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Glasgow School of Art Library 



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GLASGOW SCHOOL OF ART LIBRARY 



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THE ART OF 



DECORATIVE DESIGN. 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 
Glasgow School of Art Library 



http://www.archive.org/details/albumofnineteentOOunse 



I fi I 

THE ART OF 



DECORATIVE DESIGN, 



AW APPENDIX, GIVIlfG THE HOUBS OF THE DAT AT WHICH FLOWERS OPEN (THE FLOEAti CLOCK) ; THE 

CHAEACTEEISIIC FLOWEBS OF THE MONTHS (BOTH INDIGENOUS AND CULTIVATED), OF ALL 

COUNTRIES, AND OF THE DIVEKSIFIED SOILS. 



BY 

C. DRESSER, 

PH.D., F.L'.S., F.E.B.S. 

raOFESSOR of 0RNAMBNT.\.L art and botany in the CRTSTAL palace, SYDENHAM ; OF BOTANY APPLIED TO THE FIN 

ARTS IN THE DEPARTMENT OF SCIENCE AND ART, SOUTH KENSINGTON MUSEtrSI ; AND OF SCIENTIFIC BOTANY 

IN THE POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTION, AND THE LONDON AND ST. MARY's MEDICAL COLLEGES. 



LONDON: 
DAY AND SON, LITHOGRAPHERS TO THE QUEEN, 

GATE STREET, LINCOLN'S INN FIELDS. 
1862. 



The Author desires to acknowledge the services of 
the following ladies and gentlemen in the prepa- 
ration of this work, and to tender them his best 

thanks : — • 

Mr. W. R. Tymms, 

for the excellent manner in which he has trans- 
ferred to stone the sketches of the Author; 

Mr. Armytage, 
of Albion Villas, Barnsbury, N, ; 

Miss Sawkins, 
Miss Edwards, 
Miss Julyan, 
Miss Stock, 
Miss McGregor, 
Miss E. Collins, 

these ladies being the most talented students of the 

Schools of Art at Queen -square, Bloomsbury, and 

the South Kensington Museum, for most valuable 

assistance in the preparation of the drawings on 

wood; and 

Mr. John Allen, 

a private student of the Author's, for the prepa- 
ration of the greater portion of the Appendix em- 
bracing the Characteristic Plants of the varied lands 
and soils; hence for this portion of the work this 
gentleman is more especially responsible. 



PEEFACE. 



The difficulties under which the Author of these 
pages laboured when a student have led to the 
production of the present work. Although study- 
ing under men of undoubted talent and kindness, 
these teachers did not at this time appear to re- 
cognise the existence of such general principles in 
Ornament as could be explained to the student; and 
this operated so forcibly against the rapid progress 
of the taught, that upon arriving at a knowledge 
of the laws which govern the production and com- 
bination of ornamental forms through study and 
research which occupied a period of fifteen years, 
the Author resolved on setting those general prin- 
ciples before such as desire a knowledge of the 
Decorative Art which he has observed prevailing 
in the best ornaments of all ages and has traced 
in plants, from which he has gained nmch of his 
knowledge of true ornament. It is hoped that an 
acquaintance with the principles set forth in the pre- 
sent work may be as serviceable to the reader as 



Vlll PREFACE. 

• 

they have been to the Author; if so, that time has 
not been lost which has been spent in writing these 
pages. 

During the preparation of this work, the writer 
has been so repeatedly interrupted by manufacturers 
of the greatest eminence desiring designs for their 
respective manufactures, that he fears a somewhat 
disconnected character has been introduced into 
the work. This has been avoided as far as pos- 
sible under the circumstances, yet npon this point 
particularly the Author has to ask indulgence. 

liiToRTH End, Fulham, S.W. 
May, 1862. 

The student who wishes to pursue his studies 
in Ornament is strongly recommended to consult 
Redgrave's " Report on Design," and the " Grammar 
of Ornament" by Owen Jones, both works of great 
value. 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I. 

PAGE 

PRIMARILY, ON THE NATURE AND CHARACTER OF ORNAMENT . 1 

CHAPTER II. 

THE MINISTRATIONS OF PLANTS TO ORNAMENT 22 

CHAPTER III. 

GRADES IN DECORATIVE ART : 34 

CHAPTER IV. 

THE AFFINITY OF THE .ESTHETIC ARTS — MUSIC, ORNAMENT, 



ETC. 



42 



CHAPTER V. 

ANALYSIS OF ORNAMENTAL FORMS .49 

CHAPTER VI. 

ORDER 67 

CHAPTER VII. 

REPETITION 84 



X CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER VIII. 

PAGE 

CURVES 95 

CHAPTER IX. 

PROPORTION 102 

CHAPTER X. 

ALTERNATION 107 

CHAPTER XI. 

/ ADAPTATION 116 

CHAPTER XII. 

THE POWER OF ORNAMENT TO EXPRESS FEELINGS AND IDEAS . 165 

CHAPTER XIII. 

PRINCIPLES COMMON TO ORNAMENT 178 



APPENDIX. 

THE FLORAL CLOCK 191 

ORNITHOLOGICAL CLOCK 193 

CHARACTERISTIC FLOWERS OF THE MONTHS 194 

LAND PLANTS : 

6EO6N0STIC NATURE OF SOIL 198 

PLANTS OF UNCULTIVATED SOILS 202 

CULTIVATED SOILS 207 

ARTIFICIAL PRODUCTIONS 209 

EARTH AND WATER PLANTS 210 

WATER PLANTS 211 



CONTENTS. XI 

PAGE 

CHARACTERISTIC PLANTS OF DIFFERENT COUNTRIES : 

EUROPE 214 

ASIA 221 

SIBERIA 226 

AFRICA 228 

NORTH AMERICA 233 

SOUTH AMERICA 237 

POLYNESIA 240 

AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND 240 



THE 



ART OF DECORATIVE DESIGN. 



CHAPTER I. 

PRIMARILY, ON THE NATURE AND CHARACTER OF 
ORNAMENT. 

1. Ornament is that which, superadded to utility, 
renders the object more acceptable through bestowing 
upon it an amount of beauty that it would not other- 
wise possess : it gives to that which it invests a new 
charm, as colour bestows upon the flower a new love- 
liness; and as the colour cannot be said to be essential 
to the existence of the flower, so the application of 
ornament to objects cannot be said to be absolutely 
necessary. 

2. Yet this is a principle which is frequently 
manifest in nature, especially Avhen we call to mind 
" the merely beautiful appearances of the external 
world ;" for we cannot but think that the functions of 
the plant could as well be performed, and the works 
which plants accomplish in relation to the well-being 
of the kindred creation as fully perfected, were their 

B 



2 ART OF DECORATIVE DESIGN. 

shapes coarse instead of rich in refinement, and 
clumsy instead of delicate and fair; but with no 
niggard hand has Nature dispensed beneficent gifts, 
for not only is the mind of man so constituted as to 
be susceptible of pleasures, but the majority of objects 
with which we are surrounded are of such a character 
as administer to delight. 

3. Following the dictates of nature and acting in 
conformity with the spirit of a beautiful creation, we 
make upon those objects with which we surround 
ourselves, forms and lines, convolutions and zigzags, 
and give to them colours and shades which yield 
pleasure to our minds. 

4. In so doing we not only follow the hints given 
us by nature, but act in accordance with an inward 
instinct or passion. Man craves after pleasurable 
emotions, whether he be the untutored savage or a 
member of the most highly-cultivated society; hence, 
as certain colours and forms give pleasure to the 
mind through the agency of the eye, certain sounds 
through the agency of the ear, and certain flavourings 
through the agency of the organs of taste, he pro- 
duces paintings, ornaments, music, and sweets, in 
obedience to the dictates of his nature. 

5. And it is right for him so to do: he is not 
endowed with a craving nature which is never to be 
satisfied ; with a desire for combinations of forms, 
colours, and sounds which he is never to produce; 
but with such desires in order that he may thus be 
led to produce beauty and enjoy pleasures. The 
forms which live around him, be they but those of 
the moss upon the wall and the weed in the sea, are 



NATURE AND CHARACTER OF ORNAMENT. 3 

such as he approves, and are contributions from 
nature to the delight of her " foster child." 

6. Ornament, we have said, is that which beautifies? 
and renders objects pleasing and delightful; but what 
is beauty? and Avhence does it arise? Beauty is that 
quality of an object which causes delight, gladsome- 
ness, or satisfaction to spring up within the beholder, 
or induces a thrill of delight in the soul; it arises 
from the absence of any want, and the presence of 
that which gratifies. 

7. Yet all things which charm the mind are not 
beautiful. We receive our entire knowledge of ex- 
ternal objects through the agency of the nerves; it is 
these alone which mediate between body and mind, 
matter and spirit, and inform the inner man of that 
which is transpiring without. Sounds may charm 
the ear, fruits have agreeable flavours, flowers most 
welcome odours, and the downy couch be grateful to 
the touch; from all of these sources the mind receives 
pleasure, but the charming the mind through the eye 
is alone accomplished by the assthetic or beautiful, 
hence beauty is that quality of an object which de- 
lights the mind through the agency of the eye. 

8. From the definition given of ornament it would 
almost seem that painting, sculpture, and architecture 
are decorative arts, for they concern themselves with 
the production of works which are intended to delight 
the mind through the agency of the eye. In a sense 
painting, sculpture, and architecture are ornamental 
arts, and their relationship with each other and with 
decoration is close, perhaps even more intimate than 
might be expected until the subject has had much 

B 2 



4 ART OF DECORATIVE DESIGN. 

consideration; indeed, between them there is no 
marked hne of separation, for they meet at their 
confines as do the kingdoms of nature. 

9. A plant which spreads its leaves and unfolds its 
blossoms in a fixed abode seems very unlike the 
sportive beast which wanders through the forest at 
will, yet the animal and the vegetable kingdoms can- 
not be separated at their lower limits; just so it is 
with the four arts, sculpture, painting, architecture, 
and ornament, — they meet at their boundaries, hence 
their limits cannot be perfectly defined. 

10. For the most part ornament is superadded to 
utility. A wall is a wall, whether decorated or not ; 
and a tube will convey gas equally well whether it 
has chased upon it beautiful devices or is without 
enrichment. Not so with painting. As a rule, we 
value a picture for its intrinsic merit, not as a thing 
of utility, and not because it has made the canvas 
more beautiful. We disregard the material on which 
the scene is produced, and consider it only as that 
which renders the production of beauty possible ; but 
with ornamentation we value the object decorated 
because it is now a thing of utility and beauty. 

11. We see what ornament is; and the importance 
of a clear conception and proper understanding at the 
outset of the nature of decoration or ornamentation 
cannot be over-esteemed, for unless we have an exact 
comprehension of the significance of these terms, the 
time spent in future consideration will be wasted. 

12. Our definition of ornament excludes us from a 
narrow or one-sided view of its character such as we 
frequently meet with, some contending that the orna- 



NATURE AND CHARACTER OF ORNAMENT. 5 

ment of the Gothic period is alone meritorious, others 
that with the ancient Greeks true decoration died out, 
while others maintain that the revival of Classic art 
in the Renaissance period brought true ornament to 
light. 

13. Few styles of ornament, if any, have arisen 
which have not possessed some beautiful features. 
The early Egyptians yet speak to us through their 
quaint decorations; and in the remains of their de- 
parted glory we discover grateful forms and welcome 
combinations of lines and colours; and the symbolic 
flower met with that gentle handling and careful con- 
sideration at the hands of this ancient people which 
commands our admiration. In the Classic ornament 
we read the refinement of the Greeks, and perceive 
delicacies too subtle for words to express. The Gothic 
period brought about the fabrication of much beauty, 
and Renaissance ornament has commendable parts, 
and neither from the decoration of the Chinese, 
Indians, or Moors is beauty absent. 

14. It is not sufficient that an ornament be pleasing 
when first viewed, it must give lasting satisfaction. 
In human society we do not hastily conclude that he 
is the best man, or even a good man, because he is 
most pleasing at first; an intimate and prolonged 
acquaintance may be necessary in- order that a 
right opinion be formed, and that man we judge 
best whose character stands the test of intimacy, and 
whose company is more pleasurable the longer it is 
continued. 

15. It is so with ornament. That which is at first 
sight the most pleasing is not necessarily the best, but 



6 ART OF DECORATIVE DESIGN. 

that which speaks to us of beauty throughout a long 
intimacy. Apply this test ; ask the question, Does it 
become more beautiful the longer it is viewed? If it 
is good ornament it will do so, and will lay hold of 
the affections, and fasten itself upon them, and its 
every part will become more and more lovely as it is 
dwelt upon. 

16. Another test of good ornament is this — itpower- 
fully affects the spirits. It can soothe as does sweet 
music, promote mirth as does the merry air, or hush 
to reverence as does the solemn anthem. Does it 
speak joyfully, — it is good ornament. Does it sj)eak 
solemnly, and yet with well chosen gesture, — it is good 
ornament. In a thousand strains it speaks, for, like 
nature, " to the attentive listener it is nowhere dead, 
never silent." 

17. But care must be used in applying these tests. 
Pleasure is derived from that which is understood; 
hence, if my knowledge is not sufficient to enable me 
to comprehend an object, it may seem to me to be 
without merit, while it is yet most perfect. The na- 
ture of the verdict passed upon a work arises, then, 
from the knowledge of the judge; and, allowing per- 
fect uprightness of character, is right or wrong accord- 
ing to his knowledge.* 

18. This being the case, it is obvious that works 

* It must ever be remembered that there is no such thing as beauty 
absolutely. The beautiful is that which satisfies and delights the 
educated and refined mind, and the most cultivated must be allowed 
to be the best judges. It is so also in music, for while harsh and 
discordant notes gratify the untutored savage, subtle harmonies alone 
give pleasure to the cultivated mind. On this subject the author has 
set forth his views in The Builder of March 15th, 1862. 



NATURE AND CHARACTER OF ORNAMENT. 7 

which to an individual appear beautiful at one time 
may not at another, and forms which he cannot at 
first admire he ultimately approves. Indeed, in the 
history of every art-student a change of this character 
takes place ; the shapes which at first seemed beauti- 
ful are ultimately considered coarse, and lines which 
he could not appreciate he ultimately admires. 

19. These considerations reveal to us a folly which 
is often manifested. Art-critics are numerous; yea, 
almost as abundant as flies in August. Indeed, every 
one volunteers an opinion upon an ornament or deco- 
ration. I confess m}^ ignorance of music; am I, then, 
justified in putting forth a critique on an oratorio or 
opera, and in condemning parts which I do not, 
through my ignorance, admire ? To do so would not 
be to perpetrate a greater folly than ignorantly to cri- 
ticise an ornamental form. 

< 20. Applying the tests which we have given for 
the discovery of the nature of ornament, few objects 
which are popularly regarded as decorated will be 
found to be justly entitled to the appellation, and 
assert their right to the term by manifesting beauty. 
So utterly incapable of delighting are the majority of 
our intended wall-decorations, that we do not even 
seek gratification from them; we use them for cover- 
ing the nakedness of the wall, but do not for one 
moment expect that they will produce vibrations on 
the heart-strings, as do the notes of the lute and the 
lyre. A few of our old cathedrals awe by their 
solemn grandeur, and bind in silence the profane 
tongue as they whisper of their consecration to the 
service of the Most High ; — art is here ! The Alhambra , 



8 AHT 0¥ DECORATIVE DESIGN. 

which is beautifully repeated in the Crystal Pa- 
lace at Sydenham, overpowers by lavish richness 
and almost superhuman glory ; — art is here ! The 
Greek Court, in the same building, by its exalted 
refinement; lulls the spirit to sweet reverie — art is 
here ! And when, in St. James's Hall, we appear to 
be transplanted to some fairer world — art is here ! 
In these last-named places the beauty is excessive, and 
thereby the spirit is rendered glad, and is entranced 
by harmonies ; the proportions of the parts are just, 
the enrichments beautiful, and tlie colours glorious 
and fair: the whole is a display of knowledge, and 
learning, and judgment.* 

21. It will be found that the amount of pleasure 

* TJie excellency of these works calls loudly to us as a nation to do 
honour to Mr. Owen Jones, who created them. I would that the 
nation should use him more while they have him ; when it is too late, 
we shall mourn over our folly. In this we are only like the ancient 
Greeks, for they rarely valued a man till he was dead ; indeed, they 
first slew him, and then erected a monument to his honour, and I fear 
that it is not very diflferent with us, for we treat genius coolly, we 
insult her by a thousand slights, and ultimately starve her, or let her 
die for want of patronage. It is a strange fact, and yet true, that in 
this nineteenth century, when philanthropic movements abound, that a 
Royal Academy student who took the gold medal, and manifested 
great genius and industry, should die in a garret through starvation, 
and that many an ornamentist of considerable ability has to retire 
from the field in order to earn daily bread. Gentlemen, do you like to 
buy your wives beautiful dresses, when one, two, or at most three 
shillings was paid for the design which took at least a day to produce, 
and was the only one chosen out of a score which were offered ! 
And ladies, do you like to sit in your drawing-rooms which are hung 
with papers for which the designer received but one guinea, and 
yet the scrolls of beauty and graceful convolutions administer much 
to your pleasure, remembering that the production of the design 
took three days, and on the average, only one pattern is sold out 
of every ten produced. 



NATURE AKD CHARACTER OF ORNAMENT. 9 

derivable from the contemplation of an ornament will 
be largely dependent upon the extent to which mind 
is embodied in it. Stephenson invested coal with a 
new interest when he told us that it was buried sun's 
rays — a lump of heat and light ! A strange statement 
this, yet true; and it is also strange and true that the 
man, while yet dead, speaks through his works. Man 
may be said to be a spirit (the body is animal), for 
it is the mind which exalts him above all creatures 
amidst which he abides, and constitutes him a supe- 
rior being. In this^ man recognises the stamp of 
exalted humanity, and by it he discovers a brother, 
whatever be his habits or colour. 

22. How delightful it is for mind to converse with 
mind, and tell of joys experienced and pleasures 
reaped in order that both may be glad ! Sympathy 
is but mind sharing lot with mind, and love but a 
bond which unites spirits. This source of exalted 
gratification can be embodied in ornament ; and our 
pleasure in a form or composition will be, to a great 
extent, in ratio to the amount of mind which it 
conceals. 

23. We have a manifestation of the pleasure deriv- 
able from an embodiment of mind in pictorial art in the 
works of Martin. Here we have such scenes as mind 
alone can conceive; — a prison-house more terrible 
than words can express; — a palace with immeasure- 
able domes, and burning lights poised in the air. 
We glory in these works, but not because of the per- 
fection of the drawing, for this is often defective, nor 
through any extraordinary handling of the colours, 
for in this respect also there is nothing calculated to 



10 ART OF DECORATIVE DESIGN. 

command our interest, but because of the mind which 
they embody. 

24. As a rule, the greater the manifestation of 
mind in a work of art of any description, the more 
pleasure we derive from it; also, the absence of the 
manifestation of mechanical labour in its construction 
tends to the same result. " Those arts," says Sir 
Charles L. Eastlake, " are generally considered the 
most worth in which the mental labour employed and 
the mental pleasure produced are greatest, and in 
which the manual labour, or labour of whatever kind, 
is least apparent." 

25. We have said that few, if any, styles of orna- 
ment have arisen which have not possessed some 
meritorious or beautiful features. From this it might 
be thought that it is well to copy the ancient forms 
and apply them to the purposes of modern decoration, 
for beauty cannot become old ; but this is by no means 
desirable. Although beauty cannot wear out, a re- 
petition of ancient forms is not appropriate, for orna- 
ment, like architecture, must express the sentiments of 
the age in which it is created. 

26. How full of meaning are some of the ancient 
ornamental forms! The Lotus (fig. 1) not only be- 
tokened to the Egyptian coming plenty, but was an 
expression of their faith, it being to them as a Deity. 
After the inundation of the Nile, the rice was set by 
being cast upon the waters, through which it sank 
into the soft and fertile alluvial deposit. In the 
waters the Nymphaea* pushed forth its fresh foliage, 

* Nymplisea is the botanical generic name for the Egyptian water- 
lily, or lotus. 



NATURE AND CHARACTER OF ORNAMENT. 



11 



which it gradually raised to the surface; and ulti- 
mately from amidst the leaves its fragrant blue flowers 
arose. The appearance of this plant was speedily 
followed by the springing up of the rice and the suc- 
ceeding harvest, but the token of the harvest was 
found in the lotus-lily : — it was this which spoke of 
coming plenty ; of the season of fruitfulness, and of 
approaching good. 

Fig. 1. 




27. Under such circumstances we do not wonder 
that the appearance of this plant was anxiously looked 
for ; that its development was watched with interest, 
and that the Egyptian joyed in its flowers. But de- 
light was gradually replaced by reverence ; the flower 
which at first gave pleasure ultimately received the 
homage and adoration of a nation, and became the 
fancied abode of a God ; and in ratio to the worship 
paid to the spirit of the flower, and ultimately to the 



12 ART OF DECORATIVE DESIGN. 

flower itself, was the abundance of the harvest, 
according to the faith of the Egyptian. 

28. The pleasure taken in the plant by this ancient 
people is set forth by the frequency of its occurrence 
in their decorations ; and as the cross has been used 
in later times to prompt to worship, so this flower, 
even when transmuted into a conventional form, re- 
minded them of rites and prayers. Fully, then, was 
the lotus-form expressive of the faith and senti- 
ments of the age in which it was created. 

29. This is not an exceptional case, but a sample 
of what true art has ever done. In the Greek orna- 
ment there are but few simple forms, and even these 
do not speak as does the Egyptian lotus. Yet the 
Greek ornament, as a whole, will be found to give 
utterance to sentiments in a manner most impres- 
sive. 

30. Refined forms are an expression of refined 
minds, and delicate subtleties in shapes indicate a 
keen power of perception. No system of decora- 
tion with which we are acquainted embodies refine- 
ment so fully as does the Greek, for it is rich in 
refinement, and is stored with delicacies. But it 
speaks of more than the refinement of the Greeks; 
it reveals to us their exalted perception of the beau- 
tiful, and this it does so clearly as to render such a 
manifestation apparent even to the more careless 
observer. Besides this, every feature, both of an 
architectural and decorative character, in a Greek 
edifice, is a revelation of a knowledge of Nature 
and intimacy with her. To illustrate this by an 



"^S^i^iri.:^ 









n 



NATURE AND CHARACTER OF ORNAMENT. 13 

architectural member we may select the Doric 
column (Plate I.) — an example of the most exalted 
Greek creation, which appears to rise with the 
energy of vigorous life, and yet seems pressed on 
by a weight which it has to sustain ; the super- 
incumbent mass resting upon the shaft gives to 
it turgidity, and the capital manifests the same 
distension. But the acknowledgment of pressure 
is by no means offensive, for the column evinces 
strength sufficient for the support of the superposed 
weight, yea, strength which is evidently more than 
equal to the work performed; hence the apparent dis- 
tension of the pillar by weight only results in' the 
formation of curves of extreme delicacy and shapes 
of subtle beauty. It is so with the Greek ornaments : 
there is a recognition of the working of natural law 
in each, and an embodiment of energetic life, and 
this strife between pressure and life brings about 
beauty almost inimitable. 

31. The decorations of the Greeks express to us 
their keen knowledge of the laws and perception of 
the beauties of Nature. In like manner the mediaeval 
ornament has its tale to tell. 

32. In the earlier periods of Christian art great 
purity is manifested, and an amount of simplicity 
which is very grateful ; but even in later times, when 
the simplicity is to a great extent lost, the ornament 
speaks the sentiments of the age in which it was 
created. The trefoil, or three-lobed leaf, speaks of 
the Trinity; the quatrefoil, or four-lobed leaf, of the 
four Evangelists; while the passion-flower tells the 



14 ART OF DECORATIVE DESIGN. 

whole story of the cross. A thousand other forms 
also speak through their symbolic character as well as 
the knowledge which they embody. 

33. What could be more impressive as a symbol 
of the passion of our Lord than the pelican feeding 
its young with its own blood : here we have a 
creature picking its breast till blood issues forth, in 
order to the nourishment of those which proceed 
from it. Thus we have set forth the blood-shedding 
of Christ, in order that those whom he created 
may live. 

34. Ornament, then, ever has expressed the senti- 
ments of the age in which it has originated, and the 
ancient decorative forms still tell of the faith of our 
ancestors; but as our creed differs from theirs, and 
as we are not prepared to endorse all their senti- 
ments, we cannot fitly appropriate to ourselves those 
ornaments with which we do not sympathize, as they 
are an expression of sentiments in which we cannot 
concur. 

35. It would seem difficult, at this late period of 
the world's history, to originate a new scheme of 
ornamentation which- should be an expression of 
sentiments; and should such be possible we might 
not readily be able to determine what should be ex- 
pressed. Want of concord retards any expression of 
religious faith, for unless there is unanimity the 
views of the nation cannot be set forth by any one 
system of ornamentation, any more than by one 
style of architecture. 

36. But the Greeks strongly impressed their de- 
coration with a marked character which stamps it at 



NATURE AND CHARACTER OF ORNAMENT. 15 

once " a style," and distinguishes it amidst the orna- 
ments of all other periods, while their religious views 
were, if possible, more varied and antagonistic than 
our own. 

37. Though the expression of unanimity of reli- 
gious principle is at present impossible, yet there are 
sentiments in which all could acquiesce. We seek 
refinement, as did the Greeks, and we have know- 
ledge which is waiting to be embodied in form; 
yet neither the Greek ornament nor architecture are 
appropriate with us, for our knowledge is not as 
the knowledge of the Greeks, and unless expression, 
as uttered in decorative forms, is so modified as to 
accord with the material and climate in which such 
expression takes place, it fails to fulfil that which is 
required of it. 

38. The putting forth a volume of ancient lite- 
rature as a new thing would be regarded as a folly, 
and the right of an individual to present such under 
this character would be questioned; and, if a few 
sentences or paragraphs were altered, this Avould 
notgreatly lessen the wrong. Yet so it is with both 
ornament and architecture, which are so nearly asso- 
ciated that in these remarks they cannot be sepa- 
rated; we reproduce heathen temples without num- 
ber, modifying them to an extent sufficient to render 
the performance of worship in them possible, or to 
fit them for the purpose of their erection, and no 
more; or we repeat an old Christian edifice no better 
suited to the requirements of our day : — " The nave 
and aisles of a Gothic church become absurd when 
filled with pews for Protestant worship, where all are 



16 AKT OF DECORATIVE DESIGN. 

required to see and hear. The columns of the nave 
which impede sight and sound, the aisle for proces- 
sions which no longer exist, rood screens and deep 
chancels for the concealment of mysteries now no 
longer such, are all so many useless reproductions 
which must be thrown aside," and the decorations 
are no more appropriate. 

39. We cannot but think that one great token of 
a new style of ornament has been afforded us in 
St. James's Hall, and, to speak figuratively, had we, 
as a nation, the wisdom to work the mine from which 
this came, we should not be long before we were shel- 
tered by such buildings as should by their excellency 
delight us, and, by embodying in form sentiments 
in which we acquiesce, command our sympathies. 

40. That St. James's Hall is beautiful admits of 
no dispute, but should the style of the decoration be 
asked we could not reply. It has features which are 
Egyptian, yet it is not Egyptian; it has parts 
which are somewhat Greek, yet it is not Greek; and 
few styles have appeared which are not suggested by 
some ornamental character, and yet the decoration is 
neither in any one style, nor in all jumbled together. 
He who is conversant with all literature manifests 
his knowledge in his writings, yet he does not re- 
produce the ancient Classics. So, in St. James's 
Hall, Mr. Owen Jones has displayed a deep acquaint- 
ance with all styles of ornament which have passed 
away, and has expressed in a new form the refine- 
ment of our age, which finds utterance also in sound 
in this very place. 

41. It will be thought that we are dealing out 



NATURE AND CHARACTER OF ORNAMENT. 17 

praise lavishly to this work by Mr. Owen Jones, and 
that it is inconsistent so to do, as our great monu- 
ments of Gothic architecture are worthy of especial 
commendation. We desire to do justly, and act 
independently of the smiles of men. The great 
merits of our truly grand monuments of media3val 
art have repeatedly been told, and their excellency 
is fully acknowledged, hence it would be folly to 
direct attention to that which has repeatedly been 
heard; the merits of these great works we most 
highly appreciate, and have selected St. James's Hall 
as an illustration, primarily because of its novelty. 

42. Many appear to regard ornament as the realiza- 
tion or embodiment of a dream of beauty, and the 
ornamentist as one who is favoured with a kind of 
revelation, for, say they, we cannot control our 
thoughts or compel our minds to originate new ideas. 
Such a view is founded in error, for we can by culti- 
vation and careful encouragement induce the mind to 
produce the original, and ornament does not result 
from an unintelligent dream. 

43. Knowledge is the great source of ornament, — 
it is the rich soil from which spring creations that 
attract by their beauty and delight by their graceful- 
ness, and the merit of the ornament will be dependent 
upon the knowledge of its originator. 

44. Ornament is obedient to rule and law, and the 
principles which govern it can be learned and compre- 
hended. The purest ornaments are founded upon 
some common plan, or are subject to the same com- 
mon rule, while they appear in many and varied 
forms. Yet all the laws which govern the production 



18 ART OF DECOBATIVE DESIGN. 

of ornament are not understood, nor does every mem- 
ber of every successful design occupy its position 
in obedience to a law known to the producer, for 
judgment has to decide in many difficult cases; 
nevertheless it is manifest that knowledge is essential 
to the creation of the beautiful, as we never find good 
ornament produced in the absence of great knowledge. 

45. The plant grows in obedience to law, and upon 
fixed principles; it has a determined form and a par- 
ticular habit of growth; the flower proceeds in all 
cases from the same part of the plant, and works the 
production of the same kind of fruit ; the seed also 
germinates under fixed conditions, and after sprouting 
in a manner pre-determined by law, brings about the 
repetition of the parent plant. There is no accident 
here; the flower has not one shape one day, and, as 
the result of casualty, a new form when next viewed ; 
and by the production of seed the plant produces its 
like, and not accidentally a rose or a thistle. 

46. Yet in some strange and exceptional cases the 
seed does not bring about the repetition of the parent, 
and rule seems to be departed from. The seed of the 
cabbage produces a cauliflower, and of the Celosia 
cristata the cockscomb ; but even here an unalterable 
law is working the change, for it is determined that 
more than a fixed quantity of mineral matter cannot 
be taken into the plant-system without a change of 
form resulting ; and even the size of the plant is de- 
cided by the amount of heat and light which it 
receives, together with material food ; for as the erec- 
tion of a building is dependent upon the presence of 



NATURE AND CHARACTER OF ORNAMENT. 19 

material, the expenditure of force in raising the 
material, and the activity of a ruling power which 
determines the positions of the parts, so is the plant 
dependent for its existence upon the presence of be- 
fitting matter, the application of power to the raising 
the matter, and the working of an overruling 
influence. 
.47. That the production and development of the 
plant is governed by rule is apparent, yet we do not 
trace the law in all cases. It seems arbitrary that one 
plant should grow in almost an}^ soil and under any 
sky, as the little daisy, while another is confined to a 
small island or particular mountain range, as the 
Wulfenia to the Carinthian Alps. Although we have 
not yet discovered the entirety of the law on which 
the distribution of plants depends, we do not doubt 
its existence, for the secrets of its workings are ever 
being disclosed to the attentive inquirer; so in orna- 
ment we know that much is dependent upon law, and 
are daily making acquaintance with principles which 
to us are new, hence we cannot doubt that all beau- 
tiful forms are subject to rule. It will be our en- 
deavour to set forth the laws which govern the 
production of decorative compositions, and to point, 
as far as we may be able, in the direction that new 
laws may be sought. 

48. We have inquired into the nature of the em- 
bellishing art, but what is its value ? That which 
administers to mental gratification cannot be woi-th- 
less and is not altogether independent of bodily 
health. Setting aside the ministrations of decorative 

c 2 



20 ART OF DECORATIVE DESIGN. 

art to happiness and the enhancement of joys, and its 
promptings to social intercourse, it has even a com- 
mercial or money value in the busy world. 

49. An illustration used by Mr. Wornum, the 
Keeper of the National Gallery Collections, is here 
appropriate. He called attention to a plain white jar 
in which was sold one pound of the best Dundee 
marmalade for seven-pence. He then exhibited a 
second utensil, which had a fanciful shape and was 
impressed with the significant figure of the thistle, — 
in this was sold one pound of the same marmalade for 
nine-pence; and lastly, he exhibited ajar which was 
not only moulded into a particular form, but had 
coloured oranges upon its sides, — in this one pound of 
the same exquisite preparation was sold for one 
shilling. Seven-pence, nine-pence, and a shilling the 
same quantity of the same kind of marmalade fetched 
in view of the character of the jar, and yet that which 
was coloured would not cost one penny more than 
that which was plain, probably not a halfpenny; 
hence, through the agency of ornamentation, four- 
pence more profit, at least, was made upon each 
pound of marmalade sold. 

50. In relation to the example just given it should 
be noticed that the so-called decoration of either jar 
was a questionable adornment; the shapes were not 
pleasing, the forms wrought upon them were not 
disposed with discretion, neither was the colouring 
good. If this be the value of bad art, what must the 
commercial importance of good ornament be? 

51. As a principle, it will be found that the value 
of the manufactured article is dependent upon the 



NATURE AND CHARACTER OE ORNAMENT. '21 

knowledge displayed in the using and adorning the 
material, and not upon the amount of labour ex- 
pended upon its construction. The same clay can be 
wrought into a thing of beauty or an object without 
comeliness, and the most welcome ornaments are 
usually both simple in character and sparingly used, 
for extravagance in ornament is as offensive as 
extravasrance in dress. 



2-2 



CHAPTER II. 

THE MINISTRATIONS OF PLANTS TO ORNAMENT. 

1. One ffreat work of the ornamentist is that of re- 
fining his mind in order that he may be enabled to 
discover and fully appreciate those delicacies of form 
and line which are unperceived by the untutored and 
careless observer: to this end the formation of an in- 
timacy with nature will be found most conducive, as 
it inevitably leads to the cultivation of taste ; and the 
ministrations of plants to the production of the more 
exalted forms of ornament are in this particular mani- 
fest and salutary. 

2. In order to this refinement, the wood, the garden, 
and the hedgerow will each form a suitable studio ; 
for the world of life, especially of plant life, must be 
constantly observed. The form of the leaf must be 
investigated ; nor is it sufiicient that each leaf receive 
a cursory glance or hasty observation, it must become 
the subject of much thought and prolonged medita- 
tion. A simple leaf will form a good theme for 
attentive consideration during many hours, and the 
more anxious inquirer may profitably spend even a 
week or fortnight in contemplating an unpretending 
form. Indeed, it is not the number of refined shapes 
viewed which tends so much to the cultivation of 
taste as the full understanding of the few. He who 



MINISTRATIONS OF PLANTS TO ORNAMENT. 23 

reveals the cause of the beauty of a solitary leaf 
thereby manifests that he has seen more than he who 
has hastily viewed the riches of many lands. 

3. If a week is not too long to'^end in the con- 
sideration of a simple leaf, how long should wo medi- 
tate upon a flower? Say a month. Happy should we 
be in devoting every hour of this time to the con- 
sideration of a solitary flower, if we thought that we 
had sagacity suflicient to enable us in that time to 
perceive and fully understand its beaut3^ We have 
sat in our vinery for hours gazing at the leaves above 
as their forms have been sharply defined upon the 
blue heavens. We have gone evening after evening 
and day after day to endeavour to discover the source 
of the fulness of beauty manifested in the form of a 
solitary leaf, and have failed to comprehend the origin 
of half its comeliness; if hours, yea weeks, are in- 
sufficient for the full understanding of the beauty of 
a leaf, how much more shall they fail to reveal the 
matchless loveliness of a flower ! 

4. The flower! There are many leaves here, and 
parts varied in magnitude; there are small parts 
within and large parts without, and members of 
diversified shapes ; there are lines uniting with lines, 
shapes contrasting with shapes, and colours blending 
with colours, all of which are worthy of the most 
attentive study, and he who would refine his taste and 
cultivate his perception of beautiful form must be 
content to study a flower till his eyes grow weary with 
viewing it, and his heart learns to feel the beauty 

•% which his eyes perceive. 

5. Plants minister to ornament, we see, by contri- 



24 ART OF DECORATIVE DESIGN, 

buting to the refinement of taste ; they also furnish 
decorative shapes. 

6. The vast stores of nature are open to us, and 
from the floral Ringdom, as from a mine of inex- 
haustible wealth, the ornamentist derives forms of in- 
expressible beauty. There are the forms of leaves, 
of flowers, and of fruits, many of which are of rare 
excellence as ornamental shapes; and besides the in- 
numerable modifications of form seen in the parts 
named, there are peculiarities of contour in organs of 
lesser interest. The stem is not always round, but 
has manifold shapes; the leaf-bud, especially during 
its unfolding in spring, the flower-bud, and not un- 
frequently the seed, furnish forms which cannot be too 
highly appreciated or too fully considered ; and here 
we do not mention the ten thousand beauties revealed 
by sections and dissections of flowers and plants. 

7. To take the herbaceous or succulent (not woody) 
stem as an illustration of the variety presented by a 
member which is commonly regarded as without in- 
terest ornamentally, we find that it is triangular in 
the sand-grass {Carex, fig. 2, e), and papyrus (the 
bulrush of the Scriptures, fig./); in the former the 
sides are concave and the angles acute, in the latter 
the sides are convex and the angles are rounded. In 
other instances the stem is square (z), but upon the 
quadrangular form a number of modifications are 
wrought, like changes of note upon the lyre with one 
string; in some instances the angles are replaced by 
flat faces {j) ; in others by rounded surfaces, or little 
circular ridges {n). In the fiddle-plant of the country 
children, the Scrophularia nodosa (/), the sides are 



MINISTRATIONS OF PLANTS TO ORNAMENT. 



25 



slightly hollowed, the angles rounded, and each corner 
is furnished with a membranous ridge; in the com- 
mon stinging-nettle the square is modified into a 
very beautiful form (o). We have hexagonal stems 

Fig. 2. 




in the hop and garden balsam (q); besides which 
there are egg-shaped (c), biconvex (d), semicircular (a), 
and pentagonal forms (p, r). 

8. Actual forms, we say, are furnished by nature; 
and, we may add, forms of exceeding beauty. Who 
can conceive a form fairer to look upon than the lily, 
or a shape more gentle than the violet? The lowly 
grass, by its gracefulness, bids 'defiance to imitation, 
even by the keenest observer and most careful por- 
trayer; and the weed in the sea has charms which are 
unfolded to those alone who attentively observe it for 
years. 

9. Plants not only furnish the ornamentist with 



26 ART OF DECORATIVE DESIGN. 

abstract forms, but are materials brought forth for 
the use of the beautifier; we mean by this, that as 
stone is adapted for building purposes, and is suscep- 
tible of that treatment which renders it lit for appro- 
priation to exalted purposes, so the plant is material 
which by adaptation and modification may be used 
for the purpose of enhancing our pleasures. 

10. The rich material furnished by the plant-form 
to the ornamentist is very manifest in the remains of 
ancient Egyptian w^ork. Visit the British Museum, 
and notice the beautiful modifications and adaptations 
of the lotus (fig. 1), of which we have already 
spoken, found on the mummy-cases; or, better still, 
observe in the Crystal Palace at Sydenham, first the 
lily itself, as it appears with its blue flowers rising 
from the waters in the tropical end, and then pass to 
the beautiful Egyptian Court, and mark the manner 
in which it has been applied to the purposes of deco- 
ration. You may also notice in the waters the pa- 
pyrus, or Scripture bulrush, and study the manner in 
which it has been modified by this ancient people. 
Make these observations attentively, and you will 
feel that vegetable forms, as material, were by the 
ancients wrought into ornament, as they are now 
fabricated into modern devices. 

11. The suggestions afforded by plants to the 
ornament-producer are almost as numerous and va- 
ried as the forms, and are worthy of equal considera- 
tion with them. Some leaf-buds by their evolution 
set forth a diversity of character in their parts, which 
is welcome as it gives rise to the production of a con- 
trast of a pleasing character. This can be illustrated 



MINISTRATIONS OF PLANTS TO ORNAMENT. 



27 



by the bud of the horse-chestnut tree, as it appears 
in some portion of the month of May (fig. 3), when 
its undivided scales, or protecting envelopes, draw 
back, in order that the emerald plumage of spring 
may appear in the form of the five or seven-fingered 

Fig. 3. 




leaves of the tree. The undivided scales have a me- 
thodical arrangement, and a pleasing effect is pro- 
duced by the directions which they assume; but the 
feature to be especially marked is the manner in 
which the divided or fingered fresh green leaves con- 
trast with the whole or undivided scales. 

12. A contrast not only occurs in the case of 



28 



ART OF DECORATIVE DESIGN. 



Fig. 4. 



x■i5^^i?'^ 




MINISTRATIONS OF PLANTS TO ORNAMENT. 



29 



certain buds, but is even more apparent in other 
instances. The botanist will observe it as brought 
about by exogenous and endogenous foliage; there is 
the grass with its narrow leaves, which are traversed 
by unbranched veins, and in its midst there is the 
buttercup and daisy, the former with divided leaves, 
the latter with toothed leaves, and both with leaves 
in which the veins have a branched and divergent 
disposition ; and in the Tropics the large leaves of the 
bananas, screw-pines, and palms, with their un- 
branched veins, contrast strangely and pleasingly 
with those of the cecropia peltata and bread-fruit tree : 
the prevalence and universality of this juxtaposition 
of dissimilar forms will justify the statement that 
contrast is afforded as a primary suggestion of plants 
to the ornamentist (fig. 4). 

13. That contrast is felt to be a want by those who 
are competent judges is apparent ; the Greeks fre^ 
quently combined the acanthus (fig. 5) with the 
"water-leaf," (fig. 6), the former having its foliage 

Fig. 5. Fig. 6. 




much divided, and resembling, in many respects, the 
leaves of the Scotch thistle, while the latter is whole, 



30 ART OF DECORATIVE DESIGN. 

or without division, having much the form of the leaf 
of the liiy-of-the-valley ; and into the foreground of a 
landscape we commonly iind introduced the large 
and divided foliatje of the hoo;weed and the un- 
divided swordlike leaves of the iris. 

14. Suo:o^estions of a different character are also 
afforded by plants. Our conception of an opening 
leaf-bud will be found to consist in the springing of 
a number of parts from the summit of a branch, some 
of which are reflexed to a considerable extent, while 
those which are internal approximate, in ratio to 
their position, more and more to the perpendicular; 
this arrangement of parts is suggested to the orna- 
mentist, and such a conception or idea of a bud can 
as easily be embodied in conventional as in natural 
forms, for it is not dependent upon form, at least as 
a primary feature, but upon an arrangement of 
parts (Plate IL, figs. 1, 2, 3, 4). 

15. Vegetable nature is full of ornamental ideas : 
the bud, the flower, the climbing shrub and trailing 
plant is each an existence of which the mind takes 
cognizance by creating to itself internally an image 
of that which is external; but this image is without 
detail, possessing only the salient features of the 
object of which the conception is formed. You 
have probably visited the lecture-room of the Syden- 
ham Crystal Palace, and in order to reach it you 
have traversed the entire length of the great build- 
in o- in which it is situated; but what detail have you 
embodied in your conception of this great edifice? 
You perhaps feel — and feel is the best word that we 
can here use — that its v/alls are of crystal, that the 



MINISTRATIONS OF PLANTS TO ORNAMENT. 31 

centre of the building, from south to north, is a clear 
avenue, bounded on either side by statuary, shrubs, 
and courts, and that in one or two places there are 
Avater-tanks in which grow lilies and other forms of 
life. But have you any definite conception of the 
character of the plants, or of the nature of the 
statuary ? Do you know of whom there are busts, and 
of whom full-length figures, or the number and order 
of these works of art? or are you even aware of the 
number and order of the larger objects, such as the 
courts? Have you, indeed, such a conception of a 
solitary vestibule that you could sketch its adorn- 
ments from memory ? If not, how completely is 
detail absent from the mental picture you have drawn 
of this great temple. Should we be right in sur- 
mising that your idea of this Palace is thus devoid 
of minutiae, it will only be necessary, in order to 
awaken reminiscences of this glorious building at 
any future time, that we present a sketch of a 
crystal edifice of exalted proportions, Avith a prome- 
nade up its centre, and statuary, trees, and various 
houselike erections on either side. 

16. Although such is the case, our sketch raay not 
lead, for one moment, to the conclusion that this 
building has been delineated ; indeed, it may be very 
unlike it, even so much so that it would be impossible 
to mistake it for this great edifice, and yet it shall call 
it to mind, and shall not fail in so doing in one case 
out of a thousand. 

17. Seeing the vagueness of the mental conception, 
and the manner in which the mind can be induced to 
form to itself an image of an object by presenting to 



32 ART OF DECORATIVE DESIGN. 

the eye that which contahis the salient features of that 
which the spirit is to recal, we discover the possibility 
of evoking ideas by the agency of decorative art such 
as it does not itself present, and these ideas may be 
pleasing or otherwise. 

18. What constitutes the popular conception of a 
flower ? Undoubtedly this — the radiation of a number 
of parts of the same or different shapes, and of bright 
colours, from a common centre. This being the case, 
if we place around a point a number of concentric 
parts of almost any shape in a radiate manner, and 
give to them an intense colour, we convey to the 
mind an idea of a flower; and by this agency a floral 
pattern can be constructed which in its parts presents 
no actual resemblance to the blossoms of any one of 
the eighty thousand flowering plants with which we 
are at present acquainted (Plate II., fig. 7). 

19. By duly considering the nature of the mental 
conception of any flower, it is possible to suggest it in 
a purely ideal or conventional ornament — the fuchsia, 
the lily, the dahlia, and the rose, and indeed every 
flower can thus be suggested to the mind ; but he who 
displays wisdom in such matters will see to it that the 
image suggested pleasingly or appropriately accords 
with the conditions which should regulate the cha- 
racter of an ornament. 

20. While it is only necessary that a series of radi- 
ating parts be brightly coloured in order to suggest 
to the mind a flower, it is essential that more detail 
be called to aid if the intention be that of suggesting 
a particular flower. In this case a typical shape must 
not be widely departed from, and character of line. 



PLEL 






^JTf^ 



MINISTKATIONS OF PLANTS TO ORNAMENT. 33 

quantity, and order it may also be necessary to con- 
sider; but with consideration the plant can be sug- 
gested, and yet the ornament which suggests it be far 
from a mere imitation (Plate II., fig. 6, and Plate III,, 
figs. 1, 2, and 3); it may be modified and adapted, 
and clothed in the mind of the artist, and yet be suf- 
ficiently characteristic to awaken the desired thought. 

21. Seeing the possibility of clothing an idea in 
form, the plenitude of suggestions afforded by plants 
to the ornamentist is impressive, for every flower not 
only presents to us a shape, but also afibrds an idea 
which may be embodied in conventional forms, and 
herein rests the fulness of the ministrations of plants 
to ornament. 

22. We shall further see the manner in which 
plants wait upon ornament, and the extent to which 
the beautiful in form is dependent upon the floral 
kingdom for its existence, as we proceed with our in- 
quiry into the principles which regulate the produc- 
tion of decorative forms, and the few instances adduced 
in which plants are subservient to ornament will 
establish a truth which will be supported and main- 
tained by those yet to appear. 



D 



34 



CHAPTER III. 

GKADES IN DECORATIVE ART. 

1. The object we have in teaching writing in our 
schools is that of enabling mind to commune with mind 
and spirit with spirit when the bodies in which they 
dwell are somewhat widely separated by space or 
time; the secondary advantages resulting from an 
increase of power over the hand and a more careful 
mode of thought, which writing induces, may also lead 
us to inflict upon our children the task of learning to 
make and arrange characters on paper, but the pri- 
mary object is that of enabling them to pass their 
thoughts through space, and hand them down through 
time, in order to instruct, gratify, or delight kindred 
spirits. 

2. But the power to write is only of value as it 
enables us to embody thought in form in such a 
manner that others may reap from the forms the con- 
ceptions of the mind which created them ; in itself the 
power is worthless, for no collection of indiscrimi- 
nately arranged words would be of value, but as 
thought can be conveyed by this agency the art 
cannot be over-esteemed. 

3. The works of Shakspeare, Macaulay, and Bacon 
we greatly value, but they neither command our 



GRADES IN DECORATIVE ART. 35 

sympathies nor our approbation because they are com- 
binations of characters arranged in meritorious order 
according to rule, but through the excellency of the 
mind which they make known; for while reading 
these works we recognise the minds of the authors 
conversing with our minds as fully as if the very men 
were standing before us in person and speaking in 
audible sounds. 

4. It is so with drawing, for this is but a vehicle 
for thought — a means to an end ; and I know not that 
the art is worth the expenditure of labour necessary 
to its possession but for this one power which it has. 
Writing may be said to be a plain chariot in which 
thoughts are conveyed from individual to individual 
throughout a kingdom, and sometimes beyond, and 
decorative art an ornamental car in which mind is 
conveyed throughout the world. 

5. One feature of especial interest, as appertaining 
to drawing, is this — that the language which it speaks 
is universal and addresses itself alike to the inha- 
bitants of every land ; then, however desirable it may 
be to possess the power of delineating objects for 
secondary purposes, the great value of such ability 
rests in the increased means afforded for the convey- 
ance of thought. 

6. Seeing that we value the power of drawing 
merely as a means and not as an end, and recognising 
the truth already enforced (Chap. I. s. 21), that the 
amount of pleasure derivable from an object is in 
ratio to the amount of mind which it manifests, it 
will not be difficult for us to determine the merits of 
the varied classes of decorative art. 

D 2 



36 ART OF DECORATIVE DESIGN. 

7. Mere imitation is not ornamentation, and is no 
more art in the higher sense of the term than writing 
is in itself literature; for in order to the production 
of ornament there must, at least, be adaptation. 

8. Our so-called " natural wall-papers" will illus- 
trate the first, or most elementary, step taken towards 
the production of ornament, for adaptation has here 
been considered so far as is absolutely necessary in 
order that the design may repeat in the mechanical 
manner necessary to its production, but no further. 
Here the effort has been to imitate what is seen, and 
not to adapt natural forms to the purposes of decora- 
tion ; the little adaptation essential is rather mourned 
over than gloried in, and had it not been indispensable 
would not have been considered. 

9. If mere imitation is ornamentation, the orna- 
mentist must at once give^^lace to the photographer, 
who, by his art, repeats natural objects with infi- 
nitely more accuracy than the most careful draughts- 
man ; but photography cannot invent, as it is devoid 
of the mental or imaginative faculty, for the working 
of the mind is essential to the production of deco- 
ration, and indeed to the creation of all exalted art. 

10. We have no reason to believe that when the 
old Greeks were about to produce one of their inimi- 
table statues they searched the land for the most 
perfect human form and simply imitated what they 
saw ; if so, they would in all probability have made a 
cast of the figure. But their statues are not casts, they 
are types of the human shape, and have unquestion- 
ably resulted from a consideration of the form of 
many individuals. We imagine that prior to the 



GRADES IN DECORATIVE ART. 37 

production of one of these statues an inquiry was 
made into the perfect form of the human body, Avhich 
investigation might be long continued, and require the 
observation of the forms of many ; and after the mind 
had produced to itself, in the form of a mental con- 
ception, a perfect type, worked out in all its details, 
an inquiry was further instituted into the modifica- 
tion which the form underwent as the action of the 
figure was brought to that required. After such 
preparation, the production of a figure perfect in form 
was comparatively easy, the difficulty rested in form- 
ing correctly the mental image, and in order to this 
the great knowledge was required. What we admire, 
then, in the Greek statue is not the manifestation of 
mechanical skill or labour in its construction (indeed, 
no thought of labour is intruded upon the mind when 
beholding it), but the knowledge manifested by it, 
and we view it with delight as the embodiment in 
matter of a conception of the mind. 

11. We see that these works are not imitations of 
that which actually exists, but are mind embodied in 
form ; and this principle applies equally to ornament, 
for that which is most pleasing and meritorious is 
that which has most fully a mental origin, while that 
which sets forth things seen is of a less satisfactory 
character. 

12. Natural adaptations, we have seen, are the 
lowest form of ornament, but the next step, which is 
much more exalted, consists in the " conventional 
treatment " of natural forms. 

13. Vegetable nature treated conventionally will 
not be found to be far removed from truth, but will 



38 ART OF DECORATIVE DESIGN. 

be merely a natural form, or a series of combined 
forms, neither marred by blights nor disturbed by 
winds, adapted to the fulfilment of a special purpose, 
or suited to a particular position j for the most perfect 
examples of what is usually termed "Conventionalized 
nature" are those which express the intention of 
nature, if we may thus speak, or are manifestations 
of natural objects as undisturbed by surrounding in- 
fluences and unmarred by casualties. 

14. In attempting the production of the ideal of 
nature the utmost care must be used in order to dis- 
criminate between truth and deformity; the beauty 
of a plant cannot be said to be repeated in a draw- 
ing if deformity is portrayed; deformity must be 
altogether absent from a perfect work, for art has a 
more exalted mission than that of setting forth what 
we loathe. 

15. How repugnant to refined feelings it is to be- 
hold a marred feature or disfigured limb perpetuated 
by statuary as a work of art ; and although deformity 
in plants may not be so manifest, and hence not so 
offensive, as deformity in man, yet its presence 
detracts from beauty, even if the source of the evil 
be unperceived. 

16. Conventionalized plants, we say, will be found 
to be nature delineated in her purest or typical form, 
hence they are not imitations, but are the embodi- 
ment in form of a mental idea of the perfect plant ; 
but this ideal figure is the subject of a process of 
adaptation. 

17. The intention of the plant in producing the 
bud of the honeysuckle is that of developing leaves of 



GRADES IN DECORATIVE ART. 39 

certain shapes in a given arrangement while they are yet 
varied in direction (Plate II., fig. 6) ; but should a leaf 
be partially destroyed by blight or some insect preying 
upon it, it will be necessary to perfect it; and should 
the leaves on one side of the stem be smaller than 
those on the other, owing to their receiving an in- 
sufficiency of light, they must be enlarged ; or should 
any part be drawn aside from its proper position, it 
must again be restored to its place; and in deducing 
from many examples the laws and forms of nature, 
and producing a truly typical shape, rests the chief 
secret of the production of the conventional forms of 
plants. 

18. Still following an ascending series, we find the 
next grade of decorative art in the embodying in form 
a mental idea which has been suggested by nature, 
and yet the form neither represents any actually 
existing object nor any intention of nature. 

19. The illustration already given (Chap. II., s. 19) 
of the manner in which a mental conception can be 
embodied in a new form, as that of an opening bud 
or of a flower, will likewise tend to elucidate our 
present meaning, and it will be unnecessary that we 
spend time in showing that a composition may 
embody an idea derived from a natural object, and 
yet not imitate the object the spirit of which it em- 
bodies, for we have already seen that this is possible. 

20. It is apparent that the latter class of ornament 
is a greater development of mind than either of those 
which we have already considered, for in the "Natural 
treatment " there is the smallest possible amount of 
mental power embodied, and although in "conven- 



40 AET OF DECORATIVE DESIGN. 

tionalized nature " there is much more, yet there is 
here considerably less than in the embodiment of a 
mere feature in ideal forms. 

21. Purely ideal ornament is that which is most 
exalted, it being wholly a creation of the soul; it 
is utterly an embodiment of mind in form, or an off- 
spring of the inner man, and its origin and nature 
give to it its elevated character. 

22. It would be folly now to enforce the statement 
that conventional ornament is the highest branch of 
decorative art, as we have shown that the exaltation 
of ornament is in ratio to the amount of mind mani- 
fested in its creation ; and the most careful considera- 
tion will verify this truth, for ideal creations are as 
far above imitations as the mind is above the body. 
Many brutes can imitate, but they cannot create. 

23. We are now enabled to classify ornaments by 
affinities resulting from equality in respect to the 
embodiment of mental power ; thus we have as 
examples of the first or most exalted grade of 
ornament the Greek, the Moorish, the early English, 
much of the Indian and mediseval, many features in 
the Japanese, and some parts of the Egyptian and 
Renaissance. In the second class, folloAving a de- 
scending series, we may instance much of the Egyp- 
tian and Chinese, and a few features in the Greek 
and Japanese. In the third, a great portion of the 
middle-age work, especially the later Gothic, and 
many parts of the Chinese and Indian; and in the 
fourth, or last class, much of the Pompeian and our 
modern floral patterns. 

24. While we have thus instanced a few examples 



GRADES OF DECORATIVE ART. 41 

which seem, on the whole, illustrations of the grades 
to which we have called attention, yet in several 
cases the same part of a decoration will, by two 
features, illustrate two grades. Many of our floral 
patterns, while they belong to the fourth or lowest 
class in view of their composition, belong also to the 
first or second in view of their colouring, for it is in 
some parts purely ideal, and in others merely sug- 
gested by natural objects, and were it not for the 
more exalted character of the colouring these 
patterns would be much coarser than they are. 

25. While there are these grades of ornament it 
must be remembered that there can be good and bad 
in each class, for if a purely mental creation has not 
its parts subjected to the laws or requirements of 
ornament, which are yet to be pointed out, it cannot 
be satisfying, and the pain resulting from beholding 
an imperfect decoration will be in ratio to the class 
to which it belongs, and will be greater as the class 
is exalted. Purely ideal art, when degraded, is 
most offensive, as it is the nobler part of man so 
debased as to be contemptible. 



42 



CHAPTER IV. 

THE AFFINITY OF THE AESTHETIC ARTS — MUSIC, 
OENAMENT, ETC. 

1. We have now to bring forward the result of a 
series of experiments made with the view of ascer- 
taining whether a manifest harmony exists between 
music and decorative art ; for should a coincidence in 
certain particulars be established between form and 
sound, the rules of music might be serviceable in 
pointing to those which regulate the distribution and 
proportion of the members of an ornamental com- 
position. 

2. Our effort at reducing to rule the production of 
ornament, which has hitherto seemed to result from 
caprice, has not issued, we fear, in the discovery of 
principles of much importance to the decorative arts ; 
yet as the character of the research and the results 
gained are alike curious, we introduce them, begging 
that they be received indulgently. 

While we are aware that the unravelling the com- 
plexity of ideas which prevail respecting the art of 
decoration into a tangible code of laws has not been 
accomplished, we feel justified in introducing this 
chapter, as ornamentists are too prone to disregard 
kindred studies and trust to empirical knowledge. 



X 



AFFINITY OF THE ESTHETIC ARTS. 43 

General cultivation tends to the extension of power 
in a particular direction, and the laws of associated 
arts will frequently admit of interchange. 

3. Not only do the varied branches of the fine arts 
abide too fully within their own immediate spheres, 
but art and science dwell too widely apart. We look 
on the one hand at the man whose refinement of mind 
enables him to produce lines, and forms, and combina- 
tions of the fanciful which charm all who behold 
them, and we look on the other hand, and see him who 
penetrates the deep and beautiful mysteries of scien- 
tific truth; but alas ! like two links of a broken chain, 
they dwell apart. This chapter, and that, especially, 
on " The Power of Ornament to express Feelings and 
Ideas," will show the desirability of uniting these ; and 
if we might become the little link which should bind 
these two great links together we shall indeed be glad. 

4. Art and science may also be pictured as two 
angelic figures, entrusted with missions alike benefi- 
cent, who see in each other much that they admire, 
and yet there seems to be something about each which 
tends to repel the other. I tell you that this repul- 
siveness only results from their not possessing each 
other's more intimate acquaintance ; may we, then, 
introduce them to each other, or rather become for 
the first time a priest, and bid the twain be one. 

5 . And our task is pleasing — for whether we become 
the priest or the little link, we shall be the means of 
uniting those which will live a long life in the enjoy- 
ment of each other's caresses, and a life which will be 
crowned with the happiest issue. 

6. The following statements will at once set forth 



44 ART OF DECORATIVE DESIGN. 

the existence of a similarity in the manner in which 
music and decoration influence the mind. Music, by- 
its grateful strains, lulls the spirit to sweet and joyous 
forgetfulness, and retards its unruly outbreakings ; so 
does ornament, for it too can soothe, and entrance, 
and hush to reverie, or kindle joys. 

7. Our attention is here awakened to the existence 
of a similarity of music and ornament in the power 
which they each possess of working upon the mind. 
But some will object to the assertion that ornament 
enjoys the power of working thusfully upon the spirits, 
but this is due to the rarity of worthy decorative ex- 
amples. Some of our cathedrals awe by solemn 
grandeur; the Greek Court in the Crystal Palace at 
Sydenham speaks impressively, yet softly, of subtle 
refinement, and the Alhambra overpowers by lavish 
richness ; but these Courts suffer from publicity, and 
the fact that when viewing them we mingle with irre- 
verent spirits. 

8. That music and decorative art are twin sisters 
engaged in the same beneficent work of gladdening 
man while on his pilgrimage through life and reviv- 
ing the downcast spirit is apparent, for they both 
soothe and lull to reverie ; they both awe by solemn 
grandeur and provoke joyous mirth ; they both deepen 
sorrows and enhance joys. 

9. What has been said of the power of music 
■ and decoration is also true of poetry and pictorial 

art, hence the aesthetic arts are intimately related, 
but on the affinity of poetry and pictorial art with 
music and ornament we must not enlarge. 

10. The existence of a deeper unity between form 



AFFINITY OF THE .ESTHETIC ARTS. 45 

and sound might be expected in view of many con- 
siderations. A fiddle-bow drawn across the edge of 
a sheet of glass on which sand has been sprinkled, 
while giving rise to an audible sound, causes the 
particles of sand to collect into given shapes, which 
vary according to the note produced, and these 
sonorous figures are of a very interesting character. 
That it is the sound which brings about the arrange- 
ment of the sand particles is manifested by the 
figures arising from the production of the dififerent 
notes being dissimilar, and by the fact that if sand 
is sprinkled on the tightly strained end of a drum 
and a powerful note is produced by a cymbal or 
other instrument, the sand will arrange itself into 
form, although removed to a considerable distance 
from the source of the sound. 

11. Sound results from waves of air striking the 
drum of the ear (which is a tightly stretched mem- 
brane, resembling in many respects the end of a com- 
mon drum), and imparting their vibratory motion 
to it, and through its agency to the nerves commu- 
nicating with the brain; and the height or depth 
of the note is determined by the lengths of the waves 
of air which mediate between the sonorous body and 
the drum of the ear. 

12. Having ascertained the lengths of the waves 
which give rise to the varied notes, and the fact 
that these bear a singular relation to each other, 
the propriety of inquiring whether lines of the same 
relative lengths (fig. 7) are in any way related sug- 
gested itself, and there seemed to be a probability 
in its favour, as beautiful proportion must always be 



46 



ART OP PECORATIVE DESIGN. 



of a more or less subtle character, as we shall here- 
after see. 



Fia. 7. 



13. The form resulting from placing in a radiate 
manner lines which bear the same relation to one 
another in point of length that the waves producing 
the notes in the scale of music do is exceedingly 
pleasing, and corresponds, when repeated or doubled, 
with the anthemion of the Greeks (Plate lY., 
fig. 1 ) ; this is remarkable, that the curve formed 



pi.rv" 




AFFINITY OF THE ESTHETIC ARTS. 



47 



by the apices of the radiate members is of a high 
order, and one in which subtle beauty abides. 

14. The next experiment, in which chords are 
embodied as well as the scale (which latter occupies the 
central portion of our diagram), and the parts spring 
from a spiral (Plate IV., fig. 2), is curious, inasmuch 
as it suggests activity or motion ; it has a splashing 

Fig. 8. 




character, but here also the ornament is repeated, 
on the principle of the double monogram. A third 
experiment, in which the air "God save the Queen" 



48 ART OF DECORATIVE DESIGN. 

is translated into form is more curious than beau- 
tiful, yet the result is not, even here, altogether 
devoid of interest* (fig. 8). 

15. These are some few of our investigations into 
the extent and nature of the harmony existing 
between music and decorative forms, and although 
they cannot be said to have resulted in any great 
good, yet harmonious chords in music, when trans- 
lated into form, furnish examples of beautiful pro- 
portion. 

* For the sake of eiFect, the first portion of the tune occurs in the 
lower half of the figure* 



49 



CHAPTER V. 

ANALYSIS OF ORNAMENTAL FORMS. 

1. In ornament, as in science, it is necessary to 
have recourse to an analytical metliod. The deep 
insight into the mysteries of the atomic world with 
which we have been so fully favoured of late is mainly 
due to the energy displayed in the analysis of sub- 
stances. But it is not by the chemist alone that the 
effort is made to ascertain the composition of bodies, 
for the zoologist and botanist likewise strive to observe 
the unit out of which all vital forms are wrought, and 
to discover the ultima thule of life. An analytical 
investigation is at all times interesting ; the chemist, 
while repeatedly reducing a substance to a lower 
condition, is advancing towards the simplicity of the 
material with which nature works, and by this he 
learns that out of a few elementary principles " the 
great globe," with all its vital forms, are wrought. 
In like manner the botanist and zoologist discover 
that out of one primitive form — a little cell or 

E 



50 ART OF DECORATIVE DESIGN. 

bladder-like body of extreme smallness — all conditions 
of life arise. 

2. Pleasing as analytical research is, it has a value 
beyond that due to the gratification which it affords; 
for by a knowledge of the composition of substances, 
and the manner in which elements are combined into 
forms of utility and beauty, we alone have that power 
over the diversified forms of matter which enables 
us to mould them into shapes necessary to our well- 
being and comfort. No one imagines that the photo- 
grapher could operate as well were he ignorant of the 
composition of his bath and of the nature of the 
substances which he employs. It is a keen perception 
and deep knowledge of the powers of the substances 
which he is using that tend most to success. And no 
one thinks that the artist would use his colours with 
the same freedom were he ignorant of the fact that 
green is composed of blue and yellow; our power is 
dependent upon the knowledge which we possess of 
the materials used, and he who would combine ele- 
ments must be content to study the nature of that 
which he uses and its capacity for union. 

3. The principles here set forth are fully applicable 
to ornament. The combination of forms cannot be 
carried on successfully unless the forms themselves 
are understood and the conditions of their association 
ascertained ; but as the chemical student first devotes 
himself to analysis and only attempts the combina- 
tion of elements into useful forms of matter at a later 
period of his career, it will be found desirable for the 
student of decorative art first to apply himself to 
analysis, and ultimately to the combination of forms. 



ANALYSIS OF ORNAMENTAL FORMS. 



51 



4. In viewing an ornament, after weighing its 
merits and judging of its effect, the first effort 
should be to reduce it to its most elementary con- 



FiG. 9. 




dition, or most simple unit. The -common geo- 
metrical form which we give in fig. 9 is merely a 
square with semi -circles removed from the sides and 



Fig. 10. 



added to the ends (fig. 10), and the more com- 
plicated pattern given in fig. 11 will be seen to be 
the same rectangular figure with small segments of a 

E 2 



52 



AET OF DECOKATIVE DESIGN. 



particular form taken from definite positions and 
added elsewhere with the same exactness (fig. 12). 



Fig. 11. 




5. The practice of this principle of analysis will 

Fig. 12. 




give the mind greater power over forms than can be 
gained in any other way. Already we see that the 



ANALYSIS OF ORNAMENTAL FORMS. 



53 



removing a portion of a simple form from one place 

Fig. 13. 




to another aiFords the means of brin^ino^ about an 

Fig. 14. 



^6 ^"6 




endless variety of shapes. The form given in fig. ] 

Fig. 15. 




54 



AKT OF DECORATIVE DESIGN. 



is but a series of forms (fig 14), such as are given 
in fig. 15. 

Fig. 16. 




6. It is not only desirable to reduce a form to its 
lowest unit, but it is well to ascertain whether it can 
be formed of diversified elements. The form fig. 16 
may be conceived to result from a combination of 



Fia. 17. 



Fig. 18. 



< 



> 




\y 



shapes such as are seen at fig 17, with spaces be- 
tween them, or of the two units shown at fig 18, or 



ANALYSIS OF ORNAMENTAL FORMS. 55 

of squares connected by crosses (fig. 19), or of 



Fig. 19. 



Fig. 20. 



n D D D 
D n D D 
D D D D 




diagonal members of the character set forth by fig. 20 
Fig. 21. Fig. 22. 




crossing. In like manner, the form given at fig. 2 1 

Fig. 23. 




may be regarded as made up of the waved line 



56 



ART OF DECORATIVE DESIGN. 



(fig. 22), the horizontal cuspid line (fig. 23), or of 
the form fig. 24, arranged closely (fig. 25), or so as to 
leave alternate spaces of the same form (fig. 26). 



Fig. 24. 




7. Simple and frivolous as this mode of investiga- 
tion seems it is yet of the utmost value ; for the power 
of combining forms, and of fitly dividing them into 



Fig. 25. 



Fig. 26. 





smaller parts, will be more readily gained and more 
fully possessed by the continual application of this 
mental process of analysis to the forms viewed than 
by any other mode of thought. But tli£ poAver thus 



ANALYSIS OF ORNAMENTAL FORMS. 



57 



afforded for the division of forms we shall shortly 
have a better opportunity of showing. 



Fig. 27. 




8. The forms which we here delineate (tigs. 27, 
28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35), result from the unit 



Fig. 28. 




Fig. 29. 




fig. 36, but this may be termed a compound unit, 
as it, together with figs. 37 and 38, can be reduced 
to the diamond, or lozenge form (fig. 39), as shown 
in figs. 40, 41, and 42, and the lozenge results from 
two equilateral triangles (fig. 43), hence it is also 
compound, and the triangle is the most simple 



58 



ART OF DECORATIVE DESIGN. 



element of the series of figures which we have just 
presented. 



Fig. 30. 




9. We are now enabled to set forth the advantage 

Fig. 31. 




of this knowledge in the division of forms. The form 

Fig. 32. 




fig. 38 could not be more appropriately broken up than 



ANALYSIS OF ORNAMENTAL FORMS. 59 

by its division into the units of which it is composed, 

Fig. 33. Fig. 34. Fig. 35. 






as shown in fig. 46, or into certain combinations of 
Fig. 36. Fig. 37. 




that unit (figs. 41, 44, 45); and similar instances 
might be multiplied to almost any extent. 



Fig. 38. 




Fig. 39. 




10. Fig. 38 may further be regarded as- made up 



60 



ART OF DECORATIVE DESIGN. 



of two hexagoDS, the one of which is divided into 
parts ; for the six triangles which surround the hexa- 

FiG. 41. 
Tig. 40. 





gon (see fig. 45) unitedly make up another hexagon, 
each triangle being the sixth portion of this figure 



Fig. 42. 



Fig. 43. 





(fig. 47). This will be the better seen if we fold one 
member over (fig. 48). Fig. 47 may be regarded, 
then, as fig. 45 folded up. 

1 1. The student will find it of the utmost value, in 
prosecuting these inquiries into the units of forms, to 
cut out a series of figures in mounting -board, and 
form shapes by their combination ; by this he will be 
ascertaining the adaptation of the form for union 
and the unit of the forms produced at the same time. 
The practice afibrded by the Chinese puzzle, known 
to most schoolboys, is good,* but is of a less useful 



* This puzzle, together with a number of forms to be produced, 
and a key, accompanied Beeton's Annual for 1861. 



ANALYSIS OF ORNAMENTAL FORMS. 



61 



character than that afforded by more regular figures, 
as the forms produced are in themselves valueless, 



Fig. 44. 



Fig. 45. 





and the practice only tends to the education of the 
mind, while two ends might be answered at once. 



Fig. 46. 




12. Seeing the value of analysis as applied to orna- 
FiG. 47. 




ment, it is well that we give one illustration of the 



62 



ART OF DECORATIVE DESIGN. 



capacity of a form for entering into union. The 
series of forms commencing with fig. 27 have all 



Fig. 48. 




resulted from the triangle, and the majority could be 
formed of the compound unit, the lozenge : this latter 



Fig. 49. 




form we shall use as an illustration. Added to the 
figures already given, the following (figs. 49, 50, 51, 
52, 53, 54, 55) will sufiice for our purpose, as they 
represent the principal varieties of pattern which this 
form makes. Figs. 49 and 53 result from the form 
being placed together in such a manner that no 
o;round is seen between ; in the one case the lozeno-es 
are erect, while in the other they are so disposed as 



ANALYSIS OF ORNAMENTAL FORMS. 



68 



to form hexagons. In figs. 50, 51, 52, 54, the forms 




Fig. 51. 




are so placed as to leave variously -formed spaces 



64 ART OF DECORATIVE DESIGN. 

between them ; and in this Avay great variation in the 
pattern can be brought about. 

Fig. 52. 




13. Before dismissing the lozenge, we will treat it 

Fig. 53. 




in the manner suggested in section 4 ; thus we cut arcs 
from its lower portion and add them to the upper 
(fig. 56). This gives us a new form capable of 



ANALYSIS OF ORNAMENTAL FORMS. 65 

entering into combination (figs. 57, 58), and in the 

Fig. 55. 



Fig. 54. 




character given at fig. 57 may be classed with scale 
patterns. 



Fig. 56. 




14. We have illustrated our subject exclusively 
with geometrical shapes, but the principle must be 
pursued in relation to all ornament. We have 

F 



66 



ART OF DECORATIVE DESIGN. 



selected geometrical forms simply because they enable 
us more readily to set forth what we have in view ; 

Fig. 57. 




and all that can possibly be done, in a work like the 

Fig. 58. 




present, is the illustration of principles which must 
be pursued and worked out by the individual. 



67 



CHAPTER VI. 



OEDER. 



1. No one questions the loveliness of flowers; at 
least, such as do strangely differ from the majority of 
mankind; yet, incredible as it may appear, we have 
met with two individuals who do not esteem these 
charming objects. The one was a glazier, occupied in 
repairing one of our conservatories at the time Avhen 
he uttered this incongruous remark; but the other 
was even a greater mistake, being a lady who not 
only disliked flowers but was deaf to the soft strains 
of music while she yet had ears, was blind to the 
virtues of the rougher sex while she yet had eyes, and 
was untouched by the soft influences of love, and yet 
a lady; but whether a lady-form merely, in whom 
nature had omitted to plant a soul, or a lady-body 
which had been furnished with the smallest specimen 
of such a commodity that was ever vouchsafed to the 
human frame, it is difiicult to say. Happily these 
are exceptional examples of the race ; and the class 
which they represent form such a minority in the 
great family of mankind that we need trouble our- 
selves little with their likings. 

2. Flowers are nature's ornaments and the rich 
decorative forms in which she loves to array her- 

F 2 



68 AKT OF DECORATIVE DESIGN. 

self; they are as living jewels, the floral efflorescence 
of earth. This being the case, we may safely take 
them as types of ornament, and deduce from their 
habits and mode of growth laws which shall govern 
the production and arrangement of forms destined to 
minister to our pleasures. We may observe them 
attentively and study them carefully in order to 
possess an accurate knowledge of the character of 
the shapes and nature of the effects which we behold ; 
and although the mind feels pleasure in detecting 
resemblances to that which it loves to contemplate, 
there is no occasion for the apprehension of degene- 
racy of taste through the observation of the majority 
of plants ; for the forms which spring up in the 
garden, the shapes unfolded on the hedge-bank, the 
prostrate herbage of the moors, and the sturdy trees 
of the forest, all tell us that in the parterre, by the 
wayside, and in the sylvan aisles. Beauty loves to 
dwell and blossom forth. 

3. In this, and the majority of the following chap- 
ters, we shall refer to the teachings of nature as given 
us in plants, in order to the illustration of the subject 
under consideration; but this we shall do with cau- 
tion. For, while we feel that plants are the orna- 
ments of earth, and that their forms are in the 
majority of instances of a beautiful character, we are 
also aware that it does not necessarily follow that 
because a thing is natural it is beautiful ; for, while 
the braying of an ass is natural, it is yet anything but 
agreeable. It is so with plants; while the majority 
are beautiful, there are yet those which have but 
little of this quality. 



ORDER. 69 

4. We shall refer to plants, we say, for the purpose 
of illustration and of discovering the habits of nature 
in respect to the point under consideration ; yet we 
shall regard as the greatest authority the opinions of 
men who have cultivated their sense and perception 
of the beautiful throughout a long series of years, 
and shall approve those practices which have received 
the sanction of the masters of the great art-epochs, 
and commend themselves to our judgment by fitness 
and consistency. Yet principles manifested by the 
great majority of plants, and especially by those 
which are richly endowed with ornamental beauty, 
we shall value as important. 

5. In pursuing this conduct some will say that we 
are slighting nature, but this is not the case. Will 
any one say that the odour of the garlic is as sweet 
as that of the violet or rose? or as delicate as that 
of the lily-of-the-valley ? Will any deny that the 
aroma of the garden balsam {Tmpatiens noli-me-tan- 
gere)^ crown imperial {Fritillaria imperialis)^ or of 
the stinking morell {Phallus impudicus) is less fra- 
grant than that of the carnation or magnolia? or 
will any assert that the fruits of the bitter-sweet 
(Solanum dulcamara)^ mountain-ash (Pyrus aucu- 
paria), and grape, are alike palatable? that the roots 
of liquorice and gentian are alike agreeable, and that 
wormwood and cinnamon are equally grateful to the 
organs of taste ? To do so would be considered mad- 
ness ; and to assert that all plants are alike perfect in 
form — yea, that some are not altogether without 
beauty such as ministers to the gratification of the 
eye — is an equal folly. 



70 ART OF DECORATIVE DESIGN. 

6. We now proceed to consider our subject, in 
doing which we notice first, that in the great majority 
of the best ornaments of every age with which we are 
acquainted a principle of order is manifestly present, 
and this will be found to result from the decorative 
scheme being founded upon a geometric basis. In an 
ornamental composition we usually find that certain 
parts are emphasized and are especially attractive, 
these have determinate positions, even if the other 
parts are somewhat confused in arrangement; yet, in 
the best decorative compositions of all ages a method- 
ical arrangement is found to prevail throughout the 
entirety of the ornament. 

7. There is but a small amount of evidence that 
a scheme, of whatever character it is, has resulted 
from the operation of mind in the absence of the 
manifestation of order, for while confusion may result 
from casualties order can alone spring from intel- 
ligence. This being the case, it is manifest that the 
prevalence of order throughout every member of a 
composition, however extended, enriches it by adding 
to its merits, for we have already seen (Chap. I., s. 21) 
that the merit of an ornament is dependent upon the 
extent to which mind is embodied in it. 

8. We now turn to the vegetable kingdom in order 
to discover whether a principle of order prevails 
throughout the structures which are here presented 
to us. 

9. Upon beholding plants we are at first impressed 
with the idea that their growth is governed by no very 
rigid principle, for we see the convolvulus winding 
its way in graceful freeness around the branches of 



ORDER 71 

the hawthorn bush, and the honeysuckle wandering 
whither it will amidst the closely-packed habitants 
of the thicket, and even the little daisy beneath our 
feet appears to protrude its leaves and blossoms as it 
pleases, and the stately tree surely generates its wide- 
spread arms just as it likes. Freedom seems the rule, 
and not order. 

10. No habit has been attended with more injurious 
consequences, as respects the favourable development 
of ornamental art, than that of regarding vegetable 
structures in the cursory manner that we have done, 
and deducing from this hasty contemplation the broad 
and erroneous conclusion that plants are not developed 
according to fixed laws. It is this which has given 
rise to our so-called natural- wall-papers, and it is this 
which has led the great majority of the people to 
foster the idea that ornaments developed in obedience 
to law are stiff and ungraceful. The Germans are 
greater thinkers than we are, at least they dwell more 
upon the laws of nature, as a people, than we do, and 
there the art is more rigid in character and more 
obviously governed by law in its development than it 
is with us. The utmost care should be used before 
arriving at any broad and sweeping conclusion, more 
especiall}' in relation to those objects which live and 
grow around us, as they are endowed with a power 
of enlarging and increasing themselves, which ope- 
rations it is difficult to conceive as being accomplished 
in the absence of rule or law; and if law prevails in 
respect to growth, we are naturally led to look for 
order in the arrangement of the members, as the 
manifestation of the presence of the hidden principle. 



72 



ART OF DECORATIVE DESIGN. 



A very cursory glance at the guelder rose will show 
that the leaves are, in this instance, arranged upon the 
stem in an orderly manner, that they grow in pairs 



Fig. 59. 




(fig. 59) which are so placed that when we look upon 
the top of the branch the leaves are seen to lie in 
four rows (fig. 60). Here two leaves are opposed to 
each other, one of which passes to the right and one 
to the left, then one of the next pair advances and 
one recedes, one of the next pair again passes to the 
right and one to the left, and so on throughout the 
entire length of the branch. This is not an uncom- 
mon or exceptional mode of leaf arrangement, it 
occurs in the garden -sage, the thyme, the white and 
red dead-nettle, the lavender, mimulus, pimpernel, 



ORDER. 



73 



verbena, elder, honeysuckle, lilac, sweet-william, 
pink, and St. John's-wort, and in many other plants 



Fig. 60. 




we might name. In the instances adduced it is 
obvious that a law of order prevails, and this will 
not be less apparent in the goosegrass (fig. 61), 



Fig. 61. 




where the leaves are disposed in rings made up 
of about eight leaves. In the madder, rose-bay, 
garden-balsam, woodruff, purple loosestrife, sea-holly, 
and mare's-tail, the leaves are also disposed in 
the same verticillate or whorled manner, but the 



74 ART OF DECORATIVE DESIGN. 

rings are made up of various numbers of leaves in 
the different plants, yet a most rigid principle of 
order prevails in each, for while the leaves are 
arranged in rings they are also so disposed that the 
leaves in the one ring fall over the spaces between 
the leaves in the next ring below ; thus, if each ring 
is formed of three leaves there will yet be six rows of 
leaves.* 

1 1 . While the leaf arrangement is obviously orderly 
in the cases brought forward, it is not, at first sight, 
manifestly so in many instances. The leaves of the- 
rose, apple, and holly seem to be without arrange- 
ment ; but investigation has of late years done much 
towards the elucidation or settlement of this subject. 
Throughout a long period of time all leaves which 
were not arranged in an opposite or whorled manner 
were regarded as without order in their arrangement ; 
but Bonnet noticed that, in some instances, they had 
a spiral disposition, or were so situated that a thread 
wound in a corkscrew-like manner around the stem 
touched the base of every leaf; but it remained for 
the Germans Schimper and Braun to investigate the 
multitude of examples, and the French brothers 
Bravais to pursue the subject mathematically, in 
order to fully clear up the whole case before us. 

12. The spiral leaf-arrangement occurs in a num- 
ber of modifications which become more and most 
complicated in character, and has its origin, or more 
simple development, in those instances in which the 
leaves are alternately at either side of the stem 

* The rows of leaves are always most readily seen by looking upon 
the summit of the branch. 



ORDER. 



75 



(fig. 62). In this case the leaves are in two rows 
situated at opposite sides of the stem (fig. 63), yet 



Fig. 62. 




the leaves are not opposite, for one only proceeds 
from the stem at the same level, and the leaves are 
alternately at each side of the stem, as they are con- 

FiG. 64. 



Fjg. 63. 





secutively higher. The spiral character of this 
arrangement will be better seen if we represent it in 



76 



ART OF DECOliATIVE DESIGN. 
Fig. 65. 




ORDER. 



77 



a diagramatic manner, and indicate the positions of 
the leaves by dots (fig. 64) ; the consecutive leaves 
will now be seen to be equi-distant from each other ; 
that is, leaf two will be removed from leaf one by 
half the circumference of the stem, leaf three from 
leaf two by the same distance, and so on, regardless 
of the extent of the series. As illustrations of this 
mode of arrangement we may instance the sugar- 
cane, leek, day-lily, traveller's tree of the tropics 
{Urania), (fig. 65), and most grasses. 

13. The spiral arrangement, which we next en- 
counter, is discoverable in the sand-grass {Car ex), 
many sedges, the autumn crocus (Colchicum), and 
certain other plants, but it is usually more obscure 
and difiicult to detect than the former (the alternate) 
arrangement, owing to the majority of plants which 
evolve their leaves on this principle having short 
stems. This arrangement (diagramatically delineated 
in fig. 66) is characterized by having three rows of 



Fig. 66. 



Fig. 67. 





78 



ART OF DECORATIVE DESIGN. 



leaves, and by the leaves in the spiral series being 
removed from each other by one- third of the circum- 
ference of the stem, or 120°. 

14. In the next advance we encounter an arrange- 
ment in which the leaves are in five rows (fig. 67), but 
this demands special consideration, owing to the nature 
of the plan here manifested. The consecutive leaves 
in the spiral series are here iwo-Mths, of the circum- 
ference of the stem apart, or 144°. This being the 
case, the spiral thread passes twice round the stem 
before reaching a leaf situated over the first, while 
in the instances before given a leaf so situated was 
arrived at by making one circuit round the stem. 
This disposition of the leaves is of very common 
occurrence, being met with in the rose, apple, pear, 
cherry, plum, black-currant, American-currant, poplar, 
and oak (figs. 68, 69). 



Fig. 



Fig. 69. 





15. In the next arrangement the leaves are in 



ORDER. 



79 



eight rows, the consecutive leaves in the spiral series 
are three-eisrhths of the circumference of the stem 
apart, and the spiral thread has to pass three times 
round the stem before encountering a leaf situated 
over that with which we start. This arrangement 
occurs in the holly, plantain, and aconite. 

16. In the houseleek (fig. 70), minor convolvulus, 
and wormwood, we find the leaves disposed in 

Fig. 70. 




thirteen rows, the consecutive leaves removed from 
one another by five-thirteenths of the circumference 
of the circle, or 138° 24', and that it is necessary to 
follow the spiral thread five times round the stem 
before we encounter a leaf situated over the one with 
which we start. These are the common modes of 
leaf-arrangement, yet they are not all the forms of 
disposition known, for a few other spiral series are 



80 ART OF DECORATIVE DESIGN. 

occasionally met with, which it is unnecessary that 
we investigate, owing to their rarity. 

17. We have now established the existence of 
order in the leaf-arrangement of plants, yet it must 
ever be remembered that vegetable structures are 
peculiarly subject to disturbing influences, owing to 
their not possessing the power of locomotion,* and 
this it is which has given rise to the popular belief 
that leaves are without arrangement. Blights, in- 
sects, and birds, late frosts, winds, and hail, all tend 
to destroy the manifestation of order in plants ; and 
the habit, peculiar to plants, of elongating in the 
direction from ' whence they receive their greatest 
supply of air and light, tends strongly to disturb the 
natural dispositions of the parts, yet none of these 
influences interfere with the existence of an orderly 
law. Because an arm has been amputated, or the foot 
of the Chinese girl confined in an iron shoe, we do not 
say that the human figure is unsymmetrical or that 
the feet are cramped as the result of the intention 
of nature; neither can we justly say that because 
the development of a plant has been disturbed or 
marred by external influences that it is not developed 
according to a principle of order. 

18. That leaves have an orderly arrangement is 
apparent, but these are but the summer garb of the 
plant. In the winter the branches are studded with 
buds, which form the winter clothing of the plant. 
Have these an orderly disposition ? and are branches 
generated in order? and are the flowers thus subject 

* There are a few exceptions to this in the case of the spores of the 
lower plants, especially Algse, which have the power of moving from 
place to place. 



ORDER. 



81 



in their development to rule? are not these parts 
rather protruded casually and in no definite arrange- 
ment? The answer to these inquiries will be found 
in the following facts. The bud normally grows 
immediately above the leaf, or in the angle formed 
by the leaf-stalk and the upper portion of the stem 
(fig 71), hence whatever is the arrangement of the 

Fig. 71. 




leaf such is also the arrangement of the bud.* Buds, 
by evolution, elongation, or unfolding, become 
branches, they are, indeed, only short branches waiting 



Fig. 72. 




to elongate under favourable conditions (fig. 72), 
consequently whatever is the arrangement of the bud, 

* Buds appear casually from any points of an old stem when the 
chief branches have been blown from the tree by a tempest, or have 
been removed by man, but this is only the effort made by all living 
objects to retain life. 

O 



82 ART OF DECORATIVE DESIGN. 

such is also the arrangement of the branch.* And 
flowers are but stunted branches with leaves, there- 
fore whatever is the arrangement of branches and 
leaves, such is also the disposition of flowers and of 
the floral parts (fig. 73). 

Fig. 73. 




19. We now see that the varied parts of the plant 
are subject to an orderly principle of development; 
indeed, it is manifest that all the parts are thus pro- 
truded in fixed stations, for the only two typical 
organs of the plant are the leaf and stem, and these 
in their modifications give rise to all the members of 
the vegetable structure. The stem portion divides 
into the branches and flower-stalks^ and is continued 
downwards as the root^ and the leaf type appears as 
the scales or winter clothing of the leaf bud, the sepal^ 
petal, stamen, and carpel oi the flower, in other words, 
as all the floral members save the flower- stalk, and as 
the fruit. We have here not only a manifestation of the 
truth that a principle of order prevails in the develop- 
ment of plants, but also a revelation of the fact that 
plants are founded upon a geometric basis. The top 

* It frequently happens that birds eat buds, and thus prevent a 
symmetrical development of the branches. 



P1;T 




ImMmm 




ORDER. 83 

views of branches will make this very apparent. The 
opposite arrangement is associated with the square or 
quadrangular form, or cross (fig. 60) ; the verticillate, 
with three leaves in each ring, with the hexagon, 
the spiral arrangement with five rows, the pentagon 
(fig. 67), while the spiral disposition with thirteen 
rows, as manifested in the various species of house- 
leek, is of a complicated and beautiful character. 
Still, while we say that every flowering plant is 
founded upon a geometric basis, we know that this is 
frequently to an extent concealed by the slender cha- 
racter of the stems, and the feeble nature of the leaves, 
yet it is still to be found when sought. As then all 
plants of a highly organized character, including those 
which are most esteemed on account of their beauty, 
are built upon a geometric plan, as the most worthy 
ornaments have a like basis, and as order most clearly 
manifests the operation of mind, we deduce that order 
is essential to the production of exalted ornament. 
Yet, as in plants the geometric principle is in some 
instances much more manifest than in others, so in 
ornament we may use a positive geometric form 
(Plate XXVII,, fig. 1), or merely indicate its presence 
by an orderly arrangement (Plate XV., fig. 2). It is, 
however, possible to give a geometric form while such 
does not exist separately from the ornament, as will 
be seen in Plate V., figs. 1, 2, 3. 



G 2 



S4 



CHAPTER VIT. 



REPETITION. 



1. Repetition is so obviously a principle of plant 
growth, and so manifestly a source of much of the 
pleasure which we derive from beholding the vege- 
table structure, that it will be unnecessary that we 
enter into any argument in order to show its value, 
or that we do more than point out the manner in 
which it occurs in the plant. 

2. The first form of the plant, whatever be its ulti- 
mate character, is that of a little bladderlike bod}^, 
or cell, of a more or less spherical form, and of an 
elastic nature. No sooner does growth commence 
than this little cell is multiplied, that is, it generates 
others similar to itself, which aggregate around it till a 
spherical mass is formed. Cells are now formed chiefly 
in an upward and downward direction, and thus that 
elongation in contrary courses (at the summit of the 
stem and point of the root) is established which 
characterizes the growth of most vegetable structures. 
At the very commencement of plant-growth repeti- 
tion occurs, for the cell which at first represented the 
plant has simply multiplied, and growth, we see, is 
dependent upon repetition. 

3. In order to point out the manner in which plants 



REPETITION. 85 

further repeat themselves during the process of en- 
largement, we may notice a spray of any plant, that 
given in page 75 (fig, 62) will fully answer our pur- 
pose; a cursory glance will show that we may cut 
the stem through, in this instance, between every 
second leaf, and thus divide it into similar parts, 
indeed we may further divide it between every 
leaf and reduce it to like portions, for it is only the 
arrangement which gives one a direction to the right 
and the other to the left, that in any way necessitates 
a division between every second leaf in order that the 
branch be reduced to units (see also Plate VL, fig. 8). 
We have been enabled to divide the spray with 
alternate leaves into a number of similar parts, in like 
manner we can divide the stem with ojDposite leaves 
(Plate VI. , fig. 7) into units which exactly corre- 
spond with each other by cutting through the stem 
between each pair of leaves; and the whorled leaves 
(fig. 61) can be sundered in a similar way. It 
is obvious, from what has been said in Chap. VI., 
s. 14, that a branch with leaves arranged in the 
more complicated spiral dispositions consists of 
similar parts repeated, for the spiral series occurring 
in the oak, apple, and rose repeats in every five 
leaves — hence if the stem is cut through imme- 
diately above the fifth, tenth, and fifteenth leaf, and 
so on, it will be reduced to similar parts. But 
each of these units consisting of a portion of stem and 
five leaves may be further divided, for division may 
take place between each leaf, when it will be found 
that the units (each being composed of one leaf and 
the small portion of stalk to which it is attached) are 



86 ART OF DECORATIVE DESIGN. 

similar, and that the compound unit (the five leaves 
with their common stalk) results from the manner in 
which these unifoliar portions are arranged together, 
or the direction which each jias. 

4. In order that we see the manner in which repe- 
tition occurs in the formation of the branch we may 
have reference to its development. A little eminence 
appears, which is its first representative ; this becomes 
slightly elongated, and a little protuberance appears 
upon its side which developes into a leaf, thus the 
first unit is formed; the little stem-portion further 
elongates and originates a second leaf, it further elon- 
gates and produces a third, then another unit is formed^ 
consisting of stem and leaf, and however long the 
branch may ultimately be, its growth consists in the 
continued production of similar parts. 

5. Repetition, manifested in a manner somewhat 
diiferent to that occurring in the instances already 
adduced, occurs in the case of the flower. Here we 
have an organ formed of one or two members repeated 
in a circular arrangement (fig. 74), hence in this case 

Fig. 74. 




we have radiating repetition as distinguished from the 
elongated repetition already considered. Radiating 
repetition not only occurs in the case of the flower, 



REPETITION. 87 

but is seen in the top view of every branch. In that 
of the most simple spiral arrangement (Chap.VI.,s. 12) 
the leaf is repeated at either side of the stem, in the 
opposite arrangement (Chap. VL, s. 10) in four direc- 
tions from a centre, and in the spiral, found in the oak 
(Chap. VI. , s. 14), in five directions — thus in the case 
of the branch a top view gives radiating repetition, and. 
a side view elongated repetition. 

6. That repetition is a primary feature of plant 
growth is still further shown by the branching of the 
plant, for when this operation takes place the plant is 
multiplied, and thus a repetition is brought about of 
that which exists. This will be seen in the case of a 
young plant which is possessed of but few buds, in- 
deed of but two, one at either side. Here when the 
buds develop each becomes elongated into a branch, 
and each also sends down a portion of woody matter 
during its elongation equivalent to the root of the 
parent plant, thus the mother structure is repeated. 
The mistletoe, many seaweeds, and some chickweeds, 
as well as other plants, branch in this bifurcated 
manner, but in whatever way the branching takes 
place the repetition of the plant is brought about by 
this operation. 

7. We have observed repetition in the plant as 
bringing about an elongated series and as producing a 
radiate series, but there are yet other forms in which 
this principle is manifested. We have what we term 
extended repetition, which is illustrated by the plants 
to which we have just referred — i.e.^ the mistletoe, 
chickweed, and certain seaweeds, as the species of 
Ceramium — the ceramiiim ciliatum for example — - 



8 ART OF DECORATIVE DESIGN. 

and by the compound umbel (the branching flower- 
head) of the parsnip, carrot, and hemlock. This 
class of repetition occurs in such a manner that 
while the plant is multiplying itself in an onward 
direction, it is also spreading in a divergent manner, 
and the individual branch is not extended in a con- 
tinuous manner, as in the instances first noticed. 

8. There are yet other modes of repetition found 
in the plant ; the one is, the repetition of a spot 
or of a part. If we look upon the primrose from 
above, each flower is as a star, and the flowers but 
repeat the one form. This is the case in every flower- 
head, and in some instances groups of flowers are 
repeated. What is commonly called the flower of 
the cineraria and of the china-aster is a head made 
up of scores of diminutive blossoms, and yet each 
head of flowers is repeated in the manner of the soli- 
tary blossom in the case of the primrose. The plant 
is also studded in the grass as a star pattern. The 
plantains, which frequently have their leaves pressed 
on the ground, set this forth very manifestly. The 
other form of repetition found in the plant is what 

Fig. 75. 




we may term repetition ^N-ith variation. This is well 
illustrated by the petal of the mignonette, which has 
the form represented in fig. 75. Here we have a 



REPETITION. 89 

number of club-shaped parts constructed on one 
general plan, yet all diifering in form; there is a 
repetition, yet in the repetition there is variation. 
This principle is further set forth by the opening leaf- 
bud (PI. II. figs. 1,2, 3, 4, & 6) ; by the compound leaf, 
as that of the horse-chestnut ; and by the total branches 
of a tree. We have seen that when a stem branches 
it simply repeats itself, yet the branch when one 
year old is only like the parent when of the same 
age. In the case of the tree with its branches, while 
the uppermost branches are one year old those which 
are lower are two, those which are still lower are three, 
those lower, four, and so on ; and the older arms are 
longer than the younger ; hence we have this repe- 
tition of branches, all constructed on the same type 
and yet all varying in length, and consequently in bulk 
and curvature. There is also that form of repetition 
corresponding with the side view of a row of trees. 

9. These are the forms of repetition occurring in 
the plant ; let us see if they have their analogues in 
ornament. The first form which we noticed, that 
resulting in the production of an elongated series, 
occurs in many modifications in the diversified deco- 
rative schemes; it would result from the repetition of 
fig. 1, Plate III., and occurs in Plate VI., fig. 6. 

10. The radiating repetition has its counterpart in 
ornament in all those compositions which spring from 
a common centre, and consist of similar portions. 
Figs. 76 and 77, and Plate VI., figs. 1, 2, 3, 4, and 
5, are examples of this form of pattern. 



90 ART OF DECORATIVE DESIGN. 

Fig. 76. 




Fig. 77. 




H. ^li 




pi:"\mr. 




REPETITION. 91 

11. Extended repetition is not of such common 
occurrence as the forms just noticed, yet it has oc- 
curred in most styles of ornament, and was introduced 
as early as the Egyptian period. It is set forth 
ornamentally in Plate VII., fig. 2. 

12. The repetition of a spot, or of a part, is exceed- 
ingly common, and gives rise to a class of pattern 
termed a powdering: when combined with order, it 
has its most simple form in the repetition on a geo- 
metric basis of a dot. Repetition, corresponding with 
that of the leaf on the tree, appears in ornament in 
the manner set forth at Plate VIII., fig. 2, and that 
analogous to the repetition of the leaf and flower on 
the plant in Plate VIIL, fig. 1.* 

13. Of all the forms of repetition seen in the plant, 
that with variation is, perhaps, the most interesting ; but 
whether this be so or not, this is certain, that some of 
the choicest ornaments result from the application of 
this principle ; and it is also of interest to notice that 
this mode of repetition has appeared in every style of 
ornamentation. In the Egyptian decoration it oc- 
curred in the form set forth in Plate IX., fig. 1 ; in 
the Greek in the Anthemion (Plate IX., fig. 2), one 
of the most common ornaments of this period ; in the 
Alhambra we find it in the form given in fig. 1 , being 
the same as that of the Egyptian ; in the early English 
as seen at fig. 3; in the Chinese as fig. 6; in the 
Japanese as figs. 5, 7, 8; and in the Renaissance as 
fig. 4. And upon this one principle an infinity of 
ornaments can be constructed, a few varieties of 

* These two figures have been derived from the beautifully illustrated 
volume, by W. and C. Audsley, " The Sermon on the Mount." 



92 



ART OF DECORATIVE DESIGN. 



which we give in Plates X., XL, and VII., fig. 1. 
The illustrations given, and the fact that this prin- 
ciple has been adopted in all ages will establish its 
importance and commend it to the consideration of 
the art-student. 

14. The form of repetition corresponding with 
the side view of the row of trees is set forth in 
figs. 78, 79. 

Fig. 78. 




15. We have observed the forms of repetition seen 
in the plant, and the character of repetition discover- 
able in ornament ; let us now call to mind one or two 
familiar illustrations of its value. But this it is some- 
what difficult to consider apart from order; but in 
conjunction with order its value is very manifest. A 
word, if doubled, whatever it be, will be pleasing 
(figs. 80, 81), and yet the forms employed are not 
of a very ornamental character; and even a word 
written and folded over while the ink is wet, and 



^'lXI 




m^'^ 



^ 





^ 





REPETITION. 93 

rubbed so that it is blotted and yet repeated, gives 

Fig. 79. 






m 



Av^yy 



\v%\y 






w 







#i**^ 






rise to a blotch which is more or less agreeable. 
The kaleidoscope furnishes an excellent illusticition 

Fig. 80. Fig. 81. 





of the value of repetition. Here a few broken, irre- 
gular-shaped, variously-coloured fragments of glass 



94 ART OF DECORATIVE DESIGN. 

become extremely pleasing when repeated; and yet 
the same fragments arranged in the same manner 
would be altogether without interest in the absence 
of repetition; hence it is apparent that the repeti- 
tion, in an orderly manner, gives rise to the pleasing 
aspect. While we argue that the forms seen in the 
kaleidoscope are pleasing, we by no means commend 
them as ornaments ; for, as we have before seen, 
unless mind is embodied in the composition it cannot 
be satisfying; and he who has recourse to such an 
agency for decorative schemes thereby manifests the 
poverty of his inventive faculty, and reduces himself 
to a mere mechanical operator. 



95 



CHAPTER VIII. 



CUEVES. 



1 . Much might be said concerning sublimity of line 
and the subtlety of curves of an extremely interest- 
ing nature, but in a work like the present, which 
purports only to lay down the principles of orna- 
ment, and not to furnish essays on the varied subjects 
associated therewith, all that can be done is to call 
attention to those points which are essential to good 
ornament in the briefest manner possible. 

2. With curves it will be found that refinement rests 
in subtlety, for that line the constructive origin of 
which it is most difiicult to detect is found to be the 
most beautiful. Thus an arc (fig. 82) is the least 
beautiful of curves, for its origin is instantly detected. 
A portion of the bounding-line of an ellipse (fig. 83) 
is more beautiful as a curve than the arc, for its origin 
is less apparent, it being struck from two centres. 
The curve which bounds the egg-shape is more subtle 
than the elliptic curve, for it is struck from three 
centres, hence it is more beautiful still; the curve 
bounding the cardioid is more beautiful still, as it is 
struck from four centres ; and so on, in ratio to the 
number of centres employed in the construction of a 
curve, and its consequent subtlety, is its beauty. 

3. We have now given a clue to the whole secret 



96 ART OF DECORATIVE DESIGN. 

of beauty of line ; but while we say that the beauty of 
the curve increases with the complexity of its origin, 

Fig. 82. Fig. 83. Fig. 84. Fig. 85. 




Arc. Elliptic Curve. Parabola. Hyperbola. 

we make no reference to the forms which the curves 
bound. The curve of the circle is of a low charac- 
ter as a curve, yet the circle, if not beautiful, is 
grand, and the ellipse is, as a form, very pleasing ; 
what we now speak of is the curve as a line, and not 
as the boundary of a form. 

4. The curves used by the Greeks, who understood 
more of refinement of line than any other people, 
appear chiefly to be those derived from conic sections, 
as the parabolic (fig. 84, manifested in projecting 
bodies), hyperbolic (fig. 85, manifested by the capil- 
lary attraction of water confined between two pieces 
of converging glass), and the elliptic (fig. 83) curves, 
but these are not of equal merit in point of beauty, 
as will appear from what has already been said — the 
hyperbolic being the most exalted in character. 

5. There are a number of other curves of a beautiful 
character which might be named : the catenary, or 



CURVES. 97 

chain curve, manifested when one end of a chain is 
fixed and the other is raised to any height — the in- 
volute, manifested in the unwinding a thread from a 
reel — the convolute or roUed-up curve of the watch- 
spring. But we do not Avish to go into curves 
mathematically ; we have but to deal with beauty of 
line, and must hence refrain from dealing with the 
mathematical view of the case. The secondary curves 
formed by the complicated modes of leaf-arrangement 
are of a very high order, as will be seen by a glance 
at fig. 70 ; we do not refer to the great generative or 
watch-spring-like spiral of this figure, but to the 
more rapid curves which we have drawn through the 
dots indicating the positions of the leaves. 

6. Curves must not only be of a subtle character, 
but must present an amount of variety; thus that 
line is least satisfactory which has its halves alike; 
and in this respect, as in relation to the origin 
of the line, that which is richest in variation is 
most beautiful. Hogarth's " line of beauty " is well 
known ; it is a curve of a subtle character, and pre- 
sents that variation in its parts which is pleasing; but 
whether it is really entitled to be termed the line 
of beauty is questioned by some. Our respected friend 
Mr. Arthur, the drawing-master to the Prince of Wales 
and the Royal Family, is inclined to the belief that the 
pastoral crook is the true line of beauty, and this 
conviction is borne out by many circumstances, for 
this line occurs more frequently than any other in 
the purest early English ornaments (Plate IX., fig. 3), 
and is that which forms the boundar}^ of the mem- 
bers of the best examples of the Greek anthemion 

H 



98 ART OF DECORATIVE DESIGN. 

(Plate IX., fig. 2), hence in this conjecture there 
appears to be much truth. 

7. There is not only beauty, but there is also power 
of line. A curve while yet beautiful may be feeble, 
or it may be full of energy and life ; and that line 
will be found to be most powerful in character which 
approaches nearest to the right line. 

8. The line of life is worthy of special consideration. 
Nothing is so pleasing as the manifestation of a 
strong vital power, and the thought of such can 
readily be called forth by a certain class of line. 

9. The shooting forth of the buds in spring must 
be studied in relation to this line, and the direction 
which every leaf takes when given off by the stem in 
its activity of energetic growth. But in order that 
it be fully comprehended, we must have reference to 
the tropical vegetation, where the leaves are of 
colossal size and the vitality of plants is at its 
maximum ; but as a tropical forest is not accessible to 
all, we give a group of young palms, in which the 
greatest power is manifested in the direction of the 
members, and in which we truly have the line of life.'*' 
(Fig. 86.) 

10. We see, then, that if we desire to invest our 
ornaments with the beauty of life it is necessary that 
we have energetic curves, and avoid those which are 
feeble through being bent about like worms in agony. 
It is always better to approach the straight line in the 
curve than to err in an opposite direction. 

* These hare been derived from the Java views, to which we have 
already made reference, by Messrs. Negretti and Zambra of Eegent 
Street and Hatton Garden. 



CURVES. 



99 




II 2 



100 ART OF DECORATIVE DESIGN. 

11. This knowledge of lines will give a power which 
could not otherwise be possessed, for it affords a 
means of manifesting strength of varying intensity in 
conflict with power or force. A grass stem when bent 
by the breeze has a curve varying with its thickness 
and rigidity as well as with the pressure of the wind ; 
and to a great extent a truthful idea of the pressure 
in the one case and the strength in the other can be 
given by the line. 

1 2. If the student desires to refine his taste he must 
have curves of acknowledged beauty to contemplate 
and dwell upon; let the hyperbolic curve be formed 
by water between sheets of glass, and a small chain 
be so suspended that one end is higher than the 
other; let, also, the secondary curves in diagrams of 
the character of fig. 70 be had constantly in sight, and 
by thus having lines of beauty ever before the eye 
the feeling for refinement will be developed and 
enlarged, and thus the mind will be rendered more 
fully susceptible of detecting and appreciating beauty. 

13. In relation to music, a discovery has recently 
been made by a Parisian philosopher, which is of in- 
estimable value ; it is a method of tuning instruments 
by sight with absolute exactness, so that to a standard 
thus afforded the most refined ear may yet be 
cultivated. And in relation to form, the having 
before the eye lines of such a character that the 
taste may ever be cultivated to them as standards, 
answers the same end as having the exact notes in 
music. 

14. The union of curves with curves, and of curves 
Avith right lines must always take place in a tangen- 



CURVES. 101 

tial manner. Notliins: can be more oifensive than 
seeing one line unite with another in such a manner 
that it looks as if it would run through that with 
which it unites, or as if a gimlet-hole had been bored 
in the one, and the other was inserted into the opening 
thus formed. There must be a graceful flowing of 
line out of line, however far the composition may be 
extended — and this can only be accomplished by a 
tangential union. 



102 



CHAPTER IX. 



PROPORTION. 



1. "If nature has made the human body so that 
the diiferent members of it are measures of the whole, 
so that the ancients have, with great propriety, de- 
termined that in all perfect works each part should 
be some aliquot part of the whole. Proportion is 
that agreeable harmony between the several parts of 
a, building which is the result of a just and regular 
agreement of them with each other, — the height to 
the width, this to the length, and each of these to the 
whole." Proportion, then, consists in the combination 
of a unit into quantities which, when set forth by 
surfaces or solids, agreeably accord with each other, 
and tend by their relations to gratify the beholder. 

2. That proportion which is most pleasing will be 
found to be of a subtle character ; four to four is bad ; 
four to three or five to eight is better ; for it is more 
difficult to detect, and in ratio to the subtlety of- the 
relationship, and the consequent difficulty of detecting 
it, is the beauty of the proportion. 

3. In the middle-age architecture we constantly 
have the proportion of five to eight, which in the win- 
dows occurs in two relations (figs. 87, 88); but never 
find the proportion of four to four, which is inva- 



PROPORTION. 



103 



riably bad; yet even a more subtle proportion than 
that of three to eight will be found to be most 
agreeable. 

Fig. 87. Fig. 88. 





4. Professor Zeising has proposed a proportion which 
he terms the " golden cut," as being that which pre- 
vails throughout the entire economy of the universe; 
but while we cannot go with him in all the steps in 
his argument, we yet highly appreciate his " golden 
cut," and value it much as a subtle and valuable pro- 
portion. 

5. In order to find the " golden cut," erect, at the 
end of a horizontal line (A B, fig. 89), a perpendicular 
Iine.(^ (7), half the length of the horizontal line 
(A B) ; connect the remote extremities of the hori- 
zontal line {A B) and the perpendicular line {AC) 
by a diagonal line (C B). With the upper extremity 
of the vertical line (A C) as a centre set-oiF, upon the 
diagonal line (C B)^ a distance (C a) corresponding 
with the height of the perpendicular line (C A). 



104 



ART OF DECORATIVE DESIGN. 



Transfer the distance corresponding with the remain- 
ing portion (a B) of the diagonal line (C B) to the 
horizontal line (J B), when the " golden cut" of the 
horizontal line (A B) is marked (by the point a'). 
The proportion which the smaller portion of the hori- 
zontal line (the portion J a') bears to the larger 
portion {a' B) is unquestionably just and satisfying, 

Fig. 89. 




and is doubtless the best proportion with which we 
are acquainted. 

6. Translating this proportion into mathematical 
representatives, the relation which 618*0339887 bears 
to 1000-0000000 will be found to be its representative. 
But to set this relationship forth in a longer series we 
give the following table from Dr. Zeising's work : — 

1000-0000000 
618-0339887 
381-9660113 
236-0679774 
145-8980339 

90-1699435 

55-7280904 



PROPORTION. 



105 



34-4418531 
21-2862373 
13-1556158 

8-1306215 

5-0249943 

3-1056272 

1-9193671 

1-1862601 

0.7331070 and so on. 

7. In relation to the circle, the proportions given 
in the following figures (90) are from the same author, 



Fig. 90, 




as is also the mathematical setting forth of the matter 
given in the following table : — 

360-0000 degrees 
222-4922 



106 AKT OF DECORATIVE DESIGN. 

137-5078 degrees. 

84-9844 „ 

52-5234 „ 

32-4610 „ 

20-0624 „ 

12-3986 „ 

7-6678 „ 

4-7308 

2-9368 „ 

1-7940 „ and so on. 

While it is unnecessary for the purposes of decora- 
tion that recourse be had in all cases to this method 
of ascertaining proportions, a consideration of the 
principle is by no means useless ; but it is attended 
with much benefit. The mind, by contemplating 
those relations which are found to be most agreeable, 
becomes thereby cultivated, and refined, and 
quickened in its power of perception; hence such 
considerations are valuable. But while it is not 
necessary that we in all cases find the exact golden 
cut, it is essential that proportion be of a subtle 
character if beauty is desired. 



..an 



107 



CHAPTER X. 



ALTERNATION, 



1. The term " alternation " as here used must not 
be understood in its common sense as synonymous 
with reciprocal, but as a term derived from botanical 
phraseology, where it has reference to an arrangement 
almost invariably found in the parts of the flower, 
and in many instances in the distribution of the 
leaves upon the stem also. 

2. The flower is made up of four series of parts — a 
ring of outer leaves, which are usually green ; a ring of 
coloured leaves ; a number of awl-shaped or thread- 
like members terminated in knobs which are usually 
yellow; and a central organ consisting of one or 
several portions. In their arrangement these parts 
set forth the principle of alternation, for the members 
of the second series do not fall over the parts of the 
first series (the petals do not fall over the sepals), 
but fall over the spaces between them, or alternate 
with them. The parts of the third series do not fall 
over the constituent members of the second, but be- 
tween them — they alternate with them ; and so with 
the inner series. This condition of things is set 
forth in fig. 91, where the outer series of parts (the 
sepals unitedly constituting the calyx) is marked by 



108 ART OF DECORATIVE DESIGN. 

diagonal lines; the second series (the corolla) is made 
up of three leaf-like members; the third (the andrse- 

FiG. 91. 




ceum) of three awl-shaped members (each a stamen) 
terminated in knobs, while the central consists of but 
one three-lobed portion, and the consecutive series 
alternate with each other as we have seen. (See also 
fig. 74.) 

3. Not only is the principle of alternation manifested 
in the disposition of the floral parts, but, as we have 
already said, it also occurs in the arrangement of 
leaves upon the stem. 

4. In the case of alternate leaves (fig. 62), the second 
leaf does not fall over the first, but is situated at 
the opposite side of the stem, and in opposite leaves 
(fig. 59), the second pair does not fall over the first, 
but over the spaces between the units of the first 
pair, as is fully seen in the top view (fig. 60) ; but in 
the verticillate or ringed-leaf arrangement (fig. 61) 
the analogy with the disposition of the floral parts is 
most fully seen, for here the parts of the second ring 
do not fall over the members composing the first 
ring, but between them. 

5. Alternation is a principle, we see, manifested in 



ALTERNATION. 



109 



plants, and it is a principle which also prevails in 
ornament, and appears to be called for by a natural 
desire; for an observation of figs. 92 and 93, will at 
once show that that (fig. 92) in which the principle of 



Fig. 92. 



Fig. 93. 



alternation occurs is more satisfactory than that in 
Avhich the principle is not acknowledged, through the 
smaller leaves being hidden by the larger. So mani- 
festly is the one superior to the other, and so intui- 
tively is this superiority recognised, that we are half 
disposed to regard it as a principle called for by 



Fig. 94. 



Fig. 95. 



^ cf 



7^ 




instinct. Yet the desire for an acknowledgment of 
this principle may arise from our intimacy with 
flowers, in which this is almost an invariable law. 
6. The two simple forms set forth in figs. 94, 95, 



110 ART OF DECORATIVE DESIGN. 

derived from a warming-pan of early date, are of 
interest in relation to this subject, as this principle 
of alternation is in them fully acknowledged, and the 
whole of the ornamental character which they mani- 
fest (it matters not how little this be) is due to the 
acknowledgment of the law of alternation which they 
set forth. This principle is also recognised in Plate 
XII., fig. 1, an ornament of a somewhat different cha- 
racter. 

7. The principle of alternation is not of modern in- 
troduction into ornament, but has been recognised 
from the earliest times. In the Egyptian ornaments 
it is fully set forth, as a glance at the ornaments of 
that period will show, and in the decorations of the 
Indians (Plate XII, , figs. 2 and 3), Greeks, and 
Romans it also occurs. The Greeks frequently formed 
mouldings and borders of leaves (fig. 96); but there 
was not merely those forming the external series, 
but others alternating with them, and the echinus 
(fig. 97), or egg-and-tongue moulding of the Romans, 

Fig. 96. Fig. 97. 



consists of oviform masses arranged in a horizontal 
series, with tongues or arrow-heads between them 
alternating with them. Thus that form of alternation 
which has its analogue in the side view of the folia- 
ceous branch is set forth in ornament ; while the 
principle, as manifested in the top view of the leaves 
and in the flower, is seen in nearly all the radiating 
ornaments of the difi'erent art-epochs. (Fig. 98.) 



pi:2rr. 




ALTERNATION. Ill 

8. The principle of alternation is not only of interest 
, it occurs in the ornaments of every age and in 



Fig. 98. 



f* 




plants in the manner which we have already seen, 
but also because "it occurs in diversified forms, or 
under dissimilar aspects in the vegetable structure, 
and because there seems to be a special object in its 
adoption. 

9. Relative to its purpose it seems to be designed 
as a means of calling attention from a union of 
lines which in all cases is unsatisfactory. Thus in 
fig. 93 the eye immediately rests on the spaces be- 
tween the four members, and is thus conducted to 
the junction of lines, while the alternating parts 
give an outward direction and thus direct the atten- 
tion from the point of weakness; and whether the 
alternation be manifested in the circular ornament or 
the elongated series, the same end is answered. 



112 



ART OF DECORATIVE DESIGN. 



10. In plants we have a continual confluence of lines ; 
leaves are given out from the branches in all direc- 
tions, and branches from stem, but the branching of 
the stem is concealed by the foliage during the 
summer months, in which period alone plants present 
themselves in an ornamental aspect ; and while the 
leaves are given out in countless numbers, the means 
devised for calling attention from, the union of the 
leaf-stalk with the stem are endless. The bud arises 
in the angle formed by the upper surface of the leaf- 
stalk and the stem (fig. 71), and thus acts as the 
alternating members in the examples already 
adduced; but a special provision for so arresting the 
attention that it shall not fix upon this confluence of 
lines is also made, as a pair of small leafy or mem- 

FiG. 99. 




braneous organs (stipules), of a form rich in subtle 
beauty, conceal this juncture, or so arrest the attention 
that it does not fix upon it (figs. 99, a, and 100) — thus 



ALTERNATION. 113 

the principle of alternation is substituted by the 
growth of special organs. And there seems a con- 

FiG. 100. 




sistency about this principle of alternation when care- 
fully examined which is not apparent when but a 
cursory glance is given, as will appear upon our 
making one or two observations. Whatever be the 
form of each unit of the outer series of parts in the 
flower, as in fig. 92, it has practically, when seen from 
above, the contour of the lozenge (fig. 101); and as 
a member having this form we must consequently 
consider it and regard its relationship with other 
parts of the flower. Separating the lozenge-shaped 
member, together with the lines which in part bound 
the forms to its right and left, we have a wedge and 
two lines which flow more or less in concert for a time 
and then diverge. (Fig. 102.) A similar thing occurs 

Fig. 101. Fig. 102. 

♦ -^ 

in that variation of the anthemion seen in Plate X., 
fig. 6, where we have a wedge-shaped member, in 
the form of a small conventional coronet, and again 
have parts proceeding in the same direction for a 

I 



114 AKT OF DECORATIVE DESIGN. 

time, and then deviating to the right and left ; and 

Fig. 103. 




Fig. 104. 




in figs. 103, 104, the same principle is applied. The 



AirrERNATION. 115 

diamond or lozenge-shaped organ appears to act as a 
wedge which separates members having a like direc- 
tion, and gives to the sundered portions new courses. 
11. The circumstances which we have here indicated 
being associated in the mind with fitness and the 
necessary course of things, seems to contribute much 
to the apparently spontaneous desire for the alterna- 
tion of parts. 



i2 



116 



CHAPTER XL 

ADAPTATION. 

1. The principle of adaptation, or fitness, is of para- 
mount importance in its relation to decorated objects, 
for the applying to them this quality gives them 
favour in the eyes of those who use them, and tends 
to the exaltation of art, while its absence brings 
ornament into contempt, and thus induces its de- 
gradation. 

2. In order that art become loveable in the eyes of 
the people, it is necessary that it in no way militate 
against the utility of the object which it adorns. If 
the iron balustrade of a staircase be ornamented 
with pointed forms which cause the ascending and 
descending the staircase to be attended with the 
danger of destroying the dress or injuring the 
person, or if the enrichment of the door-handle hurt 
the hand, or the spout of the teapot be so placed, 
for the sake of ornamental aspect, that the restorative 
beverage issues from the top of the pot before it 
runs from the spout, the decorative principle sinks, 
as the ornamental form brings about a deteriority 
of the article in relation to utility, and the orna- 
mental aspect is gained at the cost of comfort, safety, 
and ease. 



ADAPTATION. 117 

3. Utility, or adaptation to the purpose intended, 
must precede enrichment. The most useful form for 
the object, or most appropriate condition of the 
surface to be decorated, must be first ascertained, 
and then the enriching may take place by the appli- 
cation of forms or lines which in no way detract 
from utility or comfort ; but no other form than that 
which is most desirable must be used in order that 
a special treatment of the surface be employed, for 
perfect regard to fitness can alone save art from 
suffering condemnation. 

4. In vegetable nature the utmost regard to fitness is 
manifested, and those forms only are employed which 
are in accordance with the requirements of the posi- 
tion; and even the constitution of the plant varies 
with the surrounding circumstances — hence in rela- 
tion to adaptation or fitness we must also be taught 
by plants. 

5. The most succulent plants grow in the dryest 
positions. Our little stonecrop, with its leaves plump 
with watery juices, grows upon the wall. The 
mesembryanthemums abound in the sandy deserts of 
Africa, and the cacti on the steppes of Mexico, and 
the plants which grow in water contain much air. 

6. No one can doubt the adaptation of these plants 
to the circumstances under which they exist. The 
stonecrop is located where but a scanty supply 
of water is obtainable, and where many and long- 
continued periods of drought are endured; but we 
yet find this little plant flourishing, as it stores away 
the water collected during the period of rain in 
order to meet its constant requirements. This is 



118 ART OF DECORATIVE DESIGN. 

also true in the case of the mesembryanthemums and 
cacti, for in both instances the plants are also called 
upon to endure droughts which are in some cases even 
continued for years, and in bbth instances also the 
plants have the power of storing up water, the 
former in its leaves, and the latter in its stems. 

7. The extent to which these plants are adapted to 
the surrounding conditions is further seen when we 
remember that the vegetable world stands between 
the mineral and the animal kingdoms — that vege- 
tables arrange the mineral constituents of the earth 
into organic matter such as is suited to the building 
up the animal body — that they are indeed the true 
makers of flesh, which needs only to be arranged by 
the animal and appropriated to the renewing the 
wasting body; these facts, together with the know- 
ledge that much water is required in order to the 
fabricating the animal frame,* show how perfectly 
the mesembryanthemums and cacti are fitted to 
administer to the requirements of the animals which 
dwell amidst them, and are sustained by them. In 
a land where water is a rare commodity, and is 
only to be had at particular seasons, and where 
the land is parched and dry, the higher animals 
could not exist were it not for the vegetation 
which furnishes at the same time both meat and 
drink. The sheep, Livingstone tells us, feed upon 
the succulent leafage of the mesembryanthemum, 
and the wild ass quenches its thirst and allays its 
hunger by feeding upon plants of the cactus tribe; if 

* As much as 111 pounds out of the 154 pounds of matter of which 
the human body is composed, is water only. 



ADAPTATION. 119 

the plant selected by this latter animal for a meal 
be enclosed by spiny armour, which is frequently the 
case, it, upon reaching the plant, prepares for the 
attack by separating its lips and taking hold of the 
long hard spines with its teeth and extracting them 
one by one, or by knocking them off in a less careful 
manner with its horny hoof; these plants then are 
perfectly adapted to the surrounding circumstances 
and the conditions amidst which they exist. 

8. And the adaptation is not only in minor parti- 
culars, but arises out of the very structure and 
habit of the plant which results from the operation 
of the hidden principle of life. The skin of the 
succulent plant does not abound in the little openings 
or pores (stomachs or mouths) which are so nume- 
rous in the external covering of other plants — there 
being as many as ninety thousand of these in the 
square inch in the case of the under surface of the 
leaf of the cherry laurel, while the leaves of succulent 
plants have few openings, if any ; hence when water 
comes in contact with the root, it is sucked in, and is 
conservated, to be used as circumstances require; 
while in the case of the plant growing in damper 
soil evaporation takes place with rapidity — even a 
sunflower, when full-grown, giving out twenty ounces 
of water in the day of twelve hours. 

9. What has been said is sufficient to show that 
the plants noticed are adapted to the localities they 
occupy, and to the purpose they are intended to per- 
form in the economy of nature ; and the same perfec- 
tion of adaptation will be seen if we examine water- 
plants. The majority of the plants growing in water 



120 ART OF DECORATIVE DESIGN. 

are attached by their roots to the bottom of the stream 
in which they are situated. When this is the case 
we find the minimum quantity of water embodied in 
the substance of the plant necessary to its health and 
well-being; and in the structure of the plant large 
chambers stored with air, the object of which is 
apparent. Water is liberally supplied, but should the 
stream deepen through an excess of rain the plant 
may be entirely cut off from the air, owing to its 
attachment with the earth forming the bottom of the 
stream, hence air is stored up in these instances, it 
being as necessary to the life of the plant as water. 

10. The instances brought forward are sufficient to 
reveal adaptation to the requirements in the case of 
habits arising out of the action of the vital force, but 
there are other manifestations of adaptation, or fit- 
ness, arising out of the character of the principle of 
life, which are manifested in a somewhat different 
manner. 

11. The forms of the parts of the plant are in har- 
mony with the circumstances amidst which the plant 
exists. The trees which grow highest upon the moun- 
tains, and the plants which grow upon the unshel- 
tered plain have long, narrow, and rigid leaves, which, 
owing to their form, are enabled to bear the fury of 
the tempest to which they are exposed without 
injury. This is seen in the case of the fir-trees 
which grow high upon the mountains, where the 
leaves are more like needles than leaves as they are 
commonly presented to us, and also in the species of 
heath which grow upon exposed moors ; in both cases 



ADAPTATION. 121 

the plants are, by the form of the leaf, enabled to 
defy the blast, while those with broad leaves would 
be shattered and destroyed. 

12. But not only is the form of the leaf such as fits 
these plants to dwell in such inhospitable regions, but 
other circumstances also tend to this result. The stems 
are in both cases woody and flexible, so that while they 
bend to the wind they resist its destroying influence 
by their strength, elasticity, and woody character. 

13. Not only are plants with narrow rigid leaves 
those which occupy the exposed position, but other 
plants are also found in such ungenial situations, 
which have broader and more membraneous leaves. In 
this case there is, however, a peculiarity manifested 
worthy of special notice — which is the broad and 
membraneous leaves of those plants which grow in 
exposed situations are formed into a rosette at the 
base of the plant, and are closely pressed to the 
ground, while those which are situated high upon the 
stem are in all cases narrow. If the same plant 
grow in the fertile valley and high on the mountain- 
side it will, in the one case, have broader and more 
luxuriant foliage, and in the other, narrowed and 
skimp leafage, for in the one case the plant is exposed 
to the fierceness of the boreas, and in the other it is 
protected from the winds. These instances surely 
show adaptation to the circumstances. 

14. In relation to the stem of the papyrus. Sir 
William J. Hooker mentions a fact which manifests 
adaptation to its position. This plant grows in water, 
and attaches itself to the margins of rivers, streams. 



122 ART OF DECORATIVE DESIGN. 

and ponds, by sending forth roots and developing long 
underground- stems in the alluvium by the sides of 
the water. Owing to its position it is exposed to the 
action of the running waters, the influences of which 
it has to withstand; this it does, not only by having 
its stems of a triangular form — a shape well adapted 
for withstanding pressure, but also by having the 
stem so placed in relation to the direction of the 
stream that one angle always meets the stream, and 
thus separates the waters, as does the bow of a 
modern iron steam ship. 

15. In the flower there is the same adaptation to 
the purpose intended ; but before this can be fully 
set forth it is necessary that we be familiar with the 
structure of the flower and the parts which enter 
into its composition, otherwise it will be impossible 
that we see the extent of the adaptation. 

16. The flower, as we have already seen (Chapter 
X., s. 2), is usually made up of four series, or 
kinds, of parts (Plate XIIT., fig. 2) — an outer ring 
of leaves, which is most commonly green, and con- 
sists of a varying number of constituent leaves, from 
two to several, which may either be separate or 
joined ; an inner ring of leaves, which is usually of 
a bright colour, and composed of the same number 
of members as the outer ring of green leaves, which 
may also be united or separate; a ring of slender, 
threadlike, or awl-shaped members which are termi- 
nated in yellow knobs, and a series of green parts 
which occupy a central position in the flower; in the 
case of the third series the members are most fre- 
quently separate, but they may be united by their 



piinr, 





ADAPTATION. 



123 



stalks (fig. 105), or by their knobs (fig. 106), while in 
the case of the central bodies union frequently takes 



Fig. 105. 




Fig. 106. 



place so perfectly that the central series seems to be but 
one member, while it is yet formed of many portions. 
In respect to the object of these parts in relation 
to the economy of the flower, it should be noticed 
that the two external series — the leafy rings — are in- 
tended to envelop or protect the inner portions, 
which are more essential to the well-being of the 
plant, and that the inner portions are destined to 
bring about the production of seed. Within the 
knobs which terminate the members of the third series 
(figs. 74, 91, and 105) of parts, a quantity of pollen, 
or dust, is formed, which, when examined by the micro- 
scope, is seen to consist of little living spherules or 
cells, which are the most simple form of plant ; this 
dust is scattered by the bursting of these knobs, or 
chambers in which it has been generated, when a 
portion comes in contact with the central members of 
the flower, and here, finding genial food formed of 
honey, gum, and other mucilaginous forms of matter, 
sends down roots in the midst of the substance of 
these central portions, by which roots seeds are 
generated in the manner that potatoes are produced 



124 ART OF DECORATIVE DESIGN. 

by the underground stems of the potato plant, only 
in the case of the potato several are formed upon 
one stem, while in the case of the seed but one is 
formed, and that on the end of each suspensor. This 
is a popular setting forth of the floral parts and of 
the works which they perform in the economy of the 
flower, and is sufficiently accurate and detailed for 
our purpose, but it should also be noticed that if 
water comes in contact with the fine dust (pollen) 
of the flower its fertility is destroyed, as contact 
with water causes it to burst, and thus brings about 
its destruction. 

17. To return to our subject, we find that flowers are 
usually inverted, as the harebell (fig. 107), and many 
species of campanula ; or they only open when there is 
every prospect of fair weather, as the majority of our 
garden flowers ; or the flower closes at the approach of 
rain, as the shepherd's weather-glass, or pimpernel 
{Anagallis arvenia), and minor convolvulus; or the 
head of flowers closes as the sky becomes overcast, as 
the daisy (Bellis perennis) and yellow hawkweed* 
(Tolpis barbata); or if the flower opens, the little 
knobs do not shed their pollen or dust till the day is 
bright, as in the apple and pear ; and if the flower 
grows in an open and exposed position, as upon a 
mountain or moor, it is frequently elevated upon a 
flexible slender stem, which, by yielding to the wind, 
enables it to keep its back to the storm, and thus that 
protection which is needed is aflbrded. 

18. To take one or two individual instances, the little 

* What is usually termed iAe flower in both these instances is a 
head of flowers. 



ADAPTATION. 



125 



harebell, with its nodding cup situated at the upper 
extremity of a long and slender elastic stem, studs 
the moor and rises amidst the bushes to a height 
greater than usual; here we find the heart-shaped 
leaves, which are fast yielding to decay, disposed in 
the manner of a rosette pressed upon the ground; 
then we have the stem, with its narrow elongated 
leaves; and, above all, the flower in the form of a 
nodding bell (fig. 107). How appropriate is this struc- 

FiG. 107. 




ture to the circumstances in which the plant is placed ; 
the drooping bell shelters the fine dust from the rain ; 
and when the flower is exposed to the beating water- 
drops and is yet open, the pollen is protected through 
the back of the flower being kept to the storm owing to 

Fia. 108. 




the slender and flexible character of the stem (fig. 108) ; 
here, then, is an instance of special adaptation. 



126 



ART OF DECORATIVE DESIGN. 



19. A yet more striking example of adaptation 
occurs in the case of the common edible pea blossom, 
where we have the five little green leaves, which form 
the external series of floral parts, united into a cup- 
shaped socket, which invests the base of the flower (fig. 

Fig. 109. 




109) ; within this we have five white leaves, which are 
of variable forms and sizes ; the upper is large and is 
folded in the centre (fig. 110); the lateral, or side 



Fia. 110. 





leaves, which correspond with each other, are smaller, 
and are situated within the margins of the upper 
sheathing leaf, while the two lower are smaller still, 
and unite to form a little scoop-shaped member (fig. 
110, a). Within this lower scoop-shaped portion the 
ten organs, which unitedly form the third series of floral 



ADAPTATION. 127 

parts, are situated, and of these nine are united into 
one bundle by a consolidation of their stalks through- 
out a great portion of their length, while one stands 
alone (fig. Ill) ; and witliin the little scoop formed by 

Fig. 111. 




the nine united stalks the central organ rests, which 
in this instance consists of but one portion : we here 
have the structure of the flower; the inner or central 
member, we see, rests in a scoop-shaped organ 
formed by the union of nine stalks, which are each 
terminated by knobs, and upon the upper portion of 
this central organ the solitary unit of this third series 
rests, which is also crowned by a golden ball. This 
mass, consisting of the central organ and the ten 
members of the next series, is concealed in a second 
scoop-like organ formed by the union of the two lower 
white flower-leaves, and these are protected by two 
overlapping white leaves and a large upper leaf, also 
white, which sits on the others in the manner that 
the ridge-tile sits on the summit of the roof of a 

Fig. 112. 




house (fig. 112), and the base of the flower is further 
protected by the green cup at the back ; we see, then, 



128 ART OF DECORATIVE DESIGN. 

the special provision made for tlie protection of the 
pollen or fine dust of this flower, and thus for its 
fruitfulness or seed-bearing. 

20. Not only is protection afforded by part over- 
lapping part, but the whole flower is turned by the 
wind in the manner of a weathercock — hence it also 
keeps its back to the storm. 

21. We now see something of the extent of the pro- 
tection afforded to the pollen of this plant, and this 
careful concealment is ever vouchsafed unless the 
weather is very propitious, when the large upper leaf 
is uplifted, and the side leaves are spread, and the 
lower scoop-shaped member is depressed. But even 
in this spreading of the parts there is a special object : 
the bee can now enter the flower; and in its search 
after honey it brushes past the ruptured knobs, and 
thus conveys the pollen to the central organ of 
the flower, where its growth will be ft)stered and 
its development ensured; but should there be the 
promise of a shower, the little basal scoop is uplifted, 
the lateral leaves doubled together, and the large 
upper leaf is lowered and folded over the other parts, 
and unless the pollen has fulfilled the purpose of its 
creation, should the rain beat and the wind blow, 
the back of the flower is constantly directed to the 
storm, and thus the parts are preserved from injury. 

22. Two circumstances, which we have not yet men- 
tioned, combine to give to this structure of the pea- 
blossom exceeding interest; first, the seeds of the 
different kinds of pea contain more nourishment than 
any other food which we use; and second, the large 
upper sheathing-leaf, which is primarily instrumental 



ADAPTATION. 129 

in furnishing the perfect protection of which we have 
been speaking, can be shown to occupy an abnormal 
position, its place being that indicated by the dotted 
line in our diagram (fig. 112); these facts, considered 
in conjunction with the structure of the flower already 
noticed, manifest most clearly the recognition of the 
principle of adaptation or fitness, in the case of plants, 
to the work which they are intended to perform and 
the circumstances in which they are called to exist; 
and as in plants so in ornament, adaptation and 
fitness cannot be too strongly manifested or too fully 
considered. 

23. We see that the study of the vegetable kingdom 
suggests the utmost regard to fitness and perfect 
adaptation; but in order to apply the principle to 
the requirements of ornament we shall first contem- 
plate one or two well-considered objects furnished 
by ancient art. 

24. Professor Semper used to say, that the history of 
a nation can be read in the form of the water-vessel. 
Without insisting upon the accuracy of this assertion 
when taken in its wider significance, we yet say that 
a great deal may be learned from such a simple 
utensil ; but in order to this, the water-vessel must 
be a well-considered object, and be perfectly adapted 
to the purpose for which it has been originated. 

25. The characteristic form of the Egyptian water- 
vessel is represented in fig. 113, and of the Greek in 
fig. 114, and while both answered a similar purpose 
they yet widely difi'er in shape. 

26. But not only do these vessels differ in form, but 
associated circumstances difi'er also; and jt is this 

K 



130 ART OF DECORATIVE DESIGN. 

variation of circumstances which brought about the 
cliiFerence in form of the tAvo water-vessels. The 

Fig. 113. Fig. 114. 






peculiar features of the Egyptian water- vessel are its 
formation out of bronze, the roundness of its base, 
which renders it unfit for standing, the narrowness of 
its mouth, and the handle arching the orifice ; and of 
the Greek its being wrought of clay, the secure base, 
the wide mouth, the contraction in the centre, and the 
handle at either side. We learn from these forms of 
vessel, allowing their adaptation to the conditions 
which they are intended to fulfil, that the Egyptians 
drew water from a river, or at least from a position 
which required the vessel to be attached to a cord and 
cast into the supply, for the roundness of the base at 
once points to this, it being a provision for enabling 
the vessel to fill by turning upon its side rather than 
float upon the surface of the waters, which it would 
readily do were its base flattened, and its formation 
out of metal is to facilitate this end. The arched 
handle not only points to the attachment of the vessel 
to a string in order that it be cast into the water, but 
also to the carrying the vessel pendant from the hand. 



ADAPTATION. 131 

in the manner that the pails of the present day are 
carried, and the contracted mouth restrains the splash- 
ing over of the water ; and what this simple water- vessel 
points to we find to have been the case, for the Egyp- 
tians derived water from the Nile in the very manner 
that we have shown the vessel is adapted to operate. 
But with the Greeks habits are different, as the water- 
vessel manifests. The base is flat, in order that the 
vessel may stand ; the mouth is large in order to collect 
the water which falls from above — from the dripping 
rocks and water spouts — and this largeness of orifice 
points unmistakeably to the collecting falling water. 
This being the case, a vessel formed of heavy metal 
was unnecessary ; the contraction prevents the water 
splashing over when carried, and up to this point the 
vessel was filled and not higher; and the handles at the 
side show that it was carried on the head. But in con- 
junction with this mode of carrying there is another 
consideration of interest, which is, the centre of gravity 
must be high ; if we attempt to balance a stick with 
one enlarged end on the finger, it will be found 
necessary that the weight be at the top, and in order 
that the object ride steadily and easily, it will be 
necessary that the weight be considerably elevated. 
In the Greek water- vessel, which is to be balanced on 
the head, we find this condition fully complied with, 
the centre of gravity occupying the position indicated 
by the letter a in the illustration, while in the Egyp- 
tian vessel the centre of gravity is low, as is also 
indicated by A ; but where the vessel is to be car- 
ried underhand it is as great an advantage to have the 
centre of gravity low, as it is in the case of a coach, 

k2 



132 AKT OF DECORATIVE DESIGN. 

where insecurity results from its being raised, and that 
in direct ratio to its altitude. The Greek water- vessel, 
then, consists of a capacity or chief cavity, a funnel to 
collect and guide the water, a base for the vessel to 
rest upon, and handles to enable it to be raised to'the 
head, and the centre of gravity is high in order that 
it may readily balance — and we read from this vessel 
that the Greeks procured water from dripping rocks, 
water-courses, &c., and this is exactly what did occur, 
for the people derived water from these sources in the 
manner set forth. These are the direct teachings of 
the Egyptian and Greek water-vessels ; but how many 
circumstances and incidents of common life can be con- 
ceived to grow out of these modes of collecting water. 
There is the gossip round the well and the lingering by 
the river side, where the image of the date palm is mir- 
rored forth by the glassy surface of the waters. The 
effect of the noise of the splashing^ waters, which seem 
to be filled with the energy of life, upon the mind in 
the one case, combined with the loud and energetic 
speaking which would be necessary in order that the 
voice be not drowned by the noise, and of the calm 
tranquillity of the river bank in the other, where 
the limpid stream ever flowing on in silent majesty, 
must be considered. Then we have reference to the 
potter's art in the one case and the metal-worker's in 
the other. But we will not push the subject further. 
We bring forward these two vessels in order to illus- 
trate the manner in which well-considered objects 
speak of the habits and customs of the times and 
nations in which they originated. 

27. We have illustrated the extent to which ancient 



ADAPTATION. 133 

objects were adapted to the purpose for which they 
were intended. Let us now see the application of the 
principle of adaptation to modern requirements. 

28. An object should not only be so far fitted for 
the work for which it is intended, that it is possible to 
use it for the purpose of its production, but it should 
be perfectly adapted to meet all the requirements of 
the work to which it is assigned, and that in the 
easiest and most simple manner; 

29. The principle of fitness is constantly violated in 
the placinghandles and spouts on vessels ; but this arises 
out of the want of a knowledge of those principles in- 
volved in the attaching such affixes to utensils. What 
can be worse than having the handle so placed in re- 
lation to the spout — say in the case of a teapot — as to 
give a considerable leverage, which can only be exerted 
against the person who is pouring out the tea? We 
constantly hear ladies complain of the exceeding 
weight of the teapot, and of the fatiguing and wrist- 
breaking work of pouring out tea, while others have 
teapots of equal capacity which are not heavy, and 
which do not cause this operation to be either wrist- 
breaking or fatiguing ; yet such teapots are perhaps 
the exception in these days. A pound weight may 
balance a half-hundred weight if the leverage be in 
its favour ; so a light teapot and a small quantity of 
liquid may practically have a considerable weight, 
when the teapot is held by the handle, if the lever- 
age is exerted to the disadvantage of the person who 
sustains it. Can any one, however, say that the 
object is perfectly adapted to its work if in this or 
any other particular its use is attended with difficulty 



134 ART OF DECORATIVE DESIGN. 

or disadvantage. If the handle is a disadvantage we 
had better be without it, and hold the vessel by 
merely sustaining it between the hands, protected 
from the heat by two kettle-holders. 

30. In order that the handle and spout be rightly 
placed on a tea-pot or similar vessel, it will be neces- 
sary that the form be originated with special reference 
to these affixes, and with full knowledge of the prin- 
ciples on which these additions are to be made. The 
first thing to be ascertained, in order that the spout 
and handle be rightly situated in relation to each other, 
is the position of the centre of gravity of the gene- 
ral mass of the vessel ( . «, fig. 115) ; this being found, 

Fig. 115. 




the centre of the handle falls upon any right line (a b, 
fig. 115), which passes through the centre of gravity 
( . a ), but that which is of special importance is this 
— the spout must also fall upon a line so situated 
that it forms a right angle with the line passing 
through the centre of gravity and the centre of 
the handle, as the line a b. If the handle is 
raised to the position indicated by the dotted 
line the spout must be lowered to the position 
of the dotted spout, for the direction lines of the 



ADAPTATION. 135 

spout and handle must bear the relation to each other 
of the lines enclosing the right angle. If the angle 
be made obtuse, leverage tending to bring about the 
lowering of the teapot will be induced, and if the 
angle be made acute,^ pressure will have to be exerted 
in order to depress the mass ; hence it is of the utmost 
importance that the relation of right angle be main- 
tained between the spout and the handle. 

31. In some instances we find the tea running from 
the spout of the teapot before the pot itself is full, 
this of course arises from having the spout short ; but 
a more common evil is the tea runs over the top of 
the pot before it runs out of the spout, when an 
attempt is made to pour out the liquid. In order 
the more fully to prevent this, we see no objection 
whatever to the lid having the form and situation 
shown in fig. 116, if necessary, for fitness and adap- 

FiG. 116. 




tation must be a first consideration in the production 
of useful objects. 

32. In respect to the placing handles on jugs nothing 
can be worse than our common practice of attaching 
high handles to vessels of this class, which are with- 
out the advantage of a spout deviating in direction 
from the vessel. When we take hold of the water- 



136 



ART OF DECORATIVE DESIGN. 



ewer in the bedchamber we grasp the handle near 
its base, just where the handle ought to be situated; 
and were it not that the handle is continued to the 



Fig. 117. 




lower portion of the jug it would be as difficult to 
pour water from it as it is to raise a chair by 
taking hold of one of its legs. Fig. 117 represents a 



Fia. 118. 




jug, and the dotted handle marks a correct position 
for this affix. Fig. 118 also gives positions for the 
handle and relative positions for the spout ; thus the 



ADAPTATION. 137 

handle a and the spout a correspond ; the handle b 
and the spout &, and the handle c and the spout c. 

33. A consideration of the principle of adaptation 
will further show us that each material is especially 
susceptible of some particular treatment, and this will 
reveal to us the folly of attempting the imitation of 
one material with another. Clay is especially adapted 
for being formed into jugs and other vessels of capa- 
city which are required to hold water ; why, then, 
cause clay jugs to imitate wicker work, as though 
it were to any extent adapted for fabrication into 
vessels which of necessity must be water tight? 
The folly of supping soup with a knitting-needle, of 
lading water with a gridiron, or carrying wine in a 
sieve is not greater than that of causing a jug to 
appear as wicker-work. Neither is the making a 
jug in imitation of cooperage much less a folly; still, 
a barrel will hold water, but why make an earthen 
vessel look like a specimen of bad cooperage and of 
defective wood carving when the clay can be wrought 
into objects of capacity of infinitely greater beauty 
than those formed of wood? Wood has its special 
uses, and is peculiarly suited to certain works, and 
clay is adapted for the formation of special articles; 
then one material should not stoop to do badly what 
the other does well when it can do well what the 
other cannot; the effort must be to find the sus- 
ceptibilities of each material, and to apply the utmost 
skill to the furtherance of its legitimate uses. 

34. Not only must the susceptibilities of the mate- 
rial be ascertained, but the most appropriate mode of 
fabricating the material into forms of utility and 



138 



AKT OF DECORATIVE DESIGN. 



beauty must be sought out. Clay is peculiarly 
fitted for being worked by the potter's wheel, as 
this mode of fabricating it into forms of utility is 
simple, and is at the same time calculated to bring 
about the production of graceful forms, for here 
the influence of the attraction of the earth upon 
the semi-plastic clay aids the potter in producing 
favourable results, as will appear from the follow- 
ing — A vase may be said to consist primarily of a 
capacity and a double funnel (an inlet and outlet). 
The former we represent by an ellipse, the latter by a 
cylinder (fig. 119). We now determine the width 

Fig. 119. 




of the foot at varied heights, at a and J, fig. 120, in 
this case, and then connect the parts by the plastic 
clay, which, by yielding to the earth's drawing force, 
takes the direction given by the dotted lines. The 



ADAPTATION. 
Fig. 120. 



139 




Fig. 121. 




140 ART OF DECORATIVE DESIGN. 

form thus produced separated from constructive 
forms is seen in fig 121. 

35. Another illustration of the favourable influence 
of attraction upon plastic or semi-plastic matter in 
bringing about the production of beautiful forms 
occurs in the case of the flask where pressure of air 
from within causes the distension; but the form 
results from the attractive force of the earth acting 
upon the plastic glass and the included dense air, 
which is also wrought upon by the same drawing 
influence. Some of the smaller vessels of the Greeks 
manifest forms which would appear to result from 
vessels of certain shapes being filled with fluid while 
yet plastic, which also shows the manner in which 
attraction aids in the production of vessels of utility 
from clay; and this one fact — that clay is sus- 
ceptible of this attractive influence and is placed 
under its direct operations when wrought into form 
by the wheel, — tends to show that this is the most 
appropriate mode of working it, and that it, as a 
material, is especially suited to this method of fabri- 
cation. 

36. We see that each material can be worked 
into a form which is to it especially befitting, and 
that vessels appropriated to special purposes have 
a limited range of form within which they may 
vary, and yet be perfectly adapted to the work which 
they are intended to perform, but departure from a 
typical shape beyond certain limits is attended with 
the sacrifice of utility. The Doric column (Plate I.) 
has a form which is universally admired by those who 
have cultivated their sense and perception of the beau- 



ADAPTATION. 141 

tiful, but it arrived at its just proportions after the lapse 
of many years. Age after age tried only to perfect its 
form, and not to originate that which was new ; so we 
must strive to discover the best class of form for the 
object, and to perfect an individual shape till its 
beauty is impressive. So long as we are striving 
after new shapes and are forced by this excessive desire 
for novelty to produce jugs in the form of the human 
head, we shall make but little progress. Allowing 
that men's heads without brains are common, we need 
not imitate such, especially as jugs — for no one will 
argue that such is a befitting form for a vessel of this 
character. 

37. Another class of folly often manifested, arising 
out of a want of adaptation, is the making one surface 
or fabric imitate another surface or fabric — as silks to 
imitate the coarse texture of the Turkey carpet. In 
the case of this coarse material, the best curves are 
formed that the material admits of; hence, in silks, 
we should strive to form the most perfect lines and 
shapes of which the material is capable, and not to 
imitate the defects of a coarse material. The effort 
should always be to reach the ideal perfection, and 
not to perpetuate a defect or deformity. Then we 
make wall-papers imitate woven fabrics, and carpets 
represent marble floors ; while, if our floors were 
marble, we should cover them with rugs in order to 
increase our comfort. All these, and a thousand 
other absurdities, arise out of the want of a due con- 
sideration of the principle of adaptation or fitness. 

38. A consideration of that adaptation which 
prevails in the more perfect works of ornamental art 



142 ART OF DECORATIVE DESIGN. 

of all ages, and of that fitness which occurs so 
fully in the diversified vegetable objects, leads to a 
number of other thoughts, all of some interest; but 
upon none of these can we dwell, and but few can we 
name, yet some must not be passed without notice. 

39. In the case of a plate, the border only should 
bo decorated, for this is an article of utility, and the 
centre is covered when the plate is in use ; and the 
interior of a cup should never be enriched with deco- 
rative forms, save just round the orifice, for to do 
more is to be extravagant. With wood carving, as 
the legs of tables, the legs- and backs of chairs, &c., no 
small points must jut out, as there would be the con- 
stant danger of their being broken off; and, in the 
case of metal- work, no sharp prominences must occur 
which are calculated to injure the person or destroy 
the garments of those who make use of the article. 

40. Walls should at all times be flat; and the very 
appearance of rotundity should be avoided, save in those 
parts with which the body does not come in contact. 
The cornice round the upper portion of the room may 
most desirably be in relief; but this is purely an archi- 
tectural feature ; and even the wall, down to a certain 
level, may be enriched by a relief diaper, as occurs in 
the Moorish buildings, and is rendered possible in the 
case of common walls by an improvement effected by 
Messrs. Scott, Cuthbertson, and Co., of Chelsea, 
London, who furnish " self-colour " papers, in low 
relief, of a very beautiful character. But in all cases 
flatness is a pleasing feature where the body comes in 
contact with the surface; hence this character should 
be rigidly preserved, for it is the prerogative of art 



ADAPTATION. 143 

to take hold of the most pleasing feature of an object, 
or most welcome condition of a surface, and to im- 
press it, adding with it that amount of enrichment 
which is desirable. It may be thought that in the 
case of the Moorish treatment the belt of smooth 
tiles (corresponding with our old-fashioned wainscot- 
ing) is not sufficiently high to protect the body of 
the occupant of the apartment from contact with the 
embossed portion of the wall ; but a moment's medi- 
tation shows that it is — for it rises above the elbow 
when the man is standing, and above the head when 
sitting. For, where Moorish architecture occurs, the 
low settee and ottoman are used, which raises the 
occupant but little above the floor of the room, and a 
reclining position of the body is adopted. 

41 . In the case of carpets and other floor-decorations 
the objection to relief, or the appearance of relief, be- 
comes greater than in the case of the wall, for nothing 
can be more uncomfortable to walk over than a rough 
and uneven surface of land and water, bestrewed with 
bushes and other large objects which cast massive 
shadows, interspersed with fragments of Louis-Quinze 
ornament. Certainly, in the case of a floor at least, 
flatness is a desirable feature, and if desirable, then 
a feature which art should impress. A new inven- 
tion in abominations has recently occurred; a 
carpet having appeared which is enriched with 
well-formed bows of ribbon, in which the light and 
shade are so well managed that the aspect of relief 
is fully given; but the peculiarity and crowning 
point rests in the centre of each bow being securely 
attached to the ground by a large button, hence the 



144 ART OF DECORATIVE DESIGN. 

uncomfortable character of the pattern is increased to 
a maximum by the idea being afforded that those who 
walk over the carpet are proceeding through large high 
loops which are securely attached to the floor. 

42. In setting forth the principles we now advance 
we are opposing a tide of feeling which has its chief ad- 
vocate and expounder in Mr. Ruskin — yet a tide which, 
happily for decorative art, is waning. This gentleman 
may dogmatically say that no one who can paint a 
picture would decorate a wall with ornament.* But 
to apply this summary method of dealing with the 
case to the opposite side, may we not with equal truth 
say that no one who could justly decorate a wall 
would paint a picture upon it? But it is easy to dog- 
matize and make bold assertions, it is another matter, 
however, to offer proof and to build up statements by 
reason. As a decorative scheme, the Alhambra is in 
our judgment much higher than the Vatican, for in 
the latter the ornament is bad and the general effect 
seems sacrificed to the exceeding power of the pictorial 
works; but while the representative of the Natural 
School seems to have a true feeling for pictorial art, 
he has little knowledge of ornament, and while he 
has done much to advance the principles and maintain 
the claims of the former, he has done but little, we fear, 
to foster a genial growth of the latter ; for if we take 
away the elegance from his pen, and his noble power 
of utterance, we have little practical information 
affbrded respecting ornament, and little advanced 
which is likely to prove of permanent worth. 

43. To talk of walking over beds of roses is very 

* The Two Paths. 



ADAPTATION. 145 

agreeable, and poetical also; and by expressions of this 
character it is easy to make a successful appeal to 
tender hearts and feelings, but after all the judgment 
is not reached. The fancy of a brute may be tickled, 
but man is endowed with reason which requires to be 
satisfied. But the case is altered by the fact that not 
one-tenth part of the designs put forth upon the prin- 
ciples of the Natural School are rosy beds ; many are 
composed of flowers interspersed with wooden-looking 
lumps of Louis-Quatorze and Louis-Quinze orna- 
ment; many more are made up of trees, bushes, and 
ponds, while others are of the ribbon character. Then 
we have groined-roof patterns, Gothic-moulding pat- 
terns, and many other varieties of a somewhat similar 
class. ^ The strongest advocates of relief floral patterns 
need not contend in favour of the walking over in- 
verted groined roofs, but if the principle of light and 
shade be permitted in one case it must be allowed in 
others; yet we are ready to admit that the want of 
pleasing associations may render the latter class of 
pattern more inappropriate than the former. The 
only two complete representations of nature in the 
kinds of pattern named occur in the strictly floral 
pattern and the pictorial design which embraces in 
its parts trees, avenues, and lakes. Now it is argued 
that as what is here represented is natural, and as 
lakes and trees appear in creation with light and 
shade and diversified tints, it is legitimate and right 
to depict them on our floors. This argument seems 
to have many applications. On the same principle 
we might say that because a thorn is bounded by 
curves of exceeding beauty and has light and shade, 

L 



146 ART OF DECORATIVE DESIGN. 

that it is an agreeable thing to sit upon. It does not 
follow that because a thing is beautiful where it is 
that it is a just decoration if removed to a new posi- 
tion amidst altered circumstances. The expounder 
of the principles of the Natural School speaks much 
about the "interpreting nature." This is, unques- 
tionably, rigbt; but it does not hence follow that we 
are to accept his interpretation, for to us it seems 
that such a rendering is in some cases at least not 
very accurate. In the case before us we think nature 
does not teach the application of landscapes or any 
incongruities to the purposes of floor-decoration, but 
sets before us a thousand instances in which she most 
palpably manifests a perfect adaptation to the condi- 
tions under which she exists ; and when she forms a 
bed such as we love to walk upon, she fabricates it of 
the short and tender grass blades which constitute 
the velvet pile of nature, and has its analogue in the 
mossy surface of our carpet. In wandering over a 
common, we instinctively avoid furze-bushes, pools of 
water, stumps of trees, and the like, hence why place 
them on the floor where we are compelled to walk? 
Whenever we come in contact with an object on the 
moor which casts a massive shadow, we avoid it ; then 
why place it in the path which we must tread? Those 
who insist upon the application of flowers in relief to 
the purposes of ornamentation seem only to have 
looked at the surface of things, and have not contem- 
plated the deep teachings of vegetable nature as to 
adaptation. In the case of the leader of the Natural 
School, the knowledge of nature seems to have been 
derived from a secondary source, for, if we are rightly 



ADAPTATION. 147 

informed, application was made at South Kensington 
for the titles of the botanical writings of the author 
of these pages, of which good use seems to have been 
made, judging from certain principles and illustra- 
tions set forth in the first chapter of the last volume of 
Modern Painters ; but in order to the receiving the 
full teachings of nature reference must not only be 
made to works written with one distinctive object, but 
to the volume of nature which is alike open to all. 
The best lessons which nature teaches are in some 
cases hard to learn and difficult to acquire, but he who 
would know her fully must be content to encounter 
difficulties and spend long hours in ascertaining small 
truths, and he who does so will find that plants teach 
consistency. 

44. There is another phase of the subject. Plants 
not only manifest certain forms and combinations of 
lines and colours, but they set forth a principle of life 
and energy which in the tropical flora is extremely 
manifest.* We have now to consider whether this 
principle of life can be set forth in conventional 
forms, and if it can, whether a composition in which 
the spirit of nature is embodied does not more fully 
represent the plant — or, at least, the principles of 
plant-growth — than the ordinary floral patterns? and 
to decide this matter we can call in a high authority. 

* The magnificent set of stereoscopic views of .Java recently published 
by Messrs. Negretti and Zambra, set this forth with exceeding power. 
The enei'gy displayed by the publishers of these views in the procuring 
photographs of scenes and lands of the deepest interest, and the great 
cost at which these are procured, should elicit for them that patronage 
which the undertaking deserves. Figs. 4, 65, 86, are taken from the 
•Java series alluded to. 

l2 



148 ART OF DECORATIVE DESIGN. 

Some few years back the author, while in conversation 
with Dr. Lindfey, who is well known as a botanist, 
called attention to the sectional forms of certain seed- 
vessels as ornamental objects, when the learned Doc- 
tor related an anecdote which had occurred in his 
history shortly prior to this time. He required a 
wall-paper, and went in search of such to a large shop 
in Oxford Street, when a number of floral patterns of 
the highest order were unfolded, but all failed to 
charm ; impatience now began to manifest itself on 
the part of the Doctor, who said, " If you have nothing 
which contains more nature than these I must go 
elsewhere," whereupon a number of conventional pat- 
terns were introduced, and one was speedily chosen : 
here we have a man who has spent his life in con- 
templating nature, bearing testimony to the fact that 
by certain conventional forms more nature is mani- 
fested than by any of the so-called natural patterns. 
There is a hidden principle of life in plants unfelt by 
the casual observer, which lies far back beneath the 
forms of her parts, as the soul dwells in the recesses 
of man's nature, and this it is which few can 
portray. 

45. We have set forth our principles concerning 
adaptation in ornament, principles which are alike 
manifested by nature and by art in her best periods, 
hence we have arrived at a stage at which it will be 
well to advance the principles of a few men whose 
names are honourably known in connexion with 
ornament, in order to show how the matter stands; 
for while we are perfectly aware that no cause is 
proved to be right by the multitude being on its 



ADAPTATION. 149 

side, it is yet well that we make ourselves acquainted 
with the weight, in the form of great masters, on each 
side. On the one side we have Mr. Ruskin, who 
was formerly upheld by Mr. Redgrave, R.A., then a 
leader of the Natural School, but a man who has 
since become the expounder of orthodox views and 
the awarder of merit upon the same sound prin- 
ciples,* and is now in a remarkably unsettled state of 
mind, judging from the works which have recently 
issued from the South Kensington establishment, at 
which he is the Art superintendent. Besides Mr. 
Ruskin we have no great name on this side with 
which we are acquainted, and certainly not the name 
of any great ornamentist. On the other side, we have 
Owen Jones, a man who, by his works, has manifested 
his knowledge of ornament, and who has given forth 
more real practical information respecting the deco- 
rative art in his Propositions, formerly sold by the 
Department of Practical Art for one penny, and now 
united with his Grammar of Ornament^ than Mr. 
Ruskin has in his much more voluminous writings. 
Hear what Owen Jones says (these passages are two of 
the Propositions) : — " Flowers or other natural objects 
should not be used as ornament, but conventional 
representations founded upon them sufficiently sug- 
gestive to convey the intended image to the mind 
without destroying the unity of the object they are 
employed to decorate." "As architecture, so all works 
of the decorative arts, sJiould possess fitness^ proportion, 

* See Redgrave's Report on Design, bound with the Jurors' Eeports 
on the 1851 Exhibition, and published separately by Chapman and 
Hall, a most valuable essay. 



150 ART OF DECORATIVE DESIGN. 

harmony, the result of all which is repose." Then we 
have Digby Wyatt: — "Infinite variety and unerring 
fitness govern all forms in nature." Yitruvius : — " The 
perfection of all works depends on their fitness to 
answer the end proposed, and on principles resulting 
from a consideration of nature herself." Sir Charles L. 
Eastlake : — " In every case in nature where fitness or 
utility can be traced the characteristic quality or 
relative beauty is found to be identified with that of 
fitness." A. W. Pugin : — " How many objects of 
ordinary use are rendered monstrous and ridiculous 
simply because the artist, instead of seeking the 
most convenient form, and then decorating it, has 
embodied some extravagance to conceal the real 
purpose for which the article has been made." And 
the Kensington Department of Art avowedly; but 
how this tallies with their late practice we cannot 
see, for the last mania has here been for modern 
Italian relief ornament, as suggested by the 
Majolica ware. This enumeration of authorities 
will give some idea of the weight on either 
side. 

46. Before dismissing this subject, we may have re- 
ference to remarks frequently made condemnatory of 
manufacturers who produce articles in bad taste, for it 
is said, if such articles were not produced we should 
not buy them. This is not fair ; the producer and the 
consumer must share the condemnation : so long as the 
consumer, by his want of knowledge, creates a demand 
for articles of bad taste, that demand will be met by 
the producer, for the manufacturer and consumer are 
alike ignorant of the principles of true ornament. 



ADAPTATION. 151 

and the producer concerns himself only with the 
supplying that for which there is a demand. If it 
be urged, on the one hand, that in the case of the 
manufacturer's ignorance of art he should employ 
some one of taste to see to these matters, it must be 
admitted that it is equally imperative on the con- 
sumer who has no art knowledge to employ some 
person of sound judgment to buy for him, but 
how rarely is this done ! We have known but one 
instance in which a person has employed another to 
buy for him, owing to his want of taste. Owen 
Jones seems to be right when he says, " No improve- 
ment can take place in the art of the present genera- 
tion until all classes, artists, manufacturers, and the 
public, are better educated in art." A curious fact 
occurs in relation to the partners of one of the 
largest carpet manufactories in the north of England 
and their rugs, which is a2:)propriate here. The 
author of these pages, being on terms of some in- 
timacy with one of the partners, upon calling at the 
works found hung upon the walls of the counting- 
house, as pictures, certain of their magnificently- 
wrought lion and similar rugs ; here they were 
appropriate and effective. But upon visiting the 
house of this liberal and princely manufacturer, in 
order to partake of his bounties, it was found to be 
a Gothic mansion, well stored with the most appro- 
priate Gothic furniture, and nowhere was a lion 
rug to be found. Here we have an instance which 
shows that so long as there is a demand the supply 
will be kept up, even while the manufacturer holds 
contrary views of art ; and indeed it is better that the 



152 ART OF DECORATIVE DESIGN. 

people, through their knowledge, refuse to buy works 
of false art than that they be debarred from procur- 
ing such simply through the cutting off the supply. 
The former state of things we may hope to see ; the 
latter we must never hope for. 

47. Not only is a flat treatment the only treatment 
which is adapted to a flat surface, as a wall, but there 
are special effects which are peculiarly suited to the 
particular rooms; thus a drawing-room should be 
bright and light, and calculated to cheer and encourage 
pleasurable conversation — hence no dark paper is suited 
to such a room, for it would fail to induce the condi- 
tion of mind desired. The paper on the wall of the 
dining-room should be darker and lower in tone, for 
the object of special attraction here is the spread table 
— ^lience no object should call attention from it. The 
library should be rich and calculated to foster medi- 
tation, and the bed-room cheerful and calm, so that in 
the hour of sickness the influence may be soothing. 
Yet in all cases both the wall and the floor, hence 
the paper and the carpet, should serve as a back- 
ground to the contents of the room, and should be 
of that subdued character which enhances the value 
of the furniture exposed. If good engravings or 
sketches are hung upon a wall covered with an unsuit- 
able paper, they will hardly ever be noticed; but 
if they -be hung upon a suitable background their 
attractiveness will call forth many a comment, hence 
we see that a sjDecial class of paper is peculiarly suited 
to a particular condition. 

48. A consideration of adaptation or fitness further 
shows that ornaments destined for vertical and hori- 



ADAPTATION. 153 

zontal positions — for walls and floors — should be of a 
different class; that the wall decoration should have 
its halves corresponding while the floor should consist 
of radiating parts. 

49. This is a principle which has been universally 
obeyed in the best periods of art, and occurs most fully 
in the vegetable kingdom, as will be seen by attentive 
observation. The top view of every plant (with the 
exception of a few so low in the scale of organiza- 
tion that they are not popularly regarded as plants) 
shows it to be of a radiating character. While this 
statement is true, even in the case of trees and 
the larger vegetables, it concerns us chiefly in re- 
lation to the smaller plants. In wandering over 
the moor we notice that every plant which we look 
down upon has this radiate structure — the daisy, the 
buttercup, the jelly-flower {Cardamine pratensis), 
the primrose, the cinquefoil {Potentilla)^ and whatever 
plant we look down upon, it matters not what it is, 
for in all cases the leaves and the flowers and the 
prostrate stems spring from a common centre. These 
are the horizontal ornaments of nature, and with the 
top or radiate view of these structures are we alone 
familiar. We know the asj)ect of the daisy plant, 
of the dandelion, and of the London pride as seen 
from above, but are not familiar with the side view 
of such structures, and all plants with the top view 
of which we are familiar, and which are conse- 
quently to us horizontal ornaments, are of a radiate 
character. On the contrary, all plants with the side 
view of which we are familiar have but their halves 
corresponding, and in many cases the halves are not 



154 ART OF DECORATIVE DESIGN. 

exactly alike, setting aside the influences of disturbing 
causes. 

50. When the leaves are opposite (see section 10, 
Chap. VI.) the halves of the structure exactly corre- 
spond, when seen laterally, if undisturbed ; and the 
same is the case if the leaves are disposed in rings 
(Chap. VI., s. 10). But when the parts have a spiral 
exodus, the halves cannot be precisely alike: yet even 
here nature seems to make an effort to secure this 
vertical symmetry, which is pleasing in objects having 
an upward tendency. 

51. In the case of the flower it is similar. If the 
halves only are alike, the blossom is so situated that it 
becomes a vertical ornament, as in the violet (fig. 1 22), 

Fig. 122. 




where the head nods, the mimulus, sage, dead-nettles, 
eye-bright, lavender, and mother-of- thousands {Saxi- 
fraga sarmentosa)^ Plate XIII., fig. 1, where the 
fl.owers proceed laterally from the stem ; but if 
the flower consists of similar radiating parts (Plate 
XIIL, fig. 2), it occupies a horizontal position, as 
the rose, sweet-william, pink, and buttercup. Yet 
we occasionally find flowers formed of similar radi- 
ating parts placed vertically; but to this there is 
less objection than to a bi-symmetrical flower being 
placed horizontally. It will be said that flowers of a 



ADAPTATION. 155 

bi-symmetrical character do occur horizontally, and 
the candy-tuft (Fig. 123), hemlock, and many umbel- 

FiG. 123. 




liferous plants will be adduced as examples ; forin these 
cases the halves of the flower only correspond, and 
these do enjoy a horizontal position. Circumstances, 
it is said, alter cases, and this is true in this instance 
at least ; for here the flower is not solitary, but the 
blossoms are so arranged that the symmetrical cha- 
racter is restored by their disposition, as the smaller 
halves of the flower are, in all cases, directed towards 
the centre of the circle (fig. 124). We learn, then, 

Fig. 124. 




that in the case of those plants which appear as hori- 
zontal ornaments we have a radiate structure, and in 
the case of those plants which appear as vertical 
objects we have a bi-symmetrical structure. Apply- 
ing these principles to the case of conventional orna- 
ments, we see that while a pattern constructed on such 



156 ART OF DECORATIVE DESIGN. 

a form as is represented in fig. 57 is adapted, in 
its present arrangement, for a wall-decoration, it 
would be most objectionable as a floor-pattern ; for in 
this position it would of necessity be wrong way 
upwards to a large portion of the occupants of the 
room. Yet such patterns are fabricated and used, 
bad as they are; and when they are purchased and 
taken home a long discussion ensues as to how the 
pattern is to run — whether to the fire or from the fire ; 
and all this arises out of the pattern being unsuited 
to its position. We have seen that, in certain cases, 
flowers of a bi-symmetrical character have a hori- 
zontal position, so it is not necessary that all floor- 
patterns be made up of squares and circles. Even the 
form represented in fig. 57, which we have just been 
considering, is admirably fitted for a horizontal posi- 
tion : but then the arrangement must be that repre- 
sented in fig. 58, which is pronounced or emphasized 
equally in different directions.* 

52. The arrangement of the diamond or lozenge 
form, given in fig. 53, is perfectly suited for a wall or 
vertical surface, while the dispositions of this form, 
given in figs. 50, 51, 52, and 54, are better suited for 
floors or horizontal surfaces ; and the same thing 
occurs with the form set forth by fig. 125, which is 
perfectly suited to a vertical surface when erect, as 
here drawn, or when by inversion it is changed into 

* A carpet pattern of a very simple character founded upon this 
basis was designed by the author and manufactured by Messrs. Jack- 
son and Graham some time since, and a wall paper to match, on the 
basis of fig. 64, has recently been cut by Messrs. Scott, Cuthbertson, 
and Co. 



ADAPTATION. 



157 



a scale pattern (fig. 126); while, if it is required as a 
floor-decoration, it must be arranged in the manner 
represented in fig. 127. 

Fig. 125. 




53. With stair-carpeting the case is somewhat dif- 
ferent ; for here the form and arrangement given in 
fig. 57 would not be so ofi^ensive and inappropriate as it 



Fig. 126. 




would upon an ordinary floor ; but even here, imme- 
diately the top stair is ascended, such a pattern would 
be very objectionable. Hence the treatment should 
be similar to that of the common floor, or the 
pattern should be accented in two directions only 
(figs. 128, 129). 



158 



ART OF DECORATIVE DESIGN. 



54. We have seen that in the case of plants those 
which are seen as horizontal objects have a radiating 

Fig. 127. 




character, while those which appear as vertical objects 

Fig. 128. Fig. 129. 




are of a bi-symmetrical character; in conjunction with 
this one circumstance should be considered, which is, 



ADAPTATION. 



159 



as vegetable forms are of a flexible or elastic nature, 
it is impossible for a radiating ornament to retain a 
circular form if placed vertically, owing to the influ- 
ence of attraction upon plastic matter. 

55. For the purpose of illustration, we shall compare 
a plant, with its circular system of leaves, to whalebone 
radii terminated in knobs proceeding from a fixed 
centre, fig. 130. The centre in our figure corresponds 

Fig. 130. 




with the short stem of the plant from which the 
leaves proceed, the whalebone rays, with the leaf- 
stalks and the knobs on the extremities of these rays, 
with the leaves ; when this is sustained horizontally, 
and viewed from above, it appears as a regular star ; 
for the depression of the rays by the attractive in- 
fluence of the earth, to whatever extent it may take 
place, is unobservable in the position from which we 
are viewing it ; or, to be more accurate in expression, 
the character of the ornament is not altered, for all 
the rays are of the same length, and each appears as 



160 



ART OF DECORATIVE DESIGN. 



a right line ; but let this arrangement be placed ver- 
tically, and viewed as a wall-decoration, and its cha- 
racter is seen to be altered, for it no longer consists of 
members having the same direction, but of parts so 
arranged that the whole is now of a bi-symmetrical 
character (fig. 131), and this one fact seems to give 

Fig. 131. 




much consistency to many of those forms which we 
have used as illustrations of repetition with variation 
(see Plate IX.). 

56. In relation to adaptation one other hint is given 
us by nature through the medium of plants, which is, 
that the portions of a composition may be removed 
from their normal stations if the conditions are so 
altered as to render this desirable. This can be 
illustrated by the ivy, where the leaves are generated 
upon the spiral principle, and are so protruded that 
the sixth leaf falls over the first, and two revolutions 
of the spiral thread round the stem are made in 
encountering the fine leaves which form the unit of 



ADAPTATION. 



161 



the spiral series (Chap. VI., s. 13); the arrangement, 
indeed, is precisely like that of the oak represented in 
figs. 68, 69. This is the normal arrangement of the 
leafage of the ivy, and the disposition which occurs in 
all cases where an equal supply of air and light is 
received on all sides, but no sooner is the plant brought 
in contact with a wall than it completely alters the 
arrangement of its leafage to the alternate disposition 
(Chap. VI., s. 12); and even this is so modified that 
the leaves are all turned towards the spectator, and 
thus the most beautiful arrangement of the parts 
possible under the circumstances is brought about. 

57. A similar departure from the normal law fre- 
quently occurs in the jasmine, which has its leaves 
arranged in crossing pairs (Chap. VI., s. 10). We 

Fig. 132. 




here find that when the plant is brought in close 
contact with a wall the crossino^ arrano-ement is 
departed from, and the leaves pass only to the right 

M 



162 ART OF DECORATIVE DESIGN. 

and left (fig. 132). In the case of the ivy, one 
leaf out of five, at least, would come in contact 
with the wall and be cramped and injured, and 
consequently of an unsightly character, were it not 
for this departure from rule; and in the case of the 
jasmine, one leaf out of four would be destroyed; 
but by this departure from the normal habit of 
growth the leaves are preserved from injury, and a 
new disposition of the parts is brought about which 
secures beauty. 

58. An instance of a somewhat similar character, 
having a more special reference to the relation of wall 
and floor-patterns, or the manner in which a pattern 
suited to the former position should be modified in 
order to be appropriate to the latter position, we have 
noticed occurring especially in the goosegrass, where 
the leaves are arranged in rings in the manner repre- 
sented in fig. 61. This plant has feeble stems, yet it 
is destined to an erect position : for the angles of the 
stem and the midribs of the leaves are each furnished 
Avith hooks which by their graspings sustain the 
plant in an erect position. When thus vertical, 
the leaves are given off from the stem in all 
directions, at equal angles, a condition shown 
in fig. 61, to which we have just made reference, 
but if by any accident the seed springs up, and the 
plant develops itself where there is nothing on which 
it may lean, the stem reclines upon the earth, and 
develops in an onward instead of an upward direc- 
tion. Here, however, is the circumstance to be 
noted: the direction of the leaves is now changed, 
for instead of their proceeding from the stem in such 



ADAPTATION. 



163 



a manner that they all form with it equal angles, 
some leaves are so raised, and others so depressed (fig. 
133), that we have an arrangement which appears 



Fig. 13H. 




in top view as a series of rings of leaves connected 
by a stem (fig. 134.) What do these instances teach 

Fig. 134. 




us? Is it not that fitness must precede all other con- 
siderations, and that we must apply ourselves to the 
task of discovering the most befitting form, or ap- 
propriate condition of an object or surface, and after 
this seek to apply such enrichments to it as seem 
desirable and in no way violate the principle of con- 
sistency ? We now see the teachings of nature upon 
the subject of adaptation, and the application of 
these teachings to the case of decoration ; yet even 
with this knowledge, and an acquaintance with the 
practice of those ages in which art has flourished, 
which has in all cases been in unison with the prin- 
ciples we are advocating, we cannot hope that any 
great advances will be made, so long as articles of 

M 2 



164 ART OF DECORATIVE DESIGN. 

furniture are chosen in the manner in which they 
now are. If a house is to be furnished, or even a 
room, the purchaser selects first a pretty paper for 
the wall, then a pretty carpet for the floor, then 
pretty curtains for the windows, a pretty cover for 
the table, pretty chairs and tables, and as many 
pretty things as are deemed necessary, without ever 
thinking whether all these pretty things will make a 
pretty whole. The carpet may be good as a carpet, 
but may combine with the wall anything but har- 
moniously; the table-cover may be well chosen as a 
solitary object, but may prove to be the opposite of 
what it ought when brought into society ; and both 
the curtains for the windows and the covers of the 
chairs may be offensive when in juxtaposition with 
other obj ects : so long, we say, as we proceed in this 
manner, little advance can be looked for; we must 
select those objects which are in all respects best 
adapted to the circumstances in which they are to be 
placed, and this can only be done where knowledge 
is possessed. 



XI^^ 




165 



CHAPTER XII. 

THE POWER OF ORNAMENT TO EXPRESS PEELINGS 
AND IDEAS. 

1. A DRINKING vessel preserved in the South Ken- 
sington Museum is beautified by an ornament which 
sets forth the Chinese notion of an eclipse; a golden 
ball represents the sphere about to be lost in darkness, 
a number of clouds float in mid air, and a monster 
dragon advances with the view of swallowing the 
golden orb; here we have a subject — a thought — an 
idea, shrouded in ornament or set forth by decorative 
forms,* and that in a manner alike beautiful and im- 
pressive, for the dragon is all that could be desired, 
being vigorous, energetic, grotesque, and ornamental; 
but the success of the composition, great as it is, does 
not concern us at present, as our attention must fix 
itself upon the fact that a subject is portrayed by orna- 
mental characters, and upon the agencies employed to 
bring about this end. (Plate XIV.) 

2. In paragraph 14 of Chapter II. we have shown 
that an image possessing the salient characters of an 
object will call the object to mind, while the image is 

* We could not regard the dragon as a piece of ornament were it a 
representation of any existing creature, but as it is a mere ornamental 
animal, we are justified in so doing. 



166 ART OF DECORATIVE DESIGN. 

in all minor particulars unlike that which is brought 
before the mental eye, which truth being recognised 
by the Chinese artist has enabled him to call forth 
within us the idea of a dragon by an ornamental 
creation which, while it is possessed of eyes, legs, 
body, tongue, and teeth, is yet unlike any creature 
that either does or can live, yet unmistakeably a 
dragon, for the salient features in the mental concep- 
tion of this monster are present, which of themselves 
suffice to enable the mind to recognise the intended 
thought; but in this instance the inducing the mind 
to create to itself a particular creature is not difficult, 
as the term dragon is applied generically to all animals 
with a long body continued as a tail, short and power- 
ful limbs, and a head furnished with a large mouth 
and powerful jaws, as well as by the dragon being a 
mere fabulous creature. The clouds are depicted in 
a manner so conventional that unless the significance 
of the forms used were known it might be difficult to 
determine what was portrayed; yet in a symbolic 
system the use of forms of a wholly conventional 
character is sanctioned by the practice of ages as the 
counterparts in ornament of natural objects. 

3. This illustration makes manifest the possibility of 
setting forth an idea by decorative forms, and we might 
bring forward others which would show that a plu- 
rality of thoughts can be illustrated by ornament, 
and that knowledge may be shrined in beautiful 
forms. We frequently find upon Chinese vessels the 
earth represented as a plain, the plain in some in- 
stances resting on the back of a tortoise, and the con- 
ventional clouds floating above; thus this ingenious 



TT] , -vnr 




POWER OF ORNAMENT TO EXPRESS FEELINGS. 167 

people set forth that which they believe. We know 
the earth to be spherical, and to be surrounded by 
clouds and starry worlds, hence it is but right that we 
set forth our knowledge in ornament as do the Chinese. 
In order to this, we draw the earth as a globe, or, to 
be precise, as an oblate spheroid; we mark upon 
it the great continents and a few longitudinal lines; 
we now surround it with clouds, using the form 
furnished by the middle-ages, and place externally 
the stars. (Plate XV.) 

4. Although we see the possibility of expressing 
definite ideas by the agency of ornamental shapes, 
yet this has been accomplished by the aid of forms 
having an acknowledged significance ; and pleasing as 
this mode of expression by the agency of symbols is, 
yet the power of utterance thus afforded is limited. 
Orange-blossoms may set forth innocence, and call up 
reminiscences of Hymen's altar; holly and mistletoe 
will express Christmas, and evoke thoughts of merri- 
ment and joy; the violet will typify humility, leaf- 
buds spring, a profusion of flowers summer, ripe 
fruits autumn, leafless branches winter, the trefoil 
the Trinity, and the quatrefoil the four Evangelists ; 
yet the number of such symbols is few, consequently 
they afford no great means of expressing ideas. 

5. In order that a symbolic art be powerful in utter- 
ance it is necessary that the people have knowledge of 
the purport or significance of the forms used and of 
the circumstances to which they have reference, for in 
the absence of this knowledge the decoration, through 
not being understood, ceases to be impressive; and 
this is the great drawback to a symbolic system, and 



168 ART OF DECORATIVE DESIGN. 

is that which will ever limit its development and re- 
tard its adoption, even if nourished by favouring 
circumstances ; but as the most propitious conditions 
for the healthy growth of such a system have passed 
away, there is no reason in hoping that symbolism will 
again prevail. Still, all are agreed as to the desira- 
bility of embodying our knowledge in ornamental 
forms ; indeed, this must be done in order that decora- 
tion command our sympathies and be satisfying, but 
it must be accomplished without the aid of symbols. 
The appeal must be made to that knowledge which is 
invariably gained by the common-life experience of 
those addressed, or to the education which such are 
known to possess. This is the only way in which we 
can hope to exalt ornament, and to endue it with the 
power of eliciting the sympathies of the people, and 
of drawing to itself that patronage and interest 
necessary to its advancement. We condemn the con- 
duct of the people in not nourishing the growth of 
ornament, and upbraid them on account of their 
ignorance of art, saying, that this alone is the cause 
of the poverty of the harvest of decorative forms. 

6. But is it so? Is there no fault on our side ? Have 
we furnished ornaments which, while they are comely 
in form, also manifest the knowledge of our age? And 
have we placed our fellow-countrymen under an 
- obligation by furnishing their houses with decorations 
which will proclaim to generations yet unborn the 
nature and extent of our discoveries, and which, at 
the same time, instruct those who now dwell upon 
them? If we have not done so, can we wonder that 
art is not cherished more ? Do we not rather marvel 



POWER OF ORNAMENT TO EXPRESS FEELINGS. 



169 



that in this respect things are not worse than they 
are? So long as we repeat ancient forms, or continue 
to produce designs which in no way set forth our 
knoAvledge, we must fail to invest ornament with thafe^ 
power which it ought to possess, and that which will 
bind it to the people. The mechanical arts are justly 
set forth ; our stoves and bronze vases are well cast ; 
our marble mantel-shelves are well cut and finished; 
the furniture of our rooms is well put together; the 
glass shades are well blown ; the windows are of large 

Fig. 135. 




sheets of smooth, bright, transparent glass ; the rugs 
are well made, the carpets well woven, and the wall- 
papers printed with great exactness, — which all teach 
us the perfection of our machinery and the greatness 
of our mechanical skill; and they will also tell, in 
future ages, of the vastness of our power; but the 
art will fail to speak of our greatness, powerful in 
utterance though art be. 

7. Fig. 135 will serve to elucidate the manner in 



170 ART OF DECORATIVE DESIGN. 

which knowledo;e can be embodied in ornament and 
'illustrated by it, as it has two members which we 
may consider as setting forth natural facts. If a ball 
*is thrown against a wall, it will rebound, and that in 
such a manner that the angle formed by it and the 
upper portion of the wall as it rebounds, will be 
coincident with that formed by the ball and the lower 
portion of the wall, as it first left the hand. If the 
ball be replaced by a mobile fluid, it will manifest 
the action of a new influence ; for while a portion re- 
bounds, part will run upwards in contact with the 
vertical surface, being thus drawn from its course 
and held to the wall by surface attraction. This is 
well seen at our coasts, where wave after wave ad- 
vances, and after running up the gravel beach, strikes 
against the cliff: one portion of the water imme- 
diately rebounds, while another portion ascends in 
contact with the rocky surface. In some places the 
cliiff has been sapped by the ever-rolling waves, where 
the water may be seen striking against the vertical 
rock at the back, and then flying off and striking the 
overhanging surface, which it continues long in con- 
tact with while urging its way to the margin of the 
overhanging rock. Another familiar instance in 
which surface attraction is made manifest is furnished 
by an experiment occasionally seen at the tea-table. 
The spoon, when poised on the edge of the cup in such 
a manner that the bowl floats on the tea, draws the 
liquid from its position of rest into an elevated ring in 
immediate contact with the spoon, which appears to 
sustain the spoon, and gives a clinging effect, which is 
applied in Plate XVII., fig. 2, and Plate XXIII., fig. 2. 



POWER OF ORNAMENT TO EXPRESS FEELINGS. 171 

The circumstances or facts of these examples may be 
considered as embodied in our figure (fig. 135), where 
from the spiral a member is given off to the right in a 
diagonal yet upward direction, which, through coming 
in contact with a solid surface, rebounds in part and is 
in part conducted along the horizontal plane. The re- 
bounding of the member, which appears to be urged 
forward by a vital power, manifests obedience to 
natural law ; and its continuance in contact with the 
surface yields the same submission to the forces of 
nature, while the quaint drawing aside of the member 
given off by a weak force to the left (the weakness of 
the energy by which it is urged forward being mani- 
fested by the fact that it is removed thus easily from 
its course) shows equal submission to the same influ- 
ence. This ornament, derived from a high source, 
{The Preacher^ illuminated by Mr. Owen Jones) in 
order to check all doubt concerning its beauty while 
yielding obedience to decorative laws, may justly be 
said to embody two natural facts with which we have 
acquainted ourselves, and these it manifests without 
the aid of forms having an acknowledged significance. 
8. This may be thought to be an exceptional case, 
but it is not such. Doubtless any thought may be set 
forth by ornamental forms; but in order to this an 
inquiry into the facts and circumstances which go to 
make up the mental conception of that which is to be 
set forth must be instituted and carefully conducted. 
What goes to form our conception of evening? Not 
one fact alone, but a number which we have be- 
come familiar with throughout life : it is these Avhich 
we have to ascertain and discover. Some days 



172 ART OF DECORATIVE DESIGN. 

pass away, and are succeeded by night, withput our 
being impressed with the period of twilight, while 
at other times we feel that it is evening. What is it 
that causes us thus to feel? And what do we now 
see that we do not meet with at other times? The 
aerial vault has a hue peculiar to this period of day — 
a fact which can never fully be appreciated till an 
attempt is made at mixing a flat tint which exactly 
represents it. There is the brightening " star of the 
evening," which shines forth long before its comrades 
less brilliant than itself. Measure with exactness the 
means necessary to represent this shining sphere which 
has a colour that cannot be told, and brilliance 
which can only be represented by heightening t\).Q 
contrast between the star and the sky. The herbage 
partakes of the influence, and alters the position of 
its leaves, which for the most part rise and form a 
more acute angle with the upper portion of the stem. 
And the majority of flowers close, while others open, 
as the evening primrose.* The colours are also 
altered ; blue becomes lighter, till in the later dusk it 
is impossible to tell a surface washed with cobalt in 
its intensity from a sheet of white paper. Orange 
and red become darker, and finally disappear in 
black. The bright orange flower of the common 
nasturtium (almost orange-chrome in colour) at the 
period of the later dusk presents the mahogany or 
rich chestnut colour of the dark flower of the same 

* This they do at various periods of the evening, which usually cor- 
respond with the hours of opening in the morning : thus, if a flower 
opens at six o'clock in the morning, it usually closes at six in the 
afternoon; if it opens at eight in the morning it closes at eight in the 
evening. See the " Floral Clock," given in the Appendix. 



POWER OF ORNAMENT TO EXPRESS FEELINGS. 173 

species,* while yellow is least changed under these 
circumstances. Greens become darker, objects are 
blended and confused, and soft indistinctness pre- 
vails. Besides these characters, there are owls, the 
moon, mushrooms, bats, and large-eyed monsters^ 
all of which contribute to the mental conception of 
this period of day. 

9. Having ascertained what goes to make up our 
mental idea of evening, it is not difficult to set forth 
the thought in ornament, or to create a decorative 
scheme which shall so impress the mind as to cause it 
to originate to itself the sense of evening. But in 
order to this it is not necessary that we avail our- 
selves of all the elements which are associated with 
evening, for a few salient features will usually suffice. 
All that is necessary is that we originate a series of 
conventional forms which shall call to mind the 
salient features in our conception, and the result is 
gained; but the success of the effect will rest upon 

•the character of the ornament, the arrangement of 
the composition, and the right perception of the 
characteristic features. Plate XVI. is a hasty sketch 
in which we have endeavoured to convey the thought 
of the evening star. 

10. We next offer an illustration of a " Hobgoblin," 
— a creature with eyes as large as tea-saucers, resident 
in Pad-foot-lane. (Plate XVIL, fig. 1.) It will be 
found that we associate with our conception of evening 

* The flovrers of the common varieties of tlie nasturtium, such as we 
find in cottagers' gardens, are in colour either lemon-j^ellovr, orange, 
or of a dark and rich chestnut-maroon ; the two latter are alluded to 
above. 



174 • ART OF DECORATIVE DESIGN. 

the existence of creatures with luminous eyes ; for in- 
sects generally impress by their eyes and wings, and 
although perfectly familiar with the organs of vision of 
these creatures, we are frequently altogether ignorant 
of the character of the mouth. Hobgoblins are asso- 
ciated with evening, hence it is necessary to link them 
with our conception of this portion of the day and to 
make them terrific through the magnitude of the eyes. 
In Plate XVIII., fig. 1, another form of monster is 
given. 

11. It should be remembered that a play upon 
other forms is suggested by plants : for various re- 
semblances to animal forms appear in the Orchid 
flowers; flies are seen in the fly-ophrys, bees in the 
bee-ophrys, musquitoes are borne by the musquito- 
flower of the Peruvians ; the butterfly is found in the 
butterfly-plant of Trinidad; pelicans in the pelican- 
flower, which is a kind of lady's-slipper ; the skin of 
the tiger in the tigerlike stanhopea; that of the 
leopard in the leopardlike bolbophyllum. The lynx- 
like flower of Hernandez is so called from its lynx- 
like eyes and teeth. Then we have the military- 
orchis and the monkey-orchis, the lizard-orchis, the 
lady's-slipper, dragon-flies, moths, swans, doves, 
bulls, serpents'-heads, and frogs in various other 
flowers of this extensive order ; hence, in our practice 
of playing upon other forms we are but following a 
hint given by nature in some of her most beautiful 
manifestations. 

12. Our sketch of the Hobgoblin may be appro- 
priately followed by one of evening in which this 
creature is present. (Plate XIX.) 



Fi-XSL 




pi.-^rii 





POWER OF ORNAMENT TO EXPRESS FEELINGS. 175 

13. The most simple agency by which the thought 
of ascension can be called to mind is by the arrow with 
its apex directed upwards, and of descension by an 
arrow inverted ; but the ideas evoked by such a use 
of this simple form are necessarily indefinite. In 
order that a sense of ascension and descension be 
more perfectly awakened a more complicated mode of 
expression must be adopted, which shall be an em- 
bodiment of occurrences or effects associated by the 
mind with these acts. An umbrella, moved through 
the air with considerable velocity, in such a manner 
that the handle follows, has its web pressed closely 
against the stick. A bird in rapid flight has its fea- 
thers pressed against the body. A parachute during 
ascent is closed. Should the umbrella be pulled 
downwards through the air it will be forced open; 
a bird when descending has its wings uplifted ; and 
the parachute is spread — hence these bodies, when in 
these particular conditions, tend to induce the mind 
to originate to itself the thought of ascension or 
descension, or progression and retrogression, as they 
are directed perpendicularly or horizontally. As 
illustrations of what is necessary in order to the 
awaking the thought of ascension and descension, we 
give the following illustrations. (Plates XX., XXI., 
XXII.) 

14. Our ideas of ascension and descension are de- 
rived almost exclusively from the observation of bodies 
rising and falling through the atmosphere; we may 
have observed objects rise and sink in water or other 
liquids, but from bodies moving through the air our 
chief sense of these acts is gained. The air is fluid 



176 ART OF DECORATIVE DESIGN. 

matter, having density and weight, and offering re- 
sistance to all bodies moving through it ; hence if an 
object moves through it, it is pressed upon, as the air 
has not the motion of the moving body ; and if the 
object be flexible or elastic its form is altered, or the 
direction of its parts changed by the resistance 
offered. The nature of the resistance must be care- 
fully considered, and the manner in which it is offered. 
If the medium, through which the body moves were 
more dense, the resistance offered would be greater; 
thus motion through water might be set forth as well 
as motion through air, but the want of familiarity 
with the aspect of bodies when moving through this 
medium might debar it from being appreciated. The 
effect of pressure on bodies of varied degrees of elas- 
ticity and extensibility, both free and fixed, should 
be most carefully and constantly studied. Some 
little time back we were much instructed on this sub- 
ject by a series of experiments performed .by Pro- 
fessor Tyndall, at the Royal Institution, illustrative 
of his views of glaciers; he caused semi-plastic 
matter (pipe-clay reduced to the consistency of thick 
batter by water), to flow down planes of varying 
declivity, having coloured lines and circles impressed 
upon it, which underwent remarkable changes of 
form as they descended and were acted upon by vary- 
ing pressure. The rings resulting from bubbles of 
phosphuretted hydrogen gas being introduced into 
the atmosphere, when acted upon by gentle currents 
of air, manifest the action of force very readily. The 
influence of matter in motion upon matter, whether 
moving or fixed, is at all times worthy of study, for 



POWER OF ORNAMENT TO EXPRESS FEELINGS. 177 

by observing the aspects of matter when acted upon 
by various influences, and diligently inquiring into 
the nature of the mental conception of facts and 
occurrences, it will be found possible to express feel- 
ings and ideas by ornaments without the aid of 
symbolic forms. 



N 



178 



CHAPTER XIII. 

rRINCIPLES COMMON TO ORNAMENT. 

1. There are a number of principles which, while 
very important in relation to ornament, are yet of 
minor interest when brought in comparison with those 
which we have already discussed ; yet while of small 
moment, when thus compared with the most impor- 
tant laws of decoration, they are not the less worthy 
of careful consideration. The key-stone is but small 
in relation to the arch, yet very important; the eye 
is but small in relation to the body, yet of incalculable 
worth; and just as the arch could not stand without 
the key-stone, and the body suffers a great want if 
the eye be absent, so these principles, while yet rela- 
tively small, are so momentous that if they be neg- 
lected the whole composition is marred. 

2. In setting about the production of a design, the 
first thing to be considered is the fitly dividing the space 
or form to be ornamented into primary. divisions or 
shapes. This may be accomplished by bands, spaces, 
interlacing-lines, or in ways which can only be fully 
comprehended by a careful inspection of the works of 
great masters ; and in such investigations the student 
may profitably spend much time. 

3. In the primary divisions, the utmost attention 



PRINCIPLES COMMON TO ORNAMENT. 179 

must be paid to proportion (Chap. IX.) and con- 
sistency. If the shape to be divided is of a geo- 
metrical character, the mode of division set forth 
in Chap. V., s. 9, may be advantageously em- 
ployed; but should it be a vase, then the primary 
lines of the ornament must tend to emphasize the 
beautiful quality of the object, and not to destroy the 
form, for no decoration is tolerable which militates 
against the general beauty of the shape. 

4. We have seen that in the selection of a form the 
utmost regard must be paid to utility, and that the 
usefulness of an object or vessel must never be im- 
paired by its decoration (Chap. XI., s. 3); so in rela- 
tion to the general division of the form, it must be 
such as will tend to impress the use as well as the 
beauty of the object or surface decorated. 

5. After the division into primary forms, the secon- 
dary shapes and lines may be cared for; but to the 
excellence of the primary forms too much attention 
cannot be given. In conjunction with the secondary 
forms, the masses or spots in the ornamental scheme, 
which may be rendered more or less prominent by 
magnitude, or strength of colour, or tlie relative 
lightness or depth of the tint, may be regarded; and 
these secondary masses are also worthy of very spe- 
cial consideration. 

6. After this the detail may be thought out; and 
while an excess of merit cannot in any place occur, yet 
the primary setting out is of the greatest importance, 
then the secondary forms, then the detail; for at a 
distance the primary forms can alone be seen, while 
in order that the secondary forms be perceived a 

n2 



180 ART OF DECORATIVE DESIGN. 

nearer view must be had, and only upon closer in- 
spection is the detail visible, as with refinement 
there is always softness and delicacy: those deco- 
rative schemes which have all their parts in such 
harsh contrast that the minutiae can be seen while 
the spectator is far from the object, are cut oif, by 
their vulgarity, from commendation. 

7. When we see a tree at a distance its general form 
strikes us, but nothing more. It may have the form 
of an egg, as a well-grown horse-chestnut, or of a 
spindle, or lance, as the tall poplar, or of an umbrella, 
as some cedars; but whatever its shape be, nothing 
strikes us but the general form when it is thus viewed. 

8. Upon approaching nearer to the tree we observe 
a general division into large masses — masses which, in 
tall trees, are elongated, and in broad trees are de- 
pressed ; but it is only by our being in close proximity 
to the tree that we discover the form of the leaf and 
the general detail. This is the teaching of the plant 
upon the subject, and the student cannot do better 
than follow the dictates of nature. 

9. Effects of varied characters can be produced by 
the adoption of distinctive treatments and materials. 
The lavish use of elongated pointed forms and of 
sharp lines of white or gold will give a crisp and 
thorny aspect, whereas larger forms of a less pointed 
character will give breadth, which is frequently desi- 
rable ; this difference occurs between the foliage of the 
holly bush and fig-tree. These things are mentioned 
in order that the attention of the student be 
awakened to the means afforded of varying the effect 
by the alteration in character of the material used. 



PRINCIPLES COMMON TO ORNAMENT. 



181 



for all power is of value; but with the increase of 
power there is also a proportionate increase of re- 
sponsibility — hence care must be used in fitly appro- 
priating the ornament to the surrounding circum- 
stances. 

10, Mr. Owen Jones justly says, that as a composi- 
tion to be satisfactory in its colouring must have the 
presence of the primary colours, red, blue, and yellow, 
in their intensity or in combination, so must a com- 
position, to be perfect in form, have the presence of 
the three lines — the straight line, the diagonal, and 
the curve. Thus fig. 136 is not satisfactory, for it car- 
ries the mind up, down, and across. Fig. 137 is not 
satisfactory, for it still leads the mind outwards ; but 
fig. 138 gives rest, as the circle fixes the attention and 
binds it to a focus. 

Fig. 136. Fig. 137. Fig. 138. 



X 


X 


\/ 


X 









Fig. 139. Fig. 140. Fig. 141. 

11. It must not be understood that all ornamental 
compositions are to have the basis given in fig. 138; 
for this is by no means desirable ; yet this principle 
can be present while much altered in aspect. Figs. 



182 



ART OF DECORATIVE DESIGN. 



139, 140, 141, are so many embodiments of the spirit of 
the statement, while in fig. 140 the most prominent set 
of lines is represented by spaces; thus we see that 
the principle can be embodied while the form is yet 
modified; and this alteration of character admits of 
endless variation, while the spirit of the proposition is 
yet felt and preserved. See Plate XXIII., fig. 1. 

12. In a composition an amount of attention should 
be given to space as well as form ; indeed in some cases 
it is as agreeable to see large and small spaces as it is 
to observe large and small forms, which are very 
necessary, as we gather from section 6 of this 
Chapter. But Avhile it is necessary that some atten- 
tion be paid to a judicious alternation of space 

Fig. 142. 



T T 






and form, too much attention must not be given to 
the ground, as the beauty of the ornament must never 
be sacrificed to the aspect of the space. In fig. 142 

Fig. 143. Fig. 144. 





we have the most simple illustration of that class of 
pattern in which the ground and figure are both 



PlJQQll 










^ 



*♦* 



PLxxiy. 




PRINCIPLES COMMON TO ORNAMENT. 



183 



ornamental and are yet dissimilar; and in figs. 143, 
144, 145, and 146, the same principle is applied in orna- 
ment, while fig. 147 illustrates the principle of having 

Fig. 147. 



Fig. 145 




form and ground similar, which we have carried into 
ornament in figs. 148, 149, 150, and 151, but this can 
be rarely done without the ornament sufi^ering. 

Fig. 148. Fig. 149. 



^♦^ 




Fig. 150. 



Fig. 151. 



ESI M 



13. A class of decorations of a distinctive character 
arise from the ground being wholly covered with orna- 
ment; but as the construction of this form of pattern 
(Plate XXIV.) is attended with difiiculty, the shapes 
frequently becoming cramped and imperfect unless 



184 



ART OF DECORATIVE DESIGN. 



great care is exercised, it should be the last class of 
pattern attempted by the student. This form of 
composition has its analogue in water crystallized on 
glass, as the frost on the window, rather than in any 
portion of the plant. 

14. In ornament, as in plants, foliage should never 
spring from branches growing in opposite or antago- 
nistic directions, while yet united, as in fig. 152, for 

Fig. 152. 




this is in all cases objectionable. The root, in the 
case of the plant, grows in a manner contrary to the 
stem, for the one penetrates the earth or strikes down- 
wards, while the other ascends into light and air. But 
here the leafage only occurs on the ascending 
members and not on the roots; besides which, the 
roots are hidden in the earth in almost all cases; 
hence the teachings of plants seem to be in 
antagonism to the foliaceous growth in opposite 
directions as well as the invariable practice of all the 
great masters; hence it must ever be avoided. If an 
arrangement similar to fig. 152, be desirable, the line 

Fig. 153. 




PI JCl^^ 



11 








PRINCIPLES COMMON TO ORNAMENT. 185 

should be broken in the centre, as in fig. 153, for 
this breach of continuity alters the character of the 
composition, it being now resolved into a mere group- 
ing of sprays. 

15. Besides the principles which we have already 
laid down, there are many other little things which 
demand attention. An arrangement of parts, for 
instance, in an ornamental composition such as tends 
to suggest the human countenance, or any monster, 
should be scrupulously avoided. Fig. 154 represents 

Fig. 154. 




one of four similar appearances in the case of one 
wall-paper pattern; and in Plate XXV. a lady 
of the character represented in the lower figure, 
with a handkerchief over her shoulders, will be 
distinctly seen if the ornament be placed at a 
distance from the spectator. Little things of this 
character are so numerous that the student must 
trace them out for himself; but before taking a fare- 
well of our reader, we should say a word upon the 
starting-point in a design and the turning the corner, 
which to the young student are both difficulties. 

16. That starting is the best which is most simple 
and easy. As in literature, a forced commencement is 



186 



ART OF DECORATIVE DESIGN. 



always objectionable, and a natural and easy beginning 
is that which we like, so in ornament that which is 
easy is agreeable. 

17. A simple braiding of the stalks is in some cases 
very acceptable, as in Plate XX VL, figs. 1, 2, 3; or a 
mere ornamental treatment of the end of the branch 
(the heel), Plate XXVI., fig. 4, such as it seems to 
suggest, Plate XXVI., figs. 5 to 17; or the growing 
out of the ornament from a line which forms part 
of the basework of the composition, as in Plate 
XXIIL, fig. 1. The starting with the abrupt end 
of the stalk is in some cases not offensive, as in 
Plate II., fig. 7, and the springing the chief lines 



Fig. 155. 



m 



Fig. 156. 







Fig. 158. 







from little simple forms, such as figs. 155, 156, 157, 
and 158, is in some cases desirable ; but if any principle 



PI XXVI. 






?i:Xxyr[. 





, PRINCIPLES COMMON TO ORNAMENT. 187 

of starting is to be especially commended, it is that 
which is least obtrusive, and indeed, is least like 
a formal commencement. 

18. In relation to the parts of the design it should 
be noticed that the members may in some cases be to an 
extent dissevered from the parent stem with advan- 
tage, as in figs. 159 and 1 60 ; but in this case great care 

Fig. 159. Fig. 160. 

must be used in order so to arrange the parts that 
their origin can be traced, and that they do not 
appear as scattered fragments, which are very 
objectionable; but with care this mode of treatment 
is in some cases very valuable. (Fig. 78 and Plate 
XVIIL, fig. 2.) 

19. What we have said of the starting-point will in 
part apply to corners, for an easy and simple mode of 
treatment is here also necessary. Plate XXVII. is 
introduced with the view of setting forth two modes 
of treating the corner; in the one case the angle is 
treated as such, and in the other the ornament merely 
flows round; but in this, as in other difficulties, 
reference must be had to great works, by which a 
true knowledo-e of the best modes of overcomino- 
the difficulty will be gained. 

20. Another point which demands notice in this 



188 



ART OF DECORATIVE DESIGN. 



summary of minor principles is that two centres may 
in some cases be employed in a composition, and that 
in two distinct ways. Thus in the one case the 
parts may spring from one centre and meet in another 
(fig. 162), a condition of things found in fig. 1, Plate 
XXIII. In the other case, while the parts bear a 
relation to one line as a centre (the line a b in the 
figure, fig. 162), they also bear a special relation to 
another line as a centre (the line c d; see also Plate 
XXYIII. and Plate XV., fig. 2). 



Fig. 161. 





21 . We have now called attention to the chief prin- 
ciples Avhich claim the consideration of those who 
desire a knowledge of ornament; yet all the teaching 
that could be brought to bear upon the individual 
could never make him originate such compositions as 
by their beauty delight,, if separated from the most 
persevering efforts and constant feeling after beauty. 
But with diligent inquiry, persevering application, and 
long-continued thought, the greatest difficulties maybe 
surmounted. The designer's mind must be like the 



pixxym 




PRINCIPLES COMMON TO ORNAMENT. 189 

vital force of the plant, ever developing itself into 
forms of beauty, yet while thus free to produce, still 
in all cases governed by unalterable laws; and in the 
action of the mind being controlled by rules we rejoice, 
and not mourn — " for he who is obedient to the 
great parent laws of nature is the freest man." 

" He is a freeman whom the truth makes free, 
And all are slaves beside." 



191 



APPENDIX, 

CONSISTING OF 

The " Floral Clock," or the Hours of the Day at which 

Flowers open. 
The Ornithological Clock, or the Hours at which Birds 

RISE. 

The Characteristic Flowers of the Months. 

Other Characters op the Months. 

The Characteristic Plants of various Soils and Situations. 

The Characteristic Plants of various Countries, 



THE FLORAL CLOCK. 

The Floral Clock, Horologlum Fione, resulted from the obser- 
vation by Linnaeus of the hours at which plants expand and close 
their blossoms. Linnseus found that the flowers open with such 
regularity that the hour of the day is marked by their unfolding ; 
and he likewise observed that the closing of the blossom indicated 
the corresponding hour in the afternoon. Thus, if the flower opens 
at six o'clock, a.m., it closes at six o'clock, p.m. : this, however, is 
not invariably the case, and must not be relied on, while the period 
of opening is much more certain. Indeed, the hour of closing is 
tolerably certain also; but it is not regularly twelve hours 
from the time of opening. The Floral Clock suggested by Lin- 
naeus, yet in a much more extended form than that given by him, 
we subjoin, as it may be of value to the ornaraentist and artist in 
afibrding a means of marking the periods of day. 

Hours at which 
the flowers open. 
Major convolvulus. 

{Ipomcea purpurea) 2 a.m. 

Ipomcea nil 3 to 4 „ 

Bindweed. 

{Calystegia Sepium) ...... 3 to 4 „ 

Yellow hawkweed. 

[Tolpis harhata) 4 „ 



192 APPENDIX. 

Hours at which 
the flowers open. 
Yellow goat's-beard, or meadow salsify. 

{Tragopogon pratense) 4 to 5 a.ni. 

Matricaria suaveolens 4 to 5 „ 

Buttercups. 

(^Ranunculus) 5 ■ „ 

Wild succory. 

{Gichorium Intyhus) 5 „ 

Papaver nudicazde 5 „ 

Dandelion. 

{Taraxacum Dens-leonis) .... 5 to G „ 
Minor convolvulus. 

{Gmivolvulus tricolor) .... 5 to 6 „ 

Common lapsane, or nipple-wort. 

(Lapsana communis) .... 5 to 6 „ 

Sow-thistle, or Milk-thistle. 

(Sonchus oleraceus) 6 ,, 

Spotted cat's-ear. 

{Hypochceris niaculata) .... 6 „ 

Convolvulus siculus 6 „ 

Water lilies. 

{Nymphoea) 7 „ 

Wall or ivy-leaved lettuce. 

{Lactuca muralis) 7 „ 

Small Cape marigold 7 „ 

Bearded fig-marigold. 

{Mesemhryanthemum barbatum) . . 7 to 8 „ 
"Venus's looking-glass. 

(Campanula or Specularia Speculum) 7 to 8 „ 

Cucumis anguri 7 to 8 „ 

Yellow mouse-ear 8 „ 

Scarlet pimpernel. 

{Anagallis arvensis) 8 „ 

Nolana prostrata 8 to 9 „ 

Field marigold. 

(Calendula arvensis) 9 „ 

Sandworts. 

{Arenaria) 9 to 10 „ 

Knotted fig-marigold . . . . . . . 10 to 11 „ 

Green colewort 10 to 11 „ 

Alpine dandelion 10 to 11 „ 

Common star of Bethlehem, or Lady Eleven- 
o'clock. 

[Ornithogalum umbellatum) ... 11 „ 



ORNITHOLOGICAL CLOCK. 193 

Hours at which 
the flowers open. 
Mauy fig-marigolds. 

{Mesemhryanihemuin) .... 12 noon. 

Common passion-flower. 

{Passijlora ccerulea) 12 ,, 

Carnation. 

{Dianthus) 1 p.m. 

Afternoon squill. 2 

Pyrethrum corymhosum 2 „ 

Purple hawkweed. 

(Barhhausia rubra) 4 „ 

Night-flowering catchfly, 

{Silene nocti/lora) ...... 5 to 6 „ 

Evening primroses. 

{(Enothera) 6 „ 

Marvel of Peru. 

(Mirabilis) 6 to 7 „ 

White Lychnis. 

{Lychnis vespertina) 7 „ 

Cereus grandjfiorus 7 to 8 „ 

Mesemhryanthemum noctiflorum .... 7 to 8 „ 

CEnoihera tetraptera 7 to 8 „ 

(Enothera suaveolens . 7 to 8 „ 

Night-flowering cereus r 8 to 9 „ 



OENITHOLOGICAL CLOCK. 

The Floral Clock may be appropriately followed by the Ornitho- 
logical Clock, constructed by a German woodman. This clock 
has been formed by noting the hours at which birds wake and sing 
in the morning. " The signal is given by the chaflSnch, the earliest 
riser among all the feathered tribes. Its song precedes the dawn, 
and is heard in summer from half-past 1 to 2 o'clock, a.m. Next, 
from 2 to half-past 3, comes the blackcap {Sylvia atricapilla), 
whose warblings would equal those of the nightingale if they were 
not so very short. From half-past 2 to 3 o'clock the quail is 
heard ; from 3 to half-past 3 the hedge-sparrow ; then from half- 
past 3 to 4 we have the blackbird, the mocking-bird of our climate, 
which imitates all tunes so well that all the blackbirds of a French 
canton were made to sing the Marseillaise Hymn by letting loose a 
blackbird which had been taught that tune. From 4 to half-past 
the lark pours forth its melodies ; from half-past 4 to 5 the black- 

O 



194 APPENDIX. 

headed titmouse is heard ; lastly, from 5 to half-past the sparrow- 
awakes and begins to chirp. To throw this into a tabular form, 
for the convenience of reference, it is as follows : — 

Chaffinch 1.30 to 2 a.m. 

Blackcap — {Sylvia atricapilla) ... 2 to 3.30 

Quail 2.30 to 3 

Hedge-sparrow 3 to 3.30 

Blackbird (mocking-bird) . . . . 3.30 to 4 

Lark 4 to 4.30 

Black-headed titmouse 4.30 to 5 

Sparrow 5 to 6.30 



CHARACTERISTIC FLOWERS OF THE MONTHS. 
January. 

Christmas rose (Helleborus). 

Winter aconite [Eranthis hyemaUs). 

Laurustinus {Viburnum tinus). 
In the green-house, camellias are in full bloom. 
In the stove, Strelitzia. 
In the pits, forced hyacinths, tulips, and cinerarias. 

February. 

Snowdrop {Galanthus nivalis). 
Crocus {Crocus vernus). 
Hazel {Gorylus Avellana). 

March. 
Primrose {Primula vulgaris). 
Wood anemone {Anemone nemorosa). 
Speedwell {Vei'onica agrestis). 
Coltsfoot {Tussilago Farfara). 

April. 
Fruit blossoms generally, as 

Apple {Pyrus Malus). 
Pear {Pyrus communis). 
Cherry {Cerasus communis). 
Plum {Prunus domestica). 
Apricot {Prunus Armeniaca). 
Peach {Atnygdalus Persica). 
Almond {Amygdalus communis). 



CHARACTERISTIC FLOWERS OF THE MONTHS. 195 

Narcissus {Poet's and others). 

Daffodil (^Narcissus Pseudo-Narcissus). 

Cowslip {^Primula veris). 

Bluebell {Hyacinthus nutans). 

Sweet violet ( Viola odorata). 

Elder (Sambuctis nigra). 

May. 

Lady 's - smock ( Cardamine pratensis) . 
Strawberry {Fragaria vesca). 
Hawthorn {Gratcegus Oxyacantha). 
Honeysuckle {Lonicera Periclymenum). 
Buttercu23S (Ranunculus). 
Daisy [Bellis perennis). 
Lilac (Syringa vulgaris). 
Laburnum {Cytisus Laburnum). 
Crown Imperial (Fritillaria imperialis). 

June. 

Dog rose (Rosa canina). 

Pimpernel (Anagallis arvensis). 

Borage (Borago officinalis). 

Horse chestnut {jfJsculus Hippocastanum). 

Columbine (Aquilegia vulgaris). 

Lily-of-the-valley {Gonvallaria majalis.) 

Guelder rose ( Viburnum Opidus). 

July. 

White lily (Lilium candidum). 

Harebell (Campanula rotundifolia). 

Sunflower (Helianthus annuus). 

"Vine ( Vitis vinifera). 

Field Scabious (Scabiosa arvensis). 

Many Thistles. 

Corn poppy (Papaver Rhceas). 

Common mallow (Malva sylvestris). 

St. John's-wort (Hypericum perforatum). 

Jasmine (Jasminum officinale). 

August. 

Toadflax (Linaria vulgaris). 
Golden rod (Solidago Virgaurea). 
China aster (Aster Chinensis), 

o 2 



196 APPENDIX. 

Dodder {Cuscuta Europcea). 
Teasel {Dipsacus sylvestris). 
Chamomile (Anthemis nobilis). 

Septembee. 

Honeysuckle, flowers a second time (see May). 

Ivy {Hederoj Helix). 

Ladies' tresses {Ophrys spiralis). 

October. 
Strawberry-tree {Arbutus Unedo). 
Chinese holly- oak {Alcea rosea). 

Other characters of the months are given in the following 
table : — 

January. 

Berries on trees, as on Holly and Rose. 

Trees without leaves. Buds on branches small. 

February. 
Buds on trees rather larger than last month. 
Peas {Pisum sativum) sown. These are also sown in March. 
Berries on bushes, few. 

March. 
Oats (Avena sativa) sown. These are also sown in April. 
Barley {Hordeum sativum) sown. Barley is sown till May. 
Common elder {Samhucus nigra) comes into leaf in early seasons. 
Gooseberry {Ribes grossularia) comes into leaf and bud in early 

seasons. 
Ivy {Hedera Helix) berries ripe. 
See February. 

April. 
Elm ( Ulmtis campesiris) comes into leaf if the season is early. 

This also applies to the two following trees : — • 
Beech (Fagus sylvatica), leafing. 
Larch- tree {Abies Larix). 
See March. 

May. 
This month particularly characterizes summer. 

Walnut {Juglans regia) leafing. 
White-beam-tree {Pyrus Aria) leafing. 
Mulberry tree {Morus nigra). 



CHARACTERISTIC FLOWERS OF THE MONTHS. 197 

In the case of trees leafing much is dependent upon the season. 
If it be late, all the trees here noted will develop their leaves a 
month or more later. 

Summer or herbaceous stems shooting from the ground. 
See April, 

The flowers in this month are generally pale in colour ; per- 
haps yellow prevails. 

June. 
Buckthorn (Rhamnus cathm'ticus) leafing. 

There is a redundance of blossom in this mouth : a greater 
number of plants expand their blossoms in this month than in 
any other. 

Tr-ees in full leaf. 

All foliage fresh, delicate, and full in colour. 

Vegetable growth at its maximum. 

Hay-making, (This goes into July.) 

Pufi"- balls {Lycoperdon bovista) appear. 

Truffles begin to be found. 

July. 
This month more particularly characterizes summer. 

Whortleberries ripe ( Vaccinium uliginosuni). 

Peas [Pisum sativum) cut. This may take place next month. 

Apricots {Prunus Armeniaca) ripe. If the season is late, these are 

not ripe till August. 
Rye harvest begins. This may be next month. 
Wheat harvest begins in the earliest districts. 
Flowers generally of bright colours. 
Wild cherries ripe. 

August. 
Oats {Avena sativa) cut. 
Barley {Hordeum sativum) cut. 
Hop-picking begins. 
These harvests are a month later in backward seasons. 
Beech begins to turn yellow in eai-ly seasons. 
Flowers few. Of bright colours. 
Seeds of annuals ripe. 
See July. 

September. 
Apples, and fruits generally, ripe. 
Grape harvest in early season*. 



1 



198 APPENDIX. 

Beans {Viciafaba) cut in early seasons. 

See August. 
Flowers almost gone ; trees in autumn colour.? ; seeds ripe. 

OcTOBEE — Autumn. 
Wheat sown. 

Fall of leaf. This may take place in November in late seasons. 
Flowers gone ; later seeds ripe. 
Leaves of rich colours, if not shed. 

NOVEMBEK. 

Trees without foliage. 
Earlier berries ripe, as 
Mountain ash. 
Hawthorn. 
Rose hips. 

December — Winter. 
Later berries deepening in colour. 



The following is a list of such plants as characterize the various 
kinds of soil : — 

LAND PLANTS. 
GEOGNOSTIC NATURE OF SOIL. 
Chalk Plants. 
Lady's-slipper (Cyijriijedmm Calceolus). 
Bee ophrys {Ophrys apifera). 
Military orchis {Orchis militaris). 
Pyramidal orchis (0. |)2/ra«^^c?aZ^.?). 
Teucrium montanuvi. 
Blue moor-grass {Sesleria ccerulea). 
Box {Buxus sempervirens). 

Gravel Plants. 
Ordinary Gravel. 

Alpine crowfoot [Ranunculus alpestris). 
Ranunculus glacialis. 
JBaccharis phylicceforniis. 
„ genistelloides. 
„ sagittalis. 
„ quadrangularis. 
Calycera ventosa. 



GEOGNOSTIC NATURE OF SOIL. 



199 



OS mo13 o§og 




200 APPENDIX. 

Sida pedicularifolia. 
„ borussica. 
Pit Gravel. 

Knot grass {Polygonum aviculare). 

Sheep's- sorrel {Rumex Acetosella). 

Common bent-grass {Agrostis vulgaris). 

Silvery hair-grass {Air a caryophyllea). 

Hard fescue-grass {Festuca duriuscula). 

Thyme-leaved sandwort {Arenaria serpyllifolia). 

Wall hawkweed {ffieracium murorum). 

Papaver duhium. 

Climbing buckwheat {Polygonum Convolvulus). 

Upright goosefoot {Chenopodium urbicum). 

Perennial rye-grass {Lolium perenne). 

Soft brome-grass {Bromus mollis). 
Biver Gravel. 

Brook saxifrage {Saxifraga rivularis). 

Toad-rush {Juncus bufonius). 

Sharp-flowered rush {J. acutiflorus). 

Plantain shoreweed {Littorella lacustris). 

Rock Plants. 

Rock sedum {Sedum rupestre). 
White sedum {S. album). 
Welsh sedum (*S'. Forsierianum,.) 
Thlaspi saxatile. 

Common thrift {Statice Armeria). 
English scurvy-grass {Cochlearia Anglica). 
Danish scurvy-grass (C. Danica.) 
Mountain rose root (Rhodiola rosea). 

Sand Plants. 
Sandy Soil. 

Bird's-foot trefoil {Lotus corniculatus.) 

Harebell {Campanula rotundifolia.) 

Eyebright {Euphrasia officinalis). 

Sweet-scented vernal grass {Anthoxanthum odoratum). 
Drifting Sands. 

Sea-bent {Arundo arenaria). 

Sand- wheat grass {Triticum junceum). 

Hard fescue grass {Festuca duriuscula). 

Sand carex {Carex arenaria). 

Hollow bedstraw {Galium verum). 



LAND PLANTS. 201 



Smooth rupture-wort {Herniaria glabra). 

Sea mat- weed (^Arundo arenaria). 

Stonecrop {Sedum acre). 

Sea lyme-grass (Elymus arenarius). 

Ammophil-a arenaria. 

Creeping willow [Salix repens), 

Calamagrostis arenaria. 

Buck's-liorn plantain {Plantago Goronopus). 

Sandy Loam on Clay Subsoil. 

Common rush {Juncus effusus). 
Sneezewort {Achillea Ptarmica). 
Wild tansy {Potentilla anserina). 
Mug wort {Artemisia vulgaris). 

Sandy Loam on porous Subsoil. 

Common Broom {Genista scoparius). 
Black knapweed {Gentaurea nigra). 
Common ragweed {Senecio jacohea). 
Hollow bedstraw {Galium verum). 

Clay Plants. 
Good Clay. 

Queen of the meadows {Spircea Ulmaria). 
Wild sylvestris {Angelica sylvestris). 
Great spearwort {Ranunculus Lingua). 
Common sorrel {Rumex Acetosa). 

Thin Clay. 

Bitter crowfoot {Ranunculus acris). 
Tufted hair-grass {Aira ccespitosa). 
Corn horsetail {Equisetum arvense). 
Marsh woundwort {Stachys palustris). 

Strong clayey Loam on porous Subsoil. 
Bladder campion {Silene injlata). 
Toadflax {Antirrhinum linaria). 
Red shank {Polygonum ami^hihium). 
Great napweed {Gentaurea scabiosa). 
Rough cock's-foot grass {Dactylis glomerata). 

Thin clayey Loam on porous Subsoil. 

Common rest-harrow {Ononis arvensis). 
Harefoot trefoil {Trifolium arvense). j 

Hop trefoil {T. jyrocti/mbens). 



202 APPENDIX. 

Alluvial Deposits. 

Common reed {Arundo Phragmites). 
Round-lieaded rush {Juncus conglomeratus). 
White bent-grass (Agrostis alba). 
Reed meadow-grass [Poa aquatica). 
Floating meadow-grass (P.fluitans). 

Steppe Plants. 
Dactylis repena. 
Gynodon dactylon. 
ZygophylluDX album. 
Cressa cretica. 
Uniola maritima. 
Spartina glabra. 
Gerardia maritima. 
Aster subulatus. 
Poa thalassica. 
Salsola corticosa. 

„ glomerata. 

„ prostrata. 
Statice tartarica. 
Glycirrhiza hirsuta. 

„ Icevis. 

Atrijylix lacinata. 
Ceratocarpus arenarius. 
Polycnemum. 
Ghenopodium. 
Franhenia. 
Tamarix. 
Salicornia. 
Chorispora sibirica. 
Halocnemum. 

PLANTS OF UNCULTIVATED SOILS. 

Field Plants. 

. Common whitlow-grass [Draba verna). 
Blunt-fingered speedwell (Veronica triphyllos). 
Ivy-leaved speedwell ( V. hederifolia). 
Common viper's bugloss {Echium vuJgare). 
Common daisy {Bellis perennis). 
Dandelion {^Taraxacum Dens-leonis). 
Buttercups. 



LAND PLANTS. 203 

Meadow Plants. 

Clustered bell-flower {Gamfanula glomerata). 
Spreading bell-flower {Campanula patula). 
Myosotis sGorpioides. 
Trifulmm pratense. 

„ fragiferum. 

„ repens. 

Pasture Plants. 
Low Pastures. 

Daisy {Bellis perennis). 

Common burnet-saxifrago {Pimpinella Saxifraga). 

Ranv/nculus repens. 
„ bulbosua. 

High Pastures. 

Common ling {Calluna vulgaris). 

Hairy milk- vetch {Astragalus uralensis). 

Mountain avens {Dryas octopetala). 

Heticulated willow {Salix reticulata). 

Mountain cudweed {Gnaphalium alpinum). 

Cloudberry {Eubus Chamcemorus). 

Common bear-berry {Arbutus uva-ursi). 

Mountain Pastitres (Dry), 

Common ling {Calluna vulgaris). 
Crow-berry {Umpetrum nigruvi). 
Cross-leaved heath {Erica Tetralix). 
Common club-moss {Lycopodium clavatum). 
Savin-leaved club-moss {L. alpinum). 
Stool-bent {Juncus squarrosus). 
Paddock-pipe {Equisetum palustre). 
Deer-hair {Scirpus ccesjntosus). 
Yellow-grass {Narthecium ossifragum). 
Purple melic-grass {Melica ccerulea). 
Blue moor-grass {Sesleria ccerulea). 
Mat-grass {Nardus stricta). 

Mountain Pastures (Wet). 

Soft rush {Juncus effusus). 

Soft meadowrgrass {Holcus mollis). 

Rup {Juncus ccesintosa). 

Sprat {J. acutijlorus). 

Pry {Carex panicea). 

Devil's-bit scabious {Scabiosa succisa). 



204 APPENDIX. 

Heath Plants (Dry). 

Common heath {Erica vulgaris). 
Cross-leaved heath {E. Tetralix). 
Fine-leaved heath {E. cinerea). 
Common ling (Calluna vulgaris). 
Dog's bent-grass (Agrostis canina). 
Juniper (Juniperus vulgaris) 
Ledum palustre. 
Andromeda polifolia. 
Parnassia palustris. 
Sphagnum. 
Polytrichum. 
Heath (Wet). 

Cotton-grass {Eriophorum polystachion). 
Orange berry ( Vaccinium Oxycoccus). 

Moor Plants (Dry). 

Petty whin {Genista anglica). 
Mat-grass {Nardus stricta). 
Yellow mountain- violet {Viola lutea). 
Common tormentil {Tormentilla officinalis). 
Mountain cudweed {Gnaphalium dioicum). 
Moor (Wet). 

Dwarf silky- willow {Salix repens). 
Common butterwort {Pinguicula vulgaris). 
Kound-fruited carex {Garex pilulifera). 
Moss-rush {Juncus squarrosus). 
Scaly-headed club-rush {Scirpus ccespitosus) . 
Grass of Parnassus {Parnassia palustris). 

Marsh Plants. 

. Ragged Robin {Lychnis Flos Cuculi). 
Common buckbean {Menyanthes trifoliata). 
Marsh marigold {Caltha palustris). 
Brook-lime {Veronica Beccabunga). 
Marsh cinquefoil {Comarum palustre). 
Marsh bedstraw {Galium uliginosum). 
Water featherfoil {Hottonia palustris). 
Marsh fleawort {Cineraria palustris). 
Nodding bur-marigold {Bidens cernua). 
Cotton-grass {Eriophorum angustifolium). 



LAND PLANTS. 205 

Bog Plants. 

Alpine butterwort (Pinguicula alpitia). 
Black bog-rush [Schoenus nigricans). 
Downy-stalked cotton-grass (Eriophorum puhescens). 
Bird's-eye primrose {Primula farinosa). 

Bush Plants. 

Common marjoram {Origanum vulgare). 
Asarum etiropceum 
Corydalis hulhosa. 
Asclepias vincetoodcum. 

FoBEST Plants. 

Two-flowered linnsea [Linncea borealis). 

Pyrolce. 

Bilberry {Vaccinium Myrtillus). 

Ophrys ovata. 

Deadly nightshade {Atropa belladonna). 

Water avens {Gemn rivale), 

European chickweed wintergreeu {Trientalis eicropcea). 

Common wood-sorrel {Oxalis Acetosella). 

Orobanche. 

Orchidce. 

Carex. 

Alpine Plants. 

Drooping saxifrage {Saxifraga cernua), 

Alpine brook-saxifrage {Saxifraga rivularis). 

Purple saxifrage {Saxifraga opposiiifolia). 

Whitlow grass {Draba rupestris). 

Luzula arcuata. 

Jointed pipewort {Eriocaulon septangulare). 

Alsine rubella. 

Pyramidal bugle {Ajuga pyramidalis). 

Scottish primrose {Primula Scotica). 

Least willow {Salix herbacea). 

Alpine stitchwort {Stellaria cerastoides). 

Desert Plants. 
Asiatic Deserts. 

Zizyphus Spina Christi. 
Euphorbia antiquorum. 



206 APPENDIX. 

Pride of India {Melia Azedarach) . 
Galligonum polygonoides. 
Anastatica hierochuntina. 
Mimosa. 
Tamarix, 

North African. 

Mesemhryanthemum copticum. 

„ crystallinum . 

„ biflorum. 

Acacia vera. 
Sidra neback. 
Zizyphus Lotus. 
Tamarix gallica. 
„ africana. 
„ orientalis. 

South African. 

Euphorbia melo/ormis. 

„ mammillaris. 

„ higlandulosa. 

„ trigona. 

„ clava. 

„ lactea, 

„ neriifolia. 

Aloe ichotoma. 
StapelicB. 
Syngenesia. 
Mesembryanthemum. 
Sesuvium. 
Crassula. 
Sempervivum. 
Sedum. 
Cotyledon. 
Bryophyllum. 
Encephalartos. 

South American, 

Caven bush {Acacia caven). 
Loranthus phyllus. 
Cactus senilis. 

„ ficus-indica. 
Furcrcea gigantea. 
„ longceva. 

Dwarf verbenas. 



LAND PLANTS. 207 

Opuntia tunas. 

Cerei. 

Cacti. 

Melocactus. 

Echinocactihs. 

Mammillaria. 

Azorella. 

Bolax. 

Fragosa. 

Lycopodia, 

Yucca. 

Agaves. 

CULTIVATED SOILS. 

Fallow Plants. 

Sorrel (Rumex Acetosella). 

Field convolvulus {Convolvulus arvensis). 

Androsace septentrionalis. 

Echium vulgare. 

Artemisia campestris. 

Garden Weeds. 
Nettle ( Urtica urens). 
Alsine media. 

White dead-nettle {Lamiwm album). 
Hen-bit dead-nettle (Z. amplexicaule). 
White goosefoot {Chenopodium album). 
Upright goosefoot (C. urbicum.) 
Common groundsel {Senecio vulgaris). 
Mouse-ear cliickweed {Cerasfium arvense). 
Hei b-mercury {Mercurialis p)erennis). 

Fence Plants. 
Wild succory (Cichorium Intybus). 
Common tansy {Tanacetum vulgare). 
Mugwort {Artemisia vulgaris). 
Yellow bedstraw {Galium verum). 

Hedge Plants. 
Stinging-nettle ( Urtica dioica). 
White dead-nettle {Lamium album). 
Borage {Borago officinalis). 
Bryony {Bryonia dioica). 

Broad-leaved bur-weed {Xanthium strumarium). 
Thorn-apple {Datura /Stramonium). 



208 APPENDIX. 

Violet ( Viola tricolor). 
Black bryony {Tamus communis). 
Wood-sorrel {Oxalis Acetosella). 
Blackberry {Ruhus fruticosus). 
Traveller's-joy {Clematis Vitalha). 
Honeysuckle {Lonicera Caprifolium). 
Everlasting-pea {Lathyrus sylvestris). 
Tuberous moschatel {Adoxa Moschatellina). 



Field Plants. 

Clay Soil. 
Good clay. 

Common broad- leaved dock {Rumex ohtusifolius). 

Groundsel {Senecio vulgaris). 

Nipplewort {Lapsana communis). 

Corn-cockle [Agrostemma Oithago). 

Wild chamomile {Matricaria Chamomilla). 

Thin clay. 

Common coltsfoot {Tussilago Far/ara). 
Wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis). 
Knot-grass {Polygonum aviculare). 

Clay on porous Subsoil. 

Scarlet pimpernel [Anagallis arvensis). 
Ivy-leaved speedwell ( Veronica hederifolia). 
Blftck mustard {Sinajns nigra). 
Hairy tare {Ervum hirsutum.) 



Sand Plants. 
Sandy Soil. 

Common spurrey {Spergula arvensis). 
Purple dead-nettle {Lamium purpureum). 
Common fumitory {Fumaria officinalis). 
Shepherd-purse {Thlaspi Bursa-pastoris). 
Common knawel {Scleranthus annuum). 
Common couch-grass {Triticum, repens). 
Common cudweed {Gnaphalium germxibnicum). 

Sandy Loam on Clay Subsoil. 

Charlock {Raphanus Raphanistrum). 
^\iQe^-s,OYVQ\ {Rumex Acetosella). 



ARTIFICIAL PRODUCTIONS, 209 



Corn-marigold {Chrysanthemum segelum). 
Toad rush (Juncus hufonius). 

Sandy Loam on porous Subsoil. 

Common corn mint [Mentha arvensis). 
Blue-wort {Centaurea cyanus). 
Corn madder [Sherardia arvensis). 
Corn gromwell {Lithospermum arvense). 
Parsley-pest (Alchemilla arvensis). 
Tall oat-grass (Avena elata). 
Corn-thistle [Cnicus arvensis). 

Alluvial Deposits. 

Common reed (Arunclo Fhragmites). 
Corn thistle {Gnicus arvensis). 

Reclaimed Marsh Land. 

Common colt's-foot {Tussilago Farfara). 
Common butter-bur [Petasites hybrida). 
Goosegrass (Galium Aparine). 

Reclaimed Heath Land. 

Soft brome-grass {Bromus mollis). 
Field scorpion-grass {M yosotis' arvensis). 
Wild oats (Avena fatua). 
Goosegrass (Galium Aparine). 



ARTIFICIAL PRODUCTIONS. 
Wall Plants. 

Wall-germander {Teucrium Ghamcedrys). 
Lecanora muralis. 
Dicranum murale. 

Wall-rue spleen wort (Asplenium ruta-muraria). 
Rock spleen wort (A. fontanuvfi). 
Stonecrop {Seduin acre). 
Live-long {Sedum telephium). 
Ivy {Hedera Helix). 

Rue-leaved saxifrage (Saxifraga tridactylites) . 
Wild wall-flower (Gheiranthus fruticulosus). 
Linaria Gymbalaria. 

Speedwell-leaved whitlow grass (Draha muralis). 
P 



210 APPENDIX. 

Wall hawkweed [Hieracmm murorum). 
Jagged chick weed [Holosteum umhellatum), 
Grimmia pulvinata. 
Tortula muralis. 

Roof Plants, 

Houseleek (^Sem-pervivum lector uon). 

Mosses. 

Lichens. 

Board Plants. 

Parmelia parietina. 
Lecanora muralis. 
Ramalina fraxinea. 

Rubbish Plants. 

Nettle (JJrtica dioica). 

Common dock [Rumex ohtusifolius). 

Mugwort {Artemisia vulgaris). 

Annual poa (^Poa annua). 

Field poa (P. 2Jratensis). 

Common tansy {Tanacetum vulgare). 

Round-leaved goosefoot {Chenopodium folyspermurn). 

Upright goosefoot (C urhicuiii). 

Red goosefoot (C. rtihrum). 

Stinking groundsel (Senecio viscosus). 

Borage [Borago officinalis). 

Burweed (Xanthium strumariuin). 

Common henbane {Hyoscyamus niger). 



EARTH AND WATER PLANTS. 
Amphibious Plants. 

Lady's smock {Gardamine pratensis). 

Water cress {Nasturtium officinale). 

Amphibious yellow cress {N. amphibium). 

Creeping yellow cress (iV. sylvestre). 

Great -water-dock [Rumex Uydrolapathum). 

Tall red mint {Mentha rubra). 

Spear mint {M. viridis). 

Horse mint {M. sylvestris). 

Amphibious polygonum {Polygonum amphibium). 



EARTH AND WATER PLANTS. 211 

Inundated Plants. 

Common mudwort {Limosella aquatica). 
Water purslane {Peplis Portula). 
Toad rush {Juncus hufonius). 
Marsh marigold {Caltha palustris). 
Water crowfoot {Ranunculus scleratus). 

Sea-shore Plants. 
Ordinary. 

Sea-side campion {Silene maritima). 
Sea plantain {Plantago maritima). 
Black saltwort (Glaux maritima). 
Sea lungwort {Pulmonaria maritima). 
Sea holly {Eryngimn mariiimum). 
Glass-wort {Salsoli Kali). 
Sea-reed {Arunclo arenaria). 
Sea lyme-grass (Eli/mus arenarius). 
Sea-side sedge {Carex arenaria). 
Lythrum, maritimum. 
Common brook-reed (Samolus Valerandi). 
Mangrove {Rhizophora Mangle). 
Avicennia nitida. 
„ tomentosa. 



Marsh. 



Gravel. 



Sea arrow-gi-ass {Triglochin maritimum). 
Sea marsh-grass {Poa procumbens). 
Pale carex (Car ex pallescens). 
Great common carex (C. riparia). 

Sea rocket {Cakile maritima). 
Sea-side goosefoot {Glienopodium maritimurn). 
Frosted sea orache {Atriplex laciniata). 
Sea-side campion {^Silene maritima). 



WATER PLANTS. 

Salt-water Plants. 
Sea ruppia {Ruppia maritima). 
Fucus pyrifera. 
Sargassum vulgare. 
Algce. 
Zoster ai. 
Fuci. 

p 2 



212 APPEND IX- 

Salt-Water Springs. 

Glaux maritiTna. 

Salsola. 

Salicornia. 

Anabasis. 

Charm. 

Fresh-Water Plants. 
Floating Plants. 

Floating alisma (Alism.a, natans). 

Common frogbit {Hydrocharis Morsus-rance). 

Ivy-leaved cUickweed (Lemna trisidca). 

Lesser duckweed (L. minor). 

Pistia stratiotes. 

Confervce. 

OscillatoriecB. 

Aquatic Plants. 
Lake Plants. 

White water-lily {Nytrnphoea alba). 

Yellow water-lily (Nuphar luteum). 

Bull-rush {Scirpus lacust7'is). 

Scirpus palustris. 

Common reed [Arundo Phragmites). 

Water soldier [Stratoites aloides). 

Butomus uinhellatus. 

Pontederia Lotus. 

Water crowfoot {^Ranunculus aqualilis). 
Ditch Plants. 

Common frogbit {Hydrocharis Morsus-rana;). 

Forget-me-not {Myosotis palustris). 

Water speedwell {Verttnica Atiac^llis). 

Phellandrium aquaticum. 

Water soldier {Stratoites aloides). 

Common flowering rush {Butomus umbellatus). 

River Plants. 

Ranunculus Jluviatilis. 
Conferva rivularis. 
Fresh-water Springs. 

Water chickweed {Montia fontana) . 
Brooklime ( Veronica Beccahunga). 



EARTH AND WATER PLANTS. 



213 



Submerged Plants. 
Hornwort {Ceratophyllum demersum). 
Chara. 

Awlwort [Subularia aquaticd). 
Vallisneria spiralis. 

Fresh and Salt Water Plants. 
Conferva glomerata. 

Slender pondweed {Potamogeton •pusillus). 
Fennel pondweed (P. pectinatus). 
Common Zannichellia [Zannichellia palustris). 
DiatomecB. 

Each of the following plants covers a large tract of country hy 
the frequency of its repetition. The plants named in this list have 
social habits, as they live in groups. 



Social Plants. 



Sphagnum palustre. 
Dicranum glaucum. 
Arundo Phragmites. 
Pinus sylvestris, 
Polygonum aviculare. 
Polygonum junceum 
Poa annua 

Vaccinium Myrtillus. 
Juncus bufonius, 
Myriophyllum spicatum. 
Alnus glutinosa. 
Be tula alba. 
Rliizophora Mangle. 
Banksia speciosa. 
Pro tea argentea. 
Protea mellifera. 
Bambusa arundinacea 
Thymus cover. 
Erica vulgaris. 
Acacia caven. 
Lycium gracile. 
Cupressus callitris. 
Oereus peruvianus. 
Cocos nucifera. 
Musa sapientum. 



Musa paradisiaca. 
Dracfena termiualis. 
Pandanus odoratissimus. 
Nipa frutescens. 
Chamoerops humilis. 
Phoenix dactylifera. 
Mauri tia flexuosa. 
Pteris aquilina. 
Bseckia frutescens. 
Tilia europea. 
Fagus sylvatica. 
Castanea vesca. 
Quercus robiir. 
Ulmus campestris. 
Opuntia tunas. 
Rhododendroti. 
Araucaria excelsa. 
Eucalyptus globulus. 
Mimosse. 
Cinchona. 
Escallonia. 
Genista. 
Ulex. 
Baccharidee. 



214 



APPENDIX. 



The following lists give the characteristic plants of different 
•countries : — 

EUROPE. 
France, 

Cistus. 



In the South (wild). 
Evergreen oaks. 

Myrtles, 
Wild olives. 



Dwarf palm. 
Indian fig. 
Aloe. 

(This district is particularly characterized by evergreen trees and 
shrubs.) 
Middle and North (wild). I Common heath {Erica 

Pinus maritima, | vulgaris). 

The pea blossoms and plants allied to our dandelion and thistles 
are the most common plants. In this district the trees shed their 
leaves. 



In cultivation. 
Olive. 
Maize, 



Vine. 
Potato. 
Orchard trees. 



The South. 
Palms. 
Date, 
Chamcerops humilis (a fan 

palm). 
Banana (in the south). 
Orange (flowers April and 

May), 
Lemon. 
Olive. 

Pomegranate, 
Fig, 

Mulberry. 
Cypress, 
Judas tree. 
Cactus {Cactus Tuna). 
Aloe (American). 
Vine. 
(The forest trees are chiefly evergreens.) 



Spain and Portugal. 

Meadow saffron. 
Autumnal snowdrop. 
Gum cistus. 
Forest trees, 
Quercus Ballota (a kind of oak). 
„ cegilopifoUa „ 



„ faginea „ 

„ prasina, „ 

„ crenata „ 

„ rotundifolia „ 
„ humilis „ 

„ suber (Cork oak). 

Lime tree. 

Beech, 

Chestnut (Spanish). 

Yew, 

Scotch pine. 



Shrubs and small trees. 
Bay tree. 
Myrtle. 



Phillyrea media. 

„ angustifolia 
Juniperis Sabina. 



CHARACTERISTIC PLANTS. 



215 



Celtis australis. 
Pistacia. 
Terebinth, 
Lentiscus. 



Rhamnus Alaternus. 
Strawberry tree. 
Jasmine. 
Caper. 



Balearic Isles. 



Cultivated. 
Cotton. 
Orange. 
Olive. 
Carob tree. 
Fig. 

Almond. 
Date palm. 
Cactus Opuntia. 
Vine. 
Some species of grain. 



Wild. 



Pinus hale2')ensis. 

Oak (common). 

Clematis cirrhosa. 

Hypericum halearicum. 

The dwarf palm. 

Cyclamen. 

Polygala. 

Anonis. 

Anthyllis. 



Italy and Sicily. 



The South (wild). 

Aloe {A. americana). 

Prickly fig. 

Orange. 

Citron. 

Olive. 

Myrtle. 

Laurel. 

Carob tree. 

Pomegranate. 

Arbutus. 

Tamarisk. 

Manna ash. 

Chestnut (edible). 

Mulberry. 

Poplar. 

Stone pine {Pinus Pinea). 

Lemon. 

Caper. 

Dwarf palm. 

Pinus halepensis. 
North (wild). 

Common oak. 



Beech. 
Ash. 

Horse chestnut. 
Plum. 

Cork oak (Qu^rcus suber). 
Quercus cerris. 
Yew. 
Larch. 
Scotch fir. 
Pinaster. 

Arundo Donax (a large and 
important reed). 
Cultivated. 
Wheat. 
Maize. 
Millet. 
Pice. 
Vine. 

Mulberry (red and white). 
Sugar cane. 
Date. 
Custard apple. 



216 


APPENDIX. 


Greece and 


THE Grecian Archipelago. 


Trees and Shrubs (wild). 




Yew. 


Olive. 




Ash. 


Myrtle. 




Chestnut (edible). 


, Orange. 




Apple. 


Lemon. 




Pear. 


Laurel. 




Cypress. 


Oaks {Quercus Ilex). 




Almond. 


„ ( „ coccifera). 


Herbaceous, or tender plants 


„ ( „ jEgilops). 


Narcissus Tazetta. 


Common oak. 




Loranthus europus. 


Oriental hornbeam. 




Tuberoses. 


Beech. 




Hyacinths. 


Manna ash. 




Irids. 


Scotch fir. 




Ranunculus. 


Stone Pine. 




Tulip. 


Prickly fig. 




Anemone hortensis. 


Date. 




Poterium sinnosum. 


Osyris albcw 




Dianthus arboreus. 


Terebinth. 




Cultivated plants. 


Caper. 




Pistacia. 


Jasmine. 




Lentiscus. 


Phillyrma media. 




Astragalus tragacantha. 


y, angustifolia. 


„ cretica. 


Strawberry tree. 




„ terebinthios. 


Pomegranate. 




Vine. 


Christ's thorn. 




Wheat. 


Poplar. 




Barley. 


Aspen. 




Maize. 


Chaste tree. 




Cotton. 


Oleander, 








Turkey. 


Cultivated. 




Mulberry. 


Cotton. 




Maize. 


Wheat. 




Much pasture land. 




Switzerland. 


Wild. 




Alder. 


Siberian -^ineiPinus 


Cemhrd) 


Maple. 


Pinaster. 




Ash. 


Larch. 




Cytisus. 



CHAKACTERISTIC PLANTS. 



217 



Broom. 
Sorrel. 
Elm. 
Oak. 
Spruce. 

A number of pea-blossoms. 
Cultivated. 
Wheat. 
Maize. 



Potato. 

Barley. 

Eye. 

Walnut. 

Mulberry. 

Chestnut (Spanish). 

Hemp. 

Beans. 

Much pasture land. 



Germany, including Prussia, 
German 



Austria, Hungary, and the 

States. 



Wild. 


Juniperis communis. 


Common heath {Erica vul- 


Ledrum palustre. 


garis). (This is very 


Andromeda polifolia. 


common.) 


Abietinse. 


The forests are formed of the ordinary trees, as birch, bee 


&c., which shed their leaves. 


Honeysuckle. 


Chara vulgaris. 


Ivy. 


Salvia pratensis. 


Rose. 


Thesium linophyllum. 


Hop, 


Limosella aquatica. 


Kubus (the blackberries). 


CuGuhalus tatarica. 


Guelder rose. 


(Common in forests.) 


Trapa natans. 




One-third of Germany is forest land. 


Cultivated, 


Beans. 


Bye. 


Lentils. 


Buckwheat. 


Cabbage. 


Wheat. 


Flax. 


Barley. 


Hops. 


Oats. 


Rape. 


Maize. 


. "Vine.. 


Peas. 




Holland and Belgium. 


Wild. 


Cultivated. 


Common heath. 


Grasses. 


Fir. 


Clovei'. 


Water lily (white i: yellow). 


Madder. 


Flowering rush. 


Rape. 



218 



Wild 



Wild 



Wild 



Mustard, 


^JTirjCi 


Barley, 


Hop. 




Oats, 


Ordinary vegetables. 


Pulse, 


Wheat. 




Potatoes, 


Eye. 




Hemp. 


Buckwheat. 




Flax, 




Denmark. 


1. 




Elm, 


Pines. 




Cultivated. 


Firs. 




Wheat, 


Common heath. 




Barley. 


Juniper. 




Oats. 


Ledum palustre 




Rye, 


Andromeda polifolia. 


Potato, 


Willows. 




Flax, 


Birch. 




Hemp, 


Beech. 




Tobacco. 


Oak. 




Much pasture land. 


I 


Sweden ani 


D NOEWAY. 

Hieracium aurantiacum. 


A great preponderance of 


Sedum anglicum. 


forest land. 




Ghrysosplenium oppositifo 


Birch. 




Hum. 


Pine {Pinus sylvestris). 


Hypericum pulchrum. 


Spruce. 




Erica cinerea. 


Poplar. 




Rosa spinosissima. 


Willow. 




Cultivated. 


Aspen. 




Rye. 


Juniper. 




Oats. 


Ash. 




Bigg. 


Lime, 




Barley. 


Elm. 




Pulse. 


Foxglove. 




Potato. 




KussiA {i 


ti Europe). 


1. 


Southei 


'n part. 

Yew. 


Common oak. 




Quercus cerris. 


Beech (red and 


white). 


Beech. 


Sea pine {Finu^ 


? maritima). 


Elm. 


Juniper. 




Poplar. 





CHARACTERISTIC PLANTS. 219 


Linden tree. 




Glydrrhiza echinata. 


Plane. 




Salsola prostrata. 


Maple. 




Statice tartarica. 


Ash. 




Lathyrus tuherosus. 


Apple. 




Medicago sativa. 


Pear. 




Vicia sylvatica. 


Manna ash. 




Lotus corniculatus. 


Alder. 




Serratula arvensis. 


Spindle tree 


, 


Inula hrittanica. 


Water elder. 




Artemisia absinthium. 


Wayfaring tree. 


Anabasis aphylla. 


Lantana. 




Tamarix gallica. 


Rose. 




Cynanchum acutum. 


Privet. 




Senecio linifolius. 


Cornel. 




Cultivated. 


Vine. 




Vine. 


Trefoil. 




Wheat. 


Clover. 




Eye. 


Medick. 




Barley. 


Lucerne. 




Maize. 


Madder. 




Millet. 


Goosegrass. 




Chick peas. 


Woad. 




Flax. 


Dyer's green 




Tobacco (^Nicotiana pani- 


Litmus. 




culata). 


Safflower. 




Onions. 


Sumach. 




Apples. 


Cotinus. 




Pears. 


On the extensive 


Steppes. 


Plums. 


Atriplex lacinata. 


Figs. 


Astragali. 




Walnuts. 


Glycirrhiza hirsuta. 


MulbeiTy. 


jj 


Icevis. 


Hazel-nut. 




Northei 


•n part. 


Wild. 




Alder. 


Scotch fir (forming immense 


Willow. 


forests). 




Ash. 


Birch. 




Mountain ash. 


Lime. 




HazeL 


Beech. 




Willow. 


Maple. 




Juniper. 


Elm. 




* Cranberry. 



TZO 


APPENDIX. 


Bilberry. 






Oats. 


Cultivated. 






Hemp. 


Rye. 






Flax. 


Barley. 






Potato. 




Lapland. 




Wild. 






Cudbear. 


Spruce fir. 






Arbutus alpina. 


Scotch fir. 






Juncus trifidus. 


Birch. 






Lycopodium a^nnum 


Meadow trefoil. 






Prunella vulgaris. 


Lily of the valley. 






Viola hifolia. 


White water-lily. 






Aspen. 


Yellow „ „ 






Bird-cherry. 


Salix glauca. 






Mountain ash. 


„ hastata. 






Diaqyensia lapponica. 


Reindeer mo.ss (Genomyce 




Red currant. 


rangiferina). 






Arctic raspberry. 


Iceland mo.ss {Lichen 


islan- 


Cultivated. 


dicus). 






Barley. 



Iceland and Faroe Islands. 



Wild. No trees. 
Willow. 
Birch ) 
Alder hl"-"bby. 

Juniper. 
Grasses. 
Erica vulgaris. 
Chara. 

Hippuris vulgaris. 
Veronica Anagallis. 
Arundo Phragmites. 
Goviarum palustre. 
Limosella aquatica. 
Serratula arvensis. 
Shepherd's purse. 
Draha verna. 
Prunella officinalis. 



Thymus serpyllum. 
Lychnis Flos Cuculi, 
Spergula arvensis. 
Vaccinium Myrtillus. 

„ uliginosum. 

„ Oxy coccus. 

Arbutus Uva-U7'si. 
Iceland moss. 
Pisum maritimum. 
Arundo arenaria. 
Cultivated. 
Barley. 
Potato. 
TurnijD. 
Cabbage. 
Cauliflower. 
Cummin. 



CHAEACTERISTIC PLANTS 



221 



ASIA. 



Asia Minor and Palestine. 



^ild. 


Beech. 


Sweefc chestnut. 


Apple. 


Cheriy. 


Plum. 


Fig. 


Peach . 


Olive. 


Medlar. 


Mulberry. 


Quince. 


Rose. 


Walnut. 


Horse chestnut. 


Myrtle. 


Lilac. 


Strawberry tree. 


Sweet jasmine. 


Laurel. 


Melon. 


Pomegranate. 


Cucumber. 


Terebinth. 


Willow. 


Oleander. 


Date. 


Vine. 


Henna. 


Sycamore fig {Ficus Syca- 


Banana. 


morus). 


Sugar-cane. 


Cedar of Lebanon. 


Orange. 


Christ's thorn {Zizy2)hus 


Citron. 


Spina Christi). 


Pistachio. 


Amyris gileadensis 


Carob-tree. 


Rose of Jericho {Ana- 


Cordia mixa. 


statica hierochuntica). 


Guilandina morinda. 


Cultivated. 


Indian tamarind. 


Wheat. 


Melia Azedarach. 


Rye. 


Acacia nilotica. 


Barley. 


„ farnesiana. 


Beans. 


Apple of Sodom (Solanum 


Maize. 


sodomoeum). 


Cotton. 


Oak. 


Sugar-cane. 


Pine. 


Indigo. 


Plane. 


Tobacco. 


Pear. 


Mulberry. 


Fir. 




Ar 


ABIA. 


Wild. 


Keura odorifera. 


Fig. 


Pear. 



ZZ2 APPENDIX. 


Orange. 


Aloes [Aloe officinalis). 


Lemon. 


Senna (Cassia lanceolata). 


Date. 


Tamarinds ( Tamarindus 


Apricots. 


officinalis). 


Peach. 


Goui'd. 


Cultivated. 


Melon. 


Coffee. 


Cocoa-nut. 


Wheat. 


Pomegranate. 


Durra [Holcus Sorghum). 


Almond. 


Balsam {Ainyris opohal- 


Filbert. 


samum. 


Mangosteen. 


Myrrh {Amyris Kataf). 




Per 


SIA. 


Wild. 


Vine, 


Mimosa. 


Quince. 


Christ's thorn {Zizyphus 


Peach, 


Spina Christi). 


Apricot. 


Water melons. 


Almond. 


Tamarix. 


Cherry. 


Euphorbia antiquorum. 


Currants. 


Date. 


Lentisk. 


Pride of India {Melia Aze- 


Orange. 


darach). 


Cypress. 


Banyan. 


Cultivated. 


Dalhergia Sissoo. 


Mulberry. 


Mango. 


Cotton. 


Tamarind. 


Indigo. 


Walnut. . 


Sesame. 


Sycamore. 


Holcus spicaius. 


Oriental plane. 


B.ice. 


Guava. 


Sorghmn saccharatum. 


Banana. 


Wheat. 


Fig. 


Barley. 


Pistachio. 


Maize. 


Mulberry, 


Beet. 


Pomegranate. 


Carrot. 


HiNDO 


STAN.. 


Wild. 


Chestnut. 


Butea frondosa. 


Hornbeam. 


Careya. 


Cedrelas. 



CHARACTERISTIC PLANTS. 



223 



Croton. 

Daphne garclneri. 
„ cannahinum. 

Dipteronitis grandiflora. 

Spindle tree. 

Ash (Fraxinus jiorihunda). 

Gmelina arhorea. 

Walnut. 

Teak. 

Holly. 

Juniper. 

Laurel. 

Privet. 

Nutmeg. 

Magnolia, 

Olive. 

Pinus Deodara. 

Rhododendron arhoreum. 

Willow. 

Pium. 

Oaks (10 species). 

Pyrus. 

Bamboo. 

Sandal tree. 

Sacred bean. 

Chamcerops Martiana. 

Cocoa-nut. 

Palmyra palm. 

Caryota urens. 

Betel-nut palm. 

Phoenix farinifera. 
„ sylvestris. 
„ humilis. 

Sago palm (Sagus fari- 
nifera'). 

Mango. 

Orange. 

Pomegranate. 

Peach. 

Banana. 



Pancratium. 
Crinum, 
Orchids. 
Cultivated. 
Cotton. 
Sugar. 
Indigo. 
Pine apple. 
Bamboo. 
Pice. 
Maize. 

Opium poppies. 
Coffee. 

Betel pepper. 
Areca-nut palm. 
Holcus sorghum. 
Panicum. 
Paspalum. 
Elansinse. 
Phaseolus. 
Dolichas. 
Gourds. 
Tesamum. 
Ginger.' 
Turmei'ic. 
Crotolaria juncea. 
Ilibiscus cannabinus. 
Tobacco. 
Carrots. 
Barley. 
Millet. 
Wheat. 
Oats. 
Beans, 
Yetches. 
Mustard. 
Coriander. 
Flax. 
Saffron. 



224 



Wild. 



Wild 





APPENDIX. 


The following are 


plants of Ancient Hindostau : — 


Nymphoea steUata. 




Myrtle. 


Nelumbium. 




Fig. 


Banana. 




Sugar-cane. 


Acacia. 




Hemp. 


Date palm. 




Flax. 


Pandauus. 




Lentil. 


Mango. 




Onion. 


Sacred fig. 




Garlic. 


Bamboo. 




Leek. 


Rice. 




Cotton. 


Barley. 




Henna. 


Wheat. 








China, 


i. 




Bcp.ckia fruteseens. 


Palms. 




Cultivated. 


Laurel. 




Tea. 


Caper. 




Banana. 


Tea. 




Guava. 


Mallows. 




Orange. 


Bamboo. 




Papaw. 


Camellias. 




Cocoa. 


Orange. 




Litche. 


Lemon. 




Sugar-cane. 


Magnolias. 




Peach. 


Terebinth. 




Apricot. 


Myrtles. 




Vine. 


Aucuba. 




Pomegi-anate. 


Oak. 




Rice. 


Hornbeam. 




Mulberry (black and white) 


Poplar. 




Walnut. 


Oleander. 




Fig. 


Sacred Bean of India. 


Lemon. 


Pinus chinensis. 




Olea fragrans. 




Japan. 


\. 




Pinus cemhra. 


Tea. 




„ strohus. 


Camellias. 




Spruce. 


Lycium harhatum. 




Larch. 


Lime. 




Aucuha japonica. 


Scotch fir. 




Salishuria adiantoides. 



CHARACTERISTIC PLANTS. 



■225 



Wild, 



Wild 



Sophora japonica. 




Quercus serrata. 


Pyrus japonica. 




Cupressus japonica . 


Mespilus japonica. 




Cultivated. 


Hydrangea hortensis 




Bice. 


Yew. 




Daid-su (a kind of bean) 


Juniper. 




Wheat, 


Salix japonica. 




Barley, 


Eleagnus umbelJata. 




Turnips. 


Orange. 




Mulberry. 


Camphor tree. 




Tea. 


Bamboo. 




Fir. 


Olea fragrans. 




Cypress. 


Cycas revoluta. 




Fig. 


Chestnut. 




Chestnut, 


Birch. 




Bamboo. 


Alder. ' 




Convolvulus. 


Ash, 




DiosGorea. 


Mulberry (black and 


white). 


Polygonum fagopyrum. 


Salix integra. 




Pomegranate, 


Betula japonica. 




Nymphma nelumbo. 


Quercus glabra. 




Arum, esculentum. 


„ glauca. 




Carrot, 


„ acuta. 




Cycas revoluta. 


„ cuspidata. 




Sesamum orientale. 




Cashmere, 


d. 




Cultivated. 


Pine. 




Orchard trees. 


Fir. 




Mulberry. 


Willows. 




Rice. 


Poplar. 




Wheat. 
Barley. 




Thibet. 


Id. 




Birch. 


Spruce. 




Elder. 


Fir. 




Horse chestnut. 


Juniper. 




Ash. 


Oak. 




Gooseberry. 


Hazel. 




Raspberry. 


Alder. 
Willow. 




Rhododendron.s. 
Vaccinium. 



226 


APPENDIX 


• 


Erythrina 


monosperma. 




Peach. 


Bombax Tie'pta'phylluin, 




Appia 


Chestnut. 






Pear. 


Pine. 






Walnut. 


Laurel. 






Banana. 


Miclielia. 






Bamboo. 


Gordonia. 






Pine-apple. 


Cultivated. 






Sugar-cane. 


Mango. 






Rice. 


Orange. 






Opium poppy. 


Pomegranate. 




Mulberry. 



SIBERIA. 

Western Siberia with Eastern-side of the Altai Mountains. 



Forest trees. 

Birch. 

Aspen. 

Poplar. 

Larch. 

Pinus Gembra. 

Firs. 

Pines. 

Spruce. 

Pinus sihirica. 
„ Abies. 
Mountain plants. 

Gentiana altaica. 

Veronica densiflora. 

Primula nivalis. 

Pedicularis resupinata. 

Gentiana acaulis. 

Cortusa Mathiola. 

Cardamine macrophylla. 

Saxifraga Geum. 



Wild. 

Steppe plants. 

Adonis vernalis. 

Anemone patens. 

Artemisia. 

Allium. 

Gypsophilla. 

Statiee. 

Geratocarpus arenarius. 

Diotis ceratoides. 

Polycnemum. 

A triplex. 

Ghenopodium, 

FranJcenia. 

Tamarix. 

Salicornia. 

Halocnemum. 

Amaryllis tatarica. 

Rindera tetraspis. 

Nepeta sibirica. 



Central Siberia. 



Wild. 



Pinus Gembra. 
larix. 



Pinus Abies. 
Plantanus orientalis. 
Populus alba. 



CHARACTERISTIC PLANTS. 



227 



Populus halsamica. 
Betula alnus. 

„ nana. 

„ fruticosa. 
Rhododendron tauricum. 

„ chrysanthum, 

Stachys palustris. 

„ syhatica. 
Scutellaria galericidata. 
Schwertia p>6rennis. 
Sanguisorha officinalis. 
Tanaceium vulgare. 
Trientalis euro-poea. 
Valeriana officinalis. 

Eastern 
Wild. 

Birch. 

Pinus Cemhra. 

Sorbus aucuparia. 

Alnus incana. 

Willows. 

Spircea hamtschatica. 

Allium ursinum. 

Maianthemum canadense. 

Uvularia amplexifolia. 

Iris sibirica. 

Caprifolium. 

Rose. 

Atragene alpina. 

RJiododendron kamtschati- 

cum. 
Empetrum nigrum. 
Trientalis europoea. 
Linnaea borealis. 
Cornus suecica. 
Urtica dioica. 
Lupinus noothensis. 
Mimulus luteus. 

„ guttatus. 



Vaccinium vitis-idcea. 

„ uliginosum. 

Anemone narcissiflora. 

„ sylvestris. 
Atragene aljnna. 
Andromeda polifolia. 
Antirrhinum linaria. 
Arbutus uva-ursi. 
Euphrasia officinalis. 
Fotentilla anserina. 
Pyrola. 

Galium boreale, 
Sedum palustre. 
Lysimachia thrysiflora. 

Siberia. 

Epilobium angustifolium. 

„ latifolium. 

„ luteum. 

Rubus spectabilis. 
A ngelica. 
Heracleum. 
Carices, 
Orchids. 
Ferns. 

Potamogeton. 
Ranunculus aquatilis. 
Sparganium. 
Hippuris. 
Sorrel. 
Polygonum. 
Aconite. 
Monkshood. 
Meadow rue. 
Geranium jjratense. 
Comarum palustre. 
Oxy coccus . 
Arbutus alpina. 
Azalea procumbens. 



East Indian Archipelago and Ceylon. 
Wild. I Pitcher plant {Nepenthes 

Raffiesia Arnoldii. \ distillatoria). 

Q 2 



228 


APPENDIX. 


CinBamon. 




Bryonia. 


Cocoa-nut 




Vine. 


Caryota. 




Cissus. 


Date palm. 




Pothos. 


Banana. 




Loranthus. 


Mango. 




Acrostichum. 


Jack. 




Ginger. 


Malay apple. 




Cardamom. 


Mangosteen. 




Galanga. 


Psidia. 




Costus. 


Oranges. 




Acorus. 


Citron. 




SchcBnanthus. 


Cashew-nut. 




Calamus aromaticus. 


Guava. 




Turmeric. 


Averrhoas. 




Pandanus. 


Amoma. 




Nipa palm {Nipa frute- 


Hedysarum. 




sce7is). 


Galega. 




Mangrove. 


Hibiscus. 




Avicennise. 


Justicia. 




Fig trees. 


Cleome. 




Melaleuca leucadendron. 


Impatiens. 




Eugenia. 


Myrtle. 




Cultivated. 


Amomum. 




Cinnamon. 


Ricinus. 




Camphor. 


Ipomsea. 




Clove. 


Dioscorea. 




Nutmeg. 


Basella. 




Pepper. 


Aristolochia. 




Betel pepper. 


Ophioglossum. 




Ginger, 


Phaseolus. 




Galangale. 


Memordica. 




Rice. 


Casuarina. 




Eugenia. 




AFRICA. 




Baebary. 


Wild on the mountains. 




Quercus cocci/era. 


Quercus suber. 




„ pseudo-coccifera. 


„ Ilex. 




„ Ballota. 


„ obtecta. 




Aleppo pine {Pinus hale- 


„ pseudo-suber. 


pensis. 



CHARACTERISTIC PLANTS. 



229 



Fresnella Fontanesii. 
Juniperus phcenicea. 

„ lycia. 
Cypress. 
Wild on the plains. 
Buckthorn. 
Oleander. 
Olive. 
Walnut. 
Acacia. 
Cedar. 
Date palm. 
Rose. 
Peaches. 
Plums. 
Almonds- 
Oranges. 
Pomegranate. 
Figs. 



Vine. 
Pistachio. 
Zizyphus Lotus. 
Mulberry. 
Citron. 
Myrtle. 
Jasmine. 
Spina Christi. 
Chaste tree. 

Palmetto Palm (Chamse- 
rops humilis). 

Castor-oil tree. 
Cultivated. 

Wheat. 

Barley. 

Olive. 

Vine. 

Date palm. 

Mulberry (white). 



Egypt and Nubia. 



Wild by the Nile. 

Date palm. 

Figs. 

Willows. 

Acacias. 

Tamarisks. 

Sycamore fig. 

Oleander. 

Christ's thorn. 

Papyrus. 
Sandy plains. 

Tamarisk. 

Caper. 

Cassias. 

Acacias. 

Mimosa. 

Salsola. 

Traganum, 

Calligonum. 

Salicornia. 

Mesembryanthemum. 



Colutea. 

Carduus. 

Prickly fig. 
Oases. 

Date palm. 

Doum palm. 

Palm of Thebes (Cucifera 
thebiaca). 

Acacia vera. 

Orange. 

Citron. 

Banana. 

Olive. 

Pomegranate, 

Peach. 
Cultivated. 

Date palm. 

Sycamore fig. 

Egyptian arum {Armn co- 
locacia^. 

Gourd. 



230 



Wild 



APPENDIX 


• 


Cucumber. 


Holcus dhourra. 


Sassflower. 




Beans. 


Onion. 




Maize. 


Rice. 




Flax. 


Wheat. 




Sugar. 


Barley. ! 




Cotton. 


Plants of Ancient Egypt, 


Sacred bean of India. 




Oak. 


Papyrus. 




Alder. 


Red-flowered lotus. 




Cypress. 


Onion. 




Thuja orientalis. 


'Bean {Vicia /aba). 




Viola odorata. 


Vine. 




Mallow. 


Arundo donax. 




Squill (^Scilla maritima) 


Water-melon. 




Cabbage. 


Cucumber. 




Plum. 


Garlic. 




Cotton. 


Radish. 




Hemp. 


Date palm. 




Beet. 


Doum palm. 




Mustard. 


Flax. 




Rue. 


Olive. 




Ocymum hasilicum. 


Pear. 




Black mulberry. 


Barley. 




Fennel. 


Lentil. 




Madder. 


Almond. 




Coriander 


Leek (Allium po7'um). 




Carrot. 


Rose. 




Asparagus. 


Cummin {Gumimum cymi- 




Endive. 


m,um. 




Elder. 


Poplar (white and black). 




Ficus carica. 


Aspen. 




Pomegranate, 


Melilotus officinalis. 




Zizyphus Lotus. 


Rye. 




Myrtle. 


Opium poppy (Fajjaver 




Pistachio-nut, 


somniferum). 




Calendula officinalis. 


Sassflower. 




Plantago major. 


Ash. 






Abyssinia. 


d. 




Amyris Opohalsamum. 


Papyrus. 




Juga Sassa. 



CHARACTERISTIC PLANTS. 



231 



Banana. 


Farek (Bauhinia acumi- 


Kol-qual [Euphorbia anti- 


nata). 


quorum). 


Kuara {Erythrina abyssi- 


Gir-gir {Andropogon afer). 


nica). 


Kantuffa. 


TeiF {Poa ahyssinica). 


Gaguedi {Protea abyssi- 


Cassia fistula. 


nica). 




Central Africa. 


Wild. 


Cotton. 


Passion-flowers. 


Onions. 


Aristolochise. 


Rice. 


Calamus. 


Indigo. 


Balanophorse. 


Wheat. 


Cultivated. 


Ground nuts. 


Millet. 


• 


Western 


Africa. 


Wild. 


Pulse, 


Adansonia digitata. 


Ground-nut. 


Bomhax jjentandrum. 


Limes. 


Raphia vinifera. 


Plantain (Musa sapien- 


Pandanus Candelabrum. 


tum). 


Sterculia acuminata. 


Papaw {Garica Papaya). 


Ordeal tree. 


Pine-apple. 


Anona senegalensis. 


Pumpkin {Gucurbita Pepo). 


Ghrysobalanus Icaco. 


Tamarind. 


Pine-apples. 


Oil-palm {Elais guineensis) 


Oil palm. 


Tobacco. 


Wild guava {Psidiumpyri- 


Capsicum. 


ferum). 


Negro peach {Sarcocephalus 


Orange. 


esGulentus). 


Cultivated. 


Locust-tree (Inga biglobosa) 


Maize. 


Cashew-nut. 


Cassava {Jatropha Mani- 


Baobab, or monkey-bread. 


hot). 




Southern 


r Africa. 


Wild. 


Protea repens. 


Heaths. 


„ mellifera. 


Proteas. 


Fig-marigolds. 



Silver- tree(Pro^effl argentea). 



Stapelia. 



232 



Wild 



Wild 



• APPEI 


'^DIX. 


Diosma. 


Eriocephalus. 


Aloes 


Calendula. 


Euphorbias. 


Othonna, 


Tcmnus elephantopus. 


Arctotis. 


Irids 


Coryrabium. 


Orchids, 


Senecio. 


Strelitzia, 


Virgilia. 


Palmiet {Juncus serralus). 


Aspalathus. 


Pelargonium. 


Lobelia. 


Acacias. 


Indigofera. 


Polygala. 


. Agathosma. 


Fabacese. 


Morea. 


Acacia capensis. 


Phylica. 


Asters. 


Gladiolus. 


Gnaphaliiim. 


Halleria. 


Xeranthemuin. 


Acorus palmita. 


Zamiee. 


Cluytia. 


Ixise. 


Barrosma. 


Amaryllidse. 


Cycadese. 


Elichrysum. 




Mad 


EIRA. 


I. 


Cultivated. 


Vaccinium jmdifolium. 


Vine. 


Prickly fig. 


Fig. 


Myrtle. 


Arum. 


Chestnut. 


Banana. 


Spartium. 


Pomegranate. 


Heaths. 


Mulberry, 


Pteris aquilina. 


Potato. 


Cichoracese. 


Onions. 


Canary 


Islands, 


L 


Visnea. 


Euphorbias. 


Olive {Olea excelsa). 


Mesembryanthemums. 


Arbutus callicarpa. 


Cacalia Kleinia. 


Sideroxylon. . 


Dragon's blood tree. 


Ivy (Hedera canariensis). 


Date. 


Ferns. 


Banana. 


Golden campanula {Cam- 


Palmetto. 


panula aurea). 


Indian fig. 


Fir (Pinus canariensis). 


Laurel. 


Juniperis cedro. 



CHARACTERISTIC PLANTS. 



2 33 



Spartium nuhigenum. 

Grasses. 

Cypi'ess. 

JSrica Arborea. 

Agaves. 

Sempervivum. 

Aizoon. 

Cotyledon. 

Crassula. 

Cordon (Euphorbia cana- 



riensis). 



Euphorbia balsamifera. 
Cultivated. 

Sugar cane. 

Arum calocacia. 

Olive. 

Vine. 

Wheat. 

Barley. 

Maize. 

Chestnut. 



Madagascar. 



Wild. 

Tanghii tree {Tanghinia 
venenijlua). 

Hydrogeton fenestralis. 

Palms. 

Bamboo. 

Orange. 

Citron. 
Cultivated. 

Rice. 

Manise. 

Batata. 



Maize. 

Calabastes. 

Earth-nut (Arachis hypo- 

gea). 
Sugar-cane. 
Pine-apple. 
Bread-fruit tree. 
Vine. 
Cotton. 
Hemp. 
Potato. 
Bean. 



Mauritius and Bodrbon, 
The flora of these islands is almost identical with that of the 
Indian Archipelago. 



Cultivated. 
Cloves. 
Nutmeg. 
Sugar-cane. 



Coffee. 

Cotton. 

Indigo. 



NORTH AMERICA. 
Mexico. 



Wild. 

Vanilla. 
Caoutchouc. 

Styrax officinalis. 



Hand plant. 
Dahlias. 

Convolvulus Jalapa. 
Agave americana. 



2d4 APPENDIX. 


Logwood tree. 


Manioc. 


Furcroea. 


Banana. 


Yuccse, 


Maguey. 


Cultivated. 


Cactus coccinellifer. 


Rice. 


Anona cherimolia. 


Maize. 


Wheat. 


Coffee 


Cotton. 


Cocoa. 


Agaves. 


Sugar-cane. 


Opuntia tunas. 



Sub-tropical Zone of North America, 
(From Tropics to 34°.) 



Wild. 



Magnolia grandi/lora. 

„ glauca. 
Calycanthus Jloridus. 
Kalmia hirsuta. 

„ cuneata. 
Halesia tetra/ptera. 

„ diptera. 
Lav/rus catesheyana. 

„ caroliniensis. 
Diospyros virginicus. 
Olea americana. 
Ilex vomitoria. 
Pines. 
Oaks. 
Cypress (Cupressus dis- 

ticha). 
Tillandsia usneoides. 
Fan palm {Chamcerops pal- 
metto). 
Salix nigra. 
Populus deltoides. 



Laurus sassafras. 
Myrica caroliniensis. 
Miegia macrosperma. 
Ludolphia mississipensis. 
Rubus. 
Vitis riparia. 
A mpelopsis hipinnata. 
Juglans paean. 
„ rubra. 
Acer negundo. 
Sarracenia. 
Venus's fly-trap. 
Rhododendrons. 
Azaleas. 
Cultivated. 
Cotton. 
Maize. 
Rice. 
Wheat. 
Sugar-cane. 
Indigo. 
Tobacco. 



Warmer Temperate Zone of North America. 
(From 34° to 45°.) 



Wild. 

Solidago. 

Asters. 

Oaks. 



Pines. 
Yaccinse. 

Liriodendron tidipifera. 
Mimosa. 



CHARACTERISTIC PLANTS. 



235 



Smilax china. 


Wheat. 


„ hastata. 
SmaUeri. 


Barley. 
Oats. 


Miegia macrosperma. 
Ludolphia mississipensis. 
Bignonias. 


Rye. 

Tobacco. 

Flax. 


Chestnut, 
Ashes. 


Hemp. 
Vine. 


Beech. 

Elms. 

Hazel. 


Hops. 
Apple. 
Sugar-cane. 


Plantcmus occidentalis. 


Beans. 


Roses. 


Water-melons 


Walnut. 


Peach. 


Wellingtonia gigantea. 
Sugar maple. 
Cultivated. 


Buckwheat. 

Potato. 

Cotton. 


Maize. 





Wild. 



Colder Tempeeate Zone of North America. 
(From 45° to 58°.) 

Triglochin. 



Firs. 

Alder. 

Sorbus. 

Hawthorn. 

Ruhus odoratus. 

Gornus suecica* 

Gooseberry. 

Azalea. 

Calla. 

Linncea horealis. 

Lathrcea stelleri. 

Panax Jiorridum. 

Arenaria peploides. 

Glaux maritima. 

Carex. 

Juncus. 

Veronica serpyllifolia. 

„ anagallis. 
PotentUla anserina. 

„ ruthenica. 
Sisyrinchium. 
Plantago. 



Dodecatheon. 
Pedicularis. 
Elymus. 
Bartsia. 
Campanula. 
Angelica. 
Heracleum. 
Fritillaiia. 
Pisum maritimum. 
Cochlearia danica. 
Pamonculus acris. 
Galium horeale. 
Cultivated. 
Maize. 
Tobacco. 
Wheat. 
Barley. 
Oat. 
Peas. 
Rye. 
Hemp. 
Potato. 



236 



APPENDIX. 



Sub-arctic and Polar Zones. 



(From 58° to 



Wild. 



Rhododendron lajjponicutn. 
Andromeda tetragona. 

„ polifolia. 

„ caliculata. 

Vaccinium vitis idcea. 
Oxycoccus j)cdustris. 
Azalea procuinhens. 
Birch (Betula glandulosa). 
Alder (^A Inus glutinosd). 
Saxifraga aizoides. 

„ oppositifolia. 

„ cernua. 

„ groenlandica. 
Polygonum viviparum. 



tke North Pole.) 

Arnica montana. 
Dryas integrifolia. 
Holcus alpinus. 
Pedicularis lapponica. 

„ sudetica. 

„ hirsuta. 

Plantago lanceolata. 
Cerastium viscosum, 
Oxyria reniformis. 
Triglochm maritimum. 
Tofieldia horealis. 
Epilobium palustre. 

„ latijfoUum. 

„ angustifolium. 



West India Islands. 



Wild. 

Mahogany {Swietenia Ma- 

hogani). 
Pimento (Myrtus Pimenta). 
Avocada pear {Laurus Per- 

sea). 
Papaw tvee[CaricaPapaya). 
Anacardium occidentale. 
Passion-flowers. 
Pine-apple, 
Mammee tree (Mammea 

americana). 
Mango. 
Teak. 
Mimosa. 
Trumpet ti-ee. 
Banyan fig. 
Tree ferns. 
Heliconias. 
Cocoa-nut. 
Date. 

Cabbage palm. 
Nutmeg. 
Cassia. 



Cannon-ball tree. 

Screw pine {Pandanus odo- 

ratissima). 
Bread fruit tree 
Quercus suber. 
„ rohur. 
Piper nigrum. 
Cactus. 
Euphorbia. 
Bamboo. 
Ferns. 
Orchids. 
Cultivated. 
Banana. 
Pine-apple. 
Sugar-cane. 
Coffee. 
Cotton. 

Maranta arundinacea. 
Pimento. 
Cocoa. 
Indigo, 
Ginger. 



CHARACTERISTIC PLANTS. 



237 



SOUTH AMERICA. 
Brazil. 



VM. 


Mangrove'tree {Rhizopliora 


Cassias. 


Mangle), 


Cecropias. 


Laurel. 


Myrtles. 


Geoffrsea. 


Cacti. 


Barbadoes cedar. 


Bignonias, 


Eugenia. 


PauUinias. 


Theophrasta. 


Passion-flowers. 


Conchocarpus. 


Coronilla. 


Dwarf-palms. 


Macauba-palm. 


Bindweed. 


Securidacese. 


Pothos. 


Mikanias. 


Arum. 


Celtis. 


Orchids. 


Rhexias. 


Bromelias. 


Melastomas. 


Ferns. 


Bauhinias. 


Brazil nut (Bertholletia 


Mimosa. 


excelsa). 


Nightshades. 


Cocoa or chocolate tree. 


Sebestanas. 


Cultivated. 


Eupatoria. 


Orange. 


Crotons. 


Coffee. 


Cerei. 


Sugar-cane. 


Silk cotton tree. 


Maize. 


Brazil wood tree. 


Beans. 


Lecy this . 


Yam. 


Cabbage palm. 


Batatas. 


Begonias. 


Cotton. 


Costus. 


Tobacco. 


Helicon ias. 


Mandiocca root (Jatropha 


Brazilian pine {Ai'aucaria 


Manihot). 


imbricata). 




Colo 


MBIA. 


^ild. 


Plumieria. 


Banana. 


Csesalpinia. 


Heliconia. 


Gecropia peliata. 


Alpinia. 


Balsam tree of Tolu. 


Theophrasta. 


Quinine tree. 



238 



APPENDIX. 



Wild 



Wild 



Mangrove tree. 


Cocoa tree. 


Ceroxylon andicola. 


Vanilla. 


Tree ferns. 


Tamarind. , 


Cinchona lancifoUa. 


Medlar. 


„ cordifolia. 


Manchineel tree. 


„ longifolia. 


Cassia. 


„ ohlongifolia. 


Sapotas. 


Fuctsias. 


Guava. 


Passion flowers. 


Arracacba {A rracacia es- 


Sisyrinchium. 


culenta). 


Melastomas. 


Cow tree {Galactodendrum 


Bocconia frutescens. 


utile). 


Arums. 


Cultivated. 


Quercus granatensis. 


Cocoa. 


Clusias. 


Tobacco. 


Calceolarias. 


Coflfee. 


Lobelias. 


Cotton. 


Walnut tree. 


Sugar. 


Ebony tree. 


Banana. 


Sassafras. 


Batatas. 


PfJ 


RU. 


i. 


Schinus Molle. 


Cacti. 


Potato. 


Tillandsia. 


Cocoa-nut palm. 


Melocacti. 


Orchid. 


Cerei. 


Cultivated. 


Willow. 


Yellow potato of Peru {Pa- 


Manglillo. 


pas amarillus). 


Huarango. 


Maize. 


Cordia. 


Vine. 


Buddlea. 


Sugar-cane. 


Heliotropium. 


Barley. 


Lantana. 


Wheat. 


Lycium. 


Rye. 


La I 


'lata. 


d. 


Cardoon {Cynara Cardun- 


Clover. 


culus). 


Ombu {Fhytolacca dioica). 


Ferns. 


Thistles. 


Curily pine {Araitcaria 




hrasUiensis). 



CHARACTERISTIC PLANTS. 



239 



Ybaro {Sapindus sapo- Paraguay tea {Ilex para- 

naria). guensis). 

Cacti. Leguminous plants. 

A great portion of the country is occupied by pampas, extensive 
treeless plains, covered witli grass. 



Cultivated. 
Vine. 
Tobacco. 
Sugar. 
Mandiocca. 
Maize. 



Batatas. 
Wheat. 
Barley. 
Paraguay tea. 
Peach tree. 



Chili. 



WUd. 



Roble (Fagus obliqua). 
Lingui {Laurus lingui). 
Queule (Gonmertiganitida). 
Laurel {Laurelia aroma- 

fica). 
Canelo {Drymis chilensis). 
Avellano (Quadria hete- 

rophylla). 
Chili pine. 

Boldo {Boldoafragrans). 
Peumo {Peumos rubra). 
Fuchsia. 
Mimosa. 
Cavenia. 
Palm of Chili {Molince 

micrococcus). 
SaccharinsB. 
Acacia Caven. 
Ephedra chilensis. 



Myrtus communis. 
Calceolarias. 
Baccharis. 
Eupatorium. 
Proustia. 
Mutisise. 
Lobelia tupa. 
Psoralea. 
Cestrum. 
Dodder. 
Salpiglossis. 
Malesherbia. 
Loranthus aphyllus. 
Cultivated. 
Wheat. 
Potato. 
Pumpkin. 
Lettuce. 
Cabbage. 
Vine. 



Terra del Fuego and Straits op Magellan. 



Wild. 



{Fagus 



Evergreen beech 

betuloides). 
Birch {Betula antarctica). 
Fagus antarctica. 
Cranberry. 



Drymis Winteri. 
Wild celery. 
Scurvy grass. 
Veronica, 
Fuchsia. 



240 



APPENDIX. 



Wild. 



Fandanus odoratissima. 

Dracaena terminalis. 

Morus pafyrifera. 

Erythrina corallodendron. 

Santalum Freycinetianum. 

Bamboo. 

Acacia heterophylla. 

Pine apple. 

Casuarinse. 

Aleurites triloba. 

Ipomea. 

Ananas. 

Asplenium nidus. 

Pteris. 

Piperacese. 

Lobelias. 

Urticese. 

Gharpentiera ohovata. 



POLYNESIA. 

Metrosideros polymorphus. 
Jamhosa Malaccensis. 
Both wild and cultivated. 

Bread fruit {Artocarpus in- 

cisa). 
Cocoa-nut {Gocos nuciferd). 
Yam (J)ioscorea cdatd). 
Taro [Aruin esculenturd), 
Plaintain(i/Msa sapientum). 
^ajiSinsi(Musaparadisiaca). 
Mape or rata {Inocarpus 

edulis). 
Bi-azilian plum {Sjwndias 

dulcis). 
Ahio {Eugenia malaccenus). 
Pteris esculenta. 
Folypoditim Medxdla. 

„ dichotomum. 



AUSTRALIA AND 

Wild. 

Proteas. 

Acacias. 

Eucalyptus. 

Epacris. 

Myrtles. 

Leguminous plants. 

Composite plants. 

Melaleuca. 

Gnaphalium. 

Casuarina. 

Mimosa. 

Ai'aucaria excelsa. 

Orchids. 

Callitris. 

Xanthorrhea. 

Doryanthes excelsa. 

Cephalotus follicularis. 

Castonospermum australe. 

Claudea elegans. 



NEW ZEALAND. 

Fhormium tenax. 

Banksia. 

Dryandra. 

Boeckia. 

Leptospermum. 

Cupressus callitris. 

Olax. 

Exocarpus. 

Angophora. 

Metrosideros. 

Zamia spiralis. 

Drosera pedata. 

Hcemodorum teretifolium. 

Ferns, 

Marsdenia suaveolens. 

Stackhousia monogyna. 

Sainolus littoralis. 

Hihhertia voluhilis. 

„ diffusa, 
Juncus vaginatus. 



SOUTH AMERICA 



241 



Lycopodia. 
Loranthus. 
Kanguru-grass [Anthrisii- 

ria australis.) 
Mesemhryanthemum cequi- 

laterale. 
Polygonum junceum. 
Viscum. 
Lobelia. 

Dichondra repens. 
Epilobium. 
Alisma. 



Triglochin. 

Actinocarpiis. 

Najas. 

Lemna. 

Cyperus. 

Scirpus. 

Schcenus. 

Carex. 

Myriophylhini. 

Mentha. 

Dracaena australis. 

Areca olerace 



THE KND. 



R 



J 



LONIiOS : 

SAVILL AND KDWARDS, PKINTEKS, CHANDOS STllUKT, 

COVENT GARDEN. 



■mm- 






■wm^-