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Reader. — Pao^e 271, note to line 88, add Quseqyie, (ind whaf? 
,, 286, note to line 114, read § 4, i.. 6. 

VoCAB. — Page 177, under sortior, add possei^s, 

,, 178, ,, sportula, add allowance. 
,, 183, ,, sufnamen, read inis, 

C;AJ>li3i:{lJJUii, MABS. ,^^1V * '^'V»^ 


BOSTON: '^^^^Califcr^ 

















CAMBRIDGE, MASS, J^^%^ ^^ ^ 




Entered accorcling to Act of Congress, in the year 1869, by 

J. 11. AND W. F. ALLEN, 

lii the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United Statcs for 
the District of Massachusetts. 



OuR first object iii tlie preparation of tliis Reader, has 
been to furnish for beginners a sufficient amount of the 
easiest and most interesting reading-matter to be found 
in purely classical writers. We have considered that, 
after a few month's careful training in the elements of 
the tongue, — for which the" Lessons," pubKshed last 
winter, were specially designed, — a good deal of time 
may best be devoted to mere translation, with the ob- 
ject of practising what has been ah^eady learned, 
rather than of acquiring a greater mass of purely theo- 
retical knowledge ; giving the most careful attention 
to accuracy, but leaving the nicer points of grammar 
for later study, except an occasional parsing lesson 
be had, so as to keep the learner in practice and the 
memory fresh. For the sake, however, of teachers 
who may prefer to use this as a drill-book, and of classes 
that may have no more extended course of Latin study 
in view, we have given copious references to the Gram- 
mar, covering nearly every point after the paradigms 
of verbs ; in general, referring to each principle of 
syntax once, and only once, or, if a second time, then 
simply as the best way of giving help in a difficult 


In order to facilitatc, in some degrcc, tlic faniiliar 
acquisition of so difficult a language as Latin, we liave 
employed in tliis book tliose helps to the eye of accents 
and " digraphs," which the custom of three centuries has 
sanctioned, and which even the practised reader will 
not always disdain. In the Grammar and Lessons, 
which are supposed to be studied under the constant 
direction of the teacher, we preferred to dispense with 
these aids, that so the pupil, at the cost of a little more 
pains at starting, might be prepared to take up what- 
ever edition of the classics might come to his hand ; 
for the special uses of this vohime, we think they will 
be found serviceable. In orthography, we have on 
principle admitted considerable freedom as to points 
which may be regarded as still unsettled ; in gcneral 
keeping to the best reccnt authorities, but aiming to 
habituate the eye of the student to those varieties of 
speUing he is likely to meet in a variety of authors and 

For the sake of those schools and classes to which 
the Reader comprises, practically, all the Latin ever 
expected to be learned, we have desired that this vol- 
ume might enlarge and not behttle the notion of what 
a classic language and Hterature mean. The best 
justification of classical study, after all, is not its 
value as a mere means of mental discipline, for which 
modern and scientific methods are to so large an ex- 
tent coming to take its place ; but that it combines 
that discipline with some guiding of the mind towards 
the higher interpretation of history, and the deeper 
lessons of human life. Witli this view, every first- 
class name in Eoman literature, excepting Livy and 
Horace, is represented in this collection ; and special 
care has been taken, both in text and notes, to make 


it a lielp towards a clear view of the course of Roman 
empire, at its most critical periods, from Scipio down 
to Trajan. Nor will it be lield void of interest, that we 
have given, from Tacitus, Pliny and Suetonius, every 
notice to be found in classical antiquity of the early 
Christians ; while, in Yirgirs " Pollio," and Cicero's 
correspondence with his friend Sulpicius, is afforded 
some hint of the level which the most cultivated Pagan 
thought had attained on religious themes. 

While the reading most in vogue for beginners has 
of late presented Latin chiefiy in its rhetorical compo- 
sition and literary dialect, we have sought, by famiUar 
letters and dramatic dialogue, to show it as a Uving 
tongue dealing with real things. The drollery and 
fun of Plautus, the graver humor of Tercnce, the easy 
and cheerful courtesy of Pliny's letters, the downright 
hard-hitting of Marius's speech before the people, seem 
to us a most desirable substitute for the weary and 
dreary narrative of the " Gallic War," as most boys 
find it. And while, in the case of Cicero, a vein of 
insincerity runs through most of his formal writings, 
even in his philosophical dialogues, where he tries to per- 
suade himself that he is a single-minded searcher for 
truth, his letters bring us into an other atmosphere. 
His fond. domestic feeling, the despair of his exile, his 
frank pride in his public welcome back, and his heavy 
heart refusing to be comforted after his daughter's 
death, show him in a more genuine and manlier way 
than the elaborate false pleading of the " Milo," or the 
polished hollow compHment of the " Marcellus." 

In the preparation of the text and notes, we have 
had in mind the needs of young students, not of ma- 
ture scholars ; foUowing the best editions within our 
reach, and carefully comparing the more important 


various readings, while making no pretensions to criti- 
cal editing of our own.* We liave aimed, in the notes, 
not to depart from the immediate nceds of the boj or 
girl of fifteen, for whose use this volume is especially 
designed ; desiring to help the student do his work, 
not to do his work for him ; seldom translating a pas- 
sage, but preferring to call his attention to the princi- 
ple of construction involved, and then leave it for 
him to make ont the meaning for himself ; consulting 
freely the great historians, chiefly Grote, Mommsen, 
and Merivale, but forbearing to load the page with 
masses of mere information, however interesting. 

In preparing the Vocabulary, we have thought best, 
for many reasons, to make its range broad enough to 
cover the whole body of classical Roman literature, 
rather than any single selection of authors. For this 
object it has been read twice with every article in 
Andrews's large Lexicon, and most of it, besides, with 
the much more copious one of White and Riddle. To 
bring it within the compass of two hundred pages has 
required, besides the careful packing of each page and 
line, very large omissions. In particular, many classes 
of derivations and compounds, occurring rarely, or 
else quite obvious in their meaning ; numerous words 
used in a purely technical sense by legists, gramma- 
rians, and naturalists ; woids of late or doubtful 

* Besides numerous American school editions, we have cliiefly used 
for Pliaedrus, Kaschig and SiebeHs ; for Caesar, Doberenz ; for Cur- 
tius, Zumpt, whose critical edition we have mainlj followed ; for Sal- 
lust, Jacobs and Long; for Ovid, Ilaupt in the Metamorphoses, 
liamsay, Paley and Siebelis in tlie Fasti ; for Virgil, Ladewig ; for 
Cicero's Epistles, Frey, Hofmann, Hoffa, and Abeken (Merivale's 
version) ; for Tacitus, Nipperdey and Eitter. In a few cases we have 
referred [" Hb."] to the " Handbook of Classical Geography, &c.,pre- 
pared by T. P. and W. F. Allen." 


autliority, or else mere archseological curiosities ; to- 
getlier with a few terms or meaiiiugs rejected ou the 
score of deceucy, have been freely omitted. With 
this qualificatiou, we think that the learner who has 
been taught so much of derivative forms and combina- 
tions as we have given here on a single page, ueed 
uever be at a loss for the meaning or inflection of 
auy word he is Ukely to meet in any classical author 
from Plautus to Tacitus ; while this Vocabulary will 
be found peculiarly rich in terms of common hfe. It 
includes about 15,000 words, with the addition of 
about 1,300 proper names or adjectives and more than 
200 dates, carefuUy selected, so as to make a conven- 
ient manual of reference, both as to the main points 
of ancient history (including numerous matters of 
Eoman antiquities and poUtics), and as to those my- 
thological allusions, which may be called the common 
stock of classical traditioii. In this way, we have 
aimed to keep before the learner's eye some hint of 
the wealth and variety in diction of the language he is 
studying ; while his judgment in the use of it will be 
better trained than by servile reliance on a mere list 
of words, however copious and redundant, prepared 
for his present convenience only. 

The three volumes now before the public contain 
what may be regarded as a complete and sufficient 
course of Latin study for those who desire only a gen- 
eral acquaintance with the language ; and more partic- 
ularly designed for those classes in Academies and 
High or Normal schools, which may be presumed able 
to give only one or two years to classical study. To 
such, it will be a tolerably full course of reading in it- 
self ; and, to others, a sufficient preparation for the many 
excellent editions of standard authors in current use. 


For the aid of tliose who desire a more critical ac- 
quaintaiice with the language, and a more intimate 
knowledge, from original sources, of the most eventful 
period of Roman history, we have in preparation a 
Manual of Latin Composition, which may be looked for 
within a year, and an edition of C£esar's Civil War, 
to be amply illustrated from the history and writings 
of his own time. 

Cambridge, Massachusetts. 
August, 1869; 




I. Z><? K^/Z^e et Uvd. 

Fam^ coacta viilpes alta in vinea 
Uvam appetebat summis saliens viribus. 
Quam tangere ut non p6tuit, discedens ait : 
" Nondiim matura est, n61o acerbam sumere." 

Qiii facere quse non p6ssunt verbis elevant, 5 

Adscribere hoc debebunt exempliim sibi. 

II. Vulpes et Hircus. 

Homo fn periclum simul ac venit callidus, 
Reperire eftugium alterius quasrit malo. 

Cum decidisset viilpes in puteum inscia, 
Et altiore claiideretur margine, 

Devenit hircus sitiens in eundem locum ; 5 

Simiil rogavit, esset an dulcis Hquor 
Et c6piosus ? Illa fraudem m6Hens : 
" Descende, amice ; tanta bonitas est aquae, 
Voluptas ut satiari non possit mea." 

Immisit se barbatus. Tum vulpecula 10 

Evasit puteo, nixa celsis c6rnibus, 
Hirciimque clauso hquit hserentem vado. 


III. Lupus et Agnus. 

Ad rfvum eundem lupus et agnus v^nerant, 
Sitf compulsi. Superior stabat lupus 
Longeque inferior agnus. Tunc fauce fmproba 
Latro fncitatus, jurgii causam fntulit ; 
" Cur," fnquit, " turbulentam fecistf mihi 5 

Aquam bibenti ? " Laniger contra timens : 
" Qui p6ssum, quseso, facere quod quererfs, lupe? 
A te decurrit ad meos haustiis liquor." 
Repulsus ille v^ritatis vfribus, 

'' Ante h6s sex menses male," ait, " dixistf mihi." lo 

Resp6ndit agnus : " Equidem natus n6n eram." 
" Pater hercule tuus," fnquit, " male dixft mihi 
Atque fta correptum lacerat injusta nece." 

Haec pr6pter illos scrfpta est homines fabula, 
Qui ffctis causis fnnocentes 6pprimunt. 15 

IV. Vipera et Lima. 

Mordaciorem qui fmprobo dente adpetit, 
Hoc argumento se describi sentiat. 

In 6fficinam fabri venit vfpera. 
Haec, ciim tentarety sf qua res ess^t cibi, 
Limam momordit. Illa contra c6ntumax, 5 

" Quid me," fnquit, " stulta, dente captas laedere, 
Omne ddsuevi ferrum quae corr6dere ? " 

V. Canis et Crocodilus. 

Consflia qui dant prava cautis h6minibus, 
Et p^rdunt operam et deridentur tiirpiter. 

Canes currentes bfbere in Nilo fliimine, 
A c6rcodilis ne rapiantur, traditum est. 
Igitiir cum currens bfbere ccepisset canis, 5 


Sic c6rcodilus : " Quam libet lambe 6tio, 
Noli vereri." At ille : " Facerem me h(^rcule, 
Nisi esse sclrem carnis te cupidiim meae." 

VI. Muli et Latrones, 

MuK gi*avati sarcinis ibant duo : 
Unus ferebat fiscos cum peciinia ; 
Alter tumentes multo saccos h6rdeo. 
Ille, 6nere dives, celsa cervice eminet, 
Clarumque collo jactat tintinnabulum ; 5 

Comes quieto sc^quitur et placid6 gradu. 
Subit6 latrones ex insidiis advolant, 
Interque caedem ferro mulum saiiciant : 
Diripiunt nummos, ndgligunt vile h6rdeum. 
Spoliatus igitur casus ciim fleret suos, 10 

" Equidem," inquit alter, " me contemptum gaudeo ; 
Nam nihil amisi, nec sum laesus vulnere." 

Hoc argumento tiita est hominum tenuitas : 
Magnae periclo sunt opes obn^xiae. 

VII. Calvus et Musca. 

Calvf momordit miisca nudatum caput ; 
Quam opprimere captans alapam sibi duxit gravem, 
Tunc illa irridens : " Piinctum volucris pdrvulae 
Voluisti morte ulcisci : quid facies tibi, 
Injiiriae qui addideris contumeliam ? " 5 

Resp6ndit : " Mecum facile redeo in grdtiam, 
Qiiia n6n fuisse mentem Isedendf scio ; 
Sed te, contempti generis animal fmprobum, 
Quae d^lectaris bfbere humanum sdnguinem, 
Optem necare v^l majore inc6mmodo." Id 

Hoc argumentum veniam ei darf docet, 
Qui casu peccat. Nam qui consilio ^st nocens, 
Illum esse qudvis dignum poena jiidico. 


VIII. Homo et Colubra. 

Qui fert malis auxilium, post tempiis doiet. 

Gelii rigentem quidam colubram sustulit. 
Sinuque fovit, c6ntra se ipse misericors ; 
Namque ut refecta est, necuit hominem pr6tinus. 
Hanc alia cimi rogaret causam fdcinoris, 5 

Resp6ndit : " Ne quis discat prodesse improbis." 

IX. Asinus ad Senem Pastorem. 

In prfncipatu c6mmutando civium 
Nil pr^eter domini n6men mutant pauperes. 
Id esse verum, pai^va haec fabella indicat. 

AseUum in prato tfmidus pascebat senex. 
Is, li6stium clam6re subito territus, 5 

Suadebat asino fiigere, ne possent capi. 
At ille lentus : " Qtiaeso, num binas mihi 
Clitellas impositurum victorem putas?" 
Senex negavit. "Ergo quid refert mea, 
Cui serviam } clitellas dum portem meas." 10 

X. Lupus et Gruis. 

Qui pretium meriti ab improbis desiderat, 
Bis peccat : primum qu6niam indignos adjuvat ; 
Impiine abire deinde quia jam n6n potest. 

Os devoratum faiice cum haereret lupi, 
Magn6 dolore victus coepit singulos 5 

Illicere pretio, ut illud extraherent malum, 
Tandem persuasa est jurejurand6 gruis, 
GuliEque credens c611i longitiidinem, 
Periculosam fecit medicinam lupo. 

Pro qu6 cum pactum flagitaret praemium : lo 

" Ingrata es," inquit, " 6re quse nostr6 caput 
Inc61ume abstuleris, et mercedem p6stules." 


XI. Socrates ad Amicos. 

Vulgare amici n6men, sed rara est fides. 

Ciim parvas aedes sibi fundasset S6crates, 
(Cujiis non fugio m6rtem, si famam adsequar, 
Et c6do invidiaB, dummodo absolvar cinis) 
E p6pulo sic, nescfo quis, ut fieri solet : 5 

" Qiiaes6 tam angustam, talis vir, ponis domum?" 
'' Utinam," fnquit, " veris hanc amicis impleam ! " 

XII. Gtibernator et Nautce. 

Cum d^ fortunis qufdam quereretur suis ; 
-^s6pus finxit c6nsolandi gratia : 

Vexdta saevis ndvis tempestatibus, 
Inter vectorum Idcrimas et mortis metum, 
Faciem dd serenam siibito ut mutatiir dies, 5 

Ferri secundis tiita coepit flatibus, 
Nimiaque nautas hflaritate ext611ere. 
Factiis periclo tiim gubernat6r sophus : 
" Parce gaudere op6rtet, et sensim queri, 
Totam quia vitam miscet dolor et gaiidium." lo 

XIII. y^sopus et Petulans. 

Successus ad perniciem multos devocat. 

yEs6po quidam petulans lapidem impegerat. 
" Tanto," inquit, " melior ! " Assem deinde illi dedit, 
Sic pr6secutus : " Pliis non habeo meh6rcule, 
Sed unde accipere p6ssis, monstrab6 tibi." 5 

Venit ecce dives et potens ; huic similiter 
" Impf nge lapidem, et clignum accipies prasmium." 
Persuasus ille fecit, quod monitiis fuit : 
Sed spes fefellit fmpudentem audaciam: 
Comprensus namque poenas persolvft crucc. lo^ 


XIV. Rana Rupta et Bos. 

Indps, potentem diim vult imitari, perit. 

In prato quondam rana conspexit bovem, 
Et, tacta invidia tdntse magnitiidinis, 
Rug6sam inflavit pellem. Tum nat6s suos 
Interrogavit, an bove esset latior? 5 

lili negarunt. Rursus intendit cutem 
Maj6re nisu ; et simili quaesivit modo, 
"Qiiis major esset?" Illi dixeriint, bovem. 
Novissime indigndta, dum vult validius 
Inflare sese, riipto jacuit c6rpore. 10 

XV. Rance Regem Petentes. 

Athdnce cum florerent aequis legibus, 
Procax libertas civitatem miscuit, 
Freniimque solvit pristinum licentia. 
Hinc c6nspiratis factionum partibus, 

Arcem tyrannus 6ccupat Pisistratus. 5 

Cum tristem servitutem flerent Attici, 
Non quia crudelis ille, sed quoniam grave 
Omne insuetis 6nus, et cocpissent queri : 
yEs6pus talem tum fabellam rettulit: 

Ranae, vagantes liberis paliidibus, 10 

Clam6re magno regem petiere a Jove, 
Qui dissolutos m6res vi compesceret. 
Pater deorum risit, atque illis dedit 
Parvum tigillum, missum quod subit6 vadis 
Motii sonoque terruit pnvidum genus. 15 

Hoc mersum limo cum lateret diutius, 
Forte lina tacite pr6fert e stagn6 daput, 
Et ^xplorato rege cunctas evocat. 
Illae, timore p6sito, certatim adnatant, 
Ligniimque supra tiirba petulans insilit. 20 

Qiiod ciim inquinassent 6mni contumelia, 


Aliiim rogantes regem misere ad Jovem, 

Iniitilis quoniam esset, qui fuerat datus. 

Tum misit illis hydrum, qui dente aspero 

Corripere coepit singulas. Frustra necem 25 

Fugitant inertes : v6cem prsecludit metus. 

Furtim igitur dant Merciirio mandata ad Jovem, 

Afflictis ut succurrat. Tunc contra deus : 

" Qiiia n61uistis vestrum ferre," inquit, '' bonum, 

Maiiim perferte." V6s quoque, o cives, ait, 30 

Hoc siistlnete, majus ne veniat, malum. 

XVI. Scurra. et Rusticus. 

Prav6 favore labi mortales solent, 
Et, pr6 judicio diim stant erroris sui, 
Ad poenitendum rebus manifestis agi. 

Factiirus ludos quidam dives n6biles 
Prop6sito cunctos invitavit praemio, 5 

Qiiam qufsque posset, lit novitatem ost^nderet. 
Venere artifices laiidis ad certamina : 
Qiios inter scurra, n6tus urban6 sale, 
Habere dixit se genus spectaculi, 

Qiiod in theatro niimquam prolatiim foret. 10 

Dispersus rumor civitatem c6ncitat. 
PauUo ante vacua tiirbam deficiiint loca. 
In scena vero p6stquam solus c6nstitit, 
Sine apparatu, niillis adjut6ribus, 

Silentium ipsa fecit exspectatio. 15 

Ille in sinum repente dimisit caput, 
Et sfc porcelli v6cem est imitatiis sua, 
Verum lit subesse pallio cont^nderent, 
Et excuti juberent. Quo fact6, simul 

Nihil est repertum, miiltis onerant laiidibus, 20 

Hominemque plausu pr6sequuntur maximo. 
Hoc vidit fieri riisticus. " Non meh6rcule 
Me vincet " inquit : et statim professus est, 



Idem facturum m^lius se postridie. 

Fit tiirba major. Jam favor meiites tenet, 25 

Et derisuri, non spectaturi, sedent. 

Uterque prodit. Scurra degrunnit prior, 

Movetque plausus, et clamores suscitat. 

Tunc simulans sese vestimentis rusticus 

Porcellum obtegere (qu6d faciebat scilicet, 30 

Sed, in priore quia nil compererant, latens), 

Pei-\-ellit aurem vero, quem celaverat, 

Et cum dolore v6cem naturae exprimit. 

Acclamat populus, sciirram multo similius 

Imitatum, et cogit, rusticum trudi foras. 35 

At ille profert ipsum porcellum e sinu, 

Turpemque aperto pignore error^m probans : 

" En ! hic declarat, quales sitis jiidices ! " 

XVII. Cervus et Boves. 

Cervus nemorosis excitatus latibulis, 
Ut v^natorum fugeret instantem necem, 
Caec6 timore pr6ximam villam petit, 
Et 6pportuno se bovili c6ndidit. 

Hic b6s latenti : " Quidnam voluistf tibi, 5 

Infelix, ultro qui ad necem cucurreris, 
Hominumque tecto spiritum commiseris ? '* 
At ille supplex : " V6s modo," fnquit, " parcite : 
Occasione rursus erumpam data." 

Spatiiim diei n6ctis excipiiint vices. 10 

Frondem bubulcus ddfert, nec ide6 videt. 
Eiint subinde et redeunt omnes rustici, 
Nemo animadvertit ; transit etiam vfllicus, 
Nec ille quidquam s^ntit. Tum gaudens ferus 
Bubus quietis agere coepit gratias, 15 

Hospitium adverso qu6d prgestiterint tempore. 
Resp6ndit unus : " Salvum te cupimiis quidem ; 
Sed ille, qui oculos centum habet, si venerit, 


Magno fn periclo vita vertetiir tua." 

Haec fnter ipse d6minus a cena redit ; 20 

Et, quia corruptos viderat nuper boves, 

Accedit ad praesepe : " Cur frondis parum est? 

Stramenta desunt. T611ere haec aranea, 

Quantum est laboris ? " Diim scrutatur singula, 

Cervi quoque alta c6nspicatur c6rnua ; 25 

Quem c6nvocata jiibet occidi familia, 

Praedamque toUit. 

Haec significat fabula, 
Dominiim videre plurimum in rebus suis. 

XVIII. Mus Urbamis et Rusticus, 

Hospftio quondam miis urbanus rustici 

Exceptus vili gldnde cenat in cavo. 

Indiixit precibus p6st ut urbem riisticus 

Cellamque intraret plenam rebus 6ptimis. 

In qua dum variis perfruuntur reliquiis, 5 

Impiilso venit 6stio cellarius. 

Quo miires strepitu diffugiunt perterriti, 

Et n6tis facile urbanus se condit cavis ; 

At miser ignota trepidans rusticiis domo 

Timensque mortem, per parietes ciirsitat. 10 

Ut quae volebat siistulit cellarius, 

Clausitque limen, iterum urbanus riisticum 

Hortatur ; ille perturbatis sensibus, 

" Vix," inquit, " possum capere prae metii cibum. 

Putasne veniet ille?" " Quid tantiim times?" 15 

Urbanus inquit ; " age fruamur ferculis, 

Qiiae friistra rure qu^eras." Contra riisticus : 

" Tu qui timere nescis fruere his 6mnibus ; 

At me securum pascat glans et liberum." 

In paiipertate tiitum praestat vivere, 20 

Quam dfvitiarum carpi solitiidine. 


XIX. Naufragium Simonidis. 

Homo d6ctus in se semper divitias habet. 

Sim6nides, qui scripsit egregium melos, 
Quo paupertatem sustineret facilius, 
Circuire coepit lirbes Asiai n6biles, 

Mercede accepta laudem victorum canens, 5 

IIoc genere quaestus p6stquam locuples factus est, 
Redire in patriam v61uit cursu pelagio ; 
Erat autem natus, ut aiunt, in Cea insula. 
Adscendit navem : quam tempestas h6rrida 
Simul et vetustas medio dissolvit mari. 10 

Hi z6nas, illi res pretiosas c611igunt, 
Subsidium vitas. Qin'dam curi6sior : 
" Sim6nide, tu ex 6pibus nil sumis tuis.^" 
"Mecum," inquit, " mea sunt cuncta." Tunc pauci 

Qiiia pliires onere degravati perierant. 15 

Praed6nes adsunt, rapiunt quod quisque extulit, 
Nud6s relinquunt. F6rte Clazomenae prope 
Antiqua fuit urbs, quam petierunt naiifragi. 
Hic litterarum quidam studio deditus, 
Sim6nidis qui saspe versus legerat, 20 

Eratque absentis admirator maximus, 
Serm6ne ab ipso c6gnitum cupidissime 
Ad se recepit ; veste, nummis, filmilia 
Hominem exornavit. Ceteri tabulam suam 
Portant, rogantes vfctum. Qiios casu 6bvios 2<^ 

Sim6nides ut vidit : " Dixi," inquit, " mea 
Mecum esse cuncta ; v6s quod rapuistis, perit." 



I. First Invasion of Britain, 

(B.C. SS-^ 

[From C^sar's Gallic War : Book IV. Chapters 20-36.] 

Exigua parte agstatis reliqua Cassar, etsi in his 
locis, quod omnis Gallia ad septemtriones vergit, 
mciturse sunt hiemes, tamen in Britanniam profi- 
cisci contendit, quod omnibus fere GalHcis belHs 
hostibus nostris inde subministrata auxilia intelhg^- 
bat, et si tempus anni ad beUum gerendum deficeret, 
tamen magno sibi usui fore arbitrabatur si modo in- 
sulam adisset et genus hominum perspexisset, loca, 
portus, aditus cognovisset ; quae omnia fere GalHs 
erant incognita. Neque enim temere praeter merca- 
tores iUo adit quisquam, neque his ipsis quidquam 
praster oram maritimam atque eas regiones quse sunt 
contra GaHias notum est. Itaque vocatis ad se un- 
dique mercatoribus, neque quanta esset insulas mag- 
nitudo, neque quae aut quantge nationes incolerent, 
neque quem usum beHi haberent aut quibus institutis 
uterentur, neque qui essent ad majorum navium 
multitudinem idonei portus, reperire poterat. 

Ad haec cognoscenda, priusquam periculum face- 
ret, idoneum esse arbitratus C. Volusenum cum navi 
longa praemittit. Huic mandat uti exploratis omni- 
bus rebus ad se quam primum revertatur. Ipse cum 


omnibus copiis in Morinos proficiscitur, quod inde 
erat brevissimus in Britanniam trajectus. Huc na- 
ves undique ex finitimis regionibus, et quam superi- 
ore aestate ad Veneticum bellum effecerat classem, 
jubet convenire. Interim consilio ejus cognito, et 
per mercatores perlato ad Britannos, a compluribus 
insulag civitatibus ad eum legati veniunt, qui pollice- 
antur obsides dare atque imperio populi Romani 
obtemperare. Quibus auditis, liberaliter pollicitus 
hortatusque ut in ea sententia permanerent, eos do- 
mum remittit, et cum iis una Commium, quem ipse 
Atrebatibus superatis regem ibi constituerat, cujus 
et virtutem et consilium probabat, et quem sibi fide- 
lem esse arbitrabatur, cujusque auctoritas in his 
regionibus magni habebatur, mittit. Huic imperat 
quas possit adeat civitates, horteturque ut populi 
Romani fidem sequantur, seque celeriter eo ventu- 
rum nuntiet. Volusenus perspectis regionibus 
omnibus quantum ei facultas dari potuit, qui navi 
egredi ac se barbaris committere non auderet, quin- 
to die ad Caesarem revertitur jquasque ibi perspexis- 
set renuntiat. . . . 

His constitutis rebus, nactus idoneam ad navigan- 
dum tempestatem, tertia fere vigiHa solvit, equites- 
que in ulteriorem portum progredi et naves con- 
scendere et se sequi jussit. A quibus cum paulo 
tardius esset administratum, ipse hora circiter diei 
quarta cum primis navibus Britanniam attigit, atque 
ibi in omnibus coUibus expositas hostium copias ar- 
matas conspexit. Cujus loci haec erat natura, atque 
ita montibus angustis mare continebatur, uti ex locis 
superioribus in htus telum adigi posset. Hunc ad 
egrediendum nequaquam idoneum locum arbitratus, 


dum reliquae naves eo convenirent, ad horam no- 
nam in ancoris exspectavit. Interim legatis tribu- 
nisque militum convocatis, et quae ex Voluseno 
cognosset et quas fieri vellet ostendit; monuitque (ut 
rei militaris ratio, maxime ut maritimae res postula- 
rent, ut quas celerem atque instabilem motum 
haberent) ad nutum et ad tempus omnes res ab iis 
administrarentur. His dimissis, et ventum et aestum 
uno tempore nactus secundum, dato signo et sub- 
latis ancoris, circiter miHa passuum vii ab eo loco 
progressus, aperto ac pLano Htore naves constituit. 

At barbari, consiHo Romanorum cognito, prae- 
misso equitatu et essedariis, quo plerumque genere 
in proeHis uti consuerunt, reHquis copiis subsecuti 
nostros navibus egredi prohibebant. Erat ob has 
causas summa difficuHas, quod naves propter ma- 
gnitudinem nisi in alto constitui non poterant, miHti- 
bus autem ignotis locis, impeditis manibus, magno 
et gravi onere armorum oppressis, simul et de navi- 
bus desiHendum et in fluctibus consistendum et cum 
hostibus erat pugnandum ; cum iHi aut ex arido aut 
paulum in aquam progressi, omnibus membris expe- 
ditis, notissimis locis audacter tela conjicerent, et 
equos insuefactos incitarent. Quibus rebus nostri 
perterriti, atque hujus omnino generis pugnas impe- 
riti, non eadem alacritate ac studio qiio in pedestri- 
bus uti proeHis consuerant utebantur. 

Quod ubi Csesar animadvertit, naves longas, 
quarum et species erat barbaris inusitatior, et motus 
ad usum expeditior, paulum removeri ab onerariis 
navibus et remis incitari et ad latus apertum hostium 
constitui, atque inde fundis, sagittis, tormentis hostes 
propeUi ac submoveri jussit ; quae res magno usui 


nostris fuit. Nam et navium figura et remorum 
motu et inusitato genere tormentorum permoti bar- 
bari constiterunt, ac paulum modo pedem retulerunt. 
Atque nostris militibus cunctantibus, maxime pro- 
pter altitudinem maris, qui decimae legionis aquilam 
ferebat, contestatus deos ut ea res legioni feliciter 
eveniret, '' Desilite," inquit, " commilitones, nisi vul- 
tis aquilam hostibus prodere : ego certe meum rei 
publicas atque imperatori officium prsestitero." Hoc 
cum voce magna dixisset, se ex navi projecit, atque 
in hostes aquilam ferre coepit. Tum nostri cohortati 
inter se, ne tantum dedecus admitteretur, universi 
ex navi desiluerunt. Hos item ex proximis primis 
navibus cum conspexissent, subsecuti hostibus ap- 

Pugnatum est ab utrisque acriter. Nostri tamen, 
quod neque ordines servare, neque firmiter insistere, 
neque signa subsequi poterant, atque alius aHa ex 
navi quibuscumque signis occurrerat se aggregabat, 
magnopere perturbabantur : hostes vero notis omni- 
bus vadis, ubi ex Htore aHquos singulares ex navi 
egredientes conspexerant, incitatis equis impeditos 
adoriebantur, plures paucos circumsistebant, aHi ab 
latere aperto in universos tela conjiciebant. Quod 
cum animadvertisset Cassar, scaphas longarum na- 
vium, item speculatoria navigia miHtibus compleri 
jussit, et quos laborantes conspexerat, his subsidia 
submittebat. Nostri simul in arido constiterunt, 
suis omnibus consecutis in hostes impetum fecerunt, 
atque eos in fugam dederunt, neque longius prose- 
qui potuerunt, quod equites cursum tenere atque 
insulam capere non potuerant. Hoc unum ad pri- 
stinam fortunam Cassari defuit. 


Hostes proelio superati, simul atque se ex fuga 
receperunt, statim ad Cassarem legatos de pace 
miserunt, obsides daturos quasque imperasset factu- 
ros sese polliciti sunt. Una cum his legatis Com- 
mius Atrebas venit, quem supra demonstraveram a 
Caesare in Britanniam praemissum. Hunc illi e navi 
egressum, cum ad eos oratoris modo Cassaris man- 
data deferret, comprehenderant atque in vincula 
conjecerant : tum proeHo facto remiserunt, et in 
petenda pace ejus rei culpam in muhitudinem con- 
tulerunt, et propter imprudentiam ut ignosceretur 
petiverunt. Caesar questus, quod cum uhro in con- 
tinentem legatis missis pacem ab se petissent, belhim 
sine causa intuHssent, ignoscere imprudentiae dixit, 
obsidesque imperavit ; quorum ihi partem statim 
dederunt, partem ex longinquioribus locis arcessi- 
tam paucis diebus sese daturos dixerunt. Interea 
suos remigrare in agros jusserunt, principesque un- 
dique convenire, et se civitatesque suas Caesari com- 
mendare coeperunt. 

His rebus pace confirmata, post diem quartum 
quam"est in Britanniam ventum, naves xviii, de 
quibus supra demonstratum est, quae equites sustule- 
rant, ex superiore portu leni vento solverunt. Quae 
cum appropinquarent Britanniae et ex castris vide- 
rentur, tanta tempestas subito coorta est ut nuUa 
earum cursum tenere posset, sed aHae eodem unde 
erant profectae referrentur, aHae ad inferiorem par- 
tem insulee, quae est propius soHs occasum, magno 
sui cum periculo dejicerentur, necessario adversa 
nocte in ahum provectae continentem petierunt. 

Eadem nocte accidit ut esset luna plena, qui dies 
maritimos asstus maximos in Oceano efficere consue- 


vit, nostrisque id erat incognitum. Ita uno tempore 
et longas naves, quibus Caesar exercitum transpor- 
tandum curaverat, quasque in aridum subduxerat, 
£estus complebat, et onerarias qu£e ad ancoras erant 
deligatae tempestas afflictabat, neque ulla nostris 
facultas aut administrandi aut auxiliandi dabatur. 
Compluribus navibus fractis, reliquae cum essent 
(funibus ancoris reliquisque armamentis amissis) ad 
navigandum inutiles, magna (id quod necesse erat 
accidere) totius exercitus perturbatio facta est. 
Neque enim naves erant aliag quibus reportari pos- 
sent, et omnia deerant quai ad reficiendas naves 
erant usui ; et quod omnibus constabat hiemari in 
Gallia oportere, frumentum his in locis in hiemem 
provisum non erat. 

Quibus rebus cognitis, principes Britanni^, qui 
post proelium ad Caesarem convenerant, inter se col- 
locuti cum equites et naves et frumentum Romanis 
deesse intelHgerent, et paucitatem mihtum ex castro- 
rum exiguitate cognoscerent, quae hoc erant etiam 
angustiora quod sine impedimentis Cassar legiones 
transportaverat, optimum factu esse duxerunt» rebel- 
lione facta frumento commeatuque nostros prohibere, 
et rem in hiemem producere ; quod, his superatis aut 
reditu interclusis, neminem postea belli inferendi 
causa in Britanniam transiturum confidebant. Ita- 
que rursus conjuratione facta, paulatim ex castris 
discedere, ac suos clam ex agris deducere coepe- 

At Cassar, etsi nondum eorum consilia cognove- 
rat, tamen et ex eventu navium suarum, et ex eo 
quod obsid-es dare intermiserant, fore id quod accidit 
suspicabatur. Itaque ad omnes casus subsidia com- 


parabat. Nam et frumentum ex agris quotidie in 
castra conferebat, et quae gravissime afflictas erant 
naves, earum materia atque sere ad reliquas reficien- 
das utebatur, et quse ad eas res erant usui ex con- 
tinenti comportari jubebat. Itaque cum summo 
studio a militibus administraretur, xii navibus amis- 
sis, reliquis ut navigari commode posset effecit. 

Dum ea geruntur, legione ex consuetudine una 
frumentatum missa, quas appellabatur septima, ne- 
que ulla ad id tempus belli suspicione interposita, 
cum pars hominum in agris remaneret, pars etiam 
in castra ventitaret, ii qui pro portis castrorum in 
statione erant Caesari nuntiaverunt pulverem majo- 
rem quam consuetudo ferret in ea parte videri, quam 
in partem legio iter fecisset. C^esar id quod erat 
suspicatus, aliquid novi a barbaris initum consilii, 
cohortes quas in stationibus erant secum in eam par- 
tem proficisci, ex reHquis duas in stationem cohortes 
succedere, reliquas armari et confestim sese subse- 
qui jussit. Cum paulo longius a castris processisset, 
suos ab hostibus premi atque aggre sustinere, et con- 
ferta legione ex omnibus partibus tela conjici ani- 
madvertit. Nam quod, omni ex rehquis partibus 
demesso frumento, pars una erat reliqua, suspicati 
hostes huc nostros esse venturos, noctu in silvis de- 
lituerant ; tum dispersos, depositis armis in metendo 
occupatos subito adorti, paucis interfectis, rehquos 
incertis ordinibus perturbaverant, simul equitatu at- 
que essedis circumdederant. 

Genus hoc est essedis pugnse : primo per omnes 
partes perequitant, et tela conjiciunt, atque ipso ter- 
rore equorum et strepitu rotarum ordines plerumque 
perturbant, et cum se inter equitum turmas insinu- 



averunt, ex essedis desiliunt et pedibus proeliantur. 
Aurigas interim paulatim ex proelio excedunt, atque 
ita currus collocant, ut si illi a multitudine hostium 
premantur expeditum ad suos receptum habeant. 
Ita mobilitatem equitum, stabiHtatem peditum in 
proeHis prasstant ; ac tantum usu quotidiano et exer- 
citatione efficiunt, uti in decHvi ac praecipiti loco 
incitatos equos sustinere, et brevi moderari ac fle- 
ctere et per temonem percurrere, et in jugo insistere 
et se inde in currus citissime recipere consuerint. 

Quibus rebus, perturbatis nostris novitate pugnae, 
tempore opportunissimo Csesar auxiHum tuHt ; nam- 
que ejus adventu hostes constiterunt, nostri se ex 
timore receperunt. Quo facto ad lacessendum et ad 
committendum proeHum aHenum esse tempus arbi- 
tratus, suo se loco continuit, et brevi tempore in- 
termisso in castra legiones reduxit. Dum hasc 
geruntur, nostris omnibus occupatis, qui erant in 
agris reHqui discesserunt. Secutas sunt continuos 
compluros dies tempestates, quae et nostros in ca- 
stris continerent, et hostem a pugna prohiberent. 
Interim barbari nuntios in omnes partes dimiserunt, 
paucitatemque nostrorum miHtum suis praedicave- 
runt, et quanta praedae faciendae atque in perpetuum 
sui Hberandi facultas daretur, si Romanos castris 
expuHssent, demonstraverunt. His rebus celeriter 
magna multitudine peditatus equitatusque coacta, ad 
castra venerunt. 

Caesar etsi idem quod superioribus diebus accide- 
rat fore videbat, ut si essent hostes pulsi, celeritate 
periculum effugerent, tamen nactus equites circiter 
XXX, quos Commius Atrebas, de quo ante dictum 
est, secum transportaverat, legiones in acie pro ca- 


stris constituit. Commisso proelio, diutius nostrorum 
militum impetum hostes ferre non potuerunt, ac 
terga verterunt. Quos tanto spatio secuti quantum 
cursu et viribus efficere potuerunt, complures ex iis 
occiderunt; deinde, omnibus longe lateque aedificiis 
incensis, se in castra receperunt. 

Eodem die legati ab hostibus missi ad Caesarem 
de pace venerunt. His Caesar numerum obsidum 
quem ante imperaverat dupHcavit, eosque in conti- 
nentem adduci jussit, quod propinqua die asquino- 
ctii, infirmis navibus hiemi navigationem subjicien- 
dam non existimabat. Ipse idoneam tempestatem 
nactus, paulo post mediam noctem naves solvit, 
quas omnes incolumes ad continentem pervenerunt ; 
sed ex iis onerariae duae eosdem quos rehqui portus 
capere non potuerunt, et paulo infira delatae sunt. 

2. Second Invasion of Britain, 
(B.C. 54.) 

[Book V. Chapters 8-23.] 

His rebus gestis, sohs occasu naves solvit, 
et leni Africo provectus, media circiter nocte vento 
intermisso cursum non tenuit ; et longius dela- 
tus asstu, orta luce sub sinistra Britanniam rehctam 
conspexit. Tum rursus aestus commutationem secu- 
tus, remis contendit ut eam partem insul^E caperet, 
qua optimum esse egressum superiore asstate co- 
gnoverat. Qua in re admodum fuit mihtum virtus 
laudanda, qui vectoriis gravibusque navigiis, non 
intermisso remigandi labore, longarum navium cur- 
sum adaequarunt. Accessum est ad Britanniam 
omnibus navibus meridiano fere tempore ; neque in 


eo loco hostis est visus, sed ut postea Cassar ex ca- 
ptivis cognovit, cum magnse manus eo convenissent, 
multitudine navium perterrit£e, quag amplius octin- 
gentse uno erant visas tempore, a litore discesserant, 
ac se in superiora loca abdiderant. 

Caesar, exposito exercitu et loco castris idoneo 
capto, ubi ex captivis cognovit quo in loco hostium 
copiag consedissent, cohortibus x ad mare rehctis, et 
equitibus ccc qui . prassidio navibus essent, de tertia 
vigilia ad hostes contendit, eo minus veritus navibus 
quod in litore molli atque aperto dehgatas ad anco- 
ram reHnquebat, et pragsidio navibus Q^, Atrium 
prsefecit. Ipse, noctu progressus miHa passuum cir- 
citer xir, hostium copias conspicatus est. IIH, equi- 
tatu atque essedis ad flumen progressi, ex loco 
superiore nostros prohibere et proeHum committere 
coeperunt. Repulsi ab equitatu, se in silvas abdide- 
runt, locum nacti egregie et natura et opere muni- 
tum, quem domestici beUi ut videbatur causa jam 
ante preeparaverarit ; nam crebris arboribus succisis 
omnes introitus erant praechisi. Ipsi ex silvis rari 
propugnabant, nostrosque intra munitiones ingredi 
prohibebant. At miHtes legionis vii, testudine facta 
et aggere ad munitiones adjecto, locum ceperunt 
eosque ex silvis expulerunt, paucis vulneribus accep- 
tis. Sed eos fugientes longius Csesar prosequi vetuit, 
et quod loci naturam ignorabat, et quod magna parte 
diei consumpta, munitioni castrorum tempus reHnqui 

Postridie ejus diei, mane tripertito miHtes equites- 
que in expeditionem misit, ut eos qui fugerant per- 
sequerentur. His aHquantum itineris progressis, 
cum jam extremi essent in prospectu, equites a Q^ 


Atrio ad Caesarem venerunt, qui nunciarent superi- 
ore nocte, maxima coorta tempestate, prope omnes 
naves afflictas atque in litore ejectas esse ; quod 
neque ancorse funesque subsisterent, neque nautae 
gubernatoresque vim tempestatis pati possent ; ita- 
que ex eo concursu navium magnum esse incommo- 
dum acceptum. 

His rebus cognitis, Cassar legiones equitatumque 
revocari atque itinere desistere jubet, ipse ad naves 
revertitur : eadem fere quag ex nunciis literisque 
cognoverat coram perspicit, sic ut amissis circiter 
XL navibus, reliquse tamen refici posse magno nego- 
tio viderentur. Itaque ex legionibus fabros deligit, 
et ex continenti.alios arcessi jubet ; Labieno scribit 
ut quam plurimas posset iis legionibus, quae sunt 
apud eum, naves instituat. Ipse etsi res erat multag 
operae ac laboris, tamen commodissimum esse statuit 
omnes naves subduci, et cum castris una munitione 
conjungi. In his rebus circiter dies x consumit, ne 
nocturnis quidem temporibus ad laborem militum 
intermissis. Subductis navibus castrisque egregie 
munitis, easdem copias* quas ante praesidio navibus 
reliquit : ipse eodem unde redierat proficiscitur. E6 
cum venisset, majores jam undique in eum locum 
copiae Britannorum convenerant, summa imperii 
bellique administrandi communi consilio permissa 
Cassivellauno, cujus fines a maritimis civitatibus flu- 
men dividit, quod appellatur Tamesis, a mari circi- 
ter milia passuum lxxx. Huic superiore tempore 
cum reliquis civitatibus continentia bella intercesse- 
rant ; sed nostro adventu permoti Britanni hunc toti 
bello imperioque praefecerant. 

Britannige pars interior ab iis incolitur, quos natos 


in insula ipsa memoria proditum dicunt ; maritima 
pars ab iis qui pragdee ac belli inferendi causa ex 
Belgio transierant, qui omnes fere iis nominibus 
civitatum appellantur, quibus orti ex civitatibus eo 
pervenerunt, et bello illato ibi permanserunt atque 
agros colere cceperunt. Hominum est infinita mul- 
titudo creberrimaque asdificia, fere Gallicis consimi- 
lia ; pecorum magnus numerus. Utuntur aut agre, 
aut nummo agreo, aut taleis ferreis ad certum pondus 
examinatis pro nummo. Nascitur ibi plumbum 
album in mediterraneis regionibus, in maritimis fer- 
rum, sed ejus exigua est copia : aere utuntur impor- 
tato. Materia cujusque generis ut in Gallia est, 
praeter fagum atque abietem. Leporem et gallinam 
et anserem gustare fas non putant ; hasc tamen alunt 
animi voluptatisque causa. Loca sunt temperatiora 
quam in Gallia, remissioribus frigoribus. 

Insula natura triquetra, cujus unum latus est con- 
tra Galliam. Hujus lateris alter angulus qui est ad 
Cantium, quo fere omnes ex Gallia naves appellun- 
tur, ad orientem solem, inferior ad meridiem spectat. 
Hoc latus pertinet circiter milia passuum d. A1- 
terum vergit ad Hispaniam atque occidentem solem, 
qua ex parte est Hibernia, dimidio minor (ut existi- 
matur), quam Britannia, sed pari spatio transmissus 
atque ex Gallia est in Britanniam. In hoc medio 
cursu est insula quas appellatur Mona ; complures 
pragterea minores objectae insulae existimantur ; de 
quibus insulis nonnulli scripserunt dies continuos 
XXX sub bruma esse noctem. Nos nihil de eo per- 
contationibus reperiebamus, nisi certis ex aqua men- 
suris breviores esse quam in continenti noctes 
videbamus. Hujus est longitudo lateris, ut fert 


illorum opinio, dcc milium. Tertium est contra 
septemtriones, cui parti nulla est objecta terra ; sed 
ejus angulus lateris maxime ad Germaniam spectat : 
hoc milia passuum dccc in longitudinem esse existi- 
matur. Ita omnis insula est in circuitu vicies centum 
milium paSwSuum. 

Ex his omnibus longe sunt humanissimi qui Can- 
tium incolunt, quae regio est maritima omnis, neque 
multum a Gallica differunt consuetudine. Interiores 
plerique frumenta non serunt, sed lacte et carne 
vivunt, pelHbusque sunt vestiti. Omnes vero se 
Britanni vitro inficiunt, qu_od casruleum efficit colo- 
rem, atque hoc horridiores sunt in pugna adspectu : 
capilloque sunt promisso, atque omni parte corporis 
rasa pragter caput et labrum superius. 

Equites hostium essedariique acriter proeho cum 
equitatu nostro in itinere conffixerunt, ita tamen ut 
nostri omnibus partibus superiores fuerint, atque eos 
in silvas collesque compulerint, sed compluribus in- 
terfectis cupidius insecuti nonnullos ex suis amise- 
runt. At iUi, intermisso spatio, imprudentibus 
nostris atque occupatis in munitione castrorum, su- 
bito se ex silvis ejecerunt, impetuque in eos facto, 
qui erant in statione pro castris collocati, acriter 
pugnaverunt ; duabusque missis subsidio cohortibus 
a Cassare, atque iis primis legionum duarum, cum 
h£e perexiguo intermisso loci spatio inter se constitis- 
sent, novo genere pugnae perterritis nostris, per 
medios audacissime perruperunt, seque inde incolu- 
mes receperunt. Eo die Q^ Laberius Durus tribunus 
militum interficitur. Illi pluribus submissis cohorti- 
bus repelluntur. 

Toto hoc in genere pugnae, cum sub oculis omni- 


um ac pro castris dimicaretur, intellectum est nostros 
propter gravitatem armorum, quod neque insequi 
cedentes possent, neque ab signis discedere aude- 
rent, minus aptos esse ad hujus generis hostem ; 
equites autem magno cum periculo proeHo dimicare, 
propterea quod illi etiam consulto plerumque cede- 
rent, et cum paulum ab legionibus nostros removis- 
sent, ex essedis desilirent, et pedibus dispari proelio 
contenderent. Equestris autem proelii ratio et ce- 
dentibus et insequentibus par atque idem periculum 
inferebat. Accedebat huc ut numquam conferti, sed 
rari magnisque intervallis proeliarentur, stationesque 
dispositas haberent, atque ahos ahi deinceps excipe- 
rent, integrique et recentes defatigatis succederent. 

Postero die procul a castris hostes in colhbus con- 
stiterunt, rarique se ostendere, et lenius quam pridie 
nostros equites proeho lacessere coeperunt. Sed 
meridie, cum Cagsar pabulandi causa tres legiones 
atque omnem equitatum cum C. Trebonio legato 
misisset, repente ex omnibus partibus ad pabulatores 
advolaverunt, sic uti ab signis legionibusque non 
absisterent. Nostri acriter in eos impetu facto rep- 
pulerunt, neque finem sequendi fecerunt quoad sub- 
sidio confisi equites, cum post se legiones viderent, 
prascipites hostes egerunt, magnoque eorum numero 
interfecto, neque sui cohigendi neque consistendi aut 
ex essedis desihendi facukatem dederunt. Ex hac 
fuga protinus quag undique convenerant auxiha dis- 
cesserunt, neque post id tempus umquam summis 
nobiscum copiis hostes contenderunt. 

Caesar cognito consiho eorum, ad flumen Tamesin 
in fines Cassivehauni exercitum duxit, quod flumen 
uno omnino loco pedibus atque hoc asgre transiri 


potest. E6 cum venisset, animum advertit ad alte- 
ram fluminis ripam magnas esse copias hostium in- 
structas : ripa autem erat acutis sudibus pragfixisque 
munita, ejusdemque generis sub aqua defixse sudes 
flumine tegebantur. His rebus cognitis a captivis 
perfugisque, Cagsar prsemisso equitatu confestim 
legiones subsequi jussit. Sed ea celeritate atque eo 
impetu milites ierunt, cum capite solo ex aqua ex- 
starent, ut hostes impetum legionum atque equitum 
sustinere non possent, ripasque dimitterent, ac se 
fugag mandarent. 

Cassivellaunus, ut supra demonstravimus, omni 
deposita spe contentionis, dimissis amplioribus copiis, 
milibus circiter iv essedariorum rehctis, itinera no- 
stra servabat, pauhimque ex via excedebat, locisque 
impeditis ac silvestribus sese occultabat, atque iis 
regionibus, quibus nos iter facturos cognoverat, pe- 
cora atque homines ex agris in silvas compellebat ; 
et cum equitatus noster Hberius prasdandi vastandi- 
que causa se in agros effunderet, omnibus viis notis 
semitisque essedarios ex silvis emittebat, et magno 
cum periculo nostrorum equitum cum iis confligebat, 
atque hoc metu latius vagari prohibebat. ReHnque- 
batur ut neque longius ab agmine legionum discedi 
Cagsar pateretur, et tantum in agris vastandis incen- 
diisque faciendis hostibus noceretur, quantum labore 
atque itinere legionarii mihtes efiicere poterant. . . . 

Dum hasc in his locis geruntur, Cassivellaunus ad 
Cantium nuntios mittit, atque his imperat uti coactis 
omnibus copiis, castra navaHa de improviso adorian- 
tur atque oppugnent. li cum ad castra venissent, 
nostri eruptione facta multis eorum interfectis, capto 
etiam nobiH duce Lugotorige, suos incolumes redu- 


xerunt. Cassivellaunus hoc proelio nunciato, tot 
detrimentis acceptis, vastatis finibus, maxime etiam 
permotus defectione civitatum, legatos per Atrebatem 
Commium de deditione ad Cassarem mittit. Cassar, 
cum statuisset hiemem in continenti propter repenti- 
nos Gallise motus agere, neque multum asstatis 
superesset, atque id facile extrahi posse intelhgeret, 
obsides imperat, et quid in annos singulos vectigahs 
populo Romano Britannia penderet constituit : inter- 
dicit atque imperat Cassivellauno, ne Mandubratio 
neu Trinobantibus noceat. 

Obsidibus acceptis, exercitum reducit ad mare, 
naves invenit refectas. His deductis, quod et capti- 
vorum magnum numerum habebat, et nonnull^e 
tempestate deperierant naves, duobus commeatibus 
exercitum reportare instituit. Ac sic accidit uti ex 
tanto navium numero, tot navigationibus, neque hoc 
neque superiore anno uha omnino navis quae mihtes 
portaret desideraretur ; at ex iis qu£e inanes ex con- 
tinenti ad eum remitterentur, et quas postea Labienus 
faciendas curaverat numero lx, perpaucee locum 
caperent, rehquae fere omnes rejicerentur. Quas cum 
ahquamdiu Cassar frustra expectasset, ne anni tem- 
pore a navigatione excluderetur, quod sequinoctium 
suberat, necessario angustius mihtes cohocavit, ac 
summa tranquihitate consecuta, secunda cum solvis- 
set vigiha, prima luce terram atdgit, omnesque in- 
columes naves perduxit. 

3. The People qf Gaul and Germany. 

[Book VI. Chapters 11-28.] 

Quoniam ad hunc locum perventum est, non 
ahenum esse videtur de GaUias Germaniasque mori- 


bus et quo difFerant hag nationes inter sese pro- 

In Gallia non solum in omnibus civitatibus atque 
in omnibus pagis partibusque, sed paene etiam in 
singulis domibus, factiones sunt ; earumque fa- 
ctionum principes sunt qui summam auctoritatem 
eorum judicio habere existimantur, quorum ad arbi- 
trium judiciumque summa omnium rerum consiHo- 
rumque redeat. Idque ejus rei causa antiquitus 
institutum videtur, ne quis ex plcbe contra potentio- 
rem auxlHi egeret ; suos enim quisque opprimi et 
circumveniri non patitur, neque, aHter si faciat, 
uHam inter suos habet auctoritatem. Hsec eadem 
ratio est in summa totius GaHi^e ; namque omnes 
civitates in partes divisee sunt duas. . . . 

In omni GaHia eorum hominum, qui aHquo sunt 
numero atque honore, genera sunt duo ; nam plebes 
pasne servorum habetur loco, quas nihil audet per se, 
et nuHo adhibetur consiHo. Plerique, cum aut asre 
aHeno aut magnitudine tributorum aut injuria poten- 
tiorum premuntur, sese in servitutem dicant nobiH- 
bus : in hos eadem omnia sunt jura quag dominis in 
servos. Sed de his duobus generibus alterum est 
Druidum, alterum equitum. IHi rebus divinis inter- 
sunt, sacrificia pubHca ac privata procurant, reH- 
giones interpretantur. Ad hos magnus adolescentium 
numerus discipHnag causa concurrit, magnoque hi 
sunt apud eos honore. Nam fere de omnibus con- 
troversiis pubHcis privatisque constituunt ; et si quod 
est admissum facinus, si casdes facta, si de heredi- 
tate, si de finibus controversia est, iidem decernunt ; 
prsemia poenasque constituunt. Si qui aut privatus 
aut populus eorum decreto non stetit, sacrificiis inter- 


dicunt. H£ec poena apud eos est gravissima. Qui- 
bus ita est interdictum, hi numero impiorum ac 
sceleratorum habentur : ab his omnes discedunt, 
aditum eorum sermonemque defugiunt, ne quid ex 
contagione incommodi accipiant, neque his petenti- 
bus jus redditur, neque honos ullus communicatur. 
His autem omnibus Druidibus prseest unus, qui sum- 
mam inter eos habet auctoritatem. Hoc mortuo, si 
qui ex rehquis excellit dignitate, succedit : at si sunt 
plures pares, suffragio Druidum allegitur ; nonnum- 
quam etiam armis de principatu contendunt. Hi certo 
anni tempore in finibus Carnutum, quas regio totius 
GalHge media habetur, considunt in loco consecrato. 
Huc omnes undique qui controversias habent conve- 
niunt, eorumque decretis judiciisque parent. Disci- 
phna in Britannia reperta, atque inde in Galham 
translata esse existimatur ; et nunc, qui dihgentius 
eam rem cognoscere volunt, plerumque illo discendi 
causa proficiscuntur. 

Druides a bello abesse consuerunt, neque tributa 
una cum rehquis pendunt ; mihtias vacationem 
omniumque rerum habent immunitatem. Tantis 
excitati pr^miis, et sua sponte muki in disciphnam 
conveniunt, et a parentibus propinquisque mittuntur. 
Magnum ibi numerum versuum ediscere dicuntur : 
itaque annos nonnulh xx in disciphna permanent. 
Neque fas esse existimant ea htteris mandare, cum 
in rehquis fere rebus, pubhcis privatisque rationibus, 
Graecis htteris utantur. Id mihi duabus de causis 
instituisse videntur ; quod neque in vulgum disciph- 
nam efferri vehnt, neque eos qui discunt htteris con- 
fisos minus memorias studere ; quod fere plerisque 
accidit, ut praesidio htterarum dihgentiam in perdis- 


cendo ac memoriam remittant. In primis hoc volunt 
persuadere, non interire animas, sed ab aliis post 
morteni transire ad alios, atque hoc maxime ad vir- 
tutem. excitari putant, metu mortis neglecto. Multa 
prgeterea de sideribus atque eorum motu, de mundi 
ac terrarum magnitudine, de rerum natura, de deo- 
rum immortalium vi ac potestate, disputant et juven- 
tuti tradunt. 

Alterum genus est equitum. Hi, cum est usus 
atque ahquod bellum incidit, quod fere ante Cassaris 
adventum quotannis accidere solebat, uti aut ipsi 
injurias inferrent aut illatas propulsarent, omnes in 
bello versantur, atque eorum ut quisque est genere 
copiisque amplissimus, ita plurimos circum se amba- 
ctos cHentesque habet. Hanc unam gratiam poten- 
tiamque noverunt. 

Natio est omnis Gallorum admodum dedita reli- 
gionibus, atque ob eam causam qui sunt aflfecti 
gravioribus morbis, quique in proeHis periculisque 
versantur, aut pro victimis homines immolant, aut 
se immolaturos vovent, administrisque ad ea sacrifi- 
cia Druidibus utuntur ; quod, pro vita hominis nisi 
hominis vita reddatur, non posse deorum immorta- 
hum numen pkicari arbitrantur, pubhceque ejusdem 
generis habent instituta sacrificia. Ahi immani 
magnitudine simulacra habent, quorum contexta 
viminibus membra vivis hominibus complent, quibus 
succensis circumventi liamma exanimantur homines. 
Supphcia eorum qui in furto aut in latrocinio aut 
ahqua noxa sint comprehensi, gratiora diis immorta- 
hbus esse arbitrantur, sed cum ejus generis copia 
deficit, etiam ad innocentium supphcia descendunt. 

Deum maxime Mercurium colunt. Hujus sunt 


plurima simulacra ; hunc omnium inventorem artium 
ferunt, hunc viarum atque itinerum ducem, hunc ad 
quagstus pecunias mercaturasque habere vim maxi- 
mam arbitrantur. Post hunc ApoUinem et Martem 
et Jovem et Minervam. De his eadem fere quam 
rehquae gentes habent opinionem ; Apolhnem mor- 
bos depellere, Minervam operam atque artificiorum 
initia tradere, Jovem imperium coelestium tenere, 
Martem bella regere. Huic, cum proeho dimicare 
constituerunt, ea quae bello ceperint plerumque de- 
vovent. Quas superaverint animaha capta immolant ; 
rehquas res in unum locum conferunt. Muhis in 
civitatibus harum rerum exstructos tumulos locis 
consecratis conspicari hcet, neque saepe. accidit ut 
neglecta quispiam rehgione, aut capta apud se 
occukare aut posita tohere auderet ; gravissimumque 
ei rei supphcium cum cruciatu constitutum est. 

Gahi se omnes ab Dite patre prognatos praedicant, 
idque ab Druidibus proditum dicunt. Ob eam cau- 
sam spatia omnis temporis non numero dierum sed 
noctium finiunt ; dies natales et mensium et annorum 
initia sic observant, ut noctem dies subsequatur. In 
reliquis vitae institutis, hoc fere ab rehquis differunt, 
quod suos hberos, nisi cum adoleverunt ut munus 
mihtige sustinere possint, palam ad se adire non 
patiuntur ; fihumque puerih astate in pubhco in con- 
spectu patris adsistere turpe ducunt. 

Viri quantas pecunias ab uxoribus dotis nomine 
acceperunt, tantas ex suis bonis eestimatione facta 
cum dotibus communicant. Hujus omnis pecuniae 
conjunctim ratio habetur, fructusque servantur : uter 
eorum vita superarit, ad eum pars utriusque cum 
fructibus superiorum temporum pervenit. Viri in 


uxores sicuti in liberos vitse necisque habent potesta- 
tem ; et cum pater familiee illustriore loco natus 
decessit, ejus propinqui conveniunt, et de morte si 
res in suspicionem venit, de uxoribus in servilem 
modum quasstionem habent, et si compertum est, 
igni atque omnibus tormentis excruciatas interficiunt. 
Funera sunt pro cultu Gallorum magnifica et sum- 
ptuosa ; omniaque qu£e vivis cordi fuisse arbitrantur 
in ignem inferunt, etiam animalia : ac paullo supra 
hanc memoriam, servi et clientes, quos ab iis dilectos 
esse constabat, justis funeribus confectis, una cre- 

Quas civitates commodius suam rem pubHcam 
administrare existimantur, habent legibus sanctum, 
si quis quid de re publica a finitimis rumore aut fama 
acceperit, uti ad magistratum deferat, neve cum quo 
alio communicet : quod sgepe homines temerarios 
atque imperitos falsis rumoribus terreri, et ad facinus 
impelH, et de summis rebus consiHum capere cogni- 
tum est. Magistratus quse visa sunt occultant; 
quaeque esse ex usu judicaverint multitudini pro- 
dunt. De re pubHca nisi per conciHum loqui non 

Est autem hoc GaUicae consuetudinis, uti et via- 
tores etiam invitos consistere cogant, et quod quisque 
eorum de quaque re audierit aut cognoverit qugerant, 
et mercatores in oppidis vulgus circumsistant, qui- 
busque ex regionibus veniant quasque ibi res cog- 
noverint pronuntiare cogant. His rebus atque 
auditionibus permoti, de summis s^pe rebus consiHa 
ineunt, quorum eos in vestigio poenitere necesse est, 
cum incertis rumoribus serviant, et plerique ad vo- 
luntatem eorum ficta respondeant. 


Germani multum ab hac consuetudine differunt : 
nam neque Druides habent qui rebus divinis praesint, 
neque sacrificiis student. Deorum numero eos solos 
ducunt quos cernunt et quorum aperte opibus juvan- 
tur, Solem et Vulcanum et Lunam : rehquos ne 
fama quidem acceperunt. Vita omnis in venationi- 
bus atque in studiis rei militaris consistit : ab parvu- 
Hs labori ac duritiae student. Qui diutissime impu- 
beres permanserunt, maximam inter suos ferunt 
laudem ; hoc ali staturam, ali hoc vires nervosque 
confirmari putant. 

Agricuhurag non student; majorque pars eorum 
victus in lacte, caseo, carne consistit : neque quis- 
quam agri modum certum aut fines habet proprios, 
sed magistratus ac principes in annos singulos gen- 
tibus cognationibusque hominum, qui una coierunt, 
quantum et quo loco visum est agri attribuunt, atque 
anno post aHo transire cogunt. Ejus rei multas 
afFerunt causas : ne assidua consuetudine capti stu- 
dium belli gerundi agricukura commutent ; ne latos 
fines parare studeant, potentioresque humiliores pos- 
sessionibus expellant ; ne accuratius ad frigora atque 
gestus vitandos asdificent ; ne qua oriatur pecuniae 
cupiditas, qua ex re factiones dissensionesque na- 
scuntur ; ut animi eequitate plebem contineant, cum 
suas quisque opes cum potentissimis sequari videat. 

Suevorum gens est longe maxima et belhcosissima 
Germanorum omnium. lli centum pagos habere 
dicuntur, ex quibus quotannis singula miha armato- 
rum bellandi causa ex finibus educunt. Rehqui qui 
domi manserunt se atque illos alunt. Hi rursus in 
vicem anno post in armis sunt, illi -domi remanent. 
Sic neque agricuUura nec ratio atque usus belh in- 


termittitur. Sed privati ac separati agri apud eos 
nihil est, neque longiiis anno remanere uno in loco 
incolendi causa licet. Neque multum frumento, sed 
maximam partem lacte atque pecore vivunt, mul- 
tumque sunt in venationibus ; quae res et cibi genere 
et quotidiana exercitatione et libertate vitae, quod a 
pueris nullo officio aut disciplina assuefacti nihil 
omnino contra voluntatem faciant, et vires aHt et im- 
mani corporum magnitudine homines efficit. Atque 
in eam se consuetudinem adduxerunt, ut locis frigi- 
dissimis neque vestitus prgeter pelles habeant quid- 
quam, quarum propter exiguitatem magna est 
corporis pars aperta, et lavantur in fluminibus. 

Mercatoribus est ad eos aditus magis eo ut quag 
bello ceperint quibus vendant habeant, quam quod 
ullam rem ad se importari desiderent. Quin etiam 
jumentis, quibus maxime Galli delectantur, quagque 
impenso parant pretio, Germani importatis his non 
utuntur, sed quas sunt apud eos nata, prava atque 
deformia, hgec quotidiana exercitatione summi ut 
sint laboris efficiunt. Equestribus proeliis saspe ex 
equis desiliunt ac pedibus proeliantur, equosque eo- 
dem remanere vestigio adsuefecerunt, ad quos se 
celeriter cum usus est recipiunt ; neque eorum mori- 
bus turpius quidquam aut inertius habetur quam 
ephippiis uti. Itaque ad quemvis numerum ephippi- 
atorum equitum quamvis pauci adire audent. Vinum 
ad se omnino importari non sinunt, quod ea re ad 
laborem ferendum remollescere homines atque efi^e- 
minari arbitrantur. 

Civitatibus maxima laus est quam latissime circum 
se vastatis finibus sohtudines habere. Hoc proprium 
virtutis existimant, expulsos agris finitimos cedere, 


neque quemquam prope audere conslstere : simul 
hoc se fore tutiores arbitrantur, repentinse incur- 
sionis timore sublato. Cum bellum civitas aut illa- 
tum defendit aut infert, magistratus qui ei bello 
pragsint, ut vitag necisque habeant potestatem deh- 
guntur. In pace nullus est communis magistratus, 
sed principes regionum atque pagorum inter suos jus 
dicunt, controversiasque minuunt. Latrocinia nul- 
lam habent infamiam, quae extra fines cujusque civi- 
tatis fiunt, atque ea juventutis exercendag ac desidise 
minuend^e causa fieri prcedicant. Atque ubi quis ex 
principibus in conciho dixit se ducem fore, qui sequi 
vehnt profiteantur ; consurgunt ii qui et causam et 
hominem probant, suumque auxihum pohicentur, 
atque ab mukitudine cohaudantur : qui ex his se- 
cuti non sunt, in desertorum ac proditorum numero 
ducuntur, omniumque his rerum postea fides dero- 
gatur. Hospitem violare fas non putant; qui qua- 
cunque de causa ad eos venerunt ab injuria prohibent 
sanctosque habent, hisque omnium domus patent, 
victusque communicatur. 

Ac fuit antea tempus cum Germanos Gahi virtute 
superarent, ukro bella inferrent, propter hominum 
mukitudinem agrique inopiam trans Rhenum colo- 
nias mitterent. Itaque ea quce fertihssima Germaniae 
sunt loca circum Hercyniam silvam, Volcae Tecto- 
sages occupaverunt, atque ibi consederunt. Quae 
gens ad hoc tempus his sese continet, sum- 
mamque habet justitias et belhcee huidis opinionem : 
nunc quoque in eadem inopia, egestate, patientia qua 
Germani permanent, eodem victu et cuku corporis 
utuntur. Gahis autem Provincige propinquitas et 
transmarinarum rerum notitia muka ad copiam atque 


usus largitur. Paullatim adsuefacti superari, multis- 
que victi proeliis, ne se quidem ipsi cum illis virtute 

Hujus Hercyniee silvee, qu£e supra demonstrata 
est, latitudo novem dierum iter expedito patet : non 
enim aliter finiri potest, neque mensuras itinerum 
noverunt. Oritur ab Helvetiorum et Nemetum et 
Rauracorum finibus, rectaque fluminis Danubii re- 
gione pertinet ad fines Dacorum et Anartium ; hinc 
se flectit sinistrorsus diversis ab flumine regionibus, 
multarumque gentium fines propter magnitudinem 
attingit ; neque quisquam est hujus Germaniae, qui 
se aut adisse ad initium ejus silvag dicat, cum dierum 
iter LX processerit, aut quo ex loco oriatur acceperit : 
multaque in ea genera ferarum nasci constat, quae 
rehquis in locis visa non sint : ex quibus quee maxi- 
me difterant ab ceteris et memoriae prodenda videan- 
tur, haec sunt. 

Est bos cervi figura, cujus a media fronte inter 
aures unum cornu exsistit, excelsius magisque dire- 
ctum his qu£e nobis nota sunt cornibus. Ab ejus 
summo sicut palmae ramique late diffunduntur. Ea- 
dem est feminae marisque natura, eadem forma 
magnitudoque cornuum. 

Sunt item quae appellantur alces. Harum est 
consimihs capreis figura et varietas pelhum ; sed 
magnitudine pauUo antecedunt, mutilgeque sunt cor- 
nibus, et crura sine nodis articuhsque habent ; neque 
quietis causa procumbunt, neque, si quo affiictae 
casu conciderunt, erigere sese aut sublevare possunt. 
His sunt arbores pro cubihbus : ad eas se apphcant, 
atque ita pauhum modo rechnatae quietem capiunt ; 
quarum ex vestigiis cum est animadversum a vena- 


toribus qiio se recipere consuerint, omnes eo loco aut 
ab radicibus subruunt aut accidunt arbores, tantum 
ut summa species earum stantium relinquatur. Huc 
cum se consuetudine reclinaverunt, infirmas arbores 
pondere affligunt, atque una ipsse concidunt. 

Tertium est genus eorum qui uri appellantur. Hi 
sunt magnitudine paullo infra elephantos ; specie et 
colore et figura tauri. Magna vis eorum est et 
magna velocitas, neque homini neque fevse quam 
conspexerunt parcunt. Hos studiose foveis captos 
interficiunt. Hoc se labore durant homines adole- 
scentes, atque hoc genere venationis exercent ; et 
qui plurimos ex his interfecerunt, relatis in publicum 
cornibus quas sint'" testimonio, magnam ferunt lau- 
dem. Sed adsuescere ad homines et mansuefieri ne 
parvuh quidem excepti possunt. Amphtudo cornuum 
et figura et species multum a nostrorum boum corni- 
bus diftert. Hasc studiose conquisita ab labris 
argento circumcludunt, atque in amplissimis epuHs 
pro pocuhs utuntur. 



I. The River Cydnus. 

[Booklll. Chapters 4-6.] 

Interea Alexander, Abistamene Cappadociae prge- 
posito, Ciliciam petens cum omnibus copiis, in re- 
gionem quag Castra Cyri appellatur, pervenerat. 
Stativa illic habuerat Cyrus, cum adversus Croesum 
in Lydiam exercitum duceret. Aberat ea regio 
quinquaginta stadia ab aditu, quo Ciliciam intramus : 
Pylas incolae dicunt arctissimas fauces, munimenta 
quag manu ponimus naturali situ imitante. Igitur 
Arsanes, qui Ciliciag praeerat, reputans quid initio 
belli Memnon suasisset, quondam salubre consilium 
sero exsequi statuit : igne ferroque Ciliciam vastat, 
ut hosti soHtudinem faciat : quicquid usui esse potest, 
corrumpit : sterile ac nudum solum, quod tueri 
nequibat, relicturus. Sed longe utilius fuit angu- 
stias aditus, qui CiHciam aperit, valido occupare 
praesidio, jugumque, opportune itineri imminens, 
obtinere ; unde inultus subeuntem hostem aut pro- 
hibere, aut opprimere potuisset. Tunc paucis, qui 
calHbus pragsiderent, reHctis, retro ipse concessit; 
populator terrag, quam a populationibus vindicare 
debuerat. Ergo, qui reHcti erant, proditos se rati, 
ne conspectum quidem hostis sustinere valuerunt 


cum vel pauciores locum obtinere potuissent. Nam- 
que perpetuo jugo montis asperi ac prasrup!i Cilicia 
includitur, quod cum a mari surgat, velut sinu quo- 
dam flexuque curvatum, rursus altero cornu in 
diversum littus excurrit. Per hoc dorsum, qua 
maxime introrsum mari cedit, asperi tres aditus et 
perangusti sunt, quorum uno Cilicia intranda est. 
Campestris eadem, qua vergit ad mare, planitiem 
ejus crebris distinguentibus rivis. 

Pyramus et Cydnus, incluti amnes fluunt. Cyd- 
nus non spatio aquarum, sed liquore memorabilis ; 
quippe, leni tractu e fontibus labens, puro solo exci- 
pitur ; neque torrentes incurrunt, qui placide ma- 
nantis alveum turbent. Itaque incorruptus, idemque 
frigidissimus ; quippe, multa riparum amoenitate 
inumbratus, ubique fontibus suis similis in mare 
evadit. Multa in ea regione monumenta vulgata 
carminibus, vetustas exederat. Monstrabantur ur- 
bium sedes Lyrnessi et Thebes ; Typhonis quoque 
specus, et Corycium nemus, ubi crocum gignitur, 
caeteraque in quibus nihil pragter famam duraverat. 
Alexander fauces jugi, quas Pylce appellantur, in- 
travit. Contemplatus locorum situm, non ahas 
magis dicitur admiratus esse fehcitatem suam : obrui 
potuisse vel saxis confitebatur, si fuissent qui in 
subeuntes propellerent. Iter vix quaternos capiebat 
armatos. Dorsum montis imminebat viag, non an- 
gustae modo, sed plerumque prasruptas, crebris 
oberrantibus rivis, qui ex radicibus montium ma- 
nant. Thracas tamen leviter armatos praecedere 
jusserat, scrutarique calles, ne occultus hostis in 
subeuntes erumperet. Sagittariorum quoque manus 
occupaverat jugum : intentos arcus habebant, mo- 


niti, non iter ipsos inire, sed praelium. Hoc modo 
agmen pervenit ad urbem Tarson, cui tum maxime 
Pers£e subjiciebant ignem, ne opulentum oppidum 
hostis invaderet. At ille, Parmenione ad inhiben- 
dum incendium cum expedita manu praemisso, post- 
quam barbaros adventu suorum fugatos esse -cogno- 
verat, urbem a se conservatam intrat. 

Mediam Cydnus amnis, de quo paulo ante dictum 
est, interfluit ; et tunc agstas erat, cujus calor non 
aham magis quam CiHcise oram vapore soHs accen- 
dit ; et diei fervidissimum tempus coeperat. Pulvere 
ac sudore simul perfusum regem invitavit liquor 
fluminis, ut calidum adhuc corpus ablueret. Itaque 
veste deposita, in conspectu agminis (decorum quo- 
que faturum ratus, si ostendisset suis, levi ac para- 
biH cultu corporis se esse contentum) descendit in 
flumen, vixque ingressi subito horrore artus rigere 
coeperunt ; paUor deinde suffusus est, et totum pro- 
pemodum corpus vitaHs calor reHquit. Expiranti 
similem ministri manu excipiunt, nec satis compo- 
tem mentis in tabernaculum deferunt. Ingens soUi- 
citudo, et pgene jam luctus in castris erat. Flentes 
querebantur, "in tanto impetu cursuque rerum, 
omnis astatis ac memoriae clarissimum regem non in 
acie sahem, non ab hoste dejectum, sed abluentem 
aqua corpus, ereptum esse, et extinctum : instare 
Darium, victorem antequam vidisset hostem. Sibi 
easdem terras, quas victores peragrassent, repeten- 
das : omnia aut ipsos, aut hostes populatos : per 
vastas soHtudines, etiamsi nemo insequi veHt, euntes, 
fame atque inopia debeHari posse. Quem signum 
daturum fugientibus? quem ausurum Alexandro 
succedere? Jam ut ad HeUespontum fuga penetra- 


rent, classem qua transeant, quem pragparaturum ? " 
Rursus in ipsum regem misericordia versa, " illum 
florem juventag, illam vim animi, eumdem regem 
et commilitonem divelli a se et abripi," immemores 
sui querebantur. 

Inter hsec liberius meare spiritus coeperat ; alleva- 
bat rex oculos, et paulatim redeunte animo, cir- 
cumstantes amicos agnoverat : laxataque vis morbi 
ob hoc solum videbatur, quia magnitudinem mali 
sentiebat. Ariimum autem cegritudo corporis urge- 
bat : quippe Darium quinto die in Ciliciam fore 
nunciabatur. "Vinctum ergo se tradi, et tantam 
victoriam eripi sibi e manibus, obscuraque et igno- 
bili morte in tabernaculo extingui se," querebatur. 
Admissisque amicis pariter ac medicis : " In quo 
me," inquit, "articulo rerum mearum fortuna depre- 
henderit, cernitis. Strepitum hostilium armorum 
exaudire mihi videor ; et qui ultro intuli bellum, jam 
provocor. Darius ergo, cum tam superbas Htteras 
scriberet, fortunam meam in consiHo habuit ; sed 
nequidquam, si mihi arbitrio meo curari Hcet. 
Lenta remedia et segnes medicos non exspectant 
tempora mea. Vel mori strenue, quam tarde con- 
valescere, mihi mehus est. Proinde, si quid opis, si 
quid artis in medicis est, sciant, me non tam mortis, 
quam belli remedium quasrere." Ingentem omnibus 
incusserat curam tam prasceps temeritas ejus. Ergo 
pro se quisque precari coepere, " ne festinatione peri- 
culum augeret, sed esset in potestate medentium. 
Inexperta remedia haud injuria ipsis esse suspecta, 
cum ad perniciem ejus etiam a latere ipsius pecunia 
sollicitaret hostis : " (quippe Darius mille talenta in- 
terfectori Alexandri daturum se pronunciari jusse- 


rat) : " itaque ne ausurum quidem quemquam " 
arbitrabantur " experiri remedium quod propter no- 
vitatem posset esse suspectum." 

'-^^^HErat inter nobiles medicos e Macedonia regem 
secutus Philippus, natione Acarnan, fidus admodum 
regi ; puero comes, et custos salutis datus, non ut 
regem modo, sed etiam ut alumnum eximia cari- 
tate diligebat. Is non pr^eceps se, sed strenuum 
remedium afterre, tantamque vim morbi potione me- 
dicata levaturum esse promisit. Nulli promussum 
ejus placebat, praeter ipsum cujus periculo pollice- 
batur. Omnia quippe facilius quam moram per- 
peti poterat. Arma et acies in oculis erant ; et 
victoriam in eo positam esse arbitrabatur, si tantum 
ante signa stare potuisset : idipsum, quod post diem 
tertium medicamentum sumpturus esset (ita enim 
medicus pragdixerat) gegre ferens. Inter h^ec a Par- 
menione fidissimo purpuratorum litteras accipit, 
quibus ei denunciabat, ne salutem suam Philippo 
committeret; mille talentis a Dario, et spe nuptiarum 
sororis ejus esse corruptum. Ingentem animo sol- 
hcitudinem htterce incusserant, et quicquid in utram- 
que partem aut metus aut spes subjecerat, secreta 
£estimatione pensabat. "Bibere perseverem? ut, si 
venenum datum fuerit, ne immerito quidem, quic- 
quid acciderit, evenisse videatur? Damnem medici 
fidem? in tabernaculo ergo me opprimi patiar? At 
satius est aheno me mori scelere, quam metu no- 
stro." Diu animo in diversa versato, nulli quid 
scriptum esset enunciat ; epistolamque, sigillo anuh 
sui impresso, pulvino cui incubabat subjecit. 

Inter has cogitationes biduo assumpto, ihuxit a 
medico destinatus dies. Et ille cum poculo, in quo 


medicamentum diluerat, intravit. Quo viso Alex- 
ander, levato corpore in cubitum, epistolam a Par- 
menione missam sinistra manu tenens, accipit 
poculum, et haurit interritus : tum epistolam Philip- 
pum legere jubet, nec a vuhu legentis movit oculos, 
ratus ahquas conscientiae notas in ipso ore posse 
deprehendere. Ille epistola perlecta, plus indigna- 
tionis quam pavoris ostendit : projectisque amiculo 
et htteris ante lectum : "Rex," inquit, "semper qui- 
dem spiritus meus ex te pependit, sed nunc vere ab 
isto sacro et venerabih ore trahitur. Crimen parri- 
cidii, quod mihi objectum est, tua salus diluet. Ser- 
vatus a me vitam mihi dederis. Oro quassoque, 
amisso metu, patere medicamentum concipi venis. 
Lax*! pauhsper animum, quem sohicitudine intem- 
pestiva amici sane fideles, sed moleste seduH tur- 
bant." Non securum modo h^c vox, sed etiam 
•lastum regem, ac plenum bonae spei fecit. Itaque, 
"Si Dii," inquit, "Phihppe, tibi permisissent, quo 
maxime modo animum vehes experiri meum, aho 
profecto voluisses ; sed certiorem quam expertus es, 
ne optasses quidem. Hac epistola accepta, tamen 
quod dilueras bibi ; et nunc crede me non minus 
pro tua fide quam pro mea salute esse soUicitum." 
Haec elocutus, dexteram Phihppo oftert. 

C^eterum tanta vis medicaminis fuit, ut qu^e secuta 
sunt criminationem Parmenionis adjuverint. Inter- 
clusus spiritus arcte meabat, nec Phihppus quidquam 
inexpertum omisit. Ihe fomenta corpori admovit, 
iUe torpentem nunc cibi nunc vini odore excitavit. 
Atque, ut primiim mentis compotem esse sensit, 
modo matris sororumque, modo tantae victoriae ap- 
propinquantis admonere non destitit. Ut vero me- 


dlcamentum se diffudlt in venas, et sensim toto cor- 
pore salubritas percipi potuit, primum animus vigo- 
rem suum, deinde corpus quoque exspectatione ma- 
turius recuperavit : quippe post tertium diem quam 
in hoc statu fuerat, in conspectum militum venit. 
Nec avidius ipsum regem quam Philippum intue- 
batur exercitus : pro se quisque dexteram ejus am- 
plexi grates habebant velut pragsenti deo. Namque 
haud facile dictu est, praster ingenitam ilH genti 
erga reges suos veneratiohem, quantum hujus 
utique regis vel admirationi dediti fuerint, vel ca- 
ritate flagraverlnt. Jam primum nihil sine divina 
ope aggredi videbatur. Nam cum praesto esset 
ublque fortuna, temeritas in glorlam cesserat : aetas 
quoque vix tantls matura rebus, sed abunde suffi- 
ciens, omnla ejus opera honestabat : et qucB le- 
viora haberi solent, plerumque in re mlHtari gra- 
tiora vulgo sunt ; exercitatlo corporis inter ipsos, 
cultus habitusque paulum a privato abhorrens, 
mlHtaris vigor ; quis iHe vel ingenii dotibus, vel 
anlmi artibus, ut pariter carus ac venerandus esset, 

2. Battle of Issus, 

[Book III. Chapters 7-12.] 

At Darlus nuntlo de adversa valetudine ejus ac- 
cepto, celeritate quantam capere tam grave agmen 
poterat, ad Euphratem contendlt : junctoque eo pon- 
tlbus, quinque tamen diebus trajecit exercltum, 
CIHcIam occupare festlnans. Jam Alexander vi- 
ribus corporis receptis, ad urbem Solos pervene- 
rat : cujus potltus, ducentls talentls multse nomine 
exactis, arci praesidium mlHtum imposuit. Vota 


deinde pro salute suscepta per ludum atque otium; 
reddens, ostendit quanta fiducia barbaros sperneret : 
quippe ^sculapio et Minervag ludos celebravit. 
Spectanti nuntius laetus aftertur ex Halicarnasso, 
" Persas acie a suis esse superatos, Myndios quoque 
et Caunios, et pleraque tractus ejus, suse facta di- 
tionis." Igitur edito spectaculo ludicro, castrisque 
motis, et Pyramo amne ponte juncto, ad urbem 
Mallon pervenit : inde alteris castris ad oppidum 
Castabulum. Ibi Parmenio regi occurrit, quem 
prgemiserat ad explorandum iter saltus, per quem ad 
urbem Isson nomine penetrandum erat. Atque ille 
angustiis ejus occupatis, et praesidio modico relicto, 
Isson quoque desertam a barbaris ceperat. Inde 
progressus, deturbatis qui interiora montium obsi- 
debant, praesidiis cuncta firmavit : occupatoque iti- 
nere, sicut paulo ante dictum est, idem et auctor et 
nuntius venit. 

Isson deinde rex copias admovit : ubi consilio ha- 
bito utrumne ultra progrediendum foret, an ibi op- 
periendi essent novi milites, quos ex Macedonia 
adventare constabat ; Parmenio non alium locum 
prgelio aptiorem esse censebat. Quippe illic utrius- 
que regis copias numero futuras pares, cum angu- 
stias multitudinem non caperent : planitiem ipsis 
camposque esse vitandos, ubi circumiri, ubi ancipiti 
acie opprimi possent : timere, ne non virtute hosti- 
um, sed lassitudine sua vincerentur : Persas recen- 
tes subinde successuros, si laxius stare potuissent. 
Facile ratio tam salubris consilii accepta est. Ita- 
que inter angustias saltus opperiri statuit. Erat in 
exercitu regis Sisenes Perses, quondam a pr£etore 
-^gypti missus ad Philippum ; donisque et omni 


honore cultus, exilium patria sede mutaverat : sccu- 
tus deinde in Asiam Alexandrum, inter fideles so- 
cios habebatur. Huic epistolam Cretensis miles 
obsignatam anulo, cujus signum haud sane notum 
erat, tradidit. Nabarzanes praetor Darii miserat 
eam, hortabaturque Sisenem, ut dignum aliquid 
nobiHtate ac moribus suis ederet, magno id ei apud 
regem honori fore. Has Htteras Sisenes utpote in- 
noxius, ad Alexandrum saspe deferre tentavit : sed 
cum tot curis apparatuque belU regem videret ur- 
geri, aptius subinde tempus exspectans, suspicionem 
initi scelesti consiHi praebuit. Namque epistola, 
priusquam ei redderetur, in manus Alexandri per- 
venerat, lectamque eam, ignoti anuli sigillo im- 
presso, Siseni dari jusserat, ad asstimandam fidem 
barbari. Qui, quia per complures dies non adierat 
regem, scelesto consiHo eam visus est suppressisse ; 
et in agmine a Cretensibus, haud dubie jussu regis, 

' Jam Graeci miHtes, quos Thymodes a Pharnabazo 
acceperat, praecipua" spes, et propemodum unica, ad 
Darium pervenerant. Hi magnopere suadebant, ut 
retro abiret, spatiososque Mesopotamiag campos re- 
peteret. Si id consiHum damnaret, at iUe divideret 
saltem innumerabiles copias, neu sub unum fortunie 
ictum totas vires regni cadere pateretur. Minus hoc 
consiHum regi, quam purpuratis ejus dispHcebat : 
" Ancipitem fidem, et mercede venalem proditionem 
imminere, et dividi non ob aHud copias veUe, quam 
ut ipsi in diversa digressi, si quid commissum essent 
traderent Alexandro. Nihil tutius fore, quam cir- 
cumdatos eos exercitu toto obrui teHs, documentum 
non inultae perfidiae futuros." At Darius, ut erat 


sanctus ac mitis, "se vero tantum facinus" negat 
" esse facturum, ut suam secutos fidem, suos milites, 
jubeat trucidari. Quem deinde amplius nationum 
exterarum salutem suam crediturum sibi, si tot mili- 
tum sanguine imbuisset manus? Neminem stolidum 
consilium capite luere debere. Defuturos enim qui 
suaderent, si suasisse periculum esset. Denique 
ipsos quotidie ad se vocari in consilium, variasque 
sententias dicere, nec tamen melioris fidei haberi, 
qui prudentius suaserit." Itaque Grsecis nuntiari 
jubet, " ipsum quidem benevolentiaj illorum gratias 
agere ; cseterum, si retro ire pergat haud dubie re- 
gnum hostibus traditurum. Fama bella stare ; et eum 
qui recedat, fugere credi. Trahendi vero belh vix 
ullam esse rationem. Tant^ enim multitudini, uti- 
que cum jam hiems instaret, in regione vasta, et 
invicem a suis atque hoste vexata, non suftectura 
ahmenta. Ne dividi quidem copias posse, servato 
more majorum, qui universas vires discrimini bel- 
lorum semper obtulerint. Et (hercule) terribilem 
antea regem et absentia sua ad vanam fiduciam 
elatum, postquam adventare se senserit, cautum pro 
temerario factum, dehtuisse inter angustias saltus, 
ritu ignobiHum ferarum, qu^ strepitu prastereuntium 
audito, silvarum latebris se -occuluerint. Jam 
etiam valetudinis simulatione frustrari suos mihtes. 
Sed non amphus ipsum esse passurum detrectare 
certamen. In illo specu, in quem pavidi recessis- 
sent, oppressurum esse cunctantes." Hccc magnifi- 
centius jactata quam verius. 

Casterum pecunia omni rebusque pretiosissimis 
Damascum Syrias cum modico prassidio mihtum 
missis, rehquas copias in Cihciam duxit, insequen- 


tibus more patrio agmen conjuge ac matre. Virgines 
quoque cum parvo filio comitabantur patrem. Forte 
eadem nocte et Alexander ad fauces quibus Syria 
aditur, et Darius ad eum locum, quem Amanicas 
Pylas vocant, pervenit. Nec dubitavere Persae 
quin Isso relicta, quam ceperant, Macedones fuge- 
rent. Nam etiam saucii quidam et invalidi, qui 
agmen non poterant persequi, excepti erant. Quos 
omnes, instinctu purpuratorum, barbara feritate 
sgevientium, prsecisis adustisque manibus circu.m- 
duci, ut copias suas noscerent ; satisque omnibus 
spectatis, nuntiare quae vidissent regi suo jussit. 
Motis ergo castris, superat Pinarem amnem, in ter- 
gis, ut credebat, fugientium liEesurus. At illi, quo- 
rum amputaverat manus, ad castra Macedonum 
penetrant, Darium, quanto maximo cursu posset, 
sequi nunciantes. Vix fides habebatur. Itaque spe- 
culatores in maritimas regiones pragmissos explorare 
jubet, ipse adesset, an prsefectorum aliquis speciem 
pragbuisset universi venientis exercitus. Sed cum 
speculatores reverterentur, procul ingens multitudo 
conspecta est. Ignes deinde totis campis collucere 
coeperunt, omniaque velut continenti incendio ardere 
visa, cum incondita multitudo maxime propter ju- 
menta laxius tenderet. Itaque eo ipso loco metari 
suos castra jusserat, laetus, quod omni expetierat 
voto, in illis potissimum angustiis decernendum 

Cffiterum, ut solet fieri, cum ultimi discriminis 
tempus adventat, in sollicitudinem versa fiducia est. 
Illam ipsam fortunam, qua aspirante res tam pro- 
spere gesserat, verebatur ; nec injuria, ex his quae 
tribuisset sibi, quam mutabihs esset reputabat : 


unam superesse noctem quag tanti discriminis mo- 
raretur eventum. Rursus occurrebat, majora peri- 
culis praemia : et sicut dubium esset an vinceret, ita 
illud utique certum esse, honeste et cum magna 
laude moriturum. Itaque, corpora milites curare 
jussit, ac deinde tertia vigilia instructos et armatos 
esse. Ipse in jugum editi montis ascendit, multis- 
que collucentibus facibus patrio more sacrificium 
diis pragsidibus loci fecit. Jamque tertium, sicut 
prasceptum erat, signum tuba miles acceperat, itineri 
simul paratus ac prgelio : strenueque jussi procedere, 
oriente luce pervenerunt ad angustias, quas occu- 
pare decreverant. Darium triginta inde stadia 
abesse prasmissi indicabant. Tunc consistere ag- 
men jubet, armisque ipse sumptis aciem ordinat. 

Dario adventum hostium pavidi agrestes nuntia- 
verunt, vix credenti occurrere etiam, quos ut fugi- 
entes sequebatur. Ergo non mediocris omnium 
animos formido incesserat : quippe itineri quam 
praiho aptiores erant, raptimque arma capiebant. 
Sed ipsa festinatio discurrentium, suosque ad arma 
vocantium, majorem metum incussit. Ahi in jugum 
montis evaserant, ut hostium agmen inde prospice- 
rent : equos plerique frasnabant : discore exercitus, 
nec ad unum intentus imperium, vario turrtultu 
cuncta turbaverat. Darius initio jugum montis cum 
parte copiarum occupare statuit, et a fronte et a 
tergo circumiturus hostem : a mari quoque, quo 
dextrum ejus cornu tegebatur, ahos objecturus, ut 
undique urgeret. Praster hasc, viginti miha pras- 
missa cum sagittariorum manu, Pinarum amnem, 
qui duo agmina interfluebat, transire, et objicere 
sese Macedonum copiis jusserat. Si id prgestare 


non possent, retrocedere in montes, et occulte cir- 
cumire ultimos hoslium. Casterum destinata salu- 
briter omni ratione potentior fortuna discussit : 
quippe alii prag metu imperium exsequi non aude- 
bant, alii frustra exsequebantur : quia ubi partes 
labant summa turbatur. 

Acies autem hoc modo stetit. Nabarzanes equi- 
tatu dextrum cornu tuebatur, additis funditorum 
sagittariorumque viginti ferme miHbus. In eodem 
Thymodes erat Grcecis peditibus mercede conductis 
triginta miHbus prsepositus. Hoc erat haud dubie 
robur exercitus, par Macedonic^e phalangi acies. In 
lasvo cornu Aristomedes Thessalus viginti miHa 
barbarorum peditum habebat. In subsidiis pugna- 
cissimas locaverat gentes. Ipsum regem in eodem 
cornu dimicaturum, tria miHa delectorum equitum 
assueta corporis custodia, et pedestris acies qua- 
draginta miHa, sequebantur. Hyrcani deinde Me- 
dique equites : his proximi cseterarum gentium 
equites dextra lcevaque dispositi. Hoc agmen, 
sicut dictum est instructum, sex miHa jaculatorum 
funditorumque antecedebant. Quidquid in iUis an- 
gustiis adiri poterat, impleverant copiae, cornuaque 
hinc a jugo, iUinc a mari stabant : uxorem ma- 
tremque regis, et aHum feminarum gregem, in 
medium agmen acceperant. 

Alexander phalangem, qua nihil apud Macedonas 
vaHdius erat, in fronte constituit. Dextrum cornu 
Nicanor Parmenionis fiHus tuebatur : huic proximi 
stabant Coenos, et Perdiccas, et Meleager, et Ptole- 
mseus, et Amyntas, sui quisque agminis duces. In 
Isevo, quod ad mare pertinebat, Craterus et Parme- 
nio erant, sed Craterus Parmenioni parere jussus. 


Equites ab utroque cornu locati, dextrum Mace- 
dones, Thessalis adjunctis, laevum Peloponnesii 
tuebantur. Ante hanc aciem posuerat funditorum 
manum, sagittariis admixtis ; Thraces quoque et 
Cretenses ante agmen ibant, et ipsi leviter armati. 
At his qui praemissi a Dario jugum montis insede- 
rant Agrianos opposuit, ex Grascia nuper advectos. 
Parmenioni autem prgeceperat, ut quantum posset 
agmen ad mare extenderet, quo longius abesset 
montibus, quos occupaverant barbari. At ilH, ne- 
que obstare venientibus, nec circumire prastergressos 
ausi, funditorum maxime aspectu territi profuge- 
rant : eaque res Alexandro tutum agminis latus, 
quod ne superne incesseretur timuerat, pr^estitit. 
Triginta et duo armatorum ordines ibant ; neque 
enim latius extendi aciem patiebantur angustias. 
Paulatim deinde laxare se sinus montium, et majus 
spatium aperire coeperant ; ita ut non pedes solum 
pluribus ordinibus incedere, sed etiam lateribus cir- 
cumfundi posset equitatus. 

Jam in conspectu, sed extra teli jactum utraque 
acies erat, cum priores Persae inconditum et trucem 
sustulere clamorem. Redditur et a Macedonibus 
major exercitus numero, jugis montium vastisque 
saltibus repercussus ; quippe semper circumjecta 
nemora petraeque quantamcumque accepere vocem 
multipHcato sono referunt. Alexander ante prima 
signa ibat, identidem manu suos inhibens ne suspen- 
si, acrius ob nimiam festinationem concitato spiritu, 
capesserent praelium. Cumque agmini obequitaret, 
varia oratione milites alloquebatur. Macedones, 
tot bellorum in Europa victores, ad subigendam 
Asiam atque ultima Orientis, non ipsius magis 


quam suo ductu profecti, inveteratse virtutis admo- 
nebantur. Illos terrarum orbis liberatores, emen- 
sosque olim Herculis et Liberi patris terminos, non 
Persis modo, sed etiam omnibus gentibus impositu- 
ros jugum : Macedonum Bactra et Indos fore : 
minima esse quag nunc intuerentur, sed omnia vi- 
ctoria aperiri. Non in praeruptis petris Illyriorum et 
Thraciae saxis sterilem laborem fore : spolia totius 
Orientis offerri. Vix gladio futurum opus ; totam 
aciem, suo pavore fluctuaiitem, umbonibus posse 
propelli. Victor ad hasc Atheniensium PhiHppus 
pater invocabatur, domitseque nuper Boeotias, et 
urbis in ea nobilissimas, ad solum dirutae, species 
reprsesentabatur animis : jam Granicum amnem, 
jam tot urbes aut expugnatas, aut in fidem acceptas, 
omniaque quae post tergum erant, strata et pedibus 
ipsorum subjecta memorabat. Cum adierat Grae- 
cos, admonebat, " ab iis gentibus illata Grascise 
bella, Darii prius, deinde Xerxis insolentia, aquam 
ipsam terramque poscentium : ut neque fontium 
haustum, nec soHtos cibos relinquerent deditis : 
ab his templa ruinis et ignibus esse deleta, urbes 
eorum expugnatas, foedera humani divinique juris 
violata " referebat. Illyrios vero et Thracas, rapto 
vivere assuetos, aciem hostium auro purpuraque 
fulgentem intueri jubebat, praedam non arma ge- 
stantem. Irent, et imbellibus feminis aurum viri 
eriperent. Aspera montium suorum juga, nudasque 
calles et perpetuo rigentes gelu, ditibus Persarum 
campis agrisque mutarent. 

Jam ad teli jactum pervenerant, cum Persarum 
equites ferociter in Isevum cornu hostium invecti 
sunt. Quippe Darius equestri praeho decernere 


optabat, phalangem Macedonici exercitus robur esse 
conjectans. Jamque etiam dextrum Alexandri cornu 
circumibatur : quod ubi Macedo conspexit, duabus 
alis equitum ad jugum montis jussis subsistere, ce- 
teros in medium belli discrimen strenue transfert. 
Subductis deinde ex acie Thessalis equitibus, prae- 
fectum eorum occulte circumire tergum suorum 
jubet, Parmenionique conjungi, et quod is impe- 
rasset impigre exsequi. Jamque ipsi in medium 
Persarum undique circumfusi egregie tuebantur : 
sed conferti, et quasi cohasrentes, tela vibrare non 
poterant. Simul erant emissa, in eosdem concur- 
rentia implicabantur, levique et vano ictu pauca in 
hostem, phu-a in humum innoxia cadebant. Ergo 
cominus pugnam coacti conserere, gladios impigre 
stringunt. Tum vero muUum sanguinis fusum est : 
duae quippe acies itst cohagrebant, ut armis arma 
pulsarent, mucrones in ora dirigerent : non timido, 
non ignavo cessare tum licuit : collato pede, quasi 
singuH inter se dimicarent, in eodem vestigio sta- 
bant, donec vincendo locum sibi facerent. Tum 
demum ergo promovebant gradum, cum hostem 
prostraverant. At illos novus excipiebat adversa- 
rius fatigatos : nec vulnerati, ut ahas solent, acie 
poterant excedere, cum hostis instaret a fronte, a 
tergo sui urgerent. 

Alexander non ducis magis quam mihtis munia 
exsequebatur ; opimum decus caeso rege expetens. 
Quippe Darius curru subHmis eminebat, et suis ad 
se tuendum, et hostibus ad incessendum, ingens in- 
citamentum. Ergo frater ejus Oxathres, cum Alex- 
andrum instare ei cerneret, equites quibus praserat 
ante ipsum currum regis objecit, armis et robore 


corporis multum super casteros eminens, animo vero 
et pietate in paucissimis : illo utique pr^elio clarus, 
alios improvide instantes prostravit, alios in fugam 
avertit. At Macedones, (circa regem erant,) 
mutua adhortatione firmati, cum ipso in equitum 
agmen irrumpunt. Tum vero similis ruinae strages 
erat. Circa currum Darii jacebant nobilissimi duces, 
ante oculos regis egregia morte defuncti, omnes in 
ora proni, sicut dimicantes procubuerant, adverso 
corpore vulneribus acceptis. Inter hos Atizyes et 
Rheomithres et Sabaces preetor ^gypti, magnorum 
exercituum praefecti, noscitabantur : circa eos cumu- 
hita erat peditum equitumque obscurior turba. 
Macedonum quoque, non quidem muhi, sed prom- 
ptissimi tamen caesi sunt : inter quos Alexandri dex- 
trum femur leviter mucrone perstrictum est. 

Jamque qui Darium vehebant equi confossi ha- 
stis, et dolore efferati, jugum quatere, et regem 
curru excutere coeperant : cum ille, veritus ne vivus 
veniret in hostium potestatem, desiht, et in equum 
qui ad hoc ipsum sequebatur imponitur ; insignibus 
quoque imperii, ne fugam proderent, indecore abje- 
ctis. Tum vero ceteri dissipantur metu, et qua 
cuique ad fugam patebat via erumpunt, arma jaci- 
entes quae paulo ante ad tutelam corporum sumpse- 
rant : adeo pavor etiam auxiha formidat. Instabat 
fugientibus eques a Parmenione missus, et forte in 
iUud cornu omnes fuga abstulerat. Equi pariter 
equitesque Persarum, serie laminarum graves, 
agmen, quod celeritate maxime constat, aegre mohe- 
bantur : quippe in circumagendis equis suis ThessaH 
mukos occupaverant. Hac tam prospera pugna 
nuntiata, Alexander, non ante ausus persequi barba- 


ros, utrimque jam victor instare fugientibus coepit. 
Haud amplius regem quam mille equites sequeban- 
tur, cum ingens multitudo hostium caderet. Sed 
quis aut in victoria aut in fuga copias numerat? 
Agebantur ergo a tam paucis pecorum modo ; et 
idem metus qui cogebat fugere, fugientes mora- 

At Grasci qui in Darii partibus steterant, Aminta 
duce, (prsetor hic Alexandri fuerat, tunc transfuga) 
abrupti a ceteris, haud sane fugientibus similes eva- 
serant. Barbari longe diversam fugam intenderunt : 
ahi qua rectum iter in Persidem ducebat ; quidam 
circuitu rupes saltusque montium occuhos petivere, 
pauci castra Darii. Sed jam illa quoque victor in- 
traverat, omni quidem opulentia ditia. Ingens auri 
argentique pondus, non beUi sed luxuriae apparatum, 
diripuerant mihtes. Cumque plus raperent, passim 
strata erant itinera vihoribus sarcinis, quas in com- 
paratione mehorum avaritia contempserat. Jamque 
ad feminas perventum erat, quibus, quo cariora 
ornamenta sunt, violentius detrahebantur ; ne corpo- 
ribus quidem vis ac hbido parcebat. Omnia planctu 
tumultuque» prout cuique fortuna erat, repleverant ; 
nec uha facies mah deerat, cum per omnes ordines 
agtatesque victoris crudehtas ac hcentia vagaretur. 
Tunc vero impotentis fortunae species conspici po- 
tuit, cum ii qui tum Dario tabernaculum exornave- 
rant, omni luxu et opulentia instructum, eadcm iha 
Alexandro, quasi veteri domino, reservabant. Nam- 
que id solum intactum omiserant mihtes ; ita tradito 
more, ut victorem victi regis tabernaculo exci- 

Sed omnium oculos animosque in semet converte- 


rant captiva mater conjuxque Darii : illa non 
majestate solum, sed etiam aetate venerabilis ; haec 
formae pulchritudine, ne illa quidem sorte corruptas. 
Receperat in sinum fiHum, nondum sextum aetatis 
annum egressum, in spem tantas fortunae, quantam 
pater ejus paulo ante amiserat, genitum. At in gre- 
mio anus aviae jacebant adultae duae virgines, non 
suo tantum, sed illius etiam moerore confectae. In- 
gens circa eam nobiHum feminarum turba constite- 
rat, laceratis crinibus, abscisaque veste, pristini 
decoris immemores, reginas dominasque veris quon- 
dam tunc aHenis nominibus invocantes. Dlas, suse 
calamitatis obHtae, in utro cornu Darius stetisset, quae 
fortuna discriminis fuisset, requirebant. Negabant 
se captas, si viveret rex. Sed iUum equos subinde 
mutantem longius fuga abstulerat. In acie autem 
cassa sunt Persarum peditum centum miHa : decem 
miHa equitum. At a parte Alexandri quattuor et 
quingenti saucii fuere, ex peditibus triginta omnino 
et duo desiderati sunt, equitum centum quinquaginta 
interfecti. Tantulo impendio ingens victoria stetit. 
' .Rex quidem, Darium persequendo fatigatus, 
postquam et nox appetebat et consequendi spes non 
erat, in castra paulo ante a suis capta pervenit. In- 
vitari deinde amicos quibus maxime assueverat 
jussit : quippe summa dumtaxat cutis in femore 
perstricta non prohibebat interesse convivio : cum 
repente e proximo tabernaculo lugubris clamor, 
barbaro ululatu planctuque permixtus, epulantes 
conterruit. Cohors quoque, quas excubabat ad 
tabernaculum regis, verita ne majoris motus princi- 
pium esset, armare se coeperat. Causa pavoris 
subiti fuit, quod mater uxorque Darii, cum captivis 


nobilibus, regem, quem interfectum esse credebant, 
ingenti gemitu ejulatuque deflebant. Unus namque 
e captivis spadonibus, qui forte ante ipsarum taber- 
naculum steterat, amiculum (quod Darius, sicut 
paulo ante dictum est, ne cultu proderetur, abjece- 
rat) in manibus ejus qui repertum ferebat, agnovit : 
ratusque interfecto detractum esse, falsum nuntium 
mortis ejus attulerat. Hoc mulierum errore com- 
perto, Alexander fortunas Darii et pietati earum 
illacrimasse fertur. Ac primo Mitlirenem, qui Sar- 
dis prodiderat, peritum Persicas linguas, ire ad con- 
solandas eas jusserat. Veritus deinde ne proditor 
captivarum iram doloremque gravaret, Ueonnatum 
ex purpuratis suis misit, jussum indicare falso la- 
mentari eas vivum. Ille cum paucis armigeris in 
tabernaculum in quo captivas erant pervenit, mis- 
sumque se a rege nuntiari jubet. At hi qui in 
vestibulo erant, ut armatos conspexere, rati actum 
esse de dominis, in tabernaculum curnmt, vocife- 
rantes adesse supremam horam, missosque qui occi- 
derent captas. Itaque, utquae nec prohibere possent, 
nec admittere auderent, nullo responso dato, tacitag 
opperiebantur victoris arbitrium. Leonnatus, ex- 
spectato diu qui se introduceret, postquam nemo 
procedere audebat, relictis in vestibulo satelHtibus, 
intrat in tabernaculum. Ea ipsa res turbaverat 
feminas, quod irrupisse non admissus videbatur. 
Itaque mater et conjux provokitae ad pedes orare 
coeperunt, ut, prius quam interflcerentur, Darii cor- 
pus ipsis patrio more sepeHre permitteret : functas 
supremo in regem officio impigre sese morituras. 
Leonnatus et vivere Darium, et ipsas non incolumes 
modo, sed etiam apparatu pristinae fortunse regi- 


nas fore. Tum demum mater Darii allevari se 
passa est. 

Alexander die postero, cum cura sepultis militi- 
bus quorum corpora invenerat, Persarum. quoque 
nobilissimis eumdem honorem haberi jubet, matrique 
Darii permitti, quos vellet patrio more sepeHret. 
Illa paucos arcta propinquitate conjunctos pro habitu 
prassentis fortunae humari jussit, apparatum fune- 
rum quo Persae suprema officia celebrarent invidi- 
osum fore existimans, cum victores haud pretiose 
cremarentur. Jamque justis defunctorum corpori- 
bus solutis, praemittit ad captivas qui nuntiarent 
ipsum venire : inhibitaque comitantium turba, ta- 
bernaculum cum Hephaestione intrat. Is longe 
omnium amicorum carissimus erat regi, cum ipso 
pariter eductus, secretorum omnium arbiter : Hber- 
tatis quoque in admonendo eo non ahus jus habebat, 
quod tamen ita usurpabat ut magis a rege permis- 
sum quam vindicatum ab eo videretur ; et sicut 
aetate par erat regi, ita corporis habitu prsestabat. 
Ergo reginse illum regem esse ratae, suo more 
veneratas sunt. Inde ex captivis spadonibus quis 
Alexander esset monstrantibus, Sisigambis advoluta 
est pedibus ejus, ignorationem numquam antea visi 
regis excusans. Quam manu allevans rex : "Non 
errasti " inquit " mater, nam et hic Alexander est." 
Bonum animum habere eas jussit : Darii deinde 
fihum collo suo admovit. Atque nil ille conspectu 
tunc primum a se visi conterritus, cervicem ejus 
manibus amplectitur. Motus ergo rex constantia 
pueri, Hephasstionem intuens, " Quam vellem " in- 
quit " Darius ahquid ex hac indole hausisset ! " 


^C^IIfOjgJg. ^^^^ook VIII. Chapters i, 2.] 

Barbaras opulentiag in illis locis haud ulla sunt 
majora indicia, quam magnis nemoribus saltibusque 
nobilium ferarum greges clausi. Spatiosas ad hoc 
ehgunt silvas, crebris perennium aquarum fontibus 
amoenas. Muris nemora cinguntur, turresque ha- 
bent venantium receptacula. Quattuor continuis 
astatibus intactum saltum fuisse constabat; quem 
Alexander cum toto exercitu ingressus, agitari undi- 
que feras jussit. Inter quas cum leo magnitudinis 
rarag ipsum regem invasurus incurreret, forte Lysi- 
machus (qui postea regnavit), proximus Alexandro, 
venabulum objicere feree coeperat. Quo rex repulso, 
et abire jusso, adjecit tam a semet uno quam a 
Lysimacho leonem interfici posse. Lysimachus 
enim quondam, cum venaretur in Syria, occiderat 
quidem eximiae magnitudinis feram solus, sed lagvo 
humero usque ad ossa laceratus ad ultimum pericuH 
pervenerat. Id ipsum exprobrans ei rex, fortius 
quam locutus est fecit. Nam feram non excepit 
modo, sed etiam uno vulnere occidit. Fabulam quae 
objectum leoni a rege Lysimachum temere vulgavit, 
ab eo casu quem supra diximus ortam esse credi- 
derim. Ceterum Macedones, quamquam prospero 
eventu defunctus erat x\lexander, tamen scivere 
gentis suag more, ne aut pedes venaretur, aut sine 
delectis principum atque amicorum. Ille quattuor 
miHbus ferarum dejectis, in eodem saltu cum toto 
exercitu epulatus est. 

Inde Maracanda reditum est : acceptaque aetatis 


excusatione ab Artabazo, provinciam ejus destinat 

Clito. Hic erat qui apud Granicum amnem nudo 

capite regem dimicantem clipeo suo texit, et Rho- 

sacis manum capiti regis imminentem gladio ampu- 

tavit ; vetus Philippi miles, multisque belhcis 

opcribus clarus. Hellanice, quae Alexandrum edu- 

caverat, soror ejus, haud secus quam mater a rege 

dihgebatur. Ob has causas vahdissimam imperii 

partem fidei ejus tuteleeque commisit. Jamque iter 

parare in posterum jussus, solemni et tempestivo 

adhibetur convivio. In quo rex cum multo incaUi- 

isset mero, immodicus gestimator sui, celebrare quse 

gesserat coepit ; gravis etiam eorum auribus qtii 

sentiebant vera memorari. Silentium tamen habu- 

ere seniores, donec Phihppi res orsus obterere, 

nobilem apud Ch^eroneam victoriam sui operis fuisse 

jactavit, ademptamque sibi mahgnitate et invidia 

patris tantae rei gloriam : iUum quidem seditione 

inter Macedones mihtes et Grsecos mercenarios orta, 

debiUtatum vulnere quod in ea consternatione acce- 

perat jacuisse, non aUas quam simulatione mortis 

tutiorem ; se corpus ejus protexisse cUpeo suo, ruen- 

tesque in iUum sua manu occisos ; quae patrem 

numquam agquo animo esse confessum, invitum fiUo 

debentem salutem suam ; itaque post expeditionem 

quam sine eo fecisset ipse in lUyrios, victorem scrip- 

sisse. se patri, fusos fugatosque hostes, nec aftuisse 

usquam Phihppum ; laude dignos esse, non qui 

Samothracum initia viserent, cum Asiam uri vasta- 

rique oportet, sed eos, qui magnitudine rerum fidem 


Haec et his simiUa laeti audiere juvenes ; ingrata 
senioribus erant, maxime propter Phihppum, sub 



quo diutius vixerant : cum Clitus, ne ipse quidem 
sobrius, ad eos qui infra ipsum cubabant conver- 
sus, Euripidis retulit carmen (ita ut sonus magis 
quam sermo exaudiri posset a rege), quo significa- 
batur, " male instituisse Graecos quod tropasis regum 
dumtaxat nomina inscriberent ; alieno enim san- 
guine partam gloriam intercipi." Itaque rex cum 
suspicaretur malignius habitum esse sermonem, 
percontari proximos coepit quid ex Clito audissent. 
Et illis ad silentium obstinatis, Clitus paulatim ma- 
jore voce Philippi acta bellaque in Gragcia gesta 
commemorat, omnia praesentibus prgeferens. Hinc 
inter juniores senesque orta contentio est ; et rex, 
velut patienter audiret, quis CHtus obterebat laudes 
ejus, ingentem iram conceperat. Ceterum cum 
animo videretur imperaturus, si finem procaciter 
orto sermoni CHtus imponeret, nihil eorum remit- 
tente magis exasperabatur. Jamque Chtus etiam 
Parmenionem defendere audebat, et Phihppi de 
Atheniensibus victoriam Thebarum prseferebat exci- 
dio ; non vino modo, sed etiam animi prava conten- 
tione provectus. Ad ultimum, " Si moriendum " in- 
quit " est pro te, CHtus est primus : at cum victori^e 
arbitrium agis, praecipuum ferunt, qui procacissime 
patris tui rnemoriae iUudunt. Sogdianam regionem 
mihi attribuis, toties rebellem, et non modo indomi- 
tam, sed quae ne subigi quidem possit. Mittor ad 
feras bestias, prgecipitia ingenia sortitas. Sed quse 
ad me pertinent transeo. PhiHppi mihtes spernis, 
obHtus, nisi hic Atharrias senex juniores pugnam 
detrectantes revocasset, adhuc nos circa HaHcarnas- 
sum haesuros fuisse. Quomodo ergo Asiam etiam 
cum istis junioribus subjecisti? Verum est (ut opi- 


nor) quod avunculum tuum in Italia dixisse constat : 
ipsum in viros incidisse, te in feminas." 

Nihil ex omnibus inconsulte ac temere actis re- 
gem magis moverat, quam Parmenionis cum honore 
mentio illata ; dolorem tamen rex pressit, contentus 
jussisse ut convivio excederet : nec quidquam aHud 
adjecit, quam forsitan eum (si diutius locutus foret) 
exprobraturum sibi fuisse vitam a semetipso datam : 
hoc enim superbe s«pe jactasse. Atque illum cun- 
ctantem adhuc surgere, qui proximi ei cubuerant, 
injectis manibus, jurgantes monentesque conabantur 
abducere. Clitus cum abstraheretur, ad pristinam 
violentiam ira quoque adjecta, " Suo pectore tergum 
illius esse defensum ; nunc postquam tanti meriti 
praeterierit tempus, etiam memoriam invisam esse '* 
proclamat. Attali quoque caedem objiciebat ; et ad 
uhimum Jovis, quem patrem sibi Alexander assere- 
ret, oraculum eludens, veriora se regi, quam patrem 
ejus, respondisse dicebat. 

Jam tantum irae conceperat rex, quantum vix so- 
brius ferre potuisset. 'Enimvero oHm mero sensibus 
victis, ex lecto repente prosiluit. Attoniti amici, ne 
positis quidem sed abjectis poculis, consurgunt, in 
eventum rei quam tanto impetu acturus esset intenti. 
Alexander rapta lancea ex manibus armigeri, CH- 
tum adhuc eadem Hnguae intemperantia furentem 
percutere conatus, a Ptolemaeo et Perdicca inhibetur. 
Medium complexi et obluctari perseverantem mora- 
bantur : Lysimachus et Leonnatus etiam lanceam 
abstulerant. IHe miHtum fidem implorans, compre- 
hendi se a proximis amicorum, quod Dario nuper 
accidisset, exclamat ; signumque tuba dari, ut ad 
regiam armati coirent, jubet. Tum vero Ptolemaeus 


et Perdiccas genibus advoluti orant, ne in tam prae- 
cipiti ira perseveret, spatiumque potius animo det : 
omnia postero die justius exsecuturum. Sed clausag 
erant aures, obstrepente ira. Itaque impotens ani- 
mi percurrit in regiee vestibulum, et, vigili excubanti 
hasta ablata, constitit in aditu, quo necesse erat iis 
qui simul cenaverant egredi. Abierant ceteri : 
Clitus ultimus sine lumine exibat. Quem. rex 
"quisnam esset " interrogat. Emlnebat etiam in 
voce sceleris quod parabat atrocitas. Et ille jam 
non suae, sed regis irse memor, Clitum esse, et de 
convivio exire respondit. Hagc dicentis latus hasta 
transfixit, morientisque sanguine aspersus, " I nunc " 
inquit " ad PhiHppum, et Parmenionem, et At- 

Male humanis ingeniis natura consuluit, quod 
plerumque non futura, sed transacta perpendimus. 
Quippe rex postquam ira mente decesserat, etiam 
ebrietate discussa, magnitudinem facinoris sera assti- 
matione perspexit. Videbat tunc immodica hber- 
tate abusum, sed ahoquin egregium bello virum, et 
nisi erubesceret fateri, servatorem sui, occisum. 
Detestabile carnificis ministerium occupaverat rex, 
verborum licentiam, quae vino poterat imputari, ne- 
fanda caede ultus. Manabat toto vestibulo cruor 
paulo ante convivae ; vigiles attoniti et stupentibus 
similes procul stabant, liberioremque poenitentiam 
soHtudo excipiebat. Ergo hastam ex corpore jacen- 
tis evulsam retorsit in semet : jamque admoverat 
pectori, cum advolant vigiles, et repugnanti e mani- 
bus extorquent, aUevatumque in tabernaculum de- 
ferunt. IHe humi prostraverat corpus ; gemitu 
ejulatuque miserabiH totam personans regiam. La- 


niare deinde os unguibus, et circumstantes rogare 
ne se tanto dedecori superstitem esse paterentur. 
Inter has preces tota nox extracta est : scrutantem- 
que, num ira Deorum ad tantum nefas -actus esset, 
subit anniversarium sacrificium Libero patri non 
esse redditum stato tempore. Itaque inter vinum 
et epulas casde commissa, iram Dei fuisse mani- 

Ceterum magis eo movebatur, quod omnium ami- 
corum animos videbat attonitos ; neminem cum ipso 
sociare sermonem postea ausurum ; vivendum esse 
in solitudine, velut feree bestiae terrenti alias, alias 
timenti. Prima deinde luce tabernaculo corpus, sic- 
ut adliuc cruentum erat, jussit inferri. Quo posito 
ante ipsum, lacrimis obortis, " Hanc," inquit ''nutri- 
ci me£e gratiam retuli, cujus duo filii apud Miletum 
pro mea gloria occubuere mortem ; hic frater, uni- 
cum orbitatis solatium, a me inter epulas occisus 
est. Quo nunc se conferet misera? Omnibus ejus 
unus supersum, quem solum asquis ocuHs videre non 
poterit. Et ego, servatorum meorum latro, revertar 
in patriam, ut ne dextram quidem nutrici, sine me- 
moria calamitatis ejus, offerre possim ! " Et cum 
finis lacrimis querehsque non fieret, jussu amicorum 
corpus ablatum est. Rex triduum jacuit inclusus. 
Quem ut armigeri coporisque custodes ad morien- 
dum obstinatum esse cognoverunt, universi in taber- 
naculum irrumpunt, diuque precibus ipsorum re- 
luctatum a^gre vicerunt ut cibum caperet. Quoque 
minus csedis puderet, jure interfectum CHtum Mace- 
dones decernunt, sepultura quoque prohibituri, ni 
rex humari jussisset. 


4. Dcfcat 0/ Porus, 

[Book VIII. Chapters 13, 14.] 

Ad amnem Hydaspem pervenit : in cujus ulteriore 
ripa Porus consederat, transitu prohibiturus hostem. 
Octoginta et quinque elephantos objecerat eximio 
corporum robore ; ultraque eos, currus trecentos et 
peditum triginta fere miHa : in quis erant sagittarii 
gravioribus tehs quam ut apte excuti possent. Ipsum 
vehebat elephantus super ceteras beluas eminens : 
armaque auro et argento distincta corpus rarae ma- 
gnitudinis honestabant. Par animus robori corporis, 
et, quanta inter rudes poterat esse, sapientia. 

Macedonas non conspectus hostium solum, sed 
etiam fluminis quod transeundum erat magnitudo 
terrebat. Quattuor in latitudinem stadia diffusus 
profundo alveo, et nusquam vada aperiente, speciem 
vasti maris fecerat. Nec pro spatio aquarum late 
stagnantium impetum coercebat ; sed quasi in arctum 
coeuntibus ripis, torrens et eHsus ferebatur : occul- 
taque saxa inesse ostendebant pluribus locis undae 
repercussas. Terribilior erat facies ripae, quam equi 
virique compleverant. Stabant ingentes vastorum 
corporum moles, et de industria irritatoe horrendo 
stridore aures fatigabant. Hinc amnis hinc hostis, 
capacia quidem bonae spei pectora, et ssepe se ex- 
perta, improviso tamen pavore percusserant : quippe 
instabiles rates nec dirigi ad ripam, nec tuto appli- 
cari posse credebant. Erant in medio amne insulae 
crebrae, in quas Indi et Macedones nantes, levatis 
super capita armis, transibant. Ibi levia proelia 
conserebantur, et uterque rex parvae rei discrimine 


summag experiebatur eventum. Ceterum in Mace- 
donum exercitu temeritate atque audacia insignes 
fuere Symmachus et Nicanor, nobiles juvenes, et 
perpetua partium felicitate ad spernendum omne 
periculum accensi. Quis ducibus promptissimi ju- 
venum lanceis modo armati transnavere in insulam, 
quam frequens hostis tenebat ; multosque Indorum, 
nulla re magis quam audacia armati, interemerunt. 
Abire cum gloria poterant, si umquam temeritas felix 
inveniret modum ; sed dum supervenientes con- 
temptim et superbe quoque exspectant, circumventi 
ab his qui occulti enaverant, eminus obruti tehs 
sunt. Qui eftugerant hostem aut impetu amnis ab- 
lati sunt, aut vorticibus impHciti. Eaque pugna mul- 
tum fiduciam Pori erexit, cuncta cernentis e ripa. 

Alexander inops consihi, tandem ad fallendum 
hostem talem dohim intendit. Erat insula in flumine 
amphor ceteris, silvestris eadem, et tegendis insidiis 
apta. Fossa quoque praealta haud procul ripa quam 
tenebat ipse, non pedites modo, sed etiam cum equis 
viros poterat abscondere. Igitur ut a custodia hujus 
opportunitatis oculos hostium averteret, Ptoleniceum 
cum omnibus turmis obequitare jussit procul insula, 
et subinde Indos clamore terrere, quasi flumen 
transnaturus foret. Per complures dies Ptolemseus 
id fecit, eoque consiho Porum quoque agmen suum 
ei parti, quam se petere simulabat, coegit advertere. 
Jam extra conspectum hostis insula erat. Alexan- 
der in diversa parte ripge statui suum tabernaculum 
jussit, assuetamque comitari ipsum cohortem ante 
id tabernaculum stare, et omnem apparatum regioe 
magnificenticE hostium ocuhs de industria ostendi ; 
Attalum etiam aequalem sibi, et haud disparem 


habitu oris et corporis (iitique cum procul viseretur) 
veste regia exornat, prasbiturum speciem ipsum re- 
gem illi ripse prassidere, nec agitare de transitu. 
Hujus consilii eftectum primo morata tempestas est, 
mox adjuvit ; incommoda quoque ad bonos adventus 
vertente fortuna. Trajicere amnem cum ceteris 
copiis in regionem insulas (de qua ante dictum est) 
parabat, averso hoste in eos qui cum Ptolemaeo in- 
feriorem obsederant ripam ; cum procella imbrem 
vix sub tectis tolerabilem effundit ; obrutique miHtes 
nimbo in terram refugerunt, navigiis ratibusque de- 
sertis. Sed tumultuantium fremitus, obstrepentibus 
ventis, ab hoste non poterat audiri. Deinde momen- 
to temporis repressus est imber ; ceterum adeo 
spissae intendere se nubes, ut conderent lucem, vix- 
que colloquentium inter ipsos facies noscitarentur. 
Terruisset alium obducta nox caelo, cum ignoto 
amne navigandum esset, forsitan hoste eam ipsam 
ripam, quam coeci atque improvidi, et ex periculo 
gloriam accersentes petebant, occupante. Obscuri- 
tatem, quae ceteros terrebat, suam occasionem ratus, 
dato signo ut omnes silentio ascenderent, ratem eam 
qua ipse vehebatur primam jussit expelH. Vacua 
erat ab hostibus ripa quas petebatur ; quippe adhuc 
Porus Ptolemeeum tantum intuebatur. Una ergo 
navi, quam petrae fluctus ilHserat, hserente, ceterae 
evadunt ; armaque capere miHtes, et ire in ordinem 

Jamque agmen in cornua divisum ipse ducebat, 
cum Poro nuntiatur, armis virisque ripam obtineri, 
et rerum adesse discrimen. Ac primo, humani in- 
genii vitio, spei sua^ indulgens, Abisaren beHi so- 
cium, (et ita convenerat,) adventare credebat. Mox 


liquidiore luce aperiente hostem, centum quadrigas 
et quattuor milia equitum venienti agmini Porus 
objecit. Dux erat copiarum quas prasmisit Hages 
frater ipsius ; summa virium in curribus. Senos 
viros singuli vehebant, duos clipeatos, duos sagitta- 
rios, ab utroque latere dispositos ; aurigce erant 
ceteri haud sane inermes, quippe jacula complura, 
ubi cominus proeliandum erat, omissis habenis, in 
hostem ingerebant. Ceterum vix ullus usus hujus 
auxiHi eo die fuit. Namque (ut supra dictum est) 
imber violentius quam ahas fusus, campos lubricos 
et inequitabiles fecerat : gravesque et propemodum 
immobiles currus illuvie ac voraginibus hasrebant. 
Contra Alexander expedito ac levi agmine strenue 
invectus est. Scythae et Dahas primi omnium inva- 
sere Indos : Perdiccam deinde cum equitibus in dex- 
trum cornu hostium emisit. 

Jam undique pugna se moverat, cum hi qui cur- 
rus agebant, illud ultimum auxilium suorum rati, 
effusis habenis in medium discrimen ruere coepe- 
runt. Anceps id malum utrisque erat : nam et 
Macedonum pedites primo impetu obterebantur, 
et per lubrica atque invia immissi currus excutiebant 
eos a quibus regebantur ; aHorum turbati equi non 
in voragines modo lacunasque, sed etiam in amnem 
prascipitavere curricula ; pauci tehs hostium exacti 
penetravere ad Porum, acerrime pugnam cientem. 
Is, ut dissipatos tota acie currus vagari sine rectori- 
bus vidit, proximis amicorum distribuit elephantos. 
Post eos posuerat pedites ac sagittarios tympana 
pulsare soHtos. Id pro cantu tubarum Indis erat ; 
nec strepitu eorum movebantur, oHm ad notum so- 
num auribus mitigatis. HercuHs simulacrum agmi- 


ni peclitum praeferebatur ; id maximum erat bellan- 
tibus incitamentum ; et deseruisse gestantes militare 
flagitium habebatur. Capitis etiam sanxerant poe- 
nam his qui ex acie non retuhssent ; metu quem ex 
iUo hoste quondam conceperant, etiam in rehgionem 
venerationemque converso. Macedonas non belua- 
rum modo, sed etiam ipsius regis aspectus parumper 
inhibuit. Beluge, dispositae inter armatos, speciem 
turrium procul fecerant. Ipse Porus humanae 
magnitudinis propemodum excesserat formam. 
Magnitudini adjicere videbatur belua qua veheba- 
tur, tantum inter ceteras eminens, quantum ahis 
ipse praestabat. 

Itaque Alexander contemplatus et regem et ag- 
men Indorum, " Tandem " inquit " par animo meo 
periculum video. Cum bestiis simul et cum egre- 
giis viris res est." Intuensque Coenon, " Cum ego" 
inquit " Ptolemaso Perdiccaque et Hepheestione co- 
mitatus, in lcevum hostium cornu impetum fecero, 
viderisque me in medio ardore certaminis, ipse dex- 
trum move, et turbatis signa infer. Tu, Antigene, 
et tu Leonnate, et Tauron, invehemini in mediam 
aciem, et urgebitis frontem. Hastce nostr^e prge- 
longas et vahdas non ahas magis quam adversus 
beluas rectoresque earum usui esse poterunt : de- 
turbate eos qui vehuntur, et ipsas confodite. An- 
ceps genus auxihi est, et in suos acrius furit. In 
hostem enim imperio, in suos pavore agitur." Haec 
elocutus, concitat equum primus ; jamque (ut desti- 
natum erat) invaserat ordines hostium, cum Coenus 
ingenti vi in leevum cornu invehitur. Phalanx quo- 
que mediam Indorum aciem uno impetu perrupit. 

At Porus, qua equitem invehi senserat, beluas agi 


jussit : sed tardum et paene immobile animal equo- 
rum velocitatem asquare non poterat. Ne sagittarum 
quidem ullus erat barbaris usus. Quippe longas et 
praggraves, nisi prius in terra statuerunt arcum, haud 
satis apte et commode imponunt : tum humo lubrica 
et ob id impediente conatum, mohentes ictus, celeri- 
tate hostium occupabantur. Ergo spreto regis im- 
perio (quod fere fit, ubi turbatis acrius metus quam 
dux imperare coepit) totidem erant imperatores quot 
agmina errabant. Ahus jungere aciem, ahus divi- 
dere ; stare quidam, et nonnuHi circumvehi terga 
hostium jubebant. Nihil in medium consulebatur. 
Porus tamen cum paucis, quibus metu potior fuerat 
pudor, cohigere dispersos, obvius hosti ire pergit, 
elephantosque ante agmen suorum agi jubet. Ma- 
gnum beluae injecere terrorem, insohtusque stridor 
non equos modo, tam pavidum ad omnia animal, sed 
viros quoque ordinesque turbaverat. 

Jam fugag circumspiciebant locum paulo ante vi- 
ctores, cum Alexander Agrianos et Thracas leviter 
armatos, mehorem concursatione quam cominus 
mihtem, emisit in beluas. Ingentem hi vim telorum 
injecere et elephantis et regentibus eos. Phalanx 
quoque instare constanter territis coepit. Sed qui- 
dam avidius persecuti beluas, in semet irritavere 
vulneribus. Obtriti ergo pedibus earum, ceteris ut 
parcius instarent fuere documentum. Praecipue 
terribihs iha facies erat, cum manu arma virosque 
corriperent, et super se regentibus traderent. '. An- 
ceps ergo pugna, nunc sequentium nunc fugientium 
elephantos, in multum diei varium certamen ex- 
traxit, donec securibus (id namque genus auxihi 
praeparatum erat) pedes amputare coeperunt. Co- 


pidas vocabant gladios leviter curvatos, falcibus 
similes, quis appetebant beluarum manus. Nec 
quidquam inexpertum, non mortis modo, sed etiam 
in ipsa morte, novi supplicii timor omittebat. 

Ergo elephanti vulneribus tandem fatigati suos 
impetu sternunt, et qui rexerant eos praecipitati in 
terram ab ipsis obterebantur. Itaque pecorum modo, 
magis pavidi quam infesti, ultra aciem exigebantur ; 
cum Porus, destitutus a pluribus, tela multo ante 
praeparata in circumfusos ex elephanto suo coepit 
ingerere, multisque eminus vulneratis, expositus 
ipse ad ictus undique petebatur. Novem jam vul- 
nera hinc tergo illinc pectore exceperat : multoque 
sanguine profuso, hmguidis manibus magis ehxpsa 
quam excussa tela mittebat. Nec segnius belua, 
instincta rabie, nondum saucia, invehebatur ordini- 
bus ; donec rector beluag regem conspexit lluentibus 
membris, omissisque armis vix compotem mentis. 
Tum beluam in fugam concitat, sequente Alexan- 
dro ; sed equus ejus multis vulneribus confossus de- 
ficiensque procubuit, posito magis rege quam effuso. 
Itaque dum equum mutat, tardius insecutus est. 

Interim frater Taxilis regis Indorum, praemissus 
ab Alexandro, monere coepit Porum, ne ukima ex- 
periri perseveraret, dederetque se victori. At ille, 
quamquam exhaustag erant vires deficiebatque san- 
guis, tamen ad notam vocem excitatus, "Agnosco" 
inquit "Taxilis fratrem, imperii regnique sui prodi- 
toris ; " et telum, quod unum forte non effluxerat, 
contorsit in eum ; quod per medium pectus penetra- 
vit ad tergum. Hoc uUimo virtutis opere edito, 
fugere acrius coepit ; sed elephantus quoque qui 
multa exceperat tela deficiebat. Itaque sistit fugam, 


peditemque sequenti hosti objecit. Jam Alexander 
consecutus erat, et pertinacia Pori cognita, vetabat 
resistentibus parci. Ergo undique et in pedites et 
in ipsum Porum tela congesta sunt; quis tandem 
gravatus, labi ex belua coepit. Indus, qui elephan- 
tum regebat, descendere eum ratus, more solito ele- 
phantum procumbere jussit in genua : qui ut se 
submisit, caeteri quoque (ita enim instituti erant) de- 
misere corpora in terram. Ea res et Porum et cete- 
ros victoribus tradidit. 

Rex spoHari corpus Pori, interemptum esse cre- 
dens, jubet, et qui detraherent loricam vestemque 
concurrere ; cum belua dominum tueri et spoHantes 
coepit appetere, levatumque corpus ejus rursus dorso 
suo imponere. Ergo tehs undique obruitur, confos- 
soque eo, in vehiculum Porus imponitur. Quem 
rex ut vidit allevantem oculos, non odio sed misera- 
tione commotus, " Quae, malum 1 " inquit " amentia 
te coegit, rerum mearum cognita fama belH, fortu- 
nam experiri, ciim Taxiles esset in deditos clemen- 
tiae meae tam propinquum tibi exemplum?" At iUe, 
"Quoniam" inquit "percontaris, respondebo ea Hb- 
ertate quam interrogando fecisti. Neminem me 
fortiorem esse censebam. Meas enim noveram 
vires, nondum expertus tuas : fortiorem esse te beHi 
docuit eventus. Sed ne sic quidem parum feHx 
sum, secundus tibi." Rursus interrogatus, quid 
ipse "victorem statuere debere censeret : " Quod hic " 
inquit " dies tibi suadet, quo expertus es quam ca- 
duca feHcitas esset." Plus monendo profecit, quam 
si precatus esset. Quippe magnitudinem animi 
ejus interritam ac ne fortuna quidem infractam, non 
misericordia modo, sed etiam honore excipere di- 


gnatus est. -^grum curavit haud secus quam si pro 
ipso pugnasset ; confirmatum contra spem omnium 
in amicorum numerum recepit ; mox donavit ampli- 
ore regno quam tenuit. Nec sane quidquam inge- 
nium ejus solidius aut constantius habuit, quam 
admirationem verae laudis et glorias ; simpHcius 
tamen famam aestimabat in hoste quam in cive. 
Quippe a suis credebat magnitudinem suam destrui 
posse ; eamdem clariorem fore, quo majores fuis- 
sent quos ipse vicisset. 

5. TTie Indian Ocean, 

[Book IX. Chapters 9, 10.] 

Hinc in proximam gentem Pataliam perventum 
est. Rex erat Moeris, qui urbe deserta in montes 
profugerat. Itaque Alexander oppido potitur, agros- 
que populatur. Magnae inde praedae actee sunt 
pecorum armentorumque, magna vis reperta fru- 
menti. Ducibus deinde sumptis amnis peritis, de- 
fluxit ad insulam medio ferme alveo enatam. 

Ibi diutius subsistere coactus, quia duces socor- 
dius asservati profugerant, misit qui conquirerent 
ahos : nec repertis, pervicax cupido incessit visendi 
Oceanum adeundique terminos mundi, ut sine re- 
gionis peritis, flumini ignoto caput suum totque 
fortissimorum virorum salutem permitteret. Navi- 
gabant ergo omnium per quae ferebantur ignari : 
quantum inde abesset mare, quse gentes colerent, 
quam placidum amnis os, quam patiens longarum 
navium esset, anceps et caeca asstimatio auguraba- 
tur. Unum erat temeritatis solatium, perpetua 
felicitas. Jam quadringenta stadia processerant. 


cum gubernatores agnoscere ipsos auram maris, et 
haud procul videri sibi Oceanum abesse, indicant 
regi. L^etus ille hortari nauticos coepit incumbe- 
rent remis ; adesse finem laboris omnibus votis ex- 
petitum ; jam nihil gloriae deesse, nihil obstare 
virtuti ; sine ullo Martis discrimine, sine sanguine, 
orbem terr^ ab illis capi ; ne naturam quidem lon- 
gius posse procedere ; brevi incognita nisi immor- 
tahbus esse visuros. Paucos tamen navigio emisit 
in ripam, qui agrestes vagos exciperent, e quibus 
certiora nosci posse sperabat. Illi scrutati omnia 
tuguria, tandem hitentes reperere. Qui interrogati 
quam procul abessent mari responderunt nullum 
ipsos mare ne fama quidem accepisse ; ceterum 
tertio die perveniri posse ad 'aquam amaram, quae 
corrumperet dulcem. Intellectum est mare destinari 
ab ignaris natur^ ejus. Itaque ingenti alacritate 
nautici remigant, et proximo quoque die, quo pro- 
pius spes admovebatur, crescebat ardor animorum. 
Tertio jam die mixtum flumini subibat mare, leni 
adhuc gestu confundente dispares undas. Tum aham 
insulam medio amni sitam evecti paulo lentius, quia 
cursus gestu reverberabatur, applicant classem, et ad 
commeatus petendos discurrunt, securi casus ejus 
qui supervenit ignaris. 

Tertia ferme hora erat, cum stata vice Oceanus 
exaestuans invehi coepit, et retro flumen urgere. 
Quod primo coercitum, deinde vehementius pulsum, 
majore impetu adversum agebatur quam torrentia 
praecipiti alveo incurrunt. Ignota vulgo freti natura 
erat, monstraque et irse deum indicia cernere vide- 
bantur. Identidem intumescens mare, et in campos 
paulo ante siccos descendere superfusum. Jamque 


levatis navigiis, et tota classe dispersa, qui expositi 
erant undique ad naves trepidi et improviso malo 
attoniti recurrunt. Sed in tumultu festinatio quoque 
tarda est. Hi contis navigia appellebant, hi dum 
jemos aptari prohibebant consederant. Quidam 
enavigare properantes, sed non exspectatis qui simul 
esse debebant, clauda et inhabiHa navigia languide 
moHebantur : aHas navium inconsulte ruentes non 
receperant ; pariterque et muhitudo et paucitas festi- 
nantes morabatur. Clamor hinc exspectare hinc 
ire jubentium, dissoneeque voces nusquam idem at- 
que unum tendentium, non oculorum modo usum sed 
etiam aurium abstulerant. Ne in gubernatoribus 
quidem quidquam opis erat, quorum nec exaudiri 
vox a tumultuantibus poterat, nec imperium a terri- 
tis incompositisque servari. Ergo coUidi inter se 
naves, abstergerique invicem remi, et ahi aHorum 
navigia urgere coeperunt. Crederes non unius ex- 
ercitus classem vehi, sed duorum navale inisse cer- 
tamen. Incutiebantur puppibus prorae ; premebantur 
a sequentibus qui antecedentes turbaverant; jur- 
gantium ira perveniebat etiam ad manus. 

Jamque agstus totos circa flumen campos inunda- 
verat, tumuHs dumtaxat eminentibus, veluti insuHs 
parvis ; in quos plerique trepidi omissis navigiis 
enare coeperunt. Dispersa classis partim in prasaUa 
aqua stabat, qua subsederant vaHes ; partim in vado 
haerebat, utcumque inaequale terras fastigium occu- 
paverant undas ; cum subito novus et pristino major 
terror incutitur. Reciprocari coepit mare, magno 
tractu aquis in suum fretum recurrentibus, redde- 
batque terras paulo ante profundo salo mersas. 
Igitur destituta navigia aHa praecipitantur in proras, 


alia in latera procumbunt. Strati erant campi sar- 
cinis, armis, avulsarum tabularum remorumque 
fragmentis. Miles nec egredi in terram, nec in 
naves subsistere audebat, identidem pragsentibus 
graviora quas sequerentur exspectans. Vix quae 
perpetiebantur videre ipsos credebant ; in sicco 
naufragia, in amni mare : nec finis malorum ; quippe 
sestum paulo post mare relaturum, quo navigia 
allevarentur, ignari, famem et ultima sibimet omi- 
nabantur. Belute quoque fluctibus destitutse, terri- 
biles vagabantur. 

Jamque nox appetebat, et regem quoque despe- 
ratio salutis aegritudine affecerat. Non tamen in- 
victum animum curae obruunt, quin tota nocte 
persideret in speculis, equitesque prasmitteret ad os 
amnis, ut cum mare rursus exaestuare sensissent 
prgecederent. Navigia quoque et lacerata refici, et 
eversa fluctibus erigi jubet, paratosque esse et in- 
tentos cum rursus mare terras inundasset. Tota ea 
nocte inter vigilias adhortationesque consumpta, 
celeriter et equites ingenti cursu refugere, et secutus 
est aestus. Qui primo, aquis leni tractu subeuntibus, 
coepit levare navigia ; mox totis campis inundans, 
etiam impulit classem ; plaususque militum nautico- 
rumque, insperatam salutem immodico celebrantium 
gaudio, litoribus ripisque resonabat. Unde tantum 
redisset subito mare? quo pridie refugisset? quae- 
nam esset ejusdem elementi natura, modo discors, 
modo imperio temporum obnoxia? mirabundi re- 
quirebant. Rex cum ex eo quod acciderat conjec- 
taret post solis ortum statum tempus esse, de media 
nocte, ut aestum occuparet, cum paucis navigiis se- 
cundo amne def^uxit : evectusque os ejus quadrin- 


genta stadia processit in mare, tandem voti sui 
compos ; prsesidibusque et maris et locorum diis sa- 
crificio facto, ad classem rediit. 

Hinc adversum flumen subit classis ; et altero die 
appulsa est hcmd procul lacu salso, cujus incognita 
natura plerosque decepit temere ingressos aquam ; 
quippe scabies corpora invasit, et contagium morbi 
etiam in alios vulgatum est. Oleum remedio fuit. 
Leonnato deinde prgemisso ut puteos foderet, qua 
terrestri itinere ducturus exercitum videbatur (quip- 
pe sicca erat regio), ipse cum copiis substitit, ver- 
num tempus exspectans. Interim et urbes portus- 
que condidit. Nearcho atque Onesicrito, nauticag 
rei peritis, imperavit, ut validissimas navium dedu- 
cerent in Oceanum, progressique quoad tuto possent, 
naturam maris noscerent : vel eodem amne, vel 
Euphrate subire eos posse, cum reverti ad se vellent. 
Jamque mitigata hieme, et navibus quag inutiles 
videbantur crematis, terra ducebat exercitum. . . . 

Haud multo post Nearchus et Onesicritus, quos 
longius in Oceanum procedere jusserat, superveni- 
unt. Nuntiabant autem quasdam audita, aha com- 
perta : insulam ostio amnis subjectam auro abundare, 
inopem equorum esse ; singulos eos ab iis qui ex 
continenti trajicere auderent, singuHs talentis emi ; 
plenum esse beluarum mare ; aestu secundo eas 
ferri, magnarum navium corpora agquantes ;. truci 
cantu deterritas sequi classem, cum magno agquoris 
strepitu, velut demersa navigia, subisse aquas. Ce- 
tera incolis crediderant ; inter qu£e Rubrum mare 
non a colore undarum, ut plerique crederent, sed ab 
Erythro rege appellari ; esse haud procul a conti- 
nenti insulam palmis frequentibus consitam, et in 


medio fere nemore columnam eminere, Erythri re- 
gis monmnentum, litteris gentis ejus scriptam. Ad- 
jiciebant, navigia quas lixas mercatoresque vexissent, 
famam auri secutis gubernatoribus, in insulam esse 
transmissa, nec deinde ab his postea visa. Rex 
cognoscendi phu-a cupidine accensus, rursus eos 
terram legere jubet, donec ad Euphratem appelle- 
rent classem ; inde adverso amne Babyionem subi- 
turos. Ipse animo infinita complexus statuerat, 
omni ad Orientem maritima regione perdomita, ex 
Syria petere Africam, Karthagini infensus ; inde 
Numidiae sohtudinibus peragratis, cursum Gades 
dirigere — ibi namque columnas Hercuhs esse fama 
vulgaverat ; Hispanias deinde, quam Iberiam Grasci 
a flumine Ibero vocabant, adire ; et pra^tervehi 
Alpes, Itahaeque oram, unde in Epirum brevis cur- 
sus est. Igitur Mesopotamiae prsetoribus imperavit, 
materia in Libano monte c^esa devectaque ad ur- 
bem Syrias Thapsacum, septingentarum carinas 
navium ponere ; septiremes omnes esse, deducique 
Babyloniam : Cypriorum regibus imperatum, ut 
aes stupamque et vela.praeberent. 

6. Death of Alexander, 

[Book X. Chapter 5.] 

Intuentibus lacrimae obortae praebuere speciem 
jam non regem sed funus ejus visentis exercitus. 
Maeror tamen circumstantium lectum eminebat. 
Quos ut aspexit, " Invenietis " inquit " cum exces- 
sero, dignum tahbus viris regem?" Incredibile 
dictu audituque, in eodem habitu corporis in quem 
se composuerat cum admissurus mihtes esset, du- 


rasse, donec a toto exercitu illud ultimum persalu- 
tatus est : dimissoque vulgo, velut omni vitae debito 
liberatus, fatigata membra rejecit : propiusque 
adire jussis amicis (nam et vox deficere jam coepe- 
rat), detractum anulum digito Perdiccae tradidit, 
adjectis mandatis ut corpus suum ad Hammonem 
ferri juberent. Quaerentibus his " cui relinqueret re- 
gnum?" respondit, " ei qui esset optimus ; ceterum 
providere jam se, ob id certamen magnos funebres 
ludos parari sibi." Rursus Perdicca interrogante 
"quando coelestes honores haberi sibi vellet?" dixit, 
"tum velle, cum ipsi fehces essent." Suprema haec 
vox fuit regis, et paulo post exstinguitur. 

Ac primo ploratu lamentisque et planctibus tota 
regia personabat : mox velut in vasta solitudine 
omnia tristi silentio muta torpebant, ad cogitationes 
quid deinde futurum esset dolore converso. Nobiles 
pueri, custodi^ corporis ejus assueti, nec doloris 
magnitudinem capere nec se ipsos intra vestibulum 
regiae tenere potuerunt ; vagique et furentibus 
similes totam urbem luctu ac meerore compleverant ; 
nulHs questibus omissis quos in taU casu dolor 

Ergo qui extra regiam astiterant Macedones pa- 
riter barbarique concurrunt, nec poterant victi a 
victoribus in communi dolore discerni. Persee jus- 
tissimum ac mitissimum dominum, Macedones opti- 
mum ac fortissimum regem invocantes, certamen 
quoddam ma^roris edebant. Ncc maestorum solum, 
sed etiam indignantium voces exaudiebantur, tam 
viridem, et in flore aetatis fortunaeque, invidia deum 
ereptum esse rebus humanis. Vigor ejus et vultus 
educentis in proehum milites, obsidentis urbes, eva- 


dentis in muros, fortes viros pro concione donantis, 
occurrebant oculis. Tum Macedones divinos ho- 
nores negasse ei poenitebat ; impiosque et ingratos 
fuisse se confitebantur, quod aures ejus debita ap- 
pellatione fraudassent. 

Et cum diu nunc in veneratione nunc in desiderio 
regis haesissent, in ipsos versa miseratio est. Mace- 
donia profecti ultra Euphratem, in mediis hostibus 
novum imperium aspernantibus, destitutos se esse 
cernebant : sine certo regis h^erede, pubHcas vires 
ad se quemque tracturum. Bella deinde civiha, 
quae secuta sunt, mentibus augurabantur : iterum 
non de regno Asias, sed de rege, ipsis sanguinem 
esse fundendum ; novis vulneribus veteres rumpen- 
das cicatrices ; senes, debiles, modo petita missione 
a justo rege, nunc morituros pro potentia forsitan 
satelHtis ahcujus ignobihs. 

Has cogitationes volventibus nox supervenit ter- 
roremque auxit. MiHtes in armis yigilabant ; Baby- 
lonii, aHus e muris aHus culmine sui quisque tecti, 
prospectabant quasi certiora visuri. Nec quisquam 
lumina audebat accendere. Et quia oculorum ces- 
sabat usus, fremitus vocesque auribus captabant ; ac 
plerumque vano metu territi, per obscuras semitas 
aHus aHi occursantes, invicem suspecti ac soHiciti 
ferebantur. Persse, comis suo more detonsis, in 
lugubri veste, cum conjugibus ac Hberis, non ut vic- 
torem et modo hostem, sed ut gentis suas justissi- 
mum regem, vero desiderio lugebant. Assueti sub 
rege vivere, non aHum qui imperaret ipsis digniorem 
fuisse confitebantur. 

Nec muris urbis luctus continebatur, sed proxi- 
mam regionem ab ea, deinde magnam partem Asiae 


cis Euphratem tanti mali fama pervaserat. Ad 
Darii quoque matrem celeriter perlata est. Abscisa 
ergo veste qua induta erat, lugubrem sumpsit ; la- 
ceratisque crinibus humi corpus abjecit. Assidebat 
ei altera ex neptibus, nuper amissum Hephaestionem 
cui nupserat lugens, propriasque causas doloris in 
communi m^estitia retractabat. Sed omnium suo- 
rum mala Sisygambis una capiebat. Illa suam, 
illa neptium vicem flebat. Recens dolor etiam prae- 
terita revocaverat. Crederes modo amissum Dari- 
um, et pariter miserag duorum fiHorum exsequias 
esse ducendas. Flebat simul mortuos vivosque. 
Quem enim pueUarum acturum esse curam? quem 
ahum futurum Alexandrum? iterum esse se captas, 
iterum excidisse regno. Qui mortuo Dario ipsas 
tueretur, reperisse ; qui post Alexandrum respiceret, 
utique non reperturas. Subibat inter hagc animum, 
octoginta fratres suos eodem die ab Ocho sasvissimo 
regum trucidatos, adjectumque stragi tot fiHorum 
patrem ; e septem Hberis, quos genuisset ipsa, unum 
superesse ; ipsum Darium floruisse pauHsper, ut 
crudeHus posset extingui. Ad uhimum dolori suc- 
cubuit, obvolutoque capite assidentes genibus suis 
neptem nepotemque aversata, cibo pariter abstinuit 
et luce. Quinto postquam mori statuerat die ex- 
tincta est. Magnum profecto Alexandro indulgen- 
tiae in eam, justitiseque in omnes captivos, documen- 
tum est mors hujus : quge cum sustinuisset post 
Darium vivere, Alexandro esse superstes erubuit. 

Et (hercule) juste aestimantibus regem Hquet, 
bona naturae ejus fuisse ; vitia vel fortunge, vel asta- 
tis. Vis incredibiHs animi ; laboris patientia prope- 
modum nimia ; fortitudo non inter reges modo 


excellens, sed inter illos quoque quorum haec sola 
virtus fuit ; liberalitas s£epe majora tribuentis quam 
a diis petuntur ; clementia in devictos ; tot regna aut 
reddita quibus ea dempserat bello, aut dono data ; 
mortis, cujus metus ceteros exanimat, perpetua con- 
temptio ; gloriag laudisque ut justo major cupido, 
ita ut juveni et in tantis admittenda rebus ; jam pie- 
tas erga parentes, quorum Olympiada immortalitati 
consecrare decreverat, Philippum ultus erat ; jam 
in omnes fere amicos benignitas, erga miHtes bene- 
volentia ; consilium par magnitudini animi, et quan- 
tam vix poterat astas ejus capere, sollertia ; modus 
immodicarum cupiditatum : — ingentes profecto dotes 
erant. Illa fortunce : diis asquare se, et caslestes 
honores accersere, et taha suadentibus oraculis cre- 
dere ; et dedignantibus venerari ipsum vehementius 
quam par esset irasci ; in externum habitum mutare 
corporis cultum ; imitari devictarum gentium mores, 
quos ante victoriam spreverat. Nam iracundiam et 
cupidinem vini sicuti juventa irritaverat, ita senec- 
tus mitigare potuisset. Fatendum est tamen, cum 
pku*imum virtuti debuerit, plus debuisse fortunae, 
quam solus omnium mortahum in potestate habuit. 
Quoties illum a morte revocavit? quoties temere in 
pericula vectum perpetua fehcitate protexit? Vitse 
quoque finem eumdem ilH quem gloriee statuit. Ex- 
spectavere eum fata, dum Oriente perdomito, adito- 
que Oceano, quidquid mortaHtas capiebat, impleret. 
Itaque nomen quoque ejus, et fama rerum, in totum 
propemodum orbem reges ac regna diffudit ; claris- 
simique sunt habiti, qui etiam minimae parti tantae 
fortunae adhaeserunt. 




(B.C. 247-183.) 

Hannibal, Hamilcaris filius, Karthaginiensis. Si 
verum est, quod nemo dubitat, ut populus Romanus 
omnes gentes virtute superarit, non est infitiandum, 
Hannibalem tanto prgestitisse ceteros imperatores 
prudentia, quanto populus Romanus antecedat forti- 
tudine cunctas nationes. Nam quotiescumque cum 
eo congressus est in Italia, semper discessit superior. 
Quod nisi domi civium suorum invidia debilitatus 
esset, Romanos videretur superare potuisse. Sed 
multorum obtrectatio devicit unius virtutem. 

Hic autem, velut hereditate relictum, odium pater- 
num erga Romanos sic conservavit, ut prius ani- 
mum quam id deposuerit ; qui quidem, cvim patria 
pulsus esset, et alienarum opum indigeret, numquam 
destiterit animo bellare cum Romanis. 

Nam, ut omittam PhiHppum, quem absens hostem 
reddidit Romanis ; omnium his temporibus potentis- 
simus rex Antiochus fuit. Hunc tanta cupiditate 
incendit behandi, ut usque a Rubro mari arma co- 
natus sit rnferre ItaHas. Ad quem cum legati venis- 
sent Romani, qui de ejus vokmtate explorarent, 
darentque operam consiliis clandestinis, ut Hanni- 
balem in suspicionem regi adducerent, tamquam ab 
ipsis corruptum aha atque antea sentire ; neque id 


frustra fecissent, idque Hannibal comperisset, seque 
ab interioribus consiliis segregari vidisset ; tempore 
dato adiit ad regem, eique cum multa de tide sua et 
odio in Romanos commemorasset, hoc adjunxit : 
" Pater meus " inquit " Hamilcar, puerulo me, utpote 
non amplius novem annos nato, in Hispaniam im- 
perator proficiscens Karthagine, Jovi Optimo Maxi- 
mo hostias immolavit. Quas divina res dum confi- 
ciebatur, qusesivit a me, vellemne secum in castra 
proficisci? Id cum Hbenter accepissem, atque ab 
eo petere coepissem ne dubitaret ducere, tum ille 
'Faciam,' inquit ' si fidem mihi quam postulo dede- 
ris.' Simul me ad aram adduxit, apud quam sacri- 
ficare instituerat ; eamque ceteris remotis tenentem 
jurare jussit, numquam me in amicitia cum Roma- 
nis fore. Id ego jusjurandum patri datum usque ad 
hanc £etatem ita conservavi, ut nemini dubium esse 
debeat quin reHquo tempore eadem mente sim futu- 
rus. Quare, si quid amice de Romanis cogitabis, 
non imprudenter feceris si me celaris ; cum quidem 
bellum parabis, te ipsum frustraberis si non me in 
eo principem posueris." 

Hac igitur qua diximus setate, cum patre in Hi- 
spaniam profectus est : cujus post obitum, Hasdrubale 
imperatore sufiecto, equitatui omni pragfuit. Hoc 
quoque interfecto, exercitus summam imperii ad eum 
detuHt. Id, Karthaginem delatum, pubHce compro- 
batum est. Sic Hannibal, minor quinque et viginti 
annis natus, imperator factus, proximo triennio 
omnes gentes Hispani^e beUo subegit : Saguntum 
foideratam civitatem vi expugnavit ; tres exercitus 
maximos comparavit. Ex his unum in Africam 
misit, alterum cum Hasdrubale fratre in Hispania 


reliquit, tertium in Italiam secum duxit. Saltum 
Pyrenaeum transiit. Quacumque iter fecit, cum 
omnibus incolis conflixit ; neminem nisi victum di- 
misit. Ad Alpes posteaquam venit, quae Italiam ab 
Gallia sejungunt, quas nemo umquam cum exercitu 
ante eum, pragter Herculem Graium, transierat (quo 
facto is hodie saltus Graius appellatur), Alpicos 
conantes prohibere transitu concidit ; loca patefecit ; 
itinera muniit ; eftecit ut ea elephantus ornatus ire 
posset, qua antea unus homo inermis vix poterat 
repere. Hac copias traduxit, in ItaHamque per- 

Conflixerat apud Rhodanum cum P. CorneHo 
Scipione consule, eumque pepulerat. Cum hoc 
eodem Clastidi apud Padum decernit, sauciumque 
inde ac fugatum dimittit. Tertio idem Scipio, cum 
collega Tiberio Longo, apud Trebiam adversus eum 
venit : cum his manum conseruit ; utrosque profli- 
gavit. Inde per Ligures Apenninum transit, petens 
Etruriam. Hoc itinere adeo gravi morbo afficitur 
oculorum, ut postea numquam dextro teque bene 
usus sit. Qua valetudine cum etiam nunc premere- 
tur, lecticaque ferretur, C. Flaminium consulem 
apud Trasimenum cum exercitu insidiis circumven- 
tumoccidit; neque muUo post C. Centenium prae- 
torem, cum delecta manu saltus occupantem. Hinc 
in Apuham pervenit. Ibi obviam ei venerunt duo 
consules, C. Terentius et L. Paulus ^mihus. Utri- 
usque exercitus uno pro^Ho [Cannensi] fugavit ; 
Paulum consulem occidit, et ahquot praeterea con- 
sulares, in his Cn. ServiHum Geminum, qui anno 
superiore fuerat consul. 

Hac pugna pugnata Romam profectus est, nullo 


resistente. In propinquis urbis montibus moratus 
est. Cum aliquot ibi dies castra habuisset, et re- 
verteretur Capuam, Q^ Fabius Maximus dictator 
Romanus in agro Falerno se ei objecit. Hic clausus 
locorum angustiis, noctu sine ullo detrimento exer- 
citus se expedivit : Fabio, callidissimo imperatori, 
dedit verba : namque obducta nocte, sarmenta in 
cornibus juvencorum deligata incendit, ejusque ge- 
neris multitudinem magnam dispalatam immisit. 
Quo repentino objectu viso, tantum terrorem injecit 
exercitui Romanorum, ut egredi extra vallum nemo 
sit ausus. Hanc post rem gestam non ita multis 
diebus, M. Minucium Rufum magistrum equitum, 
pari ac dictatorem imperio, dolo productum in proe- 
lium, fugavit. Ti. Sempronium Gracchum, iterum 
consulem, in Lucanis absens, in insidias inductum 
sustuHt. M. Claudium Marcelhim, quinquies con- 
sulem, apud Venusiam pari modo interfecit. Lon- 
gum est enumerare proeha. Quare hoc unum satis 
erit dictum, ex quo intelhgi possit quantus iUe fue- 
rit : quamdiu in Itaha fuit, nemo ei in acie restitit ; 
nemo adversus eum, post Cannensem pugnam, in 
campo castra posuit. 

Hinc invictus, patriam defensum revocatus, beUum 
gessit adversus P. Scipionis fihum quem ipse pri- 
mum apud Rhodanum, iterum apud Padum, tertio 
apud Trebiam fugerat. Cum hoc, exhaustis jam 
patrige facultatibus, cupivit imprgesentiarum behum 
componere, quo valentior postea congrederetur. In 
cohoquium convenit ; conditiones non convenerunt. 
Post id factum paucis diebus, apud Zamam cum eo- 
dem conflixit : pulsus (incredile dictu) biduo et 
duabus noctibus Adrumetum pervenit, quod abest a 


Zama circiter milia passuum trecenta. In hac fuga 
Numidce, qui simul cum eo ex acie excesserant, in- 
sidiati sunt ei ; quos non solum eftugit, sed etiam 
ipsos oppressit. Adrumeti reliquos e fuga collegit ; 
novis delectibus paucis diebus multos contraxit. 

Cum in apparando acerrime esset occupatus, Kar- 
thaginienses bellum cum Romanis composuerunt. 
Ille nihilo secius exercitui postea prgefuit, resque in 
Africa gessit, itemque Mago frater ejus, usque ad P. 
Sulpicium et C. AureHum consules. His enim 
magistratibus legati Karthaginienses Romam vene- 
runt, qui senatui populoque Romano gratias agerent, 
quod cum his pacem fecissent, ob eamque rem co- 
rona aurea eos donarent, simulque peterent ut ob- 
sides eorum FregelHs essent, captivique redderentur. 
His ex senatus-consulo responsum est : munus eo- 
rum gratum acceptumque esse ; obsides quo loco 
rogarent futuros ; captivos non remissuros, quod 
Hannibalem, cujus opera susceptum bellum foret, 
inimicissimum nomini Romano, et nunc cum impe- 
rio apud exercitum haberent, itemque fratrem ejus 
Magonem. Hoc responso Karthaginienses cogni- 
to, Hannibalem et Magonem domum revocarunt. 

Huc ut rediit praetor factus est, postquam rex 
fuerat anno secundo et vigesimo : ut enim Rom^e 
consules, sic Karthagini quotannis annui bini reges 
creabantur. In eo magistratu pari dihgentia se 
Hannibal praebuit, ac fuerat in bello. Namque 
eftecit, ex novis vectigahbus non solum ut esset 
pecunia quae Rom.anis ex foedere penderetur, sed 
etiam superesset, quae in asrario poneretur. Deinde 
anno post prasturam, M. Claudio L. Furio consuH- 
bus, Romani legati Karthaginem venerunt. Hos 



Hannibal ratus sui exposcendi gratia missos, prius- 
quam his senatus daretur, navem ascendit clam, 
atque in Syriam ad Antiochum profugit. Hac re 
palam facta, Poeni naves duas quas eum compre- 
henderent, si possent consequi, miserunt ; bona ejus 
pubHcarunt; domum a fundamentis disjecerunt ; 
ipsum exsulem judicarunt. 

At Hannibal, anno tertio postquam domo profu- 
gerat, L. Corneho Q^ Minucio consuHbus, cum 
quinque navibus Africam accessit in finibus Cyre- 
naeorum} si forte Karthaginienses ad bellum Antio- 
chi spe fiduciaque possent induci ; cui jam persuserat 
ut cum exercitibus in Itaham proficisceretur. Huc 
Magonem fratrem excivit. Id ubi Poeni resciverunt, 
Magonem eadem qua fratrem absentem poena afte- 
cerunt. IIH desperatis rebus cum solvissent naves 
ac vela ventis dedissent, Hannibal ad Antiochum 
pervenit. De Magonis interitu duplex memoria 
prodita est : namque aHi naufragio, aHi a servuHs 
ipsius interfectum eum scriptum reHquerunt. Anti- 
ochus autem, si tam in gerendo beUo consiHis ejus 
parere voluisset, quam in suscipiendo instituerat, 
propius Tiberi quam ThermopyHs de summa impe- 
rii dimicasset. Quem etsi multa stuhe conari vide- 
bat, tamen nuHa deseruit in re. Prgefuit paucis 
navibus quas ex Syria jussus erat in Asiam ducere ; 
hisque adversus Rhodiorum classem in PamphyHo 
mari conflixit : quo cum muHitudine adversariorum 
sui superarentur, ipse quo cornu rem gessit fuit 

Antiocho fugato, verens ne dederetur (quod sine 
dubio accidisset si sui fecisset potestatem), Cretam 
ad Gortynios venit, ut ibi quo se conferret conside- 


raret. Vidit autem vir omnium callidissimus magno 
se fore periculo, nisi quid providisset, propter avari- 
tiam Cretensium : magnam enim secum pecuniam 
portabat, de qua sciebat exisse famam. Itaque ca- 
pit tale consilium : amphoras complures complet 
plumbo ; summas operit auro et argento. Has, 
pragsentibus principibus, deponit in templo Dianae ; 
simulans se suas fortunas illorum fidei credere. 
His in errorem inductis, statuas seneas quas secum 
portabat omni sua pecunia complet, easque in pro- 
patulo domi abjicit. Gortynii templum magna cura 
custodiunt, non tam a ceteris quam ab Hannibale, 
ne ille inscientibus his tolleret, secumque duceret. 

Sic conservatis suis rebus, Poenus illusis Creten- 
sibus omnibus ad Prusiam in Pontum pervenit : 
apud quem eodem animo fuit erga ItaHam ; neque 
aliud quidquam egit, quam regem armavit et exer- 
cuit adversus Romanos. Quem cum videret dome- 
sticis opibus minus esse robustum, conciHabat ceteros 
reges, adjungebat bellicosas nationes. Dissidebat 
ab eo Pergamenus rex Eumenes, Romanis amicissi- 
mus, bellumque inter eos gerebatur et mari et terra : 
quo magis cupiebat eum Hannibal opprimi ; sed 
utrobique Eumenes plus valebat propter Romanorum 
societatem : quem si removisset, facihora sibi cetera 
fore arbitrabatur. Ad hunc interficiendum, talem 
iniit rationem. Classe paucis diebus erant decre- 
turi : superabatur navium multitudine : dolo erat 
pugnandum, cum par non esset armis. Imperavit 
quam plurimas venenatas serpentes vivas colligi, 
easque in vasa fictiha conjici. Harum cum confe- 
cisset magnam multitudinem, die ipso quo facturus 
erat navale proelium classiarios convocat, hisque 



prascipit omnes ut in unam Eumenis regis concur- 
rant navem, a ceteris tantum satis habeant se defen- 
dere : id facile illos serpentium multitudine consecu- 
turos : rex autem in qua nave veheretur, ut scirent 
se facturum ; quem si aut cepissent aut interfecissent, 
magno his polHcetur pr^emio fore. 

Tali cohortatione mihtum facta, classis ab utrisque 
in proehum deducitur. Quarum acie constituta, 
priusquam signum pugnae daretur, Hannibal, ut 
palam faceret suis quo loco Eumenes esset, tabel- 
larium in scapha cum caduceo mittit ; qui ubi ad 
naves adversariorum pervenit, epistolamque osten- 
dens, se regem professus est queerere, statim ad 
Eumenen deductus est, quod nemo dubitabat aliquid 
de pace esse scriptum. Tabellarius, ducis nave 
declarata suis, eodem unde erat egressus se recepit. 
At Eumenes, soluta epistola, nihil in ea reperit, nisi 
quod ad irridendum eum pertineret ; cujus etsi cau- 
sam mirabatur, (nec reperiebatur,) tamen proeHum 
statim committere non dubitavit. Horum in con- 
cursu Bithynii HannibaHs pr^ecepto universi navem 
Eumenis adoriuntur : quorum vim rex cum sustinere 
non posset, fuga salutem petit ; quam consecutus 
non esset, nisi intra sua prassidia se recepisset quae 
in proximo Htore erant coHocata. 

ReHquae Pergamenae naves cum adversarios pre- 
merent acrius, repente in eas vasa fictiHa, de quibus 
supra mentionem fecimus, conjici coepta sunt; qu£e 
jacta initio risum pugnantibus excitarunt ; nec 
quare id fieret poterat inteHigi. Postquam autem 
naves completas conspexerunt serpentibus, nova re 
perterriti, cum quid potissimum vitarent non vide- 
rent, puppes verterunt, seque ad sua castra nautica 


retulerunt. Sic Hannibal consilio arma Pergame- 
norum superavit : neque tum solum, sed sagpe alias 
pedestribus copiis pari prudentia pepulit adversarios. 
Qu£e dum in Asia geruntur, accidit casu ut legati 
Prusiag Romse apud L. Quinctium Flamininum con- 
sularem coenarent ; atque ibi de Hannibale mentione 
facta, ex his unus diceret eum in Prusias regno esse. 
Id postero die Flamininus senatui detulit. Patres 
conscripti, qui Hannibale vivo numquam se sine 
insidiis futuros existimarent, legatos in Bithyniam 
miserunt, in his Flamininum, qui a rege peterent ne 
inimicissimum suum secum haberet, sibique dederet. 
His Prusias negare ausus non est : illud recusavit, 
ne id a se fieri postularent quod adversus jus hos- 
pitii esset : ipsi si possent comprehenderent : locum 
ubi esset facile inventuros. Hannibal enim uno 
loco se tenebat in castello quod ei ab rege datum 
erat muneri ; idque sic aedificarat, ut in omnibus 
partibus sedificii exitum sibi haberet, semper verens 
ne usu eveniret quod accidit. Huc cum legati Ro- 
manorum venissent, ac mukitudine domum ejus cir- 
cumdedissent, puer ab janua prospiciens Hannibali 
dixit, plures prcCter consuetudinem armatos appa- 
rere ; qui imperavit ei, ut omnes fores asdificii cir- 
cumiret, ac propere sibi renuntiaret num eodem 
modo undique obsideretur. Puer cum celeriter quid 
esset renuntiasset, omnesque exitus occupatos osten- 
disset, sensit id non fortuito factum, sed se peti, 
neque sibi diutius vitam esse retinendam. Quam 
ne aheno arbitrio dimitteret, memor pristinarum vir- 
tutum, venenum quod semper secum habere consue- 
verat sumpsit. Sic vir fortissimus, multis variisque 
perfunctus laboribus, anno acquievit septuagesimo. 

V. 11 JLibrar 

SALLUST. %;i^^ CWifor^- 

(B.C. 111-106.) 

I. T/ie Youth of Jugurtha, 

[Chapters 5-12.] 

Bello Punico secundo Masinissa rex Numida- 
rum, in amicitia receptus a P. Scipione, cui 
postea Africano cognomen ex virtute fuit, multa 
et praeclara rei militaris facinora fecerat : ob 
qu^, victis Karthaginiensibus et capto Syphace, 
cujus in Africa magnum atque late imperium 
valuit, populus Romanus quascumque urbis et 
agros manu ceperat regi dono dedit. Igitur amici- 
tia Masinissag bona atque honesta nobis permansit : 
imperii vitasque ejus finis idem fuit. Dein Micipsa 
filius regnum solus obtinuit, Mastanabale et Gulussa 
fratribus morbo absumtis. Is Adherbalem et Hiemp- 
salem ex sese genuit ; Jugurthamque, Mastanabalis 
fratris fihum, eodem cultu quo liberos suos domi 

Qui, ubi primum adolevit, pollens viribus, decora 
facie, sed multo maxume ingenio validus, non se 
luxu neque inertiag corrumpendum dedit ; sed, uti 
mos-gentis ilHus est, equitare, jaculari, cursu cum 
agquahbus certare ; et, cum omnis gloria anteiret, 
omnibus tamen carus esse : ad hoc, pleraque tem- 
pora in venando agere ; leonem. atque alias feras 


primus aut in primis ferire ; plurumum facere, mimi- 
mum ipse de se loqui. Quibus rebus Micipsa 
tametsi initio laetus fuerat, existumans virtutem 
Jugurthag regno suo glori^e fore ; tamen postquam 
hominem adulescentem, exacta sua astate, parvis 
hberis, magis magisque crescere intellegit, vehe- 
menter negotio permotus, muha cum animo suo 
volvebat. Terrebat eum natura mortahum, avida 
imperi et pr^eceps ad explendam animi cupidinem : 
praeterea oppprtunitas suasque hberorumque aetatis, 
quas etiam mediocris viros spe praedae transvorsos 
'agit :(^ad hoc studia Numidarum in Jugurtham ac- 
censaj)ex quibus, si talem virum dohs interfecisset, 
ne qua seditio aut beUum oriretur anxius erat. 

His difficuUatibus circumventus, ubi videt neque 
per vim neque insidiis opprimi posse hominem tam 
acceptum popularibus, quod erat Jugurtha manu 
promptus et adpetens gloriie mihtaris, statuit eum 
objectare pericuhs, et eo modo fortunam tentare. 
Igitur, beho Numantino, Micipsa cum populo Ro- 
mano equitum atque peditum auxiha mitteret, sperans 
vel ostentando virtutem, vel hostium scevitia facile 
eum occasurum, prcefecit Numidis quos in Hispa- 
niam mittebat. Sed ea res longe ahter ac ratus erat 
evenit. Nam Jugurtha, ut erat impigro atque acri 
ingenio, ubi naturam P. Scipionis, qui tum Romanis 
imperator erat, et morem hostium cognovit, muko 
hibore muhaque cura, prgeterea modestissume pa- 
rendo et sa^pe obviam eundo pericuhs, in tantam 
claritudinem bre\i pervenerat, ut nostris vehcmenter 
carus, Numantinis maxumo terrori esset. Ac sane 
quod difficihumum in primis est, et proeho strenuus 
erat, et bonus consiho; quorum aherum ex provi- 



dentia timorem, alterum ex audacia temeritatem, 
adferre plerumque solet. Igitur imperator omnis 
fere res asperas per Jugurtham agere, in amicis ha- 
bere, magis magisque in dies amplecti : quippe 
cujus neque consiHum neque inceptum ullum fru- 
stra erat. Huc accedebat munificentia animi et in- 
geni sollertia, quis rebus sibi multos ex Romanis 
famihari amicitia conjunxerat. 

Ea tempestate in exercitu nostro fuere complures 
novi atque nobiles, quibus divitiee bono honestoqu^e 
potiores erant, factlosi domi, potentes apud socios, 
clari magis quam honesti ; qui Jugurthai non medi- 
ocrem animum polHcitando accendebant, si Micifsa 
rex occidissct^ fore utl solits imfcrio JVwnidice foti- 
retiir ; in ipso jnaxumani virtutcni, Ronice oninia 
vcenalia essc. Sed postquam Numantia deleta P. 
Scipio dimittere auxiHa et ipse revorti domum de- 
crevit, donatum atque laudatum magnifice pro con- 
cione Jugurtham in preetorium abduxit : ibique 
secreto monuit, " uti potius pubHce quam privatim 
amicitiam popuH Romani coleret ; neu quibus largiri 
insuesceret ; periculose a paucis emi quod multorum 
esset ; si permanere vellet in suis artibus, ultro ihi 
et gloriam et regnum venturum ; sin properantius 
pergeret, suamet ipsum pecunia pragcipitem ca- 

Sic locutus, cum Htteris quas Micipsas redderet 
dimisit. Earum sententia haec erat : " Jugurthse tui 
beho Numantino longe maxuma virtus fuit ; quam 
rem tibi certo scio gaudio esse. Nobis ob merita 
sua carus est ; ut idem senatui populoque Romano sit 
summa ope nitemur. Tibi quidem pro nostra ami- 
citia gratulor : en habes virum dignum te atque 


avo suo Masinissa." Igitur rex, ubi ea quas fama 
acceperat ex litteris imperatoris ita esse cognovit, 
cum virtute tum gratia viri permotus, flexit ani- 
mum suum, et Jugurtham beneficiis vincere adgres- 
sus est; statimque eum adoptavit, et testamento 
pariter cum filiis hgeredem instituit. . . . 

Micipsa paucis diebus moritur. Postquam illi, 
more regio, justa magnifice fecerant, reguli in unum 
convenerunt, ut inter se de cunctis negotiis dis- 
ceptarent. Sed Hiempsal, qui minumus ex ilHs 
erat, natura ferox, etiam antea ignobilitatem Jugur- 
thae (quia materno genere impar erat) despiciens, 
dextra Adherbalem adsedit, ne medius ex tribus, 
quod apud Numidas honori ducitur, Jugurtha foret : 
dein tamen, ut aetati concederet, fatigatus a fratre, 
vix in partem alteram transductus est. Ibi cum 
multa de administrando imperio dissererent, Jugur- 
tha inter alias res jacit, ofortcre qtmiqticmn con- 
sulta oynnia et dccrcta rescindi; na^n -pcr ea tc^npora 
confectmn annis Micipsani ■paruni animo vahiisse. 
Tum ide^n Hiempsal -placcrc sibi respondit ; nani 
ipsmn illum tribus proxu7nis annis adoptatione in 
regnuni pervenisse. Quod verbum in pectus Jugur- 
thae altius quam quisquam ratus erat descendit. 
Itaque ex eo tempore, ira et metu anxius, moHri, 
parare, atque ea modo cum animo habere, quibus 
Hiempsal per dolum caperetur. Quae ubi tardius 
procedunt, neque lenitur animus ferox, statuit quovis 
modo inceptum perficere. 

Primo conventu, quem ab reguHs factum supra' 
memoravi, propter dissensionem, placuerat dividi 
thesauros, finisque imperi singuHs constitui. Itaque 
tempus ad utramque rem decernitur, sed maturius 



ad pecuniam distribuendam. Reguli interea in loca 
propinqua thesauris alius alio concessere. Sed 
Hiempsal in oppido Thirmida forte ejus domo ute- 
batur, qui proxumus lictor Jugurthse carus acceptus- 
que ei semper fuerat. Quem ille casu ministrum 
oblatum promissis onerat, impeUitque uti tamquam 
sua visens domum eat, portarum clavis adulterinas 
paret ; nam veras ad Hiempsalem referebantur : ce- 
terum, ubi res postularet, se ipsum cum magna 
manu venturum. Numida mandata brevi conficit ; 
atque, uti doctus erat, noctu Jugurthas mihtes intro- 
ducit. Qui, postquam in aedis irrupere, divorsi re- 
gem quasrere ; dormientis aHos, ahos occursantis 
interficere ; scrutari loca abdita ; clausa effringere ; 
strepitu et tumultu omnia miscere : cum Hiempsal 
interim reperitur, occuhans se in tugurio muHeris 
ancillas, quo initio pavidus et ignarus loci perfuge- 
rat. Numidae caput ejus, ut jussi erant, ad Jugur- 
tham referunt. 

2. How Jugurtha became King of JSfmnidia, 

[Chapters 20-27.] 

Postquam, regno diviso, legati Africa decessere, 
et Jugurtha, contra timorem animi, prasmia sceleris 
adeptum sese videt ; certum esse ratus, quod ex ami- 
cis apud Numantiam acceperat, omnia Romag vena- 
lia esse ; simul et illorum polHcitationibus accensus, 
quos pauHo ante muneribus expleverat, in regnum 
AdherbaHs animum intendit. Ipse acer, beHicosus ; 
at is quem petebat quietus, imbeHis, placido ingenio, 
opportunus injurige, metuens magis quam metuen- 
dus. Igitur ex improviso finis ejus cum magna 
manu invasit ; multos mortaHs cum pecore atque 


alia prasda capit, aedificia incendit, pleracjue loca 
hostiliter cum equitatu accedit. Deinde cum omni 
multitudine in regnum suum convortit, existumans 
Adherbalem dolore permotum injurias suas manu 
vindicaturum, eamque rem belh caussam fore. At 
ihe, quod neque se parem armis existumabat, et 
amicitia popuh Romani magis quam Numidis fretus 
erat, legatos ad Jugurtham de injuriis questum 
misit : qui tametsi contumehosa dicta retulerunt, 
prius tamen omnia pati decrevit quam behum su- 
mere ; quia tentatum antea secus cesserat. Neque 
tamen eo magis cupido Jugurthas minuebatur ; 
quippe qui totum ejus regnum animo jam invaserat. 
Itaque non, uti antea, cum pragdatoria manu, sed 
magno exercitu comparato, behum gerere coepit, et 
aperte totius Numidias imperium petere. Ceterum, 
qu^ pergebat, urbis, agros vastare, pra^das agere ; 
suis animum, terrorem hostibus augere. 

Adherbal ubi intehegit eo processum, uti regnum 
aut rehnquendum esset, aut armis retinendum, 
necessario copias parat, et Jugurthag obvius proce- 
dit. Interim haud longe a mari, prope Cirtam 
oppidum, utriusque exercitus consedit ; et quia diei 
extremum erat, proehum non inceptum. Sed ubi 
plerumque noctis processit, obscuro etiam tum hi- 
mine, mihtes Jugurthini, signo dato, castra hostium 
invadunt; semisomnos partim, ahos arma sumentes, 
fugant fundunlque. Adherbal cum paucis equitibus 
Cirtam profugit ; et, ni muUitudo togatorum fuisset, 
quae Numidas insequentes moenibus prohibuit, uno 
die inter duos reges coeptum atque patratum behum 
foret. Igitur Jugurtha oppidum circumsedit ; vineis 
turribusque, et machinis omnium generum, expu- 



gnare adgreditur ; maxume festinans tempus lega- 
torum antecapere, quos, ante proelium factum ab 
Adherbale, Romam missos audiverat. 

Sed postquam senatus de bello eorum accepit, 
legantur in Africam majores natu, nobiles, am- 
plis honoribus usi : in quis M. Scaurus, consularis, 
et tum senati princeps. Ei, quod res in invidia erat, 
simui et ab Numidis obsecrati, triduo navim ascen- 
dere : dein brevi Uticam adpulsi litteras ad Jugur- 
tham mittunt, quam ocissimie ad ^rovincimn acccdat; 
seque ad eum ab senatu missos, Ille ubi accepit 
homines claros, quorum auctoritatem Romge pollere 
audiverat, contra inceptum suum venisse ; primo 
commotus metu atque lubidine divorsus agitabatur. 
Timebat iram senatus ni paruisset legatis : porro 
animus Ciipidine c£ecus ad inceptum scelus rapie- 
batur. Vicit tamen in avido ingenio pravum consi- 
lium. Igitur, exercitu circumdato, summa vi Cirtam 
irrumpere nititur, maxume sperans, diducta manu 
hostium, aut vi aut dolis sese casum victorise inven- 
turum. Quod ubi secus procedit, neque (quod in- 
tenderat) efficere potest, ut prius quam legatos 
conveniret AdherbaHs potiretur ; ne, ampHus mo- 
rando, Scaurum, quem plurimum metuebat, incen- 
deret, cum paucis equitibus in provinciam venit. 
Ac tametsi senati verbis minag graves nuntiaban- 
tur, quod oppugnatione non desisteret ; multa tamen 
oratione consumpta, legati frustra discessere. 

Ea postquam Cirtee audita sunt, ItaHci, quorum 
virtute moenia defensabantur, confisi, deditione facta, 
propter magnitudinem popuH Romani inviolatos sese 
fore, AdherbaH suadent, uti seque et oppidum Ju- 
gurthag tradat : tantum ab eo vitam paciscatur, de 



ceteris senatui curse fore. At ille, tametsi omnia 
potiora fide Jugurth^e rebatur ; tamen quia penes 
eosdem, si advorsaretur, cogendi potestas erat, ita 
ut censuerant Italici, deditionem facit. Jugurtha in 
primis Adherbalem excruciatum necat ; dein omnis 
puberes Numidas atque negotiatores promiscue, uti 
quisque armatis obvius fuerat, interfecit. 

Quod postquam Romag cognitum est, et res in 
senatu agitari coepta, eidem illi ministri regis inter- 
pellando, ac saepe gratia, interdum jurgiis, trahendo 
tempus, atrocitatem facti leniebant. Ac ni C. Mem- 
mius, tribunus plebis designatus, vir acer et infestus 
potentiae nobiHtatis, populum Romanum edocuisset, 
id agi^ ut -per -paucos factiosos yugurtkce scelus con- 
donaretur, profecto omnis invidia prolatandis con- 
suhationibus dilapsa foret. Tanta vis gratias atque 
pecuniae regis erat ! Sed ubi senatus, deHcti con- 
scientia, populum timet, lege Sempronia provincias 
futuris consuHbus, Numidia atque ItaHa, decretae : 
consules declarati P. Scipio Nasica, L. Bestia Cal- 
purnius : Calpurnio Numidia, Scipioni ItaHa obve- 
nit. Deinde exercitus, qui in Africam portaretur, 
scril)itur : stipendium, aHaque, qu£e beHo usui forent 

3. Jugurtha in Ro7ne, 

[Chapters 32-35.] 

Dum haec Romae geruntur, qui in Numidia 
reHcti a Bestia exercitui praeerant, pluruma et 
flagitiosissuma facinora fecere. Fuere qui, auro 
corrupti, elephantos Jugurthae traderent ; aHi per- 
fugas vendere ; pars ex pacatis praedas agebant. 
Tanta vis avaritiae in animos eorum, veluti tabes, 



invaserat ! At Cassius pragt(5r, perlata rogatione a 
C. Memmio, ac perculsa omni nobilitate, ad Jugur- 
tham proficiscitur ; eique timido et ex conscientia 
diffidenti rebus suis persuadet : " quoniam se populo 
Romano dedisset, ne vim, quam misericordiam, ex- 
periri mallet." Privatim prasterea fidem suam inter- 
ponit, quam ille non minoris quam publicam duce- 
bat. Talis ea tempestate fama de Cassio erat. 
Igitur Jugurtha, contra decus regium, cultu quam 
maxume miserabili, cum Cassio Romam venit. 

Ea erat tempestate Romae Numida quidam, no- 
mine Massiva, Gulussae filius, Masinissae nepos : 
qui, quia in dissensione regum Jugurthoe advorsus 
fuerat, dedita Cirta et Adherbale interfecto, profugus 
ex Africa abierat. Huic Sp. Albinus, qui proxumo 
anno post Bestiam cum Q^ Minucio Rufo consula- 
tum gerebat, persuadet, quoniam ex stirpe Masinissse 
sit, Jugurthamque ob scelera invidia cum metu urgu- 
eat, regnum Numidise ab senatu petat. Avidus con- 
sul belli gerundi, moveri quam senescere omnia 
malebat. Ipsi provincia Numidia, Minucio Macedo- 
nia evenerat. Quas postquam Massiva agitare coepit, 
neque Jugurthas in amicis satis prsesidii est, quod 
eorum ahum conscientia, alium mala fama et timor 
impediebat ; Bomilcari, proxumo ac maxume fido 
sibi, imperat, "pretio, sicuti multa confecerat, insi- 
diatores Massivae paret, ac maxume occulte — sin id 
parum procedat quovis modo, Numidam interficiat." 
Bomilcar mature regis mandata exsequitur : et per 
homines talis negotii artifices itinera egressusque 
ejus, prostremo loca atque tempora cuncta, explorat : 
deinde, ubi res postulabat, insidias tendit. Igitur 
unus ex eo numero, qui ad casdam parati erant, 


paullo inconsultius Massivam adgreditur : illum ob- 
truncat ; sed ipse deprehensus, multis hortantibus et 
in primis A^lbino consule, indicium profitetur. Fit 
reus magis ex aequo bonoque quam ex jure gentium 
Bomilcar, comes ejus qui Romam fide pubHca ve- 
nerat. At Jugurtha, manufestus tanti sceleris, non 
prius omisit contra verum niti, quam animum ad- 
vortit, supra gratiam atque pecuniam suam, invidiam 
facti esse. Igitur, quamquam in priore actione ex 
amicis quinquaginta vades dederat, regno magis 
quam vadibus consulens, clam in Numidiam Bomil- 
carem dimittit ; veritus, ne rehquos popularis metus 
invaderet parendi sibi, si de illo suppHcium sum- 
ptum foret. Et ipse paucis diebus eodem profectus 
est, jussus a senatu ItaHa decedere. Sed postquam 
Roma egressus est, fertur, saspe eo tacitus respi- 
ciens, postremo dixisse : O urbem vcnalem, et ^na- 
ture -perituram^ si emptorem invencrit! 

4. Political Parties in Rome, 

[Chapters 41, 42.] 

Ceterum mos partium popularium et senatus 
factionum, ac deinde omnium malarum artium, pau- 
cis ante annis Romag ortus est, otio et abundantia 
earum rerum, quag prima mortales ducunt. Nam 
ante Karthaginem deletam populus et senatus Ro- 
manus placide modesteque inter se rempubHcam 
tractabant ; neque glorise, neque dominationis cer- 
tamen inter civis erat : metus hostiHs in bonis artibus 
civitatem retinebat. Sed ubi iHa formido mentibus 
decessit, sciHcet ea, quas secundse res amant, lasci- 
via atque superbia incessere. Ita, quod in advorsis 


rebus optaverant otium, postquam adepti sunt, as- 
perius acerbiusque fuit. Namque coepere nobilitas 
dignitatem, populus libertatem in lubidinem vortere : 
sibi quisque ducere, trahere, rapere. Ita omnia in 
duas partis abstracta sunt : respublica, quse media 
fuerat, dilacerata. Ceterum nobilitas factione magis 
pollebat ; plebei vis soluta, atque dispersa in multi- 
tudine, minus poterat ; paucorum arbitrio belli 
domique agitabatur ; penes eosdem agrarium, pro- 
vincias, magistratus, gloriae triumphique erant ; 
populus mihtia atque inopia urguebatur ; prsedas 
belhcas imperatores cum paucis diripiebant ; inter- 
ea parentes, aut parvi hberi mihtum, ut quisque 
potentiori confinis erat, sedibus pehebantur. Ita 
cum potentia avaritia sine modo modestiaque inva- 
dere, pohuere et vastare omnia ; nihil pensi neque 
sancti habere, quoad semet ipsa pragcipitavit. Nam 
ubi primum ex nobilitate reperti sunt, qui veram 
gloriam injustag potentias anteponerent ; moveri civi- 
tas, et dissensio civihs, quasi permixtio terras, oriri 

Nam postquam Tiberius et C. Gracchus, quorum 
majores Punico atque aliis behis muhum reipubhcae 
addiderant, vindicare plebem in hbertatem et pauco- 
rum scelera patefacere coepere ; nobilitas noxia, 
atque eo perculsa, modo per socios aq nomen Lati- 
num, interdum per equites Romanos, quos spes so- 
cietatis a plebe dimoverat, Gracchorum actionibus 
obviam ierat ; et primo Tiberium, dein paucos post 
annos eadem ingredientem Caium, tribunum ahe- 
rum, aherum triumvirum coloniis deducendis, cum 
M. Fulvio FLacco ferro necaverat. Et sane Grac- 
chis, cupidine victorice, haud satis moderatus animus 


fuit. Sed bono vinci satius est, quam malo more 
injuriam vincere. Igitur ea victoria nobilitas ex 
lubidine sua usa, multos mortalis ferro aut fuga ex- 
tinxit ; plusque in reliquum sibi timoris quam poten- 
tias addidit. Quae res plerumque magnas civitates 
pessum dedit ; dum alteri alteros vincere quovis 
modo, et victos acerbius ulcisci volunt. Sed de 
studiis partium, et omnis civitatis moribus, si sin- 
gulatim aut pro magnitudine parem disserere, tem- 
pus quam res maturius deserat. Quamobrem ad 
inceptum redeo. 

5 . The Campazgn qf Mctcllus, 

[Chapters 46-54.] 

7- Interea Jugurtha diffidere suis rebus, ac tum de- 
mum veram deditionem facere conatus est. Igitur 
legatos ad consulem cum suppliciis mittit, qui tan- 
tummodo ipsi liberisque vitam peterent, alia omnia 
dederent populo Romano. Sed Metello jam antea 
experimentis cognitum erat genus Numidarum infi- 
dum, ingenio mobili, novarum rerum avidum esse. 
Itaque legatos alium ab alio divorsos adgreditur ; ac 
paullatim tentando, postquam opportunos sibi cogno- 
vit, multa pollicendo persuadet, "uti Jugurtham 
maxume vivurn? sin id parum procederet, necatum 
sibi traderent:" ceterum palam, quag ex voluntate 
forent, regi nuntiari jubet. -^ Deinde ipse paucis 
diebus, intento atque infesto exercitu, in Numidiam 
procedit : ubi, contra belli faciem, tuguria plena 
hominum, pecora cultoresque in agris erant : ex 
oppidis et mapalibus prasfecti regis obvii procede- 
bant, parati frumentum dare, commeatum portare, 


postremo omnia quae imperarentur facere. Neque 
Metellus idcirco minus, sed pariter ac si hostes 
adessent, munito agmine incedere, late explorare 
omnia, illa deditionis signa ostentui credere, et insi- 
diis locum tentari. Itaque ipse cum expeditis co- 
hortibus, item funditorum et sagittariorum delecta 
manu, apud primos erat : in postremo C. Marius 
legatus cum equitibus curabat : in utrumque latus 
auxiharios equites tribunis legionum et praefectis 
cohortium dispertiverat, ut cum eis permixti velites, 
quocumque accederent equitatus hostium, propulsa- 
rent. Nam in Jugurtha tantus dolus, tantaque 
peritia locorum et mihtiae erat, ut, absens an prae- 
sens, pacem an bellum gerens, perniciosior esset, in 
incerto haberetur. 

Erat haud longe ab eo itinere quo Metellus per- 
gebat, oppidum Numidarum, nomine Vacca, forum 
rerum venaHum totius regni maxume celebratum ; 
ubi et incolere et mercari consueverant ItaHci gene- 
ris multi mortales. Huc consul, simul tentandi gra- 
tia si paterentur, et ob opportunitates loci, prassidium 
imposuit ; praeterea imperavit frumentum, et alia 
quas bello usui forent comportare : ratus, id quod res 
monebat, frequentiam negotiatorum et commeatuum 
juvaturam exercitum, et jam paratis rebus munimen- 
to fore. Inter haec negotia, Jugurtha impensius modo 
legatos suppHces mittere, pacem orare ; praster suam 
Hberorumque vitam, omnia MeteHo dedere. Quos 
item, uti priores, consul illectos ad proditionem do- 
mum dimittebat : regi pacem, quam postulabat, 
neque abnuere, neque poHiceri, et inter eas moras 
promissa legatorum exspectare. 

Jugurtha ubi MetelH dicta cum factis composuit, 


ac se suis artibus tentari animadvortit, — quippe cui 
verbis pax nuntiabatur, ceterum re bellum asperru- 
mum erat, urbs maxuma alienata, ager hostibus 
cognitus, animi popularium tentati, — coactus rerum 
necessitudine, statuit armis certare. Igitur explora- 
to hostium itinere, in spem victorias adductus ex 
opportunitate loci, quam maxumas copias potest 
omnium generum parat, ac per tramites occultos ex- 
ercitum Metelli antevenit. Erat in ea parte Numi- 
diae, quam Adherbal in divisione possederat, flumen 
oriens a meridie, nomine Muthul ; a quo aberat 
mons ferme miha passuum xx tractu pari, vastus ab 
natura et humano cuhu : sed ex eo medio quasi 
colHs oriebatur, in immensum pertingens, vestitus 
oleastro ac myrtetis, ahisque generibus arborum, 
quag humi arido atque arenoso gignuntur. Media 
autem planities deserta penuria aquag, prieter flumini 
propinqua loca : ea consita arbustis pecore atque 
cultoribus frequentabantur. 

Igitur in eo colle, quem transvorso itinere porre- 
ctum docuimus, Jugurtha extenuata suorum acie 
consedit, elephantis et parti copiarum pedestrium 
Bomilcarem pra^fecit, eumque edocet quag ageret ; 
ipse propior montem cum omni equitatu et peditibus 
dilectis suos collocat : dein singulas turmas et ma- 
nipulos circumiens monet atque obtestatur, "uti me- 
mores pristinag virtutis et victoriae sese regnumque 
suum ab Romanorum avaritia defendant : cum eis 
certamen fore, quos antea victos sub jugum mise- 
rint : ducem ilHs, non animum mutatum : quce ab 
imperatore decuerint, omnia suis provisa ; locum 
superiorem, ut prudentes cum imperitis, ne pauci- 
ores cum pluribus, aut rudes cum bello melioribus 


manum consererent : proinde parati intentique 
essent, signo dato, Romanos invadere : illum diem 
aut omnis labores et victorias confirmaturum, aut 
maxumarum ierumnarum initium fore." Ad hoc 
viritim, uti quemque ob militare facinus pecunia aut 
honore extulerat, commonefacere beneficii sui, et 
eum ipsum ahis ostentare : postremo, pro cujusque 
ingenio, polHcendo, minitando, obtestando, ahum 
aho modo excitare : cum interim Metellus, ignarus 
hostium, monte degrediens cum exercitu conspica- 
tur, primo dubius quidnam insolita facies ostenderet 
(nam inter virgulta equi Numidasque consederant, 
neque plane occultati humiHtate arborum, et tamen 
incerti quidnam esset, cum natura loci, tum dolo 
ipsi atque signa miHtaria obscurati), dein, brevi co- 
gnitis insidiis, pauHisper agmen constituit. Ibi com- 
mutatis ordinibus, in dextro latere, quod proxumum 
hostis erat, tripHcibus subsidiis aciem instruxit ; inter 
manipulos funditores et sagittarios dispertit ; equita- 
tum omnem in cornibus locat ; ac pauca pro tem- 
por$ miHtes hortatus, aciem, sicuti instruxerat, trans- 
vorsis principiis, in planum deducit. 

Sed ubi Numidas quietos, neque coHe degredi 
animadvortit, veritus ex anni tempore et inopia 
aquse, ne siti conficeretur exercitus, P. RutiHum le- 
gatum cum expeditis cohortibus et parte equitum 
prasmisit ad flumen, uti locum castris antecaperet : 
existumans hostis crebro impetu et transvorsis proe- 
His iter suum remoraturos, et quoniam armis diffi- 
derent, lassitudinem et sitim miHtum tentaturos. 
Deinde ipse pro re atque loco, sicuti monte descen- 
derat, pauUatim procedere ; Marium post principia 
habere; ipse cum sinistrae alae equitibus esse, qui in 
agmine principes facti erant. 


At Jugurtha, ubi extremum agmen MetelH pri- 
mos suos prcetergressum videt, praesidio quasi duum 
milium peditum montem occupat, qua Metellus de- 
scenderat, ne forte cedentibus advorsariis receptui 
ac post munimento foret : dein, repente signo dato, 
hostis invadit. Numidag ahi postremos casdere ; 
pars a sinistra ac dextra tentare ; infensi adesse at- 
que instare ; omnibus locis Romanorum ordines 
conturbare : quorum etiam qui firmioribus animis 
obvii hostibus fuerant, ludificati incerto proeHo, ipsi 
modo eminus sauciabantur ; neque contra feriundi, 
aut conserendi manum, copia erat. Antea jam 
docti ab Jugurtha equites, ubi Romanorum turma 
insequi coeperat, non confertim, neque in unum sese 
recipiebant, sed aHus aHo quam maxume divorsi. 
Ita numero priores, si ab persequendo hostis deter- 
rere nequiverant, disjectos ab tergo aut lateribus 
circumveniebant : sin opportunior fugae coHis quam 
campi fuerant, ea vero consueti Numidarum equi 
facile inter virgulta evadere : nostros asperitas et in- 
solentia loci retinebat. * 

Ceteriim facies totius negoti varia, incerta, foeda 
atque miserabiHs : dispersi a suis pars cedere, ahi 
insequi ; neque signa, neque ordines observare ; ubi 
quemque periculum ceperat, ibi resistere ac propul- 
sare ; arma, tela, equi, viri, hostes atque cives per- 
mixti ; nihil consiHo neque imperio agi ; fors omnia 
regere. Itaque multum die processerat, cum etiam 
tum eventus in incerto erat. Denique omnibus 
labore et gestu languidis, MeteHus, ubi videt Numi- 
das minus instare, pauHatim miHtes in unum condu- 
cit, ordines restituit, et cohortes legionarias quattuor 
advorsum pedites hostium coHocat. Eorum magna 


pars superioribus locis fessa consederat. Simul ora- 
re et hortari milites, " ne deficerent, neu paterentur 
hostis fugientes vincere : neque iUis castra esse, ne- 
que munimentum ullum, quo cedentes tenderent ; in 
armis omnia sita." Sed ne Jugurtha quidem interea 
quietus erat : circumire, hortari, renovare proeHum, 
et ipse cum dilectis tentare omnia ; subvenire suis, 
hostibus dubiis instare ; quos firmos cognoverat, 
eminus pugnando retinere. 

Eo modo inter se duo imperatores summi viri cer- 
tabant : ipsi pares, ceterum opibus disparibus. 
Nam Metello virtus miHtum erat, locus advorsus : 
Jugurthae aHa omnia prgeter miHtes opportuna. De- 
nique Romani, ubi inteHegunt neque sibi perfugium 
esse, neque ab hoste copiam pugnandi fieri, et jam 
die vesper erat, advorso coHe, sicuti praeceptum 
fuerat, evadunt. Amisso loco, Numidge fusi fugati- 
que ; pauci interiere ; plerosque velocitas, et regio 
hostibus ignara, tutata sunt, Interea Bomilcar, 
quem elephantis et parti copiarum pedestrium prae- 
fectum ab Jugurtha supra diximus, ubi eum Ruti- 
Hus praetergressus est, pauUatim suos in sequum 
locum deducit : ac, dum legatus ad flumen quo pras- 
missus erat festinans pergit, quietus, uti res postu- 
labat, aciem exornat : neque remittit, quid ubique 
hostis ageret explorare. Postquam RutiHum con- 
sedisse jam, et animo vacuum. accepit, simulque ex 
Jugurthae proeHo clamorem augeri ; veritus ne lega- 
tus, cognita re, laborantibus suis auxiHo foret, 
aciem, quam diffidens virtuti miHtum arcte statuerat, 
quo hostium itineri obficeret, latius porrigit : eoque 
modo ad RutiHi castra procedit. 

Romani ex improviso pulveris vim magnam ani- 


madvortunt ; nam prospectum ager, arbustis consi- 
tus, prohibebat. Et primo rati humum aridam vento 
agitari ; post ubi aequabilem manere, et, sicuti acies 
movebatur, magis magisque adpropinquare vident, 
cognita re, properantes arma capiunt, ac pro castris 
sicuti imperabatur consistunt. Deinde, ubi propius 
ventum est, utrimque magno clamore concurritur. 
Numidae tantummodo remorati, dum in elephantis 
auxiHum putant, postquam eos impeditos ramis ar- 
borum, atque ita disjectos circumveniri vident, 
fugam faciunt : ac plerique, abjectis armis, colHs 
aut noctis qu£e jam aderat auxilio, integri abeunt. 
Elephanti quattuor capti ; reHqui omnes, numero 
quadraginta, interfecti. 

At Romani, quamquam itinere atque opere cas- 
trorum et proeHo fessi laetique [victoria] erant ; ta- 
men, quod MeteHus ampHus opinione morabatur, 
instructi intentique obviam procedunt : nam dolus 
Numidarum nihil languidi neque remissi patiebatur. 
Ac primo, obscura nocte, postquam haud procul in- 
ter se erant, strepitu, velut hostes adventarent, aheri 
apud aheros formidinem simul et tumuHum facere : 
et psene imprudentia admissum facinus miserabile, 
ni utrimque prasmissi equites rem exploravissent. 
Igitur pro metu repente gaudium exortum ; miHtes 
aHus aHum laeti adpeUant ; acta edocent atque audi- 
unt ; sua quisque fortia facta ad caelum fert. Quippe 
res humanae ita sese habent : in victoria vel ignavis 
gloriari Hcet ; advorsae res etiam bonos detrectant. 

MeteHus, in eisdem castris quatriduo moratus, sau- 
cios cum cura reficit, meritos in proeHis more miH- 
tiae donat, universos in concione laudat, atque agit 
gratias : hortatur, " ad cetera, quae levia sint, pa- 


rem animum gerant : pro victoria satis jam pugna- 
tum, reliquos labores pro prasda fore." Tamen 
interim transfugas et alios opportunos, Jugurtha 
ubi gentium, aut quid agitaret, cum paucisne esset, 
an exercitum haberet, ut sese victus gereret, explo- 
ratum misit. At ille sese in loca saltuosa et natura 
munita receperat : ibique cogebat exercitum numero 
hominum ampliorem, sed hebetem infirmumque, 
agri ac pecoris magis quam belH cultorem. Id ea 
gratia eveniebat, quod preeter regios equites nemo 
omnium Numida ex fuga regem sequitur : quo cu- 
jusque animus fert, eo discedunt ; neque id flagitium 
mihtiae ducitur : ita se mores habent. 

Igitur Metellus ubi videt regis etiam tum animum 
ferocem esse ; bellum renovari, quod, nisi ex ilHus 
lubidine, geri non posset ; praeterea iniquum certa- 
men sibi cum hostibus ; minore detrimento iUos 
vinci quam suos vincere : statuit non proehis, neque 
acie, sed aHo more beHum gerundum. Itaque in 
Numidiae loca opulentissuma pergit ; agros vastat ; 
multa casteHa et oppida, temere munita aut sine 
praesidio, capit incenditque ; puberes interficit ; aHa 
omnia miHtum preedam esse. Ea formidine multi 
mortales Romanis dediti obsides ; frumentum et aha 
quae usui forent adfatim pr^bita ; ubicumque res 
postulabat, prgesidium impositum. Quas negotia 
multo magis quam proeHum male pugnatum ab suis 
regem terrebant : quippe cujus spes omnis in fuga 
sita erat, sequi cogebatur ; et qui sua loca defendere 
nequiverat, in ahenis behum gerere. Tamen ex 
copia quod optumiim videbatur consiHum capit : ex- 
ercitum plerumque in eisdem locis opperiri jubet; 
ipse cum delectis equitibus MeteHum sequitur, no- 


cturnis et aviis itineribus ignoratus Romanos palan- 
tis repente adgreditur. Eorum plerique inermes 
cadunt, multi capiuntur ; nemo omnium intactus 
profugit. Et Numidag, priusquam ex castris subve- 
niretur, sicuti jussi erant, in proxumos collis dis- 

6. Caius Marius, 

[Chapters 63, 64.] ' 

Per idem tempus Uticas forte C. Mario per hostias 
deis supplicanti, " magna atque mirabilia portendi" 
haruspex dixerat: "proinde, quae animo agitabat, 
fretus deis ageret ; fortunam quam saspissume expe- 
riretur ; cuncta prospera eventura." At illum jam 
antea consulatus ingens cupido exagitabat, ad quem 
capiundum, praeter vestustatem familia^, aha omnia 
abunde erant : industria, probitas, mihtige magna 
scientia, animus belH ingens, domi modicus, lubidi- 
nis et divitiarum victor, tantummodo gloriae avidus. 
Sed is natus et omnem pueritiam Arpini ahus, ubi 
primum astas mihtiag patiens fuit, stipendiis faciun- 
dis, non Grasca facundia, neque urbanis munditiis 
sese exercuit : ita inter artis bonas integrum inge- 
nium brevi adolevit. Ergo ubi primum tribunatum 
mihtarem a populo petit, plerisque faciem ejus igno- 
rantibus, factis notus, per omnis tribus declaratur. 
Deinde ab eo magistratu ahum post ahum sibi pepe- 
rit ; semperque in potestatibus eo modo agitabat, ut 
ampHore quam gerebat dignus haberetur. Tamen 
is ad id locorum tahs vir (nam postea ambitione 
pragceps datus est) consulatum adpetere non aude- 
bat. Etiam tum ahos magistratus plebes, consula- 
tum nobihtas inter se per manus tradebat. Novus 


nemo tam clarus, neque tam egregiis factis erat, 
quin is indignus illo hbnore et quasi pollutus ha- 

Igitur ubi Marius haruspicis dicta eodem inten- 
dere videt, quo cupido animi hortabatur, ab Metello 
petundi gratia missionem rogat : cui quamquam 
virtus, gloria, aha optanda bonis superabant, tamen 
inerat contemtor animus et superbia, commune no- 
bihtatis mahun. Itaque primo commotus insohta 
re, mirari primum ejus consihum, et quasi per ami- 
citiam monere, "ne tam prava inciperet, neu super 
fortunam animum gereret ; non omnia omnibus 
cupiunda esse ; debere ilh res suas satis placere ; 
postremo caveret id petere a populo Romano, quod 
ihi jure negaretur." Postquam hasc atque aha taha 
dixit, neque animus Marii flectitur, respondit, ''ubi 
primum potuisset per negotia pubhca, facturum sese 
quae peteret." Ac postea saepius eadem postulanti 
fertur dixisse, "ne festinaret abire ; satis mature 
iUum cum fiho suo consulatum petiturum." Is eo 
tempore contubernio patris ibidem mihtabat, annos 
natus circiter xx. Quag res Marium cum pro ho- 
nore, quem adfectabat, tum contra Metehum vehe- 
menter accenderat. Ita cupidine atque ira, pessu- 
mis consukoribus, grassari, neque facto uho neque 
dicto abstinere, quod modo ambitiosum foret ; mihtes 
quibus in hibernis prseerat, laxiore imperio quam 
antea habere ; apud negotiatores, quorum magna 
mukitudo Uticag erat, criminose simul et magnifice 
de beho loqui : " dimidia pars exercitus si sibi per- 
mitteretur, paucis diebus Jugurtham in catenis habi- 
turum ; ab imperatore consuUo trahi, quod homo 
inanis et regiae superbiae imperio nimis gauderet.'* 


Quae omnia illis eo firmiora videbantur, quod diu- 
turnitate belli res familiaris corruperant, et animo 
cupienti nihil satis festinatur. 

7. The Dcspair qf Jugurtha, 

[Chapters 70-76.] 

Per idem tempus Bomilcar, cujus impulsu Jugur- 
tha deditionem, quam metu deseruit, inceperat, su- 
spectus regi, et ipse eum suspiciens, novas res 
cupere : ad perniciem ejus dolum quasrere ; die no- 
ctuque fatigare animum. Denique omnia tentando, 
socium sibi adjungit Nabdalsam, hominem nobilem, 
magnis opibus, carum acceptumque popularibus 
suis ; qui plerumque seorsum ab rege exercitum 
ductare, et omnis res exsequi soHtus erat, quae 
Jugurthae feSso, aut majoribus adstricto, superave- 
rant ; ex quo ilH gloria opesque inventas. Igitur 
utriusque consiHo dies insidiis statuitur : cetera, uti 
res posceret, ex tempore parari placuit. Nabdalsa 
ad exercitum profectus, quem inter hiberna Roma- 
norum jussus habebat, ne ager inuhis hostibus 
vastaretur. Is postquam, magnitudine facinoris 
perculsus, ad tempus non venit, metusque rem impe- 
diebat ; Bomilcar, simul cupidus incepta patrandi, et 
timore socii anxius, ne omisso vetere consiHo novum 
quaereret, Htteras ad eum per homines fideHs mittit, 
in quis moHitiem socordiamque viri accusare, testari 
deos per quos juravtsset : " ne prasmia MeteHi in 
pestem converteret ; Jugurthag exitium adesse ; cete- 
rum suane an virtute Metehi periret, id modo agi- 
tari ; proinde reputaret cum animo suo, praemia, an 
cruciatum mallet." 


Sed cum eae litterae adlatae, forte Nabdalsa, ex- 
ercito corpore fessus, in lecto quiescebat : ubi, 
cognitis Bomilcaris verbis, primo cura, deinde uti 
aegrum animum solet somnus cepit. Erat ei Numi- 
da quidam negotiorum curator, fidus acceptusque, 
et omnium consiliorum nisi novissumi particeps. 
Qui postquam adlatas litteras audivit, ex consuetu- 
dine ratus opera aut ingenio suo opus esse, in taber- 
naculum introiit ; dormiente illo epistulam, super 
caput in pulvino temere positam, sumit ac perlegit : 
dein propere, cognitis insidiis, ad regem pergit. 
Nabdalsa, post paullo experrectus, ubi neque epi- 
stulam reperit, et rem omnem uti acta erat cognovit, 
primo indicem persequi conatus : postquam id fru- 
stra fuit, Jugurtham placandi gratia accedit : dicit 
quae ipse paravisset facere, perfidia clientis sui prcE- 
venta ; lacrumans obtestatur per amicitiam, per- 
que sua antea fideliter acta, ne super tali scelere 
suspectum sese haberet. 

Ad ea rex, aUter atque animo gerebat, placide 
respondit. Bomilcare aliisque multis, quos socios 
insidiarum cognoverat, interfectis, iram oppresserat 
ne qua ex eo negotio seditio oriretur. Neque post 
id locorum Jugurthge dies, aut nox ulla quieta fuit : 
neque loco, neque mortali cuiquam, aut tempori 
satis credere ; civis, hostisque juxta metuere ; cir- 
cumspectare omnia, et omni strepitu pavescere ; alio 
atque aho loco, saepe contra decus regium, noctu 
requiescere ; interdum somno experrectus, arreptis 
armis, tumultum facere. Ita formidine, quasi vecor- 
dia, exagitari. . . . 

Amissis amicis, quorum plerosque ipse necaverat^ 
ceteri formidine, pars ad Romanos, ahi ad regem 



Bocchum profugerant, cum neque bellum geri sine 
administris posset, et novorum fidem in tanta perfi- 
dia veterum experiri periculosum duceret, varius 
incertusque agitabat : neque illi res, neque consi- 
lium, aut quisquam hominum satis placebat ; itinera 
pragfectosque in dies mutare ; modo advorsum ho- 
stes, interdum in sohtudines pergere ; saspe in fuga, 
ac post paullo in armis spem habere ; dubitare, vir- 
tuti an fide popularium minus crederet : ita, quo- 
cumque intenderat, res advorsag erant. Sed inter 
eas moras repente sese Metellus cum exercitu osten- 
dit. Numidai ab Jugurtha pro tempore parati in- 
structique : dein proeHum incipitur. Qua in parte 
rex adfuit, ibi aHquamdiu certatum ; ceteri ejus 
omnes miHtes primo concursu pulsi fugatique. Ro- 
mani signorum et armorum aliquanto numero, ho- 
stium paucorum potiti. Nam ferme Numidas in 
omnibus proeHis pedes magis, quam arma tutata 

Ea fuga Jugurtha impensius modo rebus suis diffi- 
dens, cum perfugis et parte equitatus in soHtudines, 
dein Thalam pervenit, in oppidum magnum atque 
opulentum, ubi plerique thesauri fiHorumque ejus 
mukus pueritiag cultus erat. Quae postquam MeteHo 
comperta sunt, quamquam inter Thalam flumenque 
proxumum, in spatio miHum quinquaginta, loca 
arida atque vasta esse cognoverat ; tamen spe pa- 
trandi beHi, si ejus oppidi potitus foret, omnis aspe- 
ritates supervadere, ac naturam etiam vincere 
adgreditur. Igitur omnia jumenta sarcinis levari 
jubet, nisi frumento dierum decem ; ceterum utres 
modo, et aHa aquas idonea portari. Praeterea con- 
quirit ex agris quam plurumum po^est domiti peco- 


ris : eo imponit vasa cujusque modi, sed pleraque 
lignea, collecta ,ex tuguriis Numidarum. Ad hoc 
finitumis imperat, qui se post regis fugam Metello 
dederant, quam plurumum quisque aquas portarent ; 
diem locumque ubi praesto forent praidicit. Ipse 
ex flumine, quam proxumam oppido aquam supra 
diximus, jumenta onerat. Eo modo instructus ad 
Thalam proficiscitur. Deinde ubi ad id loci ven- 
tum, quo Numidis praeceperat, et castra posita mu- 
nitaque sunt ; tanta repente ccelo missa vis aquae 
dicitur, ut ea modo exercitui satis superque foret. 
Praeterea commeatus spe ampHor : quia Numidae, 
sicuti plerique in nova deditione, officia intenderant. 
Ceterum mihtes religione pluvia magis usi ; eaque 
res multum animis eorum addidit, nam rati sese 
deis immortahbus curae esse. Deinde postero die, 
contra opinionem Jugurthae, ad Thalam perveniunt. 
Oppidani, qui se locorum asperitate munitos credi- 
derant, magna atque insoHta re perculsi, nihilo se- 
gnius bellum parare : idem nostri facere. 

Sed rex, nihil jam infectum Metello credens, — 
quippe qui omnia, arma, tela, locos, tempora, deni- 
que naturam ipsam, ceteris imperitantem, industria 
vicerat, — cum Hberis et magna parte pecuni^e ex 
oppido noctu profugit : neque postea in ullo loco am- 
pHus uno die aut una nocte moratus, simulabat sese 
negoti gratia properare : ceterum proditionem time- 
bat, quam vitare posse celeritate putabat ; nam taHa 
consiHa per otium, et ex opportunitate capi. At 
MeteHus, ubi oppidanos proeHo intentos, simul oppi- 
dum et operibus et loco munitum videt, vaHo fossa- 
que moonia circumvenit. Deinde locis ex copia 
maxume idoneis vineas agere, aggerem jacere, et 



super aggerem impositis turribus, opus et adminis- 
tros tutari. Contra liasc oppidani festinare, parare : 
prorsus ab utrisque nihil reliquum fieri. Denique 
Romani, multo ante labore proeliisque fatigati, post 
dies quadraginta quam eo ventum erat, oppido modo 
potiti : prasda omnis ab perfugis corrupta. Ei, post- 
quam murum arietibus feriri, resque suas adflictas 
vident, aurum atque argentum, et alia quee prima 
ducuntur, domum regiam comportant : ibi vino et 
epulis onerati, illaque et domum et semet igni cor- 
rumpunt ; et quas victi ab hostibus poenas metuerant, 
eas ipsi volentes pependere. 

8. Mariiis before the People, 

[Chapters 84-S6.] 

At Marius, ut supra diximus, cupientissuma plebe 
consul factus, postquam ei provinciam Numidiam 
populus jussit, antea jam infestus nobilitati, tum vero 
multus atque ferox instare ; singulos modo, modo 
universos lagdere ; dictitare, "sese consulatum ex 
victis illis spoHa cepisse;" aHa pr^eterea magnifica 
pro se, et ilHs dolentia. Interim, quas bello opus 
erant, prima habere ; postulare legionibus supple- 
mentum ; auxilia a populis et regibus sociisque 
arcessere ; prseterea ex Latio fortissumum quemque 
plerosque mihtias, paucos fama cognitos accire, et 
ambiundo cogere homines emeritis stipendiis secum 
proticisci. Neque illi senatus, quamquam advorsus 
erat, de ullo negotio abnuere audebat ; ceterum 
supplementum etiam laetus decreverat : quia neque 
plebi militia volenti putabatur, et Marius aut belii 
usum, aut studia volgi amissurus. Sed ea res fru- 

sALLusT. ri7 

stra sperata : tanta lubido cum Mario eundi pleros- 
que invaserat ! Sese quisque praeda locupletem fore, 
victorem domum rediturum, alia hujuscemodi animis 
trahebant. Et eos non paullum oratione sua Ma- 
rius arrexerat : nam postquam, omnibus quae postu- 
laverat decretis, rnilites scribere volt, hortandi caussa 
simul, et nobihtatem (uti consueverat) exagitandi, 
contionem populi advocavit. Deinde hoc modo 
disseruit : 

" Scio ego, Qiiirites, plerosque non eisdem artibus in- 
perium a vobis petere, et, postquam adepti sunt, gerere ; 
primo industrios, subplicis, modicos esse ; dein per igna- 
viam et superbiam aitatem agere. Set uiihi contra ea 
videtur : nam quo pku'is est univorsa respubhca quam 
consulatus aut preetura, eo majore cura illam administrari 
quam haec peti debere. 

" Neque me falHt, quantum cum maxumo vostro beni- 
ficio negoti sustineam. BeUum parare simul, et serario 
parcere ; cogere ad mihtiam, quos noHs obfendere ; domi 
forisque omnia curare ; et ea agere inter invidos, occur- 
santis, factiosos, — opinione, Qiiirites, asperius est. Ad 
hoc, aHi si deHquere, vetus nobiHtas, majorum facta fortia, 
cognatorinn et adfinium opes, multai cHentelaa, omnia 
hiEc prassidio adsunt ; mihi spes omnes in memet sitai, 
quas necesse est et virtute et innocentia tutari : nam aha 
infirma sunt. 

" Et iUud inteHego, Qiiirites, omnium ora in me con- 
vorsa esse ; ^quos bonosque favere, quippe mea bene 
facta reipubHcjE procedunt ; nobiHtatem locum invadendi 
quaerere. Qiio mihi acrius adnitendum est, uti neque vos 
capiamini, et iUi frustra sint. Ita ad hoc eetatis a pueritia 
fui, uti omnis labores et pericula consueta habeam. Qiiae 
ante vostra benificia gratuito faciebam, ea uti accepta 
mercede deseram, non est consiHum, Quirites. lUis difii- 
cile est in potestatibus temperare, qui per ambitionem 


sese probos simiilavere : mihi, qui omnem aetatem m 
optumis artibus egi, bene facere jam ex consuetudine in 
naturam vortit. 

" Bellum me gerere cum Jugurtha jussistis ; quam rem 
nobiHtas aigerrume tuHt. Qu£eso, reputate cum animis 
vostris, num id mutare mehus sit, si quem ex illo globo 
nobihtatis ad hoc aut aUud tale negotium mittatis, homi- 
nem veteris prosapiai ac multarum imaginum, et nulHus 
stipendi : sciHcet ut in tanta re, ignarus omnium, trepi- 
det, festinet, sumat aHquem ex populo monitorem offici 
sui. Ita plerumque evenit, uti quem vos inperatorem jus- 
sistis, is sibi inperatorem aHum quaerat. 

" Atque ego scio, Quirites, qui, postquam consules facti 
sunt, et acta majorum et Graecorum mihtaria prajcepta 
legere cocperint : prasposteri homines ; nam gerere quam 
fieri tempore posterius, re atque usu prius est. Conpa- 
rate nunc, Qiiirites, cum iUorum superbia me hominem 
novom. Qiiai ihi audire et legere solent, eorum partem 
vidi, aHa egomet gessi : quae iUi Htteris, ea ego miHtando 

" Nunc vos existumate, facta an dicta phn-is sint. Con- 
temnunt novitatem meam, ego ihorum ignaviam ; mihi 
fortuna, iUis probra obiciuntur. Qiiamquam ego naturam 
unam et communem omnium existumo, set fortissumum 
quemque generosissumum. Ac, si jam ex patribus Albini 
aut Bestiae qua^ri posset, mene an iUos ex se gigni mahi- 
erint ; quid responsuros creditis, nisi, sese Hberos quam 
optumos voluisse ? Qiiod si jure me despiciunt,faciant idem 
majoribus suis, quibus, uti mihi, ex virtute nobiHtas coepit. 

" Invident honori meo : ergo invideant hibori, innocen- 
tiae, pericuHs etiam meis, quoniam per haic ilhmi cepi. 
Verum homines conrupti superbia ita aetatem agunt, quasi 
vostros honores contemnant ; ita hos petunt, quasi hone- 
ste vixerint. Ne, ihi falsi sunt, qui divorsissumas res pa- 
riter exspectant, ignaviae vohiptatem, et pr^emia virtutis. 

" Atque etiam cum apud vos aut in senatu verba faci- 


unt, pleraque oratione majores suos extollunt: eorum 
fortia facta memorando clariores sese putant. Qiiod con- 
tra est. Nam quanto vita illorum praeclarior, tanto ho 
rum socordia flagitiosior. Et profecto ita se res habent : 
majorum gloria posteris quasi lumen est, neque bona ne- 
que mala eorum in occulto patitur. Cujus rei ego inopiam 
fateor, Qiiirites ; verum, id quod muUo pra^clarius est, 
meamet facta mihi dicere Hcet. Nunc videte, quam iniqui 
sint. Qiiod ex aHena virtute sibi adrogant, id mihi ex 
mea non concedunt : scihcet, quia imagines non habeo, 
et quia mihi nova nobihtas est, quam certe peperisse me- 
Hus est, quam acceptam conrupisse. 

" Equidem ego non ignoro, si jam mihi respondere ve- 
Hnt, abunde iUis facundam et conpositam orationem fore. 
Set in maxumo vostro benificio, cum omnibus locis me- 
que vosque maledictis hicerent, non placuit reticere, ne 
quis modestiam in conscientiam ducerct. Nam me qui- 
dem ex animi sententia nuUa oratio laidere potest : quippe 
vera necesse est bene prcedicent ; falsa vita moresque mei 

" Set quoniam vostra consiHa accusantur, qui mihi 
summum honorem et maxumum negotium inposuistis : 
etiam atque etiam reputate, num eorum pa^nitcndum sit. 
Non possum fidei caussa imagines neque triumphos aut 
consulatus majorum meorum ostentare : at, si res postulet, 
hastas, vexiUum, phaleras, aHa mihtaria dona ; prieterea 
cicatrices advorso pectore. Hae sunt meai imagines ; 
hsec nobiHtas, non hereditate reHcta, ut iUa iUis, set quae 
egomet meis phn'umis laboribus et pericuHs quaesivi. 
Non sunt conposita verba mea : parvi id facio : ipsa se 
virtus satis ostendit : iUis artificio opus est, ut turpia fiicta 
oratione tegant. 

" Neque Htteras Grcecas didici : parum pLacebat eas 
discere, quippe quse ad virtutem doctoribus nihil profue- 
runt. At iUa multo optuma reipubhcai doctus sum : 
hostem ferire, praisidium agitare ; nihil metucre, nisi 


turpem famam ; hiemem et sestatem juxta pati ; humi re- 
quiescere ; eodem tempore inopiam et laborem tolerare. 
Eis ego pr^eceptis mihtes hortabor : neque illos arcte co- 
lam, me opulenter ; neque gloriam meam, laborem illo- 
rum faciam. Hoc est utile, hoc civile inperium. Nam- 
que cum tute per molHtiem agas, exercitum subphcio 
cogere, ici est dominum, non imperatorem esse. 

" Haec atque taha majores vostri faciundo, seque rem- 
que pubhcam celebravere. Quis nobihtas freta, ipsa dis- 
simihs moribus, nos illorum semulos contemnit ; et omnis 
honores non ex merito, sed quasi debitos, a vobis repetit. 
Ceterum homines superbissumi procul errant. Majores 
eorum omnia, quas hcebat, ihis rehquere, divitias, ima- 
gines, memoriam sui praeclaram : virtutem non reh- 
quere, neque poterant : ea sola neque datur dono, neque 

" Sordidum me et incultis moribus aiunt ; quia parum 
scite convivium exorno, neque histrionem uhum, neque 
phu-is preci cocum quam vilhcum habeo. Quae mihi lubet 
confiteri, Quirites. Nam ex parente meo et ex ahis san- 
ctis viris ita accepi, munditias muheribus, viris hiborem 
convenire ; omnibusque bonis oportere plus gloriae, quam 
divitiarum esse ; arma, non supehectilem, decori esse. 
Quin ergo quod juvat, quod carum aestumant, id semper 
faciant : ament ; potent ; ubi adulescentiam liabuere, ibi 
senectutem agant — in conviviis, dediti ventri et turpis- 
sumae parti corporis : sudorem, pulverem, et alia taha re- 
hnquant nobis, quibus iha epuhs jocundiora sunt. 

" Verum non ita est. Nam ubi se omnibus flagitiis 
dedecoravere turpissumi viri bonorum prasmia ereptum 
eunt. Ita injustissume hixuria et ignavia, pessumae artes, 
iUis qui coluere eas niliil obficiunt ; reipubhcae innoxiae 
cladi sunt. 

"Nunc quoniam ihis quantum mei mores, non ihorum 
flagitia poscebant, respondi, pauca de repubhca loquar. 
Primum omnium de Numidia bonum habetote animum, 


Quirites. Nam quae ad hoc tempus Jugurtham tutata 
sunt, omnia removistis, avaritiam, inperitiam, superbiam. 
Deinde exercitus ibi est, locorum sciens ; set, mehercules, 
magis strenuus quam feHx. Nam magna pars ejus ava- 
ritia. aut temeritate ducum adtrita est. Qiiamobrem vos, 
quibus militaris £etas est, adnitimini mecum, et capessite 
rempubHcam : neque quemquam ex calamitate ahorum 
aut inperatorum superbia metus ceperit. Egomet in ag- 
mine aut in proeho consultor idem, et socius periculis 
vobiscum adero ; meque vosque in omnibus rebus juxta 

"• Et profecto deis juvantibus omnia matura sunt, victo- 
ria, praeda, laus : qu£e si dubia aut procul essent, tamen 
omnis bonos reipubHcai subvenire decebat. Etenim nemo 
ignavia inmortaHs factus est : neque quisquam parens H- 
beris uti asterni forent optavit ; magis, uti boni honestique 
vitam exigerent. Phu*a dicerem, Qiiirites, si timidis virtu- 

tem verba adderent : nam strenuis abunde dictum puto." 


Hujuscemodi oratione habita, Marius postquam 
plebei animos arrectos videt, propere commeatu, 
stipendio, armis, aHis utiHbus navis onerat ; cum his 
A. ManHum legatum proficisci jubet. Ipse interea 
miHtes scribere, non more majorum, neque ex classi- 
bus, sed uti cujusque lubido erat, capite censos ple- 
rosque. Id factum aHi inopia bonorum, aHi per 
ambitionem consuHs memorabant : quod ab eo ge- 
nere celebratus auctusque erat, et homini poten- 
tiam quagrenti egentissumus quisque opportunissu- 
mus ; cui neque sua cara, quippe quae nuHa sunt, et 
omnia cum pretio honesta videntur. Igitur Marius 
cum majore aHquanto numero quam decretum erat 
in Africam profectus, paucis diebus Uticam advehi- 
tur. Exercitus ei traditur a P. RutiHo legato : nam 
MeteUus conspectum Marii fugerat, ne videret ea, 
quae audita animus tolerare nequiverat. 


9. Marius in the Ficld. 

[Chapters S7-94.] 

Sed consul, expletis legionibus cohortibusque 
auxiliariis, in agrum fertilem et prgeda onustum pro- 
ficiscitur. Omnia ibi capta militibus donat. Dein 
castella et oppida, natura et viris parum munita, ad- 
greditur ; proelia multa, ceterum levia, alia aliis 
locis facere. Interim novi milites sine metu pugnag 
adesse ; videre fugientis capi, occidi ; fortissumum 
quemque tutissumum ; armis libertatem, patriam, 
parentesque, et alia omnia tegi ; gloriam atque divi- 
tias quaeri. Sic brevi spatio novi veteresque coa- 
luere, et virtus omnium aequalis facta. . . . 

Marius impigre prudenterque suorum et hostium 
res pariter adtendere : cognoscere quid boni utris- 
que, aut contra esset ; explorare itinera regum ; 
consilia et insidias eorum antevenire ; nihil apud se 
remissum, neque apud illos tutum pati. Itaque et 
Gietulos, et Jugurtham, ex sociis nostris praedam 
agentes, saepe adgressus in itinere fuderat, ipsumque 
regem haud procul ab oppido Cirta armis exuerat. 

Erat inter ingentis soHtudines oppidum magnum 
atque valens, nomine Capsa, cujus conditor Her- 
cules Libus memorabatur. Ejus cives apud Jugur- 
tham immunes, levi imperio, et ob ea fidehssumi 
habebantur ; muniti advorsum hostis non moenibus 
modo, et armis atque viris, verum etiam multo magis 
locorum asperitate. Nam, praiter oppido propinqua, 
aha omnia vasta, inculta, egentia aqu^e, infesta ser- 
pentibus, quarum vis, sicuti omnium ferarum, inopia 
cibi acrior. Ad hoc natura serpentium, ipsa perni- 



ciosa, siti magis quam alia re accenditur. Ejus 
potiundi Marium maxuma cupido invaserat, cum 
propter usum belli, tum quia res aspera videbatur ; 
et Metellus oppidum Thalam magna gloria ceperat, 
haud dissimihter situm munitumque, nisi quod apud 
Thalam non longe a moenibus aliquot fontes erant ; 
Capsenses una modo, atque ea intra oppidum, jugi 
aqua, cetera pluvia utebantur. Id ibique, et in 
omni Africa, qua procul a mari incultius agebatur, 
eo faciHus tolerabatur, quia Numidce plerumque 
lacte et ferina carne vescebantur, et neque salem, 
neque alia irritamenta gulse quaerebant : cibus ilHs 
advorsus famem atque sitim, non lubidini, neque 
luxuriag erat. 

Igitur consul, omnibus exploratis, — credo deis 
fretus, nam contra tantas difficultates consiHo satis 
providere non poterat : quippe etiam^ frumenti ino- 
pia tentabatur, quia Numidce pabulo pecoris magis 
quam arvo student, et quodcumque natum fuerat 
jussu regis in loca munita contulerant ; ager autem 
aridus et frugum vacuus.ea tempestate, nam aestatis 
extremum erat, — tamen pro rei copia satis provi- 
denter exornat : pecus omne, quod superioribus 
diebus praedae fuerat, equitibus auxiHariis agendum 
adtribuit ; A. ManHum legatum cum cohortibus 
expeditis ad oppidum Laris, ubi stipendium et com- 
meatum locaverat, ire jubet, se prasdabundum post 
paucos dies eodem venturum. Sic incepto suo oc- 
culto, pergit ad flumen Tanaim. 

Ceterum in itinere quotidie pecus exercitui per 
centurias, item turmas asquaHter distribuerat, et ex 
coriis utres uti fierent curabat : simul inopiam fru- 
menti lenire, et ignaris omnibus parare quas mox 


usui forent : denique sexto die, cum ad flumen ven- 
tum est, maxuma vis utrium effecta. Ibi castris levi 
munimento positis, milites cibum capere, atque uti 
simul cum occasu solis egrederentur paratos esse 
jubet; omnibus sarcinis abjectis, aqua modo seque 
et jumenta onerare. Dein postquam tempus visum, 
castris egreditur, noctemque totam itinere facto con- 
sedit : idem proxuma facit : dein tertia, multo ante 
lucis adventum, pervenit in locum tumulosum, ab 
Capsa non amplius duum milium intervallo ; ibique 
quam occultissume potest, cum omnibus copiis oppe- 
ritur. Sed ubi dies coepit, et Numidae, nihil hostile 
metuentes, muki oppido egressi ; repente omnem 
equitatum, et cum eis velocissumos pedites cursu 
tendere ad Capsam, et portas obsidere jubet : deinde 
ipse intentus propere sequi, neque mihtes prgedari 
sinere. Quag postquam oppidani cognovere, res 
trepidas, metus ingens, malum improvisum, ad hoc 
pars civium extra moenia in hostium potestate, coe- 
gere uti deditionem facerent. Ceterum oppidum 
incensum ; Numidae puberes interfecti ; ahi omnes 
venum dati ; praeda mihtibus divisa. Id facinus 
contra jus belh, non avaritia neque scelere consuhs 
admissum ; sed quia locus Jugurthae opportunus, 
nobis aditu difficihs ; genus hominum mobile, infi- 
dum, neque beneficio neque metu coercitum. 

Postquam tantam rem Marius sine ullo suorum 
incommodo efFecit, magnus et clarus antea, major at- 
que clarior haberi coepit. Omnia non bene consulta 
in virtutem trahebantur : mihtes, modesto imperio 
habiti, simul et locupletes, ad caslum ferre ; Numidas 
magis quam mortalem timere ; postremo omnes, so- 
cii atque hostes, credere ilH aut mentem divinam 


esse, aut deorum nutu cuncta portendi. Sed consul, 
ubi ea res bene evenit, ad alia oppida pergit : pauca, 
repugnantibus Numidis, capit ; plura, deserta pro- 
pter Capsensium miserias, igni corrumpit : luctu at- 
que C£ede omnia complentur. 

Denique mtdds locis potitus, ac plerisque exer- 
citu incruento, aliam rem adgreditur, non eadem 
asperitate qua Capsensium, ceterum haud secus 
difficilem. Namque haud longe a flumine Muluchag, 
quod Jugurthse Bocchique regnum disjungebat, erat 
inter ceteram planitiem mons saxeus, mediocri ca- 
stello satis patens, in immensum editus, uno peran- 
gusto aditu rehcto : nam omnis a natura velut opere 
atque consulto prasceps. Quem locum Marius, quod 
ibi regis thesauri erant, summa vi capere intendit. 
Sed ea res forte quam consiHo meHus gesta. Nam 
castello virorum atque armorum sads, magna vis 
frumend et fons aquae ; aggeribus turribusque et 
ahis machinationibus locus importunus ; iter castel- 
lanorum angustum admodum, utrimque prascisum. 
Vinese cum ingenti periculo frustra agebantur : nam 
cum e£e paullo processerant, igni aut lapidibus cor- 
rumpebantur; milites neque pro opere consistere 
propter iniquitatem loci, neque inter vineas sine peri- 
culo administrare ; optumus quisque cadere aut sau- 
ciari ; ceteris metus augeri. 

At Marius, mulds diebus et laboribus comsumpds, 
anxius trahere cum animo suo, omitteretne mcep- 
tum,quoniam frustra erat ; an fortunam opperiretur, 
qua sagpe prospere usus fuerat. Quag cum mul- 
tos dies noctesque aestuans agitaret, forte quidam 
Ligus, ex cohortibus auxihariis miles greganus, 
castris aquatum egressus, haud procul ab latere 


castelli, quod avorsum proeliantibus erat, animum 
advortit inter saxa repentis cochleas ; quarum cum 
unam atque alteram, dein plures peteret, studio 
legundi paullatim prope ad summum montis egres- 
sus est. Ubi postquam solitudinem intellexit, more 
ingeni humani, cupido difficiha faciundi animum 
vortit. Et forte in eo loco grandis ilex coaluerat 
inter saxa, paullum modo prona, dein flexa atque 
aucta in altitudinem, quo cuncta gignentium natura 
fert ; cujus ramis modo, modo eminentibus saxis, 
nisus Ligus, castelli planitiem perscrutatur, quod 
cuncti Numidas intenti prceliantibus aderant. Ex- 
ploratis omnibus quas mox usui fore ducebat, eadem 
regreditur, non temere, uti escenderat, sed tentans 
omnia et circumspiciens. Itaque Marium propere 
adit ; acta edocet ; hortatur ab ea parte qua ipse de- 
scenderat castellum tentet ; polHcetur sese itineris 
pericuHque ducem. Marius cum Ligure, promissa 
ejus cognitum, ex pragsentibus misit ; quorum uti cu- 
jusque ingenium erat, ita rem difficilem aut facilem 
nuntiavere. ConsuHs animus tamen pauHum arrec- 
tus. Itaque ex copia tubicinum et cornicinum nu- 
mero quinque quam velocissumos delegit, et cum eis, 
pragsidio qui forent, miHtes paucos, et quattuor cen- 
turiones : omnisque Liguri parere jubet, et ei ne- 
gotio proxumum diem constituit. 

Sed ubi ex prcecepto tempus visum, paratis com- 
positisque omnibus, ad locum pergit. Ceterum iHi 
qui escensuri praserant, prasdocti ab duce, arma or- 
natumque mutaverant, capite atque pedibus nudis, 
uti prospectus nisusque per saxa faciHus foret ; super 
terga gladii et scuta ; verum ea Numidica ex coriis, 
ponderis gratia simul, et offensa quo levius strepe- 

SALLUST. . 127 

rent. Igitur preegrediens Ligus saxa, et si quae 
vetustae radices eminebant, laqueis vinciebat, qui- 
bus adlevati milites facilius escenderent ; interdum 
timidos insolentia itineris levare manu : ubi paullo 
asperior adscensus erat, singulos pras se inermos 
mittere, dein ipse cum illorum armis sequi ; qu£e 
dubia nisu videbantur potissumus tentare, ac sagpius 
eadem adscendens descendensque, dein statim di- 
grediens, ceteris audaciam addere. Igitur diu mul- 
tumque fatigati, tandem in castellum perveniunt, 
desertum ab ea parte ; quod omnes, sicut aliis die- 
bus, advorsum hostis aderant. Marius ubi ex 
nuntiis quas Ligus egerat cognovit, quamquam toto 
die intentos proelio Numidas habuerat, tum vero, 
cohortatus mihtes, et ipse extra vineas est egressus ; 
testudine acta succedere, et simul hostem tormentis 
sagittariisque et funditoribus eminus terrere. At 
Numidce, s£epe antea vineis Romanorum subvorsis, 
item incensis, non castelH moenibus sese tutabantur, 
sed pro muro dies noctesque agitare ; maledicere 
Romanis, ac Mario vecordiam objectare ; mihtibus 
nostris Jugurthas servitium minari ; secundis rebus 
feroces esse. Interim omnibus, Romanis hostibus- 
que, proeho intentis, magna utrimque vi pro gloria 
atque imperio his, ilhs pro salute certantibus, re- 
pente a tergo signa canere : ac primo muheres et 
pueri, qui visum processerant, fugere ; deinde uti 
quisque muro proxumus erat, postremo cuncti, arma- 
ti inermesque. Quod ubi accidit, eo acrius Romani 
instare, fundere, ac plerosque tantummodo sauciare, 
dein super occisorum corpora vadere, avidi glori^ 
certantes murum petere, neque quemquam omnium 
praeda morari. Sic forte correcta Marii temeritas 
gloriam ex culpa invenit. 


lo. Lucius Cornelius Sulla, 

[Chapters 95-101.] 

Ceterum, dum ea res geritur, L. Sulla qu^estor 
cum magno equitatu in castra venit ; quos uti ex 
Latio et a sociis cogeret Romae relictus erat. Sed 
quoniam nos tanti viri res admonuit, idoneum visum 
est de natura cultuque ejus paucis dicere. 

Igitur Sulla gentis patrici^e nobilis fuit, familia 
prope jam exstincta majorum ignavia : litteris Grascis 
atque Latinis juxta atque doctissume eruditus ; animo 
ingenti ; cupidus voluptatum, sed gloriag cupidior ; 
otio luxurioso ; tamen ab negotiis numquam volup- 
tas remorata ; facundus, callidus, et amicitia facilis ; 
ad simulanda ac dissimulanda negotia altitudo inge- 
ni incredibilis ; multarum rerum, ac maxume pecu- 
ni^e, largitor : atque illi felicissumo omnium ante 
civilem victoriam, numquam super industriam for- 
tuna fuit ; multique dubitavere, fortior an felicior 
esset. Nam postea quae fecerit, incertum habeo 
pudeat magis an pigeat disserere. 

Igitur Sulla uti supra dictum est, postquam in 
Africam atque in castra Mari cum equitatu venit, 
rudis antea et ignarus belli, sollertissumus omnium 
in paucis tempestatibus factus est. Ad hoc mihtes 
benigne adpellare ; multis rogantibus, ahis per se 
ipse dare beneficia, invitus accipere ; sed ea prope- 
rantius quam £es mutuum reddere : ipse ab nullo re- 
petere ; magis id laborare, ut ilH quam plurimi 
deberent ; joca atque seria cum humillumis agere ; 
in agmine atque ad vigihas muhus adesse : neque 
interim, quod prava ambitio solet, consuHs aut cu- 



jusquam boni famam leedere ; tantummodo neque 
consilio neque manu priorem alium pati ; plerosque 
antevenire. Quibus rebus et artibus brevi Mario 
militibusque carissumus factus. . . . 

Quarto denique die, haud longe ab oppido Cirta 
undique simul speculatores citi sese ostendunt ; qua 
re hostis adesse intellegitur. Sed quia divorsi re- 
deuntes, aHus ab aha parte atque omnes idem si- 
gnificabant, consul incertus quonam modo aciem 
instrueret, nullo ordine commutato, advorsum omnia 
paratus, ibidem opperitur. Interim Sulla, quem pri- 
mum hostes adtigerant, cohortatus suos, turmatim et 
quam maxume confertis equis, ipse ahique Mauros 
invadunt : ceteri in loco manentes ab jaculis eminus 
emissis corpora tegere, et si qui in manus venerant 
obtruncare. Dum eo modo equites proehantur, Boc- 
chus cum peditibus quos Volux filius ejus adduxerat, 
neque in priore pugna, in itinere morati, adfuerant, 
postremam Romanorum aciem invadunt. Tum Ma- 
rius apud primos agebat, quod ibi Jugurtha cum plu- 
rumis erat. Dein Numida, cognito Bocchi adventu, 
clam cum paucis ad pedites convortit : ibi Latine 
(nam apud Numantiam loqui didicerat) exclamat : 
" nostros frustra pugnare ; paullo ante Marium sua 
manu interfectum : " simul gladium sanguine obHtum 
ostendere, quem in pugna, satis impigre occiso pe- 
dite nostro, cruentaverat. Quod ubi miHtes accepere, 
magis atrocitate rei quam fide nuntii terrentur : si- 
mulque barbari animos tollere, et -in perculsos Ro- 
manos acrius incedere. Jamque pauHum a fuga 
aberant, cum SuHa, profligatis eis quos advorsum 
ierat, rediens ab latere Mauris incurrit. Bocchus 
statim avortitur. At Jugurtha, dum sustentare suos 



et prope jam adeptam victoriam retinere cupit, cir- 
cumventus ab equitibus, dextra sinistra omnibus 
occisis, solus inter tela hostium vitabundus erumpit. 
Atque interim Marius, fugatis equitibus, accurrit 
auxilio suis, quos pelli jam acceperat. Denique 
hostes undique fusi. Tum spectaculum horribile 
campis patentibus : sequi, fugere ; occidi, capi ; 
equi atque viri adflicti ; ac multi volneribus acceptis 
neque fugere posse, neque quietem pati ; niti modo, 
ac statim eoncidere : postremo omnia, qua visus erat, 
constrata teHs, armis, cadaveribus ; et interea humus 
infecta sanguine. 

II. Jugurtha is Betrayed and Caftured, 

[Chapters 105-114.] 

Quibus rebus cognitis, Bocchus per Htteras a 
Mario petiverat, uti ad se mitteret SuHam ; cujus 
arbitratu de communibus negotiis consuleretur. Is 
missus cum pragsidio equitum atque peditum, item 
funditorum Balearium : preeterea iere sagittarii et 
cohors PeHgna cum veHtaribus armis, itineris pro- 
perandi caussa ; neque eis secus atque ahis armis 
advorsus tela hostium, quod ea levia sunt, muniti. 
Sed in itinere, quinto denique die, Volux, fiHus 
Bocchi, repente in campis patentibus cum mille non 
ampHus equitibus sese ostendit ; qui temere et effuse 
euntes, SuHag aHisque omnibus et numerum vero 
ampHorem, et hostilem metum efficiebant. Igitur 
se quisque expedire, arma atque tela tentare, in- 
tendere ; timor aHquantus, sed spes ampHor, quippe 
victoribus, et advorsus eos quos saspe vicerant. In- 


terim equites, exploratum prsemissi, rem (uti erat) 
quietam nuntiant. 

Volux adveniens queestorem adpellat, dicitque 
"se a patre Boccho obviam illis simul, et prgesidio 
missum." Deinde eum et proxumum diem sine 
metu conjuncti eunt. Post, ubi castra locata, et diei 
vesper erat, repente Maurus incerto voltu pavens ad 
SuUam adcurrit, dicitque, "sibi ex speculatoribus 
cognitum, Jugurtham haud procul abesse : " simul 
uti noctu clam secum profugeret, rogat atque horta- 
tur. IUe animo feroci negat " se totiens fusum Nu- 
midam pertimescere : virtuti suorum satis credere ; 
etiam si certa pestis adesset, mansurum potius quam, 
proditis quos ducebat, turpi fuga incertae ac forsitan 
post paullo morbo interiturae vitas parceret." Cete- 
rum ab eodem monitus uti noctu proficiscerentur, 
consiHum adprobat ; ac statim milites cenatos esse 
in castris, ignisque quam creberrumos fieri ; dein 
prima vigiHa silentio egredi jubet. Jamque nocturno 
itinere fessis omnibus, Sulla pariter cum ortu soHs 
metabatur, cum equites Mauri nuntiant Jugurtham 
circiter duum miHum intervaUo ante eos consedisse. 
Quod postquam auditum est, tum vero ingens metus 
nostros invadit : credere se proditos a Voluce, et in- 
sidiis circumventos ; ac fuere qui dicerent manu 
vindicandum, neque apud ihum tantum scelus inul- 
tum reHnquendum. 

At SuHa, quamquam eadem existumabat, tamen 
ab injuria Maurum prohibet : suos hortatur, "uti 
fortem animum gererent ; saspe antea paucis stre- 
nuis advorsum multitudinem bene pugnatum ; quan- 
to sibi in proeHo minus pepercissent, tanto tutiores 
fore ; neque quemquam decere, qui manus armave- 


rit, ab inermis pedibus auxilium petere, in maxumo 
metu nudum et cascum corpus ad hostis vortere." 
Deinde Volucem, quoniam hostilia faceret, Jovem 
maxumum obtestatus ut sceleris atque perfidias Boc- 
chi testis adesset, castris abire jubet. Ille lacru- 
mans orare, " ne ea crederet : nihil dolo factum, 
magis calHditate Jugurthae, cui videlicet speculanti 
iter suum cognitum esset ; ceterum quoniam neque 
ingentem multitudinem haberet, et spes opesque 
ejus ex patre suo penderent, credere illum nihil pa- 
lam ausurum, cum ipse fihus testis adesset : quare 
optumum factu videri, per media ejus castra palam 
transire ; sese vel prasmissis vel ibidem relictis Mau- 
ris, solum cum Sulla iturum." Ea res, uti in tali ne- 
gotio, probata, ac statim profecti : quia de improviso 
acciderant, dubio atque haesitante Jugurtha, inco- 
lumes transeunt. Deinde paucis diebus quo ire 
intenderant perventum est. 

Ibi cum Boccho Numida quidam, Aspar nomine, 
multum et famihariter agebat ; praemissus ab Jugur- 
tha, postquam Sullam accitum audierat, orator et 
subdole speculatum Bocchi consiHa : praeterea Da- 
bar, quem Bocchus, fidum esse Romanis multis antea 
tempestatibus expertus, iHico ad SuUam nuntiatum 
mittit, " paratum sese facere quae populus Romanus 
veHet : coHoquio diem, locum, tempus ipse deHge- 
ret ; consulta sese omnia cum iHo integra habere ; 
neu Jugurthae legatum pertimesceret ; . . . quo res 
communis Hcentius gereretur ; nam ab insidiis ejus 
aHter caveri nequivisse." Sed ego comperior Boc- 
chum, magis Punica .^de quam ob ea quae preedica- 
bat, simul Romanos et Numidam spe pacis adtinu- 
isse, multumque cum animo suo volvere soHtum, Ju- 


gurtham Romanis, an illi Sullam traderet : lubidi- 
nem advorsum nos, metum pro nobis suasisse. . . . 

Rex postero die Asparem, Jugurthag legatum, 
adpellat, dicitque ; " sibi per Dabarem ex Sulla co- 
gnitum, posse conditionibus bellum componi : quam 
ob rem regis sui sententiam exquireret." Ille l^- 
tus in castra Jugurthae proficiscitur : deinde ab illo 
cuncta edoctus, properato itinere, post diem octavum 
redit ad Bocchum, et ei denunciat, "Jugurtham 
cupere omnia quae imperarentur facere ; sed Mario 
parum fidere ; sagpe antea cum imperatoribus Ro- 
manis pacem conventam frustra fuisse. Ceterum 
Bocchus si ambobus consultum et ratam pacem vel- 
let, daret operam ut una ab omnibus, quasi de pace, 
in colloquium veniretur, ibique sibi Sullam traderet : 
cum talem virum in potestatem habuisset, tum fore 
uti jussu senatus aut popuH Romani foedus fieret : 
neque hominem nobilem, non sua ignavia, sed ob 
rempubHcam, in hostium potestate rehctum iri." 

Hagc Maurus, secum ipse diu volvens, tandem 
promisit : ceterum dolo an vere cunctatus, parum 
comperimus. Sed plerumque regiae voluntates, ut 
vehementes, sic mobiles, ssepe ips£e sibi advorsag. 
Postea, tempore et loco constituto, in colloquium uti 
de pace veniretur, Bocchus Sullam modo, modo Ju- 
gurthas legatum adpellare, benigne habere, idem 
ambobus polHceri. 

IHi pariter Igeti ac spei bonse pleni esse. Sed nocte 
ea quae proxuma fuit ante diem coHoquio decretum, 
Maurus, adhibitis amicis, ac statim immutata volun- 
tate, remotis ceteris,. dicitur secum ipse multum 
agitavisse, corpore pariter atque animo varius, qu£e 
sciHcet tacente ipso occulta pectoris patefecisse. 


Tamen postremo Sullam accersi jubet, et ex illius 
sententia Numidag insidias tendit. Deinde, ubi dies 
advenit, et ei nuntiatum est Jugurtham haud procul 
abesse, cum paucis amicis et qujestore nostro, quasi 
obvius honoris caussa, procedit in tumulum facillu- 
mum visu insidiantibus. Eodem Numida cum ple- 
risque necessariis suis, inermis, ut dictum erat, 
accedit; ac statim, signo dato, undique simul ex in- 
sidiis invaditur. Ceteri obtruncati ; Jugurtha Sullag 
vinctus traditur, et ab eo ad Marium deductus est. 

Per idem tempus advorsum Gallos ab ducibus 
nostris Q^ Cagpione et Cn. Manlio male pugnatum : 
quo metu Itaha omnis contremuit. IlHmque usque 
ad nostram memoriam Romani sic habuere, aha om- 
nia virtuti suae prona esse : cum GalHs pro salute 
non pro gloria certari. Sed postquam bellum in 
Numidia confectum, et Jugurtham vinctum Romam 
adduci nuntiatum est, Marius consul absens factus 
est, et ei decreta provincia GalHa : isque kalendis 
Januariis magna gloria consul triumphavit. Et ea 
tempestate spes atque opes civitatis in illo sit£e. 



I. The Story of Phaethon, 

[Metamorphoses. Book II. verses 1-362.] 

Reo-ia Solis erat sublimibus alta columnis, 


Clara micante auro, flammasque imitante pyropo : 
Cujus ebur nitidum fiistigia summa tenebat : 
Argenti bifores radiabant lumine valvae. 
Materiem superabat opus ; nam Mulciber illic 5 

y^quora cielarat, medias cingentia terras, 
Terrarumque orbem, cielumque, quod imminet orbi. 
Cceruleos habet unda deos ; Tritona canorum, 
Proteaque ambiguum, bakenarumque prementem 
y^ggeona suis immania terga lacertis, lo 

Doridaque, et natas : quarum pars nare videntur, 
Pars in mole sedens virides siccare capillos ; 
Pisce vehi quaedam : facies non omnibus una, 
Nec diversa tamen, qualem decet esse sororum. 
Terra viros, urbesque gerit, silvasque, ferasque, 15 

Fkuiiinaque, et nymphas, et cetera numina ruris. 
Haec super imposita est caeli fulgentis imago : 
Signaque sex foribus dextris, totidemque sinistris. 

Quo simul acclivo Clymeneia limite proles 
Venit, et intravit dubitati tecta parentis ; 20 

Protinus ad patrios sua fert vestigia vultus : 
Consistitque procul : neque enim propiora ferebat 
Lumina. Purpurea velatus veste sedebat 
In soHo Phocbus, claris kicente smaragdis. 
A dextra, liEvaque Dics, et Mensis, et Annus, 25 


Sajculaque, et posIta3 spatiis iequalibus Horse : 

Verque novum stabat, cinctum florente corona : 

Stabat nuda ^stas, et spicea serta gerebat. 

Stabat et Auctumnus, calcatis sordidus uvis, 

Et glacialis Hiemps, canos hirsuta capillos. 30 

Inde loco medius, rerum novitate paventem 
Sol oculis juvenem, quibus adspicit omnia, vidit. 
" Qiia^que vias tibi causa? Qiiid hac," ait, " arce petisti, 
Progenies, Phaetlion, haud infitianda parenti ? " 
Ille refert : " O kix immensi pubHca mundi, 35 

Phcebe pater, si das hujus mihi nominis usum, 
Pignora da, genitor ; per quce tua vera propago 
Credar, et hunc animis errorem detrahe nostris." 

Dixerat. At genitor circum caput omne micantes 
Deposuit radios ; propiusque accedere jussit : 40 

Amplexuque dato, " Nec tu meus esse negari 
Dignus es ; et Clymene veros," ait, " edidit ortus. 
Qiioque minus dubites, quodvis pete munus ; et illud, 
Me tribuente, feres : promissi testis adesto 
Dis juranda palus, ocuhs incognita nostris." 45 

Vix bene desierat : currus petit ille paternos, 
Inque diem aHpedum jus et moderamen equorum. 

Poenituit jurasse patrem. Qiii terque quaterque 
Concutiens ihustre caput, "Temeraria," dixit, 
" Vox mea facta tua est. Utinam promissa Hceret 50 
Non dare ! Confiteor solum hoc tibi, nate, nesfarem. 
Dissuadere Hcet. Non est tua tuta voluntas. 
Magna petis, Phaethon, et qu£e nec viribus istis 
Munera conveniant, nec tam pueriHbus annis. 
Sors tua mortaHs : non est mortale quod optas. 55 

Plus etiam, quam quod superis contingere fas sit, 
Nescius affectas. Placeat sibi quisque Hcebit ; 
Non tamen ignifero quisquam consistere in axe 
Me valet excepto. Vasti quoque rector Olympi, 
Qlu fera terribiH jacuhitur fLdmina dextra, 60 

Non agat hos currus : et quid Jove majus habemus? 

OVID. 137 

Ardua prima via est, et qua vix mane recentes 

Enitantur equi : medio est altissima caelo, 

Unde mare et terras ipsi mihi saepe videre 

Fit timor, et pavida trepidat formidine pectus : 65 

Ultima prona via est, et eget moderamine certo. 

Tunc etiam, quae me subjectis excipit undis, 

Ne ferar in praeceps, Tethys, solet ipsa vereri. 

Adde, quod adsidua rapitur vertigine caelum ; 

Sideraque alta trahit, celerique volumine torquet. ^o 

Nitor in adversum : nec me, qui cetera, vincit 

Impetus ; et rapido contrarius evehor orbi. 

Finge datos currus. Qiiid ages? poterisne rotatis 

Obvius ire poHs, ne te citus auferat axis ? 

Forsitan et lucos illic, orbesque, domosque 75 

Concipias animo : delubraque ditia donis 

Esse. Per insidias iter est, formasque ferarum. 

Utque viam teneas, nulloque errore traharis, 

Per tamen adversi gradieris cornua Tauri, 

Haemoniosque arcus, violentique ora Leonis, 80 

Saevaque circuitu curvantem brachia longo 

Scorpion, atque ahter curvantem brachia Cancrum. 

Nec tibi quadrupedes animosos ignibus iUis, 

Qlios in pectore habent, quos ore et naribus efflant, 

In promptu regere est. Vix me patiuntur, ut acres 85 

Incahiere animi ; cervixque repugnat habenis. 

At tu, funesti ne sim tibi muneris auctor, 

Nate, cave : dum resque sinit, tua corrige vota. 

SciHcet, ut nostro genitum te sanguine credas, 

Pignora certa petis. Do pignora certa timendo : 90 

Et patrio pater esse metu probor. Adspice vultus 

Ecce meos : utinamque oculos in pectora posses 

Inserere, et patrias intus deprendere curas ! 

Denique, quidquid habet dives, circumspice, mundus : 

Eque tot ac tantis cieli, terrseque, marisque 95 

Posce bonis ahquid : nullam patiere repulsam. 

Deprecor hoc unum ; quod vero nomine poena, 


Non honor est. Poenam, Phaethon, pro mimere, poscis. 
QLiid mea colla tenes blandis, ignare, hicertis ? 
Ne dubita, dabitur (Stygias juravimus undas) 100 

Qiiodcumque optaris : sed tu sapientiiis opta." 

Finlerat monitus. Dictis tamen ille repugnat : . 
Propositumque premit ; flagratque cupidine curriis. 
Ergo, qua licuit genitor cunctatus, ad altos 
Deducit juvenem, Vulcania munera, currus. 105 

Aureus axis erat, temo aureus, aurea summae 
Curvatura rotas ; radiorum argenteus ordo. 
Per juga chrysoHthi, posit^eque ex ordine gemmae, 
Chira repercusso redebant himina Phoebo. 
Dumque ea magnanimus Phaethon miratur, opusque iio 
Perspicit : ecce vigil nitido patefecit ab ortu 
Purpureas Aurora fores, et plena rosarum 
Atria. Diffugiunt stellae : quarum agmina cogit 
Lucifer, et caeh statione novissimus exit. 

At pater ut terras, mundumque rubescere vidit, 115 
Cornuaque extremae vehit evanescere Lunoe ; 
Jungere equos Titan velocibus imperat Horis. 
Jussa deae celpres peragunt : ignemque vomentes, 
Ambrosiae succo saturos, praesepibus akis 
Qiiadrupedes ducunt ; adduntque sonantia frffina. I20 

Tum pater ora sui sacro medicamine nati 
Contigit ; et rapidaj fecit patientia flamma^. 
Imposuitque comae radios : praesagaque hictus 
Pectore soUicito repetens suspiria, dixit : 
" Si potes hic saUem monitis parere parentis, 125 

Parce, puer, stimuhs ; et fortius utere loris. 
Sponte sua properant : labor est inhibcre volcntes.l 
Nec tibi directos phiceat via quinque per arcus. 
Sectus in obhquum est hito curvamine hmes, 
Zonarumque trium contentus finc : pohmique 130 

Eftligito australem, junctamque aquilonibus Arcton.' 
Hac sit iter : manifesta rotae vestigia cerncs. 
Utque ferant ^equos et ccehmi et terra calores, 



Nec preme, nec summum molire per aethera currum. 

Altius egressus coelestia tecta cremabis ; 135 

Inferius terras : medio tutissimus ibis. 

Neu te dexterior tortum declinet in Anguem, 

Neve sinisterior prcssam rota ducat ad Aram : 

Inter utrumque tene. FortunjE caitera mando ; 

Qtias juvet, et melius, quam tu tibi, consulat, opto. 140 

Dum loquor, Hcsperio positas in litore metas 

Humida nox tetigit. Non est mora libera nobis : 

Poscimur. Eflulo^et tenebris Aurora fug-atis. 

Corripe lora manu : vel, si mutabile pectus 

Est tibi, consiliis, non curribus, utere nostris : 145 

Dum potes, et solidis etiam nunc sedibus adstas ; 

Dumque male optatos nondum premis inscius axes. 

Qiia3 tutus spectes, sine me dare lumina terris." 

Occupat ille levem juvenili corpore currum : 
Statque super ; manibusque datas contingere habenas 150 
Gaudet ; et invito grates agit inde parenti. 

Interea volucres Pyroeis, Eous, et ^Ethon, 
SoHs equi, quartusque Phlegon, hinnitibus auras 
Flammiferis implent, pedibusque repaguhi pulsant. 
Qiia3 postquam Tethys, fatorum ignara nepotis, 155 

Reppuht, et facta est immensi copia mundi ; 
Corripuere viam, pedibusque jDcr aera motis 
Obstantes scindunt nebuhis, pennisque levati 
Praitereunt ortos isdem de partibus Euros. 
Sed leve pondus erat ; nec quod cognoscere possent 160 
Sohs equi : sohtaque jugum gravitate carebat. 
Utque labant curvae justo sine pondere naves, 
Perque mare, instabiles nimia levitate, feruntur ; 
Sic onere insueto vacuQS dat in aera saUus, 
Succutiturque alte, simihsque est currus inani. 165 

Qiiod simul ac sensere ; ruunt, tritumque rehnquunt 
Qiiadrijugi spatium : nec, quo priiis, ordine currunt. 
Ipse pavet ; nec qua commissas flectat habenas, 
Nec scit, qua sit iter : nec, si sciat, imperet iUis. 


Tum primum radiis gelidi caluere Triones, 170 

Et vetito frustra tentarunt aequore tingi. 

Quasque polo posita est glaciali proxima Serpens, 

Frigore pigra priiis, nec formidabilis ulli, 

Incaluit : sumpsitque novas fervoribus iras. 

Te quoque turbatum memorant fugisse, Boote ; 175 

Qiiamvis tardus eras, et te tua plaustra tenebant. 

Ut vero summo despexit ab aethere terras 
Infelix Phaethon, penitus penitijsque jacentes ; 
Palluit, et subito genua intremuere timore : 
Suntque ocuHs tenebras per tantum hunen obortae. iSo 
Et jam mallet equos numquamtetigisse paternos : 
Jam cognosse genus piget, et vahiisse rogando : 
Jam Meropis dici cupiens ; ita fertur, ut acta 
Praecipiti pinus Borea, cui victa remisit 
Fraena suus rector, quam dis votisque rehquit. 185 

Qiiid faciat.'* muUum cceH post terga rehctum : 
Ante oculos plus est, Animo metitur utrumque. 
Et modo, quos iHi fatum contingere non est, 
Prospicit occasus : interdum respicit ortus. 
Qiiidque agat ignarus, stupet: et nec frasna remittit, 190 
Nec retinere valet : nec nomina novit equorum. 
Sparsa quoque in vario passim miracula caslo, 
Vastarumque videt trepidus simulacra ferarum. 

Est locus, in geminos ubi brachia concavat arcus 
Scorpios ; et cauda flexisque utrinque lacertis 195 

Porrigit in spatium signorum membra duorum. 
Hunc puer ut nigri madidum sudore veneni 
Vuhiera curvata minitantem cuspide vidit ; 
Mentis inops, gehda formidine lora remisit. 
Qiias postquam summum tetigere jacentia tergum, 200 
Exspatiantur equi : nuUoque inhibente per auras 
IgnotjB regionis eunt ; quaque impetus egit, 
Hac sine lege ruunt : aUoque sub aethere fixis 
Incursant steUis, rapiuntque per avia currum. 
Et modo summa petunt, modo per dechva, viasque 205 

OVID. 141 

Pragcipites spatio terrae propiore feruntur. 

Inferiusque suis fraternos currere Luna 

Admiratur equos : ambustaque nubila fumant. 

Corripitur flammis, ut quaeque altissima, tellus ; 

Fissaque agit rimas, et succis aret ademptis. 2io 

Pabula canescunt : cum frondibus uritur arbos : 

Materiamque suo prasbet seges arida damno. 

Parva queror. Magnae pereunt cum mcenibus urbes : 

Cumque suis totas populis incendia gentes 

In cinerem vertunt. Silvae cum montibus ardent. . . 215 

Nec prosunt Scythiae sua frigora : Caucasus ardet, 

Ossaque cum Pindo, majorque ambobus Olympus : 

Aeriaeque Alpes, et nubifer Apenninus. 

Tunc vero Phaethon cunctis e partibus orbem 
Adspicit accensum : nec tantos sustinet aestus : 220 

Fei^ventesque auras, velut e fornace profunda, 
Ore trahit, currusque suos candescere sentit. 
Et neque jam cineres ejectatamque favillam 
Ferre potest : caHdoque invoHtur undique fumo. 
Qiioque eat, aut ubi sit, picea caHgine tectus 225 

Nescit ; et arbitrio volucrum raptatur equorum. 

Sanguine tum credunt in corpora summa vocato, 
y^thiopum populos nigrum traxisse colorem. 
Tum facta est Libye, raptis humoribus aestu, 
Arida ; tunc Nymphae passis fontesque lacusque 230 

Deflevere comis. Quaerit Boeotia Dircen, 
Argos Amymonen, Ephyre Pirenidas undas. 
Nec sortita loco distantes flumina ripas 
Tuta manent : mediis Tanais fumavit in undis : . » 
^stuat Alpheos : ripae Spercheides ardent : 235 

Quodque suo Tagus amne vehit, fluit ignibus, aurum : 
Et, qua3 M^eonias celebrarant carmine ripas, 
Fhimineae vohicres medio cahiere Caystro. 
Nilus in extremum fugit perterritus orbem, 
Occuhiitque caput, quod adhuc latet. Ostia septem 240 
Pulverulenta vacant, septem sine flumine vafles. . . . 


Dissilit omne solum ; penetratque in Tartara rimis 
Lumen, et infernum terret cum conjuge Regem. 
Et mare contrahitur : siccaeque est campus arenae, 
Quod modo pontus erat ; quosque altum texerat sequor, 
Exsistunt montes, et sparsas Cycladas augent. 
Ima petunt pisces : nec se super aequora curvi 
ToUere consuetas audent delphines in auras : 
Corpora phocarum summo resupina profundo 
Exanimata jacent : ipsum quoque Nerea fama est, 250 
Doridaque, et natas, tepidis latuisse sub antris. 
Ter Neptunus aquis cum torvo brachia vultu 
Exserere ausus erat : ter non tuHt aeris aestus. 

Alma tamen Telhis, ut erat circumdata ponto, 
Inter aquas pelagi, contractos undiquc fontes, 255 

Qiii se condiderant in opacae viscera matris ; 
Sustuht omniferos collo tenus arida vuUus : 
Opposuitque manum fronti : magnoque tremore 
Omnia concutiens paullum subsedit ; et infra, 
Qiiam solet esse, fuit : siccaque ita voce locuta est : 260 
" Si placet hoc, meruique, quid O tua fuhiiina cessant, 
Summe deum ? Liceat perituras viribus ignis, 
Igne perire tuo ; clademque auctore levare. 
Vix equidem fauces hasc ipsa in verba resolvo," 
(Presserat ora vapor,) " tostos en adspice crines, 265 

Inque ocuh's tantum, tantum super ora favillae. 
Hosne mihi fructus, hunc fertihtatis honorem 
Officiiquo refers ; quod adunci vulnera aratri, 
Rastrorumque fero, totoque exerceor anno ? 
Quod pecori frondes, ahmentaque mitia, fruges, 270 

Humano generi, vobis quod thura ministro ? 
Sed tamen exitium fac me meruisse : quid undae, 
Qiiid meruit frater ? Cur ilh tradita sorte 
^quora decrescunt, et ab aethere longius absunt ? 
Qiiod si nec fratris, nec te mea gratia tangit ; 275 

At caeH miserere tui. Circumspice utrumque ; 
Fumat uterque polus : quos si violaverit ignis, 



Atria vestra ruent. Atlas en ipse laborat : 

Vixque suis humeris candentem sustinet axem. 

Si freta, si terrce pereunt, si regia Cceli, 280 

In chaos antiquum confundimur. Eripe flammis, 

Si quid adhuc superest : et rerum consule summs." 

Dixerat hasc Telhis : neque enim tolerare vaporem 

Ulterii^is potuit, nec dicere phu-a : suumque 

RettuHt os in se, propioraque Manibus antra. 285 

At pater omnij^otens superos testatus, et ipsum, 
Qiii dederat curnis, nisi o^^em ferat, omnia fato 
Interitura gravi ; summam petit arduus arcem ; 
Unde solet nubes latis induc^re tems : 
Unde movet tonitrus, vibrataque fuhnina jactat. 290 

Sed neque, quas posset terris inducere, nubes 
Tunc habuit : nec, quos caelo dimitteret, imbres. 
Intonat : et dextra Hbratum fuhnen ab aure 
Misit in aurigam : pariterque animaque rotisque 
ExpuHt, et scevis compescuit ignibus ignes. 295 

Consternantur equi : et sahu in contraria facto 
CoHa jugo eripiunt, abruptaque lora reHnquunt. 
IHic freena jacent, iHic temone revulsus 
Axis ; in hac radii fractarum parte rotarum ; 
Sparsaque sunt hite laceri vestigia curriis. 300 

At Phaethon, rutilos flamma populante capiHos, 
Volvitur in praeceps, longoque per aera tractu 
Fertur ; ut interdum de ca^lo steHa sereno, 
Etsi non cecidit, potuit cecidisse videri. 
Qiiem procul a patria diverso maximus orbe 305 

Excipit Eridanus, spumantiaque abluit ora. 
Naides Hesperiae trifida fumantia flamma 
Corpora dant tumulo, signantque hoc carmine saxum : 


Nam pater obductos, hictu miserabiHs a^gro, 
Condiderat vuHus : et, si modo credimus, unum 
Isse diem sine sole ferunt. Incendia lumen 



Praebebant ; aliqiiisque malo fuit usus in illo. 
At Clymene, postquam dixit quaecunque fuerunt 315 

In tantis dicenda malis, lugubris et amens, 
Et laniata sinus, totum percensuit orbem : 
Exanimesque artus primo, mox ossa requirens, 
Repperit ossa tamen peregrina condita ripa. 
Incubuitque loco : nomenque in marmore lectum 320 

Perfudit lacrymis, et aperto pectore fovit. 

Nec minus Heliades fletus et (inania morti 
Munera) dant lacrymas : et caesae pectorA palmis 
Non auditurum miseras Phaethonta querelas 
Nocte diequa vocant : adster;iunturque sepulcro. 325 

Luna quater junctis implerat cornibus orbem : 
Illas more suo (nam morem fecerat usus) 
Plangorem dederant. E quis Phaethusa, sororum 
Maxima, cum vellet terrae procumbere, questa est 
Diriguisse pedes : ad quam conata venire 330 

Candida Lami^etie, subita radice retenta est. 
Tertia, cum crinem manibus laniare pararet, 
Avellit frondes. Ilasc stipite crura teneri, 
Illa dolet fieri longos sua brachia ramos. 
Quid faciat mater? nisi, quo trahat impetus iham, 335 
Huc eat, atque iHuc? et, dum licet, oscuhi jungat ! 
Non satis est. Truncis avellere corpora tentat ; 
Et teneros manibus ramos abrumpere : at inde 
Sanguineas manant, tamquam de vuhiere, guttae. 
" Parce, precor, mater," quaecunqueest saucia, clamat^^^o 
*' Parce, precor: nostrum Laceratur in arbore corpus. 
Jamque vale." Cortex in verba novissima venit. 
Inde fluunt lacrimae : stilhitaque sole rigcscunt 
De ramis electra novis : quas lucidus amnis 
Excipit, et, nuribus mittit gestanda Latinis. 345 

OVID. 145 

2. The Month of Marck, 

[Fasti, Book III.] 

Bellice, deposltis cllpeo paullsper et hasta, 

Mars, ades, et nltldas casslde solve comas. 
Forsltan Ipse roges, quld slt cum Marte poetae? 

A te, qul canltur, nomlna mensls habet. 
Ipse vldes manlbus peragl fera beUa Mlnei^vse. 5 

Num mlnus Ingenuls artlbus Ula vacat.'' 
Palladls exemplo ponendie tempora sume 

Cuspldis : Invenles et quod Inermls agas. 

The Tear of Romulus, 

Martia ter senos proles adoleverat annos, 

Et suberat flavre iam nova barba comae. 10 

Omnibus agrlcolls armentorumque maglstrls 

Illadas fratres jura petita dabant. 
Saepe domum veniunt praedonum sangulne lasti, 

Et redigunt actos in sua rura boves. 
Ut genus audlerunt, anlmos pater edltus auget, 15 

Et pudet in paucls nomen habere casls : 
Romuleoque cadit trajectus Amullus ense, 

Regnaque longaevo restltuuntur avo. 
Moenia conduntur ; quae quamvls pan^a fuerunt, 

Non tamen expedllt transsllulsse Remo. 20 

Jam modo qua fuerant silvae pecorumque recessus, 

Urbs erat, aeternae cum pater Urbis alt : 
" Arblter armorum, de cujus sanguine natus 

Credor, et ut credar, pignora multa dabo, 
A te principium Romano dlclmus anno : 25 

Prlmus de patrio nomine mensis erlt." 
Vox rata fit, patrloque vocat de nomine mensem. 

Dicitur haec pietas grata fuisse deo. 


Et tamen ante omnes Martem coluere priores. 

Hoc dederat studiis bellica turba suis. 30 

Mars Latio venerandus erat, quia praesidet armis. 

Arma ferae genti remque decusque dabant. . . 
Nec totidem veteres, quot nunc, habuere Kalendas. 

Ille minor geminis mensibus annus erat. 
Nondum tradiderat victas victoribus artes 35 

Graicia, facundum, sed male forte genus. 
Qui bene pugnabat, Romanam noverat artem : 

Mittere qui poterat pila, disertus erat. . . 
Libera currebant et inobservata per annum 

Sidera : constabat sed tamen esse deos. 40 

Non illi cjeIo labentia signa tenebant, 

Sed sua, quae magnum perdere crimen erat. 
Illa quidem fceno ; sed erat reverentia foeno 

Qiiantam nunc aquilas cernis habere tuas. 
Pertica suspensos portabat longa maniplos, 45 

Unde maniplaris nomina miles habet. 
Ergo animi indociles et adhuc ratione carentes 

Mensibus egerunt lustra minora decem. 
Annus erat, decimum cum kma receperat orbem. 

Hic numerus magno tunc in honore fuit. 50 

T/ie Tear qf Numa, 
Primus, oliviferis Romam deductus ab arvis, 

PompiHus menses sensit abesse duos : 
Sive hoc a Samio doctus, qui posse renasci 

Nos putat, Egeria sive monente sua. 
Sed tamen errabant etiam tunc tempora, donec 55 

Coesaris in multis h^ec quoque cura fuit. 
Non haec ille deus tant£eque propaginis auctor 

Credidit officiis esse minora suis, 
Promissumque sibi vohiit pr^enoscere ctehrni, 

Nec deus ignotas hospes inire domos. 60 

Ille moras soh's, quibus in sua signa rediret, 

Traditur exactis disposuisse notis. 



Is decles senos tercentum et quinque diebus 

Junxit, et e pleno tempora quarta die. 
Hic anni modus est : in lustrum accedere debet, 65 

Quae consummatur partibus, una dies. 

The Sabine Wives. 

" Si licet occultos monitus audire deorum 

Vatibus, ut certe fama licere putat, 
Cum sis officiis, Gradive, virilibus aptus, 

Dic mihi, matronaj cur tua festa colant.'* 70 

Sic ego : sic posita dixit mihi casside Mavors, 

Sed tamen in dextra missilis hasta fuit: 
" Nunc primum studiis pacis, deus utilis armis, 

Advocor, et gressus in nova castra fero. 
Nec piget incepti : juvat hac quoque parte morari, ^^ 

Hoc solam ne se posse Minerva putet. 
Disce, Latinorum vates operose dierum, 

Quod petis, et memori pectore dicta nota. 
Parva fuit, si prima veHs elementa referre, 

Roma ; sed in parva spes tamen hujus erat. 80 

Moenia jam stabant, popuHs angusta futuris, 

Credita sed turbae tunc nimis ampla suae. 
Qiiae fuerit nostri, si quaeris, regia nati, 

Aspice de canna straminibusque domum. 
In stipula placidi carpebat munera somni, ^^ 

Et tamen ex illo venit in astra toro. 
Jamque loco majus nomen Romanus habebat : 

Nec conjunx illi, nec socer ullus erat. 
Spernebant generos inopes vicinia dives : 

Et male credebar sanguinis auctor ego. 90 

In stabuHs habitasse et oves pavisse nocebat, 

Jugeraque inculti pauca tenere soH. 
Extremis dantur connubia gentibus ; at quae 

Romano vellet nubere, nulla fuit. 


Iiidolui, patrlamque dedi tibi, Romule, mentem. 95 

' Tolle preces,' dixi : ' quod petis arma dabunt.' 
Festa parat Conso — Consus tibi cetera dicet, 

Illo facta die dum sua sacra canes. 
Intumuere Cures, et quos dolor attigit idem : 

Tum primum generis intulit arma socer : 100 

Jamque fere raptie matrum quoque nomen habebant, 

Tractaque erant longa bclla propinqua mora. 
Conveniunt nuptae dictam Junonis in aidem, 

Qiias inter mea sic est nurus orsa loqui : 
' O pariter raptag, — quoniam hoc commune tenemus, — 

Non ultra lente possumus esse pias. 
Stant acies : sed utra di sint pro parte rogandi, 

EHgite : hinc conjunx, hinc pater arma tenet. 
Qriaerendum est, viduas fieri mahmus, an orbse. 

ConsiHum vobis forte piumque dabo.' 1 10 

ConsiHum dederat. Parent, crinesque resolvunt, 

Maestaque funerea corpora veste tegunt. 
Jam steterant acies ferro mortique paratae, 

Jam Htuus pugnae signa daturus erat : 
Cum raptae veniunt inter patresque virosque, 115 

Inque sinu natos, joignora cara, tenent. 
Ut medium campi scissis tetigere capiUis, 

In terram posito procubuere genu : 
Et quasi sentirent, bhindo cLamore nepotes 

Tendebant ad avos bracchia pai"va suos. 120 

Qiii poterat, cLamabat avum, tunc denique visum ; 

Et qui vix poterat, posse coactus erat. 
Tela viris animique cadunt ; gLadiisque remotis 

Dant soceri generis accipiuntque manus, 
Laudatasque tenent natas, scutoque nepotem 125 

Fert avus : hic scuti dulcior usus erat. 
Inde diem, quae prima, meas celebrare Kalendas 

CEbaHae matres non leve munus habent. 

OVID. 149 

l^aunus and Plcus. 
Quis mihi nunc dicet, quare ciElestia Martis 

Arma ferant Salii, Mamuriumque canant? 130 

Nympha, mone nemori stagnoque operata Dianae, 

Nympha, Numas conjunx, ad tua facta veni. 
ValHs AricincB silva praecinctus opaca 

Est lacus, antiqua relligione sacer. 
Hic latet Hippolytus furiis direptus equorum ; 135 

Unde nemus nulHs illud aditur equis. 
Licia dependent, longas velantia saepes, 

Et posita est meritce multa tabella dese. 
Saepe potens voti, frontem redimita coronis, 

Femina hicentes portat ab Urbe faces. 140 

Regna tenent fortes manibus, pedibusque fugaces, 

Et perit exemplo postmodo quisque suo. 
Defluit incerto lapidosiis murmure rivus : 

Saspe, sed exiguis haustibus inde bibi. 
Egeria est, qu£e praebet aquas, dea grata Camenis. 145 

IUa Numae conjunx consihumque fuit. 
Principio nimium promptos ad bella Qihritis 

Molliri placuit jure deumque metu : 
Inde datae leges, ne firmior omnia posset ; 

CcEptaque sunt pure tradita sacra coh. 150 

Exuitur feritas armisque potentius aequum est, 

Et cum cive pudet conseruisse manus. 
Atque ahquis, modo trux, visa jam vertitur ara, 

Vinaque dat tepidis salsaque farra focis. 
Ecce deum genitor rutihis per nubila flammas 155 

Spargit, et eftusis aethera siccat aquis. 
Non ahas missi cecidere frequentius ignes. 

Rex pavet, et volgi pectora terror habet. 
Cui dea " Ne nimium terrere ! piabile fuhnen 

Est" ait " et saevi flectitur ira Jovis. 160 

Sed poterunt ritum Picus Faunusque piandi 
Tradere, Romani numen utrumque soh. 


Nec sine vl tradent : adhibeto vincula captis : " 

Atque ita, qua possint, erudit, arte capi. 
Lucus Aventino suberat niger ilicis umbra, 165 

Qiio posses viso dicere Numen inestl 
In medio gramen, muscoque adoperta virenti 

Manabat saxo vena perennis aquae. 
Inde fere soli Faunus Picusque bibebant. 

Huc venit, et fonti rex Numa mactat ovem : 170 

Plenaque odorati disponit pocula Bacchi, 

Cumque suis antro conditus ipse latet. 
Ad soHtos veniunt silvestria numina fontes, 

Et relevant multo pectora sicca mero. 
Vina quies sequitur : geHdo Numa prodit ab antro, 175 

Vinclaque sopitas addit in arcta manus. 
Somnus ut abscessit, pugnando vincula temptant 

Rumpere : pugnantes fortius illa tenent. 
Tunc Numa : " Di nemorum, factis ignoscite nostris, 

Si scelus ingenio scitis abesse meo, 180 

Qtioque modo possit fuhnen, monstrate, piari." 

Sic Numa. Sic quatiens cornua Faunus ait : 
"Magna petis, nec quae monitu tibi discere nostro 

Fas sit : habent fines numina nostra suos. 
Di sumus agrestes, et qui dominemur in altis 185 

Montibus : arbitrium est in sua telajovi. 
Hunc tu non poteris per te deducere Cielo : 

At poteris nostra forsitan usus ope." 
Dixerat haec Faunus ; par est sententia Pici. 

" Deme tamen nobis vincula," Picus ait : 190 

" Juppiter huc veniet, vaHda perductus ab arte. 

Nubila promissi Styx mihi testis erit." 
Emissi laqueis quid agant, quae carmina dicant, 

Qiiaque trahant superis sedibus arte Jovem, 
Scire nefas homini. Nobis concessa canentur, 195 

Qiiseque pio dici vatis ab ore Hcet. 
EHciunt caelo te, Juppiter : unde minores 

Nunc quoque te celebrant, EHciumque vocant. 

OVID. 151 

Constat Aventinas tremiiisse cacumina silvae, 

Terraque subsedit pondere pressa Jovis. 200 

Corda micant regis, totoque e pectore sanguis 

Fugit, et hirsutae deriguere comag. 
Ut rediit animus, " Da certa piamina" dixit 

" Fulminis, altorum rexque paterque deum, 
Si tua contigimus manibus donaria puris : 205 

Hoc quoque, quod petitur, si pia lingua rogat." 
Annuit oranti ; sed verum ambage remota 

Abdidit, et dubio terruit ore virum. 
" Caede caput" dixit : cui rex '' Parebimus" inquit ; 

" Caedenda est hortis eruta cepa meis." 210 

Addidit hic " Hominis : " " Summos" ait ille " capillos." 

Postulat hic animam : cui Numa " piscis " ait. 
Risit ; et " His " inquit " facito mea tela procures, 

O vir colloquio non abigende deum. 
Sed tibi, protulerit cum totum crastinus orbem 215 

Cynthius, imperii pignora certa dabo." 
Dixit, et ingenti tonitru super aethera motum 

Fertur, adorantem destituitque Numam. 
Ille redit laetus, memoratque Qiiiritibus acta : 

Tarda venit dictis difficiHsque fides. 220 

" At certe credemur," ait, " si verba sequetur 

Exitus ; en audi crastina, quisquis ades : 
Protulerit terris cum totum Cynthius orbem, 

Juppiter imperii pignora certa dabit." 
Discedunt dubii promissaque tarda videntur; 225 

Dependetque fides a veniente die. 

7^/1 e Sacred Shield, 
Mollis erat telhis rorata mane pruina ; 

Ante sui populus hmina regis adest. 
Prodit, et in soHo medius consedit acerno.: 

Innumeri circa stantque silentque viri. 230 

Ortus erat summo tantummodo margine Phoebus : 

SoUicitae mentes speque metuque pavent. 


Constitit, atque caput niveo velatus amictu 

Jam bene dis notas sustulit ille manus ; 
Atque ita, " Tempus adest promissi muneris," inquit : 235 

"Pollicitam dictis, Juppiter, adde fidem." 
Dum loquitur, totum jam sol emoverat orbem, 

Et gravis iethereo venit ab axe fragor. 
Ter tonuit sine nube deus, tria fulgura misit. 

Credite dicenti : mira, sed acta, loquor. 240 

A media caelum regione dehiscere ccepit : 

Submisere oculos cum duce turba suo. 
Ecce levi scutum versatum leniter aura 

Decidit : a populo clamor ad astra venit. 
TolHt humo munus c^esa prius ille juvenca, 245 

Qiisi dederat nulli colla premenda jugo, 
Atque ancile vocat, quod ab omni parte recisum est-, 

Qiiaque notes ocuHs, angulus omnis abest. 
Tum, memor imperii sortem consistere in illo, 

Consihum multse calliditatis init. 250 

Plura jubet fieri simili caelata figura, 

Error ut ante oculos insidiantis eat. 
Mamurius, morum fabraene exactior artis, 

Difficile est, iUud, dicere, clausit opus. 
Cui Numa munificus " Facti pete praemia" dixit: 255 

" Si mea nota fides, irrita nulla petes." 
Jam dederat Sahis a saltu nomina dicta, 

Armaque et ad certos verba canenda modos. 
Tum sic Mamurius : " Merces mihi gloria detur, 

Nominaque extremo carmine nostra sonent." 260 

Inde sacerdotes operi promissa vetusto 

Pr^emia persolvunt, Mamuriumque vocant. 

T/ie Tnfa^tt yupiter. 
Una nota est Marti Nonis, sacrata quod illis 

Templa putant lucos Vejovis ante duos. 
Romuhis ut saxo lucum circumdedit alto, 265 

" QiiiUbet huc" inquit " confuge, tutus eris." 

OVID. 153 

O quam de tenui Romanus origine crevit : 

Turba vetus quam non invidiosa fuit ! 
Ne tamen ignaro novitas tibi nominis obstet, 

Disce, quis iste deus, curve vocetur ita. 270 

Juppiter est juvenis, — juvenalis aspice voltus : 

Aspice deinde, manu fulmina nulla tenet. 
Fulmina post ausos c^elum adfectare gigantas. 

Sumpta Jovi : primo tempore inermis erat 
Ignibus Ossa novis et Pelion altius Ossa 275 

Arsit, et in solida fixus Olympus humo. 
Stat quoque capra simul ; nymphae pavisse feruntur 

Cretides ; infanti lac dedit illa Jovi. 
Nunc vocor ad nomen : vegrandia farra colonae 

QucE male creverunt, vescaque parva vocant. 280 

Vis ea si verbi est, cur non ego Vejovis sedem 

-^dem non magni suspicer esse Jovis ^ 

Bacchus and Ariadne. 
Jamque, ubi caeruleum variabunt sidera caelum, 

Suspice : Gorgonei coUa videbis equi. 
Creditur hic caesse gravida cervice Medusae 285 

Sanguine respersis prosihiisse jubis. 
Huic supra nubes et subter sidera lapso 

Caelum pro terra, pro pede pinna fuit. 
Jamque indignanti nova frena receperat ore, 

Cum levis Aonias ungula fodit aquas. 290 

Nunc fruitur caelo, quod pinnis ante petebat, 

Et nitidus steUis quinque decemque micat. 
Protinus aspicies venienti nocte Coronam 

Gnosida : Theseo crimine facta dea est. 
Jam bene perjuro mutarat conjuge Bacchum, 295 

QjriiE dedit ingrato fila legenda viro. 
Sorte tori gaudens " Quid flebam rustica.^" dixit: 

" Utihter nobis perfidus ille fuit." 
Interea Liber depexos crinibus Indos 

Vicit, et eoo dives ab orbe redit. 300 


Inter captivas facie prasstante puellas 

Grata nimis Baccho filia regis erat. 
Flebat amans conjunx, spatiataque litore cui-vo 

Edidit incultis talia verba comis : 
" En iterum, fluctus, similes audite querellas ! 305 

En iterum lacrimas accipe, arena, meas ! 
Dicebam, memim, perjiire et perjide Theseul 

Ille abiit ; eadem crimina Bacchus habet. 
Nunc quoque nulla viro clamaho yemina credatl 

Nomine mutato causa relata mea est : 310 

Outinam mea sors, qua primum coeperat, issit, 

Jamque ego j^raesenti tempore nuUa forem ! 
QLiid me desertis perituram, Liber, arenis 

Servabas? potui dedoluisse semel. 
Bacche levis, leviorque tuis, qua3 tempora cingunt, 315 

Frondibus, in lacrimas cognite Bacche meas, 
Heu ubi pacta fides? ubi, quas jurare solebas? 

Me miseram, quotiens haic ego verba loquar? 
Thesea culpabas, fallacemque ipse vocabas : 

Judicio peccas turpiiis ipse tuo. 320 

Ne sciat hoc quisquam, tacitisque doloribus urar, 

Ne totiens falli digna fuisse puter. 
Illa ego sum, cui tu soHtus promittere caelum. 

Ei mihi, pro c^elo qualia dona fero ! " 
Dixerat : audibat jamdudum verba querentis 325 

Liber, ut a tergo forte secutus erat. 
Occupat amplexu, lacrimasque per oscula siccat, 

Et " Pariter cieli summa petamus" ait. 
" Tu mihi juncta toro mihi juncta vocabula sumes : 

Nam tibi mutata^ Libera nomen erit. 330 

Sintque tu£e tecum faciam monumenta corona}, 

Volcanus Veneri quam dedit, illa tibi." 
Dicta fiicit, gemmasquc novem transformat in ignes. 

Aurea per stellas nunc micat illa novem. 

OVID. 155 

Anna Perenna. 

Idibus est AnnaB festum geniale Perennae, 335 

Haud procul a ripis, advena Thybri, tuis. 
Plebs venit, ac virides passim disjecta per herbas 

Potat, et accumbit cum pare quisque sua. 
Sub Jove pars durat ; pauci tentoria ponunt ; 

Sunt quibus e ramis frondea facta casa est ; 340 

Pars ubi pro rigidis calamos statuere columnis, 

Desuper extentas imposuere togas. 
Sole tamen vinoque calent, annosque precantur, 

Qiiot sumant cyathos, ad numerumque bibunt. 
Invenies illic, qui Nestoris ebibat annos, 345 

Quae sit per calices facta Sibylla suos. 
Illic et cantant, quicquid didicere theatris, 

Et jactant faciles ad sua verba manus : 
Et ducunt posito duras cratere choreas, 

Cultaque diftusis saltat amica comis. 350 

Cum redeunt, titubant, et sunt spectacula volgi, 

Et fortunatos obvia turba vocat. 
Occurri nuper : visa est mihi digna relatu 

Pompa ; senem potum pota trahebat anus. 
Qii£e tamen haec dea sit, quoniam rumoribus errat, 355 

Fabula proposito nulla tacenda meo. 
Arserat yEneae Dido miserabilis igne, 

Arserat exstructis in sua fata rogis : 
Compositusque cinis, tumuHque in marmore carmen 

Hoc breve, quod moriens ipsa rehquit, erat : 360 

PRtEBUIT ^neas et causam mortis et ensem : 

ipsa sua dido concidit usa manu. 
Protinus invadunt Numidae sine vindice regnum, 

Et potitur capta Maurus larba domo. 
Seque memor spretum, "Thalamis tamen" inquit "Elissae 

En ego, quem totiens reppuHt illa, fruor." 
Diffugiunt Tyrii, quo quemque agit error, ut olim 

Amisso dubiae rege vagantur apes. 


Tertia nudandas acceperat area messes, 

Inqiic cavos ierant tertia musta lacus : 370 

Pellitur Anna domo, lacrimansque sororia linquit 

Moenia ; germanae justa dat ante suae. 
Mixta bibunt molles lacrimis unguenta favillae, 

Vertice libatas accipiuntque comas. 
Terque Vale ! dixit, cineres ter ad ora relatos 375 

Pressit, et est illis visa subesse soror. 
Nancta ratem comitesque fugae, pede labitur sequo, 

Moenia respiciens, dulce sororis opus. 
Fertilis est Melite sterili vicina Cosyrae 

Insula, quam Libyci verberat unda freti. 380 

Hanc petit, hospitio regis confisa vetusto : 

Hospes opum dives rex ibi Battus erat. 
Qiii postquam didicit casus utriusque sororis, 

" HiEC " inquit " tellus quantulacumque tua est." 
Et tamen hospitii servasset ad ultima munus ! 385 

Sed timuit magnas Pygmalionis opes. 
Signa recensuerat bis sol sua : tertius ibat 

Annus, el exilio terra paranda nova est. 
Frater adest belloque petit. Rex arma perosus 

" Nos sumus imbelles, tu fuge sospes ! " ait. 390 

Jussa fugit, ventoque ratem committit et undis. 

Asperior quovis asquore frater erat. 
Est prope piscosos lapidosi Crathidis amnes 

Parvus ager : Camcren incola turba vocat. 
Illuc cursus erat, nec longius afuit inde, 395 

Qiiam quantum novies mittere funda potest. 
Vela cadunt primo, et dubia Hbrantur ab aura.* 

" Findite remigio " navita dixit " aquas ! " 
Dumque parant torto subducere carbasa lino, 

Percutitur rapido puppis adunca Noto, 40O 

Inque patens jequor, frustra pugnante magistro, 

Fertur, et ex ocuHs visa refugit humus. 
Adsiliunt fluctus, imoque a gurgite pontus 

Vertitur, et canas alveus haurit aquas. 

OVID. 157 

Vincitur ars vento : nec jam moderator habenis 405 

Utitur, aut votis liis quoque poscit opem. 
Jactatur tumidas exsul Phoenissa per undas, 

Humidaque opposita lumina veste tegit. 
Tunc primum Dido feUx est dicta sorori, 

Et quaecumque aHquam corpore pressit humum. 410 
Figitur ad Laurens ingenti flamine Htus 

Puppis, et expositis omnibus hausta perit. 
Jam pius ^neas regno nataque Latini 

Auctus erat, populos miscueratque duos. 
Litore dotaH solo comitatus Achate 415 

Secretum nudo dum pede carpit iter, 
Aspicit errantem, nec credere sustinet Annam 

Esse : — Quid in Latios iUa veniret agros ? 
Dum secum ^neas, " Anna est ! " exclamat Achates. 

Ad nomen voltus sustuHt iUa suos. 420 

Quo fugiat? quid agat? quos terrae quaerat hiatus? 

Ante oculos miserae fata sororis erant. 
Sensit, et adloquitur trepidam Cythereius heros ; 

Flet tamen admonitu motus, EHssa, tui. 
" Anna, per hanc juro, quam quondam audire solebas 

TeUurem fato prosperiore dari, 
Perque deos comites, hac nuper sede locatos, 

Saepe meas iUos increpuisse moras. 
Nec timui de morte tamen : metus afuit iste. 

Ei mihi ! credibiU fortior iUa fuit. 430 

Ne refer : aspexi non iUo pectore digna 

Volnera, Tartareas ausus adire domos. 
At tu, seu ratio te nostris appuHt oris, 

Sive deus, regni commoda carpe mei : 
Multa tibi memores, nil non debemus EHssse : 435 

Nomine grata tuo, grata sororis, eris." 
TaUa dicenti — neque enim spes altera restat — 

Credidit, errores exposuitque suos. 
Utque domum intravit Tyrios induta paratus, 

Incipit ^neas — cetera turba silet — 440 


" Hanc tlbi cur tradam, pia causa, Lavinia conjunx, 

Est mihi : consumpsi naufragus hujus opes. 
Orta Tyro est, regnum Libyca possedit in ora : 

Qiiam precor ut caros more sororis ames." 
Gmnia promittit, falsumque Lavinia volnus 445 

Mente premit tacita, dissimulatque fremens. 
Donaque cum 'videat pr^eter sua lumina ferri 

Multa palam, mitti clam quoque multa putat. 
Non habet exactum, quid agat : furialiter odit, 

Et parat insidias, et cupit ulta mori. 450 

Nox erat : ante torum visa est adstare sororis 

Squalenti Dido sanguinolenta coma 
Et " Fuge, ne dubita, msestum, fuge" dicere "tectum." 

Sub verbum querulas impulit aura fores. 
Exsilit, et velox humili super arva fenestra 455 

Se jacit : audacem fecerat ipse timor. 
Qiuique metu rapitur, tunica velata recincta 

Currit, ut auditis territa damma lupis. 
Corniger hanc cupidis rapuisse Numicius undis 

Creditur, et stagnis occuluisse suis. 460 

Sidonis interea magno clamore per agros 

Qiiaeritur : apparent signa notaeque pedum. 
Ventum erat ad ripas : inerant vestigia ripis — 

Sustinuit tacitas conscius amnis aquas — 
Ipsa loqui visa est " Placidi sum nympha Numlci : 465 

Amne perenne latens Anna Perenna vocor." 

Murder of Ccesar. 

Prasterlturus eram gladios In prlncipe fixos, 

Cum slc a castls Vesta locuta focis : 
" N^ dubita memlnlsse ! meus fuit ille sacerdos : 

Sacrilegae teHs me petiere manus. 470 

Ipsa virum rapui, simulacraque nuda rellqui : 

Qiiae cecidit ferro, Caesaris umbra fuit." 
Ille quidem cajlo posltus Jovis atria vidlt, 

Et tenet In magno templa dicata foro. 



At quicumque nefas ausi, prohibente deorum 475 

Numine, polluerant pontiticale caput, 
Morte jacent merita. Testes estote Philippi, 

Et quorum sparsis ossibus albet humus. 
Hoc opus, hasc pietas, hsec prima elementa fuerunt 

Caesaris, ulcisci justa per arma patrem. 480 

Bacchus and the Uoney-cakes. 

Tertia post Idus lux est celeberrima Baccho. 

Bacche, fave vati, dum tua festa cano. 
Sithonas et Scythicos longum e^ narrare triumphos, 

Et domitas gentes, turifer Inde, tuas. 
Tu quoque Thebanai mala prasda tacebere matris, 485 

Inque tuum furiis acte, Lycurge, genu. 
Ecce Hbet subitos pisces Tyrrhenaque monstra 

Dicere : sed non est carminis hujus opus. 
Carminis hujus opus causas expromere, quare 

Vihs anus populos ad sua Hba vocet. 490 

Ante tuos ortus arse sine honore fuerunt, 

Liber, et in gehdis herba reperta focis. 
Te memorant Gange totoque oriente subacto 

PrimJtias magno seposuisse Jovi. 
Cinnama tu primus captivaque tura dedisti, 495 

Deque triumphato viscera tosta bove. 
Nomine ab auctoris ducunt libamina nomen, 

Libaque, quod sacris pars datur inde focis. 
Liba deo fiunt, succis quia dulcibus idem 

Gaudet, et a Baccho mella reperta ferunt. 500 

Ibat arenoso satyris comitatus ab Hebro, — 

Non habet ingratos fabula nostra jocos — 
Jamque erat ad Rhodopen Pangasaque florida ventum : 

yEriferas comitum concrepuere manus. 
Ecce novae coeunt volucres tinnitibus actae, 505 

Qiiosque movent sonitus aera, sequuntur apes. 
Colhgit errantes et in arbore claudit inani 

Liber, et inventi prasmia melHs habet. 


Ut satyri levisque senex tetigere saporem, 

Qiiserebant flavos per nemus omne favos. 5^^ 

Audit in exesa stridorem examinis ulmo, 

Adspicit et ceras dissimulatque senex : 
Utque piger pandi tergo residebat aselli, 

Applicat hunc ulino corticibusque cavis. 
Constitit ipse super ramoso stipite nixus, 515 

Atque avide trunco condita mella petit. 
Milia crabronum coeunt, et vertice nudo 

Spicula defigunt, oraque sima notant. 
Ille cadit praeceps, et calce feritur aselli, 

Inclamatque suos, auxiliumque rogat. 520 

Concurrunt satyri, turgentiaque ora parentis 

Rident : percusso claudicat ille genu. 
Ridet et ipse deus, limumque inducere monstrat. 

Hic paret monitis, et linit ora luto. 
Melle pater fruitur ; liboque infusa calenti 525 

Jure repertori candida mella damus. 

Rites qf Minerva, 

Una dies media est, et fiunt sacra Minervae, 

Nomina quas junctis quinque diebus habent. 
Sanguine prima vacat, nec fas concurrere ferro : 

Causa, quod est illa nata Minerva die. 530 

Altera tresque super rasa celebrantur arena : 

Ensibus exsertis bellica laeta dea est. 
Pallada nunc pueri teneraeque orate puellse : 

Qiii bene placarit Pallada, doctus erit. 
Pallade placata lanam molHre puellae 535 

Discant, et plenas exonerare colos. 
Illa etiam stantes radio percurrere telas 

Erudit, et rarum pectine denset opus. 
Hanc cole, qui laesis maculas de vestibus aufers : 

Hanc cole, velleribus quisquis aena paras. 540 

Nec quisquam invita faciet bene vincula plantae 

Pallade, sit Tychio doctior ille licet. 

OVID. ;f6l 

Et licet antiquo manibus collatus Epeo 

Sit prior, irata Pallade mancus erit. 
Vos quoque, Phoebea morbos qui pellitis arte, 545 

Munera de vestris pauca referte de^. 
Nec vos, turba fere censu fraudata, magistri, 

Spernite : discipulos attrahit illa novos. 
Quique moves cailum, tabulamque coloribus uris, 

Quique facis docta molHa saxa manu. 550 

Mille dea est operum : certe dea carminis illa est : 

Si mereor, studiis adsit amica meis. 
Caelius ex alto qua mons descendit in cEquum, 

Hic ubi non plana est, sed prope plana via, 
Parva hcet videas Captte dekibra Minerv^, 555 

Quae dea natah coepit habere suo. 
Nominis in dubio causa est. Capitale vocamus 

Ingenium sollers : ingeniosa dea est. 
An quia de capitis fertur sine matre paterni 

Vertice cum cHpeo prosihiisse suo ? 560 

An quia perdomitis ad nos captiva FaHscis 

Venit? et hoc ipsum Httera prisca docet. 
An quod habet legem, capitis quac pendere pcEnas 

Ex iHo jubeat furta reperta loco ? 
A quacumque trahis ratione vocabuLi, Pahas, 565 

Pro ducibus nostris jegida semper habe ! 

7^/ie Goldeu Fleece. 

Summa dies e quinque tubas lustrare canoras 

Admonet, et forti sacrificare dese. 
Nunc potes ad solem subhito dicere voltu, 

" Hic here Phrixeae veHera pressit ovis." 570 

Seminibus tostis scelerat^e fraude noverc^, 

Sustulerat nuHas, ut solet, herba comas. 
Mittitur ad tripodas, certa qui sorte reportet, 

Quam steriH terrae Delphicus edat opem. 
Hic quoque, corruptus cum semine, nuntiat HeHes £^75 

Et juvenis Phrixi funera sorte peti. 


Utque recusantem cives et tempus et Ino 

Compulerunt regem jussa nefanda pati, 
Et soror et Phrixus, velati tempora vittis, 

Stant simul ante aras, junctaque fata gemunt. 580 

Aspicit hos, ut forte pependerat aethere, mater, 

Et ferit attonita pectora nuda manu : 
Inque draconigenam nimbis comitantibus urbem 

Desilit, et natos eripit inde suos. 
Utque fugam capiant, aries nitidissimus auro 585 

Traditur : ille vehit per freta longa duos. 
Dicitur infirma cornu tenuisse sinistra 

Femina, cum de se nomina fecit aquae. 
Paene simul periit, dum volt succurrere lapsae, 

Frater, et extentas porrigit usque manus. 590 

Flebat, ut amissa gemini consorte pericH, 

Cseruleo junctam nescius esse deo. 
Litoribus tactis aries fit sidus : at hujus 

Pervenit in Colchas aurea lana domos. 
Tres ubi Luciferos veniens praemiserit Eos, 595 

Tempora nocturnis aequa diurna feres. 
Inde quater pastor saturos ubi clauserit haedos, 

Canuerint herbae rore recente quater, 
Janus adorandus, cumque hoc Concordia mitis 

Et Romana Salus, araque Pacis erit. 600 

Luna regit menses : hujus quoque tempora mensis 

Finit Aventino Luna colenda jugo. 

VII. (( Lihrary 

V I R G I L. ^^^i^;:^ OM^t^ 

I. T/ie Story of Aristceus. 

[Georgics, Book IV. verses 317-558.] 

Pastor Anstseus, fugiens Peneia Tempe, 

Amissis, ut fiima, apibus morboque fameque, 

Tristis ad extremi sacrum caput adstitit amnis, 

Multa querens, atque hac affatus voce parentem : 

" Mater, Cyrene mater, quoe gurgitis hujus 5 

Ima tenes, quid me praechira stirpe deorum — 

Si modo, quem perhibes, pater est Thymbraeus Apollo — 

Invisum fatis genuisti? aut quo tibi nostri 

Pulsus amor? quid me cashmi sperare jubebas? 

En etiam hunc ipsum vitae mortahs honorem, lo 

Qiiem mihi vix frugum et pccudum custodia soUers 

Omnia temptanti extuderat, te matre, rehnquo. 

Qiiin age, et ipsa manu fehccs erue silvas ; 

Fer stabuhs inimicum ignem, atque interfice mcsses ; 

Ure sata, et vahdam in vites mohre bipennem, 15 

Tanta meae si te ceperunt taedia laudis.'* 

At mater sonitum thaLamo sub fluminis alti 
Sensit. Eam circuni Milesia veUera Nymphae 
Carpebant, hyah saturo fucata colore. 

Dum fusis mohia pensa 
Devolvunt, iterum maternas impuht aures 20 

Luctus Aristaei, vitreisque sedihbus omnes 
Obstupuere ; sed ante ahas Arethusa sorores 
Prospiciens, summa flavum caput extuht unda ; 


Et procul : "0 gemitu non frustra exterrita tanto, 
Cyrene soror, ipse tibi, tua maxima cura, 25 

Tristis Aristaeus Penei genitoris ad undam 
Stat lacrimans, et te crudelem nomine dicit." 

Huic percussa nova mentem formidine mater, 
" Duc, age, duc ad nos ; fas ilii limina divum 
Tangere," ait. Simul alta jubet discedere late 30 

Flumina, qua juvenis gressus inferret : at illum 
Curvata in montis faciem circumstetit unda 
Accepitque sinu vasto misitque sub amnem. . . 
Postquam est in thalami pendentia pumice tecta 
Perventum, et nati fletus cognovit inanes 35 

Cyrene, manibus liquidos dant ordine fontes 
Germance, tonsisque ferunt mantelia villis ; 
Pars epulis onerant mensas, et plena reponunt 
Pocula ; Panchaeis adolescunt ignibus arae ; 
Et mater, " Cape Maionii carchesia Bacchi : 40 

Oceano Hbemus," ait. Simul ipsa precatur 
Oceanumque patrem rerum, Nymphasque sorores, 
Centum qucE silvas, ccntum quae flumina scrvant. 
Ter liquido ardentem perfudit nectare Vestam, 
Ter flamma ad summum tecti subjecta rekixit. 45 

Omine quo firmans animum, sic incipit ipsa : 

" Est in Carpathio Neptuni gurgite vates 
Cajruleus Proteus, magnum qui piscibus a^quor 
Et juncto bipedum curru metitur equorum. 
Hic nunc Emathiae portus patriamque revisit 50 

Pallenen : hunc et Nymphae veneramur, et ipse 
Grandaevus Nereus ; novit namque omnia vates, 
Qtiae sint, quae fuerint, quae mox ventura trahantur : 
Qiiippe ita Neptuno visum est, immania cujus 
Armenta et turpes pascit sub gurgite phocas. ^^ 

Hic tibi, nate, prius vincHs capiendus, ut omnem 
Expediat morbi caussam, eventusque secundet. 
Nam sine vi non uUa dabit prcecepta, neque iflum 
Orando flectes : vim duram et vincula cajoto 

VIRGIL. 165 

Tende ; doli circiim haec demum frangentur inanes. 60 

Ipsa ego te, medios cum sol accenderit sestus, 

Cum sitiunt herbag, et pecori jam gratior umbra est, 

In secreta senis ducam, quo fessus ab undis 

Se recipit, facile ut somno aggrediare jacentem. 

Verum ubi correptum manibus vincHsque tenebis, 6^ 

Tum varice eludent species atque ora ferarum. 

Fiet enim subito sus horridus, atraque tigris, 

Squamosusque draco, et fulva cervice lea^na ; 

Aut acrem flammie sonitum dabit, atquc ita vincHs 

Excidct, aut in aquas tenues dihqosus abibit. 70 

Sed quanto ille magis formas se vertet in omnes, 

Tanto, nate, magis contende tenacia vincla, 

Doncc talis erit mutato corpore, qualem 

Videris, incepto tegeret cimi hmiina somno. 

H^c ait, et hquidum ambrosiae diffundit odorem, 75 
Qiio totum nati corpus perduxit ; at ilH 

Dulcis compositis spiravit crinibus aura, 

Atque habihs membris venit vigor. 

Est specus ingens 

Exesi Latere in montis, quo phu-ima vento 80 

Cogitur, inque sinus scindit sese unda reductos, 

Deprensis ohm statio tutissima nautis ; 

Intus se vasti Proteus tegit obice saxi. 

Hic juvenem in latebris aversum a lumine Nympha 

Cohocat ; ipsa procul nebuhs obscura resistit. 8^ 

Jam rapidus torrens sitientes Sirius Indos 

Ardebat caelo, et medium sol igneus orbem 

Hauserat ; arebant herbas, et cava flumina siccis 

Faucibus ad hmum radii tepefacta coquebant : 

Cum Proteus consueta petens e fluctibus antra 90 

Ibat ; eum vasti circum gens huniida ponti 

Exsultans rorem late dispergit amarum. 

Sternunt se somno diversae in htore phocae ; 

Ipse, velut stabuh custos in montibus ohm, 

Vesper ubi e pastu vitulos ad tecta reducit, 95 


Aiiditisque lupos acuuiit balatibus agni, 
Considit scopulo medius, numerumque recenset. 

Cujus Aristaeo quoniam est oblata facultas, 
Vix defessa senem passus componere membra, 
Cum clamore ruit magno, manicisque jacentem loo 

Occupat. Ille suae contra non immemor artis 
Omnia transformat sese in miracula rerum, 
Ignemque, horribilemque feram, fluviumque liquentem. 
Verum ubi nulla fugam reperit fallacia, victus 
In sese redit, atque hominis tandem ore locutus : 105 

" Nam quis te, juvenum confidentissime, nostras 
Jussit adire domos ? quidve hinc petis ? " inquit. At ille : 
" Scis, Proteu, scis ipse ; neque est te fallere quicquam ; 
Sed tu desine velle. Deum prajcepta secuti 
Venimus, hinc lassis quaesitum oracula rebus." iio 

Tantum eftatus. Ad haec vates vi denique multa 
Ardentes oculos intorsit himine glauco, 
Et graviter frendens sic fatis ora resolvit : 

" Non te nuUius exercent numinis irse. 
Magna luis commissa : tibi has miserabiHs Orpheus 115 
Haudquaquam ob meritum pocnas, ni Fata resistant, 
Suscitat, et rapta graviter pro conjuge saevit. 
Illa quidem, dum te fugeret per flumina praeceps, 
Immanem ante pedes hydrum moritura puella 
Servantem ripas alta non vidit in herba. 120 

At chorus aequahs Dryadum chimore supremos 
Implerunt montes ; flerunt Rhodopeiae arces, 
Altaque Pangaea, et Rhesi Mavortia telhis, 
Atque Getse, atque Hebrus, et Actias Orithyia. 

" Ipse, cava solans aegrum testudine amorem, 125 

Te, dulcis conjux, te solo in htore secum, 
Te veniente die, te decedente canebat. 
Taenarias etiam fauces, alta ostia Ditis, 
Et caHgantem nigra formidine lucum 

Ingressus, Manesque adiit, Regemque tremendum, 130 
Nesciaque humanis precibus mansuescere corda. 

VIRGIL. 167 

" At, cantu commotas, Erebi de sedibus imis 
Umbr^ ibant tenues, simulacraque luce carentum, — 
Qiiam multa in foliis avium se milia condunt, 
Vesper ubi aut hibernus agit de montibus imber, — 135 
Matres atque viri, defunctaque corpora vita 
Magnanimum heroum, pueri, innuptaeque puellae, 
Impositique rogis juvenes ante ora parentum ; 
Qiios circum limus niger et deformis arundo 
Cocyti tardaque palus inamabilis unda 140 

Alhgat, et novies Styx interfusa coercet.' 
Qiiin ipsas stupuere domus atque intima Leti 
Tartara casruleosque implexas crinibus angues 
Eumenides, tenuitque inhians tria Cerberus ora, 
Atque Ixionii vento rota constitit orbis. 145 

" Jamque pedem referens casus evaserat omnes, 
Redditaque Eurydice superas veniebat ad auras, 
Pone sequens, — namque hanc dederatProserpina legem, — 
Cum subita incautum dementia cepit amantem, 
Ignoscenda quidem, scirent si ignoscere Manes ; 150 

Restitit, Eurydicenque suam, jam luce sub ipsa, 
Immemor, heu ! victusque animi, respexit. Ibi omnis 
Effusus labor, atque immitis rupta tyranni 
Foedera, terque fragor stagnis auditus Avernis. 
Illa, ' Qiiis et me, inquit, miseram, et te perdidit, Orpheu ? 
Qiiis tantus furor? En iterum crudelia retro 
Fata vocant, conditque natantia lumina somnus. 
Jamque vale : feror ingenti circumdata nocte, 
InvaHdasque tibi tendens, heu non tua, pahnas ! ' 
Dixit, et ex oculis subito, ceu fumus in auras 160 

Commixtus tenues, fugit diversa, neque illum, 
Prensantem nequiquam umbras et multa volentem 
Dicere, praeterea vidit ; nec portitor Orci 
AmpHus objectam passus transire pahidem. 

"Quid faceret? quo se rapta bis conjuge ferret? 165 

Quo fletu Manes, qua Numina voce moveret ? 
lUa quidem Stygia nabat jam frigida cymba. 


Septem illum totos perhibent ex ordine menses 

Rupe sub aeria deserti ad Strymonis undam 

Flevisse, et gelidis haec evolvisse sub antris, 170 

Mulcentem tigres et agentem carmine quercus ; 

QLiaHs populea masrens Philomela sub umbra 

Amissos queritur fetus, quos durus arator 

Observans nido imphimes detraxit ; at illa 

Flet noctcm, ramoque sedens miserabile carmen 175 

Integrat, et mjEstis late loca questibus implet. 

'' Nulla Venus, non ulli animum flexerc hymenaei : 
Solus Hyperboreas glacies Tanaimque nivalem 
Arvaque Rhipasis numquara viduata pruinis 
Lustrabat, raptam Eurydicen atque irrita Ditis 180 

Dona querens ; spretce Ciconum quo munere matres 
Inter sacra deum nocturnique orgia Bacchi 
Discerptum latos juvenem sparsere per agros. 
Tum quoque marmorea caput a cervice revulsum 
Gurgite cum medio portans Giagrius Hebrus 185 

Volveret, Murydicen ! vox ipsa et frigida hngua, 
Ak miseram Eurydiceit ! anima fugiente vocabat ; 
Eurydicen ! toto referebant flumine ripae." 

Haec Proteus : et se jactu dedit aequor in aUum, 
Qiiaque dedit, spumantem undam sub vertice torsit. 190 
At non Cyrene ; namque ultro adfata timentcm : 

"^ Xate, Hcet tristes animo dcponere curas : 
Haec omnis morbi caussa ; hinc miserabile Nymphae, 
Cum quibus illa choros hicis agitabat in altis, 
Exitium misere apibus. Tu munera supplex 195 

Tende, petens pacem, et fociles venerare Napaeas ; 
Namque dabunt veniam votis, irasque remittent. 
Sed, modus orandi qui sit, prius ordine dicam. 
Qiiattuor eximios praestanti corpore tauros, 
Qiii tibi nunc viridis depascunt summa Lycaei, 200 

Deh'ge, et intacta totidem cervice juvencas. 
Quattuor his aras alta ad delubra dearum 
Constitue, et sacrum juguHs demitte cruorem, 

VIRGIL. 169 

Corporaque ipsa boum frondoso desere luco. 

Post, ubi nona suos Aurora ostenderit ortus, 205 

Inferias Orphei Lethaea papavera mittes, 

Et nigram mactabis ovem, lucumque revises ; 

Phicatam Eurydicen vitula venerabere caesa." 

Haud mora : continuo matris prascepta facessit : 
Ad delubra venit ; monstratas excitat aras; 210 

Quattuor eximios pra^stanti corpore tauros 
Ducit, et intacta totidem cervice juvencas. 
Post, ubi nona suos Aurora induxerat ortus, 
Inferias Orphei mittit, lucumque revisit. 
Hic vero subitum ac dictu mirabile monstrum 215 

Aspiciunt, liquefacta boum per viscera toto 
Stridere apes utero et ruptis effei-vere costis, 
Immensasque trahi nubes, jamque arbore summa 
Confluere et lentis uvam demittere ramis. 

2. Tityrus, 

[Eclogue I.] 

M. TiTYRE, tu patulae recubans sub tegmine fagi 

Silvestrem tenui Musam meditaris avena ; 

Nos patriae fines et dulcia linquimus arva : 

Nos patriam fugimus ; tu Tityre, lentus in umbra, 

Formosam resonare doces Amaryllida silvas. 5 

T. O MeHbcee, deus nobis haec otia fecit : 

Namque erit ille mihi semper deus ; illius aram 

Saepe tener nostris ab ovilibus imbuet agnus. 

Ille meas errare boves, ut cernis, et ipsum 

Ludere, quae vellem, calamo permisit agresti. 10 

M. Non equidem invideo ; miror magis : undique totis 

Usque adeo turbatur agris. En, ipse capellas 

Protinus seger ago ; hanc etiam vix, Tityre, duco. 

Hic inter densas corylos modo namque gemellos, 

Spem gregis, ah ! silice in nuda connixa reliquit. 15 


Stepe malum hoc nobis, si mens non lceva fuisset, 

De CceIo tactas memini prsedicere quercus ; 

Sa3pe sinistra cava pr^edixit ab ilice cornix. 

Sed tamen, iste deus qui sit, da, Tityre, nobis. 

T. Urbem, quam dicunt Romam, Meliboee, putavi 20 

Stultus ego huic nostrai similem, quo saepe solemus 

Pastores ovium teneros depellere fetus. 

Sic canibus catulos similes, sic matribus hasdos 

Noram, sic parvis componere magna solebam. 

Verum h^ec tantum aHas inter caput extuHt urbes, 25 

Qiiantum lenta solent inter viburna cupressi. 

M. Et quffi tanta fuit Romam tibi caussa videndi } 

T. Libertas ; qu£E sera, tamen respexit inertem, 

Candidior postquam tondenti barba cadebat ; 

Respexit tamen, et longo post tempore venit, 30 

Postquam nos AmaryHis habet, Galatea reHquit. 

Namque, fatebor enim, dum me Galatea tenebat, 

Nec spes Hbertatis erat, nec cura pecuH. 

Qiiamvis multa meis exiret victima s^eptis, 

Pinguis et ingratae premeretur caseus urbi, 35 

Non umquam gravis asre domum mihi dextra redibat. 

M. Mirabar, quid massta deos, AmaryUi, vocares, 

Cui pendere sua patereris in arbore poma : 

Tityrus hinc aberat. Ipsce te, Tityre, pinus, 

Ipse te fontes, ipsa haec arbusta vocabant. 40 

T. Quidfacerem? neque servitio me exire Hcebat, 

Nec tam prsesentes aHbi cognoscere divos. 

Hic iUum vidi juvenem, MeHboee, quotannis 

Bis senos cui nostra dies altaria fumant. 

Hic mihi responsum primus dedit iUe petenti : 45 

" Pascite, ut ante, boves, pueri ; submittite tauros." 

M. Fortunate senex, ergo tua rura manebunt, 

Et tibi magna satis, quamvis lapis omnia nudus 

Limosoque pakis obducat pascua junco ! 

Non insueta graves temptabunt pabula fetas, 50 

Nec mala vicini pecoris contagia lasdent. 

VIRGIL. 171 

Fortunate senex, hic inter flumina nota 

Et fontes sacros, frigus captabis opacum ! 

Hinc tibi, quae semper,vicino ab limite, saepes 

Hyblaeis apibus florem depasta salicti, 55 

Saspe levi somnum suadebit inire susurro : 

Hinc alta sub rupe canet frondator ad auras ; 

Nec tamen interea raucae, tua cura, palumbes, 

Nec gemere aeria cessabit turtur ab ulmo. 

T. Ante leves ergo pascentur in ^ethere cervi, 60 

Et freta destituent nudos in Htore pisces, 

Ante, pererratis amborum finibus, exsul 

Aut Ararim Parthus bibet, aut Germania Tigrim, 

Qiiam nostro illius labatur pectore vultus. 

M. At nos hinc ahi sitientes ibimus Afros, 6^ 

Pars Scythiam et rapidum Cretae veniemus Oaxen, 

Et penitus toto divisos orbe Britannos. 

En umquam patrios longo post tempore fines, 

Pauperis et tuguri congestum caespite culmen, 

Post aliquot, mea regna videns, mirabor aristas.? 70 

Impius haec tam culta novaHa miles habebit.? 

Barbarus has segetes ,? en quo discordia cives 

Produxit miseros ! en, quis consevimus agros ! 

Insere nunc, MeHboee, piros, pone ordine vites ! 

Ite meae, feHx quondam pecus, ite, capeHae ! 75 

Non ego vos posthac, viridi projectus in antro, 

Dumosa pendere procul de rupe videbo ; 

Carmina nuUa canam ; non, me pascente, capeHaj, 

Florentem cytisum et salices carpetis amaras. 

T, Hic tamen hanc mecum poterasrequiescere noctem 

Fronde super viridi : sunt nobis mitia poma, 

Castane^e moHes, et pressi copia lactis ; 

Et jam summa procul viHarum cuhnina fumant, 

Majoresque cadunt altis de montibus umbrae. 


3. Pollio. 

[Eclogue, IV.] 

SiCELiDES Mus^, pauUo majora canamus ! 
Non omnes arbusta juvant, humilesque myricaB ; 
Si canimus silvas, silvae sint Consule dignae. 

Ultima Cumaei venit jam carminis astas ; 
Magnus ab integro SEeclorum nascitur ordo. 5 

Jam redit et Virgo, redeunt Saturnia regna ; 
Jam nova progenies caelo demittitur alto. 
Tu modo nascenti puero, quo ferrea primum 
Desinet, ac toto surget gens aurea mundo, 
Casta fave Lucina : tuus jam regnat Apollo. 10 

Teque adeo decus hoc aevi, te Consule, inibit, 
PolHo ! et incipient magni procedere menses : 
Te duce, si qua manent sceleris vestigia nostri, 
Irrita perpetua solvent formidine terras. 
Ille deum vitam accipiet divosque videbit 15 

Permixtos heroas et ipse videbitur illis, 
Pacatumque reget patriis virtutibus orbem. 

At tibi prima, puer, nullo munuscula cultu 
Errantes hederas passim cum bacchare Tellus, 
Mixtaque ridenti colocasia fundet acantho. 20 

Ipsae lacte domum referent distenta capellae 
Ubera, nec magnos metuent armenta leones. 
Ipsa tibi blandos fundent cunabula flores. 
Occidet et serpens, et fallax herba veneni 
Occidet ; Assyrium vulgo nascetur amomum. 25 

At simul heroum laudes et facta parentis 
Jam legere, et qu£e sit poteris cognoscere virtus, 
Molli paullatim flavescet campus arista, 
Incultisque rubens pendebit sentibus uva, 
Et durse quercus sudabunt roscida mella. 30 

Pauca tamen suberunt priscae vestigia fraudis, 



Qiise temptare Thetim ratibus, quaB cingere muris 
Oppida, quae jubeant telluri infindere sulcos. 
Alter erit tum Tiphys, et altera quae vehat Argo 
Delectos heroas ; erunt etiam altera bella, -25 

Atque iterum ad Trojam magnus mittetur Achilles. 

Hinc, ubi jam firmata virum te fecerit astas, 
Cedet et ipse mari vector, nec nautica pinus 
Mutabit merces : omnis feret omnia telhis. 
Non rastros patietur humus, non vinea falcem ; 40 

Robustus quoque jam tauris juga solvet arator ; 
Nec varios discet mentiri lana colores : 
Ipse sed in pratis aries jam suave rubenti 
Murice, jam croceo mutabit vellera luto ; 
Sponte sua sandyx pascentes vestiet agnos. 45 

Talia scecla^ suis dixerunt, ctirritel fusis 
Concordes stabiH fatorum numine Parcae. 

Aggredere O magnos — aderit jam tempus — honores, 
Cara deum suboles, magnum Jovis incrementum ! 
Adspice convexo nutantem pondere mundum, 50 

Terrasque tractusque maris ca^hunque profundum : 
Adspice, venturo laetantur ut omnia saeclo ! 
O mihi tam long^e maneat jDars uUima vitiE, 
Spiritus et, quantum sat erit tua dicere facta ! 
Non me carminibus vincet nec Thracius Orpheus, <^^ 

Nec Linus, huic mater quamvis atque huic pater adsit, 
Orphei CalHopea, Lino formosus Apollo. 
Pan etiam Arcadia mecum si judice certet, 
Pan etiam, Arcadia dicat se judice victum. 

Incipe, pai-ve puer, risu cognoscere matrem ! 60 

Matri longa decem tulerunt fastidia menses ; 
Incipe, parve puer : cui non risere parentes, 
Nec deus hunc mensa, dea nec dignata cubih est. 


Mercury in Disguise. 

[Amphitruo, Act I. Scene i.] 
SosiA, servant of Amphitruo ; Mercury, disguised as Sosia. 

S. Ibo, ut, herus quod imperavit, Alcumenje nuntiem. 
Set quis hic est hom6, quem ante cedis video hoc noctis? 

n6n placet. 
Af. NLillu'st hoc meticulosus asque. — S. Quom rec6gito, 
IUic homo hoc meum denuo volt pallium detexere. 
M. Timet homo : deludam ego illum. — S. Perii ! dentes 

Certe advenientem hic me hospitio pugneo acceptiirus est. 
Credo miseric6rs est: nunc propterea quod me meus 

Fecit ut vigilarem, hic pugnis facict hodie ut d6rmiam. 
Oppido interii : 6bsecro hercle quantus et quam validus 

Af. Clare advorsum fabulabor : Hic auscultet quae loquar. 
Igitur demum miigis majorem in sese concipiet mctum. 
Agite, pugni : jam diu'st quom ventri victum n6n datis : 
Jiim pridem videtur factum, heri quod homines quattuor 
In soporem c6nlocastis niidos. — S. Formid6 male 
Ne ego hic nomen meum conmutem, ct Qiu'nctus fiam e 

Qiuittuor vir6s sopori se dedisse hic aiitumat ; 
Metuo ne numerum aiigeam illum. — Af. Hem ! niinc 

jam ergo : sic volo. 
S. Cingitur, certe expedit se. — Af. N6n feret quin 

S. Qiu's homo ? — M. Qiiisquis homo hiic profecto vene- 

rit, pugn6s edet. 


S. Apage, non placet me hoc noctis esse : cenavi modo : 

Pr6in tu istam cendm largire, si sapis, essurientibus. 

Jil. Hau malum huic est p6ndus pugno. — S. Perii ! 

pugnos p6nderat. 
J\f. Qin'd, si ego illum tractim tangam ut d6rmiat? — 

S. Servaveris : 
Nam continuas has tris noctis pervigilavi p6ssume. 
J\f. Facimus : nequit ferire malam male discit manus. 
AHa forma op6rtet esse quem tu pugnis iceris. 
S. lUic homo me interpolabit, meumque os finget denuo. 
J\£. Exossatum os esse oportet, quem probe percusseris. 
S. Mirum ni hic me quasi muraenam exossare c6gitat. 
Ultro istunc qui ex6ssat homines. Perii, si me aspexerit. 
AI. Olet homo quidam malo suo. — S. Hef mihi, num- 

nam ego 6bohii ? 
Af. Atque hau longe abesse oportet : verum longe hinc 

S. IlHc homo superstitiosu'st. — J\f. Gestiunt pugni mihi. 
S. Si in me exercituru's, quieso in parietem ut primum 

Af. V6x mi ad auris ddvolavit. — S. Na) ego homo infe- 

h'x fui, 
Qiif non alas interveUi : v61ucrem vocem gestito. 
J\f. lUic homo a me sibi malam rem arcessit jument6 suo. 
S. N6n equidem uUum habe6 jumentum. — Af. Oner- 

andu'st pugnis probe. 
S. Ldssus sum hercle e ndvi, ut vectus huc sum : etiam 

nunc nauseo : 
Vix incedo indnis ; ne ire p6sse cum onere existumes. 
3f. Certe enim hic nescfo quis loquitur. — S. Sdlvos 

sum, non me videt. 
Nescio quem loqui autumat : mihi certo nomen S6sia est. 
M. Hinc enim dextra mihi vox auris, ut videtur, ver- 

S. Metuo vocis ne vicem hodie hic vdpulem, qu^e hunc 



M, Optume eccum incedit ad me. — S. Timeo : totus 

N6n edepol nunc libi terrarum sim scio, si quis roget : 
Neque miser me c6nmovere p6ssum pras formidine. 
Ilicet : mandata heri perierunt, una et S6sia. 
Verum certum'st c6nfidenter hunc hominem contra ddlo- 

Qui possim videri huic fortis, d me ut abstineat manum. 
M. Qlio ambulas tu, qui Volcanum in c6rnu conchisiim 

geris .'* 
S. QiiM id exquiris tii, qui pugnis 6s exossas h6minibus ? 
M. Servosne es an h'ber ? — S. Utquomque animo con- 

lubitum'st meo. 
M. Ain tu vero ? — S. Aio enimvero. — AI. Verbero. 

— S. Mentire nunc. 

M. At jam faciam ut verum dicas dfcere. — S. Quid 

e6'st opus ? 
M. P6ssum scire quo profectus, qu6ius sis, aut quid 

veneris ? 
S. Huc eo : mei heri sum servos. Numquid nunc es 

certior ? 
M. Ego tibi istam hodie scelestam c6nprimam Hnguam. 

— S. Haii potes : 

Bene pudiceque adservatur. — M. P^rgin' argutarier ? 
Quid aput hasce aedis tibi neg6ti'st ? — S. Immo qufd 

M. Rex Creo vigiles nocturnos singulos semp^r locat. 
S. Bene facit: quia n6s eramus peregri, tutatu'st domi : 
At nunc abi sane, advenisse famiharis dicito. 
M. Nescio quam tu famiharis sis : nisi actutum hinc 

FamiHaris accipiere faxo hau famiHdriter. 
S. Hic, inquam, habito ego, atque horunc sum servos. — 

M. At scin qu6modo ? 
Fdciam ego hodie te superbum, ni hfnc abis. — S. Quo- 

ndm modo? 


M. Auferere, non aoibis, si ego fustem siimpsero. 

S. Qiiin me esse hujus familiai' familiarem pr£edico. 

M. Vide sis, quam mox vapulare vis, nisi actutum hinc 

abis ! 
S. Tiin' domo prohibere peregre me advenientem p6- 

stulas } 
M. Hseccine tua domii'st? — S. Ita, inquam. — M. Quis 

herus est igitiir tibi ! 
S. Amphitruo, qui niinc Thebanis praefectu'st legi6nibus ; 
Quicum nupta'st Alcumena. — M. Quid ais ? quid nomen 

tibi'st ? 
S. S6siam vocant Thebani, Davo prognatiim patre. 
M. Nae tu istic hodie malo tuo c6npositis mendaciis 
Advenisti, audaciai' c6huTien, consutis dohs. 
S. Immo equidem tunicis consutis hiic advenio, n6n 

M. At mentiris etiam : certo pedibus, non tunicis venis. 
^S*. Ita profecto. — M. Niinc profecto vdpula ob menda- 

6". N6n edepol vol6 profecto. — M. At p61 profecto in- 

H6c quidem profecto certum'st, n6n est arbitrarium. 
S. Tiiam fidem obsecr6 ! — M. Tun' te audes S6siam 

esse dicere, 
Qui ego sum ? — S. Perii ! — Af. At parum etiam, preeut 

futurum'st, prcedicas. 
QLi6ius nunc es ? — S. Tiius : nam pugnis lisu fecisti tuum. 
Pr6 fidem, Thebani cives ! — AI. Etiam clamas, carnufex ? 
L6quei-e, quid venisti? — S. Ut esset, quem tu pugnis 

Af. Qu6ius es? — S. Amphitru6nis, inquam, S6sia. — 

M. Ergo ist6c magis, 
Quia vaniloquu's, vapulabis : 6go sum, non tu, S6sia. 
S. Ita di faciant, lit tu potius sis, atque ego te ut verberem. 
M. Etiam muttis? — S. Jam tacebo. — M. Qins tibi 

heru'st ? — S. Quem tii voles. 


M, Qiiid igitur ? qui niinc vocare ? — S. N^mo ; nisi 

quem jiisseris. 
M. Amphitruonis te esse aiebas S6siam. — S. Pecca- 

veram : 
Nam illut Amphitruonis socium me ^sse volui dicere. 
M. Scfbam equidem nullum esse nobis, nisi me, servom 

Fugit ratio te. — S. Utinam istuc pugni fecissent tui ! 
M. Ego sum Sosia ille, quem tu diidum esse aiebas mihi. 
6". Obsecro ut per pacem liceat te ddloqui, ut ne vapulem. 
M. Immo indutise parumper fiant, si quid vis loqui. 
S. N6n loquar nisi pace facta, quando pugnis pliis vales. 
AI. Dic, siquid vis : n6n nocebo. — S. Tiiie fide cred6? 

— M. Meae. 
S. Quid, si falles? — M. Tiim Mercurius S6siae iratiis 

S. Animum advorte : niinc licet mi h'bere quidvis loqui. 
Amphitruonis ^go sum servos S6sia. — M. Etiam denuo ? 
S. Pacem feci, foedus feci, vera dico. — M. Vapula. 
S. Ut lubet, quod tibi lubet fac, quoniam pugnis plus 

Verum, litut facturu's, hoc quidem hercle haud reticeb6 

M. Tii me vivos h6die numquam facies, quin sim S6sia. 
S. Certe edepol, tu me alienabis niimquam, quin noster 

siem : 
Nec nobis praeter me quisquam'st aHus servos S6sia. 
M. Hic homo sanus n6n est. — S. Quod mihi pr^dicas 

vitium, id tibi'st. 
Qufd, malum ! non siim ego servos Amphitruonis S6sia ? 
N6nne hac noctu n6stra navis hiic ex portu Persico 
Venit, quas me advexit ? nonne me hiic herus misit meus ? 
N6nne ego nunc sto ante asdis nostras? n6n mist laterna 

in manu? 
N6n loquor ? non vigilo ? non hic h6mo me pugnis c6n- 




Fecit hercle ; nam mi misero etiam nunc malae dolent. 
Quid igitur ego diibito ? aut quor non intro eo in nostram 

domum ? 
M. Quid, domum vostram ? — S. Ita enimvero. — M, 

Quin quae dixisti modo, 
Omnia ementitu's : equidem sum Amphitruonis S6sia. 
Nam noctu hac soluta'st navis n6stra e portu Persico : 
Et ubi Pterela rex regnavit, 6ppidum expugnavimus ; 
Et legiones Teleboarum vi pugnando cepimus, 
Et ipsus Amphitruo 6btruncavit regem Pterelam in proeho. 
S. Egomet mihi non credo, quom illaec autumare illum 

audio : 
Hic quidem certe, quae fllo sunt res gestas, memorat 

Set quid ais ? quid Amphitruoni d6no a Telebois datum'st? 
M. Pterela rex qui p6titare s61itus est, patera aurea. 
S. Elocutu'st. Ubi ea patera niinc est? — M. Est in 

Amphitruonis 6bsignata signo. — S. Signi dfc quid est? 
M. Cum quadrigis S61 exoriens. Quid me captas, car- 

nufex ? 
S. Argumentis vfcit : aliud n6men qu£erendum'st mihi. 
Nescio unde haec hic spectavit. Jam ego hunc decipiam 

probe : 
Nam quod egomet s61us feci, nec quisquam alius adfuit, 
In tabernaclo, id quidem hodie numquam poterit dicere. 
Si tu Sosia's, legiones qu6m pugnabant maxume, 
Quid in tabernacl6 fecisti? — victus sum, si dixeris. 
M. Cadus erat vini : inde implevi hirneam. — S. Ingres- 

su'st viam. 
M. Eam ego vini, ut matre natum fiierat, eduxf meri. 
S. Mira sunt, nisi Idtuit intus fllic in illac hirnea : 
Factum'st illut, ut ego illic vini hirneam ebiberim meri. 
M. Qiiid ? nunc vincone argumentis, te non esse S6siam ? 
S. Tu negas med esse? — M. Quid ego ni negem, qui 

egomet siem ? 


S. Per Jovem jur6 med esse : neque me falsum dicere. 
J\f. At ego per Mercurium juro, tibi Jovem noii credere : 
Nam injurato scio plus credet mihi, quam jurat6 tibi. 
S. Quis ego sum saltem, si non sum S6sia ? te interrogo. 
Af. Ubi ego Sosia esse nolim, tu esto sane S6sia. 
Nunc quando ego sum, vapulabis, ni hinc abis, ign6bilis. 
S. Certe edepol, quom illiim contemplo, et f6rmam co- 

gnosc6 meam, 
Quemadmodum ego sum (seepe in speculum inspexi) 

nimis simih"st mei. 
Itidem habet petasum, ac vestitum : tam consimih'st 

atque ego. 
Siira, pes, statura, tonsus, 6cuH, nasum, vel labra, 
Malae, mentum, barba, colhis — t6tus ! quid verbis opu'st? 
Si tergum cicatricosum, nihil hoc simih'st simih'us. 
Set quom cogito, equidem certo idem sum qui semper fui. 
N6vi herum : novi ^dis nostras : sane sapio et sentio. 
N6n ego ilh obtempero quod 16quitur ; pultab6 foris. 
jM. Qu6 agis te ? — S. Domiim. — J\I. Qiiadrigas sf nunc 

inscendas Jovis, 
Atque hinc fugias, ita vix poteris ecfugere infortunium. 
S. N6n herae meae nuntiare, qu6d herus meus jussit, licet? 
Af. Tuae si quid vis niintiare : hanc n6stram adire n6n 

Nam si me inritassis, hodie lumbifragium hinc aiiferes. 
S. Abeo potius : Di inmortales, 6bsecro vostnim fidem ! 
Ubi cgo perii? ubi inmutatus sum? libi ego formam 

perdidi ? 
An egomet me illic reliqui, si forte oblitiis fui? 
Nam hic quidem omnem imaginem meam, quas antehac 

fuerat, p6ssidet. 
Vivo fit, quod niimquam quisquam m6rtuo faciet mihi. 
Ibo ad portum, atque haec uti sunt fiicta, hero dicam meo. 
Nisi etiam is quoque me ignorabit ; qu6d ille faxit Jiip- 

Uti ego hodie, raso capite, calvos capiam pfleum. 



The Self-Tormentor. 

[Heaut., Act I. Scene I.] 
Menedemus, the Self-Tormentor ; Chremes, an elderly Friend. 

Qiianquam hasc inter nos nuper notitia ad modum'st, 

Inde adeo quod agrum in pr6ximo hic mercatus es, 

Nec ref fere sane ampHus quicquam fuit : 

Tamen vel virtus tiia me, vel vicinitas, 

Quod ego in propinqua parte amicitise puto, 

Facit, ut te audacter m6neam et famiHariter : 

Quod mfhi videre praeter aetatem tuam 

Facere, et prater quam res te adhortatur tua. 

Nam, pr6h Deum atque hominiim fidem ! quid vis tibi? 

Qiiid quasris ? annos sexaginta natus es, 

Aut pkis, ut conjicio : agrum in his regi6nibus 

MeH6rem, neque preti majoris, nemo habet : 

Serv6s non pkn-es : proinde quasi nem6 siet, 

Ita tiite attente iH6rum officia fungere. 

Numquam tam mane egredior, neque tam vesperi 

Domum revortor, quin te in fundo c6nspicer 

Fodere, aiit arare, aut aHquid ferre denique : 

NuHiim remittis tempus, neque te respicis. 

Haec n6n voluptati tibi esse, satis cert6 scio : 

At enim, me, quantum hic 6peris fiat, poenitet. 

Qiiod in 6pere faciundo 6per£e consumis tuae, 

Si siimas in iHis exercendis, pkis agas. 

M. Chreme, tantumne ab re tua est oti tibi, 

AHena ut cures, ea quae nihil ad te attincnt ? 


C. Hom6 sum : humani nihil a me alienum puto. 
Vel me monere hoc, vel percontari puta : 
Rectum'st? ego ut faciam : n6n est? te ut deterream. 
j\I. Mihi sic est usus : tibi ut opu'st facto, face. 

C. An quoiquam est usus h6mini, se ut cruciet? — Af. 

C. Si quid laboris n611em : sed quid istuc mali est? 
QLiaes6 quid de te tantum meruisti ? — jVI. Oiei' ! 

C. Ne lacruma, atque istuc, quicquid est, fac me lit 

Ne retice : ne ver6re : crede, inquam, mihi, 
Aut c6nsolando, aut c6nsilio, aut re, jiivero. 
M. Scire h6c vis ? — C. Hac quidem caiisa, qua dixf tibi. 
M. Dicetur. — C. At istos rastros interea tamen 
App6ne, ne lab6ra. — M. Minime. — C. Qudm rem agis ? 
M. Sine me, vacivom tempus ne quod dem mihi 
Lab6ris. — C. Non sinam, inquam. — M. Ah, non a2qu6m 

C. Hui, tam graves hos, quaeso? — M. Sic meritiim'st 

C. Nunc 16quere. — M. Filium unicum adulescentulum 
Habeo : ah, quid dixi? habere me? immo habui, Chreme : 
Nunc habeam necne, incertum'st. — C. Quid ita istiic ? — 

M. Scies. 
Est e Corintho hic advena anus paup^rcula : 
Ejus filiam ille amare coepit virginem, 
Prope jam lit pro uxore hab^ret : haec clam me 6mnia. 
Ubi rem rescivi, coepi non humdnitus, 
Neque ut animum decuit aegrotum adulescentuli 
Tractare ; sed vi, et via pervolgata patrum. 
Quotidie accusabam : " Hem ! tibine hasc diutius 
Licere speras facere, me viv6 patre, 
Amicam ut habeas pr6pe jam in uxoris loco ? 
Erras, si id credis, et me ignoras, Clinia. 
Ego te meum esse dici tantisper volo, 
Dum, qu6d te dignum'st, facies : sed si id n6n facis. 


Ego, qu6d me in te sit facere dignum, invenero. 
Nulla adeo ex re istuc fit, nisi nimio ex 6tio : 
Ego istuc aetatis n6n amori operam dabam ; 
Sed in Asiam hinc abii pr6pter pauperiem, atque ibi 
Simiil rem et gloriam armis belli repperi.'* 
Postremo adeo res rediit : adulescentulus 
Sajpe eadem, et graviter aiidiendo, victus est: 
Putavit me et aetate et benivolentia 
Plus scire, et providere, quam seipsiim sibi. 
In Asiam ad regem militatum abiit, Chreme. 
C. Qiiid ais ? — M, Clam me est profectus ; menses tris 
-^. Ambo dccusandi : etsi illud inceptiim tamen 
Animi est pudentis signum, et non instrenui. 
Af. Ubi c6mperi ex iis, qui fuere ei c6nscii, 
Domiim revortor maestus, atque anim6 fere 
Conturbato, atque incerto praj asgritudine 
Adsfdo : adcurrunt servi : soccos detrahunt : 
Inde alii festinare, lectos sternere, 
Cenam apparare : pr6 se quisque sedulo 
Faciebant, quo illam mi lenirent miseriam. 
Ubi video hsec, ccepi c6gitare : hem ! t6t mea 
Soh'us solHciti sint causa, ut me unum expleant.^ 
AnciUae tot me vestiant? sumptus domi 
Tant6s ego solus faciam ? sed gnatum linicum, 
Qiiem pariter uti his decuit, aut etiam ampHus — 
Qiiod illa setas magis ad hsec utenda id6nea est — 
Eum ego hinc ejeci miserum injustitia mea : 
Mal6 quidem me dignum quovis deputem, 
Si id faciam. Nam usque dum ille vitam illam colet 
Inopem, carens patria 6b meas injiirias, 
Interea usque ilU de me supphciiim dabo, 
Lab6rans, quaerens, parcens, iUi serviens. 
Ita facio prorsus : nil rehnquo in asdibus, 
Nec vas, nec vestimentum : conrasi 6mnia. 
AnciUas, servos, nisi eos, qui opere riistico 


Faciiindo facile sumptum exercerent suum, 
Omnes produxi ac vendidi : inscripsi iUico 
yEdes mercede : quasi talenta ad quindecim 
Coegi : agrum hunc mercatus sum : hic me exerceo. 
Decrevi, tantisper me minus injiiriai, 
Chreme, meo gnato facere, dum fiam miser ; 
Nec fas esse ulla me voluptate hic frui, 
Nisi ubi ille huc salvus redierit meus particeps. 
C. Ingenio te esse in h'beros leni puto, 
Et illum 6bsequentem, sf quis recte aut c6mmode 
Tractaret. Verum nequc iUum tu satis n6veras, 
Nec te ille : hoc ubi fit, ibi non vcre vivitur. 
Tu illiim numquam ostendisti quanti penderes, 
Nec tibi ille'st credere aiisus quae est iequ6m patri. 
Quod si ^sset factum, hcec niimquam evenissent tibi. 
Af. Ita res est, fateor : peccatum a me maxumum'st. 
C. Menedeme, at porro recte spero : et illiim tibi 
Salvum adfuturum esse hic coniido pr6pediem. 
]\I. Utinam ita Di faxint. — C. Facient. Nunc, si c6m- 

Dionysia hic sunt, h6die apud me sis volo. 
]\I. Non p6ssum. — C. Cur non? quaiso, tandem ali- 

Tibi parce : idem absens facere te hoc volt filius. 
Af. Non c6nvenit, qui illum ad laborem impellerim, 
Nunc meipsum fugere. — C. Siccine est sententia? 
Af. Sic. — C. Bene vale. — ]\f. Et tu. — C. Lacrumas 

excussit mihi, 
Miseretque me ejus : s6d, ut diei tempus est, 
Monere oportet me hiinc vicinum Phaniam, 
Ad cenum ut veniat : ibo, visam si domi est. ' 

Nihil 6pus fuit monit6re : jamdudiim domi 
Praesto apiid me esse aiunt : egomet convivas moror. 



I. Cicerd^s Exile and Return. 

Peridem tempus, P. Clodius, homo nobilis, diser- 
tus, audax, qui neque dicendi neque faciendi ullum 
nisi quem vellet nosset modum, malorum proposito- 
rum executor acerrimus, — cum graves inimicitias 
cum M. Cicerone exerceret, (quid enim inter tam 
dissimiles amicum esse poterat?) et a patribus ad 
plebem transisset, — legem in tribunatu tulit : ^i 
civem Romanum indemnatum interemisset, ei aqud 
et igni interdiceretur. Cujus verbis etsi non nomi- 
nabatur Cicero, tamen solus petebatur : ita vir opti- 
me meritus de Republica conservatas patriag pretium, 
calamitatem exilii tulit. Non caruerunt suspiciones 
oppressi Ciceronis Cagsar et Pompeius : hoc sibi con- 
traxisse videbatur Cicero, quod inter xx viros divi- 
dendo agro Campano esse noluisset. Idem intra 
biennium, sera Pompeii cura, verum, ut coepit, in- 
tenta, votisque Italiag, ac decretis Senatus, virtute 
atque actione Annii Milonis, tribuni plebis, dignitati 
patrigeque restitutus est : neque, post Numidici ex- 
ilium aut reditum, quisquam aut expulsus invidiosius, 
aut receptus est leetius ; cujus domus, quam infeste 
a Clodio disjecta erat, tam speciose a Senatu res- 
tituta est. — Vell. Paterc. h. r. ii. 45. 



I. Cicero to his Wife and Children, 

[Anril 30, b.c. 58.] 

Ego minus saepe do ad vos litteras quam possum, prop- 
terea quod, cum omnia mihi tempora sunt misera, tum 
vero, ciim aut scribo ad vos, aut vestras lego, conficior 
lacrimis sic ut ferre non possim. Qiiod utinam minus 
vitas cupidi fuissemus ! certe nihil, aut non multum, in 
vita mali vidissemus. Qiiod si nos ad ahquam ahcujus 
commodi aliquando recuperandi spem fortuna reservavit, 
minus est erratum a nobis ; sin haic mala fixa sunt, ego 
vero te quam primum, mea vita, cupio videre, et in tuo 
complexu emori ; quoniam neque Dii, quos tu castissime 
coluisti, neque homines, quibus ego servivi, nobis gratiam 

Nos Brundisii apud M. La^nium Flaccum dies xiii 
fuimus, — virum optimum, qui pericuknn fortunarum et 
capitis sui pr2e mea salute neglexit, nequc legis improbis- 
simai poena deductus est, quominus hospitii et amicitiae 
jus officiumque praestaret. Huic utinam ahquando gra- 
tiam referre possimus ! Habebimus quidem semper. 

Brundisio profecti sumas prid. Kalendas Maias. Per 
Macedoniam Cyzicum petebamus. O me perditum ! 
O afflictum ! quid nunc rogem te, ut venias, muherem 
£egram, et corpore et animo confectam ? Non rogem.f* 
Sine te igitur sim ? Opinor, sic agam : si est spes nostri 
reditus, eam confirmes et rem adjuves ; sin, ut ego metuo, 
transactum est, quoquo modo potes, ad me fac venias. 
Unum hoc scito ; si te habebo, non mihi videbor plane 

Sed quid Tulhola mea fiet? Jam id vos videte ; mihi 
deest consihum. Sed certe, quoquo modo sc res habebit, 
ihius mIseU£e et matrimonio et famae serviendum est. 
QLiid? Cicero meus quid aget? Iste vero sit in sinu 
semper et complexu meo. Non queo plura jam scribere ; 
impedit maeror. Tu quid egeris, nescio, utrum ahquid 

CICERO. 187 

teneas, an (quod metuo) plane sis spoliata. Pisonem, ut 
scribis, spero fore semper nostrum. 

De familia liberata, nihil est quod te moveat. Pri- 
miim, tuis ita promissum est, te facturam esse, ut quisque 
esset meritus. Est autem in officio adhuc Orpheus, prae- 
terea magnopere nemo. Ceterorum servorum ea causa 
est, ut, si res a nobis abisset, liberti nostri essent, si 
obtinere potuissent ; sin ad nos pertineret, servirent, prse- 
terquam oppido pauci. 

Sed haec minora sunt. Tu quod me hortaris, ut animo 
sim magno, et spem habeam recuperandae salutis, id 
velim sit ejusmodi, ut recte sperare possimus. Nunc, 
miser, quando tuas jam htteras accipiam? quis ad me 
perferet? quas ego exspectassem Brundisii, si esset hci- 
tum per nautas, qui tempestatem prsetermittere nolue- 

Qiiod rehquum est, sustenta te, mea Terentia, ut potes 
honestissime. Viximus, floruimus. Non vitium nostrum, 
sed virtus nostra nos afflixit. Peccatum est nullum, nisi 
quod non una animam cum ornamentis amisimus. Sed 
si hoc fuit hberis nostris gratius, nos vivere, cetera, 
quamquam fcrenda non sunt, feramus. Atque ego, qui 
te confirmo, ipse me non possum. 

Clodium Philhetasrum, quod valetudine oculorum impe- 
diebatur, hominem fidelem, remisi. SaUustius officio 
vincit omnes. Pescennius est perbenevohis nobis : quem 
semper spero tui fore observantem. Sicca dixerat se 
mecum fore ; sed Brundisio dicessit. Cura, quoad potes, 
ut valeas ; et sic existimes, me vehementiiis tua miseria, 
quam mea, commoveri. Mea Terentia, fidissima atque 
optima uxor ! et mea carissima fihola ! et spes reliqua 
nostra, Cicero ! valete. 

Prid. Kal. Maias : Brundisio. 



2. To his hrother ^uintus. 

[June 13 ] 

Mi frater, mi frater, mi frater, tune id veritus es, ne 
ego iracundia aliqua adductus pueros ad te sine litteris 
miserim? aut etiam ne te videre noluerim? Ego tibi 
irascerer? tibi ego possim irasci? Scilicet, tu enim me 
afflixisti ; tui me inimici, tua me invidia, ac non ego te 
misere perdidi. Meus ille laudatus consulatus mihi te, 
liberos, patriam, fortunas, tibi velim ne quid eripuerit, 
praeter unum me. Sed certe a te mihi omnia semper 
honesta et jucunda ceciderunt ; a me tibi luctus meae 
calamitatis, metus tuae, desiderium, maeror^ solitudo. Ego 
te videre noluerim ? Immo vero me a te videri nokii : 
non enim vidisses fratrem tuum ; non cum quam reli- 
queras ; non cum quam noras ; non eum, quem flens flen- 
tem, prosequentem proficiscens dimiseras ; ne vestigium 
quidem ejus, nec simulacrum, sed quandam eftigiem spir- 
antis mortui. 

Atque utinam me mortuum prius vidisses, aut audisses ! 
utinam te non solumvitas, sed etiam dignitatis meae super- 
stitem reliquissem ! Sed testor omnes deos, me hac una 
voce a morte esse revocatum, quod omnes in mea vita 
partem aliquam tua vitae repositam esse dicebant. Qiiare 
peccavi scelerateque feci. Nam si occidissem, mors ipsa 
meam pietatem amoremque in te facile defenderet. Nunc 
commisi, ut me vivo careres, vivo me aliis indigeres ; mea 
vox in domesticis periculis potissimum occideret, quae 
saepe alienissimis praesidio fuisset.* 

Nam quod ad te pueri sine litteris venerunt, quo- 
niam vides non fuisse iracundiam in causa, certe pi- 
gritia fuit, et quaedam infinita vis lacrimarum et dolorum. 
Haec ipsa me quo fletu putas scripsisse? Eodem, quo 
te legere certo scio. An. ego possum aut non cogitare 

* Ipsum enim Catilinam, consulatCis competitorem et adver- 
sarium, defendere cosritaverat Cicero. Vid. Ad Atticum^ I. 2. 

CICERO. 189 

aliquando de te, aut umquam sine lacrimis cogitare? 
Ciim enim te desidero, fratrem solum desidero? Ego 
vero suavitate prope aequalem, obsequio filium, consilio 
parentem. Qiiid mihi sine te umquam, aut tibi sine me 
jucundum fuit? Qjrnd, quod eodem tempore desidero 
filiam? qua pietate, qua modestia, quo ingenio ! effigiem 
oris, sermonis, animi mei? Quid filium venustissimum, 
mihique dulcissimum ? quem ego ferus ac ferreus e com- 
plexu dimisi meo, sapientiorem puerum quam vellem : 
sentiebat enim miser jam, quid ageretur. Qiiid vero 
tuum filium, imaginem tuam, quem meus Cicero et amabat 
ut fratrem, et jam, ut majorem fratrem, verebatur? Qtnd 
quod mulierem miserrimam, fidelissimam conjugem, me 
prosequi non sum passus, ut esset quae reliquias commu- 
nis calamitatis, communes liberos tueretur? 

Sed tamen, quoquo modo potui, scripsi, etdedi litteras 
ad te Philogono, liberto tuo, quas credo tibi postea red- 
ditas esse ; in quibus idem te hortor et rogo, quod pueri 
tibi verbis meis nuntiarunt, ut Romam protinus pergas et 
properes. Primijm enim te prassidio esse vohii, si qui 
essent inimici, quorum crudehtas nondum esset nostra 
calamitate satiata. Deinde congressus nostri lamenta- 
tionem pertimui ; digressum vero non tuHssem ; atque 
etiam id ipsum, quod tu scribis, metuebam, ne a me 
distrahi non posses. His de causis hoc maximum malum, 
quod te non vidi, quo nihil amantissimis et conjunctis- 
simis fratribus acerbius ac miserius videtur accidere 
potuisse, minus acerbum, minus miserum fuit, quam 
fuisset ci^mi congressio, tum vero digressio nostra. 

Nunc, si potes, id quod ego, qui tibi semper fortis vide- 
bar, non possum, erige te et confirma, si qua subeunda 
dimicatio erit. Spero, si quid mea spes habet auctori- 
tatis, tibi et integritatem tuam et amorem in te civitatis, 
et aliquid etiam misericordiam nostri pra^sidii laturam. 
Sin eris ab isto periculo vacuus : ages sciHcet, si quid agi 
posse de nobis putabis. De quo scribunt ad me quidem 


multi multa, et se sperare demonstrant ; sed ego, quid 
sperem, non dispicio, cum inimici plurimum valeant, 
amici partim deseruerint me, partim etiam prodiderint, 
qui in meo reditu fortasse reprehensionem sui sceleris 

Sed ista qualia sint, tu velim perspicias mihique de- 
clares. Ego tamen, quamdiu tibi opus erit, si quid 
periculi subeundum videbis, vivam. Diutids in hac vita 
esse non possum. Neque enim tantum virium habet ulla 
aut prudentia aut doctrina, ut tantum dolorem possit 
sustinere. Scio fuisse et honestius moriendi tempus et 
utihus ; sed non hoc sohnn, multa aha prsetermisi, quae si 
queri vehm praeterita, nihil agam, nisi ut augeam dolorem 
tuum, indicem stultitiam meam. Ihud quidem nec facien- 
dum est, ncc fieri potest, me diutius, quam aut tuum 
tempus aut firma spes postuhibit, in tam misera tamque 
turpi vita commorari, ut, qui modo fratre fuerim, hberis, 
conjuge, copiis, genere ipso pecuniag beatissimus, digni- 
tate, auctoritate, existimatione, gratia non inferior quam 
qui umquam fuerunt amphssimi, is nunc in hac tam 
aflflicta perditaque fortuna neque me neque meos higere 
diutius possim. 

Qiiare quid ad me scripsisti de permutatione ? quasi 
vero nunc me non tuae facultates sustineant. Qiia in re 
ipsa video miser et sentio, quid scelcris admiserim, cum 
de visceribus tuis et fihi tui satisfacturus sis, quibus 
debes, ego acceptam ex aerario pecuniam tuo nomine 
frustra dissiparim. Sed tamen et M. Antonio, quantum 
tu scripseras, et Caepioni tantumdem solutum est ; mihi, 
ad id quod cogito, hoc quod habeo satis est. Tu, si 
forte quid erit molestise, te ad Crassum et ad Cahdium 
conferas, censeo. 

Qiiantum Hortensio credendum sit, nescio. Me summa 
simulatione amoris, summaque assiduitate quotidiana, 
sceleratissime insidiosissimeque tractavit, adjuncto quo- 
que Arrio ; quorum ego consihis, promissis, praeceptis 



destitutus, in hanc calamitatem incidi. Sed haec occulta- 
bis, ne quid obsint. Ilkid caveto, et eo puto per Pom- 
ponium fovendum tibi esse ipsum Hortensium, ne ille 
versus, qui in te erat collatus ciim a^dilitatem petebas, de 
lege Aurelia, falso testimonio confirmetur. Nihil enim 
tam timeo, quam ne, cum intelligant homines quantum 
misericordiae nobis tuae preces et tua sakis allatura sit, 
oppugnent te veliementius. 

Messalam tui studiosum esse arbitror ; Pompeium etiam 
simulatorem puto. Sed hasc utinam non experiare ! 
quod precarer deos, nisi meas preces audire desissent. 
Verumtamen precor, ut his infinitis nostris maHs contenti 
sint ; in quibus non modo tamen nulHus inest peccati 
infamia, sed omnis dolor est, quod optime factis poena 
maxima est constituta. 

Fiham meam et tuam, Ciceronemque nostrum, quid 
ego, mi frater, tibi commendem ? quin iUud maereo, quod 
tibi non minorem dolorem illorum orbitas afferet, quam 
mihi. Sed, te incokmii, orbi non erunt. ReHqua, ita 
mihi sakis aHqua detur, potestasque in patria moriendi, 
ut me lacrimae non sinunt scribere. Etiam Terentiam 
veHm tueare, mihique de omnibus rescribas. Sis fortis, 
quoad rei natura patietur. 

Idibus Juniis, Thessalonic.e. 

3. Cicero to Atticus. 

[Sept, 7. B.C. 57.] 

Cum primum Romam veni, fuitque, cui recte ad te 
Htteras darem, nihil priiis faciendum mihi putavi, quam 
ut tibi absenti de reditu nostro gratularer. Cognoram 
enim, ut vere scribam, te in consiHis mihi dandis nec 
fortiorem, nec prudentiorem, quam me ipsum, nec etiam, 
pro praeterita mea in te observantia, nimium in custodia 
salutis meae diHgentem ; eundemque te, qui primis tem- 
poribus erroris nostri aut potius furoris particeps et falsi 
timoris socius fuisses, acerbissime discidium nostrum 


tulisse, plurimumque ©perae, studii, diligentias, laboris, 
ad conficiendum reditum meum contulisse. 

Itaque hoc tibi vere affirmo, in maxima laetitia et exop- 
tatissima gratulatione unum ad cumulandum gaudium 
conspectum aut potius complexum mihi tuum defuisse, 
quem semel nactus numquam dimisero, ac, nisi etiam 
praetermissos fructus tuae suavitatis omnes exegero, pro- 
fecto hac restitutione fortunae me ipse non satis dignum 

Nos adhuc in nostro statu, quod difficilHme recuperari 
posse arbitrati sumus, splendorem nostrum illum foren- 
sem, et in senatu auctoritatem, et apud viros bonos gratiam, 
magis quam optaramus consecuti sumus. In re autem 
famihari (quae quemadmodum fracta, dissipata, direpta sit, 
non ignoras) valde laboramus, tuarumque non tam facul- 
tatum, quas ego nostras esse judico, quam consihorum 
ad coUigendas et constituendas reliquias nostras indi- 

Nunc, etsi omnia aut scripta esse a tuis arbitror, 
aut etiam nuntiis ac rumore perlata, tamen ea scribam 
brevi, quae te puto potissimum ex meis Htteris velle cog- 

Pridie Nonas Sext, Dyrrhachio sum profectus, ipso 
illo die, quo lex est lata de nobis. Brundisium veni 
Nonis Sext. ; ibi mihi Tulliohi mea fuit praesto, natali 
suo ipso die, qui casu idem nataHs erat et Brundisinae 
colonise et tuae vicinae Salutis. Qiiae res, animadversa a 
multitudine, summa Brundisinorum gratulatione celebrata 
est. Ante diem vi. Id. Sext. cognovi, cum Brundisii 
essem, Htteris Quinti fratris, mirifico studio omnium 
aetatum atque ordinum, incredibiH concursu ItaHae, legem 
comitiis centuriatis esse perlatam. Inde^ a Brundisinis 
honestissime ornatus, iter ita feci, ut undique ad me cum 
gratulatione legati convenerint. Ad urbem ita vehi, ut 
nemo uUius ordinis homo nomenclatori notus fuerit, qui 
mihi obviam non venerit, praeter eos inimicos, quibus id 


CICERO. 193 

ipsum non liceret aut dissimulare aut negare. Ciim 
venissem ad portam Capenam, gradus templorum ab 
infima plebe completi erant ; a qua plausu maximo ciim 
esset mihi gratulatio significata, similis et frequentia et 
plausus me usque ad Capitolium celebravit, in foroque ct 
in ipso Capitolio miranda multitudo fuit. 

Postridie in senatu, qui fuit dies Non. Septembr.,sen- 
atui gratias egimus. Eo biduo cum esset annon^e summa 
caritas, et homines ad theatrum primo, deinde ad senatum 
concurrissent impulsu Clodii, mea opera frumenti inopiam 
csse clamarent, cum per eos dies senatus de annona ha- 
beretur, et ad ejus procurationem sermone non solum 
plebis, verum etiam bonorum Pompeius vocaretur, idque 
ipse cuperet, muhitudoque a me nominatim, ut id decer- 
nerem, postularet ; feci et accurate sententiam dixi, cum 
abessent consulares, quod tuto se negarent posse senten- 
tiam dicere, praeter Messalam et Afranium. Factum est 
senatus consultum in meam sententiam, ut cum Pompeio 
ageretur, ut eam rem susciperet, lexque ferretur ; quo 
senatus consuUo recitato, cum continuo more hoc insulso 
et novo plausum, meo nomine recitando, dedisset, habui 
contionem ; omnes magistratus prcesentes, praeter unum 
praetorem et duos tribunos plebis, dederunt. 

Postridie senatus frequens et omnes consulares nihil 
Pompeio postulanti negarunt. IUe legatos quindecim 
cum postularet, me principem nominavit, et ad omnia 
me alteriun se fore dixit. Legem consules conscripse- 
runt, qua Pompeio per quinquennium omnis potestas rei 
frumentari^e toto orbe terrarum daretur ; alteram Messius, 
qui omnis pecunise dat potestatem, et adjungit chissem et 
exercitum, et majus imperium in provinciis quam sit 
eorum qui eas obtineant. Illa nostra lex consularis nunc 
modesta videtur, h^ec Messii non ferenda. Pompeius 
illam velle se dicit, famihares hanc. Consulares, duce 
Favonio, fremunt ; nos tacemus, et eo magis, quod de 
domo nostra nihil adhuc pontifices responderunt. Qui 


si sustulerint religionem, aream praeclaram habebimus ; 
superficiem consules ex senatus consulto aestimabunt ; 
sin aliter, demolientur, suo nomine locabunt, rem totam 

Ita sunt res nostrse, ut in secundis fluxae, ut in adversis 
bonae. In re familiari valde sumus, ut scis, perturbati. 
Praeterea sunt quaedam domestica, quas litteris non com- 
mitto. Qiuntum fratrem, insigni pietate, virtute, fide 
praeditum, sic amo ut debeo. Te exspecto, et oro 
ut matures venire, eoque animo venias, ut me tuo con- 
silio egere non sinas. Alterius vitae quoddam initium 
ordimur. Jam quidam, qui nos absentes defenderunt, 
incipiunt prassentibus occulte irasci, aperte invidere. 
Vehementer te requirimus. 

2. The Dcath qf Tullia. 
I. Siilpicius to Cicero, 

[April, B.c. 45.] 

Posteaquam mihi renuntiatum est de obitu TuUiae, 
filiae tu£e, sane quam pro eo ac debui graviter molesteque 
tuH, communemque eam calamitatem existimavi ; qui, si 
istic afiliissem, neque tibi defuissem, coramque meum 
dolorem tibi declarassem. Etsi genus hoc consolationis 
miserum atque acerbum est, — propterea quia, per quos 
confieri debet propinquos ac famiharis, ii ipsi pari moles- 
tia afficiuntur, neque sine lacrimis multis id cohari 
possunt, uti magis ipsi videantur aHorum consolatione 
indigere quam aHis posse suum ofiicium praestare, — 
tamen quae in prsesentia in mentem mihi venerunt, decrevi 
brevi ad te perscribere : non quo ea te fugere existimem, 
sed quod forsitan dolore impeditus minus ea perspicias. 

Quid est, quod opere te commoveat tuus dolor intes- 
tinus? Cogita, quemadmodum adhuc fortuna nobiscum 
egerit : ea nobis erepta esse, quae hominibus non minds 
quam Hberi cara esse debent, patriam, honestatem, digni- 

CICERO. 195 

tatem, honores omnes. Hoc imo incommodo addito, 
quid ad dolorem adjungi potuit? aut qui non in illis 
rebus exercitatus animus callerc jam debet, atquc omnia 
minoris existimare? 

An illius vicem, credo, doles? Qiioties in eam cogita- 
tionem necesse est et tu veneris, et nos saipe incidimus, 
hisce temporibus non pessime cum iis esse actum, quibus 
sine dolore licitum est mortem cum vita commutare? 
Quid autem fuit, quod iUam hoc tempore ad vivendum 
magno opere invitare posset? quaj res? qujB spes? quod 
animi solatium? Ut cum ahquo adolescente primario 
conjuncta ^tatem gererct? Licitum est tibi, credo, pro 
tua dignitate ex hac juventute generum dehgere, cujus 
fidei hberos tuos te tuto committere putares ! An ut ea 
hberos ex sese pareret, quos cum florentes videret, laetare- 
tur? qui rem a parente traditam per se tenere possent? 
honores ordinatim petituri essent? in re pubhca, in ami- 
corum negotiis, hbertate sua uti ? Quid horum fuit, quod 
non prius quam datum est ademptum sit? 

At vero malum est hberos amittere. Malnm : nisi hoc 
pejus sit, haec sufferre et perpeti. Quae res mihi non 
mediocrem consolationem attuht, volo tibi commemorare, 
si forte eadem res tibi minuere dolorem possit. Ex Asia 
rediens, cum ab ^gina Megaram versus navigarem, 
coepi regiones circumcirca prospicere. Post me erat 
JEgina, ante me Megara : dextra Piraeeus, sinistra Cor- 
inthus : quae oppida quodam tempore florentissima fue- 
runt, nunc prostrata ac diruta ante oculos jacent. Coepi 
egomet mecum sic cogitare : I/em ! nos homunculi indi- 
gnamur^ si quis nostrum interiit aut occisus est^ quorum 
vita brevior esse debet^ cum uno loco tot oppiduin cada- 
vera projecta jacent? Vis7te tu te^ Servi^ cohibere et 
memiitisse^ hominef7i te esse natum? Crede mihi, cogi- 
tatione ea non mediocriter sum confirmatus. 

Hoc idem, si tibi videtur, fac ante oculos tibi proponas. 
Modo uno tempore tot viri clarissimi interierunt; de 


imperio populi Romani tanta deminutio facta est ; omnes 
provinci^e conquassatos sunt : in unius mulierculae ani- 
mula si jactura facta est, tanto opere commoveris? quae 
si hoc tempore non diem suum obisset, paucis post annis 
tamen ei moriendum fuit, quoniam homo nata fuerat. 
Etiam tu ab hisce rebus animum ac cogitationem tuam 
avoca, atque ea potius reminiscere, quae digna tua per- 
sona sunt : illam, quamdiu ei opus fuerit, vixisse ; una 
cum re publica fuisse ; te, patrem suum, praetorem, con- 
sulem, augurem vidisse ; adolescentibus primariis nuptam 
fuisse ; omnibus bonis prope perfunctam esse ; cum res 
publica occideret, vita excessisse. Quid est, quod tu aut 
illa cum fortuna hoc nomine queri possitis ? 

Denique noH te obHvisci Ciceronem esse, et eum, qui 
ahis consueris j^raecipere et dare concihum ; neque imi- 
tare malos medicos, qui in ahenis morbis profitentur 
tenere se medicinae scientiam, ipsi se curare non possunt : 
sed potius, quae ahis tute prsecipere soies, ea tute tibi 
subjice, atque apud animum propone. Nuhus dolor est, 
qucm non longinquitas temporis minuat ac mohiat. Hoc 
te exspectare tempus tibi turpe est, ac non ei rei sapientia 
tua occurrere. 

Quod si qui etiam inferis sensus est, qui ihius in te 
amor fuit, pietasque in omnes suos, hoc certe iha te facere 
non vult. Da hoc ilh mortuae ; da ceteris amicis ac 
famiharibus, qui tuo dolore masrent ; da patriie, ut, si qua 
in re opus sit, opera et consilio tuo uti possit. Denique, 
quoniam in eam fortunam devenimus, ut etiam huic rei 
nobis serviendum sit, noli committere, ut quisquam te 
putet non tam fiham quam rei pubhcae tempora et ah- 
orum victoriam lugere. 

Plura me ad te de hac re scribere pudet, ne videar 
prudentiae tuae diffidere : quare, si hoc unum proposuero, 
finem faciam scribendi. Vidimus aliquoties secundam 
pulcherrime te ferre fortunam, magnamque ex ea re te 
laudem apisci : fac aliquando intelligamus, adversam 



quoque te aeque ferre posse, neque id majus quam debeat 
tibi onus videri ; ne ex omnibus virtutibus hasc una tibi 
videatur deesse. 

Qiiod ad me attinet, cum te tranquilliorem animo esse 
cognoro, de iis rebus quae hic geruntur, quemadmodum- 
que se provincia habeat, certiorem faciam. Vale. 

2. Cicero to Sulpicius. 

[Written in May, at Astura.] 

Ego vero, Servi, vellem, ut scribis, in meo gravissimo 
casu affuisses. Qiiantum enim praesens me adjuvare 
potueris, et consohxndo et prope aeque dolendo, facile ex 
eo intelhgo, quod, htteris lectis, ahquantum acquievi. 
Nam et ea scripsisti quae levare luctum possent, et in me 
consolando non mediocrem ipse animi dolorem adhi- 
buisti. Servius tamen tuus omnibus officiis, quas ihi 
tempori tribui potuerunt, dechiravit, et quanti ipse me 
faceret, et quam suum talcm erga me animum tibi gratum 
putarct fore ; cujus officia jucundiora hcet saepe mihi 
fuerint, numquam tamen gratiora. 

Me autem non oratio tua soliam et societas psene aegri- 
tudinis, sed etiam auctoritas consohitur. Turpe enim 
esse existimo, me non ita ferre casum meum, ut tu, tah 
sapientia prasditus, ferendum putas. Sed opprimor inter- 
dum, et vix resisto dolori, quod ea mc sohitia deficiunt, 
quae ceteris, quorum mihi exemphi propono, simih in 
fortuna non defuerunt. Nam et Q. Maximus, qui fihum 
consularem, clarum virum et magnis rebus gestis, amisit, 
et L. PauUus, qui duo septem diebus, et vester Gahus, 
et M. Cato, qui summo ingenio, summa virtute fihum 
perdidit, iis temporibus fuerunt, ut eorum hictum ipsorum 
dignitas consolaretur ea, quam ex re pubhca conseque- 
bantur. Mihi autem, amissis ornamentis iis, qu£e ipse 
commemoras, quasque eram maximis hiboribus adeptus, 
unam manebat iUud sohatium, quod ereptum est. Non 
amicorum negotiis, non rei pubhcce procuratione impedie- 


bantur cogitationes meae ; nihil in foro agere libebat ; 
adspicere curiam non poteram ; existimabam, id quod 
erat, omnes me et industrias meae fructus et fortunae per- 

Sed, cum cogitarem hsec mihi tecum et cum quibus- 
dam esse communia, et cum frangerem jam ipse me, 
cogeremque illa ferre toleranter ; habebam quo confu- 
gerem, ubi conquiescerem, cujus in sermone et suavitate 
omnes curas doloresque deponerem. Nunc autem, hoc 
tam gravi vuhiere, etiam illa quae consanuisse videbantur 
recrudescunt. Non enim, ut tum me a re pubhca maestum 
domus excipiebat, qu£e levaret, sic nunc domo maerens 
ad rem pubHcam confugere possum, ut in ejus bonis 
acquiescam. Itaque et domo absum et foro, quod nec 
eum dolorem, quem a re pubhca capio, domus jam con- 
solari potest, nec domesticum res pubhca. 

Qiio magis te exspecto, teque videre quam primum 
cupio. Major mihi levatio afferri nulla potest, quam 
conjunctio consuetudinis sermonumque nostrorum : quam- 
quam sperabam tuum adventum — sic enim audiebam 
— appropinquare. Ego autem ciim multis de causis te 
exopto quam primiam videre ; tum etiam, ut ante com- 
mentemur inter nos, qua ratione nobis traducendum sit 
hoc tempus, quod est totum ad unius vohnitatem accom- 
modandum, et prudentis, et hberahs, et (ut perspexisse 
videor) nec a me aheni, et tibi amicissimi. Qiiod cum 
ita sit, magnae tamen est dehberationis, quse ratio sit 
ineunda nobis, non agendi ahquid, sed iUius concessu et 
beneficio quiescendi. 

P L I N Y. 

I. — Letter to Tacitus^ concerning a School for Boys. 

Salvum te in urbem venisse gaudeo ; venisti autem, si 
quando alias, nunc maxime mihi desideratus. Ipse pau- 
culis adhuc diebus in Tusculano commorabor, ut opus- 
culum quod est in manibus absolvam. Vereor enim ne, 
si hanc intentionem jam in fine laxavero, aegre resumam. 
Interim, ne quid festinationi meae pereat, quod sum pras- 
sens petiturus hac quasi praecursoria epistula rogo. 

Sed prius accipe causas rogandi. Proxime, cum in 
patria mea fui, venit ad me salutandum municipis mei 
fihus praetextatus. Huic ego ' Studes ? ' inquam. Re- 
spondit ' Etiam.' ' Ubi ? ' 'MedioUuii.' 'Curnonhic?' 
Et pater ejus (erat enim una, atque etiam ipse adduxerat 
puerum) ' Quia nullos hic praeceptores habemus.' ' Quare 
nullos ? nam vehementer intererat vestra, qui patres 
estis,' — et opportune comphu*es patres audiebant, — ' li- 
beros vestros hic potissimum discere. Ubi enim aut 
jucundiiis morarentur quam in patria, aut pudicius con- 
tinerentur quam sub ocuHs parentum, aut minore sumptu 
quam domi ? Qiiantuhun est ergo, collata pecunia, con- 
ducere praeceptores, quodque nunc in habitationes, in 
viatica, in ea quae peregre emuntur impenditis, adjicere 
mercedibus ? Atque adeo ego, qui nondum liberos habeo, 
paratus sum pro re publica nostra, quasi pro fiha vel 
parente, tertiam partem ejus quod conferre vobis placebit 
dare. Totum etiam polHcerer, nisi timerem ne hoc 


munus meum quandoque ambitu corrumperetur, ut acci- 
dere multis in locis video, in quibus prseceptorcs publice 
conducuntur. Huic vitio occurri uno remcdio potest, si 
parentibus solis jus conducendi relinquatur, isdemque 
religio recte judicandi necessitate collationis addatur. 
Nam qui fortasse de alieno negligentes, certe de suo 
diligentes erunt ; dabuntque operam ne a me pecuniam 
non nisi dignus accipiat, si accepturus et ab ipsis erit. 
Proinde consentite, conspirate, majoremque animum ex 
meo sumite, qui cupio esse quam plurimum, quod debeam 
conferre. Nihil honestius prsestare Hberis vestris, nihil 
gratius patri^e, potestis. Educentur hic qui hic nascuntur, 
statimque ab infantia natale solum amare frequentare 
consuescant. Atque utinam tam claros praeceptores indu- 
catis, ut finitimis oppidis studia hinc petantur ; utque nunc 
Hberi vestri ahena in loca, ita mox aUeni in hunc locum 
confluant ! ' 

Haec putavi altius et quasi a fonte repetenda, quo 
magis scires quam gratum mihi foret, si susciperes quod 
injungo. Injungo autem, et pro rei magnitudine rogo, 
ut ex copia studiosorum, quaa ad te ex admiratione 
ingenii tui convenit, circumspicias praeceptores quos sol- 
Hcitare possimus ; sub ea tamen conditione, ne cui fidem 
meam obstringam. Omnia enim Hbera parentibus servo. 
IIH judicent, iHi eHgant : ego mihi curam tantum et in- 
pendium vindico. Proinde, si quis fuerit repertus qui 
ingenio suo fidat, eat iHuc, ea lege ut hinc nihil aliud 
certum quam fiduciam suam ferat. Vale. 

2. — Letter to Tacitus^ on his Uncle's death hy the 
Eruftion qf Vesuvius^ a.d. 79. 

Petis ut tibi avuncuH mei exitum scribam, quo verius 
tradere posteris possis. Gratias ago : nam video morti 
efus, si celebretur a te, immortalem gloriam esse propo- 
sitam. Quamvis enim pulcherrimarum clade terrarum. 


ut populi, ut urbes, memorabili casu quasi semper vic- 
turus occiderit,- quamvis ipse plurima opera et mansura 
condiderit ; multum tamen perpetuitati ejus scriptorum 
tuorum aeternitas addet. Equidem beatos puto quibus 
deorum munere datum est aut facere scribenda, aut scri- 
bere legenda ; beatissimos vero quibus utrumque. Horum 
in numero avunculus meus et suis libris et tuis erit. 
Quo libentius suscipio, deposco etiam quod injungis. 

Erat Miseni, classemque imperio praesens regebat. 
Nonum Kal. Septembres, hora fere septima, mater mea 
indicat ei apparere nubem inusitata et magnitudine et 
specie. Usus ille sole, mox frigida, gustaverat jacens 
studebatque : poscit soleas, ascendit locum ex quo max- 
ime miraculum illud conspici poterat. Nubes, incertum 
procul intuentibus ex quo monte (Vesuvium fuisse postea 
cognitum est) oriebatur, cujus similitudinem et formam 
non alia magis arbor quam pinus expresserit. Nam 
longissimo velut trunco elata, in altum quibusdam ramis 
diffundebatur, — credo, quia recenti spiritu evecta, dein 
senescente eo, destituta aut etiam pondere suo victa, in 
latitudinem vanescebat : candida interdum, interdum sor- 
dida et maculosa, prout terram cineremve sustulerat. 

Magnum propiusque noscendum, ut eruditissimo viro, 
visum. Jubet J^iburnicam aptari : mihi, si venire una 
vellem, facit copiam : respondi studere me malle ; et forte 
ipse quod scriberem dederat. Egredicbatur domo : acci- 
pit codicillos Rectinie Tasci imminenti periculo exterritai 
(nam villa ejus subjacebat, nec ulla nisi navibus fuga) : 
ut se tanto discrimini eriperet orabat. Vertit illc con- 
silium, et quod studioso animo inchoaverat obit maximo. 
Deducit quadriremes, ascendit ipse, non Rectinae modo 
sed multis (erat enim frequcns amoenitas orce) hiturus 
auxHium. Properat ilhic unde ahi fugiunt, rectumque 
cursum, recta gubernacula in periculum tenet, adeo sohi- 
tus metu ut omnes iUius mah motus, omnes figuras, ut 
deprenderat ocuhs, dictaret enotaretque. 


Jam navlbus cinls incldebat, qiio proplus accederent, 
calidior et densior ; jam pumices etiam, nigrlque et 
ambusti et fractl igne lapldes, jam vadum subltum, ruina- 
que montis litora obstantia. Cunctatus paulum an retro 
flecteret, mox gubernatori ut Ita faceret monentl Fo7-tes 
inquit fortuna juvat: Pomponianum pete. Stablis 
erat, dlremptus sinu medio ; nam senslm clrcumactis 
curvatlsque litorlbus mare Infunditur. Ibl, quamquam 
nondum periculo appropinquante, conspicuo tamen, et 
cixxw cresceret, proximo, sarcinas contulerat m naves, 
certus fugae, si contrarius ventus resedisset ; quo tunc 
avunculus meus secundlssimo invectus, complectitur tre- 
pldantem, consolatur, hortatur, utque timorem ejus sua 
securltate leniret, deferri in ballneum jubet : lotus accu- 
bat, cenat aut hilaris, aut (quod est aeque magnum) 
similis hilari. 

Interim e Vesuvlo monte pku-ibus in locis latissimae 
flammas altaque incendia relucebant, quorum fulgor et 
clarltas tenebris noctls excitabatur. Ille, agrestium trepi- 
datione Ignes rellctos desertasque villas per solitudlnem 
ardere, in remedium formidinis dlctitabat. Tum se 
quieti dedit, et quievit verlssimo quldem somno. Nam 
meatus anlma^, qui illi propter amplitudinem corporis 
gravior et sonantior erat, ab iis qui HminJ obversabantur 
audiebatur. Sed area ex qua diasta adlbatur ita jam 
clnere mixtisque pumiclbus oppleta surrexerat ut, si 
longlor in cubiculo mora, exitus negaretur. Excltatus 
procedit, seque Pomponiano ceterisque qui pei-vigilave- 
rant reddlt. In commune consultant, intra tecta subsis- 
tant, an in aperto vagentur. Nam crebris vastlsque 
trcmoribus tecta nutabant, et quasl emota sedibus suis 
nunc huc nunc illuc ablre aut referri videbantur. 

Sub dio rursus quamquam levium exesorumque pumi- 
cum casus metuebatur ; quod tamen periculorum collatio 
elegit. Et apud illum quidem ratio rationem, apud alios 
timorem timor vicit. Cervicalia capitibus imposita hnteis 

PLINY. 203 

constringunt : id munimentum adversus incidentia fuit. 
Jam dies alibi, illic nox omnibus noctibus nigrior densi- 
orque ; quam tamen faces multae variaque lumina sola- 
bantur. Placuit egredi in litus, et ex proximo aspicere 
ecquid jam mare admitteret ; quod adhuc vastum et 
adversum permanebat. Ibi, super abjectum linteum re- 
cubans, semel atque iterum frigidam aquam poposcit 
hausitque. Deinde flammae, flammarumque prainuntius 
odor sulphuris, ahos in fugam vertuht, excitant illum. 
Innitens servoHs duobus adsurrexit ; et statim concidit, 
ut ego coUigo, crassiore caHgine spiritu obstructo, clau- 
soque stomacho, qui ilU natura invahdus et angustus et 
frequenter aistuans erat. Ubi dies redditus (is ab eo 
quem novissime viderat tertius), corpus inventum inte- 
grum, inl^esum, opertumque ut fuerat indutus: habitus 
corporis quiescenti quam defuncto simiHor. 

Interim Miseni ego et mater. Sed nihil ad historiam ; 
nec tu aHud quam de exitu ejus scire voluisti. Finem 
ergo faciam. Unum adjiciam, omnia me quibus inter- 
fueram, qua^que statim ciim maxime vera memorantur 
audieram, persecutum. Tu potissima excerpes. AHud 
est enim epistohim aHud historiam, aHud amico aHud 
omnibus scribere. Vale. 

3. Second Letter on tJie Eruption, 

Ais te, adductum Htteris quas exigenti tibi de morte 
avuncuH mei scripsi, cupere cognoscere quos ego Miscni 
reHctus (id enim ingressiis abruperam) non solum metus 
verum etiam casus pertulerim. Qiiamquam animus me- 
minisse horret, incipiam. 

Profecto avunculo, ipse reHquum tempus studiis (ideo 
enim remanseram) impendi : mox baHneum, cena, somnus 
inquietus et brevis. Praecesserat per multos dies tremor 
terrae minus formidolosus, quia Campaniae soHtus. IHa 
vero nocte ita invaluit, ut non moveri omnia sed verti cre- 


derentiir. Irrumpit cubiculum meum mater : surgebam, 
invicem, si quiesceret, excitaturus. Residimus in area 
domus, quaj mare a tectis modico spatio dividebat. 
Dubito constantiam vocare an inprudentiam debeam ; 
agebam enim duodevicesimum annum : posco librum 
Titi Livi, et quasi per otium lego, atque etiam, ut ccEpe- 
ram, excerpo. Ecce, amicus avunculi, qui nuper ad eum 
ex Hispania venerat, ut me et matrem sedentes, me vero 
etiam legentem videt, illius patientiam, securitatem meam 
corripit : nihilo segnius ego intentus in librum. 

Jam hora diei prima, et adhuc dubius et quasi lan- 
guidus dies. Jam quassatis circumjacentibus tectis, 
quamquam in aperto loco, angusto tamen, magnus et 
certus ruinae metus. Tum demum excedere oppido 
visum : sequitur vulgus attonitum, quodque in pavore 
simiie prudentia^, alienum consilium suo praefert, ingen- 
tique agmine abeuntes premit et impellit. Egressi tecto 
consistimus. Multa ibi miranda, multas formidines pati- 
mur. Nam veliicula quae produci jusseramus, quamquam 
in planissimo campo, in contrarias partes agebantur, ac 
ne lapidibus quidem fulta in eodem vestigio quiescebant. 
Praeterea mare in se resorberi, et tremore terr^ quasi 
repelii videbamus. Certe processerat litus, multaque 
animalia maris siccis hareilis detinebat. ; Ab altero latere 
nubes atra et horrenda, ignei spiritus tortis vibratisque 
discursibus rupta, in longas flammarum figuras dehisce- 
bat : fulguribus illiE et similes et majores erant. 

Tum vero idem ille ex Hispania amicus acrius et 
instantius ' Si frater ' inquit ' tuus, tuus avunculus vivit, 
vult esse vos salvos ; si periit, superstites voluit ; proinde 
quid cessatis evadere ? ' Respondimus non commissuros 
nos, ut de salute illius incerti nostras consuleremus. 
Non moratus ultra, pr ripit se, effiisoque cursu periculo 
aufertur. Nec multo post, illa nubes descendere in terras, 
operire maria : cinxerat Capreas et absconderat : Miseni 
quod procurrit abstulerat. Tum mater orare, hortari, 



jubere quoquo modo fugerem ; posse enim juvenem, se 
et annis et corpore gravem bene morituram, si mihi causa 
mortis non fuisset. Ego contra, salvum me nisi una non 
futurum: dein manum ejus amplexus, addere gradum 
cogo. Paret ^egre, incusatque se quod me moretur. 

Jam cinis, adliuc tamen rarus : respicio ; densa caligo 
tergis imminebat, quae nos torrentis modo infusa terrse 
sequebatur. 'Deflectamus' inquam, ' dum videmus ne 
in via strati comitantium turba in tenebris obteramur.* 
Vix consideramus, et nox, non qualis illunis aut nubila, 
sed qualis in locis clausis lumine extincto. Audires 
ululatus feminarum, infantum quiritatus, clamores viro- 
rum : alii parentes, alii liberos, alii conjuges vocibus 
requirebant, vocibus noscitabant : hi suum casum, ilH 
suorum miserabantur : erant qui metu mortis mortem 
precarentur : multi ad deos manus tollere, phires nusquam 
jam deos ullos, aeternamque illam et novissimam noctem 
mundo interpretabantur. 

Nec defuerunt qui fictis mentitisque terroribus vera 
pericula augerent. Aderant qui Miseni illud ruisse, ilhid 
ardere falso, sed credentibus nuntiabant. PauUnn reluxit : 
quod non dies nobis sed adventantis ignis indicium vide- 
batur. Et ignis quidem longius substitit, tenebraa rursus, 
cinis rursus muhus et gravis. Hunc identidem adsur- 
gentes excutiebamus : operti ahoqui atque etiam obhsi 
pondere essemus. Possem gloriari non gemitum mihi, 
non vocem pariim fortem, in tantis pcricuhs excidisse, 
nisi me cum omnibus, omnia mecum perire misero, 
magno tamen mortahtatis solacio credidissem. 

Tandem iUa cahgo, tenuata quasi in fumum nebulamve, 
discessit : mox dies verus, sol etiam eftulsit, luridus 
tamen, quahs esse cum deficit solet. Occursabant tre- 
pidantibus adhuc ocuhs mutata omnia, altoque cinere 
tamquam nive, obducta. Regressi Misenum, curatis 
utcumque corporibus, suspensam dubiamque noctem spe 
ac metu exegimus. Metus praevalebat : nam et tremor 


teiT^e perseverabat, et plerique lymphati terrificis vatici- 
nationibus et sua et aliena mala ludificabantur. Nobis 
tamen ne tunc quidem, quamquam et cxpertis periculum 
et expectantibus, abeundi consilium, donec de avunculo 
nuntius. Haec nequaquam historia digna non scripturus 
leges, et tibi, scilicet qui requisisti, imputabis, si digna 
ne epistula quidem videbuntur. Vale. 

4. Letter to Trajan^ concernhzg- the Christians, 

[a.D. 112.] 

Sollemne est mihi, domine, omnia de quibus dubito 
ad te referre. Qiiis enim potest mehus vel cunctationem 
meam regere, vel ignorantiam exstruere ? 

Cognitionibus de Christianis interfiji numquam : ideo 
nescio quid et quatenus aut puniri soleat, aut quaeri. 
Nec mediocriter haesitavi, sitne ahquod discrimen astatum, 
an quamhbet teneri nihil a robustioribus diflerant ; detur 
paenitentiae venia, an ei qui omnino Christianus fuit 
desisse non prosit ; nomen ipsum, si flagitiis careat, an 
flagitia cohaerentia nomini puniantur. 

Interim in iis qui ad me tamquam Christiani defere- 
bantur, hunc sum secutus modum. Interrogavi ipsos an 
essent Christiani. Confitentes iterum ac tertio inter- 
rogavi, supphcium minatus : perseverantes duci jussi. 
Neque enim dubitabam, qualecumque esset quod fate- 
rentur, pertinaciam certe et inflexibilem obstinationem 
debere puniri. Fuerunt ahi simihs amentia?, quos, quia 
cives Romani erant, adnotavi in urbem remittendos. 

Mox ipso tractatu, ut fieri solet, difflmdente se crimine, 
plures species inciderunt. Propositus est hbeUus sine 
auctore, multorum nomina continens. Qiii negabant esse 
se Christianos aut fuisse, cum pr^eunte me deos appel- 
hirent, et imagini tuae (quam propter hoc jusseram cum 
simuhicris numinum adferri) ture ac vino supphcarent, 
praeterea maledicerent Christo — quorum niliil posse cogi 

PLINY. 207 

dicuntur qui sunt re vera Christiani — dimittendos esse 
putavi. Alii, ab indice nominati, esse se Christianos 
dixerunt, et mox negaverunt ; fuisse quidem, sed desisse, 
quidam ante plures annos, non nemo etiam ante viginti 
quoque. Omnes et imaginem tuam deorumque si- 
mulacra venerati sunt, et Christo maledixerunt. 

Affirmabant autem hahc fuisse summam vel culpae suae 
vel erroris, quod essent soHti stato die ante lucem con- 
venire, carmenque Christo quasi deo dicere secum invi- 
cem, seque sacramento non in scelus aliquod obstringere, 
sed ne furta, ne latrocinia, ne adulteria committerent, ne 
fidem fallerent, ne depositum appellati abnegarent : qui- 
bus peractis, morem sibi discedendi fuisse, rursusque ad 
capiendum cibum, promiscuum tamen et innoxium ; quod 
ipsum facere desisse post edictum meum, quo secundum 
mandata tua heteerias esse vetueram. Quo magis neces- 
sarium credidi ex duabus anciUis, quae ministrae dice- 
bantur, quid esset veri, et per tormenta quserere. Nihil 
aUud inveni quam superstitionem pravam immodicam. 

Ideo, dilata cognitione, ad consulendum te decucurri. 
Visa est enim mihi res digna consultatione, maxime 
propter periclitantium numerum. Multi enim omnis 
aitatis, omnis ordinis, utriusque sexus etiam, vocantur in 
periculum et vocabuntur. Neque civitates tantiam, sed 
vicos etiam atque agros, superstitionis istius contagio 
pervagata est ; quie videtur sisti et corrigi posse. Certe 
satis constat prope jam desolata templa coepisse celebrari, 
et sacra sollemnia diu intermissa repeti, pastumque venire 
victimarum, cujus adhuc rarissimus emptor inveniebatur. 
Ex quo facile est opinari quae turba hominum emendari 
possit, si sit paenitentiae locus. 


5. — The Reply of Trajan. 

Actum quem debuisti, mi Secunde, in excutiendis 
causis eorum qui Christiani ad te delati fuerant, secutus 
es. Neque enim in universum aliquid quod quasi certam 
formam habeat constitui potest. Conquirendi non sunt : 
si deferantur et arguantur, puniendi sunt ; ita tamen ut 
qui negaverit se Christianum esse, idque re ipsa mani- 
festum fecerit, id est supplicando diis nostris, quamvis 
suspectus in prasteritum, veniam ex paenitentia impetret. 
Sine auctore vero, propositi libelli in nullo crimine lo- 
cum habere debent. Nam et pessimi exempli nec nostri 
saeculi est. 



The Confiagration of Rome^ and First Persecu- 
tion of the Christians. 

[Annals. xv. 38-44. a.d. 64.] 

Sequitur clades, forte an dolo principis incertum 
(nam utrumque auctores prodidere), sed omnibus 
quas huic urbi per violentiam ignium acciderunt 
gravior atque atrocior. Initium in ea parte circi 
ortum, quae Palatino Ceelioque montibus contigua 
est, ubi per tabernas, quibus id mercimonium inerat 
quo flamma alitur, simul coeptus ignis et statim 
validus ac vento citus longitudinem circi corripuit. 
Neque enim domus munimentis saeptas, vel templa 
miiris cincta, aut quid aliud morae interjacebat. 
Impetu pervagatum incendium plana primum, deinde 
in edita adsurgens et rursus inferiora populando, 
anteiit remedia velocitate mali, et obnoxia urbe 
artis itineribus, hucque et illuc flexis atque enormi- 
bus vicis, quahs vetus Roma fuit. 

Ad hoc lamenta paventium feminarum, fessa 
[aetate] aut rudis [pueritias] astas, quique sibi qui- 
que aHis consulebant, dum trahunt invalidos aut 
opperiuntur, pars mora, pars festinans, cuncta impe- 
diebant. Et ssepe, dirm in tergum respectant, lateri- 
bus aut fronte circumveniebantur ; vel si in proxima 
evaserant, ilHs quoque igni correptis, etiam quae 


longinqua crediderant in eodem casu reperiebant. 
Postremo, quid vitarent quid peterent ambigui, com- 
plere vias, sterni per agros ; quidam, amissis om- 
nibus fortunis, diurni quoque victus, alii caritate 
suorum, quos eripere nequiverant, quamvis patente 
effugio interiere. Nec quisquam defendere audebat, 
crebris multorum minis restinguere prohibentium, 
et quia alii palam faces jaciebant, atque esse sibi 
auctorem vociferabantur, sive ut raptus licentius 
exercerent, seu jussu. 

Eo in tempore Nero, Antii agens, non ante in 
urbem regressus est quam domui ejus, qua Palatium 
et Msecenatis hortos continuaverat, ignis propin- 
quaret. Neque tamen sisti potuit, quin et Palatium 
et domus et cuncta circum haurirentur. Sed sola- 
cium populo exturbato ac profugo campum Martis 
ac monumenta Agrippas, hortos quin etiam suos 
patefecit, et subitaria asdificia exstruxit, qua3 multi- 
tudinem inopem acciperent ; subvectaque utensiha 
ab Ostia et propinquis municipiis, pretiumque fru- 
menti minutum usque ad ternos nummos. Quag, 
quamquam popularia, in inritum cadebant, quia 
pervaserat rumor, ipso tempore flagrantis urbis, 
inisse eum domesticam scsenam, et cecinisse Tro- 
janum excidium, prassentia mala vetustis cladibus 

Sexto demum die, apud imas Esquihas finis in- 
cendio factus, prorutis per inmensum asdificiis, ut 
continuag violentiag campus et velut vacuum cselum 
occurreret. Necdum positus metus, et rediit haud 
levius rursum grassatus ignis patuhs magis urbis 
locis, eoque strages hominum minor : delubra deum 
et porticus amoenitati dicatae latius procidere. Plus- 


que infamige id incendium habuit, quia praediis Ti- 
gellini ^milianis proruperat ; videbaturque Nero 
condendee urbis novge, et cognomento suo appel- 
landae, gloriam quaerere. Quippe in regiones quat- 
tuordecim Roma dividitur, quarum quattuor integrae 
manebant, tres solo tenus dejectae : septem reliquis 
pauca tectorum vestigia supererant, lacera et se- 

Ceterum Nero usus est patrias ruinis, exstruxitque 
domum, in qua haud perinde gemmae et aurum mi- 
raculo essent (solita pridem et luxu volgata) quam 
arva et stagna, et in modum sohtudinum hinc silvae 
inde aperta spatia et prospectus, magistris et ma- 
chinatoribus Severo et Celere, quibus ingepium et 
audacia erat, etiam quas natura denegavisset, per 
artem temptare, et viribus principis inhidere. Nam- 
que ab lacu Averno navigabilem fossam usque ad 
ostia Tiberina depressuros promiserant, squalenti 
htore aut per montes adversos. Neque enim ahud 
humidum gignendis aquis occurrit quam Pomptinas 
paludes : cetera abrupta aut arentia, ac si perrumpi 
possent, intolerandus labor nec satis causae. Nero 
tamen^^ut erat incredibiHum cupitor, etTodere prox- 
ima Averno juga conisus est, manentque vestigia 
inritae spei. 

Ceterum urbis qu£e domui supererant non, ut 
post Gahica.incendia, nuha distinctione, nec passim 
erecta, sed dimensis vicorum ordinibus, et latis 
viarum spatiis, cohibitaque gedificiorum akitudine, ac 
patefactis areis, additisque porticibus, quae frontem 
insularum protegerent. Eas porticus Nero sua 
pecunia exstructurum, purgatasque areas dominis 
traditurum polHcitus est. Addidit praemia pro cujus- 


que ordine et rei familiaris copiis, finivitque tempus 
intra quod efFectis domibus aut insulis apiscerentur. 
Ruderi accipiendo Ostienses paludes destinabat, 
utique naves, quce frumentum Tiberi subvectavis- 
sent, onustas rudere decurrerent, asdificiaque ipsa 
certa sui parte sine trabibus saxo Gabino Albanove 
solidarentur, quod is lapis ignibus impervius est ; 
jam aqua privatorum licentia intercepta, quo largior 
et pluribus locis in publicum flueret, custodes, et 
subsidia reprimendis ignibus in propatulo quisque 
haberet ; nec communione parietum, sed propriis 
quseque muris ambirentur. Ea, ex utilitate accepta, 
decorem quoque novae urbi attulere. Erant tamen 
qui crederent, veterem illam formam salubritati 
magis conduxisse, quoniam angustias itinerum et 
altitudo tectorum non perinde solis vapore perrum- 
perentur : at nunc patulam latitudinem, et nulla 
umbra defensam, graviore aestu ardescere. 

Et haec quidem humanis consiHis providebantur. 
Mox petita a dis piacula, aditique Sibulla^ Hbri, ex 
quibus supplicatum Volcano et Cereri Proserpinas- 
que, ac propitiata Juno per matronas, primum in 
CapitoHo, deinde apud proximum mare, unde hausta 
aqua templum et simulacrum deoe perspersum est ; 
et sellisternia ac pervigiHa celebravere feminae qui- 
bus mariti erant. 

Sed non ope humana, non largitionibus principis, 
aut deum placamentis decedebat infamia, quin jus- 
sum incendium crederetur. Ergo abolendo rumori 
Nero subdidit reos, et quaesitissimis poenis adfecit, 
quos per flagitia invisos vulgus Christianos appefla- 
bat. Auctor nominis ejus Christus, Tiberio imperi- 
tante, per procuratorem Pontium PiLitum suppHcio 


adfectus erat ; repressaque in praescns exitiabilis 
superstitio rursum erumpebat, non modo per Ju- 
daeam, originem ejus mali, sed per urbem etiam, 
quo cuncta undique atrocia aut pudenda confluunt 
celebranturque. Igitur primum correpti qui fate- 
bantur ; deinde, indicio eorum, multitudo ingens haud 
perinde in crimine incendii quam odio humani ge- 
neris convicti sunt. Et pereuntibus addita ludibria, 
ut ferarum tergis contecti laniatu canum interirent, 
aut crucibus adfixi, aut flammandi, atque ubi defe- 
cisset dies, in usum nocturni luminis urerentur. 
Hortos suos ei spectaculc Nero obtulerat, et cir- 
cense ludicrum edebat, habitu aurigae permixtus 
plebi, vel curriculo insistens. Unde quamquam ad- 
versus sontes, et novissima exempla meritos, mi- 
seratio oriebatur, tamquam non utiUtate publica sed 
in sasvitiam unius absumerentur. 


0/ CaUf r^^ 

N T E S. 


Little is known witli accuracy of the life of Phaedrns. He 
was probably a Thracian slave in the household of Augustus, 
was afterwards manumitted, and became the object of the 
hatred and persecution of Sejanus, the rainister of Tiberius. 
He seems tohave written in the reign of Claudius (a.d. 41-54). 
His fables are mere translations from the Greek. 

NoTE. — The metre of all these fables is the lambic Trimeter or 
Senarius, (§ 82, iii.), the idiis of each double foot being marked 
with an accent. In the first verse of the first fable, fame c6a- is 
the first measure, consisting of two iambs, with the ictus upon the 
long syllable of the first ; e in fame is long by the analogy of the 
fifth declension : -cta vulpes al- is the second, consisting of an 
iambus and a spondee. A spondee cannot properly stand in any 
but the odd feet; but Phaedrus, Hke the comic writers, allows 
himself greater hberties. The third measure is t' in vinea, a 
spondee foUowed by an iambus. 

Fable I (BooK rV. 3). 

1. Fame, ablative of cause (§ 54, i.). — coacta, nom. agreeing 
with vulpes (§ 49, i.) . — vinea, § 56, i. 1 ; the vines in Italy were 
trained upon trees, and festooned from one to another. 

2. appetebat: § 27, ii. 2 ; it agrees with vulpes by § 49. 

- 3. Quam, § 48, i. and iv. ; § 52, i.— ut, § 64, iv. end. — dis- 
cedens, § 72, i. Notice that the relative here imphes a conjunction 
and a pronoun, and that the participle discedens may in English 
best change constructions with ait ; " hut when he could not reach it. 


he depaHed, saying,'''' — The third foot in this verse, nOn p6tii-, is 
a dactyl, which in iambic metre has the ictus on the second syl- 

4. acerbam, sc* uvam. 

5. qui and quse, § 48, iii. first remark ; qui is subject of ele- 
vant, while its antecedent (ii) is subject of debebunt; quae is 
object of facere, and its antecedent (ea), of elevant; facere 
depends upon possunt. 

6. debebunt: we should say ougJit, but the Latin expresses 
the relation of future time more precisely than the English idiom 
requires. — adscribere, § 58, iv. — sibi, § 19, ii. end. 

Fable II (IV. 9). 

1. simul ac : as soon as (§ 43, 9). — The position of callidus 
makes it eniphatic, and gives it some such force as, iflie is shrewd. 

2. alterius: the other, i.e., the person nearest him; another 
would be alius. The first foot is an anapaest, repSri. 

3. decidisset, § 62, i. end. — inscia, § 6, 4 ; § 47, vi., without 
knowing it. 

4. altiore, § 17, v. 1. 

6. esset, § 67, i. 1.— an: whether. 

7. copiosus, § 44, iv. 3. — illa sc. dixit. 
9. possit, § 65, I. 

10. barbatus, § 44, iv. 4. — vulpecula, § 44, i. 2. 

11. puteo, § 54, VI. — cornibus, § 54, i. ; abl. of means. 

12. vado, § 55, iii. 5, end : shallow water, pool. 

Faule III (I. 1). 

1. venerant, § 49, i. 

2. superior : above. — compulsi, § 47, i. — stabat, § 27, ii. 1. 

3. fauce improba, savage jaw, belongs with incitatus. 

4. jurgii, § 50, iii. — intulit: brought up. 

6. bibenti, § 72, i: as I am drinking. — laniger, § 44, vi. ; 
10, 8. The descriptive adjective is used like barbatus, in the 
last fable, for the noun, § 47, iii. — timens, fearing at the time, 
not timid as a characteristic. 

7. Qui: how. — quod, § 52, i. first note : what you complain 

* This is an abbreTiation for scilicet (sclre licet), meaning understand. 



8. a and ad, §42, iv. — decurrit, ru7is doion. — ad meos 
haustus: to m\j dmughts, x.e.for me to drink. 

9. viribus =:vi: force. 

10. menses, § 55, 1. 1 : six months ago. — mihi, § 51, 11. — male 
belongs with dixisti: cursed. 

11. equidem : emphasizes the first person, bid I. 

13. correptum (sc. eum) lacerat: seizes him and tears him 
to pieces (§ 72, i). 

15. fictis causis, § 72, 3 : hj mahing up reasons. 

F.UJLE IV (IV. 8). 

1. mordaciorem, § 44, v. 3 : one that hites harder than himself. 

— improbo : malicious. 

2. sentiat, § 68, i. 

3. qua, after si, ne, etc. = aliquae, § 21, iii. end. — cibi belongs 
with res, § 50, 11. : any thing of food, i.e. any food. 

5. contra is used as an adverb, on the other hand (§ 56, 11. end). 

6. Quid, § 52, iv. : in respect to what = ic]iy^ — stulta, sc. 
tu. — captas (from capio), § 36, 11. : try eagerly ; catch at. 

7. quae, first person, subj. of assuevi, relating to me. 

Fable V (I. 25). 

2. et . . . et, § 43, 8. 

3. canes, §52, vi. — currentes: on the run ; better, run 
while drinking. 

4. corcodilis, § 56, iv. ; this form is used because the o in 
crbcodilis is short. — rapiantur, § 64, i. — traditum est, § 70; 
the subject is canes . . . flumine : it is related that, etc. 

6. quam libet : as much as you please. — otio, § 54, 11. first 
note, = otiose : at your ease. 

7. Noli vereri, § 58, iii. first note. — facerem, § 59, iv. 2. 

— mehercule is scanned m'ercule. 

Fable VI (II. 7). 
2. cum pecunia, § 54, 11. second note. 

4. onere, abl. of cause. — celsa cervice eminet: tosses up 
his head; literally, towers with lofty neck, abl. of specification. 
7. advolant, § 27, i. second paragraph. 

10. The second foot, -tiis igi-, is a tribrach. 

11. me is subject of contemptum (esse), depending upon 
gaudeo( § 70, iii). 

14. periclo depends upon obnoxiae, § 51, i. 


Fable YII (V. 3). 

2. quam, obj. of opprimere. — sibi duxit : fetched himself. 

4. tibi : for or in regard to yourself; not to. 

5. addideris, § 63, ii. 

6. in gratiam : to good terms. 

7. laedendi, § 73, ii. 

8. te, obj. of necare. — generis, § 50, i. 2. — animal, § 46. 

9. bibere dopends upon delectaris : in drinking. 

10. optem, § 60, 2. — vel: even. 

11. The third foot is a dactyl, tum veni-. 

12. nocens, used as an adjective : mischievous. 

13. pcena, § 54, iv. 

Fable VIII (IV. 18). 

3. contra se : to his own loss. 

4. ut : when. 

6. improbis, § 51, v. 

Fable IX (I. 15). 

1. commutando, § 73 and v. — saepius : quite often. 

5. Is refers to senex. 

6. fugere depends upon suadebat; the regular construction 
would be, ut fugeret. 

7. lentus : stolidhj. — num, § 71 and i. — binas, ^ 18, ii. 2. 

8. impositurum, sc. esse. 

9. mea, § 50, iv. 4, first note. 

10. cui, § 51, iii. — portem, § 61, 3. — meas : mine and no 

Fable X (I. 8). 

1. pretium : pay. — meriti, § 47, iv. 1. 

3. Begin with deinde : in the next place, § 41, ii. 4 — jam 
non, § 41, II. 2. 

5. singulos : one after another. 

7. jurejurando, § 14, il 2. 

8. coUi longitudinem ; a graphic expression for longum 

10. quo refers to the act performed by the crane. — pactum, 
from pango : which had been agreed upon. 


Fable XI (III. 9). 

1. nomen, sc. est. 

2. aedis means an apartment, and therefore a temple, which 
consists of a single apartment; but the pkiral means a house, 
wliich consists of several apartments. — fundasset, § 33, iii. 1. 

4. cedo : submit. — cinis, in apposition with ego understood : 
when ashes ; the expression refers to the custom of burning the 
bodies of the dead. 

5. e populo, § 50, II. end. — nescio quis : somehody or other, 
§ 67, I. 1, note ; sc. dixit. 

6. The interrogative particle num is omitted, § 71, i. end. 

FableXII (IV. 16). 

2. finxit has for obj. the fable which foUows. — consolandi, 
§ 73, II. first note. 

3. navis, subj. of ccepit, v. 6. 

4. vectorum : those on board, sailors and passengers. 

5. mutatur: this passive is rendered into English by the 
neuter verb changes, § 23, 3. 

6. ferri and extollere dcpend upon ccepit. — flatibus, § 44, 
III. 2. 

8. sophus, the Greek oo^poc, wise. 

9. parce, the adverb ; the verb (imperat.) would be parc§. 
10. miscet, § 49, i. first note. 

Fable XIII (III. 5). 

2. quidam petulans, a saucy fellow. 

3. tanto, § 54, v. end. — melior, sc. es. — assem, a piece of 
copper money worth about a cent, § 84. 

4. mehercule: scan, m'ercule. 

5. possis, § 69, note; unde is a relative adverb = a quo, 
having for its antecedent eum understood, obj. of monstrabo. 

6. venit : is coming. 

, 9. spes fefellit, etc. : hopefailed; i. e., his impudence failed in 
its hopes. 

10. cruce, § 50, iv. 2, note. 

Fable XIV (I. 24). 
3. magnitudinis, objective genitive after invidia, 
5. an : whether. — bove, than the ox (§ 54, v.). 


7. negarunt = negaverunt, § 33, iii. 1. This word is used 
for dico non : say no. 

8. Quis : uter, lohicli of the two, would be more correct. — 
bovem, sc. esse majorem. 

9. novissime : at last, § 41, i. 

10. corpore, § 54, x. — jacuit: fell dead. 

FableXV (1.2). 

1. Athenae, Atliens: many names of towns in Latin are plural, 
and take a plural verb ; but in English they require a singular verb. 

2. miscuit : mixed np or dislurhed. 

4. factionum partibus, § 50, i. 3 : when party faciions were 
formed (abl. absolute). 

5. Pisistratus : a tyrant of Athens, b.c. 560. The word tyrant 
meant merely usurper, and did not iniply oppressive or harsh rule. 
Pisistratus was, on the whole, a mild and popular ruler; but 
his sons were less discreet, and were cxpelled by a revohition 
(b.C. 510), when the government of Athens became a democracy. 

6. Attici : Attica was the country belonging to Athens. 

7. quia and quoniam, § 43, 6. 

8. insuetis : dative aiter grave. 

9. rettulit : the t is doubled in order to make the e long ; see 
§ 78, I., note. 

12. compesceret, § 64, i. 
14. quod refers to tigillum. — vadis, § 51, ii. 
] 6. diutius : a good lohile, § 17, v. 2. 
18. explorato, § 72, ii. : after scrutinizing the Idng. 
20. supra governs lignum ; by poetical usage, it here foUows 
the word it governs. 

22. rogantes : i.e. messengers. 

23. esset, § 63, i. ; its subj. is is understood. 

26. fugitant, § 36, iii. — inertes: the fools. 

27. Mercurio : Mercury was the messenger of the gods. 

28. afflictis, § 51, v. — contra, an adverb : in reply. 
30. cives, § 53. — ait, sc. iEsopus. 

FableXVI(Y. 5). 

1. labi : go astray. 

2. pro, etc. : while they defend the error oftheir judgment. 

3. pcenitendum, § 73, iv. — agi depends upon solent. 
5. cunctos, a contractibn of conjunctos : all together. 


6. quisque is subj. of posset, but tbe Englisb idiora requires 
tbat it sboukl be connected witb ostenderet: tJiat each shoidd show 
what novelty he coidd. 

7. laudis limits certamina. 

8. sale: salt — icit; urbano sale : neatwit. 

10. prolatum foret ( = esset), § 67, ii. 

11. civitatem, used as a collective noun : the citizens. 

12. PauUo ante qualifies vacua. 

13. constitit, § 57, iii. first note. 

14. adjutoribus, § 54, x. : render with no assistants. 

15. ipsa: verij or mere, § 20, ir. near tbe end. 

16. sinum: tbe pallium was a Greek garinent, like a large 
sbawl ; it bung in loose folds over tbe breast, forming a kind of 
bag, called sinus, hay. 

17. sua, sc. voce. 

18. verum, sc. porcellum. — pallio, § 51, v. 

19. excuti, sc. pallium, § 67, i. end. — simul, sc. atque : as 
'soon as. 

21. prosequuntur : i.e., as be leaves tbe stage. 
26 derisuri, § 64, v. 5. 

28. plausus: used for tbe singular, applause, because it ex- 
presses many acts. 

29. sese, § 52, vi. — vestimentis, § 54, i. 

30. quod refers to porcellum obtigere : as in fact he did. 

31. latens: iindiscnverecl. 

32. vero, § 51, i. (dat. com. et incom.) : of a real pig , see v. 18. 

FableXVII (11.8). 

2. venatorum, § 44, iii. 1 ; subjective genitive. 

5. Hic, adverb. — latenti, sc. cervO. 

6. cucurreris, § 63, ii. 

7. spiritum : hreath = life. 

8. vos : you at least, § 49, ii. 

9. occasione data : ivhen an opportunify is given. 
10. vices : the turn, or cliange. — excipiunt : follows. 

14. Nec ille, etc. : and he, too, saw nothing. 

15. quietis: i.e., which had^kept silent. — agere gratias : return 

17. quidem : to he svre. 

18. ille, subj. of venerit. — venerit, § 57, iii. 


19. vertetur = imll be. 

21. corruptos : growii thin. — frondis limits parum, § 50, ii. 4. 

26. familia: slaves. 

Fable XVIII (Appendix, II. 8). 

1. rustici, sc. muris, limits cavo. 

2. glande, § 54, i. after cenat. 

4. rebus, § 54, vi. 

5. The fifth foot is a dactyl, -tur relL — reliquiis, § 54, iii. 

perfruuntur, § 57, iii. second note. 

7. Quo agrees with strepitu. 
11. JJt = ivhen. — quae refers to ea understood, which is gov- 
erned by sustulit. 

13. ille : i.e., rusticus. 

14. prae metu: forfear. 

16. ferculis : the courses at a meal, i.e., the dishes. — fruamur, 
§ 68, I. 

17. rure properly means /rom the country, but stands here for, 
ruri, in the country; § 55, iii. and 3, note. — quseras, § 60, 2. 

18. qui, subj. of nescis. 

19. et connects securum and liberum. 

20. tutum vivere is subj. of prcestat. 

21. carpi: to he worn out. 

FableXIX (IV. 21). 

1. doctus ; learned, or, rather, educated. 

2. Simonides, one of the greatest of the Greek poets, born in 
the island of Ceos, m the sixth century b.c. — egregium, from e 
and grex: one out of the herd, i.e., distinguished for excellence. — 
melos : a Greek noun in the neuter gender ; used here for the 
plural, songs; the English word melody is derived from this. 

3 sustineret, § 64, ii. ; depends upon coepit circumire. 

4. scan circ'ire. — nobiles, from nosco : well-known or 

5. canens : we should say, receiving pay for singing. — vic- 
torum, i.e., in the public games, which were established among 
the Greeks, for races, contests of strength, skill, etc. See Ilb. § 112. 

9. quam refers to navem, and is governed by dissolvit. 
10. medio, § 47, viii. ; the middle of the sea. 

12. subsidium, § 46, 

13. curiosior : ivith some curiosity. 


14. mecum, § 19, end. — pauci : {only) afew, 
17. Clazomenae : a city in Asia Minor. 

21. absentis, sc. Simonidis. — maximus, § 17, v. 4. 

22. sermone ab ipso : from his very speech. — cognitum, 
§ 72, I. 

24. ceteri : the rest of the passengers. — tabulam : shipwrecked 
persons used to carry about a picture representing the shipwreck, 
and beg alms. 


Caius Julius Cjesar was born b.c. 100, and assassinated 
B.c 44. For a general account of his character and of his 
Gallic campaigns, see Latin Lessons, p. 73. 

The campaigns of Ca^sar in Gaul lasted through eight 
seasons, b.c. 58-51, and are told in eight books (the last 
written by Hirtius, an officer of Csesar), each containing the 
operations of a single year. The following is a brief outline 
of these campaigns. 

I. Cffisar checks the attempt of the Helvetians to colonize in 
Western Gaul, and forces them, after a bloody defeat, to return 
to their own territory (see Latin Lessons). He then engages with 
a powerful tribe of Germans, who had made a military settlement 
in Eastern Gaul, and drives them, with their chief Ariovistus, 
beyond the Rhine. 

II. A formidable conspiracy of the northern populations of 
Gaul is suppresscd, with the almost complete extermination of the 
bravest Belgian tribe, the Nervii, in a battle which seems to have 
been the most desperate of all Cajsar ever fought. In this 
campaign, the coast towns of the west and northwest (Brittany) 
are reduced to submission. 

III. After a brief conflict with.the mountaineers of the Alps, 
who attacked the Roman armies on their march, the chief opera- 
tions are the conquest of the coast tribes of Brittany (Yeneti, etc.) , 
in a warfare of curious itaval engineering in the shallow tide- 
water inlets and among the rocky shores. During the season, the 
tribes of the south-west (Aquitani), a mining population, allied 
to the Iberians or Basques, are reduced by one of Ca3sar's officers. 


IV. An attack from the Germans on northern Gaul is repulsed ; 
and Cassar follows theni, by a bridge of timber hastily built, across 
the Rhine. lleturning, he crosses to Britain in the early autumn, 
for a visit of exploration. 

V. The partial conquest of Britain (second invasion) is fol- 
lowed by various movements in northern Gaul, in which the 
desperate condition of the lioman garrisons is relieved by the 
prudent and brave coiiduct of Labienus and Quintus Cicero. 

VI. Caesar makes a brief expedition across the Rhine, against 
the Germans. Sonie general disturbances are quelled, and 
northern Gaul is reduied to peace. 

VII. Vercingetorix, a brave and high-spiritcd chief of southern 
Gaul, effects a conspiracy of the whole country, which is at length 
subdued. Vercingetorix, in brilliant equipment, surrenders him- 
self, to secure the quiet of the country, and is taken in chains to 
liorne, where he is afterwards put to death in Ca3sar's triumph. 

VIII. Sh"ght insurrections, breaking out here and there, are 
easily subdued ; and the subjugation of Gaul is made complete. 

It was the custom of Ca3sar, ia tlie intervals of these 
campaigns, to pass the winterin Italy, or to visit his province 
of Illyria, keeping himself informed of the politieal affairs of 
Rome, and the movements of Pompey, vvho held the chiefpower 
there, and was at one time the sole consul. At the close 
of the Gallic war, being jealous of Ca2sar's power, the party 
of Pompey required that he should di?band his army. Tliis 
he refused to do, unless Pompey should make an equal 
surrender of military force. From these demands grew the 
suspicion of false play on each side, until tlie Civil War 
broke out (u.c. 49), and Pompey fled to Greece, where he 
was defeated the following year at Pharsalia. 

The first expedition to Britain was in the fourth year of 
Cai3ar's command in Gaul, b.c. 55. The early part of the 
summer was occupied with campaigns in Northern Gaul and 
Germany. It was known to Ca^sar that the Gauls received 
aid, or at least sympathy, from their kindred in Britain ; he 
determined, therefore, although it was too late for a regular 
campaign. to pay a visit to the island, of which very little 
was known beyond the fact that it was inhabited, like Gaul, 


by Celts. " His object was to obtain a personal acquaintance 
with the country, its chiefs and people ; to thrust himself in 
some way into their affairs, and establish such relations with 
them as might afFord a convenient pretext for further inter- 
ference at a future time." (Merivale.) 

The Cehs of Southern Britain were of the Cymric branch 
of the race, uow represented by the remnants of the early 
Britons still occupying Wales and Cornwall. It would appear 
that the Celts of Belgium and Armorica were also Cymric ; 
while the rest of the Gauls, like the inhabitants of Ireland, 
belonged to the Gaelic branch of this race. 


II* 6. parte, § 54, x. 

9. contendit, § 58, i. — bellis § 55, i. — subministrata, sc. 
esse, § 34, ii. 

10. inde, i.e. a Britannia. 

11. deficeret, § 57; sliould he insiifficient. 

12. usui, § 51, VII. we should say, of great service. — fore has 
for its subject the substantive clause si . . . cognovisset. 

13. adisset, § 57, iii, ; § 58, ii. ; we should say, sliould visit. 

14. fere docs not mean almost (which is prope) , but for the 
most part. 

15. Neque; § 43, 10 and 11. — temere, witliout special object. 
IC. his ipsis, dat. after notum. 

18. Gallias, plural, becausc of the subdivision into Galhc and 
Belgic. — ^vocatis, § 72, 3 ; having called. 

19. neque . . . neque, neither . . . nor. — esset (§ 67, i. 1) de- 
pends upon reperire. 

21. institutis, § 54, iii. 

22. ad depends upon idonei, § 51, i., note. — majorum 
navium, i.e., ships of war, etc. 

24. cognoscenda, § 73, and iv. — facerat, § 62, ii. 1 ; hefore 
running any risk. 

27. se refers to the subject of the principal clause, Csesar. — 
quam primum, § 17, v. 5, as soon as possihle. — revertatur, 
§ 70, i. 

12. 1. Morinos : the Morini inhabited Flanders and Artois. just 
where Gaul is nearest Britain. 


l^. 3. quam classem, § 48, iii., 2d. note. — superiore, /o?'m6r. 

4. ad,ybr; the war with the Yeneti, who lived on the coast 
of Brittany, had been chiefly naval. 

5. jubet, § 68, iii. sc. classem. 

6. per mercatores, § 54, i. end. 

7. polliceantur, § 64, i. ; polliceantur is here followed by 
the pres. inf. ; an unusual construction, see § 67, iii. and 2. 

10. domum, § 55. iii. 2. 

11. remittit, § 57, ii. — Commium; Saulcy is of opinion that 
tliese negotiations were not in good faith, and that Commius 
himself had a secret understanding with the Britons, 

12. ibi, i.e., in Atrebatibus; the Atrebates were east of the 

13. quem, § 67, i. 2. 

14. in his regionibus, i.e., Britain. 

15. magni, § 54, ix. 1. — huic, § 51, iii. 

16. possit, § 66, II. — adeat, § 64, iv. — civitates, § 52, ii. 1.- 

17. fidem, faith, and so a promise of faithful protection ; to 
folloio or accept the protection of the Roman people, is to siibmit 

themselves to them. — se, i.e., Csesar. 

19. quantum, sc. tantum, § 22, i., as much as. — ei, to one, 
§ 20, II. 

20. auderet, § 63, ii. (There is a slight reproach in this 

21. die, § 55, i. 

24. vigilia: the Roman night, betAveen sunset and sunrise, was 
divided, for military pur[)Oses, into four watches ; the third watch 
therefore would average 3 a.m. ; at this season, somewhat earher. 
— solvit, sc. naves. Portus Itius, from whith the expedition 
sailed, is identified by the Emperor Napoleon III. with Boulogne ; 
by Merivale and Saulcy, with Witsand, a village between Bou- 
logne and Calais. Witsand {white .mnd) was during the middle 
ages the chief port of embarcation for England ; but its harbor is 
now blocked up with sand. The name Itius is probably con- 
nected with itus — the harhor for transit. 

27. esset, § 62, i. — hora; the d^y, between sunrise and sun- 
set, was divided into twelve hours ; the fourth hour at this season, 
wouhl be between 8 and 9 a.m. 

30. Cujus, § 48, IV. 

31. angustis, i.e., near the shore. 


13. 2. The tribuni were the regular comniauders of the legion, 
six to each legion, holding the couimand ibr two nionihs in ihe 
year (Ilb, § loo). They were originally appointed by the com- 
mander, but at this time were j^artly chosen by the people in the 
comitia of the tribes. Tlie legati were aids of the general, with 
no regular command ; but on account of the inexperience of the 
tribunes, Cicsar appointed a legatus to command each legion in 
battle (B. G. i. 52), and after this time each legion was regularly 
commanded by a legatus. 

4. cognosset, § 66, i. — ut = as, depending on adminis- 

5. rei militaris ratio, the rules of miUtary science; ratio, 
from reor, to calculate, mcans the process of calculation, and so 
the rule or principle reasoned out. — maritimae res, naval tactics. 

6. ut cum, since ; ut is used to strengthen cum. 

7. ad nutum et ad tempus form a combined idea, at the verij 
moment of command. 

8. administrarentur, § 64, iv. 

10. passuum, § 18, 3 ; the passus, pace, was a little under 
live feet, so that the thousand paces, or Ronian mile, was some- 
what shorter than our mile. Hb. § 187. 

11. litore, § 54, X. — The fleet had at first arrived opposite 
Dover ; a calculation of the tides shows that in the afternoon of 
this day the tide made for the East ; after doubhng the South 
Foreland, the fleet found itself at the beach of Deal (Merivale). 

13. quo genere, i.e., essedariis, those who fought from the 
essedum, or two-wheeled war-chariot. 

14. copiis ; exception to § 54, ii. Note to " Accompaniment." 

15. nostros, 47, iii. note. — prohibebant, aiiempted to pre- 

16. magnitudinem, § 54, i. first note. 

17. nisi in alto, except in deep water. — militibus, § 51 viii. ; 
it was necessary for the soldiers to leap down, etc. 

18. locis and manibus, 54, x. 

20. desiliendum, § 73, i. 

21. hostibus, § 54, ii. third note. 

23. conjicerent, § 61, 2. 

24. insuefactos, i.e., to going into the water. 

25. generis, § 50, ni, 2. 

27. uti and utebantur, manifest. 


32. tormentis ; the Roinan armies carried wlth them en- 
gines for hurling stones, darts, &c., so efficient that they may be 
lairly reckoned as a substitute for modern artillerj. 
33. quae res, § 48, v. 

14:. 1. nostris, § 47, iii. note, and v. note. 

3. constiterunt, were ckecked. — ao, and more than that (§ 43, 
1) . — paulum modo, a very little. 

5. qui relates to is understood, subj. of inquit. — aquilam, 
the silver eagle, introduced by Marlus as standard of the legion ; 
carried by the chief centurion, or primipilus (Hb. 158). 

6. legioni, § 51, i. Dativus commodi et incommodi. 

7. Desilite, § 58, iii. — vultis, § 59, i. ii. and note, iii. 

8. certe, § 41, ii. 3. 

9. praestitero, § 57, iii. ; i.e., will be able to say that I have 
done my duty. 

12. inter se, one another. — universi (uni versi, all turned 
into one), all ivith one accord. 

13. proximis primis, the nearest ships ofthefirst line. 

14. subsecuti. i.e., those on board. 

16. Pugnatum est, the hattle was fought, or the fight went on, 
§ 39, 5. 

18. aiius alia ex navi, onefrom one ship, anotherfrom another, 
§ 47, IX. 

19. quibuscumque, § 21, i. note ; its antecedent is iis (signis) 
understood, dt-pendmg on aggregabat. 

26. speculatoria navigia; swift boats, used for exploring and 

27. quos . . . his, § 48, iii. end. Notice the use of the imperfect 
tense through tlils description, indicating that these circumstances 
took place again and again. 

28. simul, sc. atque, as soon as, § 43, 9. 

30. neque potuerunt, but were not ahle. 

31. insulam capere, reach the island; the transports contain- 
ing the cavalry had been detalned. 

15. 3. The omission of the conjunction et [after miserunt] is 
very common. — imperasset stands for imperaverit (fut. perf.) 
in Oratio Recta; it becomes phip. subj. by § 57 (after poUiciti 
sunt) and § 67, ii. (after facturos esse) . — facturos, § 67, iii. 2. 
5. quem, § 52, vi. 


7. oratoris modo, in the character of an ambassador. 

9. in petenda pace, § 73, v. 

11. ut ignosceretur, sc. iis, that pardon should be given them, 
§ 51, III. second note ; ignosco governs the dat. (ut ignosceret 
iis), and therefore cannot be used personally in the pass. ; ut 
ignoscerentur would be bad Latin. 

14. intuUssent, after quod, § 63, 1. — ignoscere,"sc. se, § 67, 
I. end. 

15. imperavit, sc. iis, demanded of them, § 51, iii. end. — 
quorum, 50, ii. 1. 

16. arcessitam, which had to befetched, § 72, 1. 

21. post . . . quam, § 56, iii. ; it might also be die quarto 
postquam ; see § 55, i. note. 

23. supra, § 56, ii. end ; see p. 12. 

25. ex superiore portu, the cavalry had sailed from a point 
eight miles east of that from which the infantry had started. 

27. earum, § 50, ii. 2. — posset, § 65, i. — aliae . . . aUae, 
§ 22, II. 

29. occasum, § 56, ii. 1. 

30. sui, § 19, II. and iii. ; § 50, iii. ; to themselves. — sidversa. 
nocte, § 54, x., allhough the night was unfavorahle. 

32. ut esset, § 70, ii. ; this full moon has been determined by 
astronomical calculations to have been on the night of August 30. 

33. gestus ; it will be remembered that there are no tides in 
the Mediterranean, so that this phenomenon was strange and 
appalling to the Romans. 

10. 2. transportandum curaverat, had had the army con- 

7. essent, § 63, iii. 

11. Neque; it is often best in translating to divide this word 
(= et non) , and join the negative with some other word ; for on 
the one hand there were no other, etc. 

11. possent, § 65, IV. 2. 

13. constabat, it was an established fact; its subjeet is 
hiemari . . . oportere ; that of oportere is hiemari in GalUa. 

14. his in locis ; the preposition often stands after the first word 
it governs, when this is a pronoun agreeing with a noun. 

20. hoc, § 54, I. ; for this reason. 

22. factu, § 74, ii. — duxerunt. thought, has for its subject, 


24. res has a great variety of meaning in different connections ; 
here hostilities. 

25. inferendi, § 73, iii. first note. 

31. eventu,/a^e. — ex eo quod, /rom tlds (thefact), that. 

32. id is subject of fore. 

33. suspicabatiir, hegan to suspect. 

17. 3. earum, § 48, iii. top of p. 58. 

6. administraretur, § 63, iii. 

7. reliquis . . . posset, § 70 ; a substantive clause governed 
by effecit. 

9. frumentatum, § 74, 1, — neque, § 43, i. note. 

10. belU, § 50, III. 1. 
12. ventitaret, § 36, iii. 

14. quam oonsuetudo ferret, than was customary. 

15. partem, 48, iii. 

16. consilii, § 50, iii. 3 ; some new design. 

17. The cohort was the tenth part of a legion, containing six 
hundred men (Ilb. 158) ; one cohort was posted at each of the 
four gates of the camp (Ilb. 160). 

26. dispersos . . . occupatos, lohile they were scattered, etc. 
28. incertis ordinibus, § 54, x. expressing the reason. 

32. equorum, § 50, i. 

33. insinuaverunt, § 57, iii. 

18, 3. ita . . . ut, in such a loay that. — illi, the warriors. 
6. praestant, they display or unite. 

8. incitatos, atfull speed. — brevi, in a m,oment. 

11. rebus, under these circumstances . — nostris, § 51, 11. 

18. occupatis, while our men were husy, so that they could not 
attend to matters, the country-people [see p. 17, 1. 11] left their 
homes, and got out of their reach. 

20. dies, § 55, i. 

21. continerent, § 65, i. ; stich as kept, &c. 
25. sui, § 73, II. note. 

30. The substantive clause ut . . . effulgerent is in apposition 
with idem, which is the subject of fore. 

10. 3. spatio, § 55, 11. end. 

10. aequinoctii; the scason of the equinox is usually stormy. 
15. eosdem quos, the same as. — reliquae, sc. ceperunt. 


The first invasion of Britain was only a reconnoissance ; 
the following suminer, b.c. 54, Cajsar determined upon a 
regular invasion of the country. The eariy part of the 
season was speut in some unimportant operations, and rnean- 
while his lieutenants liad been preparing a strong fieet of 
war shii>s and transports. July 20, accordiiig to the Emperor 
Napoleon III., he sailed from the Tortus Itius ; both starting- 
point and hinding-place were the same as the } ear before — 
Boulogne or Witsand, and Deal. 

21. Africo, the south-west wind blew from Africa to Italy. 
24. aecntos, foUowing, i.e., in consequence of. 

27. fuit laudanda, § 40, 11. 

28. vectoriis, ablative absolute, although, etc. ; long ships of 
war were of course swifter than the transports. 

30. 3. quae, ofivhich. — octingentae, § 54, v. note. 
9. praesidio, § 51, vii. — essent, § 64, i. 
10. eo, § 54, I. — navibus, § 51, iv. 

12. praesidio, § 51, v. ; navibus, § 51, i. note ; depending on 
praesidium ; over the guardfor (or of) the ships. — Q., § 85. 

13. milia, § 55, 11. 

19. belli, § 54, i. second note. — ut videbatur, as it seemed. 

20. succisis, § 72, 2 ; bi/ felling thick timber, so as to make an 

21. Ipsi rari, afeio ofthem, a fcw being sufficient. 

23. The testudo (so called from its resemblance to the shell of 
a tortoise) was formed by a close body of men who held their 
sliields over their heads, overlapping in such a way, hke the 
shingles on a roof, as to form an unbroken surface, and an almost 
complete protection against the enemy. Under this they were 
able to approach very near the enemy's works, and carry on their 
own engineering. 

26. eos, the soldlers. — longius qualifies prosequi, which 
governs fugientes. 

30. diei, § 50, end. — tripertito, derlved from tres and partio ; 
the common spelling is tripartito. 

33. extremi, the hindmost of the enemy. 

^1.4. subsisterent, i.e., as they said, § 63, i. ; this is one of the 
rare cases in which the imp. subj. may be best rendered coiild. 


13. viderentur ; we should say, it oppeared tliat tlie rest could, 
etc. — fabros : each legioii had vvith it a nuiiiber of workpeople. 

14. Labienus was Ca3sar's best officer, who had conimand in 
Gaul during Caesar^s absence in Britain ; in the civil war he ioined 
the faction ofPompey. 

15. legionibus, § 54, i.-sunt: § 66, we might expect the 
mdicative by 66, 11. ; but the statement is considered as an inde- 
pendent one, not a part of the subjunctive clause. 

17. operae, § 50, i. 2.-§ 54, n. end. — commodissimum, 
47, IV. (3). 

19. ne . . . quidem, § 41, n. 5. 

20. ad, in relation to, orfor. 

27. Cassivellaunus (the Roman orthography for the British or 
Welsh Cadwalion) was chief of the tribes about London, and to 
the North; his chief city was probably St. Albans. . 

29. Huio, § 51, V. 

'«^» 1. connect ipsa with insula, and memoria with proditum. 

10. plumbum album, i.e. tin. 

15. fas is that which is permitted by the laws of God. 

17. quam, § 17, v. 2. — frigoribus, tJie seasons of cold. 
19. alter, one oftlie two ; the correlative is inferior. 

■ 20. Cant-ium, Keiit, the soutli-east corner of England. 

22. Alterum ; Cassar supposed the western coast of England to 
be opposite Spain. 

24. dimidio, § 54, v. end. 

25. pari spatio transmissus, of an equal lengtTi of pa^sage, 
§ 54, II., — ablative of description or quality. 

26. atque, as, following pari, 43, 9. 

27. Mona, probably Man ; . the same name was given also to 

28. objectae ; lying opposite to one, i.e., on tJie passage. 

29. dies ; a true report from the high northern latitudes is 
ignorantly applied to the Orkney and Shetland Islands. 

31. nisi, except tliat. — certis . . . mensuris, hy accurate mea- 
surements hy the water-clock, or clepsydra. 

23« 3. maxime, in general. 

4. These distances are all considerably more than the air-line. 
12. vitro, woad, a plant used for dyeing blue. 
14. capillo and parte are abl. of description or quality, § 54, 11. 

18. fuerint, § 57, i. first note. 


26 atque iis, and these too ; the first cohort of cach legion was 
made up of picked men, and stood higher in rank than the others. 

27. inter se belongs with intermisso ; the object of this close 
order was to prevent the essedi froni penetrating between the 
cohorts. — constitissent, § 61, 2. 

29. perruperunt, i.e. the enemy. 

30. Q. Laberius Durus, § 15. 

31. submissis, sent up, i.e., sent as aid. 

24, 1, pro, infront of, not in defence of 
4. esse, were, § 57, iv. 

9. Equestris, etc. ; moreover, the mode of fighting with horses 
(i.e., for chariots) brought precisely the same peril upon them 
when retreating as well as when purstdng. 

11. Accedebat huc ut, hesides ; the subject of accedebat is 
ut, etc, § 70, II. ; literallj, there was added to this, that. 

12. stationes, relays. 

13. deinceps exciperent, relieved one after the other. 

21. signis legionibusque, i.e., they followed the foragers quite 
to the main armv. 

31. consilio, i.e., of not coming again to a general engagement. 
33. atque lioc aegre, and that with dirfficulty. 

25, 2. instructas is here a participle, not an infinitive, § 34, 
II. end. 

3. praefixis, driven in infront of the hank. 

8. " The swimming and fording of rivers were among the 
regular exercises of the lioman legionary. Though immersed up 
to his chin in water, he was cxpert in plying his hatehet against 
the stakes which opposed his progress, while he held his buckler 
over his head not less steadily than on dry land. Behind him a 
constant storm of stones and darts was impelled against the enemy 
from the engines which always accompanied the Roman armies " 
(Merivale) . 

9. Tlie cavalry did not form a part of the legion, but were 
Gallic auxiliaries. 

lo. servabat, watched. — ex via excedebat, kept out of the 

24. discedi, § 39, 5; that any one shoidd depart. 
26. hostibus, § 51, iii. second note. 

29. his, the inhabitants of Kent. 

30. castra navalia, see p. 21. — de improviso, unexpectedlj. 


2G. 7. extrahi ; dragged out, 

8. in annos singulos, each Tjear. — vectigalis, § 50, ii. 3. 

13. deductis, launched. 

15. commeatibus, yassages. 

17. tot navigationibus, ablative absolute, although, etc. 

The passage from the Sixth Book of the Gallic War, 
describing the people of Gaul and Germany, is one of the 
earhest and most important sources of iuformation in regard 
to these races. 

37. 9. redeat, § 64, i. shall be referred. 

10. ne . . . egerent, § 70 ; in apposition with ejus rei. 

11. auxilii, § 50, iv. 5. — egeret, § 57, i. sccond note. 

12. faciat, § 59, iv. 3. 

14. summa, the constitution. 

15. Tlie passage omitted speaks of the two great factions of 
Gaul, at the head of one of "svhich had stood the ^Edui, of the 
other the Sequani ; in this contest the iEdui had succeeded in 
getting upon thelr side the decisive influence of Rome. 

18. loco, in the jjosition. 

19. nuUo . . . consilio, are summoned at no consultation, i.e.. 
are consuUed upon no occasion ; in Enghsh, the collective noun 
common peojile rcquires a plural verb. — aere alieno, another^s 
Qnoney, i.e., debt 

22. in hos, over these, i.e., plerique. — dominis (sc. sunt). 

23. duobus; see hne 17. 

25. religiones, the doctrines of rehgion. 

28. eos, the Gauls. 

30. admissum, committed ; a frequent meaning of this word. 

32. si qui, § 21, iii. end ; the usual form would be quis, when 
used without a noun, § 21, ii. 

33. decreto, § 54, i., in accordance with their decision.— 
sacrificiis, § 54, vi. sc. eos, they forbid them the sacrifices. 

38. 5. incommodi hmits quid. 

12. Carniitum, a tribe south-west of Paris, in the neighbour- 
hood of Chartres and Orleans ; this part of France abounds at the 
present day in druidical remains. 

IG. Brittannia; this is taken as a proof of the Cymric origin 
of Druidism. — reperta, § 67, iv. 1; it might equaUy weU be 
di^ciplinam repertam esse. 


22. immvLnitatem, freedom fi^om burdens (munus = burden) . 

23. praBmiis, ^^^'ivi/eges. 

27. litteris mandare, commit to writing. — cum, altliougli. 

28. rationibus, relations. 

30. in vulgus efferri, to be divulged to theimblic. 

31. velint, § 63, i. ; it is the consideration whicli led to 
Instituisse. — litteris confisos, by trusting to documents. 

20. 1. hoc, 51, III. end (sc. iis) ; persuade them ofthis. 

2. ab aliis, etc. ; tbis is the doctrine of metempsychosis, or 
the transmigration of souls. 

4. maxime excitari, § 67, iv. 2, that there is the chief 
incitement to virtue. 

11. uti . . . propulsarent, in apposition with quod. 

13. versantur, occupy or devote themselves. 

14. ambactos; this word is perhaps of Celtic origin, and 
means retainers. 

23. reddatur, § 66, 11. 

30. sint, § 69, note. 

33. Deum, § 10, 6. — Mercurium; i.e., the god who pos- 
sessed the attributes of the lloman Mercury ; his Gallic iiame was 

30. 8. initia, thefirst knowledge. 
16. auderet, § 57, iii. end. 

18. ab Dite patre, § 54, vii. note ; Dis is usually identified 
with the Grcek Pkito, the god of the lower world ; it is a curious 
fact that both words mean rich. 

19. Ob eam causam; because the race came from the dark 
lower world into the light. 

21. noctium; as in our fortnight, se^^nnight. — finiunt, limit, 
and so rechon. 

30. communicant, theyjoin with or add to. 

31. conjunctim, etc, a joint account is kept. — fructus, the 

32. utriusque, possessive genitive. 

31. 1. vitae, etc. ; this was also the case. in Rome. 

4. de uxoribus, etc, they examine their wives after the man- 
ner of slaves ; i.e., by torture. 

5. compertum est, impersonal, if amjthing is proved. 

7. pro, cunsidering. , 


9. supra hauc memoriam, hefore our day. 
11. justis, coinplete; i.e., tliis was necessary to the complete- 
ness ; translate, to render their funeral 7'ites complete. 

14. sanctum, established, i.e., the clause which foUows. 

15. re publica, puhlic affairs. — rumore aut fama, vague 
mmor or dejinite report. 

20, quee visa sunt ; ivhat it seems good, sc. occultare. 

22. per consilium, in the ivay of a regular assemhly. 
24. This paragraph is taken from Book iv. ch. 5. 
31. quorum, § 50, iv. 3. — in vestigio, at once. 

39. 7. ah pa.r-valis, from boyhood. 

9. inter suos, among their companions. 
14. The joint proprietorship of land, here described, with its 
annual distribution, finds its analogies in India, Russia, and other 
countries of the Aryan race (See Maine's Anc. Law. ch. viii.) 

17. quantum . . . agri ; how much land and in ivhat locality. 

19. The true cause is probably that the property belonged to 
the clan, not to individuals. 

20. gerundi, § 1; top of p. 2. — agricultura, ybr agriculture ; 
the ablative is the usual construction with verbs of changing. 

21. parare, acquire. 

23. vitandos, § 47, 11. (1). 

27. The name of the Suevi is gencrally supposed to mean wan- 
dering {sway back and forth) ; from it is derivcd the modern 
Swabia (Baden and Wiirtemberg). — The two paragraphs which 
follow are from the first and second chapters of the Fourth Book. 

29. singula, 18, 11. 1. 

33. 4, partem, § 52, iv., in greatest part. 

7. officio, § 54, I., rendcr, accustomed to. 

8. omnino, with negatives, means at all. — faciant, § 63, i. ; 
it is the expLanation given of the word libertate. 

10. adduxerunt, § 27, iii. 3. 

13. et corresponds to neque above. — lavantur, 3d. conj. here. 

14. eo, § 54, J.,for this reason. 

16. Quin etiam, nay even. 

18. pretio, § 54, ix. 

20. summi laboris, capahle of, etc, § 50, i. 2. 
33. expulsos agrees with finitimos, which is subj. of cedere. 
— virtutis, § 50, iii. 4. 

17. rerum limits fides ; confidence in respect to all things, etc. 


34. 3. Tacltus in his Germania (ch. vii.) says : " Reges ex 
nobilitate, duces ex virtute inruunt.^' In ch. xi. he speaks 
more in detail ofthe power of the principes. 

12. qui, etc., '' who wish to follow, let ihem present ihem- 
selves,^' § 67, ii. 1. Tacitus, ch. xiii., describes this custom of 
personal attachment to a chief, which was one of the principal 
elements bf the feudal system. 

20. sanctos, inviolable. 

26. The Ilercynian Forest was the general name for the 
mountain region of Swabia, Thuringia, and Bohemia, which 
separates the waters of the Danube from those of the North Sea 
and Bahic. 

32. Provinciae, i.e., Gallia Transalpina, the modern Provence 
and neighboring provinces. 

35. 2. ipsi, the Gauls ; illis, the Germans. 

4. expedito,ybr one with no tncnmhrance, i.e., a good walker; 
at the present day, di.-tances are measured in Switzerland, and 
often in Germany, by hours, not miles. 

8. recta regione, along tJie course. 
12. hujus Germaniae, i.e., which we are acquainted with. 

17. prodenda, deserving to be, etc. 

19. Probably a hearsay description of the reindeer. 

25. alces = elJcs ; the Latin c was probably sounded like Jc 

26. varietas, i.e., the changes at different seasons. 

27. mutilae refers to the blunted horns of these animals. 
30. 3. summa species, evenj appearance. 

6. uri ; from these the Swiss canton of Uri is thought to have 
taken its name, as Bern did from the bear. 

7. specie, § 54, ii. ; the limiting genitive tauri serves the 
purpose of an adjective. 

11. adolescentes, 36, i., wJiile growing up. 
15. mansuefieri, § 37, vii. end. 

18. ab labris, around the rims. 


The precise date of the life of Quintus Cnrtius is not 
known ; but it is supposed that he lived in the first century 
after Christ : he was probably a rhetorician, who selected the 


career of Alexander as a suitable subject for a piece of com- 
position. As a hi^tory his work has little value ; but from 
the grace and brilliancy of its style it has ahvays been a. 
favorite. The first two books are wanting ; the third com- 
mences with the year b.c. 333, when Alexander, after his 
victory on the Granlcus, is about to push on against the 
Persian empire. 

The period of Grecian glory under the supremacy of 
Athens, Sparta, and Thebes was past. Philip of Macedon, 
father of Alexander, had overthrown the liberty of Greece 
in the battle of Chaeronea, b.c. 338, and was about to take 
up anew the old hereditary -wslt against Persia, when he was 
assassinated (b.c. 336), and succeeded by his son Alexander, 
then a youth of twenty years. Alexander, who had genius 
and spirit, at once took up his father's plans. In 334 he 
gained a victory over Darius on the river Granicus, and 
then advanced through Asia Minor. Early the uext year, 
he entered Cilicia ; and now Darius abandoned his defensive 
policy, left his advantageous position in Mesopotamia, and 
advanced to meet the invader. This change of policy proved 
his ruin, as it would have been easy to prevent Alexander 
from crossing the mountains which separate CiHcia from 
Syria. The following extract begins with the entrance of 
Alexander into Cilicia. 

37. 8. Castra Cyri, § 46.— § 52, iii. (3). The name of this 
place is analogous to Enghsh names likc Leicester, Winchester, in 
whioh the root is Castra, and which date from the Roman occu- 
pation of Britain. Cyrus the Great, founder of the Persian Em- 
pire, overthrew Croesus b.c. 546. 

11. ab aditu, § 54, vi. note. 

12. munimenta, object of imitante, which is abl. abs. 

15. Memnon was the best general of Darius, and thc originator 
of his former defensive pohcy : he had just died, — an irreparable 
loss to the King. 

19. fuit, it icoidd have heen, § 59, note. 

25. viiidicare debuerat, he ought to have defended ; as we can- 
not form any past tense of ought, we are obliged to use the per- 
fect infinitive in English; § 57, iv., note. 


38. 1. vel, even. 

3. cum, § 43, has here something of a causal force, and takes 
the subjunctive ; render, rising from the sea. 

4. cornu, sharp point. 

6. mari cedit, it retreats from the sea. 

8. eadem, i.e., Cilicia, sc. est. 

12. tractu, current. — puro, dean. — quippe, 5mce ; this use 
of quippe for quoniam, is very common in Curtius and other late 

15. multa, etc. ; we should say, pleasant hanks. 

19. sedes, positions ; Thebes, § 9, 0. ; in app. with urbium. 
— Typhon, a fire-breathing monster of mythology. 

30. 1. ipsos, the archers; they were to be as cautious as if 
actually engaged in battle. 

2. Tarson: § 10, 1. — tum maxime, just at that time. 

8. Mediam, sc. urbem, § 47, viii. 

10. aliam agrees with oram ; Ciliciae limits oram understood. 
— vapore, the steaming heat, or sultriness. 

14. decorum agrees with the clause si . . . contentum. 

16. cultu seems to refer to the bath, which is contrasted with the 
luxurious baths of the Romans ; a simple and easily prepared care 
ofthe hodij : (Crosby.) It is sometnnes referred to his clothing. 

17. ingressi, sc. regis; this genitive limits artus. 
31. Quem, subject of daturum, § 67, 11. 2. 

33. penetrarent, § 61, 2. 

40. 5. sui, § 50, III. 2. 

11. in Ciliciam ; the acc, because motion is implied in fore. 
13. sibi,.§ 51, I. note. — manibus, § 51, v. end. 

16. axticulo, juncture. 

19. provocor, challenged. — superbas ; " in which he ordered 
them to bring the mad son of Philip to him alive and in chains." 

20. fortunam, etc. ; had my fate in counsel ivith him; i.e., took 
counsel with it. 

21. licet, § 39, 1. — arbitrio meo, hij my ownpower. 
28. ccepere, § 49, i. end, 

30. injuria, unjusfly, § 54, 11. notc. 

31. a latere ipsius, yVow his own side, i.e., some among his fol- 


33. datunim se is the subject of pronunciari, depending on jus- 
serat ; this statement is hardly in keeping with the aniiable char- 
acter of Darius. 

4-1 . 6. puero comes, § 51, i. note ; Ms companion when a hoy. 
— ut, as. 

8. non praeceps sed strenuum, not violent, biit powerful. 

15. id ipsum, even this ; i.e., quod . . . sumpturus esset. 

16. sumpturus esset, § 66, i. — § 40. 

18. purpuratorum ; the courtiers, clothed in thc royal purple. 
22. in utramque partem, on either side of the question. 

24. perseverem, § 60, 3. 

25. datum fuerit, § 57, i. end. 
27. At, § 43, 2. 

32. assumpto, havi^ig passed. 

4:2. 10. ab isto ore ; i.e,, as depending upon thy life. 

11. isto, § 22, II. — parricidii ; i.e., becanse the King is the 
father of his country ; tlie same word is applied to the murder of 
any near relative, or to treason to one^s country. 

15. laxa animum, relieve your mind. — sollicitudine, § 44, 11.' 

19. permisissent, § 59, iv. 2. 

20. animum, disposiiion, i.e., towards you. — alio, sc. modo. 
27. interclusus etc. ; his breath was obstructed. 

32. matris, § 50, iv. 1 ; eum is omitted. 

43. 3. exspectatione, § 54, v. 

8. grates habebant, expressed thanks, 
11. utique, especially. — vel, whether it was that, § 43, 3. 

21. artibus, the training or education. — Darius was at this 
time in Mesopotamia, where he had intended to await the advance 
of Alexander ; but, having changed his plan after the death of 
Memnon, he moved into Syria. 

26. celeritate, sc. tanta. — grave, unwieldy. 

27. eo, i.e., its banks. 

31. cujus, § 54, III. note. — § 50, iv. 6. 

44. 1. otium, a halt. 

3. iEsculapius was the god of healing : Alexander showed his 
confidence in his own fortune, by instituting games to him, instead 
of to the god of war. 

6. tractus ejus, of that section. — suae facta ditionis, were 
reduced under his power, § 50, i. ; note ; sc. esse. 


9. alteris castris, hy a second daifs march. 
14. quoque, § 41, 11. 1. 

17. idem (i.e., Parmenio) et = at Giice. 

20. utrum . . . an, § 71. 11. ; tlie double form utrumne is 
liardly found, except in poetry. 

23. prcelio ; the usual spelling is with oe. Darius was in Syria, 
with a great superiority in nunibers, as well as position ; for his 
army consisted largely of cavalry, for wliich this broad plain gave 
great advantages. If the Greeks waited Avhere they were, on the 
other hand, the Persians would be able to bring no larger forces 
into battle than they themsclves, on account of the narrowncss 
of the ground. 

20. circumiri, § 52, 11. 2. — ancipiti, on tico sides. 
28. vincerentur, § 64, iii. ; the non does 11 ot bclong with ne, 
but corresponds to sed. , 

40. 1. sede, abl. of price ; we should say, had exclianged his 
native home for exile; see note on p. 32, 1. 20. 

7. nobilitate, § 54, iv. 

8. literas ; the singular means a letterof the alphabet, the plu- 
ral an epistle, writings, or literature. 

12. initi, § 72, 2 ; of having entered upon. 

13. redderetur, § 62, 11. 3. 

14. eam, subject of dari. — sigillo, § 54, x. 

18. jussu, § 13, 4 ; such nouns are most often used in acc. or abl. 

24. damnaret, § 57 ; in oratio recta, this would be si damnet, 
by § 59, IV. 1. 

28. fidem, sc. esse. 

29. velle, sc. Graecos. 

30. diversa, to the enemy. — commissum, sc. sibi. 
33. futuros, in order that they might be: § 64, v. 5. 

40. 1. sanctiTS, holy (not sacred), conscientions. — negat is 
generally used for a negative assertion ; Darius declares that he 
icill not ; or, refuses, etc. 

4. sibi, § 51, III. end and iv. — crediturum, § 67, 11. 2. 

5. imbuisset, § 57, iii. — neminem, subject of debere. 

6. capite, § 50, iv. 2, end. 

9. fidei, § 50, i. 2. — haberi, sc. eum, § 48, iii. note. 
11. ipsum quidem, hefor his part. 

13. Fama, etc, wars depend upon rumor. 
18. servato . . . more : if the custom of the ancestors were kept. 




20. obtulerint, § 66, i. : wlio [a* they asserted], etc. 

21. regem, i.e., Alexander. — sua, i.e., of Darius. 
30. verius, § 47, vii. 

47'. 6. relicta, § 10, 2. — fugerent, § 65, 11. : wcreflying, not 
would fly : the Persians had made a flank movement past the 
Macedonians, and taken the town of Issus, which Alexander had 
just left. 

8. excepti, left heliind. 
19. adesset, sc, utrum, § 71, 11. note. 

22. campis, § 55, iii. 5. 

24. cum: altliougli. — incondita: undisciplined. 
27. laetus decernendum esse : glad that he ivas to flght. — 
quod, as ; a relative, referring to the clause that Ibllows. 

32. nec injuria: and not ivithout reason. 

33. esset, § 57, v. : we should say howflcJde she is. 
4:8, 2. majora, sc, esse. — periculis, § 54, v. 

3. sicut dubium esset: as it ivas douhtful, § 66,1. — an: 
this use of an for utrum, in a single dependent question, is not 
common in prose. 

4. cum magna laude, § 54, 11. first note. 
6. vigilia: see note on p. 12, 1. 24. 

10. The tuba was a long straight horn, with a harsh sound, 
used for infantry. 

13. The stadium, or distance marked out for foot-races, was a 
Greek measure, of about one eighth of a mile. 

14. The agmen (from ago, § 44, iii. 3) is the army marching; 
acies, the line of battle. — Alexander was now retracing his steps 
towards Issos, and each army was facing towards its own country. 

17. etiam, sc, eos, subj. of occurrere. 

18. non mediocris: immoderate; this is the figure called 
litotes, by which a thing is affirmed by denying its opposite. 

21. discurrentium, i.e., to give orders and take their positions. 
49. 2. destinata, § 47, iv. (1). 

11. milibus, § 46 ; it cannot agree with peditibus (§ 18, i. 3). 

12. For the Macedonian phalanx see Ilb. 121 ; it was the most 
famous military order that ever existed, for compact and concen- 
trated force. 

17. assueta; this verb may be followed by the dative, or by 
the ablative of means — pyvzctised in the qffice of body-guard. 

18. Hyrcania was east, Media south of the Caspian Sea. 


22. Quicquid, sc, lo 
24. stabant, rested on. 

50. 5. et ipsi, these also. 

10. illi, the barbarians towards the mountains, opposed by the 

14. quod is subj. of incesseretur, depending on timuerat ne. 

17. " At first the breadth of practicable road was so confined 
as to admit only a narrow column of march, with the cavalry fol- 
lowing the infantry ; presently it widened, enabling Alexander to 
enlarge his front, by bringing up successively the divisions of the 
phalanx.'" Grote. 

24. major exercitus numero: louder than tlie numbers would 

25. circumjecta, § 47, 11. (2). 
28. suspensi, exhausted. 

51. 3. olim may refer either to past or to future time — either, 
they who had once freed tlie world [a hyperbolical allusion to 
the Greek wars of freedom], and whose gods, Hercules and Bac- 
chiis, had traversed wide regions ; or, that they would now free 
the world, and make their way to the limits which these gods had 
once reached. The latter appears to be Crosby^s interpretation, 
and is perhaps best, although there is certainly an inconsistency 
between liberatores and imposituros jugum. 

9. gladio* § 54, vii. 

10. The umbo, hoss, was a metallic point projecting 
centre of the shield. 

11. The Athenians and Boeotians had been vanquished by Alex- 
ander^s father, Philip, in the great battle of Chaironea, five years 
before: b.c. 338. 

12. BoeotiaB and urbis (i.e., Thebes) both limit species. 

19. The invasion of Darius was b.c. 490, that of Xerxes in 480. 
The Persian kings sent ambassadors to Greece, demanding of each 
city earth and water, as symbols of absolute submission. 

22. ruinis, from ruo : by tearing down. 

24. rapto : iipoii ichat tliey stole. 

27. Irent, § 67, 11. 1 ; in oratio recta it would be ite ; for the 
tense, see § 57. — feminis, § 51, v. note. 

33, decernere, § 68, 11. The oriental nations excelled greatly 
in eavalry, which was the weak point of the Greeks and Romans. 
The battle upon the Greek left was vigorously contested. 



53, 2. dextrum: can this mean laevum? We have seen 
(p. 50, l. 10) that the enemy had been driven on Alexander^s right. 

8. conjungi, § 23, 3. 

9. ipsi, i.e., the troops of Parmenio, on the left centre. 
12. simul, sc. atque, § 43, 9. 

15. riohtino- at a distance, with arrows, javelins, etc, was 
called eminus (e manus) ; with the sword, cominus. It will 
be remembered that the Greek mercenaries of Darius were upon 
this win"-, towards the sea, so that " Greek met Greek." 

20. dimicarent, § 61, 1. 

27. Alexander is here described as making for Darius himself, 
in the centre of the line ; but the romantic details given here by 
Curtius are not substantiated by the best authorities. 

28. opimum, in allusion to the spolia opima, Ilb. 56. 

53, 2. in parcissimis, one of afeiv. 

6. similis ruinse, as ifthey had been swept down. 
9. adverso corpore, infront. 

27. in illud cornu: on that wing ; the fight had been severe at 
this point, until Darius himself fled. Meanwhile, the Thessalians, 
on the Greek left, had likewise succecded in putting their antago- 
nists to flight. 

28. serie laminarum, plate armor. 

30. agmen moliebantur, formed into column. 

54. 1. utrimque, on both wings. 

8. partibus; the plural, partes, ofl:en mesins party , side. 
10. haud sane, etc, i.e., in good order. 

12. qua, § 55, iv. 

20. quibus, § 51, v. note. — quo: in proportion as ; understand 
eo with violentius, § 54, v. end. 

26. impotentis (sc, swi, poioerless over itself) : arrogant. 

30. ita very frequently is used with ut following ; it need not 
be translated at alh 

31. ut . . . exciperent, § 70 and ii. 

33. semet; met is an emphatic addition, § 19, m. end. 
5»5o 1. illa, the former; haec, theLatter: § 20, II. 

n. decoris, from decor (not decoris, from decus). — veris 
quondam is contrasted with tunc alienis. 

13. calamitatis, § 50, iv. 1. 

21. im endio, § 54, ix. — stetit: cost. 


25. assueverat, was iidimate. 
32. pavoris, panic ; fear is timor, dread, metus. 
50. 10. Sardis, § 11, I. 2. — primo, § 41, ii. 4. 

17. The subj. of nuntiari is missum se a rege. 

18. actum est means it is all ocer. y^^^^^V ^^^ ^^ '^^ F 
21. possent, § 63, II. /^^ ^-^^ 

28. Itaque, § 43, 5. ff'^^ 

31. offioio, § 54, III. I T i}}TCiYt 

32. sippsiratvL: in respect to the splendor. ^ MJl^' «j 

57. 5. haberi, to he rendered. ^^^^^^ CaUf-t^^ 

6. sepeliret, § 64, iv., after permitti. y 

7. pro habitu, in a manner suited to the condition. 
11. justis, regular or due ceremonies. 

14. " It is certain (from tlie extract novv reniaining of this letter 
[written by Alexander after the batth']) that he never saw, nor 
ever entertained the idea of seeing, ihe captive wife of Darius, 
said to be the niost beautiful woman in Asia ; moreover, he even 
declined to hear encomiums upon her beauty." (Grote.) 

17. et hic; referring to their close intimacy. 

31. vellem, § 60, 2, note. 
58. Within three years after thebattleof Issus, the empire 
of Darius was utterly overthrown, and he himself was 
assassinated. Alexander was now at the height of human 
power; but, in becoming an Asiatic sovereign, he lost the 
generous and nolde qualities of his youth, and became a 
passionate and treacherous tyrant. His treatment of his 
early friend, Clitus, the brother of his nurse, in B.c. 228, is 
an illustration of this change of character. Ilis army had 
penetrated far to the east of the Caspian Sea, to Maracanda, 
the modern Samarcand. 

8. receptacula, § 46, in apposition with turres. 

9. aetatibus, generations ; § 55, i. 2. 

12. Lysimachus was one of the generals of Alexander, who 
divided his empire after his death ; he became king of Thrace. 

14. quo, i.e., Lysimachus. 

15. adjecit, added. — tam, as well. 
2L Nam, §43, 4. 

24. crediderim, § 60, note, and 2. 


26. defunctiis erat, § 61, 2, note. — scivere, decreed. 
31. Maracanda, a neuter plural. 

59. 1. provinciam ; tliis was the iinportant satrapy of Sogdiana. 

^ 2. Tlie battle on the river Granlcus was the first great victory 
gained by Alexander over the Persians, b.c. odi. 
5. bellicis § 44, iv. 2. 

10. in posterum,./or the tiext day. 

13. gravis, offensive. 

16. Chaeroneam; see note on p. 51, 1. 11.— operis; tlie residt 
ofhis lahors. 

17. sibi,/>om him; dative of disadvantage, § 51, i. note. 

29. It wouhl appear tbat while Ak'xander was away upon this 
expedition, Philip visited the island ©f Samothrace, fanied for th(! 
peculiar and mysterious rites of the Cabiri, and was initiated into 
their mysteries, initia. 

00. 2. cubabant ; this refers to the custom of reclining at meals : 
they leaned upon the left elbow, and the neighbor towards whom 
any one's face was turned was said to be infra eum. 

3. Euripides was a great tragic poet of Athens, of the fifth 
century, b.c. 

12. praesentibus, i.e., the exploits of Alexander. 

14. quis refers to ea understood, object of audiret; this form 
of the dative and ablative is frequent in hiter writers. 

17. remittente, sc. eo; abhitive absohite. 

19. Parmenio, the general of Ah'xander who had done such good 
service in the battle of Issus, had been shortly befiDre assassinated 
by tlie king's order. — de, over. 

21. animi prava contentione, a violent oidhreak of femper; 
he had long concealed his indignation at tlie insolence and injus- 
tice of Alexander. 

24. a.ThitrivLm agis, pass Judgmeid ; here he contrasts himself 
with the flatterers of Alexander. — praecipuum, sc. praemium. 

28. sortitas, having ohtained bij lot ; i.e., possessing. 

32. haesuros fuisse, § 67, i. 2, note. 

61. 1. Alexander, King of Epirus, brother of Olympias, the 
mother of Ak^xander the Great, crossed over into Italy b.c. 332, 
and fought against the Samnites, etc. ; he wns assassinvjted in 326. 
7. eum, Clitus; sibi, Alexander; semetipso, Clitus. 
13. Observe the taunt in the words pectore and tergum. 


16. Attalus was an ofRcer of Pliilip, uncle of his wife Cleopatra; 
he was assassinated by Alexander's order shortly after his acces- 
sion to the throne. 

17. In his expedition to Egypt, b.c. 331, Alexander had visited 
the famous oracle of Jupiter Ammon, and obtained assurance that 
he was the son of this god. — assereret, § 66, i. 

18. se, Clitus; patrem, Zeus (Jupiter). 
21. olim,yor some time. 

27. Ptolemffius was afterwards King of Egypt; Perdiccas was 
the officer to whom Alexander gave his ring on his death-bed, 
and who was guardian of his infant son, untilkilled in a mutiny. 

6^. 10. jam non, § 41, ii. 2. 
IG. ingeniis, § 51, iv. 
17. perpendimus, § 70, iv. 

21. abusum agrees with virum, subject of oocisum. 
26. paulo ante qualifies convivae, § 47, iii. end. 
33. Laniare, § 49, iii. 

03. 4. num, § 71, i. 

5. subit; it occurs to him. — Liber (Bacchus) had been 
offended by this slight. 

12. bestisB, § 51, viii. — alias . . . alias ; sometimes . . .at other 
times, § 22, ii. 

17. pro mea gloria, § 51, i. third rem. 

19. omnibus ejus, § 51, v. ; all herfriends. 

22. sine memoria, without putting her in mind. 

30. puderet, § 64, ii. 

31. prohibituri, § 59, ii. note ; and theij would have, etc. 

During the year which followed, Alexander pursued his 
conquests in the East, and in the spring of b.c. 326 entered 
India, crossed the river Indus, and arrived on the banks of 
the Hydaspes, now the Jelum. 

04:. 8. gravioribus quam, etc, too heavij to be shot. 

15. diffusus ; this word, with elisus below, takes the gender 
of amnis Hydaspis, implled in flumen, — the masculine, imply- 
ing th'e vigor and fbrce of the living stream. 

17. Nec impetum coercebat, nor did it check its swiftness, 
as might have been expected. 

19. elisus, ivith hroken course ; rapids. 

23. de industria irritatae, purposely madefurious. 


25. pectora is obj. of percusserant, and se of experta. 
31. parvce rei discrimine, hy the test of a slight skirmish. 

G5, 4. partium, oftheir tribe ; see note on p. 54, 1. 8. 

6. Notice the tenses ; transnavere simply states a past action, 
tenebat describes the condition of the island. 

18. eadem, also, — tegendis, § 73, iii. 

19. ripa, § 54, vi. : the connnon usage would be a ripa. 
22. opportunitatis, § 50, iii. 

33. aequalem, i.e., in age. 

GG. 1. utique, at least. 

7. in regionem, to the neighborhood. 
14. momento, § 55, i. 2. 

17. nox, darkness ; caelo, the shy. 

31. humani ingeni, by a weakness of human nature. 

^T, 5. The shield-bearers were to protect the archers. 

20. effusis habenis, atfull gallop. 

32. movebantur, sc. the elephants. 

G8. 2. gestantes, sc. id. 

5. illo, i.e., Hercules, who had visited India among other 

18. There is some confusion here and below between right and 
left ; as it reads, both Alexander and Coenus attacked the ene- 
my's left. 

22. invehemini ; the future is used here, as is frequently tlie 
case, as nearly equivalent to an imperative, like shall in English. 

27. in suos acrius furit, it is more dangerous to its own side. 
GO. 4. statuerunt, they have rested, § 57, iii. 

G. molientes ictus, preparrng to shoot. 
10. jungere, depends upon jubebant. 
12. in medium, in common. 

21. concursatione, in a sudden attack. 

28. manu, iis trunk. 

29. super se, over their heads. 

31. in multum diei, until late in the day. 

33. copidas ; copis, a Greek word for sword or scimitar. 
70. 3. It is questioned whether mortis and supplicii limit quid- 
quam or timor ; probably it is best to connect them with timor ; 
" nor did their fear, not only of death, but of fresh torments in 
death, leave anything untried" in self-defence. 


11. expositus, exposed, i.e., being left alone, as well as by his 
conspicuous size. 

17. fluentibus, relaxed. 

23. regis, in appos. witli Taxilis; Taxiles was an Indian king, 
who had allied himself with Alexaiider. 

71« 3. resistentibus, § 51, iii. seeond remark. 

18. malum, a kind of oath, the miscliief ! 

19. rerum mearum, of my poiver; belli, m war ; an example 
of two genitives, subjective and objective, limiting the same word, 

20. in deditos, follows clementiae. 

18. Curtius here diifers from Arrian, who says (v. 19, 1), that 
Porus answered: "that you treat me like a king." 

73. 1. segrum, wJiile sicJc. 

2. contra spem, belongs with confirmatum. 

4. regno, § 51, 11. end. 

6. simplicius, more impartially. 

After the victory over Porus, Alexander desired to push 
on to the Ganges, but was dissuaded by the reluctance of his 
soldiers, and the unfavorable character of the omens; he 
therefore follovved the Indus down to its mouth, and then re- 
turned to the west. 

17. pecorum, § 50, i. 3. 

18. amnis (§ 50, iii.), after peritis. 

19. enatam, produced by alluvial deposits ; the delta of the 

20. socordius asservati, too carelessly waicTied. 

26. omnium, for omnium locorum or rerum ; an exception 
to § 47, IV. 1, note. 

73. 1. ipsos for se; quite common in Curtius. 

18. quo (§ 54, V. end), in proportion as. 

20. flumini, dat. after mixtum ; adhuc qualifies leni. 

22. evecti, carried past. 

24. securi, regardless. 

26. vice, § 14, I. 3 ; the dwellers on the Mediterranean were 
not accustomed to tides : see note on p. 15, 1. 33. 

31. cernere videbantur, they supposed they discerned. 


74. 1. The ships had been drawn up on land, according to the 
custom of the ancients. 

5. prohibebant ; i.e., by pushing with poles, they prevented 
the oars from being used. 

9. non receperant, were not able to contain, governs mentes. 
14. opis, § 14, II. 1. 

19. duorum, sc. exercituum. 
22. ad manus, to hlows. 

27. subsederant, had heenformed, existed. 

31. magno tractu, with a strong movement. 
33. destituta, left aground. 

# O. 3. Miles, the singular for the plural ; the soldiery. 

4. praesentibus, etc, things more terrihle than these, which 
should follow. 

8. eestum relaturum [esse] depends upon ignari. 
10. Beluae : it is hard to guess what beasts these can have 
been ; the story is no doubt a rhetorical liourish. 
29. mirabundi, § 44, v. 1. 

32. occuparet, take advantage of. 

33. os, governed by evectus, § 52, m. 

76, 2. locorum, the land. 
4. altero, the second. 
8. remedio, § 51, vii. 

20. The paragraph that follows is taken from the tenth book, 
chap. i. ; the intervening passages describe the land march of 
Alexander to Carmania, upon the Persian Gulf. 

22. qusedam, etc, some things hy hearsay, others from ohser- 

23. subjectam, lyiiig helow. 

24. a.h,from, not hy. 

26. aestu secundo, hy tlieflow ofihe tide. 

28. sequi, § 65, ii. note. — cum connects strepitu with subisse. 

29. cetera, § 52, iv. note. 

TT. 5. his; we should expect sibi. 

10. omni, etc ; when all the sea-coast shoidd have heen suhdued. 

14. quam, § 48, 11. ; there were two provinces of Spain, 

18. Libano; Mt. Lebanon was famed for its timber, as in the 

time of Solomon. 


After his return from the Iiidian expedition, Alexander 
was dee[)ly afflicted by the kx^s of his friend llephaistion ; at 
whose funeral obsequies he indulged in unmeasured revel 
and intoxicatiou, followed by a violent fever. It was soon 
manifest that he could not recover, and the soldiers were ad- 
mitted to see him for the last time. 
• 25. Intuentibus, § 51, i. note ; it is nearly equivalent to a geni- 
tive, and niay be so rendered. 

27. lectum, govcrned by circumstantium, § 52, 11. 2. 

^8^ 1. illud ultimum, § 52, iv.,for the last time. 

2. debito, § 54, vi., debt. 

C. ad Hammonen ; the temple of Jupiter Ilammon is in Libya. 

29. quoddam, as it were. 

TO. 11. Bella civilia; in fact, bloody wars followed, whicb 
lasted for many years, until the empire of Alexander had been 
shared among his generals. 

13. de rege, wlio slioidd he lcing. 

15. missione, discharge. 

30. imperaret, § 65, iv. 1. — ipsis, § 51, iii. 

80. 2. matrem: Sisygambis, the mother of Darius, who 
had been treated with the greatest courtesy and honor by the 

G. cui, § 51, iii. ; nubo means to veil, and so to veilfor a man, 
i.e., marry him. — proprias, lier oivn, private. 
11. miserae, § 47, iii. — § 51, viii. 

13, Quem, § 52, vi. — puellarum, § 50, iii. 

18. Artaxerxes III., Ochus, her brother, son of Artaxerxes II., 
had murdered all his brothers, according to the oi^iental fashion, 
that he might have no rivals. 

26. Magnum agrees with documentum; Alexandro, aftcr 
est understood. 

28. sustinuisset vivere, had endured to live. 

31. naturae fuisse, helonged to his natnre, § 50, i. note. 

81. 6. ut, althovgh; ita, yet ; a frequcnt usc of these words. 

7. juveni, § 51, 2. — jam, moreover. 

8. quorum, § 47, 11. (2) ; relatives follow the same rule as 

14. IUa, the following . 


17. mutare, § 24, v. 3. 

26, statuit, sc. Fortuna. 

30. dififudit ; this refers to the division of his empire. 


CoRNELius Nepos was an historian and biographer of the 
time of Cicero. The volume of Lives of lllustrious Com- 
manders which passes under his name (excepting the life of 
Atticus, and perhaps that of Cato, which are genuine), is at 
best only an abridgment of his writings. 

Carthage was a great commercial city in Africa, a Phoeni- 
cian colony, situated near the present site of Tunis. In b.c. 
2G4 it engaged in a war with Rome, which had just then 
made itself sovereign of Italy. After three obstinate wars 
called the three Punic Wars (Pccnus = Phoenician), Car- 
thage was destroyed, b.c. 146. Tiie First Punic War (ending 
B.c. 241) had resulted in giving to Rome the islands of 
Sicily, Sardinia, and Corsica. To make good their losses, 
the Carthaginians took possession of Spain, which was 
goverued for some years by Ilamilcar, as governor. Some 
time after his death, his son Ilannibal succeeded to the 
government, and proved the ablest and bitterest enemy that 
Rome ever had. 

83, 6. ut superarit; § 57, i. ; 70, 11. The usual construction 
after verum est is tlie accusatlve with the infinitive. — cum eo, 
i.e., populus Romanus. — quod nisi, § 52, iv., unless tJien. 

16. erga usually expresses a friendly feehng. — qui refers to 
Hannibal ; and indeed he. — cum Romanis, § 54, 11. third rem. 

20. Phllip Y., king of Macedonia, made war upon the Ro- 
mans during and after the Second Punic War. Antiochus was 
the king of Syria, with whom Hannibal took refuge after his 
banishment. — Rubro mari ; this was the Indian Ocean with its 
gulfs. — darent operam, emploij. 

27. rcvad tamquam eum (understood) ; on tlie ground that he, 
&c. ; tamquam often has this meaning in late writers : eum is siib- 
ject ofsentire; alia atque, § 43, 9; the subjunctives that foUow, 
fecissent and vidisset, like venissent, follow cunx. 


83. 6. annos, § 54, v. iiote. — Karthagine, § 55, iii. 1. — 
a me, § 52, iii. (1), end. 

11. ducere, § 65, 11. note. — 14. tenentem, agreeing witli me 

20. me, § 52, iii. (1), sc. id. 

31. foederatam, i.e., to the Romans : this was b.c. 219. 

84:, 6. The legends made Hercules to have gone on an ex- 
pedition to Spain ; Graius, Greek: the real origin of the name 
of the Graian Alps (those about the Little St. Bernard) is 

9. muniit, constructed, engineered. — ornatus, equipped, laden. 

15. Clastidi, § 10, 4 ; Clastidium was a town south of the Po, 
which was betrayed to Hannibal : the statement here is incorrect, 
as the skirmish in which Scipio was wounded was on the river 
Ticinus. — manum conseruit, joined hattle: the battle on the 
Trebia, b.c. 218, was the first important engagement ; the victory 
on Lake Thrasymenus, in Etruria, was in b.c. 217 ; The third 
and overwhelming victory at Cannae was b.c. 216. — Cannensi, 
§ 44, IV. 6. — Paulus was father of the distinguished Lucius 
^milius Paulus, and grandfather of Publius Scipio Africanus the 
younger, who destroyed Carthage. 

33. pugna pugnata, § 52, i. end. 

85. 3. Capua was the chief city of Campania, the second city in 
Italy ; it had joined Hannibal after his victory at Cannae. — The 
dictator was a magistrate appointed for six months with unlimited 
power ; the next in command to him was the magister equitum. 
7. dedit verba, a colloquial expression for imposed npon; 
the use of colloquialisms is characteristic of this writer. — ejus 
generis, i.c., juvencorum. 

12. non ita multis, not very many. 

15. Tibcrius Gracchus was grandfather of the famous tribunes ; 
Marcelhis was called the sword of Rome, from his courage; 
Fabius, the shield, from his prudence. — iterum, a second time. 
— sustulit, from toUo, he took off, i.e., killed. 

24. defensum, § 74, i. — Publius Cornelius Scipio was called 
Africanus from his victorios in Africa. — congrederetur, § 64, 
II. — The battle of Zama was b.c. 202. 

8G. 10. This was b.c, 200. — his magistratibus, either § 54, x, 
or § 55, I. — FregellsB was an important town in Italy. 


26. Karthagini, § 7, 7; § 55, iii. 3. — reges : the correct 
name of tliese magistrates was suffetes. 

31. in aerario, § 56, i. 1, iiote. 

ST. 10. Cyrenae is tlie modern Sarca, west of Egypt. Itwasa 
Grecian colony. — Antiochi, § 50, i. — cui ; Antiochus. 
20. scriptum agrees with the clause a . . . eum. 

27. The island of Rhodes was at tliis time a very important 
maritime power. — quo, sc. proelio. 

31. Antiochiis was vanquished bj Lucius Seipio, in tho battie 
of ]\Iagnesia, u.c. 190. — Cretam ; names of small islands follow 
the rules of names of towns: § 55, iii. 

88. 25. Prusias was King of Bithynia, a country on the northern 
coast of Asia Mnior ; Pontus was further east. — Eumenes was 
kirig of Pergamum, and his dominions comprised most of the 
west coast of Asia Minor ; he was a sagacious king and a patron 
of literature and art, and maintained a close allianee with the 

30. coUigi, § 68, iii. note. 

80. 2. a ceteris fbllows defendere. — id, i.e., se defendere. — 
se facturum, lie icould hring it about, governs ut scirent, etc. 

11. The caduceus, or rod of Ilermes, was the badge of a 
herald. — suis, dative, This absurd story is one of the many 
that were fiibricated in relation to this great man. 

28. coepta sunt, § 38, i. 1. 

•^O. 4. Lucius Quinctius Flamininus was the Iloman general who 
overthrew Philip, king of Macedon, b.c. 197. 

8. Patres conscripti, the senators : the original patrician 
senators were called patres, and the plebeians added to the 
senate were called conscripti. — existimarent, § 63, ii. 

12. suum and sibi refer to the Homans, se to Priisias ; an 
unusual inconsistency. — The laws of hospitality were lield in 
peculiar honor among the ancients. 

20. usu, hy expcrience, infact. 

The year of tlie death of Ilannibal is uncertain : we have given 
the usually assumed, b.c. 183, date. 



Caius Sallustius Crispus (also si^elled Salustius) vvas 
born B.c. 8G, at Amiternum, in tlie Sabine country, and died 
B.c. 34. He was an earnest partisan of Cassar ; and the aim 
of his historical writings was to depict the corruption and 
inefficiency of the governing classes at Rome, in a manner to 
justify the revohition accomphshed by Caisar. As an his- 
torian he has many merits, but is very inaccurate in details. 
" His chronology is confused ; his description of the railitary 
operations is sometimes unintelligible ; he often omits the 
names of places, when the names would be the only means 
of making the story clear. He does not tell us which way 
the armies are moving, and gives us no notion of distances, 
and generally a very vague description of the ground. .... 
If we overlook its defects as a military history, we must 
allow that Sallust has sketched in a rapid and Hvely way the 
career of the bold Numidian adventurer, from the time of his 
service under Scipio in Spain to his capture by a Roman 
more cunning and more treacherous than hirasel£" (Long.) 

The character of Sallust was not altogether above reproach, 
and he seems to have shared in the vices he condemns. His 
great hlstorical work, the history of his own times, is lost; 
and there only remain of his works, besides a few fragments, 
the brief accounts of the war with Jugurtha, and the Con- 
spiracy of CatiHne. 

In the Second Punic War, Hannibal was finaHy over- 
thrown by Scipio Africanus in the battle of Zama, b.c. 202. 
This victory was largely due to the aid contributed by 
Masinissa, king of eastern Numidia (now Algiers), who 
remained after this time a steady and serviceable ally of the 
Roman people, until his death, b.c. 148. The events be- 
tween his death and the outbreak of the war in 110, are 
briefly narrated by Sallust in the passages which follow. 

01 • 9. Africano, § 51, vi. note. — facinora, from facio, means 
decds, but is couimonlv uscd in Ihe meanino; of evil decds, criinos. — 


Sypliax was king of the western Numidians, and liad assisted Car- 
thage in tlie war, — magnum, § 52, iv. — urbis = urbes. T. 2, 6. 
24. luxu ; tbe dat. in u is frequent in SaUust ; tbe bistorical 
infinitive (§ 49, iii.), as equitare, is also common with bim. 

9^. 1. plurumum ; for this archaic form, see top of p. 2 ; existu- 
maiis is a similar Ibrm. — intellegit is an old form of the perf. 
(from lego, legi) ; the form intellexi became afterwards more 
common. — suae Uberorumque, his oion age and that ofhis chil- 
dren ; this combination of a genitive and a possessive qualifying 
the same word is common. — mediocris, of moderate passions. — 
transvorsos, another archaic Ibrm, for transversos. — ex qui- 
bus, i.e., studia. 

16. neque per vim neque insidiis ; most writers would prefer 
two similar constructioxis (as vi or per insidias) ; Sallust, hke 
Tacitus, is fond of varying his constructions. — Numantia was a 
town in Spain, which was captured by Scipio the younger, ^mili- 
anus, B.c. 133, after a siege of ten years. — Romanis ; a com- 
nion use of the dat. after words denoting an office ; see example 
in § 51, I. note. — perioulis after obviam, by analogy to § 51, v. 

— alterum-alterum, the latter, theformer. 

93. 6. erat ; we should expect esset, by § 63, 11. ; tbe ind. is 
common in Sallust in such clauses. — huc accedebat ; the subject 
is munificentia, etc. ; § 49, i. note ; the adv. huc = huic rei. 

10. novi atque nobiles ; tbe nohles at Rome were those whose 
ancestors had held office of dignity in the state, and wbo tberefore 
belonged to the ruling class ; those who reached position by tbeir 
own exertions, like Marius and Cicero, were called novi homi- 
nes (Hb. § 126). — The socii were the Italians in alliance with 
Ilome, wbo were kept in a position of inferiority by tbe Romans. 

— fore, etc, § 67, iii. 1 ; this might also be potitum iri or fore ; 
pro concione, in the presence of the army. — The praetorium, 
headquarters (Hb. § 160), was so called becausc the consul, who 
commanded in war, originally bore the title praetor. — publice, 
etc. ; e.g. rather by public services than private intrigues. — neu 
(neve) quibus, § 21, iii. end. — a,from; it was perilous to huy 

from afew, &c. — ultro, without his seeking. 

94r. 7. Thc death of Micipsa was b.c. 118. — justa, the proper 
rifes. — ignobilitatem ; Jugurtha was of illegitlmate birth. — 
dextra, sc. manu, on his right hand. — Adherbalem, § 52, 11. 


1.; properly it is governed by the preposition ad, next io. — in 
alteram partem, i.e., to tlie lelt. 

22. ipsum illum, i.e., Jugurtlia. — cum animo, iii his miiid. 

31. placuerat, § 39, o.— finis, § 52, vi. 

0*5, 4. proximus lictor ; tbe lictors were officers wbo went 
before certain Roman magistrates (Ilb. § 130) ; tbe Numidian king 
had similar attendants. The hindmost of these was next to the 
magistrate, and therefore highest in rank. — ministrum, § 46. 
— referebantur, notice the iraperf. — ceterum, moreover; usually 
it means but. 

After the death of Hiempsal, b.c. 118, war broke out be- 
tween Jugurtha and Adherbal ; AdherTDal was defeated, and 
took refuge in Rome. Jugurtha also sent ambassadors thither, 
and succeeded by bribery in bringing about the appointment 
of a commission to divide the kingdom between the two 
cousins ; this division was made in such a way as to give 
Jugurtha the best parts of the country, while Adherbal had 
the best cities and harbors, including the capital, Cirta, now 

22. contra timorem, in spite of liis apprehensions . 
OG. 11. secus ceperat, he had corne qfj' worse. 

28. partim=partem or alios. — togatorum ; the toga, a long, 
woolkm unbleached shawl, of a semi-elHptical shape, was tlie dis- 
tinctive dress of a Roman citizen ; here, however, all the Itahans are 
meant. — The vineae were movable sheds, which were pushed up 
near the walls to protect the soldiers fighting and Avorking under 
them ; the turres were high, and were moved on wheels near the 
walls, and used to throw darts, &c., into the city besieged. — ma- 
chinae ; these were engines for hurhng stones and darts. 

07. 5. majores natu, elders, § 17, iii. end. — usi, having en- 
joyed; honores is the word used for pubhc offices. — Marcus 
iEmiUus Scaurus was for many years the leading man in the Roman 
state ; he was dignified and sagacious, but, it would appear, sliared 
the prevaihng corruplion of the times. — senati, this form of the 
gen., of the second declension, is common in Sallust for this and 
onc or two other nouns of the fourth declension. The princeps 
senatus was the person recognized by the censors as the leader of 
the body, as being the most eminent man in the state (Ilb. § VoZ). 


— iii invidia, was a source qf great scandal. — Utica was the 
cliief tovvn of the Roman province Africa (now Tiuiis). 

19. diducta, i.e., by the attack on all sides. — casum, a 
chance or occasion. — Adherbalis, § 54, iii. note. — frustra, 
without attaining tlieir purpose. 

08. 1. omnia potiora, that any thing was hetter, i.e., more trust- 
worthy. — deditionem ; this was b.c. 112. 

9. interpellando andtrahendo qualify leniebant ; gratia and 
jurgiis (by fair means orfonl) qualify trahendo. — Caius Mem- 
mlus was probably the one who was murdered twelve years later by 
a seditious mob ; he is called by Niebuhr " one of the most energetic 
and right-minded men o-f that age." — ut condonaretur is not a 
fmal clause (denoting purpose), but a substantive clause, in appo- 
sition with id. — Jugurthae, dative of advantage. 

18. The Sempronian Law, carried through by Caius Sempronius 
Gracchus, aimed to lessen the power of the senate and the oppor- 
tunity for corruption in asslgning provinces, by providing that the 
assignation should be made before the election of the consuls ; that 
is, the senate determined beforehand what the consular provinces 
should be, and these were then divided by lot or agreement between 
the two consuls. — scribitur, levied. 

Bestia j:)roceeded to Africa, and shortly brought Jugurtha 
to terms ; but was bribed by him to graut an advantageous 
peace, disgraceful to Rome. But the tribune Memmius, the 
boldest antagonist of the corrupt nobility, persuaded the peo- 
ple to reject the treaty, and to send Cassius, a man " pure in 
a corrupt time " (Niebuhr), to summon Jugurtlia to Rome, 
to answer for his crimes. 

30. elephantos ; i.e., those which Jugurtha had surrendered. 
00. 1. Rogatione ; a proposition for a law was called rogatio, 
because the people were asked whether they wonld accept it. — ex 
conscientia, yrow a had conscience. — vim ; i.e., that he woukl 
\\SQ.force if he did not submit himself to their mercy. — minoris, 
§ 54, IX. 1. — In Rome, Jugurtha bribed one of the tribunes, by 
whose intercession he escaped the necesslty of answering the ques- 
tions put to him by Memmius. 

11. This was b.c. 110. — Gulussa was brother of Miclpsa. — 
metu ; i.e., the anxiety of the Romans as to Jugurtha's future 


23. Jugurthae, § 51, vi. ; he did notvcnture to rely any longer 
upon his friends among the Komans, and therelbre resolved to get 
rid of his rival. — egressus, aee. pl. — ejus, i.e., Massiva. — qui is 
pL, referring to the individuals implied in numero ; this is called 
synesis, or constructio ad sensum, see § 47, 11. end. 

100. 3. Fit reus, is put on trial. — The jus gentium of the Ro- 
mans was not onr Lau) of Nations, but eonsisted of those usages 
of law whieh were common to all nations ; one of these was the 
sanctity of a safe-conduct. — manufestus, hke maxumus, an 
archaic form. — animum advortit, lie perceived. — supra, etc. ; 
that tlie ohloquy of the deed went beyond, &c. 

9. in priore actione, in thefrst stages of the action; i.e., the 
preliminary inquiry. — popularis, those of his nation. — illo, 
Bomikar. — urbem, § 52, v. 

22. mos, etc. ; this may mean the parties among the people, atid 
tJie factions in the senate; but as popularis is used especially for 
the party opposed to the senate, it wouhl seem best to take these 
nouns as relating to the individual parties ; the custom of a popii- 
lar and a senaturial party. — prima, tliefirst things, § 48, ir. — 
^loxide,false glory; i.e., as rivals. — hostnis, § 47, v. ; it is here 
equivalent to the objective gen., hostium. — ea, § 47, 11. (2). — 
Carthage was destroyed b.c. UG ; in the same year Corinth was 
captured ; no enemy now remained whom the llomans need fear. 

101, 3. inlubidinem [forlib.] vortere [forvert.], to turnto 
iheir oivn pleasiire ; ahuse. — sibi quisque, eachfor InmscJf. — fac- 
tione, hy comhinations, i.e., OAving to their fewness. — plebei, hcre 
5th declension. — agitabatur. impers. ; every thing was managed. 

11. The tendency at this time to absorb all the lands of Italy 
into a few large estates, latifundia, cultivated by slavcs, was the 
most ahirming symptom of the times. Latifundia Italiam perdi-. 
dere, says Pliny. To bring this about, and set all the neighbor- 
ing small freeholds into tlieir hands, the nobles scrupkd at neither 
fraud nor violence ; nor did the poor have any adcquate protec- 
tion in law. 

18. These were the Gracchi, mentioned below. Tiberius 
Sempronius Gracchus carricd an agrarian laAv (Ilb. § 1C8), forthe 
distribution of public land among the poorer cksses, B.C. 133; 
his brother Caius, ten years later, aimed at still more sweeping 
reforms: both were assassinated by the nobles. Their grand- 
fathcr had fcnight successfully against Hannibal ; their father was 



eminent as a statesman ; tlieir motlier Cornclia was daughter of 
tlie great Seipio. — permixtio terrae, a cJiaos. 

25. patefacere, § 37, vii. note. — Tlie Socii were the Italian 
nations in nominal allianee with Rome ; the nomen Latinum, 
the Latin cities and eolonies which were debarred from lull 
political privileges, but possessed certain rights of Ronian citizen- 
ship ; both these elasses held portions of the pubhc domain which 
were alFected by the laws of Gracchus, and therefbre opposed liis 
measures. Later reformers undertook to extend luU citizenship 
to all the inhabitants of Italy. — The equites were those who 
were entitled by their weahh to serve in the cavalry, receiving a 
horse from the state ; by a law of Caius Gracchus, all possessing 
a specified amount of property received certain privileges, which 
constituted them a class by themselves, equester ordo: thus 
setting up an aristocracy of wealth to balance the hereditary 
aristocracy of the nobles. — societatis means a share in the 
privileges of the senate. — eadem, ihe same policy. — trium- 
virum ; Caius Gracchus failed in his third election to the tribune- 
ship, but still held the office of tnumvir [member of a committee 
of three] for planthig colonies (§ 73, iii. note), when he was 
killed, B.c. 121. — et sane, and to he sure. 

lO^. 3. Three thousand are said to have been slain with 
Gracchus and Flaccus. — timoris, i.e., they feared the opposite 
party, whoni they had treated with such barbarity. — parem, 
§ 59, IV. 1. 

After the return of Jugurtha, the war was conducted by 
Spurius Albinus and his brother Aulus. The latter was 
forced by Jugurtha to agree to a dishonorable peace, whicli 
was at once rejected by the Romans ; and the consul of the 
year 109 took command, although hxte in the year. Quintus 
Ca3cilius Metellus, afterwards called Numidicus, was one of 
the most eminent and respectable members of the aristocracy, 
belonglng to an ohl and distinguished fjimily. Ilis vigihmt 
and judicious measures soon excited the alarm of his antag- 
onist, and his success indnced the senate to retain him in 
command as proconsul for tlie following years. 

18. antea experimentis, previovs experience, i.e., of Bestiaand 
Albinus ; § 47, iii. end. — maxime, if possihle. 


lOS. 4. insidiis, etc, depends upon credere. — Caius Marius 
was a soldicr of low birtli and no education, wlio by courage and 
ability liad risen to a liigh military position, and who aftcrwards 
became a dictator in the state. — legatus, see note on p. 13, 1. 2. 

— tribunis, § 51, 11. — The legiom of the Roman army, com- 
manded by trihunes, are contrasted with the cohorts of thc Italian 
allies, commanded by prcefedi. The Roman lcgion was divided 
into maniples, combined afterwards into cohorts by Marius (Hb. 
§ 158) ; although even at this time a combination of threc maniplcs 
was called a cohort (see page 106, line 32). — velites, light- 
armcd troops. 

16. Vacca, a town south-west of Utlca. — forum, a marJcct 
toivn ; the regular tcrm for a class of towns larger than mere vil- 
lao-os. — celehia.tum, frequented. — simul, et; hoth, and. — sl 
paterentur, whether they would endure, depends upon tentandi. 

26. modo, even. 

33; composuit, compared; this word may also be followed by 
the dative. 

104:* 12. Muthul; the position of this rivcr is doubtful. — 
tractu pari, jjarallel; vastus, harren. — ex eo medio, i.e., 
from the middle of the mountain range, which Mctclhis was 
crossing. The hill stretched to the rivcr, at right angles to both 
river and mountain. — humi, § 50, ir. 3. 

20. transvorso itinere, cd right angles ; iter hcre mcans 
direction, — montem, § bQ, ir. 1. — cum, consisting of. — Turma 
was the name for thc subdivisions of cavalry ; the maniplcs were 
of infantry : these were properly Roman terms. — illis, the Romans. 

— quae, etc. ; refcrs to omnia ; cveri/ thing which it hecomcs a 
commander to see to. — prudentes cum imperitis, as thosefore- 
ivarned with those taken hy surprise. 

lO^. 13. neque, et tamen, one the onc hand not, and yef. — 
plane, entirely. — incerti agrees with equi Numidaeque; esset 
is attracted to agrce with its predicatc quidnam ; indisfingvish- 
ahle what it ivas that was seen. — cum tum, § 43, 8. — obscurati 
• agrees with ipsi, taking the masculine in prcference to thc ncuter, 
although refcrring also to signa. 

16. commutatis ordinibus. The account of MeteHus^s 
manoeuvrcs is very confused and blind ; it appcars to be somc- 
what as follows. He drew up his army in line of battle, facing the 



right (in dextro latere), for the enemy were on that flank, below ; 
the regular order for battle was in three lines, triplicibus sub- 
sidiis (Hb. § 156). Then they must wheel, transvorsis princi- 
piis, and face the river, in order to descend into the plain. 

25. Publius Rutilius Rufus was one of the most virtuous men 
of the day. He was afterwards unjustly banished on a false 
charge of oppressing the citizens of Asia, in which province he 
had served as official. — transvorsis prceliis, attacks on thejlank. 
— pro re atque loco, agrecably to circumstances and the nature 
ofthe ground. — principes, in the van. 

106. 1. primos, i.e., the first to whom the Romans came. — 
quasi, aboid. — adesse is frequently used with the meaning come 
np. — ludificati, eluded ; then in consequence eminus saucia- 
bantur. — copia, opportunity. — priores = superiores, i.e., the 
Numidians ; hostis, the Romans. — fuerant agrees with the 
nearer subject. — ea, in this direction, § 55, iv. 

22. a suis belongs with dispersi, separated from tlieir com- 
rades. — die, genitive, an okl form. — eorum, the Numidians. 
lOT. 3. illis, the Romans. — quos, i.e., the enemy. 

16, die, § 50, ii. 4. — advorso colle evadunt, charge up the 
hill. — tutata, § 47, ii. (2). — quietus, i.e., Bomilcar. — ubique 
= et ubi. — accepit, he learned. 

33. pulveris vim. " It is amusing to find in this Latin ex- 
pression the exact equivalent of a familiar Americanism." (Butler.) 
108. 16. [victoria] ; a word thus enclostd in brackets is a 
doubtful reading. — amplius opinione, longer than their expecta- 
tion. — inter se,from one another, that is the main army under 
Metellus and the detachment of Rutihus ; alteri apud alteros, 
each with theother party. — admissum, sc. erat, committed, §59, 
IV. 2. note. " This was a battle which testified as unmistakably to 
Jugurtha^s rare military talent, as to tlie incxhaustible bravery 
of the Roman infantry, which alone had turned the strategic defeat 
into a victory." (Mommsen.) 

30. quatriduo, § 55, i. 2. — meritos, those ivho have done good 

100. 3. Jugurtha . . . gereret is object of exploratum, — ut, 
hoio. — ea gratia, on this account. — ex fuga, afterjlight. 

15. ex illius lubidine, according to his pleasure, i.e., Jug- 
urtha's ; that of Metelhis woukl be sua. — suos; subject of 
vincere. — praedam, in app. with omnia, predicate after 


27. pugnatum, § 72, 2. — quippe doee not belong with cujus, 
but is used with is understood, since he whose, &c. — sua loca, 
the battle-ground chosen hy himself. — ex copia, as circumstances 

110. 5. sicuti follows discedunt. 

These events were followed by desultory warfare ; a siege 
of Zama by Marius proved unsuccessful, and Metellus under- 
took a renewal of negotiations ; partly openly with the king, 
partly intriguing with his officers to betray him. The war 
seemed to be at a stand-still. 

11. agitabat, § 69, note.— ageret, § 67, 11. 1.— praeter, 
except. — belli, § 55, iii. — Arpinum was a town in the valley of 
the Liris, south-east of Ilome, where Cicero was also born. — 
Graeca facundia; the Greeks were at this time the chief in- 
structors in rhetoric. — tribunatum ; the military tribunes were 
originally appointed by the general, afterwards in part elected by 
the people ; the election was in the comitia of the tribes (Ilb. 
§ 142) . — ab eo magistratu, /rom that magistracy ; the military tri- 
bunate was not strictly a magistracy, but Marius was priutor, b.c. 
115. — ad id locorum, to this point (of time) , opposed to postea. 

111, 17. per negotia publica; a frequent use of per ; lohen 
puhlic interest should permit. — filio ; this was Quintus Metelhis 
Pius, consul B.c. 80; Mavius was now forty-eight years old. — 
contubernio ; it was customary for young Romans to learn war 
by going upon the staff of the commander in an active campaign. 

29. criminose, captiously. — trahi, § 67, iv. 2. 

1 1^. 8. regi, § 51, viii. note ; it is really a dative com. et incom. 
(§ 51,1. note), in the eyes ofthe king. — suspiciens, suspecting ; 
an unusual meaning of the active ; the passive frequently means 
suspected. — majoribus, greater affairs. — superaverant, had 
remained over ; i.e., were more than Jugurtha could attend to. 

18. posceret, § 66, i. — jussus, sc. a Jugurtha. 

24. socii, § 50, i. — converteret, i.e., Nabdalsa ; that he 
should not be punished instcad of rewarded. After juravisset, 
undcrstand monere, which stands in some editions. — sua, their. 

113. 18. scelere, § 56, i. 2. This use of super is more com- 
mon in later writers. 

32. quorum Kmits plerosque, ceteri, pars, and alii. 


114-. 1, Bocchus was king of Mauretania, west of Numidia. — in 
dies, dayhij day. — fide, dat. — ceteri ejus omnes, '' tlie rest 
of the soldiers all.'' (Long.) — ferme, for the most part. 

23. filiorum limits pueritise, wliich limits cultus, care. 

o3. domiti pecoris, trained cattle, § 50, 11. 

1 1^* 1. eo, iipon these; a frequent use of adverbs of place, refer- 
ring- to persons. 

G. quam, § 48, 11. — ea modo, this alone. — sicuti, etc, as 
those neicly surrendered are wont. — religione,/rom sujjerstition. 
— pluvia, sc. aqua, § 54, vii. 

21. infectum, impracticable. — uno die, § 54, v. an exception 
to the followingremark.— talia capi; a consideration in the mind 
of Jugurtha, and for this reason taking the acc. with the inf. — ex 
copia, as circumstances permitted. 

116. 3. reliquum fieri, left undone. — arietibus ; thc battering 
ramwas a swinging beam with a metal ram's-head, with which thc 
walls were hutted, and so gradually broken to pieces. — ab host- 
ibus belongs with metuerant. 

After these reverses, Jugurtha took refuge witli his father- 
in-law, Bocchus, king of Mauretaiiia, and a iiew war seemed to 
threaten. Meanwhile Marius was elected consul for b.c. 107; 
against the bitter opposition of the nobles, and by a vote of 
the people, he was given the province of Numidia, which tlie 
senate had before decreed to Metellus. It is not possible to 
determine whether he actually took command in the year of 
his cousulship ; his active operations were mainly in the fol- 
lowing year, b.c. 106. 

20. spolia, § 46. — quae, § 54, vii. note. — populis et reg- 
ibus. i.e., foreign. — sociis, i.e., Itahan. — militiae, in service, 
§ 55, III. 3, quahfies cognitos ; most he knew personally, afew by 
reputation. — stipendium is the term for a soldier's pay, and came 
afterwards to mean the time of service for which the pay was re- 
ceived ; emereri stipendium is tlierefore " to serve ont the time,'''' 
and tliose who were stipendiis emeritis (§ 54, 11. the participle 
here used passively,§35,i.7.) were those Avho had served out their 
time as soldiers. — plebi, sc. esse ; it was thought that service wa^ 
not acceptable to the people. — usum, the requisites. 


1 IT. 10. Quirites was tlie title borne by the, Romans as citizens, 
and used in public addresses. — inperium = imperium ; an unu- 
sual number of archaic spellings occur in this speech of Marius. — 
subplicis = supplices. — set = sed. — quo, § 54, v. end. — 
pluris, § 54, IX. 1. — The subject of debere is illam, etc. 

17. vostro benificio (bene-), yourfavor. — nolis, one is iin- 
iviUing ; the second j^erson singular is often used for an indefinite 
subject. — opinione asperius, " more painful than you can suj)- 
pose." (Long.) — nobilitas, facta, etc. are subject of adsunt. — 
cognati, were blood relatives ; adfines, connections by marriage. 
— clientelae ; the clients were persons who were personally and 
especially attached to some nobleman, called patron. (Hb. § 128.) 

27. illud is commonly used rather than hoc or id when a follow- 
ing clause (omnium . . . esse) is in apposition. — reipublicae, 
dat. of advantage. — invadendi, sc. me. — capiamini, i.e., in the 
net. — illis, § 51, iv. 

118, 8. veteris prosapiae, o/o76^ sfocA;; an old-fashioned word 
used by Marius in derision. — imaginum : it was the privilege of 
the nobility to keep waxen images of their ancestors in their halls ; 
these were carried in funeral processions. 

13. qui, men icho. — praeposteri, placing that first which should 
be last. — gerere is the subject of est. — tempore, in time. — re 
atque usu, in action and exjjerience. 

22. Quamquam at the beginning of a sentence should be ren- 
dered, and yet. — fortissimum quemque generosissumum, wlio- 
ever is brave, and in j^roportion io liis hravery is also ivell hoiTi ; 
this is the peculiar force of quisque with the superlative. — 
posset, § 59, IV. 2. — maluerint is used, in violation of the 
sequence of tenses, to express the time of the question. — faciant 
idem, i.e., let them despise their oion ancestors ; for every founder 
of a new house was himself a new man. 

33. hos, i.e., honores ; they live as if they cared nothing for 
honors, but are as greedy for them as if their lives were honorable. 
Ne, verily. — falsi, deceived. 

110. 6. cujus rei, i.e., nobility. 

13. velint, § 59, iv. 2. — compositam, well-arranged. — cum, 
since. — modestiam, etc, shoidd construe mymodesty as conscious- 
ness of guilt. — ex animi sententia, as I am convinced. — bene 
praedicent, speakivell of, sc. ut. — falsa, obj. of superant. 


21. qui refers to the gen. implied in the possessive vostra; 
§ 19, III. Rem. — etiam atque etiam, again aiid again. — fidei, 
your confidence. — Hae, § 47, v. note. — relicta agrees with 
nobilitas. — parvi, § 54, ix. 1. 

33. parum placebat, I did not care. — doctoribus ; the Greeks 
were slaves of the llomans. — illa, § 52, iii. note. 

ISO. 3. arcte colam, to act niggardly. — meam and illorum 
do not qualifj their nouns directly, but stand after esse under- 
stood. — civile, befitting citizens. — tute ; te is the intensive 

9. Quis. i.e., what their ancestors did. 
19. preci = preti ; cocum = coquum, § 1, foot of p. 1 ; they 
pay more for a cook than a steward ; actors, secretaries, tutors, 
&c., were generally slaves. — ita is frequently used to emphasize or 
point out a clause which follows. — munditias, etc. ; this is called 
the cliiastic order of expression ; munditias, foppernj, is con- 
trasted with laborem, and separated from it by the two other 
contrasted words, mulieribus and viris. — Quin = qui (why, 
§ 21, I. note). ne; wJiynof? or come, tlien. 

1^1. 2. avaritiam, etc. ; the corruption of Bestia, the unskilful- 
ness of Albinus, and the pride of Metellus. — mehercules, sc. 
juvet, Hercules help me! a common oath. — militaris eetas ; this 
was from 17 to 46. — ceperit, § 68, i. (Cf. § 58, iii. note). — 
idem, at once, or both. 

14. decebat, § 59, iv. note at end. — inmortalis ; "'ini- 
mortal ' means ' remembered for ever.' The Roman immortality 
is posthumous fame." (Long.) — quisquam is usually used sub- 
stantively ; here it stands for uUus. These words, with um- 
quam and usquam, are only used to express negative ideas ; sce 
Table 6. 

23. The change made by Marius in the mode of raising troops 
was itself a revolution. Before this, none had served who did 
not belong to the classes (Hb. § 125) in virtue of possessing prop- 
erty ; th^ capite censi, counted by the head, were those who 
belonged to r\o class. — bonorum, § 50, iii. 2 ; the " good" were 
the aristocratlc. — egentissumis, see note to p. 118, 1. 24. — sua, 
their oion possessions. — omnia cum pretio, every tliing paidfor . 

133. 3. legionibus, etc. ; see note to p. 103, 1. 9. — tegi, 


19. The Gsetuli wero a barbarous race soutli of Numidia. — ar- 
mis, § 54, Yi. 

20. immunes, free from huHhens, of taxation and military ser- 
vice. — moenia are the walls of a city, murus any strong wall of 
masonry. — oppido, § 51, 1. 

1^3. 7. una jugi aqua, one spring of water. —Id., i.e., the 
want of water. — incultius agebatur, it was less cultivated. — 
irritamenta gulae, seasonings. 

18. pabulo, etc. ; i.e., the land was in pasture rather thantilth. 
— exornat has for subj. consul. — praedabundum, § 44, v. 1; 
the forra in bundus is equivalent to the pres. part., and is rarely 
formed except from neuter verbs. 

30. per centurias ; there were six centuries to each cohort. — 
lenire, i.e., by the use of animal food. 

124:, 3. uti egrederentur depends on paratos. — tumul- 
OBum, hiUi/ ; this word is used nowhere but in this passage. — 
milium, sc, passuum. 

17. res trepidae, the confusion of ajfairs. — pars, etc. ; thefact 
that, &c. — mobile (from moveo), § 44, v. -1. 

29. non bene consulta, 7iot wisely planned : locupletes agrees 
withmilites (et = also) ; rich frombooty. — socii, thosefriendly. 

t.25, 8. asperitate, danger. — Capsensium, sc. res. — Mul- 
uchae; " The scene is'now moved from Capsa in the east to the 
Mulucha in the west, a direct distance due west from Capsa of 
700 miles. Sallust leaves us to guess how this distance was ac- 
complished." (Long.) — ceteram planitiem, a country otherwise 
level. — castello, dat. after satis patens. — forte, abl. from fors. — 
virorum and armorum limit satis. — importunus, unsuitaUefor. 
28. trahere cum animo suo, consider it in his mind, i.e., 
toss it to one side and the other. 

ISO. 2. cochleas; snails are favorite articles of food in 
Southern Europe. — ad summum montis; the usual form would 
be montem, by § 47, viii. — flexa . . . quo, hending and growing 
up as [lit., in height, to which'] . — ^^nenti\xm,fruit-bearing things, 
or tkings that grow, § 50, 11. after cuncta: cuncta is obj., and 
natura subj. of fert. 

19. cognitum, § 74, i. — ex prsesentibus, (o?ie) of those 


31. facilius, § 47, iii. end. — ea, i.e., the shields ; the scutum 
was an oblong shield of wieker work covered with leather ; the 
clipeus, a round metal shield. — ofifensa, in case they sTiould hit 
ayainst any tliing. 

1S7. 7. nisu, § 74, ii. — potissimus, cldef of all. — digre- 
diens, stepping aside, to leave room Ibr the others. — ab ea parte, 
on that side. 

16. See note on p. 13, 1. 32; p. 20, 1. 23. — sagittariis ; this is 
an exception to § 54, i. end. — saepe, etc. ; this is the cause of 
what follows, non, etc. — secundis rebus, § 54, x., from their 

25. his and illis are abl. abs. with certantibus, which is fol- 
lowed by pro, etc, § 51, l. note. — canere is here neuter, having 
signa for subject. — tantummodo sauciare, i.e., they were in 
too great haste to kill them. — ex culpa, for what was really 

138. Lucius CoRNELius SuLLA, born B.c. 138, was after- 
wards the great rival of Marius in a bloody civil war. Marius 
was merely a soldier ; but Sulla was also a statesman and a man 
of letters, — one of the greatest meri whom Rome produced, 
but stained with licentiousness, avarice, and cold-blooded 
cruelty. The office of Quaestor was that of treasurer in the 
city, paymaster in the army. (Ilb. § 135.) 

4. quos relates, hj Synesis, to the individuals implied in 

10. juxta, at the same time, qualifies Graecis atque Latinis: 
atque doctissume, and very thoroughly too. — simulanda ac 
dissimulanda, pretending and concealing. — victoriam: b.c. 82, 
SuUa obtained a final victory over the party of INIarius (who 
had died four years before), and ruled as perpetual dictator, until 
he laid down his power in 79, shortly after which he died. — 
fecerit, § 70, note. 

25. aliis per se ipse, i.e., non rogantibus. — ees mutuum, 
borrowed money ; he wouhl rather give away money than pay his 
debts. — repetere, i.e., ses mutuum. — illi, for sibi. — joca, a 
not uncommon phiral of jocus. — multus fbrmultum; onhand. 

129. After the events above described, Marius returned to 
winter quarters to Cirta. 


6. speculatores, his oioii scoids. — alius, § 47, ix. ; sub- 
ject of significabant witli omnes; redeuntes agrees witli the 
subj. ceteri, i.e., the infaiitiy. — in manus, to dose quarters. 

— neque, § 43, i. iiote. 

130. 3. vitabundus, dodging. — pati, §49, iir. (not depend- 
ing on posse). — niti, sc. surgere. — visus, a noun. 

Bocchus being at last tired of the war, enters into nego- 
tiations with JNIarius, and secretly concludes a peace with the 
Romans, with the iutention of betraying Jugurtha into their 
hands, immunity being promised to himself. 

17. arbitratu, i.e., with fuU powers. The inhabitants of the 
Balearic Isles were fanied as sHngers. The Pehgnians were one 
of the brave races of central Italy ; the velitaria arma were 
hghter than the arms of thc legions (Ilb. § 157). — secus atque, 
lcss than ; i.e., these were as good as any for this purpose. 

80. victoribus, § 51, vi. 
131» 17. cenatos esse, to get tlieir sujipers Jinished, depends 
on jubet. — vigilia, see note on page 12, hne 24. — metabatur, 
sc. castra. — apud illum ; " a way of saying that he would have 
done the bad deed, and kept the friiit of it." (Long.) 

30. strenuis, § 51, viii. note. 
13^. 1. inermis, from inermus, a form quite as. common for 
the nom. as inermis (Klotz). — nudum, etc. ; i.e., the back, 
which is unprotected. — faceret, § 63, i. — ejus and illum refer 
to Jtigurtha, who is also subject of haberet ; suo, to Vohix. — 
uti in tali negotio, considering the circumstances theij were in. 

— acciderant, tlieij had come upon hini ; this word is not often 
used of persons. 

26. deligeret, § 67, 11. 1. — sese, Bocchus ; illo, Snha; cum 
illo depends upou consulta, reierriug to some former interview ; 
integra habere, maintain unimpaired. It is generahy supposed 
that a few words have beeu lost after pertimesceret, to the effect 
tliat he (the ambassador) had heen invited iviih design. — nequi- 
visse, § 67, iv. 2; caveri is also impersonal. — comperior, / 
am convinced ; this verb is deponent only iu two intances, both in 
the Jugurtha. — Punica fide ; want of faith was a favorite charge 
of the Romans against the Carthaginians (Pceni) . 
l33. 0. Rex, i.e., Boechus. — conventam, agreed upon. — 
consultum, etc, a plan and the estahlishnient of peace. — ab 


omnibus veniretur = omnes venirent. — in potestatem; the 
idea is, shoiild liave got liim into his power. — fore uti fieret, 
§ 67, III. ; this is a raore common way of expressing a fut. inf. 
pass. than that with iri (as reliotum iri, below). — non sua 
ignavia sed ob rempublicam, § 54, i. first note ; they qualify 
in potestate. 

22. ut, etc., as (theij loere) impetuous, so (too, they were) 
Jickle; sibi advorsae, contradictory . 

81. dicitur, § 67, iv. 1. — quae is subject of patefecisse, 
depending on scilicet '(sci licet) ; which things of course dis- 
closed, &c. 

134L. 11. This was the famous invasion of the Cimbri and 
Teutones, Celtic and German hordes, which invaded Italy, 
and kept it in a state of terror for several years. Caepio and 
Manlius were defeated b.c. 105, the year in which Jugurtha was 
captured. Marius was chosen consul for five successive years, 
and at last cut them to pieces in two great battles. — illim, an old 
form of illinc, from that time. — consul; tliis is incorrect ; he 
was at this time proconsul. — triumphavit (Ilb. § 160^). 


PuBLius OviDius Naso was born in Sulmo, a town of the 
Peligni, b.c. 43. He was a highly endowed and voluminous 
poet, and for a long time enjoyed favor at tlie court of 
Augustus, but was suddenly banished by him, from some 
unknown cause, to the northern coast of the Euxine Sea, 
wliere he died, a.d. 17. Ilis principal work is tlie Meta- 
morphoses, a collection of mythical fables, tohl iu hexameter 

Pliaethon was son of Phcebus and Clymene. Ilis mates 
baving refused to credit his being the soii of a god, he goes 
to liis fatlier to ask for a certain proof. 

13^. 1. solis, § 78, III. 1. — sublimibus, id. 11. 3. — clara, 
id. iri. 5, Yi. ; 11. 5. — auro, id. 11. 8.— imitante, id. ir. G. — 
nutidum, id. iii. 6, i. — tenebat, id. iri. 2. — argenti, id. ri. 7. — 
lumine, id. irr. 5, \^ — superabat even surj^assed, id. iir. G, 11. ; 
II. 4. — aequora, id. iii. 1, exc. 


8. caeruleos, dark hlue, the color of the sea ; applied there- 
fore to the gods of the sea. — Tritona, a Greek forni of the acc., 
§ 11, III. 4, note ; Triton was the companion of Neptune. — 
Proteus was a sea-god, who had the power of assuming different 
shapes. — immania, § 78, iii. 5, vii. — ^gaeon was another 
name for Briareus, the hundred-handed giant; Doris, a sea- 
goddess, wife of Nereus, and mother of the Nereids or sea-nymphs. 

— natas, § 78, m. 3. — videntur, § 49, i. end. — mole, a rock, 
§ 78, III. 5, IV. — quaedam, sc. videntur. 

15. Terra answers to unda in v. 8 ; the carved work is de- 
scribed. — imago, § 78, iii. 5, iii. — signa, the signs of the zodiac. 

19. acclivo, § 78, iii. 5, ix. — Clymeneia, § 47, 5, v. — 
ferebat, i.e., could not bear. — Dies, etc, the personified deities 
of these divisions of time ; the Horee are usually the sea^ons in 
mythology, but here the word is used in its prose meaning. — 
calcatis; in allusion to the custom of treading out the wine. 

28. spicea, § 44, iii. 1. — novitate, § 78, iii. 6, iv. 

33. publica, common to all. 

40. Deposuit; see v. 22. — amplexu, § 78, 11. 9. — negari 
depends upon dignus, by an exception to § 65, iv. 1. — es, 
§ 78, II. 3, exc. — edidit, id. iii. 3, exc. ; and 4. — quodvis, 
from quivis, any you ijlease. — me, § 78, 11. 1. — juranda, 
§ 51, I. second note. — paliis, the Styx, by which the gods 
swore their most solemn oaths. — incognita, because the sun's 
beams never reach the loAver worhl. — jus, § 78, 11. 3, exc. 

50. tua, sc. voce. — dare, § 78, iii. 2, exc. — negarem, sc. 
si possem, § 59, iv. 2; confiteor is used parenthetically. — 
istis, thy ; §20, 11. — conveniant, § 65, i. — superis, those 
above, i.c., the gods. — fas is what is permitted by divine law. — 
nescius, ignorantly, § 47, vi. — Placeat, § 64, iv. ; the meaning 
is, let each ofthe gods have hisfancy, still, &c. — axe ; the axle is 
put for chariot, by the figure called synecdoche, by which the part 
is put for the whole. — rector, i.e., Jupiter. — agat, § 60, 2; 
this is one of the few cases in which the subj. may be rendered can. 

65. The subject of fit is videre. Tethys was wife of Oceanus 
(god of the ocean), and mother of Clymene the mother of rhaethon. 

— cetera, sc. sidera. — orbi, § 51, i. — Finge, suppose. — 
axis, i.e., caeli. — illic, i.e., in the heavens. — delubra, § 78, 
iiT. ; 5, II. — formas, i.e., the constellations of the zodiac, eight 
of which represent animals. 


78. ut, aWiough. — Rdversi, fronting yotL. — Haemonios, i.e., 
Thessalian ; the archer was represented as a centaur, a race 
■vvhich had its home in Thessaly. — aliter, iii another diredion. — 
ignibus limits animosus. — in promptu, easi/. — ut, when. 

89. sanguine, § 54, viii. — timendo, i.e.,foryoursafefy. • 

100. ne dubita, § 58, iii. — qua licuit, as long as it was per- 
mitted. — summse rotce, the outside of ihe wheel. — Phcebo = 
Sole ; this is the figure called metonymy, by which a word is put 
for another to which it stands in some relation, as of cause and 
efFect, or here that of ruling and guiding. 

113. agmina cogit, hriug up the rear. — Lucifer, the morning 
star. — quae, subject of petere, depending on vidit, which 
agrees with Titan = Phoebus ; the Titans were an early race of 
gods, and Phoebus was son of the Titan Hyperion. — extremee, 
/acZ/w^. ^ ambrosiae ; the food of the gods, and so of their horses. 

121. ora, the countenance ; patientia agrees with it, able to 
endure. — flammae, § 50, iii. — directos, straight across thefive 
circles ; i.e., the equator, tropics, and poles ; the sectus in 
obliquum limes is the EcHptic, which touches only the torrid and 
temperate zones. — que, after polum, hoth. 

131. preme (also pressam below) means to bear down, so as 
to be towards the horizon. — juvet, § 68, 11. note. — Aurora, 
goddess of the morning. — quae relates to lumina ; dare dei^ends 
on sine (from sino) . 

150. contingere ; the rcgular construction after gaudet would 
be contingere, by § 70, iii., or quod contingit, by § 70, iv. — 
The names of the horses mean fery, of the dawn, burning,fam- 
ing. — repagula, the barriers of a race-course. — copia, power 
over or entrance to. — euros (llb. § 211). 

165. inani, sc. currui. — quo ordine refers to eo understood, 
§ 48, III. note. — si sciat ; we shouhl expect the imp. sciret, § 59, 
IV. 2. 

170. Triones (septem) , the seven stars which mark the con- 
stellatlon of the Great Bear ; it had been forbidden Calhsto, who 
was changed into this constellation, ever to rest. — Bootes, now 
Arcturus, a constellation near the Great Bear, 

174. penitus penitusque, deeper and deeper below. — tene- 
brae, i.e., from dizziness. — Meropis, sc. filius ; Mcrops was the 
husband of Clymene. — pinus, i.c., navis, by synecdoche ; scc 
note on axe, v. 58. — frena ; this is a metaphorical use of the 
word, the ship being spoken of as a horse. 


195. que connects cauda and lacertis ; the Scorpion originally 
occupied double space ; afterwards Libra was inserted where its 
claws had been. — madidum ; heated by the sun, and sweating 
poison; cuspide, the pointed tail, where the sting lies. — expa- 
tiaiitur, leave the road. — qua and hac, sc. via, § 55, iv. 

207. Luna ; Artemis (Diana) w^as goddess of the moon, as her 
brother Apollo of the sun. — ut qvL^eqae = whatever (Y>sirts) . — 
Tellus, a poetical word raeaning the earth as a heavenly body. — 
arbos ; the figure by which one part of a word is used for another 
(here the sing. for the pl.) is called enallage. 

216. Scythia, Tartary ; Caucasus, the mountains between the 
Euxine and Caspian Seas. — Ossa, Tindus, and Olympus arc in 
Thessaly. — Apenninus ; this is a spondaic verse, § 82, i. note. 

224. calido, § 45, v. 2. 

227. in corpora summa, to tlie surface of ihe hodies. — pas- 
sis from pando ; dishevelled. — Dirce, Amymone, and Pirene are 
fountains in Thebes, Argos, and Corinth (the old name of which 
was Ephyre), — sortita, possessing (by lot). — Tanais, Don; 
the Alpheos and Spercheos are rivers in Greece. The Tagus, in 
Spain, was a gold-bearing stream. — Masoniawas the ancient name 
of Lydia, the chief river of which was the Cayster, famed for its 
swans. — The source of the Nile was a problem to the ancients, 
as it has rcmained until our own day. 

213. Regem, Pkito. — The Cyclades arc a group of islands in 
the ^gean Sea, so called because they form a rude circle about 
the sacred island Delos. — Cycladas, Delphines ; thcse are 
Greek endings, see § 78, note ; final as and. es are usually long 
by § 78, II. 3. — Nereus was the husband of Doris. — aquis, 
§ 54, VI. 

255. fontes, § 46. — viscera, § 42, iii. — coUo, § 56, i. 5. — 
opposuit manum, i.e., to shicld her face. — infra = inferius, 
i.e., crouching. — periturae, sc. mihi. — auctore; it would be a 
consolation to perish by the thunderbolt of Jove. 

271. vobis, i.e., Dis. — fac, grant. — frater, sc. tuus, i.e., 
Poseidon (Neptune). — Quod, § 52, iv. — fratris limits gratia. 

— mea, § 50, 11. 1, end. — utrumque, in eacli direction. 

278. Atlas, one of the Titans, who sustained the heavens on 
his shouhlers, — neque enim ; i.e., she spoke no more, for, &c. 

— os, § 78, II. 2, — Manibus ; the manes were the spirits of the 
departed, and are put by metonymy for the infernal regions. 

291. nubes; the clouds and showers had been all dried up. — 


expulit ; this word properly applies only to rotis (put by synecdo- 
cJie Ibr curru) ; the figure bywhich it is joined also with vita (with 
which privavit would be the right word) is called zeugma. 

305. diverso, i.e., in the west. — Eridanus, the Po ; it has 
also been identified with the Rhone. — Naides (naiades), river- 
nyniphs ; Hesperia was the poetic nanie of Italy. — oorpora, by 
enallaye for corpus. — sitvs ; v and u were the same letters 

318. mox, i.c., when the limbs themselves had perished. 

32 J:. Haliades from Helias, daugliter ofthe sun; a femininc pat- 
ronymic, § 44, i. 3. — morti put for mortuo by metonymy. — 
adsteruntur, § 23, o, prostrate tliemselces. — junctis cornibus, 
i.e., the crescent had joined its horns and become the fuU moon. 

— Phaethusa and Lampetie ; these names, signifying hright and 
sliining, are well suited to the daughters of the sun. — maxima, 
§ 17, III. end. — cum vellet, ivishing; the subjunctive with cum 
may often be rendcred by the present participle. 

337. faciat, § 60, 3. — trpJiat, § 66, ii. — eat, § 59, iv. 1. 

— sole qualifies rigescunt. — electra ; mythology divined the 
true origin of amber, as a guni from trees, which was long a puz- 
zle to naturalists. — gestanda ; amber was a favorite material for 
necklaces,&c., among the Roman ladies ; they carried balls of it in 
their hands for coolness. 

" The Fasti of the Romans," says Ramsay, " corresponded 
very closely to a modern almanac, and the Fasti of Ovid may 
be considered as a poetical ' Year-Book' or ' Companion ' lo the 
Roman Almanac." Tliis work was commenced before Ovid's 
banishment ; whether it was ever completed is uncertain, as 
only six books are extant. Each of these is devoted to one 
month, describing the festivals of thc months, and interweav- 
ing much liistorical and mythical matter. The Fasti did for 
Roman mythology what the Metamorphoses did for Greek. 
The metre of the Fasti is the Elegiac (§ 82, ii.). 

Book iii. of the Fasti, devoted to the month of March, is 
here given, with sucli omissions as bring it within reasonable 
limits ; it contains, complete, eight hundred and eighty-four 

The following is the calendar of this month, — the first day being 
the Kalends, the seventh the Nones, and the fifteenth the Ides ; — 


l.D. (kAL.MAR.)NP. ; — 2. (vi.Non.)E.F. ; — 3. (v. Non.) 
F.C. ; — 4. (iv. Non.) G.C.;— 5. (iii. Non.) H.C. ; — 6. (prid. 


—7. (NoN.) B.F ; — 8. (viii. Id.) C.F. ;— 9. (vii. Id.) D.C. ; — 
10. (VI. Id.)E.C.;— 11. (v. Id.) F.C. ; — 12. (iv. Id.) G.C. ; 
— 13. (III. Id.) II.EN. ;— 14. (prid. Id.) A. EQ. NF. ;— 15. 
(Em.) B. NP. ; — 16. (xvii. Kal. Aprilis) C.F. ; — 17. (xvi. Kal. 
Apr.) D. Liii. NF.; — 18. (xv. Kal. Apr.) E.C.;— 19. (xiv. 
Kal. Apr.) F. Qvin. N. : — 20. (xiii. Kal. Apr.) G.C. ;— 21. (xii. 
Kal. Apr.) II.C.;— 22. (xi. Kal. Apr.) A.N. ; — 23. (x. Kal. 
Apr.) B. TvHiL. NP. ; — 24. (ix. Kal. Apr.) C.Q. Rex. C.F. ; — 
25. (viii. Kal. Apr.) D.C. ; — 26. (vii. Kal. Apr.) E.C. ; — 27. 
(vr. Kal. Apr.) F.NP. iioc. die. caehak. alexand. recepit ; — 
28. (v.Kal.Apr.)G.C. ;— 29. (iv. Kal. Apr.) II.C. ; — 30. (m. 
Kal. Apr.) A.C. (N.P.); — 31. (prid. Kal. Apr.) C.C. 

The letters A, B, &c., standing first, represent the days of the 
Ilonian week of eij>ht days : on whichever of these letters the liist 
Nuadlnce, or market day, of the year fell, the others came on the 
sanie through the whole year. Tho letters standlng next indicate 
the character of the day (Ilb. § 210). F., Fastus, on which the 
pr^tor could hold his court; N., Nefastus ; C, Comitiales, 
when the comitia could be held; NP., Nefastus priore, i.e.', in 
first half; EN., Endotercisus (intercisus) , half fastus, half 
nefastus ; the 24th day is quando rex coniitiavit fastus, fastas 
when the rex sacrificulus (Ilb. § 147) has perforined sacrifice in 
the Comitium ; EQ. (14th day) is the equiria, or annual horse- 
race; Tvbil (2od day) is the purification of trumpets, tubi- 
lustrium; Qvin (19th day) is the Festival of INIinerva. 

3. roges, § 60, 4. — poetae, § 51, vi. — Minervae ; i.e., al- 
though slie is the goddess of wisdom and indu,^try. — ingenuis, 
icorthy of afreeman. — vacat, i.e., for that reason. — PaUas was 
an epithet of the Grecian Athena, who was identified with the 
Rouian Minerva. 

9. ter senos, § 18, 11. 3. — proles ; Romulus and Rcmus, sons 
of Mars by the priestess Rea Sylvia (or Ilia) ; they had been ex- 
posed in their infancy, in order to perish, but found by the shep- 
herd Faustulus, who brought them up as his own children. — 
actos = abactos, i.e., apraedonibus. — genus ; theirmotherwas 
daughter of Numitor, the rightful king of Alba, wlio had been 
dispossessed by his brother Ainulius. — pater editus ; i.e., Mars, 
dedared thelrfather. 


19. quamvis properly means however mucli, and takes the subj. 
by § 61, 2 ; but in the latcr writers it was used for quamquam, 
although, with the indic. — transsiluisse ; when Rcmus jumped 
ovcr his brothcr s walis in derision, he was killed by his brother. 

— pater, Romulus. — credor, § 67, iv. 1. — anno, dative. 

29. et tamen, not hut that ; Mars was in the earlicst times the 
chicf god of Latium. — hoc ; the suprcmacy of Mars. 

33. totidem kalendas ; thc Roman year originally consistcd 
of only tcn months. — mensibus, § 54, v. end. — facundum, 
eloquent, from fa-ri, to speak and termination cundus. — pila ; 
thc pilum, a short heavy javclin, was the distinctive Roman 

39. Thcy had notyet noticcd that twclve moons made a sidcreal 
ycar. — signa ; a play upon this word, wliich in versc 41 mcans 
constellations, and in the next military standards. — tenebant, 
ohserve. — foeno, § 54, i., hcre expressing matcrial : thc first stand- 
ard was a wisp of hay. 

47. animi, § 50, i. 4. — ratione, not reason, but reasoning. 

— mensibus decem, § 54, v. ciid: the lustrum was a pcriod 
of four ycars ; but herc, and in a fcw othcr cascs, it is considcrcd 
to havc been fivc ycars, — an irregularity which " may probably bc 
traccd to the irrcguhirity with which thc sacrificc of the ' histruni' 
was performcd.'' (Ramsay.) 

52. Pompilius ; Numa Pompilius, tlic second king of Romc, 
who was invitcd from Curcs, a Sabinc town. To him most of the 
rcligious institutions of thc city are ascribcd. — deductus ; this 
woi-d mcans escoiied with ceremony. — hoc, § 52, iii. (1) note. 

— Samio : Pythagoras, a philosopher of Samos, taught the 
transmigration of souls ; he Hvcd, however, a long time aftcr the 
allcged reign of Numa. — Bgeria, a nymph, was fablcd to have 
bcen thc wifc of Numa, and to have taught him nuich wisdom. 

55. errabant ; the year consisted of 355 days, and it was the 
rulc that cvcry other ycar a month was intercalated, of alternatcly 
23 and 22 days. This intercalation was lcft, however, to the 
caprice of the pontifices ; and the result was *' a degree of uncer- 
tainty and confusion, to which we can find no parallcl in thc his- 
tory of a civilized people. . . . Accordingly, whcn Caesar became 
dictator, the year was about two months in advance of thc scasons. 
. . . To take a single cxample. Ciccro, in one of his Epistlcs to 
Atticus (X. 17), says that at the timc whcn he was writing, his 
journcy was dclayed by the Equinox. The date affixed to this 


letter is XVII. Kal. Jun., i.e., 16th of May. In order to remedy 
these defects, it was found necessary to add sixty-seven days to 
the year, 46 b.c." This was in the dictatorship of Cajsar, who 
proceeded to guard against such trouble in future, by reforniing 
the calendar : the year was to be of 365 days, with a day (Feb. 29) 
intercalated every year which can be divided by 4. This is the 
Julian Calendar. This was still not quite accurate, however ; and 
Pope Gregory XIII., in the sixteenth century of our era, estab- 
lished the Gregorian Calendar, by which the intercalation is 
omitted in each year which can be divided by 100, but not 
by 400. 

56. in multis, inJiis many didies. — ille deus; Julius Caesar, 
like his successors, was deilied after his death. — propaginis; 
Augustus, in whose reign this was written, was the adopted son 
of Julius. — deus and hospes, § 46 ; nor, when a god, to enter as 
a stranger, &c. — moras, the periods of time. 

64. e pleno, etc. — out of a full day (made up of the extra 
hours in the three intervening years) constructed the fourth period, 
or leap-year. — lustrum here stands properly for the period of 
four years. 

67. The poet here addresses Mars Gradivus (going into battle) ; 
the festival Matronalia, celebrated by matrons, fell on the first 
day of March. — virilibus; " 3Iars is connected with mas, as 
'AprjC is with u^^rjv." (Paley.) — Dio, § 33, iii, 2. — in nova cas- 
tra; i.e., into an unaccustomed field.' 

79. hujus, sc. Romae; i.e., which now exists. — credita, be- 
lieved. — regia; the palace of the kings still stood by the Forum. 
— venit in astra, i.e.,became a god. — Romanus, § 44, iv. 5. — 
male, hardly ; compare male forte, v. 36. — vellet, § 65, iv. 2. 

95. mentem; " not animum, courage, but mentem, i.e., con- 
silium, craft.''^ (Paley.) — toUe, aivay loith. — Consus, usually 
called the Equestrian Neptune, appears to have been a god of the 
under-world. On his festival, Aug. 21, the Roman youths seized 
upon the Sabine virgins who were come to see the games of the 
festival, and made them their wives. Gures was the chief town of 
the Sabines, and most of the virgins were from that town. — The 
address of Mars to Romulus ends at the word Conso. — sua, 

101. fere, for tlie most part, i.e., most of them. — raptee, § 47, 
III. — matrum, § 50, i. 3. — propinqua, i.o.. tcith relatives. — 
dictam, appoinied for this purpose. — mea nurus, Hersilia, wife 


of Roinulus. — hoc commune, " They had not all children, but 
thej were all captives alike." (Paley.) 

106, non ultra, no longer ; lente pie, quietly faitliful. 

114. lituus, a curved horn, used in the cavalry. — campi, for 
campum ; see § 47, \ni. — sentirent, § 61, 1. — viris, dative com. 
et incom., § 51, i. note. — diem, in app. with Kalendas. — quae 
prima, ichich first, i.e., on that occasion, witnessed this action. — 
CBbalise = Sabinae : the Sabines were fabled to be descended 
Ironi the Lacedaunonians, of whoni G^balus was an ancient king. 

130. The Salii (Hb. § 149) were a budy of priests who carried 
the sacred shields, ancilia; the story ol' their origin is related 
below ; Mamurius was a nanie of Mars, upon whom tho Salii 
called. — nemori stagnoque; the grove and lake of Diana at 
Aricia; it is still called the Lake of Nemi ; the nymph was Egeria; 
see note to v. 54. — operata, devoted to the service. 

135. Ilippol} tus was the son of Theseus, king of Athens. By 
an artifiice of his stepmother he was dashed to pieces by his own 
horses, but was restored to life by iEsculapius, and transferred to 
Aricia, where he was worshipped under the name Virbius. — 
tabella; this refers to the custocn, when in danger, of vowing a 
gift to some god, and after recovery or preservation, consecrating 
pictures representing the danger. The same custora still exists in 
Italy. Among such offerings to the Diana of Aricia, were lighted 
torches brought by women. — Regna; the priest of this sanctuary, 
called Rex Nemorensis, was a fugitive slave, who must obtain 
his place by attacking and killing his predecQssor. — Camenae: 
these were nymphs of a fountain, possessing oracular powers ; tiiey 
were afterwards identified with the Greek Muses. 

149. ne, ete. ; that the more vigorous should not have all the 
power. — aequum, § 47, iv. (1). — vina salsaque farra; these 
were connnon offerings to the gods. — aquis, § 54, vi. — ne ter- 
rere, § 58, iii. 1. — Picus and Faunus were old Italian gods of 
nature. — numen utrumque, § 46. 

163. sine vi, unless forced. " Tiie supreme god is too awful to 
be approached at once by a mortal. Tlie interventiou of inferior 
deities is necessary to extort the required secret. Yet even they 
are reluctant to employ the potent spells which Avill bring him 
frora the sky, and only do so because they cannot help them- 
selves." (Paley.) — adhibeto, § 58, iii. end. — qua agrees with 
arte. The Aventine was the southernmost of the sevcn hills of 
llome, famous for a temple of Diana. — niger, dark; ater is bluc/c; 

NOTES OVID . 2 79 

the ilex, or evergreen oak, has a very dark foliage. — posses, 
§ 60, 1. — Bacchi = vini. — arcta agrees witli vincla; in governs 

182. Faunus was represented, like the Grecian Pan, with horns. 

— per te, § 54, i. end. — ab arte; this is an unusual construction : 
persons require ab by § 56, iv., things take the abl. alonc by 
§ 54, I. ; see § 56, iv. note. — Styx; see note on Phaethon, v. 45. 

— nobis, § 51, viii. end. — Elicium; thetemple of Jupiter Elicius 
was on the Aventine. 

207. amb-age, a going around, or ohscuritij ; remota is here 
used as an adjcctive, disiant or ohscure ; the ingenuity by which 
Numa avoided human sacrifices is now related. — animam, life. — 
facito [ut] procures ; a formal style of imperative ; see that thou 
make atonemcnt. — Cynthius, an epithet of Apollo. 

231. margine, the horizon. 

242. submisere is generally rendered cast doicn; Paley thinks 
here it should be cast up. — ancile ; the prefix an or amb means 
on hoth sides ; but it is impossible to derive this word, with Ovid, 
from caedo ; perhaps from caelo, to carve, as the ancile was an oval 
shield, hollowed in on each side of the oval. — imperii limits sor- 
tem. — morum, etc, whether more precise in character, or, &c. — 
munificus, § 17, i, note. — Mamurium vocant; this story was 
made up to expLain the occurrence of the word in the hymn. 

26o. Una nota; thc day before this (in a passage omitted) has 
two marks of distinction ; the Nones but one. — Marti, sc. mensis; 
this use of the gcn. of the name of the month, limiting Nonis, is 
rare ; the regular form would be Martiis Nonis, § 15, end. — 
Vejovis; this word is generally explained to mean " the cvil 
Jupiter," corresponding to Siva or Satan ; the meaning is, how- 
ever, doubtful. This temple was in the hollow between the two 
heights of the saddle-shaped Capitohne, where Romulus opened the 

268. invidiosa, an ohject ofenvy. — cur-ve; § 78, 11. 1, note ; 
the adverb, from curvus, would be curve, § 78, 11. 6. — jviven- 
alis ; the statue of Vejovis on the Asylum was youthful, hokling a 
bundle of arrows, for which reason he was often identified with 
ApoUo. — ausos, § 72, 2. — The Giants were sons of Uranus and 
Gaia (Heavcn and Earth) ; " terrible they were to look upon ; 
long, thick hair flowed down from chin and head, and their feet 
were covered with serpents' seales." (Ramsay.) Thcy attacked 
Zeus (Jupiter), and were by liim vanquished. It was not the 


giants, but the Aloidae, Otus and Ephialtes, that piled Pelion upon 
Ossa. — Jovi, § 51, viii. note. 

277. The goat was sacred to Vejovis : Ovid identifies it with the 
goat with whose milk the infant Zeus was nourished by the nymphs 
in Crete. — vegrandia and vesca. " These illustrations have 
not been happily selected. There can be no doubt that 've' does 
possess the force of a negative in certain words, such as 'vecors' 
and 'vesanus;' . . . . but 'vegrandis' and 'vescus' have been 
quoted by the old grammarians as examples of words to which the 
particle in question communicates a double meaning ; the former 
being either ' not large ^ or ' very hirge ; ' the latter, either ' little 
eating,' ' small,' ' weak,' ' delicate,' or ' much eating.' " (Ramsay.) 

284. The winged horse Pegasus sprang from the blood of the 
Gorgon Medusa, when her head was cut off by Perseus. — connect 
cervice with prosiluisse, sanguine with respersis. — aquas; 
the fountain Hippocrene (^fountain of tlie horse), at the foot of 
Mount Helicon, sacred to the Muses, was caused by a stroke of the 
hoof of Pegasus. — subter sidera, § 56, i. 3. 

294. Gnosida, from Gnossus, a city of Crete, the birthplace of 
Ariadne, daughter of Minos, king of Crete. She had forsaken her 
home with Theseus, but was abandoned by him on the island of 
Naxos, and discovered there by Dionysus {Bacchus). — Theseo, 
§ 47, V. — conjuge, § 54, i. ; we should say, had exchanged her 
faithless hushandfor, &c. — quae, Ariadne ; she had saved Theseus 
from the labyrinth, by giving him a clew of thread by which to 
trace his way. — legenda, to be gathered, so traced hack. — ille, 
Theseus. — Liber, a Roman divinity identified with Bacchus.- — 
depexos crinibus, straight-haired; " to distinguish them from 
the tribes of East Africa, who had woolly hair." (Paley.) 

307. Theseu, § 10, 10. — causa relata mea est, mi/ former 
condition is renewed. — nulla = non. — in lacrimas meas, as 
causing my tears. 

322. falli depends.on digna; the usual construction would be 
quae fallar, § 65, iv. 1. — audibat = audiebat, § 33, iii. 3. — 
vocabula, a name; Libera was the female goddess corresponding 
to Liber ; usually identified with Proserpine (Hb. § 65) . — sint, sc. 
ut, depending on faciam. — coronae, § 50, i. 3. — illa (^Venus), 
sc. dedit. — illa (v. 334), i.e., corona. 

3;15. Anna Perenna (per annos) is the goddess of the re- 
volving year, especially connected with the changing moon ; for 
which reason her festival came appropriately on the full-moon 


(Ides) of the first month of the year. This festival was hold in 
the fields north of the city, near the present city walls. — geniale, 
merry ; from genius, the spirit that was born with each man. — 
advena, because the Thybris (Tiber) rose in Etruria. — Sub 
Jove, in the opeii air ; Jupiter was originally the god of the Sky, 
and in many expressions this primitive meaning is preserved. — 
Sunt quibus = aliquibus, by analogy with § 67, i. 1, note ; we 
should expect the subj. after it by § 65, iv. 2. — sumant, § 66, i. 

— cyathos; the cyathus was a measure of about one-third gill. 
345. Nestor and the Sibyl both reached a great age. — per 

calioes suos, as far as the nimber of ciips could effect it. — 
jactant manus, i.e., gesticulate. — posito, laid aside, or, as 
Taley tlnuks, j^laced in the middle. — dur^s, awkward. — culta, 
well-dressed or hedizened. — volgi, § 10, 9. 

356. proposito meo, according to my plan. — 2Bnese, § 50, 
iii. (Ilb. § 44). Ou his way from Troy to Italy, iEneas was enter- 
tained at Carthage by Queen Dido and her sister Anna. Dido 
loved him; and, when he left, killed herself. This is Virgifs 
story; here Ovid takes up the tale. — arserit is used the first 
time for the flame of love, the secoud for material fire. — com- 
positus, a technical expression, like interred. — tumuli in mar- 
more, i.e., on the marble tomb. 

302. ipsa sua; § 78, 11. 5.— potitur; this form of the third 
conj. fi-equently occurs in poetry ; the shortening of a long syl- 
lable is called Systole. — spretum, sc. esse ; larbas had becn a 
rival of iEneas for the love of Dido. — Elissa was another name 
of Dido. — reppulit; re is short, but is frequently lengthened by 
the figure called Biasiole, in Avhich case the following consonant 
is sometimes doubled. — olim, sometimes. — rege; the ancients 
callcd the queen-bee, king. 

369. Three years had j^assed. Tertia =/o)' the third time; 
area, the threshing-fioor ; nudandas, to he hared of the chaif; 
lacus, the wine vat. — libatas, poured out, i.e., falling ; and 
receive (are touched by) the hair falling from her head, as she 
leans over. — illis, § 51, v. — pede aequo, in straight course ; 
pes is the sheet, or rope, that fastens the sail, and sets it to the 
wind ; this means, then, before the wind. 

379. Cosyra, Pa nt ell a r ia, is a.n island half-way between Sicily 
aud Afrlca ; Melita, Malta, is fuither East. — opum, § 50, i. 4. 

— quantulacumque ; see foot of T. 6. — servasset, § 68, i. — 
Tygmidion was king of Tyre, brother of Dido and Anna.— exilio, 


dative afler paranda. — perosus, § 38, i. 2. — quovis, from 
quivis, any ichataoever. 

39o. The Crathis was a river in the southern part of Italy. — 
Carbasa ; this word is feminine in the singular, and neuter in the 
plural (heterogeneoiis, § 14, 11.). 

406. The reading of this line is doubtful ; we have followed 
MerkePs edition of 1853 ; in 1841 he gave at and vix for aut and 
his, whichis also Paley's reading ; probably votis is abl., and his 
dat. after poscit, referring to habenis, — exsul, § 47, iii. end. 
— lumina for oculos, by metonymy ; puppis for navis, by 
synecdoche, — aliquam ; " some ground, i.e., even though in 
the grave. For it was thought the greatest of misfortunes to be 
unburied, if one was lost at sea.'' (Paley.) — Laurentum was a 
town on the coast of Latium, about sixteen miles from Rome, so 
called from its laurel groves ; here -^neas had come from Car- 
thage, and was founding his new kingdom, having married 
Lavinia, daughter of King Latinus. 

415. Achate ; we shouhl expect ab by § 56, iv. ; Achates was 
the faithful Ibllower of iEneas. — sustinet, is ahle. — veniret, 
§ 60, 3; § 57. — iEneas, sc. miratur. 

423. Cythereius; ^Eneas was son of Venus, one of whose 
names was Cytherea. — tui, § 19, iii. — quam, § 48, iii. second 
note ; § 52, vi. ; § 70. — comites ; ^ueas had broiight with 
him the Penates, or houseliokl gods, and established their worship 
at liis new city, Lavinium. — moras ; he tarried in Carthage, 
when the gods had directed him to go to Italy. — de morte, sc. 
Didus. — credibili, neut., an exception to §47, iv. (1) note ; 
slte (Dido) loas hraver than could have heen helieved, as was shown 
by her death. — Tartareas; iEneas had visited the infernal 
regions, and had there seen the shade of Dido. — ratio, a plan or 

435. memores, sc. nos. — tibi and Elissae, dat. after de- 
bemus. — nil non, every thing ; a litotes. — paratus, § 52, iv. 

449. exactum, thought out, agrees with quid agat. — squal- 
enti, § 25, i. note. 

459. Numicius, a small river near Lavinium ; tlie river god was 
represented Avith horns. — Sidonis, § 44, i. 3. — Amne per- 
enne ; this is given as one derivation of the name Anna Perenna ; 
" the form of the abhitive in e fro^n adjectives in is is said to be 
peculiar to Ovid." (Paley.) 

NOTES — OVID. 283 

467. It Is well known that Julius CaBsar was assassinated on tlie 
Ides of March, — Vesta, goddess of the hearth. 

476. Cffisar held the priestly office of Pontifex Maximus, the 
head of the Koman religion. (Hb. § 143.) rhillppi was the scene 
of the great battle, b.c. 42, in which Brutus and Cassms, the 
chiefs of the cont-piracy against Csesar, were defeated by Antony 
and Octavianus, and lost their Hves. — elementa, beginnings. — 
Csesaris ; Octavius, the great-nephew of Julius Caesar, was 
adopted by him as his son, receiving his adoptive father's name, 
distinguished by the cognomen (Ilb. § 127) Octavianus ; he was 
afterwards called Augustus. 

483. Tertia; this was March 17, both days being counted in 
reckoning the date, § 83. Some of the exploits and conquests of 
Bacchus are enumerated in these lines. — Sithonas, Thracian. — 
Scythicos ; the Scythians were the Tartar tribes north and east 
of the Caspian Sea. — Tu quoque ; Pentheus, king of Thebes, 
who resisted the religion of Dionysus, and was torn in pieces 
by his own mother in a fanatic frenzy. — Lycurgus ; a king of 
Thrace, who in a similar frenzy cut off one of his own k^gs with a 
hatchet. — Tyrrhena ; Bacc-hus was captured by Tyirhenian 
pirates, whom he turned into dolphins. — liba, cakes used in 
sacrifice, made of cheese, flour, and an agg, over which honey was 

492. " Grass grew upon the ahars where no fire was ever 
kindled for sacrifice." (Ramsay). — libamen and libum are of 
course derived fiom libo, not liber. — satyris ; the satyrs Avere 
uien with ears and tails of goats, who accompanied Bacchus (Ilb. 
§ 26) ; they are often represented as playing on cymbals ; by these 
the bees were attracted, as is their natnre. — Hebrus, a river in 
Thrace ; Rhodope and Pangeea, mountiiins in the same country. 
510. levis, smooth (headcd), hald ; this was Silemis, the chicf 
one in the train of Dionysus, an old man, generally drunk. — 
" residebat expresses the lazy, slouching attitude of Silenus.'" 
(Hamsay). — super, § 56, 11. end. — parentis, i.e., as beingan old 
man. — limum inducere, to sprcad a coating of mud. — pater, 
i.e., Bacchus; a frcqueut e])ithet of a god. — jure, righifnlhj. 

527. Minerva, goddess of wisdom (same root as mens), had 
her principal festival, Quinquatria, on the five days, IMarch 19-23. 
— Una dies media est, one day (March 1 8) interveues after the 
fe.stival of Bacchus. — quae refers to sacra; the correct explana- 
tion of thc name is, that it was the fifth day after the Ides. — 


sanguiiie, i.e., of gladiators. — rasa arena; the space of the 
amphitheatre was spread vvith saiid i'ov tlie }j,hidiatorial coiiibats. 
— bellica ; the Grecian Pallas Athena, with whoui Minerva was 
identified, was also a warlike goddess. — stantes : the threads 
(telae) of the warp were suspended vertically ; radio, tlie ^huttle; 
pectine, the reed, hy which the loose (rarum) work is pressed 
conipactly together. — Qui laesis, etc. ; i.e., the fidlers, " the 
iniportance of whose occupation will be understood, when we 
remeniber that the Romans, until a verj late period, wore woollen 
garments exclusively." (Ramsay.) — quisquis, etc. ; i.e., the 
dyers. — vincula plantae, straps for shoes or sandals. — invita 
Pallade : invita Minerva was a common expression, to denote 
contrary to ont^s natnral hent. — sit, § 61, 2. — Tydiius was, in 
Ilomer, the name of the artist who made the shiehl of Ajax. 

543. manibus, in the liands, i.e., in skill in handicraft. — 
Epeus was the one who constructed the famous wooden horse at 
Troy. — Phcebea ; Phoebus Apollo was god of healing, as well as 
his son ^sculapius. — censu fraudata ; this refers to the poor 
pay of teachers. — caelum, burin or engraver^s tool : carved gems 
and cameos were common in ancient times. — uris ; encaustic 
painting, the art of hurning in the colors, was a favorite one 
among the ancients, but is now lost. — moUia ; the sculptor 
seems to give life and softness to the hard marble. 

553. Mount Cailius was south-east of the Palatine ; the temple 
here mentioned was probably on its northern slope. — ccepit 
habere, i.e., it was dedicated on her birthday, March 18. — 
capitis : the myth represents Athena to have spiuug armed from 
the head of Zeus. Tlie Falisci were the inhabitauts of Fak'rii, an 
Etruscan city captured by Camillus, b.c. 394. It was customary 
for the Romans to adopt the deities of conqucred nations ; the 
ohl spelling capta (litera prisca) should support this deriva- 
tion. — habet ; this passage is doubtful and obscure ; probably 
Minerva is subj. — capitis poenas, capifal piniishment. — eegida ; 
the aagis of Athena was a goat-skin mantle with a Medusa's liead, 
worn usually over her breast. 

567. Summa e quinque, the last ofthefive; this was the Tubi- 
lustrium, or ccremony of purifying trnmpets, the invention of wind- 
instruments being attributed to Minerva. — Hic, the sun ; pressit, 
entered. Tlie sign Aries was supposcd to be the ram that carried 
Phrixus and Helle. — tostis, parched. — tripodas: the Iripod was 
a three-lcgged stool, upon which the pricstess of Apollo at Dclphi 


sat to (leliver oracles. — sorte, lot ; frequently used for orade. — 
corruptus : this is a play upoii the vvord ; the niessenger was 
corrupted (bribed), as well as the seeds, v. 571. — Phrixus and 
Helle were children of Athanias, who were persecuted by tlieir 
stepniother Ino, and tled, swimming upon the golden-fleeced rani. 
Helle lost her hold, and was drowned, giving her name to the 
Hellespont (sea of Helle) ; Fhrixus reached Colchis in salety witli 
the ram, and consecrated its tleece. The expedition of the Argo- 
nauts, under Jason, had for its object to get the golden fleece. 

578. Compulerunt; the e of the penult in this fbrm is fre- 
quently shortened by the figure called Sysiole. — mater: their 
mother was Nephele, cloud. — draconigenam (from gigno, pro- 
duce) ; Thebes was founded by Cadnms, who slew a dragon, and 
sowed its teeth, from which sprang up armed men, the ancestors 
oftheThebans (Hb. § 38). 

588. nomina. SLqvLse, Ilellesjjojit. — ut = quasi, as if. — junc- 
tam, sc. eam. 

599. Janus, the god of opening, represented with two faces, as 
looking bcth ways, towards the future and the past. Froni him 
the month January was named, the opening of the year. — Luna; 
the months were originally cycles of the moon. 

V I R G I L. 

PuBLius Vergilius Maro (also spelled Virgilius) was 
born at Mantua, b.c. 79, and died in 19. He was the greatest 
of tbe Roraan poets, and obtained great popularity in his own 
life, being favored and protected by Augustus. His works 
do not possess much origiuality, but great finish and beauty. 
His first publication was the " Bucolics," consisting of ten 
Eclogues, or pastoral Dialogues and Idyls. Next, the " Geor- 
gics," in four Books, said to have been written in order to 
call attention to agriculture, which had been neglected during 
the eivil wars. His great Epic, the " ^neid," was written, 
but had not received its finishing touches, when its author 

The passage here given is taken from the fourth book of 
the " Georgics," which treats of the care of Bees : — 



1. Tempe, a beautiful and sacred valley in Thessaly, where 
the River Feneus breaks through bctvveen Mounts Olympus and 
Ossa, into the -3^gean Sea. The forni is a Greek neut. plur. — 
fama, sc. est. — extremi, § 47, viii. — Thymbraeus, a common 
epithet of Apollo, derived from the name of a river in the Troad, 
where he had a temple. — caelum sperare ; i.e., being the son of 
a god, he might hope for immortality. — te matre, although thou 
art my mother. 

17. thalamo sub; this position of the preposition after the 
verb is called Anastrophe; so eam circum below. — The Milesian 
wool was of very fine quality. — Arethusa, nymph of a fountain 
in Sicily. 

2G. Penei, a dissyllable, by the figure called Synceresis. 

37. tonsis mantelia villis, towels with shorn naps, § 54, ii. — 
Panchaea was a district in Arabia, the country producing frankin- 
cense. — Maeonii = Lydian. — Oceanus was in some theogonies 
the parent of all the gods. — centum agrees with nymphas. — 
Vesta was goddess of the hearth. — summum tecti; for the more 
usual summum tectum. 

47. The Carpathian Sea was that part of the ^gean south-west 
of Asia Minor. — piscibus forms with bipedum equorum, an 
Hendiadys (ev dcu dvotv, one through two) ; that is, a compound 
idea expressed by two nouns ; Jishes and two-legged horses means 
horses with two legs and Jishes'' tails. — metitur ; passes over in 
measured courses. — Emathia, a district of Macedonia; Pallene 
is a promontory projccting southward into the iEgean. — Nereus, 
god of the cahn sea. 

60. circum heec, against these. — The story here told of Pro- 
teus is like those of Faunus, Fasti, v. 161, ff. 

77. crinibus, § 54, yi. — plurima agrees with unda; ma?iy a. 
— in latebris, § 56, i. 1, note. — hauserat, had occnpied or jJassed 
over. — ad limum belongs with coquebant. 

97. Cujus, Proteus. — quoniam is used here in its primitive 
meaning (quom iam), when noiv. — nam quis = quisnam, who^ 
pray') — vi multa, ardentes, and frendens, express the epilepsy 
which betokened inspiration. 

114. Non nullius, § 43, 12; these parts of a compound word are 
separated by the figure called Tmesis. — Orpheus, a renowned singer 
of early times, who mourned inconsolably for his wife Eurydiee. — 
haudquaquam ob meritum qualifies miserabilis. — ni Fata re- 
sistant; there is an Ellipsis here ; he invokes this vengeance [and 


VIRGIL. 287 

it will be fulfilled], unless, &c. — aequaUs, 0/ lier oion age.— 
Dryadum, the wood wjmphs. — Rhodope and Pangaea were 
mountains of Thrace ; Rhesus, an old king of Thrace, who took 
part in the Trojan war ; the Getae, a people of Thrace ; Hebrus, 
the principal river of Thrace ; Orithyia, an Athenian (Aotias) 
maiden, who was carried away by Boreas to Thrace. Verse 124 
is a spondaic verse : § 82, i. note. 

128. Tajnarura was a promontory south of Greece, by which was 
a descent to the infernal regions, or Erebus. — Manesque; this 
superfluity of conjunctions goes by the name of Polysyndeton. — 
Regem, Dis, or Pluto. 

140. Cocytus and Styx were two of the rivers of the infernal 
regions (Hb. § 30). — Eumenides, the Furies ; Cerberus, the 
three-headed dog who guarded the lower world. — Ixionii, etc, 
the wheel of the Ixioiiian cirde or revoluiion ; Ixion was bound to 
a wheel made to revolve by the wind ; but vento is dat. 

147. Eurydice was restored by the gods of Hades, on condition 
that he should not look back upon her until he had reached the 
upper world. — animi, § 50, i. 4. — fragor, the thunder with which 
Pluto announced that the condition was broken, and called Eury- 
dice back. — Quis agrees with furor. — paludem, i.e., the Styx. 

169. The Strymon was the second river of Thrace, next to the 
Hebrus. — Philomela was a princess of Athens, who was changed 
into a nightingale. 

177. Venus, put by metonymy for love. — Tan-ais, the Don. — 
The Rhipgean mountains were fabled mountains in the far north. — 
The Cicones were a Thracian people. — quo munere, hy this 
tribute of love. — CEagrius; Qiagrus was father of Orpheus. — 
spumantem, etc, he threw up the water into a foam under the 
eddy. — Cyrene, sc. tacuit, or some such word. 

194. illa, Eurydice. — Napgeas, mjmphs of the dell. — summa, 
§ 52, I. note. — Lycaeus was a mountain in Arcadia ; he must 
send there for cattle, since those of Thessaly had perished. — 
intacta cervice, unyoked ; it is still the custom in Europe to use 
teams of cows. 

206. Orphei, dat., of Greek form. — Lethaea; Lethe, oblivion, 
was one of the rivers, of Hades. — uvam; the swarm of bees 
hanging from the branches was like a bunch of grapes. 

Under Tityrus of the First Eclogue, Virgil is supposed to 
represent himself. In the phmdering and confiscationS after 


the civil war, he came near losing his lands, but received 
them back by the favor of Caesar Octavianus, afterwards the 
emperor Augustus. A less fortunate neighbor, Melibocus, 
passes by, and enters into conversation with him. 

2. aveua, oaten straw ; put by synecdoche for the pipe wbich was 
made of it. — Notice the emphasis of tu and nos. 

17. praedicere, § 57, iv. end. — qui deus, whai god, not quis, 
who the god is. — huic nostrae, i.e., Mantua. — parvis, dat. ; it 
could also be cum parvis ; see § 51, i, first note. 

29. Emancipated slaves shaved their beards, which before they 
had suffered to grow. — Peculi ; tlie property of a slave (of course 
only nominally his) was called peculium. 

39. aberat, § 80; last par. but one. — juvenem; Octavianus 
was at this tirae twenty-two. — submittite, raise or rcar. — 
quamvis, to ichatever degree; § 61, 2, note. — omnia, all the 
arable land ; a good deal of the country about Mantua is stony, 
and a good dcal marshy. — insueta pabula; here MeHbocus con- 
trasts the security of Tityrus^s flock with the exposures of his own. 

54. quae refers to saepes; as it has always done. — florem, 
§ 52, IV. — ante quam, § 56, iii. ; a case of tmesis. — The Arar 
was a river of Gaul, now the Saone ; the Tigris, of Mesopotamia. 
The Parthians hved in Persia. Germania, the country, is put 
herc for the inhabitant. — labatur, § 62, ii. 1. 

G5. Afros is after the analogy of § 55, in. 2. — Cretse is 
usually taken as the name of the island ; but probably it would be 
better to consider it as meaning chalJc, and Hmititig rapidum, 
after the analogy of adjectives of fuhiess; rapid and turhid with 
earfh ; the Oxus or Oaxes runs into the Caspian. — post=post- 
hac ; aliquot, only afew. 

80. poteras, § 59, iv. note at end. — pressi lactis = casei. 

C. Asiiiius PolHo, an eminent poet and orator, was coii- 
sul B.c. 40, the year in which a reconcibation was brought 
about, largely by liis means, between Octavianus and Antony. 
Tliis peace, with the hope it excited of tranquihity and pros- 
perity in future, was the occasion of Yirgifs Fourth Eclogue, 
in which certain vague prophecies are also commemorated. 
It has been a favorite tlieory of many, that the imagery of 
this Eclogue was imitated by Yirgil from the Hebrew 
prophets, especially Isaiah ch. xi. 


1. Sicelides; bucolic or pasto^-al poetry was carrled to its 
greatest perfection hy the Sicilian Theocritus. — Cumgei ; the 
Cumaean Sibyl had sold to king Tarquin the Proud the books 
containing the fate of Rome ; they were carefully preserved and 
consulted on important occasions. — magnus saeclorum ordo : 
i.e., a "great year;" a new cycle, which should repeat all that 
had taken place before, and which therefore should commence 
with the rule of Saturn, in whose former reign all had been peace- 
ful and happy, as described in this Eclogue. — Virgo ; Astra^a, 
goddess of justice. — nascenti puero, at his hirtli ; this probably 
refers to the young son of Pollio, born in this year. — ferrea, 
sc. gens; the " iron age " should give way to a new " golden 
age." — Lucina, goddcss of birth. — ApoUo ; the Sibyl had 
declared that the age of Apollo was the last ; Lucina was identified 
Avith Diana, sister of Apollo, hence the possessive tuus. — adeo 
is used to emphasize te ; inibit, sc. cursum. — IUe, i.e., puer. 

26. simul, sc. atque. 

32. Thetis, a sea-nymph, mother of Achilles ; here put for the 
sea. — Tiphys was pilot of the Argonautic expedition ; all these 
heroic events are to be repeated. — ad Trojam, § 55, iii. 2, end. 
— Parcae, the Latin name for the Fates. 

48. honores, § 52, 11. — convexo ; referring to the vault of 
heaven. — Terrasque ; que is not long befbre tr- (§ 78, i. note 
at end), but by Casura. — sseclo, § 54, i. — Linus was an old 
bard, associated with Orpheus. — quamvis hcre = etiamsi. — 
Pan, god of nature, the inventor of the pipe. — certet, § 59, 
IV. 1. — tulerunt, Systole. — mensa, § 54, iii. 


T. Maccius Plautus was born at Sarsina, in Umbria, 
B.c. 254, came to Rome, and obtained great popularity as a 
writer of comedies ; he died at the age of seventy. He wrote 
a large number of plays, twenty of which are now extant ; 
they were translated from the Greek writers of the New 
Comedy, or what we should call comedy of society, and depict 
the manners of the Greeks of his day with much life and 



The following extract is from the Amphitruo. In the 
absence of Amphitruo in war, Jupiter visits his wife Alcmena, 
in the form of her husband, stationing Mercury outside as 
guard, in the form of Amphitruo's slave Sosia. Meantime 
the real Sosia returns, the war being triumphantly ended, 
and finds his double standing guard at the gate of the house. 

For the metre, see end of § 82. In the comic metres, very 
frequent substitutions are pennitted ; thus the first fbot of the 
first verse is a dactyl, ib' iit he- ; the sixth foot, a spondee, -menge ; 
in the next verse the fifth foot is an anapajst, vide' hoc. In 
trochaic, hke iambic measure, the foot makes a metre ; the accents 
mark the first syllable of each metre, where the ictus should fall. 

1T4:. 5. Alcumenae = Alcmenae this insertion or substitution 
of u occurs in several Greek words employed by the comic writers. 
Set = sed. — aedis, § 11, i. 2. — hoc noctis, § 52, iv. ; § 50, 
II., at tliis tlme of night. — NuUust, § 1, last par. but one. — 
Quom, top of p. 2. — Illic, an old form for ille. 
8. The second foot is hoc meiim ; final m appears to have been 
nearly silent in conmion speech, so that the u is short even before 
two consonants. — pallium, a garment worn by the Greeks for 
the Roman toga. — detexere, steal. — dentes pruriunt ; his teeth 
are itching for me (eager to get hold of me). — v. 7 contains the 
tribrachs, miseri and meiis he. — obsecro =for heaveii^s sake. 
— The two hnes beginning Clare are aside. 

17. heri (ijesterday) quod, etc, a substantive clause, subjectof 
factum esse. — nudos, i.e., spoliatos. — Quinctus (theffth), 
a common Roman name. 

22. Non feret, he shall not report. — vapulet, an active verb 
with a passive meaning, § 35, 11. end. 

1T5. 1. esse § 37, v. — In proin, thetwo syllablesare scanned 
as one. — esurientibus, § 36, iv. — hau = haud. — tractim 
tangere, stroke ; used ironically. 

10. mirum ni, a wonder ifnot = I suppose. — muraenam : the 
lamper-eel was a great favorite with the Romans, and was boned, 
after being beaten with a rod. — ultro, loithout provocation. — 
Olet homo ; he pretends to know by the smell that somebody is 
near, I smell a man. — malo, § 51, vii. — superstitiosus, a 
soothsayer. — domes, soften them. 


alas intervelli, plucked tlie wings of my voice. — jumento 
suo, § 54, i. ; aud sends Ids oivn horsefor it. — Alter jumentum 
is a liiatas; i.e., the um is not elided by Ectlilipsis (§ 80); 
tlie next foot is therefore oneran-. — ne existumes, sc. me. — 
nescio quis, § 67, 1. 1, note. — vicem, § 52, iv., in the placeof; 
hic, thisfellow, i.e., /. 

17G. 1. eccum = ecce illum. — edepol, by Pollux ; an oath of 
doubtful etymology. — ilicet (ilicet), it is all up. — certumst, 
mij mind is made up. — hominem, object of adloqui. — qui, an 
old ablative, hy which, § 21, i. note. 

Volcanum in cornu concluBum,freshut up inahorn lan- 
tern. — Ain = aisne ? — Verbero, scoundrel, — mentire = 
mentiris : Sosias takes verbero as the verb, not the noun, — 
Pergin = pergisne ? See note § 1, near end. — argutarier, § 33, 
III. 3. — aput = apud. 

18. tutatust, sc. nos. — Nescio quam, like nescio quis ; you 
arepretty familiar ; a play upon the word familiaris, which in the 
line above is used in the meaning one of the family of slaves. — 
nisi abis ; this use of the pres. indic. in a Protasis, referring to 
future time, is quite common in Plautus ; it is like the English 
idiom " unless you go off.'^ — familiaris accipiere, i.e., cdthough 
you are one ofthefamily, you shall, &c. — horunc = horum. 

177. 2. Quin, hut. — familiai, § 9, 2.— sis, § 37, i. note.— vis 
is here used like our loill ; you will he thrashed. — Haeccine ; ne 
is the enclitic interrogative, ci an emphatic affix. — Ita ; there is 
no special word in Latin for ycs. — Immo, nay hut. 

17. At parum etiam, etc. ; i.e., you will cry a great deal 
more. — usu, hy use, that is, possession. — vaniloquu's = vani- 
loquus es. 

178. 3. Nam illut; ecthlipsis does not take place here. — te 
utinam, an hiatus. — istuc fecissent ; i.e., had iled from me. — 
per pacem, on peaceful terms. — fide, dative after credo. — mi 
= mihi. — etiam denuo, still again. — noster, our slave. — 
portu Persico, a harbor near Thebes. 

170. 2. quor = cur. — The Telebofc were a pceple of Acar- 
nania. — et ipsus [= ipse] ; an aniphibrach taking the phice of 
the trochee. — illi, there. — qui = qua. — quid me captas, why 

do you cross-question me ? 


23. vini, § 50, iv. 5. — ut matre natum fuerat, pure as it 
came from the viue. — mira sunt = mirum est, see note to 
p. 175. — med = me. 

180. 3. injurato, § 54, x. note. — petasum; this was a liat 
with a brim. — an, § 71, 11. end, — Vivo fit ; that is done to me 
alive which will never he done after my death ; i.e., tlie imagines, 
or images of the ancestors were carried in the funeral of a noble, 
but of course a slave could not have them, nor even an ignoble 
pcrson ; now Mercury acts as his imago. 

quod faxit Juppiter, may Jupiter grant it ; a slave on gaining 
his liberty had his head shaved, and put on the pileus, or cap. 

T E E E N C E. 

P. Terentius Afer {the African) was born at Carthage, 
B.c. 195; became a slave in Rome; and, when manumitted 
by his master, distinguished himself by writing comedies, — 
like those of Plautus, translated from tbe Greek. He died 
B.c. 159. His plays are more finished, but less witty, than 
those of Plautus. 

The Ileautontimorumenos {self-tormentor) is an old man, 
Menedemus, who blames hiraself for harsh treatment of his 
son, and, to quiet his remorse, keeps hard at work in his gar- 
den. Here he is accosted by a neighbor, Chremes. This phiy 
is translated from the Greek of Menander, the most eminent 
writer of the New Comedy. 

For the metre, see § 82, iii. ; there are the same irregularities 
as in the trochaic septenarius. 

181. 1. nuper admodum, rery recen^. — 2. Inde a.deo, from 
just this caiise. — 3. rei, i.c., notitia, acquaintance. — 0. quod 
rehites to vicinitas ; § 47, iv. (2). — in propinqua parte ami- 
citiae, \_neighhorliood~\ ichich I hold next of kin to friendship. — 
8. res tua, your circumstances. 

13. siet = sit. — 14. tute; the te is intensive. — ofiBcia; the 
verbs given in § 54, iii. frequently govern the acc. in the early 
writers. — 20. fiat, sc. a servis. — 21. operae, § 50, ir. 


1895. 1. Homo sum, etc. ; this is the famous line that " brought 
down the house," sm vve are told. — facto, § 54, vii. first note. — 
face ; this Ibrin is frequent in the old writers ; see § 33, ni, 2. — 
laboris, § 50, iii. 2. — nollem, sc. te reprehendere, i.e., if 
the task were needless. — hos, i.e,, rastros, — meum, my char- 
acter, or actions. — clam me, § 56, 11. 3. — animum, obj. of 

27. licere; speras is usually followed by the fut, infin., § 67, 

III. 2. — tantisper dum, so long as. 

183. 1. me facere depends on dignum; an exception to § 65, 

IV. 1. istuc aetatis, at your age. — belli after gloriam. — 

adeo res rediit, matters came to this pass. — regem, sc. Per- 
sarum : many enterprising Greeks took service with the king of 

20, quo lenirent ; quo, in the sense of ut, is usually joined with 
a comparative (§ 64, 11.) ; the early writers frequently vary froni 
this. — mea solius causa, § 46, 3. — vestiant, § 60, 3. — his, 
§ 54, III. — malo quovis, § 54, iv. — usque strengthens dum, 
just so long as. 

1841. sumptum exercerent, work out their expenses. — in- 
scripsi: put up a notice that it was for sale. 

13. quanti, § 54, xi. 1. — quae est aequom : sc. ea . . . credere ; 
in those things in which one ought to trust afather. 

20. Dionysia; the great festival of Dionysus or Bacchus. — 
pepulerim, § 63, 11. — Siccine : sic with ne enclitic and the in- 
tensive i. 

C I C E R O. 

M. TuLLius CiCERO was born b.c. 106, at Arpinum, and 
was murdered by order of the triumvirs, — Octavianus (Au- 
gustus), Antony, and Lepidus, — b.c. 43, on his own estate, 
^bout half way between Rome and Naples. He is the most 
eminent name in Roman literature, — the greatest orator, and 
the most voluminous and pleasing wTiter on philosophy. His 
Letters to his Family and Friends {Ad Familiares), to his 
friend Atticus, and to his brother Quintus, are very numerous 
(855 in all) ; and are by far the most vabiable and interesting 
documents we have as to the personal history of the time. 


Cicero had been Consul in the year B.c. 63 ; when the 
Senate, under his lead, crushed the conspiracy of Catiline, by 
what was considered an illegal and violent stretch of power. 
This action was made the ground of bitter calumny and op- 
position among the popular party, led by Clodius, who suc- 
ceeded, five years later (b.c. 58), in driving Cicero into exile ; 
from which, however, he was recalled the following year. 
The passage from Velleius Paterculus, an historian of the 
time of Augustus and Tiberius, gives the circumstances of his 

185. Per idem tempus; b.c. 58. — nobilis: Clodius be- 
longed to the proud patrician gens Claudia, of wbich name 
Clodius was a corruption. — ad plebem transisset: no patrician 
could hold the office of Tribune of tho Plebs, which gave most prac- 
tical power to a demagogue ; Clodius was, therefore, adopted as son 
by a man of plebeian family, much younger than himself, and elected 
tribune. — indemnatum: in his consulship, Cicero had put to 
death the accomphces of Catihne without triaL — aqua, § 54, vi. ; 
interdiceretur is used impersonaUy. — Ca3sar and Pompey were 
at this time omnipotent in the state. — dividendo agro, § 73, iii. 
note ; this was a commission appointed in pursuance of an agrarian 
hiw carried by Ca3sar in his consulship, b.c. 59. — Idem, i.e., 
Cicero. — ut, wlien. — Numidici ; Q. Csecihus MeteUus, the 
same who fought against Jugurtha, was driven into exile (b.c. 
100), in consequence of his opposition to the tribune Saturninus ; 
but was restored the foUowing year. 

The first Letter {Ad Fam. XIV. 4) was written to his wife, 
Terentia, from Brundisium, a port in south-eastern Italy, from 
which the passage was usually made into Greece. Cicero 
was now on his way through Macedonia into Asia Minor. 

186* 4. Quod, § 52, IV. — render hut. 

17. capitis: the caput was the civil standing, or rights of 
citizenship (Hb. § IGl).— legis improbissimae : the law which 
threatened confiscation and exile to any one within four hundred 
miles of Rome, who shouhl reeeive Cicero under his roof. — prae- 
staret, § 65, iii, — gratiam referre is to make a requital; gratiam 
habere, iofeel gratitude. 


21. profecti sumus . . . petebamus, § 57, note at end ; notice 
the change in tense. The letter is written the 30th of April (prid. 
Kal. Mai.), " off Brundisium," and would not be received in 
Rome for several days. We should say, "/ leave Brundisium 
to-day {the oOth), and am on my way to Ctjzicusy Former 
editions had a, d. v. kal. Mai., that is, "7 left three days ago ;'' 
which does not agree with the date of the letter. — Cicero did not 
reach Cyzicus, but remained wit4i his friend Plancius, qusestor of 
Macedonia, at Thessalonica. He afterwards defended this friend 
from a charge of bribery ; and gives at the end of his plea a touch- 
ing account of his noble and tender hospitality. Cyzicus was a 
town in Asia Minor, on a peninsula of the Propontis (Sea of 
Marmora). — scito; this form is always used instead ofsci (§ 33, 
III. 2). 

30. Tulliola (§ 44, i. 2, the affectionate diminutive by which 
Cicero almost always calls his daughter), nom. to fiet: what will 
become of my dear Tullia? quid is predicate nom. The same 
construction is used in French. — matrimonio: Tullia had been 
married five years before, at the age of sixteen, to C. Calpurnius 
Piso ; he was in weak health, and died before Cicero's return. 
There seems to have been stmj anxiety about her portion : *' what- 
ever hecomes ofthe property, we must consider the poor chiWs mar- 
riage and reputation:'' — Cicero meus, his son Marcus, now seven 
years old. 

187, 1. teneas ; " Kot a night was suffered to elapse after the 
decree [of banishment] was passed, before violent hands were 
laid upon Cicero's property ; his house on the Palatine was re- 
duced to ashes, his Tusculan villa pkmdered. His other country- 
seats fared no better ; the consuls took their share of the spoil ; 
and on the spot where Cicero's house had stood, Clodius conse- 
crated a temple to Liberty." (Abeken). — familia liberata, 
freed slaves ; these were partly his own, partly his wife's ; he had 
set them free, to save them from the malice of his enemies. — 
magnopere nemo, hardly one. — causa, arrangement. — si res 
a nobis abisset ; this was a phrase used in auctions, to denote 
that one fails to secure a desired article. — obtinere, maintain. 
— pertineret, sc. res. 

24. Clodius, Sallustius, Pescennius, seem to have been freed- 
men ; Sicca was a friend with whom Cicero had passed a night on 
the way to Brundisium. 


The letter to Quintus Cicero, a younger brother, was 
written at ThessalOnica. 

188. 4. pueros, slaves. — miserim, § 57, 1, Ist rem. ; § 64, iii. 

— consulatus ; referring to the great act of his consulship, thc 
defeat of Catiline's conspiracy. — eripuerit, § 57, i, end. — 
flens . . . proficiscens, etc, the chiastic order, the corresponding 
nominative cases standing respectively first and last. 

20. a morte : suicide was the refuge of many eminent men of 
antiquity ; Cicero seems to have thought seriously of it, but with 
the same vacillation of purpose tliat he showed in every thing. — 
praesidio fuisset, referring here to his profession of advocate ; 
he had even proposed once to defend his worst enemy Catilinc 
(see foot-note). 

180. 5. quid, quod : icliat \_sliall I say to tJiis'] that, &c. — 
sapientiorem quam vellem, because old enough to feel his 
father's loss. 

34. aliquid praesidii, object of laturam. — nostri, obj. gen. 
after misericordiam : jjity for me will bring some help. 

100. 16. postulabit, §49, i. 2d, note. — umquam, and words 
of this class (see hst in Table 6), may follow comparatives, be- 
cause there is a negative idea implied, which in similar construc- 
tions the French expresses by the negative, que jamais . 

23. permutatione, negotiativg a hill of exchange. — quibus 
debes, yoiir creditors, whom Quintus must satisfy out of his own 
or his son's " bowels," flesh, or, as we should say, " hide.'" — ex 
aerario ; these were sums appropriated to Quintus as proprgetor 
of Asia. — Antonius and Caspio were creditors of Quintus. — 
Crassus, the triumvir, who was aftcrwards killed in Asia ; CaHdius, 
a stanch friend of Cicero. 

33. Hortensius was the leading lawyer in Rome, next to Cicero, 
and a few years older. Cicero at this time expresses a good deal 
of suspicion of his false and unfriendly deahngs. Ile was, how- 
ever, a true friend ; subsequently, and especially after his death, 
Cicero speaks of him with warm regard and honor. 

101. 1. occultabis : the future here is nearly equivalent to the 
imperative, as frequently in English. — eo, abl. of cause, § 54, i. 

— Pomponium : T. Pomponius Atticus, Cicero's most intimate 
friend. — versus : some verses in ridicule of Ilortensius seem to 
have been fastened (coUatus) upon Quintus ; he is by all means 


to make friends with him. — aedilitatem : the ofRce of sedile had 
refereiice to the care of public buildiiigs and games (Ilb. § 134). 

9. Messala was a prominent public man of the day, father of 
the distinguished general of the time of Augustus. — optime 
factis, tlie hest deeds. 

19. Reliqua, object of scribere. — ita . . . ut, 5o . . . as. 

In B.c. 57 Cicero returned from exile, and entered Rome, 
September 4 ; shortly after, he wrote this letter to his friend 
Atticus (Att. IV. 1), who was then in Epirus. 

27. cui relates to subject of fuit. — recte, safely. — me ipsum, 
§ 67, V. — observantia, respect, i.e., for his opinion ; hc had 
followed the advice of Atticus and others in leaving the city rather 
tlian resisting his enemies, as counselled by Lucullus. 

lO^. 6. quem dimisero ; if I once Jiave you haclc, it ivill seem 
tliat Ihave never lost you. — suavitatis and temporis both liniit 

13. re familiari, private property. 

24. lex est lata (i.e., for his return) : this is the technical 
expression for bringing in a bilh — natalis coloiiiae ; Brundisium 
was founded as a colony on the day of which this was the anni- 
versary. — Salutis ; the temple of Salus, near the house of Atticus. 
— aetatum atque ordinum ; the Roman citizens were classed by 
age into juniores and seniores (Ilb. § 125). — The orders were 
the ranks in the State, — the Senate, the Equestrian order, &c. ; 
the comitia centuriata were the great Iloman assembly, presided 
over by the coiisul (Hb. § 141). 

35. nomenclatori ; a slave, whose business it was to whisper 
to his master the names of persons they met. 

103 o 2. The porta Capena was the south-eastern gate, at which 
the principal road, via Appia, ended. 

8. eo biduo, two days after. — ad theatrum ; this was the 
time of the great ludi Romani, held in the theatre. — mea 
opera ; because his arrival had tilled the city with strangers. 

14. decernerem, slioidd give my votefor it. 

16. consulares, men who had been consul : they were called 
upon for their vote first. — quod negarent, § 63, i. ; in exact- 
ness negarent does not express the reason, but the fact of giving 
it ; but the subjunctive is often used in such cases. — ageretur, 


iiegotiations sliould be entered into. — dederunt, sc. contionem ; 
a contio could not properly be lield by a private citizen. 

27. alterum se, a second self. — quam sit, § 66, i, — lex 
consularis, law proposed hij a consul ; tliat ol" Messius (wlio was 
a tribune) was tribunitia. — de domo : Cicero's liouse liad been 
destroyed, and thc site occupied by a sacred building ; the pontifices 
(Hb. § 143) had yet to decide whether the consecration had been 
renioved (si sustulerint religionem) , and the demand restored. 
104:. 2. superficiem, tlie huilding, for the loss of which he was 
to be compensated. — demolientur . . . locabunt, tJiey will 
clear a space, giving the contract in their name. 

TuLLiA, the daughter of Cicero, had been married during 
his colisulship to Piso, a youug man of the best family aiid 
character, who died just before Cicero's return from exile. 
It was on her twenty-second birthday that she met lier father 
at Brundisium, as told in tlie letter to Atticus. The foUow- 
ing year she married Fui'ius Crassipes, also of a patrician 
house ; but was not long after divorced. At the age of twenty- 
nine she was married again to Dolabella, a rich and handsome 
profligate several years younger than herself, — a partisan 
and friend of Ca^sar, for which reason Cicero had sought the 
alliance. Iler life with him was very wretched ; and they 
agreed to a separation shortly before the biitli of her child, 
which was in January, b.c. 45. The following month she 
died at her father's house in Tusculum, leaving a son, Len- 
tulus, who seems to have died in childhood. Meanwhile Cicero 
had put away his wife Terentia, on some misunderstanding 
because of mismanagement in business affairs, which caused 
him much anger and mortification ; he was on no good terms 
with his brother, or his son, then a young man of twenty, 
who was greatly vexed at an unfortunate second marriage of 
his father's ; so that his household was quite broken up. He 
was liviug in strict sohtude ou a little island, Astura, belong- 
ing to one of his estates ; and here Iie received many letters 
of consolation from his friend.-*, among which this from 
the eminent lawyer, Ser. Sulpicius Ilufus, is the most inter- 
esting that remains. 


19. sane quam, exceedinghj. — pro eo ao, in proportion as. 

per quos propinquos, § 48, iii. 2d iiote. — uti, so that. — 

existimem, § 63, 1. note. 

195. 5. credo; ironical. — veneris, § 64, iv. — et nos, ice 

too. cum iis esse actum, it has happened to those: this sen- 

teuce contains an Anacoluthon, that is, a clause thrown in with no 
proper connection to the principal clause ; since it begins with the 
interrogative quoties, and tlien changes to the declarative in- 
cidimus ; rendcr quoties, often, and put in and before et nos. 

12. conjuncta; TuUia liad already been married three times, 
and twice divorced. — pro, loorthy of. — ex hac juventate,/rowi 
the young men of the present day. — uti dcpends on possent 
understood ; this reiers to the profession of an advocate, which 
had lost all attraction under Ca3sar's dospotic rule. 

24. Megaram, § 56, 11. 1. — ^gina, an island oj^posite 
Athcns, ouce its rival ; Megara, a city between Athens and 
Coriuth. — Piraeeus, the harbor of Athcns. All these places had 
becn reduced to ruin in the late convulsions. — Visne, here nega- 
tively, iviU thou not ? 

35. modo; i.e., at Pharsalia, b.c. 48. 
198. 5. moniendum fuit, § 59, iv. 2, note.— ea, § 50, iv. 1, 
note. — omnibus bonis, all ihe advantages of life. — possitis, 
§ 49, I.. exceptiou to last rcmark. 

14. noli oblivisci, § 58, iir. note — Hoc tempus, i.e., when 
the pain will have beconie less by time, — sapientia tua, in a 
manner worthy of so ivise a man. 

23. inferis, the dead. — qui illius amor fuit, such was her love. 

197. Cicero's answer (Faai. IV. 6.) follows. 

15. Servius, a son of Sul^icius. — omnibus . . . potuerunt : 
hy all the services which could be rendered on [to] that occasion. 
— Quanti me faceret, how highly he esteemed me. — suum talem 
auimum, such a disposition on his part. — jucundus, agreeable ; 
gratus, acceptable. 

26. Q. Fabius Maximus, the leader against Hannibal; L. 
.ffimilius Paullus, the conqueror of Macedonia, b.c. 167 ; C. 
Sulpicius Gallus, an eminent man of the same tlme ; Cato, the 
Censor — all these eminent men had lost sons. — ipsorum refers 
to eorum. — ea, quam ; to wit, that ivhich. 

198. 6. frangerem, hent my mind ; notice the imperfect tense, 
and render cum, whenever. 


13. ad rempublicam, iii imhUc affairs. 

22. aute ; i.e., before we return to K,ome ; Cicero begins to 
acquiesce in the new order of things, and to desire to enter public 
life again. — unius, i.e., Caesar. 

27. deliberatiouis, § 54, ii. eud (requirement) . 


C. CiECiLius Plinius Secundus (the Younger) was a na- 
tive of Comum ( Como), in Northern Italy, and a nephew of the 
. elder Pliny, the distinguished naturalist. Ile was born a.d. 
Gl or 62, and became prominent as a public man in the pros- 
perous reign of Trajan. Ile has left a few orations, and a 
large collection of letters, which, as Merivale says, " gives 
the fullest and fairest picture we possess of a Roman gentle- 
man ; nor indeed does any other of the ancients come so near 
as its writer to our conception of the gentleman in mind, 
breeding, and position." Tlie year of his death is not known. 

The first three letters are. addressed to the historian 
Tacitus. The first requires no explanation ; the other two 
are in answer to his inquiries in regard to the famous erup- 
tion of Vesuvius, a.d. 79, in which Herculaneum and 
Pompeii were destroyed, and the elder Pliny perished. 
199. 6. iu Tusculano, on mij Tuscidan estate. — jam iu fine, 
when just near the end. — ue ... pereat, that my haste may he 
satisjied. — praeseus, ivhen I meet you. 

12. patria, i.e., Comum. — muuicipis, fcllow-iownsman. — 
praetextatus ; the boy wore the toga prcetexta until about sixteen 
(Ilb. § 184). — Etiam; there was no Latin word for yes. — 
Mediolanum, Milan, was already the cliief town of xSorthern Italy. 
— qui refers to vos, impKed in vestra. 

20. habitatioues, lodging ; viatica, travelling expenses ; mer- 
cedibus, income. 

-^OO. 1, a.mbit\i corrumperetur,bemisusedforprivateadvan- 
iage : referring to corrupt misappropriation of the funds ; tliis he 
proposes to obviate by giving the control of the funds to the' 
parents, requiring them at the same time to cohtribute. — religio, 
solemn ohligation. 


18. Haec, these circumstances. — repetenda, traced back, i.e., 
repeaied. — illuc, to Comum ; hinc, from llome. — ea lege, on 
tliis condition. — nihil aliud certum ; i.e., there is no bargain 

31. avunculus was a mother's brother; patruus, a father's 

^Ol. 2. Quamvis here takes the subjnnctive, although it ex- 
presses a fact; see § 61, 2, note. — ut populi, sc. victuri ; like 
peoples and cities alwaijs destined to live; an adverb or conjunc- 
tion like ut is often repeated where the wouhl have and. 
— 9Bternitas : it so happens that the book in which Tacitus 
narrated these events is lost, so that it is Pliny's own writings 
that have preserved their memory. 

9. Misenum was a promontory west of !N"aples, just beyond 
Baiae ; it was an important naval station. — Nonum, sc. ante ; 
the use of the accusative of time wlien in this connection is found 
also in Tacitus : we should expect Nono. — Usus, etc. : this 
sentence describes the way in which he had passed his time ; he 
had walked in the sun, then taken a cold bath and a luncheon. — 
Vesuvium : there was an old tradition, mentioned by Vitru- 
vius, that there had been eruptions here in former times. — 
pinus, the dark, spreading Italian pine. A commentator gives 
another simile : "hujus forma est similis machinas illius, quam 
manu tenentes solem a nobis arcere solemus ; quae in lingua 
nostra Son^ienschirm et in gallica, ^«r«j"<9/ vocatur." 

24. Liburnica, aswift, light vessel, or yacht. — Egrediebatur : 
the former reading of this passage was, *' Egrediebatur domo, 
accepit codicillos. Retinae classiarii imminenti periculo ex- 
territi (nam villa ea subjacebat, nec ulla nisi navibus fuga) ut se 
tanto discrimine eriperet orabant ; " — Retina being held to be the 
name of an estate in danger. But a tradition was preserved, that 
a woman named Retina (or Rectina), wife of Bassus, had perished 
in this eruption. Rectina is now taken to be the name of a wo- 
man ; and Tasci (the accepted reading in place of Classiarii) to 
be that of her husband : understand loife or widoio. 

30. maximo, sc. animo. — •amoenitas: the shore near Vesu- 
vius had many pleasant villas. 

SO'^. 1. quo propius [eo] calidior; § 54, v. end. — ac- 
cederent appears to come under the principle of § 59, iv. 3. — 
ruina, from ruo, fallen masses : the heaving of the earth and 


eriiption of tlie mountain caused new shoals and shores. — Fortes 
fortuna juvat, a maxim from Teience. — Stabiae was a village 
beyond Pompeii, near the modern Castelammare. 

7. erat, sc. Pomponianus. — diremptus, etc, separated by 
an intervening bay. — cum cresceret, when it should increase; 
this is of the nature of a future Protasis (§ 59, iv. 1), taking 
the imperfect tense because it depends upon contulerat, § 57. — 
certus fugae, resolved onjlight. — secundissimo, sc. vento. 

23. meatus animae, thepassage of his breath, breathing hcavily, 
or snoring. — diseta, bed-room. — ita surrexerat, i.e., had be- 
come sojilled. 

33. Sub dio, in the open air, — quamquam quaHfies levium. 

303. 11. caligine, vapor. — stomacho : this word, meaning 
gullet or stomach, is in this passage rendered lungs by niost com- 
mentators. — aestuans, inflamed. — dies : the light did not rcturn 
till the third day. 

19. me, subject of persecutum esse ; omnia is its object. — 
aliud, § 22, 1. 

25. te, subject of cupere. — quos agrecs with metus and 

32. per multos dies, § 55, i. 1. — Campaniae : after theanal- 
ogy of § 55, III. 3. — invaluit : in often strengthens the meaning 
of a verb, as in this case ; with nouns, participlcs, and adjectives 
it has a negative force, as invalidus, weak. 

904:. 1. surgebam, i.e., alrcady. — excitaturus, sc. eam. — 
constantiam and imprudentiam, strength of mind and ihought- 
lessness. — corripit, reproves. 

12. dies, daylight. — quodque, etc, a habit which in a panic 
takes the place ofjudgment ; vulgus is subject of prsefert, etc — 
tecta, § 52,11. 1. — spiritus, genitive after discursibus. — rupta 
agrees with nubes, 

32. ut consuleremus, substantive clause, object of commis- 
suros. — nostrae, sc saluti, § 51, iv. — Capreas ; the island of 
Capri. — Miseni limits id undcrtood, antecedcnt of quod ; that 
part which projects into the sea; these places are not far from 
twenty-five miles from Vesuvius. 

30o. 7. torrentis modo, § 54, ii. — terrae, § 51, v. rolling 
along upon the ground. 

9. strati, sc nos. — audires, § 60. 1. 


20. illud ruisse, etc, § 24, iv. 3, that crash, that blaze. — 
longius, sc. a nobis, — misero agrces with solacio. 

32. cum deficit, wheu it is edipsed. 
SOG. 5. non scriptures leges, ijou will read, but not write. — 
scilicet qui, because yoii. 

Some time in tlie early part of the second century (a.d. 
110 or 111), Pliny was appointed Propraitor or governor of 
the province of Bithynia, in northern Asia Minor. At this 
time the Christians had become a very numerous and im- 
portant body, particularly in the East. The strict legal 
charge against them was, that they violated the state religion, 
by refusing sacrifice to the established divinities, and not 
honoring the emperor as a god. But to this were added all 
the cliarges of immorality and impious practices, or downright 
atheism, which naturally grew out of the ignorant and super- 
stitious prejudices of the populace. Pliny tries to deal with 
them at first strictly according to law ; but, being a man just 
and merciful, he soon sees the horrible injustice of their posi- 
tion, and the probable falsehood of most their enemies had 
reported. He accordingly writes to the emperor for iustruc- 
tions ; as is thought, in a.d. 112. 

9. domine: observe tlie formal and courtly style of address 
adopted sinee the time of Cicero, a century and a half before. 

12. cognitionibus, investigations. — puniri soleat, impersonal : 
punishment is wont to be infHcted. — quamlibet teneri, in whatso- 
ever degree tender. — desisse, from desino, § 33, iii. 1. 

22. duci, sc. ad supplicium: the charge meant " constructive 
treason," and the punishment was death. The Christians were 
not punished for their belief: thought was always free in Rome, 
even under the most suspicious and despotic emperors. (Meri- 
vale.) — esset, § 66, iii. — faterentur, § 66, 11. — amentiae, 
§ 50, i. 2. — crimine, § 54, x. — inciderunt, came to my Jcnowl- 
eclge. — libellus sine auctore, an anonymoiis 7iote. — quonim 
= quarum rerum. 
207, 4. non nemo, ^ere and there one. 

17 . ministrse, deaconesses. — et per tormenta, even by torments. 

28. venire, from veneo, § 35, 11. end. — victimarum limits 


Trajan is the noblest and most heroic name of the Roman 
empire. He was second in the list of the " five good em- 
perors," whose reigns cover near a ceutury of what has been 
called the period of greatest happiness to the human race. 
He was a brave soldier, and a humane and sagacious states- 
man. His reign was from a.d. 98 to 117. This letter seems 
to have been written hastily, under the press of his great 
public cares. For the Christians he probably only felt an im- 
patient contempt, curiously contrasting with PIiny's anxious 
scruples ; and the policy he enjoins, excepting his injunction 
to disregard all anonymous charges, seems coldly harsh, and 
quite unworthy of his generally wise and firm administration. 

208. 4. in universum constitui, laid doicn as a general nde. 
— quasi certam formam, a sure appUcation as it loere. — Pessimi 
exempli, etc. : Trajan compares his OAvn mild government with 
thc tyrannies of Tiberius and his successors. 


C. CoRNELius Tacitus, " the greatest historian of anti- 
quity," is also the greatest name in Roman literature after 
Cicero. His style belongs to what is called the Silver Age, 
— that is, the earlier times of the empire. He was a friend 
of Pliny; and died, probably, not long after him, in the 
reign of Trajan. The subject of his Annals and Histories is 
the period of the earlier emperors, — a time of treachery, sus- 
picion, and intrigue, of licentiousness and great cruelty. His 
temper seems often harsh and contemptuous, perhaps morose, 
in dealing with the great crimes and the base men that suc- 
ceeded the fall of the Republic ; but he has left a few pictures 
of pure and noble virtue. His language, as in describing the 
great conflagration of the time of Nero, will be found here 
and there difficult and obscure ; but grandly picturesque and 
powerful when one masters its sense, and with a sombre 
pathos which perhaps no other historian has had in like 


Nero (L. Domitius Ahenobarbus Claudius) was the sixth 
emperor, by adoption one of the Ciesars, reigning from a.d. 54 
to 68. He was a boy of fifteen on coming to povver, — a 
handsome, popular, amiable boy ; but he became, later, the 
most extraordinary compound of profligacy, vanity, and 
cruelty that even the history of the Empire shows. That the 
Roman State — still a Republic in name — should have en- 
dured for fourteen years what it is charity to call the insane 
freaks and caprices of this sickly and weak-minded youth, is 
partly explained by the name of Ca^sar, which he inherited, 
and by the deep horror left on men's minds by the century of 
the Civil Wars; partly by the remorseless cruelty of the 
Roman temper and manners. The narrative of Tacitus 
rather softens than magnifies the popular suspicions as to his 
guilt in the matter of the great conflagration. 

This passage is taken from the Fifteenth Book of the An- 
nals, ch. 38-44. 

909. 5. princeps, prince : a title given in early times to the 
leader of the Senate ; it was that by which the emperor was chiefly 
known in Rome ; abroad, hc was known chiefly as commander of 
the armies, imperator. — circi: the Circus Maximus, where the 
great games were held, was in a long narrow level, in a valley 
that ran northwestwardly towards the river, between the Palatine 
and Aventine. Tlie fire began at the foot of Moimt CoeHus, at 
the upper end, where the wooden galleries of the Circus gave the 
flames fuU play. — munimentis, Jire-proof walls : notice that vel 
connects domus and templa, as being obstructions of similar 
nature (§ 43, 3) ; while aut separates them from aliud morae. — 
et obnoxia urbe : et, hoih, corresponds to -que below ; obnoxia, 
exposed; artis (frora artus), narrow; enormibus (e norma, out 
of rule) , irregular. 

20. lamenta . . . pars ; all these nominatives are subj. of im- 
pediebant. — fessa . . . aetas (Ritter has fessi sevo) : tlwse worn 
with years, or helpless in childhood, — setate being abl. of cause, 
and pueritiae the gen. hmiting setas. — illis quoque, these too, 
i.e., the next streets (proxima) . 

310. 4. victus: this genitive hmits fortunis, having lost all 
their store, even of daily food. — quamvis patente effugio, no 


maiter how open the icay of escape. — crebris minis, hij reason of, 
&c. — esse sibi auctorem, that they were aciing under orders. 

11. Aiitium (^Anzio), oii the coast, thirty-five miles froin llome, 
was a favorite residence of Nero. — monumenta Agrippae: the 
splendid structures and gardens of Agrippa, minister and son-in- 
law of Augustus, were in the Campus Martius, outside the city as 
then built; the Pantheon, now standing, belonged to theni. 
iSrero^s gardens (of the Vatican) were beyond the Tiber, near 
where St. Peter^s church now stands. — ternos nummos, i.e., 
tliree sesterces the modius, or twelve cents a peck. — domesticam 
scaenam, a stage in his own house. 

27. apud imas Esquilias, near where the Coliseum now stands, 
about half a mile north of where it first broke out. — The second 
fire is shown by inscriptions to have lasted three days ; the entire 
conflagration continued seven or nine days. 

Sll* 1. Tigellinus was a favorite freedman of Nero, notorious 
for his corruption and extortion. — cognomentum, a later form 
for cognomen. 

10. haud perinde, not so much. — Averno: Lake Avernns is 
near Naples, more than a hundred miles from Ilome, separated 
from the Tiber by bays and rocky headLands. — squalenti, harren 
or dusiy. — gignendis aquis : dat. after humidum, — conisus : 
the raore common form of spelling is connisus. 

26. urbis quse domui supererant, ichat of the city remained 
after the palace loas huilt : llitter omits domui. — Gallica incen- 
dia: the city was burned by the Gauls b.c. 389 ; after their retreat, 
it was rebuilt in great haste, and very irregularly. 
313. 1. finivit, limited orfxed. — domibus aut insulis: the 
domus was a complete edifice, or mansion, owned and occupicd 
by a single proprietor ; the insula a block of tenements, bounded 
by streets or alleys on each side. These insulae were often built 
to a great height, — the laAv of Augustus restricted them to seventy 
feet, — and svvarmed with the poorer population of the city. — 
utique = et ut, following destinabat. — certa sui parte, in 
certain parts (sui is plur.) . — aqua, subj. of flueret : of the pub- 
lic aqueducts, which were very numerous and finely constructed ; 
some of them brought water from a distance of sixty miles. — 
custodes, sc. erant: guards were stationed for this purpose. — 
communione parietum = communibus parietibus ; abl. after 


20. The books of the Sibyl, which she sold to King Tarquin, 
were carefuUy preserved by a special body of priests, the quin- 
decimviri sacris faciundis (Hb. § 145), and consulted in emer- 
gencies. — sellisternia, hanquets to female deitits ; those*. to the 
gods were lectisternia : goddesses, liiie wotnen, must sit on stools 
(sell^) ; while the gods, like men, reclined at their meals on 
couches (lecti) . — Christianos : this is the first distinct mention 
of the Christians in Pagan history. Suetonius says, more briefly 
(Nero, ch. IG), "Afflicti suppliciis Christiani, genus hominum 
superstitionis novje ac maleficae." And of the previous reign he 
says, with a more doubtful allusion, perhaps, to the " false Christs" 
of the Jewish fanatics, "Judaeos impulsore Chresto assidue 
tumultuantes Roma expulit." 

^13. 7. odio humani generis, e^imity towards all mankind 
(Merivale),— the charge constantly brought against the Jews, with 
whom the Christians were often confounded. The peculiar and 
clannish habits of the Jews might bring this charge upon them : in 
the case of the Christians, it was increased by their recoil from the 
pleasures and vices of the pagan world, that kept them a *' sect," 
apart from others, and was already leading towards those extrava- 
gances of austerity and devotion which fiU the legends of monks 
and hermits. The common belief among the Christians, that the 
end of the world was near, with the conflagration of all things, 
and the destruction of the Eternal City itself, might make the 
crime seem credible and likely. — flammandos: this seems to be 
used here as a present passive participle (Ritter). They were 
wrapped in a sort of mat of papyrus, smeared with wax and tar,— 
a style of torture spoken of by Juvenal (I. 155, VIII. 235), and 
Martial (X. 25, 5). 

(p. 308) 

Founding of Rome (common date) b.c. 753 

The Kings expelled : Ilome a Republic 509 

Rome taken and burned by the Gauls 389 

Samnite Wars : conquest of Italy 343-290 

First Punic War : Regulus ; Victory of Duilius . . .264-241 

Second Punic War : Hannibal ; Scipio 219-202 

Third Punic War 149-146 

Carthage destroyed ; Corinth taken 146 

Numantia taken ; Ti. Gracchus tribune ....... 133 

ITribuneship of C. Gracchus . 121 

War with Jugurtha 111-106 

Cimbri defeated by Marius 101 

Civil War : Marius and Sulla 88 

Dictatorship of Sulla . ' 82 

peath of Sertorius 72 

Consulship of Cicero : Catiline's Conspiracy 63 

tTriumvirate of Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus 60 

CaBsar in Gaul : Cicero^s Exile 58 

pivil War : Caesar and Pompey 49 

jBattle of Pharsalus : Pompey defeated and murdered . . 48 

Julius Caesar perpetual Dictator 46 

Cajsar murdered 44 

i3attle of Philippi : Brutus and Cassius slain 42 

Battle of Actium : Antony defeated '. 31 

iCaesar Octavianus (Augustus), first Emperor oO 

jTiberius a.d. 14 

(Caligula 37 

Claudius 41 

^'^ero (last of the Julian house) . 54 

palba 68 

Otho, Vitellius, Vespasian 69 

Tituff 79 

Domitian (last of the Twelve Ca3sars) 81 

Nerva 96 

Trajan 98 

Hadrian 117 

Antoninus Pius . 138 

Marcus Aurelius 161 

Commodus, — beginning of the Decline 180 


Of the foUowing derivative forms, those which occur mo. 
rarely have becn sometijnes omitted: 

NouNS : Feminines in a, from nouns in us, er (m.) ; 

Feminines in -trix, tricis, from nouns in -tor, toris (m.) ; 

Diminutives in -olus, -ulus, -ellus ; 

Verbals in -mentum, i (x.), equivalent to forms in -men, inis ; 

Verbals in -antia, -entia (f.), from tlie present, denoting quality , 

Verbals in -tor (m.), -trix (f.), from the supine stem, denoting mjen 

Verbals in -tus, us (m.) ; -tura, ae, -tio, -onis (f.), from tlie supir 
stem, denoting condition or act. 
Adjectives : Possessives in -anus, -ius, -ilis, derived from nouns ; 

Patrials or locals in -as (atis), -ensis, -inus ; 

Verbals in -bundus, corresponding nearly in signification with tl" 
present participle ; 

Secondary forms in -arius, -icius, and -ivus. 
Adverbs, regularly formed from adjectives : as from 

carus : care, carius, carissime ; 

fortis : fortiter, fortius, fortissime. 
Verbs : Inceptives in -sco; also, Compounds with the following pn 

fixes, when their meaning is not otherwise altered : 
a, ab, away: as, aufero, abstiili, ablatum, take away. 
ad, to, towanls: as affero, attuli, allatum, hring. 
ante, hefore: as, BXiteiexo, j^refer ; antecello, excel. 
circum, around, ahout : as, circummunio, to wall around. 
con, togetlier: as, confero, collatum, hring together, compare. 
de, down, ulterly : as, despicio, looh down on, despise. 
di, or dis, asunder: as, didiico, draw apart; disjungo, unhind. 
e, ex, out : as, eflEero, extiili, elatum, carry forth, vpUft. 
in, with Nouns or Adjectives, not: as, infinitus, houndless. 
in, with Verbs, in, on, or against: as, infero, illatum, hear against. 
inter, into or to pieces: as, interrumpo, interrupt. 
ne, ngc, not: as, nequeo, cannol ; necopinatus, unlookedfor. 
ob, towards: as, oflfero, offer ; obvenio, meet. 
per, prae, very : as, permagnus, very great ; prseclarus, glorious. 
re, red, hack or again : as, refero, report ; redeo, return. 
se, apart: as, se-paro, ;)ar/ ; se-cerno, pnt aside. 
siib, under or in low degree : as, subdolus, crafty ; suflEero, endure. 
siiper, on or in place of: as, supeifundo, pour over. 




9^ ctuf 1 

NouNS. — M. masculine ; v. femhiine ; N. neuter ; c. common; d. doubtful. 

Verbs. — The figures i, 2, 3, 4, signify the Conjugations. In those of the istand^th, where 
only one form is given, the conjugation is regular, like amo or audio. In the others, the 

Perfect termination is given, and usually that of the Supine Stem only — as rego, xi, ct 

instead of the ending in um. When compound verbs are divided by a hyphen, the conjugation 
may be found under the simple form. — a. active ; n. neuter ; p. passive 

Proper Names. — k. king ; q queen; {. father ; m. mother ; s. son ; d. daughter ; 
dist. district ; prov. j>rovitu:e ; mt. mountain ; — myth. signifies that the name belongs to 
Mythology. The dates are usually those of birth and death : as, Hannibal, b.c. 247-183. 

Unusual forms of inflection are given in parenthesis ; cognate words in brackets. 

Words marked t are Greek. Forms given with hyphen occur in compounds. 

Vowels not marked, and not long by position, are to be reckoned short. 

The References are to tlie Sections or Tables of the " Manual Latin Grammar." 

A, the pr^nomen Aulus. 
a, ab,y/om, 5//, .si/ice, on the side of. 
[ab-, nivaj/, apnrt, completely. 
abactus, [abigoj dricen atva?/. 
abaciis, i, m , (lesh, reckoning-hoord. 
abalieno, i , estrange, alienate, trans- 

fer, withdraw. 
abavus, i, m., gr. gr. grandfather. 
abdico, i, deny, abdicate, resign. 
abdico, xi, ct-, 3, refme assent. 
abditus, a, um, hidden, secret. 
abdo, didi, dit-, 3, to hide, remnve. 
abdiico, xi, ct-, 3, lead aivay, ivith- 

draw, degrade. 
abeo, ii (ivi), it, 4, depart,' vanish, 

abandon, end, change. 
abequito, i, ride away. 
aberro, i, ivander, stray. 
abfore, [sum,] he away. 
abhinc, .^iiice, Jienceforth. 
abhorreo, ui, 2, shrink,ahhor,dijfer. 
abiegnus, a, uni, of fir. 
abiens, euntis, [eo,] departing. 
abies, etis, v., fr-tree,fr-wood. 
abigo, e;^i, act-, [ago,] 3, drive awny. 
abitus, U3, M., departure, outlet. 
abjectus, a, um, downcast, mean, 


abjicio, jeci, ject-, [jacio,] 3, cast 

nivny, cnst doivn, ubandon. 
abjiidico, i, give sentence. 
abjungo, nxi, nct-, 3, unyoke, part. 
abjuro, i, deny on oatk. 
ablatus. [aufero,] cnrried off. 
ablego, i, send away. 
abludo, si, sum, 3, differ. 
abluo, ui, ut-, T„ ivn^^h nwny,cleanse. 
abnego, i, deny, refuse. 
abnormis, e, out of rule. 
abnuo, nui, niit- (nuit-), 3, deny, 

refuse, reject, forbid. 
aboleo, evi (ui), it-, 2, clieck, abol- 

ish, remove. 
abolesco, evi, 3, wither, decay. 
abolitio, onis, f., annulling. 
abolla, ae, f., robe, clonk. 
abominor, i, deprecate, hate, detest. 
aborigines, um, M., primitive colo- 

nists,frst inhabitanfs. 
aborior, ortus, 4, set, disappear. 
abortus, us, M., ahortion. 
abrado, si, sum, 3, scrape off, 

abripio, ui, rept-, 3, drag away, 

abrogo, i, rcpeal, annul. 

abrumpo — accusatio. 

abrumpo, rupi, rupt-, 3, hreak off, 

tear away. 
abruptus, a, um, hroken^ steep ; n., 

hoitom, depth. 
abs, from. 
abscedo, cessi, cess-, 3, departy 

escape^ deslst. 
abscessus, us, m., departure. 
abscido, cidi, cis-, (caedo,) 3, cut 

absciiido, scidi, sciss-, 3, send 

abscisus, a, um, cut off, abrupt. 
abscondo, didi, dit-, 3, /«c?e, lose 

sight of. 
absens, tis, (absum,) ahsent. 
absimilis, e, very unlike. 
absinthium, i, n., ivormwood. 
absisto, stiti, 3, depart, desist, cease. 
absolutus, a, um, complete. 
absolvo, vi, ut-, 3, acquit, discharge. 
absorbeo, ui, 2, suck in, swallow. 
absque, without, hut for. 
abstergeo, si, sum, 2, luipe clear or 

absterreo, ui, it-, 2, frighten away. 
abstersus, a, um, luiped off. 
abstinentia, se, f., ahstinence, re- 

abstineo, ui, tent-, 2, hold away, 

ahstain, refrain. 
abstraho, xi, ct-, 3, draw away, ah- 

stract, release. 
abatrudo, si, sum, 3, thrust away, 

abstrusus, a, um, concealed, re- 

served, difficult. 
absum, esse, fui, to he absent, distant, 

different, unfxt. [stroy. 

absiimo, mpsi, mpt-, 3, waste, de- 
absurdus, a, um, uhsurd, sfvpid. 
abundantia, ae, F., ahundance. 
abunde, in ahundance. 
ab-undo, i, ahound, ocerflow. 
abusque, yrr7;« asfar as. 
abutor, iisus, 3, ahuse, consume, take 

Abydus, i, f., a town in Asia, on 

the Hellespont. 
ac=atque, and, as. 
t acacia, ae, f., thorn. 

Academia, ae, F., Academy, a gym- 

nasium near Athens. 
f acanthis, idis, f., goklfinch. 
f acanthus, i, m., bear's-foot, thorn. 
Acarnan, anis, c, of Acarnania 

(W. dist. of central Greece). 
accedo, cessi, cess-, 3, approach, 

advance against, be added, hefall. 
accelero, i, hasten. 
accendo,di, sum, 3, kindle, inflame. 
accenseo, ui, it- (ens-), 2, reckon 

accensus, i, m., attendant, recruit. 
accepto, I, receive. 
acceptus, a, um, acceptaUe. 
accerso, ivi, itum, 2„fGtch, sendfor. 
accessio, 5nis, f., approach^ in- 

accessus, iis, m., approach. 
accido, cidi, (cado,) 3, fall upon, 

hefall, happen. 
accido, cidi, cis-, (caedo,) 3, cut 

short or into. 
accingo, nxi, nct-, 3, gird, equip. 
accio, 4, swnmon. 
accipio, cepi, cept-, (capio,) 3, get, 

receive, utulerlake. 
accipriter, tris, m., hawk. 
accisus, (accido,) cut off, ruined. 
accitus, us, M., summons. 
acclamo, i, shout, applaud. 
acclinis, e, leaning on. 
acclino, i, lean forward. [cending. 
acclivis, e, (-us, sl, um,) steep, (as- 
acclivitas, atis, F., acclivity, ascent, 
accola, ae, c, neighhor. 
accolo, ui, cult-, 3, dwell near. 
accommodo, i, suit, fit, conform. 
accommodus, a, um, suitable. 
accresco, crevi, cret-, 3, increase^ 

groiv to, he added. 
accubo, ui, it-, i , sit or lie (at table), 
accudo, di, sum, 3, to hammer oat. 
accumbo, cubui, cubit-, 3, Ue near. 
accumulo, i, iieap up. 
accuratus, a, um, exact; careful. 
acciiro, i, care for. 
accurro, cucurri, curs-, 3, run 

accursus, us, m., concourse. 
accusatio, onis, f., accusa'ion. 

accusator — adeptus. 

accusator, oris, m., accuser. 
accuso, I, accuse, inform against. 
acer, eris, n., maple. 
acer, cris, cre, keen^ eager, vigorous, 
acerbe, hitterly, sharphj. 
acerbitas, atis, f., Utterness^ harsh- 

acerbo, i, to embitter. 
acerbus, a, um, bitter^ harsh, sad. 
acernus, a, um, of maple. 
acerra, £e, F., censer, incense-box. 
acervatim, m heaps. 
acervo, i, to heap up. 
acervus, i, m., heap, pile. 
acesco, acui, 3, to turn sour. 
acetum, i, n., vinegar. 
AchaBmenes, is, first k. of Persia. 
Achaicus (-aeus), a, um, Greek. 
achates, ae, m., agate. 
Achelous, M., a river of N. Greece. 
Acheron (uns), tis, m., a river in 

Achilles, is, ea, champion of 

Greece in the Trojan war. 
Achivus, a, um, Grecian. 
acidus, a, um, .sowr, sharp, tart. 
acies, ei, f., edge, sight^ line-of-bat- 

tle, keenness. 
t acinaces, is, m., Persian sicord. 
acinus, i, m. (um, n.), grape-berry or 

acipenser, eris, M., sturgeon. 
aclis, idis, f., dart. 
aconitum, i, n., wolfs-bane. 
acquiesco, evi, et-, 3, come to rest. 
acquiro, sivi, sit-, ;^,gnin,get, add. 
acrimonia, se, sharpness, pungency. 
acriter, (acer,) eagerly^ keenly. 
f acroSma, atis, N., music or recita- 

tion; a musician. 
Acrisius, myth. father of Danae. 
Acroceraunia, the mt. boundary 

of Macedonia and Epirus, 
acta, ae, f., shore, breaker. 
ActcBon, onis, myth. gr.-son of 

Cadmus, torn by his own hounds. 
Acte, es, f., (coast-land) Attica. 
actio, onis, f.,( ago,) aclion, acling, 

suit at Iniv. 
Actium, i, n., promont. of Epirus, 

scene of Antony's defeat, B. c. 31. 

actor, oris, m., driver, actor, agent. 
actuarius, a, um, for driving, row- 

ing, swift. 
actus, a, um, driven; n., deed. 
actus, iis, m., impulse, act, deed. 
actutum, at once. 
aculeus, i, m., sting, prickle. 
acumen, inis, n., edge, point, keen- 

acuo, i, iitum, 3, to sharpen, rouse. 
acus, us, ubus, f., needle, pin. 
acute, sharply. 
acutus, a, um, sharp, pointed, vio- 

lent, keen, sagacious. 
ad, to, towards, near, for, at, ac- 

cording to, besides. 
[ad-, near, towards, in addition. 
adactus, (adigo,) driven. 
adaeque, in Like manner. 
adaequo, i, make equal, compare. 
adagium, i, n., proverb. 
adamanteus (inus), a, um, hard as 

t adamas, antis, m., tempered steel. 
adamo, i, begin to love. [cover. 

adaperio, ui, tum, 4, to open, un- 
adaquor, i , to get icater. 
adaugeo, xi, ct-, 2, increase,devote. 
adaxim=adegerim, (perf. subj. of 

adigo, drive). 
[adc-, see acc-. 
addecet, it isfit. 

addenso, i, (a.), eo, 2, (n.), thicken. 
addico, xi, ct-, 3, to favor, doom, 

devote, yield, adjudge. 
addictus, a, um, devoted; u., a 

additus, (addo,) joined. 
addo, didi, dit-, 3, to add, give, join. 
addubito, i, incline to doubt. 
addiico, xi, ct-,3, lead along, hring 

towards, induce, contract. 
adductus, a, um, strained, severe. 
ad-edo, 3, hite at, eat up. 
ademptus, (adimo,) taken away. 
adeo, to that degree, so, sofar, truly. 
ad-eo, 4, to approach, visit, attack, 

undertake, undergo. 
adeps, ipis, T>.,fat. 
adeptus, (adipiscor,) having at- 


adequito — adverto. 

adequito, i, ride up to. 
[adf-=aif-; adg-=agg-. 
adheereo (esco), haesi, haes-, 2, to 

cling, fasten, border upon. 
adhibeo, ui, it-, 2, appli/ to, sum- 

mon, cmploy, have near, bring in. 
adhortor, i, exliort, encourage. 
adhuc, hitherto, besides, as yet. 
adigo, egi, act-, 3, drive^force, urge. 
adimo, emi, empt-, 3, take away, 

setfree, deprive, rob. 
adipiscor, adeptus, 3, win, get, ar- 

rive at, overtake. 
aditus, U3, M., approach, access. 
adjaceo, ui, 2, lie near. 
adjicio, jeci, ject-, add, casl upon, 

put upon, turn towards. 
adjudico, i, adjudge, assign. 
adjumentum, i, n., help. 
adjungo, nxi, nct-, 3, join, annex, 

altach, apply, bring near. 
adjuro, i, adjure, conjirm by oath. 
adjuto, I, to help. 
adjutor, oris, m. ; -trix, tricis, f., 

helper, assistant. 
adjuvo, jiivi, jiit-, aid, help, sustain. 
admetior, mensus, 4, to measure 

Admetus, myth. k. of Thessaly. 
adminiculo (or), i, to prop, assist. 
adminiculum, i, N., aprop,support. 
administer, tri, m., a^sislant. 
administro, i , manage, serve, aftend. 
admirabilis, e, admirable, strange. 
admiratio, onis, f., wonder. 
admiror, i, iconder at, admire, gaze. 
admisceo, cui, mixt-, 2, mingle in. 
admissum, i, n., fault, crime. 
admitto, misi, miss-, 3, admit,per- 

mit, commit, consent, spur on. 
admodum, very, quite, ivholly,fully. 
admolior, 4, heap up, bring to. 
admoneo, ui, it-, 2, admonish, warn. 
admonitio, onis, f., warning. 
admoveo, movi, mot-, 2, bring 

near, opply, direct. 
admurmuro, i, to mAirmur near. 
adnascor=agnascor, grow to. 
adnato (adno), i, swi^n towards. 
adnepos, otis, m., gr. gr. grandson. 

adnitor, nis- (nix-), 3,attempt,strive 

for, lean against. 
adno, I, swim towards. 
adoleo, ui, ult-, 2, burn, consume 

(as sacritice), serve by ritual. 
adolescens, tis, c, a youth. 
adolescentia, ^, f., youth. 
adolesco, evi, ult-, grow, come to 

ripeness, burn (on the altar). 
Adonis, is (idis), myth. prince of 

Cyprus, loved by Venus. 
adoperio, ui, ert-, 4, cover over. 
adoptio, onis, f., adoption. 
adopto, I, to select, adopt. 
ador, oris, n., fne wheat, spelt. 
adoreus, a, um, of wheat ; f., gift 

of corn. 

adorior, ort-, 4, accost, attack, begin. 
adorno, i, equip, adorn. 
adoro, i, to ivorship, accost, entreat. 
[adp-=app ; adq-=acq- ; adr-= 

arr-; ads-=ass-; adst-=ast-. 
adscisco, scivi, scit, 3, summon, 

join, receive, admit. 
adsum (assum), be near. 
adulor, i , Jiatter, fawn. 
adulter, era, um, adulterous. 
adultero, i, to alter, corrupt. 
adultus, (adolesco,) growrt up. 
adumbro, i, shadow out, sketchy 

aduncus, a, um, hooked. 
adiiro, ussi, ust-, 3, burn, scorch. 
adusque, even to, throughout. 
adustus, a, um, parched, scorched. 
adveho, xi, ct-, 3, cairy, bring. 
adveio, i, to veil. 

advena, ae, cforeigner, neiv-comer. 
advenio, veni, vent-, 4,* arrive, 

approach, be added. 
adventicius, a, nm, foreigner. 
advento, i, to advance. 
adventus, iis, m., coming, arrival. 
adversarius, a, nm.,fronting, op- 

pnsed ; M., enemy. 
adversor, i, oppose, thwart. 
adversum, i, n., adversity. disaster. 
adversum, (-versus), against, toiv- 

ards, opposite. 
adversus, a, um, cojifrary, opposite. 
adverto, ti, sum, 3, turn towards, 

adverto — 5Itiia. 

direct; animum adv., observe, 

attendto; auim., procced 

against, pnnish. 
advesperascit, avit, 3, itgrows late. 
advocatio, onis, f., summons. 
advocatus, i, m., counsel, advocale. 
advoco, I, callfor, summon. 
advolo, i,Jlf/ towards. 
ad-volvo, 3, roll towards,faU before. 
advorsum=adversum, against. 
adytum, i, n., sanctuary, tomh. 
-aiacides, ae, descendantof yEacus, 

aiaea, ge, f., the island of Circe. 
-Slacus, i, myth. son of Jupiter and 

Europa, a jiidge in Hades. 
aedepol, forsooth (by Pollux). 
Eedes, is, f., temple; pl. house,hive. 
sedificatio, onis, f., building. 
aedificium, i, n., a building. 
sedifico, I, to build, construct. 
sedilicius, a, um, of the Edile. 
sedilis, is, m., Edile, (inspector of 

buildings, police, &c.). 
t aedon, onis, F., nightingale. 
JEJetes, ae, myth. k. of Colchis. 
.aSgaeum mare, the A^gean Sea, 

between Greece and Asia Minor. 
seger, gra, grum, sick, weary, sad. 
-ffigeus, i, myth. k. of Athens, father 

of Theseus. 
segis, idis (os), f., shield. 
-Slgisthus, i, myth. son of Thyestes 

and murderer of Agememnon. 
segre, ius, gerrime, with dijficulty. 
segresco, 3, grow sick, or worse. 
aegiimonia, ae, f., grief. 
segritudo, inis, f., sickness, grief 
segrotatio, onis, F., sickness, dis- 

segroto, i, tobe sick, languish. 
segrotus, a, um, sick. 
.ffigyptus, i, F., Egypt ; also, myth. 

k. of Egypt, br. of Danaus. 
aemulatio, onis, f., rivalry. 
aemulor, i, io rival, emulate. 
cemulus, a, um, emulous, vying, rival. 
ffineades, se, son or companion of 

■ffineas, ee, myth. prince of Troy, 

founder of the Roman race. 

aeneua (aenus), a, um, brazen; N., 
^olus, i, god of the Winds. \_pot. 
aequabilis, e, equal, even,just. 
aequaevus, a, um, of equal age. 
aequalis, e, even, equal in age, Uke. 
ceque, equally, just so. 
aequinoctium, i, n., (nox,) equinox. 
aequiparo, i, niatch, make equal. 
aequitas, atis, f., justice, fairness, 

calmness, moderation. 
aequo, i, to make equal, level. 
aequor, oris, n., even surface, sea. 
aequus, a, um, equal, just, right. 
aer, is, a, m., the air, mist. 
aerarius, a, um, of copper or money; 

M., coppersmith ; ¥., copper-mine ; 

N., treasury, treasure. 
aeratus, a, um, covered with brass. 
aereus, a, um, of copper or brass. 
geripes, pedis, brazenfooted. 
aerius (eus), a, um, airy, lofty. 
aeriigo, inis, F., rust, blight, envy. 
aerumna, ae, f., grief distress. 
aerumnosus, a, um, sad, ivretched. 
aes, aeris, n., copper, money, wages. 
^sculapius, i, myth. son of Apollo, 

god of heahng. 
aesculus, i, the Itahan oak. 
aestas, atis, f., summer, fair iveather. 
aestifer, era, um, bringing heat. 
aestimatio, onis, f., reckoning, 

valuation, estate. 
aestimo, i, to estimate, value. 
aestive, summer-like, scantily. 
aestivo, i, pass the summer. 
gestivus, a, um, belonging to sum- 

mer ; N., pl. summer-quarters. 
aestuarium, i, n., tide-ivater inlet. 
sestuo, i, boil, rage, toss, burn, 
aestuosus, a, um, heated, vexed. 
aestus, iis, m., tide, surge, noontide- 

heat, glow of passion. 
aetas, atis, f., age (time of hfe). 
aeterno (um), continually, for ever. 
aeternus, a, um, efennd, perpetual. 
aether, eris (os), a (em), m., ether, 

aetherius (-eus), a, um, celesiial. 
^thiops, opis, Ethiopian,swarihy. 
aethra, se, f., clear sky. 
-ffJtna, se, f., Mt. Eina, in Sicily. 

5Itolia — alauda. 

^tolia, ae, f., dist. N. of the Gulf 

of Corinth. 
eevum, i, n., age (period), Ufetime. 
Afer, fra, um, African. 
affaber, bra, um, curious, skilful. 
affatim, ahundantly. 
affatus, iis, m., talk, address. 
aifectio, onis, f., disposition, state 

of mind, love, good-will. 
affeoto, I, ajfect or strive for,reacJi. 
afifectus, a, um, endowed, disposed. 
affectus, iis, m., disposition, desire. 
affero, attuli, allat-, bring, an- 

nounce, procure, betake, cdlege. 
afficio, feci, fect-, 3, affect, infiuence, 

affigo, fix, fix-, 3, fasten, join. 
affingo, nxi, fict-, 3, attach, annex. 
affinis, e, adjacent, kindred. 
affinitas, atis, F., cUliance, nearness. 
affirmatio, onis, f., assertion. 
affirmo, i, confirm, maintain. 
afflatus, iis, m., blast, breath. 
afflicto, I, vex, torment, shatter, 
afflictus, a, um, icretched, ruined. 
affligo, ixi, ict-, 3, strike, distress, 

cast doion, ioreck. 
afflo, I, bloio on, or towards. 
affluens, tis, abundant. [overfiow. 
affluo, xi, xum, 3, flow towards or 
affor, I , to address, accost. 
aifbre, [adsum,] loill be at hand. 
affulgeo, fulsi, 2, beam doion upon. 
affundo, fxidi, fiis-, 3, pour upon. 
afore, (absum,) be aioay. 
Africa, ae, F., Africa, especially 

the country near Cajthage. 
Africanus, i, surname of Scipio, 

after the defeat of Carthage. 
Africus, A., African ; S.-W. wind. 
Agamemnon, onis, ona, myth. k. 

of the Greeks before Troy. 
agaso, onis, m., groom. 
agp (imperat.), agedum, come now. 
agellus, i, m., dim. of a.Qev,field. 
agema, atis, n., battalion. 
agens, tis, effective. 
Agenor, 6ris, myth. k. of Phoenicia. 
ager, gri, M.,fi'eld, territory. 
Agesilaus, b.c. 440-360, k. of Spar- 

ta, victor at Coronea. 

age sis, (si vis,) go to, come on. 
agger, eris, m., heap, mound, dike, 

aggero, i, to heap up. 
aggero, gessi, gest-, 3, bring upon. 
aggestus, iis, m., a heap, mound. 
agglomero, i, heap together, join. 
agglutino, i,fasten together. 
aggravo, i, weighten, burden. 
aggredior, gress-, 3, approach, at- 

tack, begin, attempt. 
aggrego, i, (grex,) to add, join. 
agilis, e, movable, active, nimble, 

agilitas, atis, F., quickness, speed. 
agitatio, onis, f., movement. 
agitator, oris, m., driver. 
agito, I, (ago,) drive, rouse, attack, 

keep, revolve. 
agmen, inis, n., fiock, troop, body 

of troops (on march). 
agna, ae, f., eioe-lamb. 
agnascor, 3, groiD near, be born after. 
agnatus, a, um, kindred (by father's 

agnitus, a, um, acknowledged. 
agnomen, inis, n., surname. 
agnosco, novi, nit-, 3, own, recog- 

nize, admit. 
agnus, i, M., lamb. 
ago, egi, act-, 3, act, do, lead, drive, 

trecU, rob, pass, ply. 
agrarius, a, um, offields or public 

agrestis, e, rustic, rude. 
agricola, ae, m., farmer. 
agricultura,8e, (-tio),F., hushandry. 
Agrigentum, i, n., a city in the W. 

of Sicily. 
aheneus, a, um, (aeneus,) brazen. 
ain', say you so ? from 
aio (defect. § 38, ii.), say, assent. 
Ajax, acis, name of two Grecian 

heroes before Troy. 
ala,.aB, f., loing, upper arm. 
alacer, cris, cre, eager, active. 
alacritas, atis, f., eagerness, rop- 

alapa, ae, f., slap, cuff. 
alaris, e (ius, a, um), of a loing. 
alauda, ae, f., lark. 

Alba — Alpes. 

Alba, 36, an ancient town of La- 

tium, 20 miles S. E. of Rome. 
albeo, 2, (-esco, 3,) be or grow white. 
albico, I, to loliiten. 
albus, a, um, wldte^ fair^ favorable ; 

N., whiteness, white, a tahlet. 
alcedo, inis, f., kingfisher. 
alces, is, f., elk. 
Alcibiades, is, an Athenian gen- 

eral, b.c. 450-404. 
Alcides, ae, a name of Hercules. 
Alcmena (-umena), ae, mytli. wife 

of Amphitryo, m. of Hercules. 
falcyon, onis, f., kinyfsher. 
alea, ae, f., a die, game, risk, 
aleator, oris, m., gamester. 
alec (halec), ecis, n., hrine. 
Alecto, iis, f,, one of the Furies. 
ales, itis, winged, a bird. 
Alexander, dri, k. of Macedon 

and conq. of Asia ; B.c. 356-323. 
Alexandria, ae, a city of Egypt, 

founded by Alexander, B.c. 332. 
alga, ae, f., sea-weed. 
algeo, si, 2, to be cold. 
algor, oris, m., coUL 
algosus, a, um, /ull of sea-weed. 
algu, with cold. 
alia, by some other way. 
alias, otherwise, elsewhere, at anotlier 

time^ in other respects. 
alibi, elsewhere, in other respeets. 
alica, ae, f., spelt., grits, gruel. 
alicubi, somewhere, anywhere. 
alicunde,/rowi somewhere. 
alieuatio, onis, f., transfer, deser- 

tion, separation, enmity. 
alienigena, ae, c, foreigner. 
alieno, i, estrange, remooe, alter. 
alienus, a, um, another's, unfamr- 

able, unfit, foreign, hostile; aes 

alienum, debt. 
aliger, era, um, winged. 
alimentum, i, n. ; -monia, ae, f., 

food, noorishment, support. 
ali5, e/sewhither. 

alioqui (-quin), otherwlse, hesides. 
aliorsum (-versum), in another way. 
alipes, pedis, wing-footed. 
faliptes, ae, m., trainer, anointer. 
aliqua, by some way, somewhere. 

aliquam, in soyne degree. 
aliquamdiu, for some time. 
aliquando, some time, at length. 
aliquantisper, /or a lohile. 
aliquantulum, some liitle. 
aliquantus, a, um, somewhat^ con- 

siderable ; -to, in some degree. 
aliquatenus, to some extent. 
aliqui (quis), qua, quod (quid), 

sonie (§ 21, iii.) ; N., sometking, 

aliqui-piam, nny one, some other. 
aliquo, some-whither. 
aliquot, some, several. 
aliquoties, several times. 
aliter, otherwise. 
alitus, (alo,) nourished, 
aliubi, elsewhere. 
aliunde,yrom elsewhere. 
alius, a, ud, ius, other., (§ 22, 2). 
allabor, laps-, 3,fall or glide to. 
allacrimans, tis, i, weeping. 
allatro, i, bark at, revile. 
allatus, (affero,) brought. 
allecto, I, allure. 

allego, I, to despatch, incite, allege. 
allego, egi, ect-, 3, choose, ekct. 
allevo, I,, ease, lighten. 
allex, icis, m., thumb. 
Allia, ae, f., a river N. of Rome, 

famous for the victory of the 

Gauls, July 18, B.c. 389. 
allicio, lexi, lect-, 3, allure, entice. 
allido, si, sum, 3, dash against, 

alligo, i,fasten to, hind, detain. 
allium, i, N.,'garUc. 
allocutio, onis, f. ; -quium, i, N., 

alloquor, ciitus, 3, to address, ex- 

hort, console 
allubesco, 3, please. 
alludo, si, sum, 3, sport, banter. 
alluo, ui, 3, wash,flow near. 
alluvies, ei, f., poo!, overflow. 
almus, a, um, (alo,) nourishing, be- 

nign, cherishing, propitious. 
alnus, i, F., alder. „ 

alo, ui, alt- (alit-), ^./eet/, nourish. 
f aloe, es, f., aloe, hitterness. 
Alpes, ium, f., the Alps. 

Alpheus — Amphion. 

Alpheus (eios), i, m., a river of 

alsus (ius), a, um, cold. 
altaria, ium, n. pl., Mgh altar. 
alte, on hif/h, deeply. 
alter, era, um(g.,-terius),ofAer (of 

two), secoh<i; one . . . ihe other. 
altercatio. onis.F., guarrel, dwpute. 
altercor, r, contend^ wrangle. 
alternis (ne, na), hij titrns. 
alterno, i, to (dternate, hesitaie. 
alternus, a, um, alternate. 
alter-uter, one or the other. 
althaea, ae, f., marsh-maUmu. 
Althaea, ae, myth. m. of Meleager. 
altilis, e, wdl-fed^ fat. 
altisonus, a, um, loftif in tone. 
altitudo, inis, f., height, depth. 
altor, oris, m. ; -trix, tricis, f., 

altrinsecus, on the other side. 
altus, a, um, (alo,) // /r///, deep, remote. 
aliicinor, i,icunder inmind^dream. 
aliimen, inis, n., alum. 
alumnus, i, m. ; a, ae, f,, (alo,)/t)s- 

ter-chitd, pupil. 
aliita, ae, f., soft teather. 
alvearium, i, n., hee-hive. 
alveolus, i, m., /m//, tub, huclcet. 
alveus, i, m. ; um, n., channelyhull 

(of ship), cavity, hive. 
alvus, i, M., f., hellg. 
amabilis, e, lovcly. 
Amalthea, a nymph of Crete, 

who fed Jupiter with goat'smilk. 
amando, i, send away. 
amans, tis, fond, friendly, lover. 
amanter, /ovingfy. 
amaracus, i, c. (um, n.), marforam. 
•j- amarantus, i, m., amaranth. 
amaror, oris, m., Intterness. 
amarus, a, um, hitter, harsh, sud. 
amasius, i, M., lover, gidlant. 
amator, oris, m., lovei\friend. 
Amazones, um, f., myth. tribe of 

female warriors, of Thrace. 
ambactus, i, M., vassal. 
ambages, is, f., circumlocution, 

ohscnrity, tligression . 
ambarvalis, e, going ahout the 


ambedo, edi, es-, 3, consume. 
[ambi- (amla-, am-, an-), round 

ambigo, 3, wander, douht, dispute. 
ambiguus, a, um, doublful, drifting, 

uncertain, obscure. 
ambio, 4, go ahoiit, encircle, solicit. 
ambitio, onis, f., solicitatioji, flat- 

tery, amhition, canvassing. 
ambitiosus, a, um, ttvining, court- 

ingfivor, vain, amhitious. 
ambitus, us, m., circuit, hrihery, 
ambo, 86, o, (§ 18, i., 2,) hoth. 
f ambrosia, ae, ¥.,foodfor gods. 
ambrosius, a, um, divine, lovely, 
ambulo, i, widl\ go, march. 
ambiiro, ussi, ust-, 3, hurn ahout, 
ambustus, a, um, scorched. 
amellus, i, m., purple starwort. 
amens, tis, mad, insane^ distracted. 
amentia, se, ¥., madness. 
amento, i, furnish or hurl icith a 

thong, impel. 
amentum, i, n., thong. 
ames, itis, m., stake, forTced pole, 
amfractus, iis, m., hend, crook. 
amica, ae, f., friend, mistress. 
amicio, ui (xi), ct-, 4, tvrap, clothe. 
amicitia, ae, ¥.,friendship. 
amictus, iis, m., garment, covering. 
amiculum, i, n., mantle. 
amiculus, i, M., dear friend. 
amicus, a, nm, friendly, friend. 
amita, ae, F., fadierh sister. 
amitto, misi, miss-, 3, lose, let go. 
Ammou, onis, m., the supreme 

Egyptian cleity. 
amnis, is, M., river (large deep 

amo, I, to love. hefond of 
amoenitas, atis, F., pleasatitness, 

chnrm, darling. 
amoenus, a, um, pleasant, fair. 
amolior, 4, piit away. 
amomum, i, n., spice-plant. 
amor, oris, m., love, desire. 
amoveo, ovi, ot-, 2, remove, steal. 
Amphiaraus, i, myth. seer and 

hero in the siege of Thebes. 
Amphion, onis, myth. k. of Thebes. 

Amphitrite — annulus. 

Amphitrite, es, sea-goddess, wife 

of Neptune. 
Amphitryo (uo), onis, myth. k. of 

Thebes, husband of Alcmena. 
Amphitryoniades, ae, Uercules. 
amphora, se, f., icaier-jar. 
amplector, xus, 3 ; -xor, i, lo em- 

brace, comprehend. 
amplexus, us, m., emhrace. 
amplio (-fico), i, enlarge, widen, 

delafi^ <lloriJ'!/. 
amplitudo, inis, f., largeness, dig- 

nity^ grandeur. 
ampiius, more^further^ [ample.] 
amplus, a, um, large^ strong, great. 
ampuUa, ae, f., Jiask^ Jar, bombast. 
amputo, I, prune, cut ojf. 
Amulius, i, myth. k. of Alba, gr.- 

uncle of Romulus. 
amurca, se, f., oil-lees, dregs. 
amussis, is, im, f., foot-rule ; ad 

amussim, exacd//. 
Amyclae, arum (e, es), a town in 

Laconia, birthplace of Castor 

and Pollux (Amyclaei fratres). 
f amygdalum, i, n., almond. 
famylum, i, n., starch. 
Amyntas, ae, k. of Macedon, father 

of Phihp ; died b.c. 370. 
amystis, idis, f., eager draugltt. 
an, wJiether, or; (interrog. § 71). 
f anagnostes, se, m., reader. 
f analecta. orum, n., scraps. 
anas, atis, um (ium), f., duck. 
anceps, cipitis, two-headed, douht- 

ful,. perilous, critical. 
Anchises, ae, a prince of Troy, 

father of yEneas. 
f anchora=ancora, anchor. 
ancile, is, n., shield. 
ancilla, ae, f., maid-servant. 
f ancon, onis, M.,fork, corner. 
f ancora, ee, f., anchor. 
Ancus Marcius, fourth k. of Rome, 

reigned b.c. 640-618. 
Andromache, es, wife of Hector. 
Andromeda, myth. d. of Cepheus, 

rescued by Perseus. 
anellus, i, m., a littie ring. 
f anemone, es, f., wind-flower. 
f anethum, i, n., anise, dill. 

anfractus, us, m,, turning, bend. 
anfractus, a, um, broken, hent. 
f angelus, i, m., angel, messenger. 
f angina, se, f., choking. 
angiportus, us, m., lane, allei/. 
ango, xi, ct- (x-), 3, choke, strangle, 

iorment, press hard iipon. 
angor, oris, m., distress. strangling. 
anguilla, ae, f., eel. 
anguinus (eus), a, um, snaky. 
anguis (en), is, c, (ango,) snake. 
angulus, i, m,, corner, angle, nook. 
anguste, narrowly, closely. 
angustiae, arum, f., pl. narrowness, 

narrow /)ass, defile, dijjiculty. 
angustus, a, um, narrow, scanty. 
anhelitus, iis, m., breath, panting. 
anhelo, i, to pant, gasp. 
anhelus, a, um, paniing, gasping. 
Anien=Anio (a river). 
anilis, e, old-womanish. 
anima, se, f,, air, hreath, life. 
animadversio, onis, f., noiice, re- 

proach, invesii(/aiion. 
animadverto, ti, sum, 3, attend to ; 

in {\\. acc), to jmnish, chastise. 
animal, alis, n., living creature. 
animalis, e, of air, living. 
animans, tis, living, animate. 
animatus, a, um, minded, disposed. 
animo, i, /0 give breath or life. 
animosus, a, um, spirited, daring. 
animus, i, m., soul, mind, disposi- 

tion, spirit, temper, life. 
Anio, enis, m., the Teverone, a 

branch of the Tiber. 
Anna, ae, (Perenna,) sister of Dido. 
annalis, e, of a year ; m., year- 

hook ; pl. annals, narrative. 
annecto, xui, xum, 3, bind, fasten. 
annitor, nis- (nix-), 3, strive, lean 

anno (adno), i, swim to. 
annon, or not. 
annona, ae, f., harvest, price of 

corn, provision. 
annosus, a, um, aged. 
annotinus, a, um, last year^s. 
annoto, i, itote, ohserve, register. 
annulu.'^ (anulus), i, m., ring. 


annumero — apparate. 

annumero, i, cowit up, reckon. 
annuo, ui, ut-, 3, nod, assent, grant. 
annus, i, m., year. 
annuus, a, um, yearly, a-year. 
an-quiro, quisivi, sit-, [quaero,] 

3, inquire, searcli. 
ansa, ae, f., liantlle. 
ansatus, a, um, witli Jiandles. 
anser, eris, m., goose. 
ante (acc), hefore, in front. 
antea, hefor^^^ fornierly., 
anteactus, [ago,] done hefore. 
ante-capio, 3, anticipate,preoccupy. 
ante-cedo, 3, go hofore, excel. 
ante-cello, 3, excel, he prominent. 
antecessor, oris, m., atlmnce-gnard. 
antecursor, oris, m , scoitt, fuoneer. 
ante-eo, 4, go hefore, exceed. 
ante-fero, hear hefore, prefer. 
antegredior, gressus, 3, usker in. 
antehac, tili noii\formerly. 
antelatus, [fero,] preferred. 
anteliicanus, a, um, hefore day. 
ante-mitto, 3, send hefore. 
antenna (mna), ae, f., sailyard, spar. 
antepilauus, i, m., of the front 

ante-pono, 3, set hefore, prefer. 
ante . . . quam, htfore (that). 
anterior, us, former, infront. 
antes, ium, m., ranks, rows. 
antesignanus, i, m., one in front 

(of standard). 
ante-sto, i, stawlhefore, excel. 
antestor, i, snmmon as witness. 
antevenio, veni, vent-, 4, come 

hefore, preven/, surjjass. 
anteverto, si, sum, 3, oufstrip,pre- 

cede, prevent, prefer. 
antevolo. i,./?.v hefore. 
anthrax, acis, m., (coal), cinnahar. 
anticipatio, onis, f., previous idea. 
anticipo, i, anticipale, surpass. 
t antidotum, i, n., antidote, remedy. 
Antigone, es, myth. d. ofCEdipus. 
Antiochia, ae, the capitalof Syria. 
Antiochus, i, name of several 

kings of Syria, desc. of Seleu- 

cus ; the Great, R.C. 238-187. 
Antiopa, ae (e, es), mother of 

Amphion, by Jupiter. 

BXitiqvie, formerly, in the old way. 
antiquitas, atis, f., antiipiity, the 

good old icays. 
antiquitus, anciently, of old. 
antiquo, l, restore, rejteal, reject. 
autiquus, a, um, ancient, fumous, 

venerahle, old. 
antistes, itis, c, priest, overseer. 
anti-sto=ante-sto, excel. 
Antium, i, a coast-town of Latium. 
Antonius, M., the triumvir, de- 

feated at Actium, b.c. 31. 
antrum, i, n., care, groVo, cavity. 
anulatus, a, um, decked with rings. 
anulus, i, m., ring, seal-ring. 
anus, iis, f., old ivoman. 
anxie, anxiously. 
anxietas, atis, f., anxious care. 
anxius, a, um, anxious, unquiet. 
Anxur, uris, n., a coast-town of 

Aonia, se, a district of Boeotia. 
apage, airay! auaun' ! 
Apenninus, i, the Aj)ennine. 
. aper, apri, m., wild hoar. 
aperio, erui, ert-, 4, io open, disclos€y 

display, revecd. 
aperte, operdy, clearly. 
aperto, i, to lay hare. 
apertura, ae, f., opening. 
apertus, a, um, open, uncovered. 
apex, icis, m., tip, cap, summil. 
faphractus, i, F., undecked ship. 
apianus, a, um, of hees ; f., camo- 

apiarius, a, um, ofhees; m., hee- 

keeper ; N., hee-house. 
apiastrum, i, n., mint, halm. 
apicula, ae, f., little hee. 
apis (es), is, F., hee. 
apiscor, apt-, 3, pursue, seize, g&t. 
apium, i, n., parsley. 
apliida, ae, f., hran, chaff. 
aplustre, is, n., shiji^s stem. 
Apollinaris, e, sacred to Apollo. 
Apollo, inis, god of light, music, 
&c., son of Jupiter and Latona. 
f apologia, ae, f., ajiology, defence. 
f apologus, i, M., fahle, tale. 
f apotheca, ae, f., storeJiouse. 
apparate, magnificently. 

apparatus — arbutus. 


apparattis, a, um, sumptuous. 
apparatus, us, m., outfit, equijmient, 

apparatus, splendor. 
appareo, ui, it-, 2, appear, be manl- 

fest or certain, be in public. 
apparitio, ouis, f., service, domes- 

apparitor, oris, n., puUic servant. 
apparo, i, prepare, furnish. 
appellatio, onis, f., address, appeal, 

calUng by name, utterance. 
appello, I, accost, call, name. 
appello, puli, puls-, 3, push to- 

icards, bring to land. 
appendix, icis, f., appendage. 
appendo, di, sum, 3, iceigh out. 
appetens, tis, eager, grasping. 
appetentia, ae (-petitio, onis), f., 

appetitus, us, m., attack, longing, 

eager desire. 
ap-peto, 3, seeh, attack, long for. 
Appia via, a road madc by the 

Censor, Ap. Claudius, b.c. 313. 
appingo, 3, paint, inscribe. 
applaudo, si, sum, 3, applaud, clap. 
applicatus (citus), a, um, attached. 
applico, i,join,fasten, drive towards, 

attach, apply, bring near. 
ap-p6no, 3, jmt near, add, serve up. 
apporto, F., bring, convey. 
appositus, a, um, situated near, fit. 
appotus, a, um, drunk. 
ap-prehendo (-prendo), 3, seize. 
apprime, especicdly, chiejly. 
approbatio, onis, F., approval. 
approbo, i, approve,assent,corifirm. 
appropero, i, to hasten. 
appropinquo, i, to approach. 
Appulia, 86, F., dist. of S. E. Italy. 
appulsus, a, um, [pello,] driven. 
appulsus, us, M., driving-up. 
apricatio, onis, F., basking in sun- 

apricor, i, bask in sunshine. 
apricus, a, uni, sunny, open to the 

sky, clear,full, open. 
Aprilis, is, m., [aperio,] April. 
aprinus (-ugnus), a, um, of a boar. 
aptatus, a, um, suited,ft. 
apte, ftly, suitably. 

apto, I, to fit, join, prepare. 

aptus, a, um,^7, suited, ready. 

apud (aput), near, at, among. 


aqua, ee, F., icaler; daxe, give time. 

aqvialis, is, m., icater-pot or bowl. 

aquarius, a, uui, of tvater; m., 

icater-carrier ; n., si^ik, trough. 
aquaticus, a, um (-tilis, e), belong- 

ing to water, watery, moist. 
aquatio, onis, f., getting ivater. 
aquatus, a, um, ivatery, 
aquifolium, i, n., holly. 
aquila, ae, f., eagle, army-standard. 
Aquileia, ae, a town near Venice. 
aquilifer^feri, n., standard-bearer. 
aquilo, onis, m., north wind. 
aquilus, a, um, stvarthy. 
Aquitania, se, F., dist. of S. W. 

Gaul; -nus, a, um, Aquitanian. 
aquor, i, to bring water. 
aquosus, watery, ivet. 
ara, ae, f., altar, refuge, monument. 
Arabs, abis (-icus, a, um), Ardb- 

aranea, ae, f. ; us, i, m., spider, cob- 

web ; -eum, i, n., cobweh. 
Arar, aris, m., tlie Saone, a branch 

of the Rhonc in S. E. Gaiil. 
aratio, onis, f., 'ploughing,field. 
arator, oris, m., ploughinan, farmer. 
aratrum, i, n., p/ough. 
Araxes, is, m., a river of Armenia. 
Arbela, oruni, n., a town of As- 

syria where Darius was defeated, 

B.c. 332. 
arbiter, tri, m., witness, judge, um- 

pire, master. 
arbitrarius, a, um, by arbitration, 

arh if ra ry, uncerta in . 
arbitratus, us, m., choice, freewill. 
arbitrium, i, -^.,presence, judgment, 

airard, dominion, will, power. 
arbitror, I, observe, fudge, think. 
arbor (6s), oris, F., tree, mast, oar. 
arboreus, a, um, of trees. 
arbustum, i, N., copse, grove, or- 

chard (for training vines). 
arbuteus, a, um, of the arbute. 
arbutus, i, f. ; um, i, n., wildstraw- 

berry-iree oy fruit. 


arca — Armenius. 

arca, ae, f., cliest, money-box. 
Arcadia, ae, the central district 

of the Peloponnesus. 
arcano, In secret. 
arcanus, a, um, secret, hidden. 
Arcas, adis, Arcadian. 
arceo, ui, 2, to shut close, keep off, 

constrain, (juard, conjine. 
arcera, ae, f., covered carriage (for 

the sick), ambulance. 
arcesso, ivi, it-, 3, summon, fetch, 

invite, obtain. 
f archetypus, a, um, original. 
[f archi-, chief. 
Archimedes, is, a mathematician 

and engineer of Syracuse, who 

defended the city, b.c. 212. 
architectus, i, m., master-builder. 
arcitenens, tis, m., archer (Apollo). 
arctim (te), closely. 
arcto, I, strain close. 
farctos (us), i, f., the polar Bear. 
Arcturus, i, m., a star in Bootes. 
arctus, [arceo,] close, narrow, strict. 
arcula, ae, f., little chest, box. 
arcuo, I, to bend, curve. 
arcus, iis (i), m., arch, bow. 
ardea, se, f., heron. 
ardelio, onis, m., busybody. 
ardens, tis, glowing, hot,jiery. 
ardenter, hotly, vehemently. 
ardeo, arsi, arsum, 2, to burn. 
ardesco, arsi, 3, takefire, gleam. 
ardor, oris, m., heat, jlame, glow. 
ardus=aridus, dry. 
arduus, a, um, steep, dijficidt. 
area, ae, f., threshing-Jioor, court- 

yard, house-plot, field. 
arefacio, feci, fact-, 3, make dry. 
arena, £e, f., sand, beach, arena. 
arenarius, a, um, of sand; M., 

gJadiator ; F., sand-pit. 
arenatus (-osus), a, um, sandy. 
arens, tis, parched, thirsty. 
areo, ui, 2, to be dry, parched. 
Areopagus (os), i, Mars' Hill, the 

supreme court of Athens. 
aresco, arui, 3, cjrow dry. 
Arethiisa, ae, f., a fountain near 

Syracuse, fabled to flow under 

the sea from EHs to Sicily. 

argentarius, a, um, of silver ; m., 

banker ; f., bench, mine. 
argenteus, a, um, of silver, silvery. 
argentum, i, n., silver, money. 
argilla, se, f., pottei^^s clay. 
Argivus, a, um, of Argos ; Greek. 
Argo, iis, f., the ship of Jason. 
Argolicus, a, um, of Argos, Greek. 
Argonautae, arum, the heroes 

who sailed for the golden fleece. 
Argos, N., the capital of Argohs. 
argumentatio, onis, f., reasoning, 

argiimentor, i, prove by reasoning. 
arguLmentum, i, N., reasoning. 
arguo, i, iit-, 3, to make clear, rea- 

son, accuse, convict. 
Argus, i, the keeper of lo, having 

100 eyes ; slain by Mercury. 
argiite, shrewdly, acutely. 
argiitiee, F., animation, wit. 
argiito (or), i, to speak sharply or 

argiitiee, arum, F., animation, wit, 

argiitus, a, um, acfive, keen, witty. 
Ariadna ae, (e, es), myth. d. of 

Minos, who fled with Theseus. 
Aricia, se, f., a town in Latium. 
ariditas, atis, F., dryness. 
aridus, a, um, dry, parched, lean; 

N., dry ground. 
aries, etis, m., rani, battering-beam. 
arieto, i, to butt, pu.^h, batter. 
ariolor (hariolor), prophesy, babble. 
Arion, onis, myth. harpist of Les- 

bos, rescued at sea bydolphins. 
arista, se, F., wheat-ear, harvest. 
aritiido, inis, F., dryness, drought. 
arma, orum, N., arms, dejensive 

iveapons, tools, tackle. 
armamaxa, ae, F., covered chariof. 
armamenta, orum, N., tools, tackle. 
armamentarium, i, m., arsenal, 

armarium, i, N., chest, closet. 
armatiira, ae, F., equipment, troops. 
armatus, a, um, armed, equipped. 
armatus, us, m., equipment. 
Armenia, se, Armenia. 
Armenius, a, um, Armenian. 

armentalis — asinus. 


armentalis, e, of the herd. 
armentarius, i, M., herdsman. 
armentum, i, n., herd of cattle, &c. 
armifer, fera, um, hearing arms. 
armiger, geri, m., armor-bearer, 

armilla, ae, f., hracelet, armlet. 
armillum, i, N., wine-vessel. 
armipotens, tis, miyhty in hattle. 
armisonus, a, um, resounding with 

armo, i, to arm, equip, call to arms. 
Armoricus, a, um, of the coast 

district of N. W. Gaul. 
armus, i, M., shoulder (of beast). 
aro, I, to plough, till, cultivate. 
f aroma, atis, n., splce. 
Arpinum, i, a town in Latium, 

birthpl. of Marius and Cicero. 
Arpinus, a, um, o/zlryj/, (ApuHa). 
arquatus, a, um, arched, bent. 
arquus=arcus, how. 
arrectus, a, um, steep, attentive. 
arrepo, psi, pt-, creep toward. 
arreptus, [arripio,] seized. 
Arretium, i, N., a town of Etruria. 
arrha, ae, f., (-abo, onis, m.), pledge, 

ar-rideo, 2, to smile upon, please. 
arrigo, rexi, rect-, 3, uplift, rouse. 
arripio, ui, rept-, 3, attack, snatch, 

seize, drag into court. 
arrisor onis, ^.,Jiatterer. 
arrodo, si, sum, 3, gnaw, nihhle. 
arrogans, tis, haughty. 
arroganter, haughtily. 
arrogantia, ae, f., haughtiness. 
arrogatio, onis, f., adoption. 
arrogo, i, to question, claim. 
arrosus, a, um, nibhled. 
ars, artis, F., sJdll, art, science,habit. 
arsus, a, um, [ardeo,] hurnt. 
arte (arcte), closely. 
articulate, distinctly. 
articulatim, joint hy joint. 
articulatus, a, um, jointed. 
articulo, i, to connect by joints, 
articulosus, a, um, knotiy. 
articulus, i, m., knot,joint, division. 
artifex, icis, m., artist, builder ; 

(as adj.), skilled. 

artificium, i, n., trade, skill, trick. 
artitus, a, um, [ars,] skilled. 
f artopta, ae, f., baking-pan. 
artus, a, um (arctus), close, scant. 
artus, lis, u., joint, limb. 
arundifer, fera, um, reed-bearing. 
arundineus, a, um, reedy. 
arundo, inis, F., reed, rod, shaft. 
Aruns, tis, Etruscan name of 

younger sons. 
aruspex, icis, m., a diviner (from 

entrails), soothsayer. 
arvalis, e, of thefeld. 
arvina, ae, F.,fat, tallow. 
arvus, a, um, ploughed (not sown) ; 

N., field, 2)loughed land. 
arx, arcis, F., tower, citadel, height. 
as, assis, m., unit of weight or 

coin (§ 84), consisting of 1 2 parts : 

1 ( L)^ uncia ; 7 ( ^^), septunx ; 

2 ( -l ), sextans ; 8 ( | ), bessis ; 
3(1), quadrans ; 9 ( f ), dodrans ; 
4(1), triens ; i o ( |), dextans ; 
5(1^)? quincunx; 1 1 {\^), deunx. 

6 ( 1 ), semissis ; 12 as, originally 

a pound of copper ; as coin, 

worth afterwards about a cent. 
Ascanius, myth. son of yEneas. 
ascendo di, sum, 3, [scando,] to 

climh, mount, ascend. 
ascensio, onis, f.,-us, iis, m., ascent. 
ascia, ae, f., axe, hoe, mattock. 
ascio, 4, to summon, admit. 
ascisco, ivi, it-, 3, callfor, hring in, 

receive, adopt, approve. 
Ascra, ae, a town in Boeotia, birth- 

place of Hesiod (Ascraeus). 
ascribo, psi, pt-, 3, write in, enrol, 

impute, ascribe, assign. 
ascriptivus, a, um, supernumerary. 
ascriptor, oris, M., suhscriher. 
asellus, i, M., asella, ae, f., donkey. 
Asia, ae, F. ; (originally a town of 

Lydia) Asia'; generally, Asia 

Minor, the large peninsula S. 

of the Black Sea. 
Asiaticus, i, surname of L. Scipio, 

conqueror of Antiochus, b.c. 190. 
asilus, i, M., gad-Jiy. 
asinarius, (-inus), a, um, of asses. 
asinus, i, m. ; asina, se, f., an ass. 


Asius — assus. 

Asius, a, um, of Asia, Asiatic. 
f asotus, i, M., a riolous j)erson. 
fasparagus, i, m., asparatjus. 
aspecto, I, behold, look ai, attend. 
aspectus, [aspicio,] helield. 
aspectus, lis, ai., aspect, vieiv. 
aspello, 3, ex/)el, drire. 
asper, era, um, Iiarsh, rough, cruel. 
aspere, rtmijhlij^ hurshhj. 
aspergo, si, sum, 3, hesprinkle. 
aspergo, inis, f., a sprinkling. 
asperitas, atis, f., rom/hness, harsh-, sharpness, cruelty. 
aspernatio, onis, f., contempt. 
aspernor, i, cast ojf, slight, despise. 
aspero, i, roughen, sharpen, enrage. 
aspersio, onis, f., sprinkling. 
t asphodelus, i, m., asjyhodel (lily). 
aspicio, exi, ect-, 3, vieic, hehold, 

consider, examine, get sight of. 
aspiratio, ouis, f., hreathing. 
aspiro, i, hreathe on, approach. 
f aspis, idis, f., asj), viper, shield. 
asporto, I, carry aivay, convey. 
aspretum, i, n., a hrainbly place. 
assa, orum. n., sweating-room. 
Assaracus, i, one of the sons of 

Tros, myth. founder of Troy. 
assarius, a, um, roasted. 
assatura, ae, roasting. 
asseca, se, c, hanger-on, follower. 
assectator, oris, m., attendant. 
assector, i, attend, ivait on, get. 
assensio, onis, f. ; -sus, iis, m., 

assenf, approval, agreement. 
assentatio, onis, F., flattery, assent. 
assentator, oris, ^.,Jiatterer. 
assentio, si, sum, 4, to assent, ap- 

assentior, 4, sens-, agree, assent. 
assentor, i,flatter, comply. 
assequor, ciitus, 3, follow close, 

orcrtake, attain, comprehend. 
asser, eris, m., pole, joist, stake. 
asserculus, i, m., (um, n.), stake, 

assero, evi, it-, 3, to plant near. 
assero, ui, ert-, 3, assert, afjirm, 

claim, lay hold, liherate, prolect. 
assertio, onis, f., declaration of 
freedom. ^ 

assertor, oris, m,, deliverer, prO' 

tecior, claimant. 
asservio, 4, render service. 
asservo, i , io j)reserve. 
assessio, onis, f., sitting near. 
assessor, oris, n., assistant. 
asseveratio, onis, f., earnest asser- 

tion, ai/irmation. 
assevero, i , assert, affirm, prove. 
assicco, I, to dry, harden. 
assideo, sedi, sess-, 2, sit near, 

asslsf, resemble, hesiege. 
assido, sedi, 3, to sit near, or settle 

assidue, (-uo), consfantly. 
assiduitas, atis, f., constant pre- 

sence, repefiiion. 
j assiduus, a, um, constant, unremit- 

ting ; rich ; U., tribute-payer,\jas'\. 
assignatio, onis, f., allotment. 
assigno, i, assign, appoint, impute. 
assilio, ui, sult-, 4, leap upon. 
assimilis, e, rery like. 
assimulatio, onis, F.,feigning. 
assimulatus, a, um, like, feigned. 
assimulo (ilo), \ , preiend, compare, 

reprcsent, assume, feign, copy. 
assis=as, unit of coin, weight, &c. 
assisto, stiti, 3, stand near, assist. 
assitus, a, um, [sero,] sef near. 
asso, I, fo roast, hroil, scorch. 
associo, I, to join, add, unite. 
assoleo, 2, to he usuai or accustomed. 
assono, i, resound, sound forth. 
assue-facio, 3, to accustom. 
assuesco, evi, et-, get ivonted. 
assuetiido, inis, F., custom, hahit. 
assuetus, a, um, accnstomed, usual. 
assula, ee, f., door, chip, splinter. 
assulatim (-ose), piecemeal. 
assultim, by leaps. 
assulto, I, to leap upon, assault. 
assultus, iis, M., onsef. 
assum (adsum), fo he at hand, at- 

fend, 2^votect, appear, apiwoach. 
as-sumo, 3, tfd^-e, assume, choose. 
assumptio, onis, F.. receiving. 
assumptivus, a, um', exlrinsic. 
assuo, 3, sew upon. 
assurgo, exi, ect- ; 3, rise up, mount. 
assus, a, um, roasted, dry. 

Assyria — attero. 


Assyria, ae, f., district of Asia, 

eastward oi" the upper Tigris. 
Assyrius, a, um, Assyrkm. 
ast=at, buL 

t aster, eris, m., s-ui; starwort. 
asterno, strat-, 3, spread upon. 
f asticus, a, um, o/ the clty. 
astipulor, i, eiujaye, agree. 
astituo ui, iit-, 3, to set near. 
asto, stiti, I, stand near or erect. 
Astraea, ae, goddess of Justice, 

who forsook earth for heaven. 
astratus, [asterno,] spread. 
astrepo, 3, be iioisy, roar, shout. 
astrictus, a, um, chse, brief, tight. 
astringo, inxi, ict-, tie, hind close. 
f astrologus, i, m., astronomer. 
astructio, ouis, F., piling-on, build- 

f astrum, i, n., siar, constellation. 
astruo, xi, ct-, 3, hiiild near, add. 
f astu (asty), N., city. 
astupeo, ui, 2, iconder at. 
astur, uris, M., a kind of haick. 
asturco, onis, m., Spanish nag. 
astus, a, um, crafy. 
astus, rLs, M. ; -tii,-tia, ae, F., craft. 
astute, cunningly. 
astutia, ae, f,, dexterity, craft. 
astiitus, a, um, crafty, exjiert. 
Astyanax, actis, soii of Hector. 
f asylum, i, refuge, sanctuary. 
f asymboluS; a, um, scot-fee. 
at, but, but yet, 011 tlie ofher hand. 
atabulus, i, M, a hot wind, Sirocco. 
Atalanta, se, myth. princess of 

Boeotia, famous for speed in 

atat! exclam. of pain or wonder. 
atavus, i, m., ancestor (^th deg.). 
atellanus, a, um, (of Atella, a town 

in Campania.) farcical. 
ater, tra, trum, black, dark, gloomy. 
Athamas, antis, myth. k. oif Thes- 

saly, son of ^Eolus. 
Athenae, arum, f., Athens, capital 

of Attica, made a repub. b.c. 510. 
Athenseum, i, n., temple of Min- 

erva at Athens. 
Atheniensis, e, Athenian. 
f atheosy i^ u.,' atheist. 

f athla. orum, n., struggles, sorrows. 

f athleta, se, m., ivrestter. 

Athos, o, on, M., a stormy prom- 

ontory o; Macedonia. 
Atlantiades, ae, iMercury. 
Atlantiades (-tides), the Pleiades 

and Hyades, daughters of Atlas. 
Atlas, antis, a Titan, son of 

Japetos, changed to a mountain 

(in N. Africa) by Perseus. 
f atomus, a, um, indivisihle. 
atque (ac), and, as, than. 
atqui, bui yet, indeed. 
atramentum, i, n., ink, hlack dye. 
atratus, a, um, in mourning. 
Atreus, ei, myth. son of Pelops, 

f. of Agamemnonand Menelaus. 
atriensis, is, m., house-steward. 
atritas, atis, f., hlackness. 
atrium, i, n., [ater,] hall, court. 
atrocitas, atis, f., savageness, hor~ 

ror, sevcrily, harshness. 
atrociter, cruelly, jiercely. 
Atropos, i, F., one oif the Fates. 
atrox, ocis, ferce, stern, cruel. 
attactvis [attingo,] iouched. 
attactus, iis, m., touch. 
attagen, enis, m. ; -gena, ae, f., 

snipe, ivoodcock. 
attalicus, a, um, of Attalus, or 

Pergamus ; gorgeous. 
Attalus, name of three' kings of 

Pergamus, allies of the Romans, 

reigning B.c. 241-197; 159- 

13B; 138-133- 
attamen, but yet. 
attamino, i, to rob, dishonor. 
attat !=atat ! 
attegiae, arum, f., huts. 
attemperate, opportunely. 
attempero, i, toft, adjust. 
attendo, di, tum, 3, stretch, apply, 

give heed, strive, bend, strain. 
attente, diligently. 
attento (tempto), i, attempt, attack, 

attentus, a, um, heedful, attentive. 
attenuatus, a, um, thin, weak. 
attenuo, i, to make thin, lessen. 
attero, trivi, trit-, 3, rub upon, ivear 

away, destroy, weaken, exhaust. 


attestor — aulula. 

attestor, i, testify, prove. 
attexo, ui, tum, 3, loeave upon. 
f atthis, idis, f., (of Attica), night- 

ingale or swallow. 
Attica, ae, f., dist. in E. Greece. 
attice, elegantly. 
atticus, a, um, elegant, superior. 
attinae, a, um, f., houndary-stones. 
attiiieo, ui, tent-, 2, liold to, belong, 

detain, reach to, he ofmonient. 
attingo, tigi, tact-, [tango,] touch 

upon, lie near, reach, seize. 
attollo, 3, uplift, elevate, enlarge. 
attondeo, di, tons-, 2, shave close, 

clip, prune, nihhle. 
attonite, franiically. 
attonitus, a, um, thunderstruck, 

aniazed, stunned, terrified. 
attono, ui, it-, astonish, stupefy. 
attorqueo, 2, hurl upward. 
attraho, traxi, tract-, 3, draw, drag, 

attract, contract. 
attrecto, i, to touch, handle, appro- 

attribuo, ui, ut-, 3, impute, assign, 

hestow, add. 
attribiitio, onis, f., assignment. 
attribiitum, i, n., hill, draft, attri- 

attritus, [tero,] ivorn, rvasted. 
attritus, us, m., a ruh, hruise. 
attuli, [affero,] hrought. 
Atys (Attys), yos, myth. k. of Ly- 

dia, son of Hercules and Om- 

phale, queen of Lydia. 
auceps, cupis, c. ; [avis capio,] 

auctifer, era, VLto., fruit-bearing. 
auctio, onis, f., increase, auction. 
auctionor, i, sell hy auction. 
aucto, (-ito), I, [augeo,] to increase. 
auctor, oris, m., author, adviser, 

founder, model, advocate. 
auctoramentum, i, n., bounty,pay. 
auctoritas, atis, f., authority, in- 

fiuence, advice, diqnity, iveight. 
auctoro, i, hind, pledge, hire. 
auctumnalis, e, of autumn. 
auctumno, i, hring on harvest. 
auctumnus,i, m., [augeo,] aw^wmn. 
auctus, [augeo,] great, rich, ample. 

auctus, iis, m., growth, increase. 
aucupium, i, n., hird-catching, 

aucupor, i, icatch, hunt, catch. 
audacia, sb, f., holdness, daring. 
audacter, -citer, fearlessly, boldly. 
audax, acis, hold, audacious, con- 

fdent, violent, rash. 
audens, tis, courageous, hrave. 
audentia, ae, f., courage, hravery. 
audeo, ausus, 2, to dare, venture. 
audiens, tis, ohedient ; M., listener. 
audientia, m, f., hearing, attention. 
audio, 4, hear, understand, listen, 
. ohey, he spoken of (well or ill). 
auditio, onis, f., hearing, hearsay. 
auditor, oris, M., hearer. 
auditorium, i, n., audience-hall. 
aufero, abstuli, ablat-, bear away, 

witlidraw, remove, ohtain. 
aufugio, fugi, 3, flee away. 
augeo, xi, ct-, 2, to increase, enlarge, 

exalt, enrich, honor ivith gifts. 
augesco, 3, gi^ow, increase. 
augmen, inis; -tum, i, n., growth. 
augur, uris, M., augur, diviner 
auguralis, e, respecting augury. 
auguratio, onis, F., divination. 
augurato, having inspected the 

oniens, ivith consent of the gods. 
auguratus, ee, M., office ofaugur. 
augurium, i, n., augury, interpret- 

ing of omens, prophecy. 
auguro, I, consult, forehode. 
auguror, i, to prophesy, forebode, 

divine (by flight of birds). 
auguste, reverentiy. 
augustus, a, um, majestic, august, 

an Imperial title ; f., a princess 

of the emperor's house. 
Augustalis, c, (-anus, a, um), of 

Augustus, i, Octavius Caesar, 

adopted son of Julius, emperor 

from B.c. 31, to A.D. 14. 
aula, 36, (ai), F., hall, court. 
aulgeum, i, n., curtain, canopy. 
aulicus, a, um, ofthe court, princely. 
fauloedus, i, M., minstrel (who 

sings to the flute). 
aulula, a, f., [olla,] a little pot. 

aura — avius. 


aura, se (ai), f., air, breeze, breatJi, 

vapor, (jleam. 
aurarius, a, um, of gold; m., gold- 

smith : ¥., gold-miiie. 
auratus, a, um, gilt, gold-colored, 

Aurelius, i, Emperor of Rome, 

reigned, a.d. 161-180. 
aureus, (-olus), a, um, golden, 

bright: m., a gold coin. 
auricomus, a, um, gold-haired or 

auricula, 33, F., kip of the ear. 
aurifer, fera, um, gold-hearing. 
aurifex, ficis, m., goldsmith. 
aurifodina, ae, f., gold-mine. 
auriga, ae, m., charioteer, driver, 

groom, jnlot. 
aurigo, i, to drive, steer, guide. 
auris, is, f., ear ; mould-board (of 

auritus, a, um, long-eared. 
auro, I, to cover icitlt gold. 
aurora, ge, f., dawn, inorning, East. 
aurugo, inis, F., jaundice. 
aurum, i, n., gold. 
Aurunci, orum, people of S. Italy. 
auscultatio, onis, f., hearkening. 
auscultator, onis, m. listener. 
ausculto, I, hearken, listen, obey. 
ausim, [audeo,] dare. 
Ausones (-ii), people of Ausonia. 
Ausonia, ae, n., ancient name of 

central and lower Italy. 
auspex, icis, c, diviner (by birds) ; 

guide, patron or ijrotector. 
auspicato, having taken the auspices. 
auspicatus, a, um, fortunate, au- 

spicious, consecrated. 
auspicium, i, n., toke?i, omen. 
auspico, I, to take auspices. 
auspicor, i , tvatch omens (by birds), 

take the auspices, begin, enter upon. 
auster, tri, m., south wind, south. 
austere, rigidh/, sternly. 
austeritas, atis, F., harshness, 

austerus, a, um, harsh, tart, severe, 

sad, glooiny. 
austraiis, e ; -trinus, a, um, of the 


ausus, [audeo,] having dared; n., 

adventure, enterprise. 
aut, either, or, or else. 
autem, Jxit, however, besides. 
f authepsa, ae, f., stew-pan. 
author (autor),=auctor, advker. 
I automatus, a, um, selfmoving. 
autumnus=auctumnus, autumn. 
autumo, I, affirm, assent, assert. 
auxiliaris, e, giving aid, auxiliary. 
auxiliarius, a, um, for aid. 
auxilior, i, to aid, help, relieve. 
auxilium, i, n., aid, assistance ; pl. 

auxUiary troops, military force. 
auxim, (pf subj. of augeo), ^/fow. 
avare, eagerly, greedily. 
avaritia, as, F., avarice, greed. 
avarus, a, um, greedy, covetous. 
ave, hail, farewell. 
aveho, xi, ct-, carry off. 
avello, velli (vulsi), vuls-, 3, rend 

away, pluck out or apart. 
avena, ae, f., oats, straw-pipe. 
Aventinus, i, m., a hill in the S.- 

W. of Rome. 
aveo, 2, to desire, covet. 
aveo, 2, be fortunate or blest. 
Avernus, i, M., a lake at the en- 

trance to the world below. 
a-verro, 3, sweep away. 
averrunco, i, avert, remove. 
aversio, onis, f. turning away. 
aversor, i, to turn aloof hate, scorn. 
aversor, oris, m., purloiner. 
aversus, a, um, backivard, remote, 

hostile, estravged. 
averto, ti, sum, 3, turn aside, avert, 

ivithdraw, embezzJe, estrange. 
avia, ae, f., grandmother. 
avia, orum, pathless places. 
aviarius, i, M., bird-catcher ; -um, 

i, N., bird-cage, resort ofbirds. 
avide, eagerly, greedily. 
aviditas, atis, f., greediness, eager 

desire, avarice. 
avidus, a, um, greedy, covetous, 

longing, hungry, insatiable. 
avis, is, F., bird,jdying thing, omen. 
avitus, a, um, [avus,] ancestral, 

avius, a, um, pathless, remote. 


avocatio — baris. 

avocatio, onis, F., calling away, 

avoob, I, call ojf, withdraw, recall. 
a-volo, ijjiy ojf, liaste away. 
avulsio, onis, f., plucking off. 
avulsus, [avello,] torn away, 
avunculus, i, m., uncle (by moth- 

er's side). 
avus, i, N., grandfather, ancestor; 

(i pater, 2 avus, 3 proavus, 

4 abavus, 5 atavus, 6 tritavus). 
axicia, se, f., scisso7\^. 
axilla, ee, F., arm-pit. 
axis, is, M., axle, axis, sky, pole, 

north, a hoard or plank. 
axungia, ae, F., wheel-grease. 
f azymus, a, um, unleavened. 

babylo, onis, m., money-changer, 

Babylon, onis, f., ancient capital 

the East, on the Euphrates. 
Babylonia, ae, F., the province of 

Babylonicus, (-us), a, um; -ensis, e, 

Buhylonian ; -ca, orum, embroi- 

dered tapestry. 
bacca, se, f., herry, fruit, pearl. 
baccar, aris, n., valerian, wild 

baccatus, a, um, set with pearl. 
baccha, se, priestess of Bacchus. 
Bacchanal, alis, n., a place sacrecl 

to Bacchus ; pl. festival of B. 
bacchatio, onis, f., dehauch. 
bacchicus (-eus), a, um, of Bac- 

bacchor, i, to revel, riot, go ahout 

wildly, as in the BacchanaHa. 
Bacchus, i, god of Wine (Liber), 

son of Jupiter and Semele. 
baccifer, era, um, hearing herries. 
bacillum, i, n., a little staff wand. 
baculum, n., staff, stick. 
badius, a, um, hroivn, hay. 
fbadizo, i, to go, ivalk. 
Baetis, is, m., the Guadalquiver, in 

Spain ; -ica, ae, the dist. near. 

Baiag, arum, f., a coast-town on 

the Bay of Naples. 
bajulo, i, to carry a hurden. 
bajulus, i, M., porter, hearer. 
balaena, ae, f., whale. 
fbalanus, i, m., acorn, chestnut, 

balatro, onis, m., jester, huffoon. 
balatus, iis, m., hleating. 
balbus, a, um, Usping, stammering. 
balbutio, 4, to lisp, stammer. 
Baleares, ium, f., a group of small 

islands E. of Spain. 
balineum=balneum, hath. 
baliolus=badius, taivny. 
ballista, ee, f., an engine like a 

cross-bow, for hurling stones, 

&c., in a siege ; hattery. 
ballux=balux, gold-dust. 
balnearius, a, um, of the hath ; N. 

pl. hath-room. 
balneator, oris, m., hath-keeper. 
balneum, i, n. ; pl. se, arum, f., 

balo, I, to hleat. 
balsamum, i, n., halsam. 
balteus (um), i, m., helt, sword-helt, 

edge, girdle, zone. 
balux, iicis, f., gold-dust. 
f baptisterium, i, n., plunge-hath. 
f barathrum, i, n., gulf pit, ahyss. 
barba, ae, f., heard. 
barbare, outlandishly, rudely. 
barbaria, ae; -es, ei, F., a foreign 

counfry, harharism, savageness. 
barbaricus, a, um, foreign, har- 

barbarus, a, um, foreign, strange, 

ivild, cruel. 
barbatvilus, a, um, with thin or 

slight heard. 
barbatus, a, um, hearded, old-fash- 

barbitos, (on), i., D., lute, lyre. 
Barcas, ae, m., the family name of 

barditus, i, m., office of hard. 
bardocucuUus, i, m., hoodedcloak. 
bardus, a, um, heavy, sloiv. 
bardus, i, m., hard, minstrel. 
f oaris, idos, f., hier, harge. 

baro — bidens. 


baro, onis, m., hlockhead. 
barrio, 4, to crij or roar ; from 
barras, i, m., eiephant. 
bascauda, ae, f., lasket or hasin. 
f basilice, roi/allij, completebj. 
f basilicus, a, um, princehj, royal; 

F., a building used as court-house 

aiid exchange. 
basio, I, to kiss. 
fbasis, is, f., hase, foundation, 

basium, i, N., a kiss. 
bassareus, ei, m., (foxskin) a title 

of Bacchus. 
b?.3tsrna, se, f., litter, palanquin. 
Batavus, a, um, of Holland. 
batillum, i, N., fre-pan, shovel. 
batiola, ee, f., (johlet. 
batuo, ui, 3, to heat, fence. 
baubor, i, to hark, whine. 
baxea, ae, f., wooden shoe, clog. 
beate, happibj. 
beatitas, atis; tiido, inis, F., hap- 

piness, prosperity. 
beatus, a, um, happy, fortunate, 

rich, ahundant, magnificent. 
B3bryx, ycis, Behrycian (of Asia 

Minor) ; a myth. king, van- 

quished by Pollux in boxing. 
Belgae, arum, people of Belgium. 
bellaria, orum, N., dainties (fruit, 

nuts, &c.). 
bellator, oris, m. ; -trix, icis, f., 

ivarrior ; adj., warlike. 
belle, prettily, finely. 
Bellerophon, tis, myth. son of 

Glaucus, who slew the Chi- 

maera, riding upon Pegasus. 
I belli, ahroad (in the war § 55, lii., 3). 
bellicosus, a, um, warlike, eager 

for war. 
bellicus, a, um, helonging to war, 

warlike (Mars) ; N., hattle-signal, 
belliger, era, um, ivaging war. 
belligero, i, to wage loar. 
bellipotens, tis, mighty in war. 
bello (or), i, to make war,fight. 
Bellona, ae, goddess of War. 
Belus, i, myth. founder of Babylon. 
bellua, ae, f. (belua), hrute. 
bellulus, a, um, pretty. 

bellum, i, n., loar, battle. 

bellus, a, um, pretty, elegant, fine, 

costly, cigorous. 
belua, ee, heast, monster, hrute. 
beluosus, a, um, ahounding in 

Benacus, i, m., Lake Garda in 

N. Italy. 
bene (melius, optime), icell, hon- 

orahiy, pleasantly. 
benedico, 2d, ct-, 3, hless, praise. 
benedictum, i, N., commendation. 
benefacio, feci, fact-, 3, to henefil. 
benefactum, i, ^.,gooddeed, henefit. 
beneficiarii, privileged troops (ex- 

empt from severer service) 
beneficium, i, n., favor, kind act 

beneficus, a, um (-ficentior, -tis- 

simus), liheral, kind. [friendly. 
bene-(beni-)volens, tis; -volus, 
benevolentia, ae, f., good-will. 
benigne, kindly, indulgently. 
benignitas, atis, F., hounty, kind- 

ness, indulgence. 
benignus, a, um, kind, indulgent, 

beo, i,to hless,makehappy,refresh. 
Berecyntius, a, um, 0/ Cyhele. 
Berecyntus, i, m., a mt. in Phry- 

gia, sacred to Cybele. 
beryllus, i, m., heryl. 
bes, bessis, m., 8 ounces (f of as). 
bestia, ae, f., heast. 
bestiarius, i, m., one who fights 

with wild beasts in the arena. 
beto, 3, to go. 
betula (-lla), ae, f., hirch. 
f bibliopola, se, m., hookseller. 
f bibliotheca, ae, f„ lihrary. 
f biblus, i, F.,papyrus (paper plant). 
bibo, bibi, bibit-, 3, to drink. 
bibulus, a, um, thirsty, ahsorhing 

biceps, cipitis, two-headed, in two 

bicolor, oris, two-colored. 
bicornis, e, two-horned, pronged. 
bidens tis, having two teeth; M., 

garden-fork ; ¥., a sheep 2 years 

old, or with two front teeth. 


bidental — bracatus. 

bidental, alis, struck luith U(jhtiiuig 

(forked) ; a consecrated place. 
biduum, i, n., space of tico daijs. 
biennium, i, n., two years. 
bifariam, on tico sides, double. 
bifer, fera, um, douhle-yielding. 
bifidus, a, um, cleft, forked. 
biforis, e, having tico openings. 
biformis, e, double-shaped. 
bifrons, tis, tico-faced. 
bifurcus, a, wxa., forked. 
bigae, arum, f., teani of tico horses. 
bigatus, a, um, stamped withfgure 

of bigae. 
bijugis, e ; -us, a, um, yoked, coupled. 
bilibris, e, f., oftwopounds^ weight. 
bilinguis, e, double-tongued. 
bilis, is, F., bile, gall, wrath. 
bilix, icis, twilled. 
bilustris, e, of ten years. 
bimaris, e, between two seas. 
bimatus, us, m., two years. 
bimembris, e, having douhle limbs 

(as centaurs). 
bimestris, e, of two months. 
bimus, a, um, two years old. 
bini, ae, a, two and two, by twos. 
bipalium, i, n., mattock, pick. 
bipalmis, e, tivo spans long. 
bipartito, in two divisions. 
bipatens, tis, opening hoth ways. 
bipedalis, e, twofeet long or thick. 
bipennis, is, i, f., battle-axe (two- 

bipes, edis, two-footed. 
biremis, is, f., ship (of two banks 

of oars). 
bis, tirice. 

bisseni, ticelve (each). 
bisulcilingua, ae, c, hypocrite. 
bisulcus, a, um, cloven, furrowed, 

Bithynia, ae, f,, prov. in N. W. 

Asia Minor. 
bitiimen, inis, n., bitumen, coal-tar. 
bivius, a, um, having two icays or 

blaesus, a, um, lisping, stammering. 
blande, sofdy, kindly. 
blandimentum, i, n., blandishment, 

Jiattery, charm. 

blandior, 4, toflatter, caress, allure. 
blanditer, gently, siceetly. 
blanditia, ae; es, ei, Jlattenj, fond- 

ling, delight. 
blandus, a, um, gentle, courteous, 

caressing, idluring. 
blatero, i ; blatio, 4, prate, babble. 
blatta, ae, f., moth, cockroach. 
blattaria, ae, F., moth-mullein. 
blennus, i, m., sorry fellotc, doli. 
bliteus, a, um, 7nean, foolish. 
blitum, i, N., spinage. 
boa, ae, f,, icater-snake, measles. 
boarius, a, um, of oxen or cattle. 
Bocclius, i, king of Mauritania 

(North Africa), father-in-law of 

Bceotia, ae, f., district of central 

Greece, N. W. of Attica. 
boiae, arum, f., collar. 
boletus, i, N,, musliroom. 
f bolus, i, M., cast (with dice), (/am, 

profit, hait. 
bombilo, i, to hum or buzz. 
bombilus, i, ai., hum, buzz. 
bombycinus, a, um, of silk. 
bombyx, ycis, d. silk-worm, silk, 

fi)ie cotton. 
Bona Dea, ae, goddess of female 

honor, worshipped by women. 
bonitas, atis, f., goodness, kindness. 
Bononia, ae, Bologna, in N. Italy. 
bonus, a, um (melior, optimus), 

good, kind,fit, prosperous, virtu- 

ous ; N, ph riches, goods. 
boo, I, to roar, bellow. 
bootes, ae (is), m., a constellation. 
boreas, ae, m., north-wind, north. 
Borysthenes, is, m., tlie Dnieper. 
bos, bovis, (§ 11, iiL, 4), ox, cow. 
Bosporus, i, m,, the strait from 

the Black Sea to the Propontis. 
botellus (-ulus), i, m., sausage. 
f botrus, i, M., cluster of grapes. 
f botryo onis, m., raisins. 
bovile, (bubile), is, n., cattle-stalL 
bovinor, i, to hrawl, revile. 
brabyla, orum, m., damsons. 
bracae, arum, breeches, trowsers. 
bracatus, a, um, having trowsers, 
foreign, effeminate. 

brachialis — Byzantium. 


brachialis, e, oftlie arm; n., hrace- 

le(, armlet. 
brachium, i, N., arm (fore-arm), 

hranch, sail-yard. 
bractea, ae, f., golcl-leaf, tinsel. 
branchise, arum, f., (jills. 
brassica, se, F., cahhage. 
Brennus, i, chief of the Gauls, 

who captured Rome, B.c. 389. 
breve (i), shortbj, infew tvords, 
brevia, ium, N., shallows. 
breviarius, a, um, ahridged. 
brevio, i, to ahridge. 
brevis, e, short, small, hrief shoal. 
brevitas, atis, f., shortness, con- 

breviter, brevius, -issime, shortly. 
Briareus, ei, a hundred-handed 

Giant, who defended Olympus. 
Brigantes, um, people of N. Brit- 

ain, Yorkshire, Cumberland, &c. 
brisa, se, F., grape-pomace. 
Britannia, ee, F., Britain;adj.,-nus 
Brixia, ae, f., Brescia, in N. Italy. 
brochus, a, um, projecting. 
f bromos, i, m., oats,fodder. 
f brontia, ee, f., thunderstorm. 
iDriima, se, F.,frost, winter (solstice). 
briimalis, e, winiry, of winter. 
Brundisium, i, N., a seaport in 

S. E. Italy, nearest Greece. 
brutiarii, a class of menials. 
Bruttii, orum, people of the ex- 

treme S. of Italy, near Sicily. 
briitus, N., dull, hrutish. 
Brutus, L. Junius, a founder of 

the Roman Republic, B.C. 509 ; 

Marcus, friend of Cicero, a 

conspirator against Caesar, d. 

at Phihppi, B.c. 42. 
bryonia, ae, F., htnony (wild vine). 
biibalus, i, M., gazelle. 
bubile, is, n., cattle-stall. 
biibo, onis, M., horned owl. 
biibulcito (tor), i, to keep oxen. 
bubulcus, i, M., ploughman, herds- 

bubulo, I, hoot (hke an owl). 
bubulus, a, um, of cattle ; f. heef 
biicaeda, se, m., cow-hided fellow. 
bucca, £6, f., cheek, hawler. 

buccea, ae, f., mouthful. 
buccina, ae, f. (bxicina), irumpet, 

buccinator, oris, m., trumpeter. 
buccino, i, sound the trumpet. 
bucco, onis, m,, hig-mouth, hlock- 

buccula, 33, F., cheek, face-guard 

(of helmet.) 
biicerus, a, um, ox-horned. 
biicetum, i, n., coic-pasture. 
bucina (buccina), ae, f., trumpet. 
f biicolicus, a, um, pertaining to 

bucula, ae, f., heifer. 
biiculus, i, m., steer, young ox. 
biifo, onis, m., toad. 
bulbus, i, m., hulh, onion. 
f biile, es, f., senate, council. 
f buleuta, se, m., councillor. 
t>ulga, ae, f., knapsack. 
f biilimuB,i, M, ; ia, ae,F., voracious 

buUa, ee, F., huhhle, stud, hall (child's 

buUatus, a, um, having the hulla. 
buUo, I ; io, 4, to hoil, huhhle. 
biimastus, i, M., a large-clustered 

biira, se ; -is, im, i, F., plough-tail. 
bursa, ae, F., ox-hide, purse. 
Busiris, idis, myth. k. of Egypt, 

slain by Hercules. 
bustirapus, i, M., hodij-snatcher. 
bustuarius, a, um, of tomhs or 

funered piles. 
bustum, i, M., hurial mound, tomh, 

place of burning dead bodies. 
buteo, onis, m., haivk,f(dcon. 
biityrum (butyr), i, n., hufter. 
buxeus, a, um, of hox-wood. 
buxum, i, n. ; us, i, f., hox-ivood, 

{pipe,fiute, top, comh, &c.). 
Byrsa, ae, the citadel of Carthage. 
byssinus, a, um, of fine cotton. 
fbyssus, i, v.,fnefiax, cotton. 
Byzantium, i, N., a Greek colony 
in Thrace ; Constantinople, Cap- 
ital of the Empire, a.d. 330. 


C — calamitosus. 


C, the prasnomen Caius, (Gaius) ; 

as numeral, loo. 
caballiiius, a, um, of the liorse. 
caballus, i, m., pack-horse, pony, 

Cabiri, divinities worshipped in 

cacabus, i, M., kettle, pan. 
cachinnatio, onis, f., laughter. 
cachinno, i, to laugh aloud. 
cachinnus, i, m., laughter, derision. 
cachla, ae, F., may-weed, ox-eye. 
fcacoethes, is, f., ohstinate dis- 

t cactos, i, f., artichoke. 
cacula, 86, M., soldier^s hoy. 
cacumen, inis, n., top, peak, limit. 
cacutnino, i, to make pointed. 
Cacu3, i, mytli. son of Vulcan. 
cadaver, eris, n., carcass, corpse. 
cadaverosus, a, um, corpse-like. 
cadivus, a, um, apt to fall. 
Cadmus, i, myth. founder of 

Thebes, brother of Europa. 
cado, cecidi, cas-, to fall, sink, 

drop, decay, die, hefall, suit, fit. 
caduceator, oris, m., messenger 

with flag of truce. 
caduceiis, i, M.,-um (n.), wand, her- 

ahVs staff. 
caducifer, i, staff-hearer, an epithet 

of Mercury. 
cadiicus, a, um, fallen, frail, ready 

tofall; N., a wlndfall. 
cadurcum, i, N., quilt, sheet. 
f cadus, i, M., /lask, jar (9 gallons). 
f caecias, ae, m., N. E. wind. 
caecilia, ae, f., hUnd-worm, lizard. 
caecitas, atis, f., hlindness. 
caeco, to make hlind or dark. 
Caecubum, i, n., town of S. Latium. 
caeculto, i, to he dim-sighted. 
caecus, a, um, hlind, dark, ohscure, 

gloomy, doubtful, vain. 
caedes, is, f., slaughter, massacre. 
caedo, cecidi, caes-, 3, cuf, strike, 

caeduus, a, um, tliat may be cut. 

caelamen, inis, N., engraved work. 
caelator, oris, m., engraoer. 
cselatiira, ae, embossed work. 
caelebs, ibis, unmarried. 
caeles, itis ; -estis, e, celestial, heav- 

enly ; m., pl. the gods. 
Ccelibatus, iis, m., single life. 
caelicola, ae, c, dweller in heaven. 
caelo, I, engrave, carve (in raised 

work), emhoss. 
caelum, i, n. ; pl. i, m., sky, heaven. 
caelum, i, n., chisel. 
caementum, i, n. hewn stone.' 
caena=cena, supper. 
Caeneus, ei, myth. d. of Elatus, 

changed to a young man ; a hero 

at the battle of the Centaurs. 
caepa, se, f. ; -e, is, n., onion. 
Caere, is, n., a town of Etruria. 
Cceremonia, ae, F., religious nVe, 

sacredness, awe. 
Caerites, (-etes), um, people of 

Caere, with partial rights as 

Roman citizens. 
caeruleus, a, um, hlue of the sky 

or sea ; dark of clouds or trees. 
Ccesar, C. Julius, the Dictator, 

B.C. 100-44. 

caesariatus, a, um, covered with 

hair, liaving long liair. 
caesaries, ei, f., a head of hair. 
caesim, ivith the edge, hy cuts. 
caesio, onis, f., cutting. 
caesius (-itius), a, um, hluish gray. 
caespes, itis, m., turf altar, hut, 

knoh, clump, field. 
caestus, iis, m. ; [caedo,] gauntlet 

(of hide and metal, for boxing). 
caesura, ae, f., cutting (see § 79). 
caesus, [caedo,] cut. 
caeter=ceter, other. 
caeterum=ceterum, hut. 
Caicus, i, m., a river of Mysia. 
Cajeta, ee, the nurse of ^neas. 
Calabria, ae, f., dist. of S. E. Italy. 
calamister, tri, m. ; -trum, i, N., 

crimping-iron, fiorid ornament. 
calamitas, atis, F., mischief disas- 

ter (to crops by hailstorm), ruin. 
calamitosus, a, um, wretched, 

calamus — camelopardalis. 


•j-calamus, i, M., reed, pen, straiv, 

fcalathus (-iscus), i, m., hasket, 

calator, oris, m., summoner, aitend- 

calautica, ge, F., hood, liead-veil. 
calcar, aris, N., [calx,] spur. 
calcarius, a, um, of Ihne. 
calcator, aris, M., trampler. 
calceamen, inis ; -mentum, i, N., 

calceo (io), i, to put on shoes. 
calceus (-olus), i, m., shoe (half- 

Calchas, antis, a Greek seer in 

the siege of Troy. 
calcitro, [calx,] i, to kick. 
calcitro, onis, m., hlusterer. 
calco, I, tread, trample, travel. 
calculo, I, reckon. 
calculo, onis, m., reckoner, teacher. 
calculosus, a, um, pehhhj, f/ravelbj. 
calculus, i, M., pe6&/e, gravel, a 

vote, reckoning. 
caldarius, a, um,/or heatimj water; 

F., N., hot-hath. 
caldor, oris, M., heat. 
caldus=calidus, hot. 
Caledonia, se, f., Scotland (High- 

cale-facio, (calfacio), 3 ; -facto, 

I, to heat, vex; -fio, he heated. 
calendaB=kalendce, jirst of the 

caleo, ui, 2, to glow, he hot, warm. 
Cales, ium, F., a town of Cam- 

pania, north of Naples. 
calesco, 3, to grow ivarm. 
calfacio=calefacio, to heat. 
caliculus, i, M., little cup, inkstand. 
calide, promptly. 
calidus, a, um, hot, ivarm, fiery, 

eager, hasty. 
caliendrum, i, N., a head-dress. 
caliga, 36, F., soldier's hoot. 
caligatus, i, M., {hooted), a private. 
caliginosus, a, um, misty, ohscure. 
caligo, inis, F., mist,fog, darkness. 
caligo, i, tohe or make dark. 
caligula, ae, f., little-hoot. 

Caligula, ae, C, the third Roman 

Emperor, a.d. 37-41. 
calix, icis, m., cup, chalice. 
callens, tis, skiUed, versed. 
calleo, ui, 2, he liard; or skilled, ex- 

callide, cleverly, shjly. 
calliditas, atis, f., cunning, shreivd- 

ness, skill, aptness. 
callidus, a, um, cunning, skilful. 
Calliope, es, chief of the Muses, 

callis, is M., foot-path, cattle-track. 
callosus, a, um, hard, callous, thick- 

callus i, M., (um N.) ; hard skin, 

hardness, dulness. 
calo, I, to call. 

calo, onis, m., camp-servant, drudge. 
calor, oris, m., heat, glow, zeal. 
Calpe, es, f., headland of Gibral- 

tar, in Southern Spain. 
caltha, 86, F., marigold. 
calthula, ee, f., yelloiv rohe. 
calumnia, ae, f., false accusaiion, 

artifce, intrigue. 
calumniator, oris, m., peiiifogger, 

calumnior, i, to accuse falsehj, at- 

tack unfairhj, iorment one's self 
calumniSsus, a, um, tricky. 
calva (-aria), ae, F., skull, scalp. 
calveo 2, (-esco), 3, to he hald. 
calvities, ei, F. ; -ium, i, n., hald- 

calvor, I, to attack, intrigue, evade, 

calvus, a, um, hcdd. 
calx, cis, F., Ume, chalk, gocd. 
calx, cis, D., heeL 
Calydon, onis, f., a town of ^to- 
ha, famous for the boar slainby 
Meleager (Calydonius sus). 
Calypso, iis, myth. d. of Atlas. 
calyx, ycis, m., cup (of flower), 

Camarina, ae, F., a city of S. W. 

cambio, 4, to exchange, harter. 
camella, ae, f., porringer, ivine-cup. 
f camelopardalis, is, f., giraffe. 


camelus — Capaneus. 

fcamelus, i, .m, camel. 
Camena, ae, f,, muse, song. 
camera, ae, f., vaulted roof. 
Camers, tis, of Camerium, a town 

of Umbria. 
camillus, i, m., -a, ae, f., prlest^s 

Camillus,M.Furius, the Dictator, 
who rescued Rome from the 
Gauls, B.c. 389. 
caminus, i, m., forge, Jire-place. 
Campania, ae, f., the dist. of S. 

W. Italy, near Naples. 
Campanus (-icus), a, um, Campa- 

nian, of Campania. 
f campe, es, f., a crooked turn. 
campester, tris, tre, of tlie plain, 

level; N., a wreMler^s apron. 
campus, i, m,, plain,field, level sur- 
face ; C. Martius, an open field 
at Rome, outside the N. wall, 
where elections were held. 
camurus, a, um, crooked. 
canalis, is, m. f. ; -liculus, i, m. ; 
-a, ae, F., channel, gutter, groove. 
canarius, a, um, of dogs. 
cancelli, orum, m., lattice, cross- 

bars, raiUngs of court-house. 
cancello, i, make crosswise. 
cancer, cri (ceris), m., crah. 
cande-facio, 3, (p. -fio), to make 

candela, ae, f., candle, taper. 
candelabrum, i, ¥., candlestick. 
candeo, ui, 2, (-esco, 3), be white, 

gleam, glitter, glisten. 
candico, i, tobe ivhitish. 
candidatus, i, m., candidate (clad 

in white). 
candidus, a, um, gUstening white, 

c/ean, falr, sincere, open. 
candor, oris, M., ivhiteness, purity, 

caneo, ui, 2, to he white or hoary. 
canesco, 3, grow hoary. 
cani, orum, m., gray hairs. 
canicula, ee, f., tvhelp, dog-star. 
caninus, a, um, curri^^h, of a dog. 
canis, is, (g. pl. um), c, dog. 
canistra (-tella), orum, n., hasket. 
canities, ei, f., hoariness, old age. 

canna, ae, f., cane, reed. 
cannabinus, a, um, ofhemp. 
t cannabis, is, im, f., hemp. 
Cannae, arum, a town of ApuHa, 

where the Romans were defeat- 

ed by Hannibal, B.c. 216 [pugna 

cano, cecini, cant-, to sound, sing, 

play, recite, blow (as signal). 
fcanon, onis, m., rule, model. 
t canonicus, a, um, regular. 
Canopus, i, m., a coast town of 

Lower Egypt. 
canor, oris, m., melody, clang. 
canorus, a, um, melodious, singsong. 
Cantabria, ae, f., coast-dist. of N. 

Spain, on the Bay of Biscay. 
cantamen, inis, n„ charm, incanta- 

cantatio, onis, F., music, song. 
cantator, oris, m. ; -trix, icis, F., 

canteriatus, a, um, underpropped. 
canterinus, a, um, of a horse. 
canterius, i, m., gelding (horse); 

trellis, lattice-work. 
cantharis, idis, f., beetle, Sjyanish 

cantharus, i, M.,jug, tankard, pot. 
canthus, i, m., wheel-tire. 
canticum, i, n. (-tilena, ee; F.), 

song, ballad. 
canticus, a, um, musical. 
cantio, onis, F., singing, song. 
cantito, i, to sing often. 
Cantium, i, n., Kent, in S. E. 

Britain, the dist. nearest Gaul. 
canto, I, sing, chant, declaim, praise 

in song, declare, enchant. 
cantor, oris, M. ; -trix, tricis, F., 

singer, poet, actor, eulogist. 
cantiirio, 4, to sing, chirp. 
cantus, us, M., singing, plnying, 

song, prophecy, incantation. 
canus, a, um, gray, hoary. 
canusina, se, ¥.,fine-web garment. 
Canusium, i, n., a town of ApuHa. 
capacitas, atis, f., capacity, large- 

Capaneus, ei, a chief at Thebes, 

struck with hghtning by Jupiter. 

capax — cardo. 


capax, acis, apt to seize, capabie 

of holdhif/, aptjjif, capacious. 
capedo, inis, f., bowl, ciip. 
capella, ee, f., kid, she-goat. 
Capena, ee, f., an Etrurian town. 
caper, pri, M., lie-goat. 
capero, i, to frown, wrinkle. 
capesso, ivi, it-, 3, seize, take in 

hand, laij Jiold, resort. 
Caphareus, ei, m., a promont. of 

capillaceus, a, um, hair-like. 
capillamentum, i, m., -atio, onis ; 

-atiira, ae, f., hair,Jihre. 
capillaris, e, oftlie hair. 
capillatus, a um, hairy. 
capillor, i, to he hairi/. 
capillosus, a, um, full of hair. 
capillus, i, m., [caput,] hair. 
capio, cepi, capt-, 3, take, seize, 

rob, ruin, select, receive, attain. 
capis, idis, f., cup, can. 
capistro, i, to muzzle, halter. 
capistrum, i, m., halter, muzzle. 
capitalis, e, of the head, capital, 

eminent, deadly. 
capitium, i, n., [capio,] boddice. 
capito, onis, m., biy-head. 
Capitolinus, a, um, of the Capitol. 
Capitolium, i, m., citadel, capitol, 

temple of Jupiter on the central 

hill of Rome. 
capitulum, i, n., capital, little head. 
f capo, onis, m., a capon. 
Cappadocia, ae, F., E. district of 

Asia Minor. 
Cappadox, ocis, Cappadocian. 
capparis, is, im, m., caper. 
capra, ae, f,, she-goat. 
caprarius, i, m., goatherd. 
caprea, £e, f., doe, icild goat. 
Capreae,the I. C«pn, near Naples. 
capreolus, i, m., huck, chamois ; 

stay or prop, tendril. 
capricornus, i, m., the Goat (con- 

caprificus, i, f., tcildfig. 
caprigenus, a, um, of the goat 

caprile, is, n., goat-pen. 
caprimulgus, i, m., goat-milker. 

caprinus, a, um, of goats. 
capripes, pedis, goat-footed, (satyr). 
capsa, 86, F., box, chest. 
capsamus, i, m., a slave who took 

charge of budgets. 
capsula, ae, F., band-box. 
captatio, onis, F., catchhig at. 
captator, oris, m., snatcher, legacy- 

captio, onis, F., catch, deceit, sojyh- 

ism, mischief 
captiosus, a, um, captious, crafty. 
captivitas, atis, f., captivity, cap- 

ture, (of eyes) blindness. 
captivus, a, um, captured; M. F., 

capto, i , catcli at, strive after, allure. 
captiira, ae, f., catching, prey, gain. 
captus, [capio,] taken. 
captus, iis, m., grasp, capacity, 

Capua, ae, f., the chief town of 

Campania, 20 miles N. of Naples. 
capularis, e, near the grave. 
capulo, i, pour off; catch. 
capulus, i, M., um, i, N., coffn, 

handle, hilt. 
caput, itis, N., head, chief, top, sum- 

mit; of rivers, the source or 

mouth; life. 
Capys, yos, father of Anchises. 
carabus, i, M., crab, kayak (boat). 
caracalla, ae, F., Gallic mantle. 
carbasus (-eus), a, xxva., flaxen. 
carbasus, i, F, ; pl. N,, a, orum, Unen, 

canvas, curtain, sail. 
carbo, onis, m., coal, charcoal. 
carbonarius, i, M., collier. 
carbunculus, i, m., small coal, car- 

carcer, eris, m,, dungeon, prison ; 

pL barriers (of race-course. 
caroereus (-arius), a, um, of a 

f Carchedonius, a, um, ofCarthage. 
carchesium, i, n., cup, goblet. 
f carcinoma, atis, n., a foul ulcer. 
cardiacus, a, um, ofthe stomach. 
cardinalis, e, pivotal, chief 
cardo, inis, m., hinge, pivot, heam, 

tenon, pole (of heavens). 


carduelis — casula. 

carduelis, e, linnet, thistlejinch. 
carduus, i, m., thistle. 
care, dear, at high cost. 
carectum, i, N., growth of sedge. 
f carenum, i, n, hoiled grape-juice. 
careo, ui, it- 2, to lacl; be without, 

devoid or deprived of. 
carex, icis, f., sedge. 
Caria, ae, S. W. district of Asia 

caries, em, e, F., rottenness, decay. 
carina, ae, F., keel, ship, nutshell; 

pl., a district in Rome. 
carinatus, a, um, keel-formed. 
cariosus, a, um, rotten, mellow. 
caritas, atis, f.. dearness, high 

price, esteetn, love. 
carmen, inis, m., song, tune, poem, 

oracle ; card, for wool or flax. 
Carmenta, ae, mother of Evander, 

an Arcadian prophetess. 
carmino, i , to charm, card (wool). 
carnarius, a, um, of flesh; m., 

butcher ; i\., Jiesh-hook, larder. 
carnifex (-ufex), ficis, m., execu- 

tioncr, murderer, knave. 
carniJ0.cina, se, f., headsmanh office, 

torment, place oftorture. 
carnifico, i, behead, mangle. 
carnosus, a, um, Jleshg, gross. 
carnufex=carnifex, knave. 
caro, carnis, f., Jiesh. 
caro, ui, 3, to card wool. 
Carpathus, i, f., an island of the 

yEgean, near Rhodes. 
carpentarius, i, M., cartwright. 
carpentum, i, n., chariot, ivaggon. 
carpinus, i, f., horn-beam. 
carpo, psi, pt-, 3, phick, gather, 

te<(r (uroi/, open, jmss, divide. 
carptim, in bits, piecemeal. 
carptura, ee, F., sucking, gathering. 
carrago, inis, f., banicade ofcarts. 
carruca, ae, f., covered ivaggon. 
carrus, (-ulus), i, m., cart, vaggon. 
Carthago, aginis f. (Karthago), 

cartilago, inis, f., gristle, cartilage. 
carus, a, um, dear, costly, precious. 
Caryatides, um, maidens of 

Caryain Laconia, serving Diana. 

f caryon, i, m., a nut. 
fcaryota, se, (-tis idis), f., date. 
casa, ae, F., co/fage, tent. 
caseus, i, m. (um, n.), cheese. 
casia, ae, f., cinjianion. 
Casilinum, i, n., a town near 

Casinum, i, n., a colony in Latium. 
caso, I to reel, tumble. 
Caspium mare, the Caspian sea. 
Cassandra, ee, d. of Priam, a pro- 

phetess, slain by Clytaemnestra. 
casse, in vain. 
casses, ium, m., hiinting-net. 
cassida, se, F., helmet. 
Cassiope (-ea), ee, wife of Cepheus. 
cassis, idis, F., helmet (of brass). 
cassita, ae, f., crested lark. 
Cassiterides, um, f., the Scilly Is. 

S. W. of Britain. 
Cassius, C, chief conspirator 

against Ca?sar, d. at Phihppi, 

B.c. 42 ; Cassiani, his partisans. 
casso, I, to destroy, annul. 
cassus, a, xxm, vain, void, devoid. 
Castalia, ae, f., a fountain of Par- 

nassus, sacred to Apollo. 
castanea, ae, f., chestnut. 
caste, pnrely, uprightly. 
castellanus, a, um, ofthe castle or 

fort ; M., hohlers of the castle. 
castellatim, in detached forts. 
castellum, i, n., fort, castle, citadeL 
casteria, ae, ¥ ., forecastle. 
castigate, briefy, closely. 
castigatio, onis, F., chastisement. 
castigator, oris, m., reprover. 
castigatus, a, um, conjined, slender. 
castigo, I, to chastise, chide, check. 
castitas, atis ; -monia, ae, f., chas- 

tity, purity. 
f castor, oris, m., beaver. 
Castor, bris, myth. son of Tynda- 

rus and Leda ; twin-br. of Pollux. 
castra, orum, N., camp. 
castrensis, e, oj the camp. 
castro, I , to cut, prune, enjeeble. 
castrum, i, N., castle, Jortress. 
castus, a, um, chaste, pui^e, holy, 

casula, 96, F., cottage. 

casus — Caystros. 


casus, us, M.jfall, cJiance, misJiap, 

end, occasion, calamity, cleat/i. 
Catabathmos, i, m., coast-dist. of 

Africa, W. of Egypt. 
f cataclysmos, i, m., deluge. 
t catadromus, i, m., tight-rope. 
f catamitus, i, m. (Ganymedes), an 

effeminate or lascivious j^erson. 
f cataphractes, se, f., scale-armor. 
f cataphractus, a, um, in mail. 
fcataplus, i, m., fleet, landing. 
f catapulta, ae, f., a military en- 

gine for tlirowing arrows, &c. 
fcataracta, ae, f. ; (-es), m., cata- 

ract, portcullis, fioodgate. 
f catascopus, i, m., scout, spy-ship. 
f catasta, ae, f., stage, scaffold. 
f catastroma, atis, N., deck. 
f catax, acis, limping, lame. 
cate, sagaciously, skilfully. 
cateja, ae, f., barbed dart. 
catellus, i, m. ; -lla, ae, f., whelp, 

puppy, small chain. 
cateiia, ee, f., chain, fetter. 
catenatio, onis, f., band, clamp. 
catenatus, a, um, chained, joined. 
caterva, ee, crotod, troop, band, com- 
' pany. 

catervatim, in troops. 
f cathedra, ae, f., chair, seat. 
fcathetus, i, ¥., plumb-line. 
f catholicus, a, um, universal. 
Catilina, ae, L, Sergius, head of 

the conspiracy, b.c. G'^. 
catillo, I, to lick dishes. 
catillo, onis, m., glutton. 
Catina, ae, f., Catania, in Sicily. 
catinus (-illus), i, m., dish, bowl,pot. 
Cato, M. Porcius, the censor, b.c. 
232-147 ; the younger, enemy of 
Caesar, b.c. 93-45, d. at Utica. 
catomus, i, m., between the shoulders. 
f catonium, i, n., the lower tvorld. 
catulus, i, M., puppy, whelp^ cub. 
catus, i, M., tom-cat. 
catus, a, um, shrill, shrewd, wise. 
Caucasius, a, um, of the Cauca<^us. 
Caucasus, i, m., the mts. between 

the Black and Caspian Seas. 
cauda, ae, f., tail. 
caudeus, a, um, wooden. 

caudex (codex), icis, m., stock, log, 

boat, book (of thin tablets). 
caudicahs, e; -carius (-ceus), a, 

um, of trunks of trees. 
Caudinus, a, um, of Caudium, a 
Samnite town ; furcae Caudinae 
a defile famous for a defeat of 
the Romans, b.c. 321. 
caulae, arum, f., sheep-fold,passage. 
caulis, is, m., stalk, stem, cabbage. 
Caunus, i, f,, a town of Caria. 
caupo, onis, m., innkeeper, huckster. 
caupona, ee, F., tavern, landlady. 
cauponius, a, um, of an inn. 
caurus (corus), i, m., N. W. wind. 
causa (caussa), se, F., cause, rea- 
son, occasion, pretence, excuse ; 
(abl.),/o?' the sake of 
causarius, a, um, discharged for 

sickness, invalided. 
causia, ee, f., wide-brimmed hat. 
causidicus, i, m., advocate, pleader» 
causor, i, plead, discuss. 
f causticus, a, um, caustic, burning, 
causula, ae, f., petty cause. 
caute, cautiously. 
cautela, ae, F., precaution. 
cauterio, i, to brand, burn. 
f cauterium, i, n., branding-iron. 
cautes, is, f., crag, sharp rock. 
f cautim, warily. 
cautio, onis, f., care, caution, fore- 

sight, security, bail. 
cautor, oris, m., care-taker, surety. 
cautus, [caveo,] cautious, secure^ 

wary ; n. pl., securities. 
cavaticus, a, um, living in caves. 
cavea, ae, f., cave, stall, cage, coop, 

spectafors^ seats, theatre. 
caveo, cavi, caut-, 2, beware, take 

heed, provide, get bail. 
caverna, se, f., cavern, vault, hold. 
cavilla, ae, f., cavil, scoff,jest. 
cavillatio, onis, f., jeering, raillery. 
cavillator, oris, m., jester. 
cavillor, i, to taunt,jest. 
cavitas, atis, F., hollowness. 
cavo, i, to make hollow. 
cavus, a, um, liollow; n., hole, cave. 
Caystros (us), i, a river of Lydia, 
frequented by swans. 


Cecropiiis — centussis. 

Cecropius, a, um, Atlienian. 
Cecrops, opis, myth. founder of 

Atheiis, emigrant from Egypt. 
cedo, cessi, cess-, 3, uleld., gioe way, 

succeed, befall, beconie. 
cedo, cedite (cette), give, tell. 
cedrus, i, f., cedar, juniper. 
celator, oris, m., concealer. 
celatum, i, n., secret. 
celeber, bris, bre, abundant, popu- 

lous, fanious, solenin, festive. 
calebratio, onis, f., concourse, fes- 

tival, coniniendalion. 
celebratus, a, um, customary, fre- 

quent, briUiant, famous. 
celebritas, atis, f., multitude, re- 

nown, pageant. 
celebro, i, to resort, celebrate, per- 

forni, practise, s.olemnize, praise. 
celer, eris, ere, swift, fleet, hasty ; 

pl. light-horse (patrician), knights. 
celere, siviflly. 

celeripes, pedis, swift-footed. 
celeritas, atis, f., swiflness, speed. 
celeriter, swifly, immediately. 
celero, i, to hasten, quicken. 
f celes, etis, n., race-horse. 
Celeus, ei, myth. k. of Eleusis, 

taught agricuhure by Ceres. 
f celeusma, atis, M., boatswain'' s call. 
cella (-ula), ae, f., closet, storehouse, 

shrine, cell, hut, private room. 
cellarius, a, ura, of a store-room ; 

M., sleward ; N., pantry. 
celo, I, to hide, conceal, cover. 
celox, ocis, swifl ; F., boa^, cutter. 
celse, on high. 
celsitudo, inis,'F., loftiness. 
celsus, a, um, higli, lofty, haughty. 
Celtae, arum, people of W. Eu- 

rope ; also, of centr. and S. Gaul. 
Celtiberi, orum, people of middle 

cena=GCBna, supper. 
censeo, ui, um, 2, estimate, think, 

vofe, deride, count, reckon. 
censio, onis, f., assessing, taxing, 

censor, oris, m., censor, one of two 

magistrates having in charge 

morals and rank ; critic. 

censorius, a, um, of the censor; 

of the rank of censor. 
censualis, e, ratable ; pl. recorders. 
censum, i, n., wecdth, possessions. 
censura, ae, f., ojice of censor, 

judgnient, reproof severity. 
census, [censeo,] registered, reck- 

oned, taxed. 
census, us, m., valuationfregister, 

reckoning, wealth. 
f centaureum, i, n. ; ia, £e, f., a 

kind of gentian. 
f Centaurus, i, m., Centaur, a wild 

people of Thessaly ; a myth. 

creature, half man half horse. 
centenarius, a, um, of a hundred. 
centeni, by the hundred, 100 each. 
centesimus, a, um, the hundredth , 

I per cent a month. 
centies, a hundred times. 
centimanus, i, m., hundred-handed. 
cento, onis, m., patchwork, skull- 

f centrum, i, N., centre, heart-wood. 
centum, a hundred. 
centumgeminus, a, um, hundred- 

centumviri, orum, m., Board of 

100, for civil suits. 
centunculus, i, n., rag, patch, sad- 

dle-cloth, bind-weed. 
centuplex, icis, hundredfold. 
centuria, ee, f., a century, division 

(of a hundred), company ; one of 
.193 classes of the people, ac- 

cording to property. 
centuriatim, by centuries, (compa- 

centuriatus, a, um, divided or 

classed by hundreds ; comitia 

centuriata, the vote by centuries, 

to elect the higher ofificers or 

decide important pohcies, — 

the highest pohtical tribunal 

of Rome. 
centuriatus, us, M., centurion^s 

office, division by centuries. 
ceiiturio, onis, m., centurion (cap- 

tain of 100). 
centurio, i, to divide by hundreds. 
centussis, m., sum of 100 

cepa — chartaceus. 

cepa, de, f. ; cepe, is, n., onion. 
Cephueus, ei, myth. k. of Ethiopia, 

father of Andromeda. 
cera, ae, F., wax, icax-tahlet (for 

writing), icaxen imaye. 
Ceramicus, i, m., a place of mon- 

uments at Athens. 
cerarius, a, um, of wax ; F., candle- 

f cerastes, ae, (is), m., Jiorned ser- 

cerasus, i, f. ; um, i, M., cherry. 
ceratus, a, um, covered with wax ; 

N., wax-ointment. 
Ceraunii, orum, m., mts. of Epirus. 
Cerberus, i, m., the three-headed 

dog of Hades. 
f cerciirus, i, m., yacht. 
cerealis, e, of Ceres or grain. 
cerebrosus, a, um, hot-headed. 
cerebrum, i, n„ hrain, lorath. 
ceremonia=C£ere-, ceremony. 
cereolus, a, um, icax-color. 
Ceres, eris, d. of Saturn and Ops, 

goddess of Corn and Fruits. 
cereus, a, um, zcaxen, m., waxlight. 
cerintha, ae ; e, es, F., honeysuckle. 
cerinus, a, Tim, icax-colored. 
cerno, crevi, cret-, 3, sift, discern, 

perceive, decide, resolve. 
cernuo, i, to fall headforemost. 
cernuus, i, M., rope-dancer, stoop- 

cero, I , to cover icith wax. 
f ceroma, atis, n., salve,prize-ring. 
cerritus, a, uva.,frantic. 
cerrus, i, m., Turkey-oah. 
certamen, inis, n., contest, struggle, 

hattle, conflict. 
certatim, eagerly, emulously. 
certatio, onis, F., struggle. 
certe, at any rate, certainly. 
cexto, ' certainly, surely (§ 41, 11, 3). 
certo, I, to strive, contend, struggle. 
certus, a, um, sure, resolved, fixed ; 

certiorem facere, to inform. 
f ceriichi orum, M., rope, sheet. 
cerula, ae, f., tcax (for erasing). 
cerussa, ae, f., white-lead. 
cerva, ae, f., hind, doe. 
cervical, alis, N., jjil^oiv, holster. 

cervinus (-arius), a, um, of a stag. 
cervix, icis, f., neck, ohstinacy. 
cervus, i, m., stag, deer ; pl., stakes. 
cespes=caespes, turf 
cessatio, onis, f., ceasing, lingering. 
cessator, oris, m., loiterer. 
cessim, yieldingly, hackward. 
cessio, onis, f., giving up. 
cesso, I, cease, linger, he idle, lack. 
f cesticus, a, um, of hoxing. 
f cestus, iis, m., girdle. 
cestus=csestus, gauntlet. 
cetarius, a, um, ofichales ; M.,fish- 

monger ; n., fish-pond. 
f cete, N., pl. indecl. of cetus. 
cetero, for the rest. 
ceteroqui (-quin), otherwise. 
ceterum, but yet, hesides. 
ceterus, a, um, other, the rest. 
Ceto, iis, mother of Medusa. 
cetra (caetra), ae, f., huckler. 
cetratus, a, um, armed with buckler. 
cette, [cedo,] give, tell. 
f cetus, i, N., pi. cete, sea-monster. 
ceu, like, as it ivere. 
ceva, ae, f., a small cow. 
ceveo, 2, icag the tail, fawn. 
Ceyx, ycis, myth. k. of Trachis, 

changed to a kingfisher. 
f chalceus, a, um, brazen. 
Chalcidicus, a, um, of Chalcis 

(Euboea), or Cumce. 
Chaldseus, a, um, Chaldcean (of 

Assyria) ; M., sootlisayer. 
Chalybes, um, a people of Pontus. 
chalybs, ybis, m., steel. 
f chamaeleon, onis (ontis), m., cha- 

meleon, a kind of Hzard. 
Chaonius, a, um, of N. W. Epirus ; 

of the oracle at Dodona. 
Chaos (ab. chao), N., chaos, the 

dark Void. 
chara, ae, f., wild cahhage. 
f characatus, a, um, staked. 
f character, eris, m., mark, brand. 
charitas=caritas, dearness. 
f Charites, um, F., the Graces. 
Charon, ontis, the ferryman of 

charta, ae, F., paper, tvriting. 
chartaceus, a, um, of pajyer. 


Charybdis — cippus. 

Charybdis, is, f., a whirlpool in 

the strait of Sicily. 
f chelae, a um, f., claws (the sign 

Scorpio or Libra). 
•f chelidonias, ae, m., ivest loind. 
fchelidonius, a, um, of swallows ; 

F., swallow-wort. 
f chelydrus, i, m., imter-snake. 
f chelys, yn, y, F., tortoise, lute. 
Chersonesus, i, f., the peninsula 

S. E. of Thrace. 
f chersinus, a, um, living on land. 
f chiliarchus, i, m., commander 

of i,ooo men. 
Chimaera, ae, F., a fire-breathing 

monster (hon, goat, and dragon) 

of Lycia, slain by Bellerophon. 
Chios, i, F., Scio, an island W. of 

Asia Minor, famous for wine 

and marble. 
f chiragra, ae, F., hand-gout. 
f chiridotus, a, um, ivith sleeves. 
f chirographum, i, n., handwriting. 
Chiron, onis, a Centaur, instructor 

of Hercules and Achilles. 
f chironomos, i, c, pantomime. 
f chirurgia, se, f., surgerij. 
f chirurgus, i, M., surgeon. 
chlamydatus, a, um, cloaked. 
fchlamys, ydis, f., cloak, hroad 

mantle (a Grecian garment). 
f cholera, ae, f., gall, hile. 
f choragus, i, m., j)lay-manager. 
f choraules, ae, M., flute-player. 
f chorda, ae, f., string, cord. 
chordus (cordus), a, um, late-horn. 
f chorea, ae, f., dance in a ring. 
f chortinus, a, um, ofgrass. 
fchorus, i, m., hand of dancers, 

chorus, troop, crowd. 
Christianus, a, um, Christian. 
f chronicus, a, um, oftime. 
f chrysanthemum, i, n., marigold. 
f chrysos, i, m., gold, gold-fish. 
cibarius, a, um, of food; N. pl., 

food, allotvance of corn. 
cibatus, iis, m., food. 
f ciborium, i, m., drinking-cup. 
cibus, i, M., food, fodder, hait. 
cicada, ee, f., tree-cricket, katydid. 
cicatricosus, a, vim,full ofscars. 

cicatrix, icis, f., sca?^ seam. 
f ciccus, i, M., core (worthless). 
cicer, eris, n., vetch, chick-pea. 
Cicero, M. Tullius, the Roman 

orator, b.c. 106-43. 
cicindela, ae, f., glow-worm. 
Cicones, um, a people of Thrace. 
ciconia, ae, ae, f., stork, well-sweep. 
cicur, uris, tame. 
cicxita, m, f., poison-hemlock, reed, 

shepherd^s pipe. 
cidaris, is, f., turhan, tiara. 
cieo, civi, cit-, 2, shake, rouse, sum- 

mon, stir, call, excite, hegin. 
Cilicia, ae, f., S. E. clist. of Asia 

Minor, Cicero's prov., 51 B.c. 
cilicium, i, N., hair-cloth. 
cilium, i, n., eyelash, eyelid. 
Cilix, icis, CiUcian. 
Cimbri, orum, people of N. Ger- 

many. routed by Marius, b.c. 102. 
cimex, icis, m., hug, maggot. 
Cimmerius, a, um, of South Rus- 

sia ; Cimmerian, lying in perpet- 

ual darkness ; of Hades. 
f cinaedus, i, m., ivanton youth. 
f cinara, se, f., artichoke. 
Cincinnatus, i, L. Qiiinctius, 

Dictator, B.c. 436. 
cincinnatus, i, curly-head. 
cincinnus, i, m., ringlet. 
cinctiira, se, f., girdle. 
cinctus, [cingo,] hegirt. 
cinctus, iis, m., girdle, girding. 
cinefactus, a, um, reduced to ashes. 
cinerarius, a, um, of ashes or 

graves : M.,hair-curler ; 'ii.,recep- 

tacle (in tombs). 
cinereus (-icius), a, um, asTi-like. 
cingo, nxi, nct-, 3, to gird, wreathe, 

surround, invest. 
cingula, 33; -um, i, N., girdle, 

sword-helt, girth, zone. 
cinis, eris, m., f., ashes. 
cinnabari, n., -is, f., dragon^s- 

cinnamum (-omum), i, cinnamon. 
Cinyphius, a, um, of tlie Cinyps, a 

river of N. Africa. 
cio, 4, =cieo, rouse. 
cippus, i, m,, stake, stock, monument. 

circa — citrus. 


circa, abouty near, beside. 

Circe, es (ae), d. of the Sun, a 

sea-nymph and sorceress. 
Circeii, orum, M., a town of Latium. 
circensis, e, of the circus ; pl. 

circes, itis, M., hoop, ring. 
circino, i, encircle, make round. 
circiuus, i, M., compasses. 
circiter, abouL 

circitor, oris, m., watchman, patrol. 
circu-eo=circumeo, f/o about. 
Circius,i,M.,aviolent N. W. wind. 
circuitio, onis, f., going the rounds, 

circuitus, lis, m., revolutioi, circuit. 
circulator, oris, M., quack, jyedlar. 
circulor, i, go round about. 
circulus, i, m., circle, ring, hoop. 
circum, ahout, around, among. 
circumactus, a, um, curved. 
circumago, egi, act-, 3, drive about, 

tuni, wheel. 
circumcido, cidi, cis-, 3, to cut 

abouf, prune, clip. 
circumcirca, round about. 
circumcisus, a, um, steep, brief. 
circumcliido, di, sum, 3, to shut 

in, surround, inclose. 
circumdo, dedi, dat-, i, to jyut or 

set round, encompass, wrap about. 
circumduco, xi, ct-, 3, lead or 

march round, cheat, protract, ex- 

punge, draw about. 
circumeo, ivi (ii), it-, 4, encompass, 

go ahout or among. 
circumfero, tuli, lat-, to carry or 

spread (wound. 
circum-fluo, 3,f(nv ahout, surround. 
circumfundo, fudi, fiis-, 3, pour 

about, envelop. 
circumjaceo, 2, borderon, lie near. 
circumjectus, us, M.,surrounding. 
circvLm2icio,2eci, 2ect-,castaround. 
circumligo, i, bind upon or round. 
circumplectoT, xus, 3, to embrace, 

clasp, svrround. 
circumscribo, psi, pt-, 3, to draw 

lines about, encircle, constrain. 
circumscriptio, onis, f., encir- 

cling, outline, deceit. 

circumsedeo, sedi, sess-, 3, to 

encamp about, besiege. 
circumsisto, steti, 3, surround. 
circumsono, i, to ring ivith, make 

ring, resouiid, echo. 
circumspicio, spexi, spect-, 3, 

vatch, look ahout, ivait, pouder. 
circumspectus, wary, heedful, well- 

considered, distinguished. 
circumsto, steti, i, stand about, 

besef, surround. 
circumvallo, i, to rvall around,' 

circumvehor, vectus, 3, ride about. 
circumvenio, veni, vent-, 4, beset, 

distress, cheat. 
circus, i, m., circle, ring ; circus 

maxiraus, a space in Rome, 

enclosed for public games (cir- 

f ciris, is, f., lark. 
Cirrhaevis, a, um, of Cirrha (near 

Delphi), or Apollo. 
cirrus, i, m., curl, fringe. 
cis, on this side. 
cisalpinus, a, um, this side (South) 

of the Alps. 
cisium, i, n., a tivo-ivheeled carriage, 
Cisseis, idis, Hecuba, daughter 

of Cisseus, king of Thrace. 
f cista, ae, f., chest. 
cistella (-ula), ae, f., basket, box. 
cisterna, ae, f., cistern. 
citatim, hastily. 
citatus, a, um, hurried, quick. 
citerior, citimus, [citra,] hither, 

nearer, this side. 
Cithaeron, onis, m., a mt. in S. W. 

of Boeotia, sacred to Bacchus. 
fcithara, ae, f., harp, lufe. 
fcitharista, ae, M., harp-player. 
citharoedus, i, M., singer to the harp. 
cito, ius, issime, quick. 
citimus, a, um, nearest. 
cito, I, summon, stir, incife, accuse, 

appeal, cite, proclaim. 
citra, this side, ivithin, before. 
citreum, i, N., citron. 
citreus, a, um, of citron-wood. 
citro (with ultro), to and fro. 
citrus, i, M., citron, African cedar. 

citus — cljrpeusi 

citus, [cieo,] sicift. 

civicus, a, um, of citizens, civic; 

corona, civic crown (of oak, for 

saving a citizen in battle). 
civilis, e, of citizens, courteous. 
civilitas, atis, f., polity, courtesy. 
civiliter, courteously. 
civis, is, c, citizen, fellow-citizen. 
civitas, atis, f., city, state, ciiizen- 

ship, freedom ofthe city. 
clades, is, F., disaster, defeat, 

slaughter, massacre. 
clam, secretly, without the knowl- 

edfje of 
clamator, oris, M., declaimer. 
clamito, i, to cry, vociferate. 
clamo, I, cry out, call, proclaim. 
clamor, oris, m., a shout, applause, 

noise, diri, clamor. 
clamosus, a, um, noisy, clamorous. 
clanculo (imi), secretly, privately. 
clandestiuus, a, um, secret, stealthy. 
clango, 3, to sound, resound. 
clangor, oris, M.,a shrillcry,clang. 
clare, (n-if/htly, clearly. 
clareo, 2, he clear or bright. 
claresco, ui, 3, grow clear. 
clarigo, i, to make solemn procla- 

inatiou ofwar. 
claritas, atis; -tiido, inis, F., bright- 

ness, clearness, splendor^fame. 
Clarius, i, (of Claros, an lonian 

town), Apollo. 
claro, i, hrighten, explain. 
claror, oris, M., hrightness. 
clarus, a, um, hright, clear, loud, 

fa/nous, plain, manifest. 
classiarius, a, um, of the feet. 
classicum, i, m., trumpet-signal. 
classicus, a, um, of the army or 

Jlect : of high rank ; M., trumpeter. 
classis, is, f., army, fleet, rank. 
clathri, orum, M., trelli^-tvork. 
claudeo, 2 ; -ico, i ; -o, 3, to limp. 
Claudius, i, (Appius), the Decem- 

vir, 15. c. 450 ; (Tiberius), tlie 

fourtli Emperor, a.d. 41-54. 
* claudo, si, sum, 3, to shuf, close, 

end, ronclude, enclose, confine. 
claudus, a, um, lame, defective. 
claustra, orum, n., har, holt, dike. 

clausula, ae, f., a close, clause. 
clausus, [claudo,] shxit, closed. 
clava, ae, f., cluh, ctidgel. 
clavator, oris, m., cndgel-hearer.- 
clavatus, a, iim, nailed, striped. 
clavicula, ae, f., tendril, small key. 
claviger, eri, m., cluh-hearer (Her- 

cules) ; key-hearer (Janus). 
clavis, is, f., key. 
clavus, i, M., spike, nail, ruddery 

stripe (of the tunic). 
clemens, tis, merciful, gentle. 
clementer, gently, calmly. 
clementia, ae, f., mercy, mildness. 
Cleopatra, ae, the last queen of 

Egypt, E.c. 69-30. 
clepo, psi, pt-, 3, to steal, pilfer. 
f clepsydra, se, f., water-clock. 
f clepta, ae, m., tliief 
f clerus, i, M., one ofthe clergy. 
clibanus, i, m., oven, Ixiking-pan. 
cliens, tis, m. ; -ta, ae, F., client 

(one attached to a patron, and 

protected by him) ; suhject-ally. 
clientela, £e, f., clientship, hody. of 

f clima, atis, N., climate. 
clinatus, a, um, inclined, hent. 
Clio, iis, tlie Muse of History. 
clipeo, I, lo arm with shield. 
clipeus (um), i, m., a brazen shield, 

clitellaB,arum, se, f., saddlehags. 
clitellarius, a, um, hearing packs. 
Clitumnus, i, m., a river of Um- 

ciivosus, a, um, sfeep, hilly. 
clivus (um), i, m., hill, slope. 
cloaca, ee, F., sewer, drain. 
Clodius, the enemy of Cicero, 

killed by Milo, b.c. 52. 
cliido=claudo, shiU. 
cludus=claudus, lame. 
f clueo, 2 ; cluo, 3, fo he famous. 
cliinis, is, D., hauiich. 
clupea, ae, f., shad. 
clxirinus, a, um, of apes. 
Clusium, i, N., a town of Etruria. 
Clyniene, es, myth. queen of 

Ethiopia, mother of Phaethon. 
clypeus=clipeus, shield. 

Clytaemnestra — coUare. 


Clytaeranestra, se, d. of Tyndarus 

and Leda, vvife of Agamemnon. 
Cn. the praenomen Cnaeus. 
fcnodax, acis, M., j)in, pioot. 
[co-, con-, lofje:her, or intensive. 
coacervo, i, to heap tof/ether. 
coacesco, cui, 3, to get sour. 
coactilis, e, thick, felted. 
coactor, oris, m., gatherer. 
coactus, [cogo,] forced. 
coactus, U3, M., constraint. 
coaequo, i, to make equal. 
coagmento, i , fasten, join. 
coagmentum, i, n., joint. 
coagulum, i, N., curd, cement. 
coalesco, ui, it-, 3, (jrow together, 

unite, agree. 
coarguo, 3, arraign, convict, prove. 
coarto, i, to compass, confine. 
f coccum, i, N., scarlet grain. 
f coccyx, ygis (cis), m., cuckoo. 
cochlea, ae, f,, snail-shell. 
cochlear (are), is, n., spoon. 
cochlearium, i, N., snail-pit. 
cocio, onis, m., broker, agent. 
cocles, itis, one-eged. 
coctilis, e, [coquo,] baked, hurnt. 
coctio, onis, F., cooking, digestion. 
Cocy tus, i, M., (Lament), a river of 

codex=caudex, stump, book. 
Codrus, i, king of Athens, who de- 

voted himself to death to win 

victory, b.c. 1045. 
coelestis=caelestis, heavenly. 
Coelius, i, m., a hill of Rome, E. 

of the Aventine. 
coelum=caBlum, skij. 
coenio, emi, empt-, 3, buy, buy up. 
coemptio, onis, Y.,purchase; mar- 

riage in the form of purchase. 
coena, se, f. (cena), supper (the 

chief meal of the Romans). 
coenaculum, i, n., dining-room, 

upper story, attic. 
coeno (-ito), i, to dine, sup, eat. 
coenosus, a, um, boggy,filthy. 
coenum, i, N.,flth, mud, mire. 
CD-eo, 4, assemhle, unite, agree. 
coepi (§ 38, i), begaa ; P., coeptus. 
coepto, i, begin, attempt. 

coeptum, i, n. ; -tus, iis, m., under- 

coerceo cui, cit-, 2, restrain, hem 

in, curb, confne, repress. 
coercitio, onis, f., check, punish- 

meiit, right of coercion. 
coeruleus=caeruleus, dark blue. 
coetus, viB, m., assembly. 
Coeus, i, a Titan, father of Latona. 
c5gitatio, onis, f. ; -tai;um, i, m.. 

thought, purpose, plan, judgmenty 

cogito, I, think, reflect, intend. 
cognatio, onis, f., relationship, 

re.^^emblance, agreement, kindred. 
cognatus, a, um, kindred (by the 

mother\s side). 
cognitio, onis, f., knowledge, ac- 

q udintan c e , in q u iry. 
cognitor, onis, m., ivitness, advocate. 
cognitus, [cognosco,] known. 
cognomen, inis, n., surname. 
cognominis, e, of Like name. 
cognomino, i, to surname. 
cognosco, novi, nit-, 3, know,find 

ou', inveHtigate. 
cogo, coegi, coact-, 3, to gather^ 

compel, bring togeliter. 
cohaereo, si, sum, 2., (-resco, 3), 

cling, uniie, hold together. 
coheres, edis, c, joint-heir. 
cohibeo, ui, it-, 2, restrain, suhdue. 
cohonesto, i, to honor amply. 
cohorresco, ui, 3, shudder, quiver. 
cohors, tis, f., cattle-yard, troop, 

coiiort (600 men), hody-guard. 
cohortalis, e, of a cattle-yard. 
cohortatio, onis, F., cheering. 
cohortor, i, to cheer, exhort, animate. 
cohum, i, n., yoke-strap. 
coiens, euntis, [eo,] meeting. 
coinquino, i, to de/ile, infect. 
coitio, onis, f. ; -tus, 113, m., com- 

ing together, uniting. 
f coiapiius, i, m., cuf hlow. 
Colchis, idis, F., the dist. E. of the 

Black Sea ; a Colchian woman. 
coU3=caulis, stalk. 
collabe-fio, be brought to ruin. 
coUabor, psus, 3, to fall, sink. 
coUare, is, N., neck-hand, collar. 


Collatinus — comiter. 

Collatinus, a, um, of Collatia, a 
Sabine town ; M.,Ii.Tarquimus, 

the husband of Lucretia. 
collatio, ouis, f., bringing together, 

couijxiri^tonf contribution. 
collativus, a, uo, gathering. 
coUator, oris, m., gatherer. 
collatus [coufero,J hrought together. 
collatus, iis, m., aiiack, collision. 
collaudo, I, praise highlg, extol. 
collectio, onis (-ta, as), f., gather- 

ing, collecting, suminarg. 
collectus, [colligo,] gathered. 
collega, ae, m., associate, colleague. 
collegium, i, n., companij, frater- 

nitij, association, guild. 
collibet, uit, 2, it jyleases. 
colliciae (-liquiae), arum, ¥.,gutters. 
collido, si, sum, 3, dash together, 

clash, contend. 
colligatio, onis, f., hinding. 
colligo, I, tofasten, bind. 
coUigo, legi, lect-, 3, collect, gather, 

gain, get, consider ; (refl.), recover. 
collino, levi, lit-, 3, besmear. 
collinus, a, um, of a hill. 
collis, is, M., hitl, high ground. 
collocatio, onis, f., establishing. 
colloco, I, set, establish, invest, em- 

ploij, glce in marriage. 
colloqiuum, i, n., conjerence, dis- 

coursc, con vcrsation. 
colloquor, lociitus, i, converse. 
coUiiceo, 2, to skine clear, be hright. 
colliido, si, sum, 3, to sport, play, 

deceive, actfalseiij. 
coUum, i, N., neck. 
colluo, ui, iit, 3, icash, rinse, wet. 
colliisio, onis, f., deceit, collusion. 
coUustro, I, iilumine, survey. 
coUuvies, ei; -io, onis, f., sinh, 

drain, f/th, vile medley. 
f collybus, i, m., exchange, broker- 

fcollyra, ae, f., maccaroni. 
colo, I, to strain, sift. 
colo, ui, cult-, 3, till, adorn, worship. 
colocasia, ae, F. ; -um, i, N., Egy}> 

tian heaii (a marsh hly). 
colonia, ae, f., colony, farm, resi- 

dence, colonial town, colonists. 

\ colonicus, ci, um, of colonies, or 

colonus, M., Jarmer, colonist. 
color (os), oris, m., color, condition, 

complexion, lustre. 
coloro, I, to color, dye, tinge, stain. 
f colossus, i, M., a gigantic statue. 
coluber, bri, m. ; -bra, sb, f., snake. 
colum, i, N., strainer. 
columba, ae, f., dove, jngeon. 
columbarius, a, um, ofdoves ; m., 

keej)er of doves ; n., 2>igcon-ho/e 

or house, mortise ; pl. niches for 

burial urns. 
columbinus, a, um, of doves, dove- 

columella, £8, f., a small piilar. 
coliimen, inis, n., column, beam, 

heigh', jn^op, summit. 
columis, e, safe, sound. 
columna, sa, F., piiiar, post, piiiory. 
columnarius, a, um, of a coiumn ; 

M., condemned dehtor ; n., a tax. 
colurnus, a, um, [corulus,] of 

colus, i (iis), M., distaf. 
j-coliitea, orum, n., tamarind. 
f colymbas, adis, f., pickled olives. 
coma, ae, f., hair, mane, foliage. 
comans, tis, hairy. 
f comai-chus, i, m., governor. 
comatus, a, um, iong-haired, leafy. 
combibo, bibi, 3, drink, siraiiow. 
comburo, ussi, ust-, 3, burn up. 
comedo, edi, es- (est-), 3, to eat 

iip, consume. 
comes, itis, c, companion, comrade, 

tufor, altendant, official. 
f cometes (-ta), se, m., comet. 
comicus, a, um, of comedy, comic. 
cominus, ciose at hand. 
comis, e, gentie, courteous, kind. 
comissabundus, a, um, reveiiing. 
comissatio, onis, F., a revel. 
comissator, oris, m., revelier. 
comissor. i, to revei,feast. 
comitas, atis, F., courtesy, friendli- 

iiess, mi/dness. 
comitatus, a, um, accompanied. 
comitatus, iis, M., retinue, escort. 
comiter, kindly, courteously. 

comitialis — como. 


comitialis, e, of the elections. 
comitiatus, us, m., election-assem- 

comitium, i. n., votin(j-groun(l ; pl. 

meeting, i. curiata, of the patri- 

cians ; 2. tribiita, of the ple- 

beians ; 3, centuriata, of the 

whole body of citizens. 
comitor, i, accompany, attenrL 
commaculo, i, to stain, j)ollute. 
Commagene, es, f., a town of N. 

commeatus, us, M., passage^fur- 

lough, train, company, supplies. 
commemini, rememher fully. 
commemoratio, onis, F., recount- 

ing, mention. 
commemoro, i, call to mind, tell. 
commendatio, onis, f., recom- 

men datio n , praise. 
commendatus, a, um, pleasing. 
commendo i, commit, commend. 
commensus, [-metior,] measured. 
commentarius i, m., (um, N.), 

memoir, sJcetch, journal. 
commentatio, onis, F., study, 

commenticius, a, um, invented, 

■pretended, forged. 
commentor, i , to compose, discourse, 

meditate, sketch, invent. 
commentum, i, ^.,fiction, inven- 

tion, pUin, device. 
commentus, a, um, devised, forged. 
commeo, i, (jo to andfro, resort. 
commercium, i, n., trade, inter- 

course, right of traffic. 
commercor, i, to trcffic, jmrchase. 
commereo, ui, it-, 2, deserve, be 

guilfy of 
commeto, i, go frequently. 
commigro, i, remove, enter. 
commilitium, i, N., comradeship. 
commilito, onis, M., fellow-soldier. 
comminatio, oris, F., threatening. 
commingo, nxi, ct-, 3, to defile. 
comminiscor, mentus, 3, invent, 

feign, contrive. 
comminor, i, threateyi greatly. 
comminuo, ui, iit-, 3, brecdc in 

pieces, loeaken, lessen, impair. 

comminus, close by, hand to hand. 
conTimisceo, scui, xt- (st-), 2, mix 

togefher, mingle. 
commiseror, i, bewail, pity. 
commissio, onis, f., contest, decla- 

mafion, committing. 
commissum, i, n., offence, trust. 
commissiira, as, F., joint, seam. 
commitigo, i, make mellow. 
committo, misi, miss-, 3, set to- 

gether, engage, commit, resign. 
commixtus, [misceo,] mixed. 
commode, duly, fitly, just now. 
commoditas, atis, F„fitness, advan- 

tage, symmetry, kimlness. 
commodo, i, to adjust, adapt, 

oblige, help. 
commodo, seasonaUy, just in time. 
commodum, i, n., fitness, advan- 

commodum, opportunely, just noiv. 
commodus, a, um, j^^ advantageous, 

friendly, serrice(d)le, kind. 
commone-facio, 3, ivarn, advise. 
commoneo, ui, it-, 2, remind, im- 

press upon, advise. 
commonstro, i, to shoio,point out. 
commoratio, onicj, F., delay, lin- 

commorior, mortuus, 3, to die to- 

commoror, i, to abide, delay. 
commotio, onis, f., movement,dis- 

furbance, commotion. 
commotus, a, um, uncertain, 

roused, disturbed. 
commoveo, movi, mot-, 2, disturh, 

remove, agifafe, push back. 
commiinicatio, onis, f., imparting. 
communico, i, impart, share,join. 
commiinio, onis, F., j>artnership. 
communio, 4, fortify, intrench. 
communis, e, common, courteous. 
communitas, as, F., fellowship. 
commtiniter, in common. 
commutabili.s, e, changeful. 
commutatio, onis, f., change, 

commuto, i, to exchange, alter. 
como, mpsi, mpt-, 3, comb, braid, 

dress the hair. 


comoedia — concedo. 

fcomoedia, se, f., comedy. 
fconijedus (-icus), a, um, comlc, 

of comedij ; M., comedldn. 
compaciscor, pact- (pect-), 3, to 

to nvike d bcirgain, or comp i ■:. 
compactus, [compiago,]^V/« set; 

N., a barf/uin. 
compages, is ; - go, iuis, F.,joming, 

bai/din(/, slraclure, embrace. 
compar, aris, equal, like ; M., com- 

rade, consort, male. 
comparatio, onis, f., comparing, 

ajreemen ', prooiding, getcing ready. 
comparco, si, 3, to save, slore up. 
compareo, ui, 2, to appear, agree, 

liappen, exist, be present. 
comparo, \,toget,procure, compare, 

bnnii togedier, come to agreement. 
cotnpasco, past-, 3, feed, paslure. 
co.npassio, onis, f., [patior,] sym- 

padnp feUow-feeHng. 
compectus, [paciscor,] agreed. 
compedio, 4, to shackle, felier. 
compellatio, onis, f., an accost- 

ing, rebuke. 
compello, I, to accosf, rebuke, chide. 
compello, puli, puls-, 3, constrain, 

force, drioe, coUect. 
compendiun, i, n., saving, gain, 

sparing, skorlening, abridgement. 
compensatio, onis, F., balancing, 

e.rchange, barter. 
compenso, i, to recompense, bal- 

a>ice, compensate, spare. 
comperio (ior), peri, pert-, 4, to 

fiad oa', le-irn, ascertain. 
compes, pedis, f., afetter, shackle. 
compesco, ui, 3, to check, restrain. 
conpetltor, oris, M., rival. 
competo, ivi (ii), it-, 3, seek, strive, 

m^e', agree,fit, correspond. 
co.npilo, I, to rob, piUage, plunder. 
conpin^D, pegi, pact-, ^,iofaslen, 

cromd, confine, conjeal. 
compifcalia, e, of the cross-ways. 
co.npitum, i, N., cross-ways. 
complaceo, ui, it- 2,p!easegreaUy. 
complano, i, viake level. 
complector, xus, 3, embrace, com- 

preuend, care for, lay hohl of. 
complementum, i, n., afJing-up. 

compleo, evi, et-, 2,fiU uj),furnish, 

finish, complete. 
complex, icis, leagued, agreeing. 
complexio, onis, f., connection. 
complexus, us, m., embrace. 
complico (ui, it-), i, tofoUl up. 
complodo, si, sum, 3, to clap. 
comploratio, onis, f., lamentation. 
comploro, i, to Uiment loudly. 
compluo, ut-, 3, flow together. 
compliires, ia, several, very many. 
compluries, very often. 
compluvium, i, f., ojjen court-yard 

(for the liow of rain). 
compono, posui, posit-, 3, put to- 

geJher, arrange, ma'ch, comjmre. 
comporto, i, bring, coUect. 
compos, otis, partaking, sharing. 
composite, orderly. 
compositio, onis, f., adjusting, 

composing, arrangement, compacL 
compositus, [p5no,] iveU-ordered. 
compodo, 4, make or be partaker. 
comprecor, i, to worship, pray. 
comprehendo, di, sum, 3, seize, 

gra.^p, perceire, recount, contain. 
comprehensibilis, e, j)erceptible. 
comprehensio, onis, f., seizing. 
compresse, brie/fy, urgenily. 
compressio, onis, f. ; -sus, us, m., 

jire<^ure, embruce. 
comprimo, pressi, press-, 3, press, 

re<i-ain, carb, bind, wilhhoUl. 
comprobo, i, to approve, confirm. 
comptus, n^, m,, band, head-dress. 
compiilous, [compello,] forced. 
compaiigo, nxi, uct-, 3, sting, goad. 
compiibado, onis, f., reckoaing. 
compaco, i, reckon, compule. 
[con-, iogedier (or intensive). 
conameu, inis, n., ejfort, s:ruggle. 
c5natiim, i, N. ; -tus, iis, M., at- 

temp , ejforf, impulse. 
concaedis, i^, f., barricade. 
concale.3CO, calui, 3, to glow, 
concavo, i, to JioUjxv oul. 
concavus, a, um, hoUow, arched. 
concedo, cessi, cess-, 3, go, with- 

d>-aw, submit, cdlow, consent. 

concelebro — condenso. 


concelebro, i, to i^esort, celehrate. 
concentio, ouis, f. ; -tus, us, m., 

[cano,] coiicert, Imrruoiiij. 
conceptio, onis, f. ; -tus, us, m., 

(jalherintj., concelcing. 
concerpo, pt- 3, tear to pieces. 
concerto, i, contend, dispute. 
concessio, onis, F. ; -sus, us, m., 

rjielding, f/ranl. 
concesso, i, leave off, desist. 
concessus, [cedo,] ijranted. 
fconcha, ae, f., shell-Jish, pearl. 
f conchis, is, f., string-hean. 
\ conchylium, i, N., oijster, pwple 

shell-fish, })urple dije. 
concido, cidi, [cado,] 3, fall in 

pieces, perisli, go to ruin, die. 
concido, cidi, cis-, [caedo,] 3, cut 

to pieces, desti'oij. 
concieo, ivi, it-, 2, hrnng together, 

collect, ronse, stir, excite. 
conciliabulum, i, n., p/ace of 

conciliatio, onis, f., reconciling, 

conciliator, onis, m., pr^ovider. 
conciliatus, a, um, /'riendlg, dear, 

favorahle, ivell incUned. 
concilio, i, to reconcile, unite, win, 

provide, procure, jyrepar^e. 
concilium, i, n., council, assemhhj, 

agreeirient, connection. 
concinnatio, onis, f., preparing. 
concinne, eleganllij, fithj. 
concinnitas, atis, f., elegance, fil- 

concinno, i, to trim, fit, prrepare. 
concinnus, a, um, neat, elegant,fit. 
concino, ui, [cano,] 3, to accord 

(iii music), agree, harmonize. 
concio (tio), onis, F., meeting, 

speech, place of speaking. 
concionator, oris, n., demagogue. 
concionor, i, to asseinhle, hamngue. 
concipilo, i, seize, catch. 
concipio, cepi, cept-, 3, take up 

or lioid of, perceive, conceive. 
concise, hriefii/. 
concisus, [concido,] hroken short, 

cut, triinmed. 
concitate, quickly, impeluoushj. 

concitator, onis, f., exciter. 
concitatus, a, um, roused, swift, 

vehement, violentlg moved. 
concito, I, stirup, rouse, excite. 
concitus, [cieo,] incited, slirred. 
conclamatio, onis, f., a shout, 
conclamatus, a, um, celehrated. 
conclamo, i, crg out, shout, call to 

arins, call together, exclaiin. 
conclave, is, n,, inrrer rooin, stall. 
Goncliido, si, sum, [claudo,] 3, 

to shut up, close, confine, include. 
concliisio, onis, f., siege, blockade, 

conclusion, end. 
concolor, oris, of one color. 
concomito, i, accoinpanj. 
concoquo, coxi, coct-, 3, to cook, 

ripen, digest, ivaste away. 
concordia, se, f., harniony. 
concorditer, hannoniously. 
concordo, i, to agr-ee, harmonize. 
concors, dis, harmonious. 
concredo, didi, dit-, 3, entrust. 
concrepo, ui, it, i., cr^eak, clash. 
con-cresco, ^^groiv together, harden. 
concretus, a, lim, hard, stiff. 
concretus, iis, m., hardening. 
concubina, ae, f., concuhine. 
concubitus, iis, m., pair'ing,mating. 
concubius, a, um, of sleep; n., 

deod of niglit. 
concubo, bui, bit-, 3, Ue together. 
conculco, I, to tirimj)le doivn. 
concupisco, ivi (ii), it-, 3, to desire, 

loiig for, strive afier. 
concurro, curri, curs-, 3, meet, 

flock tof/efher, contend, hefall. 
concursatio, onis, F., moving to- 

gether, concurrence, restlessness. 
concurso, i, to rush ahout or to~ 

gether, rand)le, frequent. 
concursus, iis, m., running together, 

crowd, onset. 
concutio, [quatio,] cussi, cuss-, 3, 

sliake, shatter, ter-rify, rouse. 
t condalium, i, n., ring (for slaves). 
condecet, uit, 2, it hefits. 
condemno,[damno,] i, tosentence, 

co iidein n , disappr-o ve. 
condenso, i, crowd together. 


condensus — congeries. 

condensus, a, um, close, dense. 
condepso, ui, 3, knead iogelher. 
condico, xi, ct-, 3, appolnt, declare, 

af/ree, en(/u(/c, proclaiin. 
condignus, a, um, (piUe worthij. 
condimentum, i, n., spice. 
condio, 4, 10 season, einbabn, adorn. 
con-disco, 3, learn carefidlij. 
conditio, onis, f., condition, rank, 

terin (of agreement), match. 
conditio, onis, f., spicing, preserv- 

iiu/, seasoniiKj. 
conditivus, a, um, for prese?'ving ; 

X., vanlt, toinh. 
conditor, oris, m., huilder, founder. 
conditorium, i, n., plate of deposit. 
condo, didi, dit-, 3, lag up, com- 

pose, establish, build, hurj, hide. 
condoceo, ui, ct-, 2, teach, train. 
condolesco, lui, 3, suffer severely. 
condonatio, onis, f., giving-awaj. 
condono, i, to grant, surrender, 

pardon, reinit, present. 
condormisco, mui, 3, faU asleep. 
conducibilis, e, prqfitahle. 
condiico, xi, ct-, 3, lead, hire, 

gallier, join, serve. 
conducticius, a, um, hired. 
conductio, onis, f., hiring. 
conductor, oris, m., tenant, farmer, 

condus, i, m., steward. 
f condylus, i, m., knuckle, joint. 
confabulor, i., converse, discuss. 
confarreatio, onis, f., solemn mar- 

riage (witli bride-cake, far). 
confectio, onis, f., making-up. 
confector, oris, m., finisher. 
confectus, a, um, fnished. 
confercio, fert-, 4, to stvff, cram. 
confero, ferre, tuli, coliat-, hring 

to(/ether, collect, compare, hetake. 
conferte, -tini, compactly. 
confertus, a, um, close, crammed. 
confervesco, bui, 3., groic hot, heal. 
confessio, onis, F., confession. 
confestim, at once, forthwith. 
confibula, ae, f., clamp. 
conficiens, tis, effective. 
conficio, feci-, fect, 3, to finish, de- 

spatch, produce, effect, make out. 

confictus, [fingo,] coimterfeit. 
confidens, tis, hotd, confdent. 
confidentia, se, ¥.,confdence. 
confido, sus, 3, to trust, rely. 
configo, xi, x-, t,, join,fasten,pierce. 
confingo, rmxi, fict-, T,,form,feign. 
confinis, e, adjacent, hordering ; n., 

confinium, i, n., neighhorhood. 
con-fio, fect-, he hrought to pass. 
confirmatio, onis, f., confnning, 

consoliiig, slrengthening. 
confirmitas, atis, F., ohstinacy. 
confirmo, i, estahlish, strengthen, 
confisco, I, seize as forfeit. 
confisus, a, um, confident. 
confiteor, fessus, [fateor,] confess, 

adinit, declare, make known. 
confixus, [figo,] pierced. 
conflagro, i, hurn up. 
conflictio, onis, f., -tus, lis, m., 

collision, coiijlict. 
conflicto, I, slrike, dash, ruin. 
confligo, xi, ct-, 3, to hring together, 

struggle, contend, compare. 
conflo, I, kindle, infiame, melt. 
confluens, tis, m., confluence. 
confluo, xi, 3, jlow together, throng. 
confodio, fodi, foss-, 3, dig, stab. 
conformo, i, to shape, adapt. 
conforto, i, [fortis,] strengthen. 
confossus, [fodio,] stahhed. 
confragosus, a, um, hroken, rowjh. 
confremo, ui, 3, 7nurmur, resound. 
confrico, i, to rub, touch. 
confringo, fregi, fract-, 3, hi-eak in 

pieces, deslroy, sipuiiider. 
confugio, fiigi, ^. Jlee for refuge. 
confundo, fiidi, fiis-, 3, mix, con- 

fnse, pour out, dijfuse, empty. 
confiise (-sim), confusedly. 
confiisio, onis, f., mingling, confu- 

confiisus, a, um, 'disordered, con- 

fused, perplexed. 
confiito, I, to check, confute. 
congelo, I, to freeze, stiffen. 
congemino, i, to redouhle. 
congemo, ui, 3, to sigh, lament. 
t conger (-grus), i, m., sea-eel. 
congeries, ei, f., heap, mass. 

congero — consequens. 

congero, gessi, gest-, 3, lieap to- 

(lellier, pnt upon, impute. 
congero, onis, m., thief. 
congerro, onis, m., pla//-fellow. 
congestio, onis, f., -tus, iis, m., 

heapuu/- up, accu/nalafion. 
congiarius, a, um, of a gallon 

vieasure; N., largess. 
congius, i, M., about a gallon. 
conglobo, I, to heap together. 
congliitino, i,tojoinfrnil/j, cement. 
congraeco, i, to lavish, squander. 
congredior, [gradior,] gress-, 3, to 

meet, eiicounter, contcnd. 
congregatio, onis, F., union, society. 
congrego, [grex,] i, to gather in 

troops or flocks. 
congressus, iis, m. ; -sio, onis, f., 

gatheriiu/, nieeting, encounter. 
congrex, egis, ofthe same fiock. 
congruens, tis, suited, accordant. 
congruo, ui, 3, agree, fit, coincide. 
congruus, a, nm, fit, harmonious. 
conifer (-ger), era, um, cone-hearing. 
conjectus, ui, m. ; -tio, onis, f., 

ca^tiiig, hurliiig ; a heap, pile. 
coniveo, nivi, 2, to close tlie ei/es. 
conjecto, i, throw together, infer. 
conjectiira, ae, f., conclusion,guess. 
conjicio, jeci, ject-, 3, to cast, hurl, 

drive, prophesg, interpret. 
conjugalis, e, of marriage. 
conjugium, i, N., marriage, consort. 
conjuncte, -tim, jointly, intimatebj. 
conjunctio, onis, f., joining, con- 

nection, agreement, sympathy. 
conjungo, xi, ct-, 3, to join, couple. 
conjunx=conjux, spouse. 
conjiiratio, onis, F., conspiracy. 
conjiiratus, M., conspirator. 
conjiiro, i, siceartogether,conspire. 
conjux (nx), ugis, c., husband or 

wife, helro'hed. [con-=conn-. 

[conl-=coll- ; conm-=comm-. 

connecto, xiii, xum, 3, clasp, join. 

! connitor, nix (nis-), 3, strive, yeaiyi. 

! conniveo=c6niveo, close the eyes. 

conniibialis, e, ofwedlock. 
I conniibium, i, N., loedlock, right of 

fconopeum, i, ^.,Jly-net. 

conor, I, to endeavor, try. 
conquasso, i, to shake, shatter. 
conqueror, quest-, 3, compkdn. 
conquestus, iis, m., complaint. 
conquiesco, evi, et-, 3, to rest^ 

repose, he unconcerned. 
conquiro, sivi, sit-, 3, inquire, seek. 
conquisitio, onis, f,, coUecting, levy. 
conquisitor, oris, m., recruiting- 

ofjicer, spy, listener. 
conquisitus, a, um, choice, costly. 
consaluto, i, to greet, salute. 
consanesco, sanui, 3, to get welL 
consanguineus, a, um, kindred. 
consanguinitas,atis, f., kindred. 
consceleratus, a, um, depraved. 
conscelero, i, to dishonor. 
conscendo, di, sum, 3, [scando,] 

clind), mount, emhark. 
conscientia, 9b, f., [scio,] con- 

sciousness, conscience. 
conscindo, idi, iss-, 3, cu.t to pieces. 
conscio, 4, he conscious (of wrong). 
conscisco, scivi, scit-, 3, to vote, 

approve, agree, adjudge. 
conscius, a, um, conscious, know- 

ing ; M., F., accomplice, accessory. 
conscribo, psi, pt-, 3, to register,' 

eiirol, compose, ap/wint. 
conscriptus, a, um, registered, 

summoned ; m., pl., senators. 
conseco, ui, ct-, i, cut to jneces. 
consecratio, onis, F., dedication. 
consecro, i, devote, deify, consecrate. 
consector, i, to hunt, chase, pursue. 
consectus, [seco,] cut to jneces. 
conseciitio, onis, F., consequence, 

connection, sequel. 
conseciitus, a, um, having got. 
consenesco, ui, 3, grow old, decay. 
consensio, onis, f. ; -sus, iis, m., 

conscnt, /)Iot. 
consentaneus, a, um, agreeahle,fit. 
consentes dii, the 12 chief gods, 

consentiens, tis, accordant. 
consentio, sensi, sens-, 4, to agree, 

consent, resolve, conspire. 
consepio, sept-, 4, to fence in. 
conseptum, i, n., enclosure. 
cousequens, tis, consistent, fit. 


consequenter — consul. 

consequenter, suitab/t/. 
cousequor, cutus, 3, folloio close, 

coinc uj) u-ltlt, oblain. 
cousero, sevi, sit, 3, io sow, plant, 

cousero, ui, sert-, 3, entwine, join ; 

briny to(/ct/icr (as for battle). 
cousertus, [sero,] joinccl, inter- 

woven, matchcd. 
conservatio, ouis, F.,jjrese7'vation. 
couservator, ouis, M., defender. 
couservo, i, to kccp, preserve. 
couservus, i, m, ; conserva, ae, f., 

consessor, oris, m., a hy-sitter. 
cousessus, iis, m., scssion, assemUy. 
considerauter, deliberatcly. 
cousideratus, a, um, circumspect, 

ca utio us, considerate. 
considero, i, considcr, pondcr. 
cousido, sedi, sess-, 3, sit doivn, 

sink, subside, settlc, cncanip. 
consiguo, I, to secd, siyn, attest.^ 
cousilesco, ui, 3, kcep still. 
consiliarius, a, um, ofcounscl; M., 

counscUor, adviscr. 
cousiliator, oris, m., advi^^er. 
consilior, i, yivc or take counsel. 
consilium, i, n., advice, counsel, 

purposc, prudence, council. 
cousimilis, e, quite like. 
cousisto, stit, stit-, 3, tostandfast, 

sta.y, stop, continue, ayrce, cease. 
cousitus, [sero,] pUintcd. 
consobrinus, a, um, cousin, kin. 
cousocio, I, associate, Join, connect. 
consolabilis, e, consolable. 
cousolatio, onis, f., comfort. 
consolor, i, to console, comfort. 
consouans, tis, Jiarmonious,ft. 
cousono, ui, i, to resound, accord. 
consonus, a, um, harmonious. 
consopio, it-, 4, put to sleep. 
cousors, tis, c, feUow in fortune, 

partner, comradc. 
cousortio, onis, f., partnership. 
consortium, i, N., feUowship. 
couspectus, [-spicio,] conspicuous. 
conspectus, iis, m., siyht, glance, 

view, prcscncc, survey. 
conspergo, si, sum, 3, besprinkle. 

couspicio, spexi, spect-, 3 ; -spi- 

cor, I, to view, behold, dcscry. 
couspicuus, a, um, easy to see, 

visibk', disti)i(/uishcd. 
couspiratio, onis, f., a(jrcement, 

harmony, plot, conspiracy. 
conspiratus, a, um, having con~ 

spired ; M. pl., conspirators. 
couspiro, I, combine, accord, plo!, 

conspirc ; coil or crowd. 
conspuo, iit-, 3 ; -to, i, to spit upon. 
constans, tis, frm, constant, con- 

sistent, steadjhst, certain. 
constantia, se, F.,frmness, harmony. 
constanter, s.cadily, with one voice. 
consternatio, onis, f., dismay. 
consterno, i, ovcrihrow, terrify. 
cousterno, stravi, strat-, 3, strew, 

pave, overthrow. 
constipo, i, to crowd close upon. 
constituo, ui, ut-, 3, to estaUish, 

dctcrmine, set in order. 
coustitiitio, onis, f., regulation. 
constitiitus, a, um, estaUished; 

N., inslitution, compact. 
consto, stiti, stat-, standjirm, con- 

sist, endure, agrce ; constat, it is 

evident, weU-known, resolved. 
coustratus, [sterno,] strcwn, sub- 

dued ; N., .s7^/)/.s decl: 
constrictus, a, um, compressed, 

bricf irimmed, compact. 
constringo, inxi, ict-, 3, holdclose, 

bind, constrain. 
constructio, onis, f., joining, 

framing, buiUling, connection. 
construo, xi, ct-, 3, build together, 

pilc, construct. 
coustupro, I, dehauch, violate. 
consuadeo, 2, advise strongly. 
consiido, i, sivcat abundantly. 
cousuefacio, feci, fact-, 3, to ac- 

custom. iKdntuate. 
consuesco, evi, et-, 3, to inure, get 

wonted, bccome cwcustomed. 
consuetiido, inis, f., custom.hahit, 

usc. intcrcourse, companionship. 
consuetus, a, um, accusfomed. 
consul, uiis, M., Consul, the chief 

executive officer of Rome, of 

whom two were chosen yearly. 

consularis — contrario. 


consularis, e, of the consul; m., 

of considar rcuik, ex-consul. 
coiisulatus, us, M., consulship. 
consulo, ui, sult-, 3, consider, re- 
Jiect : (w. acc.) consult; (w. dat.) 
favor, consiilt, or have refjardfor. 
consultatio, onis, F., consuUation. 
consulte, -to, on purpose. 
consulto, I, rejlect, take counsel. 
consultor, oiris, m., counsellor, 

adciser, consulter. 
consultum, i, n., a decree, resolve. 
consultus, a, um, icelL-weighed. 
consultus, us, M., decree, prudence. 
con-sum, futvirum, fore, happen. 
consummatio, onis, f., smnminfj- 

up, completion, summarij. 
consummo, i, to sum up, complete. 
consumo, mpsi, mpt-, 3, to spend, 

destroij, hestow, consume. 
consuo, sut-, 3, sew up or together. 
con-surgo, 3, rise up, revolt. 
Consus, i, the god of Counsel. 
contabesco, ui, 3, waste aicay. 
contabulatio, onis, F.,fooring. 
contabulo, i, to cover with plank. 
contactus, [-tingo,] touched. 
contactus, iis, M.,Jouch, infection. 
contages, is ; -io, onis, f. ; -imn, i, 

N., infection, contact. 
contaminatus, a, um, defiled. 
contamino, i, to hlend, corrupt. 
contatio=cunctatio, flelay. 
contechnor, i, play tricks. 
contego, xi, ct-, 3, cover up, pre- 

serve, hide. 
contemno, psi, pt-, 3, scorn, despise. 
contemplatio, onis, f., survey, 

aim, consider<dion. 
contemplator, onis, m., ohserver. 
contemplor, i, hehold, meditate. 
contemptim, scornfully. 
contemptio, onis, f. ; -tus, us, M., 

contempf, scf>rn, disregard. 
contemptor, oris, m., scorner, in- 

suVer, despiser. 
contemptus, [temno,] desjnsed, 

contemptihk, vile, fihject. 
contendo, di, tum, to 3, contend, 

strive, march, tirge, compare. 
contente, eurnesily. 

contentio, onis, f., strife, dispute, 

contest, comparison, contrast. 
contentus, [tendo,] strained, in- 

ten! ; [teneo,] content, sfitisjied. 
conterminus, a, um, hounding, 

neighhoring ; N., neighhorhood. 
contero, trivi, trit, 3, hruise or 

ivcar airay, ivfiste, destroy. 
conterreo, ui, it-, 2, ajfright, terrify. 
contestatus, a, um, tried, proved. 
contestor, i, call to witness, hring 

an action. 
contexo, ui, tum, 3, weave together. 
contextus, iis, m., connection. 
conticesco, ticui, 3, hecome silent. 
conticinium, i, N., still of evening. 
contignatio, onis, F., timher-fioor. 
contigno, i,Join ivith heams. 
contiguus, a, um, adjoining, within 

refwh, neighhoring. 
continens, tis, close, connected, 

restrainfid; N., continent. 
continenter, uninterrupteflly. 
continentia, ae, F., self-restraint. 
contineo, ui, tent-, 2, [teneo,] hold 

close, restrain, contain. 
contingo, tigi, tact-, 3, [tango,]/o 
touch, reavh, take hold, partake. 
contingo (-guo), 3, to ivet, spririkle. 
continuatio, onis, f., succession. 
continuo, i, to join, connect, con- 

tinue, horder on. 
continuo, immediately, consequently. 
continuus, a, um, constant, close, 

successive, continuous. 
contollo=confero, 3, hetake. 
contorqueo, torsi, tort-, tivist, hurl. 
contortus, a, um, twisted. 
contra, against, opposite, on the 

other hfind. 
contractio, onis, F. shortening. 
contractus, [traho,] drawn together, 

closed, compressed, retired. 
contractus, us, M., hargain, con- 

tract, shrinking, contrfiction. 
contradico, 3. 'gfdnsay, oppose. 
contradictio, onis, F., opposition. 
contraho, xi, ct-, gfither, contract, 
produce. conclude, restrain, lessen. 
contra-pono, 3, j)ut opposite. ■ 
contrario, on the contrary. 


contrarius — copa. 

contrarius, a, um, oppoi^ite, hostile. 
contrecto, i, tuaclt, search, handle. 
contremiico, tremui, 3, to tremble 

co'itribuo, bui, but-, 3, to grant, 

assi(/n, contribuie. 
contristo, i, r/rieve, sadden, darken. 
contritio, onis, F., grief. 
contritus, [tero,] worn, bruised. 
controversia, se, f., dispule, debate. 
controversus, a, um, set opposite, 

dis/) ated, qudrrelsoine. 
contrucido, i, to kiU, butcher. 
contriido, si, sum, 3^ to crowd in, 

thrasl tof/ether. 
contrunco, i, mangle^cul to pieces. 
contubernalis, is, c, of onemess; 

M., tent-com/ninion, comrade. 
contubernium, i, n., mess, com- 

pan)/, a common tent, abode. 
contueor, uitus, 2, gaze upon, con- 

sidcr, care for. 
contumacia, ae, F., stubbornness. 
coutumax, acis, siubborn, ungield- 

ing, insoleni. 
contumelia, ae, f., taunt, reproach, 

as.-^au/i, disgrace, insult. 
coutumeliosus, a. um, reproach- 

ful, insolent, ignominious. 
contuudo, tudi, tus-, 3, beat, bruise, 

crush, grind, sulxlue, demolish. 
conturbatio, onis, F., confusion. 
conturbo, i, to disiurb, confuse, 

emlxirrass, dislract. 
conturmalis, e, of one squadron. 
contu3, i, M., /)ole, long staff. 
contiisio, onis, f., bruising. 
coniibium=connubium, loet^/oc/i". 
f conus, i, N., cone, crest, tip. 
convador, i, to cife, summon. 
convalesco, valui, 3, getstrength. 
convallis, is, F., an enclosed valieg. 
convaso, i, to pnck baggage. 
convectio, .onis, f,, bringing to- 

convecto, i ; -veho, xi, ot, 3, con- 

veg, briiig together, fefch. in. 
convector, oris, M., fellow-passen- 

ger, gatherer (of grain &c.). 
conveilo, velli, vuls-, 3, to wrench, 

tear away, pluck up, rend. 

convena, ae, c, one of a company. 
conveniens, tis, harmonious, suited. 
couvenienter, Jiily, consistently. 
convenientia, ae, f., meeting, ac- 

cord, conformiiy, fitness. 
convenio, veni, vent-, 4, meet, 

agree, cisif; impers. it is fit. 
conventicius, a, um, meeting. 
conventio, onis, f., « meeting, com- 

paci, agreement, indictment. 
conventum, i, n., agreement. 
conventus, us, m., meeting, com- 

pany, assembly, court, compact. 
converro, ri, sum, 3, to sweep, beat. 
conversatio, onis, f., use, inter- 

course, conversaiion, abode. 
conversio, onis, f., change, revolu- 

iion, subversion. 
converso, i, io turn vioJently, abide. 
converto, ti, sum, 3, to iurn, change, 

transform, cdter, transfer. 
convexo, i, j)ress violently. 
couvexus, a, um, curved, arched ; 

N., arch, vault, concavity. 
conviciabor, oris, m., reviler. 
convicior, i, to revile, rep)roach. 
convicium, i, n., loud cry, reviling, 

ivraiif/ling, insidi, importunity. 
convictio, onis, F., iniercourse. 
convictor, oris, m., [vivo,] mess- 

mufe, familiar friend. 
convictus, [vinco,] proved. 
convictus, iis, m., tiving together. 
convinco, vici, vict-, 3, to con- 

vicf, convince, prevail, conquer. 
conviso, 3, consider, examine. 
conviva, ae, c, guest, companion. 
convivium, i, n., banquet. 
convivo, xi, 3, to live or feast with. 
convivor, i, tofeasf, revel. 
convoco, I, assemhle, call together. 
convolo, l, fly (ogether. 
convolvo, vi, volut-, 3, ivrapj to- 

(/eiJier, roll round, heap. 
convolvulus, i, M., caferpillar. 
convulnero, i, to ivoun.d severely. 
convulsus, [vello,] ivrenched. 
cobperio, ui, ert-, 4, to cover up. 
coopto, I, choose, admit, elecL 
codrior, ortus, 4, arise, appenr. 
copa, ae, f., tavern-dancer. 

cophinus — Corybantius. 


j- cophiuus, i, M., basket. 

copia, 86, F., abundance, zvealth, 

multUude; pl. supplies, troops. 
copiose, abundantiy. 
copiosus, a, um, plentiful, copious. 
f copis, idis, F., cutlass. 
copis, is, c, rich, abounding. 
c5po=caupo, inn-keeper. 
f coprea (as), ae, m,, a dirty jesier. 
f copta, 86, F., cake, biscuit. 
copula, ee, F., cord, band, ieash. 
copulatio, oiiis, F., binding. 
copulo, I, to coupie, join, cement. 
coqua, 86, F., a cook. 
coquina, 86, F., kitchen, cookery. 
coquino, i, to cook. 
coquo, xi, ct-, 3, to cook, hurn, vex. 
coquus, i, M., a cook. 
cor, cordis, N., heart, mind. 
f cora, 86, F., j^uj^ii of the eye. 
f coralium, i, N., recl corai. 
coram, openiy ; in ^^resence of. 
f corax, acis, m., raven^ crow. 
corbis, is, d., basket. 
corbita, 86, F., ship of burden. 
corbula, 86, f., littie basket. 
corculum, i, N., sweetheart. 
Corcyra6us, a, um, of the I. Cor- 

cyra (Corfu), near Epirus. 
cordatus, a, um, ivise, prudent. 
f cordax, acis, M., a wantoii dance. 
cordolium, i, n., heart-sorrow. 
Cordubensis, e, of Corduba {Cor- 

dova), in S. Spain. 
cordus=chordus, late-l)orn. 
Corfinium, i, n., a fortified town 

of Central Italy. 
coriarius, a, um, of leatlier ; M., a 

tanner, currier. 
Corinthius, a, um, Corinthian, iux- 

urious ; ses, a costly bronze. 
Corinthus, i, F., Corinth, on the 

Isthmus of Greece, taken by 

Mummius, B.c. 146. 
corium, i, n., hide, husk, thong. 
corneolus, a, um, horn-like. 
corneus, a, um, ofhorn, or cornei. 
cornicen, inis, m., horn-blower. 
cornicor, i, chafter (as rooks). 
corniger, era, um, horned. 
cornipes, edis, hoofed (horse). 

cornix, icis, f., crow, rook. 
cornu, us (u), n., horn, point, tip 

(as of spar), bow, cone (of hehnet), 

iwof iving (of an army). 
cornus, i, f. ; -um, i, n., cornei. 
cornutus, a, um, horned. 
corolla, 86, F., garland. 
corollarium, i, N., ivreath, gift. 
corona, 86, F., crown, ivreath, throng. 
coroneola, ae, f., musk-rose. 
Coronis, idis, F., d. of Phlegyas, 

mother of -^^Lsculapius. 
corono, i, to crown, wreathe. 
corporeus, a, um, bodily, Jieshiy. 
corporo, i, to embody. 
corpulentu.^a, a, um, of gross body. 
corpus, oris, n., body, Jlesh, person. 
corrado, si, sum, 3, scrape together. 
correctio, onis, F. straightening. 
corrector, oris, m., improver. 
correpo, psi, 3, to creep, sneak. 
correptio, onis, F., seizing. 
corrigia, 86, f., shoe-string. 
corrigo, rexi, rect- [rego,] 3, to 

set rigJit, sfraigJUen, correct. 
corripio, ui, rept-, [rapio,] 3, seize, 

snafcJt, piunder, reproacJi, attack. 
corrivo, i, to draw togetJier. 
corroboro, i, \x6bvLri\strengtJien. 
corrodo, si, sum, 3, to gnaw. ^ 
corrogo, i, get togetJier by asking. 
corrotundo, 3, to round off. 
corriida, ae, f., ivild asjxiragus. 
corriigo, i, to wrinkle. 
corrumpo, riipi, rupt-, 3, to cor- 

rupt, poliute, bribe, destroy, spoii. 
corruo, ui, 3, fail to pieces, gatJier. 
corruptela, 86, F., corruption, brihe. 
corruptor, oris, M. [rumpo,] 

spoiler, corrupter. 
Corsus, a, um, of the I. Corsica, 

W. of Italy. 
cortex, icis, D., sJieii, Imli, bark. 
cortina, 86, f., kettle, vat, tripod. 
corulus=corylus, Jmzel. 
c6rus=caurus, N. W. wind. 
corusco, I, sJiaJce, gleam, brandish. 
coruscus, a, um, glittering, ivaving. 
corvus, i, M., raven, croiv, grapple. 
Corybantius, a, um, of the priests 

of Cybele (Corybantes). 


Corycius — crocio. 

Corycius, a, um, of Corycof^, a 

coast town and cave in Cilicia. 
fcorydalus, i, m., crested lark. 
f corylus, i, m., hazel. 
f corymbus, i, m., cluster. 
f corytos, i, m., quivej^ arrow. 
oos, cotis, F.,Jiint, ichetstone. 
f cosmeta, ae, m., adorner. 
costa, ce, F., rih, side, rcall. 
f costum, i, N., an aromatic plant. 
fcothurnus, i, m., huntimj-hoot, 

huskin, lojhj or tragic style. 
f cottabus, i, m., clap, stroke. 
cottana, ae, f., a small fig. 
coturnix, icis, f., quail. 
f cotyla, ee, f., about a pint. 
Cous, a, um, of Cos, a small I. 

in the yEgean. 
covinus, i, m., war-chariot. 
coxa, ae (-endix, icis), f., hip, bend. 
crabro, onis, f., hornet. 
f crambe, es, F., cahhage. 
f cranium, i, n., skull. 
crapula, ae, f., drunkenness. 
cras, to-morroio. 

crassamen, inis (-tum, i), n., dregs. 
crasse, rudely, dimly. 
crassitudo, inis, f., thickness. 
crasso, i, to fhicken. 
crassus, a, um, thick,gross,clumsy. 
Crassus, M. Licinius, the triumvir, 

d. in the Parthian War, b.c. 53. 
crastinus, a, um, oj' to-morrow. 
f crater, eris, era, eras, m. ; -era, ee, 

f., bofd, pail, hasin. 
crates (is), is, f., hasket-icork, har- 

row, hnrdle; p\.,Jascines, gahions. 
creatio, onis, f., creating. 
creator, oris, m., creator, founder. 
creatrix. tricis, f., mother. 
creatura, ae, f., creature. 
creber, bra, um, thick, close, ahound- 

hif/, frequent, numerous. 
crebresco, 3, thicken, incredse. 
cvehro, frequenfly, close fogether. 
credibiiis, e, credihle, likely. 
creditor, oris, m., one who trusts. 
creditum, i, N., loan, a^edif. 
credo, didi, dit-, 3, lend, intrust, 

confde, helieve. 
credulitas, atis, f., credulity. 

credulus, a, um, easy of helief. 
crematio, onis, f., hurning. 
Cremera, ae, f., a stream of Etru- 

ria where the Fabii perished. 
cremina, orum, n., hrushwood. 
cremo, i, fo hurn, consume. 
Cremona, ae, f., a town on the Po. 
cremor, oris, m., hroth, j)orridge. 
creo, I , creafe, begef, elecf, produce. 
creper, era, um, douhffid, dark. 
crepida, se, f., shoe-sole or last. 
crepido, inis, F., hrink, hase. 
f crepis, idis, f., slipper. 
crepito, i, crackle, rumhle, tinkle. 
crepitus, us, m., clashing, crashing. 
crepo, ui, it-, i, to clatter, resound. 
crepundia, n., p\. j)layfhi7igs,ratfle. 
crepusci, orum, m. pl., of ticilight. 
crepusculum, i, n., twilight, dusk. 
Cres, -etis, m. ; Cressa, se, f., Cretan. 
cresco, crevi, cret-, 3, grow, ap- 

pear, increase, multiply. 
creta, se, f., chcdk. 
Creta, ae, (-te, es), f., Candia, a 

large island S. of the ^gean. 
Cretaeus (-ticus), a, um ; -tensis, 

e, Crefan ; taurus, fhe Minotaur. 
cretatus, a, um, chalked. 
cretio, onis, f., esfate, inheritance. 
cretura, ae, F., hran. 
cretus, [cresco,] descended; [cer- 

no,] siftcd, decided. 
Creiisa, ae, Trojan wife of JEneas. 
cribrum, i, N., sieve, strainer. 
crimen, inis, -^.,jiulgment, criminal 

charge, rej)roach, fault, crime. 
criminatio, onis, F., accuscdion. 
criminor, i, fo charge, accuse. 
criminosus, a, um, accusatory. 
crinalis, e, of the hcdr. 
crinis, is, m., haii', comeCs tail. 
crinitus, a, um, hairy. 
f crisis, is, f., decision, C7'isis. 
crispo, i, fo curl, roughen, brandish. 
crispus, a, um, crisp, curled, wrin- 

kled, waving, quivering. 
crista, ae, f., crest, comh, plume. 
cristatus, a, um, crested. 
f criticus, a, um, crificcd; M.,criHc. 
croceus (-inus), a, um, of saffron. 
crocio, 4, fo croak (as a raven). 

crocodilus — cunctanter. 


f crocodilus, i, M., crocodile. 
f crocota, bb, f., saffron rohe. 
f crocus, i, M. ; -um, n., saffron. 
Crcesus, i, k. of Lydia, conquered 

by Cyrus, b.c. 546. 
crotalia, orum, N. ear-rhujs. 
crotalum, i, N., rattle, bell, castanet. 
Ci-oto, onis, c, Crotona, a Greek 

town of S. Italy. 
cruciatus, iis. m. ; -mentum, i, N., 

torlure, tornient, miseri/, ruin. 
crucifer, feri, M., ihe cro-^s-bearer. 
crucio, I, to torment, ajfllct, crucify. 
criidelis, e, cruel, harsh, Jierce. 
crudelitas, atis, f., crueltij. 
crudesco, dui, 3, grow raw, hard, 

violent, bad. 
cruditas, atis, F., indigestion. 
crudus, a, um, raw, bloodj, harsh. 
cmento, i, to stain, make bloody. 
cruentus, a, um, hloodij, fierce. 
crumena, de,¥.,purse, monej-pouch. 
cruor, oris, m., spilt blood, gore. 
criiralis, e, ofthe leg. 
criirifragius, a, um, broken-legged. 
crus, criiris, N., leg (below the 

knee), shin. 
crusta, ae, f., ice, crust, stucco. 
crusto, I , to plaster, encrust. 
crustulum, i, N., confectionery. 
crustum, i, N., crust, pastry. 
Crustumeria, ae, f., an old Sabine 

town, on tlie Etrurian border. 
crux, crucis, f., cross, torment. 
f crypta, ee, F., vault, cell. 
f crystallinus, a, um, of crystal. 
f crystallus, i, m. (-um, N.), crystal, 

ice ; crystal vase, gem: 
cubicularius, a, um, 0/ the cham- 

ber : m., body-servant. 
cubiculum, i, N., bed-chamber. 
f cubicus, a, um, cubic. 
cubile, is, n., couch, bed, chamber. 
cubital, alis, N., elbow-rest. 
cubitalis, e, a cubit long or high. 
cubito, I, to lie down often. 
cubitum, i, N., elhow, bend, cubit 

or ell (18 inches). 
cubitus, iis, m., lying down, bed. 
cubo, ui, it-, I, lie down, sleep. 
f cubus, i, M., cube, die. 

cucuUus, um, hood, cap, wrapper. 
cuculus, i, M., cuckoo. 
cucuma, ae, f., kettle, bath-tub. 
cucumis, eris, (im, i,) m., cucumber. 
cucurbita, se, f., gourd, cup. 
ciiciirio, 4, to crow. 
ciido, di, sum, 3, to hammer, coin. 
ciido, onis, m., a leather skull-cap. 
ciijas, atis, whose? ichence? 
cujus, a, um, tvhose (gen. of quis). 
cujusmodi, of lohat sort. 
culcita, se, F., inattress, bed, cushion. 
ciileus, i, m., bag, a li(pdd measure. 
culex, icis, f., gnat, mosquito. 
culigna, ee, F., bowl. 
culina, se, f., kitchen. 
culmen, inis, N., top, ridge. 
culmus, i, M., stalk, straw, stem. 
culpa, se, F., Jault, crime, mischief. 
culpatus, a, um, blamable, guilty. 
culpo, I, to blame, condemn. 
cultellus, i, M., little knife. 
culter, tri, m., knife, cutter. 
cultor, oris, M. ; -trix, tricis, F., 

tiller, dweller, tvorshipper, helper. 
cultura, ae, F., tillage. 
cultus, [colo,] tilled, adorned. 
cultus, iis, M., care, culture, orna- 

ment, luxury, splendor, dress. 
culuUus, i, M., bowl, pot. 
cum, (abl.) roith, among. 
cum=quum, when, since, though; 

cum . . . tum, hoth . . . and. 
Ciimaeus, a, \\m, of Cumoi, a coast- 

town near Naples ;, Cumsea 

virgo, tlte Sihyl. 
-cumbo, cubui, cubit-, to lie down. 
ciimatilis, e, bluisk : n., a garment. 
cumera, ae, f. ; -um, i, n., a meal- 

tuh, bin, chest (for grain). 
cumprime (is), especially. 
[-cumque, -ever. 
cumulate, ahundantly. 
cumulatim, in heaps. 
cumulatus, a, um, full, complete. 
cumulo, I, to heap, pile, amass. 
cumiilus i, N., heap, pile, mass. 
ciinabula, orum, N., cradle, origin. 
cunae, arum, f., cradle, nest. 
cunctans, tis, dilatory. 
cunctanter, Ungeringly, slowly. 


cunctatio — Cydonia. 

cunctatio, onis, f., clekui. 
cunctator, oris, u., delayer : a 

name of Fabius the dictator, 

who baffled Haimibal, b.c, 213 
cunctor, i, to delmj, linger. [-209. 
cunctus, a, um, «//, whole. 
cunealis, e, wedgelike. 
cuneatim, icedge-formed. 
cuneo, I, to icedge,fasten. 
cuneus, i, m., wedge, seat (in the- 

atre), column (of troops). 
cuniculus, i, m., rabhit, burrow. 
cunila, ae, f., pennyroyal (?). 
ciinio, 4, to dejile. 
[-cunque=-cumque-, -ever. 
ciipa, ae, f., tub, cask, crank. 
cupedia or ae, pl., dainties. 
cupedo, inis, f., dcuntiness. 
cupella, se ; -um, i, n., cup. 
ciipes, edis, u., dainty-felloio. 
cupide, eageriy, p)assionately. 
cupiditas, atis, f., eagerness, long- 

ing, ararice, pai^ty spirit. 
cupido, inis, f., eager desire. 
cupidus, a, um, cager, desirous, 

fond, devoted, greedy. 
cupiens, tis, longing, eager. 
cupio, ivi, it-, 3, to desire, favor. 
f cupressus, i, f., cypress. 
cupreus (-inus), a, um, of copper. 
cuprum, i, n., copper. 
ciipula, ae, f., tub, crcmk. 
cur, ichy. 

ciira, ee, f., care, grief. 
curatio, onis ; -tiira, ae, F., care, 

cure, management. 
ciirator, oris, m., overseer. 
curculio, onis, f,, iceevil. 
Cures, ium, m., a Sabine town. 
Ciiretes, um, an ancient people 

of Crete, vorshippersof Zeus. 
ciiria, ae, f., the court, senate-house, 

vard (the patrician assembly). 
ciirialis, e, of the court or ivard. 
curiatus, a, um, of the curiae. 
ciirio, onis, m., priest ofcuria. 
curio. onis, m., lean, tvasted. 
ciiriosus, a, um, careful, nice, cu- 

rious, eager, lean, wasted. 
curis, is, f., spear. 
curo, I, carefor, cure, manage. 

currax, acis, diligent, quick. 
curriculum, i, N., race-course, car. 
curro, cucurri, curs-, 3, to run. 
curruca=eruca, ae, f., canker- 

currus, iis, m., car, waggon, chariot. 
cursim, hastily, speedily. 
cursio, onis, f., running. 
curso (-ito), I, [curro,] run about. 
cursor, oris, m., runner. 
cursiira, ae, F., running. _ 
cursus, iis, M., running, course. 
curto, I, to shorten. 
curtus, a, um, short, hroken. 
curiilis, e, of a chariot; sella, the 

chair of state (used by consuls, 

praitors, and curule ediles). 
curvamen, inis, N. ; -tiira, ae, F.. 

bending, arch, vault. 
curvo, I, to bend. 
curvor, oris, m., crookedness. 
curvus, a, um, crooked, bent. 
cusor, oris, m., [cudo,] coiner. 
cuspidatus, a, um, pointed. 
cuspido, I, to ])oint, shcwpen. 
cu.spis, idis, F., specu^-p)oint, lance, 

spit, sting. 
custodia, se, f., custody, guard, 

guard-^iouse, priso7i. 
custodio, 4, to guard, keep. 
custos, odis, m., keeper, guard. 
cutis, is, F., skin, rind. 
Cyaneae, arum, f., the Symplegades. 
f cyaneus, a, um, bright hlue. 
f cyanus, i, m., blue-bottle (flower). 
f cyathus, i, m., drinking-cup. 
cybaeus, a, um, of a large ship. 
Cybele, es, a Phrygian goddess. 
f cybium, i, n., tunny (fish). 
Cyclades, um, f., islands of the 

/F.'^gean, around Delos. 
f cyclas, adis, f., tvomcm^s robe. 
cyclicus, a, um, circulcu\ 
Cyclops, opis, a savage race of 

Sicily and elsewhere ; workmen 

of Vulcan, forgers of thunder- 

bolts under Mt. Etna. 
f cyclus, i, m., circle. 
cydonia, ae, f., quince. 
cydonites, ae, m., cjuince-ivine. 
Cydonia, ae, f., a town of Crete. 

cygneus — Daimus. 


cygneus, a, um, of a sican. 
f cygnu-s (cycnus), i, u., swan. 
cylindrus, i, m., c//lmder, roUer. 
Cyllene, es, f., a mt. of Arcadia, 

birthplace of Mercury. 
f cynaa, se, ¥., (atis, N.,) sprout. 
I cymatilis=cumatilis, hluisli. 
j cymatium, i, M,, wave-iuork. 
I cymba, se, F., hoat, skljf'. 
t cymbalum, i, N., cymhal. 
fcymbium, i, N., hoat-like cup. 
cymbula, se, ¥., little hoat. 
cymosus, a, vlvo., full of sJioots. 
f cynicus, a, um, currish, cynic. 
I cynocephalus, i, m., dog-head ape. 
f cynosbatos, i, n., sweethrier. 
f cynosiira, ae, f., pole-star. 
Cynthus, i, m., a mt. of Delos, 

birthplace of Apollo. 
f cyparissus, i, F., cypress. 
f cyperos, i, m., a kind of rush. 
f cyprinum, i, n., cypress-oil. 
Cyprius, a, um, Cyprian; ofcopper. 
Cyprus, i, f., a large island S. of 

Asia Minor. 
f cypselus, i, m., marten. 
Cyrenaeus (-aicus), a, um, of 

Cyrene, a Greek town on the 

African coast, W. of Egypt. 
Cyrneus, a, um, Corsican. 
Cyrus, i, the Great, founder of the 

Persian empire, b.c. 559; the 

Younger, who perished at Cun- 

axa, B.c. 400. 
Cy thereus (- eius), a, um, of Cytli- 

era, an island S. of Greece, 

sacred to Venus ; f., Venus. 
cytisus, M. F., clover, trefoil. 
Cytorus, i, a mt. of Paphlagonia. 
Cyzicum, i, a town of Mysia. 


D, the prcKn. Decimus; num., 500. 
dabula (dabla), ae, f., date-palm. 
Dacia, ae, F., the country on the 

lower Danube ; adj. Dacus. 
f dactylus,i, m., {finyer,) name of 

a kind of date, mussel, yrass, &c. ; 

the foot dactyl (§ 79, 5). 

fdsedalus (-eus), a, um, elegant, 

artificial, skilfuL 
Dsedalus, i, myth. architect of the 

Cretan Labyrintli. 
f daemon, onis, m., spirit, evih/enius. 
Dahae, arum, a Scythian tribe. 
Dalmatae, arum, people of Dal- 
matia, the dist. on tlie eastern 
coast of the Adriatic. 
dama, ae, C, falloio-deer. 
Damascenus, a, um, of.Damascus, 

an ancient city of Syria. 
damnatio, onis, F., condemnation. 
damnatus, a, um, criminal. 
damno, i, to condemn, sentence, 

adjudge, prosecute. 
damnosus, a, um, harmful, j^^rodi- 

gal, lafortunate. 
damnum, i, n., Ioss, harm. 
dane, [do,] givest ? 
Danae, es, myth. d. of Acrisius, 

mother of Perseus. 
Danai, orum, poetic name for the 

Greeks, in the siege of Troy. 
Danaides, um, the 50 daughters 
of Danaus, who slew their hus- 
bands in one night. 
Danaus, i, myth. founderof Argos, 

a colonist from Egypt. 
f danista, se, M., usurer. 
Danubius, i, m., the upper Danuhe. 
Daphne, es, myth. d. of Peneus, 

loved l}y Apollo. 
f daphne, es, f., hay, laurel. 
Daphnis, idis, son of Mercury, 

inventor of pastoral verse. 
dapis, (§ 14, I, 2\ food, feast. 
dapsilis, e, hountiful, sumptuous. 
Dardanius (f., -nis), Trojan. 
Dardanus, i, myth. ahcestor of 
the royal race of Troy ;^ adj., 
Trojan : also, a people of Servia. 
Dariiis (eus), i, name of several 
kings of Persia, the last being 
conq. l^y Alexander, b.c. 333. 
f dasypiis, podis, c, rahhit, hare. 
datatim, hy giving. 
datio, F., giving, surrender, 
dator, oris, M., giver. 
dato, I, to give away. 
Daunus,i,'myth. k. of Apulia. 


de — decuria. 

de, o/, from, during, concerning, 

downfrom, according to, at. 
[de-, down, awag, utterly. 
dea, ae, abus, f., goddess. 
dealbo, i, to whitewash, plaster. 
deambulo, i, to ivalk, stroll. 
deamo, i, to love dearly, he in love. 
deartuo, i, to dismember. 
deascio, i, to smoothe over, chouse. 
deauratus, a, um, gilded. 
debaochor, i, to nive out. 
debellator, oris, m., conqueror. 
debello, i, suhdue, vanquish, fnish 

th.e war,fig]it out. 
debeo, ui, it-, 2, to owe ; ought, must. 
debilis, e, weak, laine, frail. 
debilitas, atis (-tatio, onis), f., in- 

firmity, wcakness. 
debilito, i, to weaken, lame, cripple. 
debitor, oris, m., debtor. 
debitum, i, n., debL 
deblatero, i, habbie, pra:e. 
decanto, i, chant, repeal, cease. 
decanus, i, m., cliief of ten. 
decaulesco, 3, grotv to s!alk. 
decedo, cessi, cess-, 3, to deparl, 

cea^e, disappear, yield, die. 
decem, ten. 

December, bris, m., December. 
decempeda, ge, f., surveyor^s pole, 

(10 feet). 
decemplex, icis, tenfold. 
decemviralis, e, of ll.-:' decemvirs. 
decemviri, orum, m., Board of ten ; 

the Commission which prepared 

tiie XII. Tables, u.c. 450. 
decennis (-alis), e, of ten years. 
decens, tis, decent, hecoming. 
decentia, ae, f., comeliness, decency. 
deceptus, [decipio,] deceived. 
decerno, crevi, cret-, 3, to decree, 

(("'ermiiie, resolve, contend. 
decerpo, psi, pt-, [carpo,] 3, pluck 

ojf, crop, ga', enjoy. 
decerto, i, conlend, strive. 
decessio, onis, f. ; -sus, U3, m., 

departure, disappearing, decrease. 
decet, decuit, 2, it is fit, hecoming. 
decido, cidi, 3, to fai\,fai\., die. 
decido, cidi, cis-, 3, c.ut qff, decide. 
deciduus, a, um, falling ojf. 

deciduus, a, um, lopped, cut off. 
decies (ens), tea times. 
deci-(decu-)manus, a, um, of the 

tenth, tithe^, &.c. ; porta, the niain 

entrance (of camp) ; linies, easi- 

and-west iine. 
decimus (umus), a, um, tenth. 
decipio, cepi, cept- [capio,] 3, to 

calcli, cheaf, deccive, hcguile. 
decipula, se, f., snare, trap. 
decisio, onis, f., decision, setilc- 

nicnt, agreeinent, diininishing. 
decisus, [decido,] decided. 
d§clamatio, onis, f., speaking, loud 

taik, deciamation, essay. 
declamo (-ito), i, declaim, hluster. 
declaratio, onis, f., disciosure. 
declaro, i, to infd^e manifest. 
declinatio, onis, F., turning aside. 
declinatus, u^, m., avoidance. 
declinis, e, re realing (as tide). 
declino, i, hend aside, avoid. 
declivis, e, s\oj)ing downward. 
declivitas, atis, f., deciivity. 
decoctio, onis, -f., hoiiing down. 
decoctor, oris, m., hankriipt. 
decoctus, [coquo,] hoiled down. 
decoUo, i, hehead, take from tke 

neck, roh, deprive. 
decolo, I, trickle away,fail. 
decolor, oris, discoiored, degenerae. 
decol5ro, i, discoior, disfigure. 
de-coquo, 3, hoil away, loaste, fail. 
decor, oris, M.,grace, heauty, charm. 
decoris, e, adorned, eiegant. 
decoro, i, adorn, embeUish, heautif/. 
decortico, i, to pee\, hark. 
decorus, a, um, hccoming, gracefid, 

hcaulifui; K.,filness, decoruin. 
decrepitus, a, um, [crepo,] de- 

crepit (noiseless), 
decresco, crevi, cret-, 3, diminish, 

decrcase, \esseii. 
decretorius, a, um, decisive. 
decretum i, N., [cerno,] decree. 
deculco, I, trainple down. 
decumbo, cubui, 3, fidl, lie down. 
decumus=decimus, tenth. 
decunx, cis, m., 10 ounces {v. as). 
decuria, ae, F., hody of 10 men, 

ciass. division. 

decurio — degredior. 

decurio, onis, m., captain of ten, 

or of a squadron of cavalry (32). 
decurio, i, diiude (by decuriae). 
de-curro, 3, fo run do/cn, advance. 
decursio, onis, F. ; -sus, us, m., 

runninfi down, advance, evolution, 
decus, oris, n., ornanient, diynity, 

honor, (flory, cliarni. 
decussis, is, m., [as,] coin of 10 

asses; the mark X- 
decusso, I, to cut ci-ossivise. 
decutio, cussi, cuss-, [quatio,] 3, 

to beat do/vn or ojf. 
dedecet, cuit, 2, it misbecomes. 
dedecor, 5ris, unseemly, 
dedecorus, a, um, sliameful. 
dedecus, oris, n., disgrace, disJionor. 
dedicatio, onis, f., consecration. 
dedico, i, dedicate, devote. 
dedignor, i, disdain, refuse. 
dedisco, didici, 3, unlearn. 
dediticius, a, ura, of surrender ; 

M., prisoner of ivar. 
deditio, onis, f., surrender. 
deditus, a, um, addicted, devoted. 
dedo, dedidi, dedit-, 3, to sur- 

render, yield, apply, devote. 
dedoceo, 2, to unteach. 
dedoleo, ui, 2, cease grieving. 
dedolo, i, to hew smooth. 
dediico, xi, ct-, 3, to hring down, 

ivithdraw, conduct, spin out. 
deductio, onis, f., leading out, 

quartering (of troops), expulsion. 
deductor, oris, m., altendant. 
deerro, i, stray away, go aslray. 
defaeco, i, clear from dregs,purify. 
defatigatio, onis, f., exhaustion. 
defatigo, i, to iveary out, exhaust. 
defatiscor, 3, languish, get weary. 
defector, oris, m., revoUer. 
defectus, [delicio,] enfeehled. 
defectus, iis, m. ; -tio, onis, f., 

revolt,failure, eclipse. 
defendo, di, sum, 3, ward off, de- 

fend, maintain, claim, allege. 
clefensio, onis, f., defence. 
defenso (-ito), i, defend, ward off. 
defensor, oris, m., averter, defender. 
defero, tuli, lat-, 3, to hear doum. 

drive, convey, deliver. report 

deferve-facio, 3, hoil thoroughly. 
deferveo, 2 ; -vesco, vi (bui), 3, to 

hoil thoroughly ; cool down, allay. 
defessus, a, um, tired out. 
defetiscor, fessus, 3, togrow iveary. 
deficio, feci, fect- [facio,] 3, to 

fail, ronove, desert, cease. 
defigo, xi, xuni, 3, to set,fx, plant. 
defingo, uxi, 3, to shape,fashion. 
definio, 4, to limit, explain, deter- 

mine, fix, finish. 
definitio, onis, f., houndary, expla- 

nation, dejinition. 
definitus, a, um, distinct, precise. 
de-fio, [-ficio,] tofail, cease, lack. 
defixus, a, um, \fi^o,\fastened. 
deflagratio, onis, f., conflagration. 
deflagro, i, to hurn up, destroy. 
deflecto, xi, xum, 3, hend, turn off. 
defleo, evi, et-, 2, htwail, deplore. 
deflexus, lis, m., turning aside. 
deflo, i, to hlow aivay, or clear. 
defloccatus, a, um, haldpate. 
defloresco, rui, 3, tvither, decay. 
defluo, xi, xum, 3, toflow down, or 

away, vanish, disappear. 
defluus, a, um, flowing, falling. 
defodio, fodi, ifoss-, 3, dig, hury. 
defore, [desum,] will he wanting. 
deformis, e, ugly, niisshapen. 
deformitas, atis, f., ugliness. 
deformo, i, to shape out, disfgure. 
defossus, [fodio,] dug, huried. 
defraudo, i, to cheat, defraud. 
defrico, cui, -cat (ct-), i, ruh hard. 
defringo, fregi, fract-, [frango,] 3, 

hreak off, or to p)ieces. 
defrutum, i, n., hoiled must (of 

defugio, fugi, 3, to shun, ivithdraw. 
defunctus, a, um, fnished, quit, 

served out, dead. 
defundo, fiidi, fiis-, 3, pour out. 
defungor, funct-, 3, fulfl, finish. 
degener, eris, hase, ignohle. 
degenero, i, to degenerate, dishonor. 
degero, 3, to carry off. 
deglubo, pt-, 3, to peel, strip. 
dego, degi, [ago,] 3, to lead, spend. 
degravo, i, iveigh down, overpower. 
degredior, gress-, 3, to go doion. 


degusto — demessus. 

degusto, I, to taste, lap, try. 
dehaurio, hausi, haust-, 4, to sJcim, 

dehinc, lienceforth, Tiereupoyi, next. 
dehisco, hivi, 3, to yawn, gape open. 
dehonestamentum, i, n., dishonor. 
dehonesto, i, to dis/iouor. 
dehortor, i, to dissuade. 
Deianira, ae, wife of Hercules. 
Deidamia, sb, mother of Pyrrhus. 
dein, then, nioreover. 
deinceps, thereupon, next. 
deinde, then, secondbj, afterward. 
deinsuper, from above. 
Deiphobus, i, a son of Priam. 
dejectio, onis, f. ; -tus, iis, M., 

casting down. 
dejectus, [-jicio,] downcast. 
dejero, [juro,] fo swear outright. 
dejicio, jeci, ject-, [ jacio,] 3, cast 

down, drive out, deprive. 
dejungo, 3, disjoin, iini/oke. 
dejuro, i, swear outright. 
dejuvo, i, withhold help. 
delabor, laps-, 3, slip or fall down. 
delacero, i, tear to pieces. 
delapsus, us, m., descent. 
delasso, i, to loeary out. 
delatio, onis, f., infonnation. 
delator, oris, m., accuser, informer. 
delectabilis, e, delightful. 
delectatio, onis, f., delight, pleas- 

ure, aniusement. 
delecto, i, to delight, allure. 
delectus, [deligo,] chosen. 
delectus, iis, m., choice, levy. 
delego, I, depute^ assign, ascrihe. 
deienimentum, i, n., comfort, ca- 

ress, cJiarm. 
delenio, 4, to soothe, charm, icin. 
deleo, evi, et-, 2, blot out, destroy. 
deletor, oris, M., destroyer. 
Delia, ae, Diana (born in Delos). 
deliberatio, onis, f., iveighing, con- 

s idcring, con s ulfation. 
deliberativus, a, um, deliberative. 
deliberatus, a, um, resolved. 
delibero, i, weigh, discuss, resolve. 
delibo, i, taste, cull, lessen. 
delibro, i , to peel, sfrip. 
delibuo, ui, ut-, 3, hesmear, anoint. 

delicatus, a, um, dainty, luxurious' 
deliciae, arum, f., delight, darUng. 
delictum, i, n., fault, crime. 
deligo, I, fo hind fast. 
deligo, legi, lect-, [lego,] 3, choose 

out, select, send away. 
delingo, 3, to lick up. 
delinio, 4, soofhe, appease. 
delinquo, liqui, lict-, 3, fail, lack, 

neglecf. transgress, offend. 
deliquatio. onis, f., clarifying. 
deliquesco, licui, 3, melt, dissolve, 
deliquiae, arum, f., gutters. 
deliquium, i, n., lackjault, dropping. 
deliquo, i, sfrcun, clear, pour off. 
deliquus, a, um, xvanting, laclingo 
deliramentum, i, n., nonsense. 
deliratio, onis, f., giddiness, folly. 
delirium, i, n., madness. 
deliro, i, fo rave, dote, haidk. 
delirus, a, um, crazy,fooUsh. 
delitesco, litui, 3, [iateo,] lie hid, 

hirl\ skulk, fake refuge. 
Delius, a, um, of Delos (Apollo). 
Delos, i, F., an I. in the ^Egean, 

birthpl. of Apollo and Diana. 
Delphi, oruni, a town of Phocis, 

famous for an oracle of Apollo. 
delphin, inis; -nus, i, m., dolphbi. 
delubrum, i, n., shrine, temple. 
deluctor (-to), i , fo sfruggle, wrestle. 
deludo, si, sum, 3, deceive, mock, 

disappoint, jylay out. 
delumbo, i, to lame, bend, weaken. 
deliisio, onis, f., cheat, deceit. 
deluto, I, hedauh with clay. 
demadesco, madui, 3, get ivet. 
demadidus, a, um, drenched. 
f demagogus, i, m., demagogue. 
demando, i, commit, intrust. 
t demarchus, i, m., people^s rider. 
demens, tis, jnad. raving, tvitless. 
demensus, [metior,] measured out; 

n., an allowance, ration. 
dementer, foolishly. 
dementia, ae, f., madness, folly. 
dementio, 4, to he mad. 
demereo (-eor), ui, 2 ; earn, deserve^ 

demergo, si, sum, 3, to dive, sink. 
demessrts, [demeto,] reaped. 

demetior — depositio. 


demetior, mens-, 4, measure out. 
demeto, messui, mess-, 3, to reap, 

inoic, cut. 
demigratio, onis, f., emkjration. 
deniigro, i, depart, remove, migrate. 
deminuo, ui, ut-, 3, lessen. 
deminutio, onis, f., decrease, short- 

ening, lessening. 
demiror, i, to ivonder greatly. 
demisse, h umbhj. 
demissio, onis, f., lowering. 
demissus, a, um, low, downcast. 
demitigo, i, to soften down. 
demitto, misi, miss-, 3, let or hring 

down, let go, dismiss. 
demo, mpsi, mpt-, 3, to take aioay, 

tvifhdraw, remove. 
f democratia, se, f., democracy. 
demolior, 4, remove, demolish. 
demolitio, onis, F., destruction. 
demonstratio, onis, F., a pointing 

oiit, exhibition, proof. 
demonstrativus, a, um, laudatory. 
demonstro, i , sliow forth, designate, 
demordeo, mors- 2, to bite off. 
demorior, mortuus, 3, die, depart. 
demoror, i, delay, linger, restrain. 
Demosthenes, is, the Athenian 

orator, b.c. 385-322. 
demoveo, movi, mot-, 2,putforth, 

force back, remove. 
demptus, [demo,] jmt away. 
demulceo, mulct-, 2, soothe, stroke. 
demum, at length, precisely, indeed, 

only, finaUy. 
demuto, i, to change, make worse. 
denarius, a, um, of ten; m., sum 

of 10 asses (16 cents). 
denego, i, deny, refuse, reject. 
deni, ae, a, ten each, by tens, ten. 
denigro, i, besmut, blacken. 
denique, thereupon, finally, in short. 
denomino, i, to name, specify. 
denoto, i, to mark, designate. 
denormo, i, to make irregular. 
dens, dentis, m., tooth,prong,fiuke. 
densitas, atis, f., compactness. 
denso, at-, i ; -seo, et-, 2, to thicken, 

set close, press together. 
densus, a, um, thick, close,frequent. 
dentalia, um, N, pL. ploughshare. 

dentatus, a, um, toothed, spiked. 
dentio, 4, to groio, ache (of teeth). 
denubo, psi, pt-, 3, to be married. 
deniido, i, make bare, disclose. 
denuntiatio, onis, f., declaring, 

alfirming, informing. 
denuntio (-cio), i, to threaten, an~ 

denuo, again, once more. 
deonero, i, disburden. 
deorsum (-sus), doivmvard, beloiv. 
deosculor, i, to kiss fondly. 
depaciscor, pact-, 3, bargain for. 
depalo, I, bound with palings. 
depango, pact-, 3, set, fix, plant. 
deparcus, a, um, niggardly. 
depasco, pavi, past-, 3, to feed 

feed upon, feed down, consume. 
depecto, pex-, 3, to comb, trim. 
depeciilor, i, to plunder, despoil. 
depello, puli, puls-, 3, drive away^ 

cast down, avert, expel. 
dependeo, 3, hang down, depend. 
dependo, di, su.m, 3, weigh out, 

pay, spend, abandon. 
deperdo, didi, dit-, 3, destroy, ruin. 
depereo, ii, 4, to perish utterly. 
depetigo, inis, f., scab. 
depexus, [pecto,] combed, trimmed. 
depilo, I, p^luck the hair. 
depingo, nxi, pict-, 3, paint out^ 

describe, portray, conceive. 
deplango, nxi, 3, hewail, lament. 
deplanto, I, break off, plant. 
depleo, evi, 2, empty, pour out. 
deplexus, a, um, clasping. 
deploro, i, bewail, lament, complain. 
depluit, it rains down. 
deplumis, e, featherless, callow. 
depolio, it-, 4, to polish, fnish. 
depono, posui, posit-, 3, to lay 

aside. put ojf, deposit, enlrust. 
depopulatio, onis, f., ^^//to^e. 
depopulo (or), i , to p)lunder, devas- 

tale, pilhtge. 
deportatio, onis, F., carrying off. 
deporto, i, to carry away, fetch. 
deposco, poposci, 3, to demand, 

require, claim, request. 
depositio, onis, F., depositing, put- 

ting or laying down, testimony. 


depositum — despero. 

depositum, i, n., pledge, stake. 
depositus, [pono,] laid out, dying. 
depreedor, i, to rob, jAunder. 
depravatio, onis, f., a perverting, 

distorting corrupting. 
depravo, i, to distort, disjigure, 

corrupt, pervert, deprave. 
deprecatio, onis, f., entreatTj, heg- 

ging-ojl', deprecation. 
deprecator, oris, m., intercessor. 
deprecor, i, to beg, entreat, plead, 

deprehendo (-prendo), di, sum, 

3, to catch, discover, seize, confine. 
depressus, a, um, deep, pressed 

do/cn, crushed, sunk (as ship). 
depretio, i, to undervalue. 
deprinio, pressi, press-, [premo,] 

3, to bear down, crush, sink. 
deprocul,y/-om afar. 
depromo, prompsi, prompt-, 3, 

to drani forth. 
depso, sui, st-, 3, knead, curry. 
depuber, eris; -is, is, ofunripeage. 
depugno, \, jight it out, contend. 
depulsio, onis, F., thrusting away. 
depulsus, [pello,] driven away. 
depurgo, at-, i, to cleanse. 
deputo, I, think, reckon, prune. 
deque, dowmvard (after susque). 
dequestus, [queror,] complaining. 
derado, si, sum, 3, shave, scrape. 
derelictus, [linquo,] forsaken. 
derelinquo, liqui, lict-, 3, forsake, 

neglect, abandon. 
derepente, suddenly. 
derepo, psi, 3, to creep down. 
dereptus, [rapio,] snatched. 
derideo, si, sum, 2, to laugh at, 

scoff, deride. 
deridiculus, a, um, very laughahle. 
derigesco, gui, 3, groio stijf. 
deripio, ui, rept-, [rapio,] 3, pluck 

down, tear away, cast ojf. 
derisor, oris, m., jester, 7nocker. 
derisus, [rideo,] mocked. 
derisus, iis, m. (-io, F.), derision. 
derivatio, onis, f., turning away. 
derivo, i, draw off, convey, divert. 
derogatio, onis, F., partial repeal. 
derogito, i, to ask urgently, or often. 

derogo, i, repeal, resirict, ahate. 
deruncino, i , trim, smooth, cheat. 
deruo, ui, 3, pull or fall down. 
deruptus, [rumpo,] broken, sieej). 
desacro, i, consecrate, dedicate.' 
desaevio, 4, to rage furiously. 
descendo, di, sum, [scando,] 3, 

clindj or go down, sink, descend. 
descensio, onis, F., descent. 
descensus, iis, m., desceni, down- 

ward ivay. 
descisco, ivi (ii), it-, 3, to revolt, 

alter, depart, get clear. 
describo, psi, pt-, 3, ivrite oid, de- 

scribe, ascribe, mark ojf, arrange. 
descriptio, onis, F., p>lan, copy. 
deseco, cui, ct-, i, cut ojf cut out. 
desero, rui, rt-, 3, to forsake, quii. 
desertor, oris, m., deserter. 
desertus, a, um, forsaken, lonely ; 

N., waste, deseri. 
deservio, 4, ivait, serve zealously. 
deses, idis, slothjul, idle. 
desicco, i, to dry up. 
desideo, sedi, [sedeo,] 2, io sit idle. 
desiderabilis, e, desirable. 
desideranter, cagerly. 
desideratio, onis, F., longing. 
desideratus, a, um, welcome. 
desiderium, i, n., longing, regret. 
desidero, i, desire, longjor ; F.,be 

missing, loanling. 
desidia, ae, F., sloth, idleness. 
desidiosus, a, um, slothjul, idle. 
desido, sedi, 3, to sink, seitle. 
designatio, onis, F., arrangement. 
designator, oris, m., regulator. 
designo, i, assign,appoint,descrihe. 
deailio, ui, sult-, 4, io leap down. 
desino, ivi (ii), it-, 3, cease, desist. 
desipio, [sapio,] 3, trijle, he foolish. 
desisto, stiti, stit-, 3, cease, desisi. 
desitus, [sino,] ceased, disused. 
desolo, I ; to forsake, abandon. 
despecto, i , look down on, overlook. 
despectus, iis, m., view from above. 
desperanter, hopelessly. 
desperatio, onis, f., despair. 
desperatus, a, um, desperate, hope- 

less, incurable. 
despero, i, to despair, give up hope. 

depicatus — devestio. 


despicatus, a, um, despised. 
despicio, exi, ect-, 3, look down ou, 

despise, disdaiii, sliun. 
despicor, i, despise, disdain. 
despoliator, oris, m., rohher. 
despolio, I, to roh, despoil, jAunder. 
despondeo, di, sum, 2, to hetroth, 

promise, plechje, yield. 
despumo, i, to skim, clear. 
despuo, 3, spit out, ahlior, reject. 
desquamo, i, to scale, strip, peel. 
destillo, i, run hy drops, trickle. 
destina, ae, f., a stay, prop. 
destinatio, onis, F., design, resolve. 
destino, i, determine, intend, re- 

solve, makefast, appoint. 
destituo, ui, ut-, [status,] 3, to 

pface, set, desert, forsake, defraud. 
destitiitio, onis, f., desertion. 
destringo, nxi, ct-, 3, s^rip, scrape 

off, unsheathe, graze, censure. 
destructio, onis, f., demolition. 
destruo, xi, ct-, 3, destroy, demolish. 
desub, helow, under, heneath. 
desubito, of a sudden. 
desudo, i , to sweat greatly. 
desue-facio, 3, to disuse. 
desuesco, evi, et-, 3, disuse, cease. 
desuetudo, inis, f., disuse. 
desultor, oris, m., leaper, vaulter. 
desultura, ae, f., leaping doicn. 
desum, deesse, defui, to fail, he 

wanting or ahsent. 
desumo, sumpsi, mpt-, 3, pick out. 
desuo, 3, tofasten. 
desnper, from ahove. 
desurgo, 3, to rise up. 
detector, oris, m., discoverer. 
detego, xi, ct-, 3, uncover, discover, 

expose, lay harQ, hetray. 
detendo, sum, 3, to unstretch, strike 

(tents), relax. 
detentus, [tineo,] kept hack. 
detergeo, si, sum, 2, wijje off, 

scour, cleanse, strip, hreak. 
deterior, deterrimus, icorse, worst. 
determino, i, fofx hounds, limit. 
detero, trivi, trit-, 3, to ivear away, 

iveidcen, diminish, thresh out. 
deterreo, ui, it-, 2, to frighten off, 

dder, p7'evenf, avert. 

detersus, [tergeo,] scoured. 
detestatio, onis, f., averting, exe- 

jcration, renunciation (of gens). 
detestor, i, to loathe, ahhor, depre- 

cate, curse solemnly. 
detexo, xui, xt-, 3, weave through. 
detineo, ui, tent-, 2, hinder, check, 

engage, detain. 
de-tondeo, 2, to clip, shear. 
detono, tonui, i, to thunder, cease 

raging. ' 
detorqueo, torsi, tum, 2, to wrest, 

detractio, onis, f., withdrawing. 
detractor, oris, m., slanderer. 
detraho, xi, ct-, 3, draw away, 

take from, disparage. 
detrecto, i, decline, refuse, detract, 
detrimentum, i, N., loss, damage. 
detritus, [tero,] ivorn away, or out. 
detriido, si, sum, 3, to thrustforth, 

dislodge, reduce, defer. 
detrunco, i, mutilate, hehead. 
deturbo, i, to thrust or cast doivn. 
deturpo, i, defile, deface. 
Deucalion, onis, myth. k. of Thes- 

saly, in the time of the Dekige. 
deunx, cis, eleven twelfths (see as). 
deiiro, ussi, ust-, 3, to hurn, hlast. 
deus, i, M., (§ 10, 7), god, divinity, 
deiitor, usus, 3, to misuse. 
devagor, i, wander. 
devasto, i, lay waste. 
deveho, xi, ct-, 3, carry away ; p., 

go away, descend. 
devello, velli, vuls-, 3, pluck off. 
develo, i, to unveil. 
deveneror, i, to worship. 
devenio, veni, vent-, 4, to come 

down, arrive, happen. 
devenusto, i, disfigure. 
devergo, 3, hend downward. 
deversor, i, iurn aside, lodge. 
deversorius, a, um, for lodgings, 

ftfor lodging ; N., inn. 
deverticulum, i, N., hy-path, inn, 

lodging, refuge, retreat. 
deverto, ti, sum, 3, turn aside ; P., 

puf up, lodge. 
devescor, 3, feed upon, devour. 
devestio, 4, unclothe. 


devexus — diffusus. 

devexus, a, um, hending or sloping 

(l()ionwarc\ sfeep. 
devictus, a, um, conquered. 
devincio, nxi, nct-, 4, to hindfast, 

u/il'e closclf/, engaf/e, ohlige. 
devinctus, a. um, devoted, attaclied, 
devinco, vici, vict-, 3, vanquish. 
devito, I, shun, avoid. 
devius, a, um, out-of-ilie-way., re- 

tired, inaccessihle, foolish. 
devoco, I, ccdl awag or down. 
devolo, I, fli/ down. 
devolvo, vi, iit, 3, io roll or pour 

do/on ; p,, to sink, fall. 
devoro, i, devour, swallow, waste. 
devotio, onis, F., devoting, conse- 

devoto, I, dedicate, hewitch, i/woke. 
devotus, a, um, devoted, attached. 
devoveo, vovi, vot-, 2, to devote, 

vo/o, curse, exec/xite. 
devulsus, [vello,] plucked off. 
dextans, tis, m., ten twelftJis {v. as). 
dexter, tra (tera), um, right, fortu- 

nate ; F., right ha/id. 
dexteritas, atis, F., aptness, dex- 

dextrorsum (-sus), to the right. 
di (dei, dii), pl. gods, (§ 10, 7). 
Dia, ae, f., old name of Naxos. 
f diabathrum, i, N., slipper. 
f diaconus, i, n., atte/vla/it. 
fdiadema, atis, diade//i. 
f diaetas, ae, F., way oflife, ahode. 
f dialecticus, a, um, ofdehate. 
JDialis, e, of Jupiter ; ethereal. 
f dialogus, i, M., dialogue. 
Diana, ae, (Gr. Artemis), goddess 

of the Moon and of Hunting. 
diarium, i, N., da/fs record or 

allowance; pl., wages. 
f diatretus, a, um, ope/i-ioo/^k. 
fdibaphus, a, um, douhle-dyed 

(purple) ; an office. 
dic, imper. of dico, say. 
dica, ae, f., lawsuit. (f) 
dicacitas, atis, f., pertness, hanter. 
dicax, acis (-culus), keen, sarcastic. 
dicis causa, /br/or??^'.'? sake. 
dico, I, dedicate, devote, proclaim. 
dico, xi, ct-, 3, say, call, tell, mea/i. 

fdicrotum, 1, n., two-oared or 

ba/iked hoat. 
dictamnus (um), i, m. ; dittcmy. 
dictata, orum, n., lesso/is, rules. 
dictator, oris, m., Dictator, with 

absolute power for six months. 
dictatorius, a, um, dictato/^^s. 
dictatura, ae, F.. dictatorship. 
Dictaeus, a, um, Cretan ; of Dicte, 

a mountain in Eastern Crete. 
dicterium, i, n., jest. 
dictio, onis, F., speech, delivery. 
dictito, I, to say or plead often. 
dicto, I, to say often^ dictate, com-^ 

mcmd, ap/wi/it, prescribe. 
dictum, i, N., loord, sayi/ig, jest. 
Dido, iis (onis), myth. founder and 

queen of Carthage. 
dido, dididi, didit-, 3, give forth. 
didiico, xi, ct-, 3, d/'aw apart, sepa- 

rate, dispe/se, dist/ibute. 
diecula, ae, f., o/ie little day. 
dierectus, (uplifted,) go be hanged. 
dies, ei (e), day (§ 13), daylight. 
diespiter, Jupiter. 
diffamo, i, defame, publish, report. 
diffarreatio, 5iiis, f., divorce. 
differentia, ae, f., diversity. 
differo, distuli, dilat-, delay, dis- 

perse, publish, defa/ne, differ. 
differtus, a, um, stuffed, crcmimed. 
difficile, tvith difficulty. 
difficilis, e, difjicult, obsti/iate. 
difficultas, atis, F., trouble, distress. 
diffidentia, ae, f., distrust. 
diffido, fisus, 3, to distrust. 
diffindo, fidi, fiss-, 3, cleave asun- 

de/', divide, defer. 
diffingo, 3, u/ido, mar, make over. 
diffisus, a, um, distrustful. 
diffiteor, [fateor,]*2, deny, disavow. 
difflo, j, blow away. 
diffluo, 3, fow cd)/'oad, dissolve. 
diffringo, ifract-, [frango,] 3, hreak 

apa/i., shcittcr. 
diffugio, fiigi, 3, flee away, scatter. 
diffugium. i, N., disp)ersio/i. 
diffundo, fudi, fiis-, 3, pour fort/i, 

spread, diffase, cheer, u/ihe/id. 
diffiisio, onis, F., cheerfulness.. 
diffiisus, a, um, widespread. 

digero — dirus. 


digero, gessi, gest-, 3, dwide, dis- 

tribute, urrange, dissolve. 
digestio, onis, arrangement. 
digitus (-ulus), i, m., finger, toe, 

inch, twig, or small hougli. 
digladior, i , fight fiercely. 
dignanter, courteously. 
dignatio, onis, F., liolding worthy, 

dignity, reputation. 
digne, tcorthily. 

dignitas, atis, f., dignity, lionor. 
dignor, i, liold icorthy, deign. 
dignosco, 3, to distinguish, discern. 
dignus, a, um, worthy, fit, proper. 
digredior, gressus, [gradior,] 3, 

turn aside, depart. 
digressio, onis, F. ; -sus, us, M., 

departure, separation. 
dii, deorum, M. pl., gods. 
dijudico, i,judge, decide, discern. 
dijungo=disjungo, disjoin. 
dilabidus, a, um, perishing. 
dilabor, lapsus, 3, sUp,fall or melt 

aicay, disperse, decay. 
dilacero, i, tear to pieces. 
dilanio, i, tear, mangle. 
dilapido, i, throw away. 
dilargior, 4, give lavishly. 
dilatio, onis, f., delay. 
dilato, I, expand, extend. 
dilator, oris, M., delayer. 
dilatus, [differo,] spread ahroad. 
dilectus, [diligo,] heloved. 
diligens tis, attentive, diligent. 
diligentia, ae, f., diligence, thrifi. 
diligo, lexi, ct-, 3, to love, esteem. 
dilucesco, luxi, 3, dawn, shine. 
dilucidus, a, um, clear, evident. 
diluculum, i, n., daybreak, dawn. 
diludium, i, N., respite, intermission. 
diluo, ui, ut-, 3, to wash, dissolve, 

weaken, dilute, remove. 
dilutus, a, um, watered, taeakened. 
diluvies, ei, F. ; -ium, i, N., fiood, 

deluge, inundation, destruction. 
Idimachae, arum, f., dragoons. 
dimano, i,fiow, spread. 
dimetior, mensus, 4, measure out. 
dimeto, i, to mark or stake out. 
dimicatio, onis, F., contest, strug- 
gle, battle, encounter. 

dimico, i, tofight, contend. 
dimidio, i, to halve. 
dimidius, a, um, half; n., the half. 
diminuo, 3, break to pieces. 
dimissio, onis, f., sending forth. 
dimitto, misi, miss-, 3, send forth, 

let go, dishand, ahandon. 
dimoveo, movi, mot-, 2, put aside, 

divide, disperse, dismiss. 
Dindymus, i, (-a, orum), a mt. in 

Mysia, sacred to Ceres. 
dinumeratio, onis, f., reckoning. 
dinumero, i, reckon up, count out. 
diSbolaris, e, ivorth two farthings. 
Diomedes, is, a Greek hero at 

the siege of Troy, s. of Tydeus. 
Di5ne, es, mother of Venus. 
Dionysius, i, tyrant of Syracuse, 

B.c. 430-367 ; his son and suc- 

cessor, expelled b.c. 344. 
Dionysus (os), i, the Greek name 

of Bacchus. 
•f-diota, ae, f., ivine-jar. 
f diploma, atis, N., ofiicial letter. 
dipondius (um), i, m., two pounds. 
f dipsas, adis, F., viper. 
diradio, i, spread in rays. 
Dirae, arum, f., the Furies. 
Dirce, es, F., a fountain near 

Thebes^ (adj. -caeus, a, um). 
directio, onis, f., straightening. 
directo (te), sfraight, directly. 
directus, [dirigo,] straight-out, level. 
diremptus, [-imo,] taken away. 
direptio, onis, f., pillage. 
direptor, oris, m., rohber. 
direptus, [-ripio,] snatched. 
diribeo, 2, lay apart, sort (votes). 
dirigo, rexi, rect-, [rego,] 3, guide, 

straighten, direct, guide, arrange. 
dirimo, emi, empt-, [emo,] 3, to 

part, divide, delay, interrupt. 
diripio, ui, ept-, [rapio,] 3, plunder, 

destroy, tear to pieces. 
diritas,' atis, F., fierceness, mis- 

forfune, cruelty, mischief 
dirumpo, rupi, rupt-, 3, hreak to 

pieces, hurst asunder. 
diruo, ui, ut-, 3, scatter, destroy. _ 
dirus, a, um, fierce, dreadful, ill- 
hoding; F., pl. evil omens. 


dis — dissensio. 

[dis-, apart^ all apart. 
Dis, Ditis, a name of Pluto. 
dis, ditis, rich^ fertile =dives. 
discaveo, 2, beware, keep clear. 
disoedo, cessi, cess-, 3, departy 

forsake, cease, pass aicay. 
disceptatio, onis, f., discussion. 
disceptator, oris, m., umpire. 
discepto, I, dispute, decide, discitss. 
disceriio, crevi, cret-, 3, distin- 

guishy divide, decree. 
discerpo, psi, pt-, [carpo,] to pull 

to pneces, scatter, disperse, destroy. 
discessio, onis, f. ; -ssus, us, m., 

separation, removal. 
discidium, i, n., separation, divorce. 
discinctus, a, um, ungirt, slack. 
discindo, cidi, ciss-, 3, cut asun- 

der, divide, disperse. 
discingo, nxi, nct-, 3, to ungii'dy 

cashier, disarm. 
disciplina, ae, f., discipline^ skill, 

habit, learning, sgstem. 
discipulus, i, m. (a, ae, f.), learner. 
discissus, [scindo,] cleft. 
discludo, si, suni [claudo,] 3, 

kecp apart, confne, divide. 
disco, didici, 3, learn. 
f discobolus, i, m., quoit-thrower. 
discolor, oris, parti-colored. 
discordia, ee, f., variance, strife. 
discordo, i, be at variance. 
discors, dis, discordant, harsh. 
discrepo, ui, i,jar,disagree,differ. 
discretus, [cerno,] parted. 
discrimen, inis, n., difference, 

crisis, peril, division, decision. 
discrimino, i, divide, distinguish. 
discrucio, i, torment ; p., be vexed. 
discumbo, cubui, cubit-, 3, re- 

cUne (at table), go to bed. 
discupio, 3, desire greatbj. 
discurro, cucurri, curs-, 3, mn 

about, go to andfro, discourse. 
discursus, iis, n., running about, 

con versation, discourse. 
f discus, i, M., disk, quoit, roundduh. 
discussio, onis, F., shaking, exami- 

n a tion, disc uss ion. 
discutio, cussi, cuss-, [quatio,] 3, 

shatter, disperse, frustrate. 

disertus, [dissero,] fluent,eloquent. 
[disf-=diff-. ^-^ ^ 

disjicio, jeci, ject- [jacio,] 3, scai- 

tcr, disperse, destroy. 
disjunctio, onis, f., separation, 

opposition, diversity. 
disjunctus, a, um, remote. 
disjungo, nxi, nct-, 3, itnTjoke, sep- 

arae, remore, icean. 
dispalor, i, to straggle. 
dispando, sum, 3, spfead, expand. 
dispar, paris, unlike, unequal. 
disparilis, e, unlike. 
disparo, i, separate, differ. 
dispartio=dispertio, 4, divide. 
dispello, puli, puls-, 3, drive aimy, 

scatter, disperse. 
dispendium, i, n., cost, damage. 
dispendo, 3, to weigh out. 
dispensatio, onis, f., management, 

charge, superintendence. 
dispensator, oris, m., manager. 
dispenso, i, pa?/ out, regulate, ar- 

range, dispense. 
disperdo, didi, dit-, 3, to waste, de- 

stroy, spoil, ruin. 
dispereo, ii, 4, to be undone. 
dispergo, si, sum [spargo,] 3, 

dispertio, 4, disti-ihute, divide. 
dispesco, 3, to divide, separate. 
dispessus, [pando,] spread out. 
dispicio, spexi, spect-, 3, discern, 

perceive, rejiect on. 
displiceo, ui [placeo,] 2, displease. 
displodo, [plaudo,] 3, spread out. 
dispono, posui, posit-, 3, set in 

array, distribute, put in order. 
dispositio, onis, f., arrangement. 
dispositus, a, um iveU-ordered. 
dispudet, 2, // shames greatly. 
dispulsus, [pello,] dispersed. 
dispungo, xi, 3, balance accounts. 
disputatio, onis, f., discussion^ 

debafe, dispute, argument. 
disputo, i, dispute, debate, tell. 
disquiro, 3, [quaero,] search out. 
disrnmpo=dirumpo, to break off^ 
disseco, ui, sect-, i, cut to pieces. 
dissemino, i, spread abroad. 
dissensio, onis, f., disagreement. 

dissensus — divexo. 


dissensus, us, m., discord. 
dissentio, si, sum, 4, disagree, dis- 

sent, ditfer. 
dissepio, psi, pt-, 4, to fence off. 
dissero, sit-, 3, sow, scatter. 
dissero, rui, rt-, 3, set apart, dis- 

course, examine, argue, discuss. 
disserto, i, to discourse, discuss. 
dissideo, edi, ess- [sedeo,] 2, dis- 

Cigree, be apart. 
dissidium, i, n., hreacli, discord. 
dissilio, ui, [salio,] 4, leap or Jiy 

dissimilis, e, unlike. 
dissimiliter, differenthj. 
dissimilitudo, inis, f., unlikeness. 
dissimulanter, clandestinelg. 
dissimulatio, onis, f., dissemhUng, 

dissimulator, oris M., dissembler. 
dissimulo, i, to conceal, disguise. 
dissipatio, onis, f., dispersion, ruin. 
dissipo, I, scatter, disperse, rout. 
dissitus, [sero,] scattered, remote. 
dissocio, I, disjoin, estrange. 
dissolute, negligentlg. 
dissolutio, onis, F., dissolving, de- 

stroj/ing, ceasing, refutation,frailty. 
dissolutus, a, um, loose, careless, 
dissolvo, vi, solut-, 3, loosen, pay, 

dissolve, destroy, refute. 
dissono, i, disagree. 
dissonus, a, um, discordant. 
dissors, tis, of otlier fate. 
dissuadeo, si, sum, 2, dissuade, 

advise against, resist. 
dissuasor, oris, m., opjionent. 
dissuavior, i, kiss fondly. 
dissulto, I, hurst asunder. 
dissuo, 3, umtitch, parl gently. 
distabesco, bui, 3, melt away. 
distgedet, 2, it greatly wearies. 
distans, tis, differing. 
distantia, se, F., distance, difference. 
distendo, di, tum, 3, stretch out, 

fll, extend, divide, distract. 
distentus, a, um,fuU; husy. 
distermino, i, to divide. 
distero, trivi, 3, hruise, grind. 
distinctio, onis, f., difference, sep- 

aration, distinction, ornament. 

distinctus, a, um, marked, distinct. 
distineo, ui, tent- [teneo,] 2, hold 

apart, divide, perplex, detain. 
distinguo, nxi, nct-, 3, to mark, 

disti)iguish, part, diversifj, adorn. 
disto, I, he distant or apart, differ. 
distorqueo, torsi, tort-, 2, wrench, 

twist, torture. 
distortio, onis, f., lorithing, twisting. 
distortus, a, um, twisted, deformed. 
distractio, onis, f., division, dis- 

cord, seliing in parcels. 
distractus, a, um, divided, per- 

distraho, xi, ct-, 3, to draw apart, 

divide, perplex, sell in parcels. 
distribuo, ui, iit-, 3, deal, distrihute. 
distributio, onis, f., division. 
districtus, a, um, severe, husy. 
distringo, nxi, ct-, 3, stretch apart, 

restrain, occupy, molest. 
disturbo, i, confuse,destroy,thwart. 
ditesco, 3, grow rich. 
ditio, onis, f., sway, authority. 
ditior, [dis,] richer. 
dito, I, to enrich. 
diu, -tius, -tissime, long (in time), 

long ago, in the day-time. 
diurnus, a, um, daity, of a day. 
dius=divus, divine. 
diutinus, (-turnus), a, um, long- 

continued. > 

diutius, longer, too long. 
diuturnitas, atis, F., long duration. 
diva, ae, f., goddess. 
divalis, e, divine, imperial. 
divarico, i, to spread asunder. 
divello, li, vuls-, 3, rend or jjluck 

apart, dissolve, destroy. 
divendo, dit-, 3, sell in parcels. 
diverbero, i, strike aparl, divide. 
diverbium, i, N., dialogue (of play). 
diverse, differently. 
diversitas, atis, f., difference, con- 

iradiction, disagreement. 
diversus, a, um, facing different 

ways, unlike, hostile, apart. 
diverto, ti, sum, 3, turn aside, sep- 

arafe, diverge, differ. 
dives, itis, rich. 
divexo, i, rend asunder. 


divi — dnbitatio. 

divi, orum, pL, gods. 
dividia, ae, F., discord, dimsion. 
divido, isi, is-, 3, divide, distrihute, 

srparate, dif<tin(/uish, hreakthrough. 
dividuus, a, um, separate, divisihle. 
divinatio, onis, f., divining, pre- 

diciing, examination. 
diviiiitas, atis, F., divinitg, divinpig. 
diviiio, I, to divine, foretell. 
divinus, a, um, divine, jyrophetic, 

inspired, admirahle; m., diviner. 
divisio, onis, ¥.,pariition,portion. 
divisor, oris, m., divider, election- 

eering agent. 
divisiira, ae, f., cleft, division. 
divisus, [divido,] parled. 
divitiae, arum, f., riches, ipealfh. 
divortium, i, N. ; [verto,] parling 

of the waijs, dirorce. 
divulgatus, a, um, tcide-spread. 
divulgo, I, make public. 
divulsus, [vello,] i, torn apart. 
divus, a, um, divine; N., the shj ; 

sub divo, in the open air. 
do, dare, dedi, datum, i, give, per- 

mit, hesiow, grant, deliver, telL 
doceo, ui, ct-, 2, teach, tell. 
docilis, e, teachable. 
docilitas, atis, f., teachahleness. 
doctor, oris, m., teacher. 
doctrina, ae, F., teaching, leaming. 
doctus, a, um, learn'ed, skiUed. 
documentum, i, n., proof pattern. 
Dodona, ae, f., a city in Epirus, 

famous for an oracle of Jupiter. 
dodrans, tis, m., 9 ounccs; ^, (v. as). 
fdogma, atis, n., opinion, decree. 
dolabella, ee, f., hatchet. 
dolabra, ae, f., axe, mattock. 
dolens, tis, painful. 
dolenter, ivith pain or grief 
doleo, ui, it-, 2, to grieve, suffer or 

give pain. 
dolium, i, n., cask, tuh, jar. 
dolo, I, io hew, cudgel, fashion. 
t dolo, onis, m., staff, sting. 
Dolopes, um, people of Thessaly. 
dolor, oris, m., jKun, grief 
dolosus, a, um, crafty, decitful. 
dolus, i, M., deceit, crafl, guile. 

domator=domitor, tamer. 
domesticus, a, um, of the house, 

fiunHiar ; pL, inmaies, servants. 
domicilium, i, N., dwelling, ahode. 
domina, se, f., misiress, lady. 
dominatio, onis, F., lo7'dship, tyr- 

anny, domuiion, ahsolute power. 
dominatus, iis, m., rule,sovereignty. 
dominium, i, n., property, hanquet. 
dorainor, i, to rule, be master. 
dominus, i, n., lord, master, oumer. 
domito, I, iame, hreak (as cattle). 
domitor, oris, m. ; -trix, icis, f., 

iumer, conqueror. 
domnus=dominus, master. 
domo, ui, it-, i, io tame, suhdue. 
domus, us (i), F., house, homcyfam- 

ily (§ 12, 2) ; domi (ui), at home. 
donarium, i, N., iemple, treasure- 

chamber, voiive gift. 
donatio, onis, F., gift, reward. 
donativum, i, m., gift, largess. 
donec (donicum), imiil, while. 
dono, I, io give, hesiow, present. 
donum, i, n., gifi, voiive offering. 
f dorcas, adis, f., gazelle. 
Doricus, a, um, poetic for Greek. 
Doris, idis, a sea-goddess ; the Sea. 
dormio, 4, to sleep, he at ease, 
dormisco, 3, go io sleep. 
dormito, i, he sleepy, nod. 
dorsum, i, N., hack, slope. 
dos, dotis, F., douTy, marriage-por- 

iion, qunlity, endowment. 
dotalis, e, qf dowry. 
dotatus, a, um, well-endoiced. 
doto, I, to endow. 
fdrachma, ae, f., drachm (coin or 

weight, about 16 cents). 
f draco, onis, m., dragon. 
f drama, atis, m., a drama, play. 
f drapeta, ae, m., runaway. 
f dromas, adis, m., dromedai-]/. 
druides, um (-ae, arum), m., druids, 
driipa, se, F., an over-ripe olive. 
dryades, um, F., ivood-nymphs. 
Dryopes, people of Epirus. 
dualis, e, containing iwo. 
dubitanter, hesiiaiingly. 
dubitatio, onis, f., doubt, hesita- 

tion, uncertainty. 

dubito — echo. 


dubito, [duo,] i, to doubt, waver. 
dubius, a, um, douUful, wavering, 

peri/ous ; n., douht, dancjer. 
duceni, ae, a, two liundred each. 
ducenti, se, a, two hundred. 
ducenties (-ens), 200 tijnes. 
duco, xi, ct-, 3, lead, guide, con- 

siruct, reckon, endure, protract, 

receive, admit, marry (a wife). 
ductim, hy draughts. 
ductio, onis, f., drawing away. 
ducto (-tito), I, lead, deceive, take 

honie (marry). 
ductor, oris, M., leader, guide. 
ductus, us, M., guidance, outline, 

dudum, some time ago. 
duellura=bellum, imr. 
duim, pres. subj. of do, give. 
dulcedo, inis, f., sweetness, charm. 
dulcesco, 3, to grow sweet. 
dulcis, e, sweet, pleasant, dear. 
dulcitudo, inis, f., sweetness. 
Diilichius, a, um, of Ulysses (or 

Dulichium, a small island near 

dum, while, until, provided. ^ 
dumetum, i, n., thicket. 
dummodo, provided that. 
diimosus, a, um, hushy, hramhly. 
dumtaxat, exactly, only, however, 

sofar, at least. 
dunius, i, M., hush, hramhle. 
duo, ae, o (§ 18, i, 2), two. 
duodecies, twelve times. 
duodecim, twelve. 
duodecimus, a, um, twelfth. 
duodeni, se, a, 12 each, hy twelves. 
[duode-, minus ttvo, (as in duode- 

viceni, -viginti, eighteen). 
duplex, icis, douhle, crcfiy, 
duplicarius, a, uni, douhly paid. 
duplicatio, onis, f,, douhling. 
duplicitas, atis, f., cleceit. 
duplico, I, to douhle, repeat. 
duplus, a, um, twice as much. 
diipondius, of tivo pounds. 
diiracinus, a, um, hard-herried. 
diiramentum, i, n., hardening. 
t diirateus, a, um, icooden. 
diiratio, onis, f., endurance. 

duresco, diirui, 3, grow hard. 
diireta, ee, f., hath-tuh. 
diiriter, hardly, sternly. 
diiritas, atis, f., hardness, harsh- 


diiritia, ae, f., hardness, cruelty. 
duriusculus, a, um, rather hard. 
duro, I, harden, inure, endure, stay. 
diirus, a, um, hard, stern, rude, cruel. 
duumviri, pl. n., hoard c)f tico, 

(on criminal or naval matters). 
dux, diicis, m., leader, cjuide, chief. 
f dyas, adis, f., the numher two. 
t dynamis, is, f., plenty, power. 
•fdynastes, ae, m., ruler. 
Dyrrachium (Gr, Epidamnus), 

Durazzo, on the coast of Epirus. 
dyspepsia, ee, f., indigestion. 
dyspnoea, ae, difficulty ofhreathing. 

e (ex), out offrom. 
ea, [is,] hy that ivay. 
eapse, [ipse,] herself same. 
eatenus, so far. 
t ebenus (um), i, f., ehony. 
ebibo, bi, bit-, 3, drink up or out. 
ebito, I, to go forth. 
eblandior, 4, get hy flattery. 
eboreus, a, um, of ivory. 
ebrietas, atis, F., drunkenness. 
ebrio, i, make drunk. 
ebriolus, a, um, tipsy. 
ebriosus, a, um, given to drink. 
ebrius, a, um, drunk, intoxicated. 
ebullio, 4, hoil up or away. 
ebulus, (um), i, m,, dwarf-elder. 
ebur, 6ris, N., ivory. 
eburatus, a, um, inlaicl with ivory. 
eburneus (-nus), a, um, of ivory. 
ecastor, hy Casior! 
ecce, hehc)ld ! (also as eccum, ec- 

cam, eccillum, &c). 
eccere ! ?>// Ceres. 
teccle-iia, ae, f., assemhly, church. 
fecdicus, i, m., solicitor. 
ecfero=effero, hear ojf. 
t echinus, i, m., hedgehog, hurr, howl. 
t echo, iis, f., echo. 


ecloga — egestas. 

•f ecloga, 86, F., choice selection. 
econtra, on the contrary. 
ecquando, lohether ever. 
ecquis, qua, quid, ivhether any. 
ecquo, whither. 

fectypus, a, um, copy (in relief). 
eculeus, i, m., colt, rack. 
edacitas, atis, F., greediness. 
edax, acis, [edo,] devouring. 
edento, i, dash out the teeth. 
edepol, bf/ Pollux. 
edera=hedera, ivy. 
edico, xi, ct-, 3, declare, publish, 

aj)point, establish, ordain. 
edicto, I, proclaim, publish. 
edictum, i, n., ordinance. 
edisco, didici, 3, learn thoroughly. 
edissero, rui, rt-, 3 ; -rto, i, to set 

forth, explain, unfold, relate. 
editio, onis, f., giving forth, pub- 

lication, exhibition, birth. 
editor, 5ris, m., producer, exhihiter. 
edo, didi, dit-, 3, give forth, pub- 

lish, utfer, declare, produce. 
edo, (esse, § 37, v.), edi, es-, 3, eat, 

devour, squande?\ 
edo, onis, m., glutton. 
edoceo, cui, ct-, 3, instruct or in- 

for/n thoroughly. 
edolo, I, heiv ouf, polish, prepare. 
edomo, ui, it-, i, to tame, subdue. 
Edonus, a, um, Thracian. 
edormio, 4, sleep off, or out. 
educatio, onis, f., training, breed- 

ing, education. 
educator, oris, m. ; -trix, iois, f., 

educo, I, educate, train. 
educo, xi, ct-, 3, lead or draw 

forlh, summon, erect, put to sea. 
edulis, e, ealable ; N., ^\. food. 
ediirus, a, um, very hard. 
effarcio=effercio, cram. 
effatus, [for,] pronounced, estab- 

lished, determined. 
effsctio, onis, f. ; -tus, us, m., 

doing, effecting. 
effector, oris, m. ; -trix, tricis, f., 

doer, producer, author. 
effeniinatus, a, um, womanish. 
effemino, i, to weaken, effeminate. 

eflfercio, fert-, i, to stuff, cram. 
effero, efferre, extuli, elat-, bear 

forth, produce, proclaim, exalt. 
effero, i, make wild or savage. 
effertus, [farcio,] stuffed. 
efferus, a, um, very wild, savage. 
eflfervo (-esco), fervi, 3, to boil up, 

boil over, rage, swarm. 
eflfetus, a, um, having borne or 

yielded, exhausted (by bearing). 
eflBcax, acis, effectual. 
eflficio, feci, fect-, [facio,] 3, bring 

to pass, niake, form, yield, prove. 
eflfigies, ei, f., copy, image, portrait. 
eflfingo, nxi, ct-, 3, to form, fashion. 
eflElagito, i, demand urgently. 
efflictim, to death, desperately. • 
effligo,*xi, ct-, strike down or dead. 
eflflo, i, blow or hreathe out. 
eflfloresco, rui, 3, to hlossom. 
effluo, xi, 3, flow out, get ahroad, 

go forth, pass away, disappear. 
eflfluvium, i, n., outflow, outlet. 
effodio, fodi, foss-, 3, dig or tear 

out, dig up. 
effcetus=effetus, exhausted. 
effor, i, speakforth, utter. 
eflfractor, oris, m., burglar. 
eflfrenus (-natus), a, um unbridled. 
eflfringo, fregi, fract-, [frango,] 3, 

hreak out or open. 
effugio, fugi, 3, to flee, escape, shun. 
effugium, i, n., flight, refuge. 
effulgeo, si, 2, shine forth, glitter. 
effultus, [fulcio,] propped, stayed. 
eflfundo, fiidi, fiis-, 3, to pour forth, 

shed, let go ; P., indulge in. 
effiise, far and loide. 
eflfusio, onis, F., pouring out, pro- 

effiisus, a, um, wide-spread, p)rofuse. 
effiitio, 4, prale, babhle. 
egelidus, a, um, lukewarm, cold. 
egens, tis, needy, lacking. 
egenus, a, um, destitute, void, needy. 
egeo, ui, 2, to need, lack, loant. 
Egeria, ae, nymph of a grotto near 

Rome, wife and counsellor of 

egero, gessi, gest-, 3, carry forth. 
egestas, atis, f., jjoverty, need. 

egestio — emano. 


egestio, onis, f., carryincj forih, 

einpfymg, loasting. 
ego, mei, mihi, me, /. 
egomet, / myself. 
egredior, gress-, 3, go fortJi, mount, 

icander, march out, go heyond. 
egregie, excellently. 
egregius, a, um, [grex,] excellent, 

eminen t, distinguished. 
egressus, iis, m., a going forth. 
egurgito, i, pour out, squander. 
ehem (of joy or suprise), ha! 
eheu (of grief or pain), ah ! 
eho (of command or reproof ), ho ! 
eia (eja), ha ! ho ! come on ! 
ejaculor, i, hurlforth. 
ejectio, onis, f., casting out. 
ejecto, I, to castforth. 
ejero=ejiiro, reject. 
ejicio, jeci, ject-, [ jacio,] 3, to cast 

out, tlirofa forth, run agvound. 
ejulatio, onis, f. ; -tus, iis, m., 

wailing, lamentation. 
ejulo, I, to wail, lament. 
ejuncidus, a, um, lean, slender. 
ejiiro, i, reject, ahjure. 
ejusmodi, of that sort. 
elabor, lapsus, 3, sUp away, escape, 

disappear, jxiss aivay. 
elaboro, i , take pains, icork out. 
ejanguesco, gui, 3, slacken, relax. 
elate, loftily, proudly. 
elatio, onis, f., hearing-out for 

burial, uplifting, passion. 
elatus, [effero,] proud, lofty. 
elavo, lavi, laut- (lot-), i, tcash out. 
elecebra, ae, f., allurer. 
electilis, e, choice, dainty. 
electio, onis, f., choice, election. 
electo, i, icorm out, select. 
Electra, ae, d. of Agamemnon. 
felectrum, i, n., amher. 
electus, a, um, choice, select. 
elegans, tis,fne, elegant, luxurious. 
elegantia, ae, f., elegance, grace. 
■f elegi, orum, m. ; -gia, ae, f., elegy. 
elementa, orum, m., elements, rudi- 

ments, heginn ings. 
t elephantinus, a, um, of ivory. 
telephas, antis; -phantus, i, m., 

elephant, ivory. 

Eleusinus, a, um, of Eleusis, a 

town of Attica, famous for the 

mysteries of Ceres. 
elevatio, onis, f., disparaging. 
elevo, i, Uft up, lighten, impair. 
elices, um, m., trench, drain. 
elicio, licui (lexi), licit-, 3, draw 

out, allure, entice, call fortli. 
elido, si, sum, 3, dash out, crush. 
eligo, legi, lect-, [lego,] 3, select. 
elimino, at-, i, turn out of doors. 
elimo, I, to polish, finish. 
elinguis, e, dumb, mute. 
eliquo, i, strain, pour, melt. 
Elis, idis, f., the W. district of 

Eleus, a, um, of Elis, or Olympia. 
elisio, onis, f., striking out. 
Elissa, ae, a name of Dido. 
elisus, [elido,] crushed, forced out. 
elixus, a, um, hoiled, soaked. 
t ellychnium, i, n., lamp-ivick. 
eloco, i, liire or let out. 
elociitio, ouis, f., oratory. 
elogium, i, N., maxim, clause. 
eloquens, tis, eloquent. 
eloquentia, se, F. ; -quium, i, N., 

eloquor, ciit-, 3, speak out, declare. 
eliiceo, xi, 2, shine forlh, come to 

eluctor, I, to struggle out, win. 
eliicubro, i, compose lahoriously. 
eludo, si, sum, 3, wash out, win (at 

play), parry, delude, mock. 
elugeo, xi, 2, to mourn thefull time. 
elumbis, e, weak in the hack. 
eluo, ui, iit-, 3, wash off, get rid of. 
elutus, a, um, insipid, watery. 
elutrio, i, icash ouf, draw ojf. 
eluvio, onis ; -ies, em, e, f., washing 

off, overfiow, chasm. 
Elysium, i, n., the abode of the 

blest in the world below. 
emacio, at-, i, make lean. 
emaculo, i, clear of stains. 
emancipatio, onis, f., release (of 

a son from the father's power). 
emancipo, i, emancipate, transfer. 
e-maneo, 2, stay outside, overstay. 
emano, \,fiow out, spread. 


Emathia — enubo. 

Emathia, ae, poetic for Macedonia 

or Thessaly. 
emax, acis, eager to huy. 
f emblema, atis, n., irdaid work. 
f embolium, i, n., interlude. 
emendatio, onis, correction. 
emendator, oris, M., amender. 
emendatus, a, vlvq., fauUless. 
emendico, i, (j(d bij begging. 
emendo, i, to correct, iniprove. 
emensus, [metior,] traversed. 
ementior, 4, utter falsely, pretend. 
emercor, i, to purchase, bribe. 
emereo, ui, it-, (-or), 2, to earn, 

win, serve out one's term. 
emergo, si, sum, 3, bring or conie 

to light, rise, enierge, get clear. 
emeritus, a, um, icorn out. 
emersus, iis, m., an emerging. 
emetior, 4, measure out, traverse. 
emeto, 3, mow down. 
emico, ui, i, spring or show forth. 
emigro, i, depart, remove. 
eminatio, onis, F., threat. 
eminens, tis, prominent, lofty. 
eminentia, se, ¥., prominence. 
emineo, ui, 2, stand forth, extend. 
eminor, i, declare with threats. 
eminulus, a, um, projecting. 
eminus, at a distance. 
emiror, i, be amazed, ivonder at. 
emissarium, i, N., drain, outlet. 
emissarius, i, M., scout, spy, shoot. 
emissio, onis, F., sending-forth. 
emitto, misi, miss-, 3, send forth, 

cast away, let go, 
emo, emi, empt-, 3, to buy, get. 
emolior, 4, bring out, stir up. 
emollio, 4, soften, iceaken. 
emolo, it-, 3, grind up. 
emolumentum, i, n., effort, gain. 
emoneo, ui, it-, 2, admonish. 
emorior, mortuus, 3, die, perish. 
emoveo, movi, mot-, 2, remove, 

push ouf, shak-e, rack. 
emplastro, i, to bud, graft. 
emplastrum, i, N., bark, plaster. 
t emporium, i, n., market. 
empticius, a, um, boughten. 
emptio, onis, f., purchase. 
emptor, oris, m. ; -trix, f., buyer. 

emptus, [emo,] hought. 
emulgeo, sum, 2, (Jrain, exhausl. 
emunctus, a, um, cleaned out. 
emundo, i, clean thoroughly. 
emungo, nxi, nct-, 3, to clean out. 
emunio, A,,fortify, protect, furnish. 
en ! bekold ! come ! 
enarrabilis, e, explainahle. 
enarro, i, tell, declare, interpret. 
enascor, nat- 3, spring or sprout 

up, be born. 
enato, i, swim away. 
enavatus, a, um, performed. 
enavigo, i, sail away, or over. 
■]■ encaustus, a, um, burnt-in. 
Enceladus, i, a giant buried under 

Mount Etna. 
f encytus, i, m., cake, pastry. 
[endo-=indu- or in- (im-). 
f endromis, idis, f., coarse cloaJc. 
Endymion, onis, myth. prince of 

Caria, loved by Diana. 
eneco, cui, ct- (cat-), i, to kill, ex- 

haust, torment. 
enectiTs, a, um, killed. 
enervis, e, nerveless, iveak. 
enervo, i, unnerve, iveaken. 
enico = eneco, kill. 
enim, /or, surely,for instance. 
Enipeus, i, m., a river of Thessaly. 
eniteo, 2 ; -esco, tui, 2, shine forth. 
enitor, nis- (nix-), 3, to strive, clhnb, 

bring forth. 
enixe (im), strenuously. 
enixus, a, um, in earnest, having 

gicen birth, toiling, striving. 
Eiina, ae, F., a town of Sicily, 

where Proserpine was stolen. 
Ennius, i, the eadiest Roman 

poet, B.c. 239-169. 
eno, I, sicim away, traverse or es- 

cape by swimming. 
enodate, clearly, plainly. 
enodis, e, [nodus,] smooth, clear. 
enodo, i , tofree from knots, explain. 
enormis, e,irregular, immense. 
enotesco, tui, 3, become known. 
enoto, I, to mark, note. 
ensis, is, m., sword, hlade. 
enubo, psi, 3, marry out of one^s 

rank or ho7ne. 

enucleatus — erodo. 


enucleatus, a, um, clear, pure. 
eiiucleo, I, clear from liusk or 

kernel, explain. 
enumeratio, onis, f., nunibering. 
eaumero, i, count, reckon. 
enuncio (tio), i, declare, report. 
enutrio, 4, nurture, support. 
eo, ire, ivi, itum (§ 37, vi), (jo,pass. 
eo (abl.), «.s', hjj so mucli. 
eo, tldtker ; eodem, the-same loay. 
f Eos, F., da/on, East. 
f eous, a, um, of morning ; castern. 
Epaminondas, se, a, Theban gen- 

eral slaiii at Mantinea, b.c, 362. 
fephebus, i, m., a youth (18 to 20). 
fephemeris, idis, f., diari/. 
Ephesius, a, um, of Ephesus, a 

city of lonia ; or of Diana, 

whose chief temple was there. 
f ephippium, i, n., horse-cloth, sad- 

dle, housing, caparison. 
f ephorus, i, m., a Spartan magis- 

trate, of a board of hve. 
Ephyreius, (-eeus), a, um, of Eph- 

yra (e), or Corinth. 
f epibata, ae, m., a marine. 
f epichysis, is, f., pilcher. 
f epicopus, a, um, ivith oars. 
f epicrocum, i, n., thin, transparent. 
Epidaurus, i, f., a city of Argohs. 
f epigramma, tis, n., an inscriptioti, 

f epilogus, i, m., conclusion. 
Epirus (os), i, f. {mainland) the 

N. W. district of Greece. 
f episcopus, i, n., overseer. 
f episfcola (ula), ae, f., letter. 
f epistomium, i, m., cork, hung. 
f epitaphium, i, N.,funeral oration. 
f epithalamium, i, n., nuptial song. 
fepitheca, ae, increase. • 
f epityrum, i, n., olive-conserve. 
f epodos, i, M., alternate verse. 
f epops, opis, M., hoopoe (bird). 
f epo3, N., an heroic poem. 
epoto, avi, pot-, i, drink offor up. 
epularis, e, of hanquets. 
epulo, onis, m., gtiest atfeasts. 
epulor, i, to feast, eat, hanquet. 
epulum, i, n, ; pl, epulae, arum, f., 

hanquet, religious feast. 

equa, ae, f. (d. pl., abus), mare. 
equarius, a, um, ofhorses, M.,groom. 
eques, itis, m., horseman ; pl., cav- 

alry : knights (a Roman order). 
equester, tris, e, of the cavalry or 

kn ights, eq uestrian. 
equidem, indeed, no douht. 
equile, is, n., horse-stall. 
equinus, a, um, of horses. 
equiso, onis, m., groom, hostler. 
equitatus, us, m., cavalry. 
equito, i, to ride, hestride. 
equuleus, i, m., colt, rack. 
equus (ecus), i, m., horse. 
era=hera, inistress. 
eradicitus, root-and-hranch. 
eradico, i, root out, wear out. 
erado, si, sum, 3, scrape off, erase. 
Erato, F., the lyric Muse. 
f Erebus, i, m., Darkness, (uame of 

the lower world). 
Erechtheus, i, myth. k. of Athens. 
erctuni=herctum, inheritance. 
erecte, holdly. 

erectus, [erigo,] upright, lofty. 
erepo, psi, 3, creep away. 
ereptio, onis, f., seizure. 
ereptor, oris, m., plunderer. 
ereptus, [eripio,] snatched. 
Eretria, ae, a city of Euboea. 
erga, fo/vards, opposite. 
ergastulum, i, n., ivorkhouse,prison. 
ergo, therefore (§ 43, 5), then. 
f erice, es, f., heath, hroom. 
Erichthonius, i, myth. k. of Athens, 

son of Vulcan ; also a king of 

Troy, son of Dardanus. 
ericius, i, m., hedgehog, ahattis. 
Eridanus, i, m., the river Po, m 

North Italy. 
erigo, rexi, rect-, 3, to set up, rouse, 

cheer, excile. 
erilis=herilis, of ihe master. 
Erigone, es, myth. d. of Icarius, 

changed to the constell. Virgo. 
f Erinny-s, yos, f., a Fury. 
Eriphyla, ae (e, es), myth. d. of 

Talaus, wife of Amphiaraus. 
eripio, ui, rept-, [rapio,] 3, snatch 

aivay, setfree. 
erodo, si, sum, 3, eat or gnaw aivay. 


erogatio — evergo. 

erogatio, onis, F., paying-out. 
erogo, I, 2^(^11 out, spend. 
erosio. onis, f., [rodo,] eating aivay. 
errabundus, a, um, icandering. 
erraticus, a, um, ramhUng. 
erro, i, icander, roani.. err, stray. 
erro, onis, m., icanderer, vagrant. 
error, oris, m., icandering, error. 
erubesco, bui, 3, to redden, hlush. 
eruca, ae, f., canker-icorm, cater- 

pillar, cahhage. 
eructo, I, helch, cast off. 
eructus, a, um, impure, had. 
eriidero, at,- i, to clear ofrubhish. 
erudio, 4, train, jjolish. 
eruditio, onis, f., learning. 
eruditus, a, um, educated, skilled. 
eriigo, i, smoothe from wrinkles. 
erumpo, tupi, rupt-, 3, hurstforth. 
eruo, ui, ut-, 3, j^iuck, draio or cast 

out, overthrow, destroy. 
eruptio, onis, f., hursting-out. 
erus=herus, muster. 
ervum, i, n., icild pea, or vetch. 
Erycus, a, um, of Eryx, or Venus. 
Erymanthus, i, mts . of Arcadia. 
Erythraeus, a, um, of Erythrce, a 

cityof Boeotia ; nlso, of Erythi-as, 

myth. king of S. Arabia. 
Eryx, ycis, m., son of Venus ; a 

mountain of W. Sicily. 
esca, ae, F.,food, hait. 
escalis, e ; -arius, a, um, of food. 
escendo, di, sum, [scando,J 3, to 

clitnh, viount. 
escit, escunt, fut. of sum, to he. 
esculentus, a, wxa., ft for food. 
esculus=aesculus, oak. 
esito, I, [edo,] to eat oflen. 
fesox, ocis, M., pike, pikei-el. 
Esquiliae, arum, F., ahill of Rome. 
essedum, i, n., icar-chariot. 
estrix, icis, F., glutfon. 
estur=editur, pr. pass. of edo, eat. 
esurialis, e, of hunger. 
esurio, it-, 4, to he hungry. 
esurio, onis, M., glutton. 
esus, [edo,] eaten. 
et, and, also, even ; et . . . et, hoth 

. . . and. 
etenim,/or, truly, since (§ 43, 11). 

f etesiee, arum, M., summer trade- 

winds, through the dog-days. 
etiam, even, also, yes,-yet, indeed. 
etiamnum, till now, also, still. 
etiamsi, even if although. 
etiam tum, tili then, even then, still. 
Etriiria, ae, W. Italy, N. of Rome. 
etsi, even if although. 
fetymon, i, N.. root (of a word). 
f eu, euge, icell ! icell done ! 
Euboea, ae, f., a large island near 

the coast, N. of Athens. 
f eugeneus, (-ius), a, um, well-horn. 
f Eumenides, um, f., (gracious), a 

name for the Furies. 
f euniichus, i, m.. eunuch. 
Euphrates, is, M., the chief river 

of Syria. 
f euripus, i, m., channel, strait, canal. 
Europa, ae (e, es), Europe ; myth. 

d. of Agenor, loved by Jupiter. 
Eurotas, ae, M., a river of Laconia. 
f eurus, i, m., the Soutli-east wind. 
Eurydice, es, wife of Orpheus. 
Eurystheus,i, myth. k. of Mycenae. 
Euterpe, es, the muse of Music. 
f euxinus, a, um, (hospilahle) epithet 

of the Black Sea (Euxine). 
evacuo, i, to empty, make void. 
Evadne, es, wife of Capaneus. 
evado, si, sum, 3, go forth, turn 

out, pass over. 
evagor, i, icander forth, extend. 
evalesco, valui, 3, grow strong. 
evallo, 3, to hull, winnow, cast out. 
Evander, dri, myth. colonist of 

Rome, from Arcadia. 
evanesco, ui, 3, vanish, disappear. 
evanidus, a, um, vanishing. 
evanno, 3, to icinnoio. 
evans, tis^crying Evan ! (Bacchus). 
evasto, I, lay loaste, devastate. 
evax! hurrah! 

eveho, xi, ct-, 3, carry or lead out. 
evello, velli, vuls-, 3, pluck away. 
evenio, veni, vent-, 4, comeforth, 

happen, result. 
eventum, i, n. ; -tus, iis, M., event, 

c():)sequence, result. 
everbero, i, heat, slap,flap, stir. 
evergo, ■},, pour forth. 

everriculuni — excitus. 


everriculum, i, n., drag-net. 
everro, verri, vers-, 3, siceep out. 
eversio, onis, f., overtlirow, ruin. 
eversor, oris, m., destroyer. 
eversus, a, um, overtlirown. 
everto, ti, sum, 3, expel, overtJirow. 
eviotus, [vinco,] vanquished. 
evidens, tis, manifest, plain, clear. 
evidentia, ae, f., distinctness. 
evigilo, I , a-ake up, ivatch, elaborate. 
evilesco, lui, 3, groiv ivorthless. 
evincio, nxi, nct- 4, hind up, wind. 
evinco, vici, vict-, 3, to vanquish, 

subdue, prevail. 
eviro, i, to unman. 
eviscero, i, disembowel. 
eyito, I, avoid ; put to death. 
Evius, i, a name of Bacchus. 
evocatio, onis, f., summons, call. 
evoco, I, to call forth, summon. 
evoe, ajoyous cry (of bacchanals). 
evolo, I , jiy or spring out, ascend. 
evolutio, onis, f., unrolling, reading. 
evolvo, vi, ut-, 3, unroll, unfold. 
evomo, ui, it-, 3, disgorge. 
evulgo, I , publish, divulge. 
evulsio, onis, f., pulling-out. 
evulsus, [evello,]p/Mtle6/ q^or out. 
ex=e, out offrom, after,forthfrom. 
[ex-, out, utterly, very. 
exacerbo, i, embitter. 
exacte, exactly, precisely. 
exactio, onis, f., driving-out. 
exactor, oris, m., expeller, collector. 
exactus, [exigo,] driven out. 
exacuo, ui, iit-, 3, sharpen, inflame. 
exadversum, over against. 
exaedifico, i, build, construct,fnish. 
exaequo, i, level, equalize. 
exaestuo, i , boil up, ferment, gloiv. 
exaggeratio, onis, f., heaping up. 
exaggero, i, to heap up, enlarge. 
exagito, i, stir up, rouse, disturb. 
•j-exagoga, se, f., exportatign. 
exalbesco, bui, 3, tu7'n ivhite, or 

pale with fear. 
exalto, I, raise, heighten, deepen. 
examen, inis, n., swarm, crowd. 
examinatio, onis, f., bcdancing. 
examino, i , iveigh, ponder, swarm. 
examussim, exactly. 

exanclo, i, draw out, endure. 
exanimatio, onis, f., suffocation, 

frighi, breathlessness. 
exanimis, e ; us, a, um, Ufeless, dead. 
exanimo, i, deprive oftife or breath. 
exardesco, arsi, ars-, 3, to kindle, 

blaze out. 
exaresco, arui, 3, to dry up. 
exarmo, i, disarm, iveaken. 
exaro, i , plough up, till, inscribe. 
exaspero, i, roughen, sharpen. 
exauctoro, i, discharge, cashier. 
exaudio, 4, hearfrom afar, iisten. 
exaugeo, 2, enlarge greatly. 
exauspico, i, tcdce augury. 
excaeco, i, make bliiid- 
excalceo, i, deprive ofshoes. 
excandesco, dui, 3, kindle, glow. 
excavo, i, to hollow out. 
excedo, cessi, cess-, 3, to goforth 

or beyond, die. 
excellens, tis, lofty, eminent. 
excellentia, ae, f., superiority. 
excello, ui, sum, 3, raise up, excel. 
excelsus, a, um, lofty. 
exceptio, onis, f., exception. 
excepto, I, catch up, snuff up. 
exceptor, oris, m., scribe, reporter. 
exceptus, [-cipio,] caught. 
excerno, crevi, cret-, i, sft out, 

cleanse, discharge. 
excerpo, psi, pt-, [carpo,] 3, pick 

out, select, except. 
excessus, Gs, m., standing-out, de- 

pariure, projeclion. 
excetra, se, F., sncdce. 
excidium, i, n. ; -cidio, onis, f., 

downfall, overthroiv, desiruction. 
excido, cidi, [cado,] 3, tofall out, 

escape, perish, pass away. 
excido, idi, is-, [csedo,] 3, to cut 

off, cut doivn, destroy. 
excieo, civi (cii), cit-, 2 ; -cio, 4, 

callforth, summon, stir up, terrify, 

excipio, cepi, cept-, [capio,] 3, to 

tcdce oui or up, caich,follow. 
excisus, [excido,] cut off'or out. 
excitatus, a, um, animated, strong. 
excito, I, raise, rouse, excite, kindle. 
excitus, [excio,] roused. 


exclamatio — exoletus. 

exclamatio, onis, f., outcry. 
exclamo, i, to cnj aloud. 
excludo, si, sum, [claudo,] 3, to 

shut out, exclude, prevent. 
excliisio, onis, f., exclmion. 
excoctus, [coquo,] cooked. 
excogitatio, onis, f., invention. 
excogito, I, thint out, devise, con- 

excolo, colui, cult-, 3, cultivate, 

improve, adorn, honor. 
excoquo, xi, ct-, 3, hoil out, roast. 
excors, cordis, hrainless. 
excrementum, i, n., siftings, refuse. 
excresco, evi, et-, 3, grow out or 

hig. rise up, grow. * 
excretus, [cerno,] sifted, culled out; 

[cresco,] full-grown. 
excrucio, i, torture, torment, extort. 
excubiaD, arum, f., night-guard. 
excubitor, oris, m., tvatchman. 
excubo, ui, it-, 3, lie out of doors, 

watch, keep guard. 
exciido, di, sum, 3, to strike out, 

hafch, forge out. 
.exculco, I, tread out, trample. 
excultus, [colo,] improved. 
excuratus, a, um, well caredfor. 
ex-curro, 3, run out, extend,spread. 
excursio, onis, f. ; -sus, iis, m., a 

running-out, onset, digression. 
exciisatio, F., excuse. 
exciiso, i, to excuse, plead. 
excussus, a, um, stretched out, stiff. 
exciisus, [cudo,] struck out,forged. 
excutio, 3, shake offor out, search. 
exedo, edi, es-, 3, consume, corrode, 

f exedra, ae, F., Jiall for discourse. 
exemplar, aris, n., model, copy. 
exemplum, i, m., image, example, 

copy, manner, sort. 
exemptus, [-imo,] taken out. 
f exentero, i, disemhowel, empty. 
exeo, ii (ivi), it-, 4, go fortli, expire. 
exerceo, cui, cit-, 2, drive fonoard, 

employ, exercise. 
exercitatio, f., practice, exercise. 
exercitatus, a, um, trained, prac- 

tised, agitated, trouhled. 

exercitio, onis, f., management. 
exercito, i, practise frequehtly. 
exercitor, oris, m., trainer. 
exercitus, iis, m., host, army. 
exesus, [edo,] consumed. 
exhalatio, f., vapor, exhalation. 
exhalo, i, hreathe forth, evapqrate. 
exhaurio, hausi, haust-, 4, draw, 

drain, empty, remove, exhaust. 
exjieredo, i, disinherit. 
exheres, edis, disinherited. 
exhibeo, ui, it-, 2, holdforth, dis- 

play, sustain, maintain. 
exhibitio, onis, f., delivery, main- 

exhilaro, i, gladden, refresh. 
exhinc, liereupon. 
exhorreo, 2 ; -esco, ui, 3, dread 

extremely, shudder at. 
exhortatio, onis, f., encourage- 

ment, exhortation. 
exhortor, i, to cheer, exhort. 
exigo, egi, act-, [ago,] 3, drive out, 

exact, demand, fnish. 
exiguitas, atis, f., scantiness. 
exiguus, a, um, little, scanty, brief. 
exilis, e, thin, meagre, feehle. 
exilitas, atis, f., slenderness. 
exilium=exsilium, exile. 
eximius, a, um, select, excellent. 
eximo, emi, empt-, [emo,] 3, take 

ouf, release, reniove, consume. 
exin, thereupon. 
exinanio, 4, to empty, exhaust. 
exinde, thence, thereaffer. 
existimatio, f., judgment, opinion, 

existimo (-umo), i, to judge, think. 
existo=exsisto, stand forth. 
exitiabilis (-alis), e ; -osus, a, um, 

deadly, j>ern icious. 
exitium, i, n., going-forth, destruc- 

tion, ruin, mischief. 
exitus, [exeo,] jMst. 
exitus, VLS, M., going-out, ehd, death. 
exlex, legis, out ofthe law, lawless. 
exoculo, I, destroy the eyes. 
f exodium, i, N., affer-piece, end. 
exolesco, evi, et-, 3, to grow up, 

sfop growing, cease, disappear. 
exoletus, a, um, mature, dissolute. 

exonero — exprimo. 


exonero, i, didnirden, discharge. 
exoptatus, a, um, longed-for. 
exopto, I, to desire earnesUy. 
exorabilis, e, easy to he entreated. 
exorbito, i, go astray, deviaie. 
exordior, orsus, 4, Lay the warp, 

exordium, i, N., heginning, warp, 

introducilon, treatise. 
exorior, ortus, i, arise, spring up. 
exornatio, f., embellishment. 
exorno, i, adorn, equip, supply. 
exoro, I, gain by entreaty. 
exorsus, [ordior,] hegun; N., be- 

exorsus, us, m., beginning. 
exortivus, a, um, of rising,eastern. 
exortus, us, m., 7'ising (of sun). 
exos, ossis, boneless, pliant. 
exosculor, i, kissfondly, admire. 
exosso, i, deprive of hones or teeth. 
f exostra, ae, F., stage-machinery. 
exosus, a, um, hating, hateful. 
f exoticus, a, um, outlandish. 
expallesco, ui, 3, turn pale, dread. 
expalliatus, a, um, uncloaked. 
expallidus, a, um, very jxde, wan. 
expalpo (or), i, get by coaxing. 
expando, di, pass- (pans-), 3, to 

spread forth, expand. 
expapillatus, a, um, hare-breasted. 
expavesco, pavi, 3, fear greatly. 
expectoro, i, drivefrom the hreast. 
expedio, 4, bring out, release, set 

forth, arrange. 
expedit, it is useful, or expedient. 
expedite, readily, jyromptly. 
expeditio, f., excursion, discussion. 
expeditus, a, um, disengaged, light- 

armed, wit/iout baggage, handy. 
expello, puli, puls-, 3, thrust out 

or arcay, reject. 
expendo, di, sum, 3, iceigh out, 

measure, pay, charge, estimate. 
experge-facio, 3, rouse, stir, excite. 
expergiscor, perrectus, 3, aivake. 
expergo, gi, git-, 3, arouse, icaken. 
experientia, ae, f., trial, experience. 
experimentum, i, n., tricd, proof. 
experior, expertus-, 4, to try, test. 
expertus, a, um, tried, skilled. 

expers, tis, [pars,] having no share. 
expetesso (-isso), 3, long for. 
expeto, ivi (ii),it-, 3, seek,contrive, 

desire, aspuefor, attain. 
expiatio, F., expiation, atonement. 
expilatio, onis, f., plunder, pillage. 
expilator, oris, m., pillager. 
expilo, I, roh, plunder. 
expingo, pinxi, pict-, 3, to paint, 

depict, describe. 
expio, I, expiate, atone. 
expiscor, i,fish out, search. 
explanatio, onis, f., making cleary 

explan ation , disl in ctness. 
expiano, i,fkitten, make clear. 
expleo, evi, et-, 2, fill up, fulfl. 
expletus, a, um, compleie,fUed up. 
explicatio, F., uncoiling, explaining. 
explicatus, a, um, spi-ead-oui, clear. 
explicitus, a, um, clear, easy. 
explico, avi (ui), at- (it-), i, to un- 

fold, urrange, clear up. 
explodo, si, sum (plaudo), 3, to 

hoof qf, drive aivay. 
explorate, wilh cericdnty. 
exploratio, F., searching, exploring. 
explorator, oris, M., examiner, 

searcher, scout. 
exploratus, a, um, estahlished, sure. 
exploro, I, to search, examine, re- 

connoitre, test, prove. 
explosio, onis, F., hooting-off. 
explosus, [-plodo,] driven off. 
expolio, 4, to polish, refne, adorn. 
expolitio, F., polishing, refnement. 
expolitus, a, um, neat, refined. 
expono, posui, posit-, 3, sei forth, 

offer, expose, explain. 
exporrigo, rexi, rect-, 3, spread 

out, smoothen. 
exportatio, f., export, hanishment. 
exporto, I, carry forih or away. 
exposco, poposci, 3, ask, require. 
expositio, f., exposing, expounding. 
expostulatio, onis, f., cnmplaint. 
e:?:postulo, i, demand, complain. 
expresse (-sim), distinctly, strongly. 
expressus, [-primo,] clear, distinci. 
expretus, [spretus,] spurned. 
exprimo, pressi, press-, [premo,] 

^, press or force oui, represeni. 


exprobratio — exta. 

exprobratio, f., uphraidmg, blame. 
exprobo, i, to reproach, upbraid. 
expromo, mpsi, mpt-, 3, take out, 

ex/iibit, dispiaij, declare. 
expugnabilis, e, liable to capture. 
expugnatio, f., storming, capture. 
expugnator, m., conqueror, taker. 
expugnax, acis, subduing. 
expugno, I, to take bij assault, sub- 

due, extort, elfect. 
expulsio, onis, f., expulsion. 
expulso, I, drire out, expel. 
expulsus, [pello,] driven out. 
expungo, nxi, nct-, 3, prick out, 

erase, fnl/il, adjust (accounts). 
expurgatio, F., justijication. 
expurgo, I, cleanse, vindicate. 
expiitesco, 3, putrify. 
exputo, I, prune, examine. 
exquiro, sivi, sit-, [quaero,] 3, ask, 

search ouf, inquire. 
exquisite, accuratebj. 
exquisitus, a, um, choice, excellent. 
exsaevio, 4, spend one^s rage. 
exsanguis, e, bloodless, pale, loeak. 
exsarcio, sart-, 4, palch up, mend. 
exsatio (-saturo), i, glut, satisfj. 
ex3C6ndo=escendo, ascend. 
exscindo, idi, iss-, 3, to extirpate. 
exscribo, psi, pt-, 3, write out, copg. 
exsculpo, psi, pt-, 3, dig out, erase. 
exseco, cui, ct-, i, cut out or ojf. 
exsecrabilis, e, cursing, accursed. 
exsecratio, f., solemn oath, curse. 
exsecratus, a, um, detestable. 
exsecror, i, curse, swear solemnly. 
exsectio, f., cuHing out. 
exsectus, [seco,] cut ouf. 
exseciitio, ¥.,fulfilment, discussion. 
exsecutor, oris, m., performer, exe- 

cu'er, prosecuter. 
exsequens, tis, studious of. 
exsequiae, arum, f., [sequor,] 

fuiieral rites, procession, ohsequies. 
exsequor, cutus, ^, follow out,pur- 

sue, accoinpUsh, relate, avenge. . 
exsero, rui, rt-, 3, thrust forth, dis- 

p'aj, profrude. 
exsertus, a, um, open, conspicuous. 
exserto, i, stretch forfh. 
exsibilo, i, to hi<is away. 

exsicco, I , dry xbp, parch. 

exsigno, i^ icrite out, record. 

exsilio, ui, 4, leap forth, spring up. 

exsilium, i, n., exile, retreat. 

exsisto, stiti, stit-, 3, come or 
standforth, exist. 

exsolvo, vi, iit-, 3, unhind, dis- 
charge, get clear, throio aside. 

exsomnis, e, sleepless, loatchful. 

exsorbeo, ui, 2, swallow up, drairij 

exsors, tis, ivithout part or lot. 

exspatior, i, expand, digress. 

exspectatio, onis, f., awaiting. 

exspectatus, a, um, longedfor. 

exspecto, i, waitfor, anticipate. 

exspergo, spers-, 3, sprinkle, scatter. 

exspes, hopeless. 

exspiro, i, breathe out, hlow or rush 
forth, expire, cease. 

exspolio, i, to plunder, spoil. 

exspuo, ui, iit, 3, spit out, expel. 

exsterno, i, terrify greatly. 

exstillo, I, to drop or trickle out. 

exstimulo, i , goad on, impel. 

exstinctio, onis, f., annihilation. 

exstinctor, oris, ivi., destroyer. 

exstinguo, nxi, nct-, 3, to quench, 

extinguish, annul, destroy. 
exstirpo, i, uproot, pluck out. 
exsto, I, sfand forth, appear. 
exstructio, onis, f., structure. 
exstruo, xi, ct-, 3, heap up, huild. 
exsuctus, [siigo,] drained dry. 
exsiido, i, sweat forth, exude, toil. 
exsugo, xi, ct-, 3, suck out. 
exsul, ulis, c, exile, wanderer. 
exsulo, I, to he in exile. 
exsultans, tis, skipping, diffuse. 
exsultatio, f., leaping up for joy. 
exsulto, I, leap itp, exult, revel. 
exsuperabilis, e, surmountahle. 
ex^uperans, tis, excellent. 
exsuperantia, ee, f., pre-eminence. 
exsuperatio, onis, f., exaggerafion.- 
exsupero, i, mount, surpass, over- 
power, exceed, exceUpass heyond. 
exsurdo, i, deafen, hlunt. 
exaurgo. surrexi, 3, rise, stand up. 
exsuscito, I, rouse, excite. 
exta, orum, n., the internal organs. 

extabesco — facinus. 

extabesco, tabui, 3, to fade, loane. 
extaris, e, of the exta. 
extemplo (-pulo), immediately. 
extemporalis, e, extemporary. 
extendo, di, tum (sum), 3, stretch 

fort/i, increase, spread, extend. 
extentus, a, um, wide-spread. 
extento, i, stretch forth, exert. 
extenuatio, f., thinning, lessening. 
extenuo, i, make thin, lueaken. 
exter (-terus), a, um, outward, ex- 

ternal, foreign. 
exterebro, i, Jwre out. 
extergeo, si, sum, 3, ivipe off. 
exterior, us (compar.), outer. 
extermino, i, drive away, hanish. 
externus, a, um, outward, foreign. 
extero, trivi, trit-, 3, ruh out, wear 

out or away. 
exterreo, ui, it-, 2, strike with terror. 
extexo, 3, p)ick to pieces, plunder. 
extimesco, timui, 3, fear greatly. 
extinguo=exstinguo, quench. 
extispex, icis, diviner. 
extollo, 3, raise, uplift, defer. 
extorqueo, si, tum, 2, wrestaway. 
extorris, e, exiled. 
extra, outside of, except, heyond. 
extraho,xi, ct-, 3, draioforth, loith- 

draio, release, p>rotract, outroot. 
extraneus, a, um, external, strange. 
extraordinarius, a, um, heyond 

the rardcs, uncommon. 
extrarius, a, um, outward, strange. 
extremitas, atis, F., end, edge. 
extremus (-timus), a, um, outmost, 

remotest, utmost, latest, last. 
extrico, i, disentangle, clear. 
extrilidus, a, um, dauntless. 
extrinsecus, /ro??i ahroad, outside. 
extritus, [tero,] ioorn off. 
extrudo, si, sum, 3, thrust forth. 
extubero, i , to sioell, raise. 
extundo, tudi, tus, 3, to heat out, 

strike out, devise, extort. 
exturbo, i, drive or thrust away. 
exubero, i, ahound, 7nakefull. 
exudo=exsudo, exude. 
exul=exsul, exile. 
exulcero, i,fester, exasperate. 
exululo, I, howl. 

exulto=exsulto, leap forth. 
exundo, i, overflow, rush forth. 
exungo, unct-, 3, anoint, squander. 
exuo, ui, iit-, 3, put strip or cast off, 

lay aside, despoil. 
exiiro, ussi, ust-, 3, hurn up, con- 

sume, parch, destroy. 
exustio, F., hurning, scorching. 
exuviae, arum, f., spoils (stripped 

from an enemy's body), hide. 
exvelio=eveho, carry off. 


faba, 86, F., heaft. 

fabalis, e ; -arius, a, um, of heans. 
fabella, ae, F., sliort story or play. 
faber, bri (g. pl. brum), m., sjnith, 

artisan, craftsman. 
faber, bra, brum, skilful, ingenious. 
Fabius Maximus, Dictator in the 

second Punic War, b.c. 217-209. 
fabre-facio, ^, fasldon skUfully. 
fabrica, ae, f., woi^shop, fahric, 

trade, trick or crafty device. 
fabricatio, F., construction. 
fabricator, oris, m., artifcer. 
Fabricius, C, consul in the war 

against Pyrrhus, B.c. 279. 
fabricor (-co), i,fashion, construct. 
fabrilis, e, of a smith; N., pl. tools. 
fabula, ae, F., [for,] story, drama. 
fabula, dim. of faba, hean. 
fabularis, e ; -osus, a, mtq, fahulous. 
fabiilator, oris, M., story-teller. 
fabulor, i, to talk, converse. 
facesso,i,it-, 3, do eagerly,perform;- 

get clear, depart, retire. 
facete, neatly, wittily. 
facetiae, arum, F., ioit,fun. 
facetus, a, um, eJegant,fine,funny. 
facies, ei, f., figure, face, appear- 

ance, aspect, pretence. 
facilis, e, [facio,] suited, apt, com- 

pliant, favoring, prosperous, easy. 
facile, easily, no douht. 
facilitas, atis, Y.,facility, readiness, 

ease, fJuency, good Jiumor. 
facinorosus, a, um, atrocious. 
facinus, oris, n., hold deed, crime. 


facio — fastigium. 

facio, feci, fact- ; p., fio, fieri, fac- 

tus, make, do, i-)erform^ "practise, 

esteem, assume, cause ; fit, it liap- 

pens, is usual: fiat, so be it. 
factio, onis, ¥., making, doing, rank, 

partij, class, faction. 
factiosus, a, um, factious, seditious. 
factito, i,keep doing,practice, make. 
factor, oris, m., doer. 
factura, ae, f., doing, deed. 
factus, [facio,] done ; N., deed. 
factus, iis, m., doing, making. 
facula, ae, f., [fax,] torch, link. 
facultas, atis, f., opportunity, sup- 

pbj, power, abundance, resource. 
facunde, elotpientty. 
facundia, ee, f., eloquence. 
facundus, a, um,Jluent, eloquent. 
faecula, ae, tartar (of wine). 
fseculentus, a, Mm,full of dregs. 
Fsesulae, arum, f., Fiesole, a hill- 

town near Florence. 
fsex, cis, F., lees, dregs, hrine. 
faginus (-eus), a, um, of heecli. 
f fagus, i, F., heech-tree. 
fala, ae, f., scaffolding, scaffold. 
falarica, £e, ¥.,fire-hall. 
falcarius, i, m., scythe-maker. 
falcatus, a, um, scythe-hung or 

falcifer (-ger), era, um, scythe or 

f falco, onis, M., falcon. 
falcula, ae, F., sickle, talon. 
falere, is, N., pedestal, pile. 
Falernus, a, um, Falernian, of a re- 

gion in Campania. 
• Faliscus, a, um, of Falerii, a city 

of Etruria. 
fallacia, ee, F., deceit, intrigue. 
fallax, acis, deceitful, fallacious. 
fallo, fefelli, fals-, 3, deceive, cheat, 

beguile, escape nofice. 
falsi-dicus, -ficus, -loquus, speak- 

ing or acting falsely. 
falsimonia, se, f., imposition. 
falso (e), falsely. 
falsus, a, um, deceitful, false. 
falx, cis, F., scytJie, sickle, hook. 
fama, ae, f., famcy report (good or 

evil), tradition, reputation. 

famelicus, a, um, famished. 
fames, is, f., hunger, need, greed. 
famigeratio, onis, f., rumor. 
famigerator, oris, m., tale-hearer. 
famigeratus, a, um, celebrated. 
familia, se, f., body of slaves, fam- 

ily, household, company, clan. 
familiaris, e, of servants or family, 

intimate, friendly ; M., friend. 
familiaritas, atis, F., intimacy. 
familiariter, by families, familiarly. 
famosus, a, um, ofgood or illfame. 
famularis, e, of servants or service. 
famulatus, us, m., servitude. 
famulor, i, to serve, he a servant. 
famulus, a, um, serving, service- 

cd)le ; m., f., servant. 
fanaticus, a, um, inspired, rapt. 
fanum, i, n., shrine, temple. 
far, farris, n., spelt (a grain), meal. 
farcimen, inis, n., sausage. 
farcio, si, tum, 4, to stuff, cram. 
farfarus, i, m., coWs-foot (a plant). 
farina, ae, f., meal, Jlour, substance. 
farrago, inis, f., mixed fodder (for 

cattle), medley. 
farrarius, a, um, of grain ; n., pl. 

farratus (-eus), a, um, ofcorn,grain. 
fartor, oris, u.,fattener (of fowls), 

fartum, i, n., [farcio,] stuffing. 
fas (inclecl.), right (by divine law). 
fascia, ae, f., hand, swathe. 
fasciculus, i, m., packet. 
fascina, ae, F.,fagot. 
fascino, i, beioitch, fascinate. 
fascinum, i, N., loitchcraft, amulet. 
fasciola, ae, f., handage. 
fascis, is, m., bundle; fasces, (pL), 

rods-and-axe, (symbol of office 

with power of hfe and death), 

fastidio, 4, loathe, despise, scorn. 
f astidiose, disda infully. 
fastidiosus, a, um, full of disgust. 
fastidium, i, N., loathing, aversion, 

haughliness, contempt. 
fastigatus, a, um, sloping, steep. 
fastigium, i, n., top (of gable), 

highest point or rank. 

fastigo — ferramentum. 


fastigo, I, tring to a point, exalt. 
fastooiis, a, um, haughtij, sumptuom. 
fastus, i, M., court-day; pl., catendar. 
fastus, us, M., haughtiness, contempt. 
fatalis, e, fated, destined,^ fatal. 
fataliter, bn fate or destiny. 
fateor, fassus, 2, confess, manifest. 
faticanus (-cinus, -dicus), ^, um, 

predicting fate, prophetic. 
fatifer, era, um, deadly. 
fatigatio, F., iveariness, banter. 
fatigo, I, loeary, plague, vex,jeer. 
fatim, sufjiciently. 
fatisco (-cor), 3, gape open, faint. 
fatuitas, atis, f., foUy. 
fatum, i, N., [for,] destiny, doom. 
fatuor, I, talk foolishly. 
fatus, us, M. [for,] word. 
fatuus, a, um, prophetic (a name 

of Faunus). 
fatuus, a, um foolish, tasteless. 
fauces, ium, f., throat, defile, gulf 
Faunus, i, a rustic deity of Latium, 

son of Picus, gr.-so*n of Saturn. 
Paustulus, i, the shepherd who 

brought up Romulus. 
faustus, a, vLm,fortunate, auspicious. 
fautor, (-vitor j, oris, M. ; -trix, icis, 

F., favorer, patron. 
faveo, favi, faut-, 2,favor, hefriend. 
favilla, 38, ¥., glowing embers. 
favissae, arum, F. storage-cell. 
Favonius, i, m., the Spring West- 

favor, oris, m., good-ivill, applause. 
favorabilis, e, pleasing, infavor. 
favus, i, M., honey-comb. 
fax, facis, F., torch, firebrand. 
faxim, faxo=fecerim, fecero, sub. 

and fut. perf of facio, do. 
febricito, i, be ill offever. 
febricula, ae, f., sligld fever. 
febris, is, im (em), i (e), f., fever. 
Februarius, i, M., February. 
februa, orum, N., purgation (rehgi- 

ous festival of February 1 5). 
fecunditas, atis.F., fertility,plenty. 
fecundo, i , fertilize. 
fecundus, a, um, fertile, abundant. 
fel, fellis, N., gall, bitterness, wrath. 
feles, is, F., cat, 

felicitas, atis, F.,fertility, happiness. 
feliciter, fruilfully, auspiciously. 
feiinus, a, um, of a cat. 
felix, icis, fertile, auspicious, happy. 
fellitus (-osus), a, um, full of gall. 
fello, I, to suck. 
femella, se, f., girl. 
feminis, g. of femur, thigh. 
femina, ae, f., woman,female. 
feminatus, a, um, effeminate. 
femineus, a, um, of woman. 
femininus, a, um, feminine. 
femur, oris (inis), M., i/iigh. 
fenebris, e, of usury. 
feneratio, F., lending on interest. 
fenerator, oris, M., money-lender. 
feneror (-0), i, lend, practice usury, 

cheat or extort by usury. 
fenestra, se, f., windoiv, entrance. 
fenestro, i,furnish with windows. 
fenilia, ium, N., hay-loft. 
fenisex, secis, M., mower, rustic. 
fenum, i, N., hay. 

fenus, oris, N., interest, gain,profit. 
fera, ae, f., wild beast. 
feralis, e, of the dead, deadly. 
ferax, acis, [fero,]/cr///e. 
ferculum, i, N., litter, bier, dish. 
fere, almost, quite, hardly, generally. 
ferentarius, a-, um, light-armed. 
Feretrius, i, [ferio,] ihe Subduer. 
t feretrum=ferculum, litter. 
feriae, arum, F., holidays, festivals. 
feriatus, a, um, at leisure, quiet. 
ferinus, a, um, of ivild beasts. 
ferio, 4, strike, batter, kill, cheat. 
ferior, i, keep holiday. 
feritas, atis, f., ivildness, rudeness. 
ferme=fere, nearly, hardly. 
fermentatus, a, um, loose, soft. 
fermento, i, rise, ferment. 
fermentum, i, N., leaven, beer. 
fero, tuli, latum, bear, carry, bring, 

qet, raise, show,^ reporf, say, tell. 
fei-ocia, ae ; -citas, tatis, F., ivild- 

ness, ferocity. 
ferociter, boldly, fiercely. 
feroculus, a, um, rather fierce. 
Feronia, ae. F., adivinity of Plants. 
ferox, ocis, bold,fierce. 
ferramentum, i, N., iron tool. 


ferrarius — filum. 

ferrarius, a, um, o/ iron ; m., hlack- 

smith; F., iron-mine. 
ferratus, a, um, iron-clad or s/wd 
ferreus, a, um, o/ iron, hard, cruel. 
ferricrepinus, a, um, clanklng. 
ferriterium, i, n., chain-house, jail. 
ferritribax, acis, iron-galled. 
ferriigineus, a, um, o/ iron-rust 

(color or taste). 
ferriigo, inis, F.; iron-rust. 
ferrum, i, n., iron, steel (sword). 
ferriimen, inis, N., cement, rust. 
ferriimino, i, to solder, cement. 
feitilis, e,fruitful, productive. 
fertilitas, atis, F., fruitfulness, fer- 

tiHty, ahundance. 
fertorius, a, um, for carrying ; n., 

fertum, i, n., ohlation-cake. 
fertus, a, ura., fertile. 
ferula, ae, f., fennel, twig, rod. 
ferus, a, um, wild, rude, harharous ; 

F., a ivild heast. 
ferve-facio, 3, to hoil, melt. 
fervens, tis, hot, gloicing. 
ferveo, bui, 2 ; -vo (-vesco), vi, 3, 

to hurn, glow, ferinent, swarm. 
fervidus, a, um, hot, glowing,fiery. 
fervor, oris, m., heat, glow, passion. 
Fescennia, ae, f., a town of Etru- 

ria 011 the Tiber. 
Fescennini, rude jesting verses. 
fessus, a, um, iveary, weak. 
festinanter (-atim, -ato), hastily. 
festinatio, onis, f., haste, speed. 
festino, i, make haste, hasten. 
festinus, a, um, hasty, quick, early. 
festive, joyously, delightfully. 
festivitas, atis, f., gaiety, delight, 

cJieer, festivity, kindness. 
festivus, a, um, lively, agreeahle. 
festuca, ce, F., stalk, straw, rod. 
festu.s, a, um,festal; n., hanquet. 
fetiales, pl., the college of heralds. 
feto, I, to hrecd, hatch, fructify. 
fetura, ae, F., hringingforth. 
fetus, a, um, hreeding, teeming, full. 
fetus, VLB, M., hreeding, breed, 2^ro- 

geny, offspring,fruit, produce. 
fex, f^cis=fcex, lees, dregs. 
fi, imperat. of fio, hecome. 

fiber, bri, m., beaver. 
fibla=fibvila, clasj}. 
fibra, ae, F.,fhre, entrail. 
fibrinus, a, um, 0/ the heaver, 
fibula, ae, f., clasp, pin. 
fibulo, I, to clasp, fasten. 
ficarius, a, um, offgs. 
ficedula, ae, f., fg-pecker (a bird). 
ficetum, i, n., afg-orchard. 
fictilis, e, of clay, earthen. 
fictio, onis ; -tiira, ae, f., making, 

fashion ing, feigning. 
fictor, oris, M., image-maker, haker. 
ficus, i (iis), F.,fg. 
fidei-committo, 3, put in trust. 
fide-jubeo, 2, give security. 
fidelia, ae, f., earthen pot, jar. 
fidelis, e, trusty, faithful, sure. 
fidelitas, atis, f ., faithfulness. 
Fidenae, arum, f., an old town of 

fidens, tis, confident, bold. 
fidenter, courageously. 
fidentia, se, F., confdence, holdness. 
fides, ei, f., trust, heJief, credit, 

jwomise, security, credihility. 
fides, is, F., string, lute, lyre. 
fidicen, inis, m. ; -cina, f., a lute- 

player, or harpist. 
fidicula, dim. of fides, lyre. 
Fidius, god of Trust, an epithet of 

Jupiter (as, medius fidius). 
fido, fisus, 3, trust, confide. 
fiducia, ae, F., trust, holdness, pledge. 
fidiicio, I, to pledge, mortgage^ 
fidus, a, um, trusty, sure, safe. 
figlinus, a, um, of a potter ; n., pot. 
figmentum, i, 'ti., forming, fiction. 
figo, xi, xum, 3, fasten, fix, pierce. 
figularis, e, 0/ a potter. 
figulis, i, m., pofter, hricklayer. 
figura, se, f., shape, kind, phantom. 
figuratio, onis, F.,fashioning. 
figiiro, I, tofonn, shape, picture. 
filia, ae, (d. pl. abus), daughter. 
filicatus, a, um, decked withfern. 
filiola, ae, f., little daughter. 
filiolus, i, N., little son. 
filius, i, (v., fili), m., son ; pl. children. 
filix, icis, F., fern. 
filum, i, N., thread, fillet, outline. 

fimbriae — floreo. 


fimbria?, arum, f., threads, fringe. 
fimus, i, M., (um, n.), dung, manure. 
finalis, e, of houndaries,final. 
findo, fidi, fiss-, 3, spllt, part, divide. 
fingo, nxi, fict, to form, fashion, 

make, instruct, represent, invent. 
finio, 4, to limit, bound, appoint. 
finis, is, M., end, limit, horder ; pL, 

bounds, territory. 
finitimus, a, um, bordering, neigh- 

horing, like ; pl., neighhors. 
finitio, F., bounding, defning. 
finitor, oris, m., surveyor. 
fio, fieri, fact-, p. of facio, make. 
firmamentum, i, N., support, sky. 
firmator, M.,establisher. 
firme (-iter), frmly. 
firmitas, atis ; -tudo, inis, ¥.,frm- 

ness, strength, endurance. 
firmo, I, strengthen, establish. 
Firmum, i, n.J a port of E. Italy. 
firmus, a, um, stable, strong. 
fiscalis, e, of the treasury. 
fiscella (-cina), ae, F., osier hasket. 
fiscus, i, M., basket, treasury. 
fissilis, e, spUt (or that can be). 
fissura, ae, f., cleft, chink. 
fissus [findo,] split, cloven. 
fissipes, pedis, cloven-footed. 
fistuca, ae, f., rammer, heetle. 
fistuco, I, ram down. 
fistula, ae, f., pipe, tuhe, reed. 

fistulator, oris, m. 


fistulosus, a, um, fuli of holes. 
fisus, [fido,] having trusted. 
fixus, [{i^o,] fxed. 
flabellum, i, ^ ., fan, fly-flap. 
flabilis, e, airy. 

flabra, orum, n., blasts, breezes. 
flacceo, 2 ; -cesco, 3, droop, ivither. 
flaccidus (flaccus), a, um, fabhy, 

fecble, languid. 
flagello, I, scourge, beat, lash. 
flagellum, i, n., ivhip,- thong. 
flagitatio, F., earnest request. 
flagitator, oris, M., demander, dun. 
flagitiose, infamously. 
flagitiosus, a, um, shameful, infa- 

mous, disgraceful. 
flagitium, i, N., disgraceful thing or 

act ; scoundrel, villain. 

flagito, I, demand vehemently. 
flagrans, tis, blazing, glowing. 
flagranter, ardently, eagerly. 
flagrantia, ae, f., burning heat. 
flagritriba, ae, m., wearing out the 

lash (nickname of a slave). 
flagro, I, toflame, blaze, gloiv, hurn. 
flagrum, i, n., ivhip, scourge. 
flamen, inis, n., hlast, ivind, gale. 
flamen, inis, m., priest (of one god). 
flaminica, afamenh ivife. 
flaminius, a, um, of aflamen. 
flamma, ae, f., flame, hlaze, pas- 

sion, conflagration, peril. 
flammeus, a, vim,fery, red,flame- 

colored; N., bridal veil. 
flammifer (-ger), era, um, flaming, 

flame-bearing, fiery. 
flammo, i, to blaze, hurn, redden. 
flatilis, e, produced by hloiving. 
flator, oris, m., hlower, caster (of 

metal), melter, coiner. 
flatura, ge, f., bloiving, casting. 
flatus, us, m., hlowing, hlast. 
flaveo, 2 ; -vesco, 3, to be golden, 

or yellow. 
flavus, a, um, yellow, gold-color. 
flebilis, e, lamentahle, tearful. 
flecto, xi, xuni, 3, to hend, turn. 
flemina, ae, f., sivollen ankle. 
fleo, flevi, flet-, 2, iveep, drip, beivail. 
fletus, us, m., iveeping. 
flexanimus, a, um, ajfecting, moved. 
flexibilis (-ilis), e, pliant, hending. 
flexiloquus, a, um, equivocal. 
flexio, onis, f., hending, inflection. 
flexo, I, to hend, curve. 
flexuosus, a, um, fidl of bends. 
flexura, se, f. ; -xus, us, m., hend- 

ing, turning, winding. 
flexus, [flecto,] bent. 
flictus, us, M., clash. 
flo, I, to blow, cast (metal). 
floccus, i, M., lock of ivool, trifle. 
floces, um, F., dregs, lees. 
Flora, ae, goddess of Flowers. 
floralis, e, of Flora ; n., pl., garden. 
florens, tis, shining, flourishing. 
Florentia, ae, F., Florence. 
floreo, ui, 2, to bloom, flower, swell, 
flourish, prosper. 


floresco — fortiter. 

floresco, ui, 3, come into hlossom. 
floreus (-idus), a, um, of Jiowers, 

Jioioei^U, abounding injiowers. 
florilegus, a, um, cuUing Jiowers. 
florulentus, a, um, ahoundlng in 

Jlowers^ blooming, youthfuL 
flos, oris, M.,Jiower, blossom, top. 
flosculus, i, M., Jloweret. 
flucto, I, to icave, Jlow. 
fluctuatio, onis, f., wavering. 
fluctuo (-or), I, undulafe, ivaver, 
fluctuosus, a, um, billowij. 
fluctus, us, M., ivave, billow, Jlood. 
fluens, tis^Jlowing, lax,Jiuent. 
fluentum, i, N.,Jiood, stream. 
fluidus, a, um, Jiowing, Jiuki, lax. 
fluito, I, Jioat, ivaver, und.ulate. 
flumen, inis, n., stream, river,Jiood. 
fliimineus, a, um, of a river. 
fluo, xi, xum, 3, to Jiow, overjlow, 

jjour, come fortli, pass away. 
fluor, oris, u., jiowing, fiux. 
flustra, orum, N., cabn at sea. 
fluto, I , to Jloat. 
fluvialis (-atilis), e, of a river. 
fluvius, i, M., river, stream. 
fluxio.onis; -xus, iis, m., aflowing. 
fluxus [fbxo,'] Jiuid, loose, frail. 
focale, is, n., [faux,] necic-band. 
focillo, I , comjort ivitii warmtii. 
foculus, fire-pan^ hrazier. 
focus, i, M., Jire-place, iieartii. 
fodico, I, to jyierce. 
fodina, ee, f., pit, mine. 
fodio, fodi, foss-, 3, dig. 
fcederatus, a, um, leagued. 
foedero, i, to league, estahlisiu 
foedifragus, a, um, perfidious. 
foeditas, atis, Y.,foulness,Jiltii. 
foedo, I, to defile, disjigure. 
foedus, a, \m\,foul, ugly. 
foedus, eris, n., league, treaty. 
foenus=fenu3, profit. 
foeteo ; 2, -esco, 3, iiave an ili smell. 
foetidus, a, um, qf evil odor,foul. 
foetor, oris, m., stencii. 
foetus=fetus, jjroduce. 
foetiitina, ae, f., din-itole, puddle. 
foliatus, a, um, leafy; n., ointment. 
folium, i, n., leaf trifle. 
foUioulus, i, m., hag, pod, Jmsk. 

follis, is, m., hellows, ivind-hag. 

follitim, ivith money-bags. 

fomentum, i, n., poullice, comfort. 

fomes, itis, u., tinder, touchivood. 

fons, tis, M., Jountain, source. 

fontanus, a, um, of a spring. 

fonticulus, i, m., [fons.J spring. 

for, fatus, I, (§ 38, iv.), speak^ say. 

foramen, inis, n., aperlure. 

foras, out of doors. 

foratus, us, m., horing. 

forceps, ipis, D., tongs, pincers. 

fordus, a, um, ivifh young. 

fore, fut. infin. of sum, to he. 

forensis, e, of t/ieforum. 
forfex, flcis, f., siiears. 
forica, se, ¥., storeiiouse. 
forinsecus, from wlthout. 
foris, is, F., (gen. pl. um), doo7\ 
foris, abroadyfrom icitiiout. 
forma, ae, f., siiape, beauty, mould. 
formalis, e, of a Jbrm or mould. 
formatio, onis, f., forming, design. 
formator, oris, m., former, framer. 
Formiae, arum, f,, a town of S. 

formioa, ae, F., ant. 
formicinus, a, um, Uice ants. 
formidabilis, e, fearj^d. 
formido, i, tofear, dread. 
formido, inis, F., fear, dread. 
formidolosus, a, um, timidy dread- 

ful, fearful, afraid. 
forraidus, a, um, wann. 
formo, I, tofashion, siiape. 
formosus, a, um, beautiful. 
formula, ae, f., beauty, pattern, ruie. 
formus, a, um, warm. 
fornacalis, e, of afurnace or oven. 
fornax, aciS, F., furnacCy oven, Iciln. 
fornicatim, arclavise. 
fornicatus, a, imi, arciied, vaulted. 
fornix, icis, M., arch, vault, hrotliel. 
foro, I , to bore, pierce. 
forpex, icis, f., curling-tongs. 
fors, tis, F., ciiance, fortune. 
fors, forte, forsan, forsit, forsitan, 

fortasse, jyeriiaps. 
f fortax, acis, M., base offurnace, 
fortis, e, strong, brave, vigorous. 
fortiter, vigorously, holdly. 

fortitudo — fringilla. 


fortitudo, inis, F., vigoi', hravery. 
fortuitus, a, um, accldental, 
fortuito (tu), accidentalhj. 
fortuna, 39, f., fortune (good or 

ill), condition; t^X., propertTj. 
fortiinatus, a, um, fortunate, pros- 

2)erous, happy. 
fortuno, I, make pros2Jerous. 
foruli, olrum, m., hook-shelves. 
forum, i, N.^^Juhlic square, market; 

a square in Rome, the chief 

place of pubHc business. 
forus, i, M., gangway, row of seats 

or cells, garden-hed. 
fossa, ae, f., ditch, trench. 
fossilis, e ; -tius, a, um, dug-up. 
fossio, onis; -iira, ee, f., digging. 
fossor, oris, m., digger. 
fossus, [fodio,] dug. 
fotus, [foveo,] icarmed, cherished. 
fotus, iis, m. warming, comforting. 
fovea, ae, f., pit, pitfcdl. 
foveo, fovi, fot-, 3, to icarm, cherish. 
fraces, um, m., grounds, dregs. 
fracesco, cui, 3, grow mellow or 

fracidus, a, um, soft, melloio. 
fractiira, ae, f., hreach, fragment. 
fractus, [frango,] hroken. 
fraenum=frenum, curh, hit. 
fraga, orum, n., strawherries. 
fragesco, 3, he hroken or suhdued. 
fragilis, e, frcdl, cqyt to hreak. 
fragilitas, atis, f., frailty, hrittle- 

ness, weakness. 
fragmen, inis, n., fracture, wreck, 

fragmentum, i, n., fragment, rem- 

fragor, oris, m., crash, din. 
fragosus, a, um, fragile, hroken, 

rough, roaring, crashing. 
fragrans, tis, sweet-scented. 
fragrantia, £e, f., fragrance. 
fragro, i, to emit odor. 
framea, ae, F., spear, sword. 
frango, fregi, fract-, 3, to hreak, 

crusli, hruise, weaken, suhdue. 
frater, tris, m., hrother. 
fraterculus, i, m., little hrother. 
fraterne, hrotherly, heartily. 

fraternitas, atis, f., hrotherhood. 
fraternus, a, um, hrotherly. 
fratria, ee, f., hrother^s loife. 
fratricida, ae, m., fratricide. 
fraudatio, onis, f., deceit, fraud. 
fraudator, oris, m., deceiver, cheat. 
fraudo, i, cheat, defraud, steal. 
fraudulentia, ae, f., deceit. 
fraudulentus, a, um, deceitful. 
fraus, dis, f., deceit, crime, harm. 
fraxinus, i, f., ash; spear. 
fraxinus (-eus), a, um, ashen. 
Fregellanus, a, um, of Fregellce, 

an old town of Latium. 
fremebundus, a, um, murmuring. 
fremitus, iis, m., roaring noise. 
fremo, ui, it-, 3, roar, murmur, 

grumhle, growl, mutter. 
fremor, oris, m., low roaring. 
frenator, oris, M., controller. 
frendo, fres-, 3, gnash, crush. 
freniger, a, um, hridled. 
freno, i, to hridle, curh, check. 
frenum, i, n. (pl., i, m., or a, n.), 

curh, hit, hridle, rein. 
frequens, tis,frequent, crowded,full. 
frequenter, often, in large numbers. 
frequentatio, onis, f., crowding. 
frequentatus, a, um, much used. 
frequentia, ae, f., croicd, ihrong. 
frequento, i, to resort, frequent^ 

crowd, assemhle, celehrate. 
fresus, [frendo,] hruised. 
fretalis, e, of a strait. 
fretum, i, n., strcdt, channel, sea. 
fretus, a, um, relying, sustained, 

trusting, daring. 
fretus, iis, M., reliance. 
frico, cui, ct- (cat-), i, to rub. 
frictus, [frigo,] roasted, parched. 
frigeo, 2 ; -esco, frixi, 3, to be cold, 

stiff, torj)id, languid, fcdnt. 
frigidarius, a, um, of cooling ; N., 

cooling-room , pl., cold-closet. 
frigide, coldly, feehly, flatly. 
frigidulus, a, um, rather cold or stiff. 
frigidus, a, um, cold, cool, chill, dull. 
frigo, xi, ct- (xum), 3, roast, fry. 
frigus, oris, n., coldness, ivinter, chill. 
frigiitio, 4, to twitter, stammer. 
friugilla, ee, f., rohin (?), finch. 


frio — fumifico. 

frio, I, to rub, break, crumhle. 
rfritilla, ae, f., gruel. 
fritillus, i, m., dice-box. 
fritinnio, 4, twilter. 
frivolus, a, um, sillf/, paltry. 
frixorium, i, n. ; frixura, ae, F., 

frixus, [frigo,] roasted. 
frondator, oris, m., leaf-pruner. 
frondeo, 3 ; -esco, dui, 3, putforth 

frondeus (-ifer, -osus), a, um, leafj. 
frons, dis, f., leaf bough, garland. 
frons, tis, f., brow, front, forehead. 
frontalia, um, N., frontlet. 
fronto, onis, m., wide-brow. 
fructifer, era, um, fruit-bearing. 
fructuarius, a, um, offruit-bearing. 
fructuosus, a, um, fruitful, profit- 

able, abounding infruit. 
fructus, [fruor,] enjoying. 
fructus, iis, m., fruit, profit, enjoy- 

ment, consequence, result. 
friigalis, e, thrifty, prudent. 
fjugalitas, atis, f., thrift, icorth. 
fruges, [frux,] /n«7.s (of the earth). 
frugi (indecl.), icorthy, useful. 
frugifer, era, um, fruit-bearing. 
frumentarius, a, um, of corn, 

abounding in corn ; res frumen- 

taria, supply of corn. 
frumentatio, onis, f., providing or 

distributing of corn, foraging. 
frumentor, i,fetch or provide corn. 
friimentum, i, N., corn, grain. 
fruniscor, nitus, 3, enjoy. 
fruns=frons, tis, leaf 
fruor, fruct- (fruit-), 3, to enjoy. 
frustatim (-tillatim), pieceiaeal. 
frusto, I, break in pieces. 
frustfa, in vain, ivithout reason. 
frustratio, onis, f., deceiving, dis- 

appointment, failure. 
frustror (-tro), i, deceive, disappoinf. 
frustulentus, a, um, full ofcrumbs. 
frustum, i, n., piece, fragment. 
frutectum, i, N., shridnbery. 
frutex, icis, m., shrub, bush, stem. 
fruticetum, i, n., thicket, shrubbery. 
frutico, (-cor), i, to sprout, grow 


fruticosus, a, um, bushy, shruhhy. 
frux, gis, F.,fruit,produce, [fruges.] 
fiicatus, a, um, counterfeit. 
fiico, I, to paint, dye, stain. 
fiicosus, a, um, painted, colored, 

stained, counterfeit. 
fiicus, i, M., oi^chil (a lichen), red, 

rouge, deceit ; hee-glue; drone. 
fuga, £6, F.,fight, exile, avoiding. 
fugaciter, in fieeing. 
fugax, acis, Jieet, Jieeing. 
fugicus, tis, Jleeting, vanishing. 
fugio, fiigi, fugit-, 3, fiee, pass 

away, avoid, escape. 
fugitivus, a, um, runaivay, deserter. 
fugito, i,fiee hastily, avoid. 
fugo, I, drive, cJiase, rout. 
fui, perf. of sum, to he. 
fulcimen, inis, n., p)rop. 
fulcio, fulsi, fult-, 4, to prop, sup- 

port, strengthen, secure. 
fulcrum, i, N., bed-post, couch. 
fulgeo, fulsi, 2 ; -gesco, 3, toglitter, 

Jlash, shine, lighlen. 
fulgetrum, i, n., lieat-lightning. 
fulgidus, a, um, glittering, shining. 
fulgor, oris, m., Jiash, gleam, splen- 

dor, brigiitness, glory. 
fulgur, iiris, n., liglitning. 
fulguralis, e, of ligJitning. 
fulguratio, onis, F., JiasJdng. 
fulgurio, 4, to Jiurl ligJitning. 
fulguro, i, to ligliten, fasJi, sJiine. 
fulica, ae, ; -lix, icio, f. coot, diver. 
fuligo, ginis, f., soot. 
fullo, onis, M., fuller. 
fullonicus (-ius, a, um, of fullers; 

¥.,fuUer^s art or sJiop. 
fulmen, inis, n., tJiunderbolt. 
fulmenta, ae, f., prop, shoe-heel. 
fulmentum, i, N., prop, hedpost. 
fulminatio, onis, f., LigJitning. 
fulmineus, a, um, of tJie tJiunder- 

holt, destructive. 
fulmino, i, Jiurl ligJitnings, hlast. 
fultura, ae, F., support. 
fultus, [fulcio,] propped. 
fulvus, a, um, yellow, iawny. 
fiimeus (-idus), a, um, smoky. 
fumifer, era, um, emitting smoke. 
fumiiico, i, hurn incense. 

fumigo — galbeum. 


fumigo, I, to smoke, fumigate. 
fumo, I, to smoke, steam, reek. 
fumo3US, a, um, smohj, reeking. 
fumus, i, M., smoke, fiime, vapor. 
funaiis, e, of a rope or trace; N,, 

thong, torc/i, candlestand. 
fiinambulus, i, m,. rope-dancer. 
funarius, a, um, of a rope. 
functio, onis, f., discharging, ful- 

filment, execution. 
funotus, [fungor,] having fulfilled. 
funda, ce, F., sUng, casting-net, purse. 
fundamen, inis ; -mentum, i, n., 

foundalion, groundwork. 
fundator, oris, m., founder. 
fundatus, a, um, durable. 
Fundi, orum, a town of Latium. 
fundito, I, to hurl, sling. 
funditor, oris, M., slinger. 
funditus, /ro/ft the holtom, utterly. 
fundo, fSdi, fiis-, 3, to pour, melt, 

hathe, pour or spread forth, utter. 
fundo, I, to estahlish, found, secure. 
fundus, i, M., hottom, estate. 
fiinebris, e; -ereus, a, um, of 

hurial, deadltj, fatal. 
fiinero, i, hurj, destroy. 
fiinesto, i, pollute (with murder). 
funestus, a, um, fatal, mournful. 
funetum, i, n., arhor of vines. 
funginus, a, um, of mushrooms. 
fungor, funct-, 3, perform, fulfil. 
fungosus, a, um, fungous, spongy. 
fungus, i, M., mushroom, sqft-head, 

fiiniculus, i, m., slender cord. 
fiinis, is, M., rope, cord, line. 
funus, eris, n., hurial, corpse, death, 

ruin, funeral rites. 
fuo, 3,=sum, he. 
fur, fiiris, m., thief knave, drone. 
furax, acis, thievish. 
furca, se, F., fork, stake, prop. 
furcifer, eri, m., yoke-hearer {ra.sc3\). 
furcilla, ae, f., dim. of furca, /or^\ 
furcula, ae, f., forked prop, ravine. 
furfur, uris, m., hran, scurf. 
furiae, arum, f., madness ; Furies 

(goddesses of Vengeance). 
furialis, e, raging, maddening. 
furibundus, a, um, mad, raging. 

furinus, a, um, of thieves. 

furio, I, madden, enrage. 

furiosus, a, um, raging, furious. 

furnus, i, m., oven. 

furo, ui, 3, rage, he furious. 

fiiror, i, to steal, take aivay secretly. 

furor, oris, m., raging, madness. 

furtim, stealthily. 

furtivus, a, um, stolen, secret. 

furtum, i, n., theft, deceit. 

fiirunculus, i, m., pilferer ; hoil. 

furvus, a, um, dusky, gloomy. 

fuscina, ae, f., trident. 

fusco, I, to hlacken, darken. 

fuscus, a, um, swarthy, dark, hoarse, 

fiise, extended, copiously. 

fusilis, e, molten, liquid. 

fiisio, onis, f., pouring, melting. 

fustibalus, i, m., sling-staif. 

fustis, is, M., cudgel, staff, cluh. 

fustuarium, i, n., heating to death. 

fusus, [fundo,] spread, diffuse. 

fiisus, lis, M., melting, pouring. 

fiisus, i, M., spindle. 

fiitatim, ahundantly. 

fiitilis, e, [fundo,] loose, vain, idle^ 

for pouring ; N., pjan. 
fiitilitas, atis, f., vanity. 
futiirus, fut. part. of sum, to he. 


gabalus, i, m., galloivs. 

gabatae, arum, f., platter. 

Gabii, orum, m., an old city of 

Latium, 12 miles from Rome. 
Gades, ium, f., Cadiz, a port of 

Spain, a Phoenician colony. 
gaesum, i, n., heavy Gallic javelin. 
Gaetuli, orum, a people of N.-W. 

Africa, in Morocco. 
fgagates, ae, M., asphalt, jet. 
fgalactites (galaxias), 8B, M., 

Galatas, arum, people of Galatia, 

in N. central Asia Minor. 
galbaneus, a, um, of galhanum. 
galbanum, i, n., a fragrant gum. 
galbanus, a, um, greenish yellow. 
galbeum, i, n. ; us, m., arm-hand. 


galbula — genticus. 

galbula, ee, F., yelloiv tJirush ( ?) . 
galbulus, i, M., cypress-cone. 
galbus, a, um, yellow ; smooth. 
galea, ae, f., helmet (of leather). 
galeatus, a, um, helmeted. 
galena, ae, F., lead-ore, dross. 
galeo, I , to put on the helmet. 
galeritus, a, um, hooded; F., crested 

galerus, i, m. ; -um, N., leather cap. 
galla, ae, f., gall-nut. 
gallans, tis, revelling, raving. 
Gallia, ae, f., Gaul, including Bel- 

gium, P>ance, and Switzerland. 
gallicinium, i, N., cock-crowing. 
Gallicus, (-canus), a, um, Gallic. 
gallina, ae, f., hen. 
gallinaceus (-aricus), a, um, of 

gallinula, ae, f., pullet. 
Gallograecia, ee=Galatia. 
Gallus, i, M,, a Gaul; a Phrygian 

stream ; a priest of Cybele. 
gallus, i, M., cock. 
gamba, ae, F., hoof. 
ganea, ae, f. ; -um, i, n., cook-shop. 
ganeo, onis, m., glutton. 
Ganges, is, m., a river of India. 
gannio, i, to yelp, bark. 
gannitus, us, M., yelping, chirping. 
ganta, ae, f. (German), a goose. 
Ganymedes, is, myth. son of 

Laomedon, stolen by J iipiter. 
Garamantes, um, a tribe of in- 

terior Africa. 
Garganus, i, m., a stormy mountain 

range of Apuha. 
Gargara, orum, a mt. near Troy. 
f gargarizo, i , to gargle. 
garrio, 4, to chatter, talk. 
garrulitas, atis, f., chattering. 
garrulus, a, um, talkative, garru- 

lous, h(d)hling, murmuring. 
fgarum (on), i, -N.,fsh-sauce. 
gaudeo, gavisus, 2 (§ 35, ii), to re- 

joice, he glad, delight in. 
gaudium, i, n., joy (at heart). 
•f gaulus, i, m., hucket, tuh. 
Gaurus, i, a mt. of Campania. 
gausapa, se (-es,-e, -um),frieze,felt. 
gavisus, [gaudeo,] glad. 

gaza, ae, f., treasure. 
Gela, se, f., a city in S. Sicily. 
gelasco, ^,freeze. 
gelatio, onis, ¥.,freezing. 
gelicidium, i, i<;.,frost. 
gelide, coldly, faintly. 
gelidus, £1, um, cold, icy. 
gelo, i,freeze, chill, stiffen. 
gelu, iis, N., frost, cold, chill. 
gemellus, [geminus,] twin. 
geminatio, onis, f., douhling. 
gemino, i, to douhle, redouhle,join. 
geminus, a, um, twin, douhle, like. 
gemitus, lis, m., a sigli, groan, roar. 
gemma, ee, f., hud, gem. 
gemmeus, a, um, of gems, glitler- 

ing, sparkling. 
gemmifer, era, um, containing gems. 
gemmo, i, to put forth buds, or 

shine ivith gems. 
gemmula, ee, f., [gemma,] hud. 
gemo, ui, it-, 3, sigh, heivail, moan. 
gena, se, f., cheek, eyelid. 
gener, eri, m., son-in-law. 
generalis, e, generic, general. 
generatim, hy kinds, generally. 
generator, oris, m., author, father. 
genei'0, i, engender, produce. 
generositas, atis, F., nohle hreed. 
generosus, a, um, of nohle descent, 

great, nohle, generous. 
f genesis, is, f., birth, creation. 
genetrix, icis, F., mother. 
Geneva (-ava, -ua), ae, f., a city on 

the Helvetian boundary of Gaul. 
genialis, e, of hirth, nuptial, genial. 
genialiter, genially, merrily. 
geniculatus, a, um, icith hent knee, 

knotted, hent, crooked. 
geniculum, i, n., [genu,] knee, knot. 
genista (-esta), ae, f., hroom-plant. 
genitalis, e ; -tivus, a, um, ofhirth 

or generalion,fruitful, fertilizing. 
genitor, oris, M.,father. 
genitiira, ae ; -tus, iis, M., hirth, gen- 

eration, hegetting. 
genitus, [gigno,] hegotten. 
genius, i, m. (v. i), divine guardian ; 

genius or inclincdion. 
gens, tis, f,, clan, race, house. 
genticus, a, um, ofa tribe or j^eople. 

gentilicius — gloria. 


gentilicius, a, ura, of a clan or 

gentilis, e, ofthe same clan or liouse. 
gentilitas, atis, f., kindred of clan. 
genu, iis, n., knee,joint. 
Genua, ee, f., Genoa; also, Geneva. 
genualia, um, n., garters. 
genuinus, a, um, [genus,] innate, 

native; [gena,] oftke clieek orjaw. 
genus, eris, n., birth, hreed, race. 
fgeometres (-tra), ee ; -ter, tri, M., 

f geometria, ae, F., geometry. 
f georgicus, a, um, of husbandry. 
germana, ae, f., sister. 
germane, faUhfully, hrotherly. 
Germania, ae, f., Germany. 
germanitas, atis, f., hrotherhood. 
germanus, i, M., hrother. 
germanus, a, um, of oneh own bro- 

ther or sister, yenuine, irue. 
Germanus, a, um, German. 
germen, inis, n., sprig, sprout, hud. 
germinatio, onis, F. ; -tus, iis, M., 

sprouting, germination. 
germino, i, to bud, germinate. 
gero, gessi, gest-, 3, to hear, carry, 

wear, ivage (war), show, transact. 
gero, onis, m., abducter, carrier. 
gerrae, arum, F., trifes, nonsense. 
gerro, onis, m., trifier, loafer. 
gerulus, a, um, bearing, doing. 
f gerusia, ae, F., old man''^ retreat. 
Geryon, onis, myth. k. of Spain, 

a monster with three bodies. 
gestamen, inis, n., burden, a thing 

icorn, ornament, equipment, litter. 
gestatio, onis, F., hearing, carry- 

ing, place of resort. 
gestator, oris, m., hearer, carrier. 
gesticulor, i , make gestures. 
gestio, onis, f., doing, j)erforming. 
gestio, 4, exult, desire eagerly. 
gesto (-tito), I, bear, carry, report. 
gestor, oris, m., tale-hearer. 
gestus, [gero,] horne ; res gestae, 

deeds, exploits. 
gestus, us, M., gesture, hearing. 
gesum=gaesum, javelin. 
GetsB, arimi, a Thracian people 

near the Danube. 

gibber, era; gibbus (osus, -ero- 

sus), a, um, hunch-backed. 
Gigantes, um, the Giants, sons of 

Earth and Tartarus. 
gignentia, um, n., growing things. 
gigno, genui, genit-, 3, heget, pro- 

duce ; p., arise, spring forth. 
gilvus, a, um, ^;a/e yellow. 
giugi 7a, ae, f., the gum. 
ginnus=hinnus, mule. 
git, gith, coriander. 
glaber, bra, um, smooth, beardless, 

bald; M., a youthful slave. 
glacialis, e, icy. 
glacies, ei, f., ice. 
glacio, I , freeze, harden, congeal. 
gladiator, toris, m., a prizefighter, 

gladiator, sivordsman, cutler. 
gladiatorius, a, um, of gladiators. 
gladiatiira, ae, F., sword-fight. 
gladiolus, i, m., small sword. 
gladius, i, M., sword; killing. 
glandarius, a, um, ofacorns. 
glandifer, fera, um, acorn-bearing, 
glandium, i, n., dainty bit. 
glandulae, pl., glands (of throat). 
glanis, is, F. ; -us, i, M., shad ( .^) . 
glans, dis, F., aconi, nut, bullet. 
glarea, 9B, f., gravel. 
glareosus, a, um, gravelly. 
glastum, i, n., woad. 
f glauceum (-cion), i, f., celandine. 
f glauciscus, i, m., blue-fish. 
f glaucoma, atis, n. ; -ma, ae, F., 

cataract (of the eye). 
f glaucopis, idis, f., owl. 
Glaucus, i, myth. son of Sisyphus. 
f glaucus, a, um, hluish-gray. 
glebai ae, f., clod, sod, soil, lump. 
glebalis, e, of clods or land. 
glebula, ae, f., small clod orfarm. 
glesum, i, N., amber. 
glis, gliris, m., dormouse. 
glisco, 3, swell, grow, spread, kindle. 
globo, I, make round, heaptogether. 
globosus, a, um, spherical. 
globus (-ulus), i, M., bali, glohe. 
glomeramen, inis, N., round mass. 
glomero, i, to heap, gather in mass. 
glomus, eris, N., hall of thread. 
gloria, ae, F., glory, fame, ambition. 


gloriatio — gravamen. 

gloriatio, onis, f., glorying. 
gloriola, ae, f., modest glory. 
glorior, i, to boast, pride one^s self. 
gloriosus, a, um, famous, hoastful. 
glos, gloris, F., husband^s sister. 
f glossa, ae, f. ; -ema, atis, n., a 

foreign word, needing explanation. 
glubo, 3, to strip, peel. 
gluten, inis, n. ; glus, utis, F., glue. 
gliitinator, oris, N., bookbinder. 
gliitino, I, to glne, fasten. 
glutinosus, a, um, gluey, tenacious. 
glutio, 4, swaUoiv, gulp, cluck. 
gluto, 5nis, M., glutton. 
glutus, a, um, tenacious, soft. 
gnarus, a, um, knowing, skilful. 
gnatus=natus, born (son). 
gnavus=navus, busy. 
f gnomon, 6nis„ M., index of dial. 
gno3CO=nosco, know. 
Gnosius, a, um, Cretan ; ofGnosus, 

the old capital of Crete. 
gnotus, [nosco,] known. 
Gorgo (on), onis, the Gorgon, a 

name of Medusa. 
G-ortynius, a, um, Cretan (of 

Gothi, orum, the Goths, a tribe of 

N. Germany. 
f grabatus, i, M., couch, pallet. 
Gracchus, Ti, tribune, b.c. 133; 

C. id., 123, authors of popular 

laws, and slain by the nobility. 
gracilis, e, slender, plain, meagre. 
gracilitas, atis, F., sienderness, lean- 

ness, simplicity. 
graculus, i, M., jackdaw. 
gradarius, a, um, of steps, pacing. 
gradatim, step by step, gradiially. 
gradatio, onis, F., making or tak- 

iiig steps. 
gradatus, a, um ; -ilis, e, with steps. 
gradior, gressus, 3, go, take steps. 
Gradivus, i, an epithet of Mars. 
gradus, iis, m,, step, degree, station. 
Graeae, arum, the gray sisters, 

daui^hters of Phorcus. 
Graecia, ae, f., Greece. 
Graecus, a, um, Greek. 
Graius, a, um, Greek. 
grallae, arum, f., stilts. 

gramen, inis, n., grass, herb. 

gramineus, a, um, grassy. 

f grammaticus, a, um, ofgrammar; 

M., pJiilologist: ¥., (-ce, es), grani- 

mar ; n. p\., phi/ology. 
f grammatista, se, m., gramynar- 

granaria, orum, n. pl., granary. 
granatus, a, um, having seeds or 

grains : F., pomegranate. 
grandaevus, a, um, aged. 
grandesco, 3, grow great. 
grandiloquus, a, um, lofty-speak- 

ing, boasful, grandiloquent. 
grandinat, it hails. 
grandineus (-osus), a, um, full of 

grandio, 4, to enkwge, increase. 
grandis, e, great, tall, strong, old, 

sublime, grand. 
granditas, atis, F., grandeur. 
granditer, exceedingly. 
grando, inis, f., hail, hailstorm. 
Granicus, m., a stream in Mysia. 
granifer, era, um, carrying grain. 
granum, i, n., grain, seed, kernel. 
f graphicus, a, vim, of drawing. 
f graphis, idis, F., pencil, draught. 
f graphium, i, N., ivriting-style. 
grassator, oris, M., idler, rioter. 
grassatura, se, f., rioting, waylaying. 
grassor, i, roam, loiter, attack,stay. 
grate, gladly, gratefully. 
grates, f., thanks. 
gratia, se, F., favor, esteem, regard, 

friendship, grace, injiuence. 
gratia (abl.), for the sake of. 
Gratiae, arum, the Graces, Aglaia, 

Euphrosyne, Thalia. 
gratiis (gratis), ivithout reward. 
gratificatio, F., showing kindness. 
gratificor, i, do favors, gratify. 
gratiosus, a, um, enjoying or show- 

ing favor, agreeable, beloved. 
grator, i, rejoice, congratulate. 
gratuitus, a, um, done without pay. 
gratulatio, F., congratulation, joy. 
gratulor, i, to congratulate, give joy 

or thanks. 
gratus, a, um, grateful, agreeahle. 
gravamen, inis, n., trouble, vexation. 

gravastellus — Hadriaticus. 


gravastellus, i, m., gray-head. 
gravate, reluctantly. 
gravatim, icith dij/iculty. 
gravedo, inis, f., catarrh. 
graveolens, tis, ofrank odor. 
gravesco, 3, grow heavy, teem. 
gravido, i, to load, hurden. 
gravidus, a, um, hwdened, teeming. 
gravis, e, lieavy, Jmrdensome, deep, 

of iveight or influence, rank. 
graviter, iveightily, seriously, deeply. 
gravitas, atis, F., iveight, vehemence, 

dignity, severity, rankness. 
gravo, I, to load heavily ; P.,feelas 

a hurden, he tceary. 
gregalis, e, of the herd or common 

sort : pl., companions. 
gregalis, e, ofthe herd. 
gregarius, a, um, of the herd, com- 

mon (solcliers). 
gregatim, inflocks or herds. 
grego, I, herd together. 
gremium, i, n., lap, bosom. 
gressus, [gradior,] stepping. 
gressus, us, m., a stepping, going. 
grex, gregis, f., fiock, herd, com- 

pany, swarm, troop. 
groma, ae, f., measuring-rod. 
grossus, a, um, tliick, gross ; m., 

green fg. 
griimus, i, M., hillock. 
grunnio, 4, to grunt. 
grus, gruis, f., crane. 
gryllo, I, to chirp. 
fgryllus, i, m., grasshopper, cricket. 
Gryneus, i (0/ Grynia or Grynium, 

a town of y^olis), Apoilo. 
f gryps, gryphis, m., griffin. 
grypus, i, m., hook-nosed. 
giibernaculum, i, n., helm, guid- 

ance, government. 
gubernatio, onis, f., steering, gov- 

erning, piloting. 
giibernator, oris, m., pilot, steers- 

man, governor. 
giibernatrix, icis, f., directress. 
guberno, i, steer, direcl, govern. 
giibernum, i, n., helm, rudder. 
gula, ae, f., throat, gullet. 
gulo, onis, M., epicure, glutton. 
gulosus, a, um, gluttonous, dainty. 

gummeus (-atus), a, um, gummy. 
fgummi, N. indec. ; -is, is, f., gum. 
gurdus, i, M., dolt, blockhead. 
gurges, itis, m., gulf ahyss, stream, 

Jiood, ivhirlpool, prodigal. 
gurgulio, onis, f., gullet. 
gurgustium, i, n., hut. 
gustatus, iis M., taste, fiavor. 
gusto, I, to taste, enjoy. 
gustus, iis ; -ulus, i, m., taste, reiish, 

gutta (-ula), se, f., drop, spot, bit. 
guttatim, drop by drop. 
guttatus, a, um, speckled. 
guttur, uris, n., throat. 
guttus, i, m., bottie, flask. 
f gymnasium, i, n., schoolfor train- 

ing, gymnasium. 
f gymnicus (gymnasticus), a, um, 

f gynaeceum, i, n., tvomen^s apart- 

ment, an inner room. 
gypso, I, to 2^i(ister. 
t gypsum, i, N., piaster, stucco. 
f gyrinus, i, m,, tadpoie. 
gyro, I, to-wheei in a circle. 
f gyrus, i, m., circie, ring, race-course. 
Gytheum, i, n., a port of Laconia. 

habena, 39, F., thong, rein. 

habentia, ae, f,, property. 

habeo, ui, it-, 2, have, hoid, regard, 

consider, use, possess, enjoy. 
habilis, e, handy,ft, expert. 
habilitas, atis, F.. aptitude. 
habitabilis, e, habitahle. 
habitatio, onis, F., dweiiing, rent. 
habitator, oris, M., dweiier. 
habito, I , hold, possess, dweil. 
habitiido, inis, F., condition, hahit. 
habitiirio, 4, desire to jwssess. 
habitus, [habeo,] held. 
habitus, us, M., condition, quality. 
hac, [hic,] by ihis icay. 
hactenus, hitherto, thus far. 
Hadria, ae, m., the Adriatic. 
Hadriaticus, a, um, of the Adri- 

atic, the Sea E. of Italy. 


Hadrumetum — Helle. 

Hadrumetum, i, n., a city of N. 

hcedinus, a, um, of a kid. 
haedus (-illus), i, m., kid. 
Haemonia, se, F., a name of 

Haemus, i, m., tlie Balkan, mts. of 

hsereo, haesi, haes-, 2, to cling, stay, 

s/ick fust. 
heeres=heres, heir. 
fhaeresis, is (eos), f., sect, craft. 
haesitatio, onis, f., stammering, 

haesito, i, stick^ stammer, hesitate. 
halec=alec, brine. 
haleca=alica, mush. 
Halesus, i, son of Agamemnon. 
Halicarnassus, i, f,, a city of 

halitus, us, m., breath, vapor. 
hallex=allex, thumh. 
hallucinor=alucinor, dream. 
halo, I, hreathe, exhale. 
f halophanta, se, F., saU-informery 

f halos, o, F., halo. 
fhalter, eris, m., diimh-hell. 
Halys, yos, M., a river of Asia 

fhama (-ula), ae, f., water-hucket. 
hamadryas, adis, f., wood-nymph. 
hamatilis, e, hooked. 
hamatus, a, um, hooked, crooked. 
f hamaxagoga, ae, n., icaggoner. 
fhamaxo, i, to yoke to a waggon. 
Hamilcar, aris, father of Hanni- 

bal, chief in the ist Punic war. 
hamiota, ee, m., angler. 
hamus (-ulus), i, m., hook, talon. 
Hannibal, alis, a Carthaginian 

chieftain, b.c, 247-183. 
Hanno, onis, a general of Carth- 

age, enemy of Hannibal. 
t haphe, es, f., dust, sand. 
hara, se, f., pen, coop, sty. 
harena=arena, sand. 
hariolor, i, prophesy, talk nonsense. 
hariolus, i, m. ; -ola, ae, F., diviner. 
harmonia, ae, f., harmony, concord. 

f harpago, i, to plunder. 
fharpago, onis, m., grappling- 

fharpax, agis, rapacious. 
jharpe, es, f., sickle, falcon. 
Harpyia, ae, a rapacious monster 

half bird, half woman. 
harundo=arundo, reed. 
haruspex, icis, m., diviner (from 

hasta, ge, f., spear, pike; sub 

hasta, at anction. 
hastatus, a, um, spear-armed, ofthe 

front rank of the Roman legion. 
hastile, is, n., spear-shaft. 
hastula, ae, F., a little spear or 

haud (hau, haut), not at all. 
hauddum, not yet. 
haudquaquam, hy no lueans. 
haurio, hausi, haust-, 4, draw, 

drain, consume. 
haustus, iis, m., draicing, draught. 
haveo=aveo, covct. 
t hebdomas, adis, F., a tveek, seven. 
Hebe, es, goddess of Youth. 
hebeo, 2 ; (-esco, 3), he hlunt. 
hebes, etis, hlunt, dull, dim. 
hebeto, i, make hlunt. 
Hebrus, i, m., a river of Thrace. 
Hecate, es, F., goddess of en- 

hecatombe, es, f., hecatomh. 
Hector, 5ris, ora, son of Priam, 

champion of Troy. 
Hecuba, ae, wife of Priam. 
hedera, ae, f., ivy. 
hederatus, a, um, ivy-crowned. 
thedychrum, i, n., cosmetic. 
hei ! alas ! 

t helcium, i, N., yoke (for hauling). 
Helena, d. of Jupiter and Leda, 

wife of Menelaus. 
Heliades, um, sisters of Phae- 

thon, changed to poplars. 
thelianthes, is, N., sunjiowers. 
t helice, es, f., icilloiv, osier. 
Helicon, onis, a mt. of Boeotia. 
t helix, icis, f., twining ivy. 
Helle, es, myth. d. of Athamas, 

drowned in the Hellespont. 

helleborus — Hierosolyma. 


f helleborus, i, n., hellehore. 
helluo=heluo, (jlutton. 
Hellespontus, i, m., the strait of 

DardaiieUes, S. E. of Thrace. 
fhelops, opis, m., sturgeon. 
Helotes, um, the Spartans' slaves. 
heluo, onis, m., gluiton. 
heluor (helluor),i, g ormandize. 
helus (helvella)=oius, pot-herh. 
helvenaous (-veolus), a, um, pale 

yellow, ijelloioish. 
Helvetii, orum, people of Helve- 

tia (Svvitzerland). 
helvus, a, um, dun, yellowish hrown. 
hem ! ah ! indeed ! 
hemina, ce, f., half-a-pint. 
f hemisphaerium, i, n., half-glohe. 
Henna=Enna, a town of Sicily. 
f hepar, atis, n., Uver. 
f hepsema, atis, n., grape-marma- 

f heptas, adis, f., the numher seven. 
f hepteris, is, f., seven-hanked ship. 
hera, se, f., mistress, lady. 
Heracleus, a, um ; -ides, ae, of, or 

descended from, Hercules. 
herba, ae, f., grass, herhage. 
herbaceus (-bidus), a, um, grassy. 
herbesco, 3, grow tike grass. 
herbifer, era, um, grass-hearing. 
herbilia, e, fed on grass. 
herbosus, a, um., full ofgrass. 
herbula, ae, f., a little herh. 
hercisco, 3, to divide inheritance. 
hercle ! hy Hercules ! 
herctum, i, n., inheritance, estafe. 
Hercynia silva, a Gernian forest. 
Herculaneum, i, n., a town near 

Naples, destroyed, A.D. 79. 
Hercules, is, myth. son of Jiipiter 

and Alcmena, god of Strength. 
Herculeus, a, um, of Hercules. 
here=heri, yesterday. 
hereditarius, a, um, inherited. 
hereditas, atis, f., inheritance. 
heredium, i, n., inherited estate. 
heres, edis, m., heir, owner. 
heri (here), yesterday, lately. 
herilis, e, of the master. 
f hermaphroditus, i, of hoth sexes. 
H3rmes (-ma), ae, Mercury. 

Hermione, es, d. of Menelaus. 
Hernici, orum, an ancient people 

of Latium. 
Hero, us, a priestess of Venus in 

Sestos, beloved by Leander. 
Herodotus, i, a Greek Historian, 

of Halicarnassus, b.c. 450. 
f heroicus, a, um, of heroes. 
f heroina, ae ; -is, idis, f., heroine. 
f heros, ois, 6a, M., hero, demigod. 
f herous, a, um, of a hero. 
f herpes, etis, m., a creeping sore. 
herus (erus), i, m., master, owner. 
hervum (ervum), ivild pea. 
Hesione, es, d. of Laomedon, res- 

cued by Hercules. 
Hesperia, ae, f., Greek or poetic 

name for Italy or Spain. 
hesperius, a, um, western. 
Hesperus, i, son of Cephalus and 

Aurora ; the Evening Star. 
hesperus, i, m., west (vesper). 
hesternus, a, um, [heri,] yester- 

day\<i ; abl., yesterday. 
f hetaeria, ee, f., secret society. 
heu! alas! 

f heuretes, ae, m., inventor, 
heus ! halloo ! ho ! 
f hexameter, tri, m., hexameter. 
f hexeris, is, f., six-hanked ship. 
hiasco, 3, to split open. 
hiatus, us, m., cleft, opening. 
hibernaculum, i, N., winter apart- 

ment ; pl., winter tents. 
Hibernia, ae, f., Ireland. 
hiberno, i, j;rtss the winter. 
hibernus, a, um, ofivinter,wintry; 

N., pl., ivinter-quarters. 
hibiscum, i, n., marsh-mallow. 
hibrida, ae, c, mongrel, half-hreed. 
hic, haec, hoc, this, the latter. 
hic, liere, hereupon, herein. 
hic-ce, this (emphatic). 
hiccine, this, here (interrog.) 
hiemalis, e, lointry, of ivinter. 
hiemo, i, pa.s'.s" tiie winter ; he cold, 

frozen or stormy. 
hiems (ps), mis, f., ivinter, storm. 
hieratius, a, um, of sacred use. 
Hieio, onis, ruler of Syracuse. 
Hierosolyma, orum, Jerusalem. 


hieto — horrens. 

hieto, I, yaivn, gape. 

f hilaris, e ; -us, a, um, cheerful, 

merry ; n. pl., sprlng-games. 
hilaritas, atis, F., chee7% mirth. 
hilaritudo, inis, f., cheerfulness. 
hilaro, i, yladdcn, exhilarate. 
hillae, arum, f., entrails. 
hilum, i, N., trifle. 
Himera, ae, a river and town of 

hino, hence, hereafter, this side, ago. 
hinnio, 4, to neigh. 
hinnitus, iis, m., neighing. 
hinnuleus, i, m., young deer. 
f hinnus (-ulus), i, m., mule. 
hio, hiaxi, hiat-, i, yawn, gape. 
f hippace, es, f., cheese (of mare's 

f hippagogi, pl., horse-transports. 
Hippo, onis, a city of Numidia. 
Hippocrene, es, f., a fountain of 

the Muses near Helicon. 
Hippodame, es (-ia, ae), myth. wife 

of Pelops ; also, of Pirithous. 
f hippodromos, i, m., race-course. 
Hippolyte, es, an Amazon, w. of 

Theseus, mother of Hippolytus. 
f hippomanes, is, n., horse-heat, (a 

sHme or excrescence). 
f hir, N., hand. 
hircinus, a, um, of a goat. 
hircosus, a, um, li/ce a goat. 
hircus, i, m., he-goat, rankness. 
hirnea (-ula), ae, f., water-jug. 
hirpex=irpex, harroiv. 
Hirpini, orum, people of S. Italy. 
hirquus=hircus, goat. 
hirrio, 4, to snarl. 
hirsutus, a, um, shaggy, hristly. 
hirtus, a, um, hairy, shaggy. 
hirudo, inis, F., leech. 
hirundineus, (-ininus), a, um, of 

hirundo, inis, f., a sivallow. 
hisco, 3, to open the lips, speak. 
Hispania, ee, f., Spain. 
Hispanus, a, um ; -iensis, e, Span- 

ish ; pl., Spaniards. 
hispidus, a, um, hristly, prickly. 
Hister=Ister, Danuhe. 
f historia, ae, f., history, tale, story. 

historicus, a, um, historic ; m., his- 

histricus, a, um, of stage-players. 
histrio, onis, m., play-actor. 
histrionia, se, F., stage-play. 
histrix=hystrix, porcupi^ie. 
hiulco, I, cause to gape, open. 
hiulcus, a, um, gaping, cleft, eager. 
hodie, to-day, now, at this time. 
hodiernus, a, um, of to-day. 
hcBdus=haedus, kid. 
[f holo-, ichole. 
holus=olus, pot-herh. 
Homericus, a, um, of Homer. 
homicida, ee, c, man-slayer. 
homicidium, i, N., homicide, murder. 
homo, inis, c, man. 
[f homo-, together. 
homullus, -uncio, -unculus (dim. 

of homo), manikin, petty man. 
honestamentum, i, n., decoration. 
honestas, atis, f., honor, heauty. 
honeste, nohly, honorahly. 
honesto, i, to adorn, honor. 
honestus, a, um, honored, honora- 

hle, nohle. 
honor (6s), oris, M., honor, esteem, 

dignity, reicard, ornament. 
honorabilis, e, icinning honor. 
honorarius, a, um, conferring 

honor : N., gift. 
honorate, honorahly. 
honoratus, a, um, distinguished, 
* honored. 

honorificus, a, um, doing honor. 
honoro, i, adorn, respect, honor. 
honorus, a, um, worthy of honor. 
hora, se, f., hour, season. 
hordeaceus (-arius, -eius), a, um,' 

of harley. 
hordeum, i, n., harley. 
hordus=fordus, with youny. 
horia, se, f., fshing-boat. 
horiola, ae, F., ski.f. 
horior, 3, cheer, encourage. 
f horizon, ontis, m., hounding-line. 
hornus (-otinus), a, um, helonging 

to this year. 
horologium, i, n., clock. 
horrendus, a, um, dreadful, awful. 
horrens, tis/fearful, terrible, rough. 

horreo — hydrus. 


horreo, 2, hristle, shudder at, be 

rotKjJi or dreadful. 
horresco, ui, ^, gi-oiv rough, tremble. 
horreum, i, n., harn, granary. 
horribilis, e, dreadful, horrihle. 
horridus (-ulus), a, um, rough, 

shaggij, scraggy, hristling,frightful. 
horrifer, era, um, bringing dread. 
horrifico, i, make rough, ruj/ie. 
horrificus, a, um, causing horror. 
horrisonus, a, um, of dreadful 

horror, oris, m., bristling, trembling, 

dread, hugbear, rudeness. 
horsum, this waij. 
hortamen, inis; -mentum, i, n., 

hortatio, onis, f., exhortation. 
hortativus, a, um, servingfor cheer. 
hortator, oris, m., exhorter. 
hortatus, iis, m., exhorting. 
horteusis, e; -sius, a, um, of a 

Hortensius, i, the Roman orator, 

A.D. 114-52. 
hortor, i, cheer, exhort, urge. 
hortus (-ulus), i, m., garden. 
hospes, itis, host, guest, stranger ; 

m., (as adj.), foreign, hospitahle. 
hospita, ae, f. ; -ta, orum, n. pl., 

foreign, hospitahle. 
hospita, ae, f., hostess. 
hospitalis, e, hospitahle, ofa guest. 
hospitalitas, f., hospitalitg. 
hospitaliter, hospitahly, as a guest. 
hospitium, i, n., hospitality, inn, 

hospitor, I, tobe a guest. 
hostia, se, f., victim (for sacrifice). 
hosticus, a, um, the enemfs. 
hostilis, e, of an enemy, hostile. 
Hostilius, TuUus, the third king 

of Rome, b.c, 679-630. 
hostio, 4, requite, strike. 
hostis, is, c, stranger, enemy. 
hostus, i, M., yield of ohves. 
huc (interr. -cine), hither, thusfar. 
hucusque, hitherto. 
hui ! ha ! 

hujusmodi (-cemodi), ofthis sort. 
bumane, humanly, kindly. 

humanitas, atis, f., human nature, 

mankind, refinement. 
humaniter, like men, courteously. 
humanitus, in the manner ofmen. 
humanus, a, um, human, humane, 

gentle, refned, courteous. 
humatio, onis, f., buricd. 
humecto, i, moisten. 
humectus, a, um, moist, loet. 
humefacio, fact- 3, to moisten. 
hiimeo, 2 (-esco, 3), to he or grow 

humerus, i, m., shoulder, back, ridge. 
humi, on the ground. 
hiimidulus, damp. 
hiimidus, a, um, moist, wet. 
hiimifer, era, um, bringing wet. 
hiimificus, a, um, moistening. 
humilio, i, abase. 
humilis, e, low, lowly, hase, humhle. 
humilitas, atis, f., humbleness, 

lowness, meanness, humility. 
humiliter, deeply, lowly, basely. 
humo, I, to hury. 
humor, oris, m., moisture, liquid. 
hiimorosus, a, um, ivet. 
humus, i, F., ground, soil, region. 
t hyacinthinus, a,um, hyacinthine. 
Hyacinthos, i, a youth of Sparta, 

loved by Apollo. 
f hyacinthus, i, m., blue-iris ( f) . 
Hyades, um, f. {rainers), a group 

in tlie constellation Taurus. 
fhyaena, ae, f., hyena. 
f hyalus, i, n., glass (green). 
Hyantius, a, um, Boeofian. 
hybernus=hibernus, wintry. 
Hybla, ae (e, es), f., a mt. of 

Sicily, famous for honey. 
Hydaspes, is, m., a river of India. 
hydra, ae, water-snake. 
Hydra, se, f., the hydra (lake- 

monster), slain by Hercules. 
f hydrargyrus, i, m., quicksilver. 
f hydraulus, i, m., water-organ. 
f hydreuma, atis, n., watering or 

resting place for caravans. 
fhydria, ae, f., tcater-pot, pitcher. 
f hydromeli, itis, N., mead. 
f hydrops, opis, m., dropsy. 
f hydrus (os), i, m., water-snake. 


Hydrus — ignorabilis. 

Hydrus, untis, Otranto^ a city of 

hyems=liiems, winter. 
Hygea (-ia, -eia), ee, goddess of 

Hylas, se, a youth of Argos, loved 

by Hercules. 
Hyllus, i, son of Hercules. 
Hymen, enis (-geus, i), m., god of 

fhynien, enis, m., marriage-song, 

nmrriuge, wedding. 
Hymettus (os), i, m., a mt. near 

Athens, famous for honey and 

f hymnus, i, m., hymn, song. 
f hypae thrus, a, um, open io the skg. 
f hyperbole, es, f., exaggeration. 
Hyperborei, orum, people of the 

extreme north. 
f hyperboreus, a, um, northern. 
Hyperion, onis, father of the Sun. 
f hypocaustum, i, n., heated hath- 

f hypoorita (es), ae, m., dumh-actor. 
f hypogeum, i, x,, celUir, vault, 
f hypomnema, atis, n., memoran- 

f hypotheca, ae, f., securitg, pledge. 
Hyrcanus, a, um, of the Caspian. 
hystrix, icis, f., porcupine. 


lacchus, i, a name of Bacchus. 
iambus, i, m., iamhus (§ 79). 
f ianthinus, a, um, violet-colored. 
lapetos, i, f^ither of the Titans. 
lapydes, um, people of IUyria. 
lapygia, ae, f., the peninsula of 

S. E. Italy, country of lapyx. 
lasius, i, son of Jupiter and Elec- 

tra ; also a king of Argos. 
lason, onis, .Tason, son of yEson, 

leader of the Argonauts. 
fiaspis, idis, F., jaspe7\ 
f Iberia, ae, f., Spain. 
Iberus, a, um, Spanish , of Iheria 

(near the Caucasus). 
ibex, icis, m., wild goat, chamois. 

ibi, there, thereupon, at that time. 
, ibidem, just there, moreover. 
' f ibis, is (idis), f., ihis (an Egyptian 
bird held sacred). 

ibus for iis, [is,] to or icith them. 

Icarus, i, myth. son of Daedalus, 
! drowned in the ^gean sea. 
I iccirco (idcirco), on that account. 

f ichneumon, onis, m., Egyptian rat. 
I ico, ici, ict-,- 3, to strike, hit, sting. 

ictus, lis, M., hlow, stroke. 
I Idaeus, a, um, (of Mount Ida), 
I Trojan or Cretan. 
: Idalium, i, n., a city of Cyprus, 
! sacred to Venus. 
i f idea, ae, f., idea, creative type. 
\ idem, eadem, idem, same, very. 

identidem, again and again. 

ideo, so, therefore. 

f idiota, ae, m., rude, ignorant, or 
common person. 

f idolum (on), i, N., image, spectre. 

Idomeneus, i, a Cretan hero in 
the siege of Troy. 

idonee, fidy, properly. 

idoneus, a, viva., fit, apt, capahle. 

idus, uum, f. pl., Ides (§ 83), the 
I5th of March, May, July, Oct. ; 
I3th of the other months. 

igitur, therefore, then (§ 43, 5). 

ignarus, a, um, ignorant, unaware, 
inexperienced, heedless, unknown. 

ignave (-iter), idly, sluggishly. 

ignavia, ae, f., sloth, cowardice. 

ignavus, a, um, idle, slothful, coW' 
ardly, unfruitful, sluggish. 

ignesco, 3, kindle, take fire. 

igneus (-olus), a, um, fie.ry, glow- 
ing, hot, flaming, resplendent. 

igniculus, i, m., Uttle flame, spark. 

ignifer, era, um, fire-hearing. 

ignipes, pedis, fiery-footed. 

ignipotens, tis, lord of fire. 

ignis, is, M., fire, splendor, glow. 

ignitus, a, um, fiery, glowing. 

ignivagus, a, um, like ivild-fire. 

ignobilis, e, unknown, ohscure. 

ignobilitas, atis, F., obscurity. 

ignominia, ae, F., dishonor. 

ignominiosus, a, um, disgraceful. 

ignorabilis, e, unknoivn. 

ignorantia — Ilva. 


ignorantia, ee (-atio, onis), f., ivajit 

of k-nuivle(I(je, iynorance. 
ignoratus, a, um, unknown. 
ignoro, i, (o he ignorant of. 
ignoscens, tis, forgiving, placable. 
ignosco, novi, not-, 3, to pardon, 

overtook, excuse,for(jive. 
ignotus, a, um, unknown. 
ilex, icis, f., scarlet or liolm oak. 
Ilia, 86 (Rhaea Sylvia), mother of 

Romulus and Remus. 
ilia, um, N., (jroin, Jlank. 
Iliacus (Ilius), a, um, Trojan. 
Iliades, se, Trojan. 
Ilias, adis, Trojan ivoman. 
ilicet, tet us go, all is over, at once. 
ilicetum, i, n., liolm-grove. 
ilignus (-ceus), a, um, of liolm. 
Ilion (-um), i, n., Troy. 
f Ilithyia, ee, Lucina. 
illa, bg that ivay. 
illabefactus, a, um, unhroken. 
illabor, laps-, 3, glide or fall upon. 
illaboratus, a, um, untoited-for 
illaboro, i, ^vork upon. 
illac, on tliat side. 
illacessitus, a, um, unprovoked. 
illacrimabilis, e, univept, pitiless. 
illacrimo (-or), i, zveep over, trickle. 
illaesus, [laedo,] unimpaired. 
illaetabilis, e, clieertess, gtoomy. 
illapsus, iis, m., [IdLboXj^^Jtowing-in. 
illaqueo, i, to ensnare, entangte. 
illatenus, thusfar. 
illatio, onis, f., bringing-in, hurial. 
illatro, I, to hark at. 
illatus, [infero,] hrought. 
illaudatus, a, um, unpraised. 
illautus, [lavo,] umvashed. 
ille, illa, illud, that, the former, the 

wett-known (§ 20, ii.). 
illecebra, ae, f., charm, ture. 
illecebrosus, a, um, enticing. 
illectamentum, i, n., charm. 
illectus, [lego,] not gathered or 

read : [illicio,] atlured. 
illepidus, a, um, unpleasing. 
illex, egis, lawtess. 
illex, icis, alluring, enticing. 
illibatus, a, um, unimpaired. 
illiberabilis, e, sordid, mean. 

illiberalitas, atis, f., meanness. 
illiberaliter, ignobty, meanty. 
illic, illaec, illoc (illuc), that, yon- 

der (interrog. -cine). 
illic, there, yoiuler. 
il-licio, lexi, lect-, 3, entice, allure. 
illicitator, oris, m., mock-bidder. 
illicite, untaufutly. 
illicitus, a, um,Jbrbidden, untawful. 
illicium, i, n., enticement, cliarm. 
illico, there, on the spot. 
illido, si, sum, [laedo,] 3, to drive, 

dash against, crush. 
illigo, I, bind, fasten, encumher. 
illim=illinc, thence. 
illimis, e, clear of mud. 
illinc, tlience, from that (juarter. 
illino, levi, lit- 3 ; -io, 4, to smear, 

besprecul, anoint. 
illiquefactus, a, um, liquid. 
illisus, [illido,] crushed. 
illisus, us, M ; -sio, onis, F., dash- 

ing, striking. 
illiteratus, a, um, untettered. 
illitus, [illino,] hesmeared. 
illix=illex, enticing. 
illo, thifher, to that end. 
illoc, thither, that. 
illotus, [lavo,] unwashed, dirty. 
illuc, to tliat p)tace. 
illuceo, 2, to shine upon. 
illucesco, luxi, 3, to grow bright, 

dnwn, shine upon. 
illudo, si, sum, 3, ptay, mock, de- 

siroy, ahuse. 
illuminate, ctearty, luminously. 
illumino, i,^ make hright, iltustrious, 

or conspicuous. 
illunis, e; us, a, um, withoutmoon. 
illiisio, onis, F., mocking. 
illusor, oris, N., mocker, scoffer. 
illustris, e, hright, clear, famous. 
illustro, i, hrighten, itluminate. 
illiisus, [ludo,] mocked. 
illutibilis, e, indetibte. 
illiitus=illotus, unwashed. 
illuvies, ei, F.,foutness, dirt. 
IUyricus, a, um, of Ittyria, the 

coast dist. N.-W. of Epirus. 
Ilus, i, myth. founder of IHum. 
Ilva, ge, F., the island Etha. 


imagmanus — immurmuro. 

imaginarius, a, um, of images, 

seeniing : N., standurd-hearer. 
imaginatio, onis, ¥.,fancy. 
imagino, i, to shape, represent. 
imaginor, i, tofancy, imayine. 
imago, inis, F., image, copy, fgure, 

likeness, semblance. 
imbecillitas, atis, f., feehleness. 
imbecillus, a, um, feehle, helpless. 
imbellia, ee, f., unfitness for war. 
imbellis, e, uniuarU/ce, peaceful. 
imber, bris, M., rain-storm, water. 
imberbis, e ; -bus, a, um, heardless. 
imbibo, bi, 3, drink in, resolve. 
imbito, 3, enter. 

imbracteo, i, to plate (with gold). 
imbrex, icis, f., rooftile, gutter. 
Imbricitor, oris, m., rain-giver. 
imbrico, i, cover ivith tiles. 
imbricus, a, um, rainy. 
imbrifer, era, um, rain-hringing. 
imbuo, ui, ut-, 3, to saturate, siain, 

train, instruct, imhue. 
imitabilis, e, that may be copied. 
imitamen, inis, n., likeness, copy. 
imitatio, onis, F., imitation. 
imitator, oris, M., copyist. 
imitor (-to), i, to imitate, copy. 
imitus,f rom the hottom. 
immadesco, madui, 3, groiv moist. 
immanis, e, monstrous^ferce. 
immanitas, atis, f., cruelty, vast- 

ness, ferocify, excess. 
immaniter, cxcessively, fiercely. 
immansuetus, a, um, untamed. 
immaturitas, atis, f., unripeness. 
immaturus, a, um, untimely, un- 

ripe, premature. 
immedicabilis, e, incurahle. 
immeditatus, a, um, unstudied. 
immemor, oris, unmindful. 
immemorabilis, e, not to he told. 
immemoratus, a, um, untold. 
immense, vustly, immensely. 
immensitas, atis, f., vastness. 
immensus, a, um, houndless, vast, 
immeo, i, fo enter. 
immerens, tis, undeserving. 
immergo, si, sum, 3, fo plunge. 
immerito, unjiist/y, without cause, 
immeritus, a, um, undeserved. 

immersabilis, e, not to be drowned. 
immersus, [mergo,] plunged. 
immetatus, a, um, unmeasured. 
immigro, i, remove into. 
imminens, tis, threatening. 
immineo, 2, overhang, horder on, 

impend, threaten, be intent on. 
imminuo, ui, iit-, 3, lessen, ruin. 
imminutio, onis, f., lessening. 
imminutus, a, um, undiminished. 
immisceo, scui, xt- (st), 2, to min- 

gle, hlend. 
immiserabilis, e, unpitied. 
immisericors, dis, merciless. 
immitis, e, harsh, rude, cruel. 
immitto, misi, miss-, 3, admit, in- 

troduce, send aguinst, let grow. 
immixtus, [misceo,] mingled in. 
immo, nay, surely, on the contrary. 
immobilis, e, immovahle. 
immoderate, exfravagan tly. 
immoderatus, a, um, unrestrained. 
immodestia, ae, F., unrestraint. 
immodestus, a, um, unrestrained. 
immodice, immoderateJy. 
immodicus, a, um, without bounds, 

unruly, extravagant. 
immodulatus, a, um, unrh/ythmic. 
immolatio, onis, F., sacrifce. 
immolator, oris, M., sacrificer. 
immolitus, a, um, built up. 
immolo, i, [mola,] io sprinkle (with 

meal), sacrifice. 
immordeo, di, sum, 3, bite upon. 
immorior, mortuus, 3, die upon. 
immoror, i, linger, delay. 
immorsus, [mordeo,] corroded. 
immortalis, e, dcuthless, endless. 
immortalitas, atis, f., immortality. 
immotus, [moveo,] unmoved. 
immugio, 4, roar icithin. 
immulgeo, 2, milk into. 
immunditia, ae, f., uncleanness. 
immundus, a, um, unclean, foul. 
immiinificus, a, um, stingT/. 
immiinio, 4, forfify. 
immiinis, e, exempt, devoid. 
immiinitas, atis, f., exemption, 

freedom from burdens. 
immiinitus, a, um, unfortifed. 
immurmuro, i, to murmur against. 

immutabilis — impluvium. 

immutabilis, e, changed; uncTiang- 

iiig, unalterahle. 
immutatio, oiiis, F., exchange. 
immutatus, a, um, unchanged. 
immutesco, mutui, 3, grow dumb. 
immiito, i, to change, alter. 
imo=immo, surely. 
impaoatus, a, um, unsubdued. 
impactus, [impingo,] struck, hit. 
impage.3, is, F., frame-work, horder. 
impar, paris, unequal, inferior. 
imparatus, a, um, unprepared. 
impartio=impertio, impart. 
impastus, a, um, unfed, famished. 
impatibilis, e, insufferahle. 
impatiens, tis, not enduring. 
impatientia, se, f., impatience. 
impavidus, a, um, fearless. , 

impedimentum, i, N., hindrance ; 

pl., baggage, army-train. 
impedio, 4, hinder, clasp, entangle. 
impedltio, onis, f., obstruction. 
impeditus, a, um, ohstructed, en- 

cumbered, emharrassed. 
impello, puli, puls-, 3, push against, 

urge, rouse, subdue, destroy. 
impendeo, 2, overhang, impend. 
impendiosus, a, um, extravagant. 
impendium, i, N., exjjense, outlay. 
impendo, di, sum, 3, weigh out, 

expend, employ, devote. 
impenetrabilis, e, impenetrdble. 
impense, at great cost, eagerly. 
impensus, a, um, ample, grand, 

costly, strong, vehement. 
imperativus, a, um, by orders. 
imperator, oris, m., commander, 

general, director, chief 
imperatorius, a, um, of a general. 
imperatum, i, N., a command. 
imperceptus, a, um, unperceived. 
imperco, [parco,] 3, to spare. 
impercussus, [quatio,] not struck. 
imperditus, a, um, not destroyed. 
imperfectus, a, um, unfinished. 
imperfossus, a, um, not stabhed. 
iraperialis, e, of the empire. 
imperiosus, a, um, having command 

or dominion, tyrannical. 
imperite, awkwardly, unskillfully. 
imperitia, ae, f., lack of skill. 

imperito, [impero,] to command. 
imperitus, a, um, inexperienced, 

unskilled, ignorant. 
imperium, i, n., military authority, 

order, command, dominion. \ ■ 
impermissus, a, um, forbidden. ^ 
impero, i,to command, rule, require, 

order, exact, impose, prescrihe. 
imperterritus [terreo,] undaunted. 
impertio, 4, share, impart, hestow. 
impervius, a, um, impassable. 
impetigo, inis, f., scurf. 
impeto, 3, assail, attack. 
impetrabilis, e, obtainahle, success- 

ful, propitious. 
impetrio, 4, obtain hy omens. 
impetritum, i, N., a good omen. 
impetro, i, ohtain by request, ejfect. 
impetus, iis, m., attack, assault. 
impexus, [pecto,] uncombed. 
impico, I, cover with tar. 
impie, impiously. 

impietas, atis, F., impiety, treason. 
impiger, gra, um, active, hold. 
impigre, actively, readily. 
impilia, um, n., felt shoes. 
impingo, pegi, pact-, 3, sti-ike, hit. 
impio, I , dejile, pollute. 
impius, a, um, ivithout reverence, 

undutiful, impious, ivicked. 
implacabilis, e, unappeasahle. 
implacatus, a, um, unappeased. 
implacidus, a, um, ungentle, rude. 
implecto, xi, xum, 3, interweave. 
impleo, evi, et-, 2, tofill up, com- 

plete, satisfy, fulfil, finish. 
implexus, [plecto,] interwoven. 
implexus, iis, m., embrace. 
implicatio, onis, f., interweaving. 
implicatus, a, um, intricate. 
impliciscor, 3, get entangled. 
implicite, intricately. 
implico, avi (ui), at- (it-), i, entan- 

gle, entwine, involve, envelop. 
imploratio, onis, F., imploring. 
imploro, i, entreat,heseech,implore. 
implumis, e, featherless, unfledged. 
impluo, ui, ut-, 3, rain upon. 
impluviatus, a, um, square-bor- 

dered (like a rain-tank). 
impluvium, i, n., rain-hasin. 


impoeiiitus — inamabilis. 

impoenitus, a, um, unpunished. 
impolitia, ae, F., negligence. 
impolitus, a, um, uNpolished, rude. 
impolliitus, a, um, unstained. 
impono, sui, sit- (st-), 3, put upon, 

embarJc, inipose, appoint, deceive. 
imporoatus, a, um, infurrows. 
importo, i, bring in, import. 
importiinitas, atis, F., unjitness, 

rudeness, oblrusiveness. 
importiinus, a, um, unjit, rude, 

grievous, dangerous, cruel, churlish. 
importuosus, a, um, harborless. 
impos, potis, not master of. 
impositicius, a, um, applied, laidon. 
impositio, onis, f., application. 
impossibilis, e, impossible. 
impostor, oris, m., deceiver. 
impostus, [pono,] put upon. 
impotens, tis, iveak, ungovernable. 
impotenter, v;eaJchj, passionatehj. 
impotentia, ae, F., ivant, poverty, 

ungovernableness, violence. 
impraepeditus, a, um, unJiindered. 
impraesentiarum, for tJie present. 
impransus, a, um, fasting. 
imprecatio, onis, invoJcing of evil. 
imprecor, i, invoJce, imprecate. 
impresse, forcibly. 
impressio, onis, f., pressing upon, 

jwessure, attac/c, division. 
imprimis, cJiiefly, in tJie first place. 
imprimo, pressi, press-, 3, press 

upon, stamp, marJc, imprint. 
improbabilis, e, not to be approved. 
improbatio, onis, f., disapproval. 
improbe, im.moderatehj, badly. 
improbitas, atis, F., tvickedness. 
improbiter, badly, erroneoushj. 
improbo, i, disapprove, rescind. 
improbus, (-ulus), a, um, bad, 

wlcJced, monstrous, outrageous. 
improcerus, a, um, undersized. 
improfessus, a, um, undeclared. 
impromptus, a, um, not ready. 
improperatus a, um, not Jiasty. 
impropero, i, Jiasten, cast against. 
improprius, a, um, not befitting. 
improsper, era, um, unfortunate. 
improtectus, [tego,] unsheltered. 
improvidus, a, um, not foreseeing. 

improviso, of a sudden. 
improvisus, a, um, unforeseen. 
impriidens, tis, not foreseeing, un- 

aware, inconsiderate. 
imprudenter, witJwut foresight. 
imprudentia, ae, f., lacJc of fore- 

sigJit, ignorance. 
impubes, is, youtJful, beardless. 
impiibescens, tis, growing. 
impudens, tis, sJiameless. 
impudenter, sJiaynelesshj. 
impudentia, ae, f., sJiamelessness. 
impudicitia, se, immodesty. 
impudicus, a, um, sJiameless, hn- 

modest, uncJiaste. 
impugnatus, a, um, unassailed. 
impugno, i ,- to attacJc, oppose. 
impulsio, onis, f., pressure, im- 

pulse, influence. 
impulsor, oris, m., instigator. 
impulsus, [pello,] pusJied. 
impulsus, us, M., impulse, pressure. 
impune, ivith impunity. 
impiinis, e, unpunisJied. 
impiinitas, atis, f., impunity. 
impiinitus, a, um, unjjunisJied. 
impiiratus, a, um, defiled. 
impiire, vilely, sJiamefully. 
impiiritas, atis; -ritia, ae, F., un- 

cleanness, impurity. 
impiirus, a, um, unclean,foul. 
imputator, oris, M., recJconer. 
imputatus, a, um, unpruned. 
imputo, I, cJiarge, recJcon, ascribe. 
imus [inferus,] a, um, lowest. 
in (acc), into ; (abl.), m on(§56, i). 
[in-= not ; on or against. 
inaccessus, a, um, inaccessible. 
inacesco, cui, 3, grow sour. 
Inachius, a, um, ofArgos ; Inachia 

juvenca, lo, d. of Inachus, 

changed to a heifer. 
Inachos, i, first myth. k. of Argos. 
inactus, [inigo,] driven in. 
incedifico, i, build upon, erect. 
inaequabilis, e, uneven, unequal. 
inaequalis, e, unequal, unliJce. 
inaequo, i, to maJce level. 
inaestimabilis, e, not to be valued. 
inalbo, i ; (-esco, 3), whiten, dawn. 
inamabilis, e, unlovely. 

inambulatio — incolumis. 


inambulatio, onis, F.,promenading. 
inambulo, i,pace to and fro. 
inamoenus, a, um, gloomy. 
inanimis, e ; -us (atus), a, um, life- 

less, inanimate. 
inanio, 4, make void. 
inanis, e, empty, void, vain. 
inanitas, atis, F., emptinesss. 
inaniter, vainly, idly. 
inaratus, a, um, untilled, fallow. 
inardesco, arsi, 3, takefire. 
inaresco, arui, 3, dry up. 
Inarime, es, f., the I. Ischia, near 

inaro, i , to plough in, cultivate. 
inassuetus, a, um, unwonted. 
inaudax, acis, timid. 
inaudio, 4, Jiear, learn. 
inauditus, a, um, unheard. 
inauguro, i , pr-actise divination. 
inaures, ium, f., ear-drops. 
inauro, i, gild, enrich. 
inauspicatus, a, um, icithout au- 

spices, unlucky, inauspicious. 
inausus, [audeo,] unventured. 
incgeduus, a, um, uncut. 
incalesco, calui, 3, g7^oio hot. 
incalfacio, 3, to heat. 
incallidus, a, um, unskilful. 
incandesco, dui, 3, glow, kindle. 
incanesco, nui, 3, turn gray. 
incanto, i, sing, chant, beivitch. 
incanus, a. um, quite hoary. 
incassum, in vain. 
incaute, incautiously. 
incautus, a, um, heedless, inconsid- 

erate, unforeseen, dangerous. 
incedo, cessi, cess-, 3, go, advance, 

march, arrive, happen. 
incenatus, a, um ; -nis, e, dinnerless. 
incendium, i, 'i^.,fire, confiagration. 
incendo, di, sum, 3, hurn,kindle. 
incensio, onis, f., burning. 
incensus, a, um, unassessed, kindled. 
inceptio, onis, f., beginning. 
incepto, i, undertake. 
inceptura, i, n., attempt, undertaking. 
inceptus, [-cipio,] begun. 
incerno, 3, strow, sift. 
incero, i, smear with wax. 

incerto, i, make doubtful. 
incertus, a, um, doubtful, unsure. 
incesso, cessivi (cessi), 3, attack. 
incessus, us, m., pace, gait, altack. 
incesto, i, defile, dishonor. 
incestus, a, um, impure, unchaste; 

N., leicdness, incest. 
incestus, us, m., incest, unchastity. 
inchoatus, a, um, incomplete. 
inchoo, I, to found, begin. 
incido, cidi, cas-, [cado,] 3, to fall 

upon, occur, happen. 
incido, cidi, cis-, [caedo,] 3, to cut 

into or off, inscribe, register. 
incilis, e, cut in ; n., a ditch. 
incilo, I, to rebuke. 
incingo, hxi, nct-, 3, gird about. 
incipio, cepi, cept-, [capio,] 3, to 

begin, commence. 
incipisso, 3, begin. 
incise (-im), in short clauses. 
incisio, onis, F., cutting, clause. 
incisiira, ae, f., incision. 
incisus, [incido,] cut. 
incitamentum, i, N., inducement. 
incitate, violently. 
incitatio, onis, f., incitement. 
incitatus, a, um, sivift, eager. 
incito, I, hasten, rouse, enlarge. 
incitus, [cieo,] swift; unmoved. 
incivilis, e, uncivil, unjust. 
inclamo (-ito), i, cry out upon. 
inclaresco, rui, 3, grow famous. 
inclemens, tis, harsh, rude, bitter. 
inclementer, harshly, severely. 
inclementia, ae, f., harshness, rigor. 
inclinatio, onis, f., leaning. 
inclinatus, a, um, bent, loio. 
inclino, i, lean, bend, give ivay. 
incliido, si, sum, [claudo,] 3, shut 

up, enclose, obstruct, stop,finish. 
incliisio, onis, f., confinement. 
inclutus (-clitus), a, um, famous. 
incoctus, [coquo,] uncooked, raw. 
incogitabilis, e; -tatus, a, um, 

thoughtless, inconceivable. 
incogiiitus, [nosco,] unknoivn, un- 

tried, unclaimed. 
incola, ae, c, inhahitant, resident. 
incolo, colui, 3, dwell, inhahit. 
incolumis, e, safe, unharmed. 


mcoluinitas — indignor. 

incolumitas, atis, F., safety. 
incomitatus, a, um, unaltended. 
incomitio, i, to insult. 
incommendatus, a, um, ahan- 

incommoditas, atis, f., inconven- 

ience, dainage. 
incommodo, i, annoij, injure. 
incommodus, a, um, trouUesome, 

inconvenient ; N., trouhle,disaster. 
incompertus, a, uni, unknown. 
incompositus, a, um, iU-arranged. 
incomptus, [como,] unadorned. 
inconcessus, [cedo,] unlawful. 
inconcilio, i, win over. 
inconcinnus, a, um, inelegant. 
inconcussus, [-cutio,] unshaken. 
inconditus, a, um, luifashioned. 
incongruus, a, um, unsuitahle. 
inconsideratus, a, um, heedless, 

unadvised, inconsiderate. 
inconstans, tis, changeful, fickle. 
inconstantia, ae, f., inconstancg. 
inconsultU3, a, um, indiscreet, un- 

asked., ivitkout counsel. 
incontinens, tis, intemperate. 
incontinentia, se, f., greedlness. 
inconveniens, tis, unsuifed. 
incoquo, xi, ct-, 3, hoil in or with. 
incorporalis, e, hodiless. 
incorruptus, [rumpo,] unspoiled. 
increbresco, brui, 3, to increase. 
increbro, i, repeat oflen. 
incredibilis, e, incredihle. 
incrementum, i, N., growth, pro- 

geng, increase. 
increpito, i, chide, call, challenge. 
increpo, (ui, it-), i, call, on, chide. 
incresco, crevi, 3, grow, increase. 
incretus, a, um, unsifted, mixed. 
incruentus, a, um, hloodless. 
incrusto, i, to cover, coat over. 
incubatio, onis, F., brooding. 
incubito, i, lie upon. 
incubo, ui, it-, i, lie on, hrood, hatch. 
inciido, di, sum, 3, forge. 
inculco, I, trample, cram. 
inculpatus, a, um, hlameless. 
incultus, [colo,] untilled, rude. 
incumbo, cubui, cubit-, 3, lie or 
lean upon, give earnest heed, yield. 

incunabula, orum, n., cradle, 

origin, hirthplace. 
incuria, se, f., negligence. 
incuriosus, a, um, negligent, un- 

in-curro, 3, run upon, attack, meet. 
incursio, onis, f. ; -sus, us, m., 

o)iset, assault, attack. 
incurso, i, to assault. 
incurvo, i, to crook, hend. 
incurvus, a, um, crooked, hent. 
incus, udis, f., anvil. 
inciisatio, onis, f., accusation. 
inciiso, i, cliurge, hlame, accuse. 
incustoditus, a, um, unguarded. 
incusus, [cudo,] forged. 
incutio, cussi, cuss-, [quatio,] 3. 

strike upon or hiio, cast, hurl. 
indagati^o, onis, f., sea?'ch. 
indagator, oris, M., explorer. 
indages, is, F., search. 
indago, i, to track, search. 
inde, fhence, thereupon, next. 
indebite (-to), unduly. 
indebitus, a, um, undue. 
indecens, tis, unseendy. 
indecor, oris ; -oris, e, inglorious. 
indecorus, a, um, unhecoming. 
indefensus, a, um, unprotected. 
indefessus, a, um, unwearied. 
indemnatus, a, um, uncondemned. 
indemnis, e, [damno,] unharmed. 
index, icis, c, informer, spy, title. 
indicens, tis, not telling. 
indicium, i, n., note, discovery, mark. 
indico, i, point out. 
indico, xi, ct-, 3, appoi^it, declare. 
indictus, a, um, unsaid, unsung. 
Indicus, a, um, of India. 
indidem, from the same place. 
indigena, ae, c, native. 
indigens, tis ; -es, is, needy. 
indigeo, ui, [egeo,] 2, to need. 
indigestus, a, um, disordered. 
Indigetes, um, pL, deified heroes. 
indignans, tis, ivrathful. 
indignatio, onis, F., wrath, dis- 

indignitas, atis, F., unworthiness. 
indignor, i, deem unworthy, he 


indignus — infindo. 


indignus, a, um, umcorlhjj, icrong. 
indigus (-uus), a, um, [egeo,] needij. 
indiligens, tis, careless, negiujent. 
indipiscor, eptus, 3, obtain, begin. 
indiscretus, a, um, unparted. 
indistinctus, a, um, confused. 
inditus, a, wm., j)ut upon. 
individuus, a, um, indivisible, 
indivisus, a, um, undivided. 
indo, didi, dit-, 3, put into, impart. 
indocilis, e, unteachable, untaught. 
indoctus, a, um, unlearned, un- 

skilled, ignorant. 
indoles, is, f., quality, talent. 
indolesco, dolui, 3, tofeelpain. 
indomitus, a, um, unsubdued. 
indormio, 4, fcdl asleep over. 
indotatus, a, um, unportioned. 
[indu-= in-, 

indubitatus, a, um, undoubted. 
indubito, i, to doubt respecting. 
indiico, xi, ct-, 3, bring in or upon, 

exhibit, mislead, spread upon. 
inductio, onis, f., bringing-in,pur- 

pose, resolution. 
indulgens, tis, fond, kind, tender. 
indulgentia, ae, f., indulgence. 
indulgeo, si, sum, 2, to be kind or 

fond, indulge, permit. 
indiimentum, i, N., garment. 
induo, ui, ut-, 3, put on, assume. 
indiiresco, rui, 3, gj^oio hard. 
indiiro, i, harden. 
Indus, a, um, oflndia ; pl., Ilindus. 
indusium, i, N., under-garment. 
industria, ae, f., dUigence, industry ; 

de industria, on purpose. 
industrius, a, um, active, diligent. 
indutige, arum, f., truce, pause. 
indutilis, e, tliat can be put on. 
indutus, [induo,] put on. 
induviae, arum, f., garments. 
inebrio, i, to make clrunk. 
inedia, ae, [edo,] f., fasting. 
ineluctabilis, e, inevitable. 
inemptus, [enio,] unbought. 
ineo, ii (ivi), it-, 4, to go in, enter 

upon, begin. 
inepte,foolishly, absurdly. 
ineptise, arum, F., follies, 
ineptus, a, uva., foolish, silly, unfit. 

inequito, i, ride upon, traverse. 
inerrais, e; -us, a, um, unarmed. 
inerro, i, ramble about. 
iners, tis, [ars,] unskilled, sluggish. 
iuertia, ae, f., sloth, ignorance, lack 

ofskill or energy. 
inesco, i, entice with bait, satisfy. 
inexhaustus, a, um, unexhausted. 
inexorabilis, e, inexorable. 
inexpertus, a, um, untried, un- 

iconted, inexperienced. 
inexplicabilis, e, intricate. 
inexpugnabilis, e, impregncdile. 
inexsuperabilis, e, insurmountable. 
inextricabilis, e, inextricable. 
infabre, unskilfully. 
infacetus, a, um, coarse, rude, blunt. 
infamia, ae, f., ill repute, disgrace. 
infamis, e, disreputable, infamous. 
infamo, i, to defame, accuse. 
infandus, a, um, unspeakable, hor- 

rible, shocking. 
infans, tis, speechless ; C, cliild. 
infantia, £e, F., lack of eloquence, 

infa ncy, ch ildh od. 
infaustus, a, um, unfortunate. 
infector, oris, m., a dyer. 
infectus, [facio,] unwrought, unfin- 

ished; [inficio,] stained. 
infecundus, a, um, unfruitfuL 
infelix, icis, barren, unhappy. 
infenso, i, ravuge. 
infensus, a, um, hostile, dangerous. 
inferiae, arum, F., offerings for the 

inferior, us, loiver, later. 
infernus, a, um, beneath, infernal. 
infero, tuli, lat-, bringin or upon. 
inferus, a, um (§ 17, iii), lohat is 

below ; pl., of the lower icorld. 
infeste, violently. 

infesto, i, to attack, molest, in.jure. 
infestus, a, um, unsafe, hostile. 
inficiens, tis, ineffective. 
inficio, feci, fect-, 3, stain, imbue. 
inficior=infitior, deny. 
infidelis, e, unfaithful, faithless. 
infidus, a, um, untrusty, urisafe. 
infigo, xi, xum, 3,fix, ihrust,fasten. 
infimus=imus, loivest, last. 
infindo, fidi, fiss-, 3, cleave, cut in. 


infinitas — injurius. 

infinitas, atis, f., houndlessness. 
infinitus, a, um, boundless, end- 

/e.N-.s', unUmiled, injijiite. 
infirmitas, atis, f., iceakness. 
infirmo, i, to weaken, disprove. 
infirmus, a, um, iceak, feehle. 
infit, he (or she) hegins (to speak). 
infitiae, arum, f., denial. 
infitiator, oris, m., denier of debts. 
infitior, i, deny, disown. 
inflammo, i , kindle, excite, injlame. 
inflatus, iis, m., a hlast. 
inflecto, xi, xum, 3, hend, change. 
infletus, a, um, unicept. 
inflexio, onis f. ; -xus, iis, m., hend. 
infligo, ixi, ict-, 3, strike against, 

injlict, inipose. 
inflo, I, hlow upon, injlate, puff up. 
influo, xi, ct-, 3, Jiow in or upon. 
infodio, fodi, foss-, 3, dig, bury. 
informatio, onis, f., outline. 
informis, e, shapeless, dejormed. 
informo, i, give shape to, describe. 
inforo, i, accuse in court. 
infortiinium, i, N., mifortune. 
infra, heneath, helow. 
infractus, [frango,] unbroken; ex~ 

hausted, hurt, broken. 
infremo, ui, 3, to bellow. 
infrenis, e ; -atus, a, um, unbridled. 
infreno, i, hridle, curh, restrain. 
infrequens, tis, rare, injrequent. 
infrequentia, ae, ¥.,Jewness, scanti- 

ness, lack oj attendance. 
infrico, cui, ct- (cat-), i, ruh in. 
infringo, fregi, fract-, 3, hreak in on, 

check, iceaken, mitigate. 
infrio, i, crumhle upon or into. 
infula, ae, f., bandage, Jillet. 
infundibulum, i, n., Junnel. 
infundo, fudi, fiis-, 3, pour in or 

upon, put or cast upon, impose. 
infusco, I, make dark, stain. 
ingemino, i, redouble, repeat. 
ingemo (-isco), ui, 3, groan, lament. 
ingenero, i, implant. 
ingeniosus, a, um, talented, Jit. 
ingenitus, a, um, inborn. 
ingenivim, i, n., qunlity, disposition, 

inlellect, talent, genius, temper. 
ingens, tis, huge, vast, mighty. 

ingenuus, a, um, native, Jreeborn, 

nohle, ingenuous, delicate. 
ingero, gessi, gest-, 3, to pour or 

throw in, ohlrude, injiict. 
ingestus, a, um, laid or Jorced upon. 
inglorius, a, um, inglorious. 
ingluvies, ei, f., crop, maw. 
ingrate, ungratejutly. 
ingratia, ae, f., thanklessness. 
ingratiis, against one^s icill. 
ingratus, a, um, thankless, displeas- 

ing, ungratejul. 
ingravesco, 3, grow heavy, increase. 
ingravo, i, weigh doivn, 7nakeworse. 
ingredior, gress-, 3, eiiter, advance. 
ingressus, us, m., advance, march. 
ingruo, ui, 3, hreak in upon. 
inguen, inis, N., groin, crotch. 
ingurgito, i, plunge in, gorge, glut. 
inhabilis, e, unjii, unhandy. 
inhaereo, si, sum, 2, cling, stick. 
inhibeo, ui, it-, 2, lay hold, check, 

exercise, employ. 
inhio, I, gape at, stand open. 
inhonestus, a, um, dishonorable. 
inhonorus (-atus), a, um, un- 

inhorreo, ui, 2 ; -sco, 3, standerect, 

shudder, tremhle, bristle. 
inhospitus, a, um; -alis, e, inhos- 

inhiimanitas, atis, F., barharity. 
inhiimanus, a, um, rude, churlish. 
inhumatus, a, um, unburied. 
inibi, tlierein, on the point oj. 
inigo, egi, act-, 3, drive in. 
inimice, hostilely. 
inimicitia, 33, F., hostility. 
inimicus, a, um, unjriendly, hurt- 

Jid ; M., Jbe, personal eyiemy. 
iniquitas, atis, F., injustice. 
iniquus, a, um, uneven, unjust, un- 

Jair, unjit, hostile, hurtjul. 
initium, i, N., beginning, element; 

pl., mysteries, sacred rites. 
injicio, jeci, ject-, [jacio,] 3, cast 

upon or against, ijnpose, occasion. 
injungo, nxi, nct-, 3, join, Jasten, 

hring vpon, injlict, impose. 
injiiria, ae, f., injury, icrong. 
injiirius (-osus),' a, um, wrongjul. 

injussus — instillo. 


injussus, a, um, voluntarij, unhld. 
injussu (abl), wU/iout orders. 
injustus, a, um, unjust, ivromj. 
[inl-=ill- ; inm-=imm-. 
innascor, natus, 3, he horn in. 
innato, i, Jloat or swim upon. 
innecto, xui, xum, 3, fasten, join. 
innitor, nis-, 3, lean on. 
inno, I , Jloat in or upon. 
innocens, tis, harmless, guiltless. 
innocentia, ae, F., hlamelessness. 
innocuus, a, um, harmless. 
innotesco, tui, 3, hecome known. 
innoxius, a, um, harmless, unhurt. 
innumerus, a, um, countless. 
innuo, ui, ut-, 3, nod to, hint. 
innuptus, a, um, unwed. 
Ino, us, myth. d. of Cadmus. 
inoculo, I, emjraft. 
inolesco, evi, it-, 3, grow upon. 
inopia, ae, f., want, lack, need. 
inopinans, tis, not expecting. 
inopinus (-natus, a, umj, unex- 

pecfed ; inopinato, oJ'a sudden. 
inops, opis, poor, needy, helpless. 

inquam (inquio), say (§ 38, iii). 
inquietus, a, um, restless. 
inquilinus, i, m. ; -a, se, f., lodger. 
inquino, l, defile, pollute. 
inquiro, sivi, sit-, 3, search, seek. 
inquisitio, onis, F., investigation. 
inquisitor, oris, M., examiner. 

insania, ae, f., madness, insanity. 
insanio, 4, he insane, rave, rage. 
insanitas, atis, f., unsoundness. 
insanus, a, um, mad, crazy, violent. 
insatiabilis, e, insatiahle. • 
inscendo, di, sum, 3, step upon. 
insciens, tis, without knowledge. 
inscitia (-ientia), ae, f., ignorance. 
inscitus, a, um, ignorant, unskilled. 
inscius, a, um, ivithout knowledge. 
inscribo, psi, pt-, 3, lorite upoii, in- 

scrihe, attrihute, suhscrihe. 
inscriptio, onis, F., title, inscription, 
inscriptus, [scribo,] 7iot written on. 
insculpo, psi, pt-, 3, carve upon. 
inseco, ui, ct-, i, cut into, cut up. 
insectum, i, n., insect. 

insectatio, onis, f., pursuing. 
insector (-to), i, to pursue, rail at. 
insepultus, a, um, hidden, unhuried. 
insequor, cutus, 3, follow close, 

pursue, strive after. 
insero, sevi, sit-, 3, plant, engraft. 
insero, ui, rt-, 3, introduce, insert. 
inserto, i, put into, insert. 
inservio, 4, he of service, devoted. 
insideo, sedi, sess-, 2, sit upon, he 

fxed, estahlished. 
inisidiae, arum, f., amhush, strata- 

gem, plot, treachery. 
insidior, i, Ue in waitfor. 
insidiosus, a, um, deceitful, sly. 
insido, sedi, sess-, 3, settle, occupy. 
insignio, 4, j)ut a mark upon. 
insignis, e, marked, dktinguished ; 

N., sign of distinction, hadge. 
insignitus, a, um, marked, clear. 
insilio, ui, [salio,] 4, leap upon. 
insimulo, i, allege, hlame, accuse. 
insinuo, i, ivind in, thrust in, get at. 
insipiens, tis, foolish. 
insisto, stiti, 3, stand on, pursue. 
insitio, onis, f., grafting. 
insolens, tis, unwonted, haughty. 
insolenter, unusually, haughtily. 
insolentia, ae, f., novelty, arrogance. 
insolitus, a, um, unwonted, strange. 
insomnia, se, f. ; sleeplessness. 
insomnis, e, sleepless. 
insomuium, i, N., a dream. 
insono, ui, it-, i, resound, roar. 
insons, tis, guiltless, harmless. 
inspecto, i , look in on, view, inspect. 
insperatus, a, um, unhoped-for. 
inspergo, si, sum, 3, strow upon. 
inspicio, exi, ect-, 3, look into, 

examine, contemplate, consider. 
inspico, I, sharpen, make pointed. 
inspiro, i, hreathe in, inspire. 
instabilis, e, infirm, tottering. 
instans, tis, urgent, present. 
instanter, vehemently. 
instantia, ae, f^., steadiness,frmness. 
instar (indec), N., likeness, like. 
instauro, i, renew, reunite. 
insterno, stravi, at-, 3, overspread. 
instigo, I, urge, incite, instigate. 
instillo, I, p)Our hy drops. 


instinctus — interimo. 

instinctus, iis, m., mstigation. 
instinguo, nxi, nct-, 3, instigate. 
instita, ae, f., bo?-der,Jiounce. 
instito, I, press on. 
institor, oris, m., huckster, dealer. 
instituo, ui, ut-, (statuo), 3, appoint, 

train, establish, contrive, resolve. 
institutio, onis, F., custom, traininfj. 
institutum, i, n., institution,j)urpose. 
insto, stiti, i, stand upon, urge. 
instratus, [sterno,] spread. 
instrepo, ui, it-, 3, resound. 
instructio, onis, F., erection, array. 
instrumentum, i, n., tool, apparel. 
instruo, xi, ct-, 3, huild, furnish, 

instruct, prepare, provide. 
insuasum, i, n., a dark color. 
insuavis, e, unpleasant. 
Insuber, bris, Milanese^ Insuhrian. 
insudo, I, s}veat at or upon. 
insuesco, evi, et-, 3, to get wont. 
insuetus, a, um, unaccustomed. 
insula, ee, f., island, hlock ofhouses. 
insulse, foolishly. 
insulsus, a, um, [sal,] insipid. 
insulto, r, leap at or against,revile. 
insuni, esse, fui, be in or on, belong. 
insumo, mpsi, mpt-, 3, take, apply. 
insuo, ui, ut-, 3, sew in, add to. 
insuper, above, moreover. 
insuperabilis, e, insurmountaUe. 
insurgo, rexi, rect-, 3, rise upon 

or against, mount, rise. 
insusurro, i, whisper to. 
intabesco, tabui, 3, pme ajcay. 
intactus, a, uni, untouched, untried. 
intectus, [tego,] uncovered, open. 
integer, a, um, sound, entire, whole. 
intego, xi, ct- 3, to cover. 
integritas, atis, f., ivholeness, sound- 

ness, integrity, purity. 
integro, i, renew, repeat, restore. 
integumentum, i, n., covering. 
intellectus, us, m., understanding. 
intelligens, tis, intelUgent, skilled. 
intelligentia, ae, F., intelligence. 
intelligo, xi, ct-, [lego,] 3, to per- 

ceive, understand, discern. 
intemeratus, a, um, undefiled. 
iutemperans, tis, immoderate, ex- 

travagant, profiigate. 

intemperantia, ae, f., mclemency, 

exlravagance, excess. 
intemperise, arum, f. inclemency. 
intemperies, ei, f., tempest, rage. 
intempestus (-tivus), a, um, un- 

seasonable, umvholesome, stormy. 
intendo, di, tum (sum), 3, stretch, 

sfrain, spread, aim at, intend. 
intentatus, a, um, unattempted. 
intentio, onis, f., stretching, effort. 
intento, i, stretch forth, threaten. 
intentus, a, um, intent, strict, eager. 
inter, hetween, among, during. 
[inter-, among, at intervals. 
interamnus, a, um, hetween rivers. 
interbito, i, come to naught. 
intercalo, i, insert, introduce. 
intercapedo, inis, f., interruption. 
intercedo, cessi, cess-,3, come or 

go between, protest (as tribune). 
intercessio, onis, f., intervention. 
intercessor, oris, m., interposer. 
intercido, cidi, cis-, [caedo,] 3, cut 

to pieces, cut down, divide. 
intercido, idi, [cado,] 3, fall he- 

tween, befall, happen, perish. 
intercipio, cepi, cept-, [capio,] 3, 

intercepf, rob, hinder. 
intercliido, si, sum, [claudo,] 3, 

shut off, hinder, hlockade. 
intercurro, ri, rs-, 3, 7nin hetween. 
intercus, ciitis, under the skin. 
interdico, xi, ct-, 3, interfere, for- 

hid, interdict. 
interdictum, i, n., prohibition. 
interdiu, hy day-time. 
interdum, at times, meanwhile. 
interduo 3, givefor a thing. 
interea; in the mean time, at times. 
interemptio, f., slaughter. 
interemptus, [-imo,] destroyed. 
intereo, ii, it-, 4, perish, go among. 
interest, there is difference or advan- 

fage (§ 50, iv. 4). 
interfectio, onis, f., killing. 
interfector, oris, m., slayer. 
interficio, feci, fect-, [facio,] 3, to 

kill ; interfio, perish. 
inter-fundo 3, pour hetween. 
interim (-ibi), meanwhile. 
interimo, emi, empt-, kill, destroy. 

interior — invenio. 


interior (§ 17, iii), inner. 
interitus, us, M..,^ruin. 
interjaceo, 2, lie betioeen. 
interjectus, a, um, put hetween. 
interjectus, iis, m., casting in. 
interjacio. jeci, ject-, 3, throw in. 
inter-lego, 3, pluck here and there. 
interlino, levi, lit-, 3, smear, erase. 
interloquor, cutus, 3, interrupt. 
interluceo, xi, 2, shine, appear. 
interluo, 3, wash,Jiow together. 
intermino, i, threaten, forhid. 
inter-misceo, 2, mingle among. 
intermissio, onis, f., inlerruption. 
intermissus, a, um, interrujjted. 
inter-mitto, 3, cease, discontinue. 
inter-morior, 3, perish, decay. 
intermortuus, si, um, lifeless. 
internecio, onis, f., massacre. 
internodium, i, n., between-joints. 
internuntius, i, m., messenger. 
internus, a, um, imuard, internal. 
intero, trivi, trit-, 3, bruise, crumhle. 
interpello, i, interrupt, disturh. 
interpolo, i, give new shape to. 
interpono, sui, sit-, 3, put between, 

utter, decree, interpose, pledge. 
interpres, etis, c, inteipreter, agent. 
interpretatio, onis, f., explanation. 
interpretor, i, explain, decide. 
interprimo, essi, ess- 3, crush. 
interregnum, i, n., heticeen-reigns. 
interrex, regis, m., regent. 
interritus, a, um, undaunted. 
interrogo, i, ask, sue, argue. 
inter-rumpo, 3, hreak off', interrUpt. 
interruptus, a, um, hroken up. 
inter-scindo, 3, tear asunder. 
intersepio, psi, pt-, 4, fence in. 
interstinguo, nxi, nct-, 3, pdrt, kill. 
intersum, esse, fui, bepresent at, or 

among : dijfer (see interest). 
intertexo, xui, xt-, 3, interweave. 
intervallum, i, n., mte?'m/(between 

the palisades), difference. 
inter-vello, 3, jAuck out or aivay. 
inter-venio, 4, co7ne hetween. 
interventus, iis, m., interposition. 
interverto, ti, sum, 3, turn aside. 
interviso, si, sum, 3, spy, inspect. 
intestabilis, e, abominahle. 

intestatus, a, um, intestate. 
intestinus, a, um, internal. 
intexo, xui, xt-, 3, interweave. 
intimus, a, um (§ 7, iii.), inmost, 

deepest, secret, intimate. 
intolerabilis, e, unhearable. 
intolerandus, a, um, insupportable. 
intolerans, tis, impatient. 
intoleranter, immoderately. 
intolerantia, ee, f., insolence. 
intono, ui, it-, i, thunder. 
intonsus, [tondeo,] unshorn. 
intorqueo, si, tum, 3, twist, hurl. 
intortus, twisted, involved. 
intra, ivithin, inside of. 
intremo, ui, 3, to tremble. 
intrepidus, a, um, undaunted. 
intrico, i , entangle, perplex. 
intrinsecus, inivardly. 
intritus, a, um, [tero,] unworn. 
intro, i, enter, penetrate. 
intro, inivardly, ivithin. 
introduco, xi, ct-, 3, lead in. 
introeo, ivi (ii), it-, 4, enter. 
introitus, us, m., entrance. 
intro-mitto, 3, send in, let in. 
intorsum (-sus), inwardly. 
introspicio, exi, ect-, 3, inspect. 
intubus, i, d. ; um, i, N., endive. 
intueor, itus, 2, gaze on, observe. 
intumesco, mui, 3, to get sivoUen. 
intus, tvithin, on the inside. 
intutus, a, um, unguarded. 
inultus, [ulciscor,] unpunished. 
inumbro, i, shade. 
inundo, i, overflow, inundate. 
inurbanus, a, um, unpolished. 
inuro, ussi, ust-, 3, brand, burn. 
iniisitatus, a, um, uncommon. 
inusque. unto, even to. 
inutilis, e, useless, hurtful. 
Inuus, i, a name of Pan. 
invado, si, sum, 3, come upon, at- 

tack, enter upon, befall. 
invalesco, valui, 3, grow strong. 
invalidus, a, um, iveak. 
invectio, onis, f., importing. 
inveho, xi, ct-, 3, hring in or upon, 

attack, inveigh against. 
invenio, veni, vent-, 4, come upon, 

find, discover, invent. 

inventor — itinerarius. 

inventor, oris, m. ; -trix, icis, f., a 

fiader, discoverer. 
invenustus, a, um, ungraceful. 
inverecundus, a, um, shameless. 
invergo, 3, pour upon. 
inversus, a, um, perverted. 
inverto, ti, sum, 3, recerse, upset. 
investigo, i, track, trace. 
inveterasco, 3, grow old or Jixed. 
invetero, i, make or groio old. 
invicem, by turns. 
invictus, a, um, unconquered. 
invideo, vidi, vis-, 3, grudge, envy. 
invidia, se, f., envy, malice. 
invidiosus, a, um, envious, odious. 
invidus, a, um, envious. 
invigilo, i,he watchful, take pains. 
inviolatus, a, um, unharmed. 
inviso, si, sum, 3, visit. 
invisus, a, um, unseen, hated. 
invito, I, invite, su^nmon, challenge. 
invitus, a, um, unwilling, reluctant. 
invius, a, um, pathless, impassahle. 
invocatus, a, um, uncaUed. 
invoco, I, call upon, name, invoke. 
involo, i,fy into or upon. 
involacrum, i, n., wrapper. 
inv dIvo, i, nt-, 3, rolL upon, v:rap. 
lo, Iu3 (onis), myth. d. of Inachus, 

ch9.nged to a heifer. 
locasta, aB (e, es), m. of CEdipus. 
lolcos, i, M., a port in Thessaly. 
loiiia, ae, dist. of 12 Greek cities 

on W. coast of Asia Minor. 
lonicus (-ius), a, um, of lonia. 
Iphigenia, ee, d. of Agamemnon, 

sacrificed to Diana at AuHs. 
ipse (ipsus), a, um, (§ 20, ii.), self. 
ira, ae, f., rage, anger. 
iracundia, ae, f., icrath, temper. 
iracundus, a, um, passionate. 
irascor, i, to he angry, wrathful. 
iratus, a, um, enraged. 
ircus=liircus, goat. 
Iris, idis, F., messenger of Juno. 
iris, idis, f., rainhow, sivord-idy. 
irpex, icis, m., rake, hari-ow. 
irrado, 3, scrape, shave. 
irrasus, a, um, unshaven. 
irreparabilis, e, irretrievable. 
irrepo, psi, 3, creep in or up)on. 

irrequietus, a, um, restless. 
irretio, 4, ensnare, entangle. 
irrideo, idi, is-, 2, laugh at, jest. 
irridiculus, a, um, laughahle. 
irrigo, i, to water, irrigate, nourish. 
irriguus, a, um, fuU of water. 
irrisus, [rideo,] mocked. 
irrisus, iis, m., mockery, derision. 
irritamentum, i, n., stimulant. 
irrito, i, excite, injiame. 
irritus, a, um, vain, void, useless. 
irrogo, i, propose, appoint, inflict. 
irroro, i, to moisten, bedew. 
ir-rumpo, 3, to break or hurst in. 
irruo, ui, 3, rush or pour in. 
irruptio, onis, f., hursting-in. 
is, ea, id (§ 20), he, she, this, that. 
Isauria, ae, f., a dist. of Asia Minor. 
Isis,is (idis), an Egyptian goddess. 
Ismarus, i, m. ; -a, orum, n., a 

mountain range of Thrace. 
Issus, i, f., a city of CiHcia, where 

Darius was defeated, b.c. 333. 
istac, this way. 
iste, a, ud (§ 20, ii.), that. 
Ister, tri, m., the lower Danube. 
•j-isthmus, i, m., isthmus. 
Isthmius, a, um, Isthmian ; N. pl., 

games celebrated near Corinth. 
istic, aec, oc (uc), this same. 
istic, there, yonder. 
istim, to that j)lace. 
istinc, thence,from yonder. 
istiusmodi, qf that sort. 
isto, istoc, thither, yonder. 
istorsum, thitherward. 
Istria, ae, f., the dist. near Venice. 
istuc, thither (interrog. -cine). 
ita, so, thus. 
Italia, se, F., Italy. 
Italis, idis, f., an Italian woman. 
italus (-icus), a, um, Italian. 
itaque, and so, therefore. 
item, so, likewise, also. 
iter, itineris, n., icay, road, march. 
itero, I, repeat, relate. 
iterum, a second time. 
Ithacus, a, um, of Ithaca, an I. 

west of Greece ; m., Ulysses. 
itidem, in like manner. 
itinerarius, a, um, of the march. 

itio — justus. 


itio, onis, f. ; itus, us, M., a (joing, 

ito, I (freq. of eo), go. 

Itys, yos, ya, myth. s. of Tereus, 

changed to a pheasant. 
liilus, i, a name of Ascanius, as 

founder of the JuHan family. 
Ixion, 6nis, k. of Lapithae, bound 

to a fiery wheel in Tartarus. 
iynx, gis, f., wry-neck (a bird). 


jaceo,ui, jaoit-, 2, lie. 
jaoio, jeci, jact-, 3, throiv, utter. 
jactantia, ae, f., loud hoasting. 
jactatio, onis, F., tossing about. 
jacto, I, toss, hurl, discuss, boast. 
jactura, ae, f., throwing, cost, loss. 
jactus, us, M., a throw, cast. 
jaculor, I, to cast, hurl, shoot. 
jaculum, i, n., javelin, dart. 
jaculus, a, um, thrown; n., net. 
jam, now, already, presently. 
jampridem, noio, long since. 
Janiculum, a hill of Rome, be- 

yond the Tiber. 
janitor, oris, M., door-keeper. 
janua, se, f., door, entra^ice. 
Januarius, a, um, January. 
Janus, i, the ItaHan Sun-god. 
jecur, oris (inoris), n., liver. 
jejunium, i, n. ; -itas, F.,fasting. 
jejiinus, a, um, hungry, sterile, dry. 
jentaculum, i, n., early meal. 
jocor (o), I, to jest. 
jocosus, a, um, jesting, facetious. 
jocularis, e,funny, laughahle. 
jocus (-culus), i, M.,joke,jest,fun. 
Jovis, gen. of Juppiter. 
Juba, 3e, k. of Numidia, partisan 

of Pompey ; d. b.c. 46. 
juba, ae, f., ma)ie, hair. 
jubar, aris, n., sunheam, radiance. 
jubatus, a, um, crested. 
jubeo, jussi, juss-, 2, orde?-, com- 

mand, hid, entreat, decree. 
jucunditas, atis, F., pleasantness. 
jiicundus, a, um, glad, delightful. 
Judaea, ae, f., Palestine. 
Judaicus (-aeus), a, um, Jewish. 

judex, icis, u., Judge, juror. 
judicatio, onis, f., investigation. 
judicialis, e, ofthe court. 
judicium, i, n., court, trial, judg- 

ment, sentence. 
jiidico, I, tojudge, decide. 
jugalis, e, of a yoke, nuptial. 
jugerum, i ; pl., era, um, n., acre 

(about i of Enghsli acre). 
jiigis, e, constant, perennial. 
jiiglans, dis, F., walnut. 
jiigo, I, hind, Join, marry. 
jugulo, I, cut the throat, kill. 
jugulum, i, N. ; -us, i, m., throat. 
jugum, i, N., ijoke, cross-heam. 
Jugurtha, ae, king of Numidia, 

capt. B.c. 106. 
Jiilius, a, um, of July ; a Gens, in- 

cluding the family of Cassar. 
jumentum, i, N., heast of hurden. 
junceus, a, um, of rushes. 
junctiira, ae, f., Joint, connection. 
juncus, i, M., rush. 
jungo, nxi, nct-, ^, Join, yoke. 
jiinior, oris, younger {^17, iii.). 
Jiinius, a, um, ofJune; aGens, in- 

cluding the family of Brutus. 
junix, icis, F., heifer. 
Jiino, onis, queen of Heaven. 
Juppiter, Jovis, Jupiter, son of 

Saturn, king of gods. 
Jura, ae, m., the mt. W. of Helvetia. 
jurator, oris, m., witness. 
jiiratus, a, um, under oath. 
jiireus, a, um (jus), of hroth. 
jurgium, i, N., dispute. 
jurgo, I, to quarrel, dispute. 
jiiris consultus, i, m. Jurist. 
jiirisdictio, onis, f., administration 

of Justice, legcd authority. 
jiirisperitus, a, um, skilled in law. 
juro (or), I, sivear, take oath. 
jus, jiiris, N., law, right, Justice. 
jus, jiiris, N., ht^oth, soup, gravy. 
jusjiirandum (§ 14, ii, 2), oath. 
jussum, i, N. ; -us, iis, m. command. 
jussus, [jubeo,] ordered. 
justitia, ae, F., Justice. 
justitium, i, n., vacation of court. 
justus, a, um, Just, true, due, right ; 

N., Justice ; pl., ceremonies. 


juvenalis — Isevus. 

juvenalis, e, youthful. 
juvencus, a, um, young ; m., hul- 

lock ; F., heifer. 
juvenesco, nui, 3, become a youth. 
juvenilis, e, youthful, cheerjul. 
juvenis, is (um), c, a youth. 
juventa, ae ;- tas, tatis ; -tus, txitis, 

F., youth (reckoned from 20 to 40). 
juvo, jiivi, jiit-, i, help, gratify. 
juxta, near, by, directly, alike. ' 
juxtim, close by, near. 

K, the praenomen Kaeso. 

k, (kal. or Kalendae, arum, F.), 
kalends, first of the month (§ 83). 

Karthaginiensis, e, Cartliaginian. 

Karthago, inis, f., Carthage ; a 
wealthy and povverful city of 
N. Africa, long a deadly rival 
of Rome ; taken and destroyed, 
B.c. 146. — The Carthaginian 
wars were, i. B.c. 264-241 ; 2. 
B.c. 219-202 ; 3. B.c. 149-146. 

L, the praen, Lucius; num.,=5o. 

labasco (-or), 3, totter, icaver. 

Labdacus, myth. k. of Thebes. 

labe-facio, 3, loosen, shake, weaken. 

labefacto, i, shatter, overthroiD,ruin. 

labefio, p. of labefacio. 

labellum, i, n., Up, bath-tuh. 

labeo, onis, m., blubber-lip. 

labes, is, F.,fa!.l, ruin, stain. 

labia, ae, f. ; labium, i, n., lip. 

labo, I, totter, v:aver, sink. 

labor, lapsus, 3, glide, fall, err. 

labor, oris, M,, toil, distress. 

laboriosus, a, um, full of toil. 

laboro, i, labor, strive, suffer. 

labrum, i, N,, lip, magazine, vat. 

labrusca, ae, F. ; -cum, i, N., wild 

Labyrinthus, i, m., ^n intricate 
building wrought by Dasdalus 
in Crete, for the Minotaur. 

lac, lactis, n., milk. 
fLacsena, ae, a Spartan woman. 
JLacedaemon, onis, f., Sparta, 
S.-E. dist. of Peloponnesus ; 
Lacedaemonius, a, um, Spartan. 
lacer, era, um, mangled, torn. 
laceratio, onis, f., mangling. 
lacerna, ee, f., a loarm cloak. 
lacero, i, mangle, rail at, destroy. 
lacertus, i, m. ; -ta, ae, f., lizard. 
lacertus, i, m., arm (upper-arm). 
lacesso, ivi, it-, 3, chaUenge, har- 

ass, excite, provoke. 
lachrima (-yma)=lacrima, tear. 
lacinia, ge, f., lappet, dewlap. 
laciniosus, a, um, jagged, indented. 
fLaco (-con), conis, m., a Spartan. 
Laconicus, a, um, Spartan. 
lacrima (lacruma), ae, f., tear. 
lacrimabilis, e, tearful, sad. 
lacrimo (or), i, iveep. 
lacrimosus, a, um, tearful, iveeping. 
lacteo, 2, suck or liold milk. 
lacteus, a, um, milking, milk-white. 
lactis, is, F., srnall entrail. 
lacto (-ito), i, suckle, allure. 
lactiica, se, f., lettuce. 
laciina, se, f,, hole, pool, gap, void, 
laciinar, aris, n., panelled ceiling. 
lacuno, I, to holloiv, panel. 
lacus, iis, m,, lake, tank, vat. 
laedo, si, sum, 3, strike, hurt. 
laena, ae, f., mantle. 
Laertes, ee, father of Ulysses. 
Laestrygbnes, um, a myth. savage 

race of Sicily and S. Italy. 
laetabilis, e, joyful, glad. 
laetamen, inis, n., nianure. 
laete, gladly, fruitfuUy. 
laetifico, i, gladden, fertilize. 
laetificus, a, um, gladdening. 
laetitia, ae, F., jo]i, beauty, fertility. 
laeto, I, make glad; P., to rejoice. 
laetus, a, um, glad, joyful, cheerful, 

fertile, charming. 
laeve, awkmirdly. 
laevis=levis, smooth. 
laevorsum, to the left. 
laevus, a, um, the left, unfortunate, 

awkward; (in ?iUg\\ry) fortnnate ; 

¥., left hand; N., on the left. 

lagena — latesco. 


lagena, ee, f., Jiask. 

Lagus, father of Ptolemy, the first 

Grecian king of Egypt. 
Laius, myth. king of Thebes, fa- 

ther of Oidipus. 
lambo, bi, bit-, 3, lick, ivash. 
lamenta, orum, n., lament. 
lamentabilis, e, mournful. 
lamentatio, onis, F., mourning. 
lamentor, i, betcail, lament. 
lamina, ae, f., leaf, layer. 
f lampas, adis (da, das), f., torcli. 
\ Lampsacum (cus), i, a town in 

Asia on the Hellespont. 
lana, ae, f., wool, down. 
lanarius, a, um, of icool; M., a 

worker in wool ; F., wool-factory. 
lanatus, a, um, looolly. 
lancea, ee, f., a light spear. 
lances (lanx), dishes. 
lancino, i, mangle, destroy. 
laneus, a, um, woolen, doivny. 
languens, tis,fainf, languid. 
langueo, 2 (-guesco, gui, 3), to he 

OY groiv faint, languid, loedk. 
languidus, a, vira.,faint, weak. 
languor, oris, m., languor,faintness. 
laniarius, a, um, ofa butcher. 
laniatus, us, m., mangling. 
lanicium, i, n., icool. 
laniena, ee, f., butcher^s stall. 
lanificus, a, um, working in wool. 
laniger, era, uTa.,fleecy ; m., ram. 
lanio, I, mangle, tear, lacerate. 
lanista, ae, m., fencing-master, trai- 

ner of gladiators. 
lanius, i, M., butcher, executioner. 
lanugo, inis, f., down, bloom. 
lanugineus (-osus), a, um, downy. 
Lanuvium, i, n., a town of Latium, 

23 miles S. E. of Rome. 
lanx, cis, f., dish, plalter. 
Laocoon, tis, myth. priest of 

Apollo, in Troy. 
Laomedon, tis, k. of Troy, father 

of Priam and Ganymede. 
lapathum (us), i, n., sorrel. 
lapicidinae, arum, F., quarries. 
lapidat, it rains stones. 
lapidatio, onis, f., stoning. 
lapideus (-arius), a, um of stone. 

lapido, I, throiv stones at. 
lapidosus, a, um, stony. 
lapillus, i, M., ijebble, gravel. 
lapis, idis, m., stone, milestone. 
Lapithae, arum, mountaineers of 

lappa, 86, F., burr. 
lapsio, onis, f., sliding, proclivity. 
lapso, I, slide,fall, stwnble. 
lapsus, us, M., [labor,] fall,fiight. 
laquear, aris, n., panelled ceiling. 
laqueo, i, ensnare, entangle ; adorn 

ivith pannelUng. 
laqueus, i, m., noose, snare, lasso. 
Lar, tis, frst-born (Etruscan). 
Larentia (Acca), wife of Faustu- 

lus, nurse of Romulus. 
Lares, ium (um), houshold deities; 

hearth, home. 
large (-iter), bountifully. 
largior, 4, bestow gifts, lavish, bribe. 
largitas, atis, f., liberality, bribery. 
largitor, oris, M., giver, briber. 
largus, a, um, ample, abundant. 
laridum (lardum), i, N., fat bacon. 
Larinum, i, N., a Samnite town. 
Larissa, ae, f., a city of Thessaly. 
Larissaeus, a, um, Thessalian. 
Larius, i, m., L. Como, in N. Italy. 
f larix, icis, D., larch. 
larus, i, m., sea-mew ( .^). 
larva, ae, f., mask, spectre, goblin. 
larvo, I, bewitch, enchant. 
lasanum, i, f., cooking-pot. 
lascivia, ae, F., sport, wantonness. 
lascivio, 4, to be playful, wanton. 
lascivus, a, uni, plaTjful, wanton. 
lassitudo, inis, F., weariness. 
lasso, I, makefaint or languid. 
lassus, a, um, faint, weary, languid. 
latebra, ae, F., hiding-place, retreat. 
latebrosus, a, um, hidden, intricate. 
latens, tis, hidden. 
lateo, ui, 2, be hid, (w. acc). 
later, eris, M., brick, tile. 
laterarius, a, um, of bricks ; M., 

brick-maker ; F., brick-kiln. 
laterculus, i, m., tile, jmncake. 
latericius, a, um, made of brick. 
laterna, ae, F., lan^ern. 
latesco, 3, hide ; iatesco, widen. 


latex — lenis. 

latex, icis, m., liquid; pl., imter. 
latibulor, i, he hid, lurk. 
latibulum, i, m., luvJcing-place. 
laticlavius, a, um (with broad 

stripe), of nohle family. 
latifundium, i, n., estate, plantation. 
Latinus, a, um; Latialis, e, of 

Lafium, Latin. 
Latinus, i, myth. k. of Latium. 
latio, onis, f., hringing. 
latito, I, [lateo,] hide, skulk, lurk. 
latitudo, inis, f,, hreadth, size. 
Latium, i, N., the district South- 

ward from Rome, having espe- 

cial poHtical rights (jus Latii). 
Latona, ae, the mother of Apollo. 
lator, oris, m., proposer of a law. 
latrator, oris, m., harker, dog. 
latratus, iis, m., harking. 
latrina, ae, F., sink, priv]j. 
latro, I, to hark, rant, hluster. 
latro, onis, m., rohher, hrigand, hody- 

guard, mercenary, assassin. 
latrocinium, i, n., rohhery, fraud. 
latrocinor, i, serve for hire, 7'ob, 

plunder, hunt. 
latrunculus, i, m., rohher,freehooter. 
latus, [fero,] horne, carried. 
latus, a, um, hroad, ivide, copious. 
latus, eris, n., side,flank, hody. 
laudabilis, e, praiseivorthy. 
laudatio, onis, f., eulogy. 
laudator, oris, m., eulogist. 
laudo, I, to praise, eulogize. 
laureatus, a, um, laurel-crowned, 
Laurens, tis, of L^aurentum, a coast 

town of Latium. 
laureola, ee, f., laurel-ivreath. 
laureus, a, um, of laurel. 
lauriger, era, um, laurel-decked. 
laurus, i (us), f., laurel, hay. 
laus, laudis, F., praise, merit, glory. 
laute, sumptuously. 
lautia, £e, F., state-hanquet. 
lautitia, se, F., magnificence. 
flautumiae, arum, f., stone-quarry. 
lautus, [lavo,] nohle, elegant. 
lavatio, onis, f., hathing. 
Laverna, ee, goddess of Gain. 
Lavinia, ae, daughter of Latinus, 

wife of ^neas. 

lavo, lavi, laut- (lot-), i, to tvash. 
laxamentum, i, n., ividening. 
laxitas, atis, f., roominess, breadth. 
laxatus, a, um, ivide,free. 
laxe, spaciously, freely. 
laxo, i, open, expand, slacken. 
laxus, a, um, ivide, loose, open. 
leaena (lea), ae, f., lioness. 
f lebes, etis, m., kettle. 
lectica, ae, f., litter, carrying-chair. 
lecticarius, i, m., litter-hearer. 
lecticula, ae, f., litter, bier. 
lectio, onis, f., gathering, reading. 
lectisternium, i, n., a banquet 

offered to the gods or images. 
lectito, i, [lego,] read frequently. 
lector, oris, m., reader. 
lectus (-ulus), i, M., hed, couch. 
lectus, [lego,] select, chosen. 
Leda, ae, wife of Tyndarus, mother 

of Helen and Clytaemnestra. 
legalis, e, of the law. 
legatum, i, n., bequest. 
legatio, onis, F., embassy, legation. 
legativus, a, um, of the legation. 
legatus, i, m., [lego,] an ambassa- 

dor, dejmty, lieutenant. 
legifer, era, um, laiv-giving. 
legio, onis, f., legion (of 4,200, 

afterwards 6,000) ; army. 
legionarius, a, um, of a legion. 
legirupa, ae, M., law-hreaker. 
legitimus, a, um, lauful, right. 
lego, i, depute, appoint, hequeathe. 
lego, legi, lect-, 3, gather, pass 

along, select, read, recite. 
legiimen, inis, n., beans or peas. 
Leleges, um, a Pelasgian tribe, 

of Greece and Asia Minor. 
Lemannus, i, M., Lake Geneva. 
lembus, i, m., yacht, cutter. 
t lemma, atis, N., topic, title. 
f lemniscus, i, m., rihbon, badge. 
f Lemnos, an L in the Aigean, tlie 

abode of Vulcan. 
lemures, um, m., shades, spectres. 
lena, ae, f., procuress. 
lene, calmly, indoleritly. 
lenimen, inis, n., soothing, remedy. 
lenio, 4, soothe, soften, mitigate. 
lenis, e, smooth, mild. 

lenitas — librarius. 


lenitas, atis ; -tiido, iuis, F., gentle- 

nei^s, snioothness, mildness, lenity. 
leno, onis, m., seducei; procurer. 
lenocinium, i, n., trade ofprocurer, 

allarement, decoration, Jinery. 
lenocinor, i,Jiatter, serve. 
lens, lentis, f., lentil. 
lentesco, 3, grow pliant, relax. 
lenticula, ae, f., lentil. 
lentigo, inis, F.,JrecUe. 
lentiscus, i, f. ; -uni, i, n., mastich. 
lentitia, se ; -es, ei, f., pliancy, 

toughness, viscosity. 
lentitiido, inis, f., sluggishness. 
lento, I, hend, lengthen, protract. 
lentor, oris, m., pliancy. 
lentus, a, um, slow, tough, pliant. 
lenunculus, i, m., hoat, skiff. 
leo, leonis, m., lion. 
Leonidas, ae, a Spartan king, 

killed at Thermopylae, B.c. 480. 
leoninus, a, um, of a lion. 
f lepas, adis, F., limpet. 
lepide, agreeahle, prettil^. 
lepidus, a, um, agreeahle^facetious. 
lepor (6s), oris, m., pleasantness, 

charm, wit, humor. 
lepus, oris, m., hare. 
Lernceus, a, um, ofLerna, a marsh 

near Argos. 
Lesbis, idis ; -ias, adis, f., Leshian. 
Lesbius (-ous, -iacus), a, um, of 

Leshos, an island near Troy. 
lessum (m. acc), ivailing. 
letalis, e, deadly. 
f iethargus, i, M., drowi ncss. 
Lethe, es f., (ohlivion), a river of 

the workl below. 
letifer, era, um, death-hringing. 
leto, I, slay, kill. 

letum (lethum), i, n., death, ruin. 
Leucadia, ae; Leucas, adis, f., a 

peninsula of N. W. Greece. 
f leucaspis, idis, with ivhite shields. 
Leucata, se, f., a prom. of Leucadia. 
Leucothea, se, myth. name of Ino. 
Leuctra, orum, N., a town of 

Boeotia, famous for the defeat 

of the Spartans, b.c. 371. 
levamen, inis; -mentum, i, n., 

alleviation, consolation. 

levatio, onis, f., uplifting, relief. 
leviculus, a, um, rather vain. 
levigo, I, hruise, make smooth. 
levir, iri, m., hushand^s hrother. 
levis, e, light, easy, slight, false. 
levis, e, smooth, soft, delicate. 
levitas, atis, f., lightness,fickleness. 
levitiido, inis, f., smoothness. 
levo, I, to upUft, lighten, relieve. 
levo, I, to make smooth, polish. 
lex, legis, f., law, rule, order. 
libamen, inis ; -mentum, i, n., liha- 

tion, drink-offering. 
Libanus, i, M., Mt. Lehanon, in Syria. 
libella, ae, F., small coin, farthing. 
libellus, i, m., [liber,] little book, 

note, meinorial, hill. 
libens, tis, [libet,] wilUng, glad, 
libenter, gladly. 
libentia, ae, F., delight. 
libenter, gladly, freely. 
liber, era, um, free ; pL, children. 
Liber, eri, M., Bacchus ; wine. 
liber, bri, m., bark, book. 
Libera, ae, a name of Proserpine. 
Liberalia, um, festival of Bacchus. 
liberalis, e, of freemen, liheral. 
liberalitas, atis, F., lihercdity, gift. 
liberatio, onis, f., release. 
liberator, oris, m., deliverer. 
liberi, orum, m., children. 
libero, i, deliver, release. 
liberta, ae, ¥ ., freedivoman. 
libertas, atis, ¥.,freedom. 
libertinus, a, um, of a Jreedman ; 

M., freedman (as class). 
libertus, i, m., freedman. 
libet (lubet), it pleases (§ 39, i). 
libidinor, i, indulge lust. 
libidinosus, a, um, lusiful, sensucd. 
libido, inis, f., [libet,] eager or 

unlaw/ul desire, pleasure, caprice. 
libita, orum, N., ivhat one ivill. 
Libitina, ae, goddess of BuriaL 
libo, I, taste, touch, j)our, cidl. 
libra, ae, f., pound (12 oz.), halance. 
libramentum, i, N., iveight, even 

surface or bcdance. 
librarius, a, um, of hooks ; m., 

copyist, clerk; F., hookstore; N., 



librarius — litigiosus. 

librarius, a, um, of a pound; F., 

head-spinner (weigher of wool). 
librafcio, onis, F., weighing out. 
librator, oris, m., surveyor, engineer. 
librilis, e, of a pound ; N,, scales. 
libripens, pendis, m., pagmaster. 
libro, I, weigh, poise, huii. 
libum, i, N.. a cake. 
Liburnus, a, um, Lihurnian (of 

Illyria) ; F., a swift galleg. 
Libya, se (-e, es), Libya, Africa. 
LLbyus (-ycus, -yssus, -ystinus), 

a, um; -ys, yos (-ystis, tydis, 

F.), Lih//an, or African. 
lioens, tia,free, unrestt^ained. 
licenter, a!. pleasure. 
licentia, ee, f., freedom, license. 
liceo, cui, cit-, 2, he on sale, value. 
liceor, itus, 2, hid (at auction). 
licet, uit, 2, it is permitted (§ 39, i), 
licet, although, even if, granted. 
f lichen, enis, m., lichen, eruption. 
licitor, I, [liceor,] to hid. 
licium, i, n., listing, thread, girdle. 
lictor, oris, m., lictor (attendant 

on a magistrate ; a dictatorhad 

24, a consul 12, a praetor 6), 
lien, enis, m., spleen. 
lienosus, a, um, splenetic. 
ligamen, minis ; -mentum, i, n. ; 

-tura, ae, f., hand, ligament. 
Liger, eris, m., the river Loire. 
lignarius, a, um, of wood ; m., car- 

penter, lumber-dealer. 
lignatio, onis, f., getting ivood. 
ligneus (-olus), a, um, loooden, dry. 
lignor, I, to get wood. 
ligo, I, to hind, tie, fasten. 
ligo, 5nis, m., gruh-hoe. 
ligula, dim. of lingua, tongue. 
Ligures, um, people of Liguria 

(Piedmont), tlie dist. near Genoa. 
ligurio, 4, lick, long for, he dainty. 
Ligusticus, a, um, of Liguria. 
ligu^trum, i, n., privet. 
lilium i, N,, lily. 
Libybaeum, i, n., a promontory 

at the wcst of Sicily. 
lima, ae, f., file. 

limarius, a, um, slimy, clayey, miry. 
limatus, a, um, refined, correct. 

limax, acis, F., slug, snail. 
limbus, i, m., edge, border, fiounce. 
limen, inis, n., sill, threshold. 
limes, itis, m., hy-path, houndary. 
limis, e=limus, aslant. 
limito, I, Umit,fix, divide. 
limo, I, tofle, ivhet, polish. 
limosus, a, um, muddy, miry. 
limpidus, a, um, clear, pure. 
limus, a, um, asiant, awry, squinting. 
limus, i, m., sliine, mud, dirt. 
limus, i, M., girdle, apron. 
linea, ae, f., thread, string, line, net. 
lineamentum, i, n., line, stroke. 
lineo, I, sketch, straigkten. 
lineus, a, um, of Jiax. 
lingo, nxi, nct-, 3, iick. 
lingua, se, F., tongue, language. 
lingulaca, ae, c, chatterhox, gossip. 
liniger, era, um, iinen-wearing. 
lino, levi, lit-, 3, anoint, smear. 
linquo, liqui, lict-, 3, leave, quit. 
linteo, onis, m., linen-iveaver. 
linter, tris, f. (T. 2, i. 4), i)oat, tray. 
linteus, a, um, of linen ; N., iinen 

clotli, canvas. 
linum, i, N., Jiax, thread, net. 
f Linus (os), i, son of Apollo, a 

singer and poet of Thebes. 
Lipara, ae, F., an I. N. of Sicily. 
lippio, 4, to he hlear-eyed. 
lippus, a, um, Uear-eyed. 
lique-facio, 3 ; P., -fio, melt, dissoive. 
liqueo. cui (qui), 2 ; -esco, 3, to be 

Jiuid, clear; non liquet (n. 1.), 

the case is not ciear. 
liquide, cieariy, confidentiy. 
liquidus, a, um, iiquid, ciear. 
liquo, I, meit, dissoive, strain. 
liquor, i, meit,flow. 
liquor, oris, m., liquid, fiuidity. 
lira, ae, f., ridge, furrow. 
liro, I, to plough, harrow. 
flirce, trijies. 

lis, litis, F., stlis, dispute, iawsuit. 
litatio, onis, v.,propitious sacrifice. 
litera (-ula), ae, /e«er(of alphabet) ; 

pl,, epistle, document, ietters. 
literate, cieariy, iearnediy, iiteraliy. 
literatus, a, um, iettered, iearned. 
litigiosus, a, um, disputatious. 

litigium — lucubratio. 


litigium, i, N., dispute. 

litigo, I, to sue, quarrel, litigate. 

lito, I, .sa(,T//z"c-e (with good omens), 

' make expiation^ appease. 
litoralis, e; -eus, a, um, of the 

littera=litera, letter. 
littus=litus, shore. 
litiira, ae, f., [lino,] Uur, erasure. 
litus, iis, M., sjnearing, daubing. 
litus, 6ris, n., shore. 
lituus, i, M., augur''^ crook, horn. 
liveo, 2, to be hluish. 
lividus, a, um, hluish, lurid, envi- 

ous, malignant. 
livor, oris, M., Iwidness, envy. 
lix, licis, M., ashes. 
lixa, ae, m., sutler ; pl., camp-fol- 

lixivus (-ius), a, um, oflye. 
localis, e, of a place. 
locarius, a, um, of renting. 
locatio, onis, F., tocalion, lease. 
locator, oris, m., one ivho lets, hirer. 
loco, I, put, let, give in marriage. 
loculus,i, M.,place, hier, coffin, stall. 
locuples, etis, rich, sure, ampie. 
locupleto, I, to enrich. 
locus, i, M. ; pL, a, n. (§ 14, ii. i), 

place, topic, rank ; abl., instead. 
locusta, ae, f., locust, lohster. 
lociitio, onis, F., speaking, speech. 
locutus, [loquor,] having spoken. 
lodix, icis, f., coverlet, hlanket. 
f logicus, a, um, logical ; f., logic. 
flogos, i, M., ioord,jest, reason. 
loligo, inis, f., cuttle-fish. 
lolium, i, N., darnel, cockle, tares. 
lomentum, i, n., a bean-poultice. 
Londinium, i, n., London. 
longaevus, a, um, aged, ancient. 
longe,/a?-, hy far. 
longinquitas, atis, f., distance, ex- 

tent, lengtli, duration. 
longinquus, a, um, long, far. 
longitiido, inis, f., length. 
longurius, i, m., long pole. 
longus (-ulus), a, um, long,far. 
loquacitas, atis, f., loquacity. 
loquax, acis, talkative. 
loquela, ae, f., word, discourse. 

loquor, lociitus, 3, speak, talk. 
lora (-ea), ae, f., afier-ivine. 
loretum, i, n., laurel-grove. 
loreus, a, um, of thongs. 
lorica, 9B, f., leather cuirass, breast- 

ivork, parapet, fence. 
lorico. I, clothe in mail. 
loripes, edis, tithe, or how-legged. 
lorum, i, n., thong, rein, scourge. 
flotos, i, M., ivater-lity, lotus. 
lotus, [lavo,] ivashed. 
lubet=libet, it pteases. 
lubido, inis, f. =libido, pleasure. 
IQbrico, i, make slippery. 
liibricus, a, um, siippery, fleeting. 
lucaris, e, of the forest. 
Lucanus, a, um, of Lucania, a 

dist. of S. Italy. 
lucellum, i, n., slight gain. ' 
liiceo, luxi, 2, shine, gleam. 
Luceres, um, a patrician tribe in 

tlie founding of Rome. 
Luceria, ae, F., a town in Apulia. 
lucerna, ae, f., lamp. 
lucesco, 3, groio hright, dawn. 
liicidus, a, um, bright, clear. 
liicifer, era, um, light-hringing. 
Lucifer, feri, m., the morning star. 
Iricifugus, a, um, light-shunning. 
Lucina, ae, the godcless of Birth. 
lucinus, a, um, bringing to light. 
lucrativus, a, um, of gain or he- 

quesl, profitahle. 
lucri-facio, 3, get gain. 
lucrificus, a, um, profitable. 
Lucrinus, i, m., a lake near Baiae. 
lucripeta, ae, c, gain-seeker. 
lucror, I, to get gain, profit. 
lucrosus, a, um, gainfuL 
lucrum, i, n., gain, weatth. 
luctamen, inis, n. ; -tatio, onis, f., 

a ui'estle, struggle, contest. 
luctator, oris, m., wrestler. 
luctifer, era, um, griefbringing. 
luctificus, a, um, causing grief. 
luctisonus, a, um, sad-sounding. 
luctor, I, to struggle, ivrestle. 
luctuosus, a, um, sorrowful. 
luctus, iis, M., grief mourning. 
liicu, [lux,] by daylight. 
liicubratio, onis, f., night-work. 


lucubro — Lyceum. 

lucubro, I, to toil hy night. 
luculente (-ter), hrilliantly. 
luculentus, a, um, hright, famous. 
Lucullus, i, L. Licinius, a wealthy 

Roman noble, commander 

against Mithridates, B.c. 74-66. 
Lucumo, onis, m. (an Etruscan 

title), pj-iest or jmnce. 
liicus, i, M., wood or grove. 
ludia, ae, f., actress. 
ludibriosus, a, um, scornful. 
ludibrium, i, N., jest, mockery. 
liidibundus, a, um, playful, easy. 
liidicer (-crus), a, um, sportive. 
ludificatio, onis, F,, derision. 
ludifico (-cor), i, to make sport of 

deceive, deride, frustrate. 
liidimagister, tri, M., teacher. 
liidio, onis, F. ; -ius, i, m., actor. 
liido, si, sum, 3, play, sjjort, deceive. 
ludus, i, m., sport, game, school. 
lues, is, F., pestilence, calamity. 
Lugdiinensis, e, of Lugdunum, a 

city on the Rhone (Lyons). 
liigeo, xi, ct-, 2, mourn, lament. 
ISgubris, e, mournful. 
liima, ae, f., tliorn. 
lumbifragium, i, N., hack-hrecdcing. 
lumbricus, i, M., stomach-icorm. 
lumbus, i, M., loin. 
liimen, inis, n., light, lamp, eye. 
liiminar, aris, n., ivindow. 
liimino, i, hrighten, illumine. 
liiminosus, a, um, light, hright. 
liina, ae, f., mooji. 
lunaris, e, of the moon, moonlight. 
liinatus, a, um, crescent-shaped. 
liino, I, hend (hke half moon). 
luo, lui, 3, tvash, cleanse, expiate. 
lupa, ae, f., she-tvolf prostitute. 
lupatus, a, um, sharp-ioothed ; n. 

pl., curh, or toothed hit. 
Lupercal, alis, n., grove of Pan 

in Rome ; pl., a festival of Pan 

celebrated in February. 
Lupercus, i, m., a name of Pan. 
lupinus (-illus), i, m., lupine. 
lupinus, a, um, of a wolf. 
lupus, i, m., ivolf, a jagged hit. 
liira, ae, F., hag, sacFs mouth.' 
lurco, onis, m., glutton. 

lurco (-or), i, devour greedily. 
liaridus, a, um, ivan, lurid. 
liiror, oris, m., paleness. 
luscinia (-ola), se, f., nightingale, 
luscinus (.-ius), a, um, one-eyed. 
lusciosus, a, um, purhlind. 
luscus, a, um, one-eyed. 
Liisitania, ee, f., Portugal. 
lusito, I , freq. of liido, play. 
liisor, oris, m., player. 
liisorius, a, um, of play : n., play- 

ground ; F. pl., swift cruisers. 
lustralis, e, of purifying ; or, of 

four years. 
lustratio, onis, f., a purifcation, 

going ahoid. 
lustricus, a, um, of purifcation. 
lustro, i, piivify, survey, iraverse. 
lustrum, i, N., den, hog,Jorest; exjn- 

ation, jjeriod offouryears. 
liisus, iis, m., [liido,] gaine, sport. 
lutamentum, i, n., mud-wcdl. 
lutarius, a, um, of mud. 
liiteolus, a, um, yelloivish. 
lutesco, 3, get muddy. 
Lutetia, ae, f., Paris. 
luteus, a, um, golden-yellow. 
luteus, a, um, of mud, dirty. 
luto, I, hedauh with clay. 
lutosus, a, um, muddy. 
lutra, Ee, f., otier. 
lutulentus, a, um, muddy, dirty. 
lutulo, I, hespatier, hemire. 
liitum, i, N., yelloiv-weed. 
lutum, i, N., mud, clay. 
lux, lucis, F., ligld, life, day. 
luxo, I, dish)caie. displace. 
luxuria, se (es, ei), f., luxuriance, 

rankness, luxury. 
luxurio (-or) i, he luxuriant, ahound. 
luxuriosus, a, um, rank, luxuriant, 

exuherant, ivanton. 
luxus, iis, M., excess, luxury, splen- 

dor ; dislocation. 
Lyaeus, i, M., a name of Bacchus. 
Lycaeus, i, m., a mt. of Arcadia, 

sacred to Jupiter and Pan. 
Lycaon, 6nis, myth. k. of Arca- 

dia, changed to a wolf 
Lyceum, i, n., a gymnasium near 

Athens, Aristotle's school. 

lychnis — mage. 


f lychnis, idis, UgJit-glving. 
flychnus, i, n., lamp, llght. 
Lycia, dist. of S. W. Asia Minor. 
lyciscus, i, m., ivolf-dog. 
Lycius, a, um, of Lycia. 
Lycurgus, i, legislator of Sparta ; 

a myth. k. of Thrace. 
Lydus (ius), a, um, of Lydia, a 

dist. in W. Asia Minor; Etruscan. 
lympha, se, f., spring-water. 
lymphaticus, a, um, panic-stricken. 
lympho, I, to drive distracted. 
lynceus, a, um, sharp-siglited. 
lynx, lyncis, f., lynx. 
lyo, I, liquefy. 
f lyra, ae, F., lyre, lute. 
f lyricus, a, um, lyrical. 
Lysander, dri, a Spartan general 

who captured Athens,. b.c. 405. 
Lysimachus, a general of Alex- 

ander, aftervvards k. of Thrace. 
Lysippus, a sculptor of Sicyon. 
lytra=lutra, otter. 


M, the praenomen Marcus ; num., 

M', the prcTcnomen Manius. 
maccus, i, M., huffoon, simpleton. 
Macedones, um, as, Macedonians. 
Macedonia,dist. N. E., of Greece, 

(Southern Turkey), made a 

Roman prov. b.c. 148. 
Macedonicus, i, surname of O. 

CEecilius Metellus. 
Macedonius, a, um; -iensis, e, 

macellarius, a, um, of the market ; 

M., victualler. 
macellum, i, m., meat market. 
maceo, 2, be lean. 
macer, cra, um, lean. 
maceria, se, F., ivall, enclofiure. 
macero, i, to steep, soften,fret, vex. 
macesco, 3, grow lean. 
f machaera, ae, f. ; -ium,i, n., sivord. 
Machaon, onis, myth. son of 

^sculapius, a surgeon of the 

Greeks at Troy. 

machina, ae, f., engine, staging. 
machinamentum, i, n., instrument, 

machiue, device. 
machinatio, onis, f., contrivance. 
machinator, oris, n., engineer, 

contriver, inventor. 
machinor, i, contrive, scheme, plot. 
machio, onis, m., a mason. 
macies, ei, f., leanness. 
macilentus, a, um, meagre. 
macis, idis, f., mace ( ?). 
macresco, crui, 3, grow lean. 
macritiido, inis, F., leanness. 
mactatio, onis, f., slaying. 
macto, I, kill, sacrijice, requite. 
mactus, a, uih, honored, adored; 

macte, liail ! ivell done ! 
macula, ae, f., spot, stain. 
maculo, I, stain, speckle, pollute. 
maculosus, a, um, speckled, stained. 
madefacio, feci, fact-, 3, moisten. 
madens, tis, wet, marshy. 
madeo, ui, 2 ; -esco, 3, he or get 

ivet, moist, drenched, overflowing. 
madido, i, moisten. 
madidus, a, um, ivet, dyed, soaked. 
mador, oris, M., moisture. 
madulsa, ae, M., drunken. 
Maeander, dri, m., a river of 

lonia ; a ivinding ivay or horder. 
Maecenas, atis, friend of Augus- 

tus, patron of Virgil and Horace. 
mceles=meles, hadger. 
Mselius, Sp., slain for treason by 

Cincinnatus, B.c. 436. 
maena, ae, F., herring ( ?). 
Maenades,priestesses of Bacchus. 
Maenalus, range of mountains in 

Arcadia, sacred to Pan. 
Maeonia, a dist. of Lydia. 
Maeonides, ae, Homer. 
Maeonius, a, um, Mceonian, Lydian. 
Maeotis, idis (os), the Sea of Azof 
maerens, tis, sad, grieving. 
maereo, 2, grieve, mourn. 
maeror, oris, M., sadness. 
maestitia, se, f., grief. 
maestus, a, um, sad, grieved, un- 

luckji, gloomy, mourning. 
magaiia, um, N., huts, hooths. 
mage=magis, more. 


magia — mando. 

f magia, ae ; -ice, es, f., magic. 
\ magicus, a, um, magical. 
magis (mage), more. 
f magis, idis ; -ida, ae, F., platter. 
magister, tri, m., master, leader, 

director, chief, teacher. 
magisterium, i, n., directofs offi.ce. 
magistra, ae, f., mistress. 
magistratus, iis, M., office, magis- 

tracy, magistrate. 
magnanimus, a, um, great or 

/ilgh-hearted, brave. 
f magnes, etis, m., magnet. 
magnidicus, a, um, hoastful. 
magnifacio, 3, make much of. 
magnifice (-ficenter), splendidly. 
magnificentia, ae, f., grandeur, 

splendor, hoastfulness. 
magnifico, i, esteem highly, praise, 

magnificus, a, um, grand, hoastful, 

sple n did, sumptuous. 
magniloquentia, se, ¥., lofty strain. 
magniloquus, a, um, of lofty style. 
magnipendo, 3, rate highly. 
magnitudo, inis, F., greatness, 

size, rank, dignify. 
magnopere (magno opere), veivj 

niuch, greatly. 
magnus, a, um (comp. major, 

superl. maximus), great. 
magus, a, um, magical; m., magi- 

cian ; F., sorceress. 
Maia, ae, myth. d. of Atlas, mother 

of Mercury ; one of the Pleiades. 
majalis, i, m., hog. 
majestas, atis, f., grandeur, splen- 

dor, majesty. 
major, us, oris (comp. of magnus), 

greater ; majores, ancestors. 
Majus, a, um, month of May. 
majusculus, a, um, rather larger. 
mala, ae, f., jaw, cheek. 
f malacia, ae, f., calm. 
malacus, a, um, soft, pliant. 
f malagma, atis, N., poultice. 
male, ill, badty. 

Malea, ae, f., S. point of Greece. 
maledicax, acis, f., slanderous. 
maledicens, tis, scurrilous. ' 
maledico, xi, ct-, 3, revile, slander. 

maledictus, a, um, accursed ; n., 

curse, abusire speech. 
maledicus, a, um (-dicentior, -di- 

-centissimus), abusice. 
malefacio, feci, fact-, 3, do mis- 

malefactor, oris, M., evil-doer. 
malefactum, i, n., injury. 
maleficium, i, N., mischief crime. 
maleficus, a, um, criminal, hurtful. 
malesuadus, a, um, ill-advising. 
malevolens, tis (-volus), spiteful. 
malevolentia, ae, f., ill-will. 
malifer, era, um, apple-bearing. 
maligne, spitefully, grudgingly. 
malignitas, atis, F., malice, spite, 

malignus, a, um, malicious, nig- 

gardly, barren. 
malitia, ae, F., evil quality, malice. 
malitiosus, a, um, wicked, crafty. 
malleolus, i, m., mallet, shoot (for 

planting), fire-ball. 
malleus, i, m., hammer. 
f mallus, i, m., lock of wool. 
malo (§ 37, i i i .), choose ratli er, prefer. 
malum, i, n., apple, pulpy fruit. 
malum, i, evil, misfortune. 
malus, a, um (comp. pejor, superl. 

pessimus), bad. 
malus, i, f., apj)le-tree, mast, heam. 
malva, ee, f., mcdlow. 
Mam., the praenomen Mamercus. 
Mamers, tis, Oscan for Alars. 
Mamertini, a tribe of N.E. Sicily. 
mamma (-illa), ae, F., breasf, udder. 
mammosus, a, VLm, full-breasted. 
nianalis, e, flowing. 

manceps, ipis, m., pur 

chaser. hirer. 

Ixrivlsman, proprietor. 
manoipatio, onis, f., a transfer of 

properfy by purc.hase. 
mancipium, i, n , formal purchase, 

possessio)i, chattel, slave. 
mancipo, i, deliver as p7'operfy. 
mancus, a, um, maimed, infirm. 
mandator, oris, M., suborner. 
mandatus, iis, M. ; -um, i, N., order. 
mando, i, commit, command, give. 
mando, di, sum, 3, gnaw, cheio. 

mandra — massa. 


f mandra, ae, f., stall, herd. 

manduco, i, chew. 

manducus, i ; -o, onis, m., glutton. 

mane, iiwrmng, eaiiy. 

maneo, mansi, mans-, wait, stay, 

cuntinue, abide, iccdt for. 
Manes, ium, shades of the de- 

parted ; the lower world. 
mango, onis, m., dealer. 
mani=mane, morning. 
manicae, arum, f., sleeves, hand- 

cujfs, manacLes. 
manicatus, icith long sleeves. 
manicula, ae, f., hand, handle. 
manifestarius, a, um, evident. 
manifeste (o), clearly, pcdpably. 
manifesto, i, make puUic. 
manifestus, a, um, plain, proved. 
manipularis, e, of the maniple. 
manipulatim, hy handfuls. 
manipulus (-plus), i, m., handful; 

infantry company (of 200), maniple. 
mannus, i, m., draught-horse, pony. 
mano, i, trickle, drop, spread. 
mansio, onis, f., stay, continuance. 
mansito, i, ahide, dwell. 
mansue-facio, 3, mcd-e tame. 
mansuefactus, a, um, taiue, gentle. 
mansuesco, evi, et-, 3, make or 

grow tame. 
mansuetiido, inis, f,, mildness. 
mansuetus, a, um, mild, gentle. 
mansus, [mando,] chewed. 
mantele, is, n., towel, napkin. 
mantelum, i, n., cloak. 
mantica(-ula), se, f., travelling-hag. 
manticulor, i, steal, act slyly. 
Mantinea, ee, f., a town in Arca- 

dia, famous for the victory and 

death of Epaminondas, b.c. 362. 
manto, i, stay, ivait. 
Mantua, se, a tOwn of N. Italy. 
manualis, e ; -arius, a, um, held 

in the hand,for the hand. 
manubiae, arum, f., hooty. 
manubrium, i, n., handle. 
manulea, ae, f. ; -us, i, M., sleeve. 
maniimissio, onis, F., emancipa- 

tion, act of liheration. 
manii-mitto, 3, to set free. 
manupretium, i, N., wages, value. 

manus, iis, F., hand, trunk (of ele- 

phant), grappling-iron, hand (of 

troops), handiwork. 
mapalia, um, n., cottages. 
mappa, se, f., napkin. 
Marathon, onis, a town in Attica, 

famous for the defeat of the 

Persians, b.c, 490. 
marcens, tis, drooping, feehle. 
marceo, 2 ; -esco, 3, tvither, droop. 
marcidus, a, um, ivithered, feehle. 
marcor, oris, m., decay, faintness. 
marculus (-tulus), i, M,, hammer. 
mare, is, N., sea, esp. the Mediter- 

ranean; superum, the waters 

E., ancl inferum, W., of Italy. 
Mareota, ae, F., a lake of Egypt. 
f margarita, ae, F., pearl. 
margino, i, enclose with horder. 
margo, inis, f., edge, horder, margin. 
marinus, a, um, of the sea. 
marisca, ae, f., a largefg. 
maritalis, e, nuptial. 
maritimus, a, um, of the sea. 
marito, i, to marry,give in marriage. 
maritus, a, um, matrimonial, wed- 

ded, M., hushand, lover. 
Marius, C, b.c. 157-86, conqueror 

of Jugurtha, and chief of the 

popular party in Rome. 
Marmaricus, a, um, of Marmarica, 

a dist. of N, Africa. 
marmor, oris, N., marhle. 
marmoreus, a, um, of marhle. 
marmoro, i, cover with marhle. 
Maro, onis, cognomen of Virgil. 
marra, ae, F., hoe, hook. 
Mars, tis, the god of War. 
Martialis, e, of Mars. 
Martius, a, um, of Mars, warlike; 

the month of March. 
t marsiipium, i, N,, pouch, purse. 
Marsus, a, um, of the Marsi, a 

people of interior Latium. 
Marsyas, ge, a Satyr, skilled on 

the pipe, flayed by Apollo. 
f martyr, yris, c, witness. martyr. 
mas, maris, g. pl. ium, male, manly. 
masculus (-inus), a, um, male, 

mascidine, manly. 
massa, ae, f., lumj), mass. 


Massicus — medius. 

Massicus, i, m., a mt. of Campania. 
Massilia, ae, f., a coast town in 

the S. E. of Gaul, Mca-seilles. 
Massyli, orum, a people of Africa. 
mastiche, es, f., gum-mastic. 
fmastigia, ae, m., scamp, rogue. 
mastruca, ae, f., sheepskin. 
matara, ae, F., pike, javelin. 
matella, ae ; -io, onis, f., j)ot. 
mateola, ee, f., mallet, heetle. 
mater, tris, f., mofher, nurse. 
materia, ae ; -es, ei, f., material, 

tiniber, source, occasion, quality. 
materiarius, a, um, of tiniber ; M., 

materio, i, build of luood. 
materior, i, get timber. 
materis, is, f., pike. 
maternus, a, um, motherly. 
matertera, se, f., molher^s sister. 
f mathematicus, a, um, mathemat- 

ical; AL, niathematician, astrologer. 
matralis, e, of a mother. 
mafcricida, se, c, matricide. 
matrimonium, i, n., marriage. 
matrimus, a, um, that has a motlier. 
matrix, icis, f., dani, source, loomb. 
matrona, ae, F., a married ivoman. 
matronalis, e, of a matron. 
matruelis, is, m., cousin. 
matta, ae, f., rush-mat. 
mattea (-ya), ae, f., dainty. 
matula, ae, f., pot, blockhead. 
mature (-ate), eai-ly, speedity. 
matiiresco, rui, 3, grow ripe. 
maturitas, atis, f., ripeness,2)rompt- 

ness, maturity. 
maturo, i, ripen, hasten. 
maturus, a, um, ripe, ready, early. 
matiitinus, a, uni, of the morning. 
Mauri, orum, the Moors, a people 

of N. Africa, near Spain. 
Mauritania, ae, the dist. of N. W. 

Africa, Morocco. 
Mausoleum, i, n., the tomb of 

Mausolus, k. of Caria, built by 

his wife, Artemisia, b.c. 365. 
Mavors, tis, a name of Mars. 
Mavortius, a, um, of Mars. 
maxilla, ae, f., jawbone. 
maxime, especially, very greatly. 

maximus, a, um, [magnus,] great- 

est ; maximus natu, eldest. 
f mazononius, i, m., a dish. 
me (memet), acc. or abl. of ego, /. 
meabilis, e, passable. 
meacor, oris, m., passer-by. 
meatus, us, m., passage, course. 
f mechanicus, a, um, mechanical. 
mecum, with me. 
Medea, ae, myth. princess of Col- 

chis, daughter of y^etes, wife of 

Jason, an enchantress. 
medela, ae, f., remedy. 
medens, tis, c, physician. 
medeor, 2, heal, relieve. 
Medi, orum, the people of Media. 
mediastinus, i, m., helper, drudge. 
mediatenus, half-way. 
mediator, oris, m., mediator. 
medica, ae, f., a kind of clover. 
medicabilis, e, curaJ/ie. 
medicamen, inis ; -mentum, i, n., 

remedy, drug, dye. 
medicatus, a, um, drugged. 
mediclnus, a, um, of healing ; f., 

medicine, surgeon''^ ojjice. 
medico (-cor), i, heal, cure. 
Medicus, a, um, of Media, a dist. 

of Asia, beyond the Tigris. 
medicus, a, um, healing ; M., phy- 

sician, surgeon. 
medie, moderately, tolerably. 
medietas, atis, F., midst, haf. 
f medimnum (us), i, N., six pecks. 
medio, i, to halve, divide. 
mediocris, e, ordinary, middling. 
mediocritas, atis, F., haJf-rvay, 

medium, meanness, rnediocrity. 
Mediolanum, i, n., a city of N. 

Italy, Milan. 
medioximus, a, um, midmost. 
meditamentum, i, n., planning. 
meditatio, onis, F., thinking, plan- 

rii)i<i, preparafion. 
meditatus, a, um, well-weighed. 
mediterraneus, a, um, midiand ; 

N., mare, the Mediterranean. 
meditor, i. think, meditate, jjractise. 
medius, a, um, middle, midst of 

haly-way, mean ; N., the middle. 

medius fidius — mentior. 


mediusfidius, hy my faitli^ (me 

deusFidius juvet). 
meduUa, ae, f.. pith^ marrow. 
meduUitus, to tlie marrow. 
Medusa, ae, F., the Gorgon with 

snaky hair, d. of Phorcus. 
Megaera, se, one of the Furies. 
Megalensia, um, games in honor 

of the Magna Mater (Cybele). 
Megara, ae (orum), city or dist. 

between Athens and Corinth. 
mehercule, by Hercules ! 
mel, mellis, n., lioney. 
melculum, i, n., sweeiheart. 
f mele, pl. of melos, sony. 
Meleager, gri, son of CEneus and 

Akha;a, who perished by the 

burning of a brand on which j 

his hfe depended. 
meles, is, f., hadyer, marten. 
Melicerta (as), ae, myth. son of 

Athamas and Ino, whowith his 

mother became a sea-divinity. 
melicus, a, um, tuneful. 
f melimela, orum, n., honey-apples. 
melinus, a, um, of the hadyer. 
melinus, a, um, of quinces. 
melinus, a, um, ofhoney ; f,, mead. 
melior, us, (comp. of bonus,) 

helter; adv. melius. 
Melita, ae ; -te, es, Malta, an island 

south of Sicily. 
Melitensis, e, Maltese. 
■j- melitinus, a, um, ofhoney. 
meliusculus, a, um, ratlier hetter. 
melleus (-arius), a, um, ofhoney. 
mellifer, era, um, honey-bearing. 
mellifico, i, maL:e honey. 
melligo, inis, F., hee-glue, sap. 
mellilla, ae, sweetness, delight. 
mellitus (-ulus), a, um, honey-sweet. 
f melodia, ae, F., melody. 
f melos, i, n. pl. ; mele, song. 
Melpomene, es, f., the muse of 

tragic and lyric Poetry. 
membrana, ae, f., mernhrane. 
membratim, (imh hy limb. 
membrum, i, N., limh,part, j^ortion. 
memet, myself ( 
memini, imp. memento (§ 38, i.), 

rememher, mention, hear in mind. 

Memnon, onis, myth. king of 

Ethiopia, son of Aurora and 

memor, oris, mindful, reminding. 
memorabilis, e, memorahle. 
memorandus, a, um, memorable. 
memoratus, iis, m., niention. 
memoria, ae, f., memory, remem- 

memoriter, by heart,from memory. 
memoro, i, to mention, recount. 
Memphis, is (idos), old capital of 

Egypt, 14 miles S. of Cairo. 
mena=maena, herring {?). 
Menander, dri, a Greek comic 

poet, B.c. 342-292. 
menda, se, f., fault, defect. 
mendaciloquus, a, um, fcdse. 
mendacium, i, ^.,falsehood. 
niendax, acis, lying, false. 
meiidicabulum, i, n., beggar. 
mendicatio, onis, f., begging. 
mendice, meanly, beggarly. 
mendicitas, atis, F., beggary. 
mendico (-cor), i, to heg alms. 
mendicula, ae, f., beggar''^ rags. 
mendicus, a, um, beggarly ; m., 

a beggar. 
mendose, faultily, fcdsely. 
mendosus, a, um, faulty, false. 
mendum, i, N.^fault, blemish. 
Menelaus, i, myth. k. of Sparta, 

brother of Agamemnon, and 

husband of Helen. 
f menis, idis, f. crescent (ornament). 
mens, mentis, F., mind, heart. 
mensa, ae, f., tahle. 
mensarius, i, m., banker, broker. 
mensio, onis, F., measure. 
mensis, is, m., month. 
mensor, oris, m., measurer. 
menstrualis, e, every month. 
menstruus, a, um, monthly. 
mensula, ae, f., little tahle. 
mensura, ae, f., measure. 
mensus, [metior,] measured. 
menta (-tha), ae, F., mint. 
mentiens, tis, lying,false. 
mentigo, inis, f., scab, scurf. 
mentio, onis, F., a calling to mind. 
mentior, itus, 4, to speakfalsely. 


mentitus — migratio. 

mentitus, a, um, counterfeit. 
mento, onis, m,, long-chm. 
mentum, i, n., chin, beard, cornice. 
meo, I, (/o, pass,/requent. 
meopte, )ny oitm (abl). 
mephitis, is, f., evil vapor. 
mepte, viijself (acc). 
meracus, a, um, p^ure, unmixed. 
mercabilis, e, purchasable. 
mercator, oris, m., a dealer, mer- 

chanf, purcliaser. 
mercatiira, ae, F.; -catus, us, m., 

trcule, commerce, icares. 
mercedonius, a, um, ofivages. 
mercedula, ee, f., smcdl pay. 
mercenarius, a, um, hired, hireling. 
merces, edis, f., pay, wages, hribe, 

price, cost, revenue. 
merces, pl. of merx, goods. 
mercimonium, i, n., s/oc/jof goocls. 
mercor, i, io trade, buy, purchase. 
Mercurius, s. of Jupiterand Maia, 

god of Trade, Eloquence, &c. 
merda, ae, f., dung. 
mere, purely, truly. 
merenda, se, f., lunch. 
merens, tis, dcscrving. 
mereo, ui; -eor, itus, 2, deserve, 

ivin, earn, j)urchase, serve. 
meretricius, a, um, ofharlots. 
meretrix, icis, f., harlot. 
mergae, arum, f., pitchfork. 
merges, itis, f., sheaf 
mergo, si, sum, 3, dip, plunge, sink. 
mergus, i, m., diver (sea-bird). 
meridianus, a, um, of noo)i, south- 

ern ; N., the South. 
meridies, ei, m., noon, south. 
meridio (-or), i, take a noon nap. 
merito, deservedly. 
merito, i, to earn, gain. 
meritorius, a, um, of earni)ig, for 

hirc ; N., pl., hi)'ed rooms. 
meritum, i, n., desoi, reivai'd, merit, 

value, imj)ortance. 
meritus, a, um, deso-ving, due. 
Mero, onis, m., ivhie-hibber (Nero). 
merobibus, a, um, inte)))perate. 
merops, opis, f., hee-eater. 
merso (-ito), i, dip, plunge, drown. 
mersus, {jaxex^o^^lplunged, droioned. 

merula, ae, f., blackhird. 
merum, i, n., u)imixed wine. 
merus, a, um, pure, unmixed, hare. 
merx, cis, f., ))ierchandise. 
[fmeso-, in the niiddle. 
Mesopotamia {between the rivers), 

a district between the Tigris 

and Euphrates. 
Messana, se, f., Messina, in Sicily. 
Messene, es, capital city of Mess- 

enia, the S.-W. dist. of Greece. 
messis, is, f., reaping, ha)'vest, crop. 
messor, oris, m., reajjer. 
messorius, a, um, ofa reaper. 
messus, [meto,] reaped, harvested. 
[-met, 6'e//'(intens.). 
meta, ae, F., goal, limit,lurning-post. 
metalis, e, conical. 
metallicus, a, um, of metal or 

mines : M., miner. 
metallum, i, n., metcd, mine. 
f metamorphosis, is (gen. plur., 

-eon), F., tra)isJbi'mation. 
metator, oris, m., fxer of hounds. 
Metaurus, i, m., a river in Um- 

bria, famous for the defeat of 

Hasdrubal, B.c. 207. 
metaxa, se, f., raw silk. 
f methodium, i, n., a jest. 
f methodus, i, f., way, method. 
meticulosus, a, um, timid,fearful. 
metior, mensus, 4, to measure, 

meto, messui, mess-, 3, to reap, 

pluck, gather, cut doioi. 
meto (-or), i, measure, lay out, 

traverse, ercct, set up. 
t metreta, ae, f., measure (9 gall). 
f metricus, a, um, ofmetre. 
f metropolis, is, F., mother-city. 
f metrum, i, n., measure, metre. 
metuo, i, ut-, 3, to fear, dread. 
metus, iis, m., fear, dread. 
meus, a, um (voc. M., mi), my. 
mi, for niihi, to mc, [ego,]; my. 
mica, ee, f., crumb, g)'ain. 
micans, tis, sparkling. 
mico, ui, I, to beat, guive)', tioinkle. 
Midas, ce, myth. k. of Phrygia, who 

tiirned all he touched to gold. 
migratio, onis, f., removal, transfer. 

migro — miseriter. 


migro, I, remove, migrate, depart. 
mile^mille, a thousand. 
miles, itis, M,, soldier (infantry). 
Milesius, a, um, of Miletus, a port 

in Caria, S. W. Asia Minor. 
milia (pl. of mille), thousands. 
miliarius, a, um, of millet. 
militaris, e, of soldiers, soldierly. 
militarius, a, um, miUtarij. 
militia, ee, F., militar// service, loar. 
milito, I , serve as soldier. 
milium, i, n., millet. 
mille (mile), thousand; mille pas- 

suum (looo paces), a mile. 
milleni, ae, a (distrib.), &// thousands. 
millesimus, a, um, thousandth. 
miliarius, a, um, containing a 

thousand : N., milestone. 
millies (milies), a thousand times. 
Miltiades, is, Athenian com- 

mander at Marathon, B.c. 490. 
miltos, i, F., red-lead, cinnabar. 
milvius, a, um, ofthe lcite, ravenous. 
milvus, i, M., kite, hawk. 
mimicus, a, um, ofmimes or farces. 
mimus, i, m ; -a, ee, F., mimic actor. 
min (mihine), for me ? 
f mina, ae, F., a Greek weight (100 

drachmas), or coin ($18). 
mina, ee, f., smooth. 
minee, arum, F., threats. 
minanter, tJireateningly. 
minatio, onis, F., threateniny. 
minax, acis, th7^eatening,projecting. 
Mincius, i, a river in N. Italy. 
Minerva, ae, goddess of Arms and 

Skill, also called Pallas. 
minime, by no means. 
minimus, a, um, [parvus,] least. 
minio, i, to paint red. 
minister, tra, um, serving, helping. 
minister, tri, m., accomplice, helper. 
ministerium, i, N., service, attend- 

ance, ad)ninistration. 
ministra, se, f., female attendant. 
ministrator, oris, M., attendant. 
ministro, i, attend, serve, furnish. 
minitor (-to), i, threaten, menace. 
minium, i, N., cinnahar, red lead. 
minor, us, [parvus,] less. 
minor, i, threaten, jut out. 

Minos, ois, myth. k. of Crete, son 

of Jupiter and Europa ; his gr.- 

son, buikler of the labyrinth. 
Minotaurus, Minotaur, a monster 

of Crete, half man, half bull. 
Minous (-oius), a, um, oj Minos, 

Minturnae, arum, f., a city of 

soutliern Latium. 
minumus=minimus, least. 
minuo, i, iit, 3, lessen, diminish. 
minus, [parum,] less. 
minusculus, a, um, quite smcdl. 
minutal, alis, n., mince-meat. 
miniitatim, bit by bit. 
miniite, minulely. 
miniitim, in bits. 

minutus (-ulus), a, um, small, petty. 
Minyae, arum, a people of Thes- 

saly ; the companions of Jason. 
mirabilis, e, marvellous, ivonderful. 
mirabundus, a, um, astonished. 
miraculum, i, n., marvel, miracle. 
mirandus, a, um, culmirable. 
mirator, oris, M., adtnirer. 
mire (mirifice), wonderfully. 
mirificus, a, um, admirable. 
mirmillo, onis, m., hind of gladiator. 
miror, (-0), \,to ivonder, admire. 
mirus, a, um, wonderful, strange. 
miscellus (-aneus), a, um, mixed. 
misceo, cui, mist- (mixt-), 2, mix, 

mingle, blend, compound. 
miselius, a, um, wretched, unhappy. 
Misenum, apromont. near Naples. 
miser, era, um, ivretched. 
miserabiliter , p itiably. 
miserandus, deplorable. 
miseranter, pitiably. 
misere (-iter), ivretchedly, desper- 

ately, lamentably. 
miserabilis, e, pitioble, sad, pitiful. 
miseratio, onis, f., compassion. 
misereo, ui, it-; misereor, erit- 

(ert-), 2, to pity, have mercy. 
miseresco, 3, feel pity. 
miseret (miseretur), it stirs jnty. 
miseria, se, f., misery, distress. 
misericordia, ae, f., mercy, misery. 
misericors, dis, merciful. 
miseriter, lamentably. 


miseror — molitus. 

miseror, i, lament, deplore, pity. 
miserulus. a, um, unhappy. 
missicius, a, um, disdiarged. 
missiculo, i , [mitto,] keep sending. 
missilis, e, fhat imiy be thrown ; N., 

a missile iceapon ; pl. gifts. 
missio, onis, f., letting-go, dis- 

charge, throwing, hurling. 
missito, I, freq. of mitto, send. 
missor, oris, m., sender, shooter. 
missus, [mitto,] sent. 
missus, iis, m., sending, course. 
misticius. a, um, mongrel. 
mistim (mixtim), mixedly. 
mistio, onis ; -iira, ae, F;, mingling. 
mistus, a, um, [misceo,] mixed. 
f misy, yos, f., truffie, copperas. 
mite, gently, [mitis]. ■ 
mitella, ae, f., [mitra,] turhan. 
mitesco, 3, grow mellow, gentle. 
Mithras, ae, the Persian Sun-god. 
Mithridates, king of Pontus, con- 

querecl by Pompey, b.c. 63. 
mitifico, i, make mild or mellow. 
mitigatio, onis, f., soothing. 
mitigo, I, soothe, appease, fertilize. 
mitis, e, mild, gentle,fruitful. 
f mitra, ae, head-hand, turban. 
mitto, misi, miss-, 3, send, let go, 

yield, launch, throw, hurl. 
Mitylene, es, f., a city of Lesbos. 
mixtus, [misceo,] mixed. 
f mna=mina, an Attic coin. 
Mnemosyne, es, f., Meynory, the 

mother of the Muses. 
mobilis, e, movahle, nimble, rapid, 

pliant, inconstant. 
mobilitas, atis, F., movableness, 

quickness, inconstancy. 
mobiliter, with swift motion. 
m5bilito, i, to make quick. 
moderamen, inis, n., management, 

government, helm. 
moderanter, with moderation. 
moderatio, onis, F., moderation, 

regularity, guidance, government. 
moderator, oris, m. ; -trix, tricis, 

F., dirrctor, controller. 
moderatus, a, um, tvithin hounds. 
moderor (-0), i, regulate, control. 
modeste, moderately, modestly. 

modestia, ae, F., moderation, mod- 

esty, sobriety, discretion. 
modestus, a, um, calm, moderate, 

kind, friendly, modest. 
modiaiis, e, holding a peck. 
modice, moderately, meanly. 
modicus, a, um, moderate, scanty. 
modificor, i, set hounds, measure. 
modiolus, i, M., hucket, axle-hox. 
modius, i, m., a peck (16 sextarii). 
modo, only, Just now ; modo . . . 

modo, now . . . again. 
modulamen, inis, n., melody. 
modulate, rhythmiccdly. 
modulatio, onis, F., measure, mel- 

ody, rhythm. 
modulator, oris, m., director. 
modulatus, a, um. regulated, sung. 
modulor, i, to measure, regulate or 

beat time (in music or dance). 
modulus, i, m., measure, melody. 
modus, i, M., measure, limit, man- 

ner ; ejusmodi, of that sort. 
f moechus, i, m. ; -a, se, f., adulterer, 

moenera, um, n. ; [munus,] offices. 
moenia, ium, N., ivalls, buitdings. 
moenio, 4=munio, fortify. 
mcereo=maereo, grieve. 
Moesi, orum, people of Mcesia, 

the dist. of the lower Danube. 
moBstus=m8estus, sad. 
mola, ae, f., mUi; grain or meal, 

coarsely ground, salted, and 

cast on the victim in sacrifice. 
molaris, e, of a mill ; m., a mill- 

stone, jaw-tooth. 
molarius, a, um, of a miU. 
moles, is, f., mass,pier, hurden, toil. 
moleste, vith dijfciilty or vexation. 
molestia, ae, f., vexation, trouhle. 
molesto, I, to trouhle, annoy. 
molestus, a, um, irksome, vexatious. 
molimen, inis ; -mentum, i, N., an 

ejfort, cxertion, undertaking. 
molior, 4, toil upon, struggle, ivield, 

do by ejfort, endeavor. 
molitio, onis, f., laborious doing. 
molitor, oris, m., aufhor, contriver. 
molitus, a, um, [molo,] ground. 
molitus, a, um, [molior,] toiling. 

moUesco — mortalis. 


moUesco, 3, groiv soft, effembiiate. 
molliculus (-cellus), a, um, soft, 

voluptuous, deiicate. 
moUio, 4, make soft orsupple, lighten. 
mollis, e, soft, •mild, gentle, delicate. 
moUiter, softly, calmlg. 
moUitia, ae; -tiido, inis, f., soft- 

ness,jlexlbilitg, suppleness,pliancy. 
mollitus, [moUio,] soft. 
moUuscus, a, um, soft-shelled. 
molo, ui, it-, 3, grind. 
f moloche, es, f., inallows. 
molochinarius, i, m., dyer in green. 
Molossi, orum, people of eastern 

molossus, i, M., hound, mastiff. 
f molybdus, i, m. ; -dis, idis, f., 

momen, inis, m., movement, tveight. 
momentum, i, n., halance, particle, 

moment, iceight. 
Mona, ae, f., the Isle of Man, also, 

Anglesea, in the Irish Sea. 
f monachus, i, m., monk. 
f monas, adis, f., unitT/. 
monedula, ge, f., jackdaw. 
moneo, ui, -itum, 2, to icarn, in- 

struct, remind, ctdmonish. 
Moneta, ee, a name of Juno. 
moneta, ae, f., coin, mint. 
monile, is, n., necklace. 
monitio, onis, F., admonition. 
monitor, oiis, m., rememhrancer, 

admonisher, overseer. 
monitum, i, n. ; -tus, iis, M., ad- 

monition, warning, prophecy. 
monitus, [moneo,] advised, warned. 
[f mono-, onhi, one. 
f monoceros, otis, m., unicorn. 
f monochromos, on, of one color. 
Moncecus, i, a name of Her- 

cules ; arx Monoeci, a prom- 

ontory of Liguria. 
f monogrammus, i, m., outline. 
f monopodium, stand (table). 
mons, montis, m., mountain. 
monstratio, onis, f., showing. 
monstrator, oris, m., he thatshoivs. 
monstratus, a, um, conspicuous. 
monstro, i, shoiv, inform, appoint. 

monstrum, i, n., an evil omen,prod- 

igy, monster. 
monstruosus (-osus), a, um, of or 

like a monster, strange. 
montanus, a, um, mountcdnous. 
monticola, ae, c, mountaineer. 
montivagus, a, um, roaming the 

montosus (-uosus), a, um, inoun- 

tainous, full ofmountains. 
monumentum, i, n., memorial, 
Mopsopius, a, um, of Attica. 
mora, ae, f., delay, hindrance. 
f mora, ae, f., division, hattaiion. 
moralis, e, of character, moral. 
mor aliter, ch aracteristicaliy. 
morate, iingeringly. 
morator, oris, m., delayer. 
moratus, [moror,] deicujed. 
moratus, a, um, of character. 
morbidus (-osus), a, um, diseased. 
morbus, i, m., diseuse, malady. 
mordacitas, atis, F,, sharpness, 
mordaciter, hitingiy. 
mordax, acis, hiting, stinging. 
mordeo, momordi, mors-, 2, hitej 

sting, eat, devour. 
mordicus (-citus), ivith hites. 
mordicus, a, um, snappish. 
\m.oxe, Jooiishiy. 

mores,um,pl., m., [mos,] cAarac^er. 
moretum, i, N., saiad of garhc. 
moribundus, a, um, dying. 
morigeratio, onis, f., compliance. 
morigeror (-0), i, gralify, coniply. 
morigerus, a, um, ohsequious. 
f monio, onis, m., a hiockhead. 
f morion, i, N., nightshade. 
morior, mortuus, moriturus, 3, 

to die, wither, vanish. 
moror, i, deiay, care for. 
morose, peevishly, anxiously. 
morositas, atis, F., fretfuiness. 
morosus, a, um, peevish, morose. 
Morpheus, ei(eos),goclof Dreams. 
mors, mortis, F., death, a corpse. 
morsico, i, hite with the lips. 
morsum, i, N., a hit, piece. 
morsus, [mordeo,] hitten. 
morsus, us, m., hiting, catch, hite. 
mortalis, e, mortal, perishahle. 


mortalitas — municipium. 

mortalitas, atis, f., morlality. 
mortarium, i, N., mortar, troiujh. 
morticinus, a, um, dead (carrion). 
mortifer, era, um, deadhj. 
mortualia, n. pl., dirges. 
mortuarius, a, um, of tlie dead. 
mortuus, [morior,] dead; M., corpse. 
morulus, a, um, dark-colored. 
fmorum, i, N., mulhernj. 
f morus, i, f., mulberru-tree. 
f morus, a, um,foolis/i. 
mos, moris, m., manner, custom; 

pL, character, qualiti/, conduct. 
motio, onis, f. ; molion, eniotion. 
moto, I, [moveo,] keep in motion. 
motor, oris, M-, mover. 
motus, [moveo,] moved, excited. 
motus, iis, m., movement, emotion, 

deparlare, tumult, change. 
movens, tis, movahle. 
moveo, movi, mot-, 2, move, dis- 

turb, set in motion, excite, begin ; 

p. (neut), to move. 
mox, presenfh/, soon after. 
muceo, 2 ; -cesco, 3, get musty. 
miicidus, a, um, mouldy, musty. 
muc5sus, a, uni, slimi/. 
miicor, oris, m., m.ould. 
miicro, onis, m., edge, /loint, hlade. 
miicus, i, m., [niungo,] mucus. 
miigil, ilis, m., mullel. 
miiginor, i, dalUj, trifie, delay. 
mugio, 4, hellow, hray. 
mugitus, lis, m., bellowing, roaring. 
miila, ae, dat. pL, -abus, f., mule. 
mulceo, si, sum, 2, stroke, soothe. 
Mulciber, eris (eri), Vulcan. 
mulco, I, to maul, handle roughly, 
mulcta=multa, penalty. 
mulctra, ae, f. ; -trum (-trarium,) i, 

N., milk-pail. 
mulgeo, si sum (ct-), 2, to milk. 
muliebris, e, of a woman, woman- 

ish. loonianly, effeminate. 
muliebriter, effeminately. 
mulier, eris f., ivoman, wife. 
muliercula, ae, f., iiftle woman. 
mulierosus (-brosus), a, um,fond 

of fvomen. 
miilimus, a, um, of a mule. 
miilio, onis, m., mule-driver. 

mulleus (calceus), i, m., red shoe. 
muUus (-ulus), i, m., mullet. 
mulsus, [mulceo,] sweet as honey ; 

¥., sweetheart ; n., mead. 
mulsus, [mulgeo,] milked. 
multa, ae, ¥., penalty,fine. 
multaticus (-cius), a, um, offines. 
multatio, onis, F.,fining. 
multicius, a, um, delicate, splendid. 
multifariam (-rie), on many sides, 

multifarius, a, um, manifold. 
multifidus, a, um, ivith many clefls. 
multiformis, e, many-shaped. 
multijugus, a, um, many, manifold. 
multiloquax, acis, loquacious. 
multimodis, in many loays. 
multiplex, icis, of many folds or 

multipliciter, in many loays. 
multiplico, I, multiply. 
multipotens, tis, very powerful. 
multitiido, inis, f., multitude, crowd. 
multo (mulcto), i, punish. 
multo, hy much (w. comparative). 
multum, much. 
multus, a, um (plus, plurimus), 

mnch,frequent, diffuse ; pl., many. 
mulus, i, M., mule. 
Mummius, i, L. (Achaicus), the 

captor of Corinth, b.c, 146. 
Munda, ee, f., a city of S. Spain, 

taken by Caesar, B.c. 45. 
mundanus, a, um, of the loorld. 
munde, (-iter), neatly. 
munditia, ae ; es, ei, f., cleanness, 

elegance, terseness. 
mundo, i, cleanse. 
mundus, (-ulus), a, um, clean, neat. 
mundus, i, M., decoration, imple- 

menf, the loorld, or universe. 
miinerarius, a, um, of j)ublic shows 

of gladiators. 
miinero, i, bestow, present. 
mungo, 3, hlow the nose. 
miinia, ium, N., offices, duties. 
miiaiceps, cipis, c, citizen of a 

free to/vn^ fellow-townsman. 
municipalis, e, of a free town. 
miiaicipium, i, N., a free city hav- 

ing a Roman citizenship. 

muiiifex — Mysus. 


munifex, icis, on duty. 
munifice, liheralli/. 
munificentia, ae, F., munijicence. 
miinificus, a, um, munificent; 

bountifiU, on dut//. 
miinimen, inis; -mentum, i, n., 

defence, fortijicaiion. 
munio, 4, fortifij, defend, huild. 
miinis, e, of service, ohliging. 
munitio, onis, F.,fo7'tification. 
munito, i,fortifij, huild. 
miinitor, oris, M., engineer. 
mxinitiira, ae, F., protection. 
munitus, a, um, fortified, safe. 
munus, eris, N., offi.ce, gift, exhibi- 

tion, service, favor. 
miiraBna, se, f., lamprey (sea-eel). 
muralis, e, of city-walls. 
murcus. i, m., poltroon. 
murex, icis, F., purple-fisVi, purple 

dye, crow's fooi (iron points). 
muria, ae, f., brine, pickle. 
muricidus, i, M., coward. 
murinus, a, um, of mice. 
murmur, uris, N., murniur, roar. 
murmuro, i, to murmur, grumble. 
murrheus (-inus), a, um, of mur- 

rha, a costly stone. 
murrius, a, um, ofmyrrh. 
murta=myrtus, myrtle. 
murus, i, m., loall, emhanhnent. 

mus, miiris, c, mouse. 

•j-musa, se, f., muse (goddess of 
art and song), song, wii, science. 

MiisaBus, i, a Greek bard of the 
mythic time. 

fmysticus, a, um, ofmysieries. 

musca (-ula), ae, f.,///. 

muscarius, a, um, offiies; ^.,fly- 
brush, closei. 

muscipula, se, f., mouse-trap. 

muscosus (-cidus), a, um, mossy. 

musculus, i, M., liiile mouse, muscle. 

muscus, i, M., moss. 

f miiseus, a, um, ofthe Muses, poet- 
ic : N., museum, seatof the Muses. 

t musica, ae (-e, es), f., music. 

jmiisice, splendidly. 

jmusicus, a, um, musical, poetic 
or scientific ; M., musician. 

musivus, a, um, mosaic. 

mussito, I, be silent, murmur. 
musso, I , murmur, ponder. 
mustaceus, i, m. ; -um, i, n., a 

cake sweetened with must. 
mustela (-tella), se, f., iveasel. 
musteus, a, um, of new loine. 
mustus, a, um, young, newfresh; N., 

must (fresh grape-juice). 
miitabilis, e, changeahle, mutahle. 
miitatio, onis, F., change, altering. 
miitator, oris, M., exchanger. 
mutilo, I, to dock, lop, mutilate. 
mutilus (-cus), a, um, mutilaied, 

Mutina, ee, F., Modena, in N. Italy. 
mtitio (muttio), 4, mutter, murmur. 
miititio, onis, f., muitering. 
miitito, I, inierchange. 
muto, I, [moveo,] alter, change, 

exchange, interchange, damage. 
miituatio, onis, f., borrowing. 
miitue (-6, -iter), mutucdly. 
mutiuito (-or), i, seek to borrow. 
miituor, i, to borrow. 
miitus, a, um, dumb, mute, silent. 
miituus, a, um, horrowed, mutucd. 
Mycale, es, f., a city of lonia. 
Mycenaeus, a, um, of Mycence, 

the ancient capital o"f Argolis. 
Mydonius, a, um, Phrygian. 
fmyoparo, onis, m., a piratical 

myrica (ce), ae, f., tamarisk, shrub. 
Myrmidones, um, a people of 
Thessaly, subjects of Achilles. 
f myron (-um), i, n., ointment. 
f myropola, ce, N., perfumer. 
f myrrha, ae, f., myrrh. 
f myrrheus (-atus, -inus,) a, um, 

qfmyrrh, spiced. 
myrtatus, a, um, seasoned with 
myrtle-berries ; N., a kind of pud- 
myrtetum, i, N., myrile-grove. 
myrteus (-inus), a, um, ofmyrtles. 
Myrtous, a, um, Myrioan^ of the 

western ^Egean. 
f myrtum, i, n., myrile-berry. 
f myrtus, i (iis), f., myrtle. 
Mysus (-ius), a, um, of Mysia, 
the N. W. dist. of Asia Minor. 


mytsa — naumacMa. 

f mysta (-tes), ee, m., priest ofmys- 

teries or secret rites. 
f mystagogus, i, m., jnystagogue, a 

guide to sacred places. 
fmysterium, N.,secTet rite,mystery. 
f mythicus, a, um, of fahles. 
f mythos, i, m., a fable, myth. 
f myxus (os), i, m., wick-tuhe. 


N, the praenomen Numerius. 
Nabathaeus, a, um, of Nabathcea, 

a district of N. Arabia. 
f nacca, ae, m., afuller. 
nactus, [nanciscor,] having got. 
nae (ne,) surely, really, indeed. 
naenia=nenia, dirge. 
Nsenius, an old Roman poet, B.c. 

273-203, who served in the first 

Punic War, and wrote its epic. 
naevus, i, m., mole (birth-mark). 
naias (nais), adis, f., river-nymph. 
nam, namque, for (§ 43, 4). 
nana, ae, f., dwarf 
nanciscor, nactus, 3, get,frnd, meet. 
nans, nantis, [no,] swimming. 
nanus, i, m., dicarf, nag, pan. 
f napaeus, a, um, of the dell. 
f naphtha, ae, F., naphtha. 
napus, i, m., turnip. 
f napy, yos, n., mustard. 
Nar, Naris, m., a river of Umbria. 
Narbo, onis, m., Narbonne, a city 

of S. W. Gaul (Narbonensis). 
Narcissus, i, a beautiful youth, 

changed to a flower. 
nardinvis, a, um, of nard; N., 

spiced wine. 
f nardus, i, m., nard (aromatic). 
narinosus, a, um, fat-nosed. 
naris, is, f., nostril ; pl., nose, 
narratio, onis, f., narrative. 
narrator, oris, M., relator. 
narratus, lis, m., tale, narration. 
narro, i, io tell, relate, report. 
narthex, ecis, f., the shruhfennel. 
narus, gnarus, skiUed. 
Narycius, a, um, of Nai-yx, a 

Locrian city. 

Nasamones, um, a people of N. 

Africa, eastward of Carthage. 
nascens, tis, arising, heginning ; 

N. pl., growing things. 
nascor, natus, 3, he horn, ascend, 

arise, hegin, grow, spring forth. 
Nasica, ae (high-nose), P. Scipio, 

consul, B.c. 191 ; his gr.-son 

(slayer of Gracchus), b.c. 138. 
nasiterna, se, f., watering-pot. 
Naso, onis {hig-nose), the family 

name of Ovid. 
nassa (-xa), ae, Y.,fish-hasket, net. 
nasturtium, i, n., a kind of C7'ess. 
nasus, i, m., nose, handle, sarcasm. 
nasiitus, a, um, large-nosed, saga- 

cious, sarcastic. 
nata, ae, F., [nascor,] daughter. 
natalicius, a, um, of oneh hirth- 

day;'M., hirthday ; N., gift ; pl., 

hirthday feast. 
natalis, e, of o?ie^s hirth ; m., birth- 

day ; pk lineage, origin; N., birth- 

hour ; pl., hirth-right. 
natantes, ia, \jidito, '^fishes. 
natatio, onis, f. ; -tus, us, m., 

natator, oris, m., swimmer. 
natinor, i, to he husy. 
natio, onis, F., hirth, race, nation. 
natis, is, f., rump. 
nativus, a, um, hy birth, native, 

innate, naturcd. 
nato, I, to sicim,float, overflow. 
natrix, icis, f., icater-snake, scourge. 
natiira, ae, f., hirth, nature. 
natiiralis, e, hy hirth, natural. 
natiiraliter, according to nature. 
natus, a, um, horn, constituted, (w. 

acc. of time), old; m., son. 
natus, iis, m., bir^th, growth. 
f nauclerus, i, m., shipmaster. 
naucum (us), i, N., a trifle. 
naufragium, i, n., shipwreck, wreck, 

storm, ruin, destruction. 
naufrago, i, sufier ivreck. 
naufragus, a, um, wrecked, ruined, 

dangerous, causing wreck. 
f nauiia, orum, n., lute. 
f naulum, i, N., passage-money. 
f naumachia, ee, F., sea-fight. 

Naupactus — negotior. 


Maupactus, i, m., a coast-town of 

ITaupliades, is, Palamedes, son 

of Nauplias, myth. k. of Euboea. 
[•nausea, ee, F., sea-slckiies.s. 
lauseo, I, be sea-sick, qualmish. 
lauseola, ae, f., qualm. 
iiauseosus, a, um, sickening. 
iiauta=navita, sailor. 
f n.iutea, ae, f., nausea. hilgewater. 
fnauticus, a, um, of ships; pl., 

sailors, seamen. 
navalis, e, of ships ; n., port, dock- 

yard ; pl., harhor, vicjging. 
f navarchus, i, m., ship\s captain. 
nave, diligenthj. 
navia, se, f., ship, trough. 
navicula (-cella), se, f., hoat, skiff. 
navicularius, a, um, of boals ; m., 

skipper ; ¥., boai-hiring or agency. 
navifragus, a, um, causing wreck. 
navigabilis, e, navigahle. 
navigatio, onis, f., sailing. 
naviger, a, um, ship-bearing. 
navigium, i, n., vessel, ship, raft. 
navigo, i, to sail, navigate. 
navis, is, em (im), f., ship. 
navita, (nauta), ee, sailor, hoatman. 
navitas, atis, F., promptiiess. 
naviter, diligently, pt^omptly, fidly. 
navo, I, do zealously, accomplish. 
navus, a, um, p)rompt, diUgent. 
Naxos, i, F., an island in the 

r*Egean Sea. 
ne, lest ; (w. imperat.) not ; ne . . . 

quidem, not even. 
ne for nae, surely. 
ne, interrog. part. (§ 71), lohether. 
Neapolis, is, f., Naples, in Cam- 

pania, 120 miles S. E. of Rome. 
f nebris, idis, ¥., fawn-skin. 
nebula, se, f., mist, vapor, cloud. 
nebulo, onis, n., icorthless fellow. 
nebulosus, a, um, cloudy, inisty. 
nec=neque, nor, and not. 
necatus, [neco,] slain. 
necdum, and not yet. 
necessario (e), necessarily. 
necessarius, a, um, necessary,kin- 

dred ; M.,friend, relative. 
necesse (neut.), necessary. 

necessitas, atis, f., necessity, need, 

friendsh ip, relationship. 
necessitudo, inis, f., intimacy, 

need ; ]A., friends, relatives. 
necessum, inevitable. 
necne, or not. 
necnon, also. 

neco, cavi, cat- (ct-), i, to kill. 
necopinans, tis, unaware. 
necopinato, unexpectedly. 
necopinatus, a, um, unexpected. 
necopinus, a, um, unsuspecting, 

unlooked for. 
f necromantia, ae, F., evoking the 

dead, necromancy. 
f nectar, aris, n., nectar, drink of 

the gods. 
nectareus, a, um, of nectar, deli- 

cious ; F., a fragrant plant. 
necto, xi (xui), xum, 3, to hind, 

clasp, fasten, tveave, devise. 
nectus==necatus, [neco,] slain. 
necubi, lest anywhere. 
necunde, lest }'rom any place. 
nedum, much less, 7iot to say. 
nefandus, a, um, [for,] impious, 

nefarie, impiously, ivickedly. 
nefarius, a, um, execrable, ahomin- 

able ; n., a heinous crime. 
nefas, n. wrong, crime, harm, wretch. 
nefastus, a, nra., impious, inauspici- 

ous; dies, a day when no court 

business coukl be done. 
nefrens, dis, toolhless. • 
negatio, onis, F., denial, refusal. 
negito, I, persist in denying. 
neglecte, (-tim), negligently. 
neglectus, [negligo,] slighted. 
neglectus, iis, m., neglect. 
negligens, tis, negligent, heedless. 
negligenter, heedlessly. 
negligentia, ae, f., neglect. 
negligo, exi, ect-, 3, to neglect, 

slight, despise, disregard. 
nego, I, to deny, refuse, hinder. 
negotialis, e, of business. 
negotians, tis, m., a dealer. 
negotiatio, onis, f., wholesale trade. 
negotiator, oris, m., agent, trader. 
negotior, i, to deal, traffic. 


negotiosus — nigrans. 

negotiosus, a, um,fuU ofbusiness. 
negotium, [6tium,j i, n., buainess, 

trouble, dijjiculty, a thing. 
Neleus, ei, myth. k. of Pylos, son 

of Neptune, father of Nestor. 
Nemea, ae, f., a town of Argohs. 
iiemen, inis ; -ma, atis, n., thread, 
Nemesis, is (ios), the goddess of 

Justice, or Retribution. 
nemo (T. 5), c, [ne homo,] no one. 
nemoralis (ensis), e, of the grove. 
nemorosus, a, um, icoody, leafy, 
nempe, surely, ichy ! 
t nemus, oris, N., icood, grove, tree. 
nenia, ae, f., icail, dirge, song. 
neo, nevi, net-, 2, to spin, weave. 
Neoptolemus, i, son of Achilles. 
fneoterious, a, um, neic. 
nepa, se, f., scorpion, crab. 
Nephele, es, wife of Athamas, 

mother of Phryxus and Helle. 
nepos, otis, m., grandson, nephew ; 

prodigal, spendthrifl. 
nepotinus, a, um (-alis, e), profuse. 
nepotor, i, S(pmnder, lavish. 
neptis, is, f., granddaughter. 
Neptiinius, a, um, of or built by 

Neptunus, i, god of the Waters, 

brother of Jupiter ; the sea. 
nequam, icorthless, icretched, vile. 
nequaquam, by no means. 
neque (nec), neitlier, nor, and not. 
nequedum, and not yet. 
nequeo (§ 37, viii.), cannot. 
nequicquam (-quiquam), in vain. 
nequior, nequissimus, [nequam,] 

more and most icorthless. 
nequis, qua, quod (quid), lest any. 
nequiter, icorthlessly, badly. 
nequitia, ae (-es, ei), f., badness, 

vileness, negligence, levity. 
nequo, no-ichither. 
nereis, idis, f., sea-nymph. 
Nereus, i, a sea-deity, son of 

Oceanus and Tethys. 
Neritos (us), i, M., a mountain of 

Ithaca ; -ius, a, um, Ithacan. 
Nero, onis, family name of L. Do- 

mitius Aenobarbus, the sixth 

emperor, a.d. 54-68. 

Nerva, successor of Domitian, 

A.D. 96-98. 
nerviae, arum, f., strings, chords. 
Nervii, orum, a Belgian tribe. 
nervose, energetically. 
nervosus, a, um, sineicy, vigorous. 
nervus, i, m., sinew, string, thong, 

bow-string, vigor, force, a prison. 
nesciens, tis, ignorant, unskilled. 
nescienter, ignorantly. 
nescio, 4, be ignorant or unskilled. 
nescius, a, um, ignorant, unable, 

unskilled, unknown. 
Nessus, i, a Centaur, slain by 

Nestor, Qris, myth. king of Pylos, 

son of Neleus. 
netus, iis, M., [neo,] spinning, thread. 
neu=neve, nor. 
neuter, tra, um, neither qf ttuo» 
neutiquam, by no means. 
neutralis, e, neuter. 
neutro, to neither side. 
neutrubi, m neither place. 
neve, and not, and lest. 
nex, necis, f., death (by violence). 
nexilis, e, bound together. 
nexio, onis, ¥., fastening. 
nexo, xui (xi), 3, bind,join,fasten. 
nexuni, i, n., slavery for debt. 
nexuosus, a, um, fuU of knots. 
nexus, [necto,] /h.s^enec/; m., pris- 

oner, one bound to service. 
nexus, lis, m., binding, obligation. 
ni, not, thcit not, unless. 
Nicaea, ae, f., a town of Bithynia. 
Nicias, ge, Athenian commander of 

the Sicihan expedition b.c. 415. 
nico, ci, 3, beckon. 
Nicomedia, ae, f., the capital of 

nicto, I, icink, blink, sign, strive. 
nictus, iis, M., icinking. 
nidamentum, i, n., stuff for nest. 
nidifico, i, to build nests. 
nidor, oris, M., vapor, steam, odor. 
nidulor, i, to bui/d nests, 
nidus (-ulus), i, m., nest, retreat. 
nigellus, a, um, dark, sicarthy. 
niger, gra, um, black, dark. 
nigrans, tis, black, dusky. 

nigredo — nominatus. 


nigredo, inis, f., hlackness. 
nigresco, 3, (jroio black or dark. 
nigricans, tis, blackisli. 
nigritia, se, f., blackness. 
nigro, I, Uacken, be black. 
nigror, oris, M., hlackness. 
nihil, nothing, not at all. 
nihildum, nothing yet. 
nihilominus, none the less. 
nihilum, i, N,=nihil, nothing. 
nil=nihil, nothing. 
Nilus, i, M., the Nile, the great 

river of Egypt. 
nimbatus, a, um, light, vapory. 
nimbifer, era, um, stormy. 
nimbosus, a, um, stormy, rainy. 
nimbus, i, M., rain-cloud, storm. 
nimie (-6), hy far, too much. 
nimietas, atis, f., excess. 
nimirum, doiihtless. 
nimis, too much, excessively. 
nimius, a, um, excessive, too great. 
ningit, ninxit, 3, it snows. 
ninguidus, a, um, snowy. 
ninguis, is, F., snoio. 
ningulus, a, um, nohody. 
Ninive, es, f., Nineveh, the capi- 
tal of Assyria, on the Tigris. 

Ninus, myth. founder of Niniveh. 
Niobe, es (-ba, ae), daughter of 
Tantalus, changed to stone after 
the loss of all her children. 

Nisaeus f-eius), of Nisus. 

Niseis, idis, Scylla, d. of Nisus, 
k. of Megara, who betrayed his 
kingdom to Minos. 

nisi (ni), unless, if not. 

nisus, [nitor,] relying. 

nisus (-xus), us, M., effort.,pressure. 

Nisus, i, myth. king of Megara, 
changed to a hawk. 

nitela (-dula), se, f., dormouse. 

nitens, tis, shining, hrilliant, bloom- 
ing, famous. 

nitens, tis, [nitor,] 

niteo, ui, 2, to shine, glitter, thrive, 

nitesco, tui, 3, fo shineforth._ 

nitibundus, a, um, straining. 

nitide, brightly. 

nitido, I, maice hright, bathe. 

nitidus. a, um, hright, sleek, elegant. 
nitor, nisus (nixus), 3, to strain, 

mount, strive, rely. 
nitor, oris, M., hrightness, neatness. 
I nitrum, i, n., soda, alkali. 
nivalis, e, snowy. 
nivarius, a, um, of snow. 
nivatus, a, um, cooled with snow. 
nivens, tis, closing (winking). 
niveus, a, um, snoivy, white. 
nivosus, a, um, full of snow. 
nix, nivis, f., snow. 
nixor, i, /ean, strive. 
nixus, [nitor,] relying. 
nixus, us, m., effort, presssure. 
no, I, I0 sivim, sail. 
nobilis, e, famous, noble. 
nobilitas, atis, F., nobility (of rank, 

fame or quality), the nobles. 
nobiliter, nobly. 
nobilito, i, make famous. 
nobiscum, [ego,] ivith us. 
nocens, tis, guilty, harmful; m., 

a crimincd. 
nocenter, guiltily. 
noceo, cui, cit-, 2, to harm, hurt. 
nocivus, a, um, noxious. 
noctiliica, se, F., night-shining. 
noctivagus, a, um, night-ivandering. 
noctu (-te), by night. 
noctua, ae, f., oui. 
noctuabundus, a, um, m the night. 
noctuinus, a, um, of owls. 
nocturnus, a, um, nightly, dark. 
nocuus, a, um, harmful. 
nodatus, a, um, knotted. 
nodo, I , to fili with knots, fasten. 
nodosus, a, um, knotty, swollen, 

intricate, difficult. 
nodus (-ulus),i, m., knot, knob, band, 

coil, difficulty. 
nolens, tis, univilling. 
nolo, nolle, nolui (§ 37, ii), be un- 

ivilling, ivish ill. 
nomades, um, C, wanderers. 
nomen, inis, N., name (§ 15), race, 

debt, thing,fame, reason, pretext. 
nomenclator, oris, m., namer. 
nominatim, by name. 
nominatio, onis, f., naming. 
nominatus, a, um, celehrated. 




nomino, i, call hy name, make fa- 

mous, nominate, accuse. 
t nomisma, atis, n., coin, medal. 
fnomos, i, m., district, time. 
non, not, no. 
nonce, arum, f. pl., Nones (§ 83), 

the 7th of March, May, July, 

Oct. ; 5th of the other months. 
nonageni, ninety (each). 
nonagies, ninety times. ^ 

nonaginta, ninety. 
nonanus, a, um, of tlie ()th legion. 
nonarius, a, um, of the gth hour. 
nondum, not yet. 

nongenti (noningenti), ae, a, 900. 
nonies (-ens), nine times. 
nonna, se, f., a nun. 
nonne (iiiterrog.), not ? 
nonnemo, inis, m., some one. 
nonnihil, something. 
nonnuUus, a, um, some. 
nonnumquam, sometimes. 
nonnusquam, somewhere. 
nonus, a, um, ninth. 
nonus decimus, nineteenth. 
Noreia, ae, f., a town of Noricum, 

the dist. north of the Adriatic. 
norma, ae, f., square, rul.e. 
normalis, e, hy the square. 
nos, nostrum, nobis, we. 
noscito, I, recognize. 
nosco, novi, not-, 3, learn. he ac- 

quainted, to know ; perf know. 
noster, tra, trum, our ; pl., m., our 

men, N., our possessions. 
no3tras,*atis, of our country. 
nostratim, in our fashion. 
nota, ae, f., mark, sign, note, stain. 
notabilis, e, notewoi^thy. 
notarius, a, um, of ivriting ; m., 

short-hand writer, clerk. 
notatio, onis, f., marking, choice. 
notesco, tui, 3, hecome known. 
nothus, a, um, illegitimate, false. 
notio, onis, f., a getting knowledge, 

investigation, notion, idea. 
notitia, ee (-es, ei), f., knowing, ac- 

quaintance, note. 
notius, a, um, southern. 
noto, I, designate, mark, signify, 

hrand, remark, write in cypher. 

notor, oris, M., voucher, witness. 

notus, [nosco,] known. 

notus (os), i, M., the South wind. 

novacula, ae, f., razor, knife. 

novalis, e, fallow, fresh-ploughed. 

novatio, onis, f., renewing. 

nove, in new fashion, unusually. 

novellus, a, um, young, new, fresh. 

novem, nine. 

november, bris (^th month), No- 

novemdecim, nineteen. 
novemdialis, e, of nine days. 
novenarius, a, um, o/ nine. 
noveni, ae, a, nine (each). 
noverca, ae, f., stepmother. 
novercalis, e, of a stepmother, hos- 

tile, malevolent. 
novi, [nosco,] I know. 
novies (-ens), nine times. 
novissime, quite lately, lastly. 
novissimus, a, um, latest, last, low- 

esf, furthest ; agmen, the rear. 
novitas, atis, f., newness, strange- 

ness, novelty. 
noviter, newly, afresh. 
novitius, a, um, new,fresh. 
novo, I, to renew, alter, invent, re- 

fresh, change by revolution. 
novus, a, um, new, Jresh, strange, 

unwonted ; N., novelty ; res novce, 

revolution, novelties. 
nox, noctis, f., night, darkness, the 

ivorld helow, gloom, storm, death. 
noxa (-ia), ae, f., harm, crime, jmn- 

noxius (-osus), a, um, harmful, 

injurious, guil.ty. 
niibecula, ae, small cloud, dark spot. 
niibes, is, f. ; (-is, m.), cloud, smoke, 

vapor, gloom, ohscurity. 
niibifer, a, um, cloud-hearing. 
niibigena, ae, C, cloud-horn; pl. 

tJte Centaurs. 
nubilarium, i, N., shed, harn. 
nubilis, e, marriageahle. 
niibilo, i, to he or make cloudy. 
niibilus (-osus), a, um, cloudy, dark, 

overcast, gloomy. 
niibo, psi, pt-, 3, cover, veil, marry 

(put on the veil, with dat.). 

nucetum — nusquam. 


nucetum, i, n., wood of nut trees. 
nuceus, a, um ; -alis, e, of a nut. 
nucleus, i, M., kernel, nut. 
nucula, 36, F., little nut. 
nudatio, onis, f., stripping bare. 
nude, nakediy, simply. 
nudius (tertius), now the (third) 

day since. 
nudo, I, to strip, make hare, despoil. 
nudus, a, um, naked, bare, stripped, 

unadorned, alone, destitute. 
niigae, arum, f., nonsense, finery, 

nugalis, e, frivolous ; n. pl., trifies. 
nugator, oris, m., trifler, jester. 
niigatorius, a, um; nugax, acis, 

trifling, futile, useless. 
nuvigendus, i, m., dealer infnery. 
niigor, i, jest, trifie, clieat. 
nuUatenus, by no means. 
nuUus, a, um (gen. ius), no, none, 

of no account. 
num, whetlier (§ 71 ), 
Numa, ae, Pompilius, second k. 

of Rome, b.c. 713-679. 
Numantia, ae, f., a city of South 

Spain, capt. by Scipio, B.c. 133. 
numarius, a, um, of money, hribed. 
niimatus, a, um, moneyed, rich. 
numella, ae, f., shackle, fetter. 
numen, inis, n., [nuo,] nod, com- 

mand, divine loill, divinily. 
numerabilis, e, tliat canbe counted. 
numerarius, a, um, of accounts. 
numeratio, onis, f., payment. 
numeratus, a, um, in ready money, 

N., cash; iu numerato, at hand. 
numero, i, count, reckon, pay out. 
numero, precisely, quickly. 
numerose (-iter), numerously, har- 

moniously, in poetic nwnhers. 
numerosus, a, um, numerous, pro- 

lific, populous, melodious. 
numerus, i, m., numher, quantity, 

troop, rank, part, order, measure 

or numher (in verse). 
Numicius, i, m., a stream in La- 

tium ; name of a Roman Gens. 
Numida, ae, Numidian. 
Numidia, ae, F., a dist of N. 

Africa, W. of Carthage ; Algiers. 

Numidicus, a, um, Numidian; a 

name given to Metellus, con- 

queror of Jugurtha. 
numisma=nomisma, coin. 
Numitor, oris, grandfather of 

nummus=niimus, coin, money. 
numnon, numne=num, whether. 
niimosus, a, um, wealthy. 
numquam, never. 
numquid, whether (emphatic). 
numquis, lohether any. 
numularius, a, um, of money ; m., 

niimus (-ulus), i, m., money (as 

coin=4 cents, § 84) ; farthing. 
nunc, now (§ 41, ii. 2), but now. 
nunccine ? now ? 
nunciatio, onis, f., declaration. 
nuncio=nuntio, announce. 
nuncubi ? anywhere ? ever ? 
nuncupatio, onis, f., naming, ap- 

jminting, dedication. 
nuncupo, i, to name or appoint (as 

heir), vow publicly. 
nuncusque, till now. 
nundinae, arum, F., market-day. 
nundinalis, e, of the market. 
nundinatio, onis, f., trafficking. 
nundinor, i, to atteiid market, buy, 

trade, troop together. 
nundinus, a, um, of the gth or 

market-day ; N., market-time. 
nunquam=numquam, never. 
nuntia, ae, f., messenger. 
nuntiatio, onis, f., announcement. 
nuntio, i, to announce, declare. 
nuntius, i, m., messenger, message, 

order, tidings. 
[nuo, niit-, 3, to nod (only in com- 

niiper, lately, just now. 
nuperus, a, um, recent, fresh. 
nupta, ee, f., [niibo,] bride. 
nuptiae, arum, f., marriage. 
nuptialis, e, of a ivedding. 
nuptus, a, um, [nubo,] married; 

F., hride, wife. 
nuptus, iis, m., marriage. 
nurus, iis, f., daughter-in-law. 
nusquam, nowhere, in or to nothing. 


nutabundus — oblatio. 

nutabundus, a, um, staggering. 
nutatio, onis, f., nodding, iottering. 
nuto, I, lo 7iod, sicay, icaver. 
nutricatus, us, m., nursing, nurture. 
niitricius, a, um, suckling, cherish- 

ing ; M., iulor ; N., nourishment. 
niitrico (-or), i, to nourish, rear. 
niitricula, ae, f., nurse. 
niitrimen, inis ; -mentum, i, n., 

nourishment, suppori. 
niitrio (-or), 4, nourish, rear, cher- 

ish, jjreserve (as fruit). 
nutrix, icis, f., nurse, rearer, 

hreeder, nurse^^y (of plants). 
niitus, iis, m., a nod, command, 

heckoning, downward motion. 
nux, nucis, F., nut. 
•fnympha, ae, f., hride, nymph (of 

fountains, &c.). 
f nymphsea, ae. F., water-lily. 
f nympheeum (-eum), i, n., fount 

of ilie nymphs. 
nymphalis, e, of the fountain. 
nymphigena, ee, the nymph-horn 

Nysaeus, a, um, of Nysa, a city in 

Caria ; Bacchic, oi Nysd.'m India, 

the birthplace of Bacchus. 


O, a common exclamation, or form 

of address, with voc. or acc. 
f Oasis, is, F., a dist. in the Libyan 

desert, an exile for criminals. ^ 
Oaxes, is, m., a river of Crete ? 
ob, ioicards, ai, ahoui, on account of 
[-ob, ioicards, on, in the 7vay of 
obaeratus (-rius), a, um, indehied ; 

M., dehfor, one hound for deht. 
obambulo, i, to wcdk hy. 
obarmo, i, to arm. 
obaro, i, to plough up. 
obaudio, 4, to ohey. 
obauratus, a, um, gilded, gilt. 
obba, ee, f., gohlei, mug or howl. 
obdo, didi, dit-, 3, put in the icay, 

envelop, close, ivrap. 

obdormio, 4 ; -isco, 3, tofall asleep. 
obdiico, xi, ct-, 3, lecul towards, 

draw over, cover, fasten, shut up. 
obductio, onis, f., veiling, covering. 
obdiiresco, diirui, 3, to grow hard 

or siuhhorn. 
obdiiro, i, to liarden, make hard, 

endure, persisi. 
obediens, tis, ohedient. 
obedienter, readily, ivillingly. 
obedientia, ee, f., ohedience. 
obedio, 4, ohey, yield, hearken. 
obedo, edi, es-, 3, eat, devour. 
f obeliscus, i, m., ohelisk, rosehud. 
obeo, ii, it-, 4, go ioicards, go down, 

perish, survey, traverse, undertake, 

enter on, meet (death), die. 
obequito, i, ride up to. 
obero, [obsum,] will he present. 
oberro, i, move ahout. 
obesitas, atis, f., grossness. 
obesus, [edo,] lean or eaten away ; 

fat, coarse, swollen. 
obex, icis, d., har, holi, harrier. 
[obf-=off-; obg-=ogg-. 
obhaereo, 2 ; hseresco, haesi, 3, to 

siick fast. 
obiens, euntis, [obeo,] meeting. 
obirascor, iratus, i, get angry at. 
obiter, on or hy the way, at once. 
obitus, iis, m., an approach, going 

down, setting, downfall, deaih. 
objaceo, ui, 2, to lie over against. 
objectatio (-ctio), onis, f., a casi- 

ing-against, accusation, reproach. 
objecto, I, to throw against, oppose, 

expose, reproach. 
"objectus, [objicio,] lying opposiie, 

exposed ; n. pl., accusaiions. 
objectus, iis, m., casiing in the loay, 

exposure, inierposiiion, projection. 
objex=obex, harrier. 
objicio, jeci, ject-, 3, io cast in the 

way, resent, holdforth, up)hraid. 
objurgatio, onis, f., reproach. 
objurgator, oris, M., a rehuker. 
objurgatorius, a, um, reproachfuL 
objurgo (-ito), i, io chide, dissuade, 

rehuke, chastise. 
oblaqueo, i, to trench ahoui. 
oblatio, onis, f., offering, hestoical. 

oblatro — observate. 


oblatro, i, rall or hark at. 
oblatus,.[ofFero,] ojfered. 
obleotamen, inis ; -mentum, i, n., 

delif/hf, jo//, solace, ainusenient. 
oblecto, I, to deUglit, (jratifij. 
oblido, si, sum, 3, crush together. 
obligatio, onis, f., binding, hond. 
obligo, I, fo bind, tie close, pledge. 
obligiirio, 4, to squander, devour. 
oblimo, I, hesliine, squander. 
oblino, levi, lit-, 3, besmear, bedaub. 
oblique, sidewise, indirectly. 
obliquo, I, to tioist, turn, ivarp. 
obliquus, a, um, sidelong, aicry, 

oblisus, [-lido,] crushed. 
oblitesco, litui, 3, [lateo,] liide. 
oblitero, i, to blot out. 
oblitus, [lino,] hesmeared. 
oblitus, a, um, forgetful, forgotten. 
oblivio, onis, f., forgetfulness, ob- 

obliviosus, a, um, forgetful. 
obliviscor, oblitus, 3, forget. 
oblivium, i, N.,forgetfulness. 
obloco, I, give out on contract. 
oblocutor, oris, m., contradicter. 
oblongus, a, um, rather long. 
obloquor, locutus, to interrupt, 

obluctor, I, sfruggle against. 
obliido, si, sum, 3, play ojf jokes. 
obmolior, 4, throw up in front. 
obmoveo, movi, mot-, 2, hring 

obmurmuro, i, murmur against. 
obmutesco, tui, 3. he speechless. 
obnatus, a, um, growing on or near. 
obnitor, sus (xus), 3, jmsh against. 
obnisus (-xus), a, um, resolute. 
obnixe, with might and main. 
obnoxie, guiltily, suhmissively. 
obnoxius, a, um, frail, exposed, 

liahle, suhinissive, beholden. 
obniibilus, a, um, beclouded. 
obniibo, psi, pt-, 3, to veil, cover. 
obnuntiatio, onis, F., announce- 

ment of evil omen. 
obnuntio, (-cio), i, announce (evil). 
oboleo, ui, 2, to emit odor. 
f obolus, i, N., a small coin (3 cts.). | 

oborior, ortus, 4, to rise, appear. 

obortus, us, M., origin. 


obrepo, psi, pt-, 3, creep up to, 

steal ujjon, surprise, cheat. 
obreptio, onis, f., a stealing, sur- 

obretio, 4, entangle. 
obrigesco, gui, 3, grow hard or stiff. 
obrodo, 3, to gnaw. 
obrogo, i, to repeal (by a later 

law), invalidate. 
obruo, rui, rut-, 3, to cover, hury, 

overwhelm, overpower. 
t obrussa (-ryza), ee, f., test, assay. 
obsaturo, i, to sate, clog. 
obscene, indecently, foully. 
obscenitas, atis, f., foulness, im- 

purity, inauspiciousness. 
obscenus, a, um, of ilL omen, foul, 

impure, evil, indecent. 
obsciiratio, onis, f., darkening. 
obsciire, darkly, secretly. 
obsciiritas, atis, f., darkness, oh- 

scurity, meanness. 
obsciiro, l, to darken, hide, blind. 
obsciirus, a, um, dark, unknown, 

ohscure, secret. 
obsecratio, onis, f., supplication, 

heseeching, profestation. 
obsecro, i, to beseech, implore. 
obsecundo, i, comply, ohey, follow. 
obsepio, psi, pt-, 4, to fence in, 

bar, close up. 
obsequela (-quentia), ee, f., com- 

plaisance, compliance. 
obsequens, tis, yielding, indulgent, 
obsequenter, ohedientl.y. 
obsequiae, arum, f., funeralrites. 
obsequiosus, a, um, compliant. 
obsequium, i, n., yielding, compli- 

ance, indulgence, ohedience. 
obsequor, ciitus, 3, yield, gratify, 

indulge, obey, subinit. 
obsero, i, to bolf, fasten. 
obsero, sevi, sit-, 3, to sow, plant, 

cover, fill. 
observans, tis, watchful, atteniive. 
observanter, carefully. 
observantia, ae, f., respect, regard. 
observate, circuinspectly. 


observatio — obtrudo. 

observatio, onis, f., care, ohserv- 

(ince, rule, respect. 
observator, oris, M. ; -trix, tricis, 

F., ohserver. 
observito, i, icatcli carefully. 
observo. i, note, regard, tvatch. 
obses, idis, c, hostage, j^^^edge. 
obsessio, onis, f., Uockade. 
obsessor, oris, M., a hesieger, fre- 

obsessus, [obsideo,] heset. 
obsidatus, us, m., condition of 

obsideo, sedi, sess-, 2, to hesiege, 

heset, occupy, frequent. 
obsidio, onis, f., siege, hlockade. 
obsidior, i, Ue in waitfor. 
obsidium, i, N., siege, blockade. 
obsido, 3, heset, hesiege, occupy. 
obsignator, oris, n., sealer, witness. 
obsigno, I , to seal, attest, pledge. 
obsipo, I, sprinkle. 
obsisto, stiti, stit-, 3, withstand, 

7-esist, oppose, disapprove. 
obsitus, [sero,] planted. 
obsole-facio, 3, to wear out, spoil. 
obsolesco, evi, et-, fall into decay. 
obsolete, shabhily, meanly. 
obsoletus, a, um, worn out, poor, 

shahhy, ruinous. 
obsonator, oris, m., caterer. 
obsonatus, us, m., marketing. 
f obsonium, i, n., viands. 
obsono (-or), i, purvey,furnish. 
obsono, ui, it-, i, interrupt noisilyi 
obsopio, 4, to put to sleep. 
obsorbeo, bui, 2, sivallow up. 
ob,5ordesco, sordui, 3, get soiled, 

ivear out, diminish. 
obstantia, ae, f., hindrance. 
obstetrix, icis, f., midwife. 
obstinate, injlexihly. 
obstinatio, onis, f., stuhhornness. 
obstinatus, a, um, resolute. 
obstino, I, standfast or against. 
obstipesco=obstupesco, 3, to he 

obstipo, I, to lean. 
obstipus, a, um, hent, inclined. 
obstitus, [-sisto,] set in the way, 

opposed, struck hy lightning. 

obsto, stiti, stat-, i , stand against, 

oppose, check, he hatefxd to. 
obstrepo, ui, it-, 3, to clamor at or 

against, droivn ivith noise. 
obstrictus, [stringo,] hound. 
obstrigillo, i, hinder, impede. 
obstringo, strinxi, strict-, 3, hind 

close, fasten, pledge. 
obstructio, onis, f., harrier, hin- 

obstruo, xi, ctum, 3, huild against, 

harricade, ohstruct. 
obstrudo=obtriido, thrust upon. 
obstupefacio, feci, fact-, 3, amaze. 
obstupesco, stupui, 3, he amazed. 
obstupidus, a, um, stupefied. 
obsum, esse, fui, he harmful. 
obsuo, ui, iit-, 3, sew up, stop close, 
obsurdesco, dui, 3, g7'ow deaf. 
obtego, xi, ct-, 3, to cover, hide, 

veil, keep secret. 
obtemperatio, onis, f., compliance. 
obtempero, i, comply, conform. 
obtendo, di, tum, 3, draw or spread 

over, hide, pretend, allege. 
obtentus, a, um, [-tendo,] drawn , 

[tineo,] held. 
obtentus, iis, m., drawing-over. 
obtero, trivi, trit-, 3, hruise, wear, 

crush, degrade, destroyy,- 
obtestatio, onis, F., adjuring, en- 

treaty, adjuration. 
obtestor, i, call as witness, adjure. 
obtexo, xui, xt-, 3, weave or 

spread over. 
obticeo, 2 ; (-cesco, 3), cui, to he 

or gi^ow silent. 
obtigo=obtego, cover. 
obtineo, tinui, tent-. 2, hold, get, 

maintain, prove, continue. 
obtingo, tigi, 3, touch, strike, hap- 

pen to, hefail. 
obtorpesco, torpui, 3, groio numh. 
obtorqueo, si, tum, 2, to turn, 

tivist, ivrench. 
obtrectatio, onis, F., disparaging. 
obtrectator, oris, m., traducer. 
obtrecto, i, detract, oppose, injnre. 
obtritus, [tero,] hruised. 
obtriido, si, sum, 3, to thrust upon, 

gulp, stop close. 

obtrunco — octingenti. 


obtrunco, i, to cut away, mangle, 

kill, trhn, prune. 
obtueor, 2, gaze 4ip on, perceive. 
obtundo, tudi, tus- (tuns-), 3, to 

tliwnp, blunt, din. 
obturamentum, i, n., stopper, hung. 
obturbo, I, disturh, confuse. 
obturgesco, tursi, 3, to swell. 
obturo, I, stop up, allay. 
obtuse, dully, dimly. 
obtusio, onis, f., hluntmg, hruise. 
obtusus, [tundo,] hlunted, duLL 
obtutus, us, M., a gazing. 
obumbro, i, overshadow, ohscure. 
obuncus, a, um, hent, hooked. 
obustus, [uro,] charred, scorched. 
obvagulo, I, deniand loudly. 
obvallo, I, to fortify, surround. 
obvenio, veni, vent-, 4, come in 

the ivay, hefall. 
obventio, onis, f., income, revenue. 
obversor, i, to go or hover ahout, 

appear, oppose. 
obverto, ti, sum, 3, turn toivards. 
obviam(w. dat.), in the ivay, athand. 
obvigilo, i, to he watchful. 
obvio, I , to meet, prevent. 
obvius, a, um, meeting, in the way, 
at hand, opposed, adverse, exposed. 
obvolvo, vi, ut-, 3, to wrap, cover. 
occa, ae, f., harroiv. 
occaeco, i, make hlind, darken. 

occaedes, is, f., slaughler. 

occallesco, lui, 3, get hardened. 

occano, ui, 3, to sound, hlow. 

occasio, onis, F., occasion, meaiis, 
opportunity, supply. 

occasiuncula, ee, f., occasion. 

occasus, iis, m., [cado,]/«//, down- 
fall, destruction, setting, the west. 

occatio, onis, f., harroiving. 

occedo, cessi, cess-, 3, go towards. 

occento, i, sing in presence of 

occepso=occepero [occipio]. 

occepto, i, hegin. 

occidens, tis, m., the west. 

occidio,- onis, f., [caedo,] mas- 
sacre, destruction. 

occido, cidi, cis, 3, kill, cut down. 

occido, cido, cas, 3, fall, set, per- 
ish, he ruined. 

occiduus, a, um, setting, failing, 

perishing, western. 
occillo, i, to smash. 
occino, ui, cent-, 3, chirp, croak, 

sing (inauspiciously). 
occipio, cepi, cept-, 3, hegin, enter. 
occiput, itis, [-itium, i,] n., hack 

of the head. 
occisio, onis, f., slaughter, murder. 
occisor, oris, m., slayer, murderer. 
occisus, [caedo,] slain. 
occliido, si, sum, 3, to shut, stop. 
occo, I, to harrow. 
occubo, ui, I, to rest, repose. 
occulco, I, trample upon. 
occulo, ui, cult-, 3, cover, hide. 
occultatio, onis, f., hiding. 
occultator, oris, M., hider. 
occulte (-tim, -to), secretly. 
occulto, I, to hide, secrete. 
occultus, a, um, hidden, secret. 
occumbo, cubui, cubit-, 3, to fall, 

sink, lie, yield, perish. 
occupatio, onis, f., seizing, hold- 

ing, employment. 
occupatus, a, um, husy, employed. 
occupo, I, seize, occupy, anticipate, 

attack, surprise, outstiip. 
occurro, 3, run to meet, oppose, 

attack, happen, oppear, reply. 
occursatio, onis, f., officiousness. 
occurso, I, 7neet, attack, appear. 
occursus, iis, m., meeting, opposing. 
Oceanus, i, m. (ocean), Father of 

Seas and Rivers. 
oceanitis, idis, f., d. of Oceaniis ; 

ocellatus, a, um, spotted. 
ocellus, i, m., little eye, eyelet. 
ocior, us, occissimus, swifter. 
ociter, ocius, ocissime, siviftly. 
ocrea, ae, F., greave (leg-armor). 
ocreatus, a, um, greaved. 
Octavius (-anus), i, family name 

of Augustus. 
octavus, a, um, eighth ; F., the 
eighth hour (4 p.m'.) ; one-eighth. 
octies (ens), eight times. 
octingentesimus, a, um, 8ooth. 
octingeni (-genteni), 800 each. 
octingenti, 8b, a, eight hundred. 


octipes — ogganio. 

octipes, edis, e'i()lit-Jooted. 

octo, eicjht. 

October, bris, m., Octoher (8th 

ootodecim, elghteen. 
octogenarius, a, um, of 80 years. 
octogeni, a, um, eighty each. 
octogesimus, a, um, eightieth. 
octogies, eighty tiiiies. 
octoginta, eighty. 
octojugis, e, eight together. 
octoni, a, um, eight each. 
octuplus, a, um, eight-fold. 
octussis, eight asses. 
ocularius, a, um, of the eyes. 
oculatus, a, um, furnished ivith 

eyes, visiblej conspicuous. 
oculeus, a, um, shnrp-sighted. 
oculissimus, a, um, dearest. 
oculitus, most dearly. 
oculo, i, furnish loith eyes. 
oculus, i, M., eye, vision, darling, 

bud (of plants). 
ocyor=pcior, swifter. 
f oda, ae ; ode, es, f,, soiig. 
f odeum, i, m, music-halL 
odi, osus (§ 38, i.), hate, dislike. 
odiose, hatefully. 
odiosus, a, um, vexatious, hateful. 
odiura, i, n., hafred, offence, aver- 

sion, disgmt, insolence. 
odor, oris, m., odor, fragrance. 
odoratio, onis, f. ; -tus, us, m., 

seni^e of siiiell, odor. 
odoratus, a, um, fragrant. 
odorifer, era, um., fragrant, spicy. 
odoro, I, to einit perfume. 
odoror, i, examine by scent, snujf, 

search, smell at. 
odorus, a, um, fragrant. 
od63=odor, smell. 
Odrysius, a, um, of the Odrysce, a 

Thracian people. 
Ody.33ea, ae, the story of Ulysses. 
CEa, ae, f., a town of N. Africa, 

in the territory of Tripoli. 
CEagrus, i, myth. k. of Thrace, 

father of Orpheus. 
OEjbalus, i, myth. k. of Sparta, 

founder of Tarentum. 
fceconomia, ae, f., economy. 

f cecus, i, m, hall, saloon. 
CEdipus, podis, myth. king of 

Thebes, son and slayer of Laius. 
CEneus, ei (eos), k. of yEtoHa, 

father of Meleager and Tydeus. 
CEnotria, ae, f., an ancient name 

ofS. E. Italy. 
t oestrus, i, m., gadfly, frenzy. 
CEta, ae (-§, es), a mt. of Thessaly. 
offa (ofella), ee, f., bit, morsel. 
offatim, in bits. 
offectus, [officio,] hindered. 
offendo, di, sum, 3, strike, offend, 

hit, fail, stumble, blunder. 
offensa, ae, f., collision, affront. 
offensatio, onis, f., hitting, stum- 

bling, blunder. 
oflfensio, onis, f., stumbling, vexa- 

tion, offence, aversion, mishap. 
oflfensiuncula, ae, f., slight offence. 
offenso, I, dash against, stumble. 
oflfensus, [-fendo], offensive. 
oflfero, obtuli, oblat-, offer, show, 

addace, occasion, inflict. 
offeriimenta, orum, n., gift. 
officialis, e, of duties or service. 
oflKcina, ee, f., ivorkshop, factory. 
officinator, oris, M., a master-work- 

man, artist. 
oflBcio, feci, fect-, 3, hinder, ob- 

slruct, injure, hurt. 
oflficiose, courteously. 
officiosus, a, um, obliging, dutifuL 
officium, i, N., service, duty, favor. 
oflfigo, xi, ct-, 3, /ix, fasfen. 
oflfirmatus, a, um, resolutey stub- 

born, obstinate. 
oflRrmo, i , make fast, persevere. 
oflEla=offula, Uttle bit. 
offoco, I, choke with water. 
oflfrenatus, a, um, curbed. 
offringo, egi, act-, 3, to cross-plough. 
offucia, ae, f., cosmetic, trick. 
oflfula, ae, f., bit fragment. 
oflfulcio, (si), tum, 3, stop up. 
oflfulgeo, si, 2, shine upon. 
oflfundo, udi, iis-, 3, pour upon or 

fortii ; p., spread, extend. 
ofifusco, I, obscure, vilify. 
oflfiisus, [oflfundo,] poured. 
ogganio, 4, snarl, yelp, growL 

oggero — operose. 


oggero, 3, bring, carrij. 

Ogyges, is, (-us,.i,) myth. founder 

of Thebes. 
Ogygius, a, um, Tlieban (Bacchus). 
Oileus, i, myth. king of Locris, 

father of Ajax (Oileus). 
olax, acis, fragrant. 
Olbia, ae, f., a city of Sardinia. 
olea, ae, f., olwe. 
oleaceus (-agineus, -arius), a, um ; 

-aris, e, of oU, or the olive. 
oleaster, tri, m., tvild olive. 
oleitas, atis, f., olive-harvest. 
olens, tis, fragrant, odorous. 
oleo, ui, 2, to emit odor. 
oleatus, a, um, cured in oil. 
olerator, oris, M., kitchen-gardener. 
olenticetum, i, n., noisome pool. 
oleo, olui, 3, to emit odor, betray 

one's self by the smell. 
oleosus, a, um, oilij,fall of oil. 
oletum, i, n., oHve-orchard ; dung. 
oleum, i, n., olive-oil; the ivrestUng- 

olfacio, feci, fact-, 3, smell, scent. 
olfacto, I, smell at, detect. 
olfactus, us, M., the sense ofsmelL 
olidus, a. um, strong-scented. 
olim, once, ever, some day. 
olitor, oris, n., market gardener. 
oliva, ae, f., olive, oUve-branch. 
olivetum, i, n., olive-orchard. 
olivifer, era, um, olive-bearing. 
olivitas, atis ; -eta, se ; f., olive- 

olivum, i, N., oil, ointment. 
olla, ae, f. , pot, jar. 
ollaris, e; (-arius), of pots, potted. 
oUe, ollus, for ille, thaf. 
olor, oris, m., sivan ; odor. 
olorifer, era, um, swan-bearing. 
olorinus, a, um, of swans. 
olus, eris, n., pot-herbs, vegetables. 
Olympia, ae, a city of Ehs (S.W. 

Greece), where games were 

held in honor of Jupiter. 
olympias, adis, f., period of 4 

years ; pl., the Muses. 
Olympias, adis, m. of Alexander. 
Olympius, a, um, of Olympia; n. 

pl., Olympic games. 

Olympus, i, m., a mt. in Thessaly, 

seat of the gods ; heaven. 
Olynthius, a, um, of Olynthus, a 

border-town of Macedonia. 
omasum, i, n., tripe, paunch. 
omen, inis, n., omen, portent, rit- 

ualy^ or solem7i usage. 
omentum, i, n., fat, membrane. 
ominor, i, prognosticate, predict. 
ominosus, a, um, forboding. 
omissus, a, um, negligent. 
omitto, misi, miss-,3, neglect, letgo. 
omnifariam, on all sides. 
omnigenus, a, um, of all sorts. 
omnimodo, by ali means. 
omnino, altogether, at all, by all 

means, in general, universally. 
omniparensi, tis, all-producing. 
omnipotens, tis, all-powerful. 
omnis, e, all, every^ any (w. negat). 
omnituens, tis, all-seeing. 
Omphale, es, myth. q. of Lydia. 
onager (-grus), gri, M., wiid ass. 
onco, I, to bray. 

onerarius, a, um, of burden,freight. 
onero, i, to load, stoio, burden. 
onerosus, a, um, burdensome. 
onus, eris, n., a ioad, burden, cargo. 
onustus, a, um, ioaded, freighted. 
f onyx, ychis, M., onyx (yellowish 

marble or gem). 
opacitas, atis, F., shade. 
opaco, I, overshadow. 
opacus, a, um, shady, obscure. 
opella, se, f., iight task or service. 
opera, se, f., pains, iask, service, 

care ; (abl.), by jneans ; day^s ivork ; 

pl., day-laborers. 
operans, tis, effectual. 
operarius, a, um, of ivork ; m., a 

operatio, onis, f., ivork, perform- 

ance, solemnity. 
operculo, i, to cover. 
operculum (-imentum), i, N., lid, 

cover, panei-work. 
operio, ui, opert-, 4, cover, shut, 

hide, conceai, dissemble. 
6perior=opperior, tvait. 
operor, i, work, toil, perform. 
operose, with pains. 


operositas — opusculum. 

operositas, atis, f., nice work. 

operosus, a, um, toilsome, husy. 

opertaneus, a, um, secret, hidden. 

operte, covertbj. 

operto, I, to cover, Jiide. 

opertus, a, um, Jndden, secret; n., 
secret sJiri)ie ; pl. oracles. 

opes, [ops,] F., resources, ivealtJi. 

Ophiusius, a, um, of Cijprus. 

opicus, a, um, chwnisJi (Oscan). 

opifer, era, um, Jielp-hringing. 

opifex, icis, m., craftsman. 

opificium, i, n., tvorJc. 

opilio, onis, m., sJiepJierd. 

opime, sumptuousbj. 

opimitas, atis, F., ahundance. 

opimo, I, tofatten, enricJi. 

opimus, a, um,/a^, 7'icJi, sumptuous, 
nohle; spolia opima, spoils 
taken by a general from the 
general of the defeated enemy. 
opinabilis, e, conjectural. 
opinatio, onis, F., conjecture. 
opinatus, a, um, imagined, famous. 
opinio, onis, f., opinion, fancy, 

rumor, 7'eport, reputation. 
opinor (-o), i, to suppose, tJiinJc. 
opipare, sumptuously. 
opiparus, a, um ; -is, e, sumptuous. 
opitulor. I, brinj aid, Jielp. 
t opion (-um), i, N., opium, poppy- 

oportet, uit, 2, it must he (§ 39, i). 
oppango, pegi, pact-, 3, fasten. 
oppecto, 3, comb away,pluck. 
oppedo, 3, to insult. 
opperior, 4, icaitfor. 
oppessulatus, a, um, holtedfast. 
oppeto, ivi, it-, 3, go to meet (death). 
oppico, I, secd ivitJi pitcJi. 
oppidanus, a, um, of a iown, pro- 

vinci(d; M., townsman. 
oppidatim, in every town. 
oppido, exceedingly, utterbj, surely. 
oppidulum, dim. of 
oppidum, i, n., town (fortified). 
oppignero, i, to pawn, pledge. 
oppilo, i, stop, sJiut up. 
oppleo, evi, et-, 2, tofU up. 
oppono, posui, posit-, 3, to set 
against, Jiohl fortJi, allege, oppose. 

opportiine, seasonahly. 
opportiinitas, atis, f., fitness, op- 

portun ity, advantage. 
opportiinus, a, um,fit, seasonahk. 

exposed, liable. 
oppositio, onis, f., opposition. 
oppositus, [pono,] set against. 
oppositus, us, M., setting-against. 
oppressio, onis, v.,force, pressure, 

opressus," a, um, crusJied. 
opprimo, pressi, press-, [premo,] 
3, crusJi, overcome, seize, suppress. 
opprobrium (-bramentum), i, n., 

reproacJi, disgrace, taunt. 
opprobo, I, to reproacJi, upbraid. 
oppugnatio, onis, F., attack. 
oppugnator, oris, m., assailant. 
oppugno, I, io attack, storm, as- 

sault, 7'esist, heat with fists. 
opputo, I, to prune. 
oprimentum= operimentum, lid. 
ops, opis, F., Jielp, migJU ; pl., re- 

sources, wealtJi. 
Ops, Opis. wife of Satvirn, goddess 

of Hiisbandry and Plenty. 
ops6nium=obs6nium, viands. 
optabilis, e, desiraUe. 
optatio, 6nis, f., cJioice, ivisJi. 
optato, according to desire. 
optatus, a, um, wisJied-for, desir- 

able, pleasant, dear. 
optimates, um, c, aristocracy. 
optime, excellently. 
optimus, a, um, [bonus,] hest. 
optio, onis, f., a cJioice. 
optio, 6nis, m., Jielper, aid. 
optivus, a, um, cJiosen. 
opto, I, to (Jesire, wisli, cJioose. 
optumus=optimus, hest. 
opulens, tis ; -lentus, a, um, ricJi. 
opulente (-ter), sumptuously. 
opulentia, ae, f., wealtJi, resources. 
opulento, I, to enricJi. 
opulus, i, F., a 7naple as support 

for vines. 
Opuntii, people of Opus, a town 

of Locris. 
opus, eris, n., 7vork, tasJc, husiness. 
opus, need, 7ieedful, serviceable. 
opusculum, i, N., liltle ivork. 

ora — oscen. 


6ra, ae, f., shore, margin, region. 
oraculum, i, N., orade,prophecij. 
orarium, i, N., napkin, handkerchief. 
oratim, coastwise. 
oratio, onis, F., speech, language, 

harangue, plea, eloquence. 
oratiuncula, ae, F., letter, speeeh. 
orator, oris, M. ; -trix, triois, F., 

orator, pleader, envoy. 
oratorie, eloquently. 
oratorius, a, um, oratorical. 
oratus, us, m., beseeching. 
orbator, oris, n., bereaver. 
orbiculatus, a, um, rounded. 
orbiculus, i, M., slice, pulley-wheel. 
orbilis, e, of a wheel ; N., rim. 
orbis, is, M., circle, ring. 
orbita, ae, F., track, course. 
orbitas, atis, f., bereavement. 
orbitosus, a, um, full of ruts. 
orbo, I, bereave, deprive. 
orbus, a, um, beref, orphaned. 
orca, se, f., narwhal (whale). 
Orcades, um, the Orkney Islands. 
f orchas, adis, N,, a kind of olive. 
orchestra, ae, f., the Senate's seat 

in the theatre ; orcheslra. 
Orchomenus, i, myth. son of 

Athamas ; a town of Boeotia. 
orcinus, a, um, ofthe dead. 
orcula, ae, F., keg. 
Orcus, i, M., the world below ; a 

name of Pluto ; death. 
ordeum=hordeum, barley. 
ordinarius, a, um, customary, reg- 

idar, in even rows ; M., overseer. 
ordinate, -tim, in good order. 
ordinatio, onis, f., arrangement, 

regulalion, government. 
ordinatus, a, um, loell-ordered. 
ordino, i, set in order, govern. 
ordior, orsus, 4, begin, undertake. 
ordo, inis, m., order, rank, band. 
f oreas, adis, f., mountain nymph. 
Orestes, is (ae), son of Agamem- 

non, slayer of his mother. 
f orexis, is, f., longing. 
f organicus, a, um, of instruments. 
forganum, i, N., instrument, organ. 
forgia, orum, N., night-revels (of 


oria=horia, fishing-boat. 

f orichalcum, i, n., coppjer ore, brass. 

orcilla (-cula)=auricula, ear-lap. 

oriens, tis, rislng, the east. 

orientalis, e, eastern. 

d- -jd.=auriga, waggoner, driver. 

originalis, e ; -arius, a, um, original. 

origo, inis, f., birth, source, origin. 

oriola=horiola, skiff. 

Orion, onis (onis), a famous hun- 

ter, changed to a constellation. 
orior, ortus, oriturus, 4, to arise. 

appear, originaie, be born. 
Orithyia, ee, myth. d. of Erectheus. 
oriundus, a, um, sprung, descended. 
ornamentum, i, n. ; equipment, 

decoration, embellishment. 
ornate, elegantly. 
ornator, oris, m. ; -trix, tricis, F., 

decorator, body-servant. 
ornatulus, a, um,^ne, smart. 
ornatus, a, um, equipped, adorned. 
ornatus, us, m., decoration, equip- 

rnent, embelishment, apparel. - 
orneus, a, um, of the wdd ash. 
f ornithias, se, ¥., spring ivind. 
f ornithon, onis, m., bird-house. 
orno, \,fit out, equip, embeilish, honor. 
ornus, i, f., mountain-ash. 
oro, I , .^peak, plead, pray. 
f orobos, i, m., wild pea. 
Orontes, is (ae), a river of Syria. 
Orpheus, ei, ea, son of Onagrus 

and Calhope, a bard of Thrace. 
Orpheus (-icus, -aicus), a, um, 

Orphean or Orphic. 
orsus, [ordior,] begun; N. pl., a 

beginning, undertaking. 
orsus, iis, m , beginning, attempt. 
f orthius, a, um, high-pitched. 
ortivus, a, um, rising, eastern. 
ortus, [orior,] descended, born. 
ortus, tis, m., rising, origin, birth. 
Ortygia, se, ¥., a name of Delos ; 

also the island-dist. of Syracuse. 
f oryx, ygis, m., ivild goat, gazelle. 
foryza, ae, F., rice. 
60, oris, N., mouih,face, entrance. 
os, ossis, N., bone, heart-ivood. 
oscedo, inis, f., yawning. 
oscen, inis, m., divining-bird. 


Osci — paciscor. 

Osci (Opici), orum, the primi- 

tivc people of Campania. 
oscillatio, onis, f., sicinging. 
oscillo, I, to swing, 
oscillum, i, n., (6s), a little mask. 
oscitans, tis, sluggish. 
oscitanter, curelessly. 
oscitatio, onis, f., gaping, yawning. 
oscito, I, io gape, yaion, open. 
osculatio, onis, f., kissing. 
osculor (-o), I, kiss, prize, clierisli. 
osculum, i, M., mouth, lip, kiss. 
Osiris, is (idis), an Egyptian 

deity, husband of Isis. 
osor, oris, m., a hater. 
Ossa, se, f., a mt. in Thessaly. 
osseus, a, um, of hone, hony. 
ossiculum, i, n., little hone. 
ossifragus, i, m., osprey, sea-eagle. 
ossuarius, a, um, for receiving 

hones ; n., vault, sepulchre. 
ostendo, di, sum (tum), 3, to 

show, expose, disclose, declare. 
ostensio, onis, f., exhihiting. 
ostentarius, a, um, of progtiostics. 
ostentatio, onis, f., display,parade 
ostentator, oris, m., vain hoaster. 
ostento, I, exliihit,display,threaten, 

reveal, indicate. 
ostentum, i, n., prodigy, portent. 
ostentus, [ostendo,] exposed. 
ostentus, us, M., exhihiiing. 
Ostia, ae, f., a port at the mouth 

of Tiber, founded by Ancus. 
ostiarius, a, um, of the door ; m., 

porter ; n., door-tax. 
ostiatim, y)-om door to door. 
ostium, i, N., door, mouth, entrance. 
f ostrea, ae, f., oyster. 
ostrearius, a, um, of oysters. 
ostreatus, a, um, rough, scahhy. 
ostrifer, era, um., p7'oducing oysters. 
ostrinus a, um, pu7ple. 
1 ostrum, i, n., sea-purple. 
osus, a, um (odi), hating, hated. 
Otho, onis, 8th emperor, a.d. 69. 
Othrys, yos, m., a mt. in Thessaly. 
otior, i, to he at leisure. 
otiose, leisurely, quietly, cabnly. 
otiosus, a, um, cd leisure, tranquil, 

idle, neutral, unprofitahle. 

otium (-olum), i, n., ease, idleness, 

quiet,peace; abl., at ease, leisurely. 
ovanter, exultingly. 
ovatio, onis, F., an ovation (lesser 

triumph, with myrtle wreath). 
ovatus, a, um, egg-shaped. 
oviarius (-illus, -inus, -illinus), a, 

um, of sheep. 
ovicula, ee, f., a Uttle sheep. 
ovilis, e, of sheep ; N., sheepfold. 
oviparus, a, um, laying eggs. 
ovis, is, F,. sheep, simpleton. 
ovo, I, to exult, triumph, celehrate. 
ovum, i, N., egg ; ab ovo usque 

ad mala, from egg to fruit, i.e. 

from first to last (of the feast). 
foxalis, idis, F., sorrel. 
Oxus, i, M., a river flowing into 

the Caspian. 
f oxymeli, itis, n., vinegar mixed 

icith honey, oxymel. 
f oxys, yos, f., wild sorrel. 
f oxyzomus, a, um, with sour sauce. 
fozymum=ociuum, clover. 

P, the prsenomen Publius. 
pabo, onis, m., icheelharrow. 
pabularis, e ; -ius, a, um, offodder. 
pabulatio, onis, v., pasture,forage. 
pabulator, oris, M., forager, herds- 

pabulor, i , to graze, forage, seek or 

give Jiourishment. 
pabulum, i, m., food, fodder. 
pacalis, e, o/ peace, peacefuL 
pacate, penceahly. 
pacator, oris, m., peacemaker. 
pacatus, a, um, at peace, friendly, 

reduced to suhmission. 
Pachynum, i, N. ; -us, i, D., S. E. 

promont. of Sicily. 
pacifer, era, um, peace-hringing. 
pacificatio, onis, F., peace-making. 
pacificator, oris, m., peace-makei\ 
pacifico, i, pacify, appease. 
pacificus, a, um, peace-making. 
paciscor, pactus, 3, agree, con- 

tract, hargain, harter. 

paco — palmeuE 


paco, I, to pacifij, suhdue. 
pacta, ae, hetrotked hride. 
pactilis, e, plaited; ivreathed. 
pactio, onis, f., hargain, compact. 
Pactolus, i, M., a river of Lydia, 

having golden sands. 
pactor, oris, M., contractor. 
pactus, [paciscor,] agreed ; M., 

hetro/hed ; N., agreement, compact. 
pactus, [pango,] y?xec/, comjjosed. 
Pacuvius, i, an old Roman poet, 

A.D., 221-132. 
Padanus, a, um, of the river Po 

(Padus), in N. Italy. 
Padusa, ae, f., a channel of the Po. 
Peean, anis, m. a name of Apollo ; 

a religious or festive hymn. 
f paedagogium, i, m., the hofs hall. 
f paedagogus, i, m., preceptor,hog^s 

attendant, leader, guide, pedant. 
peedidus, a, nva., filthy. 
paedor, oris, m., filth, stench. 
paegniarius, a, um, in play. 
paeminosus, a, um, chinJcy, uneven. 
paene (pene), cdmost. 
pgeninsula, se, F., peninsula. 
pcenula, se, ¥., cloak, mantle. 
paenulatus, a, um, cloaJced. 
paenuria=peniiria, poverty. 
paeonius, a, um, medicinal, liealing. 
Paestum, i, n., a town of Lucania, 

40 miles S. E. of Naples. 
paetus (-ulus), a, um, hlinJcing, leer- 

ing, cross-eyed. • 
paganus (-icus), a, um, rustic, civic. 
Pagasaeus, a, um, of Pagasa, in 

Thessaly ; puppis, tJie Argo. 
pagatim, hi/ districts. 
pagina (-ella), ae, F., jf^a^/e, lcaf, 

slah, hooJc, garden-hed. 
paginatus, a, um, planJced. 
pagus, i, m., country-district, canton. 
pala, ae, f., spade, sJiovel. 
Palaemon, onis, a sea-god, son 

of Ino (Melicerta). 
Paleestina, se, F., Palestine. 
Palaestinus, a, um, of Palestine; 

also, of PalcESte, a port of Epi- 

rus, entrance to the world 

below ; deae, tJie Furies. 
f palaestra, ae, f., wrestling-place. 

f palaestricus, a, um, of tJie pal- 

ccstra; M., ivrestling-master. 
palam, openly, puhlicly. 
Palamedes, is, myth. k. of Euboea, 

who perished at Troy. 
palans, tis, icandering. 
palaris, e, of pales or staJces. 
palatinus, a, um, of tJie Pcdatium, 

a hill of Rome ; imperial. 
palatium, i, i<i., palace. 
palatus, m. ; (-um, N.), palate, vault. 
f pale, es, f., wrestling. 
palea, ae, f., cJiaff; cocJc^s wattles. 
palear, aris, N., dewlap, tJiroat. 
Pales, is, f., the deity of Cattle. 
Palici, orum, sons of Jupiter and 

Thalia(^tna),honored in Sicily. 
palilis, e, of Pcdes ; n. pl., festival 

of Pcdes, the shepherd's feast. 
f palimpsestus, i, m., palimpsest (a 

parchment twice written). 
Paliniirus. i, the pilot of ^neas. 
palitans, tis, icancJering. 
paliiirus, i, m., CJirist-tJiorn. 
palla, ae, f., v^oman''^ mantle, rohe. 
Palladius, a, um, of Pcdlas (Min- 

erva) ; N., her image at Troy. 
Pallanteus, a, um, of Pcdlas, son 

of Evander.. 
pallens, tis, wan, pcde, evil. 
palleo, ui, 2 ; -esco, 3, to he pale, 

sicl-en (with fear or desire). 
palliatus, a, um, cloaJced, clad. 
pallidus (-ulus), a, nm., pcde, jxdlid. 
palliolatim, in a mantle. 
pallium (-olum), i, N., cover, cloaJc, 

mantle (a Grecian garment). 
pallor, oris, M., paleness, unsigJitli- 

ness, terror. 
pallula, ae, F., little cloaJc. 
palma, se, F., palm, hand, oar-hlade, 

pcdm-wreath, date. 
palmaris, e, hand' s-hreadtJi, merit- 

ing tJie pabn. 
palniarius, a, um, of tJie palm; N., 

prize, fee. 
palmatus, a, um, marJced witJi tJie 

figure of tJie pcdrn. 
palmes, itis, M., vine-hrancJi. 
palmetum, i, m., pahn-grove. 
palmeus, a, um, Jiand^s hreadih. 


palmifer — papilio. 

palmifer (ger), era, um, palm-bear- 

iny, ahoundiru/ in palnis. 
palmipe.3, pedis, Jiat-footed. 
palmo, I , io niarh wil/i the palm. 
palmo3US, a, um, ahounding in 

palmula, ae, palm, date, oar-Uade. 
palmus, i, m., palm, span. 
Palmyra, ae, a city of E. Syria. 
palo, I, to support with stakes. 
palor, I, to wander, straij. 
palpatio, oais, ¥.,Jiatterij, coaxing. 
paipator, oris, m.., jiatterer. 
palpebra, ae, F., eyeiid, eyeiash. 
palpsbro, i, to winJc, biink. 
palpitatio, oiiis, F., throhbing. 
palpito, I, io ihrob, pant, trembie. 
palpo (or), I, to stroke, caress, coax. 
palpus, i, N. ; (um, n.), stroking, 

paliidamentum, i, n., a miiitary 

clouk, a generaPs cioak. 
paludatus, a, um, cioaiced. 
paludester, tris, niarsiiy. 
paludosus, a, um, marsliy, boggy. 
palumbes, is, c. ; -us (-ulus), i, m. ; 

-a, ae, f., loood-pigeon. 
palumbinus, a, um, of pigeons. 
palus, i, M. ; -um, N., stake, prop. 
paliis, iidis, f., marsh, swamp. 
paluster, tris, e, marshy. 
f pammaolium, i, m., boxing-maicii. 
Pamphylia, ae, F., a southern 

coast-dist. of Asia Minor. 
pampineus (-aceus, -arius, -atus), 

a, VLVQ., fuii of ieaves or tendriis. 
pampino, i, to trim, ciip (vines). 
pampinosus, a, um, ieafy, branchy. 
pampinus, i, M., tendrii, vine-ieaf. 
[fpan-, ali-. 

Pan, Pano3, god of Sliepherds. 
fpanacea, ae, f. ; -ces, is, N. ; 

panax, acis, m., cure-aii. 
panarium (-olum), i, n., bread- 

Panathenaious, a, um, of the 

Athenian festival of Pallas. 
fpancarpus (-ius), a, um, of ali 

Panchaia, ae, f., a dist. of Arabia. 
t pancratium, i, n., box Sc wrestle. 

1 pandectes, ae, M., repertory. 
pandiculor, i, to stretch one^s seif. 
Pandion, onis, myth. k. of Atliens, 

f of Progne and Philomena. 
pando, I, to hend, curve. 
pando, di, sum (passum), 3, to 

spread, open, expand, reiate. 
Pandora, ae, the first woman, 

made by Vulcan. 
pandiira, ae, F., rei)ec or banjo. 
pandus, a, um, beiU, crooked. 
f panegyricus, a, um, laudatory. 
Pangaeus, i, m. ; a, orum, n., a 

mountain of Thrace. 
pango, nxi (pegi, pepigi), nct- 

(pact-), 3, fasten, Jix, contract. 
paniceus, a, um, q/' bread ; N., ioaf. 
panicula, se, F., tuft, sweiling. 
panicum, i, m., panic, miiiet. 
Panionius, a, um, of all lonia. 
panis, is, m., bread, ioaf iump. 
pannarius, a, um, of cioth. 
panniculus, i, m., rag. 
Pannonia, se, f., North Turkey. 
pannosus (-iiceus), a, um, ragged, 

pannus (-ulus), i, m., cioth, rag, bag. 
fpannychius, a, um, iasting aii 

Panormus, i, f., Palermo (in 

northern Sicily). 
pansa, ae, splay-foot. 
pansus, [pando,] outspread. 
Pantheon, i, N;, temple of all the 

gods, built by Agrippa, B.c. 27. 
fpanthera, ae, ¥.,panther. 
pantherinus, a, um, spotted, crafty. 
pantices, f., boweis, sausages. 
Panthiis (ous), i, voc, u, nephew 

of Hecuba, priest of Apollo. 
pantomimus, i, M. ; -a, se, f., bai- 

iet-dancer, jyaniomime. 
panucla=panicula, tuft. 
panus, i, m., bohhin, tiimor. 
f papce ! strange ! indeed! 
papaver, eris, n., poppy. 
Paphlago, onis, a native of Paph- 

lagonia, in N. Asia Minor. 
Paphos (-us), i, f., a city of 

Venus, in Cyprus. 
papilio, onis, m., butterjiy, paviiion. 

papilla — Parthus. 


papilla, ge, f., hreast, teat, pimple. 

Papirius Cursor, dictator, b.c. 338. 

pappas, se, m., governor, tutor. 

pappo, I, ent (pap). 

f pappus,i, M., oldman,grandfather. 

papula, se, f., piniple. 

papyrius (-aceus), a, ura, ofpapy- 

f papyrus, i, M., paper-reed, paper. 
par, paris, equaJ, just, fit, comrade, 

match, mate ; N., a pair. 
parabilis, e, easy to get. 
f parabola, ae, F., comparison. 
f paradisus, i, m., park, paradise. 
f paradoxus, a, um, strange, con- 

fparasitus, i, m., guest, parasite. 
fparastas, adis ; -stata, ae, f., 

parate, ivith preparation, vigilanthj, 

paratio, onis, F., getting, procuring. 
paratus, [paro,] ready, equipped. 
paratus, iis, m. ; -tura, se, F., 

preparation, equipment. 
Parcae, arum, f., the Fates, Clotho, 

Lachesis, and Atropos. 
parce, sparingly. 

parci-(parsi-)m6nia, ee, F., thrift. 
parcipromus, i, m., niggard. 
parcitas, atis, F., sparingness. 
parciter, sparingly. 
parco, peperci (parsi), parcit-, 3, 

to spare, refrain, forhear. 
parcus, a, um, frugal, sparing, 

chary, scanty, petty, parsimonious. 
fpardalis, is,F. ;-dus,i, M ,panther. 
f paregoria, ae, F., relief ease. 
f parelion, i, N., mock-sun. 
parens, [pareo,] tis, ohedient ; pl., 

parens, tis, c, [pario,] parent, 

ancestor, kindred, author, inventor. 
parentalis, e, of parents ; N. pl., 

festival in their honor. 
parento, i, to sacrifice forthe dead, 

avenge (by blood), ato7ie. 
pareo, ui, parit-, 2, appear, ohey, 

suhmit ; paret, it is clear. 
parientia, se, f., ohedience. 
paries, etis, m., house-ivaU. 

parietalis, e; -tarius, a, um, of 

ivalls : F.^ pellitory (an herb). 
parietinae, arum, f., ruins. 
parilis, e, equal, like. 
pario, I, equalize, halance accounts. 
pario, peperi, parit- (part-), 3, to 

produce, effect, hring forth. 
Paris, idis, a son of Priam, the 

abductor of Helen. 
Parisii, orum, a people on the 

Seine (northern Gaul). 
pariter, equally, alike, together. 
parito, I, to get ready. 
Parius, a, um, of Paros, an I. in 

the ^gean, famous for marble. 
parma, ae, f., round shield, target. 
Parma, ae, f., a city of N. Italy. 
parmatus, a, um, armed ivith targets. 
parniula, ae, F., little shield. 
Parnasus (-ssus), i, m., a mt. in 

Phocis, above Delphi, sacred 

to Apollo and the Muses. 
paro, I, prepare, get ready, pro- 

cure ; make equal, determine. 
f paro, onis, m., a light ship, cutter. 
fparocha, ae, f., supply. 
f parochus, i, M., purveyor, host. 
f parcecia, ce, f, district, parish. 
f paropsis, idis, f., dessert-dish. 
parra, se, f., owl or ivoodpecker (?). 
Parrhasius, a, um (of Parrhasia), 

Arcadian: dea, Carmenta, the 

mother of Evander. 
parricida, ee, c, parricide, traitor, 

murderer, assassin. 
parricidium, i, N., murder, ireason. 
pars, partis, f., part, share, portion, 

partip ojftce, duty, region. 
parsimonia, ae, F., thrift. 
Parthaon, 5nis, myth. k. of Cal- 

ydon, father of CEneus. 
Parthenius, a, um, of Parthenius, 

a mountain of Arcadia. 
Parthenon, onis, m., the temple 

of Pallas, in Athens. 
Parthenope, es, a Syren ; Naples.