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Ck>lleges. By B. A. Johnson, ProfctfBor of Latin in tbo Uniyer- 
Bit7 of New York. ISmo. 459 pages. 
Cioero de OfficHs. With English Notes, mostly translated ttom 
Zamp and Bonnell. By Thoxab A. Thachxb, of Tale College. 
13mo. 194 pages. 

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Horace, Tlie Work! of. With Eni^liBh Notes, for the lue of 
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■I i: -y /^ 
















549 & 551 BROADWAY. 


V ;k..r'\ ^i -': ,-]■'■• M ^r"c' 

^.V, ^WJll 

KimiUED, according to Act of Congress, In the year 1865, by 


Tn the Clerk's Omce of the District Court of Bhode Island 

Entbhed, according? to Act of Conp:reB8, in the year 1875, by 


In the Office of the Librarian of Cong^Bs, at Washington. 



The object of the present revision is to adapt the 
Reader to the Revised Edition of the author's Grammar. 
Accordingly, all references are made to that edition. 

But, in connection with this special object, it has been 
thought best to give the whole work a somewhat careful 
revision. Various slight changes have, therefore, been in- 
troduced in different portions of the volume. In Part 
First a few sentences and constructions, deemed too diffi- 
cult, have given place to others, which will be found, it is 
hoped, better adapted to the wants of the learner. 

The method of instruction adopted in the series of 
Latin text-books to which this volume belongs requires 
that the Reading Lessons should be accompanied by regu- 
lar Exercises in translating English into Latin. Ampler 
provision is made for such exercises in the author's Introi 
duction to Latin Composition, which is intended to be put 
into the hands of the pupil when he begins the Reader, 
and to be used in weekly lessons throughout his entire 
preparatory course. That, in general, such exercises should 
form a regular progressive series, and be published in a 
separate volume, scarcely admits of a doubt ; but,, for the 
accommodation of certain schools, in which a large propor- 


tion of the pupils pursue the study of the Latin only a very 
limited time, it has been deemed advisable to insert Part 
First of the Latin Composition in a special edition of the 
Reader. This arrangement will furnish such schools the 
full benefit of an elementary drill in Latin Composition, 
without involving the necessity of procuring a separate 
work upon that subject. The special edition will be en- 
titled the " Reader with Exercises." The title of the reg- 
ular edition will remain unchanged. 
Fbotd)ence, December 16, 18H 


The Latin Header now offered to the public is intended as 
a companion to tlie author's Latin Grammar. It comprises 
Reading Lessons, Suggestions to the Learner, Notes, and a 

The Reading Lessons are abundantly supplied with refer- 
ences to the Grammar, and are arranged in two parts. 

Part First presents a progressive series of exercises illus- 
trative of grammatical forms, inflections, and rules. These 
exercises are intended to accompany the learner from the very 
outset in his progress through the Grammar, and thus to fur- 
nish him the constant luxury of using the knowledge which he 
is acquiring. They have been carefully selected from classical 

Part Second illustrates connected discourse, and comprises 
Fables, Anecdotes, and History. The Anecdotes have been 
selected from various classical sources ; the other portions have 
been derived chiefly from the Lateinisches Elementarbuch of 
Professors Jacobs and Donng, though, in the Grecian History, 
Arnold's Historiae Antiquae Epitome, founded upon the work 
of Jacob and Doring, has furnished a few extracts. The His- 
torical selections were, with a few exceptions, derived originally 
from the Latin historians Eutropius, Justin, and Cornelius 


The Suggestions to the Learner are intended to direct the 
unskilful efforts of the beginner, and thus to enable him to do 
for himself much which would otherwise require the aid of his 
teacher, and to do easily and pleasantly much which would 
otherwise be diflScult and repulsive. They aim to point out to 
him the process by which he may most readily and surely reach 
the meaning and the structure of a Latin sentence, and then to 
teach him to embody that meaning in clear idiomatic English. 
Experience has abundantly shown the need of some such direc- 
tions. The beginner's first efforts to solve the problem pre- 
sented by a Latin sentence are too often little better than a 
series of unsuccessful conjectures, while his first translations 
are purely mechanical renderings, with little regard either to 
the thought of his author or to the proprieties of his mother 

The Notes aim to furnish such collateral information as will 
enable the learner to appreciate the subject matter of his read- 
ing lessons, and such special aid as will enable him to surmount 
real and untried diflSculties. Grammatical references can be 
employed only to solve grammatical diflSculties ; and, though 
for this purpose they are absolutely invaluable, it is yet a mis- 
take to suppose that they can ever supply the place of com- 

In the Vocabulary, the aim has been to give to each word 
the particular meanings which occur in the reading lessons, 
without omitting, however, its essential and leading signifi- 

At the solicitation of many eminent classical Professors and 
Teachers, the author has it in contemplation to publish an In- 
troduction to Latin Composition, consisting of two parts, the 
first intended for the beginner, and the second for the more 
advanced student. Accordingly, the present work has been 


made simply a Reader, and all Exercises in writing Latin have 
been reserved for a future volume. 

With this statement of the design and plan of the work, the 
author commits it to classical instnictors, in the hope that, in 
their hands, it may render some useful service in the important 
work of classical instruction, 

Pboyidbncb, Aug, 21«^, 1865. 





Noans 1 

Adjectives 3 

Pronouns 4 

Verbs 5 

Syntax of Nouns 9 

Agreement of Nouns 9 

Nominaliye * 10 

Vocative , 10 

Accusative 10 

Dative 13 

Genitive 16 

Ablative 19 

Syntax of Adjectives 26 

Syntax of Pronouns 26 

Syntax of Verbs 28 

Agreement 28 

Indicative 28 

Subjunctive 29 

Imperative 85 

Infinitive 35 

Gerunds and Gerundives 37 

Supines 89 

Participles 39* 

Syntax of Particles 40 





Fables ' 41 

Anecdotes 45 

iloman History , 52 

Period I. Italian and Homan kings 52 

II. Roman Struggles and Conquests 58 

III. Roman Triumphs 65 

rV. Civil Dissensions 72 

Grecian History 80 

Period I. Grecian Triumphs 80 

II. Civil Warj in Greece 84 

III. Graeco-Mcvcedonian Empire ." 89 

Suggestions to the Learner 99 

N o tes 109 

Latin-English Vocabulary 139 


Thb reference numerals in the Latin text, and in the Suggestions, 
refer to the author^s Latin Grammar, the Bevised Edition. 

In the Notes and Vocabulary, the Arabic numerals refer, when 
enclosed In parentheses, to articles in this work ; and, when not 
thus enclosed, to articles in the Grammar. 

Roman numerals refer to the Suggestions. 

The following abbreviations occur : 

adj adjective. lit literallj. 

adv adverb. 

comp comparative. 

conj conjunction. 

defect. . ... .defective. 

dep deponent 

f feminine. 

impers impersonal. 

indec indeclinable. 

interj interjection. 

kreg irregular. 

m masculine. 

n neuter. 

part participle. 

pass .passive. 

plur. or pi.... plural. 

prep preposition. 

pron pronoun. 

subs substantive. 

Buperl , . . superlative. 



Definition, Gender, etc. — 39-42; 44-47. 
FmsT Declension. — 48. 

Note. — Before reading the Latin Exercises, the pupil is expected, in 
every instance, to learn carefully those portions of the Grammar which are 
embraced in the large type of the sections designated. 

1. 1. Ala, ala, alae,* alam, alarum, alis, al^,s. 2. 
VictQria, victoriS, victoriae, victoriam, victoriarum, vic- 
toriis, victorias. 3. Capsae, fortunae, port^ae. 4. Causa, 
forttina, porta. 5. Causam, fortunam, portam. 6. Cau- 
sarum, fortuiiarum, portarum. Y. Causis, forttinis, portis. 
8. Causas, fortunas, portas. 

Second Declension. — 51. 
Rule n. — Appositives. — 363 ; 352, 2. 

2. 1. Dominus, doraini, domino, domiiium, domine, 
dominorum, dommis. 2. Gener, generi, genero, gene- 
rum, generorum, generis, gen^ros. 3. Servi, anni 
4. Pueri, soceri. 5. Agri, magistri. 6. Templi, belli 
7. Servis, annis. 8. Puero, socero. 9. Agrorum, ma 
gistrorum. 10. Templa, bella. 

* When the same Latin form may be foimd in two or more cases, the 
pupil is expected to give the meaning for each case. 


11. Lucus, Stella. 12. Luci, stellae. 13. Lucum, 
stellam. 14. Luco, stella. 15. Lucorum, stellarum. 
16 . Lu cis, Btellis. lY. Lucos, Stellas. 

18. Dionysius tyrannus.* 19. Dionysio tyranno. 
20. Dionysium tyranniun. 21. Tullia regina. 22. 
Tulliae reglnae. 23. TuUiam reginam. 24. Puer 

Third Declension. — Class I. — 57-61. 
Rule *XVI. — Genitive. — ^395. 

3. 1. Principis, principum. 2. Dux, duces. 3. 
Eegem, reges. 4. Kegis, militis. 5. Regi, militi. 6. 
Kege, milite. 7. Reges, milites. 8. Regum, militum. 
9. Regibus, militibus. 

10. Virtus regis.** 11. Virtutes regum." 12. Viii- 
dex libertatis. 13. Vindices libertatis. 14. Nepotibus 
regis. 15. Yirtute regis. 16. Virttite militum. 

17. Belli causa. 18. Belli caifeas~) 19. Victoria 
regis. 20. Victoriae regis. 21. Gener judicis. 22. 
Sapientia judicis. 23. Regis filia. 24. Tullia, regis 

Third Declension. — Class U. — 62-64. 
Rule XXXll.— Cases with I^epositiom.—A32'AS6. 

4. 1. Nubi, nube, nubium. 2. Hostem, hostes, hos- 
tibus. 3. Carmina, carminibus. 4. Consulis, passeris. 
5. Consilium, passerum. 6. Consulibus, passeribus. 7. 
Leoni, virgini. 8. Leones, virgines. 9. Patrem, pas- 
torera. 10. Patres, pastores. 11. Opus, corpus. 12. 
Al^ avis. 13. Custodes urbis. 

14. Cicero consul.* 15. Ciceronis consiilis. 16. Ci- 
ceronem consiilem. 17. Nepos consiilis.* 18. Nepotes 

» See Grammar, 363. « 395. 

ApjEcrnvES. 3 

consiilis. 19. JN^epotes consulura. 20. Pater judicis. 
21. Patres judicum. 22. Patribus judicum. 

23. Post Romiili mortem.' 24. Apud Herodotum, 
patrem historiae. 25. Ad virtutem. 26. Ante lucera. 
27. Contra naturam. 28. Sermo de amicitia.'* ) 29. Pro 
patria. 30. Sine labOre. 31. In amnem.' 32. In bello^\ 

% Fourth Declension. — 116. 

(6- 1. Fnictus, eomtis. 2. Fructibus, eomibus. 3. 
Cantum, cmTum.4^4:. In currmn. 5. In ciirru. 6. So- 
ils drtus. Y. Ab ortu ad occasura. 8. Ante solis 

Fifth Declension. — 120. 

(j6. 1. Acies, aciem, aciei. 2. Diei, faciei. 3. Rei, 
spei. 4. Diem, faciem. 5. Hem, spem. 6. Die, facie. 
T. Ee, spe. 

8. In aciem. 9. In acie. 10. Facies urbis. 11. 
Spes fortunae. 12. Contra spem. 13. Sine spe>) 


FmsT AND Second Declensions. — 148-150. 

Rule XXXIII. — Agreement of Adjectives. — 438. 

^ 7. 1. Servus bonus. 2. Servi boni. 3. Servo bono. 
4.' Servum bpnum. 5. Serve bone. 6. Servorum bono- 
rum. 7l Servis bonis. 8. Servos bonos. 9. Reglna 
bonS. 10. KegTnae bonae. 11. Eeginam bonam. 12. 
Reginil bonaT) 13. Reginarum bonaram. 14. Reglnis 
bonis. 15. Regmas bonas. 16. Exemplum bonum, 
17. Exempli boni. 18. Exempla bona. 

M32, 433. M82, 434. "435,1. 


19. Puerpulcher. 20. Puella pulchrl) 21. Tectum 
pulchrum. 22. Pueri pulchri. 23, Puellae pulchrae, 
24. Tecta pulchra. 

25. Vera amicitia. 26. Gladius longus. 27. Magna 
gloria. 28. Spes fals3,. J) 29. Siue magno labore. 30. 
Modius aureonim annulOmm. 

Third Declension. — 152-158. 

8. 1. Dolor acer. 2. Sine dolore acri. 3. Dolores 
acres. 4. Hostis crudelis. 5. Hostem crudelem. 6. 
Hostium crudelinm. Y. Hiems glacialis. 8. Hiemem 
glacialem. J 9. Carmen dulce. 10. Carmina dulcia. 
11. Innumerabiles fabulae. 

Comparison of Adjectives. — 160-162. 

9, 1. Triumplius clarus. 2. Triumphus clarior. 
3. Triumplms clarissimus. 4. Trinmphi clarl^) 6. Tri- 
umphi clariores. 6. Triumphi clarissimi. Y. Vir fortis. 
8. Vir fortior. 9. Vir fortissimus. 10. Sapiens vir. 
11. Sapientior vir. 12. Sapientissimns vir. 

13. FortisBimi viri. 14. Fortissimorum virorum 
multitudo. 15. Peritus dux. 16. Peritissimi duces. 
17. Bella funestissima. 


Classification and Declension of PJronouns. — 182-191. 

Rule XXXIV. — Agreement of Prom>un8, — 445; 445,1. 

10- 1. Mei. 2. Tibi. 3. Inter se.' 4. Ad te. 
5. Pro nobis. 6. Post me. 7. Ante nos. 8. Patria 
mea.' 9. Nostra patria. 10. Magister tuus. 11. Tua 
mens. 12. Nostri milites. 13. Nostrae amicitiae. 

' 432. » 438, 1. 



14. Ad salutem vestrara. 15. Ad vitam 6uam. 16. Hie ' 
vir. 17. Haec iirbs. 18. Hoc regnum. 19. Hujus 
viri. 20. In hac iirbe. 21. Haec regna. 22. IIH vinT) 
23. Pro ilUs viris. 24. Ante 'hunc diem. 35. Sub hoc 
rege. 26. Pastor illius regionis. 27. Idem locus. 28. 
In eundem locum. 29. Circa eandem horam. iSO. Id 
terapus. 31. Ab ipsa natura. 32. li ad quos.' 33. Quae 
civitas ? 34. Ab aliquo. 35. Faustulus quidam^ 


Introduction.— 192-197 ; 199-203. 

Verb Sum. — 204. 

Rule III. — Subject N(ymimitive, — 367. 

Rule XXXV. — Agreement of Verb with Subject. — 460. 

Rule I. — Predicate Nouns, — 362. 

11. 1. Aristides' Justus* fuit.* 2. Justus* est." 3. 
Justus erat. 4. Justi sumus." 5. Justi fueramus. 6. 
Justi erimus. 7. Justi simus. 8. Justi faissemus. 
9. Cato sapiens erat. 10. Sapiens fuerat. 11. Sapien- 
tes eritis. 12. Sapientes fuistis. 13. Sapiens es. 14. 
Sapientes este.)^ 15. Lex brevis est. 16. Lex brevis 
esto. 17. Leges breves sunt. 18. Leges breves sunto. 
19. Ego consul' fui. 20. Cicero consul fuit. 21. Cicero 
consul fiierat. 

First Conjugation. — 205, 206. 
>^ Rule Y.^-Direct Object.— Sll. 

12. 1. Amat, amant. 2. Amabat, amabant. 3. 

' Justus agrees with the pronoun w, he, the omitted subject of est, 
M38, 1. M38. MeO; 460,2. 

« 446. ' * 460. ' 862. 


Amaverat, amaverant. 4. Amaverit, amaverint. 5. 

6. Laudat, laudatur. 7. Laudant, laudantur. 8. Lau- 
dabat, laudabatur. 9. Laudabant, laudabantur. 10. 
Laudet, laudetur. 11. Laudent, laudentur. 

12. Orationem* laudo. 13. Orationem laudamus". 
14. Orationes laudabimus.i 15. Oratio laudatur. 16. 
Orationes laudantur. IT.*^ Virtutem amatis. 18. Vir- 
tutem amabitis. 19. Yirtus amatur. 20. Virtus 
amata' est. 21. Ego patriam liberavi. 22. Patriarn 
liberaverunt. 23. Patria liberata est. 24. Aneus ur- 
bem ampliavit. 25. Marius fugatus". e»t. 26. Fugati 
erant. 27. Socrates accusatus est. 

Second Conjugation. — 20*7, 208. 

13. 1. Moneo, moneor. 2. Monebam, monebar. 
3. Monebo, monebor. 4. Moneam, monear. 5. Moiie- 
rem, monerer. 6. Monui, raonuimus. 7. Monuerat, 
monuerant. 8. Monueris, mouueritis. 9. Monuerim, 
monitus sim. 10. Monuissemus, rnomti essemus. 
11. Monete, monentor, 

12. Terrebat, terrebatur^ 13. Terrebant, terreban- 
tur. 14. Terreret, terreretur. 15, Terrerent, terreren- 
tur. 16. Territus sum, territi sumus. 17. Territus es, 
territi estis. 18. Terriftus est, territi sun^^,^ 

19. Gloriam* veram* habes. 20. Gloriam habebis. 
21. Equites gladios habebant. 22. Gladios habuerunt. 
23. Gladium habuisti. 24. Homo habet memoriam. 
25. Cum Eomanis* pacem habuimus. |26. Pacem habue- 
riimus. 27. Pacem habebimus. 28. Cyrus omnium iu 
exercitu * suo militum nomina tenebat. 

> 371. ' 438. • 436, 1. 

" 460, 1. * 432, 434. 



Third Conjugation. — 209, 210. 
Rule LI. — Use sf Adverbs. -^582. 

14. 1. Eego, regor. 2. Eeginms, regifmur. 3. Re- 
git, regitur. 4. Kegunt, reguatur. 5. Eege, regite. 
6^ Kegendi, regendo. 7. Rectus eram, recti eramus. 

8. Spero, pareo, duco. 9. Speras, pares, dueis. 10. 
Speraraus, paremus, ducimus.!^ 11. Sperabam, parebara, 
ducebam. 12. Sperabant, parebant, ducebant. 13. Spe- 
ravi, parui, duxi. 14. Speravimus, paruimus, duximus. 
15. Spe raverunt, paruerunt, duxerunt. 

T6. l)eus omnem hunc mundum regit. 17. DeuB 
mundum semper* rexit. 18. Deus mundnm regebat. 
19. Deus mundum reget. 20. Cicero ad Atticum ' scri- 
bit. I 21. Ad te saepe scribam. 22. Cicero multos 
libros Bcripsit. 23. Ad amicum de amicitia' scripsi. 
24. Librum de senectute scripserat. 25. Quid dixisti ? 
26. Nihil dixi. 27. Quid dixistis ? 28, Multa de ami- 
citia diximus. 29. Haec recte dixistis. 30. Hie liber 
ad te scriptus est. 

Fourth Conjugation. — 211, 212. 

15. 1. Audiebat, audiebant. 2. Audiebatur, audie- 
bantur. 3. Audiam, audiemus. 4. Audiar, audiemur. 

6. Audlvit, audiyerunt. 6. Auditus est, auditi sunt. 

7. Audiveram, audiveramus. 8. Auditus erani, auditi 
er amus. 

9. Sperat, paret, ducit, scit. 10. Sperant, parent, 
ducunt, sciunt. 11. Sperabat, par^bat, ducebat, sciebat. 

12. Sperabamus, parebamus, ducebamus, sciebamus. 

13. Sperabo, parebo, ducet, sciet. 

v^ 14. Tullus bellum finivit. 15. Bellum finiverat. 16. 

* 682. = 438. * 484. 


Bellum finitura est. 17. Hie dies Graeciae libertatem 
finiet. 18. Gives templuin custodiunt. 19. Templa eus- 
todiemus. 20. Templum custodite.\ 21. Brutus Mace- 
doniam custodiebat. 22. Hanc provmciam eustodimuSb 
23. Hoc audivimus. 24, A vobis audlmur. 

Verbs m 10, Third Conjugation.— 221-223. 

16. 1. Komani urbem capiunt. 2. Urbes capiebant. 
3. Urbem capiemus. 4. Haec urbs eapietur. 5. Urbes 
capientur. 6. Kegulus capf us est. 7. Milites arma ca- 
piunt. 8. Scipio Carthaginem cepit. 9. Praefecti regii 
Eretriam ceperunt. 10. Regis pater fugit. 11. Fugie- 
bat. 12. Lacedaemonii fugiunt. 13, Fugerunt. 14. 
Xerxes in Asiam fiigerat. 

Deponent Verbs. — 225-230. 

17. 1. Goriolanus populatur agrum* Eomanum. 2. 
Pyrrhus Gampaniam depopulatus est, 3. Milites agros 
depopulabantur. 4. Hoc facinus rex miratur. 5. Hoc 
miramur. 6. Puer laudem meretur. 7. Laudem mere- 
ris. 8. Laudem merentur. 9. Gloria virtutem sequitur. 
10. Ascanium sectitus est Silvius. 11. Justitiam sequi- 
mur. 12. Justitiam sequemur. 13. Cum Scipione ho- 
norem partimur. 14. Id opus inter se partiuntur. 

Periphrastic Conjugation. — 231, 232. 

18. 1. Virtutem laudattiri sumus. 2. Virtus lau- 
danda est. 3. Quid laudaturus es ? 4. Bonitfitem lau 
dattirus sum. 6. Omnia' sunt laudanda, quae' coii- 
juncta cum virtute sunt. 6. Quid vituperandum est ? 
7. Omnia sunt vituperanda, quae cum vitiis conjuncta 

» 871. » 441. ■ 445. 


sunt. 8. Gloriam veram habiturus es. 9. Gloriam 
veram liabittiri suimis. 10. Cicero ad Atticum scriptti- 
rus erat. 11. Epistola scribenda est. 12. Orator audi- 
endus est. 13. Senatores CicerOnem audittiri erant. 


Agkeement op Nouns. 
EuLE I. — Predicate Nouns. — 362. 

19. 1. Mercurius nuntiua erat. 2. Furiiis consul 
eAt. 3. Homo sum.' 4. Bacchus erat vini * deus^ 5. 
Somnua est imago mortis. . 6. Historia testis temporura 
habetur. 7. Historia magistral vitae liabetur. 8. ^o- 
CTSii^parens philosophiae dicitur. *9. Brutus homo mag- 
nus evaserat. *I0. Nos cavsa^ belli sumus. 11. Nautius 
et Furius coTis&Z^* erant.' 

Rule n. — Appositives. — 363, 

20. 1. Dionysius tyrannic expulsus est. 2. Dema- 
ratus, regis pater, fugit. 3. Apud Herodotum, patrem 
historiae, sunt innumerabiles tabulae. | 4. Hannibal Sa- 
guntum, foederatam v/rbem, expugnayit. 6. Theraisio- 

^ dies'' veni ad te.' • 6. Cato litteras Graecas senex^ didicit. 
^ Y. Junius aedem Saltitia, quam consul voverat, dictator 

dedicavit. * 8. Socratem, sapientissimum " virum, Athe 

nienses interfecerunt. 

' 460, 2. * 862, 1, 1). ' 363, 2. 

« 395. * 362, 1, 2). * 363, 3. 

» 51, 5. • 463, n. • 162. 

10 latin beabeb. 

Rule III. — Subject Normnative. — 367. > 

21. 1. Cuncta Graeeia libenita est. 2. Pai/ria mea 
est mundus. '3. Paulua consul* regem ad Pydnam su- 
peravit.* 4. Philosophia inventrix legum fuit. ^ 5. Om- 
nium malorum stuUitia est ina|er. 6. Non * omnia error 
stultitia est 7. Quot homlneSj^ tot sententiae. 

Rule IV. — Case of Address. — 369. 

22. 1. Disce, picer, virtiitem. 2. Tu, mi * Cicero^ 
haec accipies, iS, Te, Mmerva, custos urbis, precor ac 
quaeso. » 4. Audite, jud^ices. » 5. Disce, puer^ virttites. 

' 6. Amlcij diem perdidi. * 7. Conservate, judiceSj hunc 

Rule V. — Direct Object. — 371. / 

23. 1. Accepi tuas epiaioloLB. 2. Labor omnia vincit. 
3. Animus regit corpus. 4. Nostra nos patria delectat. 
5. Miltiades totam * Oraeda/m liberavit. • 6. Sophocles 
tragoedias fecit. -Y. Studia ddoZescentia/m alunt, senectu- 
tern oblectant. 8. Eomiilus Pomam condidit. 9. Ava- 
Titm proHtdtem subvertit. 10. Virtus conciliat amiciims, 
11. Virtus amicitiam gignit. 

12. Vestri patres eam viiam " vixerunt. 13. Mirum 
somnium* somniavi. 14. Pacem'' desperavi. 15. Se- 

• 363. * 185. • 371, 1, 3). 
» 582. * 151. ' 371, 3. 

* 460, 3. 


qu^i Ariovisti crudditatem * horrebant. 16. Brutum 
Komanae matronae luxerunt: 17. Milites invadunt ur- 
hem^ 18. Adem " circumvenerunt. 19. Caesar dgrum 
Picenum percurrit, 20. Periculosissimura ' locum sum 
praetervectus. 21. Q^TumAfl/uinen transieruiit. 

Rule VI. — Two Accusatives — Same Person. — 373. 

24. 1. Cicerdnem universus popiilus consulem decla- 
ravit. 2. Romulus urbem JRomam vocavit. ' 3. Fecit 
heredemjiliam. f >4. Socrates totius * mundi se civem ar- 
hitmhsitwr. f\5r Ca,to cdlam penariam rei publicae nos- 
trae, rmtrlcem plebis Komanae SicUiam nominavit. * 6. 
Praesta te viritm. • Y. Senatus Catillnam Tiostem judicavit. 
' 8. Senatus Pavlum consulem creavit.' 9. Socrdtem Apollo 
sapientis^mum*' judicavit. 10. Mesopotamiam/erfilem 
efficit Euphrates. 11. Tiresiam saptentem fingunt 
poetae. 12. JPolycrdtem/ellcem appellabant. 

'Rule VII. — Two Accusatives — Person and Thing, — 374. 

2tbn 1. Te tua fata docebo. * 2. Hoc me docuit usus, 
magister " egregius. • 3. Fortuna belli a/rtemvictos'' docet. 
4. Augustus nepotea suos litteras docuit. 5. Antigonus 
iter omnea ' celat. 6. PaxiCTn te poscimus. 7. Boeotii 
auxiUa regem orabant. 8. Cato interrogatus est senten- 
tiam, *9. Marcins omnes artes edoctus faerat, 

i»10. AuxUium^ a Caesdre* petierunt.* 11. Te Ulud"^ 
admoneo. 12. Te id consiilo. 13. Hannibal nonaginta 

' 371, 3. 

" 873, 8. 


» 371, 4. 

" 363. 

" 874, 8, 3). 



«» 374. 5. 




miUia^ peditum Iherum^ traduxit. 14. Belgae Rhe- 
num^ transducti sunt. 

Rule VIII. — Accusative of Time and Space, — 378. 

26. 1. Servius Tullius regnavit annos quattuor' et' 
quadraginta. 2. Appius Claudius caecus a/nnos multos 
fuit. 3. Quaedam bestiolae unum diem vivunt. 4. Dio- 
nysius quinque et viginti natus cmaoB dominatum occu- 
pavit. 5. Caesar duas fossas quindecim pedes latas 
perduxit. 6. Milites aggerem altum pede% octoginta 
exstruxerunt. T. Ar&bes gladios habebant longos qua- 
tema cvMta. 8, Urbs quinque dierum iter abest. 

Rule IX. — Accusative of Limit, — 379. 

27, 1. Cicero Athenaa venit. 2. Regiilus CwrihcLgi- 
nem rediit. 3. Hannibal Cofpua/m concessit. 4. Cicero 
maximum numerum frumenti* Bomam misit. 5. Dio- 
nysius navigabat Syracmaa. 6. Curius elephantos 
quattuor JRomam duxil; 

^Y. Aurum domum^ comportant. •8. Ego ms ibo.' 
9. Yeni consulis domum, 10. Verres Delum venit. 
11. Pausaniam Cyprum miserunt. 12. Hannibal in 
hihema'' Ca/puami concessit. 13. Legiones ad wbem 
adducit. 14. Darius in Asia/m rediit. 

15. Consules Romam riedibant. 16. Cicero domum 
redierat. 17. Consules in Oraeciam venerant. 18. 
Publius Scipio in Hispcmiam missus est. 19. Cives 
rvs fugient. 20. In Etruriam missus erat. 21. Tullia 
in forum properavit et regem salutavit. 










' 379, 4. 





' Rule X. — Accusative of Specification, — 380. 

28. 1. Equus tremit artus. 2. Aeneas* caedit ni- 
grantes terga juveneos. 3. HsLnmbsl femur ictus cecidit. 
4. Hanmbal ammum incensus est. 

5. Haec vis valet midtum.* 6. Haec vis idem potest. 
7. Nervii nihil possunt. 8. Thebani nihil moti sunt. 
9. Quid hostis potest? 10. Quid venisti? 11. Quid 
plura ' dispiito ? 

Rule XI. — Accusative in Mcclamations, — 381. 

29- 1. O praeclaram vitam ! 2. O specta^culwTi mi- 
serum ! 3. O tempora^ o mores ! Senatus conjurationem 
intelligit, consul videt. 4. O vim maximam* erroris! 
5. O clementiam admirabilem ! 

Rule XII. — Dative mth Verbs. — 384. 

30- 1. Non scholae^ sed vitae discimus. ' 2. Omnes 
honunes lilertdti student. 3. Gennani Idbori ac duritiae 
student. 4. Ego philosophiae semper vaco. 6. Pietdi/i 
summa* tribuenda* laus est, *6. Non solum nolis divites. 
sumus, sed liberisy amleis^ maximeque reipubllcae. 

7. Philosophiae nos tradimus. *8. (jraeei homines 
honores tribuunt iis mris^ qui tyrannos necaverunt. - 9. 
/NTon placidara membris dat cura quietem. i 10. Omnes, 
'quum valemus, recta consilia aegrotis'' damns. 

» 50. * 165. « 282. 

8 380, 2. * 163, 3. ' 441. 

3 165, 1. , 

14 latin beadeb. 

31. Dative of Advantage and Disadvantage. — 385. 
— 1. Probus* iuvidet nemmi. 2. Homines AomimJt^pro- 
sunt. 3. Nocet alteri. ♦^ Consulatus meus placuit 
CatonL * 5. Dioni crudelitas tyranni displicebat. »6. 
Themistocles ^ersu'dsit populo. "^Y. Parti'^ civinm consii- 
Innt./^ 8. Milites non mvlieinhuB^ non infant/nbua peper- 
cenint. 9. Nemo liber est, qui corpori servit. 

32. Dative with Compounds. — 386. — 1. Pelopidas 
omnibus 2iSmi pericvlia. 2. Natura sermbua'^ rationem 
adjunxit. 3. Leges omnium * salutem singulorum* saluti 
anteponunt. 4. Parva magnis saepe* conferuntur." 
6. Hannibal terrorem injecit exercit/ui Eomanorum. 

6. Aristides interfuit pugnae navali apud Salaminem. 

7. ConsUiis interdum obstat fortuna. 8. Homines homi- 
niJma plurimum ^ et prosunt et obsunt. . 9. Consules 
lihertdti suas opes" postferebant.* 10. Bona existimatio 
divitiis praestat. 11. Tu virtutem praefer' divitiis. 
12. Quidam succumbunt ddUynhus. 13. Neque deero * 
neque superero' rd jnibl^icae. 

33. Dative of Possessor. — 387. — 1. Fuere Lydia 
multi reges. 2. Non semper idem Jhnbua " est color^ 
3. Est honos eloquentiae. 

34. Dative of Apparent Agent. — 388. — 1. Caesari 
omnia erant agenda. 2. Diligentia colenda est nobis. 
3. Multa videnda sunt oratdri. 4. 'Cui non sunt haec 
audita ? 

35. Miscellaneous Examples. — 1. Haec sententia 

M4L *582. »133, 1. 

» 385, 3, • 292, 2. » 288. 

» 386, I. "^ 380; 2. '» 83. 
*441, I. 


consiili placuit. 2. Eomiiliis civitati profuit. 3. Gives 
legibns parebant. 4. Yobis stunmam * laudem tribuiimis. 
6. Darius, rex Persarum, Graecis' bellum intulit. 6. 
Leonidas se" periculis obtiilit. 

^iULE Xni.—Two Datives— To Which and For Which.— ^^0. 

36. 1. Virtutes JiomwAhys decori sunt. 2. Yirtutes 
hmaimbm glorias sunt. 3. Probitas est omnibus * amori. 

4. Crudelitas est omrvibua odio. 5. Virtus neque datur 
dono neque accipitur. 6. Pausanias, rex * Lacedaemoni- 
Orum, venit AMcis cmosilio.. 

7. Hoc vUio mihi dant. 8. Idne • aUeri ' crvrmni 

dabis, quod tu ipse fecisti? 9. Caesar legiones duas" 

castris praeddio relinquit. ID. Hunc aibi domicUw 
locum delegerunt. 

EuLE XrV. — Dative with Adjectives. — 391. 

37, 1. Veritas mihi grata est. 2. GratissTmae * mihi 
tuae litterae ** fuerunt. 3. Patria Ciceroni erat caris- 
sima. 4. Id Deo est proximum," quod est optimum." 

5. Minime " siH quisque notus est. 6. Jlorti nihil est 
tarn simile, quam somnus." 7. Hominum generi cultura 
agrorum est salutaris. 8. Belgae proximi sunt Germdnis. 
9. lisy qui vendunt, justitia necessaria est. 10. Pax 
nobis omnibus fuit optabilis. 

Rule XV. — DcUive with Derivatives. — 392. 
88, 1. Esto obtemperatio vnMitutis populorura. 

» 163, 3. 

• 346, II. 1. 

" 166. 

2 384, II. 

■^ 441, 2. 

" 165. 


8 175. 

" 305, 2 ; 166. 


• 162. 

» 417, 1. 


»» 132. 


2. Insidiae consvli non procedebant. 3. Convenienter 
naturae vivimus. 4. Philosophus sibi constanter conve- 
nienterqne dicit. 


1^ Rule XS'l.—Oemtive with jVowns.— 395, 396t) 

39. 1. Pietas fundamentum * est ommum vi/rtutum. 
2. Ira est initium insania^. • 3. Sapientia est rerum divi- 
narum et humanarum scientia:^ 4. Nona diei hora erat. 

I. Subjective Genitive. — 1. Vultus sermo * quidam ' 
tacitus ' mentis est. 2. Nostri milites impetum hostvum 
sustinuerunt. 3. Themistocles non effugit cimum suo- 
nira invidiam. 4. "P^^^ort^m pater regit navem. h.Sin- 
gulorum faeultates divitiae * sunt cimtdtU, 

II. Objective Gentttve. — 1. Crescit amor nummi. 
2. Animi morbi sunt cupiditates dwitidrum^ ghriae^ 

III. Pabtitive Genitive. — 1. Justitia nihil expetit 
praemii^ nihil pretii. 2. Conon pecvArdae quinquaginta 
talenta civibus suis donavit. 3. Permagmim pondVis ar- 
genti f uit. 4. Socrates omnium ' sapientissimus * judica- 
tus est. 5. Gallorum omnium fortissimi sunt Belgae. 
6. Ubinam gentium ' sumus ? 7. Satis doquentiae • fuit, 
sapieritiae parum. 

lY. Genitive op Chabacteeistic. — 1. Tarquinius 
fratrem habuit Aruntem,' initis ingenii juvenem. 

» 362. » 396, III. 3) (2). • 396, IIL 4) (2). 

" 438; 438, 1. * 162. • 390, TIL 4) (I). 

' 363. 


2. Athenieoses belli ducera * eligunt Periclem/ spectatae 
virtutis virum.* 3. Classein' septuaginta* namum 
Atlienienses Miltiadi ' dederunt. 

- y. Genitive of Specification. — 1. Cyri nomen ' ac- 
cepit. 2. Quid sonat vox volwpiMia f 3. Virtutes coiv- 
tinentiae, graviiMiajjustitide^Jidei^ omni honore* dignae 
sunt. 4. Germomiae vocabulum recens est. 5. Domini 
appellationem semper ' exhorruit Augustus. 

Rule XVII. — Genitive with Adjectives, — 399. 

40, 1. Avida estperiouli virtus. 2. Haee aetas vir^ 
t/uMm ferax est. 3. Conscia mens recti famae • menda- 
cia* ridet. 4. Romani appetentes " glorias atque " avidi 
laudis fiierunt. 6. Multi contentionis sunt cupidiOres ** 
quam veritdUs. 6. Epaminondas fiiit peritus ieUiy veri- 
tdUa diligens. 7. Conon prudens rd militaris erat. 
8. Socrates se omnium rerum nescium " fingit. 9. The- 
mistocles peritissimos " lelli navalis fecit Athenienses. 
10. Homo rationia " est particeps. 11. Plena errorum 
sunt omnia. 12. Omnes virtutie compotes " beati sunt. 
13. Viri " propria est fortitude. 

Rule XVIU.— Predicate Genitive. — 401-403. 

41, 1. Damnatio G&tjvMcum; poena, legis. 2. Im- 
becilli animi est superstitio. 3. Xerxis ' classis mille et 
ducentarum namtmi fuit. 4. Claudius erat somni bre- 
vissimi. 5. Permagni momenti est ratio. 6. Temeritas 

" 373. 

' 682. 


' 363. 


"873; 873,3. 

• 384, 11. 

• 371, 8, 1). 

" 399, 2, (3). 


» 675 ; 363. 

» 167, 2. 



* 399, 3, 8). 

• 419, IV. 


est florentis * aetdtis; prudentia, Benescentis. 7. Praeda 
parvi pretii ftiit. 8. Thebae ' ^(?p&fo* Eomani factae' 
Bunt. 9. Yoluptatem virtus minimi * facit. 10. Divitiae 
a me * minimi * pntantur. 11. Nulla posBessio phiria * 
quam virtus aestiinanda est. 12. Vendo meum frumen- 
tum non jphirisy quam ceteri. 13. Mentiri^ non est 
mewmJ' 14. Tuum est milii-' ignoscere. 

Rule XIX. — Omitive with Certain Verbs, — 406-408. 

42, 1. Eorum miserere/" qui" in miseriis" sunt. 
2. Animus meminit " praeteritdrum^^* praesentia cemit, 
ftitura praevidet. 3. Eeminiscere pristinae virtutis Hel- 
vetiorum. 4. Deorum " immortalium leneficia " recor- 
der. 5. Obliti sunt injuridrum, 6. Habetis dueem 
memorem vestri^ oblitum suL 7. Aliorum vitia cernit, 
obliviscitur sudrwm. 8. FlagitioTum suorum recordabi- 
tur. 9. Planci mm^ recorder. 

10. Magni" rei publicae interest. 11. Illud dcero- 
nis maxime interfuit. 12. Hoc regis nihil" interest. 
13. Scipionis meminerat. 14. Sui oblitus erat. 15. 
Miserentur sociorum, 16. Atheniensium maxime in- 

Rule XX. — Accusative and Genitive.— AlO. 

43. 1. Te Yeteris amioitiae cornmoneisLcio. 2. Tibe- 
rius ^wc^w?^*' legum admonebat. 



» 297, L 

» 131, 1, 2). 

8 404, 1. 

" 575 ; 295, 2. 

«279; 294. 


15 45, 6. 

4 403 ; 165. 

>o 271, 2. 

" 407, 1. 

» 414, 6. 

" 446. 

" 408, 3. 

« 165, 1. 

» 435, 1. 



3. Te convinco non inhumanitdtia solum, sed etiara * 
amentiae. 4. Fannius Verrem insimulat avaritiae et 
audadae. 5. Cicero Verrem a/oa/rilXde coarguit. 6. 
Orestes accusatur matricidii, 7. Nieomedes furti dam- 
natus est. 

8. Nonne ' te miseret mei f 9. Num ' hujus te gloriae 
paenitebat ? 10. Me non solum piget stvltitide meae, 
sed etiam pudet. 11. Me civitatis morum ' piget tae- 


Utile XXI. — Ablative of Cause^ Manner^ Means. ^-414. 

4A. I. Cause. — 1. Caesar lenefidis ac Tminificmiid 
magnus habebatur, i/ntegritdte vitae, Cato.* 2. Quidam 
vitiis suis glori§<ntur. 3. Gubematoris ars utUitdte^ non 
arte laudatur. 4. Avaritid et luxurid Eomana ci^atas 
laborabat. 5. Nimio gaudio paene * desipiebam. 6. 
Adolescentes senum' jyraeceptis gaudent.)! 7. Laetus 
sorte tua vives sapienter.' 8. Campani fuerunt superbi 
lonitdte agrorum. 

II. Manner. — ^1. Miltiades summa" aeqmtdte res 
Chersonesi constituit. 2. Athenienses m summa proeli- 
um commiserunt. 3. Sidera* cursus suos conficiunt 
maxima" cderitdte^) 4. Athenienses cum silenUo^^ auditi 
sunt. 6. Oiim vwtute vivimus. 6. Pausanias epulaba- 
tur more Persarum. 

III. Means, Instrument. — 1. Servius TuUius virtute 

' 687, I. 6. 

» 367, 3. 


" 346, n. 1. 


" 166. 



» 414, 3. 

* 587, I. 3. 

• 163, 3. 


regnum tenuit. 2. Nemo fit ' Cdsu bonus. 3. Ayarus 
animus nullo satiatur lucroi^ 4. Traliimur omnes studio 
laudis/ 6. Magnos homines virtut'C metlmur, non far- 
tuna. 6. Dido * vitam suamp'Za<^i<?linivit. 7. Voluptate 
capiuntur homines, ut Jw^mo pisces/ S. Minuuntur atrae 
earmlne curae. 9. Boni nullo emolumento impelluntur 
in fraudem.* 

IV. Agent. — 1. Alcibiades eruditus est a Socrate.* 
2. A Deo omnia ^ facta sunt." 3. Sacra ab Numd insti- 
tuta sunt.( 4. A multia'' ipsa " virtus contemnitur. 

Rule XXII. — Ablative of Price.— ^16, 

45. 1. Ego '" spem pretio non emo. 2. Vas Corin- 
thium magno jpretio mercatus sum. 3. Viginti talentia 
unam " orationem Isocrates vendidit. 4. Si prata magno 
aestimant, quanti " est aestimanda '* virtus ? 5. Fanum 
peounid grandi venditum est. 6. Otium non gemmia " 
venale est. 

BuLE XXni. — Ablative with Comparat{ves.^~4cl7. 

46, 1. Yilius argentum est aitro^ virtufibus aarum. 
2. Lux sonUu est velocior. 3. Amoris simulatio pejor '* 
est odio. 4. Nihil est veritatis luce dulcius. 5. Nihil est 
ratione melius." 6. Lacrirria nihil citius arescit. 

7. Tullus Hostilius ferocior quam Romulus^^ fuit. 
8. Sol major " est quam terra. 9. Natura nihil habet 


^ 441, 1. 

" 402, in. 1. 

» 396, n. 

" 294 ; 294, 2. 

" 232. 


" 452. 


* 367, 3. 

" 446. 

" 165. 

» 435, 1. 

" 175. 

» 417, 1. 

• 414, 6. 


praestantins quam hmestdtem? 10. Timoleon sapientius ' 
tulit ' secundam fortunam quam ddwerBam. 11. Major 
famae sitis est quam vi/rtutia.^ 

Rule 'SXIV.— Ablative of Difference. — 418. 

'^ 47, 1. Patria mihi* vita mea multo est carior. 2. 
Pompeius hiennio major fiiit quam Cicero/ 3. Hie locus 
aequo 8;paUo ab castris * Ariovisti et Caesaris aberat. 4. 
Numa Pompilius a/nnis permultis ante fiiit quam " Py- 
thagoras. 5. Homeri ' etsi incerta sunt tempora, tamen 
annia multis fiiit ante Eomulum.' 

Rule XXV. — Ablative in Special Constructions. — 419. 

48. I. TJtob, Fruor, etc. — 1. Multi henefido Dei 
perverse utuntur. 2. Hecordatione nostrae amicitiae * 
fruor. 3. Commoda, quHms utimur, a Deo " nobis " 
dantur. 4. Lux, qua fruimur, a Deo nobis datur. 5. Vir- 
tutis munere functus sum. 6. Solus potitus est imperio 
Roraiilus. 7. Numidae plerumque lade " et ca/me " ves- 

II. Fnx), CoNFiDO, ETC. — 1. Prudentia consUidqne ** 
fidimus. 2. Quis aut corporis firmiiMe aut fortunae sta- 
hUitdte conf idet ? 3. Juvenis nititur ha^td, 

III. Plenty and Want. — 1. Abundanint " semper 
auro regna Asiae. 2. Capua fortissimorum virorum 
mvUitudMie redundat. 3. Antiochla eruditissimis homi- 

' 411, 1. 

• 623, 2, 2). 

'' 384, I. 

" 682, 306. 




'^ 432, 433. 

" 72, 3. 

* 391. 

» 396, II. 

" 587, I. 3. 


'« 414, 6. 

»• 234. 


mbu8 afflnebat. 4. Nihil honestum est quod * justittd 
vacat. 5. Nulla * vitae pars vacat officio. 6. Nunquam 
eminentia irwidid caret. 7. Magna negotia magnis ad- 
jutanbua egent. 8. Deus honis " oranibus explevit mun- 
dum. 9. Hectora* vitd spoliavit Achilles. 10. Caesari 
tradita urbs est, nuda * praeddio, referta copiia. 11. 
Virtute mnlti' praediti sunt. 

IV. DiGNUs, Indigkus, etc. — 1. Virtus imitatime^ 
non invidid digna est. 2. Quam multi indigni luce 
sunt, et tamen dies oritur.* 3. Sapientia eo contenta est, 
quod adest. 4. InteUigerUid vestra fretus sum. 

V. Opus and Usus. — 1. MagistroMua opus est. 2. 
Multis ' duce opus est. 3. Nihil • opus est simvlatidne. 
4. Nambus consiili usus est. 5. Quantum • argenti *' est 
tibi opus ? 6. Nobis exempla permulta opus sunt. 

Rule ^SSNl.—AhlaJtivt of Place. — 421. 

49, 1. In ItcHid >bellum fuit. 2. Haec ab Romanis 
m Graecid gesta sunt. 3. Iphicrates m Thradd vixit. 
4. Caesar (ib v/rbe proficiscitur. 5. Darius ex Asia in 
Europam " exercitum trajecit. 6. Talis Bomae Fabri- 
cius, qualis Aristldes Athenia fuit. 

■ 7. Tarquinius Superbus mortuus est Cumis. 8. Numa 
Pompilius Curibvs habitabat. 9. Syracusia est fons 
aquae dulcis, cui " nomen Arethusa est. 10. Demaratus, 
Tarquinii regis pater, fugit Tarquinios " Cimntho. 11. 
Haec ter^rd marlqae " gesta sunt. 12. Conon plurimum " 
vixit 6^j{pW,"Timotheus Lesbi. 

' 446. " 288, 2. " 486, 1. 

" 151. ^ 419, 8. " 887. 

» 441, 1. ^ 380, 2. " 879. 

* 68. " 419, 3, 2). " 422, 1, 1). 

*438. ""396,111. "880, 2; 166. 

"424, 1. 


Rule XXVII. — Ablative of Source and Separation, — 425. 

60. 1. Praeclarum a majorthus accepimus morem.' 
2. Hoc a senibtts* audivimus. 3. Disce, puer, virtutem 
ex me, fortunam ex aiiis. 4. Collatinus ex urbe migravit. 
5. Jove^ nate, Hercules, salve. 

6. Abstinent pugrha. 7. Lacedaemonii de diutina 
contenMone destiterunt. 8. Zania quinqne dierum iter * 
ab CaHhagme abest. 9. Ariovistus millibus* passuum 
sex a Caesaris caatris * consedit. 10. Tu, Jupiter, Cati- 
llnam a tectia urbis, a moenihvSj a vita fortunisquQ civi- 
mn omnium arcebis. 11. Dionysius tyrannus Syracfmis 
expulsus est. 12. Aristides nonne^ expulsus est patria ? 
13. Themistocles imperator bello Persico aervitute Grae- 
ciam liberavit. 14. Robustus animus omni est liber 
cv/ra et angore. 

Rule ^KSTHl.— Ablative of Time. — 426, 427. 

6 1. 1. Augustus obiit " sexto et septuagesimo aetatis 
anm), 2. Socrates supremo " vitae die de immortalitate 
aniniorum multa disseruit. 3. Timoleon proelia maxi- 
ma *" natali die suo fecit omnia.^ 4. Qua nocte natus est 
Alexander, eddem Dianae Ephesiae templum deflagravit. 

5. Solis occasu suas copias Ariovistus in castra reduxit. 

6. Nemo mortalium omnibus horia sapit. 7. Laelius 
sermonem de amicitia habuit paucis diebua " post mor- 
tem Africani. 8. Roscius litem " decldit abhinc am^ni'S 
quattuor. ^9. Carthago septingentesimo «7i7i{? postquan- 
conc^ta erat, deleta est. 


» 378, 2. 

• 163, 8. 



'• 166. 

» 66, 3 ; 426, 3. 

^ 346, n. 1. 

" 427. 


•296, 3. 

» 82, 6. 


Rule XXIX. — Ablative of Characteristic. — 428. 

52. 1. Caesar Procillum, sumirbd * virtute adolescen- 
tem, ad Ariovistum misit. 2. Aristoteles, vir" summo 
ingeniOy adentia^ copid, prudentiam cum eloquentia con- 
junxit. 3. Cato singiUdri fdit prudentid ' et indicstrid. 
4. AppiuB homo fuit summd prudentid^ rmiltd etiam 
doctrlnd. 5. Hannibalis nomen erat magna apnd omnes 
gloria. 6. Agesilaas ataiv/pd fuit humUi et corpore exi- 
guo. 7. Caesar fuit excdad atoMt/rd^ colore candido^ 
nigria oculia. 

Rule XXX. — Ablative of Specl/icatio7i.^^2d. 

63. 1. Sunt qiiidam homines* non re, sed nmmne. 
2. Doctrlnd Graecia Eomanos et omni litterarum genere 
superabat. 3. Mardonius, natione Medus, a Pausania * 
fugatus est. 4. Helvetii reliquos Gallos virtute praece- 
dunt. 5. Ancus regnavit annos* quattuor et yiginti, 
cuilibet ' superiorum ® regum belli pacisque et artilma et 
glarid par. 

Rule XXXI.— JJZa^we Absolute.-^ZO & 431. 

54. 1. Cognito Caesaris adventu, Ariovistus legato? 
ad eum mittit. 2. Ite,' deia '• bene jttvanMua. 3. Py- 
thagoras, Tarquinio Swperho regnante, in Italiam venit. 
4. Yirtute exceptd, nihil amicitia " praestabilius est. 5. 
Germani pellibus " utuntur, magna corporis ^^r^ nitdd. 
6. Natus est Augustus, Cicerone et Antonio conauVihua. 

' 1G3, 3. 

"^ 414, 5. 




'' 51, 6. 

" 428, 1, 2). 

' 191, XL 


" 417. 


*• 163, 3. 



7. Komani, Scvpidne duce^ j>onte facto^ superaveruDt 
Ticinuin flumen. 

KuLE XXXII. — Cases with PrepostYtons.— 432-435. 

66. I. Accusative. — 1. Sophocles ad siimmam seneo- 
tutem tragoedias fecit. 2. Adolescentes senum praeceptis 
ad virtutum ' studia ducuntur. 3. Pietas est justitia ad- 
versus deoa. 4. Ante lucem galli canunt. 5. Eparaiiion- 
das Lacedaemonios vicit apud Mcmtinecmi. 6. LegiOnes 
Etruscorura cis Padum fusae sunt. 7. Utilitatis dere- 
lictio contra natv/ram est. 8. Justitia erga deos religio * 
dicitur, erga parentes^ pietas. 9. Eatio conciliat inter 
Be ' homines. 10. Amicitia est propter se expetenda.* 
11. Animus per somnum curis * vacuus est. 12. Post 
me erat Aegina. 13. ^ecvm^Mva flumen paucae statiOnes 
videbantur. 14. Germani trans Rhenum incolunt. 

II. Ablative. — 1. A prima" aetdte me philosophia 
delectavit. 2. Cantabit vacuus coram latrone viator. 
3. Sex menses^ cum Antiocho philosopho fui. 4. Scipio 
ob egregiam victoriam de Hanmhale appellatus est Afri- 
canus. 5. Virtus ex vvro appelMta est. 6. Cato prae 
ceteris floruit. 7. Caesar legiones pro castris constituit. 

8. Vita nihil sine magno lahore dedit mortalibus.* 9, 
Aqua ^x^\> pecl^mhus tenus.* 

III. Accusative ok Ablative. — 1. In amftem ruunt. 
2. Gallia est divlsa in partes tres. 3. Homo doctus in se 
semper divitias habet. 4. Sub ipsa moenia progress! 
sunt. 5. Saepe est etiam sub jpallio sordido sapientia. 
6. Virtus omnia subter se habet. 

* 396, H. 




^ 419, IIL 

« 384, IL 

» 448, 1. 

M41, 6; 166. 

« 434, 4. 



Rule XXXIII. — Agreement of Ac[jective8,~^B8^ 439. 

56. 1. Vera amicitia semjdtema est. 2. Verae ami- 
citiae sempitemae sunt. 3. Venit hieins glacidlis. 4. 
Fugit irrepardbUe tempus. 5. Nihil est ab omni parte 
hedtum. 6. Atra nubes condidit lunam. 7. Hora quota 
est ? 8. Qualis est tua mens ? 9. Nemo uascitur (^^^;e«. 

10. Stultitia et ieixi&nid^fugienda * sunt. 11. Labor 
voluptasque, dissimiWimd^ natura,'' inter se sunt juncta. 
12. Non terret sapientem * mors. 13. Fortes * fortuna 
adjiivat. 14:. Primd^ luce summus mons a Labieno 
tenebatur.' 15. Feriunt summoa fulgura montes. 16. 
Koscius a^dduvs^ ruri' vixit. 17. Philoeophiae ** noa 
totos tradimus. 18. Themistoeles ahsens proditionis " est 
accusdtvs. 19. Triumphus claHor quam groMor^^ fuit. 

Rule XXXIV. — Agreement of Pronotms. — 445. 

57. 1. Omne animal se ipsum " diligit. 2. Ad quas 
res aptissifmi erimus, in Us elaborabimus. 3. Nihil ex- 
pedit, quod non decet. 4. Non est vir " fortis, qui " labo- 
rem fugit. 

58. Personal AND Possessive. — 446-440. — 1. Omnia 

> 460 ; 439, 3. 

" 468. 

" 444, 2i 

»163, 2; 439, 3. 


" 452. 


« 424, 2 ; 421, H. 



• 884, n. 

" 446, 6. 

* 441, 6. 

'• 410, U. 



animalia se diligunt. 2. Te^ tua^ me delectant mea. 

3. Ad amicum de arnicitia scripsi. 4. Ego beatus sum. 
5. In philosopliiae studio aetatem consumpsi. 6. Aria- 
tides non effOgit civium suorum invidiam. 

59, Demonstrative.— 450-452. — 1. Ilaec e^t tyran. 
norum vita. 2. No8 ipsi* consolamur. 3. lUe est vir. 

4. Ab ipso Graccho eadem Kaec audimus. 5. Homo ha- 
bet memoriam et earn * infinitam. 

60. Kelattve. — 453. — 1. In mundo Deus est, qui 
regit, qui gubemat, qui cureus astrorum, rautation^s 
temponim, rerum vicissitudines conservat. 2. Kiden- 
tur,* mala qui componunt carmina. 3. Eadem est utili- 
tatis, qude " honestatis, regiila. 4. Servi moribus ' iisdem 
erant, quihua'' dominus. 5. Animal hoc providum, 
sagax, acutum, memor, plenum rationis," quern* voca- 
mus horainem, generatum est a Deo. 6. Penitiles 
Xenophontis libri sunt ; qtu>8 *° legtte studiose. 

61, Interrog*ative. — i54. — 1. O dii" immortales,*' 
qu^m rem publicam habemus, in qua urbe vivimus ? 2. 

'Quae in me est facultas ? 

62. Indefinite. — 455-459. — 1. Exspectabam " oM- 
queTTi meorum." 2. Yeni Athenas," neque me quisquam 
ibi agnovit. 3. Aut nemo^ aut, si quisquami^ Cato sapi- 
ens f uit. 4. Quidam consulem laudant. 5. Optimum ** 
quidque " rarissimum est. 6. Consilium iHter *" exercitum 
perdidit, alter vendidit. 



" 468. 

» 441, 1. 

8 399, 2, 


" 441, 1. 

8 452, 1. 

» 445, 4. 

« 379. 

* 451, 2. 

»o 458. 

"165; 441,2. 

« 463, 2. 

» 51, 6. 

"468, 1. 

« 451, 5. 

" ?69. 

^8 151. 



EuLE XXXV.— Fer6 with Subject.— 460-^^3. 

63. i. Homines, duin docent^ ducunt 2. Tantum 
scimus^ quantum memoria teriernus. 3. Ego libertatem 
peperi / ego patriam liberdvi.^ 4. Crescit amor nummi, 
quantum * ipsa pecunia crescit 5. Pars perexigua Ro- 
raam inermes * deldU stmt 6. Uterque * eorum exerci- 
tum ex castris educunV 7. Corinthus, totius Graeciae 
lumen, exstinctwm'' est. 8. Eatio et or^Wo condliaV inter 
se homines. 9. Castor et Pollux ex q^\9> pugrumerunt? 

Indicative — Tenses and Use. 
Rule XXXVI.— ^Jse o/ /^ic^tca^e.— 474. 

64. Present. — ^:^%^ 467. — 1. Virtus ab omnibus 
lauddtur. 2. Nulla hahemus arma contra mortem. 3. 
In proelio cita mors venit^ aut victoria laeta. 

65. Imperfect. — 468, 469. — 1. Laelius orationem 
6uam edcomabat. 2. Exspectabam adventum Menandri. 
3. Lycurgi leges vigeiant. 4. TJt Eomae " consules, sic 
Carthagine quotannis bini reges creahantur. 

♦ SS, Future and Future Perfect. — 470, 473. — 1. Eo- 

» 460, 2. 

* 161, 4. 

« 463, L 

• M60, 2, 1). 

'■ 461, 3. 

" 463, U. 

» 880, 2. 


«" 421, II. 

* 438, 6. 


mam * qnum venerOj quae ' perspexero^ scriham ad te. 
2. Ut sementem feceris, ita metes, 3. Si te " roga/vero 
aliquid/ non respondebis f 

61. Perfect and Pluperfect. — 471, 472. — 1. Hos- 
tes, ubi primnm nostros equites conspexerunt^ celeriter 
nostros perturha/oerunt 2. Ipse semper cum Graecis 
Latina conjwnxi. 3. Civitas haec semper a me defensa 
est. 4. Lacedaemoniorum gens fortis fuit^ dum Lycurgi 
leges vigebant. 5. Summa cura* exspectabam adventum 
Menandri, quern • ad te miserami. 6. Hannibal treig mo- 
dios aureOrum annulOrum Carthaginem misity quos 
manibus ' equitum Eomanorum " d^traxerat. 

Subjunctive. — Tenses and Use. 
EuLE XXXVn.— 5ejwence of Tewses.— 480, 481. 

68. 1. Ego vos hortor, ut amicitiam omnibus rebus * 
liumanis antepondtis.^^ 2. Philosophia nos docuit, ut 
nosmet" ipsos nosceremus.^^ 3. Dubitant nonnuUi de 
mundo, casune " ipse sit effectus^^* an niente divina. 4. 
Epaminondas quaesivit, salvusne " esset clipeus. 5. Epa- 
minondas rogavit, essentnefusi hostes. 6. Ego in causia 
publicis ita sum versatus, ut defenderim multos. 

EuLE XXXVIII. — Potential Subjunctive. — 485, 486. 

69. 1. Quaerat quispiam, cujusnam " causa " mun 
dus factus sit.'* 2. Videds rebus" injustis justos*^ 

' 379. ' 434, 1. " 626, II. 1. 

« 446, 6. * 438. » 626. 

* 374. * 386. » 626, I. 

* 460, 2. » 489, 490. » 188, 3. 

* 414, 3. " 184, 6. '' 414. 

* 445. " 492, 2 ; 374, 4. «* 441, 64fi. 


maxime * dolere/ 3. Equidem veUem^ ut redires. -t 
Forsitan quderas qui iste terror sit. 5. Hoc sine nlla * 
dubitatione (xmf/rmaverim. 6. Quid fdddtisf^ 7. 
Quia haec faciat f 8. Quid videdtur Deo • magnum in 
rebus humanis ? 

Rule ^KXXIK.— Subjunctive of Desire. — 487 ; 488. 

70p 1. Imitemur majores nostros. 2. VaUant cives 
mei ; mit incoliimes, smt beati ; «tet haec urbs praeclara. 
3. Eeligio et fides cmtepondtw''' amicitiae.' 4. Orator 
imitetur Demosthenem. 5. Is qui imperat aliis • aerviat 
ipse nuUi " cupiditati. 6. In rebus prosperis superbiam 
arrogantiamquey^^iaTTit^. 7. Ne quis, tanquam parva, 
fdstidiat grammaticae elementa. 

EuLE XL. — Subjunctive of Purpose or JRcswZ^— 489. 

71. Ut and Ne. — 490-493. — 1. Eomani ab aratro 
abduxerunt Cincinnatum, ut dictator esset.^^ 2. Phaethon 
optavit, ut in currum " patris *' toUeretur.^* 3. Caesar 
ad Lamiam scripsit, ut ad ludos omnm pardret.^* 4. Ti- 
moleon oravit omnes, ne id facerent.^^ 5. Decrevit 
senatus, ut consul videret,** ne quid res publica detri- 
menti " capSret" 6. Discipulos id unum *^ moneo, ut 
praeceptores " non minus, quam ipsa studia amenV* 

72, Ut and ut non. — 494-496. — 1. Tanta vis probi- 
tatis est, ut earn in hoste etiam dUigdrmia. 2. Dives est, 
eui " tanta possessio est, ut nihil optet amplius. 3. Epa- 
minondas adeo fuit veritatis " diligens, ut ne joco " qui- 




» 874, 4. 



" 396, IIL 


»« 15L 

" 374, ^ 




* 486, IL 




'• 77, II. 1. 


'468, 1. 


" 414, «. 


dein' mentvreiv/r. 4. Quis est tain miser, tit iion Dei 
muniflcentiam senserit f 5. Alcibiades erat ea sagaeitate,' 
ut decipi * non posseV 

73. Quo, QuiN, QuoMiNus. — 49Y-499. — 1. Lex bre- 
vis est, quo facilius ab imperitis tenedtur. 2. Nunquam 
accedo ad te, quin abs te abeam * doctior. 3. Quis dubi- 
tet,' quin in virtute divitiae dnt f 4. Quid obstat, quo- 
minus Deus dt beatus ? 

74, Eelative. — 500, 501. — 1. Caesar equitatum, qui 
sustineret hostium impetum, misit. 2. Non tu is es, 
quera nihil ddectet. 3. Ego is sum, qui nihil unquam 
mea, potius quam meorum civium causa,' fecerim.^ 4. 
Nihil est quod Deus eflScere • nonposdt. 5. Nullum est 
animal praeter hominem, quod habeat notitiam aliquam 
Dei. 6. Inventi sunt multi," qui non modo pecuniam," 
Bed vitara etiam profundere " pro patria parati " essent 

EuLE XLI. — Subjunctive of Condition. — 503-513. 

76. DuM, Mono, Ddmmodo. — 505. — 1. Oderint," dum 
metuant. 2. Multi omnia recta" negligunt, dummodo 
potentiam consequantur. 3. Omnia postposui, dummodo 
praeceptis" patrisjpa/'^^m. 

76. Ao SI, Ut si, Quasi, etc. — 506. — ^1. Eegemlauda- 
verunt ac si hostes vieisset 2. Patres metus cepit," 
velut si jam ad portas hostis esset. 3. Quid" testibus" 
utor, quasi res dubia sit. 

^ 602, III. 2. 


• " 438. 


8 481,1. 2; 460. 

J* 487, 297. 

« 652, 1. 

« 552, 1. 

« 385. 


JO 441. 

J6 222. 

« 295, 3. 

» 871. 

" 380, 2. 

• 486, IL 

" 552, 3. 

" 419. 

32 latin readeb. 

77, Si, Nisi, etc. : Qdi=Si is, etc. — 507-513.— 1, 
Animum rege, qui, nisi pa/ret^ imperaV 2. Si beatam 
vitam volumua^ adipisci,* virtu ti o^Y2Ld(mda est. 3. 
Thucydidis orationes ego laudo ; imitari neque possim* 
si vdim^ nee vdim fortasse, si possim. 4. Non possem * 
vivere, nisi in litteris viverem.^ 5. Consiliuip, ratio, sen- 
tentia nisi essent* in senibus,' non summum' consilium' 
majores nostri appdlassent "^ senatum. 

BuLE XLU. — Svhjunctive of Concession, — 515, 516. 

78, Licet, Quamvis, etc. — 1. Licet ipsa vitium '* sit 
ambitio, frequenter tamen causa virtutum est.** 2. Non 
est magnus pumilio, licet in monte constiterit. 3. Quam- 
vis se '• ipso contentus sit sapiens,'* amicis "• illi opus est. 
4. Ego, qui sero Graecas litteras attigissem^ tamen com- 
plures Athenis " dies '^ sum commoratus. 

79, Etsi, Tametsi, Etiamsi. — 1. Eloquentiae '*' stu- 
dendum est, etsi ea'* quidam perverse dbutuntur. 2. 
Hoc, etiamsi nobilitatum non sit^"" tamen Lonestum est ; 
etiamsi a nuUo " laudei/ar^ est laudabile. 

Rule XLIII. — Subjunctive of Cause. — 517-520. 

80, QuuM, Qui. — 518, 519. — 1. Quum vita sine ami- 
cis metus " plena sit^ ratio ipsa monet amicitias compa- 
rare. 2. Quum sint in nobis consilium, ratio, prudentia, 





» 510, 1 ; 234. 

" 878. 




* 609, 289. 

" 460, 2. 



" 419, IV. 

*• 460, 2. 


463, n. 

" 441. 

" 151. 


'» 419, 3. 

» 399, 2, 2). 




necesse est, Denm * haec ipsa habere ' majora. 3. Quiim 
veniasem ' Athenas,* sex menses * cum Antiocho, nobilis- 
simo • philosopho/ fui. 4. Caninius fuit mirifica vigilan- 
tia,® qui suo toto cousulatu " somnum non videriV^ 

81. Quod, Quia, etc. — 520. — 1. Plato escam" malo- 
rum appellat voluptatem, quod ea '* homines ca/pia/ntur^ 
velut hamo pisces. 2. Nemo unquam est oratorem, quod 
Latine loqueretur^ admiratus. 3. Mater irata est, quia 
non redierim. ,^ 

Rule XLIV. — Subjunctive of Time with Cause. — 521-523. 

82. 1. Dum reliquae naves con/vemrent^ ad horam 
nonam exspectavit. 2. Quievere " milites, dum praefec- 
tus arma " inspiceret. 3. Tragoedi quotidie, antequam 
pronwntienty vocem sensim excitant. 4. Ante '* videmus 
fiilgurationem, quam sonum a/adia/mus. 5. Caesar ad 
Pompeii castra " pervenit, priusquam Pompeius sentlret.''' 

Rule XLV. — Subjunctive in Indirect Questions. — 525. 

83. 1. Nescis, quantas vires virtus haheaV^ 2. No- 
men tantum virtutis usurpas ; quid '* ipsa valeat^ ignoras. 

3. Lepidus declaravit quantum hdberet odium servitutis.'" 

4. Caesar equitatum omnem praemittit, qui " videant," 
quas in partes lierfaciant 5. Non intelligunt homines, 
qnam magnum vectlgal " sit parsimonia." 6. In orato- 

646 ; 46, 6. • 426. " 528, 2. 

•549. "619. »525, 2; 480. 

» 518, II. 1. " 373. * 380, 2. 

*379. •»414. «'396, n. 

• 378. » 235. »* 445, 6. 

« 162. " 131, 1, 4). " 6lK). 

' 363. ** 523, 3, 2). ^ 362. 

» 428. •" 132 ; 379, 4. * 367. 


Tibus Graecis, admirabfle est, quantum inter omnes unua 
exeeUat 7. Mihi non minori ' curae " est, qualis res pub- 
lica post mortera mesmfutura sit^ quam qualis hodie sit 

Rule XLVI. — Subjunctive by Attraction. — 527. 

84. 1. Me admones, ut me integrum, quoad ^(?s«^m, 
servem.' 2. Quid est, cur non orator de rebus iis elo- 
quentissime dicat,* quas cognorit. 3. Jussit ut, quae 
venissentj naves Euboeam peterent.' 4. In Hortensio 
memoria fuit tanta, ut, quae secum corrimentdtua essetj 
ea verbis * iisdem • redderet,^ quibus cogitamisset. 5. Re- 
cordatione ' nostrae amicitiae sic fruor, ut beate vixisse • 
videar,' quia cum Scipione vioserim.'^ 

Rule XLVII. — Subjunctive in Indirect Discourse. — 529. 

85. 1. Socrates dicebat," omnes " in eo, quod sclrent^ 
satis" esse" eloquentes. 2. Apud Hypanim " fluvium, 
Aristoteles ait,*' bestiolas quasdem nasci, quae unum 
diem vivcmt, 3. Ariovistus Caesari" respondit: quid 
sibi veUet f ** cur in suas possessiones vemret f jus esse 
belli, ut, qui vioissenty iis,** quos vici^sent, quemadmo- 
dum vellentj impera/rent. 4. Legationi Ariovistus respon- 
dit: si quid ipsi*" a Caesare opus esset^"^ sese ad eum 
venttirum fuisse;'* si quid ille a se vdit^ ilium ad se 
venire " oportere. 5. Divico ita cum Caesare egit : si 
pacem popiilus Eomanus cum Helvetiisyac^r^^," in earn 

' 165. » 649, 4, 1). " 384. 

' 390. " 481, L 2. ^ 293. 

* 489. » 469, n. * 885. 

* 625. " 645. * 452, 5. 

* 414. " 682. « 632, 2. 

* 186. ** 630, L " 549, 2. 
' 489, 494. » 86, IR. 1. » 638, 3. 
' 419 » 297, n. 1. 


partem ituros ' Helvetios,' ubi eos Caesar esse vciuisaet / ' 
sin bello ^ev^hqpi^ peraeverdret^ reminuceretur pristinae 
virtutis * Helvetiorum. 

Imperative — Tenses and Use. 
Rule XLVIII. — Imperative. — 535. 

86, 1. Speme voluptates. 2. ConsuUte vobis,* Pa- 
tres' conscript], ^<wp^c^^ patriae, C(?rw^rwa^ vos," conju- 
ges, liberos, fortunasque vestras ; popiili Eomani nomen 
salutemque defendite. 3. Vive memor leti ; • fiigit hora. 
4. Valetudinem tuam cura diligenter. 5. Virtutes excita^ 
si forte dormiunt. 6. Poem&ta dulcia smito.^ 7. Im- 
pius " ne " audetd " placare donis iram deorum. 8. Con- 
siiles militiae summum jus habento^ nemmi parento. 9. 
Noli " te oblivisci " CicerOnem esse. 10. Cura ut quam 
primum '* venias.". 

Infinitive — Tenses and Use. 

Tenses of Infinitive. — 540-544. 

Rule XLIX. — Subject of Infinitive. — 545. 

Predicate after Infinitive. — 546, 547. 

Infinitive as Subject. — 549. 

87, 1. Virumhonumessejaem^restut'ile." 2. Om- 
nibus bonis " expedit, salvam esse rem pvhUcam. 3. A 
Deo mundum necesse " est regi. 4. Concedendum est * 

* 530, I. ; 545, 3 ; 296. *' 448. ** 538, 2. 
» 546. • 399, 2, 2). »•» 305, 6. 

' 632, 4 » 637, II. «» 535, 1, 1). 

* 662. " 441. " 438, 8. 

* 406, IL « 538, 1. »• 441, 384. 

* 384. » 271, 3. , " 301» 2. 
' 869. 


in virtute sola positam, e&se hedtam vitam. 5. Laelium 
doctum fuisse traditum est. 6. Lectltavisse ' Platonem 
studiOse Demostlienes dicitur.' T. Non esse^ cupidum 
pecunia' est. 8. Non esse emdcem veetlgal est. 9. Corv' 
tentum suis rebus* esse maximae * sunt divitiae. 10. Di- 
ligere parentes* prima' naturae lex' est. 11. Lycurgi 
temporibus ® Homerus fuisse dicitur. 12. Imperdre sibi 
maximum est imperium. 13. Parentes suos non amdre^ 
impietas est. 14. Constat ad salutem civium inventus 
esse leges. 15. Pecuniam praeferre* amicitiae *° sordidum 
est. 16. Nihil est tarn angusti animi," quam amdre di- 
vitias. 17. Ex malis digere minima oportet. 

Infinitive as Object. — 550, 551. 
88. 1. JFlerre laborem consuetudo docet. 2. Vinche 
scis, Hannibal,*" victoria " uti nescis. 3. Magister tuus 
te magna mercede " nihil " sapere '• docuit. 4. Num 
sum vel Graece loquij vel Latine docendus? 5. Non 
omnes sciunt referre '' beneficium. 6. A Graecis '* Galli 
urbes moenibus *• cingere didicerunt. 7. Non vMem ar- 
bitror esse futurarum rerum scientiam. 8. Concede nihil 
esse lonum, nisi quod honestum sit.*' 9. Nonne poetae 
post mortem nc^ilitdri volunt ? 10. Syracusas mttximam 
esse Graecdrum urbium^*^ omnium audivistis. 11. Socra- 
tes parens" philosophiae jure" did potest." 12. Nun- 
quam putaviyj^r^," ut supplex ad te venlrem." 13, Cato 
esse quam videri bonus " malebat." 








. * 419, 




' 166. 

• 426. 





» 414. 

" 401. 



'' 396, 2. 3). 

" 419. 

« 547, L 



"^ 371, 


«• 290. 



^ 544. 

" 292, 





Infinitive ir^ Special Construct loiis. — 553. 

89. 1. Consilium erat continudre * bellum. 2. Bene 
et beate vivere est honeste et reete vivh^e. 3. Postumio 
negotium dabatur mdere^ ne quid' res publiea detri- 
menti* caperet.* 4. Fuit fama Themistoclem venenum 
sua sponte " sumpsisse. 5. Consilium fuit in Graeciam 
redlre. 6. Fama est Romiilum Romam condidisse. 7. 
Fama est Homerum oaLOcmnfuiase. 

Subject and Object Clauses. — 554r-558. 

90. Subject Clauses. — 555, 556. — 1. Quaeritur, quid 
faciendum sit.^ 2. Verum' est amicitiam inter bonos 
esse. 3. Eeliquum est, ut certemus* offieiis" inter nos. 
4. Aceedit quod" patrem" amo. 

91, Object Clauses. — 557, 558. — 1. Non dubito, tu 
quid responsurus sis.^ 2. Rogavi pervenissentne " Agri- 
gentum. 3. Sentimus nivem esse albam; dulce, mel. 
4. Democritus dieit innumerabiles esse mundos. 5. Me- 
mini gloriatum esse Hortensium," quod nunquam bello " 
civili interfuisset." , 

Gerunds and Gerundives. — 559-566. 

92, Genitive. — 563. — 1. Sapientia ^lt^^'' vivendi pu- 
tanda est. 2. Caesar loquendi finem facit. 3. Mihi" 
disoendi, tibi docendi facultatem otium praebet. 4. Le- 
gendi semper oceasio est, audiendi^ non semper. 5. Epar 

' 563, L 

■» 525. 

" 526, L 

« 553, XL 

8 438, 8. 

" 545. 

3 190, 1. 

» 495, 2. 

" 386. 

4 396, 2, 3). 

^0 414. 

»« 529. 


" 554, IV. 

" 362. 

• 414, 2. 

»* 447. 

»8 384, II. 



minondas stndiosus erat audiendV 6. MaxTme* sura 
cupidus te* avdiendi. T. DemosthShes Platonia stndio- 
sus audiendi fait. 8. Multi propter gloriae cupiditatem 
cupidi sunt hellorum gerendorum. 9. Exercendae memo- 
riae gratia,* quid quoque die* audierira/ commemoro 

93. Dative.— 564. — 1. Crassus diBserendo* par non 
erat. 2. Solvendo^ civitates non erant. 3. Numa sacer- 
do^hvs* creandis animum adjeeit. 4. M.ovL9,pec6ri bonus 
cdendo erat. 5. Consul placcmdia diia dat operam. 6. 
Sunt nonnulli dcuendis puerorum ingeniis non inutiles 

94. Accusative. — 565. — 1. Homo ad inteUiffend^m'^ 
et ad dgendwn est natus. 2. Breve tempus aetatis satis 
longum est ad bene" vivendum. 3. Bene sentire reete- 
que faeere " satis est ad bene beateque vivendum. 4. 
Pythagoras Lacedaemona" ad cognoscendas Lycurgt 
leges eontendit. 5. Ubii navium magnam copiam ad 
i/rcmsportcmdum exercUum poUicebantur. 6. Catilina, 
nobilissimi generis" vir, sed ingenii pravissimi, ad delerir 
dampcutricmh conjuravit cum audacissimis viris. 

95. Ablative. — 566. — 1. Nihil" agendo^'' homines 
male agere " discunt. 2. Lycurgi leges laboribus erudi- 
unt juventutem, venando^ currendo^ algendo^ aestuando. 
3. Omnis loquendi elegantia augetur legendis oraUmbus '* 
etpoetis. 4. Virtutes cemuntur in agendo. 5. Multa *' 
de bene beateque vivendo a Platone disputata sunt. 

» 399, 2, 2). 

' 391, 1. 

'' 3'79 ; 68. 

'' 305, 2 ; 166. 


" 396, IV. 


» 384, IL 


* 414, 2. 



' 426. 

- " 559. 

" 550. 

•525; 234. 


'"441, 1. 


Supine.— 567-570. 

Rule L. — Supine in um. — 569. 

Supine in u. — 570. 

96, 1. Lacedaemonii Agesilaum ieUdtum miserunt in 
Asiam. 2. Themistocles Argos * hxihitat/umi concessit. 
3* Hannibal patriam * defensum revocatus est. 4. Vei- 
entes pacem pefMv/m oratores Komam mittunt. 5. Quod 
optimum ^factu * videbitur, facies. 6. Quid est tarn ju- 
cundum cogmt/u, atque omdMu^ quam sapientibus senten- 
tiis * omata oratio f Y. Pleraque dict/a^ quara re • sunt 

Pabticiples. — 571-581. 

97. 1. Alexander ?/im^7i« ' anniilum dedit Perdiccae. 
2. Hippias in Marathonia pugna cecidit, arma contra pa- 
triam ferens.^ 3. Apelles pinxit Alexandrum Magnum 
fiilmen tenentem in templo Ephesiae Dianae. 4. Sol 
ocdidenB *" noctem corif icit. 5. Terra mutdta " non mu- 
tat mores. 6. Dionysius tyrannus, Syractisis " exptUst^j 
Corinthi" pueros docebat. Y. Hannibal imperator" 
fdctua omnes gentes Hispaniae bello sub^git. 8. Sacer- 
dos vmda in custodiam datur. 9. Regibus eocaetis^ con- 
siiles creati sunt. 10. PerdMis " rebus omnibus, tamen 
ipsa *• virtus se sustentare " potest. 11. Athenienses, non 
exspectdtd'^ auxilio, in proelium egrediuntur.*' 12. Sperne 


« 578, I. 

" 362, 8. 



» 678, IV. 


» 678, II. 

» 462. 

* 670, 429. 

» 680. 

" 662, 1. 



" 681. 

• 429. 

» 421, II. 

»« 225. 

^ 163, 2. 


voluptates ; nocet empta dolore * voluptas. 13. Dilapsi 
sunt in oppida, moenibus * se defenmri^ 14. Pueris 
sententias ediscendas^ damns. 15. Lentnlns attribuit 
urbem injlammcmdam Cassio,* totam Italiam vastanda/m 
Cation ae. 


Rule LI. — Use of Adverbs. — 582-585« 
Conjunctions, 587, 588. 

98, Advebbs. — 1. Sapientis* animus semper vacat 
vitio,* nunquami turgescit; nunquam sapiens irascitur. 
2. Semper in proelio iis ^ maximum • est periciilum qui • 
maaUme timent. 3. Ut secunda " moderate tulimus," sic 
adversam fortunamyor^l^ ferre debemus. 

99. Conjunctions. — 1. Horae cedunt et dies et menses 
et anni. 2. Neque pecimiae neque tecta magnif ica " ne^ 
gybe opes " Tieque imperia neqybe voluptates in bonis rebus 
numerandae sunt. 3. Atticus neque mendacium dicebat 
neque pati poterat. 4. Virtus Tveo eripi Tiec surripi potest 
unquam ; neque naufragio " neque incendio amittitur. 
5. Aut labores aut sumptus suseipere nolunt." 6. Est 
philosophi *• habere " non vagam, sed certam sententiam. 
7. Jus sua sponte " est expetendum ; etenim omnes viri 
boni jus ipsum amant. 

' 678, V. 

* 384, 11. 

• 419, IIL 


" 183, 1. 


'* 414, 4. 



» 441, 1. 


" 292. 

" 649. 


"^ 414, 2. 



NoTE.^— It is recommended that, in reading the Fables and Anecdotes, 
special attention should be given to Gender and to the Declension of 
Nouni\ Adjectives and Pronouns, 

jj ' . The Kid and the Wolf. 

100. Hoeous, stans * in tecto domus,' lupo ' praeter- 
eunti malediidt. Cui lupus, ^'Non ta^^ inquit,* ^' %ed 
tectum mihi indledlcity 

Saepe loqus* el tempus homines' timidos auddces' 
reddit.' ,< 

The Oxen. 

101. In eodem prato pascebantur' tres" boves" in 
maxima concordia, et sic ab omni ferarum incursione " 
tuti erant. Sed^dissidio " inter illos orto, singiili a feris ** 
petiti et laniati sunt. 

Fabiila docet, quantum boni sit " in concordia. 

* 438, 1. V 

• 72, 2. 

" 66. 

' 119, 1." 

^873, a> 

" 100, 8. 

' 384. 

■ 463, I. 

» 431. 

* 297, II. 2. 


" 414, 6. 


» 176. 



The Woman and the Hen, 

102. Mulier quaedam habebat galllnam, quae ei' 
quotidie ovum pariebat aureum. Hinc suspicari ' coepit,' 
illam auri massam intus celare, et gallinam occidit. Sed 
niha in ea repent, nisi quod * in aliis gallinis reperlri 
sol^t.* Itaque dum majoribus' divitiis' inhiabat, etlam 
minores perdidit. 

The Peasant and the Mouse, 

103. Mus* a rustico deprehensus tarn acri morsu 
ejus digitos vulneravit, ut ille eum dimitteret," dicens : . 
" Nihil^ meherculey tampudUum esty quodde salute ** des- 
perdre debeat/^ modo se defendere veUt.^ 

The Fox and the Grapes, 

104. Vulpes " uvam in vite conspicata ad illam sub- 
siliit omnium virium " suarum contentione," si eam forte 
attiiigere posset. Tandem defatigata inani labore disce- 
dens dixit : " At nunc, etiam acerbde sunt, nee eas in via 
repertas '* toUeremP " 

Haec fabiila docet, multos ea contemnere, quae se 
assequi posse desperent." 

The Wolf and the Crane, 

105. In faucibus lupi os inhaeserat. * Merc§de " igitur 
conducit gruera,** qui illud extrabat." Hoc grus longi- 
tudine" colli facfle effecit. Quum autem mercedem 

» 384, 11. 

8 115, 1 

"414; 100,3. 




^« 578, III. 

3 29Y; 460, 2. 

'0 73, E. 


115, 2. 

" 503 ; 503, 2. 

^ 445, 6. 

" 500. 

»« 501, I. 

* 271, 3. 

" 505. 

» 416 ; 104, 1. 


" 43, 3. 

«o 66, 2. 



21 100, 1. 


postularet,* subridens lupus et dentibus' infrendens, 
" Num tibi^^ inquit, ''^flw^a merces^ mdetv/r^ quod cor 
put mcolume ex lupifaucilyus eoctraxisti f '\ 

The Trumpeter. 

106, Tubicen* ab hostiibus captus, ^'Ne^ me^^ inquit, 
" interficMe / 7W/m mermis sum^ neque • quidquam JiOr 
heo prdeter hanc tubam.^^ At hostes^ " Propter hoc 
ipmim^^ inquiiint, " te imUHrmmus^ quod^ quum ipse 
pugncmdV m* imperltus^ aUos ad pugnam incitdre 

Fabula docet, non solum maleficos * essp puniendos, 
sed etiam eos, qui alios ad male faciendum *" irrltent."^ 

The Htisbandman and his Sons, 

107, Agricola senex, quum mortem " sibi *' appro- 
pinquare sentlret," filios convocavit, quos," ut fieri '• so- 
let, interdum discordare noverat," et faseem virgularum 
afferri "* jubet. Quibus allatis, filios hortatur, ut hunc 
faseem frangerent. Quod " quum facere non possent, 
distribuit singulas virgas, iisque celeriter fractis, docuit 
illos, quam firma res** esset" concordia, quamque imbe- 
cillis discordia. 

The Mice, 

108. Mryres aliquando habuerunt consilium, quo- 
modosibi"" a fele caverent. Multis aliis" propositis, 

*518, II. "441; 545. "278,3. 

' 110, 1. " 559, 565. " 292, 2; 551. 

' 362. " 501, I. » 453. 

* 76, 1. "110; 105. *'362. 

* 538, 1. " 386. " 526. 
•587,1.2. "518,11. "385,3. 
' 563 ; 399. " 545. ^' 431. 

* 518, I, '" 294. 



omnibus placuit, u\ eV tintinnabulum annecteretur ;' sic 
enim ipsos' sonitu admonitos esam fugere posse. Sud 
quum jam inter mures quaereretur,* qui fell tintinnabu- 
lum annecteret,* nemo repertus'est. 

Fabula doeet, in suadendo * plurimos ^ esse audaces, 
sed in ipso periculo timidos.^ 

The Enemies, 
109, In eadem navi • vebebantur duo,* qui inter se 
capitalia odia exercebant. TJnus • eorum in prora, alter '* 
in puppi" residebat. Orta tempestate ingenti, quum 
omnes de vita desperarent, interrogat is, qui in puppi 
sedebat, gubematorem, utram ^"^ partem namspv^ sulh 
mersum iri eodstimdret, Cui gubemator, '' Prorarriy'^ 
respondit. Tum ille, " Jam mora mihi non molesta est^ 
quum inzmlci mei mortem adspectu/rvs simP " 

The Tortoise arid the Eagle, 

HO. Testudo aquflam magnopere orabat, ut sese 
volare doceret." Aqufla ei ostendebat quidem, eam *^ 
rem " petere naturae '• suae eontrariam ; sed ilia nihilo " 
minus instabat, et obsecrabat aquilam, ut se volucrem 
facere vellet.*' Itaque ungulis arreptam 'aqufla sustiilit 
in sublime, etdemisit illam, ut peraerem ferretur." Tum 
in saxa incidens comminuta interiit." 

Haec fabula docet, multos cupiditatibus suis occaeca- 
tos consilia prudentiorum respuere, et in exitium ruere 
stultitia '° sua. 


• 62, III. 

"^ 371. 

« 495, 2. 

M41; 175. 

^« 391. 


" 151. 

" 418, 

* 518, n. 

" 62, III. 

" 293. 


« 517. 

>» 296, 8. 

• 666, 11. 


» 414, 2. 

» 165 ; 441. " 645. 


The Lion, 
111. SocietStem junxerant * leo, juvenca, capra, ovis. 
Praeda autem, quam ceperant, in quattuor partes aequa- 
les divisa,' leo, " Prmm^'^ ait,' " mea est ; debetv/r enim 
Time praestcmtide meae. ToUa/m et secundarrij quam 
meret/ur * rdbur * meum. Tertiam mndHcat sibi * egregius 
labor meus. Quarta/m qui siM a/rrogdre volueHt^ is ® 
soiat^ se hdbiturum me iniimcum, siM.^^ " Quid facerent " 
imbecilles bestiae, aut quae sibi leonem infestum habere 



I 112. Anaxagoram ferunt,*^ nuntiSta" inorte filii, 
dixisse : " Sciebam me genuisse mortalem.^^ " 

\;.-N^ Tholes. 

V ^' 1 1 1 3. Thales interrogatus, quid esset '* Deus, " Quod^'* 
"^Mnquit, " initio^^ etjme carets 

114. Thales interrogatus, quid esset difficile,'* "xSfe 
ipsum^'^ inquit, ^^nosse.^^ " Interrogatus, quid esset facile : 
" AlUrvmi^'! inquit, ^'adTTvomreP 

115. Thales rogatus, quid maxime commune esset 
hominibus,'" " Spes^'* respondit, " hanc enim et iJU ha- 
hmt^ qui cdiud nihiV] 

116. Quum Thales interrogaretur," quid esset om- 
nium vetusti^imum, respondit : " Deus^ quod nunquam 
esse coepitP '" 

^ 463, II. 


» 419, m. 

' 431, 2,(1). 


» 163, 2. 

' 297, II. 

" 391. 

" 234, 2. 

* 226. 

"485; 486,11. 

" 391. 

' 77, IV. 


» 518, IL 

« 384, 11. ; 449, I. 

»» 857, I. 



" 625. 





117. Socrates, in pompa quum magna vis anri ar- 

gentique ferretur/ " Quam Twulta non desidero^^ inqnit. 

> 118. Sapientissimns Socrates dicebat/«o^/•^«^' nihU^ 

praeter hoc ijpsum^ quod nihil sdret : * rePiquos hoc etiam 


Scipio J/ricanits. 

119. Scipio Africanns nnnquam ad negotia publica 
accedebat, antequam in templo Jovis* precatus esset.*s^ 

120. Scipio Africanus Ennii poetae imaginem' in 
sepulcro gentis Comeliae coUocari jnssit,' quod Scipionnm 
res gestas carminibns suis illustraverat.' ^ 

Antigonus and the Cynic, 

121. Ab Antigono Cynicns quidam petiit " talentum. 
Ilespondit,"^Zt^" esse^ qibcrni quod'^ Cynicus j>etere de- 
heret* Eepnlsus petiit denariura. Eespondit rex, oni- 
nu8^^ ease quam quod " regem, deceret dare.^^ 


122. Cicero Dolabellae " dicenti, se '• triginta annos 
habere," " Verum est^^ inquit, ^'ncmi hoc jam a^Ue 
viginti annos audmiP 

The Lacedaemonians, 

123. Lacedaemonii, Phil^po minitante ^" per litte- 
ras, se omnia quae con^rentur ^ prohibiturum,"* quaesi- 
verunt, num se esset ^^ etiam mori prohibituTus. 

^518, n. •«4'71, II. ' "^384. 

« 469, II. " 4Y2. "« 545. 

« 545. " 234. " 551, I. 

* 531. " 460, 2. »« 431, 2, (1). 

* 66, 3. " 166. " 531. 

« 523, II. 2. » 371 ; 445, 6. » 545, 3. 

' 72, 3. " 549. " 525. 




„ \ V 124. Leonidas, LacedaemoinOrura rex,quum Xerxes 
^\ scripsisset/ " Mitte arma; " respondit, " Yerdet cape^'^ 

125. Quum ad Leonidam quidam iniKtum ' dixisset/ 
^"^ Hastes sunt prctpe nos;^^ '' M nos^^^ inquit, '^prope 

126. E Lacedaemoniis * unus, quum Perpes hostis in 
coUoquio dixisset * glorians, " Solem * prae jaculorum 
iiiultitudiue'\et sagittaruin non videbitis," ''In umbra 
igUury^^ inquit, ''pugncMmus.^^ 

127. Lacedaemonius quidam quum rideretur/ quod 
^^ i claudus in pugnara iret/ " At mihi^^ inquit, '' pugnare^ 

nxmfugere est jpropoMum^^ \ 


128. Solon quum interrogaretur,* cur nullum sup- 
plicium constituisset • in enm, qni parentem necasset," 
respondit, se id neminem fdcturum ^^ putasse.^^ 

Theophrastus^ the PhilosopTier, 

129. Theoplirastus ad quendam, qui in convivio 
prorsus silebat ; " Si stultv^ ^^," inquit, " remfacis sapi- 
ervtem / si sapiens^ stvUamP 

TheocrtttiSy the Poet. 

130. Miser poeta praelegerat Tlicocrito " versus suos. 
Turn interrogiibat," quosnam maxime approbaret,* 
" Quos " omisisti,^^ respondit. 

> 518, II. 

« 72, 2. ^■ 

" 545, 3. 

* 396, III. 

' 5-20, II. 

" 234. 

» 367, 8. 


" 386, 1. 

*. 898, 4, 2). 

"525; 481,11. 

" 460, 2. 

M12; 75. 

"500, 2; 234. 

'^ 445, 6. 




131. Cornelia, Gracchorum mater, quum CampSna 
matrona, apud illam hospita,^ omamenta sua pulcher- 
rima,' ipsi ostenderet,' traxit earn sermone,* donee e 
schola redirent ' liberi. Turn, " Et haec^^^ inquit, " mea 
sunt ornamentay 

X^ Themistocles, 

132. Memoriam in Themistocle fiiisse singularem 
ferunt. Itaque quum ei Simonides artem memoriae pol- 
liceretur,' " OUimonis^'^ • inquit, " maUem ; ' nam me- 
mini etiam^ quae^ nolo; dblivisci non possum^ quae 

133- Themistocles quum Qonsuleretur/ utrum bono 
viro pauperis an minus probato diviti filiam coUocaret,* 
" Ego vero^'^ inquit, " WjoIo virum^ qui pecv/nid " egeat^^ 
quam pecuniam^ quae viro^ 

134, Themistocles interroganti,'' utrum Achilles" 
esse mallet,** an Homerus, respondit : " Tu vera mal- 
lesne^^ te in Olympico certam)ine\ictdrem^* renuntidri^ 
anjpraeco " essej qui victorum normna " jproelamaV^ 

DiogeneSy the Cynic, 

135- Diogenes Cynicus Myndura** profectus, quum 
videret * magnif icas ** portas et urbem exiguam, Myn- 
lios monuit, ut portas clauderent,^" ne urbs egrederCtur." 


« 445, 6. 


« 163, 1. 

" 525 : 526, II. 1. 

" 546. 

» 518, II. 

" 419, III. » 

" 76, 1. 

* 414, 4. 

" 501, I. 

*« 379. 

*295, 3; 522, 


"575; 884. 

» 164. 

' 397, 1, (3). 

" 547, 1. 

^ 489. 

' 485, 486, 3. 

" 525. 


— r 



. 136. Quum quidam Thrasybulo, qui civitatera Athe- 
;: hiensium a tyrannorura dominatione libera vit, dixisset : ' 
^ " Qy,cmta8 tibi groMas Athmae debent ! " ille respondit : 
? ^ " Diifacicmt^ ut quantds vpse patriae deheo gratiaa^ tanr 


tas d vid^r " retvlisse.'^^ 


137, Xerxes refertus donis* fortunae, non equitatn,* 
non pedestribus copiis, non naviiim multitudine, non in- 
iinito pondere * anri contentus, praemium ei proposuit, 
qui inveuisset \ novam voliiptatem. 

Mctellus Piiis, 

138. Metellus Pius, in Hispania bellum gerens" in- 
terrogatus, quid postero die * facturus esset ? *" " I'umcam 
Toeam^'^ inquit, "«i ie?" eloqui posset^ comburererm^'^ '* 

TubliuB Rutilius Rufus. 

139- Publius EutilTus Eufus quTim amici cujilsdam 
injustae rogationi " resisteret,* atque is per summam " 
indignationem dixisset, " Quid ergo mihi " opus est ami- 
citia ** tua, si, quod " rogo, non facis ? " " ImmOj^ in- 
quit, " quid mihi tud^ si propter te (Mquid injuste 
facturus sum ? " 

140. Mulier quaedam a PMlippo, quum a convivio 

» 518, IT. 

^ 500, 2. 

" 610, 1. 

« 487. ^ 

« 578, I. 

» 385. 

» 492, 1 ; 549, 4. 


" 163, 3. 

* 419, Til. 

»«> 5^5. 

" 419, 3. 

^ 419, IV. 

" 871. 

«» 445, 6. 

^^^ • 84, 1. 


temulentus recederet/ damnata, " A PhUijppo^'^ inqnit, 
" temulento ad PhUippum sdbrvum pnyoocoP 


141. Titus amor et deliciae generis huraani appella- 
tus est. Recordatus quondam super coenam, quod niliiJ 
ciiiquam toto ' die ' praestitisset,* memorabiflem illam 
meritoque laudatam vocem edidit : " Amwi^ diem 


^ 142. Xenophon, quum solemne sacrum faceret/ 

filium apud Mantineam in proelio cecidisse * cognovit. 

Coronam deposuit, sed, ut audivit fortissime pugnantem 

interiisse," coronam capiti ^ reposuit, nunjina testatus, se* 

majorem ex virtute filii voluptatem, quam ex morte 

dolorem sentire. 
♦ / 

Diagoras, the Hhodian, 

143. Diagoras Ehodius, quum tres ejuy filii in India 
Olympids victores renuntiati essent,' tanto affectus est 
gaudio," ut in ipso stadio, inspectante popiilo/* in filiorum 
maniLus " animam redderet.'' 

Euripides^ the Tragic Poet. * 

144. Atlienienses quondam ab Euripide postulabant, 
ut ex tragoedia sententiam quandam tolleret." Ille 
autem in scenam progressus dixit, se fabiilas componere 
solere,'* ut populum doceret," non ut a populo disceret. 

' 518, II. 

• 295, 8. ^ 


» 151. 

' 384, II. 




" 492, 8. 

* 554, IV. 

» 414, 4. 

" 272, 3. 

• 551, I. 

'M31; 431,2,(1). 




• ..=^ 


Tiberius^ the Roman Emperor, 

^ 145. Tiberius praesidibus* onerandas tribute' pro- 
vincias' suadentibus* rescripsit: ^^ ^oni pastoris* est, 
Umdere^ pemu, non deglvbere^^ 

146, Tiberius, Hiensium legatjp ' paulo * serius " de 
morte filii Drusi consolantibus, irridens, se quoque^ re- 
spondit, vioem^'* eorv/m dolere^ quod egregiwnh civemSeo- 
torem " amisissienV^J, Efflijxerant autem turn plus quam 

mille " aniii a morte Hectoris. 


Simonides. _^ 

147. Quum de Simonide" quaesivisset " tyrannus 
Hiero, quid esset ** Deus ; deliberandi " sibi unum diem 
postulavit. Quum idem" ex eo postridie quaereret,** 
bidujim petiyit. Quum saepius duplicaret numerum 
dienim, admiransque Hiero requireret, cur ita faceret " ; 
" Quia^^ inquit, " quomto *• diutiua conmLero, tanto inihi 
res videtur obscurior^^ 

'384; 81,2. 8 418. "874,3,4). 

« 419, 2, 1). " 444, 1 & 4. » 518, 11. 

»645. «133, 1; 371,3,1). "625. 

* 577. " 863. " 568. 

•401. "631. "871. 

•549. »17& "418. 


NoTB. — It is recommended that, in reading the Roman History, special 
attention should be given to the Synopsis of Conjugation and to the For- 
mation of the Parts of the Ferft.— 213-288. 

Period I. — Italian and Roman Kings. 


Early Italian Kings, — Aeneas in Italy. 

148. Antiquissimis* temporibus* Satiimus inltallam 
venisse dicitur.^ Ibi hand procul a Janiculo arcem coii- 
didi t, earaque Saturn iam * appellavit. Hie Italos primus * 
agriculturam • docuit/ 

149. Postea Latinus in illis regionibus imperavit. 
Sub hoc rege Troja in Asia eversa est. Hine Aeneas, 
Auchlsae filius, cum multis Trojanis, quibus* ferrmu 
Graecorura pepercerat," auftigit/" et in Italiam perve- 
nit.'" Ibi Latinus rex ei" benigne recepto tiliam Lavi- 
niam in matrimonium dedit." Aeneas urbem condidit, 
quam in honorem conjiigis *^ Lavinium appellavit. 

Ascanius and the Kings of Alba, 

150. Post Aeneae mortem Ascanius, Aeneae filius, 
regiram accepit. Hie sedem regni in alium locum 

» 444, 1. 

^ 442, 1. 

" 273, I. 2. 



»« 273, II. 1. 

-»549, 4. 

' 213, II. 

» 384, II. 


** 3S5. 

" Oii, 3. 

c^- ' • 

^ ' 





transtiilit/ urbemqne condidit in monte ^ Albano, eam- 
que Albam Lougam nuncupavit. Eum secutus est' 
Silvius, qui post Aeneae mortem a Lavinia genitus erat. 
Ejus poster! omnes, usque ad Komam conditam,* Albae * 

151. Silvius Procas, rex Albanorum, duos filios reli- 
quit," Numitorem et Amulium. Horum minor ^ natu,* 
Amulius, jBratri optionem dedit, utrum regnum habere 
vellet,' an bona," quae pater reliquisset." Numitor pa- 
tema bona praetulit ; * Amulius regnum obtinuit. 

Birth of Romulus and Eemus, 

^ 152. Amulius, ut regnum firmissime possideret," 
Numitoris filium per insidias interemit,^^ et filiam fra- 
tris, Eheam Silviam, Vestalem virginem fecit." Nam 
bis Vestae saeerdotibus non'lififi:^ viro** nubere. Sed 
haec a Marte geminos filios, Eomiilura et Eemum, pepe- 
rit." Hoc quum Amulius ci)mperisset," matrem in 
vincula conjecit, pueros autem in Tiberim" abjici 

153. Forte Tiberis aqua ultra ripam se effuderat," 
et, quum pueri in vado essent positi,'* aqua refluens"* eos 
in siceo reliquit. Ad eorum vagitum lupa accurrit,"* 
eosque uberibus suis aluit. Quod*' videns Faustulus 
quidam, pastor illlus regionis, pueros sustiilit,* et uxori 
Accae Laurentiae nutriendos ""* dedit. 

* 292, 2. 


" 62, II. 2. 

MlO, 1. 

'' 441, 1. 

" 269. 

> 283. 

" 527. 

" 518, I. 

* 580. 

» 214,1 '' 

"^ 578, n. 

^ 421, ir. 

""' 255, I. 4. 

• 2V3, II. 1. 

" 386, 2. 

« 453. 

' 165. 

« 273, I. 1. 

«> 5Y8, V. 

•429 ' 

»« 518, II. 

) . s 



Borne founded^ 7BS B,0, 

164, Sic Romulus et Remus pueritiam inter pastores 
transegerunt/ i^ Quum adolevissent,' et forte compens- 
sent, quis ipsorum avus, quae mater fuisset,* Amuliuni 
interfecerunt, et Numitori avo regnum restituerunt. 
Turn urbem condiderunt in monte Aventino, quam Ro- 
mulus a suo nomine Rom|im vocavit. Haec quum moe- 
nibus * eircumdaretur,' Remus oecisus est, dum fratrem 
irridens moenia transiliebat. 

Seizure of the Sabine Women. 

156. Romulus, ut eivium numerum augeret,* asylum 
pateiecit,* ad quod multi ex civitatibus suis pulsi accur- 
rerunt. Sed novae urbis civibus^ conjuges deerant. 
Itaque festum Neptuni et ludos instituit. Ad hos quum 
multi* ex finitimis popiilis cum mulieribus et liberis 
venissent,* Romani inter ipsos ludos spectantes * virgines 

156. Populi illi, quorum virgines raptae erant, bel- 
lum ad versus raptores susceperunt. . Quum Romae *' ap- 
propinquarent,' forte in Tarpeiam virginem inciderunt, 
quae in arce sacra procurabat. Hanc rogabant, ut viam 
in arcem monstraret," eique permiserunt, ut munus sibi 
posceret/' Ilia petiit, ut sibi darent," quod " in sinistris 
manitus" gererent,** annulos aureos et armillas signifi- 
cans. At hostes in arcem ab ea perducti scutis Tarpeiam 
obruerunt ; nam et ea in sinistris manibus gerebant. 

* 255, II. :. 

• 273, II. 1. 

" 492, 2. 

« 518, a 

' 386, 2. 

" 273, I. 2. 


» 441, 1. 

» 445, 6. 

* 131, 1 ; 414. 

" 578, I. 

"118, 1. 

*269; 491. 


"^ 527. 






The Salines a/i^ received into the City, — Death of Romulus. 

157. Turn Eomiilus cum hoste, qui montem Tarpe- 
lum tenebat, pugnam vconseruit in eo loco, ubi nunc 
forum Eomanum est. "In media* caede raptae * processe- 
runt, et hinc patres, liinc conjiiges et soceros complecte- 
bantur, et rogabant, ut caedis finem facerent.' TJtrique 
his precibus Qommoti sunt. Romulus foedus icit, et Sa- 
blnos in urbem recepit. ^ 

168. Postea civitatem descripsit/ Centum senato- 
res legit,* eosque quum ob aetatem, tum ob reverentiam 
iis debitam, Patres appellavit. Plebem in triginta curias 
distribuit, casque raptarum nominibus nuncupavit. An- 
no regni tricesimo septimo, quum exercitum lustraret,* 
inter tempestatem prtamj repente oculis " hominum sub- 
ductus est. Jlinc alii* eum a senatoribus interfectum, 
alii ad deos sublatum " esse existimaverunt r- 

Numa Pompilius, 

169. Post Eomuli mortem unius anni interregnum 
fuit. Quo elapso," JSTuma Pompilius Curibus," urbe in 
agro Sabinorum, natus rex creatus est. Ilic vir bellum 
quidem nullum gessit ; necminus tamen civitati ® profuit. 
Nam et leges dedit, et sacra plurima instituit, ut populi 
barbari et bellicosi mores molliret." Omnia autem, 
quae faciebat, se nymphae Egefiae, conjiigis suae, mo- 
nitu facere dicebat. Morbo decessit," quadragesimo 
tertio imperii anno. 

* 441, 6. 

• 618, IL 

"431,2. / • . 

= 575. 



" 4«2, 2. 


» 491. 

* 258, I. 3. • 

' • 459. 

" 258, I. 2. 

» 255, II. 

* 292, 2. 




Tullm Hostiliv^. 

160. Numae * Buccessit Tullus Ilostilius, cujus avus 
se in bello adversus Sablnos fortem et strenuuin virum 
praestiterat.' Eex' creatus bellum Albanis indixit, id- 
que trigeminorum, Horatiorum et Curiatiorum, certa- 
mine finivit. Albam propter perfidiam Metii Suffetii 
diruit. Quum triginta duobuB anniB * regnasset/ fulmine 
ictus cum domo Buaaxsit* 

Ancu8 Marcius, 

161. Post hunc Ancus Marcius, JSTumae ex filia ne- 
pos, Buscepit imperium. Hie vir aequitate et religione 
avo ' similiB, Latinos bello domuit/ urbem ampliavit, et 
nova ei • moenia circumdedit. Carcerera primus " aedi- 
ficavit. Ad Tiberis ostia urbem condidit, Ostiamque 
vocavit. Vicesimo quarto anno imperii morbo obiit." 

Lucius Tarquiniua PrUcus, 

162. Deinde regnum Lucius Tarquinius Priscus ac' 
cepit, Demarati filius, qui tyrannos patriae Corinthi fu- 
giens in Etmriam venerat. Ipse Tarquinius, qui nomen 
ab urbe Tarquiniis accepit, aliquando Eomam " profec- 
tus" erat. 

163. Quum Eomae" commoraretur,* Anci regis 
familiaritatem consecutus est, qui eum filiorum suonim 
tutorem " rellquit. Sed is pupillis * regnum intercepit. 
Senatoribus, quos Eomiilus creaverat, centum alios ad- 



" 295, 3. 

"" 261, 2. 


^ 379. 

» 862, 3. 


" 283. 

* 378, 1. 

• 884, II. 1. 

" 421, II. 

* 618, }L 

" 442, 1. 


X Vi~ 


-. "^ .„ .-^ L ^-* ; 


^-■- 1 



didit, qui minorum gentium sunt appellati. Plura bella 
feliciter gessit, nee paucos agros, hostifbus* ademptoB, 
urbis territorio adjunxit. Primus' triumphans urbem 
intravit. Cloacas fecit;' Capitolium inchpavit. Tri- 
cesimo octavo imperii anno per Anci filios/ quibus * reg- 
num eripuerat, occisus est. 

Serviua TuUiu8» 

164. Post hunc Servius TuUius suscepit imperium, 
genitus ex nobili femina, captiva tamen et famiila. 
Quum adolevisset,* rex ei filiam in matrimonium dedit. 

166, Quum Priscus Tarquinius occisus esset, Tana- 
quil de superiore ' parte domus populum allocuta est, 
dieens : regem gra^e quidem, sed nan letale wMus ac- 
cepisse; eumpetere^ ut popidus^ dum qomahiissety Ser- 
vio TuUio obedlretJ^ Sic Servius regnare coepit, sed 
bene imperium administravit. Montes tres urbi 
adjunxit.** Primus omnium censum ordinavit. Sub eo 
Koma habuit octoginta tria millia civium cum his, qui 
in agris erant. 

166, Hie rex interfectus est scelere filiae TuUiae et 
Tarquinii Superbi, filii ejus regis, cui * Servius successe- 
rat. Nam ab ipso Tarquinio interfectus est. TuUia in 
forum properavit, et prima conjugem regem salutavit. 
Qiium domum " redlret, aurlgam super patris corpus, in 
via jacens," carpentum agere jussit. 

Banishment of Tarquinius Superbus^ 510 B. C, 

167. Tarquinius Superbus cognomen moribus'' me- 
ruit. - Bello ** tamen strenuus plures finitimorum popu- 

* 386. 

"" 442, 1. 
' 255, II. 
M14,5, 1). 

• 386, 2. 

" 518, II. 

" 379, 3. 

' 163, 8. 


" 533, 4. 

" 414, 4. 

» 492, 2. 

" 429. 

«• 258, I. 1. 



lorum vicitJ Templnm Jo vis in Capitolio aedificavit- 
Postea, dum Ardeam oppugnabat,' urbem Latii, impe- 
rium perdidit. 

168. Lucius Brutus, CoUatlnus, alilque nonnulli in 
exitium regis conjurarunt/ populoque persuaserunt/ ut 
ei portas urbis clauderet.* Exercitus quoque, qui civitii- 
tem Ardeam cum rege oppugnabat, eum rellquit. Fugit 
itaque cum uxore et liberis suis, Ita Romae septem r©- 
ges regnaverunt annos ducentos quadraginta quattuor. 

Period II.— Roman Struggles and Conquests. 


264 B. c. • 

ComuU at JRome, 509 B, C— War with Tarquin, 

169. Tarquinio expulso," consiiles coepere' pro uno 
rege duo creari, ut, si unuS malus esset," alter eum coer- 
ceret.' Annuum iis imperium tribtitum est, ne per 
diuturnitatem potestatis insolentiores redderentur.* Fue- 
runt igitur anno primo, expulsis regibus, consiiles Lucius 
Junius Brutus, acerrimus " libertatis vindex, et Tarqui- 
nius CoUatinus. Sed CoUatmo" paulo post dignitas 
sublata est," Placuerat eiiim, ne quis ex Tarqiiiniorum 
familia Eoraae maneret." Ergo cum omni patrimonio 
Buo ex urbe raigravit, et in ejus locum Valerius Publi' 
cola consul factus est.'* • 

» 251, 1. 



* 269, I. 

* 492, 2. 

" 431, 2. 
' 235, 297. 
*" 163, 1. 

" 292, 2. 
" 492. 
" 294. 

-^ ^ ■ I - i^r^^ * 


170. Commovit* bellum urbi rex Tarquinius. In 
prima pngna Brutus consul, et Aruns, Tarquinii filius, 
«ese invicem occiderunt. Romani tainen ex ea pugna 
victores recesserunt.^ Brutum Eomanae matrOnae, quasi 
comraunem patrem, per annum luxerunt/ Valerius 
Publicola Spurium Lucretium, coUegam' sibi* fecit; 
quum morbo exstinctus esset/ Publicola Horatium Pul- 
villum sibi collegam sumpsit.* Ita primus annus quin- 
que consules habuit. 

War with PorseTuiy 508 B. (7. 

171. Secundo quoque anno iterum Tarquinius bel- 
lum Eomanis intulit/ Porsena, rege Etruscorum, auxi- 
lium ei ferente.' In illo bello Horatius Codes solus 
pontem ligueum defendit, et hostes cohibuit, donee pons* 
a tergo ruptus esset.** Tum se cum armis in Tiberim '* 
conjecit, et ad suos transnavit. 

I 172, Dum Porsena urbem obsidebat, Quintus Mu- 
cins Scaevola, juvenis fortis animi, in castra liostium se 
contiilit eo consilio," ut regem occideret." At ibi scri- 
barn regis pfo ipso rege interf^cit. Tum a regiis satel- 
litibus cbmprehensus et ad regem deductus, quum 
Porsena eum ignibus alliitis" terreret," dextram arae 
accensae imposuit, donee flammis consumpta esset/* 
Hoc facinus rex miratus juvenem dimlsit " incoliimem. 
Tum hie, quasi beneficium referens, ait," trecentos alios 
juvenes i/n eum conjurasse,^^ Ilac re territus Porsena 

» 270, II. 1. 

•^ 292, 2. 

" 492. 

' 258, I. 2. 

M31, 2. 

" 580. 

» 37?.. 

" 110, 1. 

« 518, IT. 


»^ 522, IT. .'. 

"^ 258, 1. 2. 

dl8, 11. ; 273, 

II. 1. 

" G2, II. 2. 

" 297, II, 

* 258, I. 4. 

" 414, 2. 

" 234. 


pacem cumEomanis fecit, Tarquinius autem Tusciiluin' 
Be contulit, ibique privatus consenuit/ 

Secession to the Mom Sacer^ 494 B, 0, 

173. Sexto decimo anno post reges exactos,* popnliis 
Eomae seditionem fecit, questus quod tributis et militia 
a senatu exhauriretur.* Magna pars plebis urbem reli- 
quit, et in montem trans Anienem* amnem* secessit. 
Turn patres turbati Meneniutn Agrippam miserunt ad 
plebem, qui earn senatui conciKaret/ Hie iis inter alia 
fabiilam narravit de yentre et membris humani corporis ; 
qua populus commotus est, ut in urbem rediret.* Tum 
primum tribtini plebis creati sunt, qni plebem adversnm 
nobilitatis superbiam defenderent/ 

' Banishment of Goriolanus^ 491 B, G, 

174. Undevicesirao anno post exactos reges, Caius 
Marcius, Coriolanus dictus ab urbe Volscorum Coriolis, 
quam bello ceperat, plebi invisus* fieri coepit. Quare 
urbe " expulsuB ad Volscos, acerrimos Eomanorum hos- 
tes, contendit, et ab iis dux " exercitus factus Komanos 
saepe vicit. Jam usque ad quintum milliarium urbis 
accesserat, nee uUis civium suornm legationibus flecti 
poterat, ut patriae " parceret.® Denique Veturia mater 
et Volumnia uxor ex urbe ad eum venenint ; '• quaruni 
fletu et precibus commotus est, ut exercitum removej'et.* 
Quo facto " a Volscis ut proditor occisus • esse dicitur. 


• 107, 1. 

" 362, 3. 

« 282, 1. 1. 


" 386. 



" 463, II. 

^ 520, II. 

" 547, 1. 

" 431, 2, (3). 

* 72, 4. 

»" 425. 

II ■ - 


The Fdbii cut off at the Orem^ra, 477 B. 0. 

176. Eomani quum adversum Veientes bellurn ge- 
rerent/ familia Fabiorum sola' hoc bellum suscepit. 
Profecti * sunt trecenti sex nobilissimi homines, duce * 
. Fabio consule.* Qniim saepe hostes vicissent/ apud 
Cremeram fluvium castra posuerunt. Ibi, quum Veien- 
tes dolo • usi eos in insidias pellexissent, in proelio exorto ^ 
omnes perierunt, TJni|,8. superfuit ex tanta familia, qui 
propter aetatem puenlem duci non potuerat ad pugnam. 
Hie genus propagavit ad Quintum Fabium Maximum 
ilium, qui Hannibalem prudenti c^mctatione debilitavit 

Borne taken ly the Gauhy 390 B. C, / 


176. Galli Senones ad urbem venerunt, Eomanos 
^ apud flumen AUiam vicenmt, et urbem etiam occupar 

runt. Jam nihil praeter Capitolium defendi potuit. Et 
jam praesidium fame * laborabat, et in eo erant, ut pa- 
cem a Gallis auro • emerent/' quum Camillus cum manu 
militum superveniens hostes magno proelio superavit 

r, y\y^ ^ \^aUyr of Titus Manliua Torquatua, 361 B. 0. 

Ill* Anno trecentesimo nonagesimo tertio post ur- 
bem conditam Galli iterum ad urbem accesserant, et 
quarto milliario " trans Anienem fluvium consederant. 
Contra eos missus est Titus Quinctius. Ibi Gallus qui- 
dam eximia corporis niagnitudine '* fortissimum Romano- 
rum ad certamen singulare provocavit. Titus Manlius, 

* 518, n. 




• 419, 1. 

'« 494. 



» 422, 1, 2). 

* 430, 431. 

" 414, 2. 

" 428, 


nobilisBinms juvenis, provocationem accepit, Galluin 
occidit, euraque torque * aureo spoliavit, quo ornatus 
erat. Hinc et ipse et posteri ejus Torqudti appellati 
sunt. Galli fugam capessiverunt." 

Beginning of Samnite WarSy 843 B, C. 

178, Postea Eomani bellum gesserunt* cum Samni- 
tibus, ad quod Lucius Papirius Cursor cum honore dic- 
tatoris profectus est. Qui * quum negotii cujusdam causa 
Homam rediret,* praecepit Quinto Fabio RuUiano, ma- 
gistro equitum, quen\ apud exercitum reliquit, ne pug- 
nam cum hoste committeret.' . Sed ille occasiOnern 
nactus' felicissime dimicavit, Samnites delevit.-r Ob 
banc rem a dictatore capitis * damnatus est. At ille in 
urbem confugit,' et ingenti favore " militum et popiili 
liberatus est ; in Papirium autem tanta exorta " est 
seditio, ut paene ipse interficeretur:" 

The Eoman Army is made to pcm under the yoJce, 321 B, C.^The 
Samnites are conquered^ 290 B, C. 

179, Duobus annis" post Titus Yeturius et Spurius 
Postumius consiiles bellum adversum Samnites gerebant. 
Hi a Pontio Thelesino, duce hostium, in insidias inducti 
sunt. Nam ad Furciilas Caudlnas Komanos pellexit " in 
angustias, unde sese expedire non poterant. Ibi Pontius 
patrem suum Heremiium rogavit, quid faciendum " pu- 
taret." Ille respondit, aut omnes occidendos esse^ v4 

U19,2, 1). 



" 332, I. 2). 

" 410, 2. 

" 418. 

• 272, 1. 

• 273, U. 

" 272, I. 2. 


» 414, 4. 

« 545, 3. 

» 618, II. 

" 28J, 2. 

»«374, 4; 526. 

• 492, 2. 


RommidTwm vires frrnvgererUur^ aut omnea dirrviMendoa^ 
ut henefido obligareninirA Pontius utrumque " consilium 
improbavit, oinnesque sub lUguin. misit. Samnites 
denique post bellum undequinquaginta linnorum supe- 
rati sunt. C 

/\ War with Pyrrhus^ 281 B. 0. 

180. Devictia.SamnitiibuB,* Tarentinis bellum indic- 
tum est, quia legatis Bomanorum injuriam fecissent/ 
Hi Pyrrhmn, Epiri regem, contra Eomanos a.uxilium 
poposcerunt.* Is mox in Italiam venit, tumque primum 
Somani cum transmarino hoste pugnaverunt. Missus 
est contra eum consul Publius Valerius Laevinus. ^^ic, 
quum exploratores Pyrrlii cepisset,* jussit eos per castra 
duci, tumque dimitti, ut renuntiarent* Pyrrho, quaecun- 
Que' a Eomanis agerentur." 

181. Pugna coramissa,' PjttIius auxilio elephanto- 
rum vicit. Nox proelio finem dedit. Laevinus tamen 
per noctem fugit. Pyrrhus Eomanos mille octingentos 
cepit, eosque summo' honpre" tractavit. ,vQuum eos, 
qui in proelio interfecti erant, omnes adversis vulneribus 
et truci vultu etiam mortuos jac&*e videret," tulisse ad 
coelum manus dicitur cum hac voce : " Ego cum toDilma 
viris " Irevi orhem^^ terrdrum subigeremJ^ " 

182. Postea Pyrrhus Eomam perrexit ; omnia ferro 
igneque vastavit ; Campaniam depopnlatus est, atque ad 
Praeneste" venit, milliario" ab urbe octavo decimo. 
Mox terrore exercitus,** qui cum consule sequebatur, in 
Campaniam se recepit. Legati ad Pyrrhum de captivis 

M91. 'SIS, IL "603,2,2); 610. 

«151, 4. M46, 6. **107,2. 

"431,2,(1).' •52'7. "379,1. 

* 620, II. » 163, 3. " 422, 1. 

* 273, I. 2. ^"^ 414, 3. ''' S96, II. 


redimendis * missi ' honorifice ab eo susoppti sunt ; capti- 
ves sine pretio reddidit. TJnum ex legatis, Fabriciura, 
sic admiratus est, ut ei quartam partem regni sjaa pro- 
mitteret,* si a^se translret ; * sed a Fabricio contemptus * 

183. Quum jam Pyrrhus ingenti Komanorum admi- 
ratione teneretur,* legatam misit Oineam, praestantissi- ' 
mum virum, qui pacem petSret' ea conditione, ut 
Pyrrhus earn partem Italiae, quam arpais occupaverat, 
retineret." (Romani responderunt, eum cum Eomanis 
pacem habere non posse, nisi ex Italia recessisset.' Cineas 
quum rediisset, Pyrrbo eum interroganti, qualis ipsi 
Roma visa esset, *• respondit, se regum patriam vidisse^ 

184, In altero proelio Pyrrhus vulneratus est, ele- 
phant! interfecti, viginti millia hostium caesa sunt. 
Pyrrhus Tarentum fiigit. Interjecto anno, Fabricius 
contra eum missus est. Ad iunc medicus Pyrrhi nocte 
venit promittens, se Pyrrhum veneno occistirum," si 
munus sibi daretur.* Hunc. Fabricius liufitum redtici 
jussit ad dominum. Tunc rex admiratus ilium dixisse 
fertur : " lUe est Fabricius^ qv/i diffiGiLius ab honestdte^ 
quam sol a cursu suo amertl potest^'* Paulo post Pyr- 
rhus, tertio etiam proelio fusus,*^ a Tarento recessit. .> 

' 566, n. ; 


• 518, n. 

« 525. 


' 600, 1. 

" 542, 1. . 


" 495, 3. 

"» 545, 8. 


" 533, 4. 

" 273, II. 2. 


Period III. — Roman Triumphs. 

rnOM THB riBST funic WAB to the conquest of GREECE, 146 B. c. 

First Funic War, 264 B. C, 

186. Anno quadringentesimo nonagesimo post urbem 
conditam Eomanorum exercitus primum in Siciliam tra- 
jecerunt/ regemqne Syracusarum Hieronem, Poenosque, 
' qui multaB civitates in ea insula occupaverant, superave- 
runt. Quinto anno hujus belli, quod contra Poenos 
gerebatur, primum Romani, Caio Duillio, Cnaeo Cor- 
nelio Asina consulibus," man* dimicaverunt. Duillius 
Carthaginienses vicit,* triginta naves occupavit, quattu- 
ordecim mersit,* septem millia Lostium cepit, tria millia 
oceidit. Nulla victoria Eomanis gratior fuit. 

First Funic War. continued. — Invasion of Africa^ 256 B, C. 

186. PauciB annis interjectis, bellum in Africam 
est translatum. Hamilcar, Carthaginiensium dux, pug- 
na navali superatus est ; nam, perditis sexaginta quattuor 
navibus, se recepit; Romani viginti duas amiserunt. 
Quum in Africam venissent,' Poenos in pluribus ' proe- 
liis vicerunt, magnam vim * hominum ceperunt, septua- 
ginta quattuor civitates in fidem acceperunt. Turn victi 
Carthaginienses pacem a Eomanis petierunt.* Quam " 
quum Marcus Atilius Eegulus, Eomanorum dux, dare 
noUet " nisi durissimis conditionibus, Carthaginienses 
auxilium petierunt a Lacedaemoniis. Hi Xanthippum 

» 461, 1 ; 260, 2, 1). • 268, I. 1. • 234. 

« 431. • • 618, II. " 468. 

* 422, 1. ' 165, 1. " 518. 

* 273, II. " 66. 

/ , ■/• 


miBerunt, qui KomSnam exercitum magno proelio vicit. 
RegiiluB ipse captuB et in vincula conjectus est. 

187. Non tamen ubique fortuna Carthaginiensibus 
favit.' Quum aliquot proeliis victi essent,' Regulum ro- 
gaverunt, ut Eomam proficisceretur/ et pacem captivo- 
rumque permutatiouem a Komanis impetraret. lUe 
quum Romam venisset, induetus in senatum dixit, se 
deaiisse* Romdnum esse ex Hid die, qud * in potestdtem 
Poenorum venisset.^ Turn Bomanis suasit/ ne pacem 
cum CarthaginiensibuB facerent : ' illos enim tot casibus 
fractos sjpem nvUam nisi in pace habere : • tcmti " non 
esse, vi tot miUia cwpimorum propter se wnum etpaucos, 
qui ex Homunis capti esservt^ redderentur.^^ Haec sen- 
tentia obtinuit. Eegressus igitur in Africam crudelisfflL- 
mis suppliciis exstinctus est." 

End of the First Punic War, 241 B, C, 

188. Tandem, Caio Lu^atio Catiilo, Aulo Postumio 
consulibus, anno belli Punici vicesimo tertio magnum 
proelium navale commissum est contra Lilybaeum, pro- 
montorium Siciliae. In eo proelio septuaginta tres 
Cartbaginiensium naves captae, centum viginti quinque 
demersae,** triginta duo millia hostium capta, tredecim 
millia occlsa sunt. Statim Carthaginienses pacem peti- 
erunt, eisque pax tributa " est. Captivi Konianorum, 
qui tenebantur a Carthaginiensibus, redditi sunt. Poeni 
Sicilia," Sardinia, et ceteris insulis, quae inter Italiam 
Africamque jacent, decesserunt, omnemque Hispaniara, 
quae citra Iberum est, Romanis permiserunt. 



" 495, 2. 

« 618, II. 


" 272, 1. 

•492,2; 374,4. 

* 492, 2. 

» 272, II. 


" 530, 1. 

" 279. 


~ 402, 1. 

« 484, 1. 


Siege of Saguntum. — The Second Punic War^ 218 B. 0» 

189. Paulo* post Punicum bellum renovatum est 
per Hannibalem, Carthaginiensium ducem, quem pater' 
Hamilcar novem annos' natum aris* admoverat, ut 
odium perenne in BoiMnos juraret.* Hie annum agens 
vicesTmum aetatis Saguntum, Hispaniae civitatem, Ro- 
manis' amicam, oppugnare aggressus est/ Huic Eomani 
per legates ^enuntiaverunt, ut bello' abstineret.' Qui 
quum legates admittere nollet," Eomfini Carthaginem 
miserunt, ut mandaretur* Hannib&li, ne bellum contra 
socios popiili Romani gereret." Dura responsa a Car- 
thaginiensibus reddita. Saguntlnis interea fame victis, 
Romani CarthagiDiensibus bellum indixerunt, 

Hannibal crosses the Alps, 218 B, 0. — Battles of the Ticinus, Tre- 
hia, and Lake Trasimentts. — Battle'of Cannae, 216 B, C, 

190. Hannibal, fratre Hasdrubale in Hispania re- 
licto," P{jrrenaeum et Alpes transiit. Traditur in Italiam 
octoginta millia peditum, et viginti millia equitum, sep- 
tem et triginta elephantos abduxisse. Interea multi Li- 
gures et Galli Hannibali se conjunxerunt. Primus" ei 
occurrit Publius Cornelius Scipio, qui, proelio ad Ticl- 
num commisso, superatus est, et, vulnere accepto," in 
oastra rediit. Tum Sempronius Gracchus conflixit ad 
Trebiam amnem. Is quoque vincitur.** Multi populi 
se Hannibali dediderunt. Inde in Etruriam progressus 
Flaminium consulem ad Trasimenum lacum superat." 



" 492. 

' 441 




" 426, 2. 



• 492, 2. 

" 467, IIL 


" 618. 


Ipse Flaminius interemptus, Eomanoruin vigiuti qnin- 
que millia caesa sunt. 

191. Quingentesimo duodequadragesimo anno post 
urbeui conditam Lucius Aemilius Paulus et Caius Te- 
rentius Varro contra Hannibalem mittuntur. Quam- 
quam intellectum erat, Hannibalem non aliter vinci 
posse quam mora, Varro tamen, moras* impatiens, apud 
vicum, qui Cannae appellatur, in Apulia pugnavit; 
ambo consules victi, Paulus interemptus est. In ea 
pugna consulares aut praetorii viginti, senatores triginta 
capti aut occisi ; ' militum quadraginta millia, equitum 
tria millia et quingenti perierunt. In his tantis malis 
nemo tamen pacis meritionem facere dignatus est. 
Servi, quod * nunquam ante factum,' manumissi et mili- 
tes facti sunt. 

192. Post earn pugnam multae Italiae civitates, 
quae Eomanis* paruerant, se ad Hannibalem transtule- 
runt.* Hannibal Eomanis obtiilit, ut captivos redime- 
rent;* responsumque est a senatu, eo% oives non esse 
necessarios, qui ai'mdti cwpi potuissenV Hos omnes 
ille postea variis suppliciis interlecit, et tres modios au- 
reorum annulorum Carthaginem misit, quos manibus* 
equitura Romanorum et senatorum detraxerat.* Interea 
in Hispania frater Hannibalis, Hasdriibal, qui ibi reman- 
serat *** cum magno exercitu, a duobus Scipionibus vin- 
citur," perditque in pugna triginta quinque millia 

193. In Sicilia res prospere gesta est." Marcellus 
magnam hujus iusulae partem cepit, quam Poeni occu- 

' 399, 2. 

* 292, 2. 

• 258, 1. 1. 

« 460, 8. 


•'^ 269. 

» 446,1 

' 500, 2. 

" 467, m. 


^ 386, 2. 

» 272, I. 


paverant; Syracusas, nobilissimam urbem, expngnavit, 
et ingentem inde praedam Romam * misit. Laevlnus in 
Macedonia cum Philippo et multis Graeciae popiilis 
amicitiam fecit; et in Sicilian! profectuB* Ilannonem, 
Poenorum ducem, apud Agrigentum cepit ; quadraginta 
civitates in deditionem accepit, viginti sex expugnavit. 
Ita omni Sicilia recepta,' cum ingenti gloria Romam re- 
gressus est. 

194, Interea in Hispaniam, ubi duo Scipiones ab 
Hasdrub&le interfecti erant, missus est Publius Cornelius 
Scipio, vir Romanorum omnium fere primus.* Hie, puer 
duodeviginti annorum, in pugna ad Ticinum, patrem 
singulari virtute servavit. Deinde post cladem Cannen- 
sem multos nobilissiraorom juvenum Italiam deserere 
cupientium,* auctoritate sua ab hoc consilio deterruit. 
Yiginti qnattuor annos natus in Hispaniam missus, die,' 
qua venit, Carthagifnem JSTovam cepit, in qua omne 
aurum et argenttmi et belli apparatum Poeni habebant, 
nobilissimos quoque obsides,' quos ab Hispanis accepe- 
rant Hos obades parentibus reddidit. Quare omnes fere 
Hispaniae civitates ad eum nno animo* transierunt. 

196. Anno quarto decimo postquam in Italiam Han- 
nibal venerat, Scipio consul creatus, et in Africam mis- 
sus est. Ibi contra Hannonem, ducem Carthaginiensium, 
prospere pugnat, totumque ejus exercitum delet." Se- 
cundo proelio undecim millia hominum occidit, et castra 
cepit cum quattuor millibus et quingentis militibus. 
Qua *• re audita,* omnis fere Italia Hannibalem deserit. 
Ipse a Oarthaginiensibus in Africam redire jubetur. * Ita 
Italia liberata est. 

1 379. * 577. • 414, 8. 

« 283. ' 426. • 264. 

M31,2, (3). '81,2. *463. 
* 16G. 


• Battle ofZama^ 202 B. G. 

196. Post plures pugnas et pacem plus seiiiel frustra 
tentatam, pugna ad Zamam committitur, in qua peritis- 
sifrai duces copias suas ad bellum educebant. Scipio 
victor recedit; Hannifbal cum paucis equitibus evadit. 
Post hoc proelium pax cum Carthaginiensibus facta est. 
Scipio, qimm Eomam rediisset,* ingenti gloria triumpha- 
vit, atque Africanus appellatus est. Sic fiuem accepit 
secundum Punicum bellum post annum undevicesiraum 
quam' coeperat. 

War with Philip, — Gynoicephalae^ 197 B, G, 

197. Finito Punico bello, secutum est Macedonicum 
contra Philippum regem. Superatus est rex a Tito 
Quinctio Flaminio apud Cynosceplialas, paxque ei data 

War with Fersetis, — Pydna, 168 B. G, 

198. Philippo, rege Macedoniae, mortuo, filius ejus 
Perseus rebellavit, ingentibus copiis paratis. Dux Ro- 
manorum, Publius Licinius consul, contra eum mis- 
sus, gravi proelio a rege victus est. Eex tamen pacem 
petebat. Cui' Romani earn praestare noluerunt, nisi 
his conditionibus, ut se et sues Eomanis dederet.* Mox 
Aemilius Paulus consul regem ad Pydnam superavit, et 
viginti millia peditum ejus occidit. Equitatus cum rege 
fugit. Urbes Macedoniae omnes, quas rex tenuerat, 
Romanis se dediderunt. Ipse Perseus ab amicis desertus . 
in Pauli potestatem venit. Hie, multis etiam aliis rebus 
gestis,* cum ingenti pompa Romam rediit in nave Persei, 
inusitatae magnitudinis ;" nam sedecim remorum ordines 

» 518, II. ' 453. • 431, 2, (8). 

« 427, 3. * 496, 8. • 896, IV. 


habuisse dicitur. Triumphavit magnificentissime* in 
curru aureo, dnobus filiis utroque latere ' adstantibus. 
Ante currum inter captivos duo regis filii et ipse Perseus 
ducti sunt. 

Third Punic War, 149 JB, C. 

199. Tertium delude bellum contra Carthagifnera 
Busceptum est. Lucius Marcius Censorinus et Manius 
Manlius consiiles in Africam trajecerunt, et oppugnave- 
runt Carthaginem. Multa ibi praeclare gesta sunt per 
Scipionem,* Scipionis Africani nepotem, qui tribunus* 
in Africa militabat. 

200. Quum jam magnum esset* Scipionis nomen, 
tertio anno postquam Eomani in Africam trajecerant, 
consul est creatus, et contra Carthaginem missus. Is 
banc urbem a civibus acerrime* defensam' cepit ac diruit. 
Ingens ibi praeda facta, plurimaque inventa sunt, quae 
multarum civitatum excidiis Carthago coUegerat. Haec 
omnia Scipio civitatibus . Italiae, Siciliae, Africae reddi- 
dit, quae sua recognoscebant. Ita Carthago septingente- 
sirao anno, postquam condita erat, deleta est. Scipio 
nomen Africani junioris" accepit. 


; 164. 
















Period IV. — Civil Dissensions. 

WEALTH, 31 B. C. 

Numantia taken, 133 B, C. 

201. Deinde bellum exortum est cum Numantmis, 
civitate Hispaniae. Victus * ab his Quiiitus Pompeius, 
et post euni Caius Hostilius Mancinus consul, qui pacem 
cum iis fecit infemem, quara popiilus et senatus jussit^ 
infringi, atque ipsum Manclnum hostibus tradi. Turn 
Publius Scipio Afrieanus in Hispaniam missus est. Is 
primura militem ignavum et corruptum correxit ; ^ turn 
multas Hispaniae civitates partim bello cepit, partim in 
deditionem accepit. Postremo ipsam Nuinantiam fame 
ad deditionem coegit, urbemque evertit ; reliquam * pro- 
vinciam in fidem accepit. 

Mithridatic War. — First Civil War, — Marius, Sulla, 88 B. 0, 

202. Anno urbis conditae sexcentesimo sexagesimo 
sexto primum Romae bellum civile exortum est ; eodem 
anno etiam Mithridaticum. Causam bello civlli Caius 
Marias dedit. Nam qiium SuUae bellum adversus Mith- 
ridatem, regem Ponti, decretum esset/ Marius ei" hunc 
lionorem eripere conatus est. Sed Sulla, qui adliuc cum 
legionibus suis in Italia morabatur,' cum exercitu Eomam 
venit, et adversarios quum* interfecit, turn fugavit. Turn 
rebus Romae utcunque compositis, in Asiam profectiis 
est, pluribusque proeliis Mithridatem coegit, ut pacem a 

* 460, 3. * 441, 6. ^ 468. 

« 463, 3. * 518, II. ■ 587, I. 5. 

' 214,1. "386,2. 


Romanis peteret,* et Asia, quam invaserat, relicta, regni 
BUI finibus' contentus esset. 

Civil War, continued. 

203. Sed dum Sulla in Graecia et Asia Mithridatem 
vincit,' Marius, qui fugatus fiierat, et Cornelius Cinna, 
unus ex consulibus,* bellum in Italia repararunt/ et in- 
gressi Romam nobilissimos ex senatu et consulares viros 
interfecerunt ; multos proscripserunt ; ipsius Sullae domo 
eversa, filios et uxorem ad ftigam compulerunt.* Uni- 
versus reliquus senatus ex urbe fugiens ad SuUam in 
Graeeiam venit, orans ut patriae subvenlret/ Sulla in 
Italiam trajecit, hostium exercitus vicit/ mox etiam 
urbem ingressus est, quam caede * et sanguine civium 
replevit. Quattuor millia inermium/ qui se dediderant, 
interfici jussit ; duo millia equitum et senatorum pro- 
scripsit." Tum de Mithridate triumphavit. Duo haec 
bella funestissima, Italicum, quod et sociale dictum est, 
et civile, ultra centum et quinquaginta millia hominum, 
viros consulares viginti quattuor, praetorios septem, aedi- 
litios sexaginta, senatores fere ducentos consumpserunt." 

War of the Ohdiators. — Spartacus^ 73 B, C. 

204. Anno urbis sexcentesimo octogesimo primo 
novum in Italia bellum commotum " est. Septuaginta 
enim quattuor gladiatores, ducibus *' Spartaco, Crixo, et 
Oenomao, e ludo gladiatorio, qui Capuae ** erat, eiFuge- 
runt, et per Italiam vagantes paene non levins bellum. 

1 492, 2. 

• 273, I. 2. 

" 268, I. 4. 

« 419, IV. 

' 273, II. 

" 270, II. 

» 467, 4. 



* 898, 4. 

• 441. 

»* 421, II. 


" 258, I. 3. 


quani Hannibal, moverunt.* Nam contraxerunt' exer- 
citura fere sexaginta millium armatorum, multosque 
duces et duos Eomanos consules vicerunt. Ipsi victi 
sunt in Apulia a Marco Licinio Orasso proconsiile, et, 
post multas calamitates Italiae, tertio anno * huic bello 
finis est impositus. 

Pompey puU down the Pirates^ 67 -5. G. — Is appointed aiiccessor to 
Lucullus, — Death of MithridateSj 63 B, 0. 

205, Per ilia tempora piratae omnia maria infesta- 
bant ita, ut Eomanis,* toto orbe * terrarum victoribus, 
sola navigatio tuta non esset/ Quare id bellum Cnaeo 
Pompeio decretum est, quod intra paucos menses incre- 
dibili felicitate et celeritate conceit. Mox ei delatum ' 
bellum contra regem Mithridatem et Tigranem. Quo ' 
euscepto, Mithridatem in Armenia Minore nocturno 
proelio vicit, castra diripuit, et quadraginta millibus ejus 
Decisis, viginti tantum de exercitu suo perdidit et duos 
centuriones. Mithridates fugit • cum uxore et duobus 
comitibus," neque" multo post, Phaniacis filii sui sedi- 
tione coactus," venenmn hausit." Hunc vitae finem 
habuit Mithridates, vir ingentis industriae atque consilii. 
Regnavit annis" sexaginta, vixit septuaginta duobus; 
contra Romanos bellum habuit annis quadraginta. 

Victories of Pompey over Tigranes : he tahes Jerusalem^ 63 B. C, 

206, Tigrani deinde Pompeius bellum intiilit. Hie 
se ei dedidit, et in castra Pompeii venit, ac diadema 



" 687, 1. 2. 


^292,2; 460,3.. 

" 273, n. 


*• 463 ; 431, 2, (8). 

" 286, I. 


• 273, II. 

^ 378, 1. 





eunm in ejus manibus collocavit, quod ei Pompeius re- 
poBuit. Parte * regni eum multavit et grand! pecnnia. 
Turn alios etiam reges et populos Buperavjt. Armeniam 
MinOrem Deiotaro,' Galatiae regi, donavit, quia auxilium 
contra Mithridatem tulerat. Seleuciam, vicinam Antio- 
chiae* civitatem, libertate' donavit, quod regem Tigra- 
nem non recepisset.* Inde in Judaeam transgressus, 
Hierosolymam, caput gentis, tertio mense cepit, duode- 
cim raillibus Judaeorum occlsis, ceteris in fidem receptis. 
His* gestis finem antiquissimo bello imposuit. Ante 
triumphantis currum ducti sunt filii Mithridatis, filius 
Tigranis, et Aristobulus, rex Judaeorum. Praelata in- 
gens pecunia, auri atque argenti infinitum pondus. Hoc 
tempore nullum per orbem terrarum grave bell|im erat. 

Catiline^s Compiracy^ 63 B, C. 

207- Marco Tullio Cicerone* oratore et Caio Anto- 
nio consulibus, anno ab urbe condita * sexcentesimo nona- 
gesimo prime Lucius Sergius Catilina, nobilissimi generis 
vir, sed ingenii pravissimi, ad delendam ' patriam conju- 
ravit cum quibusdam claris quidem, sed audacibus viris. 
A Cicerone urbe* expulsus est, socii ejus deprehensi et 
in carcere strangulati sunt. Ab Antonio, altero consiile, 
Catilina ipse proelio victus est et interfectus. 

Caesar Cansuly 69 B, G, : in Oaul, 68 B. C. 

208. Anno urbis»conditae sexcentesimo nonagesimo 
quinto Caius Julius Caesar cum Lucio Bibiilo consul est 
factUB. Quum ei Gallia decreta esset," semper vincendo " 

" 425, 2, 2). 



■ 884, 1. 


" 518, II. 

» 391. 


" 56a, L 

* 520, II. 

" 565, 1. 


usque ad OceS,nuin BritannTcum processit.' Domuit* 
autem annis novera fere omnem Galliam, quae inter 
Alpes, fluinen Ehodanum, Ehenum et Oceanum est. 
Britannis mox belluin intiilit,' quibus* ante eura ne 
nomeu quidem Romanorum cognitum* erat; Germa- 
nos quoque trans Ehenum aggressus, ingentibus proeliis 

Gi'oil War of Porapey and Caesar^ 49 J5. G, 

209, Bellum civile successit,* quo Eoraani nommis 
fortuna rautata est. Caesar enim victor e Gallia rediens, 
absens coepit poscere alterum consulatum ; quem * quum 
multi sine dubitatione deferrent/ contradictum est a 
Pompeio et aliis, jussusque est, dimissis exercitibus, in 
urbem redire. Propter banc injuriam ab Arimino, ubi 
railites congregates " habebat, infesto exercitu • Eoraam 
contendit. Consules cum Pompeio, senatusque omnis 
atque universa nobilitas ex urbe fugit,^' et in Graeciam 
transiit ; et, dum senatus bellum contra Caesarem para- 
bat, liic vacuam urbem ingressus dictatorem se fecit. 

pefeat of Pompey^s party in Spain,— Battle of Pliarsalia^ 48 B. C. 
— Death of Pompey, 

210. Inde Hispanias petiit," ibique Pompeii legiones 
/iuperavit ; tum in Graecia adversum Pompeium ipsum 
dimicavit. Prime proelio victus est et fugatus ; evSsit " 
tamen, quia, nocte interveniente, Pompeius sequi no- 
luit ; *' dixitque Caesar, nee Pompeium scire vincere, et 
illo tantum die se potuisse superari. Deinde in Thes- 
salia apud Pharsalum ingentibus utrimque copiis " com- 

» 258, I. 2. 


" 234. 



" 272, II. 

» 292, 2. 

" 388, 1, 2). 

" 293. 


• 414, 7. 

" 414. 

/ • 575. 

»° 463, I. 


missis dimicaverunt. Nunquam adhuc Romanae copiae 
inajores neque melioribus ducibus * convenerant. Pug- 
natum est ^ ingenti contentione/ victusque ad postremum 
Pompeius, et castra ejus direpta sunt. Ipse fugatus 
Alexandrlam petiit, ut a rege Aegypti, cui tutor * a se- 
natu datus fuerat, acciperet * auxilia. At hie fortunam 
magis quam amicitiam secutus/ oceidit Pompeinm, caput 
ejus et annulum Caesari misit. Quo ^ conspecto, Caesar 
lacrimas fudisse' dicitur, tanti viri intuens caput, et ge- 
neri quondam ' sui. 

Caesar tusassinated in the Senate-HovM^ 4A B, C, 

211. Quum ad Alexandrlam venisset Caesar, Ptole- 
maeus ei insidias parare voluit, qua de causa regi bellum 
illatum *** est. Eex victus in Nile periit, inventumque 
est corpus ejus cum lorica aurea. Caesar, Alexandria " 
potitus, regnum Cleopatrae dedit." Tum inde profeo- 
tus* Pompeianarum partiimi reliquias est persecutus, 
bellisque " civilibus toto terrarum orbe ** composiitis, Ro- 
mam rediit. Ubi quum insolentius" agere coepisset," 
conjuratum est in eum a sexaginta vel amplius senatori- 
bus, equitibusque Eomanis. Praecipui fuerunt inter 
conjuratos " Bruti duo ex genere illius Bruti, qui, regi- 
bus expulsis, primus Romae consul fuerat. Ergo Caesar, 
quum in curiam venisset, viginti tribus vulneribus con- 
fossus est. 

» 414, 7. 

' 453 ; 431, 2, 


» 431, 2, (3). 

« 301, 1 

« 273, II. 2. 

" 422, 1, 1). 

=» 414, 3. 

• 583,2. 

» 444, 1 & 4. • 


" 292, 2. 

» 297. 


» 4iy. 



« 261. 


The Second Triumvirate^ Octcmvs^ Antony^ and Lepidm^ 43 B, G. — 
Death qf Cicero. . 

212. Interfecto. Caesare, anno nrbis septingentesimo 
decirao bella civUia reparata sunt. Senatus favebat 
Caesaris percussoribus/ Antonius consul a Caesaris par- 
tibus stabat. Ergo turbata re publica, Antonius, multis 
sceleribus commissis, a senatu liostis* judicatus est. 
Fusus fugatusque Antonius, amisso exercitu, confugit ad 
Lepidum, qui Caesari * magister equitum fuerat, et turn 
grandes copias militum habebat; a quo susceptus est. 
Mox Octavianus cum Antonio pacem fecit, et quasi vin- 
dicaturus patris sui mortem, a quo per testamentum 
fiierat adoptatus, Eoraam cum exercitu profectus extor- 
sit,* ut sibi, juveni viginti annorum, consulatus daretur.* 
Turn junctus cum Antonio et Lepido rem publicam ar- 
mis tenere coepit, senatumque proscripsit. Per bos etiam 
Cicero orator occisus est, multique alii nobiles." 

Battle of Philvppi, 42 B. G. 

213. Interea Brutus et Cassius, interfectores Cae- 
saris, ingens bellnm moverunt.* Profecti " contra eos 
Caesar Octavianus, qui postea Augustus est appellatus, 
et Marcus Antonius, apud Philippos, Macedoniae urbem, 
contra eos pugnaverunt.* Prime proeKo victi sunt An- 
tonius et Caesar ; periit " tamen dux nobilitatis Cassius ; 
secundo Brutum et infinitam nobilitatem, quae cum illis 
bellum susceperat, victam" interfecgrunt. Tum vic- 
tores rem publicam ita inter se diviserunt,*' ut Octavia- 

'886. *492, 1. •468,n. 

« 862. • 460, 3. " 296, 8. 

» 890, 2. "^ 270. " 679. 

* 269, 11. M39. "272,11. 



mi8 Caesar HiBpanias, GalHas, Italiam teneret : ' Anto- 
nius Orientem, Lepidus Africam acciperet 

Battle ofActium^ 31 B. G. 

214, Paulo' post Antonius, repudiata sorore Cae- 
saris Octaviani, Cleopatram, regmam Aegypti, uxorem 
duxit. Ab hac incitatus ingens bellum commovit, dum 
Cleopatra eupiditate muliebri optat Eomae regnare. 
Victus est ab Augusto navali pugna clara et illustri 
apnd Actium, qui * locus in Epiro est. Hinc fiigit in 
Aegyptum, et, desperatis rebus, quum omnes ad Augus- 
tum transirent,* se ipse interemit.' Cleopatra quoque 
aspidem sibi admisit, et veneno ejus exstincta' est. Ita 
bellis toto orbe ' confectis, Octavianus Augustus Eomam 
rediit anno duodecimo postquam consul fuerat. Ex eo 
inde tempore rem publicam per quadraginta et quattuor 
annos solus obtinuit. Ante enim duodecim annis ® cum 
Antonio et Lepido tenuerat. Ita ab initio principatus 
ejus usque ad finem quinquaginta sex anni fiiere. 

' 494. * 618. '' 422, 1, 1). 

•418. » 273, II. •878,1. 

" 446, 8. • 281. 


Note. — ^It is recommended that, in reading the Grecian History, special 
attention should be ^ven to Irregular^ Defective^ and Impersonal VerU,^ 

Peeiod I. — Gbecian Triumphs. 


Da/iFivA invades Scythia: prepares to invade Greece, 

215. Multi8 in Asia feliciter gestis, Darius Scythis 
bellum intiilit,' et armatis septingentis millibus' homi- 
num Scythiam * ingressus, quum hostes ei pugnae potes- 
tatem non facerent,* metuens, ne, interrupto ponte Istri, 
reditus sibi intercluderetur/ amissis octoginta millibus 
liominum, trepidus ref&git. Inde Macedoniam domuit : 
et quum ex Europa in Asiam rediisset," hortantibus 
amicis ut Graeciam redigeret ^ in suam potestatem, clas- 
Bern qningentarum navium coraparavit, elque Datim" 
praefecit et Artaphernen ; • hisque ducenta peditum 
millia, et decern equitum dedit. 

Battle of Marathon^ 490 B, 0. 

216. Praefecti regii, classe ad Euboeain appulsa, 
celeriter Eretriam cepenint. Inde ad Atticam accesse- 
runt, ac suas copias in Campum Marathona deduxerunt. 

' 292, 2. * 618, II. ' 492, 2. 

« 414, 1. * 492, 4. ■ 62, II. 2. 

' 371, 4. • 295, 3. " 68. 


Is abest ab oppifdo circiter railKa passuuin decern. Hoc 
m tempore nulla civitas Atheniensibus * auxilio fuit, 
praeter Plataeenses; ea mille' misit militum. Itaque 
horum adventu decern millia armatonim completa sunt : 
quae* manus mirabili flagrabat pugnandi cupiditate, 
Athenienses copias ex urbe eduxerunt, locoque * idoneo 
castra tecerunt ; deinde postero die, sub mentis radicibus 
proelium commiserunt. Datis etsi non aequum locum 
videbat suis, tamen, fretus numero* copiarum suarum, 
confligere cupiebat. Itaque in aciem peditum centum, 
equitum decern millia produxit, proeliumque commisit. 
In quo tanto * plus virttite valuerunt Athenienses, ut de- 
cempKcem numerum hostium profligarint;' adeoque 
perterruerunt, ut Persae non castra, sed naves petierint. 
Qua pugna nihil est nobilius ; nulla enim unquam tarn 
exigua manus tantas opes prostravit. 

Xerxes invades Greece^ 480 B, O, 

217, Quum Darius, bellum instauraturus, in ipso 
apparatu decessisset," Alius ejus Xerxes Europam • cum 
tantis copiis invasit, quantas neque antea neque postea 
habuit quisquam : hujus enim classis mille et ducenta- 
rum navium " longarum fuit, quam duo millia oneraria- 
rum sequebantur : terrestres autem exercitus septingen- 
torum millium peditum, equitum quadrlngentorum 
millium fiierunt. Cujus " de adventu quum fama in 
Graeciam esset perlata, et maxime Athenienses peti 
dicerentur,** propter pugnam Marathoniam, miserunt 
Delphos consultum,*" quidnara facerent '* de rebus suis. 



» 463. 


'234; 482,2. 

° 649, 4. 

» 446, 8. 


» 669. 

* 422, 1, 2). 


" 626. 

» 419, IV. 

" 401. 


Deliberantibus Pythia respondit, ut moenibus ligneis 
Be munirent.* Id responsum quo valeret, quum intelli- 
geret nemo, Themistoeles persuasit, consilium esse Apol- 
linis, ut in naves se suaque conferrent : ' eum enim a deo 
signifieari murum ligneuna. Tali consilio probato, ad- 
dunt ad superiores totidem naves triremes : suaque om- 
nia, quae moveri poterant, partim Salamina,* partim 
Troezena, deportant ; arcem sacerdotibus paucisque ma- 
joribus natu,* ac sacra procuranda ' tradunt ; reliquum 
oppidum relinquuut. 

Actions at Thermopylae and Artemisiunij 480 B. G. 

218. Hujus consilium plerisque civitatibus displice- 
bat, et in terra dimicari' magis placebat. Itaque missi 
sunt delecti * cum Leonida, Lacedaemoniorum rege, qui 
Tliermopylas occuparent," longiusque barbaros progredi 
non paterentur. Hi vim* hostium non sustiuuerunt, 
eoque loco omnes interierunt." At classis communis 
Graeciae trecentarum navium," in qua ducentae erant 
Attieniensium, primum apud Artemisium, inter Euboe- 
am continentemque terram, cum classiariis regiis con- 
flixit:" angustias enim Themistoeles quaerebat, ne mul- 
titudine circumiretur." Hinc etsi pari proelio " discesse- 
rant, tamen eodem loco non sunt ausi " manere, quod 
erat periciilum, ne, si pars navium adversariorum Eu- 
boeam superasset," ancipiti premerentur" periculo. Quo 
factum est, ut ab Artemisio discederent,** et exadversum 
Athenas, apud Salamina, classem suam constituerent. 

'492,2. '675. "491. 

• 496, 3. * 600, 1. " 414, 8. 
«68. •66. »271, 3. 

* 429. " 295, 3. " 609. 

* 578; V. " 897, 2. " 492, 4. 

• 649. " 258, I. 1 »« 495, 2. 


Battle ofSalamiSy 480 B. C. 

219. At Xerxes, Thermopylis expugnatis, protmiis 
accessit astu/ idque, nullis defendentibus, interfectis 
sacerdotibus, quos in arce invenerat, incendio delevit. 
Cujus fama pertemti classiarii quum manere non aude- 
rent, et phirimi* hortarentur, ut domos suas quisque 
discederent,* moenibusque se defenderent ; Themistocles 
uims restitit, et, universos pares hostibus esse posse* aie- 
bat,' disperses testabatur peritiiros, idque Eurybiadi, regi 
Laeedaemoniorum, qui turn summae* imperii praeerat, 
fore' aflSrmabat. Quern quum minus, quam vellet,* mo- 
veret,* noctu de sends suis, quem habuit fidelissimum,*" 
ad regem misit, ut ei nuntiaret suis verbis : ad/veraomoa 
ejus in fugd esse^ qui " si discessissent^^^ majore cum 
lahorCy et lonffinquiore tempore heUum confecturum^'^ 
quum singulos consectdri cogeretur / qv^s si statim ag- 
gredereiAiVy hrevi universos oppressurum. Hoc eo vale- 
bat, ut ingratiis ad depugnandum omnes cogerentur." 
Hac re audita, barbarus, nihil doli subesse credens, pos- 
tridie alienissimo sibi " loco, contra opportunissimo hos- 
tibus, adeo angusto man ** conflixit, ut ejus multitudo 
naviura explicari non potuerit." Victus ergo est magis 
consilio Themistoclis, quam armis Graeciae. 

Xerxes flie9 "bach into Asia, 

220. Hie etsi male rem gesserat, tamen tantas habe- 
bat reliquias copiarum, ut etiamtum his '* opprimSfe 

»128; 371,4. 

' 297, m. 


" 646, 3. 

« 165, 441. 



»492, 2; 461, 8. 




»• 453, 6. 

*• 422, 1, 1). 

» 297, II. 1. 

" 453. 

" 482, 2. 






posset hostes. Itenim ab eodem gradu depulsus est 
Nam Themistocles, verens ^e bellare perseveraret,* eer- 
tiorem eum fecit, id agi," ut pons," quern ille in Helles- 
ponto fecerat, dissolveretur/ ac reditu in Asiam exclu 
deretur. Itaque in Asiam reversus est, seque a Themis> 
tocle non superatum,* sed conservatum judicavit. Sic 
uniufl viri prudentia Graecia liberata est. 

Battles ofPlataea cmd Mycale, 479 B. G. 

221. Postero anno quam Xerxes in Asiam refiigerat, 
Graeci, duce Pausania, Mardonium, regis generum, apud 
Plataeas fuderunt : • quo proelio ipse dux cecidit,' Bar. 
barorumque exercitus interfectus est. Eodem forte die 
in Asia, ad montem Mycalen, Persae a Graecis navali 
proelio superati sunt. Jamque omnibus pacatis, Athe- 
nienses belli damna reparare eoeperunt." 

Period n. — ^Civil Wabs in Greece. 


860 B. C. 

The Feloponnesian War^ 431 B, C— Pericles. 
222. Hoc bellum, quo • nullum aliud florentes Grae- 
ciae res gravius afflixit, saepe suyceptum et depositum 
est. Initio Spartani fines Atticae populabantur, hostes- 
que ad proelium provocabant. Sed Athenienses, Periclis 
consilio,'" ultionis tempus exspectantes intra moenia se 

» 492, 4. 

" 545, 3. 


« 551, 8. 

• 273, II. 


MlO, 1. 

' 273, 1. 


* 496, 3. 


continebant. Deiijde, panels diebus interjectis, naves 
eonseendunt, et, nihil sentienlabus Laeedaemoniis, totam 
Laeoniam depraedantur. Clara quidem haec Periclis 
expeditio est habita ; sed multo clarior privati patrimonii 
contemptus ftiit. Nam in populatione ceterorum agro- 
rum, Periclis agros hostes intactos reliquerant, nt ant in- 
vidiam ei apud cives eoncitarent/ aut in proditionit* 
Buspicionem addncerent. Quod inteUigens, Pericles 
agros rei publicae dono dedit. Post haec aliquot diebub 
interjectis, navali proelio dimicatum est.* Victi Lace- 
daemonii fiigerunt. Post plures ' annos, fessi malis, pa- 
cem in annos quinquaginta fecere, quam sex annos* ser- 

.Expedition of the Athenians against Sicily^ 415 B. C. 
223, Bello inter Oatinienses et Syracusanos exorto,* 

Athenienses Oatiniensibus opem ferunt." Classis ingens 
decemitur ; creantur duces Nicias, Alcibiades et Lama- 
ehus; tantaeque vires in Siciliam effusae sunt, ut iis 
ipsis terrori ^ essent, quibus auxilio venerant. Nicias et 
Lamachus duo proelia pedestria secundo Marte* pug- 
nant ; munitionibusque urbi Syracusarum' circumdatis, 
incolas etiam marinis commeatibus " intercludunt. Qui- 
bus rebus fracti " Syracusani, auxilium a Laeedaemoniis 
petiveruut." Ab his mittitur Gylippus, qui auxiliis 
partim in Graecia, partim in Sicilia contractis, oppor- 
tuna bello loca " occupat. Duobus delude proeliis vio- 


•292; 467, HI. 

»«• 886, 1. 

• 301, 1. 


" 273, n. 

« 166, 1. 

« 414, 3 ; 706, II. 

'« 278, 2. 


• 396, V. 

" 141. 


* tus, tertio hostes in fiigam conjecit, sociosque obsidione^ 
liberavit. In eo proelio Lamachus fortiter pugnans oo- 
ciBTis est. 

Suceeises o/Alcibiades against the Lacedaemonians, 

224. Alcibiades summa cura ' classem instruit, atque 
in belluin adversuB Lacedaemonios perrexit. Hac expe- 
ditione tanta snbito rerum commutatio facta est,' ut La- 
cedaemonii, qui paulo ante victores viguerant, perterriti 
pacem peterent ; * victi enim erant quinque terrestribus 
proeliis, tribus navalibus, in quibus trecentas triremes 
amiserant, quae captae in hostium venerant potestatem. 
Alcibiades simul cum collegis receperat loniam, Helles- 
pontum, multas praeterea urbes Graecas, quae in ora 
sitae sunt Asiae : quarum expugnaverant quam plurimas, 
in his Byzantium ; neque minus multas consilio ad ami- 
citiam adjunxerant, quod in captos dementia * fuerant 
usi. Inde praeda* onusti, locupletato exercitu, masimis 
rebus gestis, AthSnas venerunt. 

Cyrus faxors Lysander and the Lacedaemonians^ 407 B, G. 

225. Dum haec geruntur, a Lacedaemoniis Lysan- 
der classi belloque praeficTtur ; et Darius, rex Persarum, 
filium suum, Cyrum, loniae Lydiaeque praeposuit, qui 
Lacedaemonios auxiliis opibusque ad spem fortunae 
prions' erexit. Aucti ^ igitur viribus * Alcibiadem cum 
centum navibus in Asiam profectum," dum agros popu- 
latur, repentino adventu oppressere." Magnae et in- 
opinatae cladis nuntius quum Athenas venisset, tanta 

> 425, 8. 

* 419, I. 



• 419, III. 

" 283. 


' 166. 

" Sf36. 




Atheniensium desperatio fiiit, ut statim Cononem in 
Alcibi^dis locum mitterent, ducis se fraude magis quam 
belli fortuna victos* arbitrantes. 

Fatal d^eat of the Athenians at Aegospotamoa, 405 B, C. 

226. Itaque Conon classem maafma industria ador- 
nat; sed navibus' exercitus deerat. Nam, ut nmnerus 
militum expleretur, senes et pneri arma capere coacti 
sunt. Pluribus itaque proeliis adverse Marte pugnatis, 
tandem Lysander, Spartanonim dux, Atheniensium ex- 
ercitum, qui, navibus relictis, in terram praedatum ' exi- 
erat,* ad Aegos flumen oppressit, eoque impetu totum 
bellum finlvit. Hac enim clade res Atheniensium peni- 
tus inclinata est. 

Athena surrenders to Lysander^ 404 B. G, — The Thirty Tyrants, 

227. Lysander Athenas navigavit, miseramque civi- 
tatem, obsidione circumdatain, fame * urget. Athenienses, 
multis fame et ferro amissis, pacem petivere. Quum 
nonnuUi nomen Atheniensium delendum,* urbemque 
incendio consumendam censerent,' Spartani negarunt, 
se passuros, ut ex duobus Graeciae oculis alter erueretur ;' 
pacemque Atheniensibus sunt poUiciti, si longi muri bra- 
chia dejicerent,' navesque traderent ; denique si res pub- 
lica triginta rectores, ex civibus deligendos, acciperet. 
His legibus acceptis, tota civitas subito mutari coepit. 
Triginta rectores rei publicae constituuntur, Lacedaemo- 
niis • et Lysandro dediti, qui brevi tyrannidem io cives 
exercere coeperunt. 

> 645, 8. * 296, 3. ' 496, 1. 

« 886, 2. * 414, 4. *• 609. 

» 669. • 618, XL " 884. 


Thrasyhulus occupies Phyle^ 404 B, C. 

228. Quuin triginta tyranni, praepoBiti a Lacedae- 
moniis, servitute oppressas tenerent Atlienas, Thrasy- 
hulus Phylen * confogit, quod ' est castellum in Attica 
munitissimum, quum non plus secum haheret," quam 
triginta de suis. Hinc, viribus paulatim anctis, in Pirae- 
nm transiit,* Munychiamqne raunivit. Hanc his tyranni 
oppngnSre sunt adorti, ah eaque tnrpiter repulsi protifnus 
in nrhem, armis impedimentisque amissis, refiigerunt. 
In secundo proelio cecidit * Oritias, triginta tyrannorum 

Epaminondas.—Battle ofLeuetra^ 371 B. C, : of Mantinea^ 362 B. O. 

229. Epaminondas, dux Thehanus, apud Leuctra 
superavit Lacedaemonios. Idem imperator apud Man- 
tineam graviter vnlneratus concidit/ Hujus casu ali- 
quantnm" retardati sunt Boeotii, neque tamen prius 
pugna* excesserunt, quam" hostes proflig5runt." At 
Epaminondas quum animadverteret, mortiferum se vul- 
nus accepisse, simulque, si ferrum, quod ex hastili " in 
corpore remanserat, extraxisset," animam statim emissu- 
rum, usque eo retinuit, quoad renuntiatum est, vicisse " 
Boeotios. Id postquam audivit, " Saiis^^^ inquit, " vixi; 
mvictus enim morior.^^ Tiun, ferro extracto, confestim 
pxanimatus est. 

' 50, 879. 

• 168, 1. 

" 234. 

^ 445, 4. 

' 255, I. 4. 


* 518, n. 

« 335, 4. 

» 533, 8. 

* 295, 8. 

» 434, 1. 


» 273, I. 

'• 523, 2, 2). 


Pebiod III. — Gbaeco-Macedonian Empibe. 


Decline of the Grecian States, — Eise of the Macedonian Power. 

230. Post Leuctricam pugnam Lacedaemonii se 
nunquam refecerunt ; et Thebae, quod/ quamdiu Epa- 
minondas praeftiit rei publicae' caput fiiit totius Grae- 
ciae, post ejus interitum perpetuo alieno paruerunt im- 
perio. Athenienses, non ut olim in classem et exercitum, 
sed in dies festos apparatusque ludorum reditus publicos 
eflFiindebant, frequentiusque in tlieatris quam in castris 
versabantur. Quibus rebus effectum est, ut obseurum 
antea Macedonum nomen emergeret ;' et Philippus, obses 
triennio * Thebis habitus in Epaminondae domo, hujua 
praestantissimi viri et Pelopidae virtutibus eruditus, 
Graeciae servitutis jugum imponeret. 

Uxtensi&n of Philip* 8 power. 

231, Philippus, quum magnam gloriam apud omnes 
nationes adeptus esset,* Olynthios aggreditur. Hanc ur- 
bem antlquam et nobflem exscindit, etpraeda* ingenti 
frmtur. Inde auraria in Thessalia, argenti metalla in 
Thracia occupat. His ita gestis, forte evenit, ut eum 
fratres duo, reges Thraeiae, disceptationum suarum judi- 
cem ' eligerent.' Sed Philippus ad judicium, velut ad 
bellum, instmcto exercitu' supervenit, et regno* utrum- 

» 445, 4. ♦ 878, 1. ^ 878. 

» 886. » 288. " 414, 7. 

» 496, 2. • 419, L » 419, 2. 


Battle of Ohcsronea, 338 B, O. 

232. Qunm, in Scythiam praedandi * causa profeo- 
tns," Scythas dolo vicisset, diu dissinmlatum bellnm 
Atlieniensibus infert,' quorum causae Tliebani se junxe- 
runt. Proelio ad Chaeroueam commisso, quum Atheni- 
enses longe majore miKtum numero praestarent,* tamen 
assiduis bellis' indurata Macedonum virtute vincuntur. 
Non tamen immemores pristinae virttitis * ceciderunt ; 
quippe adversis vulneribus' omnes loca, quae tuenda® a 
ducibus acceperant, morientes corporibus texerunt. Hie 
dies universae Graeciae et* gloriam dominationis et ve- 
tustissimam libertatem finivit. 

Philip prepares to invade Persia. 

233, Hujus victoriae callide dissimulata laetitia est. 
Non solita *" sacra Philippus ilia die fecit ; non in convi- 
vio risit ; " non coronas aut unguenta sumpsit ; et, quan- 
tum in illo fuit, ita vicit, ut victorem nemo sentiret." 
Atlieniensibus et captives gratis remisit, et bello con- 
sumptorum " corpora sepulturae reddidit. Compositis in 
Graeda rebus, omnium civitatum legates ad formandum 
rerum praesentium statum " evocari Corinthum " jubet. 
Ibi pacis leges universae Graeciae pro meritis singularum 
civitatum statuit, conciliumque omnium, veluti unum 
senatum," ex omnibus legit. Auxilia deinde singularum 
civitatum describuntur ; nee dubium erat, eum Persa- 
rum imperium et suis et Graeciae viribus impugnaturum 

» 668. • 

• 899, 2, 2). 

" 269. 




■ 292, 2. 

« 678, V. 

» 666, 1. 

* 618, I. 

• 68T, I. 6. 


* 414, 4. 




Death qf Philip, 336 B. C. 

234. Interea dum auxilia e Graecia coeunt,* ntiptias 
Oleopatrae flliae, et Alexandri, quern regem Epiri fece- 
i-at, magno apparatu' celebrat. Ubi quum Pliilippus 
ad ludos spectandos, medius inter duos Alexaudros^ 
filium et generum, contenderet,' Pausanias, Dobilis ex 
Macedonibus adolescens, occupatis angustiis, Philippum 
in transitu obtruncat. Hie ab Attalo indlgno modo 
traetatus, quum saepe querelam ad Philippum finistra 
detulissetj* et honoratum insiiper adversarium videret, 
iram in ipsum Philippum vertit, ultionemque, quam ab 
adversario non poterat, ab iniquo judice exegit. 

Alexander the Great succeeds to the Macedonian Throne, 336 B,0. 

235. Philippo * Alexander filius successit, et virtute* 
et vitiia patre major. Vincendi ratio utrique ' diversa. 
Hie' aperta vi, ille artibus beUa tractabat. Deceptis* 
ille gaudere'" hostibus," hie palam fusis. Prudentior 
ille consilio, hie iiiimo magnificentior." Iram pater dis- 
simillare, plerumque etiam vincere ; hie ubi exarsisset/' 
nee dilatio ultionis, nee modus erat. Vini" uterque 
nimis avidus ; sed ebrletatis diversa ratio. Pater de con- 
vivio in hostem procurrere, manum conserere, periculis 
se temere oflTerre ; Alexander non in hostem, sed in sues 
saevire. Kegnare ille cum amicis volebat ; hie in amicos 
regna exercebat. Amari pater malle, hie metui. Lit- 
terarum cultus utrique similis. SoUertiae ** pater ma- 
joris, hie fidei. Verbis atque oratione Philippus, hio 

' 296, 8. 


" 414, 2. 

« 414, 3. 

' 887. 


• 518, n. 


» 486, 6. 

* 292, 2. 




»« 645, 1. 

» 401, 403. 


rebus moderatior. Parcendi victis * filio animus promp- 
tior ; ille nee sociis * abstinebat. Frugalitati pater, lux- 
uriae filiuB magis deditus erat. Quibus' artibus orbis 
imperii fundamenta pater jeeit, opens totius gloriam 
iilius consumm^vit. 

Beginning of Alexander's Beign, 

236. Imperio suscepto, prima Alexandro cura pater- 
narum exsequiarum fuit ; in quibus ante omnia caedis^ 
conseios ad tumiilum patris occidi jussit. Inter initia 
regni multas gentes rebellantes compescuit;' orientes 
nonnullas seditiones exstinxit. Deinde ad Persicum 
bellum proficiseens, patrimoniimi omne suum, quod in 
Macedonia et Europa habebat, amieis divisit; sibi* 
Asiam sufficere praefatus/ Nee exereitui' alius quam 
regi animus iuit. Quippe omnes obliti conjiigum' libe- 
rorumque, et longinquae a domo militiae, nihil cogi- 
tabant nisi Orientis opes. Quum delati " in Asiam 
essent, primus " Alexander jaeiilum velut in hostilem 
terram jeeit ; armatusque de navi " trlpudianti " similis 
prosiluit," atqiie ita hostias caedit, precatus, ne se regem 
illae terrae invitae *' aceipiant.** In Ilio quoque ad tu- 
miilos heroum," qui Trojano bello ceciderant, parentaviti 

Battle of the Granlcus^ 834 B. 0. 

237. Inde hostem petens milites a populatione Asiae 
proliibuit, parcendum " suis rebus praefatus, Tiec per^ 

» 386, 676. 

' 297, n. 3. 

" 676, 391, 1. 

» 426, 2. 






* 899, 2, 2). 

» 292, 2. 

" 492, 8. 

» 276, 1. 

" 442, 1. 



" 62, ni. 

" 646, 3. 


denda ea, quae possesmri * venerint. In exercitu ejus 
fuere peditum triginta duo millia, equitum quattuor 
millia quingenti, naves centum octoginta duae. Hac 
tain parva manu universum terrarum orbem' vincere 
est aggressus. Quum ad tarn periculosum bellum exer- 
eitum legeret,' non juvenes robustos, sed veteranos, qui 
cum patre patruisque militaverant, elegit : ut non tam 
milites, quam magistros militiae electos putares.* Prima 
cum hoste congressio in campis Adrastiae fiiit. In acie 
Persarum sexcenta milKa militum fuerunt, quae non 
minus arte Alexandri quam virtute Macedonum super- 
ata, terga verterunt. Itaque magna caedes Persarum 
fuit. De exercitu Alexandri novem pedites, centum 
viginti equites cecidere ; quos rex magnifice humatos 
statuis equestribus donavit ; cognatis eorum autem im- 
munitates dedit. Post victoriam major ' pars Asiae ad 
eum deceit. Habuit et plura* proelia cum praefectis 
Darii, quos jam non tam armis, quam terrore nominis 
Bui vicit. 

Battle ofl88U8, 833 B. 0. 

238. Interea Darius cum quadringentis millibus 
peditum ac centum millibus equitum in aciem procedit. 
Commisso proelio, Alexander non ducis magis quam 
militis munia^ exsequebatur. Macedones cum rege 
ipso in equitum agmen irrumpunt. Tum vero siniilis 
ruinae strages erat. Circa currum Darii jacebant nobi- 
lissimi duces, ante oculos regis egr^ia morte' defuncti. 
Jamque qui Darium vehebant equi, confossi hastis at 
dolore eflferati, jugum quatere et regem curru* excutere 

' 61S, V. * 486, 4. ' 181, 4.) 

« 107, 2. • 166. • 419, L 

» 618, n. • 166, 1. • 434, 1. 


coeperant : quuin ille, verituB ne vivus veniret * in hos- 
tium poteBtatem, desilit,' et in eqniim, qui ad hoc ipsum 
Bequebatur, imponitur. Turn vero ceteri dissipantur 
metu. Inter captivoB castrorum mater et tixor et filiae 
duae Dam iuere : in qn'as Alexander ita se gessit/ nt 
omneB ante eum reges et continentia* et dementia 

Alexander in Egypt, 332 B, G. — He visits the Temple of Jupiter 

239. Aegyptii, olim PersSrum opibus infensi, Alex- 
andrum laeti * receperunt. A Memphi^ rex in interiora' 
penetrat; compositisque rebus ita, ut nihil ex patrio 
Aegyptiorum more mutaret, adire Jovis Ammonia ora- 
ciilum' statuit. Quatriduo per vastaB Bolitudmes al> 
Bumpto, tandem ad sedem consecratam deo" ventum 
est," undique ambientibus ramis eontectam. Regem pro^ 
pius adeuntem maximus natu" e saeerdotibus filium ap- 
pellat, hoc nomen iUiparentem Jbvem reddere affirmans. 
Ille se vero et accipere ait " et agnoscere, humanae sor- 
tis" oblitus. Consiilit deinde, an totius orbis imperium 
sibi destinaret " pateb. Aeque in adulationem composi- 
tus, terrarum omnium rectorem fore ostendit. Post haec 
institit quaerere, an omnes parentis Bui interfectores 
poenas dedissent. Saeerdos paeentem ejus negat ullius 
Bcelere posse violari, Philippi autem omnes luisse sup- 
plicia. Sacrificio deinde facto, dona et saeerdotibus et 
deo data," permissumque amicis, ut ipsi quoque consu^ 
lerent " Jovem. Nihil amplius quaesiverunt, quam an 

» 492, 4. 


" 29Y, n. 1. 


"441, 1. 

" 406, n. 


• 371, 4. 

" 625. 


" 384. 

" 460, 3. 


" 301, 1. 


• 448, 1. 

" 168, 3. 


auctor esset sibi divlnis honoribus colendi' suum regem. 
Hoc quoque acceptum fore Jovi ' vates respondit. Eex 
ex Ammone rediens' elegit nrbi locum, ubi nunc est 
Alexandria, appellationem trahens ex nomine anctoris. 

Dwrius makes his last proposals of Peace. 

240. Jam Darius pervenerat Arbela* vicum, nobi- 
lem sua clade facturus. Raro in uUo proelio tantum 
sanguinis' fusum est. Tandem Darii auriga, qui ante 
ipsum sedens equos regebat, hasta transfixus est; nee 
aut Persae aut Macedones dubitavere, quin ipse rex esset 
occlsus.' Cedere' Persae, et laxare ordines ; jam^ue non 
pugna, sed caedes erat, quum Darius quoque currum 
suum in fiigam vertit ; victori Alexandro Asiae impe- 
rium obtigit.® 

Disturbances in Greece. 

241, Dum haec in Asia gerebantur, Graecia fere 
omnis, spe recuperandae libertatis,* ad arma concurrerat, 
auctoritatem Lacedaemoniorum secuta. Dux hujus belli 
Agis, rex Lacedaemoniorum, fuit. Quern' motum Anti- 
pater, dux " ab Alexandro in Macedonia relictus, in ipso 
ortu oppressit. Magna tamen utrimque caedes fuit. 
Agis rex, quum sues terga dantes videret, dimissis satel- 
litibus" ut Alexandro felicitate, non virtute inferior 
videretur," tantam stragem hostium edidit," ut agmina 
interdum fugaret. Ad postremum, etsi a multitudine 
victus, gloria tamen omnes vicit. 

' 663. 


" 362, 8. 


' 645, 1. 


• 296, 3. 

• 273, r. 




" 278, 1. 

• 896, m. 



Alexander invades India. 

242. Post haec Indiam petit, ut Oceano fiuiret im* 
perium. Cui gloriae ut etiam exercitns ornamenta con- 
venlrent, phaleras equorum et arma militum argento 
inducit. Qnum ad iC^ysam nrbem venisset, oppidanis ' 
non repugnantibus parci jussit. 

Alexander returns to Babylon, 8^4 B. G. 

243. Ab tdtimis" oris OceSni Babyloniam reversus, 
conviviura solemniter instituit. Ibi qnum totns* in lae- 
titiam effusns esset, recedentem jam e convivio Medius 
ThessS-lns, instanrata comissatione invitat. Accepto po- 
ciilo, inter bibendum* veluti telo confixus ingemuit, 
elatusque e convivio semianimis, tanto dolore cruciatus 
est, nt fermm in remedia posceret.' Venenum accepisse 

Death of Alexander, 823 B, O. 

244. Quarta die Alexander indubitatam mortem 
sentiens, agnoscere se fatum domua maQorum smrvm^ 
9X\,nampleTos^m Aeaddan*^^ tricefUmum cmnum 
defwnctm. Tumnltnantes deinde milites, insidiis periisse* 
regem suspicantes, ipse sedavit, eosque omnes ad con- 
spectnm suum admisit, osculandamqne' dextram por- 
rexit.® Qnum lacrimarent • omnes, ipse non sine lacrimis 
tantum, verum etiam sine nllo tristioris mentis argu- 
mento fiiit. Ad postremnm corpus suum in Ammonis 
templo condi jubet. Qnum deficere eum amici viderent, 
quaerunt, quern imperii faciat heredem;" respondit, 



• 214, 1. L 


• 296, 3. 

• 518, 1. 


' 678, V. 

" 878. 

* 666, 1. 


Dignissimwm, Hac voce omnes amicOB snos ad aemu- 
1am regni cupiditatem accendit. Sexta die, praeclusS 
voce, exemptum digito* anniilum Perdiccae. tradidit, 
quae res gliscentem amicomm discordiam Bed&vit. itTain 
etsi non voce Buncupatus heres,' jndicio tamen electus* 
esse videbatur. 

Rema/rJcs on the clia/racter ofAUxcmder. 

245, Decessit Alexander menBGin unum tres et tri- 
ginta annos* Batus, vir supra ^umanum modum vi' ani- 
mi praeditus. Omum quaedam magnitu^nem ejus in 
ipso ortu portendisse existimabantur. Quo die natus 
est, pater ejus nuntium duarum victoriarum accepit; 
alterius, belli Ulyrici, alterius, certaminis Olympiaci, in 
quod quadrigas miserat, Puer acerrimis litterarum stu- 
diis eruditus fuit. Exacta pueritia, per quinquennium 
Aristotele, philosopho praestantissimo, usus est magistro. 
Accepto tandem imperio tantam militibus suis fiduciam 
fecit, ut, illo praesente, nullius hostis arma timerent.* 
Itaque cum nullo hoste unquam congressus est, quem 
non vicerit ; ^ nullam urbem obsedit, quam non expug- 
naverit. Victus denique est non virttite hostili, sed in- 
sidiis suorum et fraude. 

> 484, 1. * 878. • 494. 

• 862, 8. • 419, HL ' 601, 1. 



L The preparation of a Reading Lesson in Latin involves 

1. A knowledge of the Meaning of the Latin. 

2. A knowledge of the S^ractnre of the Latin Sentenoes, 
8. A translation into English. 

Meaning of the Latin. 

IL Bemember that almost every inflected word in a Latin sen- 
tence requires the nse of both the Dictionary and the Grammar to 
ascertain its meaning. 

The Dictionary gives the meaning of the word without reference to its Grammati- 
cal properties of e<ue, mumber, mood, tense, etc^ and the Grammar, the meaning of the 
endings which mark those properties. The Dictionary wlU give the meaning of 
menm, a table, but not of mensamm^ of tables ; the Grammar alone will give the force 
of the ending arum. 

in. Make yourself so familiar with all the endings of inflection, 
with their exact form and force, whether in declension or coiyuga- 
tion, that you will not only readily distinguish the different parts 
of speech from each other, but also the different forms of the same 
word with their exact and distinctive force. 

lY. In taking up a Latin sentence, 

1. Notice carefully the endings of the several words, and thus 
determine which words are nouns^ which verbs, etc. 

2. Observe the force of each ending, and thus determine ease, 
number, voice, mood, tense, etc. 

This will be found to be a very Important step toward the mastery of the sentence^ 
By this means you will discover not only the relation of the words to each other, but 
also an important part of their meaning, that which they derive from their endings. 

V. The key to the meaning of any simple sentence (345, L) will 
be. found in the simple subject and predicate, i e., in the Nominative 
and its Verb. Hence in looking out the sentence, observe the fol- 
lowing order. Take 

1. The Subject, or Nominative, 


The ending will in most instances enable yon to distinguish this from all oihet 
words, exoe^ the adjectires which agree with it These may be looked out at the 
same time with the subject. 

Sometimes the subject is not expressed, but only implied, in the ending of the verb. 
It may then be readily supplied, as it is always a pronoun of such person and number 
as the verb indicates; as, dvdio^ I hear, the ending io showing that the subject is ego; 
ttudlUe, yon hear, the ending iiU showing that the subject is voa. 

2. The Verb, with Predicate Nonn or Adjective, if any. 

This will be readily known by the ending. Now combining this with the Subject, 
you will hare an outline of the sentence. All the other words must now be associated 
with these two parts. 

3. The Modifiers of the Subject, i. e., acyectives agreeing with it, 
nominatives in apposition with it, genitives dependent npon it, etc. 

But perhaps some of these have already been looked out In the attempt to ascertain 
the subject. 

In looking out these words, bear in mind the meaning of the subject to which they 
belong. This will greatly aid you in selecting from the dictionary the true meaning in 
the passage before you. 

4. The Modifiers of the Verb, i. e., (1) Oblique cases. Accusatives, 
Datives, etc., dependent upon it, and (2) Adverbs qualifying it. 

Bear in mind all the while the force of the case and the meaning of the yerb, that 
you may be able to select for each word the true meaning in the passage before you. 

VI. In complex and compound sentences (346, II., HI.), dis- 
cover first the connectives which unite the several members, and 
then proceed with each member as with a simple sentence. 

Vn. In the use of Dictionary and Vocabulary, remember t>hat 
you are not to look for the particular form which occurs in the sen- 
tence, but for the Nom. Sing, of nouns, adjectives, and pronouns, 
and for the First Pers. Sing. Pres. Indie. Act. of Verbs. Therefore, 

1. In Pronouns, make yourself so familiar with their declension, 
that any oblique case will at once suggest the Kom. Sing. 

If vobis occurs, you must remember that the Nom. Sing. Is tu. 

2. In Nouns and A^ectives, make yourself so familiar with the 

case-endings, that you will be able to drop that of the given case, 

and substitute for it that of the Nom. Sing. 

Thus, meniibita; stem menHt Nom. Sing, mennt, which yon will find in the Yo* 
cabulary. Bo daceni^ duo^ ducs^ d^uos. 


3. In Verbs, change the ending of the given form into that of the 
First Pers. Sing, of the Pres. Indie. Act. 

ThnA, amdbat; stem omo, First Fen. Sing. Fns. Indie. Act amo, which yon will 
find In the Vocabnhuy. So amavenm^; First Pers. Per£ ama^ Perf. stem amav^ 
Verb stem anui ; amo. 

To llliistrBte the steps recommended in the preceding snggestions, we add the 


YIII. ThemistSdes imperator servitute totam Graeciam liberiivit. 

1. Without knowing the meaning of the words, you will discoyer from 

1) That ThemistddeB and imperdiortLTe probably nouns in the Kom. Sing. 

2) That servitau is a nonn in the AbL Sing. 

8) That totam and Chxieeiam are either nouns or adjectives in the Accus. 

4) That UberdfoU is a verb in the Act. voice, Indie, mood, Perf. tense. 
Third Person, Singular number. 

2. Now, turning to the Yocabulary for the meaning of the words, you 
will learn, 

1) That Themutddes is the name of an eminent Athenian general: 

2) That Itbero, for which you must look, not for Uberdvit, means to Ubei^ 


Themistocles liberated. 
8) That »m^«ra^r means oommander; thb comxandeb. 

Themistocles, the commander, liberated. 
4) That Graeciam is the name of a country: Grbbcb. 

Themistocles the commander liberated Greece. 
6) That totus means the whole, all : all. 

Themistocles the commander liberated all Greece. 
6) That servUus means servitude : froh sbrvitudb. 

Themistocles the commander liberated all Greece from servitude. 

Structure of the Latin Sentence. 

IX. The structure of a sentence is best shown by analyzing it 
dxApa/rsing the words which compose it. 


X. Tell whether the sentence is simple, complex, or compound, 

XI. In analyzing a Simple sentence (345, 1.), name, 

1. The Subject and Predicate, (1) in the simple form, and (2) in 
the complex form (847, 350). 


2. The Modifiers of the Subject, (1) in the simple form, and (2) 
in the complex form (852). * 

8. The Modifiers of the Predicate, (1) in the simple form, and 
(2) in the complex form (364-356). 

If tlie Modiflen ^ore complex, the analy*^ may be contluaed till All complex elr 
ments arc explained. 


XII. In '^is castris Cluilins, Albanns rex, mor!tnr. Cluilius, 
the ATban Jclng^ dies in this camp. 

1. This is a simple sentence. 

8. Olmlifts is the simple subject, and maritur, the simple predicate. 
Clmlma Albdnus rese, is the complex subject, and in his cakria morUur is 
the complex predicate. 

8. Bex is the simple modifier of the subject Cktilius, and Albdntu rex, 
tbe complex modifier, as rex is modified by Albdnus, 

4. In castris is tbe simple modifier of the predicate tnorUur, showing 
where he dies, and in his oastris is the complex modifier, as castris is modi- 
fied by his, 

Xm, In analyzing a Complex sentence (346, 11.), 

1. Name the sentence, or clause,' used as an element in it with 
its connective (367). 

2. Analyze the sentence as a whole, like a simple sentence. 
8. Analyze the subordinate clause (346, 2). 


Xiy. Donee eris felix, multos numerabis amicos. 8o long as 
you are prosperous^ you will nuTniber many fri&nds. 

1. This is a complex sentence. 

2. Donee eris feUx, is a clause introduced as a modifier of numsrdbiSf 
showing when you will number. 

8. Tki, implied in numerabis, is the subject ; mimerabis is the simple 
predicate, <ionec eris/eUx, multos numeraMs amicos is the complex predicate. 

4. AmAcos is the simple object of the predicate numerabis, and nrnUos 
amicos the complex object. Donee erisfeUx is the adverbial modifier of the 

6. Donee erisfdix is a simple sentence, with the connectiye donee, Tu, 
implied in eris, is the subject, and eris felix, the predicate, eris being tbe 
copula (858) aad/eUx tbe predicdte a^ective. 

* If the sentence is abridged, show wherein (858, 860> 


XV. In analyzing a Oomponnd sentence (345, III.)) 

1. Separate it into its members and name the connectives.' 

2. Analyze each member as a separate sentence. 


XVI. Sol ruit et montes umbrantur. 

The aun descends and the mountains a/re shaded, 

1. This is a compound sentence (3i5, III.). 

2. The members are sol ruit and montes umbrantur, connected by the 
conjunction et. 

8. The members are simple sentences, and are analyzed accordingly. 


XVII. In parsing a word, 

1. Name the Part of Speech to which it belongs. 

2. Inflect ^ it, if capable of inflection. 

8. Give its gender, number, case, voice, mood,. tense, person, 

4. Give its Syntax and the Rule for it.* 


XVIII. Romani ab aratro abduxerunt Cincinnatum, ut dictator 
esset, TJie Romans took Gincinnatus from the plough^ that he might 
he dictator. 

1. Somdni is an adjective : Bomdnus^ a, um^ stem, Romano ; decline. 
It is in the Nom. Phir. Mase.^ is used substantively (441), and is the sul^eet 
of abduxerunt. Give Bule III. 

2. Abdtixirunt is an active verb : ab-dueo, ah-dudere, ab-duxi, ab-ductum^ 
compounded of ah and duco (313, II.) ; stem, db-due, pebfect stem, ab-dux. 
Give synopsis of the mood (219, 1.). Inflect the tense, i. e., the Indicative 
Perf. Act. (209). It is in the Active voice. Indie, mood, Per/, tense. Third 
person, liur. number, and agrees with Romani, Give Rule XXXV. 

8. Oincinndtum is a Proper noun (89, 1), of the Second Deol. ; stem 

^ If the sentence is abridged, name the compound elements. 

* Inflect, 1. e., decline, compare or conjugate. 

* That is, such of these properties as it possesses. • 

* No special Rule Is deemed necessary for Prepositions, Conjunctions, or Inteijeo* 
tions. Prepositions are provided for by the rule for Cases toiih Prepoettione. Con 
Junctions are mere connectives, and are quite ftiUy explained under Moode. 
Interjections are only expressions of emotion, or mere marks of address, explaine* 
under Oases. 


Cineinnato ; decline, used only in the singular (130, 1). It is in the Accus. 
Sing, Masc, and is the direct object of dbduxerunt. Give Rule V. 
. 4. Ah is a preposition used with the Abl. Ardtro. 

5. Ardtro is a noun of the Second Decl. ; stem aratro; decline. It is in 
the Abl. Sing, Neut.^ and is used with the Prep, ab. Give Rule XXXII. 

6. Ut is a conjunction of purpose (491), connecting ahduxirunt and esset. 

7. Esset is an intransitive verb : «w», esse^ fui (204). Give synopsis of the 
moody and inflect the tense, i. e., Subj. Imperf. It is in th^tihj, mood, Im- 
per/, tense, Third person. Sing, number, and agrees with tiie pronoun is, 
he, implied in the ending (460, 2). Give Rule XXXV. 

8. Dictdior is a noun of the Third Decl. ; stem dictdtor/ decline (60). It 
is in the iV^bm. Sing. Masc., and agrees, as Predicate noun, with the omitted 
8ubjectofe0«€^. Give Rule I. 


XIX. In translating, render as literally as possible without doing 
violence to the English. 

In many important idioms of the Latin, a literal translation would not 
only fail to do justice to the original, but would also be a gross perversion 
of the mother-tongue. The following suggestions are intended to aid the 
pupil in disposing of such cases ; but even m these, it is earnestly recom- 
mended that he should first construe literally, in order that he mdybemada 
to feel the force of the Latin construction before attempting a translation. 


XX. These are mnoh more extensively used in Latin than in 
English ; hence the frequent necessity, in translating them, of devi- 
ating from the Latin construction. They may generally be rendered 
in some one of the following ways * (571-^81) : 

1. Literally: 

Pyrrhus proelio fusus a Tarento recessit, JPyrrhus having besnd^eaied 
in battle withdrew from Tarentum. 

2. By a Relative Clause : 

Omnes aliud agentes, aliud simulantes impr^bi sunt, ACl who do on* 
thing and pretend another are dishonest, 

3. By a Clause with a Conjunction : 

^ The pnpil must early learn to determine from the context the appropriate rendef 
ing in each instance. 


1). With a Conjunction of Time, — tohiley when, after, etc. 

Uya maturSta dulcescit, The grape, Vihen U has ripened (having ripeued), 
hcomea sweet. 

2). With a Conjunction of Cause, Reason, Manner, — as, for, 
since, etc, 

HiUtes perfidAm verlti reyertfirunt, The soldiers returned, heoavse thep 
^feared pei:fi(fy, 

8). With a Conjunction of Condition, — if. 
AccusStus damnabltur, ffheis accused, he will be condemned, 

4). With a Coiyunction of Concession, — though, although. 
Urbem acerrlme defensam cepit, He took the city, though it was valiantly 
i^ended, or though valiantly defended, 
4. By a Verbal Noun : 

Ad Bomam condltam, to the founding of Borne, lit. to Borne founded, Ab 
nrbe condltS, from the founding of the dty. Post regea exactos, after the 
eacpulsion of the Jbingi. 

6. By a Verb : 

Rex ei benigne recepto filiam dedit, The king received him kindly and 
gave him his daughter, lit. gave his daughter to him kindly received, 

XXI. Participles with non or nihil are sometimes hest rendered 
by Participial nouns dependent upon without : 

Nod ridens, without laughing. 

XXII. Future Participles are sometimes best rendered by Ir^finU 
lives, or by Participial Nouns with /or the purpose of: 

Rediit belli casum tentattlrus, Be returned to try (about to try) the for- 
tune of war. 

XXin. The Ablative Absolute is sometimes best rendered (1) 
by a Clause With, — when, while, after, for, since, \f, though, etc., 
(2) by a IToun with a Preposition, — in, during, after, hy, from, 
through, etc., or (8) by an Active Participle with its Oiject : 

Servio regnante, while Servius reigned, or in the reign of Servius (lit. 
Servius reigning). Duce Fabio, uTider the command of Fabius (lit. Fabius 
heing commander). 

Sometimes, as in the last example, a word denoting the doer of an action can be 
best rendered by the word which denotes the thing done. Thus, instead of com- 
mander, consul, king, we have command, consulship, reign. 


XXIV. This may be rendered as follows : 

1. With the Potential signs, map, can, might^^ could, would, 
should (486): 

Forsltan quaerStis, BBrhapa you may inquire^ Hoc nemo dixgrit, No on* 
would Bay this, • 

2. By the English Indicative. This is generally the best ren- 

1) In clauses denoting Cause, or Time and Cause (517, 521) : 

Quum vita metus plena sit, since life is full of fear, Quum Romam 
f enisset, when Tie had come to £ome. 

2) In Indirect Questions (525) : 

Quaerltur, cur dissentiant, It is asked why they disagree, 

3) In the Subjunctive by Attraction (527) : 

Vereor, ne, dum minuSre velim labQrem, augeam, I fear I shall increase 
the labor y while J wish to diminish it. 

4) In the Subordinate Clauses of Indirect Discourse (581) : 

Hippias gloriatus^est, annttlum quern haberet se suS manu confecisse, 
Sippias boasted that he had made with his own hand the ring which he wore 

5) In Relative Clauses defining indefinite antecedents, and 
sometimes in clauses denoting result (501, 494, 495) : 

Sunt qui putent, there are soms who think, Ita vixit ut Atheniensibus 
esset carissimusy He so Hved, that he was very dear to the Athenians, 

6) Sometimes in Conditional and Concessive clauses, and in 
clauses with Quin and Quommus (510, 515, 498, 499) : 

Bum metuant, if only (provided) they fear. Si voluisset, dimicasset, ^ 
he had wished, he would have fought, Ut desint vires, tamen est laudanda 
voluntas, Jluyugh the strength fails, still the will should be approved, Adesi 
nemo, quin videat, There is no one present who does not see, 

8. By the Infinitive. This is often the best rendering 
1) In Relative Clauses denoting Result: hence after digncu, in- 
dignus, idoneu^, aptua, etc. (501) : 

Non is sum qui his utar, lam not such a one as to use (he who may use) 
these things, Fabiilae dignae sunt, quae legantur, The fables are worthy to 
be read (which, or that they, should be read). 


2) Sometimes in Eelative Glauses denoting Purpose, and other 
clauses denoting Result (500, 494) : 

Decemviri creSti sunt qui leges scribdrent, Decemmra were appoitUed to 
prepare the laws (who should prepare). 


XXY. The Infinitive has a much more extensive use in Latin 
than in English. The following points require notice (589 ff.). 

1. The Infinitive with a Subject is rendered by a Finite verb 
with that : 

Dixit se regem vidisse, Be said that he had seen the'hing, 

2. The Historical Infinitive (545, 1) is rendered by the Imperfect 
Indicative : 

Iram pater dissimulSre, The father conceal hie anger, 

8. The Infinitive is sometimes best rendered by a Participial 
noun with of, with, etc. 

InsimulStur mysteria violasse, Be ie accused qf having violated the mys^ 

Miscellaneous Idioms. 
XXVI. The following Mscellaneous Idioms are added : 

1. Certiorem facere should be rendered, to inform, and certior 
JUri, to he informed : 

Caesar certior factus est, Caesar was informed. 

2. Inter se, lit. between themsehes, is often best rendered, from 
each other, to each other, together. 

Omnes inter se diffdrunt, They all differ from each other. 

8. Ne — quidem, with one or more words between the parts, should 
be rendered, not even; or even — not: 
Ne nomen quidem, not even the name. 

4. When»two or more verbs stand together in the same com- 
pound tense, the copula (sum) is generally expressed only with tlie 
last, but in rendering, the copula should be expressed only with 
the first : 

Captus et in vinciila conjectus est, Be was taken and throton into chains. 

5. Quanto — tanto, lit "by as much as — hy so much, is often best 
rendered before comparatives, the — th^ : 



Quanto diutins considiro, tanto res yidfttur obscurior, the longer (by as 
much as the longer) Iconeider the euf^eet^ the more olfecure (by so much the 
more obscure) does U appear, 

6. A Clause with quomlnus^ by which, or that, the less, may 
generally be rendered by a Olattae with that^ by the Infinitvoe^ or 
by a Participial noun with/r<wi. 

Per eum stetii qnomlnus dimicarGtor, H teas owing to him (stood through 
him) that the engagement woe not made. Non recusSvit qnomlnus poenam 
sublret, Ee did not re/use to erubmU to punishment. Begem impediit qnoml- 
nus pugnSret, Bie prevented the hi/ng from fighting. 



For BxplancUlon of TUfer&ivceiy seepage ix. 

I. ila* As the Latin has no article, a noun may, according to the 1 
connection in which it is used, be translated (1) without the article; 

as, a/a, wing; (2) with the indefinite article a, or an ; as, cHa^ a wing; 
(3) with the definite article ihe ; as, o^, the wing. 

4, 28. Post Romoli mortem. For the position of the preposition, 3 
8ee602, n. 3. . * 

1 Serms bonus. In Latin the adjective generally follows its noun, 
as in this example, though sometimes it precedes it, as in English. 
When emphatic the adjectiye is placed before its noun ; as, vera ami- 
ciiia (7, 25). See Grammar, 598; 598, 2. 

II, 18. Leges . . . snnto, let the laws be, etc. The third person of 5 
the Future Imperative is often best rendered by let^ instead of shall, 

13, 28. Qmninm* This agrees with mihtum. 

19, 2. Oonsnl. See note on " Consoles'' (169). 4. Vlnl dens, 9 

The ancient Romans recognized a great number of gods and goddesses. 
Almost every object in nature was under the special care of some one of 
these fabulous deities. Bacchud presided over the cultivation of the 

vine, and was the god of festivity. 6. Testis tempomm, the witness 

of Umesy i e. competent to testify in regard to them. Tempora, times^ 
involves events. Habetnr, is regarded. 9. Eraserat ; from evade, 

20, 1. Expnlsns est $ from expello. 2. Regis pater. B^ refers 

to Tarquinius Priscus, the fifth king of Rome. 6. Dldidt ; from 

disco. 7. Dictator* See note on " Cum honSre dictatoris^^ (l'^8)» 

• ^VoTerat; from voveo. 8. Interfecemnt ; from inierftdo, 

21, 5. Halomm* This depends upon motter, 10 

22, 6. Perdidi ; from perdo. 

28, 6. Fecit, lit, made ; render composed, or wrote, 8. Condidit ; 

from condo. 12. Tixernnt; from vivo. 16. Lvxeriiiit; from 




11 luffeo. 20. Sum praeterrectns ; from praeterviho. 21. Traosie- 

mnt ; from tranaeo. See 296, 3. 

24, 6. Nntricem . . . Siciliam. The ancient Romans annually re- 
ceived large supplies of grain from Sicily. Hence the epithets here 
applied to it 

26, 8. BelU ; construe with artemy the art of war. 9. Edoctns 

fierat; from edocea, 10. PMlmmt; from peto: See 234, 278, 2. 

12 18. Ibemm tndlixlt* This was at the beginning of the second 

Punic war, 218 B. C. The Ebro was the boundary between the Ro- 
man and the Carthaginian possessions in Spain. ^Tradoxlt; from 

tradUco, 14. Tmsdiictii suit J from trafisdUco. 

26, 3. Bestlolae. This refers to the insect known as the ephemeran, 

4. Natns; from aascor. 6. Eistmenint ; from exstruo. 

7. LoBgos qnatenia cvUta^ €<ich four cubit» long, Quatema is a 
distributive. See 174, 2, 1). 

27, 2. Redlit; feom redeo, 296, 8. 8. Concessit; ivom concedo. 

4. Nnmemm, qtuintUy, The word generally means number, 

IHisit ; from mitto. 8. Ilio ; from «>, 296. 

IS 28, 2. BJigraiites terga, literally. Hack as to their hacks, 8. 

Ictus; from ico. Cecldit; from cado, 4 Incensns est; from 


29, 3. Videt, sees it. The object is the pronoun understood, refer- 
ring to conjurationem, 

80, 9. Non dat, does not allow ; lit. 'give, 10. Omnes. This 

agrees with nos implied in damns, 

14 31, 6. Persnasit; from persuadeo. 8. Pepercernnt ; from parco. 

32, 1. Affnit ; from adsum. For the assimilation of d before/, see 

338, 2, ad. 2. Adjanxit; from adjungo. 3. SiBgnlonun, of in- 
dividuals ; it depends upon sdluti, 6. Terrorem injecit, he struck 

terror intOy L e. inspired with terror ; lit threw terror into, Iijecit ; 

from injicio. 6. Pugnae .... Salimineillt This was the famous 

victory gained, 480 B. C, by the Greeks over the Persians. 
34, 1. Caesari erant agenda, lit were to Caesar to be done, 

15 36, 10. Delegernnt; from dellfgo, 

37, 2. Tnae Utterae, your letter. This is the common meaning of 

the plural of tliis word. 5. Notns ; Participle from 9wscOy used ad- 

jectively, 676. 

38, 1. Esto, let there be. 

16 39, 4. Erat, it was, 1. 2. Snstinnenint ; from sustineo, 4. 

Ventomm pater* Ae51us is meant : he was the god of the winds, and 

ruled them at pleasure. 5. Singnlornm faenltates, th£ resources of 

individuals. See 441, 1. IV. 1. Tftrqniains. Tarquinius Superbus, 

17 thelast kingof Rome, is me^t. 3. Dedern&t; from do. V. 2. 



Soiiat, lit sounds ; here exprtneSy means. ^Voz fOlnptatiS) (he word 17 

pleasure; lit. the uord of pleasure. 5. Exhomdt; from ezhorresco, 

40, 8. Famae mendada, the falsehoods of report^ I e. the falsehoods 

circulated by report 8. Nescfnm fingit Socrates, one of the most 

emiDent philosophers of antiquity, had such a contempt for all pedantry 
and conceit of knowledge, that he claimed to know only one thing ; 
viz., that he knew nothing, 

41, 1. Poena; supply est, 460, 2. 3. Fiilt,«m», i.e. consisted of. 

4. Etatsomnl; supply fTtan in rendering. 6. Seneseentis ; sup- 18 

ply aetatis from the preceding clause. 12. Ceterl ; supply venduni, 

42, 1, SnomiB, his own, I e. faults (vtft'dru/n). 

43, 9. H^lns; belongs to ^/bWotf. 19 

44, L 1. €atO ; supply maffjtus habebaiur from preceding clause. 
U. 1. Res . . . constftnit, manoffed the affairs, etc. He was gov- 
ernor of the Chersonesus. III. Y. Pisces; supply capiuntur. 30 

IV. 8. Sacra^ sacred rites. King Numa was the reputed founder of the 
early religious institutions of Rome. 

45, 8. VigiBtl lalentis, iweniif taienis, more than $20,000, a high 
price for an oration, but the purchaser was a wealthy king, and the au- 
thor one of tiie most finished of the Attic orators. ^Tendidit ; from 


46, 1. Innmi ; supply vUius est from the preceding clause. 10. 

IdTersam ; supply fortanam. 11. TIrtntIS) (hat of virtue. It de- 31 

pends upon sUis understood. 

47, 2. Hijor ; lit greater ; render older, 8. Caesails ; supply 


48, T. 5. Fanetns sum ; from fungor, HI. 9. Hectora .... 33 

iebiUes* These were the two most eminent warriors in the Trojan war ; 

the former a Trojan, the latter a Greek. 

49, 2. Clestasut; from gero. 3. VIxIt; from vivo, 5. Tra- 

Jedt ; from trajieio, 6. Fabridns, Arlstldes. They were both dis- 
tinguished for rare integrity and uprightness. The latter was sumamed 

the Just. With Fabricius supply fuit. 1. Mortnns est ; from mon'or. 

12. Xlmothens; supply vmV. 

60,7. Dcstitemnt; from desisto. 11. Expnlsvs est ; from ex- 33 

pello. 13. BellO PenteO) in the Persian war, i. e. the war with Pe^ 

Bia. Themistocles gamed the celebrated victory of Salamis, 480 6. C. 

61, 4. Qaa nocte — Uidtm=eadem nocte, qua, on the same night in 
vhich. The antecedent nocte {incorporated into the relative clause 

according to 446, 9. ^Dianae .... templam. This temple of Diana 

at Ephesus in Ionia was celebrated for its beauty and magnificence. 

9. Condita erat ; from condo. 

52, 2. Conjnnxit ; from coujwujo. C4 



34 58, 1. Qildav, mmej I e. some penoD& ^Nm N^ not in reahigL 

6. Par ; agrees with Ancua, 

64, 1. CogVltt; from cognosco, 4. ExceplJi; from exciph. 

6. Natis est; from nascor. dttroiie .... ctntnlibu; XXIH. 

See also notes on '' Cormilea " (169) and '* IhiiUio " (186). 

35 56, L 1. Id Bammaii scnectntem, (Ul extreme old age, 5. Ylcit ; 

from vinco, 6. Fnsae suit; itomfundo. 8. Er^ga parenteSy ple- 

tBi=jtutUia erga parentes piStas dicitur. ^IL 4. ifrkamas; so called 

because of his great yictory at Zama in Africa.— 5. Ex TlrOy i. e. from 

the word vtV, man. 6. Flarott ; from fiwewo^ 282, L 8. De- 

dit; from do, lU. 2. IH^isa est; from divldo. 4. ProsNSsI 

suit; from progredioT, 5. Est, there i». Snk palllo saididi^ 

under a tailed coaty i. e. in the poor man, among the poor. 

36 56, 5. lb anuil parte ; lit from every part ; render, in ail retpeeU. 
6. Coadldlt ; from condo, 9. Dlves* This is a predicate adjec- 
tive: M horn rich, 11. IMssladOlfltt iiatnra,v«f^</iB»fnf/ar (things) 

bg nature, 

57, 2. id 4ia8 res, in lls=tn us rebm^ ad qtuu^ in those things for 
which. See note on ** Qua nocte^ eadem " (51, 4). 

37 68, 2. Tia; supply delectant, 3. imicnm, a friend, i. e. my 

friend; possessive omitted according to 447. 5. Consnmpsl; from 


60, 1. Deas est, there is a God. Tempernm, of the seasons. 

Rerun, of events. 2. Mala ; construe with carmlna. 8. Hones- 

tatis ; depends upon regida understood, 897, 1, (8). 4. Domlnns ; 

supply erai, 

62, 1. Meonn, of my friends, lit of my, or mine. 2. igneTit; 

from agnosco. 8. 81 qnlsqnam; BxiigipXy sapiens fuU. 6. Optininni 

qnldqne, lit every best thing ; render, aU the best things, whatever is 
best, or the best thing ever, 468, 1. 6. Perdldit ; from perdo, 

38 68, 8. Peperi; from pario, 280. 6. Delati snnt; from defSro, 

292, 2. 6. Exereitnm, his army. Observe the omission of the pos- 
sessive, 447. 7. Exstinctun est ; from exstinguo, to put out, e^ctin- 

guish, applicable to a light The language is figurative; the beautiful 
dty of Corinth is represented as a light, lumen. 

64, 8. Yicterla ; supply venit, 

66, 4. Consnles ; supply bini creabantur from the next chiuse. 

ttnl, tvoo by two, \,e,two each year, distributive, 174, 2. 

39 66, 1. Perspexero; from perspictk 

67, 1. Ubi prifflun, when first, i. c. as soon as. 2. €un Graeds 

Latlna, lit. Latin things with Greek things ; render, Latin studies with 

Greek studies. €<ndnnxl ; from conjungo. 4. Lyenrgl leges. 

Lycvrgus was the great Spartan law-giver. His laws contributed much 

KOTES. 113 


to the prosperity and greatnees of Sparta. 6. Inreomm amndorniii. 29 

The wearing of gold rings was one of the special privileges of senators 
and knights. ^Detraxent ; from detr&ho. 

68, 8. Noimiilll, not none, i. e. some, 685, 1. Cssnne; casum&L 

the interrogative enclitic n« appended. ^t effectos \ from efficio. 

4. QnacsiTit; from quaero, SalTiisne . . . cUpens. This was his 

question when mortally wounded at MantinSa. Ancient warriors took 
special pride in preserving their shields.^*-6. fissent fiisi; from 
fvmdo. 6. In cavsIS) in suits at law, 

69, 3. Redlres ; from redeo. 90 

70, Y« Tanqiuiii pana^ as small, I e. unimportant 

71, 1. ibdnxemnt ; from abduco. Oncinnttiiiii. Cincinnatus, 

who was thus summoned fit>m the plough to the dictatorship in an hour 
of great national peril, acted with such remarkable promptness and 
energy, that in a few days he conquered the enemy, entered Rome in 
triumph, and was rewarded with a golden crown. He then quietly re- 
signed his dictatorship and returned to his farm. ^Dictator* See note 

on " Own honors dictatoris " (178). 2. Patris, of his father, I e. 

the Son. The story is, that he asked his father, the sun, for the use of 
his chariot for a day, but that he found himself unable to manage the 

fiery steeds. 6. DecKTtt; from decemo. ^Ut consol . . . . ne 

. n . . caperet* This was the usual formula by which a Roman citizen 
might be clothed with the power of dictator. 

72, 1. Dt . . . diHganiis; XXIY. 2, 5). i. Senserit; from 31 


73, 2. Qnin .... abeam; XXIY. 2, 6). 1. Qnamimis sit; 

lit bi/ which, or that, the less God should be ; render, that Ghd should 
be, or God from being, XXVL 6. 

74, 1. Qui sastbiCfCly lit uiho shoudd sustain ; render, to sustain, 

XXIV. 3. 4. Qnod . . . possit; XXIV. 2, 5). 6. InTenti sunt; 

from inoemo, 

75, 1. Dam metoant; XXIV. 2, 6). 

77, 4. md In litteriSy if not in letters, I e. m literary pursuits, stu- 3d 

dies. 5. Non . . . senatnm* Senatus, senate, is derived from senez, 

and meant originally an assembly of old men, 

78, ^ Oonsflterit; from condsto,—^-^, Qni . . . attlgissem, ^Aot^A 

/ had commenced (touched) Greek studies (letters) ; XXIV. 2, 6). 

AttlgiSBem ; from atHnffo, 

80, 1. Qnnm . . . dt; XXTV. 2, 1). 2. Ifecesse est. The sub- 
ject is the clause, Deum , . ,- , major a. Hence neeesse is neuter, 33 

438, 8 ; 42, IH. 2. ^Deun .... habeie; XXV. 1. ^Haec baliere 

minora) lit to have these greater, I e. in a higher degree. 4. Sno 

teto . . . non Tiderit. As the term of the consular office was a year, 



33 this seems a very remarkable statement But the tram \s, Camniof 
was appointed only to fill a vacancy of a few hours at the very end of 
the consular year. Hence the remark is only a playful one. 

81, 1. Maltnui, of etnls ; from malum, — --^liiod .... eaplan- 
tnr; XXIV. 2, 1). The Subjunctive implies that the reason is assigned 

on Plato's authority. ^Pisces; supply capiantur, 2. Lfttbie) in 

Latin, 3. Redlerlm ; from redeo, 296, 3. 

82, 1. Dnm . . . . convenirait; XXIY. 2, 1). Ad boram ncK 

nam, UU the ninth houVy L e. till 3 P. M. For the divisions of the 

Roman day, see 111, 2. Qntoven; from guieseo, 3. Toeem 

. . . excitant* The immense audiences before which the ancient trage* 
dians acted, rendered this precaution quite indispensible. 

83, 1. Qnantas .... halMat; XXIY. 2, 2). 2, 'Eantnn, only, 

i. Qui ... . Tideant; XXIY. 3, 2). Qnas in partes, lit into 

what parts ; render, in what direcUon,^^-~-6. Vnvs, one^ viz. Demos- 

34 thenes. 7. Est* The subject is the clause, qualis res , , , sit, 565. 

84, 1. Vt . . . serrem, t^ I should keep myself neutral, i, e., in 

respect to the civil wars. 2. Qnas cognorit XXIY. 2, 3). €ag- 

norit ; for cognovMt, 234, 2. 3. Jnssit ; fromjvbeo, 269. QUM ; 

refers to naves, as its antecedent 6. Ut — Tldear; XXIY. 2, 5). ■ 

Tixisse ; from vivo, 

86, 3. Qnod sctrent; XXIY. 2, 4). 2. Bestiolas. Reference is 

here made to the insect known as the ephaneran, 3. Respondit ; 

from respondeo, Silii, snas* Here siM refers to Caesar, the subject 

of the subordinate clause, while sum refers to Ariovistus, the subject 

of the principal clause. See 449, II. ^Yidasent $ from vineo, 4. 

1^ . . . esset .... fnisse* In the direct discourse, this would have the 
Imperfect Subjunctive in both clauses, the third form of the conditional 

sentence (610). For changes in the condusiony see 633, 2, 2). 

Hie, he, i. e. Caesar. ^A se, from himself, i, e. Ariovistus. 6. ESgit \ 

35 from ago, treated, argued. ^Reminiseeretnr. In the direct discourse, 

this would have been in the Imperative : hence the Subjunctive here 
according to 630, IL 

86, 2. Patres eonseripti, consaHpt fathers, often used in addres^ng 

the Roman senate. 6. Dorminnt ; supply pronoun referring to vir- 

tutes, they. 6. Snnto, let them be, 8. Militiae snmmnm Jns, the 

supreme control of military affairs, ^Paiento; supply pronoun, 

referring to con^iUes, 9. Te ; subject of esse, 10. . Qnam primui, 

OS soon as possible, 444, 3. 

36 87, 4. Positam esse ; from pono, 5. Traditnm est ; from trado, 

'=' — 7. Capidnm ; Ace Masc. Sing, agreemg with aJ^iquem, any one, the 

omitted subject of esse. 9. Snis rebns ; with one^s own Ihingi, Suis 

refers to the omitted subject of esse, Sunt; agrees by attraction witk 

NOTES. 115 


Pred. Norn. diviHa^, instead of the subject clause, 462. 11. Lycir^ 36 

temporibns. This was in the ninth century 6. C. 14. InveBtaS 6886 ; 

from invenio. 16. Imare; supply est. 11. ninima; the smallest^ 

i. e. the smallest evils (mala). 

88, 4. Gra6e6 loqnl, to speak in Greek. ^Latim ; supply loquL 

6. Didicemiit; from disco. 13. Ess6 ; supply bonus. 

89, 8. Tidero .... eapent. This was the duty, or business, ne- 37 
ffoiiimi, assigned to Postumius. The language is the usual form of de- 
cree by which the Dictator was clothed with extraordinary power, in 
prder to save the state. See note on " Oum honSre dictatOris " (178). 

Postumius was Dictator. i. Themlstoelem. This is the subject of the 

infinitive sumpsisse^ while the whole clause, Themistodem .... sumpsisse, 
is in apposition mthfama. Slimpsl8S6; from sumo. 

90, 3. Inter nos ; lit between ourselves ; render, toith each oth^r. 

4. Iccedit qnod ^Mt. it is added that, i. e. there is the addition^ fact 

91, 1. Tn J subject of responsurus sis. 2. PeryenlssentDe ; per- 

venissent and ne. 8. Mel ; subject of esse understood. 6. Inter- 

Aiisset ; from intersum. 

92, 3. Discendi; supply facultatem, 397, 1, (8). 4. indlendi; 

supply occasio. 7. FUtonls andiendl, of hearing Plato ; Ut of Plato 38 

to be heard. PlatGnis depends upon studiosusy while the gerundive au- 
diendi agrees with it, 662. ^9. ^d aadierim, what I have heard. 

93, 8. Saeerdotibns creandts ; lit to priests to be appointed ; render, 

to the appointment of priests, 580. ^Adj6Clt; from adjicio. 6. 

HommlU) sonWy 686, 1. 

94, 1. Ad IntelUgendnm ; lit to understanding ; render, to under- 
stand. ^Est natiis ; from nascor, lit has been born ; render, « bom, 

471, 3. 4. Id cognosceadas .... leges; Ut to ^ lam to be 

learned; render, to learn, or study the laws, etc. ^Lycnrgi leges. 

The laws of Lycurgus, the ^ce&t law-giver of Sparta, were very famous 
in antiquity. 6. Catllliia ..... COHlnravit. This miquitous con- 
spiracy was formed during the consulship of the orator Cicero, 63 B. C, 
by whom it was fortunately discovered and defeated. 

96, 1. NlllU agendo, by doing nothing. 

96, 2. Coneessit ; from concedo. 3. Defensnm 5 from defendo. 30 

. ■■ 6. Fades ; the object is id, the omitted antecedent of guod.-^-r^. 
Cegnitn ; from cognosco. OratiO ; aupply jucunda est from the pre- 
ceding clause. 

97, 2. Hlpi^as. He had once been tyrant of Athens, but havmg 
been driven from the throne, he repaired to the Persian court and 

espoused the Persian cause. Ceddit; from cado. 8. Pinxlt ; 

&om pingo. Tenplo .... Dianae. See note on the same, (51, 4). 



39 6. Terra mntata ; lit earthy or landy having been cfmiiffed ; ren* 

der, change of cowUryy 680. 6. Expnlsns; from expeUo. Y. 

Factns ; from facioy Pass. Jlo. Snbesit ; from aubigo. 8. Vtaie- 

ta; from vhicio. 9. Regibns cxactis; lit the kings having been 

expdled; render, whm^ or after ^ the kings were expdtedy 431, 2, (1). 
This refers to the overthrow of the regal form of govermnent at Rome 
by the banishment of Tarquin, 510 B. C. See below (167, 168). 1 

40 12. Empta; fromemo. 18. Dilapsi sant ; from dilabor, 

98, 8. Secnnda ; prosperous tilings, i. e. prosperity. 

99, 2. In bonis rebns ; lit in good things ; render, among go(A 

things, L e. as blessings. 4. Eripl, snnipi* Eripio means &» 'mt 

avoay forcibly ; surripio^ to take away stealthily. 


41 100. Praeterenntl ; Dative Sing. iWt of praetereo, 296, 8. ^In- 

qnlt; the object is the clause, or sentence, "JVbn .... maledixity^* 

857, I. 

101. Orto ; from orior, Qnantvm bonl, lit how much of a good 

thing ; render, how much good, 896, 2, 8). Both adjectives are here 

used substantively, 441, 2. 
43 102. Coepit, she (the woman) began,^ — ^Illam, that she, I e. the 

hen. Blinores; supply €?mfeas. ^Perdldlt; from perdo, 

103. Beprebensns ; from deprehendo. Mebercnlc; lit, by Hercu- 
les ; render, indeed, 589, 690. 

104. SnbsiUlt; from subsilio. SI .... posset $ if perchance she 

might be able, i. e. to ascertain whether she might, a dependent question, 

625, 1. Icerbae sunt; tfiey are sour, agreeing with uvete understood. 

Repertas;, from reperio, Quae; depends upon oM^gw?*.— *— 

^nae desperent ; XXIY. 2, 6). 

105. Inbaeserat ; from inhaereo. Qni extrahat ; lit who may 

remove it ; render, that he may remove it, or to remove it, XXIV. 3, 2). 
Eot,this, i. e. the removal of the bone. l^^nm .... postnlaret; 

43 XXrV. 2, 1). Videtnr ; the subject is the clause, quod .... extraz- 

isti. Extraxisti ; from extr&ho. 

106. Propter boe ipsnm, on account of this very thing, or for this 
very reason. Qanm, though ^Eos; supply esse puniendos. 

107. ilunm sentlret; XXIV. 2, 1). Ut fieri solet, as is 

w&nt to happen, JSolet is used impersonally. Qnibns ailatis, toliich 

NOTES. 117 


ffflving been hrottffhty I e. when these were brought, 481, 2. Qnlbns ; 43 

see 463. ^Allatls $ from ajpro^ 292, 2. Qnod ; whichy or (his, i. e. 

the breaking of the bundle of rods ; it refers to the clause, nt , , , . /ran- 

g^rent, Imlieeillis ; supply res esaet from the preceding clause. 

1Q8. I^ii^omodo, howy I e. to determine how. Propositis ; from 

/m^E>dRO.— Posse ; depends upon a verb of saying understood ; for 44 

ihu8i they said, thetf vxyufd be abU, etc., 630, 1. ^Neno npertns est, 

no cm wasfoundy i. e. who would do it Bepertns est ; from reperio. 

109. IJbiis ; supply reaidSbcU, Orta ; fit>m orior, Qanm .... 

de^nurent, while aU despaired^ etc., 618, IL Interregat. The two 

objects 9kvegvb€rnaiorem, and the clause, tdram .... exisiimdret^ 374, 4. 

Snbmersnm Irl ; Fut Pass. Infin. of eubmergo^ would he submerged, ' 

woidd go doum. ^Proram* The full form would be: Froramprius 

submersum iri existimo, Die ; supply dixit, 367, 3. Qnnm .... 

Sim ; XXIY. 2, 1). ^Adspectnms sIm ; from adspiao, 

110. Dla, «^, L e. the tortoise. Se TOlncrem facere, to make her 

winged, i. e. to teach her to fly. Arreptam ; fit)m arripio, agrees 

with iliam : the eagle carried her, seized in his talons=aeJzed her in his 

talons and carried her; XX. 6; 679. Snstiilit; from tollo. In 

sublime, on high, 

111. Jnnxerant; ftoxA jungo. OtIs; supply d before this word. 45 

Prima \ supply joar«. Qnartam \ supply joarfem, the object of arro- 

gare, Habltnnim ; supply esse, 645, 3. 


112. Selebam mortalem; object of dixisse, 867, I. Gei- 

feisse ; from gigno. Mortalem ; agrees with eum understood. 

113. I^i^od, that which. The full form would be, Deus est id 
quod, etc. 

114. Se Ipsiim nosse ; supply ^fficde est. Nosse ; for novisse. 

116. Spes; supply eomma^iu es^, etc.— -Qui; supply Aa6e9t/. 

116. Deas; supply es/, etc. 

117. Ib pompa* In the sacred processions, so common at the reli- 46 
^ous festivals at Athens, the consecrated vessels of gold and silver 
were often displayed. 

118. Scire nihil. See note on *< Nescium fingit^^ (40, 8). 

119. Sdpio Afrleanns. This is the celebrated Roman general who 
conquered Hannibal at Zama. See below (196) and note on " Africik 
niM" (196).-^ — ^Anteqnam precatns csset; XXIY. 2, 1). 



46 120. Gentis Corneliae. This was the ^«n« to which Scipio belong^ 

^Jnsslt; from juheo, ^Res gfstas, lit. thingn done, i. e. deeds, 

achieTements. OeskUy participle from ffero, 

121. PluB esse, t\ai it^ i. e. the talent, wu more. Qnod, that 

which ; supply id, 

122. 8e habere, thai he had thirty years, i. e. was thirty 

years old, 

128. Que conaTtntnr; XXIY. 2, 4). QvaeslTemiit ; from 


47 124. Scripslsset; from scribo. Cape; supply ««, them, I e. 

arms (arma), 

125. QBnm dixinet ; XXIY. 2, 1). BTos ; supply gumus. 

126. Prae .... milltltndlBe, because of the mullitnde, 

127. Est proposltmn ; from ^o^io. 

128. Solon ; the great law-giver of Athens. Cur cOBstitnls- 

set; XXIV. 2, 2). 

129. Sapientem ; this agrees with rem^ and stuUam, with rem un- 
derstood. Sapiens ; supply es. 

180. Qnos ; those which ; supply eos, 

4S 131. Ipsi; refers to Cornelia. ^Traxlt; from traho ; detained, 

^Donee redlrent j XXIV. 2, l). ^Haee, these, I e. the ehil- 

dren. It is attracted from hi to haec, to agree with the Fred. Noun, 
omamenta, 445, 4. 

132. Femnt, they report, say. For the omission of the subject, see 

460, 2. ObllTionlS ; supply artem, Quae, those things which ; 

supply ea, 

138. Bono Tiro panperly lit to a good poor man ; render, to a good 

man who was poor, 442. ^Minns probato diTltl ; to one less upright, 

who was rich, FUian ; a daughter, not kts daughter. Ytrun* 

Vir means man in the noblest sense of the word, (he true man, 

Qnae ; «upply egeai, 

134. Aehilles, Homems. The former is the hero of the IHad, the 

latter, its author. Olympteo certamine, (he Olympic contest. The 

Olympic Games were celebrated once in four years at Olympia m Elis, 
and were the most famous games in Greece. To be crowned victor at 
these games was a coveted honor, while the herald had but an humble 

186. Profeetis; ftom profidscor, QnnnTlderet; XXIV. 2, 1). 

Egrederetnr ; from egredior, 

49 186. Tyrannomm domlnatione* This refers to the oppressive rule 
of the Thirty Tyi^arUs appMnted over Athens by the Spartans. See 
below (228). The city was liberated from them by the heroism of 
Thrasybulus. Qnantas gratlas, tMkt»&=^ntas gratias, qtwntas. 

NOTES. 119 


137. Proposnlt; from propGno. Qui inyenlsset, who should 49 

discover. The Pluperfect is explained bj the fact that the discovery 
must precede the giving of the reward. 

138. Id, (hot, i. e. what he intended to do. 

139. Is, h$, i. e. the friend. Per . . . IndignAtloneiii, mth (lit 

through) the greatest indigfiation. Quid mibl tiia ; supply opus est 

amicitia from the preceding question. Tad agrees with amicitia to be 
thus supplied. 

140. Phillppo. This is Philip, king of Macedonia. 

141. TItns amor . . . hnmanl. Titus was the most beloved of the 50 

Roman Emperors. Qvod nihil praestitisset, that he had rendered no 

service. The Subjunctive implies that this fact was the reason which 

the writer would give on the authority of Jltus for the exclamation, 

AmUA .... perdidi. See 620, U. Pniestitisset ; from praesto. 

Edidit ; from edo. 

142. Ceeldisse ; from cado. CognoYit ; from cognosco. Coro- 

nam* Crowns, or wreaths, were often worn by the ancient Romans on 

sacred and festive occasions. ^Deposnlt ; from depsno. ^Volnpta- 

tem ; depends upon sentlre, 

143. In lad. 01. Yictores. See note on <* Olymp\co certamXne " 

(134). Affectns est; from afficio, Stadlo, race-course. Races 

formed a prominent feature in the Olympic contests. ^ 

144. Progressns ; from progredior, ^Fabnlas, fables ; here tra- 
gedies. Vt . . . doeeret. This implies that he aimed to instniet^ 

rather than to please the people. 

145. Praesidibns, the presidents^ or governors, i. e. of the provii^ces. 51 
Praesidlbus depends upon rescripsit, Onerandas ; supply esse. 

146. Yieem eoram, their fate. ^Hectorem, Hector, the most fa- 
mous Trojan warrior. ^Effluxerant ; this agrees with anni. Pins 

qaam mllie, more than a thousand years. Plus, when thus introduced, 
has no effect upon the construction ; otherwise we might expect the 
verb effluxirant to be put in the singular. See 417, 3. 

147. .Qnaesivisset ; from quaero. Idem, the same thing, I e. the 

same question. Petivit, he, i. e. Simonides, asked. DupHicdret be- 
low has the same subject. Qnanto dintins — ^tanto obscnrlor, the 

longer. — the more obscure. Quanto — tanto, lit by as much as — by 90 
tnuch, is often best rendered before comparatives, the — iKe^ XXYL a. 




52 148. In Italtam. What comitruction would be used with thenamt 

of a town? 879. Janieulo t a hill on the west side of the Tiber, 

not one of the seven hills of Rome, though included within the wall 
built by Aurelian in the third centur j. 

149. Tn^a • • • eyersa estt This refers to the famous Trojan war, 

said to have taken place in the twelfth century B. C. Eyertt est; 

from everto. Hlnc, hence, I e. from Troy. ^Pepercerat; from 

parco. £i benigne recepto . . . dcdlt, lit ffove to him kindly re- 
ceived : render, received him kindly and gave, 679. LaTininm ; a 

town in Latium a few miles south of Rome. 

53 1 50. Monte AlbanOt Mount Albanus is about 1 6 miles southeast of 

Rome. Eom, him, i. e. Ascanius. Genitns erat ; from giffno, 

IJiis. For whom does this pronoun stand ? 

151. Minor natn; lit. emaUer in respect to birth, or affe: render, 
younger, Bona^ lit. good thing8=goodi^ property, 

152. Yestalem Tlrginem. The VefUal Virgins were the priestesses 
of the goddess Vesta : they ministered in her temple, and, by turns, 
watched the perpetual fire upon her altars night and day. They were 
bound by an oath of chastity, whose violation was punished by death. 

Viro ; Mirect object after nvhere, to marry=to veil one's self 
for, in allusion to the custom of the bride's wearing the veil at the 

marriage ceremony. ^Peperit ; from pario, Hoe^ this, i, e. the 

fact spoken of in the preceding sentence. Qanm .... comperisset* 

XXIV. 2, 1). Comperisset ; from comperio, 

153. Eflbderat; from effundo, Qi^i^iB . . . . essent positi; 

XXIV. 2, 1). Essent positi ; from jpono. Sicco; supply foco. 

54 154. SlCy thtts^ I e. as explained above. ^Transegernnt ; from 

transigo. — -<lnnm adoleyissent . . . comperissent; XXIV. 2, 1). 

Adoleyissent ; from adolesco. Qnis ; subject of fuisset understood. 

Qnae . ... faisset; XXIV. 2, 2). iTentlno; one of the seven 

hills of Rome. According to the best authority, Romulus founded his 
city not on the AventiTie as here stated, but on the Palatine, which 

stands a little to the north of it. Q^^i^iB • • • • drcamdaretnr, 

XXIV. 2, 1). 

166. Asylam. This was a place of refuge where exiles and even 

criminals might obtain shelter and protection. Qnnm .... Tenls- 

sent ; XXIV. 2, 1). Inter Ipsos fndos, in the midst of the very games. 

NOTES. 121 


156. Qnnm . . . appropinqnarent ; XXIY. 2, 1). In Tarpeiam 54 

. . . incidemnt. TTietf fell in with, or met Tarpeia, etc. ^AnnaloB 

. . . . armillas* Rings and bracelets were often awarded to soldiers 
who had distinguished themselves in battle. 

157. Tarpeinnit This was one of the seven hills of Rome : it was ftft 

also called CapUolinvs. The Capitol was built upon it. ^Fomm 

Romannm* This was an open space in the form of an irregular quad- 
-rtingle between the Palatine and Gapitoline Hills. In this were held 

vhe great public meetings of the Roman people. ^In media caede^ in 

the midst of the Blaughter, 441, 6. Raptae ; supply mulieres. 

Hinc .... hinc, ontheonende , , , . onthe other, ^Foedvfl Icit, made 

a compact, IcOy lit to strike, has reference to striking and slaying the 

victim in ratification of treaties, compacts, etc. In nrbem recepit, 

lit received into the city : the meaning is, he received them into fuU cOi- 

158. Deseripsit; from descr^o. Qnnm .... tnm, not only 

, . , . but also, 4lnnm .... Instraret ; XXIV. 2, 1). Lustraret, 

reviewed, lit purified, as there were certain ceremonies appointed for 

the review of a Roman army. Ortam ; from orior, Interfectom ; 

from interjicio. Supply ease. 

159. Interregnnm. This was the interval between the death of 
one king and the accession of his successor to the throne. In this in- 
stance the government was administered by the senate. ^Elapso ; 

from elabor, ^Natns; from rwwcor. Gessit; from ^ero. Ege- 

riae monitn . . . dicebat. This was the device of Numa to ^ve sanc- 
tity to his institutions, as Egeria was a goddess. ^Horbo dMCfigity lit 

died from disease, i. e. died a natural death. 

160. Saccessit; homsucado, Praestlterat ; from praesto. 56 

Horatlornm et €nriatiornm. After the necessary preparations for hos- 
tilities had been .made both by the Albans and the Romans, and the 
two armies were already drawn up face to face, it was agreed to decide 
the question of supremacy by a combat between the three brothers, the 
Horatii, on the part of the Romans, and the three Guriatii, also broth- 
ers, on the part of the Albans. The Guriatii were all slain ; one of 
the Horatii survived ; his victory therefore decided the question in 

favor of Rome. See Schmitz's Hist, Borne, Perfidlam Metii SnlTetli. 

lietius Suffetius, dictator of the Albans, having been summoned by the 
^mans to aid them against the Veientines, drew off his forces'at the 
rery moment of battle, and awaited the issue of the engagement For 
this perfidy he was put to death, and Alba was razed to the ground. 
See Sckmit^s Hist, Rome. ^Annls. What is the common construc- 
tion for duration of time ? 378. 

161. Nova ei moenla circnmdedit. The same thought may be ex- 



56 pressed thus:' Novis earn tnoentbus drcumdMit; in which earn is the 

direct object^ and mocnlhua, the ablative of means, 884, II. 1. • 

Morbo obiit* Compare morho decessU (169). 

162. Qnl .... Tarqnlnils accepit* He was called Tarqtdnius from 
the citj Tarqui?ni in Etniria, where he lived many years. 

57 163. Minornm gentium, supply j^z^es, or senatorea, Ifec paftcos^ 

lit. fwr a few ; render, and not a few. ^AdemptOS, from adtmo. 

TrlmiiphMlSy triumphmg=in triumph. The honor of entering Rome 
with an imposing triumphal procession was, in later times, often award- 
ed to victorious generals. t/apitolinflk The term Capitol was some- 
times applied to the temple of Jupiter, and sometimes to the whole 

Capitoline Hill, including both the temple and the citadel. ^Per Anel 

liliost What is the usual construction for the agent after passive 
verbs ? 414, 6. 

164. Genltns ; from giffno, ^Adoleyisset ; from adole%co, 

165. Tanaqnll . . . dicens, regem . . . obediret. This was the de- 
vice which Tanaquil, the widow of the murdered Tarquin, employed to 
place her son-in-law, Servius Tullius, upon the throne. Her success was 
complete. ^Dicens. What is the direct object of this transitive par- 
ticiple ? 660. OoDTalnlsset 5 from convalesce, Moiites tres. The 

Vimitialj Mquihne, and Coelian Hills are undoubtedly meant, though 
the Coelian was probably added imder the reign of Ancus Marcius. The 
other four of the seven hills, the Palatine, Capitoline^ Quirinaly and 

Aventine, were already occupied. Censnnit The census was taken 

every five years for the purpose of ascertaining the number of citizens, 
the amount of property, etc. In agrls, in thefeldsy I e. in the coun- 
try, or territory about Rome. 

166. Interfeehu est; from interfido, Qnnm . . . rediret; 

XXIV. 2, 1). 

167. Cognomen . . meruit ; he was called Superbus, because his 

character deserved the title. ^Blorlbns; observe the difference of 

meaning between the singular and the plural, 182. 

58 168. In exitinm, lit. into the destruction ; render, for the destnte- 
tton. What cases does in admit, and with what significations ? 436, 1. 
Ei, against him, indirect object 

169. Consitles* The consuls were joint presidents of the Roman 
Commonwealth, with all the power and most of the insignia of office 

whicbthe kings had assumed. ^Annnnm^ /or one year, Plaeneraty 

lit it had pleaded, seemed good ; render, it had been determined, 

Tarqnlnionim familla. Collatmus belonged to this family. He was 

accordmgly deprived of his office and went into exile. In fjns loenm, 

lit into his place: here, by a difference of idiom, it must be rendered, 
in his place. 

NOTES. 123 


170. Sese inTlcen, lit themselves in turn ; render, each other, 59 

Lnxernnt; from Ittffeo, Qninqne consnleSt One consul had been 

deprived of his office during die year, one had been slain in batde, and 
another had died. 

171. HontiilS .... eset. This achievement of Horatius Gocles, 
and that of Mucius Scaevola, mentioned below (172), became funous in 
the annals of Rome. They have been celebrated in prose and verse. 

See Macaulay's Lays of Ancient Rome. IHmec . . . nptufi esset, 

XXIV. 2, 1). ^Ad StLWy to hie friends, companions, 

172. Castn^ observe difference of meaning between the singu- 
lar and the plural. 132. l^ribam pro rege. He mistook the secre- 
tary for the king. ^Terreret, endeavored to terrify. 469, 1. 

Donee .... consmnpta esset. XXIV. 2, 1). Consennit ; from 60 

178. ExActos; from exXgo. Qnestos; from queror, Qnod 

.... exhanriretiir; XXIV. 2, 1). Secesslt; from secedo. Pa- 

tres, senators, see above (168). -Qui condllaret} XXIV. 3, 2). 

Trlbnni plebis. The tribunes were at first two in number, then 

five, and finally ten. Their persons were sacred and they were clothed 
with great power. They might at any time, by their power of veto, ar- 
rest the action of the magistrates, or even of the senate. 

174. Mifliarliuil arbte, lit. milestone of the city ; render, milestone 
from the city. The Roman roads were furnished with milestones mark- 
ing the distance from the city. 

175. Dnee Fabio eonsale, lit Fabius the consul (being) leader; 61 

render, under the command of Fahius the consul. Qnimi ....?!- 

cissent, XXTV. 2, 1). ^Peilexlsscnt ; from pellido. ^Exorto; from 

exorior. ^Perienmt ; from pereo. ^Potaerat ; firom possum. 

Pradenti eiinetattone, by prudent delay. Fabius, in the second Punic 
war, deliberately adopted the policy of weakening Hannibal by delay, L e. 

by not allowing him an engagement His policy was entirely successful. 

176. In eo erant, at ... . emerrat, they were in this, i. e. in such 
a condition, that ihey would purchase ; the meaning is, they were on the 
point of purehasinff. 

177. Magnitndlne* What other case might have been used ? 396, IV. 

^PrOTOCayity challenged. fUne^ hence, i. e. from the fact of taking 69 

the torquis and adorning himself with it Torquati is derived from 

178. Cnm honore dlctatoris, with the rank of dictator. The dictator 
was appointed only in times of great danger, and was invested with al- 
most unlimited power for a period of six months. Magistro eqnitnm. 

This is the title of an officer always appointed in connection with the 
dictator, or by him. Oceasionem nactns, taking advantage of a fa- 



63 vorahle opportunity, IfactliB ; from nancUcor, Capitis, lit of the 

head ; render, to death, 

179. Y9B^ afterwards, Quid .... paUret; XXIV. 2, 2). 

63 Respondlt. What is the direct object? 560. Dlmlttendos ; supply 

esse, Sub Jngnm. The yoke was thus used as the symbol of sub- 
mission and servitude ; it consisted of a spear supported horizontally 
by two others placed in an upright position. 

180. Quia .... fedssent. If this reason had been given on the 
authority of the narrator, the indicative would have been used. The 
subjunctive implies that this was the reason then alleged for waging the 
war. See 620, 11. ^Primnm . . . tnmsmarlno hoste. Their pre- 
vious wars had been waged with various nations in Italy and Gaul. 

Qanm .... ceplsset ; XXIY. 2, 1). Qnaeennqae .... ageren- 

tnr; XXIV. 2, 3). 

181. Anxilio dephantomin. The Romans had never before met 
elephants in battle, and indeed were unacquainted with the animal. The 
battle was fought in Lucania ; accordingly the Romans called the ele- 
phants Lucaman oxen, hoves Li^cae, ^Per DOCtem, during the flight 

^Adversls Tnlaerlbas, toith wounds in frwU: it was a disgrace to 

receive a wound in the back. Etlam mortnos, even in death, I^o 

.... snblgerem ; in apposition with voce, 

182. Pemxlt ; from pergo. Octavo deelmo. What other form 

64 of this numeral is common? 174. De captlTls redlmendls; lit. con^ 

cerning captives to be ransomed : the meaning is, to treat concerning 

the ransoming of captives, Fabrldnm. Fabricius was celebrated for 

his integrity. See note on " Fabricius " above (49, 6). Ut .... 

promitteret 5 XXIV. 2, 5). Contemptns est 5 from contemno. 

183. Qnnm ... teneretnr ; XXIV. 2, 1). Qnl . . . pretc- 

ret, lit. who should seek : render, that he might ask^ or to ask ; XXIV. 
8, 2). Ut Pyrrhiis .... obtineret. This clause expresses the con- 
dition on which Cineas was to ask peace, and may accordingly be re- 
garded as in apposition with conditiGne, 496, 3. ^Ex Italia* What 

construction would be used, if the name of a town should be substituted 

here ? 421, II. Redllsset ; from redeo, 296, 8. ^Pyrrho ; indirect 

object of resjETone^tV / the cfirec^ object is the clause, sere^m/xi^rixm 
vidisse, 660. Qnalis .... visa esset. XXIV. 2, 2). 

184. hS^fo^ second. Interfectl; supply «?<n/. ^VlnctiUD; from 

wncto, bound, or in chains. " file ... ab honestate . . . potest." 

This entire sentence, as a direct quotation, is the object of dixisscy 867, 1. 

file est Fabridas qui* Fabricius is that one who, i. e. the man, 

who. Honestate ; supply averti potest. A Tareato* What is the 

common construction ? 423, 1. ; 423, 1; Recesdt ; from recedo. 

65 186. Post nrbem eondltam; lit. after the city built ; render, after the 

« NOTES. 125 


htildtng of the dty^ 680. Rome, the city here spoken of, is said to 65 

have been founded 763 B. G. Primnm . . . dimicaTeriut* This 

was the first naval engagement of the Romans. Their previous wars 

had been waged onlj on land. Dnillio . . . consnllbnsu The date 

of an event was generally denoted bj the names of the two consida for 
that year ; in the consulship of Duillius and Asina^ lit. Duillius, Afdna^ 
consuls J or being consuls. These names are thus put in the Ablative 
Absolute, generally without the connective et, ^Mersit ; from mergo, 

186. Panels . . . inteijecdSy lit a few years having been throicn 
between ; render, after a feio years had intervened, or after an interval 

of a few years, 431, 2. Est translatam; from transfer o, Scxa- 

giata qvattoor* May quattuor stand before sexaginta f If so, would ct 

be expressed, or omitted ? 174, foot-note. ^Vigtntl doas ; supply 

naves. ^Amisenuit ; from amitto, QauB ... yenlsscnt ; XXIV. 

2, 1). ^In fidem accepernnt) received under their protection, though 

OS subject states. Captis ; supply est from next clause. See also 66 

XXVL 4. CoiOeetiis est ; from conjido, y 

187. Favlt. How is the Perfect of this verb formed ? 270. How is 

the Perfect regularly formed in the second conjugation ? 218, II. 

Qnam Tlctt essent ; XXIY. 2, 1). Ut . . . proficiseeretar . . . et 

Ifflpetraret Verbs of axJdnjg take two Accusatives, or Objects : these 
clauses may accordingly be treated as one of the objects of rogaverunt, 
while at the same time they express the purpose of the request 492, 2 ; 

874, 4. ^Dfcdt. Give the direct object of this verb, 660. ^Desilsse J 

from desino, Ilia die. What is the usual gender of dies ? 121. 

Illos, that they, i. e. the Carthaginians. Dlos .... habere. This 

infinitive-clause does not strictly depend upon suasit, but upon a verb, 

or participle, signifying to say, involved in it 680, 1. ^Fraetos ; from 

frango, ^Tanti non esse^ that it was not of so much importance- 
worth the while, 

188. Pimiel, Punic, i. e. Carthaginian. The word is derived from 

Poeni, Captae, demersae, capta; supply sunt from occisa sunt, 

Demersae ; from demergo, Cltra Iberu, on this side of the Ebro, 

i. e. on the side toward Rome, the northern side. ^Decessernnt; from 


189. jfoTeni annos natnm, lit having been bom nine years: render, 67 

when he was nine years old ; XX. 8. Hic . . . aetatiSj he living, or 

passing the twentieth year of his age ; render, he when iti his twentieth 

year ; XX. 8. Qui qnnm, when he^ i. e. Hannibal, 468. ^Hiserant* 

The object is legatos understood, though it is scarcely necessary to sup- 
ply it in translating. Socios, ihe allies, meaning the citizens of Sa- 

guntum. ^Reddita; supply «u7t/. 

190. Fratre . . . relieto. Hannibal lefl his brother in Spain to 



67 take care of that province in his absence. ^Trtnsllt; from transefH 

295, 3. ^Tradltor, he, I e. Hannibal, is said. Se coiOnnxernBt. 

Why is se here used, rather than eos or illos i 449, 1. Dedldemi^ , 

68 from dedo, ^ProgressiiS ; from progredior, ^Iiit«remptll8 ; from 

inieHmo ; supply est, 

191. Qflln^^eiitesimo dnodeqiadrageslmo* For combination of nu- 
merals, see 174. Inteilectnm ent ; from inielltgo. The infinitive- 
clause, Hannihdlem . . . posse, is the subject ^Monu The Boman 

general, Fabius, had adopted with great success the policy of weakening 
Hannibal by dday, i. e. by not allowing him an engagement. See above 

(176). ^Vlctl, ctpti, occlsl; supply »««< with each participle. 

Perierant ; from pereo, Qaod» This relative does not relate to any 

particular word as its antecedent,^ but to, the leading proposition, or the 
fact mentioned in it ; the relative is accordingly neuter, as clauses used 
substantively imiformly take that gender, 42, III. 2. ^Factnm; sup- 
ply erat, 

192. Obtnlit ; from off^ro. Here obtylit takes Eomdnis as its in- 
direct object, while the direct object appears in the form of a clause, 
viz. ut captives redim^rent. This is plainly the offer made to the Bo- 
mans ; but this clause alse states the purpose of the offer, viz. that they 
might ransom the prisoners. Hence the subjunctive redimSrent, 492. 

— --Qlli . . . potnisscnt, who had been able ; XXTV, 2, 5). ^Annati. 

The senate regarded it as a disgrace, that any should be captured so 

long as they had arms to defend themselves. ^Anreomin annnlomm* 

See note on the same (67, 6). Hos omnes* Observe position at the 

beginning of the sentence to mark emphasis. 594, L ^Detraxent ; 

from detr&ho. How is the Perfect formed ? ^58, 1. 1. Hasdrnbal 

.... exercitn. See above (190, line 1). ^Remanserat ; from re- 

maneo, ^Dnobns Sdpioiilbisu These were Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio 

and Publius Cornelius Scipio, the latter the father of Publius Cornelius 
Scipio Africanus, who defeated Hannibal at Zama. See below (196). 

193. Res prospere gesta est, a successful battle was fmghi. In a 
military sense, rem gero frequently has this meaning. ^Magaam h^jos 

69 Insidae partem. . For arrangement of words, see 598, 3. lade, 

thence, i. e. from Syracuse. ^In Macedonia* What construction 

would have been used, if this had been the name of a town instead of 

that of a country ? 421, II. In deditlonem accepit, lit. received into 

surrender ; the meaning is, accepUd the term* of a surrender, ^RC" 

gressns est ; from regredior, 

194. Dno Seiplones. See duobus Sdpionibus (192) and note on the 
same. They were both slain in battle within a month of each other, 

in the year 212 B. C. Hie, pner dnodeYlginti annornm, h£ wheti a 

boy tighteet} years of age, 363, 3. ^P«st eUdem Gannensem, after ths 

NOTES. 127 


iefeaJt at Cannae (191). ^Vigiiifl qiattnOT .... nttiis, lit. having 69 

been bom twenty-four years ; render, when boenty-foitr years of age, 

Carthaginem BfOYam, New Carthage^ a city in Spain, founded soon 

ailer the first Punic war by Hasdrubal, brother-in-law of Hannibal. It 
was named after Carthage in Africa ; its present name is Carihagena. 
ParentlbliS, to their parents. ^Translenut \ from transeo. 

195. Creatns; supply est, MUUbns . . . milltlliiis. When is 

milHa followed by the Genitive and when by its own case ? 178. 

Qua re andlta, lit. which thing having been heard; render, having heard 
Oiis, or on hearing this^ 431, 2, 3). 

196. Plus Mmt\=plus guam semd, more than once, ^Ad Zamam, 70 

near Zama, Perlttssimi dnces, Hannibal and Scipio are meant. 

Seipio Tictor recedit, lit. withdrew victor ; render, left t?ie field as victor, 

or simply was victorious. ^Ingenti gloria trimnphaTit. Compare cnm 

ingenti gloria . . . regressus est (198). ^AfrlcaniiS* This title was 

conferred upon Scipio in commemoration of bis victories in Africa. 
See also nomen Africani junioris (200). * 

197. Finito Poolco bello^ Which Punic war is meant? (185 and 

189). Macedonlcwn ; supply bellum. Contra PhilippiuD. This 

limits helium understood, the war against Philip, 352, II. Begem* 

Philip was king of Macedonia. 

198. RebeUavity rebelled, i. e. renewed the war against Rome. 

Rex. What king? Dederet, dedldemnt ; homdedo. Remomin 

ordineS) banks of oars. These were arranged, one above another, so 
that the oars belonging to the highest ordo, or bank, were much longer 
than those belonging to the lowest. War-vessels generally had three 
banks, and were accordingly called triremes {tres, remi), but it was no 
uncommon thing to see vessels with four or five banks, and some are 

said to have had thurty or forty. ^Ante enrmm, before the chariot, 71 

i. e. of the conqueror. In the triumphal procession, the captives and 
spoils preceded the chariot of the victor, while the victorious army 
Allowed it. 

199. Snsceptnm est ; from susdpio. Ibi, there, i. e. in Africa. 

Per Seipionenit What is the common construction for the Agetit of 

passive verbs ? 414, 5. TribiiDiiS) tribune, an officer in the army 

commanding a part of a legion. The number of tribunes to each legion 

was at first three or four, afterward six. ^Nepotem, grandson, but 

only by adoption. He was the son of Aemilius Paulus, the celebrated 
general, who conquered Macedonia. See above (198). 

200. QnuB . . . esset . . . nomen, when luno the name of Scipis 

was (or, had become) great ; XXIV. 2, 1). Missns; supply est. 

Aeerrime defensam, lit most valiantly defended ; render, thoitgh (it was) 
most vaUatiily defended. — ^Facta ; supply est. ^Plnrlma, verymmn^ 



71 IhtngSy referring especially to the works of art, statues and Totive 
offerings, which the Carthaginians had taken from the temples of the 
conquered cities in Sicilj. 

72 201. Exortnm est; from exorior. ClTitate. Logically this is 

in apposition with NumatiHa implied in i^Tt^man^rm.— — -Ylctns ; sup- 
ply est. ^Pacem infamem. The terms were that Numantia should 

remain free and independent. ^Tradl ; depends upon jussit in tht 

line above. Militem; lit soldier, the individual representing the 

class; render, soldiery. Correxit; from eorrigo. Partlm^pai^ 

tim \ lit partly-— jMrtly ; render, ei^ier—or. These words may, how- 
ever, be often best rendered by some— others, followed by of. Thus, he 

captured some of the many cities of Spain and accepted others, etc. 

In deditlonem accepit. See note on the same (198). 

202. Anno nrbis condltae . . . sexto, in the six hundred and sixty- 
sixth year from, or after (lit of) the founding of the city. Urhis con- 
dltae is here equivalent to post urbem condUam (185), or ab urhe con- 

■^ dita (207). Romae* What case would have been used, if this had 

been a noun of the third declension? 421, 11. ^SDthrldatlCBm ; sup- 
ply bellum. ^Marlns, Snllae. These generals were the leaders of 

rival political parties. Marius was supported by the common people 

and Sulla by the nobles. Adversns Mithridatem* This lunits bel- 

. lum, 898, 4. Qnnm . . . decretnm esset; the meaning \q\ when the 

management of the war had been entrusted to him by a decree of the 
Senate. The Subjunctive is here rendered according to XXTV. 2, 1). 

Decretnm esset; from decerno. ^El, i. e. Sullae. Qnnm — ^tnm» 

Usual meaning, not only — btit also ; both — and, etc. ; render here either 
—or. Composltis; from compdn/>. Profeetns est; from profcis- 

73 cor. ^Asla, qnam invaserat. Not all Asia, but that portion of it which 

he had invaded, referring especially to those portions of Asia Mino^ 
west of his own dominions. 

208. In Graeeia et Asia. Mithridates, emboldened by his success 
in Asia Minor, had sent an army into Greece. Athens and Thebw 

were at this time in his possession. Fngatns fnerat. Marius had 

been for sometime in concealment Unns ex, one of; lit. one from. 

IngressI; from ingredior. ^filnltos proscripsernnt, proscrihed 

mafiy. In the civil wars, Sulla caused lists of the names of those per- 
sons whom he wished to have killed to be exposed to public inspection. 
Those whose names were on these lists were outlawed or proscribed, 
and any one might slay them and claim a reward ; tbdr property was 
confiscated, and their descendants were excluded from all offices of 
honor and trust See Smithes Diet, of G. and JR. Antiquities ; also 
Schmitz's Hist, of Rome. Compnleront ; from compello. San- 
guine* Gender ? Civinnu Genitive plural, how formed ? 65, 8, 1). 

NOTES. 129 


• Be^ lit. concerning ; render in this instance, over. ^Italicmn, 73 

elTUe ; supply bdlum, Soelale dictum est ^ this is the predicate of 

the relative clause. Tiros consnlares, men who had been consuls, i. e. 

men of consular rank or dignity =ex-co7i«w&. The consuls, it will be 
remembered, were two in number, were elected for one year, and had 

all the powers of king. See note on " Consuies " (169). ^Praetorios, 

those who had been praetors. When the office of praetor was first insti- 
tuted, only one was appointed, who was to act as a kind of third consul 
with the leading part in the administration of justice ; about a century 
later a second was added, called praetor peregrinus, to administer jus- 
tice among foreigners and strangers resident at Rome. The number of 
praetors was increased from time to time, until at the beginning of the 
civil wars of Sulla and Marius, it was six ; and in the dictatorship of 
Sulla it was raised to eight. See Smithes Diet, of G. and R. Antiqui- 
ties, and Schmiiz^s Hist. Rome. ^AedUitioS) those who had been aediles. 

The aediles (from aedes) were Roman magistrates who had charge of 
the public buildings, highways, etc., and acted as city police. They 

were at first two in number, afterwards more. See Smiths Did. 

Senatores* The Roman senate (from senex) was regarded as a body of 
elders or fathers (patres). The nimiber was at first 100 (see 168), then 
200 (see 163), and finally 800, which continued to be the number until 
the time of the civil wars between Sulla and Marius. The number was 
then increased to 500 or 600 by the election of a large body of Roman 
knights. See Smiths Diet. 

204. Commotnm est ; from commoveo. GladlatoreSt Gladiators 

were men who fought for the amusement of the Roman people. They 
consisted mostly of prisoners, slaves, and malefactors; they were 
trained in the skilful us^ of weapons at schools established for the pur- 
pose (ludo gladiatorio). Capnae, at Capua. Hannibal ; subject 74 

ofmovit understood. Contraxernnt ; from contraho: explain for^ 

mation of the Perfect ; 258, 1. 1. ^Yleemnt ; from vinco, ^Pro- 

eonsnle* The proconsul, as the name implies, was one who acted with 
the power of a consul. Those who had been consuls (yiri constUdres) 
were often allowed to assume the government of provinces, and to ex- 
ercise in these provinces all th6 powers of a consul ; they were then 
caXied proconsids. Italiaet Is this genitive objective, or subjective f 

896, n. 

205. Per lUa tempora* How could tempdra be governed without 
the preposition ? 378. Per makes the idea of duration more promi- 
nent, throughout those iim£s. ^Maria. What is the ending of the 

stem ? 63. Id bellnm, this war, I e. that against the pirates. De- 

cretnm est ; from decemo. For the meaning see note on "Qwwm .... 
decretum esset^^ (202). ^Menses; give gender, 101, 2. — -Contra 



74 regem. This limits bellian. Qno snscepto, lit. which having been 

undertaken ; render, having undertaken this ; 431, 2, (3). ^TantDm, 

only, Coactas ; from eogo, Hanslt ; from haurio. Hunc vitae 

finem. For the order of these words, see 598, 8, and for their position 
at the beginning of the sentence, see 694, 1. 

206. lile 86 el* What nouns are represented by these pronouns ? 
T5 Dedidit ; from dedo. Grandl peeunla, a large mm of money^ 

according to Plutarch, 6,000 talents, more than $6,000,000. Selev- 

ciam libertate donaTlt* What two constructions occur ? 384, 1. 

Qnia . . . tnlent \ qvod . . . reeepUset. These are both causal clauses. 
The first, with the Indicaiivej states the reason as a/ac/, while the se- 
cond, with the Subjunctive^ implies that the reason was assigned by 

Pompey. 520. Occlsis \ from occido. His gestls, lit. by means 

of these things done^ i. e, by these achievements^ Abl. of Means, 414, 4. 

Antlqnissimo bello* This war continued nearlj thirty years. 

Ante trinmphantls cnrrnm, lit. before the chariot of (him) triumphing ; ' 
render, before his charioty as he triumphed^ referring to the triumphal 
procession. Fllll Mithridatls. They were five in number. In- 
finitum pondns* According to Plutarch, this amounted to 20,000 

talents, more than $20,000,000. Orbem terrarnm, strictly the world., 

but sometimes used by the Romans with special reference to the Ro- 
man Empire, 

207. Cieerone et Antonio consvlibns, lit. Cicero and Antony (being) 
consuls : render, when Cicero and Antony were constds^ or, in the con- 

sidship of Cicero, etc. ^Deprehensi^ from deprehendo. Supply 

sunt from the next clause. 

208. Qnnm .... deereta esset, when Gaul had been assigned to him 
by decree, i. e. as a military province ; XXIY, 2, 1). ^Vincendo pro- 

76 cessit, proceeded by conquering, i. e. advanced victoriously. Oceannm 

Britannlcnm, British Ocean, i. e. the English Channel. Omnem Gal* 

Uam quae, etc. Not all Gaul, but that portion which is bounded as 

described. Ne nomen qnidem, not even the name ; 602, III. 2. 

Cognitnm ; from cogwmo, 

209. Absens» It was unlawful for a general, while in command of 
an army, to oflfer himself as a candidate for the consulship, and indeed 
for any one to do so while absent from Rome. Caesar was both absent 

from Rome and in command of an army. Qnem qnnm . . . defers 

rent) contradictnm est^ etc., when many would confer this, etc., opposi- 
tion (or, objection) was made, ^Dimissis ; from dimitto, ^Transiit ; 

from transeo. Dictatorem. See note on " Dictatoris " (1Y8). 

210. Inde, thence, i. e. from Rome. Hlspanias, Spain. The 

plural is often used, as the country was divided into two parts, viz. 
m4erior, on this side of the Ebro, i. e. on the side toward Rome, aud 

NOTES. 131 


ulterior^ beyond the Ebro. ^Ncc .... snperari. This entire clause 76 

is the object of dixit. 660. ^Ncc, and not^ 687, I. 2. ^ViiiMre. 

This is the object of scire ; Caesar said that Pompey did not know 

(what ?) to conquevy or how to conqiter, Ingentibns .... eoramissis, 

toith ffrecU forces engaged on both sides. ^Pngnatiliii est, t?ie battle loas 77 

fought. ^Dlrepta sunt 5 from diripio. ^A rege Aegypti« This king 

was the last of the Ptolemies and the brother of Cleopatra. Oeddlt ; 

ilew^ though not with his own hands. He employed men to do it. 

fienerit Pompey had married Julia, the daughter of Caesar ; while she 
lived, she was, of course, a strong bond of union between the two, but 
she had died six years' before the battle of Pharsalia. 

211. Qua de eavsa^/or which cause. For the order of words, sec 

602, IL 1. ^Pompeianariim .... v^ApijaltA^ ihe remnant of Pompey* s 

party. Insolentliis ageret He allowed himself to be proclauned con- 
sul for ten years, imperator and dictator for life. This was a virtual 

overthrow of the Roman Republic. COBJnratiim est ; a conspiracy 

was formed. Sexaglnta vel ampllns, sixty or more. Inter coi^n- 

ratos ; lit. among the having conspired^ i. e. among the conspirators. 

^Brnti dno ; viz. Marcus and Decimus. Ulins Brntit See above 

(169). ^Regibns expnlsis, lit the kings having been banished; ren- 
der, after the banishment of the kings. Hunm . . . Tenisset ; XXIV. 

2, 1). Confossns est ; from confodio. 

212. Interfecto; from interfido. i €aesarl8 partllras stabat, 78 

favored the party of Caesar (stood by the party, etc.). ^Hagister 

eqnitom* See note on ^^ Magistro egmtum^^ (11&). Snsceptns est ; 

from suseipio. OetaTianus* He was the son of Octavius, but was 

adopted by Julius Caesar, with the name Octavianus Caesar. ^Patris 

sni, i. e. his father by adoption, Julius Caesar. ^Extorsit ; from ex- 

iorqueo. Ut . . . daretnr* This clause expresses both the direct 

object of extorsit and the purpose of the action : Caesar extorted (what ?) 
thai Hie consulship should be giveny and (for what purpose ?) in order 
that it might be given. See 492, 1. ^Vlgintl annonuD* The age re- 
quired by law was forty-three. Jnnctns; from jungo. ^Proscrip- 

siL See note on " Froscripserunt " (203). ^Per bos* By whom ? 

213. ProfectI* This is in the plural to agree with Octavianus et 

Anionius. Seenndo \ supply proelio. — -Infinltam nobtlitatem, quae, 

lit. the infinite nobility^ which ; render, the countless nobles^ who. 

Tletam interfecenmt, lit. they slew (them) being conquered ; render, 

they conqitered and slew. See 679. HispaniaSt See note on this 

word (210). Galllas. The plural is used because the Romans divided 79 

the country into two parts, viz. Gallia ulterior or TVamalptnc^ or Ga^il 
bcjjond the Alps ; and Gallia dierior or Cisalpinay or Gaul on HUs 
side of the Alps ; i. e. on the side toward Rome. 

a • 



70 214. RepvdUUi sorore* Antony had married Octavia, the sbter of 

Octavianus. Uxorem dnxit, married^ lit. lead as mfe. The language 

is explained by the fact that the bride was usually conducted to her 
new home by her husband and friends. See note on " NvhSre'''' (152). 

Qui loeiuu The relative here has only the force of an adjective. 

DesperatiS rebus, lit. thhigs having been despaired of ; render, as 

his caiise was desperate (or hopeless). Interemit ; from inierimo, 

Ex eo Indc tempore, from this time^ or from this time forth, Indk 
need not be translated. ^inte; Adverb, before^ oxprevioudy. 


SO 215. Pn^ae .... facerent, did not give him an opportunity of 

coming to an engagem£nt, XXIV. 2, 1). Ponte Istri, the bridge 

over the Ister^ u e. the Danube ; lit the bridge of the Isier, Qnnm 

redilsset ; XXTV. 2, 1) ; 518, H. Eiqne. JEi refers to the fleet. 

216. Praefeeti regii, the royal commanders^ i. e. Datis and Artar 
phemes.-^ — ippnlsa; from appdlo. ^In Campnm Marathona^ into 

81 the plain of Maraihon. For ending a, see 68, 1. Ab oppido, /rom 

the cilyy I. e. from Athens. Cireiter .... decern* The distance by 

any suitable road was somewhat greater than this. ^Ea, this^ L e. this 

state ; supply civitas. ^Decern .... eompleta sunt, the number of ten 

ihoiLsand armed men was completed^ ov filled up. Thus there were 9000 

Athenians and 1000 Plataeans. Snb montls radicibns, at the base of 

the mountain. Commlsenuit ; from committo, SiiiS,/or his men, 

441, 1. ^TantO pins, so much more, . 

21Y. Qaun Darius deeessisset, when Darius had died; XXTV. 

2, 1). ^Deeessisset ; from decedo, In ipso apparatn, in the midst 

of his very preparations, i. e. while actually engaged in preparing for a 

second invasion. ^Hqjus classis, the fleet of this one, i. e. Xerxes ; 

render his fleet. ^NaTiiim longaruin, ships of tear, called longae^ be- 
cause they were built much longer than the ships of burden {onerariOr 

rum). NaTinin .... fait, was of , , , , ships, i. e. consisted of etc. 

De adTentn. This is an attributive modifier of fama, — the report 

of his approach,-^ ^Peti, to be aimed at. ^Msemnt DelphOS,. iJiey 

sent to Delphi ; object omitted, sent messengers. The Delphic oracle 
was the most famous in Greece. De rebus suls, lit. conceiving their 

S3 things, i. e. for their safety. Id Taleret, what this answer 

, meant. Ut .... eonferrent* This clause is the predicate after esse, 

KOTES- 133 


fts it states what the design was. Enn— Ugiievn, /or that tJiat 89 

wooden wall was meant, etc., I e. that that was the wooden wall meant, 

etc. ^Triremes. See note on " Remorvm ordlnes " (198). Ubi^ 

ribns natv, old or aped men, ddera, 

218. Hiuns consilinin, the plan of this one, i. e. Themistocles. 

IM^Hy picked men, Qnl oecvpareilt ; XXIV. 8, 2. ThtT»» 

mopylas* Thermopylae is a narrow pass between Locris and Thessaly, • 
inmiortalized as the scene of one of the most remarkable instances of 
heroic daring and self-sacrifioe recorded in history, that of Leonidas and 
his three hmidred Spartans, here mentioned. ^Barbaros^ Barbarians, 

i. e. the Persians. The. term was applied to all who were not Greeks. 

•: ^Bfon snsttnneniiit. They were unable to resist the overwhehning 

force brought against them, but they performed prodigies of valor unsu^ 

passed in the annals of war. CltSBis .... naTinffl, the common 

Jleet of Greece (L e. the fleet of all Greece), conmting of, etc. ^Ab- 

^BStiu* The narrow channel, Euripu8, between Boeotia and Euboea, 

is here meant Aneipiti perienlO) by a doubJe danger, i. e. by being 

confined in the channel with one foe in front and another in the rear. 

^ExadTersvn AtheiuuSy over against Athens. JExadversum, like ad- 

version, admits the Accus., 483. 

219. Thermopylls ; see above (218). ista, the city, I e. Athens. 83 

The word is often thus applied. Idqne, and this, i. e. the city of 

Athens. C^jng, of this, L e. of the burning of the city. ^Themis* 

toeles rnms restitlty Themistocles alone stood firm, objected, ^UniTer- 

SOS, a/7 together, unitec^, Idqve .... alflrmabat^ lit he affirmed to 

EuryUades that this would he, etc., i. e. he assured him that this would 

be the result Siuninae, dative depending upon praeerat 886. 

De serris snis, qvem, etc., one of his servants, whom, eUi, SnJs TeP- 

bis, in his words, i. e. in his name, from him, ^Nnntiartt* This 

Terb has ei as its indirect object, and all the rest of the sentence after 
verbis as its direct object 660. Confectnnin ; supply eum, refer- 
ring to the king. Oppressnnuii ; from opprlmo. Hoc eo Tiriebat, 

the. object of this was. Barbaras, barbarian, meaning Xerxes.—'— 

Contray on the contrary, on the otiier hand, Expllcarl, to be unfold- 
ed, i. e. to be brought into silccessful action. 

220. Hie etsi . . . . gesserat, although he (Xerxes) had fought an 
unsftccessfid battle; 616, III. Ut .... posset bostes; XXIV. 

2, 6). ib eoden, by the same one, I e. Themistocles : eOdem, it 84 

must be observed, does not belong to gradu.^ — Oradn, from his po^ 

ftition, €ertiorem fedt ; XXVI. 1. Id agt, lit thai it was doing ; 

render, teas in contemplation, In Hellesponto, over the Hellespont, 

^^— Reversns est ; from ret^erto, revertor, Dep. in certain forms. See 
2T3, III. verto. Unlns yirij of one man^ i. e. Themistocles, 



§4 221. qjatM'-jmtquam ; 427, 8. InterfectlUI est, destroyed, ctd 

in pieces. 

222. Perielis* Pericles, a distinguished orator and statesman of 
Athens, directed the counsels of state for many years. The period in 
which he lived is famous in Grecian history m the " Age of FericlesJ*^ 

§5 — >— Inteijeetls ; from interjido. Clara ; observe its position ; 

694, I. Patrimonii eontemptns, disregard of patrimony, referring 

to the fact that he gave his ancestral estates to the republic, as ex- 
plained below. ^Hostes \ subject of reliquSrant, In gnspicionem 

addncerent ; supply eum ; that they might bring him into suspicion of 

treachery, ^NaTali .... dimlcatnm est, lit it was fought, etc. ; 

render, a naval battle was fought ^In annos qninqnaginta, lit. info 

fifty years ; render, for fifty years. 

223. Decernltnr, is decreed^ or authorized, ^EflTnsae snnt ; from 

effundo, ^Ut . . . essent ; XXIV. 2, 6). Us, qnibns ; i. e. to the 

Catinienses. Secnndo Marte pngnant, lit. they fight. Mars being pro- 
pitious ; render, they fight a successful battle, or successfully, Ah liis, 

by these, i. e. the Lacedaemonians. Contractis ^ from contr&ho, 

86 224. Triremes. See note on ''Bemorum ordtnes'' (198). In 

llOStinm potestatem, into the power of the enemy. In is construed with 

potestatem. Observe separation, 602, II. 3. Slmnl cnm, at the same 

time with, or simply with, Sitae snnt ; from sino, Qnam plnri- 

mas* Quam before a superlative is intensive, and is often best ren- 
dered hj possible; as, quam plurtmas, the greatest possible number, a* 

many as possible, or sometiihes very many. ^Neqne minus mnltas, 

lit. nor less many=.and not less many=.and as many more. 

225. Darins* This was Darius the Second, and not the one spoken 

87 of above (215). Ut .... mitterent ; XXIV. 2, 6). In .... 

locnm, lit. into the place of; render, to take the place of, to succeed. 

226. Ut nnmems .... expleretnr,^ that the number .... might 

be filled, i. e. to raise the required number of soldiers. Ooaeti snnt; 

from cogo.— — ^Prodiis adyerso Marte pngnatis, lit. battles fought. Mars 
being adverse ; render, having lost battles, or having fought unsuccess 

fully. ^Res .... inelinata est. The power of the Athenians was 

atterly overthrown by this defeat. The figure involved in the verb 
incllno, to incline, fall, is that of a building leaning and ready 
to fall. 

22 Y. Nomen Atheniensliim, the Atlienian namez=zi/w Athenian state 

or nation. Negamnf .... passnros, lit. denied that they would 

permit ; render, said that they would not permit. ^Passnros. What 

is the object ? 554, III. Dnobns ocnils, the two eyes , these were 

Ath£Wi and Sparta. Longi mnri braehia. Reference is here made 

to the long walls which connected Athens with its porta. ^Triginta 

NOTES. 135 


recteres. These are known in history as ** The Thirty IS/ranta.^' 87 

Dedill, devoted io^ L e. to the interests of. 

228. ThnsyMns. S^enote on '' Thrasybuh" (136). Qnod. 88 

This relative, it will be observed, does not agree with its antecedent 
Phylen^ but with the Predicate noun ccLsteUum ; 446, 4. ^TrlginUl 

de 8iils, lit ihirty from (of) his ; render, thirty of his oMociaieSy or 
thirty associates/ 

229. Idem impentor, the same, L e. Epaminondas, when commander^ 

BC8, 3. ^Boeotii, the Boeotians, They were the inhabitants of Boeo- 

iia, north of Attica, of which Thebes was the chief city. ^Ex liastHi, 

from the spear. The iron point, separated from the shaft, had re- 

mamed in the flesh. ^Extraxlsset ; from extr&ho, YIdsse Boeo- 

tiiMS) thai the Boeotians (his own men) heui conquered, 

230. Lenctrlcun pignam, the battle of Leuctra, This battle des- 89 
troyed the power of Sparta and made Thebes the leading state in 
Greece, but Thebes speedily lost the supremacy after the death of Epa- 
minondas. ^Atheaienses, non nt oUm. Formerly Athens had been 

eminent in war and had been for many years the leading state in 
Greece, but of late the sterner virtues had disappeared from the Athe- 
nian character, and the love of ease, luxury, and festivity had taken 
their places. Thus Athens, Sparta, and Thebes, each of which had 
been in turn the leading state in Greece, had now become weak and 
degenerate. This state of things enabled Macedonia to rise to power, 

as mentioned in the next sentence. Obses .... Thebis* In the 

year 869 B. C, when the power of Thebes was supreme in Greece, 
Amyntas, king of Macedonia, had been obliged to send his son Philip 
as a hostage to that powerful capital. 

231. Anrarla; supply metalla from the next clause. ^Argentl 

.... Thracia* There were also yold mines in Thrace near PhilippL 

232. DIv dlasimalatiun. He had long intended to make war upon 90 

Athens, but had from policy concealed that intention. i^aornin 

causae .... Janxemiit) to whose cattse (he Thehans had joined them- 
selves^ i. e. with whom they had allied themselves. Qnimiy though ; 

516, II. ^AssidalS bellis taldimita, hardened^ or strenythened by con- 

Hnual wars, Philip had a well-disciplined army of veterans, long ac- 
customed to severe and constant service. ^Adversts Yvtaieribns* See 

note on the same (181).-^ — Hie dies .... finivit. The battle of 
Chaeronea reduced Greece to a Macedonian province. 

233. Hqjns Tletoriae .... laetttta, lit. joy of this victory ; ren- 
der, joy on account of this victory. Coronas^ anguenta* The Greeks 

often made use of crowns^ garlands^ ointments^ and perfumes on joyous 

and festive occasions. Qaantam .... fnit, lit. as much as was in 

him; render, as far as was iii his power. Pt .... Tietorem 



90 .... Mlitlrety that no one wotdd recognize ike victor ^ i. e. the feet that 

he was such. ^Bello consiunptonui, of those »lain in war, or battle, 

Consumptorum is used substantively ; 575. ^Ad f^rmandiim .... 

Statmn, lit. to form the tUate of present things; the meaning is, to ad. 

just or settle the posture of affairs, ^iudlla, the quotas, i. e. the 

quotas which the several states were to furnish. Ertt 5 the subject 

is the clause, eum .... esse ; 549. Snls ; supply virihus, 

%\ 234. Medins Inter duos, in the middle between the two, or simply, 

between the two, Medius is explained by inter duos, Occnpatis an* 

gistlis* He had deliberately placed himself in a narrow passage with 

the determination to slay the king as he passed. ^Ab AttalO, by At- 

talus, one of Philip's generals. ^Adyersarinni, his adversary, mean- 

mg Attains. TTon potent; supply exig^re, Ah Inlqno Judiee, 

from the unjust judge, meaning Philip. 

235. Deceptto hostibns, lit. in the deceived enemy ; render, indeceiv. 

ing the enemy, 580. Gandero, rejoiced, Historical Infinitive, of 

which several other examples occur in this paragraph. Hie ; sup- 
ply gaudere, ^Fnsls ; supply hostlbus, ^Hle .... exereelMt^ the 

latter was wont to exercise his royal power upon, or against, his friends, 
^Amarl; depends upon ma^. ^Hetnl; supply ma/fe SoDer^ 

03 tiae pater ; supply erat, Die absttnebat, he did not abstain 

from (i. e. from Oppressing or annoying) even his allies, ^tt=et 

non, is here rendered not even, Qnibns artibns, by these arts, refer- 
ring to the enumeration just given of the characteristics of the father 
and son, Philip and Alexander. 

236. Caedis eonsdos oeddi Jnssit. It was a common custom 

in antiquity thus to slay murderers and assassins upon the graves of 
their victims, to appease the shades, or spirits, of the dead. In the 
same way, in war, prisoners were often slain over the graves of fallen 

heroes. SibI .... praefatns. There is no little ostentation m this 

statement. It was of course made for effect. Opes* Object of 

cogitabant understood; construed literally, the passage would read 
thus : they thought of nothing if not the riches, i. e. if they did not think 

of the riches, etc. ; render, they thought of nothing except the, etc. 

In IU09 in Ilium, i. e. in the district, not in the city ; hence the Abla- 
tive with in, not the Genitive, as in the n|unes of towns. ^TomnlOS 

heronn* In the vicinity of Troy, mounds are still pointed out as the 
burial places of heroes, who three thousand years since fell in the 
Trojan war. * 

287. Parcendnm snis rebns* Alexander thus inspires his soldiers 
with courage and confidence. He speaks of the country as already 

93 hie and theirs. ^In exerdtn .... dvae> Observe that the coptila- 

tive connectives are omitted between the several subjects. ^Teteranos^ 



veterans, used substantively, 441. ^Hectos 5 supply esse.t — ^In cam- 93 

pis idrastiae, in tlie' plains of Adrastia, in the vicinity of the driver 
Granicus, from which the battle took its name : battle of the Granicus, 

238. Defaneti ; from defungor, Confossi ) from confodio. 

Ad hoc Ipsnm, /or this very purpose. Omnes ante enm regcs, lit. aU 94 

before him kings, i. e. all the kings before him, or before his time. 

239. Nihil ex Aegyptionmi more. Alexander was careful not 

to give oflfence by disregarding the customs of the country. Jovis 

immonis oraenlnm. The oracle of Jupiter Ammon was one of the 

most celebrated in the world. Sedem conseeratom deo. This was 

situated m a beautiful oasis of the Libyan desert ^Parentem JoTem, 

parent or fatJier Jupiter, i. e. his father Jupiter. Thus the priest, per- 
ceiving his ambitious vanity, flattered him with the title— nsow of Jur 

piter. ^Parentem cjns, his parent, i. e. Jupiter. The priest still 

continues his flattery. kn anctor colendl regent, lit. wTie- 95 

iJier he, i. e. Jupiter, would be to them the author of worshipping the 
king with divine honors, i e. whether he would authorize them to wor- 
ship their king with divine honors. 

240. NoMlem, fanums, Qnin esset oeciSllSy that the king 

himself was slain ; XXVI. 6. 

241. Spe libertatis. Greece, it will be remembered, lost its 

independence by the battle of Chaeronea. See above (282). 

242. Cni gloriae, this ghry, i. e. that of conquest and empire. 96 

243. RecfJdeiitem ; supply eum. Invltat, invites, i. e. invites 

him to drink with him. Ct .... poseeret \ XXIV. 2, 5). Inter 

Mbendnm, while drinking, 

244. ieaddamm* Alexander was, by his mother, a lineal descend- 
ant of Aeacus, the grandfather of Achilles. Sine nllo .... arga- 

mentOy withxmt any mark of a more sad mind, i. e. without any indica- 
tion of unusual sadness. Dignissimnm. Adjective used substan- 97 

tively ; object of facere understood. ^Judido, by a tacit decision, 

opposed to voce. 

245. Quo 6\e=die, quo, the day, on which. Here the relative must 

not be rendered according to 463. Alterins — ^altering, the one — the 

other. Belli lUyrlci, that of the Jllyrian war, i. e. the victory gained 

in it. Certaminls Olympiad* See note on " Olymptco certamVne " 

(134). ^Pner, when a boy; 363, 3. Qaadrigas. Chariots and 

horses were often sent to the Olympic games to contend for the 
prizes. ^Aristotele .... maglstro* Philip placed the youthful Alex- 
ander under the special instruction of Aristotle, the celebrated philo- 
sopher of Athens. Both teacher and pupil have left names famous in 

the annals of the world. ^Tantam fidneiam feeit, he inspired 

his soldiers with such confidence. 


For Exfplanalion of References and Abbreviations^ seepage ix. 

A. An abbreviation of Aulus. 

A^ ab^ abs, prep, with abl. From, by. 

Ab-duco^ Sre^ dvx% duchcm. To lead 

away, take away, remove. 
Ab-eo^ ire, ivi, or «, ttum. To go 

away, depart, withdraw from. 295, 
Ab-hinc, adv. Henceforth, from this 

time, before, ago, since. 
AbjiciOy ereyjedj jectum, (ab, jacio). 

To throw away, throw, reject; 

prostrate, humble. 
AbripiOj ^rc, ripuij reptwm, (ab, ra- 

pio). To take away, carry oflF. 
Ab-rumpo, ^r«, rupi, rupium. To 

break off or away, rend, sever. 
AbsenSj entiSy part, (absum). Absent 
AbstineOy ere, tinm, tentuniy (abs, 

teneo). To keep or hold back, 

abstain from. 
Ab-suniy esse, fui. To be absent or 

away, to be distant from. 204, 290. 
Ab-sumOy ^r€y sumpsij sumptum. To 

take from or away ; destroy, con- 
Ab-undo, are, dvi, atum. To abound, 

abound in, superabound, have an 

Ab-UtoTy utiy usus sum, dep. To use 

up, consume, abuse. 

Acy a shortened form of atque. And. 
Ac si, as if. 

Acca, ae, f. Acca, a Roman name. 
Acca Laurentia, ae, f. Acca Lau- 
rentia, the wife of Faustulus, and 
nurse of Romulus and Remus, 

Accedo, ere, cessi, cessum, (ad, cedo). 
To approach, come to, accede to ; 
be added to. Accedit, impers., it 
is added, there is the additional 
fact that. 

Accendo, ire, cendi, censum, (ad, 
candeo). To set on fire, kindle ; 
to excite, inflame. 

Acceptus, a, um, part, (accipio). Ac- 
cepted; acceptable, pleasing. 

Accipio, Sre, cepi, ceptum, (ad, capio). 
To accept, receive. 

Accurro, ire, curri, (cuairri rare), 
cursum, (ad, curro). To run to, 
hasten to. 

Accusd, are, avi, atiim, (ad, causa). 
To call to account, to accuse. 

Acer, acris, acre. Sharp ; powerful, 
valiant; diligent, intense, severe. 
163, 1. 

Acerbus, a, um, (acer). Sour, un- 
ripe, morose, disagreeable. 

Achaia, ae, f. Achaia, an important 




province in the northern part of 
the Peloponnesus. 

AchilleSy iSy m, Achilles, the most 
celebrated Grecian hero in the 
Trojan war, son of Peleus and 
Thetis, (184). 

Acies, gt, £ The order of battle, 
battle array ; line of soldiers ; ar- 
my in battle array. 

Acquiesco, ^re, quieviy quietum (ad, 
quiesco). To become quiet, to re^ 
pose ; to acquiesce in. 

AcHteTy acrius, (icerrXrney adv. (acer). 
Vehemently, valiantly. 805. 

AcHuniy iiy n. Actium, a promontory 
and town at the entrance of the 
Ambracian Gulf on the western 
coast of Greece, celebrated for the 
victory of Augustus over Antony 
and Cleopatra, (214). 

Acuoy ^re, uiy utum. To sharpen, 
quicken; stimulate. 

AcuitiSy a, WW, part. (acuo). Sharp- 
ened, pointed, sharp, acute, intel- 
ligent, clear-sighted. 

Adj prep, with ace. To, towards ; 
until ; at, near. 

Ad-dOy ^rc, dadiy dUum, To add, 
carry to, appoint to. 

Ad-ducOy Sre, duxi, ductum. To lead 
to, conduct, bring, induce. 

AdreOy adv. So, to such an extent 

Ad-€o, IrCj Ivi or n, ttum. To go 
to, approach, visit; encounter. 

Ad-hucy adv. Thus far, as yet, even 
yet; still. 

AdimOy ^re, ?mi, emptum, (ad, emo). 
To take from, deprive of. 

AdipiscoVj ciy adeptua mrriy dep. (ad, 
apiscor). To obtain, get posses- 
sion oC 

AdJiciOy gre, Jeci^ jectum^ (ad, jacio)L 
To throw or cast to or against, add 
to ; anXmum adjicSrCy to direct or 
give attention to. 

Ad-jungOy ^re, junxiy junctum. To 
join to, unite with. 

V4cJ?*M^or, orw, m. (adjiivo). Aid, 
helper, assistant 

AdjUvOy are, juvi^ jutum. To help, 
assist, support 

Ad-ministrOy dre^ Ovi^ dtum. To ad* 
minister, manage. 

Ad-mirabitiSy e. Admirable, won- 
^Ad-miratiOy oniSy f. (admlror). Ad- 
miration, respect. 

AdmlroVy dri, dtus sum^ dep. (ad, 
miror). To admire, wonder at 

Ad^mittOy ^rc, misij missum. To send 
to or forward, to admit, receive. 

Admddumj adv. (ad, modus). Very, 

Ad^moneOy gre, m*, Uum, To admon- 
ish, warn. 

AdnwnituSy w«, m. (admoneo). Warn- 
ing, advice ; instigation. 

Ad-moveOy gre, mdvi, motum. To 
move to, apply to, bring to. 

\AdolescenSf entis, adj. and subs., m. 
and f. (adolesco). Young, grow- 
ing ; a young man, a youth. 

AdokscentiOj ae^ f. (adolescens). 

Ad-olesco, grCy olevi, ulium. To grow, 
grow up, increase. 

Ad-optOy drcj dviy dtum. To choose, 
adopt; take for a son, daughter, 

Ad-orior, iW, ortus sum, dep. To at- 
tack, attempt, strive ; begin. 288, 2. 

Ad-omOy drey dviy dtum. To adorn, 
furnish, equip. 




Adrastia, ae, f. Adrastia, a district 
and city of Mysia, (237). 

AdspidOy Srcy spexiy spectum, (ad, 
specio). To see, look at, behold. 

Adslo^ are^ sUti, Saturn, To stand 
near, stand by. 

Ad-sum^ esse^ fui. To be present 
or at hand, assist, stand by. 204, 
\ Adtdatio, onUy f. Adulation, flat- 

AdvectuSy a, t*m, part, (advgho). 
Brought, carried' to. 

Ad'VShOy ere, vexi, vedum. To con- 
duct, convey, import. 

Ad-venio^ Ire, venij ventum. To come 
to, arrive. 

AdventuSy tiSy m. (advenio). Arrival, 

AdversaritM, a, t^m.adj. (adversus). 
Opposite, opposing. 

AdversaritMj ii, m. subs, (adversus). 
Adversary, opponent, antagonist. 

Adversus J a, um, part, (adverto). Op- 
posite, over against, adverse, hos- 
tile ; fix>nting, in front. 

AdvermiSy or adversuniy adv., and 
prep. Tvith ace. (adverto). Against, 
towards, opposite to. 

AeacXdes, acy m. A patronymic de- 
noting a descendant of Aeacus, 
who was the grandfather of Achil- 
les. The name is often applied to 
Achilles; Alexander the Great 
also claimed it for himself, (244). 

AedeSy or aedis, is, f. Temple in the 
sing. ; hut in the jjlur, dwelling, 
habitation, house. 132. 

Aediflco, are^aviy a^m,(aedes, facio). 
To build. 

Aediliiius, or ciediliciuSj a, . wm, 
(aedes). Pertaining to the aediles. 

AedUiUuSy t, m., one who has been 
aedile. The aediles were Roman 
magistrates who had charge of the 
public buildings, highways, &c., 
and acted as city police. 

Aegina, ae, f. Aegina, an island 
near Attica, (55). 

Aegos flumen, Aegospotamos, a 
river and town in the Tliracian 
Chersonesus, noted for the defeat 
of the Athenians by Lysander, 

Aegrotus, a, um. Sick, ill, diseased. 

Aeggptus, t, t Egypt, (210). 

AegyptiuSy a, um, Egyptian ; subs. 
AeggptiuSy t, m., an Egyptian, 

Aemilius, t?, m. The family name 
of several distinguished Romans. 
Lucitis AemUiuSj surnamed Paul- 
usy fell in the battle of Cannae, 
(191). Another of the same name 
conquered Perseus and reduced 
Macedonia to a Roman province, 

Aemuliuiy a, um. Emulous ; often 
tised syhstantively, as, rival, com- 

Aeneas, ae, m. Aeneas, a Trojan 
prince who after the destruction 
of Troy is said to have fled into 
Italy and formed a settlement, 

Aegualis, e. Equal, like. 

Aeqite, aequius, aequissime, adv. 
(aequus). Equally, similarly. 

AequipdrOy dre, dvi, &tum. To 
equal, make equal. 

AequltcLs, Otis, f. (aequus). Equality, 
equity, justice. 

Aequus, a, um^ Equal, similar; 
just, fair ; favorable, propitious. 




*Aer, aMa^ m. The air, atmo- 

Aestimoy dre^ avi^ dtum. To value, 
estimate. Parvi aesHmdrej to think 
little of, esteem lightly. 

destuOj are^ dvi^ dtum. To be in 
agitation; to be warm, endure 
\Aeta8j Otis, f. Age, time of life, life. 

AffSrOy ferre^ atiUli, aU&tum^ (ad, 
fero). To brinaj, carry to, report 

Affido, ^e, feHy fectum (ad, facio). 
To afifect, influence. 

Affigo, ^e, fin, ficum^ (ad, figo). 
To affix, fasten to. 

Affirmo^ are^ dm, dtuniy (ad, firmo). 
To affirm, confirm, ratify. 

AfflictuSy a, urn, part, (affligo). Af- 
flicted, troubled, prostrated. 

Affligo; ere^fiixiy flictum, (ad, fligo). 
To afflict, trouble, overthrow. 

AffltWj ere, fiwd, flttxum, (ad, fluo). 
To flow toward ; overflow, abound 

Africa, ae, f. Africa, (200). 

Afrtcarmsy a, wm, (Africa). African. 
Also the surname given to the 
two most distinguished Scipios for 
their achievements in Africa du- 
ring the Punic wars, (196, 200). 

Ager, agriy m. Field, land, terri- 

AgegilduB, t, m. Agesilaus, a Spar- 
tan king, (96). 
\ Agger, ^ris, m. Mound, rampart, 

Aggredior, t, gressua sum, dep. (ad, 
gradior)^ To approach, attack, 
' Agis, Xdis, m. Agis, king of the 
Lacedaemonians in the time of 
Alexander the Great, (241). 

Agitdht8, a, urn, part (agito). Agi- 
tated, troubled. 

AgXto, dre, dvi, dtum. To harass, 

trouble, think of. 
\Agmen, Xnia, n. (ago). An army, 
gmeraUy on the march, band of 
soldiers, troop. 

Agnosco, Sre, notfi, nUum, (ad, 
(g)nosco). To recognize. 

Ago, gre, Sgi, actum. To conduct, 
drive, do, act, execute, treat, ar- 
gue; annum viceslmum agire, ta 
be in his (or her) twentieth year. 

Agricdla, ae, m. (ager, colo). Hus- 
bandman, farmer. 

AgricuUura, ae, f. Agriculture. 

Agrigentum, i, n. Agrigentum, a 
large and wealthy town in Sicily. 

Agrippa, ae, m. A family name 
among the Romans. Menenius 
Agrippa induced the people who 
had revolted at Rome and taken 
up their quarters upon Mons Sacer 
to return into the city, (173). 

Aio, ais, ait, etc., defect To say, 
affirm. 291, IL 1. 

Ala, ae,/. Wing. 

Alacer, eris, ere. Active, prompt, 

Alba, ae, f. ; or Alba Longa, ae, f. 
A city of Latium founded by As- 
canius, (160). 

Albdnu8,a,um, Alban. MonsAl- 
bdnus, a rocky mountain sixteen 
miles southeast of Rome, (160). 

Albdnits, i, m. An Alban, a citizen 
of Alba, (161). 

Albus, a, um. White. 

Alcibi&des, is, m. Alcibiades, an 
Athenian general in the Pelopon- 
nesianwar, (223-226). 

Alexander, dri, m. Alexander. The 




most distinguished of this name 
was the sou and successor of 
Philip, king of Macedonia, (235- 
245). A second of the same name 
was king of Epirus and son-inlaw 
of Philip, (234). 

Alexandria^ ae, f. Alexandria, a 
celebrated city of Egypt, built by 
Alexander the Great; (239). 

AlgeOy ere, alsi. To be cold, to feel 
cold, endure cold. 

Ali(M, Otherwise, at another time ; 
non aliaSy on no other occasion. 

Alienm, a, um, (alius). Belonging 
to another, foreign ; unfavorable. 

Aliqua7ido. At some time, once, 
formerly, finally, now at last. 

Aliquantum^ adv. Somewhat, in 
soifie degree. 

AtiquiSy quay quod^ and quidy (alius, 
quis). Some one, some. 

AUquoty mdecl. pi. adj. Several, 

Atiter, adv. (alius). Otherwise. 

Aliu8^ a, ltd, (gen. alius, etc.) Other, 
another ; cdiits — aliuSy one — an- 
other : alii — alii, some — others, 

Allia^ ae, f. The river Allia, a few 
miles north of Rome, (1*76). 

AlldqitoTy l6quiy cUttts swwi, dep. 
(ad, loquor). To speak to, ad- 

AlOy irey aluiy alXtum or aitum. To 
support, keep, nourish, strengthen, 

AlpeSy iuniy f. The Alps, a high 
range of mountains north of 

AUey t««, issimey adv. (altus). On 
high, high. 

AlteTy eray ^rwrn, (gen. alterius). One 

of two, the other; alter — altery 
the one — the other; alter as 
numeral = second, 151, 2. 

AUu8y ay um. High, noble, great; 
deep, profound; altum substan- 
tively, the sea, the deep. 

AmablliSy e, (amo). Lovely, amia- 

AmblOy Irey %v% or it, Uumy (amb, or 
ambi, eo). To surround, encom- 
pass. 296, 8. 

\AmhUioy dnisy f. (ambio). Can- 
vassing, flattery, ambition. 

Amboy aey o. Both. 1Y5, 2. 

Ameniiay aey f. (amens). Folly, 
want of reason. 

AmicUiay oe, f. (amicus). Friend- 

AmicttSy iy m. Friend. 

AmlcuSy ay um. Friendly, kind. 

A-mittOj Srey mwi, missum. To send 
away, to lose. 

AmmoTiy or Hammony oniSy m. An 
appellation of Jupiter as worship- 
ped in Africa, (239). 

AmniSy is, m. River. 

AmOy drey dviy atum. To love. 
yAmory oriSy m. (amo). Love, affec- 
tion, desire ; a loved object, dar- 

Amphitliedtnimy iy n. Amphithe- 
atre, in Borne a circular or oval 
building used for public specta- 

Ampky iu8y issimey adv. (amplus). 
Abundantly, amply. 

AmpliOy drey dviy dtumy (amplus). 
To enlarge. 

AmpliuSy adv. (comp. of ample). 
More, further. 

AmpluSy ay um. Ample, spacious, 




AmuliiUy u, m. Amulius, son of 
Procas king of Alba ; he was the 
brother of Numitor, (152). 

An, interrog. particle. Or, whether. 
346, n, 2. 

Aftaxaffdras, ae, m. Anaxagoras, a 
distinguished Greek philosopher 
of Olazomenae, (112). 

Anaxarchus, t, m. Anaxarchus, a 
philosopher of Abdera, who ac- 
companied Alexander into Asia. 

Anceps, ancipXtis, Twofold, double. 

Aftchises, ae, m. Anchises, the fa- 
ther of Aeneas. 60. 

AncuSj ij m. ; or Ancus MarHus, it, 
m. The fourth king of Rome, 
, AngoTy oris, m. Anxiety, care, an-, 

Angustia, ae, f. (angustus), used 
mostly In pL Narrow pass, diffi- 
culty ; straits, channel 

Aitgustu8, a, um. Narrow, confined, 
contracted, small 

Anima, ae, f. Breath, life. 

AnimadvertOy ^c, verti, versum (ani- 
mus, adverto). To notice, observe, 

Animal, alls, n. Animal. 

Animus, i, iTL Mind, soul, courage. 

Anio, Anienis, m. The Anio, a 
small river of Italy, a tributary of 
the Tiber, (1T3). 

Annedo, ere, nexui, nezum, (ad, nec- 
to). To tie to, annex, fasten to. 

Annuhis, or anulua, i, m. Ring. 

Annus, i, m. Year. 

Annuus, a, um, (annus). Lasting a 
year, for a year, aimual. 

Ante, adv., and prep, with ace. Be- 
fore, in reaped to place or time ; 

Antea, adv. (ante, ea). Formerly, 

Afiiepono, ifre, posui, posihim. To 
place before ; to prefer.- 

Antif-guam, adv. Before, before 

Antiffonits, i, m. Antigonus, king 
of Macedonia, (121). 

Antiochla, ae, f. Antioch, the chief 
city of Syria, founded by Scleucus, 
and named by him in honor of his 
father Antiochus, (206). 

Antidchus, i, m. 1. Antiochus the 
Great, king of Syria. 2. Antio- 
chus, the Academic philosopher 
and teacher of Cicero, (80). 

AfUipHter, tri, m. Antipater, one of 
Alexander's generals ; after the 
death of Alexander he received 
the government of Greece and 
Macedonia, (241). 

Anttquus, a, um. Ancient, early. 

Afitistes, Uis, m. and £ President ; 
priest, priestess. 

Antonius, U, m. Antony; Marcus 
Antonius formed a triumvirate 
with Qctavianus and Lepidus, 
(212). Caitis Antonius was the 
colleague of Cicero in the consul- 
ship, (207). 

Anxietas, Otis, t Anxiety, solicitude. 

ApeUes, is, m. Apelles, a distin- 
guished Greek painter in the time 
of Alexander the Great, (97). 

Aperte, ius, issime, adv. (apertus). 
Openly, publicly. 

Apertus, a, um, part, (aperio). Open- 
ed ; open, free, dear, manifest. 

Apollo, tms, m. Apollo, the god of 

Apparatus, its, m. Preparation, 




Apparatus^ a, um^ part (app&ro). 

Prepared, ready, equipped. 
/AppeUatio, oniSj f. (appello). Name, 

Appello, are, avi, atumy (ad, pello). 
To call, name. 

Appello, ^eypuliypulsum, (ad, pello). 
To drive to, bring to, induce. 

AppSto, ^re, pedvif peHi, petitum, 
(ad, peto). To long for, strive 
after; assail: appStens, entisy de- 
siring, desirous of. 

AppiuSy iiy m. Appius, a Roman 
name. Appius ClaiidiuSy ii, m., 
one of the Decemviri, (26). 

ApprobOy drey dvi, dtuniy (ad, probo). 
To approve, fevor. 

AppropbiquOy drey dvi, dtumy (ad, 
propinquo). To approach, come 

Aptusy a, um. Fitted, adapted, suit- 
ed, proper. 

Apudy prep, with ace. At, near, 
among, at the house of, in the 
works of {applied to authors). 

Apuliay aey f. Apulia, a province in 
southern Italy, (204). 

AqttOy aCy f. Water. 

Aquilay aey t Eagle. 

ArUy aCy f. Altar. 

yArabSy &bi8, Arabian; siibs, an 
Arabian, inhabitant of Arabia in 
Asia, (26). 

Aratruniy i, n. Plough. 

Arhehiy oruniy n. Arbela, a town in 
Assyria, famous for the victory of 
Alexander over Darius, (240). 

Arbitrory driy dtus surriy dep. To 
think, judge, regard. 

Arc^Oy arcercy arcui. To inclose, 
restrain, keep from. 

Ardetty oe, f. Ardea, a city of La- 

tium, a few miles south of Rome, 

ArdeOy drey arsiy arsum. To be on 
fire, bum. 

ArdeacOy ^e, arsL To take fire, 

AreacOy ^re, arui. To become dry, 
to dry. 

ArethusOy aCy f. Arethusa, a cele- 
brated fountain in Sicily, near 

Argenieusy ay urriy (argentum). Made 
of silver, of silver. 

Argeivtumy t, n. Silver. 

ArgoSy n. (only in nom. and ace.), or 
Argiy Sruniy m. pi. Argos, the ca- 
pital of the province of Argolis in 
the Peloponnesus ; the name was 
often applied to the province itself 
and poetically to all Greece, (96). 

ArgumetUufny i, n. Argument, sign, 

Ariminumy i, n. Ariminum, a town 
in Umbria on the Adriatic, (209). 

AriovistuSy ?*, m. Ariovistus, king 
of a German tribe in the time of 
Caesar, (4Y). 

AristideSy iSy m. Aristides, an Athe- 
nian general and statesman, re- 
nowned for his integrity, (49). 

AristobuluSy «, m. A king of Judea, 
who was taken by Pompey and 
carried as prisoner to Rome, (206). 

AristotSleSy iSy m. A distinguished 
philosopher, and the teacher of 
Alexander the Great, (85, 245). 

Armay drumy n. pi. Arms, force of 

ArmdtuSy a, wm, part. (armo). Armed. 

Armeniay ae, f. Armenia, a country 
of Asia, divided by the river Eu- 
phrates into two unequal parts. 




viz. : the eastern, called Armenia 
Major^ and the western, called 
Armenia Minory (206). 

Armillaj ae^ f. Bracelet. 

Anno, are, dvi, dtum, (arma). To 

Arripio, Sre, ripuiy reptum, (ad, 
rapio). To seize upon, seize. 
yArrogam, antiSj part (arrSgo). 
Proud, arrogant 

Arrogantiay ae, t (arrogans). Ar- 
rogance, pride. 

ArroffOy are, dvi, Otumy (ad, rogo). 
To claim, arrogate. 

ArSy ariia, f. Art, skill 

Artaphernes, is, m. Artaphemes, 
nephew of Darius, (215). 

Artemisiumy u, n. Artemisium, a 
promontory and town on the is- 
land of Euboea, (218). 

ArttUy ttSj m. ; sing. rare. Joint, limb. 

Aruns, Anrntis, m. 1. Anms, the 
\ brother of Tarquin the Proud, 
(39, iv.). 2. Aruns, the son of 
Tarqum, (lYO). 
V ArXy arciSj f. Citadel. 

AscanittSy ii, m. Ascanius, the son 
of Aeneas, (160). 

Asia, fltf, f. Asia, (16). 

Asina, aCy m. Asina, a surname of 
Cnaeus Cornelius, who was the 
colleague of Duillius in the con- 
sulship in the early part of the 
first Punic war, (186). 

A^iSy tdiSy f. Asp. 

Asporto, are, dvi, atum, (abs, porto). 
To bear or carry away. 

Asa^quor, a^qui, s^cUtus sum, dep. 
(ad, sequy). To overtake, ob- 
y AsseveratiOy Onis, f. Declaration, 

Asaidutta, a, um. Assiduous; fre 
quent; continual, incessant, coil 

Aasiffiio, are, dvi, atum, (ad, signo)L 
Assign, bestow. 

A^o, for adrsto, 

Astrum, t, n. Star, constellation. 

AsiUy n, indec. City, generally ap- 
plied to Athens. 

Asylum, {, n. Asylum, place of 

At, conj. But, yet. 

Ater, tra, trum. Dark, black, 

Athenae, drum, f. pi. Athens, the 
capital of Attica, (227). 

AOumiensis, e, adj. (Athenae). 
Athenian; subs. Atkeniensis, is, 
m., an Athenian, (216). 

Atilius, ii, m. Atilius, a Roman 
name. See Begulus, 

Atque, conj. And, and also, and 
besides ; atque — atque, both — and. 

Ail&lus, i, m. Attains, one of Phi- 
lip^s generals, (234). 

Attica, ae, f. An important state in 
Greece, (216). 

Atttcus, a, um, (Atttca). Attic, 
Athenian; subs. Atttcus, i, m. 
An inhabitant or citizen of At- 
tica, (36). 

AttXcus, i, m. Atticus, a surname of 
the Roman, Titus Pomponius, (99). 

Attingo, ire, t(gi, tactum, (ad, tan- 
go). To attain, touch, enter upon, 
undertake, commence. 

Attius, ii, m. Attius, a Roman name, 

Attribuo, ire, tribui, trihutum, (ad, 
tribuo). To attribute to, ascribe 
to, to bestow, to assign, or imr 
pute to. 



\Attcior, oris, m. (augeo). Author, 
founder, approver, adviser, au- 
/ AwtorXtas, aiis, f. (auctor). Author- 
ity, influence. 

Audacia, ae, f. (audax). Boldness, 
insolence, audacity. 

Audax^ audadSy (audeo). Bold, 
audacious, desperate. 

AndeOy ere, attaua mm. To dare, at- 
tempt. 271, 8. 

AitdiOy trey ivi or «, Itum, To hear, 
Usten to. 

Au/icffiOj SrCy fagiy fagXtumy (ab, 
fugio). To flee from ; run away 
from. 838, 1, ab. 

AugeOy ertf, cmziy auctum. To en- 
large, increase. 

A-agarory ariy atus «Mm, dep. To 
augur, predict, foretell. 

AiigustiiSy iy m. Augustus, surname 
of Octavius Caesar, the first of 
the Roman Emperors. This sur- 
name was also often applied to 
the Emperors generally, (213). 

Aulusy iy m. Aulus, a Roman prae- 

AurariuSy a, wm, (aurum). Pertain- 
ing to gold; aurariq metallay 
gold mines. 

AureuSyUy umy (aunmi). Made of 
gold, golden. [driver. 

Auriga, oe, m. and t Charioteer, 
/ AurUy iSy f. Ear. 

Auruniy ?, n. Gold. 

Aut, conj. Or; aut — auty either — 
or, partly — ^partly. 

Attteniy conj. But, moreover. 

AuxUiumy iiy n. (augeo.) Aid ; plur, 

AvaritiOy aCy f (avftrus). Avarice. 

AvaruSy a, urn. Avaricious. 

AvenRnuSy «, m. The Aventine, one 
of the seven hills of Rome, (164). 

AvertOy erCy vertiy versuniy (ab, verto). 
To avert, turn from, remove. 

AviduSy a, urn. Desirous, eager. 
^AviSy iSy f. Bird. 

AvuSy iy m. Grandfather. 


BabyUyniay ae, f. Babylonia, a prov 
ince of Syria : also Babylon, the 
capital of Babylonia, (243). 

BaccharUe8y iwm, pL (bacchor). Vo- 
taries of Bacchus. 

BacchoTy ariy ahu surriy dep. (Bac- 
chus). To celebrate the festival 
of Bacchus, to reveL BcuschatUy 
antisy part, revelling. 

BacchuSy iy m. The god of wine, 

Barboy aCy f. Beard. 

BarbdruSy a, um. Foreign, barbar- 
ous, rude. 

BarbdrtiSy iy m. Foreigner, bar- 

BecUCy iu8y issimey adv. (befltus). 

BeatuSy a, um, Happy. 

BelgaCy arum. The Belgians, a war* 
like people in the north of Gaul, 

BellicOsuSy a, umy (bellum). War- 

BeUoy drCy aviy atumy (bellum). To 
carry on war. 

BeUumy iy n. War. 

Bene, mdiuSy optimey adv. Well 
805, 2. 

Benefidumy iiy n. (bei^ficus, frwn 
bene, facio). Benefit, favor, kind- 

Benevolcntiay aCy f. (benevolens, 




from bene, toIo). Kindness, be- 

Benigne, fi<«, tM^me, adv. (benig- 
nus). Eindlj. 

Befdgnu8^ a, urn. Kind, good, be- 

BesHa^ ae, f. A beast. 

Bestiola^ ae, f. (bestia). A small 
animal, insect 

BibOj ere, Ubi^ bibltum. To drink. 

BibuluSy i, m. Bibulus, a Roman 
name; iMcius Btbiilua was Cae- 
sar's colleague in the consulship, 

Biduuniy », n. (biduus). A period 
of two days, 

Biduus, a, wm, (bis, dies). Con- 
tinuing two days. 

Biennium, ti, n. (bis, annus). A 
period of two years, two years. 

BifarmiSj e, (bis, forma). Having 
two forms, biformed. 

Bini, ae, a, distribute. Two by two, 
two and two. IH, 2. 

Bis, adv. Twice. 

Boeotius, ii, m. (Boeotia). A Boeo- 
tian, inhabitant of Boeotia in cen- 
tral Greece, (229). 

Boletus, i, m. Mushroom. 

BorCUas, Otis, f. (bonus). Goodness, 

Bonum, i, n. (bonus). Blessing, 
prosperity, any good; pi. bona, 
goods, property. 

Bonus, a, um; melior, opClmus. 
Good, noble, brave. 165. 

Bos, Bovis, m. and f. Ox, cow. 43, 
2; 66. 

Brachium, ^, n. Arm, fore-arm. 

Brevis, e. Short, brief; brevi (tem- 
pore), in a short time, shortly. 

BriecmnXcus, a, um, (Britannia, 

Cheat Britain). British, English, 

Britanmu, i, m. (Britannia). A 
Briton, (208). 

Brutus, i, m. Brutus, a Roman 
name. Lucius Junius Brutus was 
one of the first consuls of Rome, 
(168). Marcus Junius Brutus and 
Declmus Junius Brutus acted 
prominent parts in the assassina- 
tion of Caesar, (211). 

Byzantium, ii, n. Byzantium, a 
city on the Bosphorus, now Con- 


C. An abbreviation of Caius ; Cn. 
of Cnaeus, 

Cado, ^re, cecidi, casum. To fall, 
fall in battle, perish. 

Caecus, a, um. Blind. 

Caedes, is, f. (caedo). Slaughter, 

Caedo, Sre, cecidi, caesum. To cut, 
kill, slay. 

Caesar, aris, m. Caesar, a surname 
of the Julian family ; Caius Julius 
Caesar, a distinguished general 
and statesman. The title, or sur- 
name, Caesar, was also applied 
generally to denote the Roman 
emperors, (208). 

Caius, ii, m. Caius, a Roman name. 
See Caesar, 

Calamitas, dtis, f. Loss, calamity, 

Collide, ius, isslme, adv. (callidus). 
Shrewdly, skilfully. 

Camillus, i, m. Camillus, a distin- 
guished Roman general, (176). 

Campania, ae, f. Campania, a prov 
ince in Central Italy, (182). 




Campanus^ a, vm^ (Campania). Cam- 
panian, of Campania. Suht, a Cam- 
panian, (44, 131). 

Campus^ t, m. A plain, field of 

CandiduSf o, um. White, clear, 
bright, light 

CaninluSy n, m. Caninius, a Ro- 
man consul, (80). 

Cannae^ ctrum^ f. plur. Cannae, a 
village in Apulia, famous for the 
great victory of Hannibal over the 
Romans, (191). 

CannenMsy «, adj. (Cannae). Belong- 
ing to Cannae, of Cannae, (194). 

Cano, SrCj cecini, cantum. To sing, 
sound, crow. 

CaTitOy are^ ai'i, dtuni, (cano). To 
ring, play. 

CarUiOf U8, m. (cano). Singing, 
song, melody. 

CapaXy adSy (capio). Capacious, 
large, comprehensive, able. 

CapessOy ^re, ivi, Itumy (capio). To 
take, seize; fugam eapessSrCy to 
resort to flight, betake one's self 
to flight 832,4. 

CapiUuSy t, m. Hair. 

CapiOj ^iv, cepiy eaptum. To take, 
take possession of, hold, receive. 

CapitcUis, e, (caput). Deadly, mor- 
tal, capita erimeny a capital 
crime or offence. 

CapUoliumy ti, n. Capitol. This 
term is applied sometimes to the 
temple of Jupiter, and sometimes 
to the whole Capitoline Hill, in- 
cludmg both the temple and the 
citadel of Rome. 

Capray a<?, f. A she goat 

CapHvltsa, stis, f. (captivus.) Cap- 
tivity, bondage. 

CaptrvuSy a, win, (capio). Captive, 
enslaved; mbsiantivdyt a prison- 
er, a captive. 

CaptuSy a, Mm, part, (capio). Cap- 
tured, taken. 

Capua^ ae, f. Capua, the chief city 
of Campania, (204). 

Caput, Ui&y ft. Head, capital ; capi- 
tis damnarey to condemn t9 

Career^ Sris, m. Prison. 

CareOy ere, carui, carXtum, To be 
destitute, be free from, be with- 

Carmen^ ^nw, n. A song, poem; 

Caroy camisj f. Flesh. 

Carpentumy i, n. Chariot, car- 

Carthago, 'inis, f. Carthage, an an- 
cient city in Northern Africa, 
(189). Carthago Nova, New 
Carthage, a town in Spain; now 
Carthagena, (194). 

Carthaginienai^y e, adj. (Carthago). 
Carthaginian ; subs. Carthagini' 
ensiSy is, m. a Cartha^nian, (186). 

CaruSy ay um. Dear. 

CasmUy iiy m. Cassius, a Roman 
name. Lucius CassiuSy one of the 
accomplices of Catiline, (97, 
15). Caius CassiuSy one of the 
conspirators against Caesar, 

CastCy iu8y isaXmCy adv. (castus). 
Virtuously, chastely. 

CastuSy a, um. Chaste, pure. 

CasteUumy f, n. dimin. (castrum). 
Castle, fortress. 816,8. 

CastoTy vris, m. Castor, son of Tyn- 
darus and brother of Pollux, (63, 




Caslra, &rum^ n. (pL of ecutrttm, a 
castle). Camp. 132. 

Casus^ tts, m. (cado). Fall, misfor- 
time, chance, accident. 

CalUina, ae^ m. Catiline. Lucius 
Sergita Catillna^ the notorious 
conspirator against jthe Roman 
government, (20'7). * 

Catinensia or CatimensUy is^ m. A 
Catinean, a citizen of Catina, a 
city in Sicily, (223). 

Cato, dnUy m. Cato, the name of 
several distinguished Romans. 
The most celebrated was Marcus 
Porcius Cato, the Censor, (88, 13). 

Calulus, i, m. Catulus, surname of 
Caius Lutatius, a Roman consul 
at the close of the first Punic war, 

Caudinua, a, um, Caudine; Fur- 
eulae Cattdinae, the Caudine 
Forks, a narrow defile near Cau- 
dium, in Italy, (179). 

Causa, ae, f. Cause, purpose, busi- 
ness, suit at law. 

Causidicus, i, m. (causa, dico). 
Pleader, advocate ; speaker. 

Oautes, is, f. A crag, diff, rock. 

Oaveo, ere, cam, eaiUum, To shun, 
avoid, guard against; sibi ab 
(Uiquo cavere, to protect one*8 self 
from any one. 

Cedo, Sre, cessi, cessum. To give 
place to, yield to, withdraw, de- 

Cel^ber, bris, bre. Renowned, cele- 

CdSbro, are, dvi, Otum, (celSber). 
To celebrate, solemnize. 

Oder, cd^ris. Swift. 163, 1. 

Vderltas, Otis, f. (celer). Celerity, 

CelerXter, ius, Hmey adr. (celer) 
Swiftly, quickly. 805, 2. 

CeUa, ae, f. Store-room, store- 
house; cdlapenaria, granai^. 

Cdo, are, avi, Otum, To hide, con- . 

Censeo, Sre, censui, censum. To 
think, judge, decree. 

Censorinus, i, m. Censorlnus, sur- 
name of Lucius MarciMS, a Roman 
consul in the third Punic war, 

Census, us, m. Census. 

Centum, indec. Hundred. 

Centuriq, Unis, m, (centum). Cen- 

Cemo, ^re, crevi, cretum. To per- 
ceive, see, discern. 

Certamen, \ms, n. (certo). Contest, 
game, engagement 

CertaHm, adv. (certatus, from certo). 
Earnestly, eagerly. 

Certo, are, am, Otum. To fight, 
struggle, contend, endeavor. 

Certus, a, um. Sure, certain ; cer- 
tiorem facere, to inform. 

Cesso, are, avi, Otum, (cedo). To 
cease, pause. 

Cetirus, a, um, nom. sing. m. not 
used. The other, the rest. 

Chaeronea, ae, t Chaeronea, a town 
in Boeotia, the birth-place of Plu- 
tarch, (232). 

ChersonSsus, i, f. The Chersonesus, 
a peninsula in Thracia, west of the 

ChrisHanus, a, um. Christian, often 
used substantively. 

Cicatrix, ids, f. Scar. 

Cicero, dnts, m. Cicero, the cele- 
brated Roman orator, (207). 

CindnnOtus, i, m. Cincinnatus, a 




renowned Roman citizen and dic- 
tator, (liy 

Cinecu, cte^ m. A friend and favorite 
minister of Pyrrhus. 

■CingOf Sre^ einxi, einctum. To sur- 
romid, encompass ; crown ; invest 

Oinnay ae, m. Ginna, a surname 
among the Romans. Imcvus Cor- 
nelius Cinna, confederate of Ma- 
rias in the civil war, (203). 

Circa^ prep, with ace. About, 
around, among. 

CircUeTy prep, with ace. About, 

Circum = circa. 

drcum-doj dare, dSdi, d&tum. To 
place around, surround, invest. 

Circum-eOy ?r«, Ivi or m, Uum. To 
go around, surround, encompass, 

Circumspicioj ere, spexi^ spedum. 
(circum, specie). To look roimd, 
look for, seek. 

Circum-venio, Ire, veni, verUum, Tu 
come around, encompass, sur- 
round, circumvent, deceive. 

CUy prep, with ace. On this side 
of, within. 

CUo^ are, dvi, atum. To excite, 
urge, hasten ; ciicUo equo, at full 
gallop or speed. 

CitOf citius, cUis^me, adv. (citus). 
Soon, quickly. 

CitrUy adv., and prep, with ace. On 
this side. 

CitiiSj a, um. Quick, swifl, rapid. 

Civllis, e, (civis). Civil, domestic. 

CivitUas, cUis, f. (civilis). Civility, 

CSviSj is, m. and f. Citizen. 

CivXias, ati8, t (civis). City, state, 

Clades, ia, f. Loss, slaughter, de- 
struction, defeat. 

Clam, adv., and prep, with ace. or 
abL Secretly, without the know- 
ledge of. 

Clarus, a, um. Splendid, renowned, 
illustrious, dear. 

Classiaritu, ii, m. (classis). A ma- 
rine, jo/, naval forces. 

Cla88i8, is, f. A fleet 

Claudius, U, m. The fourth Roman 
emperor, (41). Appius Claudius, 
one of the decemviri, (26). 

Claudo, daud^re, dausi, dausum. 
To close, shut 

Claudus, a, urn. Lame. 

Clemens, ends. Mild, gentle, clem- 

dementia, (te, f. (demens). Mild- 
ness, clemency. 

Cleopatra, ae, f. Cleopatra, queen 
of Egypt, (211). Another of the 
same name was the daughter of 
Philip of Macedon,(234). 

Clipeus, or dypeus, i, m. Shield. 

Clodca, ae, f. Sewer, drain. 

Cnaeus, or Cneus, i, m. Cnaeus, a 
Roman name; as Cnaeus Pom- 

Coarguo, ere, eoarffui, (cum, arguo). 
To arraign, accuse, indict; con- 

Codes, iHs, m. Codes, a Roman 
surname. Horatius Codes, a Ro- 
man, distinguished in the war with 
Porsgna, (171). 

Coelum, i, n. The heavens, sky, 

Coena, ae, f. Prindpal meal of th« 
Romans, supper, dinner. 

Coeo, Ire, ivi or ii, \tum, (cum, eo) 
To collect, assemble. 296. 




Coqii, isti, it^ def. To bcigin. 297. 

Coerceoy ercere, erady erdUum^ (cum, 
arceo). To check, confine, re- 

CogMOy are, dvt, Otum, To think, 

CoffndtiM, a, um. Belated, subs, a 

Cognitu8y a, i«m, part (cognosco). 
Ascertained, known. 

Cognomen^ tnw, n. (cum, nomen or 
gnomen). Surname. 

CogrwmlnOy are^ aviy dtum^ (cogno- 
men). To surname, call, name. 

Cofftioaco, SrCj novi, ttttum, (cum, 
nosco or gnosco). To ascertain, 
learn, recognize. 

CoffOj erCf coeffi, coadum. To col- 
lect, force, compel 

CohibeOj ere^ i*t, l/wm, (cum, habeo). 
To hold, check, confine. 

CohorSy cohartiSj f. Cohort, tenth 
part of a le^on. 

CollaCinus, i, m. Oollatinus, sur- 
name of Tarquinius, the colleague 
of Brutus in the consulship, 

Collega^ a«, m. Colleague. 

ColUgo, Sre, Ugi, ledum, (cum, l^o). 
To collect^ bring together. 

CoUdcOy are, dm, dtum, (cum, loco). 
To place, set, erect; to give in 

Colloquium, ii, n. (colloquor). Con- 
versation, interview. 

CoUdquor, loqui, lociUua sum, dep. 
(cum, loquor). To converse, talk 

CoUum, t, n. Neck. 

Colo, ere, coluiy cvUum, To culti- 
vate ; honor, worship. 

Color, Oris, m. Color, complexion. 

Comburo, ire, bussi, hustum, (cum, 

buro = uro, to bum). To bum, 

Comes, Xtis, m. and f. Companion. 
Comissatio, 6nis, f. Revelling. 
Comm^atus, us, m. Supplies. 
Commem^o, are, avi, otum, (cum^ 

memoro). To recall, remember, 

commemorate, mention. 
Commentor, art, atus sum, dep. To 

meditate, muse upon, consider, 

think, devise, invent. 
Commiffro, are, avi, Otum, (cum, 

migro). To migrate. 
Comminuo, Sre, mirmi, minuhim, 

(cum, minuo). To dash in pieces, 

crush; lessen; weaken. 
Committo, Sre, mlsi, missum, (cum, 

mitto). To bring together, unite, 

intrust, commit ; pugnam commit- 

tSre, to engage in battle. 
Commodum, i, n. Advantage, bene- 
CommMus, a, um, (cum, modus). 

Suitable, fit, proper, convenient 
Comm^mefado, ^e, fici, fadum, 

(cum, moneo, facio). To put in 

mind, remind, impress earnestly. 
Comm&ror, ari, OJtassum, (cum,mo- 

ror). To tarry, delay. 
Commoveo, Sre, movi, motum, (cum, 

moveo). To move, excite. 
Communis, e. Common. 
CommunUer, adv. (conunQnis). In 

common, conjointly. 
CommtUoHo, Onis, f. Change. 
CompHro, are, dvi, otum, (cum, 

paro). To prepare, make, pro* 

cure, compare. 
Compello, are, avi, otum, (cum, pel- ' 

lo). To address, call. 
Compello, ire, puli, pulsum, (cum. 




pello). To thrust together, to 
force, compel, unpel. 

CompensaiiOj SniSy £ Compensa- 
tion, exchange, barter. 

Camperio, lr«, pSri, pertum. To 
find, find out. 

Compesj HiSy f. (cum, pes). Fetter, 

CompeseOj ^e, cut. To confine, 

Complectory ii^ plexus suniy (cum, 
plector). To embrace, encompass. 

CompHeOy gre^ Svi^ Huniy (cum, pleo). 
To fill, complete. 

Compluresj a. More than one; 
several, very many. 

CompSnOj gr«, posui, poUtumy (cum, 
pono). To settle, adjust, adapt, 

ComportOf are^ avi^ cttumy (cum, 
porto). To carry, bear, collect 

Compos, &tisy (cum, potis). Having 
. the mastery or control over any- 
thing ; sharing in, partaking of. 

ComprehendOy ^«, di, ««»», (cum, 
prehendo). To seize, arrest, com- 

ConeSdOy gre, cessi^ cessum^ (cimi, 
cedo). To concede, grant ; to de- 
part, withdraw ; pass, impera., it 
is conceded. 

Concldo, ffre, &ldij (cum, cado). To 
fall, perish. 

ConcUio^ are, 5vi, dtum, (concilium). 
To unite, conciliate, procure, win. 

Concilium, ii, n. Council, meeting. 

ConciOy GniSy f. Public assembly. 

ConcllOy are, dv% cUum, (cum, cito). 
To raise ; excite, excite rebellion. 

Concordia, ae, f. (concors, harmo- 
nious). Concord, harmony. i 

Corxurro, Sre, curri (cucurn\ cur- 

sum, (cum, curro). To meet, as* 

semble ; engage, fight ; rush to. 
Conditio, 6nis, f. (condo). Condition, 

Condo, ^e, didi, d'Uum^ (cum, do). 

To found ; conceal, hide ; place, 

Conduco, ^re, duxi, ductum, (cum, 

duco). To conduct, collect ; hire, 

contact for. 
Conflro, conferre, contiHi, coUd- 

tum, (cum, fero). To collect, 

confer, compare; engage battle; 

se conferre, to betake one's self. 
Con/estim, adv. Immediately. 
ConjuAo, ^re, fid, fectum, (cum, 

facio). To finish, accomplish, 

make, produce, wear out 
Confido, ire, fisus sum, (cum, fldo). 

To trust, confide in. 
Conflgo, &re,fixi,Jixum, (cum, figo.) 

To transfix, &sten together. 
Confingo, ire, finxi, fietum, (cum, 

fingo). To form, feign, pretend. 
Confirmo, are, dm, atum, (cum^ 

finno). To make firm, strength* 

en; encourage; corroborate. 
ConfUus, a, um, part (confido). 

Trusting, relying upon. 
Confilgo, Sre, fivd, flictum, (cum, 

fligo). To engage, fight 
Confodio, ire, fodi, fossum, (cum, 

fodio). To pierce, wound. 
Confugio, ire, fagi, fugXtum, (cum, 

fugio). To flee for refuge. 
Congredior, gridi, gressus sum, dep. 

(cum, gradior). To encounter. 

Congrigo, are, avi, alum, {cum^ 

grego). To collect, congregate. 
Congressio, onis, f. (congredior) 

Engagement, battle. 




ConjunOj ^re, j8ci^ jectum^ (cum, 
jacio). To discharge, hurl, throw, 

Conjungo^ h-e^ junad, junctum^ (cum, 
jungo). To join, combine. 

ConjuratiOy onia^ f. (conjaro). Con- 

ConjurcUu8, a, «*m, part, (conjuro). 
Having conspired. 

OonjurOj are, dvij atum, (cum, 
juro) To conspire. 

Conjuz, ugis, m. and f. (conjungo). 
Husband, wife. 

Conofiy dniSj m, Conon, a cele- 
brated Athenian general, (39, 

Conor, driy dtus sum, dep. To en- 
deavor, attempt. 

ConscendOj h'e, 8cendi, scensuniy 
(cum, scando). To ascend, em- 

ConsciuSj a, um. Privy to; con- 
scious of ; subs, accomplice, confi- 

ConscrtbOj ^e, scripsi, scriptum 
(cum, scribo). To siunmon; to 
enrol, arrange, order ; compose. 

Conscriptus, a, «m, part, (conscribo). 
Enrolled, assembled. Patres con- 
scripti, conscript fathers, i. e. sen- 

Cons^cro, are, dvi, dtum (cum, ear 
cro). To consecrate. 

Consector, arty atiis sum, dep. (cum, 
sector). To follow, pursue. 

ConsenescOy Sre, senui (cum, senesco). 
To grow old. 

Vons^quor, scqui, secutus sum, (cum, 
sequor). To succeed, follow, pur- 
sue ; secure, obtain. 

Cons^ro, Sre^ ui, turn, (cum, sero). 
To join together •, manum or pug- 

nam conser^re, to join battle, en' 

gage in battle. 
ConservOy^dre, dvi, dtum, (cum, ser' 

vo). To preserve, watch over, 

ConsidSro, are, dvi, dtum. To in- 
spect, examine. 
Consido, h'e, sedi, sessum, (cum, sido). 

To encamp, settle. 
Consilium, it, n. Goimsel, advice, 

wisdom, intention, design, council. 
Consisto, Sre, stXd, sfitum, (cum, 

sisto). To place or station one's 

self, to stand. 
Consolor, dri, dtus sum, dep. (cum, 

solor). To comfort, console. 
Conspectus, its, m. (conspicio). 

Sight, presence. 
Conspicio, Sre, spexi, spectum, (cum, 

specie). To see, observe. 
Conspicor, dri, dtus sum, dep. (con- 
spicio). To behold, see. 
CoTispiratio, onis, f. (conspire). 

Union, conspiracy. 
ConstanUsr, ius, issime, adv. (consto). 

ConstarUia, ae, f. (consto). Con- 
stancy, firmness. 
Constat, impers,(consto). It is known, 

is an admitted fact. 
Constituo, Sre, ui, Utum, (cum, sta- 

tuo). To constitute ; build, erect ; 

station, place; appoint, arrange; 

Consto, dre, sfiti, statitm, (cum, sto) 

To stand together, halt. 
Co7isu€sco^ Sre, evi^ eium, (cum, su- 

esco). To be accustomed. 
Consttetudo^ tnis, f. (consuesco). 

Custom, usage, habit. 
Co7isul, ulis, m. (consulol Consul, 

Roman chief magistr/rfe. 



ConsularU, e. Consular; subs, one 
who has been consul, one of con- 
sular rank. 
CotmUatuSj tis, m. (consul). Con- 
Consuloj ^re, sului^ sultum. To con- 
sult, consider; wUhdat, to consult 
for one*s good. 
Consummoy are^ avi, atum. To fin- 
ish, accomplish, complete. 
Co7isumOj h-Cy sumpsi, sumptum^ 
(cum, sumo). To consume, wear 
out, waste, use, employ. 
CofUSgo^ SrCy texi, tectum^ (cum, tego). 

To cover. 
CorUemnOj Sre, iempsi, fem/)ft<»i,(cum, 
tenmo). To contemn, despise, dis- 
Coniemptusy w, m. (contemno). Con- 
tempt, scorn, disregard. 
Contendoj &e, tendi, tentum^ (cum, 
tendo). To contend, strive, at- 
tempt, labor; betake one's self, go. 
Contention dnis, f. (contendo). Ef- 
fort, contest, struggle, exertion. 
CorUentus, a, um. Content, con- 
Conimens, entiSy (contineo). Ad- 
joining, continuous; subs, f. con- 
CorUi7ienHay ae, f. (contineo). For- 
bearance, self-control. 
ContineOy ere, Unuiy tentum, (cum, 

teneo). To hold, keep, check. 
ContiniWy are, dviy atuniy (contin- 
uus). To connect, unite, con- 
CorUrci, adv., and prep, with ace. 
Against, opposite to, contrary to ; 
on the contrary. 
Vontra-dlcoy &re, dixi, dictum. To 
contradict, object to. 

CorOrShOy h-e^ traxiy tractuniy (cum, 

traho). To collect, incur, contract. 

ConfraHus, «, wm, (contra). Con- 

trary to, opposite. 
Contrucldo, dre^ avi, dtuniy (cum, 

trucido). To slay, kUl, mangle. 

Contueory tueHy tuUus «mw, dep. 

(cum, tueor). To survey, look 

upon, behold ; consider, ponder. 

ConvalescOy ire, luiy (cum, valesco). 

To gain strength, recover. 
ConvenienSy entiSy (convenio). Be- 
coming, fit, proper. 
ConvenierUeTy ius, isstme, adv. (con- 
venio). Fitly, suitably, agreeably, 
ConveniOy ir€y veniy venhtmy (cum, 
venio). To convene, assemble, 
meet, agree, harmonize, befit. 
ConvertOy ffrCy vertiy versumy (cum, 
verto). To turn, change, alter, 
ConvincOy fy-e, vidy victuniy (cum, 

vinco). To conquer, convict. 
Conviviuniy w, n. Feast, banquet 
ConvdcOy drey dviy dtuniy (cum, voco). 

To assemble, call together. 
Copiay acy f. Abundance, supply, 
ability, power; pi, forces, stores, 
Corcmiy adv., and prep, with abl. In 

the presence of, before. 
CorinthuSy ^, f. Corinth, /a city of 

Achaia, (162). 
CorinthiuSy a, wm, (Corinthus). Co- 
rinthian, subs. CorinthiuSy ii, m. a 
Corinthian, (45). 
CoriolanuSy t, m. Coriolanua, a sur- 
name given to Caius Marciusy de- 
rived from Coridliy the name of a 
town which he had taken in war, 




CorioUy Grunij m. pL Coriuii, a 
tfcwn in Latium, (174). 

Cornelia^ «?, f. Cornelia, the mo- 
ther of the Gracohi, (131). 

Cornelius^ UyTsu Cornelius, the name 
of a distinguished Roman gens, 
including the Scipias ; as, Publius 
Cornelius Scipio, (190, 194). 

Cornelius^ a, um. Belonging to the 
Cornelian family, (120). 

ComUy us, n. Horn, wing of an 

Cordnay ae, t Garland, crown. 

CorptUy driSy n. Body, community. 

OorrXgOy Sre^ rexi^ rectum^ (cum, 
rego). To reform, correct 

CorripiOy ^, ripui^ rtptunu, (cum, 
rapio). To seize, lay hold ol 

Corrumpo^ ^re, n/pi, ruptuniy (cum, 
rumpo). To corrupt, bribe, seduce. 

Crassus, t, m. Crassus, a Roman 
name, (93). Marcus Lidnitu 
Crassus, a Roman general, (204). 

Creber, bra, brum. Frequent, nu- 

Credo, ^re, credtdi, creditum. To 
trust, believe. 

CremSra^ ae, f. The Cremera, a 
river of Etruria, in Italy, (176). 

Creo, are, avi, atum. To appomt, 
elect, make. 

CrescOy Sre, crevi, cretum. To grow, 

Crimen, inis, n. Crime, accusa- 

Criminor, dri, aius sum, dep. (cri- 
men). To accuse. 

Crinis, is, m. Hair. 

Criiias, ae, m. Critias, wie of the 
thirty tyrants at Athens, (228). 

Crixus, i, m. Crixus, a leader in 
the war of the gladiators, (204). 

Crucio, are, avi, dtum^ (crux). To 
pain, afflict, torture. 

CnuUlis, e. Cruel 

CrudetUas, Oiis, f. (crudelis). Cni- 

CrvdetUer, ius, iss\me, adv. (crudd 
lis). Cruelly. 

Cublimn, i, n. The elbow, a cubit. 

Chdpa, ae, t Fault, blame. 

CuUura, ae, f. (colo). Agriculture, 

CuUus, us, m. Culture, necessaries, 
as food, clothing, etc. 

Cum, prep, with abL With. 

Cum, coiy. = quum. 

Cumae, arum, f. Cumae, an ancient 
city and colony in Campania, on 
Ihe sea-coast, renowned for its 
Sibyl, (49, 7). 

OunctaHo, dnis, f. (cunctor). De- 

Cunctor, art, Otus sum. To delay, 

Cunctus, a, um. All, all together, 

Cupfde, ius, isslme, adv. (cupidus). 

Cupidltas, aUs, f. (cupidus). Desire, 

Cupidus, a, um, (cupio). Desirous, 
having desires, avaricious, covet- 
ous, fond of. 

Cupio, ^re, Ivi or ii, itum. To de- 

Cur, adv. Why, wherefore. 

Cu7'a, ae, f. Care, management, 
anxiety. ^ 

Cures, ium, f. pi. Cures, the an- 
cient capital of the Sabines, 

Curia, ae, f. Senate-house ; ward. 

Curiatii, orum, m. pi. The Curiatii, 




three brothers who were selected 
• from theAlban army to engage 

Id combat with the three Horatii, 

also brothers, from the Romans, 

(160). See note on " Horatiorum 

et Curiatiorum," (160). 
Curiu8, tt, m. Curius, a Roman 

name, (27). 
Curo^ are, avi^ alum. To care for, 

take care of. 
Curro^ Sre^ cucurri, cursum. To 

CumUj tw, m, (curro). Chariot 
OursoTy 6riSj m. Cursor, surname 

of Lueius Papirius, dictator in 

the Samnite war, (178). 
CumUj tUy m. (curro). Course. 
CugiocUa, aey f. Care, charge of, 

custody, confinement. 
Custodioj Ire, ivi or tt, Uum, (custos). 

To guard, preserve, watch. 
CuttoSy Odisy m. and fl Guard, 

C^ictM, i, m. A Cyme philosopher, 

a Cynic. 
Cyno8cq>hdlaey ammy f. pi. Cynos- 

cephalae, "Dogs' Heads," two 

hills in Thessaly, (197). 
Cyprus, i, f. Cyprus, an island in 

the Mediterraneam sea, near Asia 

Minor, (27, 11). 
CyruSy t, m. The name of two emi- 
nent Persian princes ; OynUy the 

Greaiy tbe founder of the Persian 

empire, (18), and Cyrus, the son 

of Darius, (225). 

DamnaiiOj Qnis, f. Condemnation. 
DamnOy are, dvi^ dtum, (damnum). 

To condemn ; capUis damndrey to 

condenm to death. 


Damrmmy t, n. Loss, damage. 

JDariuSy u, m. Darius, a celebrated 
kmg of Persia, (215). 

JDcUiSy isy m. Datis, one of the gen- 
erals of Darius, (216). 

jDe, prep, with abL From, of, con- 
cerning, on the subject o^ over. 

DdfeOy ere, «i, Uum, To owe, 

Debeory iri, debUus turn, dep. To 
be due, belong. 

DdnlUOy drey Ovi, dtum. To weak- 
en, disable. 

De-cedoy erey eessiy cessum. To de- 
part, withdraw, die. 

Deceniy indecL Ten. 

DeeempleXy IciSy (decem, plico, to 
fold). Tenfold. 

Deeemrifiry vlriy m. A decemvir. 

De-eemoy ihreyXrSviy crHum, To de- 
cide; contend, fight; decree, in- 
trust by decree. 

Deeety decuityim^TS, It is seemly, 
becoming, becomes. 

DeeldOy ih^e, tldiy eUsumy (de, caedo). 
To cut off; decide, determine. 

De<fynuSy a, umy (decem). Tenth. 

DecipiOy hrcy e€piy e^ptumy (de, capio). 
To deceive. 

De-ddi^y drey dvi, dtum. To make 
clear, manifest; declare, pro- 

Decretuniy t, n. (decemo). Decree. 

DeeuSy SriSy n. Ornament, honor. 

De-d<kuSy dm, n. Disgrace. 

DedicatiOy oniSy f. (dedico). Dedica- 

DedicOy drCy dviy dtuniy (de, dico). 
To dedicate 

DedUio, oniSy f. (dedo). Surrea- 

De^y Srey dldiy diium. To surren- 




der; devote one's self to, give 

one's self up to. 
De-dueoy ire^ dttxi, dttctum. To bring 

down, conduct; remove; lead. 
De-faixgOy arCj dviy cUum. To weary, 

De/ecUo^ onM^ f. (deficio). Failure, 

eclipse, defection. 
De-fendo, gre, fertdif ferman. To 

defend, ward o£ 
DefSrOy ferrCf t&liy latum. To offer, 

exhibit, bestow, present: carry or 

bear away. 
DeficiOy ^fecij/eciumy (de, facio). 

To fail, spend itself; be eclipsed; 

desert, revolt. 
De-flOgrOy drCy dviy dtunu To bum, 

bum down, consume, destroy. 
Deformisy Cy (de, forma). Deformed, 

De-fungoTy ffiy functus 9um. To dis- 
charge, execute ; die. 
De-glubOy grey — , gluptum. To flay, 

to skin. 
Dein or deindcy adv. Then, after^ 

Deiot&rttSy t, m. Deiotarus, a king 

of Galatia, (206). 
DejiciOy SrCy jeciy jectuniy (de, jacio) 

To throw down, overthrow, slay. 
De-lectOy drey dviy dtum. To allure ; 

to delight, please. 
DdectuSy a, wm, (delTgo). Chosen. 
DeleOy ercy evi, Stum. To destroy, 

efface, put an end to. 
De-lihSrOy drCy dviy dtum. To de- 
Deliciae, druniy f. pL Delights, 

pleasures; delight, darling, be- 
DeligOy grCy legiy lectum, (de, lego). 
To. choose, select ; love. 

Deliriumy m, n. Madness, dctageu 

instances of it. 
Delas or BduSy t, f. Delos, a 

small island in the Aegean sea, 

(27, 10). 
DelpMy orumy m. pi. Delphi, a 

townof Phocis, celebrated for the 

temple and oracle of Apollo, 


DemardtuSy t, m. Demaratus, the 
fiftther of Tarquinius Priscus, 
De-mergOy (trey mersiy mersum. To 
plunge in, bury in, sink. 

De-mittOy ^«, mUiy missum. To let 
down, drop, send away, send. 

DemoerXtuSy i, m. Democritus, a 
celebrated Grecian philosopher, 

DemorioTy mdriy moriuus ftuniy (de, 
morior). To die. 

LemostMneSy is, m. Demosthenes, 
the most cdebrated of the Gre- 
cian orators, (92, 7). 

Demuniy adv. At length, finally. 

Denariu8y tt, m. Denarius, a Ro- 
man silver coin, worth about six- 
teen cents. 

Deniy ae, a. Ten by ten, ten at a 

Denlquey adv. Finally. 

DenSy dentiSy m. A tooth. 

De-nudoy are, dviy dtum. To make 
naked, strip. 

DenuntiatiOy oniSy f. (denuntio). De- 
nunciation, warning. 

Denuntioy drey dviy dtum. To de- 
clare, denounce. 

DenuOy adv. Again, afresh. 

De-peUoy Sre, puliy ptdmm. To drive 
away, expel. 

De-p6nOy cre^ posut^ posftum. To 




lay down or aside, deposit, de- 

De-populor^ ariy dhu sum. To pil- 

' lage, depopulate. 

De-pofiOf are, dvi, Otum, To carry 
off or away. 

DepraedoTf driy dtus sam, (de, prae- 
dor). To ravage, plunder. 

Deprehendo, h^, diy nun, (de, pre- 
hendo). To seize, catch, detect, 

De-piigno, Ore, avi, dium. To fis;bt. 

Derelidio, oniSy f. (de, relinquo). 
Neglect, disr^ard. 

De-wnJbOy h^e, tcripsiy scriptum. To 
describe; impose; assess; desig- 
nate; divide. 

Des&roy ifre, serui, wrtum, (de, sero). 
To abandon, desert. 

De-sidSrOy dre, dtfi, dtum. To long 
for, wish, deare earnestly. 

DenliOy ire, siltdy wuUum, (de, salio). 
To alight, dismount. 

Des\no, ere, 9ivi or m, sXtum, (de, 
sino). To cease, desist 

Desipio, iSre, (de, sapio). To be 
' void of understanding, be foolish, 
be delirious. 

De-sisto, ire, silti, aCUum, To de- 
sist, leave off. 

D^tsperaiio, onia, f. (despgro). De- 
spair, desperation. 

J>e-9pero, dre, dm, dtum. To de- 

J)e8picio, i^e, tpexi, spectum, (de, 
specio). To despise, disregard. 

Destlno, dre, dvi, dtum. To destine, 
appoint, design. 

J)e-9um, e8a€,fui. To fail, be wanting. 

De4erreo, Sre, ui, Hum, To deter. 

Detineo, ere, tenui, tenium, (de, te- 
neo). To detain, hinder. 

Deir&ho, &re, traxif tradum, (de, 
traho). To draw or take away or 
from, detract 

Deirimentum, i, n. Loss, damage, 
detriment, harm. 

Beua, i, m. God, deity. See 61, 6. 

De^asto, dre, — , dtum. To devastate, 

De-venio, tre, vdni, venJtum, To come 
down, arrive, reach. 

Jk-vineo, iSre, vici, vietum. To con- 

Dexter, tra, trum. Right, on the 
right hand. 

Dextra, ae, f. The right hand, 

Di, See Dis, 

Diadema, &tis, n. Diadem. 

IHagdraa, ae, m. Diagoras, a Rho- 
dian athlete, who distinguished 
himself in the Olympic games, 

Didna, ae, f. The goddess Diana, 
the daughter of Jupiter and La- 
tona, and sister of Apollo, (97). 

Dico, ^e, dixi, dictum. To say, call. 

Dictator, Sris, m. (dico). Dictator, 
an officer appointed by ike Eomang 
in times of great danger. 

Dido, us, or 6nis, f. Dido, the foun- 
dress of Carthage, daughter of 
Belus, (44, m.) 

Dies, ei, m. and t Day. 

Diffidle, ius, lime, adv. (difficXlis). 
With difficulty. 

DiffuAlis, e, (dis, &cUis). Difficult 
168, 2. 

DigXtus, i, m. Finger. 

Dignttas, dtis, f. (dignus). Dignity, 
rank, office. 

Dignor, dri, dius sum, (dignus). To 
deem worthy, deign. 

Dignus^ a urn. Worthy. 




JMrldboTj Idbi, lapnu swniy dep. To 
fisdl asunder, go to pieces; flee; 
scatter, disperse. 
\ DilatiOy onia, f. Delay, delaying. 
, JHllffens, entisy (diligo). Fond of, 
mindfnl, diligent, observant. 

DUigerUery tiM, tMlime, adv. (dillgens). 
Carefully, diligently, earnestly. 

DUigeniiay ae, t (diligens). Dili- 

D'digOy ire, lexi, ledums (dis, lego). 
To choose, love. 

DimlcOy are^ avi, aiumy (dis, di, 
mico). To encounter, fight 

Di-mitto, ^re, mm, misaum. To dis- 
miss, let go. 

IHoff^ne8y is, m. Diogenes, the noted 
Cynic philosopher of Greece, (186). 

Dumy Onia, m, Dion, brother-in-law 
of the tyrant Dionysius of Syra- 
cuse, (81). 

I>Umysiu9y «, m. Dionysius, tyrant 
of Syracuse, (26). 

DlripiOy irCy ripui, reptumy (dis, di, 
rapio). To lay waste, pillage. 

DiruOy &rey diruiy diriUumy (dis, di, 
ruo). To destroy, demolish. 

DiSy or diy insep. prep. Asunder, 

Dis-cddOy irCy cessiy cessum. To do- 
part, reture from. 

DisceptaliOy dnis, f. Debate, quarrel. 

Discipllnay ae, f. Discipline, in- 

PiscipuluSy t, m. (disco). A learner, 

I scholar, disciple. 

PiscOy &rey didici. To learn. 

Discordiay oe, f. Strife, discord. 

Discordoy arCy dviy aiumy (discors, 
discordant). To differ, be at va- 
riance, disagree. 

Discrimeny tniSy n. Danger, crisis. 

I>i»-curr0y irty eurriy curtntm. To 
run different ways, run about, 

DispergOy ^rc, apersiy gpersnmy (dis, 
di, spargo). To scatter, disperse. 

DispliceOy gr«, plicuiy pUcHtuniy (dis, 
placeo). To displease. 

XHs-piiiOy arCy dviy aium. To com- 
pute, estimate; examine, investi- 
gate, discuss. 

Dia-a^rOy ^re, aerUiy aerium. To ex- 
amine, argue, discuss. 

Diaaidiumy n, n. Dissension. 

Dia-aimtliay e. Unlike, dissimilar. 

Diaaimiiloy drey dviy dium. To dis- 
semble, conceal, omit 

Dia-9(p0y drCy dviy dtum. To dissi- 
pate, scatter. 

I>ia-9olvOy ^By aolviy aoluttan. To de- 
stroy, abolish, dissolve. 

IHa4ribu0y &ey trihuiy tribntum. To 

Districtuay a, vm, (distringo). Busy, 
occupied with. 

DiatrififfOy *r«, atrinxiy atrietuniy (dt 
stringo). To occupy, engage at 

DitiOy iSniay f. Rule, sway. 

DiUy diuHuay diuHaalmey adv. Long, 
for a long time. 

ZHut^mUy a, wm, (diu). Of long du^ 
ration, lasting. 

""DitUurfiUaSy dthy t (diutumus). 

DiveraiMy a, um. Diverse, unlike, 

Divea, ttia. Rich. 

BivXcOy dni8y m. Divico, a distin- 
guished Helvetian general, (85, 6). 

DivXdOy Srey divlaiy divlaum. To d> 
vide, allot. 

Divimiay a, um. Divine. 




JXvidaef arum, f. (dives). Riches, 

DivuSj a, um. Divine; subs, god, 

Do, d&re, dedi, datum. To give, 
grant, impute, alh>w. 

Doceo, ere, ui, turn. To teach. 

Dodrlna, ae, f. Instruction, learn- 

I ing, erudition, doctrine. 

Doctua, a, vm, (doceo). Learned, 

JDocumenium, i, n. Lesson, proof, 
specimen, mark. 

Dolabella, ae, m. Dolabella, a Ro- 
man name. Puhlius Comelitis 
DolabeUa, son-in-law of Cicero, 

Doleo, ere, ui, ttum. To grieve. 
>Ihlor, Oris, m. (doleo). Pain, grief. 

Doltu, i, m. Artifice, deceit. 

Dom£sttcu8, a, um, (domus). Domes- 
tic, private, personal. 

DomicUium, ii, n. (domus). Habi- 
tation, abode. 

IhminaCio, onvt. Rule, tyranny. 

Bominatus, ««, m. Rule, sove- 

Domintis, i, m. Master, owner. 

Domo, are, ui, itwn. To subdue. 

Domu9,;^u8 or i, f. House, home ; 
domi, at home. 

Donee, conj. Until. 

Dono, are, avi, atum, (donum). To 
give, present with. 

Donum, i, n. (do). Present, gift. 

Dormio, tre, ivi or ii, ttwn. To 
sleep, slumber, rest. 

Dos, dotis, f. Gift, dowry. 

Drums, i, m. Drusus, son of the 
Emperor Tiberius, (U6). 

DubUatio, onis, f. (dublto). Doubt, 

Dubito, are, avi, atum. To doubt 

Dubius, a, um. Doubtful ; neut, of 
ten subs, doubt. 

Ducenti, ae, a. Two hundred. 

Duco, ^re, duxi, duehtm. To lead, 
conduct ; with uxorem, to marry. 

Duillius, ii, m. Duillius, a Roman 
name. Caius Duillius, a Roman 
commander and consul in the first 
Punic war, (186). 

Didcis, e. Sweet, pleasant, agreeable. 

Dum, conj. While, untU, provided. 

Dum-m6do, coqj. So long as, pro- 
vided that 

Duo, ae, o. Two, both. 175.' 

DuodScim, indec. (duo, decem). 

Duodecimus, a, um, (duodecim). 

Duodequadroffesimtis, a, um. Thirty- 

Duo-de-viginti, indec. Eighteen. 

Duplex, ids. Double. 

DupVico, are, avi, atum, (duplex). 
To double, increase. 

DuriHa, ae, t (durus). Hardmess, 
austerity, rigid temperance, hard- 

Durus, a, um. Hard, harsh, rude. 

Dux, duds, m. and i. (duco). 
Leader, guide, general 


E or ex, prep, with abl. From, out 

of, of. 
EbriStas, atis, f. Drunkenness. 
E-disco, ^re, didicL To learn by 

heart, commit to memory. 
3^, edSre, edidi, edttum. To set 

forth, publish ; do, perform, malce, 





E-doceo^ ere, doad, doctum. To 
teach one thoroughly, mforixi, in- 

E-duco, Sre, duxi, ductum. To lead 
out or forth. 

EffSro, are, dvi, atum. To enrage, 
madden, render unmanageable. 

Effhro, ferre, extuli, datum, (ex, 
fero). To bring forth, carry forth 
or out ; elate. 

Efficio, ere, fiei,fectum, (ex, fiuno). 
To effect, occasion, accomplish, 
make, render. 

Effluo, Sre, fiuzi, fl^txum, (ex, fluo). 
To flow out, pass away, disappear. 

Effugw, ^re,fiJigi, fugXtum, (ex, fu- 
gio). To flee, escape from, escape. 

Effundo, Sre, fudi, futum, (ex, fun- 
do). To pour out, pour ; indulge 
in ; squander, waste.* 

Egeo, egere, egui. To need, to want, 
require, to be without. 

Egeria, ae, f. Egeria, a prophetic 
nymph from whom Numa pro- 
fessed to receive instructions, 

^0, met, L Effomet, I myself. 
184, 6. 

Egredior, egrddi, egresaus sum, dep. 
(e, gradior). To go or come out, 
to go forth, to go, to run away. 

EgregU, adv. (egregius). Excel- 
lently, remarkably. 

Egregim, a, urn. Excellent, dis- 

Ejicw, ^re, ejeci, ejedum, (e, jacio). 
To throw or drive out, expel; 

E-labor, elahi, elapsue sum, dep. To 
slip away, get off, escape. 

E-laboro, are, avi, atum. To labor, 
exert one^s self. 

Elegantia, ae, f. Elegance, taste^ 

ElemerUa, drum, n. pi. The first 

principles, rudiments, elements. 
Elephantus, i, m. Elephant 
Eligo, ^re, elegi, deetian, (e, lego). 

To choose, elect 
Eldquens, erUis, (eldquor). Eloquent 
Ehquenier, hu, Ustme, adv. (elo- 

quens). Eloquently. 
EloquerUia, ae, f. Eloquence. 
E-ldquor, Idqui, loeuius sum, dep. 

To speak out, utter, declare, telL 
Mnax, acts, (emo). Eager to buy, 

fond of buying. 
Emergo, Sre, mersi, mersum. To 

emerge, come to light, rise in im- 
EminerUia, ae, f. Eminence, ex- 
Mnineo, ire, «t. To stand out, be 

prominent or conspicuous. 
EmiUo, h'e, mlsi, missum. To send 

forth or away ; let go. 
Emo, Sre, emi, emptum. To buy, 

Emolumentum, i, n. Effort, exer- 
tion ; gain, profit, advantage. 
Enim, coiy. Fop, indeed. 
Emiteo, ere, nituu To shine forth ; 
^be distinguished. 
Enniyx, ii, n. Ennius, a celebrated 

Roman poet, (120). 
Eo, adv. Thither; therefore; eo. 

usque, so far, to such an extent. 
Eo, Ire, tvi or ii, Ktum, To go ; 

walk, sail, ride, pass. 295. 
Eodem, adv. (idem). To the same 

Epaminondas, ae, m. Epaminondas, 

a celebrated Theban general, 

(92, 5). 




^IiesiiUf a, um, Epbesian, relating 
to Ephesus, of Ephesus, bom at 
Ephesus, (97). 

Epigramma^ (iiis, n. Inscription, 
epigram. 68, 2. 

EpiruSj iy i, Epirus, a province in 
the north of Greece, (180). 

Epistulay ae, f. A letter, epistle. 

Epulae^ drum^ f. pL Food, banquet, 

EpuloTy ariy &tu8 8um, (epulae). To 

EqueSy itis, m. (equus). Horseman. 
PL cavalry. 

Eqtieftter, iriSy tre, (eques). Eques- 

Equidemy conj. Indeed, truly, by 
all means. 

EquUdtuSy iJL8y m. Cavalry. 

JSqutiSy iy m. Horse : ex equOy from 
a horse, on horseback. 

Eretria, aCy f. Eretria, an impor- 
tant city on the island of Euboea, 

Ergtty prep, with ace. Towards. 

ErgOy adv. Therefore ; as subs, uhl. 
on account of, for, with gen, 

ErigOy Sre, erexi, erectuniy (e, rego). 
To raise up, animate. 

EripiOy Srey eripuiy ereptuniy (e, ra- 
pio). To snatch or take away. 

ErroTy CriSy m. Error, deception. 

ErvdiOy IrCy Ivi or ii, Itum. To in- 
struct, refine, discipline. 

EritdltuSy a, um, part (erudio). 
Learned, instructed in. 

ErumpOy SrCy rUpiy ruptum. To 
break forth, rush forth. 

EruOy Srcy eruiy eruttmiy (e, ruo). To 
root out, destroy. 

EscOy oBy f. Food, bait 

Et, conj. And; et — ety both — ^and. 

Et-Sniniy conj. For, truly, because 

that, since. 
Etiam, Also, even. 
Etiamsi, Even if, although. 
EHam-tuniy conj. Even then, till 

then, still. 
Elruriay aCy f. Etruria, a country 

of Central Italy ; Tuscany, (190). 
EtrnscuSy i, m. An Etruscan, inha- 
bitant of Etruria, (171). 
Et-si, Even if, although, though. 
Euboetty a^y f. Euboea, an island in 

the Aegean sea, (84). [(144). 

EuripideSyiSy m. An Athenian poet, 
EuphrateSy iSy m. A river in Asia, (-24). 
Europay aCy f. The continent of 

EurybiddeSy is, m. A king of Sparta, 

EvddOy erCy vasiy vasum. To go 

out ; to turn out, become ; escape ; 

EveniOy ire, veniy venium. To come 

forth, happen; eveniiy t^, it 

chanced, that 
EvertOy ^re, vertiy versum. To pull 

down, overthrow. 
EvocOy drCy aviy atuniy (e, voco). To 

call forth, summon. 
EvolOy SrCy aviy cttuniy (e, volo). To 

fly or flee away, hasten away. 
Exy prep, with abL From. See e 

or «r. 
Ex-adversum or ex-adversitSy adv, 

and prep, with ace. Opposite, 

Ex^ntmOy arc, aviy atum. To de- 
prive of life or spirit ; kill 
ExrardescOy ^re, arsi. To kindle, be 

inflamed ; break out, as war, 
Ex-cedoy Srey ccssiy eessum. To retire^ 





Ex-ceUo^ ihrfy ceUui^ cdsum. To ele> 

yate ; excel, be eminent 
ExcelsuSy a, «m, (excello). Loftj. 
Excidiumy n, n. Destruction, ruin. 
Excipioy SrCy cepi, ceptum, (ex, ea- 

pio). To take out, except 
Ex-cltOy arCy Oviy aium. To excite, 

arouse, awaken, strengthen. 
Excludoy Sre, dUai, dOgum, (ex, clau- 

do). To exclude, shut out, cut off. 
JBiXH^ttOy drey Avi, Otum, To devise, 

think out 
ExcuHoy Sr€y eussiy ew9umy (ex, qua- 

tio). To shake or throw oS. 
Exemplumy t, n. Example. 
Ex-eOy trey ivi or «, Uum, To go 

from or forth. 
ExereeOy erCy cuiy cXtumy (ex, arceo). 

To exercise, practise. 
ExerctiuSy i«, m. (exerceo). Army, 

Ex-/iauriOy Ire, hattsiy haustum. To 

exhaust, impoverish. 
Ex-horrescOy irCy horrui. To dread, 

to tremble at 
ExtffOy Srey Igi, acHmiy (ex, ago). 

To drive out, expel ^ finish, end ; 

Exifftmsy a, um. Small. 
EximivSy a, um. Excellent, choice, 

EximOy irCy dmiy empturriy (ex, emo). 

To take away or from ; exempt ; 

Existimaiioy dnisy f. (existlmo). An 

opinion, judgment, supposition ; 

BkMmOy arcy avi, atumy (ex, aestl- 

mo). To judge, think. 
Wxitiumy iiy n. (exeo). End, death, 

Ex-oriory orlriy oriua «*m, dep.. 

partly of 3d conj. To arise ; be 
derived from. 288, 2. 

Ex-omoy arCy aviy aium. To adoni, 
beautify, embellish, fumbfa, equip. 

Ei69U8y a, U7t. Hating, hated, 

Expedioy Ire, Ivi or u, Hum, To re- 
lease, extricate; also to be expe- 
dient, or profitable. 

ExpeditiOy onw, f. (expedio). Expe- 

Ex-pdloy Sr€y puliy puhum. To ex- 
pel, drive away, banish. 

ExrpStOy SrCy Ivi or «, Itum, To 
seek, request 

Ex^eOy ere, eviy Hum, To fill cnake 
full ; fulfil. 

Ex-plicOy are, dvi, dtum. To uufold ; 
adjust; settle. 

Exploratory 6r«, m. Explorer, spy. 

Ex-pugnOy drey dviy dtum. To take, 
conquer, storm. 

Exscindoy ere, scidiy scissum. To 

Exrsculpoy ^rty aculpaiy sculptvm. To 

ExaeerabXliSy e. Detestable. 

Exseguiae, drwity f. pi. Funeral. 

ExrsSquory a^qtU, secutus sum. To 
prosecute, accomplish, finish ; per- 

Exailiumy ft, n. Banishment, exile. 

ExspedatiOy OniSy f. (exspecto). Ex- 
pectation, high hope. 

Ex^pectOy drey dviy dium. To await, 

ExstinguOy SrCy stinxiy slinctum. To 
extinguish, destroy. 

ExstruOy SrCy siruxi, sfrudum. To 
build, construct. 

Exsuly ulisy m. and f. An exile; 

Ex4empl0y adv. Immediately. 




Ex4orqrJteo^ ere, torsi, torium. To 

extort, obtain by force. 
Ex-tr&hOj ^re, treat, tractum. To 

extract, draw out, remoTe ; rescue. 

Fabius, ii, m. Fabius, the name of 
a distinguished Roman family. 
Quintus Fabivs Maximtu, the 
celebrated Roman general who 
80 successfully weakened Hanni- 
bal in the first Punic war, (1'75). 

Fabricitts, ii, m. Fabricius, a dis- 
tinguished leader of the Romans in 
the war against Pyrrhus, (182). 

Fabula, ae, f. Report, narrative, 
fable, story, drama. 

Fades, ei, f. A face, appearance. 

Facile, itts, lime, adv. (facUis). Easily. 

Facilis, e, (facio). Easy. 

Facifius, dris, n. Deed, act ; wick- 
edness, crime. 

Facio, Sre, feci, f actum. To do, act, 
make, compose. 

Factio, onis, f. Faction, party. 

Faadtaa, Otis, f. Capacity, ability, 
resource, opportunity ;plur, riches, 
property, resources. 

Fallo, ere, fe/elli, falsum. To de- 
ceive, foil. 

Fahus, a, ton. False, spurious. 

Fama, ae, f. Fame, report. 

Fames, is, f. Hunger, famine. 

Familia, ae, f. Retinue of slaves, a 

FamiliarXtas, Otis, f. Friendship, 

FamUla, ae, f. Female slave. 

Fatmius, ii, m. Fannius, a Roman 
name, (48). 

Fanum, i, n. Temple. 

Fascis, is, m. A bundle, parcel. 

Fastidio, ire, ivi or ii, Uum, To 

loathe, despise, disdain. 
Fatalis, e, (fatum). Fated, fatal. 
Fatlffo, are, avi, alum. To oppress, 

trouble, weary, importune. 
Fatum, i, n. Fate, destiny, oracle. 
Fauce, abl f. ; plur. fauces, fatuAum, 

Throat, jaws. 
Faustulus, i, m, Faustulus, the 

shepherd who brought up Romu- 
lus and Remus, (158). 
Faveo, dre, favi, fautum. To favor. 
Favor, oris, m. (faveo). Favor, 

Fdicttas, atis, f. (felix). Felicity, 

Feliciter, itts, issXme, adv. (felix). 

Happily, prosperously. 
Felis, is, f. Cat. 
Fdix, tcis, Happy. 
Femtna, ae, f. Woman, female. 
Femur, oris, n. Thigh. 
Fera, ae, f. Wild beast. 
Ferax, ads. Fertile, fruitful, pro- 
Fere, adv. Almost. 
Fenne, adv. Almost. 
Ferio, Ire, To strike, beat. 
Fero, ferre, tuli, latum. To bear, 

endure ; raise ; say, tell ; propose, 

as law. 292. 
Ferox, ocis. Bold, warlike, savage. 
Ferrum, i, n. Iron, sword. 
Fertilis, e. Fertile, rich. 
Ferus, a, um. Wild, rude, cruel ; 

ferus and /era (subs.), wild animal 

or beast. 
Fesims, a, um. Wearied, exhausted. 
Festlno, are, am, atum. To hasten. 
Festtts, a, um. Festal ; festum (subs.), 

a festival, feast. 
Fidtlis, e, (fides). Faithful, trusty. 




JFldeSj eiy f. Fidelity, allegiance; 

protection, confidence, assurance ; 

injideniy under protection. 
^Ido, gre, Jism sian. To trust, 

Fiduda, ae, f. Trust, confidence, 
i^ta, ae, f., dat and abl phJiUdbm. 

Daughter. 49, 4. 
MlitiSj iij m. Son. 
FififfOy ire, Jinxi, Jidum, To form, 

feign, represent. 
MniOy Ire, In, i/wm, (finis). To 

finish, put an end to. 
Mnis, is, m. and f. limit, end ; pi, 

MmCirmu, a, tun. Ndghboring; 

sttbs. a neighbor. 
Mo, fiSri, f actus swn, pass, off ado. 

To be made ; become, happen. 

' Firme, adv. Firmly, resolutely. 
Mrmitaa, oHa, f. (firmus). Firmness, 

Firmus, a, um. Strong, secure, firm. 
Flagiiiosus, a, um. Infamous, aban- 
Flagitium, ii, n. Disgrace, shame, 

base deed. 
Flagro, are, dvi, dium. To bum, be 

carried on with zeal. 
Flaminius, ii, m. Flaminius, a Ro- 
man consul, defeated by Hannibal 

at the Lake Trasimenus, (190). 
Flamma, ae, f. Flame. 
Flecto, ere, flexi, flexum. To bend, 

Fleius, us, m. Weeping, tears. 
Florens, erUis, (floreo). Blooming, 

youthful, excellent. Floretis aetas, 

Floresco, ^re, florm, (floreo). To 

bloom, flourish, prosper ; excel. 

Flos, dm, m. Blossom, flower. 
Humen, Inis, n. Stream, rver. 
Muviits, ii, m. River. 
Foeder&tus, a, wn. Confederate, 

Foedus, ^ris, n. League, alliance^ 

Fons, onUs, m. Spring, fountain. 
Forem, es, etc.=eBS0m, es, etc.. Might 

be ; forez:zfuturum esse. See 297, 

m. 2. 

Forma, are, Svi, Otum, To form, 
fashion, adjust 

For8,fortis, f. Chance ; abL forte 
as adv., by chance, perchance. 

Forsilan, (fors, sit, an). Perhaps. 

Fortasse, Perhaps. 

Forte, See fors, 

Fortis, e. Brave, valiant 

ForCiter, ius, issXme, adv. (fortis)L 

Fortitudo, tnis, f. (fortis). Forti- 
tude, bravery. 

Fortuna, ae, f. Fortune. 

Forum, i, n. Market-place, forum. 

Fossa, ae, f. Ditch, trench. 

Frango, ^re, fregi, frachun. To 

Frater, tris, m. Brother. 

Fraus, dis, f. Fraud, deceit 

Frequenter, ius, issime, adv. Fre- 
quently, in great numbers. 

Freius, a, um. Trusting, relying 

Frudus, us, m. Fruit, produce. 

Frugalitas, atis, f. Frugality, in- 

Frumenium, i, n. Com, grain. 

Fruor, frui, frutius and frudus 
sutn, dep. To enjoy. 

Frustra, adv. In vain. 

Fuga, ae, f. FUght 




Fugio, ire, fugi, fugiUmn, To fly, 
flee, avoid, shun. 

Fujo, are, avi, aium. To rout, put 
to flight 

Ftdgur, uris, n. Lightning, thun- 

FulguraMo, onis, f. Lightning. 

FulmeUy tni8, n. Lightning, thun- 

FuruUtmerUum, t, n. Foundation. 

Funditm, adv. Utterly, entirely. 

Futub, Sre, fudi, fusum. To pour 
out, shed, rout; also to make, 

Funestus, a, tim, (funus). Deadly, 
destructive ; mournful, sad. 

Fungor, fungi, functus sum, dep. To 
discharge, perform, pay. 

Furcula, ae, f. Fork. Ikirculae 
Caudinae; see Caudinus, 

Furiua, ii, m. Furius, a Roman fa- 
mily name, as Marcus Furiua Ca- 
milhu ; see Camillus. 

Furor, oris, m. Fury, madness. 

Furtum, t, n. Theft. 

Futurus, a, um,, part (sum). Future. 


Oalada^ ae, f. Galatia, a country 
of Asia Minor, (206). 

Gallia, ae, f. The ancient country 
of Gaul, (209). 

Oalllcua, a, urn, (Gallia). Gallic. 

OaUtna, ae, f. Hen. 

Oallus, t, m. A cock. 

Gallus, t, m. (Gallia). A Gaul, a 
native of Gaul, (39, HI.). 

Oaudeo, ire, gavlsus sum. To re- 
joice, take pleasure in. 271, 3. 

Oaudium, ii, n. Joy, pleasure. 

OemXnus, a, um. Twin, double. 

Gemma, ae, f. G«m. 

Gener, iri, m. Son-in-law. 

Genera, are, avi, atiun, (genus). To 
beget, create, produce. 

GenMus, a, um, part (gigno). Bom, 

Gens, gentis, f. Family, clan, tribe, 
nation, race. UbXnam gentium, 
where in the world ? 

Genus, iris, n. Race, family, peo- 
ple, kind. 

Germania, ae, f. Germany, (39, 


Germ^nus, i, m. (Germania). A 
German, (30). 

Gero, ire, gessi, gesium. To bear, 
wear; carry on, perform; wage, 
as war, 

Gestio, ire, Ivi or ii. Hum. To de- 
sire, long for. 

Gigno, ire, genui, gen\tum. To 
bring forth, beget, produce. 

GlacicUis, e. Icy, freezing. 

Gladiator, oris, m. Gladiator, a 
fighter at the public games. 

GlacUaiorius, a, um, (gladiator). 

Gladitts, ii, m. Sword. 

Glisco, ere. To grow, spread ; rise. 

Gloria, ae, f. Glory. 

Glorior, ari, dtus sum, dep. To 
boast, exult, glory. 

Gracchus, i, m. Gracchus, a Ro- 
man name. Sempronius Grac- 
chus, the Roman general defeat- 
ed by Hannibal at the Trebia, 
(190). Gracchi, drum, m. pi. 
The Gracchi, members of the 
Gracchus family, but especially 
the two brothers, Tiberius Com& 
lius Gracchus and Caiu» Corne- 
lius Gracchus, famous in the poli- 
tical history of Rome, (131). 




ChadtiSj U8, m. Step, position, stair. 

Oraecey adT. (Graecus). In the 
Greek language, in Greek. 

Graeeiay ae, t, Greece, (210). 

Graeeus or OraiuSy a, wm, (Grae- 
cia). Grecian, ^ubfl. Graeeus 
or GraiiUy t, m. A Greek, (30, 

Grammattcay ae^ f. Grammar. 

GrammaticuSy a, um. Of or be- 
longing to granunar, grammaticaL 

GrandiSy e. Large, great. 

GrandOy XniSy f. Hail. 

Gratiay aCy f. Favor, gratitude; 
pi. thanks; graHdy abl. for the 
sake of. 

Grratiis or ffratisy adv. For nothing, 
without pay. 

GratulatiOy dniSy f. Gratulation, 

GratuSy a, um. Pleasing, accept- 
able; grateful 

Gravis, e. Heavy, severe. 

GravUaSy OiiSy f. (gravis). Weight ; 
dignity, gravity. 

Gravitery ittSy iastmey adv. (gravis). 
Heavily, severely. 

GravOy are, aviy dtuniy (gravis). To 
burden, load. 

GruSy ffruiSy m. and f. Crane. 

GubernOtory oriSy m. Pilot, ruler, 

GubemOy drSy dvi, atum. To steer, 
pilot; direct, manage. 

Ojllppusy t, m. Gylippus, a Spar- 
tan commander in the Sicilian 
expedition, (223). 


IlabeOy BrSy wt, ttum. To have ; re- 
gard ; keep. * Sermdnem habere, 
to hold a conversation. 

ffabltOy arsy dviy (Uumy (habeo). To 
inhabit, live in, dwell in. 832, 
I. 2. 

HahUuSy usy m. (habeo). Habit, 
dress, attire. 

HamUcary dm, m. Hamilcar, the 
father of Hannibal, (186). 

Hamuiy t, m. Ush-hook, hook. 

JBdnnlbaly illiSy m. Hannibal, the 
celebrated Carthaginian general in 
the second Punic war, (189). 

ffannOy dnis, m. Hanno, a Cartha- 
ginian general in the second Punic 
war, (195). 

Hasdrubaly &li8y m. Hasdrubal, 
son of Hamilcar and brother of 
Hannibal, (192). Another of the 
same name was the brother-in-law 
of Hannibal, and the founder o£ 
New Carthage, in Spain. 

Haslay aCy f. Spear. 

Hastiley is, n. Spear. 

HastiliSy «, (hasta). Bdongmg to a 

Hatidy udv. Not. 

Haunoy Ire, hatutiy haustum. To 
driuk, draw out, exhaust. 

Rectory drisy m. Hector, son of 
Priam and Hecuba, the bravest 
of the Trojans, (146). 

HedSray aCy f. Ivy. 

ffellespontuSy t, m. Hellespont, the 
straits of the Dardanelles. 

Helvetiiy druniy m. The Helvetians, 
a people of Gaul, (42). 

HerciUeSy w, m. Hercules, a cele- 
brated Grecian hero, deified after 

HereSy ediSy m. and f. Heir, heir- 

HerenniuSy ti, m. Hercnnius, the 
father of Pontius Thelesinus, who 




conquered the Romans at the Oau- 
dine Forks, (119). 

Herodotus^ t, m. Herodotus, a cele- 
brated Grecian historian, (20). 

Heros^ dis, m. Hero. 

Heu I interj. Oh I Ah ! Alas I 

Hiherna^ drum, n. (hibemus). Win- 

Mic, haecy hoc. This, he, she, it. 

Hie, adv. Here, in this place. 

HiemSy ^miSy f. Storm, winter. 

HiSrOy dnis, m. Hiero, king of Sy- 
racuse at the time of the first Fu- 
nic war, (185). 

Hierosolpma, ae, f. or drum, n. pi. 
Jerusalem, the capital of Judea, 

Hinc, adv. (hie). Hence, on this ac- 
' count, on this side; hine — hinc, 
on the one side — on the other 

IRppias, ae, m. Hippias, son of 
Pisistratus, tyrant of Athens, 

Wi^pania, ae, f. Spain, (97). 

Ilispanus, a, um, Spanish ; subs. 
IRspanvSy t, m. A Spaniard, 

Historia, ae, f. History. 

ffodie, adv. To-day. 

Hoedufy i, m. A kid, young goat 

Jlomerus, t, m. Homer, the cele- 
brated Greek epic poet, (134). 

UomOj Xnis, m. and f. Human being, 

UonestaSy aHs, f. (honestus). Honor, 

Honeste, ««, isslme, adv. (honestus). 
Honorably, nobly, honestly. 

ffonestuH, a, um, (honor). Full of 
honor, honorable, creditable, wor- 
thy, virtuous. 

Honor or konos, Gris^ m. Honor, 

ran]^ dignity. 
Honoriftce, centitUj cetUissime, adv. 

(honorificus). Honorably. 305. 
Honoro, are, dm, dtum, (honor). To 

honor, reverence. 
Hbra, ae, f. Hour. 
Horreo, ere, horrui. To shudder,- 

shudder at, dread. 
HorcUii, Orum, m pL See OurioUii ; 

also note on " Horatiorum et Cu- 

ricUidrum, (160). 
Uoratius, ii, m. See Codes and 

Hortenaiits, ii, m. Hortensius, a 

Roman name. Quiniua Horten- 

situ Hortaltts, a celebrated orator 

in the time of Cicero, (84, 91). 
Hbrtor, dri, dtus sum, dep. To 

exhort, incite. 
Hospfta, (ze, f. Guest. 
Hostia, ae, f. Victim. 
Hostilis, e, (hostis). Hostile. 
HostUius, ii, m, Hostilius, a Roman 

name. TuUus Hostdius, the third 

king of Rome, (160). Caius 

Hostilius Mancinus, a Roman 

consul, (201). 
Hostis, is, m. and f. Enemy. 
Humanus, a, um, (homo).' Human. 
Humilis, e. Humble, small, low. 
Hum^, dre, dvi, dtum* To bury. 
Hypdnis, is, m. Hypanis, a river 

of Sarmatia, (85). 

Iherus, i, m. Iberus, a river of 
Spain, now the Ebro, (26). 

Ibi, adv. There, in that place. 

Ico, ere, id, ictum. To strike; 
make, ratify. 




Idemy eUdetn^ idem. The same; 

sometimes best rendered by also. 
IdoTieus, ay um. Suitable, fit. 
IffUur, coiy. Therefore, accord- 


Iffndvtu, Oy um. Slothful, indo- 
I^niSy M, m. Fire. 
Jgnoroy are, dvi^ alum. To be ig- 
norant of, not know. 
IgriOtcOy ^rCy igndvi, ignStum, To 

excuse, forgive, overlook. 
JlienseSy ium^ m. Inhabitants of 

Ilium, Trojans, (146). 
Jliumy it, n. Hium, or Troy, some- 
times applied to the city, and 
sometimes to the district^ (236). 
JUe, a, ud. That ; he, she, it 
JUttstriSy e. Illustrious, famous. 
IllvstrOy are, aviy aium, (iUustris). 
To enlighten, illumine, illustrate, 
lUyrlcuSy a, wm, or IllyriuSy a, um, 
Ulyrian, of or pertaining to Illy- 
ria, a country on the northeastern 
coast of the Adriatic, (245). Subs. 
lUyrlcus or IllyriuSy i, m., an Illy- 
ImagOy XmSy f. Image, figure, pic- 
ImhecilluSy a, um, or imhecUliSy e. 

Weak, feebla 
Imhuoy ifre, tmbuiy imbutvm. To 

imbue, inipress. 
ImitaiiOy dnisy f. Imitation. 
ImHoTy ariy atua sum, dep. To imi- 
tate, copy, portray, counterfeit 
ImmatUrus, a, um, (in, maturus). 

Young, immature. 
Immiemor, dris, (in, memor). Un- 
mindful, forgetful. 
ImmittOy ire, mui, missum, (in, mit- 

to). To send, or let in ; let go ; 
bring forward. 
JmmoriaUsy e, (in, mort&lis). Im- 
ImmortalUaSy aiisy f. (immortalis.) 

ImmufHtaSy dtis, f. Immunity, ex- 
Jmo or immoy adv. Yes indeed, in- 
deed, by all means. 
Impatiensy entis, (in, patiens). Im- 
Jmpatientery ius, isshne, adv. (impa- 

tiens). Impatiently. 
Impedimentumy t, n. (hnpedio). Im- 
pediment, obstacle; pi. bag- 
JmpediOy Ire, ivi or ii. Hum, To 
impede, embarrass; hinder, pre- 
JmpeUoy ere, piili, puUnm, (in, pel- 

lo). To impel, induce. 
Impensa, ae, f. Expense, cost 
ImperOtoTy oris, m. (imp^ro). Com- 
mander, emperor. 
JmperlluSy a, um, (in, peritus). XJnr 

skilled, ignorant 
Imperium, ii, n. (impfiro). Com- 
mand, power, rule, sway, reign. . 
ImperOy are, dvi, alum. To com- 
mand, rule, govern. 
ImpHrOy are, dvi, Otum, To ac- 

comphsh, obtain. 
Imp&uSy uSy m. Attack, fury. 
ImpiStaSy dtis, f. (impius). Want 

of respect, irreverence, impiety. 
ImpiuSy a, wm, (in, plus). Unduti- 
ful, irreverent, impious, abandon- 
ImponOy SrCy pbsuiy posUum, (in, 
pono). To place or put in or to ; 
eivjoin; unpose. 




ImprdbOy are^ dw, atum, (in, probo). 
To reject. 

ImprudenieTf iu8, iaslme, adv. (im- 
prudens, imprudent). Imprudently. 

Impubes, ffris. Youthful, young. 

Jmpu^no, dre^ dw, oUum, (in, pugno). 
To assail, attack. 

ImpidguSy ta, m. (impello). Instiga- 

• tion. 

//», prep, with ace. or abL Into, to, 
for, against, toifh aee. ; in, on, with 

Jnams, e. Empty, void ; vain, fool- 
ish, useless. 

Ihcendium, n, n. (incendo). Mre, 

Incendoy ere, cendi, censum. To set 
on fire, inflame, excite. 

In-cei'tu8, a, urn. Uncertain. 

IncessOj ^re, cesalvi or eeasi. To at- 

Inehoo, are, &vi, dtum. To begin, 

Jnctdo, ^re, (Hdiy cdsum, (in, cado). 
To fall into or upon, fall in with, 

Incido, ^re, cidi, <fl8um, (in, caedo). 
To cut, destroy. 

Jncipio^ ere, cSpi, cephim, (in, capio). 
To begin, undertake. 

IncUamerUum, i. n. (incTto). Incen- 
tive, inducement. 

Incitatus, a, um, (incite). Running ; 
' eqvo incUato, at full speed. 

Jn-citOf are, avi, alum. To incite, 
hasten, spur on ; inspire. 

Jn-clino, are, avi, aium. To incline, 
bend ; ptua. to sink, go to ruin. 

Incoia, ae, m. and f. (incSlo). In- 

Inrcdlo, ere, colui, cuUum, To dwell, 
abide in, inhabit 

InrcolUmis, e. Safe, launjured. 

In-credibilis, e. Incredible. 

Incrementum, t, n. Growth, in- 

Incursio, onia, f. (incurro). Attack, 

Jnde, adv. Thence, from that 

Indecdre, adv. Disgracefully. 

InMa, ae, f. India, an extensive 
country of Asia, (242). 

Jtirdlco, ire, dixi, dictum. To de- 
clare, publish, appoint. 

Indigeo, ire, indigui. To need; 
part indlffena, as adj. or subs. in. 
digent, an indigent person. 

Indignaiio, 6rm, f. (indignor). Scorn, 

Indignor, ari, Oiua sum, (indlgnus). 
To disdain, scorn ; be indignant 

In-dignus, a, um. Unworthy, harsh, 

Jn-domitu8, a, um. Unsubdued, in- 

Inrdubitahut, a, um. Undoubted, cer- 

Induciae, or indtUiae, arum, f. pi. 

Jfirduco, ere, duxi, ductum. To in- 
duce, lead into, overlay, adorn 
with, gild. 

IndurOiua, a, um, (induro). Obdu- 
rate, hardened. 

In-duro, are, avi, Otum. To harden. 

Industria, ae, f. Industry. 

Ineo, ire, Ivt or tt, Itum. To enter, 
go into; gratiam inire, to obtain 
the favor of, conciliate. 295. 

Inermis, e, (in, arma). Unarmed. 

Infdmie, e. Infamous, notorious- 

Infam, antis, a^*. Speechlesfli, 
dumb ; aubs. an infant 




In-feUz^ lew. Unhappy, unforta- 

Infensus, a» um. Exasperated, en- 

Inferior^ itts. Inferior. 163, 8. 

In-ferOy/errey ttUi^ Ulaium, To carry 
against, wage against. 292, 2. 

In/esto, Arey dvi, Otunij (infestus). 
To infest, trouble. 

InfestuSy a, um. Infested, trouble- 
some, hostile. 

In-JlnUuSj a, um. Great, infinite, 
boundless, of unlimited power. 

In-JlammOy dre^ dvt, dtum. To set 
on fire, bum, inflame, arouse. 

Informisy c, (in, forma). Shapeless, 

In-frendOy ere^ — , fressum^ frSsum, 
To gnash with the teeth. 

InfringOy ^c, fr€giy fractum, (in, 
frango). To infringe, break. 

Infulay aCy f. Fillet, head-dress, 
badge of office. 

IfirglmOy ire, ui, .To groan, la- 

Ingenium, ii^ n. Character, genius, 
intellect, power. 

Ingcns, entis. Great, mighty. 

Ingraim or ingr&tis, adv. Agwnst 
one's will. 

In-grOtus, a, um. Disagreeable, 
offensive, ungrateful 

Tn-gredior, gredi, gretsus 8um, dep. 
(in, gradior). To enter, encoun- 

In-haereOy ere, Juiesi, haesum. To 
cleave or stick to, to stick fast, 

h^hio, ^are, dm, dtum. To gape, 
stand open ; desire, long for. 

InhumanXtaa, dtis, f. (inhumftnus). 
Barbarity, incivility, iuhuraanity. 

Inimicua, a, um, (in, amicus). Hos- 
tile ; nUts, an enemy. 

Inlquus, a, um, (in, aequus). TJve 
favorable, unjust. 

JniHum, ii, n. (ineo). Beginning; 
pi. sacred mysteries. 

Injicio, ire, jeci, jectum, (in, jacio). 
To throw in; cause; inspire with. 

Injuria, ae, f. Injury, wrong. 

Jnjuste, iu8, tMXme, adv. (injustus). 

In-jugtus, a, um. Unjust, oppress- 
ive, severe. 

Inrfidcena, entis. Innocent. 

InrfiotescQ, Sre, notui. To become 

Inrnoxitu, a, um. Harmless, inno- 

Jn-numerabilis, e. Innumerable. 

In-opindtus, a, um. Sudden, unez' 

Inquam, defective. To say. See 
29Y, II. 2. 

InmrmL, €ie, f. Insanity, folly. 

Inseiiia, ae, f. Ignorance. 

InsSquor, sequi, aecubis sum. To fol- 
low, pursue. 

Insidiae, drum, f, pi. Ambush, 
treachery, plot. 

Insigne, is, n. Mark, sign; pL 
badges of office, insignia. 

Insignis, e. Distmguished, noted. 

Irtrsimiilo, are, dvi, dium. To blame, 
accuse, charge. 

Insisto, ire, stiH, sfltum. To per 
sist; urge; entreat. 

In-solens, entis. Unusual, insolent. , 

Insolenter, ius, issXme, adv. (inso* 
lens). Insolently. 

Trnpedo, dre, dm, dtum. To look 
at, to look on. 

Insjncio, ere, spext^ spectum, (in, spc 




cio). To consider, inspect, look 

InOanjtrOy Are^ aviy atum. To renew. 

InstUuOf (hre, sUtui^ gtUiUvan^ (in, sta- 
tuo). To institute, establish. 

InttUutum^ t, n. (instituo). Habit, 
manner, custom, institution. 

Jfir^io^ stare, sffUiy UOtum. To stand 
in or upon a thing, be near to ; to 
urge, insist, beg earnestly. 

jH^rumenium, t, n. (instruo). Im- 
plements, movables, goods. 

Inrstruo, h-e, struxi, struetum. To 
prepare, build, furnish with, 

Insula, ae, t Island. 

JfirsUper, Moreover. 

Inrtactus, a, um. Unharmed. 

Integer, gra, grum. Whole, entire, 
unhurt ; just, impartial, neutral. 

Integr1i(u, oHs, f. (integer). Inte- 
grity, probity, honesty. 

Intelligentia, ae, f. (intelligo). Intel- 
ligence, discernment, understand- 

Ifddttgo, ere, lexi, tectum. To un- 
derstand, perceive, know. 

Inter, prep, with ace. Between, 
among, in the midst of. 

Iniercipio, ^re, cepi, ceptum, (mter, 
capio). To catch ; intercept, take 

Inierctudo, Sre, ditsi, clusum, (inter, 
claudo). To prevent, cut off. 

Jnier-dvm, adv. Sometimes. 

Inier-ea, adv. In the mean time. 

Inter-eo, ire, Ivi or ii, Xtum. To 
perish. 295. 

/»fer-€rt, impers. It concerns, it is 

Interfedor, oris, m. (interficio). 

Interficio, ihre, fed, fedum, (inter, 

facio). To kill, slay. 
Interim, adv. In the mean time, 

Inierlmo, ire, Imi, emptum, (inter, 

emo). To deprive of, to kill. 
Interior, ius. Interior, inland. 166. 
InterXtus, us, m. (intereo). Destruo- 

Interjin^, ifre, jsd, jectum, (inter, 

jado). To place between; anno 

interjedo^ at the ejcpiration of a 

Intemecio, onis, f. Slaughter. 
Inter-nundus or intemuntitis, 0, m. 

Interregnum, i, n. An interrcign, 

In-territus, a, um. Fearless, undls* 

Inter-rdgo, are, avi., atum. To ask, 

Inter-rumpo, ^e, mpi, ruptum. To 

break down, interrupt. 
Jnter-sdro, ire,serui, sertum. To al- 
lege, interpose. 
Inter-sum, esse,fui. To be present 

at, take part in. 
Inter-^enio, ire, veni, ventum. To 

intervene, occur. 
Inlestinus, a, um. Intestine, civil. 
Intra, adv., and prep, with aoc. 

Intro, are, avi, atum. To enter. 
Intro-€0, Ire, Ivi or ii, \tum. To en 

ter. 295. 
In-iueor, tudri, tulius sum. To look 

at, observe. 
Intus, adv. Within. 
In^^usitatus, a, um. Unusual, extra- 
In^uCUis, e. Useless. 




Ifirvodoy ihre, vOn^ vdaum. To in- 
vade, seize. 

In^enio, Ire, vSnij ventum. To find, 
invent, devise, meet with. 

Inventrix, IcM, f. (inventor). In- 

In-vlcem^ adv. By turns, one an- 

In-^ctus, a, um. Unconquered, in- 

In^video, ere, vldi, visum. To envy. 

JntftdiOj ae, f. Envy, hatred. 

Invl^uSy a, um. Odious, hateful. 

Invito, dre^ avi, alum. To invite, 

InvUus, a, um. Unwilling. 

Jorvia, oe, f. Ionia, a country in the 
western part of Asia Minor, (224). 

Idnea, um, m. pi. The lonians. 

Iphicr&Us, is, m. Iphicrates, a cele- 
brated Athenian general He rose 
from an humble station to the 
highest offices of state, (49). 

Ipse, a, um. Self, hunself, herself, 

Ira, ae, f. Anger. 

Irascor, irasci, irdtus sum, dep. To 
be angry, be in a rage. 

Iratus, a, um, (irascor). Enraged, 
angry, angered. 

IrreparahXlis, e. Irrecoverable. 

Irrideo, ere, rm, risum, (in, rideo). 
To ridicule, laugh at, laugh. 

Irrlto, are, dvi, atum. To provoke, 
irritate, incite. 

Irrumpo, Sre, rupi, ruptum, (in, 
rumpo). To rush into, make an 
incursion into. 

h, ea, id. He, she, it, that, such. 

Isocrates, is, m. Isocrates, a famous 
orator and teacher of rhetoric at 
Athens, (45). 

Iste, a, ud. That, such; sometimes 
used in contempt, 

Ister, tri, m. The river Danube. 
This name is applied to the lower 
part of the river, the upper 
part taking the name Danubius, 

lia, adv. Thus, so ; to such an ex- 

Italia, ae, f. Italy, (180). 

Italtcus or It&lus, a, um, Italian; 
subs. Mlus, i, m., an Italian, 

M-gue, adv. Therefore, and thus, 

Iter, itinSris, n. Way, march, route, 

Mrum, adv. Agsun, a second time. 

Jaceo, ere, ui, ttum. To lie. 

Jacio, ^re, jeci, jaetum. To throw, 

hurl ; also, to lay, place, erect . 
Jacidum, i, n. (jacio). Dart, javelin. 
Jam, adv. Now, already. 
Janiculum, i, n. Janiculum, a hill 

on the west side of the Tiber, not 

one of the seven hills of Rome, 

though included within the wall 

built by Aurelian in the third 

century, (148). 
Jocus, i, m., also in the -pi. joca, jo- 

coram. Joke, jest 141. 
Jubeo, ere, jussi, jussum. To order, 

Jucundus, a, um. Pleasing, pleasant, 

Judaea, ae, f. Judea, (206). 
Judaeus, a, um. Jewish ; subs. Ju- 

daeus, i, m., a Jew, (206). 
Judex, ids, m. and f. ( judico). Judge^ 

arbiter. . 




Judicium^ «, n. (judex). Judgment, 

decision, trial. 
JulicOj are, dviy aium. To judge. 
Jvffum, f, n. Yoke. 
Juliwiy ««, m. See Caesar, 
JungOy trCy J74nxij jundum. To join, 

unite ; societcUem jungSre, to fonn 

a partnership. 
Junwr^ ius, (juvSnis). Younger. 

168, 3. 
JwnttM, tt, m. Junius, a Roman 

name; as Caiw JuniuSf consul 

and dictator, (20, 1). See Brviw. 
Jupiter^ JotfiSf m. Jupiter, king of 

the gods. 66, 3. 
Juro, arCy avi, attan. To take oath, 

Jus, juris, n. Right, justice, autho- 
rity, control; jure, with or by 

right, justly, properly. 
Jitstiiia, ae, f. (Justus). Justice. 
Justus, a, um, (jus). Just 
Juvenca, ae, f. Heifer, cow. 
Juvencus, i, m. A young bullock. 
Juvtmis, e. Young ; subs, a youth. 

168, 4. 
Juverdus, utis, f. ( juySnis). Youth ; 

the period of youth. 
Juvo, are, juvi, jutum. To help, aid, 

assist, support. 

L. An abbreviation of Lucius. 
Labienus, i, m. Labienus, a Roman 

name. Tttus Labienus, the legate 

of Caesar in Gaul, (56, 14). 
Labor, oris, m. Labor, work. 
Laboro, are, dvi, dfum, (labor). To 

labor, strive, take pains ; toil ; 

Lae, ladis, vl Mi&. 
lacedaemon, ikiis, L The city of 

Lacedaemon or Sparta, the capital 
of Laconia, (94). 

Loicedaemom'us, a, um, Lacedaemo- 
nian or Spartan; subs. Lacedae- 
monius, ii, m., a Lacedaemonian 
or Spartan, (123). 

Laeesso, ire, tvi or ii, Uum, To ex- 
cite, assail, provoke. 

Laconi-a or Lacomca, ae, f. Laco- 
nia, a country of the Peloponnesus, 

Loco or Lacorij dnis, m. A Laconian. 

lacrima or literpma, ae, t Tear. 

Lacrtmo or lacrptno, are, avi, atun% 
(lacrifma). To weep, shed tears. 

Locus, us, m. Lake. 117. 

Laelius, ii, m. Laelius, a Roman 
name. Caius Laelius, a celebrated 
Roman -consul and augur, sur- 
named the Wise. He was the in- 
timate friend of Scipio Africanus 
the Younger, (65). 

Laetitia, ae, f. (laetus). Joy, glad- 

Laetus, a, um. Glad, joyous, pleased. 

Laevlrtus, i, m. Laevinus, a Roman 
name. Publius Valerius Laevinus, 
a Roman consul, (180). Maraus 
Valerius Laevlntu, also a Roman 
consul and a distinguished com- 
mander, (193). 

Laevus, a, um. Left, on the left 

Lam&chus, i, m. Lamachus, an 
Athenian general in the Sicilian 
expedition, (223). 

Lamia, ae, m. Lamia, a Roman 
surname, (71). 

Lanio, are, avi, dium. To tear in 

Lasntudo, Xnis, f. Fatigue, weaii 




LcU^brHy ae^ f. Retreat, hiding-place, 

Latxne^ adv. (Latlnufi). In Latin. 

Latlnuay t, m. Latinus, an ancient 
king of the Laurentians in Italy, 

LaHuniy r, n. Lalium, a country of 

•Italy containing Rome, (16V). 

Latlnu»j a, tf/n, adj. Latin; subs. 
LcUlnua, «, m., an inhabitant of 
Latium, a Latin ; pi. the Latins, 

ZainOy onis, m. Robber. 

Lalus, a, um. Broad, wide. 

ZatuSj ^ris, n. Side. 

Laudabilia, e, (laudq). Praiseworthy, 

Laudo, are, dvi^ dtum^ (laus). To 

Lauretdiay ae^ f. See Acca. 

Lata, latuUsy f. Praise. 

Lavinia, ae, f. Layinia, daughter of 
Latinus and wife of Aeneas, (149). 

Lavinium, e{, n. Lavinium, a town 
in Latium, a few miles south of 
Rome, founded by Aeneas, and 
named by him after his wife Lavi- 
nia, (149). 

LaxOy Qre, dvi, ahtm. To relax, 

LedUo, are, dvi, Otum, (lego). To 
read often, with eagerness, to read. 
332, L 3. 

l^ctuSy a, wm, (lego). Choice, ex- 

Legcdio, onh, f. Legation, embassy. 

LegatuSy i, m. Ambassador, lieuten- 
ant, messenger. 

Legio, onis, f. Legion, a body of 

Lego, are, dvi, atum^ (lex). To be- 
queathe as a legacy. 

1 Lego, ^re, legi, lectum. To choose, 
elect; read. 

Zentulus, i, m. Lentulus, a surname 
of a distinguished Roman family. 
FMius Comeliw Lentulus, a con- 
spirator with Catiline, (97, 15). 

Leo, onis, m. Lion. 

Leontdas, ae, m. Leomdas, a Spar- 
tan king who fell at Thermopylae, 

Leptdus, i, m. Lepidus, one of the 
triumvirs with Octavi&nus and 
Antony, (83, 212). 

Lesbos or Leshus, i, f. Lesbos, a 
celebrated island in the A^ean 
Sea, (49, 12). 

Letalis, e, (letum). Deadly, mortal 

Letum, i, n. Death. 

Leucira, Crum, n. pL Leuctra, a 
small town in Boeotia, celebrated 
for the victory of Epaminondas 
over the Lacedaemonians, (229). 

LeudrXcus, a, um. Of or belonging 
to Leuctra ; Leuctrian, (230). 

Levis, e. Light, easy. 

Leviter, itts, issime, adv. (levis). 
Lightly, slightly. 

Lex, legis, f. Law, condition, terms. 

Liber, bri, m. Book. 

Liber, Sra, ^rum^ Free. 

lAh^, drum, m. pi. Children. 

Idbero, are, avi, atum, (liber). To 
liberate, free. 

Libertas, ads, f. (liber). Liberty, 

lAcet, impers. It is lawful, is peiv 

lAcet, conj. Although, though. 

lAdnius, ii, m. Licinius, a Roman 
name. Publius Licinius, a Roman 
consul and commander in the wai 
with Perseus, (198). Marcus lA- 




einitts Craasus^ proconsul in the 
war of the gladiators, (204). 

lAffneuSj a, um. Wooden, of wood. 

lAgurea^ um, m. pi. The Liguriuns, 
inhabitants of Liguria in the west- 
em part of Italy, (190). 

lAlybaeum, i, n. Lilybaeum, a pro- 
montory on the southwestern coast 
of Sicily, (188). 

IA8, liHSy f. Strife, quarrel, lawsuit. 

ZdUSrae, arum, f. pi Letter, letters ; 
literature. 132. 

Ziius, dri8, n. Shore, sea-shore. 

LocupUto, are, avi, atum. To en- 
rich, make rich. 

Locus, i, m,, pi. loci or hca, fl. Place. 

Longe, ins, tsstme, adr. (longus). 
Much, greatly, by far. 

Longinquus, a, um. Remote, dis- 
tant, long. 

Longitudo, Inis, f. (longus). Length. 

Longus, a, um. Long. 

Loquor, logui, locutus sum. To 
speak, conrerse. ' 

Zorica, ae, f. Goat-of-maiL 

Lucius, ii, m. Lucius, a name com- 
mon among the Romans ; as, Lu- 
cius Tarquirdus Priseus, (162). 

Lucretius, ii, m. Lucretius, a Ro- 
man name. 8purvus Lucretius, 
the colleague of Publicola in the 
consulship, (IVO). 

Lucrum, i, n. Gain, profit, advan- 

Lucus, i, m. Grove. 

Ludus, i, m. Game, play, sport, 

Lugeo, ere, hoi. To grieve, mourn, 
weep for. 

Lumen, Xnis, n. A light ; the eye. 

Lwna, ae, f. Moon. 

Luo, ere, lui, luUum or luium. To 
pay ; expiate, atone for. 

Lupa, ae, f. A she-wolf. 

Lupus, i, m. A wolf. 

Lustratio, dnis, f, (lustro). Expi- 
atory sacrifice; review attended 
with sacrifices. 

Lustro, are, avi, atum. To purify, 

Lusus, us, m. Flay, game; jesl^ 
sport, fun. 

Lutatius, ii, m. See Catulus. 

Lux, lucis, f. Light, light of day. 

Lttxuria, ae, f. Luxury, excess. 

Lycurgus, i, m. Lycurgus, the celo 
brated law-giver of Sparta, (96). 

Lydia, ae, f. Lydia, a country in 
Asia Minor, (225). 

Lydus, a, um, Lydian, pertaining 
to Lydia ; subs, a Lydian, (33). 

Lysander, dri, m, Lysander, a ce- 
lebrated Spartan general, (225). 

M, An abbreviation of Marcus, 
Macedonia, ae, f. Macedonia, Mar 

cedon, a country north of Thes- 

saly, (193). 
Mae^do, dnis, m. A Macedonian, 

Macedonlicus, a, um, adj. Macedo- 
nian, (19V). 
Magis, comp. adv. More. See th© 

superlative, maaume, 
Magister, tri, m. Master, leader, 

Magistra, ae, f. Instructress, teacher. 
Magistratus, us, m. Magistracy, 

Magniftce, cenHus, ceniissime, adv. 

(magniftcus). Magnificently, Bple]> 

didly. 305. 




Jfagnificenteff •!«, isstmey adv.= 

MaffnificerUia, ae, f. (magnifXcus). 
Magnificence, costliness. 

Mixffni/icus, cl, um ; comp. magnifi- 
cenHoTy superl. moffnificentisstmua. 
Splendid ; stately ; high-minded, 
magnificent. 164. 

Magnitudoy XnUy f. (magnus). Great- 
ness, size. 

Maffn8pSr€y adv. (magnus, opus). 
Greatly* earnestly. 

MagniiSy a, um ; comp. majors su- 
perl. maximtis. Great, large; 
in comp. and superl. sometimes 
older, oldest, elder, eldest: ma- 
jsres, forefathers, ancestors ; ma- 
jorea natu, elders. 165. 

MaguBy «, m. Generally plur. Magi, 
orvm, A wise man, particularly 
among the Persians. 

Majestaa, atiSy t Majesty, dignity. 

Major. See magnus. 

MaUy comp. pejus, superl. pesstme, 
adv. (malus). Badly, with ill 
success. 805. 

Mal&dicOy hre, did, dictum. To speak 
evil of, revile, abuse, rail at 

Malefieus, a, um, (male, facio.) 
Evil-doing, vicious, wicked, hurt- 
ful. 164. 

Malo, malle, malui, irregular. To 
prefer. 293. 

Malum, t, n. Misfortune, evil 

Modfts, a, um; comp. pejor, superl. 
pessimus. Bad, poor, wicked. 

Mdn^nnut, i, m. Mancinus, a Ro- 
man consul in the war with the 
Kumantians, (201). 

Mando, are, dvi, Otum. To bid, en- 
join, intrust. 

Maneo, ere, mansi, mansum. Ta 

Manifesto, are, Gvi, atum. To show, 

Manius, ii, m. Manius, a Roman 
name ; as, Manius Manlius. 

Manlius, ii, m« Manlius, a Roman 
name. Manius Mardius, a Roman 
consul in the third Punic war, 

• (199). I^tus Mardius, a Roman 
youth, sumamed Torquatus for 
his achievements in the Gallic 
war, (111). _ 

Mantinea, ae, f. A city of Arcadia, 
in the Peloponnesus, (142). 

Manumitto, ^re, misi, missum, (ma- 
nus, mitto). To release from one's 
power, emancipate, make free. 

Manus, us, f. Hand ; force. 

Mar&thon, onis, m. Marathon, a 
town and plain in Attica, cele- 
brated for the victory of Miltiades 
over the Persians, (216). 

MaraUionius, a, um. Marathonian ; 
of or belonging to Marathon, (97). 

Marcius, ii, m. Marcius, a Roman 
name. See Ancus, Censorlnus, 

Marcellus, i, m. Roman gen'l, (193). 

Marcus, i, m. Marcus, a Roman 
name, (186). 

Mardonius, ii, m. Mardonius, a Per- 
sian general, defeated by Pausa^ 
nias m the battle of Plataea, (221). 

Mare, is, n. Sea. 

Marinus, a, um, (mare). Marine, 
of the sea, from or by the sea. 

Marius, ii, m. Marius, a Roman 
name. Cains Marius, a distin- 
guished Roman general, the con- 
queror of Jugurtha, and leader in 
the civil war against Sulla. He 
was consul seven times, (202). 




MarSy MartiSf m. Mars, the god of 
war; sometimes put for war it- 
self, (162, 226). 

Massa^ ae, f. Mass, lump. 

MateTf iriSy f. Mother. 

Materia^ ae, f., or mcUerieay ei, f. 

Matrieidiumy ii, n. Matricide. 

AfcOrimoniumy ft, d. Marriage. 

MatrOfMy aCy f. Matron. 

Jfaxlmey adv. Especially, in the 
highest degree. See moffis. 

MaxtmWy a, iim; superlative of 
moffnw. Greatest 

MaximuSy t, m. Maximus, a Roman 
surname ; as, QuitUus Fabiiis Max- 
imusy the famous dictator in the 
second Punic war, (176). 

MedicuSy i, m. Physician. 

MedittSy a, utn. Middle, midst of, 
middle of. 441, 6. 

Medinty tt, m. Medius, a Thessalian, 
friend of Alexander the Great, 

MeduHy a, um. Median, Assyrian,(63). 

Mehsreuley adv. By Hercules, truly, 

Mely melliSy n. Honey. 

MelioTy itu. Better. See bonus. 

Membrumy t, n. Member, limb. 

MemXniy isiiy defect. To remember. 

Memory dris. Mindful, endowed 
with memory, remembering read- 
ily, remembering. 

MemorabiliSy e. Memorable. 

MemoHay My £ Memory, recol- 

Afemphisy i», f. Memphis, a city of 
Egypt, (239). 

MenandeTy driy m. Menander, a 
Roman name, (67). 

Meitdaciuniy u, n. Untruth, false- 
hood, lie. 

MeneniuSy n, m. See Agfippa, 

MenSy merUiay f. Mind, reason. 

MensiSy f«, m. Month. 

MenHoy oniSy f. Mention. 

Mentiovy irt, Uus «Mm, dep. To speak 
falsely, lie, cheat, deceive. 

MerceSy &/», £ (mereo). Reward, 
price, wages. 

MercoTy drt, dius ««m, dep. To 
trade, buy, purchase. 

MercuriuSy tt, m. Mercury, the son 
of Jupiter and Maia, the god of 
eloquence, and the messenger of 
the gods, (19). 

MereOy erCy in, tlum. To deserve, 

MereoTy m, Uus nwiy dep. To de- 
serve,^ earn, merit 

MergOy ^Cy merdy meraum. To 
merge, sink ; destroy. 

MeritOy adv. (meritum). With 
good reason, with reason, deserv- 

Meriiuniy t, n. Reward, merit. 

Merumy t, n. Wine, pure wine. 

JffeaopotamiOy a«, f. Mesopotamia, a 
country of Asia, between the Eu- 
phrates and Tigris, (24, 10). 

MetaUumy t, n. Metal, mine. 

MeieUiUy t, m. Metellus, a Roman 
name ; as, Metellvs PiuSy (138). 

MeHoTy iriy menstu «ifm, dep. To 
measure, estimate. 

MetiitSy iiy m. See Suffetivs, 

MetOy SrCy mestuiy messttm. To reap^ 

Mduoy ^rCy ui. To fear. 

MeiuSy u8y m. Fear, dread. 

MetUy a, unty voc. sing. masc. mi. 
My, mine. 186. 




MigrOf Gre, dvi^ Otum, To migrate, 

Mile9, ttiiy m. Soldier. 

MliUhriBy e^ (miles). Military. 

MUitiOy aej t (miles). Warfare, mi- 
litary service, military affidrs. 

MilXio, are, dvi, Otum, (miles). To 
serve as a soldier, to serve. 

UUle, subs, and acfj. Thousand; 
milliay subs., a thousand, a thou- 
sand men. 

MUIiarium, ti, n. Milestone, 

MUti&dea, is, m. Miltiades, a cele- 
brated Athenian general, con- 
queror at Marathon, (39, lY.) 

Minerva, ae, f. (goddess of wisdom, 

JUtfiime, adv. Least Seeparwn. 

MinXmus, a, urn, (parvus). Smallest, 

MinUor, dri, Mus «tfm, dep. To 
threaten, menace. 

Minor', Oris. See Armenia, 

Minor, vs, (parvus). Smaller, less. 

Minuo, &r€, ui, iUum, To lessen, 

Minus, adv. Less. Seeparum, 

Mirabtlia, e, (miror). Wonderful. 

Miri/tcus, a, um, (minis, facio). 
Causing wonder, wonderful, mar^ 

Miror, dri, dhu sum, dep. To won- 
der, admire. 

Mirus, a, vm. Wonderful, sur- 

Miser, era, Srum, Unfortunate, uur 
happy, worthless, miserable, sad. 

Misereo, ere, ui, ttum. To pity ; of- 
ten impersonal ; miserei me, I pity. 

Misereor, eri, misertus or miserUus 
sv.m, dep. To pity. 

Miaeria, ae, f. (miser). Misery, 

Afisericordia, ae, t Compassion. 

Miihridates, is, m. Mithridates, a 
celebrated king of Pontus, (202). 

Miihrielaiieus, a, um. Mithridatic ; 
of or belonging to Mithridates, 

MUts, e. Mild, gentle, placid. 

MUo, ifre, min, missum. To send 

Moderate, ius, issime, adv. (moderft- 
tus). With moderation. 

ModeraHo, (fms, t Moderation, self- 

Moderdtus, a, um. Discreet, mod- 

Modius (or Km, n.), tt, m. Measure, 
a Utile mare than a peck. 

Modo, adv. Now, only, but, pro 
vided that; mx>do — modo, some- 
times — sometimes. 

Modus, i, nu Manner, measure, 

Moenia, ium, n. pL Walls of a city, 

Moles, is, f. Mole, dam. 

Molesius, a, um. Unwelcome, irk 
some, oppressive, troublesome, 

MolUio, dnis, f. Undertaking, pre- 

Mollio, Ire, ivi or ii, Itum. To 

Momentum, i, n. Weight, influ 

Moneo, ere, Hi, ttum. To advise, 
warn, admomsh. 

Monitus, us, m. (moneo). Advice. 

Mons, mxmtis, m. Mountain, mourn. 

Mofistro, dre, dvi, dium. To show. 

Mora, ae, f. Delay. 

Morbus, i, m. Disease- 




MorioTf iri or t, mortutis «wm, dep. 
To die. 288. 

Moror, ari^ dtus sum^ dep. (mora). 
To delay, tarry. 

Mors, morti8y f. Death. 

Morsu8y tiSy m. Bite. 

MortaliSy e. Mortal, deadly ; subs, 
mortal, man. 

MorUfeTy ^ra, Srtun, (mors and fero). 
Deadly, mortaL 

MoSy moris, m. Custom, manner; 
pi, character, morals. 

MohtSy ttSy m. Motion ; commotion, 

MoveOy erCy moviy motum. To move, 

ifoac, adv. Presently, soon. 

MuauSy iiy m. Mucins, a Roman 
name. Mucvua ScaevdlOy a Roman 
youth who attempted to assassi- 
nate Porsena, (172). 

Mucroy dniSy nu Point of sword, 

MuliebriSy e, (mulier). Belon^ng to 
women, womanly, woman's. 

Mulier y ^yiSy t Woman. 

MvUUudOy iniSy £ (multus). Mul- 
titude. ^ 

MuUoy drCy dviy atum. To punish, 
deprive of by way of punishment ; 
to fine. 

MuUoy adv. (multus). By far, much. 

MuUuSy a, um ; comp. jiiuiy n., su- 
perL plurtmus. Much, many. 

MundtUy i, m. World, universe. 

Muniay iumy n. pi Duties, func- 
tions of office. 

Munificentiay <w, f. Munificence, be- 

Munimenhmhy i, n. Fortification, 
defence, covering. 

MuniOy Irey ivi or «, Ititm, To for- 
tify, defend. 

MuniHOy 69Li8y f. Fortification, 

MunlitKy a, urriy part (munio). 

MufiuSy Sriity n. Reward, present: 
service, office. 

MunychiOy aCy f. The Athenian 
harbor Munychia and the hill 
which rises above it, (228). 

MuruSy iy m. Wall 

MiMy muriSy m. Mouse. 

MvtatiOy onisy f. (muto). Change. 

MtUOy arcy dviy atum. To change, 

MtUutUy Oy um. Mutual. 

Myc&Uy esy f. Mycale, a high pro- 
montory or mountain of Ionia, in 
Asia Minor, (221). 

Myndiiy Oruniy m. pi Myndians, in- 
habitants of Myndus, (136). 

Myndus or oSy t, f. Myndus, a city 
of Caria, in Asia Minor, now Men- 
des, (136). 

Namy conj. For. 
Nam-quey coiy. For, but. 
NancUcoVy nanciaciy nactus 8umy dep. 

To obtain, take advantage o£ 
JfarrOy drCy dviy dtwn. To relate, 

NascoVy nasciy nahts «w/i, dep. To 

be bom, be produced, to arise. 
JVdtaliSy Cy (nascor). Of or belong- 
ing to one's birth, natal; natalis 

dieSy birth-day. 
NaiiOy onisy f. Nation, people- 
NatUy defective, abl sing, (nasoor). 

By birth, in age : maxXmu$ fwii*, 

eldest, 134, 




NatUra, o^, f. Nature, creation. 

NatuSy Of unif part (nascor). Bom, 
having been, born. 

Naiurdlig^ e, (natara). KiitunJ. 

Nau/rofHum, m, n. (ouvis, fnuL o). 

NautiiM, tt, m. Kuiitiiu;, a Roman 
name ; as, Camn Nautius, the con- 
sul, (19, 11). 

NavdliSy e, (navis). NavaL 

NavigaUoj Onis^ f. Navigation, sail- 

NdvlffOy are, dvi, dtum. To sail, 
sail upon, navigate. 

JV^aviSy M, f. Ship. 

iVtf, adv., and conj. used with un- 
perative and subj. Not, that not, 
lest ; after verba of /earing, that, 
lest; nequXdemy or ne — quidenty 
not even. 

ye, interrog. particle. 846, n. 1. 

Mc or neque, adv. and coiy. Nei- 
ther, nor; and not, not; nee — 
necy neque — nequey neither — ^nor. 

NeceasariuSy a, um. Necessary. 

Neceaaey a(^'. neut. wed chiefly in this 
form. Necessary, inevitable. 

NecOy drey aviy otum. To slay, kilL 

Neghgensy enlisy (negligo). Negli- 
gent, neglectful 

NegligOy ^r«, lexiy tectum. To neg 
lect, disregard. * 

NegOy arcy dviy atum. To deny, re- 

Negotiumy ii^ n. Business, diffi- 
culty ; undertaking, work, enter- 

NemOy (Xniiy gen. not in good use). 
No one, nobody. 

NepoSy dtiSy m. Grandson. 

NeptunuSy i, m. Neptune, the god 
of the sea, (155). 

Neque. See Nee, 

Nequeo, Ire, Ufiy or iiy Wwm, irreg. 

like eo. To be unable, not to be 

able. 296. 
Nequldem, See Ne. 
Neqiiia or ne quUy quay quod, oi 

quid. That no one. 
Nerviiy Orumy m. Nervians, a peopW 

NeaciOy Ire, ivi or u, l/um, (ne, 

scio). To be ignorant, not to 

NeaciuSy ay um, (nescio). Ignorant, 

NiciaSy a«, m. Nicias, an Athenian 

statesman and general, (223). 
NieamSdeSy m, m. Nicomedes, king 

NigeTy gray grum. Dark, black, 

NigranSy antis. Black, dusky. 
Nihily n. indec. Nothing ; adv. not, 

in nothing. 128. 
NihUumy t, n. Nothing. 
NUuSy t, m. The river Nile in 

Egypt, (211). 
JVimiSy adv. Exceedingly, too much. 
jVtn^w, a, um. Excessive, too 

much, too great. 
Nisiy conj. Unless, if not, except 
NiieOy niterCy nituiy (nix). To shine, 

glitter, glisten, 
NUoTy nitiy nisus or nixua »wm, dep. 

To strive, attempt; to depend or 

rely upon. 
Nixy nivisy f. Snow. 
NoblliSy e. Noble, famous. 
NobilUaSy afw, f. (nobilis). Fame, 

nobleness ; nobility, nobles. 
NobitUOy arCy dvt, Oiumy (nobilis). 

To render famous; to ennoble; 





Noceo^ Sre^ ui^ liym. To hurt, harm, 

Nociu, abL By night 

NodurnuSy a, um. Nocturnal, oc- 
curring at night 

T^olo, noUe, nolui, hreg. To be un- 
willing. 293. 

Nomen^ ln«, n. Name. 

K(m\nOy are, aw, <Wmi», (nomen). 
To name, call. 

JVb», adv. Not; nonnXsi, only. 

y<maffetitmu8y a, um. Ninetieth. 

NonaginUiy indec. Ninety. . 

Non^umy adv. Not yet 

Nbrmey interrog. particle. Whether, 
expeding answer yes. 846, IL 

NontvuUwy a, um, (declined like 
wuUus), Some. 

NonuSy a, um. Ninth. 

NoeeOy h'e, noviy natum. To know, 
understand, learn. 

JVosteTy trOy trum. pron. Our. 

NoHtiay aey f. (notus). Celebrity, 
note; acquaintance, knowledge. 

NotWy a, urn,- part, (nosco). Known. 

Novemy indecL Nine. 

Noverca, aey f. Step-mother. 

NovOy drey aviy Okimy (novus). To 
renew, change; revolutionize. 

NovtiSy ay um. New; novae rea, 

NoXy nocHsy t Night. 

Nubesy isy t Cloud. 

NvbOy 2rtf, nupaiy nuptum. To veil 
one*8 self, to marry, applied to the 
bride (u she wae covered with a 

NuduSy ay um. Naked, uncovered, 
destitute of. 

NulluSy ay um. No one, no. 151. 

Numy interrog. particle. Whether, ( 

used both in direct and in indireei 
questions. See 346, IL 1. 

Numay aCy m. Numa.iVt*ma Poin- 
piUuSy the second king of Rome, 

Numantiay otf, £ Numantia, a city 
of Spam, (201). 

Numuntlniy Srumy m. pL Numan- 
tians, the mhabltants of Numan- 
tia, (201). 

Numeny \nisy n. A god,4dty. 

K^/m&rOy drCy dvi, Otimiy (numgrus). 
To count, reckon, number. 

NumSruSy t, m. Number, quan- 

Numidtty aCy m. A Numidian, inr 
habitant of Numidia in Africa, 

NumUoTy Oris, m. Numitor, a king 
of Alba, grand&ther of Romulus 
and Remus, (164). 

I^ummuSy i, m. Money, a piece of 
money, a coin. 

^une. Now. 

yuneiipoy are, dvi, alum. To call, 

yimquam. Never. 

yttntio (or oo), are, Oviy aiumy (nun- 
tius). To announce, relate. 

NunHttSy iiy m. Message, news, mes- 

NupdaBy arum, f. pi. Marriage, 

NutriOy IrCy Ivi or ti, Wwm. To 
nourish, support. 

NutriXy IciSy f. Nurse. 

NympihOy aSy f. Nymph, spouse. 

Nysay aCy f. Nysa, a city in India, 





0, inteij. 0! 

Obf prep, with ace. On account of, 

OMUcOy ^e, ditxij ductum. To draw- 
over, overspread, cover. 
OhediOy Ire, ivi or it, Uum, To obey, 

serve ; be subject to. 
Ob-eOy ire, ivi or it, Uum. To meet ; 

die. 296. 
ObjedOf are, dvi, dtum, (objicio). 

To expose, set forth; endanger. 

832, 1. 
Objicio, ffre, jsd, jeehim, (ob, jado). 

To expose, oflfer, present 
Obledo, are, dvi, Oium. To delight, 

divert, please. 
Ob-tiffo^ are, dvi, atum. To bmd, 

oblige, put under obligation. 
OblititSy a, ttm, part (obliviscor). 

Having forgotten, forgetful. 
Oblivio, Gnis, f. (obliviscor). Foiv 

getfulness, oblivion. 
Obliviscor y oblivisciy obljtiu sum, dep. 

To forget 
Ob-ruOy ^€y ruiy rtttum. To destroy, 

ObscuruSy a, um. Obscure, hidden ; 

ObaScrOy arcy avi, cUumy (ob, sacro). 

To beseech, implore. 
Obses^ Xdis, m. and f. Hostage. 
ObddeOy ere, aSdiy sessuniy (ob, se- 

deo). To besiege, invest 
ObsidiOy GniSy f. (obsideo). Siege, 

0b-9umy obesscy obfuu To be hurt- 
ful, be injurious, to injure. 
Ob'StOy atdr€y stltiy stcUum, To op- 
pose, prevent 

ObtempercUiOy oniSy f. Submission, 

Ob-CerOy ^e, trlviy trUum, To crush, 
wear down. 

Obtineo, SrCy tinui, ieniumy (ob, 
tenco). To obtain, hold, prevail. 

ObtingOy ^re, tigiy tacluniy (ob, tan- 
go). To befall, happen to. 

0b4runc0y dre^ tSvt, dtum. To slaugh- 

Occaeeoy Are, dvi, atumy (ob, caeco). 
To darken, obscure, blind, dazzle. 

OcdoiiOy &nisy f. Opportunity, oc- 

Oceanuy U8y m. The setting of the 
heavenly bodies; setting, even- 
ing; the west 

Oe-<^tdoy h-Cy dfdiy cOnany (ob, cado). 
To fall down, fall ; to set ; to 
perish, die, be rained. 

OccidOy ^Cy duUy tUntniy (ob, caedo). 
To kill, slay. 

OccuUcy ittSy tM^Eme, adv. (oocultns). 
In secret, secretly. 

OcculhUy a, um. Secret, hidden; 
reserved, dissembling. 

OecupOy drCy dviy dlum. To occupy, 
take possession of. 

OccurrOy gre, eurri (cucurri), ctir- 
8umy (ob, curro). To meet, at- 
tack. 273,1.2. 

Oee&ntiSy i, m. Ocean. 

OctavianuSy i, m. (Caetar), Octa- 
vianus, the first Boman emperor . 
usually called Augustus after his 
victory at Actium, (213). 

0ctdvu8y a, um, (octo). Eighth. 

Octingeniiy oe, a. Eight hundred. 

OctOy indecl. Eight. 

OdogetHmmy a, um. The eightieth. 

OctoginUiy indec. (octo). Eighty. 

Oculusy i, m. Eye. 




Odiy odisscy defect. To hate; dis- 
like. 297. 

Odiumy iiy n. Hatred, enmity. 

OenotnaitSy i, m. Oenomaus, a cele- 
brated gladiator, (204). 

Offendo, ^r«, fendi, fengum. To 
ofifend, injure. 

OffensuSy a, wm, (offendo). Offend- 
ed, hostile. 

OfferOy ferrey obtiUif obl&tumy (ob, 
fero). To offer, show ; se offerre^ 
to present one's self, to offer 
one's self, sometimes as an antago- 
nist, to oppose ; expose one's self. 

Offieiumy it, n. Ofl^ce, duty, kind- 
ness, kind ofl^ce. 

Olim, adv. Formerly. 

Olympi&cuSy OlympXcus or Olymr 
piusy a, um, Olympic, (134). 

OlynihuSy i, f. Olynthus, a city of. 

Ol^nthUy drumy m. pi. The. Olyn- 
thians, (231). ^^ ^ 

Omeriy \niSy n. Omen, sign. 

OmUtOy ^rCy misiy missum, (ob, mit- 
to). To let go, omit, neglect, dis- 

Omnisy e. All, every, whole. 

Onerariay oe, f. (onus). Ship of 

OnSrOy arSy aviy ahtmy (onus). To 
burden, load, oppress. 

OmtsdtSy a, wriy (onus). Laden, full 

Oph'Oy acy f. Pains, work, labor; 
care, attention ; means. 

OplmuSy Oy um. Rich, fertile. 

Oportety impers.^ It behooves, one 
ought 299. 

OpperioTy apperlriy oppertus or op- 
perltus sumy dep. To wait for, 

Oppidantts^ a, um, (oppidum). In- 
habitant of a town, citizen. 

OppXdumy i, n. Town, city. 

OpportiinitaSy OiiSy f. (opportQnus). 
Opportunity, fitness. 

OpportunuSy a, um. Suitable, fit. 

Oppr'imx>y ^rCy pressiy pressumy (ob, 
premo). To put down, defeat, 
overcome ; suppress ; oppress. 

OppuffnOy are, aviy &tumy (ob, pug- 
no). To attack, storm, take by 

(Ops)y opisy f., nom. sing, not used. 
Power, resources, wealth, force, 

OptabXliSy Cy (opto). Wished for, 

OptlmuSy a, wm, superi (bonus). 
Best, most excellent. 

PptiOy 6niSy f. Choice, option. 

OptOy are, aviy aium. To wish, de» 
sire; ask. 

OpiUenSy entisy or opiderUuSy a, um, 
adj. Wealthy, rich. 

OpuSy griSy n. Work. 

OpuSy nom. and accus. Need, ne- 
cessary thing, necessary* 

Oray oe, f. The shore, coast 

Oraculumj », n. Response, ora- 

Oratioy oniSy f. (oro). Oration, 
speech, language. 

Oratory oriSy m. (oro). Orator, me&. 

OrbiSy iSy m. Circle, world; orbis 
ierrarumy the world, 

OrdlnOy are, aviy atumy (ordo). To 
arrange, establish. 

OrdOy \mSy m. Row, rank, order; 
bank <u of oars ; extra crdinemy 
out of the common course. 

OresteSy «a, and oe, m. Orestes, son 




of Agamemnon anl Clytemnestra, 

Oriena, erUis, (orior). Rising; the 
morning, the east, the countries 
of the east, the Orient, (218). 

Oriffo^ tnUy f. Origin, source. 

Orior^ orlri, ortm awm, dep. To 
rise, appear, dawn. 288, 2. 

Omamentum^ t, n. Equipage, or- 
nament, jewel. 

OmOy are, dviy Otum, To adorn, 

Oro, are, dvi, Otum, To beg, ask, 

OrtuSy uSj m. (orior). A rising; 

place of lising, the east; birth; 

Os, ossisy n< Bone. 
OsciHor, drij Oku 9um. To kiss. 
OstendOy ffre, di, turn or turn. To 

Oatmtum, t, n. (ostendo). Prodigy. 
Oa/to, ae, f. Ostia, a town at the 

mouth of the Tiber, (161). 
Ostium, ii, n. Mouth, door. 
Otium, ii, n. Leisure, rest, ease, 

Ovia, i8, £ Sheep. 
Ovum, i, n. Egg. 


F. An abbreviation of Puhlius. 

Paco, are, dve, dtum (pax). To sub- 

Pactum, i, n. Bargain, contract; 
abl. pacta, way, manner. 

Padus, i, m. River Po in Italy, (55). 

Paene, adv. Almost. 

PaenXtet, Ire, paenituit, impera. It 
causes regret; paenttet me, it 
causes me to repent, I repent, am 
sorry for, regret 

Palam, adv. Openly. 

PalaHum, ii, n. Palace. 

Pallium, ii, n. Cloak, coat, gar- 

Pango, ire, pepigi, pactum. To con 
tract, ratify. 

Papirius, ii, n. See Cursor. 

Par, parts, adj. Equal, a match foi^ 
competent for. 

Paratus, a, um, (paro). Prepared, 

Parco, ire, peperei or parsiy par- 
sum. To spare. 

Parens, enUs, m. and f. Parent 

ParerUo, dre, dtfi, alum, (parens). 
To sacrifice in honor of parents 
or friends. 

Pareo, Sre, ui, 'Uum, To obey, be 
subject to. 

Pario, ire, pep&ri, parium. To 
bear, bring forth, produce, lay, 
accomplish, procure. 

Paro, are, dvi, dtum. io prepare, 

Pars, partis, f. Part, portion ; party. 

Parsimonia, ae, f. Frugality, par- 

Pardceps, parti&fpis, (pars, capio). 
Sharing, partaking, participant 

ParHm. Partly, in part ; parUm — 
partim, some— others, either — 

ParHor, iri, Uus sum, dep. To di- 
vide, share. 

Parum, comp. minus, superl. mt-^ 
nime, adv. Too little, little, not 
enough. 806. 

Parvus, a, um, 4iomp. minor, su- 
perl. minimus. Small, little, un- 

Pasco, ire, pdvi^ pastum. To feed, 




Pascor, pascij pastus sum, dep. To 

feed, graze, graze upon. 
Passer, Sris, m. Sparrow. 
Passus, «a, m. Pace ; mille passus, 

a mile. 
Pastor^ orisy m. (pasco). Shepherd. 
Patefacioy ire, feci, factumy (pateo, 

facio). To disclose, ky open, 

PiUeOy ere, ui. To lie open, be ex- 

PtUeVy iriSy jxl Father, sometimes 

PoUerntiSy a, urn, (pater). Paternal. 

PcUioTy potty passus «*m, dep. To 
permit, keep, endure. 

Patria, ae, f. Country, native 

Patrimoniumy «, n. Estate, patri- 

PatrittSy a, wm, (pater). Fatherly. 

PatruuSy iy m. Uncle by the father's 
side, paternal uncle. 

Pattci, aey a. Few. 

Pavlatimy adv. By degrees, grad- 

Paulus or PauUuSy i, m. Paulus, a 
surname in the Aemilian gens or 
tribe. Lucius Aemilius PavluSy 
the name of two Roman consuls, 
_smQ of whom fell in the battle of 
Cannae, (191) ; the other conquer- 
ed Perseus at Pydna, (198). 

Pavloy adv. (paulus). A little, by a 

PaiduSy Uy um. Little, small. «^ 

Pauper y eris. Poor, without means ; 
scanty, meagre. 

PausaniaSy oe, m. Pausanias, the 
leader of the Spartan» in the bat- 
tle of Plataea, (221). 

PaZypaciSy f. Peace. 

PeciuSy orhy n. Breast. 

Pecuniay ae, f. Money, sum of 

PecuSy oriSy n. Flock, herd, cattle. 
PedeSy Itisy m. Foot-soldier ; plur, 

Pedestevy iris, tre. Pedestrian, on 

foot, on land; pedestres copiae^ 

infantry forces. 
PeUiciOy ercy lexiy tectum. To allure, 

PelliSy M, f. Skin, hide. 
PellOy ^rCy pepuliy pulsum. To 

PelopidaSy oe, m. Pelopidas, a 

celebrated Theban general, (230). 
PeriariuSy ay um. Of or for provi- 
sions; ceUapenariay granary. 
PendeOy Sre, pependi. To hang, be 

PenetrOy dre, aviy &tum. To pen- 
PerCltus, adv. Inwardly; fully, en- 
PeTy prep, with ace. Through, by, 

Per-currOy Srey percucurri or per- 

curriy cursum. To run through, 

pass over. 
Percussor, OriSy m. Assassin, mur' 

Perdiccas or Perdiccay a£y m. Per- 

diccas, one of the most distin-. 

guished generals of Alexander the 

Great, (97). 
PerdiitiSy ay «m, (perdo). Lost, 

abandoned, desperate. 
Per-dOy ercy dXdiy dltum. To destroy, 

waste, lose. 
Per-ducOy ^r«, duxiy dudum. To 

conduct, bring to, to extend, 

build, make. 




PerenniSy e, (per, annus). Continnal, 

Per-eOf !re, m or ii, itwn. To per- 
ish. 296. 

Pei'-exiffmUy a, wm. Very small, 
very little. 

Per-fSro^ ferre^ iuli, latum. To carry 
through ; bear ; suffer. 

Perfidia, ae, t Perfidy. 

PergOj Sre^ rexi, rectum^ (per, rego). 
To go on or to, persevere. 

PertdeSy w, m. Pericles, a cele- 
brated Athenian orator and states- 
man, (222). 

PerictUosuSy a, vm, (periculum). 

Periculum^ i, n. Danger, peril 

PerlttiSf a, urn. Skilled in, skilful. 

Per^magnua^ a, um. Very great 

Per-mittOy ^re, mt«t, mismm. To 
send ; grant, permit ; permiUitury 
impers., it Is permitted. 

Per-mtUtu8y a, um. Very much, 
very many. 
^ Permutatioy 5ww, f. Exchange, 

Per-paucttSy a, um. Few, very 

Per-p%tro. cLre, Qviy atum. To finish, 

PerpetuOy adv. (perpetuus). Con- 
stantly, ever. 

Perpetuus, a, um. Perpetual, con- 

PersUy ae. or PerseSy <w, m. A Per- 
sian, (44, II. ; 126). 

Per-sequory aiquiy secvius «t*m, dep. 
To follow, pursue, carry on, pro- 

Perseusy t, or PerseSy ««, m. Per- 
seus or Perses, the last king of 
Macedonia, (198). 

PeraeverOy arey aviy Oium. To per 
severe, persist 

PersXcuSy a, wn. Persian, (60, 18). 

PersdnOy aCy f. Part, character, 

Perapicioy ^r«, spexiy ttpedumy (per, 
specio). To perceive. 

Per-ttringOy ^rc, gtrinxiy stridum. 
To graze, wound slightly. 

Per-auadeOy drey suSniy suSsitm, To 

Per4erre0y Ire, ui, ttum. To terrify 

PertineOy erCy tinuiy (per, teneo). To 
pertain to, tend. 

Per-iurbOy arey aviy atum. To dis- 
turb, throw into confusion, route, 

Per-iUiliSy e. Very useful 

Per-veniOy Ire, veniy ventum. To 
reach, come to. 

Perversey adv. Perversely, wrongly. 

PeSy p^diSy m. Foot. 

PetOy ^Ttf, Ivi or u, ttum. To seek, 
ask ; aim at ; attack. 

PhaSthony ontiSy m. Fhaethon, fa- 
bled son of Helios the sun, (Yl). 

PhalSraey arumy t pi. Trappings, 
ornaments for horses. 

Pkcderumy «, n. Phalerum, the 
oldest harbor of Athens ; often 
called Phalericus portus. 

PhanUiceSy w, m. Phamaces, son 
ofMithridates, (206). 

PharsaluSy t, t Pharsalus, a city in 
Thessaly, where Pompey was de- 
feated by Caesar, (210). The dis^ 
trict was called Pharsalia. 

Philippiy orumy m. pi. Philippi, a 
city in Macedonia, (218). 

PhilippuSy iy m. Philip, the name 
of several Macedonian kings, the 




most celebrated of whom was the 

father of Alexander the Great, 

(140, 230). 
Fhilosophia, ae, f. Philosophy. 
FhildsSjihw, iy m. Philosopher. 
Fhi/le, e», f. Ph jle, a castle in At- 
tica, (228). 
Ficenum^ «, n. Picenum, a district 

in the eastern part of Italy. 
FicenWy a, um, {JHcenum), Of or 

belonging to Picenum,. Picene, 

(23, 19). 
yjPr^tos, ati8, f. Dutiful conduct, 

sense of duty; affection; loyalty; 

Fiffetj erCy piffuit or pigXtum eat, im- 

pers. It irks, grieves, displeases. 

FingOy ^rc, pinxi, piftum. To paint, 

Firaeus, or Firaeew, i, m. The 

Piraeus, the celebrated port of 

Athens, (228). . 
Firaia, ae, m. IMrate. 
Fiscia, f «, m. A fish. 
' FiiUy i, m. See MeUiUua Fvus, 

FlaceOf ere^ «i, ttum. To please, be 

pleasing to; be determined. 
PiaciduSj a, um, (placeo). Qmet, 

Ftaepf are, dvi, Oinm, To quiet, 

soothe, calm, appease. 
Flancm, t, m. Plancus, a Roman 

name, (42, 9). 
Flataeae, arum, t pi. Plataea, a 

city in Boeotia, (221). 
Flataeemea, turn, m. pL The Pla- 

taeans, the inhabitants of Plataea, 

yP/oA), Onia, m. Plato, one of the 

most celebrated Grecian philoso- 

phers, disciple of Socrates, and m- 
stnictor of Aristotle, (81). 

Fkha, bia, f. Common people, 

Flemta, a, um. Full, possessed of, 
rich in. 

Fterumque, adv. (plerusque). Com-i 
monly, generally, frequently. 

Fleruaque, &que, umque. Most, 

Flurimua, See MuUua, 

Flua, adv. More. 

Flua, uria, n. adj. More, pi. many, 
several. See MuUua, 

Foeuhtm, t, n. Cup. 
i(Fodma, &H8, n. Poem. 

Foena, ae, f. Punishment 

Foeniu, i, m. A Carthaginian, (185). 

Foita, ae, in. Poet. 

FoUiceor, iri, ttt« aum, dep. To 
promise, offer. 

FoUux, Uda, m. Pollux, a cele- 
brated pugilist, brother of Caator, 
(63, 9). According to some au- 
thorities, he was the son of Tyn- 
darus, but according to others, 
he was the son of Jupiter. ' See 

Fdyer&tea, ia, m. Polycrates, a ce- 
lebrated tyrant of Samos, (24, 12). 

Fompa, ae, f. Pomp, public proces- 
sion, procession. 

Fompeiua, ft, m. Pompey, the name 
of a Roman gens. Cnaeua Fom- 
peiua, a Roman consul and a dis- 
tinguished conunander, defeated 
by Caesar at Pharsalia, (206). 
Qidntua Fampeiua, also consul and 
commander, defeated in several 
engagements by the Numantines, 
(201). \ 

FompeiantUy a, um, adj. (^mpeius). 




Pompeian, ef or belonging to Pom- 
Pey, (211). 

PompilitUf it, m. See I^uma, 
\Pondus, h-ut, n. Weight. 

Pono, Sre, posUi, postium. To place, 
build, pitch. 

FofUf PanHa, m. Bridge. 

PaniiWj tV , m. Pontius, a Boman 
name. Pon/tus T^j^ZeslniM, a gen- 
eral of the Samnites, who con- 
quered the Bomans at the Caudine 
Forks, (179). 

PontuSy t, m. Pontus, a province in 
Asia Minor, south of the Black 

^opiUaHOy Unis, f. (popillo). Pillag- 
ing, booty ; people, population. 

Populoy are, avi, aturoy (popiilus). 
To depopulate, devastate, pillage ; 
popfdor, dep.=populo. 

PopuluSy t, m. People, nation, 

PorrtffOy Srty rexiy rectum. To ex- 
tend, stretch. 

PorsSha, ae, m. Porsena, a king of 
Etruria in Italy, (171). 

Porta^ <w, f. Gate. 

Portendo, ^r«, tendi, ientum. To 

Portio, dnia, f. Portion, share. 

Portm, wa, m. Port, harbor. 

Posco, ^rc, poposd. To demand, 

\Po88e88iOy dnis, f. (possideo). Pos- 

PostideOf dre, aedi, seasum. To pos- 

Po88f*my poase, potui, irreg. To be 
able. 289. 

Poatj adv., and prep, with aco. Af- 
terwards, after, behind, since. 

Poat^Oj adv. Afterwards. 

Poaterita8y diia, f. (postSrus). Poek 

PoatSritSy «, um; comp. poaiertOTj 
superl. poatrdmtUf poattimva. Fol- 
lowing, ensumg; poatSri^ pos- 
terity, descendants ; poatremo, ad 
poatremuniy at last 163, 3. 

Poat-ferOy ferret To place after, 
esteem less; sacrifice. 

Poat-pOtWy ifre, poaui, poatium. To 
put after, esteem less, postpone ; 
disregard, neglect 

Poat-quam, otpoat quamy conj. Af- 
ter, after that 

PoatremOy adv. (postrSmus). At last, 

PoatretmUy a, um. The last; ad 
poatremumy at last, finally. See 

PoatridiCy adv. On the following day. 

PoatulOy drCy aviy aium. To demand. 

Poatumiuay t7, m. Postumius, the 
name of a Roman gens or clan. 
Atdtu PaatumitUy a Boman in 
whose consulship the first Punic 
war was brought to a close, (89, 
188). Spuritts Poatumiuay a Bo- 
man consul, defeated by the Sam- 
nites at the Caudine Forks, (179). 

Potenay entiay (possum). Able, pow- 

PotenttOy aCy f. Might, force, power, 

^Poteataay dHa, f. (potens). Power. 

Potior y potiriy potiiua ««m, dep. To 
obtain, get possession of. 

Poiiay ay comp. potior, superL potia- 
aXmua, Able, capable, possible. 

Potiu8y potia^mey adv. (potis); po- 
sitive not used. Bather than. 

Praey prep, with abl. Before, for, 
on account of, in comparison with. 



Tro/fheo^ ere^ ui, Hum, To show, 

PrcM-cedOy ^re, censi^ ceasum. To pre- 
cede, surpass, outstrip. 
K Praeceptor^ drw, m. (praecipio). Pre- 
ceptor, commander, teacher. 

Praeceptum^ t, n. (praecipio). Max- 
im, rule, precept. 

Praenpio^ irCj cepiy cepbam (prae, 
capio). To admonish, advise, 

PraedpJUum^ ii, n. Precipice. 

Praecipito^ dre^ avi, atum. To 
throw down, precipitate. 

Priiedptma^ a, um. Remarkable, 
prominent, special 

Praeclare^ «w, isaimej adv. (precU- 
rus). Excellently, nobly. 

Prae-claruSy a, urn. Excellent, no- 
ble, distinguished, illustrious. 

PrcieeludOy Sre^ closi, clusum, (prae, 
claudo). To hinder, preclude, 
• PraecOj oniSy m. Herald, crier. 

Praeda, ae, f. Prey, booty. 

Prae-dico, ^e, dixi, dictum. To pre- 
dict, forewarn. 

Praedictum^ t, n. (praedico). Predic- 
tion, warning. 

Praeditus, a, um. Endued with, 
possessed of. 

PraedoTy driy Otus fiww, (praeda). 
To plunder. 

Prae-fdriy defective. To predict, 
prophesy ; say. 297, 11. 3. 

PraefechiSy t, m. Commander, pre- 

Prae-f^Oy ferrey tUli, latum. To pre- 
fer, choose ; carry or bear before. 

PraeficiOy ^re, feci, fechmiy (prae, 
facio). To place over, put in 

Prae-legOy ^re, ligiy tectum. To read 
to another, to read aloud, to 

Prae-miUOy ^re, ml«, missum. To 
send forward, send in advance. 

Praemiumy ti, n. Reward, premium. 

PraenestCy w, n. Praeneste, a town 
in Latium, (182). 

Prae-ponOy ere, posuiy poaXtum, TO 
place over, intrust with. 

PraesenSy enHs, Present ; praesentiay 
orumy n. pi present things, the 

Praesentiay aCy f. (praesens). Pres- 

PraeseSy tdisy adj. Presiding, ruling, 
chief; siibs, head, chief, ruler, 

Praesidiumy iiy n. Guard, garrison. 

PraestabiliSy e. Preeminent, distin- 
guished, excellent. 

PratstaiUy antiSy (praesto). Excel- 
lent, eminent 

Praedantiay aCy f. Superiority, pre- 

PraestOy drCy sttHy itumy (prae, sto). 
To surpass, be superior to; fur- 
nish, do, pay, render (as service) ; 
evince, show, give. 

Prae-4iumy esse, fm. To preside 
over, conmiand. 

Prae4end0y ^re, iendiy terUum. To 
pretend, allege. 

PraeteTy prep, with ace. Except, 

Praeter-eay adv. Besides, moreover. 

Praeter-eOy IrCy Ivi or «', ttwm. To 
pass by, omit 295. 

PraetentuSy a, wm, (praetereo). Gone 
by, past ; praeterXtay orumy n. pL 
the past 

Praeter-vShoTy vShiy vedm sum^ dep. 




To be bome over or by ; to drive 

or Bail by ; to pass by. 
Praetoriui^ a, wn, (praetor). Prae- 
torian, belonging to a praetor or 

general ; praetoriuSy subs, one who 

has been praetor. 
Prae-vid^Oy grc, vldi, visum. To 

Pratuniy t, n. Meadow, pasture. 
PravitSy a, tun. Depraved, bad. 
PreceSy um, f. pi. dot, ace, and abl, 

sing, also occur. Prayers, en- 
PrecoTy arty dlus mm. To beseech, 

PremOy ^re, pressiy pressum. To 

press, urge. 
PreHurriy iiy n. Price, worth. 
Pridiey adv. On the day before. 
PrimOy primumy adv. (primus). At 

first, first; qttamprimumyBASOovi 

as possible. 
PrirmtSy a, «m, superL (prior). First. 

PrineepSy ipiSy m. Prince, ruler; 

chief man. 
PHncipaiiiSy ws, m. Sovereignty, 

imperial power. 
Prindpiuniy iiy n. Beginning. 
Pri^Ty us. Former, previous. 166. 
PrisctiSy iy m. Prisons, the surname 

of Lucitta TarquimuSy the fifth 

king of Rome, (162). 
PristXnuSy a, um. Ancient, pristine. 
PriuSy adv. Before, first; pritis- 

quam or prim quaniy before that, 

PrivatuSy a, um. Private, personal, 

sid>8, a private citizen. 
Proy prep, with abL Before, in 

front of; for, in behalf of, instead 

of, as ; pro hostey as an enemy. 

ProbaHOy dniSy f. Approbation, 

ProbahUy a, «m, (probo). Tried, 

tested, proved, approved. 
ProhXUUy atiSy f. (probus). Honesty, 

probity, integrity. 
Proboy arCy aviy atumy (probus). To 

prove, show ; approve. 
ProbuSy Gy um. Upright, honest. 
ProcaSy aey m. Procas, a Roman 

name. SUyius Procaty a king of 

Alba, (161). 
Pro^edoy irCy cessiy ceasum. To step 

forth, to advance, proceed, come 

on, succeed. 
ProcUluSy iy m. Procillus, a young 

man sent by Caesar to Ariovistus, 

Pro-clamOy are, art, atum. To cry 

out, proclaim. 
Pro-consuly uliSy m. Proconsul, one 

with the authority of consul. 
Proetdy adv. At a distance, far 

Pro-curoy arc, dviy (Uum, To attend 

to, have the care o£ 
Pro-currOy ^r«, curri (cucurri), cur _ 

turn. To run forth, project. 
ProdiHoy oniSy f. (prodo). Treach- 
ery, treason. 
Proditory 5m, m. (prodo). Traitor. 
Pro-doy &ey didiy ditum. To disclose, 

Pro-ducOy Srey duxiy dudum. To 

lead forth, produce. 
Proeliumy iiy n. Battle, conflict. 
ProfedOy adv. Indeed, truly. 
Proficiscory profidaciy profectus sum. 

To depart, set out, go. 
Profligoy arc, dviy dtimiy (pro, fligoX 

To overthrow, ruin. 
Pro-fundoy ^rc, fudiy fusum. To 




pour out, spend; throw away, 

layish, dissipate. 
Proffredior, grSdi^ greasus suttl, dep. 

(pro, gradior). To proceed, ad- 

Prohibeo^ ere, «i, t^m, (pro, habeo). 

To prohibit, prevent 
Promissus^ a, wm, (promitto). Grow- 
ing long, long. 
Pro-mitio, ^r«, miaij misaum. To 

send forth, promise. 
PromonUMrium^ it, n. Promontory. 
Promptua, a, urn. Prompt, ready. 
Pr<HiufUiOy arCy five, cUwn, To pub- 
lish, proclaim, announce; recite, 
declaim ; act, tell, narrate. 
Props ffOy dre^ avi, dtum. To prop- 
agate; prolong. 
PropCy adv., and prep, with ace. 

Near, nearly, near to, close by, 

Propero, are^ dvi, dtum. To hasten. 
PropioTj ins. Nearer. See 166. 
Propius, adv. Nearer. 
Pro-ponOf ^6, posuij positum» To 

set forth, state, propose. 
PropriuSy Oy um. Peculiar, proper, 

one's own, characteristic of. 
Propter, prep, with ace. For, on 

account of. 
Propter-ea, adv. Therefore, on that 

Pro-puisOy are, «»i, dtum. To repel, 

ward off. 
Proray ae, f. Prow, forepart of a 

ProrsttSy adv. Uninterruptedly, 

straight on, absolutely. 
Pro-rumpOy SrCy rupiy rupium. To 

rush or break forth. • . 
Proscrlboy ^r«, scripsiy Bcriptum, To 

proscribe, outlaw. 

Pros^iOy trCy %i or m, (pro, ualio). 
To leap up, spring forth. 

ProspSrey tt«, rlmCy adv. (prosperus). 
Happily, prosperously. 

Prosp&rusy a, ura. Favorable, for- 
tunate, prosperous. 

ProspieiOy h'Cy spexiy spedtuuy (pro, 
spedo). To look forward, look, 
see; look out for, take care of, 
provide for ; discern, descry. 

Prosier7U)y ^e, strdviy strdtumy (pro, 
stemo). To prostrate, overthrow. 

Pro-8vmy prodessCy profui. To pro- 
fit, avail, be useful. 

ProCinuSy adv. Directly, imme- 
diately after. 

Pro-videOy erCy vidiy visum. To pro- 
vide, be on one's guard. 

ProviduSy a, wm, (provideo). Fore- 
seeing, prudent, cautious, provi- 

ProvinciOy (w, f. Province. 

ProvocatiOy oniSy f. (provSco). Chal- 
lenge, appeal 

ProvdcOy drey dviy dtum. To chal- 

, lenge, appeal 

ProximtUy a, um. Nearest, next 

PrudenSy entiB. Prudent, wise, learn- 
ed, skilled. 

PrudentiUy (w, f. (prudons). Pru- 

PU>lemaeuSy », m. Ptolemy, the 
name of several kings of Egypt, 

Publicdlay aey m. Publicola, the 
surname of Valerius, one of the 
first consuls at Rome, (169). 

PubhetiSy a, um. Public. 

Publiusy iiy m. Publius, a Roman 
name; as, Publius Rutilius Rufua, 




Fudet^ ere, puduity pudXium est, im- 
pers. It shames; pudet me, it 
shames me, I am ashamed. 

Pudor, orisy m. Regard, respect, 
modesty, awe, shame. 

PueUa, ae, i. Girh 

Puer, ^W, m. Boy. 

i^uerllisy «, (puer). Boyish, youth- 

PueriHa, ae, f. (puer). Boyhood. 

PugiOy onis, m. Dagger, poniard. 

Fugna, oe, £ Battle. 

Pagru), are, avi, atum. To fight. 

JPulcheTy chra, chrvm, BeautifaL 

PulviUuSj ij m. Pulvillus. -Sbra- 
tius FulviUus, a Roman consul in 
the first year after the banishment 

IhuniliOj Gnis, m. and f. Dwarf, 

PunicuSy o, ttwi, (Poeni). Punic, 
Carthaginian, belongmg to Car- 
thage or the Carthagmians. (196). 

Punio^ ire, Ivi, Uum, To punish. 

PupiUwty i, m. Pupil. 

PuppiSy is f. The stem, the hinder 
part of a ship. 

PusiUtiSy a, urn. Small, weak ; little. 

Puto, are, dvi, aium. To think, 
imagine, esteem. 

Pydna, ae, f. Pydna, a town of 
Macedonia, celebrated for the 
victory of Paulus oyer Perseus, 

Pyrenaeua, t, m. The Pyrenees, a 
range of mountains between 
France and Spain, (190). 

PyrrkuSy e, m. Pyrrhus, a king of 
Epuns, (183). 

pi/thafforas, ae, m. Pythagoras,^ a 
celebrated philosopher of Samoa, 

Ptfthia, (My £ Pythia, the priestess 
of ApoUo, at Delphi, {211), 

Q, or Qu, An abbreviation of 

QuadrageteUnuSy a, um, (quadragfn 
ta). Fortieth. 

Quadragintay indecl. Forty. 

QttadrlgOy ae, f. Chariot, four-horse 

QuadringenteaimtiSy a, vm, (quad- 
ringenti). The four hundredth. 

Quadringentiy aCy a. Four hun- 

Quaero or qiuiesOy irCy qitaestvi, 
guoMUum, To seek, inquire, ask, 
implore. Qiiaerttury impers. It 
is asked, the question is asked. 

QucdiSye. What, what sort; tcdis 
— gualiSy such — as. 

Quaniy adv. and conj. How; as, 
than, after: quam muUiy how 
many; vnih superl. intensive, 
quam maxXmuSy as great as possi- 

Qaamrdiuy adv. How long, as long 

QvmnrqiMmy conj. Although, 

Q^amrm8, However, however much, 

Quanimy a, urn. How great, how 
much ; tardus — quanhiSy so great 
as ; quantOy by how much, as. 

Quorre, Wherefore, whereby. 

QuartuSy Oy um. Fourth. 

Quad. As if. 

Quatemi, me, a, distributive. Four 
by four, four at a time, four each 
174, 2. 


jLatin-english vocabulary. 


Quaiio, ^e, qttassiy qucusswn. To 

QiAotriduum^ f, n. (quattuor, dies). 

Space of four days, four days. 
QuaUuorj indecL Four. 
QuaUuordScim^ indecL (quattuor, 

decern). Fourteen. 
iite, appended to another word. 

And. 687, 1. 3. 
Quem-ad-mddum^ adv. In what man- 
ner, how, as. 
QuerSla, ae^ f. (queror). Complamt. 
QueroVy querij gttestus surriy dep. To 

Quiy quae^ quody reL and interrog. 

Who, which, what 
Quia, conj. Because. 
Quicimqite (or eumque) qtuieeunr 

qucy quodcunque, "Whoever, 

Qavdaniy quaedam, quoddam or 

quiddam. A certsun one, certam. 
Quidem, Indeed. 
Qmes, etisy f. Rest, quiet 
QuieseOy Sre, quiSviy quiituniy (quies). 

To rest, repose, keep quiet 
QuietuSy a, um, (quiesco). Quiet, at 

Qui-libety quaetfbety quodlfhet, indef. 

pron. Any one, any. 
Quin. That not, but that, that 
QuinefmBy u, m. Qmnctius. T^tus 

QuincHiUy a Roman general at 

the time the city was threatened 

by the Gauls, 821 B. C. (Ill), 

Tiiua QuineHtis Flaminiu8 gained 

the victory at Cynoscephalae, 

Quind^cimy indecl. Fifteen. 
QuingerUeaXmuSy a, urn, (quingenti). 

The five hundreth. 
Quingentiy ae, a. Five hundred. 

QuinquagesXmttSy a, um, (quinqua* 

ginta). Fiftieth. 
Quinqitaffiwtay indecl. Fifty. 
Quinquey indecl. Five. 
Quinquenniumy ti, n. Five yeara, 

space of five years. 
QuifUuSy a, 14771. Fifth. 
QuifituSy t, m. Quintus, a common 

Roman name; as, QuirUus Jfu- 

citis Scaevolay (172). 
Quippey conj. Indeed. 
QuiSy quaCy quid? interrog. pron. 

Who, which, what ? 
QuiSy quaCy quidy indef. pron. Some 

one, any one. 190, 1. 
Quisnam or qmnam, quaenamy 

quodnam or qtddnam. Who, 

which, what 
Quispiamy quaepiwriy quodpktmy 

and subs, qutdpiam or quippianiy 

indef. pron. Any one, any 

body, any ; some one, some thing, 

Quis-quamy quaequamy qmdqaamov 

quicquam. Any, any one. 
Q^i»^q^Aey quaeque, quodque or quid- 

que. Every, every one, whoever, 

whatever; toith auperLy iniensivey 

primo quoque tempdrey on the 

very first opportunity. 
Quia-quiSy quaequaCy quidquid or 

quicquid. Whoever, whatever. 
Quo, Where^ whither, that, in 

order that. 
Qu<Hid, Till, until, aa long as, aa 

far as. 
Quody coiy. That, because. 
QuominuSy (quo, minus). That not, 

Quomddoy adv. (quo, modo). HoW| 

by what means. 
Quondamy adv. Formerly. 




Quoque, Also, too. 

Qfwt, acy. pi indec. How many, as 

many, as ; all 
Quoi^nnis. Every year, yearly. 
Quotidie. Daily, every day. 
QuotuSy a, tan. Of what number, 

how many ; what, often applied to 

the hour of the day, 
Quum or cum. When, since ; 

though ; qmtm — fwm, not only — 

but also, both — ^and; rarefy either 

Rabies, H, f. Madness, rage. 

Badizy {CM, f. Root, foot, base^ aa 
of a mountain, 

JRamue, t, m. Branch. 

Jiaplnoy oe, f. Rapine, plunder. 

HapiOj Sre, rapui^ raptum. To rob, 
carry ofil 

Raptor, CrUy m. (rapio). Robber, 

Raro, adv. (rams). Rarely, seldom. 

Rarus, a, um. Rare, uncommon. 

Ratio, onis, f. A calculating, think- 
ing ; reason, understanding ; plan, 
method, kind. 

Ratis, is, f. Rail. 

Re-hello, are, avi, otum. To rebel 

Re^edo, ^e, cessi, cesstim. To with- 
draw, recede, retire,. 

Reeens, entis. Recent, fresh, young, 

Recipio, gre, cepi, eeptum, (re, capio). 
To receive, recover, resume; se 
reeipifre, to betake one^s self, 

Reclto, are, avi, atum, (re, cito). 
To repeat, recite. 

Recognosco, ifre, n6vi, nttum, (re, 
cognosce). To recognize. 

Recorddtio, dnie, f. (recorder). Re- 
collection, remembrance. 

Reeordor, ari, Ottts sum, dep* To 

Rede, ius, issime, adv. (rectus). 

Rector, oris, m. (r^o). Director, 

Rectum, i, n. (rectus). Right. 

Rectus, a, um^ (i^o). Straight, 
right, correct 

Recup&ro, are, avi, Otum. To re- 

Redrdo, ere, dldi, dUum, To re- 
store, return; make; render, re- 
peat, recite, give up, resign ; as- 

Red-eo, Ire, ivi or ii, Itum, To^go 
back, return. 296. 

Redfffo, gre, iffi, actum, (red, ago). 
To force, reduce, compel. 

Redimo, iSre, imi, emptum, (red, 
emo). To ransoq[L 

RedUus, us, m. (redeo). Return, 

Re-dueo, Sre, duxi, duetum. To lead 
back, reduce. 

Red-undo, Ore, avi^ Otum. To over- 
flow ; to abound. 

Re-ferdo, Ire, fersi, fertum, (re, far- 
cio). To fill, stujff, cram. 

Ref^o, ferre, tiUi, latum, (re- 
fero). To bring back, requite, 
return, render, place among, re- 
fer; refert, imps, it concerns, 

Refertus, a, um, part (refercio). 

Refido, fy'C, fSci, fectum, (re, facio). 
To repur, restore ; recover. 

Refluo, ^re,f.u3ti, Jluxum, (re, fluo^ 
To flow back. 




lU-fuffio, h-e.fugiyfugUttm, To re- 
Hegtna^ ae, f. Queen. 
Begio^ onw, f. Region, country. 
lUffi^ta, a, Mm, (rex). Royal 
BegnOj arCy dvi, atum, (regnum). 

To reign, rule. 
Regnum, t, n. (rex). Kingdom, 

soverdgnty, government. 
Rego, Sre, rm, rectum. To direct, 

rule, manage. 
Regredwr, gredij gressus mm, dep. 

(re, gradior). To return. 
iZ^iite, ae, f. (rego). Rule, pattern, 

Regulus, t, m. Regulus. Marcm 

AHlius Regulua, a distinguished 

Roman consul taken prisoner by 

the Cartha^nians in the first 

Punic war, (186). 
Rdigio, onis, f. Religion, obligation. 
Re-linquo, ire, liqui, lictum. To 

leave, desert 
Reliquiae^ drum, f. pi. Remnant, 

those who escaped. 
Rdiquua, a, um. The rest, remwn- 

ing, the other. Rdiqwum eat, it is 

left, it remains. 
R&^maneo, ire, mand, mantum. To 

Remedium, ii, n. Remedy. 
Reminiscor, ci, dep. To remem- 
RmmUo, ^e, mUi, mitgum. To 

send back. 
Re-moveo, ere, mdvi, mGtum, To 

take away, remove. 
Remus, i, m. Oar. 
Remus, i, m. Remus, the brother 

of Romulus, (162). 
Ren&vo, are, Avi, aiwn, (re, novo). 

To renew. 

Renuntio, are, avi, otum. To re- 
port, announce. 

Rep&ro, are, Ovi, Otum, (re, paro), 
To renew, repair. 

Re-peUo, Sre, puU, ptdsum. To ro- 
pel, -drive back. 

Repenie, adv. Suddenly. 

Repentlnus, a, um. Unexpected, 

Reperio, ire, pM, pertum, (re, pa- 
rio). To find. 

Re-pleo, ere, evi. Hum, To fill, fill 

Re-pGno, gre, posui^ poslium. To re- 
place, restore, lay up. 

Re-porto, are, avi, Otum. To gain, 
bear off. 

Reprehendo, h-e, prehendi, prehen- 
sum, (re, prehendo). To blame, 

Repudio, are, avi, Otum, To reject, 

Re-pugno, are, avi, Otum. To resist 

Re-quiro, ire, quisHvi or ii, quisUum 
(re, quaero). To seek, demand, 

Res, rei, f. Thing; affair; state; 
deed, reality, battle; res gestae, 
exploits ; respubtica, republic. 

Re-scr^, &re, seripsi, scriptum. To 
write back, reply m writing. 

Resideo, ire, sidi, (re, sedeo). To 
sit, remain, sit down. 

Resisto^ (^e, stUi, stitum. To op- 
pose, resist 

Respectus, us, m. (respicio). Respect, 

Respicio, ire, spexi, spectum, (re, spe 
cio). To look back; regard, re- 

Re-spondeo, ere, spondi, sponsum, 
I To reply. 




Responsum^ i. n. (respondeo). An- 
swer, response. 
Respvhlica^ rei pfubllcae, or respuh- 

hca, reipublicae, f. Republic. 

He-spuoy ^re, spuL To cast out, eject ; 

reject, refuse, dislike. 
EeatUuOy ere^ stituiy stUutuniy (re, 

statuo). To restore. 
He-tardoy dre^ dvi, otum. To detain, 

retard, check. 
ItetineOy ere, tinuiy tenhmiy (re, 

teneo). To retain^ 
ReitSy t, m. Criminal, defendant. 
Reverentiay ae, f. Reverence. 
Be-veriOy Sre, verH, versum^ rever- 

toTy dep. To come back, return. 
Ee-vdcOy arCy dvi, Otum, To recalL 
Bex, regUy m. King. 
lUieay a€y f. Rhea. Rhea SUviay 

the daughter of Numitor and the 

mother of Romulus and Remus, 

HhenuSy t, m. The river Rhine, 

JRhod&nuSy i, m. The river Rhone, 
in Gaul, (208). 

KhadiuSy a, umy (Rhodos, ihe island 
of Rhodes), Rhodian, of or be- 
lon^ng to Rhodes. Rhodvus, U, 
m. A Rhodian, (143). 

RideOy ersy sty sum. To laugh, to 
laugh at. 

Ripay aCy f. Bank, aaofa river. 

RUey adv. Rightly, in due form. 

Robury driSy n. Strength. 

RobustuSy a, Km, (robur). Robust, 

RogoHOy dniSy f. (rogo). An asking, 
question ; entreaty, request 

BogOy are^ clviy otum. To ask, ques- 

Romay a^y C Rome, (27). 

RomdnuSy a^ umy a<^. (Roma). Ro 
man ; subs. RomdnuSy t, m. a Ro 
man, (26). 

RomulttSy t, m. Romulus, the foun- 
der of Rome, (154). 

Rosciusy iiy m. Roscius-, a Roman 
name. Lucius RosciuSy a cele- 
brated tribune of the people and 
friend of Cicero, (51). 

RotunduSy ay um. Round, sphe- 

RufuSy iy m. Rufus, a Roman sur- 
name; as, PubliusRutilius Rufus, 

RultMy aCy f. Ruin, fall. 

RuUianuSy i. m. Rullianus, a Ro- 
man name. Quinius Fabius Rul- 
lianuSy master of the cavalry {met' 
gister equttum) under the dicta- 
tor Papirius Cursory (178). 

RumpOy ^e, rupiy ruptum^ To 

RuOy grCy ruiy ruUtum or rutmn. To 
run, rush forth. 

RupeSy is, t Rock, cliff. 

Rurms (or um)y adv. Back, agun. 

Rusy rurisy n. Country, as opposed 
to city. 

RiisHeuSy iy m. Countryman, farm- 
er, peasant, husbandman. 

RuHliuSy iiy m. Rutalius, a Roman 
name. PvMius RuHHus Rufus, 
a Roman consul, slain in the So^ 
cial war, (139). 


8, An abbreviation for JSextuSy Hp 

for Spurius, 
Sabiniy drum, m. pL The Sabines, a 

people of Italy, bordering upon 

Latium, (157). 




Sacer^ sacra^ sacrum. Sacred. 

Sacerdos^ dtis, m. and f. (sacer). 
Priest, priestess. 

Saciificium^ it, n. Sacrifice. 

8acrOy dre^ dviy cUum, (sacer). To 

Sacrum^ t, n. Sacred rite or insti- 
tution; sacrifice. 

Saepe^ iuSj mimey adv. Often. 

Baevio^ Ire, Ivi or ti, Uum, To rage, 
be cruel. 

8ag<uMa9y otiSy f. Sagacity, acute- 
ness, shrewdness. 

SoffoXy dcis. Acute, sagacious. 

SagUtay acy f. Arrow. 

SagurUumy i, n. Saguntum, a town 
in Spain, on the Mediterranean, 

SagurUiniy drurriy m. pi. The Sa- 
guntines, citizens of Saguntum, 

Sal&rniSy is or IniSy f. (ace Salami- 
na)y or Salaminay aCy f. The 
island of Salamis, off the coast of 
Attica, (217). 

SalubeTy bria, bre, (salus). Health- 
ful, salubrious. 

Salnsy uiiSy f. Safety; Solus per- 
sonified, the Roman goddess. So- 

lU8y (20, 7). 

SalutSriSy e, (salus). Healthful, 

SalutOy drey dviy dtw/iy (salus). To 

Salvey def. verb. Hail. See 297, HI. 1. 
SalvuSy ay um. Safe, unhurt 
SamniteSy titm, m. pi. The Sam- 

nites, the inhabitants of Samnium, 

in Italy, (178). 
6amu8 or SamoSy t, f. The island 

Saraos, on the coast of Asia 


SandCy etM, issimCy (sanctus, aaeredy 
purejy adv. Chastely, purely, 

SanguiSy XniSy m. Blood. 

SanrdOy oniSy m. Sannio, a proper 
name, (35). 

SapienSy e^iHa, Wise ; subs, a wise 

SapienteVy iu3y issimey adv. (sapiens). 

Sapientiay ae, f. (sapiens). Wisdom. 

SapiOy SrCy Ivi or m. To taste ; to 
have sense, to know, understand, 
be wise. 

SardeSy mm, f. Sardis, the ancient 
capital of Lydia. 

SarcUniay aCy f. The island of Sar- 
dinia, west of Italy, (188). 

SateUeSy tHSy m. and f. Lifeguard, 

SatiOy drCy dviy uium. To fill, sa- 
tisfy, content. 

SatiSy adv., adj., subs. Enough, suf- 
ficient, sufficiently; satis haberCy 
to have enough, be content 

Saturniay oe, f. Satumia, the town 
and citadel built by Saturn, (148). 

SaturnuSy t, m. Saturn, the most 
ancient king of Latium, (148). 

Saudusy ay um. Wounded, injured, 
hurt, sick, intoxicated. 

Saxumy e,,n. Rock, stone. 

Scaevdhy aCy m. See MuciuSy (172), 

ScelestuSy ay wwi, (scelus). Wicked, 
criminal, infamous. 

SceluSy &isy n. Crime, wickedness. 

ScenOy aCy f. Scene, stage. 

Scholay aCy f. Leisure devoted tc 
learning ; a place of learning, a 
school ; a lecture, dissertation. 

ScienHay aCy f. (scio). Knowledge, 
science, skill, expertness. 




8cio, 9elre, teivi, seitum. To know, 

understand, have knowledge. 
. Seijno, oniSy m. Scipio, the name 
of a distinguished Roman family. 
See Africanm, (190). 

Scriba, ae^ m. (soribo). Scribe, 

ScribOy ^re, icripsij acripium. To 
write, prepare. 

Scuiumy e, n. Shield. 

Seythia^ ae, i. - Scythia, an extensive 
country in the north of Europe 
and Asia, (216). 

Seythaey arum^ m. pL The Scythi- 
ans, (215). 

Se-cedo, ire, cem, eesswn. To retire, 

Secundum, adv., and prep, with ace 
After, behind, next to ; according 
to, by the side of, along. 

Secundus, a, um» Second, favorable, 

Ski, coxy. But 

Sededm, indec. (sex, decern). &x- 

Sedeoy ere, secU, aeasum. To sit, stay. 

Sedea, is, t Seat, abode, residence. 

Seditio, dnis, t Quarrel, sedition. 

SedUionu, a, tun, (seditio). Muti- 
nous, seditious. 

Sedo, are, dvi, atum. To allay, quiet 

Seffnia, e. Slothful, inactive. 

SeffnXter, iw, issime, adv. (segnis). 

Sdeucia, ae, f. Seleuoia, a city of 
Syria on the Orontes, (206). 

Semd, adv. Once. 

SemenHs, is, f. Seed ; sowmg. 

Semiantmis, e. Half-alive, half-dead. 

Semper, adv. Always, ever. 

Sempitenms, a, um, (semper). Ever- 
lasting, imperishable. 

Sempronius, ii, m. See Orcuxhus, 

tv Senator, oris, ra. (senex). Senator. 
Sen&hts, i», m. (senex). Senate. 
Senectus, uHs, f. (senex). Old age, age. 
Senesco, ire, senm. To grow old^ 

become aged ; senescens, enlis, b& 

coming old, aged. 
Senex, senis. Old, aged. 168, 3. 
Senex, senis, m. and f. An old man, 

an aged person. 
Senihies, %an, m. pi The Senones, a 

powerful people in Gaul, (176). 
Sensim, adv. (sentio). Sensibly; 

slowly, gradually, by degree& 
Senstu, us, m. Sensation, sense, 

SentenHa, ae, f. Opmion, sentence, 

sentiment, maxim, axiom, purpose, 

Sentio, ire, sensi, sensum. To per- 
ceive, feel, experience; think, 

Sepdio, Ire, peiivi or ii, pultum. To 

Sepio, Ire, sgm, septum. To guard, 

Septem, indecl Seven. 
Septimus, a, um, (septem). Se- 
Seplingeniestmus, a, um, (septin- 

genti). The seven hundredth. 
SeptingenH, ae, a. Seven hundred. 
SeptuagesXmus, a, tim, (septuaginta). 

SeptuagifUa, indecL Seventy. 
Sqndcrum, i, n. (sepelio). Graven 

tomb, sepulchre. 
Sepultura, ae, t (sepelio). Burial 
Sequ&fd, 6rum, m. The Sequam, a 

Gallic people, dwelling . on the 

river Sequana, (28, 16). 




SequoTy sequi, seciUiu ium, dep. To 

follow, succeed. 
SergiuSy n, m. See Caiiltna, (207). 
SermOj dniSy m. Speech, discourse, 

SerOy t«», ias^me^ adv. (serus). Late, 

too late. 
Serpo, Srey serpsiy serptum. To 

spread, extend. 
SerWy a, um. Late. 
ServiliuSy n, m. Servilius, a Roman 

Servio, Ire, tvi or tt, Hum, To be a 

slave, to serve, be subject to. 
ServihUy atiSy t (servio). Servitude, 

ServitUy ti, m. Servius, a Roman 

name. Servitu Thdlms, the sixth 

king of Rome, (164). 
ServOy drCy dviy Otitm, To observe, 

keep; preserve. 
8ervu8y t, m. Slave. 
SetL Whether; seu — seUy whether 

SeZy indecl. Six. 
SexoffesimtUy a, um, (sexaginta). 

Sexagintay indecl. Sixty. 
Sexcenietlimiu9y a, urriy (sexcenti). ^x 

SexcerUiy aCy a. Six hundred. 
SextuSy a, urriy (sex). Sixth. 
52, conj. If. 
Sicy adv. Thus, so. 
SiccuSy a, um, Bcj, 
Sicilioy aey f. The island of Scily, 

8idu8y hiSy n. A group of stars, a 

8igmfi€Oy dre, dvt, atumy (signum, 

facio). To show, indicate, mean, 


Sigmtmy t, n. Mark, sign, indica- 
tion, standard. 

Sileniiumy u, n. Silence, stillness, 
quiet, repose. 

JSileOy erCy ui To be silent, still, 
quiet ; to pass over in silence, not 
to speak of. 

Silviay aey f. See JRheay (162). 

J^JviuSy iiy m. Silvius, the name of 
several kings of Alba, the first of 
whom was the son of Aeneas, 
(160, 161). 

SimtliSy e, Sunilar, like. 16S, 2. 

Simitttery iuSy limey adv. (simHis). 
In like manner, similarly, in a 
sunilar way. 805, 2. 

SmumXdeSy t9, m. Simonides, a cele- 
brated lyric poet of Cea, (132). 

Simuly adv. At the same time. 

JSimulaHoy onisy f. An assumed ap- 
pearance, pretence, sunulation, de- 
ceit, hypocrisy. 

Silly conj. But i£ 

SinCy prep, with abl Without. 

SingtUdriSy e. Single, singular, re- 

Singuhuy a, um. Single, one by one. 

SinisteTy tray irum. Left, on the 

SinOy ifrCy sivi, siium. To permit ; 
allow ; eiiWy put, placed, situated. 

Sinu8y U8y m. Bosom, bay. 

Si-quis or eiqui, siqtMy tiqmd or si- 
qitody indef. pron. If any, if any 

SUiSy i8y t Thirst, desbe. 

SobrvuSy tty um. Sober, temperate, 
moderate, reasonable. 

SoceTy ^riy m. Father-in-law. 

Socialiey e, (sodus). Social, friendly. 

SociStaSy oHsy f. (socius). League, 
alliance, partnership, society. 




Sociiu, iif m. Ally, confederate. 

Socr&ieSy m, m. Socrates, a cele- 
brated Orecian philosopher, (20, S). 

Sol, aolisy m. Sun. 

JSolemnis, e. Stated, established; 
religious, solemn. 

SoUmniter^ adv. (solemnis). Sol- 
emnly, in due form. 

SoleOy ere, thta 9um, To be accus- 
tomed, be wont 271, 8. 

Soltdus, a, um. Solid. 
"^Solitado, inis, t (solus). Solitude. 

SolUtu, a, um, (soleo). Usual 

Sollertia, ae, f. Sagacity, shrewd- 

Solon, onis, m. Solon, a celebrated 
Athenian law-giver and one of the 
sevefi tme men of Greece, (128). 

Sohtm, adv. (solus). Only, alone. 

Soltts, a, um. Alone. 151. 

Bolutua, a, um, (solvo). Unrestrain- 
ed, dissolute. 

Solvo, ire, solvi, solutum. To loose, 
unbind ; to pay. 

Somnio, are, avi, atum, (somnium). 
To dream. 

Somnium, it, n. Dream. 

Somnua, i, m. Sleep. 

SonitM, U8, m. (sono). Sound, noise. 

Sono, are, ui, than. To sound, ut- 
ter, speak, call, express, mean. 

Sonus, f, m. (sono). Sound. 

8oph6cle§, is and i, m. Sophocles, 
a celebrated Grecian tragic poet, 

Sordidus, a, um. Sordid, soiled, 
filthy, base, mean. 

Soror, oris, t Sster. 

Sors, soriis, f. Lot. 

Sparta, ae, f. Sparta, the capital of 
Laconia, in the Peloponnesus; 
also called Lacedaemon. 

Sparianus, a, um, adj. (Sparta). 
Spartan; subs. Spart&nus, i, m.. 
a Spartan, (222). 

Spart&eus, i, m. Spartacus, a cele- 
brated gladiator who waged war 
against the Romans, (204). 

SpaHum, ii, n. ^>ace. 

Species, H, f. Appearance, guise. 

Spedaeulum, i, n. (specto). Specta- 
cle, show. 

Spedo, are, avi, alum. To view, 
witness. Spectatus, a, um. Tried, 
proved, illustrious. 

Spemo, Sre, sprevi, sprlium. To 
despise, reject, contemn, scorn, 

Spero, are, aivi, atum. To expect, 
hope ; flatter one^s self. 

JSpes, ei, f. Hope. 

SpoHo, are, avi, atum, (spolium). To 
rob; spoil; despoiL 

J^lium, ii, n. Plunder, spoil, 

Spontis, gen. sponte, abl. sing. Of 
or for hunself, itself, of one^s own 
accord, on one's own account, vo- 
luntarily, spontaneously. 

Spurius, ii, m. ^le^Postumius and 

Stabilitas, atis, f. Immovability, 
steadfastness, stability. 

Stadium, tt, n. A stade or stadium, 
a measure equal to 606 English 
feet ; race-course, race-ground. 

Statim, adv. (sto). At once, imme- 

Statio, onis, f. (sto). Station, post; 

Slatua, ae, f. (statuo). Statue. 

Stahto, ire, ui, ntum, (status, from 
sto). To determine; appomt, 




StcUfira, My f. (status, from sto). 
Height, size of the body, stature. 

Status, tM, m. (sto). State, condition. 

SUUa, ae, f. Star. 

StemOf ere, stravi, stratum. To 
' prostrate. 

JSlOy starey stetiy siaiwn. To stand. 

StrageSy it, f. Slaughter, defeat. 

Stranguloy arCy dviy atum. To 

Slrewuey adv. (strenuus). Vigor- 
ously, carefully. 

Strenuus, a, um. Active, Taliant 

StudeOy ere, ui. To study, favor, be 
attached to ; to devote one's self 
to; be zealous. 

StucUosSy iuSy issfmey adv. (studio- 
sus). Diligently, earnestly. 

StitcUdsuSy a, urn, (studium). Eager, 
desirous, zealous; friendly, stu- 

Studiumy iiy n. Zeal, study, desire, 

StuUUiay acy f. (stultus). FoUy, fool- 
ishness, simplicity. 

StuUuSy a, um. Foolish, simple, 

SuadeOy ire, suasiy suasum. To ad- 

Suby prep, with ace or abL Under, 
at the foot of. 

Si*bducOy h-Cy duxiy ductum. To take 
away, withdraw. 

SvbXgOy SrSy egiy actumy (sub, ago). 
To Bubdue, conquer. 

Subito, adv. (subitus, from subeo). 
Suddenly, iJnexpectedly. 

Subllmey adv. (sublimfe). Aloft, 
loftily, on high. 

SubllmiSy e. High, on high. 

Svh-mergOy ^r«, mersi, mersum. To 
dip or plunge under; to sink, 

overwhelm, submerge. Pass. To 
be overwhelmed, to sink. 

Sub-rideOy irey nsiy rlsum. Bd smile, 

Subsidiumy iiy n. The reserve ; aid, 

Sub-sUiOy Ire, sUui and sUUy (sub, 
salio). To leap or jump up, leap, 

Sub-sumy esssy fuL To be at hand 
or near, be under. 

SubtcTy prep, with ace or abl. Be- 
low, beneath, under. 

Sub4r&h0y ifrcy iraxiy tradwn. To 
take away, remove, subtract 

SuiH)e9ii0y JrCy vBniy ventum. To 
come to ; to aid, relieve. 

Sub-veriOy ere, verity versum. To 
overturn, overthrow, destroy, sub- 

SuecSdOy irCy cessiy eessum, (sub, 

cedo). To succeed, come after. 
^^ueeessioL, OriSy f. (succedo). Suo- 

SucceasoTy dmSy m. (succedo). Suc- 

SuccessuSy usy m. (succfido). Success. 

Sue-cumbOy ^re, eubtdy eubiium. To 
yield, submit to. 

SuffethtSy iiy m. Suffetius. Metius 
SuffetiuSy dictator of the Albans. 
Having been summoned to aid 
the Romans against the Veien- 
tines, he drew off his forces at the 
very moment of battle, and await- 
ed the issue of the engagement. 
For this perfidy he was put to 
death by order of Tullius Hosti- 
lius (160). 

SuffidOy irey feciy fectumy (sub, fa- 
cio). To substitute ; be sufficient, 




SuffundOy 9re, fudi^ fusurn^ (sub, 

fimdo). To spread over, pour 

throflgh; sufl^se. 
Sui^ 8ibi, Himself, herself, itself. 
SitUaf otf, m. Sulla, a distinguished 

Roman dictator and general, 

iSum, esse, fuL To be. 
Summa, ae, f. (summus). Supreme 

8ummoveOj &re, mOviy mOtumj (sub, 

moveo). To remove, displace. 
Summtu. See Suptrus, 
Sumo, Sr«, •sumpsi, sumptum. To 

take, inflict. 
Sumptus^ us, m. (sumo). Expense, 

Super, prep, with ace. or abl. Over, 

above, upon; of, concerning, at, 

at the time of. 
Superbia, ae, f. (superbus). Pride, 

SuperbitSy a, ttm. Proud. 

Saperhis, «*, m. Superbus, the sur- 
name of Tarquin, the last king of 
Rome, (167). 

8up&ro, are, dm, cttum, (supSrus). 
To surpass; conquer; pass by, 

SuperstUiOy Snis, f. (supersto). Su- 

Super-sum, esse, fuL To remain, be 
left, survive. 

Sup^rtu, o, urn; comp. superior; 
superL suprSmus or summtu. 
High, above ; past, former. 163, 

Super-vemo, Ire, venl, ventum. To 
come to, surprise. 

Supplementum, i, n. Supplies, re- 

SuppiUx, \cis, (sab, plico). Humbly 

begging, submissive, beseeching, 
suppliant ; subs, a suppliant 

SuppUdum, tf, n. Punishment 

Supra, prep, with ace. Above, 

Suprimus, See Supifnu, 

Surripio, Sre, ripui, reptum, (sub, 
rapio). To snatch away ; to steal* 
pilfer, purloin. 

Suseipio, Sre, cepi^ ceptum, (sub, ca- 
pio). To bear, endure; receive; 
undertake, engage in. 

Suspendo, ere, pendi, pensum, (sub, 
pendo). To suspend, hang up. 

Suspensus, a, um, (suspendo). Un- 
certain, undecided; anxious. . 

Suspicio, dnis, f. (suspicor). Suspi. 

Suspicio, ire, spexi, spectum, (sub, 
specie). To suspect. 

SuspXcor, ari, atus sum, (suspicio), 
4ep. To suspect 

SusterUo, dre, avi, atum, (sustineo). 
To hold up, support, sustain ; en- 
dure, suffer; delay. 332, 1. 

Sustineo, ere, tinui, tentum, (sub, 
teneo). To sustain, withstand; 
endure, endure the thought ot 

Suus, a, um. His, her, its, their; 
pi, often, one's party, friends. 

SyracvM/e, arum, f. pi. Syracuse, a 
city m Sicily, (185). , 

Syrcuusani, drum, m. pi. The Sy- 
racusans, the citizens of Syra- 
cuse, (223). 

T". An abbreviation of TiJtus. 

Tabemaculum, i, n. Tent 

Taceo, ere, tacui, tacUum, To be 

silent, not to speak, to pass over 

in silence. 



Tat^UiUf a, um. Silent, secret, tacit. 

TiictuSj U8j m. Touch. 

Taedetj Sre, taeduii or taesum esty im- 
pers. It disgusts, wearies, 

Talentum, i, n. Talent, sum of 
money, somewhat more than 

TaliSy Cy such. 

Tarn, So ; iam — quanij so— as. 

Tameriy conj. Yet, nevertheless. 

TameUiy conj. (tamen, etsi). Not- 
withstanding that, although, 

TanHquUy iliSy f. Tanaquil, the wife 
of Tarquinius Priscus, (166). 

Tandem, adv. At length. 

TanqiMniy adv. As, just as. 

Tantum, Only. 

TarUtis, a, um. Such, so great, so 
much ; tanii esse, to be worth the 

Tarentum, t, n. Tarentum, a town 
of Lower Italy, (184). 

TarerUlni, Srum, m. pi. The Taren- 
tines, the inhabitants of Taren- 
tum, (180). 

Tarpeia, a«, f. Tarpeia, a Roman 
maiden, who betrayed the citadel 
of Rome to the Sabines, (156). 

TarpeittSy n, m. Tarpeius, one of 
the seven hills of Rome, also call- 
ed CapUollnus. The Capitol was 
erected upon it. Afterwards the 
'erm Tarpeius was applied to 
the southern summit of the hill, 
(167). ^ 

ibrquiniiy orwm, m. pL Ttu^ufaiit, 
an ancient town of Etraria, (49, 

Tarquinku^ w, m. Tarquin, the 
name of the fifth . king of Rome 
HEidl Qf his descendants, aa Tar-. 

quinius Superbus, the last king 
of Rome ; and Tarquinius CoUa- 
ilnuSy the colleague of Brutus in 
the consulship, (169). 

Tectum, t, n. (tego). Covering, roof; 
house, edifice. 

Tego, ire, text, tectum. To cover. 

Telum, t, n. Weapon. 

Temere, adv. Rashly. 

Temerltas, Otis, f. Rashness, indis- 
cretion, temerity. 

Tempestas, Otis, f. (tempus). Time ; 
tempest, storm. 

Tempestlve, adv. (tempestivus, time- 
ly). Seasonably, just at the tune, 

Templum, i, n. Temple. 

Tempus, Oris, n. Time. Tempdra, 
tunes, seasons, events. 

Temtdentus, a, um. Drunk, intoxi- 

Teneo, ere, ui, tentum^ To hold, 
keep, occupy ; obtain, retain, as in 
the memory. 

TentOy drey avi, Oium, (tendo). To 
try ; attack. 832, L 

TenuSy prep, with abL Up to, as 
far as. 

Terentvus, ii, m. See Varro, (191). 

Ter-ffem\nu8, a, um. Threefold; 
tergemlni, three brothers .bom at 
a birth. 

Tergum, i, n. Back, 

Term^nOy are, (^vi, atum, (terminu8> 
To lunit, bound. 

^[\3vm^uSy iy fi, Lunit, boundary; 

TWray acy f. Earth, land, country. 

Tenreoy ere, ui, Uum. To terrify. 

Terrester, trisy ire, (terra). Terres^ 
trial, OH kind, land {as adj.}, 

Territoriumy «i, n. Territory-. 




Terror &ris^ m. (terreo). Terror, 
alann; fear of. 

TerUuSj a, um. Third. 

Testamentumj e, n. Testament, will. 

Testis, M, ID. and i. Witness. 

Testar, ari, Oius sum, (testis). To 
affirm ; call to witness. 

Testado, inis, t Tortoise. 

TTuUes, is, m. Thales, a celebrated 
Grecian philosopher of Miletus, 
one of the seven wise men, (1 14). 

ITieatrum, t, n. Theatre. 

Thebae, drum, f. pL Thebes, the 
capital of Boeotia in Greece, (280). 

TTiebanus, a, urn, &dj. (Thebae). 
Theban, (229); subs. 17id>anuSy 
t, m., a Theban. 

JTudennnSj t, m. See Fontiits, 
(28, 10). 

Themisidcles, is, m. Themistocles, 
a celebrated Athenian commander, 

TheoerUtts, i, m. Theocritus, a ce- 
lebrated Gredan poet, (130). 

Theophrastua, i, m. Theophrastus, 
a Grecian philosopher, a disciple 
of Plato and Aristotle, (129). 

Thermopijlae, drum, f. pi. Thermo- 
pylae, the famous defile or pass 
between Locris and Thessaly, 
where Leonidas fell, (218). 

Thessodia, ae, £ The country of 
Thessaly, in Greece, south of Ma- 
cedonia, (210). 

ThessdluSy a, um, acy. Thessalian ; 
subs. ThessSlus, i, m., a Thessa- 
lian, (248). 

Thessdlvs, t, m. Thessalus, a native 
of Thesprotia, in Epbus, who is 
said to have formed a settlement 
in Thessaly, and to have given his 
name to the country. 

Thorax, dels, m. Breastplate, coat' 

of-mail, corselet. 
Thracia, ae, f. The country of 

Thrace, east of Macedonia, (281). 
ThrasyhuhM, i, m. Thrasybulus, an 

Athenian who liberated the city 

from the Thirty Tyrants, (186, 

Tkueydides, is, m. Thucydides, a 
celebrated Greek historian, (11), 

Tibiris, is, m. The river Tiber, in 
Italy, (168). 

Tiberius, it, m. Tiberius, the second 
Roman emperor, (146). 

Ticmus, i, m. Ticinus, a river in 
CSsalpine Graul, famous for the 
victory of Hannibal over the Ro- 
mans, (190, 194). 

Tiffrdnes, is, m. Tigranes, son-in- 
law of Mithridates ^d king of Ar- 
menia, (206). 

Timeo, Ire, ui. To fear. 

Timtdta, a, um, (timeo). Cowardly, 
timid. - 

llmoleon, otitis, m. Timoleon, a 
Corinthian general, (61). 

7^moth£us, ei, m. Timotheus, an 
Athenian general, son of Conon, 
(49, 12). 

J^ntifvuabiilum, i, n. BelL 

Tiresias, ae, m. Tiresias, a cele- 
brated blind soothsayer of Thebes, 
(24, 11). 

Tlasaphemes, is, m. Tissaphemes, 
a dislinguished Persian satrap of 
Lower Asia, under Darius ; after- 
wards general in the service of 
Artaxerxes, (226). 

Titus, i, m. Titus, a Roman em- 
peror, (141). See also Quinctius, 

ToUo, ire, sustuli, svhlotum. To 




raise, take up, elate ; take away ; 

destroy; discard. 
Tondeo, ere, totondi, tonsum. To 

shear, clip, crop; graze, browse; 

plack, gather. 
TorquatuSy t, m. Torquatus, sur- 
name of Tt^zM Marditis and his 

descendants, (1'77). 
Torquis, is, m. and £ Collar, chain 

for the neck. 
Tot, indecL So many. 
Toddem, indecl. Just as many, the 

same number. 
Totiis, a, um. All, the whole, some- 
times best rendered by adv, wholly, 

entirely. 161, 443. 
Tracto, are, dvi, Oium, To use, 

treat, managa 
Trado, Sre, didi, ditum, (trans, do). 

To deliver, give, consign to ; also 

to relate, say ; traditur (when 

impers.), it is said. 
Traduco, Sre, duxi, ductum, (trans, 

duco). To lead across, transport 
Tragoedta, ae, f. Tragedy. 
Tragoedtut, i, m. Tragedian. 
Traho, ire, traxi, tractum. To draw ; 

protract) delay, detain, derive, 

Trajicio, ire, jeci, jectum, (trans, 

jacio). To throw over ; to cross ; 

cq^iduct over, lead over. 
Trano, are, dvi, atum, (trans, no). 

To swim over. 
TVans, prep, with ace. Across, be- 
IVans-dOco = tradQco. 
7\-a7is-€o, Ire, Ivi or it, ttum. To go 

over, to cross. 296, 3. 
Trarvs-firo, ferre, tiili, latum. To 

transport, transfer, translate. 
Trans-f'tgo, ere, Jhi, fxum. To 

transfix, to thrust through, to 

pierce through. 
Transgredior, grSdi, gressus sum, 

dep. (trans, gradior). To go or 

pass over. 
Traimgo, Sre, egi, actum, (trans, 

ago). To accomplish, finish, pass, 

Transilio, Ire, Ivi, ii or ui, (trans, 

salio). To leap or pass over. 
Transitus, us, m. (transeo). Passage. 
2Van&4narinus, a, um. Transma- 
rine, over the sea. 
2Vans-no = trano. 
Trans-porto, are, avi, Otum, To 

carry or convey from one place to 

another, carry across, transport 
Traaimmus, i, m. Lake Trasime- 

uus in Etruria, (190). 
Trebia, ae, f. The river Trebia hi 

Gisalpme Gaul, (190). 
Trecente^mus, a, um, (trecenti). The 

three hundredth. 
Trecenti, ae, a. Three hundred. 
Tredecim, indecL Thirteen. 
IVemo, ire, tremui, ^o shake, 

quake, tremble, quiver. 
Trepidus, a, um. Alarmed, in 

Tres, tria. Three. 
TVibunus, i, m. Tribune. 
Tribuo, ire, ui, viwn. To bestow, 

impute, award. 
TriJbutarius, a, um. Tributary. 
Tributum, i, n. (tribuo). Tax, 

TricesXmtut, a, um. The thirtieth. 
Trienmum, ii, n. The space of 

three years, three years. 
Trigeminus = tergemlnus. 
TrigirUa, indecL Thirty. 




IViplex, tcis. Triple, threefold. 
TripudiOy <Jr«, avi. To leap, dance. 
Tripua, odia, m. Tripod. 
THremis, m, f. (tres, remus). Galley 

with three banks of oars. 
TriremiBy e, adj. Having three banks 

of oars. 
Tristis, e Sad. 
Triumpho, are, dt>t, dtum, (tri- 

umphus). To triumph, have a 

triumphal procession. 
IViumphuSj t, m. Triumph. 
2>oezcn, mw, f. (ace. Troezena), 

Troezen, an ancient city of Argo- 

lis, (21Y). 
Troja, ae, f. The city of Troy, (33, 6). 
Trojani, orum, m. pi. (Troja). The 

Trojans, (149). 
TrojanuSy a, wm, (Troja). Trojan, 

TVopaeuniy t, n. Trophy, victory. 
Trucido, are, dvi, ctium, (trux, cao- 

do). To slay, massacre. 
Trux^ trucU, Fierce, stem. 
7\*, tut. Thou, you. 
Tuba, ae, f. Trumpet 
Thtbtcerij tnis, m. Trumpeter. 
Tueor, eri, tuXtus or tutus sum, dep. 

To look upon ; preserve, defend. 
TuUia, ae, f. Tullia, the daughter 

of Servlus Tullius, and wife of 

Tarquinius Superbus, (166). 
TuUiw, a, m. See Servins, (164). 
. 7\dlu8, t, m. See ffosiilius, (160). 
ISim, Then; turn — turn, not only 

— ^but also ; both — and. 
Thimultuo, are, dvi, (Uum, (tumultus). 

To make a noise or tumult. 
Tumultus, us, m. Tumult, sedition. 
7\unidus, i, m. Tomb, grave. 
Tunc, adv. Then ; tunc temporis, 

then. 896,2,4. 

Tunica, ae, f. Tunic, coat, a gar- 
ment worn under the toga. 

Turha, ae, f. Crowd, throng, mul- 

Turbo, are, am, utum, (turba). To 
disturb, throw into confusion. 

Turgesco, Sre, turgui. To swell, to 
swell with passion. 

7\irpiter, ius, issime, adv. (turpiSr 
base). Basely, disgracefully, in 

Thirris, is, f. Tower. 

Tusculum, i, n. Tusculum, an an- 
cient town in Latium, (172). 

7\Uor, oris, m. Tutor, guardian. 

Tutus, a, urn. Safe. 

Tuus, a, um, ac(j. prqn. (tu). Thy, 
thine, your, yours. 

Tyrarmis, Xdis, f. (tyrannus). Ty 

Tyrannus, %, m. Tyrant, monarch 

Uber, ^ris, n. Udder, dug. 
Ubertas, atis, f. Richness, fertility. 
Ubi, adv. Where, when, sometimes 

UbU, drum, m. pi The Ubii, an 

ancient Germanic people dwelling 

on the Rhine, (94). 
Ubinam, adv. Where, in what part 

Ubique. Everywhere. 
Ullus, a, um. Any, any one. 161. 
Ulterior, us ; superl. ultimtts. Fuiv 

ther, more remote; superl. last. 

UUio, onis, f. Revenge. 
Ultra, adv., and prep, with ace. Be- 
yond, more than. 
Ultro, adv. Voluntarily, of one's 

own accord. 




UliilOf are^ avi, cUum, To howl, to 
cry aloud, to shriek 

UmbrOy ae^ f. Shade, shadow. 

Undej adv. Whence, cUso interrog. 
whence ? 

UndSdm^ indecl. Eleven. 

Undeguifiquaginta^ indecl. Forty- 

Uh-ckvicesinvus, a, um. Nineteenth. 

Uhdigfue, adv. From all quarters 
or sides. * 

Ungtterdumy t, n. Ointment, per- 

Ung^m^ m, m. Nail, daw, talon. 

Ungulay ae, f. Claw, talon, hoof. 

UniveraWy a, um. Whole, entire ; 
all together. 

Uhquam^ adv. At any time, 

UntiSy a, um. One, alone. 175. 

Uiius-quisquej unaqucLeque^ etc. 
(unus, quisque, both parts de- 
clined). Each, each one. 

UrbSy urbiSj f. City. 

Urgeo, ere^ ursi. To urge, drive; 
press upon. 

Usque^ adv. So far as; usque ad^ 
even to; usque eo, to such an 

UsurpOj (Ire, aviy atum. To usurp, 

. UisuSy usj m. Use, service ; expe- 
rience; need. 

Ui or utij coiy. That, as; after 
verbs of fearing^ that not. 

Utciimque or v^xunquey adv. How- 
ever, somewhat 

liter y tra^ trum, adj. Which ? which 
of the two? 151. 

Ulerque, ^utrctque^ utrumquey like 
uter. Both, each. 151, 4. 

l/tilis, e. Useful 

Umtas, dtis, f. (uttlis). Utility, ser 
vice, advantage. 

UioTy uHy usus sum. To use. 

Utrimque or utrinque^ adv. On both 

UtruMy in double questions. Whe- 

Uva, otf, f. A bunch of grapes, a 

Uxor, oris, f. Wife. 

Vaco, are, dvi, atum. To be empty, 
vacant, to have leisure for; be 
free from. 

Vacuus, a, um. Vacant, empty, 
free from. 

Vadum, i, n. Ford, shallow water. 

VagihtSy us, m. Crying. 

Vagor, dri, atus sum. To wander 

Vagus, a, um, Wandermg, doubt- 
ful, uncertain, vague. 

Valeo, ere, ui, Xtum, To have 
strength, avail, be well. 

Valerius, ii, m. Valerius, a Roman 
name. See Fublicdla, Laevlnus, 
(169, 180). 

Valetudo, mis, f. (valeo). Habit, 
state of the body, health, state of 

Vanus, a, um^ Empty, vain, false. 

VariUias, dtis, f. (varius). Variety, 

Varius, a, um. Various. 

Varro, onis, m, Varro, a Roman 
name. Caius Tereniius Varro, a 
Roman consul defeated at Can- 
nae, (191). 

Vas, vasis, n. Vessel, dish, vase. 

V<isio, dre, dvi, dium, (vastus). To 
lay waste, devastate, pillage. 




VasiiLSy a, urn. Waste, desert, vast. 
Votes, is, m. and f. Prophet, pro- 

Vecilffolj alts, n. Tai; income, 

Veho, ire, vezi, vectum. To carry, 

VeienieSy tan, or VeierUdni, orum, m. 

pi. The Veientians, or Veien- 

tmes, the inhabitants of Yeii in 

Etruria, (176). 
Vel, conj. Or, even ; vd — vel, 

either — or. 
Veloz, Ods. Swift, rapid, fleet. 
Vel-tU, or vel-uti, adv. As, like as, 

as if. 
Vendlis, e. To be sold, for sale, 

Vendo, ire, didi, dttum. To sell; 

sub corona v'endire, to sell as 

Venenum, i, n. Poison. 
Venio, Ire, vent, ventum. To come. 
Venor, art, dius sum, dep. To 

hunt, chase, pursue. 
Venter, iris, m. Belly, stomach. 
Venhis, i, m. Wind. 
Venus, iris, f. Venus, the goddess 

of love, (28). 
Verbum, i, n. Word. 
Vereor, eri, veritus sum, dep. To 

fear, to be afraid. 
Veritas, Otis, f. Truth. 
Vero, adv. and conj. (verus) Truly, 

indeed; but 
Verres, is, m. Verres, a Roman 

name. Caius Comdius Verres 

rendered himself notorious by his 

abuse of power in Scily, (48). 
Verso, are, dm, atum, or versor, dep. 

(verto). To turn; busy one's self, 

be occupied with. 832, 1. 2. 

Versus, us, m. A verse. 

Vertex, tcis, m. (verto). Summit^ 

Verto, ire, verti, versum. To turn* 

Verum, conj. But. 

Vents, a, um. True, real 

Vescor, vesci. To enjoy, feed upouj 
live upon, to eat. 

Vesper, iris or iri, m. Evening. 

Vespira,ae, f. Evening. 

Veaperasco, ^e, vesperdvi, (vesper). 
To become evening. 

Vesta, ae, f. Vesta, the goddess of 
the hearth, to whom a perpetual 
fire was kept burning, (162). 

Vestalis, €, adj. (Vesta). Vestal, re- 
latmg to Vesta, (162). 

Vester, tra, trum. Your. 

Vestihulum, i, n. Vestibule, en- 

Vesiio, Ire, tvi, ttum, (vestis). To 

Vesiis, is, f. Garment. 

Veteranus, a, um, (vetus). Vete* 

Veto, are, ui, ttum. To forbid. 

Veturia, ae, f. Veturia, the mother 
of Coriolanus, (174). 

Veturius, ii, m. Veturius, a Roman 
name. Titus Veturius, a Roman 
consul defeated by the Samnites 
at the Caudine Forks, (179). 

Vetus, iris. Old, of long standing, 

Vetustas, aHs, f. (vetus). Antiquity, 

Vetustus, a, um. Old, ancient 

Via, ae, f. Way. 

Viator, oris, m. Traveller. 

Vicesimus, a, um. Twentieth. 

ViciTms, a, um. Neighboring. 

Vicis, gen. f. Change, reverse, at 




temaUon, requital ; fate, fortune; 
in vicem or vicem, in turn, place. 
133, 1. 
^ViciasUudOj i^iis, f. (viols). Change, 
alternation, vicissitude, success 
•> Victor^ oris J m. (vinco). * Con- 

Victoria, ae, t Victory. 

Vidus, a, wm, part, (vinco). Con- 
quered, vanquished. 

VicitSy f , m. Village. 

Video, ire, di, sum. To see ; pass, 
videor, efc., to be seen ; to seem. 

Vigeo, ire, ui. To flourish, thrive, 
be in force. 

Vi^lantia, ae, f. Wakefulness, vi- 

Viffinii, indec. Twenty. 

Vilis, e. Low, cheap, base, vile. 

Viruno, Ire, vinxi, vinctum. To 

Vineo, ^re, vici, victum. To con- 

Vinculum or vindum, ?*, n. Fetter, 

Vindex, tcis, m. and f. Defender. 

Vindico, are, dvi, dhtm. To claim ; 
rescue, defend ; punish, avenge. 

Vinolentus, a, urn, (vinum). Full of 
wme, intoxicated with wine. 

Vinum, i, n. Wine. 

Vidlo, are, dvi, &tum. To violate, do 
violence to ; profane, harm. 

Vir, viri, m. Man, hero, husband. 

Virga, ae, f. Rod, twig. 

Virgo, Xnis, f. Virgin, maiden. 

Virgula, ae, f. Small rod, rod. 

Virtus^ utis, f. (vir). Manliness, 
bravery, virtue. • 

ViSyVis, f. ; pi. vires. Power, strength, 
force; forces; abundance. 

Viscus, Ms, n. Vitals, bowels. 
Viso, ire, si, sum. To view, see; 

Vita, ae, I life. 
Vitis, is, f. Vine. 
Viiium, a, n. Fault, vice, crime. 
Vitup&ro, dre, dvi, dium. To cei^ 

sure, blame, find fault with. 
Vivo, &re, vixi, victum. To live. 
Vivus, a, urn. Living, alive. 
Vocabulum,i,XL Designation, name, 

Voco, dre, dvi, dtum, (vox). To 

call, name. 
Volo, are, dvi, dium. To fly. 
Volo,velle, volui, ureg. To will, be 

willing, wish, desire ; sibi velle, to 

mean. 293 ; 389, 2. 
Volsci, drum, m. pi. The Volsci or 

Volscians, a people of Latium, 

VoliLcer, cris, ere, (volo). Flying, 

winged ; swift, rapid; subs, a 

Volumnia, ae, f. Volumnia, the 

wife of Coriolanus, (174). 
Voluntarius, a, um, (voluntas). Vo- 
luntary, willing, spontaneous. 
Voluntas, dHs, f. (volo). Wish, in- 
clination, good wlU. 
Voluptas, Otis, f. Pleasure. 
Voveo, ere, vovi, votum. To vow, 

dedicate, consecrate. 
Vox, vocis, f. Voice, word. 
Vulgus, i, n. Populace, common 

Vtd9i^, dre, dvi, dhtm, (vulnus). 

To wound. 
Vulnus, Sris, n. Wound. 
Vulpes, is, f. Fox. 
VuUus, us, m. Countenance. 




XanthippWf ij m, Xanthippus, a 
Spartan commander, who took 
Regulus prisoner in the first Punic 
war, (186). 

Xerxes^ is, m. Xerxes, a celebrated 
Persian kmg, (187, 217). 

Xenophon^ oniia^ m. Xenophon, a 

Greek historian, and the leader of 
the Greeks in the famous retreat 
of the ten thousand, (142). 

ikima, oe, f. Zama, a town of Nu- 
mi^a, m Africa, famous for the 
victory of Scipio over Hannibal, 



Harkness^s Elements of Latin Grammar. 

This work is intended especially for those who do not contemplate 
a collegiate course, but it may be successfully used in any school where, 
for special reasons, a small grammar is deemed desirable. The beginner 
needs to store his mind at the outset with the laws of the language in 
such forms of statement as he can carry with him throughout his whole 
course of study. The convenience and interest of the student in this 
regard have been carefully consulted in the preparation of this manual. 
All the paradigms, rules, and discussions, have been introduced in the 
exact language of the author's Grammar, by which it may at any time 
be supplemented. While, therefore, in many schools this work will be 
found a sufficient Latin Grammar, it may be used in others, either as 
preparatory to the larger Grammar, or in connection with it. 

No separate references to this volume will ever be needed in editions 
of Latin authors, as the numbering of the articles is the same as in the 
larger Grammar. 

From Pres. Coblbigh, TeniMsaee Wesley- 
an University. 

" This work Is very timeJy. I regard 
it as indispensabie in many schools in the 

From Prof. "W. H. YouirG, Ohio UfU- 

** I most heartny commend this work. 
I have for some time felt its need. It 
seems to make your Latin oonrse com- 

From Prof 0. G. Hudson, Genesee Wes- 
ley an /Seminary y Lima^ N. Y. 

" I can heartily recommend it I think 
that it is superior to all rivals." 

From Prof. II. D. "Walkbb, OrangeviUe 
Academy^ Pa. 

" In my opinion, no work of Professor 
ilarkness will be more widely nsed, or 
moro valuable, than this. It supplies a 
want long felt by teachers. It is clear, 
thorough, and suflBlciently extended for 
•rdinary students." 

IVwn Prof B. H. Manlbt, Cornell Col- 
lege, lovHi. 

" I think it one of the finest compendi- 
ums of Grammar I have ever seen. It 
must prove of great service as a prepara- 
tory driU-book." 

From Prof. L. P. Parkbb, Iowa ChUege. 

"I feel under personal obligation for 
this new incentive and aid to classical 

From H. F. Lanb, Bigh School, Temple- 
ton, Mass. 

" It is eoMcUy adapted to our wants. 
We use all of Harkness^s books— Gram- 
mar, Eeader, and CJomposition. "We con- 
sider them emphatically ^ the best.^ " 

From Prof. J. A. Kbllbb, Heidelberg 
CoUege, Ohio. 

** I was surprised to find so ftill an out- 
line of Latin Grammar comprised within 
such narrow limits." 

From Prof. M. B. Bbown, Notre -Dam^ 

"In my opinion, it is iust the book 
which has long been needed. It is a book 
to be learned eiUire^ and is complete as flur 
as it goes. Prof. Harkness deserves the 
thanks both of students and teachers." 

From Eev. B. G. Nobthbop, Secretary 
qf Board qf Education, Vov^. 

"I am highly pleased with Harkness's 
Elements of Latin Grammar. Its brevity 
commends it for beginners and for all 
contemplating a partial Latin coarse of 


Harkness^s Caesar. 

This edition of Caesar's Commentaries, intended to follow the Latin 
Reader, aims to introduce the student to an appreciative study of Latin 
authors. The text is the result of a careful collation of the several edi- 
tions most approved by European scholars. The notes are intended to 
guide the faithful efforts of the learner, and to furnish him such collateral 
information as will enable him to understand the stirring events recorded 
in the Commentaries, and such special aid as will enable him to surmount 
real difficulties of construction and idiom. They will thus, it is hoped, 
render an acceptable service both to the instructor and the learner, by 
lightenmg the burden of the one, and by promoting the progress of the 
other. The dictionary has been prepared with special reference to the 
wants of the student 

The Life of Caesar, the Map of Gaul, and the diagrams and illustra- 
tions which accompany the notes, will greatly add to the value of the 

From PWB. AnuN, Union OoUegSt N. Y. 

**■ This edition of the Ck>mmentarie8 is 
admirably suited, not merely to give the 
student an acquaintance with his immedi- 
ate text-boolE, but also to develop those 
habits of investigation, that thoughtftilness 
in regard to the scope of the whole subject 
and that style of vigorous, tastefhl, and 
idiomatic rendering, which are among the 
rarest, as they are eertainly among the 
most important, results of classical study." 

f^am B. H. Tatloe, LL. D., PMlUpa 
Academy, Andaoer, Mass, 
"The notes are prepared with a Judi- 
cious appreciation of the wants of the pupiL 
They snow the hand of the finished schour, 
as well as of tibe experienced teacher." 

From Trot W. A. Paokabd, Princeton 
College, N. J. 
** The notes are models of what the be- 
ginner needs to interest and guide him. 
The text is famished with the best illus- 
trations in the way of maps uid plans." 

From Prof. W. T. Johnbon, Notre-Dcme 
Uwi/versUy, Ind, 
"This 19 certainly an excellent text- 
book—superior to any other edition of the 
Conmientaries now hi use." 

From Pres. MoEldowotst, AOnon Col- 
lege, Mich. 
" This is the most valuable edition of 
C«iar with which I am acquainted." 

From Prof. n. TV. HATines, TJnioefraUy </ 
" Never before have I seen such a lucid 
and simple explanation of Csesar^s bridg* 
across the Bhine." 

From Prof. 0. S. HABBmoToir, Wetleyan 
Ufdv&vai^, Conn, 
"The student who uses this edition 
must read Oesar with a lively relish." 

lYom Prof. "W. A. Btbvkns, DenUon Uni- 
"oersity OMo, 
" The notes are gotten up on the right 
principle, and are greatly superior to those 
of similar works in England." 

From Profl J. E. Gintneb. Otterbein Un4- 
veraity, Ohio. 

"This is the only edition of CsBsar rec- 
ommended to our classes." 

jPVom A. D. Saitobobn, WiUon Seminary, 
" 1 know of no work of the kind in 
which the notes so ftilly meet the wants 
of both teacher and pupfi. I am delighted 
with the life of Caesar.'^ 

jFWwn Prof S. Uabbell, State Norvnal 
Unwersity, Del. 
"This edition of Oiesar is superior to 
all others published in this country. Th« 
biographical sketch of the Bomaa oran- 
maader is a splendid production." 


Arnold's First Latin Book ; 

Iflemodelled and Rewritten, and adapted to the Ollendorff Method of 
Instruction. By ALBERT HARKNESS, A. M. 12mo, 802 pages. 

Under the labors of the present author, the work of Arnold has undergone radical 
changes. It has been adapted to the Ollendorff improved method of instruction, and is 
superior to the former work in its plan and all the details of instruction. While it pro- 
ceeds in common witii Arnold on the principle of imitation and repetition, it pursues 
much more exactiyand witiiasurer step the progressive method, and aims to make tiie 
pupil master of every individual subject before he proceeds to a new one, and of each 
subject by itself before it is combined witii otiiers ; so that he is brought graduatty and 
surely to understand tiie most diflElcult combinations of tiie language. An Important 
feature of this book is, that it carries along the Syntax pari passu witii the Etymology, 
BO that the student is not only all the while becoming fiuniliap with the forms of the lan- 
guage, but is also learning to construct sentences and to understand the mutual relations 
of their component parts. 

Spedalcare has been taken in the exercises to present such idioms and expressions 
alone as are authorized by the best classic authors, so that the learner may acquire by 
example as well as precept, a distinct idea of pure Latinity. 

It has been a leading object with the author so to Classify and arrange the various 
topics as to simplify the subject, and, as ISar as possible, to remove the disheartening diffl- 
eulties too often encountered at the outset in the study of an ancient language. 

From "W. E. Tolmak, Instructor in Providence Blgh School. 
" I have used Aniold^s First Latin Book, remodelled and rewritten by Mr. Harkness, 
in my classes during the past year, and find it to be a work not so much remodelled and 
rewritten as one wUrel/y new^ both in its plan and in its adaptation to the wants of the 
beginner in Latln.^* 

From Wm. Bitsssll, Fditor of the First Series of the Boston Jowmalqf Education. 
**The form which this work has taken under the skUlftQ hand of Mr. H. is marked 
throughout by a method purely elementary, perfectiy simple, gradually progressive, and 
rigorously exact Pupils trained on such a muiual cannot &il of becoming distinguished, 
in their subsequent progress, for precision and correctness of knowledge, and for rapid 
advancement in genuine scholarship." 

From Oeobgb Capbon, Principal of Worcester High School. 
** I have examined the work with care, and am happy to say that I find it superior 
to any aimiTar work with which I am acquainted. I shall recommend It to my next 

From J. E. Boxbib, Professor of Ancient Languages in MUMgoAt UniAoersity. 

" I have examined your First Book in Latin, and am exceedingly pleased both with 
the plan and execution. I shall not fidl to use my influence toward introducing It into 
the classical schools of this State.'* 

/). AFPLETON <b 00:8 PUBLI0AT10N8. 

Second Latin Book. 

Comprising an Historical Latin Reader, with Notes and Biiles for 
Translating, and an Exercise Book, developing a Complete Ana- 
lytical Syntax, in a series of Lessons and Exercises, involving 
the Construction, Analysis, and Reconstruction of Latin Sen. 
tences. By ALBERT HARKNESS, A,M., Senior Master in the 
Providence High SchooL 12mo, 862 pages. 

Thifl work is designed as a sequel to the aathor*s ** First Latin Book." It comprises 
a complete analytical syntax, exhibiting the essential stmotore of the l4itin language, 
flrom its simplest to its most expanded and elaborate form. 

The arrangement of the lessons is decidedly philosophical, gradoaOy progressive, 
and in strict accordance with the law of development of the human mind. Every new 
principle is stated in simple, clear, and accorate language, and illustrated by examples 
carefully selected ftt>m the reading lessons, which the student is required to translate, 
analyze, and reconstruct He is also exerdsed in ibrming new Latin sentences on given 
models. This, while it gives variety and interest to what would otherwise be in the 
highest degree monotonous, completely fixes in the mind the subject of the lesson, both 
by analysis and synthesis. 

The careful study of this volume, on the plan reoonmiended by |ihe author, win 
greatly Ihcilitate the pupiTs progress in the higher departments of the language. Such 
is the testimony of the numerous instttuttons in which Harkness's improved edition 
of Arnold has been introduced. 

Fr<ym J. A Spenoeb, D. D., late Prqfeasor of Latin in, Burlinffton OoUega^ 271 J, 

"The present volume appears to me to cany out excellently the system on which 
the late lamented Arnold based his educational works ; and in the Bdections for Bead' 
ing, the Notes and Rules for Translating, the Exerdses in Translating into Latin, the 
Analyses, etc., I think it admirably adapted to advance the diligent student, not only 
rapidly, but soundly, in an acquaintance with the Latin language." 

From Peof. Oammell, of Brown Uni^eiraUjf. 

"• The book seems to me, as I anticipated it would be, a valuable addition to the works 
now in use among teachers of Latin in the schools of the United States, and for many 
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Front PaoF. Linooln, qfBnyum Und/oerHty. 

" It seems to me to carry on most successftilly the method pursued in the First 
Book. Though brie^ it is very comprehensive, and combines judicious and skllftilly- 
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From J. J. OwsN, D. D., Professor of the Latin and Oreelk Lanffuoffea and LUera- 
ture in the Free Academy, Neiw York, 

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irrange, simpliiV, and make accessible to the youthftil mind the great and ftmda- 
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tact to arrange, simi 

mental principles i o— »-. - 

classical school, and I trust will have an extensive sale.^ 

From "Paor. Andkbson, ofLevHsburg University, PennsylvaiUa, 

"A faithfhl use of the work would diminish the drudgery of the student^s earlier 
studies, and ftcilitate his progress in his subsequent course. I wish the work a wldt 



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