
mainder, and therefore poachers have the same right 
in all parts, they are no longer poachers, and are 
amenable to no law for taking public property. But 
Russia is ready to protect her rights; and no nation 
has the temerity to dispute them. The United 
States has been so sure of a just appreciation of her 
claims that she has made no provision for their in- 
fringement. W^e are beginning to feel that it might 
be as well to be a little self-asserting. We saw some- 
thing in the harbor of Sitka some years ago that was 
more amusing than dignified, when we looked at it in 
a nautical light, — we saw the poachers brought into 
the harbor by the "patrol of Bering Sea," and by 
comparison with the British vessels plying the seas 
to protect their nation's rights, our vessels put us 
very much in mind of toy boats made for the amuse- 
ment of the Government. 

Standing by that beautiful harbor, or sailing its 
charming waters and looking out over the islands that 



56 ALASKA. 

dot its placid bosom without intcrfcriiif^ with its safety 
as a port, we thought how fine it would be 
to see instead a fleet of noble war ships, not 
ready to fight, but to show the power that 
might be called into play if anything required their 
interference. How grandly they would ride in the 
blue w^aters of the Sound, or how magnificently they 
could breast the rolling surges of the North Pacific, 
their presence asserting more than all the words in 
the vocabulary. 

It is absurd to hear the comments of' some pessi- 
mists when a cruiser is mentioned, and a standing 
navy seems to strike terror into the hearts of peace- 
loving citizens. Do the guns at Fortress Monroe or 
Sandy Hook or Fort Delaware or the garrison on 
the Western frontiers mean "war?" No. They 
mean protection. And if they were not ready for 
action, or rather, if they were not in such condition 
as to answer at the call of the Government, there 
would be a worse state of national affairs than there 
has been, and they have been disastrous enough, as 
many a brave heart could tell. 

If England, or any other monarchy, had control 
of such a boundary as the United States includes 
within her limits, there would be the noblest navy 
in the world guarding it on either side. There would 
be the Atlantic and the Pacific navies, and all other 
nations would look on in respect and admiration. 



THE STORY OF ALASKA. 57 

Bering Sea and her precious seals would be no object 
of wrangling then. The absurdity of it would be ap- 
parent to the most obtuse. And why can we not 
have a finer navy — a nobler navy, rightly managed, a 
pride to the nation and a terror to lawless inva4,ers? 
For that object we would require wood, iron, steel, cop- 
per and good workmen, with capable builders to direct 
the enterprise. We have all these, and with the sup- 
ply ready to increase inexhaustibly when required. 

We saw in Tacoma, vVashington, one of the finest 
saw mills in the world turning out logs of almost 
incredible size and of excellent quality, and they were 
to be shipped to other countries for ship building pur- 
poses. We wondered if there would be such logs to 
be had when we should need them for our own vessels 
at some early day. We have noble forests, magnifi- 
cent trees, straight and tall, whose very form seems to 
tell of that for which they grew. Energetic men for- 
age until they find a suitable stopping place near their 
noble trunks. They fell them, prepare them for mar- 
ket, then announce them for sale, and they are bought 
by foreign powers. We should retain and use these 
choice products from our own soil, and forest reserva- 
tions of all good timber lands should be ever retained. 

But when a larger navy is proposed a cry goes 
up about the expense it would involve. An ex- 
pense it would be truly, but no institution of any 
kind is supported without adequate expenditure. 



58 ALASKA. 

Yet glance at the thousands of able-bodied men 
who throng our cites, whose constant anxiety is 
lack of work. Any business once started gives an 
impetus to contingent industries — wood workers re- 
quire steel tools, they must come through the man- 
ufacture of iron, and from one to another the labor 
passes, down to the miners who delve for the raw ma- 
terials or the money to pay for them. And all material, 
from the growing trees to the gold and silver to pay 
for perfect vessels, is abundantly found within the 
limits of the Union. 

And so it might be that work being supplied to the 
thousands, more money would circulate, the munici- 
pal governments would be rid of many a prospective 
pauper, the Republic would be honored on sea as well 
as on land, our own vessels would carry our own mer- 
chandise to other ports, and the commerce of the 
country would flourish prosperously. 



CHAPTER VII. 

A Journey to Our Northwestern Frontier. 

THERE is nothing like personal acquaintance- 
ship. All we hear of the good qualities of an 
individual will make but slight impression in 
comparison with one day's social conversation with 
him. So it is with a new country. It is delightful to 
read of the beauties or grandeur of certain localities, 
but the pictures presented to the mind, and the de- 
scriptions, however vividly portrayed, cannot possess 
the power to arouse admiration or enthusiasm as do 
the living, rippling waters, the bounding cataracts, the 
lofty mountains and the verdure covered hills. So 
should you like to have an idea of the extent, the 
beauty and the usefulness of that side-shoot of our 
republic, Alaska, it would be the better plan for you 
to take a trip thither and see for yourselves. As cir- 
cumstances may prevent most of our readers from 
such a delightful tour there need be no limit to the 
number who may accompany us on this descriptive 
excursion. 

As we will be compelled to make the greater por- 
tion of our coast-line tour to points of interest in 
Alaska by water, suppose we make the initial part on 
rail. By that means we will gain a broader idea of 

59 



6o .u..isa:i. 

our great Republic and her capabilities. We will 
leave one of our largest cities in a comfortable train, 
furnished in such a gorgeous manner as our ancestors 
would have thought it madness to propose. We en- 
ter and enjoy a delightful ride in a handsomely fur- 
nished drawing room or sleeping car. We partake of 
our meals in a fine dining room car with polite wait- 
ers to anticipate our wishes. We may sleep through 
the long night with no knowledge of the many miles 
of country through which we are flitting, while 
we rest almost as comfortably as upon our couch at 
home. 

Off, we go! through a country of small, richly tilled 
farms with fine horses and choice cattle, making pic- 
tures of pastoral beauty, some old homesteads 
clinging to the hillsides, the houses and bams seem- 
ing to hang like swallows' nests as we pass them by. 

What are those strange white walls that look like 
roughly builded tombs? They are the limekilns, 
one of the first industries that one will meet outside 
of some of our Eastern towns, in limestone districts, 
and a strong contrast to what will break upon 
our view as we pass the coal mines, or the 
iron foundries and smelting furnaces, which from 
their black mouths belch forth in fiery streams a great 
part of the wealth of our large cities. 

Hills and mountains rise and slowly disappear as 
though sinking into the valleys. 



OUR NORTHWESTERN FRONTIER. 6i 

Westward and northward we fly, through great 
cities and beautiful towns and villages; here a group 
of children shout and wave their hats as we plunge 
along; there men and women stand and gaze in wonder 
as the train speeds swiftly by. On ! on ! in the heated 
summer sunlight as the radiant beams illuminate the 
great wheat fields, as they wave silently in the gentle 
breeze like golden-tinted lakes rippling and curving 
in the distance. Rivers flasih before us or beneath us 
and are gone. Snow-capped mountains defy us, but 
we talk, and smile, and gaze on the wonderful scenery 
as we ascend their rugged almost inaccessible sum- 
mits, or glide along the lonely passes where the en- 
gine's loud screech or the rumble of the train alone 
breaks the stillness or disturbs the solitude. Onward 
toward the sunset of the wonderful North-West and 
Northland. The wheat fields no longer greet us like 
golden lakes, but like great, gleaming inland seas, bear- 
ing upon their waters food more than abundant for 
the hungry mills that wait to change the grain to 
feathery flakes of snowy whiteness, containing 
strength and nutriment for millions of our people, 
and enough to share with the great sister countries 
of the world. 

Pines and cedars bid us welcome, and oddly remind 
us of the warm, sunny South from which we have 
departed. 

Long, sweeping plains lead abruptly to mountain 



62 ALASKA. 

sides or to rustling rivers whose voices can often be 
heard before they are seen in their valley homes. 

Still onward we sweep through crooks and turns 
and tunnels and mountain passes, and over placid 
streams and turbulent rivers, startling wild birds as 
we pass, causing the antelope to scamper or the wild 
deer to raise his stately head and watch us as we rush 
along with swiftness far beyond his rapid bound. 

Northward, Westward, still we pursue our jour- 
ney to the great wonderland of this continent, 
and these thousands of miles of rapid travel through 
the grandest, fairest country on the globe is only the 
initiative step, only the doorway to a rare new pleas- 
ure. 

At last there stands Tacoma, one of the great North- 
western mountain giants! Proudly he raises his great, 
broad, dazzling, lofty, snow-clad head towards the sky, 
the while holding his spotless robes around him, his un- 
tarnished beauty awing the most careless traveler, his 
towering crest rivaled but by few other peaks on this 
continent. There he stands, the mighty guardian 
of this portal of the West, a grand reminder of others 
that we hope to see. 

We will also indulge the longing to see Astoria, 
at the mouth of the Columbia River, the town so old, 
so important years ago, so historically sacred that 
it should ever remain a monument to American enter- 
prise, even if it has not a brilliant destiny before it 



OUR NORTHWESTERN FRONTIER. 63 

to-day. Planned, built and fitted up as a trading 
post by John Jacob Astor, for whom it was named, 
it was intended not only as a point of trade for per- 
sonal aggrandizement, but it was the darling idea of 
the great merchant to secure for his adopted country 
an outlet upon the Pacific coast as well as the control 
of a part at least of the immense trade with China, 
where the dealers found the most generous buyers of 
the beautiful furs which were then gathered here in 
apparently inexhaustible numbers. 

Virtually protected by the Government in the erec- 
tion of the original post, and being at the head of a 
company whose charter gave it full power to trade 
in the furs found in the vast North-West, how soon 
would the whole enterprise have been a thing of the 
past and the business have fallen into the hands of 
individual sharpers, had it not been for the personal 
care it received and the money that was spent on it 
by Mr. Astor, who strongly held the prophetic idea of 
the coming importance of his little settlement, Astoria, 
founded on the great and beautiful Columbia River, 
that meandered through mineral-ladened forests, and 
jungles filled with fur-bearing animals. 

Think of the vicissitudes through which the men 
passed into whose hands Astor had intrusted the post; 
how they clung faithfully to his service, despite dangers 
and starvation; how one, discouraged and dishonest, 
sold it for a pittance to a foreign company that was jeal- 



64 ALASKA. 

ously watching its every action; how the American 
flag was lowered and the British flag raised over the 
fort! Knowing as Astor did the importance that 
would one day be attached to it, w^hat was his bitter 
grief at its seeming failure, and what his exuberant 
joy when the town was ceded back to the United 
States at the close of the war of 1812, and with As- 
toria, likewise the command of the whole northwest- 
ern coast, and thus was thrown into the hands of our 
Government an extensive tract now so valuable 
and important to us, embracing the entire coast terri- 
tory which Astor's expedition gave to the United 
States by priority of settlement. So vividly has 
Washington Irving told of the events connected with 
it in his "Astoria," that one may almost live over 
again with the men, their times of danger, their dis- 
tress and suffering and the tardy success of the en- 
terprise. 

The trading post town was saved to us to become 
for a while the centre of the fur trade, which was 
afterwards diverted from it further up the Columbia 
River. 

Born to live, Astoria and the Columbia River settle- 
ments have become the centres of the fish-canning 
business of Oregon, whose salmon are world-renowned. 
She waits now only for the advance of railroads to 
become a great metropolis in the North-West and a 
monument to her German projector, not only in name 



OUR NORTHWESTERN ERONTIER. 65 

but in the sturdy Dutch piles upon which the greater 
part of the town was built. It was only her British 
seizure and possession that gained for her the 
name of the "first British settlement in the North- 
West." American citizens, 'however, "have made her 
what she now is, and only bide their time to show 
what she will some day become. 

At the city of Tacoma, the terminus of the North- 
ern Pacific Railroad, we find the vessel that is to take 
us to Alaska, but as it is not quite ready for depar- 
ture, and as we may be better prepared for our voyage 
if we take some exercise after our trans-continental 
ride, we will stroll about and look aroimd the town. 
It bids fair to become a great seaport in the near fu- 
ture, and already its docks are strong, its harbor safe, 
with a large lumber, coal and grain trade firmly estab- 
lished as a support, its location being at the southern 
end of that great and important bay, Puget Sound. 

Our steamer is ready! 

In the morning we behold the oldest American 
city on Puget Sound, Seattle, her terraced streets and 
thrifty warehouses reflected in the waters of Elliott 
Bay. With a rapidly increasing commerce and popu- 
lation, she is already the rival of Tacoma. 

A three hours' steaming on the Sound, with Mount 

Tacoma and Baker's Peaks looming up above us and 

the fir lined forest-clad shore, resting our eyes from 

the dazzling whiteness as we steam alongside the 

5 



66 ALASKA. 

wharf of the Gate City of Puget Sound, a little wait for 
transportation business, and then proceeding across 
the Strait of San Juan, we reach the attractive capital 
of Vancouver's Island, Victoria, which we pause to ad- 
mire for its beauty and wonderful growth, and the 
great British port and harbor of Esquimalt, which 
England held in the "54, 40 or fight" before its cession 
by the United States. 

We sail on through an archipelago, picturesque and 
beautiful, a faint foreshadowing of the waters, the 
islands, the wonder-crowned shores,, vdiich we will ob- 
serve on our healthful and delightful voyage. Here 
is the Island of San Juan, our first possession in this 
great watery region. And now we enter the inland 
passage leading to Alaska, so smoothly, so quietly, 
with no shock to tell us that we are nearing this 
lovely land, that one forgets the many landscape en- 
joyments in crossing the continent for the additional 
joys and rapture of vision that present themselves. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

A Voyage that Should Satisfy the Most Romantic. 

WE have passed the Gulf of Georgia and 
viewed Taxada Island, a large tract of land 
which has drawn several companies to its 
borders on account of its rich deposits of valuable 
iron ore. Now we sail through a broad expanse of 
water, seemingly almost limitless, and find ourselves 
watching with surprise as we approach the shore and 
turn into a narrow passage around a point near Cape 
Mudge. This cape is an oddly formed headland, two 
hundred and fifty feet high, with a fiat summit, and 
densely wooded. 

For miles we sail along the watery defile Discov- 
ery Passage, between mountain ranges rising one 
above the other, as they are lost in the distance, either 
coast seeming to vie with the other in the beauty of 
its scenery. 

Another broad sheet of water then opens to our 
view. This is Mensie's Bay. We pass it and enter Sey- 
mour Narrows, a beautiful gorge through which the 
tide rushes, rocking and tossing our boat in a most 
trying manner. The captain's remark that it is "only 
two miles long," being rather dubious comfort, when 
we feel the possibility of our boat being overwhelmed 

67 



68 ALASKA. 

at any moment. Safe at last! We enter Johnstone 
Strait, which in some parts closely resembles Discov- 
ery Passage, in others it widens into grand propor- 
tions, probably seeming wider than they really are 
to our unpracticed eyes. But we forget the water 
as we gaze upon the ranges of mountains on Van- 
couver's Island. It is the Prince ol Wales range 
and the xA.lbert Edward peak that rises so grandly 
upon our left, the latter reaching nearly seven thous- 
and feet in the air, bearing his crest of snow proudly 
as a monarch, though his feet are solidly planted in 
the tide below. 

The long coast line of Thurlow Island bids us 
imagine that we are in sight of the mainland until 
Chancellor Channel intervenes and Hardwicke Island 
comes into view. Another channel stretches out be- 
fore us and then we reach the shores of British Co- 
lumbia. Islands large and small, some of them only 
great barren rocks, others verdure clad to the water's 
edge; bays, inlets, channels, mountains, snow-crowned 
and pictured with flakes of whiteness, dotting them as 
though flocks of sheep were wandering down their 
rugged sides; great hills covered with dense forests 
of shaded pines or sombre cedars, tiny hillocks like 
emerald gems studding the rolling valleys, and every- 
wihere reflecting beauties in the glistening waters. 
And this foreign domain is British Columbia! From 
the other side Mount Palmerston, Vancouver's senti- 



SHOULD SATISFY THE MOST ROMANTIC. 69 

nel, looks up across the water way, and we sail under 
his shadow and into the clear sunshine again, dharmed 
with the lovely view, but longing impatiently to pass 
more swiftly onward. 

Steaming through an archipelago of many beauti- 
ful islands, we enter Broughton Strait, pass Alert 
Bay, with its salmon cannery, its strange Indian vil- 
lage and modest mission buildings, while now and 
then we look at Holdsworth Peak, a lofty cone upon 
Vancouver's Island, which asserts itself distinctly for 
many miles. 

On we sail through Broughton Strait, gazing land- 
ward on either side, longing for the power to see all 
the scenic glories, until, with a sigh, we conclude, 
partly from weariness and partly from despair, that 
it is impossible to gain more than a bird's-eye view, 
and that no one could, in a single trip, retain in mem- 
ory all the beautiful points of interest that crowd 
upon the sight, when suddenly we find ourselves 
steaming through Queen Charlotte's Sound, and 
the broad sea-like expansion of water comes as 
an actual relief, the scenery being so mellowed 
by the distance that it cannot tempt too great 
an effort of either mind or vision. We know 
that we cannot gain any but the soft, hazy view, and 
we gaze in gentle, restful enjoyment, scarce question- 
ing what this or that more conspicuous point may 
be. Should western gales disturb the Pacific 



70 ALASKA. 

waters and huge ocean swells come rolling in, some 
signs of sea sickness may appear, but they will not 
last, for we soon enter calm waters again. 

Fort Rupert gains a little notice, it being one of 
the trading points of the Hudson Bay Company, of 
which we have heard, and, in connection with the 
early history of our country, read so much. Its In- 
dian village calls attention for a while, but soon we will 
see our own Alaskan Indians in their native huts and 
homes and witness their peculiarities. 

Galetas Channel bears our ship along beside its 
hundreds of islands and between beautiful mountains 
until at last we pass Cape Commerell, leaving Van- 
couver while turning to take a farewell look at the 
grand Island and to watch Mt. Lemon slowly recede 
from view. Looking westward, behold the great, 
surging bosom of the Pacific! We feel the swell 
that seems to make retirement and lemon juice im- 
perative, but a little patience, a little nerve force for a 
short time and the vessel turns into the safe and quiet 
waters of Fitzhugh Sound. Beautiful views greet us 
on ever}^ side. Here Mt. Buxton lifts its spirelike 
peak toward the bending sky. As we proceed the 
mountains become higher and the landscape grander. 
The hills close by are covered with cone shaped trees 
to their very tops, while between can be seen the dis- 
tant mountains, their summits crowned with perpetual 
snow. 



SHOULD SATISFY THE MOST ROMANTIC. 71 

On through Lama Passage, close by the village of 
Bella-Bella, on Campbell's Island, we get our first 
view of the "totem poles," the subject of wonder, con- 
jecture, scientific research and perpetual questioning, 
and still remaining "totem poles," and nothing else. 
Even at a little distance we can see a carved bear, an 
eagle or w^olf uplifted many feet and staring with 
great open inanimate eyes upon the passers by. 

Now, as we sail through an extremely narrow, but 
not perilous pass, into Seaforth Channel, we behold 
mountains seemingly piled upon mountains, with ex- 
quisite views of distant ranges, and if it be our good 
fortune to get the view toward evening it will be hal- 
lowed with the most gorgeous covering of purple, 
crimson and gold, softening into more exquisite tints, 
so delicate that an author cannot describe nor an art- 
ist reproduce them. The pure, azure sky holds itself 
a most befitting background for the myriads of shades 
through which the sun-kissed clouds are passing be- 
fore the dilatory darkness creeps on to obscure their 
loveliness. 

A sudden turn brings us into Milbank Sound, from 
whose entrance we once more behold the broad open 
sea. Islands and mountains seem almost to chase 
each other as we sail along, and now we catch our 
earliest glimpses of glacier paths in the mountain 
passes and along their roughened sides. 

Stripe Mountain calls for attention with its strangely 
marked declivity telling its name most plainly. 



72 ALASKA. 

Through the narrow waters of Finlayson Channel we 
steam northwest, for many miles noting its shores 
densely wooded to the very water's edge, with here 
and there a mountain more lofty than another, bear- 
ing upon its brow, and sometimes upon its slopes 
also, great patches of snow, making sharp contrast 
with the shades around. 

On through Graham Reach, Frazier's Reach, close 
by Princess Royal Island, through M'Kay Reach we 
sail into Wright's Sound. Beauty everywhere. 
Mountains, valleys, and lovely waterfalls, whose 
music we can almost hear as we watch their crystal 
waters, trembling, rushing, sweeping over ledges, 
through crevasses, ever plunging downward to the 
great waters below, that receive them in answer- 
ing, bounding joyou^ness. Into Grenville Channel 
we glide through a narrow strait into Arthur Pas- 
sage, still forward into Chatham Sound, guarded by 
great lofty mountains we view Chim-sy-an, a peninsula, 
as we pass northward, still between islands and snow- 
capped mountains until at last we cross the line at 
latitude fifty-four degrees, which separates British 
Columbia from our own Alaska. 



CHAPTER IX. 

Peculiar Sights in Indian Villages. 

HAVING crossed the boundary line between 
the British possessions and that of our own 
country, our hearts swell with a strange, new 
feeling, though the waters of Dixon Entrance are 
exactly like those we have been sailing under 
different names. On from the far, frigid North they 
come, though we have not yet seen any messengers 
from the Polar seas, nor even from the glaciers whiclh 
we hope soon to behold in all their cold, stately 
grandeur. 

Every town, every village, every tiny inlet awakens 
active interest now. We could pass others calmly, 
admiring their beauty, exclaiming at the wonders, but 
not with the proud impression that amounts to a sort 
of proprietorship in the strange, new country now 
spread before us. We tell each otlher, as fellow tour- 
ists, how we should like those who named this coun- 
try "The District" to be here and see even the be- 
ginning of it. It comes to our mind that we have 
been some time ago told that Alaska, or "Alakshan," 
means "great country," and we realize more and more 
as we proceed on our voyage how it deserves the 
title. But the good ship has brought us to a strange 
looking place. 

73 



74 ALASKA. 

It seems to be a village of low wooden houses built 
in the midst of a ckimp of trees, a few of which, by 
some means or other, have been blighted, leaving 
only the upright trunks. Farther along we see an- 
other larger village situated in exactly the same man- 
ner. There is a weirdly dismal look about this place 
as though some magic art had laid these trees bare 
by fire, each trunk being preserved intact, and the 
houses being left entirely untouched by the flames. 
The effect is indescribable as we gaze upon the vil- 
lages, not realizing that we are looking upon objects 
that we have tried to picture in our imagination many 
times since we proposed to come on this tour. 

This is Fort Tongas and those dismal shafts are the 
totem poles. Yes, on approaching we can see the 
great carved figures of animals, such as birds, beasts, 
fishes and men! Some with large staring eyes, 
which we can distinctly note. Some of the figures 
are very large and the poles fifty or sixty feet high, 
others being less pretentious both in height and size 
of the figures. They are variously painted in black, 
red and white, except where the weather has removed 
the colors, and they are carved from bottom to top 
in the most incongruous fashion, bearing upon them 
such characters as a screaming eagle, a croaking 
raven, or a crouching bear or wolf, an immense whale, 
oir, perhaps, a solemn old owl. Each animal or bird 
is represented in some characteristic attitude. 



PECULIAR SIGHTS IN INDIAN VILLAGES. 75 

Upon some of the poles the carving may be said 
to be quite well executed, and on others it is rather 
primitive and rough, no doubt showing the different 
grades of talent possessed by the carvers. But no 
shaft is there without its emblem, and no emblem is 
present without its full right to hold the position. 

Among the animals often occur human shapes and 
faces, probably those of some great chiefs or of medi- 
cine men of more than usual renown. Here, too, are 
often repeated the masks, hideously ugly, that have 
been used by some great shaman of his tribe. 

These totem poles are erected beside or in front of 
the doors of the houses, and they are often used in 
burial places in the same manner that we do 
our marble monuments. It has ever been an unan- 
swerable question as to what has been the origin of 
these totem poles. The natives either do not know 
or they will not tell. There are several theories ad- 
vanced and conjectures indulged in, but about all 
that we have ascertained in reality is the presence 
of the "sticks" or poles or totems in nearly all of the 
Indian villages of Alaska, and the knowledge that 
they are somewhat like family crests, each family 
having its own crest or ensign, to which is added, 
time after time, those of families connected by mar- 
riage, and that the queer arrangement of the figures 
is caused by each additional sign being placed or 
carved next to the one previous, irrespective of shape 



76 ALASKA. 

or size, or the agreement of forms. So we find a 
bear holding upon his head a man, the man in turn 
upholding a wolf, the wolf supporting an eagle or a 
raven, and perhaps all overtopped by a huge figure 
of a whale, whose formidable teethi and prominent 
eyes haunt the memory of the visitor after other pic- 
tures have faded. People of the same totems are 
considered more nearly connected than even family 
ties can make them; and under no consideration are 
members of the same totem permitted to marry, while 
they cling to each other more closely than brothers. 

Their signs are carved upon spoons, dishes, and in- 
struments used in their different callings, and they are 
also woven in their blankets. In fact it is almost im- 
possible to see one of the native Alaskans without 
finding his totem on his clothing, spear or fish hook. 

But we are leaving the fort without taking a look 
at the long, lonely, forsaken Government Buildings 
that were once active with ofBcial life, but have now 
fallen into disuse. Fort Tongas threatens once 
more to become a wild, unnoticed tract, in which the 
Indian may again turn without interruption to his 
strange and godless practices. 

Sailing into Dixon's Entrance, again we look far to 
the west over the great open sea, and feel the surging 
waves in the rolling vessel, then turn into Clarence 
Strait and through it into Alexander Archipelago. Here 
are islands, large and small, straits, passages and in- 



PECULIAR SIGHTS /A INDIA A VILLAGES. 77 

lets, rocks and danger points. These we think of 
but for a moment; then we devote our energies in 
trying to count and view the eleven hundred or more 
islands that are included in this great Archipelago. 

There a large island, densely wooded to its very 
verge, throws a protecting shadow over two or three 
inlets having shrubs and trees in miniature upon their 
breasts, with a rock or two peeping above the water, 
as though viewing the prospect before asserting 
themselves as islets, and rising still further above 
their watery bed. Hills rise abruptly, clothed in ver- 
dure, from the base to the rounded summit. Moun- 
tains hold their feet in the rushing tide while they 
rear their heads upwards till the clouds crown them 
with wreaths of tinted vapor, or snOw caps them with 
perpetual purity. 

To the left we have the land of the Hydah Indians, 
Prince of Wales Island. If these Indians have a love 
for home, and a due appreciation of the beauties 
around them, it will be sufficient to account for their 
wonderful talent for beautiful carving without our 
trying to prove that there are unmistakable signs of 
their being descended from some great Asiatic pro- 
genitors. 

The mountains do not frown upon us here. They 
rear their noble heads toward the sky and peer at us 
through soft purple hazes, here tipped with black 
from the densely wooded ravines and there touched 



78 ALASKA. 

with gold whei-e the sun shines brightest. Some- 
times the purple veil lifts and waves aside to let us 
view the great rifts that ages ago the grinding glaciers 
made in their slow movements towards the ocean. 
Again it falls, hiding the scars as though loth to ex- 
pose them to human eyes. 

On the right, Gravina Islands hold towards the 
tinted sky mountains covered with lofty pines, while 
beyond is a range crested with patches of snow. Re- 
villagigedo has her pine-shaded hills, and her moun- 
tains in the distance standing like the ghosts of what 
they are, so still and white and lofty. 

Wlhite, green and gray, purple, blue and gold, and 
all around the rippling, caressing waters which bear 
us on to new beauties, to new curiosities and forward 
to Fort Wrangel. 



CHAPTER X. 

Voyaging on the Lovely Waters. 

ON we glide through the beautiful waters of 
Clarence Strait, which here and there widens 
into lovely crystal bays studded with islets 
that seem to rise timidly from the water, covering 
their heads with a veil of tender, fragile beauty. 
Narrowing again, by reason of islands that loom up 
before us bold and silent and covered with a thick 
growth of foliage rising from tangled masses of trees, 
shrubs, vines and mosses. To our gaze the luxuriant 
mosses appear velvet colored with dark or light 
green tints, as they cluster beside streamlets, 
cling to trees and rocks, or as they extend along the 
rich earth as if anxious to soften all ruggedness that 
might mar the face of nature. 

In the distance the mountains seem to frown upon 
us, so gloomy are the pines that clothe their slopes. 
Farther away a range looks spotless as sculptured 
marble, while peering between great crevices in the 
rugged peaks are purple hills almost lost in a bewil- 
dering haze. Up on a lofty precipice, that almost 
threatens to fall upon our steamer, we see tiny white 
spots, they are mountain goats feeding where no foot 
of man can reach them. That speck upon the water 

79 



8o ALASKA. 

in the distance is a native canoe. The occupant is 
fishing, and were it possible, we might see him catch 
and land a weighty salmon almost as coolly and 
easily as one of our Eastern anglers would lift out 
a brook trout. Look at that dismal bluff closely, and 
from a fissure in its side we will see purest water rush- 
ing, gurgling and finally plunging in a smooth, trans- 
lucent stream over a wall a hundred feet or more 
in height, breaking into a million atoms before it loses 
itself in the current beneatk 

From Clarence into Stikine Strait we glide with no 
unusual or special object to note, except pos- 
sibly to the practical eye of captain or seaman. On- 
ward and upward toward the east, and what is this we 
behold? A town? A sign of civilization in these wild 
forests? Aye, it is Fort Wrangel! This town was 
named for Baron Wrangel, who established a trading 
post there over one hundred years ago. The United 
States built a stockade for the protection of its peo- 
ple against the aggressive tribes soon after the pur- 
chase, but it was afterwards sold to private parties. 
The town nestles at the foot of great cone-like hills, and 
rests upon a shadow-ridden harbor dotted with isles 
and islets, some but single rocks forever washed by the 
waters, which with a sort of slow, calm dignity, scorn 
the bustle of our steamer and the ringing of voices that 
exclaim at their loneliness. Great frowning clififs and 
sharply defined crags surround the place and multiply 




Totem Poles, Fort Wkangel. 



VO YA GING ON THE LO VEL Y WA TERS. 8i 

themselves in the waters that our vessel gently ruffles. 
High promontories stand as sentinels around it, at the 
rear range after range of volcanic peaks separate the 
dark little town from the lofty lines of mountains cov- 
ered with everlasting snow. 

The dark green foliage of the pines, that are to be 
seen on every side, gives the place a sadly weird ap- 
pearance, which is intensified by numbers of fallen 
trees, some dead, some dying, others clinging tena- 
ciously to life, sending out their tender shoots upward 
from the prostrate trunks, and in the efifort producing 
a more sombre effect. But the power of the moun- 
tains, the silence of the waters, the sadness of the 
pines, are only the gloomy background for the spec- 
tres that stand in front of some of the low wooden 
houses close to the water's edge, while the light 
canoes, which just now aire skimming along with 
scarce a ripple in their wake, seem to be floating over 
and among these ghostly totem poles, for such they 
are — sacred signs of family station, dearer to the 
heart of the Alaskan Siwash than royal crown. 

Here we find two or three graves in particular that 
artists have so perfectly presented, that we know them 
at once, and we cannot repress a smile which greets 
a massive whale that boasts a head at each end of its 
body, two sets of even, white teeth and widely staring 
eyes, resting upon the head of a human figure, which 
is sitting and clasping its knees as if to steady the 
burden, 
6 



82 ALASKA. 

Here is another totem surmounted by a huge bear 
who has evidently left his foot-prints as he climbed 
the lofty pole. And here a grave built like a small 
log cabin, overtopj^ed by a snarling wolf. The size 
demonstrates that considerable strength and ingenu- 
ity must have been required to mount these figures 
to their high positions. 

The fort is forsaken, as is the one at Tongas, and 
with it seems to have gone all interest in improving 
the town, except what the natives choose to do in their 
own peculiar manner. But our own people from the 
steamer are hurrying from house to house and hut to 
hut, trying to purchase some of the odd and fantastic 
carvings, or they are securing one or more of the soft, 
well worked and valuable blankets for which the 
tribes that inhabit this locality, as well as the ones at 
Chilkat Inlet, further to the North, are noted. It will 
give an insight into human nature that evidently be- 
longs to the entire hiunan race if we watch the dark- 
faced T'linkets striking bargains, which undoubtedly, 
so far as their limited knowledge goes, will make 
them more wealthy after our visit. But the purchaser 
need not be sorry, for the really fine carvings and the 
more perfectly woven blankets are becoming things 
of the past, as the natives seeing the demand grow- 
ing greater forthwith proceed to supply it at the saori- 
fice of beauty and finisib. 

But look, the sun is disappearing in a mist, and its 
particles gleam like tiny prisms. Now we hie away 



VOYAGING ON THE LOVELY WATERS. 83 

to the vessel, and then look back. The pines grow 
downy, their tops seem to meet closer as the mist 
falls upon them lightly; the houses become smooth and 
gray; the great poles lose their sharpness and take 
about them drapery that makes them more ghost- 
like, but less hideous; the water is almost black as the 
diaphanous skirts of the fog float across it, here and 
there dipping to its surface and then drifting ofif in 
waving curves toward the distant hills. 

Good-bye Fort Wrangel. With all your gloom, 
your frowning mountain surroundings and your 
ghosts. We will never forget you, but will long 
once more to see you when we are sitting at our cozjr 
Eastern fireside. We must leave, not even lingering 
at the mission house, which is struggling to accom- 
plish a great work of reform and education among 
the gifted T'linkets. W^e must be gone, or our kind- 
hearted captain will become impatient, for he has al- 
ready given us the best part of the day for our wan- 
derings in and about the town and native village 
along the shore, and abundant time to see these 
strange people in their equally peculiar homes, and 
also to purchase to our hearts' content the "curios" 
that thev hold for sale. 



CHAPTER XI. 

A Tkii^ From Fort Wrangel to Junkau. 

UP through the Wrangel Straits we steam, watch- 
ing the purple mists fall in curling waves all the 
way along on either shore; now hiding the lines 
of stunted but richly verdant trees and bushes, which 
are bound together in impenetrable jungles by grasp- 
ing stems of brier, or long floating bands of living 
moss; then, lifting, giving us clear, but only momentary 
views of rolling hills and distant mountain peaks, 
whose snowy crowns gleam like burnished silver 
against the deep, cloudless blue. 

Here, as everywhere in this part of the country, 
the shores are precipitous. There are no gentle 
slopes nor silvery beaches. The land seems to have 
taken a headlong leap into the black waters, leaving 
a portion exposed to light and air, while the other 
is washed forever by the restless waves, whose ebbs 
give glimpses of the steep and rocky sides of the sub- 
merged portion. 

And now we enter Dry Strait. A curious name 
for a body of water much wider than the one through 
which we have just passed. There are rocks, deso- 
lately bare, tiny islets, upon which the water-birds sit, 
warming their beautiful eggs into soft, downy life; 
84 



FROM FORT WRANGEL TO JUNEAb. 85 

shoals, which our helmsman's knitted brows and earn- 
est eyes tell us are to be guarded against for our ves- 
sel's safety, and larger islands overrun with herbage 
that reaches down to the water's edge, dipping 
its slender leaves as tlhfe waves ride in and waving 
a gay good-bye as they recede. But look, there 
are great cakes of ice dancing towards us! We 
would call them bergs, but we must reserve that name 
for those that we will meet in Icy Bay. 

We are approaching that which we have never seen, 
but of which we have dreamed and thought many 
times. The floes of ice grow thicker. The air is 
chill, telling of their presence, even if we had not seen 
them. And now behold Patterson Glacier! A great 
wall of ice towering above us, making our ship seem 
as nothing, ourselves as atoms before its gleaming 
majesty. 

In some places where the ice is decaying it looks 
like dirty, porous snow; in others it is deeply blue, 
while here and there great turrets reach heavenward 
in gleaming crystal points. Hills and valleys, all of 
ice, throw out exquisite prismatic colors where the 
sunlight touches, and even above the wash of the 
"waves against the sides of our ship we can hear the 
music of many trickling streams that have worn chan- 
nels for themselves in the solid ice, and are now 
rejoicing in their freedom. How they ripple and 
glide and plunge, making mimic cascades as they 



86 ALASKA. 

throw themselves into the eager waters of the Strait. 
We fain would linger and drink in the delightful view 
a longer time. The moments have flown so swiftly. 
But the captain's quiet command turns us away from 
this glacier, to continue our Alaskan tour. We look 
back as long as we can see a vestige of the cold, sil- 
ent monarch of the Strait, and perhaps in our inmost 
hearts doubt the possibility of anything being more 
sublimely beautiful. 

By making a detour of several miles, as we have 
done, we get this line view of Patterson Glacier, 
the first one to be met on our trip northward, but in a 
short time we will behold a whole series of glaciers 
in Glacier Bay. 

Out into the broader, wind-rippled waves of Fred- 
erick Sound we glide, where each sharp-edged wavelet 
is crested with a cap of foam, not snowy white, but 
formed of tiny bubbles, glistening and flashing as our 
vessel sends them far to either side of her saucy prow. 
With no change that we can note, and while we still 
are exclaiming at the beauty of the Sound, our captain 
informs us that we are in Stevens' Passage. As it 
grows narrower the mountains and towering hills 
seem near or far as the clouds pass between us and 
them. 

The glinting white of the snow patches against the 
green, which is darkened with pine and cedar, the 
gray and yellow of the sphagnum and the rosy flecks 



FROM FORT WRANGEL TO JUNEAU. 87 

of lichen, make us long for some magic power that 
would enable us to hold the picture in substance for- 
ever. There is none of our party who are at all 
anxious to visit Admiralty Island, whose shores we 
gaze upon with as much curiosity as admiration, for 
it is said that the Island swarms with bears, and while 
we have no objection to seeing five hundred of them 
roaming about, we feel safe knowing that they are not 
in the habit of attacking steamers, and especially at re- 
spectful distances from their territory. They evidently 
do not swarm to the water's edge, for we did not get a 
glimpse of a single one of this prowling tribe of ani- 
mals. Northward still we go, passing Stockade 
Point, an old trading post of the Hudson Bay Com- 
pany, w^hich built the block-house and stockade, now 
crumbling quietly into decay, making a striking con- 
trast with- the everlasting snow-capped mountains 
which rise from the rather low peninsula, seeming 
to draw the land toward them as they tower above the 
shore. 

Nearly opposite is Grave Point, a native burial 
ground, weird, silent and lonely beyond all descrip- 
tion — a dismal spot among the landscape pictures 
as a black cloud upon a fair, sunset sky. The grass 
grows rank and tall. Last year's seed-stalks, still 
overtopping the young growth, rustle a sad warning 
to the joyous blossom buds that are bursting into Hfe. 
The small evergreens look darker and more solemn 



88 ALASKA. 

than their companions of the neig-hboring slopes, be- 
cause of their nearness to the odd grave-boxes that 
are standing here and there on their stilt-Hke posts; 
some marked only on their sides, others overtopped 
with totem poles varying in height and design, ac- 
cording to the honor of the family to which the quiet 
sleeper belongs, and all turning their startling fea- 
tures toward the lapping waters, whose swish and 
nunrmur in the solemn stillness, sound as mournful as 
any dirge that ever sighed its minoir notes above an 
honored grave. 

Our captain has at our request, let us pause awhile 
to gaze upon the scene, but a sigh emanates from 
more than one heart as we leave the place. 

We look with longing eyes at Taku Inlet as we 
pass, wishing to take a boat and sail over its lovely 
waters, visit its glacier, or, roam about its many beau- 
tiful islets and watch the silvery fish leaping through 
its limpid water currents. The head of this Inlet is 
destined to be the starting point of a route to the 
Klondyke gold field region and the Yukon, in the com- 
ing season. But we must leave it as we turn to the 
right and enter Gastineau Channel. 

Beautiful, picturesque Gastineau Channel, narrow 
in some places, only navigable for small boats, but so 
lovely ! So rich and fair its valleys, so pure its waters, 
so lofty the mountains, with snowy seams down their 
rugged sides, and vivid green in strong relief against 



FROM FORT WRANGEL TO JUNEAb. 89 

the moss-covered rocks. Turn which way you will, in 
the evening Hght, there is nothing but beauty in the 
little city that nestles between the mountains. This is 
Juneau ! We will leave it now, for night is falling, and 
we cannot see clearly its special features until morn- 
ing dawns. 



CHAPTER Xll. 

Among the Gold Mines— Juneau and Douglas Islands. 

WJl have risen betimes this fair, clear morning to 
get a glimpse of the city of Juneau in the glow 
of sunrise. It is a small town, and indeed at 
home we should call it a village, but in this sparsely 
settled country, it deserves the dignity settled upon it. 

The sun is tinting the snow-draped mountains at the 
base of whiclh it nestles with rose and yellow, mingling 
the colors in streaks and dashes and making their 
rugged sides rival the glowing sky. Juneau still lies 
in shadow, but we can see that it is built upon a slight 
slope that seems to have slipped from the mountain 
which towers above so protectingly. The houses look 
cool and cozy in the pallid light that falls upon them. 

And now the sun looms suddenly above the moun- 
tain tops and pours a flood of dazzling glory over the 
small white houses, and the skeletons of those being 
erected, as well as upon the few native huts of the 
Alaskans near by. There is nothing remarkably 
beautiful about the town in the plain day light except 
its location between two lofty mountains on the shore 
of a lovely channel. But it is destined to be a great 
city ere many years have rolled by, because it holds an 
important position in the rich gold and silver mining 
districts, and is already the nucleus of a commercial 
90 



AMONG THE GOLD MINES. 91 

centre. It was the discovery of gold by two prospec- 
tors, after one of whom the settlement was named, that 
led to its rise, and it will be this search for the precious 
metals that will lead to its future great success. 

It is now a thriving town, having stores, a post- 
office, and a port at which all the steamers stop. 
More than this, it is the place from which issues forth 
weekly papers, with their budget of home news, notes 
from distant sister cities, special gossip, and comments 
upon the present value and future prospects, not only 
of its own, but of neighboring places. 

There is gold in the valley of the Yukon river, gold 
in the mountains, gold in the islands. Gold Creek 
carries gold dust in the sediment which it brings and 
deposits in the channels. Across the channel is 
Douglas Island, said to contain enough of the pre- 
cious metals in its bosom to pay ofY the whole of the 
United States debt. 

Think of a small island in our far away and too 
often despised Territory having the largest gold 
stamping mill in the world. The Treadwell Mining 
Company runs the mill which contains over two hun- 
dred stamps, and is gradually completing an additional 
power that will eventually double the present capacity. 
The company has refused fifteen million dollars for the 
mines, because they believe that even such an im- 
mense power as it employs cannot exhaust the supply 
of gold in a lifetime or even in a century. Doubting 



92 ALASk'A. 

persons might call this "moonshine," but positive 
proof is there for those who choose to visit the mine 
from which the out-put in one year was nearly $800,- 
000 worth of metal. We find accommodating mana- 
gers who are perfectly willing that any one should see 
t'hie whole process, from the hard rocks that must be 
blasted in order to work them, to the pure metal from 
the dross. The stamps are running with a deafening 
roar day and night the entire year. The large hoppers 
are kept full on the upper floor by tramway cars, that 
are loaded in the mine, in the hillside, from the quartz 
vein, by means of stoping platforms, and they are run 
back and forth, as ore is needed in the mill, at the foot 
of the hill. Much water is needed to clear the pow- 
dered quartz of the soil, but the company owns the 
water supply of the entire island for their own use. 

And we can explore the island at our pleasure, losing 
sight of the scenery around us in our eager quest for 
the signs that miners know so well. Think of a gold- 
bearing quartz vein four hundred feet wide, as this 
one is, the Bear's Nest vein, which is probably one 
hundred feet wider; or one 600 feet wide, as the 
Lorena mine ledge on Admiralty Island! There is 
a feeling akin to the pride of proprietorship in the 
hearts of all true-born Americans when we are 
told that there is sufficient gold in sight to pay 
the price of thie Territory two or three times 
over. As we traverse the Island or look across at 



AMONG THE GOLD MINES. 93 

Juneau, and know of the valleys beyond its abrupt 
hills which are teeming with a golden harvest, await- 
ing only hardy hands to come and gather, we are 
convinced that at some not very distant day there 
must be a great centre for the vast business interests 
that are necessary to carry on the work of development. 

And what place better than Juneau! Already set- 
tled, already possessing a passable port, and even now 
mentioned as one of the cities of the United States. 
Business and pleasure do not often combine so beau- 
tifully. Here are the ores, the workmen, the tools; 
and the natives make excellent miners. Here the 
vessels can come to carry away the fruits of the 
miners' and stampers' toil. And here nature revels 
in wild mountain grandeur, in calm valley peaceful- 
ness and in rus)hiing water music; while now and 
again messengers from the great glacial fields come 
sailing down through Gastineau Channel and Taku 
Inlet, jostling against the grass-draped islands and 
brushing the long, feathery ferns as they pass. 

But we must leave Douglas Island, excusing its 
stunted flora when we remember the soil from which 
it springs. We must leave promising little Juneau 
and the Gastineau Channel, whose waters, fed with 
gold and debris from glaciers and gulches above, are 
choked by thie accumulation into shoals, and refuse to 
let us go onward. We must retrace our path to the 
entrance of the strait before we can proceed north- 
ward to scenery more charming and wonderful. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

Lynn Canai. and Chilkoot Hay. 

LEAVING Gastineau Channel, and taking a last 
longing look at Taku Inlet, wc steam toward 
Lynn Canal, in which great and wonderful 
beauty awaits us. Those who have been there tell us 
of its scenery, and in anticipation our imagination be- 
gins picture making, which, as we glide along, be- 
comes at first eclipsed and finally effaced by w'hat we 
behold in bright reality. 

Lynn Canal is but the entrance to our lofty Ameri- 
can Alpine scenery, but even here no land can boast 
rarer and more startling and contrasting loveliness! 
Great frowning mountain peaks, bleak as night in 
some places, in others white with the snow of ages, bear 
on their sides mimic glaciers — rugged icy masses — 
rich in emerald and azure tints, and capped with clear- 
est silver or purest fleecy white, shaded down to azure 
and brown where the earth and water mingle at their 
foundations. Surprises greet the eye at every turn. 
Low, dark evergreens throw their shadows across the 
gleaming ice and draw their needed moisture from 
the streams that steal their way through gilded passes. 
Cascades break upon the view suddenly, as they leap 
from great rocky heights and plunge with scarcely 
94 



LYNN CANAL AND CHILKOOT BAY. 95 

a sound into the dark waters, which foam for a little 
space and bubble as they open to receive them. Rivu- 
lets ripple and glide and glisten on their way and 
trickle so gently into the black canal that their advent 
is hardly noticed by the ceaseless waves. 

Everywhere ice and snow, water, earth, and sparse 
but hardy vegetation meet the eye, no two places hav- 
ing exactly the same formation or combination, yet 
all to be described by the same defective or defi- 
cient adjectives. 

Here we are in Chilkoot Bay and pressing forward 
to its terminus, reach by a mile or two the highest 
point yet passed in former voyages of the steamer, 
and the most northerly of our trip in this direction. On 
our right six or eight small w^aterfalls, keeping company 
with one of great power and beauty, welcome us to the 
country of the T'linkets. The shores are siharp, 
abrupt and rocky. The snow-covered mountains 
towering above us on either side show great seams 
of mineral-stained quartz, which outcrop from dark, 
slate-like formations from the water's edge up to- 
ward the dazzling snow line. Streams of greenish- 
vellow water trickle through the lines of yellow 
quartz and mingle their colors with the bay's darkly 
blue waters. In some places the outcrop is white 
and smooth as marble, in others it is rugged and 
tinged brown, green and yellow, making an appear- 
ance something like the lichen covered rocks in the 
more southern districts. 



96 ALASKA. 

Eagle Glacier glows and frowns upon us from one 
side to be eclipsed in magnitude by Davidson's bolder 
and more massive majesty as we enter Chilkoot 
Inlet. We fain would linger near either and feast 
our eyes upon the cold, wonderful beauty, but soon 
we will see the peerless Muir Glacier and gain far 
greater pleasure in exploring its vast moraines and 
peering into its nooks and dazzling corridors. Chil- 
koot Inlet bears our good vessel through more of the 
same wondronsly tinted beauty; between lofty moun- 
tain ranges that shut out all but their own stately, 
haughty grandeur, then open for a space, showing 
ranges, hills and glacier streams in the distance until 
the very head aches with the brain's effort to take 
and hold forever tthe beautiful and impressive pic- 
tures. 

Dyea, Dyay or Dayea, the starting point for the new 
gold fields of the Upper Yukon River, is situated at the 
head of this Inlet on its eastern side. This route leads 
over the Chilkoot Mountain Pass, thence to the series 
of lakes that ofifer a water-carriage by canoe or boat 
to the Yukon. 

In this region the summer sun hardly takes time 
to rest from his round of brilliant duties. As he 
retires he sinks so slowly, so regretfully, that the last 
tender tints of one day are hardly buried in pallid 
twilight till the new morning's pageant appears and 
decks the sky in colors rivalling his late departure. 




Fine Chilkat Blanket and Worked Totems. 



LYNN CANAL AND CHILKOOT BAY. 97 

Beautiful flowers in gold and pink and purest white 
smile from valley and hillside. Tall grasses wave and 
ripple in the gentle wind. Cedars, vines and willows 
spread their verdure-clad branches to catch the warmth 
and brightness of the friendly sun. In the woods the 
moss makes a carpet, velvety, soft and deep enough 
for the feet to sink some distance sponge-like, before 
touching ground, making locomotion and transporta- 
tion difficult and irksome. Briars and wood tangle, 
with trailing tree moss, lash the trunks together in 
an impenetrable jungle of living beauty. Waters clear 
as crystal, and cool and fresh, trickle on their way from 
the glaciers to the smiling, sun-kissed inlet, where 
countless fishes flash like jewels as they dart about 
from shore to channel. Immense strong stemmed 
ferns bend toward the water beside tender, fairly-like 
companions, which dip into the stream and lift upon 
their feathery leaves bright gem-drops, in which the 
sun may find his beams reflected. And this is the land 
of the Chilkats, among the bravest, most warlike and 
surely the richest of Alaska's natives. 

Here the wool of the mountain goat is made into 
the famous Chilkat dancing blankets. The snowy 
wool is interwoven in the most grotesque designs by 
the women, while the men carve spoons, cups, spears, 
fishing-hooks and many other articles, useful or orna- 
mental, from the jet black horns of the same animal. 
Some of the carving is exquisite in design and finish, 
7 



98 ALASKA. 

displaying artistic talent of no mean order. These 
T'linkets have long held the position of "middle men" 
between the traders, and they have fully profited 
by their power and cunning, for their wealth is pro- 
verbial among the northern nations. 

But we have lingered long enough with the na- 
tives. Our ship courses on toward Icy Bay, the 
home of icebergs, the dwelling of glaciers whose 
steady, resistless but imperceptible advance toward 
the sea fills our souls with wonder and admiration. 



CHAPTER XIV. 

Over IMuir Glacier — A Birth-Place of Icebergs. 

THERE is no cause for complaint in being com- 
pelled to retrace our course through Lynn 
Canal, even should it require many hours to do 
so, for new scenes open before us at every turn. Islets 
appear that we did not notice as we passed, or it may 
be that approaching them from an opposite direction 
makes them entirely new to us ; clear, babbling stream- 
lets hurrying to their sure engulfment in the greedy 
waters below; snowy cascades rolling and tumbling 
over rugged rocks and polislhed pebbles; mountains 
whose frowning contours stand sharply against the 
tender azure of the sky, and here and there fair, fleecy 
clouds reproducing themselves in the tinted bosom of 
the Canal, all tend to make the return as lovely as 
any part of the trip. 

Now we pass through Icy Strait, the doorway to 
Glacier Bay. Icebergs bow a chilling welcome to us 
and the air becomes decidedly bracing, with a prom- 
ise for the near necessity for warmer clothing. 

And now our vessel steams on in among real ice- 
bergs almost as tall as her slender masts, and 
some far more broad than her graceful hull. Great 
moving masses of crystal, tinted with all the shades 

99 



loo ALASKA. 

of blue imaginable, from palest peaxl to deepest in- 
digo, with here and there rich rainbows gleam- 
ing on the splintered edges. On we move, jost- 
ling mimic icebergs out of our path, tossing them 
aside with every pulse of the iron heart that propels 
us along safely and smoothly. Far ahead there seems 
to be a dense white mist, a few moments it rolls and 
curves, but soon it has cleared away and all is still. 
The captain answers our query with a smile and tells 
us that we are in Glacier Bay. 

Night has fallen and we must retire, each with a 
silent resolve that he will be first to see what further 
wonders are awaiting us in the breaking day. In the 
morning sunlight behold the mighty giant Glacier, in 
front of whose splendor and beneath whose threatening 
brow our puny ship stands, audaciously puffing her 
smoke and steam right into the face of so much majesty 
that we are compelled to fear that punishment must 
follow. Muir Glacier rises before us, not a great, tall 
rock of ice, but a crystal citadel, with towers, turrets, 
crested minarets and lance-like spires, all of glittering 
ice, clear and transparent, shading through all the tints 
and tones of blue; capped in some places with pur- 
est silver, in others with fleece-like snow. Later in 
the morning we land and climb to its summit and 
roam over its crystal landscape. Deep crevasses 
show shimmering lights far down their shattered sides 
when the sun touches the ragged edges of the waving 



OVER MUIR GLACIER. loi 

curves of broken ice. Strange sounds come up 
from the uncertain depths — murmurs, gurgles and 
long broken sighs, as the prisoned water forces its 
way along, now and then interrupted in the course 
by rocks and stones, and sometimes aided in its sad- 
toned music by sharp gusts of wind that sweep down 
into the icy gorges. Great solid blocks stand be- 
tween these crevices, so clear and pure that one can 
imagine that the eye penetrates to an impossible dis- 
tance into the heart of the Glacier. 

Deep, chilly caverns yawn almost at the feet of the 
daring explorer, and ever and anon loud thunder 
tones and frightful crashing sounds reverberate from 
neighboring crevasses as great ice masses fall into the 
depths and startle one for an instant, so calm and 
quiet is the solitude around. Beautiful grottoes, with 
clear blue flooring and shimmering iridescent walls 
greet the beholder in most surprising localities. 
Long, irregular depressions starting from the far 
away heights of the ice mountains and running quite 
to the turrets near its verge make courses for the 
constant drip from the hills beyond our view, as the 
rivulets trickle and rush onward down to the sub- 
glacial river, or as the superficial streamlets discharge 
their freight into the Bay by the glacier stream near 
the mountain side. Some rivulets are clear and lim- 
pid, some appear like streams of milk, others like 
amber, while more are turbid and swollen in the mid- 



TJNTVERSITY OF CAT TFORNTA 
SANTA BAEBARA COLLEGE LIBRA 



I02 ALASKA. 

day sun, carrying with tbem mud and stones, making 
rough, grating sounds as they take their final leaps 
into the water. 

Here and there moraines give safe footing for the 
most timid to explore the Glacier. Debris, polished . 
stones, pieces oi rock, scratched and ground into all 
imaginable shapes, dark earth and tiny rivulets, com- 
pose these great moraines, whose sub-strata is solid 
ice. Once in a while old tree trunks meet us as we 
scramble over the rugged surface, and now and then 
a lovely flower peeps at us from some sheltered spot 
near the hill side. 

Go into one of the lovely grottoes. 

Its dazzling beauty makes the heart swell with ad- 
miration, powerless for words to express. The tink- 
ling song of the melting ice, as it drips down the chis- 
eled walls, makes infant echoes in small offsetting 
chambers that no foot dare enter, while the flecks of 
light falling upon the pellucid water, gleam like living 
eyes, which seem to blink as the tiny streams run 
smoothly or vary in their onward motion. But, alas! 
amid all this glittering loveliness there is a chill as of 
the tomb ! The feet become numb, the ears tingle and 
at last frail nature compels us to^ leave and return to the 
welcome warmth of the sun. 

We may wander on and upward for miles, seeing 
at every turn new features of the mammoth Glacier 
whose birth-place we cannot reach. Explorers have 



OVER MUIR GLACIER. 103 

traveled over its expansive surface for at least eighty 
miles, and its full extent is supposed to be nearly four 
hundred miles; its width varies according to the prox- 
imity of the great mountain chains and peaks to 
whose presence it has accommodated itself most won- 
derfully, notwithstanding it has torn and bruised them 
as it passed. Wearied, cold and hungry, we return 
to the ship, which rides in the rippling waters or 
tosses as some sudden motion rolls and rocks it. 
Here from the deck, or even from our stateroom 
window, we may gaze until we tire, for our captain 
kindly promises to stay all day in the immediate 
neighborhood. 

Bang! Crash! Roar! Again and again that clatter- 
ing cannonade. Again and again the water, turned 
to misty foam, leaps high and tosses, for a distance, its 
glistening particles! And now, not very far from 
where we ride, we hear the loud report of its sudden 
cleavage, and watch an immense berg break from the 
parental bosom, and plunge down, down into the deep 
waters of Glacier Bay that welcomes it with engulf- 
ing waves, and throws around it a very Niagara of 
spray. Down it plunges deep into the yawning gulf, 
lost and entombed. 

Then it bounds up suddenly into a massive, glisten- 
ing, silver-clad tower, dashing huge waves across the 
bay, and dancing up and down, each time showing 
more of its glinting, dark blue surface, each time 



I04 ALASKA. 

seeming to endeavor to bring itself into a more secure 
and dignified position. At last it settles and then 
starts out upon its journey to the sea — a glorious, 
new-fledged iceberg, out to the wilting waters of the 
briny sea — to the golden sunshine, which, while lend- 
ing new beauty to the Arctic stranger, will steal part 
of its life away with every slender ray that touches it. 

So section after section of the mighty glacier se- 
cedes and starts upon its independent journey. So 
heaven's grand artillery notes each iceberg's 
birth, and so ever the waters baptize the beautiful 
majestic voyagers, as they start forth on their fateful 
journey. 

Look long upon the wonderful creation. Here 
rides our tiny ship close beneath its gleaming crest. 
Here we stand, atoms, whom the boulders could crush 
into shapeless clay. And yet we gaze and calmly talk 
of the grandeur and the beauty. 

Can it be that the huge glacial ice mountain, miles 
and miles in extent, is surely, positively coming to- 
ward us? Can it be that each of those deafening sal- 
vos prove that its progress is tending in our direc- 
tion? Yet we wait and watch. Yes, some of us 
would like to see with our own eyes the onward move- 
ment, so slowly and imperceptibly is the glacier mo- 
tion. We would dare to hold our position until we 
could have the proof in our own knowledge that the 
great ice river, the mammoth frozen cataract, is really 



OVER MUIR GLACIER. 105 

moving onward ever and ever toward its own de- 
struction. 

Will we ever forget this city of spires and turrets, 
this home of caverns and grottoes, this birthplace of 
the huge, beautiful icebergs that gleam down upon 
us from every side? Will our ears ever fail to hear 
those ringing, rattling charges of nature's artillery? 

In years to come the picture will doubtless be as 
vivid as the first impression, for time can scarcely 
efface such stupendous grandeur from the mind that 
has received it. 



CHAPTER XV. 

Among the Islands — From Muik Glacier to Sitka. 

LEAVING the magnificent, beautiful and won- 
derful Muir, what wonder is it that we 
turn and gaze from the upper deck of our 
steamer as long as the tinted towers and gleam- 
ing front of the Glacier can be seen in the in- 
creasing distance ? With a long sigh of regret 
and lonesomeness we glide away, perhaps never 
to behold the like again. There is but one place that 
we may visit to find the Glacier's rival, and that 
is Greenland, but tourists are not yet daring enough 
to encounter the dangers and difficulties of such a 
voyage. From this time, Swiss Alpine Glaciers, 
grand as they are, will lose much of their attractive- 
ness to us. 

Sailing onward we can see nothing of the Glacier but 
the great beautiful fragments that come floating down 
in front, to the rear and alongside of the ship. As we 
will need ice for our return trip, our daring sailors 
throw great grappling hooks into the clearest floe 
that they dare approach, and our vessel steams saucily 
along towing in her wake an iceberg, from which the 
men are industriously breaking convenient blocks 
and stowing them away in the huge ice chest. Some- 
times the men will go off for a supply while the steamer 
io6 



AMONG THE ISLANDS. 107 

is anchored and bring in a life boat load from bergs 
near the glacier's face. Sometimes tall icebergs can 
be approached so closely that a supply can be cut off 
from above and dropped down upon the deck of the 
ship. When shall we ever drink of water from such 
pure, limpid, rainbow-tinted ice as this after the store 
is exhausted and we cannot reach Icy Bay to replen- 
ish it? 

Slowly but surely we are leaving the cold, barren, 
beautiful North. Down through Icy Strait small ice- 
bergs dance against our vessel, and then turning away 
dart about in a comical manner as they encounter 
the rolling waves in the wake of the vessel. They 
grow smaller, and at last almost entirely disappear as 
we make headway through Chatham Sound, one of 
the largest and most wonderful of Alaska's charming 
waterways. Its many islands, islets and kelp-covered 
rocks are always making changing scenes as we 
wind carefully around to avoid shoals and hidden 
rocks. Great sweeping branches of kelp turn about 
like long brown serpents as the movements of the 
ship agitates the water. Reeds grow tall and strong 
in bunches here and there, and ferns, and mosses min- 
gle to grace the islets that we can almost touch as 
we glide along into Peril Straits. 

The name is enougib to make the heart a little anx- 
ious about the safety of this part of the tour, but we 
are assured that it is no worse than other portions un- 



io8 ALASKA. 

less we should be foolish enough to partake of the 
poisonous mussels of the neighborhood. It was the 
death of a large number of Aleuts ^^'iho had eaten of 
them at this place that gave the name of the Straits. 
For quite a distance the stream is wide, but it gradu- 
ally narrows, and with Neva and Olga Straits forms 
a number of most beautiful channels, graced with lit- 
tle islands completely covered with verdure. Oh! the 
welcome, restful green, shading to many tones, as the 
growth is young or old! Oh, the sweet, healthful 
perfume of the feathery pines! 

The graceful bending of the branches as the breezes 
touch them! What after all is the frozen, silent 
beauty of the North in comparison to this living, per- 
fumed loveliness? But night has fallen. We will 
rest now and see how far we will be on our journey 
when the morning gong awakes us. The quietness 
of the ship as it lies at anchor arouses us, for the 
monotonous jar of the machinery has long ago be- 
come our lullaby. It may be time to- rise or not, but 
it will do no harm to take a peep and get some idea 
of our whereabouts! Ah! where are we? What lovely 
surroundings! Rise and see more fully! This is 
Sitka Sound. Here are the bright gleaming waters 
of the bay all decked with rocky, moss-covered islands 
clad with verdure to their very rims, and bearing 
stunted firs and slender spruce trees whose tips quiver 
with the slightest breath of wind. 



AMONG THE ISLANDS. 109 

Briars and long creeping vines form tiny jungles 
among the tree-trunks as though to defy invasion 
upon the lovely precincts. The waters lap and ripple 
in and out, now showing the rocky bases of the islets, 
now leaving the ferns and mosses high upon their 
mimic shores. Look up over the bow ! There is Mount 
Edgecombe, with an almost perfect cone, its 
top cut off so smoothly as to appear like a table, but 
a crater 2,000 feet across and several hundred feet 
deep is known to be reposing there. Once it illum- 
inated the Sound with its lurid light, but it has long 
since become dark and silent. In the morning glow 
the peak is strangely beautiful. At its feet small trees 
and vines cluster closely, growing more scarce to- 
ward the top, until they disappear altogther, leaving 
the rugged red of the lava and stones in strong con- 
trast with the clear waves of the bay, or perchance 
the gliding water of numerous cascades, or seams of 
snow so protected that they remain in the fissures in 
the mountain side from one winter's storm until an- 
other cold season comes to replenish them. On the 
other side, near at hand, lies Sitka, with its cluster of 
plain, old-fashioned houses and native dwellings. 
From their midst Baranoff Castle once arose, which 
has since been burned down. It was not a grand, 
imposing castle, ivy-grown, bastioned and turreted, 
but a square substantial structure of frame, painted 
light or yellow and surmounted by a small tower, 



no ALyiSKA. 

from whose window it is said the ghost of a beautiful 
lady watched across the bay when the nights were dark 
and stormy. 

We know that it was used by both the Russians 
and our own Government as a point from which to 
take obser\'-ations of the locality, but maybe while the 
officials slept the ghost occupied the window with a 
lantern. 

How still it was the morning I wandered over it 
and gazed curiously upon it. That old castle that 
once echoed with the voice of its lordly, self-indul- 
gent, indomitable tyrant and master, Count Baranofif, 
whose ihall once sounded back the clamor of invited 
guests, or the ripple of sweet laughter from fair ladies' 
lips. How those lordly rooms once rung with the 
sounds of rout and revelry! 

These lonesome streets were once graced with Rus- 
sian soldiery in brilliant uniforms. And long ago 
thousands lived where now the inhabitants are so 
scattered and so few! Then the population was nearly 
all thrifty whites; now it is composed of Creoles, Indi- 
ans and but a very few whites, a small number of 
whom live a sort of dejected, indolent life, which 
shows itself not only in their faces, but in the dilapi- 
dated, fast-decaying abodes which they occupy. Only 
one good thing has come to the capital's occupation by 
our soldiers, and that is cleanliness. With all the Rus- 
sian grandeur and pomp the town was in many places 



AMONG THE ISLANDS. in 

dirty and slimy. Now it is passable and quite pleas- 
ing in every direction, and the present government 
officials and thie business people are improving its 
condition. 

The training school for native Alaskans is a model 
of industr}^, thrift and neatness, and it is doing a 
good educational work among the Indian children. 

Look! the sun is touching the dome of the old 
Greek Church, and stealing in at the windows to kin- 
dle new light about the richly gilded pictures, the 
altar and its gaily ornamented surroundings. It 
touches the sweet, pure faces of the Madonna and 
child, it glorifies the saints who guard the altar place. 
But 'look beyond! The mountains around are touched 
here and there, and the sunlight gildings look like 
great flecks and patches of gold. 

The grass, the trees, the waters smile to greet the 
sweet morning. The birds, oh, the strange and beau- 
tiful birds that we have not heard for so long, are 
singing a loud and joyous jubilee! Why is Sitka 
to-day not more fully occupied? Why is all this 
loveliness wasted? Pearly, shimmering beauty in the 
waters; waving, tempting, refreshing and charm- 
ing glimpses among the trees, the grasses and 
the brightly blooming flowers! A climate never 
too hot, seldom too cold. Is it the drizzling, super- 
abundant rain or mist? Even that does not last all the 
time, and it is no worse now than when the town was 



112 ALASKA. 

occupied by thousands of Russian inihabitants. It 
is the greed for gold and new fields that has caused the 
beautiful capital to be forsaken for the more distant, 
flourishing mining towns that are springing up else- 
where. 

Probably it is the uncertainty or insecurity of 
landed investments that hinders its prosperity and 
even depopulates this lovely place. If so it will con- 
tinue until the United States gives a territorial gov- 
ernment to this deserving section of the country, 
and furnishes adequate official support and jur- 
isdiction with a naval force and outfit to maintain the 
laws when given. Alaska has food-fish enough to 
supply the entire country, and immiense gold mines 
and other resources, so that one day Sitka, her capi- 
tal, may become a great metropolis. 





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CHAPTER XVI. 

Sitka and Its Lovely Excursion Grounds. 

A HASTY breakfast and we are all eager to 
land and take a near view of Sitka and 
its environs. The lethargic little capital 
wakens at our coming. The Governor, the Marshal 
and the other government officials show us all the 
honors that the city can offer. The Rev. Sheldon 
Jackson, the superintendent of education, and Rev. 
A. E. Austin, the mission leader, and their associates, 
call our attention to the efforts they have made and 
tell of their determination to continue their most ex- 
cellent work, while they most sadly lament the in- 
adequacy of the help they receive from the Govern- 
ment, which made such promising efforts at first 
w/hen the Territory passed into its hands. 

The Greek Church, despite all care, shows the 
ravages of time; and many houses which look as 
if a little labor and paint would redeem them from 
their rustiness, are sinking, as though infected 
with the apathy of the spiritless aboriginal inhabitants. 
An incongruous party they are, as we see them. 

Among the inhabitants we find a few Americans, 
whose faces seem famiHar, bright and active and 
cheerful, making us have a warm friendship, or a sort 
S 113 



114 .IL.ISA'.I. 

of family regard for them, it seems so long since we 
have seen any one outside of the ship that at all re- 
sembles our OAvn people; a great mmiber of Russians, 
many of them much like Germans in complexion, with 
a stolid, quiet expression ; a good many Creoles, some 
showing in color and features their white admixture, 
others 'holding closely to their darker progenitors; 
and a superabundance of pure Alaskan natives, dusky, 
bright-eyed, with medium-sized physical forms, and 
more intelligent in appearance than most of the Amer- 
ican Indians. 

Here in this quiet harbor, where our own ship is 
the only craft except the native boats and several 
visiting vessels, a Russian fleet used to ride at anchor, 
making gay contrast by theiri slender masts and float- 
ing flags with the surrounding lofty mountain peaks 
and tall, sombre pines. 

The Stars and Stripes have, given greater promise. 
It has already been proven how well worth those few 
millions of dollars this vast Territory has become. 

There are stores in which we may purchase many 
works of savage art that surprise us, as we look from 
one to another, more gracefully fashioned or more 
artistically carved. Here, too, as at Juneau, we find 
Chilkat blankets wonderful in texture and ornamenta- 
tion. The Alaska Society of Natural History and 
Ethnology, which makes its headquarters at Sitka, is 
endeavoring to keep up an interest in the native art by 



SITKA AND ITS EXCURSION GROUNDS. 115 

collecting all obtainable specimens of their handicraft, 
particularly those which were made before the demand 
for curios tempted the production of more hastily ac- 
complished, and, therefore, imperfect work. It is to be 
hoped that there will be retained a sufihcient number 
of perfect objects to show future ages what sort of 
artistic talent and manufacturing abilities the wild 
Alaskans possessed. 

Notwithstanding the historic objects and the curi- 
osities to be seen in the town, it requires but a day or 
two to accomplish the round of sightseeing, but there 
is one advantage it possesses to summer tourists, 
and that is they can make it a centre, a sort of home, 
from which to make excursions to gold mines and 
many points of interest. Take advantage of tbe hotel 
accommodations offered and begin your round of won- 
der-seeking. 

Indian River has been spoken of so admiringly that 
we concluded to see for ourselves its beauty. As it is 
not distant we will try at once to see if it arouses en- 
thusiasm in ourselves, as it has in others. 

But wait, here is the Alaskan office (a cozy place, with 
busy people within, Whiich we discovered in wandering 
up the main street), a paper, a real, live weekly news- 
paper published in this little city and containing news 
interesting, instructive and spicy. Papers are always 
welcome, but this one specially so because it is really 
good in style, and it often contains in a nutshell that 



ii6 ALASKA. 

which would require quite a length of time to hunt up 
and learn. For instance, the Governor's letter upon 
the resources and capabilities of dififerent localities, the 
value of the mining districts, the advantages of the 
waterways, the fortunes still to be made in its seal 
fisheries, if properly protected and conducted, and 
other items that cannot help but interest one who is 
just upon the ground, and who has a desire to learn all 
that is possible of a land from which he is making ob- 
servations with so much pleasure. 

Now for a walk to Indian River, past the Russian 
part of the town and the training school for natives 
to the stream containing the purest, sweetest and 
most delicious drinking water in the near neighbor- 
hood. But what place can boast of water clearer or 
more abundant than this? It comes, rippling, dash- 
ing, singing and dancing over smooth stones, around 
which long weeds clasp their slender stems as it car- 
ries them along around the great moss covered boul- 
ders whose obstruction causes the waves and eddies 
to murmur sweet, tinkling music. On, on, it runs 
and leaps in joyous abandon, and pours its bounti- 
ful store into pails, demijohns, kettles; anything that 
one may bring, it fills with the same crystal, spark- 
ling welcome. On either side tall hemlocks spread 
their beautiful, airy branches ; great pines make deeper 
shades where dainty trout may sport unharmed; 
graceful spruces lift their shaded spires toward the 



SITKA AND ITS EXCURSION GROUNDS. 117 

blue, clear heavenh- archway, whose perfect colorings 
rival even sunny Italy's world renowned, song-praised 
skies. 

Briers and wood tangle make impenetrable jungles 
that feast the eye with their wonderful luxuriance, while 
they defy the most daring feet to defile their sacred pre- 
cincts. Mosses grow rich and tall enough to hold po- 
sition among the lovely ferns that bend and sway 
beneath the slightest breath of wind. Everywhere is 
wild, rich beauty, so restful, so lovely, that one turns 
with regret from each bridge or footpath, feeling that 
no where can there be equally beautiful scenes and 
tempting vistas. Beware how you promise yourself 
or others to spend a day in this most beautiful 
spot, for during the summer the twilight does not 
sink into deeper darkness, but it slowly melts into 
the rosy brightness of morning. The daylight lin- 
gers as if its tender care were needed to watch over 
such perfect loveliness! Only the greater stars and 
planets are permitted to throw their reflections into 
the swift flowing little river or upon the channel's 
more placid bosom. Vostovia and Edgecombe, with 
mountain and hill, and hill and mountain, cast their 
sombre protecting shadows over and around the tiny 
town as it nestles confidingly between them, fearing 
no water famine while its beautiful river near by 
glides on forever; dreading no greater isolation than 
now, while it possesses such a safe and beauti- 



ii8 Af.ASk'A. 

fill harbor; trnstinj;" that the tardy C'uiig^ress will 
not forget that its dignity, as a capital of so vast an 
area of country, requires finer buildings, and more 
attention than it has received in the past twenty years. 
Let the mining towns of Juneau, Douglas Island, Cir- 
cle City and Forty-mile Run flourish more rapidly and 
grandly as they will, let other cities and towns arise and 
become famous as they may, but restore the beautiful 
historic Sitka to its own place in the world's history. 

We have seen Indian River! More than likely we 
will view it again before we leave the town, but our 
next trip must be more distant and more difficult 
to accomplish. As it is just the season for the fur 
seal catch, we will hope to next take you to the Priby- 
lov Islands and discuss the seals, beautiful and plenti- 
ful in their northern home away out on the secluded 
islands of St. Paul and St. George, far away in Ber- 
ing Sea. 



CHAPTER XVII. 

From Bering Sea to the Seal, or Pribylov Islands. 

FOR those who are brave enough to face a Pa- 
cific Ocean voyage of twenty-five hundred 
miles or more, there are sometimes berths of- 
fered in a trim, seaworthy sailing vessel or steamer, 
bound for Unalaska, and on to the Pribylov, or 
Great Seal Islands, which lie fourteen hundred 
miles west, north-west from Sitka. The proper mode 
of reaching these islands is by one of the Alaska Com- 
mercial Company's vessels, or other steamers, direct 
from San Francisco or Sitka, as trips from there are an- 
nounced from time to time. The temptation is great, 
just now is the season to see the islands swa.rming with 
the wonderful fur-bearing animals. The danger of 
shipwreck is comparatively light, for nowhere can be 
found more careful sailors than those who traverse 
the waters of the Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea. 

And now the few who are going are escorted by 
their friends to the ship. Good-byes are spoken, thie 
more impressive because of a weird, indistinct dread 
of the outcome of this undertaking. After all 
why not leave such voyages entirely to skilled navi- 
gators, who are used to dangerous trips, or to exploring 
scientists, who are always ready to risk life and limb 

119 



I20 ALASKA. 

for their beloved calling? All necessary e(juipments 
are provided and tiie voyage is not as long as that to 
Europe. 

The wind swells our winglike sails, the ship glides 
out from its quiet moorings away from the pretty 
little town, away from the few but firm friends who 
stand upon Sitka's tumble-down wharf and wave 
adieu as long as we can see them ; away from the si- 
lent, swarthy, native on-lookers, who see nothing 
in the start about which to make an ado. Out from the 
lovely verdant islands of the harbor, farther out into 
the ocean, and farther from land until at last we see 
only here and there an island of the Aleutian group, 
wave-washed and barren except for the strips of kelp 
or seaweed that cling to it tenaciously as the waves 
ebb and flow. Across the tinted waters of the noble 
Pacific, away in the distance, we behold land; in fact, 
many lands, for we are still skirting tlhe great Aleu- 
tian chain. 

Our captain will not now permit us to visit Kadiak, 
or Kodiak, Oonamak,or evenOonalaska, or Unalaska, 
as they are variously called. Passing through a very 
narrow strait, studded with cold, cheerless islets, whose 
only sign of life, visible to the eager vision, is a 
vast colony of sea birds, we sail into Bering Sea, whose 
waters we must plow for many hundred miles before 
we reach our destination. 

It is evening, and though it is only twilight, yet the 
ship is anchored for the night, much to our surprise, 



BERING SEA TO THE SEAL ISLANDS. 121 

for there seems nothing unusual in the appearance of 
the sea or sky, except fog-banks, to make precaution 
necessary. By full daylight the sails begin to flut- 
ter, the cordage to saw, the timbers creak, and we 
are olT again. In due time we near the harbor 
and the little port; the sea roughens, the wind moans 
and growls ominously. Are we going to have a 
storm? What is that strange sound? It is a combi- 
nation of sounds, wild, novel, indescribable in its 
never-changing, perpetual rise and fall. The nearer 
we approach the more constant it becomes, and 
whether we are staying a short or a long time 
we will become so thoroughly used to it that when 
we leave the neighborhood its absence will be as 
noteworthy as is now the first experience. 

We are close upon St. Paul Island, and the noise 
comes from the seal rookeries, where the angry roair 
of the old bulls, the peculiar cry of the mother seals, 
and the bleating of the pups ceases neither day nor 
night, from the first arrival on their breeding grounds 
in the spring, till later in the season, when they leave 
for other and more congenial quarters. Our ship 
nears the land again only to be tossed back by the 
waves that seem determined to hold sacred from 
stranger eyes the fog-draped islands. At last the 
hawsers are thrown and secured and the feat of land- 
ing begins. You who have never before tried landing 
in a surf boat with a restless sea running will laugh at 



122 ALASKA. 

the scrambling, the frantically oiitstretcihed arms and 
trembling knees, the footing almost lost, the more 
than breathless thankfulness when terra firma is 
reached. 

Try it, and see how much better you will do with 
the little boat or even, perhaps, with a landing plank, 
one moment tilted toward the clouds and the next 
toward the seething waters, and always in the direc- 
tion contrary to the way in which you would fain 
have it toss you, giving a graphic example of pro- 
gressing "one step forward and two steps backward." 

But we are safely landed at last, all counted, to be 
sure that none has lost his equilibrium, and all 
ready to explore the wonderful wind-swept, fog-dark- 
ened island. 

The principal islands in the group are St. Paul, St. 
George, Otter and Walrus. The latter two are so 
named from their being the favorite resort of those 
animals, and in times gone by multitudes of them 
visited the islands. Now otters are very scarce, a 
catch of ninety-three in one season being worthy of re- 
mark, and the great price paid for them, $50 or more 
per skin, in the rough, making their rarity and beauty 
more desirable for the wealthy. Walruses, too, are 
yearly becoming less plentiful, a fearful prospect for 
the Aleuts or natives, a tall, hardy race, of Russian 
origin no doubt, if civilization were not already teach- 
ing them that there are other articles of diet equally 



BERING SEA TO THE SEAL ISLANDS. 123 

nutritious and palatable as the rank, greasy, strong- 
smelling flesh of their favorite game. 

A few seals visit these smaller islands annually, but 
other better beaches attract the animals in great abund- 
ance, as well as the people whose business it is to cap- 
ture them and secure the skins for. the Commercial 
Company, to whom by a lease from the United States 
Government they temporarily belong. The first lease 
expired in 1890, and the tribulation suffered by the 
seals since then will long be remembered. 

All these islands are of volcanic formation, and 
bear unmistakable signs of eruption. One, Otter 
island, presenting the dharacteristics of a crater, 
shows marks that it must have been in activity but a 
short time ago. 

The general contour of all these islands is rugged 
and rocky, with smooth cone-like hills, here and there 
enlivened by flats covered in summer with richly ver- 
dant grass, gaily colored lichens and lovely crinkled 
mosses. Here and there are found tiny lakes full of 
pure sparkling water, and from the lofty side of St. 
George's Island there drops a beautiful crystal water- 
fall four hundred feet high from its crest to its final 
plunge into the sea. Birds by the million swarm 
upon the island, joining with seals in making a din 
whiclh quite rivals the wind and sea. Strange to say, 
there is an annual visitation of flocks of sparrows, 
which are eagerly gathered for food. During their 
stay the natives do scarcely anything but catch and 



124 ALASk-.i. 

eat of the dainty morsels, as thougli they would fain 
take sufificient of such food to last until their coming 
in the next season. And who can blame them? 
For even much of the food fish are denied them, the 
seals frightening from the coast those they do not 
devour. The constant diet of seal meat nmst pall 
even upon the appetites of the lovers of this queer, 
fishy, game-flavored material. The people are permitted 
to kill enough for food in addition to 100,000, now 
temporarily limited to a much smaller number, allowed 
for skins. Their annual allowance of 6,000 seals to 
about 400 inhabitants may give an idea how much 
depends upon this staple, but we cannot but wonder 
how it is possible for any human creature to be satis- 
fied with almost entirely one article of animal diet. 
How quickly they prove that tihe whole of humanity 
is kindred when butter, flour and sugar are more 
abundantly introduced into their cuisine by the ar- 
rival of supply vessels! And how, too, they show 
their savage improvidence when they will devour bis- 
cuits and sugar enough at one time to last an ordi- 
nary mortal two or three days, speaking in all bounds. 
We now approach tIhe slippery, sandy shallows 
which the seals choose as their "hauling grounds." 
Watch that huge seal-bull making his way along to 
his future field of conflict, for just as surely as he 
stations himself at a given point, so truly will he have 
to figtht, tooth and nail, to hold it. 



BERING SEA TO THE SEAL ISLANDS. 125 

See hini as he rears his head, and gazes around, 
then bending forward plants his forward flipper, and 
drags or hauls himself toward it; then holding firmly 
the position gained, he reaches the other flipper for- 
ward as far as possible and hauls towards it, so alter- 
nating until he brings his dripping, shining body out 
of the water. The process looks tedious, even pain- 
ful, and it must be to an extent tiresome, for the 
animal rests often during the operation. This por- 
tion of the island is most desolate and lonely, ex- 
cept when the seals are present. It is flat, low and 
slippery, and even at the best of times, offensively 
odorous. 

Other parts are rugged to grandeur, fair with grass 
and moss or brightened with rippling lakes. And 
everywhere, erected by the Russians many years ago, 
are now seen Greek crosses in different stages of 
decay, according to their exposure to wind and rain, 
or their being guarded from the elements. 

In summer all sheltered spots are blooming with 
flowers that remind one tenderly of home. The 
colors, the shapes, even the less distinct perfume, 
speak of many miles and miles away across sea and 
mountain and many a lovely landscape view. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

The Fur Skai.s of Priisvlov Isi.an'ds, 15i:ring Sea. 

A PROPITIOUS day dawns for a visit to the rook- 
eries of St. Paul Island. The sun has kindly 
hidden behind a silver mist, that will grad- 
ually grow more and more dense, until it becomes 
the Aleut's delight, a heavy fog. The natives smile 
as they watch the preparation of visitors for ex- 
plorations over the island. They cannot realize 
that light rubber overgarments are more comfort- 
able than their own heavy storm coats, and that 
they are just as effective, against the constant ooze 
of the fog banks, as more cumbrous dress. Besides, 
they see no need for preparation. This royal mist is 
more welcome- than the brighest sunshine. In fact, 
the few sunny days that come to their islands seem 
somewhat distressing to them, as well as to the seals. 
The sound froni the voices of seals is as of a roar- 
ing waterfall. It is said by those who have made 
careful observations that the activity of the seal colo- 
nies never ceases day or night. It is most certain 
that they all have special seasons of rest, but at 
no certain time, and so few are indulging in cat naps 
at one time that their voices cannot be missed from 
the perpetual din. As the rookeries are approached, 
126 



THE FUR SEALS OF PRIBYLOV ISLANDS. 127 

the sounds dissolve themselves, and when one is quite 
close all the romance of the roar of Niagara is lost 
in the loud howling of the bulls, the angry growl of 
some, which are disturbed, the fierce notes, like puff- 
ing steam of the approaching combatants, the shrill 
whistling call of others, or the sheep-like bleating of 
the cows and pups. A very pandemonium of noises, 
among which one's feeble calls are quite lost even to 
his own auditors. 

But look at this living, moving mass! A swarm 
of bees would be quite an imperfect simile! Great 
seals, some weighing quite as much as five or 
six hundred pounds, surrounded by their families 
large or small, females which are smaller and in 
greater numbers, and tiny pups, just able to tiounder 
about to join their voices to the general sound, and 
all so much alike that a description of one of either 
sex may serve for all. The males are a deep, dull 
brown, inclining to black, except in the older males, 
whosie coats assume the proper shade for age, a sort 
of grizzly gray. Tlie females are a beautiful steel 
gray, blending to spotless white on the chest and 
the under part of the body, while the pups are at birth 
and some months afterwards, jet black with the ex- 
ception of two tiny white spots near the shoulders. 

The bulls are majestic in apppearance as they rear 
their heads and shoulders far above their smaller 
companions, ever watchful that no marauder shall 



128 ALASKA. 

interfere in the slightest degree with their numerous 
adopted companions and tlicir Httle ones. But how 
frightful are the battles that are almost momentarily 
fought between these bulky animals. Some late 
comer may suppose that he may slyly take posses- 
sion of at least one cow from a family of forty, [n 
an instant 'he is challenged to combat, and the possi- 
bility is that he may push off badly whipped or pay 
the penalty of such temerity with his life. These bat- 
tles are fierce and bloody beyond description, and 
there is scarcely a moment through the season that 
one or more is not in progress. The pretty, gentle, 
dark-eyed females never join in any contest. They 
are mild, as their beautiful heads and tender eyes de- 
note, and though not outwardly affectionate, they 
never neglect their young. Imagine a million or 
more of these creatures gathered in one comparatively 
small spot on an almost desolate island. When the 
heat at noon makes them restless, there is nothing 
in our ordinary language that can adequately de- 
scribe the grotesquely wonderful appearance 'of a 
million or two of animals industriously fanning them- 
selves with their hind flippers, or of thousands upon 
thousands of glossy black pups sporting among them- 
selves as playful as kittens. 

But it is not from among the breeding seals that 
the animals are taken that furnish the valuable furs 
of commerce. There is a class seemingly set aside 



THE FUR SEALS OB PRIBYLOV ISLANDS. 129 

for the benefit of the traders. They are called by 
the inhabitants holluschickie, or bachelors. They 
are never allowed, if possible, by the older seals to 
put as much as their flippers upon the rookeries, but 
are compelled to herd with the yearlings and pups 
at a respectful distance, and their lives seem to be one 
continual round of play, from their coming until the 
time arrives for their being driven to slaughter. 

When that time comes men appointed for that part 
of the work go in among the thousands of beautiful 
creatures, choose from them those whose perfection 
of fur promises greatest profit, and by skillful ma- 
noeuvring, get them into something like marching 
order, when with numerous assistants, each armed 
with a club, they are slowly driven from among their 
more fortunate companions to the killing grounds. 
Here they are divided into companies of about one 
hundred and fifty and quickly despatched, with clubs 
manufactured for the purpose by a New England firm. 

In a very short time after the first blow is struck 
they are skinned, the skins are salted and packed for 
pickling previous to their being shipped to the deal- 
ers in San Francisco and elsewhere, who in turn pass 
them on to the dyers, in London, England, no other 
firm being able to dye and polish them to such per- 
fection and salable condition. The appearance of 
these hides or furs before being plucked of the 
coarse hair and dyed is not such as to tempt the eyes 
9 



I30 ALASKA. 

of fashionable ladies who are inclined to boast of their 
beautiful sacks and mufTs as "pure London dyed." 
llie long- hair must all be removed, which is adroitly 
done by shaving thinly the under side of the skin so 
that the roots or bulbs of these bristle-like hairs are 
cut off, they are then pulled ont, leaving the fine, soft 
fur on the skin, which is thus made valuable ; and 
the dye and polish perfect their excellence. 

The lovely silver gray of life becomes somewhat 
rusty after its salting and rough usage, and it is not 
until after it is properly dressed and colored that it 
appears in all its exquisite glossy beauty. Then with 
all the harsher hair removed the dainty, fluffy fur 
waves and glistens with every motion of the wearer. 
Softer than down, closer and finer than wool, it 
will always hold its place whatever fancy may for a 
moment or season crop up in rivalry. 

Bering Sea and the Aleutian Islands and indeed 
the whole of our Alaska property is valuable. The 
fur seal islands, the salmon, cod and halibut fisheries, 
the mineral lands, the vast timber forests, are all unde- 
veloped treasures, but sufficiently visible to the ob- 
serving mind. It is strange that a foreign power has 
let her imaginary rights pass unnoticed until thirty 
years have flown, and that she should just now awake 
to the importance of asserting them. All nations with- 
out a protest acknowledged the justice of the Ameri- 
can purchase and its lines'of demarkation. 



THE FUR SEALS OF PRIBYLOV ISLANDS. 131 

Our Government knows the value of the seal fish- 
eries; it knows the enormous revenues yielded by 
that one industry alone, which of itself makes Alaska 
a great and valuable acquisition to our country, and 
it will be strange, indeed, if a few thousand miles of 
distance between it and the seat of our National Gov- 
ernment will prevent proper authority from being 
supplied for the protection of our interests and pos- 
sessions as well as the few hundred inhabitants of 
those storm -swept, treasure islands. American rights 
in Bering Sea, or in any other part of our posses- 
sions in the great North and North-West will no doubt 
be well cared for in the near future. 

The inhabitants of these seal islands naturally gain 
their livelihood by the seal catching interests, there- 
fore their time is wholly unoccupied a greater part 
of the year, for the seals are gone entirely before the 
long, dreary, dark winter sets in. Thanks to the 
Alaska Commercial Company in its interest for their 
welfare and to rapid civilization, they have in 
a general way, more to occupy their time than 
their less favored progenitors could boast. The 
Aleuts approadli/ as near as possible in the matter of 
dress to our American costume and do not adhere to 
the Indian styles. They glory in kitchen utensils, kero- 
sene lamps, chairs, tables and even a collection of 
modern dishes. They arc fond of such food as is 



132 ALASKA. 

supplied them from our own stores, particularly rel- 
ishing sweetmeats. 

Many of them can read and write, numbers of the 
women sew beautifully, and with ordinary goods and 
fashion plates for guides they make fair progress to- 
ward being "in the fashion." The men may smile 
and jeer, but they only too cheerfully take to what- 
ever innovations appear among them. They are re- 
ligious beyond question, attending church faithfully 
and keeping the prescribed feasts and fast of their 
forefathers, which were first handed down to them in 
the teachings of the Russian Greek Church, whose 
sign (the Greek cross) meets you at almost every 
turn. 

The people are buoyant, kind and faithful. With 
proper protection from the encroachment of ene- 
mies, and with just remuneration for their work, 
the Government, or the firm employing them and of- 
fering proper protection, can pretty firmly depend 
upon their earnest co-operation in protecting the seal 
interests and fisheries on their own islands from all 
outside authorities. Unfortunately since the writing 
of this article pelagic sealing has reduced the num- 
ber of the seals and defied the power of those who 
would have protected them. 



CHAPTER XIX. 

The Real Far-West — The Aleutian Chain 
OF Islands. 

THE roaring, churning surf of Bering Sea 
would seem to spend most of its force 
upon the shores of the Pribylov Islands, 
so madly does it howl and scream in unison 
with the angry wind. Each element seems to rival 
the other in the contest of sound and strength, and 
from the force with which the wind hurls the spray 
of the foaming billows high and far across the dreary 
islands, it would seem to show its power over the 
waters. But with equal or even fiercer power the 
wind and waves rage along the great Aleutian chain 
as if determined to demolish the narrow barrier be- 
tween the ambitious sea and the wider, nobler ocean. 
Far to the south and west of the Seal Islands lies 
Attoo, or Attn, the very western limit of the Western 
Hemisphere, and the farthest point upon which our 
vast Republic can build a city. It was the first point 
reached by the Russians, who found the natives pros- 
perous and happy. The great reduction in the num- 
bers of the sea otter, upon which their w^ealth depended, 
has gradually reduced the people to poverty, and 
yet tlliey seem light-hearted, having sufficient food 
supplied to them by nature and being quite contented 

^33 



134 ALASKA. 

with the primitive homes and styles of dress pecuhar 
to their forefathers. And, in contrast to the more 
civiHzed be it spoken, their lives are purer, their com- 
plexions clearer, and their bodies far less subject to 
disease than those of the inhabitants of the mainland 
or those of islands nearer the coast. Such are the 
characteristics of all the natives of the chain who have 
not been intimately associated with unscrupulous 
traders, who, by introducing rum and debauchery 
among the simple Aleuts, have thus managed to 
effect more advantageous bargains in their dealings 
with them. 

The supply of otter skins having become exceed- 
ingly scarce, some of the islanders have found quite 
a source of revenue in the skin of blue foxes, the fur 
of which, when pure, is beautiful and valuable, though 
very far below the costliness of that of the otter. 

In Juneau I saw a fine pair of otter skins, ready 
for use, sell for five hundred dollars for the pair. 

Upon the comparatively small island of Attoo is 
the village of the same name, important because of its 
being tihe most western town in the territory con- 
trolled by the United States, being in a degree of 
longitude almost three thousand miles west of San 
Francisco, the Golden Gate of California, which is 
in turn almost equally distant from the longitude of 
Calais, on the eastern coast of Maine. It brings us, 
too, into close sisterhood with Russia, whose islands 



THE REAL FAR-WEST. 135 

are but two or three hundred miles away from our 
possessions, while the nearest inhabited isle on that 
side is Atkha, about four hundred miles distant, 
whose inhabitants are considered the finest sea otter 
hunters in the world. They make long trips to the 
haunts of the otter, that are upon the islands which 
form an intermediate line between their own island 
and isolated Attoo. Upon those rocky, desolate isles 
there are no human dwellers except those who visit 
them for the sole purpose of hunting- this sly animal. 
While on their expeditions, which onh' the hardiest 
dare undertake, they subsist upon such stray seals as 
they can capture, and upon the eggs and flesh of sea 
birds, which occupy by millions some of the sea coasts. 
Can anyone imagine the feeling of these hunters when 
the vessels land them upon the bleak islands and 
leave them for a time entirely alone and at the mercy 
of the elements? Or is it possible for ordinary 
mortals to realize with what satisfaction they arrive 
at the end of their hunting season, gather in the valu- 
able cargoes, and board the ships which have re- 
turned to bear them homeward? It must be remem- 
bered that nowhere is there greater love of home than 
among the natives of these wild, bleak islands of the 
Alaskan archipelago. In illustration of this there 
might be told many stories that would seem incred- 
ible of how some have been taken to beautiful, sunny 
lands, and given all that would make ordinary mortals 



136 ALASKA. 

happy; how they have pined unto death for their 
bleak, fog-enveloped, barren homes, their fish, seal 
and blubber. With this love for home is combined 
a pious veneration for ancestry and for the priesthood 
of the Church. The islands of this vast chain are 
composed mostly of volcanic matter, while some dis- 
play peak upon peak of cone-shaped, sullenly 
silent volcanoes. Others, such as Shishaldin, Bog- 
aslov, and the Island of Goreloi are nothing but im- 
mense frowning, silent volcanoes, the latter of which 
is eighteen miles in circumference. There they stand 
against the might of storm and sea, bearing great 
wreaths of mist upon their lofty foreheads, immovable, 
though forever beaten by the mighty sea whose foam 
and spray arrays them in garments as white as snow. 
In this very chain are greater islands clothed with 
beautiful but treacherous green, whose tempting love- 
liness yields to the pressure of the feet and proves 
to be a quivering pitfall. Many hot springs are found 
in Oonimak, Oonalashka and Oomnak, three of 
these larger islands. Oonalashka, on the island of 
that name, is a town by no means to be despised. It 
is the metropolis of the district, and every day it is 
becoming more like towns of the East. The styles 
of dress, modes of living and furnishing, even the ac- 
complishments, are becoming more and more com- 
mon among the inhabitants, until now it is rare tO' see 
either man or woman clothed in native garb. Music, 
particularly, is the Aleut's delight. Fancy amid the 



THE REAL FAR- WEST. 137 

roar of the sea, with the fitful dayhght caught through 
dense mists, hearing the strains of "Pinafore" or 
"Annie Laurie" floating upon the air. Only "Home, 
Sweet Home," would be necessary to make an East- 
ern heart swell almost to breaking, if its owner were 
compelled to remain there between two mighty seas 
upon a wind-swept isle. Space will not allow even 
the mention of the myriad of islands that compose the 
links of this wonderful chain. It is astonishing how 
they stand so firmly between the restless seas. But 
firmly they do stand, guarding the way to the vast 
peninsula, whose surface is crested by thousands of 
volcanic peaks and lofty snow-crowned mountains. 
Countless foxes and myriads of sea birds make the 
echoes ring with howls and screams and many a 
hardy hunter dares the dangers of the wildest coast in 
search of food and fur. 

Ofif from the shores of the peninsula lies the largest 
Island of the chain — Kodiak or Kadiak. It is the 
great centre, commercially and geographically, of 
this interesting part of Alaska. Here was the first 
great trading depot of the Russian Trading Company. 
Here was fought one of the greatest battles of the 
natives against the strong intruders, who thought of 
neither justice nor n.ercy, but whose whole object was 
enormous gains at whatever cost of bloodshed and 
robbery. Here the San Francisco Ice Company se- 
cured its stores of beautifully clear and solid ice which 



138 ALASKA. 

called forth the wonder and admiration of those who 
failed to find whence it came, no matter how persist- 
ently they plied their curious questions. On this 
island the first church and school were established by 
Shellikov, a Russian, who, with noble heart and 
sturdy purpose, fought for justice to a downtrodden 
and abused race. 

This Island, being the great trading centre between 
the peninsula, the adjacent islands and San Francisco, 
is and has been for years a rendezvous for fishing ves- 
sels as well as for fur traders and natives in their 
canoes. Its harbors are always bristling with masts, 
and it even boasts a shipyard. Here also is the 
only road fit for horses to travel, and consequently 
here can be seen the only horses in the x\leutian Is- 
lands, except at Douglas Island and other transporting 
or mining places. A few cows, too, are raised, and 
once sheep were brought, but their rearing was a fail- 
ure, either from the unpropitious climate or from the 
lack of knowledge of the herding business. 

At Kodiak the timber belt of Alaska is sharpl}^ de- 
fined. With one step you may leave the jungle of 
spruce forests, with interlacing of vine, moss and briar, 
and walk upon the flat, grassy tundra of the moor. 
From forest to heather almost at one step. There seems 
as a rule to be no encroachment of one upon the other, 
no straggling heather among the shadows of spruce, 
no single trees darkening the smooth face of the 
moor. 



THE REAL FAR-WEST. 139 

The general surface of the island is rugged and 
mountainous, with here and there valleys of lovely 
grass and blooming flowers. The soil invites cultiva- 
tion and produces pretty fair crops in some places, 
but there, as everywhere in this wonderful land, the 
season is scarcely long enough to secure luxuriant or 
first-class results. 

The waters, however, all around, abound in the 
most delicious food fish in the world. Salmon fairly 
swarms in its season, the rich, beautiful tint of whose 
flesh alone makes it marketable when canned. Cod, 
halibut and many other desirable varieties of fish are 
ready at any moment for net or spear, and the clear, 
swift-flowing streams, which bound toward the resist- 
less ocean, are as full of living beauty as their banks are 
of a lovely, luxuriant growth of green and gray, of 
grass, moss and lichen. 

To the north of the island is Cook's Inlet, and even 
yet the natives tell the story of the failure of the first 
foreigner who dared to land upon the shores. Fur- 
ther to the north flows the mightv Yukon River. 



CHAPTER XX. 

Yukon River, the Mighty Stream Nkaki.y Three 
Thousand Miles Long. 

IT is impossible to form an unbiased opinion of 
the beauty and grandeur of the Yukon , with its 
deltas and outlets, Alaska's great rival of the 
Mississippi, should one attempt an exploration from 
its principal mouth. There the immense tracts 
of oozy, slimy swamp lands all a-tangle with flag 
roots and long, wiry water weeds often present an 
impenetrable barrier to even the small crafts of the na- 
tives. A vessel losing its course into the channel at 
the main entrance could not well gain much headway 
toward the broad waters that rush into the wild, repul- 
sive waste, the home of mammoth mosquitoes, of sol- 
emn-eyed water birds, and damp, cheerless solitude. 
Loneliness becomes more unbearable, home seems 
far more distant, the possibilities of sad, unexpected 
changes almost certain if one lingers long amid such 
dreariness. The idea that a few miles further on 
there are mountains, glaciers, trees and flowers seems 
incredible, for this seems to be the beginning of 
interminable flatness, dampness and malarial swamps 
and shallows. But think of the hundreds of miles 
that these \ery waters travel. Tliink of the stories 
of hardships that they coijld tell. Of the songs they 
140 



THE YUKON RIVER. 141 

have sung as they rippled between tiny, moss-covered 
islets. Of how^ the waves have palpitated with the 
sturdy stroke of the steamer's paddles, and of how 
they have been dyed with the blood of moose and 
caribou. 

Further on there are trading posts of no small im- 
portance. St. Michaels, near its mouth, is at present 
the great centre of Yukon traffic, and it looks more 
like a town by the sea than an inland river's ad- 
junct. It is a busy mart in the midst of a vast, 
unexplored region of untold wealth. Timber! Mil- 
lions of feet of the finest and most imperishable 
grow on the mighty river's bank and along the bor- 
ders of its lakes and tributaries. Moss, an article 
whose qualities upholsterers have appreciated for a 
long time, grows in luxuriant abundance and of vel- 
vety softness, and wastes there by thousands of tons. 

Gold and silver, and other valuable minerals, hide 
themselves away in the shy earth's bosom, and so easy 
of access along the stream, that transportation, one 
of the bugbears of many a mining district, is rendered 
easy and rapid. The labor necessar\' for the reaping 
of the wonderful harvest is ready in the forms of the 
sturdy and industrious natives, who are willing to 
work faithfully if they are properly treated, and if their 
lives and homes are protected. The hostile natives 
usually live in the[ interior, °aw^ay' from the coast and 
river shores, and, as they are known, but little fear 



142 ALASKA. 

need be entertained by explorers, unless a reckless 
exploit be made among them. 

Often their curiosity so far overcomes their lios- 
tility that the exhibition of some civilized mode of ac- 
complishing- an object completely disarms them, and 
their desire to learn the use of an object overcomes 
an unlawful wish to possess it. Among the savages 
of the Yukon villages, as with nearly all Indians, firm- 
ness and kindness, combined withi an ail" of conscious 
power, manliness and fearlessness, goes very far to- 
ward winning friendliness. 

This vast river is so wide in many places as to be- 
come an inland sea, and it teems with wealth of various 
kinds. Small fur animals abound along its borders and 
the natives are adepts in obtaining the pelts or fvirs un- 
injured. The skins of bears and foxes attain full and 
beautiful perfection near its banks. Along the shores 
fair specimens of ivory are gathered, and if some sci- 
entists are not mistaken, great quantities may yet be 
taken, because the half-hidden carcasses of elephants 
are found abundant andf remarkably well preser^'ed. 
Moose are plenty, and are eagerly hunted, their flesh 
used as food, their hides as clothing, and their horns as 
handles for knives, for many of the carved hooks and 
pins used in fishing and hunting, and for other imple- 
ments. Water fowls are numberless, their eggs partic- 
ularly making an agreeable variety to a monotonous 
diet. And fish! Who can tell of the variety, richness 



THE YUKON RIVER 143 

and abundance of this staple of our great northwestern 
possessions. 

There the beautiful and delicious food fish swarm in 
myriads, but until recently have been unappreciated. 
The locating of canneries began a few years ago and 
they yield profit in man)' places. In fact these salmon 
seem to be of a better quality than the Columbia river 
fish and their canning interests now outrival the latter 
locality. They give employment to many natives 
whose natural aptitude for treating fish soon lead 
them to become first-class salmon catchers, dryers and 
packers, and the increase of the staple upon the market 
may with advantage to the consumer decrease the price 
a little, and yet it would by its increased sale make an 
immense profit for investors in the salmon-fishing in- 
terests. Other fish are found in abundance, too, the 
mention of the names of which would make an epi- 
cure long to be there. Valuable birds are also found. 
Many feather beds and downy pillows could be made 
from the breasts of the millions of water birds, whose 
abundance would not diminish for years, b}^ a large an- 
nual catch, from this slight thinning out of their num- 
ber. Thousands of eggs that now go to waste because 
there is not room in the breeding places to properly 
warm and care for them, could then be hatched. Gold 
is not scarce and is worth the labor of obtaining it. It 
is impossible to imagine the labor in this district 
to be much greater, except in winter, than that 



144 ALASKA. 

of the mountains and rocky regions in the interior 
of our continent. And even counting- the quantity, 
of much smaller value in proportion, there are those 
who may be found willing to get rich slowly, 
thankful if their project reached even a little under 
two and three hundred per cent. 

Apart from the teeming richness of this vast val- 
ley of the Yukon, its wonderful scenery during the 
summer is worth a painstaking journey to behold. 
For miles the river and its broad surface is dotted 
with fairy islands; time and again along its tortuous 
way the water swells out and forms lovely verdure 
skirted bays, whose ripples reflect exquisite shades of 
green from indented shoals, tender hues from shining 
skies, and indescribable tints from skimming clouds, 
while the dainty, beautiful fish, that rise to the sur- 
face in schools, in many places, help to make pictures 
never to be forgotten. Through vistas, here and 
there, glimpses of great glacier fields may be had, and 
the mountain chains grow to huge proportions and 
then recede towards the water, in slopes, gentle 
as southern vales and robed in softest waving grass. 
Here the daring glacier flood creeps into the flowing 
river, there it plunges fiercely, troubling tlhe waters 
far and near, and again the bold mountains raise their 
shoulders against the chilling torrent, and compel 
the turbulent floods to calm themselves into quiet, rip- 
pling streams before they enter the Yukon current. 



THE YUKOA RIVER. 145 

Herds of moose and deer come down to slake their 
thirst, and many a sportsman's heart would swell 
with anticipation if he could see the huge, 
antlered heads that bend towards the river when they 
come to drink at evening. So, too, the whirr of 
grouse, and the call of wild ducks would tempt his 
feet to follow. But enough! Should you spend your 
summer in Alaska, and then return to your native 
fields and pastures, it will be with pleasant remem- 
brances of the grandeur, magnificence and beauty in- 
delibly stamped upon your memory. 



CHAPTER XXI. 

The New Metlakahtla Mission and Settlement 
ON Annette Island. 

STORIES have been written whose fictitious 
extravagance has been severely censured, 
which, if placed in contrast with the true history 
of this missioii town, would pale into^ ordinary insig- 
nificance. 

In comparison with most mission establishments, 
Metlakahtla stands to-day a dual monument to one 
man's most indomitable and wonderful courage 
and strength of will for good, and to another's 
undue influence for discord. William Duncan, out- 
wardly an ordinary layman, but inwardly one of 
religion's most faithful members, impelled by a true 
love for mission work, visited the shores of British 
Columbia and found a vicious, wicked class of sav- 
ages, with that most horrible propensity, cannibalism. 

His heart longed to bring these fellow creatures 
out of such darkness, and he conceived the idea of 
becoming a missionary, and one such as the world 
has seldom seen. He studied the language of the 
natives, brought himself to^ understand their manners 
and customs, and by permitting them to retain, to a 
certain extent, their own mode of living for a time, 
he won their confidence. Through many tribula- 
146 



THE NEW METLAKAHTLA MISSION. 147 

tions, threats of death, destruction of his plans, trials 
sufficient to make a strong heart fail, sickness and 
anxiety, he persevered until a Christian settlement, 
worthy of the name of a town, even in this part of 
the world, arose in this distant region of the great 
Northwest. Church, school, store, cannery, carpen- 
ter and blacksmith shops and other places of industry 
arose before his steady and persevering training. 
The fearful practices of the fathers were scarcely 
heard of by the children, who, after becoming Chris- 
tianized and civilized, had no inclination to return to 
them. All prospered in spite of the evil influences of 
sister tribes and unscrupulous traders, who again 
and again introduced whiskey into the settlement, 
which for a time tempted many with its fiery fascina- 
tion. Mr. Duncan made a set of laws to which he 
required all his followers to adhere, and dealt the pre- 
scribed punishment if these laws were broken. What 
wonder that he was looked upon as a father by those 
whom he had raised to such a height of civilization. 

Homes sprang up and families learned to live with 
the sanctity and privacy that the native Alaskan lacks 
most sadly. After a time Mr. Duncan raised from his 
own shoulders a part of the great burden by appointing 
native officials to carry out the laws. He taught 
them not only the laws of God, but those of man, aid- 
ing them not only to become Christians but citizens 
of their common country; and Metlakahtla was the 



148 ALASKA. 

synonym of perfect missionary work, a town well 
worthy of emulation. Then when the patient work- 
man had toiled in the vineyard until he might well 
expect to rest a little and enjoy the fruits of many 
honest years of labor, it was discovered by the govern- 
ment that Mr. Duncan had been working without 
credentials. 

He had been doing a minister's work without the 
sign manual (and with a mere modicum of its pay). 
He had encroached upon Established Church rights 
of the lands of their fathers as if it were their own. 
He had allowed native-born men to occupy a portion 
and there must be restitution. The happy town be- 
came convulsed when Mr. Duncan failed, after faith- 
fully trying to set things right with the legal officials 
and the outraged Episcopal bishops, who were shocked 
at the layman's audacity and sent a properly ordained 
minister to the spot. The converted Indians as a 
body did not come into the newly established church. 
A few, however, did unite therewith, but discord was 
set up by this act of the Church. Mr. Duncan left the 
town and all his loving followers, thinking by his 
absence to increase their chances for renewed peace 
and happiness. 

But a cry went up from the hearts of a confiding 
people, who loved their leader and the God whom 
they worshipped in the simple way taught by him, 
and he at last returned to them weary and disap- 



7 HE NEW METLAkAHTLA MISSION. 149 

pointed. Eventually, after years of contention and 
injudicious criticism by Church authorities, these peo- 
ple and their instructor and leader bethought them- 
selves of a free land, where they could worship as they 
willed. They knew Annette Island, in Alaskan waters, 
only 90 miles away, but beyond the jurisdiction and 
control of their new ecclesiastical rulers, and they 
deputed Mr. Duncan to apply to the proper authori- 
ties for permission to settle in Alaska unrler the 
United States Government. It was granted, and can 
any one imagine the feelings of those dark-skinned 
Christians when they found they could settle and 
be unmolested in another country, even if they had to 
work and erect new houses and dedicate new homes 
for themselves and their families. 

We saw the pioneers bid farewell to their joy- 
ous old homestead, forsaking their wealth, real 
estate and beautiful little town entirely. With 
their personal belongings, their wives and children, 
neatly arranged in long canoes, they started on a 
dreary voyage of ninety miles across a trackless 
waste of water, weary in heart, but determined 
and dauntless in spirit. About a dozen large canoes 
thus freighted pulled off from the shore and pad- 
dled away to the northward, and deep was our 
interest in them as their frail barks appeared smaller 
and smaller until they were lost to view. Several 
hundred more soon packed up and went to Annette, 



1 50 ALASJ^A, 

still led by their beloved guide, and thus departed 
about one thousand out of the original twelve hun- 
dred converts. Now the island, which has been re- 
named New Metlakahtla, bids fair to rival old 
Metlakahtla in its swift progress toward a thriving in- 
dustrial and Christian American settlement. 

A few Indians still remain, carrying on a little trad- 
ing and business, and a few still attend the new Prot- 
estant Episcopal Church erected there, but, generally 
speaking, the town is quite dead. There is now no 
busy hum in the shops, and the well-built wooden 
houses are settling into decay. The homes that Dun- 
can labored so hard to perfect bid fair to fade away 
unless some tribe can be induced to alter their wild 
mode of living and follow in the footsteps of the Chris- 
tianized natives of the place. 

Too late, bishop and ofificials saw what they had 
done and what they would now fain undo. They 
would willingly bring back the town's inhabit- 
ants. They would like to see it again in its remark- 
able beauty. They would aid in its industries and 
would even be willing to treat the natives as if 
they were men and citizens, but it was too late. Met- 
lakahtla must be renewed entirely. Other hands 
must be trained, other ministers appointed, and it all 
must be done quickly, or the place might fall as Tongas 
did, leaving only the name and a few dilapidated 
houses to tell of its past prosperity. 



THE NEW METLAKAHTLA MISSION. 151 

In the meantime the emigrants, with their aged but 
dearly loved leader at their head, quickly and thrift- 
ily built the new Metlakahtla to rival the old. The 
United States became possessed of almost a thousand 
good citizens. Should Senator Piatt's plan of emigrat- 
ing the hardy Icelanders to Alaska become a success, 
our new Alaskan possessions will be the gainer and 
much improved thereby. 

Will not our Government soon make laws that will 
protect them and the people in all other parts of this 
great and wonderful territory, so that the inhabitants 
may find the peace, prosperity and perfect protection 
which they covet and deserve? 

Leaving Metlakahtla, we board the steamer once 
more. The scenery upon which we gazed so 
rapturously before, awakens new enthusiasm as 
we approach from the opposite direction. Capes 
and promontories jut out more daringly, or 
seem to have stepped backward since we left them 
behind a short time ago. Verdure clad hills and snow- 
capped peaks gleam gloriously in the sunshine that 
holds sway most royally after its long, misty hohday. 
As we reach the southern shore of Vancouver Island 
the ship's engine ceases to pulsate, the vessel floats 
gently and now listlessly, and we hear only the soft 
splash of the water against the sides, and its gentle 
swish against the shores. 

Victoria, in British Columbia, looms upon our 



152 ALASKA. 

6iraining eyes. Landing at Ksquimault, the rendez- 
vous of the Enghsh Pacific squadron, a carriage drive 
brings us to this enterprising and flourishing city, 
truly Enghsh in its construction, its business methods 
and customs. To us now the shores of our great Re- 
pubHc are home, and we take steamer here for San 
Francisco. From Puget Sound out through the Strait 
of San Juan de Fuca into the broad Pacific Ocean, a 
two days' voyage steams us through the "Golden Gate" 
into the spacious and magnificent Bay of San Fran- 
cisco. 

We pass its portals joyfully, but subsequently pass 
out on a trip to all the towns and cities along the 
coast to the Mexican border. Then homeward 
bound, returning from San Diego, California, to Ta- 
coma, in Washington Territory by rail, we cross the 
Cascade Mountains, forever carrying the remembrance 
of one of the grandest excursions we ever made, and 
imprinting on our memory the most wonderful scenery, 
fully equalling our views of the Alps or Sierras, and en- 
joying climates varying from tropical luxury to frigid 
barrenness. 



CHAPTER XXII. 

The Bering Sea Controversy — Its Principal Points. 

BERING sea, with its valuable occupants, lias 
been causing considerable controversy for some 
years past; but we can never see why the seals 
of the Pribylov Islands should be considered public 
property. 

While Russia owned Russian America, Bering Sea 
was held as part of the province, and by right of pos- 
session all that pertained to this province was owned 
by that Government. Therefore, when the United 
States obtained the territory it was natural to sup- 
pose that all that was included therein belonged to 
her Government. Notwithstanding this, not only 
sealers from another nation but even some of our 
own people have been carrying on wholesale poach- 
ing; and they commenced with such indiscriminate 
slaughter (as though they were trying to grasp the 
greatest number possible before being caught) that 
if allowed to continue, the extermination of the 
animals would be but a matter of very short time. 

The word "extermination" seems to strike absurdly 
on some ears when we know that the seals are, or have 
been, counted by the millions, but it must be remem- 
bered that the mother seal gives birth to but one pup 

153 



154 ALASKA. 

in the season, and that the season comes but once a 
year. If the mother is killed even after the pup is 
born it costs the life of both, for according to Professor 
Elliott, no female seal will care for any but her own 
little one, and it would be impossible for it to live with- 
out nourishment. It is well known, too, that a certain 
percentage of young die, or are killed by their 
awkward companions; therefore, if there is unlimited 
seizures of them without regard to set times, the pro- 
portion to those destroyed cannot but exceed the 
yearly addition to their number. 

It is said there is a strange perversity in fate, and 
so it threatens to prove with regard to this fur. We 
are all cognizant of the fact that the preparation of 
the skins for the markets is almost a monopoly with 
the I-ondon companies. We know that "London 
dye" is the "open sesame" to the purses of those who 
know a valuable article. And yet it does not seem 
to enter into the consideration of Great Britain that 
by a cruel destruction of the seal, one of her secure 
sources of revenue will be completely cut off. That 
nearly all of the skins taken are shipped to I^ondon for 
dyeing and otherwise preparing them for market, 
should be enough to make her people willing to let 
their peaceful sister country alone in her rights. 

The poachers do not seem to think that it is only 
for the present that they can hope to make a great 
profit out of their undertaking. When the dealers who 



THE BERING SEA CONTROVERSY. 155 

obtain their goods have found that the very old seals, 
the young and the mother seals who have not been de- 
livered of their young, or animals who have been in- 
jured in fighting or by accident, will not furnish good 
furs, and when they unpack their casks and find the 
skins mutilated by spear or bullet, there will be another 
cry; or there will be a lot of imperfect, patched up 
goods sent out that will cheapen the article; and by 
and by fashion, stubborn as it has always been about 
the beautiful fur, will turn away disgusted with the 
world-wide favorite and resort to some other article as 
a standard of beauty and elegance. It is plainly ap- 
parent that through these two causes, the many im- 
perfect skins and the unsystematic slaughter of the 
seals, without regard to their condition, will chase 
the furs from the markets of fashion and the beautiful 
creatures from, their favorite island homes. By these 
means England will ultimately lose far more than she 
will gain, and human beings in Alaska who depend 
solely upon the seals for sustenance will be left in a 
sad condition indeed. 

Some of our leaders in politics speak of "retalia- 
tion." That is too minOr a word to enter into such a 
controversy. It is not honorable among individuals — 
how can it be between nations? Besides, "retalia- 
tion" may have a meaning or two that does not seem 
to enter into the consideration of those who mention 
it as a possible outcome of this difference. One 



1 56 ALASJCA. 

who undertakes to speak for a nation should be as 
careful to think twice before he speaks as if the mat- 
ter was one of personal and vital importance to him- 
self. In this case "retaliation" may become "revenge," 
and that is too primitive a mode of procedure to have 
any consideration between two Christian nations upon 
such a subject. 

The United States has always reversed the old pro- 
verb that "right" was "might," and not that "might" 
was "right," and in this case she is not likely 
to alter her creed. When our own vessels 
were caught poaching they were summarily pun- 
ished. Of those other poachers we hear reports 
that do not point to equal justice upon the part of 
their Government. In "right" justice is generally 
supposed to take a prominent part. 

Others say "arbitration." And what need is there 
for arbitration, when a country is only trying to pro- 
tect its rights upon its own possessions? The posses- 
sions into which it came through honorable negotia- 
lion, peacefully made with another Government; a 
negotiation, by the way, upon which England smiled, 
and thought the Republic was making a youthful mis- 
take, and paying dearly for its bargain. But for all 
that, she has fought the boundary on one side, and 
now on the other. If Canada is so dependent upon 
that region, why did not her Government secure it 
for her as ours did for us — buy it? We believe 



THE BERING SEA CONTROVERSY. 157 

had she this charter of cession to display, she would be 
more ready to demand that her province should be left 
unmolested than the United States is to require equal 
respect to her possession of the Territory. 

But here is a question that has not been advanced 
strongly, if at all — why do we not, through the Rus- 
sian Minister, ask the present "Emperor of all the 
Russias ' ' to show how far into Bering Sea the boun- 
daries of the province extended while his Government 
was left in undisputed possession for ages? 

If this question was duly propounded to the Rus- 
sian Government, we have no doubt that an answer 
would be forthcoming in a very short time, and that 
answer should surely end all dispute. At the same 
time, if it happens that Russia had failed to make 
a vitally important dividing line it can scarcely cause 
much wonder, when we remember that the little sea 
was for centuries allowed a very humble position in 
the world's importance. In fact, if the Republic had 
only let Alaska stand, and had shown no great inter- 
est in it, its people or its products, the sea would have 
remained a mere vacant space upon the maps, and 
the land would still be regarded as a cold, barren, 
heathen ridden province of very little importance 
whatever. 

It is to Russia's interest that there should be a full 
understanding before all nations as well as to our 
own. For if this promiscuous poaching is allowed 



158 ALASKA. 

to continue, when the seals have been exterminated 
from the Pribylov Islands, their successful slay- 
ers will follow them to the Russian side, and 
then many years cannot pass before the seals are 
either destroyed or driven from the sea which has 
been their home so long. Where they will go no 
one can determine. Natural instinct will lead them 
to seek safer quarters, and their going may then be 
as mysterious as their coming has always been. 

Of course, the revenue from the seal fisheries is a 
matter of moment to the exchequer of the Republic, 
but their destruction would cause little more loss to 
it than to England and Russia, while, at the same 
time, the other recources of Alaska are developing so 
that American energy could soon make them counter- 
balance the deficiency. 

With this comparatively young nation, possessing 
strong men with indomitable wills and unlimited cour- 
age and energy, learned scientists to direct their pow- 
ers, and untold wealth waiting to be taken from the 
earth in all directions, it will not be long until this dis- 
pute will become a thing of the past. But in- right and 
justice the boundaries ought to be settled once for all, 
and thus prevent forever after such undignified wrang- 
ling. Poaching is no more legal on water than on 
land, and if the seals are ours they have a right to 
be secured in safety, and legal sealers should be made 
to feel secure in their calling. 



THE BERING SEA CONTROVERSY. 159 

It seems that sometimes the nations looking- on 
mistake the calm indifference of our Government for 
either weakness or cowardice. Past history hardly 
supports that theory. We, as a nation, know that it 
is perfect self-confidence that rests so quietly while 
others get into a state of excitement, as if they feared 
the downfall of the Union on account of this "bone 
of contention." We have made more rapid strides 
toward perfect independence than any other nation 
in the world ever did, and we do not doubt that when 
we know we are right we will as triumphantly go 
ahead in this dispute as we have done in others. 

Let us look at the affair in a statesmanlike and in- 
ternational manner. There is already a triple alliance 
in Europe and an alliance between France and Rus- 
sia. We contend that there slhould be an alliance be- 
tween Russia, Japan, China and the United States, 
as to Pacific Ocean international rights. Russia, 
as we have shown, having equal interests over the sea 
and its seals with Japan, who also owns seal islands, 
and our Republic, all should join to protect their rights 
and property from other nations, and should jointly re- 
sist all marauders of whatsoever nationality. 



CHAPTER XXIII. 

Our Alaskan Interests. 

THE opinion of a great number of the most in- 
telligent and patriotic citizens, of this and other 
countries, is that consistent, extensive and well 
developed preparations for war are very powerful ele- 
ments toward securing and maintaining peace. In 
other words, if a nation takes every precaution for the 
protection of her rights she will be more liable to retain 
them intact without difficulty. But there are cases 
in which certain operations are made to present a 
peculiar aspect and cause questions to arise which 
should receive immediate attention. One of these 
interrogations should pertain to England's intention 
in fortifying the Yukon River, near Alaska, and other 
places along her boundary claim in a substantial 
manner. But the gold fever, owing to the discovery of 
gold in such a large abundance in Upper Yukon, will 
attract such a large population to this region that the 
United States Government to protect the rights of her 
people there, will now have to fortify and protect our 
side of the line. 

In the first place it must always be remembered 
that Great Britain does not resort to such plans with- 
out some well digested object, and combining these 
1 60 




o 
< 

u 
o 

< 



OUR ALASKAN INTERESTS. i6i 

fortifications with the boundary Hne dispute, it would 
be very unwise to allow her action to pass unnoticed. 
Were there garrisoned strongholds opposite, on the 
side of the United States possessions, we could then 
account, to a certain extent, for those warlike prepara- 
tions; but as matters now stand we can look upon 
them as but little less than a menace to the govern- 
ment of the Territory, and through it to the United 
States. 

Entirely at amity with all nations, the United States 
Government, very unwisely, permitted Forts Tongas 
and Wrangel to fall into decay, thus withdrawing 
protection entirely from the coast, except at Sitka. 
This, too, was allowed to become a thoroughly inert 
little town, which now would very much prefer the 
presence of the active military life of a garrison, 
though it might never fire a gun. The consequence 
is that the rapidly developing interests of the mining 
districts of the Yukon, Copper, Forty Mile and other 
streams, added to the richness of the mines of Doug- 
las Islands and the mountains back of the busy city 
of Juneau, have opened the eyes of England to the 
value of our Territory and their own. Therefore that 
boundary line, which has remained unchanged for 
thirty years, and quietly in the possession of the pur- 
chaser of the district once called Russian America, 
and as it did for a very much longer time before the 
transaction, becomes a matter of doubt to the En- 



i62 .i/..i:a:i. 

glish mind. Not to iiiind.s of either Russia or America, 
however. Acknowledging the idea as plausible that 
her demar.ds upon the eastern frontier of Alaska, are 
simply to secure a passageway from British Columbia 
on the continent, to the Pacific, in this northern region 
near the mouth of the great Alaskan river, so as to ex- 
tend her commercial facilities through Canada, it is 
not possible that any one will suppose that this nation 
will sacrifice one ell of her property for the sake of 
another's aggrandizement. 

We may suppose that if the United States Govern- 
ment should form an alliance with any other nation, 
it would preferably do so with Russia, whose interests 
in the gold belt of Siberia and in the north Pacific 
are co-existent wdth her own, particularly as the com- 
pletion of the Siberian Railway will one day enhance 
the commercial capacities of both countries utterly 
beyond the present powers of calculation, because of 
the advancement of civilization among Eastern na- 
tions. When that great gateway, from the empire of 
the Czar to the Republic of the United States, is 
opened, as it surely will be, there is not a single doubt 
but that the strained relations between all of the most 
deeply interested countries will be swept away. China 
will come to the realization of the only real difficulty 
which exists between herself and Christian nations, 
and we do not doubt that a more perfect peace and 
friendliness will exist between herself and our Repub- 
lic than has ever been known heretofore. 



OUR ALASKAN INTERESTS. 163 

Now that England has taken the initiative, would it 
not be well to thoroughly and efficiently fortify the 
old forts which Russia deemed advisable to establish, 
and to build more according- to the vastly increasing 
valuation of Alaska? It must be a very lukewarm 
citizen who will doubt the true boundary established 
by Russia upon the discovery of the land so long 
bearing the name of Russian America, and he would 
be unjustifiably weak who would allow any portion 
of so important a country to fall from our hands. 
If England requires an Esquimault to maintain 
and preserve her Canadian territory, neither she 
nor any other Power can object to the United States 
building and garrisoning forts, thus giving an 
equal protection to her citizens and property. 
Eor the time only the more aggressive interests of the 
Powers of the earth are showing the importance of that 
great Siberian enterprise; but we have a hope that 
some day, and probably very soon, the shining rails 
will beckon across from the border city of Kamt- 
schatka to the unborn city on the most western point 
of Alaska which rests on the Bering Strait, 
when the present young Czar of the Russias will 
announce the Russian side of the boundary line ques- 
tion, from which decision there can be no possi- 
ble argument admissible. It is well for patriots to 
announce their willingness to fight against aggression, 
but we can see no cause whatever that we should re- 
sort to arms. 



i64 ALASKA. 

More impossible is it that our government should 
consider for an instant the advisability of resorting 
to contention. There is a reasonable, just and al- 
together honorable and feasible way out of the whole 
difficulty, a way so simple that every one seems to 
have looked beyond it for something more formidable. 
It is, to appoint the proper authorities to wait upon the 
Russian Government and request a concise statement 
of the amount of land embraced in its transaction with 
our government. The preposterous idea of suppos- 
ing that Russia, or any other nation, would run a 
boundary line of such importance through a line of 
irregularly defined islands is not to be entertained 
under any condition, but before adopting any strenu- 
ous measures against aggression, let us take the wiser 
plan proposed above. No one, either nation or in- 
dividual, can adjudge this cowardice in a country who 
has more than once supported its grand prerogative 
against bitter and almost invincible antagonism. 



CHAPTER XXIV. 

Our Alaskan Property. 

THE probability of the public in general 
becoming weary of the often-broached subject 
of the United States boundary in Alaska should 
not deter intelligent discussion of the question until 
it is finally and irrevokably settled. 

The development of the natural mineral resources 
of the Territory is still in its infancy, and it must be 
acknowledged that the promise of its prospective 
wealth has been accepted in a very undemonstrative 
manner, beside w^hich the enthusiasm, which the dis- 
coveries of gold, silver, copper and other mineral de- 
posits in California, Colorado, Montana and other lo- 
calities aroused, once made a very conspicuous con- 
trast, until the present Klondyke boom manifested 
itself. 

Very limited acquaintance with the climate and 
with the characteristics of the natives is principally 
accountable for this, and the Government must bear 
the reproach of a prolonged neglect, which very de- 
cidedly aided in establishing this apathetic ignorance. 
At the same time, if those wealthier states had not 
displayed their treasures, there can be but little doubt 
that the discovery of rich mineral areas in Alaska 

165 



i66 ALASKA. 

would have been received with wild exultation, and that 
miners would have flocked to its promisint;- localities, 
even at the risk of native opposition and Arctic cli- 
mate. Looking back upon the history of those days, 
when the "gold fever" prevailed in California, we 
question if even in the wilds of Alaska there could 
have been greater disappointment, suffering and de- 
spair than were experienced in those times. 

Now arises a peculiar complication, which, having 
brought the Territory into prominence, must give it 
a status in the future. 

The Russian Trans-Continental Railroad turns at- 
tention in that direction, possibly giving its affairs a 
momentum which it might not have attained for an- 
other decade or two. And we must deplore the 
failure of the proposed telegraphic communication 
with Russia across Bering Sea, which should have 
been established if the true American spirit, which 
determines to persevere and conquer all difficulties, 
had undertaken the enterprise. We doubt if its con- 
summation would have been much more arduous than 
the construction of communication by rail and tele- 
graph across this great Continent, with the vast bul- 
warks of the Rocky Mountains held defiantly between 
the East and West. 

Why should the United States not have independ- 
ent intercourse with the great Powers of the Orient 
instead of submitting to news at second hand? Why 



OUR ALASKAN PROPERTY. 167 

should she not have a railroad traversing her territo- 
rial possessions, and eventually connecting, the two 
vast countries by ferry across Bering Strait, as we 
suggested years ago? It is true that thirty or forty 
miles or so of ferry sounds rather formidable in con- 
trast with the bustling transit across the Delaware, 
the Hudson, or the East River; but thus far semi- 
annual mail and freights have been the full extent 
of intercourse between a great part of northern and 
northwestern Alaska and the outside world. If, then, 
the communication through the railroad should in- 
crease this to many hundreds of times a year, it must 
lead to a better understandmg between Alaska and its 
companion States and Territories. 

The Government has not purposely intended to 
ignore Alaska, but a strange admixture of circum- 
stances has diverted the proper legislation for these 
peculiar people to matters of more apparent impor- 
tance. Besides, to a considerable extent, the resident 
officials heretofore have been somewhat meagre in 
their reports. Now the liquor traffic, which has 
been allowed in that prohibition Territory to pass 
without due attention, has been taken up by new 
officers, w^ho are unwilling to be blinded to its evil 
influence upon the natives, among whom its fatal 
enticements have been making serious havoc. It 
seems that it must be acknowledged that gold 
has been the watchword that has attracted the fore- 



1 68 ALASKA. 

most Powers of two Continents toward the weird 
northwest, and both have been thoroughly awakened, 
the one to endeavor to gain possession of a goodly 
part of the rich mining region, the other to ascertain 
at this late day that, if she desires to hold unmolested 
her purchase property, there must be some means 
of protection provided. We see now how absurd it 
has been to permit the mines on the Yukon River 
and Forty Mile Creek to remain entirely without legal 
jurisdiction, to permit the miners to be so entirely iso- 
lated that they actually have resided in Canada while 
working in the United States, because they have had no 
American home near the mines, except at Circle City. 
So we have blindly left both mines and men under the 
colonial protectorate of a foreign Power. We are 
led to see a slight excuse for England's being tempted 
to take property in which no one except a few miners 
seem to have taken much interest. The eastern, 
western and middle centres of our population should 
awaken to the needs of Alaska. 

Money seems to be the hinge upon which this, 
as well as other matters of importance, appear to rest. 
Yet the Treasury^ refuses the output, and even the 
desire for improvement in some quarters stagnates, 
but let appropriations now be made and honest men 
set to work, and quickly we will have ready, war ves- 
sels, fortifications and men for this object. 

A comparatively reasonable appropriation for the 



OUR ALASKAN PROPERTY. 169 

benefit of Alaska would meet with ready returns, for 
the natives, who are far more intelligent than one 
would suppose, would join very heartily in securing 
prosperity for themselves and their adopted kinsmen. 

With all the disadvantages under which the Terri- 
tory has suffered, there is a chord in the hearts of 
hundreds of Christianized Alaskans which vibrates to 
the toudh of kindness from the hands of the Govern- 
ment at Washington. The progress of education, 
which is nearly all carried on through various de- 
nominational missions, is wonderful w^hen the length 
of time, the lack of money and the isolation from the 
proper protection is considered. And the time has 
already come wdien natives and Ihalf-breeds alike are 
praying for closer recognition and a nearer tie to 
the country of which they are, or should be, citizens. 

Thus we find humanity, commerce and Territory 
demand recognition and speedy and vigorous legisla- 
tion. 

There should be no legal question about the bound- 
ary lines which were accepted by every nation on the 
globe, if not by treaty or public acknowledgment, 
then by silent acquiescence, wlhich, having remained 
uninterrupted for more than a quarter of a century, 
must hold good to-day. All that is actually needed is 
for the United States to pronounce with judicial 
dignity that "These lines are the limit of our legal 
possessions. No power should be permitted to step 



xyo .IL.ISk'A. 

across to claim an iota." W^e should provide dwell- 
ing places for men and families, until they can provide 
them for themselves. There should be laid out town 
sites, however small. L^orts should be erected, and 
manned with efficient and entirely trustworth}'' officers, 
and men. There is, as justly should be, forbidden the 
traffic, in any manner, of whiskey or any other in- 
toxicant, and of personal concealed deadly weap- 
ons. Let those who are born citizens and those who 
may become suclhi, feel and know that the arm of a 
just and powerful government is stretched out to suc- 
cor and protect all, both dark and white, and it is 
demonstrated more decidedly every year that Alaska 
will soon become far from the least valuable part of 
the United States. Remember, while legislating for 
armed cruisers, warships, protected commerce car- 
riers and torpedo boats that the Pacific coast needs 
their presence as well as the Atlantic. 

At this time particularly the United States needs, 
and should have, constant and uninterrupted commu- 
nication witih Russia, China and Japan without the 
mtervention of any other Power whatever, no matter 
how friendly. Not so much that the Republic desires 
to have controlling power, as that her communica- 
tions with those governments should be truthfully 
obtained at first hand, and not to be misunder- 
stood, with no chance whatever for unintelligible 
or doubtful interpretation based upon unreliable news 



OUR ALASKAN PROPERTY. 171 

fabrications as at present. Russia and the United 
States have always been friendly, and to hold that 
condition intact they should have no go-between of 
any description, telegraphic or otherwise, because a 
slight misinterpretation might be the nucleus which 
enemies of either nation could cause to grow into a 
portentous cloud, and probably generate unkindly feel- 
ings and serious results. 



CHAPTER XXV. 

Curb the War Spirit. 

As the sea [is agitated b}^ a coming storm, so, for 

/~\ months, have the great Powers of the earth Ijeen 

fermented with threatening war clouds, but in 

our opinion, the universaHty of brooding disaster will 

prevent much actual contention and bloodshed. 

As individuals, the citizens of the United States 
must naturally sympathize with the people whose ob- 
ject of warfare is independence from unjust oppres- 
sion. As free men, our hearts go forth in hearty good 
will to those who desire liberty. But at the same 
time one would do well to ponder carefully before 
giving expression to language which could be inter- 
preted to lead to universal commotion. 

Thus far the United States is not so deeply involved 
in international difficulties as to require the adop- 
tion of any policy having war as its ultimatum; and 
her own boundary question is as yet very much in- 
side the pale in which peace holds her divine preroga- 
tive. It is therefore enthusiastic folly for the public 
to begin agitating the liabilities of armed contention, 
at least until matters have developed a more distinct 
embodiment. The very knowledge of the freedom 
of speech that is enjoyed by the press, as well as by 
172 



CURB THE WAR SPIRIT. 173 

citizens, should lead each one to use that right in a 
judicious manner. Some most deplorable disputa- 
tions have been caused by rash utterances, as tides 
of calamity have swept numbers of human beings 
to terrible and sudden death tlhrough one incautious 
cry of fire. Therefore, patience, caution and fore- 
thought should certainly guide the speech of all men, 
particularly during any contentious times. 

The policy of all citizens, as much as the Govern- 
ment of our Republic itself, should be that of an hon- 
est, earnest and peaceable commimity, watching with 
unimpassioned intellect and unbiased mental vision, 
for the outcome of any political or international com- 
motion — waiting to allow all other nations an unin- 
terrupted opportunity to settle misunderstandings or 
disagreements without unrequired interference. 

The age of conquests for territory, or great usurpa- 
tion for aggrandizement, has passed away long ago, and 
all good governments, who are true to honest princi- 
ples, will hold themselves ready to interfere only when 
the greater Powers are unjustly overpowering the 
weaker, and when conquerors ill treat those already 
down-trodden by superior numbers. 

The claims of each and every nation, whether the 
proud dynasty of centuries or the struggling embryo 
of a future Republic, should receive due respect, and 
their justice be wisely supported by those Powers who 
can give them full and entirely disinterested consid- 



174 A/..lSk\L 

eration. Every claim should be wcii^lied in a riii^id 
balance of right, with neither high-handed monopoly 
nor petty selfishness within touching distance of 
the delicate scales of Justice. 

Long past, too, is the time when one nation may 
stand alert to fall upon another, when it is so engaged 
elsewhere as to be unable to cope with additional ene- 
mies. Only just warfare and honorable accumulation 
of territory can be countenanced in this age of en- 
lightenment. A nation, however ancient its lineage, 
or however superior its station, must fall very far be- 
neath the limit of true greatness, that will seek to 
crush or destroy another nation or to monopolize 
any of its property. 

The number of devices by which countries may 
attain honorable prominence must make the inhuman 
one of warfare for either w^ealth or wider boundary 
fall into desuetude among any but the less civilized 
Powers of the earth in a very short time, if, indeed, 
we may not hope that even now such a golden era 
is approaching. 

That there will not be wars and bloodshed in the 
future it would be intensely optimistic to hope, nor 
do we question the justice and legality of systematic 
preparation for battle, and good, hard, patriotic fight- 
ing for country and principles when they are assailed ; 
but we do not believe in lying in wait for an oppor- 
tunity to display pugnacious tendencies. 



CURn THE WAR SfURll. 175 

We believe, while human nature retains its emi- 
nence over the earth and sea, that there w^ill be oppres- 
sion, injustice, aggression, greed and cruelty. We 
believe nation will rise against nation, and that there 
will be battle, victory and defeat. But we feel that 
the United States should never interfere in any com- 
motion until the golden laws of right and justice re- 
quire her aid. And we are convinced that while pro- 
viding for every emergency in a numerous and per- 
fectly equipped navy, and in a series of fortifications 
that will protect her vast territory upon every side, she 
should calmly hold herself aloof from all contention 
until necessity requires action. 

In conscious strength, in unassailable honor, in 
gracious dignity, let our noble Republic stand forever 
with the words of her immortal Washington as the 
quenchless beacon guiding to continued and uninter- 
rupted peace and prosperity. 



CHAPTER XXVI. 

Ol'r Gkicat Northwestkrn Territory anu its 
Natural Resocrces. 

BY slow degrees the value of the Territory 
of Alaska has been presenting itself for consid- 
eration, not, only abroad, but to the Govern- 
ment of the United States, and more significant still, 
the Territory is now waking up to its own importance. 
In Governor Sheakley's reports we have read very 
reasonable statements of the progress of business, of 
education, of mission work and of the increasing 
power of the few laws which have been thus far 
adopted for the government of the strangely incon- 
gruous mixture comprising the population. The ap- 
propriations for which we asked in the year 1896 are so 
modest that the only danger seems to be that they may 
always be thought too unimportant to be considered 
among the greater demands which present supporters 
are able to advance. The Government does not seek 
to "boom" any part of the country, doubtless feeling 
confident that the time is not far off that will see it 
take a place in this hemisphere, as Norway, Sweden, 
Finland and even Siberia have ages ago asserted for 
themselves in Europe. 

Russia did not give the land away, but made a valu- 
ation ; the L'uited States did not take it by force, but 
176 



OUR GREAT NORTHWESTERN TERRITORY. 177 

willingly paid for it, both countries thus proving that 
even at that time it was well worth seven millions, two 
hundred thousand dollars. 

In looking at the money transaction, it possibly 
appears unimportant when compared with the for- 
tunes of the great millionaire citizens of our Republic; 
but even looking back thirty years we will discover 
that such fortunes, as those which to-day are subjects 
for no wonderment, were then quite remarkable. 
There were then no such stupendous railroad schemes 
and other operations from which to garner harvests 
of greater bulk than were ever before conceived, ex- 
cept possibly in "air castles," and the Government was 
more than once censured for having invested such a 
large sum in so useless a tract. 

We are led to believe that the trite old saying, "You 
don't know what a thing is worth till you lose it," 
contains a great truth attachable to state as well as 
personal affairs, when we think that the seal interests 
on one side and the boundary on the other had to be 
ominously threatened before any but a few enterpris- 
ing men (excepting of course the missionaries, who 
have been faithful laborers for many years) could see 
in what manner Alaska could benefit the country to 
which it belongs. 

We have mentioned the forts that were allowed to 
fall into decay; we have seen the defenceless coast 
near which marauders could carry on a course of pil- 



178 ALASKA. 

fcring which no other country would ever have per- 
mitted; we have seen our Government pay milHons of 
dollars indemnity for bait taken from the eastern coast 
of Canada, when now, forsooth, she is arbitrated to 
pay thousands of dollars more to the same Power for 
the seals, which b\ all just laws were her own, and 
which she justly at this time refused to permit the 
Canadian fishermen to take. 

We find that so long as the boundary seemed to 
separate only one barren, ice-boimd district from an- 
other it was allowed to remain unmolested, but as 
soon as American enterprise, howbeit in the shape 
of a few miners, find gold along near the line and 
in American territory, the boundary line is so out- 
lined by map that it is made to inclose those gold 
mines within British jurisdiction, and again the right 
of the United States to the purchase is questioned. 
Fortifications and proper garrisons are now already 
needed for the protection of interests on the eastern 
boundary line, and a cry against such warlike prepara- 
tions was aroused immediately when we wrote in this 
vein months ago. Proper coast defence and a suf^- 
cient and competent fleet of armed cruisers for the 
protection of, not the seal interests particularly, but for 
all fisheries and commercial interests in general, is now 
an evident need. But the Siberian Railwa}' is surely 
winding its way across the frozen north of Europe and 
Asia, and it as surely will find an outlet on the Pacific 



OUR ORE A T NOR TH WESTERN TERR I TOR V. 1 79 

coast somewhere. We propose a nucleus for a com- 
mercial centre in a place as close as possible to the 
Russian border, and we see in the future the vast com- 
mercial communication by rail that will obviate the 
present protracted voyages by water, and that could 
bring Russia, China, Japan and the United States in 
closer commercial and international relations than 
ever were known between such Powers, even if we are 
accused of dreams such as made Aladdin revel in gold 
and jewels. 

We persistently contend that it would be no more 
difficult to build a railroad through Alaska than 
through Siberia. In fact, it could be done far more 
rapidly and readily because of the convenience of the 
coast communications with San Francisco, Portland, 
Tacoma, Seattle, Port Townsend and other points of 
importance, by which the necessary American material 
could be delivered at different stations along the 
shore. Begin the enterprise, and see whether there 
will not be thousands of hardy men willing to under- 
take the work, toilsome as it may be. How quickly 
would the iron industries of the North and South fur- 
nish the rails of steel and iron! How quickly would the 
millions of railroad ties turn out from the overloaded 
forests of the great North- West! And how fast, too, 
would the material for houses, and for schools anc", 
churches, follow the trend of advancing industry! 
No community need freeze when houses can be sent 



i8o ALASKA. 

to them all ready to be set together for occupation 
in an almost incredibly short time. Neither need 
they starve in this age, when canned milk, meats, 
fruits and vegetables are not only very good, but rea- 
sonably cheap; when flour and meal can be sealed 
from injury during transportation; when preparations 
of yeast and pure baking powders are made to keep 
for indefinite periods; and in a land in which fish and 
game are found to be inexhaustibly plentiful. 

There is no more reason for Alaska to remain with- 
out population, than for any far northern district in 
other countries, to become depopulated. That the 
Esquimaux have lived and, to a certain extent, thrived 
in the truly frozen North, proves that others may do 
so too if comfort is provided. They have existed, 
not from choice, but from extreme necessity, upon 
uncooked dried fish and flesh; they have dwelt in ice- 
formed houses or in underground huts, because other 
means were beyond their knowledge, as well as far 
from their reach. But note how willingly they follow 
the lead of civilized men ; how they admire and wonder 
at every device presented to their consideration; how 
they become fond of properly prepared food, warmth 
by artificial means, and the more convenient cloth- 
ing of enlightened fashion. Fuel has been the most 
prominent subject of objection to colonizing Alaska, 
but with the discovery of excellent coal in several re- 
gions, and with the possibility of still greater areas 



O UR GREA TNOR THWESTERN TERRITOR F. 1 8 1 

awaiting- the prospectors, we think that question is 
pretty nearly laid at rest. Those who really long for 
work should think of this region as a new home in 
the years to come. But even if the quantities of that 
commodity should be over-rated or insufficient, we 
can see no reason why the use of coal oil, now discov- 
ered in vast quantities there, may not become pop- 
ular where blubber and fish have been for ages 
the generators of both heat and light. The de- 
mand for petroleum would doubtless develop the in- 
dustry to a much greater extent than at present in 
our own country, and it would form a very lucrative 
object of commerce between Russia and western 
America. We have long since become accustomed 
to the use of coal oil for lighting our houses, many 
people preferring its clear, steady, brilliant radiance to 
the doubtfully pure gas which so often flickers, fails 
and flares, to the great inconvenience, if not to the 
great detriment of sight. Oil stoves for heating and 
cooking purposes have been in vogue for many years, 
and they are offered in numerous forms and at va- 
rious prices, while they have been constructed so 
scientifically as to render accident very rare in oc- 
currence. 

Why, then, should this Territory remain without 
settlers when conveniences are attainable, and when 
the increase of population would not only make the 
country more valuable every year, but would lead to 



1 82 ALASi^A. 

peculiar benefits through inter-State commerce, which 
is a very important item, even should the trade keep 
within the limits of the United States. The recent 
discovery of an immense quantity of petroleum has an- 
swered the question of light and fuel. 

Legislation for the government of Alaska has been 
necessarily slow and unsatisfactory, and we do not 
believe that it deserves quite the amount of censure 
that it receives. It requires very careful thought to 
plan a set of laws which will embrace its heteroge- 
neous population, some of which are intelligent and 
law-abiding, some ignorant and indifferent to restraint, 
and still others, perhaps the greater number, little 
less than heathenish in their ideas and inclinations, 
made so by ages of tribal tyranny. Then again, a 
new mixed population is certain to gravitate here 
within the next few years. 

The first step toward proper legislation then would 
be to value every portion of the country, allowing 
tribes and individuals to hold possession of the land 
upon which they dwell the greater part of the year, and 
giving them deeds or clear titles forever, with the 
lands to prospectors, as in all other States and Terri- 
tories. Value even remote and apparently useless 
reservations ; then let the Government sell such tracts 
at proper price. Permit no settling, but grant tracts, 
as other nations do, even in the wildest parts of the 
world by purchase or concession. 



O UR GREA T NOR TH WESTERN TERR /TOR Y. 1 83 

But we must not follow the policy of those coun- 
tries by keeping native populations in ignorance, but 
rather they must all be educated, and very quickly, too, 
so that they may become, entirely self-sustaining. We 
have no vast amount of opium for disposal among 
hosts of people who, by its use, live a life of semi- 
consciousness; we need all residents of our coun- 
try to be clear of brain, alert and industrious. There- 
fore, education is the first great object towards 
which the Government must give its prompt aid. 
Education will bring intelligence, intelligence will 
arouse genius, and the natives who know and love 
the land will one day, in the near future, become the 
workmen who will cultivate every natural resource of 
their beloved country. 

Land valued and people educated, the next step 
must be to place a proper estimate iipon every com- 
modity indigenous to the country, whether it be furs, 
metal, minerals or timber, fish or meats ; encourage 
every industry on sea or land, and the next century 
will look back upon the neglect of the years gone by 
with surprise, while rejoicing that justice and energy, 
though tardy, paved the way to Alaska becoming a 
bright star among the splendid galaxy which repre- 
sents the United States of America. 



CHAPTER XXVII. 

The Future of Alaska. 

THE impetus has been given, and now nothing 
short of an armed force could prevent im- 
migration to Alaska. It is too late to warn the 
ambitious miners, or those who intend becoming pio- 
neers, against cold weather, loneliness, difficulties, dis- 
asters, disappointments. They think they have fully 
counted the cost, and with determined energy they go 
to face all impediments to fame or fortune. 

Year after year summer tourists are increasing in 
numbers since the comfort, safety and pleasures of the 
grand northwestern trip in commodious steamers has 
been verified, not only by stalwart men, but by deli- 
cately reared women, and even children, who have all 
returned overjoyed by the glorious beauty of Alaskan 
scenery — forests, water ways and glaciers. 

The enchanting descriptions, oft repeated, have 
found echoes in hundreds of hearts which have so 
longed to behold new attractions and to change from 
the beaten track of travel, that they were exceedingly 
delighted to turn toward the frost-crowned North, ap- 
proaching its particular characteristics of country and 
people with unusual combinations of fear and pleasure 
in their anticipations. 
184 



THE FUTURE OF ALASKA. 185 

It is not surprising, that men who have probably 
been without work, and who have grown discouraged 
with anxious waiting for better times, should resolve 
to try their fortunes in the virgin gold fields of whose 
existence they are continually assured. Their hope of 
success cannot be regarded as altogether foundation- 
less, for they hear of missionaries of both sexes who 
have been able to live even in the bitterly cold and 
altogether unsettled districts, and who are eager to 
return to the scenes of their labors, after a visit to 
their seemingly much more congenial homes. 

Doubtless quite a number of these adventurers, who 
expect to face the rigors of climate and the dangers 
and privations of pioneer life, will return totally dis- 
heartened and broken in health, but many will stub- 
bornly hold out against every difficulty, pride or pov- 
erty supplying the magnetism which will bind them 
fast to the inhospitable soil. It requires no gift of 
prophecy to foretell that some of these men will 
turn toward the British settlements, which thus far 
are the only well-boomed ones of the gold regions of 
the Upper Yukon River, and the Territory will in 
this manner lose temporarily a few of its citizens. Te- 
nacity of purpose and power of endurance are the very 
important elements which are requisite for the building 
up of the population that will one day develop the vast 
mining industries of Alaska. 

The duty of the Government is plainly outlined, and 



i86 A/.ASk'A. 

if its plans are not soon matured for tlic protection of 
its citizens, as well as for its pecuniary interest, there 
will be a time of useless regret and a serious complica- 
tion of international difficulties that will require able 
statesmanship to unravel. 

We repeat that it is the first duty to lay out and con- 
struct forts or small towns in close proximity to the 
point toward which the tide of immigration is tending, 
thus rendering it possible for the men to remain upon 
the ground all the year round in order to protect their 
claims. The second is to acknowledge the value of 
the mines in some reasonable amount, and to legislate 
for the interest of the government as well as the indi- 
vidual, and to guard these two with consistently legal 
measures, and property rights and titles. 

Certainly some time must pass before the quartz 
mines can be worked with great success, but the pos- 
sibilities can no more be determined now than were 
those of California and Colorado less than fifty years 
ago. The experiences of those times and localities 
should supply food for very careful consideration be- 
fore the Alaskan gold, copper and coal mines are 
shelved as unattainable or altogether mythical. 

But allowing the probability that climate and other 
insurmountable objections may deter the lucrative 
working of the mineral deposits of the Territory, still 
there is employment in the near future for those men 
whose enterprising spirits are guiding them north- 



THE FUTURE OF ALASKA. 187 

ward, for the day is coming when an Alaskan rail- 
way will become a necessity, when the commercial 
interests of the Orient and the Occident will be brought 
into closer touch. 

Setting aside for a time the possibility of a con- 
tinuous railway to Bering Strait, still, close com- 
numication can and will be made between Russia and 
America by building seaport towns at convenient 
points on either coast, and estabhshing a fast steam- 
ship line between them, thus shortening the voyage 
by many days, and enabling a more advantageous 
commercial intercourse to be assured to the interests 
of both vast countries. 

How much better and cheaper it would be to give 
strong men employment now, than some day be 
compelled to give support to disabled and uninten- 
tional paupers. Even to-day railroad connections be- 
tween Juneau and the several points, at which gold 
and coal are known to be procurable, would increase 
the value of those districts and the populations of 
both that city and the mining camps. Wh}^ not, 
therefore, begin these lines of railroad, and give work 
to men who are eagerly longing for something to do? 
Many will be found as willing to labor at hewing lum- 
ber, cutting ties and laying tracks as they are now 
to work with pick and shovel in prospective mines. 
They will work, they will build cabins for themselves, 
and in time their wives and families will follow them, 



i8R yir.ASKA. 

and the development (if Alaska will be another phe- 
nomenal demonstration of American pluck and enter- 
prise, because that which the Governmen'L has de- 
ferred doing for Alaska is apparently upon the eve of 
being accomplished by these men, who will so far 
succeed as to soon be able to demand both internal 
and naval protection for themselves, their families and 
their property, until some day the Territory will be- 
come a self-defending State, and thus the serious prob- 
lems of what to do with Alaska will be solved. 



CHAPTER XXVIII. 

The Resources of Alaska. 

PROOF after proof makes it constantly ap- 
parent that Alaska will in time not only be 
thoroughly self-supporting, but that its numer- 
ous sources of revenue will become quite important to 
the commerce of the United States. 

Despite contradiction, ridicule and neglect, the 
gold mines are becoming the object of greater inter- 
est year after year, until it has already attained such 
proportions that even a trifling success, like the Klon- 
dyke discoveries, will cause a continued rush to the 
gold fields, such as invaded the other gold-yielding 
States years ago. 

This prediction was stated in our published articles 
many months before the present great rush to the 
Klondyke began. 

The gold mining that has actually become estab- 
lished in some parts of Alaska seems to have stepped 
forward into the place once entirely usurped by the 
fur, whale and seal-oil business, which was re- 
cently considered the only valuable part of the pur- 
chase, and its decadence augured sad adversity for the 
struggling Territory. It was once strictly true that 
the fur and oil trade was the only livelihood of the 

189 



190 ALASK.4. 

natives, and that they depended upon the seals, whales, 
walruses and fish for every necessity of life; but it must 
be remembered that civilization has advanced with 
persistent energy, until the mode of living, wdiich was 
universal but a little while ago, has changed, and 
many of the natives have joyfully accepted Christian 
food and clothing, as well as religion. 

The result of education not only evidences itself 
in moral development, but in the awakening of intel- 
ligence that must have lain dormant forever but for 
the instruction and faithfulness of missionaries, who, 
finding most barbarous opposition, became still more 
determined to win the confidence of the benighted 
people and rescue them from the midnight darl<ness 
which has enveloped them for ages. 

They never knew the value of gold or copper, coal 
or marble, timber, or the cultivation of the soil. But 
they were compelled to cultivate muscular power, 
while harpooning the huge prey whose uncertain 
coming made them wary, as well as sure-handed and 
strong. 

They were compelled to exert a certain amount of 
genius in the preparation of their subterranean homes, 
so that they might live through the long, dismal cold 
of their arctic winters, or in the construction of their 
summer nests on the shores of the boisterous seas. 
And now this natural bent will enable them to build 
for themselves, and the miners, who will join them, 



THE RESOURCES OF ALASKA. 191 

such residences as will make it possible to develop 
the mines even of the bitterly cold and lonely regions 
of the Upper Yukon River. 

There can be no more absurd idea than that the 
splendid possibilities of Alaska must be left undemon- 
strated because of the climate, for if the natives have 
been able to exist without the aid of the comforts of 
civilization, how much better can they live and work 
when they receive the needful creature benefits. 
Heretofore they have been forced to semi-hibernation 
more than half of the year, while the other half, from 
dire necessity, has been a season of hard toil during 
the fishing or hunting season, and of gormandizing 
and wildest revelry when swarming fish or gigantic 
mammals of the sea filled their empty caches and made 
them forget for the time that such harvests were very 
evanescent, depending entirely upon the instincts of 
the lower animals, which made them pile in countless 
numbers within reach of their spears and nets or bas- 
kets. 

Those who have learned to live like Christians, 
rarely, if ever, return to the dismal, smoky underground 
dens that were once their homes. Possibly not one 
who has tasted the daily food of the white people would 
turn again with relish to the saltless fish and blubber, 
which was the daily food they used. And just as 
surely as that they have accepted thus far, will they 
seek to learn still farther from their enlightened teach- 
ers. 



192 ALASKA. 

Doubtless they have learned evil as well as good, 
but the good will predominate, and they will take 
pride in the development of their country as soon as 
they understand its importance. 

The diversity of employment awaiting them is 
enough to overwhelm them for a time, but miners, 
quarrymen, and probably agriculturists and herds- 
men for the valleys, will be found when the light 
breaks in fully upon the work expected of them. 

Ex-Governor Swineford told of the mining pros- 
pects and was ridiculed unmercifully by the press and 
the people. But a few years passed, and he re- 
turned to the territory armed with all things necessary 
for the development of his valuable mines. 

Governor Sheakley told of the richness of the na- 
tural resources of the land, and he, too, received little 
thanks for his information but the prospects brighten 
nevertheless. One party boasts of his profitable little 
farm, from which he has abundantly reaped satisfactory 
harvests. Dr. Jackson gives proof of the certainty of 
success in the rearing of reindeer, which answers the 
question of transportation of men and supplies, as well 
as gives promise of immunity from starvation. An- 
other calls attention to the coal fields which await 
the sturdy hand with pick and shovel, while still 
another and another repeat the presence of marble, 
fine and pure as the statuary marble of Italy. 

True it is that money, talent and toil are absolutely 



THE RESOURCES OF ALASKA. 193 

necessary to the attainment of any of these treasures, 
but we fail to know of any place or country in whicli 
nuggets of gold or slabs of marble are lying about 
awaiting transportation. 

"Work" is the password to fortune! Can there be 
harder toil or greater privation than were the step- 
ping-stones to the world-famous millions of the As- 
tors? Have we not seen the great railroad magnates 
of our own day rise round after round upon the ladder 
of fame and fortune, with unremitting toil marking 
every step in the upward course? 

Only a few decades ago a great part of Philadel- 
phia was thought to be an "irreclaimable" swamp. 
To-day great warehouses and noble residences cover 
these apparently once hopeless wastes. But a year 
or two since, formidable obstructions interfered with 
navigation in the Delaware; to-day, we watch them 
disappearing before the stroke of Governmental aid, 
making of this city one of the finest seaports and 
fresh water naval stations of the countr}', backed by 
the coal, iron and large manufacturing interests of the 
city and the state. 

Not more impossible is the rich development of 
Alaska's grand and almost illimitable sources of 
wealth and prosperity than was the civilization and 
expansion of New England, for it is doubtful if even 
the barren, wave-swept coast of our distant province 
can present a more thoroughly forlorn and uninviting 
13 



194 ALASKA. 

aspect than did the wild, rock-boiind coast of Massa- 
chusetts to the Pilgrim Fathers. 

If men are discouraged from attempting to find any 
prosperity in the far North- West; let them think of 
Norway, Sweden, Finland and other Northern 
climes, whose inhabitants, brave, industrious and in- 
telligent, could never be persuaded to see any land 
so beautiful or good as their own. The day is com- 
ing when the progeny of those who dare to make 
Alaska their dwelling-place and the promoter of their 
fortunes will glory in the snow-clad peaks, the mighty 
grinding glaciers, the smiling, dancing crystal water- 
courses and mountain-environed fjords, whose majes- 
tic beauty or peaceful loveliness are unrivalled by any 
scenery in the whole bright wodd. 

It would certainly be preposterous for people who 
have been reared in luxury and busy idleness to think 
of going to Alaska except as summer tourists; such 
a class is not yet needed in any part of the territory. 
Neither need clerks and salesmen or book agents, or 
even traveling salesmen, hope to find work in the 
sparsely-settled country. But brawny frames, strong 
hands, brave, willing hearts and courageous, long-en- 
during active brains will find plenty to do, and abun- 
dant reward for their labor. Let such pioneer the 
way, and the cultivation and refinement of higher 
education will most certainly follow when prosperity 
supervenes, as it must do in the near future. 



CHAPTER XXIX. 

Bering Sea and its Seals — Questions Which Have to 
BE Settled for the Future as Well as Present. 

LIKE all unsettled questions, the matter of the 
right of possession in Bering Sea rises to the 
surface, even while other subjects come to view 
which seem to be sufficiently important to set it aside 
for the time. 

Our average Congressmen do not appear to grasp 
the Alaskan question in its vast importance to the 
future of the United States. The statesmanship at 
present exercised seems to see only the surface mat- 
ter of the right to pelagic fishing for the seal, whose 
home is certainly upon the islands belonging to the 
United States. 

It requires no powerful horoscope to see in the near 
future the extermination of the fur seal unless pro- 
tected, as we of the present generation have beheld the 
destruction of the great herds of bufTalo that once 
roamed over the vast sea of prairie land in the West. 

The revenue from seal skins has truly been of great 
moment, if only that it has helped to refund, with in- 
terest, the millions paid for Alaska ; but even at this 
time the cry is coming from the greater fishing indus- 

195 



196 ALASKA. 

tries of the North-West, tliat the luxurious fur is not 
fraught with such vital consequence as to lead to the 
neglect of other affairs; while, like all subjects of con- 
tinual contentions, this deferred settlement tends to- 
ward a degree of carelessness, in the American public 
mind, almost amounting to willingness to give up in 
disgust the bone of contention, which the Government 
and the better informed citizens will never allow. 

But let us pause and note an underlying current, 
the consequence of which must leave a lasting impres- 
sion upon the commercial interests of the United 
States; and here let us say, it looks like a peculiar act 
of diplomacy to ask the contesting party to aid us 
in the protection of our own property. The "modus 
Vivendi," as most readers see it, seems to place the 
United States and Great Britain upon equal footing; 
indeed, it rather appears that the taking of the seals 
for the food of some of our own citizens is looked upon 
as an injury to Canadians. Perhaps there may be a 
more dignified side to the question, but as it stands 
now to the public eye it lacks the noble self assertion 
of an independent nation. 

If the arbitration, to which our national authorities 
have submitted the question of their country's right 
over a former inland sea, has been decided against 
our Government, it opens Bering Sea to a nation 
that would have held and planted its flag upon every 
one of its rocky islands and would have brought a 



BERING SEA AND ITS SEALS. 197 

noble armament of vessels into its waters and defied 
this, or any other Government, to touch any of the 
coveted amphibians. 

England has studied diplomacy too long not to have 
an eye to the distant future, toward which our states- 
men appear to have forgotten to look. It cannot be 
many years before Asia and America will be commer- 
cially connected in the far North. The bed of Bering 
Strait is rising, scientists tell us, and the intellects that 
have planned the most wonderful and surprising feats 
of intricate engineering in the world, would be able 
either to tunnel or bridge this strait so that there- 
could in time and doubtless will, be a continuous line 
of communication between the commercial centres of 
Asia and the United States. 

The exclusion of the Chinese from the ports of this 
Republic, meets with grave approval from the English 
Government, because it sees in the future the com- 
merce of China and Japan reaching the western and 
eastern ports of America without the long sea voyage 
to which it has been confined in the past. Already 
the Canadian Pacific Railroad is largely reaping the 
benefit of this English project and wise investment. 

This semi-friendly contention of to-day is very im- 
portant to the interests of our Government, for a na- 
tional policy that is apparently based on international 
law may have far reaching, unfavorable and insidious 
aims toward a sister nation, that in future years may 



198 ALASKA. 

prove injurious to us and result in great national com- 
mercial disaster. 

There is no doubt but that millions of our citizens 
would rise to defend the sacred rights of their coun- 
try if they were openly threatened. Will not the na- 
tion's strength of intellect and forethought at least 
try to equal in patriotism those who would give their 
life-blood for the Stars and Stripes? Let personal 
interest for a time be vested in the everlasting good 
of the country. Let every noble intellect strive to 
make a glorious victory in this bloodless war. Let 
us show Great Britain that the indemnity of five mil- 
lion dollars that was paid by this Government for her 
fishers poaching on the eastern coast of the British 
provinces was not paid in cowardice, but as a noble 
country's acknowledgment of justice and restitution. 

If the arbitration acts justly, and secures to the 
United States her own property, Russia, Japan and 
China will be drawn into closer commercial fellow- 
ship with us every year. Why, then, should an act 
of legislation make the first breach between the latter 
nation and the Empire whose commerce is so valuable 
to the world? Why must a Christian country be the 
first to break the friendly peace of ages? 

We will need the commerce and the friendliness of 
China, as well as that of Russia and Japan some day, 
and why be so harsh now? The good will of all 
three will be of great advantage to our Government 



BERING SEA AND ITS SEALS. 



199 



in developing the territory of Alaska, and a personal 
feeling against the original coolies that were brought 
here by money-making schemers and companies 
should not allow us to thwart a broad international 
policy in regard to our Western and North-Westem 
possessions. 

NUMBER OF SEALS TAKEN BY THE GOVERNMENT OF THE 
UNITED STATES AND THE PELAGIC SEALERS. 



YEAR 


TAKEN ON 

PRIBILOFF ISLANDS 


THE 

PELAGIC CATCH 


1890 


, 21,234 


51.655 


I89I 


12,071 


68,000 


1892 


7.500 


73.394 


1893 


7.500 


80,000 


1894 


12,500 


60,000 


1895 


15,000 


82,000 




75.805 


415.049 



The total pelagic seal catch of the 54 British vessels in 
Bering Sea during the last year was 17,805, while that of the 
12 American vessels was 2907 seals. 



CHAPTER XXX. 

Alaska ¥vk Seal Protection. 

WHILE reading of the wholesale slaughter of 
the fur seals in Bering Sea, and the apparent, 
or rather the consistent unwillingness of Great 
Britain to aid in their protection, the absurdity 
of the situation flashes upon one with great vivid- 
ness. The United States could have protected 
them by all the laws of rightful ownership if she 
had not been led into the net, from courtesy 
called "Arbitration." Too late, the warning given 
in the daily journals a few years ago has been 
heeded, and Russia and Japan are, as they would then 
have been, ready to do their part towards saving the 
seals, in which these three countries alone are inter- 
ested as possessors. But "arbitration" brought in 
another party who is unwilling under any circum- 
stances to lose its hold. The future of the question 
is plainly mapped. A year or two for this point, an- 
other year or two for that, while pelagic sealing in the 
meantime continues, and by the time the settlement is 
reached, the seals are gone and have faded away un- 
protected. 

But one Senator proposes the annihilation of the 
fur seal by the United States authorities, the pro- 
ceeds of the furs to be spent upon the native Aleuts, 
Wr 200 



ALASKA FUR SEAL PROTECTLON. 201 

who in all honor and justice are the true owners and 
the people first to be considered. The proposition is 
met with a cry against its cruelty, and the hand of the 
Government is stayed. But let us pause and examine 
the question of cruelty in all its phases. If the Gov- 
ernment should adopt the plan of consistent extermi- 
nation, it will require the death of all seals in all 
stages. A force of natives and practiced sealers 
would watch for the incoming of the herds, and as 
they landed each animal would be dispatched with the 
usual merciful blow so well known by the natives, a 
swift blow at the base of the brain, always successful. A 
pitiful sight no doubt would be presented by so many 
slaughtered, motionless seals; the objects of the skin- 
ning, fat rendering and drying or packing of the meat 
would not be beautiful to look upon, but there would 
be no sounds of distress from the inanimate creatures. 
This is the cruelty against which those who side with 
Great Britain cry out in anxious protest. 

There is another side of the question: With a few 
exceptional cases it is the female seals that are killed 
by pelagic sealers. By positive statements from 
those who have made careful study of the animals, the 
adult males do not leave the rookeries at all during 
their stay on the Pribylov Islands, and the young 
seals remain either on land or very close to shore. 
The reason is easily explained. When they come to 
their home they are all fat and contented, but the fe- 



202 ALASKA. 

males, who go out to sea, are nursing mothers — not 
only nursing but brooding mothers — for the seal car- 
ries its young a year. Each pup, or infant seal, be- 
longs exclusively to its own mother, notwithstanding 
the peculiar sameness in appearance, and no mother 
will nurse other than her own offspring. These 
nursing mothers require food for the support of them- 
selves and their young, and that is why they leave 
the rookeries for a season; they simply go in search 
of food. Consequently when they are killed the pups 
unborn die also, making a ratio of three lives taken 
for one skin obtained. Let those who speak of cruelty 
carry their minds and sympathies to the spot and hear 
the bleating of the hundreds or thousands of little 
seals that must linger in the tortures of hunger before 
death ends their misery. They bleat like lambs or 
young calves. Can the imagination picture the help- 
less little creatures writhing and crying for hours be- 
fore succumbing to death? Can it paint the loss as 
well as the torturing inhumantiy as the myriads of 
little bodies are tossed in by the incoming breakers, 
or left to decompose on the sandy beaches? Which 
cruelty is the worst, to destroy them all at once, or 
continue to have so many suffer innocently by these 
marauders? The mode in use and defended now will 
certainly lead to the end proposed by the Senator at 
last, and when the sentiment turns upon "cruelty" 
the whole community may demand the swift, organ- 



ALASKA FUR SEAL PROTECTION. 203 

ized annihilation, rather than the high road of slow, 
torturing destruction by literal starvation. But we 
believe in actual positive protection of our seal prop- 
erty. In this we have not discussed the compara- 
tively valueless pelt of the adult female seal. By and 
by the purchasers of seal skin garments will discover 
that the fur is neither so beautiful, soft nor durable, 
as that obtained by legitimate sealing, wherein only 
the two or three years old bachelors are killed and 
the perfection of pelts obtained without the least dan- 
ger of either exterminating the species or causing the 
untimely and painful destruction of the tiny seals. 

In referring to the great question of the arbitration 
treaty, and for the correct boundary lines which have 
agitated the country, acting, as it were, as counter- 
irritants to its deplorable financial condition, we think 
it would be wise to call public attention to the literal 
meaning of the word which has been echoing from 
every direction for months. Arbitration means the 
act of settling a doubtful question. 

Now there is no shadow of doubt about the pur- 
chase of Alaska, nor has there been at any time. 
Therefore, there can be no possible question of right 
to its possession by the United States. The real dif- 
ficulty is the exact marking of the location of the 
boundary lines. As Russia mentioned the limit in its 
treaty of cession, the question is not for arbitration, 
but for an honest survey under the literal interpreta- 



204 ALASKA. 

tion of the treaty. Why such an undertaking should 
require so much disputation is hard to comprehend. 
And why the United States Government and its Eng- 
Hsh aid in competent surveyors, do not equip a suffi- 
cient number of reliable men under proper pay, to 
settle the line definitely, according to the purchase, 
cannot be satisfactorily explained. Economy is com- 
mendable as a general thing, but in a case of this 
kind, which to a very great extent involves our Na- 
tion's honor, the idea of a limitation in the direction 
of expense is not to be considered at all. It must be 
remembered that for many years the line now claimed 
by the United States, was acknowledged by England, 
and her subjects paid annual rental to Russia for that 
which now figures upon a recent Canadian map as 
British property. No arbitration in the world can ad- 
just that without the owners have their proper 
geographical measurements ready for inspection. 

Conceded then, that this, as a peace-loving nation, 
deems it wisdom to submit to arbitration, why must 
this question between two great nations be adjusted 
by a third party who has not studied the boundary. 
Why not refer our claim to Russia, as a power, and 
fully familiar with all the facts? Or why may not France, 
our sister Republic, have the power to decide, if arbitra- 
tion is deemed the best mode, with a third power for 
decision? How can a vast country under whose ad- 
vanced government each citizen is a sovereign, bind 



ALASKA FUR SEAL PROTECTION. 205 

itself to abide by the decision of one man, though lie 
be a chief sovereign of another country, when the 
real trouble is not one of geographic position, but the 
presence of a precious metal whose value has aroused 
the farseeing interests of other nations that are in- 
volved ! 

The arbitration for boundaries if needed, and special 
arbitrations for individual cases that may arise, is far 
preferable for both England and America, than an 
arbitration treaty that is certain to be mis-interpreted 
and misunderstood by other nations. And in this 
case the matter can readily be laid over until the 
proper survey is made. 



CHAPTER XXXI. 

Recent Routes to the Gold Fields of the Yukon 
River, After Reaching Alaskan Ports. 

AFTER careful studj^ of the topography of the 
country each side of the boundary Hne between 
Alaska and British Columbia, there can be no 
doubt but that thus far the easiest and best summer 
route, for Americans at least, is by water up the Yukon 
River. 

This means that the traveler having reached Puget 
Sound by whatever train or waterway he may have 
found most convenient, will take the steamer, which 
fits out at Seattle. He will find the vessel all that can 
be desired for comfort, but not a palatial craft. The 
first part of his voyage might as well be one of un- 
interrupted pleasure, unless he is subject to qualms 
of nausea attendant upon a sea voyage, for the North 
Pacific Ocean is oftentimes very boisterous. From 
Seattle the vessel steams through Puget Sound, pass- 
ing on the south. Port Townsend, (an important Amer- 
ican city near the exit of the Sound), and on the 
north, Victoria, the beautiful Canadian capital city of 
Vancouver Island. Through the Straits of Juan de 
Fuca it reaches the Pacific Ocean. After leaving the 
Straits the course is northwesterly toward the Aleutian 
206 



RECENT ROUTES TO GOLD FIELDS. 207 

Islands, whose snow-capped peaks and extinct volca- 
noes uplift themselves from the treeless land, whose 
only vegetal)le products are a sort of rank grass, 
hardy poppies and a few other wild flowers, rich 
carpets of vivid green, or pale gray moss, and 
creeping lichen. Rounding the islands, the first 
stopping place is Dutch Harbor, a coaling and 
supply station for all ocean steamers of the North- 
West, as well as for the sealing and whaling fleets of 
Bering Sea and the Arctic Ocean. Leaving Dutch 
Harbor or Unalaska, sometimes spelled Oonalashka, 
with its line of houses painted white, possibly to make 
them more conspicuous in the fog that so often nearly 
obscures the land from view, the course is about due 
north until St. Michaels is reached, passing within view 
of the Pribylov, or Seal Islands, St. Paul and St. 
George, of which so much has been said in recent 
years. The sailing is then to Cape Mohican, on 
the west coast of Nunivak Island. St. Matthew and 
Hall Island are passed far to the westward. Then 
to Cape Romanzof on through Norton Sound until 
the ship stops at Fort Get There, on the Island 
of St. Michaels, or passes on to old Fort St. Mich- 
aels. This island was once a strong Russian fortifica- 
tion, but now it is a central point for freight and pas- 
sengers going to and from the gold fields and 
the missionary and business settlements of the Yukon 
River. At this point all goods and passengers are 



2o8 ALASKA. 

transferred to large, light-draft steamers, which ply 
the waters of the mighty river from the first opening 
of the ice during May, till the waters are locked in solid 
ice in September. There the Alaska Commercial 
Company and the North American Transportation and 
Trading Company are engaged in the traffic of the 
middle and lower Yukon. During the short season of 
navigation these companies carry on an extensive bus- 
iness, making three and four round trips to different 
trading posts and mining towns. Here also is a mis- 
sion station of the Protestant Episcopal Church. 
Other missions have been established along the 
coast of Alaska at different points by other denomi- 
nations as spoken of elsewhere. 

While it is open to navigation the ships have a clear 
course of 2,300 miles: but business is all hurried at 
breathless speed in order to get as much as possible 
attended to before the frost settles down to its winter 
work. The Yukon and its tributaries abound in fish, 
salmon being exceptionally fine. The first point at 
which the vessel touches on the upper part of 
the river is Fort Yukon, an old station which 
was established by Robert Bell, who, mistaking 
its locality for Canadian ground, estabhshed a trading 
post for the Hudson Bay Company. In point of fact, 
it was never a fort at all, but so named as are several 
other trading stations in the North. It is in the lati- 
tude of this place that one sees almost pernKual day- 




Placer Mining. 



RECENT ROUTES TO GOLD FIELDS. 209 

light during the liist suniincr montlis. The light of 
one day dissolves into the effulgence of the next with 
no darkness, except a luminous twilight between, in 
which only the great planets can be distinguished. 
The next stop is Circle City, a considerable town of 
about 2,000 inhabitants, when they are at home, but 
subject to variation of population. Many fine placer 
mines surround this really important city, but the rage 
for the Klondyke gold fields has, for the time, almost 
depopulated the comfortable log houses of which the 
town is built. Next comes Fort Cudahy, across the 
boundary line, at the mouth of Forty Mile Creek, a 
town already important as a centre of supplies for the 
miners in the whole section of country, included in 
the Forty Mile district, which has turned out a great 
quantity of gold. At Fort Cudahy the steamer takes 
on passengers and freight for the return trip, the 
way up the Yukon to Klondyke, Frazer, Pelly ami 
other rivers being made in small crafts, native canoes, 
etc. The loneliness of the miners has been slightly 
relieved by the establishment of a post-ofhce at Circle 
City, to which point letters are taken from Juneau 
every two weeks and retvirn mail matter is delivered 
in the same length of time, by experienced carriers, 
who are now recognized by the Government and re- 
ceive about $500 for the round trip. For safety, ease 
and comfort this Yukon River route is undoubtedly 
the best, except when the shortness of the season is 
considered. 
14 



210 ALASKA. 

Small places and landings are found all along the 
river. After going about two or three hundred miles 
through a low, flat country the mountains are reached. 
Here you have a constant change of magnificent coun- 
try, far beyond description. Thus the boat proceeds to 
Ft. Yukon, where during the months of June and July 
the sun shines for twenty-four hours without a break, 
in fact, all along the river during these months, it is 
continuous daylight and you can read easily at night 
without a lamp. Then comes Fort Reliance and a 
little farther on is Dawson City, at the mouth of the 
Klondyke River. But this river is sixty-five miles this 
side of the Klondyke placer mines, which lay away over 
the hills. Some distance farther up beyond the sup- 
posed rich gold fields of the Stewart River is Fort 
Selkirk. 

The Stewart and the old Rein-deer Rivers, the latter 
now called the Klondyke, extend eastward to their 
heads and are located entirely within British Co- 
lumbia. 

Beginning at the Yukon's mouth the following 
places are passed on the way up, and, for convenience 
of reference, I have noted them from the north or 
south side of the Yukon. First on the north side 
comes Andreafski, then the Holy Cross Mission, the 
city of Anvik and a river of the same name, Hamil- 
ton's Landing, Naplatoo; the Kuyukuk River comes 
in at the northward bending of the Yukon, then comes 



RECENT ROUTES TO GOLD FIELDS. 211 

the Melozikakat River; a little farther on past the Gold 
Mountains come the towns of Nowikakat and Weare. 
Here the Nowikakat River flows in . Shamans Village 
is still farther up on a small stream called the Outt 
River, then comes Fort Hamlin and Fort Yukon on 
the Porcupine River, which flows in at another angle 
of the Yukon and extends into British Columbia away 
ofif toward the Mackenzie River that empties into the 
Arctic Ocean. A little farther on flows in the Big 
Black River and several other small rivers; then come 
the townsites of Forty Mile and Sixty Mile, the Chan- 
dindu River, Fort Reliance and Dawson at the con- 
fluence of the Klondyke and Yukon Rivers and just 
below these is the town of Ogilvie; next comes the 
Stewart River. A short distance above this the Lewis 
and Pelly Rivers join and form the Yukon. The Pelly 
River with its branches, McMillan, Orchay and Ross 
Rivers run northeast, but at present the Lewis River 
and its tributaries are the most important, as they run 
through the gold regions. Its branches are Little Sal- 
mon, Big Salmon, Teslin or Hootahnqua, Little and 
Mendenhall Rivers. 

On the south side the Kashunuk River flows in an 
easterly direction; then the Yukon turns northward 
and here we have the towns of Koserefski and Shage- 
luk ; then come the Innoko, Kaiyah, Soonkakat and 
Nowikakat Rivers. From the same direction, right at 
the Arctic Circle, come the Xanana River and Beaver 



212 ALASKA. 

Creek, and a little farther up Birch Creek. Here the 
river makes another bend and quite a distance south 
we have Circle City, which lies to the west of the dis- 
puted boundary line. Then come the North Fork, 
Birch Creek and Forty Mile Creek, the latter with its 
numerous gulches and creeks, empties into the Yukon 
at Fort Cudahy, said to be in Canadian Territory. A 
little farther down comes the Sixty Mile Creek with 
its tributaries. Gold, Glacier, Miller and Red Rock 
Creeks, and the White River with its tributaries, Kat- 
rina, Nisling, Kluantu Rivers, and others following 
in between the mountains; then we have the Selwyn 
River a short distance from the confluence of the 
Lewis and Felly Rivers. 

The North Canadian Route. 

The next easiest, but not yet much used, as those 
who have had experience assert, is the North Canadian 
route, an old, well-worn established roadway to the Por- 
cupine River, and then to the Yukon ; but a land jour- 
ney between the first two rivers is required, and also 
from Edmonton to Athabasca Landing. It is in reality 
the old Hudson Bay Company's line of march into the 
districts through which their trading posts were dis- 
tributed. It starts from the town of Calgary, on the 
Canadian Pacific. Ninety miles of railroad lands the 
traveler at Edmonton, a town of some importance in 
that neighborhood. From this the trip is made over 



RECENT ROUTES TO GOLD FIELDS. 213 

a good road about nine miles long which leads to 
Athabasca Landing, named for the Athabasca River, 
where the Hudson Bay Company's Steamer, engages to 
take passengers and freight to Grand Rapids, a dis- 
tance of over one hundred and sixty miles. 

At Grand Rapids there is a change made to a larger 
steamer, which stops at a fort belonging to the Hud- 
son Bay Company, called Fort Chipewgue. From 
that point it runs to the head of a great rapid in 
Slave River, passing over the Jake River on the way. 
Instead of shooting these rapids the company transfers 
goods and people to a horse-car railway about six- 
teen miles in length, ending at Fort Smith, at which 
place another large steamer takes up the cargo, 
human and otherwise, and bears it through an unin- 
terrupted water course of fifteen hundred miles to its 
mouth, stopping at the larger forts on the way, such as 
Forts Resolution, Providence, Simpson, Wrigley, 
Norman and Good Hope, the Hudson Bay Company's 
posts of a half a century ago. Near Fort Pherson, 
at the mouth of the Mackenzie River, comes in the 
Pearl River. It is navigable for small boats nearly 
all the way. From this point a few miles further on 
is the Porcupine River, down which all goods can be 
safely transported to Fort Yukon. With the excep- 
tion of the one point, the rapids above mentioned, this 
route is by water, and having been in use for two- 
thirds of a century, stands to reason that it must be 



214 ALASKA. 

as safe and sure as any other. The windings of 
the rivers make the distance greater, but the 
cost is less and the route very advantageous for 
comfort and safety, though it is also limited to 
the open season, beginning as soon as the ice 
melts in the spring and ceasing when winter ap- 
pears. One great advantage is the forts on the way, 
whose established stores would prevent the terrible 
danger of starvation to belated prospectors. The 
route being entirely Canadian may not become as 
popular to Americans as their own, notwithstanding its 
superior accommodations. The miners reside mostly 
in the western part of the country, so that the Alaskan 
routes are the most accessible. The Yukon Route ex- 
tends over at least thirty days from Chicago, embrac- 
ing four days from that city to Seattle, sixteen from the 
latter city to St. Michaels, and thence ten to Dawson 
City, making a distance of six thousand miles, at a 
cost for fare alone of about $280 at the least calculation. 
The very minimum of cash required for the trip and 
outfit would be $600.00. For the Canadian Route, 
distance and price have not yet been made public, nor 
will it likely be known until the proposed trip to be 
made by a Philadelphia party has been accomplished 
and the difficulties and expenses calculated. 

The Overland Routes are all by way of Juneau, 
Dyea, Fort Wrangel, Skaguay, Chilkat Inlet, or Taku 
Inlet. A new one is projected by the Stikine River. 



RECENT ROUTES TO GOLD FIELDS. 215 

Juneau, is the most important city of Alaska to- 
day, and its extent and enterprise is bound to ad- 
vance surprisingly, whether the new gold fields prove 
extremely rich or not. The city can be reached by 
elegant steamers from Tacoma, Seattle, Port Town- 
send, Victoria, or Vancouver City, taking about four 
days and covering nearly nine hundred miles. By either 
inland way the trip to the Yukon must be made 
by boat to Dyea, a small port about ninety-six miles 
from Juneau, and one-half that distance if it were pos- 
sible to reach it by direct line. 

Landing at Dyea or Skaguay, a few miles from there, 
the route for reaching the Yukon River commences. 
There being no stage road, rail nor even turnpike, the 
only thing to be done is to carry goods, provisions and 
tools over the mountain trail to the Lake Linderman 
Valley. 

Over the Chilkoot Pass. 

This is the oldest and shortest in actual geograph- 
ical measurement, but its altitude, in crossing the Chil- 
koot Mountains being at least one thousand feet 
greater than the White Mountain pass, makes its pas- 
sage extremely arduous. It begins at the Dyea Inlet, 
the station of Dyea or Taiya being the supply point, 
and follows the river of the same name until it reaches 
Chilkoot Canyon, about six miles from the inlet. It 
crosses the timber line at Sheep Camp, and for seven 
miles to this point it continues through a desolate 



2i6 ALASKA. 

stretch of mountain land, with neither tree nor mark 
of civilization in sight. Across this pass all goods 
must be carried in packs, for which native packers 
have been employed, at least for the heaviest articles, 
for which they will charge all the way from twenty or 
thirty cents to thirty-five or even fifty cents per pound. 
The trail covers twenty-four miles. Combine with 
this, blinding snow, blustering winds and small gla- 
ciers, up which to climb and down which to slip 
and slide, and you have a picture of the hard- 
ships of a would-be miner with a pack of from 
fifty to one hundred pounds weight fastened upon 
his shoulders. If he be so unfortunate as to have 
refused to pay the pack carriers, he must take 
from six to eight trips, to the top or across the 
pass if he wishes to take the eight hundred pounds 
conceded to be necessary for a proper outfit. Canoes 
can be used about six miles up the Dyea River, then 
the trail, steep and precipitous, leads up the canyon 
to the summit, three thousand five hundred feet above 
tide water. From this summit to a descent of five hun- 
dred feet and then to the shore of Crater Lake, thirty 
miles distant, he can sled his goods. The ice cap is 
steep at the top for half a mile, and then the mountain 
tapers off gradually to the valley. The water has cut a 
small canyon down the mountain side, which should be 
followed to Lake Linderman. Here there is a saw mill, 
where he can procure a boat for $75.00. If he thinks 



RECENT ROUTES TO GOLD FIELDS. 217 

that is too much, he can purchase the lumber at 
the rate of $50.00 for five hundred feet, which is 
about sufficient for the building of a suitable small 
transport craft. Counting the time and labor, there 
are few that will grudge the additional $25.00 for 
a stormworthy boat. A short portage of three-fourths 
of a mile (the fall being about twenty feet), 
leads to Lake Bennett. The stream connecting the 
two lakes is crooked and rocky, making it unsafe for 
a boat. Lake Linderman is about six miles long, 
and opens up from May fifteenth to June tenth. After 
reaching Lake Bennett, which is some twenty-six miles 
long, and on whose shores good boat timber may be 
found, the journey may be continued by raft or by 
ascending a small river, which enters the head of the 
lake from the west, a distance of one mile. The only 
timber used in the construction of boats is spruce or 
Norway pine. Caribou Crossing leads to Tagish 
Lake. Navigation on these two lakes is some- 
times interrupted by the high winds. A wide, slug- 
gish river leads to Lake Marsh, which is twenty miles 
long. The river from here to the next canyon has 
about a three-mile current, and quantities of salmon 
are found. The gorge proper is five-eighths of a mile 
in length, but the distance to portage is about a mile, 
and that run by boat is three-fourths of a mile. The 
average width of this outlet is one hundred feet, and 
the water is very deep, but there is little danger in 



2i8 ALASKA. 

passing through it, if the helmsman does not lose his 
presence of mind. The water in the centre is four feet 
higher than at the sides, and if the boat is kept 
under control, it will remain on this crest, and avoid 
striking the walls. The boat should be strong and 
the cargo well protected from the water. It takes 
two minutes and twenty seconds to pass through this 
rapid. Two miles below. White Horse Rapids are 
reached, the shooting of which is dangerous and often 
disastrous, owing to the swirl of waters at the lower 
part. It is practically impossible to safely pass 
these, and portage nmst be resorted to. This part of 
the river can never be made navigable for steamers, 
but a tramway could easily be built and operated by 
the power from the falls. About fifteen miles from 
here the Tahkeena and Lewis Rivers join. This is the 
inland waterway used in connection with the Chil- 
kat pass, which is long and less used by miners or 
Indians. The Tahkeena is easily navigated, a steamer 
could ascend it perhaps seventy miles. Lake Le- 
barge, twelve miles below, is thirty-one miles long, 
and is often very rough. After leaving it the current 
of the river increases to five or six miles an hour. The 
course is very crooked and the bed is filled with bould- 
ers, which make it dangerous for river steamers, es- 
pecially on the down trip. The Hootalinqua, 
Big Salmon and Little Salmon Rivers enter the 
Lewis within the next hundred miles, the first 



RECENT ROUTES TO GOLD FIELDS. 219 

two showing signs of gold. Fifty-three miles be- 
low the Little Salmon is the Five Fingers Rapids, 
which can be rim with a good boat with comparative 
ease. Four buttes are here seen and the river divides 
into five water ways. The right hand is the only 
safe one, and the boatman must keep the centre of the 
rapids in passing through. Rink Rapids are 
six miles below Five Fingers, and the east shore should 
be followed closely. Old Fort Selkirk, once an im- 
portant trading post, is fifty-five miles from Five Fin- 
gers, and just below the confluence of the Pelly and 
Lewis Rivers. Here the Yukon begins and broadens 
to a mile in width. Ninety-six miles below, the White 
River, a large stream, extremely muddy, enters from 
the west. It probably flows over volcanic deposits. 
Eighty miles farther on is the mouth of Sixty Mile 
Creek, where there is a trading post and sawmill, 
and where a number of miners annually winter. 
Indian Creek enters the Yukon thirty miles be- 
low, and twenty miles from Indian Creek, at the 
mouth of the Klondyke, is Dawson City. Farther 
on, about twenty miles, is the mouth of Forty Mile 
Creek. There is a trading post at its outlet. Circle 
City is 140 miles from Forty Mile Post and Dawson 
City is 676 miles from Juneau. 

The Chilcat Route. 

This pass is the old Indian road or trail. It be- 
gins at Chilkat Inlet and passes over a mountainous 



220 ALASKA. 

way one hundred and twenty-five miles long to its 
opening upon the shore of the Tahkeena River, 
down which you proceed by raft or boat to the Lewis 
River, and thence to the Yukon. The objection to 
this route is the long march from river to river, the 
difficulty of getting pack carriers to go so far and the 
enormous cost if they do, although it has been said 
that it has less laborious climbing than either of the 
other highways, but recently returned miners say many 
obstructions and streams are met with. 

The White Pass or Skaguay Route 

has more recently been considered one of the most im- 
portant ways by which to reach the Yukon, when re- 
deemed from its almost impassable condition, there be- 
ing no good trail. The miners have turned in, in a 
body, and constructed a road over the pass, so that 
hundreds of horses, already there, can be hired for 
transport, but it is as yet closed. The greatest altitude 
in White Pass is about twenty-six hundred feet, while 
it has not the perilous grade of either the Chilkoot or 
Chilcat. The distance across this pass could be made 
in about thirty-five hours, while from it three distinct 
waterways lead to the Yukon, by way of Lake Bennett, 
Windy Arm of the Tagish, or the Tuchi Lake. They are 
all within twenty miles of the crest of the Pass, and the 
descent is not dangerously abrupt. Through any of 
these waters a way could be safely made to the great 



RECENT ROUTES TO GOLD FIELDS. 221 

river. An advantage to be considered in this route 
is the protection afforded in the canyon by the moun- 
tains on either side. Then, too, there are timber lands 
nearly all along the route. It was said that if a road 
was made through the Skaguay Pass that mails miglit 
be carried all through the year, and this seems now 
nearly accomplished. It has been the wagon road, 
which, with the present improvements completed, will 
make it possible to reach Victoria, on Vancouver Is- 
land, or Seattle and Tacoma, in fourteen or fifteen 
days; a most desirable arrangement to all concerned. 

Lake Teslin Route 

will some day become as popular as any road to the 
gold regions. It starts at Fort Wrangel, through 
Telegraph Creek. There is one hundred miles of clear 
boating in the creek, after which the trail traverses one 
hundred and seventy miles over a smooth prairie land, 
until it reaches Lake Teslin. Through this lake you 
enter Hatalinqua or Hootalinqua River, which empties 
into the Lewis River, and thence to the Yukon. The 
greatest obstacle to be encountered by any route that 
leads through the Lewis River is the Five Fingers 
Rapids, in which care is required that nothing may 
be lost in shooting them, which is the only thing to be 
done, if you do not wish to make a laborious journey 
around them. This would embrace hauling cargo and 
boat for a considerable distance. 



22 2 ALASKA. 

Still another proposed route, and one destined to be 
(|iiite favored by the people from British Columbia, is 

The Taku Route, 
which leads through Canadian Territory and over 
more level country than the others from Alaska. It 
has been proposed, but not yet adopted. 

The route pursued by Lieut. Frederick Schwatka, 
in the expedition of 1883, was the same as that fol- 
lowed b)^ travelers now going over the Chilkoot Pass. 
In all paths it must be remembered that there are 
dangers entirely beyond the ken of men and women 
who live in the East. Cold, hunger and illness are 
almost certain companions, while the vast extent of 
territory covered, embraces climates diverse and dan- 
gerous to persons nurtured in city homes or in Eastern 
mild regions. 

A Schwatka exploring party of seven started from 
Portland, Oregon, in May, 1883, going by the inland 
passage to Chilkoot Inlet, or the present route by way 
of Dyea. After crossing the glacier-clad mountains 
and reaching the lakes or head waters, they constructed 
a raft and on it passed down to the Lewis River, then 
down the Yukon all the way to its mouth, in Bering 
Sea, returning by the Aleutian Islands. 

A Canoe Route from Dease Lake. 

From Edmonton you can go north on the Peace 
River, through 400 miles of unknown territory to 



RECENT ROUTES TO GOLD FIELDS. 223 

Liard, then through Dease Lake to the Pelly River, 
which joins the Lewis River near Fort Selkirk and 
forms the Yukon. It is 700 miles above Dawson City, 
and about 100 miles above the Stewart River. 

This will very likely become the cattle trail of the 
future, although it will be impossible to make the drive 
through in one season. A stop will have to be made 
about half way, and the cattle wintered; fortunately 
there is plenty of food to be found en route. 

Surveys for American and Canadian railroads are in 
contemplation and will soon be completed no doubt to 
the Yukon. Several other new routes are under con- 
sideration likewise. t 



CHAPTER XXXII. 

International Law as Affecting Alaska. 

THE decision of the learned tribunal, who were 
called upon to settle the question of the United 
States' right to Bering Sea, has passed into a 
position as one against which there can be no appeal. 
Therefore all that can be done is to take it in its rela- 
tion to all bodies of water of the same description. The 
question being legally decided by an international com- 
mission, it naturally follows that the decison must bear 
the same weight in other countries as in this, and all such 
bodies of water are forever open to every nation with 
out reserve, provided the three mile limit is rigidly 
respected. 

That the honorable Commissioners held no other 
points, under advisement than the Republic's right, so 
far as controlling the seal fisheries in the Sea, must be 
understood, because had they considered the breadth 
over which their conclusion would reach they would 
possibly have made different provision respecting the 
possession of those animals. In reading the article 
upon this subject written by Russell Duane, Esq., and 
published in the "American Law Register and Re- 
view," I find the position, I originally took regarding 
the matter, most ably and consistently upborne. He 
says, 'Tt is, perhaps, not too much to say that no 
224 




Alaskan Landscape and Water Way, 



INTERNATIONAL LAW FOR ALASKA. 225 

court of greater dignity has ever sat to administer 
justice at any period in the history of the world. 
Hence when such a tribunal decides a legal cjuestion, 
or enumerates a proposition of international law, rules 
and principles so laid down must be regarded thence- 
forth as altogether removed from the sphere of con- 
troversy." 

When England so forced the matter as to practi- 
cally compel the United States to submit to arbitra- 
tion, neither she, nor the other nations involved in the 
controversy, seem to have noted that their own pre- 
rogatives were also being weighed and that the same 
justice that opened Bering Sea to the world, also un- 
locked the British Channel, the North Sea, the Bay of 
Biscay, the Bay of Fvmdy and all other such branches 
of the great oceans. For no more are those waters 
inclosed than are the waters of Bering Sea, with the 
Aleutian Chain of Islands holding it in between Rus- 
sia and America. 

No one can suppose that the seals, whose fur is 
valuable only so long as it holds the lead as a fashion- 
able article of commerce, could have been the true and 
only cause for such a graridly organized discussion! 

Tf so, of what value would the law become, when 
fashion changed in her usual fickle manner? 

The seals so released from persecution might multi- 
ply until their numbers became a nuisance, while some 
other animal, or production would possibly come to 
15 



226 ALASKA. 

demand equal importance as a commercial object. 

Here, too, I am supported by Mr. Duane, the de- 
cision, though legally against the United States as to 
possession of the Sea, acts entirely in her favor, as 
to the seals, giving her the riglit over them so long 
as the fur is financially valuable, for when the close 
season opens and the animals claimed to become pub- 
lic property, they are in such condition as to render 
them comparatively valueless. 

Great Britain knew this, and questionably used 
the seal arbitration as a key b)' which the right to Ber- 
ing Sea should be open to the nations of the world in 
general, and herself in particular. 

The right has been gained beyond doubt — now it 
must one day act in reflex fashion, and the powers 
be either compelled to accept_[the prescribed limit in 
the cases of all other except truly inland seas, or else 
a counter-arbitration must be convened and the rights 
to such waters be re-established. In which event 
Russia and the United States would again be the legal- 
ized owners of Bering Sea and its contents. It is true 
that all such water-ways as Bering Sea, the North Sea, 
etc., were once considered State property, as we again 
quote from Mr. Duane's article — "Proprietory rights 
over these seas were not only asserted by the difTerent 
nations, but they were conceded in practice, and in 
many instances they were sanctioned by treaties." 
The Bering Sea arbitration has adjudicated the matter 



INTERNATIONAL LAW FOR ALASKA. 227 

once for all and the great international law which 
opened Bering Sea extends its justice around the 
globe. The three mile limit, really so mentioned be- 
cause it was a descriptive clause to the expression 
"a cannon shot," has at last, after hundreds of years 
of tacit legality, become a fixed line of demarkation, 
inside of which each nation has a right to protect its 
property and to demand indemnity for the infringe- 
ment of its prerogative over everything contained 
therein. Did the Commission lose sight of the fact 
that a modern cannon shot has multiphed the distance 
from shore to twice or thrice three miles ? Can it be 
possible that in war an attacking vessel may not be 
bombarded from the coast until she has reached the 
three mile line? If so what country may not have 
her sea board devastated, her ports laid in ruins, her 
coast towns swept from existence? Surely the so- 
called Bering Sea decision has opened the way to 
other discussion in comparison with which sealing is 
trivial. Under the three mile limit, a coast city is 
helpless after the blockading squadron has stationed 
itself in front. At any provocation the vessels' guns 
could soon devastate the city, while modern cannon, 
which should, by right of ancient custom, have marked 
the line from shore, would send missiles far beyond the 
blockading fleet, leaving it to carry on the destruction 
almost unmolested. In such light it must be conceded 
that there must be some grand international contro- 



228 ALASKA. 

versy toward ratifying a limit compatible with the 
progressive science of this later century. Conceded 
that the United States practically gained the point 
concerning the live property in Bering Sea, still her 
dignity as a nation has been impugned in that she 
claimed that to which she was not entitled according 
to the Commission on Arbitration. 

Now it is her prerogative to bring every point into 
view upon ^\'hich she based that claim. Did she not pay 
indemnity to Canada for the bait taken by her fisher- 
men within three miles of the Canadian coast? Does 
she not know that England has controlled, without 
molestation, the seas and channels upon which her 
group of islands lie? Did not Venice dominate the 
Adriatic, France the Bay of Biscay? England has 
forced the Hollanders to accede to her demand con- 
cerning the North Sea, in support of which the sea 
line was extended almost ad libitum. 

Having obtained the courteous permission of Rus- 
sell Duane, Esq., to quote from his article bearing 
upon the subject in question, I find it peculiarly inter- 
esting. 

This point is well explained in his article on the 
"Sayward Case." as follows: "History shows that 
large portions of the high seas were treated as lying 
within the territorial domains of different States, and 
that these restrictions have been but partially re- 
moved. As recently as the seventeenth century, pro- 



fNTE/^X.l TrONAL LA IV FOR ALASKA. 229 

prietary rights were both claimed and exercised by 
Venice over the Adriatic, by France over the Bay 
of Biscay, by England over the British Channel and 
North Sea, and by Denmark over the broad stretch 
of ocean which lies between Iceland and the coast of 
Norway. Hall's International Law, page 126. These 
rights were not only conceded in practice, but in many 
instances they were sanctioned by treaty." 

In fact, from certain uncontrovertible data cited by 
the same authority, a nation's jurisdiction has been, 
according to various circumstances, contracted to 
three miles, or elongated to "five, six, nine, twelve, fif- 
teen, sixty, ninety or one hundred miles. It has been 
measured by common range, and by two days' sail- 
ing," by the distance from shore touched by the line 
of the horizon, and by the soundings, which upon 
some coasts are subjected to annual changes from 
storms and tides. 

Taking the quoted authority, as late as 1890, the 
legal regulations, regarding the pearl fisheries of Cey- 
lon, extend from six to twenty miles out to sea. 
Italy controls the sea in which the coral fisheries are 
located, as far out as fifteen miles from Sardinia, 
twenty-one and thirty-two miles from the southwest 
coast of Sicily. South America governs thirty miles 
from Panama, the French seven miles from the coast 
of Algiers and Mexico concedes six miles in its grants 
regarding pearl fisheries near Lower California, while 



230 ALASKA. 

Great Britain regulates the oyster fisheries off the 
coast of Ireland for twenty miles from land and the 
Scotch herring fisheries, thirty miles from the shore. 

Norway dominates thirty-two miles for her whaling 
interests in the Arctic Ocean, and Russia claims for 
the hair sail industry a line of fifty-three miles from 
the shore in the White Sea. 

This able international lawyer shows that the United 
States put forth all of these as support to her claim 
in the Bering Sea, yet in pursuance of all such proven 
facts, her plea was pronounced of no avail, and the 
jurisdiction of the Sea was withdrawn from her au- 
thority, consequently from that of Russia also, for it 
cannot be that one nation can hold possession of one- 
half of the body of water while the other goes free. 
The prescribed limit of sixty miles from the Pribylov 
Islands can never be cited as a case in point touching 
other questions of water territory, for the season in 
which she may hold that power is limited, and the 
vast area outside of the islands, though washing 
around these Alaskan Islands and along the north- 
western coast of Alaska has been pronounced free 
outside the three miles limit to all nations, except as a 
feeding area for mother seals, for sixty miles. 

Suppose that a ranchman owning a great number 
of cattle, should allow them to wander over vast areas 
of unclaimed territory during certain seasons, could 
any one legally take possession of them? Would they 



INTERNATIONAL LAW FOR ALASKA. 231 

not be his as truly as when they are in their own stock 
yards ? 

The Pacific in this case is equivalent to the prairie, 
the seals to cattle, and the United States must natur- 
ally be allowed equal rights of possession. 

It follows then that without any further disputa- 
tion, United States vessels have a right to trade just 
outside of three miles from any coast without inter- 
vention. She paid thousands of dollars of indemnity 
once as a requirement, and she made such a sacrifice 
of money in extenuation of her honor as jeopardized 
by a few fishermen. The seals are to all intents and 
purposes protected, if England holds to her side of 
the arrangement. If not, the industry is once more 
endangered and the United States crippled by the 
limitation of her jurisdiction over them. Looking 
forward, as the matter now stands, sooner or later 
the animals are doomed. 

So far as the limit concerns other seas, the United 
States is not at all likely to become aggressive, even 
though supported as she is by the new international 
law. Her vessels will not fish off the Irish or Scotch 
coasts, nor interfere with the old time jurisdiction over 
the pearl and coral beds. She simply stands corrected 
with regard to Bering Sea without any idea of retali- 
ation or disputation. But the lesson has sunk into the 
very core of the national heart, there to be held as a 
reminder of the verdict pronounced against her pre- 



232 ,I/..ISA-.I. 

rogatives as compared with those of her opponent ii: 
the legal strife, and a mentor against giving voice 
to any such question again. With the utmost respect 
to every individual and nation represented in the Com 
mission, the United States would not have submitted 
the matter to any party, however noble and true, had 
s'he not felt entirely satisfied that her claim would be 
supported. In pursuance of every dignified argument 
she was thwarted and left without the slightest sup- 
port to her platforms, as regards possession of the 
former Russian Sea. She is, however, now showing 
earnestly and consistently how her rights in the seal 
herds should be upheld. 

And before very long a Pacific fleet of modern ves- 
sels, equipped for protection will doubtless patrol the 
ocean so far beyond the international limitation as to 
guard the coast and our islands. These guardians 
must extend their course up into the Sea, even to 
Bering Strait, the slender water way between Siberia 
and Alaska. For to-day the reindeer has become a 
most important object of commerce between two na- 
tions, and this must be most carefully guarded for the 
sake of the natives of both from whom the whale 
and walrus have been taken without any proper 
return. As the coast natives of the far north were 
almost entirely dependent upon those animals, not 
only foir personal sustenance, but for traffic with the 
interior tribes, so must both parties now depend upon 



INTERNATIONAL LAW FOR ALASKA. 233 

something else, and this demand seems undoubtedly 
to have been met in the reindeer. Therefore, we are 
ably supported in claiming that the growing indus- 
try, in the direction of these deers, should be very 
quickly and carefully protected by sound, properly 
manned and equipped vessels, whose presence alone 
will secure safety. 

A warlike nation the United States will never prob- 
ably become, but a greater commercial power she 
must of necessity be, because of her increasing popu- 
lation and the demand made upon her industries for 
their support. With this eud in view, all adulteration 
in the manufacture of any article whatsoever, should 
be legislated against and made punishable by United 
States authority. Let every material, every manufac- 
tured article, whether wool or cotton, iron or steel, 
liquid or produce, be what they are represented, thus 
the country must be honored and the commerce aug- 
mented. When native wines are always found pure 
beyond question, even Italy and France will pur- 
chase. When canned goods are found to contain 
nothing but the best fruit and vegetables and other 
articles the demand from other countries will test 
the production, and very little will be left to sell 
cheaper at the end of the season. 

By so dealing in nothing but the very best products, 
this country will one day be able to require interna- 
tional legislation regarding return articles of com- 



2 34 ALASKA. 

merce, and the whole world will be the better by fol- 
lowing the same method. We will then have pure 
goods for food and drink, first-class manufactures 
and no flaws in the important products used in the 
numerous industries upon which the millions depend 
for a livelihood. Let no imperfect productions go 
from any part of the Union unless they are so marked 
and the value set accordingly. Let no spurious 
imitation of a good article be placed on sale, 
unless its condition is acknowledged and its 
price made consistent with its worth. Aim at 
manufacturing such classes of every commercial 
item that the name alone shall be the watch word of 
its success. To attain this end every firm and every 
workman must take the motto — Make nothing but 
the best — and the day will come when every country 
— even distant India and exclusive China — will turn 
to this country perfectly willing to make interchange 
of their best commercial productions for those made 
under the supervision of the United States, whose 
name alone will be the guarantee of their value. So 
long as the fur seals exist, the United States will be en- 
titled to her share of them. So by abiding by the legal 
practice of taking only the young males, the trade in 
furs must far surpass in value that engaged in by those 
who obtain the skins by pelagic sealing, and in such 
case the true owners will have the credit of the super- 
ior article. Thus even in that matter the best will be 



INTERNATIONAL LAW FOR ALASKA. 235 

the standard, and the poorer furs will be practically 
forced from the market. 

Having firmly established a true value status for 
all out-going articles, the reasonableness of a request 
for an international law regarding all commercial 
wares would be accepted and the interchange of noth- 
ing but standard goods permitted, while all adultera- 
tions, imitations and faulty articles would be retained 
in its producing country, thus carrying out in the 
commerce of the world a consistent quarantine against 
spurious goods or those of less value than their trade 
mark insured, just as we long ago advocated regard- 
ing international quarantine of contagious diseases, 
whereb}' the countries in which they emanate will re- 
tain them upon their own ground as strenuously as the 
nations of the earth will close their doors against their 
advent. So if each nation will send out none but the 
best goods for the value, and retain at home all others, 
and at the same time place a safe guard upon the 
health of the nations with which it holds communica- 
tion, by holding back contagion, the question of peace, 
plenty and national unity for right, will be answered 
to the honor and interest of all concerned. 



CHAPTER XXXIII. 

The Climate of Alaska — Its Healthfulness. 

THE apparent contradictions shown by different 
writers upon the agricidtural, atmospheric, ch- 
matic, and topographic conditions of Alaska 
may be readily explained by taking a panoramic view 
of the country, whose vastness alone is greatly the 
cause of seeming incongruities. 

As we have taken occasion to mention in a previous 
chapter, the temperature of the southeastern coast 
and the adjacent islands is largely influenced by the 
Japan current — Kura siwo. Its warmth acts in such 
a manner as to force vegetation rapidly upon the is- 
lands, particularly upon their shores on the southern 
and western sides, and in like manner the southeastern 
margin of the mainland. Take Sitka as an example. 
The little city is situated on a fertile island, surrounded 
by a beautiful bay or sound. In Sitka there is no ex- 
treme of cold in winter, and though the snow falls 
heavily at times, it only lodges deeply on the over- 
looking peaks, where it remains in rifts and patches 
nearly all the year, but when it reaches the earth in the 
warm valleys it begins to melt almost immediately. 
Such places as that upon which the capital is built are 
therefore perennially green. For this reason it has 
236 



THE CLIMATE Oh ALASKA. 237 

been predicted that the grass grown plains, which 
slope down from the peaks and promontories, will one 
day produce the best grass and dairy cattle in the far 
North-West. the wild grasses grow in such luxuriance 
and profusion. Truth leads us to the pleasant task of 
repeating again and again that the islands and contig- 
uous mainlands of the archipelago are most exqui- 
sitely beautiful while the summer days of June, 
July and August make their loveliness fairly radiant, 
and at that time the climate is almost ideal, for those 
who are inclined to summer weather; but after that 
the perpetual humidity is quite objectionable, and very 
unsuitable for those whose health requires rather the 
dry, healing atmosphere of higher altitudes, or those 
more distant from the sea. At the same time that 
class of sufferers from pulmonary diseases, to whom 
the moist climate of the Gulf States would be ex- 
tremely benign, but for the danger from the malarious 
air and the extreme heat, would most probably find the 
surroundings of this portion of Alaska quite suitable 
to their condition. A great feature in favor of the 
several distinct climates of the Territory is the extraor- 
dinary purity of the atmosphere, from which the winds 
and snows of the mountains and glacier portions, and 
the rains of the coast country, wash out the par- 
ticles of dust and possible germs of most diseases. 
The consequence is that the days which are blest with 
sunshine are more wonderfully clear and radiant than 



238 ALASKA. 

in Italy itself. There being no dust, the blue of the 
sky and the colors of sunrise and sunset are prismat- 
ically pure and brilliant, giving not only to the eyes, 
but to the inmost soul a glimpse of loveliness. 

It has been truthfully asserted that pulmonary and 
scrofulous diseases prevail among the natives but the 
country cannot be justly held accountable for these 
conditions. In the first place morality was at a very 
low ebb previous to the work of the missions and 
schools, and it still continues to be so except where 
their influence has made rapid progress toward a bet- 
ter state of affairs. In the second, their universally 
miserable manner of living — feasting one time, and 
almost starving the remainder of the year — greatly 
aided the development of imported, and probably in- 
nate disease. But the proof is to be seen that as they 
accept civilization with all of its improvements, clean- 
liness not the least important in the calendar, the gen- 
eral health is also benefited. Therefore, it is unjust to 
attribute to the climate those evils that in great part 
belong to the above mentioned causes. 

With enlightenment comes to them the kind of food 
which will produce heat and development. With that 
there will develop more activity, and the esquimaux 
men, women and children once congregated in under- 
ground huts, with perpetually burning blubber, clog- 
ging their lungs and intellect, with only sufificient air 
to support life, will find themselves able to face the 



THE CLIMATE OF ALASKA. 239 

weather long enough at least, to take in sufficient 
ozone to energize and raise them a little above their 
former state. It must not be blamed upon the cold 
climate, that they have acquired and cultivated to an 
alarming fatality the disease germs that this very at- 
mosphere would destroy if permitted. Instead of the 
race being delicate, we should count it very hardy, 
having existed for ages under such adverse condi- 
tions. We believe that if these people are given warm 
houses in which to live, and proper food and fuel that 
their progeny will yet prove a great factor in the fu- 
ture prosperity of the country. That men and women 
can go from our Eastern and Middle States and not 
only exist, but prosper and grow fond of their sta- 
tions, even so far as the cold of the Arctic Circle, de- 
monstrates to what the natives may come, when their 
surroundings are made conducive to real human 
health and comfort. Properly protected, cold weather 
is not at all opposed to health. It rather braces and 
invigorates, when extremes of exposure and hardship 
are avoided, and met with careful regard to food and 
rest. The race for wealth must not drive humanity 
beyond its strength, which if husbanded would grow 
more enduring in this unvitiated atmosphere upon 
which neither smoke, impure dust, nor disease has 
as yet left a taint. 

If men and women will inform themselves of their 
natural tendencies, with regard to lung, heart or other 



240 ALASKA, 

weaknesses, and by these be guided either to remain 
in the vernal, humid coast districts, or to cHmb into 
the rarified atmosphere of the snow capped mountains 
and glacier swept hills and mesas, there will be no 
higher death rate in Alaska than in any other coun- 
try with like topographic and atmospheric conditions. 
Man has received the gift of intelligence and with 
its educated use he need not suffer inconvenience 
or illness in that naturally disease-proof land, whose 
very riches prove that it was not intended by its All- 
Wise Creator to remain forever an uncultivated waste. 
Why should it be so when even on the glacial "mo- 
raines, wherever a patch of earth is visible, some 
flower or perhaps a berry bearing vine appears to 
grace the spot? Every traveler of note has remarked 
upon the luxuriant growth of flowers, grass and tim- 
ber, wnthin the beautiful land, upon the one side, as 
they grow enthusiastic over its mountain grandeur on 
the other. Taking an impartial view of the climates 
of the several districts, or we say latitudes, of Alaska, 
to people who can dwell comfortably all the year 
round on the wind-swept, wave-washed, rain-drenched 
coast of Scotland, or on the wild coasts of our own 
Eastern States, Alaska, on its Pacific side, would be 
quite accommodating both as to temperature and 
barometer. Those who delight in swift changes would 
find them exquisitely suitable at Sitka, while Juneau 
being cooler is less humid. Besides its solid moun- 



THE CIJMATE OF ALASKA. 241 

tain background gi'eatly protects it from extremes. 
Inland, where the region of winter extends througii 
more than haU' the year, there are no less desirable 
locations for, a grand oil)-, or cities. The land upon 
which St. Petersburg is situated in frosty Russia, and 
the trades u])on which the natives of Russia and Si- 
beria flourish would be e(|ually prosperous here. In 
fine, if mankind will make wise selections with regard 
to health and business location, being careful to make 
no overestimate of his powers of endiu'ance, there will 
soon be loud necessity for municipalities, instead of 
small, ill constructed villages. Let suitable homes 
and surroundings be provided before the magic greed 
of gold has stolen the energies and overtaxed both 
brain and heart and there will soon be progress and 
refinement, as well as wealth in the coming cities of 
Alaska, while her rich pastures and evanescent, but 
fruitful summer, assisted by her immense fishing inter- 
ests and augmented commerce, will provide abun- 
dantly for her increasing population. 



16 



CHAPTER XXXIV. 

Missions. 

FROM the starting point at St. Michaels we 
find mission stations all along the route; even- 
up to the gold fields of the creeks in the 
source of the Great Yukon and all along its shores. 
Eighty miles north of the upper mouth, in Bering Sea, 
at St. Michaels, is one of the oldest missions, a Greek 
Catholic Church, established by the Russians. 

A Greek Mission was formed at Kadiak in 1799, 
though a mission school was established in 1792. In 
1823, Innocentius Veniaminoff took charge of a sta- 
tion, and to this day his name is revered among the 
people of the Greek Church. In 1869 the Russians 
claimed seven mission stations in the Territory with 
a membership of 12,140 members. 

In 1877, Rev. Sheldon Jackson began a mis- 
sion at Fort Wrangel in the name of the Presbyterian 
Church. The indefatigable work of this man, for the 
benefit of Alaska, cannot be easily computed. Sufifice it 
to say that there are now ten Presbyterian Stations, 
namely: Wrangel, Killisnoo, Juneau, Haines, Hoo- 
nah, Sitka, Klawok, Jackson, Point Barrow and Met- 
lakahtla. This denomination has recently sent two 
missionaries to the head waters of the Yukon, from 
242 



MISSIONS. 243 

there to drift to the mining camps and estabhsh 
churches as they may deem advisable in that field of 
labor. The Rev. S. Hall Young was the first chosen, 
the second was the Rev. Geo. McEwen, both young, 
vigorous men having had much experience among 
the Alaskans and their modes of living. Both have 
also been engaged in missionary work at Atlantic 
Coast Missionary Stations. 

The Government receives annually a full report of 
all mission stations in Alaska and their status at the 
time the report is made. 

There are eight Greek Catholic Stations — Killisnoo, 
Juneau, Sitka, St. Michaels, Unalaska, Belkofski, 
Ikogmut, and Oogavagamute. Five Roman Catholic 
— Koserefski, Okagamute, Cape Vancouver, Nulato 
and Kusilvak. One Congregational at Cape Prince of 
Wales. One Quaker at Douglas Island. Two Meth- 
odist — Unalaska and Onga. Four Moravian — Ooga- 
vagamute, Bethel, Quinehaha and Carmel. Three 
Swedish Evangelical — Golovin Bay, Unalaklik and 
Yakutat. One Baptist, Kadiak. : Four Episcopal, 
— Anvik, Point Hope, Fort Adams, and St. James 
Mission, making at least Forty-one and possibly 
more missions at active work among the natives and 
aliens of Alaska. 

At Nuklaket, on the Yukon River, is situated the 
most distant and most lonely mission in Alaska. It is 
an Episcopal Mission named St. James, and conducted 



244 ALASKA. 

by Rev. Jules L. Prevost, who having- established it, 
came East on a visit and retnrncd with a carefullv se- 
lected outfit for a house, a hospital and a chapel. He 
was accompanied by his bride, who bravely went out 
by his side, to face the dangers and adversities of his 
calling in the Arctic country. 

The cold may be partly realized when it is told that 
Mr. Prevost had a thermometer specially made that 
could register 90 degrees below zero F. ; anything 
much above that being practically quite useless at 
limes in the winter climate of that district. 

The census of 1890 gave the Territory a population 
of 30,329, of whom 4,416 were white. It is probable 
that the white population has more than doubled in 
the intervening years. Prosperity has unquestion- 
ably marked every undertaking. The press, the 
steamers and the missions have brought the once un- 
known land into fair communication with the great 
outside world. Such a thing as going back to pris- 
tine obscurity is utterly impossible, so it remains that 
Government, business men and people shall all unite 
in the determination to uphold the good, out-general 
the bad and make of Alaska a wonderfully law abiding 
and progressive State as well as one of the most 
wealthy districts in the world. Not only in gold, but 
in coal, copper, oil. furs, and last, but none the less 
important and lucrative, fish, which abounds in count- 
less numbers and various qualities and kinds, but all 



MISSIONS. 245 

good and most desirable as food for millions of in- 
habitants of the United States. 

Unite with all of this a native population disposed 
to perfect friendliness, with such isolated cases to 
the contrary that they are not worth recording, and 
the men and women who wish to colonize Alaska, 
may find both homes and lucrative employment, 
though they never reach the El Dorado or Klondyke 
section, that has made the Territory so popular to-day. 

Teachers and Employees in Church Mission Schools 

IN 1896. 

EpiscopaUans. 

Point Hope.— ]. B. Driggs, M.D., Rev. H. E. Edson. 

Anvik. — Rev. and Mrs. J. W. Chapman, Miss Bertha W. 
Sabine. 

Fort Adams. — Rev. and Mrs. Jules L. Prevost, Mary V. Glen- 
ton, M.D. 

Juneau — Rev. Henry Beer. 

Douglas Is /and. —'Rev. A. J. Campbell. 

Sitka. — Bishop Peter Trimble Rowe. 

Congrega tiona I. 
Cape Prince of Wales. — Mr. and Mrs. W. T. Lopp, Rev. and 

Mrs. Thomas Hanna. 

Swi -dish E7uxngelical. 
Kotzebue Sound. — Rev. David Johnson, and Rock, a native 

assistant. 
Golovin Bay. — Rev. August Anderson, Rev. and Mrs. N. O. 

Hultberg, and Dora, a native assistant. 
Unalaklik. — Rev. and Mrs. A. E. Karlson, Miss Malvina 

Johnson. 



246 ALASKA. 

Kangekosook. — Stephan Ivanoff. 

Koyuk. — Mr. Frank Kameroff. 

Yakiitat. — Rev. and Mrs. Albin Johnsen, Rev. K. J. Hen- 
dricksen, Miss Selma Peterson, Miss Hulda C. Peterson. 
Roman Catholic. 

Kosyrevsky. — Rev. Paschal Tosi, S.J., prefect apostolic of 
Alaska ; Rev. R. Crimont, S. J.; and Brothers Rosati, S. J.; 
Marchesio, S.J.; Cunningham, S. J.; Sisters M. Stephen, 
M. Joseph, M. Winfred, M. Anguilbert, M. Helvise, and 
M. Damascene. 

Nulato. — Rev. A. Ragaru, S. J.; Rev. Y . Monroe, S. J., and 
Brother Giordano, S. J. 

Shagcluk. — Rev. William Judge, S. J. 

Ur/i/uriiiitfi', Ki/skokwiin River. — Rev. A. Robant, S. K. 

St. Josephs, Yukon Delta. — Rev. J. Treca, S. J.; Rev. A. Parodi, 
S. J.; Rev. F. Barnum, S. J.; Brothers Twohigg, S. J.; and 
Negro, S. J., and Sisters M. Zypherine, M. Benedict, M. 
Prudence, and M. Pauline. 

Juneau. — Rev. J. B. Rene and Sisters Mary Zeno, M. Peter, 
and M. Bousecour. 

Moravians. 

Bethel. — Rev. and Mrs. John H. Kilbuck, Mr. and Mrs. Ben- 
jamin Helmick, Miss Mary Mack, Mr. and Mrs. J. H. 
Romig, M.D. 

Quiegaluk. — Mr. Ivan Harrison (Eskimo). 

Tulaksaga))iutc. — Mr. and Mrs. David Skuviuk (Eskimos). 

Kalchkachagamute. — Mr. and Mrs. George Nukachluk (Es- 
kimos). 

Akaigamiut. — Mr. Neck (Eskimo). 

Ugavig. — Rev. and Mrs. Ernst L. Webber. 

Quinehaha. — Mr. L. Kawagleg and Mr. and Mrs. Harvey 
Suruka (Eskimos). 

Cannel. — Rev. and Mrs. John Schoechert, Rev. S. H. Rock, 
Misses Mary and Emma Huber, Miss P. C. King. 



MISSIONS. 247 

Methodist Episcopal. 
Una/aska. — Miss Agnes S. Sowles, Miss Sarah J. Rinch. 

Friettds. 
Douglas City. — Mr. and Mrs. C. N. Reploge. (No report.) 
Kake. — Mr. and Mrs. S. R. Moon. (No report.) 

Baptists. 
Wood Island. — Rev. and Mrs. Curtis P. Coe, Miss Lulu Good- 
child, and Miss Hattie Snow. 

Presbyterian . 
Point Barrow. — L. M. Stevenson. 
St. Lawrence Island. — Mr. and Mrs. V. C. Gambell. 
Haines. — Rev. and Mrs. W. W. Warne, Miss Anna M. Sheets, 

Miss Fannie H. Willard (native). 
Hoojtah. — Rev. and Mrs. Alvin C. Austin, Mrs. John W. 

McFarland, and Mrs. Mary E. Howell. 
Juneau. — Rev. and Mrs. James H. Condit, Rev. and Mrs. 

L. F. Jones, Miss Sue Davis, Miss M. E. Gould, Mr. and 

Mrs. Frederick Moore (natives). 
Sitka. — Rev. and Mrs. Alonzo E. Austin, Mr. and Mrs. U. P. 

Shull, Dr. B. K. Wilbur, Mrs. E. C. Heizer, Mrs. M. A. 

Saxman, Mrs. A. Carter, Mrs. L. S. Wallace, Miss A. J. 

Manning, Mrs. T. K. Paul (native), Mr. P. Solberg. 
Fort Wrangel. — Rev. and Mrs. Clarence Thwing. 
Jackson. — Rev. and Mrs. J. Loomis Gould, Mrs. A. R. 

McFarland. 

Church of England. 
Bii.vton. — Bishop and Mrs. Bompas, Rev. Frederick F. Fle- 

welling, Miss MacDonald, Mr. R. J. Bowen. 
Fort Selkirk. — Rev. and Mrs. B. Totty. 
Rampart House. — Rev. and Mrs. H. A. Naylor, Rev. and 

Mrs. T. H. Canham. 



From Rev. Sheldon Jackson's annual report as Educa- 
tional Superintendent in Alaska. 



CHAPTER XXXV. 

Education in Alaska. 

TO the missionaries of the Greek Church, as the 
pioneer religion of Russian America, and after- 
ward to other religious denominations, of which 
the Presbyterian undoubtedly took the lead, the pres- 
ent progress of education in Alaska is unquestionably 
due. But religious enterprises, unaided, were not 
sufhciently strong to cope with the ignorance that 
embraced the whole vast Territory. That the very 
people who should have aided the churches in their 
task should have worked directly against them is 
very greatly blamable for their dif-ficulties. The 
natives could not comprehend how men, coming 
from the same countries, speaking the same language 
and in all outward figure resembling the good men 
who worked for their salvation, should give to them 
vices worse than those to which their unregenerate 
natures were accustomed. It did not reach their intelli- 
gence until debauchery and drunkenness had seized 
and wound around them with all their unwholesome 
fascinations. Thus the contentions with the evils that 
were, and those that were transported by unconscion- 
able traders made the task so arduous that many a 
good man yielded up the struggle, sometimes only 
248 



ED UCA TION IN ALASKA. 249 

with his life. The Russian Government gave full sup- 
port to the Greek Church in its every effort for the 
conversion of the people, and, toiling against fearful 
odds, the most of their mission stations still remain. 
Jn 1792 the first school was formed by Gregory Sheli- 
koff. who rightly conjectured that secular education 
would aid mission work. This school was established 
on Kadiak Island, which was for years the capital of 
Alaska. Later another school was started in a small 
way at St. Paul's Harbor, and was continued under 
the supervision of the Alaska Trading Company, while 
it held sway over the fur-seal industry. Since then 
it has been in the care of the Government, under Dr. 
Sheldon Jackson, who is the Chief Superintendent of 
Education in Alaska. There are now fourteen schools 
in the Territory all under Government supervision. 
These are irrespective of the numerous missions before 
mentioned. One of the most important of these is 
the Sitka Industrial School, to which Captain Henry 
Glass, of the United States Steamer Jamestown, gave 
such an impetus in 1881. He took upon himself to 
look into matters with the determination of finding 
the causes of the inconsistent manner in which the na- 
tives received the benefits ofifered by the school. He 
found rum one of the chief objects against education. 
Children were sent to school a while, and then re- 
moved, girls particularly being derelict. He soon dis- 
covered that the children were being sold, debauched 



250 ALASKA. 

or married for the sake of gain to obtain the liquor. 
With no delay he abolished the sale of molasses, with 
which the natives had soon learned to make fire-water 
— hoo-chinoo, a despicable intoxicant. He would not 
permit whiskey to enter the port however labelled; and 
he introduced a system of marking, or labelling the 
houses, having the children of each designated by a 
corresponding tablet, made of tin, and fastened by a 
string around the child's neck. At the opening of 
school each ' child was registered, the delinquents 
looked after, and if no good reason for absence was 
given there was a small fine collected. He also organ- 
ized a native police force, marking them with James- 
town in bright letters on their caps and silver stars 
on their breasts. This discipline gave an impetus to 
the work so long ago begun by the missionaries, and 
education started in earnest in Sitka. 

Now in this school, and in the one at Haines, in fact, 
in nearly all, a system of training is carried on, with the 
ordinary lessons of the day schools. Excellent teach- 
ers are in the lead, and girls are taught all kinds of 
domestic employment, while the boys stand back with 
pride in the brown and smiling faces as the carpenter- 
ing, smithing, building and improving is credited to 
their toil. It is really true that a greater part of the 
work on additional buildings is the handiwork of the 
boys of the diiiferent schools. They are not only ca- 
pable of building, but of protecting the precious 



EDUCA TION IN ALASKA. 251 

wooden structures, and the fire brigades are among 
the most admired adjuncts of the schools. 

It is worthy of note that among the Aleuts, or inhabi- 
tants of the Aleutian Islands, which of course includes 
Unalashka the "Boston of Western Alaska" — that cul- 
tivation v/as pretty well commenced before the Terri- 
tory came into our possession, Veniaminoff having 
compiled an Aleutian alphabet and grammar taught 
the natives to read and write quite correctly. It is 
surprising with what alacrity the inhabitants through- 
out Alaska learn the English language, it being con- 
sidered by many foreigners the most difficult of all 
languages. 

There are several fine schools having departments 
particularly devoted to training girls in the common 
school branches, house-keeping, dress-making, plain 
sewing, and especially in morality, the latter being 
expressly necessary because of the dreadful depravity 
to which the sex had been consigned for ages. 

In contrast with the manner of many other people 
upon whom enlightenment is forced, the Alaskans, with 
very few exceptions, are teachable, intelligent and eager 
to learn. They grasp quickly, and remember tena- 
ciously, being willing to give up family, home and al- 
most life itself for the sake of learning. When girls 
are taken from the schools, which happens sometimes, 
they go against their will, being not only opposed to 
the life once absolutely their lot, but conscientiously 



252 . I /..ISA'. I 

unwilling to sin, as well as devotedly attached to 
teachers, school and the duties required of them. 

In Alaska there is not the general wild rush for free- 
dom so universally characteristic of children used to 
civilization. The world of wonders, open to the Indian 
children and even adult scholars, is so fascinating that 
the hour for leaving them is received without any de- 
monstration of delight. To them the search for 
knowledge opens a beautiful vista of intellectual pleas- 
ure. The minds of both youth and more advanced 
age have lain fallow, like the soil of their own val- 
leys, and like it they are ready to take in and nourish 
the seeds planted by their cultivated and honest teach- 
ers. Immediate growth begins. If tares are planted 
it is not the fault of the soil which springs to nourish 
them no more willingly than it would have given vigor 
to wheat. So were the benighted people not blam- 
able when they fell a prey to the vices imported by 
wicked men. The task of uprooting the evil is far 
more difficult than that of implanting the good, but pa- 
tient perseverance is coming to its reward. The sup- 
port and protection of the National Government is 
doing a great deal toward the much desired end. 
Many more schools and missions are needed, how- 
ever, especially in the towns to which the populations 
are wildly rushing. Here it is specially desirable that 
morality be taught to the young, who must grow up in 
nn atmosphere far less pure than the snow-swept 
mountain passes through which they come. 



ED UCA TION IN A LA SKA 253 

A single trait among" the real native?, is their entire 
devotion to the laws and traditions of their ancestors, and 
augurs well for their future respect for wholesome laws, 
when they have been taught and thoroughly con- 
vinced of their necessity to their welfare. In fact, 
even now the majority of law breakers in Alaska are 
not natives at all, for it is a marked characteristic of 
nearly all savage and uncivilized people to respect the 
laws which govern them, and to submit to the punish- 
ment of any infringement without a murmur. 

The principal centres of education thus far are 
the Sitka Industrial School, and the Haines' Training 
School at Chilcat. There are other schools also under 
Government supervision at Juneau, Kadiak, Una- 
lashka, Jackson, St. Paul's and St. George. There is an 
Indian Girls' Training School at Wrangel, in which 
domestic duties are wisely taught, as well as the usual 
every day education. The call is not for better schools 
nor more faithful teachers, but for more of them. There 
should be excellent schools established at every prin- 
cipal point in the Territory, so that the rising gener- 
ation, whose admixture will require it, shall receive 
rigorous discipline and more careful teaching than are 
necessary to the education of the purely native ele- 
ment. Therefore with mining machinery and tools 
for building, let school supplies be forthcom- 
ing, together with the facilities for teaching prop- 
erly, so that there may be no half Christian 



2 54 ALASKA. 

natives to redeem from vice. Educate all as they are 
old enough to learn. Attend to that duty as carefully 
as it is fostered in the States, and then a hardy, intelli- 
gent and industrious race will populate and cultivate 
Alaska. 



CHAPTER XXXVl. 

Canadian Legislation. 

MR. W. OGILVIE, the Dominion Land Sur- 
veyor, who is also officially Chief of the Can- 
adian Government's Corps of Explorers, has 
made full surveys and reported to his government the 
richness of the gold mines on the Klondyke River, 
and his observations as surveyor and explorer are 
considered authentic and accurate by Canadian au- 
thorities, who regard him a capable and conscientious 
officer, and one that would not make any false state- 
ment, or take any financial advantage of the Gov- 
ernment. 

The Canadian Government urges no one to attempt 
the journey to Klondyke after the middle of Septem- 
ber. 

Major Walsh has been placed in charge of the 
Klondyke gold regions, with a force of one hundred 
Mounted Policemen and the officials state that no dis- 
crimination will be made between men of different 
nationalties in the district, and that the regulations 
will not be oppressive and that life will be as safe as in 
large eastern cities. 

While provisions and outfits are at present quite 
high, no doubt next summer goods will be greatly 

255 



256 .ILASk'A. 

diminished in price, as tlie commercial companies in- 
terested in the re<;"ion liave a large amount of all kinds 
of needed supi)lies ready for shipment direct to the 
tOAvns and mines of the gold regions. 

The latest summary of the Canadian, ^'uk()n, and 
Klondyke regions has 1)een issued by the Toronto 
Newspaper Union, in the August. 18(^7. number, of its 
Illustrated Gazetteer as follows: — 

"Miners must enter their claims. Entry can onlv 
be granted for alternate claims, known as creek claims, 
bench claims, bar diggings and dry diggings, and that 
the other alternate claims be reserved for the Crown 
to be disposed of by ])ublic auction or in such manner 
as may be fiecided by the Minister of the Interior. 

"The penalty for trespassing upon a claim re- 
served for the Crown will be the immediate cancella- 
tion of any entry or entries which the person trespass- 
ing has obtained, whether by original, or entry, or pur- 
chase, for a mining claim, and the refusal by the Gold 
Commissioner of any application which the trespasser 
may make at any time for claims, and that the 
Mounted Police, upon requisition from the Gold' Com- 
missioner, shall expel the offender from Canadian soil. 

' ' Upon all gold mined on the claim referred to in the 
regulation for the government of placer mining along 
the Yukon River and its tributaries, a royalty of 10 
per cent, shall be levied and collected by officers, to 
be appointed for the purpose, provided that the 




Fine Totem-Wokked Chilkat Coat. 



CANADIAA LEGISLATION. 257 

amount mined and taken from a single claim does not 
exceed $500 per week, and in this case there shall be 
levied and collected a royalty of 10 per cent, upon the 
amount so taken out, up to $500, and upon the excess 
or amount taken from any single claim over $500 per 
week, there shall be levied and collected a royalty ot 
20 per cent. ; such royalty to form part of the consoli- 
dated revenue, and to be accounted for by the officers 
who collect the same in due course. 

"That the time and manner in which such royalty 
shall be collected and the persons who shall collect the 
same, shall be provided for by regulations to be made 
by the Gold Commissioner, and that the Gold Com- 
missioner be and is hereby given authority to make 
such regulations and rules accordingly. 

"Default of payment of the royalties for ten days, 
shall entail cancellation of the claim. Any attempt to 
defraud the Crown by withholding any part of the 
revenue thus provided for, by making false statements 
of the amount taken out may be punished by cancella- 
tion of the claim, in respect of which fraud or false 
statements have been committed or made; and that 
in respect of facts as to such fraud or false statement 
or non-payment of royalty, the decision of the Gold 
Commissioner shall be final." 

Another order in Council reads as follows: 

"Whereas clause 7 of the regulations governing the 
disposal of placer mines on the Yukon river and its 
17 



258 ALASKA. 

tributaries in the North-West n\rritories. cstablislicd 
by order in Council of the 21st of May, 1897, pro- 
vides that if any person shall discover a new mine, and 
such discovery shall be established to the satisfaction of 
the Gold Commissioner, a claim for 'bar diggings' 750 
feet in length may be granted ; and, whereas, the inten- 
tion was to grant a claim of 750 feet in length to the 
discoverer of the new mine upon a creek or river, and 
not to grant a claim of that length for 'bar diggings,' 
His Excellency, by and with the advice of the Queen's 
Privy Council for Canada, is pleased to order that 
clause 7 of the said regulations governing the dis- 
posal of placer mines on the Yukon River and its trib- 
utaries shall be and the same is hereb}- amended, so 
that the above grant to a discoverer may apply to 
creek and river claims instead of to 'bar diggings.' " 

Canadian Mining Regulations. 

If a claim is located within 10 miles of the Gold 
Commissioner's Office, it must be recorded within 
three days, but a day extra will be allowed for an addi- 
tion ten miles or more. The entry fee is $15 for the 
first year and after that $10 a year. 

Entry must be made in the name of the applicant 
who has staked the claim. 

No post must be removed by the holder or any one 
interested after it has been recorded. 

A grant, for placer mining, must be renewed every 
year and the entry fee paid annually. 



CANADIAA LEGISLATION. 259 

No miner can receive a grant for more than one 
claim in the same locality unless it is purchased. 

A number of miners can make arrangements to 
work their claims together, but they must register at 
the Gold Commissioner's Office and pay a fee of $5 
each. 

A miner may sell, mortgage or dispose of his claim 
and a certificate of title will be given him by the Gold 
Commissioner on registering and paying a fee of $5. 

A miner, holding a grant, has the exclusive right of 
entry on his claim for working purposes and the con- 
struction of his home and to all the proceeds obtained, 
but no surface rights are granted him. 

As much water running through or past a claim 
as the Gold Commissioner thinks necessary can be 
used by the miner if not othen\'ise lawfully appro- 
priated. He can drain his own claim free of charge. 

Unless sickness, permission for absence or some 
other cause prevents the grantee, or some one ordered 
by him, from working on working days for 72 hours, 
the claim shall be considered abandoned and open 
for any person to enter and occupy. 



CHAPTER XXXVII. 

Alaskan Legislation. 

IN going over the volumes containing the various acts 
in reference to Alaska and its government and the 
appropriation for carrying out the provisions of 
these laws passed b}' the Congresses since 1 867 , I find 
they would make a large volume of themselves. 

Therefore I will make only such selections as are 
deemed of special interest to the readers in connection 
with the scope of this work. 

Even the making of the appended list of the laws 
passed and where they may be found for reference has 
been an arduous task, but the aim has been accuracy 
throughout. 

The Alaskan Purchase. 

In order that the reader may accurately understand 
the terms of the Alaska purchase I have had a copy 
made of the original document from the Government's 
revised statutes. Other enactments by Congress, as 
far as we think they will interest the reader upon this 
subject, have been obtained and inserted, from ex- 
tracts bearing upon the subject named. 

Cession of the Russian possessions in North 
America, by his Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias 
to the United States of America; concluded March 
260 



ALASKAN LEGISLA TION. 261 

30, 1867; ratified by the United States May 28, 1867; 
exchanged June 20, 1867; proclaimed by the United 
States June 20, 1867. 

A proclamation by the President of the United 
States ; 

Whereas, a treaty between the United States of 
America and his Majesty the Emperor of all the Rus- 
sias was concluded and signed by their respective 
Plenipotentiaries at the city of Washington, on the 
thirtieth day of March, last, which treaty, being in the 
English and French languages, is, word for word as 
follows : 

The United States of America and His Majesty the 
Emperor of all the Russias, being desirous of strength- 
ening, if possible, the good understanding which ex- 
ists between them, have, for that purpose, appointed 
as their Plenipotentiaries, the President of the United 
States, William H. Seward, Secretary of State; and 
His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias, the Privy 
Councillor Edward de Stoeckl, his Envoy Extraordi- 
nary and Minister Plenipotentiary to the United States, 

And the said Plenipotentiaries, having exchanged 
their full powers, which were found to be in due form, 
have agreed upon and signed the following articles: 

Article I. 
His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias agrees 
to cede to the United States, by this convention, im- 
mediately upon the exchange of the ratifications 



262 ALASKA. 

thereof, all the territory and dominion now possessed 
by his said Majesty on the continent of America and 
in the adjacent islands, the same being contained 
within the geographical limits herein set forth, to wit: 
The eastern limit is the line of demarkation between 
the Russian and the British possessions in North 
America, as established by the convention between 
Russia and Great Britain, of February 28-16, 1825. 
and described in Articles III and IV of said conven- 
tion, in the following terms: 

''Commencing from the southernmost point of the 
island called Prince of Wales Island, which point lies 
in the parallel of 54 degrees 40 minutes north latitude, 
and between the 131st and the 133d degree of west 
longitude, (meridian of Greenwich,) the said line shall 
ascend to the north along the channel called Portland 
Channel, as far as the point of the continent where it 
strikes the 56th degree of north latitude; from this 
last-mentioned point, the line of demarkation shall fol- 
low^ the summit of the mountains situated parallel to 
the coast, as far as the point of intersection of the 141st 
degree of west longitude, (of the same meridian) and 
finally from the said point of 141 degrees, in its pro^ 
longation as far as the Frozen Ocean. 

"IV. With reference to the line of demarkation 
laid down in the preceding article, it is understood — 

"ist. That the island called Prince of Wales Is- 
land shall belong wholly to Russia," (now, by this 
cession to the United States.) 



ALASKAN LEGISLATION. 263 

"2nd. That whenever the summit of the moun- 
tains which extend in a direction parallel to the coast 
from the 56th degree of north latitude to the point of 
intersection of the 141st degree of west longitude 
shall prove to be at the distance of more than ten ma- 
rine leagues from the ocean, the limit between the 
British possessions and the line of coast which is to 
belong to Russia as above mentioned, (that is to say, 
the limit to the possessions ceded by this convention,) 
shall be formed by a line parallel to the winding of 
the coast, and which shall never exceed the distance 
of ten marine leagues therefrom." 

The western limit within which the territories and 
dominion conveyed are contained passes through a 
point in Bering's Straits on the parallel of sixty-five 
degrees thirty minutes north latitude, at its intersec- 
tion by the meridian which passes midway between 
the islands of Krusenstern or Ignalook, and the is- 
land of Ratmanofif, or Noonarbook, and proceeds 
due north without limitation, into the same Frozen 
Ocean. The same western limit, beginning at the 
same initial point, proceeds thence in a course nearly 
southwest through Bering's Straits and Bering's Sea, 
so as to pass midway between the northwest point of 
the island of St. Lawrence and the southeast point of 
Cape Choukotski, to the meridian of one hundred and 
seventy-two west longitude; thence, from the inter- 
section of that meridian, in a southwesterlv direction. 



264 ALASKA. 

so as to pass midway between the island of Attou 
and the Copper Island of the Komiandorski couplet 
or group, in the North Pacific Ocean, to the meridian 
of one hundred and ninety-three degrees west longi- 
tude, so as to include in the territory conveyed the 
whole of the Aleutian Islands east of that meridian. 

Article II. 
In the cession of territory and dominion made by 
the preceding article are included the right of prop- 
erty in all public lots and squares, vacant lands, and 
all public buildings, fortifications, barracks, and other 
edifices which are not private individual property. 
It is, however, understood and agreed, that the 
churches, M^iich have been built in the ceded territory 
by the Russian Government, shall remain the prop- 
erty of such members of the Greek Oriental Church 
resident in the territory as may choose to worship 
therein. Any Government archives, papers, and doc- 
uments relative to the territory and dominion afore- 
said, which maybe now existing there, will be left in 
the possession of the agent of the United States; but 
an authenticated copy of such of them as may be re- 
quired, will be, at all times, given by the United States 
to the Russian Government, or to such Russian offi- 
cers or subjects as they may apply for. 

Article III. 
The inhabitants of the ceded territory, according to 
their choice reserving their natural allegiance, may 



ALASKAN LEGISLATION. 265 

return to Russia within three years ; but if they should 
prefer to remain in the ceded territory, they, with the 
exception of unciviHzed native tribes, shall be admit- 
ted to the enjoyment of all the rights, advantages and 
immunities of citizens of the United States, and shall 
be maintained and protected in the free enjoyment 
of their liberty, property, and religion. The uncivil- 
ized tribes will be subject to such laws and regulations 
as the United States may, from time to time, adopt 
in regard to aboriginal tribes of that country. 

Article IV. 
His Majesty, the Emperor of all the Russias shall 
appoint, with convenient dispatch, an agent or agents 
for the purpose of formally delivering to a similar 
agent or agents, appointed on behalf of the United 
States, the territory, dominion, property, dependen- 
cies, and appurtenances which are ceded as above, 
and for doing any other act which may be necessary 
in regard thereto. But the cession, with the right of 
immediate possession, is nevertheless to be deemed 
complete and absolute on the exchange of ratifica- 
tions, without waiting for such formal delivery. 

Article V. 

Immediately after the exchange of the ratifications 

of this convention, any fortifications or military posts 

which may be in the ceded territory shall be delivered 

to the agent of the United States, and any Russian 



266 ALASKA. 

troops which may be in the territory shall be with- 
drawn as soon as may be reasonably and conven- 
iently practicable. 

Article VI. 
In consideration of the cession aforesaid, the 
United States agree to pay at the Treasury in Wash- 
ington, within ten months after the exchange of the 
ratifications of this convention, to the diplomatic rep- 
resentative or other agent of His Majesty the Em- 
peror of all the Russias, duly authorized to receive 
the same, seven million two hundred thousand dollars 
in gold. The cession of territory and dominion herein 
made is hereby declared to be free and unincumbered 
by any reservations, privileges, franchises, grants or 
possessions, b\' any associated companies, whether 
corporate or incorporate, Russian or any other, or by 
any parties except merely j)rivate individual prop- 
erty-holders; and the cession hereby made conveys 
all the rights, franchises, and privileges now belong- 
ing to Russia in the said territory or dominion, and 
appurtenances thereto. 

Article VII. 
When this convention shall have been duly ratified 
by the President of the United States, by and with 
the advice and consent of the Senate, on the one part, 
and, on the other, by His Majesty the Emperor of 
all the Russias the ratifications shall be exchanged 



A LA SKA jV leg /slat/on. 267 

at Washington within three months from the date 
hereof, or sooner if possible. 

In faith whereof the respective Plenipotentiaries 
have signed this convention, and thereto affixed the 
seals of their arms. 

Done at Washington the thirtieth day of March, 
in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred 
and sixty-seven. 



] Seal [ 



William H Seward, 
Edouard DeStoeckl. 



United States Statutes at large, page 539-543, vol- 
ume 15, i86g, by G. and P Sanger, by authority of 
Congress. 

And whereas the said Treaty has been duly ratified 
on both ]:)arts, and the respective ratifications of the 
same were exchanged at Washington on this twentieth 
day of June, by William H. Seward, Secretary of 
State of the United States, and the Privy Counsellor 
Edward de Stoeckl, the Envoy Extraordinan^ of his 
Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias on the part 
of their respective governments. 

Now, therefore, be it known that I, Andrew John- 
son, President of the United States of America, have 
caused the said Treaty to be made public, to the end 
that the same and every clause and article thereof, may 
be observed and fulfilled with good faith by the United 
States and the citizens thereof. 



268 ALASKA. 

Extracts from U. S. Statutes. Lands, Surveys, 
Mineral Lands. Etc. 

United States Statutes at Large, 1889-1891, volume 
26, page 1098. Law Extracts. 

Sec. 7. That whenever it shall appear to the Com- 
missioner of the General Land Office that a clerical 
error has been committed in the entry of any of the 
public lands such entry may be suspended, upon the 
proper notification to the claimant, through the local 
land office, until the error has been coirrected; and ail 
entries made under the pre-emption, homestead, desert 
land, or timber-culture laws, in which final proof and 
payment may have been made and certificates issued, 
and to which there are no adverse claims originating 
prior to final entry and which have been sold or in- 
cumbered prior to the first day of March, eighteen 
hundred and eighty-eight, and after final entry, to 
bona fide purchasers or incumbrances, for a valuable 
consideration, shall unless upon an investigation by 
a Government Agent, fraud on the part of the pur- 
chaser has been found, be confirmed and patented 
upon presentation of satisfactory proof to the Land 
Department of such sale or incumbrance; 

Provided, That after the lapse of two years from 
the date of the issuance of the receiver's receipt upon 
the final entry of any tract of land under the home- 
stead, timber-culture, desert-land, or pre-emption 
laws, or under this act, and when there shall be no 



ALASKAN LEGISLATION. 269 

pending contest or protest against the validity o.f such 
entry, the entryman shall be entitled to a patent con- 
veying the land by him entered, and the same shall be 
issued to him; but this proviso shall not be con- 
strued to require the delay of two years from the date 
of said entry before the issuing of a patent therefor. 

Sec. 8. That suits by the United States to vacate 
and annul any patent heretofore issued shall only be 
brought within five years from the passage of this act, 
and suits to vacate and annul patents hereafter issued 
shall only be brought within six years after the date 
of the issuance of such patents ; and in the States of 
Colorado, Montana, Idaho, North Dakota and South 
Dakota, Wyoming, and in the District of Alaska and 
the gold and silver regions of Nevada, and the Terri- 
tory of Utah, in any criminal prosecution or civil ac- 
tion by the United States for a trespass on such pub- 
lic timber lands or to recover timber or lumber cut 
thereon, it shall be a defense if the defendant shall 
show that the said timber was so cut or removed from 
the timber lands for use in such State or Territory 
by a resident thereof for agricultural, mining, manu- 
facturing, or domestic purposes, and has not been 
transported out of the same; but nothing herein con- 
tained shall apply to operate to enlarge the rights of 
any railway company to cut timber on the public do- 
main; 

Provided, That the Secretary of the Interior may 



270 ALASKA. 

make suitable rules and regulations to carry out the 
provisions of this section. 

Sec. 9. That hereafter no public lands of the 
United States, except abandoned military or other 
reservations, isolated and disconnected fractional 
tracts authorized to be sold by section twenty-four 
hundred and fifty-five of the Revised Statutes, and 
mineral and other lands, the sale of which at public 
auction has been authorized by acts of Congress of 
a special nature having- local application, shall be sold 
at public sale. 

Sec. 10. That nothing in this act shall change, re- 
peal, or modify any agreements or treaties made with 
any Indian tribes for the disposal of their lands, or 
of land ceded to the United States to be disposed of 
for the benefit of such tribes, and the proceeds thereof 
to be placed in the Treasury of the United States ; and 
the disposition of such lands shall continue in accord- 
ance with the provisions of such treaties or agree- 
ments, except as provided in section 5 of this act. 

Sec. II. That until otherwise ordered by Congress 
lands in Alaska may be entered for town-site pur- 
poses, for the several use and benefit of the occupants 
of such town sites, by such trustee or trustees as 
may be named by the Secretary of the Interior for 
that purpose, such entries to be made under the pro- 
visions of section twenty-three hundred and eighty- 
seven of the Revised Statutes as near as may be; and 



ALASKAN LEGISLATION. 271 

when such entries shall nave been made the Secretary 
of the Interior shall ])r<)\ide b)' regulation for the 
proper execution of the trust in favor of the inhabi- 
tants of the town site, including the survey of the 
lands into lots, according to the spirit and intent of 
said section twenty-three hundred and eight3^-seven 
of the Revised Statutes, whereby the same results 
would be reached as though the entry had been made 
by a county judge and the disposal of the lots in such 
town site and the proceeds of the sale thereof had been 
prescribed by the legislative authority of a State or 
Territory ; 

Provided, That no more than six hundred and forty 
acres shall be embraced in one townsite entry. 

Sec. 12. That any citizen of the United States 
Iwenty-one years of age, and any association of such 
citizens, and any corporation, incorporated under the 
laws of the United States, or of any State or Territory 
of the United States now authorized by law to hold 
lands in the Territories now or hereafter in possession 
of and oecupying public lands in Alaska for the pur- 
pose of trade or manufacture, may purchase not ex- 
ceeding one hundred and sixty acres to be taken as 
near as practicable in a square form of such land at 
two dollars and fifty cents per acre; 

Provided, That in case more than one person, as- 
sociation or corporation shall claim the same tract of 
land the person, association or corporation having 



272 ALASKA. 

the prior claim by reason of possession and continued 
occupation shall be entitled to purchase the same; but 
the entry of no person, association or corporation 
shall include improvements made by or in possession 
of another prior to the passage of this act. 

Sec. 13. That it shall be the duty of any person, 
association, or corporation entitled to purchase land 
under this act to make an application to the United 
States Marshal, ex officio Surveyor-General of Alaska, 
for an estimate of the cost of making a survey of the 
lands occupied by such person, association, or corpo- 
ration, and the cost of the clerical work necessary 
to be done in the office of the said United States Mar- 
shal, ex officio Surveyor-General; and on the re- 
ceipt of such estimate from the United States Mar- 
shal, ex officio Surveyor-General, the said person, as- 
sociation, or corporation shall deposit the amount in 
a United States depository, as is required by section 
numbered twenty-four hundred and one. Revised Stat- 
utes, relating to desposits for surveys. 

That on the receipt of the United States Marshal, 
ex officio Surveyor-General, of the said certificates 
of deposit, he shall employ a competent person to 
make such survey, under such rules and regulations 
as may be adopted by the Secretary of the Interior, 
who shall make his return of his field notes and maps 
to the officer of the said United States Marshal, ex- 
officio Surveyor-General; and the said United States 




-1 



ALASKAN LEGISLATION. 273 

Marshal, ex-officio Surveyor-General, shall cause the 
said field notes and plats of such surveys to be ex- 
amined, and. if correct, approve the same, and shall 
transmit certified copies of such maps and plats to 
the office of the Commissioner of the General Land 
Office. 

That when the said field notes and plats of said sur- 
vey shall have been approved by the said Commis- 
sioner of the General Land Office, he shall notify such 
person, association, or corporation, who shall then 
within six months after such notice, pay to the said 
LTnited States Marshal, ex-officio Surveyor- General, 
for such land, and patent shall issue for the same. 

Sec. 14. That none of the provisions of the last 
two preceding sections of this act shall be so con- 
strued as to warrant the sale of any lands belonging 
to the L'nited States which shall contain coal or the 
precious metals, or any town site, or which shall be 
occupied by the L'nited States for public purposes, or 
which shall be reserved for such purposes, or to which 
the natives of Alaska have prior rights by virtue of 
actual occupation, or which shall be selected by the 
United States Commisssion of Fish and Fisheries on 
the islands of Kodiak and Afognak for the purpose 
of establishing fish-culture stations. And all tracts 
of land not exceeding six hundred and forty acres 
in any one tract now occupied as missionary stations 
in said district of Alaska are hereby excepted from 
18 



274 ALASKA. 

the operation of the last three preceding sections of 
this act. No portion of the islands of the Pribylov 
Group or the Seal Islands of Alaska shall be subject 
to sale under this act; and the United States reserves, 
and there shall be reserved in all patents issued under 
the provisions of the last two preceding sections the 
right of the United States to regulate the taking of 
salmon and to do all things necessary to protect and 
prevent the destruction of salmon in all the waters 
of the lands granted frequented by salmon. 

Sec. 15. That until otherwise provided by law the 
body of lands known as Annette Islands, situated in 
Alexander Archipelago in South-eastern Alaska, on 
the north side of Dixon's entrance, be, and the same 
is hereby, set apart as a reservation for the use of the 
Metlakahtla Indians, and those people known as Met- 
lakahtlans who have recently emigrated from British 
Columbia to Alaska, and such other Alaskan natives 
as may join them, to be held and used by them in 
common, under such rules and regulations, and sub- 
ject to such restrictions, as may be prescribed from 
time to time by the Secretary of the Interior. 

Sec. 16. That town site entries may be made by 
incorporated towns and cities on the mineral lands of 
the United States, but no title shall be acquired by 
such towns or cities to any vein of gold, silver, cinna- 
bar, copper, or lead, or to any valid mining claim or 
possession held under existing law. When mineral 



ALASKAN LEGISLATION. 275 

veins are possessed within the limits of an incorpo- 
rated town or city, and such possession is recognized 
by local authority or by the laws of the United States, 
the title to town lots shall be subject to such recog- 
nized possession and the necessary use thereof and 
when entry has been made or patent issued for such 
town sites to such incorporated town or city, the pos- 
sessor of such mineral vein may enter and receive 
patent for such mineral vein, and the surface ground 
appertaining thereto; 

Provided, That no entry shall be made by such 
mineral-vein claimant for surface ground where the 
owner or occupier of the surface ground shall have 
had possession of the same before the inception of the 
title of the mineral-vein applicant. 

Sec. 17. That reservoir sites located or selected 
and to be located and selected under the provisions 
of "An act making appropriations for sundry civil ex- 
penses of the Government for the fiscal year ending 
June thirtieth, eighteen hundred and eighty-nine," 
and for other purposes and amendments thereto, shall 
be restricted to and shall contain only so much land 
as is actually necessary for the construction and main- 
tenance of reservoirs; excluding so far as practicable 
lands occupied by actual settlers at the date of the 
location of said reservoirs and that the provision of 
"An Act making appropriations for sundry civil ex- 
penses of the Government for the fiscal year ending 



276 ALASKA. 

June thirtieth, eighteen lumdrcd and ninety-one, and 
for other purposes," which reads as follows, viz: 
"No person who shall after the passage of this act 
enter upon any of the public lands with a view to oc- 
cupation, entry, or settlement under any of the land 
laws shall be permitted to acquire title to more than 
three hundred and twenty acres in the aggregate 
under all said laws," shall be construed to include m 
the maximum amount of lands the title to which is 
permitted' to be acquired by one person, only agricul- 
tural lands and not to include lands entered or sought 
to be entered under mineral land laws. 

Sec. 1 8. That the right of way through the public 
lands and reservations of the United States is hereby 
granted to any canal or ditch company formed for 
the purpose of irrigation and duly organized under 
the laws of any State or Territory, which shall have 
filed, or may hereafter file, with the Secretary of the 
Interior a copy of its articles of incorporation, and 
due proofs of its organization under the same, to the 
extent of the ground occupied by the water of the 
reservoir and of the canal and its laterals, and fifty 
feet on each side of the marginal limits thereof; also 
the right to take, from the public lands adjacent to the 
line of the canal or ditch, material, earth, and stone 
necessary for the construction of such canal or ditch; 

Provided, That no such right of way shall be so 
located as to interfere with the proper occupation by 



ALASKAN LEGISLA TION. 277 

the Government of any such reservation, and all 
maps of location shall be subject to the approval of 
the Department of the Government having jurisdic- 
tion of such reservation, and the privilege herein 
granted shall not be construed to interfere with the 
control of water for irrigation and other purposes 
under authority of the respective States or Territories. 

Sec. 21. That nothing in this act shall authorize 
such canal or ditch company to occupy such right 
of way except for the. purpose of said canal or ditch, 
and then only so far as may be necessary for the con- 
struction, maintenance, and care of said canal or ditch. 

Sec. 24. That the President of the United States 
may, from time to time, set apart and reserve, in any 
State or Territory having public land bearing forests, 
in any part of the public lands wholly or in part cov- 
ered with timber or undergrowth, whether of com- 
mercial value or not, as public reservations, and the 
President shall, by public proclamation, declare the 
establishment of such reservations and the limits 
thereof. 

Approved, March 3, 1891. 

United States Statutes at Large, 1885- 1887, volume 
24, page 243. 

In 1886, Congress appropriated fifteen thousand 
dollars for children of school age without regard to 
race. 



278 ALASKA. 

Page 529. 

In 1887 a like sum of twenty-five thousand dollars 
for same purpose. 

Page 45. 

Also twenty thousand dollars for Indian pupils of 
both sexes at the Industrial School at Alaska. 

Likewise in 1887 a similar amount. 

Alaska, 1871-1873, page 530. Amendment to the 
law of 1867, approved 1873. 

Laws of the United States relating to Customs, 
Commerce and Navigation extended to and over all 
the territory, mainland, islands and waterways ceded 
by Russia. 

Approved March 30, 1873. The amendment reads 
"That the laws of the United States relating to cus- 
toms, commerce and navigation, and sections 20 and 
21 of An Act to regulate trade and intercourse with 
Indian tribes and to preserve peace on the frontiers." 

Approved June 30th, 1834, be and the same are 
hereby extended to and over all the mainland, islands 
and waters of the territory ceded to the United vStates 
by the Emperor of Russia by treaty concluded at 
Washington on the 30th day of March, 1867, so far as 
the same may be apphcable thereto." 

The Province of Louisiana ceded by France in 1803 
ran from the Gulf of Mexico west of this line to the 
Texas border and thence northwest to the Pacific 
Ocean to the present line between Canada and the 
United States as far as the Straits of Georgia. 



ALASKAN LEGISLA TION. 279 

England claimed and held the lower end of Van- 
couver Island, it being a very strong strategic point, 
as it commanded the straits of Juan de Fuca and 
the present inland passage to Alaska. 

In 1845, Texas was annexed to the United States, 
taking in also a portion of what is now New Mexico 
and the eastern portion of Colorado. 

In 1848, Mexico ceded a large tract to the United 
States, taking in almost all the territory west of this 
Texan annexation line, leaving the line run from the 
ocean at Lower California, irregularly nearly at the 
lower line of Arizona and New Mexico. 

In 1853, the Gadsden purchase included the strip 
of land below that line to another line in Mexico from 
the Colorado River to El Paso on the Rio Grande del 
Norte. 

In 1867, the territory of Alaska now under consid- 
eration was ceded by the Emperor of Russia to the 
United States, completing our present possessions. 
Seal Islands Made a Reservation. 
United States Statute at Large, 1867- 1869, volume 
15, page 348. 

Resolved by the Senate and House of Representa- 
tives of the United States of America in Congress as- 
sembled. That the islands of Saint Paul and Saint 
George in Alaska be, and they are hereby, declared a 
special reservation for Government purposes; and 
that until otherwise provided by law, it shall be unlaw- 



28o ALASKA. 

ful for any person to band or remain on either of said 
islands, except by authority of the Secretary of the 
Treasury; and any person found on either of said 
islands, contrary to the provisions of this resolution 
shall be summarily removed; and it shall be the duty 
of the Secretary of War to carry- this resolution im- 
mediately into effect. 

Approved, March 3, 1869. 

Reservations in Alaska — Land, Forest and Fish. 

United States Statutes at Large, 1 891 -1893, volume 
2^, No. 39, page 1052. 

A Proclamation by the President of the United 
States, December 24, 1892. 

Whereas, it is provided by Section 24, of the Act 
of Congress, approved March third, eighteen hun- 
dred and ninety-one, entitled, "An Act to repeal tim- 
ber-culture laws, and for other purposes;" that The 
President of the United States may from time to time 
set apart and reserve, in any State or Territory having 
public lands bearing forests, in any part of the public 
lands wholly, or in part covered with timber or under- 
growth, whether of commercial value or not, as public 
reservations; and the President shall, by public pro- 
clamation, declare the establishment of such reserva- 
tion, and the limits thereof. 

And whereas, it is provided by section 14 of said 
above mentioned Act, that the public lands in the 



ALASKAN LEGISLATION. 281 

Territory of Alaska, reserved for public purposes, shall 
not be subject to occupation and sale. 

And whereas, the public lands in the Territory ol 
Alaska, known as Afognak Island, are in part covered 
with timber, and are required for public purposes, in 
order that salmon fisheries in the waters of the Island, 
and salmon and other fish and sea animals, and other 
animals and birds, and the timber, undergrowth, 
grass, moss and other growth in, on, and about said 
Island may be protected and preselrved unimpaired, 
and it appears that the public good would be pro- 
moted by setting apart and reserving said lands as a 
public reservation. 

And whereas, the United States Commissioner of 
Fish and Fisheries has selected Afognak Bay, River 
and Lake, with their tributary streams, and the 
sources thereof, and the lands including the same on 
said Afognak Islands, and within one mile from the 
shores thereof, as a reserve for the purpose of estab- 
lishing fish culture stations, and the use of the United 
States Commission of Fish and Fisheries, the boun- 
dar>^ lines of which include the head springs of the 
tributaries above mentioned, and the lands, the drain- 
age of which is into the same. 

Now, therefore, I, Benjamin Harrison, President 
ot the United States, by virtue of the power in me 
vested by sections 24 and 14, of the aforesaid Act 
of Congress, and by other laws of the United States 



282 ALASKA. 

do reserve and do hereby make known and proclaim 
that there is hereby reserved from occupation and 
sale, and set apart as a Public Reservation, including 
use for fish-culture stations, said Afognak Island, 
Alaska and its adjacent bays and rocks and territorial 
waters, including among others the Sea Lion Rocks, 
and Sea Otter Island; 

Provided, That this proclamation shall not be so 
constructed as to deprive any bona fide inhabitant of 
said Island of any valid right he may possess under 
the treaty for the cession of the Russian possessions 
in North America to the United States, concluded at 
Washington, on the thirtieth day of March, eighteen 
hundred and sixty-seven. 

Warning is hereby expressly given to all persons 
not to enter upon, or to occupy, the tract or tracts 
of land or waters reserved by this proclamation, or to 
fish in, or use any of the waters herein described or 
mentioned, and that all persons or corporations now 
occupying said Island, or any of said premises, except 
under said Treaty, shall depart therefrom. 

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand, 
and caused the seal of the United States to be affixed. 

(Seal:) 

Done at the City of Washington this twenty-fourth 
day of December, in the year of our Lord one thou- 
sand, eight hundred and ninety-two, and of the Inde- 



ALASKAN LEGISLATION. 283 

pendence of the United States, the one hundred and 
sixteenth. Benjamin Harrison. 

By the President, 

John W. Foster, Secretary of State. 

Salmon Protection and Revenue-Cutter Service. 

March 2, 1889, pag-e 939 and 944. 

For the expense of the Revenue-Cutter Service: 
For pay of captains, Heutenants, engineers, cadets, 
and pilots employed, and for rations for the same; 
for pay of petty officers, seamen, cooks, stewards, 
boys, coal-passers, and firemen, and for rations for 
the same; for fuel for vessels, and repairs and outfits 
for the same; shipchandlery and engineers' stores for 
the same; traveling expenses and officers traveling on 
duty under orders from the Treasury Department; 
instruction of cadets; commutation of quarters; for 
protection of the seal fisheries in Bering Sea and the 
other waters of Alaska and the interest of the Gov- 
ernment on the Seal Islands and the sea-otter hunting 
grounds, and the enforcement of the provisions of law 
in Alaska, contingent expenses, including' wharfage, 
towage, dockage, freight, advertising, surveys, labor 
and miscellaneous expenses which cannot be included 
under special heads, nine hundred and twenty-five 
thousand dollars. 

For the establishment and maintenance of a refuge- 
station at or near Point Barrow, Alaska, on the Arc- 
tic Ocean, fifteen thousand dollars. 



284 ALASK.L 

February 26, 1889, page 705 and 726. Alaska, Pay 
of Governor, etc. 

Territory of Alaska : For salary of Governor, three 
thousand dollars; judge, three thousand dollars; at- 
torney, marshal, and clerk, two thousand five hundred 
dollars each; four commissioners, one thousand dol- 
lars each; four deputy marshals, seven hundred and 
fifty dollars each; in all, twenty thousand five hun- 
dred dollars. 

For incidental and contingent expenses of the terri- 
tory, stationery, lights, and fuel, to be expended under 
the direction of the Governor, two thousand dollars. 

Education in Alaska. 

March 2, 1889, page 939 and 962. 

For the industrial and primary education of the 
children of school age in the Territory of Alaska, with- 
out reference to race, fifty thousand dollars. 

Traveling Expenses. 

March 2, 1889, page 939 and 977. 

Territory of Alaska: For the actual and necessary 
expenses of the judge, marshal, and attorney when 
traveling in the discharge of their ofificial duties, one 
thousand dolla/rs. 

Rent and Incidental Fxpenses, Ofifice of Marshal, 
Territory of Alaska: For rent of offices for the mar- 
shal, district attorney, and commissioners, furniture, 



ALASKAN LEGISLA TION. 285 

fuel, books, stationery, and other incidental expenses, 
five hundred dollars. 

March 2, 1889, page 905 and 921. 

Education of Children in Alaska: To pay the sal- 
ary of John H. Carr, teacher in Government School 
at Unga, Alaska, for March, eighteen hundred and 
eighty-seven, one hundred and fifty dollars. 

March 2, 1889, page 1008 and 1009. 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Repre- 
sentatives of the United States of America, in Con- 
gress assembled. That the erection of dams, barricades, 
or other obstructions in any of the rivers of Alaska, 
with the purpose or result of preventing or impeding 
the ascent of salmon or other anadromous species 
to their spawning grounds, is hereby declared to be 
unlawful, and the Secretary of the Treasury is here- 
by authorized and directed to establish such regu- 
lations and surveillance as may be necessary to insure 
that this prohibition is strictly enforced and to other- 
wise protect the salmon fisheries of Alaska; and every 
person who shall be found guilty of a violation of 
the provisions of this section shall be fined not less 
than two hundred and fifty dollars for each day of the 
continuance of such obstruction. 

Sec. 2. That the Commissioner of Fish and Fish- 
eries is hereby empowered and directed to institute 
an investigation into the habits, abundance, and dis- 
tribution of the salmon of Alaska, as well as the pres- 



286 ALASKA. 

ent conditions and methods of the fisheries, with a 
view of recommending to Congress such additional 
legislation as may be necessary to prevent the impair- 
ment or exhaustion of these valuable fisheries, and 
placing them under regular and permanent conditions 
of production. 

Sec. 3. That section nineteen hundred and fifty-six 
of the Revised Statutes of the United States is here- 
by declared to include and apply to all the dominion 
of the United States in the waters of Bering Sea; and 
it shall be the duty of the President, at a timely season 
in each year, to issue his proclamation and cause the 
same to be published for one month in at least one 
newspaper if any such there be published at each 
United States port of entry on the Pacific coast, warn- 
ing all persons against entering said waters for the 
purpose of violating the provisions of said section; 
and he shall alsO' cause one or more vessels of the 
United States to diligently cruise said waters and 
arrest all persons, and seize all vessels found to be, or 
to have been, engaged in any violation of the laws of 
the United States therein. 

March 2, 1889, page 939 and 949. 

Alaska Boundary Survey: For expenses in carry- 
ing on a preliminary survey of the frontier line be- 
tween Alaska and British Columbia, in accordance 
with plans or projects approved by the Secretary of 
State, including expenses of drawing and publication 



ALASKAN LEGISLATION. 287 

of map or maps, twenty thousand dollars, said sum 
to continue available for expenditure until the same is 
exhausted. 

Chapter 10. Bounty Lands, U. S., page 442, 1878 
Revised Statutes of United States, second edition. 

Salmon Fisheries and Protection of the Fish. 

United States Statutes at Large, 1895- 1897, volume 
29, page 316. 

An Act To amend an Act entitled "An Act to pro- 
vide for the protection of the salmon fisheries of 
Alaska." 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Repre- 
sentatives of the United States of America in Con- 
gress, assembled, That the Act approved March second, 
eighteen hundred and eighty-nine, and entitled "An 
Act to provide for the protection of the salmon fish- 
eries of Alaska" is hereby amended and re-enacted 
as follows: 

That the erection of dams, barricades, fish-wheels, 
fences, or any such fixed or stationary obstructions 
in any part of the rivers or streams of Alaska, or 
to fish for or catch salmon or salmon trout in any 
manner or by any means with the purpose or result 
of preventing or impeding the ascent of salmon to 
their spawning grounds, is declared to be unlawful, 
and the Secretary of the Treasury is hereby author- 
ized and directed to remove such obstructions and to 
establish and enforce such regulations and surveil- 



288 ALASKA. 

lance as may be necessary to insure that this prohibi- 
tion and all other provisions of law relating to the 
salmon fisheries of Alaska are strictly complied with. 
Sec. 2. That it shall be unlawful to fish, catch, or 
kill any salmon of any variety, except with rod or 
spear, above the tide waters of any of the creeks or 
rivers of less than five hundred feet in width in the Terri- 
tory of Alaska, except only for purposes of propaga- 
tion, or to lay or set any drift net, set net, trap, pound 
net, or seine for any purpose across the tide waters of 
any river or stream for a distance of more than one- 
third of the width of such river, stream, or channel, 
or lay or set any seine or net within one hundred yards 
of any other net or seine which is being laid or set 
in said stream or channel, or to take, kill, or fish for 
salmon in any manner or by any means in any of the 
waters of the Territory of Alaska, either in the streams 
or tide waters, except Cook's Inlet, Prince William 
Sound, Bering Sea, and the waters tributary thereto 
from mid-night on Friday of each week until six 
o'clock ante-meridian of the Sunday following; or to 
fish for or catch or kill in any manner or by any appli- 
ances except by rod or spear, any salmon in any 
stream of less than one hundred yards in width in the 
said Territory of Alaska between the hours of six 
o'clock in the evening and six o'clock in the morn- 
ing of the following day of each and every day of the 
week. 



ALASKAN LEGISLATIOh. 289 

Sec. 3. That the Secretary of the Treasury may, 
at his discretion set aside any streams as spawning 
grounds, in which no fishing will be permitted; and 
when, in his judgment, the results of fishing opera- 
tions on any stream indicate that the number of sal- 
mon taken is larger than the capacity of the stream 
to produce, he is authorized to establish weekly close 
seasons, to limit the duration of the fishing season, 
or to prohibit fishing entirely for one year or more; 
so as to permit salmon to increase; 

Provided, however. That such power shall be exer- 
cised only after all persons interested shall have been 
given a hearing, of which hearing due notice must be 
given by publication; 

And provided further. That it shall have been ascer- 
tained that the persons engaged in catching salmon 
do not maintain fish hatcheries of sufficient magni- 
tude to keep such streams fully stocked. 

Sec. 4. That to enforce the provisions of law here- 
in, and such regulations as the Secretary of the Treas- 
ury may establish in pursuance thereof, he is author- 
ized and directed to appoint one inspector of fisheries 
at a salary of one thousand eight hundred dollars per 
annum, and two assistant inspectors, at a salary of 
one thousand six hundred dollars each per annum, 
and he will annually submit to Congress estimates 
to cover the salaries and actual traveling expenses of 
the officers hereby authorized and for such other ex- 
19 



290 ALASKA. 

penditures as may be necessary to carry out the pro- 
visions of the law lierein. 

Sec. 5. That any person violating the provisions 
of this act or the regulations established in pursuance 
thereof, shall upon conviction thereof, be punished by 
a fine not exceeding one thousand dollars or imprison- 
ment at hard labor for a term of ninety days, or both 
such fine and imprisonment, at the discretion of the 
court; and, further, in case of the violation of any of 
the provisions of section one of this Act and convic- 
tion thereof, a further fine of two hundred and fifty 
dollars per diem will be imposed for each day that the 
obstruction or obstructions therein are maintained. 

Approved, June 9, 1896. 

Revenue Service. 

United States Statutes at Large, 1895- 1897, volume 
29, page 420. Revenue Cutter Service. 

For expenses of the Revenue Cutter Service: For 
pay of captains, lieutenants, engineers, cadets, and 
pilots employed, and for rations for the same; for pay 
of petty ofificers, seamen, firemen, coal passers, stew- 
ards, cooks, and boys, and for rations for the same; 
for fuel for vessels, and repairs and outfits for the 
same; ship chandlery and engineers' stores for the 
same; traveling expenses of officers traveling on 
duty under orders from the Treasury Department; 
commutations of quarters; protection of the seal 
fisheries in Bering Sea and the other waters of 



ALASKAN LEGISLA TION. 29 1 

Alaska and in interest of the Government on 
Seal Islands and the sea-otter hunting grounds, 
and the enforcement of the provisions of law in 
Alaska; for enforcing the provisions of the Acts 
relating to the anchorage of vessels in the ports of 
New York and Chicago, approved May sixteenth, 
eighteen hundred and eighty-eight, and February 
sixth, eighteen hundred and ninety-three; contingent 
expenses including wharfage, towage, dockage, 
freight advertising, surveys, labor, and miscellaneous 
expenses which cannot be included under special 
heads, nine hundred and ninety thousand dollars; 

Provided, That the Secretary of the Treasury be, 
and he is hereby authorized to permit officers and 
others of the Revenue-Cutter Service to make allot- 
ments from their pay, under such regulations as he 
may prescribe, for the support of their families or 
relatives, for their own savings, or for other proper 
purposes, during such time as they may be absent at 
sea, on distant duty, or under other circumstances 
warranting such action. 

For completing a revenue steamer of the first class, 
under the direction of the Secretary of the Treasury 
for service on the Pacific Coast, one hundred and 
twenty-five thousand dollars. 

For constructing two revenue steamers of the first- 
class, under the direction of the Secretary of the 
Treasury, for services on the Great Lakes two hun- 



292 ALASKA. 

dred thousand dollars; and the total cost of said 
revenue steamers, under a contract which is hereby 
authorized therefor, shall not exceed two hundred 
thousand dollars each. 

Customs, Commercial and Navigation Laws. 

United States Statutes at Large, 1867- 1869, volume 
15, page 240. 

An Act to extend the Laws of the United States 
relating to Customs, Commerce and Navigation over 
the territory ceded to the United States by Russia, 
to establish a Collection District therein, and for 
other Purposes. 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Repre- 
sentatives of the LTnited States of America in Con- 
gress assembled, That the laws of the United States 
relating to customs, commerce, and navigation be, and 
the same are hereby, extended to and over all the 
mainland, islands, and waters of the territory ceded to 
the United States by the Emperor of Russia by treaty 
concluded at Washington on the thirtieth day of 
March, Anno Domini eighteen hundred and sixty- 
seven, so far as the same may be applicable thereto. 

Sec. 2. And be it further enacted, That all of the 
said territory, with its ports, harbors, bays, rivers, and 
waters, shall constitute a customs collection district, 
to be called the district of Alaska for which said dis- 
trict a port of entry shall be established at some con- 



ALASKAN LEG/SLA TION. 293 

venient point to be designated by the President, at or 
near the town of Sitka or New Archangel, and a col- 
lector of customs shall be appointed by the President, 
by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, 
who shall reside at the said port of entry, and who 
shall receive an annual salary of two thousand five 
hundred dollars, in addition to the usual legal fees and 
emoluments of the office. But his entire compen- 
sation shall not exceed four thousand dollars per an- 
num, or a proportionate sum for a less period of time. 
Sec. 3. And be it further enacted. That the Secre- 
tary of the Treasury be and he is hereby, authorized 
to make and prescribe such regulations as he may 
deem expedient for the nationalization of all vessels 
owned by actual residents of said territory on and 
since the 20th day of June,^Anno Domini eighteen 
hundred and sixty-seven, and which shall continue 
to have been so owned up to the date of such nation- 
alization, and that from any deputy collector of cus- 
toms upon whom there has been, or shall hereafter 
be, conferred any of the powers of a collector under 
and by virtue of the twenty-ninth section of the "Act 
further to prevent smuggling, and for other pur- 
poses," approved July eighteenth, eighteen hundred 
and sixty-six, the Secretary of the Treasury shall 
have power to require bonds in favor of the United 
States in such amount as the said Secretary shall pre- 
scribe for the faithful discharge of official duties by 
such deputy. 



294 ALASKA. 

Sec. 4. And be it further enacted, That the Presi- 
dent shall have power to restrict and regulate or to 
prohibit the importation and use of fire arms, ammu- 
nition, and distilled spirits into and within the said 
territory. And the exportation of the same from any 
other port or place in the United States when destined 
to any port or place in the said territory, and all such 
arms, ammunition, and distilled spirits, exported or 
attempted to be exported from any port or place in 
the United States and destined for such territory, in 
violation of any regulations that may be prescribed 
under this section; and all such arms, ammunition, 
and distilled spirits, landed or attempted to be landed 
or used at any part or place in said territory, in viola- 
tion of said regulations, shall be forfeited; and if the 
value of the same shall exceed four hundred dollars, 
the vessel upon which the same shall be found, or 
from which they shall have been landed together with 
her tackle, apparel and furniture, and cargo, shall be 
forfeited ; and any person wilfully violating such regu- 
lations shall, on conviction, be fined in any sum not 
exceeding five hundred dollars, or imprisoned not 
more than six months. And bonds may be required 
for a faithful observance of such regulations from the 
master or owners of any vessel departing from any 
port in the United States having on board fire-arms, 
ammunition or distilled spirits, when such vessel is 
destined to any place in said territory, or if not so 



ALASKAN LEGISLATION. 295 

destined, when there shall be reasonable ground of 
suspicion that such articles are intended to be landed 
therein in violation of law; and similar bonds may 
also be required on the landing of any such articles in 
tlie said territory from the person to whom the same 
may be consigned. 

Sec. 5. And be it further enacted, That the coast- 
ing trade between the said territory and any other 
portion of the United States shall be regulated in ac- 
cordance with the provisions of law applicable to 
such trade between any two great districts. 

Sec. 6. And be it further enacted. That it shall 
be unlawful for any person or persons to kill any 
otter, mink, marten, sable, or fur seal, or other fur- 
bearing animal, within the limits of said territory, or 
in the waters thereof; and any person guilty thereof 
shall, for each oflfence, on conviction, be fined in any 
sum not less than two hundred dollars nor more than 
one thousand, or imprisoned not more than six 
months or both at the discretion of the court, and 
all vessels, their tackle, apparel, furniture, and cargo, 
found engaged in violation of this act, shall be foir- 
f eited : 

Provided, That the Secretary of the Treasury shall 
have power to authorize the killing of any such mink, 
marten, sable, or other fur-bearing animal, except 
fur seals under such regulations as he may prescribe ; 
and it shall be the duty of the said Secretary to pre- 



296 ALASKA. 

vent the killing of any fur seal, and to provide for the 
execution of the provisions of this section until it 
shall be otherwise provided by law; 

Provided, That no special privilege shall be granted 
under this act. 

Sec. 7. And be it further enacted, That until other- 
wise provided by law, all violations of this act, and of 
the several laws hereby extended to the said terri- 
tory and the waters thereof, committed within the 
limits of the same shall be prosecuted in any district 
court of the United States in California or Oregon 
or in the district court of Washington, and the col- 
lector and deputy collectors appointed by virtue of 
this act, and any person authorized in writing by 
either of them, or by the Secretary of the Treasury, 
shall have power to arrest persons and seize vessels 
and merchandise liable to fines, penalties, or forfeit- 
ures under this and the said other laws, and to keep 
and deliver over the same toi the marshal of some one 
oithe said courts; and said courts shall have original 
jurisdiction, and may take cognizance of all cases aris- 
ing under this act and the several laws hereby extended 
over the territory so ceded to the United States by 
the Emperor of Russia, as aforesaid, and shall pro- 
ceed therein in the same manner and with the like 
efit'ect as if such cases had arisen within the district 
or territory where the proceedings shall be brought. 

Sec. 8. Gives the Secretary of the Treasury power 



ALASKAN LEGISLA TION. 297 

to mitigate or remit the forfeitures, penalties, and dis- 
.nbilities accruing in certain cases therein mentioned. 
Sec. 9. And he it further enacted, That the Sec- 
retary of the Treasury may prescribe all needful rules 
and regulations to carry into elTect all parts of this 
act, except those especially intrusted to the President 
alone; and the sum of five thousand dollars is hereby 
appropriated. 

Enactment Concerning Alaska Statistics. 

United States Statutes at Large, volume 18, part 3, 
page 33, 1873-1875. 

An act to enable the Secretary of the Treasury to 
gather authentic information as to the condition and 
importance of the fur trade in the Territory of Alaska. 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Repre- 
sentatives of the United States of America in Con- 
gress assembled, That the Secretary of the Treasury 
be, and he is hereby, authorized to appoint some per- 
son qualified by experience and education a special 
agent for the purpose of visiting the various trading 
stations and Indian villages in the Territory of Alaska, 
the Seal Islands, and the large islands to the north 
of them, in Bering Sea, for the purpose of collecting 
and reporting to him all possible authentic informa- 
tion upon the present condition of the seal fisheries of 
Alaska; the haunts and habits of the seal, and the 
preservation and extension of the fisheries as a source 



298 ALASKA. 

of revenue to the United States ; together with like in- 
formation respecting the fur-bearing animals of 
Alaska; generally, the statistics of the fur trade, and 
the condition of the people or natives, especially those 
upon whom the successful prosecution of the fisheries 
and fur trade is dependent ; such agent to receive as 
compensation eight dollars per day while actually 
thus employed, with all actual and necessary traveling 
expenses incurred therein; 

Provided, That the appointment made under this 
act shall not continue longer than two years. That 
the Secretary of the Navy be, and he is hereby, au- 
thorized to detail an officer of the navy to go in con- 
nection with the person above mentioned, who shall 
be charged with the same duties and shall make a like 
report upon all subjects therein named; and shall also 
require and report whether the contracts as to the 
seal fisheries have been complied with by the persons 
or company now in possession ; and whether said con- 
tracts can be safely extended. 

Approved, April 22, 1874. 

United States Statutes at Large, volume 18, part 3, 
page 24, 1873-1875. 

An act to amend the act entitled "An act to prevent 
the extermination of fur-bearing animals in Alaska," 
approved July first, eighteen hundred and seventy. 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Repre- 
sentatives of the United States of America, in Con- 



ALASKAN LEGISLA TION. 299 

gress assembled, That the act entitled "An act to pre- 
vent the extermination of fur-bearing animals in 
Alaska," approved July first, eighteen hundred and 
seventy, is hereby amended so as to authorize the 
Secretary of the Treasury, and he is hereby author- 
ized, to designate the months in which fur-seals may 
be taken for their skins on the islands of Saint Paul 
and Saint George, in Alaska and in the waters ad- 
jacent thereto, and the number to be taken on or 
about each island respectively. 
Approved, March 24, 1874. 

The Boundary Line. 

United States Statutes at Large, 1895-1897, volume 
29, page 464. 

Resolved by the Senate and House of Representa- 
tives of the United States of America in Congress as- 
sembled. That in view of the expediency of forthwith 
negotiating a convention with Great Britain for mark- 
ing convenient points upon the one hundred and forty- 
first meridian of west longitude where it forms, under 
existing treaty provisions, the boundary line between 
the Territory of Alaska and the British North Ameri- 
can Territory, and to enable the President to execute 
the provisions of such convention without delay when 
concluded, the sum of seventy-five thousand dollars, 
or so much thereof as may be necessary, be and the 
same is hereby appropriated out of any moneys in the 



300 A L. I SKA. 

Treasury not otherwise appropriated, to be immedi- 
ately available, under the direction of the President, to 
defray the share of the United States in the joint ex- 
pense of locating said meridian and marking said 
boundary by an international commission. 
Approved, February 20, 1896. 

Boundary Line Commission. 

United States Statutes at Large, volume 28, 1893- 
1895, page 1200. 

Whereas, a Supplemental Convention between the 
United States of America and Great Britain, extend- 
ing, until December 31, 1895, the provisions of Article 
I of the Convention of July 22, 1892, relative to British 
possessions in North America, was concluded and 
signed by their respective plenipotentiaries at the city 
of Washington, on the third day of February, in the 
year one thousand eight hundred and ninety-four 
which Supplemental Convention is word for word as 
follows : 

The Governments of the United States of America 
and of her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom 
of Great Britain and Ireland, being credibly advised 
that the labors of the Commission organized pur- 
suant to the Convention which was concluded be- 
tween the High Contracting Parties at Washing- 
ton, July 22, 1892, providing for the delimita- 
tion of the existing boundary between the United 



ALASKAN LEGISLA TIOA . 30 1 

States and Her Majesty's possessions in North 
America in respect to such portions of said boundary 
Hne as may not in fact have been permanently marked 
in virtue of treaties heretofore concluded, cannot be 
accomplished within the period of two years from the 
first meeting of the Commission as fixed by that Con- 
vention, have deemed it expedient to conclude a sup- 
plementary convention extending the term for a 
further period and for this purpose have named as 
their respective plenipotentiaries: 

The President of the United States, Walter O. Gres- 
ham. Secretary of State of the United States, and Her 
Majesty thie Queen of the United Kingdom of Great 
Britain and Ireland, His Excellency Sir Julian Paunce- 
fote, G. C. B., G. C. M. G., Ambassador Extraordinary 
and Plenipotentiary of Great Britain; 

Who, after having communicated to each other 
their respective full powers which were found to be in 
due and proper form, have agreed upon the following 
articles : 

Article I. 

The third paragraph of Article I of the convention 
of July 22, 1892, states that the respective Commis- 
sioners shall complete the survey and submit their 
final reports thereof within two years from the date 
of their first meeting. The joint Commissioners held 
their first meeting November 28, 1892; hence the time 



302 ALASKA. 

allowed by that Convention expires November 28, 
1894. Believing it impossible to complete the re- 
quired work within the specified period the two Gov- 
ernments hereby mutually agree to extend the time 
to December 31, 1895. 

Article II. 

The present Convention shall be duly ratified by 
the President of the United States of America, by 
and with the advice and consent of the Senate thereof, 
and by Her Britannic Majesty; and the ratifications 
shall be exchanged at Washington at the earliest prac- 
tical date. 

In faith whereof we, the respective plenipotentia- 
ries, have signed this Convention and have hereunto 
affixed our seals. 

Done in duplicate at Washington, the 3rd day of 
February, one thousand eight hundred and ninety- 
four. 

f ' — ' — -^ ^ W. O. Gresham, 

1 ._ j • Julian Pauncefote. 

And whereas the said Supplemental Convention has 
been duly ratified on both parts, and the ratifications 
of the two Governments were exchanged in the city 
of Washington on the 28th day of March, one thous- 
and eight hundred and ninety-four: 

Now, therefore be it known that I, Grover Cleve- 
land, President of the United States of America, have 



ALASKAN LEGISLA TION. 303 

caused the said Supplemental Convention to be made 
jjublic, to the end that the same and every article 
and clause thereof may be observed and fulfilled with 
good faith by the United States and the citizens 
thereof. 

In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand 
and caused the seal of the United States to be affixed. 

Done at the City of Washington, this twenty-eighth 
day of March, in the year of our Lord, one thousand 
eight hundred and ninety-four, and of the Independ- 
ence of the United States the one hundred and eigh- 
teenth. 

(Seal) Grover Cleveland. 

By the President, 

Walter O. Gresham, Secretary of State. 

Seal Islands Made a Reservation. 

United States Statutes at Large, 1867- 1869, volume 
15, page 348. 

Resolved by the Senate and House of Representa- 
tives of the United States of America in Congress 
assembled. That the islands of Saint Paul and Saint 
George in Alaska be, and they are hereby, declared 
a special reservation for government purposes; and 
that until otherwise provided by law, it shall be un- 
lawful for any person to land or remain on either of 
said islands, except by the authority of the Secretary 
of the Treasury; and any person found on either of 
said islands, contrary to the provisions of this resolu- 



304 ALASKA. 

tion shall be summarily removed and it shall be the 
dutv of the Secretary of War to carry this resolution 
immediately into effect. 
Approved, March 3, 1869. 

Award of Arbitration Tribunal, Paris, on Fur-Seals. 

United States Statutes at Large, 1893-1895, volume 
28, page 1245. 

Proclamation by the President of the United States 
ot America. 

Whereas an Act of Congress entitled "An Act to 
give effect to the Award rendered by the Tribunal of 
Arbitration at Paris, under the Treaty between the 
Uniited States and Great Britain, concluded at Wash- 
ington, February 29, 1892, for the purpose of submit- 
ting to arbitration certain questions concerning the 
preservation of the fur-seals," was approved April 6, 
1894, and reads as follows: 

Whereas the following articles of the award of the 
Tribunal of Arbitration constituted under the treaty 
concluded at Washington the twenty-ninth of Febru- 
ary, eighteen hundred and ninety-two, between the 
United States of America and Her Majesty the Queen 
of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland 
were delivered to the Agents of the respective Gov- 
ernments on the fifteenth day of August eighteen 
hundred and ninety three: 



ALASKAN LEGISLA TION. _ 305 

Article I, 

The Government of the United States and Great 
Britain shall forbid their citizens and subjects re- 
spectively to kill, capture, or pursue at any time, and 
in any manner whatever, the animals commonly called 
fur-seals, within a zone of sixty miles around the Pri- 
bylov Islands, inclusive of the territorial waters. 

The miles mentioned in the preceding paragraph 
are geographical miles, of sixty to a degree of latitude. 

Article II. 
The two Governments shall forbid their citizens and 
subjects respectively to kill, capture or pursue, in any 
manner whatever, during the season extending, each 
year, from the first of May to the thirty-first of July, 
both inclusive, the fur-seals on the high sea, in the 
part of the Pacific Ocean, inclusive of the Bering Sea, 
which is situated to the north of the thirty-fifth degree 
of north latitude, and eastward of the one hundred 
and eightieth degree of longitude from Greenwich till 
it strikes the water boundary described in Article I 
of the Treaty of eighteen hundred and sixty-seven be- 
tween the United States and Russia, and following 
that line up to Bering Straits. 

Article III. 
During the period of time and in the waters in 
which the fur-seal fishing is allowed, only sailing ves- 
sels shall be permitted to carry on or take part in 



3o6 ALASKA. 

fur-seal fishing operations. They will, however, be 
at liberty to avail themselves of the use of such canoes 
or undecked boats, propelled by paddles, oars, or 
sails, as are in common use as fishing boats. 

Article IV. 

Each sailing vessel authorized to fish for fur-seals 
must be provided with a special license issued for that 
purpose by its Government, and shall be required to 
carrj^ a distinctive flag to be prescribed by its Gov- 
ernment. 

Article V. 

The masters of the vessels engaged in fur-seal fish- 
ing shall enter accurately in their official log book the 
date and place of each fur-seal fishing operation, and 
also the number and sex of the seals captured upon 
each day. These entries shall be communicated by 
each of the two Governments to the other at the end 
of each fishing season. 

Article VI, 

The use of nets, firearms and explosives shall be 
forbidden in the fur-seal fishing. This restriction 
shall not apply to shot guns when such fishing takes 
place outside of Bering Sea, during the season when 
it may be lawfully carried on. 



ALASKAN LEGISLA TION. 307 

Article VII. 
The two Governments shall take measures to con- 
trol the fitness of the men authorized to engage in fur- 
seal fishing; these men shall have been proved fit to 
handle with suflficient skill the weapons by means of 
which this fishing may be carried on. 

Article VIII. 

The regulations contained in the preceding articles 
shall not apply to Indians dwelling on the coast of the 
territory of the United States or of Great Britain and 
carrying on fur-seal fishing in canoes or undecked 
boats not transported by or used in connection with 
other vessels and propelled wholly by paddles, oars, 
or sails and manned by not more than five persons 
each in the way hitherto practiced by the Indians, 
provided such Indians are not in the employment of 
other persons and provided that, when so hunting in 
canoes or undecked boats, they shall not hunt fur- 
seals outside of territorial waters under contract for 
the delivery of the skins to any person. 

This exemption shall not be construed to afifect the 
municipal law of either country, nor shall it extend 
to the waters of Bering Sea or the waters of the Aleu- 
tian Passes. 

Nothing herein contained is intended to interfere 
with the employment of Indians as hunters or other- 
wise in connection with fur sealing vessels as hereto- 
fore. 



3o8 ALASKA. 

Article IX. 

The concurrent regulations hereby deterniined with 
a view to the protection and preservation of the fur- 
seals, shall remain in force until they have been, in 
whole or in part, abolished or modified by common 
agreement between the Governments of the United 
States and of Great Britain. 

The said concurrent regulations shall be submitted 
every live years to a new examination, so as to en- 
able both interested Govemmients to consider whether, 
in the light of past experience, there is occasion for 
any modification thereof. 

Now therefore be it enacted by the Senate and 
House of Representatives of the United States of 
America, in Congress assembled, That no citizen of 
the United States, or person owing the duty of obe- 
dience to the laws or the treaties of the United 
States, nor any person belonging to or on board of a 
vessel of the United States, shall kill, capture or pur- 
sue, at any time, or in any manner whatever, out- 
side of the territorial waters, any fur-seal in the waters 
surrounding the Pribilov Islands, within a zone of 
sixty geographical miles (sixty to a degree of latitude) 
aromid said islands, exclusive of the territorial waters. 

Sec. 2. That no citizen of the United States, or 
person above described in Section i of this Act, nor 
any person belonging to or on board of a vessel of 
the United States, shall kill, capture, or pursue, in 



ALASKAN LEGISLA TION. 309 

any manner whatever, during the season extending 
from the first day of May to the thirty-first day of 
July, both inchisive, in each year, any fur-seals, on the 
high seas outside of the zone mentioned in section 
one, and in that part of the Pacific Ocean, including 
Bering Sea, which is situated to the north of the 
thirty-fifth degree of north latitude and to the east of 
the one hundred and eightieth degree of longitude 
from Greenwich till it strikes the water boundary de- 
scribed in article one of the treaty of eighteen hun- 
dred and sixty-seven, between the United States and 
Russia, and following that line up to Bering Straits. 

Sec. 3. No citizen of the United States or pefrson 
above described, in the first section of this Act, shall 
during the period and in the waters in which by sec- 
tion two of this Act the killing of fur-seals is not pro- 
hibited, use or employ any vessel, nor shall any ves- 
sel of the United States be used or employed, in carry- 
ing on or taking part in fur-seal fishing operations, 
other than a sailing vessel propelled by sails exclu- 
sively, and such canoe or undecked boats, propelled 
by paddles, oars, or sails as may belong to, and be 
used in connection with such sailing vessels; nor shall 
any sailing vessel carry on or take part in such opera- 
tions without a special license obtained from the Gov- 
ernment for that purpose, and without carrying a dis- 
tinctive flag prescribed by the Government for the 
same purpose. 



3IO ALASKA. 

Sec. 4. That every master of a vessel licensed 
under this act to engage in fur-seal fishing operations 
shall accurately enter in his ofBcial log book the date 
and place of every such operation, and also the num- 
ber and sex of the seal captured each day; and on 
coming into port and before landing cargo, the mas- 
ter shall verify, on oath, such official log book as con- 
taining a full and true statement of the number and 
character of his fur-seal fishing operations, including 
the number and sex of seals captured; and for any 
false statement wilfully made by a person so licensed 
by the United States in this behalf he shall be subject 
to the penalties of perjury; and any seal skins found 
in excess of the statement in the official log book 
shall be forfeited to the United States. 

Sec. 5. That no person or vessel engaging in fur- 
seal fishing operations under this Act shall use or em- 
ploy in such operations any net, firearm, air-gun, or 
explosive: 

Provided however, That this prohibition shall not 
apply to the use of short guns in such operations out- 
side of Bering Sea during the season when the killing 
of fur-seals is not there prohibited by this Act. 

Sec. 6. That the foregoing sections of this Act 
shall not apply to Indians dwelling on the coast of the 
United States, and taking fur-seals in canoes or un- 
decked boats propelled wholly by paddles, oars, or 
sails, and not transported by or used in connection 



ALASKAN LEGISLA TIOA . 311 

with other vessels, or manned by more than five per- 
sons, in the manner heretofore practiced by the said 
Indians; 

Provided, however, That the exception made in 
this section shall not apply to Indians in the employ- 
ment of other persons, or who shall kill, capture, or 
pursue fur-seals outside of territorial waters under 
contract to deliver the skins to other persons, nor to 
the waters of Bering Sea or of the passes between 
the Aleutian Islands. 

Sec. 7. That the President shall have power to 
make regulations respecting the special license and 
the distinctive flag mentioned in this Act and regula- 
tions otherwise suitable to secure the due execution 
of the provisions of this act, and from time to time 
to add to, modify, amend, or revoke such regulations 
as in his judgment may seem expedient. 

Sec. 8. That except in the case of a master making 
a false statement under oath in violation of the pro- 
visions of the fourth section of this Act, every per- 
son guilty of a violation of the provisions of this Act, 
or of the regulations made thereunder, shall for each 
offense be fined not less than two hundred dollars, 
or imprisoned not more than six months, or both ; and 
all vessels, their tackle, apparel, furniture, and cargo, 
at any time used or employed in violation of this Act, 
or of the regulations made thereunder, shall be for- 
feited to the United States. 



312 ALASKA. 

Sec. 9. That any violation of this Act, or of the 
regulations made thereunder, may be prosecuted 
either in the district court of Alaska or in any dis- 
trict court of the United States in California, Oregon, 
or Washington. 

Sec. 10. That if any unlicensed vessel of the 
United States shall be found within the waters to 
which this Act applies, and at a time when the kill- 
ing of fur-seals is by this Act there prohibited, hav- 
ing on board seal skins or bodies of seals, or appa- 
ratus or implements suitable for killing or taking 
seals; or if any licensed vessel shall be found in the 
waters to which this Act applies, having on board ap- 
paratus or implements suitable for taking seals, but 
forbidden then and there to be used, it shall be pre- 
sumed that the vessel in the one case and the appara- 
tus or implements in the other was or were used in 
violation of this Act until it is otherwise sufficiently 
proved. 

Sec. II. That it shall be the duty of the President 
to cause a sufifioient naval force to cruise in the waters 
to which this Act is applicable to enforce its provi- 
sions, and it shall be the duty of the commanding 
officer of any vessel belonging to the naval or revenue 
service of the United States, when so instructed by the 
President, to seize and arrest all vessels of the United 
States found by him to be engaged, used, or em- 
ployed in the waters last aforesaid in violation of any 



ALASKAN LEGISLA TION. 3 1 3 

of the prohibitions of this Act, or of any regulations 
made thereunder, and to take the same, with all per- 
sons on board thereof, to the most convenient port in 
any district of the United States, mentioned in this 
Act, there to be dealt with according to law. 

Sec. 12. That any vessel or citizen of the United 
States, or person described in the first section of this 
Act, ofifending against the prohibitions of this Act, 
or the regulations thereimder, may be seized and de- 
tained by the naval or other duly commissioned offi- 
cers of Her Majesty the Queen of Great Britain, but 
when so seized and detained they shall be delivered 
as soon as practicable, with any witnesses and proofs 
on board, to any naval or revenue officer or other 
authorities of the United States, whose courts alone 
shall have jurisdiction to try the offense and impose 
the penalties for the same; 

Provided, however, That British officers shall ar- 
rest and detain vessels and persons as in this section 
specified only after, by appropriate legislation, Great 
Britain shall have authorized officers of the United 
States duly commissioned and instructed by the Presi- 
dent to that end to arrest, detain, and deliver to the 
authorities of Great Britain vessels and subjects of 
that Government offending against any statutes or 
regulations of Great Britain enacted or made to en- 
force the award of the treaty mentioned in the title of 
this Act. 



314 ALASKA. 

Now, therefore, be it known that I, Grover Cleve- 
land, President of the United States of America, have 
caused the said Act specially to be proclaimed to the 
end that its provisions may be known and observed; 
and I hereby proclaim that every person guilty of a 
violation of the provisions of said Act will be arrested 
and punished as therein provided; and all vessels so 
employed, their tackle, apparel, furniture and cargo 
will be seized and forfeited. 

In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set my hand 

and caused the seal of the United States to be afifixed. 

Done at the City of Washington this 9th day of 

April in the year of our Lord one 

^ thousand eight hundred and nine- 

■j Seal i ty-four, and of the Independence 

''~~^^~~' of the United States the one hun- 

:hteenth. 
Grover Cleveland. 



dred and eighteenth 



By the President, 

W. O. Gresham, Secretary of State. 

Killing of Fur-Bearing Animals. 

United States Statutes at Large, 1893- 1895, volume 
28, page 1258. 

Proclamation by the President of the United States. 

The following provisions of the laws of the United 
States are hereby published for the information of all 
concerned. 

Section 1956, Revised Statutes, Chapter 3, Title 
XXIII, enacts that: 



ALASKAN LEG /SLA TION. 3 1 5 

No person shall kill any otter, mink, marten, sable, 
or fur-seal, or other fur-bearing animal within the 
limits of Alaska Territory, or in the waters thereof; 
and every person guilty thereof shall for each ofifense 
be fined not less than two hundred nor more than 
one thousand dollars, or imprisoned not more than 
six months, or both; and all vessels, their tackle, ap- 
parel, furniture and cargo, found engaged in viola- 
tion of this section shall be forfeited; but the Secre- 
tary of the Treasury shall have power to authorize 
the killing of any such mink, marten, sable, or other 
fur-bearing animal, except fur-seal, under such reg- 
ulations as he may prescribe; and it shall be the duty 
of the Secretary to prevent the killing of any fur- 
seal, and to provide for the execution of the provis- 
ions of this section until it is otherwise provided by 
law; nor shall he grant any special privileges under 
this section. 

Section 3 of the act entitled "An Act to provide for 
the protection of the salmon fisheries of Alaska," ap- 
proved March 2, 1889, provides: 

Sec. 3. That section nineteen hundred and fifty- 
six of the Revised Statutes of the United States is 
hereby declared to include and apply to all the do- 
minion of the United States in the waters of Bering 
Sea; and it shall be the duty of the President, at a 
timely season in each year, to issue hiis proclamation 
and cause the same to be published for one month 



3i6 ALASKA. 

in at least one newspaper if any such there be pub- 
lished at each United States port of entry on the 
Pacific Coast, warning all persons against entering 
said waters for the purpose of violating the provis- 
ions of said section; and he shall also cause one or 
more vessels of the United States to diligently cruise 
said waters and arrest all persons, and seize all ves- 
sels found to be, or to have been, engaged in any 
violation of the laws of the United States therein. 

Now, therefore, I, Grover Cleveland, President of 
the United States, hereby warn all persons against 
entering the waters of Bering Sea within the dominion 
of the United States for the purpose of violating the 
provisions of said section 1956 of the Revised Stat- 
utes; and I hereby proclaim that all persons found to 
be, or to have been engaged in any violation of the 
laws of the United States in said waters, will be ar- 
rested, and punished as above provided. 

In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set my hand 
and caused the seal of the United States to be affixed. 

Done at the city of Washington this eighteenth day 
of February in the year of Our Lord one thousand 
eight hundred and ninety-five and of the independence 
of the United States the one hundred and nineteenth. 

(Seal) Grover Cleveland. 

By the President, 

W. Q. Gresham, Secretary of State, 



ALASKAN LEGISLA TION. 3 1 7 

United States Statutes at Large, 1893- 1895, volume 
28, page 378. 

For maintenance of a refuge station at or near Point 
Barrow, Alaska, on the Arctic Ocean, four thousand 
dollars. 

Also one in 1895. 



Alaska Legislation — List of Statutes Concerning 

Alaska, from the Revised Supplemental Laws 

OF THE United States, and the United 

States Statutes at Large. 



Vol. 15. 1867-1869. Page 

Alaska, territory ceded to the United States by Russia to 

constitute the collection district of 240 

Port of entry to be where 240 

Collector and salary 240 

Regulations for the nationalization of vessels owned by 

residents of the ceded territory 240 

Importation into, and use in, of firearms and distilled 

spirits may be prohibited 241 

And exportation of, from other ports if destined to 

ports in this territory 241 

Penalty for landing or attempting to land such arti- 
cles 241 

Coasting trade of territory, how regulated 241 

Killing of fur-bearing animals prohibited may be au- 
thorized by the Secretary of the Treasury ... 241 
What courts to have jurisdiction of offenses under this 

Act, etc ... 241 

Who may make arrests of persons or vessels 241 

Remission of fines, penalties and forfeitures incurred in, 242 

Secretary of Treasury may prescribe certain regulations, 241 

Appropriation 241 

Construction of steam revenue cutter for 302 

Act to protect the fur seal in 348 



3i8 ALASKA. 

Vol. 16. 1869-1871. p.ge 

Alaska, Act to prevent the extermination of fur-bearing 

animals in i8o, 182 

The killing of, upon the islands of St. Paul and 
St. George, or in adjacent waters 180 

Except in certain months, declared unlawful and at 
anytime with firearms 180 

Certain privileges of killing allowed to natives . . . 180 

The killing of any female seal or any seal less than a 
year old, except, etc., or any seal in certain places 
declared unlawful 180 

Penalty therefor 180 

Limit to number of fur-seals that may be killed in 
any year for their skins, upon the islands of St. 
Paul and St. George 180 

Further limit 180 

Penalty 180 

Right to take fur-seals on the islands of St. Paul and 
St. George and to send vessels, etc., may be leased 
for twenty years 180, 181 

Lease, bond, etc 181 

Lessees to furnish copy of lease to masters of their 
vessels as authority, etc 181 

Other leases may be made upon expiration, etc., of 
first lease 181 

American citizens only to have lease, etc, and no 
foreign vessel to be used 181 

Secretary of State may terminate any lease at any- 
time and for what causes 182 

Covenants in lease not to sell distilled spirits, etc., to 
natives 181 

Any distilled spirits or spirituous liquors found upon 
the islands to be destroyed 181 

Annual rental received by lease 181 

How to be secured 181 

Tax of two dollars upon each fur seal-skin .... 181 
Rules, etc., for collection of same 181,182 



ALASKAN LEGISLATION. 319 

Page 
Fur seal-skins now stored on the islands may be 

delivered to owners upon payment, etc 182 

Penalty for killing any fur seal without authority . . 181 

For molesting lessees 181 

Vessels to be forfeited 181 

Upon lessees for killing fur seals in excess of number 

authorized 181 

Any district court in California, Oregon, or Washington 
to have jurisdiction of offenses under this Act . . 182 
Approved July i, 1870. 

Vol. 17. 1871. 

Agent and assistants, to manage the seal fisheries in . . 35 

Their pay and traveling expenses 35 

Not to be interested in right to take seals .... 35 

Dwelling houses for 35 

May administer certain oaths and take testimony . 35 

Laws of the United States relating to customs, com- 
merce, and navigation, extended to 530 

Vol. 18. 1873—1875. 

Appropriation for collecting information respecting the 

fur trade in 210 

Salaries and traveling expenses of agents at seal 

fisheries 375 

Secretary of Treasury to designate months when fur 
seals may be taken on islands of St. Paul and St. 

George 24 

And number which may be taken from each island . 24 
Appointment of special agent and detail of naval ofiicer 
to visit and report on condition of seal fisheries, etc., 33, 34 

Revised Statutes. First Edition. 1874 to 1891. 

Alaska, Agents of seal fisheries in, how paid 73 

Two assistants discontinued 115 

Laws of Oregon adopted 433 

Land districts in 433 



320 ALASKA. 

Page 
General land laws of the United States not to apply to, 433 

Town sites in, how entered, etc 944 

Survey of town sites 944 

Survey of town sites not to include mining rights . . 945 

Purchase of land for trade and manufacture 944 

Prior rights of surface owners protected 945 

What lands are reserved 945 

Ports of delivery in 937 

Entry of town sites; trustees; maximum iioo 

Seal Islands, etc., reserved ; salmon fishing regulations, iioo 
Reservation of Annette Islands for certain Indians (Met- 

lakahtla) iioi 

Extra allowance for census agents 670 

Ports of delivery established in 1087 

Customs officers 1087 

Proclamation against unlawful killing of fur-bearing 

animals in waters of 1543. 1558, 1565 

Special agent authorized to investigate seal fisheries, 

sea otter, etc, industries in 46 

Appropriation for Alaskan boundary svirvey, 960 

Alaskan Seal Fisheries : 

Appropriation for expenses of agents, etc 387, 969 

Publishing President's proclamation 969 

Deficiency appropriation for agents' salaries, etc. . 541 
Publishing President's proclamation 867 

Statutes at Large, Vol. 19. 1875—1877. 
Appropriation for salaries of agents at seal fisheries in, 118 

Steam revenue vessel in 357 

To supply deficiency in appropriation for salaries of 
agents at seal fisheries in 363 

Vol. 20. 1877-1879. 
Appropriation for salaries, etc., of agents at seal fish- 
eries in 218, 3S4 

Deficiencies in 8, 385 




< 



s^^> 



M.mKmmtn. 



ALASKAN LEGISLATION. 321 

Page 

Protection of interest of government in 386 

Oatb of customs officers in, before whom taken . . 47 
Mails to be carried by revenue steamer 212 

Second Edition Revised Statute. 1878. 

L,aws of United States extended over 1954 

Provisions common to all territories (See Terri- 
tories) 1S39, 1895 

Regulation of trade in arms, ammunition and spirits 1955 
Collection district, port of entry and what to comprise 

of 2591, 2592 

Coasting trade with 4140 

Regulation of coasting trade with 4358 

Power of Secretary of Treasury to remit fines, etc., in 
certain cases in collection district of 5293 

1880-1881. 

Appropriation for repair and preservation of public 

buildings in 436 

Alaskan Seal Fisheries : 

Appropriation for expenses of protecting, etc .... 441 
Agents at, appropriation for salaries, etc., of ... 441 

1881—1882. 

Alaska, post routes established in . 351 

Appropriation for salaries and expenses of agents at 

seal fisheries 314 

Deficiency for 277 

1882—1883. 

Appropriation for salaries, etc., of agents at seal fish- 
eries in 612 

Protection of seal fisheries in 612 

1883—1884. 
Act making provision for a civil government for . . 24 
Appointment of governor, etc.; residence, duties, 

powers 24 

Clerk 24 

21 



322 ALASKA. 

Page 

District attorney 24 

Marshal, deputy marshals 24 

Commissioners 24 

Sitka made the seat of govertnent, etc 24 

Salaries of officers, etc 26 

Appropriations for expenses of the government of . . 179 

Seal fisheries in 206 

Compilation of laws applicable to duties of governor, 

attorney, judges, etc., in 223 

Support of Indian schools 91 

Postal service in, Postmaster General may contract, etc., 

for 157 

Vol. 24. 1885—1887. 

Appropriation for education of children in ... . 243, 529 

Salaries, government in 191, 614 

Contingent expenses 191, 614 

Traveling expenses 252 

Rent, etc., marshal's office 252 

Expenses ; judge, marshal and attorney ... 540 

Support, etc., of Indian pupils , 45, 465 

Alaskan Seal Fisheries : 

Appropriation for expenses 237, 524 

Vol. 25. 1887—1889. 

Alaska, Appropriation for salaries, government in . . . 276, 726 

Contingent Expenses 276, 726 

Protection of seal islands 510, 945 

Expense of agents, seal fisheries 521, 957 

Survey of coast of 515, 946 

Boundary survey 515, 949 

Education 528, 962 

Traveling expenses, court in 544, 977 

Expenses, marshal's office 544, 977 

Deficiency, education 921 

Erection of obstructions in rivers to ascent of salmon, 

etc., unlawful ; penalty 1009 



ALASKAN LEGISLATION. 323 

Page 

Special census, inquiries relating to 765 

Alaska boundary survey, appropriation for . . . -515, 949 
Alaskan Seal Fisheries : 

Appropriation for expenses of agents 521, 957 

Vol. 26. 1889—1891. 
Alaska, Appropriation for salaries, government in . . . 249, 929 

Contingent expenses 249, 929 

Preliminary boundary survey 380 

Education in 393, 970 

Traveling expenses of officers 409, 986 

Court expenses 409, 986 

Jurors and witnesses 410, 987 

Naval Magazine 801 

Building at Marj- Island and Sand Point ...... 1087 

Deficiency appropriation, protecting salmon, etc., 

fisheries 509 

Expenses, sealing lease 510 

Coal to navy in 520 

Purchase; price; prior occupants iioo 

Payment for land purchased iioo 

Surveys iioo 

Approval of surveys ; charges ; patents 1 100 

Lands reserved from sale 1 100 

Rights of natives, etc.; fish culture, etc.; reserves . iioo 

Salary, Lafayette Dawson 527 

Court expenses 541 

Expenses, marshal 883, 891 

Transportation of witnesses, etc 883 

Salaries 547 

Expenses, President's Proclamation 867 

Vol. 27. 1891—1893. 
Appropriation for salaries, government in .... 205, 696 

Contingent expenses 205, 696 

Buildings continued, available 350 

Protecting seal fisheries 355, 577 



324 ALASKA. 

Page 

Refuge station, Point Barrow 355, 577 

Boundary survey 357, 579 

Seal fisheries' expenses 365, 500 

Protection of salmon fisheries 366 

Education 366, 590 

Food, etc., natives of 372, 596 

Seal islands 590 

Court expenses 385, 608 

Inspection of Indian schools, 1890 614 

Deficiency, preliminary boundary survey 35 

Joint survey of territory adjacent to boundary line, 35 

Supplies to natives of seal islands 285 

Education in 293 

Rent, etc. , judicial officers 299,660 

Agents, seal fisheries 311 

Repairs, island of St. George 651 

Protecting salmon fisheries 669 

Investigation of seal-life by Fish Commissioners . 585 
Convention with Great Britain concerning Bering 

Sea 947 

A long proclamation from pages 947 to 954. Proclaimed 
May 9, 1892, by President Harrison and Secretary of 
State, Hon. James G. Blaine. 

Survey of boundary line 955 

Renewing modus vivendi in Bering Sea 952 

Proclamation against unlawful killing of fur-bearing 

animals, waters of 1008, 1070 

Announcing modus vivendi with Great Britain con- 
cerning seal fisheries 980 

Setting apart Afognak Island as forest and fish-culture 

reservation 1052 

Boundary survey, appropriation for 357, 579 

Alaskan Seal Fisheries : 

Appropriation for agents, salaries and expenses . . 365, 590 
Publishing of proclamation against unlawful sealing, 
etc 366, 590 



ALASKAN LEGISLA TION. 325 

Page 

Food, etc., to native islanders 366, 590 

Fulfilling treaties with Great Britain (Bering Sea 

arbitration) 28 

Deficiency, fulfilling treaties with Great Britain 

(Bering Sea arbitration) 647 

Inquiry by Treasury agent repealed 366 

" Albatross," Fish Commission steamer, deficiency ap- 
propriation for expenses in Bering Sea seal fisheries, 35 

1892-1895. 

Alaska, Extracts of laws relating to fur seals in, extended 

to North Pacific Ocean 89 

Commissioner at Kadiak 128,211,416 

Seizure of vessels^ when, and by whom 177 

Commissioners, residence and salary 211 

Price of fox skins at St. Paul Island 254 

Vol. 28. 1893-1895. 

For printing, etc., decisions of district court 414 

Deficiency appropriation for marshal, court in ... . 440 

Traveling expenses 441 

Rent, etc 44i 

Court expenses 483 

Convention extending time to complete boundary sur- 
vey between British North America and 1200 

Proclamation of fur-seal regulations 1245 

Forbidding killing of fur-bearing animals in waters 
of 1258 

Regulations for killing fur seals 53 

Commercial Company, deficiency appropriation for 
coal 427 

Accounts to be examined by auditor for Treasury De- 
partment 206 

1894-1895. 

Appropriation for salaries, government in 786 

Contingent expenses 786 



326 ALASKA. 

Page 

Education of Indians 904 

Point Barrow refuge station 920 

Expenses, seal and salmon fisheries 932 

Report on wanton destruction of game, etc . . 932 

Investigating gold and coal resources .... 939 

Education in 941 

Reindeer 941 

Expenses court officials . 956 

Rent, etc. , courts . . 956 

Alaskan Seal Fisheries : 

Appropriation for protection of 919 

Expenses of agents 932 

Food, etc., to natives 932 

Publishing President's proclamation 932 

Expenses, vessels' log books 932 

1895-1896. 

Appropriations for salaries, government in 160 

Contingent expenses 160 

Reconstructing government wharf, charges .... 413 

Protecting seal fisheries, etc 420 

Coast surveys, etc 422 

Protecting salmon fisheries 431 

Expenses, seal fisheries 431 

Investigating mineral resources 435 

Education in 437 

Reindeer station 437 

Traveling expenses, court officials 449 

Rent, etc., court officials 449 

Repairs to buildings 449 

Locating boundary between British North America 

and, on one hundred and forty-first meridian . . 464 

Deficiency, expenses, court officers 24, 295 

Rent, etc 24 

Supplies for natives 269 

Expenses, salmon fisheries 271 



ALASKAN LEGISLA TION. 327 

Page 

Contingent expenses 277 

Indian school, Circle City 292 

Allowance for clerk hire 277 

Customs district reorganized 60 

New legislation as to attorneys and marshals not appli- 
cable to 186 

Regulation of salmon fisheries 316 

Alaskan Seal Fisheries : 

Appropriations for expenses of agents 431 

Food, etc., to natives 431 

Publishing President's proclamation, etc 431 

Expenses of log books, etc 431 

1896—1897. 
Alaska, appropriation for salaries, government in .... 560 
Contingent expenses 560 

United States Statutes at Large, Vol. 29. 1895—1897. 

Appropriation for salaries, government in ... . 160, 560 

Contingent expenses 160, 560 

Reconstructing government wharf, charges . . . . 413 

Protecting seal fisheries, etc ... 420 

Coast surveys, etc 422 

Protecting salmon fisheries 431 

Expenses, seal fisheries 431 

Investigating mineral resources 435 

Education in 437 

Reindeer station 437 

Traveling expenses, court officials 449 

Rent, etc., court officials 449 

Repairs to buildings 449 

Proclamation declaring in effect laws prohibiting kDling 
fur-bearing animals in, etc 878 

Reserving lands to Greco-Russia Church 883 



CHAPTER XXXVIII. 

Miscellaneous. 

THE preceding chapters may have a rather de- 
sultor>'- and disconnected appearance, an effect 
that could not be avoided, as the writer desires, 
before any other object, to show in what manner he 
has traced the progress of afifairs in Alaska. In his 
visit to the country he noted the possibilities which 
would have appeared to any one who evinced an 
equal interest in the place. Its scenic beauties 
charmed him, at the same time he was watching for 
every sign that would be a good foundation for the 
hope that one day Alaska should take the place upon 
this Continent that Sweden, Norway and Siberia now 
hold in Northern Europe and Asia. 

Comparing those countries in the Eastern Hemis- 
phere with the territory in question, there is a ten- 
dency to regulate its temperature by their rigor- 
ous climate. This is right only in part, for, as 
mentioned in a previous chapter, the Southeast- 
ern part of Alaska is held under the influence of 
the Kuro Siwo, or Japan Current, which flows in a 
broad curve from the warm shores of Asia, and 
carries a part of its torrid heat all the w^ay to our 
New Province. Certainly the temperature lowers as 
328 



MISCELLANEO US. 329 

it proceeds along the Aleutian Islands in the cove- 
like curve, on its way, but it is sufficiently temperate 
to insure a mild climate on the coasts touched by it, 
and for a considerable distance inland, very much 
like that of a coast strip on the Eastern side of our 
country that may be said to include Boston, New 
York, Philadelphia, Baltimore and Washington. This 
may be accepted to be the average all-the-year tem- 
perature. At Sitka, for instance, extreme cold is 
not known, the temperature being about like that of 
Philadelphia or Washington, D. C, a mean of 32.5 
degrees Fahr. We are informed by observers who 
live there, that in some winters ice forms only in thin 
sheets, which may easily be broken, that the temper- 
ature seldom reaches zero, while the summer is pro- 
portionately warm, but very short. The luxuriant 
growth of trees and plants is most wonderful and their 
thickness of foliage remarkable. But there is an ob- 
jection, such as is characteristic of the climate of the 
British Islands, in an over-abundance of moisture, the 
total rainfall amounting to ninety or one hundred 
inches annually. The sunshiny days are in the minor- 
ity, but when they do appear their exquisite love- 
limess can never be forgotten. The author will ever 
remember one of these days, followed by a lovely sun- 
set and a long, glorious twilight, which occurred 
when sailing to that country. The steamer entered 
one of the bay-like stretches of Lynn Canal from a 



330 ALASKA. 

cliff-bound narrow strait, at sunset, and the passen- 
gers, in groups, enjoyed the glorious scene. The 
vessel seemed to be sailing in a smooth sea of gold, 
the reflections were perfect, the very air was laden 
with the wonderful changing colors, while the shores 
of the bay and the mountains beyond were painted 
in all the tender tones of yellow, crimson, purple, 
pink and amethyst. The peculiar silence which set- 
tled over the observers and accompanied the pic- 
ture, made it more weirdly, I might say more sacredly, 
beautiful. Repeated quiet expressions escaped from 
nearly every fascinated beholder, when the evening 
shades began faintly and slowly to fall in sombre 
gray about us, the engine pulsated more frequently, 
and the vessel bore us onward more rapidly toward 
our destination. Our observations on the climate as- 
sured us that some day the South-Eastern part of 
Alaska will be a great resort for invalids to whom a 
moist climate with no sudden changes of temperature 
is beneficial, and it will be occupied by large com- 
mercial and mercantile cities through which the pro- 
ducts of the more rigorous interior and the mining 
towns will find their markets interchangeable, from 
thence to be dispersed by a line of Pacific steamers 
to the Orient and possibly by still nobler railways 
than now exist, to our own Eastern markets. 

The protection long advocated is now loudly de- 
manded, and the call must be obeyed, although the 



MISCELLA NEOUS. 331 

propriety and feasibility of military rule may well be 
held under very careful advisement at the present. 
If Circle City, and every other point in the United 
States Territory, had been already garrisoned with 
well disciplined troops, it would have been all right, 
but at this time of wild gold excitement, the 
establishment of fortifications would possibly only 
lead to contention, and likely to bloodshed. There 
are so many complications surrounding the afifair that 
only those with the calmest and keenest judgment 
should undertake to act, even though the delay may 
seem undiplomatic. Unquestionably the miners of 
the Republican side of the boundary should be 
guarded as ably as are those in the Canadian district, 
and it should be attended to promptly before the 
early winter prevents the landing of proper of^cials, 
who at this time must be strictly unmilitary in all but 
faithfulness and discipline. There is no doubt that 
there are numbers of natives who could be appointed 
to police duty under experienced officers; so that the 
few drilled policemen that could be detailed now 
might have their force greatly increased by them at 
short notice. There can be no doubt of this because 
resident business men as well as missionaries certify 
to the intelligence and honesty of the greater number 
of the civilized Alaskans. Amicable friendliness and 
relationships and reciprocal concessions for the gen- 
eral good should at all times exist between Canada 



332 ALASKA. 

and the United States, and now is the time to be fra- 
ternal. At present the temporary indignation of the 
few, over the action of the Canadian Government with 
regard to the new mining laws and the gold taxation 
it requires from American miners, is rather intense, 
and will not admit of military or any other interference. 
The appearance of the well-known uniform would 
lately have acted like a fuse to a powder magazine, 
particularly among the less intelligent of the commu- 
nity of miners. Those of the Canadian police who are 
there can doubtless maintain order for a time, but no 
man should cross the line who is not going to obey 
the laws of Canada strictly and well. 

Had troops been sent as at first proposed, Canadian 
citizens would quickly have formed the idea of in- 
tended hostilities upon the part of the United States 
that neither reason nor assurance could soon dispel; 
while the people of Alaska might feel that they could 
demand of the troops a wider exercise of authority 
than they would be permitted to exercise. 

A reasonable deliberation should certainly be taken 
before the slightest attempt at retaliation is thought of 
or made, such action being very unwise unless sub- 
sequent inimical action, which is not now likely to 
occur, demands swift and decided measures. At the 
same time, we believe that our Government should 
study well the interests of her inhabitants before con- 
ceding sweeping rights to foreigners. If the right to 



MISCELLANEOUS. 333 

carry supplies through x\laskan waters to the Ameri- 
can port of entry at Dyea is given to British vessels, 
to the detriment of American ship-owners, who have 
the right to expect a trade for their vessels, and the 
employment of their men, it seems to them that the 
license now obtained by this act to British vessels 
ought to be taken into just consideration; and if the 
Canadian passes, trails or roadways and water- 
ways aire equally open to the men, teams and boats of 
Alaska, we can see no cause for complaint, on fairly 
reciprocal grounds. 

The proposition made by the British Government 
to reserve a portion of the newly discovered mining 
lands for revenue is the very idea expressed time and 
again by the writer, with regard to valuable mining 
or fertile lands in the United States, and we surmise 
that no reasonable thinker will deny its feasibility. In- 
creasing population, continual necessities for building, 
bridging and improving, make ever augmenting de- 
mands upon the Treasuries of the various States as 
well as upon the United States Treasury, and there 
must be some mode by which to keep them filled. A 
cry goes up against further taxation; so there must 
be another plan adopted. What better one can there 
be than that of devoting a portion of the natural re- 
sources of the country to that purpose! Individuals 
should not attain riches without making any return 
to the State or Territory in which the wealth is 



334 ALASKA. 

found. Another phase which should meet the careful 
attention of individuals is, that under the exist- 
ing state of affairs, only a few make fortunes, 
not many more make a competence, and the ma- 
jority turn away disheartened and poorer than when 
they commenced their toil for wealth; while under 
Government management a number would still obtain 
the greater amount, yet there would be paying work for 
all, flourishing towns would be established, where pos- 
sibly here, under operation, and there, forsaken, now 
are only roughly constructed mining camps, simply 
because gold cannot be found in vast quantities. 

It is said, most truly, that hundreds of miners will 
be caught in the interior barren regions on their way 
to the Klondyke mines or Dawson City, by the early 
storms of winter, or along the Yukon River in the 
ice, while trying to reach Circle City. Such being the 
case, leading spirits should come forward and direct 
them in the construction of stopping places for them- 
selves and other belated traders. Instead of pushing 
through the rapidly filling passes, against blinding 
snow and clogging ice, they should choose camp- 
ing grounds, put their ingenuity to work at construct- 
ing houses, using the wood that is procurable and fin- 
ishing with the snow that everyone knows will pack 
into masses almost as imperishable and impervious as 
marble, while the winter lasts. How much better it 
would be to stop and store the goods they possess than 



MISCELLANEOUS. 335 

to press onward to almost certain death and the de- 
struction of their valuable freight. Then when the first 
open weather arrived, the men would be on hand, and 
having a part of their journey accomplished, they 
would feel rested and ready to face the remainder, ar- 
riving at their destination before the approach of 
the great spring on-rush from the East which 
is sure to set in. By this arrangement, the serious 
work of packing a great amount of winter provi- 
sions across the mighty canyons and through the 
boisterous rapids would be avoided, as would the 
danger of losing all in the waters or under the 
snow. 

A large force of men at this writing are working on 
the construction of a good road over White Pass. 
Unquestionably it will be well to be on hand, for as 
surely as there is gold to be found anywhere in the 
depths of an unexplored region, there will be facilities 
provided to take the eager crowds and requisite freight 
to the spot. A part of the way now must be made by 
the assistance of either reindeer, horses, donkeys, 
dogs, or packmen. Horses are seldom able to bear 
the extreme hardship and fatigue. Donkeys are 
gifted with wonderful powers of endurance, but they 
cannot live long under the strain that must be put 
upon them without proper food. Therefore the pro- 
vender for both horse and burro must be carried, as 
well as that for the men, making the labor ver^' much 



336 ALASKA. 

greater, and the danger of losing their help much to 
be feared if the packs are swept away by winds or 
water, or lost in the snow. Horses and donkeys, 
then, are subjects for extreme anxiety. Dogs are 
better, provided you have a good team ; but they, too, 
require food, much of which must be carried, unless 
the road lies along streams from which fish can 
be taken through the ice when needed. Then, too, 
dogs are sometimes quarrelsome, always thievish and 
perpetually noisy. These considerations lead to the 
belief that Dr. Sheldon Jackson has opened the only 
safe and agreeable road to success by the introduc- 
tion of the reindeer. These animals are faithful, pa- 
tient, almost untiring, and more swift than either 
horse or dog. Their feet are constructed to fit the 
land over which they bear with safety immense bur- 
dens. 

Properly trained, they are practically docile and 
obedient, and at the journey's end, or at the stop- 
ping places, they can forage for themselves, finding 
abundance of nourishment in the sweet moss for 
which they search with their strong hoofs. Another 
great feature in the use of the reindeer is that if danger 
of starvation comes, or if meat cannot be secured, the 
flesh of the deer is in every way suitable for food, 
where using horses or dogs for that purpose could 
not be tolerated except in the face of death. 

As yet the reindeer is limited to certain districts. 




JuxEAu, Alaska 



MISCELLANEOUS. 337 

but the Superintendent of Education in Alaska, has 
gone about the business so systematically that the 
near future will see great herds of the wonderfully 
useful animals feeding upon the tundra all through the 
ice-bound interior of Alaska and British Columbia. 
The employment of Esquimaux, or of Siberian Lapps, 
as they are called, was compulsory, until the Alaskan 
natives were initiated into the secret of their training 
to the sleds. When the deer are trained, a strong ani- 
mal can drag a sled with 300 pounds of freight on it loo 
miles a day. After which he will scratch for moss 
and make a satisfying meal. In summer, the animals 
feed on the rank grass and herbage, being specially 
fond of the scrubby willow shoots which abound on 
the borders of the marsh}' hollows. The lyapps are 
the constant companions of the herds, being solely 
dependent upon them for both food and clothing, 
as well as for trade. The wealth of the Alaskan 
on the coast is counted in furs and blankets, where 
the mountain sheep and goats abound, and as 
Oriential shepherds for ages counted their wealth by 
the number of sheep or goats in their flocks, so is the 
wealth of the Lapp computed by the number in his 
herd of reindeer. At the same time, many of them 
who reside near the borders or within easy distance 
of the trading stations, are quite wealthy in money 
obtained through judicious trading. As there are 
few things in their mode of living that require the 



338 ALASKA. 

use of money, they have it secured in the banks in 
amounts often surprising to people who do not 
understand their frugality. It is this class of people, 
the true reindeer herders, to which the managers of 
the reindeer stations have been directing the atten- 
tion of the Government for several years. They suc- 
ceeded in employing a number who were expected 
to teach their art to the Alaskan natives, but except 
in a few cases, they seemed to be slightly opposed 
to giving their knowledge away, though they received 
ample remuneration. Now, Dr. Jackson and his 
colleagues are endeavoring to colonize some families, 
expecting through them to reach the desired result. 
There can be no doubt whatever that when the Alas- 
kans find the true benefits of the deer they will learn 
to use them as beneficially as they use the dogs now. 
With the Lapps, Siberian dogs are brought, which are 
necessary assistants to their masters. One competent 
man and a good dog can herd and watch over five 
hundred deer. The animals have to be guarded day 
and night, to keep them from straying or fighting, 
to protect them from bears, wolves and savage dogs, 
and to keep men from stealing them. They are also 
carefully watched in such a manner as to secure the 
rapid increase of the herd. The best deer for freight 
drawing are the geldings but all kinds can be trained 
to bear their part in the service of their masters. 
The Lapp herders depend as completely upon their 



MIS CELL A NEOUS. 339 

deer for sustenance, clothing and tents, as do the 
walrus hunters of King's Island trust to the walrus 
for similar purposes. The herds did not increase in 
the ratio hoped for by those who brought them to 
Alaska, but considering all difficulties, they did very 
satisfactorily. It will take some time and expense, 
however, to get the herds down to the interior 
from the distant North-West on the Bering Sea 
coast. The first reindeer station was established at 
Port Clarence, which is considered the best American 
harbor on Bering Sea, north of the Aleutian Chain. 
It was chosen particularly because it was but fifty 
miles from Bering Strait. The greatest difficulty at- 
tending its use is the presence of the whaling fleets 
among which whiskey is sure to find its way to the 
natives. The same objection is met with on the Si- 
berian side, where the Superintendent states that he 
was prevented from purchasing hundreds of deer that 
might have been easily procurable if it had not been 
for the intoxication of the herders. 

The forwarders of the enterprise, however, obtained 
171 deer and established the station near the point 
chosen for the proposed Russia-American telegraph, 
in 1867. The new station was named Teller, in honor 
of Hon. Henry M. Teller, of Colorado, to whose ard- 
ent efforts the success of obtaining active Congres- 
sional support for the great enterprise was due. 

Through all adversities, in June, 1893, the herd 



340 ALASKA. 

numbered 222, including 79 fawns born at the station. 
In September of the same year, 127 more were pur- 
chased, 124 being safely landed, making a total of 346 
deer. During that winter, Mr. Miner W. Bruce, 
the Superintendent of the Station, had 10 deer trained 
and made a trip 60 miles distant to visit the mission at 
Cape Prince of Wales. 

According to Dr. Sheldon Jackson's report to Con- 
gress, every difficulty that was raised against the habil- 
itation of reindeer in the North-West has been en- 
tirely surmounted. The Siberians are not only ready 
to sell them, but some are found quite willing to 
come over and take care of them, while the deer take 
quite kindly to their new home and reproduce their 
kind. In December, 1896, there were five herds of 
reindeer in Alaska, the original herd belonging to the 
Government at Teller Station, consisting of 423 deer; 
one on Cape Prince of Wales, at the Congregational 
Mission, 253 in number; one at the Swedish Evan- 
gelical Mission, numbering 103; a like number at St. 
James P. E. Mission, the most remote mission station 
on the Yukon River; and one of 218 at Cape Nome; 
making at that time a total of 1,100 deer domesticated 
in Alaska. Increase by births raised the number to 
at least 1,175 with no authentic reports from the more 
distant stations . No doubt there will be during the cur- 
rent year more satisfactory results. The whole 
progress seems to show that the question of trans- 



M ISC ELLA NEO US. 34 1 

portation in the most remote and wintry part of the 
Territory is nearing a very satisfactory solution and 
helps to solve the problem of populating and explor- 
ing interior Alaska and Canada. 

Fort Adams, the site of the St. James Mission, is so 
near the gold section of the Yukon — within United 
States jurisdiction — that it must in a short time 
give most valuable aid to the development of the 
mines in that region. Through the careful precau- 
tion of the officials managing the affairs of the herds, 
each mission had at least two men already well 
taught in the care of the deer and many more were 
anxiously learning the business in the hope of one 
day becoming proprietors. Such a prospect was made 
possible by the arrangements, made with the Super- 
intendent, wherein a part of each herder's pay con- 
sists of two or more deer, according to his faithful- 
ness, in addition to a regular salary for the year's 
work. After the animals were consigned to the dififer- 
ent points. Government responsibility stopped, but 
each station must yet give an annual report regarding 
all things connected with the herds. 

In this direction the developers of mining interests 
must look for the carriage of stores and mining para- 
phernalia until the capitalists have found some man- 
ner of constructing railroads, or at least stage roads, 
over the mountains. It stands to reason that no or- 
dinary individual can carry a pack weighing one hun- 



342 ALASKj^L 

dred pounds across a lofty pass, rising thirty-five hun- 
dred feet above the level, and be equal to hard work 
immediately upon his arrival at the gold fields. And 
the mountain climbing is not all, you must add canoe- 
ing through dangerous shoals, portaging over 
marshes, shooting rapids and tramping through gla- 
cial deposits, all of which must be traversed for a dis- 
tance of not less than seven hundred miles. The task 
is most irksome. The reward very precarious. Yet 
thousands will go. The only help is to quickly pre- 
pare a road and then to stop over at relay villages, if 
they consist of nothing but frozen earth and moss 
abodes. 

There has been a proposition to employ a party of 
Italian women to perform the task of the Indian pack 
carriers, whose demands have become exorbitant, but 
it will not do to thus burden women or to endeavor to 
supplant the natives. Although it is true that there is 
a certain class of Italian women who are strong, hardy 
and inured to almost every hardship. Doubtless they 
or weak men would work at lower prices for a time, 
but it stands to reason that few, if any of them, would 
ever return for a second load . And it would be both un- 
safe and unwise to gain the ill-will of the Indians, who 
look upon the business as a trade belonging to them- 
selves. 

The stories of success in the mining country are 
so continuously brilliant that men cannot resist the 



MISCELLANEOUS. 343 

temptation to go, however great the risk, even if they 
have to pack their goods over themselves. But we see 
no reason why some grand scheme might not spring 
up to boom the coal mining districts, and to direct 
capitalists and individuals toward that great region so 
lately discovered. To obtain gold there must be mo- 
tive power and increased population. The whole sub- 
ject demands extremely quick calculation, and there 
is no doubt but that some wise heads are conning ways 
and means. Everything that tends to develop the 
Territorial resources brings Alaska that much nearer 
to an important position. That Siberia is being im- 
proved, however little, by the advent of the railroad, 
shows that the dawn of a glorious era for Alaska is 
coming, provided it is accepted promptly, and the nu- 
merous wonderful gifts of Nature are properly appre- 
ciated. As if in answer to the cry against the severity 
of the climate the certain discovery of oil and a 
greater vein of coal was announced. Mine the coal and 
keep it in the Territory for the benefit of its enlarg- 
ing population. Secure the oil and store it also until 
it is found whether there will be sufficient to offer to 
outside parties for sale. It would be little economy 
to part with the treasures until the extent of their pro- 
duction can be approximated. Possibly a depletion 
would bring disaster in the great prices that might 
have to be paid for the transportation of those staples 
from distant States. Therefore, let Alaska's products 



344 ALASKA. 

tend to its own markets alone, until their salable 
((uantity is assured. 

Another enormous source of wealth belongs to the 
Territory, and it can be disposed of in unlimited quan- 
tities. That is ice, of which we have spoken. With a 
sufficient number of vessels the whole coast population 
of California, Lower California and even Mexico, 
could be furnished with pure, unadulterated ice at 
prices no greater than is gladly paid for it in the East- 
ern and Southern States. Refrigerator cars could be 
arranged to contain a large number of pounds of the 
crystal products. Salmon and other food fishes have 
for a long time been frozen in solid ice blocks and dis- 
posed of to the markets just as the fish of the Great 
Lakes are served to us in a most satisfactory condi- 
tion. It seems that such a disposition might readily 
be made of all varieties of the desirable fish that 
abound to repletion in the cold north country. The 
fish, however, is said to lose much of its fine flavor by 
the process. If all the bountiful resources were ad- 
vertised as vociferously as is the gold, the railroads 
and steamers could not contain the emigration of 
men, who have so long suffered for want of work. 
Gold is really not for them; for it requires great ex-' 
pense for the outfit. Six hundred dollars is said to be 
the minimum, even when counted that the American 
Transportation Company deals quite generously with 
its patrons. Therefore, no one who has had his hands 



MISCELLANEOUS. 345 

in his empty pockets for a couple of years, with no 
work to fill them, can possibly afiford to seek for Alas- 
kan or Canadian gold. But some moving spirit might 
organize a coal mining, petroleum or ice supplying 
colony for the Western border, and the work would 
pay both capitalist and men. It must be borne in 
mind always, that there are but a few large towns or 
cities in the gold districts and they are far from being 
like our civilized hamlets. Every one of the towns 
or mining camps, between Forty Mile Creek and Chil- 
kat are on British soil, subject to English rule. Be- 
yond that the towns are few and far between. Daw- 
son City is one of these, and so are Fort Reliance, Fort 
Selkirk and Fort Cudahy. Buxton is at the mouth of 
Forty Mile Creek, on the boundary claimed by 
Canada. And this was the district so anxiously sought 
for. But there is gold in American territory, 
though Circle City, notwithstanding its size and im- 
portance is for the time actually forsaken, yet with 
less hardship its environments will probably ' ' pan 
out" as richly as the other borders of the Yukon. 

Many take interest in this great river only because 
of the present excitement. But they do not know 
its extent and importance. It bears noble compari- 
son with the Nile of Africa, the xA.mazon of South 
America and the Mississippi with which we arc all 
familiar. Rising in the Rocky Mountains of British 
Columbia, and in the Coast Mountains of Alaska, 



346 ALASKA. 

flowing northwesterly it takes in the waters of the 
Pelly, the Lewis, the Stewart, the Klondyke, and a 
number of other important rivers and creeks on 
its eastern side, when curving into the Arctic Cir- 
cle it receives the icy waters of the noble Por- 
cupine River. From the northeast, also flow the 
Koyukuk and the Selawik. The Tanana is a grand 
river, which enters the Yukon from the south, while 
numerous other streams enter the Yukon from the 
south and west. As yet, some have been named num- 
erical creeks, evidently according to the distance trav- 
ersed in their discovery. One authority states that 
they are numbered according to their distance 
from Fort Reliance. Thus there is the White 
River, a tributary of Sixty" Mile'^Creek, which is 60 
miles from Dawson City, and likewise the rich Forty 
Mile Creek. Then Bear Creek, L,ast Chance Creek, 
Gold Bottom Creek, Bonanza Creek, Eldorado Creek, 
and a number of others tell of their naming, while 
the enormous production of gold and fish from them 
is enough to render men wild with enthusiasm to ob- 
tain a portion of the output. 

The promise of a greater number of vessels, proper 
fortifications, and careful legislation is doing more for 
the Territory than any transitory excitement possibly 
can do. The gold yielding rivers will be forsaken for 
a time when the placers have run out. because of the 
expense of the machinery for carrying out the true 



MISCELLANEOUS. 347 

fcrm of mining by blasting, milling and stamping. 
But the improvements that have followed the "boom" 
will remain and the more steady and advantageous 
development of the country will continue, 

A serious drawback to the security of these enor- 
mous fortunes that are gathered in a short time is the 
advent of the gambling fraternity, whose open demor- 
alization has been legalized — as it has been reported by 
the current press — by receiving license on the British 
side of the boundary, and therefore on the vessels 
governed by that Dominion, upon which many Amer- 
icans must sail. How many United States citizens 
will yield to the wiles of these sharpers and find their 
fortunes diminished, if not entirely lost, is hard to say. 
But we sincerely hope that our Government will not 
only refuse to license them, but keep a lookout for 
their detection. The laws of Alaska against intoxi- 
cants and the taking in of fire arms and ammunition, 
will help the miners more than they imagine although 
the cry has been against strict surveillance. Without 
spirits, arms and gambling, Alaskan mining camps 
may become models for those of other states and 
countries, as it has been remarked that the men who 
are entering the Klondyke to-day are of the better 
class, who will not degenerate nor injure the reputa- 
tion of white people among the swarthy natives. 

That the miners of to-day will find mining in Alaska 
a peculiarly difficult work, there can be no mistake, 



348 ALASKA. 

but there is one thing very greatly to their advantage 
as contrasted with the pioneers of CaHfornia. Colorado, 
Nevada and Montana — in these States tribes of hos- 
tile and viciously inclined Indians were ready to fight 
them at every step — in Alaska the Missionaries have 
paved the way until only peaceful greeting is given 
the weary travelers after fortune. 



CHAPTER XXXIX. 

Supplementary Data. — The Food Resources of Alaska. 

THE fact so universally known that the natives of 
Alaska have to a very great extent been de- 
pendent entirely upon the whale, walrus and 
seal for nearly every necessary comfort, and that 
these and salmon have been their exclusive diet, 
with the addition of cakes made of salmon-berries, and 
the succulent stalks of Angelica and one or two 
other herbaceous plants, has caused a great deal 
of anxiety regarding the future food supply, be- 
cause of the near extermination of the whale and 
walrus, and the threatened depletion of the seal 
herds. Thus far the scarcity has caused little real 
distress, but places known to be the hereditary homes 
of the Siwash have been vacated for a greater part of 
the year, and sometimes altogether, because of the 
failure of the great animals to appear. That there 
must either be some other natural supply, or that 
commerce must make up the deficiency is more ap- 
parent as the value of the country becomes better 
known. For the natives alone much anxiety need not 
be felt, for their natural condition has compelled them 
to depend upon their own exertion, and they have 
patiently followed wherever their game and fish have 

349 



350 ALASKA. 

led. A very serious view has been taken of the dimi- 
nution of the seals particularly as connected with the 
food and clothing supply of the Aleuts. Now the 
danger of an equal falling off of the salmon, halibut, 
oolachie, or candle fish, and other important food 
fish, upon which the natives of the interior rivers 
have been likewise dependent, is causing some alarm. 
The great food and hide animals of the Western In- 
dians are gone, still, trade and commerce flourish, 
the white people, and even the Indians, do not starve, 
the reason being that immediately some other resource 
is found, and the passing away of the buffalo is more a 
matter of regret than of real disaster. Modern ap- 
pliances, particularly modern vessels, and man's greed 
for gain, have truly taken the huge water mammals 
from Alaska, as they threaten also to remove the seal. 
The rush for gold will eventually act the same way 
toward the fish that yet swarm in the streams of the 
more inland country, and it is plainly to be seen that 
some other source of food must be discovered. Be- 
sides the class of people who are now rushing into the 
Territory from all directions — those, to whom, indeed, 
we may look for the future population of the valuable 
land, cannot exist solely on fish. They must have the 
variety to which they are accustomed. 

The object of furnishing food alone must then lead 
to a greater and better mode of transportation. At 
the same time the possibilities of the soil of the coun- 



SUPPLEMENTA RY DATA. 351 

try might be tested. There was a time when Minne- 
sota, Dakota, Manitoba, and other districts in the 
United States and Canada, included in the same geo- 
graphical latitude, were written and cried down as cold, 
flat, barren and useless. To-day we behold in them 
the vast granaries to which the world turns in time of 
need. Alaska may never become a wonderful cereal 
raising country, but there are large areas of valley 
lands that will produce the rapidly developing vegeta- 
ble products upon which we depend so much in sum- 
mer and autumn. A very great advantage toward 
the cultivation of the succulent tubers, beets, potatoes, 
carrots and parsnips, for instance, will be found in the 
long summer days, which in the northern part of the 
Territory do not close in cool, dark nights, but continue 
for weeks with only a softening of one day's light to 
meet the brilliant glory of the next. Beans and hardy 
peas could also be grown and cultivated to yield their 
increase for the benefit of the inhabitants. If the 
arid plains of Arizona can be persuaded to blossom 
into rich fruition, so may the virgin soil of Alaska, 
notwithstanding the vast difiference in their localities. 
Irrigation has solved the problem of the sections 
once so close to the arid desert that they were re- 
garded as utterly beyond cultivation. But far beneath 
the parched earthy soil lies abundant moisture. Irri- 
gation starts the seeds and tubers and keeps them alive 
until they grow sufficiently deep and strong to reach 



352 ALASKA. 

down and draw increasing life and vigor from the hid- 
den water. Still the artificial supply from the irri- 
gating ditches above assists the growth by preserving 
the foilage in fresh verdure, and the leaves receiving 
the welcome moisture retain their freshness. 

The irrigation softens the baked soil, and the water 
soaks into it and not only softens the surface earth, 
for vegetable grow^th, but extends on down to the 
moisture laden strata, then the uprising moisture by 
capillary action meets the former and with the assist- 
ance of the intense heat the growth is forced to pro- 
duce phenomenal results in large and luscious fruitage. 
There is no need, however, of irrigation for the Alaskan 
valleys, the glacial streams and melting snows sup- 
ply ample moisture. But it will be said the summer 
is too short to admit of any valuable harvest; not until 
a greater change has visited the region can grain or 
any important commercial farm-produce be raised. 
But the summer, though short, is very hot, and, unless 
reason is greatly at fault, we see a prospect for supply- 
ing such desirable vegetables as we have mentioned 
for the benefit of the residents of the country. The 
plan we would suggest is for men who understand 
the business to go to the newly settled regions and 
build green houses, or forcing houses, furnishing 
themselves with the best and hardiest seeds and tubers. 
There being immense quantities of sphagnum and 
other mosses in the Territory, it will be an easv 



SUPPLEMENTA RY DATA. 353 

matter to get a supply. Using this to bind the earth 
together there could be small beds made for the seeds, 
a tiny cup like receptacle for each seed or each cut- 
ting of potato. These could be started as the tender 
plants are established for our own gardens. Then 
when the heat of the Alaskan summer permitted, the 
firmly rooted plants could be put in the ground with- 
out in the least disturbing their mossy nurture-envel- 
opes; the roots would soon reach out to the heated 
soil, and the growth would be rapid in the continuous 
warmth of Alaska's long summer days. We can see 
nothing to then prevent an abundance of the delicious 
vegetables that go far toward giving health and 
strength to the human frame. With proper tools and 
other appliances, suitable conveyances and excellent 
legislation, the land tilled to its utmost capacity of 
production, cattle and sheep pastured on the rich 
grass of the plains in summer, to be slaughtered and 
preserved for winter use, we can see prosperity and 
happiness following swiftly the present difificulties and 
trials of pioneering into the very heart of the marvel- 
ously beautiful and wealthy "Land of the Midnight 
Sun." 

Mt. St. Elias. 
Many unsuccessful attempts have been made to 
ascend Mt. St. Elias, since it was first seen by Bering 
on St. Elias' day, in 1741, but at last it has been ac- 
complished by an Italian Prince named Luigi and 
his four attendants. Being the first to reach the 
23 



354 ALASKA. 

summit of this mountain, they have placed side by- 
side the standards of the Mediterranean Kingdom and 
the American Republic. 

Such mountain climbers as Schwatka, Topman and 
Prof. Russel, failed to make this ascent, and Prof. 
Bryant, of Philadelphia, who started a short time be- 
fore the Prince, was obliged to give up without reach- 
ing the top. 

Its height is now ascertained definitely to be 18,060 
feet. This mountain has always been considered to 
be the highest peak upon the American continent, 
but from recent observations, Mt. Logan and Mt. 
Wrangel are claimed to be a little higher. 

The ascent, which was by no means an easy one, 
was made without an accident or even an important 
incident occurring until they reached the base of an 
ice cap. Then many hours were spent, cutting steps 
in the almost perpendicular side of the ice cliff, and 
the party had an extremely difficult experience climb- 
ing the last one hundred feet. 

The Prince says that owing to the favorable 
weather, the trip was much easier than it would other- 
wise have been, although many times they were 
obliged to sleep in winter sacks in the snow and were 
threatened with water famine, the weather being so 
cold, water froze almost as soon as it was melted. 

After unfurling the Italian and American banners 
amid many hearty cheers, the proud explorers made 



SUPPLEMENTAR Y DATA. 355 

scientific observations and explorations, remaining on 
the summit about two hours. The Prince discovered 
a new glacier there and named it "Colombo." 

Upon examination Mt. St. Elias was found not to 
be a volcano, as many have supposed it to be. 

The Prince and his party claim to have seen the 
mirage known as the "Silent City." This subject I in- 
vestigated years ago when writing the "Legends of 
Alaska," now in its third edition. 

Having written to personal friends, one a United 
States officer at Sitka, at the time, to ascertain the 
truth of this story about the city seen in the clouds, 
I learned, through him and his family, that it was al- 
together mythical, being only a mirage, having been 
vaguely thought to be somewhat like a city, with 
towers and minarets. Evidently some photographer 
invented this combination effect as a method of creat- 
ing notoriety. 

The slopes of the mountains near Mt. St. Elias were 
covered with brilliant flora, novel wild flowers being 
in great abundance, with some shrubbery, but no trees. 

Very little bird life was seen, while the mosquitoes 
were extremely abundant near the coast. 

A novelty that has never before been observed in 
Arctic explorations, was a black worm, about the 
length and size of a match. It was found in countless 
numbers in the snow, accompanied by swarms of 
small fleas. 



356 ALASKA. 

Other Data. 

The Stars and Stripes were first raised in Alaska 
on June 21st, 1868, at St. Michaels, b)^ a company of 
American Traders. 

The area covered by the Gold country extends 
over about — as far as can be calculated — 50,000 square 
miles, including both Canadian and American terri- 
tory, estimated to be three hundred miles long and of 
irregular width and enormously rich in ore. Siberia 
doubtless has a rich undiscovered belt likewise. 

Gold was discovered in or near Sitka in the begin- 
ning of the century. Baron, or Governor Baronoff, 
compelled the secret to be kept, under threats of the 
Russian knout. 

In 1872, gold was discovered in a stream near Sitka 
by two soldiers of the garrison, named Haley and 
Doyle. 

"Shucks," a mining camp seventy miles south of 
Juneau, was the scene of the first placer mining in 
Alaska. 

Gold has been found in largely paying quantities on 
the line between Minnesota and Ontario. Canada 
claims it for British Territory, but the lines here should 
be very clearly laid down and known at this late day. 

Gold has been found in largely paying quantities on 
the American side of the Upper Yukon district. 
Some of the American miners will settle on this side 
and avoid the Canadian taxation. 



SUPPLEMENTAR V DA TA. 357 

The stories concerning the gold around Cook's In- 
let are being renewed. It only needs some one to 
start a boom, to divert much of the rush, in this di- 
rection. 

Gold is most plentifully found in the middle of the 
beds of the shallow placer mining streams and their 
tributaries. The Stewart River has latelv been re- 
ported as having rich placer mines along it. 

The glaciers must certainly have been the original 
miners, for it is in the streams in their tracks that 
most of the placer mining is found so successful. The 
real fissure gold quartz veins, in the mountain ranges 
from which this gold is broken, are yet undiscovered, 
but prospectors are seeking them anxiously. 

The Klondyke district has the following officers: 
Major Walsh, who is in charge of the police and is 
administrator; Justice McGuire and Register Aylmore 
are in charge of the government departments. 

A mining claim in Alaska must be worked at least 
to the amount of one hundred dollars a year for five 
years, or five hundred dollars in one year, to insure the 
claimant's right to obtain a patent or title. (That is 
the American law regulation.) 

The miners make their own laws for different dis- 
tricts. 

There is a doubtful choice between an Eastern resi- 
dence and a Klondyke home, ice bound, with a severe 
winter and the thermometer oftentimes between 20 



358 ALASKA. 

and 60, and occasionally 70 degrees F. below zero; 
and its summers of intense radiating heat, with a 
phenomenal quantity of mosquitoes and gnats present. 

A vigilance committee of twenty-five has been or- 
ganized at Skaguay to preserve order. 

Millions will be lost as well as millions gained by 
this attack of Gold Fever. Stock shares on paper 
are very uncertain in value at any time. 

The Bonanza Creek and the Hunter Creek are both 
turning out a considerable amount of gold. 

Senator Manderson advocated from the Committee 
on Military Affairs a bill to authorize the Secretary 
of War to explore and survey the interior of the Terri- 
tory of Alaska. The Secretary of War then, was the 
Hon. Redfield Proctor. The bill passed the Senate, 
but failed in the House. 

The explorations into Alaska have been the fol- 
lowing: There was an expedition that was sent out 
by the Western Union Telegraph Company, in 1866, 
that went up the river as far as Fort Yukon; in 1869, 
by Captain Raymond, United States Army to the same 
point; in 1883, by Lieutenant Schwatka, United 
States Army, from Lake Linderman to the Yukon's 
mouth; in 1885, by Lieut. Allen, United States Army, 
who ascended the Copper River, descended the Tanana 
River, crossed from the north of the Tanana River 
to the Koyukuk, which he explored for some distance 
to the north, and returned thence to its junction with 
the Yukon. 



SUPPLEMENTAR V DA TA. 359 

These exploring parties were obliged to keep to 
the rivers and the journeys were in great haste. The 
nature of the country was only to be guessed at, and 
its possibilities were practically unknown. 

A notable fact to be considered in the position lately 
evidenced by Great Britain regarding the eastern 
boundary of Alaska, is that in Volume I, of the En- 
cyclopedia Britannica, on a map facing page 443, we 
find the Territory of Alaska distinctly defined by a 
line of demarkation. This undoubtedly is the proper 
curve — on the mainland — to Mt. Fairweather, thence 
to the top of Mt. St. Elias, and from that point continu- 
ing along the imaginary 141st parallel of latitude. As 
in every other case on record, the islands are not noted 
in the line of demarkation. This undoubtedly is the 
proper line; the one intended by Russia, as it was held 
by that Government from the time of the addition of 
that territory to Russian possessions, and therefore the 
only legal one limiting the purchased property of the 
United States. This public acknowledgment made 
by Great Britain in the books accepted as a standard, 
not only in Europe but in this country, should for- 
ever set at rest the contention begun only when the 
great value of the Yukon District was discovered. 

Davis Creek Mines were discovered in the spring 
of 1888. 

Miller Creek whose entire length lies in British pos- 
sessions, and until recently was the heaviest producer 
of the Forty Mile district, was discovered in 1892. 



36o ALASKA. 

It is said that there has been an attempt to use cen- 
trifugal pumps, whose huge nozzles are plunged into 
the river beds and draw up the valuable deposits. 
They have not yet been sufficiently tested to prove 
their success. Of course they can only be used in 
placer mining in the beds of the creeks and small 
rivers when not frozen. 

There are now 549 stamps at work in stamp mills, 
in Alaska. 455 of that number work upon the quartz 
all the year. There is a prospect of the erection of 
two or three hundred more before another year closes. 

The first gold craze in the North-West was in 1883, 
but there were not thousands ready to rush to the cold 
North as there are to-day. 

The annual average of gold from Alaska previous 
to 1890 was about $15,000. Since then it has reached 
a standard of $2,000,000 or more. 

In 1896 the total output of gold was $4,670,000. 
$1,300,900 of that amount was from the Birch Creek 
district on the Yukon and the place was not boomed! 

Miners work under great difhculties; in the cool 
weather, at Klondyke they are compelled to keep 
themselves enveloped in cumbersome wool and fur 
clothing; one remarking that he kept his nose from 
freezing by sticking a piece of rabbit skin upon it. 
While in summer they can hardly endure as much 
as the lightest cheese cloth over the face, though the 
insects are extremely audacious. 



SUPPLEMENTAR Y DATA. 36 1 

It should be specified positively that until good 
roads are constructed, or railroads built, the travel in 
the heart of the glacier district of Alaska is only pos- 
sible three, or at most, four, months in the year. 

There is no use trying to reach the gold regions 
of the Yukon without faithful and experienced guides 
or carriers, unless you group in with a company or 
band of miners, bound for the same destination. Such 
an association of gold miners expect strict integrity 
for they act as judge, jury and executioner otherwise. 

Never go alone on a prospecting trip in the wilds of 
the Alaskan Mountains. Be sure to select carefully 
your companions. 

One of the best arrangements to make is that offered 
by the North American Transportation Company, 
which gives passage on safe vessels, and outside of 
steamer accommodations, guarantees to keep one fur- 
nished with food for one year for $400.00. 

A slight drawback to the ambition to become a 
Klondyke miner is the announcement that reliable 
companies yet refuse to insure the lives of men who 
wish to go, facts being so difficult to obtain in case of 
death. 

The men who are belated and not able to go on to 
Klondyke should prospect for the Alaskan gold or 
coal mines and sink oil wells in the petroleum region. 
There will be a great demand for both of the latter in 
a few years. 



362 ALASKA. 

Mount Rainer, formerly called Mount Tacoma, is 
boldly seen and for a long time in view with its broad 
white crest, if the route is by the way of the Cascade 
range of Mountains direct to Tacoma. 

Mount Hood's cone-shaped head to the south in 
Oregon and Mt. Adams to the north in Washington 
nearby, are the tall peaks of the Cascade range that 
greet the eye on the Columbia river going to Port- 
land, Oregon. 

Direct lines of steamers ply between San Francisco 
and Victoria and Port Townsend at all favorable sea- 
sons. Other lines run from San Francisco to all ports 
down the coast to San Diego. While still others run 
to South American ports; other lines from San Fran- 
cisco run to Yokohama, near Tokio, Japan, to China 
ports and other Oriental countries. 

If you do not get all the way to Klondyke, there 
are equally as hospitable stopping places on the way. 
And if you have not plenty of money, clothing and 
provisions stop in Dyea or Juneau, or even at Wran- 
gel until the spring opens; then join a company well 
stocked with provisions. 

The hope is expressed that there will be sufficient 
traffic to require daily steamers between Seattle and 
Juneau in a few months. 

There has been an agreement made with Canada 
by which Dyea is made a sub-port, vessels fitted out 
to British Columbia Provinces being allowed to pass 



SUPPLEMENTAR V DA TA . 363 

Juneau and proceed to Dyea, unloading there and 
passing over that narrow part of country between the 
port and British Cokimbia, without restriction. 

This is not a prerogative, but a courtesy extended to 
one nation by another and should be reciprocated. On 
the other hand American miners and traders should 
not enforce any exactions from our neighbors, either 
in undue values or trade duties. 

John Treadwell became possessed of the mines on 
Douglas Island, which now bear his name, for the 
sum of $450.00, and at first he thought his money 
ill-spent. 

The Treadwell Gold Mines are said to yield from 
$600,000 to $700,000 per month. Money, energy and 
perseverance makes them. The company is increasing 
its plant of quartz-stamps in its large mills from two 
hundred and forty, its present capacity, to over 
three hundred, making the largest stamp mill in the 
world. Seven millions of tons of ore are said to be 
in sight, sufficient to run five hundred stamps for 
eleven years. It will soon produce $125,000 per month, 
at a cost of $1 per ton. The small water supply 
is the greatest drawback to the increase of stamps. 

In South Africa there is a stamp mill of two hun- 
dred and eighty stamps. 

Silver Bow Basin Mines could run a thousand- 
stamp mill were it not for the small amount of water 
supply, which must be ample for each crusher. 

The diamond prospecting drill is used to drive 



364 ALASKA. 

through veins and stringers, to ascertain the value of 
the same. 

When speaking of the timber of Alaska it must be 
remembered that in upper Bering Sea, and in a large 
belt of the Arctic region, there is not a trace to be seen, 
only rank grass and moss in summer; but there are 
thousands of tons of the kind of moss that the reindeer 
feeds upon. 

The Klondyke has an advantage over other mining 
districts in the abundance of wood with which to make 
fires to thaw out the frozen ground, a first preparation 
in the mining of the placers after uncovering the gold 
bearing strata. 

The greatest need in the mining districts of the 
Yukon is a plan for quickly softening the frozen earth 
in winter in order to reach the ground in which the 
gold is found. The Philadelphia down draft fire ma- 
chine for heating and repairing asphalt pavements 
will do it. It would require vast forests to supply the 
requisite amount of wood, to burn, as the miners are 
doing at the Klondyke now. They build fires over 
certain areas, that must burn for hours to gain a few 
inches into the solidly frozen soil. 

Cape Flattery is the northwestern point of coast of 
Washington, where vessels round to come into the 
straits of Juan de Fuca. 

Port Townsend, where the Alaska steamers fre- 
quently touch, is at the northern end of Washington, 



SUPPLEMENTAR Y DATA. 365 

where the straits of Juan de Fuca merge into Puget 
Sound and the Straits of Georgia. Alaska passengers 
coming down, change here or at Victoria, if they so 
desire, to the steamers down the coast to San Fran- 
cisco. 

Victoria is at the southern end of Vancouver Island, 
in British Columbia. Vancouver, the terminus of the 
Canadian Pacific Railroad, is on an inlet near the mouth 
of the Frazer River, where it enters the Straits of 
Georgia. Pacific Ocean commerce enters through 
the Straits of Juan de Fuca. The water ways of the 
Straits of Georgia and Queen Charlotte Sound are 
bordered by British Columbia Territory. 

Nanaimo is a Canadian town on the east side of 
Vancouver Island and on the west side of the Straits 
of Georgia, which is quite wide at this point. It is 
almost due west from the town of Vancouver, which 
is on the mainland to the east. Inland steamers often 
put into Nanaimo for freight and passengers but the 
through summer excursion vessels do not always stop 
there, as they invariably do at Victoria and at Port 
Townsend, especially if they are chartered for a 
through trip to Dyea, Juneau, Taku Inlet, or other 
special destinations. 

If accounts received be accurate, Eldorado and Bo- 
nanza Creeks have authorized their names hand- 
somely. Bonanza being indeed a great centre of 
the Klondyke gold region. 



366 ALASKA. 

' ' Discoverj' ' ' was the first claim located on Bonanza 
Creek and recogmzed by miners as the centre of the 
field, many others being numbered each way from it. 
In the fifteen miles first taken there are sixty claims 
above and ninety below it. Now all the creek is occu- 
pied. 

Dog Sledges, Reindeer, Horses. 

Horses are not possessed of the endurance of either 
dogs or burros, therefore it is unwise to invest in a 
horse if you can procure a tough burro, donkey or 
a few good sledge dogs. In time, reindeer will be 
available, which will be even better for mountain and 
winter work and long distances. 

A team of dogs and a strong sled costs about five 
or six hundred dollars, but the outlay will be better 
than risking all your possessions on the back of a 
horse to which the hardships will be very trying, while 
he may fail you in the Chilcoot Mountain Pass, un- 
less a good road is built. 

Time is a most important item in the journey to 
the Klondyke, but speed is liable to be disastrous, 
therefore start in time, wait until next season, or 
until a good winter roadway is opened. 

Reckoning the price of a good Alaskan dog at $50 
or $75, whick is the minimum for a good one, and it 
takes from seven to eleven to make a team, one 
mig'ht think twice before risking his cash in so much 
canine flesh, but sleding transport requires them. 



SUPPLEMENTAR V DA TA. 2,67 

All dogs are not of the same disposition. It re- 
quires experience to manage a team of them. 

Although the reindeer, which are being imported 
into Alaska, are not at present used as burden-bearers, 
they are expected to be a great help to miners travel- 
ing to the gold fields next summer. 

There is a thought of starting a reindeer express 
along the line of towns from Bering Strait to Kodiak 
Island. 

The trained reindeer cover tw^o or three times the 
distance that a dog team does in a day. 

As the sled-dogs are so valuable to their owners, 
the first thought is to provide sufficient food for 
them, which consists mainly of fish. An ordinary 
dog eats about two pounds of dried salmon a day, 
which is the same as seven pounds of fresh fish. 

Dog boarding houses have been opened along the 
Yukon, the charge being from $6 to $15 a month. 

Advantages of the Gold Craze. 

While men at the North-West in all kinds of em- 
ployment are leaving everything to go prospecting 
for gold, at the new placer fields, the hundreds of men 
who have been without work for so long can well 
push forward and fill their places and make new homes 
and a good living in southeastern Alaska. 

If the gold craze continues there will be a premium 
on ordinary work out in Alaska. Those who need it 



368 ALASKA. 

should watch for the opportunity that will come. So 
let men and women go West and take up the business 
that others have laid down in the great rush to the 
Klondyke region. 

Real rich mining often begins where placer mining 
ceases, the grains and nuggets being the wash from 
lodes or mineral streaks in the veins, loosened higher 
up the gorge or mountain by glacial action. 

There are no claims unstaked at the Klondyke now. 

The land about the Klondyke was pretty well staked 
before the Eastern press announced the finding of 
large quantities of gold that created the present gold 
fever. Where one immense fortune will be made 
in the Klondyke, there will be a score or more of dis- 
couraged seekers after wealth. 

Provisions in Alaska. 

Prospects are bright now for Alaska as the Gov- 
ernment has undertaken to investigate its require- 
ments and resources. The establishment of a Land 
Office, and the providing of an Agricultural Depart- 
ment for the development of that line of Alaskan re- 
sources has also been determined upon. This is an 
important matter as both vegetables and domestic 
animals can easily be raised there in some localities 
for the benefit of the inhabitants and new comers. 

It is next thing to criminal for any one to at- 
tempt to face the rigors of the Yukon climate without 




Placer Mixing; Sluice. 



SUPPLEMENTA RY DATA. 369 

every precaution and ample provision. No one has 
any right to start with the hope that there will be suffi- 
cient for all in the bleak, frost-bound winter of that 
part of the country. 

The feasibility of transporting live cattle to the min- 
ing camps has been tested, and the beef sold readily 
for fifty cents a pound. Sheep can also be driven 
there in the summer. 

Cattle and sheep might be taken across the moun- 
tains to the lakes when winter comes, as they can be 
slaughtered there and their flesh frozen, by which 
means it would keep indefinitely for transportation to 
the gold fields. 

A surprising amount of nutritious food in condensed 
or dry form can be carried in the numerous food-tab- 
lets, bottles and cans, but great care should be taken 
in their selection, as to quality and freshness. 

Wisely catered, a man may carry sufficient nutri- 
ment upon his back to last him for months, with 
an abundance of good drinking water at command, 
but the factors of heat and light in winter, must like- 
wise be considered. 

The cost of provisions in the gold country to-day 
is enormous, the demand is great, but phenomenal 
fortunes may provide the money to pay the fortunate 
miner. The greater trouble must be for a time, to 
get sufficient food and clothing into the camps, where 
winter mining is to be done. 
24 



370 ALASKA. 

A step in the rig^ht direction is made in building 
boats, forming new and reliable supply companies 
and filling store houses in anticipation of the spring 
exodus to the new gold regions. 

Let American citizens always bear in mind that the 
Klondyke is recognized at present to be in British 
Columbia, and aliens are subject to taxation, and that 
mining and other Canadian laws differ from ours. 

Many seekers after gold have been obliged to turn 
back, owing to the lack of additional capital required 
to carry the provisions, necessary for a winter 
in the Klondyke Section, over the Chilkoot Pass, the 
packers having formed a union and charging as high 
as 25 or 30 cents per pound. The former rate was 15 
cents per pound. 

There is wealth in the oil wells of Alaska if the tales 
of oil discovery be even partially true. It will serve 
the people for fuel as well as light. 

The X-ray for use in prospecting for gold is be- 
ing boomed in the papers and may be of some value 
in the future, but drilling through the veins or earth 
is the most certain method. 

If reports be true, about two miles from the ocean, 
surrounded by hills rich in coal and asphalt, a lake 
of almost pure petroleum has been discovered. It is of 
unknown depth, several miles wide, and five to six 
miles in length. 

A company has been formed in Seattle, and it is 



SUPPLEMENTA RY DATA. 371 

its intention as soon as the water ways will permit, 
to introduce it into the mines in Alaska for lighting 
and heating. 

Dawson City. 

Dawson City the centre to which the great crowd 
is trending, is owned by one man named Joseph La- 
due, who patented the site in 1896. It is located 75 
miles from the boundary line on the Canadian side; 
and has suddenly grown to be a city of great impor- 
tance in that region. The population at present is 
about four thousand. 

Since last September there have been at least 800 
or more new claims staked within a distance of twenty 
miles of Dawson City. 

There is no established town on the Alaskan side 
in close proximity to that place, except Forty Mile 
and Circle City. Mining camps are forming, how- 
ever, at the mines for winter work. 

Joseph Ladue, who has a saw mill at Dawson City, 
says lumber sells there at $130 per thousand feet. 

Men thinking of going to the Klondyke country 
should know that its climate is like that of southern 
Greenland, and prepare for it accordingly. To in- 
sure success as an Alaskan, you must dress as one. 
There is not much use for fashion plates at the Klon- 
dyke, but there is of flannels and warm furs in winter. 



372 ALASKA. 

Seal Industry. 

The seal industry alone has more than paid with 
interest the price of Alaska. The other fisheries have 
produced a satisfactory revenue, therefore the thirty 
millions of dollars in gold that the territory has al- 
ready yielded may be called clear profit on the invest- 
ment. 

One great cause for the heavy mortality among the 
seal pups last year was said to be due to a parasitic 
worm, which infested the sandy, rocky areas of the 
breeding grounds. 

Last year there was a shrinkage of 15 per cent, 
on the breeding grounds and 33 per cent, on the hunt- 
ing grounds. The seal conference showed greater loss 
this year. 

The seals are considered to have a very keen ap- 
petite, and when tamed, sing for their meals. They 
are very particular from whom they take their meals, 
and become very much attached to the keeper in 
charge. 

Disease. 

Scurvy is a disease to be carefully guarded against 
in the distant mining camps. None but the very best 
salt meats should be used and that not too bounti- 
fully. Canned vegetable foods can now be had and 
the disease averted. 

Rheumatism, pulmonary and malarial diseases are 
likeh^ to prevail in the damp weather of summer. 



SUPPLEMENTAR Y DA TA. 373 

Assay Office at Seattle. 
The people of the gold regions are asking for an 
Assay Office, and one is to be established at Seattle. 
No doubt one will have to be established in the North- 
West, but it would be better in Alaska. Assayers will 
do well at the new gold fields. 

Circle City. 

Circle City, a settlement on the Yukon in Alaska, 
formerly boasted of a mail once every month. Though 
letters are rated at one dollar and newspapers at two 
dollars, they found a hearty welcome in the little city. 
Increased postal facilities bi-monthly have been estab- 
lished by the Government and the service improved. 

Telegraph. 

A Russian-American telegraph line was once pro- 
jected across Bering Sea, but the successful laying of 
the great Atlantic cables caused its abandonment. 
There are whispers of another attempt in that direc- 
tion in the future. A line will soon be run to the 
Upper Yukon region. 

The Canadian Government has under construction 
a telegraph line to the Yukon gold mining district, 
from Lynn Canal to Fort Selkirk and Klondyke, 
and will erect suitable places for shelter along the 
line about forty or fifty miles apart, and keep the route 
open during the winter by dog teams. 



374 ALASKA. 

Fort Get There. 

There is a genuine United States Fort situated on 
St. Michaels Island near the mouth of the Yukon. 
It was so named because of the difficulties that had to 
be surmounted by the party that reached there. They 
have established a ship yard at this place where a ship 
to be named the John Cudahy is to be built for the 
Yukon trade. It is to carry 800 tons, and to be fitted 
out with all modern appliances, and yet with light 
enough draft for the shallow river, which is only four 
or five feet deep at places. Two or three Alaskan 
naval stations are needed, one at the Yukon, one at 
Juneau or Taku Inlet, and one at Sitka. 

Weare. 

Mr. P. B. Weare, Vice President of the North 
American Transportation and Trading Company, who 
authenticates the statement, says that they are con- 
structing several 200 ton barges, and a light draft 
steamer to be called the "Klondyke" and they have 
bought a tug of great strength for the purpose of tow- 
ing the laden barges up the great river between Fort 
Get There, St. Michaels, and Weare, a town 500 miles 
up the stream. 

It is the intention to winter all of the vessels 400 
miles from the mouth of the Yukon, so as to begin 
operations in the spring up in the inner country while 
waiting for the removal of the annual stoppage at the 



SUPPLEMENTAR Y DATA. 37 5 

opening of the usual channel into Bering Sea, by the 
unlocking of the icy barriers. 

Gambling, that curse of the mining camp, is in full 
sweep, but lawlessness has not yet asserted itself. 
Thus fai* a miner caught cheating is quietly invited 
to decamp — and he does. Thieves are usually hung 
or shot without great ceremony. 

Murder and drunkenness are almost unknown, 
possibly because whiskey is not very plentiful at fifty 
cents a drink and the mounted Canadian police are an 
effective agency in maintaining order. 

The penalties for crime are severe, being banish- 
ment from the country, in some cases. Whipping is 
the punishment for stealing and threatening with 
weapons. Hanging is the punishment for murder, 
though there has been none as yet. 

The only way into and out of the Klondyke in win- 
ter has been by way of the Chilkoot Pass and Dyea 
Inlet. A new winter route out lays more to the south. 

The only way to live there is to imitate the Indians 
in dress and habit. 

It is useless to wear leather or gum boots. Good 
moccasins are absolutely necessary. 

The colder it is the better the traveling. 

When it is very cold there is no wind, and the wind 
storm is too severe to withstand. 

In the summer the sun rises early and sets late, and 



376 ALASKA. 

there are only a few hours when it is not shining di- 
rectly on northern Alaska, 

The weather is warm and tent life is comfortable, in 
the valleys. 

The Chilkoot Railroad and Transportation Com- 
pany is building a road from tide-water to the top of 
the Pass and thence an aerial tramway to Crater 
Lake. 

Stock can be kept by using care in providing it 
abundantly with food by ensilage or curing natural 
grass hay and by housing the cattle in the winter. 

The Alaskans, who are numerous, look much' like 
Chinese or Japanese. They are peaceable, industrious 
and self-supporting. 

The mercury sometimes reaches as low as 80 de- 
grees below zero and at such a time hot water if 
thrown in the air will form icicles. 

Gold can be found in the gravel on nearly any 
Yukon river, creek or gulch. 

All business is transacted with gold dust, and not 
with currency or coin. 

Laws, made by the miners themselves, are recog- 
nized in the distant camps. 

Mosquitoes are said to be as thick as snow flakes, 
and are found in every part of the gold country. 
They are exceedingly annoying and a mosquito bar 
is as necessary in summer as an overcoat is in winter. 

Circle City is practically deserted (October), the 



SVPPLEMENTAR Y DATA. 377 

people having gone to Dawson, or on up to mining 
camps. Many will return or new comers will event- 
ually take up a settlement here. 

The Indian River and its tributaries will prove to 
possess valuable diggings next winter. 

It is stated that Vitus Bering, who discovered 
Alaska, or Russian America, also named the great 
peak St. EHas. 

The gold brought down from the Klondyke region 
this season, now closed, will foot up two millions of 
dollars or more. 

A liquor used by the native Alaskans was once an 
innocent drink made of rye flour and water, permitted 
to stand until it fermented and grew clear. This 
was called Quass, and was much used by the Rus- 
sians. But they improved the mixture, by adding 
sugar or molasses, producing after crude distillation, 
the ' ' Koochinoo ' ' which is extremely intoxicating. 

It is generally estimated that from ten to twelve 
thousand Esquimaux live in the cold, barren regions 
of the Upper Yukon, the district in or near the 
Arctic Circle. The manner of salute habitual with 
these Esquimaux, is the rubbing of noses, a fashion 
also belonging to the Maris of New Zealand. It is 
an unpardonable offense to refuse the salutation, how- 
ever uninviting the physiognomy of the one offering it. 

The Yukon is said to freeze to the depth of from 
six to eighteen feet in midwinter. 



378 ALASKA. 

Although the weather in Alaska is exceedingly cold, 
the air is healthful and invigorating. The climatic 
changes are sudden and very severe. 

Since the discovery of gold in the Klondyke region, 
wages at the Treadwell Mill have advanced to $6 per 
day. 

Whisky, beer and all kinds of liquors have been 
transported into Alaska and the necessities of life ne- 
glected. 

It rains copiously, more than half the season on the 
ocean side of the mountains and mining hills. 

Hundreds of homing pigeons have been taken in on 
the Klondyke routes. One flew from the top of Chil- 
koot Pass to Portland, Oregon, a distance of 1,200 
miles in eight days. 

In 1866, Professor Debendeleben claimed to have 
discovered in central Alaska, a mountain, said to be 
full of gold. It is thought to be the highest peak in 
that region. It was called Mount Debendeleben, after 
the discoverer. 

Under a charter from the Canadian Government, 
two trading companies have the monoply of supplying 
the inhabitants of Klondyke with clothing and pro- 
visions. 

The Salvation Army have established a post and 
planted their flag in the Klondyke district. 

A large sawmill is to be erected at Teslin Lake. 

The Cassiar Central Railroad Company has de- 



SUPPLEMENTAR V DA TA. 379 

cided to enter its territory by way of the Stikine 
River Route. It embraces about 750,000 acres of 
mineral land. 

Although there are plenty of salmon in the river, 
good sized fish at Dawson City were selling at $10 each. 

The Bonanza Creek district has been called Tron- 
dike instead of Klondyke. 

It is asserted that at least seventy tons of gold could 
be taken from the Klondyke alone, provided the 
miners had proper nourishment and mining facilities. 

The largest nugget found in the Yukon was valued 
at $583. It was brought from the Klondyke. 

It once took sixty days to carry the mails from Cir- 
cle City to Juneau over the Chilkoot Pass, but if relay 
stations and good roads should be established, it 
could be accomplished in fifteen days. 

The gold in Alaska is really being covered up in- 
stead of uncovered, owing to the rivers filling up, as 
they have been flowing for some time past. 

It costs $25 a day to feed a horse in Circle City. 

The past season being extremely dry, the Yukon is 
low and thus prevents quick navigation from St. Mich- 
aels. 

Until the discovery of the Klondyke field, the gold 
finds in the interior of Alaska were comparatively 
small, but very profitable, however. 

Before the Klondyke discovery there was only 
known one instance, where a man took out $40,000 
at once from his claim. 



38o ALASKA. 

The gold bearing district extends in a northwesterly 
direction from the Hootalinqua River to the Arctic 
Ocean. 

Each gulch or creek has a Recorder, appointed by 
popular vote, he being the chief officer in the Re- 
public of Miners. 

The discoverer of a gold bearing creek is allowed 
a claim of looo feet instead of 500. 

One claim only is allowed to each man, and 
crowded creeks are staked off at 300 feet to a claim. 

An effort is being made in the gulches, not paying 
well, to stake claims 1320 feet long. 

The Copper River Transportation and Mining 
Company have located at Port Townsend and will 
operate a line of schooners in passenger and freight 
traffic, between this place and Cook's Inlet, Kadiak, 
the Prince William Sound country and Copper River 
points. 

Game is very scarce, although at times, moose, cari- 
bou and hare are found in large quantities. Hunters 
for fur-bearing animals have for many years scoured 
the Yukon River country for this kind of game. 

By international postal arrangements between 
Canada and the United States, there will be a mail 
once a month from Dyea to Dawson City conveyed 
by the mounted police. 

A post-office is to be established at St. Michaels, 
and it is hoped that the Government will soon see 



SUPPLEMENTA RY DATA. 381 

the importance of all the Alaska towns and establish 
an office at each. 

All arrangements have been made for fitting up a 
post-office at Tagish Lake. 

Vegetables of the hardier sorts can be raised. Wild 
onions, rhubarb and wild celery can be found any- 
where, and small berries, such as the blueberry, cran- 
berry, salmon berry, wild raspberry and currants 
grow in abundance on some of the islands, and on the 
sides of the mountains. Fresh vegetables used in the 
States are quite unknown as yet in Alaska, but in time 
the hardier and rapidly growing ones will be success- 
fully raised in the warmer regions of the territory. 

A rapid fire Maxim gun has been placed on the 
steamer Portland, as a protection to those returning 
from Klondyke in case of meeting with pirates. 

In the Klondyke region during midwinter, daylight 
only lasts about four hours, as the sun does not rise 
until about 9.30 or 10 a. m., and sets from 2 to 3 p. m. 

The climate of Alaska varies, and that part which 
includes the islands on the Pacific coast, north of 
Dixon's Sound and about twenty miles inland, is 
termed temperate Alaska, winter not setting in until 
the 1st of December, and the temperature seldom fall- 
ing to zero. By May all the snow has disappeared 
except on the mountains. The rainfall of this section 
is very peculiar. It comes in long continued rains and 
drizzles. There are only about sixty-six clear days in 
the year, the rest of the time it is cloudy and foggy. 



382 ALASKA. 

Hospitals. 

At Sitka there is a thoroughly equipped hospital, 
which has twent}'^ beds and all modern conveniences, 
at the Industrial School. 

There is also a hospital and doctor at Fort Adams, 
in connection with St. James Mission. 

Schools. 

An enterprising woman of San Francisco has gone 
to Dawson City and taken a school house with her. 
It is in sections, well planned as to conveniences. 

She has also taken a good supply of books and 
writing material. 

There are twenty day schools in Alaska with teach- 
ers and 1267 pupils. 

Transportation. 

Men have had to work night and day in order to 
supply the demand for launches and small boats. 
One firm having built fifty has been obliged to refuse 
any more orders. 

Since the exodus to the Klondyke region the car- 
penters have been kept busy, as 500 sleds have thus 
far been made costing about $12 apiece. 

The Pacific Coast Steamship Company have formed 
an Express Company to carry merchandise, money, 
bonds, and valuables from Tacoma to Dyea and inter- 
mediate points touched by their steamers. 

The miners have built a bridge about one and a half 



SUPPLEMENTAR Y DA TA. 383 

miles from where the Skaguay trail was forded. It 
is a crude affair 6 feet wide and 200 feet long, on four 
trestles with one span of 66 feet. 

Skaguay, a town which a short time ago did 
not contain a dozen inhabitants, now boasts of a pop- 
ulation of nearly four thousand, with stores, saloons, 
and restaurants, all as yet under canvas. 

In February, 1890, in the northern districts, the 
thermometer was 47 degrees below zero for five con- 
secutive days. It was the longest cold spell that has 
ever occurred. About the first of March it moder- 
ated slightly, but still continued below the freezing 
point. 

The police have orders not to allow any miner to 
enter the British Territory, unless provided with 1,100 
pounds of food. 

Miners are paid $10 to $15 for a whole day of eight 
hours, but in winter when they only work six hours 
for a day their wages are reduced to $5 or $8 per day. 

Nuggety masses of gold of $5 weight are found in 
the Franklin Gulch in the Forty Mile district. 

This gulch was discovered in 1887 and the first year 
produced about $4,000. 

In the summer of 1886, Birch Creek was in a flour- 
ishing condition. Mines were working on double 
shifts, night and day, as most^of the gulches were then 
running. 

Forty Mile district, in the summer of 1896, looked 



384 ALASKA. 

as though it had seen its best days, and unless new 
creeks are discovered, will lose its old standing. 

At Mastodon Creek, the best producer, over 300 
miners are at work, and they expect to winter in the 
gulch. 

Taiya, or Dyea River, is a mountain torrent of no 
extensive size. It empties into Lynn Canal, about 
one hundred miles north of the city of Juneau. 

In looking back from the summit of Chilkoot Pass, 
the Pacific Ocean is sometimes to be seen like a 
stretch of rolling clouds against the shore line. 

Lake Linderman, in which the Yukon River rises, 
is but a small sheet of water, one mile in width and 
six miles long. 

Caribou Crossing is a shallow stream connecting 
Lake Tagish and Lake Bennett. It is so-called be- 
cause the Caribou pass that way in going southward. 

Chilkoot Pass has an altitude of three thousand 
five hundred feet, and above it the snow-capped moun- 
tains tower, from which the drifts of snow are carried 
into the gorge by the winds, making almost perpetual 
snow storms, though the sky may be cloudless. 

Windy Arm, is so called because the impetuous 
winds from the White and Chilkoot Passes rush to- 
gether at the head of Lake Tagish, into which Windy 
Arm extends. The war of winds makes the waters of 
the Arm so tempestuous that it is generally more wise 
to haul the boats around by land until a safer point is 
reached. 



SUPPLEMENTAR Y DATA. 385 

Mt. Tacoma, or Rainier, holds no less than fifteen 
glaciers in its keeping. 

Mt. Fairweather is two hundred miles southeast 
from Mt. St. Klias, and, in favorable weather, can be 
seen at sea for more than one hundred miles. 

A species of kelp, or sea weed, is gathered by the 
Alaskan women and pressed into cakes forming a nu- 
tritious and strengthening article of diet. 

A coarser kind is collected for burning, fuel being 
scarce along the coasts of the extreme north. 

Rev. W. W. Kirby, a missionary among the Es- 
quimaux of the Upper Yukon, in speaking of the 
summer sun says, "Frequently did I see him (the sun) 
describe a complete circle in the heavens." 

The aurora borealis is the substitute for the sun 
during the winter. The time of its most brilliant ap- 
pearance is chosen by the natives for catching fish. 

The Cassiar gold mines are situated in British Co- 
lumbia. 

Captain White, of the United States Revenue Ser- 
vice, reported the largest nuggets of gold in the Terri- 
tory to have been found on the mountain near Wran- 
gel, one thousand feet above the sea level. 

Douglas Island was named in honor of a Bishop 
of Salisbury, who was a friend of Vancouver's. 

Chilkat blankets, the Alaskan's wealth, are manu- 
factured by women. One of them requires six 
months in its creation. The colors are blue, black, 
25 



386 ALASKA. 

yellow and white; the dyes being made by the na- 
tives. The blankets are generally six feet long and 
four feet wide, not including the fringe, which is 
usually rich and beautiful. These are valued at from 
forty to eighty dollars a piece, and are very dur- 
able. 

Travelers estimate that there are five thousand gla- 
ciers, great and small, in the Alaskan Territory. 

Gold, having been found so abundant in Alaska, 
its other resources are eclipsed; but copper, silver, 
coal, iron and petroleum are also destined to supply 
their part in her resources of wealth. 

Agassiz Glacier, sloping down from the southern 
side of Mt. St. Elias, is computed to be twenty miles 
wide, fifty miles long, and to cover an area of nearly 
one thousand square miles. 

Mt. Wrangel is the home of some of the largest 
glaciers in the world, the extent of which seems al- 
most fabulous. 

At certain stormy seasons, Seymour Narrows, a 
part of the Inland Passage, is extremely dangerous 
for vessels. 

Sitka, the capital of Alaska, is situated five hun- 
dred and fifty miles from Kodiak, or Kadiak, the more 
ancient capital. 

There are more than fifty islands in the Aleutian 
Chain, not counting the smaller islets and volcanic 
rocks. Of these Unimak, or Oonimak, is the largest, 



SUPPLEMENTAR V DA TA. 387 

it is twenty miles wide and upwards of seventy miles 
long. It has a volcanic peak nine thousand feet 
high. Oonalaska has one five thousand, seven hun- 
dred feet tall, and even little Attoo, or Attn, boasts of 
its mountains, the tallest of which is three thousand 
feet in height. The whole Aleutian group is sup- 
posed to be of volcanic origin. 

King's Island is the home of cave dwellers, who 
have literally made caves for their dwellings in winter, 
while their summer homes hang like swallow nests 
to the face of the rocks, secured by whale and walrus 
bones and covered with their hides. 

These caves are two hundred feet above the water. 

The Aleutian Islands contain a number of hot 
springs, and many extinct volcanoes. 

In some of the streams near Dawson City, from 
500 to 700 pounds of salmon can be caught daily, dur- 
ing the summer. 

Typhoid and malarial fevers are feared at Dawson 
City, it being impossible to drain the ground in the 
warm season, owing to the plateau being covered with 
a dense spongy moss and tundra. 

Moose and reindeer may be killed all winter, but 
bear can only be found in the fall and after it leaves 
its cave in March. 

By next spring efiforts will be made to try the new 
routes to the gold districts — one going from Sitka by 
way of Yakutat, Disenchantment Bay and the White 



388 ALASKA. 

River, the trail distance being only 425 miles, while 
from Juneau over the present trail it is 700 miles. 

A general stampede is being made for Munook 
Creek, since a young prospector went there in the 
spring of 1897 and made rich discoveries. The gold 
is coarse but purer than that along the Upper Yukon. 

It is 400 miles below Circle City and 700 miles 
below Dawson City, and it is reported that food will be 
plentiful there this winter, as the Alaska Commercial 
Company is building a store, and will stock it well. 

The rights of squatters who have improved their 
holdings are considered to be secure against invasion. 

Titles given by the original settler are valid, even 
though the holders shall be absent from the premises. 

By actual count, 2,030 pack horses recently passed 
over the Skaguay trail in one day. 

The Steamer Rustler makes regular weekly trips 
from Juneau to Chilcat and Dyea. 

The first gold mining in the U])per Yukon district 
vv^as done in 1880 by 25 or 30 miners, who entered 
by way of Dyea. 

The first discovery of coarse gold on the Upper 
Yukon was made by a Mr. Franklin on the Forty 
Mile Creek in 1886. 

The first discovery of gold in the middle Yukon 
region was made in 1872, by Messrs. Harper and 
Hart, who went in over the Stikine River route. 

In 1881 gold was discovered on a stream between 
the Yukon and the Tanana rivers. 



SUPPLEMENTAR V DA TA. 389 

A Canadian expert believes that quartz mining in 
the Yukon country will soon be more profitable than 
washing gold from the placers. 

49,000 cases of salmon were shipped from Prince 
William Sound during August and September. 

The copper mines on the Copper River are exten- 
sive and will soon create excitement. 

Experts are bemg sent to Alaska by the United 
States Government, in search of mica. It is in great 
demand for electrical appliances. 

The quartz mines in Southeastern Alaska are in- 
creasing in value as depth is reached on the lodes. 

Owing to the growing trade of the Portland 
merchants, the steamer George W. Elder will run 
regularly and permanently from Portland to Alaska. 

619,379 cases of salmon were caught and packed in 
Alaska during the year 1895. 

There are 29 canning establishments employing 
5,600 men. 

At Karluk, last July, 100,000 salmon were caught. 

In 1878 gold was discovered on the Lewis and 
Hootalinqua Rivers by George Holt, the first white 
man to enter the Yukon country by the Chilcoot Pass 
route. 

In 1875 Edward Bean and a party ot prospectors 
started from Juneau over the Chilcoot Pass route to 
the Yukon district. Mrs. Bean, the wife of the trader, 
who was married to him in Chicago, was the first white 
lady in the Yukon district. 



390 ALASKA. 

In 1875 they went to their post, fifty miles up the 
Tanana River and shortly after arriving there a son 
was born, it being the first white child born on the 
Yukon or in the interior of Alaska. 

In 1878 a difficulty arose between Mr. Bean and 
the Tanana Indians, the latter becoming angry be- 
cause the trader would not take all the skins, good 
or bad which they brought him. 

Upon his determined refusal, three medicine men 
determined to kill him, but fearing his wife, who was 
noted for her courage and skill with a pistol, they 
planned to kill both and one day coming upon them 
unawares shot and fatally wounded Mrs. Bean. The 
husband, seeing the harm done, quickly picked up 
his boy jumped into a canoe and escaped, going 
to Nulato. 

The steamer South Coast made the trip down from. 
St. Michaels in eleven days. 

Were it not for the many difficulties in the way, 
the output from the Yukon placers would amount to 
nearly $20,000,000. 

The largest nugget found in the Inlet-section in 
1897 was on Bear Creek. Its value was $93. 

The Kensington lode will be tapped at a depth of 
1,700 feet. That is the greatest depth that any mine 
in Alaska has ever been tested. 

Enormous prices are being asked for the claims 
on the bonanza tributaries of the Klondyke, It 




IS 

< 

< 
< 



SUPPLEMENTAR V DA TA. 391 

would be possible, however, to purchase some of 
them at prices from half a million upwards. 

A fair log cabin, already built, costs $1,000 and the 
time and labor in constructing a new one, would 
amount to almost the same. 

Lieut. G. M. Storey proposes a naval patrol and 
three garrisons for the Yukon River. 

The majority of the houses at Dawson are con- 
structed from poles, the largest of which measure 
about four inches in diameter. Poles of this size and 
sufficient length for a cabin cost from $4 to $8 a piece. 

Fully half of the 6,000 people at Dawson were living 
in tents. Lumber and logs having to be handled or 
floated 15 miles, command fabulous prices. 

Horses and mules at present cost from $250 to 
$400, pack animals being a necessity in the Yukon. 

The only collection made by the Canadian Govern- 
ment, from the miners, is the miner's license of $15, 
and $100 on a claim in the second year. On wood 
there is a tax of 15 and 25 cents a cord, and a set 
of house logs is levied $8. Wood costs as high as 
$100 a cord in Dawson City. 

There are no glaciers in the northern interior of 
Alaska, but instead a singular phenomenon of the 
ground — ice formation, a state of affairs in which 
ice plays the part of a more or less regularly inter- 
stratified rock, above which are the clays containing 
remains of the mammoth and other animals, showing 



392 ALASKA. 

that they became extinct not because of the refrigera- 
tion of the region, but co-incidently with the com- 
ing of a warmer climate. 

On Wood Island, Kadiak Harbor, a twelve-acre field 
of oats is planted regularly, and although it seldom 
ripens, it is used for food for the horses, which have 
been kept for years on this island. 



ALASKA OFFICIALS. 

WHENCE APPOINTED AND DATE OF APPOINTMENT. 



Governor, 
John G. Brady, of Alaska. Tune 23, 1897. 

Clerk of Court at Sitka, 
Albert D. Elwot, of D. C. July 26, 1897. 

Surveyor-General at Sitka, 
William I^. DisTin, of Illinois. August 7, 1897. 

Register 0/ Land Office at Sitka, 
John W. Dudle;y, of D. C. July 27, 1897. 

Receiver of Public Moneys at Sitka, 
RoswELL Shelly, of Oregon. July 27, 1897. 

United States District fudge of Alaska, 
C. S. Johnson. Residence, Sitka. 



SUPPLEMENTARY DATA. 393 

United States Attorney at Sitka, 
Burton E- Bennett. 



Assistant United States Attorney at Sitka, 
Alfred J. Daly. 

United States Marshal at Sitka, 
James M. Shoup. 

Deputy Collector at Juneau, 
Mr. Ormand. 

Deputy Collector of Interiial Revenue, 
W. C. Pedlar. 

Assistant Secretary of the Interior, 
Webster Davis. 

Townsite Commissioner at Juneau, 
R. L. Lyons, 

Deputy Collector at Juneau, 
C. S. Hannum. 

Chief Deputy of Sitka, 
W. P. McBride. 

Deputy at Wrangel, 
Joseph Arment. 



394 ALASKA. 

Inspector Afloal, 
J. S. Slater, 



Deputy Collector at Skagiiay, 
James Floyd, 

Dominion Land Surveyor, 
J. J. McArThur. 

Three Assistants, 
Messrs. Riley, Heldane and Cooper. 

commissioners — old points. 

Sitka — Caldwell W. Tuttle, of Indiana. June 22, 1897. 

Wrangel — Kenneth M. Jackson, of Alaska. June 6, 1896. 

Unalaska — L,ycurgus R. Woodward, of California. April 24, 
1894. 

Jtmeau — John Y. Ostrander, of Alaska. February 19, 1897. 

Kadiak — Philip Gallagher, of Washington. June 24, 1897. 

COMMISSIONERS — NEW POINTS IN 1897. 

Circle City — John E. Crane, of Illinois. July 6, 1897. 
Dyea — John U. Smith, of Oregon. July 8, 1897. 

St. Michaels— L,enox B. Shepherd, of Alaska. July 26, 1897. 
Unga — Charles H. Isham, of Maryland. July 22, 1897, 



SUPPLEMENTAR V DA TA. 



39S 



Summary of Alaska, British Columbia and Klondyke 
Gold Mines. 



Bear lode 

Berner's Bay Mining and Milling 
Company 

Comet mine 

Eureka lode 

Ivanhoe mines 

Jualin mines 

Kensington lode 

Northern Belle mine 

Portland and Alaska Mining Com- 
pany 

Thomas Seward lode 

Alaska-Treadwell Gold Mining Com- 
pany 

Bear's Nest mine .-. 

Grindstone Creek 

Lorena mine 

Mexican mine 

Montana Creek 

Ready Bullion 

.Snettishham mines 

Davis Creek 

Poker Creek 

Willoughby mine 

Cassiar mines 

Bald Eagle mine 

Lynk mines 

Mills mines 

Polly Mining Company 

Bonanza mines 

Dominion Creek 

Eldorado mines 

Hunker Creek 

Indian Creek 



Number 

OF 

Stamps 



40 

(Adding 
more) 



300 
(Others be- 
ing added) 



Where Situated 



Berner's Bay 
Berner's Bay 

Berner's Bay 
Berner's Bay 
Berner's Baj' 
Berner's Bay 
Berner's Bay 
Berner's Bay 

Berner's Bay 
Berner's Bay 

Douglas Island 

Douglas Island 

Douglas Island 

Douglas Island 

Douglas Island 

Douglas Island 

Douglas Island 

Douglas Island 

Forty-Mile district 

Forty-Mile district 

Funter Bay, Admiralty Island 

Headwaters of Deese River, 

British Columbia 
Holkham Bay (Sumdum) 
Inlet Section 
Inlet Section 
Inlet Section 
Klondyke, United States 
Klondyke, United States 
Klondyke, United States 
Klondyke, United States 
Klondyke, United States 



396 



ALASKA. 



Summary of Alaska, British Columiua and Klondyke 
Gold Mines — Continued. 



Munook Creek 

Sulphur Creek mines 

Victoria Gulch 

Healy North American Transporta- 
tion and Trading Company 

Dora mine 

Gold Creek 

Humboldt mine 

North Star mines 

Taku Consolidated Mining Com- 
pany 

Silver Queen Mining Company 

Glacier mines 

Keystone mine 

Leap Year mine 

Norwell Gold Mining Company 

The Apollo Gold and Silver Mining 
Company of Unga 

Eastern Alaska Mill and Mining 
Company 

Fuller First mine 

Cash mine 

Haley and Miletich mines 

Lucky Chance mine , 

The Pande Basin Placer mine 

Cleveland mines 

Porphyry mines 

Birch Creek 

Copper River 

Forty Mile Creek 

Hootalinqua River 

Klondyke River 

Lewes River 

Miller Creek 

Pelly River 

Stewart River 



Number 

OF 

Stamps 



Where Situated 



Klondyke, United States 
Klondyke, United States 
Klondyke, United States 

Near Dawson 
Near Juneau 
Near Juneau 
Near Juneau 
Near Juneau 

Near Juneau 
Sheep Creek, Juneau 
Sheep Creek 
Sheep Creek 
Sheep Creek 
Sheep Creek 

Shumagin Island 

Silver Bow Basin 
Silver Bow Basin 
Sitka 
Sitka 
Sitka 
Sitka 

Near Sitka 
Near Sitka 
Yukon district 
Y'ukon district 
Yukon district 
Yukon district 
Yukon district 
Yukon district 
Yukon district 
Yukon district 
Yukon district 



Many other mines have been opened recently, and new claims are being 
taken up and Klondyke Gold Mining Stock Companies are forming all over 
the country. 



SUPPLEMENTAR V DA TA . 397 

Copper and Silver Mines. 

Rich silver and copper ores are found on the west coast of 
Chichagofif Island and near Sitka. 

Fine specimens of almost pure native copper ore have been 
obtained from the banks of the Copper River and its tributaries. 

Pure copper is found on the Chittyto and Chittna Rivers. 

The finest gol«na and gray copper ore in the Sheep Creek 
vicinity is found in the Little Queen, Little Queen Extension 
and the Grindstone Creek mines. 

Copper has recently been discovered in Prince William 
Sound. 

These mines are mammoth ledges from twenty to sixty feet 
in width. They are easy of access, as ocean steamers can land 
right at the mines. 

Lead. 

Lead in small quantities is found in Whale Bay, south of 
Sitka, and on Kodiak Island. 

Coal. 

Coal is found along the coast, but the most valuable is 
found in unlimited quantities in Cook's Inlet. 

Coal is found in Disenchantment Bay and Lituya Bay. 

Coal that is glossy, semi-bituminous and said to steam well 
is found on Admiralty Island, near Killisnoo. 

A good quality of coal has been discovered on Sitkhinak 

Island. 

Large beds of coal exist in the Yukon district. 

Petroleum. 

There are several lakes of petroleum in the country be- 
tween Lituya and Yukutat Bays. 

A lake of petroleum has been discovered near Prince 
William Sound east of Cook's Inlet. 



CHAPTER XL 



Distances, Time, Fares, Supplies — Approximate. Trans- 
continental Dining-Car Meals. Entire Trip ^i6.oo. 




Fare. 



f Nearly 
\ 1900 



New York to Seattle 

Fee for Pullman Sleeper, $20.50. 

Seattle to Juneau (Steamer) 

Living in Juneau $3.00 per day. 

Lynn Canal to Dyea (Steamer) 

New York to Dyea 

Cost of complete outfit for overland 
journey, $150.00. 
New York to Klondyke (In summer by 

Dyea Route) 

With cost of provisions for one year, 
$200.00 more. 
Juneau to Klondyke Mines 

First Route. 

San Francisco to Seattle and to St. 

Michaels 

Seattle to St. Michaels (Steamer) 

St. Michaels to Dawson City, Klondyke 
River (River Boat) 

150 lbs. of baggage, each passenger. 

Another Route. 

Seattle to Juneau, up Lynn Canal and 
Chilkoot Inlet 

*Juneau to Dyea 

Dyea to Lake Linderman 

Across Lake Linderman 

Portage, Linderman to Lake Bennett, 
26 miles long 

Across Lake Bennett to Cariboo Crossing 

Across Tagish Lake 

Six-Mile River to Mud (or Marsh) Lake.. 

Across Mud (or Marsh) Lake 

Fifty-Mile River from Mud Lake to Lake 
Le Barge 

Across Lake Le Barge 

Thirty-Mile River to Hootalinqua River 

Down Hootalinqua and Lewis Rivers to 
Fort Selkirk 

Fort Selkirk down the Yukon to Daw- 
son City 

Total Direct Distance from Dyea to Dawson City, 603. 



$81 50 

f $32.00 Cabin. 
\ 1 7.00 Steerage. 



About $667.00 



$250.00 



100.00 
Varies. 



2 to 6 



* There is a local steamboat passage from Juneau to Dyea. From that 
point all goods must be carried on the backs of native carriers, horses, or 
burros, across Chilkoot Mountain Pass. 



DISTANCES— APPROXIMA TE, 



399 



Price of Excursion Tickets to Alaska and Return, 

May to September, Inclusive, 1897, by the 

Pacific Coast Steamship Company. 



San Francisco via Victoria and Port Townsend, re- 
turning same way 

San Francisco via Victoria, returning via Tacoma, 

Portland and Columbia River 

San Francisco via Portland and Tacoma, returning 

via Victoria and Straits of Fuca 

Portland, Oregon, via Tacoma and Port Townsend 

(N. P. R. R. to Tacoma 

From Tacoma 

" Seattle 

" Victoria, B. C 

" Port Townsend 

Tickets (not return) as follows. 

San Francisco to Juneau or Sitka 

" " " Wrangel 

Portland to Juneau or Sitka 

" " Wrangel 

Tacoma " " 

" " Juneau or Sitka 

Seattle " Wrangel 

" " Juneau or Sitka 

Victoria or Townsend to Juneau or Sitka 

" " " " Wrangel 



$130 00 

140 00 

140 00 

109 00 
100 00 
98 00 
95 00 
95 00 

Cabin. 

$ 70 00 
50 00 
60 00 
40 00 
33 00 
53 00 
32 50 
52 50 
50 00 
30 00 



Steerage. 

$ 40 00 
25 00 
35 00 
20 00 
17 50 
32 50 
17 00 
32 00 
30 00 
15 00 



Sitka and Unalaska Mail Route. 



Sitka to or from Yakutat 

Nutchik 

Kodiak (St. Paul). 

Karluk 

Unga 

Sand Point 

Unalaska 

Kodiak (St. Paul) to or from Una- 
laska 

Yakutat to or from Nutchik 

Nutchik " " Kodiak (St.Paul 
Kodiak (St. Paul) to orfrom Karluk 

Karluk to or from Unga 

Unga " " Sand Point 

Sand Point to or from Unalaska .... 



Freight 
per ton. 



$ 6 50 
9 50 
10 00 
12 00 
17 50 

19 50 

20 00 

10 00 
5 00 
5 00 
2 00 

5 50 
5 00 
10 00 



Cabin Pas. 



Single Round 
Trip. Trip. 



$14 00 
27 50 
35 00 
39 50 

53 50 

54 50 



$25 00 

49 50 
60 00 
71 00 
96 50 
98 00 



Steerage Pas. 



70 00 


120 00 


35 00 


60 00 


13 50 


24 50 


13 00 


23 50 


4 50 


8 00 


14 00 


26 00 


I 00 


2 00 


16 50 


30 00 



Single 


Round 


Trip. 


Trip. 


$ 9 50 


$17 00 


18 50 


33 50 


22 50 


40 50 


25 50 


46 00 


35 00 


63 00 


35 50 


64 00 


45 00 


80 00 


22 50 


40 00 


9 00 


16 CO 


8 50 


15 50 


3 00 


5 00 


9 50 


17 00 


50 


I 00 


II 00 


20 00 



400 ALASKA. 

One Year's Supply for One Man. 



Flour, 400 lbs 

Bacon, 150 lbs 

Beans, 100 lbs 

Sugar, 75 lbs 

Dried Fruits, 75 lbs 

Matches, 60 pks 

Candles, 40 lbs 

Rolled Oats, 36 lbs 

Fresh Beef at Dawson will cost 

Caribou Hams will cost there, each about 

Dried Beef, 30 lbs 

Eggs will cost there per doz 

Rice, 25 to 50 lbs 

Moose Hams 

Dry Salt Pork, 25 lbs 

Evaporated Potatoes, 25 lbs 

Fish 

Coffee, 25 lbs 

Raw Potatoes 

Corn Meal, 20 lbs 

Salt, 20 lbs 

Compressed Soup Vegetables, 10 lbs 

Mutton Soup per can 

Baking Powder, 10 lbs 

Tea, 10 lbs 

Yeast Cakes, 6 pks 

Evaporated Onions, 5lbs 

Soap (Laundry), 10 lbs , 

Soap (Toilet), 10 cakes 

Soda, 3 lbs 

Condensed Soup, 3 doz 

Pepper, i lb 

Mustard, 2 lbs 

Condensed Milk, 2 doz per can 

Extract of Beef, 2 doz per jar 

Ducks each 

Tin Plates, Yz doz 

Spoons (3 Tea, 3 Table) 

Jamaica Ginger (4 oz.), 2 bottles 

Granite Buckets, 2 

Gold Pan, 1 

Stove, 1 

Knives and Forks, 2 each 

Cups and Saucers, 2 each 

Quaker Bread Pan, i 

Whetstone, i 

Coffee Pot, I 

Small Tea Pot, i 

Pick, I 

Handles (3) each 

Sled, Dog and Outfit 



Upper 
Yukon 
Winter 


Remarks. 


Price. 




Per lb. 




$1 20 


May get wet or sour. 


40 




75 




50 




35 




50 


May Sour. 


50 




40 00 




50 




2 00 




30 




30 00 




40 

to 30 

$1 00 

65 




I 00 






Get most reliable brand. 


75 




I 00 




1 00 

2 00 


Get good brand. 
Get a reliable article. 


20 00 




15 00 




1 00 




150 00 


Vary with size. 



SUPPLIES— APPRO XIMA TE. 



401 



One Year's Supply for One Man — Continued. 



Articles. 


Upper 
Yukon 
Winter 

Price. 


Remarks. 


Tack Hammer and Lifter, or a patent 
Combined Hammer, Wrench, Lifter, 


Per lb. 

15 00 




Hatchet i 












Shovel I 





















Pins, Needles, Buttons, Pocket Knives. 

Ink, Pocket Pen, Lead Pencils, Envelopes and Paper. 

Bolts, Locks and Keys, Staples, Yale or Padlocks. 

Lumber on the spot will cost from $150 to $750 per thousand feet according 
to qualitv. 

Miners obtain $15 per day ; other workmen less, according to the kind of 
work employed at. Next season cooks, house-working people, and me- 
chanics will get less than they do now, but the wages will not be low 
while the access to the region is so difficult as at present. 

Under-Garments— Pants, about Sio ; Coats, $10 to $50. Fine Clothing varies 
with what is needed and the size. 

Flannels, Fur garments or wraps are absolutely required for general winter 
wear. 

Rubber Boots are necessary to the miner, and will co.st $25 per pair. 

Leather Boots are $10 per pair. 



26 



CHAPTER XLI. 

Points of Interest from Puget Sound to Chilkoot 
Pass and Sitka. 



PASSING up through Puget Sound to the Gulf of 
Georgia and past the Straits of Juan de Fuca on the 
left, we enter Discovery Passage with the large Is- 
land of Vancouver to the west and Valdes Island to the 
east. Now, if travelers will consult the maps in rotation 
and this list, which has been specially prepared for their 
benefit, the text and route will explain quite thoroughly 
the entire inland passage route which passenger steam- 
ers usually take. 

.SV^ Map No. 4. 



On the east side will be noticed : 

willow Point, a small insignificant, 
low, rocky point covered with wil- 
lows, and 

Yakulta, an Indian village ; farther 
on is 

Cape Mudge, a peculiar headland 
about 250 feet high, flat and wooded 
on its summit, forming a rather ab- 
rupt yellow clay cliff, covered more 
or less with vegetation ; then comes 

Kwathiaski Cove, which is two- 
thirds of a mile long and less than 
half a mile wide, it is bordered by a 
sandy beach and only fit for steamers 
or small crafts to navigate. In the 
centre of this cove lies a small but 
rather high island called the Grouse 
Island. We next come to 



See I\!ap No. 3. 

steep Island, which is very narrow 
and less than half a mile long. It is 
about 100 feet high and has a bluff 
shore on the western side. This island 
is separated from the Valdes Island 
by the Gowland Harbor whose shores 
are very irregular. Here we have the 

Gowland Island, which is about one 

402 



On the west will be observed : 

Vancouver Island, along which will 
be found 

Campbell River, a large stream 
navigable for some distance by boats 
or canoes ; farther on is 

Duncan Bay, which is easy of ac- 
cess. Then comes 



See Map No. S- 

Orange Point, a bare and round 
indentation in the shore and of a 
reddish color ; next comes 

Race Point, a high bluff promon- 
tory, flat and bare of trees. Some dis- 
tance up we have the 

Menzie Bay, which is a mile and a 
half long and three-quarters of a 




o 2 o 



POINTS OF INTEREST. 



403 



mile long and a third of a mile wide ; ' 
its northwestern end is known as i 
Vigilant Point, a short distance from 
which we have I 



Entrance Bank, which is composed 
of sand, partly dry at low water. 
Then comes the 

Yellow Islet, which lies a short dis- 
tance from Maud Island, which is 300 
feet high and less than half a mile 
wide, it is near Nanoose Harbor. 
Then you see 

Plumper Bay, which is nearly a 
mile long and half a mile wide. 
Many a vessel surges heavily on her 
chains, caused by the strong eddies 
and tides in this bay. 

Separation Head, an oval high pe- 
ninsula extending from the Valdes Is- 
land here separates Plumper Bay from 
Deep Water Bay, the latter of which 
is very deep and about a mile long 
and over half a mile wide. 

Between these bays lies a low point 
called Granite Point. It is wooded 
on top and bare at the ends. A 
short distance from here lies a sub- 
merged rock. 

There are two more deep inlets 
into Valdes I.slaud, and then we 
reach Nodales Channel which divides 
this island from the Thurlow Islands. 
Valdfs Island was named for Don 
Cayetano Valdes, who visited the Gulf 
of Georgia in 1792, in the Spanish 
galiot Mexicana. These islands may 
be known by being opposite Chat- 
ham Point which is on Vancouver 
Island and marks the entrance to 
Johnstone Strait. The Thurlow Is- 
lands were formerly supposed to 
consist of but one island. We then 
proceed to 

Knox Bay, which is two-thirds of a 
mile long and wide. Then comes 

Eden Point, the extreme northwest- 
ern end of Thurlow Island ; it is bold 
and cliffy. 

Then Chancellor Channel comes in 
and divides these islands from Hard- 
wicke Island south of which lie 
the Helmcken Island. It is nearly 
200 feet high and has many small 
islets lying nearby one of which is 
Speaker Rock. 

Between these islets are Current 
and Race Passages ; both are deep, 
but the latter is generally used as it is 
free of danger. Then we pass 



mile wide. Theentrance tothe bay is 
obstructed by a large triangular sand 
bank, which is partly dry at low 
water. Extending between this bay 
and Seymour Narrows we have 

Wilfred Point. The Seymour Nar- 
rows are two miles long, the shores 
on both sides being high and rugged. 
It is very narrow, and the tide rushes 
through rapidly. Then we have 

Otter Point, which has a gravel 
beach bordered by a fringe of kelp. 
Next comes 

Elk Bay, then 



See Map No. 4. 

Otter Cove, a small but snug 
anchorage, south of Chatham Point. 
This point is low and fringed with 
rocks. It is 24 miles from Cape 
Mudge. Near the entrance of this 
cove is the Limestone or Lewis 
Island, a small islet 100 feet high 
and near it is another islet called 
Snag Rock Just north of Chatham 
Point is Beaver Rock. Then we enter 

Johnstone Strait, which separates 
Vancouver Island from the Thurlow 
and other islands. Ella Point extends 
from the eastern shore of Thurlow 
Island. 

Three miles from Chatham Point 
lie the Pender Islands which are 150 
feet high and are rugged and barren. 
Near these is 

Mt. Eldon, a square-topped hill, 
peculiarly wooded, quite abrupt and 
isolated. Farther on, on the Van- 
couver shore, we have 

Ripple Point, off of which are heavy 
tide rips in wind}- weather. Nine 
and three-quarter miles from here 
is Camp Point, which has a rocky 
beach sloping gradually to the 
sea. A short distance from here is 
Ripple Shoal, surrounded by water 
and covered with kelp. Then we 
reach 

Salmon Bay, which has no anchor- 
age, the bank at its head being bold 
to. A river of the same name flows 
into it. 

Here stretches an extensive valley 
in the centre of which a remarkable 
bare peak towers 800 feet. It is called 
Valley Cone. Somedistance up is the 



404 



ALASKA. 



Earl Ledge which is on the western 
shore of Hardwicke Island ; it is only 
uncovered at low water. Near by is 
Yorke Island, a high and round island 
about a mile and a half wide. Another 
islet is the Fanny Reef, between 
which and the north shore of the 
strait is Sunderland Channel ; this 
channel is subject to heavy tide rip.s 
and separates Hardwicke Island from 
the mainland. A little farther on we 
have 

Blinkinsop Bay, which is over a 
mile deep and half a mile wide. It 
is easy of access as it is sheltered and 
its shores are high. Its southeast- 
ern headland is Tuna Point, and 
about a half mile from this bay is 
Jessie Island. Then comes 

Port Neville, which is an inlet 
named by Vancouver in 1792. It is 
dangerous to enter owing to Channel 
Rock which lies near the entrance. 
Another small island near the en- 
trance of Port Neville is the Milly 
Island, about four miles from which 
is the Slimpson Reef, which is a kelp- 
covered ledge of rocks about a quar- 
ter of a mile from the shore. Then 
come the 

Broken Islands, they are all 
low, rugged and small. North of 
these we have the 

Havanuah Channel which is about 
four miles long and connects Port 
Harvey with Call Creek Inlet. The 
southern headland of this channel 
is called Domville Point, near which 
is the entrance to Port Harvey. It 
is two miles long and joins Knight 
Inlet at high water. There are raanj' 
islets in this port called the Mist 
Islands. Farther on lies the 

liscape Reef, which is covered with 
kelp in summer and is surrounded by 
deep water. Then comes 

Forward Bay, which is a mile 
and a quarter broad and three- 
quarters of a mile deep. It is a good 
stopping place. In the southwestern 
part of this bay lies the Bush Islet, 
and in tlie eastern side Green Islet. 
Then comes the 

Cracroft Island, which is separated 
from the Harbledown Island and the 
Hanson Island by the Blackney Pass- 
age and Baronet Passage. Farther 
on is 

Boat Harbor, a small cove six 
miles from Forward Bay, about three 
miles from this harbor are the Sophia 
Islands. Between the Hanson, Pearse 



Adams River, a small stream on 
the eastern side of Vancouver Island. 
Farther on is 

Robson Bight, a slight indentation 
of the Vancouver shore. Then we 
have a small islet known as 

Blinkhorn Island, on which the 
timber is prostrated, due to a squall. 
Beyond this is 

Bauza Cove. There the Broughton 
Strait connects the Johnstone Strait 
and Queen Charlotte Sound. It is 15 
miles long, .separating Vancouver 
Island from Malcolm Island. At the 
entrance of this strait is Beaver Cove, 
whose northwestern headland is 
called Lewis Point. Three miles 
from the cove, Mt. Holdsworth, a 
conical peak rises to the height of 
3000 feet. Then comes the 

Nimpkish River, flowing in a north- 
erlv direction and emptying into a 
shallow bay. On its northern bank 
near the entrance is the old village of 
Cheslakee. now in ruins. About si.x 
miles up this river is Lake Karmut- 
sen. 

Nearly a mile from this river is 
Green Islet. Then comes 

Port McNeill, and its northern 
headland is called Ledge Point and 
slopes gradually to the water. South 
of this point lies the Eel Reef 



Three miles from Pulteney Point lies 
Su-quash Anchorage, which is shel- 
tered from the westerlj- winds by 
Single Tree Point. Here a coal mine 
was at one time worked. Farther on is 

False Head and Beaver Harbor, the 
latter of which is formed by a num- 
ber of islets lying between Thomas 
Point, the southeastern headland of 
the harbor, and Dillon Point, which 
is the northwestern headland. The 
latter point is much broken, wooded 
and rocky. 

On the southern .shore of this har- 
bor the Hudson Bay Company estab- 
lished a post called Fort Rupert, near 
which a garden has been made in 
which fruit and vegetables grow 
plentifully. Here also is a large In- 
dian village. 

Not far from Thomas Point is Deer 
Island, near which are the Round and 
Cattle Islands, one of the latter is 
called Shell Islet. It is the astro- 
nomical station. 



POINTS OF INTEREST. 



405 



and Cormorant Islands are the Wyn- 
ton and Race Passages, which are 
considered dangerous as the tide 
rushes through rapidly. The north- 
western point of Cormorant Island is 
called Leonard Point. Then comes 

Alert Bay, which is abreast of 
Green Islet, the southwestern head- 
land of this bay is called Yellow Bluff 
which has a yellow cliff at its extreme 
point. 

This bay affords good anchorage 
and vessels can stop at any time. 
Here there is plenty of wood and 
water to be found. There is also a 
large salmon cannery, a mission and 
an Indian village. A little farther 
on is 

Haddington Island, separated from 
Malcolm island by False Passage. 

JIalcolm Island is 13 and a half 
miles long and over two miles wide ; 
it has a low, sandy beach. On its 
eastern side is a high cliff, called 
Donegal Head, and seven miles from 
here is Dickenson Point, and directly 
west from this point is Rough Bay. 

Its southwestern point is called 
Pulteney Point. Then comes 

Queen Charlotte Sound, which was 
named by Wedgborough in August, 
1786. It connects the inner channels 
of Vancouver Island with the Pacific 
Ocean. Here the 

Goletas Channel leads to Cape Com- 
merell, a distance of 22 miles. But 
we proceed northward among the 
islands through which there are seve- 
ral passages easily navigated. This 
Channel is separated from New Chan- 
nel by a number of high islands 
called The Gordon Group. The east- 
ern one of which is Doyle Island, and 
on it is Miles Cone, a wonderful peak 
380 feet high. Just south of the Gor- 
don Group is Duncan Island, which 
is 300 feet high. About a mile west 
of Duncan Island are the Noble Islets. 
We then pass through 

Christie Passage which separates 
the Hurst Island, one of the Gordon 
Group, from Balaklava Island and 
connects New and Goletas Channels 

Then continuing through New 
Channel for about 12 and a half 
miles we have a clear passage to 
Queen Charlotte Sound, leaving the 
Walker Group far to the east, passing 
the Crane Islets and Redfern Island, 
taking great care to avoid Grey Rock 
which is but slightly covered. 

Then we should keep well east of 



In the northern part of the harbor 
is Peel Island, which is 200 feet high 
and wooded ; near it are the Charlie 
Islets, two small bare rocks. 

West of the Peel Island is the Dse- 
dalus Passage, and a short distance 
from Dillon Point lie a group of high 
wooded islets called the Masterman 
Islands, and just south of these is 
Hardy Bay, the eastern point of which 
is called Duval Point ; it is on an 
island. Then conies 

Balaklava Island, which is rugged 
and irregular. This Island is sepa- 
rated from Galiano Island by the 
Browning Passage whose tide is very 
weak. At the southern entrance is 
Boxer Point, which is also the south- 
ern extreme of Port Alexander, an 
indentation of Galiano Island, and is 
easy of access at any time. 

The Galiano, which is the largest 
island north of Goletas Channel is 
eight miles long and over three miles 
broad. Mt. Lemon, a strange conical 
peak, 1200 feet high, is on this island, 
as also is the Maginn Saddle, which 
is two peaks between 700 and 800 feet 
high and a third of a mile apart. 
Then comes 

Shadwell Passage, which separates 
Galiano Island from Hope Island and 
connects Goletas Channel and Queen 
Charlotte Sound. Bates Passage, 
which is the northeastern portion of 
the Shadwell Passage, is separated 
from the main portion by the Vau- 
sittart Islands. At the southern en- 
trance of Shadwell Passage and close 
to the western side of Galiano Island 
is Willes Island, which is 200 feet 
high ; near it is a low, small islet 
called Slave Islet. 

Heath Point is the western head- 
land of this passage, and two miles 
farther on is Turn Point, and about 
the same distance from this point is 
Cape James, a rocky bluff 90 feet 
high ; in the opposite direction from 
this point are Center Island and Su- 
wanee Rock. On this rock the U. S. 
S. Su'vanee was lost in July, i85q. 

In the northern part of the pa.ssage 
several islets are located, two of 
which are the Nicolas Islands and 

One Tree Islet, which is small but 
very high ; it has a single tree on its 
summit which has grown to a great 
height. Then entering South Passage 
we pass the 



4o6 



ALASKA. 



Shadwell Passage and Roller Bay un- 
til near Pine Island, then we pass 
Blind Reef and Storm Island. 

See Map No. 6. 

Next we come to South Passage 
which connects Queen Charlotte and 
Fitzhugh Sounds. Then going from 
Cape Canton to Cape Calvert we pass 
Neck Point and Blunder Bay, the 
northern part of which is Indian Cove, 
a place where the Indians usually stop 
when canoeing between the sounds, 
wethenpassa number of small islands 
and Smith Sound, one of the former 
of which is Egg Island, the principal 
landmark between Goletas Channel 
and Fitzhugh Sound. The others are 
Table Island, Cluster Reefs, White 
Rocks and Canoe Rocks. Then on 
past Cranstown Point we enter 

Fitzhugh Sound, which is deep 
water for about 40 miles. It sepa- 
rates Calvert and other islands from 
the main land. Continuing up a little 
distance is 

Karslake Point, the southern end 
of an island at the entrance of 
Schooner Retreat, which is on the 
western side of Penrose Island and 
is considered a safe harbor. The In- 
dian name for it is Kapilisk. We 
then pass 

Sea Bluff, the Grey Iron Islets, Iron- 
side Island and Frigate Bay — in which 
there are several small islets, one of 
which is Center Islet. Between these 
islets a passage is formed towards the 
southeast, and here the bay joins the 
Rivers Inlet. On the southeastern side 
of Penrose Island is Quoin Hill, which 
is nearly 900 feet above the sea. We 
then go on past 

Penrose Island, which is in Rivers 
Inlet— the waters passing on both 
sides of it. We then continue leav- 
ing Point Addenbrook, Point Han- 
bury and Addenbrook Island (the lat- 
ter of which was named bj' Van- 
couver in 1792) on the east, passing 
Kiwash Island, which is directly 
opposite Namu Harbor in which are 
the Cliff and Plover Islands. Har- 
lequin Basin and Rock Creek are 
both parts of this harbor, the latter 
of which has two islets at its entrance, 
called Sunday and Clam Islets, the 
entrance between which is Whirlwind 
Bay. Near Green Islet and Observa- 
tion Point in the mouth of Rock Creek 
is IyOo Rock, which is a sunken rock 



See Map No. 6. 

Sea Otter Group which are, Danger 
Shoal, Hanna Rocks, Virgin Rocks, 
Channel Reef, New Patch, Pearl Rocks, 
Watch Rock, and Devil Rock, the lat- 
ter of which is a dangerous rock, the 
sea seldom breaking on it. The Hann a 
and Pearl Rocks were discovered by 
Captain James Hanna who explored 
this coast in 1786. The former rock 
was named after him. Just above 
here is the 

Mosman Island,oneof the group of 
Sorrow Islands, which is separated 
from Calvert Island by Grief Bay, then 
we approach 

Cape Calvert, which is the southern- 
most part of Calvert Island. It is cover- 
ed with spruce, pine and hemlock 
trees. This island lies between Hecate 
Strait and Fitzhugh Sound, and in the 
center of it on the eastern side is Safety 
Cove, which is preferred to Schooners 
Retreat, as it is so handy. Just a 
short distance from this cove there is 
a conical peak. Mt. Buxton is also on 
Calvert Island. Ab-^ut seven and a 
half miles from Safety Cove is 

Kwakshua, which separates Hecate 
and Calvert Island ; it is supposed to 
be part of Hecate Strait. Farther on 
we have 

Goldstream Harbor, which has a 
narrow winding passage, its shores 
are rugged and covered with kelp. 
There are many islets and rocks in 
this harbor, one of which is Evening 
Rock. Then comes 

Hakai Strait, which connects He- 
cate Strait and Fitzhugh Sound ; it 
does not appear navigable owing to 
the numerous rocks and islets, but 
it is possible, as Vancouver passed 
through on his way to the sea in 1792. 
Some of the islets in this strait are 
called the Starfish Islets, and between 
these is Welcome Harbor. 

North of Hakai Strait is the D'Age- 
let Island, named after Lepaute 
D'Agelet, the astronomer who went 
with LaPerouse to explore this coast 
in 17S6. It is separated from Hunter 
Island by the Nalau Strait. The lat- 
ter island extends for about 12 miles, 
and in that distance there are only 
known to be two openings, the lat- 
ter of which is Kiltik Creek. 






B 






n ^ t 
°' L 
o» n J Hunter I. 

1{ 






>. 



i)i 






Tn 



-A 




>r .../ 



«/^ ^n>.'^i} P»»J'^^ 



Seo- OtTcf Group 



fi*-nftfJho»/ ,,' 




V 






^ 



Map No. 6 -Port Alexander to Point Walker, through Soutli 




Map Xo. 7— Point Walker to Swanson Bay, through Lama Passage, Seaforth 
(Jhannel, Milbank Sound and Pinlaysoii Channel. 



POINTS OF INTEREST. 



407 



covered with water and surrounded 
by deep water. About two miles from 
Kiwash Island are Point Edmund 
and a number of islets, then we pass 
Burke Canal, an arm of Fitzhiigh 
Sound and reach 



See Map No. 7. 

Point Walker, which is on a small 
island above which there are many 
rocks known as the Fog Rocks, one 
of which is very high and has a cluster 
of trees on it. We then proceed 
northward to Start Point, and here 
the passage turns and we have Canoe 
Bight and Camp Island. Another 
point from Denny Island is 

Grave Point, where there are a 
number of Indian graves, and about 
one mile from here are the Bella 
Bella Islands, which were the summer 
residence of the Indians by that 
name. Farther on we have the 

Kliktso-at-li Harbor, an excellent 
shelter for all vessels. We then pass 

Harbor, Cypress and the Meadow 
Islands, and between these islands is 
Wheelock Pass, and above them is 
Gunboat Passage which connects 
Seaforth Channel with Fisher Chan- 
nel. It is narrow, crooked and much 
obstructed. We then proceed through 
Seaforth Channel which separates 
Camjibell and the Wright group of 
Islands from Denny, Cunningham, 
Sunday and Salmon Islands and a 
part of the mainland, not entirely sur- 
rounded by water, called Don Pe- 
ninsula. It is about a mile wide and 
extending from it toward the north 
are Deer Passage, Return and Spiller 
Channels. These channels have never 
been explored, but the Hecate Chan- 
nel which extends from it towards the 
south, separating Campbell Island 
from Hergest Island, one of the 
Wright group is navigable. The Her- 
gest Island was named for Lieut. Her- 
gest, commander of Vancouver's sup- 
ply ship Dcrduliis, who was murdered 
intheSandwich Islandsiu 1792. Angle 
Point is the western extremity of 
Sunday Island. Nearly a mile from 
this point are the Jumble and Dearth 
Islands, and near these are the Hynd- 
man Reefs, which are a number of 
sunken rocks. We then proceed to 

Point Rankin, which separates Sea- 
forth Channel from the entrance to 
Mathieson Channel, the latter of 



See Map No. 7. 

Then about a mile and a half above 
this is The Trap, and although it ap- 
pears navigable, it is dangerous to en- 
ter. Just below here about half way 
between the Fog Rocks and the en- 
trance to Lama Passage the tides 
from the north and south meet. Then 
we have 

Pointer Islet, .showing the entrance 
to Lanja Passage ; here the Fitzhugh 
Channel changes its name to the 
Fisher Channel which, farther on, 
divides into several arms. 

The Lama Passage separates Hun- 
ter Island from the Denny Island 
and connects F'itzhugh Sound and 
Seaforth Channel. Then it turns 
and extends northward and right 
at the bend Plumper Channel, which 
separates Hunter Island from Camp- 
bell Island, enters this passage. 
Having passed Cooper Inlet, Harbor- 
master and Westminster, Charles and 
Jane Creek on the south, we then have 

Ship Point, the southeastern end 
of Campbell Island, next passing 
Bella Bella Village, the winter resi- 
dence of the Indians for some dis- 
tance around. The Indian name is 
Wau-ko-has. Here there are twenty 
houses, a mission residence and 
church. It was the former settlement 
of the Bella Bella Indians, which 
tribe now only numbers about fifty. 
Farther on is 

McLaughlin Bay, where the Hudson 
Bay Company at one time had a post. 
A short distance from this bay on 
Campbell Island is Mt. Hand, which 
is 4164 feet high. Then we enter 

Main Passage, which connects Lama 
Passage and Sea Forth Channel. Far- 
ther on is 

Ormindale Harbor, which forms a 
triangle and is .sheltered by the Nevay 
and Thorburne Islands. The safest 
passage is around the southwestern 
side of Grassy Island, which is the 
landmark in the middle of the Sea- 
forth Channel. Directly west of this 
harbor is Kynumpt Harbor, which 
extends for half a mile into Camp 



4o8 



ALASKA. 



which separates Lady and Dowaper 
Islands from the part of the mainland 
called Don Peninsula. This channel 
extends for about 13 miles. 

Three miles up this channel from 
Point Rankin, which is on Mary 
Island, is the entrance to I'ort Hlak- 
eney, which separates that island 
from Don Peninsula. Having passed 
Ivory Island, White Rocks and Bolder 
Head we come to 

Moss Passage, which connects Alex- 
andra Passage and Mathieson Chan- 
nel. It is about four miles long. From 
the southeastern part of it Morris Bay 
extends into Lady Island. About two 
miles from Point Rankin is Point 
Cross which is the northeastern ex- 
tremity of Lady Island and extends 
into Mathieson Channel. We then 
continue past 

Low Point to Finlayson Channel, 
which extends between Dowager and 
Roderick Islands on the east and the 
Princess Roj-al Islands on the west. 
The shores are denselj- wooded, and 
in some ravines along the way snow 
is said to be seen in August. As we 
pass along we see the Stripe or Quartz 
Mountain, named by the U. S. Survey 
in iS6g. It is on Dowager Island, and 
northward from this peak is Oscar 
Passage which connects Mathieson 
Channel and Finlayson Channel and 
separates Dowager Island from Ro- 
derick Island. Above Low Point is 
Open Bay in which there are man}' 
rocks and islets. 

Roderick Island is said to consist 
of several islands separated from the 
mainland by Portlock Channel. This 
channel was named for Captain Na- 
thaniel Portlock, who visited the Pa- 
cific Coast on a trading voyage in 
17S7, and published maps and an 
account of his voyage. The southern 
extremit}' of Roderick is called Parker 
Point, near which are two islets 
called the Si.sters. Nowish Cove, 
which is sheltered by the Indian 
Island exten 3s into Susan Island, 
one of the Roderick Group. The 
western point is called Fell Point. 
We then pass unexplored entrances 
to bays, inlets, etc., until we come to 
Mary Cove. Then we pass on to 

Watson Bay and Wallace Bight. 
Extending into the northwestern 
comer of Roderick Island are 
Goat Cove and Kid Bay, the north- 
ern point of this cove is called Fawn 



bell I.sland and gets quite narrow at 
its head. On the west is Whitestone 
Rock, a large bare rock, and where 
the land ri.ses to about 200 feet is 
called Shelf I'oint. On the opposite 
side is Defeat Point, at whose south- 
ern extremity a small rocky islet is 
connected by a reef, and a .short dis- 
tance from it is Berry Point, an astro- 
nomical station. 

George Point is the northeastern 
extremity of Hergest Island, two 
miles from here is the entrance to 
Dundivan Inlet, in which there are a 
number of islets. It separates into 
several arms. We then pass Idol and 
Sound Point. 

Milbank Sound which was named 
by Duncan in 178S, separates the 
Wright Group from the mainland; it 
is over eight miles wide. On the east 
extending from the Wright Group is 
Cape Swaine of Vancouver. From 
the north Day Point extends from the 
Price Islands. Next we have 

Schooner Passage separating Price 
from Swindle Island ; on the latter is 
Point Jorkins extending into the en- 
trance of Finlayson Channel. About 
seven miles from the point is Cone Is- 
land, which derives its name from Bell 
Peak, a conical peak about 12S0 feet 
high which is on this island. Cone 
Island is separated from Swindle 
Island by the Klemtoo Passage, 
which extends for about three and a 
half miles parallel with Cone Island, 
the southern extremit}- of which is 
Bare Point; and a short distance from 
this is Islet Point. Between this latter 
point and Base Point, which extends 
from Swindle Island, are a number 
of islets, one of which is Fish Island, 
and above this. Needle Rock and 
Stockade Islet form a chain to 
Star Island which is separated from 
a number of rocks by Observation 
Islet. Farther on is 

Clothes Bay. And about a mile 
from Base Point is Berry Point, which 
is at the entrance of Trout Bay, and 
still farther on is Legge Point and 
Wedge Point, both extending from 
Cone Island. A half mile from the 
latter is Jane island. It is separated 
from Cone Island by South Passage, 
and from Sarah Island by the North 
Passage. The latter island is sepa- 
rated from the Princess Royal Island 
by Tolmie Channel, which runs par- 
allel with the former island and re- 



POINTS OF INTEREST. 



409 



Point. Here Sheep Passage separates 
the island from the mainland and 
ioins Portlock; Channel at the en- 
trance of Mussel Inlet. 

One mile from Fawn Point is Carter 
Bay, which was named by Vancouver 
for one of his crew who died from 
eating poisonous mussels and was 
buried there, June 15th, 1793. On the 
northwestern shore of this bay was 
situated the astronomical station of 
the English observers. 

We then proceed for about 20 
miles, this passage being called by 
English authority Graham Reach. 
Then Hiehish Narrows connects the 
Reach with Fiulayson Channel, and 
are about five and a half miles long. 
A little farther on is Green Inlet, and 
and then we come to a small cove 
called 

Swauson Bay. Six miles from here 
is South Inlet or Khutze and sepa- 
rated from it by a peninsula is 
North or Aaltanhash Inlet ; both 
are unexplored but appear extensive 
and as though good anchorage 
could be had. Right in the middle 

Ste Map No. 8. 

of the passage, which is here very 
much broader, is Warke Island. 
From here the passage for about ten 
miles is called Fraser Reach, at the 
end of which is Fisherman Cove or 
Ribachi Creek. Here the Reach 
divides into several arms, one called 
the Ursula Channel extends for about 
eight miles to the north and then 
takes an irregular course. The other 
one, which is McKay Reach, extends 
seven miles westward to Wright 
Sound and here Point Cumming ex- 
tending from Gribbell Island is seen. 
We then pa.ss through Wright Sound, 
an irregular sheet of water that sepa- 
rates into .several arms, the Verney 
Passage and Douglas Channel ex- 
tending toward the north, the others 
southwaid. Then we pass 

Promise Island, whose extreme 
southern point is called Cape Fare- 
well. This island is separated from 
the mainland by Coghlan Anchorage, 
and extending into this passage from 
Promise Island is Thom Point, and 
on the opposite side extending from 
the mainland is Camp Point, and a 
short distance from Thom Point is 
Observation Point Next comes 

Harbor Rock , on both sides of which 



unites with the former channel, 
then pass 



See Jl/ap No. S. 

Carroll Island and the Cascade 
River to Red Cliff Point, which 
extends from Princess Royal Island. 
A short distance above this point 
there is a lake, on the shores of which 
there is a salmon fishery and an In- 
dian summer village, into which a 
bay extends called Klekane. Quite a 
a distance up is 

Point Kingcome, at which point 
Fraser Reach becomes much broader, 
owing to a lake and an unexplored 
bay running into it. 

On the opposite side of Princess 
Royal Island from Point Kingcome 
is Nelly Point, and a short distance 
from the latter, extending about half 
a mile into Prince.ss Royal Island is 
Holmes Bay. It is part of Whale 
Channel, which is one of the arms of 
Wright Sound ; two other arms also 
extend southward and they are Lewis 
and Cridge Passages. The latter of 
which separates Fin Island from Far- 
rant Island and the former with 
Wright Sound, Whale and Squally 
Channels and Lewis Passage sur- 
round Gil Island, which was named 
by Caamano in 1792. It is 15 miles 
long and six miles wide, and on 
the northern end of it is Mt. Gil, 



4IO 



ALASKA. 



there is a clear passage. Just beyond I 
the anchorage the passage makes a 
short turn and is called Stewart Nar- | 
rows. Then we approach 

Lowe Inlet on whose eastern .shore 
is Bare Hill, which is 400 feet high. 
This inlet extends between two points, 
Hepburn Point and James Point, both 
extending from the mainland. Near 
the entrance of this inlet is Whiting j 
Bank, on which anchorage may be 
had. 

David Point extending from the 
mainland into this inlet is just below 
Nettle Basin where the inlet forms a 
round harbor, and here waterfalls 
from the lakes enter it. Don Point also 
enters it from the east. Plight miles 
from Tom Islet, which is just south of 
James Point, is P^vening Point, and 
here the tides meet, and there are a ! 
number of rocks and islets in the 
channel, which is very deep between 
these two last-named points. Na- 1 
bannah Bay extends into the main 
laud from Evening Point, but a 
chain of islets and rocks prevent an 
entrance. South from this bay is a 
magnificient waterfall on Pitt Island. 

Nearly half a mile from Evening 
Point is Morning Point, in front of 
which there is a large area of foul 
ground covered with kelp ; the Morn- 
iug Reefs, several large rocks, also lie 
about here. Bare Islet, which is really 
a part of Leading Island, in Klewnug- 
git Inlet, is the landmark in keeping 
away froiu this foul ground . Another 
landniark a half mile from Morning 
Point is Camp Point, which extends 
into Klewnuggit Inlet. This inlet 
divides into several arms, some of 
which have never been explored. 
Exposed arm which extends south- 
east is obstructed by rocks and islets. 

The channel then extends for 21 
miles to Gibsons Islands, between 
which we only pass three inlets at 
regular intervals. The first of these 
is East Inlet, which appears to aflJbrd 
anchorage. There is a small islet in 
the entrance towards the west. The 
other two are Large Inlet and West 
Inlet. 



which is 3000 feet high. lis extreme 
northern point is Turtle Point. 
Northward from this point is Yolk 
Point, which extends from the ea.st- 
ern side of Farrant Island and from 
here on for a distance of 45 miles, 
without turning, is Orenville Chan- 
nel, which separates Pitt Island from 
the mainland. 

Farrant Island is unusually low 
and is separated from Pitt Island by 
the Union Passage. 

The extremely high mountains 
clo.se to the shore on both sides of 
C.renvilleChannel,give it the appear- 
ance of being very narrow. We then 
proceed, passing numerous cascades 
and streams, which are fed by lakes 
on the mountains and the snow which 
lasts nearly all the year and can be 
seen as we continue our journey. 
Some distance up, appearing to di- 
vide Pitt Island in two, is 

Baker Inlet, which is quite exten- 
sive and may join Petrel Channel. 
We next come to 

Stuart or Stewart Anchorage, south- 
east of which is a small, rocky 
extent, called Bonwick Point, near 
which is Stag Rock. Just behind this 
point is Shrimp Cove. 

Five miles west of Stuart Anchor- 
age is Hill Point, which is wooded 
aud separates the entrance of Greu- 
ville and Ogden Channels. At this 
point Grenville Channel widens, in 
the middle of which are the Gibson 
Islands, a group of low, wooded is- 
lands which we pass south of, avoid- 
ing Watson Rock, and then we have 
a clear passage to Arthur Passage. 

Ogden Channel, which separates 
Porcher and Pitt Island, extends 
southward to Hecate Strait ;the open- 
ing where it joins is Browning En- 
trance, but in 1791, Ingraham called 
it Syax Harbor. On the eastern side 
of Porcher Island is a small, low, 
wooded point called Peninsula Point, 
it is composed of nietamorphic rocks, 
sandstones and shales. Just above 
this point is the Oona River. Con- 
tinuing, we enter 

Arthur Passage, which separates 
Kennedy Island from a number of 
small islands, and, between these and 
Porcher Island is Kelp and Chismore 
Passages. The latter of which is 
only accessible through Bloxam Pas- 
sage, which leads into it from Arthur 
Passage at its northwestern entrance. 



Kjsrj^ 



'i 

X 



^ 



POINTS OF INTEREST. 



411 



See Map No. <?. 

We then continue to the east of the 
Gibson Islands passing Marrack, 
Bedford and Kennedy Islands. Here 
again the channel separates, and one 
of the arms, Telegraph Passage, ex- 
tends northward and joins the en- 
trance to Skeena Inlet 

At the beginning ot this passage 
and between the Gibson, Marrack 
and Bedford Islands and the main- 
land is Port Fleming. 

The passage then for some distance 
is hardly navigable, but an entrance 
could be had to Skeena Inlet by 
passing through North Skeena 
Passage, which is north of Smith and 
De Horsey Islands. 

In the Arthur Passage northwest of 
Kennedy Island is the White Cliff 
Island, on which marble has been 
quarried. Here the Malacca Passage 
starts and extends west for about si.x 
miles. We continue our journey 
passing Genu Islets, Bay and Smith 
Islands and enter Chatham Sound 
which extends from Porcher Island 
for 35 miles, and is between seven 
and eight miles wide. It separates 
Chim-sy-an Peninsula from the 
Dundas Island. As we continue 
through this sound we pass the Kin- 
nahan and Digby Islands and other 
islets. Farther on we have 

Tugwell Island, which is connected 
with Chim-sy-an Peninsula by a sand- 
bar. The northern point of this island 
is Point Dawes and the northwestern. 
Point Chopmau. Directly east of 
this island we make a stop at Metla- 
katla Bay where there is the well- 
known village and Episcopal mis- 
sion of the same name. 

The part of the bay near the mis- 
sion is called Venn Creek, the latter 
connects with the Oldfield Basin, east 
of Digby Island. 

Duncan Bay lies north of Tugwell 
Island and offers a better anchorage 
than MetlakatlaBay. 

Having passed Devastation and 
Pike Island, the Shrub, Knight and 
Carr Islets we continue past the 
Hodgson Reefs to Tree Bluff on 
which there is some cultivated 
ground. Just beyond this is Big Bay 
which is difficult to enter. A point 
of Chim-sy-an Peninsula extending 
into Big Bay is called Point Tren- 
ham. Farther on is 

Burnt Cliff, One Tree and Pinlavson 



See ISIap No. q. 

Just south of this is Chalmers An- 
chorage, which is off a bight at the 
end of Elliot Island, near which are 
the Bamfield Islets and Elizabeth 
Island. Then leaving Arthur Pas- 
sage for Chatham Sound we pa.ss 
through 

Jlalacca Passage, which separates 
Smith Island from Elizabeth and 
Porcher Island. Extending from 
the northern point of the latter 
island is Point Hunt, off of which 
is Grace Islet. We then continue 
past the Lawyer Islet through 

Chatham Sound, which here divides 
into several arms, one of which is the 
p;yde Passage. This passage extends 
between Porcher and Stephens Is- 
lands to Hecate .Strait. Another is 
Brown Passage, which separates the 
latter island from the Dundas Group 
and la.stly, is the broad opening of 
the sound where the waters join those 
of the Dixon Entrance. 

In the southern part of the sound 
we pass the Rachel and Lucy Islands 
and the Alexandra Patch. Farther 
on are the 

Dundas Island and a number of 
islets, one of which is the Moffat 
Island. 

Deans Point extends from the south 
Dundas Island and Whitty Point from 
the north Dundas Island. Then we 
continue north of the Gnarled Islands, 
and if a voyage is made through 
Behm Canal, we here enter Revil- 
lagigedo Channel, passing the East 
Devil and Barren Rocks. Farther on 
is 

Duke Island on whose eastern 
extremit}- is Duke Point, and north- 
ern extremity Grave Point; next we 
come to the 

Cat and Mary Islands Point Win- 
slow is the northern extremity of 
the latter island. 



412 



ALASKA. 



Islands, Sparrowhawk aud Connis 
Rocks and Harbor Reefs. Sparrow- 
hawk Rock was named for a British 
gunboat which struck upon it. Here 
we enter Main Passage to the east 
of which is Point Maskelyue the 
northern extremity of Chim-sy-an 
Peninsula and Point Wales the 
southeastern extremity of Wales 
Island. Between these two points is 
Portland Inlet. Above this inlet is 



See Map No. lO. 

Naas Bay into which empties a river 
of the same name. It is a great salmon 
stream. On the shore of this river 
are the Naas villages. Here the Hud- 
son Bay Company's trading-post is 
situated. At these villages, called 
Kit-lak-a-laks, an enormous quantity 
of fish are taken in the spring. The 
Ulikon or candle-fish is the most im- 
portant species, and the fishery is in 
operation in March and April. These 
fish contain more fatty matter in pro- 
portion to their size than any known 
fish, and they appear in incredible 
numbers. To the west of this bay is 
Point Ramsden, which separates the 
inlet into two parts, the eastern arm 
being Observatory Inlet and the one 
on the west being Portland Canal, 
which f«rms the southeastern bound- 
ary between the British and Ameri- 
can possessions. The canal extends 
northward, having mountain ranges 
on both sides. 



See MiiJ) No. q. 

The part west of Connis Rocks is 
called Oriflamme Passage, it is quite 
wide and deep. On through this 
passage we pass south of the Lord 
Islands, Tongass Pass aud Fort Ton- 
gass. This fort is now in ruins, but 
it was the most .southern fort of the 
United States in Alaska at the time 
of the purchase and for some time 
afterwards. 

The steamer usually makes a laud- 
ing at this point. It is at the en- 
trance of Nakat Inlet. 

Tongass Pass comes in from Main 
Passage between Wales Island and 
a number of smaller islands to the 
left. A vessel could go on through 
Revillagigedo Channel aud Behm 
Canal, which forms almost a com- 



See Map No. it. 

But, as we are not going that way, 
will not stop to give anj' details, far- 
ther than that we pass Hassler Island 
and go almoist in a complete circle 
around Revillagigedo Island in Behm 
Canal, and then enter Clarence Strait. 
Behm Canal which was named by 
Vancouver, is one of the largest and 
most strange fiords on the coast ; 
from it extend quite a number of 
bays, one of which is Burroughs Bay, 
which is usually entered when going 
around the canal ; there are also a 
number of islands within its waters. 



See Map No. g. 

We cross the Dixon Entrance, aud 
as it is best for our purpose, we 
continue up Clarence Strait, which is 
the most important strait, except 
Chatham Strait, in the Alexander 
Archipelago. It extends for about 
107 miles from Dixon Entrauce to 
Sumner Strait. Its waters are deep 
and free from obstructions, except 
in the northern part where there are 
quite a number of islands. It sepa- 
I rates the Prince of Wales Archi- 
; pelago from the mainland and the 
C.ravina,Etolin and Zarembo Islands. 
I'assing north of West Devil and 
Brundige Rocks, above which Ken- 
drick, Imgraham, and Chichagoff" 
"Bays extend into the eastern side of 
an island, of which there is a cluster 
right here. Between two of these 
islets is Moira Sound, an arm of 
Clarence Strait. Farther on is 



See Map No. 11. 

Wedge Island, a low island which 
is said to resemble a wedge ; we then 
continue to 




Map No. lo — Portland Canal and Observatory Inlet. 



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Jii. 




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m 


^^■;5ss 




¥ 


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/ 

V 



V 



POINTS OF INTEREST. 



413 



plete circle around Revillagigedo 
Island. Going this way we would 
pass Boat Harbor Point, Foggy Point 
and Bay, De Long Island, Kah- 
Shakes Cove and the Snail and White 
Reefs, besides a number of other 
islands, points and bays extending 
from this canal. But our journey 
continues through Clarence Strait, 
passing to the south of Barren and 
many sunken rocks, and to the west 
of Duke Island which is separated 
from the Annette Island, one of the 
Gravina Group, by the Felice Strait, 
which connects Revillagigedo Chan- 
nel and Clarence Strait. Felice Strait 
is one of the numerous arms of the 
Clarence Strait. We then pass a num- 
ber of islands from one of which 
extends Point Percy, and just above it 
extending from the Anuette Island 
is Point Davison. The Annette Island 
is the one on which the Metlakatla In - 
dians and civilized Kpiscopal Alas- 
kans changed their home from British 
soil at Metlakatla to American Terri- 
tory. Then we pass a number of rocks 
and islets to Dall Head, which was 
named after Captain C. C. Dall of the 
P. M. S. S. Co's service. It is a high 
bluff on Gravinia Island. 

The northern extremity of this 
island is Point Vallenar. Then pass- 
ing Guard Island to Cape Caamano 
we pass on to Ship Island, back of 
which Ship Point extends from the 
mainland. 

Some distance up is Point Leme- 
surier, which extending from the 
mainland forms a peninsula, around 
which there are several bays. Union 
Bay being one of them. 

Here Ernest Sound enters the 
strait, separating the Etolin Island 
from the mainland. Along the coast 
after passing the sound are a number 
of islands on the largest of which is 
Point Onslow. Next is Point Stan- 



See Map No. 12. 

hope the southern extremitj' of Stan- 
hope Island ; then extending north- 
ward are some rocky islets and 
islands. Near one of these, called 
Screen Island, Vancouver found 
shelter. 

Here Stikine Strait enters, separat- 
ing Etolin and Woronkofl'ski Islands 
from Zarembo Island. Vancouver 
called all the islands lying between 



Point Chasina, and west of this 
point is another arm of Clarence 
Strait, called Cholmondeley Sound, 
which extends southward for about 
13 miles, its head is near that of Moira 
Sound and Tliakaek Bay, the country 
between the.se passages is called 
Kaigan Portage. 

On the eastern shore of Cholmon- 
deley Sound is an Indian village, 
called the Chasina Settlement. 

Skin Island is one of the largest of 
the cluster of islets which are 
along the coast for some distance, 
which after passing for about eight 
miles we come to 

Island Point, which extends from 
the Prince of Wales Archipelago into 
Kasa-an Bay, whose northern head- 
land is Point Griudall, not far from 
which is an island of the same name, 
and southwest of this island, in the 
entrance of the bay, is High Island 
and a number of others. 

Kasa-an Bay divides into several 
arms, all extending toward the south- 
west. From here on we have a clear 
passage to 

Tolstoi Bay, which was named by 
Nichols in '18S2, owing to its prox- 
imity to Tolstoi Point, which extends 
into Clarence Strait to the east of the 
bay. Some distance up is 

Narrow Point, and six miles far- 
ther on is 



See Map No. I2. 

Ratz Harbor, a basin two miles long 
and one mile wide, but verj- narrow 
at the entrance and it is obstructed by 
an islet. Then we continue for some 
distance to a group of islands called 
the 

Kashevarofflslands. Blashke,Shrub- 
by and Bushy Islands are three of this 
group. Then extending from the 
southern part of Zarembo Island is 



414 



ALASKA. 



IJrnest Sound, Clarence Strait, Sum- 
ner Strait, Blake Channel and Kast- 
eni Passage, the Duke of York 
Islands. They are the Wrangel, 
Zarembo, Woronkoffski and Seward 
Islands. 

The Stikine and Zimovia Straits, 
the Eastern Passage, Ernest Sound 
and Bradfield Canal extend between 
these islands. Next conies 

Point Harrington, which extends 
from Fvtolin Island into Stikine 
Strait ; this point in summer is 
covered with a growth of bright green 
bush. 

Just above. Steamer Bay extends 
(juite a distance into Etolin Island. 
Farther on is 

Quiet Harbor, and then some 
distance up Chichagoff Pass con- 
nects Stikine Strait and Zimovia 
Strait and separates Etolin and 
Woronkoffski Islands We then 
reach Wrangel, which is in the north- 
ern part of Wrangel Island, and this 
island is separated from Etolin 
Island by the Zimovia Strait. 

At Wrangel in 1867 the United 
States military post of Fort Wrangel 
was erected, but there is no military 
establishment there now, the fort 
being used for other purposes. A 
deputy collector of customs is sta- 
tioned there, and there are two 
churches beside other missions and 
over 100 houses or shanties. 

The northern point of Wrangel 
Island is called Point Highfield, here 
there is an anchorage and the Hudson 
Bay Compan3' traders frequent this 
place. 

A short distance from here is the 
Simonoff Island. A very rapidly 
flowing stream, navigable for quite 
a long distance, comes in at this 
point, called the Stikine River. It is 
one of the most important rivers in 
the eastern side of this passage. 

The country is verj' mountainous 
and the ride up the river is very 
picturesque. Glaciers can be seen on 
the way, one well up the stream is 
called Great Glacier. The northern 
point of the Woronkoffski Island is 
called Point Woronkoffski. 

Having stopped at Wrangel, we go 
directly through Sumner Strait, pass- 
ing Point Shekesti, the Five Mile, 
Vank, Sokoloff and Station Islands. 
Sumner Strait was named in honor 
of the lamented statesman to whose 
endeavor is chiefly due the acquisi- 



Nesbitt Point, and from the eastern 
side of the same island is 

Round Point. We go up some little 
distance, then turning to the right 
stop at 

Wrangel ; then proceed directly to- 
ward the left, passing on the north 
side of Zarembo Island, from which 
Point Craig extends, and near this 
point is 

Baht Harbor, then going on a short 
distance we turn directly to the north 
and enter the Wrangel Strait which 
separates the Mitkoff Island from the 
Woewodski Island and Lindenberg 
Peninsula. 

Hood Point extends into Wrangel 
Strait froiTi this peninsula, as also 
does Prolewy Point, which is some 
distance up Farther on is 



See Map No. 13. 

Cape of The Straits and Portage 
Islands, near which is 

Portage Bay , and it extends for some 
distance southward into the Kupre- 
anoff Islands. We then go on in an 
northeasterly direction to 

Frederick Sound, keeping north of 
the Poverotni Islands and many islets. 
Then taking a southwesterh- course 
we pass Cape Bendel and Point Ma- 
cartney, which extend from the Ku- 
preanoff Islands into the sound. 
After reaching 

Yasha Island to which we keep to 
the north, we again turn and go 
northwest for some distance, passing 

Kelp Bay, Lull and Thatcher Points, 
Midway Reef, and Traders and Fair- 
way Islands, keeping to the north of 



See Map No. 14. 

the latter island, we proceed in a 
noii;hwe.sterly direction passing a 
number of points, which are 

Pestchain, Nismeni, Rock, Pogib- 
shi, Yellow, Middle, Siroi, and Fish 
Points, directly to the south of which is 

Fish Bay, on whose southern shore 
is Haley Anchorage. Below this bay is 

Point Kakul Here we change our 
course and proceed in a southeasterly 
direction to 

Sitka. After leaving Point Kakul we 
pass Kane Island, which is at the en- 
trance of St. John Baptist Bay, then 
comes Point Zeal, after which we en- 




pIkUoff /sifl' 



POINTS OF INTEREST. 



415 



tiou of this territory by the United 
States. 

Then we reach Point Howe and 
Point Alexander where we turn and 
go northward through Wrangel 
Strait, one of the arms of the Sum- 
ner Strait. Passing Battery Island 
we reach the part of the strait called 
Wrangel Narrows. 

Above this Blind Passage enters 
the strait, and farther on we have 
Blunt Point. Then entering Dry 

See Map No. 13. 

Strait we pass west of the Soukhoi 
Islands above which Point Aga.ssig 
extends into Carlile Bay. On the 
mainland east of this bay is the Pat- 
terson Glacier. Going on some dis- 
tance we pass 

Point Vandeput, Bay Point, Point 
Highland and Cape Fanshaw. Or 
we could take a northerly direc- 
tion past Cape Fanshaw between a 
number of islands, the largest of 
which are Five Fingers, Brothers, 
Ship, The Twins and Sunset Islands. 
Passing Port Houghton, Point 
Hobart, Point Gambler and Point 
Hugh, then passing between this 
latter point and Point Windham we 
enter Stephens Passage, which owing 
to the mineral deposits on its shores, 
makes it one of the most important 
channels of navigation in the terri- 
tory. About two miles north of 
Point Windham is Point League and 
a short distance farther on is Point 
Lookout. 

East of these points is Mount 
Windham which is 2000 feet high. 
Some distance on is 

Point Astley, which extends into 
Stephens Passage, forming the south- 
ern shore of Holkham Bay. Quite a 
number of islands lie within this 
bay, the larger ones being Harbor 
Island, and about one and a half 
miles from it Sand Island, Round 
Islet, Soundon or Sumdum Island 
and Bushy Islet. 

It is said that a native village exists 
on Soundon Island. On the northeast 
shore of this bay glaciers can be 
seen. After passing these islands we 
reach 

Point Coke, to the west of which are 
the Midway Islands. Then after 
going some distance passing a re- 
markable cascade to the east, we 
reach 



ter Neva Strait and a short distance 
farther on is 

Neva Point. Here the Nakwasina 
Passage, which, with the Olga Strait, 
forms a circle around Halleck Island, 
from whose southern extremity ex- 
tends Point Krugloi. Then passing 
Lisianski Point, which extends from 
the Baranoff Island, we pass the 
Katliana Bay, Bay of Starri-Gavan, 
and Harbor Point, which, after leav- 
ing, we pass among a number of 
islets and Japonski Island, and arrive 
at .Sitka, in a beautiful harbor con- 
taining a number of islets. 

The return route, the weather being 
favorable, is generally down through 
Sitka Sound into the Pacific Ocean, 
then entering Sumner Strait we pass 
through it to Clarence Strait, from 
which the return route is the same as 
heretofore described. 



See Map No. 14. 

After passing Point Kaku we keep 
to the north of the Samoiloff Islets 
and Sinitsin Island, and enter 

Salisbury Sound, then we reach 
Klokacheff Island the southern ex- 
tremity of which is called Klokachefl 
Point. Separating this island from 
the Chichagoff Island is Fortuna 
.Strait. Then comes 

Khaz Bay into which several 
streams of fresh water fall. We 
then go on for some distance past 
Point Hiesman to 



See Map No. IJ. 

Cape Edward, which extends from 
the Chichagoff Islands ; west from 
this cape are a number of islets, and 
some distance farther on is 

Portlock Harbor, a large body of 
water in which are the Hogan and 
Hill Islands. Then after passing Hot 
Springs we reach 

Bahia de las Istas, which is three 
miles long, and in which are numer- 
ous islets. Its northern shore is 
formed by Point Urey, which point ex- 
tends between Bahia de las Islas and 
Lisianski Strait, the latter separating 
Yakobi Island from the Chichagoff 
Group. 

The southern extremity of Yakobi 
Island is called Point Theodor, above 
which Takhani"; Bay extends into the 
same island. We next pass 



4i6 



ALASKA. 



Point Anmer and Point Style- 
man between which extends Port 
Snettishara. Two arms extending^ 
from the northern end of this harbor 
makes it the shape of the letter T. 
Next conies 

Ijmestone Inlet and Taku Harbor, 
and extending between these comes 
Stockade Point. Farther on is 

Grave Point on which the land rises 
rapidly to peaked and often snow- 
capped mountains. There is an 
Indian village and graves of Indians 
can be seen on this Point. 

The Hudson Bay Company built a 
block-house and stockade for defense 
on Stockade Point, but they are now 
in ruins. 

Taku Harbor is one of the best 
and snuggest in Alaska. Here in 
1840 the Hudson Bay Company es- 
tablished a trading post, and seven 
tribes of Indians brought deer, sheep- 
skins and other furs which they 
sold. There are a large quantity of 
big-horn sheep and mountain goats 
in this neighborhood. 

To the east a large peak is notice- 
and is called Taku ^Mountain. 



See Map No. 13. 

In the middle of Stephens Passage 
is Grand Island and seven miles 
farther on is the entrance of Taku 
Inlet, which extends for about iS 
miles; at its head is a large bason, into 
which the Taku River empties. At 
the mouth of which is the River 
Islet. Turning here towards the 
west we pass the 

Taku Village, Bishop Point, Point 
Arden and Point Salisbury. Here 
the Douglas Island, on which are 
the great Treadwell Mills, divides 
Stephens Passage in two. This island 
is about 20 miles long and tapers to 
a point on each end, the eastern 
extremity being Tantallon Point, and 
between the point and Point Salis- 
bury is Marmion Islet, and from 
here on, the channel separating 
Douglas Island from the mainland 
is called Gastineau Channel. This 
channel filled with floating ice was 
impassable until 1880. Then the 
mineral veins were discovered on the 
island and mainland. In 1881 the 
mining camps were established at 
Juneau. West of Point Arden a large 
stream flows into the channel. South 



Cape Cross, which was so called as 
it was discovered on Holy Cross 
Day (May 3d), on which are many 
large, white rocks. About three 
miles northward is Surge Bay, which 
extends into Yakobi Island for some 
distance. The northwestern point of 
this island is called 

Point Bingham and the northern 
extremity Soapstone Point. Here 
we enter 

Cross Sound, passing Colnmn 
Point and Point Lucan to Port Al- 
throp, in theentranceof which are the 

Three-Hill and George Islands. 
Granite Cove extends from Port Al- 
throp into the latter island. Then 
continuing past 

East, Inian, Northwest and South- 
west Islands, we reach 

Point Wimbledon and Point Dun- 
das, between which extends Dundas 
Bay, then continuing past 

Lemesurier Island, in the south- 
western part of which is Willoughby 
Cove, we enter 

Icy Strait. Or if entering this 
strait on a homeward trip, after leav- 
ing Lynn Canal, we would pass Poi ' 
Couverden, and go in a northwesterly 
direction, passing Swanson Harbor 
and Spaskaia Harbor ; near the latter 
harbor is an island of the same 
name. Farther on is 

Point Sophia, just above which is 
Port Frederick, a very important 
inlet. Along its eastern shore is a 
large village of Indians, which the 
United States Navy named after them 
the Hoouiah Harbor; they also named 
Pitt Island, which lies near the en- 
trance of Port Frederick. Then go- 
ing around Point Adolphus and pass- 
ing the Porpoise and Pleasant Islands 
we continue through Icy Strait, pass- 
ing 

Point Gustavus and Bartlett Bay on 
the east, and Point Carolus on the 
west. Between these points is the 
entrance to 

Glacier Bay, in which are the 
Beardslee Islands ; there are over 100 
in the group. The shores of the 
Glacier Bay are covered with stumps 
of trees. On past the Beardslee Is- 
lands are the 

Willoughby and Marble Islands, 
and to the east of the latter island is 

Muir Inlet. Several beautiful gla- 
ciers are seen along this baj-, the 
grandest, and probably the largest, 
one in the world is 




Map No. 14 — From Point Craven to Sitka, through Peril, Neva 
and Olga Straits. 



r> 



POINTS Oh INTEREST. 



417 



of Douglas Island, extending from 
the Admiralty Island, is Point Young, 
south of which is Auke Bay on 
whose shore is a small village, the 
home of the Auke Indians. North 
of this point is ScuU Island, which is 
at the head of Young Bay. Going on 
for some distance to Fritz Cove, 
east of which are Spuhn Point, Point 
Louisa, Point Lena and Point 
Stephens we enter 

Favorite Channel and on to Lynn 
Canal. After passing Fritz Cove, 
Barlow Point and Cove we enter Sagi- 
naw Channel, which extends between 
Shelter Island and Admiralty Island, 
and continue from Point Retreat up 
the Lynn Canal. 



See Map No. 13. 

Then taking a southwesterly direc- 
tion through Frederick Sound we pass 

Point Napean and Point Town- 
shend which extend from the 
Admiralty Island into the sound. 
Herring Bay, Murder Cove and Sur- 
prise Harbor, all parts of this sound 
extend into the island. We then 
reach Point Gardner and take a 
northwesterly direction, keeping far 
to the west of Point Caution, Russian 
Reef, Whitewater Bay, Woody, Rocky, 
Village, Distant and Samuel Points. 
Just above the latter point we turn 
passing to the south of the Morris 
Reef 

Here Point Hayes and Point 
Craven on either side of Sitkoh Bay 
extend from the Chichagoff Islands. 



See Map No. TS. 

Then continuing through Chatham 
Strait we pass 

Point Parker, Marble Bluffs, Fishery 
Point, Point Hepburn and Cube Point, 
near the latter is Square Cove and far- 
ther on is Point Marsden, Game Cove 
and Hawk Inlet. 



See Map No. ib. 

Then passing around Hanus Reel 
we enter Lynn Canal, which extends 
for about 60 miles almost clear of 
any obstructions. Its shores are in 
many places covered with large ever- 
green trees and large quantities of 

27 



Muir Glacier, which is described in 
the text and of which several illus- 
trations are .shown. This bay was 
discovered and named by the United 
States Navy. It is quite large and 
vast quantities of broken ice and 
icebergs are floating in all directions. 
Upon a sunny day their varied shapes 
and hues of color, with a predomin- 
ance of blue tints shining with 
brilliancy and ever-changing loveli- 
ness is a scene never to be forgotten. 

This glacier was first seen by 
Willoughby and subsequently by 
Rev. S. R. Young and Prof. John 
Muir, and more recently by Lieu. 
G. C. Hanus of the United States 
Navy. 

It was named after Prof. John Muir 
and is supposed to extend with many 
minor glacial branches, over 200 
miles to the Pacific Ocean. 

Captain George, who named the 
Marble Islands, which lie northeast 
of Willoughby Island, made a sound- 
ine directly in front of the perpen- 
dicular wall and found it to be 75 
fathoms. Or, we could go through 

Chatham Sound to Lynn Canal, 
passing on our way South Passage 
and East Point, between which ex- 
tends Tenakee Passage, an arm of 
Chatham Strait, and just beyond East 
Point is Freshwater Bay. Farther 
on is 

I\oukeeu Cove and False Bay, 
above which Point Augusta extends 
from the Chichagoff Islands into Chat- 
ham Strait. We then continue for 
some distance to 

Point Couverden, which extends 
from an island of the same name. 
This island is the summer residence 
of the T'linkit Indians, who are very 
warlike and untrustworthy. Here 
also a great quantity of wood is cut 
for steamers. 

Couverden Island is in Swansou 
Harbor, and in entering we should 
pass to the south of it, as there are 
also a number of islets and rocks in 
the entrance. We then go on up the 
canal for some distance, reaching the 

See Map No. 16. 

I^ynn Sisters, a groupof three small 
islands and a rock, above these are 
three more islands called the 

Lynn Brothers. Between these two 
groups of islands on the we.stern 
shore is 



4i8 



ALASKA. 



iron. Towards the northern part of 
the canal the water is almost fresh. 
We then continue on past 

I-'unter Bay to Point Retreat passing 
quite a number of j^laciers, the prin- 
cipal ones being Kaglc Glacier on 
the east and Davidson Glacier on the 
west. Two miles from Point Retreat 
is a long, narrow island, called Lin- 
coln Island, it is about six and a halt 
miles long. 

About a mile from the centre of 
this island is Hump Island, and some 
distance farther on are the Ralston 
and Little Islands. Then passing 
around Vanderbilt Reef we see Point 
Bridget, which extends into Lynn 
Canal at the entrance of Berners 
Bay. This bay extends into the main 
land for about nine miles. Its north- 
ern shore is formed by Point St. 
Mary's, on which the mountains rise 
to quite a height and are covered 
with snow. 

Five miles from this point is Point 
Sherman, then continuing for some 
distance past E;idred Rock and Se- 
duction Island, we see on the east 
the Chilkat Mountains, and on this 
shore is the Chilkat Mission. Many 
beautiful glaciers are passed and we 
reach the Chilkat Islands, a group of 
four or five islands extending for 
about two miles. Above these the 
Lynn Canal divides into two arms, 
separated by (Seduction Point. The 
arms are the 

Chilkat Inlet and the Chilkoot In- 
let. From the latter of which the 
Taiya or Dyea Inlet extends and on 
which the station or town of Dyea is 
located. 

See Map No. 14. 

A short distance from Point Craven 
is the Lindenberg Harbor which we 
pass and continue on to 

Poperechai Island, below which we 
turn and pass between the Spruce, 
Krugli and Otstoia Islands. Then 
going south we pass Rapids and Su- 
loia Points and Deep Bay in which is 
Big Island. Part of this bay is called 
Suloia Bay. 

Then turning towards the southeast 
we see the Samoiloff Islet and pass 
to the east of Partoffs-chikoff Island 
whose eastern extremity is Hay ward 
Point, then on through Neva Strait 
passing Krestoff Island whose north- 
ern extremity is Point Olga. 



Dome Peak. Above this projecting 
from the same shore is 

Point Whidbey, and some distance 
above is 

William Henry Bay, which is well 
protected and has a good anchorage. 
There is a good supply of fresh water, 
but it is almost impossible to get 
wood. Beardslee River enters the bay 
at its head, and, four miles farther on 
is the 

FIndicott River, which is filled with 
sand-bars. Then comes the 

Sullivan Island, and it extends for 
about five miles ; near this island is 
Sullivan Rock. 

The White Mountains are on the 
western shore of I,ynn Canal, here 
we have the Davidson Glacier, and 
between it and the canal is 

Glacier Point, which extends into 
the entrance of Chilkat Inlet, from 
the upper end of which the Dalton 
trail to the Yukon begins. 



POINTS OF INTEREST. 



419 



Fromisla Bay extends into the 
southern part of this island and 
Kresta Point is at its southwestern 
end. Then passing the Gavanski and 
Apple Islands we arrive among many 
islets in the harbor of Sitka. The 
town consists of nearly 3000 people, 
about 1000 Indians, the others being 
Russians and Americans. It is the 
Capital and is the residence of Gov- 
ernor Brady, the present appointee 
and of other government ofiBcials. 



CHAPTER XLII. 

Bibliography of Alaska. 



Aldrich, Herbert L. 

Arctic Alaska and Siberia, or, eight months with the Arctic 

whalemen. 
Chicago, Rand, McNally & Co., 1889, 234 pp. lUus. Folded 

Map, i2mo. 

Allen, Willis Boyd. 

The Red Mountain of Alaska. 

Boston, Estes & Lauriat, 1889, 348 pp. Illus. 8vo. 
Badlam, Alexander. 

The wonders of Alaska, 3d ed. 

San Francisco, 1891, vii (i), 154 pp. Ulus. Plates, Maps, 8vo. 

Baedeker, Carl. 

Guide Books. The Dominion of Canada with Newfoundland 

and an excursion to Alaska. 
Leips, 1894, Ixii, 254 pp. Maps, Plans, i6mo. 

Baker, Marcus. 

The Alaskan boundary. 

(Washington? 1896?). 16 pp. Doc, 8vo. 
Baker, Marcus. 

Boundaries. 

Boundary line between Alaska and Siberia. Extracted from 
the Bulletin of the Philosophical Society of Washington , 
vol. 4. 

Washington, Judd & Detweiler, prs., 1882. (i23)-i33 pp. 
Folded Map. 

Same. (In the Bulletin of the Philosophical Society of Wash- 
ington, vol. 4, 123-133 pp.) 

Ballou, Maturin Murray. 

Ballou's Alaska. The New Eldorado. A summer journey to 

Alaska. Tourist's edition with Maps. 
Boston, Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 1891, xxi, 335 pP-) i6mo. 
Another edition with the title The New Eldorado is on 4365. 
100 and 4467, 109. 
420 



BIBLIO GRA PHY OF ALASKA . 421 

Ballou, Maturin Murray. 
The New Eldorado. A summer journey to Alaska. 
Boston, Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 1889, xi, 352 pp.,8vo. 

Bancroft, Hubert Howe. 

History of the Pacific States, vol. 28, 1730-1885. 
San Francisco, 1886, xxviii, 775 pp., Map.,8vo. 

Bancroft, Hubert Howe. 

Works, vol. 33. San Francisco, A. L. Bancroft, 1884, 37 vols., 
8vo. 

Banks, Nathaniel Prentiss. 

Purchase of Alaska. Speech in the House of Representatives, 
June 30, 1868. 

Washington, F. &J. Rives, and G. A. Bailey, 1868, 16 pp., 8vo. 

Minnesota, Legislature of. Resolutions relative to the pur- 
chase of Alaska. U. S. 40th Congress, 2d session. Senate 
Mis., Doc. 68, 1867-8. U. S. 40th Congress, 2d session. House 
Doc, vol. II, Doc. 125. Transfer of territory from Russia 
to the U. S. Message from President, 1867-8. 

Beardslee, L. A. 

Report relative to affairs in Alaska. 47th Congress, ist ses- 
sion. Senate Doc, vol. 4 ; Doc. No. 71, 1881-2. 

Another. 46th Congress, 2d session. Senate Doc, vol. 4. 
Doc. No. 105 ; also vol. 5. Doc. No. 192. 

Blake, William Phipps. 

Geographical notes upon Russian America and the Stikine 

River ; being a report to the Secretary of State. 
Washington, Govt. ptg. office, 1868, 19 pp. Illus. Map, 8vo. 

Broke, George. 

With sack and stock in Alaska. 

London, Longman, Green & Co., 1891, xi, 158 pp., 2 Maps. 
Sm. 8vo. 

Bruce, Miner W. 

Alaska, its history and resources, gold fields, routes and 

scenery. 
Seattle, Lowman & Hanford, 1895, pp. 120. Illus. 8vo. 
Coast and geodetic survey. 
Pacific coast pilot, Alaska, pt. i. 



422 ALASKA. 

Washington, Govt. ptg. office, 1883, v. Folded Plates, 

folded Maps, folio. 
Contents, i. Coast from Dixon Entrance to Yakutetbay, with 

the inland passage. Same, 3d ed., 1891, 4to. 

Ootteau, Edmond. 

L,e transcanadien et I'Alaska, 1890. lUus. Plates, Map. 

(Tour du monde. Vol. 62, pp. 1-32. Paris, 1891.) 
Collis, Septima M. 

A woman's trip to Alaska ; being an account of a voyage 
through the inland seas of the Sitkan Archipelago in 1890. 

New York, Cassell Pub. Co., 1890. 8vo. 

Dall, W. H.— Gibbs, George. 

Department of the Interior, geographical and geological 

survey of the Rocky Mountains, J. W. Powell in charge. 

Contributions to North American ethnology, vol. i. 
Washington, 1877. Folded Maps, 4to. 

Contents. — Vol. i. Tribes of the Extreme Northwest. By W. 
H. Dall. 

Tribes of Western Washington and Northwestern Oregon. By 
George Gibbs. Appendix to part 2, Linguistics. 
Dall, William Healey. 

Miscellaneous. 

Harbors of Alaska, and the tides and currents in their vicinity. 

Washington, 1872, 36 pp. Folded Map, 8vo. Appendix to 
No. 10 to United States Coast Survey report. 

47th Congress, 2d Session. House Doc, vol. 21, No. 75. 

Dall, William Healey. 
Alaska and its resources. 

Boston, Lee & S., 1870, xii, 627 (i) pp. lUus. Plates, 
Map, 8vo. 

Pp. , 595-609, list of works. 
Dall, William Healey. 

Report on coal and lignite of Alaska. 

Washington, Govt. ptg. office, 1896, 763-908 pp. Plates, Maps, 
large 8vo. 

From United States Geological survey, 17th annual report. 
Dall, William Healey. 

Alaska and adjoining territory. Map. 
New York, 1869, 22 x 1534^ in. Folded. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF ALASKA. 423 

Dall, William Healey — Baker, Marcus. 

Partial list of charts, maps and publications relating to Alaska 
and tlie adjacent region. 

Washington, 1880, n. t. p., 168-375 pp. 4to. 

Geography, etc. Maps. 

The territory of Northwestern America ceded by Russia to 
the U. S., 186S. Scale 1.9000000, 17 x la'a in. Submap 
to territory of the U. S. from the Mississippi to the Pacific 
ocean, 1865-8. (War Dept. Corps of Engineers. ) Folded. 

Dall, William Healey — Baker, Marcus. 

Partial list of charts, maps and publications relating to 

Alaska and the adjacent region. 
Washington, 1880, n. t. p., 168-375 pp., 4to. 

Davidoff, G. I. 

Reise diersh Siberien nach Amerika, 1802-4. 
Berlin, 1816, i6mo. See Davidoff, G. I. 

Davidson, G. 

Department of the Treasury, Coast Survey. 

Coast pilot of Alaska, pt. i, 1869. 

Washington, 1869. Illus., large 8vo. 

Contents, Pt. i. From Southern boundary to Cook's inlet. 

Maps. Coast Survey. 

Northwestern America, showing the territory ceded by Russia 

to the United States. Compiled for the Department of 

State. 2d ed. 
Washington, 1867. Size, 21)^ x 36 in. Scale, 1. 15000000 (or, 

78 m. to I in.). Submap of Sitka and its approaches. 

Folded. 

Denis, Jean Ferdinand. 

L,es Californies. Iv'Oregon, et les possessions russes en 

Amerique. Les iles Noutka et de la Reine Charlotte, iv, 

108 pp. 
(L'Univers, Histoire des Antilles . . . par E. Regnault. 

Paris, 1849.) 

Elliott, Henry W. 

Our Arctic Province ; Alaska and the Seal Islands. Illus- 

trated by many drawings from nature and Maps. 
New York, C. Scribner's Sons, 1886, xv, 455 pp., Svo. 



424 ALASKA. 

Elliott, Henry W. 

A report (to the Secretary of the Treasury) upon the condi- 
tion of affairs in the territory of Alaska. 

Washington, Govt. ptg. office, 1875, 227 pp. 8vo. 

This report can be found appended to a letter from the Secre- 
tary' of Treasury (B. H. Bristow) on the seal fisheries of 
Alaska, January 17, 1876, forming Exec. Doc, No. 83, of the 
Congressional documents of the 44th Congress, ist session. 
(No. 83 in No. C. 250a, 5, 10.) 

ElUott, H. W. 
Census Bureau. 
History and present condition of the fishery industries. The 

Seal Islands of Alaska (Pribylov group). 
Washington, 1881, Illus., Maps, 4to. 

Elliott, H. w. 

Seal Islands of Alaska. 47th Congress, 2d session. House 
Mis., vol. 13, pt. 8, 1882-3. Plates, Maps. 

Elliott, Henry W. 

Monograph of the Seal Islands of Alaska. 

Washington, 1882 (3), 176 pp. Illus. Maps, Plates. U. S. 
Commission offish and fisheries. Special Bulletin, 176, 4to. 

Report from a report of the fishery industry of the loth 
census with a slightly varying title. 

Information in relation to the fisheries in Alaska. 40th Con- 
gress, 2d session. Senate Doc, vol. 2, Doc. 50, 1867-8. 

Food fisheries of Alaska, 41st Congress, 3d session. House 
Doc, vol. 13, 1870-1. 

Elliott, Henry W. 
Natural history. 
Report on the Seal Islands of Alaska, 188 pp. Illus. In 

United States Census Bureau, loth census. 
Washington, 1884, vol. 8. 
Identical with "The Seal Islands of Alaska " except that 

added to this edition there is an index of twelve pages. 

Elliott, Henry W. 
Natiiral history. 
The Seal Islands of Alaska. 

Washington, Govt. ptg. office, 1881 (5), 176 pp, 29 Plates, 2 
Maps. United States Census Bureau, loth census, vol. 8, 4to. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF ALASKA. 425 

Fast, Edward G. 

Catalogue of antiquities and curiosities collected in Alaska. 
New York, (1869), 32 pp. Plates. 8vo. 

Field, Henry Martyn. 

Our Western Archipelago. 

New York, Scribners, 1895, 250 pp. Plates, Map, 8vo. 

Finck, Henry T. 

The Pacific coast scene tour, from Southern Californiu to 

Alaska, the Canadian Pacific railway, Yellowstone Park and 

the Grand Canyon. 
New York, Scribners, 1890, 309 pp., 8vo. 

Findlay, A. G. 

Bureau of Navigation, publications No. 20. 

Directory for Bering's sea and coast of Alaska, arranged from 

the directory of the Pacific Ocean. 
Washington, 1869, 193 pp., 8vo 
Census bureau, nth census. 
Report on population and resources of Alaska. 
Washington, 1893, xi, ix-xi, 282 pp. Plates, Map. 4to. 

Governor. 

Report for the fiscal year 1891-2. 

Washington, Govt. ptg. office, 1891-2, 2 vols. Doc, 8vo. 

Hallock, Charles. 

Our new Alaska ; or, the Seward purchase vindicated. Illus- 
trated from sketches by T. J. Richardson. 

New York, Forest and Stream iPub. Co., 1886 (3), viii (i), 
9-209 pp. Plates. Folded Map, Svo, 

Henriques, John A. 

Alaska. Facts about the new Northwest. 
N. p. (1872), 23 pp., 8vo. 

Henry, Joseph, LL.D. 

Suggestions relative to objects of scientific investigation in 

Russian America. 10 pp. 
(Smithsonian Inst. Mis. coll., vol. 8, Washington, 1869.) 

Higby, William. 
Miscellaneous. 

Alaska. Speech delivered in the House of Representatives 
the 2ist of March, 1868, on the treaty between the United 
States and the Russian government for the transfer of Alaska. 



426 ALASKA. 

Washington, 1867, Turner, ptr., 16 pp., 8vo. 

United States, 44th Congress, ist session. House Doc, vol. 12, 

No. 135. 
Jurisdiction of the War Department over the territory ot 

Alaska. 
United States, 44th Congress, ist session. Senate Doc, No. 33. 
Report in relation to militar)' arrests in Alaska. 

Holmberg, Heinrichjohann. 

Ethnographische Skizzen uber die Volker des russischen 

Amerika. Abth. I. 
Helsingfors. Friis, 1855 (i), 141 (i) pp. Map, 4to. 
Report on the condition of the inhabitants of Alaska prior to 

our acquisition of the territory 42d Congress, 2d session. 

House Doc, vol. 10, Doc. No. 197. 

Another, 46th Congress, 2d session Senate Doc, vol. 4, pt. 

I, Doc. 132. 

Hyatt, Alpheus. 

Report on the mesozoic fossils of Alaska. In Dall, W. H. 

Report on coal and lignite of Alaska. 
Washington, 1896. 

Icelandic Committee from Wisconsin. 

Report on the character and resources of Alaska. 
Washington, Govt. ptg. office, 1875, 6 pp., 8vo. 

James, Bushrod Washington. 

Alaskana ; or, Alaska in descriptive and legendary poems. 
Philadelphia, Porter & Coates, 1892, 368 pp., D. 3d Edition. 

Jackson, Sheldon. 

Education in Alaska. 1889-90, 90-91, 91-92, 92-93, 94-95. 
Washington, 1893-6, 4 vols. Doc, 8vo. 

From the reports of the Com. of Educ. (U. S. Bureau of 
Education.) 

Jackson, Sheldon. 

Bureau of Education. Memoranda concerning education in 

Alaska. 
Washington, 1892, 3pp.,8vo. 
Report of committee on schools for Indian children in 

Alaska. 47th Congress, Press House Reports, vol. i. No. 

236 ; also see House Doc, vol. 19, Doc. 81. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF ALASKA. 427 

Jackson, Sheldon. 

Department of Interior. 

Report on education in Alaska, with Maps and illuB-, 1886. 
Same, 49th Congress, ist session. Senate Doc, vol. 6, 
No. 81. 

Washington, Govt. ptg. office, 1886. 95 pp., 8vo. 

Copy of report upon the condition of education in Alaska by 
Sheldon Jackson. U. S. Congress, 47th Congress, ist ses- 
sion. Senate Doc, vol. i, No. 30, 1881-2. 

Jackson, Sheldon. 

Agricultural Department. 

Report on introduction of domestic reindeer into Alaska. 
Washington, 1893, 39 pp. Plates, Map. (U. S. 52d Congress, 
2d session. Mis. Doc, 22.) Doc, 8vo. 

Report also of U. S. 53d Congress, 2d session. Senate Doc, 
vol. I, 1893-4. 

Jackson, Sheldon. 

Report on introduction of domestic reindeer into Alaska, 

1895-6. 
Washington, Govt. ptg. office, 1896-7, 2 vols. Plates, Map. 

Doc, 8vo. 

Jackson, Sheldon. 
Bureau of Education. 

Preliminary report of introduction of reindeer into Alaska. 
Washington, 1891, 15 pp., 8vo. 

Report on the agricultural resources of Alaska. 40th Con- 
gress, 3d session. House Doc, vol. 15, 1868-9. 

Jackson, Sheldon, D. D. 

Alaska, and Missions on the North Pacific Coast. lUus. 

New York, Dodd, M. & Co. ( 1880), 327 pp. Map, Portr., i2mo. 
Karr, Hey wood Walter Seton. 

Bear hunting in the White mountains ; or, Alaska and British 
Columbia revisited. With illustrations and Map. 

London, Chapman & Hall, 1891, vi (i), 156 (i) pp., sm. 8vo. 
Karr, H. W. Seton. 

Deof. descr., etc 

Shores and Alps of Alaska. With illustrations and two Maps. 

London, S. Low, 1887, xiv (i), 248 pp., 8vo. 



428 ALASKA. 

Knapp, Frances — Childe, Rheta Louise. 
Indians. 

The T'linkets of Southeastern Alaska. 
Chicago, Stone & K., 1896, 197 pp. Plates, i6mo. 
United States 41st Congress, 2d session. Senate Doc, vol. 2, 
No. 67, 1869-70. 

Report on the late bombardment of the Indian village at 
Wrangel. 

Knowlton Frank Hall. 

Report on the fossil plants collected in Alaska in 1895 as well 
as an enumeration of those previously known from the 
region. 

In Dall, W. H. Report on coal and lignite of Alaska. Pp. 

876-897. 
Washington, 1896. 
Report of Department of Agriculture upon the agricultural 

resources of Alaska. 40th Congress, 3d session, vol. 15, 

p. 172. 

Krause, Arthur— Krause, Aurel. 

Die T'linkit-Indianer. Ergebnisse einer Reise nach der Nord- 
westkuste vonAnierika undder Beringstrasse, ausgefuhrt im 
Auftrage der Bremer geographischen Gesellschaft in den 
Jahren 1880-18S1 durch Arthur und Aurel Krause, geschildert 
von Aurel Krause. Mit i Karte, 4 Xafeln und 32 illus- 
trationen. 

Jena, H. Costenoble, 1885, xvi, 420 pp., 8vo. 

Pp. 392-404 contain a Verzeichnis der benutzen Litteratur. 

Le Conte, J. L. 

Miscellaneous. Smithsonian Institution. 

America. Catalogue of publications of societies and of other 
periodical works in the library of the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion, 1858. Foreign works. IV. Synopsis of the described 
neuroptera of North America, with a list of the South 
American species, by H. Hagen ; Synopsis of the described 
lepidoptera of North America : 

Part I. Diurnal and crespuscular lepidoptera, by J. G. Morris, 
V. Bibliography of North American conchology previous 
to i860. Part I, by W. G. Binney ; Catalogue of publica- 
tions of the Smithsonian Institution, corrected to June, 
1862 ; List of foreign correspondents of the Smithsonian 
Institution, corrected to January, 1862. VI. Monographs 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF ALASKA. 429 

of the diptera of North America, by H. L,oew. Parts i, 2, 
edited, with additions, by R. Osten Sacken ; I^ist of the 
coleoptera of North America, by J. Iv. L,e Conte. Part i, 
New species of North American coleoptera, by J. L,. Le 
Conte. VII. Monograph of the bats of North America, by 
H. Allen ; Land and fresh-water shells of North America. 
Parts 2, 3, by W. G. Binney ; Researches upon the hydro- 
binae and allied forms, by W. Stimpson ; Monograph of 
corbiculadse (recent and fossil), by T. Prime; Check list 
of the invertebrate fossils of North America, eocene and 
oligocene, by T. A. Conrad ; Same, Miocene, by F. B. 
Meek ; Same, Cretaceous and Jurassic, by F. B. Meek ; 
Catalogue of minerals with their formulas, etc., by T. 
Egleston ; Dictionary of the Chinook jargon or trade lan- 
guage of Oregon, by C. Gibbs ; Instructions for research 
relative to the ethnology and philology of America, by G. 
Gibbs ; List of works published by the institution, January, 
1866. VIII. Monographs of the diptera of North America. 
Part 4, by R. Osten Sacken ; Catalogue of the orthoptera 
of North America, by S. H. Scudder ; Land and fresh-water 
shells of North America. Part i, by W. G. Binney and T. 
Bland ; Arrangement of families of birds ; Circular to 
oflBcers of the Hudson's Bay Companj^ ; Suggestions rela- 
tive to objects of scientific interest in Russian America ; 
Circular relating to collections in archaeology and ethnology; 
Circular to entomologist ; Circular relative to collections of 
birds from Middle and South America ; Smithsonian Mu- 
seum miscellany. 
Mining Record, Juneau. 
Morris, W. G. 

Report on public service and resources of Alaska in 45th 
Congress, 3d session. Senate Doc, vol. 4, No. 59, 1878-9. 
Morris, William G. 

Treasury, Department of. 

Report upon the customs district, public service and resources 
of Alaska Territory. 

Washington, Govt. ptg. office, 1879, 163 pp. Illus., Folded 
Map, 8vo. 

Report upon collection of customs in Alaska by W. G. Morris, 
special agent. 41st Congress, ist Session. Senate Doc, No. 
37. 1875-6. 
Murdoch, John, of the Smithsonian Inst. 

Ethnological results of the Point Barrow expedition. Illug. 
Maps. 



430 ALASKA. 

(Smithsonian Inst. Bureau of Ethnology. 9th annual report, 

pp. 3-441. Washington, 1892.) 

Bibliography, pp. 21-25. 

Report of special agent for Alaska. 4i9t Congress, 2d session. 
Senate Doc, vol i. Doc. 32 ; 41st Congress, 2d session. House 
Doc, vol. 5, No. 225; vol. 6, No. 36 ; No. 1^9, No. 129; 
vol, 7, No. 143. 41st Congress, 3d session. House, Doc, 
vol. 12, No. 122. 

Report of special agent at St. Pauls in relation to leasing the 
seal fisheries, also. Report on seal fishery, vol. 10, No. 
1108, 1870-1. 

Fisheries. 

50th Congress, 2d session. House, Reports of committees, 
No. 3883. 

The fur-seal and other fisheries of Alaska. Investigation of 
the fur-seal and other fisheries of Alaska. Report from the 
committee on merchant marine and fisheries. 

Washington, Govt. ptg. office, 1889 (i), 1415 pp. Plates, 
Maps 8vo. 

U. S. 44th Congress, ist session. House Doc, vol. 83. In- 
formation relating to the seal fisheries in the islands of St. 
Paul and St. George. 1875-6. See also 42d Congress, 2d 
session. House Doc, vol. 6, No. 20, 1871-2. 

Myers, William H. 

Through Wonderland to Alaska. 

Reading (Pa.), Times ptg , 1895, 271 pp., D. 

Nelson, Edward W. 

Report upon natural history, collections made in Alaska be- 
tvpeen the years 1877-81, edited by H. W. Henshaw. Arctic 
series of publications issued in connection with the signal 
service, U. S. Army, No. 3. 

Washington, Govt. ptg. office, 1887, 21 Plates, Q. 49th Con- 
gress, 1st session. Senate Mis., vol. 8. 

Northern Light, The. 

Missions. 

A journal of missions in Alaska. Quarterly. No. i-i6. 
Fort Wrangel, Alaska, 1893-7, i vol. Illus., i2mo. 
North Star, The. 
Periodicals. 

Monthly, vol. 7, No. 10-12 ; vol. 8, No. 1-4. 
Sitka, 1896-7, vol. folio. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF ALASKA. 431 

Northern Light, The. 
Periodicals. 

A journal of Missions in Alaska. Quarterly. No. 1-16. 
Fort Wrangel, Alaska, 1893-7, '^ol. i. Illus., i2mo. 

PetrofF, Ivan. 

Congressional documents, journals, reports, etc. 

Population and resources of Alaska. Letter from the Secre- 
tary of the Interior, transmitting a preliminary report upon 
the population, industry and resources of Alaska. 

Washington, 1S81, 86 pp. Folded Map. 46th Congress, 3d 
session, Ex. Doc, No. 40, Svo. Also see 47th Congress, 2d 
session. House Mis., vol. 13, pp. 8., 1882-3. 

Petroflf, Ivan. 

Statistics of population of Alaska 1890, 9 pp. 
Washington, 1891, United States Census Bureau, nth census, 
Census Bulletin, No. 30, 4to. 

Statistics. 
Population of Alaska. 

Washington, 1 89 1, 7 pp., United States Census Bureau, nth 
Census Bulletin, 4to. 

Petroff, Ivan. 

Report on the population, industries and resources of Alaska, 
vi, 189 pp. Maps, Plates. 

Census Bureau, loth census. 

Washington, 1884. Vol. 8. 

Also in 47th Congress, 2d session. House Mis., vol. 13, pt. 8. 

Report on population and resources of Alaska in 46th Con- 
gress, 3d session. House Doc, vol. iS, No. 13, 1880-1. 

Pierrepont, Edward. 

Fifth avenue to Alaska. With (4 folded) Maps by Ivconard 
Forbes Beckwith. 

New York, G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1884, vi, 329 pp., i2mo. 
Pike, Warburton 

Geography, description, etc. 

Through the subartic forest. A record of a canoe journey to 

the Pelly lakes and down the Yukon river to the Bering 

sea. 
London, Arnold, 1896, xiv (i), 295 pp. Plates, Svo. 



432 ALASKA. 

Pinart, Alph. I,. 
Antiquities. 
Catalogue des collections rapportees de I'Amerique russe 

(aujourd'hui territoire d'Aliaska). 
Paris, Imprimerie de J. Claye, 1872. 30 pp., 8vo. (138,684; 

95 ; B.). 
Pinart, Alph. L. 
Antiquities. 
La caverne d'Aknanh, ile d'Ounga (archipel Shumagin, 

Alaska). 
Paris, E. Iveroux, 1875. n PP-. 7 colored Plates. lUua. 4to. 

Ray, Lieutenant P. H. 

Signal Office, Arctic series, No. i. 

Report of the International polar expedition to Point Barrow, 

Alaska. 
Washington, Govt. ptg. office, 1885 (i), 695 pp. Plates, 4to. 

Rollins, Alice Wellington. 

From palm to glacier. With an interlude. Brazil, Bermuda, 

Alaska. 
New York, G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1892 (7), 145 pp. Illu3.,8vo. 

Rosse, Irving C— Mulr, John — Nelson, E. W. 

Treasury Department. 

Cruise of the revenue steamer " Corwin " in Alaska and the 
Northwest Arctic Ocean in 1881. Notes and memoranda — 
Medical and anthropological, by Irving C. Rosse ; botanical, 
by John Muir ; ornithological, by E. W. Nelson. 

Washington, Govt. ptg. office, 1883, 120 pp. Plates, illus., 4to. 
Same, Washington, Govt. ptg. office, 1883, 120 pp. 45th 
Congress, 2d session. House Ex., Doc. No. 105, 4to. Also, 
47th Congress, 2d session. House Doc, v. 23. 

Rosse, I. C. 

Cruise of the revenue steamer " Corwin " in 1881. 47th Con- 
gress, 2d session. House Doc, vol. 23, 1881-2. 

Rothrock.J. T. 

Sketch of the flora of Alaska. 40th Congress, 2d session. 
Senate Mis. 

Russell, Israel Cook. 

U. S. geological survey, 13th annual report, pt. 2. Second 
expedition to Mt St Elias in 1891. 52d Congress, 2d ses- 
sion. House Doc, vol. 16, 1892. 




. », iK?.r«-. m 



Totem Poles, Fort Wrangel. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 01 ALASKA. 433 

Schwatka, Frederick. 

Along Alaska's great river. A popular account of the travels 

of the Alaska exploring expedition of 1883, along the great 

Yukon river, in the British northwest territory, and in the 

territory of Alaska. 
New York, Cassell & Co., 1885, 360 pp. Illus., Plates, 

Maps, 8vo. 

Schwatka, Frederick. 

Report of a military reconnoissance in Alaska made in 1883. 
48th Congress, 2d session. Senate Doc, vol i, 1884-5. 

Schwatka, Frederick — Hyde, John. 

Wonderland ; or Alaska and the inland passage by Lieut. 
Frederick Schwatka. With a description of the country 
traversed by the Northern Pacific railroad, by John Hyde. 

Cop,, 1886, by C. S. Fee, St. Paul, 96 pp. Illus., colored 
Plates, Map on cover, ,8vo. 

Scidmore, Eliza Ruhamah. 
Guide-books. 

Appleton's guide-book to Alaska and the northwest coast. 
New York, Appleton, 1893, v (2), 156 pp. Plates, Maps, 
1 2 mo. 

Scidmore, Eliza Ruhamah. 
Alaska ; its southern coast, and the Sitkan archipelago. With 

Map and illus. 
Boston, D. Lothrop & Co., 1885, viii, 333 pp. (Lothrop's 

Historical library. Ed. by Arthur Gilman.) i6mo. 

Sessions, Francis C. 

From Yellowstone Park to Alaska. Illus. 

New York, Welch, Fracker Co., 1890, 186, ix pp. i2mo. 

An appendix contains an account of Alaska mission work. 
Report of U. S. Naval officers cruising in Alaska waters. 47th 

Congress, ist session. House Doc, vol. 19 ; Doc. No. 81, 

1881-2. 

Shepard, Isabel S. 

The cruise of the U. S. steamer " Rush " in Bering sea. 

San Francisco, Bancroft Co., 1889, 257 pp. Plates, i2mo. 
Staehlin, J. von. 

Account of the new northern archipelago. 

London, 1774, 8vo. See Staehlin, J. von. 
28 



434 ALASKA. 

Report of tour iu the Alaska territory by the cotnmanAing 
general of the Department of Columbia. 44th Congress, ist 
session. Senate Doc, No. 12. 

Sumner, Charles. 
Speech on the cession of Russian America to the United 

States. 
Washington, ptd. at the Congress. Globe office. 1867, 48 pp. 

Folded Map, Svo. 

Turner, L. M. 

Signal office, Arctic series No. 2. Contributions to the natural 
history of Alaska. Results of investigations made chiefly 
in the Yukon district and the Aleutian islands. Prepared 
by Iv. M. Turner. With 26 plates. 

Washington, Govt. ptg. office, 1886, 226 pp., 4to. 

United States. 

Census Bureau, nth Census. 

Report on population and resources of Alaska. 

Washington, 1893, xi, ix-xi, 282 pp. Plates, Map, 4to. 

United States. 

Congressional documents ; Miscellaneous documents ; Russian 
America; Message from the President, Andrew Johnson, in 
answer to a resolution of the House, transmitting corres- 
pondence in relation to Russian America. 

Washington, 186S. No title page, 361 pp., Svo. 

47th Congress, 2d session. House Doc, vol. 21, No. 75, 1882-3. 

IvCtter relative to violations of internal revenue laws in Alaska. 

44th Congress, 2d session. House Reports, vol. 2, Doc. No. 
174, 1876-7. 

Report on the sale of lands in the territory of Alaska. 

42d Congress, ist session. House Doc, vol. i. Doc. No. 5. 

Letter from the Secretary of War in relation to the territory 
of Alaska, 187 1. 

40th Congress, 3d session. Senate Doc, 1868-9. 

Information in regard to the territory of Alaska. See index. 
Doc. 8, Alaska and the fur interests ; Doc. 42, Encroach- 
ments of Hudson Bay Company ; Doc 43, Native popula- 
tion of the islands of St. Paul and St. George ; Doc. 53, 
Selection of points for lighthouses in Alaska. 

44th Congress, 2d session. Senate Doc, vol. i. Doc. No. 14, 
1876-7, and also, 46th Congress, 2d session. House Report 
Doc. No. 754, 1879-80. 



Bibliography of Alaska. 435 

Reports on establishment of and on Courts of Justice in 
Alaska. 

47th Congress, ist session. Senate Reports, vol. 3, Doc. No. 456. 

Report on civil government for Southern Alaska, 18S1-2. 

47th Congress, ist session. House Reports, vol. 4, No. 1106. 

Report of Committee on civil government for Alaska. 

U. S. Coast Surve}'. 

Harbor charts. Washington, 1875. 

For the list of these charts see following cards. In applying 
for these charts write " Coast Survey Maps " on the charg- 
ing slip, with the number of the map wanted. 

Harbor Charts, etc., of Alaska. 

The scale is given for nautical miles. The date of publica- 
tion is 1875, unless otherwise stated. 

704, Alaska and adjoining territory, 1869, scale 30 m. to i 
in.,33x23>^. 

704 V, Acherk harbor, Jannakh islands, 1S75, i m. to ij^ in,, 
9>^ x4. 

704 A, Adakh island, 1875, i m. to 1% in., 6 x 8. 

Aleutian islands, Kyoka harbor, 1875, i m. to iy^ in., 12^ x 8. 

Amchitka island, Constantine harbor, i m. to i^ in., 6 x 8. 

Bay of islands, Adakh islands, i m. to 1% in., 6 x 8. 

Bering sea. Port MoUer, 1875, i m. to ^ in., 13 x <)% in. 
Prib3'lof islands, 1875, I2>^ x 8|^. 
Saint George island, 1875, Iij4 x 7, i m. to ^ in. 

Cape Etolin, Nunivak island, 1875, 9 x 12, i m. to 3^ in. 

Captain's bay, Unalaska island, 1875, 12 x 17, i m. to i^ in. 

Chiachi islands, 1875, i m- to 4>^ in., 13 x 9. 

Chignik bay, i m. to 3^ in., 9^4^ x 13. 

Chichagoflf island, i m to i^^;' in., 9>^ x lo^^. 
and lighthouse rocks, \7.% x S/^. 

Constantine harbor, i m. to i^4f in., 6x8. 

Eagle harbor, Shumagin islands, i m. to ^ in. 

Etoline harbor, Wrangel island, 1869, i m. to 4 in., 4 x 8^. 

Falmouth harbor, Shumagin islands, i m. to i^ in., 6% x 4^. 

Fort Tongas, Passages to, 1869, i m. to i in., 8^ x i in. 

Humboldt harbor, 1872, i m. to i 4-5 in., 9 x 11. 

I-youk-een cove, 1869, i m. to \% in., \yi, x 6^. 

Ilinlimk harbor, Unalaska island, i m. to 7^ in., I3'4 xS^- 



436 ALASKA. 

Kootono rapids, 1S69, i m. to 2^ in., 7x9. 
Kyska harbor, 1869, i m. to 2^ in., 12^ x 8. 
lyindenberg harbor, 1869, i m. to /^% in., ^y% x 6^. 
lyituya bay, X m. to ^ in., 7^ x sVi- 

Entrance, i m. to 4^ in., ^Ji x 6^. 
Middleton island, i m. to i^ in., 5^ x 5^. 
Nagai island, Sanborn harbor, 1872, i m. to i 4-5 in., 9X 11. 

Eagle harbor, i m. to X in- 

Falmouth harbor, i m. to i>^, 6^ x 4X- 
Nunivak island. Cape Etolin, 1875, i ni. to 33^ in., 9X 12. 
Passages to Fort Tongas, 1869, i m. to i in., 8^ x 4|^. 
Popoff strait, 1872, i m. to 1.40000, 9x11. 
Port Mulgrave, Yakuta bay, 1878, i m. to 9 in., 9>^ x 12^. 
Port MoUer, 1875, i m. to ^ in., 13 x ^%. 
Pribylof islands, Bering sea, 1875, I2>^ x 8^. 
St. Elias Alpine region, 1875, ii^ x 9^^. 
St. George island, Bering sea, 1875, i m. to j{ in., 11^ x 7. 
St. Matthew and adjoining islands, i m. to ^ in., 13 x 9^. 
St. Paul island, 1875, i m. to 5 "^ in., iii{ x 9><. 
Sanborn harbor, Nagai island, 1872, i tn. to 1.40000, 9 x 11. 

Sannakh islands, 1875, 7X ^ 5- 

Acherk harbor, 1875, i tn. to i '^ in., 5)^ X4. 
Semidi islands, 1872, 12% x 8>^. 
Shumagin islands, 1875, 10 x iiX- 

Eagle harbor, 1875, 5^ x ^ in., i m. to ^ in. 

Falmouth harbor, i m. to 1)/% in., 6^ x 1%. 

Northeast harbor, i m. to )i in., 6^ x 5^^. 

Northwest and Yukon harbors, 1875, i m. to i'4^ in., 

Simonoff harbor, 1875, i m. to 3^^ in., 5^ x 5^. 
SimonofiF harbor, Shumagin Island, 1875, i m. to ^ in., 

Symonds bay, Sitka sound, 1880, i m. to 10 in. 13^ x 13^. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF ALASKA. 437 

Unalashka island, Captains harbor, i m. to \]i, 12 x 17. 

Itilink harbor, 1875, i m. t° 7^, \-i>% x SX- 
Yakutat bay, Port Mulgrave, 1875, i m. to gin., 9^ x 12^. 
Yukon harbor, Shumagin islands, 1875, i m. to i^ in., 

7J^x4X. 
ZacharefFskaia bay, i m. to s^f in., \y% x 4X. Coal harbor, 1872. 

Warren, Lieutenant G. K.— Bien, J. 

Maps. Engineer Department. 

Territory of the United States from the Mississippi river to 
the Pacific ocean, originally prepared (for) the Reports of 
the explorations for a Pacific railroad route ; compiled from 
authorized explorations and other reliable data by Lieut. 
G. K. Warren. And partly recompiled and redrawn under 
the directon of the Headquarters of corps of engineers, 
1865-8. Engr. and printed by J. Bien. 

New York, 1868. In three sheets. Size, when joined, 
41}^ x 45 ins. Scale, 1.3000000 (or, 47 ms. to i in.). Sub- 
map of Alaska, on a scale of 1.9000000 (or, 123 m. to i in.) 
Folded. 

Same. In one sheet. Size, 41 j4 x 45X ins- Folded. 

Department of State. Northwestern America. Map. 

Washington, 1867. 

Map of Alaska, n. p., 1868, 22>^ x 21^ in. 

See U. S. Dept. of War, Bureau of Engineers. 

Geology. See also Glacier bay. 

Report on the geological survey of Alaska. 47th Congress, 
ist session. Senate Doc, vol. 6, Doc. No. 166. Another. 
47th Congress, istsession. House Doc, vol. 20. Doc. 194. 

Survey of Alaska and the Aleutian islands. 41st Congress, 
2d session. House Doc, vol. vii. 

Wardman, George. 
A trip to Alaska. 
Boston, Lee & Shepard, 1884, (4). 237 pp., lamo. 

Webb, William Seward. 

California and Alaska and over the Canadian Pacific Railway, 

2d edition. Popular edition. Illustrated. 
New York, G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1891, xiv (i), 268 pp., Svo. 



438 ALASKA. 

Whymper, Frederick. 
General works. 
Travel and adventure in the territory of Alaska, and in other 

parts of the North Pacific. 
London, Murray, 1868, xviii, 331 pp. Illus. Plates, Map, Svo. 

Same, New York, Harper, 1869, 353 pp., Svo. 
Whymper, Frederick. 

Voyages et aventures dans la Colombia Anglaise, I'ile Van- 
couver et I'Alaska, 1864-7. Illus. 
Paris, 1S69, Tour dti monde 1869, semestre 2, pp. 225-272. 
Wiley, William Halsted and Sara King. 

The Yosemite, Alaska, and the Yellowstone. 

London, Office of "Engineering," 1893, xix, 230pp. Illus. 

Portraits, Plates, Maps, 4to. 
Wilson, V. 

Geological, descriptive, etc. 
Guide to the Yukon gold fields. 

Seattle, Calvert Co., 1895, 72 pp. Plates, Folded Maps, Svo. 
Woldt, A. 
Capitain Jacobsen's Reise an der Nordwestkuste Amerikas, 

1881-3, zum Zwecke ethnologischer Sammlungen und Erk- 

undigungen nebst Beschreibung personlicher Erlebnisse fur 

den deutschen Leserkreis bearbeitet. Mit Karten und 

Holzschnitten. 
Leipzig, 1864, M. Spohr, viii, 431 pp., Svo. 
Woodman, Abby Johnson. 

Picturesque Alaska. A journal of a tour from San Francisco 

to Sitka. 
Boston, Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 1889, 212 pp. Illus., Folded 

Map, i6mo. 
Wrangel, Ferdinand, Baron von. 1 794-1 870. 

1830-35. Statische und ethnographische Nachrichten uber die 

russischen Besitzungen an der Nordwestkuste von America. 

Gesammelt von Contre-Admiral v. Wrangel. Mit den 

Berechungen aus Wrangell's Witterungsbeobachtungen und 

andern Zusatzen verm, von K. E. v. Baer. 
St. Petersburg, 1839., K. K. Akad. der Wissenschaften, 

xxxvii, 332 pp. Folded sheet, Svo. 
Wright, Julia McNair. 
Among the Alaskans. 
Philadelphia, Presbyterian Board of Publication (Cop. 1883), 

351 pp. Illus., Maps, i6mo. 



GLOSSARY. 



439 



Glossary of the Principal Alaskan and British 
Columbian Names. 



Addenbrook — Addenbrooke. 
Al aska — Ali aska . 
Attu— Attoo. 

B 
Betton — Beaton . 
Blashke— Bloshke. 
Buccleugh— Bucclugh. 



Chasina — Chasen— Tchaseni. 
Cheslakee — Oheslakee. 
Chichagoff— Tchitchagoff. 
Chim-sy-an — Chimsain' — Tsimpse- 

an'. 
Chirikoff— Tschirikow — Chichagov. 
Connis— Conis. 
Cummashawaa — Cumshewa. 



Dushnaia— Doushnai. 

E 
Edgecumbe — Edgecombe. 

G 

Gil— Gill. 

H 
Hanna — Hannah. 
Hiehisk— Hiekish. 

K 

Kaigani — Kygane— Kaigani — 

Caiganee. 
Kasa-an — Kazarn — Casaan— Karta. 
Keku— Kehou— Kiku — Kake. 
Kingsmill — Kingenill. 
Klondike — Klondyke — Clondike— 

Clondyke. 
Kodiak — Kadiak . 
Kulichkoff— Koulitchkow. 
Kwathiaski — Quathiaski — Quathia- 

sky. 

L 

Lazarus— Lazaria. 
Lemesurier — Mesurier. 

M 

Maskelyne — Maskeyleue. 
Maud — Maude. 

Metlahkatla— Metla-Katla— Metlah- 
Catlah— Metlakathla. 



Minook— Minute — Munook. 
Muzon — Munoz. 

N 

Naas — Nass— Nasse. 

Naden — Nadon. 

Nahwitti— Nahwhitti. 

Napean — Nepean — Nepen — Nepkan. 

Na.soka — Nasoga. 



Onslow — Onelow. 



Peschanaia— Pestchanay. 



Shakhine — Sachine — Schakhin. 

Stikine— Stachinski— Stakeen — 
Stahkin— Stickeen — Stachin— 
Stahkhin — Stahkheen — Frances. 

Shushartie— Shucartie. 

Skaguay — Skagua. 

Skitkits— Skidegate. 



Tahco— Taku. 

Taiya— Dyea — Dayay. 

Tikhaia— Tichai. 

Tlekhonsite — Tlechopcity— Tayak- 
honsite. 

Tlevak— Tlevack. 

T'lingit— Dlingit— Klinkit. 

Tongass -Tongas— Yongas — Tom- 
gas. 

u 

Unalashka— Oonilaska. 
Unimak — Oonimak. 



Valdes — Valdez. 

W 

Wilfred— Wilford. 
Woe wodski — Voevodskago . 
Woronkoffski — Voronkowsky. 
Wrangel — Wrangell . 
Wyanda — Wayanda . 



Yakulta— Yaculta. 

Yucon — Yukon — Kwichpak. 



NDEX. 



A PAGE 

Admiralty Island „ 87 

Alaska Fur Trading Company... 39 

Alaska, or Alakshan 73 

Alaskan Archipelago 135 

Alaskan Society of Natural His- 
tory and Ethnology 114 

Alaska Commercial Company... 208 

Alert Bay 69 

Aleutian Islands 207 

Aleuts 251 

Alexander Archipelago 76 

Alpine Scenery 106 

Annette Island 149 

Arbitration 156 

Arctic Strangers 104 

Arthur Passage 72 

Astor, John Jacob 63 

Astoria 62 

Attoo, or Attu, Island and City... 133 
Austin, Rev. A. E 113 

B 

Baker's Peak 65 

Baranoff Castle 109 

Baranoff, Count no 

Baranoff Island, Sitka 113 

Baron Wrangel 80 

Bar Diggings 258 

Bear's Nest Mine 49 

Bella Bella 71 

Bering Sea Controversy 153 

Bering Sea Patrol 55 

Bering Strait 54 

Bering, Vitus or Veit 51 

Bibliography 420 

Blue Fox 134 

Bogaslov Mountain 136 

Broughton Strait 69 

Burros for Alaska 40 

440 



C PAGE 

Campbell's Island 71 

Canadian t,egisIation 255 

Canneries 143 

Cape Commerell 70 

Cape Mudge 67 

Chancellor Channel 68 

Chatham Strait 107 

Chilkat Bay 95 

Chilkat Blankets 97 

Chilkat Inlet and Pass 82, 95 

Chilkats 97 

Chilkat Village 97 

Chilkoot Inlet and Pass 96 

China 198 

Chinsay 72 

Circle City 209 

Claims 256 

Climate 236 

Clarence Strait 79 

Clondike.or Klondyke 33 

Cod and Other Fish 143 

Colonize Alaska 187 

Columbia River 62, 64 

Commerce 65, 169 

Commercial 149, 208 

Cook's Inlet 139 

Copper Island 54 

Copper River 161 

Count Baranoff. no 

Creoles 114 

Crystal Citadel, Muir Glacier 100 

Cudahy, Fort 209 

D 

DavFson City .. 371 

Daylight in Alaska 21 

Deltas of the Yukon 140 

Denver & Rio Grande Railroad.. 38 



INDEX. 



441 



PAGE 

Depletion of Seal Herds 200 

Discovery of Alaska 52 

Discovery of Aleutian Islands... 52 
Discovery of Pribylov Islands... 53 

Discovery Passage 67 

Dixon Entrance 73 

Dogs in Alaska 366 

Douglas Island , 91 

Duane, Russell, International 

Legal Authority 224 

Dry Strait 84 

Dyea^Dyay — Taiya 96 



Eagle Glacier 96 

Edgecombe 109 

Elliot Bay 65 

England 56 

Esquimault 66 

Extent of Alaska 27 



Finlayson Channel 72 

Fishes of Alaska 143 

Fitzhugh Sound 70 

Fort Adams 341 

Fortify Alaska 55 

Fort Get Theie 374 

Fort Norman 213 

Fort Rupert 70 

Fort Tongas 74 

Fort Wrangel 80 

Forty Mile Creek 345 

Forty Mile Settlement 346 

Frazer's Reach 72 

Frederick Sound 86 

From Eastern States to Alaska.. 59 
Fur Trading Companies 39 



Galetas Channel 70 

Gastineau Channel 88 

Gate City of Puget Sound 66 

Glacier Bay 100 

Glaciers 85, 96 



PAGE 

Glossary 439 

Gold Creek, Alaska 91 

Gold in Alaska 356 

Goreloi, Island and Volcano 136 

Graham Reach 72 

Grave Point, 87 

Gravina 78 

Greek Churches 243 

Greek Church, Sitka 113 

Greenville Channel 72 

Grottos, Muir Glacier 100 

H 

Halibut 143 

Harbor at Sitka 120 

Harbor, Dutch 207 

Hardwick Island 68 

Hauling Grounds of the Seals... 124 

Holdsworth Peak 69 

Hootalinqua, or Hutalingka 

River 218 

Hudson Baj- Company 70 

Human Pack Carriers 40 

Humidity of Coast 237 

Icebergs 63 

Icy Bay 21 

Icy Strait 99 

Immigration to Alaska 116 

Indian River 115 

Inland Passage 67 

Inland Routes 68 

International Law 224 

Interstate Commerce 181 

Islands— Aleutian 133 

AlexanderArchipelago, 76 

Annette 149 

Baranoff. 113 

Goreloi 136 

Kadiak.or Kodiak..i2o, 138 
Oonalaska,orUnalaska, 119 
Oonimak, or Unimak... 120 

Oomnak, or Umnak 136 

Otter 122 

Prince ofWales 68 



442 



INDEX. 



PAGE 

Islands — Princess Royal 72 

Revilla Gegido 78 

St. George 122 

St. Paul's 122 

Walrus 122 

Wrangel So 

J 

Jackson, Rev. Sheldon 242 

Jackson Mission Station 243 

Japan 159 

Japan Current 36 

John Jacob Astor 63 

Johnston Strait 68 

Juan de Fuca Strait 66 

Judicious Management 160 

Juneau go 

Justice for Alaska 153 

K 

Kadiak, or Kodiak 137 

Kiack, or Kyack, or Canoe 33 

Killing Grounds 128 

Killing Seals 129 

Killisnovo 243 

Klondyke, Klondike or Clon- 

dike 33 

Kuro Siwo — Japan Current 36 

L 

Lama Passage 71 

Lapps 33 

Laws for Alaska 260 

Legality of United States Claim, 156 

Legislation, Canadian 255 

Legislation Concerning Alaska.. 182 

Lewis River 211 

Lorena Mine 92 

Lynn Canal 94 

M 

Marshall Pass Railroad 38 

Mensies Bay 67 

Metlakahtla, Old and New 146 

McKay Reach 72 

Milbank Sound 71 

Military Posts 160 



PAOE 

Military Rule 331 

Miscellaneous 328 

Missions 242 

Modus Vivendi ig6 

Moraines 102 

Mountains— Bogaslov 136 

Buxton 70 

Edgecombe 109 

Fairweather 359 

Holdsworth Peak.... 69 

Lemon 70 

Palmerston 63 

Rainear, or Tacoma 362 

Shisaldin 136 

St. Elias 353 

Tacoma, or Rainear 62 

Vostovia 117 

Wrangel 83 

Mountain Ranges— Coast 345 

Rocky 345 

St. Flias 261 

N 

Nanaimo 365 

Norton Sound 207 

o 

Ogilvie, W. Canadian Surveyor.. 255 

Oomnak, or Umnak 136 

Oonalaska, or Unalaska 136 

Oonimak, or Unimak 120 

Otter Island 123 

P 

Pacific Ocean 119 

Patrol of Bering Sea 55 

Patterson Glacier 85 

Pelagic Sealing 195 

Peril Strait 107 

Petroleum 181 

Poaching on Seal Reservations... 195 

Port Clarence 339 

Portland, Oregon 179 

Port Townsend 364 

Pribylov Islands 53 



INDEX. 



443 



PAGE 

Princess Royal Island 92 

Prince of Wales Island 97 

Prince ofWales Range 68 

Professor Elliot on Seal Poach- 
ing 154 

Puget Sound 206 

Purchase of Alaska 260 

Q 

Queen Charlotte Island 69 

Queen Charlotte Sound 69 

R 

Railroads for Alaska 38 

Reindeer 336 

Religion in Alaska 245 

Retaliation 155 

Revenue from Seals, Fisheries, 

Mining, Furs 176 

Revilla Gegido 78 

Routes 30 

Russian Sway 53 

Russo-Greek Churches 242 

s 

Salmon 344 

Salmon Canneries 30 

Salmon Fisheries 1S9 

San Francisco Route 206 

Sayward Case, Russell Duane.... 228 

Schools 253 

Seaforth Channel 71 

Seal Fisheries 124 

Seal Islands 122 

Seal Rookeries 127 

Seattle 66 

Seymour Narrows 67 

Shelikov, Missionary of Greek 

Church 138 

Sheakley, Governor, of Alaska.. 176 

Siberia 260 

Siberian Railway 163 

Sitka 113 

Sitka Harbor 120 

Sitka Sound 108 

Siwash Si 



PAGE 

Skaguay, or White Pass 220 

Stevens Passage 86 

Stewart River 211 

Stikine River 80 

Stikine Strait 80 

Stockade Point 87 

Stockade, Ft. Wrangel 82 

Straits of Juan de Fuca 66 

Stripe Mountain 71 

St. George Island 123 

St. Michael's 207 

St. Paul's Island 126 

St. Peter — Vessel 51 

St. Paul— Vessel 51 

Swineford, Governor, of Alaska. 192 

T 

Tacoma, City and Mountain .65 

Taku Inlet 32 

Taku Pass and Route 222 

Taxada Island 402 

Telegraph for Alaska 38 

Teller Station, Reindeer 339 

Temperature of Alaska 329 

Teslin Lake Route 221 

The Story of Alaska 54 

Thurlow Island 68 

Timber in Alaska 137 

Timber Line of Alaska 137 

T'linkits 83 

Totem Poles 74 

Treadwell Gold Mine 363 

Treadwell Stamp Mills 41, 92 

Treaty of Cession 53 

Triple Alliance 159 

u 

Unalaska, or Oonalaska 207 

Unimak, or Oonamak 120 

Umnak, or Oomnak 136 

Upper Yukon River 160 

V 

Vancouver Island 66 

Vegetation in Alaska 352 

Vegetable Growth 353 



444 



INDEX. 



PAGE 

Veniaminoff, Innocentius — Mis- 

sicmary 242 

Victoria City, of Vancouver 66 

Volcanic Islands 136 

Volcanos 136 

Vostovia Mountain 117 

Voyage of Discovery 51 



W 

Walsh, Major, Commander of 
Mounted Police at Klondyke.. 255 

Walrus 122 

Water Fowls 142 

Waterways 211 

Western Coast 36 

White, or Skaguay Pass 220 



PAGE 

Wrangel, Baron 80 

Wrangel, Fort 80 

Wrangel Narrows 85 

Wrangel Strait 84 

Wright's Sound 72 

Y 

Yukatat., 243 

Yukon District 256 

Yukon Fort 208 

Yukon Glaciers 100 

Yukon Gold Fields 50 

Yukon Region 206 

Yukon River 140 

Yukon Settlements 141 

Yukon Tributaries 209 

Yukon Valleys 144 



Alaskan a — Alaska's Legends 

OR 

Alaska in Descriptive and 
Legendary Poems .*. .*. .*. 

BY 

BUSHROD WASHINGTON JAMES, A. M., M. D. 



CONTAINS the Legends of Alaska in pleasing and enter- 
taining Finnish verse, which lends itself to the task 
most agreeably. The descriptive portion of the work has not 
only beauty but authenticity to recommend it to the reader. 

Much commendation has been given to this beautiful work 
by men of letters as well as by the universal public press. It 
is now in its third edition, each issue having been augmented 
by the addition of later legends. The word painting of the 
work is assisted by exquisite half-tone engravings taken from 
photographs of places and people. In typography and bind- 
ing the publishers have left nothing to be desired in this very 
elegant work. 

Published by PORTER & COATES, 

Now HENRY T. COATES & CO., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Price, $2.00. Gilt binding. 



American Resorts and 
Climates 

BY 

BUSHROD WASHINGTON JAMES, A. M., M. D. 



IN THIS work the author has classified and noted the 
merits of the numerous Health Resorts of America. It is 
undergoing careful revision, and later places of interest are 
to be added, bringing it up to date and making a reliable 
text-book and also one valuable for both invalids and pleasure 
seekers. In this work the writer shows the relative values of 
foreign and native climates, telling his conclusions in clear, 
moderate diction, giving desired information untrammelled by 
professional verbosity. A perusal will show that the object of 
the book is to give authentic and useful information to those 
needing to be guided in the selection of a climate suitable for 
constitutional characteristics as well as for impaired health. 
The author enjoys a national reputation for opinions upon cli- 
mates for invalids, he having traveled extensively and made 
many personal observations. 

F. A. DAVIS & CO., Publishers, 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

1889. 

First Edition. Net price, $1.00. Cloth. 



Dawn of a New Era in 
America 

BY 

BUSHROD WASHINGTON JAMES, A. M., M. D. 



WAS WRITTEN during the gloom and depression of 
those days, not long past, when financial depression 
tended to panic in business circles and consequent distress 
among the classes who depend upon manufacture or com- 
merce for their maintenance. When Congress sat for long, 
wearisome weeks considering means by which to relieve the 
country of its weight of anxiety and to secure revenue sufficient 
to start the wheel of progress toward the betterment of govern- 
ment and people, these thoughts were penned. 

The author's thoughtful mind giasped the situation, and 
the result was this work which contains advanced views upon 
political, educational, and general questions of the day, ex- 
pressed in language concise, but withal in such pleasantly 
readable form as to make the book an interesting and useful 
production. 

1894. 

Published by PORTER & COATES, 

Now Henry T. Coates & Co. Philadelphia, Pa. 

Net price, 50 cents. 



Echoes of Battle 



BUSHROD WASHINGTON JAMES, A. M., M. D., 



THIS IS a finely illustrated book containing several poems descrip- 
tive of battles of the Revolution, of the late Civil War, and 
of other events of- similar import. It contains also much prose matter 
vividly illustrative of the War for Independence ; and particularly 
thrilling are the vivid picturings of a young surgeon's experience on 
the Battlefields of Antietam and Gettysburg, after the toils of war had 
given place to the anxious duty of relieving the sufferings of wounded 
and dying men, who, foes and brothers, lay side by side in helpless 
confusion. The illustrations of this book are not only beautiful but 
valuable as faithful representations of the localities in which the most 
momentous battles of either Revolution or Rebellion were fought. In 
binding also this work is exceedingly attractive. 

The esteem in which this work is held is evidenced in the criticisms 
of the press, a few clippings of which will show their general tenor. 

" The author's work is all spirited, and shows a keen appreciation of the loftiest 
thought inspired by these events. It is a book to kindle anew the spirit of the 
^3L3t."— Christian Standard, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

" An attractive and instructive book." — News and Courier, Charleston, S. C. 

" The poems are vigorous and stirring." — Boston Literary World. 

" It should find its way into every patriotic home." — Maine Bugle. 

"The lesson of patriotism cannot fail to be eSscl\ye."—lVoman's Tribune, 
Washington, D. C. 

"In reading these poems one is reminded of ' Horatius at the Bridge,' or the 
Battle ' Shout of Ivey.' " — Home Journal, Ne7v York. 



Published by PORTER & COATES, 

Now Henry T. Coates & Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Price in gilt, $2.00. 



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