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New York: 

The National Temperance Society and Publication House, 



Copyright, 1887, by 
The National Temperance Society and Publication House. 







. Jso. N. Btbuins, Esq. 

Cw. Sm!^. and Pub, Agent, 

Xal. Temp. Sop's ""^ ^"*- Houee, 

58 iSwiie Street, A'eip Tor*:. 

Dear Sir — The oadersigned members of the OominK- 

[ tee appointed by the National Temperance Convention, 

I teld at Saratoga, N.Y., August 26 and 27, 1873, to wd Mr. 

Job H. Jackson of West Grove, Pa., in securing an " Amer- 

D St^noard work on Tornperance," having completed tlie 

duty assigned them, desire herewith to present through you 

to the National Temperance Society and Publication House, 

Parts n, and III. of such work, with their recommendntion 

I for pubiication. 

[ Part I. " The Scientific : embracing the Chemical, Pliy- 
siological and Medii;al Reladoiis of the Temper- 
ance Queslion," written by Dr. William Hargreavea 
of Philadelphia, was published by the National 
Society under the title of "Alcohol and Scieuoe." 
(Part n. " The Historical, Statiatical, Economical and Polit- 
ical," and, 

|"PartIII."The Social, Educational and Religious Aspects," 
written by Bev. Richard Eddy, of Massachusetts, 
are herewith prenented in MH. 

The MSS, presented under the pri?,6 competitive plan not 
I proving satisfiielory to tlie Committee, that method was 
I nbandoned, anil Ur. Eddy was engaged by Mr. Jackson to 
I prepare I'lirt. II, ; and tliat work ri'coiving llie approval of 
I the CouraiitteH, be wap also engaged to write Part III., 
t which after pains-taking care in reading and examination 
^y each member, rei;eivud the unauiinoua favorable judg- 

mt of the Committee. 

vi Prize Essays. 

In literary execution, clearness of statement, comprehen. 
siveness in research, fact and reasoning, l*arts 11. and III. 
will we tliink commend themselves as ^^ eminently satis- 
factory 5 " and '' a matter for congratulation that this pro- 
tracted enterprise comes to so acceptable a close." These 
three general parts, will, we believe, constitute the most 
complete work on Temperance produced in the United States ; 
and will prove a valuable addition to our literature on that 
subject, furnishing an arsenal from which the educator, 
legislator and philanthropist, may draw lessons from history, 
philosophy, experience and statistics, to be used in the war- 
fare against the " drink system." 

Ten years have passed since the Committee, consisting of 
A. M. Powell, Gen. Neal Dow, Judge E. C. Pitman, llev. 
A. A. Miner and James Black were appointed. The entire 
Committee passed upon and approved Part I. SubscHpicntly 
Gen. Dow and Judge Pitman finding the labor required too 
severe a tax upon time and strength, fully required for other 
duties, declined to further serve. Since their retirement, the 
undersigned have endeavored to meet the labor al!d responsi- 
bilities, and have borne the personal expenses incident to 
their appointment, and with the passing of these ]\[8S. to the 
National Temperance Society they judge their duties will 

We deem it proper to say that beside the initial conception 
of this work (mapped out and broadened by another,) tlie 
whole financial burden in the payment of prizes offered, and 
compensation to writers, has been paid by Mr. Jackson, to 
whose courage, devotedness, and perseverance in overcoming 
great obstacles, the honor of this work is greatly due. 

We trust the silent influences of this work may enlighten 
and preserve many, and redeem some from the drink curse ; 
and that it may prove imder God an efficient agency in 
directing the moral and political power of the people for 
the banishment of the alcoholic drink trade from the recog-- 
nition and protection of our national and state governments. 

Very respectfully, 

A. M. Powell. 
A. A. Miner. 
James Black. 

^,. «.,, -, V— .■-.■ l" 


THE following pages are the result of an effort to fiir- 
nisli what will supply a want long felt by those who 
labor in the temperance cause, as well as by the general 
reader on the subject, viz.: — a book that shall contain in 
orderly array, the many facts in the history of Intemper- 
ance which are scattered in numerous volumes, many of 
them not accessible to the general reader, and some not to 
be found except in the large libraries of Colleges and other 
Public Institutions. 

In arranging these pages the writer has desired to set 
forth facts, rather than to minister to pride of authorship ; 
and, disclaiming originality, is satisfied to be known only 
as a Compiler of the various chapters in the story of the 
world's great curse, as it has been told in so many climes, 
and through the most distant ages. 

While it is not claimed that this historical field is ex- 
hausted — since no one can know better than he who has 
attempted the exploration of any portion of it, what vast 
regions are yet unexamined — ^it is believed that there are 
brought together in these pages a more full statement of 
reliable facts in regard to the extent and uniform conse- 
quences of intemperance, than can be found e\fi>e>NWt^. 

viii Preface. 

In preparing the portion devoted to the histoi-y of efforts 
to suppress intemperance, an examination has been made 
of the great mass of conjectnre which has accunmlated on 
the subject. Unsupported traditions have been discarded^ 
and only well-attested facts have been recorded. What is 
given, is, therefore, believed to be worthy of credit 5 and 
copious references to the sources of information on any por- 
tion of the subject of the volume will be found in the mar- 
ginal notes. 

The writer has also aimed at candor and impartiality in 
analyzing the causes which have led to radical changes of 
policy in temperance work, as also in setting forth and 
considering Objections to special methods of operation ; 
and he humbly trusts that these pages, which cost him 
many researches, and much and long continued labor, may 
be of service to the workers in the field of temperance, as 
well as to the general reader, helping each and all to 
hopeful and persistent effort in battling against intemper- 
ance. To this end he invokes the blessing of God on his 
work. E. E. 



Preface 7 


Temperance and Intemperance Defined 13 

The Temperate and Moderation Plea Examined 15 
List of the Chief Substances employed in pro- 
ducing Intoxicants 31 

Fermented and Unf ermented Wines 42 

Malt Liquors 49 

Distilled Liquors 55 

Adulteration of Liquors 59 


History of Intemperance, and its Political, Moral 

and Religious Effects 73 


X Contents. 


tn China 75 

In India 79 

In Persia , 85 

In Egypt 93 

In Greece and Rome 96 

Among the Jews 115 

Among the Philistines, Amalekites, Syrians and 

Babylonians 122 

In Germany 124 

In Russia 137 

In England , 140 

In the United States 176 


The Annual Cost of Intoxicants to the Leading 

Nations and to the World 208 

Intemperance and Crime 216 

Intemperance and Prostitution 229 

Intemperance and Pauperism 233 

Intemperance and Physical Decay 240 

Intemperance and Mental Disease and Heredity 247 

rv."— »-»'.-^vr.-»*r -»-■•#■ - u - ■'7*,i-ifc.»TSr: 

Contents, xi 



History of the Means Employed in Various Na- 
tions and Ages to Remove Intemperance., • 259 

Antidotes to Intoxication 260 

Personal Penalties for Drnnkenness 261 

Ecclesiastical Penalties 273 

Moderation Societies 276 

Total Abstinence Societies 294 

The Women's Work 350 

Coffee Houses 35 1 

Inebriate Asylums 353 

Education 353 

License Laws 354 

Prohibitory Laws 366 

Local Option Laws 378 


Evils of Licensing a Confessed Wrong 382 

License in Conflict with Accepted Principles of 
Law -Ji^^ 

xii Contents. 


The Right and Duty of the State to Prohibit . . 388 

Prohibition a Success 390 

Organized Opposition to Prohibition 414 

The Necessity for Prohibition Acknowledged by 

Temperance Leaders 424 

Grounds of Opposition to Prohibitory Laws . . . 430 
Great Political Parties Controlled by the Liquor 

Traffic 449 

Conclusion • ••••••.. 454 




Temperftnce and Intemperanca Defined— The Temperate and 
Uoderulion Plea Etaminud— List of tha Cliiuf Sulmtances 
Employed in Piodutiiig Intoxicants— Fermented and I'u- 
fermented WincH — Malt Liquors— Distilled Iiiqnors— Adiil- 
t«ratioiia uf Liquors, 

XENOPHON, in liis Memorabilia of Socrates, repro- 
sents tliat gci-nt pliilosoplior as luakiug no distinc- 
tion l)etweeu wisdom and lemiwrance, but as leiwhing that 
" He wlio knows wliat U good and obeya it, and wliat is 
had and avoids it, is both wiirie and temperate."* 

The Btat«nieut is eignificant in the most general applica- 
tion of these tcmis to the largest fields wberCwiadora and 
tampemnc.e are demanded, but it ia especially pertinent in 
' jtd application to the particular nae of the word temperance, 
to denote abstinencis from intoxicating drinks as a bever- 
age ; Tor if temperance is determined by the avoidance of 
what is bad, any use, even tlie most infrequent, of the bad, 
must be a degree of intcmpera.nce ; a moderate temperance 
in regard to a bad thing, b'eing an absurdity, a folly that 
never can be called wise. 

Tliere is, no doubt, a safe and wise, and even necessary 
use of alcohol, the ehief intosicating agent of our day; 
but that ueo is confined to the arts and sciences, poadbly 

14 Akohd in History, 

including' medicine in the last named ; * but certainly it is 
never wise, useful nor safe as a beverage. 

The so-called moderate, i. e.j occasional diinkers of intox- 
icants, and also a few who do not drink at all, claim that 
intemperance can be charged only to those who become 
sots, unable to take care of themselves, or unwilling to rc^ 
strain their appetites ; while those who take but little at a 
time, or who are infrequent in thek indulgences, may claim 
to be, if not advocates, at least examples of temperance. 
More than this is declared to be unwarranted by any just 
use of these terms; and even some professed Christian men 
and women say, is contrary to the demand of the Bible ; 
temperance, not total abstinence, being the requirement of 
the Gospel. Such statements, however honestly made, 
have no foundation save in thoughtlessness and ignorance. 

I. The word temperance occurs but three times in tlio 
New Testament ; the original Greek word in its various 
forms, but i^even times; and in no instance docs it conflict 
with Socrates' idea of it as denoting the avoidance of wLr.t 
is bad. If in any instance it possibly suggests moderation, 
or a moderate use of, the connection is such as to cxcluile 
the idea of its allowing any indulgence whatever in that 
which is tainted with evil, f 

When Paul " reasoned '' with Felix J " of temperance," 
he meant, as all scholars concede, chastity, intending to 
rebuke the adulterous lives of Felix and DrusilLa. To in- 
terpret the apostle as meaning less than total abstinence 

* " Its application as an agent thatshall enter the living organ- 
ization is properly limited by the learning and skill possessed 
by the physician — a learning that itself admits of being recast 
and revised in many important details^ and perhaps in princi- 
ples.'' — Dr. B. W. Richardson's Cantor Lectures on AlcolwL 
American edition, p. 178. See also, numerous facts and author- 
ities cited in Dr. Hargreaves' Essay, ** Alooholj What it Is and 
What it Does:'* 

t See Galatians v. 23. Titus i. 8. 2 Peter i. 6. 

t Acts xxiv. 25. 

'- - i ■ "J .■ -r!r-,ja.-"=rifcn«Jtf*i^ 

The Temperate and Moderation Plea Examined. 15 

from this immorality, would be to make liim the encoura- 
ger of moderate criminal indulgence, a corrupter and not a 
purifier of men. 

When the same apostle institutes a comparison between 
the Grecian and the Christian race, and says of the compe- 
titor in the former : " Every man that striveth for the mas- 
tery is temperate in all things," * it must be conceded — 
because the rules enforced by the trainer of the athlete are 
well known — that modify the word temperate as we may, 
to denote moderation in eating, exercise or repose, it stands 
for absolute abstinence from intoxicating drinks. That 
was not only the ancient rule,f it is as imperatively demand- 
ed by all modem trainers of men for contests of physical 
agility, strength and endurance. 

The only remaining passage where the word rendered 
temperate, occurs in the New Testament, is in Paul's ad- 
vice on the subject of celibacy and marriage, the word 
translated " contain." J The same reasons which necessi- 
tate the idea of entire abstinence in the case of Felix and 
Drusilla, necessitate it here ; and no fm-ther argument is 
necessary, since less than this involves the Scriptures in 
allowing some degree of indulgence in immorality, — a sup- 
position which is as impious as it is absurd. 

II. Nor is it any less unwise to say that temperance 
consists in, or properly allows moderation in the use of in- 
toxicants, on the ground that it is the immoderate use 
alone which is injurious to ourselves or to the community. 
It would hardly be possible to come in more direct conflict 
with well-established facts. Let us look at a few of these 
facts as attested by the most competent and unimpeachable 

— ' I 

* 1 Cor. ix. 25. 

t Epictetns, Enchiridion, chap. xxxv. 

X 1 Cor. vii. 9. Macknight renders the verso, ** If they can- 
not live continently." Dean Alford : " If they have not con- 


Alcokdl in History. 

Dr. Trotter says : " It U not drinking Bpititiiona liquors to Gm 
length of iutoxiration, that alone eonBtituteB iutcmperancig- 
mnii mfLy diiuk n great deal — pass a. large portlDU of bis tim 
(lie bottle, Hud .vet be able t^i fill most of tho avooiitiouH of lifo 
There are certainly many men of this dosuiijition, wllO 
never been so trausfunuod with liiiuor as to be imkno^m Ut 
their owa hoase dog, or bo foolish ia their appearance, as to bi 
hooted by Hohool-lioya, that are yet to be conBidered as inteai 
(lernte Hvere. Those ' sober dnmkarda,' if 1 may ho allowed On 
expression, deceive themselves as well as others; and thongl 
tJiey pace slowly along the road to rain, their jonmeyternunates 
al the goal — bad health." 

Says Dr. Gordon, "When I waaBtadying at Edinburgh, I hw 
occasion to open u great many bodies of persons who had diod^ 
of Tarioas diseases, in a. popnlation mnch more renowned for so- 
briety and temperance than that of London ; biittheremarkabh 
fact was, that in all these cases there was more or less houu 
afioetion of the liver. I account for it, from tlie fact, that theM[ 
moral and religious people were in the habit of drinking a smalT 
quiuttity of spirits every day, some one or two glasses. The] 
were not in any shape or form intemperate, and wonld have heei 
shocked at the irapiitution." "Leaving drunkonncM out of th* 
question, thofreiiuont consumption of asmall quantity of spiritfl, 
grndually iticreiwed, ia as surely deatructivo of life as 
habitual intoiication," 

Dr H.G.Dods, borethiatestimonybaforePiirliamenti 
is safe from the approach of eountlosB maliuiiea, who i 
dailyhabjt of ueLug even the smallest portion of ardenl spirit. 
The practice cannot possibly do any good, and it has often dotn 
much harm." 

I>r, Copland, in his Dictionary of Ptaotical Medicine, ssya! 
" There can be no doubt, that, as esprcssed by the late Dt, 
Gregory, an occasional excess is, upon the whole, less injoriatu 
to the constitution than the practice of daily taking a moderot 
([Uantity of any fermented liquor or spirit" 

Says Dr. Benjamin Rush ; " I have known many persons d< 
stroyed by ardent epidta who were never completely intoxicate 
during the whole course of their lives." 

So Dr. Harris, of the United States Navy: "The uioderal 
use of spirituous liquors has destroyed many who were Here 
drunk." And Dr. Ramsay, of Charleston: " Health is muc 
injured by those who are frequently eipping strong 
though they are never intoxicated." 

The Temperate and Moderalion Plea Examined. 17 

Pn>£ HeBry Muuron, M. D., aaya: " Alurihol. wliotLor tak<<n in 
large 01 sDinll dusba, iiumedijilcly disturbs tlie fimctioDs of the 
body aDil the uiind." 

Dr. Mncuisti, ia liis Anatomr of Dninkenncwi. Bays ; '' Men In- 
dul)^ liabttually, day by day, not perha])e to the extent of pro- 
du<dug QDy evident effect, either upon ttie body or niiud at 
the time, and fimcy theiuaelveB all the while Btrictly t«mperHle, 
nliile they are, in reality, andermining their conatitutioD by 
' alow de^ees — killing themselveB by inoheH, and ahortening 
their esistence several years." 

Oi tliB following Btatement of Rev, Dr. Lyman Beecher, 
Dr. Macnish says : " I fully conciir with him." 

"It IB a matter of undoubted certainty that haliituiil tippling 
is worse than periodical dninkennosa. The puur Indian, «ha 
ODoe It nionth drinks himiielf dead, all but simple breutbjug, 
will outlive for years the man who drinks little and often, and 
ii not perhaps suapected of intemperance." • 

To the following, the aignaturcB of eighty eminent Eng- 
t liah physicians and sm-geoaa were appended : " An opin- 
I ion, Landed down from nulo and ignorant times, and im- 
bibed by Englishmen from their youth, has become very 
general, that the liahitnal use. of some portion o&alcobolio 
' drink, as of wine, boer, or spii'it, is beiioiicial lo health, 
and even necessary for those sabjoctod to habitual labor. 
" Anatomy, physiology, and tho experience of aU agea 
I and coimtries, when properly examined, must satisfy every 
mind well informed in medical science, that the above opin- 
ijmia altogether erroneous. Man, in ordinary health, like 
other animals, requires not any such stimulants, and can- 
1 not be benefitted by the habitual employment of any quan- 
tity «f them, large or small; nor will their use during his 
life-time increase the aggregate amount of Lis labor. In 
whatever lioantity they are employed, they will rather 
t«nd to diminish it. 
I " When hi' is in a state of temporary debility from illness 
I or other t-ausos, a temporary ose of them, as of other slirn- 
[ nlaot medicines, may be dearable; but as soon as he ia 

I 'Be««lier's Six Sermona on Intempei&OGe, USTlt^- V. 

18 Jlcohd in History. 


raised to liis natural standard of health, a continnanee of 
their nse can do no good to hira, even in the most moder- 
ate quantities ; while larger quantities, (yet such as by 
many persons are thought moderate,) do sooner or later 
prove injurious to the human constitution, without any ex- 

The highest medical authorities of Great Britain, on 
being examined in large numbers before a committee 
appointed by the British Parliament to inquire into the 
causes of drunkenness, unanimously testified : " Ardent 
spirits are absolutely poisonous to the human constitution ; 
in no case whatever are they necessary or even useful to 
persons in health ; but are always, in every case, and to 
the smallest extent, deleterious, pernicious, or destructive, 
according to the proportions in which they may be taken 
into the system." * 

Prof. James Miller says : " Alcohol is a luxury in one sense, 
no doubt. Its first effects are pleasurable ; and to some frames 
intensely so. But its tendencies^ even in truly * moderate ' al- 
lowance, are always evil." f 

The fanftus authority on Physiology, Dr. Wm. B. Carpenter, 
says: "My position is, that in the discharge of the ordinary 
duties of life, Alcohol is not necessary, but injurious, in so far 
as it acts at all. Even in small quantities, habitually taken, it 
perverts the ordinary functioDB by which the body is sustained 
in health.*' And again : ** We maintain that the action of the 
excessive or of the moderate use of Alcohol upon the healthy 
body is a question of degree alone ; its immediate effect being 
essentially the same in the one case as in the other." % 

Dr. Chas. Wilson, in his "Pathology of Drunkenness," says 
that "no circumstances of ordinary life can render even the 
moderate use of ardent spirits or other intoxicating fluids 
either beneficial or necessary, or even innocuous. The disor- 
dered ftinctions of nutrition caused indirectly by its action on 
the stomach, and directly by its own absorption and diffusion 

* Quoted by Rev. Marcus E. Cross, Mirror of Intemperance, 
p. 30. 
t Alcohol: Its Place and Power, p. 208. 
X Essay on the Use and Abuse of Alcoholic Liquors. 

The Temperoite and Moderation Plea Examined. 19 

throughout the system, contribute to the production of an ill- 
assimilated blood, and tend to attach new forms of danger to 
every description of disease or accident." 

Prof. Youmans says of Alcohol : "It is an inveterate foe of 
the intellectual and moral principle of man. In all its number- 
less forms, and in every quantity, it is the potent adversary of 
the mind.'* 

Dr. James Johnson, physician to King William IV., said; 
**A very considerable proportion of the middling and higher 
classes of life, as well as the lower, commit serious depredations 
on their constitutions, when they believe themselves to be so- 
ber citizens, and really abhor debauch. This is by drinking 
ale or other malt liquor to a degree far short of intoxication 
indeed, yet from long habit producing a train of effects that em- 
bitter the ulterior periods of existence." 

Dr. Macroie of the Liverpool Hospital, says : Having treated 
more than 300,000 patients, I give it as my decided opinion that 
the constant moderate use of stimulating drinks is more injuri- 
ous physically than the now-and-then excessive indulgence in 

Dr. Maudsley bears this testimony : "If men took carefiil 
thought of the best use which they could make of their bod- 
ies, they would probably never take alcohol, except as they 
would take a dose of medicine, in order to serve ^ome spec- 
ial purpose. It is idle to say that there is any real neces- 
sity for persons who are in good health to indulge in any kind 
of alcoholic liquor. At the least it is an indulgence which is 
unnecessary : at the worst, it is a vice which occasions infinite 
misery, sin, crime, madness, and disease. Short of the patent 
and undeniable ills which it is admitted on all hands to pro- 
duce, it is at the bottom of manifold mischiefs that are never 
brouglit directly home to it. How much ill-work would not 
be done, how much good work would be better done, but for 
its baneful inspiration ! Each act of crime, each suicide, each 
outbreak of madness, each disease, occasioned by it, means an 
infinite amount of suffering endured and inflicted before mat- 
ters have reached that climax." * 

Chas. Buxton, Esq., M. P., a well-known London brewer, 
says in his essay on " How to Stop Drunkenness : " " Dr. Car- 
pejiter gives a fearful list of the diseases that are generated by 
alcohol,— delirium tremens, insanity, oinomania, idiocy, apo- 

* Responsibility in Mental Disease, p. 285. 


Alcohol in History. 

plexy, paralysis, epilepsy, moiol perversion, irritation of the m 

coiis inembTano of tlI<^ statnavli, g.istric dyspopaiii, conjjitstion of 
tlio liver QDd a multitade more. And lie stiows Uiut «veu luodci- 
ato doses uf the poison, regularly taken, tend to pnjdui'e tlie siu 
reaolt ; and also to eltuU ftll kinds of diseases liiat niigbt el 
liavn lain dormant, nnd slowly to sap tbo fuL'iilties uf liody uad 
mind' There is no doulit that a iLirgo amount of siiO'ering is 
cniued liy drinking;, (iven vrhcn it does not by any moana bulge 
out into dnmkonjicss," (pp. 11, 13.J 

Dr. ClmmberB snyB: " The iiction of fcijquowt small divided 
drams, is to prodm'o the srealmt amount of hum of whioli alco- 
hol is capable, trltli tlie IcMt umount uf good." 

Says T)r. Andrew Coinlier "I regard even the teraiwrate 
nso of -nine, nhen not Te<)iiirei1 by fJie state uf the ronititittion, 
88 always more or less iujnriooa." 

An article in the fleeond Report of the Board of State Chinir 
ties of MnsandhnBetts, on "Alcohol as a cause of Vitiation of Hu- 
man Stock," after showing how rapidly alcohol aa compawd 
with other poisons is eliminated from the system, snggesta: 
Whether this peculiarity of alcohol does not its constant 
use in small dosca worse for posterity than its occasional ust 
large quantities; that is, whether tippling is not worse than 
drrmkenness. as far as it afiects the number and the condition 
of the offspring." 

More recently. Sir Henry Thompson, in a letter to the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, snya: "Ihave long had the conviction 
that there is DO greater canse of evil, moral and phyeical, in 
this Poontry, thun the use of alcoholic beveniges- I do not 
n hy this that extreme indulgence which prodnces dmuken- 
The habitual itae of fermented liquors to an extent fiix 
short of wliat is necessary to produce that condition, and audh 
ae is quite common in all ranks of society, injnrea the body nod 
dinunishoB the mental power to on extent which, I think, few 
people are aware of. Such, at all events, is the result of obser- 
vation during more than twenty yesrs of professional liffe, de- 
voted to hospital practice, and to private practice in evoryraak 
above it. Thus I have no heeitation in attributing n very large 
proportion of some of the most puiuful and dun geroiia maladies 
■whleh have come under my notice, as well lis thosu whioii 
every medical man lias t-o triiat, to tli<i ordinary and daily n 
of fermented drinks taken iu the quantity which is couve 
ttonally deemed moderate. ^\Tiat«vi'r may be said in regard to 
its evil inQu<.>uci« ou thu mental and moral faculties, as to the 
&ct above stntiHl, 1 ibol that 1 have a right to spetik with author- 

The Temperate and Moderation Plea Examined. 21 

It; ; and I Ao su solely because it apppars to me a diitj, Hirpeo- 
ially at tlii« muineiit, not to be silent on a matter of siii-b ex- 

QB importar.i'e. I know fnll well how nnpBlntnble is snrli n 
truth, and bow aacb a deelnration brings am Into painful con- 
flict, I bad almost said witli tbe national acntimeuts ami rlia 
time-honored and prescriptive uflagofiofourriice, • • • Mymiiin 
■ jct is to express my opinion as a professional man in rcln- 

L to tbe employment of fennonti^d liquor as a bovorago. 
But, if I veaturo one step further, it woold be to oxjjTegs a be- 
lief that there is no single habit in this country wliivh so much 
tenda to deteriorate tbe qnalitiea of tbo race, ajid ao miirb dis- 
qnalifioB it for endaronce in that competitiun which in the nai- 
e of things most exist, and in whieh Biruggle tbe prize of 
superiority mnst fall to th« beat and to tbo strongest." ♦ 

And tbo last words which hare been npoken on this subject 
tmta. tbe pfayaiologicBl itandpoint, are tbe uttoranee of the 
MghoBt aul.bority of Uis day, Dt. Benjamin W. Bichardsou : 

id be really a losury for the heart to be liiled up by aloo- 
liol ; for the blood to uollrse more swiftly through the brain ; 
t3t the tbuDghts to flow more vehemently ; for 'Words to 

e more fluently; for emotions to rise ecstatically, and for 

to rush on Imyoad tbe pace set by nature; tben thoso ivho 
iWjOjr tbe luxury must enjoy it, with the consequences." " If 
this agent do really for tbe moment cbeer tbe weary and im- 
'^oit a flush of transient pleasure to tbe unwearied who crave 
Jar mirth, its induenoc (doubtful oTOtt i^ these modest and 
.loodsrato degrees) is an inHuitesimol advantage, by the side of 
*a infinity of evil for which there is no compensation, and no 
bumaa cnre." t 

"The evils, in tbe slighter stages of alcoholic diseases, are 
Dften conueoted with others, which ore perhaps passing, but 
irbicb give rise to very unpleasant phenomena. There is wliat 
1b called a dyspepsia or indigestion, to relieve which the siif- 
tont too ftequently reoorts to tbe actonl cause of it as a cure 
tor it.* There la thirst, there is uneasiness of the stomacb, flat- 
Vlolley, and a set of so-called nervous phenomena, wbieb keep 
tile mind Irritable, and mabe trifling cares and anxieties as- 
■mne an exaggerated and unnatural cbnrafter. From the car- 
Heet period in tbo history of the drinking of alcohol these 
phenomena have been ohserred. 'Wlio,' says Solomon, refet^ 
ting t4i this action, ' who bath woeT who hatb contentious. 

22 Mcoliol in History. 

who "hath habhlinj:]:, -who hnth -svonnds without cause f who 
hath redness of eyca ? ' Wluit modem physiologist could define 
better the steady and prOj'|rcssivc efTect of alcohol upon those 
who, even under the guise of temperate men, trust to it as a 
support? And yet these evils are minor, compared with cer- 
tain I have to bring forward.* 

" Listen carefully to the whole argument of science as she tells 
you her mind fairly and faithfully. She tells you nothing what- 
soever about the devil and his devices, but that there is, as 
clauned, a certain degree of moderation which does not seem to 
bo attended with much evil, if it be closely followed. She 
grants that the moderate of the moderates may have a rule nisi. 
She sjiys to a man of sound health : if you are in a first-rate con- 
dition of body, if 'you can throw off freely a cause of oppression 
and depression, if you are actively engaged in the open air, if 
you have nothing to do that requires great exactitude or preci- 
sion of work, if you are not subjected to any worry of mind or 
mental strain, if you sleep well, if you are properly clothed and 
are not exposed to excesses of heat or cold, if your appetite is 
good and you can get plenty of wholesome food ; if you are 
favored with all these advantages, then you may indulge in Dr. 
Parker's moderate potation of wine, or beer, or spirit. But these 
favorable conditions are all necessary. If you are limited in re- 
spect to exercise, if you are of sedentary habits, if you are much 
worn or reduced in mind, body, or estate, then that small 
amoiint of alcohol is adding to all your troubles, and you wiU 
leave it off if you are wise. 

"I can imagine with what pleasure some of the world of 
pleasure may receive such tidings as these. The salt of the 
earth, and the salt is good, can then enjoy its luxury, just as it 
can keep a carriage, a livery servant, a horse, or any other un- 
necessary, but pleasant extravagance. It can take wine in 
moderation. What more is required? Science, in her most 
puritanical utterances, gives, so far, her consent. 

** It is quite true, but take her consent with her proT%ions, 
equally true and very solemn. 

** Science says, you who can afford the luxury may use it with 
the perfcjct understanding that it is a luxury. Positively, sol- 
emnly, it is never a necessity, and if the expression of truth be 
absolutely rendered, you are better and safer without even the 
moderate indulgence." f 

*'To conclude. From my readings of Science, she gives no 
countenance to the use of strong drink in any sense, except med- 

* Ibid, p. 148. t Lecture on Moderate Drinking, pp. 31, 32. 

The Temperate and Moderation Plea Examined, 23 

ically and under scientific direction. She faithfully records its 
evils; she honestly exposes its dangers ; she exposes the gross 
and vain fallacies hy which it is supported : and if, in her ahso- 
lute fairness, she admits it under certain arbitrary restrictions 
as a luxury, she condemns it as a traitorous evil." * 

''The physician can find no place for alcohol as a necessity 
of life. In whatever direction he turns his attention to deter- 
mine the value of alcohol to man, beyond the sphere of its value 
as a drug, which he may at times prescribe, he sees nothing but 
a void ; in whatever way he turns his attention to determine the 
persistent effects of alcohol, he sees nothing but disease and 
death ; mental disease, mental death ; physical disease, x'hysical 
death." f 

III. The stubborn facts brought to liglit in the experi- 
ences of Life Insurance Companies, facts elicited and pub- 
lished, not in the interests of philanthropy, but as the basis 
of economic business transactions, confirm the foregoing 
statements of physicians. 

One of the oldest and most successful life insurance 
societies in the old world, is largely indebted for its success 
to its requirement of eleven per cent, extra on the annual 
premiums of beer drinkers. When this demand was first 
made, it so excited the hostility of the publicans and their 
customers, that they formed a new company, exclusively for 
themselves. So great and so rapid, however, was the mor- 
tality, that the company failed in five years. 

In 1840, " The United Kingdom Temperance and Gen- 
eral Provident Institution,^' was organized in London. 
For the first ten years of its existence policies were issued 
to total abstainer^ only; since 1850, moderate drinkers 
have been allowed to insure, their accounts being kept 
separate and distinct from the total abstainers' accounts. 
The Actuary of the Company, into whose hands the books 
are placed once in five years, is not a total abstainer ; his 
figures, therefore, are not open to the suspicion of being 
made in the interests of total abstinence. The following is 
one of his reports : 

• Ibid, p. 46. t The Diseases of Modem Life, i^^, 2fift, 'i^^. 


Akohd in History. 

MORTALITY, 1871-75. 
























No. 1 Amount 

1873. . . 







5 Years 






The result is an unmistakable argument for total absti- 
nence, and a plain warning against moderate drinking : the 
deaths in the Temperance Section being 212 less than was 
expected, while in the Moderates Section they were 64 
more than were expected ! * The Company has accumulated 
a surplus of £348,458, which is distributed as a bonus on 
the policies in force, at the rate of from 35 to 114 per cent, 
to the abstainers, and from 20 to 64 per cent, to the non- 
abstainers, both classes being governed by age and the 
amount paid by them in premiums. For five years the 
bonus additions on ordinary whole-life policies for £1,000, 
have been according to the following examples : 

I I Bonas added 

Date ol' Age at ! Premiams Paid, ' to each £1,000 in 
Policy. Entrance, i 1871-1876. Temperance Section 

Bonas added 
to each £1.000 in 
Oeneral Section. 











£ «. 








83 2 






93 6 





. 1 

106 9 






122 1 






138 19 






162 5 






188 10 





226 5 





284 3 






* From 1876 to 1881 the same uniformity of difference was 
manifest; 68 per cent, of mortality among the total abstainers, 
97 per cent, among the moderate drinkers. 



The Temperate and Moderalion Plea Examined. 23 

TheBe facta require no comment. They are denionstnitioiiB 
of the folly of all mere iLeorizing on the absence of harm 
in moderate drinking. For it must not l>e forgotten that 
all in the ahove tables who are not total ahstaioerB, aie 
classed as moderate drinkerg; those who use intosicanls 
beyond the bouada of so-called moderation being barred 
out from the possibility of being insured. 

In comparing the uuiuLer of deaths which occurred in 
:aeveral of the moRt eminent Life Assurance Compnidea v{ 
England during the first five years nf their esisteneo, with 
the nomber occurring during the same period in the mem- 
bership of the Temperance Provident Institution, a period 
when the latter insured total abstainers only, we have the 
following eluiwiug of the dangers and folly of moderation, 
and the wisdom and safety of total abstinence : 

1. IDd bDil 11 ilullhs. bfing LI per tbgiuuid. 


TM ■' 

Dr. Richardson was not out of the way, then, when he 
t said: 

" I do not over-eBtimftte tlie fiwts when 1 say tbat if sncb a 
I miracle conld bo 7>erformed in England as a general eonversion 
t to tcmiicraai'i!, tlic vitality of tlie nation wonld liae one-third in 
I valnii; and this without reference to tlie indirect advautagea 
[ which would of necesmty foUow."* 

X country we are not yet able to present Bueh class- 
I i&nA tables, Ihe only company that makes total abstinence 
f a condition of iusui'anee having but recently followed the 
EtigHsh example of insuring moderate drinkers also, f But 
it wholly dependent on fi)rpign sources for the prin- 
I d[ial fact wluch we are now seeking to state. "The 
I Uutou] Life Insonincit Company of New York," the largest 

• LprtMTB on Vitality in Men and Races, 1875, 

e howiiTcr, for fiirtherfaj^ts on this head, " Alcoliol, VTVviS. 
ndWhat it Doca," by Dr. Hargceavea. 

26 ALcoIujl in History, 

of our life insui'ance organizations, has compelled its man- 
agers to cancel a large number of policies, and to make 
more stringent regulations for tlie future. It has found 
that to the interrogatory in the application for insurance : 
" Do you use intoxicating liquors ? " only one applicant in 
ten answers ^^ no," the others replying, " occasionally," or 
"moderately." Not one admits that he is an habitual 
drinker, yet the death losses show that six-tenths are 
traceable directly or indirectly to the use of intoxicants ; 
and about the same proportion of the contested cases are 
from the same cause. In view of these facts, a circular was 
issued to the policy holders on th^ 17th of January, 1878, 
announcing the intention of the company to cancel all 
policies held by those who " practice habits which obviously 
tend to the shortening of life." In this circular they say : 

'*Tlii8 company contemplates no invasion ot the sanctity of 
private life, and no interference with the legitimate rights of 
the individual; but it cannot he blind to the fact that large 
numbers of deaths occur every year among those it has insured 
which are the direct results of intemperance ; that still larger 
nimibers of deaths attributed to accidents, fevers, pneumonia, 
liver complaints, and disorders of the brain, stomach, and kid- 
neys, are the sequences of intemperate habits, and that it is 
under no legal liability to pay claims by deaths which are de- 
monstrably due to these causes. 

** At a meeting of the board of trustees, held in the month of 
December, 1877, these subjects were referred for consideration to 
a special committee, who, after due deliberation, unanimously 
adopted the following preamble and resolution : 

" * Whereas, The mortuary statistics of this company unmis- 
takably point to an alarming and steadily increasing mortality 
from the use of intoxicating drinks, thereby prejudicing tlie in- 
terests of the policy holders of the company ; it is therefore 

** ^Eesolved, That the executive oflBcers be, and they are hereby 
instructed to strictly enforce the conditions contained in the 
application and policies; and with that end in view, that they 
be instructed to prepare a circular letter, setting forth the duties 
and obligations of the assured.' 

'* The board of trustees have since unanimously adopted the 
action of the committee, and the executive officers were ordered 
to send such circular to every policy holder. 

\d Moderation Piea Examined. 27 

" In talking this action thn bonrd of tniatoeB ore nol to bo nn- 
drastood as caAiiug aay iiupntatioii upon the inte^t^ or the 
babiU of tlio groat bod; of the insnred. It is beliovod that the 
iiieiu1iorsl]i|i of thia oompnny, as a, cluas, is aiiporior in iiiti^lli- 
geiice, sobKety, and thrift to that of an}' simitur organ it^ution in 
this country, and any iutention t« enter the iirona of deliatable 
queatioDB in religioa, moralx, or political oeononiy ia expressly 
diaavoned ; this is pnrely a matter of buBineas, in nbjch the 

MMMapiuly relies for ita protection on a proper adiuinistration of 

nba law of oontiucts. 

■ IV. It IB fnrther obviona that ao-calloJ moderate drink- 
Rog differs in uothing Erom, and is tiiorefore incladed in, 
Ban J" JTirl dofiDition of Inteni])erance, from iLe fact that it IB 
fcnj>oeaibl& to state wtiat tlie moderate use of intosicante 
Rb, even its advooates failing to agree among themselves 
BlritL regard to it 

H The late Dr. Anstie placed the moderate nee of alco- 
^uolic drinks at " throo'-qnartors of an ounce for an adult 
Kemalo, and an oance anda-holfforanadnltmale; beyond 
■luB, ie excess and intemperance." He adds: "Poryoutha, 
May onder twenty-five, whose bodily frame is aa yet not 
Bblly cenHolidated, the proper rule is, either no alcohol, or 
B^my little indeed." 

I The " Lancet," a, liigh modioal anthority, attempts to lay 
HoWD the rule, " That for young and active men a glass of 
^mer, or tine iir two of claret, at dinner, ts, we believe, an 
Rlnple supply; while men of middle age may, with advan- 
Btgo, stop at the third glass of claret, sherry or port, and 
Btol DO >U reanlt." Yet the writer ia forced to admit that no 
Bccorato definition of modoration can be given; that *'the 
^Utimate test in every ease, must be esperience; and until 
Bien bavti enongh moral control nnd discretion to limit their 
^prinking to that which thoy abaolutoly require, all direction 
^nd rohnke will bo thrown away.'' 

H^ hi. d»well says thnt " thn taking of a gtBSB of mintrsling In 
^Bd mamiDg. of toddy at nigbt, or two or tliroo glosses of Ma- 
Bsir« at lUiiuor, ialu comninu parlnncLi t«nrie<l ' tom(i«t».t« d\\nW 
^Bf.'" 'Ilia Ixndun SlnudiLrd "uffirnis that tbo taking Qt^u!^«> 

28 Jkohd in Sistojy. 

dozen glasaea of mne, a glaas of brandy and trater, i 
gluetiM uf alu daily, ia teroporate diinkbig." Dr. Hun, BtlU raiu« f 
liberal in Ma aHowancea, says, that " Uio dTinkingJaet bo miicli I 
as promotes tho comfort and wcll-beinK of lui individual, nt anj^l 
particular time, of wMch each person moat be bia own jndgciif 
is temperate drinking." 

Pliny tells ua that Democritas wrote ft volaine to ehovB 
that "no pPTBon ought to esceod four or sis gloBsea of J 
wine." Epictetns declnrea, "That man 13 a draaluwl 
who taiee moro than tbrec glaseea ; and thoug;h ho lie not 
drank, he hath exceeded moderation." A Temperanoo 
Society of the sixteenth century, of which more anon, al- 
lowed its momhcrs to drink fourteen glasses of wine daily.l 
The Moderation Society eiarted in New York, a few yeanfl 
ago, from which snch groat reenlts were expected liy Dr.f 
Oroeby, and by those who ignore all the leBsone of « 
perience, was probably not as liberal in its indalgence a 
this, hut even it failed to fix tho limit between moderatioii ■ 
and intemperance ; and no wonder, for the task is an im- 

The Right Honorable John Bright, in an " Address to 
Professing Ohristiane," in 184.^, argned this point ii 
and impresaivo manner, when he said : 

"To drink doe]»ly — to bo drunk — is a sin ; this ia not deniedi t 
At what point does tho taking of strong drink become a slu f 
The state in which a bo<ly is wbon not excited by intoxicating 
drink is ita proper and natnral state : diunkennese is tlie atats 
farthest removed Jrom it. Tho state of drunkanneSB ia & stats 
of sin : at wliat stage does it become sin t Wc suppoae a man 
perfectly sober who has not tasted anything which can intoxi- 
cate: one glass excites him, and to some extent distnrhs tlie 
state of sobriety, and so far destroys it: another glass excitM 
him still more : a third fires his eye, heats bis blood, loo«en« Us 
tongne, inflames his passions: a fourth increases all thia: a 
fifth makes bim foolish and partially insane : a sixth makes 
him savage : a seventh or eighth makes bim stupid, a Beng«]eaa.^ 
degraded mass;— his reason is quenched, his feeultieo Bi 
for the time destroyed. Evury nolilo and generous and hoi, 
pTinitiple within bim withers, and the imago of Cod is pullulet 
and defiled. This is sin, awfid siu! for 'drunkards Hhall d 

on ^H 
IB- ' 



>t I 


T}ie Temperate and Moderation Pha Examinrd. 29 

Inherit tho Mngdom «f Goil.' But where does the irin hefrinf 
At tlie Rrdt glusa, at the first step towards comploto jntoiioatioa, 
or at tlie aiith. or aeventh, or eighth T la not pvciy slep ftom 
tii« nataral atate of the syatem townrds the state of atnrid in- 
toxication »n advance in sin, and- a yieldinj^ to the unwearied 
tempter of the Boul f " 

The experience of any and every person wto has become 
intemperate ia also a corroboration of the etatement that 
moderation is iudcfinablG. No man can tell where in hie 
own career the line glionlit be nin that marks the distinct- 
ion between his moderate and hia otcobbivo nso of the in- 
toxicating cup ; while so great is the fascination and bo 
thorough the delusion of the drinking habit that multitudes 
who have a general reputation of Bottiehnesa, still pride 
tliemselves on their temperate lives and their ability and 
eoccesB in keeping within the limits of moderation. 

V. Add to all this that men affect otbere by the cxamplea 

1 which they set, and that no example of sottishness is over 

I costn^nns, but is never other than repulsivo and disgnsting, 

and we cannot fail to be convinced that so-called inodersto 

drinking is the most miachievona and immoral of all nee of 

intoxicating boveragsB ; the degree of its power to harm 

, being determined hy the rcspectableness and standing in 

V society accorded to those who thus indulge. Our sona 
1 never will become drunkards, our dangbtera never will be 
L in danger of becoming the wives of dmnkaids, when the 

Y only examples before them of the offecta of (hinkiiig, are 
I the liisreputable who reel and stagger in their loathsome 
I degradation. Kespectablc moderate drinking fnrniahea the 
r chief and the most fascinating temptation, and before that 
Lthey are in most imminent danger of falling. 

w Tire following incident illuBtratoB the truth of the foro- 
P-going atatoment : At a social gathering of clergymen, 
P"tlio fanaticism of the plea for total abatiuonce waa strongly 
iTCpmbated, and the superior virtue of temperance or moder- 
Laiiofl was extolled. Among others, a clergyman of ex- 
■'UoMivo Itiuming imA of laxgo iuflueuce, waa t^i^Y'^'^^^'^'i '^'^ 

80 JMtd tn S'iatory, 

hemont in his plea for the mndemto nae of wine, and i 
epaiing in his invectivea against fanatical total abBlinoiioe. 
At tbo cloBC of his speech, which was warmly applandod, a i 
laymaa who was present was asked to aay a few words, 
and responded as follows : 

" It ia not mj pnrpoBe to answer the lenmed aignment yon 
bave juat listenod to. Mj object ia more Inuuiilo, and I hojie 
nioro practical. I once knew a fattier, in inaderat« cironm- 
Btances, wlio was at macli inconvenience to edncate a beloved 
son at Coliege. Here liia son became disaipatod ; but after he 
bad graduated and letnmed to bia tatber, tbe inflnence of 
home noting upon a generous nature, actually teformed him. 
Tbe iatber woa ovtijoyed tbat hia cborisbed hopes of otbor 
days wete still to be realized. Several years pa«aed, when tha 
young man buTing rompleted bis profcsHional study, and heiiig 
about to leave bis fatliet to establish himself in bnainesa, was 
invited to dino with a neigbboring clergyman, diatingniahed 
for hia hospitality and social qualitica. At this dinner wim 
waa introduced and offered to this young man, who rcftwed: 
pressed upon him, and again refused. This wna repeated, and 
theyonngmau ridiculed forbiBpeculiarabstinence. Theyoong 
man was strong enough to oveicome appetite, but be could not-" 
Tesiat ridicule. He drank and fell ; and ftom that moment he- 
ttatne a confirmed dmnkard, and long since hna fonnd a drunk- 
ard's grave. I am that father, and it woa at the table of the 
clergyman who has just taken his seat that hia hospitality 
miui-'d tho son 1 aliall never cease to mourn." 

We conclude, tlierffore, that the argiuoenta from Scrip- 
tm*, boallh, longevity anil esaniplo, nec^ssitato the pOM- 
lion that any use as a bcTerngfi, of that which intoxicates, 
is an iatemperato nfie ; that tGinpernnce in regard to it Ifl 
necessarily total ahstinence ; and tliat the definition given 
by SocratoB, and nobly illustrated in the example Bet liy 
hia life, as according to Xenopbon, " He was temperate by 
refusing on all occasions to profor what is merely agreeable 
to what is best,"* is tbe only just and conastent 
of the word when employed, as in tliis case, to denote 
perance ia regard to tlio use of un ever dangerous and 


Sfthstances /or Producing Intoxicants. 


ohievons pniaon. With the old pbilosflpher agreM the 
great Bchoolman, St. Thonine Aquinau : 

" The teraporiite man does not nse in iiny measnre things cou- 

tTary to Bonndnees or a good conditiou of lifo, for thia woalil bo 

a ein agniast tcmperaDce ; " * and the modem phil<Klo|lhl^F 

Hoblxts : " Temjierauce is the habit by which ve abstain Irom 

all things that tund to our doOTraetion ; Intemperanco the coa- 

toary vice." \ To which may be added tho following from the 

Jewiah Catechism: "Q. What is TempeninceT A. Temper- 

OUee Qonslste in abstaining from all that is forbidden nud einful, 

and In tho wiaa and prudeut nae of what is good and lawflil." \ 

Continuing to employ the word Intemperance to denote 

tlie use of alcoholic intosicante as a beverage, and ao 

leaving wholly out of tho account any oonsideration of 

L tbe intoxication prodacod by tho use of opinm, and other 

I persons, of whatever name, we fihall be aiJed in our view 

Lof the long continued history of tbia e^-il, and also of the 

I extent of itfi prevalenc«, by noticing the great variety of 

(mbstanoeB which men have either fermented or dii<tilled, 

Q or4er to obtaiu the alcoholic ]>oison. Of oonrae the list 

IB not clium to l>e eshaiiwtivc, Imt it ig believed to lie 

more foil and accurate than baa ever been given in any 

B worit of thifl oiiaracter. 

A1.OB. Agave Americana. — TIio fermented sap 19 called 

Lctll, Ponclira, Pulque. It is used in Mexico, Paragoay, 

a and Spain. From tills a fiery spirit is diatilled, called 

Brandy Chinguerite, Vino Morcal iind Mexical. " Ful^pie," 

i Humboldt, " Bmella like putrid fleah." 

AlllSATA MuscAaiA.— This is a musliroom, found in 

reat abundance in varioua parts of the Eaasian empire. 

it, hy a disgysting process, an iutoneo iaiosicint is 

■prepared. Slorewood quotes Dr. LangsdoriT, a lUissiau 

OibyHician, as aullionty for the statement that 

• Qnrerlio, c^l. De Toiupitrantia, 
tQ«tol«din '■ BocrUua lltthroned," p. 175, 
' JITIB lioftil to Faith, fur the use of Jewish Elunu.'ntaiy8c!ioi>la, 
WBj Dr. Henri LoSb." Philudelphia, p. 48, 

Akokd in Sislory, 

" Ttin most eitriwTiliiiaTy effect nf the uniinata is the cbange 
it luiikus in the urine, b; impregnuting it with an mtiixicatius 
ijuality, wliiKh continuuB to operate for a, eouBiderable time. A ' 
man moderately intoxicated to-day, will by the nest morning 
have alept bimsolf aoher ; hat, or Is the ciiatom, hy ddsklng A 
eiip of hlB own urioe, ha will bocomo more powurftilly intf^l- f 
catud than ho waa the day preueding. It is thorofore not uo- 
cODimou for cooflrmed drunliaide to pn-serTO tlieir uibie aa a 
precioQB liquor, lest u scarcity in the foagi should oconi. This 
inebTiatlng property of the urine ia capable of being imported 
to others, for every one who partakes of it, has his tirine simi- 
larly aliiected. Thus with a very few amanitai, a party of drnnk- 
atds may keep up their dohauch for a week. Dr Laugadoiff 
Btatea, that by means of the second person talda g the arine ofthe 
first, the third that of the second, the intoxicatiiMi may be prw-' 
pagated through five indiTiduals. The relation of Stmhlenbeig, 
that the rich lay np groat stores of the amonitie, aud that the ! 
poor, who cannot buy it, watch their banquets with wooden 
bowls, in order to proeure the liquor after the second proceaa, 
is fully confirmed by the statement of LangHdorff." * 

Aba. — An intoxicating pepper plant, of Borneo. Tha i 
root IB cliowed, and on the spittlo and masticated pnlp, a 
little water or cocoanat millc is poured, and from the ferment I 
that ensnea a strong and quickly inebriating diink is pro- j 
cured, greatly delighted in by the natives. \ 

Apples. — The cspreBsed juice is commonly called cider, j 
bnl in Brazil, Kooi, It is made in the Barbary States, 1 
Brazil, Canada, Chili, Prance, Germany, Great Britain, i 
Peru, Poland, Spain, Syria and the United States. Dia- I 
tilled cider prodnces brandy ; and from the portion of cidei ' I 
which does not freeze when a largo qnantity is exposed to a 1 1 
low temperature, Pomona wino is ma^Io by adding brandy, ■ 
in the proportion of one gallon of brandy to six gallons nt 'i 

Aetichoke, {Belianlhxta ft<5cros«s.}— Raised in North- j 
em Franco, for distillation, and produces a strong spirit. 

* History of Inebtialing Liquors, hy Samuel Morewood, eSi- 
don of 1S38, pp. 129, I3a 
t Ibid, p. 313. 

StAstaruxa /or Producing Intoxicants. 33 

Ants. — In Sweden a largo species of black ant, wliich 
produces on distillation a roain, oil and ncid, ia used togiva 

special flavor and power to brandy. These aula aro 
found in great aliTmdaqw, making tbcir liilla at tlie routs 
of the fir tree.' 

AiiCOBARA. — A shmb like the aoaoia, from the poda of 
wldch the Peruviana make Chica. 

Almonds. — From the fruit of the dwarf aUnond, tho 
Hmsiana distil a beverage. 

AlPlM AKAKiLOA- — A species of Manioc, in BraziL From 
tte roota a kind of nine called Aipj, is prepared. The 
roots are first allced and chewed by women, then put into a 
pot of water and boiled. Tho liquor, after fermentation, 
IB jrunk lake warm, t 

AsASAa. — From tiaa wild fruit in Brazil, brandy is die- 

ArbaceacA. — A vegetable cultivated in Paraguay. 
Produoea a fermented drink. 

Basasas. — ^Rjpe bananas are infused in water by tba 
ilenivians, and from this ferment a diiuk in dintUled. In 
JUadagascar tho formouted liquor is used. 

Babbebkies. — ^\Vine, in Hungary. 

BaBLGT. — A fermented drink was made in Egypt, to 
;whieh was given the several oames, Ceres Viuum, Ceria, 
Corotsa, Coelia, Cumti, and Zythum. It was also an iugra- 
^ent with cards, b'tney and melted butter, in making Sura, a 
jiowerful intoxicant concocted liy the aueieut Aryan races 
fif India. The Greeks also bad their " wine made from 
1>arlej'," described by Ovid as a strong drink. In Syria 
And throoghout the Turkish Empiro common drinks are 
brewed bom barley, and calleil Bouza and Zythum. In 

ntbia the drink made from fermented hai'ley is called 
i in Kubia, Bouza, Uerin and Ombelbel, each name 

a a Tonr tbiimgli Sweden. 

denoting a certain degree of fermentation ; in Abyssinia it 
is eulldu Swoir, or Sowa, and wlion drugs are mixed with 
it for tlie purpose of producing morG rapid iutosication, it is 
called 8ftva. In varions parts of Etlijopia, barley J8 the 
basis of a drink called Klaiz, which is Bometimes made very 
atrong and distilled to brandy. In Southern Africa barley 
IB also made into lieer and porter. In Tartary tbo drink ia 
called Bakscuni ; in Thibet, Chong; and a powerful intox- 
icant is distilled from Chong called Arra ; in China, Taiv 
asun ; in Rutisia, beer, quasn, brandy ; iu Holland, bear; and 
distilled, is largely used in the manufuoturo of gin. Ads- 
tria, Spain, France, Germany, Denmark, beer ; Ireland, 
Curmi, Leann ; Great Britain, British Noith America and 
the United States, beer, alo, porter; France, beer; Nor- 
way and Sweden, beer, brandy ; Cancaans and Siberia, 
brandy ; Brazil, Kaviaraku ; Pom, Cluro, Neio, Sora. 

Batata Root. — A fermented liquor in Brazil, called 
Vintro de Batatas. 

Beets. — Experiments in extracting tho saischarino pro- 
perties of boots have been made iu varionB portions of En- 
rope and America, but nowhere BO euocosafully asiu Fraocei 
where the femiontod juice is manufactured into alcj and 
diatilleil, producing strong spirits. 

BiECH Sap. — A fennented drink id made in England^ 
Japan, Norway aud Siberia. 

CASirew-Nrr. — From the fermented juice brandy is dia- 
tiUed, in the West Indies. 

Cassada. — This root of tbe Manioc plant is tho base of 
a fermented drink in the East and West Indies, called is 
some places Piworree, in others OnyeoQ. It ia made b/ 
tho females chewing the root and flowers, and spitting them 
into a wooden trough. This, with water adilud, euua runa 
into fermentation and yields tho intoxicant. It JiJ aleo 
made from the cassava bread, chewed aud treated in the 

• Uori'wood, p. 319. 

Svbstances for Produdng InUxdoards, 35 

Oata. — Before the appearance and inflnence of the 
missionaries, the natives of the Friendly Islands j)roduced 
an intoxicant from the root of the cava plant, a species of 
pepper, in the following manner : 

" The root is scraped, cut into small pieces and distributed 
among the people to be chewed. In some places, says Rotzebue, 
only the old women do the chewing, but the young women spit 
on it to thin the paste. The chewing of each mouthful occupies 
about two minutes, and when thus masticated it is placed in a 
wooden bowl, where it is mixed with water by the men ; then 
being strained and clear, about a pint is given to each person 
to drink.'' * 

Capt. Cook states, in his account of his third voyage to 
the Friendly Islands : 

"I have seen the natives drink it seven times before noon ; yet 
it is so disagreeable, or at least seems so, that the greatest part 
of them cannot swallow it without making wry faces, and shud* 
dering afterwards." 

Cebatha Berries. — From these the Jews of Arabia 
make a strong spirit. 

Cherries. — In Turkey, a distilled liquor called Mar- 
aschino ; in Switzerland, also distilled, Kirschenwasser j in 
Russia, mead, wine. 

CocoANUT Milk. — In India and the East and "West 
India Islands, a fermented drink is made, and is distilled 
to resemble Arrack. In Peru a fermented drink is ob- 
tained from boiling the leaves and the stems to which the 
nuts are attached. 

Dates, and the jttice op the Palm. — ^Wherever 
the date palm is found, its finit is highly prized as food ; 
and is, as is also the sap of the numerous varieties of the 
palm tree, converted into a beverage. Unfermented, these 
drinks are sweet, delicious to the taste, and healthful j if 
however, the liquor is not deprived of its watery parts by 
evaporation m boiling, it soon ferments, and -will produce 
intoxication. It is not certain, therefore, that in all 

• Morewood, p. 250. 


cases where palm or date wine are tnetitionod, an Inloxicat- 
ing drink ia io Ijb imUeratood ; hut it is probable that all 
people who prepare it and do not prevent its forraent- 
ation, nee it Lotli wliile it ia new, ainl aftnr it liaa become 
intoxicating; and it is known that some who boil it aftor- 
urards mis water with it for the purpose of prodnoing fer- 
ntentation. As an intoxicant it ia need or has been nsed 
in the following oonntriea ; In Syria it had the name of 
Shccliar, a wmi which denotea all mannfactnred drinka, 
whether intosicating or otherwise, esc apt wine. The 
Greeks had their palm wine. A liquor dietiUed from 
datta by the Christiana in Syria, ia called Araki; the 
Egyptians diatil a liquor called Airaofc; the Nubians drink 
the fermented wine, and also distil it ; the AhyaHiniaue call 
their drink made of dates and meal, Amderku ; the inhab^ 
itants of Fezzan prepare an intensely fiery spirit from date% 
called Euaa ; on the western coast of Africa, five kinda of 
wine aro manufactured from as many varieties of dates; on 
the Gold C'oaat there are four varieties ; at Sierra Leoney 
there are three kinds. Livingatone found the natives of 
South Africa intoxicated on a liquor called Malova, wIucIl. 
they maimfactured from the juice of the jialni oil-tree. 

The Jews of Morocco distil brandy from dates ; in Eaat^ 
ern Africa the fermented drink ia used, and brandy is also 
dialiiled j in the Barbary States the drink is called date 
tree water; the Jews there also prepai'e a kind called 
Laghibi ; and in other portions of Africa it is known 'i 
BaUo C'cecuta Congo, Embeth Kriska, Lugrus, Pali, Paiv 
don or Bardon. In several of the states of farther Indift' 
the palm juice is distilled into Arrack ; in several of the* 
East Indies the fermented juice is called Soura ; in others,- 
Talwagen and Vellipattj-. In Java and Amboyua a spirit. 
IS distilled from Tyffenng, the fermented fruit of a variety- 
of the palm called Sagwire, so strong and fieiy that tho' 
drinkers call it " hell water." In Manilla and Mindora from. 
another species of palm ia procured a drink called tuba f 
i^.cto; in Japan, br&ndy ; in Surinam, vio^^I 

Svhstavcea for Frodvdiuj InfaricatiU 

Eldeb Beeries, — A formoiitcd and iifeo a distilled 
Ipirit is made from tlieia in Htmgarj ; in Tartar^, arraki ; 
D Bngland, nine. 

Epn-OBiTiM. — Ale, in EiiBsia. 

Figs. — A distilled liquor (called MaLayali, ia extracted 
igs by tlio Jews of Moreuce ; horn damaged fi^ 
jrandy is diatilled in PortugaL 

Fi^sH OF Lambs, — In China, a beor or wine. 

Flk8H of Sheep. — Tartary, a beer or wine ; Afgba- 
pietan, beor; China a tliHtilled spirit called Kan-yang-tayew. 

Gaqahoguha, — A fruit of Southern AWca, from whieh 

Cat&es make wine. 

Grapes- — Wine in Paloetinc, Syria, India, Egypt, 
{recce, Rome, Arabia, Abyssinia, Barbary States, Persia, 
?Ku, Chili, France, Germany, Italy ; in short ip all tUo 
anatries where the grape grows. Pliny reckoned about 
ne hundred and ninety-five atiTt-t of wineiuudein bia day; 

jnderaen, in hia History of Ancient and Modem Wines, 
oblished in 1824:, ^vos the names of seventj' -eight 

LrieticB of the former, and throe hundred and fifty-nine of 

6 latter ; Redding on Ancient and Modem Wiueu, pnh- 

ibed in 1851, ennmerales eighty varieties of ancient, and 
leven linudrod and eeventy-nine of modeni wines; the 

tnericau edition of Dr. B. W. Richardson's Cantor Lec- 

lea on Alcohol, gives the names of forty-foiu: varieties of 
Ucient Roman wines, and oinety-iive varieties of modem 
riues. It would be impoeeible to give an exact and ex- 
auative list. 

Grape Skins and Refuse. — In Arabia the Jews ami 
Biiistianu diatil Arrack; Abyssinia, brandy; Kuatem 
brandy ; Germany, 'I'nister, which mixed with 
^oKid hurley or rye, makes a fermented drink. 
, Ueup. — In India the seeds are fenuonted for a beverage 
blted Unig. 
, HoHBT. — In Nubia, honey is diluted with water, boiled, 

d tlmn feimentcd in the sun, when it Is calleil llydromel ; 

8 AbyasJniaua prepare it in a similar way, and Oulao "^ta- 

Mcohd in History. 

(luce a very intoriRatlnj; liqaor from potatoes and Iioiiey. i 
Fermentetl lioupy is said to lip ilistilk-d to brandy in some i 
of the Barbarj- States. Tbe Tartars inalse a fenneuted 
drinlt called Ball ; in Caffarifl, liy fermenting honej' u-itli 
the juice of a native toot, an intosicating moad is pnxluceil; 
the Hottentot does tbe sume by mixing it with a plant 
cMiEed gli J German dietiliers employ it in making Rosolia, 
as do aW the Italians, In Ireland, Eastern Afcica and 
Pereiaj it ia called mead; in Southern Africa, ETydromel; 
in Baaeia, Ketheglin ; in Ma(]agascar, Toak ; and a mead 
which recLuirea eeveral years before it comes to perfection, ■ 
is made from it in Poland. 

JiK-jm-Di Boot. — In Ceotral A&icOr a fennented 

Jdnipeb Beksies. — In France, Juniper n-ine ; ia Hol- 
land and other countries where gin is mauulaotuied, they \ 
are a prominent ingredient in that liquor. 

LntMOS Flo'wekb, — ^In China a drink ia distilled fcom \ 
the flowers cf a Gpecica of lemon tree, 

Lotus Bekeies. — In Africa and China, i 

Madloca Flowers,— Jtentioned in the Iiistitulea ofl 
Menu, as producing one of tLe three inehriatiag liqwii'u of | 
the Hindoos. 

Maque. — A fruit in Pern, resembling the eheny, from. 1 
which a wine is made called Theka. 

Makkahhtete. — A fruit resembling gnava, growing I 
in Eastern Africa, from which the natives make a fermented. | 
drink called Wocaliyeye. 

Mai-LE. — The berries of a tree in Peru, &oni wliicU i 
made a wine called Mallo. 

Mandiocu Pobione,?— a root resemhling a chestnut in I 
taste, foand in Paraguay, from which is made a" dmik 1 
called Mandeboore. 

Manioe. — At Sierra Leone a /empijted drink; Pern,! 
Kiehla, and when distilled Puiohin ; Me^^, Musato. 

Maize. — Egj'ptiana, Bonza, Cuniri; Ar.ijhs, Bonza;J 
Bonmon, Sza; Badagary, Ocar; Congo, Quallu | ^tnat 

. 1 - ■> ^ J 

Svbstances for Producing InUmcards. 39 

Slave Coast, Sontheni Africa, Whidah, beer; Eastern 
Africa, Epeahla j Mexico, Demaize, Pinole, Pulque ; Chili, 
Paraguay, beer: 'Thibet, Chong; Russia, Siberia, brandy; 
Brazil, Kaviarakn; Surinam, Chiacor; United States, Prus- 
Bia, Denmark; whiskey; Peru, Chica. Chica is made by 
pounding maize to a fine powder and placing it in a heap, 
around which a number of females sit, and chew the ma- 
terial into a kind of paste. After chewing it is rolled 
between the hands into round balls, which, being placed in 
the form of a pyramid, are baked in the fire, and then 
immersed in water, where they ferment and form the intox- 
icating draught.* 

MiENGON. — A fruit in Tonquin, resembling the pome- 
granate, produces cider. 

Milk. — Mare's milk is distilled by the Tartars aad 
Calmucks, and nearly all the tribes of Central Asia, and 
when sufiicient cannot be obtained, recourse is had to the milk 
of cows, camels, and sheep. It receives the names of Airen, 
Arjan, Caracosmus, Koumiss, Skhon, Vina and Yaouste. 
In Iceland, fermented milk is called String, and fermented 
whey, Syra; in Lapland it is Prima; Siberia, Koumiss; 
Afghanistan, Sihee. 

Millet. — In Egypt, a drink called Curmi ; Dahomey, 
and other countries on the African Slave Coast, Pitto ; 
Eastern Africa, beer, Huyembo or Puembo. Southern 
Africa, beer, Ballo, Pombie; Central Africa, Kissery, Otee ; 
Circassia, Hautkups, Soar ; Yantzokbl ; China, Sew-heng- 
tsow; Sau-tchoo; Tartary, Baksoum, Busa; Corea, wine; 
Russia, beer, Braga. 

Molle. — A fruit in Chile, of the color and shape of 
pepper, a red wine called Huigan. 

Motherwort. — From the flowers the Japanese distil a 
drink called Sacki. 

Mulberries. — In the Island of Chios, brandy ; Russia, 

* Morewoody p. 293. 



AlcaM in Hiitorg. 

MoTiLLAS. — A Bpeoies of myrtle heny in Pern, from i 
which is made Chioa lie Motilla ; and from the frnit of I 
Myrtua lana, another speciea of myrtle, the Cliiliana mako.j 
\iiue. I 

0at6. — Korway, Silieria, Iji-aiidy ; Rus^ boor, BragOi J 

Okakges. — China, cordial ; Bpain, wine. I 

Feaches. — From the blossoms tiiuiki is diatilled in JikV 
pan. From the fruit, brandy in America ; wine in Bueaia, I 

Peaeb. — The Jewa of Morocco, brandy; Hungary, wine[ 1 
Bnsaia, Perry, wiuo ; England, I'erry. I 

FiTAPGA. — A species of myrtle in Brazil; a spirit ia dis-J 
tilled from ita berriea. I 

I'ebsimmons,— Southern parts of United States, be«r^ ■ 
brandy, "I 

Plahtadts.— In Pern a fermented drink called Maaato, 9 
which they often distil. I 

Plums. — Cacongo, Central Africa, Japan, England, wine j I 
Ilnngary, Schliwowitza; Tartary, Arraki, I 

PoMEGEASATE.^In Persia, wine. I 

Potatoes, — la Germany, Pruasia, Hungary, Norway, ■ 
Sweden, France, Great Britain, North America, fennentedfl 
and distilled drinks. I 

PsAK. — Borriea in Tartary resoiuhling dates. Bursa. I 

Raisins. — An intoxicant is ramie from fermented riuBiiMi,<1 
in Arabia; Syria, Eastern Africa, and by the Jews ofj 
Morocco, brandy ; from damaged raiaius brandy is distilled I 
in Portugal. I 

Rasi'BEKSIES. — In Bossia, mead. I 

ItnoDODENDKOTf. — In Siberia the steeped leaves make I 
what id called Intoxicating Tea. ■ 

Rice. — One of the three ineltriating drinks made by the ■ 
ancient TlindocB. Modern India, Phaur; China, wines'l 
which take (hffeTOnt names from their respective colora, and I 
fr»ui tlic \eiis they distil Saiu-tclioo; Tarquin and Oocbia I 
China, wine and Arrack ; Japan, a strong heM- oalkd-fl 
8acM, and Mooroo-facoo, Samtchoo and Sotschio, diaUlIodfl 


SyhatoTwes. /or Producmg htoxtcants. 

rinks; Tartaiy, Caracinaor Teracina; Thibet, a fermented 
uk, called Chong; and & diatiUed, Arm; Japan, its 
nana diatilled qualities are called fiadek, Broni, Kiji, 

ithew, Tanpo. Central Afiica, Ballo; Tbibet, Cbong; 
Haiiilla, Fangati ; Eastern Africa, Corea, nine ; Russia, 
Smnati-a, Corea, Arrack. In the interior of 
women take a quantity of rice and boil it till 
tbecoueii quite soft, and tlteu bruise it into a sort of paste. 
Afterwards lliey take rice flower, which they chew, and put 
,h their saliva into a vessel by itseli', till they have a 
id qoontity of it. This they use as leaven or yeaet, ftnd 
it with the rice paste, work it together like bakers' 
iUgh, Tlie whole Je then put into a large vessel, and 
tving water poured over it, is suffered to stand for two 
ftontbs. Meanwhile tho liquor works up like new wine, 
bnd the longer il Is preserved the stronger it becomes.* 

Bte. — France, Pmssia, Denmark, Siberia, KamtitcLatka, 
beat Bntoin, America, whiskey ; Holland, gin ; Norway, 
trondy ; Bussia, beer, Kisstyschtschy, Quaes. 

Sater. — From this tree, resembling the oocoanut, a 
Ignor called Araffer, ia obtained in Hadagastvar, 
SblxA-H. — An Aftioan plant, beer in Abyssinia. 
SiNGiN Hoot,— Eastern Africa. 

Sloe Fbuit. — In France a drink resembling whiskey ; 
Fartary, ArrakL 
SuvEA TEATA. — A Bwcet grasB in Kamtschatka, Ralia. 
STBAW3BRBIES. — RnBsia, mead- 

SuOAK. — From the dregs, one. of the three inebriating 
quors nia<le liy the ancient Hindoos. 
Sdcab Cane. — Upper Egj-pt, India, East and West 
idies, New Soiitli Walea, Mexico, Brazil, North America, 
East and "West Iniliee, Tongare, Chilang; Pern, 

Tbb Root.— Sandwich Islands, Y-wer-a, 
Twr Plant. — Abyssinia, beer. 

42 Jloohd in History. 

TocuRSO. — ^Abyssinia, beer. 

VoNTACA. — Madagascar^ wine. 

Wateii jMelons. — Russia; brandy. 

WuEAT. — India, Pliaur j Congo, Guallo ; Frossia, wMte 
Leei } Holland, beorj Caucasus, brandy. 

Wines are also made from gooseberries, raspbemes, straw- 
berries, clierries, mulberries, blackberries, quinces, peaches, 
and mountain asli berries ] and intoxicants have been pro- 
duced from parsnips, beets, and turnips. 

Fermented and unfeemented Wines. — Henderson, 
in his History ofAncieni and Modem Wines j says that : " The 
invention of wine is enveloped in the obscurity of the earliest 
ages of the world." This fact confronts all who attempt to 
investigate the subject, but it is not an insuperable barrier 
to a clear apprehension, statement and defence of the fact 
that a real distinction between unfermented and intoxicat- 
ing wines can be established by indisputable proof. To a 
brief statement in this direction we devote a few pages of 
this work. So much has been ^vritten and published on the 
subject, both in this country and elsewhere, since 1834, 
that anything more than hints at the results reached would 
fill several large volumes. 

1. First, then, we notice this, that although the first 
account given in well authenticated history, of the use of 
wine, in the case of Noah, shows us that an intoxicating 
agent was known by that name,* the earliest notice of any 
mode of preparing ^vine, that given in the dream of Pha- 
raoh's butler, and the interpretation thereof by Joseph, t as 
clearly shows that an unintoxicating agent was also called 
wine. " I took the grapes," says the butler, " and pressed 
them into Pharaoh's cup, and I gave the cup into Pharaoh's 
hand." " Thou shalt," says Joseph, in his interpretation of 
the dream, " deliver Pharaoh's cup into his hand, after the 
former manner, when thou wast his butler." In comment- 

* Genesis ix. 21. f Gen. xl. 9-13. 

Fermented tmd L'n/ermatied Wu 


a this passage the loomed Gciiaai], Roaeciniuller, pro- 
[ docce liisturic pnwl' W eLow ibat iiu otiier kind of wine Kits 
illowed to be used hy Egj-plian kiugs. 
2. A Eecund siguitiGaut iact is found in tbo rngtitiition 
land (ilieervuii(« of the Jewish I'assover. As originally 
I hiBtituted, (see Eaodna xii, and siii.) no mention is iiiadeur 
I diink of any kind ; but it is expressly decliired, tliat " wlio- 
ir eatotb that whiuh is leavened, even that suul shall 
L be cnit otF frotu Iho congnigatiun of Israel."* The late 
I Prof. Stuart, has well naid, that : 

" As the wonl translafeil eating, is, in oasM Innnmeralile, em- 

>7tMltoiBcliul»iL portakiiig of all rc&eshuuuls at it meal, tliat 

1^ of the drinka an wail aa the food, the Kubbius, it would aevvt, 

lnl«rpreteil tlie i^omuiiinil jnxt uttud us esteniliug to the winif aa 

"fell ua brtail, of the PassovtTi ' * * Thu liiibbma. thuiofure, in 

rdet to ex-clode ovciy kind of fenDeiitu.tion trara tho Poaaover, 

~ t ifae Jews to mabe a whie t^om ruisins or dried jirra^iaa 

l.«ac))reMly tar that occoeian, and this was to bo druuk before it 

had time to fermect. " • * That tho custom ia rery antiout, 

that it U even now alinoat uuivrwul, and that it haa been so for 

tiiuo whereof the mooiovj of niau ninneth not to the contrary, 

I take to be facts that c^mnOt he fairly controveitwl, • « ■* i 

B not ablo to find evidence to make me doiiht that tlio custom 

prnng the Jews of oxclodin^ fementod wiau as well as bread, 

k oldor tlian the Cliristinn em." f 

I Tha Jdws '' are forbidden," says illon (_MoHtm Jiii!iiUm, p. 
" to drink any liqtior made from grain, or Ihat has passed 
rongh the procoai of ierment'atloD. Their ilriuk iseitluir pni'o 
ratn» trfne prepared by thomsolvea," 
1 So alao Hyam Isaacs, (Ceremonies qf the Jews, p. 98,} 

["TTieir drink during tJio time of the feast is either fiiirwat«r, 
i raUif mine prepared by themstilTes, but no kind of leaveu 

i bo mixed." 

" Mr, A. C. Isaac*, sajs : — " I spent among my own people six 

fed twenty yeara of niy Uiis, anil, prior to becomiUi" a eouvert 

" miab to the Chriatiaii hiitli, I sustaiued umcng 

^m thn olBcQ of Hebrew teiicher. I can, therefore speak ton- 

lUtly uti the subject of your inquiries. All the Jews with 

h Exodus liL l!l. t "BibUotUoca Sacra," 1843,iip,50T,5Qa. 

44 Mx^vA in SiOory. 

whom I havo ever bcca acquainted, use wittioxieatijig vi/tie a 
tlio I'ttsaov^r, a wine luade ox|>rii8aly I'or the ocpasiou, HJid gune^ 
ally tiy thetoHelvea. 11' it evnr ahould be lunueuted, i 
taiuly imknown to tbtim, and aguiiist tbcir express JntentwH^ 
but 1 never I knew it to exhibit any of the sjmptomfl. " • 

Tbe following Amorican teatimonies mny be added 
lato Judge M. M. Noali, of New I'ork, after desoiibing 
manutr in which ruiam-wiae is preparetl, Bays : 

" This is the wine we lue on the nights of tbe Pn.BSover, be- 
canse it is free from fennentatiou. aa we are strictly prohibited, 
not only from eating loavunud bread, but Irom drinking fe 
ted liquors." t 

To tlie Bame effect, the late Itev. laaac LcBscr, of Phila-i 
delphia, a learned Rabbi, and translator of the Hebron 
Sariptures, says : 

" For religious purposes, we nnifonnly oicludo Ocntile wlnu 
&om the ceremonies. Hence in countiioe where tbe viav 
IB not cultivated, we reaort to ortlficiiU wines, such as latsla 
wine, i&o. ; or even cider, lemonade, meud made of honey; but 
seldom on such ocuasiona do we employ spirituously lermentedl 
liquors ; and necei; so far aa tuy knowledge goen, on the Paaioter 
iiighU, wkm nniformlji the uaintoxicaHng preparaliom are ut«d, ^ 
JewUh uiive i« not readilg aecetsible. This is not, however, 
temperance principles, Lnt because all fermented llquois, 
which grain is tbe basis, are leaven, and therefore strictly 
hihitod on tlte Passover." { 

3. It is also tnie, aa no one doiiicB, that the Bible makes A 
diecrimiuation bt'tween unintoxicating and inebriating winei^ 
by ita commeadation of Bome as bovoragos, and ite ns 
emphatic condemnation of others. Unfortunately for tha 
oommon reader, the thirteen different texms employed by 
the sacred writers to deBigiiate those varieties of beverages, 
are almost always rendered in our English VBrsion by thi 
one word wine; and Jience arises misunderstanding and' 

• The above are all cited from Dr. F. E. Lees' Worts, Vol. II.4 
pp. 125, 170. 
t The Enquirer, December, ISU, p. 32. 
(Ibid, p. 29. 


Fermenied and UnfervKinted Wives. 


" One of the greatest faults of oni otherwise adioiiiible -vet- 
a of the Bible," siLys an tt\Ao writer iu the EnvjicUtptdia Bri- 
" is, tbat tho ti^natalion of the aajua original word \n 
ten imptojierly vurifsd at tho oiqionac of pptspicuity ; while, 
I ILo other hand, ambi^ity ia sometimes oecasioned by tha 
readering of two original words, in the same aontenee, by only 
one English word ; whieh, howover, is used in different uutJiu- 
tnga. Nut only two, hut thirteen different and dtatinct t^rma 
are tmnslated by the word wiae, either with or without 
the adjootipes, 'new,' 'aweet,' 'mixed,' and 'strong.' If the 
flrst mje for a traDSlatiou, aa laid down hy Dr. George Camp- 
bell, he correut, — that the translation should give a complete 
Lnacript of tho idea of the original — tho cauimon version ninat, 
n tiifl poiut, he deemed esueedingly dofcetive." 

\, A minutely critical examination of tliis Bulyect, nece^- 
i&ag tlie taking up of each of these Hebrew and Greek 
Words, and esamining its UBO in every instauco where it ta 
nployed, would more titan fill this volume, to the exoLa- 
iaoa of everything else.* We content oureelveB, therefore, 
with the summing up of the argument ae given by I*ro£. 
Stnart in his Essay on the " Boripturo View of the Wine 
Qaeetion : " 

" Wheceret I Hnd declnratioua in the Scriptures respecting any 
latter which appear to be at Turiunce with each other, 1 uom- 
wnce the process of inqoiiy liy asking whether these declora- 
8 respect th<} same ot^uct iu the some circumstances I Wine 
d stroiiK dtinlc ore agoad. a bleseing, a token of divine fiivor, 
d. to be ranked with com and oU. The some substanceH are 
Hn evil. Their use is prohibited; and woo ia denounced 
J who Boelc for thran. Is there a contradiction here,— a 
Ridos, incapable of any satisfuetory aotution ? Not at all. 
' • light of what haa already been BUid, we may conQdently 
—not at all. We hare aeea that these snbstancea wore em- 
jyed by the Hebrews in two different states: tho one was a 
mcnt«d state, the other an unfisrmcnted one. The ferment- 

) work has been ably done by Dr. V. R. Lees, in his 
nirks, capccially in hia " Conmieotary," and " Bible Wine Quuar 
I ;" by Ritfhie iu his " Scripture Testimony againat Wine ;" 
\ ParUDB, in hia '' Anti-BaechuB ; " by Miller, in his " Ne- 
Di;" and by others, to whom th« leader ia leleiredfor 
' U inibnnatioo. 

Ms^d in HMory, 

ed li<iuor was pregniuit mth alcohol, nnd would 
liriatioii, in a greater orlesa degree, in all unliuurycircnmstBii' 
cm; aiid even wUnre not oiiongli of it wax dmak to make tbia 
efl'ect perceptible, it would tend to create a flctitiona appetit* 
for'ulcohol, or to injniB tile doliciite tiMue«uf the liuiubu body- 
The nnfenuentAd liquor was a deliuiuus, natxitive, healthy bWi 
eragQ, wull and {iioporly ranltod %ritli com and oil. It might '~~ 
kept in that state by duu }iai:ia, fur a long time, iindeveugoi 
improving 1>y age. la tliero ajiy HuriaoB diGiculty now iullDi]ail 
ting tbe Bciiptaxos of coiitiadiction in respect to tliis ailbjent' 
I do not find any. I claim no riglit to interfere with the judg- 
ment of others; lint for myaolf, I would say, that I can'flndna 
otlier Bolutiun of the eeoming paradox bufure us. I oannut re- 
gard the aiiplicatlon of the distinction in question betweaa the 
fermented and itnfenuented liijuors of the Hebrews, to tho eo- 
lation of declaxatious, Beumingty of an oppoHite teuot, BM any 
forced or mmatoral means of iut^irpretation. It simply follows 
anit with many other cases, whore tlm same priuciple is c( ~ 
ccmed. Wine is a blessing, a comfort, a drairabla- 
When, and in what state t Wino is a mocker, a curse, b 
to be shunned. When, ajid in what state T Why, now, 
iho answer plain and open before ns, after we have 
deliberate survey of auEh facts as have been presented f 
only say, that to me it seems plain,— so plain, that no y 
Ing man need to mistake it. My final convlusion is this ; ii|b>i 
that wherever the Scriptures speak of wine as a comfort, 
ing, or a libation to God, and rank it with such articlea 
com ajid oil, — they moan,— they can mean, only such, wind 
contains uo atoohol that could havo a mischievous 
that wherever they denounce it, prohibit it, and connect 
withdrnnkenness and revelling, they can moan only alcohol 
or intoKicating wine. I need not go into any minutenosB 
specification or exemplification, for the nnderstanding of mj 
readers will at once make the uecensary discrimination and 
application- If I take the position that Qod'a word and works 
entirely Itarmonlso, I must take the jiosition that the caau before 
na is such as I have represented it to be. Facts show that tl 
ancients not only preserved wine uuferinented, but regarded 
as of a liighor llavor and liner quality than fermented 
Facta show that it was and might be dmnk at pleasure wll 
out any inebriation whatever. On the other hand, fanta 
that any considerable quantity of fermented winit did:*ud 
produce inebriation ; and, also, that a tendency toward h, or 
disturbauco of the fine Ussnos of the physical systifm, 
would be produced by even a small quantity of it, full nuel; 


Fermented ajtd Vn/erment&I Wines, 


I If this waa often drrmb. What, then, is the difQculty in taking 
I the position, that good and innocent wiuo is lueaul in uU ooaos 
1 -where il is commended and allowed, or that the alcoholio or 
' Inloxioating wiae is meant in all cases of prohibition anil do- 
tmnciatlon T I cannot roflue to take tliiis position without vir- 
tually impeacliing the Scriptures of contra^liution oc incon- 
aistency. I cannot admit that God has given Hbertj to persons 
in health to drink alcoholio wine, without admittin;; that liia 
word and works are at variance. Tho law against snt^h tlriok- 
ing, which he has anstamiied on otir nntnre, stands out prom- 
inently, read and assented to by nil sober nnd thinking men, 
Is his word now at variance with this I Without reserve I am 
I prepared to answer iu the negative." 

I 4. The fants referred to in the foregoing extraet, that the 
Bjmcients preserved wine in an unfurmt<iit«d state, and ttiey 

■ piofeiTed it to all other beverages, are attested liy nnmerons 

V Aristotle Hays of sweet wine: "Itiawine in name, but not in 

■ ifiiift; fortheliiiuordoesuotintcsicate." "The wiuoof Arcadia, 
Hte says, " was so thick, that it was nei-essory to sciupe it from 
Bflie akin bottles in which it was contained, and to diiisolve the 
BicrapinKa in water." 

W Fliny says : " There is an ist«nDe(liate thing between duhia 
BjBweets) and cinum (wine,) which the Greeks caJl ttttiglenctf.'' 

V Discoridos ranks, in hia ' Materia Mcdica,' ' Iioiled wine,' 
Bbndertlte head of 'wine.' So also Pliny, Columella, and 
Wff. ikeoplirastus, pronounce that wiue the )K8t, which is untri- 
nioos and uniuluxicnting, a syrap which conlil have lieea 
Bmrepared from the grape juico only before it had femientpd, 
Hbid which, to be used, must be diluted with water, Moil- 
Kttli travellers and obsei-vera testify to the same thing. 
Btev. Kenry llotnea, Missionary in Oonatantmople, said in 
^a» " Bildiothccji Sacra," May, 1848 : 

^t " Simple grape-juice, without tho addition of any earth to 
^Kftntrallze tiio acidity, iit l)nUed from tour t« tivit hours, so aa to 
Bildnco it to ouf-fourlh tlioi|uanUtyptit in. • • • It, ordiuurily, 
^Hbut nnt a purti<Oi:i of iutoxirnliu); qxtulity, being osed frc^ely by 
H^ilfa KithAnimeiluns nnd Christiana. I^ome which I hare hud 
Htthniid Ibrtwo yearn hiia niKltTrgLme un pTiange. * ' * In llin 
Hhaimenif making imd preserving it, it aeems to uurteev'^U'lvn^:^ 

JHcohA m Hidory. 


the Toripes and desGriptionfl of fertain dilnks inoludeil lij si 
of tlie asrii'nta under the upjmllation, wiue." 

In 1S15, Capt. Troatt wrote : "Wlien on the south roast of 
Italy, last C'brlstmas, I inquired particularly about the ivinea in 
commnn use, and found that tboee L'steomod the best \Teio BWMt 
and nnifitoncating. The boiled juice of the grape lain conunon 
use in Sicily. The Calabrianakeep Ihoir intoxioatiug andiuin- 
toiicating irinoa In soparnte aptutmonts. The bnttiea ^vero gon- 
eraU.v marked. Frum inquiries I fonnil that nnfermentecl w^es 
vera cstnumed the most. They were drank mixed with wster. 
Great pains were taken, in tlie Tintage season , to hAre a good 
stock of it laid by. The grape-juice waa fllttTod two or three 
times, and then bottled, and some put in casks and. boriedinthe 
earth. Sonio kept it in water (to prevent fenoMitatioii.)" • 

Mr. Delavan wrote to "The New York Observer," in 1840: 
"While I was in Italy I obtained an introduction to one of the 
largest wine manufrtctiirera there, a gcntlsmaji of nndoubt«d 
credit and character, and on whose statements I feel OBsurod 
the ntmoet reliance can be placed. By him I was instructed in 
the whoie process of wine-making, as far as it could be done by 
description, and &om him I obtained the following importuut 

" First, That with a little care, the fruit of the vine may bo 
kept in wine countries l^oe from fermentation for seveavl 
months, if nndistnrbeil by transportation. Wiue of this chttrso- 
ter, he exhibited to uiQ in Jauiiary last, several moullis itfter tho J 

"Secondly, That the pure Juice of the grape may be preserved J 
&ee &om fermentation for any length of time iy hoiliag, throagh I 
which the principle of furmentation is destroyed; and in this I 
state, may be shipped to any conutry, and in any quantity, ( 
without ita ever becoming intoxicating. 

Thirdly, That in wine-prodncing countries unfermoated wintw 
may he mado any day in the year. In proof of this the jn 
fiiotuxer referred to, informed me that he had then in his lofift J 
(January) for the use of hia table till the next vintage, a ijaan'r 
tity of grapua sufficient to make one hundred gallons of w' 
that grapes could always bo had at any time of year tfl wake I 
the deairoble quantity ; and that there was nothing in the ifBf I 
of obtaining the IVuit of the vine free from fciinentAtioit laj 
wine coiiutries, at nny period. A largo basket of gratica v 


Malt LiquorB. 49 

it to my lodgiugB irhich were aa delicions and looked oh froah 
as if recently talien from the viiieB, though they bail bix^ picked 
tot montba. 1 hnd alao twenty giillona made to order from tiloao 
giapeB, which was boiled before fermentation hud taken place ; 
the gieator part of which I have atill by mo ia my cuUai. JU 
afnrtherpTOof that new wiue maybe kept in its snoot nndun- 
fecniBntod state, I tcOTolIed with u few bottles of it in my car- 
I riageovor2pOOO miles, and upon opcjoiag one of Iho bottles in 
^^^Paris, I fonad it the same as when tiist put np," ■ 

K ^ 

w ^ 

■ It 

Sabscquently, after keeping' eomo of this wine in his 
roellar for yeiira, he Bent a liottle of it to Prof. Silliman, who, 
Hftfter Bnbjectmg it to chemical tests, reported that ho could 
^ot find ft partiole of alcohol in it. 

3faK Liquors. — Ale or beer, is on Egyptian invention. 
9 first nuule ■' by poaring hot water on barley and 
allowing the fluid to ferment. It lias been said that they 
colled this drink ' bouzy,' from Biisiris, the name of n city 
F-wbich contained iho tomb of tlio god Busiria or Osiris. So, 
Bays one of our (|Liaint ohi anthora, wo get the term ' bouzy,' 
arhich we apply to a man who has taken a great deal of 
r, and whom wo call a Iwuzy follow, 'ITie word beer 
robably cornea from barley, or iioxa the Hebrew word bar, 

Browne, a modem traveller, says, that 
"The Effyptians still make a forraented liiinor of tnaine, millet, 
buley and rice, but it bears little resemblance (o nur ale. It 
_. ifi of a Ligbt color, and in hot aeasona will not keep above a 

The ancient Britona also made bee* which, though for s 

) disploc^tl by mead, the favorite Saxon beverage, be- 

lleaino again, aft-er the Norman conqnest, tbe national bevc- 

_ I, and wna especially brewed in large quantities at the 

Utiuuitoricd. 1 From the law passed by the Plymouth Col- 

• Thu Enquirtr, December, 1811, pp. 23, 30. 

( Dr. Bicharil"i)n'a Teinpitrance Liaaon Book, p, 45, 

tl'mrcb in Aftica, Ec.vpt, and t^.viia, p. 26. 

4 ToDtMtallL'j'M COUipilUIUU, i>. 20. 

Aloohol in Jlistory. 

ony in 1030, prrtliibiting the rotailiug of lieer, if. is evident 
tliut it waa among tbo earliest boveiages prepared in tha. 
New World. 

Tlia manufacture of alo or lieer nt tbe present time, is T)y 
a similar process in all countrioH, which is thus dcscribeji 
by Hev. James B. Dudd, who was at one time approacbei 
by some capitalista to taie charge of a largo brewing eB-- 
tablishment, aud who, iu order to inform hipiBelf on 
Hubject, visited a brewery, and ascertained how beer i 
made. lie hays : 

" In tlie mnniifactare of good beer, as it is called, (I speak not 
now of the aliomitialilc ndiilteratiuns, though tbey 
enough,) three things are necessary: malt, hoxia, and watwi 
The water, though uaefnl, ia not food. The hop gives Qmoti 
aud helps to preserve the liqnor, but it contains no fmding 
portiea. To name ita chemical oonstltiients will snffioe. ~ 
are volatile oil, rosin— a bittOT princtple— tannin, malic smu 
acetate, hyrlro chlorate, and sulphate of ammonia. The ntal 
then, is the only substance that can make the hquor 
either as it remains in the liquor, or ils it may be converted 
SDoio other substance. Malt, we all know, is vegetated bs^j 
Barley is food nest in nutrition to wheat, and all we have 1 
do is to oscBitain how much of this feeding substance is fotmi 
in the beer whoti mon rtiink it, Tlie brewing process will gi' 
us that ; in tracing which we shall &nd, that at eveij step tl 
object ia, not to eecnre a feeding, but an intuxicivting lir[uor 
and that to ohtam this, the feedmg propoi^ies of the batley ai 
aocriflted at every stage. 

'' In loakiug a gallon of beer sis pounds of barley ore two 
which, to comniiinc:o with, is six pounils of nutritious ibod. 1 
mann£tctunn«; this mto Iwci', it has to undergo four processe 
in every one of w]iich*bisc9 part of its nutriment. The litst 
malUng, or sproutiuE. By this process the raalters spoil th 
hnrluy of OQ»-foiir1b of its nutriment, just in the same way n 
whB:it is spoilc.l if it guts wot and sprouts in the field. Evei; 
hoiisoheeper knows that wUea potatoes or onions sprout the; 
lose much of their nutritive properties. The next process islSa 
of niitshing, by which a sacchaiine solution is extracted tevt 
thogriia, and hereonw-tbirdof the barley is lost. ThenfoUowi 
th? fiirmenting process, by which ono-ftiiirth of it is convnrW 
iiilo alcohol. TUefonrilipWeossistJiat of lining. People don't 
like thick or muddy beer; and aa some tbiclc laattur uuunvt In 

3laJ! Li-fttora. 

^^M«Tented coming over in mnshlng, tlio lienor ia put to eottle, 
^Hbd these settlUias are aisposeJ of aa," barrel bottoms.' Tlicso 
^^HottMna are reiilt;f |inrtA uf the harley, nn<l lii-ro \st nnutlier Toss. 
^BHow, in tliia gallon of bc>ur, how niaih of tlio barloy is thpn 
^^^eflrt At tiie ontavt yuu had aome six pounds, or ninotj'-His 
' ovDceB. What is there now t Lessthaatenonnces. Thetmthof 
this you cim oaeily asrurtain. Getapiatofitleorbeer, niid plara 
H in a iancepan, tlien gpntly hoi! it oyer the fire. The fluid 
part will go — tile solid part will remain. Thns every grain of 
solid matter con be obtained, and its properties and amount 
folly asoertained. Scientific men have freqnently made the 
experiment, and by careful t^ata demonstrated that the aver- 
age qnantlty of solid matter found in a gallon of malt liquor ia 
1(189 tlian ten ovnees. So that iu manufacturing ale or beer 
yon Hjrtnally lose very neatly eighty parta out of eighty-eight, 
and all that yon obtain in the plate of it ia upward of three 
ounces of alcoholic jKHsonj and which conatitutea the etrcngth 
of tliQ liqnor. What would yon think of the man who should buy 
niaoty-sii oonfea of wheat, making it sprout, drying it, pout- 
ing hot water upon it, giving a part io the pigs, and throwing 
aptlTt down the gutter — shonldwaatcnpward of eighty ounces, 
anii slionid leave for himself nnil family only ten ounces I 
What if he did tliia for the purpose of getting about four ounoea 
of pfrison, which will irO^^e his health, destroy hia reason, and 
iwimpt tia heart t Would you say that God sent the grain to 
*<e ibns wnatcil, or would yon call the poison wliicli the inge- 
y of this prodigal had ojctracted, ' a good creature of God I ' 
fancli ha« been said of waste and extravagance, bnt we know 
iustanco or example that will bear any parallel with tha 
ligality that la practiced in converting barley into malt, 
i mult into beer. • • • • What, then', we aslt, is there to 
r to strengthen a man in » pint of ale or beer I Ita 
iro fourteen ounces of water, part of one ounce of the 
tact of bajley, and nearly an ounce of alcohol. The water 
d alcohul go immediately into the veins, and while the aloo- 
is, the -water, if not needed, unneeeasarily dilutes the 
eicharges the veaaels, and loads the kidneys and bind- 
■rj while there remains lesa than an ounce of indigestible ex- 
_ftct of malt, which has been grown, roasled, scalded, boiled, 
mbittered, fermented, and drenched with water and alcohol 
tuB unht for tlie brute, far leas the human stomach. 
B all that la left in the stomach to be digested." • 

52 Jloohal in Mistoty- 

With this Etatement in regard to Dutrition, agrees thol 
jiidgmcnt rcndorod by the great clteiaist, Baron Liebig : 

"In the brewing of licer a separation takes place botwet 
the anngiugenouH (natritivp) matters of the linrley, and 
starch. Of the fonner, thdbeportiona which diasolve in the wi 
and am separated as yeafl dnring the fermentiition, nre lout 
the purpose of nutHtion. "We cnn prove, with miithematieal 
tainty, that ae mtrnhJUmr as ean lie on the point of a labia htiife 
more nvtHtioas than fight quarts of the best Bacnrian Beer 
person who is able daily to consume that amount of beer, ohtains 
from it, tn a whole yair, in the most £ivorahle case, exarlly the 
amount of nutritive conHtituents whiah is contained in a 5 1 
loaf of bread, or in 3 lb. of fleah." 

Dr. E. Lantester sajs, " Beet contains hut one jier cant 
nntiitivo mutton, and is not a thing to bo taken for nntritum 
all." ProfeaaoE Lyon Playf air aajs, "'lOOpartfi of ordinary beer- 
or porter contains 94 parte of solid matter, of which only abont 
one-half part conaietH of flesh- forming matters ; in other wotdn, 
it takes 1.G66 parts of ordinary beer to obtain one part of 
iahing matter." • 

A similar confession is made by the brewers and 1 
sellere of Great Britain. After a Beries of oxperimentH 
which resulted in demonstrating that ale or beer can bcQ 
matle from sugar mnch cheaper than from malt, the a 
tion of government was sought for the snbstitution of bi 
and molaasca for malt ; and the question was debated to th^ 
' public in the coliunna of the " Morning AdL-erliser," t 
avowed organ of tho brewers, distillers, and pablicaaa. 
the issoe for October 30, 134C, appeared tho following : 

"With respect to the quality of beer made from tmgor, aHwU 
have tried it declofe that it poaseasos the same ijoiilities ft 
boot from malt. ... By some it may be snpposBd that t 
warkiiig niau will lose a nntritivo hevorage, hiit this is a & 
approhenitiott of Iho subjuft. After fermentation ni 
fioih-fvmins prindple reiriaJBiin WieKifaor, which hag now beciMIB 
vinous. . . . As to epirila, those [tUrcndj} produced £ 
sugar [m mm] are well known ; and no (piuGtion Oi 


Mali Liqiu 


n regard to coinparativo properties of nntiition, amce all kinih • 
we tqaallg drjieient." * 
No wonder then that Martin J.nther said : 
"Tliemam wliofirstlirewed beer was tipcBt for Connauy. i'ood 
I jnvst be dear in a11 out land, fur the koises oaf. up all our oats, 
I and tUe peaaaols drink np all onr barlc^j in tliu f»aii u( livor. I 
li»vo suniveil the end of gennine liccr, for it ha« now bucomu 
I email heet in every bbubb ; and I have prayod to God that ho 
' might destroy the whole heor-brewiDg busiuoBa ', itnd the Urst 
I heer-brewer I have often cursed. There is cnottgh barley 
destroyed in the breweries to feed all Oecmiiny." 

Tlie percentage of alcohol in alo or beer differs in the 
I several varietieB. Dr. Edward Smith, in hia work on 
" Foods," says : (p. 412.) 
"It boars a relation to the omonnt of sncrfanrine matter 
[ which was fermented in the brewing. Brande in his diiy fonnd 
I i.30 per cent, ofaloohol (speeiHo griiTity 0.825,) in porter; 6.88 
' cent, in ale ; nnd 6.80 per cent, in brown stont. At the pre- 
t day there may be 10 per rent, in the strong liust India pole 
f ale, nnd 15 to 20 pnr eeut. in many olil home-brewed altw, stored 
I tot private use ; but oaually the amount vtirii^s from 5 to T per 
~n moderately good ales, and may be only 1 to 3 per cent. 
I in small beer. Hence, one pint of strong hoiue-brewed ale miiy 
I contain as mnch alcohol as is found in sei-ornl bottling of good 
I claret wine ; but ns a general exprcssioo, a pint of good ate is 
I equal in that respect to a boCtte of iitiily good claret." 

Dr. Biohardsan says : '* Some specimens of ales and stonta 
L contain as much as ten p«r cent, of alcohol, and in vpry Blrong 
I old ale that quantity may be exceeded. TburD is, however, a 
fgieat deal of triokei7 played with the ale which ia commonly 
" in retail, so Chnt it isdiffioult to nnivont any correct stnud- 
I had oupo the duty of dotormining the quantity of alcohol 
a U■IIl>(^nse nnuiber of specimens of ales vended ttom the 
lion pnblic-himscs during the dinner honra of worl(iug-inen. 
[Ill many uftbii^e samples the alcohol prescutod did not uxcui'd 
f per cent, nnd In a few icstnncoa it was airtnnlly as low as 
kibur per vvnt. Tha reason of this was, that at the partieular 
Kliina of the day named, the &cb1i beer in the casks was eapeo- 
■ fully diluted with w.tlpr. eoutalning a little trnacle and salt, so 
A Co reduce the strength and ineicaso the proflt." i 

54 AlcoJiol in History. ^ 

According to Dr. Bence Jones, from tests made with the 
Alcoholometer, " New bitter ale contains 6 to 12 per cent, 
of alcohol J porter, 6 to 7 per cent. ; stout, 5 to 7 per 
cent." * 

Prof. Wood, of the Harvard Medical School, finds in 
" Boston lager beer, from 5| to 6 per cent, of Alcohol.'' t 

Mr. Henry H. Rueter, in his pamphlet entitled " Argu- 
ment in Favor of Discriminating Legislation regarding the 
sale of Fermented and Distilled Liquors — ^addressed to the 
Joint Special Committee of the Massachusetts Legislature 
on the sale of Intoxicating Liquors,'' claims the percentage 
of alcohol in different malt liquors to be as follows : 

** Ottawa " Beer contains 2.00 per cent. 

Average German Lager-beer " 3.80 " 

Common Massachusetts Lager-beer. . . " 4.00 " 

Common Massachusetts Ale " 4.10 " 

Average Massachusetts Ale " 5.20 '* 

Home-brewed " Hop-beer " ( made by- 
farmers and private families from 

molasses and hops) " 5.50 " 

Strong Massachusetts Lager-beer " 5.80 " 

Common Cider " 6.10 " 

London Porter (imported) " 6.10 " 

Strong '^Stock" Ale " 6.30 " 

London Ale (imported) , V 6.80 " 

Dublm Porter (imported) '* 7.00 " 

Edmburgh Ale (imported) " 7.50 " 

Let it not be forgotten that these large or small amounts 
of alcohol in these various beverages are none of them a 
natural production, but are invariably the result, — Baron 
Liebig being authority, — of " fermentation, putrefaction 
and decay." " These," he says, " are processes of decom- 
position, and their ultimate results are to reconvert the ele- 
ments of organic bodies into that state in which they exist, 
before they participate in the processes of life" " Fermen- 
tation," it is stated in Turner's Chemistry, edited by Liebig, 

* Dr. Lees^ Text Book of Temperance, p. 47. 
t Alcohol and the State, p. 252. 


DisUUed lAquors. 55 

" is notliiiig else but the putrefaction of a substance con- * 
taining no nitrogen." The formation of alcohol/' says the 
great French chemist, A. F. Fourcroy, " takes place at the 
expense of the destruction of a vegetable principle : thus 
spirituous fermentation is a commencement of the destruc- 
tion of principles formed by vegetation." " Nature/' says 
Count Chaptal, " never forms spirituous liquors ; she rots 
the grape upon the branch, but it is art which converts the 
juice into wine." " Alcohol," said Dr. E. Turner, " is the 
intoxicating ingredient of all spirituous and vinous liquors. 
It does not exist ready formed in plants, but is a product 
of the vinous fermentation." * 

This product, alcohol, is, by the agreement of scientific 
observers, — ^whether they are teetotalers or other^vise, or 
whatever their fheories in regard to what becomes of alcohol 
after it is taken into the system, — a Nar cot ico- Acrid Poisoji. 
On this subject there are no more competent authorities 
than Orfila, Christisson, Dr. Taylor, Pereira, Professor 
Binz, Dr. Lallemand, Perrin, Dr. Willard Parker, Dr. 
Richardson, Professor Parks, Professor Duroy, Dumorel, 
Magnus, Dunglison, Dr. Edmunds, Professor Davis, Powell, 
Dermarquay, Wetherbee, Bums, and Dickenson, all of 
whom are agreed as to the character of the poison. 

Distilled Liquors, — Dr. B. W. Richardson, in summing 
up the results of his researches into the history of Alcohol, 
says that there are these " five points " to be remembered : 

** 1. The fluid containing alcohol that was first known was 
the fermented fluid obtained from fruits by fermentation, and 
called wine. 

"2. The wine was distilled, and thereby a fine spirit was 
obtained, which was called the spirit of the wine. 

" 3. When the spirit of wine was discovered, it was treated in 
different ways, by which si)irit8 of different tastes, colors, and 
strengths were obtained, and called by different names, such as 
whiskey, brandy, rum and gin. 

* Cited in Text-Book of Temperance, pp. 29, 30, 33. See Dr. 
Hargreaves' " Alcohol, what it Is, and what it Does," 


56 Akohd in History. 

**4. Sugar and other substances than fruits were made to 
yield spirit by fermentation. 

*' 5. At last the pure spirit, from whatever source it was got, 
was called alcohol.^^ " 

These facts are significant m various ways, but chiefly in 
this : their showing that alcohol is not created in the act of 
distillation, but exists already in the fermented article, be 
it wine, beer, or whatever name may be given it ; and that 
distillation simply separates the alcohol from the other sub- 
stances with which it is mixed in these fermented bever- 
ages ; and no more alcohol can be obtained by this process 
of distillation than was already in the fermented article be- 
fore the distilling took place. 

The first experiments in distilling wine, are said to have 
been made in the eleventh century of the Christian era, by 
an Arabian chemist, named Albucasis. He called it " The 
spirit of wine," and for a long time its use was confined to 
the laboratory of the chemist, being used to preserve animal 
substances from decay, and to dissolve oils, resins, gums 
and balsams, which water would not change. Subsequently 
it was employed as a medicine j and afterwards as a beve- 
rage, to be used in health. The names then given it, were 
vinum adustum, burnt wine ; spiritus ardens, strong spirits ; 
as well as spiritus vini, spirit of wine 5 and later aqua vitcB^ 
water of life. According to Mr. Stanford, designated by 
Dr. Eichardson as " a very learned scholar : '' 

" Aqua vitcB was used as a drink as early as tl\p year 1260 of 
our present era. The Arabians, he thinks, taught the use of it 
to the Spaniards, and the Spaniards to the monks of Ireland. It 
thus came into use in Ireland, and obtained the Irish name by 
which it is still known in one form, * whiskey.' In the old 
Erse, or Irish tongue, it was called usize-hiathay which means 
ctqua vitcB, In time this term was shortened into usqiie-haughy and 
this again was shortened into nsige, from which comes the 
word whiskey. Sometimes m Ireland this same strong drink is 
called potheen, or poteen. This word, poitiny means a small pot 
or still, the vessel from which the liquor was distilled, and 


* Temperance Lesson Book, p. 65. 

Distilled Liquors. 57 

pooteen was, perhaps, deriYed from the Latin word potiOj a 
drink." * 

The name Alcohol was given to distilled spirit some time 
in the latter part of the seventeenth century. Dr. Richard- 
son finds its mention in a chemical work by Nicholas 
Lemert^ published in 1698. 

'* From Lemert's description, it appears that Alcohol was a 
term intended to describe something exceedingly refined or sub- 
tile. He uses the word sometimes as a verb, and exx)lains that 
when any substance is beaten into a very fine powder, so that 
it is impalpable, i. e., when it cannot be felt rough to the touch, it 
is alcoholized. The same word, he adds, is employed to describe 
a very fine, pure spirit, and so the spirit of wine well rectified 
is called the alcohol of wine." 

** Other scholars have tried to trace out the origin of the word 
itself, and the most accepted. explanation on this point is that 
the word is Arabic, A'1-ka-hol, meaning a very fine essence or a 
powder used by the women of the East to tinge their hair and 
the margins of the eyelids. Afterwards, as described by Le- 
mert, it was applied to all refined substances distilled by the 
heat of the fire." f 

Another, and quite different conjecture has been offered 
respecting the etymology of the word as applied to an in- 
toxicant, its present exclusive significance, by the author 
of " Neuces Philosophicae " and quoted by Dr. Lees in his 
" Chemical History of Alcohol.'' f 

'^ It is an Eastern superstition," says Dr. Edward Jolinson, the 
author referred to, "to suppose that the earth- is infested with 
evil spirits called gouU — and this word is spelt in several dif- 
ferent ways, as' gouly ghoulj and ghole. They were supposed to 
frequent burying grounds, and to prey upon dead bodies. 
They were also supposed to assume diiforont shapes, and some- 
times to enter the body, and to possess it, as it icerCf with a devil. 
When anything fearful was heard or seen, it was a common ex- 
pression to exclaim, 'The gholel the gholo!' And when tho 

* Ibid, p. 60, which see, for the origin of names of other dis- 
tilled liquors. See also this subject treated in extenaOy in Dr. 
Hargreaves' "Alcohol, What it Is and what it Does." 

t Temperance Lesson Book, p. 64. 

X Works, Vol. n. pp. 85, 86. 

58 Aloobd in History. 

Aruliian uhomiBtB Brst diacovpred nlpohol, and observed tlie J 
effect (intoxLuatioii) which it prodaccd oa tile first person who- J 
took it, it seoins very natural tliat tliey sLonld suppuee him to ■ 
be possessed bf an evU spirit, and thut alcohol was, in fkot, T 
only one of the fonna wliiuh tho ghole had assumed, in order to4 
enter and tarturs the human body. And, frightened at whtttf 
tboy behiJd, it was very natural that they should exelaim t' 
'algbole, al ghole ! ' —ajiA it seems very probable that A Said I 
capable of producing such extraordinary effects should cantinue, J 
for some time, to be supposed to bo an evil spirit in diagi^se, t 
it were; and when this notion whs laid aside, the great evilS 
which this liriiiid-denl was observed to wort amongst roeo, T 
would still be lilcoly to cause it to retain ita name of At gkoU, arm 
the eoU tpirit. Onr manner of spelling it is no objection to tbial 
etymology, for algkola might easily he cormpteii into allcohi^;j 
thus, algkole, alghol, ati/okol, alkokol. Tn this word, aa i 
every other, the name defines the nature of the tiling." 

Dr. Leos makes note of the eingTiIar eoinuiilenco of thisH 
definition nitL the name suggested t» ShakcBpeoie, as liM 
observed the efiocta of dnnking in his day : 

'' O thou invisible spirit of wiito, if thou hast no iiiunf 
known by, lot us call theu Deeil." 

When we consider that all intoxication, literally p 
ing, — for that is just what tho word moans, — prior to t 
tweKth century, was produqjsd by alcohol in ferments 
drinke, that thia covers all the dnmkeuneas whioh ^ 
known in ancient times, ineltiding that described AOd C 
noimced in the Scriptures, we are hotter prepared to t 
the fearful rapidity with whioh intempemnco increased K 
distillation became common ; and also how it i 
many drink, not because they love the tasto of tho liqia 
but beoause they desire the rfoliriam the narcotic indue 
oblivion which is the end and object of drinking, — that it ii 
so inevitably sure that the li^^htev iutosicaiits will liul t 
satialy when ardent spirits are witliin reach. 

The following (detenninod liy Dr. Benco Joaoa) is tl« 
percentage of alcohol contained in Bomples of the U%1U 
1, as given by the Alcoholometer i 

■ ._.•. *-i'-' 

Advlteratiom of Liquors. 


Port Wine, 20 to 23. 
Sherry, 15 to 24. 
Madeira, 19. 
Champagne, 14. 
Bnrgnndy, 10 to 13. 
Rhine Wine, 9 to 13. 
Claret, 9 to 11. 
Moselle, 8 to 9. 

Rum, 72 to 77. 
Whiskey, 59. 
Brandy, 50 to 53. 
Gouoa, (Gin) 49. 
Bitter Ale, (new) 6 to 12. 
Porter, 6 to 7. 
Stout, 5 to 7. 
Cider, 5 to 7. * 

Adulterations of Liquors, — Poisonous as alcohol is of 
itself, other poisons are often mixed with alcoholic liquors. 
Sometimes the object is to cheapen the beverages, and at 
others to produce a more quickly inebriating drink. The 
practice is an old one : " How can wine prove innoxious/^ 
exclaims Pliny, " when it is mixed with so many destructive 
ingredients ? ^' * An ordinance of the French Police, bear- 
ing date of 1696, mentions the adulteration of wine with 
litharge (vitrified lead).t Often, say the Committee of 
Convocation of the Province of Canterbuiy, in their report : 
" These adulterations arise out of the competition among 
rival dealers, and frequently supply the only margin of 
profit by which the trafficker is enabled" to keep possession 
of his house as the tenant of some brewer or distiller.'' 
" Vegetation," says a competent authority, " has been ex- 
hausted, and the bowels of the earth ransacked, to supply 
trash for this purpose. So unblushingly are these frauds 
practised, and so boldly are they avowed, that there are 
books published, called * Publicans' Guides,' and ^ Licensed 
Victuallers' Directors,' in which the most infamous receipts 
imaginable are given to swindle their customers. § " The 
following deceptions," says Tovcy, " are offbn practised : 
Aroma is added to give the appearance of age to young 
wines. Wine is sweetened with cane sugar, or with other 
fruit than that of the grape. Coloring ingredients are 
added to imitate deeper colored wines. Water is added to 

* Dr. Lees' Text Book of Temperance, pp. 46, 47. 

t Hist. Nat. xiv. 20. 

X Henderson^s History of Wines, p. 339. 

$ Redding on Ancient and Modem Wines, p. S58, 


60 Aloohd in History. 

strong wino to increase the quantity. Spirit is added to 
weak Avine to increase the strength." * 

Addison said, a long time ago, in the ^^ Tattler ^'^^ No. 131: 
** There is in the city a certain fraternity of chemical operators, 
who work under ground, in holes, caverns and dark retirements, 
to conceal their mysteries from the eye and observation of man- 
kind. These subterranean philosophers are daily employed in 
the transmutation of liquors, and by the power of magical drugs 
and incantations, raising under the streets of London, the 
choicest products of the hills and valleys of France. They can 
squeeze Bordeaux out of the sloe, and draw Champagne from 
an apple. Virgil, in that remarkable prophecy, — * The ripen- 
ing grape shall hang on every thorn, ^— seems to have hinted at 
this art, which can turn a j^lantation of northern hedges into a 
vineyard. These adepts are known among one another by the 
name of wine brewers ; and, I am afraid, do great injury, not 
only to her majesty^s customs, but to the bodies of many of her 
good subjects." 

Much later Charles Dickens said, in his '* Household Words," 
"Henceforth, let no one boast of his fruity port, of his tawny, 
or of his full-bodied. Those small strong-smelling bottles, on 
the dusty shelves of an analytical chemist's laboratory, will 
rise up in judgment against him; butyric ether, acetic acid, 
and that deadly cognac oil, will stand out against him, ac- 
cusing witnesses of his simplicity and ignorance. Henceforth, 
the mystery of wine-making is at an end ; but wine itself is a 
myth, a shadow, a very Eurydice of life. There is no such 
thing, we verily believe, as honest, grape-juice now remaining — 
nothing but a compound of vile, poisonous drugs, and impurely 
obtained alcohol ; all our beautiful Anacreontics are fables like 
the rest, for wine hath died out from the world, and the labora- 
tory is now the vineyard,^^ 

"A German ttowspaper," says Samuelson, "recently gave an 
account of a prosecution in Berlin, in which it was stated that 
one large store which had been inspected contained only arti- 
ficial wines, into the manufacture of which the juice of the grape 
had never entered, although the names borne by the labels of 
the bottles were those of well-known wines." f 

Says a recent number of the Parisian : " The wine crop of 1879 
was about twenty-live million hectolitres, or thirty million hec- 

^^i^^'^^^^^- ■ - '■■ ' ' ■ ■— . — ■ I ■■■■■■ ■ I II II ■ ■■■■■■■■^^^— II I I ■ I. ■ ■■ ^mm^i^^^^^m^m 

* Wine and Wine Countries, by Charles Tovey, p. 6, 
t History of Drink, p. 90. 

Adulterations of Liquors. 61 

tolitres below the average of the last ten years. The annual 
consumption in France is forty to forty-five million hectolitres. 
Everybody expected a rise in the price of wine, and some con- 
scientious dealers laid in a stock from abroad. The rise in 
price, however, never came, and the market remained well 
supplied. The reason was that the natural deficit was com- 
2)ensated for by artifical means. Wine was manufactured out 
of dr^ grapes. All the raisins to be found in the eastern ports 
were bought up and wine manufacturers sprang up all over the 
country. Around Paris alone there are seven steam power wine 
manufactories. The cost of a cask of raisin wine is about fifty 
francs, and it was sold at one hundred francs, thus giving a 
profit of a hundred per centum. But the competition has now 
become such that the price of raisins has risen from twelve 
francs to seventy-five francs the one hundred kilogranunos. 

*'The consequence is that raisins have been abandoned, and 
wine is now manufactured out of glucose, a sugary matter ob- 
tained from the potato, out of the residues of molasses, out of 
rotten apples, dried prunes, dates, figs, and all kinds of refuse 
fruit, and even out of beetroot. These abominable liquids are 
colored artificially, and mixed more or less with Spanish wines 
or white wine. The adulteration and manufa<^ture of wine has 
attained such vast proportions that the principal dealers, who 
had taken measures to supply the market really with harvest 
wine from foreign countries, have taken steps to put a stop to 
the gigantic fraud. The imposture has reached such a jjitch 
that not one-third of the wine drunk at Paris is real grape 

Dr. Hiram Cox, a distinguished chemist of Cincinnati, 
was directed by the Legislature of Ohio to analyze and ex- 
amine the liquors in that market. He says : 

"I was appointed to the office of Chemical Inspector on the 
19th of March, 1855. Since then I have made over six hundred 
inspections of stores, and lots of liquors, of every variety, and 
now positively assert that over ninety per cent, of all that I 
have analyzed were adulterated with the most pernicious and 
poisonous ingredients I " '* I called at a grocery store one day 
where liquor was being sold. A couple of Irishmen came in 
while I was there, and called for some whiskey. The first one 
drank, and the moment he drank, the tears flowed freely, while 
he, at the same time, caught his breath lilie one sufibcating or 
strangling. When he could speak, he said to his companion, 
' Och, Michael, by the powexs I but this is wanning to the stoom- 


u<ih, Bare!' Miohaol ttrank, and went tbrougli liko contortiona 
with the remark, 'Troth, aail wouldn't it be foia o; 
frosty morning, Timothy 1 ' Alter Ihuy had ilrank I asked the 
proprietor to poiu me utit a little in a tumbler. L n-cnt to mjrl 
ottlci], got luy toetnimeuts, and examined it. I fuund it sovenrr V 
tL'cn pur cent, nlcohotic epints, when it fihouid luiYa liwaij 
lii'ty, and the diOereuca in percentnge wna mado up bj anlj^ 
phtiric ucid, ted pepper, pulliCary, caustic potash, btucine,iuidi)iu 
of the salts of mix vomii'a (strychniue). One pint of Bttclfl 
liqaor (at one time) would kill the strongoet man-" * 

" A druggiHt in Cinciimnti, Bent to New York for two hoj 
heads of aeignette brand}', so ns to supply the phyiaictaiis vritHfl 
the YOty best article for meilical purposes. One cask 
seigoette, the other pale eeiguette. Di. Cos tested them ; pooM 
some into a tumbler; sunk it polished steel litnd^i int 
let it remain thurci fifteou minutes. At the end of that time S 
steel blade had 'turned the brandy black as ink. The stwM 
spiilula itself corroded, and when dried loft a thick coating-fif 
mat, whicJi, when wiped oif, left a ropper coat (on the spatoJun 
alinuat as thick as if it had been pUted with copper.' Dr. Coi^ 
warned the druggist not to sell it, nnd advised biui not to px, 
for it. The New York raaji sued tho druggist for hia paj'. 
the trial. Dr. Cox auiiij/o<l tho stuif in tho presence of tho OOUlti 
and Jury. In one cask ho found ' enlphntia acid, iiitrio OKiS^ 
nitric ether, praesiu at'id, Cliiiiinapepiier, and ubundaiicoorivi^ 
aU oil. He pronounced it base, conuuou whislio}*. Not one dro 
of wino.' lu tho otlier cask he fbnnd 'tho same odulterAtioi 
as the (trst but in greater abundanee, with the additioa of «3^ 
eohn- This is most villanous.' Tlio jury duuided thjt t 
liquor was worthbsH, and the New Yorli man loft toivn witliout| 
his pay," t 

" Dr. Draper, Professor of Chemistry in the Mediiiul CoUogsfl 
of the UniTeraity of New York, some time since analyzed tlilrt^fl 
six MUDples of brandy, whiskey, etc., mostly taken fnnn the bi 
of first elasshotfila and restauiButB in the city of NewYt>ik.V 
liquors ore retailed at the highest prices, and Huppoaod liy tJta 
drinkers to be pare ; and he found only four sampk-s that did nol 
contain fusil oilandcoluringmatterofHomoiKirr<. In tbu loww 
and second class bora he found not only E\isil oil, but caycimnl 
pepper, salt and other sulmtancee. Thosomixturi^s wor 

" Alcohol, its Natoia and EfiTocta. By Dr. duulea At StoiJ'.J 
pp. 252, 253, 

t Ibid. pp. 377, 378, 

Advlterations of Liquors. 63 

pure fnll-proof liquors, when tho analysis showed but about 
thirty-two per cent, on the average. It should have given iifty 
per cent, of alcohol, or in fact thirty-six per cent, below jjioof 
of spirits; but the deleterious chemicals with which the liquor 
was adulterated would produce the effects of intoxication, and 
the drinker was deceived ; for instead of solacir.g hiiiisolf \vith 
I>ure liquor, ho was impregnating his system with comx)ound 

" Fusil oil, or amylic alcohol, as it is called in chemistry, is 
one of the products of distillation obtained from all substances 
containing starch — ^like com, potatoes, wheat, etc. — and more or 
less is foimd in all these alcohols, according to tho method of dis- 
tillation and rectifjing. Dunglison, one the highest authoiitit'S, 
says it is an acrid poison and destroys the mucous membrane 
of the stomach. It is nearly worthless by itself, and is pro- 
duced OS the last product of distillation, and if mixed with the 
ethylio alcohol, it greatly reduces the cost of liquor. Much 
more water can be put in the liquor where the amylic alcohol 
or fasil oil is allowed to remain in it, and is not removed by tho 
process of rectifying. In fact some of the manufacturers of im- 
itation liquors recommend adding it to inferior liquors, ia order 
to * reduce them ^ or ' lengthen tlioui out,' aj thoy term it. But 
it means, to enable them to add more water and still keep up 
tho intoxicating quality of their liquor. 

" Tho immense amount of whidkey lunde in this coTintry fur- 
nishes tho basis for most, if not all, of the imitation liquors and 
wines, and tho presence of so much fiisil oil invariably found in 
them is due, first, to the fact, that the distillers have discovered 
methods by which they can get a much larger quantity of alco- 
hol out of a given quantity of grain than formerly. By ailding 
blue vitriol and an extra quantity of yeast to their niaali, they 
hasten the process of distillation by inducing a fermentation in 
about twenty-four hours that formerly re^uirevl eeveuty-tv/o. 
By thus artificially hastening the distillation, more fusil oil and 
other impurities are mingled with the whiskey, and its danger- 
ous and deleterious qualities are greatly increased. And, further, 
to get the largest amount of alcohol possible out of a given quan- 
tity of grain, they carry the process of distillation to the farthest 
possible extent, thus getting into the last portion of tho product, 
most, if not all the amylic alcohol or fusil oil. 

" The only way to purify those wldskcys and got rid of tho 
fiisil oil is by rectifying. When this is done, the whiskey is sold 
at various degrees of strength, under the dillercnt njinies cf 
French spirits, pure spirits, or Cologne spirits, and these aje 
ng^d for making the imitation liquors ; and the reason why so 

Alcohd in History. 

much fiwil oil is comnionly fonnd m tlio ciHinterfeit lirandios, nun 
anil wiues is, tliat tho whiatey -wliic-Ii a used m making Ikem | 
biia uot beon proiiorly roctilioil, and possibly nob mctiliod at alL 
If a large! poctiou of tho fuaU od pamaina m tJie whiskey, tlw I 
Htroiigor il, M'ill he for iutoxic^tiu,^ piu'^ioaea, and Iho mauiifac- ' 
tuTci uiia iuiurcaae hia prollts by iiitttmg iu titutu water, miil 
mixing iu aoma kiiiil of ding to miike it banr a. bead; and tits 
drinker, wlion he fuela IJie into si (gating efToi^t!! roming on, will 
bu Baliafied Uiat he has licon fnmiahed good, pare, BlTougliijuur, 
when in fact it is many degrees below unadulteratod alcobolu 

" WbeneTorthereiaa failui'c of the grape crop in France, there ] 
is always a largo demand for raw whiskey from that marlcet, 
which comes back to us in duo time, mixed, and which is Mid I 
here in the shape of pure Fi'ench brandies and wines. We also I 
import large quantities of ctigunc oils ami liquor essences, &ar- I 
oring matters and other drugs to be need by AmericBn maav- 1 
factnrors of oounterfeit liquors. Many of these preparationsMft I 
made in this country, luid to add doublo-rellncd rascality tn I 
ritlany, some of tliem are adulteraled, so that the oompoondsf 1 
of these mistures does not bnow himself exactly "what qoalitf f 
of devil's broth he is brewing. 

"The amount of adulterated liqnora la enormous; andwitll a -i 
few exceptions, the entbe liquor traffic of the world ienot onlf a \ 
frand, bnt, (jterbaps without nil of the dealers being a 
the fact) it also amounts to a system of druggingandpoisonlaj. ^ 

"Tho bnsineaa of making adulterated liquors has beeusf 
pliiied that any notice who knows eomigli to make a, pnaell <tt I 
n cotjitail can learn iu a short time how to make nny kind of V 
liquor tliat will pass muster with nine-tenths of the driukin({ 1 
community. The oUs and essences are within the reach of any ■ 
dealer, wholesale or rotaU, and, with the chemical prepaiatioiIBi j 
ho can procure the diieotjona for making a, large or email 4**°"^ ] 
tity in a short time. 

" Many books have been publiHhed in England and this C( 
try, giving instruction on tliia subject. Tho dealers in theaa I 
articles obsel-ve seereay and cantion. In some of their circulOrt I 
thoy say to their oustomem that 'gooda ordeced to be forwarded I 
by espreaa and collected for on delivery, art^ sent wiUt thaV 
amount only on the collection bill, gMng no imlicaliov, of lAc im- I 
tiiTf of IliB arlklcK, and a detailed bill of il^-ms sent by taoXL' T 
TTicy Blao say, for the puqjose of cnconragiug Ibu compauiulera 1 
ill this country, that, ' Tho wine growers of Europe mitke ti 
of coinpoimd ethers and oils to convert tho grain ^plritj 
} brandy of superior quality, and that the litjill 

AdvlieraMcms of lAquora, 65 

pared with their flavors mix with the foreign in most economi- 
cal proportions.' 

" If the oils, essences, and other chemical preparations, are 
wanted for converting com whiskey into any other kind of 
liquor, they can easily he obtained. You can procure hrandy 
oil enough to change eight barrels of com whiskey into eight 
barrels of French brandy for sixteen dollars, and enough chemi- 
cals to convert sixteen barrels into old Holland gin, London 
cordial gin, Old Tom gin, or Schnapps, for twelve dollars ; to 
make old Bourbon, malt, Monongahela, rye or wheat whiskey, 
enough of these chemical compounds can be purchased for eight 
doUars to make four barrels ; and to make four barrels of Irish 
or Scotch whiskey, the chemical materials can be procured for 
ten dollars. Then there is the cost of the coloring matter, and 
what the dealers call " age and body preparation." By using 
these drugs new whiskey is converted into any kind of liquor, 
of any age or color, in a short time. Some of these materials are 
known to be deadly poisons. The more highly the imitation 
liquor can be charged with the cheap x)oisonous drugs, to supply 
the intoxicatmg properties of alcohol, the more water can be 
added, thus reducing the cost, apd keeping up the intoxicating 
power of the liquor. These preparations can be procured in any 
quantity. A small retailer can purchase a small quantity, suf- 
ficient to convert a gallon or two of whiskey into brandy, gin, 
or rum, as his daily wants may require, but they are generally 
used for larger quantities. 

"In addition to the foregoing there are an immense number 
of receipts for making all kinds of intoxicating liquors. From 
various authentic sources I have procured a large number of 
these, which have been made use of at different times, or are in 
use now. For the benefit of moderate drinkers I will give a few ; 
and as cider is generally considered a very wholesome bever- 
age, they can always procure a sufficient quantity of it, even in 
those years when the apple crop fails. 

" To make sweet apple cider : 

20 pounds of brown sugar, 

1 pound of cider flavor, 
20 gallons of water, 
1 pint of good brewers' yeast. 
Add to each ten gallons of this mixture one quart of rectified 

" To make Cognac brandy : 

40 gallons of French spirits, 
^ pound extract of chicory, 
1 pound of green tea, 
i pound black currant leaves^ 


66 Alcohol in History. 

1 quart of burnt supjar or lime water, 
A small quantity of 8ini])lo syrup, to soften and give it 
age, caramel or burnt sugar to color. 

" Before the war, when real French brandy could be imported 
for $2.50 per gallon, and com whiskey was cheap, this imitation 
of brandy could be made for less than 37^ cents per gallon. 

** To make French brandy that can be sold for Cognac, Sazarac, 

or Martell^s, by varying the coloring : 

97 gallons pure spirits, 
7 ponnds red argolls, 
3 pounds acetic ether, 
3 gallons wine vinegar. 
7 pounds of bruised raisins, , 

1 ounce bruised bitter almonds. 

" Distil this mixture, and add oak shavings, catechu and car- 
amel to color, then throw in a few bits of old Eussia leather, to 
give the flavor of age. 

**To make an imitation of pure old Monongahela whiskey : 

40 gallons high-proof com whiskey, 

3 gallons tincture Guinea pepi>er, 
40 gallons water, 

1 quart tincture pellatory, 

2 ounces acetic ether, 
1^ gallons strong tea 

" This will produce from the forty gallons of com whiskey, 
about eighty-four gallons of what will be sold for pure old 
Monongahela. The fusil oil not being rectified out of the 
whiskey, the intoxicating quantity will be superior ; and, aided 
by the tincture of pellatory, disguised with pepper, ether, and 
strong tea, enables the dealer to add largely of water, and also 
to use cheap whiskey. 

'* To make Holland gin : 

15 gallons proof spirit, 
1 gallon gin essence, 
1 quart white syrup. 

"Mix thoroughly, and filter if necessary. This is simple, but 
there is no gin m it, so it is a pure fabrication, as almost every 
one of the imitation liquors are. 

"Real imported Holland gin sometimes has sugar of lead 
added to it, to give it a peculiar roughness and flavor, which is 
much esteemed by some gin drinkers. 

"The following is a favorite receipt for making a very high 
flavored Holland gin, which is much admired by some gin drink- 
ers, and it is no wonder so many have Bright's disease of the 
kidneys : 

80 gallons French spirits, 
1 pint oil of turpentine, 

Jlihdterafiwis of Liquors. G7 

3 onniH^a oil of jimipDr, 

IdrnuIutiosseiitmluU ofalraonde. (This it almost priunio 

2 oimt'i'B creoHote. (Tliia in a draOIij pmsoH, far Khirh no 
antiHnte is tnnwn.) 
'Simple synip eiiuuKh to softuii, nu<l giw ihe iipivamucn 

of age. 
ro make ft vetj ri(^h nnvoitHl Fremth bramlj-. 
lOO KikllonH piiru HpiritB, 
2 qiiarts naaiiv eLlmi-, 
4 ounces ('iifj>siu l)ud.s, 
2 oiincus bittiir ftlinomla, 

2 quarts white wino vmegar, 

1 pouDil cateclm, 

2 gftUonB Jamaica mm, 
li otmces cayenne peppor, 
1 qnfttt catamel for roloring'. 

Xiei it stand two weeks, occusionnllf etiiring it. 

" To make olii London cordial gia of the highest qnality : 

" Ninety gallons of j;^ ; oil of Rlmonda one diacluD ; oils of 

ia, nntmeg and lemon, of eacli two draehms ; oils of Jnni- 

, catawaf, and coriander sood, of onch three drarlims ; es- 

i root, four onnees ; oraiige Hower water, tliree 

i lojilp sngar, fift.y-ais to siitj iioitoile. Tho oila and es- 

it lie dissolved in a quart of siiirils of wine, and tho 

it in three or four gallnns of water. The easencea must bo 

1 gcadiiall; to tbe giji, imtil the reqmsite flavor ta pru- 

1, when the iliBsolvml sugar louet be mised along with Huf- 

flcieut ijiiBJitlty of soft Viitcr, holding four onntea of alum in 

solution, tfl make ap one huniired gallons. When the whole is 

perfoctly mixed, two oimccs suits of tartar, dissolved in two or 

three quarts of water, mnst I>e added, and the liquor again well 

■Bniikguil or stirred up, after which it moBt bo tightly bunged 

1 allowed to repose. In a week or tun days it will 

ia« tiiilliant, and ready for boJo, or racking off and 

fcjtHing. Many perHons nso this pretty freely for the benefit, 

a tbpy rappoHD, of their kidnoya ; and suph sr eompoond m 

Ipmiiniuida aumt produce nn etiei^l not only on their kidneys. 

Kit also on ovary organ of the body. 

"To makfi br.itidy wbiih cuii be sold for paleor dark brandy i 

JO f;.i I'm I !■.■. 1 1 -I . ! I M (I'ommnn proof,) 

1>:> t,T!ii» U a deadly potion.) 

t dtopB uU of neruli. ilis solved in 90 [let i^ent. alco^iuA. 

68 Akohol in History. 

" Color to make dark or light brandy, according to the mar- 
ket you are preparing it for. Fusil oil is found in nearly all the 
imitation brandies, showing that the whiskey used for the basis 
of them has been very imperfectly rectified. 

^* \\'hen real brandy is lirst distilled from wine, it is quite col- 
orless, but after being kept some time in oak casks it becomes 
of a pale amber color, the color being derived from the wood. 
Very dark brandies owe their color to caramel, or burnt sugar. 
The characteristic taste of brandy is due to the presence of a 
volatile oil obtained trom the skin of the grape. 

" To make old Bourbon whiskey : 

40 gallons pure reotiiiod spirits, 
\ pint of brandy coloring, 
i pint of concentrated essence of Bourbon, 
1 pound age and body preparation. 

^' Absinthe is one of the most deadly poisons, nevertheless 

they make a counterfeit absinthe as follows : 

2 ounces of essence of absinthe, 
4 ounces green coloring, 
1 gallon of simi)le syruj), 
4 gallons of rectified si)irits. 

"Here we have about 5 gallons of absinthe cordial, which 
contains 2 ounces of deadly poison, and 2 gallons of pure alco- 

'' To make Santa Cruz rum : 

45 gallons N. E. rum, 
5 gallons Santa Cruz rum, > 
4 drachms vanilla essence. 

**To make Jamaica rum : 

60 gallons proof spirit, 
1 pound rum essence. 

" This is simple and easy, but when we think we are drinking 
good old Jamaica rum, we are served with com whiskey. 

" AVines are as universally and as badly adulterated as the 
distilled liquors. Iij fact, prepared chemicals can be found in 
the stores of men who deal in these articles to make every kind 
of wine, with directions how to mix them. Whiskey is used as 
the basis for nearly all wines, and upon chemical analysis fupil 
oU is almost always found in counterfeit wines. What was sold 
by one of our respectable New York hotels for fine old port wine 
was analyzed, and found to contain 25 i)er cent, of alcohol, some 
fusil 0*7, extracts of cherry and elderberry, and some kind of 
coloring matter. This is a fine medicine to give sick persons to 
otrcugthen them. 

AdtUterations of Liquors, 69 

^' Receipts for making Madeira wine : 
20 i)oun(l8 of figs, mashed up, 
50 pounds raisins, 
20 ounces linden or tilla flowers, with the leaves on, 

3 drachms of Turkish rhubarb, 
10 grains of cloves, 

3 gallons of sugar syrup. 

" Infuse the above for ten days in' 30 gallons of spirits, then 
add 90 gallons of water, and filter, and you have nearly 130 gal- 
lons of what is sold for pure old Madeira wine, without a drop 
of grape juice in it, but, upon analysis, fusil oil will sometimes 
be found. 

" To make sherry wine : 

100 pounds su^ar, 200 gallons water, 

40 gallons spirits, 70 gallons sherry wine. 

" Color according to the kind of sherry you wish to imitate. 
Agitate and stir this mixture up for several days, and we have 
230 gallons of what is sold for pure old sherry wine. 

" A portion of the so-called champagne wines consumed in 
this country is composed of the expressed juice of turnips, apjiles, 
and other vegetables, to which suflicient sugar of lead is added 
to produce the necessary sweetness and astringency. The ter- 
rible headaches and depression of spirits that follow fashionable 
champagne suppers are attributable to the united poisons of 
lead and alcohol. 

"Logwood is the great coloring matter for wines. Black- 
berries, elderberries, and bilberries are also used. Wines are 
adulterated with distdled spirits, Imie salts, tannin, alum, lead, 
copper, cider, perry, etc. Port wine, as sold in the market, 
when not entirely counterfeit, is usually a mixture of pure port, 
or Marsala, Bordeaux, and Cape wines with brandy. Inferior 
port is still more highly adulterated with logwood, elderberries, 
catechu, prune juice, sandalwood, and alum. 

"Many people suppose if they go to the Custom-house, and 
buy liquors in bond, under Custom-house lock and key, they 
will get them pure ; but in this they are mistaken, for the liquors 
are as badly drugged in other countries as they are here. Pro- 
fessor Parkes gives an analysis of between forty and fifty of the 
different kinds of wines made in Europe. He says it has been 
stated that the fermentation of the grape, when properly done, 
cannot yield more than 17 per cent, of alcohol, and that anj- 
thin"" beyond this has been added ; and that some of the finest 
wmos do not yield more than from 6 to 10 per cent. He found, 
upon analyzing the port, sherry, and Madeira wines in London, 
that the port ran from 16) to 23} per cent, alcohol ; the sherry 
^m 16 to 25, and the Madeira from 16^ pex cent, to ^^ vss.^ 



Alcohol ill History. 

chamtmgims from 5i per cent, to 13. Tlie otht^r widob arerageA J 
from 61 to 19 per ceut. Miilder on 'Wine' (p. ISfi] qtuAm 
Giiijal to Ibe uffect that pure port never ucmtaius nwre tlmn 121 J 
per ceat., lint Alulilcr doubts tbia. Dr. Oormnu stated bnfiirArl 
ii PurliamButary Committee that jiure aheiry iioTec caotaius-l 
more llian 12 iier rout, of alrohol, and that tnim B to 6 giUloiU T 
of alcohol is added to ever? 108 gallone of ahi^rry. Some jiortl 
used in tJie Qneeu's eetnbtishment contained hnt 16J per t!ent.,< 
the highest -was 18i ; mid the sherry only IB, nod iLe olorvte'fl 
from 63 to 7 per cent, of alcohol. Tbeae ivi'te tlie purest wlneal 
to lie found lu London. UponcompariMn wetihouldfind thatthvf 
foreign wines in ouc market would idiow amnuh larger per oent., 
and 118 the com wliiake; they obtain from the Unituil States ial 
tbecbeapeat form of alcohol they can procure, it is used fortbisl 
purpose; and when not pacfeotly rectified, fosUoii will bo found 1 
in the foreign wines. 

"Thudicbnm nndDnpri5(oa 'Wind.'p. G83)stjite that natural J 
wine may contain 9, while the maximum limit is IG per oi 
alcoliol (of -weight in Tuliimt'.) They also state that a pipe of "l 
115 galloDB of port wine han neyer less than three gallons Afl 
brandy added to it, and the riob port wines have from thtrteon.^ 
to fifteen gallons added. 

"I have uot space to say more of the adulterations of winw 
and ardent spirits, bat it is a system of iifand and deception ttu 
world over. Ales, porter and beers are as badly iidulteraWd ill J 
tltia country and England aa other liqnora are. 

"Professor Gallatin, of the chemical department of the CrtopOB^ 
Institute, has uualyzed many aampies of the boat ales frum tU»| 
largest broweriea in Now York aiid vicinity, and others of t] 
beat repntation, and fouud tsono free tVom adultenition. He did.! 
not find aa deadly drugs as tbo English brewers are said to s 
or as the English books recommeud, but he found that aalt, tdaai,] 
and lime are extensively naed. ' Tlio substances added to f^TsA 
' heud ' to beer are aliini, aalt, and ferrons snlphatc' Tbe effeetl 
of these adulterations on the oonsumei is very injurious. ThtfT 
cumulative effect of alum Is to produce a general doraugemenM 
of the digestive organs, and the disoasos wluuL grow m 

" The English works recommend cocuiua indieiis, swcot flap-B 
root, grains of paradise, alum, capsicum, absinthe, iiutgnlls,. 
potusU, and several other dmga. Dr. Uoeii, in his wort uil| 
'Adulterations,' assorts that they use st.iycliiue, opium, 
hyosci.-uuna, all deadly poisons. Keeping new alea a 
nrn old is qnite espeusive, nnd they are converted into old al^ 
cheaply and in a abort time by adding oil of vitriol (sul^iu 

'irmiwli-iiliVlir ii" 

Adtdteraiions of Iaqvots. 71 

acid,) and the new ale acquires aln)3st immediately tho flavor 
of hard old ale, so much admired by beer drunkards. 

'•'• Coculus indicus is largely imported into England, ostensibly 
for tanners' use, although it is never used by them, but finds its 
way into the brewers' hands, in spite of a severe law against its 
use, and is used by them to give greater intoxicating effect to their 
beer, and by adding water they reduce its cost and retain the 
intoxicating properties. It is also imported into this country, 
and It is said that it is used by some of the American brewers 
for the same purpose. It is obtained from the seed or fruit of a 
shrub growing in the East Indies, and is imported in various 
sized packages. The trade-mark is ' B. E.,' meaning Black Ex- 
tract. It is an acrid-narcotic poison. Dr. Taylor, one of the 
highest authorities on the subject of poisons, experimented with 
coculus indicus, and killed a rabbit with two drachms in two 
hours ; three drachms killed one in au hour, half an ounce in a 
quarter of a hour, and one ounce killed one in four minutes. It 
is also sometimes called fishberry, as the fishermen use it to cast 
into the water, and all the fish within reach of its influence be- 
come paralyzed, and float on the surface of the water, where 
they can be easily taken. Its poisonous effects more nearly re- 
semble those of alcohol than any other known substance. 

" The excessive use of malt liquors produces softening of the 
brain, and many other diseases. When it is adulterated its ef- 
fects are always iujurious, and it is now so generally adulterated 
that the only safety is in letting it aloneJ^ * 

Glycerine is now used to a large extent by the brewers, 
both for the purpose of preventing rapid fermentation, re- 
ducing the bitter taste of the " old or poor hops " sometimes 
employed, and making a " sweet, full beer." 

Says an authority on this subject : " Glycerine is present in 
all fermented liquors, which fact was established by Pasteur, in. 
1859. An addition, therefore, of glycerine to beer will not be 
necessary, except in especial cases. Pasteur first used glycerine 
for the improvement of wine, in which respect its action was 
found so excellent that the attention of the brewers was called 
to its properties, and its use has since been considered with 
considerable favor by many brewers. * * * * Analyses 
made of various beers of Saxony, Bohemia and Bavaria, showed 
that Erlanger beer contained the largest percentage of glycer- 

* Alcohol: Its Combinations, Adulterations and Physical 
Effects. By Col J. G. Dudley, pp. 21-38. 

72 Alcohol in History, 

ine. As is well known, glycerine, although it possesses a pure 
sweet taste, is not caiiablo of undergoing fermcntntion, and by its 
addition to the beer the same acquires a sweet, full taste, and de- 
stroys the bitter taste which the beer acquires if a groat amount 
of hops has been used. * * * The amount of glycerine to 
be used varies with the amount of hops which has been used, 
from i to 1 gallon for every 100 gallons of beer. Its careful use 
not only improves its taste but also its keeping qualities. As 
regards the amount of hops used in brewing, it will be observed 
that a certain amount must at least bo used in • order to insure 
the keeping qualities of the beer. If, however, old or poor hops 
are to be used, the amount must bo increased, whereby the bit- 
terness as well as the keeping qualities are correspondingly in- 
creased. In order to neutralize this increased bitterness, an ad- 
dition of glycerine offers the most ready means, and at the same 
time most beneficial remedy. In regard to expenses, it will be 
observed that by the rational use of glycerine they are not 
materially increased, as the expense of the glycerine may be 
covered by using correspondingly, less malt and hops, without 
detracting from the quality of the article. It may be assumed 
that one pound of glycerine represents within the beer the pro- 
perties of three pounds of malt, and in using glycerine a cor- 
responding reduction in the use of malt may be made. The 
increased expense caused by the use of glycerine may also bo 
covered in another way, if the amount of malt is not to be dimin- 
ished. Such beer may be sold at an increased price, as the 
preference, which it will find among consumers, who gener- 
ally like a full beer which Is not too bitter, will no doubt sustain 
this course. Glycerine is a colorless, syrupy liquid, of a sweet 
taste, and easily soluble in water. It is prepared firom fatty 
substances, which consist of glycerine and fatty acids.. It is 
therefore obtained in large quantities, as a by-product in the 
manufacture of soaps and candles, and has for many years been 
allowed to go to waste, but of late has been utilized for a great 
many purposes." * Delicious soap-grease ! 

* "The Western Brewer," for Sept. 15, 1880, pp. 934-6. 


History of Intemperance, and its Political, Moral and Heligions 
Effects, in China, India, Persia, Egypt, Greece, Rome; with 
the Jews and Contemporary Nations mentioned in the Old 
Testahient, in Germany, Great Britain, and the United 

INTEMPERANCE has been declared by an American 
Statesman to be " The gigantic crime of the age, and 
the great source of danger to our republic."* Unfortu- 
nately it is no recent evil, nor are its dangers less imminent 
in any country, t Yet it is impossible to give a full account 
of its extent, or to trace its origm in every instance of its 
existence in various ages and climes, qince in some locali- 
ties it was no doubt practised at a period prior to the begin- 
ing of authentic history ; in others the inferences with regard 
to its use are far fetched and inconclusive; and in still 
others the traditions are mere surmises, or unwarranted dec- 
larations, too recent in their origin to be of any value as in- 
timations of what was done in the distant past. 

(A). The statement in Genesis ix. 20, 21, "And Noah 
began to be an husbandman, and planted a vineyard, and 
drank of the wine, and was drunken," etc., is regarded by 
able critics, as referring, not to some new thing in the way 

♦ U. S. Senator Morrill. 

t "Drunkenness," says the Westminster SevieWf "is the cnrse 
of England — a cnrse so great that it far eclipses every other 
calamity under which we suffer. It is impossible to exaggerate 
the evils of drunkenness;" 

74 Alcohol in History. 

of the culture of the vine, but to the revival of general 
husbandry, the vino having been cultivated before the flood. 
The criticism is both reasonable and just, and granting its 
con-ectness, the first mention of wine in the Bible does not 
pretend to take us back to its origin. As we shall conclu- 
sively see, still further on, its first mention among other 
people is traditional, long before it appears in anthentio 

(B). Somewhere from three thousand to seven thousand 
years ago— a conveniently wide margin of difference — ^there 
existed, according to modern authority,* a race of partially 
civilized men, who built thek dwellings on piles driven into 
the beds of lakes in Switzerland. They practised agricul- 
ture, and were familiar with, if they did not cultivate, 
grapes, apples, pears, plums, cherries and barley, as charred 
and dried apples, and pears, stones of grapes and the other 
fniits, and whole ears of barley have been discovered among 
the traces and remains of their dwellings. It has been sur- 
mised by some that because fermented drinks can be made 
from these products of the soil, therefore the Lake Dwellers 
manufactured and used intoxicants. The inference is worth- 

(C). An ignorant confounding of the Indians of North 
America with the native wild men of the southern part of 
the contment — families wholly different and distinct — and 
attributing to the fonner customs which it is by no means 
certain that the latter ever established, has led to the un- 
warranted charge that our Aborigines were addicted to in- 
temperance before their intercourse with the whites. The 
assertion is contradicted by all authentic history, and by 
every reliable tradition in regard to their primitive habits. 
There is no proof whatever, that they knew anything of any 
kind of intoxicants before the arrival of Europeans. There 
is no better authority on this subject than Rev. John 

i ■ 

* Keller's Lake Dwellings, p. 344. 

Intemperance, in China. 75 

Bcckewelder, Moravian MiBsionaiy to tlio Indians, lie 

" Of the manner in vhiph tlic? have aRqiiireii the vice of In- 
mpeToQco, I pmauiue tUete can ha no doubt. They cLnrge us 
n the most poBilive manDei with tieiiig the first who madu them 
jqnainled with ardont apirita, and whnt is worse, with hiiving 
L all tha means in our power to induce tboni to driulc to 
II is vory L'Httaiii that the prooenws uf diatUhttion and 
entirely unknowit to the Iniliuna, und that 
key liuve omoug them uo intoxiesiting liijiiora lint such as they 
The Mexlcnns hnve their Pulque, and other 
fedigouons lirvoragea of tin inebriating nature, but the North 
unuriuan Indiaus, beforo tboir intercourse with us commenced, 
Isd absolutdy nuthjng of the kind." • 

I History ia snlSoientlj' full, however, of positive evidence 

f ibe exiBtentu of tLe vice of Intemperance at very early 

irinda in liunuui esperieDcc, and of its eslE<nt over T&et 

nious of Umc and space, to furnish ua with abundant data 

r the puTpoises of ihia chapter : a view of intemperance 

[ uationa before and after the birth of Christ, and its 

i OB reli^ons and social life and on the State. Our 

1 diffloulty ia this work will bo lo condense the great 

Biouut of hietorio material in hand, into the space in which 

I must bo limited here, and still givo a just view of the 


I J. Chtsa, — We begin with the people who chum to he 

B moat ancient nation on the eartlj, the Chinese. It is iia- 

•B^blo lo deny their claim, and there ia much to show their 

t «ge and their early civilization. Thou- great philoa- 

hLer, Coufiicins, and his eminent disciple Mcaciua, the for- 

r fluurishing in the fifth century before Chi'ist, and the 

r two (MHturioa later, were not only eminent as teacliera 

Ltliw nation, for which thoy are greatlj r ve n d but 

I nbitory, Mnanera, and Ciistowa nf the I ban Nn nna e 
J Rov. John Ilecleweldcr, rhap, xsivi Rob a bo n mero a 
■bodlliui rit«<i Ici Holki'tt's lIiBlocieiil Ko tia spe tui^ tlie 
M vf North Aiuvciea, ohup. vui. 

ID liko a, peisonatcr of tbe d 
istiugiiiahetl his virti 
■wnver iu their allegianoe." ' 

o oniloavor lo bring' him b 
ind tlio couoBL'ls of the t 

I in MiOorff' 

also rcndoroil most signal §orvioe bj editing and pcrfec 
two great works of liiatoric value : " The Shoo- King, ■ 
Hietoiy," and " The She- King, or book of ancient Poetr 
a, series of writings handed down tlirongh many gcnecaCioi 
together with the oommentarit-s written thereon by tho i^ 
cient wise men. From these hoolts we leum tiiat intcmpil 
anc« was frequently putting the Einpiro*in danger, and t! 
stringent measures for its suppression were often emploj 
Tho earlieet account in tho " Shoo-King," is the foUtm " 
in the year 2187 B. C. 

" Toe-k'ang occupied the thinnt 
By iillenees and dissipation he 
blltch-h aired pouple ull Legau ti 

His five brothers visit himtt 
to virtue. They call to 1 
oienta. " The second said : 

' It is in tho lessons :^ 
When the pBliice is a wild ol' lust, 
And the country a wild for himtiBg : 
When wiuo Li sweet, and muaio the deUght, 
When there are lofty rooJa and carTod wnlla,— 
The existence of luiy one of these thinga, 
Has never been hut tho prelude to ruin.' " * 

Another account dates 2154 or 2127, B. C, in tht 
of Chung-k'ang : 

"He anil Ho had neglected tho (iutios of their offloe, attdw 
ennk in wine in their private cities, and the prince of Yin n 
ceivod the imperial charge to go and punish them." He au^ 
Ho were Miuiaters of the Doard of Astronomy, but throiigli their 
Uceuliuua iurtulgeiices unfitted theiiiSBlves for Iheir duties, and 
in cousoiinonee, the people, ilepetideut on them for knowledge 
of the limes and seasons, received no light, and guitloDCe, 
eclipse comes ou them unaworoa, and the AationomerB ai6 tj 
inuch intoiioatcd to notice it. The prince of Yin 
troops, and tUiis addroascs them: "Ah! ye, all my tro 
these arc tlio wcU-counscUediostntctionaof thoaagc foundeid 
oni dynastj, clearly vcyiiied ia tlieii; yowcj' to gi'^ aeeni'" 

• Shoo-King, Bk. iii. ch. i. t 

Intemperamx in Chiim. 

d atnhility to t!ie Stutc : ' Tlie formar fcings ■were eatofullj- nt- 

le tTuniiiiga of Heaveu, an<ltlieir mialsters oliservpil 

1 regnlnc \a,vfs o£ thoir ofllcos. All the ufficera, moreovpr, 

fatrMiiUy <!iil their diitj- lo asBist tUe got-ernmciit. and tlio 

1 became eiitlrely iuteniscmt,' Every yeiir iu Iho iil'hl 

li of Bpriug. the lieislrl, with his noodcu-touf^uutl liell gwa 

g the rouds, proclaiming, ' Ve offleers uhle to illrcrt, lie [irc- 

d withyonradmoiiitiouH. Ye wurkmcnuDgn^oil in morliiiii- 

kl affDiTs, reiDcniHtrate ou tlio auhjert of j'our ImsincBs! If aiij- 

o diaresiwrl fully neglect this reqiiiremeut, Hie conntry lijis 

ignliiT pnniBhmetits for yon.' Now here nto He and Ho. Tliey 

a entiit^ly anbverteil their vlrtae, and are sank and lost in 

s. Tlley have violated the duties of their office, and left 

t posts. They have been the first I^ allow the regnlotiuns 

f Keavou t« get into disorder, pnttiug far &om them their pro- 

:l business. On the first day of the Inst mouth of autniun, Ihu 

moou dill not mcot harmouiously In Fbur. The blind 

a beat their dninis; the inferior offifcjs and common 

pie bustled and rim about. Ho uud Ho, however, as if they 

'a mere personutolsof tlie dead iu their offices, heard nothing 

lothing;— »o Btupidly went lUey aattay from llu-lr 

a the mntti-'r of the heavenly appearances, and rendering 

aelvea lialile to the ileath appointed by the former kingn. 

« of govemiuonC say, when they anticipate the time, 

>l them bo pot to death without mercy; when they are bohiud 

1, let them bo put tu deulh withuut mercy." ' 

I Again, 1122 B. C. The Emperor Chow becomes <lisso- 
'' being lost and niwlilcned with wine." Hia pemiuioiia 
mple is 80 goonrally I'ollowod tlmt tho Viscount of Wta 
mposBiblo to rule in his Prini'ipality. He tlicrtforo 
leke (lie Grand and Junior Tutors and inquires what can 
I dmie. Tliey give liim tio Iielp. The dynasty is too 
brrsjA to bo than^i'd, anil nothing but its oveitkrow can 
I loolird for. The Viaconnt is advised to fiee and eavo 
I life, white the Grand Tutor resolves to stay and sliure 
I the death wliich may oonio to all who are In tlie govum- 

jSookol in History. 

lost and maildened coadition tbrongh -wino. Ho hoe no 
renoc for things which ha onght to revereneo, Imt does d 
to the aged elders, ttio old offlcial furthers. Now the people'^ 
Yin trill even steal away the puio and porfort 
to the spirits of heaven aad earth ; and their coadaet is oi 
nived at ; and though they proueed to eat the victima they ^ 
far no pnnishment. On the other hand, when I looli down ij 
sorvey the people of Yin, the methods of goTemmont to them,* 
hateful esautioiis, -whi-ch call forth ontiages and hatred, i 
this without ceasing. Such crime equally belongs to a 
anthoiity, and mnltitndea are starving vith nonn to whc 
appeal, Now is the time of Shang'a calamity ; I will a 
share in its tuId. When ruin uTertakea Shang, I will nat<l 
the aarvont of another dynasty . Bnl I tell yon, O King's , 
to go away, as being the course for yon Formerly I injured 
you hy what I said, bat if yon do not go forth now, our Sftcrlfl- 
cea will entirely perish. Let ns rest quietly in oui seveiiil parta 
and present ouTaelvee to the former kings. I do not think of 
loaliing my eatajio.* 

In " the 8ho-Kiii{j'," are many allusionB to tlio habits of 

the people. The following are iloacriptions of the ways c ' 

the Betllers in Pin, under King-lcuz, B. C. 1400-1325 ! , 

" In the tenth [month] they reap the rice 

And make the spirits for the spring. 

For the benefit of the bnahy eyebrows," 

This is int.erpretett to mean that the Bpirita distilled fi 
rice cot down in the tenth month, would he ready for t)Mj| 
the spring ; and that the aso of spirits was restricted to t^ 
aged. In another poem, however, allusion is made to f 
cnetom of drinking healths : 

" In the tenth month they sweep their stack-sites, 
The two bottles of wine are enjoyed, 
And they sny, ' Let ns kill our lambs and sheep, 
And go to the wall of our prince, 
There raiao the cnp of thmocoros horn, 
And wish him long life, that he may live foreTOr." 
Meni^iuH suya (about 300 B. C.} : " There are live things wbJ 
ictiee of the ago tu bo imiitlnl • 

Jntemperance in India. 79 

la mcond is ganililing anfl choss-plsyiDg aad being' fond of 
ise, without ntti-urlui<; tu tbft uauriiluuGiit of hia pojcuis." * 

Of the extent <if drinking in modem Clima it is itiipossi- 
to Bpealt with uccuracy, TIib art of dimillation was 
lown and practised there somewhere between tlie tenth 
[d sixteenth centnries, and both fermented oiid spirituous 
laoru are imported into the coaiitiy. * But travellerB do 
ot agreo in their Btatumcats and opinions as to the extent 
' intosicatiou among: the people ; some insisting that in- 
ances of it are very tare, and others declaring that it is 
ifti-cely less prevalent than among Enropeaoe, altlioagh 
lose who imbibe are cautious how they exhibit them- 
ilvee to tlie poblio while under the influence of liquor. 
f tlie influonces which have produced this changed cou- 
pon, TTO shall speak elsewhere. 

II. India. — For our knowledge of the drinking customs 
uiaient India, we are indebted to tho ivritings of the 
paltniaDS, called the Itig-Veda, or Sacred Books, which 
ere brought together about 400 years E. C., but are Bup- 
ised to have beun composed in a remwte aatiiiuity, tlio 
iarest date of which to our own tinio, is 1200 B. C.t 
liCBO books oonlain the Aneiont Hymns, as recited or 
Jig by the prionlH when engaged tn their nificial duties, 
heir religiotia ueri'mouii'a were chiefly saciificial, nntl the 
(ndpol saiiriliee was called " Soma," after an intoxicating 
ink mado from the juice of the creeping plant Aseh'p'uis 
Ida. This plant, after being cleaned and macerate*! in 
iter, was pressed between stones, and the juice, strained 
rough ram's wiwd, was mixed wilh malt and olarilicd lint- 
iiud then t'ei-mented. The sacrifice was made by poiir- 
tho formented Ii(|nid on tho sacrod fire, where it was 
ml to be drank by the goda. Sometimes it was be- 

vot. iv., pt. n-, cb. Ksi. 

) Accordiug tn Dr. HaiTig, Sajieriatpiidfmt of Ran&lf rit Stuiliea 
tLnPoonit College, [kmiliay, thuolilt-Bt hymu iu tliuEift-VedB. 
to be placed botwtMiai 2000 ouU 2400 B. C. 


80 MviJdil in ffistory. 

lievod to bo miraOulouBly transformeil into the god I 
aud io in occasionally ad<li-eBfled as a ]>fi^oii. India M 
the god to wliom the Soma was moat fre(]U(-iitly offered, a 
unless he v/an intoxicated with it nothing was expected t) 
Liin, while all his great exploita were said to bo due lo i 
" eshilaration with Soma." " India delights in it from 1 
hirth : lord of liay horses, we 'wake thee np with i 
acknowledge our praises in the exhilaration of the So* 
beverage." " Be exhilara,tod by the Soma, The Soma 1 
efiiiBcd, the sweet juices aie poured into the Yessels ; 
[Mvpitiates Indra." " Indra comes doily seeking for I 
offerer of the libation. The pleasant beverage that t 
Indra, hast quaffed in former days then still desiivat j 
drink of daily : gratified in heart and mind, and wishing d 
good, drink, Indra, the Soma that ia placed before t 
As soon as bom, Indra, thou hast dnink the Soma for thi 
invigoration. I proclium tho ancient exploit 
the recent deeds that Maghavan has actueved : wIkri mt 
he had overcome the divine illusion, thenceforth the i 
became hia esclusive heverage." " Indra verily i 
chief drinker of tho Soma among gede and men, 
of the eS'uaed libation, the acceptor of ull kinds of ofierinf 
whom others pojune with offerings of milk and curda i 
hunters chase a deer with nets and enares, aud harass i 
inappropriate praises." " When thou hast expelled ( 
mighty Ahi Jrom the firmament, then the fires biased, i 
sun shone forth, the ambrosial Soma destined fjorr 1 
flowed out, and thon, Indra, didst manifest thy manhouc 
James Samuelsou, in his " History of Drink," p. 38, n 
to Langlois' translation of the Big-Veda as anthorily ftu fl 
serting that, " Just as in one of the Hebrew Psalms C 
veree ends with the words, ' For hia mercy endnnstti i 
ever,' so in one hymn to Indra, each verse uonulndeB^ 
follows : ' la the intoxication which Soma has oaufiod 1 
flee wiiat Indra has aceompUahed,' " 


I India. 


^ SometimeB aootlier god is associated witb Indrn in the 

a eaorilice : " May tlio prayora that are repeated to you, 

, Xuilm and Vibliuu; niny tlio praises tbat oro 

laontcd teaeli you ; you are tlie genoratoTB of all praises, 

Btehera redpietit of tlie Soma libation." "ludra and 

Kelmu, a^eeablo of aspeet, drink of tbis sn'eet Soma, till 

nth it your belUes; may the inebriating bovera^ reach 

! hoar my prayers, my invocation." " Indra and Vanina, 

^servant of holy duties, drinkers of the Soma juite, drink 

Is exhilarating efiiisedLbation; sitting on tho sacred grosB, 

Ifi exhilarated by the draught." "The prompt cffuser of ths 

itiou offera the Soma to India and to VajTi to drink at 

B aoorifices, at which devout priests, according to their 

(, liring to you two the first poition of the Soma." 

me witb gracious minds, Indra and .Agui, to this oiir 

L libation : Ye are never regardless of ns, therefore 

Ljttopitiate you with constant eacrifioial viands. Utter 

wywt of Vritra, exhilarated by the Soma, yoa who are 

'^ped with bymuB and prayers and songa, come hither, 

instrDy with your fatal weapons the mortal who is malig- 

niuit, ignorant, strong, rajiauious, destroy hiia like u water 

jar, with your weapons." • 

Othor gods, ha Mitra, tlie Maruts, Aryamfwi, the Aswins, 
anil Sakra, are eallcd upon in the Soma festivity, and all 
an saJii to be endowed with wonderful capacity for con- 
tJiinhig and enjoying the beverage, to owe tlielr power to it, 
iHid to 1)0 expected to grant favors to mortals only ns they 
are well supplied with Soma. 

"Tliat yoii may lirink tlie ainTificial bevcragB, yon come 

iramptly upon this my invitation.'' ''When the etuno, seeking 

^' prupiUat^ ;oa two divinitiea, is raised aloft, and loudly 

Miuiiilf-, esprBaatug for yon tho Soma juice, then tho pious wor- 

i rings yim liai'li, lio.itilifiil ^ivinitius, liy his nblatiou." 

. iiip (?oi]i!i jiiif«B. fluwiiijf lilte water, aclf-rcuownod at 

ii-un'OiljlieH, siijiiiiirt Judriv anil Varuna.'' " Praise to- 

iiiilra, tho showeriii of hL'Uefits whoa Soma is oflijsod.'' 

■ Ibid, i.j., IG, 1 7. 93. 140, 185, 187, 1«9. 

83 Meohot m Nistory. 

" Come bither, lodra, be Gxliilarated by the n'osderftil liba- 
tory affluence, and with thy fiillow-tiopcra, the MamtB, fill "witll 
the Soma juices thy TQBt belly, eapaciouH aa a lahe." " Indra, 
drink thia effused lihntion till thy belly i« fall." "The pota- 
tioaa of Soma contend in thy interior for tliine exliilamtion like 
the ebriety caufled by wine : thy worshippen praise thee, filled 
ftill of Soma lilte the ndder of a, cow with milk." " Qoiokly, 
priest, ponr forth the Soma, for Indra is tltirsty; venly he hsa 
hanteased liis vigoroas st«odB, the slayer of Tritra haa nnivMl. 
Foot out, priests, the Soma libations to Indra, iu his nhsriot : 
the atones, planed upon their bases, are beheld efinBing the 
Soma for the sacrifice of the offerer." " Indra, when the Soma 
jnlcos are eSused, sauctifioa the offerer and the prulaer." 
"Thou, Indra, the most escollont drinker of the Soma [or U 
may mean, aaya Ciiwell, " thou who on drinking the Soma 
bucomoat pteemiiieut,"] deJitroyest the advetae asBembly tliat 
offcra no libations." * 

That the people, as well aa the gods, were partakers of 
the Soma, is evident from thek bo definite descriptions of its 
effects ; their desire that the gods jnay not simply p&rtake 
of it as offered hy them, but may sit down on the grass aai 
partieipate with the offerers in their libations; from thrar 
declaration that India is the ehief drinker among go^e and 
men ; and also from one of their prayers to Soma p^raoni* 

" Where wiahea and desirea are, where the bowl of the biiglit 
Soma ia, where there is food and rqoioing, there make mo iio- 
mortal." t '' When tlie meal was prepared, tUej atrewed Uu 
eating place with sacred grass, aiid invited the goda to tkke 
their aeata and drink tJieir (111. They then poured a portion ot 
their food on the sacreil fire, which was personified aa a ilivina 
nicaaenger who carried the surrifieo to the sereral deities; 
and wlion this was done the fatnily apparently Hat down and 
feasted on the remainder." t 

The Soma sacrifices are now very rarely offered in any 
part of India. Their diguae will be nceoimteil tor in onr 

• Ibid- pp. 1, lis, 173, 211, 21(1, 218, 220, 232, 2T1, 878. 
} Max Miillet's Chips from a Germau Workshop, t, p. 4ft. 
t History of Indra fcom the earliest agee, by J. TalbwjB 
Wheeler, Vol. III. p. 17. 

InfemperaAce in India. 83 

ih of the History of Efforts to suppress Intemperance. 
Hang, desiring to avail LiiuBL'lf o{ u!l possible aids to 
correct understajiding; of the \'eiiaB, says : 

" Seeing the great difficnlties, nay, impoBsibilitj of attaining 
anythiiig like a real understamliiig' of the Ktnrilicia] ait frnni 
jmerouB books I bad cMjllticted, I mnila Uie grMiteat 
bits to obtain oral iufannation &om Eonie of thoM foir 
wtio ure kiionu by tbc nama of 'grotiiyos' or 
traates,' anil wlio alone aro the poasGaaors of tbe aoorifieial 
Bteries as tliey descended from tbe reiuotegt times. The task 
i DO easy one, anil no European sebular in this troimtry be- 
a mo ever Baccecded in it. Tbis ia not to Im wondered at; 
the proper knowledge of tlie ritual in evelywberu iu India 
*■ ntpidly dying out, and iu many parts, cliiefly ia those lui- 
' BritiBb rule, it liua already died out." 
Mtiller continues: " Dr. Hang auccBsded, however, at but, 
pIocnrlngtbcaMistODco of a real Doctor of Divinity, who bad 
>t only pei'fomied tbs minor Vedio socriiiues, snuh as the full 
id new moon ofTeiings, but had offlfiutnd at Bomo of tbe great 
na Bacribues, now vety rarely to be aeon in any part of India- 
was induced, we are sorry to say, by very woroenary consid- 
itions, to perfonn tbe principal ceremonies in a sectaded part 
Ot. Hang's premises. This Insted live days, nnd the same 
Dslouee was afterwards rendered by (be same wortby and 

00 of his brethren whenever Dr. Hang was in any doulit as to 

1 proper moaning of the ceremonial treatisos which give the 
Jiuea of the Tedio saoriGccs. Dr. Haug was actnnlly ai- 
red to taste that sacred. Tjeverage, the Soma, wbioh gives 
ilth, wiBdom, inspirntinn. uay immortality, to thnae wbo 
«ive it from tbe hands of a twtce-bom priest. Tet, ofter do- 
iUng its iiToparatioD, all that Dr. Hang has to sny of it is 
B;"ThoBftp of thfi plant now used at Poona appears wliitisb, 
1 11 Tcry etringunt taste, is bitter, but not sonr ; it is a very 
It; dKDk, and has some intoxicjiting effect. I tasted it sev- 
ll times, but it was impossible for me to drink more than 
no tAa-spoonsfol.'' * 

Th« drinlc of the untumon people of aacieut Indiu ie also 
iiiduued ia the Vcdaii, It ia unllod Sura, aoil in the ear- 
Bt Ages !t was mode from a toll nath''o groset, cnrds, lionoy, 
Jled buttor, barloy, and water ; hitw, ricfi, black pepper, 


.idTboAoI in' History. 

barley, lemon juice, ginger and hot water, entered into i 
oom|ioBition. It was in very general use, was maclj 
intoxicating than Soma, and in one of tlie hymns ia 
feasod to lie the cause of sinful debasement : " It i 
conilition that ia the cause of our sinning ; it, is intoxics 
tion." " Sura, literally wine," adda Jlr. Cowcll.' E 
after severe penalties were attached to intomporanco, 
all uBC of the bowl was denouneed hy the Laws of JAt 
the vice ]irevailed to such an extent that — 

" I'lUastifD, an ancient sage, ennmerates no lesa than twelvli 
dMeTQDt kinds of liqnor besides Soma; and tbe preparation o 
tlkoae drinka iram. the grape, {iom honey, sugar, datufl, tbe (i 
peptier, rice, cocoa-nnt, etf ., has been deaeribed witb coiu 
able minuteness. Beaidea tbeae home-made drinks, larg» q 
titiea of fnreign wines were importi'd into India two 
yeara ago, and met witb a ready sale tliroughont the country."' 

Mnrewood states that when, in 040, A. D., the trade t 
India was transferred from the Egyptians to the Sarac 
and the TMusaulmauB would carry on no eomin 
the Indians manufactured their intoxicants ham vadotn 
substances, the chief of thorn being the fermented juic* o 
the paluiin tree, and called Tari.f 

Modem travellers tell us that intoxication in India U 
is oliiefiy among tho lowest castes and the half-castes, t 
higher orders very genorally abstaining from all inelmatli^ 
drinks. The common nrraclt, distilled from rice, is i 
most ; although the very lowest and besotted drink a fl«F 
compound called Pariah arracit, the distilled juice of thj 
palm and the thorn apple, a powerful narcotic. Konsseln 
describes an annual debaaobery in the Spring seaeon^ w^*^ 
under the guise of religion, all classes in India give thet 
selves up to beastly drunkenness. 

"The caruival.'- be says, "l.iate several days, daiiag y 
the most liceutioua dobautbery and diBurder reign tbcoagluin| 

• Wilson's Big-Veda, p. 173. 

t The History of Iirluk, by James Samuelson, p. U. 

] Morewood on luebrlating LiquoiB, p. 71. 

Infemperance in Persia- 


rs clflss of socii'ty. It \» the regular satnmalia of Indjiv, 
soiisof Ihegreuti'st rMpeotability, without regard to rank or 
^ are not Mhiiiiioil to take part in tile orgies which mark tliia 
woof Ilioyeiu'." " Tnrapauf niciianil noiucn, wriMit!i(!d with 
rem, and diuidi with bitng, crowd the atrwtB. taiTyiuji; CKcka 
\ of a. bright red vegetalila povrder. With this tlii^y aBHsil 
pasunrs-li;', eoreriug tljcui ivith clouds of diiat, which boou 
1 their clotima a Htuj-tliiif; color." "Novir h;ivn I arcn ho 
oltini^ a spertacle. Groiiprt iif native wretches dead druuk 
IV wallowing in the gatterit, an<l at every ift«p the mout din- 
itiug debauchery was exliibitod with unblushing efl&on- 

iri. PsRBiA- — ^The "beginmngti of the Uetory of thepoo- 
le who established the Persian Empire are involved in no 
' eIb obsfcTirity, and irincli that te accepted aa tnio in regard 
tliu place frora which the settlers came, as also the vauaes 
their emigrution, ie conjectural. But it seems well 
oven thflt they hronght a religion with them Laving in 
rra many foalures in common with the religion of India, 
ongh in Bpiritcoatajningmuchandairaingatruiichinwide 
ntrast with tlie Drahminieal writings. ITieir leader and 
loet renowned mnu waa, he clmmed, and they believed, 
i'cireil wnth a rev<'!ation from the Stipreme Ood, Ormaxd, 
lo (lii'ected tiiat they ehould call themselves the Slazday- 
naa, lliu people of OnnaKiL The hook containing the 
VtiJation. the Zend-Avesta, which means Zend-tnm sla- 
in, Boniotiuies corantcntary, A vesta— -sacred t writings is 
w!o up of the Saorcd Law, Invocations and Hymns; 
c former, heing much thii Inrger portion, is put into the 
of a converBation between Zaraihnstra, whoni the 
tod^m Persians call Zerdiiaht, and whom we know by the 
reek trMislatiim, as Zoroaster, «nd Orraaad, the ftinner 
iTring «u'l the latter answering (|nesl.ions. 
Wtieo Zoroaster fioiiriahivl is nnhnown. " Endoxua de- 
jorea," sajs Pliny, •' ihal tliie Zon.'nBtei' lived ms tbonmind 

* Quoted In Saiauelsou'e Ili«ti>ry of Prink, p. 5. 

tGwayB on tlic Sacred Luuguage, ctii.. of tlie I'atHiB. li^^lut- 

b^ng, Pb. D.,p. 120. 

86 Akohei in Hidory. 

years before tiio death of Plato. So also, Aristotle. 
mippns, who wrote with tiin ctriioet care on the witole I 
and coicimoiitod on two tuillion vuraes composed Xty Z<B 
astor, and prepared indexes of Ms works, repurts tl 
Azonacea was the teacher liy whom ho was ur^etniatoil, ai 
' that lie lived 5000 years t>«fore the Trcgani was." • 

Jjiuiiien suggests " that the date of ZoroaBter fixed hj- J 
tatle, ctuaot be said to he sa very irrational ; bat lie a 
" At the present stage of the inquiry, the qtiestioi: 
thia (late is set too hig;h cannot be answered either In t 
negative or affirmative." t 

Spiegel, one of the translators of tho Zend-Avesta, n 
Biders Zoroaster as a neighbor and ootemporary of Abrajia 
bapp, in hia Religion of the I'ei'aians, concludes, ftfter 
thorough comj>ariiMin of ancient writeiB, tliat Zeroaster li« 
B. C. 12(KI or 1300; while Prof. Whitney^ of New Have 
places him at least B. 0. 1000. The range ia iheeeforw 
wide one, from 1000 to 6350 B. C. 

Like the Braliiuins, the Mazdayasnas offereiT 3ncriS«oa 
an intoxicating beverage to their gods, Tliis <iiiiik t 
called Ilaoma, or Homa, anii sometimes Faraluui^ aaSk 
waB also the case with the Brahmins, the name wua^ww 
the tree or plant, and Co the god, as well as to the Item 
itself. It ia Knpposod, and not witiiont good reason, ( 
Soma and Hoiua are identical, as the initial 8 of Sane 
ia always represented hy H in Zend, an indication that 
remote antiquity ibe ancestors of the two people ^ 
family. The Horn or Homa tree is said " to groM 
tops of mountains in Gilin, ShirvSn, Mazendeifit^ and i 
cording to Autequil, tho Parsees of India still ^ew) I 
time to time one of their prieets to KimiaJi for cuttil^^' 
It is often praised in the Avesta for the golden color of "^ 
liqmd. A White Qoma, a mystical plant, aoraetimes cslls 

•Nat, Hist.. Bk. xss. cli. 1, 

(Egypt's Place ui Unlversul Hjatory, Vul. Hi. Pi (Tl. 

1 Spiegel's Arvesta, a. Jxrii. 

Inievipcrance in Persia, 87 

lerenft, poEsessing- even grentcr vii'tties thnn the real tmu, 
asmaeh as whoevOT tastes of it bocorafs iniincrtHl, ia also 

In till' nintli Tasna, Spiegpl'a tranalaf ion, l!ie god Uaoma 
appears to ZumLbnatra, " At tbe time of tliu moiiiing 
was pnrifying the fire anil reciting tlie GSttha»," 
And calls npon hiro : " Praise mo with songB of praise." 
iZamtlinstra having complied, enters iiilo converfiation witli 
god, asking, "Who firat, O Haoma, prepared Uieo in 
le corporeal world i WUat UoHimsa thereby beoftnie Iiis 
4haro f Wliat wish was bestowed on him!" An answer 
leing given, as also to the inqiiiry who the second and the 
third were that had prepared liini hi the corporeal world, ho 
[UestioDB in tho eamo fonu in regard to tbe fourth man, and 
B anawetsd : 

" PonmsIiAapa has propariMl me as the fonrth man in thu eoT- 
' imtld; tliia holineaa became thnmby hja portiou, this wish 
ru fltirOIed to him : 

*' That tiitm wert bom to him, thoti piim Zaraihnstra, in the 
[wolling dI* Poiirutihflapa, created against tlia Duevas, dovuttid 
o'tlle belief in Abnra- 

"Tlie rcnowiiud in Airyanu-vnirya, whieh spreads itself 
ibnod four-l'oid, 

"Afterwfltdij tJio other prayet with mighty voice. 

"Thou mu'lkist that all tlic Daovii>i hiil themselves in the earth, 
) Zarnthnstra, which holbre were goin^ ahont on the earth in 
^flhapu of tiiirii. 

"Thoiti ths mightiest, strongeat, most aittivo, swlftent, the 
Dott victoriiiiis Dmoug tho hoavnul^ bcingn. 

" When aodwei'oil Zarathiiatra ; Adoration to the Hatinia ! 

"Goeil is Haomu, wull-cruutod Ls Haoma, rightly oreatod is 

" Well-erentBd and health-bringing. 

"-fllfled witJi good body, I'ightly acting. 

i" Victurioua, gotrten, with moist atallcs. 

"Ua is vtay good whuu uue cata hiiii, .lud tlie siirefat lor the 

"Thy wiwlom, O Oolilen, praise I ; 
"Thy power*, thy victory, 

•Vendidad, sle, 17. 

88 Akx)hci in ffisfory. 

'' Thy healthfnlnCBS, thy healing power, 

"Thy fui'theraupe, thyiucroaaa. 

" Tliy powers iu the whole body, thy greatness in the wholB J 

"PrUiise thut I may go about the world as Riilor, paiaing tha J 
touuenteis, einifiti<,' the DTit,;as; 

"That I may tonoBat lUl the tonueDta, the tormenting Da«rvDS 1 

The fonrteentb Vispered ia a prayer or ascription to be. 1 
recited bv the prieata wliile preparing' tlie Homa; and] 
among the nece^ary utensils of the priest, " the cop 6m, 
the Homa " ia nientionod.* It ia offered up " lor satiefao-' 
tion to the good wntore created by Maada ; " " for satisfac- 
tion to the Frnvashi (the soul) of the holy Zarftthnstra,'' and 
for "all departed souls;" "for pruiae to Ahura^Masda" 
(OrmaKd) ; " in prayer for strength to tUoee who fight thi 
demons ; " in propitiation of all the goda ; t at tJie 
for the purification of the land, of the killer of a dog, am 
of the liceutions.J It is the only thing incapable of 
ment by being brought in iwntaeE with the unclean : " Th( 
prepared Haoma has neither diasolution nor death 
oven when it ia brought to a dead body." And it is ftnfj 
of the mightiest weapons with which to fight the demons. 
The laity are to ofier it to all the genii of the waters, tl 
stare, and the cattle, and are to praise it continiialIy.|| Homi 
cuTSca tlio peison, the dwelling and the posterity of thoat 
who do not prepare it, or who hinder others in their 
paration of it.^l 

From the foregoing quotations, and they are fair speqi' 
mens of n'hat is said of Homa in tiie Zend-Avesta, it nj 
pears that the offerings as well as the praises of the )ii 
rage, -v/ove made to the good god and his assiatants ; bntij 
Plutarch conveys tho idea that tlie offerings wore made I9j 
the evil god and the demons, for the puipose of avertinj 

• Vonrlidad, xiv. 31, t Tasna, vii. x. xii. xsiii. 

tTondidiul, Lx. xiii. xviii. $ Vondidad,T!.xix.;TBmA,x. 
I Kordaah-ATesta, xxi.-xsri. xl. % Taana, xL, 

Intemperavee in Persia. 89 

iKT wrath : " They beat a cei-Uun plant called Honiomi, 
a mortar, and call up Pliitn and the dark ; and (hen 
he it with the blood nf a savrificwi wolf, and convey it lo 
CGi'Iaiu place where tlio Ann never BhincB, and there cast 
'a\Oiy."* Tint whatever iho hileut with which the II om a 
HQ Bcifri&cially used, it is evidtnt that, unlike the nee of 
le Soma, it was nut to be employed either by priestH or by 
^ty for the puipose of producing their intoxication ; it was 
lolly for the gods. Dmnkennoea was supposed to bo the 
6rk of Ahmoan, the god of darkneea and evil, and there- 
re was forbidden by Onuaitd. 

Two other inlosicanta were known to the people, and in 
ite of injunctions to the contrary, were employed in pro- 
icing drtmkenneas, The one, Hura, identical probably 
quality aa In name with the Brahmin Sura, and the other, 
Ittnga, Bomotiines denounct^d in the Vendidad an producing 
irtiona, and soinctinies reprcaeiited as one of tlie three 
eraons who are ever hostile to maii.f 
Xater in tlio liietnry of PerMa, the vine seems to have 
Ben cultivated, intoxicantB bocaroe more common, and in- 
imperance iucroased. Sir Jamea Malcom, in his Uiatory 
r PfirHO, quotes from the M8S. of Moullah At^kber, to the 
feet that Jem Shecd, the (iinnder of Persopolis, was pas- 
onatoly fond of grapes, and desiring to havo Bomo always 
isy or aecees, concealed a largo quantity in a vault. Great 
aa bis Biirprise on visiting his treasure to find tlmt much 
t the mass lad been crashed, and that tlie escaped juice 
as 80 acid that lie believed it to bo poisonous. Not know- 
iff what might yot oonie of it, lie filled some vessels with 
io liquid and stored them in his own apartment, labelling 
jeui " Poidoii." A favorite concubine suffering from 
lervoiia debility, meditated gnioide as the only reiifif from 
malady, and seeing the vessels of poison, openeil one and 
illowed its contents. Stupefied by the draught, she fell 

Art. Ibis and Oalria. 

90 Akohd in Higtor^ 1 

into a sleep, and nti waking waa deligbted to find heieelf 4 
free from pain. Charmed with the Rensatioiis espcricQced, M 
she continned lior experiments till she hail ilninkupallthoJ 
monaruli'a poieou. Coufvseing tho theft, and descnluiig I 
the delightful effects which it prodnced, and her tborongh* 
restoration to health hy its ubo, Jem Bheed oaueeii liu^ge I 
quantities of grapcB to be gathered and left in a liniisedll 
condition in larger vosboIb, and eoon his entire court m&g^ 
the praises of the Zehcr-e-koosh, or " the delightful poisoHj" m 
as they named it. fl 

Haflz, the favorite poet of the Poi^ians, thus sings the fl 
praises of wine : M 

Tbut poiguaiit liqnar irliich the zealot calla the mother of ^ns^g 
is pleasaator and snecter to lue than tlie 1daae» of a maiden. fl 

" The only friends whoare&ee from care are u goblet of wine' J 
and a book of odes. M 

"The tulip la ncijiiaiutocl with the faitliloaBneaa of thewoildjj 
for &om the time that it blows till it dies, it holds the oap In itsi 

" Give me wine ! mue that aliall Babdiio the strongest ; that I M 
may for a time forget the cares and troubles of the world. M 

"The roaca have come, nor caJl anything a^Tord so miicll.l 
ploaauie ns a goblet of uine. ■ 

" The enjoyments of life are vain ; bring wine, for the trap- % 
pinga of the world are perishable." * I 

Herodotus, who mote about 450 V. C, says that "tLe J 
Persians are mui-h a^lditted to wine. They are need toj 
debate the most important affairs nhen intoxicated; bun 
whatever they have determined on in such deliberalions, is,! 
on the following da.v, when the^ are sober, proposed iaM 
thom by the master of the Loose where tLey have mot toS 
consult ; and if they appn>ve of it when atiljor also, thetll 
they adopt it ; if not, they reject it j and whatever theyl 
have first resolved on when sober, theynKTOusidcrwhea iuiJ 
tosicated." He also I'elates tlmt when Oynw, about &3Sl 
B. C, made war upon the Miissagetffi, of Central Asia, liaa 

Intemperance m Pertiia. 


n fcinl. of ileserling liis camp, leaving in it flowing 
_{oblets of wine, wUitli tempting the enemy to excess, Cmia 
j>tta«keil tliem iinil gained a \-ictory; also that Cajiiliysoa, 
u and BQt%ei:tsDr of C'yraR, sent, among olLor gifts, a cask 
i p&lm wine to tbo king of Etbiopia.* 
" Although, ae wiU be ebowa bereafter, the rules of tbo 
Hohanunodan religion are acluiowledgecl by the modem Per- 
eiima, Ibeir earlier succesRee as eonqnerorB of Babyloo, tbeir 
union, with tbo Uedee, a people of liixurioas buhits, ad- 
dicted tbcm to iiilemperatiee ; and leniling tbem to tlio cul- 
tivation of tbe Tine for the purpose of obtaining wine, their 
Kacient Empire wjw overthrown, tiiey having beconie in 
Bbro hundred years from tbe eonquest of Babylon, the most 
Bbunkea natiou ou tbo earth, entailing on their tlescendauta 
■tlove and practice of inobriation. They ore nincb Icssstrict 
Btoharnmedans than are other nations that bavo adopted 
^Bie creed of tho Prophet, and tbotr wines ore celebrated for 
^ueir abtmdanee, strength and flavor. Sir J. C'bardin, who 
^bvelled extenBivoly among thoin, Htatee that " as niueb aa 
^Kborae can cany of their best wines can be parrhased fur 
^Hrclve ehillings, and tbo more ccnimon sorts do not cost 
^Bore than half that money." Attending an entortaiumeut 
^H tlie houae of a royal prince, bo descrihea tbeir manner of 
^bnking as follows : 

^B" The prince's neoieat relations, selecting about eiglil in niim- 
^Btt were first presQnt«d with veaaels of wine, which thoj drank 
^HftDiling up. The HOlue bowle being filled agnln, were tarried 
^K~the nest persons, and so on, until tho health had hccn drunk 
^Kuil. After iJiia, tbe next hnalth n-aa drunk in larger eups, 
^Kr it was tbo cuHtimi of tbe emmtry to ilrink tho healths of 
^fciat personages iu Inrgs voasels, This wua done on paqiosc to 
^BsIiO their gliosis more effectniUly drunk. This desired climax 
^■ralA HOOD be attntnwl, when we roiisiiler tlie size of their 
^■Mses. Tbo liret glaa8(>s iisud wore of the eonimon sort, hut the 
^HHt ooittiuni?d uhuut a pint and a half of wine'" t 

V •Hermlotiis. i. 133. 211. iii. 20. 

■ ) Sir J, Chardin's Travcla, pp. 228, 229. 


Jkohdt in History. 

Tavemier, ftBotter traveller, beiira witness to the e 
escoss in Armenian Persia. No man wIid gives an entd 
taiiinieut ctmsiders that Le li^r: sdown true hospitality tifl 
lie has made hifl gueals bo drank that tliey cannot find the^ 
way out of the room. The more tiiey reel and Btaggi 
about, the loss reason has lie to regret the expense t " 
feast. He also says of the Persian Georgians, that thj 
nse of stimalants is so common that on entering the i 
ing-rooni efloh guest is presented Tvith a half-glassftl c 
aqua vitae, to excite his appetite. Wine, though the ufttivj 
drink of the country, soon fails there, as elsewhere, to e 
isfy the toper. '' They lovo ttie strongest drinks best, 1 
wliich reason, both men and women drink more aqua ^ 
than wine. It is also observable that at the women's S^ 
trvalfl, there is more wine ajid aqua vitae drank than at t 
men's."* A drink prepared from herbs, and made mo^ 
intoxicating by an infusion of hemp seed, was in 
time. It was called Bengueh, and waa no doubt similar to 
if not identical witli the Banga of the Avesta. More re- 
cent travellers speak of the great quantities of arraclc, a 
fiery and rapid intoxicant, conenmod in Persia. Bov. i 
H. Shedd, writing from Oroomiah, Petaia, says of the T 
testant missionaries in that province; 

" We have never fiiund winB an aUy to the temperance cans 
Uieugli it flows around as nhnifst as vheup and ubunilant ^ 
water, During the wine seaaon beastly druakannesa ie too ci 
muu to excite uommcnt. 1 hare been in larj^e villages 
feaat-day, wlipn it wus nearly impossible to find a sober n 
tha place- The corraption of morals, the degradation of it 
the midnight carouaala, tUe losses &om rjutoiis living, from !< 
nuss, (juaiFelling. and crime, ore too enermoas to b 
tud. Tho wiue- weddings, with their tritin of evils, ara the ei 
my of tho Cliristiau peasant, uud tliu auiuto of debt iti 
t^ ].t often crash him, andbroak up bis home. Man^f aoc^tUi 
t!io passion for stimulimtB, and pass from wiuu to arraek, a r 
distilled from raisins. Thus wine j» a Mncknt, unil tuiiltituA 
ore in the road tu ruin tlirough the curse of tJtToag Diii 

• Persian Travels, vol, i 


Intemperance in Bgypi. 93 

mong tbc nominnl Cbiistiaus of Persia, anil many other plarca 
f tlio East, tbo worst ilL-atrciynr of tlio soul nliil ol^tltcle to ttie 
Dgpel is vino, ami tliu attendant intfimperauce." * 

"A Moelein princo Inlely asked mo," eays Anlrar Araoli 
yldrankimo) It lioea not make you dmnk. 1 taka 
ik." f Many excuse ttiemeelves for drinking ardent 
:a, on tbo ground tliat it it) the use of wioe alone that 
BDUned prohibits. 

ae ParGees of India, not over 110,000 in number, ao- 

is^ to their great champion, Framjee,| claim to be th6 

sceailanlH, in point of faith, of the ancient ZoroastrianB. 

; them, Framjee, while cimceding that sncU as 

n afford it, drink large quantities of nine at euppcr, As- 

s that they drink intoxicants during llie ilaylinie. No 

loubt, then, the niglits arc long, and faithfully devoted to 

Vitilting, elae how conhl their "820 tavem keepers, and 

' liquor sellers, distillers, and palm-wine druweo," 

ftiioh he onamerates, {and against whom he places but 

' bakers and oonfeotionei-B,") find patronage! 

I IV. EorpT, — The teatimony of ancient writers in regard 
totbeintuaicatingdriTika made and used by the Egyptians, 
p conflicting, and therefore of little worth. HetodoHis saya : 
fcThcy use wine made of barley, for they have no viues 
a that countryt" § But previous to this, speaking of liio 
(3vantag(^a t^njoyed by the priests, he aaya : " Supred food 
b CQokod for them, aiid a great quantity of beef and geese is 
plowed each of them every day, and wine from the gnipeia 
."H Hia statement in regard Ui " nii vinew in tlie 
Bantiy," inuet therefore refer to that part of the country 

I •Quoted by Uev Da.waoD Bums, in Cliristcndom and tha 
}, pi>. 2ia, 220. 
t Thrnngh IVwia iif Caravrin, Vol il. p. 322. 

t Pararius, by Ooaablioy Fnui^eo. Quoted by Soniael- 
1, p. 67, 
■ 1. il. Ti. 


.^coital in Sistory. 

" wiiich 19 sown witt cflm," tlie part sppcifiod at tlie ooni 
moncement of tlio paragrapn. He also identiflea Osii 
with tbo Greek Bacehua, and cliiiuis tbat t\Q Bgyptiau 
also made them iUenlical. FlutaTcIt's testimony is to tU 
same offect. " Tbe latter eays of tLe tiso (if wine ui 
the Egyptians, that their kings, beiug also priests — 

" Begun first to (Irink it in the reign of King Paammelicn 

but befbro that time they were not uaetl to drink wineat all, noi~ 
nor to pour it forth inBaurifiee, as n thing they thought anyway 
grateful to the gods, but aa ttie blood of those irho in ancient 
times waged war against the gods, from whom, falling down 
from heaven, and miting with the «arth, tliey conceivod v 
to hare first spriing ; -which is the reiison, eay they, that dmnH 
enneaa renders men heaide themaelves and uiad, they being, I 
it were, gorged with the Wood of their aneuslors." t 

But Homer, who flomiahed about 1000 13. C, anfl 4 
years before Psammeticaa, refere the invention of druggs 
wiaea to Egypt ; 

" But Helen now on new device did BtanA, 
Infusing straight a medioiDe to their wine. 
That, drowning cares and angers, did derline 
All thoaght of ill. Who drank har cup ouuld shod 
All that day not a tear, no not if dead 
That day his father and his mother were. 
Not if Ilia brother, child, or chiefest dear, 
He aboiild Bee murder'cl then before his face. 

And we find from Genosie si. 11-13, that tho Tiflt 
supplied grapes for the king^e table in the time of JitBepId 
1870 B. C, and that it was the duty at the butler to 
the grapes into Pharaoh's cnp, and then deliver the o 
to Pharaoh's hand. Thia, it is tnie, prodneod an unintm 
eating beverage, but it showa that the vine was not tlu! 
regarded with contempt. 

• Morals, Vol. iv. 

I Ibid. p. 71. 

} Odyssey, Bk, iv. 

Article, Ieis and Osiris, p. 70. 

Inlemperamx in E<jypt. 


I HellanicnB the liistorion, alwnt 400 B, C, eaya that 

e vine was first diaeoverod in Plintliina, a city of Egypt ; 
loh uj'oouiit Pino, tho Atadeoiic jihiloBopher, calls Mie 

^itianB fond of wine and fond of drinking ; and also, thnt na 

anbHidiiiry to wine, iu the caae of those who, on aoeotmt of their 
poverty, conld nut get wine, there wns inliodnced a enatom of 
dtinking beer made of barley; and moreover, that those who 
drank thia beer were bo pleased with it tliat they song and 
meed, and did everything like men dnmk with wine," • 

t alsn appears from t]io Mouiuncnts, that tbo cultivation 
f grapeB and llio art of wino-making wore well understood 
tt Effypl frnm the time of the Pyraniida, according to Bun- 
i, 3229 years B, C, or according to LepstnB, 3426-B. C.f 
oifl although Herodotus and Plutarch and other authorities 
s to thu extent of the use of wine in the sacrificial rites, 
B ovident, fi:oin tho delineations on the most ancient fi'ea- 
8, that no restrictions were put upon its nse by men or wom- 
n Botial and private life, "Wilkinson gives aeveral illus- 
ane of these pictiiresj in some of which servants are car- 
g their insensiblo masters home fiom a drinking frolic, 
le tho feiuolo attendants on their nnvcs aad daughters, 
B represented as supporting them as they sit at the feast, 
B without sTich help to prevent themselves from fall- ■ 
J those seated beside or behind them, and often ao 
ick in their debauch as to be unable to condoct themselves 
decency. So ambitious were they in their gross 
nee as to who should imbibe the most, that various 
!a of stimulating food were placed on their tables, in- 
d to create thirst and otherwise excite the palate. 3o 
t wan the conaumprion of wiuo, that, in the time of 
idotUB, large importationB were received twice a year 
I Phntuicia and Grceoo. 
" Sgypllan boer was made from barley ; but aa hops were nn- 
^Bwa, they were obliged to have recourso t<i other jiiaatB, in 

'Atliemena, Bfc. i, ehap. Gl. 
I t EltJpt. Paot and Present, by .Toseph P. Thompson, p. 349. 

, Popnlaj Ai'rount of tbi. Aiir'ient Ett.vptiauB, by fiir J. 
T Willdiuuin." Vnl. I. \\\\. ii'i. Tii. 


JlacAA tn f uforsr. 

onior to givB il. a grateful flavor; and the In^in, the sldiTBll 
{Siaiu lUaram), niiil llio root of oii Aaajrliui i>l]Viit were need. 1i 
them for that puriiose. 

" Bosidea lieor, the Egyptians liad what Pliny calls factitior 
or artificial wtae, extracted fiom various fniita, as figs, myaxs 
pomegRinates, aa noil aa herbs, Bomo of wliK'U wero B^eoto 
for tlieir medioinal properties. The Gtoeka and l4itiiie Ci 
prebeuded every kind of Leverage m.tde by tlie process of fesfl 
nteiitatioii, uitdoi the aame general name, and beer wd9 desi^f 
nated aa barley-wino ; but by the nae of the name zythoa 
show that tho Egyptians distingoished it by ita own pe 
ftppeUation." * 

V. Greece Aitd Roue. — Entering now, aa onr fielA' 
of obaetvation, those claBsio rflgions with whose cuHtoma all 
are more or Ices acqxiainted, the litcratore of the people bo- 
ing in part an enforced study in the ourriculum of a liberst _ 
education, wo have to do with two of the most wondert 
nationa that have ever floimshed on the eartb 

The Greeks have an early and lonp extended 1 
and in addition thereto, a mythiial j«no(l, i,iIaahlo at les 
for this, that it acquaints us with tin cnhtoniB whiuli r 
have prevailed when the writers of that penod floimehedE 

Tho most valuable work illuBtrative of the domeatio anff 
eoclal life and maanera of the Greeks, and also throwing 
much light on the manners and cnetoma of other aneient 
peoples, is the Deipnosophistie, {Banquet of the Leanied)j_ 
by AthenfeoB, a rhetorician ami encyelnpfedian 
piler, who lived in the beginning of the third century of tBj 
preaeut era. His work is in the form of a dialogue betwefi 
above twenty eminent lawyers, poeta, and rcpresentatiTt 
of the various learned profeaaiona, who are supposed to rae^ 
at a banquet ^ven by a rich citizen of Itonie, whem « 
draws upon his learning to discourse of feasts in genes 
and to enlarge on the great variety of eubjecta naluralW 
BUggeated by talkinff of the cuatoms of the ancients. 
profess to deal chiefly with facta, and refer profUeely to tl 
authorities for their statements. 

• Ibid, p. BJ. 

Intemperance in Greece and Rome. 


coTirae, they liave mach to 8aj of wine, for aUhongh 

[ the Greeks made iuttisicating drinks from figB, roots and 

I tlie palmvOS itlso ^om barley, and their mixed drink^i Wi'^e 

almost withont number, their chief boverago was wiao 

miide from grapes. The origia of tlie nino, is, in nmny 

fanciful ways, attributed to the goda, ohietly, but not exelo- 

Ieivoly, to Baccbna. He discovered, ratlier than created it. 
Homer frequently eBUinerateB vineyards among the posaea- 
vions of his heroea ; bat probably beoaose so liule is roally 
known of the origin of the vino, many fables were origiua- 
ted to Bceoiint for it, both among tfae poets and tlie com- 
'inon people. Deucalion, who is famed in fable as having 
peopled the earth after the flood, had a son Orestlieus, who 
.'Owned a, dog, which in lieu of giving birth to pupe, brought 
■forth a smiill piece of wood, which being buried, sprung up 
B vine loaded witii grapes. Orestheus having shortly af- 
ter, a son, named him (Bneas, from the vine, for tlial was 
the ancient mime for the vine. Ath'enieuB gives as his 
aatliority for tliis fable, Hecatsns, who wTote about 450 
~ ~ Ho also quotes Kicander, 14C B. C, ae authori^ 
Ljthat wine, oinos, hus its name from Qlneua : 

" (Eoens poured the jnire divine 
In hollow cups, and called it wina." , 

And a ettll earlier authority tor the story, is found in 
Uelamppidos, about rfDO B. C, who said ; "'Twaa CEneua, 
paster, gave lus name to wine." * 

Others suppose a spot near Olympia to have first pro- 

[dnoed it, in proof of which, a miracle was said to be wrouglit 

thero annually during tho Dionysiao (Bacohie) festir-al ; 

still othcre tliat the Greeks brought it from the shores 

ujf the lt«d aea.t Plato, 400 E, C, after ordaining in his 

(fiooond Soak of Laws that boys should never taste wine at 

I, and jaeti of thirty yeais of ago should drink sparingly, 

I If a,t all, but thai those who oro forty may feast at large 

98 Mcohdf. in EiOory. 

banqnete and invoke the gods, especially BacciuB, s 
he gave wine aa an antidote against the austerity of t 
ago, adds: 

" But there is a report iiiid story told that this god wm o 
deprived of his mind aud sensua Ijj- Ills raother-iii-law, Jfiiioi on" 
which oeeount ha Bent Uauuhic fren;!y, and all aorta of liantio 
rage, among men, out of revenge for the treatment which ho 
hadzecoived; on wiiich ueuouut uJao, he gave wine lo men."* 

This story is certainlv the best borne out by facte of any 
of the numoroQS ancient fablea of the origin of wine, f»w 
whatever ti:an!d;!ut joy its uae may impart to its uaets, it it 
sure to bii revtaled as an entmy at the lost. There is i 
Gieoiaa legend not montt ined indeed by Athpniens, 
quite old enough to be worthy of as much regard as ia 
to such as we have already crt( d, thit uuntains some 
gOBtivo thoughts, BO well does it portray the preaent as 
as tho past conscquonoos of wine drinking. It runs ii 

" When Baonhns w.ts a boy ho journeyed through HeHos t< 
to Naxia ; and, as the way was very long, he grew tired, and sot 
down upon a atone to test. As ho Bat there, with his eyoa npoB 
the gronnd, he saw a little pliint spring up between his feet, aniO" 
was BO much pleased with it that ho determined to take il 
him and plant it in Naxia. Ite took it np and carried it avi 
with him ! but, as tho siui was very hot, he feared i 
wither boibm ho reai'hed hi« destination. He found a bhtl^ 
skeleton, into whii;h he thrust it. and went on. Hut in 
tho tilaiit sprouted so fast that it started ont of the hones ubovfl 
and below. This gave bxm fresh fear of its withtring, andheci 
about for n rumudy, Ue round a lion's boue, which was thlckoj 
tliuu the bird's steletnii, and he stuck the skelf Ion, wltb tl 
plnnt in it, into the bone of the lion. Ere long, hon 
pUnt grow out of the lion's hone likewise. Then lie &uud t 
boue of nu ass, lur-er still than that of the lion. So Iw pnt th j 
lion's, containing the bird's skeleton and tho plant, into tho ni 
hoiio. and thus ho made his way to Nasi:i, When ahoint ti> n 
tiio plLtnl, bo fonnd that the roots bad entwined thtsnadv« 
sro'ind tlin hinl's skelet^m and the lion's bone and tho H 
bono ; and, us he could not take it out without damaging t 

•Ibid, B. %. eh. 55. 

Intennperance in Greece and Rome.. 99 

loots, h« planted it aa it was, and it piiine np epeeilil)', and t>ore, 
to Uis grout joy, tho most deliti»aa gtapi«, ftoiu which he lunile 
tlie fiwt wiiiB, anil gave it to nioji to drliiU. But. beJioid a luir- 
aclr! When men ilrank of it, they Krst sang like binla ; nrxt, 
[ kfier dtiaking a littie raore, tJicy became vigorous nnti gallant 
liouB ; but, when thof dlauk more still, they ttegOD to be- 
Q like asses." 

Bnochus, tka we bave already Been, bad different tiatnea 

I different countries. His Greek aaroo was Dionjaus, 

ind the story of liia origin is botli wonderlii] a»d ridiculous. 

His common iianio, Bacchus, is from a Greek word wkioh 

lueaiia '' lo revel," and the other names given him by the 

Greeks d«iot«d other peculiarities by which be was distin- 

oished.* He is represented in the ancient paintings with 

i reil face, a bloated body, carried in a chariot sometimes 

fawn by tigera and lions, Boraetimes by other animals, 

ud having as a guard a drunken band of satyrs, demons 

td nyiopha that preside over the wine presses. He is of- 

I foUowed by Silenua, Ws foster-father, who drinks with 

II from the same cup, and is almost alwayu intoxicated, aa 
a described in the sixth eclo^o of VirgiL 

I Bacchus was a great traveller, and wherever ho went he 
ight the culture of the vine and the mode of making 
He abm taught certain myBterieB, which were chief- 
r followed by tho women, who from the effects which the 
! had on them, were called Thyadea and Maenades, 
a which dtmolo madness and folly. At Sparta he waa 
knalilpped under the name of Snkites, because, says Sobi- 
8 supposed to be the discoverer of the fig. So- 
>oW called him tho "many named," because in the Or- 
ftie hymns alone, more than forty of his appellations are 
Vt with. Not only do wo glean from the representations 
■ him during liia supposed existence on the earth that like 
p gods of India and Persia he delights in intemperance, 
t tho festivals instituted in hiu honor after his death be- 

of the Heathea Ouds, gives him 


Ahohd i 

came so riotous and dissolute that at last the ann 
law wae invoked for their supproesion. 

In the mythic writingB of Homer we find that both t 
higher and the lower orders of demigods and men i 
fiimilarly affected by the nae of wines ; that the wines of 
one conntry are exported to other lands, and wherever need 
produce intoxication. For example when Ulyases reaoheB 
the '■ outlawed Cyclops' land," he finds 

Of prond^ved loiterers, that never soWj 
Nor put a plant in earth, nor naa a plow 
But truot the gntU for oU thUigs ; and theli n 
Unsown, nnplow'd, gives overj ofTsprlug liiiOt j 
That otber lands liave ; wbent, and barley, i ' 
That iienr in E"<"11F grapes deliciooa ivmea ; 
And JoTO senilH abowcrs ftir oil." 

Obtaining provisions fi-om a neighboring island aboond-, 
ing in goats, the crows of the "twelve Bliipa in the Qeet,^ 
made a feast, at which they had abundance of wine. 

" Evea till the son was set, 
We est and feasted, pleasant wine and meat 
FlenteoDHly taking ; for we bad not spent 
Onr ruddy wine a ahip-board, Bupplemeut 
Of large sort each man to his vesBel drew, 
When we the sacred city OTertbrew 
That held the Cicons." 

The day after the feast, Ulysses took twelve of his 
friends and went on ehoro to visit the great Cyclop Poly 
phemos, and, as a present, carried, 

" A gout-sliin flagon of nine, black and strong," 

which he had obtained, " lu Thracian Israans,"* 

The Cyclop having received them in a barlmrous ir 
and devoured six of the crew, he is matle drunk liy thd| 
wine, and Ulysses with his remaining commdes escapes. 

•Odyssey, Blcii. 167-17i; 239-2*3. 

Intempi'ranf'e in Greece attd Home. 101 

In the dmnken riot in which the sultorg of Penelope en- 
gag'e, I'lyssea slaya AiiliiiouB "As ho v,'aa lifting op the 
liowl ; " ttud in the conx'ersatloa which prect'des lliia traa'Ciiy, 
it is made known that the long war terminating' in the 
destruction of the Centaurs, was occaaioned by a drunken 

Horner also makes Agamemnon say, 
" Diaastrons folly led me tluva astray, 
Or wine's excess, or madnesa sent from Jove." 
And Achilles, thus to reproach Agamemnon : 

" Tyrant, with Honse and courage qutlled by wine." t 
The writers in the Hietoric period, even anch of them as 
praise wine, also bear witness that it is a mocker, and that 
the moet fearful cousequcnc«s follow its use. " Pittai^iis, 
tme of the Seven Wise Slenof Greece," 612 B. C, " recom- 
mended Periander of IMene not to get drunk, ' so that,' 
Bay» bo, ' it may not be disfwvered what sort of a person 
yoa really are, and that you are not what you pretend 
to be!' 

' For lirasa may be u mirror fur tlio face — 
Wine for the mind.'" 
" On which account they were wise men who invented the 
Jiroverb i ' Wine hoa no mdder,' Aoconlingly, Xenophon 
the eon of Gryllns, (when once at the talde of DionyHiits, 
Iryrant of Sicily, the cupbearer was compeUing the guests to 
drink), addressed the tyi'ant himself by name, and said, 
* Vfhy, UhmysiTa, does not also the confectioner, who ia 
skilful man in his way, and one who onderstiuids a threat 
tnauy different recipes for dressing tbings, compel lis also, 
when we are at a banquet, to eat even when wo do not 
lri»Ji to ; hut why, on the contrary, does he Sjiread tiie 
tabia fiirnfi in an orderly manner, in ailencol' And 8oph- 
4i50 B. C, in one of hie satiric dramas, saya : 

•IbiiJ,Bk. XXL 387-1110. xEil. 13. tAi,licB»iiB, ffii..\."ia. 


Jkohd in History. 

From whicb also is derived the saying ; 

' Wino makes an old man (iHnoe againat his WJIL' 
And Stlienelufl tLe poet, 400 E. C, said very well: 

' Wine eun litmg e'en tie viae to acta of foUy.' • 
" PanyaBia tlie e]uo poet, 490 B.' C, allots the firet onp J 
of viae to the Graces, the Hours, and Bacchus ; tbe secoad I 
to Venus, and again to Bacchus ; the third to insolence and 
destruction.t Euripides, 480 B. C., aaya, ' Drinking ia 
flira of blows and violence. "X Epicharmua, 470 B. C^ saya, 

' A. Sanrifices feasta ptodtine, 

Drinking then from ftasts proceeds. 
3. SurU rotation has its use. 
A. Thea tile ilrinkjug riot breeds; 

Then on xiot and conf^ision 

Follow law nnit prosecution ; 

"Law brinjiB sentence, sentence chains ; 

Chains brin^ woimde and ulceious { pains,' 


446 B. C, sayB: 

' He who first invonled h 

Made poor man » greater sinner.' " | 
^Bohylus, 490 B. G., represeutH the GreekB as fre- i 
quently so drunk as to break their drinking cups and other 
ntensila aliont eacli other's heads. And 8ophoeles says, in ] 
his Banquet of the Greeks ; 

" He in his anger threw too well 
Tbe vemol with an evil smell 
Against my head, ami filled the room 
With something not miieh like ijori^ime ; 
8o (hat I Bwear I nearly fainted 
With the foul Eteam the vessel vented." H 

Antiphajies, 408 B. C, in his JSolus, Bpeaklng of a U 
tation to do a base thing, which came to Maoaruna, eayi I 

that he 

Intemperance in Grrtrce and Rome. 103 

"For ft wljile 
Bepresaed the evil thonght, and dieckeil liiniself ; 
But nitiu' 60UJt> sbuit time hi> wine admitted 
To lie Ills generiil, under ivboao lead 
Alldilcity t.ikes the place of pradent comiBel, 
And so 1)y might liie purpose he accomplialicd." * 

Ciitias, 400 B. C, in Ma ElegioB, speaks uf tlio effects of 

" After draughts like tills, the tongne gets loose, 
And torUH t« most unseemtj coaveraatioD ; 
The; make the bodjr weak ; tliey throw a. mist 
Over the eyes; and make for^etfnliiess 
Eat recollection out of the full heart. 
For fierue, iinmodprnte draiighls of heady ■wine 
Give lUDnientary pleaanre, but engender 
A loag-enduring pain which follows it." t 

Pytlioas, 3S0 fi. C., Bays on th.c aame tketae : " You Bee 

' Uie demagogues ci£ the present diiy, Deniosthenea and 

Denudes, how very differently tliey live. For tlie oue is a. 

I vater-drinker, und devotes his nights to cnnteniptation, aa 

tboy Bay ; and tlie other is a debauchoo, and b di-unk every 

day, and ooraes like a great pol>-l)elticd follon', aa he Is, 

\ into ouj assoiablies," % 

Enbuius, 375 B. C, after extolling water, and saying 
I that it never prodiioes bad effects, while " wine obBCorea 
I and clouds the mind," makes oven Bauihns Ray : 

"Iiet them three parts of wine ull duly season 
Wttli nine ef vntt^i, who'd pieaerve lliuiF rwison. 
The lirat gives heaith, the ueuond sweet dcstres, 
tbt ^rd ttaBiiuillity and sleep insiiiifB. 
TlioBC lire thu wliolosomo draughts wUicU will men please, 
Who from Hie haniiaot-honsu return in [H.'ai'e, 
Ttovx a fourth itiRUSuro inaulenL'e iiroi.'eijils ; 
Uproar a aflh ; a sixth wUllieeoai Im^Oil^; 
A seroDth lidngR lilack cyM and livid liriiiaea ; 
Tile filghlh Van (lonstatil" i u truil nri.'a \ 
llluck ;;ii1l and hnti'ed lurk tlio ninth lieneatli ; 
Tlie tontli is madiHMs, urms, and liiucfu) 


tlhid, Bk. X. a. UWA.i&.u.'S.. 

104 Akohd in History. 

For too mncli wine poured in one little vessel 
Trips up ail those wlio seek with it to wrestle." * 

And Alexis, 350 B. C, testifies, inliis Ulysses Weaving: 

** For many a banquet which endures too long, 
And many and daily feasts, are wont t'cngender 
Insult and mockery ; and those kind of jests 
Give far more pain than they do raise amusement, 
For such are the first ground of evil-spoaking ; 
And if you once begin t'attack your neighbor, 
You quickly do receive back all you bring, 
And then abuse and quarrels surely follow ; 
Then blows and drunken riot. For this is 
The natural course of things, and needs no prophet.* f 

And in Hs Phrygian, lie says : 

**If now men only did their headaches get 
Before they get so drunk, Fm sure that no one 
Would ever drink more than a moderate quantity : 
But now we hope to ^scape the penalty 
Of our intemperance, and so discard 
Restraint, and drink unmixed cups of wine." J 

Wisely then, does he ask : 

*' Is not, then, drunkenness the greatest evil, 
And most injurious to the human race ? " § 

Diphilus, about 340 B. C, says of Bacchus : 

" You make the lowly-hearted proud, 
And bid the gloomy laugh aloud ; 
You fill the feeble man with daring, 
And cowards strut and bray past bearing.'' || 

Crobylus, 324 B. 0., in his Female Deserter, says of the 
use of wine, that men 

" Can have 
No pleasure in it, surely ; how should it. 
When it deprives a living man of power 
To think as he should think ? and yet is thought 
The greatest blessing that is given to men." 

*Ibid, Bk. ii. 19. f Il)i<i, Bk. x. 17. t Ibid, Bk. x. 34. 
§ Ibid, Bk. X. 61. J Ibid, Bk. ii. 2. 

iTitemperanoe in Greece and liotne. 105 

And he sigiiifictujtiy asks 
" Wliat pleaaare, prithee tdl mo, can there be 
In getting alwiiyB ilniiik f in, white still living, 
YouTBelf deprivinj; tliU8 of nil your seDsea ; 
The greateat good which nature e'er hae givoiit" • 

And CaJlinuushus, 2G0 B. C, testifies that, 

" Wine is like &re irhtn 'tis to men ii]>])liQd, 
Or like tUe aturm that sweeps the Libyan tide ; 
The furions wind the lowest depth cun ruacU, 
And wiue toLs maa. of knowledge, sense, and exxiech." 

The Greeks at tlioii feasts, pnzzled and amnseil eafili other 
■with onignuu, conundramB, riddles, and such like mynt«nea 
&B pleased their wits. Some of tiiese were nousenaicul, 
and Borae were wonderfully ingenioas and acute. Tlie 
penalty for not goesriiig or otberwifie discovering the cor- 
rect answers, was to be compelled to tjmpty at one draught, 
the largeet cnpa or goblets of wine. Their drinking cups, 
■or OS they were soinctimea called, vasea, were often formed 
from the large horns of the Moladan and Poemian oseo. 
Small cups w^re in bfid repute. There waa one howl, 
which, on account of its enurmoos size, was called the 

" A. If this hold not enough, see the hoy comes 

Bearingthe Ele)ihant. 
" B. Immorttil Gods! 

What thing is tliut T 
" A. A doable foiintatued cup, 

Tha workmanship of Alcon : it cuntuiua 

Only tlirne gallons." f 

The practice of drinking whie from the horns of bulls 
find oxen, has been regarded by some as Buggeeting to 
-arlista the idea of representing Baochnii with boms, and the 
epithet of ihe Bull Dionysus. At Cyzicos he waa worship- 
ped under the. form of u bun4 

•Ihid, Bk. X. 34,61. 

t m.1. Bk. si. 35. 

IBoectdi. Pub. Ecoa. of Atheua, Vol. ii. p. 254. 

There was a peculiar kind of cap calloil Onuamateion, ] 
fi'om the letters of gold chased on it. Alesis thuB speaks J 

"A. Bat let me firet desoribo the cup ; twas ronnd, 
Old, brcikeu-eansd, and pretions smiUl boaides, 
Havtnj;, indeed, some letteTS ou't. 
B. Yes, letters; 

Eleven, and all of gold, forming the nanja 
Of Saviour Zeiis. 
A. Tusb ! no, some other god." * 

AthenfeuB relates that at the marriage of Caranus, ProteaB I 
drank upwards of a gallon of wine at a draught, exclaim- j 

and was immediately preeented by Caranns with the im-I 
mense goblet which he had drained. Other capscioua gob-^ 
lets wore then produced, and the host declared that every 
man Bhould claim as hia own property the bowl whose cwu- 
tentB he could despatch. Nine valiant drinlicrs at onco 
Btart«d to their feet, vieing with each other as to who ehould 
empty hia goblet first, while one poor wight, whoso capacity 
was not oqnal to each a venture, sat down and burst into 
tears, hecaufie he must go away cupless. The bridegroom, i 
nnwilliag that any grief should mingle in tlie feast, gra- 
ciously presented hint with an empty cup-t 

Among the inscriptions to be fotmd on monnmontB i 
different cities, as preserved by Polemoc, 150 B. C^ o 
following : 

" "ibis ia the monnmenl of that drinker, 
ArcadJoD ; and his two loving snns, 
Darcou and Charmy Ins, have placed it here, 
At this the catrance of bis nntira city : 
And know, tr-ivclk-r, the man did die 
Frum driuking strong wiuo in too large a tup." 

* Athonieus, BL. il. 30. 

t Ibid, Bk. 

Iidemperaricc in Oreeai and Rome. 107 

• Twice WM thia otip, MX of the irtMn!;«st wine, 
DTain'il liy tUo tliiroty tlrasixeuue, 
Anil then iu turn il cuttiol Uim oway." 
From tho large nambw of eaigm.Ts, pozzies and conno- 
dmma proaerved by AtlieatDns, as iuvi-iiieil at the feasla of 
the GrToeka, the following are solecUxl as EpocimeDa ot' tho 

"A. It IB nut tunrtal, nor imninrtnl cither. 
But Its it were, wouipouodod ol'tUo two, 
So that it ueitJicr Uvea the life of man, 
Noi.jret of God, tiut ia inueaaoutly 
Now-hum a^atu, und tben aguiu deprived 
Of this its i>rosi>ut life ; invisible, 
Yet it is known iinil recogniKoJ by all. 
B. Yon nlWiiTa do d«light, O liwly. Id riildlos. 

A. No, I nin apoakiit^ pluiu and simple things. 

B. Wliat t'hUd Ihim ia tbero wbitL han Hiich ii uatura I 
A Tib ali^up, luy gicl, vLulor ui' liuiuau tuils." 

" A. There ia a th.iii(>| whiol) apaaks, jet has no tong^ie: 
A femuTe of thu same uiLino oa the uiiiIr ; 
A stowHrd of the winds, which it holds fast ; 
Kongh. and j-et aometimoa smooth; fiitl of dark voices, 
St^arce "to be imderstood by learned men ; 
Prodainng hntmony after hunnoDy ; 
'Tib one thing, unii yet many ; e'en if wounded 
Tis still involDorable and unhurt ; 
B. \V]iatciJ.utbatl>c)T 

A. Why, don't job know, Callistratua T 
It ii a liellowB. 

B. Vou aie joking now, 

A. No I tloo't it apeak, althongh it has no tongno f 
Hub it uo<. but oiio name with tnnay peopln I 
Tat not unhurt, though with a wound iu the centre t 
Ib it not Homvtimes rough, und Bi)iiit.'ltiimB smooth T 
ia it out, t^io, Ui guardian ol'siiich wind T" 
"I know a thing which, while it's youaj;, ialieavy. 
But wlit'B itmjld, Ibongb yotd of wiuiM, tan fly 
With lightost tuotioo, oQt of sijtht u' th' oiirth." 

The answer is, the thiatleitown ; for it, 
" Whilu III 19 youug stauds S'diil in its accd, 
Bnl when il Iohl* that, ia light mid tli«a, 
mown about every wuy by playful chUdren." 

108 Alcohd in History. 

" S. There is a female thing which holds her young 
Safely beneath her bosom ; they, though mutOi 
Cease not to utter a loud sounding voice 
Across the swelling sea, and o'er the land, 
Speaking to every mortal that they choose ; 
But those who present are can nothing hear. 
Still they have some sensation of faint sound. 

" B. The female thing you speak of is a city, 
The children whom it nourishes, orators ; 
They, cr;^dng out, bring from across the sea, 
From ^sia and from Thrace, all sorts of presents ; 
The people still is near them while they feed on it^ 
And pour reproaches ceaselessly around. 
While it nor sees nor hears aught that they do. 

S. But how, my father, tell me, in God's name, 
Can you e'er say an orator is mute, 
Unless, indeed, he's been three times convicted f 

B. And yet I thought that I did understand 
The riddle rightly. Tell mo then yourself. 

S. The female thing you speak of is a letter. 

The young she bears al>out her is the writing : 
They're mute themselves, yet speak to those afar off 
Whene'er they please. And yet a bystander, 
However near he may l)e, hears no sound 
From him who has received and reads the letter.** 

" Of all the things the genial earth produces, 
Or the deep sea, there is no single one. 
Nor any man or other animal, 
Whose growth at all can correspond to this : 
For when it first is bom its size is greatest ; 
At middle age 'tis scarcely visible, 
So small it's grown ; but when 'tis old and hastens 
Nigh to its end, it then becomes again 
Greater than all the objects that surround it." 

The answer is, a Shadow. 

" What is the strongest of all things ? " " Iron/' said 
one, "for with that material men dig and cut all other 
things.'' "No," said the second, "the blacksmith is the 
strongest, for ho makes the iron into any shape and for 
any pui-pose that he chooses." " Yon are both wrong," 
said the third, " love can snbdue even a blacksmith j there- 
fore love IS the strongest of all things.'^ 

i^ j r jjuiLjaj ta Bjff B MP- :■ r rTTmSu*-'. 

Intemperance in Greece and Rome, 109 

The following refers to Night and Day : 

'* There aro two sisters, one of whom brings forth 
The other, and in turn becomes its daughter." ♦ 

Music and song were accompanJhients of the feasts, and 
a burning bowl called Oidos, or " the cup of song,'' re- 
warded him whose skill pleased the drinkers, t The 
young drank to their mistresses, sometimes taking as many 
cups as there were letters in her name ; sometimes restrain- 
ing their appetite hy taking a glass to each of the three 
Graces; but when in for a frolic they chose the Muses 
for their patrons, and honored their mistresses' names with 
three times three. Hence, it is said, the custom so well 
observed in political circles, of honoring candidates for 
office, with cheers, f 

Aristophanes, 430 B. C. represents the women of Athens 
as extravagantly given to tlie use of wine ; so much as to 
pawn their wardrobes to procure it, and manufactmdng 
counterfeit keys to their husbands' wine cellars. § Phalae- 
cus, 320 B. C, in his Epigrams, mentions a woman who 
was a notorious drinker : 

** Cleo bestowed this splendid gift on Bacchus, 
The tunic, fringed with gold and saf&on hues, 
Which long she wore herself ; so great she was 
At feasts and revelry : there was no man 
Who could at all contend with her in drinking.'' 

Alexis speaks of a certain woman, as " Zopjrra that 

And AntiphaneS; in his Female Bacchanalians, makes 
the sweeping assertion : 

" Fm sure 
He is a wretched man who ever marries 

• Ibid, Bk. X. chapters, 71, 73, 74, 75. 

t Ibid, Bk. xi. 110. 

X St. Jolin. Manners and Customs of Ancient Greece, Vol. ii. 

§Axistqp]^ Lyfdstfata, p. 18, 

110 Ahohcl in History. 

Except among the Scythians ; for their country 
Is the sole land which does not hear the vine." * 

^schylns, 480 B. C, is said to have been the first 
person who introduced -the appearance of drunken people 
into a tragedy. " But the fact is," says Athcnaeus, " that 
the practices which the tragedian himself used to indulge 
in, he attributed to his heroes ; at all events he used to 
write his tragedies when he was drunk ; on which account 
Sophocles used to reproach him,^ and say to him, ' O 
^schylus, even if you do what you ought, at all events 
you do so without knowing it.' " f 

The excuses offered twenty-five hundred years ago, for 
drinking, were identical with those often so glibly offered 
now. Alexus, the lyric poet, who fiounshed in 612 B. C, 
thus offers them r 

" In winter cold 

Let's drive away 
The wintry cold, and heap up fire, 
And mingle with nnsparing hand 
The honied cup, and wreathe our brows 
With fragrant garlands of the season. 

" In Spring : 

Now does the flowery spring return. 
And shed its gifts all o'er the land. 

" In Summer : 

Now it behooves a man to soak his lungs 

In most cool wine ; for the fierce dog-star rage% 

And all things thirst with the excessive heat. 

" In Misfortunes : 

By grieving 
We shall not do ourselves much good. 
Come to me, Bacchus ; you are ever 
The best of remedies, who bring 
Us wine and jqypu^ drunkenness. 

* AthensBus, Bk. x. ^, 67, t IW4; Pk. x. 88. 

Intemperfxnne in Grixce ami Rome. Ill 

" In Joy : 

Now ia the tima to get weU ilnrtik, 
Now e'en in Bpito of iwlf ta diinls." ■ 

Aa in Greece, so in Italy, the first mention of nine is in 
the fablea, and not in t.Iielikt«ry,of the people. MozeiUiuB, 

mythical king of the EtroBcaos orTyirhenianssaiiluihaTG 
been cotempor&ry with ^ueaBgOfTroy, by whom bo was slain 
1 battle, granted peace to the people whom he mnquored, 
on condition that they ahonld annually pay ob a cauBom, all 
wine that was produced in their country. VirgiFa 
jEneid givea the story of hia " nnutt«rabie barliaritiea,'' 
•Bnd of the dninkenness of hia followers. 

Pliny, who wrote abont 05 B. C, states fc hia Natural 
iHistory, that wine waewelllinawiiin Borne from the earliest 
period in its liistory, abont 700 B. C-, aa Mecenius slew his 
wife bet^nae she had tasted the intoxicating draught. Tiie 
■early- laws and naagea in relation to driukiugby women, we 
shall have oowsion to notice hereafter, but it is certain that 
dn later periods of the liistory of the city men and women 
got drank together iu most licentious caronsala. At the 
time of ifiauing the decree of Numa, abiiut C'jO B. C, 
wine waa a aearcity, aa its use was forbidden as a libation 
to thfl gnds, and for sprinkling on the fmmral pjTx>; 
and for a long time aftt-r it was ao acarco that milk was 
employed inateiid ; and when iu 319 B. 0.. Papivius was 
it to engage ia a decisive combat with the Snmnites, he 
vowed, aa the choicest and rarest gift that he could offer, to 
sacrifice " a eraall onp of wine to Jupiter, if he should grant 
him the victory." 

Sbartly after this, however, the production of native 
winea giojitly iucreased, and there wore large tmportatiouB 
Inta Greece, so largo that it is mentioned to ihe praise 
of Cato, another general, about 220 B. C, that he act him- 
self ogniiiat the growing lusury of the tiinea, by rci'Tiauig 
to panako of any bettor wines than were- served out to 

■ Ibid, Bk. X 35. 


Mxihd in ff (story. 

tbemen of Lis ■ 
accowljng to Varroi 
return from a euocet 
about 00,000 galloiia of Greek 

Little more than a contaiy latflM 
. illustriouB Lncullos, 
campai^rn in A bio, distribnt 
ig iho people, a 

a gift. A littlo latjT, about fiO li. C, Hortensius, tho ri 
orator of Cicero, left to bis lieu- 10,000 caskB of CbJan w 
in tbo cellar of one of bis country residt^noes. It was I 
tbia time, according to I'liny, that Ceeeur placed upon I 
table, at a banquet, Falemian, Obian, LoBbon and JUamer 
tine wines, " the first oecaeion," says I'lmy, 
four kinds of wine were eerved at table." 

From this time there is rapid degeneracy, the excess a 
debauchery of both men and women becoming ofTendTwla 
licentionB and diagTiating-.* Seneca complains; " The m 
and delicate complexion of the women is not cl 
their manners ore no longer the same ; they valne tbcmselTetfl 
on carrying excess of wine to as great a height a 
rubnut men ; like them they pass whole nights at table, I 
with a fnll glass of nnmisctl wine in their hands, thej 
glory in vieing with them, and, if they can, in ovorconungl 
them." Drinking for wagers became frequent, and i 
order that men might iu their competition for the { 
overfill themaelvea with wine, Pliny reiatea that i 
drank hemlock before going to their cnpa, that frighteat 
by tho Ibougbta of death, they might even foree dowaw 
as an antidote ; others after having filled their atom 
resorted to emetics, in order that ibe drinking might 1 
renewed ; others betook them to the bot-batha, from whid 
they were carried out half-dead ; and both aeses, witboitt 
leaving the table, outraged all decency, by their beaatlji 

CaiuB Piso was famed for this latter indecency, it \ 
B.iiil of liim that be wonld aet for two days and nlg^ 
drinking without intermission, or oven stirring from the ti 

Intemperavce in Greece and i 


SeenuTig'ly incrediblo etorica ore tol<I of the capacity 
IP of these olil topers, as fr-r oxampki, of Toivjuatus, 
'Kiio Kns knigbtt'd by Tiberiua Willi tlio tillo of Tricougius, 
r tho tiireo-galldnB knigLt, for driuking tliree gnlloos of 
Trine nt a draughl, and without taking liroath ; find Tcrf^a, 
"ttho liottsted tL«t he ordinarily drank two gallouB at a 
.drauglit ; und later the Emporor Musimiu, who, it was eaid, 
boald drink six gallonsi of wine without oimrnittiiig any 
debanch I Although tho Roman gallon (Congintt) woe 
little loss than six pints, our iDcaeure, these amounte are 
.tfmply enonuous, aiid must, if a<lniitted ae at all real, 
aecesBitate the eonclneion that tlie winea were much weak- 
ff than those of the present day. It ie known, indeed, that 
f were lacgely dilntedj soiue with three, Bomo five, seven, 
tnd eren nine parts of water. 

Bat the outward physical remits of each disaipntion 
Wre the same as now, for Pliny descritiea their blotohed 
ikin, parple nose, hleared eyeH, and their " sleep agitar 
I by fuiiea ; " while they deprive their vietim of rea- 
hm, And " drivo him to frenzy and the commission of a 
^fhonsand crimes." Wine ai last became so eoraraon, tsaya 
idle eanie authority, that it was even given to the beasts of 
Jbunlen. Xo wonder that he exclaimed, "'By Hercules, 
pleasure has now begun to livo, and life, so called, has 
aettsed to be,'' f 

Athentens oonfinus the foregoing account of dissipation 
In the description which he gives of a feast at a Boman 
TDiuision, From the pleasurable first excitement of the 
1, hosts and guests pass to the m.ost debased sotttshness ; 
the slavcB being compelled to participate, that they may 
e at no advantage over their mastors, and at last, host, 
MlH, tavT., women and slaves, mingle in the wihlest riot 
ml confnsioii, 
Tho fMiit. of Iho Satnrnalia, marked by all tho folly and li- 
(Mt^BBsneGBwluoli intoxication produces, was extended flrom 


t IbiO, Bk, iv. 3&. 


AVxivA &i SifitGry. 

one day, ita original limit, to three, and finnlly to Hevon ddji 
by Caligula and Clan <U us. "Wines woroliirnieliedatp 
espense, and under Vilellina, drunken feasts were hold i 
tliree days on the liattle-fiolda, while yot the dead lay i 
buried. In the city itself, the people kept the fiamo f 
with riot and debauchery. " The whole city," says l^aci- 
tuB, " Beenied to be inflamed with frantic rage, and at Uie 
Batne time intosicated with drunken pleas 
Thrice had Home seen enraged amiiea under her i 
bnt the nnnatural security and inhuman indiflereuee 1 
now prevailed, were beyond all enomple." * 

The same writer describes the surprise and (utptnre o 
the city of Teiracina, hy tho Roman troops under the Ci 
maud of the Emperor's brother, in cousequencG of the ii 
temperance of tho garrison, commanded by Julianus a. 
Appolinarifi, " two men immersed in slnth and InxnpyJ 
and by their vices, more like common gladiators tlu 
superior offieei-s." 

' ' No eentinels stationed, no night watch, to prevent a enddas 
alarm, and no care taken to gmud the works, they ]^isasoil botb 
night and day in diimken jotliC;^. The windings oftbat delightc^ 
ftal coaat resonnded with notea of Joy, anil iJie aoldiers ^ 
spread about the country to provide far tho plenanres of t 
two commanders, who never thought of wiir eii^pt wban it b 
oono the Bubjeot of discourse over tho bottle." I 

The Romans, under the advice of a renegade, b 
the city, slaughtered tho drunken troops and pnt one ( 
the commanders to death in a barbarouB and J 

In modem Rome, intemperance fltill prevails, 
does in other parts of Italy. E. 0. Delavan, Eeq., lute 
Albany, N. Y., visited Eiimo in 1839, from whonco b 
wrote home that Cardimil Acton, the Bopn-nic judge of tl 
city, assured him that nearly all thu crime i 
nated in the use of wine. The Judge directed liim to j 
pari of the city, that wocild compare well with tbe Hvf 

* Histories, B. i 

t Ibid, sect. 76. 

JtUemperanoe Among the Jews. 


I Points in New York. "I visited that dietripl.," Boya Mr. 
DeJavan, and iLere I saw men, women, and cliildten sit- 
ting in rowa, s will int,' away at wino, making up iu <iiiitu- 
\ tily wliai was wanting in sfronglh ; and such was tlm tliar- 
J scter of the iuinatea of tbose deiia tiittt my guide urged my 
L immediate departure, as I valued my life," 

The same yeaj, Horatio Greenough, the American 
[ Bcnlptor, wrote from Florence, " Many of the more tbink- 
I ing and prudent Italians abstain from the use of wine ; 
I ^eve^^ll of t!ie moat eminent of the medical mea are noto- 
\ rionsly opposed to ita aae, and declare it a poison. Whon 
B you that one-fifth, and sometiraea one-fourth of 
Btbe vamings of tho laborers aro ospondedin wine, you may 
I form Gome idea aa to ita probable influence on their thrift 
I and tealth," Hon. George P. Marsh, United States Min- 
I ister to Italy, wrote from Romo to tho Centennial Tem- 
I peianoe Conferenco at Philadelphia, in 1876: 

B Tmilonbtedly true iu Italy, as in mofit otlior European 
Itonntriea, thiit ii very ronaidemble proport.Hm nf tlio crimes iie- 
■ropauietl with violonce, originate in intuxicntion, und Ibe po- 
Whte reports shiiw a largo and, 1 &m sorry to suy, an lucteMing 
Umrolier of Biith caees. The days of idlenusa, miscalled rrligioaa 
Lfeetivala, iu Italy, Are devoted by vast nnmbers of the loner 
a to drialiing, gambling, and other immoralities: und nn- 
Vtil pnblii^ npiuiiju sliali become onlightonod enongh to anjipress 
ions of vipn, I eliould not <upeot much result from ef- 
» of pliilODthropists in tbo way of temperance reform." 

VI. The Jetts. — In giving attention to the faet of 

[Intemperanco among the Jewish people, aa it ia manifest 

■iu the HiBtoriea and PropUedoB contained in the Old Tes- 

tamflnt, the qnestion in regard to the distinction between 

iulnxiuating and unintoxiuating wines mentioned in the 
Bible, need not hero be coniddored, eincc its examination 
s nworveil for another part of the work ; and our immo- 

D object is solely to sot forth tho fact that there was 
biterapcmnco among the pcojile to whom a special mission 
Was as^gued by Jehovah, and that its consetiuencea were 

Ahohol m History. 

dienstrooa to them, aa tbey nnifornily are to all other 

'I'he illuBtrationii Belected are not ohrptiulogic&] 
airacged, liut given as they stantl in tbe order in wl 
tho booke cotupriEing the Jgwiah Scriptun-s aie pl^t 
before us iu our English Bibloa. 

The account of the dniukennees and disgrace of Ni 
aa recorded in (jeneBia ix. 20-25, is the firat nientioq 
dmnkenneHa in the Bible. Whether this was Xoah'a fint 
experience in producing and paitaking of wine, or an in- 
dulgence common to him before the deluge, but now for 
the firat time, cither through ignorance or careloEsuesg, as 
indulgence after fermentation had commenced ; or a oso 
of that which !te knew would intoxicate ; — each of tliese 
theoriea or enrmisca having advocates among those who 
eeek to interpret the account; — we are not likely to know. 
In either case, it is evident that Noah thus fell into un, 
and furniBhcd an occatdon for the siu of his son, and pi 
ably of hia grandson also ; and that in consequence of 
a heritage of sorrow and bondage was the port! 
deaucndanta of Ham in the line of Canaan. 

The doscriprion in Genesis six. 32-38, of the incestnooa 
conduct of Lot while BenEoleaa and unconacioua under the 
influcnco of the intoxicating draaght of the " wine," that 
" is the poison of dragons, and the cruel venom of ai 
ia a fitting first-mention of the licentiousness wliiek 
been such a constant acoompauimeut of drunkenn) 
What retributive consequences were entailed 
are not informed, as no further mention is made of hha 
the Bucred record. Wo simply see liini •' saved indeed 
the conflagration of Sodom, but an outcaat, vnAo^ 
homeless, hopeless, without ehildren or grandchildren, i 
the anthcirs and the heirs of his shame," 

In Esodns xxsii. we have a aiul account of the 
and licenriousnesa inio which ihe children of Israel fell, 
the occasion of the feast in which they indulged, 
the language of the record, they '' sat down to oat and 



aooa ' 

lidemperamx Among the Jejvs. 117 

ink, and roso up to play." Thp si^ificance of that de- 

Lplion heinij', that, intiiimod with wine, they committed all 

ts of scxHal nndeanness.* ITiia also is the sciifMi of the 

rd " naked," in the Sfjlt verae.t As the ininiediute don- 

BCqucnce swift death caine apon thousands, and tho entire 

nutton were diacomfltted and distTCBaed by the lengthening 

out of their wanderings in the wilJemese. 

Leviticus X, 1-11 ^vea an account of the aia of Nadab 
od Abihn, coTnraitted while they ministered ut the altar ; 
Dd of A command imposed by Jehovali immediately ufter, 
ad probably on account of that aa. The ofTcnce con- 
stod in the oSering' of an inconso kindlod by " strange 
K," and tha incitement to the ofienco seems to be more 
kau implied in the command to Aaron : " Do not drink 
Tiie nor strong drink, thou, nor thy sons with thee, 
hen ye go into the Ijihpmacle of the congregation, lest yo 
io ; it shall be a statute forever thrmighottt your genera- 
ons. That yo may put difference lietwei-n holy and un- 
(dy, and between clean and unclean." It is the general 
piulon of tho Jewish Commentators that tho inebriation of 
[adab and Abiha caused them to use the " strange tire ; " 
od in this agree many eminent Christian critici;,^ 
In the time of tho Judges, drunkenness seems to have 
Mome BO common n vice in Israel as to have involved 
ran the women of the nation in its shame. In 1 Samuel, 
'14, Uniuiah is tn^justly accnscd by Eli, because in her 
rayen» no words issue from her moving lipa, of being 
dnUkkeQ." No surprise is expressed by this rebuke, that 
to should presume to present herself in the temple of 
^hovah in this plight, for Hannah's answer intimates that 
ich. women did fio(|ueut that place, and the statement in 

*It Ih I'lie R.ime word os ia rendenDil "mock" in the falao 
torgH tuiiilo bf Fiitiiilior'a wife ugiiiuBt JoHepL, wLeu aha uc- 
ncd tiim oi 0. lii-ontitins attempt. Gouoais mix. 1.1-17. 

t Sue '* The Spoakor'a CmameuKirr," iu loco. 
'Jfteo Prof. Ceo. Bush'a (Jrjumieutary on Lei-iticns x. 9: olau 
tlie Bpeukur's t-immii'iutarj-." on vs. 1, surao Lhaptur, 

McoM in Sistort/. 

the 22nd verse nf tlie Bewmd chapter, shows that even lewd 
womfn were pcrmitled there; and that these " daughtera of _ 
Belial " had for their asBociates the himB of the Judge i 
High Priest Eli, who were bo dcbanchml as to be called ti 
" Sons of Belial." Their intemperate li.ibits not only ( 
volved them in HeenliousnesB, and ho incurred severe 'yiH^ 
monts on themselves, Irat aluo made them bo negligent e 
their dutioa as custodians of the Ark of the Covenant, I 
to suffer the populiuie to take it from their keeping, to o 
it, aa a battle-flag, into their fight with the I'liilistineB, 1 
whom it was captured, and in consequence the hand ( 
Jehovah luy heavy on the nation. 

When, under the strong rule of Saul, and the wise | 
emmout of David, tho nation regained its position and a! 
the divine favor, drnnkenness soon worked mischief 10 1 
royal household, and in producing discord and .Fe1>eltJdl| 
Ainnon cmelly mjned his half-eister. Her l>rotlter, Mv 
lom, nursed vengeance in his Leart, and on th« first fcw 
able opportunity had Amnon made dmuk witli ^ 
slew him ; 2 Samuel xiii. Then came alienatton, wtM 
lion, and distress. No wonder that David employed l1i'' 
severest terms in reprohating the use of wine, and tlmt. 
when endeavoring to set forth the moat cspreeBive idea ir 
the judgments of the Almighty, ho niaki-B choice of the figtiu- 
of an inebriating cup in the hand of Jehovah, which, as liu 
pours it out upon the nations, spreads terror and desolutioiJ 
wherever its falls ; 

" In (lie hiind of tho Lord thoro ia a cup, and the winp in reil ; 
it is full of niistnro, and lo ponreth out of tbe aaine ; hat tlip 
dregH thereof, all tho wicked of tto earth bIiuII wring Ibem out, 
aud diiuk them," PsuLni Isirv. 8. 

Solomon, out of a deeper and more varied expeH«l 
even than that of David, wise above all iithers wliilp 
ing and oheying God, anil the moat besotted iiFall foo 
his idolatry, luxury and liceutioasness, ti " 
vain " eeoking in his hcfirt to give hitiieelf to wIuc," 
are tho oharactoriBtics of tbe deceptive draught, a 

Infemperance Ammvj tM Jews. 119 

cnneoqnencoa ffltal to proepcrity, bnppiness, and moral por- 

■, lotlii' 


" Wiiio is a mocker, strong drink is ragia^ ; and tThoBoever is 
docoiTWl thereby is not wise." " Who," ke esclaims, " Who 
bntli wue F wlio Lath sorrow T who hath contentions t who hath 
habblinjj T who hath wounds without canae T Who hath rednesa 
of eyes f Tboy that taJTj long at the wine ; they that go to seek 

Then ho lifts np his voice in warning, shows how the 
nioniuntaiy gratification of (Irinlting ia followed hy the 
most Borrowfnl and bitter results ; how paaaion is given the 
mastttry, God driven from tlie heart, life is put in fearfiil 
peril, and the power of the will so bcniunV>od that still 
again and again the victim of drink mehes on to his indnl- 
genee and incurs repeated loss, misery and pollution : 

" Look uot thoii iipou the wine when it ia red, when it jjiveth 
lUa Dolor in the rup, ' wheu it nioveth itself ari^jht. At the 
laut it Lil-eth like a senwtit, and stingeth like an a<liler. Thine 
n^es ahull behold strnnge women, and thine heart shall utter 
giMversu things. Yea, tbou ehalt he as ho that llcth down in the 
miilRi of the sea, or aa be that lieth npnn the top of a mast, 
They have stricken me, slialt thou say, and I was not sivk ; they 
liava lioatoa me, and I felt it not ; when shall I awake T I will 
Bctk it yet again." 

Tlio iwlvice given to Lemuel, was it not based on what 
Snloiiiiin had found tnio in his own experience T " It 
ix not for Viuga, O Lemuel, it is not for kings to drink 
■ fur princes strong drink : lest they drink and 
fo^et tlm law, and perv'ert the judgment of any of the 
, aiRiutcd." Proverba xx. 1 ; xsiii. 23-35 ; sxsi. 4. Elah, 
i£ iho kings of Israel, became the victim of a conspir- 
s slain by the " captain of half his chariots," 
" drinking himself drunk iu the house of Ajza, 
d of his house in Tirzah." 1 Kings xvi. 9. 

"When it giveth his color. Literally, 'its eyo,' the clear 

(fattiMa, or tlie biutded bubbles on wlilchthe wiue drinker 

amplaeeney," — JTte Bpeaker'a Commimtarji. Prov. 


Alcohol in History. 

These pernicious licrsrmiil oxainploB of prioBts, prinod 
and liingg, and other niiy^lity and 80-ciil!cd nnlilo i 
conld not fail to bear tlicir fruit in infecting tbe nation ,-( 
large with this fearful evil. Isaiah, who flourished Jul 
l)eforo tho Babylonian Captivity, deacribea in 
vigorous words the immoral condition of tho moesefl, a 
ascribes their predicted ruin to their intemperate habits ! ' 

" Woo unto tiiijm thnt rise up oariy in the morning, that tli^y 
may follow Rttong ilrinlt ; tUat continue until uiglit till wine in- 
flame tliem! Aiul the harp, and tbe viol, the tabrcC, and pipe, 
and wine, are in tlieir feaste: lint they regard not tho work ot 
the Lord, neither couHiUer tbe operation of his hands, Thare- 
fore my people are gona into captivity, because tLey bavo no 
knowledge: and thi^il Lonorahle men are famished, and Ibcic 
multitude dried up with thirst. Therefore hell hath enlarged 
horaelf, and opened her mouth without meaHiiro: and thrff^ 
glory and their mnltitude, and their pomp, and he tbat » 
eth, shall descend into it." "Woe unto thom that are migJityJ 
drink wine, and men of Btrengtb to mingle etroug drink; ■ 
justify tho wicked for reward, and lake away the rigbteo 
of tho righteous from himi Therefore as the fire devourotb li 
stubble, and the flame conanmetb tbe chaff, so their root a 
be as rottenness, and their blosaom shall go np as dnat : 
tbey have cast away the law of the Lord of llosts, and despised 
the word of tha Holy One of Israel." Isaiah v. 11-13 ; 23-24. 

In equally Bevere terma does tho same prophet a&- 
nounce tho divine judgment on the people for tbei 
obedionco to tbe command of Jehovah, that during t 
Beige of the city by tho PereianB, they shall linmble tbet 
Belvea before Ilim, and by penitence obtain His favor a 
help ; instead of which they become so lost to a 
their obligations to God as to mock Him by feaetii 
drinking and riot ; 

" In that day did tho Lord God of JTosts call to weeping, t 
tomouraiug, and to balilness, and to girding ^"ithsackclntli!! 
behold joy and gladness, slaying oxen, and lillling sheep, Mil] 
fiesb, and drinking wine: lot tis oat and drink; for ton 
WB shall dio~ Ami it was leToalod in mine ears by tho L 
Hosts, Surely this iniqnity shall not lie purged feom yon tj 
die, saitli the Lord Cktd of Hosle." Chapter sjtii. 12-H, 

Intemperance Among the Jews. 


ilso wlicn Isaiah ilenonnces woa njma Ram.'iri.i, ii ia 
6 of intoxication, tai;glit and encouraged liy tlio un- 
E faitiiful priests and prophets : 

to the PTOTOn of pride, to the dmnlcorile of Ephrnira, 
■I vhoBO glorious beaul;T 18 a fcding flower, which aro on the head 
Rnf tbe tat valleyM of them that oro ovurcoiuo mttb wmo! Behold, 
I tha Iiord Lath a oiiglity and strong one, which as a tempest of 
IliBil awl a deatroyiag storm, as a flood of mij-hty wiitt'ra ovpi^ 
■Somng, shall cast down to the earth with tliohaud. Tho rrown 
^vC pride, the dmnkards of Epiiraim shall be trodden nnder feet. 
• * They have erred through wino, and through 
ing drinfc are out of the yay ; the prii^t and the prophet have 
■oil throagh. strong drink ; they err in vision, they stiunblo in 
idgment. For all tables are foil of vomit and filthiness, so that 
o place clean." Chap, xiriii. 1-8. 

And once more, speaking' of the general demoralization 

of the people, ita cause is said to bo the nnf^thiulnesfl of 

_tte besotted who aro placed in power, who, under the fig- 

e of a blind and dumb watchman, and a stupid and fool- 

1 shepherd, invited, instead of preventing tho encmaoli- 

of tho devouring beasts : 

I ye beasts of the Held, come to devour, yea, all yo hoosta 
D tho forest-. Uia watchmen are blind : they aro all ignorant, 
« all dnmb dogs that cannot luirk ; Jileeping, lying down, 
loving to slumber. Yea, they are greedy dogs which can never 
)ngh, and they aro shepherds that cannot understand: 
piey aU look to tliovr own way, every one for his gain, for his 
! Conio yo, say thny, I will fetch wine and we will fill 
sDlvoBwlth strong driak; and to-morrow sliull be as tliis 
Uy^tiil mncb more abnnd8nt."~Ivi. 9-12. 

L Is tbe ((ays of Hosea, complaint is inado that T»»racl 

ks to other gods, and loves flagons of wine; ITosca 
; and in vii. 7, that tho princes have debanchcd the 
iftg liy cjituriiig tn ilia lowest passions, and so have un- 
Itlwl Uitu to rule in rigbtcoTiBnosa : " In the days of our 
mg llio prinoos have made him sick with bottles of wine;* 
6 atretdidd 6Ul liia hand t 

"Uotllcs of wine."— Lttornlly, "polBon of wIno." 
d tluit ia ttanolat^d " poison," in Deut. xsuii. ^ 


Aloihd in History. 

Ill tho moca denounced nn iho penplo, b_v Joel, i 
class doubtless osloomod liy Mm the most guilty is tbus ada 
dreBsed; "Awake ye dmnkarilB and weop; howl all 3 
drinkerB of wine," 

Amnug the evils of wliioh Amos complins, ii. 6-13) iij» 
these, that the tribe of Jndah frequent the heathen ban- 
qnets, drink (beir strong wines, and ooinpel the Nazsritea 
to break iheir pledge of total abstinenoo. 

"Tb»Y lay theioBelyes down npon t'lothea laid to pledge bn 
every Bltai, and they ilimk the 'wine of tlie cendemned t 
house of tbutc CroU. • • • * And I raUud up your boi 
prophets, and of your young men for Kaznritea. la It not 
thus, ye children of lu'ael f snith the Lord. But yo gave tl 
Naznritea wine to drink ; and conuniinded the prophets, mytn 
Propheay not," 

So ill the sixth yeree of tlie sixth chapter, '* drinbi 
wine ill Lowl6,"i9 among the otfeaces charged against tl 
who " are at ease iu Zion," 

By tlie prophet Micah, it is declbred, ii. 11, that \ 
people liave Viecotne po corrupt that true prophets were I 
jected, and only those received who encouraged thein ia 
their diHuipation : " If a luan walking in the spirit I 
faladiood do lie, saying, I will prophesy nnto thot 
and of strong driuk; he shall even be the prophet of tbn 

Hahakkuk, foretelling the rain of Jndea by the ( 
deaiie, assigns as a reason because Nebuchadnestzar, 
king, " trail BgrosBeth by wine;" and he denouiiDca 1 
upon him who, having made Bomo of the pooplo dnmlteil 
is thereby able to diacovor the extreme weakness of tlil^ 
Jewish nation, and bo to encourage the warfare that ivsnltj 
ill its overthrow: "Woe unto him that givcth his ncigla 
ttor drink, that pnttest tliy bottle to him, and inukest Iiiij 
drunkeu alao, that thou inayoat look on thinr nokednow^ 
ii. 5, 15, 

VII, CoNTKMPOKARY Natio.vs. — Special mention I 
been made of the Egyptians and liie Persians, in anotb 

Intemperanre amon^ Contemparan/ Nations. 123 

; jtlace. A brief mention of tbe facte indicntin^ the 
prevalence of iutemperanoo among' otlior heathen nutinna 
^th wlium the Jewa woro brou^'iit iu contact, kvill bogiven 

I Fhilistine^ who Lad oonqaer^ and oppreesod 
tel, after several inefioctual attempts to capture SaiDRrin, 
a God raised up to begin the wurk of tbe deliverance of 
I na-tion, at last saoceeded ; and when Samson had in a 
WasDre regained hia etrength,of which at the time of bia 
iptore be bad been dejjrived, tha Philistines, at "a great 
Krifice nnto Dagon their god," made themselves drunken 
t, and had Samson brought out of his prison-houBe 
IT their diversion. Jailgeg xvi. 25. "'Theybroughtbim 
9 their feaet," say Josephas, " ttiat tbey might insult him 
J, their oups." * 

f The Amalekites, who bad " smitten Ziklag, and bnrnt it 

I tire," and " had taken p-eat spoil," were pursned by 

rid, who found them in e\n:h a drunken and riotous con- 

an that they were scattered far and wide, and so foil an 

Y prey to Lis aven^ng army. 1 Samuel xxs. 10. 

be Syrians, under Benliadad, besiogod Samaria, and 

e demand for the immediate Burrendorof its inhabitants 

i all their treasure. They came with a great army, far 

:nnmbering the besieged. Ahab, under direction of the 

KpheC, went nut of the caty to give them l)attle, and " slew 

p Syrians with a great siaiighter." The reason of their 

IS against such great odds, was, that *' Uenhadad was 

nuking himself drunk iu the jiavilions, be and tbe kings, 

p thirty and two kings that helped biro." 1 Kings ss. 

e Babylonians were inordinate drinkers. In Daniel 
ftwe have an account of a feast made by Belsliazzar the 
figi dmJng wliich the sacred vessels taken £'om the tem- 
p At Jcinsaletn were lirought in for tbe use of "the king, 
k prniucSi, bis wives, and his concubines, tiiat they might 


Jkoltd in Bisfcry. 

drink tlierein." And while tbey thns "drank ■ 
handwriting on the wall appeared. During' the nig^ht, 
Cynis and the Pcreian troops entered the city, antt "in 
that night waa Belshazzar theking of the Chaldeans elain." 
The deep-seated determination of thU people to gratlM 
their basetrt pasBioua, and poeBOflS to themeelTes at any » 
of the intoxicating cup, ir set forth la horrid detail hy tU 
prophet Joel, iii. 3 : " They have given a boy for a h&rlin 
and sold a girl for wine, that they might drink." 

In the Apocryphal Book of Eedras, the following i 
trihnted to one of the body-guard of Darius, king- of t^ 
Medes and Pereians ; 

" O je mflD, haw oicepdinf! Btrong is wine t it eaoHctlt all 
to err that drink it : it maltotli the mind of the king, and of 
iatherless oiiiJd, to bo nil ouc : of the boQilroan and of the 
roan, of tlio poor man nnd of the rich: it tumutb also ever;' 
thonght into .jollity and mirth, to tliat a man lemembenth 
neither sorrow nor clelit : nml itmalictli every henrt rich, bo that 
a man rcmcmhereth neither king nor governor; and itmaketh to 
epeak nil thingB hy talents; and when they are in their enpa, 
they forget their love both to frientls and brethren, and a little 
after druw out Bworda.' bnt when they are Iroin the 
remember not what they have done." Book 1. c. iii. 

This langnage, spoken and recorded before the tim« 
Christ, although it is not po^ble to fix on the precise AtX 
can hardly he improved upon in any description of the ef- 
fects of intoxicants that might bo attempted now, so hiT^ 
riable is the bewilderment, self-deception, oblivion of ~ 
true relation ships, standing and duiies, the trearfie»y 
fiiends, and violence even unto death, as are acoompai 
ments of dmnkenness in all periods of its hietory, 

VIII. Gekmast. — For onr earliest inforniaiion of ti 
Germans, we are indebted to Roman writers, I'liny and 1 
cituB. They bring them to our notice as tliey appeared abo< 
the time of the commerce in ent of onr Cluistian era, 
tlie first we find thom noted for their indulgence in stroi^ 
di-tnk, a habit eo firmly fixed, that it overcame their vig< 


Inf^nperajwe in Germanif, 125 

Bid enterpriee, and their natural adaptation for encceeefnl 
offen^vo or defensivti warfare, miicli more effectoally tlion 
could the aaeaults of any enemy in anofl. 

"The liquor commonly dmnk by them," aayB Tncltns, "ia 
prepnred from barley or wheat; irhiclt, being feruieiiti'il, is 
brought somewhat to resemble wine. Thoso who roHid'i un the 
Iwnka of tha Rhine use wine itself. Their diet ia aimple — wilil 
ftnits, ftesh Teniaon, iind curdled milk. Thiiy antisfy their ap- 
rithont deaerta or aplenrtid nppendagea. The siline ab- 
i is not DbseTYed with regard to the bottle ; for if yon 
ijll indulge them in drunkenneas to the extent of theii desires, 
jtm majr aa efTeotuoUy conquer them by tliis vice, aa with 

Pliny says: "The Western nations prodnrert their inebriating 
liqnoTe boat steeped grnin. Moreover, t-hose liquora nre made 
tiae of moat, and not dilnted »b is the custom with wine. Ilcr- 
cnles seemed only to prodnce fruit from the earth ; whilst, alas! 
wonderful shrewdness of our vices has shown us in 
water may be made to adminietet to them." t 

TacitUBj speaking of their onstom of keeping their bods 
.1 late in the rooming, says, that after "bathing and having 
breakfast — 

"They, being armed, proceed to bnsinsM; but aa often to 

paities of conviviality, where tliuy spond whole days and niglita 

~ 1 drinking, withont any diegraoe being attached to it. At 

« feaeti, when the gucata are iatoiieatad, freqaent quarrels 

, which terminate not only in abuse, but in biood. Tlie 

Hijecta of liebate at theao feasts are the reconcUement of ene- 

Mm, fonudig family-alllancea, the election of chle&, and lastly, 

Ma and war. The Oiinnait thinks the soul is never more open 

t macHrity, nor the heart nioce alive to deeds of heroisin, tbnn 

ipder tlio tnfloence of the bottle ; for tbcu, being naturally free 

n artifice and diaguian, thi>y open the iutnoat loceasoa of their 

hida ; and the opinions wliicta are thaa broached they ngain 

a tha nest day. There ia aafety and reason attachod to 

Ii niodaa •^ lar they consnlt w^in they are not well able to dia- 

iaWa, and debate when they are not likely to err." t 

anthar, in his " Historical 

rit ifl Telated l>y the 

t Natural llistiirj*, I), i 


Jikohal in Sistary. 

Annals," ■ tliatontlie occasion of a war between tteHomj 
and the MarsiauB, a German tribe, a notable victoty ii 
gainefl by tbo former, under Germanicua, one of their f*- 
inooa geuerula, ou account o£- the intemperance of the 
latter. " Tie scoats brouglit intelHgenue that the approach- 
ing night waea festival, to be celebrated by the biu-banana 
with joy and revelry." The advancing army earroQaded 
their foes on every eide. 

" Tlio bniljarians were aniik in aleop and wine, some Htrotched 
on the beds, others at fuU length under the tables ; a]l in fnll 
eeeurity, without a guard, without posts, and ■without b aenti- 
nol en duty. Ha appeaniaco of war wns aeeu ; nur could that 
be called a peace, whioh was only the eflect of savage liot, the 
languor of a debauch. Germanicua, to spread the slanghter aa 
wide aa poHsible, divided hia men into four battalioaa. The 
country, fifty miles round, was laid waste with 6x0 and swoid ; 
no compaaaiun for scix 01 nge ; no dintinctian of places, holy or 
profane; nothing was sacred. In the general ruin the TempU 
of Tanfau, which was held by the inhabitants in the highest 
venoratiou, wua levelled to the groimd, Dieadfal as the 
slaughter was, it did not coat a drop of Roman blood. Not «o 
mueh ns a weand was received. The attaclt was made on the 
barbnriana sunk in sleep, diapersed in flight, unarmed, and ii 
capable of resistance." 

Mead was also a favorite drink among the ancient ( 

mans, and according to Henderson, it wae cTistomary t) 
diink it for thirty days after a marriage, t Ueaee, ; 
biy the familiar espresHion, the Uuney-moon. Ciders* 
alao to have bcou known, as Tatiaa, a writer of tb« i 
century, makes frequent allusion to it as a common drinl 

Early in the history of thu nation, all classes, and 1 
Besea often drank to great excess, until eoalanning'n 
evil that measures were resorted to as early a 
century, wliich will be more particidarly mentioned fur 
on, to interpose tlie arm of legal authority against tho f 

The author of tho article on Germany, in the J 

Intemperajice. tw Germany. 127 

noyelopsettift, remarks ttat " Popular movements in favor 
liberty io Germany Lave often buen ilefeateJ liy tlie ei- 
seivu drinking of l.lio people." 

A popular song of tbe lliddlo Agoa, as sang by tbo 
ndonts, according to the Jus Potandi, — dnnking oodo 
(Oted by BamnelBou, iu his History of I>rink, * giv(>jj an 

[amiing picture of tbe extent of dnmkenneBa at tbat 


"Bibit beta, bibit hema, 
Bibit miles, bibit clcruB, 
Biblt ille, bibit ilia, 
Dibit servnB cum aucilla, 
Bibit velox, bibit pigcv, 
Bibit albiiH. bibit iiigor, 
Bibit coustauH, Mbit y-M^aa, 
Bibit ruilis, iiibit uiiguH. 

Bibit paupet et lugrotua, 
Bibit t'Eciil tit ignotus, 
Bibit pner, bibit ciuinai 
Bibit jirrsul et dof^anns, 
Bibit Horor, bibit fruter, 
Bibit iinoB. bibit mnter, 
Bibit iate. bibit ille, 
Bibit cenlTim, bibit iiiille." 

Tnrtter quotationa from the same cnrioua works,^ 
hioh, wbeilier a genuine collection of rales really enforced, 
only a satire on the beaottefl condition of tbe people, is 
Iknonn, and perUapa ia of no conBeipiouce, since iu either 

*SamaeIsoii, p. 107: "Alil«rnl renrtering of the above. witJi- 
t lui; attuupt at v«raill cation, is: Tho mistress ilriiikn, tlio 
diinks, liiu Violilior ilrinlta, the vlvrgf driuke, the luim 
|^kl^ tbo wnnuia ilriuUa, the mau-servnnt together n'itb lbs 
l\^ Mi'rniiif (IrinUw, tlie Brtiv*- rfriuUs, tbo bi/.y ilriuUs, Ibe 
" !j!:ii'k driu1;a, tbe conatnut (lriiil;8. tbo fitLla 
: itriuks, tliB Ixior drinl.n, the pnor ri,d nick 
-iiimgRrdnuk, iho j'uiiDgRuiI oldilviuk, tlm 
■ 1 ink, the sialer will lirot.Ifer ilciiik, tl.n wile 
i.'ilKi' iLiiuk, lliig uae Oriuks, tbat oae driul^s, biuulruOa 
ttkonsands iliink.'' 


Jkohd vn Ststory. 

case it reveals in lively ootoring what ia no dpnbt true of" 
the age in whioh it waa written ; — rovealB the fact that men 
not only boaatet! to their neighbors how well tliey bad 
succeeded in making all their guesta drink the nigkt before, 
anil how long some had ahown themaelvea tougher headed 
than the others, but even that fathers made it part of their 
special care and boast to train their lada to drink. " Now 
let aa aoe," said the fond parent to hia little son, "let uaSM 
vhat yon can do. Bring Ixim a half-measow ; " and Iftter 
on, " Bring him a meaaure." 

Hans Sachs, " the national poet," ia also qooted by Ml> 
Somnelaon, aa giving "an account of a drunken tonmament 
which be had witnessed, where twelve ' beer heroes') 
ed in drinking from ' pots and cans ' a tun of beer in a 
hours 1 " 

After the drinking-coda was established a 
" there waa," we are told, " no promiiicnoua hobnobbinf 
and caste was duly respected then aa now. 

"Nobles were not permitted to drink with tradeapeoplu, In 
tliey luigbt raise tlioir glasa to a atudeut, and he in lilie n 
miglit toDdesuend to notice a, tradeBmun, for there waa no know- 
ing of what advantage Bnch a reoognition might be to a student. 
A cSiSe is cited were a merchant (pedlar, we presume,) actuuUf 
gave a poor 'studiosiia' a piiir of bonutiAil allk: sfottkinga the 
morning after a ctiroiuwi,* for which ho bad expreased b Imigbig 
durinfT the eutertainmeat. Yoiing maidens were pennitted ta 
drink platanicolly with virtuous yoong men, bnt thejr ue 
warned in droll and not very modest terms against 'pwtldO- 
proph&tcH,' who are ' lupi rapaces' ill sheep's clothing, and t" 
evils of drinking 'Biaterhood' with such ravening wolves ■ 
dulj and cironmstanlially set forth in the coda. One claosa ■ 
dovoted specially to the expressions in vogae amongst ladtfl 
whu may find it neccasary, whilst at table, to protect the! 
selves against the too gross familiaritj' of tlielr gallant ne!^ 

•Disraeli, in bis "Cnriosities of Literature," Part I. p. 198,9 
anthority for saying that, "According to Blonnt'a OJogHOgritphtd 
carouse is a corruption of two old Gorman words, gar slgniff 
Ing all, and audi, ont : so that to diiuk garauit Is to drink. N 

Int»imperavce in Germany. 129 

As a mle, gaeats might not pledge jwreoua who -were pre- 

1, unless it were a sweetbenrt, and t«u8t mnat lie drank 

'a4 avgurm' — ttst is to flay, in a bumper — Uiy drinkera iifl^r- 

rards revenisg their gohlets und ringing Lhem on their ibumb- 

o &hovi that not a droji was lelt therein. Tliis has been u 

on drinking cnatoni in several countries. Toasts wore 

in various ways ; sometimes one man drank l>om two 

3 at once; at others, when rirtnons young ludien sat hy 

lie sido of respectable yonnj; men, they were allowed to drink 

imaltaneoiiBly from the tuune goblet ; and it was dl^IllorGd tliat 

ppoh a mode of drinking conld not hucome mure geiicrut, on uu- 

«oiint of the wild behavior of tho youth of tho [leriod. Eeg- 

)|lar penalties were inflicted for fmeozing and oongliing into the 

ohieta, and for certain other oll'encea against decency and pru- 

tiety. which, although they seem to have been everyday oc- 

nrrenooa at those caronsala, nreiuiDt to hoajioken of iugioitoel 

r. When new-comeis arrived, the gublet waa offered to 

lem, with sundry complimeuta and orations, nnd to rcfiiae to 

[ink was a mortal oEFence, usually followed by a bloody en- 

nintor. When a gneat found it difSnuIt to keep pace with tlio 

impuny, or eould nut empty his goblet at a draught, ho might 

rati himaelf of the aid of any jiouvg lady who sat by bis side, 

It aid ladiea were not altowud to render aaaistance under anoh 

Icomatances, for they were too fond of their ]tc[uor them> 

" When men hucame riotous, gentle meana were firat to be 
oployed to quiet them; if they atill peraiated, woruinga ful- 
wod; and Bbould they then remain contumacions, they were 
bo well thciwbud and sent home 'us cheaply as possible.' 
ihlo iind window breaking were severely punished, nnd ccv- 
in acta of indecency, if praetiaed before I atliea, were to be re- 
nted by seizing the offmder and pitching him neck-and-crop 
to the street. 

" Shoold the render be dusirooa of studying this remarkalile 
do (wliatovcr view ho may take of ita anthenticity as a acri- 
a prodnction,) lie wUI find it cuinpoaed in medineval Clermiin, 
tersiiersod with Latin and Greek plirnacs, na though it hid 
en collated hy aomo learned euclcfliastic, which is morn than 
ubalile — that ia to say, by some ilnmkpn hang«F-on at a 
sn.'Mtory ; nnd ho will sen how the Gcnunu youth of by-gonn 
lys BtniUeil aa ' viui I't ccpevisiio candidatus,' Jinii eventually 
ndiiated in tbn conrts of lliicchns. But if h<< iciiiigiiic.'j that 
D piatnre It overdrawn, wo ahoiild rocoijimund him to con- 
tt tlio liirtoriciil rucorils. nnd ho will find that no Ian- 
can ndequately portray tJie state of uioiaU in Gai- 

Alcokol m History, 

far I 

tlrmUfonaoBS wa^ 

Aug. de Tbon, in his MomoirB, llv. 11, describes s 
wliicb ho himself witnessed. 

"There is before Mulhauaen, a, lareo place or sqnnro, wliere, 
dnriug Ibe fair, aeaemUto a. prodipfioaa niunbex of people of both 
ftexes, anil of all ages ; theru one miiy sea wivtw supporting theii 
buBbanda, daugbtera tbeir fiitbers, tottering upon tbeir bora^^ 
or tLsaes, a true imugo of u Biicchnjial. Tlie pnblic bosHSB ^H 
ftill of (Irinkera, wboro tbu joimg women wbo wnit, poor %4^H 
into gobletB, out of a large bottle with a long nock, nithimH 
Bpilliug a drop. Tlwiy press ;Fon to drink, with pleaeantries tfi^ 
most agroealila In tbe world. Ppoplo ilriiifa btre cDntinnallir, 
and return, aX all bours, to do thu aatue tUUig over agatu,'' 

Quite as strong is 
Voyages, pul>lislied i 

the fefitimciny of De RoUan in I 

" I am well satieiieA thut tbemutbemtitioiamof tmi timo, g| 
nowhere And out tbe perpetual motion, ao well a» here, wliq 
the goblets of the Germans are an evident demonstration Of Ififl 
posaibility. They thiuk that they cannot make good cheAT, I 
permit friomlship or frateimty, as they call it, with any, i 
out giving the glass brimful of wine, to eeal it for perpetnitfiflj 

hiB LectnreB on the Four G oorgos, + aj 
life among the German gentry in 1000 : 

" Every mominff at seven, the squires aholl Uave their m 
ing SQiip, ailing Trith which, and dinner, tliey shall be • 
with tbeir undur-drink— every morning, exco]it Friday n 
wbcin tliero wua sormon. ajid no drink. Every eveaing t 
shall have their buer, and at night their sleep-diink." 

All accounts nneq[nivoeally agree that botli the 1 
and the lower claHSos, thereligioua and the indifferent alilq 
were debauched by (Irink. The escesBos and craellie 
Bulling therefrom in tbe so-eallod nelilo Eamiliea, ^ 
beastly and f cndiah, and worse than all were / 
ftiid their romembrance paiuded and perpctnatod by isea 

* The History of Driuk. By Jamoa Sajniudson, pp. 107, 1 
t Lecture I. 

Intemperaw): in Germani/. 131 

of family rccortla koj)! aud bantlc] down from generation to 
gpnpration ; nut only »( ilm explttilsof iLo mqi lint, alw) of 
the women, in thi'ii almost coixKfaiil iuii'ilgeiiccs. Tlie 
most auoeptalile {lift- wliieh oDO ouulil heatow on tuintlier, 
was a large ami liamlsomo slinpod (-old drinking tup or 
gohlot, whioli was supposed to be eroatly enriclied in pro- 
portion ae it was covered witli aeuonnta of tlio dHuking 
esploite of its owner. Almost every event in Ufo, from 
liiith to death, was celebrated by drinking, and bargaina Gf 
whatever kind were concluded ever tlie cup, a stipulated 
araonnt for the supply of which. fi)rmod part of the moat 
trifling contract. The Tope's representative at the Court of 
Frederick III. .wrote home to his master, —" Living here is 
►nght but drinking," Wine was so cheap that it became 
a proverb : 

At thn beginning of this century," says Goysler, " GermBny 
eaw tbr»e empty wine caeks, from, tlio I'ou^tructian of wliicb no 
gieat hiinor could redound to our tuuutry among foreigners. 
The Uratin tbat of Tabingnn; tlie aecond that of Heidelberg; and 
tbe third, Ht Grimingen, nenr Halboratadt; and their djinen- 
BJons flia not greatly diifereut ; tbo Tubingen cast is in length 
2i, in depth 16 foot ; thnt of Heidelberg, 31 feet in loogth, and 
~' dueir; anil that of UrnniugDU, 30 feet long, and 18 deep. 
TtUM^ eDcnnoiu vmbhIs wore sufficient to ercato in forelgaers a 
cion ai our dnguuMauy ; but to complete Uio disgrace of 
Oeniany, iu Che yi.'ar 1725, a fourtli waa made at Eonigstein, 
latger tbuu any of thu ibruicr." * 

Unfortunately, in tracing oat the canees or occasions for 
'tltis extenBivo demand for wine, we are forced to pla^e the 
retuptmaibility for it, in a large measure, on those who under 
Cliariemagne ostalpUBbiHl what they thought wei'e tlie insti- 
tntions of the C'liristian chureU in tiennany. ITjc founding 
if tbo monaBtery was supposed to rci^uirc the uae of wine 
in tba celebration of Mosb, aiid imj necessitated the plautmg 

"Travels, vol. I. p. HI. 


JkxM in Hishfy. 

of Tines to anpply tliat demand. Soon the desire for mote 
wine til please t.tie palate, bronglit a largo portion 
gronnda connected with tlie religions houses under cultivftJ 
tion, until at last the long famons Tiniiyarda have been 
thoao planted by the nionke. 

Bridgett • quotes from a Bcrmon preached by BabanmsB 
JlaJuTiB in the beginning of the ninth century. 

" There ore bdiuo vices, deareat brethren, vhich, thoagh T 
great, yet in our days to some appear ho amall, that thoy li 
them either the leRst of evilB or no evils at all. They ha 
Bpread by the abuse of men that instead of being blamed t 
Crimea and sina, they are praised qb if they were ' 

* * * * Aiuong these vlcea feaating and drunkeui 
pecioUy reign, since nut only the rude and vulgar people, 1 
the noble and powerful of the laud, are given up to V 
Doth HCECS and all ages have made intempcranci) tnb 

* * * And BO greatly haa this plague spread that it has i] 
fectttd some of our own order in the prieathood, BO tbat not in 
tliey do not correct the driinkarda, but become dmnkards then 
selves. Oh 1 what witlcEUnogs i8 tbia, brptbrpn, what bilter e' 
JH this, which does not litave unhurt even rulers and digniUea 
until virtues are apoUen ill of, and vices extolled | - ' 
Tell me, you who pntiso feasting and druukennesB, whether it 
a good thing or an evil, to extiagnlsh the light of the niind li 
escGsa, to disturb the reason, to obBoure the sight, to lose ej 
and the use of the limbs, nnd to beuome like a urndman or o 
possesswlt Did God moke man thusT Is this the gloiy ( 
God's image, of which it is written ; 'God made man in H 
likencsat' an intolerable lilusphemy would it be tt 
such a tiling, when God ia supremely good and aioue blesiwd w 
powerful, the King of kings and Lord of lorda. ' He sair 
things Ibnt Ho bad made, and behold they were very go 
Hence drunkenui!>ss was not made by him." 

" In the monastery of St, Gall, dining the tenth century, « 
monk received daily lire measurua of beer, beitides ououaiona| 
allowances of wine, wbiL'h were eonsumed at breakfast, c 
ond anpper; iind honlths were often pledged by the abb 

"Wbon the Pope reproved the German priaslhood fi>r th* 

• The DiBci|iline of llriiik. By the Kov, T. B. Bridgett, C. J 

;. n. pp. ia, 50- 

t Eckuhardria, Juu., quoted by Samuelaoa, p. 111. 

Intemperance in Germamj. 133 

uinrioTia Iiabits, they nptoarionsly returned, for snawer: ■ Wo 
vc no more winu than is needed for the Mass : and not enouKb 
Mim oar milla with ', "' 

Good living, as it was erroneouBly called, was certainly, 
St one time, an imiveraal olieervance in Germany, when tlio 

lole wish of man was, tliat lie mi^ht have sLort sennoua and 

long puddings. When this wish prevailed, every dii^ng- 
hail its/auStett, or aot'a couch, in one corner, for the 
Ltnodation of the first couple of gneata who might 

shance to he too drunk to be removed. Indeed, in German 
illage iniiB, the most drunken guests were, in former days, 
Y far the best off: for, while they had tho beds allotted 
lem, as standing ia most need of the «amo, tho guests of 
fery degree, whether rich or poor, the perfectly sober, 

vheievGir such phenomena wei« to be found, and those not 
> intoxicated but they could stagger out of the room, all 
)dged with the oows among the stiuw. Proliably, no 
>nntry on the earth presented such scenes, arising from 
xceseive drinking, as were witnessed In Saxony and Bohe- 
lia, a few generations back. These scenes were so com- 
loaly attended by murder, or followed by doatli, that it 
•as said t« be better for a man to fall among the thickest of 
is enemies fighting, than among his friends when drinking, 
'here were deadly brawls iu taverns, deadly feuds in the 
imtly circle, and not less deadly contentions lu the 
reete. * * * This is no ovenlrawn picture of an 
ncicnt German period. 

"It is oa record that once, on the banka uf the Bohemian .Saz< 
va, a parly of haahandiiicn met for the purpose of ilrlnkiug 
troIv« flnaliB of wine. There were ten of thorn, who aditreasf-d 
I6iase1v«a to this fent; but one uf thn l^n, nttemptin^ to retire 
om tha contest beforo any of his fellows, tho temaiuiug uiiiu 
ilsed. bonnd Lim, snit roasted him atlvc on a spit. Thu inur- 
weni were siibseqnontly carried to tho jialacu for judgimiut; 
al Uie Ihiko'M fiiueml was taking plane as thuy uulocuil the 
kU, aod Die Princes whoaiLminiatercdjuatkewi-Tu iJl wi lutcis- 
ateil, t^t they Iook<»d lapou tho tuattor in tho light of a Juke 
lat might 1ie compensated for by a sliglit Cuo. There wns a 
•yo«8 [OVOlry at tUal tluio iu every db'outjon, A fatliw wunld 

not receive a man for a son-in-law vliti could not diinli ; and in J 

nuivcieities the contertiDg of a degree was alwu jg I'ullowed by 1 

a CB70IIBO, the lengUi of wliirli wus fixed, by (JoU(r);u culea, oa 1 

nut to exc(<od eight bouia' duration." ' 1 

TLe foUowmg, from tlie sarne author, given as an extract J 
from a semion by tlio Bishop of Triers or Tceves, will show t 
htiw religious teachers l>ecainB debauched, and so conupt- i 
era of tboir people, by wine : I 

"Brethren, to whom the high privilege of lopentance and I 
pennnco has been conceded, fuu foci the sin of abusing the gifts I 
of Providence. But, abuaum nan Mlii uiruni. It is n>itt«II. I 
'Winomaketh glad, the heart of man.' It follows, then, that to I 
Qso wine modemtcly is niir duty. Kow tliere is, doiihtless, none I 
of my male hearers who cannot drink his foui buttli« wnthoul I 
affectijig hie brain. Let him, however, — if hy the lifth ot sixth I 
bottle be no longer knoweth his own wife,— if he beat siul kirk I 
hia chihlron, and look on bia deaicat friend aa an enemy,- re- 1 
&iiin from an excess displonsmg to God and man, and which I 
renders him contemptible in the eyes of hfe fellowB. But who- I 
ever, after drinking hia ton ot twelve bottles, retains his sciwps I 
snffioiently to support his tottering neiglihor, or niniiiige his J 
houBobold affairs, or execnte the commands of hiH tcmpotal tind. ■ 
spiritual snperiors, let bim take his share cjnictly, nnd be IhRn^- I 
fnl for his talent. Still, let htm be eautious bow Tin rxnei\ Tli;*t>fl 
for man is we»k, and his powers limited. It is hat seliloui thuC.I 
onr kind Creator extends to any one the grace to be nble taj 
drink sntely sixteen bottle^ of which privilege he hath bvldawv I 
tho meanest of his servants, worthy. And since no man cnniny j 
of mo that I ever broke out in (causeless rage, or f.iiled toncog'V 
nizu my housebold friends or relations, or neglected the peifimHl 
snce of my spiritual duties, I may, with thankfnlneea and B I 
good cODScjenco, use the gift which bath been introEtod tO um. J 
And you, my pious hearers, each take modestly your allottodl 
portion ; and to avoid all vxwsa, follow the precept of St. Pet«^ V 
— 'Try «11, and stick to the beat.' " f 9 

A Btoiy is fold of a German Biehop, namei] T)cfoucris, I 
that, being esceedingly fond of wine, it was bis ctiatoln in 1 
travelling to send his valet foi-wnrd a post, mtb in struct ioiu ■ 

• Table Traits, with Something on Them. By Dr. Itoran, pp, I 

263-365, I 

t Ibid, p. 268. I 

Infanperatiix in Gei-mantj. 135 

ittt he Blionld taste the ivme ai every place wliero to stop- 
jfl, and write imder iho " boBb," (a liunuli of ev(!r{n*ena 
ang np qvlt tko euiranee of hoiu^ce in Italy where nine 
aa sold,) ilie word '■est," it' it wan uderable, ami "est, 
rt," i£ it was very good ; l>ot where it was inditibronl, ho 
lonld not write anything, TTie valet itrrived at Monte 
'inacAne, and bo much admired the wine thut Ue wrote up 
est, OBt," 1'lie bishop soon followed, found the wine so 
Blatahlo that he got dmnk, and repeating the espeviiaeut 
M often, drank hmiself dead. His vnlet thereupon wrote 
18 epitaph, as follows: 

Which may lie rendered : 

A Badly hlaapheraons cnetoni of miicing aaflred things 
ith the most profano prevails to this day in G«nnany; as 
[re. Trolhipe meutiouB having seen over tlitj door of a 
rewery in the city of Bruges; a. group in alto-relievo, re- 
resenting' the whole proceHB of lirewing ; several figures 
■e umployed in raaehing, cooling, and putting the hear in- 
I caskfl, while winged Bomphs are econ tasting the liijnii), 
3(] the BloHsed Virgin and her inlant are aduuringly look- 
ig on ! • ^ 

Prom time to time, owing, as we shall see in another 
shu[iter, to religious efforts and also to civil enactments, 
umperanco checks have been placed on the downward 
undency of such indnlgeiiee in wino and hecr, but the gen- 
ral drift, ia hero us evurywhere else where wine and beer are 
iBOfI, to the denjand f"r more potent liquors. Morowood. an 
inglish 8nr\'ey(ir of Eseise, and writing in the intere§t of 
le liquor trade In Enghiud, and so above Biispicioii of being 
ngndicodby anyTemperanoe notions, says: " In Germany, 


Jkokd in History. 

of ]nte years, iliyt.illeries have increaBcd, while breweriej 
have deti'wised iu tlio same ratio,"* 

Stmlcnt life in Germany ia utill beset by dmnkcimef 
from liter drinklug. "An AmcTican Student" wLo 1 
recently contludod a couree of study at Leipzig, writeB tl 
following : 

*' Wlien the student bua made kls oxiuuinBtioQ, aft«c his lial 
pull of the last sis moaths, hilarity reigns anpremo. He glr< 
drinldng feasts first to all bia acquuintnnce^, and last to b' 
moat intiinate friend. Wild ia the sport, and no one nnleaa ij 
U a cynio leiiT«a the hall of friendship in a, proBeutabte cmtf 
tiou. The Germiui student ia b; no meuna modeet iu Iiis beer. 
Tbo moat quiet and sedate speiik openly of being sligbtly intox- 
icated, aa if it were, aa it is here, a more matter of courae j bnt 
(It an entertainment conaequent on Saving made bis degree, he 
is indeed a cold friend who does not romplftin on the morrow of 
exeeasire feline uojubuta in the regions of the brain. It ia more 
tban pToliable that coming tcara the scene of feativity, a desire 
to aing on the atreet ocoura. No police ia more atrict than tJie 
Qenuan, and aemi-wild singing on the street brings dawn t 
entire police force, llie stnilents are brought to the police si 
tion, the college beadle condnets them politely to 1~ 
prison, where they remain a few dnya living on the fut of t^ 
land, and seeing their frieuda whenever they wiab; only o 
however being allowed Bdmlaaion at one time." t 

Rev. William F. Warren, D, T>., now Preffldent of S 
ton University, testified before a committee of the Lflgjeu| 
tiire of Masaathuaetts, in 1807, that he spent eight jeaa j 
Europe, for the most part in Germany. 

"The result of my obst-rvation was, that there was donlij 
the amount of drinking and of drunk enn ess among the atndeu 
that there ia niiiong the same class in this country. As regar 
thn jieoplo, I can only say that during the last five yeSi 
drnnken people have gone paat my house, I suppose, every e' 
infr, aomctimes lioiateroosly dnink and aometimes r""- 
druiik. In a street but a few roda from where 1 liT«d, ti 
were hrawia almost every Srmday afternoon." t 

• Rfisay on Inebriating Liquors, p. 459. 

t UDiversaliat Quarterly, July, 1978, p. 306. 

t Report and Testimony, 1807, p. 807. 

Intempenojce in Russia. 


Ik KB aflConnt given by Rev. William Reid,* of the 
" German Protestant Conference for Inner Missions, ftt 
Bremen, Sept. 16, 1852," are quite copiona ostracls from ft 
Paper by Dr. Wald, on the Progress of Intemperance in 
Germany, to tlie effect tliftt the use of Brantivein, (tLe gen- 
eral name for diatilled liquors,} had increased nine-fold in 
r-tiiirty-fivo years; and in consequence, prisons and luOatio 
■syluma wore being overcrowded, ignorance was increasing', 
aid physical deterioration was becoming no general, that on 
J oocaaion of a conscription in one district, " ont of 
e Imndred and aeventy-foar yoong men, only fonr were 
l^declared admissilile by the re^newing army anrgcwns, the 
rt being physically in capacitated by the nse of alcohol." 

IX. Russia. — In this great Empire drunkenness is not 

iBnly unchecked by the government, but the dietillerieB 

md liquor stores, yielding more than one-third the entire 

tvcnuB of the nation, it is encouraged and sometimes en- 

l^oRwd. The cbief drink is Vodki, or com brandy. 

"CatU 1752 It was fanned for £540,000; until 1T74 for £900,- 

1; and nntUlTTS&r £1,500,000; in 1TT9 it wiw let for Ibor 

t, at the ium of £1,800,000; since whicli time it haa been 

nidnally increastng. So far back as 1TS9 tLe licenses to inna 

wd taverns yielded £1,708,338, and tlie brandy sold in the cities 

Mf fetiirsburg, Moscow, and the parts adjacent, ninouuted to 

^330,000 rallies per annum ; but this is not remaxkable, whuu, 

a lUe Pity of Moscow alone, there were no fewer than 4,000 

^ababs or shops for the retail of bra.ndy. The crown, or rather 

lO ehaniber of revenue, farms all tlio kahake, and the cuutrac- 

[ loeichant who supplioa tboni witli spirits is proliibilod 

kom lUstilling Limself, but is obliged to liuy all bam the fuuc- 

Etrtes wf govetumant, who oithvr Uiaw the brandy from their 

U tliatiilori^, or obtain it by contract £;om those of the priv- 

^^ed proviucuB," f 

In 1847 the brandy monopoly yielded a revenue to the 
tiflwii. of £'J,774.17(). In 1854, this was the condition of 
offniry : 

138 Alcohol in SiMory. 

"In the central provinces tlio farmer of the diitj on spiiifll 
buys lliB flasistimeo of tlio lucal autJioritios, oud li 
it is arruuged that all hosuioas shall be earriod on at tbo pd{ 
lic-Iiousc, glaea iu haJid. In the other provinces, irher 
farmer of the duty has ulao an exclusive right of saJoiu liisi 
district, hd makes eat<h commune talto u cartain quautitf j 
head, or else he forties tlio peasauta to pay a certain a 
permlsaion to buy epuits elBuwbeto, tbruatuulu|;, in uoae 
fUsal, to occuHe them oi a breach of the revcaitclaws ; andtl 
know that whether innocent or guilty, if once accused, thq] 
Bre sore to lie condoamed. The result is, in the words of Haj 
thanaen (a favorable anthority), that in the provinces of Cenra 
Kussia, the peasantH are aeiluevd into drimkenneHs, while in tf 
other provinces they urejucced into it." * 

And William Howitt, in hU worlt on the Reyenue (I 
Bnsaa, written before the abohtion of Berfdotn, Bald : 
nobles of RuHsia, who own vast naiubors of scrfa, areiuthf 
pleaaed than otherwise to find them indulging in i 
it blinds them to their degradation ; and, ia their cnps t 
forget that they ought to be free men," On this h^ad, 

"Notice tho romarlc of a writer, in a work recently pnblit 
viz., ' Take care how yon advise a, llnssian noble to prosi 
dnuikenness in his domains,' the noble is bo enchanted with ti 
ha^rginen ! it procures for his peasants, that, fur fi:flui pnttia 
any o))Stacle to it, ho encourages it with all his power, 
government Buj)]>orts a (.onsldFrablo niinilier of puti1ie>ha 
on the laud of tho nobles, iVom whence alatge revenue ' 
Again, let the reader mark an important fact, tik., T 
one* Socieiic* have nei'cr *«™ iHile to take root (n Basma." 

A writer in the PcUl MaU Gastlfc, aftye that a1)ont IW 
as these fiirmerB,having a monopoly of the tragic, ■ 
ing exorbitant rates for thuir liquors, some of tho p 

" Banded thrmsclvcs into tomporauce societies, witL a 
to forcing down the prici.'S. Hereupon Iho famiprs conipljii 
to fi'uvwnment, und tho teetotal leagues were ilissolved, m 
secret BOi-iL-lii'H j ,ii:d siiniiiiury measures witc tlikeii I 
forcing tho pcuplo to contribute to tho roventie by thi^ h 

"Gentlewttu'a Magazine, 1854, pp. 481-2, 

Intemperance in Russia. 


iGci. Policemon nnd soldiers weje Bent into the ilisaSoctoil 

rii;te, and the teetntallRfs were flo);geil into drii]kiii-[ ; some 

3 doggiHlly held unt hiid liquor poured inUi thvir months 

>ngli ruuuels, jind Tvcre afterwatOs tiitnloil off to prisou nw 

lio Biime tiuie the clergy were ordered to preach iu 

r churrhes against the new form of eeditioii, and the press- 

□BorHlup theucuforth laid its veto upon all pnt'licationB iu 

h the iminiirality of Iho liqnor truffio was denonnced. In 

5 the people faiictitd that bouause they were no longer Bcr& 

liay conld not Iw trpflted so nncerenionionsly as of yore, 

t they fonnd out their mist-uko. They were simply dealt 

LT^nts, uiid, though not bcnten, were fined, bnllied, 

dpreached nt till there was uu spirit of resistance left in them. 

irover, this new rising led to the abolition of the monopolies. 

ozcise wB,s substituted, the price of vodki fell by eompnti- 

\f and the lower orders of Bussiu lira now drunlcei than ever. 

cvordiog to the latest returns (Wesselowski's Annual Itcglnf/r,) 

B liqnor duties yield the revenue 800,000,{IOO ronbies (£32,- 

10,000 etwliug) a year." Equiil to, $160,000,000. 

"Bofijro the abolition of the uiotiopolios a laml-ownerinight 

rt op a distillery on his estate, lint he was i^ompellort to still 

e pKKlnc« to tbo vodki iarmers, oud these s]ioculatora might 

a public-houHo on his land against^ Iiis coneenti though 

IB entitled to tix the spot am! to receive a fair root. At 

mt, the trade being free, licenses to distil and sell are 

rod by Govcrjiment (i. c, virtiinily bought of thoTschiiin,) 

tnoBt every land-owner of eonsefiueuce has one. Prince 

ff might get one if he pleased, and has more thnn once 

lught of doing BO ; but he has been deterred for want of i!a)>- 

Inl to compete witJi his neighl>or, Trince KnnolT, who has adis- 

u fall swing, and Hoods the whole district with its pro- 

" The Prince's chief agents are tlio priests, who in the forming 
« allowed a rogular percentage on the drink sold in 
il parishes, but who now receive a lump-simi, nominally as an 

r gift) but on the tivi'it understanding that they ore to 
lull the sale of vodki by every means in their power. These 
o not go the length of urging their parishioners to 
fet druiik, but they multiply tho Chnrch feasts whereon revelry 
k the cuBtnm ; thoy nfflm that stimulants are good for the 
KlUth, becanse of tho cold climatt*. and they never reprove a 
tout wliosiihiibitnal iutomperiiuee is notorious. The Prince's 
.ml agent, tho tax cullertors, the coniicription offleers, all ,iiiin 
El promoting the consumption of vodki hv trans.ii'ting tliou 
B at tho village dram-shop, with glasses bulbro thum; 


Alcohnl in Bistwy. 

and even the <loctcpr, who lives by the Prince's patronaj 
aiM'ibES vodki fur evcr^ ima^uiiblo ailment. The iudncementBrl 
to drink in the towns nre not leas thnii in. the country. Wbeltil 
tile coacUmiiu, Ivon Ivano^tch, goes out for a stroll unongS 
the fine slieps of Odessa, he is lured iaito tho t^a libapt by tlw 
load music of tUe barrel-orguns, and vodki is Grrvod liim -witli 
hie tea, as a matter of conise. If lie drivea hie master t« apurt£j 
he hits no sooner drawn up liia trap under the shed in tke lioec'l' 
yard, than the servants invite him into a lower roost And giTwl 
him as mnch spirit as he will driulc; if he goes to Uie eom- 
ch£tni!lu''s for oate, to tho veterinary surgeon about hU lioTae'a 
lega, to tliu harness makurs or coaclimakerB, the preface to all 
busiuees is vodki ; and when he seta out to visit his kinsman 
Dpim holidays, vodki (greets him opon every threshold. It is 
the same with the doonuck wlieu lie nscends to the different flats 
of tho house to collect rent or carry letters; vodki is ofi'««d him 
licfcire be has time to state his business ; and nndor these hos- 
pitalile eircumstances the wonder is not that the man Bhonld 
occasionally exceed sobriety, but that he should so often be 
sober. But in liussia a sober servant means — a-iieptia exapiendU 
— one who only gets drunk upon the festivals of the ChHich." 
"We have not," says a recent writer from St. Petersburg, "» 
single temperance society; and the intemperance cause in Bnt 
aia is flourishing." * 

IX, England. — Altliougli English history bogina 
the limdiiig of ,tuliua C'sBsar on the Island of Brir&in, i 
the year 5G B. C, all ancient writers agrpo that tho inlmb^ 
tanta ibunii there hy the Romans, wero a tribe of the Gaol 
who at a not very remote period had omifrrated from tU 
neighboring continent.t Doubtlosa thoy look with I 
the general munuGrB and custoius of their Fatherlaoq 
among which waa the manufauture and use of Iteer. 
cording to Macrobius, the (iatilB had no knowledire of thJ 
cultivation of tho vine till Rome haii arrived at a liigfl 
elate of prosperity. Some Roman wine, given l>y a Hetvi 
tiou to the (lanls, so delighted them, that they were is 
to attach the Soman capital in order to obtain luliiDitA 

Intemperance in EnffJand. 141 

anpplieB of tliiB teverage.* Snbseqnontly the nae of the 
vine was taaght in Gaul, but no advances wore made in ita 

IonltnrD till tha arrival and conquests of the Romans. So 
late as the eixtli century, beer was the common drink in 
Paris, a circumatanco which Hiexv from Julian, who had 
Jbeen appointed Cajsar for Gaul, tlin following epigrain: 

"Whence art thon, thoB false Biwchn*, flen'o and liott 
By the true Bacelios, I do know thue iiot ! 
Ho smell!! of ndctur ; — thy bra in -burning smell 

■I of flowers of beav'n, bat weeds ofhell. 
The lack-vino Cnlta, impoverish'd, breerli'd, and nid», 
From jnivlcly barley-apikes thy beverage brew'd: 
Whence I should style thee, t« appiote thee Hghl, 
Kot the rich blood of Bacchus, bounding, bright, 
Bnt the thin ichor of old Cerea' veins, 
Espress'd by flames from hungry barley praina, 
Child-bom of Vulcan's Are to bum up human braina." 

Mead wasalso hold in great esteem by the ancient Britons. 

'' In the court of the anciant Pilncca of Wales the mead maker 
was held as the eleventh person in point of dignity. By an aa- 
cieat law of the principality, three thiuga in the principality 
weia ordered to be communicated to the King, before they were 
nutdo known to any other person. First, every, seatenco of the 
jodgo; second, every new song; and third, every oaslL of 

When the Britons were finally snbdned by the Romans, 
near tho close of the first century, they begun speedily to 
imitiit« the niauners of their conquerors, not simply says 
Taeitus,! learning the Latin language, style of architecture 
and modes of dresa; but '"by degrees they fell even into a 
teliah of otu vices." 

On their abandonment by the Romans, early in the fifth 
century, they were in ilanger of being overrun by the Picts 
and 8cote, when a few Saxons coming to their relief, the 
invaders were defeated. In turn, the Sasons joined hy the 

• See also Livy's HUtory, Book V. soot. 33. 
t Bacchus, p, 208. 
( Agricola, xxL 

142 jSaOol m Biatortj. 

Angles, conqaered the nativos, and cstftblislieil tlio Anglo- 1 
Sason govomment. We have already seen from tlie losli- 
mony oi' Tacitus, tbat the Gorman people were, Parly in ihdr 
hJBtorj-, known tu ns aw drinkers, and Wright, in Uis liia- 
tory of Domeatic Manners and Bentiinents in England, eaya 
of the Sasons, who wore a Genaan tribe, tliat it is "evident 
from the Romanoe of Beoroulf,* that they were drinkers be- 
fore they settled in Britain." " Their drinking caps," li«^ 
aayn, are frequently found in their bnrrowa or graves."! 
Hiller, eays that '' the Saxons were hard drinkers, mea 
wine and ale flowed freely at their feasts." \ Turner describea 
their drinks as " wine, mead, ale, pigment, moiatandcidc 
The pigment was a sweet and odoriferous liquor, made o(B 
honey, wine and spiceries of various kinds. The r 
was made of honey diluted with tlie juice of mulberriea 
Three Borts of ale are mentioned, clear, WeUh and mild." 
Feasting was frequent with them, often nproarionely jolly 
and not nnfroqaently ending in strife anil bloo(tel)ea| 
Wright gives a translation of the legend uf Jaliana, 
whioh the Evil Spirit describes his influence at the fealiTf 

" Sonw I hy wileB have drawn 

To Btcife prepared, 

That thay Hoddenly 

Old erudgca 

Have renewed, 

Dmnken with beer; 

I to them poured 

Diacord irom the enp, 

60 that in the social hall, 

Through (rripe of sword, 

The Bonl let forth 

From the body." || 

" See copions estraots from this poem in Tiiine'a History 
Engliah Literature. Book I. chiip. i. 
t Pp. 2. 5. 

I IliBtoly of the Anglo-Saions. By Thomas ililler. p. Si 
$ Uistoiy of the Anglo-Saxons, By Sharon Tomer, Vol. ] 
). 203, 204. 

II Homos of Other Days, p, 50. ■ 

Infemperavce in England* 143 

InilnlgenM in the inlosicatiag- pnp wns not confined lo 
e sepnliir liaya, nor to thoso wtio niuilo no profesainn of 
Wligions faith and convittioti ; lint vas totimion with the 
lAergy and with ihoir congregations. Wright " qiiotoa this 
DBCord from the EocleBlaatical InstitntM : " It is a very bad 
nstom that many men practise, both on Sundays and al§o 
r MasB-diiys ; that is, that Btraightwaya at early mom 
Bey desire to hear mass, and immediately aftCT the mass, 
n early mom the whole day over, in drnnkenneas and 
lasting they minister to their belly, not to God." 
• St. Boniface writes in the eighth centmy to the Arohbi- 
"iop of Canterbury : 

"It is reported that in jonrilioceBestheviceof ilmnkoniieMis 
o freqocnt ; ho that not only certain bishopi do n«t hinder it, 
itthej thetiist'lvcsB iudulgo itt escesa of drink, and force others 
ilTinIc till thuy nre intoxicated. Thia in eertuinly a great crime 
r a aervAnt uf God to do or to have done, Biace the ancient 
nons decree thut a hishop or a priest (;iv'ea to drink should 
thei Tcsigu or be deposed." 1 

Ab it. becnme necessary to define the extent to which in- 
^cation shonld go in order to be improper or penal, the 
dlowing definition was given : *' Thia is tb^kennesa, 
rlien the state of the mind Ib changed, the tongne atammers, 

e eyvs are diatnrlied, the head la giddy, the belly is swell- 
i, and pain follows."! 

In the Pagan ccremoniea of the Saions, the first day of 
lovember was dedicated to the Angel preaiding over fraita, 
leds, etc., and waa therefore called " La Mas Ubhal, i. e., 
leday of the apple fmit; and being pronotmned Lamaawool, 
be Knglish have corrupted the name to Lamb'a-wool." § 
^len the Saxons becaTne Cluiaiiana, their Papal teachers 

ido no attempt to abolish wassailing, as the observance 

•DOT»Mtic Mannert and SBatiments, p. 77. 

tOtscipliuwof Drink, p. 77. 

.t^pello, OonciUji, 2SG. Quoted bj Tnmer, 11. p. 201 ; ftttriii- 
' d hy BriilR6t,t, p. 148, to Abp. Enliort, 
VvUiUicvy, Collectuuuu. de BotmsUilioruitoa. Vol, iii, p. IM. 


Jhohol in History, 

Ln»!<1 it ta^l 

of this feast waa called, lint on the contrary, canned i 
aesume a kind of religtona aspect, oonforraed i 
spoct to their neve religious views. The wassel bowl waa 
placed, in the great monasteries, on tho Abbot's table, at 
the upper end of the refectory or oatiiig hall, to be circulated 
among the comniumty at his discretion, whence it reoelvod 
tho honorable name of " Poculum Charitae." Still in use 
among the students of the English Universities, it is oallod._ 
the (iriuxi Cup.* One verie of ancient song thus descrilM 
the mixture : 

" Next crown the bowie, fnll 

With gentle latuba-wool ; f 

Add sugar, nutmeg, and ginger, 

With store of ale too ; 

And thus ye mnat doe 

To make tho Wasaaile a swinger." 

FosbTooke,§ states that both the monasteries and convent 
of the Anglo-Sasons were nurseries of the worst imaginablfl' 
vices ; that dissolute nobles and other persons of rank kbA 
wealth often purcliaaod crown lands on pretence of founding 
Religious Houses, and tLat making themselves abbots, thejT 
gathered about them dissolute monks who had been eicpell- 
ed from tho mote strictly miinaged monasteries, and bronght 
their wives and other women into their monasteries, 
of the nuuDeriea were dissolute, especially M Coldu^hat 
where the nuns are said to have spent their time in feastiq 
drinking and gossipping ; to have " employed tketoselvi 
in working fine clothes, dressing themaelvea like 
and acquiring the favor of strange meu." 

The Church authorities, as we shall see, fought i 
these evils, but oven Bridgett concedes that it waa i 
always with much success. 

" A monastery was flometimes a rillage or town, with n 

• Milnor. Aruhicologti;. Vol. Ki. p. 420. 

t HoBHted applea. 

t Derrick's Uespptides, p. 376. 

i Brftiali Monaohiam, vol. L pp. 16, 17. 

Inienvpera'Mx in England. 145 

mdred inmatea. Mont of tlie«6 were laymen. Thoy were re- 
nited from all claaBM of society, and great CTiminntB, uo less 
on those who had bean ulwajH pious nnd innocent, thronged 
to them. It would have been strange had they not litoiight 
Lth them some of their old bad hithita. Again, long ruBtiujr 
litrtd wiib baid manual labor, was their daily dlicijilJno. Ki) 
'ondor that when the re&eahment hour came, the beer got into 
e h^HilB of some." * 

The variooB occonnts of the customs in botb higli and 
w life, ebow that excessive drinking was common witli nil 

" We have an account of Ethelatao'B dining with hia relative 
^elfleda. Tho royal ptoTiilers, it saya, knowing that tho 
ng had promisod hot the visit, coiiiie the day before to aee if 
rery preparation wag ready and euitabla. Having inspected 
Bl, thoy told her: 'Yon. have plenty of everything, provided 
mead holds ont.' The king came with a great number of 
tlendsnta, at the appointed time, and after hearing moaa, 
nt«red joyfully in the dinner apartment ; but unfortunately in 
btt Hnit aalutation, their copioua dranghta exhansted tlie mead 
IWMb. DauBtaa'a sagacity hud foro»ocn the event and pro- 
ved againat it ; and tboogh ' the cup-boarers, as is tho cus- 
m at royal ienst«, were all the day serving it np in cut horua, 
id other veascla of various sizes,' the liquor was not found ta 
rdelieient. This, of course, very much delighted his majesty 
[d his companions, and att Dunstan ohoae to give it a miracu- 
os Appearance, it procured bim inSnito credit." t 

Wright quotes the Chroniclor Walling ford, as saying of 
|i eArty Sason dinner party, that " after dinner they went to 
heir cups, to wliich the English were very much aocua. 

med." He also shows, from the story of Dunstan and 
dug Eadeiiy, that it was conaidcrod a mark of dierBSppct to 
be gtiCBtB, even in a king, to leave the drinkingeariy afler 
inner. " In the latter part of the day they were accus- 
Mued to sitting in tiieir halls and drinking. Atsneh times 
Blteorsed their adventm-ee, sung songs, and made proof 

t ibtar iwwent in hard-drinking.'' I From an Anglo-Saxon 

Uiocipline of Drink, p. 
Turner, Vol, ii. p. 201'. 
t Biatory of Doiuustir Mb 


AlaM "in fi'&fcW/. 

poem entitleil Jr.rlith, an extract is given, stowing that the I 
idea of a more aneiont foiist is borrowt'tl from scenes in tUo | 
time of tho writer : 

"TJlca was Ilolofomes 
I^acllanted with Ihe irine of men : 
In Ihu hull of tlie guests 
lie lunj^Iiud aud slioiited, 
li(i titaied aud diimi;J, 
That the uMldron of men might hear oiar, 
How tUe Btiirily ouo 
Stumiod aud clamored, 
Auimated uiid elated with wine. 
Uo [idiuonUbell amply 
Those Bittiug oti yic beach 
That Lliey sbuiild licui it well. 
So wos tho wic'lioil one all day, 
Tho lunl uud lils men, 
Drunk with Tviue ; 
Tlio stern dispenser of wealth ; 
Till that tliey awimming lay 
Orer dmnk, 
All hia nobility 
Am they were death slain, 
Their property ponred abont. 
So commanded the lont of men 
To fUl tA those silting at the feast, 
Till tho dark night 
Approitclieil Ilie eliililron of men."" 

The condition of lolding and occnpying the ctowi 
lands wfts often made to he tlie supplying of tlie King, A 
Btated times, with liqtiors. Thus, in tlie reisn of Kingi 
Edward, A.D. 901: "One Williiun de Insula held • 
canicato of land, with the apjiui'tenancoB, in West Hun' 
ilred, by tho Seijoanty of buj-ing nle for Tho ub6 of o 
Lord tho Kiiiff, and it is worth by the year 
Hliillings,"! A carueato of land is delined as being n^ 
oertuin quantity, '' but au inach as a plow eaii, liy coutae o 

•Turner, vol. ii. p. 204. 

t lilouiit's Ancient Tenures of Lauil, aud jucul: 
Bome Manors, pp. 63,131. 133. 

Iirtemperaiux in England. 147 

l^btin<lrjrt plow in. a. year ; and m&y contain a messuage, 
' meadow and pasture." 

he same reign, "liartliolomew Peytenyn holds two 
Barucates of land at Stonoy Astnn in the County of Somer- 

Kit, of our Lord the King in CajiitPj by tiio eerrice of one 
Bxtary of Clove wine.[alnmt a pint and a half of spiced 
Irino] to be paiil to the K-ing yearly, at Christmas. And 
"le said land is worth ten pounds a year." In the reign 
F Edward the Confessor, A.D. 1042, "John do RocheB 
liolda the Manor of WinterRlow in the County of "Wills, by 
Qie service, that when our Lord the King sbonld abide at 
Clarendon, he should como to the Palace of the I^g 
lere, and go into the Buttery, and draw out of any veasel 
e should find in said Unttery, at hia choice, as much wine 
B should be needful for tnaking a pitcher of Claret, 
rliich he should niake at the Iving's Charge ; and that he 
liould serve the King with a cup, and should have the 
resecl from whence he took the wine, with all the remain- 
der of the wine left in the vessel, together with the cnp 
3nce the King should drink that Claret." 
In the reign of King John, A.D. 119S1, "Walter do 
Surgb and his Partners, hold sixteen Pounds land [as much 
fl wonld pay a yearly rent of an English Pound of twenty 
lliillings, ordinarily fifty-two acres,] in Eakcy in the 
bounty of Norfolk, by the f^CTJeanty of paying two Muida 
t bogheads] of Bed Wine and two Hundred Peare 
■Hod Permeines, to Im paid at the Feast of St. Alicbael 
early, at the King's Exchequer." In the same reign, 
' Walter de Hevene held the Manor of Itunham in the 
loanty of Norfolk, in Capite of our Lord the King, by the 
egeanty of two Jlnida of Wine made of Pormains to bo 
aid to the King at his Exchequer, yearly, at the feast of 
;. MiohueL" 

Not iat from the year 1000, King Edgar endeavored to 

heck the vice of diinking, and t<j put an eud to the dis- 

nd violence arising from the practice of handing 

6und lo the guests on every social i 

148 Jkohd in SistoTy. 

drinking Tosacl of largo eize, wliich ihey wore espected to J 
attempt to riva! each otLer in (baining. He onlerod thatj 
all Bnch veBBole sliould be made wilb knobs or pegs of J 
brass, &t certiun Lntervals, eo that no ono bIiouM be com-T 
pelled to drink more at a draught than iiooi one pc^ tc& 
another. Before long it became cnstoroary to ineist the 
the full spare between the pegs should be drained, ftnw 
thence to Bee how many could, undetected, esceed tte a 
lowance, till at last it wa8 coatoinary to say of one wIkm 
became inebriated saoner than the others, " he has got ^ 
peg too low." * 

"Tbe two gallon measure had eight pegs : ftnd tlie half piut^ 
from prg to pug, was (ieeme J a litting dranght for a 
man; tint bm the Htatiitn, or custom, diii not deline how oflea tl 
to])er raiglit tie permitted to inciulRo in this moasure, people 
tlibwtj- prop'misities got ruthor mote inebriated than they ImJ 
danid to be previously. A» tbto balf-pinb was lon^lily sot Aatn 
as the maximum nf tbeir draught, it was a point of honor nltH 
them never to drink less, — itud to drink to that estei 
as opportunity offered, "f 

The Panes, who at tliis time had made settlements UM 
TarioKB parts of England, were notoriously bai'd drinl 
their Boldiera setting no bounds to their debaaohei 
Their habits in this respect cattsed them frequent eurpru 
in their camps. The visit of Iving Alfred, in the diggi 
of a minstrel, to the oamp of Gunthrnm, wbcro ho foaut 
the floldiera steeped in dninkenness, is ono of many i 
dents of a eimilar natnro. 

The Ramsey History tells a. story of a Saxon bishopj! 
who invited a Pane to his bouse in order to obtain sutoi 
land from bira, and that ho might drive a belter lutrgt 
ho determined to make bis gncst dmnk. He tb«rafnnd 
pressed hiiQ to prolong his stay, and when they had ) 
oaten enough at dinner, "the tables wore takeu away, a 
they passed the rest of the day, till lato in the ctvttiugJ 

• Club Life of Londtm, vol. ii. p. lU. 
f Doran'B Table I'lalts, p. £98. 

InteTtlpcravce in England, 


finking. He wto licM tho nffipe of c-tip-bearfT mnnafied 
Ifbt the Dane's turn at the imp cftmo i-ounil uftonor than 
bo others, as the bishop had directed him."" 
The Danes, it is said, bo tyrannizpd over the con- 
oored Saxons na not to allow them to drink in their |ires- 
witliont firet asking permission, nndcr penalty of 
; a regulation which so terrified the Saxons that 
»ey dared not even take advantage of the priviloijo to 
Knk unlcsB a pledge was given tbat they eliould not be 
irmed in conae(|nonce of it. Honco the custom of pledg- 
g in drinks. 

1 Towards the close of the eleventh ocntnry, the Normans 
taqaeved England. For a time there was a marked con- 
\ tlieii' habits and those of the conqucreil Sasona. 
)0n they learned the vices of the people they had 
abdned by arms. William of Malmsbury is quotod as 
jdng of the Sasona at this period : " They passed entire 
?B and nights in drinking." Rioting in gluttony and 
inkmness, they were " accustomed to eat till they bo- 
bie snrfeited, and to drink till they ware siok. These 
r qnalities they imparted to their conquerors : whose 
anners in other respects they adopted. " f 
Hn tile twelth century drunkennosa was on the increase, 
il more attention to the description and praise of intoxi- 
as was given by writera. One tbua enimierales the quai- 
ls of good wine : 

'It ebould bo sa clear as the tears of n penitent, bo thut ono 
y Heo (liatiucUy to the bottom of tlio glass. Ita oolnr Bhould 
ireseat tho greeuneM of the huiTalo's lioru ; whou ilrimlt, it 
>ald deaexniL imjiotuoualy like thtwiter, Bwevt-taali«i iia itu iil 
uA, (UMping Uku a stiniiTxl, leupiug like a nwbuck, strong 
e tbe liiiltiling of a Cisti-'rciao mouaatDcy, glittering lik^ a 
Itk of Are, entitle nn the lugic of tbu schools of Funs, iHuhi-ate 
Bino «llk, and cokler thuu urj^stal." t 

■Wrluht, p, 30. 

T Ibitl, p. 8t. Also Taine, Book f. chaptot U. 

j Weight, )•. 00. 


Mnohd in Stsfary. 

The monks were so gluttonous and diBEipated that e4 
contemporary occloaiastieal writers of this century npbra 
ed them In sovoro terma. Giraldus Gambrinns, one i 
these writers, complains with great indignation of tlie tat§ 
kept by the monks of Oanterbury ; and lie relates this a 
uident to show that the clergy were more estravagant % 
this respect than uven the highest among tbe \tuty. 

" One day, when Henry II. paid a visit to "Winchester, the prior 
and nionkB of 8t. Swithin met him, and feU on their luiccs lieforo 
him tocomploinof the tyranny of their Liahop. Whea Ibohing 
aslied what waa thoir grievance, thoy said that their table bad 
hoen cartuilud of three dishes, The king, eemc^what soipTiaed 
at this tomplaiot, and imagining, no doubt, tliat the bishop liu4 
not left them enough to eat, intiuired how many dishoa he bad 
left them. Tbey replied, ten ; at which the king, in a fit of in 
djgnation, told them that be bimst^U had no more than t 
disbes at bis table, and nttered an imprecation against i 
bishop, tmlcss he reduced them to the same number."' 

Bridgett bears testimony to the drnnkenness of the o' 
gy in the following century, in recording that when the ai 
cate of the Bishop of Worcester appeared before the P« 
to argne against the exemption of Eveaham Abb^, T 
said : " Holy Father, we have learned in the Eohoole, ( 
this is the opinion of our masters, that there is no pw 
ion against the rights of bishops : " the Pope replied i 

" Certainly, both you and yonr moeters had drunk too n 
Euglisb beer when you learnt this." f 

Ho also quotes an Archdeacon as adding, after extoIG 
the zeal of tho Irish clergy, of this period : 

" AmouK so many thousands you will not find one wboi I 
all his vij|;oroiis observance of fasts and prayer, will aol s 
up nt nij^bt for the hibbrs of the day, by drinking ■wbiA 4 
Other liquors beyond all bounds of decorum." ) 

It was at tho latter part of the twelfth «entiiry, or i 
in the thirteenth, that duties were levied on imported n 

• Ibid, p. 348. f Dbcipliiie of Drink, p. 79. \ Ibid, pp. 70, 8 

Inlcmperanoe in En^arid. 151 

" A small licenaa of four ponco a jeor ttbs paid by bieTrera. 
le pnblicoii sold tlio liquor he lirewsd liimgelf. and waa forbid- 
U to convey it to onothoi bnrgli for sale. Outside a burf;li do 
B ooiild hare a brpw-LonBo ouloss lie had in tlie place t'uteain 
"I foBsam, — 'gallows and pit.' [Tlie gallows for hangiug 
1, the pit for dtowuiug women.] No one cunJd sell ale unloaa 
d been brewed for sale and previonely tasted. Tbe proToat 
i otbei public offlciuls of the bnrgh wore alto^lher forbid- 
I to brew ale oi bake bread for sole; no doubt lost they 
bribed iudlieotly in the wlmiuiHtnition of justice, or 
t they Bhonld draw cnatoineTs by intimidation. Public tAS- 
9 wore appointed, who bad to make oath to taste and lawfully 
186 tie «le, according to the price of malt, and in so doing 
lare or fiivor no one. The brewing and selling of the ale 
a to haTO been an exclusively female occnpation. One law 
8 na ftillovra : ' What woiunn that wlU brew ale to sell shall 
r all the year thrgngb, after the custom of the town. And 
e does uot, she shall be suspended of her office by the space 
It year and a day. And she shall make good ale and api>ror- 
le as the time asks. And If she makes evil ale, and does 
laiuvt the cnstom of the town, and he eouvieted of it, she shall 
IT amci'eement eight shillings, or bo put on the cuck- 
DOl, and the ale shnll be given to tbo poor folk, the two parts, 
I the third piirt sent to the brctbrnn of the hospital. And 
~ t si> doom shall lie done iif mead Bsof alf. And each browsr 
U pnt heT ale- wand outside her honse at bor window or above 
r dooT, that it may be visible to till men. And if aho do not 
" U pay Id Hue."* 

>C aaioe writer quotes Burton's Annala to the effect, 
in A.D. 1200, ptiueB were fixed for the different 
a o( wines, botL wholesale and retail. Tlie rctail price, 
was found to be impriuitioable, as it allowed 
no jirofit, aud wae immediately changed, and po the land 
was lillpfl with drink and drinkers." The original Taw in 
rcjrard to duties paid by irapoitevs was ; " that the King 
seized one tun before and one behiud the mast." In the 
time nf Henry I II, the duty was cliangfid to " one peniiy 
on a tim," 

It waa 111 his leign also, A.D. 12(ifi, that tlie prici^ of 
liecr or ale was estsbUiibed by law, an act being passed 


SoohiH in Mistory. 

r 3s. 4tL, nail a quarte 

a quarler of wLcat i 
of barlev for la. 6 

quftilcr of oata for la. 4d., tlien lin 

and may well afibwl to aell two gaUons of beer or ale f<^ 

ml out of c 

a sell three or four gallons I'or^ 




penny." This was supplemented tho 

" statute enoeting penalties against brewoia and venders 

who chM'ged too mnch." Subaequeutly the justices in 

sliiie, and the mayor and sberifffi of the cities Bxed 

price, and " every beer and ale brewer was forbiddeu 

lake more than each prices and rates as should be tlioi 

snfiicieut " liy these authorities. 

Wieltliffe, denouncing the clergy, io the midiUe of 
fourteenth contiu-y, says 

" That tboy hannt tavems oat of nvcMnre, nnd stir up laymen 
to (lmn]i.cuncss, iiUeness, and cnraud eweoring, cliiding and 
figliting. For tliey will not follow enmently in their apiritnal 
office, after Christ and liis ftpoatles, tbertfore tliey roaort to 
plays at tables, chess and hazard, and roar !□ the streets, and 
sit at tho tuTcms till they have lost theii wits, and tlic^u chtdd 
and strive, and fight somethues. And sometimos thuy have 
neither eye, nor tongue, ncir hand, nor foot, tu help themselvn 
foi drunkenness. By this example the ignorant people enppi 
that dTunkennesB is no sin; but he tbiit n'nst(^t]i must 
poor men's goods at taTerne, making bimseir and other 
dmnken, is most praised for nobleness, oonitesy, beenesj 
worthiuoa "' 

JeaflrcBon says that in the fourteenth cPntary, " 8am 
■was the day of the whole week for revels in the tavern a 
feasts at the Squire's table;. "J 

On aecount of "drinking and buffooneries," it 1 
neeesaary for a council held in London in 1343, to abola 
wakes over the dead. § Twenty-five years later the AH 
of York " complains tliat in vigils men come tiigotlicf 3 

•Ibid, lip. 124-138. 

t A book ubout the Clergy, by J. C. JoaSreaon, Vol. I.jl^ld 

Uhid, p. 149. 

{ Discipline of Drink, j 

Itiiemperance in England. 153 

* file obnTcKea b^<1 at funerals, as if to pray ; and then turn- 
ing to a reprobate eeoBe, they indulge in games and van- 
ities, and even worae, \\y wLioh tliey gi'eatly otfend (rod 
. and tlie saints, wliom tliey protend io venerate ; and they 
like the houite of moumlag at fnnerala a bouse of laugb- 
T and escess, to the great ruin of their souls." • 
Hingular enough, the dying made provisions in their 
"9 for "solace" and "recreation" for the monmerB at 
bfiieir iiinerals, to be obtained in eating and driDking : 

"KatbariaB Coolie, widow of John Cooke, sonietimo Major 

if Cnmbriilgo, djing in 1186, left flftoen ponoo in money ' to the 

I mayor, bnlliffs, nod eiu^b of tlieir bretiiren tbere lieiug pretent 

Ht the aaJd dirge, at llie calling of tbe euid mayor and bailiff^ 

■ R> thtt tavern for a, Bolace tbere among tbem to be had.' John 

^eynsbam, alderman of Cambridge in 1302, appointed by bia 

1 obit, at wluch the mayor, hallitt's, etc., ehall aasist, and 

nmediately alter the dirge, ' a recreatiau, otherwiae caUed 

kfinkott or banqoet, to be had within tbe Abbey of Bamewoll, 

[■t cost nod charge of the treasuiers, at which to be spent six 

MIlingB and eighteen pence in bread, cheese, a hogget of good 

flc and another of hoatel ale;' for which ho leaves fouuda- 

- i."t 

n "A Eelation of t!io Island of England about the 
lT 1300/' J suppoBed to be the worlt of a Venetian noble- 
u who a^ioompaiiied an Ambaesador from Venice to Kiig- 
md in 1497. it is staled tUat, " Few people keep wine in 
Dieir own houses, but buy it, for tho most part, at a tavern; 
jpd wlien they mean to drink a great deal, t!iey go to the 
n; and this ie donu not only by the men, bnt by la- 
Bps of distinct ion." Wright Bays : § 
'"The tai-em was also the resort of women of the middle 01 
r oldi'ra, who assembled tlieie to drink and gossip. Xn 
fi Jifyeteriea, or Rpligioua Plays, Noah was represented aa find- 
j Ilia wife ilrinhiug with her gossips at the tavern wbcD 
jf wontr.d to take hor into tbe arb. The meetings of gossips in 

■HiwI, p. 177. 
1 1 lUd, p. 110. 
I trrintoiby th.? Co 
I f DonetUc Manner 


Ahohd «t Hi^onf. 

taverns form the anbjectB of many of the popular BObgt of tin 
'flfCeenth and sixteenth ceuturies, both in tuglauil aud Ftuace 
It appears that tlieae uieetiugs of i^uygipa iu taverns we 
firaC examples of whut -we duw vail a picnic, for each t 
took with lier some piovisiona, anil ^ith these the whole par 
made a feoat in uonunon. One of the songs of the iifteenlll Ci 
tury givoa a picturesque deaiTiption of one of these goesip-meet' 
inga. The women, having met acciden tally, the qunstioti la pnt 
where the beat wine was to be had, and one of them Topliea that 
Bbe knows whore could ho pracuioil the beat drink in the towDf J 
bub that she did not want her huahoiid to be acquainted with 

' I know a dtaugbt of mery-go-downe. 
The best it ia in all this towne; 
But yet wold I not, fiir ray gowne. 
My husband it wyst, ye may me trust.' 
The place of meetiug haying thus been Ssed, they ore repiw-fl 
Bentod ae proceeding thither two and two, not to attract o" 
servatiou, lest their husbands might hear uf tlinEr meetlngJ 
' God might send mo a stripe of two,' said one, ' if mj liiiabandf 
ahould Hco lue here.' 'Nay,' said Alice, another, 'she tliat il 
airaid had better go homo ; I dreadnoman.' Each waatocarrjfl 
with her some goone, or pork, or the wing of a capon, i: 
©on pie, or some similar article — 

' And ech off them wyll Humwhat bryng, 
Goaac, pyj^e, ot ciipon'a wyng, 
Fast'cB off pigeons or auni other thyng.' 
Accordingly, on arriving at the tavern, they call for wine 'of? 
the beat,' and thou— 

Their conversation runs first on the goodness of the Wines, a 
neit on the behavior of their husbands, with whom they ate a 
disaatiafitid. When they r^^y their reckoning, they Und, ii 
copy of the song, that it amounts to three pence eo^^h, aad t 
joice that it is so little ; while in another, they find timt erioH 
had to pay sixpence, and are alurmed at the grentn^s at tlld 
amount. Thuy agree to separate, and go home by dlffnc 
Btroeta, und they are represented us telling their hnsbandn tllitfl 
they had been to cliurch," 

Dnring this pmod the sing'nlar charities unil fain 
known as " Ales,'' greatly fioniisLed, Wli<>n au tial 

Inten^percm* in England. 


Bate tradGsmtui icdlnA iu bueincHit, Im neigbbors Bent hiin a 
purse of money, whicli lie wss eapcotcd lo convert inlo ma- 
terials for a i'uast or " ale," to wlikh the donors ware inviteil, 
each paying a rtipuUiteil price for wliat lio might eal and 
diiuk, and with the gum thus obtaiiie*!, t.ho lionkmpt wns 
started in biuiinesa again, Tliia was called, a " Bid Ale." 
A similar device for inoreaaing the pariah -clerk's meagre 
salary was designated the " Clerk Ale." • Stobbs, in hia 
" Analomie of Abases," has tbo following, on 

"Tbe Alaner of Church Ales in En);l!ui(l ; In certalnc townea 
whem droitken Bacuhue beaces Bwaie, against CLrintmaB, and 
Esstar, Whitsondaic, or aoine other tyme, the church-wardena 

I of every parishe, iixth tliu cous^nt of the whole pariBhn, pro- 
vide halfe a Buore of twenty qiiaiterB of mauJt, whereof some 

. thejr buy of the churcLe stuuke, sad some ia given them of the 

> parisliiuneis thomselrea, every one Conferring somewhat, a«cord- 
L-tex to Uis aliilitle : whicho manlt heing made into very strong 

I bore, 13 BetM to sale, either in the chnreh or some other 
t place as&ignoil to that pnrpoee. Then when this is set sbioche, 
I woU fabetbutcau gete the soonest to it, andspendthenioBtatit. 
[ In thia kind of prat^tite they continne stse woehes, a quarter of 
I a year, yea, a hnlfe a year together." 

William Kethe, In a sermon in 1570, complains that 
hese Chnrch-iUeB are kept on the Sabbath day, " which 
I holy (lay the multitude (;a!l their revelyng day, which day 
spent in bnllbeatingij, bearebeatinga, bowlings, dicying, 
I oordyng, dannsynges, dninkenneEs, and whoredome, in eo 
I roncli, as men oonld not keepe their serrauntes from 
I lyinge out of theyr owne hoaees the same Sabbath-day at 

r tjight." 

The aatircB written by tbe clergy themselves, give aa a 
L lively jnctiu'H of the tiroes, the general dissolntonesH, and 
I yet tbe fact that the varioue ranks and de^ees in tio-called 

> Hnly Orders, experienced different treatment and different 
J tttxe. In Forbrooke's " firitisb Monachism," a number of 
I tlww satires are preserved. We give extracts Irom two of 
] ditTereut dates ; 

* Jeatf idHiu, Vol. u p. 851, 

JSe^sL.'h. History. 

" TliB abbot and prior of Clouoestcr uad aiiite, 
Vi'aai lately iuTited to sharo u good trcut i 
The Urst asat took the abbot, the piiur Uanl by ; 
WJU) the ra^, t3,g, and bobtail below was poor I. 
For wiuB for tho abbot and friar tlie oiUl ; 
Tu OS poor ftcvils uotbiug, but ta the rich aU, 
TtiQ blti^teiiug abbot drinks health to the prior ; 
. Give wine to my lordship, who am of rank higher 
If people below us but wisely boimve, 
They are sure from bo doing advantage to have ; 
We'll have all, aud leave imugUt fur our brothera to take. S 
For whi(^h Bhoching complaints in the chapter they'll mue^l 
Says the prior, 'My lord, let'a |jo jogging away, 
Anil to keep np appearanpea, now go and pray.' 
' You're a man of good habits, and give good advioe,' 
The ubbot replies : — they retnmec" 
And then withont flinching stuyk to it amain, 
Till out of tlioir eyes ran the liciuor again." 

This is from tho other, of a latur date : 
" One law for our rulers, another for us, 
To na wTctchea the smell cv'n of wine is nnknown ; 
The vinegur 'a oura, — the wine all thair o' 
Not a peg fWim the clouter must we dare t< 
While the lords of a dwelling withdraw to their home. 
To a emuking good fire, then act themselves down, 
And with iiuetac of heaven their best a 

According to the samo authority, the nuns were no ti 
ter than the monks. + One of the qnestions to Ite Uaki 
was : " Item, whether any of the Bialere be oommonj 
druokeJ" "They were accused of avarice, voliipttitni 
noss and sloth ; and one of them, the Prioress of Bnmaej 
Wii8 a notorious dnmkard.'' 

"Tho abominable reptttn lion of these religioiiB hnusMinl] 
led to a visitation by Wolsey; the inimodiate effect of wtichw 
the siippreewon 'it from twenty to forty convents — authoHti] 
being eomnwhat at varia:ien tu to the nninl>i.-r^aiid the uonrt 
if their estntus to tho fiiuudJng ol'ClillHt Cliiiroh College, fl 
Oxford. Bubaeqiiuutly u iiuTabi-t of nbbots. tliroujjh foivr of If 
voluntarily eNrrundorud llioir projitu 

* Quoted by Samuelaon, p. IIJ, f Ihid, p. 1^ 

liOemperaRce in Enf^aiul 157 

mil pailiotiieiit, at the iieil soasion, sappresstirl throe bimiliiKd 
ml aeventy-eiz, and veatt'd tlioir estntua in Lbe erovrii. The 
ksnlC shows tllHt tlio t^ommon reputation of those establieli' 
loDts wiLB aa ez>i'^einlir)u. Tbe premablc to ttie Act pviDg 
heae cslai«s to the kinp;. recites that ' uajiiluBt siii, vicious, 
tmal, untl aliotuiunblo li^iug' nharauterised thEM 'reli^iOTia 
DUaeB of monks, t-iutona, aud uuiib.'"* 

Hallam, while tliinking that it,iB not to he doubted that 
1 these viaitatiuna, "many things were done in an arbi- 
rary manner, and much was unfairly repreeented,'' adda : t 

"Yet the reports of these visitois are so minute and spRcriflf, 
1st it ia rathiT a preposterous degree of iucrediUitj' to rejei^t 
leir testimony, Trhenever it beais hiird on the regulars. It is 
Iways to lie rememboreil that tlie \'ieea to which they hear wit- 
BBB, ore not only pro1);kl>le fcoin tliB nature of Bunh foniidationB, 
Dt are imputed lo them by the moat respectable writers of pre- 
idingagiiB. Korda 1 fiud that the teporta of this visitation 
oi« impeached for general falsehood in that age, 'whatever 
taggoTfttiou there might he in particular cases. And auroly 
ko commendation bestowed on some rclJKioua hoiiHc>a as pure 
Ml anaxeoptiouable, may afford a presumplion that the een- 
ire of others waa not an indiscriminate prejudging of theii 

Tho Bistwnth cantury seems to have been ch&racter- 
sed by oM general dissipation as its predecessor Lad been. 
rang boer was a penny a, gallon ; table beer lesa than a 
JT-penBy; Spanish and Portuguese wines a shilling j 
It and German wines, ei^htpence. For a peuny, then, 
I Iftboror, whoso wages were from threepence to six 
e a day, according to his skill, could buy as much as 
10 laborer of to-day can for a shilling. | Erasmus, who 
bitcd England in the cHJly part of this century, gives a 
t description of an Englisb interiiir of tbo bolter 
Tbo fumiture waB rough, the walls wnplastered, but 
tmutimea wainscotted or hung witji tapestry; and the 

' CODStitiitiounI History of l^uglaiid. By tTi>uiy Hallam, Vol. 

158 MaSiol «i BtHary. I 

floora covered with msliea, whicli were not changed for- 1 
months. The dogs and cats had free accoHs to tlio eatiog-J 
rooms, and fragmentB of meat and Loues were thrown t»J 
thom, whiuh they dcvoHrcd among Uio rashes, lea^-in^'fl 
what they couhl not eat to rot there, with the ih'ainings of ■ 
beor vessels and all manner of nnmentionable u1>oiuina- ■ 
tions- Of the moral and intellectual condition of the peo- I 
pie he exclaims : I 

"Oh, slrnnBo viciaaitntleB of human things t Horefofore Mw M 
heart of leaTning vrns among such as profeissd religion. How, M 
wlltlo tiiuy for tliu moat part give tliomselvua up, fentri Iuxih {K^'I 
OKiiuryue, tliB lovo of loamiug ia gone ftom them to seoulu ■ 
priuoeB, the rourt anil the nobility. May wo not justly bo m 
aahamed of oiirsalvoaf The feaBts of piiests and ilivinea OM V 
drownoil iu wine, are filled with scurrilous jests, aboimd with 9 
intBmperate noise Dud tumult, flow with spiteful slanders nnft I 
defamation of utheCE; while at princes' tahlea modoat diHputa' M 
tiitaa are held cuucoming things which make for leomiug nnil M 

Alexander Barclay, who wrote early in this century, says I 

in his poem, the " Ship of Fools : " I 

" The holy day we fill with eche unlefnll thingr, M 

Aa lute feustes aud bankettes auused with gluttony, fl 

And that from mom to night eontinaully. H 

The tavern is open hefoie the church be ; 1 

The pots are ronge as bela of droukennesaa, ■ 

Before the church bels with great solemnltie. I 

There have thoao wretchee their mattlns and tbeir masse. I 

Who listeth to take heede shall aft«n see dowtlesa, ■ 

The Btalies of the tavern stuffed with eeho one, fl 

When iu the church stalles he shall see iew or none." t I 

Another poet is qaoted as saying of tavema : I 

"They are booome places of waate and escess, I 

An harbor for each men as live in idleness. I 

And lyghtly on the contry they be placed so, I 

That they stand in men's way when they should to cboroli ga. I 

• Ibid, p. 48. Sen also Home, Vol. hi. p. M8, I 

t JoaJireson, vol. U. p- U3. I 

IniemperaTioe in EngfancL 151* 

And snrh as love not to boor tliej-r fivults told, 
I; tbe mmister thnt readeth Ibe Now Testaniont and 01(1, 
turn iii|:q the iileboiise iind let tlie cliiircb go ; 
d luea accom])t<Hl wise and lioneat do bo." * 

The early tavema maile no provision for supplying ih<?ir 
riailora wilb food, beyond a crust to mlisli the ivino ; auci 
e who wished to dine before thev diink, must go to tlie 

I 1551 the following Bong appeared, and at once became 
jwpitlar. It baa more poetic merit than any drinking song 
tiiaCbad been amig before, Sisleen years later it nppeared 
a play entitled "Gamiuer Gnston'a Xeedle," written by 
Bishop Still.f Tho prcBumption is that ho was the author 
dE the Bong. The Bong commences wtth the ohoniB, which 
It uoging, is repeated at the close of each verse : 

"Buek uud ude go linre. gu bare, 
Botlt font nud liimd go cold ; 
Bnt belly, God send tbeo gond n!u enough, 
Wbetlier it be new or old. 

I eaiuiot eat liiit little meat, 

My stoiaact ia uot {,'iiod ; 

But siire I think, that I can dr'aA 

With him that wtars u b<«nl. 

TboTiKli I go bare, talie yo no care, 

I aie nothing a oold ; 

t dtufTuy skin se fiii] within 

Of j 'illy good nle and old. 

I loTO no roaat, tint a uiit-brown toaet. 

And n crab luid in tlio lire ; 

k litllu brertd ahtiU ilu iiic stead, 

Undl bruiul I do nut <U-sire. 

No Ttoet nor snow, uo whid, I trow, 

ConhiiTtmcifl wolil. 

I anj M wmi't, uad throughly lapt 

Of jolly gnod ahi and old. 

•IWd. 1.. 125. 

( Club Lifc of Loniloa. rol. If. p. 113. 
ITha "WDrka df tUa Britiah Dtaraatiats. By Jobn B 

lol (n Stslonj. 

And Tyh my wife, thnt as her life 
LovoUi well goud alo lo seek, 
Full oft ilriiika nhe, till ye mny eee 


It her <■] 

Then duth slie trowl tu lun tlio bowl, 
Bv^n ait a mult wonn sbuiild ; 
Aud BLiitb, S^oet heart, 1 took mj part 
Of tMs jolly gomi alo and uid. 

Kow let them drink, till they nod and wink, 

Even as good fellows ahoold do. 

They shall not laiae lo have the hlisa 

Good ale doth bring men to: 

And all poor souls, that have aeomod bowls, 

Or have them luatily tcold, 

God save the lives of them and their wives, 

"Whether they be yonng or old." 

In tlie Tcign of Elizabeth, bo great was the (Imnkeiuiess 
on the Lord's day, and so getieral the acquiescence in it, that 
parliament failed to pass a law, " That no victoaller have 
Lis shop open liyforo the service he done in liis parinh. whew 
ho dwelleth." In a homily on the " Place and Time of Pray- 
er," the people are represented as resting " not in bnlineBS, 
as God commandeth ; but they rest in iingodliness an^ 
filthiness, • * * in esceas and aupeiiiuity, ingluttony 
and dnrnTtennesa, like rats and evdne ; * * * aa that 
doth too evidently appear thnt God is more ilishonored, 
and the devil better aer\-ed on the finnday, than upon 
the days in the week beside." * A great variety 
now begin to be attached to the alea, as eiugle bew, 
small ale, which is represented as being very mild : doublt 
beer, which was recoiamended as containing a double qtum- 
tity of malt and hops ; double double beer, twice as eironi 
OS the last; dagger ala, a particularly tjharp and dtuigeroi 
drink ; and a special favorite, the cliief ftrticb- i>f vnlgOT 
baiich, waa commonly called Ilnffcap, bnt was also termi 
by fieijuonlera of alo houses, Mad T)og, Angel's Tood, 
Dragon's Milk. "Aad never," savs llan-ison, " did Roma< 

" Jeaffireson, Vol, U. p. 129. 


TnfemperaTice in England, 161 

1 and Remufl seek their ebe-wolf with auch enjpr and 
|iiarp ilovotiou us tUeae mfn halfi at lliiffcap, till thoy be ae 
s cocks, and little wiser tlinn l.heir combs," 
Tlio wealtliy brewed a geueroas liijuor for their own con- 
mption, whicli was not bronsht to the table till it was 
QFO years old. Thi^j was called March ale, from the month 
B which it was made. The poorer clasaes and iho servants 
1 to content theraselvcB with a sirapler beverage, which 
s seldom more than a month old.* Ihunkeu feasting 
iTOG to have characterized both ecclesiaatical and secular 
iccaeions. An instance of thefonneriafuundintLeaccoaut 
ftt when the Archbishop of Canterbury was enthroned, a 
li banquet was given, at which the following drink pro- 
won was made : " Six tnna of red wine, four of claret wine, 
6 of choice white wine, one of white wine for the kitchen, 
flbuttof Malmsey, ono pipe of wine of Osoy, two tiereea of 
banish wine, four tuus of London ale, six of Kentish ale^ 
nd twenty of English beer." t A striking instance of the 
'a found in tko fact of the general statement of Ham- 
in, that Queen Elizabeth's visits to her nobility were a 
peat oppression to thera V>y reason of the cost of her Inxa- 
ibiifi entertainment ; and liy the special instance cited by 
Inine, of LerviaittotlieEarlofLeicester, whereat, ''among 
Iher particulars, we are told that three buitdred and sisty- 
iVe hogslieads of beer were drunk." f 
Health drinking, aa it was called, was observed with a, 
)at deal of formality, the toaats being given, not to any 
rsou present at the feast, but to some one for whom the 
irlnker had great partiality. "Wright § qnotoa from a little 
jok published in 1623, the following description of it : 
" H* tUOit Itegina tJiO liiialtli, first oncoKerinp his head, takiis a 
n enp ui Ills linod, and netring his conntonnnoe with a \^vjm^ 
peot, Ii6 craves for uudicsnou. Silence liomg once oblnined, he 

• Wine nnd Wino Conutries, By Charles Tovey, p. 40. 

t SmuueJaoa, p. 137. 

I History of Englauil, Vol. IV. p. 372. 

} Dameslic Mannete, pp, 487, 468. 

169 Me^Bl in Htukn^ 

begiiiB to breathe out the name, peradventttre of some honorabJn 
persuuu.g<i, whose heultli ia drunk to, und be that pledges moB 
likewise olf with hia cap, kisshia iinj^rs, and bow I' 
Bign uf a, TBTorent acceptance. When tbe leader aeee Uia fl^ 
lower thiu prepared, he cufts ap his bcotb, toms tbe hot 
tbe cap upward, ajid, in oetenCalioa, ipTes Che <Mip a phlUip t 
make it erf Cwuitgo. And thus the first ecene ia en ~ ~ 
t'up being newlj repleuisbed to tbe breadth of a hair, lie t! 
is the pledger must now begin hia part, and thus it goe» t 
tbioughont the whole coTii^iuny. In urdet to aacertoin tbAt eaali 
person baa ftiirly dmnk olf his oop, in tnming it up be wub to 
ponr all tluit remiLineil in it on bis thumb nail, and if there was 
too much to remain aa a driip iin the uail without running oi^ 
hu was made to diiok bis cup fiill again." 

Mas MUlIer has hronght to ligLt a volume of tlie Trsvet 
of Paul Hentaner in England, in lfl98,* in wliioli the Qcf 
man ti-avdler, ftfter remarking on the " clever, perfidio 
and thievish " character of the English, and Baying tfaa 
" they »ro very fond of noises that fill the ears," adds tlf 
curiouB statement ; " In London, persons who have 
drunk are woat to mount a church tower, for the sake ( 
exercise, and to ring the Ijella for several hours," 
statement of a popular historian f Is to tbe efTeot than 
" EsceBB in the ui^c of wino and intoxicating liqnois H 
now the common charge against the Eng'lisli, and it { 
to be borne ont, not only by the quantity consumed, btit llJ 
the extent to which taverns had multiplied by the end f 
Elinabeth'a reign." 

To thin state of thing Shakespeare alludes in hia Hai 

A je marry is't ; 

But to my mind, thnngh I nm native hero. 

And, to tho manner bom, it ia a custom 

More honored in lie breadi tliuu the nbaervanoa. 

This beiivy-beaded revel, oast and west 

Mskeeue tcndnced and taxed of other uationsi 

They claaa ns drunkards, and with awiiush phra«t> 

Soil OUT addition: sjid, indeed, it lakes 

• Cbipa from a German Workshop, Vol. UI. pp. iS3it-3Sf. 
t Knight's Pictorial Uistory, Yul. U. p. 8B1. 

Intanperwux in Enrjlaiid. 

[in coasoqiipnw, t.lieic was uppalling inaeoiirity of life, 
jat increaae of primOB against pereon and property, and 
h Rireste wero numerous and peualtina scvnrp, it is 
B nniform testimony of history tliat not more than a fifth 
t ef tbesQ offencee were ever punished by ttie (\ivil law. 

a »ay8 that 

'■ Thero were ot least three or four hundred ablo-bodicd Ta- 
il every coanty, who lived by tlipft and rapine ; and 
o Bometimes met in troops tu tbo number 'it el^stf, and com- 
littcd spoQ on the iuhabitouta ; < ■ ■ * ^ud t])"t Ilia 
istiataa tliemselTes wore intiinidate<l &om exeeuting tlia 
a upon them ; and tliere wero iuatuncos of justloes of the 
B who, aStvr giving sentence agaiixst roguea, Uad iuttir]HiBB'i 
^stop the execuliiin uf tlieir own sentence, on accoujit of the 
IT which hnng over tbent &um the coufederates of tboia 

I The seventeenth century opens with the reign of James 
, nnilev whose administration drunkenness did not de- 
e.waa known to lie an habitual drnnkard, and 
) hiB oonrt men and women of high rank, copying the 
lers, rolled intoxicated at bis foet.t Involved 
i difficulties with his parliament, and stinted iiy them in 
3 allowance of money, ho contribuleil greatly to the 
1 (if intemperance by licensing an immonso number 
It tippling liunses, in ordw to increase his revenue. The 
«t of the Danish king and his courtiers, wboae exaraplo 
Kconstant intoidcation, the English people readily imita- 
], led to the remark that the Danes had again conquered 
kglund. Cecil gave a feast to the two monorchs, on 
sion both got so drunlt that Janies was carried 
( lied in the anus of his courtiora, and Christian IV,, in 
rabling intosieation, rniatiiok his own chamber and 
lereil tUe grossest insults to tho Countess of Kottingliam. 

Nearly iLe wbolo company gave proiil' that they were capa- 1 
bio "1' f'llliiwiug these exawples. 

Sir John llarriugton, an eye-witness, says : 

"Tiio Indian abandon their sobriety, nixl are seen to toll about i 

la intoikicatiuD Tlie lady who did plajr the Qneen'ii i 

part (ia tlio Masque of the Queen of Sheba) did carry most p 
ciona gilts to both their Majoatios; but foigQltinn! the steppes j 
arising to the canopy, overset her i^askots iuto liis Dtuiii<di Mft- ■ 
Jdsty's lap, and fell at his feet, thongb I rather think it was in 
hisAice. Machwasthe hurry androofusion ; cloths and nxpkias 
trere at hand, tu make bU uleau. Hia Majesty then got tip and 
woaJd daace with the Queen-of Shaba; but ho fell down and 
liutnbloil himself buforo her, and was carried to au iniiar obain- 
beT and laid ou a lied uf Htate, wbich iraa nut a Utile defiled 
with thu preatnta of tho Queen which had been bestowed on 
hia garments ; snch ae wine, cream. Jelly, beverage, cakes, 
spices, and other good matters. The entertainu 
tvent forward, and luost of the presenters went backward, ol 
fell down', wine did fu) ocRupy their npper chambers. NovdT' 
appear iu rich dress, lloiie. Faith, and Charity : Hope did Dj 
to speak, but wine rendered her eudeavors so feeble that al 
■witidruw, and hoped the king would excaao her brevity; Faf 
.... left the court in a staggering condition. 
They were both sick and spewing in the lower halL Next ei 
Yictory, who .... by a strange medley of versifioation i 

. . . unil alter much lamentable utterance, was led nvn 
like a silly captive, and laid to sleep in tho outer et«pa of Id 
nnti-chamber. As for Peace, she most rudely made war wifl 
her olive branch, and laid on the pates of thoae who did oppcNf 
her coming. I ne'er did see such took of good onler^ d 
and sobriety in our Queen's days." ' 

Scotland and Ireland liecoming parts of tlie sani 
pirc willi England at the commenceraent of tlio c 
teeiith century, there was naturally an intOTchoDgeablft il 
fluonce fmiii one portion of the nation to tlie oilier. 
1iiff>ro the <lj-unkeTiuePS of England liad lieen iilmoHt wboHl 
taiifii*(l liy ferraentod driiLks ; now distilled liquors o 
and by the middle of the century the use hiul liecou 
mon. Distillatiuu' had been [iracticed in Ireland 

hitemperanoe in England. IGJ 

larly, if not, r|iiil.(> a century, — the precise date ia nn- 
lown, — aacl ob oarly ae 1558 sucli a draiu had than bppu 
ide on the uouatry'a supply of com as to call for leg- 
iativo iottirferenee witli tlio manufacture tif anient Bpirite, 

order to avert a fumiue. The Irish railed tbeir new 
ink vsi'jtic ratha, or uaquebaogh, and ;il«o buleaan, the 
ItM word derived from buUf, madaeea, and cumm, the 
sod, was descriptive oF the flerj' jiropprtiea of tho liquor ; 
id from iwigwf, or usque, is derived whiekey. Morysou*§ 
of Ireland is quoted hy several writers ae aulhor- 

for the statement that in 1600, men ami women never 
> to Dublin for tho purpose of disposing of any article in 
,e market, but they stay till they have spent the price le- 
iived in usqncbangh, and have outslept two or tliree 
tye' dnuikenncBS. 

Sir John Parrot, Lord Deputy of Ireland, 1584, addrosa- 
g the mayor and corporation of Gfllway, tstud ; " The 
ina vitiE tkut ia sold in towns, ought rather to be called 
[oa mortiB, to poysou the people, than to comfort tliem in 
ly good Borte," * 

The dissolute habits of the English seem to have kept 
ice mth the rapid polirical oliaiiges which characteriEcd 
le Beventeenth century. Tavern life grew raoro freqtient 
itli the people, and more dohauelied and dangerous, 
iahop Earle, wiitiug in 1C30, thus describes a tavern : 

" A tavern is u degree, or (if yon will) a pBir of stairs nhove 
1 iUi>lifiiiae, whisTH ta<:n are drunk witli more croilit ami npolo- 
f. If tllH vinter'B noBe lie nt the door, it ia a Btj^i^ aufflcient. 

• • Men come lierfi to maiko merry, but iudeed make a 
)im, Bad tiiia muaiy nbove is answered witli a clinking below, 

• • X melaaeliuly tnnn would find here mutter to work np- 
i, to Bso heads as brittle tis glass, and oiten broken. * * t 
lionue "f siu jaii may c.ill it, tint not a honse of dnrknnna, for 
III r::tHlles are never out ; and it is like lliose oomil.rii'n f;ir in 
le nortb, where it is as rleat at uiidnigbt as at miii-duy." f 


168 JkoM ft BiOors. I 

All the taverns lud a bad reputation, altliough somej 
were mow uiufonnly the ecene of violence than ollieraj 
Among these waa the Eoso Tavern, in Oovent Gardeiu 
whioli " waa conatantly a scene of dranlten broila, midnigllB 
ovgioa, and murdorouB assaults by men of Fashion, wlio were 
designated ' Hectors,' and whose cliief jdeasiire lay in fre- 
quenting it for the running through of Bonie fuddled toper, 
w{iom vrine had made valiant."* Thia was in the days 
of the Common wealth, when the high pitch of dissoluteness 
gave to England the name of the " land of Drankards." 
But bad as the condition of the people then was, it 
aggravated beyond all compulation when Charles II, 
ceeded the Proteotor. Beyond all question liia wa« 
most disHolutfi court, and liis Bubjocta'the most draokt 
people known to the history of the English-speaking peo- 
ple, Pepys says of the Court : " Things are in a very ill 
condition, there being bo much emulation, povertyj ajid Ihfl 
vices of drinking, swearing, and loose amours, that 
know not what will be the end of it, hut coafusion." 

The clergy, blind to the debaucheries around them, 
attributing the mlsfoitunca and miseries of the times to 
judgment of God on the people for not putting to death 
murderers of Charles 1. 1 In a short time " the profiii 
of the Court begun to show itself in more daring out 
than the indecencies and riots which rivalled the i 
of the lowest of mankind. The jolly blades racing, 
ing, feasting and revelling, more resembling 
and abandoned rout than a Christian court/'f The Pari 
ment which met at Edinburgh on the Ist of January, 1661 
to accommodate the people and the laws to tli 
condition on the accession of Charles, " has been honort'di' 
enys Kniglit, " with the name of the ' dninken Pftrl 
meat.' '' Ho quotes Burnett as saying, " It was s 

* Ibid, p. 192. 

t Knight's Uistory of England, Vol. IV, p. 268. 


pe«- 1 

luiempertmce in England. 


Toflririg' time, fnll of ostravagancp ; dnd no wnniler it waa 
RO, wbun tlie men of affaire were almost peqtetually druuk," 
The liistorian a^lda : " The violcjcp of xhn dnmlseu I'urlift- 
ment was finally shown in the wanton abguidity of wliat 
was called the ' Act Reeciefiory,' by wLich every law that 
lad been pasRed m the Scottish parliameut during twenty- 
eight years was wholly annulled." * 

A writer in Addison'a Spectator, reUtea an incident, of 
which he saya Le was an eye-witness, of the king-'a diuiug 
with the Lord Mayor of London, when the latter, over- 
weighted with winfi, grew more familiar with the king than 
was twomly at mich a place; wliereupon the king withdrew 
i.0 hia coach, bnt was pumued by tlie mayor, who with an 
oath insiett^d, " Sir, you ahall stay and take t'ntlier Ijuttle I " 
Tho king, far fi-om resenting it, looked kindly at the 
mayor, and repeating a line of an old song, " He that is 
drtmk ia as great as a King," immediately turned back and 
twmplied with the demand. + Of the general debauchery 
and absence of moral sense characterizing this period, Ma^ 
caalay closes a satirical description by saying : " It is an tm- 
qusBtionable and moet instructive fact, that tho years dur- 
ing which the political power of the Anglican hierarchy 
■waa in the zenith were prooiaely the years during which 

itional vii'ttie waa at its lowest point." ( 

tJnfortunaiely, tluH condition of thini^B characterized tlie 
most of the century, making religion diaroputable through 
tfift esBJupIe of the dignities of the Chnrch, and defeating 
nlL political fairness and honesty. I«cky, thus desoribos 
manner in which disputed elections were decided in 
Parliament, in 1«72 : 

"It ia itapuHaxTile to eimcelre a more grotesquo travesty of a 
jndktnl proceediiig tlinn wus hubitnalt j exhibited on tlieao oo- 
maiuiu, >ii;han privutA ft-lmids of each ritoilldnto and the mem- 
of tlie rival parttus muatereil tbcir foTc:M to vote entirely 

•IhW, p, 258- 

t'l'li^Sptirliitor. So. 463. 

1 IIiBtury ul'Eiigliiiid, Vol. I. p. 1G0. 


JJmfS^ hi Sistarg. 

iirespeetiTe of the tnoritBof tlio cnsej when, tlio firfo of hearing^ 
evidfiu'e liiivxug hoi>ii gono through with in an iiiiiiity Hg 
the members, who UchI huen waiting without, strotHnoii in, 1 
intOEicated, to the lUviaion, and when tho plainest nnd i 
illcollti^Btable testimony was set aside withont spruplo, if t| 
cJuebod with the party interests of the m^ority." ' 

CliihB with ontrageona names, and aflilicttnl to stiU laor^ 
outragcona acts, were organized in IIiIb contiuy, anil c 
tiauod their existence and deprodatiouB far into tbe nest 
Sacli were the " Thieves," who gloried in stealing and d 
Btroyiiig property ; the " Lying Cluli/' any 
which telling the truth between the howa of bis and t«i ii 
the evening, paid a fine of a gallon of wiiio ; the " I 
Bucks," whose members all denounced the olaimi) of G 
and who, after disturbing divine eervice by parading l 
and forth before the churches with bands of music and b 
teroua shouts, sat down to dine on dishes na,med in bias 
phemoua derision of sacred things, prominent among whiiili 
was ■* Uoly Ghost Pie," aTtor which they rushed into tlisJ 
Btreets, and shouting iheir motto : " Blind and Bold Love,**] 
committed the most horrible and disgusting alTocitiean 
and the " Sword Clubs," whoso members, after getlinj 
roaring drunk at their suppers, took possession of the towi 
rushing violently about with swi>rd in hand, deEoandiug 0\ 
all passers to defend IhomBelves or sufier. 

In 1688, when the population did not mnch excee 
5,000,0(10, there were 12,400.000 barrels of ale lirewed i 
England, t about a third part of llio arable land of t 
country being devoted to barley, raised for thJa piupoe 
About the same time the restrictions placed fm disdUadai 
were removed, and the manufspture rose from 527,000 g 
Ions of gin in 1684, to 2,000,000 gallons in 1714, 
3,001,000 in 1727, and to 5,394,000 gallons in 1735. 

Early in the eighteenth century, — an booh ub VI'2A 

♦Englirad in the Eighteenth Century, VoL I. p. iT7. 

InlempernTtce in Etifjland. 


a for gin drinldn^, Hpreiiiling like an cpidi'tviic, 
lO nicaaos of tlio piipulrttii)n. SavB Loeky : 

"Small lis is the place wliich tliia fact ocnipioa in Xlnglish 
■tory, it nas pioliHlity, if wo conaidor ell tUo rousequi-ucnfl 
it have tlawcd from, it, tlio most niomeutnuii iu lli:it of tlia 
Ightetmth i-i'urury — incomparLiliIy miirc? ho than r.ny fvcnt iu 
a puTfJy political or military anuiila of the cuuutiy." * 

I Ab tliQ evil progressed, as indicated alxtvo in tho ena- 

Mration of tbe supidy of tlie pmson, the clergy, the medi- 

\ profeafiion and the county grand juries lirunght to Ijcar 

1 tho arguments derived from increftsed immomlity, Oia- 

rime, to indnco tht; law-raakorB to arniBt tlie ovil. 

n attempt was mnde in 1736, by the passage of a bill 

have the force of a prohibitory law, — a mcos- 

1 which will he more fully noticed in another place. 

B state of morals at that time mnst have been appalling. 

pollfltt thus gives ns a glimpse of the desperate condition : 

PTTiB popnlace of London were sunk into the most hratal de- 

lACaofi by (trinking to exness the pemicioua spirit called gin, 

a Bold so cheap that the lowest class uf the people 

bid aSocd to iudnlge themselves In one continned state of in- 

■Lication, Iv the destruulion of all uiorais, indnstrj and order. 

]i n ohaweful degree of profligacy prevniled, that the retailers 

" la jwisonons componnd sut up painted boards in public, iu- 

ing people to he ilrunk for the smaU expense of one penny; 

huring tlieni they miRht be dead drunk for two-pence, and 

i straw for nothinj^. They accordingly provided cellarB 

3 places strewed with straw, to which they conveyed those 

^tchM who were overwhelmed with intoKiention. In tlicae 

il earurns thtry lay nntil they recovered some nso of their 

■altlM, and thno they hnil reconrse to the name mi hc hie von a 

^on; tliua consuminc: their henlth, and mining- their fami- 

), iu hiileons receptncles of tho most llithy vice, rosonndiug 

1 riot, exorratiou nnd bIiiBjd>emy. Such bcaatly prjictitioa 

B liLitnly denoted a total want of all police and civil regnla- 

1 would Itaro reflected disgrace upon the moat bar- 

MU commnntty." t 

^Iblfl, p. 51», 

(l nislory of England, by T. 8mollett, M. D- Yol. in. chap. vji. 

nMoiihidl; in Si^anf. 


llognrth's piptnro ^vos a vivid and friglitful view of fl 
pliyaical degrailatitin of llie frcqucotcre of " Gin f 
anil Loi'ky tlius siims up tTio iasoQurity and immoia 
caused hy llie general dissipation : 

" A club of young men of tlio higher classes, who oisumedfl 
name of Mohocks, wure iiuenatomoil uigbtly to aallj out d 
into thi? Btr<'4^ta to hunt the paasura-by, nud to enhject tbeoi'll 
mere tviLotiiimess to t\ia most atiucioua ontrages. One of 11 
favorite nmiiwiimi'nts, called ' tipping thaUou,'wnBl 
nose of their victim liat njion his laco and to bore out hia a 
"With their Gngera. Among thorn were the 'sneatera,' 
foiTiiud a circle round tlieit prisoner anil priclied him with t1 
swurds till ho sanh exhausted to tho gronnd ; the ' dancingm 
tora,' au called, &oin their skill in making men caper bj t' 
ing s words into their legs, the 'tumblers,' whuBf favorite o] 
ment was to set women on their heads end cot 
doconeiea and barbarities on Ihelimbfl that were sEpoMd. 
servants as they opened tlioir master's doors wore waj 
beaten, and their faces cut. Matrons eaclused in Imrnla i 
rolled down the ateep and stony incline of Snow HUl. 
men were unmercifully beaten and their nosos slit, 
gentlomon went to tho theatre as if in time of war, acca 

bytheir armed retainers Long after the S 

tion, the policy of tha Uovemmcnl; was to rely mainly up 
formers for the rHprearaon of crime, bnt the large rewards t 
were offered were in a great degree neutralized hj the p 
feeling against the claas. The watchmen or constaUm we» 
ft rule utterly inefBcient, wero to he found much more freqaes 
in beer-sbo])s th:in in the streetH, and were often thymMlvc 
aerioUB danger to the community. Fielding, who knov t 
well, has left a grjiphic description of one class. ■ They n 
chosen out of those ixior, decrepit people who are, ftom f 
■want of bodily strenRth, Incapable of getting a livellboodJ 
work. These men, armed only with a polf, wJueh w 
nni Bi-nrcoly able In lift, nio to Biiniire the persons mui hoae 
his Slajcst/s ealijeots i^om the attuclis of gauga of young, I 
desjierate, and well-armed villiuua. If IJie pour old feQ 
should nm ftway, no one, 1 think, uiui wimder, duIsbb it ' 
thpy were ahlo to make their escape.' Of otliera an opinion n 
bo forrat'd from an incident related by Unracu WnlTiole I 
'A ]i:it'i'<d of drunlccn conHtikblns touli it into tlictr hi 
piTl thi- laws in execution against disorderly ].eraon9, and Bo ti 
up e very woman they m6t, till they httd c<jllei>tc<d five <H 

Intemperan^ (■» England. 171 

renty, all of whom tliej tJinwt into St. Martin's roamHionsc, 

e they kcjiL ttiKHi all uiglit, with iloors nud wiiLdowa cIoaviL 

poor cT'^ttires, who ooiild niit stir or breathe, flcroLitned ua 

ms tia thpy h;id nny hreath Inft, bcg^'in!; at ^ciist for water, but 

In the ninming four -weta fbuitd stifled to death, two 

s after, aad a dozen more are iu a shocking way. Sov- 

S them wore beggais, who &oiu having no lodging, were 

rily found in the street, and others honest, laboring 

One of the dead was a poor waaherwoinun, big with 

lild, who was retiring home lata from nushjug. One of the 

pOnstabliM is t^ikau, and others ahaeonded ; but 1 question if any 

n will sulTcr death, tliongh tlio greuteHt oriniiniUg in this 

rolhaofiiceraof jhhUuo! there is no tyranny they do not 

e, no viUany of whioh tbej do not partuke,' 

e nagistratea were in many cuaM not only notoriously 

Mnuit and inefflclent, but also what nus called 'trading jiis- 

,' men of whom Fielding eaid, ' tboy were never indilTarent 

canse, bat when they could get nothing oncithoiNde,' The 

Bfing and nnniher of robbers increased till London hardly re- 

■nhled a civilized town. ' Thieves and robb&rs,' aaid Smollett, 

g of 1730, ' wore now become more dea^ierate and savage 

n they hod ever appeared ainoe mankind wore civilized.' 

"" 6 Mayor and Aldemien of London in 17W drew up an ad* 

s to the kiug, In which they stated that ' divers con&dera- 

if great nnmlxiTH of evil-disposed persons, onned with hlnd- 

s, pistula, cnthtsBea. and other dangerous weapons, infeat not 

r the private lanes and passagea, but likewise the pahlio 

fotB and plai-es of usual concourse, and commit most during 

m upon the persona of your Miijesty's good subjects whose 

oblige them to paaa through the streetd, by rohbuig and 

tilling them, and these acta are fretjuentiy petjiotrut^l at 

I times us woro heretofore deeDied*hours of Hecurily.' The 

compl.'dnta were echoed in the aamo year in the ' Propo- 

f the Justices of the Peace for Suppressing Street Bob- 

,' and the magistrates who drew them up specially noticed, 

il oBMibed to the uaaof spirituous liiinors 'the cruelties which 

w exercised on the pttraona rubbed, which before the exces- 

Mof lh«ae lif|uorB wore iiiilcnown in this nation,' .... 

LUfarnul til travel,' wrote HoraoeWalpole in 1751, "even at 

:iH if oin' wregoiiig to battle! .... Tho more ex- 

I . I'lir a time completely overawed the aiithori- 

' .lustife,' wrote Fielding, ' luivo owned to me 

■"■d by such, witli warrontsin their piwketa 

I 'I lnFiiLdMiiig to apprehend theui ; and, indeed, 

ml. lie lilauied for not uxposiug themselvea to aure 

178 ^Zeo^frf in-Mstorff. 

deatniction ; for it is a moinndinly truth that at tliia very day » 
rognc DO soouer gives Lho nl.irm witUiu certnin pnrlicua tliaji t 
twenty to thirty armed villains are foun'l ready to come to btB | 

" When the eighteenth centnry had for mlvnnccd, roUbcni for I 
whose npprchenaion largo niwanlB vrcio offered, hare been 1 
known ia riilo publicly and nninoleat^d, bufura dnslc, in. tLo I 
Btrocts of I.oHilon, Burrotmdi-d by thoir nnaod tuUtcwntB, I 
throngh the midst of a half-tcrrilied, half cnrious i 

... A multitude of derKymen, nHuaUy prisoners for debt I 
Hud almost always men of notorioiiedy infamous livos, nuide i1 
tlioir business to celebrate clandestine marriages iu or iieiu the I 
Fleet, Thoy performed the ceremony without lioenao or iinca* J 
tion, sometimes without even Itaowing the names of the potso 
thoy unitclj in paliltu-lioaaes, brothels, or garrets. They i 
tnowledged no eoelosiasticol supt-rior. Almost every tavctn 
brandy shop in the noighliorhood had tv Fleet parson in itepn 
Notices were placed in tho wiudftwa, and cgenls went out ii 
every direction to solicit the paaaerS'liy. 

"A moroprt'tentimia, and porhnpa more popuLir i^s 
was the Chapel in Cnrzon atrest, whuro the Itcv. AlAsniidc 
Keith officiated. He wna said to liiiva niailo a ' very bisliopilol 
of rovenne ' by olandoaline mnrriafjea, and Ibo exiireesion e 
hardly bo esoggemtod if it be true, aa was aasmtod in Psil: 
meat, that he bad marrioit on an average G,000 conplM ere 
year. He bimai^If sluted that bo had married many thonaaadrl 
the great majority of whom had not known each other moral 
than a weeb, and many only a day or half a day. Tonng nnd I 
inexperienced heirs, Itesh from college, or even from achool^l 
irers thus continually entrapped. A passing (toltc. 
mint of drink, an almos^ momentary passion, tbo deceptiiftl 
intimidation of a few unprineipled confederates, were a' 
flciont to drive or inveigle them into sudden marrtngea, whiclu 
blasted all the prospects of their lives. In some case 
slept off a drunlien Ct, they heitnl to their natoniatuacnt f, 
during its continaanoo, tboy had gono through tbo c 
'When a fleet csme in and the sailors Uockeii on shore ti 
their pay in drink and among prostitates, they were e 
beleognered, and 200 or 300 marria^oa constantiy toot JiH 

within a week In many cases in the Hect ri^gtrt 

names were suppressed or falsilicd, and moningcs A-.tudnleCtl] 
BJited",'t^u, und many hooscholila, after yenrs of peooff, wcr 
convnlsed by some alleged pre-contract or clandcatino tlo. 
was proved before Parliament tbat on one oeeaelon thPnr 1l 
been 2,054 Fleol marriages in four months, and it appeared ft 

Tnfnttpr-TQti'-e in. Epcilan(h 17S 

e tnenioTandiuu liOQks of Fleet pnraonn. thnt one of (hem mnilo 

■~ 'BmarrlriKoli'fuiinfteiiixlciDOiitli; lUfttiiDulIiprlia.J«iiiiTkMl 

3 con|ilcE ill 3. eiuglo day." * 

J the last half of the century there was visible improvo- 

fpieut, but 03 lute as 1780, a caadidate for pablia honors : 

■"If not defcatod ut the poUs, by riota nnd open violence, — or 

i&aoded of Iiis votes l>y the partintit.y of tho ivturiiiii^ ofHci^l, 

or the factious maatpuvres of his opponents — wHiB miued by tho 

extrnvagant coata of hia vititory. The poll waa liable to bo Icopt 

opsD for forty days, entailing an ononuons espeiiae upon (he 

oanilidatfw, and prolific of bribery, treating and riots. Dnriiig 

iB IMwiod, thft public housBS were thrown open; and drimken-- 

a luid diaordor prnvailed in the Htreeta, and at the hnNtings. 

uds of hired rnfRanB, armed with btadgeons, and inflated by 

— paraded the pnblic thomughforea, intimidatinjr voters, 

dreHisting their Hcceaa to the polling places. Cuodidates ns- 

1 with oDcnaive, and often dnngerouH iDiaxileH. braved tho 

laltica of tho pillory ; while their aupportcrs wen- expoaod to 

« iaty of a dmnken mob.'' t 

a ftlariDing extent, notwithstamliug the general tm- 
ivement of tho English people, these evils extenJed in- 
A charftcterized the first third of the present century. 
I 1880, the Temperance movement- gained a, foothold 
rongbout the kingdom of Great Britain. But in spite of 
B grent work acconipliflhed through the various agencies 
it into operation hy thia movement, intemperance contin- 
l.i) be the gi'eat political, sooial and moral eooiirge of 
ftlabdof ourfiitbers. For the first twenty years of the 
ntctnenth Century tho spirits distillod in Kngland, aver- 
ij abcmt 4,000,000 gallons per year, while tjie wlditional 

me were about 3,400,000 gallons pur yc«r. J 
a 1822, 7,584,807 barrels of beer were brewed in Eng- 
1, 3,000,875 bflJTols of which were browed in Lomlon, § 
1 a careful and exact writer published the fgllow- 

the Eiffhteenih Centnry, Vol. J. pp. 52^'-J33. 
HtiliitiuualJiiatory of England, Vol. I. p- ^^■ 

, pp. 2en, 'j&i. 

174 Mr/)!!^ in Siattr^. 

"The Britisli poopln nnnnally oxpratl on inMiifntinp liqnot 
a Hnm of rtbove a linndrert and thirty tDiUioas slJirling, the f 
bulk of it coTiiing fivm the pofliets of men and women ' 
■would bo serioiiBly afEronted if nny doubt n"erB oast upon t 
religions aini^erity. This aam ia sixty millions in esceas of Q 
National Eevenne. It ia oiio-aixth of the National DeJ)t. 
iTOO-iifth the value of lUI the railway property of the D 
Kingdom. It is eqnal to one-fourth of the inc^ome of tite yi 
receifiup; closa, and one-eighth of the income of all clasMs a 
te<l. It ia equal to a yearly expenditare of £4 per heltd, uid d 
£22 per family, in the United Kingdom. Bulky figures nfc ai' 
dom realized unless by ilhistrationa drawn from familiar objoc 
One ingenious means of jmpresaing tbe mind with a total V 
stupcndouB as that .jnat numed U tile rollowlng ; There an 
the Old and New TeBtaments together G6 boolis, 1189 chapt 
31,173 veraos, 773,746 words, and 3,5Cfi,480 letters. Now if ti 
£130,000,000 sterling were distrihnted over each of thuso r 
speetively there would lie on each letter £3G, 10a. ; 
word, £168; or on each verae £1170; or on each chapt 
£110,775; or on each book £1,969,61)6. Pat edge to Attgs II 
million sovereigna would form a goliieu bolt (reckoning 11 tc 
yard) 1800 miles in length ; or a golduo colomn (reckoning 1£ 
an inch) 140 milns in hriight. And tliia, bu it remombered, iatl: 
drink money of the British people /or (wift/ciii' inilff, HndyciUD] 

To wtiat end this great amount is expended, take t 

testimony of Charlee Buxton, Efii^., M, P. 
brewer, given in 185D : 

" Startling aa it may appear, it is the trttth, that the fi 
tion of human life, aud the waste of wealth, w 
must ariBn from thia tiomondona RiiBsinn war, are ontnin & 
year by the duvaatatiou cauHod by notional dmnkennuas. ] 
add together ull thu miacries gunei'ated in our times by n 
famine, and pestilence, the three greii-t Beuuigoa uf u 
and they do not exceed tlioso that spring &atn tlue one 
ty. This assertion will not he readily Ijeliuved by tliOM v 
ha^'e not rclleoted on the subject. JStit the fact ia, that ti 
dreds of tiionaands of our coontrymen are daily sinking t 
Belres into di^epet misery; destroying their hcivllh, pQiie« U 
mind, domestJu comfort, and usefalaesa ; uud ruining evetf U 

Inlemperajtce m England. 


[Ity of mind ami body, ftom iodiilgetico in this pto(M\asity. And 
» Trhnt mulutDilcB <lo those itnii^idiw iJi'iig i1uwu alitnn nilii 
-a I It wgald niit be tou mucli to eay, that tbern sec at this 
neat half a millioa hami:<i in> Uoiled KilufdoBi, wLtrt' home 
r felt, owing ta this cause alone; trhero tho 
B aru biokcu-heaited, and the chHdrea ate brought op in 

n the sober part of a coniniaiiitj' [laya a, heavy penalty fur 
a of the diunkord, l)iink ia the great paieut of ctime. 
« of the witneBscBbefoTo tlioCoomiitteeof the Uoqm of Cum- 
B, states that he yrout tlirongh the New Prisoii at Uanchester 
[tcoutaiiied550crijiiiiialijj with Thomas Wright, the prison pbi- 
WthropiEt. ' I spent un entire day,' he snys, ' in epeaJiin£ with 
B priHMiera, and in every taso, without exception, drinblnff 
u Me muse «/ their crlriuu' One of the Judges stated, some 
a sga at the Circuit Court in Glasgow, that 'every evil 
1 ta hegln aud oad in wliialiey.' Judge Erskioe in the 
y declared at tiio SaliHbiiry Aasizes, in 18U, thnt ninety- 
's oat of every huudtod ucose from stiong drink. . . 
t only does this vice prodnoe all kinils of positive mis- 
tt it also has a negative effect uf gruut unportaDi'c. It 
e mightiest of all the forces that clog the progress of good. 
in vain tiiit every engine id sot to work tliaC philanthropy 
a devlae when those whom wo seek to faeuelit are Imbitnally 
Biing witli their facuUica of renscmitnU will,— aonldng their 
H irith liner, OF inliaming them with ardent spirits. The 
glo of the auhcioli and the librury, and the ehnrch all 
il, against the boer-liouse nnil gfii-patncA, itt Tjnt one devvl- 
it of tlu! war between hoavua uud hell. Wei! may we say 
r Shakespeare, ' that men ahould put nn enemy in thoir 
B to steal away thoir brains! that we should, with ,joy, 
ace, KVel, and applaune, transform ourselves iutu benata \' 

ak n th h m and On h nl il h p ing 

I bnn nnjBwhkwmist m h 

t drendft 

sljiill he licli)6(l to become luiippieT and iriser, — whothar 
Uni, liuiucy, ilisuaee out! crime, uliull be dlmliij»ke(l,^whet 
niultitndua »f uidq, nomtin, and clUldreu, shall be n,ii]ed to 
ciftio from utter ruin of body nnd Bonl. Snrcly ancli a (juest 
aalliie, uncIuHing witliiu ita liiuits coneeqneucoa so memenU 
ou;;lit to be woigiied n-itb caruoHt tkoaglit by uU our patiiotaj 
Still iiioro focoiit teBtLmomt's iire to the same effoot 
'' The muDUDt cspeudod on in toxica ting diinka in tbiacoOBt 
ia larger tlian. ever, and liiia increasod drinking 
malal J indatted by tbe jproatly increased wogea of tiie wot^tiq 
cluHacs dating tlie lust fen- years. It bas, bowevei, produc 
sach u fenrfnl amount of Bociol andmolal evil tbat public attc 
tion LaH iieon srouHCd to the question -sritli u more etirneet deai 
to do Bometbing to mitigHt^ or prevent this great 

" Tbe crime and misery that ore daily ehronicled in our pub 
papers almost invariably can bo traced to drink." " 1 deOE 
rvgret to say tbat Great Britain is more tban ever cursed liy I 
temperance. Tba people wUl have it, and a fooDab and wide 
government will pander to tliem, so tliut our country Is beoo 
ing one universal grog nbop. London liUB about 2,000 obttrcli 
open on tbe Sjibliatb, in order to raise tbe masses to Ood and 
heavtn, and about 11,000 public-hoiieea to drag tbeni down 
boll." f 

In 1879, the Hisliop of Manchester said ; "X do not know irtl 
is to beoume of this cotuatry if tbe terriblo diiuking Uabits 
to be persevered in by tbe great masa of the people, liigbCulilU 
rich and poor, for I am iirraid tbe curse is sprouding lika 1 
leprosy ovorywLero. And when we say we Lupo God will gi 
England back it^ days of proapfority, 1 am not quite anre ti 
the days of prospedly will come back till England liaa beotu 
a eober and indoatrious land." 

The United States. — Just at this point wo propoe*. 
Bet fortli a ft-w of the facts oorroborativo of the 
made near tho hc^nning of tliis cliapter, that flio aborij 
ncB of KorLli AmcHisft knew notliing of any kinil of inftf 
eating drinks till tho arrival of Europeans among tliem. 

* now to Stop Drunk en II Li^, pp. S-13. 

1Lis11«rs of Suaiiiid Bowly, ITHq., Lord Claud UuooUlotl, W 
Bev. JobD Junes, D.D,, in Centennial Temporonce Volouifti | 
34ii, 317, 355, 

Intemperance in the Untied States. liT 

Id September, 1609, Hpnry HndBOn, the Britbh uai-i^u- 

r, aailetl into New York bay. Some Indians who were 

ihing oauglit aifjIiL of liis vessel, and in tlieir wonder ut ao 

ranfje a aiglit Imrried to the shore to inform ibeir eoun- 

Srymen, wlio soon assemhled, set their conjurers to work to 

k>nniiie what it might bo and mean, and how thoy onght 

roceivo the strange people whom they conid now see on 

deck. Thej concluded that the chief man of the groiip, 

3iBtin^iiishod by his red coat and glittering gold lace, 

nnst bo the Manitou, the Great or Supreme Being, oonie 

b bring tliom some kind of game, such as they had not been 

STOTed with before, and ao prepared an abundance of moat 

at a aaorifico and feast. At last the house, or as Bomo 

ay, the large canoe, stops, and a canoe of smaller size 

lomes to the shore, bearing among others, ibe Maniton 

limself. The chiefs and wise men form a cin:Io and re- 

leive their visitors, who salute them with a friendly eounlo- 

ittni'.e. Then one of the strangers prodnuea a large bottle 

rom which be pours an unknown substance into a small 

flaaa, and bands it to the supposed Manitou. 

" He driuhs, has the glasa filleil again, ami handfl it to the 
htet atanding next to him. The chief rnnuivoa it, but only 
m«llB the contftnta and pnaaes it on to the next chief, who does 
be ume. The glnaa er cup passeH through the circle, without 
he liquor being tasted hy any one, and ia upon the point of he- 
ig retamed to the red clothed Maniton, when one of the In- 
tonSi a hmve mau end n grent warrior, suddenly jumps up and 
aiaugne; tho asseiohly on the impropriety of returning the cup 
rith ita contents. It vrxia handed to them, says he, hy the Mun- 
»n, that (hey shoald drink out of it, aa ho himself tad done, 
'o fnllon' his eiiuiiple would lie _pleiiaing to him ; but to return 
itat be had given them nii^ht provoke bla wrath, and hring 
estrnotlDn on theui. And sineo the orator hnlievert it for tUo 
ooi ct the nation that the contiiiita oITercd them should Va 
timk. luid Ita uu one elfle vrunld do it, ha woulil ilrink it him- 
nlf, let the conMHiiumco bo what it might ; it was bptter for oiin 
liiQ I" die, thiiD tUiit a wholo nation shonlil lie rti.wtriiycd- Ho 
Ilea took the gliies, atiil bidding the aanenibly a solemn tare 
rdl. ol oniw drank up its whole uontenta. Every eye waa fljtoil 
a the tosolnte chisf, to see what effect the unknown liquor 

MecAol Ai Siatory. 

■woaK produce. Ho soon liegan to stagger, and at last fell pi 
trate on the grouml. His i^oaipauioDS now tiemoim Ills fut«, 
falls into a sound sleep, nnd tbey tbiiik he hua i>xpued. 
Takes iLgaiii, jumps up and declares that he baa eai,jOf ed the 
most dclicioua aenaations, and that he nevnr ti«f(ire felt himself 
BO happ7 Hs after he hud dmsk the cup. Ho nsks for more, 
wish is gmnted ; the whole neaembly then imitate Llm, imil 
become intoxicated." 

" I have no doubt," saya Ueckowelder, troai whom we hai 
quoted the foregoing, " that this tradition ia Babatantiallf 
founded on fact. Indeed, it is strongly coitoboiateil by the 
mimo which, in consequence of this adi'eatnre, those people 
gave at the time, to that island, and wbich It Tetained 
this day. They called it Matiahachta-nienk, which 
■ware language means ' Ihe itlaud where ire all Jioeame inloxiaaU 
Wo have coiTupted Ibis name iiito Manhattan, liut not so M 
conceal its meaning, or conceal its origin. The litst syllnl 
which we have left out, ia only a termination, implyijog locaUl 
and in this word signilies as mnch as lehere vie. 'ilieie are 
Indiau traditions bo well supported as this." * 

The following year, the Dutch made Bettlemente on i 
island. Ab la almoet uniformly the case, diaaolato and i 
lioueet men were among tLe early settlers, and true 1| 
their baao instinets, these liberally supplied the ThSi 
with intosicaiitB, that they might more easily n 
and rob them- Angry and bloody quarrels were the c 
sequence, and at times the eettlements were wholly <]ej 
nlated by the maddened natives. 

" But," says Bancroft, " the traders did not learn tanmaniljj 
nor the savage forgot revenge ; and the son of a chief, stung t[ 
the convii'tion of having been defrauded and robbed, aimi>d ij 
unerring arrow at the first Hollander exposed to his flay. 
deputation of the river chieftains hastened to eipress Midr K 
row, and deplore the alternate, never-ending liliatfims of Mim 
• • • ' You yourselves,' they said, ' are the cause of Ibte e' 
You ouglit not to craao the yonng Indiana with hrnnllj'. 
own people, when drunl;, fight with inivcs, and do TiMdif 

elf I 


/ntempemwoe m the fniterf Statef. 

In ibe Dutch siettleinents on the Delaware the eaiuc ilia- 
gnicrfal and dan^rous tiaflic waa carried on, and in 1600, 

"the greatest chief of tile Slinquas," compliiius of 0*11111- 
isa, tho Director of thu colony, that llie outragPOUB con- 
duct of the Indians arises Ji'om hie not rcslriutin^; tho sale 
of liqnurB. Beekniiii), the commtBaarT, ciiargce tho same 

aiogligvuuQ on his STiporior, aud Bays that allowing drink to 
bo sold to the savages, thoy belmvc Bhamefiilly." t Two 

'j'ears Ist^r, D'llinayusea, yielding to tho eolicitatioua of 
llie Indians, prohibits the sale of liquors to tho Indians, 

jUudeit penalty of 300 guilders, and anthorizea the savages 
to rob those who bring tlitim atrong lifiuorfi.f 

In 1888, the EnglieJi being then in [losseswon, a messen- 

^5or conveys tho reijiipst of the Indians that there shall be 
abaolnte prohibition on the whole rivPT, of selling 

^teong liiinorH to their people, In 1C71, Dejiuty Governor 
Lovelaco '•leaves to the discretion of tho military officers 

fiM selling of liqaor to the Indians:" and in 1675, there is 
a special order of tho Court : " Strong liquors not to be 
pold t« the Indians lees than two gallons, under penalty 
of five sLillings eterling." The chiefs finding it impossible 
to ol>tain a general prohibition, unite in a petition to the 
Governor and Council of Pennsylvania, in 1081, asking 
that the local prohibition may be rembved, for reasona 

.vhicli liioy thus set forth : 

"■WlicreRs the etJling of strong liquors wM prohiMted in Penn- 
^lvani», iiJid not fit Kbw CBsHe, we Hnil it a greater ill-con- 
.T.cnlpDve tliiiu tiefoTO, oik Tndiaiis poing down to New Custle, 
ami Ihoi-o bnyiny mni, nuil ni.ikine tlioiu iiimr dubaiifln'il than 
Jiofi'rft,. in spits iif tlm jiroliibition. Thnrrforo, wi-, whose 
(an are hern oiider v/vMtvja, d'l ilosiro tJint tlioproliibilionmay 

History of the United Slants, by Goorgo Hanrtoft, Vol. LI. 
p. 289. 
I Amula uf l'c4uiBjh-aniii, by Suaod UaEwd, irp. 3U, 316. 
tltod, p. 333. 

.MealuA ttt Sistor^ 

bo <nken off, bdiI mm nnd strong liqnoTs may be sold (in the 
iuitsiiiil provliico) an ioruierly, uiitil it be prohibiUtd. in liew 
Ciistie, aiid iu tUe govemnieut of Uolawaro." ' 

The Bame year, William Ponn mites from London, to 
tbo Indians, and Bends liy tha hands of his commii 
as follows : 

" I am veiy sensible of the nnkindneBS ODd iDJnsti''4 thai 
hntli been too muob oEercisi'd toward you by the people of 
thesQ parts of tbe wotid, who soogbt themBelvea, aud 
grout sdvuntuges by you, rather thou to be exumples of jaaticQ'. 
and goodiiesa unto you, which I hoar hath been matter ot 
tronble to yoa, and cansed great giLulgiugs and ai ~ 
Bometimea to the shedding of bluod, wltloh huth made the graaj 
God nngry; but I am not such a man, as is well 1i 
own (tountry; I hare great love and legnrd toward a you, oudX 
desire to tvia and gain yoar love and ftiandahip, by a kind 
Just nnd puat^efnl life, and the people I send are of the sanu 
uUnd, and sliall in all things behave themselves accoidiugly,'" 

" In thifl epirit I'onn and hia religious assoeiateB, th( 
FriendSj conducted all their dealings with the Indianfl, aai 
were especially zealous to keep the intoxicatiug l>«lfl 
away from them. Large sums were ofFetcd hJtn for 
monopoly of Ihe Indian trade, hut he sternly refnaSii, lii 
resolved, ha said, "not to act unworthy of God's prori; 
dance and so defile what c&mo to me clean," " To havi 
sold that monopoly," says Janney, " would have frustratodi 
the efibrtB made by him and hie fiiends to proveiit the sal* 
of nim to the Indiana, and to promote their civilization." ( 

Perhaps tho only instance of departure from this policy,' 
on tho port of the Friends, 'waa on tho occasion of the putv- 
chnae of lauds in New Jersey, by the Colony Icdby* 
John Fenwick, io 1675, when among the ftrtieles* [tAJd » 
the Indians, " there wore included more tliiin cSOO gallouR 
uf mm. Tho ooloniata themselves, not having yel &06lb 

*Tbid, pp, 372, 38T, J18, 532. 
f Ibid, p. 533. 

t History of the Keligiona Society »[ Fi'iuudi. By liamuol U. 
Janney, Yol. U. p. 38S. 

Inteni/perant/x in the United Staleg. 


e propriety of abstaining from intoxicatiiifr driulvB aa a 
rerago, were probably not aware of the fearful eoourge 
Kt'To introducing among' tho simple children of nature. 
s but a few ycara after this, when the Friends settled 
uw Jersey adopted measurea to prevent the sale of 
o thf Indiana," ■ 
In l(i85j tho Yearly Meeting for PennBylviuua aud 
[^w Jftnoy adopted the following minute : 
" This mtietijig iloth unanimonBly ngn") and give aa their 
idgment, that it is not i:oiuiuit«ut with the honor of Truth, 
T any that iDak«< profession thertMf, to sell rum or any atroag 
3 Ui the Indians, becitnge they nse them not to niodpra- 
Imt to excess iuid drunkenness." 

o same was reaffirmed in 1687, the following olauaa 
itt^ lidded iu iho latter year : 

d fnr tho more offBotuaJly preventing this evil practice, 
I tulvi«e tbat IMs our ti^timouy luay hu eDtered in every 
toDthly-raeetin); hoslc, nnd every Friend belonging to the 
it meeting to HubscdbE the aanu-" t 

hoioaa Cajupanius Holm, in his " History of the Prov- 
e of New Sweden, now Peuuaylvania/' published in 
% says of tie Indians : 

Ah to Uioir luauncrB aud ciistoma, they have greatly changed 
lothe Swedes Brsl eamo umong them. It has lieen ohserved 
d beea aeuhjeet of regret, ub Sir NViliium Penn and othera 
9, ibnt lliey have loamcd many vices liy their intercourse 
b (ho OltriBtianB; purticnlarly dmuhonnew, which wus he- 
own to them, aa tliey dranh nothing Imt pure water,"! 

a Daniel Pnatorina, who came to this country in 
I, and Boltlcd Gcrmantown, near Philadelphia, suid of 
u c-nrlier nctllers : 

never had the proTier motives in aetlUiig here, 
It iU»toad of inntmcting the poor Indians iu tlie Chriatinti vir- 

• Udd. II, 3C8, 
I t Ihid, Vol. in. pp. 501, G02. 

EJ Pit Poneoan's translation, Memoiie of Tho Historical Society 
VPonnBylvania, V«l. in. Part I. p. U8. 

tnes, their ouly deaire waa gain, wilhoul over Bcmpling' li- 
the menna ouiployeii in oTitaining it, " ■ • * Tlieae wichcd p 
pie make it a eiistoin to piiy the anvnges in mm and othe 
liqnoro for tho flirs theyliring to tbwn. so that theae poor d 
d«i:I Indians have become veiy iutempHrat«, anil emaotiuiei 
drink to each cxoesa tljat liiey can neitbei walk uor etuud." 

In 1753, Rdv. Timothy WowU-riflgG atteniplwl to d 
somo missionary work luuong the Indians in Now Te 
and mentioning to them that one great impediment to e 
ceasftil work was " thrir intemperate vse of Strong 1 
Lyqnora," they desireil him to coramuiiioate this reply t 
Sir William Johnson : 

" My Brother, my dear Brother, pity ns. Tonr 
here at our place, and bringa us mui, and that hua undujie ii 
Soniettmes on Snnday our people diioli and can't nttond totbog 
duty, which makes it estreamly diiBvnlt._ But now we Uavevt 
it o(T, wo havo pnt a st-op to it. You moat not tlUnli, < 
or a few men, have done it ; we all of ns, both old and fow 
bare done it. It is done by the whole. My Brollier, [ ^ 
have you tell the great men at Albany, Bkeneutetee, and B 
baity not to bring ua any more rnm. I would have yiia bib 
powder, lead and clothing, what we want, ancl otlier t£ 
what yoa please, only don't bring ns any Strong Lyquora - 
Tun live nearer your brotlier thim I do, and yon are aiOM 
mute together; I would have you tell liim to bring no inon 
to my place. He haa aent a great deal of it tbers, and vr 
many of ua <mtj by strong drink. I wonld have yoa tokfr et 
that no more is brought t^ na. Now my Brother ]iity itx; 
is not good, we have had enough of it- Tliis is the third ti 
that I have sent to yon that I would have no more nun broof 

At a Connoil held by Ool. JohneoD wilh the Indians. I 
few months later, one of the chiefs siiid : "We Hftum yof 
a great many thaultB for stopping ihe Hum eomiag to t] 
8is Nations, and would bo veiy glad the same Prultfb 
tion would have effect at Oswego," | 

"Memoirs of the Uistorical Sorioty of Pennsylvania, Vol- I^ 
Part U. p. 98. 
t Dooumentaiy History of New York, Vol IL ji. 637, fiSS, 
t Ibid, p. 640. 

Tr)lemjicra7iw in tlw United Stales. 


The I'oUowing year tlie Mohawks made a pimilar re- 
r quest. * But I ho trouble then was tlie narap an it liaa iil- 
K ■waya licen In the intercDiirae of the basiT aort of Bottbra 
fcand adveutiirers with the iDiIiLins, grocil ovorbears all other 
I eonwdemtionB, itnd the prospect of inimoiliftte gaiu LItiids 
Ltliem to all fuliu'e conseqnenueB. Sir William JohoBoii 
Ljcomplttiiied, in 1770, that 

" M&oj' trndera cnrry litlle or nothing csrcpt Hiim, licediiHO 
■illleii prolita npon it arc so coiisiderubte. A^aln. wliMiever In- 
I diaiiB are OMeinbled on publir alfaira, tbere are ulwaya trailers 
I B«otet«d In the naighborbood, and bouio jiublii'l]', n-hu not only 
I make them iotoxioat«d during the tlniu intended for Pnblio 
I'ltOBbinas, but afterwards get back great part of their preHeuW 
I in «soliimge Ibr t^pirituoos Liquors." t 

"The tradetB and hunters of this periort," says tbo biogra- 

Itit of David Z><iabuTger. the Western Pioneer and A|iostle uf 

6 Indiana, '' fbrnied u clnsa of their own ; bobi, couriLgeonH, 

V'and vith a siigucity ntmoat er|ital to tbat of the Indians, but 

qIouh and diahonesti of degradoil murals, intent upon 

m advatitago, and indiffeteut to the rights of the uo- 

The aatiiority ■whom wo have several times qnoteil, — anil 

p'tiiePO ia no more reliable or coinpeteTit one on this stibjoct, 


•'It is a common aayins with those white traders who fnul it 

L tbuE interest to mtike the Indians driiuk, in order to ulitiiin 

V Ihsit p«ltry lit a clieapor rate, that they vtill huve atroag 

\ Ugnora. and will not enter upon a bargniu unloss they are sure 

ofigctting Tt. I acknowledge that IIiaTC Been some such caaes j 

bnl I eoniil bIhh state many from my own knowledge, where the 

buliaua not only relnaed liqnor, but resisted during soreral days 

kll tbo nttempra that were m»de to induce them eron to taste it, 

biltii^ well iiwnre, us wi^Il us those who oli'ered it to them, that 

il llioy sliunld once put it t/U their lips, aueh their woakucaa 

on llial 91'Otc. that iutosication wotild inevitably follow. * * 

• • Thn Indians are very sensible of the state of dn.'jMiliitiDn 

ta wliirli thoy hiive been brought by theubuse uf strong iiqiiora; 

• Ibid. CM. 

» Ibid, p. 97G. 

t Life of ZoUborgM, by Edmuwi Ho Sfhwenit*. p, 235. 

184 Aki^d in HiHorg. ■ 

Biiil whetieTer they apeak of it, never fail to reproaeli the whites, 

for haviQK enticed Ihem into tbiit vicious haliit. I cottld eaail; I 

proYO liow guilty the wMtea nro in tliis respect, if I wei'B to re- 1 

late n niunber of unecdotes, wliioh I rather wish to c«iisign to 1 

Tlio Indiana i'mmil in Sew Eng^lsmil liad also im kninri* I 
edge of iutosiuanCtt liefiirt' tlieir iniei'ocinrso with tlio vrbiteSi 1 
Roger WiUjatns f teatifles tliat tlidr only driuk was water. 1 
Boliertson suys : "' Tliciy were not acquainted with any in- J 
toxitating drink." J Gov. Hutchinson says: 

"They had nothing that wonld intosicato th«n. As soon aa J 

'Qiey had a taste of the English sacl:, and sttong waters, they J 

were liewitched with tbem, and by this meass mora have been j 

destroyed than have fuUeu by the svord."} I 

Pal&ey in his more reoent worlt, says , " Water was their only \ 

drink, except Ychen they could Bavui it with the sweet jaice Sit I 

which in Spring they tappod the ruuk maple trcea." y J 

In 1629, the MassaohuBettB Company in London, eent j 
among' their instnictiouB to Gov. Endioott, the following: I 

'' We pray yon endeavor, though there be mnch Btrong watei 1 
for sale, yet so to order it as tbat the eavagea may not, for OQI J 
lucre sake, be induced to the excessive asf, or lathcr abuse (if ■ 
it, and at any time take uure onr people give do ill example : and I 
if any shall oscoed in that iuordiaa,to kind of drinking ag to b»- * 
como drunk, wu hupe yun will take cuia his punishment be I 
made exemplary for aU others." H I 

Whereujion we find that one of the earliest laws of tbfl I 
Colony iras the foUomng, passed in 1633 : '"' No man Bhall 1 
sell or (lieing in a course of trade) give any strong water to I 
any Indian."** I 

• HoekewddBT, pp. 266, 267. I 

I Key to the Indian Language. I 
t Ilislory of .\ineric3, Vol. 1. p. 21B. I 
^ lilfrtiiry of Maasiwhtisetts, Vol. 1. chap. vi. I 

II History of Kow England, Vol. I. p. 32. j 
If Young's Chrometea of the First Planters of Masaaehusetta I 

Cay, p. 190. I 

•' MassiiehaBetts Colony Records, Vol- I. p. 16. I 

Jjitemperanex in the United Slates. Itib 

In 1644 tUoro waa » temporary letting dowii of tlib pro- 
ibitioa by the following order: 

TJie oourl., apprehending that It is not fit to deprive Ihe In- 
na of any liiwfiil roinforl vrliitli God aUowi'th to till mun by 
usp of wino, ordera that it slinll liii lawful for all who are 
used to rrtJiil \via«B lo si*U oJao to IndiunB." * FoiU yo&rs 
;r, misthiel' liitTiug alrtaily i;oini]i from tlJa ojioniug <if tho 
1, it WHS Rttninptod to partiully tloae it hy ordering that 
only one person in Boston bo allowed to gell wine to the In- 

Tn 1657, confcBsion ia made of maliility to confine drink- 
g by the Indians to moderation, and no, " all pcraonfi are 
holly prohibiled tu atJl, truck, barter, or give any strong 
g^nors to any Indian, directly or intliroctly, wbether known 
J tbe name of mm, strong waters, wine, Htrong boer, 
'it&dy, ddia', or perry, or any othpr strong liquore going 
ider any other name whatsoever." % I do not find that 
e Plymonth Colony ever permitted intoxicants to bo sold 
the Indiitus ; but it imposed a fine on all who ehonld on- 
ige in each traffic with the natives. § 
The melancholy and disgraceful fact etarea us in the 
M, therefore, that the white people are responaihle for the 
tempemnce of the aborigines of North America ; and if 
spousibUi for the cause of their demoralization, and cruet 
irbarifies, on whonl but ou tLemselves can tlicy jilaee the 
eponwbility for the consctpienres of such degradation, 
latno and violence i "^VTiile llie policy of our General 
oTemment has been to protect the Indians, by prohibiting 
le traftio of intosicanta among them, the agents of tlie 
iTemment have not lieen ignorant of the presence among 
19 Indianit, and even at the frequent conccils held with 
le various tribes, of a set of lawless, nnprincipled adven- 
irors, whoso sole object has been to make them drunk in 

-Ibid, Vol. II. p. 85. 

flbiil, p.258. 

tlbid,Tol. m. p. 425. 

jplymonth Colony Reuordfl, Tol. U. pp. .150, 207, 


Mooka it Sisimj, 

oi-der that they may obtain for themBelTPB tlie money an 
immerous etorea pau! by the govornmpnt to, its depcndei 
wanls ; ami not nuftequently these very agents havo 
eort.ed to this unlawfol and rasciilly ooureo, for tUtjir o 
more euddou ciuiuhiuont. Onr broken trcatiPH with tlio 
dians are also, in the mnjority of ciisos, ilue to tin- inllaiMinQ 
of ram. Re<iklesa and abonduuod luen, the a 
great eitios, fngitivoa from juetice, utterly nniiiincipled a. 
debauched, haug on the borders of civiliautiou, makjn^ 
conBtant aggression on the lands reserved for the Indiai 
tintU at last, dissipatiun loads to violenee, and in order b 
■m-evnnt lilnnilBhed, the Indiana are driven still farther iiitl 
, to be again in like manner diepoasessed' 
lere. The proWera is confessedly a 
tince so oxtondod is our frontier lino tbat il 
impossible to guard it from ench wanton 1 
ibody can donbt that tlie Jnst and wise thbjj 
e by the severest measures to make e 
ample of the dissolute intrudera, rather than by bre 
faith with the Indians, invito a repetition of Buoh dia^ 
and wrong. 

Intemperance among the white people of the United 
States has a sad history, and is to the present an est< 
evil. The early adventurers in the Sew World, 
whether Spanish, French, or English, impelled thereto 1 
the prospect of gain; some sought it through the legititnatflfl 
channels of trade, and many others were drawn here by thef 
expectation of finding gold in such immenso quantUles U 
they had only to land, fill tlieirveseela and retiuTi honio-ri 
Ab is always the case in such expeditions, the worst chi 
acters engaged in them ; not only the broken down in bm 
ineas, the indolent and improvidout, but crimiiiata, also, t 
of the worst passions and of the basest habits. Kvcti 
prisonB were opened lliat their iniuatea might liravc 
dangers of exploration and tlie snbjugaliou of ihe sav 
inhabitants of America, and so prepare the way tw Uiv tessl 
reokless to follow with greater safety ; and thu moat a 

Intempemtwe in ife United States. 

fnecl portions of tlio Europnau cities fumiBlied i „ 

Bdn! diief cliaracleristics were diesipfttiou and lii^^ulions- 

a Iste as the heginning of the Boventcentli centnry, when 
^giona motives", the desiiv to eacwipe perBeciitioo for opin- 
b'e sake, and to enjoy liljerty of con8cieni:<i, IimI lo tlie 
tempt to plant pcrmKnont colonies that should )>o estah- 
D the feiiT of God, a chief liiDdrance, att ia shown in 
I the early colonial reoorde, was the iDtmsion of Tookloas 
A diewpated emigrant*i, who fnistratod the eflbriB of tlio 
U-difiposed in gaining the confidenco and sociiring the 
j^coable attitude of the natives. A notable instance of 
8 kind wiiB tho settlement made at Mt. Wallaaton in 1625, 
il tho change of tlio nnme of the place to Slare, or Slerry- 
;, by Thomas Morton, the leader of the joi'ial crew, 
I, partly for trade and partly for pleasure, made their 
xJe there. Well furnished with "strong licer .and a liberal 
iply of tottlea containing yet stronger fluid,"' he inati- 
1 Bacchanalian riotings, in whioU the IndiunB, both men 
joined him, to the so great scandtd of the settlers 
I Plyiacrath, that they took liiiii captive, exiled Uim to 
igland, and utterly broke up his settlement.* 
As early as ItiSS legislation against inteiuperauce com- 
□ the Sew England colonies, as will bo more fully 
1 m a aulisequent chuptcr ; tot a great difficulty then in 
f was liie fact that there were few, if any, total al>- 
B among those who ntade and executed the laws, and 
n it wan impoBsiblo to prevent a recruiting of tho 
t inebriatefl. Eev. Thomas Mayhew wrote fi'om 
B Vincywi'd, in 1678, to the Commiasionera of the 
(1 Oolonlea : 
'''IlTunieimess is severely punished iu every place. It ia 

J 'Biracrott'H History of the United fitatca. Vol. I. chap, I. II. ; 
V«1.U, Cliap. XIV- 

Xt Se*i the story us grnphically lold by Charles FriTucLs Adiinut, 
vith All) refercucos tu the soUTteB of informatiou, in the 
|i]4UiUc llunthly Jlagaiiuo for May and ,luuej 1KT7. 

Btxange to see hotr readyly they stTi|ip thamBelves t 
pimishmBnt fur Uiis sin of which our nnlion is much, gnylt 
All Te-Bsula that com hither and poaaii throui^h tho Sound, KcfM 
laianiliirs imd somo of our luhiihitasts, duo supply them, ajiil i| 
very linrd to toko tliem. I am not out of Itope that the geni 
rallity will be convinced of their foUj and gyve it quite OTUJ 
that ifl tho use of mir 

Gov. Wiatlirop, in 1G30, " npoo con si deration of tlie ii 
conveniences which had grown in England by dnaki 
hoaltliB one to another, restratnod it at his own table, a 
wished others to do the like, so aa it grow, hy little and li 
tlo, to disuse." t 

" In 1639, the General Court attempted by aa orilet " t 
ish that vain custom of drinking one to another, Hnd tliBt u; 
these and other grounds : 1. It was a thing of no good use : 
It wuB an inducement to drnnhouness, and ouuiudoii of que 
ling and bloodshed. 3. It occaaioued much wiwte of wine it 
heer, 4. It was very troulilesonie to nmny, cflpBciulIy tho (d 
and mistreBaes of the feast, who were forced thereby ia A 
more oft than they would, &c. Yet divers (even godly per 
wore very loath to part with this idle ecremouy, tbongh (wl 
diapnlation was tendered) they had no life, nor indeed e 
BaA any urgumeutBrto maintain it. Sueb flower hath eiu 

There is good reason to believe, althongh the mentioiKd 
dealing with and puQiElung intemperate persoue, 
several times both in the Klaissachnsetts and the Flynoai 
Records, that drunkeimess was not common during tho 4 
period of the New England Golooies, Increase !tIaliiM 
D.D., preached and published "Two Sermons Teetifyiil| 
Against tho Sin of Dmnkenaess," in 1G73. In tho ' 
to -tho Reader'' prefixed to the second edition, 1712, I 
said : " There was a time when a man might live seve 
yeaiB in New England, and cot kco a dmnkou m 
in one of the s 

• The Now England Historical audOonpiLlogicnlEogiBtBr.Vt* 
IV p. 17 
( Winthrop'e History of New England, Vol. 1. p. ST. 

Jlbid, p. 824. 

Intemperance in tke United Sfalee. 11^9 

■'Time wag when there was no niwd for MiniHters to prcn.'h 
tcbngtilnst llihsin in Kow I^nglnnd. Oil 1 thiit U wiibbq now. 
. . It ia flail that ever this serpent should cmkiji ovpr into 
ji wilderness, where thicesBore 3^^111? ajfa lie iit^vor uu; 
iting. . , . BomB thom arc auiciajcst ua (who tliey iirc the 
rd knowoth), out of covetonanMS Lavo sold iuloxiiMiUug 
uors to thi! poor ladiaus." Pp, 33-35. 

Ib "A Serious Address to tlioso wlio unuoci.iSBaj-Uy 
pqnent the Tavern," ■written Ijy Clottou Mather, D.D., 
d pntillshed Ly hirasplf and twenty-two other miniaters, 
1726, there is the following allusion to the cnstoma of 
sir fathers > 

•'rha practice we arsnow reproving, isn't it what yonr piooa 
eCi.t]iQrH were very much Btrongera to T Yoiirselvaa know 
K yo ought to be followera of Ibfin, . . . Did they (think 
n) 80 freqnent Driuking-HouBes, nnd cnjitomMlly triHo nwoy 
lir evenings there ua nmuy now-a-daj-a do T , . . , May you 
t wtiU liTnah to think how their example reproaches yon, and 
rat a different tlgnro (in this regard) you make from them I" 

In this address eight reasons ore offered and enlarged 
pn. why the people should he dissuaded from frequenting 
ill plueee : 

'It is a very fanlty miapence of time ; no good acconnt can 
given of the money that goes to support the exjienae ; it 
Caaions amch vain cuuversation ; they are put in the way 
t<iin]itation and exposed to many diingers; it ill-affects their 
ritual and Ijeet intereBta ; ehstmctfl fiimily order and relig- 
the wwinple ia of Ul-inflneoee, and hurtful to otliera; it 
p ICreat grief to your ministers, who watch for your souls," 

To Bbon* tliut even at that time Cliurch Memliers iiiunrted 
idpUnu for firequeating taverns, there is appended to the 
fld^eHB, tt IjCttor of Br. Increase Mather, then riH'cntly 
wauw*!, in ftiiswor to the following qneetion : "Wliother 
bo lawful fur aChnrch-Meiulior among lis to lie frequeulj y 
Tavumg ? '' Four answers aro given, and reasons adduced 
■ cttclt. nie aiiflwura wci'e : 

It is not luirfulfbTaChnrch-Mcmbcr to be in Tavcraa often- 
thaii nuceasity calluth for it. For Church-Meiobers to trans- 

1S& JHoohfH in Sishry, 

act (lieir Civil Affairs in the Tavern, when they mlglit ai 
do it in tlietr own tiouses, ia nn Evil in the Siglit of Ood. It M 
not imlnn'iiil Ibr a Chuioh Member to go into n Tuvem, irba 
tlie businesB of his Civil catlint; daei necessurily call htm tbrsi 
If a Church Member lie necesaitated to bo in a Tavern, hew 
to carry himaelf circnmspectly." 

In tliosQ ilays ale or beor, and wine, were the cliief mto^ 

icanta known to the colonies. There were, however, 1 

ported and domestic distilled liqnora in cae, t>oth in tiiS 
Plymouth and in tlie Massachnaetts colony. In the latfar, 
the General Court in Docemljer, 1661, passed a law that "No 
person shall practice this craft of atilUng etroftg water, nor 
shall sell or rot-ail any Ly leaser quantity than a quartet 
caske." And in 1G88, the Treasiirer was authorized "to renl, 
set, or farme let the Impost of wine, hrandy and rhum, a 
the rates upon Ijcere, cider, ale and mnin," * In I'lymw 
Colony a law was made in 1C62, that " All persona tl 
or shall still any strong waters, shall give aocoimt of ti 
disposal of them, both of the quantity and the j 
whom sold." t 

As early as 1650, an attempt to land rum in Coniw 
was made and resisted. The Swedish settlors oA the I 
ware were great lirewers and drinkers of beer ; and t 
Dutch, on Long Island, in 1644, were so addicted to t 
nae of malt liquor, that James, Duke of York and Albiu 
issued an ordinance against its manufacture and u 

I Polawaro, manufac 
vil results that on 
n 1G03, ho " prohibits difltiU 
n for domesdo use 

as early as thia, the Dutch o 

distilled liqnors, with such e 

of D'Hinoyossa, at Altona, ii 

and brewing in the colony, c 

to extend it to the Swedoa." f Jnat previous to this J 

hibition, and probably the chief occasion for it, some ol ^ 

Boldiera of the colony had been groefcly iatoxicateil, i 

eommitted gscat outrages both on tlie whites uud tbo 1 

• Ma«aaehiiaott8 Colony Eeeoi'ils, Tol. IV. Pnrt 11. pp. Sli S 
I Plyiuimth Coloay Roeords. Vol, XJ. p, 1S8, 
tHftziurd'a AunaU of Pennsylvania, p. S56. 

Intemperance in the UnUed Slates. 191 

me.* Only the year before, the Director, LimBolf, liad 
len away the palisades of the fort, anil bumeu tlieiii iu 
i hrewcry.l In Gov. Dougan's Report to the t'oiiiiuitlee 
Trade on fhe Province of New York, in 1687, mention i'h 
wie that rum, brandy and othex distilled liqiiora were ira- 
prted, and yielded a revenue.| And in 1691 flour is sent 
le Province "to the West Indieg, and there ia 
rooght in retumo from thence, amongst other things, a 
lUor called Pumm, the duty whereof consideraldy inercai- 

your Majesties revenue. "§ 
About tlija time emigrante were flocking to oar ehores in 
rge uunibers, and drinking spread rapidly. The desurip- 
»n wliich Dr. John "Watson gives of the early settlement 
' Buckingham and Solebary, in Pennsylvania, is [irohably 
iplicablc to other localities. 

"U !b protMlilO tLnt tlie first settlers nsed spirits principally 
ipravtmt Uio bod effet.'tti of driuUiug water, to wbicb the; hud 
>t boon ftciinatomc'il iu Europe, They Imagiued the air and 
nlor of this hot climato to lie imwIiolpHouie. The immediate 

d effect uf cold wntor, wLcn heated with esetcise in aummnr, 
td the terera and agues which seized many in the autiunu, 
oed thoiD in tltis opinion ; and not haTing conTeuient^es to 
Ake beer that wonld keep in hot weather, they at once adopted 
lepcttotUe of the laboring people in the West Indies, and drank 
an. This lieiug countenanced hy general oj)inion, and 
ron^t into genc^ml prortice as f^ as their limited ability 
'Ould admit, bottles of mm were handed ubuat at vendues, and 
inoA and stewed spirits wore repeatedly given to those who 

tteuded funerals At births many good women 

■ere collepted; wine or cordial waters were esteemed suitnlile 
> UiQ oucaaiau for tlio gueata; but bosidos these, mm, either 
Httnrad. or made into hot-till^ was believed to he eiwentiitlly 
BUDasory for tho lyiug-iu woman. The tender infant must bo 
trai;;hlly toUud round the waist with a linen swathe, nnd 
itidftd with clothes nntii lie eoiild searcely broatho : and when 
DWtiU or lietfut, waa dosed with spirit aud water stewed with 

Mbid, p. 301. 
tniid, p. 335. 
f If ncanmntary Hislorj of New York, Vol.1, pp. 117-180, 


^coM in Bia&hj. 

spipciy. .... AsDiooeyTrasacarce, andlabororaftw, j 

1[)uauiU3« olton to lio doae tliat req^oirod many hnnJs, iiinuiU a; 
neighbors irero coaimonly invited to raiHin^^a of I 
bamB, grubbing, chopping, and loUing logs, tliat rac^aired t) 
doUQ in hadto fo got in tlie crop in aeason. Bom Etnd a d~ 

trere provided on tbcsa oi'caBiontt Knm 

in. proportion to the bnrry of busiaeas, andlong intervals of fC 

employed in morty and 6om(^tuueIl oagrj conversation. 

A ronHiderabla degree of raiighni;ss und rusticity of miad a. 

mnunerB prevailed, and fur some time inoreused in t' 

tions that succeeded tbe fitst eettlera. For this I aball cftl) ^ 

'View eeveiiil reuBous; .... but more thun all^ t 

use of rum at vcnclues, at irolios, and in hay time and lutrrab"] 

The first tliirty years of tlie eighteentli century witnes 
couatantly inerpasing drunkenness. West lut^ia 
the principal intoxicant, which every year canw 
plentifully, as flour, lumber, and general produce conld I 
fumiahed in oscliange, coninioditieB which the West India 
must have, and which they came to rely on the America 
Colonies to furnish. But quite early in the centnry, diBtS 
leries were established in various parts of North J 
and so numerously in MaBBtwhtisettB, — tbe famous Med 
Bum being made as early as 1735, — that iu ITiS coraplw 
waa made l>y the planters of West India that the distilleS 
of MaBBa«huBetta were carrying on a direct trails with Via.itt 
and other European countries, to (hoir own immediate a 
vantage, and againet the inieresta of the mother coiistr^ 
To the commissionerB appointed by Parliament to inTM 
gate this charge, the authorities of llasaachiiaetta mads j 
lengt.hy reply, in the course of whict, they said : 

" Knm is the chief manntbotnre in MasMcbiiaettaj t 
being upward of 15,000 bogsbeodB of rum lououfa<itiu*d In tl 
Province nunually. This, wiiU wbai tboy gut fMim i.ho EiiglU 
Islands, is the grand support of all tbcir triulcs anil iiBhory|l 
lirithout which tliey con no longer siibaixt. Suiri is A Btauiliug 
article in tbo InilLin trode, snd the commuu dxiali of all t 
laborers, timber men, mast men, loggers .iiut ItHbermcu t: 

■ Memoirs of the HiBtoricol Society of FcnnsylvaniA, T<>U X 
pp. 206-390. 

Intemperance in the Vn&cd Stales. 193 

X linm is tlio merdiamliRp prindpnlly miule 

« pToeuru com aad ptiilc. far tbpir flnliMmen daU ol.lirr 

btrigutioa. The Iivat and clteupesl 'pi'o^sioti U this vruy uf 

~lio runi i^urtieil from Unwachiiavtts Day, uuU tlio 

n uortbem colonics lo Uie coast of Uniitcu, ia cxcbangtxl lui 

il uul alapoe." * 

1 consequence nf this great flood of liquors, drmlvitig' 

ea increaseil, and from 1702 on, for ninny years, licciiBt'B 

jll allowed the trade to be carried on both witliin doora 

dwilhout.f In a Fast Sermon, preached April, 1753, by 

'. Andrew Eliot, " Tis Burprising," he enid, " what pro- 

fi are expended for BpirituouB liquors in thia one 

r Province. If things arc not greatly ei;agg'erated,nioro 

IL million of onr ohl currency in a year."| 

Nor was it in Massachusetts alone, that thia evil grew. 

[giltingtan County, Pennsylvania, settled in 1754, it is 


le deadly pntctiee of drinking whiBkey prevnileil among 
lolo commiiiiitj, among Jaiiges of the Courts, inomliera of 
J, iniuiatcrs of the goapel, pbysitians nutl pationla, far- 
» and morhsvnics, servanta and Libotors. It was nsocl when 
ro bom, wben we were bnriod ; wben wo rose in the 
ig, when wo went to bed at nigbt; before dinner nnd 
^dinneT; when we were full and wbtm wo wore hungry; 
79 were sick and when we were well ; when we were 
1 when we were hot. It woa the univotaal piinacea." § 

a 1744 the Grand Jury of Philadelphia, of which Ben- 
1 Franklin was a member, made the following present- 

" The Grand Jtiry do tberefore still think it thpir Dnty to 
npUInof tbaeaormona iucreaae of Public k Hoiiseij in Pbila- 
" , especially Biaeo it now appours by the Constable's 
I Ihnt there nie nlrwurds of one hundred Hint have 
which, with the Retailers, uiiiUe tbe Uousea that sell 

*lIinof« CAntinnittioa of the History of tho ProTinceof Slas- 
thueettii Bay, Vol. 1. pp. ISj, l.-,7. 
ke'B Illslory of Boston, p. 525. 
I. p. 9 5. 

' .ions (if tho Hieloriral Soi-iety of I'eaUBvl f ani>i, p. JOd. 


194 Md^'^ m Sisimy. 

strong driuk by o-r Coitipulation near a tenlb i>art of the Cift 
a Piopoition tluit iippoara U> ub mucli tou greut, since hy llicB 
number they impovBriali one nnotlier, ua wull n^ tbo uaiglilMiir 
lioo.l tlii'j' liveiu; and forllio waat ol" better ei 
thro' nooerelty, be uiiilev yrcatnr teniptalioBS to suteTtHin i 
preiitifes, Survauts !;nil cvi-j Xfi^rroes. Tie Jury tliorefbre a 
glad Ui Ileal tioia liiu Ci^uuli tbat the Magistrutes a 
BousibU of tliitt Dvil, onil pui'[)oso to a^jply a remedy ^ fbl wliu 
tlicy will iloaatvu tlio TbiLu;;aof all good CitiEeoB. , 
Jury uliaetv'd witli cuncoru in the Course of Evidence, that] 
neigliliorhood io wliitih soiuo of Ihese disoTdcrly hoasta u 
BO geaeinUy thought to bo vitiatud, as to obtain among t&e 
won people the shocldng name of Soil Toaa." * 

Acrelius, in liis History of Sew 8 weden, pnblialied in ITS 
enumt-ratea forty-eiglit drinlis then in use in North A 
forty-tlirce of wliich were intosicating'.t 

Tho war ivith the FrcncL Coloniea, wliicli lestsd i 
ten yeuTB, ulueiny iu 1750, contiibutoil no littlo, a 
do, to the demoralizftliou and di'imkenncas of the pe^U 
The eolonien fumiehud hirgt nnmbc-rs of troops, to whont ^ 
English govenunent, as was then ita custom, dealt out i 
aa part of the i-ogular rationM. In addition to thia i 
rumsellera followed the army wUcreviT it moved, establia 
ing tlieniBelvcB in proximity to the camps, to the t 
deniinent of tho eervicc. Measures of extremo Bevoiif 
were rcBorted to for the suppression of this traffic, i 
the inflletiii|f of twenty lashes per day on tlio Boldiens Wffl 
should heo^me intosicatud on the coutraliand liquoi, foi U 
piirpiiso of I'orcing a disulosuro of tlio uaino of ihe j 
who fui-nialiml it ; lint in majiy cases with no deidred Rsolti 
Tlio allowed snpply created a thirst for more, whtoh i 
only braved all i)enalty, lint also formed linliits wlucji ' 
Bjliiiere did Lot Ihiow ofl' on their retamiof,' In civil lifc^H 
With wliat ruin to the morula of iho people, iiiid lo the |»- ( 
litical intffl^eats 'of the colonies in tho ocitioal times then rle^ 

Intentperavce m Die Umted Slates. 195 

Idly liastening on, these habits were formed, we may learn 
Y soHices. The Diary of John Ailams, under date 
t February 21), 17U0, gives a striking instance : 

"At tlie pieaent day, liceased lionaes are becomisg the eter- 

it of looso, diaorderlj people af the aanie to^D, nbich 

Utdere lliem offensive, and unfit for tbe cntertaLnuieut of a 

■Kvel.ler of the least delicacy ; aud it seoma that poverty 

I cliaticdaeil oirciimBtanceB are become the strongest argu- 

loeiiio an approbation ; and for these assigned lea- 

I, auch multitudes have been late licensed that uona can 

d to mako proviaiona for any but the tippling, nasty, vic- 

crew Iliat most frei^ueut them. Tlie cousequimces of these 

es are obvious. Yoiiu)^ people are tempted to wuete their. 

n Sad monoy, and to ain[n.tre habits of intompcrBiioe and 

U)«sa, that wo often see reduce many to beggary and vice, 

1 Jcad some uf them, at last, to prison and the gallowa. 

o reputation of oar coontty ia mined ojnoug strangers, who 

I to infer the chiititot«r of a place from that of the taverns 

e people thoy see there. But the norst effect of all, and 

h oaght to make every man who has the least sense of his 

IS tremblci, these houaes are become, in many places, the 

I uf our legislators. An artfol man, who has neither 

r aentiuient, may, by gaining a little sway among the 

le of a town, multiply taverns and dram-shops, and there- 

c.iUTB the votes of tavonier, and retaUer, and of all ; and the 

Dltjplioatum of taverns will make many, who may be induced 

L rum, to vote for any man whatever, I dare not pre- 

1 1o [luiat out any method to sapprcas or restrain these in- 

ring evils, but I think, for those ro-isons, it would be well 

ll I.Uu attention uf our Legislature to confine the number 

od retrieve tiie cliaracter of, lirensed houses, lest that im- 

T, nutl profaueuesB, that nbaniloned intemperance and pro- 

fklit^, that impudent'e and biAwling temper, which these 

Mluliiable uuraories dally propagate, should arise at length to 

Kdogruu of strength that ovoa the Legislature will not be able 

lutrol." • 

[.But he iDELde an attempt at reform, though be aoou gave 
a despair. '■ I ajjfilied," he says, " to tUi/Uoiirt of Sea- 
it procured a Comniittoe of Ins|)eetion fijid Inquiry, ro- 
1 iiuKilfer of lioensed houses, eto.; but I only 

•Work* of John Adajns, Vol. n. p. 84, 


jSa^l m Sintory. 

acquired tho roputiition of a hj'poixite and an ambiriot 

demagogue by it. The numlier of liceneod liou 

reinstated ; drams, grog, and sotting were not dimiuisheil."* 

Eov. 8. Kirkland, thus describes the manner of keeping 
OhriBtnias on tlie Mohawk, N. T., in 1709 : 

"They Kenorally ajMemblo for read'g praycis, or Divine sj 
vice — but after thpy oat, drink and make merrv. Xlici; a 
of no work or serrUe labor on ys day and ye follow'g^ 
Bervantfl are free— but driak'g, Bwonr'g, fight'g and ftolio'^ i 
not only allowed, bat aeem to bo essential to yo joy of 4 
day." f 

In those days, events whioL were to cnlimnate m t 
dBpendonce of the Colonies, were hnnying on, atnne 
incidents relating thereto being greatly aggravated I 
intemperance of those whose presence ob na armed g 
over the people was daily widening the breach between ^ 
Govemmont and its subjects. The King's troops voro J 
Boaton, and wei-e often intosicatcd. 

" Some outrngo was complained of every day, and Qte d 
were rendered bideoimby drunken brawls and revels. The If 
nlar Town-watch wero inflult«d dutiag their rounds, and ti 
ed in their watcli-houses in the night. Distilled spinto w 
cheap that the uildiiirs could easily ronunand them ; and boB 
scenes of diuukenneas and debuncbery were constantly o 
ted before tie people, vastly to the pt^ndice of the momls j 
the yonng. As a remedy for such condnct, the equally i 
alizing exMbitioa of whippings was put in practice."! 

The Ecvolntionary strnggle which soon foGowod 1 
new supplies and ostonded nso of intoxicanls. I 
that event, except in New England, and by a few small p| 
vate stills established in other localities^ the coontry i 
whoDy dependent on, as it was deloged with, "West IiW 
mm. The war cut off all foreign anpply, and at once ( 
tilleries arose in all directions. The waste of grain 
euonnoaB, the proepect of famine in the onuy creeled g 

*Ilud, Vol. IX. p. G57. 

t Documentary History of New Toxk, Vci. IV. p. 1050. 

t Dxake'e Hiatoiy of Boston, p. 725. 


I Ike U'mttd States. 


iJann. 'Wasliingtiin dononnoed in Mverest teraie ihc ^on- 

eml disaipatitm wbitb followed, and mimy iif ihc elcriry. 

taking np the ularm, epoko froci ilio pulpit against liio i'c-or- 

_fid waste of grain, and tlie moral curse to tho country, as 

i tiiS the daitger of want, that wae iminincnt. 

tumoasly : 

" Bmoired, That it bo recommended t 

a tbo United States immediately tt 
active for putting an immediate atop ti 
le of UistUIing groin, by which tho i 

I Philadelplua, in February, 1777, 

the BOYpral legisla- 
puss luwB the mont 
thu pernicioHB prac- 
; extensive erila uro 
Mly to bo derived if not quickly prevented." 

T Pennsylvania took vigorous measures to cmeli the evil, 
in 1770, Ijy laying an embargo on tho espottation of wlicut 
and flour, and proliibtting the dietillation of all kinds of 
grain or meal; but beforplongthe gates of deatruution were 
"n thrown widp open by an exception being made in favor 
nd rye. The paper money created to meet ira- 
iately ptesaing demands, so rapidly depreciated tliat tho 
e ofthe army wa« jeopard! zed, and Congress, in 1780, 
n the stjites to provide in some way to make u[> tho 
1^. New Jersey and Pennsylvania atiraipted it by 
g an espiae duty on tho stiUe. In tbo former etate 
e attempt to apply tlie law met with such uniform opposi- 
a that it was wholly defeated. In Pennsylvania, where 
icb an excise had been for sojne time established, and had 
i not far from $1C,000 per annum, Robert JforriB, the 
jat financier of tho times, offered to farm it at $300,000. 

r the close of the war various efforts were made to 
ininish the evil of drinking : 

' Upiraids of two linndrt'd of the most leepcctahlo rintmra 
" D Colintyof Litchaeld,.Connoeticut, lbrmwl(in 17c©) iin ua- 
llciatioD to discourage the use of ^irituouB 1i(iu<ini, aud dcU.- 
to nso nny tlnd of distilled liquors in doing their 
E worfc the ensning Beason;' Tho following yenr, 1730, a 
, sapposed to have boon written by Dr. Ruth, 
I* tinUiahad in Philadelphia, which awakened such an iotci- 
lug the niodii^iil men of that ally, that oiL December 

198 Alcohd in History. 

tiieb ttiey eiUtf 

29, 1790 they spot a momorial to CongreBB, in wliich t 
'Tbey KiiDice to Had, amoog tbc powers that bdong t 
Govern men t, that of rcstraiDing liy certaia diitioa the consmnp- 
tion of disUUod spirits iu om country, it lielongs more peca- 
liarly to mcu of other professtoaa to omimcratB tte pemiciona 
efiectB of these liquors apon morals and maniiera. Your memo- 
Tialiats will only remark, that a great portion of tha most olisti' 
nate, paiuful, and mortal disorderH whU'h alUict the hiuuau 
body, are produced by distilled spirits; and they are not only 
doBtructive to health and life, bot they impair the iacnlties of 
the mind, and thereby tend eqnally to dishonor our character 
as a nation and degrade our species as intolligotit beings. 

' Your momoTialista have no doubt that the mmor of a. plague 
or other pestilential diaordei, which might s'weep aw&y t~ 
ands of theii full ow-citi Kens, would produce the s 
and eifective measures in our GovommoDt to prevent oi 

'Youi memorialists can see no just cnnse why the more cei^ 
tain and extensive ravages of distilled spirits upon life shoidd 
not be guarded against with cot responding vigilance and exer- 
tion by the present rulers of the United States. . . . Your 
memorialists have beheld with regret the feeble influence of res' 
son and religion in restraining the evils which Uiey have euu- 

nierated They thus publicly entreat the Congress, 

by theic obligations to protect the lives of their constitiienls, , 

and by their regard to the character of o 

Tank of our species in tbe scale of being, to impose sach li 

duties npon all distilled spirits as shall be effectual ti 

their intempcratfl use iu our country.' " • 

In Marcbjl791, Congress passed a general excise 
wliiuli Alexander Hamilton, then Secretary of the 
ry, espected a revenue of $826,000. "Western PennM 
vania, largely settled by emigrants from the north of J 
land, — famous whiskey drinkers, — was more estenaivj 
engaged in distilling than any other part of the countl 
" Upon a fair cab illation, every bistU man became a Aim 
lor, but all equally bound to resist the esdse low, 
would fall heavily upon every fanner, as the money wbl 
they would prucuro iu the east from the sale of tlwir liqM 

'History of the TempetimcijWoxeaieat, by Bev. J. B. \ 
D.D. Centcunial Volume, pp. 4^, 42A.. 

Intemperance in the United States. 


VfKonld, on their Tetam, be deinandod hy Xho escifte of&cQr,* 
A pablio convention of the people, at I'ittxbiirg, ia ^ept. 
B791, donoiinccd the princijilo of esclae aa unjustly discriiu- 
Elating, and secret meptinga iu various piirts of the disaf- 
fected coanties determined on resistance by force of anns. 
Waehington issued a I*roclamation of warning n^ajnst all 
■ who might bo eonoemed in suet resistance, but it produced 
^^RlO good result, the Marshal, while in the eseciitiou of hta 
^^nnty, being tesiated by an anned force, and the Inspector, 
^^^rith tlie force collected for bis defence, was attacked and 
^^captnred. The President then placed 14,000 troops ander 
General Henry Lee, and the rebellion was at once tpielled, 
ei> Targe a i'orco overcoming all opposition, \yithout the firing 
,0/ a gun. 

Tiom the let of July, 1701, to the 30th of September, 
B792, the aggregate amount of inCoKioants distilled in the 
nintry was reported as 5,171,504 gallons. " The rotiims 
kforesaid wore incomplete and below the truth, From some 
t ^tes they were ma^Ie only for a part of the year."t The 
p, A^i^^te amount of tlte Internal Revenue from 1792 to 

was, from all sources, $4,308,383.59. Of which 

L^201,150.58 was " On domestic distilled spirits, and on 

^^jtilU," and on •'Lieonsos granted to retailers, $286,286 .95 ."J 

' Nearly everybody drauk, and the chief items in the ex- 

> of toivn officials, religious conventions or associa- 

mB, ordinalioiiB of ministers, nusing tlio frames of church 

Ifices, or dedicating the completed chiuvhes, were generally 

IT liiinors furnished and consumed. " Two barrels of New 

Bngland Biun " wore among the articles which the Parish 

ponunittee of North Carver, Mass., were ordered to procure 

ise of the visitors invited to asaist in raising the 

fcame of their new Meeting House. " Eight barrels of 

-•nurtflry of Waahington County. By Alfrfid Creigli, LL.D. 
MiauilW. |.. i;i. 

I Stutistic:al Auuok of the United States, by Adam Scybett, 
LD., )..460, 
t/Jbia, p. ^77. 

800 JleeMiit History, ■ 

I!um,"are among tbe itemsofttLill inthe WTiter'spossetMon 
for estflusJvo alteratious, repairs iinil enlargemeul 'of |a J 
CUnrcli cdiliuo iu Boeton, in 1792 ; and the following item 
are in tUo oxptiaseH of tlio auditing comniiitoo who Ntaiv- 1 
ineil the accoonta of a Clrnrch iJOaeUTBF, at the cloat: of a 
long term of service : I 

"1794. Oct. 14. SBowlsFnnch 12*. 

3 Boltios Wine g 

IB. e Bowls PubbU, XI. ' 

3 BotOes Wins, 8 

24. 3 Bowls Pnnch, 12 i 

2 BottleH Wine, 8 J 

Rrandj, 3 Zd. I 

In Gloucester, the " espense for the Selectmen and Doker> i 
at the house of Mr. James Stevens," was £3. 18s. Sd. Iu a I 
deactiption of funeral oastoms in New Zork city in 1790, ^y* J 
en by tUe wife of the Rev. Jolin Murray, oceiu* the follow- I 
ing item : " Every person who attends the funeral, both 
within and without doors, is, previous to tlie interment, jilen- 
tifnlly supplied with wine. A waiter is appointed to every 
room, and they are very attentive. Large quantities aeo 
often swallowed. Ten gallons of prime Madtura va^ late- 
ly espended at a frnioral." 

The Mendon Assooiation of MiniBtem, presided over by 
Rev. Dr. Nathaniel Emmons, regaled themselves wi^P 
liquors as regularly as with food, until their raeeltng | 
October, 1826, when they : 

"Voted, that it bo tho ruleof thia nsaoclation thnt n 
apirita be presented nt tboir moetinga." The origiu of tlua v 
■was given in the foUowing incident : — The liost of the a 
tion, the Eev. James 0. Barney, then of Seekouk, went u 
Providence on the day preceding the meeting, \o procure t' 
due assortment of spirits, which iimueniorial usitgo Imd nioile l| 
important piirt of his prcpuratiou- 

'• lie accomplished liia olijcct, am! lit sunset ronuoenrnd I 
return ivith a choice variety iif liiinora, I'riviu^ rapidly c 
of tlio city iu Ilia Uaet« tu reucli home, he wits startled IVom b 
reverio by the lend laughter of some men iipoD tlio Stag 
round a new house in the outskirts of tlie city, lustontly tlli 


Jhtemperance in the UmUed Slates. 201 

at Uifl fteiglit, be looked bdhiiui him, when lo ! fragnicuts of 

_s, (lonujobaa, and bottlea, were dancing ia and. ont Ibe boo- 

*t, on<l a rufty stream of wiiica. LrJiidios, Bad cordials, was n.1- 

kyiny tlio Bicited dust of tliu Htrppt. ^^Ti:it was to bo dono I 

Slionlil he go buck and replenish, or take it as a pioviduatial 

I go on I The lateness of the hour decided Iiim to jiro- 

Goed, and to state the calamity to the veaerable body when 

fliey ehonld assemble. He did so, and they toot the hint, aud 

promptly li&aubed the Hideboord from tlAir meetings, The 

Hev. Mr. Barney, from wboia, in bis advanced nge, these facta 

re received, thus writes ia closing his uarration : 

I have lived to Be« and wateh the rise, progress, and blessed 

fraita of the tampcnwco cause; uad what I once regarded as & 

.lamity to me, in the loss of my liquor, Ood overrnied to be one 

of the greatest favors Ho baa confetrod upon the clergy, the 

and the world.' " * 

TLb following acconnt, from an article in the Encyolo- 
lia Americana^ shows the cuetoni of the people of the 
itliem part of the United States, after the close of th« 

"A Albion, at the south, waa to take a glass of whiskey, 
ivorod with mint, soon after waking ; and so coudncive to 
iftlth was this DOS tram esteemed, that nci sex, aud scarcely any 
|e, wiu deemed exempt from its application. At eleven o'clock, 
■llilo mixtures under vorioaa peculiar names — sling, toddy, flip, 
;c., — sohcited the appetite at the bar of the common tippling 
lop, thooUBces of professional men, asdthecouuting-rooiQ, dis- 
their occupants for a half hour, to regale tbemsolTcs at a 
nighbor's, or at a, coffee-house, with punch, hot or cold, accord- 
igtolheBeasoniaudfomalBa, or valetnilinarians, courted an ap- 
)tite with medicated nun, disgniHcduniler the chaate name of 
<JIinliam'sTinctnre,''or "Stongbton's Elixir 1" TIio dinner honr 
rived, according to the different customs of diSerent districts 
the oouutry, whiskey aud water, curiously flavored with up- 
ES, OP brandy ond water, inlradnccd the feast ; whisltey or 
randy, with water, helped it through, and whiskey or brandy, 
Ithint wntnr, often secured ite safe dignalion, not again to be 
edin iiny more formal manner fJiun for Ihortilicf of occasional 
iPtt, or for the eotBitainmeut of a fiicud, until the last appeal 

' Ufe of 2. N. Eirk, D,D. By Bev. David O. Meors, pp. 


Bbonld be madci to them to secure a sound night's sleep. 
iflBBonnd yith cIieTrteB, protected agfiinst the rold; rum, mada 
lutrijageiit with peach'ineats, coneludctd the repast at the ct 
fectionet's ; nun made nntritiona with milk, ptciiared for th« 
niatemal office ; anii, under the Graok name of paregorir, r 
doubly poisoned with opium, quieted the infaut's cries. 
douht there were uumberB that did not use ardent spirits ; but it 
was not bocange they weTs not perpetual]; in their way. Thaj 
were an established artii'le of diet, oliuost as maeh as 1 
and, wiUi very many, they were in much more frequent nj 

" The fl-iond who did not testify his welcome, and the m 
ter who did not provide bountifully of them for hla s< 
was belli niggardly; und tbnre was »o eperinl meeting, i 
even of the moat format or sacred kiud, where it wjis oon«)diir' 
indecorous, scarcely any where it was not thoiiglit n 
produce them. The conseqaenee was, that what the | 
majority in(lal(;ed in without scruple, large uumberB it 
in without restraint. Sots were common of both sexes, 
ages, and all conditions; and though no statistics of the t 
were yet embodied, it was quit« plain that it wae 
making large numbers bankrupt in character, property, 1 
prospects, and inflicting on the community a Tost nmomit a 
physical and moutal ill in their worst forms." This picture^ 
the south has no local coloring. "Everybody fumialied a 
everybody drank intosicating drinks, without aliftme, ffear, i 
lemorao. Every man, woman, und child viewed them tti 
Dry, an essential part of daily diet, the ficet eKproaxion of bi 
pitnlity, the necessary accompaniment of labor, the best i> 
muut foe the wearied traveller, the preventive of disease, ti 
panacea of all ills, the Joy of yonth, ttnd the support and ci 
fort of old age. True, the loss of property in forty years, bytl 
oonsuuiptiun of ardent spirits, had amounted to a greHtM 8i 
than the value of all the houses and lands in the United &t(it« 
True, scarcely a fanuly was to be found in the land entin 
disconnected with some miaerablo inebriate ; each town 
Tillage hod its score of drunken huabands and fathers j 
houses groaned under their heavy burdcDH; ohuxch and » 
often saw their brightest ornaments filleo, degraded, 11m sj 
of idle boys; and year by year, iiam twenty to thirty thai 
lost l)eingB were hurried to the grave ; but this was only (J 
incidental and unavoidable accompaniment." * 

"In 1810, the marshals returned 14,11)1 diutilleries within tJ 

• Ilulf Centurv' Tribute to the Cause of Temperance, by S 
Jldui Marsh, p. 4. 

TntemperaTifK in the Uittffd States. 203 

tlnited States, and 22,977,107 gnUona of ^itits i1>sii)i«l dnrin; 
"that jent, from £ruil« and (^iua, liegidu 3,837,G2& giilLaiis di»- 
KJtilled fnim molassu, maliiag an aiitiiml pcoilnct of 25,704,892 
^ bllous, valued at $15,^8,040. lu tUe maao year only 133,853 
piUons of domostio dJstUlad apitits from graiu, and 474,990 gal- 
ls fnHu molasses, making an aggrogato of 608,843 gallona were 
Dtted from the United States, leaTiiti; of tbat lUatilled dut- 
gtbeyear, 2G,0S6,0B4 gall ona for consiunptioa. On the HTerage 
fof the ten years from 1803 to 1812 inclnsivs, 7,512,415 gitltona of 
Dieign distilled apiiits were aunually impiwted into tbe United 
Cates, of which there was annually re-exported on the some 
^voroge, only 679,322 gallons; it thonco appears, that 31,929,142 
laofepirita remalsed within the United !^tBl«8 in 1810, 
^hich, if coiisumud ill the ynar, was eijual to four nnd ono 
HDajTter galloiu for each inhabitSJit." * To iirodnco that which 
B distilled iu thie country, hetween five :inil six niillloiiu of 
~M of rje and corn ruuat have been made into spiriW."t 

A& tlie Temperance Beformatinn, — fltartcil about 181(t^ 
ragressed ami gained attftntioiij Btatistiua be^an to be 
pubered from other Bonniea, which disclosed tlio fearful ex» 
!iil aud havoc of our drinking customa. Hartley showed 
&iat for filloen years from the last war with Great Britain, the 
30ple of the Unit«d States bail consumed on an average, 
y year more than 80,500,000 gallons of distilled apirita, 
It KD annaal cost of not loas tlian $35,500,000. BarboaTi 
D Ilia Statjstica of Intemperance in Giiurcbes, Bbowed that 
ful of 1634 cases of ilisoipline whose history had been trawd, 
B than 800 were for iDtemperaooe and more than 400 
r immomlitips ocflasioued by the use of intosicanta. Kev. 
manl Wooda, D.D., stated in 1836 : 

\ "That, at a period prior to the Temperance Reformat inn, ho 
I Bble to count up nearly forty minister", none of whom xe- 
d at a grant distanee. who were either drnnkarda, or ao far 
&ddl«ted fio intcmipentte drinking, tknt thi'ir reputation and 
''■efnloeaa were Injured, if not iittni'ly ruined. He mentiona 
ination that took pliiea about twenty years ago, at 

* Saybert'a statistical Annals, p. 4G3. 
I I Pitkin's Stutisttcul View of the Conuuoice of the Unitad 
UtM, p. 123. 

Msohd in ffisterf. 

ear ite close of liis life, gave e 
pbatii! toHtiniony to tlie miBcliievous effeots of drinlting 
polilkal aflaii*, and is reported to have said : 

" During nty admluistration I had mole tTonble Croat B 
■wlio nsed urdoiit spirilH tban from all others whatever; 
were 1 to go tlirougli my ailmiuiatratiou ngaiu, (he first qM 
tion I woiUd aak of every candiate for office ahould he, D 
use ardent Bpirital" 

The Secretary of War stated, tliat " during 1830, 
1000 men deserted from the army, aod that nearly all t 
desertionB were eansed by drink ; and that from 1S23^ 
1829, nearly 600 deserted annually, or one-scventi of ( 
whole army, from the saino canae." 

The Attomey-Gencra! of tho United States pnblii 
statiaties iu 1832 showing that the cost of Bpirit-diinkipgjl 
tho United States was $100,000,000 per year. Moro r 
curate estimates followed, making the total $150,000,0i 
which, with our population at 13,000,000, made tlio i 
per capita, $11.50. Mr. Hopkins gathered up the b 
of crime chargeable to ardent spirits, at Si oofif , 

The Temperance reformers having devoted their enoi 
during the firut twenty years of their organized work, wbJ 
to efforts for the disuse of distilled liquors, becc 
apologists for, and, — as we shall ee* in the nest chapt© 
sometimes advocating the use of fermented driuks, topk J 
note of the intemperance caused by fermented bcverafl 
They thus cri]>pled their own efforts, and in many inntjwil 
OS tliey iifterwards saw, increased, instead of diniinitilifl 
intemperance. Wlien ai last, they turnod their attt^ntl 
to total abstinence from all that intoxtcatos, a field alo( 
eatii'cly new was open to them ; a field whose liiiitfi 

* Dr. Barton's DUoourse on Tenipenuice, at New i 

1837, pp. 11, 13. 

IiUfmjKtmux in the VnUed Staka 


n miscUef we iire in no danger of over-estimaiiug, .■m.l 
ifrliicb, ia epitfl of earaest, coiiHtuut and greatly varied elTji'i, 
Hill lies before us witli its sad liarveBtB of mcnlculalile lais- 
hief and miaory. Ejtcei't. in a few localities, wlici'o 
r traffic m put and kept under the tiau of tbo law, 
rnnkenneBs prevails in our land and tboronghly demoraliiti'it 
h otir poliiicfi and onrn'Ufpon. 

rho yuarly iuflus of thoiwandB of fureignera with whiskiTy 

i heer-loving' proclivities ; the opening of new lands by 

r own lulventurere ; the lust for gain ; the mad aiobiliuti 

ifpar^ anpremacy in politics ; have made us too willing 

allow, then to foster, and at last to riak all in perpetuut- 

V tliia gigantic crime of crimes. We have nmdo even 

r ChriBtlan enterprises the occasion for the triumph of 

i-OhrUt, and brought down on our heads the curses of 

Qie heathen, to wboni we have sent, — and in the same ships 

rith the Gospel preacliera, who were to save them, — tbo 

^lest and most ruinona intoxicants that were over made. 

il that we may secin'e a iiartizau triumph, having in niost 

I, only inconsequential enda in view by ils supremacy, 

r to tile worst elements in society, the vilest traffic 

,n can engage in, and suffer our Giivemment officials, 

rebuked, to counsel with distillers and brewers as to how 

gialation shall be framed in order to give the greatest 

dlity for the uontinuaneo and growth of " the gigaiiiio 

of the sgc." 

i a ijonseqnence, we are foateruig intemperance, and 
t ia but another way of saying, we are debauching the 
DU : impoverishing the many, for the enrichment of a 
'; increaeiiig crime ; destroying morality, and putting 
roli^on to an open shame, Onr national liquor bill is 
inply enonnoufl. For tliiiteea years, from 1860 to 1873 
bcliirfve, WO bavo paid the eum of $0,780,101,805, for 
I3,a3fl,00fi gallons of liqnora on wliich tlm Giaienil Gov- 
mincnt has I'ecwvod a revenue. It ia not too nmeh to 
-ia view of the wbiskey frauds, and the hrowera' frH.uds 
n the TivaBiiry, — we bave cousamed aa much more that the 

gOTommest received nofliiiig for. Internal IteTCTitW Cum-fl 

fcisBioner Welle, saM on the lloor ol' the Brewers' OoQTeo'l 
tion, in October, IHGS i " By stariBticul reports it bas bcesfl 
proven tliitt six niilliona of ban'clB of Iieer a,ro iirew^ctl ttOrM 
Dually, wliilrit only two and one-lialt' millions Uiwl paid tax.**! 

In 1678, tho total revenuo reeei[)tB of tliu Vationall 
Govei'nmmit irom distilled and fermontod liquors, wnft 
$(>0,357,8G7.58. Annually we ate ci.uEuming aO.0O0,0C 
bushels of corn, and nearly 39,IKKI,WH» bnelieis of barltyJ 
in our dietiUud and fermented drinVs. Ono breweij 
reports on annual production of 4,225,000 gallons of heor^ 
more tliau four-tiftLa of all tbe manufatlui-ed intoxiuentB o! 
tUe United States, reported to the Internal Revenue 
for fifteen months from July, 17E*1, to September, 1792, 

A Milwaukee paper stated tliat tho retail ])riee of hcer " 
and whiskey manul'actured in that city during the year end- 
ing July l,'l878, was $21,336,000,— nearly five times the 
sum received by tho United States Internal Revenue from 
all sources from 17!)2 to 1798. This beinjj bo, wo need not 
wonder at tho roport which comes to us from Chicago, ono 
of the chief markets for Milwankee inlosieante, that preiui- 
nent police officers stated at a public meeting in that e" 
not long Bmce, that nine-tenths of all criminal c&ixs lllcr 
including those of juveniles, grow out of the use ( 
and that many of tho diinking saloons could not csist if it| 
were not for the boys and girls that patronize them 

The New York Evening Post, commenting on a ittc^nlj 
article in the London Gentleman's Mngnsine, written by b 
distinguished physician, in regard to the growing dispositionl 
of many Engliah women of every class to '' Uiibitoally t 
Btimulate," reminds its readers that " tlte habits of Kdi 
York and of London are in this wise very aimili 
adds ! " There is certainly more drinking in sodety - 
among liotb sexes — than before our Civil War. Tho st 
tics show a formidable increase in the consumptin 
spirituous liquors in the United States, and this consiuiiptioid 
ia not ooniined to saloons, hotels, and the jogs pf the v 

IrUempenmoe in the Untied States. 


lug classes." This is too trae ; the sonroes of supply, and 
the nameroos classes indulgiiig in the use of intoxicants 
being alarmingly on the increase. Dmggists are l>ecoming 
liqnor sellers on a large scale; a careful writer in the 
Western Christian Advocate estimating that " not less than 
5,400,000 gallons of whiskey are sold annually by the 
druggists of the United States," and in addition to this, the 
dnig-«tore traffic in " brandies, cordials, wines, bitters, and 
other forms of intoxicating drinks, sold in the name of med- 
icine, will amount to 10,000,000 gallons more." That any 
considerable portion of this is desired as medicine, or sup- 
posed to be sought as medicine, is not entitled to belief. 
Our condition with reference to the use of intoxicants, and 
to the ease with which they can be obtained, never was more 
critical than it is at the present time. 


The Annual Cost of Intoxicants to the Leading Nations, and to 
the World — The Connection of Intemperance with Crime, 
Prostitution, Pauperism, Physical Decay, Mental Disease 
and Heredity. 

COST OF INTOXICANTS.— The exact cost of in- 
toxicating drinks in the United States, and in other 
parts of the world, through a series of years, it is not possi- 
ble to anive at ; but an approximation can be made. Rev. 
T. F. Parker has carefully compiled statistics from the best 
authorities, and presents this result, which is as nearly 
correct as figures setting forth this matter can be : 

Liquors consumed in the United States : 

Spirituous liquors, . . . . 69,572,062 gallons annually. 
Beer, . . . . . 279,74(J,044 " " 

Imported wines, . . . 10,700,000 " " 

Liquors consumed in Great Britain : 

Spirituous liquors, .... 33,090,377 gallons annually. 
Beer and ale, . . . 906,340,399 •' « 

Foreign and British wines, . .17,144,539 " " 

Liquors consumed in Grermany : 

Beer, 146,000,000 gallons annually. 

Wine, 121,000,000 " " 

Liquors consumed in France : 

Spirituous liquors, .... 27,000,000 gallons annually^ 

Beer, 51,800,000 " « 

Wine, 600,000,000 " ^' . 


Cost of Jntoammts. 

that the world a 


ich as these 

piritiiona liqnors, . , . 31*,031,a82 galJoBB annaally. 

:«sBr, 2,797,291,632 " " • 

fine, 1,482,239,914 

Cost of liqnors in the -world in ten yeara, W4,405, 042,211, or 
wica tho value of tlie United States of America. Allowing- the 
visrago Talne of the world, per square mllp, to or]ual the llnilvd 
iatva, »a<l every ,one himilred nud twenty years the actual cash 
alue of tlie world ia consumed in those drinks. 

ThemateriulBosedinthemauafactaroiiio annually asfoIlonB ; 

'nited States, 

Britain and 

! World, . 

BubUuIs at 

Gnpen. Vilna, 

2,36i,3l2 ii2,S05,mi 

63,929,550 3,784,246 

9,125,000 ^,714,285 

9,237,500 171,42S.n71 

242,971,145 432,634,261 

Tbe cost in I'rauco and Germany wonlil be modified by tho 
1st of grapes, whitli are miiuh cheaper there. 

Tlic lund. buildings, machinery, labor, etc., invested ia the 
Bffio Is iibant as follows : 

Acrei- nn^ L.bnf 

nited t^tJite«, . . 903,414 $74,041,014 $9,405,104 

Teat Britain and 

Ireland, . . , 1,629,773 92,116,883 15.271,432 
ermnay, . . . 517,410 46,120.r.35 6,304,892 

canto, .... 1,576,017 19.),967,G33 27,929,28:!' 

ho World, . . 9,Soi,23i 746,486,070 117,821,020 

Vslua of T.ilal 

LiDil. Inveiliuent. 

oited States $45,170,500 1^8,616,^43 

fuat Bntaln and Ireland, . 81,48!*,(150 18S,87ti,9B5 

nmnny, 25,87J,000 78,:195,43T 

7S,300,850 397,1197,7(18 

World 4(i3,e6O,100 l,32e,9,;9,4?3 

CoMlr of :iliniliolii'. drinks in tiio United States auniinnj-: 

■t outlny for drinh $r;S,10T,023 

1 i>er ceot, ou Itio HI J, 000,000,000 which iho 
tuUuu sbunlil pusMSi, but has been destruyud 

Try tbo tnSAc, "00,000,000 


310 Jiooiol in. Bisttivy* 

Diiort loss of wages 7,903,&U 

Teu |ier Clint, on capitul employeil in tho manu- 

fat'turo 25,a4fl,(lSl 

Ten per cent, on capitul employed insalciona, , 30,354,7110 

Cliutity bestowed on tho poor, .... 14,000,000 

Lobs by soa nnd Irnid, 50,000,000 

Court, police, liospital eiqieoBos, charity, litiga- 
tion, iuHurauce, 207,2GG,S50 

Total, ,. $1,866,642,308 

"In return for tliia," says Mr, Parker, "the nation recoivM! 
500 mnrdeia, 51(1 Biiiddes, 100,000 oriminala, 200,OO0panperB,80,- 
000 diiatha ftom drunkenneBa, 600,000 buao tted dnmltards, 8011,000 
moderate drinkera, who will be sots liui years heq^o, fiOOyOOO' 
homes destroyed, 1,000,000 children worae tliun orpiinnad. Aikdif 
the conntry shoold bo searched from cetilre to eiroumlereiice, it 
wonld lie impossible to find ang good Tpsulting from the trafflo, 
oz a single reason why it should o^st longer." 

Iq The Western Breirer, for October, 1880, is tie fol- 
lowing ; " Prof. Thansing has compiled the following eta- 
tisticB of beer production for the year 1879, in LoctolitreB ; 

Couatriea. 4<iaBtlEI« brewed. 

German Empire 38,946.510 hect. 

Great Britain 36,697,550 " 

United States 15,400,000 " 

Anstro-Hnngary 11,184,681 " 

Franca 3,721,000 " 

Belgium 7,854,000 " 

Ensaia 2,300,000 " 

HoUand 1,600,000 " 

Denmark 1,160,000 " 

* Sweden 960,000 " 

Italy eTO,000 " 

Switzerland 724,000 " 

Norway 615,000 " 

In all, 120,842,741 hectolitrtis (2, 660,000,000 imp, gall*.), 
332,000.000 people. The average cousamptioi] was liu]goat 
Belgium, 147 litres per head; and smaUest in Buasjap 3 lil 
per head." 

In tbe November number, it adds : "Offirial Btatistlullj 
Bhow that in 1879 there were brewed in Bavniia 11,92S, 


Oost of Intocrirants. 211 

*ct. of beer, of which 651,431 hect. ivers exported. Tlio 
iporta amoimtflij to 10,104hopt. Tiieconanmption during 
le year was at the rate of 225 litrea per liead of the popu- 
tion." A litre \<eing .!)46 of a quart, the consiiraption 
a head in Belginm is 35 gallons ; anil in Bavaria, 53 gn.1- 
ins per head. 

Tliese figures, repreBenting quantity and coat, are appal- 
tg. Oonsider then, the fact that the Tein])eriinco cause 
s done not a little to dituini!;li the consoniption of intoxi- 
nts in all theso countries, and tiiiuk wliat a vast onioimt 
' \Fone than worthless beverages liavp been made and eon- 
lined in the last one hnndred ycara, and at what an expense 
'values, and the mind is confoundud in its effort to grasp 
id realize either. Wo had prepared several tables of ata- 
rties, gleaned from variouB soiircee, but mine of thetu con 
to set forth the truth in its awfulness. Turn biuik to 
BliBtDh already given of llie History of Intemperance 
tngh long series nf ypars in so ninny countries, and tben 
asp, if you can, on the basis of the fignres jost given, an 
ea of tlie cost, quantity, and waste, involved in thia fear- 
1 traflio. 

It may help in our effort to approximate the fiusta in tiua 
80, to take a very careful statement made by Hon. Henry 
'. Blair, uf New Hampshire, in liie House of Eepreseuta- 
TVBf WaBluugton, December 27th, 1876. Much of what 
I saya is true of all the nations using intoxicants, — bearing 
mind, of course, their relative population and the statis- 
» before given in regard to their annual consumption of 
(tilled and fermontixl liquors. Mr. Blair said : 

" I now desiro to preseut iu tlio best manner I can a atatement 
rnclfl bearing tipon I.L« effect of the manofactnre and use of 
kislcnting liiiuora on the wc^altli, iuduBtrieB, and productive 
woiB of thn nation ; also upon ilB i^omnce, pauperism, aud 
iuie. 1 haw anileavoreil to authentii-'ate every statoaietit by 
refill iniiuiry. Tho information is drawn from tho cpusua re- 
nw, bijlu tei^onla of the Dspartmenta of Govt^nlnle□t, reiHirta 
Htat« autLoritiua,' ttGrlnTatlona from prominent ntutiBtii^ions 
A letpoaahle gentlemen iu dilTereut parts of tlie country. 

.^dhel in Siatory. 

lluch of it is to be foiinrt, wifli a great lieul more of ainjilur m 
ti-'r. iu a very vuliial>le boiili pQlilitiLtid llio preetut 
siilhor is Uiliiaiuliaigieaveti, U. Lt., uf Fiiiladelphia. Kocn 
wlio has not fought witli liguruH, liko PuqI of old nhlithoheaal 
at Jiiilieaua, linowa Iiow it tases tlw utmost powi>rB of n 
cl.tssify, coudenae, edJ. pcesanl intelliKiblj- to the mintl t 
matlienuitical or staliaticul demonati-ntion of tlWBo trenciicloij 
eoctal and ccouoiiiic facts. Tlie tratlis tlioy t<mcli iuvolTe tl 
fi:tt[^ of Tnodcro civil izatiou. 

" Iu 1870 tlie iiix collectod by the. Intprual Eereniie Cep*^ 
ment tcos npon 73,125,353 gallons of proof spirits and (i,OU,Sr 
baiTslH of fennenttid litguora. C'ommiHsioner Delano MtiaiBtil 
tbn L'oaauiuptioii of distilled spiiits in 1669 at 80,000.000 g 
By tbu cenanq [etnraa, June 1, 1860, tbere vers prodiieei in H 
Uuitud States Q0,412,EIS1 gallons of domeBtie spirits — and a 
course tbis was consumed, trith laii^e nmonnfs iinport«(l b 
— but there are vury large ileniB which estupe the offiC'ial ( 
mPiiition. These have been carefollj' estimated as 

Domestic liquors evading tax and imported smug- 
gled, at least , J 

Domestic wines. 10,000,(K 

Domestic wines murio onfomsB 

DomeBlio wines ni ado and need in private fltmiliea, ,, l,O0rt,D^ 
Dilntionsof liquors paying tHX by dealers 7,SO0,W 

"This amount added to the totn! produced in 1860, would be 
107,004,011 ; added to autount cm which was collectud tta ii 
1870. -would be 30,017,683. 

" It is well known that tho great muss of altoholin liqnorll 
conaiuuad as a bcvGrago, and it will tali iislow tie tact t 
plare the amount paid for it at retail by tlio American il 
at 75,000,000 gallons yeurly. Btit take the vi.ry nodtwt 
mate of Dr. Young, Chief of the BTireB.ri of Stntjeties, -wluiiii 
Iliu following estimate of the Bales of Itijtiora ia tie fiscal y 
ending June I, IBTl: 

■RTiistdy, (alonel 60,000,000 gallon i 

at retail .... t3fi').00fl 

Imported spirits 2.510,01)0 gallons ftt MO, 

at retail. 23,000,«)0 

Import«d imie 11,700,000 gnnans at tE, 

ot retail 

Cosf, of Intoxmivts. 

Tieer, and porter 6,500,000 gnllons 

u lihl, ut retail... 
radve iriitea, braaiiics, cordials, catimatod.. 

ToUl 600,000,000 

•I am satialiiHl that thia is mucU below the real amoout, but 
is enuugb. 

"This ja one-seventb tlio valuo of all our mannfaetotes 
IT tbal ytini, mare than, one-foni'th tbnt of farm productjoiu, 
ettofnieata, aad stock, as sbowa by tbo cuaaiis," 
"D*. Itargieaves estimates Ibe retail liquor bill of 1871 at 
10,030,042. In 1ST2, as ahown by the internal rareniie totarns, 
ire wu a total of domeativ and Ibreign liquors aliown in tile 
Uids of the American people of 337.388,066 gatlons, tlie retail 
It of wbicb at the estimated prioea of Dr. yoimg ia 1735,720,- 
i. Th« total of liquors paying tax &Mm 1860 to 1672— tliir- 
m years -was 2,702.836,006 gallons, costing the conaamsr 
1,780,161,805. During sover;il of tbeso years, the Government 
IS largely swindled out of the tax, so that no mortal knows 
fw fiw tbo truth Una beyond tliese startling aggrogatea. 
" I>r. Young estimates the cost of liquors in 1S76 at tbo same 
! in 1671— 0600,000,000— nnd exclaims : "It would pay for 
(9 ^,(00 barrels of Uuur, averaging two and one-half barrels 
' lloiu> to every man, woman, tind i^hild in the eountry. 
"Sneli facts might well transform the matbemntiuiau into an 
[BlamBtiOQ point. Dr. llarj^eaves, who goes into all the in^ 
(pof tllD demonatrationa, dealing, however, only withburean 
Mrns, declares that the annnal consumption of distillud 
ilits In the L'uited States ia not leaa thau 10O,(i0O,-CQO gallons 
innally, and tbia makes a very amall allowimce for " urookod 
' Take now Dr. Young's moderate estimate of 1(600,- 
10,000 annually, and ^^lyiug upon the ofliutnl rtworda of the 
uttry, and in sixtw-n years wo have destroyed in drink 
',6CW,0<)0,00(U-more than fcmr timea the amount of tbo ua- 
it.iiiiil 'int'e- and a half times the wbolu cujt of the war 
!" ^iH sections of the coimtcy, while thu loss of 
. I force, and moral power to the people was 
I i.i'Hator. Tlio lowest catiumto I Lave uti'm 
■ iif life iireeltg from tUa use of inloxioatiiig 
I ^'ni, .,!■ (if)0,000 during tbu period nliove mi'iitiimcil ; 
»rv Ibnn tbrc<u timrelhe wbele loasof tlicNurtb by battluotul 
B>M in t>i« w)kr, us sho\ni by tbe olticial r«tnms. 
"Tb0 HMimfiDd vtiluo of all thu rnul estato in tlie United 
suBoflsro is »9,914,7gU,aii5; of puraoual, 91,201,306,- 


Ahoftd m-' Siateffy, 

907. In Iwontj-flTo ynara we drink onrselvee out of the value J 
of our coimlry, personal prujmrty umi all. 

■' The census abows that iu 1870 the State of New York Bpei]£4 
for liquors, S106,B9.),000; more than two-fiftha of the vuluo o; 
tho prodnetfl of agriculture and uearlj one-Bevcnth the vain* of •■ 
all tile tuanufurtnteH, aud nearly Iwo-tliirds of tiio WBgca paid'l 
for both agriculture and mannl^CtnieB, tbe liquor bill buiiig IK 
tie less than twice the receipts of her railroads. The liqnocl 
biU of Pennaylvania in 1S70 waa $65,i175,0tl0. of IIliac4ijB 
$J2,825,U0O; Ohio, ^,845,0OJ; Massachusetts. «SI),lBe,O00|r 
New Hampshire, $5, 8110, 1; 00 ; Maine, where the prohibitory lain 
is better enforced than nnywhero else, ^,215,01)0. olthouf^ 
Maine has twice the population of New Ilanipshire 

" Dr. Hargreavea says that there was ospendud for intoxioaVl 
ing driuka in — 

1B89 ...- - - - .»693,9W.5a 

1870. , , 
1871- - 
1872. 733,72e,U« 

Total 2,729, 18<i,7t.' 

innnal average , 682,206,G7T ' 

"And ho Bays the average ia larger since 1872. cxceedin|' , 
*7<K1, 000,000. 

'' Each family by the census ureragea 5.0! 
Bpend for liquor at the ratu of $S1.74 yearly for uauh. TholoM J 
to the nation in perverted labor is very great. Iu 1S72 tiieie I 
were 7,276 licensed wholesale liquor eslublisluneuta, and IGl.lli 
peiaons licensed to sell at retail. It is said that there aie ■ 
many more unlicensed retail liquor shops. All thes 
trafSc must employ at least half a million of men. There w 
then 3,132 diatilleries. which would oniploy certainly five mefl 
each — say 15,660. The browere' cougroaa in ISli said that t1 
nere employed iu their hiialness 11,098. Tliere would ban' 
laneoosly employed abont breweries and dislilleriea 10,000; 
selling sny 600,000. In all, say 650,000 able-bodied men, whd 
so far as distilled liquors are concerned at Icnsl, conetililU. I 
stinniUng army uonstuutly ileati'oying the AmcricirD p6Ap1i| 
They create more hiivoo than an opposing nation which Shou' 
maintain a hostile force of half a niiiliou aumeil men conHlnnl)] 
making wai agaiuat us upon otirowu soil, The templ<! uf thifl 
Janus is ulwaya open. ^Vliy ahould wo thus persevoro In w ' 
destruction f 

Oost of Intommntn. 

There are GOfl.OfKI habitual dronkarde in the trnited States. 
If they loaehalftheirtlmeitwouWboaloBs of $150,CK>0,0UU to 
lation in productive power, ftncl in wages and wealth to 
both the aation and themBelvea every yoa.r, 

Di. Hnrgreaves haa cocBtraeled tlie following table : 

iTBe yo^ly loss of time and indnstry of 545,624 men 

employed in liijuor-makiui; aud Belling 4272,812,000 

Low of titne onil iuduatry of 600,000 drunkards 15^,000,000 of time of 1,404,323 male tippletB 14a,S19,!i93 


" And te addfl that investigation wOl show this large aggro- 
[ate is far below the tmo loss. 

"By this same process 40,000,000 hnshe la of nntritions groin 
|ce annually destroyed, oquul to 000,000,000 four pound toaves : 
tbont 80 loaves for each fajnily in the country. 

"Dr. Hiteh<n>ck, president of the MicLigua State Board of 
lealtb, catimates the annnal loss of proUactive life by reason 
if premature deatlia produced by alcohol ut 1,127,000 ye.niB, and 
bat there are eonstantly sick or disabled from its use »8,000 
n this country. 

Usomlng the annual prodncing power of an 
able-bodied person to be S500 value, and 
this annual loss of life would otherwise be 
prodtieing, Ibo national loss is the iw- 

measeBiuu of.. $012,510,000 00 

1 this the luaaoa by the misdirected in- 
dustry Of those engaged in the manufac- 
ture and aalA ; lost vf one-half the time of 
the 600,000 drunkards and of the tipplers, 
aa their nniubei is estimated by Dr. Eai:- 
gtonvee 568,801,592 00 

*1,217,371,602 00 
. Bitolkcock estimates the aiunber of insane, 

made so annually, at 9.338, or lusa in efltict- 

ivo life of !)B,259 years, at $500 per year ., 13,120,500 00 
mhnr of idiota fi'om same cause, an annual 

loM of 819,908 yeaw 150.954.000 00 


l m 


Atcahd Ml ffwfory. 

DedtiPt receiptB of tntpmal reve- 

tioe loK (year ia75| $61,225,395 53 

Beceipta l^m aUoiit 600,000 

State Uceuaes, at 3100 JiO,UOO,0C0 00 


AanQiil ]ofia to the nation of redni-tion $l,3I5j^9,ttS 

Annual valim of ull labor in the Uniteil StalM, 

as per cenaua of 1870 1,363,964,003 tQl 

Losses Itom altoliol inexresa of wages of labor 

yuarly $51,24a,|-,93 4*j 

"This calculation inclndea noth.i»g for intersst npoa ca^tul 
invested, for care of the siok, insane, idiotln — it ollow^s alM)1)0t| 
credit for revenue paid on aH whirli is nsed for le^itiniato par^ 
pcflea. In Eaglaud the capital itiVBBted in liquor buatUeM li 
»585,000,000, or £ 117,01)0,000. It wfla proved by the liquor degl- J 
eta bofoie the cctntmittec of the Maasacliuaetta LEg^latntfi 1l 
18ft7 that the capital invested ia the bnsineBs in 1] 
lenst 4100,000-, (100, and in tlio whole roiintry It cun not bo ]«« 
than $1,000,000,000, or ten times the amount inrcfited in fiosMn,! 
The annual value of imparled liqnora ia about $80,000,000. tvT 
may bo that the oliove estimate of losses joarly to the nation il 
too high. Perhaps $500 ia more than the avorage pross eatnlngd 
of an able-bodied wan, and there may be other etrois of leu 
Cflnsequence. Hut any gentleman is at liberty to divide uiU 
subdivide tbo dreadflil aggregate as often oud ns long a ~ 
plcaaes, and tJien I would osh him what good Tegison haa be ti 
give why the nation should lose anything from these cntmeB." 

Intemperance and Ceime. — Notlung ia more fcl 
proven thao that Intemperance is one o{ the moet prolifi 
sources of orime. We proeent here a. mure handful of oui 
gleanings from authoiitiea on this snhjeet. At an Toiomftj 
tional Congress for the Prevention and Repre 
Orime," held in London, in July 1872, this ([uostion wnM 
ttsked by the United States Comniiasioner : " What, i 
opinion, are the principal causes of crimn in your couulTT t T 
Tlio following are estracts feom the official aaBwecs g( iJ 
HBveral Governments : 
^»tlfia, "The deairo for lusotioB muiUooQaii." 

Intemperance and Crime. 217 

Belgium. " DruukenoeBB, liltertinisiii, thooghtlessncss, ilis- 
taste ul' work, nud iiUenesa." 

Ueniaark, "Moat frtsqiiuutlj idleness, desire for nnluwful or 
|awfol pleasures, and Imbits of drmkiDg." 
JVitnce, " Tbi' inBuQlcieiicy of qiotiiI education, tLo general 
" intelleptuHl cuHnre, and tlio want of any iudustiiiil 
ftllin|i; not opposing to the uppetitea nnd iimtiuutij a burlier 
ntllluieutly Blioug, leave an open load to cricius aud oUBde- 

' Savana, '' In some pnrtB of Bavaria it Ib stUl the rostom nf 
'.* peasants to carry long stiletto-like knives wben visitinn 
mblic-hoDses and daneing places, and tbns on ^nndnya and 
iolidayt tke smaUost cause often leads them to inflict on oacli 

■e injuries." 
■ Pruiain, " Dtiukonnesa, or, rather, a lust after immodeiato 
bd niinons luxury and dcliBiichery." 

Utfioo, " Abase of intoxicating ilrinkB." 
^ N«0nrl9«d», " Dmnkeniiess." 
^ormiy, "LB^ineas, drunkonness, and bad company, into 
\b&€b. tliese vicea will lead." 
^^^ ' The cttiiHp of crimes arises from a certain Oriental 

Italism, ivhich is in the foundation of the character of the peo- 
.... It lesultd in a kind of xlotlifalneas, which is Ire- 
!iiUy overcome by the temptations of drunkenness and its 

^ SuwAw, ■' An ever constant deiiire for spirits." 
fimiianrlattd, " Dmnkcnuesa, often accuHipanied by other ex- 
. That nhich is norat in the vice of dTonJiennesa ia 
Bt tiie criniinal act which it has directly or indirectly caused, 
at mncli tnorc tJie moral wuBte which the drunkard gradually 
~ its, and which causes him to lose all perception of tho moat 

Antfti; laws of monility " 
UMtei SUitet, " Intemperance is the proximate cause of much 

.To tbcee testiroonies a<ld tho statements of eminent 
«(lg?s in the criminal courts, 

CUiof- Justice Sir Slattliew Hale, of Englaiicl, saiJ, as 
Mig ago as 1670 : 

"The places of judicflture 1 have long held iu this kiiiRdtmi 
tvo Jfiveu mo an opportunity to observe the original chiisd of 
DSt of tho euonuities that have been committed for (.ho e^3.(»i 

'.BepoetofProceedlasa, vurlovu pages bom']^. m wtXi*. 

218 Ahnhd'H ffikldi^. 1 

of nearly twpnly y^nra ; Find, liy due oliaervation. I have fomifl 
that if the mimifTR aud iiiiiual:iii!;bt<>nj, Xh'i tiiir';lMri(rs and toIB 
beries, thu lioU aud tniintltH, the ndnlUiriiM, foi'ui cations, r&pM 
and otliei' esonnitios tliat tiuve liuppeoed In that tune, yfeA 
divided iuUi ^I'c partH,/OHr of them liuve been tho uauea tun 
product of escesain! diiuliiiig— ol tnvein or ale-lioiiBedrinlciiig^ 

Lord Cbicf-Barou Kelly, perhapa tlie oltlest judge now od 
the Engliah heuisli, says in a letter to t!ie Aioli-deaoon cd 
Canterbury : " 'i'wo-tliirda of the criiaos which como bef<na 
the coui-tB of law of this coautry aru oocasioned ohiefly iMN 
intcmpfirauce." 1 

In l'^;J2, Lord Gilliea, " directed the attention of the sbeitB 
and mugistriitva «t' Ulusgovr to the fiict, that there were not iMd 
than 1,3U(J licensed puljUf-houaofl in the Royaltj' ; aud large a9 
the city was, and numerous ns wece ita inhabitants, hecotdd noH 
but legard that numbei as l>eartn^a veryextraui'diiiury piopoM 
tion to the population. They could not but bo sensible of Upfl 
fact that the lai^ilitiea thus afforded to the indidgeuceof intempeM 
uto habit were the principal cause of the crime thftt prevailedi^ 

The eame year, at the cnnclnKion of the Perth ae^toaJ 
the Lord Justice Clark, addressing the Sheriff, said : I 

"He regretted to say, that be ciould not congratulate bim oU 
the decrettBe of crime in the distrii't ; and he oould not ImIm 
adverting to the numerena instances of asaault ; and as theM 
evidently originated in the escitemeut urisiug liom tbci immoM 
erate nse of spirituous liquors, he was naturally lud to coniloniH 
the thcilitiea nliich ore too often amply alTordeil tothetboughH 
less, the profligate, or the quarrelsome, fot the ohtnining trt nefl 
dent Bpirita ; he ^ould, therefore, iu09t eanieBtly coiinsitl tllM 
magietratpa and others with whom it l.iytogiautllccnset, mttd 
allow -any notion of public economy, buwover BiiDdima, ftM 
jner«asin<7 Ihe revenue of the country, to tend to the deteriofatten 
of the public morals." ■ 

Judge FattcBon said, in an address to the Grand Jury^ 

"If it wote not for this drinking, you and I would Iia^'d 

ndthiug to do." I 

B.-inin Aldersoii, luUlressing a Grand Jury, smd : " iM 

greiit proportion of ihn crime to \ie Wo-u^te forward fnryitim 

consitleratimi, arisoa fcom the Vviift ol aa>i\\!s.w«.«iaii tifflWifl 

Infcmpemntx and Crime. 219 

letl, if you take aviuy itmn the calendai' all those cases 
Rrith wUioh dmiikeniHMa bud any cutmection, yoa would 
Bjuak-C the largo culemlar a vnry giuali ono," 

. Jatlge Ersltine, in passing- sentence on a criminal for an 
amuittod by Lini wlule intoxicated, said : " Ninety- 
36 out of every hiuidrod arise from the aamo caoKe." 

■Tnstire Coleridge said : " Tbree-fourtlia of tho crimos c( 
fi ill tbe iiOuntl7 uT|i comuiJtLed andor tlio influence of liqaot. t 
rily iMlieve that uotluug wonld toud muni U> muk(> the peopla 
PrtlUa oonntry moral, and to luiike the courta of JuBtice empty 
' I, llian aliHtaiAing Jrom excessive drinking." 
Ittief-Jnatice Coleridge eiiyH : 

u keep no tenna with a rice that fills ont goolB, — that 
Toy A the comfort of homes and tLe [louce of l^mlliee, and de- 
la imd brittiLlizaa tho people of these islands," 

1 a charge to the Grand Jnry, at 

' '" FemoQS sitting in hia jjosttion must hy this time be almoBt 

d of aafing whut was the veriest truiam in the world, and 

^h)lt he ntppoaeil, becansu it \raa en truu, noliody paid the 

~ jhtest ntlenttaD to—vi'i., that driiuliouuesa was the vice 

^IdohtUled the jails of Engl nod, and that >/ iJieg could make 

d mbtr then eaitld ihHt up nint-tentlu of her pritotu. It was 

t^t tnify ttioe« pftTtinnlar oases to whii^h he bad been directing 

1r attent^, hut other oases ; »ud indued, a large majority of 

V »)kii<K ajvilge and jura had la deal teitk began or ended, or 

f iilrKHeet»d, vith the tiire of dmnkeaneie." 

F> H C JlUtiue Keatinfi;: "After a long experience 1 can state that 
Inetaon-tWentiRtLa of the n<:tB of violence coounictod Lhroogh- 
nit EugJaad originate in tlie pablio-honso," " Brnnkenness 
' ' ft IB ahnost the case with every one that is bronght be- 

f Hi. Juatipo Lnsh : " It is in;r nniiety, ajid I hope tt will ho tbo 

■ryiDOIt'e also, to use aJl pnesiblL' nienne to put a stoj> in a great 

hgren to the ilrunkeniiBsa thai prevails. Mont than half, nay 

U -throe^nn*S of tbo caaes Ibat have been before nie Kt these 

, have their origin, either directly or indirectly in 

S30 Ahokoi m S4s(9r^- 1 

ant! manslan^hteT, that I toaui at a Uvurpool Assize that 4fl 
thirteen offcncea of violence t'ur trial, there "was Dot one nhitS 
wne uot directly attribntable to exceseive diiuking. It is an 

Lord Cliief- Justice Wliiteside, speaks of intemperance aa9 
" Tliia liiagraiiefiil vice, the pari-nt uf crioie." " ■ 

A return ordered by the Ilouae of Cammona in 1352, id 
reference to the prison of Edmbnrgh, slioweJ that out aS 
669 prisoBeTB, 40S asei^ed ntrong drink as the oaiiBO of tfa(|fl 
being there. A governor of another prison, states: "MM 
the resnlt of close attention to the state and con'Ution lifl 
over S0,000 prisoners, male and female, estending over.H 
period of 19 joars, over 75 per cent, ore certiunlydae to ^d 
temperance." M 

So Mr. Jnetico LawBon, at the Annsgh assizes, in ISfin 
4ays : " All the crimos we meet nith on circiut toe DUlfl 
or less directly or indii'ectlj canaed by drank cnneea,* ■ 

And ill. Justice Deat^y, at the sunie aesixe, in 1871, auiidM 
" Dninlcenneas is the pitrent of all the crimes comniitted jfl 
Ireland." fl 

The King of France, somo ycarango, called Mr. DolavanM 
attention to the fact that tlie nsc of ivine vas the cause (fl 
intoxicatioa and its fearful couseqaencoe, in that coontrjn 
and recently — fl 

" According to a, New York pitper, the consnnijition or IwaJ 
wino and spirits has niateriaJIy increaGud in I''r.iui'e. MporilU^| 
within a few years, some [leTsons m'l'oiiuting tor it, to part, hfl 
the national disappointment ami juorllll cation at the result (fl 
Ibu German war. The annual qa.inlity of rriae ttrunk is O^m 
clunid to bo equal to tUirly (gallons to poeh inhahltimt of tlfl 
eoiintry, while in 1838 it was uot niiiru than Cftecn galtona, Tltl 
eonsnntptiou oi' beer in tht> last ttri^uly yuota has ina»MS 
liree-fold, and of iiqnor fully (il'l.y put cent, Primi'v !8 ^M 
longer a wine-dtinkiug coontiy merely. In manj ot th» t>oM^| 
em depaitmonta, particolaxly siuioiiff the wnrlsiiiKmcn. rlifjH 
and very had brandy has eonjo iiit" ''""I""" "■-'■ "- " '>•- "!■« 
in Taris and other lar£D CittvH. I' - -i ^ 

alrohol and heallJi uud vil'Utasln' 

tat fod lioleot ileal lia,ut»i«n.^. '. J 

adaao. la. fliodLitEuitwiiibwaitV .- ..-.. uJ 

Inlemperance and Crime. 


i tlmea ae nl&n; orreatB aa in the Uistricts in wbicli tli? in- 

lulii tail IB coil line thamsBlvea to wine. A uamlier of matsof io- 

nity, directly ti'aoeable tci alcoliul, liuve declared tbenuMilTes 

Xiarts of the country, and tliuau, until receutly, wore 

most un!:nowii. The reiaiMk, onto so frcqusnt, ' You ni'viT 

a dmnlieii man in. France,' cJin no lODgct be miulc nilli 

Eh. Diiinkcn muD, tbaiigh stlU very rnre comjiarcil wUll 

lit Britain and tlie Unlteil States, are now quite commou; so 

imon, indeed, aa to attract no attention. Americans nliu 

e been there witlun three or four yeiinliave noticed this, aui). 

If they have been alirouil hefui«, have be>;n struck by the ililltir- 

e between nhat is and what has been." 

t long ago "The Federal! Council of Switzerland, having 

1 petitioned for a rcHtorntJou of the death penalty, on the 

d that crime bod incrBaMd dnring tha four yean* BiDCP iU 

^holitioii, institnted on Investigation of the subject which has 

^pied ft period of six mantlis. By comparison of the »tiiti«- 

i of 8witieriand wirli those of other countrieB, the rouni-il 

d that erimu has uleo iucreuHed in other counlxies during the 

9 period where the death ppnalty has bppn retained. Vcty 

it is their liiidiDf'iis to the caH«eof this general incrciiae 

.R tboir own wine-growing country as well us elRewhorn. 

rilpysay: "There were five times as m.iuy eKPCuliona in t!ro«t 

Mtniu iu 1S77 as in ItlTl, and uearly twice ,ib mini; iu Ik'lgium, 

e in Denmark, Hollnnd, Anstriiv, Germany, Franco, nnil 

tii1<ri murder has been gre.')tly augmented in the same time, the 

WW being, in view of tio Swiss Gonncil, the increase in misi^ry, 

mbmiptratiet and lict^ntioumifiit, in connection with the gieiit«r 

certy and -wcetchBdness of the popalatious." 

n the Uiiitflil Sliitps, the same lacta are apjiarent. 

^ United States CununisKonor of Education, in his Re- 

wrt for 3S71, says J 

"Thnt from 8(1 to 89 per cent, of onr criminnls connect their 

» of crimo with intemperance. Of the 14,315 inmates of 

6 Si iiwothnscttB prisons, 12,306 are reported to liave lief-n iii- 

bmptimt«, or »\ per ct'iit In tlic New Hampshite pfIkuii einty- 

« out of iiiijcty-ono admit thomsolyw to hava been iiiti^niiM^r- 

RppnrtH ii'tmi every Statu, countj', and mnDicipiil priaou 

oniipctlcut. nijido In 1871, show that mocetlinn 9!) rer .eiit. 

(I been tn the habit of (Irinking, by their own udmiaBioii." 

ri» nurden oftfiP Illiodu Islaml BlaVo i^rvftaw tidOiaia.N.i'a 
i-tvut of his jiriiiiitiftv n» diiiikum," 


Alcohd in Hisiory. 

Thefie relate to those who have been polity of the i 
Berioua offences, not mere every-day arrests for drnnkeimdl 
and disorderly conUact. 

Klislia Harris, M. D., a Prison Inspector, in a Paper # 
" The RelatiiiDB of Drankenuess to Crime," presenU'd t 
the National Temperance Convention, in 1873, says 

" Moid than half of nil the timTicts m the Stnte prisoiiB a 
penitontiaries voluntaiily confess the fact tiattheyw 
poritte and frequently drunk jiievlous to the oritues fgr irU 
tbuy are uuprisuuml, uod that such intern pcru nee had a 
eentiol inlluQni'O in preparing them for tlie acts of ciiin^,] 
Alioiit 82 per cent, of the convittB in tlio Vuited States privately 
eonfcss their &equcnt ludnlgence in intoxicating diinka. Tbe 
Superintendent of the JJotroit House of Correction found Uut 
oulf 18 per cent, of the convicts in fifteen State priaous und a 
large nnniber of county jaila ever claimed to Ira tewpenit«. 
TUiamayho taken as a fiiit statement of percentagee of the tem- 
perate and intemperate in the piiBona and jails of the United 
States and Great Britain. 

"As a physician, familiar with the morliid eon sequences of 
alcoholic indulgence iu tliousandaof sufferers ftom it; asastn- 
dent of physiology, interested in the rcuiarkahlephenouiuuaand 
results of inebriation; and as a close nliserver of social a 
moral vants, it was easy for the writer tu believe that aoi Ii 
than lialf of all the crime and pauperism in the State d 
npon alcoholic inehriety. 

" But after two years of earefiil inquiry into the 
ajid condition of the criminal popiilnliun of the Stnte, lio tl 
that the eouclnslon in inevitahle, thati taken in uLI \X» v 
tions, alcoholic drinks may justly he charged nith ihr a 
than lialf of the crimes that are broiighl. to conviotian ] 
the State of New Votk, and that fully eiglity-five po 
of all convicts give eridenc* of having in eoiuO large 
t>e6n prepared or enticed to do criminal arts bec-anse of S 
physical and distracting effects produced upon the linl 
org.tnisni by alcohol, and as they indulged in the use of ala| 
Lolic cUink." 

The Board of State Charities of Ponnsylvania ei 
Itc]iort for 1871 : " The moat proUfle sonrctj of diseuacy.^ 
povertv and crime, obBoivrngmon wUl ackaowled^ Is I 

IrdemperoMg ami Cnme. 2^3 

"Williani J. Mullen, Pliiladelphia Prison Agent, sajs iu 
8 lUqwrt for 1870 : 

" An evidence of the bad efTccteof thisTinlioly bnalncBs mny 1)8 
en iu tlie feet that theTo huve been thirtj-ftmr nnirders wilb- 
D fine uit; (PJuladelphJa) Uuring the loHt yeai alone, euch one 
nf whinlL vraa traceable to intompi-nuiue, and one hundred and 
tweuty-one asaaidta fot muiiler proceeding from the fliuno cuntm. 
~t ever 3B,000 atreBta in onr city within the yi-ar, 75 per cent. 
tita caused by- intemperance. Of 18,3<BperBoiis committed to 
il prieoQ within the yeaj;, more than two-thirdB were the con- 
■n of intemperance.'' 

A sketali of tlie HUtory of the Albany, N. T. Penitenti- 
ly, onder the Suporintendeula Pillsbury, fatUer and son, 
(atee tliat during the pertml of ten years cmiing 1870, there 
JBTc heon coininirted 13,413 criminalB. " Of that number, 
V,214 have admitted that they wero of intemperate habits, 
JrMle 3|19d clauned to be temiierate," 

The Indian troubles in Amerii;a, are greatly aggravated 
jf intemperance. 8ays the Helena (llnntana) Inikpendeni i 
'Whiskey is the cause of all the disturbaneea between the 
^tes and Indians, and no doubt the primary canse of all 
befts and outrages by the Indians." 

' Anoth^ jonnml, the Walla- Walla Stafemnan, says: 
'Nearly all llio b'ouble with IniUana is orcaeioned by the 
Ction of a few depraved wliit^s selling theni whiskey.'* 

iitifly twenty years ago, Eowland Burr, Esq., for many 
ears a ma^slrate at Toronto, stated to the Canadian Par- 
iament : 

That iiin^b^Dthd of the male priBoneis, and nineteeU'twen- 
feUtB of tbit liimnle, are aent to.jaQ by intoxiouting liqncirs. In 
SOI years tkeru were 35,000 prtBoners in Canadiun jails, of 
rtiom 32,000 owed tlieii impriBODment to drinkiug babita.'' 

In 1875, a Report of a Committee made to the Dominifm 
JuMtta of CuiniuuDs, contains the following: 

Your Committee fnrtbcr Uiirl. on eKamiiiin({ tbn repotta of 
ho pri«on Inspectors for tlin provinues of Ontwtio aa& ^>w'Wc, 
^t uat of :ig,2iX) atmmitm(iat& to the gaola ioi ttvft \:\iiB« ^i«»* 

j#oftbf <« Sishry. 

Tbo comiectioii hetwoeu tirDnkcnneas and crime ifl 
tlior evident from tUe weH-authenlicated fact that c 
bicreasea or diniiiiiBliea iu proportioii to the aiuouut rrf n 
toxiuante conBumed. 

" WitncAS stated to the Parliamentar; Conuulttee. that i 
1805, "wlieii tharo waa but littJo drunkeniiesB in Glaisg»tr,'1 
nnmbei' of crimiuolB bioughC up at the court of justice, tlU 
hold twice a year, did uot exceed ton or twelve ; beinjj <ftt iT 
moat twenty-four in the year; but by the year 18E ' 
bBuome bo prevalent, that it wob found necessary to hold t 
couita in the year, and inBtsad of tan or twelve priumwa b 
triod iu eaeU, aa formeily, the uumbor hu4 increased to «i, 
iiud, goneially, evun mors thou that. Tliis would maiie, 1 
lowest eatiniato, two hundred and foTty, lueteud of twenty-f 
aaunnlly! How, it ie ft ' eon tenjporn neons fdct,' wliicb ' 
throw siiBpicion upon the (itinking cuatimiB, that ii 
1805, the avernge cnueuntption of spirits in Scotltud was ^ 
million und uliulf gnlluus; but from 11^ to 1^1, the « 
consumption WJM five million imd a, half gallons. Thui il 
of popnlation iii Gluegow during the iibove tweuty-Uve yea 
oonld haye hod bnt a, comparatively slight effect o. 
dar ; for, at that period its increase would only bo Dbout Q 
Iiuudred pur cent., while rrimo had increased nine huodred d 

" A still more suspicions case, however, is afforded by tlie.n 
ports of the Dublin [lolice, for the three years 180H 9-10, ~ 
Ing the HrHt two years, distillation wna stoiiped by law in C 
sequence of scarcity, and crime diminiahecl in a most « 
nary manner. In the third ye»t, distillation wiia reeiu 
in consequence, Uc[uoi' became rbea[iei, and nmrc wa 
Now, it is temarkibble ihat, in tlie same year, the cil 
Bublin seem to have abandoned the notion, hold during 1 
two preceding years, of becoming a remarkably honest p 
for crime, whicli had lieeu two years on the decreaee, suddf 
tnmcd roimd, and In 1810 increased to an alarming extenti i 
piired with what it was while distillation was stopped, Pin] 
bnlf of the yenr 1812 and the whole of 1S13, the diaiDleties aj 
ccneod ivorking; licpior was conacqiH'iitJy rsiat'd in price 
again crime (limiuiahod, Whnn, bowevur, Iba rostrictton w^ 
ecrnnil tinio tntcn off iHaliWiitt-wi, ciune, oa Uiiloru, ine 

Iniemperaatce and Crime. 


lleries wore in fail work, 10,737; in :812, six months of 
li l.lioy ceased working, 9,908( in 1813, duriiig tbo whole uT 
h difltillafion wiw stopjwfl, H,iml auii in 1814, when thu re- 
ririian upon dlstiUutinn camn off, 10,240." * 
'■ Lord. Morpeth, when Socretair for Ireland, in an address on 
le oonditiun of Ireland, gave these etatislice: Of cases of ranr- 
r, attemptA at murder, oftences against tho person, aggravated 
sanltA, and cutting and luuiming- there were, he says, in 1837, 
" 1 1838, 11,058; 1839, 1,097; 1840. 173. Between 1838 and 
ransumptioa of sjiirits in Indnnd had fallou oS 6,000,- 
lons; the pablie-honsea wliere liqnors were retailed had 
i hj 237 in the city of Dniilin alone ; the iiersons impiis- 
B tlie Bridewell (the piinripal city prison}, had fiillea in 
e year from 136 to 23, and more than 100 cells in the 
Zidewell being empty, th^e Smitblield prison was tictnallj' 

" During the seven yoais between 1813 and 1818, both incln- 

annual consnmptiou of British Hpirits in England and 
as 5,000,000 gallons, nnd tlie iinnnal average number of 

I committed for trinl was 11,305. During the seven 
itwe«n 1826 and 1833, the nnnual avomge consnmptiun 
n to nearly 9,000,000 gallons, and the annual average 

mitmunts to 31.796, liolb items almost double ; while from 
a 1832, the population had increased only abont one-third. 
a ftmonnt of crime, then, ia not ao mnrh measured hy the in- 
o of popnlHtloi], aa by tho increase in tho consuiiptioQ of 
g liqOor. 
" Onring the four years sncceeding 1820, the consumption of 

II England and Wales amonnted to 27,000,000 gallons ; 
her of liciotisos grunted 351,847, and the uiimbor of 
aruuiniitted for trial was 61,260. In thefour yoara cnd- 
I, th confluniplion bad inoreased to 13,000,000 gallons, 

B nninber of licenses {fr^intod huiag 371,794, and tho iinmber 
mlttalB roue to 78,345. Tn the nest four years, ending 
le amount of spirits consumed was 48,000.000 gallons, the 
Uiniber of Ut-'onses 168.438, when the number of commitments 
IIICI«M«A to 9I,30(). 

s during the eight years from 1834 to 1832, the commit- 
tsla hnd lnRrBa.<ied 30,000,000, or SO per cent., and tho conanmp- 
^on of spirits increasing in tho name tjtao 77 per cent, with a 
't»tj decided increase alio in tho consumption of beer; while 

" DopumcntH qooted in the Tnototallev's Clnn■plm^«n,^^t.%^,'Sa. 
' t Jadgn Davis on fntomperalice and Ctime,^. Vi. 

-^iaohal m fiilsforjr. 

An article in tbe New Torh Commercutl Advaiiaer, D( 
1876, on "DrunkennesH in England," contajne the fi 
lowing ! 

"As to the nnmlier of opprehensiona for drankoimcSR, W 
slioivn tliat oyer a course often years till Peptemliet. 1874, 1 
laat year of which we have the atatist.iPB, the uiimberof pent 
In Ea;|lti.iiil and Wales proeeedeil n^niuBt Buimntirilj' ns Arm 
and drnok and diiHiTdorly, Incroosetl So per ceut., wlrilo tie pi 
Illation increased only fl jier cent. In 1863 i there were 100,1 
— thatia, 33 per 10,000 of population; in 1873 4 there were IB 
730 coses— that is, 57 per 10,000 of popitlution. While, IliC 
fore, the mean inereaBB per head of the popnlation i* i 
amonntH of Hpirits and malt ronsaraed between 1880 imfl ll 
WBH only 32.1 per cent., the increase in the number of npprehl 
Bioue for being drunli, and drunk and disorderly, has bees T, 
per cent, since oven 1863." 

"In Maine, in ItTO, the eonricttons for crime nnder prohf 
tion were only 431, or one In every I,G89, while in New V<i 
(excluaivo of the (Jity of Now Torlt,) under license, the cony 
tione were 5,473, or one in every 621 sonla. Ciin it be tliat i 
rural population of Now York is eo much luoie oddictetl to cdi 
than the people of MoiuoT 

"Bnt take Connecticut — commonly called ' tho land of bIm 
habits.' Under the prohibition law of 1^64, crime in sliown. 
have diminished 75 per cent. On tho reBtoraliun of lioons^ 
18ra, crime increased BO per cent., in a aiuKlo year, auil in t> 
years in Hartford, according to official retitrua prMUittid Its I 
Hev. Mr. Walter, crime increased in that city 400 per tent. 
New London the prison was empty, and the jnilur oat of bo 
ness for awhile after prohibition went into ciToct.t 

In MaBSachuaetls, after a year's Dspericnce ir 
iug License for Prohibition, doveiiior Claflin sdd, in ! 

Inaugural Address, January, 1869 : 

"i moral and Christian people cannot roiniifn iimctiv«< wl 
they see Huch resiil ta na are following, nuiT nn> sure t« folk 
the sale of iutosicating ilriiihs to this extt>tit Llint now prAVi 

•Powell's Baeclina Dethroned, pp. Sf, 30. 

t Judge Davis on Intemperance and Crinie. Pp. 16, 17. 

Inlempcram-e and Crime. 227 

vhit.herto qniet and orderly State. Tho inrreaso of dmnk- 

a and crime iluriii); tliB last six liiontha, aa comparoil with 

am- periiid in I86T1 U very markml and decisiw a^ to llie 

opernliun of tile law. The Sliito iirioim, jails, anil hoiLstn of 

I t<>rrection rtro being rapidly GlJyd, nud will soon require onlnrg- 

ulntidiia if tho (jotuiuitnwnla fontiniit) to inoreaae as 

Lttltey ha.vo aiacB thu proseiit law went into force. The mcK>«»o 

L of omnmitiiieiits for the eight luoutlia prevloiu to the 1st of 

LOctoLHT, 18f<8, overtheBHiae time in 1867, is remarltable, and 

dunuiiuls tliti caieful attentiiio. uf tllu coiuuiunity. In the uigLt 

I .joontba alluded to, in 1867, 6S personH ymta conuuittod tu the 

f.&talPS priimn; in the same period in IHU!, there were 136 ruiu- 

&uUneiit9 — laonj than double tho nuiQber of the previons year. 

It tuny- be, perhapa, that all this Jntreiise ia nut dno to the oaee 

.iBtvd beeiloni with which iDtoxicatixig liquors can be obtained, 

J Itnt fvw will deny that much the lacgeat part is chaigeable to 

The Cliief Consiahle of tlio ComiaouwcaltL reported to 
L the Legialaturo (January, ISGO) : 

" This law has opened and 1eg»liEed, in the varions cities and 

towns, about two Ihonaond flvo hundred open bare, and over 

lO thonsand other places where liqnurs are premmed not to be 

^ W)ldl>y tlio glnse. Of thcae three thousand five hundred liqnor 

Wtalilishiuents, BoMon has about two thuiisnnd, or aliont five 

[' Irnndred more than nil tho other cities and towns of the Com- 

r intmtreulth, Bmnhenneas is on the increase to a melancholy 


The Blato Board of Charities also testified : 

"The iiicieaBft of intemperance, which tho reaction nf last year 
' against the strictui'SB of prohibition has greatl.y promoted, in- 
turf^reB at once with our industrial interests, foftters pauperism 
{BnA disease, luid iiwells tho lists of criminals. That tnteicpei^ 
L Ituvo hna imn-easefl will appear from the priiioti stuttsticit, soon 
r ir> ho snlimitleil ; that crime and vice have aUo increased will 
I Iw •liuwn l)y the same impartial test, as well ns i^onflrmed hy 
KUm abmrvution uf all whohaye attijuileil lutliat subject, and 
Kuutioed whut litwhi'on goinR nn in t1i<< paut year. If it la de- 
icnrci jo tliebest ninounr thi- rppiiussion of crime and 
{inn^crisiiL, the Invrease of pro duct ion. tlio di'creiiscof taxation, 
~agciibra proftpprityoflhncoiiiiuiiuity, wjfuras tlusijuwttion 
pWucc is eoiicernucl, it is dourly my judgiuent that 
«tlB thuuld roturu to the policy which prohibits the 

Jkohd in Sistortf. 

enle of intoxicating drinks except foe mocfaanical or medical | 

" It wiU)bc rami^mbeTec! tliat the eloction of November, 1967, ,] 
virtually aUoliwliod the prolUhitory law, though it remaiuoil I 
□oniinally in force until April 23, liiSS. Beuring tli^Be facta in ■ 
mind, aud noticing the correBpondiug decrease in proaecntiousl 
for violating the liqnor la-ws, you will nlso notioo tile iuCTease ■ 
at piihlic ilninkennces, such as is punished by imprtmiuoMiUtfl 
wlien the tine imjiosed uunnot at once be paiiL For the H* 
months ending April 1, 1807, the nnmher committed to jail tar 
dniukenunBB was VSi ; ibr violating tile liquor Jaw, 107. In Hie 
correBponding six montlls, beginning Octiibor 1, 1B87, and Mtft- 
ing April 1, 1868, the ntimber of oonmtitmentfi for drtuikeuiiMi _ 
ITOH 1,035; for violation of the llqniir law. 47. Tn houses Off 
correction during the first'THtmed period, ISO commitmenU il 
drunkennesB, and 58 for violating the low ; in tlie sooonil poTiod 
688 ftnd 24 J in the Boston House of Industry, 752 co 
for drunkenness in the first period, and 853 in the secoiiiL 
the whole State during, the ilrst period, there were 3,110 ci 
mitmenta for dranlienness, and 165 for violntiUg t^e Kqnor 1&VI 
In thoaaoond period, Oioreweto2,B7G commitments fordnuitiia 
nesB, snd only 70 for violutioa of Ihu liquor laws. The t> 
number of i-ommitmenta for oil ollencoa was 5,977 in tli« fii^ 
period, and 6,42$ in the aei^oiid. If wo now compare tbe li 
aix months of tho prison year ISCT (from April 1 to Orti>h« t, 
with the last six months of 1868, the flgiir^s are ei[uaUy sugHCa 
tive. lu the jiiila diuiug this period, in 1867. tJmrB Were 9" 
cunimitmcnls for dTunhuunuaa ; in the housea of correction. 
in the House of Industry, 904 1 total, 2,501. Diiriuc the ci 
poniling period iu 1868 the number of Pinuiuitmonte was — 1 
Jails, 1,090 ; to the honsea of torrectiim. 1,020 ; to tbu Huuito ol 
Industry, 1,080— tiitol, 3,170; the whole number of o 
menta for all offences being 6,303 in this period of 1S67, UJI^ 
7,098 iu 18G8. During the year past, thL'vefore, it uppeara tlu 
while erimo iu gynoral hna only inrroased about 10 per cpiiH 
drunkcnneaa lias increased mors than twice as uiiub. > 
c<^nt. This f»ct oifers the beat possible comment on tJl« cOMl 
tiou of the pnblic mind and uf the legal nprcuiou of inteiniH 
ajice since the Rtate election of 1867." 

'■Thi.' prison re^riMi-rs indicate thut more tbnn twn-tUrdii h^ 
the criiuinuls in llie Stitla are Ihe victims uf icti'aipiTiiui'i'l 
the proportion of nimo traceable to this great vicp uiiwt l*M 
down, aa herelufor", a/ wn( Icsa than J'Dia^j^flh*. Ita MSutit h 
tuiuemilly appan-nt in idmoat every gi'ada «f odmft. An' 

Intemperance and Pro»l'ttulion. 22'J 

\ dl.le illuBtration »pi*nra in (he mimber of oomniitment* to ibn 

u, wliii'h. during- eight niuiiflia of flie presiint .vpHr, 

[ la Trliich tlie B»le of iiitfixieiiting liquors lias hnrn iiliiicist wTioUy 

tuurstTH iimd, waa I3B, against 65 during tlie '■"rrpsjioiKliug 

juontha of tliu prerefling year. Similar rCT«(M appfor in nr^rlf 

r all the primm of Ike CojnmoHurealth.'' 

Judge Davi*. io his ptunphlet previonflly cited, aaya: "My 

I ^voIq piiiiiose is t« eslahliali that iiiteiuperanre is bd evil fuo- 

r is enme, by elvowing Uiat wbatever limits or suppngscs tho 

e dimiiiislies tlie olbur la a riitio almost mutlieiiiutiviill]' cPr- 

u. Whether judging from the declared judicial DX]ierieac« 

otllelH, or from mf otm, or frDm oarefHllIy collected statis- 

s nmuing tliraugh man; senea of years, I bolieve it eatiroly 

i» to any that one-Ualf of all the crime of this eomttry and 

t«if Graiit Britain is caused by the intemperate use of in toidcat' 

g IJqiiors ; and that of the crimes involving poraonnl violonce 

prtuiul; three-fonrtlif aie chargeiiblo Ui thu aaiuu cause." 


Ik TOUT KB A xcE AND Pbosiitftion. — Tlio toiidonoy 
f intojcimnts to intlame the pan»ions, lilimt the moral 
jtenee, and so throw ft pure soul off ita guard, that it may 
11 an eitsii- victim t(i temptation, lifts long been noticed hy 
« uhacj-vlBg. St, Aiulirone, in bis first uddreafj to Widows, 
eivoe tiii« iuJiiuL'tion: " Be flrnt pure, widow ! from wine, 
nimt lliou lUttvcBt be pare from adultery." And Lord Ba- 
'wn, in hia " Wiadom of tho Ancionts," declares : "Above 
1 Uiiugs known to mankind, wine is the most powcrftil 
tnd vfficient a^ent tn etining up and inflaming passionB of 
hevery kind, and is of the nature of a common fuel to sen- 
leitoiiH desires." 

Addison says, in bis Spectator, No. 5GE) : 

''The Hi}tnir maa, by Ihc strength of re.'uoii, may keep under 
k1 auhdiiu any vice or foUy to which he h mosl iucliuod ; hat 
>wiito nmkos evory latont st'ed apruiit up iu thu wnl and show 
;ivi .4 I'liry tu thn passions, and force tu tlinse objeota 

.1 ]Mw!ni'ii tliem Nor diti'S this viry 

'' iilfk'U fiiiilts Iff a ninn, and show tlieiii in the 

■ 1 1, Init ultondificoVi'wKiidta to which hii ia not 

■ I, Tliero is luuvo of turn of truth in a 
t^.iii.TH, thai driuJi^eunesM docfl not pradiiL-t, but di»- 

covers iaiilts. Common expotieuce teaches Uio contcacy. 
Wine tlirows n man out of hiinaelf and infiiaefi qunlitios talu the 
mind whiuh elio ia a BtrangA^ to in tier sober m(iuicut»." 

How tliia ie doue, Dr. Richardsou folly Gxplaius iu Us 
Lecture on " The Effects of Alcobol on Life find Hijallli " 
wliere lin traces the action of Aleoliol in the syetem, until — 

"Tile cerebral or brain centres become influenced, tedncoOi in 
power, and tho controlling jiowere of will and of judgiueat up j 
lost. As those centres are overbalanced and thrown into cliaw^ J 
the rational part of the natuiis uf tUo num gives way befiint tlififl 
emotional, paasiounl, or more organic part. The reason ia 
off dutf, and nil the mere animal instincts and ssntlments are ' 
laid mora bare — the coward shows wore craTcn, tUn hniggiirl 
more boastfhl, tho cruel more savage, tho untnithfiil more false. 
The reason, the emotions, tho inHtincta, are all lu a state of cur- 
nival— in chaotic, imbecile disorder." 

" There is no ijneation," says Dr. Anstic, "that tho groat ten- 
dency of drinking, in proportion to the frequency with whieli It 
is indulged, is to obliterate moral coi 

Dr. Tait, in bis work, " Magdaleniara ; being an Inquli? 
into the Causes and Cwneeqnencea of Prostitution," says: 

"That its ranka are sappliod in some measure from those wlia J 
have been trained from infancy to drinking - who imbided witlit 
their mother's milk the desire for intoxicating drinks, anil 
conscioualy formed a habit which their riper years only i 
firmed and rendered more inveterate; and others who (irw 
formed the habit of intemperance, and silbsci) aeutly nMottt<bl 
to a life of prostitution in order to procure tho tiiea; 
ing their dcaires for alcoholic liqnors. Some have 
strong liquors to drown remorse and shaioe, and oxpcl froni^ 
their minds all uneasy feelings regarding their awfnl eltii&ti< 
The mental agony which many of them espevienco in 
sober moments, issoaffiictingaud iutoleiable that they Mi 
tu intoxicate themselves to gain a luoment'a ea«e. Th« n 

ia prescribed by their companions in ml«fnniU)i 
n wickedness as the only cure for Iqw ei|>irit«L T" 
first mouth of their wicked life of prostitutioii ' 
continuons drunkeimesa, and tho habit of dissipation is fumiudl 
before they nrrive at a sense of thtJr iniaeriiblii h 
Bucrilioe is eeusted too grout so that they may iildaio •ijiriluon* 
Tlieiir clamor for diLuk ia incessant, nnd every urtiHo^l 

Intcmpen-atioe ami Proat.itulimi. 

U hua Mfoiirse to in order to obtnta H. . . . . TIutp arc 
ftsa uf prtntitQlioik more prevalent nud mnre jtinvtirliil 
than inebrinty.'' 

tiiuiilar loatiniany is bonie by Dr. Vintciia, m hla n-ortc uu 

PoMr. Logan, in Iiis "Moral Stjitiatiemif01a»i{,''*"'"i" ''***' ^^^^ 
«Mil iiutuiem In whith ho liatl been tolO by Cilloa womou in 

^_^, t explicit tunus: " tbat drink Liiil uut only luien the 

VinsiW of their Bednctiou, Imt it was bIbh pBrtoltBii of ilaily to 
^;i.ti1e thciii to porsevere in their conisp of ■vrirkfilness. ' Elcink, 
iftrtuk.' Bairl thuy, ' ami nothing hut iltink, baa bronght us to 
thia state of abajoe ami dogtadatton." " 

"Tlte brotliel,'' says Jud|H^ Pitman, "wquires the drom- 
Hiap to Btimnlate the pusgioua and to narcutizu the eun- 

The Btaliatics ia regard to prostitution are not easily ool- 
lectad, aa su luimy iiifluenues coralline to purchase or en- 
[fenie innnnnity from tietection. But in 1830, aiiuotdiug to 
'the Heport of the Coustahalary Force UoinmissiotiorB. iLote 
were about 8,000 iu J,onilon, all of whoiu were known 
( police. TLa entire popHlatiun being then about 
1,600,000, the proportion of pi-oetitutea to virtnona mlult 
tvmpn in Lonilon was just one in forty. In Batli, on the 
« Vftsia of computation, the proportion was ono in twen- 
j'-fonr; in Kewcaatl^-upon-Tyno, ono in niuctoou ; iu Dria- 
ta!, ono in tliiitedii : while in Liverpool it reftehod (lie 
SBonnonB proportion of oue jirofessed prostitute to every 
l!glil rirttloHB women ! The population has iiipreatied in 
jaci of tlieae plaoca^in Loudon it has ni ore ihaii doubled, 
' ' a tlie other places more than one-tliird — in the last 
rty years, and this evil liae more than kept pace with it, 
\t, thra, it was claiinL*d, and with ^(luud for bi*lief iu ^he 
icenracy of the statement, that in 18S9 iLero were •J'it'.tlOO 
^^r tlicso degraded women in the united king'dom, wluvt 
inst lie tbe whowiug of tljis ononuitv now ! 
•'It Una br(in computeiJ," imya Mr. Powell, '■ that tbft nvnr- 
ii.iftiraliouoI'lifeiifliiiH nlfissis ironilto lOynars; halt-way 
etwBen tiie two oxtruuii'S i;ivai an nvetoge of 7 yooru. Now Iba 
«lal «vti liaa not dimiJiuhiKl ; iu I'iict, it has t^iuwu wilh am 

BTuwth, or rather with tho erowth «f tio Uijnor trafflc. At Iba 1 
jireaout timi; tluiro .iro iilyiiig tliiiir deadly trade iii nil our Urge J 
I'ejilrcM of popiiliitiou, about '. OjWIO iiniatitiitj's. Aad tJie I'Ulk. J 
of theiw puss awa; in sevea ytuuB — eud liawV Sumit jinmb J 
by tlieir owu r:i8L iianda; olhcrs perish forlorn ajid Air- 
Bnken, a, laa&s oi loiilhsome disenBo; and ^ei tbi.<ir mneberl 
is not diniiiuaked ; otiier 110,000 an* iVnind to have ti^ieitifl 
tlieir place, to pass through the sums brief ati<l bliglitedfl 
career, Siud in their turn to meet tho Biuue sad end. Aa wvS 
gaie upon thia diseiued nnd degiraded siHterhood — manj of^ 
them still lovelj amid their ruin, ne are led to inqiure, I 
Whence come theyT And the answer is too clear t 
taken. They are, for the most part, tbe product of onrBaliioalil 
Drink Syatem," * 

Europe, generally, is as tadly ilemoralized in this r 
Bpect as Grea,t Biitiiin ia ; proatitution being liceoeed i 
strnio countries, and not severely dealt with in any. 
Bignifieant fact, however, confronts us : " According I 
exact Btatistics 700,000 illegitimate children lae annaftU 
bom in Ohristian Europe, or one illegitimate to every 13.ft 
legitimate." t 

In 1858, William W. Sanger, M. D., published a " 
tory of ProBtitntion," etc., in which he gives tlie nimibt 
of frail women in New Torli City as 7,860. At that t" 
the number of dancing-saloona, liquor or lager beer 8 
where proetitutea assembled, was 151. Now, with 7,M 
licensed grog-shops in New York, and more than 2,0" 
unliceneed; and with the populatinn increased from 8()0,0( 
to 1,208,471, what a field of dobanrhery ia furnished ii 
great metropolis. Consider tliat abiiot the same propOBa 
fions are found in all our cities nnd large towns, tmH thnf 
the result of Dr. Sanger's investigations, is trne eyerywherafl 
" that not ono per cent, of the jirostitntea in New T 
practice their oalling without partaking of intoxicatllin 
drinks," — and what a picture we have of the connectioii o 
drinking and moral ruin ! 

B; Samuel Uoyot 

Inienhperarice and Pauperism. 238 

' IsTEMrKRASC'E Axn Pauperism. — As witb crime, bo 
pth poverly, iuteiupcrauco is tbe most prolific caut*. 
l"It is a curioiiB mid linportimt fiict," sitys Dr. Coltinhoiui, 
nititig in le^rd to Lonilcin, "that, during tlie period whon 
'BtUleriea were stopped in 17W and 17ST, nlthonj^h bread »nd 
f neceaaary of life was canaiderabl.y bi^lier tliun during tlie 
5 year, the poor, in that ([iinrter of tlin town wliore 
ehidf pnrt lemdwi, were appnreiitly niom comfortaLle, paid 
\i rents more le^^y, aad wore liettel fed tJluu at Wlf litt- 
i. fi*r<eaaie years bpfoie; even al though they had sol the ben- 
It of the exteiuive choiitiea which wore distributed in 1TVI6. 
n mly Iw ani-'ouiited far by thotr buiiig denied the indnl- 
« of gill, wbiuU had lipc'onio ia a. great nieaauHi inaccesfiilile, 
I very liij^h prii'c. It may fairly be concluded, that 
B money formerly spent in this imprudent munner, had been 
^Ked tu the purchase of piovisioDS and other necessniieB, to 
« MTimmt of Bome hundred tlionsand pounds." * 

1 III 1843, the Home Secrelary i"cportoii tliat tituro were 
ROOO,000 paupers in Great Britain, tlie proportion to tlie 

Aiolt tiopmlatiim being every tentli mun, woman, or child ; 
d of tliia nnmber 1,500,000 were panperiz^^d by intemper- 
In 1845, £7,000,000 was levied for the mainte- 

inue of Eug'lisli paujiers ; and rhiring the pi-cceding thirty 
( there had lieen an annual average of £6,500,000 

wit-ii for the same pnrjioae, being a total of £200,000,000, 
A whiuli full tliroe- fourth 9 was demanded by intemperance. 
r Itr, Chewlwiiik, an exporienced Poor Law CommifiBioner, 
pedfled before a Parliamentary CommittGe : " For some 

lontbs, as 1 inveetigated every new case that carao nndcr 

y knowledge, I found, iu nine cases out of ten, the main 
Hn^ ')f pauperism was the nu^vomable inclination for 

meutod liquors." 
C l)r. Ohiilmors said, in 1S46 : " The public-house is the 
lost ijeleterioufi, and by far the most abundant source of 

■And ilie Chaplain to tliu ^Vork-house at llimiingham, 

pclated, about the tiame ti 


JlooJui w BSstwy. 

'■From my own actniU experienpe, I am fiillj oonvinpeAofth* 1 
act-iiiae; of a slatvuiuut muilu L; l.lio Intu guveniur, that ai every 
hiUKlreil persona admitted into tlio BirmliigUam Work-houae, 
niuoty-nina -were reduced to this state of hraniliatjon ami do- 
peudout'e, either directly or indirectly, tlirougL tlie prevalent 
ajid ruiaonB dtiofciDg iisagea of our oonntry." " 

Later, aljout 18C3, the Committee on Infomperance for Uw 
Lower House of Convocation in the Province of Canterbmy, . 
after the most searobing inquiry, reported ; 

"It appeara indeed thiit at least 75 per cent, of the oecnpan 
of OUT work-houses, iind a lar^ proportion of those iecel?iiii 
otit-door imy, have liooome pouctiDnera on the public directly o 
iudii'ectly through drunkemiess, and the improvidence &nd ft' 
Bcnce of si'.lf-respBCt which this pestilent vice is Junown to c 
gender and perpetnate. The loss of streuRth and n-ealth ti 
conntry, the increase of taxfition, tlie deterioratiou of natieUB 
character thus produced, It is at once humiliating and irritutinf I 
to contemplate." t 

In 1873, in a Paper on Poor Law and ita Effects on Tlirift^J 
wad bv Mr. G. C. T. Baxtley, Hon. Secretary of th« 1" 
videut J^owledgc Society, it ii 

"A tithe of the receipts of tlie piihltu-honsea pmpeild 
expended would render the Poor Law altogether needless, 
every man gave np one glass in ten, no Poor Law would h 
wanted. In my little hook, "One Square Mile in the Kastal 
London," I showed that one-sisth of tlie araomit expended IiJ 
drink in one year in that pooru$t< purt of London, wottld bni 
all the Bohools wliioh were required, iit » rnat of some £T5,[jOUd 
and that ouo-twonty-thlrd would maintain them without bdj| 
Government ^ront at all. In a little hook, ' The Seven j 
of a Village Pauper,' I go eomewhat over the aoiuo ground w)t^ 
regard to the drink in a remote agricultural vilixge, wid. t 
result is very striking, eonsidering- the popolat notion iw to tl 
poverty of the agriciiltnral laborer. Seven pnblic-huiisvs, tnldDH 
at least £3000 a yoar, exist in the parish of 15IHI s ■ 
latin;; that half this exponditnro is neraiwary niiJ w1iirti>suaU 
— and there aro Mvoml apecinl reaeous whieb roodcr this «i 
bitO estim.ite, for nearly all the faimera who *iii|i)<>y tlie viUa^ 
gers hrew hear IhemselveB for their meu'u i-ouaumptiuii durtna 

J." pjuU 

Intemperantx and P<rupermn.- 235 

^^ t foUowB that no leiw thon £1500 in waattfil In Ihis imiuU 

iUa^ ; a aom whjcli wnntd give a puuaioD of £20 a year, or 

njly fe. a wwilt, to every pureou of tlie indnBtrial class 

er Sixty ycoraofttge." 

The official " Statistical Smaraary " of pauperiBm and 
Kwrtatea in England for the year 1873,flliowa that "8'29,281 
laapere, necossitatcd a lax of £12,657,943," * 

"The totiil inuaine of the people of tlie United Kingdom wa« 
[liiaated hy Mr. Dndley Baxter in 1B70 at f BfiO.OOO.CW, whivh 
crald be an average of more lJian£132 toovcry fiunily, even if 
e take no aououut of tho very consiilerable increase of wagce, 
«., whii'Ji has taken place since then. If we take this inlo 
xouiit, the total mast he at Icnflt £900,000,000, or nearly £140 
> every family. The ivorking clossea are reckoned at about 
i,000,000 of the population, and their income ix reckoned hy 

I. D, Baxter at £325,000,000, whiloPruftusor Leone Levi makes 
! £418,000,000; these Ggnres givo na an average of fully £S0 
nd £10i a your, or 3ls. and 40i. a week to euoh workman's 
Now, while we may always eipent to have some poor 
I the land, ia consequence of disease, misfortune, and death, 

is clear that with aiiuh reaoitrces, poverty should he very 8x- 
qitional, and pauperism ahonjil Ira nil hntnoknawn. The fact 
i however, v^ry dilferont. Tho folIowiiiK fi({iiroa give the 
Ital nnmhai ofiianpers in the United Kingdom during 1873; 

England and Wales 3,116,302 

Ireland 378,771 

Scotland 111,996 

Total 3,507,060 

\ is pTobalile that a few of this nnmheT may be reckoned in 
iro or more parishes as ' Casnals,' but as the ' Vagrants ' aro 
M inclnded in the Hgares for Engl.ind and Ireland, the bal- 
toe ifUl be fiilly restored. We have thns 10 per cent, of the 
kpulatiua, or nearly 15 per cent, of the manual labor class 

Prot Lovi, alluded to in the foregoing, estimates that of 

te $1,500,000,000 caaL annually eamwl by English work- 

rtiey ought to save $75,000,000, Imt that as a matter 

" Cited in " Christtudom and tho Drink Cnrso," p. 121. 
^^^t "The Tttm/wjram'e Refonnatioii, and its c\auns w^oo. ^i«i 
'Quitldaa Cbardx," pp. 53, 53. 

S36 AlotOd in Bwtory. 

of fjiot tLej' Save only $20,000,000. The bulk of the jr 
iiig $55,000,000 ia wasted moatly in drink." 

A Coiumittt'e oa Pauperiam ajtfjointed by tlie Genen 
Assembly of the Cliurch of Scotland, reported i 
that, : 

" lu temperance creates more than half of the beggary t 
exists among as. It is mtemperoni^u that roudera desolate 4 
many homes, it is int*niperucre that brings min 
fiimilieB. It is of no use to enlarge npon this v 
would be impoBBible to exaggerate the iliflnenoe of intemiM 
in making misery." 

Es-bailie Elackadder stated at a pnblio meeting held > 
Efiinlmrgh, in iy(i7 : " After an expej^ence of betfl 
twenty and thirty years in connection with the a. 
of the poor, he felt bound to say that the cases of patq 
ism were rare and exceptional where he did not discoi 
drink to be directly or indirectly the procuring o 

Kov. Mr. Miller, Superintendent of the Edinbiu^h Old 
Misaion, fully confirmed this testimony by baying: 
the experience of the city missionariea went to prove tlld 
nine out of every ten causes of pauperism coming before U 
notice were in one way or anotlier associated with drii 

Another clergj^nau, in anawer to a qaestion liefore | 
Parliamentary Committee, said : " I tnow it for a taat, tC 
I liave gone over the roll with the Inspector, (ind I kntq 
it ia his opinion aa well us toy own, and the opinion of a" 
who have gone over the roll minutely, that tbrpe-fonrtfaa d 
the caaea on the roll are attributable to drink, dirootly { 

David Lewis, a Magistrate of Edinburgh, and for t 
yeai-8 a member of the Parochial Board, also testified: 

■' Drinking and drunlconness are, I tliink, the raoM of tin 
l'<mrtha of all tha paiiperisui thatwelinve to do with lu EdliJI 
luirt;)]. In DeKianlier, IS&l. 1 was auxiotlB tii got ut Bomi-tl 
liko riilialdu mromiution un this point, niid I applied for a 
turn, \yhioh Igii attet eutv[\ngaw:viV\ws into i-vtry iniiivir 
oaae. The liouao was then Ml, ttuil U \« '>i>- ""■">■": ■•< 

hitEmpfvanoF amJ. Pauperifim. i37 

id I foand Uiat there icMe 40T of iliut number reduced Ut 
eU' inipoTerislied c^)!"!!!!!)!! Uiroiigli drink."* 

It is said of this clasn of pcopli? in Scotland : 
" Beor is evesa a standard of va,lne among tbe luw(Mt cIoMas 
the [KHir. Such espresHiona ae ' tLo price of a pint,' ' north a 
it,' ' Bto<jd s gallon,' are the usual modcfl of exprewdug vuliie 
DDng the pauperized poor. Dangurous indeed mnst bu Uiat 
of society (and it is a large one) whose standard of 
UiB pot of beer." t 

Similar results are noticeable id Ireland. 
'* Dariog the reign of Philip and Mary, anch was the rage for 
tJBfinebitngh ' that thu inhubitantfl of Iceland converted their 
k'ain into spirit to mtch an oi:tant as not to leave themaelvos 
lIGcieDt for food to Biistuin life. Famine and privation wore 
le rwnlti and to prevent a recorrenee of this Htate uf thiugs, 
« legistature paaaed an act to cheek the priictico of free di«til- 
tiOD, When fnuiine again desolated that ill-fated land, in 
W7-8, and the greatest distress and privation were pxperiencod 
y the poor, it was distinctly proved tliat wb had on ample snp- 
[y of grain to meet the iioL'easities of the people ; but ia«l«ad 
f being kron^t into the msirket to be disposed of as food, it 
IB locked up iu the graunries of brewitciea and distilleries to 
I wantonly destroyed iu the maunfaeture of intoxicating 
(U0» : as a terrible result, half a nulhon of people perished 
y Bt«rv»tion,"I 

oveto as the rpcent famine ban lietTi in (hat ill-Btarred 
I, and (jnomums in amount as have Li-en the anms raised 
1 tliis country for the relief of the anffnrers, it is stated that 
pt a distillery iu Ireland ha« been oinseii in couaeiiuenoe, 
ut that the worse than waste of grain which they oMusion, 
» greatly aildod to the miseries of the Iriwli. Who can 
iitnder, then, at wlmt is sjud to l>e the old Irish proverb ; 
If yon wish for prosperity in Ireland, pray that God may 
md lis II famine ; bnt if you wish for destruotion, petition 
lit legivlaturo to legalize dietiUatian." § 

• Britriiii's Sociiil State, pp. ^^, 75, 

t Convocation (f'anterbury) Hepott, 5. 82, 

jpOlTB/i. p. i6. 

i TMtoiallvt'a Compnuimi, p. 384. 

jfitc/W in' ffiO&rffi 

" France exponded ID 1861, 108,441,g28&ancaQpon itopool^ 
1,657 asylniDS and hospitals, aud yc>t Lull' the oitica of PEftM 
and rather more, are unprovided for by paljlio e 
according to the txist FroDcb mithoritiea, miserj is hardly i 
lieved, notwithstanding the large sum applied for ita i 
atioD, and they had 337,838 Vagrant beggars. Paris espvoj 
in 1869, 23,806,1)27 francs for in-and-out-itoor rwliof to 317,S| 
persona oat of a population of 1,799,880." * 

The following confeaaionB solve the mysteiy of anj 
poverty and dobaBemeat : 

The Paris Conatitutionnel BaiAialS12: "The habit of ditmlM 
ness baa increaHed in France year by year since the beglm 
of this century. Tile French race is deteriorating d 
forty yoais the eonenmption of alcohol has Iripitd in 
A French magazine writes : " Drnnkeimess is tlie ben 
BiLd end of life in the great French industrial c«otre«, t 
wiiiiien as well as men. Twenty-five out of every one It 
men and twelve out of every one hundred women in Li 
confirmed drunkards." 

" The kingdom of Prussia has over 486,179 paupers, and g. 
public relief to 1.89 per cent, of its entire population, 
its largest towns, 1&12 percent, of the population are recipica 
of public charity ; in 238 towns nest in rank, 7.38 per cent.; 
in 672 of the smallest towna d.91 per cent, are relieved. 

"Saxony, with 2,337,193 population, baa 2,B40 poor-boaai 
and relieves 41,547 poor. 

"Bavaria, with 4,730,977 popiiiation, relieved 70,863 pOOT, a 
Bwarma with tramps and beggars as hardly uuy otbor c 

"Wnrtemberg, with a population of 1,400,000, baa 1,813 p 
honses, and 16,784 recipients of public ohnrity. 

"Austria, esclnsive of Hungary, relieves 171,768 poor. 

"Italy, exclusive of Rome and other districts, counts, iijZ 
population of 18,699,039, 1,115,136 poor, upon trlioni large si 
ore expended. 

"Belgium had in 1868, 550,000 poor. Of its 908,000 fainlliJ 
446,000 nre public paujiers. It spends on it« poor nO,673,71 

" Sweden, with n population of 4.114,141. bad m 1865, Uti,lH 
poor, at a cast of !fl,100,nOO. 

■' Denmark hud 1,784,741 population, nnd 74,324 pw^r vollaM 

• Boyce, on Deterioration, p. 522. 

InkmfKrmvx and Pawperism. 239 

" Norway, with 1,720,500 popnlation, had IgO.OOO poor te- 

" Oenuiuif haa 900,000 pauperB."' 

Id the l/nited States there is less svstoiu and accuracy 
collectiDg the etatistics of pauperism than, in the nhler 

iiintrieg ; but enough is ^nown to make evi'li^nt to all who 
id observe, that here, as elsesvhero, pauperism eitists 
proportion to dronkeuness. For example : 'i'lie Seere- 
■y of the State of New York, reported to the Legislature, 
1863, that the whole number of paupers relieved during 
B year 1862, was 257,354. These numbers were at that 
le in the ratio of one to every fifteen inhahitanta of the 

itate. A competent Committee made an esamiuation of 
J history of these paupers, and reported that "seven- 
;litfas of them were reduced to this low and degraded oon- 
ion, directly or indirectly, through intemperance." 

'The Pauper retams, miide snunnlty for a long time to the 
of the State of MossathusettB, show an average of about 

JWT cent, as dne to this canso in the County of Suffolk (malnl; 

B city of Boston). Thus, in 1863, the whole number relieved 
■tat«d at 12.243. Of these, the number made dependent 
f their own intemperance is given as 6,018 ; and the number 
I inftdd by the intcmpentnoe of parents and guardians at 3,837 ; _ 
aking au aggregate of 9,885. 

"The Third Report of the Board of State Charities, page 20i3, 
'an. 1867), doclarea tnteraperanco to bo ' the ehief oocusion of 
inperiam ; ' and tbo Fifth Report says : ' Ovorsoera of the poor 
irloUsly estiiuato the proportion ol crime and panpurism attri- 
itahle to tho vieu of intemperanuu from one-tbird in souie 
naljtiea np to nin(!-tpntlia in others. This seems large, but is 
rahtless correct in regard to some looalitioB. aud particularly 
Dong the class of iMtraons receivinff tero]iorary relief, the 
neater proportion of whom, are of foreign birth or descent.' 

" In the Bisth Annual Heptirt of the Board of Health ( Jan- 
>ty, 1S7S,) page 4Ei, under the head of 'Intemperance ue a 
nuM of Pauperism,' tlie rbairman, Dr. Bowdilch, gives tho re- 
lit orua^wi-rH rc'CL'ivud frum2lj2of the towns and cities to the 
iro ruU«wiiig iinutliona : 

• Ibid, pp. iii'3, 5a4. 

1. " Whnt proportion of the ii 
tliare in conBequenco of the delaturious nse of inl 

2. " What proportion of the cti]<lreii in the honae a: 
FOnseqneDce of the dnnLkeniLese of pareotsf " 

" WUle it appears thut iii the conutry towns the proporti 
is quite vcLTialile ivntl loaa than the genera] current of static 
voiild leaii use to ei]>e('t, which is fairly attrilmtuble in p 
at leaat, to the extent to which both law and public opinion bl 
rcfltricted the use and tralBc in liqnore, yet we havo ftom tl 
city of Boston, the headqnartera of the trafSo, this empl 
testimony ftara the Buperinteudent of the Doer Island I 
huosQ and Hospital : ' I would answer the above by saying, « 
tile best of my knowledge and belief, 90 per cent, to Imih 
quoatiund. Oar relator shows that fall one-third of the in- 
Biiites received for the Iftst two years are here through tile 
diieot caoBB of dmnkenness. Very few inmates (there are c 
oeptions) in this house bat what nun biought them ban 
Setting aside the sentenced boya (sent here for truaocy, x 
tbofC, etc.) nine-tenths of the Temainder are here throngll t 
Isflnenee of the nse of intoxioatingliqnors by the parents. " 
great and almost the only canse for so much poverty and d 
in the city can be traced to the use of intozioating drink eX^ 
by the hnsband or wife, or both.' " 

" A startling testimony ns to the eCFect of this oaua 
ducing the allied evit andevennuisauceofvagratiey, iagiveal 
■ the nnswer from the city of Springfield : ' In aiddition tw c' 
lar, I would say that we have lodged and fed eight tboni 
and fifty-two parsoDB thnt we call ' trampB ; ' and I c 
find a man among them who wiM Dot reduced tu that canditil 
by intemperance. It issafe to say nino-teuUis Oii^ ( 
thongh we have not the exact reuords.' " * 


mony of eminent medical men who havn stodied int« i 
laws of health, and have had pstensiva pnuitiiw in t 
treatment of disoaee in its various forms, is unifomdjr ti 
eSevt that alcohol is a dcstrncliv^ poison to tho hm 
system, deranging all its functions, and produriug tlcnlh. 
Sir Henry Thompson, whose warning agaiuBt t 

• Alcohol ana Uw ft 

Effects of hitemferance on Heallh. St41 

lodenite drinking, wo have t-laewL ere recorded, says iutlie 

B letter to the ATchl)iahop of Canterbury-: 
" I liuvc ati ticMtfttiou in attributing a veiy large proportion 
some of the most feiuful 3Ud duagoroilx miiliulios wliioli i:oiiiii 
OuiIeT mf notice, as well aa tliOHfl n'bii^li ever;^ meiliculniaahasto 
at, to the ordinary and daily uao of fennentwl drinks, token 
1 the quantity which is conventionally ileeme<l moderate." 

Sir William Carpenter, the eminent physio ingist and 
Mentist, endorsee the following opinion, signed Iiy more 
lan 2,000 medical men, from com^ physician to counlry 
ractitioner : 

" That the most perfect health is pompatihle with total nh»ti- 
niea from all tnt-oiicating beverages, wlietlier in the form of 
rdont spirits or as wino, hew, ale, porter, rider, etc. That total 
Ud niiiversal abstineacA from alcoholic beverages of all eortfl 
ronld greatly oontiibnte to the health ... of the hnmau 

And Dr. Cbeyne, in his pra,atical Eeeays on the Regimen 
f Diet, Bays : 

" For feTntented liqnors, I know no cumniand, counsel, or 
EBiDple. Certaialy wise Nature, who has provided liberally 
Billies for all wants, has liirniabed none of it. It is the iuveu- 
ioB «f spariDiia and lusuiioiis art. It is present death to many, 
nd Hie Uatornt aTereion of all animals who follow pure Nature, 
t certainly eiiartntis the duration of life to all that usu it even 
moderation, and it is the alone adequate cBuae of all the 
lortnl, painAil, atrociona distempers. As a medicine, for prta- 
■t relief, and as a bitter ctialybeat« potion, 
stremitlea, it might be a tolerable nuHlioine ; but a< 
iBTetage, it in a «low but certam poison." 

JbioLher English writer, — pronounood Ly the late Gov- 
■tbVT John A. Andrew, in his speech before a Committee 
if the Hnjisaiiliiisetts Legislature, in oppogition to a Prohib- 
tnry Law, to be : " One of the most able English ECien* 
Uie critics," — says in the " CoruMll Magazine " of Septem 
Hff, 1H52 : 
'* And fi»t, D8 to tiw effect of long-con tinned habits of iiliio- 
JtiKB upuu tliB gaucraj ticalth ot tlie boij , V\ivw« loa-j \i& 
tip ia hrlrt- by oiiti wi.rd - dfljciHiruHoa. UBfttnav 


Alcohd in Stafory. 

of atrnptnro and chemical composition is tLo inevitablo fate of 
the tiasnes of the dntnkanl, Apurt from ni<>r:il inflneDoes, nil 
that vro see of phyaioal misery, of woabenetl intellci-t, of short, 
eucd life in the hnhit-ual ilrunkaril, Is Utie to this degeuMaluin 
of tluaue, whicli is grudniilly, bat iufidlihly brought ftbout 1^ 
alcoholic excess. Evuu tho very hlond, the beglanin); of itU ti 
Buee, is aUbcteit in a similar way, as we might es)>oct. 

There is no donht thiit in exceHsive doses, nlcoltol, if it b6'J 
iL fbod nt all, is n very bad one, and we must romember that t4 
drunkniTd does in fiiot t««C its cnpacity to act as food ; for by h 
habits he so iinpnirs his uppetite that he can talie very little, ij 
any otdiuaiy food." 

Anil Dr. Jamea Edmunds, a distinguialied Engliah plid 
Bician, said, in a course of lectures given in New York, ii 
1874, on the raediual ase of alcohol and stimulawte i 

" Now recollect that food Is that whicli puts strength inW» ■ 
man, and stimulunt tliut which gets strength out of a 
that when yon want to use stiroulanl, recollect that you a 
nsiug that which will eihuust the lust particles of strength iv 
a facility with which your hody would not otburwiae part wit] 
theiu. if a man takes & pint of brandy, wbul do we see T 
intosiuatcB, it poisons him. Qf course yore know {nlaxioan(Uli| 
modiUcation of the Ureek word loiicon. The nan who ia U 
ioat«d is poisoned; we simply use a Greet: insti!<ad of a B 
word for it. We see a man iiitoxtnnted. What itro tlie jdion 
mena we Bee'thou I A man lies on his back snoring, hel]il 
senseless. If yon s(^t him up, he falls down again like a Back q 
potatoes. If you try to rouse him you get nothing ont of h 
but a grant. Is tb»t the i^lFect of a stimulant, do yi 
I should Uiiulc it is the effect of a paralyzer that you baviH 
muid, and body, and nerve anil muscle, all equally and v 
formly poiralyxed right through . . . Alcohol in a large dwH) d 
a narcotic poison, which paralyzes the body and stiipof' 
miniL If a man takes a somewhat larger done, what do you M 
then I Vou sue that snoring and breuthing come to an a * 
you see that the soft, flabby pulsations of Uie heart voaae i 
the sp;uk of life govs out, and the man can uot ho tusuicltHWi 
In i'.u't, Ihern nro more men Jtiiled, so llir as 1 know l!;iiglu 
sLitiatics, uioi'omcapuiaoiied in that way by alcuhal UtMi »i 
poisoued by mU othtr poisons put tngelhot. Wo buv« a 
borrtiF of amuuic and fifty ofbM ftilni^-, vVia turX U, tb 
thaae other tbingH aro * inero \iiig»W\\6 \BXc\a.i;i«i ^wSMi w 

Effects of Intemperance an Healih. 243 

t, sbaolnte, immediate, uid certtus poiMoninga which oro 
d by alcohol." 

I Dr. Stepheu Smith, of New York, says, in a Paper on 
Ucohol: Ita Natoro and ESecte:" 

^^'An agent which hus iio properties nocouary to the normtkl 

taiditiou of tlie body, and which ia captible iu many ways 

P perrertiiig ita fuucdune, cannot be continuously employed 

it any cunajderalilo period without adriouBly impairing organs 

1 tiaaues. Alcohol, it is Heen, at fitHt, caita«a a relaxation of 

t arteriea, and conaeqacnl; excited action of the heart, fol- 

jtired I>y dopiession when the eOecta entirely paaa off. Tba 

Iqiient repetition of tfaiB act croatta an nnnatnral condition 

ns, and a tendency to require ita continuance by 

k constant resort to l^e original taeaaa. Holiof to depn^aaion 

I found only in a renewal of the potion, and every unnaual 

or phyaical strain ia aonght to be snstainod by the same 

Aluohol tboB in time becomes the babitnal resort of llie 

lividaal whose phyaiological conditioii has been originally 

IrveFted by ita anbtile influence. Meaiitiine, the arferies and 

Junto vuaaels become ]ieimanently dilntei! ; nnd the heart, snb- 

kted to axceasivo work, is enlarged, its orifices are increased 

BMtie, anil Ha vnlves overstretched ; fetty degeneration ibllows, 

1 aadden death. Thua, the entire circtilatory ByBl«m is 

viigbly perverted from its normal condition and function. 

a integilty of tho blood ia impaired, and nutrition is perver- 

These reaulta can lint be followed hy corresponding 

uigw of a degenerative character in other tissues and organs 

KRgfaont the entire system. The liter at first enlarges and 

I ■mdn'goes slow contraction, producing the well-known 

loltnailed ' or drunkard's liver ; or it may cbango to a condi- 

a of iaii or, finally, grape-sugar may be developed within. 

IB body, caneing fatal diabetes. The ^idne^s may change to fut, 

I luidargo Foutrsction, giring rise to Itrlght's Disease. The 

« lUTO their vessels enlarged and weakened, nnd are thna 

btrtid very susceptible to fatal pneumonia during the cold 

Tbe tierro«t ttjKlitm utidcrgcHis various degenerutions, 

e VMMla are ohangccl, the mnmlirnne thickened, tlie tisane of 

■« Mtntru and oord ia gradually [■hanged, and thua tho flino- 

> SiTO Cbaitge<l, caaaing epiti<]iBy, paralysis, insanity. The 

tti'satf griKlually lose tbt.'ir tone, less and lesa substan- 

1 taoA fa talteii, couxtipatriou is i>liatiQ:ili<«, assimilation be- 

a tuora and wore itupitiraH. Then fnllivna u;«i6oii\a,T iiiWii.- 

<rith Ita afbiftrfaut Jivlfk-nrss and wnut ct enil.i\xa.Aic«i. V\- 

344 Alajhd in Hiaiorj/. 

nally, all the l.issnes lose tieir native iiit*grily, iradtc etrco 
supply, uiitl the viotim of alcoholic pnlHoniug iQiIIb au eaty prc;^ 
to Bome iuteccurroiit disease, or sinks into hoiieless aeuility."*T 

Dr. Willard Parker, of New York, perLapa the fai^edkl 
Medical authority in America, Bdid, at a meeting of t 
" Americau Association for the Cur© of laebrlafea : " 

"What is alcoliiill The answer is — a poison. It is i 
gatded hy the beat writers anil tonchera on toidcido^, I 
to OrGla, Ctuistiaon, anil the like, who cloaa it with a 
corrosive suhliin&te, iiml pmssia a«id. Like these p 
introilaceil into the eyst^m, itisvapaltliiof (lestroying life iritl 
out acting mechaniciilly, Tha character of aJ<«hul bdag a 
tablished, wo investlgato its physiologioal anil pathologtMl 
action tijion the living system. It has^beon establiilwd US 
like opium, arsi^nii.', ]<rnssio auid, &c., in sniull doses, It MU^ 
It mild stimulitnt and tonic. In larger tloses, it be" 
eifal irritant, producing modnees, or a oarcotit;, piodoo^ 
coma and death." t 

In a rpc^it letter to the writer, Dr. Paxker says j 

"The character of alcohol is settled ; it is a/areljn « 
to the hody when in a physiological state ; it is lilie a i 
the eye. 

" It produces gisraas of the system, like other poisons, 4 
when not too long nsed, the system will regain health oc xid u 
self of the poison, ns in other cases. 

" Its fearful heredity is now ailmitted, viif Elam's Prohlen 
Arrest the use of intoxicnnts and you lny the aso to the root a 
Insajiity, Idiocy, Panperism, etc," 

The foregoing are not mere opiniotie, hot are nooeasnij 
deiinetions from facts which have oome under tho oht 
tion of men who have had to (I0 with eveiy known form q 
phyeical disease and weakness. What a ead reconJ t 
facta fmnish ! We present tore merely a page fnu t 
immense volnme in whieli Ihcy on* wriltPti. 

Dr. ITardwicke, conmor for Ci-nira! Miildlnsc; 
ing upon a paper licfore the late Social .Sfi<-iu:« Coi 

" Centennial Temjiotwnre Volume, pp. 256, 857^ 
t Proceeiltngs of tlia First Meeting. IS7U, p. 8. 

Effects of Inlcvipcravcc tm Hraltk SATi 

Dr. Norman Kerr, wbo etatcd the aniinal aki>hu!ic 

ith-rate of Groat Britain at 120,0(10, ejHilie of tlic ustno- 

mont wlik'li he felt at ono tiiiic" wlien Im inu:vi\ tint 

of those dying in the district over which !io ytixh 

of health. He eaid : 

" He found liarilly any deaths attrihxitert to alcoliot, and lit? 

T tbis luuBli he i]aite inacoiiiat4>. He I'onnd the emtaes at 

Mth retntned aa dlseoae of brain, heart, or livor, anii-Htroku, 

Wlien he ascertained tLe trnth, LotQand that alcuibiil was 

cause of more deatbs tLan all othor caiis«a pnt to^irotlior — 

ut 1b, at certain agea. Between twenty-fivo and fifty hu found 

g like thirty to fifty per cent, had Ixiwi really killed by 

MilwL Dr. Kerr, thouf^h he was the first to place this uiatter 

t a ecimtific basie, had been Trondorfnlly cniitJoiLB and rxact, 

d he was convinced that that geutleman's Bstiminlu of IK '.(lOO 

ying annnally from their own iiitunipe ranee or thu iatemper. 

^ of others was under rathnr than over the truth. Dr, Kerr'a 

pnelusions were staggering, but friini his own experience, both 

t the medical officer of health of a largo borough and iia coi'o- 

, holding 1,500 inqnests a year, he was convinced that the 

B woold nltimately he Ibund to he an luider-eBtimato. 

r nioh fatality, which really was after all preyenlihie, were to 

Mtn among sheep and piga, the conn try and the farmcTH would 

Ball np in arnis;hut no one seemed to care for the slaughter of 

a beings l»y alcohol. Health officers, too, ought to call 

6 Kttention of their vcatriea to the great death-rate through 

Dr. Hoopor, in his " Physician's Vade Mecnm,'' nays : 

"It has been asceitaineil that in men pricnllarly cxposi<d lo 
« teroptation of drinking, the mortality before thirfy-fivi' 
lara of age is twice as great aa in men following similnr ocju- 
itloDfi, hut less liable to fall into this fatal habit, It has n[so 
leu shown that the rateof mortality among persons addirti'd 
(ntempccnnee ia more than three times as great as among the 
rnnlation al large. At the earlier periods of lifo tho iIisjito- 
irtiou is stillgroater, being five tiineaaa great between twenty 
111 thirty jenrs of age, and four times as great between thirty 
nl fifty. The animal destruction of lifo among persona of do- 
Icdly Intemperate haliita has been estimatiil iit ujin urds of 
00 males, and nearly 7<H) feraalcs, in a population oC ncnrly 
.OOOmnleH, nnd upward" of n.OOOfiflnalc-BnddictiHl I" inicin- 
itauce. (Tliat m, of males Iho death-rate is &5 jitc HHJO jicr 

Jkohd in Sistory. 

nnnnm, Had or femalee 63 pei 1000 jier oimiiin, wIliI■^ the g 
ral death-rAt« of tbe nliole country and. at nil ngea, ia o&ly i 
per 1000). The greater rnunbei of tlieaa deaths me iue to d 
liliilia treiueus and didoai;ea of the brain, and to dropucal JvSn> | 
tioiis enpervoning on diseases of the liver and kidnejB."* 

Mr. Wakely, funner Coroner for Middlesex, sajB : 
" I have seen so ninch of the eyil effects of giu, that I Bl 
cUaed. to become a Teetotallor. liin is the best friend IliaTttjfl 
it cauaoa me to hold mure iaqiicsta tlian I othi-rwiao eUtrald hciU|9 
and I have reason to believe that from 10,000 to 15,000 die fir^ 
this metroiiolia annually from tiio effects of gin, npan whom Bofl 
inqueste are held." f 

" la Scotland, in 1823, the whole consiunption of intoxirati] 
Uqiiors lunoiiDted to 2,300,000 gallons; in 1»37 to 0,776,735 g^l 
Ions. Ill the mean time cxiiuo incroasDd 400 per cent,, * 
1,600 pur cent., death 300 per cent., and t^ chanoes of h 
life diniiniuhed 44 per cent." t 

lu the Twenty-third Segintration Eeport of J 
setts (pages 61, ct seq.) will be Ibiiml inatmotive tftbles 
selected and digested hy Dr. Edward Jarvis, fnim tlie « 
of the investigationB of Mr. Neison, Actnary of the Mcdica 
Invalid, and Genera] Life Inaarauce Company of Lane 
It is QoccBBaiy to promiso, in order to appreciate the foZ 
force of the tables, that under the designation " 
Populatiou" are of course included both the temperate ■ 
intemperato ; and that the luttitr designation includes " 
snch aa were deoidecUy addicted to drinking habits, awfl 
not merely ot'caniona! drinkera or free livers." The a 
general result la displayed in several ways, thna : 

'* Bate per cent, of Annoal Mortalit]' ! 
Among Beer Drinkers 4,Bfl 

Spiiil Drinkera 

Mixed Drinkers 

Qencial Population, Males 

" If tlie death rate of the general jiupuUiliuu hv vtuMnnlM 

Mental Disease, and HenxUtary RasidU. 247 

tiy 10, tbrpnrpoaeB of compariBou, then tlio iluitth 
the iulompurate between tlie agna of •15 liikI i!0 
'olUil bn re^iresentcd by !."< ; betweeu SO and 3U, by CI ; liel.ween 
~ and 4U, by 43 ; between 6 J luid 6J, by 29, nnd su on. 
"If we take 100,000 intemperate pereona imd 1()U,00<) iif tlio 
ni^Tal population, etJUtiiig at. the agH of twenty yonra, wv eliall 
id tliere will be living nt sncceMivu periods an foIliiwB r 

I(it«iD|i«nl«. GanmiJ Fai<alulan. 

81,975 r. .B5,7ia 

64,U4. 81,577 

50,746.... 80,830 

39,671 82.083 

, . .91,938 70,eB« 

rfflptg'.. U,588 5B.3BB 

~ 6,078 35,2ao 

807 13,169 

These tables preacb. their own sermon." * 

Siud Dr. Willard Parker, in remarlia mode in New York 
t long etnce : 

" AnAtber point, eettlnd is that a drinking family dies oni in 
K>e Of funr p^neratinna. Take one of yoiirbL«t tViuiilles, and 
.them commence when twenty, and gu on with this ilrinkjng; 
tlie third or fourth generutioa the family bi-ouuioa cxtinet. 
' * * Now, as oni Btatistics show, and from I'olluwin^ vp 
Me matters, we find that out of the ohiidren that iirc born in 
Bso Now York slnma, over ninety per rent, die during thu first 
X — ninety per poni, ; that leaves ten jier cent. Now tiiki' tlio 
etyper cent., and place them agniitst those who attniii tlio 
id, anbttontial middle ago or old ago. anil when yon etrika 
balunce it mitkea a very h>ul l)alanGa for ns. Dninkarild bu- 
dmnhaida, and they bt'get a raoo that is Boon to be de- 

DnisKtKG AVD Mentai. Disease, ajtd HEKEDiTAity 
KCLls. — I'ew things are more Bad to cotiteniplate than 
montal alierration and decay. To lUrteiit aod I'cmove 
uaases of auch ruin would be to eonl'priniialimahk- gitod 

* JJeohul and the State, Pl>- 35, 36. 

\ See preceding remarks on Uwli^iito Drinliiug ; iiliio Cat 
li T^fereDCiw, Dr. Hargrcavos' "Ah-oliol. wbut it 
uul whftl it Uo«a." 

248 JHcoM in Sistortf. m 

upon tlie race. Says a widely aeknowledgfj antliority on. I 
this subject : fl 

" ^V1lile ve moet admit hereditary inflneuoe to Iib thti uost'l 
powerful Clotor iii tile citusution of inHunity, there can liu M'l 
donlit tliat iutemperimce stands nest to it m the list of eSScientfl 
CQQBOS: it acte not only as a frequent exciting caaS6 Wliel^fl 
tliere i» liereditary predisposition, bat as on originatttig omsAI 
of cerebral and degeneracy, na n producer of ths oaiuBJI 
deimt'o. If all hereditary causes of insanity were cut off, andifV 
tlie disease were thns stamped, out for a time, it would asenrwIB^ 
soou he crcate^l anew by intemperance and other excesMa. .sfl 
Btriking example of tho efTecta of intemperance in prodndnifl 
insanity has recently been furnished by the experience of tlin 
Glamorgan County Asylum. During the second half of thin 
year 1871, the admissions of male patients were only 21, wIkvcm 
as they were 47 and 73 in the preceding and suocseding halffl 
years. During the first qnarter of the year 1873, they w«sre lOM 
whureua they were 21 and IS in the preceding and sneooedlnM 
quarters. There was no corresponding diiTerence as legttrjH 
female adinissionB. There was, howevfsr, a Rimiiar experienoM 
at the county prison, the prodnction of crime, as wfsU W (iS 
insnnity, having dimiuished in a striking manner. Now thn 
interest and instrnction of those facts lie in this — that thfl 
exceptional perioilti corresponded exactly with t>he last [uuiM 
'strikes' in the coal and troa indnstries. in wliiuh Glaumfiaiifl 
shire is extensively engaged. The decrease was undoahtedljfl 
due mainly to the i^t that the laborers had no money to epMiJB 
in drinking and debaiiobery, that they were soher and tamptlfl 
ate by compulsion, the direct result of which was that tb(irewi^| 
a marked decrease in the production of insituity imd of nrimcL fl 
"If men took careful thought of tlie best use whiob lh(^| 
could make of their bodies, they would probably never takfl 
alcohol except as they would take a duse of medicine, la ofiisifl 
to wrve some special pur^iose, It is idle to say that there is anj 
rojil necessity for persons who are in good health tQ itidnlgo 1^| 
any kind of alcoholic liquors, At the best it is an indnlgeliatl 
which is unnecessary ; at the worst, it is a vice whicii occnsienH 
lullnite misery, sin, crime, madness, and disease. Rhorl of Ihlfl 
patent snd undeniable iI1a which it is admitted on all bandifl 
to produce, it is at the bottom of manifbld mischiI^fa 'whii'h ai^l 
:n'VEr brought home lo it. llow mxicb ill work would not 1^| 
doDO, how mncli good work would be better done but for it^| 
AdnflfiiJ ios])! ratio II. Eauli net ttt PTTin", im\<;>\^, each ontM 
break of madness, oac.1i iliscaae, «"i-.'",'i\'.'>i\ ^'-^ '' -^v— .la -Ka.\i^ 

Menial Dlsewie, and Hereditary Reauil^. 249 

Dr. Austin Flint, in his " Principles and Practice of 
ledicine," saya : 

" The deleferions mfluence of alcoUol on the mental is not 

la marked than on the physiuul powera. The ineliriata Piem- 
^^esa variety of tbo forms of meutnl derangement, called illp- 
ajilfL, tana, wbicli recovery is extremol; rare. The percep- 
ts are blunted, the intellectual and moral focnltieH pTogTe«a- 
rely dot«riorate, until at length the conlirmcd inelirinto, 

'aetAtil; cachetic in body and imiimted in mind, bus but one 
yoct in life, namely, to gratify the morbid craivingB of 

Dr. M. H. Bomberg, of Germany, sayB, in writing of the 
DiBeaBos of the Nervea and Brain ; " 

"The diaeafied condition of thehlnod and itsvosaele exerU an 
^ubtail influence on the mind. The afiections of the mind, 
eh as vertigo, dizKlnees, fear, terror, etc., are caused in a 
Datmaaaore by the continaed nse of spiritaous liquors and 
Imt narcotics, taken into the blood, that inflamed tbo blood- 
BMlsof theneivea and bmiu." "The state af the blood is 
praTod by tbcae poisoiu, and it (thoa d(>praved) reacts upim 
B brain. It affects the nerves of tlie eye so as to make it at>o 
■btH that do not exist; and DtMin tbanerresof aonod, so as to 
iko them henr aaunda that, do not exist, sncb as boiling, 
rwuhing, hammering, cutting, etc. After a time tbo mind 
aa clondod, ajid sopor, and puralysis, and death inter- 
Says Dr. John Higipnbottom : " Alcohol is particularly des- 
uctivc to the brain and ncrvons system, and Gonaeiiiientlj', to 
IP meiitnl jind physical powers of the whole body. Dninken- 
m and insanity appear so neaf akin, that dnmkonneas bna 
tan oalltsd voluntary insanity, and wo often flud that such vol- 
itarj' Insanity terminates in involuntary and incnrable maau- 

Dr. Morel, afl*r scvcntu«n yenra' wtperience in Insane 
Bylmnfl in Franco, eay^ : 
"There la always a hopeloaa niunbi-'r of paralytic and other 

Jicohd in History. 

diaenm it d*>i^| 

lad forty-four were C 
a to the Probato Courtdj 

insane persona in cmr (Frencli) hospitals, whoso diaenm it d 

to no other I'naae thun thu iibuao of ultuholic liqnois. In n 

tliouHuud, iii)ou whciiii I have maclB espeeial ohservBtioii, not 

IsBB than two handred owed their mantal diaordex to no other 

SohicB, in a " Report on the Fhyaical Censes of Insa 
in France," says that of eight tlionBond and eight hn 
male lanatics, and seven thousand one handretl f 
lunatics, thirty-four per cent, of the men, and ais per 
of the women were made insane hy intemperance. 

Motet, another French writer, speaking of oaso« 
sanity esamined by him, says; " Among eight t1 
seven hundred and ninoty-se 
physical causes, three thonsaad a 

Dr. Kiram Cos, while Fhysii 
Oineiimati, Ohio, examined upwards of four hiindrtul a 
of insanity, previiinB to sending them to the State A»; 
and found that " two-thirds of their number becamo ii 
iiom diinking the poisonous liquors sold at thtj AoQ 
and tavema of onr caty and county." * 

Dr. James EdmnndH, in hisliocttire on tho"M©dJcalU 
of Alcohol and StimulantB for Women," before cited, ai 

"It is admittodhynvory one that alcohol h 
than Imif the insaulty wo hare. I am not go 
f^cts OD this subject here aa I should nalunUly bo at thci o 
side of the Atlantic. . . . I know this: that Lord Sbitl 
hoTf, the chairman of om commission on lunacy in l^nKlu 
haa said, in a parliamentary retpoTt on the subject, l.hitt MX 4 
often lunatlca in OUT asylums are made Iimatio by flio n 
alcohoL It ia a fact wliioh can not bo disputed that dlseaiwi 1 
the liver, diseasea of tha lungs, iliseases of the t' 
body, ore induced dinwtly by the tt^ of alcohol, and thaX ft 
general rule jon may say that where yoa hare alcaUol U 
most laigel; aud most &equotitIy, tlioro tbose diaeaacs u 
generations in tbu tissues of thu body become motib mot) 
could give you very anthoiitativc tivte hunring upoa this n 

MenftU Disease, emd Beredilary Besults. 2M 

itei ftom BonriMMi vluFh are not «i|k>u tu tliu inipuUtiou of aii.y 
nil of moral liiua, iia the utioiaiicul ot'aimo ul'our tumperiuico 
i«ii<l« may be open to'" 

And Dr. B. W. Bichanlson, in an AJdresB at thu Boyal 
Albert Hall, in London, in 1877, said : 

Wa know, now, 8cientiG<!aIly, that &I<!ohol eicitea the men- 
'tal power unduly, than dejiiesai^a it into moliuicholy, and an 
fflftea brings it to <!oiuplute nbeiratitm, tbnt in aonie of ouTinati- 
tutioua I'oT (Lb inaujie as mtiay iia -10 per rent, of tLosu who en- 
tei piiT yuac aru made to enter froui this una eiuiple i:aiiMe alone." 

Dr. F. R. Leee, haa collected Ktatielics eliowin^ that : 

" The ntunher of dornngeil people in n coTTiitry correBpaiidB 
'■yaj clofltJy with the amount of strong ilrink they conenine. 
Till the introduction of fire- water among the Americnn liidluuB, 
'naanity w.ib nnlinown. In Cairo, compftrativoly teetotal, thero 
H one itiBiLue peraou to overy 30,714 of the inhabitants. In 
^niu. <!ainparati7ely sober, the oonsimiption of ulcohol boing 
pal; ono gallon per head per annum, there ia one innane person 
In OTnry 7,1S1. In Noimandy, cousuming two gallona, one in 
tVM7 Snl. In Eoglnnd, conaaming two and a half gallons, the 
proportion ia one in every 430 of the inbabitanta." * 

Acconliiitr to Royoe : " When the duty on spirits was 
teiuoveil in Norway, in 182S, hctwera that timo and 1835 
insanity iud'eosed 50 per cent., and idiocy 150 per cent."' 

Bwedeu t-ouwimes 25,000,000 gallons of 8i>irita, though it 
las "but 3,000,01*0 population — of wlioni bnt half are of an 
ige to driiik — aiiil the oiinKO<inenee is that insanity, snicide 
Uid crime are fearfully comraon among thera."t 

" tn PruBsia," says Dr. Finkelhurg, meniYieJ of the Pni&- 
Snn CoipniiBsion of I'nliljc Hoaltli, "ono person in 450 is 
BBOne. The eauso is chitifly tlie abuse of alcoholic 

" Of 490 maniacs," writes the Bishop of London, " iu one 
htiBpitttl, 257 were deprived of reason by clriuking, . . . 

"ftlie Esaay on the Liquor Traffic, p. V?fl. 
ISoiUh'n Ti-mperu-nce Beformatlou, v*-*^- 


Mebhd in Sugary: 

Of "SO maniacB ic different hospitalB, 392 -wore deprived of 
reaaim in the eame way."" 

Saya Dr. Townson, of LivM'pool : " It is part of my i 
duty to examine pauper lunatics iu considerable numbera, 
and into tlio liistory of each I have to inquire, and my oon- 
victiun is this, that live out of every six of the liinatios of 
the workhouse tave been reduced to that condition liy m- 
tomperancB." t 

The chief hoiTor of this great ovil conatdered in a mental fj 
or moral point of view, ie, that these de]>lorahle cinBeqneneaa ■] 
of diinlsing are not confined to those who ubo the intitsioat- 
\ag cup, hut are entailed upon their ofFwpring through several 
generations. Morell, who hus made the study of the cmiubbb 
of human deterioration a specialty, cites many ooscfl of 
uhildren of inebriates cwraed in later years with the here- 
ditary bent of excessive alcoholism, leaving one insane 
asylum for another, and ending in morasniuB, general par- 
alysis, a perfectly brutal condition, and the utter cstinction 
of reason and conscience. " I constantly iind," lie says, 
" the cldldren of drunkards in the asylnms for the insane, in 
prisons and houses of correction. The deviation from the 
normal type of humanity shows itself in these victims |iy t.lie 
awest of the development of their constitutional sysimu ea 
well as by a vicious intellectual dispoution and cruel in> 
stinctB." J 

Maudsley also says : 

" A host of iacta migtl; lie bronpht forward to proTO that 
drankenucBB in parents, especiuUy thnl form of driinkiMiiiEiia 
kuo\vii n,a dipBomania, which hrealia out &om tjiiit> to tiuu' iu 
nui;ii)itrnlla,ble paroxyHiua, la a caaae of idiocy, auicide or insn- 
uil.y in thuir offsjiiing." $ 

Dr. Bro 

j "Hereditary Te 


. lu- 

• Di'tericipation imd Rane Edufation, pp. 428, 429, 

t Te<'l.o|.iill.T'8 Companion, p. 287. 
tCiU^d by Koyc6,i>.,126. 
•f Responsibility iu Menial Diaoftais, i;, I 

Metilat DiseoBe, and NerecUtai-y Hesntts. 253 

" The dmnlcunl ii^uKfi taul <>nlWbl(«LiB own nervoiiH Bysluin, 
nil enUiils luentnl diiieuee upou lusijiiiulj. Hia iluuchtvia iiru 
DrvoHB nnii hjfiterical, hia sodb are weak, waywiurl, eccentric, 
ntl sinlc iusauu, uuiler tint pressure of cxciteuiuiit, Iruui euniu 
Dforeeoen ciigeiicy, orof theorilinarj* cftUsof rfuly. TliiBlieri- 
Igomuy betheresnIlflfarainetlunildiseriseidpoDatitntion ; but 
, ia miicb moTe likely to proceed from that long tuutuiicil net- 
DIM exiritement, in nbich pleosiUB vaa songlit in tbo altemutfl 
tnltatimt of Beiitimeat and dbliTion wliichexliuiiijlt-cliiiiil nore 
it tUe Tnentnl powers, and ultimately prodnced imltefility and 
atnlysis, botb attributable ta disease of the substat^cu of the 

Dr. Kay, one of the liighefit aattoritice in America on the 
ihject of insanity, saja : 

" Another potent agency in Titinting the quality of thn hruin 
habitnal intMmjteTBnce, and the effect ia far oftener wituesaeil 
I the ofisjiring than iu the diimkard himaelf. His habits may 
ldlic« dlt attack of insanity where the prodiBpoHition exists; 
nt ho genemlly escapes with nothing worBo than the losa 
[someof hisnutnral vigor and hanlibood of mlad. In the off- 
ninu, however, on whom the conBeqneneca of the pateutul vice 
ay be visited, to the third if not the fouiUi generation, the 
irebral disorder may tak'c the form of int<^mperance, or idiocy, 
rlnaanity, or vicioiia hnbits, or impulscB to crime, or some 
inOt mentEil obliquities." t 

Dr, Storer, of BoBton, alluding to certiun statements made 
jf Dt, Diiy, Saperiuteudent of the Washingtonian Home, 
r t.hut city, euys : 

*' Be&Tcnec has been nmdc by the doctor to the dire effertaeo 
seen by medic^n! men in the persona of the chflilren of 
iMeadiliot«d tohahita of iiilonication — epilepsy, idiocy, and 
lunity, congenital or BUbseqnnutly developing thomBelvcB, 
1th or without any apparent exciting cauBe. He haa not, 
Jwevei. 1 think, sufficiently held up to the vlrtiios of this 

Jefiil thirst the terrible oiiree they thus deliberately entail 

>nu their descendants." 

And the MoEsachnaettti Bitarii of State Charities, in their 

• Cited ill Tuetotalhir'H Companimi, pp. ^SSfe-Q. 
tUentul llygioao, p, 44. 


^cohot in Siskry. 

Report for 1866, in speakiog of " one pnjliflo cause of tbi 
vitiftlion of the human Btock.," say : 

That proliilc eaaso ia the comniDa habit of taking oloohol at 
the system, nsuatly aa the hasis of Bpiiiia, ^riue or beer, . . 
The bosU being the same in all, the eomtitaiioniil ^eot» M 
ahoiit the aame. The nse of alcohol mutenally modifiu a tnnii' 
bodily coQilition ; and, so iax as it ujlects him inulvidoallf , i 
ia hia own affair; but if it affoots atao the number and c<>nditic 
of his offapring, that affects society. If its general i 
mateiially inQiienco the number and. condition of tha de|>Giidai 
and criminal classes, it is tho duty of all who have thouglit ti 
care about Bociiil impTOTeoient to consider the matter carefult 
and it la tho special dnty of those baviag ufflcial Eolations ■» ~ 
those classes to tumish facts and niatoriala for public conBidai 
tinn. It is Trell known that oJcobol acta unequally upon man 
natnre ; that it Btimnlates the lower propensitJes and w«Bka 
the higher faculties. . . . ajid represses the fnoctiona nhic 
manifest themJKlvos iu the higher or homan sentimonta wbi> 
result in will. If the blood, higlily alcoholized, goes ta tl 
brain, its functions become Bubrerted ; the man does not hotf 
and does not care what he says oi does. If tliie process Is W 
repeated . . . the man is no longer under control of hia vain 
tsry power, but has come under the dominion of aiitODtftt 
iimotiona, which ore almost as much beyond hia conttol OB tl 
beating of tis heart. Any morbid condition of body fi 
repeated becomea catabllshed by habit , . . and uiakua hi 
more liable to certain diseasoa, aa gont, aerofula, insnjity u 
the like. This liability or tendency ho transmita to hia cIlUi' 
just aa sorely as he trausmitaliheneaa in form or feature , 
Now tho use of alcohol certainly does iuduce a morbid co«idiil< 
of body. It is morally certain that tho ftcquent or lh<t liabitn 
overthrow Of the conscience and will, or the habittuil «takmi{n 
of them, soon establishes a morbid eotidition, wi 
appetites and tendencies, and that those appetites a 
cies are surely transmitted to the offspring." 

"Again, it ia admitted that an intemperate mather tiilts 
her babe with alcoholized milk ; bnt it is not enoagh ci 
that a faHter gives to his offspring certain tendencies whjeh lel 
surety to craving for stimulants. These cravings onee indnljiei 
grow to a passion, the vehemence of which paaaea the aotayi 

Mental Disease, OTui MercdAlai-y Rcaulta. 255 

[aliitual Drunkards (1872) that ''it is quite cortiiiu tlmltUe 
liiliJren uf babituiil ilmakards aro iii a larj^er iir<)[)i)rt.inn 
diotic than oiher children, and in a lai'gor (jntjiortiun tlioni- 
lelves iutbitnal draukiuxk ; tliuy aro also in a lorgor \ivo- 
Jortion liuijle to the ordinary fonns of acq^uiml iiiaanity." 

Professor Laycock, of Edinliurgh, etates that 9U per cent. 

f tlie children broaght ujj in ivavkhoases (whom lie reckons 

DOgOUO) piove fniluroa when scut r»it into the world; 

poet of them either swell the criminal class, or return to 

workhoDso, or beooine inmates of a«ivlanis : and ho 

"I might, if time allowed, point out how drunken, ricions 
ibecileB, tainting their ofiapring to the third and fourth geue- 
itiwB, BBTYP to fill our aByliiins to overflowing. Dr. Carjicnter 
jotes the teBtimony of Sir W. A. F. Browne, the first iiieiUciil 
uuavy ConmiisHiuuer for Scotland, to the fullowiuu tSSocX : 
The chiltliDn of drnnkarila are dedcicnt in bodily ami vital 
lergy, and are predispoaed \tj their vtiry organ iEUtiens lo 
tve cravings for alcoholic Btimiilanla. If tUoy pursuo tho 
lotM of their fathers, while they Iiavu more temptations to 
How and less power to avoid, they aild to their hcriHlitary 
eakness, and increase the tendency to idiocy or insanity in 
jmd their uhUdren." * 

Antl Dr. Willard Parker, than whom there is no higher 
ulliority in AiuL'rica concerning all matters pertaining to 
[edicai Science, says, in a tract entitled " Bemarka on the 
terotlitary Inflnonue of Alcohol : " 

Of all agents, alcohol is the moat potent in estalilishing a 
cdity Uiat eEliibits itself in the iluatmotion of mind aud 
ty. Its malign influence was observed by tho ancieuts long 
Bforo tho production of whiskey or briuidj, or othor distilled 
luots, and when fermented Utinors or wiui« uiily were known. 
nstotlesays, 'Drunken wonien bring Ibrth ehildi-un like iiiito 
«Eiiaelvea,' and tlutarch remarks, 'One dnmknrd begets an- 
faiir.* I^ycurguB mode dmnkenness in Aromen infuoious by 
.Idbilions, and Bomiilns mnde it punishable witli d^atli, be- 
lOse the habit was regarded as leading to iiumor.ility, which 
'ould ciim|irumii«i the family integrity. But although tlie 

Alcohd in Hisitmf. 


Lrond featnrea of alcoholiBm were apprectnted liy thf nndenta, I 
Liler nnil itioro e.-iiift ill veotigitt ions have tlirown iuocb light '] 
tipon tbe Bu1>J'.i['t. 

"The hereditary iIll)uonl^e of alcohol maDlfesla itself ta 
own waye. It triuiKiaiM aa niipetit^ fur Btroug driul: to tlio^ 
children, aud tlioio oro likely to hnvii tbrtl fui-m of dnukMi 
IvUiuh taa.j be termod paroxj^iual ; that ia, thej wilt ^ for M 
conaidiir.kble pociud witiiuut iudiilgiug, placing rostntiot n 
tUoiusBlvea, bnt at lust ull tba banicra of gelf^onti'ol ^rewaj 
tboy yield to the iireHixtilila iipiietlte, itnd then their Indal 
is oxtreiue. Tbe dnuikard by inheritance is a more helplea 
elavo than his progenitot, and tho childMm th:it Le begets h: 
tticirc helpless still, unless on tho mother's aide there ia Diigrafte£9 
npuD tbem ontaintnd stock. 

" But its hereditary influence is not oonfinod to the propaga- 
tion of drimkardfl. it prodocea insanity, idii>ry, npilepBy, and 
other affections of tho brain and ncn-oiia system, not only ia 
the tranegtessoc himself bnt in hia ululdrea, Mid theao will 
transmit predisposition to unyof tliMu disesHes. IMfchaid luid 
E.iixuirol, two great autboritica apon the snb.jeot, uttribnte half 
of the cases of insunity in Fjigl:iud to the nse of alcohol, l)r> 
Bunjamin Rnsh believed tbut oue-third of the cas^a of insanity 
in this country wereiuvused by intemperance, and this waa luDg 
bi-'foro its hereditary potonry was adequately nppwwiated. Dr. 
S. G. Howo attributed one-half of the esses of iiliiK-y, in the 
Stiita of MaasaohuHotta, to intompcrcuco, and bu ia aiistjiinod in 
Ilia opinion by the moat reliable author [ti!*9. Dr. ilowe etntee 
that tlxere were seven idiots in ona fiuaily whero Iwth parenta 
were dxunkarila. One-half of tiio idiots in England 
drunken p.irentago, and tho same is triie of Sweden, a 
bably of most European conutrioa. It is aaid, that in St. VtM 
burg most of the idioti to-.oo froiu driin!t«n parpnti, Wbtft ■] 
cnholiam docs not produce iiisauit,;-, iJioi^y, or cpilepaj', 1 
weakens tbe conscicucu, imniurs the will, and ninkes tha ti 
vtduil the Gieatnre of impulse aji J not of rfuimm, I ii. Cui]>ei 
ter regiirda it aa mote potent in weflkoning tho will u: 
ini; the more violent passions than nny other Agent, unil thinklj 
< not Improbable that tho habitual nae of alcoholin heven 
hii:h are produced in auch great qiittntitiim in ctviliied e 
trie^, has lioenone (rreat canse of thebproditary tondoncy Ui U 

In a work on the 'Diseases of Modern LifB.' 
Rii-iiardaon remarits: ' The solemueat fact of all bearing ii 
tha physical duMnoriitions and upon the mental abemtlipo 
pTuduiujd by nkohol, is, that tho mischief iuQictcd by i| a 
uiau, through hia own act, can not foil to be transmitted t 

Mental Disease, and Hereditary Results. 257 

(t who ilescciDil fotm liim , -while the prnpeneity Ut iU nHe 
mds hIm), luiikiii^ the evil intereiit oompuiiml in itt total- 
But thin ia not ataling the caHe ns stronjily iib tho trnlh 
Tliere is not only a propenBity traasmitteil. Lai mi 
titl disoase of tlm nervoiis systom, vhicfa not nioroly uinni- 
S ilMlf in a propBOBity, but in an HnvovtroHablf impalim. I 
9 tieen anqnaintcd mth aeveml men, baring brilliant and 
il minds, who inhurited the vwe, and thuy huvo Rlal«d 
a that there were times when the inipiilae to drink stToug 
ir wa« perfectly inesistible, and that nt> ofitr could be 
|de them wluch wonld dissnade tbcm from yielding to it. 
y The leseaicbes of Morel on the causes of the fomjatiun of 
BDeiBite varieties of the hnnian rare, indicate tbe inflnenca 
B continuance of morl>id action throoKh Biicceoding ^ne- 
I, and ita power to tinally oanee extinction of the fnniily; 
t will be noticed how lai^ a share dmnlieiiitcss liolila in 
lain of caueiition. He gives the histury of one family as 
^ws: First gonivration — the father was an bubitnal dtunk- 
i was killed in a public-house bmwl, Second genentioa 
ditoxy drnukeuDeaa, maniacal attacks, (reDeriil pumlyafB. 
1 genorrttion— The grandson was atriefly sober, but wsa 
f hifpochnnilriacal and imaginary fears of persecutions, 
indhadhomicidal tendencies. Fourth generation- Feeble 
lelligenee, Btnpidity, Srst attack of mania nt sixteen, transi- 
ta to complete idiocy and ostinction of family. After all, may 
L< not fairly entertain the question whether drunkenness was 
It tho whole cause, or almost the whole, of all the oilier ab- 
1 (fliaraoteriatics of the case f The thirtoentb annual ro- 
*«f the New York Prison Association craitainu the genealogy 
f a fiimilf called ' Juke,' who hare become historical, ns af- 
gouo of the most illiiE<f>rBtlve<!iim«on record of the hern- 
' iDflaence of alcohol and vice. My own esperienco 
I foniJMbed me with many similnr nxain]ilos. To iiietniiee 
: A, merchant came to inc for medical advice. Hk wutt a 
u in good drcnnistancEH, birt waa in the habit of gi'tting in- 
KliiBtod every night before retiring, llis mother also drank 
bitunlly, and died of paralysis. He bad two brothers and 
rs; ho wiiM the second brother and child. The oldest 
t died a paroxysmal drunkard ; that is, he had, all his 
b, periodieal fits of ilriiukennesA. My patient waa sober, and 
luoeiWKfol merchiint, bat was nlwaja in a state of mentnl dia- 
■ifort, ttnd WHS 8u8i>icioiia and jealous to the moat imreavun.i- 
■ iaifTWt The third brother and child died a drunkard. Tlw 
\ dllld, a siatvr. wua nu inmate of u lunatie osflnm. 
fk^liiH wiw iatoletable uu account of her eccentriaitT'. 

Ahohdl m Hilary. 

aisOh oMld, also a, fomnln, died of ronsnmptioii. The »i 
sou, my patient, married a 

organ izatioD. They h.ld two 80iia;tbe elder ttos associated tv 
liis father in bnsinesB, and was 
ingty excitahle, and although n 

alavH to his other animal appetites. The other child was, i 
only five years old, vecj unmanageable and exceedingly prone 
to vicions habile. He was cunstantiy running away, and woald 
' toko every opportouity to commit theft. Ue was, in reality, a 
moral idiot. Here, in spite of therestoring influence of the Ql 
mental and physical organization of the mother, we si 
feota of alcohol cropping oat in the third generation, eshihiu 
mtmiatakable characteristics of the paternal aide of the It 
traceablij, in fact, to the habitual alcoholic indnlgenve of ft 
grandparents. Thus, wo do not always see the moral offwXtM 
the hereditary influence of aluohol, beaaose of the fl^iH^ 
mingling of good blood with that which ia tainted ; bat in ■ 
most squalid portions of our large cities we often at 
itary tendency of alcoholism exhibited in oggravatad. fbn 
There many of the children ore bont of parents tainted os^ 
sides, and these are brought into the world with conatitnt^ 
eo enfeebled that a large percentage of them die the first yd 
and those that live are unsoand in mind and body. Indi 
from my own o)>servationB and the testimony of others, I 
led to the uoDclusiou, that by far tlio larger share of mental 4j 
ease, poverty, and crime ia the direct heritage of alcohol ; 
it also IS the caiiao of a great share of our bodily diseiUM, i 
is a powerful element in. shortening the average diiiatiiui,l 
life in certain localities or among ueitadii elusae." 


f of the Means Employed iu varioua Ages and Nations to 
l%niove Iiitemperuiii.-e; viz. : Antidotea to Intoxication, In- 
flir.tioa of Personal Penalties on DmnkardH, Moderation 
Gocieties, Total Abstinence Societies, CoSee Eouees, Ine- 
linat« Asylnms, Edncalion, License of tba Sale of Inloxi- 
ta, Prohibition, Local Option. 

"^HE manifest and acknowledged evils of intemperance 

have led, in all ages of the liiatory of the vice, to ex- 

B and efforts for avoiding those evilB, and to many 

rpts t« rentrain or d<;stroy their eaiiwe. The former 

in ehftriM^erizetl hy no dialike of the intosicante 

PR, no pnrpoao of diminishing their nee, hut ratlier 

n incited hy BtrcnaouB desire and effort to increase 

.1 ahility to consume the contents of the Tiowl with 

iapanily. Thu latter have aimed either at the restricted 

f intosicants, or ill a total avoidance of thera ; based 

a one caeo on an acknowledgment of the necessity of 

ainiug horn over-iudulgonce, and in the other, on the 

y and danger of any indulgence whateveJ, The pur- 

e of thia vliapt^r is to amply ttarrate facts, tiot to deduce 

Kiiice trom thorn ; to classify the efforts and outline their 

■, nnt to ar^uo as to their worth or their folly. 

oouvenionce they will bo comuderod iu the following 

ilers E Antidotes to Intosication ; Infliction of Personal 

n DmnltardHj Societies to Diminish the L'ee 

I Ardent Spirits; Tutiil Ahatinenco Socli'tics ; Coffee 

•b; IneViriate Asylums; Edncation ; License of the 

tie <if luluxieunts; Prohibition; Local Option. 


860 JlooM in. History. 

i. Antidotes. — Attompts to uoutraliae the intoxicatini 
power of aiooLolie boverages, in unlor tliat thereby drinken 
niiglit Bit longer at tliek caps, were not uncommon in anr 
ciont times, •' Athenaeua, arguing on the fondness of th«L 
Egyptians for wine, says : " Tliia is a. proof, that they oi* 
the only people amongBt whom it is a ouetom at their feasts 
to eat bnilfiil onbbiiges bpfnro ali the rest uf tbeii' food, and 
even toAhia very time tliey do so. And many people adil 
cabbage Heed to potions wbich tiiey prepare as prcvontlVW 
agaiuEt drunlicnnees. And wherever a vineyard has o^H 
bag<>8 growing ia it, there the wine is weaker,"* 
And Eubulus saya, eotuewherc or other: 
"Wife, quick I aonio cabling boil, of Tirtiioua healing, 
That Imay ridineof this BBBily feelingl" 
And BO AlexiB Baya ; 

"Laat eveninji yon were ctrinltinj; deep. 
So now yonr head aches. (So to sleep : 
Take utjnn boiled i^abbai^e when yaii wake, 
And tliere's an eud ufyoiir liuailuche!" 

A lite power is attrii>uted by the same antlior, to bitter 
almonds : ■' Bitttr almonde were considered a prescrvif 
tive againat intoxication, it being said of tlie physician of 
Tiberius, that ho coald carry away the eontcnts of three 
bottles, if thtia fortified, bat speodily tiecaiue dniuk if 
deprivfd of his almonds." t 

Bedding | attributes to Pliny the saying that " the drunk- 
ards of hia day took pumioestone before they set to at a 
drinking bout in honor of Bacchns," in order that the intiix- 
icating power of large quantities might ha nciitrnlixi'il- 
Tiie Oreeka held that the amethyst was an antidote nt^tui 
intoxication; and the adorning of "Qneen Elizabeth's 
Cup," profusely with araethjata, ia anppoecd to have boon 
anggosted by thia notion." § 

• AtbeniBna, Vol. I. p. B6. 

t Iliid, Book iL 39. 

t Ilistory of Wiacai, p. 10. 

lo&I Temperance, by John Mair, M. U., 


Morewood gives tlie following examples ; 
"Tlie inlialjitiuits of Jeeso, an islunil of Japan, nlthougb 
eat diinkera of a fiery contpound. seldom becoiuu inluiLii'atiiil 
I aooount of their fine iiae of the oil of the todo-Horro, n sjiecies 
' aeali said'l)y the Jesnit prieeta to be an infallible pit-Trntive 
inebriety." "In tbo iflle of Skie, the root Cnrmel or Knap- 
' —ATgatilU SglraliBUS, — was need to prevent dmnktnnosa."" 

is not known, to tbe w-riter, eave ae llm nbove eitatious 
n it, tliat any of theao anppoaed nntidotfs in any n-a.y 
leutralized the power nf tlie leverages tliat luid In'cn ira- 
^hed. But ae the drinlcin^ of large qnantities wag a feat iu 
iich many of tlie ancients were amliifiouE to excel, — as 
oon by referring back to tlio accounts of drinking 
Mpecially to tlLoao of the Greeks and Bonians, — 
s not unreasonable to believe that tticse and other snp- 
1 preventives were sought for aad used quite ae exlea- 
ively as the above quotations claim, and more generally 
ancient times than we Lave now any means of knowing. 

H. Pebsosal Penalties fob Dkpnkenhess. — 
ing tlie menaart-'B adopted for the suppression of intem- 
^QOu, may be mentioned the inHictiou of personal pen- 
idea on the drinker. In some instances these penalties 
ftve aimed at tlie reformation of the drunkard j in others, 
Jiera resulting in death, they liavo been intended to 
|rV6-aH waniinga and rcetruint to ihoso who might wit- 
pas tt otherwise know of their inflietion. 

The earliest esajuples of nieamires of this kind, of whioh 
e liavo any record, are found in the laws and history of 
)e Israelitiea, as preserved in the Old Testament Scrip- 
tl»H. In the law, it is written : 

■"If a JiwnltaTR a stiTlibom andrebellioneaon, wLieh will not 
Iteytlio roicu of his father, or thcvoiceof hia mother, and that, 
'Lan llifiy have chastened liirn, will not hearken unto them : 

.... they shall Biiy nnlu llin pldera of liia city, this ("ir 
IDiHfltiUibom and roliellioiis, ho will not obey our voice ; he is 

AleaheH in History. 

a glutton and a ilrnnkard. And all ttie mdnofliis city sld|^| 
Btoue bim with atouns, that he ilio : so shalt tboii put aml^| 
evil from amoDg yon; aiid all Israel aholi foar.'' — DculerwiMlt^M 
xxj. lS-21. B 

So also in the regulations made for tLe ^lidaocs of t^H 
prieBthood, in order that they mii^ht not reppat l.lie fuIlj^S 
of Nadab nnd Ahihu (whose offence we liave described i n J 
the previous chapter) : ^M 

"The Lord spake unto AiiTon, saying: Do not dtiuk wlnen^H 
Btrong drink, thou, nor tliy eona with then, wbun ye no int^ ^1^1 
tabemncle of the Rongregation, Ital ye die. lliat ye may P^^| 
diSereDce between holy and unboiy, and between nnclean S^^| 
clean. And that ye may teach the children of larnel all ti^H 
statutes whlcli the Lord hath sxioken unto tbem by the hanil ^H 
MosoB." — Letiiicai x. 8-11. ^H 

China. — In treating of intemperanos in China ia aatdeal^ 
times, allusion was made to the demoralization and niiB-l 
that had come to the land of Yin on account of tliQ latent •■ 
perance of rulers and people. This led to t)ie promulgatio^l 
of an imperial edict aljout the year 1120 B. C.^ th« full tcAM 
of which is preserved in the " Shoo-King," or histoiT'. !■ 
is there called, " The Annnnncement abont Dmnke&neai|^| 
In many parts it is vague and somewhat contradictoiy ^H 
its wording, but there ia no ambiguity in its description 4^| 
the evils of dninkenneHS, nor in its threatening the p«nal^H 
of death on those who persist in the use of iutoslcaut^H 
Some of the native commentators on the decree seeic ^H 
soften down and explain away its more harsh Icaturefi, IV^H 
its positive declarations cannot bo ohang'.<d by criticiflll^| 
which were written many centuries aft«r the proulamatit^f 
of the decree. Especially is this true of the mandate wiH^' 
which the " Annoimcement " cloaca : 

"If you are tulil that there are comjinnies whn drink toinitlier, 
do nut fail to apprehend them all and eh-iiiI iIh/iti ti> ( lum, 
whwo 1 will pnt tliem to death. Ab t<i lli^- i ■ 
coraof Vin, who have been led to il and bm . 

'snot neceasafy topnttAuimta dtt&tlk; k-i 
1£ thuy keep Uwau leaunu, \ 'v^^ ■£ 

Personal Penalties for Drmikenness. 263 

biotion. If ran ilisregard taj lessoiu, thea I, the odo maa, 
U bLow- yon no pity. Ab yon caunol clauiao your way, yoit 
h&ll ba cluased with those who nve to \ie pat to death. O 
~ :,.giTe constant heed to my admonitiona. If you do not 
iknage light, your officeis and the people will continne loat in 

, At the present time intemperanoe among the Cliineee, al- 
boogh quite esteneively prevailing, is a solitary rather than 
k convivial or eocial vice, as to lie Been in pnblio in an intox- 
indition Ib sure to be followed l>y the infliction of 
Rrere penalties. Acconling to the statement of an oheerv- 
ittt traveller, ordinary offences are dealt with promptly lint 
dldly, while it i» one of the lawB of the Empire that " A 
in,who, intosinated with liqnor, comraita oiitmgee against 
B laws, Bhall lie exiled to a diatant country, there to remain 
I a state of servitude." t 

Ikdia. — The debauchery in Ancient India, sanctioned 
r the religious saotifices which nccesstitated inordinate 
ennesa on the part of those who participated in them, 
d eepecially on the part of the priests, became so alarming 
Ui threaten the speedy destruction of the nation. Pro- 
there was raised up at this time a new leader, who^ 
aooeptud as the religious and moral lawgiver of the 
ujtle, placed liefure them the " Institutes or Hindoo Law," 
which the severest penalties were pronounced on those 
rlio shuald tamper with iutosicants. The period in which 
antlr or as he is sometimes called, Menu, flourished, waa 
abably neai the ninth eontnry fi. 0., although his trans- 
tots differ quite widely on this point. From Sir William 
yjim'» translation of the " Ordinances of Manu," editioa 
1S25, the following estracts are made, to show how 
Oronghly and eeverely tlie great lawgiver dealt with the 
mdOTB and partakers of jutosicanta : "Never let a priest 
it part of a Bflcritice peri'onueJ liy those who sell fonncnted 



264 Mcohd in Ststory. 

liquor," cha]>. iv., V. 216. In chap. vii. vb. 40, 47: "Intorf 
cation " is namod aa one of the ton vices for wbicii a KiDj 
" raiij loBo even, bis life." " Money due for spintoaiB 
liqaora, the eon of the debtor eball not be obliged to pays 
" A contract made by a poraon intosicated, is utterly i 
viii. 15(1, 163. 

Drinlting spirituous liquor is oue of the sis faialts vhi 
bring infamy on a married woman, A wife who drinks a, 
may at all timos b© superseded hy another wife. A BUp< 
seded wife, who, having been forbidden, addicts herself ■ 
the aee of intoxicating liquors even at jubilees, most be i' 
sis racticaa of gold. is. 13, 60, 84. Sellers of spirittio 
liquors are classed with gamesters, roviters of Scripture, at 
They shall he instantly banished from the town, 
wretches," it is siud, " lurking like unseen thieves i 
dominion of a prince, continoatly harass his good satgec 
with their vicious condnct." 

"Aaaldiei or mercliBnt drinking arak, or a priest driukl 
HTak, nieatl, or rum, are all to be considered rcspectiveljt J 
ofFcndors in the hij^hest degree, except those whose crimM • 
not lit to be nnmed. For drinking spiritB. let the mark af a 
ter's flag be impressed on the forehead with a hot L ~ 

none to eat with tliem, with none to saoriiiue with tlkcan, i 
none to read with them, with none to ba allied l)y n 
with them, abject and excluded from all social iluttas, let t 
wander over this earth ; branded with indolibia marks, 1 
shall he deserted by their paternal and maternal telntloj 
treated by nune with afiection, received bj none with lespc " 
Such is the ordinaneo of Mann."— ix. 235-2; 

Drinking forbidden liquor, is mentioned among t\xe i 
fencea which wise legislators must declare to b 
the highest degree. Smelling of any spiriluoua ii^aor 1 
considered as causing a loss of class. Katiug wlutt ) 
lieen bronglit in the same basket with epirituoiie liquors] 
an offence which causes dofilomont. xi. 55, CS, 71, 

" Any twiee-bom ninn. who has liitMitionsIly dmnk B|>iritfl 
riiM thriiniili perversa ilt'lnaionoiinlnA, may drink more n 
ill dniuo, and atuuu fur liis oCeiii'i; \iy p»«bv 

Persoval Penalties for Drunl'cv.Ttess. 265 

or he may drink boiliag liot, tiiitil hr ilio, the iiriiio of ft eow,' 

or pure water, or niiLk, or clarilied. liuller, or juica eipreseod 

from cow-duiig: or.'y he lusted it uiitiiawinglii, he may expiate 

tbe Bin of drinking spiritaoua lii^uar, hj eating only somo \ito- 

e or graiua of tila, from trhich oil Ima beon eztiactGd, 

k,1qnce every night fiir u wltohi year, wrappeil in coarse vesture 

Vof hairs Iroin a cow's tail, or sitting unrlotheil in his house, 

^rearing hia loclu and benrd uneat, anil putting; out tho flag 

ota tuTeni-lieejior, Binc.'(> the spirit of rice is distilled fruui the 

HUfda, OF filthy refose of the, nnd since Mala in alKO ih 

^lanto for sin, let no Brahmin, Cshatriya, or Vaiaya drink that 

fiipirit." si. 91-94. 

"When the divine spirit, or the light of holy knowledge, 
which ha« been infused into.the body of a Brahmin, has once 
been sprinlsted with any intoiiciiting liijuor, even hia priestly 
character leaves hioi, and be sinks to the low degree of Sndra." 

The souls of men wLo havu given way to passiona, pass 
t death into the bodies of those " adilicted to gaming or 

" A. priest who haa dmnk spirituous liquor, shall migrate in- 
i) the form of a amaller oi larger worm or inaeet, of a moth, 
)f a fly feeding on ordure, or of some lavenona animal." xii, 

In modem India,tbo East India Company, though largely 
K:^Ooaraging distillation as a nioana of revenue, were forced 
jiy the prevalence of intemperance, to issue laws agaiuHt 
jiankenneBe, by ordaining in 1754, for the first offenee, 
■Admonition ; for the aeeond a tin« of five siiillings ; and per- 
lons of rank wore to pay in proportiim to their station, as it 
■trail expected they eUoulil he examples to others. 

G&BSCE. — AthenseiiB, Book XIII. soclion 506, gives sev- 
I iDetaaces of the determined njanner in whieh tlio an- 
Jteenl Greeks dealt with drunkenness, eapecially when it 
R>0('urred in the higher classoa in society. At Athens the 

" Cow's nrine was prohiil'iy a niotaplioririJ naiiip for ' riiin- 
i^lnally^ — the clouilx being cows meLuphnrii'ally." 
■ Jiaiiii'r Etm^ji, p. 243. 

26B Jtcoht^ tn SSfltety. 

Arclions of tlie Oourt of Areopagus, were rartd(^ iospeMnTS 
of the pnblii! morals, and antborized toi rigorotisly jinniah 
intemperance. To have even dined at a public koose di»- 
qnalijicd one for a Boat in tljat renowned senate and oourt. 
For an Archon to be intoHTcated was a capital offence, pim- 
iahod with death. iBouratea is quoted as saying of this 
period in the history of Athens, that not even a, servant in 
the city would be seen eating or drinking' in a public 1 
The Spartana, according to i'lutarcii, made their servtuits 
drunk once a year, in order that their chihlren might E 
Low foolish and contemptihio men looked in that iriAte. 
Plato says that the vice of intemperance was effectiiallj 
root«d out of the repuhlic of Sparta; and that if any i 
foimil another in a state of intosication, he was, nndei tfas 
stem lawn of LycurgTiB, brought to punishment, and f 
though he might plead that the feast of BacchuB onglitto' 
exonae him, his defence availed him nothing. ZeLaaeuaf^^ 
the Loerian, enacted a law punishing with death any i 
who should drink wine, unless by a physician's presoH])tioii. 
The Massilians had a law that no woman should drintc any- 
thing stronger than water,* Pittacus of Mitylene, made &, 
law that he who, when drank, committed any oflonce 
agiiinst the laws, shonld suffer a doable punishment, on?' 
for the crime itself, and the other for the intoxicatJait whitA 
prompted him to cumuiit it; t and the law was applaadi4i 
by Plate, Aristotle and Plutarch, aa the height of wisdotiU 

KoME — Plinv is authority for the statement that iromen 
in Remi wero lorhidden ti> drink wine in the year flSO^, 
B. C., I and (hat the penalty for disobedience was iSeatb), 
the same as thi' penalty for adnlfery j— and the reomn 
given ua'i, that wine was a certain indtetiient lu lewdueu. 
An instanie is cittHl by him of a wife killed by her hushanJ 
for driulung ^vini, and ttiat the husband was abaolvtid from 

■ AtheuLPna 11, Bk. X. i: 3.1. 

I ^Ifatural niHtory,B\t.TiIN.(AiaB.W. 

Personal Paialtiea far Drunkenness. 267 

flio murder liy Bomulus. AnntLcr k cited hy liiio, aa 
liavlng occurred foiu' Liiniireil yuan* luti-r, in wliicli a certiiin 
Baiuaii lady for having in her posspssion the keys of tUe 
%iiiu cellar, was starvud to deatti Ly her family. It was 
the usage, he says, for wouioii to be comjioUed to ealuto all 
tlieir male relatives with a kii^i; tu ordter thut it might bu 
ascertaiuod if they aiaelt of tetnetum, wiiio being culled by 
>.hat uame. 

" Wlioarp," Pliny soya, " onr word temulenUa, meaning drnnb- 
meaa. Aaathev case is cited, by biui in whiub tbe jiidj^e Uoiui- 
aa, tewii-teii tlin ileciaiun tbat u coituui womiin wbo ulaiued 
6 liHv« been aliuned to tnke wine aa a tonic or medicine, took 
nore tbau was reqnisile. for hcnlth, and miiat therefore be sen- 
anced to lose ber dowry. Tbe Bomau CeuNur, whose otBoa 
oireeponded in many leaiiecta to that of tho Atlieuian Areopa- 
:, had, like the latter, '' a general Hnperriaiou of the morals of 
e people — was erajtowered to puniah, and did pnnisb druak- 
noM with eseeseive severity — was reqnired to be bimself, a 
iBn of rigidly abstemious bitbita, and was Hnblo to expiilaion 
order for a ainRle violation of the laws relative to 
obtict}'. These censors turned drunken members oat of the 
nate witbont tbe least tnercj, and branded them witb petpet- 
il in&iuy. Tbey would allow them no place of honor or profit 
D th« government." * 

Mahomet AK8. — ^Thero is no doaht that the early fol- 
Dwora of Mahomet interpreted the Koran as absolutely 
itolij biting' the neo of intoxioantB. A few iustauoes are 
lere ailtlnc-ed to show how those in auUiority among them 
eganled the matter. Tbe Caliph Omir, on learning from 
lia general " that the Sluaanlmana had learned to drink wine 
ioring their invasion of Syria, ordered that whoever waa 
IBiIty of this practice should have fourscore stripes upon the 
olos of his tact. The punishment was accor<lingly inflicted, 
iid many wore so infatuated, althongh thoy had no ac- 
rntiTB but their own couneienoe, aa voluntarily to confess 
lieir crime, and undergo the aaroe pnnislunent." -f- 

• Tho Wsr of Four Th(HisiiiiJ TeurR, p. 123. 

/ OtJtefy^ nittori; yiiofod bj' Moruwood, VV- '^'^. *^- 

268 AkohH mi flfefot^. 

The Sultan, Soliman the First, cayaed meltpd load to W 
poured down the throats of thoee who Jisolieyed the pre 
of the Koran against wine. In 17H5, tLo Suhan Aliil 
Lraliman published an ordinance against the uspof Mer 
au intoxicating beverage, undor penalty of deatlt. 

Germany. — In the middle of the eighth ceutury, 1 
emperor Charlemagne, in giving a conetitatiun to his n 
which conferred on. them many privileges of great value, 
charged them not to sully by inlempcranc*, that which had 
been conceded to their valor, and the many services wMoli 
thoy bad rendered. To Uimeel f and to his heirs he ieeorve4 i 
the right of pnnishing dieolwdienco to this injunction, Wj 
the pereon of the grantee or liis )<uct'eRsor. Hta preeaotiofl 
in regard to drunheuness exi.ended to all classes in sod(4 
and the sentence of eacommiuticAtion wtta made the pen 
of disobedience. The clergy were especially aimed at 1 
many of the regalationa, degradation ^m odiee and < 
ral ponishmont, according to the rank of the offender, belli 
prescribed as the penalty for the offence, oven of gtring vie 
Bide a tavern. Tippling in any manner was prohibited I 
penal laws ef great Beverity. The tmldier found dnink | 
earop was restricted to water as a beverage nntll he g 
mitted tlie enormity of his offence and publicly sued for [n 
don. Judges were not allowed to hold courts unlesg pi 
fectly sober; witnesses and suitors coiild not apprar fn d 
halls of justice if intoxicated, and priests were not eofiim 
to offer drink to penitents. 

About seven bimdred years later, Frederick III, ordw 
" all electors, princes, prelates, counts, knights, and gentl 
men to diacnniite nance and severely ptmish drnnkMtnefl 
Officiala of lower rank also eatabtishod societieaaod orders, 
tbrongh the regnlations of which they tsonglid thp uon) 
elevutiim uf the peoj>le, and liy Uieaiis of whinh ibuy im- 
pdsed finRS and imprisoutiient on the inlCTTipcrate,* Tlic 
chiHiih authorities also irnpi>B*id liiiovj penalties on iLp iu- 

Personal Penrdti^ for Drunkemxss. 2(15) 

•temporale ainoiiff ike diSereot ordore of tbo eloi'gy ;— imt 
if ibia fuitlier on. 
EyatAim. — Macnish states,* that by two nutB paused iti 
tlie reign of Jumeu I., dmnkennoss wuh piiiiishod will] a 
fine, anO, failing pajToent, with sitting puhlirly fur nix 
Wars in the stocke, and that tide luw Tcniaiix'd in uj)f rutimi 
'till its repeal in 1828, previous tu wliich liuie llie wi'luHi^is- 
,tical courtB could take cognizance of the offence, and pun- 
ish it aoconiingly.* 

Rev, Winiajn Held says that, " In tlio time of Oliver Croni- 
'eU,ttaemagiBtnil«giD the north of EnglftU'Jpimislipildnmkar'ls 

1 making thiito curry what was on.IIhI 'The Unmkai'd'at.'lcink.' 

wa« a largo harrol, nitli ouo head ont uud a hole tlirouKli 

other, thtuiiish whinh the oft'uudor was made to iiiit his 

while his hands were dtftwn t.liiHJilKh IwoaiiuJl h'.lps, unc 

n each Bide. With this Itu was compelled to uinn-h uluiii; thi' 

rablio streets." 1 

In the present century, in the Naval Discipline, the fol- 
lowing rule was in force : 

Separate for one month every man who wae found dnink, 

the teat of the crew: mark his clotboB 'ilmnkard;' Kive 

■ix-water grog, or, if bear, mixed one half water ; let thym 

I wb«n the crew had finished ; employ them in every dirty 

dilgraeefnl work, eto. This," says Macnish, " had sucli a 

effett, that in leas than sis months not a drankon iiiiui 

raa to W fonnil in the abip. The B»me system woe intro'turvil 

\y the writer into every ahip on board which he subacqiiuutly 

orved. When first lieutenant of the Victory and Di<in]e(le, the 

lotiefipial cou8p(]uenoo8 were acknowleidsetl — the culprits were 

leard to say that they would rather receive six. dozou lashes at 

be^^angiTBy. mid bo done with it, than to lie put into the 

dniukei) ui«m' (for so it wasnameilj for a mouth." t 

ScOTLANli. — By a law of Constantine II., king of Scnt- 
ond, passed at Scone, A, D. 801, " Young peraouB, of 
to abstain from the use of in- 

■ Anatomy of DriinienncBs. Chap. xiiL 
t TciiipiTrtnco t'yclopmdia, p. 2ffi, 
; Mavabth. olmp. XIV. 



Akohti m Hiatory. 

it, on oonvifr T 

toxicatiiig liqnore. Death wae tbe pnnishincnt, ( 
tion of ilrnnkcDnesB." * Scottbli lawsogtuDStintetDpi'rMice 
ill tbe laHt ceiitmy are said tu have impoBod the following 
penalties on drnnkennesa : 

"Whosoever ebaJt drink to excess, shall be liable, each 
nobleman, iii £20 Scots; ea.cb baron in 20 marks; ench gentlemiui, 
btiTitor, or burgess, in 10 niatks; vncb yeoman in 40 shUUnga 
Scots, ioling gaotira; eaub minister in (lie littb pan of liis yeftr^ 
stijinnfl : and tbiit tbe oUbnder, mialile to iiuy tlio ttfbreuld. ' 
penalties, be exomplarily pimisbed in bis liody, aiKMirdingtOtllftif 
demerit ofbis fanlt.''t I 

AsciEUT Mexicans. — ^Preecott eays of the Aztecs : 
" Intemperauca, wbich was tbe bnrden, raoreoTer, of their 
relipoiis bomilies, was visited witb tbe severest penalties; M 
if tliey bad fori^seen bi it ttie consnmiug canlicr of tbeirown, AS 
-woU as of otiior Indian ranea in later times- It was punisbed in 
the yonug with deatb, and in older persons with loss of r&nk 
and coubscation of pr0]ierty." t 

Sweden, — Macnish qaotes from " Sohnhert'e Travels ^ 
Sweden," the I'ollou'iug synopsia uf the laws agoiuBt 1 
temperance in force in Sweden during the Erst hftU of t] 
present century : 

''Whoever is seen dninlc, is fined for the first offonoo, 1 
dollars, for tlie Bocond, six, for tbe third and fourth. 
lorgorsnni, and Is aIim doprived oftlie ri{;;bt ef voting at eU'otlo' 
and of beiug appointed ft reprcMentutive. He is, liefliiles, p 
liidy exposed in the parish ehurch on tbe following SniidAy. 
he is fonsd committing the offence a Afth time, he is shut Dp I 
a bonse of correction, and condemned to six montiis bard \tii 
Rnil if lie is again guilty, to a twelve mouths pimlabmont u 
similar description. If the olfence has been cominitted in p 
lin, siirh as nt a fair, an anction, ote., tbe fuie is dnnbled t 
if tbe offender has made bis upiiearanee in a eburoh, the poniJ 
nicut is still more severe. Wboeveris convicted iifhavlDH t 
dnccd another to intuxicntn biiiiiietf, is lined threio didls 
which sum in doubled if the person is n minor. A 
vpIio falls into this offence loses bisbtiiflfleo ; if it 

• War of Fonr Thonsand Years, p. IfiD 

t Iteid's CyrbipaiiHii. p. 282. 

I Couipieal .if Slexioo. Vid. I. p. 35. 

Personal PenaUies for Drunkenness. 271 

^tiO oooupies mif considerabli! poat, his fuDctiomt nn- biimiii'iiiI- 
t AtMl perLnpBlie ia iliitniiuatKl. pitinkunnu«a is iiMvnr udniit- 
d M on eicuBe lot iiuj criine ; n.nd wUcwvrr dies nlivn ilruuli. 
buried iguQniiuiooHly, iinri depiivod of the pnijws iif l.hi' 
lurch. It is forbidden to give, and mm'o explicitly tn »eU. iiny 
Riitiions liquors to Btud«iits. iTorkwen, Bwviuit«, appri'iil in-B 
nd private anliliera. Whoever ia obHerved dninic in thii 
reots, OP making n noise in a titTcni, is aaie to 1ie taken to 
iami and dotained till sober; without, however, beingaii Ihot 
oonut lUMimpled frum the tines. If ho ie without uiiinv.v litt is 
rpt in prison tUl he works out his dvliverniuce. Tnicu a your 
ese ordinancea arc read aloud &oni the palpil by thl^ clvr)i;y ; 
id every tavern keeper is bound under the pi'nalty of a htnvy 
le, to have a copy of them bung up in the pritii^ipul ruouia of 
SociKTV IsLASDS. — Tlie ]aw at Kuahine is this : 
"If a nuLn drink spirits till he becomes intoxicated, (literally 
Dlsoncd,) and is then troiibliiNuine or mischieviiuti, the iuaf[l»- 
Cstes fihuU canse him to lie liunnd or couHuoil ; and nbrji the 
leetB of the drink have Hnb»idod, slialt iidmoiiieh him not 1o 
ff^d ngain. But if he be obutinato in driuliiiifi spirits, and 
heu intoxicated becomes niiRchievoiiii, let hlui he liTOiiKht bo- 
n the magiBtrate and aenteuced to lalior, aiich iis rimil-iimk- 
g, lIvB iktboms in length and two in bveiidth. II' not punished 
f tlii«i Itft I'iin make a phintutiim fence, fifty fathoms lon({. 
fit he a woman that ia guilty of the crime, she shiiU plait two 
tlgejtMt«, one for the king, and tho otiier for the Kuvomor of 
IB district, or make four bibiscna mat«, two for the king end 
V for tlie governor, or forty ththoiiia of native cloth, twenty 
r tho king nml twenty for the governor." f 

BiBUAS EMpntE. — Alnniphra, tlie founder of t.hi> Bir- 
isn Empire, maila intoxication punislin-blo with deulli.t 
KoBTH Amekica. — Boili in the Uritish Pohbcpmoiis, and 
the BOVMVil portioiia of tlie United Stiites, intninin'mnwi 
hiish w manifest iu rioting, in trespaBRitig im the lights iif 
luin to the ostenl tif inlurfDnn^ witli -licir lnjainuiis nr 
Mtroj^ing properly, in, — as is pi-olwilily crtiu in ullciviliKcd 

■ Macniab, tioIk to chap. XHI. 

t Ellla' I'olytieaiau lluaoarcbes, Vol. II. p. 433. 

t Two Yearn Ln Avii, p. 307. 


JhcAd in ffistory. 

1 Bnd It I 


ahalt ■ 

couutriee, — troatfil us a mistlemeaiior. Bnt some of t'ho'M 
farly laws of the new worlil treati-d drinking as an uflence, 
jiud vigorooaly punished it, long before it had Teenlted in 
acts of violen^^c to olliers. We give a few of the j 
curious, and now nearly forgotten examples 

"Roburt Colos, of Bockeabury" (Rosliury) "Uasaoohiu 
Baj Colony, seems to liare B<?ver«ly taxed the jngeuait; of tl 
Court of AsHiatants, (bubw? ring in conipoaitlmi and fimetjona ti 
tlie present Qovemor and Coiuirll of MaaancliusettA, 1 t* 
vnriety nf puuislimBnt for Ilia detennioed drunkcnneaa 
his first olfeuue be watt broDghl into conrt, in 1631, and fined '5 
marks.' Ifie next your his second offence was dealt witt whe 
he was lined 'sx ebiJliugs.' In 1633 he was aftain bflfbro U 
couit, when he was ' fined x£, and enjoyned to stand with j 
'VrMte sheet of paper on his back, wheieon a drunkard alisU b 
-written in great letters, and to Htnnd therewith so long aa C 
conrt thinks meets for abusing himself shamefuliir witb drinlu' ^ 

"Again, March 4, 1^3-4, he is Inonght befoce tbacmil^ J 
wh(>ce his case is thus disposed of: 'It is ordered that BobtS'" 
Cotea, foe drunkenness by >iiin committed at Hookeatiury, shall 
be diH&anebised, weare aboute his uecko, njid soe to baug upon 
his outward gana't, a D, made of redd cloath, and suit iipiiu 
white ; to contynue tiiis for n yeare, and not to Isavfi it otf nCt 
any lymu vrhrn hes vomes amongst oompany, uoiter the penalty 
nf xU. fur tbd llrst otTence, mid v£ the second, and afti^r tv bu 
punished by tbe Court as they thiiike meete; also \w is t-o weof 
the D ontworils, and is enjoyned to appear att the nexte Oeiis- 
lai Conrt, and to contyniie there till the Conrt be ended." * 

Sept. 6, l(i3fi, at a Quarter Coiu-t, at Boston : "Peter 
Buasaker was censured for di-nniemiesa to lie whipped and 
to have twenty stripes aharply indicted.'' f In Plyinoiitli 
Colony, drunkards were sentenced to pay a fine, to eil in 
the Htocks, to be whipped, and as tbe extreme penalty, to 
be disfranchiEicd.J 

One of the earliest laws of PenDsylvania, that odujituil lit 
UpliUitl, Dec. 1682, provided tkat, ** I>raiLkcnDcea, ctiooiD* 

" Itccords (if the Govenior and Conipauy "if UB«Eacha«lb 
Itay, Vol. I. pp. SO. B3, 107, 112. 
tlliiil,p. 177. 
t Plymouth Colony Bet'ords, Vol. I. pp. 12, 36, 100, I3». 

Ecdosiasiiad Paiallies. 273 

igetnent of dninlttiiiiess, 'Irinking or pledging of hoaiths, 
ahonlil liu jmnidhtJ by fine uutJ iraprisoniaent." • 

Becentlj, Dr. U, A. Hiirtt, in a ptiper read before the 
EpUcopal Church CoagresB io lioston, aud bf eubseqaent 
igilatioii aod diacnssion in the columns of the secular pn.-aa, 
laa eeoght the cxtoperation of rarioua classes in cominimi- 
y, — Uio drinkerB aud the abstinent, the sO'Called mDderat«3 
fend even the litjiior wllers, in a revival of the iild 
methods, — in 8j)irit, if not in detail, — to luako all drunk* 
Imneas an iiffcn<'e a^nst the law, (o be punished by im- 
triaonineiit and other penalties. So far it has no substan- 

1 enoooragement. 

Ecci-BSiASTicAL Penaltibs, — The Epistles of the 
Rew Testament verify the evidence collected from other 
lourees, thut intemperance prevailed to an alarming extent 
D the Gentile world, especially in the cities of Greece and 
Home, where the first efTorts were made to establish the 
3hriatian Religion. Tliey show that the drinking habits 
if the people greatly hindered the progress of the Gospel, 
ibd that exhortaljon and rebnkc were frequently given to 
be ewly converte on account of the tendency of their former 
iftbitg, and the intlnencc of the constant esftm)ile8 beibro 
hem of indulgence in the use of wine. Hence they were 
Mmed to avoid drunkenneas, not to keep ompany with 
[mnkards, and to remember that no dnmkarils can inherit 
he Kingdom of God. Bom.xiii.l2. ICor. v. 11; vi. 10. 
"lenoe the injunction that a bishop " must not be given to 
rtno," litocall J " must not tit down at wine," " must not he 
> oompany with wine," " must wholly avoid it." 1 Tim. 
i. 2 ; Tllua i. 7. The Falbere both of the WeBteni and 
jlftstem Churches tell ead tales of its influence in tempting 
lui overooming bnth clergy and laity. Taverns, — the keep- 
's of which wore, on account of their vile traffic, esteemed 
Bftre lightly than men B'ho followed any other occupation!' — 

* Proiiil'H ninlory of Pennsylvania, p. 71. 
t Neaiidttr, Mamariala, p, 100. 

Aloolid in EiMory. 

became the rosortB of ihe clergy to Bnch an ostont a 

for the paseage of the foUowiog lav, in the founh oentuTj'i] 

"If any one of the dei^ be taken eating in a. tavi 
bo anapended, except when he is forced to bait at a 
tbe road." * 

In the Beventh oentBry intemperance was so prevaler 
and the disposition to indulge in it on oil occaaions i 
general, tbat at tho Synod of Tmllas, " the clergy and !( 
were commanded not to partake of the feaste of tli6 Bac- ' 
chanalia ; on pain, the former, of deposition, the latt«r of 
exvommunication." At abont the eame period, tbe emperor i 
Justinian found it necessary to " forbid monks to enter 
places where liquor was sold, under pain of chastisemeBt 
upon conviction before a magiatiate, and of expulsion from I 
their monasteries." t 

Bridgett quotes from a letter written in the eigbtb oi 
by St. Boniface to tbe Abp. of Canterbury : (as see tl 
tion on " Intemperance in England.") " It is reported tl 
in your dioceses the viceof drankennesais too frequent," eto.„ 1 
closing with reference to the ancient decrees that " a Iiiflhop J 
01 a prieet given to drink abould either resign gr be t 
posed." One of these decrees, tliat of A. P. 569, refetri 
to tbe priests, reveals the fact that malice as well a 
tality, sometimes led the unfaithful clergy to tempt i 
even to force others to become intoxicated : " He that forcoB ^ 
another to get drunk out of boepitality must do penance as 
if lie bad got drank himself. But he who out of hatred or 
wickednesa, in order to disgrace or mock at others, foroM 
them to get drunk, if be has not already snffieientlv dona 
penanoe, must do penance as a mnrderer of bouIb." Otliot 
penalties are thus set forth: 

" If a hiahop or nny one ordained tms a habit of drnu)[«iu)H 

*Law Btiok of tbe Ante-Nicene Church, qaotett by Itili^IilO U 
hia Seriptare Teitimos^ againsl Winr. p. 150. 

t War of Four TTionsand Teara, pp. 154, IfB, Kce abut vador 
chapters in Mo«heim'a EccIesiaAtionl Hiatary, ftnd in Nmiulef 
History of the Christian Churdi. 

Ecdeaiasfical PenaHici. 275 

, either rosign nr lift itepoaed. If a iiioot; driiiliB till be 
be must (lo Ikifly duys' pennute; If a jirieet or ilv-aruo, 
forty daj-H. 11' a priu»t gets ilrnnk lliruii^li iiiiulvertiMicp, ho 
mnat do peujtuce seven dnjs; if tlirongh Pnroliwmiiwii, Hrtei-u 
diiys; if tlirimgli ctiotciiipt, forty i1:i,ts; a doupun or inimk, font 
weeks ; a aab-deacon, three ; a layman. ooi> neck." 

In 1255, Walt«r, Bisliop of Dnrliam, forbids " thoac iu 
loly orilere tLat tLey lie not drunkardg, nor lioop tuvpms, 
lest they die an eternal di-atlj." 

In 1536, Henry Vni. aa "Defender of tbc Faill.,'' 
lesned tluB iujunution : 

The aaid deim. parxoiiR, Tiran 

■ ia uo wiae, at iiny iinlawfol ti 
for their honest necessity, haunt or resui-t t 
or ale-hanaea ; and after their dinner andsnpper Ihoy Bhiill not 
give thenistJveB t*i drinkiug and riot." • 

Alip, Pluukett, apeaking of the Irieli clergy in the latter 
lort of the 17th centtiry, says : 

" While visiting sis ilioe<!SPs of thia province, I apf.lipd my- 
elf especially to root out the cupwhI vire of driiiikeanesii, 
which ia the parent and nurse of alt HCiimlalH and ciint«nt1(ius. 
*" POBimaiided also, nndor penalty of privation of lieneflte, that 
o jiiieat should frequent public bouses or drink whiskey." f 

A Scotch Presbytery, in 1C37, sentenceil a, drunkard "to 
Itand iu Backcloth two Sabbatha ; and to paye four niarkeB 
lenaltye," t 

Ab wo have seen in a former chapter, (the citation from 
larliom's Statistics,) that full fifty per ecut. of jill the caeee 
f Oluirch diseipllne, are occarioneil liy intempernni'e, bo 
ro may refer to the history of all Christian bccIs fur Icgis- 
fttion on Ibis siibjwit, for various deviees of penalHcR, even 
rhftro, as in the caao of Protestant socta, geneTiilIy. the with- 
Irawal of felluwahip and watch care ia tho extreme puiiiBh- 
iKfiit thftt can he inflicted. As uo evil has lieen a ^renter 

• JeatTrpsnn's Honk about the ClorEy. I. p. 90. 
t Dlspipline of Drink, pp. 77, 111. 135, 140, 166. 
t Keid's CycLoprodia, p. 281. 

fi76 Alcohd h. Matorp. 

ffip to tlio psiatence and prosperity of cliurclieB, i 
soggL'sted tLo uecosaity for n greater iiumlier nf esppdiei 
for making churcli members hil the diame and c 
of (IrunkouuGsa. 

III. Moderation Societies, — The organized effoi 
to (liminiish (Imnkenness were at first characterized hy 
lowing tbo use of all known iutostcants, in moderation' 
and afterwards, by the exclusion of tbo use of distilled 
liignors, and the permission of moderate indulgence in fer- 
mented drinks. So far as we have been able to ascenain, — 
aUhough personal efforts for, and eommendations of mode- 
rate dj'iuking, are notieeable in the history of most remol« 
times, — the organization of amiietiea for this purpose, ifl 
comparatively modern. 

In 1017 the first society of this kind, so far as tlie mil 
knows, was tiatabliahed in Germany. It was called ll 
" Ordtr of Temperance," and was well supported by tl» 
nobility, clergy and gentry. Its founder, Sigismoiid de 
Dietrichatoin, had especially in view, the cultivatioa ef 
temperate habits among the highest classes, who wwo iiiat 
bocoming dissolute l>y the esaotionH of the habit of eoeial 
drinking; and it was the chief aicu of this society to )inl 
an end to the custom of pledging of healths, a praullce 
then earned to such an extreme that iutoxieatioiL was uuni 
to be an aeeompaniment of the moat casual meeting of 

In 1000, Maurice, the Lantlgravo of Hesse, establiithed 
another society, the fundamental rule of which waB, " Thai 
every member of the society pledges himself never lo l>mmie 
intoxictitcd." To guard against the violation of this pltulge, 
It was ordered by the society that no member "should ho 
alloirwdmore than iteven goblets of wine at a nmaX, and 
that not more than twice ft day ! " A third eoisety, of > 
wuiilar choraj^ter, wojs e/iUed the " Ring of Gold," and 
was established by the Connt Palatine, I'redMiok V. 


Miidcrulion Jioddiix. 277 

Tho members of these Biiiietii>B pleflgej thomeelvcD to oh- 

Serve tUi* nilea for tno yciirs.* 

We finil no further tToce of Teniporance Societies of jiiiy 
nd, for jieiirly two Iiandred years; for the next meutiuii 
of Jill organization of farmera, in tho New Worlil. Tlie 
iDBingburg, N. Y., I'cJcral Herald, of July 13, ITffl), 
this item : 

' TJpwatdB of two himdred of tlie most reapectuble farmcTB 
the Connty of Lit-clifieUl, Couneotivtit, ha,vtt formed an 
to discourage tile rue of apiritiiona liquors, uiid hnvo 
to use any kind of distiOed liquors duriug tlieii 
wotk the onsniDg seuaon." t 

Drinking habits, as wr have already seen, were at that 
'me prevailing to an alanuing extent among the peo|iIi' of 
La United States. The Trench War had done uiiiob to 
temoralize the people, and the War for Iude]ipnilenco liad 
Bereaved the tendency to intemperance. PatJiiita and phi- 
utthropifitB were sonnding the alarm and putting in motion 
le argimiflnta and moral influences which were to make 
Lmerica the btrth-plarco of all subsequent urgauizod work 

ihia great evil. 
Ab early aa 1737, Benjamin !Lay, an illiterate sailor, but 
, true lover of his kind, put forth a little work in wliich he 
ought to awaken the disgust of bia countrymen against the 

of rnm, by detailing the fUtliy manner of its maniifac- 
re, as lie Uiid obaorvod it iluring his voyages to Barha- 
4tg. He made liitter complaint that " we send away our 
wlleut (irovisioua and other good things, to purchase such 

ilttiy Btnff, whicU tends to tho corruption of mankind ; 
nd tlioy Bond among ua aome of the worst alaves when 
liey cannot rule them themaolvee, along with tlieir mm, to 

•The TeetotallBr's Companion, by Peter Bnrae, p, 311, IIJs- 
Dry of tllu Tempernuce Movement, by SimiTU'l I'uiiliug, p. 2i. 
VfftrofFourTliouaaudYKiirEs, p. leS. 

1 CiiutaDliial Temperance Voimno, p, 423. 

complete tbe tragedy, i. e,, to slay, to destroy tlie [)«)]^id 
of PenMBylvania, and to ruin the oouutry." 

On the eve of the llevolntion, viz., in 1774, a pamphU 
with the follawing title was publi&hed in PLilailolplui 
" llio mighty Destroyer Uisphiyed, in some Accouuu C 
the Droadfal Havock made by the nuistaksu Uao ns v 
as Abuse of Distillod Spirituous Liquors. By a I^ver « 
5Iaiikiud."t It was no douM from the pen of the 
Anieriean phihinttiropist, Ancliouy Beneset; and i 
dcrfnl production for the thoroughness of its presoDtatioi 
of the sabjoct. It ifl largely made up of extracts from t 
writings of Drs. IlaleB, Qo^&n, Chcyno, Shoi't, Lhn), i 
Buchau, on the phyuological evils of the use of dbtiUi 
epirite ; combats tho notion that they are needed Ji 
hot or cold countries ; enforces tho moml aT^m<>tit lis ti 
forth in 1 Cor. viii. 13 ; and pleads for Total i\,)>scJnencfl 
agaiQi^t the mistuken notion that some use of hitoxianDtx il 
necessary. Aud further, it attuiJca the use of T^mimJi 
drinks, qnoting from Dr. Buchan : " Tliero aro fow p 
ale drinkers who are not phthisical, nor ia thai tj bt) \ 
dered at, considering tho gintinous and almost indrgustil) 
Mature of strong ale." 

In 1777, Dr. Benjamin Rnsh, of PhiladelpliI: 
time " Snrgeon-Goneral of the Army for tho Middlo 1 
partmeut," wrote and published, by request of the " 
of War of the American Army." a pamphlet pntitloj 
"Directicma for Preserving tlie Health of floldiors," 
which he took strong ground ugainat the nso of AluohoM 

In 177S, B n z t s.n I a other pamphlet, to which i 
appended hii; na u nt 1 d ' Kemurks iin the Natitni a 
Bod Effects of Spirituous L quore, ooUected by Antliw 

• eameon Slinm n rl h L ks Eeunwuil ! or th* nrKtaTyl 
SpiritiiouB I-iqaors iu PemiBjlviuiia. By Buv. Gnorgu li ~ 
Jr. Pp. 17, 18. 

f A copy may be tonnd in tho I.ibr.'iry of the Iliitlorloal Pjatir^ 
efPeiutsylrania, beanag Vu^ tj 

MotUiaCion &'cUdinj. il7li 

Benezet." * In tliia pnmplilet, lie iiiIo|il» Uin opinion of Dr. 
CUeyne: "Water iilono is suifii^iL'iii au>l oflWl.iml lor all 
e porpoHCB of Liuuu,u want in drink ; uttung liqaore nore 
iver deagneJ for common use." 

In 1785 Dr. Bush publistetl an " Enquiry into tlio EfiL'tla 
f Ardent Spiiita npon the Unman Body and Hind." " By 
said, " I mean all tlioao liquors wliicli are ob- 
iuEid by diBtiUatiun from tbo fermented jiiicce of suhHttwoes 
•f any kind." To this little book, which was repnlilished 
a large editions, as early as 1794, 1804, and 1811, — and 
Schieh is atill a standard autliority on the subject, — and ta 
the personal efforts of its autlior, we are largely indebted 
lor general enlightenment on the evils of intemperance, and 
xtr the early organizations for Its suppression. 

In 1788 he appeared before the " Philadelphia Annual 
Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church," then in 
Q the city of Philadelphia, and "made an earnest 
Brsd animated address on the nse of ardent spirits, taking 
tiie broad grouud tbyn so strongly occupied by the Con- 
ference, and since so signally taken and maintained by the 
{Temperance Beformation : ' that total abstinence is no kas 
ike demand qf o»r nature than it is Ifie rule of our safety^ 
1 he besought the Conference to stop tho nse aa well as 
tbo abnse of spirit drinking." f 

Two years later (1790), a volume of Sermons on Intem- 
Jraance was anonymously published in Pliila<lelphia. 
rhey were evidently the production of a physiuian, and 
baVB generally been attributed to Dr. Rnali. 

The session of the General Assenibly of the Presbyterian 
ChiH«L. ol Philadelphia, in 1811, was visited by Dr. Rush, 
lis ministers and elders were presented by him with 1000 
Wpies of hie treatise, and personally urged to take souje 
rtfipB that would show their desire to put a stop to dnmk- 
Tlie neoeBSary limits in which the historj- of tlie 

*Th«re is ft copy in tlie Friends' Library, Pliilaclelpliia. 

t Bepiwt of tho PtJonBylvania Stnta Temf eiajiica tmaa, ISIV, 

raiivomont mnst lie kept in these pages, fortitila extended 
extracts troai this " Enquiry," l>iit justice seome to demand 
lliat (It least tliis jnach slionld lie quoted, to mtt tnnh it* 
Buopo, and tlic forcible luiijiner m which tlm subject was 
treated : 

" Tbii effBPts of ftrAeut spirita ou the iotfj axe — 1. A decay of 
appetite. 2. A onsimiiuK of tlie liver of the ilrtinlciird, Ukctlis 
viiltnte preying on that of PrometlioDB. 3. ilouudioo uid 
ilraspy. 4. UoorseDeaa and conatimption. 5. Diabetes. 6. 
' linm-buds' in the fnoe, descooding to the limbs ia the form uf 
leprosy. 7. A fcetid breath. 8. Spontaneous conliiiRttaii. 
9- Epilepsy. 10. Gont in all its various forma of sweTlwl 
llmba, culio, palsy, apoplexy. 11. Moduess. Ita effecil on 
the mind are — 1. To impair tbe niGiaoTy. 2. To debililute tiiB 
nnderstonding. 3. To pervert the moriil fuculliea. 4. To 
produce falsebood, fraud, uucleauneaa and murder- Id folly, 
it causes a rana to roaemblo a ealf iu stupidity ; an am in tour- 
ing; a mad bull in quarrelling; a dug in fighting; a tii^r in 
cruelty: u skunk ia fetor; a hug in iiltliiness, luid a lie-goat in 

In 1805, the Paper Makers of Philadelphia, " aseodated 
theiDBclves together I'or the puipose of improving their ajt, 
and ameliorating tile coiidiliiin of woritit/ niifortanatA 
jtiumoyiuen aud tbeii families. "They eoon found that 
.tho excessive use of strong drink was alinost tlio only 
cause of the misery and poverty which they had nc- 
caaion to relieve, and they at once soiiglit to restiict thia 
evil. The conclnaion at wbich they onived waB, "to use 
every possible endeavor to restrain and prohibit the 
of ardent apirits in their respective mills."* 

In 1806, Dr. Sush found an ardent and offici«nt 
worker, in Eev. Ebfiiiezer Porter, of Wasbingt.on, CiW- 
neclicut, who preached and published a Bcmion oti " TliO' 
Fatal Effects of Ardent Spirits." In this Sermon wu liavO 
probably the jirst att<!mpl lo sot forth the siatiHiIca of tlit 
coiiHuniption of ardent spirits in the United Htaten. 

In Jlaioii, ISOS, Dr. B. J. Clark, a pliyaician in Mgrean, 


ModfToiion Sodeties. 281 

Saratoga county, N. Y., alarmed at the incresso c-f iuiem- 
peiimt'e in tbe pla<ie of liia residence, sooght the advice of 

Is paetoTj Rev. Lebltens Armstrong, of the Oongrejrational 
Church, to whom h« commnnioBted Lis conviction : " Wo 
shall all become a cominimity of dmnkards in this to<KD. 
anlofis something is done to arrest the progreEit of ioten 
perimce." Developing hie plan of a Tpnipemnee Orgai 

eation, hie efforts was seconded by his pai^tiir and otlu'rs, 
knd resulted in the organization on the 30th day of Apiil, 
B year, of " The Temperate Society of Horeao 

tnd Nortbumberland." A OonstitKtton was ailopted and 

BCeived the signatures of forty-tliree members. It provided 
br fonr meetings during the ye^ir, and defined its purpose 
tad tbe means of effecting it, in the following provisions ; 

Article IV. No member shall drink nun, gin, whiskey, wine, 

any rlistilleil spirits, or compOHltion of the aame, or any of 

except hy advice of a phyfiiriiin, or in case of actnal dia- 

; alHO, exceptiug wine at pablic dinuera, under penalty of 

lwenty-fiv« cents ; provided that this article Bhall not inftinge 

any religions ordinance. 

' fiec. 2. Ko member shall he intoxicated, nnder penalty of 

"See. 3. KomemberHhallolFei any of anidliqnorBto any other 
etulier, or urge any other person to drink thereof under jiiui- 
ty of twnnty-liva cents for each ofloace.'' 

" Art. XI. It aLflJI be the duty of each member to Hccnae any 
lier member of a breach of any regnlation contained in Article 
r., aail thn mode of accusative process and trial aliall be 

ftied liy a by-law." 
"Tlda liltio fscble baud of temperance brethren, held their 
iaart«dy and annniU meetings in a conntry aistrict school- 
looBo fWim April, 1808, onward for several years, without tbe 
of a single fowalo at their temperauco meetings,"* 

Anollier siioiety was organized in April, 1809, at Gteen- 
ield, in the same county, on a similar baais.f 

•Itintory of the Tempnraut'o Krformation, by Eov- Lebbens 
4iinstrtin)j;, ^ip. If -28. 
t CeotifimiaJ Tomporauce Volume, p. 21. 

In the '' National Temperanoe Advocalo," for Janonr^i,! 
1881., it is atutetl tbut at u recent TeiuporancQ meeting i 
the uily i)f New York, Uev. Dr. B. Ireuteus rrime, of ilio J 
" New Turk ( thserver," suit) : 

"I licitcl in mp huud a prioted aetmoii on inteiaperni 
proaoliuil l)j my fatUiu.', Nuthuniul S. Prime, Not, 6, 1811, fi 
thi' words, 'Wild liiith woe t' etc.; ' tlioy that turty long Bl tl 
winu.' TUat vaa before I wua bom. It wiis pre»olied 1' 
the Presbytery of Long Island, ami it apjwuU to niinlatera n 
all otliors to discoarage tlie nae of inljjxicnting drioks. 
argiunontB now in nso nie employed in tkia scriuon, tl 
ohjeutions answered, und the same appeiils are made. ThU W 
fourteen yoara before Dr. Beeclicr's famous semiooa ■ 
preached. Tho rresbytery tJiat llBteuod to Mr- Prime's sttnu 
letiuoated ita piihlicatiou ; it adoptud a resolntiou reconimc 
ing their poopla t« Te&niu from ofieriug ai'deat spirits or « 
as an act of hospitality. Tha Busaion of the cbuicb, aud i 
the ehnrcliof whichMr. Prime was puator, FreahponiU, adopt«l 
a similar roaolntiou, and a total revolatiou iu the hablta of 
community was tho result." 

The Adeoeate ivdila : " In 1812 Mi. Prime removed from I 
Island, and, after preaching in Saratoga County, was eeti 
iu 1813, in Cambridge, Washington Co., New Tork, wliow 1i 
at once organized the fanners of bis congregation into a 
perance society." 

Perbaiia the most important of tbo early orgAiiizatiotiHjj 
curtaiuly the most influential as an examp!© for othaj 
lucatitiua, was tbo one ori^anizeil in Boston, Maee., i 
The canaeB wliiuh leil to tliis now Bouiety niay ho tntced U 
Dr. Raeh's visit tii the BeasioTj of tho Preebyttsiian Gen* 
Asaembly, iii 1811- At that sosBinu committooa wero 
pointed to considor the evil and its rt'ntedy. The t 
year the Associated Cbnrcbos of Oonnectiont aud lilai 
cbaeetta took np tbe eubjeut, and np{)omtt^d Poruntlllt'CM V 
"cooperate with tboso of the General Assembly «f tlij 
PrcBbyterian Church." The immediate resiill. wiia thai 
was resolved to diai^onuteiiance the nue of anient e|ilritH 
the publie meetings of these bodies ; and u mere i-xtondM 
result was tJio effect produced ou Bidi.mlinalo bodIv«, a. 
tbe cFBAtion of a B 

Modenilhn Societies. 

:»iiisie<l work by n 
)f tlic gie&t evil. 

of secnTar souiotieB, for the arrest 

"TTio ConBociation of tho Western Diatrict of Fuirficlil 

." Connecticut, at a meeting in Oct., 1812 — 
'* Voted — That we cordially apjirove of the doings of the Gen- 
ii AsBOciutign of C'Duneoticnt, on this nnbject, at their session 
B laBt, nad will, as far as ptacticahte, comply with tbtiir 
"wcoiumendations; Purticulttrty, "1. That the cuBtomorr use 
of ardent syiritB shall be wlloUy diecontluaed, at all future 
mnetinga of thifl body." "4. That we will endeavor to influence 
tho membera of onr respective churches, and other well-dispoaed 
peTRons in our congregations, to contribute for the purchase and 
gratnitons distribntion of well-wrLtteu ttacts on the subject ; 
parficniarly one by Dr. Rnah of Pbiladelphia, and report our 
progress in thia nadertaking, to the nest annual meeting of this 
niody." It was also raled — "That Mr. Swan, Mr. Hnmplirey and 
Hjb. Bonnt>y, be a committee, to draft and print an Addiefts, re- 
^Keotinj^ the intemperate usu of Ardent Spirits." 

H^ Tbie aHdreBH, which bears the imprint, "New Haven, 
^H13," makes montion of tho fact that, " The late formation 
^B A geneml aociety in this Stato, for tho promotion of good 
^toToIa, promiscH to be a powcrfol engine to put down dram- 
^Bops and arrest the progress of intemperanco ; " and re- 
^■munends the citizens to become " memliers of this society, 
^Bsd to estalilish limnch societies in their respective par- 
H^hes." * ^liat speuiiil service was rendered to the Tem- 
^nrance cause of thi» State Society, and to what 
Bbttfut, if at all, braiiohoB of it were planted in various parts 
^■f the State, tUe writer is not informed. 
^K Through the mntnal inflnence of a Gongreg'ational and 
H^THbytenan Alliauce, and under the counsels of the Hon. 
^Biusiuol Dexter, a distinguished lawyer, who said that ho 
^hjiilii pay all the taxes of Boetnn and of the State of Maa- 
^BcbtuettB, if he miglit have the profit on the traffic in 
H|)irituous liquora, t " Tho Maseaiihusetta Society for the 

^K * "An Address lotheChiir('ht>BiuiiI Confrregations of the Weat- 
Heu Dintrlt't of P';iiTficlil Cimnty," pji, 3, 27. 
H i AaCobiograpby iif Juliu Moriilt, II. D., p. 12. 

SupjiressioB of Tnteraperance," was formed, Feb, 
Its object was, '' to liiMCountenance and Buppress tiie ti 
free ii§e of ardent Bpirtts, aail its Itindred vices, pn)laiicD< 
anil gamiDg ; and to encountge and [>roruote t</mpertmue luxi 
general morality," Thia society iiilA apecml nioetinga 
occasion might require, ftod an unnuiil meeting' at which 
sermon or a^dreBS was deliverer! before tlio Society, 
BOiDO poraon elected for the pmposo. According to 
Marsh : " The Society did little bnt observe ftn auni 
Bary and liave a sermon preacbod, after which proat-'ker 
hearers would repair to tables richly laden with wine; 
was therefore withont efficafly in rooting out the evil." 
And Dr. A. P. Peabody, in a recent article in the " Caio- 
biidge Tributie," thus speaks of it 

" It liud among its meTubera the foremoBt men iti Chnroh and 
State, incluiliiig the ohief-jnstice of the Uoniiuouwealtli, Ihs 
preaidont of Harvard Colloge, Hon. Nathan Dsuo, and otiin 
persons of like stauding and uliurnctur. The uitiiulieni of tbia 
Bociutj wero probaldy, without exception, perfectly tempentt 
nipn, most of tliom opposed to the u«e of difltilled spirits, Imt, 
perhaps, nono of them Bcrnpnlona as to the moderate nw of 
wine 'rbef Boon oxperieuced tfao tmth of the adage, 'Dotbat 
yon may know.' One of the oiigmal memheis told the writ«r 
of tLis article that at the earlier meetings, hold at privata 
housed, the then osnal display of decanters appeared on lh(< 
eidelioard, uud was not suffered to remain a mere show : tlint, 
wliun a moeting wna to take place at hia lionse, Le took core to 
have Ills sideboard generooaly replenished ; that the iuciiogrn- 
ity of such indnlgence with the work in hand stniek Iiini ul 
the lost moment, and induced lilm to lock np thu ileeauton; 
and that the members, taking kind and gt«t«ful notice of liil 
procednre, resolved iufocmally, lint uaanimousl y, to Arink DM 
more at their meetingH, This aociety, while it held the fan 
gronnd, directed its efforts niairily a^'aiuet the use of dLstJTl 
Hptrits. and, it must be ailtuitted, in favor of light wiuo* uii 
homo-mode fermented liquors. Wo well rememher 
forioiiting cnrrant winu ]jriiit«d on theltist loaf of one of Uwil 
wldely-riroiilated annual addrpssea.' 

The Anniial Beports of the Bueiety sIlow, Lowcv<ir, tliHl 


ModeraHon Societies. 2H5 

ot witlinut influeiiee in eiUMJuragiiig the offjanization 
if other State, Counlj- fitid 'I'owu HocietieB, and ihiit tbese 
D time led to a siicMssful effort lor a NfttiDn&l urg'aiiiEation. 
11 1S33 it cliangedita form of organization, and became 
"Tlifl MoBsouiiR setts Tomperance Society," the mcmbeni 
* pledging themselves tliat tliey will not use dietilled spirit 
B drinlt, nor provide it ao an article of refreslimenl for their 
fiicn<Ili, nor for persona in their eniployment." The or- 
^niscation is etill in esistenee, but dose little more than to 
lold an anminl meeting for the purpose of legally holding 
i&d managing its funds. 
In 1818 a Society " to cbeclc and discourage the use of 
rtlent apbits," was organized in Daj-by, Delaware County, 
. Y. 
' In 1626, a national organization, called the '' American 
Teniperano* Hooiety," — ten years later merged into llie 
'AmMiLmn Temperance Union,"— organized in Boston, 
r a pledge of " Total Abstinence from Ardent Spirits," 
iev. -J. L. ilauaford states that a by-law of this sokiety at 
e time of its onginal oi^innization, read thus: 
" Any member of this ABsociation who shall lie ronvictod of 
Qtoxionlion, shall he lint.>d tvro sliillings, unless siirb act of in- 
' xicivtion hLuU take p1act> on the 4th of July, or on any regu- 
itly appointed military mnster." • 

I And Dr. Slursh saya : " In the early stago of the tempBrance 

lomQ fricDils of tlio CMnac in Boston thouglit hext t'O e«- 

itilifili a brewery to ftimish men whii wuuld ulntain from 

ntcnt spirits with heor. Thoy diil sd, ami mmiu fiiileil, sinking 

* 820,000 in the business. How liuppened itf Why, they 

■0 boju-at moQ, and made honest oln ; wliorona other lirowets, 

BiUR ilrnj.'* iiud poisims, were able to underse]] them, and 

bmi>ullcil tlii'Di tu sell at euL'h a jirloe that they could not sub- 

itn tile Inisiness." t 

B«T.EdwioThompson,ft)r many years, and at present one 

AddrMw deliTered at Lynn, Muas,, April 31, 1864. p 8. 
t Praiiiia in lutimcating l.ii|iiois. The Sin of lirimkard MuU- 
Kew Vorlt 1856, o. p- Sue also " Lettur to tile Frieuda of 
'itliipiiruneo iu IdasBachusetts, liy Juetln FiA>N!u:A&." \&o«Iu>u, 
,.j.. 11. 12. 

288 jflooftoT Mt flfetow/. 

oftho most active and pfficienttMlvooateBol'tlni Tomjieranc* 
cftiiso in MftBuaclraHottB, ini'orms the writur tlmt lie w 
Bonally awjnainted with one of the partiea in thifl eiite>] 
prise, and thai the brewery was erected at Roxbury, i 
1828 or 1829. In tLe broad liyht now pouring upon i 
tliese rules and mcasureB aeem impolitio and 'absttrd, 1 
they were the honest attempts of earnest tnen, strugglh: 
in efforts to suppress intemperance. And not wholly i) 
vain, for in the flret annual report of the National BociutyJ 
it was shown that State organizations hnd btien establishes 
in New Hampshire, Vermont, Illinois and Indiana 
local auxiliary societies, " thirteen in Maine, twenty-tl 
in Now Hampshire, seven in Vermont, thirty-n 
saebusetts, two in Rhode Isbind, tbii 
seventy-eight in New Tort, sis ii 
Pennsylvania, one in Delaware, < 
Virginia, two in North Carolina, 
one in Kentucky, 
a total W two hmidre<I a 

y-threc in Oonnocticn 

New Jersey, seven i 

"n Maryland, five i 

I in SontL Cm 

1 (!)hio, and two in Indiaita; mftkinj 

ind twenty-two in the UnioB.** 

And in 1833, there were not less than 5,000 societies U 
the United States warring agtunst the use of ardent -spirit^ 
having a memborship of 1,500,000, of whom 10,000 h 
been dnmtarde ; 4,000 distilleries Lad been Btopped ; 6,0 
merchants had g^ven up the sale of distilled liquors, wluW 
DO over 1,000 vessels their use bad been abandoneil.f 

In 1833 a large number of Senators and Itepr080ntativM| 
in the United States' Congress, organized a TeiuptviuMAl 
Society, on the basis of Total Abstinence from tlio naeof J 
.irdciit Spirits. 

In 1828, Moderation Societies begun to exist iu CouoiJai! 
the first being estabiisLod in Montreal. Until 1835 
drcd societies multiplied rapidly thrDUghimt ibo I>oiulni<ilh| 

Turning again to the old world, wo find that in 
the inhabitants of tho town of rioudhllls, Scotlmul, i 
ed at the prospect of the re-opening of (he mult distilliTieiU 

Moderalioii Societies. 267 

Besolvefl, in view of the pvil effects of tho use of (Jistilk-il 
liqnora on liealtli and luomls, and regnrding the nse of 
gieins in thu diBtillerieB as & " prindpnl cniise " of a recent 
"feminp," "'to disconrage to the utmost of onr power, hy 
kll public metliods, that pemitaous practice, being doter- 
fiiaed to drink no spirits so diistilled ; neither frequent, nor 
"rink any liquor in any tavern ot ale-house that we know 
iF retailH the same." • 
How long this reaolution was in force, and what influ- 
Mice it exerted, is unknown. Sixty-eight years later, Mr. 
fohn Dunlop, who had heen engaged for some years in the 
JBligiouB educntaon of the young, and in Bible and mission- 
y Bocieties, in the west of Scotland, paid a risit to France, 
chttTdhe was sadly affected by the fitot thattlie latter country 
■aa far in advance of Scotland in general morality. 
jiowing that his country made great boast of its sound- 
ess in religious faith, and of its zeal for the esclusiou of 
leiesiee, he was led to iiuiuire into tho cause of such a 
trange anomaly, and was forced to the conclusion Ihat the 
Dve of tlio Scotch for wliiskey and other distilled drinks, 
MUntod for it. He al onco made himself familiar with 
be laws and methods of the American Temperance Socle- 
iea, and at a religious meeting in Glasgow, urged the ne- 
esfflty of steps being taken in Great Britain for tho snp- 
rcBsion of national intemperance. He had little difficalty 
1 deuonstratlng that intemperance was a growing evil in 
wtlfuul, but the differences as to the respective modes of 
il'e of the Hvitish and Americans seemed so great to his 
udienoe tliat tiiey were i^uite unanimous in theii'opinion that 
flialliad wrought a good work here, conldnot possibly accom- 
~" h anything there. A year later, he again visited Glas- 
iow, luid after spending two days in personal interviews 

■Itii many clergymen and others, held a conference with 
loiit twenty influential genl.lenien, before whom lie laid 
iith facts an ho had l)ecii able to collect with regard totlio 

■Kdinbur^Ii M.ig»Kiiin, April, ncO. QuoVwionv-^l'^^^®* 

JTcoheX in HwfiJry. 

extent of intemperance in their country, a detailed occoun 
of lliB American Tetnperance Sooieliea, and a proposal fo 
a system of BJmilai (isBociationa and pledges for UuntUndi 

A long iJiacuBsion followed, and innoh inloreBt wasmsui 
feet, but no one comraittedlumBelf toadesire or willingnea 
to try the experiment of organized effort, until a elergyma^ 
— tLe only one present, — who had taken the pretmoticinj 
before leaving liis Lome, to prejudge ibe caae by prepuring 
a resolution, rose, and in a solemn uianuer offered the £}!■ 

" ICeaolved, Thut this meeting tenAera its liMt tlianlia to lib 
Dunlop for his aililress with reference to tile alu uf ilniakeDneri 
bnt it is the opinion of the meeting that no Tcnipa-anoe AModt 
Hon milt ever u>arjt tM Scotland." 

No one seconded it ; on the contrary, several etrongi; 
condemned it, and Mr. Dunlop was Tequcsted to cM»itinne hi 
investigations, and report at a subsequent meeting. J 
month later, having carefully fortified himself with 6m!1 
and argnraents, he again visited Glasgow, tq give a pul 
lecture on " The Extent and Remedy of National 
peranee," But no religious society was willing to allni 
him the use of either church or clmpel fur such a purpose 
At last, scouring a suitable place, he sent courteous notiet 
to the clergy, requesting thorn to aunounee Iiis luei^liii^iuii 
its purpose. Nearly all of the ministers tlirew the notitM 
aside, thiuMng that the project was vain and foolish. Am 
of the few who complied with his request, one afti 
acknowledged that during the reading of the aiiuouuoeinwiii 
ho kept his eyes doggedly fixed on the paper, not Huil 
to look either to the right or to the left, lest he miglit \ 
drawn to laugh outright, in case any uf liie atitltinii 
slionld show sj-mptoma of risibilily I 

The lecture, however, was a sitoceBS, belli in llic am 
hers who heard it, and in the effect ]iraduc«d. Qnlie 
nnmber of Dii-inity students who were in atiendanco, ww 
disposeil, as wi'i-emnnyiilhera in the andieiiw. tonfi>iv»ll 

Moderation Societies. 281) 

not gainsay, liegan tii be marahalleJ befovo tiicui, they 
weie awed into ijiiiet, and thou tu etinieet attiiition. But 
u theu, the dislike of iiinovatious, poeHilily tli«i spci'tal 
aveireion to being tanglrt by America, and tht' fear of fiiibiri', 
caused even the moet iuteroetod to refuse to start au or^n- 
izRtiuu in Gla^ow. " Let the experiment he first triiHl 
elBftWliere," they said, " and if it shall sacceed there, we will 
venture on a trial here." The Diviuity stndents before re- 
ferred lo, came forward and offered to bwsoroe niemliers 
ffheuever it should he deemed best to organize in itiat city, 
r. Dunlop therefore retired to Lis homo in Greenock, and 
' a society there. Meanwhile Mies Graham and Miss 
Jlttn, his personal friends, sncceedod in organiziu? a 
E'emale Temperance Society at Maryhill, a email villai!^<, 
r Glasgow. Their organization was (;reuted Oi;lobcr 
lA, 182!), four days earlier titan the one at Greenock. 
' And the two BOeieliea," saya Mr. Dnnlop, •' beginniug 
'mtnediatsly to flonrisb and do estraoi-dinary goiid, proved 
B metms, nnder Providence, of showing to the gentlemen 
inw interested, in Glasgow and elsewhere, that there was a 
Beibility of the plan succeeding if persevered in."* 
On the 12tli of November, 1829, the " Glasgow and 
(Vust of Scotland Temperance Society," was formed. Its 
tlstfotta was thus espresBcd lu Article II. of its Constita- 

Tliat the society shall conslet of all 'vrho, nnder the convic- 
I that uit«m])erance uuil its uttendunt tiTils are promoted hy 
itin;; huliits aud opinions in regard to the oee uf iutuxiuating 
Igoan, ainl llial dei^isive nietisiires fur effmsting u rufortiiiitian 
te iudispeosiililD — do vulimtnrlly agree to relinquish entii'ely 
ll^ nw of indent spirits, except for medicinal piir}ioses ; and 
[Uiongh the moderate use of other Itguors is not excluded, yet 
■ the promotion of temperance in ovory form is thu spenilio 
naiira of the Harlety, it is understood that escusa iu thenu ueces- 
idly «X('bidt>H fi-oiu niBiutiership." I 

"Thft Enrly lIiToos uf the Temperance Reliimiiiliun. IJy 
raiiam I-OKiiii, pp. 'JO-lll. 
t Umiliiig, PI'. 31!, 3?. 

290 Akdhd vn Hintory. 

At tbo first annual meeting, tbe eocietj-^ 

" Reported tUat durinj; lUu year tlioy liad firpnlated 425,3( 
tracts, iu ailililiou tu 2(l,i!00 tGiuiierancu jiompklutH, wluuh iiitffl 
lieea priuled ut tlio (iluaguw pn«8. Tli« sociuty in Edinlni 
had also uircnlatt'd 40,000 tracts, tbo sooiety in Greenock, 3,00 
Dmidee, d.OOO, I'elth, 4,000 ; ttnd it waa estimated IJiHt tbe t« 
mimlier of temperance frarta, and largL'c publioatioi 
Scoliand, iluiin^ilio yuar, \~as considerably more than baUiq 
milliuD. The uamlier of mcmbera in Glasgow, was reportcid tj 
be 6,072, wltda in all Scotland it waa atated that there « 
fewer than 130 aocieties, and 25,478 members. Thebalaaeoali 
Bbowed nn income of £347. lis. 2id., and an expenditnM o 
£675. 188. 7id., leaving a balance dae to the treasurer OffW 
7a. 5d," • 

In 1829, a aonibinatiun of circiuQ stances, notable t 
whitih was the reoent reduction of tlie duty on spirits, » 
increased the consutnptioa of intoxicants, and the < 
qaent evile, in Irelaud, that three ministers of Belfi 
convened a puhlie meeting to conaider what eonld bed 
to check the evil, and capecially to diuiiuisli the I 
ardent spirits on the Sabbath. It was decided at t 
meeting that Rev. Dr. Edgar should prejiare and pre 
through tho public proHS, an appeal to the iiublic. 
engaged in prfiparing his addi'esa, ho learned throngb t 
American olorgyntan, tlie nature, prugress and benefit 
results of tho American movement, and emljodyiug tl 
facta in his address, acoompanied with strong recomincndiwj 
tioiia for the trial of tho experiment, gave it to the |niblic 
through the eolumns of tho secular papers, on tJie 14lh of 

On that same day, Rev. G. W. Carr, a ministor ii 
Hoes, in the south of Ii'cland, who had aUo been J9tnd,vitij 
and advocating the American system, orgaained a Toiapen 
ance Society among hia own people ; the following 1 
. their pledge : 


The luiderfijpied luembors of the New Roaa TeoiTiBTiuioq 
being jiurauuded that tbu lutu of IntoxicaUug liqnaiii^ 

ModeraUon Soc!efi>'!. 291 

loiporaoDS in health, not only uunaceBBn.ry Ltit htiilfuJ, and that 
tlie practioe foims jutomp«ra,t« apjietites ou'l habits ; UJicI Ibat 
wmis it is continued, tiio ovils of mtempenmco caa never be 
jFTBTented — do a^ei> to aba) urn from tha ana of diatillr^d Bjitrita, 
ixaept aa n medicine in citse of builily ailment ; tliut ire wil] 
u>t allow tbo ufto of ttianx in our familieH, nor provide thorn for 
!B>e uiitertaiDineat of our friends; aud. that we \vill, iu all utiit- 
iWe ways, diBcouutenimce the use of tbem in llio commiuiity 
pt large." * 
" 111 leastban twelve months it waB reported that there were 
ixty saeieties in eiisteiice with about 3,500 ref;istiire(l me[iil>ers. 
f their further progress -we have do infuruiution, oicept that 
lie Solleitor-UeuDral stated in. 1831, tbitt there were then ' up- 
'ttrdil of 15,000 mamberH of Temperance Societies m Ireland.'"* 

In the Fall of 1829, Mr. Htmry Forbes, a inerohant of 
YorkHhire, Biiglancl, while on a bni^inefia viait to 
laBg'ow, attended one of the public meetings of the Tern- 
mnCA Society, and at oQt« became interested in its work. 
innng a number of the tracts then being oiroulated by 
tt Bociety, he put them in ciioalation in Bradford, and 
tliB 2nd of February, 1830, organized there the &iBt 
Society in England. Advocates of the cause 
im Scotland and Ireliind, aasiating in the work, other 
pieties were formed, — at Warrington in April, Manches- 
■ in May, Liverpool in July, and Leeds in Bept*inbor, — 
that at tlie clothe of the year there were about 30 socie- 
8, with nn aggregate of 10,000 moinbere. An organiza- 
ti waa effected in London, in June, 1831. The pledge 

' Wo ftgrce to aliatain from distilled eptrita, execpt for medio- 
iJ pnipoaoa, and to disco untoniwoe tlic causae and prautioe 

Tho London Society, in their first annual report, stated 
at " 55 ausiliary Hodeties had been formed, and that 
jarly 100,000 of the publications of the Society liad been 
Itiied in London dlonc," Sooietiea had also been formed 
. tho nrmy ttnd navy. 

' Xe»lotiiiIei'B Companion, p, S20. \ Cooling, pp. 29, 30. 

Akokoi in ff {story. 

A p]e%e adopted by tlie Society in Bla<sk>nini, in 1831, 
will give aa idea of the general roBervation wliioli llie Win- 
pcranco men nf tliat day made of their right to moilerate 

"We- the nnderaigaed, beliering that the prevailmg; opinions 
and practices in regard to tho uae of intoxii-'atiii^ liquuts mis 
moat iiijii[ioiia,'both to the temporal and spiritual inturnstA uf 
thejioople ortliisplai^o, und tliutilu<:i<)edmea.iia ufrefunuatjun, 
iaultiUinjt eKample ob wM (i» preoept, are loudly aud iiuper:i- 
tivi^ly calloil tor, do vdiintariiy agree, that wo will totaUy ali- 
atuin {roBi the use of arttent GpiritB, except for medicinal pur- 
poaes ; that if we use other lii^iiors it shall be in groat nioilBrntiiia : 
and that wo will uuvor use lUeni in any iim or house iu width 
they are aold, CJ'cept irieK ncreesnrs fw Tefrr»hmenl in trarelliag or 
trantiKiUng bitnineasfnnn tome, in order that, hy all proimr tauans, 
we may, tn tha utmost of our power, diacounlenauco the canso* 
and the praulioca of iuteinporunce," • 

The pledge adopted by the. Preston Society in 1832 was 
similar to tliis. 

In Sweden, the firet Society on the Tiosis of total aba 
nence irmn distilled liqaors was organized at Stockbobl 
In 1831- The societies oontiuuod to increivje, thoan 
enoottntering great ripposition, till in tea years they iianli 
bered about 500. 

Recently several attempts haTB beon made in the Ilditd 
States to re^ve Modoratimi Societiee, and in a few Irw 
tiea endh organizutious have Iteen created. The plan ( 
Dr. Jl&cit, before referred to, loolc* no Jartlier tiiao to ti 
prevention ofescesave drinkiag." Dr. Crosby, of NWJ 
i'orkj organized the " Business Men's Sotaoty for I 
encouragement of Moderation." Tiiis society soelu 
a^i'omplisli ita purpose by means of pledgee, fonr in 
whiyli are offered to the choice of those who woold bo C 
rnth'd in mpmberahip. Tin; first is a iilfdgo of I'ltal ah* 
nenee from all intoxicants fi-r §ul-1i k'ngtli of lime as tlj] 
signer may de»igniU« ; the i>ec^n<l m a pledgo to iil>«l 
from all intoxicants escejit wine anil bocir, and Utew to b 

Moderation Societies. 2'M 

k only at raeBle ; the tliird ie a ple<tge, not to ilrliilc 
|ny mtoxicating liquors till after 5 o'clock in the al'tcj'iiooii 
fany day; and tlie founli, pledges tlie aigner nnt to ilriiili 
a beverage, any iutoxicatiiig liquors at tbe oxpontH.' ol' 
my otlier peraon, nor to invite anoUier to driak. It iw 
Bport«<l tliftt during tlie first year of tlie esiatt-nte of ihu 
ipciety it gave 22, 616 pledgee, beiug 5,C(il of tlie first, 
i,100 of the tliird ; and 12,855 of the fonrtli. Slony, it is 
vd, who began witli the third or fourtli, changed llicni fur 
It is believed that many who have t^en tha 
»t) were already enrolled in other total abetineuee urgani- 
atioas, but renewed their pledges here for the purpoeo of 
Inencing others. 

In M»y, 1878, the Pontifical sanction was obtaint'd for 

■the erection of the Sodality of tUe League q/' Ihe Cross 

• the St^prcsswn of DrunUcntiess in St, Lawnmce'a 

Itnrob, 64 E. &4th St., "New York," and in Feb. 1871), 

'power to affiliate similai' societies," was also obtaiuiil from 

9 Pope. Thia Society offers its memlsers the option of 

■o pledges: one of Total and the other of Partial Absti- 

■oce. Ttioee who take the partial pledge, ate forbidden 

f Raid seventh of their Laws to drink what is allowed 

" lit boi'-rooniB, saloons, beer-gardena, or such lite 

or at picnics, or excursions." 

"Those who tnke the Pivttinl pledge may at any time ctinngo 
tor tiia Total ; hut those wlio take the Totitl, niust keBii it for 
I leitst a year before they may diango it fnr the Partial." 
The pledge of Total Abstinence biuila those who take it to 
itain fruitt all intosicatiiig drinkH, beer of every kiuil. no 
flttnv hy whnt nauie It may be known, oider, cnnhnls, bitters, 
•'Men who take the pledge of Pflrtinl Abstiiienco, 
IhiI tlleioselvta not to eseeod in the day of 2'1 Lours, tlii'ue 
■uses of porter, ale, hour of any kind, orcitler, or thntt \;'iue- 
9MM of wine, or two wine glasses of bmndy, whiskey, uia, or 
im, and no. to drink tins in plaeea fiirbiilileii by lliiln 7. 
'i»a*>a Willi tnkii tliu [iliidgeof Psrlinl A!wtinenf^»r6liifiil"il tu 
fo ^aascs of bctr. ale, ute., or one glass of braudy, whialcey, 

-"VVioJ'iKiiaJ," Chicago, Apri\'Jtt, \'mi. 


AMuX in Bhtortf. 

etc., or two glasaes oT wine, and tmdec rmtrictioas amilar tl 

" If anj exueotl the qnautity the mle allows, oi violate SirJl 
7 iu tlioir nse of it, they must renew their pledge before tl 
Director, give up their old eanJ, reteive a new one, daled « 
the day on n-hic:h they tenenod their pledge, and undergo a 
other prohivtioii," * 

rv. Total Abstinence Socteties. — Dr. Leea | 
at the head of his chapter on " Ancient Teetotalism," f itii 
following qnotation from the Medioo-Chirurgical BevioKta 
" Without contradiction, in Every Age of the World thcf 
hs8 been a Total Abatinence. Movement," And 
in confirmation of this statement, giveu historiv pcoi^ 
by citations from the lecorda of antiquity. China, ItidL 
Persia, Egypt, Greece, all contribute their tfistimooifla 
The Bible also Bpeakg for the vork among the leraelitij 
anil of the Apostolic demands in Christian aoticgnity. 
ing already alluded to the latter in speaking of Eoclcij 
tical Penaltiea, no attempt will bo made here to go ovt 
the ground 80 well covered by Dr. Lees ; but u brief i 
tion. wil! be made of aome of the early ti'aces of Totd 
Abstinence not mentioned by him, and of their oaosM 
chief incitements, before attempting to trace the origin a 
extent of this effort in modem times. 

The author just named Las quoted fi^m the "Moden 
Universal Hietory," to the effoet that eleven hnuib 
years before Christ, a Chinese emperor iaened a decree f 
bidding the use of wine in hia domiuiou. Beyond questiod 
the " Announcement about UnmkennesB, " (already quot 
from, a few pages back,) is tie decree alluded to. 
prohibition did not lum at Total Abstinence, but only 4 
checking such escessivo use of what thu doeiuaeut i 
" BpiritB," Rs rendered the drinker wholly unable to attonfl 
to Ilia bnsinesB. The silbseqnent mention of Biiddahi i 

* The Crnsado or Loagric of the Crc 
Uratikeiiueae. 1S7S>, jrp. 15, \S, IS-il^ - 
fWork>i. Vol. U. pp. 1-15. 

toi the 8nppieA^aa d 

Total AhatineJiice Sodetks. 


I Ilia five epeoiftl lawa, and particularly of tLn lil'th : " Walk 

1 frteadily in the path of jmrity, and drink not liquors that 

* JntoxicatB or (tiBtnrb the reaeon," and that his opiniiine 

rapidly apread and prevailed " over China " as wpII as over 

other coautries, is tho more reliable intimation of the fact 

of Total Abstinence in China, and of its causes. Euddah, 

— which meaiie, " The Wise," — waa liom in India nearly 

eix hundred years before Ohriat. He founded a religion in 

-which Total Abstinence waa imperatively demanded of the 

juiesthood, and intoxication was forbidden to the laity. 

t^The vow taken by the young priest ineludfd thia : "I 

II oheerve the precept or ordinance that FoRBiDa thb 

rusE OF iMTOXiCATiifG DRINKS, wluch lead to indifference 

to religion." He waa instractod that it waa bia duty, and 

must bo made bia rule, " to proclaim first the reward to 

be received for the giving of alma, and then to enforce the 

[ precepts." " But there is no reward to him who gives inloj-r- 

^«g liquors'" This religion, high in ita aim, and rigid 

a its requirements, made early and rapid spread in China, 

Bid for nearly two thousand years, having most hearty 

tiecoption, taught and socored Total Abstineuce. 

If the reader will turn back to the account of Intemperance 
a Persia, in the previous chapter, it will be noticed that, — 
Istrange as the inconsistency may seem, — while the p-oda 
l-nrero to be plentifully supplied with inebriating drinks, 
lidnmkenness anioug the people was attribuieii wholly to 
I tlie hofltile evil powers, and that even to aimnlato intoxica^ 
^tion was regarded -as sinful. Tlieae teaobiugs, to a people 
(IpvouL us the Zoroastrians were noted for being,— teach- 
ings that were repeated on every religious occasion,— must 
I'lavG made the aniaent people strong in their efforts to 
Tchwlly abstain. 

Mahomet's conqnest of Aj'sTjia, and the aprpiid of IjIs 

religion over ntlior comitries, waa sIho the triumpli and 

|Bstilbli»hnieut at Total Abatintmee as the rule for niilUiius 

29S ^tx^dl m Bia<rrff. 

of liuman lieingSj as is tno well known to bo disputed, how 
uviT time il miiy tie that in later yeai-s, niiiny of his fol 
lowora have fallen away iTom his preoepts, 

The Itoinaiia enforced total abBtinence on the 1^011)611 ol 
their nation, gnarding against its violation iii a gr^ 
variety of ways. AthenseuB quotes Polybiua as euying u 
hia sixth Look: 

" It wan forblclclen to women to drink mne at bIL Howevei 
they drank what is called Passion ; and that Is made of lajaiiu 
and when drank is very like the aweet jGgHHtheuite and Cr«lai 
wine, on which account men use it when oppressed by exGeaaivi 
thirst. And it la imponsible for a woman U> drink wine witiion 
being detected : for, firat of all, she lias not the key of the ee] 
lar ; and in the next place, she is boond to kiss her relatiuna 
and thoao of hor hnsband, down to consina, and to do tlus everj 
day when she first sees them; and besides this, she is forced b 
l)e on her best bobartor, as it is qnite nnoertain whom shi 
mny ebonce to meet: for if she has newly tasted wine, it need 
no informer, but 18 sure to betray itwlf." • 

Turning to modem times, where the principle of Total 
Abstinence has been maintained throngli the agency of 
pltidgos and organizations, the first instance of wluob 
have reliable infonnatioD, is the case of Mienjah Pendit 
ton, of Virginia, who, witnessing the lamentable effieots 
drinking on his neiglibors, and desiring to fortily bimself" 
in all possible ways against beooruing a victim to tlie evfl, 
di'Gw np, and signed a Total Abstinence pledge in tha 
early part of the year 1800. Desii'ing to assooiate nthera. 
with himself in the good work, — tlionglu not, so far an 
now known, attempting any formal organisation, — ]ui J 
dnced many of his ninghbora to sign nitb htm j and il 
said thjvt others, in different parts of the Slate, follow^ 1 
exHmple. Had lie biMjn a man possessing the gifts of ]»] 
ular address, lie would no doubt have bel^n^le tbo luadi 
in orgauizeil work ; but liieking these, and di^ptindh 
escluflively on his poraoual intiuenco, nmnifost wholly 

Totat AbsHnenoe Societies. 297 

liivate way with Hb neighbors, hie work was limitcil.* 
Following Boon after thie, aa wo liave seen, the Pledges 
ind Oi^anizadone to secure community against the evils 

ise of ardent B]iiTits, were iatrodnccuj, and h<;ld 
B posaeBBiou of tLo temperance field for mnrc tLan 
I quarter of a century. In 1833 theeo begao to give way 
e Total Abstinenoe organizatiauB, which in a few years 
fbtained entire control of the temperance work. A 
lariety of causes led to this radical change. 

(I.) Tho first, and most significant, wa« the fact that little 
ir no reform was produced in the inebriates who hiul been 
adaoed to sign tlie half-way pledge, and that the iiJlowed 
)de?ate nee of fermented drinks to the young was rapidly 
Bcmiting the army of drankarda. This inevitable teu- 
jency of an allowed moderate indulgence by thoso seeking 
reform, had been predicted in the Address issued by the 
Tairfield Association in 1813. 
"The first reniBiIy which we would snggest," it anid, "pitr- 
Icnlarly to tliiMe whose ajipetito fur drink is strong and in- 
's a total abstinent fram tlie nse of all intoxiciitio^ 
ThiH tnaj- be deemed a hatsh remedy, but the nature 
if tho diBoiui< atMulutelf reiguirea it. People often form resolu- 
ona at lirealdng off from tho use of apirita by degrees. . . . 
r tho drun&anl, or tlie almost drunkard to think of reform- 
[ liy degTecB, ui perfectly idle. If heshoulil nttempt and ever 
gin to reform by taking a little less and a little less, daily, he 
raid inoBt,certainly relapse, in a very sliort time. To parley 
ritib the eoeniy in tltis way, is just about tLe same tiling aa 
Btrendoting at dlBorution. , , . Could wo make our voice 
jard by all Iibose persons throngliont ttiu TTsiteil Stutea, we 
enld entreat them to avoid tlus gulf uito which they are phtng- 
ig. We would say, Menda and fellow-ritizens, move not a 
p iiirtiier ia your downward coursn. Conquer by t^itat ab- 
)Bce from bItodji drink, that perilous liabit, whicli, if ]ior- 
(sted in, will prove your nndoiiifC. Escape t^oiu the enemy of 
HIT Bouli and Irtidien. while you iniiy. Make no liulf-wiiy pf- 
rt«. Bo resolute, be pord'!V<>riug, and yoa will obtain a gluri- 

■ War of Four TlKiiiaiind Veats, p, 184. yo»k«Buia\ TusinJiwi- 

Mcokot in Midory. 

ouB victory. Say aot, yon pannot liconk ofF all ot o 

vary plea proves the greatness of yonr ilaogoT, nave yoo Ci 

to love liquor ita well, that yon CBOOOt do witliont it f" " 

EsperionQB demonetratod the tnith of tliia prediction fM 
more rapidly the moderation niovcm«nt spread, and t 
more immorouB its converts became. As early : 
Bev. Joshua LeaTitt, of Connecticut, was esposinff tbi 
evils of moderate drinking, and advocating Total Abst^ 
nence, in the colnmns of the " ChriBtian Spectator," He 
was Biwonded by Rev. Calvin Chapin, who in Jantuuy, 
1826, oommeuced a serieB of abl« papers on " Tutot Ab* 
stinence the only In&Jlible Antidote," in the " Ooitoeotio 
Olisen'er." lu April, 1626, the "Natioaal PliilauiJirojHetr" i 
weoklypt^r in aid of thetempera 
in UoBton, and ha^ for its^ motto: "Temperate Driahiai 
is the Uown-hilL road to Intempernnoe." The next yeaX, 
both the MaAsachiuettB and the New Hampshire 
SocietioB passed resolations to be tlicir {uvtfoiui^ i 
ooQvictiou tlial water waa the only proper beveiragi» for ] 

lu 1832, Dr. Edwards, in his report ae corre^ondiag 
Beoret^ry of the American Tempeo'anee Union, said diat of 
the many reformed drtmkardB who had joined tlie variniw 
Temperance Societies, some had gone back to dratikeunri>^ 
and that in moat caaes " they had douaso without troaking 
tlioirpledgi?,liaviiigbecnmeiatosicaCodonotliertliMU dietall- 
ed liqnoTe." This statement being challenged,, jnaoh inves- 
tigation followed. Cierrit Smith, of Pelorijuro', X, Y^ 
stauced " numerous refnnaed dnmkards who had go 
on cider. Others reported lapsfs on wine, l)tIuuiioa 
Tlie basis of all tliesu drinks wait found to bo tJooUol, 
erateil in feiTnentatien and not In disclllatlou: and lUuui* 
the couclneion was, that li' men would Im-w the rofona pro- 
grosB, and our children Hstved, tint pledge mtist eralimrc rIL 
intoxicating drinkH." It was also declared lo bo agroivJ 

• An AdilruBs, ele,, yji. £5, SB. 

Uuui* I 

Total Ahetineiux Societies. 299 

wnvietion tliat " soiiiid and stable-mmilod tcmperanco tnen 
tirtre becoming salisSod llial tliey were far better ofl' with- 
i.Dut fcmipnted di-inks tlnui thoy wen.' with them." 

A oiroular of inquiry on this Bubjout, addressed to ti large 

R number of intelligent gentlemen, brought replies of a muKt 

scidod character, placing wine, cider and malt liquors un- 

■■4or tbo ban as deleterious artio lea to the human constitution. 

■ IJo testimony was stronger or more iufluential thau that of 

"'rofeflsor Hit^jheoek, of Amherst College. Saiil he : 

"I Iisre watched the reformalioii of eirao dozens of inebriates, 

Bnd have beuu I'mnpcllud to witnexa tho relupse of many who 

had nm well for a time. And I B.iy, without any fe;it of contra- 

OiDtion, that the greatest obstiuslo to the reformation of tlrunk- 

"« tlie hatitiiftl iise of wine, bper, cider and cordials by the 

table membora of eimuminity; aa in very many, I belJev« 

1 cHsea, inteniiteiate habila are formed, and the lovo of 

!■ drinks induced, by the habitual nae of these li)(Lter 

es- 1 rejoice to say that a very great majority of the 

1 hundreds of clergymen of my ncqiiaintanco, are decided 

ienda of tiie tempernnoo oanae, and both by preaching and 

e iuculc,it» total abstinence from all that ean iato^cate 

a beverage." " 

is testimony had great weight, oBpeoially B.S in li^SO, 
rof. Hitchcock had naid in one of his Lectures to the stri- 
ata of Amherst ; "I should consider it fic/«me^y injwlitt- 
\ and even Quixotic, for any temperance society to 
re total abstinence from the milder stimolante." t 
:. Marsh says of this period : 
"Alcohol was dllftislng itself thronuli all the veins of society, 
) fermented diinks. Browurioa sprang up aa by t»nolinatment. 
ilistdlors tamed their whiskey over to tlie wino fai^tor. The 
f family siiw their hopes blaeted in the return of ibo rtt- 
innd folhcr, through hard eider and dmgged beet, to druuk- 
Bven temperance men were seen intosicnted on sherry 
il porter, and the youth of the land wore lawfully pluUiBiiig, 
d theeshilarationaof cLmiiiiHpne, into the vortex of ruin.'' t 

• Marali. pp- 42, H. 

t Ccnfj^nuiftl Temperance ^'ol 

t ItilTudaction Ut tbe Aiueiicn 

edition of Anti-Baetiius, ISiO, 

Alcoftd in Siatary. 

Mr. PloHBanta says : " The moat (leplorable apoetncy n 
mull ia all (juortera of the L'aioii, and the enuiuiea of n 
icUcQ a man waa ansa more th:iii oidinajily dnuik, vren v 
til say, ' there goes a member of the Temperance Socialy.'" 

What was true in America, waa alau alarmingly i 
England, anil elsewhere abroad. A member of tlwj Soci(fty 
in Biadfonl, England, eaiil : 

"Here the first moderatioa sopiety was formed; ivnd liere 
there -waa no v>'!uit of zeal, talent, nr piety in tiia mirkiii;' nf 
th;tt system; and yet, in five years, we did not aucct-cd iu to- 
forming one aolitury drunkard." 

Of the PrcBton Society it was reportecl that: "Byvi-siting 
till- members at home it was iliscovered that nimiberB nf 
them got druuk, not with ardent spirits, but malt liquiir," 
Of the Society of Halifax it waa saiil : " Nn dnniknrds 
were reclaimed, and not many of the members rediiutMl lliiar 
daily consurajition of wine or porter," 

Rev. Dr. Edgar, one of the pioneers of the uiavvmunt in 
Ireland, testilied : 

"We hare seen ns plainly oa light can show it, thnt all plana 
whith we have liitherto adopted for puttiug an end to InW 
porance, have been to a meianclioly uxtont uniivailing, 
hare employed only a portion of the moans whioh tlw g 
preacrihes; and hence not suffldeutly Btrpngthened p 
esample. Tliey have said to the drunkard ; ' We will woiiii yi 
ofl liydegreeH from yourint«mperate habits;' luid thus, with d 
hcBt mtentioiLs, they have cantributod U> the ilriinkanl'» di 
They have eaid to the terapentte : ' We will allow yon to d 
uicidtTately ' — without inquiring into Iho mituie o£ tk« il 
employed; and thus thoy have foutributed to support a 
liclroiiiae the «e*oo[ in wkick dmnkardH art traimd, T1i«.y t 
unconscionHly L'ondnctod tlie tenipecntu niHii forward l~ 
all X\i<s stages of IJeo drinldug, tiU ho ia tutuperutt; nn uu 

(TI.) Not only waa the pledge agaiiint the nso of t 
spiritH ilffecliv'^ in principle, in ignoring* thn face i 
dniukcnness is pruduced by all bevi'i-ugua 

. fWaioei-OArttboMBnaaYcB 
*Teo tot all pi's Com^uvuiri 

Toial AbsHjKnce 


M)hol, wliPtlier dietilled or feniient.ed, but it wiis jiru^li- 
a (liBmniinatioii a^inst tlie poor and In favor of ilie 
in that it forbade the former and allowed the luitcr, 
■. Macaisli intimated tiiis in Ids " Anatomy of DrunTs- 
is," where he occuswl the memTiers of tempt-nmco 
nictiee of practising on theniaelvea a delnuion, and showed 
■t wliile thej- follow tbe rules of the society they are 
uiinly Imbitaating themselves to intomporanco. by tlio 
fciscan«elency of allowing their mcmhera to drink wine 
i malt liquors, while they debar thora from ardent spirits. 
y do this," be says, " on tbe ground that on the first 
a man is mntb less lilEeJ.y to bocomo a dninltard than 
I spirits — a fa^t which may be tairly admitted, but 
'i, I believe, ariaefl in some measure from its reijuiring 
e money to got drunk upon malt liquors and wine than 

:. Marsh relates that when, in 1831, he woaendeavoring 
a Congressional Temperance meeting in Washing- 
I, he called oa Senator Grrundy, to secure his fud, who 
jplied to bim that "he would speak; but, if he ilid, be 
)(inld be an nltra, for he should go against wino; be bad 
i idea of calling upon tlie laboring population to give np 
leir nrdest epirit and leave the more refined and wealthy 
B drink their wine, when he knew it was equally a source 
f dronkenness."! An anecdote, ebowing that oven tbe 
iHireet of the ]ioor were aware of this discrimination, ia 
Bid of an i[jn"ratit negro, who was employed by a clerical 
Eiimiber of the old society, to cut wood for bJni : 

"On visiting liim tosoo wliat progress ho was maltinB, the 
yman aaw a Jagainoni^tliocliiiiK. and said: 'What is horoJ 
f * Oil! yw. masdn,' said tlwnejtr"! 'Imf. if I oould l>ny 
aa yiiu ilo, I would uob liavo tbia vUe Btutt.'" 

I The following incident will also show how it wna re- 

irded by the in'empnnite generally, ll i* said tliat 

■mewhere about the year 1830, u man in Philadelphia, 

terxy. ) Marsh, AuioWugvaii^ij,-^-^^ 

Jla^iol in Bialorg,. 

wbo had taken the old pledge, called a meeting nf tligj 
frifnda of TeniperaTice, for tho purpose of awoketUJ 
public interest in the cause. 

"Singalarly enongli, man; noted top<n« 
aiidi<:iic:e; and asaooii as the Iionrhad come, one of these J 
tliat a curtain potHon, ut that time a very intempeiate inun, 1m 
called to tLe cliHir. As Che nominee, though a hard drinkacj 
wns a -very popnlar man, the motion vns quickly seconded anf 
easily carried. As soon as the chnicman had taken his aeat, 
some one in the crowd offered the fotlowiug resolntion : 

" ' Whereat, Tho object of all drinking is to prodace intoxica- 
tion in the cheapest and moat espeditioos manner possibla ; and 
whereas, the salisCitution of the more ooetly driuka, ench as 
wine and beer, liaa a tendency to iitcreiise the ex]ieuso of thB 
operation -without lessening the disposition to drink, therefore, 

" 'Bmolred, That wo lecununend to all trne &iends of l«miH«- 
Mie« to quit the uao of every other intoxicating bovetagv ex- 
cept whiskey, mm, gin, or brandy.' 

" Theso wore carried by a large majority, and the gentlemall 
who oallQcI the meeting together left it amid peals of laugh wr." * 

Such an exhihitinn of theraaniftistpartiuljty and injosliw) 
of the old plans, had no llttlt; influence in leading to a 
radical change in both theory and practice. 

(III.) Another agency in showing tho need of total 
ahBtinentBj was the startling facts brongbt proniintntly tn 
light at about the time of this transition period, in regard to 
the effects of all Idnds of intoxioauts on the baaiiiD iKHly in 
prediapoBing it to disease, and in preventing its recovery 
from sndden and violent aioknesa. The first foot wam nji- 
parent during the general prevalence of the cholera, iu iS3'i. 
Fkyeicians were bo wtll aware of the inability of ttiD drinkiir 
of intoxicajitB to resist the attacks of thia Roooige, thM curly 
that year, and before it had reached thoir locnlity, thoy 
soaaded the alarm and called on the people to nbstiuB, In 
London, England, placards were daily carried through ihu 
Btrocta some weeks before a case of cbolwa liad hevn rfr^ 
ported, beaiing in largo letters tho words: " ALL sj-iKl^ 

jBteluual Tempotanoe N-aVmnft, 


Tolcd Abstinence SoeteiKS. 303 


n New York and Albany, TJ. S., thonsandB of piisters 

li tluB advice pdnted on them, were pat up with go<Jil 

ct: "Quit sbam nKiifKiifo if you would not 

AVIS THE CHOLERA." Those wlio wpro so nnwiao as to 

sregard tlie warning, paid the penalty of their infataatod 

Tf-nesnra nee with their lives. Nine-tenths of the victims 

t the disease were irom tho ranka of the intemperate. 

M. Haber eaJd of 2,1G0 persona whom he sawdie in twen- 

>ne days in one town in Rnesia : " It ij a moat remark- 

e uiretnnstance that persons given to drinking have been 

lV6pt away like flies. In TilDis, containing 20,000 iii- 

abitttnts, every drunkard baa &lleu — all are dead — not 

In the caty of Washington, D. 0., the Boanl of Health, 
[aimed at the progress of the disease, issned an order de- 

Jiag the grog-shops a pablic nuixaneo, and forbidiliug 
leir continuing their traffic for ninety days. The Boston 
il of Health also pnhlished their opinion : " That all 
inds of ardent spirits and other Btrong stimulants are not 
teful in preventing cholera, but that they dispose to its 

The Btatifitioa which were gathered after this visit of the 
Miirge had ceased, show how wise these wamingB and pre- 
intiotw were. A physfldan writing from Montreal, said : 

" CIlOlMA has stood np h^^re, ae it has done everywhere, — tho 
jvocate of Temperance. It ha« pleaded moot eluquoully, luid 
illi Inovt tremendune effect. The diseuAe has Bearvhod out tho 
Btmt of the drunkard, antl has seldoni left it, without beuriu); 
(far Kb viclain. Even moderate drinkers have been but httlo 

I>r. Bronson, of Albany, said ; 

" TtnuiEaTdB aud tipplora have Leen searchml out with such 

•Tract No. 3, pnlilialied by tho NHtioniil Tcml.ipriirK'i. Poeii-ty 
od i*uhlicntion ELouse, Now York i " UiwlBra t;o\idu.tUna^' ■&! 
'ev. J»imyl H. Dmttt. 

304 Miohd in ffistory. 

nuirrinfT rertniuly, as to show tbttt tlio nrrowB of rlisatli ba»8 
uot beeu dealt out with iniliSLiiminnliiju." 

"With regard to tlioso who diet! in that city, over 16 yeaw 
of ago, tho pliysicjana reported, nuil the Board of Health, 
vouching for the accuracy nf the report, lecouuneadei 
it be published for general circulation : 

"Wltolo number of di>athH . , > ..S 

Intemperate 140 

Freo drinkers 55 

Hudcratc drinkers 131 

Strictly t-emporaW 5 

Menilwrs of Temperance Societies 2 

Unknown , 3 

A more fearful illuatration of the dangerous evil i>f in- 
temperance aa a pliyaical ciirae, it would he difficult to find; 
Other testimonies of like chanwtBf might be adduced, 1 
these ai'e sufficient to estaliliah the fact that any use 
intoxicants dJBablus the humaR aystem and makes it an ei 
proy to this dreadful disease-t The appreheneioa of thiP 
fact had great influence in liringing in the Total Abgti- 
nenco era in tbe Temperance cause. 

A second illustration of the phyeiologioal rF«nlt of t1i4 
use of all intosioants, was that afforded by a emMofi 
remarkable esperiraenta hy V>t, Beaumont, Surgeon in tb^ 
"U. S. Army, ou the stomach of a man in full health ood 
attength. Alexis St. Martin, while in the umploy of the 
American Fur Company, in June, 'XS'22, was accidentally 
wounded hy the diarharge of a rausket, which prodouod 00. 
opening in Ida atomacli, about two and a lialf inclies ia 
circnmference. In 1825, Bome time after he bad fiJIy n 
covered his health and strength, thin aperture eitU remais* 
lag, and the surrounding wound firmly cicatrixed ta lU 
edges. Dr. Beaumont commenced a series of gaittric os^ien* 

* Mirror of lu temperance, pp. 125, 126. 

/See more full L-itationflmDi.UatgtM««a' " U':«AtuL, \irbaf j 
Is iiud what it Does," pp. 313-323. _ 

Tot(d Ahslivence Societies. 305 

iitB with him, lasting four monthR. Similar PxperimeiiiB 

re maili! foni j'eare later, ami a more estecdeil Hcries 

■ a year, eomnienciiig in Novenilier, 1832. Tlirong-h 

8 aperture in hia patient's bitomach, the esperim enter saw 

e full effect on the stomach of eveTything that enteiwl 

Alcoholio drinlta of all iinde iFore swallowed by St. 

artin, and invariably they produced inflammation and dia- 

i, acting in every'case as poison would act. Many of 

le csperinientfl were made in Washington, D.C., and 

ly in Plattsburg, N. T. ; and as facts in regard to 

n were from time to time mado known to the public, 

ey ceiild not fail to arrest attention, and while they ezci- 

I wonder, they also produced a deep impression, eejie- 

,Uy in those whose attention had been given to the snb- 

t of intemperance. Finally, Dr. Beaumont gave a 

etory of his experimentB, in which ho declared tliat "The 

! diiss of alcoholic liquors, whether simply fermented 

' distilled, produced very little difference in tlieir ultimate 

foots on the system." ■}■ This declaration, based not on 

iCCiilaiion, but on what Dr. Beanmont had seen with liis 

Q eyes, as actnally going on in St. Martin's stoma^'h, 

tplodod many theories in regard to the harmlessnesH of 

I lighter forma of intoxicants, and gave a wonderful 

ipetuB to the cause ot total abstinence. 

(IV.) The attitude of the Christian Chuix^h, in its various 

kuchos, had no little to do in changing the chniaoter of 

iperasue theories and acts. I do not overlook the tact 

A ntany ministers stoutly arrayed thcmsolves against the 

abstinence movement, but I feel confident that in 

every ecclesiastical organization whore tlic]« was 

\y iliffprenee of opinion in regard to temperance methods, 

fKenda of total alJBtinence steadily gained ground, 

id at la^t W(TC [argply in the majority. And even hefore 

dea gaiuud the ascendant, llie immoral: ly of the tio.tlio 

* Beo bIso Dr. llargreave^ EsB&y, \i' Si^. 
/£iporimenls, etc., 1833, p. 50. 

306 jSoohol in Biatory. 

was clearly seen, and this clearing of tte visi.-m at once 
helped to Btill farther eight and to a constantly nearer 
Etpproauh to eolid vantage gi'onnd. Drankenuess vna 
acknowledged, and had luug been, as the chief canso of 
cbwcli discipline, and miuiaters and ehurchcs could not )iB 
blind to the lact that diunkemiosB was not checked by 

The action of several of the leadings reli^oue bodies wa8 
similar to that ol the General Assembly of the Fresbyt^riu 
Church, in 1831, when it declared it to be "a well-establiBhed 
faot that the common use of strong drink, however modavte, 
has been a fatal, sonl-destroying bavrior against tba inflnance 
of the Gospel." This waa not long after followed by & 
thorough discussion of the "Wine qnestion," espedally of 
the relations of that qnestioa to the Sacmment of the 
Lord's Supper. To obtain all possible light on tho sub- 
ject, a premiuia of $150 was offered for the beet eiway ob 
the nse of alcoholic wine at the Communion. Thero wera 
nnmerona competitors, but the au'ard was made to Bov. 
Calvin Chapin. 

Rev. Geo. B. Cheover, D.D., then of Salem, Mass., eon* 
tributed largely to a wholesome agitation of th© pnbUo 
mind by the publication of hia little work : " Deacon Giles* 
Distillery," " one of the most masterly and effective blowfl 
ever inflicted on the liquor system up to the date of its 

Bishop Hopkins, of the Episcopal Chnrch in Vennontf 
afterwuiils an nnfortunate defender of American itbtv- 
ery, came ont in defence of tho work of the mniaellws 
and the arguments of the dmnkards, by giving to the pub- 
lic a book, entitled, "The Ti-iunipb of To«ip<.^™neB t1i« 
Triamph of Infidelity," Arguing in tliis that Ihi* win« 
mentioned in tho Biblo are all intoxicating winea, ho 
charged the advocates of Temperance with alti'inpliitg l» 
do what Christianity itself could not do, ami with sMtiog 
revelation aude as useless ; and so endeavored to 
^t the triumph of tl 

Total Absbiiasux Socktm. it07 

I the triumpL of Infldiility. Gerrit Smith, I>r. Edwards, 
id many ocliorfi took up tho cballengG, and tbo cliun'lK'B 
id the socolar world alike beciuuo tiUucattid arigtiC tiy Uio 

It WAS under these ciicmuBt&nocB, and also largely by the 
rciilatiou i>f millions of pagtis of temperance literature, 
at the public mind became prepared for the advance step, 
e Total AbetineniMS Pledge, and organizations for the 
iread of the Total Abstinence cause. 
The first Total Abatineuce Society ia said by Moasre. 
and PleaaantH, to have been established " at Hector," 
khoyler County,) "in the State of New York, in 1818." * 
For the first eight years, however, it pledged ite mem- 
9ra to aliBtinonce from the use of distilled spirits only. In 
120 it adopted two pledges, leaving it optional with its 
lembers to sign either, as they might prefer. The first 
B8 the old pledge, the second required total abstinence 
bm fermented aa well as diiitilled intoxioiutfi. In 1827 
le oecretary of the society made up a n)Il of the membcr- 
iip, and to diatingiiiah one class from another, imuked the 
tttira " 0. P." against the names of those who took the 
d pledge, and the letter " T." against the names of those 
bo took the pledge against the nse of all intoxicants. Be- 
re long the latter were called "T-totaUers," — hence the 
^n of the word " Teetotaller." t 

The Fifth Annual Ecport of the American Temperance 
Swety,— 1832, p. 46 — said : 

"BeCbie the forniation of the Hector Temperance Society, 
ire thui 8,500 gallons of ardent spirit were anniially consumed 
tbo town. Eleven diBtiUeriea were ia operatiou. Since that 
as Uie eonaamption of ardent spirit has diminislied nioe- 
Dth;». NiDc of the distilleries have been stopped, and two are 

stmggUng for a donbtftil e»6t«iico, . . . There wna 
Uicely j^in enough raised in the town for the supply of ita 
ImbitoJits : t>ut tlie last year it h enppoaed that 00,000 busUela 

bold for foreign consuraiitioo." 

•War of Four Thousand Years, p. 103. 

/ One Mauilreil Years of Temperanti;, \i, VJW. 

Messrs, Wliito and Pleaaanta also annoimce tliat, i 
182t!, Rot. Tiiomae P. Hnnt,— idi'iitified through a Ion' 
lil'u with the Tempetance movement in America, in its et 
lipst, and also in its most advanced stages of E'^ffort, — 
pared n Pledge of Total Abstinence for the nee 
which, being put in rliyiue, made a deep impiesaion on tl 
memorj'. It was to this effect ; 

Oonsecutive efibrts in this direction, in America, Toay Ti 
said to date from the City of New York, early m 1833. 
Febraary of that year, meetings for the purpose of creating 
an interest in a National Couveiitton to be convened fn 
May, were beld in all parts of the Union. After tlieae . 
meetings, and prior to the Convention in May, Luther Jacfe^J 
son, a missionary in the city of New York, and Seci6tK 
of the Eighth Ward Temperance Society, drew np, drvol 
od and pnblished the following pledge : 

" We, whose namea are horonnto annesed, believing tliat S 
lise of iatoiicaling liquors, as a driDk, is not only needless, b 
hurtfnl to tbe Hociol, civil and religious interesta of lu 
they tend to form intemperate appetites and habits; and Uiiit, 
while they are contluued, the evils of intemiierniioe ran luyrer 
be done away ; do therefore agree that wa will not nae them, or 
truffle in them ; that we will nut provide them as artt(d(» of co- 
te rtain men t, or for persona in our employmeut; and tlial in ul) 
siiitalile wnys, we will disuooutenance the Dse of Ukod in llie 

This pledge being indnetrionely circulated, received in a 
sbort time over one thousand signatnreB. It is a fair iaSer- 
ence to say tliat the society of whiuli Mr. Joukaim '«w 
secretary, adopted this pledge, aa at his Buggestioo they 
held a grand festival on the fourth of .IiUy of that yew, wm- 
ducted strictly on total abstinence prineiplee.t 

Tlie National Convention held in Pfliladclpliia, in Way, 

Total AliBtinenoe Societies. 301) 

i33, composed of 440 delpgates, representing uineti'iiii 
atoaand one twritory, .tcmk advuuced ground in refpreucu 

tlio grent reffmn. Tiio two ktidinff conolusioua wUicli it 
acUod, and wliici liy tlio gonernrfty of ouo uf iis moinlwrs 

wna able lo ptililisli extensively by tlie gnilnitouti dis- 
iltntion of 100,000 copies of its priJoisodingB, wore : 

" Firal, tliat tile traffic in ardent Bpirits, to bn UHi'ii iia a Iiov- 
ttge, was monilly wrong, and ouglit to bo iiuivuraally iiUun- 
crnad: Senatid, that na advnnto in tin; (i:iiiso was dciuiunlwl, 
id Uiut it w^Lt B>^iH:dieat to adopt thu totul ultatiuuuee plwlgo 
MOD aa possiblo." * 

For the purpose of dlffuaing informatioa on tlieae sabjocts, 
ad exeriing » moral influence wlui-li W()uld t*'oil to 
10 spread of tlii' ^iTineiijleB and bteamngs of temperance 
ifougLuat the land, tlie convantinn put in operatii)n 
LTnilod States Temperance Union," an organizaliou 
lutii&tiiig of tlie officers of the American Temperance 
pcicty at Boston and the ofiicerH of eaeh of the State Tem- 
^nuu'e Societies. 

TIio records of "The SlaPBaelniBetts Society for the Snp- 
wBKtou of Inlemperancc," show that ; 

A dpecittl meeting of the Society was liold Jnne 14, 1833. 

Sidlivait, U)i:iinnan oftlin Committee, appoint«d at tba last 

Httingi niftdo a rcjiurt, which conoliidod with several ])ropoai- 

Kia fw llio ai^tiuii iif tbn Society, in the form of nvsnliitioiis ; 

'Wliich the Beoond afHrniBd, thai total abatineam aliould bo a 

IliIiUiH)Bt.i] piin<*i]ile of the proc(>eilinu9 of tbe Soniety in this 

M, A Tor;- iutotiwtiDg doliate arose with regard to it, whioli 

isantinncd, at tlio bdqiq place, during six nuccpssivc B[)pr)int- 

: meotiugii of tha Society, and was (laally teTrninibt^d b; the 

ictnty^ adopting nu nrticli'i (llatiDotly eonipn>1iendin<; tha 

vA-'Se oi total abstincni--e ftom inlnxiiuitinji drinlsB. 'Die Pres- 

aiK rulcjd tliat tills plwlfte did not apply to the old members 

(Jia Suoiaty, unlefls tbey severally siilispribed to it." t 

In June, 1S34, the "Jnvenilo Branch of the Eighth 

* Opntnnninl TeraperantB Volume, p, 4tS. 

■ " \it\m-ix frnm Uie Htfordi*," imblialied \n a-cft\vvmft\s«v.pA 
tbaJSvcioti; oaiiUcd: " When Will lK» Day *,:oqiiV' ^i. \.^. 



Meofal m Siatary. 

WarA ToroperuncB 8«i:iet.v, ou the principle of total a 
iienop, as a. drink, from all Intoxicating liquoi's," was 
gunizetl in New York ; anJ Bb(nrtly allur, another Tut 
AhBlinence Society was Etuned in the FonrCt'ontli Waj 
of that city. But as parly as the month of May, over eigWj 
thousand persona, members of the New York Tiimpertuics 
Sticiety, had signed the new pledge.* 

During 1835 many local Soeieties had sutistitntod t 
Total Abstinenoe Pledge for the Partial Pledge ; and ll 
esample being followed by the New York State ^ocietj 
in February, lf(37, a sectmd National Convention ■ 
he!d at Saratoga, in tlie Bumraer of that year, wltieh t 
clarod that " the pledge of temperauoe henceforth, Qhoolj 
bo that of total abstinence from iiU intoKicatuig liqnc 
The United Rtiites Temperance Union, organized in 1 
ha\'ing done little or nothing, was at this C'oiiveutJuii aupa 
aeded by the "American Temperance Dnioi 
onoe became a mighty power in the land, ami for many 
yesira led tlie great work. By means of k-utiiros, oircuhi- 
tion of temperance literature, publication of JumiialB and 
papers, it exerted a wonderful and far-reaching iuflnence. 
The story of its great work is faithfully told by iho lale 
I)r. MarBh, for many years its seuretary arid editor of Its 
Journals, in his Autobiography. 

In some cases these changes were not effoi 
enconntering great opposition. The pulpit oflen helpe 
on the good work, but in many instances it threw o 
in its way. Tlio old societies, in some li^calitios, deumi 
the new movement as ianatioal and estreme, and In 1 
few places lioth the intemperales and the BiMi-aUed innd* 
atea made cnmmnu cause against the iunuTalian.. 
consoquence, the church was violently asenilrd by a 
the reformers, prejudice led lo the fwc nsO of invwtivti, * 
bad pasHions were in various ways matiifoi-i. But mireljj 

• War ot Pout TliQnBana YcaiB, p. 213. 

t Uentennial TMiipeEao.C6 \ u\saoe, ^ . *£&. 

TcitdL Abslivenee Bocieties. 

fwly and pormanfntly, tbo Total Alislinence cjiuno ad- 

piK!«(l, aaA in a sbort tiuiH, coiiipumtively, ocuupiiMl the 

ptiru field. 

■■Two thouHand societieH, formed in flew York State in 1837, 

le moderatiou principle, hiul, in 163H, dlBlianded, uud boido 

Booieties adopting; the total abatineikce principle, had boon 

tljced, iritli u nujmbeisbip of 130,000; imd in mauy of tlie 

B md villnges of tlie New Eagland. States more than hnlf 

B popnlatlon of tli« toMiut verc tnt'iobers of sooictii^a 

to entire abntiDeiicF ; whilp in tho ITnited St.«il«s and 

tilft Uiero were fifteen t«nipordnco )>ap«rs, ftbly cotuluctod, 

g total ubHtineuce." * 

I About this time, Ewime new and wholly unexpecteil in- 

jea for the enuoui-agetupnt of workers in the flelil of 

I Abstinence, were put in operation, and as iiue of 

uaine from abroad, it may be well to drop the story 

> cause iu this onuntry, anil look for awlule at the 

ess that was being cutde in the l.Hd "World. 

■e making of the initial luovement in England boa 

1 -claimed for ^voral loealities, Peter Bume, in his 

Teetutul tor's <^)ompaniou," p. 328, biays : 

*' Paisley has the honor of being the first to declare for nn- 

d and niv<-i>mpromistnf( temperance. Mr. D, likilunaud, 

I, ou the 14tb af January, 1833, founded and becnuie 

at of ■The Paisley Youth's Sot'iety for promotiug Tem- 

co wi tho principle of Abatinenee from all lutoxiuatiu^ 

jre.' The pledge ailoptad was as follows : ' Wo, tbo tinrter- 

1, belJeving thst the widely-extoudedand hitherto rapidly 

Utg xiee of intemperance, with its many niinons consa- 

I, ia gieatl; promoted by eststiu;; habits and opinions 

[d tu the nfle of intoiicating' liquors in every form, rind 

ig that it will be calculated to promote the furtheranee 

a ami consistent temperance principles, and of the cauao 

■ j>mi«iral| Ha volnntnrily ajtree to aMain ftom all litjuors eon- 

'" y qiiMitity of aloohol, except when absolutely uocea- 

>B niodicinoB.] 

L einjlrt.r pli'il^o was udoptod Home time in the of 
fey of Iho Jiiimi yiiiir, by the Cempernuco society nC Kt. .tnliii's, 
piclt. The puliu liua bi!cu chnmed oud orrumiuuBly 

' Ibid, p. M)1. 


Jkofwt in Bis^yrif. 

awardeil to the Preston Society, aa being Iho Jirnt to tlednre fi» J 
entire abatiBence ; but the first pledge drawn 071 on tliiit }icuid>T 
pie in Prcatoa, wua not signed till ttio SSd of Aiigost fuUuwing;! 
tlie estabiisluneot of tho preceiltng nouidtias; »nd even thiOi if 
waa but a private pledge, iinil only signed by two individuitlB-^ 
Johu King and Joseph Llvese;." 

It IB allowed, LowcTer, by all who have written on t 
history of the (muse in England, that to tho Preston S 
more tlion to any or all othere, the present position of l! 
Temperaoce ca.u»e abroad ib due. Their persistenoe, 1 
and energy in the exteneion of the principle, entitle t 
to tbo credit of being the foundeJB of the cause o 
nent basis. The Total Abstinence Pledge, in Prtwton, i 
largely the outgrowth of opposition on the part of t 
officerB of the old Society, to the advocacy of Total Aht 
nenoe Principles. When shortly after the organization c 
the general temperance society on moderation prindplee, i 
March, 1832, it was found that members were often (■ 
on beer, the leaders in tlie cause were perplesed and ( 
conraged, and some of them determined on denodnoing tl 
use of fermented drinks and ailvocating the principle 
total abstinence. This was pronunently the attitude of W 
James Teare, who gave ao address of tide character I 
public meeting held in June of that year. The (lomtBitt^ 
of the aodety were incensed, and cited Mr. 'I'earo to ft 
before them to answer to the charge of breach of the roles 
ardent spirits only being the article prohibited by the n 
atitnlion. A few members of the society agrwd with tld 
committee thai Mr. Teare's proceeding was nnwarnuited If 
thelawe; while the accused acknowledged tbi* trutli I 
what had been charged iigainet him^ and promised tbut 1 
should repeat the offence at every poBsib1oopportiUiit7,« 
would never advocate any less tborongh-going dootr! 
his attempts to further the tempeiancfl rnnso. 

Curiosity and reflection beitig awak«nod by this 1 
fiion, tliu Total AhBtim-ncu catwu mylilly gr^w inlo faTO 
Hiiully us, wiUiiu o-iv 

Total Ahatinetwe Soddtee. 313 

end advocated it, and so provoked new wnslderation and 
" irther hoaringti before the committee. In the midst of the 
^tation tliiis oaosed, Mr. Kiiig challonj,'ed Mr. J.ivesey to 
L a pledge ef Ti>tal Abstinence willi bim, wbiiib ho 
ccepted, and the " private pledge" before allndeil to tliiiB 
lad its origin : " We agree," it reads. " to abstnin from all 
an intoxit:attiig quality, whotber ale, purtpr, wine 
r Ardent spirits, escept as medicine." 

The fellowing week five others in the eld society, alnn 
ppended their names. 8ii of the seven who had now 
igned, were members of the committee, whicli then 
DOBiBted of tliirty-seven members of the general society. 
"Tie opinions of their associates were rapidly ehanging 
. tliey noted the effecia produced in those wliu had 
lopied the new measnree, and soon it was proposed in 
ttmrnittee to insert the new pledge in the lionBtitution. 
e disoDBsion brought a diversity of views to light, ^ome 
pembera were for placing the new pledge beside the 
' i one, and working witb both ; others for rpjeoting the 
W altogether, white others were in favor of the new alone, 
iter tniiuer<i<is meetings, a motion prevailed for the arlop- 
ion of the new pledge in ci>nn6ctlon with the old one, and 
\ committee was appointed to revise the private pledge and 
lopt it to use in connection with the original pledge in 
he ooDStitntinn of the e<jciety. At tlie annnal meeting in 
roh, 183.S, ai which about 2000 persons were present, tha 
Tivate pledge, in this modified form, was adopted as a 
icond pledge of the sw.ioly, for those who wished to snb- 
dbo to it ; 

"Wo do f oiUicr volnntaril.v agree to abstain, /or one year, 
am ale, poitor, wine, ardeut spirits, and nil intoxioating 
liXnoia, exoepl as medii-ineH or in a religicius onlinunce.'' 

The advanced teetotaUers objoct-ed to the limitation of 

e rn ihe pli'dge, iiiit their objectiims were ovemded, and 

f heartily renewed their efforts for enccess. The new 

lledjjo was at opco signeil by 34 perstuvB, iu\d ivmii^ Ww 

U8. Fwui tliio time the pulil\c eANuwiifcy u'i vNi-i 

Mcoliol fir ffiifo?7/. 

tempernnoe canefi wtvs on tlie Tntnl ATxttinonoe haus. An 
effort to iHfliise q knowleilye of ihe principles of the nuw 
movement, Icil U) a voluiitiiry misgion to tbe adjoining 
towns, by BIX of tlie leailin^ and zeaJoTiG mein1>ers, U)d 
great good was tlius acconiplisLud. Mr. Buine, frcnn whesa 
histoiical sketch tbese Gutta art) obtumerl, rebites t)io fbl- J 
lowing incident as accounting for the introductiOTi of ft nM 
vmiveraally r^c-ognized word, as denoting tbe tborongii-gi 
ing prin<;iplc whidb charMiterized the new movement : 

"In ttio mimtli of SoptemJier of the present year, (1833), aw 
name wiia fniiml for it by {the lat«) Bii^hiird Turner, a. si 
ecotrntric, but honest and oonBiBtent lecloimed dnmkard, i 
at tliis timo liud riaun to the position of phuterer's labonr. 
ing in tlie Labit of apeaking nt the meetings, he is said b) b 
Diiide UBB of tho following provinciuliums in a pliiJIipiD a 
the olii ajstein : ' Fll her nowt to do wi' this moderation-^-toj^ 
eralion — pled|!^ : I'll be re^t down tee-tee^atal for ever and « 

" ' WeU done,' exclaimed the audience. ' Well done, Z 
said Hr. Liivesef, ' thiit Bhall be the name of our new 
The prefix tee had before been occaaionally employed it 
shire to express a final resolve or event; thns & thing iiTMOVl 
able wiw aometiinea said to be 'fw-totally tost,' a perieotly M 
plele piece of wmk watt Haidto be 'bM'botallj llnJahwl,' n 
deterniiuation uf ielinqui!ih:n6ut was exproa^id to ' give n 
totally.' Convenioittly embodying the sense of the new p 
pie, it waa eagerly adopted to t'sprcss it ; and being a tew ti 
employed in Livesey'a Moral Reformer, aotm became popnlu 
establiabrd." P. 333, 

Meanwhile collieions between the moderationiets find tM 
teototAllors In iho Preston Society, were ftcqneDt, and at i 
consequence spirited debates and sharp action followed. 
meinlior of the committee having lieeo rejiorted an beiiy 
the habit of giving lifptora to some of his ouatomers, it t 
resolved, after warm diacnssion, at a meeting i« 3 
1834, to add the worda " Keithor give nor offer," 
teetotal pledge. In April following, tlie yonng prMipIn fl 
tlie society, impatient of the diasenBionfl canseil by l' 
ditil character of the old organiiation, formed on ( 
Bively Total Abstmenc* SwaaU 
pledge : 

Totid JJ>8{ivenee Soa'eiics. 315' 

"I do volnntudly promiM that I nill alutain for ode year 
from a!e, porter, wiiic, iiiilpnt ejiirils, imd all mluxirutiug 
liigiKira, nnil wiU not. give dot o&«c thiMa t'O otburs, i<:xci>pt im 
ueUkitnes, or in a religioua ordinnnpQ ; and I will endeavor to 
dincoimteiLaiice all iJia cmmbi and prscticM of inleiiiperaiica." 

Tte BOoiety etarted witli 101 raeraliere, between tU'e ages 
)f dxteen and twenty-five. During tlie year their numbeta 
Qcreased to 998. In less than a year, viz., at the annaul 
aeeting in March, 1835, the old McJcty repudiated their 
'.great moderation "pledge, by voting that those members 
who had suhscribed to it only, should Imve three monthB* 
^ to take ^ther auotlior step in advance and adopt 
Betotalisra, or Bt«p out of the society altogether.* 
These several stagoa in the hiatory of the Preston 
■, have thus been somewhat minutely traced, because 
hey bring into light the persiatence and zeal of those to 
thoM luisaoatury spirit and lubore we trace the permanenL 
tablishment of the Total Abstinence cause throughout the 
Dild, America as well as £nrope being indebted to them 
ir general success in tliis great Temperance work, on the 
Ijly safe hoais of individual security against intemperance. 
iliey wore instrnmental in estaVilishing societies in Man- 
', Birmingham, Lancaster, London and Grarstang, ia 
^34, and henco indirectly influential in securing the many 
IS which came into being on account of the 
d work done in these various localities. 
, Al Birmingbam a physician confronted them and ap- 
piiited a meeting in which he proposed to " explode the 
|lly of total abstinence." He wa^ given a hearing, aiid 
naweiod. The formation of the teetotal Boclety followed, 
bil the opponent of the movement espresaed his wilHng- 

o rign the pledge- 
In Lmndon, Mr. Livesey presented himself at iho office 
! the " Moderation Society," and offered bis aervices to aid 
a m^their general work; but as his labors were directed 

* TectotalleTa' C'ompatilmi, p. 334. 


^jSaokot fti Sistiyry. 

agaiEBt all intoricarits, he met witli tio enconrngemcmt, i _ 
was compelled, in order to get a liearing, Ui liirc a jiUce fiff 
Ilia lecture on liit) own rcBpoiiBihilhy, and to go tlirongli l]ie 
streets bell in hand, annonncing the meeting in tlie &ijbion 
of & town crier. This meeting was followed up Ly othen 
and a eooiety was formed in the eummer of 1835, whicq 
was called " The British Teetotal Teniperani^ Society." : 
met with great succcsb, enrolling 3,000 nieinbtrs in tdl 
montha. At GarHtang the difticulty of ohtaiuing a plac» 1 
in which to lioIJ thdr meetings, was ovei-come by tW ] 
erectiou of a wooden linilding for that express pnrpoHV J 
probably the first building in the history of the world that 1 
was pnt up for a Total Abstinence hall, Mr. Tears named "I 
it " The Temperance Lighthonse." 

At the close of the year 1835, it was eatimaled tlif 
48,000 persoDs had signed the teetotal pledge in Eoglaaj 
and that 2000 druukards had been reclaimed. In Juljj 
1830, the first Conference of the British Association i 
held at Preston, delegates frcrm twenty-seven BOcietiesl» 
present, when it was 

"Setolvfd, Thntna society which, after three inoDthsfrainlli% 
date, retainecl the old pledge, should be couaiilered a, htancll 4| 
the Haaooiatiou ; and that tho only pledge of the aHSoetittln 
should be the following : ' I ilo voliintatUy derlaro thai 1 » 
sltetain Irom wine, porter, nle, cider, urile&t epirita, « 
other IntoiicatiDg liquor ; and that 1 will not give oi oSm tl 
to others, except na medicines, or in a religious nnliniuice ; 
that I wHI diHcoiinteuance alt the cansea and pra«tieea of ii 

For a long time the Bapporters of total abstineDce, i 
England, had far less opposition from the public at I 
than they received from the old societies. For about Ion 
teen years these Moderates obatmetod the work in £ngliin4S 
noticeably eo in London. 

There was, however, ouifiide opposition. 

" Sometimes drnnken inoa wrie ooiiilii.vcd b; ti)« ]tiibUM 
to di'stnrb the mcetinES, iinai»anto3'ite«lvu';i(tw». At otliJ 
times, the opposition toot antttfectioTin.sni to 

Tottd AbaUnea(X Societies. 

' 8WEENT New Colliery. 
' ' The proprietors of tlie above colliorv have con 
sion not to einjiioy uny teetotaller ; tbereforo n 

"The proprietors conceive that this resolntioa is a duty 
■which they owe to the afcricultnral intereata of the eonntry, as 
rO the welfsie of the public in geuarat. February 19, 

'In cnnseqnence of this resotution, 80 teetotallers who wore 
ready employed in the colliery, luceived their iliaubarge, sftor 
e week's notic'e." 

Bnt tlie cansc went forward in spite of oppoaition. bo that 
n 18S8, the " New British and Foreign Teruporftiioo 
'" a new name for the British Teototal Temperance 
ciety, mentioned above,) reported : 

"In five years only, wo liave some hundred thonsnnd mem- 
In North Wulea alone, about one hundred thousuod ; 
mgst whom there are thousands of reolaimed dmukards. 
inongit the advocates we oau now ennmerate at leiwt 100 uiiii- 
e of religion, of all denominations, who have espoused oui 

VIb all England the number of teetotallers ''amounted to 

rCntil 1839, the pledges in the New British and Foreign 
dety were of two kinds j the one containing the " neither 
pve nor offer" olanse, ^aa called the long pledge ; tho 
er, witUont this clause, was called the short pledge. In 
March of thisyoaramajorityof the committee of the Society 
had resolved to aubstituto the American pledge, for both 
die long and short pledges ; but before this could Iw dono 
I mnst lie eabmitted to a meeting of the society, oompoaed 
|f delegates from the different auxiliarios. The American 
Redg« was as follows : 

i, the nudereigned, da agree that we will not use iutoxl- 

bting liqiiora an a beverage, nor tratHu in them ; that we will 

rt provtile thorn as an article of entertainment, or for peiHims 

b (ml eiQploynient; anil that, in all auitable wa5s,'«e-»>'Citoa- 

leir uau tbruiighout the t^MuuiunvX.^ ■" 


Sgc^tA ^ H m h r y . 

The Bocicty held its meeting in May, The motio 
adopt tlie American pledge aa a substitute for the c 
pledges, creatoda long, exciting, and unpleaeaitt debate, a 
much contradictoiy and nnaatiBfeetory action. The prop* 
change was several times defeated, Imt finally, at the i 
nual meeting, oa the 21st of ^lay, the American pl«d^ w 
adopted by a large majority, bat not till many who V 
oppoaod to it, including £arl Stanhope, tlie pi«Bident 
the Booicty, had withdrawn. These formed a 
in Juno, on the basas of the short pledge, ctjled " 1 
British and Foreign Society for the Suppiessioa of late 

In 1842, aAer many nnsaccesafal attempts in that d 
tion, these two societies were dissolved, and their mcmbc 
immediately formed " The National Temperance SooielyjS 

A great impetus was git-en to the cause in London u 
the Bnmmet of 1843, by the t-isit of Futhej Matthew, wIm 
during his stay of six weeks, administered the total ■ 
nence pledge to 69,446 persons, extending his vjsll \ 
other cities and towns, — notably and with gwat s 
Manchester, where 64,(H>0 persons took the pledge in t! 
days. He succeeded during his brief stay in Kngland, i 
giving the pledge to 180,000 persons, escludve of tlu 
pledged in London, A World's Temperance Conveiitia^ 
held in London, in August, 1846, was also of great t 
vice to the cause. A year later it was estimate*! that In ■' 
England there were about 1,200,000 pledg(-d teototallop 
Societies rapidly multiplied ; clergymen of nil denom 
tiona enlisted in the cause; temperance papers were nuine 
ons and well patronized, and temperance literature hi v 
OUB forma, was widely distributed and profitably read. 

In 1861, Mr. Tweedie, the pnblislior, reported to a men 
ber of Parliament that there were " at least 4,000 tempt 
auce societies in the United Kingdom, ami not U-w) tlu 
3,000,000 teetotallers." Of the present numbiTaudvi 
of agencies for the advance of tho t 
. more will ho s 

Total Jlsdnmce Sodvties. 319 

Isted have 'been cliiefly (Imwn fri>m Cowlin's History of 
the Temjwranye Moveiu<?nt, and Hiirtie'e TeetotaUer'a Com- 

In 8cH>tlaiiil, as in Engluud and America, the rlangcrDim 
4ndillgsnc« inlightOT intaxicanta, led W the abandonmeut of 
* pledge of abBtinen<!e from the nee nf ardent s])irits only 
id to tlie eubetitntiuQ of the pledge of abatinence from all 
vitosicaata. The tirat inotance of this in Scotland, is Baid 
lo hiiTe been at Ihiii/ermliiie, in Sejit. 1830. A coffeo- 
oase being about to bo established in that place, a meet- 
ly of the Teinperaac« Society vras called to consider what 
tioold be done to encourage and aBBiwt the enterprise. At 
iiat meeting it waa maAe known that the eoeietyH coin- 
dttee had agreed to allow the eoffec-house ' keeper to sell 
<md ales. To this, opposition was offere<I, though 
ibly without succesa in preventing the committee's 
from being- endorsed by the aooiety ; as on the fol- 
evening, the opponents of the meaHiire met to con- 
der how they could connteraot its inflnenee. Their delilt- 
atioos resulted in the formation of a new society under 
IS following : 

" We, the sabaeribora, influenced by the oonvietion that l*m- 
inuioe IB best promoted tiy total abstinence from all iotoxirat- 
g lliiuors, clo vobiDtarily consent to telinqnish entirely their 
«, and neitber to j^ve nor rM<ejve them upon any, save iiivdi- 
il ufMea — amali l)eer oxoept«d, and wine on sneramental occa- 

" We Ultewiae agree to give no encouragement or aupirart. to 
ly DotTee-boiise, established, or receiving couutennuoe froni, 
ly twQperance society, for the sale of Intoxicating liqnots. 
"Upon these princi))]e8 we form ourselveg into a eocioty. to be 
illed, 'The Dunfermline Aaaociation for tbe promotion tif 
'eiDj>eranc« by the relinquishment of all intoxicating liqnurs.''' 

The reeervation in regard to •' sniall beer," — if titat was 
I fntoxicatirtg beverage, — debars ns from calling ibis a 
dotly Total Alistiuenoe Soiiiety. although it would R('i>in, 
tth from the " conviction " on whioli rti6 safHietft wAwi.., 
ti tha name chosen by them, that, it wna t\io\i \u\.<™.^a.(i^ Va 

320 Jla^ol Ml ffiOort/. 

loakft Buch an organization. PerhajiB the moat tliat 
jimtlv bo said is, that it was in advance of ail previoua afr 
tiou. Sixty pereona united with this Bociety in a few daya 
after its organization. 

It waa nearly two years "before thia example of progTHB 
was imitated elsewhere. On the 14th of January, 183^ 
" The Paisley Youths' Society for promoting Temperan 
and the principle of abBtinenoe from all Intosioating ] 
(jiiors," was instituted ; and on the following day, aamga 
ization waa effected at Glasgow, called the "WadegtonTol 
Abstinence Society." Of the radical character of the 
Bocieties, there is no donlit, A few daya later, the Boote^ 
at Greenlaw adopted the following role 

"Tni. Finally, that as eome wish the 'other liqnon,' ths 
modenite nse of wbicli ia allowed in the eecond article, plucxf 
upon the same footing with ardent spirits, an heat suiting thalp 
pecnliar Tiewa aod oireuiuBtanoea, the society do not tUink 
pr^udjcial to the cause. AndlookiDguxion theteuipetaiiueaB&' 
total abstinence ptiuciplesaa parta of one great whole, provisim^i 
is hero made for acting upon the latter- All, therefbrci, who do 
so, shall he considered members of this society ; and those 
iiig to avail themselves of thia article shall be required to sign 
the following declaration : 

" Wo do resolve that so long iia wo are members of this 
elation yre shall aliatain Atim the use of distillud spirits, winc% 
and all other intoxicating liquors, except for mediciiie imd sa 
Tomental pnrposoa. Adheienoe to thia principle wiU ho noUfli 
by profiling a • to the name." 

How far tliis may havo been imitated by other aiMnetleS) 
we have no information ; but it was prohably uJmoBl 
iaolated case, as we are asenred that many leaders nf thv 
Temperance work in Scotland, viewed the Total Absti- 
nence movement " with alarm, and hesitated not to de« 
nonnce it as a rash and dangetooa procedure, moBt cortitlll 
to alienate friends, and thereby dunutge the movement.'* 
" In rieveral instances they eougbt to motUfy thi? 

f iitiw ». -.of 4^i¥«ifan&&i 

Tiyttd AbtUiienoe Boaeties. 321 

(unily and tioiueholil use of intoxicanbj among their mem- 

The Total Abfitinenoe cause ma^le slow progress, in spite 
{ earaest and eloquent efforts in its behalf. lu ^eptumbcr 
a teetotal society vas foimed in Annan, a Binall 
a DiunlrieB ; and in the same month, at the close of a 
^ctnre in Glasgow, it waa vot^ : " That the old society 
fledge be abandoned, aud the society meeting there adopt 
~uj clean pledge of the Preston frienda, namely, — not to 
kke or give any drinks, of whatever kind, that can caose 
itoxication." This led, among others things, to a debate 
}r two evenings in a week for three weeks, between the 
hampions of moderation and teototallism, resulting in a 
sqority of the hearers declaring teetotallism the victor, 
a 1838 the cause received a new impctua through the ef- 
farts of several devoted lecturers and organizers, one of 
ihom, the Bev. Bobt. G. Mason, said in September of 
bat year ; 

" l^a emiBe is going on in Scotland aa well, perliapa, as in any 
irt of Great Britain. We hava, at this moment, uo fewer than 
D^OOO pledgee to total abstinence, and ncnrly donble that nnm- 
^^^it ni^teriallj" improved by the influenue of onr jirineiplea. Ko 
wBf tiiau 60,000 Love been added to oar ranka during the last 
iM, and the good <^aaBe is daily making new accesaions. In 
le Bwall county, commonly called tho ' Kingdom cif nfe,' wo 
ftve fifty separatu fiocietiea, aveniging al>out 300 each, and 
in a moat flonriahiog nuuiner. I bavo recently made 
btui in the north, where during the abort apace of nine days, 
loctured in all tbe following places—' Inverary, Huntly, Keith, 
ts, Elgin, Newin, Campbelton, Cromarty, Foatroso, In- 
nie«a, Farrea, Culleii, Portroy, Bauff, Aberdonr Fraaerburgh, 
lid Dear, Peterhead, aud Abvodeen. In nearly all theae placea 
.HDcoeeded In forming socictJes, most of which promise to do 
rell. "We have now, 15,000 in EdinUui'gb ; 12,000 in Glasgow ; 
[000 in Paisley ; 3,000 in Domfiics ; 2,000 in Greenoi^k : 1,500 in 
lonftrmtine ; and 1,200 in Kili^iirdy ; in addition to several ao- 
itiea which average at 700. I Lave dolii-ured nearly ouu hun- 

' Tb« Histfiry of the Temperance UovemtnA to. ?iM^iasA, 

'iabargb, n, d. pp. 10, 12. 

Jkahd m Biaiory. 

died and fifty pabUo lectures diiring tb« poal two moQ'the, 
npwardB of eighty differunt iilacps, uuil have fonned moR) 
ono hundred and twenty societies in the past jear." 

In 1842 Father Mathew made a trief viMt to Glae^i 
and daring his stay administered the pledge to at leafit40, 
ID tliat city. 

In 1838 " The ScottiHli Temperance Union," was formed, 
1>nt unfortDnately local jealousies caoscd a divi^n in a 
Bhort time, and two Aseociations, one culled the I^astern, 
and the otber the Western, occupied tbe grooiid wluch tlte 
original organization could have covered as veil. Botli of 
theae aasociations were short lived, and were superseded by 
the " Scottish Temperance League," in I&44, This is still 
the national association, and it Hoes ita wort cliiofly by 
publishiug infoTmation and supporting temperance locturen. 
It has seven agents constantly in the field ; circulates W' 
average of 6,000 volumes of carefully prepared temperaaeft, 
literature in a year, distriLntes 600,000 tracts, and loiaefi 
and spends about £8,000 annually.* 

It is claimed that a Total Abstinence Socaety was fonned 
in Skibbereon, County Cork, Ireland, sa early 
year 1817. Thia claim was put forth at the " Tempei 
Congi'esa of 1802," by Mr. Bobt. Rae, Secretary to llie Ni 
tionalTemperanceLoagne,whostated that hetLeo tiwl 
meuts in his possession to show this ^t, and that tlw sodetT 
continned in active operation until it was absorbed in ihu 
more comprehensive movement in 3838. Tlieir records 
and hooks were destroyed by fire iil 1854 ; but sovemi of 
the original members who were alive in 1802, oioiiiUiiioiI 
that total abstinence was their bond of union from the Iw- 
ginning, and that the first rule of the society waa expreswii 
in the following words: "No person can takenmlt orsplHl- 
nona liquors, or distilled waters, or anything iuebHaUn^, 
except prescribed by a priest or doctor." f 

* Coulin, pp. 40-142. Logan, pp. 82-85. Ceuteunial Temj 
once Vnliuue, p. 12. 
t Logan, p. 81. 



Total AMtnence SocUties. 323 

It may be safely said, however, witbont detracting from 
) honor wUidi may belong to tliiij pioneer movouicut, 
it no general interest was taken in the caueo till about 
38, when a few members of the Religious Society of 
Intends begun to hold wtickly Total Abatinence meetings 
9 the dty of Cork. Met-ting with very little snccess, they 
bothoogbt them that much good might be accomplished, if 
t should be posuble to induce Father Mathew, the Boman 
Catholic piieet at Cork, to sign the pledge and give his in- 
flsenoe to the movement. William ]tf artin, of the Society 
f Friends, waited on the priest to inform Uim of the con- 
iotion of Friends iu regard to it. He succeeded in iutcr- 
;■ him, and at a small meeting, on the 10th of April, 
838, Father Mathew attended and took the pledge. '' If 
V one poor sonl," he said, " can be rescued from intem- 
wice and destruction, it will be doing a noble act and 
dding to the glory of God ; here goes in the name of the 
On the same evening a new society is formed, he 
I elected president, and commomsoe the advocacy of Total 
Lbstineiice in an old school-room in Blackamore-lane. He 
i tried the moderation pledge, it is said, ajuong his peo- 
lle, a>nd had found it inadequate to meet and ajrest the 
teat evil of intemperance. Immediately hia influence ia 
)lt among the members of his sphitoal flock. Large nura- 
ra DTOwded his residence, to whom, kneebng, he adminia- 
8 the following pledge ; eaob person repeating after him : 
' I promise to abstain from all intoxicating drinks, except 
ledianally, and by order of a medical man, and to 
Ssconntenance the oaiiae and practice of intemperanoe." 
'^liim passing aniong them, he lays his hand in blessing on 
bo lieud of each, making the sign of the cross, dismisses 
facnn tit hia eecretaiies, where their names are registered, 
ind each receives a medal and » card, containing the rules 
f the society; and so* makes room for other groups who 
fi in waiting. Boon the crowds are too great to be ne- 
rmmwdfttt-d in ihia manner, and so Iwiuo m ^\\i5 -^yuV \ia 
foai to the Horse Bazaar, wlierc t.\io\ie»TvA& VacA laA. 


Jkobd in Hii^yry. 

receive the pledge ; the namljere so constantly uiciee^ngl 
that Ijpforo the end of the year — in eight months — 156,UC 
persona have received the plerlge from him in GorV. 

Hia fame eateDds rapidly, and people flin'k to Iiim 1 
all port.iimB of the land, bo that he yields to BolicitatioB 
and goes abroad to moot thorn. Visiting Limerick, t 
people Bwarm in immense crowds to meet him, extending ft 
two miles along all the roads leading to the place. Private 
houses ore crowded with those who have not been able to 
get within sound of his voice dniing his first day ihero, 
and over 5,000 persons remain in the streets over night. Foe _ 
fonr days he is almost incessantly engaged in giving pW 
and his secretaries register no fewer than 150,000 nameK 
Moving on to other places, he ia able to show at the close d 
the year 1840, that 1,800,000 men and women have < 
bended knees given him their solemn pledge of ToUi 
Abstinence from all intoxioants. And so the work j 
on until in November, 1844, he reports that he has regi 
tered " in Ireland 5,040,000 adherents of Total AliGtinenc 

Father Mathew had a brother who was a distiller, and b 
near relative, who is also in the same business, and lli»y 
write to him while he is thns engaged : " If yon go on 
thus, yon will certainly rain onr fortunes." 1 

r trade; turn your pn-miaes i 
vents my course is fixed. Thfti 
B tfijfethor, we ehonld d» wbt 
me of iho meetings in London, previciiuilfl 
s reported to have said t 

"Ho liarl no SHctarian olyect in Tiew. TlmuKh a CathoIM 
jirioBt, ho Lml been reccivBil in tbe mMt ootilial 
clorgjmen and \aj nemltera of Iho KstabliHhuil CUnreli. 1 
WoaluyaiiB, Disaonters, Quakers, aye, iind even J«wv: and U 
hat: ailminiHti.'rDil the i>ledi;t) tomilUonHOf allaecta. 
to RieViilemiiiikiiid, anil to ]immot« tlio iillerenln nf religion, ll 
the goiid of community, 1>y thnt fcteiitpat of all lilcdsiuga. wliM 
ety. Tbe people of YetWnie, TrtvetetaVtiA. ubuinietftrtal t" 
pkdge to upwards of 100,000 paxBona, ^^\Jinssi^JO■?a."s\iK^,te^^ 

goes bact : " Change y 
factories for flour ; at all c 
heaven and earth should c 
is right." At i 
montioaed, he 

Total .JbatitieTice Societ'ies. 


TiMB, and preoenM wurti ofiereil Ui liim trom jiecsoiiu uf wunlLti 
mil iiigii Htatiiliiig in society, bnt he tefitaed to nccopt gr » 
htlhing. lie had expcwled £300 of bis own moiiey fciuce ho 
1 benu in Knglauil, hnl be did not regret it; anil if ho buil 
in di«iKiae(I to favor Mtuseif and familjr, be should not have 
boeo A temperonro iulvocat«, and converted niUliona of his own 
mtrpnen from dmnltciLneas to sobriety. A hrothei be dearly 
loved waa the proprietoi of a lurge distillery in Irelaiid, th« 
bnro walls of which cost £30,000 ; and he wus [compelled to 
BJoee it and waa almost mined liy the tuini>erani;e movement in 
ihftt country, and the pledge wUicli the ptople had taken to 
e oif driakiug whiskey, which hml canaed ao mnch disorder 
Bnd Moodslipd is Itia native land. The Itiuhaud of hie only 
ialer, whum h« ulso dearly loved, waa a diHtiI1«r, and hsciune 
a bnnluiipt from the oatuo cause. He waa aurry to apoak of 
UKWO things, but whon hi> wa« accused of beinK instiguted to 
) what he hajl done to enrich liimaelf, Le felt compelled to 
tony tlio charge. It hod ulso bucm intimated that he waa mak- 
big a lAFga profit by the mlo of medala — he never profited a 
iUlling, and never would. Thiira were 200 of them aold on 
Aonday foraaliiUingeacb. Theespeiiaosof the day amounted 
£15, and the overplus, if any, would bu davoted to the fniv 
UtnuiQB of the cauiM of total abstinence." 

Throngli bis wliolci c. 
carried himself as to 

bis work, Father Math«w 

nil tbiit he was eeeking 

iho good of others, waa di-votetl to their beat interests, and 
aa aelf-aoiirificiiig in time, meaiiB latd energy. At the 
roscut time the Iriah Temperance League, organizci] in 
559, is the chief infiti-umentality for the advance of the 
luae in Ireland. It has Bomcthing over 100 local Total 
il»BtInimce Boneties connected with it. 
In various parts uf the world, Total Ahstinence eocietioa 
n) BOW cstahlished. In all the British coloniee ; in all 

ho coontiies ••! Eiirupp ; in India, China, Japan, A&ica ; 

Id kll die Itdinids of the seas, the cause has gained a foot- 
ig ; and this principle has been declared to be the only 
■liable and rflieient means for stuying the progreaa of 

Roturning now tu note ibo progreea ol tVie T^Xii, iC\i*».- 
iDOB caaso !a America, we find lUat \>y \»^AQ gte^A- ?,wasa 

Aloohol in Bwtory. 

hud been uode. Dr. Ohurles Jewett, tlien active in ilia 
rui'onu in MatMucUast^tts, isjuil that ia that .Stat«, " nuictei'ii- 
Uveutietlis of the ck'i^y were total abatainew; aiid ttutfiilt-n 
oticasiouul scnoous, vury many of them gave the Iii(nar 
Byslem a l>h)w wherever and whenever they had opporlu>r 
iiity." The sanie might as well have been eaiA of NeW' 
Englaod at largo ; cyid all other parts of the oatioa wen 
more or lotut actively eu^age<l in tUe work, and ta so 
good piiiifuee, that in tun years the uuniber of dieitiU«n«s 
hait diminiehod several thouKOuds. And whereas m 1831, 
12,000,000 of people were oonsimiing 70,000.000 gallons oT 
ardent e^Arits, — an average of «<i gallons for eveiy nMii, 
woman, and chihl, — in 1840, with the popalatioii utcreMeil 
to 17,000,000, the whole amount of distilled Bpirits con- 
Bomod, was 43,000,000 gallons, loss than three gallons for. 
Dach person. The number of pledged teetotallers wasabont 
2,000,000, at least 15,000 of whom were reformed iac- 
Lriates. It seemed oa though, in eome hxtalities, the liaiit 
of enccess had been reached, and aome new iitipuhw waa 
needed, to iiisnro fmther pn;)greS8. Suddenly, and firom an 
unexpected sonrco, it came. 

Sis men, far gone in thiMr love of liqnor, fonneil theiD'' 
selves, in the city of Baltimore, into a ctub fnr sodal tip- 
pling. They njot in the bar-room of Chase's tawn^, 
where they frei^uently indulged in wtiat they called " ft' 
good time," Meeting together on the night of tlie 2nd of 
April, 1840, they learned that a noted tpmperanoe lecturar 
was to speak in the city that evening, and, more m sport 
than from any better motive, they appointed two of tk<^ 
number to go and hear him, and rpport. Tlio coniluittCQ 
brought back a favorable report, and while repeating tlio ar< 
gnmentstowldch thoy lia<l listened, their I and lord, OTcrlicai^ 
ing, broke out in a tirade agiunat teinjwnmco lucturew, Apr 
nouncing them all as hypocrites. Oncof tlieaix tartly reply* 
ing, '' Of course it is for your interest t'l ury tliem down, ftt 
an_y rate," provoked further debate, wliie ji li 
eaci eveoing, roBTiltei\ on iXve 

Toi<d Abstinence Booties. 3*7 

eigning a pledge of Total Ahstinpncn, and fornung tliom- 
selvcs into a toniperanco society, wliitU they named " Tlie 
"Wasliington Society." Tbo names of these eis mechanics, 
witli llieir trades, were Mr. K. Mitcliel, tiulor j J. T. Hosb, 
carpenter ; I>. Anderson, lilacksiuith ; Q. ^teerg, whecl- 
irright ; J. McCouley, coaehmaker ; aud A, Campbell, 

The following was their I'ledge ; 

" We, wboM tLiunes are annexml, ilrairoias of guanling a^^oliiBt 

liraniuiona prartjce, whivli is u^nrioiis to oiu Lealth. staixliiif; 
imd &milieB, do pledge oimelTea, at geotlenien, that we will 

ot drink any Bpirltnoaa or malt lifjuors, wine or oid«r." 

It is said that oacli membor was at onco put into office, 
8 it required the fnll mimher to fill the positions which 
they had prodded for in their constitution. Each member 
ileo became an advncat« of the tauso, the agreement being 
ILat each shonid relate Ids history and the results of his 
Miienoe. Their first meetiag after their organization at 
Hus tavern, was at the carpenter'e shop belonging to one of 
their number, and here they contiunod to nnsemblo fur a 
few weeks, gaining converts and inereasiug their member- 
rfdp ; bat iu a short tinie, liviug strictly up to tlieir rnlo, 
'lat eaoli member shimld "attend all the meetings and 
bnng a man with hiia," the shop was too email for their 
icconimodation. and they moved to a school -house. Soon 
intgrowing this they obtained a chnrcli, but this soon fail- 
ing to hold them, they commenced meetiuga in the o]>Lin 
they wore making it their business to seek out 
tlie drunkard iu the day time, as fer as yiractii'Jible, their 
ineetiiig'S rapidly increased in attendance and fi-etiuency, and 
Boon liegau to send out speakers by twos and threes 
e neighboring towns and cities, whero equal Euecess 
L'll tlu'iii US at home. Their snceess was miirvellona. 

'■ i!io reformed meu, mainly confined lo the 

.[liil esprni'uccB, Innched the lieai-ts and 
r liiUiag men aa no othcv iCiirVs ti>uV\ \v.\iK\\. 
■ r.iul ..t ihfclwooi tlioif Gi-Bl yuniV -wut'^iVVt-i Va\ 

828 Meakd fti JKsfewy. 1 

lirouglit more than 100,000 to sign tlie pleilgi', some of I 
wiirtt:: Lad Ijeem low in their drunk cnness. I 

Sliortly after tbeir first airaivereary they sent ont warn 
eioiuiries, MessrsL Pollard and Wright goia^ to the westClH 
ptut of New York ; Mr. KawkinE to New Euglani] ; niifl 
UossTB. Viokars and Smftll to ttie western States. Eacd 
detection met with a success be^'itnd their moat sangnisd 
expt'i'lutions ; so thiit in a year &om their startiiig-, "n 
won conipotM that the I'eronnittioD had included at Iraafl 
300,000 cotninon dninkards, and three timea that ninahcr iA 
tipplers wlio were in a fior way to become sots." For fuid 
yearB their career waa one of almost tminterrnpted sncvcfM 
for iu lt<40 then- were not loB6 than 5,000,000 teetotaHeJ 
connected wilh over 30,000 eotneties, in the United Staffia 
With great liberality, all elanseR of society rendered tile tS 
fonned men assietanre in variimB ways : by providing' tht'fl 
with elothing ; hiring bal!rt for their mootings | ohtaininS 
eiiiployiuent for sauli as wi?re able to work ; and in IIUI1B«A 
one wayx utntiiliiiting to tbe oomrort of their homes. ftH 
women oi^rtized JIartha Washiwf.'ton Sot-'iotioR, as noxfl 
i.iries to tlio tirigiiial organ izati07i8, and made the well-1«>ii« 
of iho homes of the reformed men tlieir ppecial ear*. TlA 
Marth;i Washington Hoeiety of Biwton, etill nun-ivca. l^fl 
movement even penetrated the legislative hulls of the nM 
tion, leading to the reorganization of the Congit-Bdnwfl 
Poi'iety, on a Total Absiioeneo bf:eiB. It awoke many «)fl 
the ohm-ehea to renewed activity in the temperani'e cjinsS 
and led in many places to extended revivals of religion, f 

Muoli of fact, and ninch of speculation, lias been wiiltiH 
to account for the decline of the Woshingtflnion movemenfl 
TlieCliurcheshavebMn blamed for their attitude tn thp Rflfl 
formers, and tho Iteformere for their attitnde to the diorehCKl 
I'he difiicnlty in oaeh particnlar locality, it may not t« 
easy to Bpedfy, bnt these general observations may p'tfl 
haps cover, the ea»o us a whole : The esnniplo act (ly llfl 
jMivnr pociely, of liaving t\im vhuiato^,* uhnniL-lcnxtHl 4fl 
lhcich,.iwti of pctBouiil ospe-viftuceSi-aAVM iSasaV^ tt-M 

Total JbeHnmoe Societies. 329 

juentB bfised on lUe vaiied relationB of inteniperance to tbe 
individual and to scicioty, was too fuithfidly followed by 
" B organizations which patterned after it. For a time the 
Bovelty of having a meoting wholly conducted by those 
who had been drunkards, wae popular and oxeiting ; and 
doubt thousandfl of men who feared that they were hope- 
Bsly enslaved to their cups, w«re made etroug to attomjit 
(efomi, by the story and example of those who hod been 
B low as themselves, who would not have been reached in 
Buy other way. But necessarily there waa great sameneaB 
*n the tragic and the lighttr character of these per- 
loiud experiences ; iuteuBO excitement never can be made 
Bstiug ; appeal to mere feeling cannot bo long continued ; 
I Ujerefore, both to the reformed and to the pnhlic at 
argOf Eameness became insipid, and at last burdensome. 
, ,ln many instances the reformed men restricted their 
lembsrship, and espedally the management of their affairs, 
) themselves. It was unwise, as the bar-room is not a 
nilable school forbnsincBa of anytiml, and is espeotally 
efective in fitting men for wise and orderly management 
F organizations. In very many cases these managers r&- 
lelled all advice offered by those who were wise in such 
lattors, and they soon became involved in niisimderstaad- 
. which ripened into disoi^aniidng difficulties. They 
ould not, or would not, see, that there was any danger of 
mfeiting the pnblio with personal experiences, and invari- 
bly the public interest reached its limit, and could not by 
repetition of that which had caused its stagnation, be re- 
ivetl. It was also true, that although many of the clergy 
eartUy sympathiKcd with the movement, some were to bo 
jtind in nearly every community, who, in the sjiirit of the 
lish^ip before mentioned, opposed it -as fanatical, infidel 
••xtreme. An eqmilly direct attack to that made by 
Ip. Jlfipkiiis, waa moAo by Rev. Hiram Mattison, of 
tttU/Tttivm, N. Y. His argument was — , 

*FirB» — Ko riirfstiun ie ut liberty to adVect ot aila^\, Mi-j ^wa.- 
Isj'jTfeJu, urg-auization, ageuc'iea ot meaaiB, tor ttia -EoHwi^eA- 

D of roiuikuid, except those {a-esrribed and ruoognSied 
by Joaus Christ. But, 

"Secondly — Cliriat baa deHi^nted tiia Church as bis choeea ^ 
orgiiaizntion; liia Miuiaters ae hie choacn ftnibassailora or pnli- 
]iu Itjachers ; and bU Go«pel as the system of truth and moliTe* 
by which to rofonn mankind. Nor haa he pieacritied any othst I 
meuQS. Therefore, 

"Tlijrilly — All Tolantsirf organizationa and aocietios, fiti thai 
sup^irtssion of piuticular vices, and thu proniotton of pactteolal.l 
Tirtno*, being invented by man without a divine model *r « 
nuutd, and proceeding upon priaeipJea and amploying a(^ciH,.l 
means and motivea not lecognized in the Gospel, are iucoiapatl* 
ble with the plan or[l».ined of Heavon, and conaeqaently anpeii I 
fluuna, inexpedient and dangerous." In seeking to enppoit'l 
this style of si^umcnt, he declares (p. 12), that the Temiienuca T 
Bofonu has not done half the good that has been awaided it^ fl 
bat has done infinitely more hurt than good, comparing whut il 
professed with what is accomplished, to the repnted and tb*! 
actual effects of luack medioinea, a protended core-aU, l 
Teallf killing ten where they euro one. Elsewhere, he ex-l 
preaaea his opinion that " God hae no attnbutea th»t t'lui tak^B 
aide with the popular moial societiea of the age." And agaiDg W 
he saja ; " but suppose a uau ia rufoimed in the popular waj j-l 
is he any better in the sight of God 1 Has that lourHlity which ■ 
haa reference solely to one's preaant interpst, or pnblio aenti-T 
nieut, one aiugle element In common with tha morality eivjoinodfl 
in the Bible T " ' 

It was alao tnie that not a few who hoA at firet &Tor 
"Washington! anism, nnwieoly, — thougli no donlit with, g 
bonesty, — sought to make it an immediate iiietraarat I 
eeotarian propug'anilifim, and repellod and soared tbosc vhc 
in the first flash nf their great victory over the appetite f 
strong drink, wore making this the one idea in tlioir eSbHa| 
for olhei-B, and who regarded everything else as direct in- 
terference with their work. To add to this tendenoy, per 
haps in some iustanoee to originate it, phil&uthropi«ti| b 
other departments of benovolont and hnmaiiitarioii work 
some of whom were eminent especially in their Inbon fc 

• "A Trnet for llie Times; or tho fhiitdi. the MinSiriiy a; 
tlie Gospel, tlioouly menus fox ^tomoUns i 

Total Abt^'mmm Sockiies. 331 

ireg tLe AmcricaD slaves, tuxl wbo had boon iDodo to kul 
L too many jiulpits tipiilogizi'd iur this iiiiqiuty. eiiterod 
into Lparty Brmpathy with tlie Washiiigtonian movcMiieut, 
1 intensified whatever tendency tliere mig'ht huvo heen 
■dticed by any other caoae, to Buspicioii, jealoasy, (listniBt 
f>i, if not to open war witli, tlie Churches. 

It is a mistake, however, to suppose, as many have, tbat, 
s a whole, there was notliing but antagonism between the 
Waehingtoniana and the ChriKtian Cliurchi-s. With few, 
~l no exceptions, save, perhaps, on the part of the Epiatwi- 

\ Ohnroh, the General Conventinnu ol' the Pmtcalant 

ClmrcheB endorsed and enoonraged the niovem<-nt. The 
a of the General Confcreaco of the M. E. Chareh, in 
, is a fair index of the feeling and sentiments of all 
be Protestant denominations (except as above noted,) at 

" Xeaolncd, Tbnt we recoiamenil to all onr preachers, both 
ravelUug and lopal, and to all our tuemlwiB aud fricndg to give 
t tlie Temperance Reformation (now in sui^cesaful opbratiuu ill 
liB and otiier countriea,) their niiteiiervod approval, uud ear- 
ast and Uliomi support." 

It ean lie said with strongor emphasis, that Washington!- 
nism was not an irreligious movement. In most all local- 
iee in the New England stalos, where the organization was 
robably the moat perfect, there waa hearty co-operation 
rith it by chniehea of nearly every name. Chaplains were 
ppointed who opoued each meeting with roli^ons services, 
nd not a few of the reformed men identified themselves 
fith the ohurehoB, some beooruing even eminent in the 
itbistry. That some coarse, impractical, skeptical men, 
B^ part in the enterprise, and that ^n certain loLalities 
icti managed it, repelling others from <o opentiou with 
bem, is uo donlit true ; and that local failure and aban- 
nnment of the plan is Ihns to bo acumnted for, cjuinot be 
enled i but the general abandonment of tlas nioda of 
peration cannot be bo explained. It is to Iw tracid, 
^ to tJiosf g'cnerul peculiaiiliea ii£ VW mo'^emwiAS.V'wSiS, 

8S9 Jla^al'irfStslBrfi 

wtiirli hflvo hcp.n before mentioned- But WuaLin^nian 
ism was not a fuilnTP, for it resunuit tlioufiamls friim i 
and oppited the way for more ailvamwd tliouglit and (^ 
in tliis great ciauBO. It stopped in its career, ainijjly liecttuHi 
it liad rearhed the limit of the escluHive use of the iost 
mentulitieB wliiith it employed. It was tt great inisfbrti 
that, as Dr. Jewelt, who speke from personal luiowlwlj;! 

" Some of the most influential of those reformeii epeatc«r«, ta- 
rlniliag Mituhell, one of the iivt-, sueiau the eitttiidiva 
and growing influence of tlie new method of promoting teiapot- 
ancB, caaie, boueotly, no donht, to reganl all other eftbri* M 
UHolcas, aarltliil not heaitjite bo to eiprussthnmsclvea. Tempcr- 
auee svmions, prayera, arguLuenl^, and ezliortatioiiB, which 
were not orpertoieas, were of no aoconnt." 

Then again, on the same authority : 

" Some of tlie most promiacnt of the new diaeiples, aJthai 
they advooateil total ahstineuce, held, and advocated eealoi 
doRtrines utterly nnsoimd in many Itaportunt particuluts.' 
MitrLell, the leading spirit of the groap, hetil that, aa WaBhUig- 
toninnB, they shonlil have nothing l« suy agaiost the tratUc or 
the men engaged ia it. He weald have no pledge even, ngaiuit 
eogiiging in the manufaetiure or traffic ia liquors ; uor did lie 
oouusel reformed men to avoid liqnor-sell era' society or planes uf 
buaineBH. He wonld even oilnilt men to memliership iii Ilia 
sacic>tieB who were engaged in the tralilo, and in my heailug bv 
admitted that he had paid for liquor, at the )iiir, fur otlun 
driuk, alter he had sig7ied the pledge, tie would not 
liqnor, bitt if otliora cliose to, that was thoir bnttinvifl." * 

While the Washingtonian movemimt was In proj^ 
tlie cause of Total Ahstinenoe rewivud a pnwprfiil ioi] 
from the Inhors of Dr. Thomas Bewail, of llw Colmnli 
College, Diatiict of Columbia. For upworrls of 
years, Dr. So wall had been ongagw] ia pattiologtf 
researches, during which timo ho had many npportiini 
of inspecting the et^muu!)! uf theiuteraprruteafUinlnutli fr 
the various degrees and stages of the Ti«e of itiLosieai 
In 1841, he puhlislicd the "Pathology of Drunkvnni 

*A J'orty YoarB' Fight witU 



Hastmtecl hy seven drawings of the humim stomach as it 
g^aied in varioua conclitions, wliicli bo tlius desimhed : 

'• Plate 1— Rapresenta tha iutenial or inucoiis coat of tlie sto. 

t-eib in A bmlihs »lalt. It was dnrnn from one who linit lived 

II eottitaly teiii|>eiiite life, and died, nndiir ciriMimBtauc«B whii'h 

dnotbave diont^ed tlio appeoiancu of the orgou after death: 

DOd-vesaela inviiriblc." 

"Plated — Sliowa tha appearance of the slomach of the 

tednrate Drinker — the mait who takes hia gcog daily, hul inodcr- 

ttljh c w^Q ^'V^ ^'>* wino with his meals: — bluod veaaels 

Bllirgvd 80 as to l>a Kitible, and distended with blood." 

," Plate 3 — Represents thefiril stage in hahitital dmokenneM, 

; tbo Btomauli of the Bai'd Drinkftr : — internal coai irritafed — 
i ressels mnrc enlarged." 

" Plate i — Represents the Ktoninch of the drunkard after a 
tfoBcA of several days :— inl«mitl uout highly inflamed, red 

" Plate 5 — Repreaents the dmnkatd'a ulcerated stomach: — 
temal coat corroded." 

" Plate 6 — Repreaenta the appearance of tlin Cancerout sto- 
nch : — the coats of the organ arc tkiiikeni'd iitid Seirrhtu, wilh 

g Cancer (if the siie roprreeoted." 
'*' PUiU 7 — Keiirt«ent8 the internal state of the stomaoh after 
Kllll from Delirimit Trimimg. The mneous coat is covered by 
dark hrown AnVy Bnbstauee, which being removed, shows the 
■e lieen in a high degree of inflaniniation before 
nie points it is quito dark, as if in nn incipient 
kte oflnortilication."'' 

drawings were first exhibited to tho public, in con- 
ion with a le(-tin« on the snlijert, at Wiishington, in 
audience of alwut 3000. They made a great 
ipressinn, nspocially on the minds of tie more cultivated 
Their (lorrectrjess was attested by such eminent 
lytdciona as Drs. Mott. Warren, Homer, and Green ; and 
my udjtiotis of them in enlarged form were published 
id i»«l wilh great effect liy sevfral eminent lecturers on 
mpcnuice. The most intelligent approved of them, and 
■ more esionded nsc. 


^Moobdl ta Siiionf. 

" Genenl Scott desired that they mij^ht he furaiahed u 
military post. Tho Hon, Samnrf Touug disiruil that thej- u 
be Imiig hi every common achool in the atato. The plvsidoobl'^ 
of the Murine Insurance Ctonpanfes expreaaod a wiab Uwt tlier 
might be put on board of every tcbbbI on the ocean, i 
rivoiH, and on oar lakes, connteractiDg the pepntisi temptnliaiM i] 
to which martnera and emigrants were expoBed. Testlmotii^ 
from leotnrora were often of a moat affecting character. 
very frequently the CB«e,' said one, 'that after all the fcrta F ' 
eould preaeut, or tho uppe&ln I could make, aeciii to fall power- 
less on the ear of the dmakunl, bis bead np anil apparently nn- 
moved, when these pidiirca are aliown, his cheeks tiirn pale 
osd his head droop&' ' 1 have heard,' said aootht^r, ' the im- 
fbrtunate dmnksrd exoluim, when looking at them, —and par- 
ticularly at the one reptesejiting the atoniach after a debaudi 
— 'they took 01 1 have often fhlt ! ' — Misaionuriea in foreign landa, 
at ConstHntioopIe and otbei places, were found to be exluUtin); 
the plates with great effect.'' * 

Shortly after the WaBhingtonian movement had eipenii- 
ed its power, yiz., is the BQKiner of 1&49, Father Mivthew 
made a visit to the United States. AdmisiatwiDg tliu 
pledge to about 100,000 in the principal cities uf New 
England, ho co&templatod making an extended tour 
through tho United States, but hia health failed, aud lio 
was forced to be quiet. A. few sociotioa were foundml \'y 
him while here, at least two of which, one in Philadelphia, 
and one at ICaat Catnbridg'e, Mass., are in existencti to-ilaf. 
Quite a nnmLer were active in 1860, when a rooi^nnisatiou 
of Total Abstinence work, among the Catholuis took plac«, 
of wliirh it may be well to speak here. This new uovc- 
ment among the Catholics puts the whole f>iipcrintt<n<lenH) 
of Temperance work in the hands of their clergy. It oom- 
mencod in Jersey City, Kew Jersey: and was rapidly for- 
warded in 18G7,'l86ei" and 1869 by the Missionary ord«», 
— the PassionistB, Jesuits, and Pauliats, — n'ha in prcMMiul- 
ing their mission work, not niilreqiieiil ly had whtdc oon- 
grogationa reHpoiid to their invitations to riso and take tlie 
pledge. ISy 1870 these local societios began to fonu diiv 

Total AbstineTux Societies. 


r State anionH, and in 1872 tlieao UuIdds became a 

jB-tioiial body, bearing the name of the Catholio Total 

|lbstiiicDC43 Udiou of America. Iii ll^7n tb«ro were ia lUU 

jiitional Union 000 Bocietiee of over 150,000 membcn, 

FTheaa comprise only those aggregaterl, to the Union; 

f other Catholic tiitul abBtincnco societies tliero are probnr 

by 300 working aa local Bocieties. The Catholic women, 

iderthe lead of Father BeseoineB, of Indiana, organixed in 

« loealitiee about IfTl?, They failed to iceeivo rocog- 

n from the National Union, at flret, but in 1^80 they 

i heartily recognized and endorsed. Wo may eafely 

lote the entire number of Catholic total abstinoncfl 

II tliis eonntry at not less than 1,000, Laving an 

i tnemlierahip of 200,000 persona." These Bocteties 

id a Fountain at Fairmonnt Park, PhiladolpUia, on 

th of July, 1876, at a cost of $(iO,000.* 

rly in the liiatory of the Total Abelinence Pledge, it 

i judged by many that neithtsr tlie mere taking of the 

r the af&liation of thoao wlio signed it with th» 

Inple wid imperfect organizations with which they experi- 

mtod in their efforts for ooncortud action, wore eullicient 

r the peculiar needs and espoBures of the reformed men. 

I believed tiiat such could bo more perfectly banded 

er and greatly helped in ways for which their flnit 

oiaation made no pmvision, by sotaetiea having a wider 

, more imposing and attractive form of admission, 

d of operation, Hence the origin of tho Bo-oallod 

* Temperance Societies. 

) first in order of time, were the Rechabites. They 
Lubsed iu the town of Salfonl, eounty of Iiaiicasl«r, 
d, in August, 1835, under the name of " The lutto- 
t Order of Rooliahitea," taking tlicir title from the 
Bit peopln mentioned in Jeremiah xkxv. who put tlieia- 
« unfler obligatton " to drink no wino forever." Mem- 
p batrietly eiinfuied to total abstainers, and is linuted 

'CeaUiiaiaJ Tomi«; 

e Volmmi, vi>. T«l,Ti\.. 

to raiilp persons of healthy oonatitirtion aud good rooral 
obariicterj from Uftepn to fifty years of age. To the a 
members certain ptHsnniar}" benefite are aecurod, while thoM J 
who may not dcHirL- such consideration, liiit are wiliin^ WJ 
give countenanoe imA moral finpport to the order, lieooaW 
honorary members by paying a small annual fee. Origin 
Tially the entrance fee of avttve inemhers was the w 
all, irreapective of their age, within the limits before men- 
tioned. Two funds were eBl.abliBhed and diviiliHl ini» T 
ebareB, each member being at liberty to take from c 
BIX Bliares in tlio sick fnnd, and from one to four shares 'm § 
the funeral fluid. For every penny per share paid weekly I 
into the aiok f<md, two shiliings and sixpence per woefc aift J 
received in time of sioknosB ; and for every five penee | 
eliare paid qnarterly into the funeral fnnd, five pouuda ara J 
paid at death. Kepently a graduated seale of contribil^J 
tions, according to age, has been made for new meiubcni) I 
which in time will become the more just rule thron^tMVt J 
the order. 

At an early day, 1842, this order was Lrooght to tUf 
United States, and for a time esteriHively flourisliedf^fl 
numbering at oue period not far fix>m 100,000 merubera,J 
At present the memborahip in this country is from 3,500 14 I 
4,400. It is now chiefly confined to Great Britain and iu 
PoBseeaiona and Dependencies, The local organizationa an I 
called Tents; several of these united, form a Diatriet; 
the supreme power of the Order is created by a bioniual'l 
conference of repreaentativea from the vaiioiifl distrirfaf'W 
The present aggregate of active meroberBhip ia a UttJai 
more than 30,000, &nd funds are accumulitted to tho nmaunl | 
of £140,000.* 

Tho next organization was the result of a Cfinsollutliill^ 
on the part of a fe-w active Washington ians in the eiry i)(J 
New York, They had noticed that althoiigli ihu Vi'iu 
ingtoninn movement was making rapid advance 

Toi-tH Ahsfincjve Soricfies. 337 

(elds, tliore were already mmiy falling away frnni llio 
itodge, anil they desireti, if pogeit)!**, to liit upon some new 
Ian of operations, eomu mora perfect or<runi2iitiiJU, nuo 
tat ationld ehielJ the menibcre from temptation, tind moj'o 
iectnally oltvnte and guide them. In a eliort tiiim tlio 
lumber of ihoBB tlius aolidtonB for a now oxpLTinicul woji 
Boreaattd to ton, when it woa agrei^d tlutt a plan of an 
Hpiovod organization should l>e drafted and copioH of a 
, for a meeting to consider it, ahoQld l)e distributed 
QioDg forty prominent Washingtonians. The call wUB 
eadoil " Sons of Temperance," and invited tlioee to witom 
I'Waa Bent, "to attend a eelect meeting," on ThtiTBilAy 
renins, Sept. 29, 1842. It furtlior stated : 
"Tbe object of tha meeting ie to or^^iuiUo a, beneGeial Mriotjr 
BUd on total abstlDBDce, l>iiarui>; tLu aliova title. It ia pro- 
Mod to m&ko th<3 initiation fee, ut firHt, $1, and dues 6^ oeuta 
' week ; in nose of aicbess a mcuiber to l>e entitled to 4^ a 
tek, and in case of doath $30 to bo appropriated for funeral 

In responae sixteen person assembled, and after adopt- 
to and eigning the following resolution, approved of the 
lonstitntiou which had been sohmitted. 

A ecooad meeting was hold on the 7th of October, when 
was decided to adopt a form of initiation. Officers wore 

len elected, and sixteen persons were proposed for mem- 

prshlp. The pledge then adopted, and unaltered to the 

jeaent, reads : 

," 1 will IIeitll<^^ make, buy, aell, nor use aa a beverage, any 

^itnouB oc matt liquors, wine or cider." 

^la Novombcr, a eircolar was prepared for the Tem- 
nranoe prBss thrtmghout tlie oouutry, calling attention to 
Dxien^nco of the onler, and ^ving an outline iif its 
urposQB und plans. 

-"'ITKnirdwDl' tbn Sons of Taiiipnranre," it sail, "^vMl Vattw 
rt ulilaelM ia vi'ow, whltli, M dutVitai in ftn' ^t«B.-«Wi« 

338 J!.mM in Mshiy. 

of our cnnstitntion : ' To shield os from the evils ot intempijr- 
aiioe; iiltunliuutit^ UMistance in oasoof aiokncHs; and eievoM 
out chantvleiii aa meii.' 1'lie doiiij^ contemplatea 
Bystematic orgunizution tliroughout the United States, divided 
into threQ classea — viz,, Subordinate Divisions, State Divisions, 
and a National Division." 

The New York Grand Division pro tern., waa appointed 
from tlie mfmliers of llio Division in Now York, with. 
power to grant charters. On the following Januaiy a 
eufficiont nuinhcr of past officers having liet^u ol'tained^ 
the Grand Division duly orj^'uniKed, taking on itsalf tliq 
name of " The Fountain-head of the Sona of TonipCTancfl 
of tho State of New York." Propagund work soon aAer 
commenced, and in a few months Diviraons Imd boea e 
tabliehed in New Jersey, Pennsylvama, Uaryland, Nor 
Carolina, Virginia, Connecticut and MasBiuihasettB. ] 
July a Qnarterly Sessitm of Hie Grand DittBion of Now 
York was held, and the Tnemberehip wua annonnoed i 
being 1500. Grand Divisions now begun to be c 
and as soon as the number ncoesaary for the purpoae hnd 
been obtained, via., in Jane, 1844, tho National Diviidoi 
was organized. At that time the order was i^umpoaed ot 
7 Grand Divisions, 75 Subordinate DiviaJone, and 6,000 
members. The Order iucroaaed rapidly in tnoinl>ers)u; 
until 1850, when it had 35 Grand Divisions, 5,r)fi3 Sulwi 
dinates, and 233,233 meiiibora, Froni that time thejo w«ni 
many fluctuations iu the numerical condition of the Order, 
till in 1804 the membership had fallen to 55,736. Tb» 
rebellion of the Southern Status in 1861, and the political 
autagonii'ms whieh for several years preceded tho oonilinl 
of anna, had luiieh to do with weakening all phi lull t1iTO|nO' 
efforts. Since tho clone of tlie war tho Order haa ro\-ivoit 
In 1876 it had ttlMint 2,000 Subordinate Diviaioiw bbiL 
00,000 roembore in North America; 000 Div 
35,000 members in Australia ; and several thut 
hers in Great Britain aud Ireland, Ori^nally memlier- 
sJiip waa restrictfid t*> " nuvle \«tsoM 
nrnvcr." In 1854, "mol\n^ta,>" 

Tdal Jleiuieace SoukHea. . 333 

r members were admitted as rigitoro ; a rule wbicli was 
Ipon modifieil, so tliut any '' foiaale, sixtoon yoara of a^e 
Knd upwarda" miglit be ao admitted. In 1S66, women 
^fere made eligible to full memberabip on the same terms 
; but it was left optional with subordinafa Divia- 
jna, to accept or reject tliia privilege. It ia now the al- 
loet universal policy of the Order to admit women tft 
t\paX rights and benefita. ControvetKiey have also arisen 
1 the Order iu regard to the admiutiion of colored people. 
' e National Division, in 1850, decided on a question of 
Jipod ftom a decision of the Grand Division of Ohio, to 
ffirm that deuiaion, and declared that " tho admission of 
^oes into Subordinate or Grand Divisions under this 
iadiction is improper and illegiil." In 1870 it took the 
lation indicated in the following resolution : 

<' ThBit tlie M. W. P. be, and ia hereby, autborized to ergan- 
le separate Grnjid Divisions for nor colored members, when re- 
[Deflted by them and approved by the Grand Diviaton having 
miedictioii in tlio State." 

This ppdtJon was abandoned tho next year, but in 1872, 
11 conflicting legislation waa repealed, and the action of 
870 ia now the kw of the order.* 

. organization called "Tho Daughters of Temper- 

' was founded in the city of Kew York, in October, 

They were incited to and helped in their work, by 

1 inunbor of the Sena, with a view of doing among women 

t that organisation was doing among men. In a short 

lutt, by reason of aome mis understanding, a division was 

lade in this fraternity, and a second organization was form- 

i, taking the name of the " Original Daughters." They 

"led their aocietioa " Unions," and liaving spread quite 

ively in the United Slates, they formed, by means 

f their rcpreaentalives from the single Unions, "Grand 

* Tbe above facts aro glonued from nn aitii^le by Frederick 
I Fickart, M. W. S., iu " The Sime of Teniperanue Offurin); fur 
El;" and tliu Hiiitorital Sketdi liy Siimnel W. Hedgpa, U. 
N S., in ibo Veiiteniiiul Tuoijietauce Vulmuc. 


JJaAd in Hidory, 

1 was not ^H 
full riglils ™ 

UnionB," in several Statee. The orgRnizatioi 
long-lived, and on the adniissioa of women to full i 
anil privileges in the Sons of Temperance, the main roaaon 
for its contimmnce ceased to esist.* 

" The Juvenile Sons of Temperance," originated in 
Lohigli Coanty, Pennsylvania, in May, 1845, an pxnniple 
tiiat was soon after imitated in Bethlehem, in the snme 
State, Later, — in Oecemher, 1846, — an effort was made 
to effect a more general organization for boys, in the city J 
of Philadelphia. They were lironght togctherin what md ■ 
called a "Section of the Cadets of Temjferance," and'l 
hceamo partly under the control of the Sons of Teinpet- fl 
anee, and auxiliary to them. In two years they Lad spread .■ 
into twenty-two States, unmhering in all, one hundred and 'I 
thirty sections.! I 

" Tho Juvenile Sisters of Temperance," an organisation M 
of young girls, was established in 1S4G. How long it. I 
existed, we have no means at hand of knowing; l)ut pro- 9 
bahly it had a hrief life. ■ 

The " Cadets of Temperance," an organization for \M\t, fl 
was started in Gennantown, Pa., in 1846, hy eamtstfl 
workers in the order of Tho Sons of Temperance. ForS 
sometime past the organization has been, as to its overa^htfl 
and patronage, amixod body, some being under the " BunSi^V 
some, as the "Cadets of Temperance and lI<inor," under I 
the " Temple of Honor," and eome, Independent, Sta-I 
tiatics are not easily obtained, but it is estimated that thuC I 
number in the United States is about 10,000, al>out a rouithfl 
part being under the " Sons," a smiiller fraction nnJcr thojl 
"Temple of Honor." and the balanro Independent. H 

The Temple of Honor was originated by prominent ntiitfl 
active members of the Sons of Temperance, with a view tofl 
supplying a popular need not provided for by the 8i>ii&>H 
These wore chiefly, a moio elaborate and finished rillUll|^ 

*"Tl>e B«iintii!sufTomp«uuioe." Ii^y Kev. E. Fcoactt, iMf^f 

Tolcd Ahslitwnoi Socieiwa. 


fcncli as would give the reformed man eo fiatiHfarlioii 
to would prevent his seeking &ateitial relationa iritli 
feationa possesring attractive ceremouials, tut not in tlii^ir 
principles or practices favorable to tlie maintenance of liis 
Itategritj as a total abstainer. After many unBucccxtiriil 
itlempta to induce the National Division of tlie Sons of 
ffeniperaace to adopt degrees, signs, and other peculiar 
aethods of working, employed by the older so-called Secret 
Societies, it was determined by a few who believed that 
1 advance would be of service to tlio Tempcrauco 
iftuse, to test its worth. In June, 1845, they orgaoizcd a 
iety .called the " Marshall Temperance Fraternity," 
riiich in November, tUey changed to "Marshall Temple, 
. 1, Sons of Honor,"* and again changed in December, 
> " Marehall Temple of Honor, No. 1, Sons of Temper- 
Their memberahip then numbered forty-five. Be- 
>r8 tbo last of February, 184G, they hod instituted eleven 
nuples in New York City, and one each, in New Jersey, 
aryland and MassachuHetts. The twelve Temples In 
Tew York City, by representatives, met on the 21flt of 
^bntary, and created the " Grand Temple of Honor of 
le State of Now York," whicU they resolved, " Shall be 
reme power of the Order till tho National Divimon 
lall take upon thoraselvos that power." several 
loceesful efforts to induce the National Division to give 
iai recognition to tho new order, it was dotermineil in 
B, at a session of tlio National Temple, which had been 
iganized in 1846, to "make tho Templo of Honor an en- 
^ely independent organization." At the samo session it 
fi voted to prei)aro a new degree, to bo called the '* Social 
^ec,"- to which tho wives, sisters and daugliters of 
mplars, Bhiiiild be eligible. In 1850 the privileges of 
» degree wore extended to " nil ladies of good slflnd- 
f ; " in 1855 the name of tbe Social Degree was changed 
"Social Tenjplc." In 1852, iw tlio order had Bprea<l 
tyoiid tho limits of tho United, t\vu maiuft o'i *vii 
j-Aast power in the order wu& aliangcA \» " ¥ia.-^TCvua 

.Akohoi in History. 

Council of Templars of Honor and Temperance." At Uivl 
completion of ten ycara in tlie Listory of tlic order, tbert J 
weru 20 Grand Temples, and a menil)erahip of 12,9 
twentieth year cloecd juEt after tlje tnd of the rebellionJ 
which- had been disaatroi^s to this aa to all other Tcmp€ 
anco organizations ; and the memhership was 10,530. 
tba thirtieth annual session of the Snpremo Temple, i 
1870, there were 21 Grand TompleB, 357 Sul'ordinat 
Temples, and a total roemborBhip of 1G,229. Ths entil 
receipts that year were $74,262.59 ; amount paid for I 
fits, $7,856.17; cneh on band in Subordiuato . Templa^l 

A " Band of Hope," an org'anization for ehiUlren, waa 
first formed in Leeds, England, in 1847. TTie name beiog 
attractive, societies Boon rapidly increased. The (Jnitail 
Kingdom Band of Hope Uiuon was formed in 185!), fwlhe 
pmpose of promoting total abstinence among the yonng by 
means of this organization and such other means as taij-m 
fi'om time to time be available. It ia coujpnted that p 
the present time thei*o are iii the United Kingdom, abooi 
6,W0 Bands of Hope, with 610,000 raemhore, and 35,0 " 
adults as officers, members of committees, and workers i 
the movement ; of whom 7,000 are honorary Bpeakcn 
Children of both sexes, seven years old and tipnards, i 
become meniberB.t There arc Bands of Hope in Ame 
but no statiaticB coaceming them ai'e available. 

The "Independent Order of Good SamaritaDS," 
" Daughters of Samaria," was organized in tlie city of Kai 
York, in February, 1847. Ori^nally inteniled for whtti 
men, it took Its first advanced step during the first year < 
its existenoe by opening its doors to colored people, g 
ing them etjual rights and privileges with ail othfin ; 
in 1848, admitted women to full moml)erehip and privilf^ 
It ia a beneficial society ; and is poreisteai in its cfierls t 
reclaim the inebriate, however often he may fall from I 

Total AbetiTiemx Booklien. 3i3 

^tniee to abstain. II. tas seen pmsperons flayg, wlien its 
lumeiionl eta-eiigth wfl« satiBfMtory to ite most anlpnl uiom- 

bwe, and it has boes agaiu aud af^uin brou^bt lou'. Its 
?g{uiizatioa is into Lodges, Gfanil Lodges, and ii Wuprerao 

body called the National Grand Lodge ; but tlio latter haa 

definite bonnds, Yiot extends its juriadictiou wliorever 
le order esists. Ita uolored membenj prefor to koop by 
lemselvos in their Siibordinato and Grand bodies, but nnite 
ith all the others in the Supremo Lodge. It lias orgimi- 

many of the Statoit of the American Union, and 
a Africa. Ita present membership is about 14.000, It 
lae also a Juvenile Branch, nnuiberiiig nearly as uany in 
t8 memherBhip as the adnlt.* 

" The Good Teniplare," originated in central Now York, 
D 1851, For the first ten years then- growth was not 
rapid, although they extended over quite a large terrjtoiy, 
^heJT membership increased to about 75,000. After the 
close of the war, in ISC'), the order spread rapidly in all 
he States, and in 1808 numbered about 400,000 mombera. 
t yme then, introduced into various parts of Great Britain, 
ltd tfota ihenee to Anslralia, India, China, Japan, A&ioa, 
ad other foreign countries. Its largest morabenjliip waa 

1 1875, wh»n it reached 735,000. In 1876, a portion of 
b* foreign membi-rebip seceded ; but a oonferenoe held in 
leptemlier, 1880, agreed on a basis of remiion, honorable 
» all concerned, which will proliably be ratilied at the 

annual session of the two bodies in May. 1887, lu 
lat event the ealbe memliernhip will lie about (VJO.tlOO, 
'he Good Templars claim the following as the pocTiliiirilioB 
[ tticir organization and purpose : The equality of womiiii 
1 all the work and honors of the order ; no di scrim in ntiou 
s to race or nationality; the tulnl absiinence pledge Ijimt- 
ig dnring life; the prohibition of tlio Uwfiic in intoxicants ; 
iBipform of inebriates, und the protection of the yooii^ I'nna 
illing into the snares of temptation ; a peifeot and eqiiit- 

M4 Met^ ia Midorg. 

alile Bj'stoni of finance, liy means of wUicli all enbordinate 
liJilgfB may be self-sustaiaing, ant! may siip|Hirl. tbo Slate 
Grand Lodyea, and tlieea in turn support the Jlight "Wortluf 
Grrond Lodge, tbe Suproiuo Head of ibe Order. TUo fol- 
lowing is the I'lutform of tlie Order: 

''1. Tatal BLetinouce firom all mtosicattug Hqnore aa a heV* 

■ ' 2. Ko licease, in any form, oi imdar any circumstanceB, ta 
i\ie bilIu of Huch liquura to bo uaed a» a beverage. 

" 3. The al)a<iluto ptobiliitioa of tlio manufacture, iniports- 
tion, nnd sale of all intoxicating liiiuors for sneh pnrposcs— 
ptoliiliition hy the ■will of tbe people, ospreHsed in due fonn of 
law, witti the peualtiBa deceived for a crime of sudi envnnity. 

" A. Tlie creation of a, healthy pablic o)>lnion upon the niVJeot 
by tile active dissemination of trutli in all the modos knuwn to 
an enlightened pliilanthTopy. 

"B. The election of good, honest men to administer the laws. 

"6. PereiBtence in efforts to aavo individuals and coRMDimitiei. 
&nni BO direful a acourge, ngoinat all forms of oppoaitioti tXti , 
difQcnltf, until oui succesa ia coiuplete aud universal." 

Although all lodges are allowed to admit to monibenlup 
all persons of twelve yoara old, and upwards, some have 
always desired an orgauizatiou under the anspiees of the 
Good Templars, which would receive younger persone M 
membership, aud train them from their oorliest years !n thtf 
piiuciples of total abetincnco. To meet this ne^d, au Ot- 
ganiaation called tho " Juvenile Templara," was establishdcl 
Bome years ago. It is now eatablished in (18 8tttteB and 
countries. Full statistics Lave not been obtMtied, butihe 
recent Reports from 3>3 jurisdictions, show a total uf 478 
Temples, aud 28,694 members. The pledge of the oifrtm- 
ization contains obligations agiunst the use of all jntoxieat* 
ing liquorB, toliaeco and profanity. These Teniploa ar* 
managed in very much the same manner as ore the Britiab 
. Bauds of Hope. 

" The British American Order of Good Templara," (vaa 
an ofTshoot from the Oauadiau Grand Lodge of Gtioi] Toni> 
phu'H, iu 1858. lu ISCO the name wna chani 
ping the WObL 

Total Abdijiemx Sockfies. 345 

atemity might be estended beyond tht; proviDpes. It 
beo extended to Newfoundland, Benniida and New Zea- 
UiA, and enbBeqnently to Great BritAUi, Australia, Quoeaa- 
nnd, Tasinauia and Slanitoba. In 1876 it cousolidatod 
nitU tlie Frae Templois of St. John, in Scotland ; the In- 
C Order of Free Templai's in England; and tbe 
United Templar Order iu Oroat Britain and Ireland and 
ioutb Afiica, and funned the " United Temperance Asao- 
iation." Its memberBhip ia unknown to the writer.* 

"The UaBbuwavB," ao called from the resolation of 
heir foimdere tu doBli away tbe inWxiciiting: l>owl, wore 
irganized in San Francisco, CaL, in Janoaiy, 1S59. They 
^t^ rapidly tlirongh California and Oregon, but wo have 
io information of their present condition and niunbers, 

Tbe eamo must also be said of an organization formed 
a. Chicago, lUinoie, in 1860, and called " Tbe Temperance 
Flying Artillery." " Its members were chiefly yonag 
II6D, whose ardor and activity soon organized bands in 
ilmoM overy town and city in IlUnoia." 

" Tbe Friends of T'emperance," an organization for 
irbi^ persons only, waa^rganized in Petersbnrgh, Virginia, 
November, 1B()5. It baa aince spread into eleven 
Itibtee, and baa about 20,000 members. 

*' The Sons of the Soil," an org'auizatiou for colored per^ 
DttH only, waa organiaed in Virginia, iu 1865. It has a 
a members bip. 

" The Vanguard of Freedom," an organization for the 
Slildron of the Freedmen iu the South, was organized in 
l868, and has apreail into nearly every Southern Siatc. 

There ia also an organisation, flhieflvj if not esoluBtTely 
^enlln^ in the Southern States, called the Knights of 
tericho, but w fail to get statistical information in regard 

'J'ho " Sons of Jonadab " waa insiitntoJ at Washington 
D, Q^ in 1867. It is chiefly distinguished from the before 

mentioned Orders, in punishing all violatiouB of its total 
abstinence pledge by espuleion for life. It ntUDbers alioat 
3,000 members. 

" The Royal Templars of Tetoperanee " wes, for nearly 
seven years, a local organization in the city of ButFalo, N. 
T., originally formed for the purposo of enfaroing the lair 
against the sale of intoxioaJitB on the Xiord's Sar. in 
1877, it reorganised, adding a beneflcmry fond for tho ben- 
efit of ita members. Up to the present time its Held of op- 
erations is on the American Gontinent. It has 533 Select 
Councils, and a membership of ahunt 20,000. Its aim it 
to promote " the caase of temperanee, morally, eocioUy, re- 
ligionsly and politically. 

" The United Friends of Temperance," was o^ianized 
at Chattanooga, Tennessee, in November 1871. It is 
composed exclnaively of white peraons, ■ 

"The United Order of Trae Reformers," was istrodocod 
into the Southern States in 1873, for the Lenotlt of OiA 
colored people. It numbered at use time about 40,000 
members. Many of its mciubera are now cnrollwl with 
the Good Templars, and the original orgaaizatioa had 
abont 10,000 members. 

Side by aide with the earliest of these secret on^nits- 
tions, the Ameriam Tempemnce Union continned its work 
for several years, planting and entibuniging Htato societiM 
and other local aesDciatious, publisliing and (UeiributiD|f 
vnlitablo temperance literature, and in varions ways kwji- 
ing the temperance sentiment alivo and active tUmngbimt 
the conntry. The corresponding Secretary, Eov, Jobn 
Marsh, said in the Appendix to hia " Half Century Tri- 
bute," in 1851, that the Society had at that time distnlmted 
4,064,733 copies of books, and tiaetB, beside hundred* tif 
thonsands of Journals and papers. Several States &)>■ 
proved of placing in District School librariea the vnlinpea 
of Pennanent Temperance DoonmeotB, mode np of Ail- 
dressos, Statistics and Reports of the vaiious ituuU-llci^ and 
iJUiuus of ttepeiop\B%i " """""' "" """" 

Tolxd AWin&iee Sodd'iea. 347 

'■ of the ononuiti' of tie evils of Inteinpcnmco. Polilical 

I riewM of the duties of Temperanco men wdre also ml- 

vaaceil through tho nati<iti, and tuiulc thcmwlvcB felt in 

secuiing more thorough and radical lawn on the subject in 

I several Btates. 

But as uu-ly as 185i, the eSbrts of northern men for this 
' eanee, liecame whoUy iuoperative in the enntliern Hectiuns 
'*f tlie country ; and ehorily nfter tliia ibe political cxcite- 
'ment ariBing from the growing promiueni^e of the slavery 
qaeBtion, absorbed attention at the north, and pushed all 
'■Tflmpemnoe enterprise to one side. The rebellion follow- 
ing oa, very little was done, tliongh the orgunization con- 
tinued to hold its annual meetings, till tho war ceaSed. 

In August, 1805, a Fifth National Convention was leld 
at Saratoga fSjirings. Twenty States and the Canadas 
) represented by 326 delegates. Several able papers 
I vsrions phases of the Temperance Reform were read, 
and as a result of the discuseionH and delJberalions, it was 
'determined to make a new departure in the canae, suited to 
' Ibe new otmdition of tbo country at large ; one that should 
) co-operation on the part of the various open and 
BQOret organizations ; enlist the sym^iathies and efforts of 
''StmSay-Bflhoola and churches ; and combine, as far as pos- 
''irible, the many moral instramentalities throughont the 
'^utiati and the continent, \vith the politionl discuBston of 
'tt»«oliject, and with wise municipal and le^alative aetinn. 
To tliia end committees were appointed, one to organize a 
new National Temperance Society, and the other to pi'o- 
vidu for and locate a National Publication House ; and each 
'6tato was requested to organize a State Society, on tlie 
'limnd platform whieh was tti distinguish the National 
■■Bociftty, and to become so in harmony with and aiisiliory 
Tto It, «s tn have a tme tmiun of pnrpoBe. and concentration 
ef effort in the all-important canac. At tho fiM meeting 
%£ tlie tm-o comiuitteeB, aatwrnbled at thu h^anie time, uudur 
^wer conferred, it was deemed wisest to attewi^^ b\A ftaa 
Ugxaisattoa, and the two were tnetgcA mto o\w «on«wiVJw., 

348 MsoM in Bi^sry^ 

and n€te<l together ia their delilierationa, whinb, ui Octoliei, 
1805, rt'finltcd in the organijiatioii of " The Nalifnial Tem- 
perance Hociety and Pnblitatiito HouBej" with the follon-- 
ing ubjoct and jileilge ; 

" The olijoct ahull be to promote the cnnse of total abstinence 
from tUa use, mamifai^ture, and sale of all in to si eating drinks 
ea & beverage. Tliis sball be ilone by the imbliuatioa and riN 
culution of tompBrance literotiire, b; tlie uoe of the pledge, and 
by all utiier tuetliiiilH oalculated to reiaove the evil from die 
comraimity. — No person ahall lie a member of tliis Booiety, 
who ilooe not mibscribe to tiie following i)ledge,— namely ; We, 
the undenigned, do agree that we will not ubo intoxicating 
liqnorB as a beverage, nor trafflu in them ; that we will not pro- 
vide them as an article of cutertaJnmeut or for parsons in oiu 
employment ; and that in all sititAblB ways wc will discunnle- 
nauco their use throughout the country.'' 

Shortly after this organization had been perfecteci, tho 
Esecutive Committee of itie American Teropemuce Union, 
passed the following: ^' Besdved, 'Y\\o.i the work of the 
Union lie suspended after the lat of December, 1865, and 
that its periodicals, documenta, tracts, stereotype plates, 
and good will bo transferred to the National Temperancv 
Society and Pnblicatiou House." 

The Twentieth Annual Hoport of this organization, nmde 
in June, 1885, gives a brief atateraent of various branches 
of its work since the society was created. $105, 71H havo 
been Kpent in copyrights, siereotyjjing and engraving its 
many valuable standard publications, now numbering 1,383 
books, tracts and pamphlets ; including 138 can^Uy 
selected books for Sunday-school libmrieB. It publislus 
TJw Youth's Tnnpermiee Banner, liaving a monthly drcula- 
tion of lie,000 copies, and a total of 27,640,0110 i-npiw 
since the publication first commenced. It also publbi]u« 
Tlw NaUrmiil 2Vmpwn«ce Jrfyowrie, monthly, cfmtniiiin^lhu 
latest iulormation of the state of the cause tliroiigliMil tliu 
world, Wild ri^ph'to willi facts and argimients aTnninfii aSi 
presenled by the ablust scritera. _ . Tli6^_t»tu,l n midj 
copiiv nf this joni-nal " 

Totnl AbsUiieiwe Societies. 349 

riie flsseta at Uie Society aro now $34,000, aii.J its mlfs of 
tnblicutiuna amiiunted, in 1885, to over $5i,500. It in io 
beorty acooTd witli, and oujuya tike conlideuco of, the various 
Tempemaue Orgaaizatioua in the land, and doos a mirk of 
iu-reacliing luiil invuluulablo importance and iufluenue. 

Paeeing hy tlie aliitost isnnmorablo local Societiea wliiub 
lave from time to time Bprnng np in varioas parts of tlie 
United States, some ut' tbcra merely csperimontal and ahort- 
ived, and raany still in osistenco and prosperouB in 8tat6§, 
bounties and Diatriwts, tbere are a few of more extended 
fnrpoBe and influeac* wliicb should lie mentioned here. 

The first is the au-called B«foTm Club movement. 
this ori^nated willi Mr. J, K. OBgiiod, a refonaed man 
IT Gardiner, Maine, in 1872. The first Club numbered 
fbont 100 members, all reformed men. In a few months 
^ moyemeut became popular throughout the Ktate, Clubs 

rapidly organized, and in a year they had a member- 
iLip of from 15,000 to 20,000. Fi'om Maine the rt^form 
pread to New Hampshire, Vermont and Massachusetts. 
jYomen are admitted to membership on equal tanns with 
Den, and the piatfono of principles and methods, embraces 

: Scat, total abstinence; seeond, reliance on God's 
lelp in all things ; and third, missiouury work to induce 
then to sign the pledge. 

,, lu 1874, Mr. Franoia Mixrphy entered the field, oonflnlng 
"a operations ehiefly to tlie Western States, though doiug 
moll in Penney IviUii a ; lie hue lieen instnunental in in- 
going tons of thousaniU to sign the pledge, and to organ- 
tliiimtiol ves into Etl'ona Clnlis. 

. Dr. Henry A, UeynotdH also commenced the same work 
Q 1874, at littngor, Maine, wiiere he organized a Club com- 
lostid wholly of meu who had been iulompomto to a greater 
: lesH extent. In a year he hud organized many siuih 
lubft throngboul the Stalo. His Ubore wen; then esteti- 

1 to MaeaachuaoUs and other Now Enghiud KtaU-s. and 
ibaoqnantly to the West Great suocesa in orgtuiisin^ 
;teii(ipd hh lahors. 


AlmhH 4n Siitary. 

The Women's Work.— In Decembor, 1873, tlifl 
women of a snail town in Bontliem Oliio, OTgooized tbon^ 
eelves into a Praying liand, for the pnrpose of indncinf tfa* 
keepers of ealoonB, and other drinking- places, wbo et 
to lie lieyond tbe reauh of the imperfect law of Ifa&t StaU^ 
to give np the sal© of intoxicants. Their mode of operadon 
was to visit such drinking placeB an they oould obtain 
aceees to, and there pray and eing. If the doors WMI 
cloaed against them they knelt on the sidewalks ; and wmi 
BO persistent in their efforts, that the liqaor sellers absn' 
doued their Imsiness, signed the pledge, and in many (ui£e 
became Temperance Missionaries. Their esan>ple nnd i 
snccess, was soon imitated in lUinoia, Indiana, Wimwosiiii 
Iowa, Nebraska, Kansas, California, Oregon, Marylanilj 
Maasachnsetts, Pennsylvania and New York. It liM 
crossed the Atlantic, and been a power in Engltind, Soot 
land, India, Japan and China. 

In the spring of 1874, the women who had been *' Crt 
eading," as they called it, all winter, called conventions if 
their respective States, for the purpose of organieing t^ 
Bystematic work. At first they called their new Societia 
" State Temperance Leagues." Soon, however, 
changed the name to " Unions." A National meeting, ti 
tended by delegates firom sixteen States, was held hi CltivS 
land, Ohio, in November, 1874, at which timo tliry tnok to 
themsolvoB tbe name of the '• Woman's National Clmstlas 
Union," perfected plans of organization intended to -noA 
every hamlet, town and city in iho land, and iBeneil ad- 
dresses to the women of the conntry, the girls of Amcrio^ 
and to women across the sea. Dnringthe &et j'eatof lhi» 
organized life they added sis State orgnniaations to llicii 
nnmbei's, and established a monthly paper, the " Womau*! 
.Temperance Union." Messrs. Osgood, Murphy and Buy" 
nolda have been employed by them in several Stat«a, and 
their work is prosccnted with great wisdom and leaL* • 

C#ee Houses. 361 

Growing oat of llie Wciman'K Cnismilo, was a {foiieriil 
awakeniuy of the ChortlieB to a clearer apjirchenaion of 
their daty, and a deeper stmBS of reaponBibilUy on iliis 
great subject. Id May, 1874, rejirosenlatives from scvi^ral 
denominatious in variona paitB of the cimntry, aBBombled 
at Pittsfrargli, ronnsylvania, and organized tlie " Natinnal 
Ohristiau TemperancB Alliance." Ita object i^, " To bring 
the inflneui* of the whole Christian Ohordh and all friends 
«f hiunaiiity to bear directly ancl Bteadily ngulnst every 
part of this ' vile liqnor Bygtom,' nntil the principles of total 
fthstinence and prohibition ehall universally prevail." In 
Bcoompli»luiig this, it ainis, '' not to olFect an organ iiatioii 
outside and independent of the Ohurch of Christ., but to 
organize and unite the Ohurchos themsclveg in aggreHsivo 
temperance work."* The latest reports, confessedly in- 
ooiuplete, ehow a memborship, in 1885, of 70,300. 

In. Great Britain the work is carried on by ten Kational 
■Total Abstinence Associations, and a great number of 
Dietriot Unions) by ten Ueligionfl Temperance Organiza- 
'tiona; two Medical Aasociatione; sis Associations seeking 
to Advance the Cause by Legislative Aelion ; three Toni- 
peranoe Insurance and. Benefit SocietieB ; and tliree Soeic- 
itiOB for Frovii^g SubBtitutes for Drinking Houses and 
, Jndalgencea. t 

V. CorFEE Houses. — One other agency, snggested by 
this laHt mentioned effort, is worthy of separate notice, since 
itliaa been oinployod in many countries, and with oiiifor.ily 
good resnltH. f!offee- houses, Friendly Inns, Holly Tree 
Inns, all imiform in their purpose to provide clioaji, attrao- 
tive and wholesome rest.nm-anta, where all uliiases, and pnr- 
ticnlarly reformed men, can resort without being tempti'd 
hy tntosioantH, have been established as aids to the tem- 
' peraace work. 

The first eoffee-Uoueo of which we have any kiiowledtco, 
WM opened in Paris, in 1043, nut in the intureet of (hi! 

• ibiJ, p. 730. t Ibid, pp. Wl , iti%. 

35S Jhohd in Siafory. 

ti?ni|)eranTO canso, hut ne & novelty and an mldition In llie 
attractionB fumiBlied hy other drinks, Tim first cofTee- 
liouso in Englaud, -was at Oxford, opened hy a Jew, in 
1C50. Two years later one was opened in Lundou. For 
a King time tbeie was a great prejudice ngaiuet the nso of 
cofl't'e, and its odor was said to be a niuBance and un- 
wlioleeome. A duty of 4d, was in 1060, laid on ewty 
gallon made und eold, and in 1663 it was directed by lav 
tbat all coffee-liouflpB should be licensed. In a, broadside^ 
againBt coffee, puiilinhed in 1052, it is atud: " Te 
drunkarda it has got great fame." * Coffee-houses 
opened in Vienna in 1683, in Angsborg in 1712, and 
Stuttgart in 1713. Buxton, in his ■' How to Stop Drunkeo^ 
nesB," Bays that there are at present "1400 coffee-honBes la 
I^ndon." Of these, a late number of the " Leeds Ner- 
earn " Bays that '' twenty-three are operated by The Lot- 
don Coffee Tavern Company. Tiiey are frequented by 
14,CKK) to 15,000 cuBtomcrs per day, or upwards of 5,000,- 
000 per annum. The sTatisties for one week — the flTBt iq 
December last year — were 78,104 cnps iif coffee, teu, ut 
cocoa, 3,256 pounds of meat, 5,656 basins of soup, aoj 
10,153 loaves of bread." 

In the United States, a nearly Bimnltancons eflart foi 
made in 1874, whererer tba 
ded itB work. In the cities of 
Boston, Cleveland, Chicago, Baltimore, and PhiJadelpl 
particularly in the laat named, they have been sucoesa] 
In Philadelphia there are two laJge establish menta, at oaa 
of which 2,600 persons, and at the other 1,400 luuch daily. 
They are located on the cJiiof business thoruughitui')!, VI 
fiimlsheil with good and wholeuume food, at a low pnoB 
und are attractively fitted np. " Qiiitti n variety uf niUi^ 
tious and Buliatanrial dishes are pj-o^nded, and eadi at tb4 
imifoi-m price oifive cents. Thfl miuo fealuix-— llm rq^flrd— ' 
is, howevw, preserved. A full pint mug ol' the bust JafI 

' establishment 
Woman's Crusade i 

Eduojiim. 353 

equal to two ordinary cups), with pure rich milk and white 
;w<j ouucea of Hither wheat or brown brerni, 
ill iat five cents, is the everyAa-y liinch of many a mun 
rto, but for this proviiiion, would be found at the dram- 

VI. IsEBEiATE Asylums. — ^ImpreBaod with the Con- 
xion that dmnkeuncss is often a disease, and is therefore 
be treated from a phyeiologioal standpoint, — for reaeons 
Hiich will be obvious to thoae consulting pages 247-258, — 
Asjlams for the Cure of Inetriates" have been estab- 
ibed in several States; but notwiihstandiug the good 
licU they have ncoomplished in many cases, the experi- 
BDta baye been sadly interfered with and in many instances 
ive ceased. The several aaylams have been crippled, 
id in many cases have failed, says Dr. Willard Parker, in 
[alter to the wriier, " Not boeause they hod not true merit, 
ir because the idea upon which tliey were founded was 
AT untenable, but l)ecauBC the manufacturerB, 
indets, aud consumers of liquor were arrayed against them 
. a part of a Temperance Movement. All these were 
dtaiudd by venal politieianB, in their opposition ; hence it 
ts tmposBible from the want of effective legislation to con- 
ll the inebriate, and shut him off &om spirits absduteltf. 
be asylum established by this City's Commissioners was 
fiulnre. It was opposed by a large class of voters, aud 
A inmatoa could procure, and were gladly helped to liquors, 
bring roproacb npon the humane purpose." 

VU. EorcATiON. — ^As a preventive measure, one of the 
and most, hopeful instrumentalities now being ora- 
>yed, is the odncation of the young in the Public Schools, 
eademics and OoUe^a, in the Nature and Kfiects of 
l(3oh«lio DevorngeB. Drs, Lees and Kichardson, of 
n^and, linvo each prepared books fur thia pnr]tose. The . 
tlie " Text-Book of Temperance," tlie other, '• The 

•Cmteuaial Teoipemnce Volume, pp. 303, IfA- 


AMaH t» ffistory. 

Tpmpprance Lobboh Book ; " and '• Tbe Kational IVi 
ranee Souiety and I'uliliL'Ation Hmiae," liaa piiblisltd 
ft " Catecliism on AJcoliol," " Juvenile Tempeiaii 
Manual," "The Tem^ierance SuUool," and '' Aloukiil q 
Hygiene," each prepared liy Julia Colman. Tlie necee 
for sack inutmution ia oLvious, and ita results ui tlie hoi 
of faithful teachers must 1>e far-reaching and solata; 
Already Bome of theio booke are uaeil in Pultlic Bchoolsi 
various parts of Maine, New llampBhire, Vermont, 1 
chusetta, New York, Pennsylvania, tltio, Tndiana, lllind 
and perhaps other States. How far these or Uudred I 
books, or special iustructione of any kind, on this bqIiJm 
are employed in the old world, the writer ia not inlbni 
The following, from an address liy Es-bailie Lewis, t 
Edinburgh, given during the year 1879, showB tbat ( 
attention is given to the subject in tbe Hchiiola of Swedanf'H 

" In visiting tlie Swediflli jniMio sriiools, I woe pAttic* 
Btrack with tbe tlioiongh manner in whicfa phj'siolo^ 1 
taught to the cliildren. I recollect Ruing into one Bcbonljl 
Ootlionburg, whore thorn wqs a, hirge nimiber of scIiqIotn, h 
the teacher Baid ho wonld put any qneation to tlie anliolanB 
wiahoil; and I pointed to a lingo phyaioliigleul map, and n 
the teacher to put a few qneBtions ia regard to that n 
Teplf to the questions a yoimg lad told corriu^tly liuw fant 
meat and potatoes hnilt np the phyniual syiitf'ni. I thi 
the question, 'In what mauner does hrnndcvino or 1 
hnila np the hnnino sj-Btem T ' and the young hoy, with a Ii 
of contempt st my ignorance, answered with a kind of n 
'Brandy does not buildup — it pulls down.' ^o tjiat j 
wo are mnob behind the educational authoritiea In Sweden.* 

VliL License Laws, — Law has in vjiriouB wavB intw 
posed its authority to arrest the ei-il of Uiti-uipuruni-e. Ai 
first it ftttempted to restrain by regulating t\u: pliiri'n imi! 
tho amo&nt of sales. Nearly four btiiidred yi'm:; Jt", 
(1495,) Biu'etios were taken of al oho ubc -keepers, iu ]''uj,'U 
agaiuat the improper sale of intosicantts. I'rior tu I 
fraffio was in no way interfered with, ei cepi 
looted to the avoidonoe ot ( 

Liaertx Laws. 


It was in tliis respect tveatprl aa oftlinary articlps fif 

BOmmorce wero looked after, pveiytliiiig bt'ing iu a senso 

Sttibject to the crown, and yielding a reveunc tliereto. Hut 

the date above given it wns looked uimu as a vitioiis bnri- 

mb; Hid in this light it has lieeu reganleil I'y all enhee- 

t legieladoi), and dealt with as an exei']ititinal and 

mgsTons trade. It was olivioua that it led U> iniioorality 

id to pauperiam, for ita second mention in law is in "an 

elJB against vaeabonnds and beggars," paasod in 1504, 

bn^n Justices of the Pea<« were aiitliorized to reject and 

tt away common ale selling in towns and places whero 

ey shall think convenient, and to toko sureties of the 

ire of aie lionscB, of their good behavior." In 1552 

meet with the first attempt to pnt a price on tbe license 

the privilege of selling, in "An Acte for Kepera of 

ihoUBOH to bo bonnde liy RocognizaQoces." It is pro- 

with a declaration that the reanona which lead to its 

\ ; " ForasTOUch aa intolerable hurts and 

laMes to tlie Comrann Wealth of this Realm doth daily 

>lf 4n3 increase throngfi smch abuses and disordera as aro 

id and o»ed in common Alehonaesand other houses called 

^ppliag-honsea." Fnll power to dctonuino bow many 

Rjb tiirases shoiUd be allowed in the cities, towns and 

Urea, wm given to the niagistratea. They hml absolute 

mtrul of the trade, except in places where fairs were be- 

g held, then alt were &ee to sull who might desire, but 

t otlier limeB only those who were licensed and entered 

,to bonds " to maintain good order in their houses " could 

Jl. For this privilege they " shall pay but twelve 

toCe." The fine for every offence against their bond was 

It "at twenty ehillings." 

In 1553, another excise law was paHap<l, the object of 
was declared to be : 

'FofTllie avoiiiing of many inconveniencoB, tnucli evil rnlc, 
1 euimtiim reaort of mixmleil persons used and frequenCcil 
natiy tftTerns of lat-e, newly set np in vury ^^lu&t iiianVvat va 
ifc laneg, eornvK auil auspicloufl places ^Nyiiii V.\\*s cvVj <A 

«56 JOttM,^ 

Lnnrlon, and in (liTeiH other tan-os and Tilluges vithin ibil 

Under this law none could sell " wine by tetiu], es 
by the license of the corporats Magistrates or tbe Jni 
of the Feacc at the general sessions \ " and esoept in J 
dou these autltoilties " could only allot tit-o Livems to n 
town." TbiM limitation was demandeil wholly o 
of the fact that the taverns had become mere i 
drinking and tlie necesEarily accompanying licendoDBUtd 
and nut; a great perversion from their original intent, i 
is ninnifcBt in an Act posBcd in the leigu of James 1 
wiiich recites that: 

"Tho ftDwent, tme, and prinpipnl itae of ale-hoDBeB ■was 
tlie lodging of wayforiiig people, and for the Bnppljr of i 
■want* of such ils are not able, by gtaater quantities to a 
their provisions of vii^tuala, and not for entertniument and hi 
iHiring of lewd and idJe i>eople, U> spend their niunoy ) 
Iheii time in a lewd and drunken manner." 

It would Bcoin that various degreoa of zeal and wi» 
or the want of it, charaetorized the JosticeB to wUom ti 
workings of tlio license law were committed, for it la 
corded that: 

" Lord-keeper Egorton, in his charge to the Jodges V 
going on ciroiiit in 1603, instructed them to aacertun fl 
Queen's information 'how many ale-honaes the justioes I 
peace had pulled down, so that the good Justices mjgjit Im i 
warded, and the evil removed.' " 

In almost every snliBeqnent reign laws further resrnliUin^ 
tlm sale of intoxicants were passed, somo for Uiuiuug thn 
trallic, and one or two fur encouraging it; Itnt all Ihe 
former, without exception, were based on the ^maiiil t 
for the beneiit of the people at l&rge, some rostrictionflW 
necessary. Said the Lord-lieeper : 

"I account ala-housRS anil tippllng-hmises the groaloul f 
in llie kiugJuin. I give it yoii ia phurgs to liike a «iai 
Bojin bo pi'miitted >m\uaa tiies bo liwsnmwl ; uud far thti 1 

ra Oiiiil ill-places, they become the den of tbieveB' — 
I! piitjliu fita,f^ of <lruiikeiiii(>8s aud disorder." 

I In 1G06, a new eaactmont, with more stringent provis- 
B tor regalalia^ tlie traffic, was created, tlio jp'uiuidB for 
It being as Btatcd m tlio law, that : 
" The loathBomo unA odinno sin of dmnkenDcsa had of latO 
to commoD UHQ withiu tliie realm ; bi^iiig tlie root ncd 
mof maii7 other eautmoiueuia, as bloodshed, stabbiag, 
iweojiiig, fomi cation, ailultety, and aiivh like; to the 
twot dtBhoaor of God and of our nation ; tho overthrow of many 
a and manual trades ; the ilJAabliiig of divers workmen 
d tlie guiiernl uupoverishing of many good aobjoota: s1)us- 
~y wasting tho good creatnrea of God." 

. few years later, aa little benefit resulted firam this 
, owing to tLe various ways of evading it, it waa 
mdod 80 as "to put it witliin tlie power of a justice of 
ace to convict npou tUe oatli of one ivitnesa, or upon 
n personal oliservation." 
in spite of all regulationa and reatiictiona tlie 
ic increased; tbe stronger iutinticants crowded tbe lighter 
I aeitlo, until, in 1736, there wore over 7,000 hoiiBCB 
jOndoa ; an average of one house to every Keven in the 
), wliere gin eoul<l be obtained at tljo lowest prloea : 
te been already related in the previous chapter;) 
3 a, \a.Tgo number of places where only fermented 
a could he obtained. To remedy this e\-il, Parliament 
il tbe following Act: 

IS the exeoBsire ilrinking of apirituoiiB liquors by tho 
n pBople tends not only to the destruction of their henltU 
e (l«bftnching of theii morals, but to tlio pnbliu ruin ; " 
a remedy thereof— 

I It euat^ted. that from December 29th no person shall 
nttne, by tUouiaelvoa or any others employed by tUeni, to sell 
1 any braudy, rum, arrack, usquebangh, geneva, aqno 
r any iitbcr diatUlpd apiritnouB liquors, miseil or nii- 
iu any Iwia ijuautity tihan two gallons, without first t.ik- 
a, livenau for lliut purpose withiu tun days at leaat before 
lorretdil Ihu mmioi for wUcli tbey shall pay down £.5(1, 
1 tell days bcforo'the year espi»«8, ^a'jui^'iXin^Sito 

358 Alcohol tn Hiattmj. ■ 

siuu, and in cose of nogloi^t to forfeit £100 ; snch liceneee Is biH 
titk^n ont witMn tbo limits of tli? penny post at tlie ofalsC^ 
otUre of exciae, I^n<lou, and at tbo next ofllce of oxciaa lor tl»^ 
country. And bo it enacted that fur all saeh epirltnona tlqaoa i| 
as any retailers eball be posneased of ou or after September SPtli, I 
lT!t6, there shall be paid a dnty of 20s. per gatlon, and so fai pro*' 1 
portion fur a greater or lesaer cLiuiutity, above all other duliai 1 
chart;ed on tbo eam-C." I 

This law, tnown in history as the famoaa Gin laWf.l 
continued on the etatutfl bonks for eight years, enoonntering . j 
great opposition to its e&foibemcnt, and fluuUy t>eciimiug | 
a dead letter. Many reasoaa might no dcmbt 1>o stated u 
acconnting for this ; hut it is very certain that, like the nld 
moderation pledge, a large defect was found in its <Uscrim> 
inatioD against intoxicants of a purtioular grade ; while It 
allowed, if it did not euconrage, the use of others wMot^ 
esperiencB, and even previous legialation, had showu to 1| 
equally pemicious in their results. Certain it is thut th* 
law of 1753, entitled an "Act for regtilatiug the iiunilrfr 
of public lioHBes, and the more easy conviction of p(.TiMiiiN 
Belling ale and strong liquors without a license,^ wti£ au 
abaudonmont of aueh discrimination. This law wiw g 
force until 1828, when it gave way to one more olalw 
and containiug what wero supposed to be i 

In 1830, England entered on a new experiment, by 
moans of which it hoped to diminish iiitetU|»«TUii(«. 
Licenses, though continued on the salfia of distilled f^>intii, 
were. wholly removed from I>eer, and free beer shops wuw 
permitted witiiont limit, • 

"The idea entertained at that time," sa^ tho London 3Im(«, 
" waa thn.t free trade in beer would gradually w 
temptntiona of the regular tavern, would promoto tllD 
tion of a irholesome national berersgu in ]ilai.'c of iirdcat n 
would break down the monopoly of tlio old Ilccnsft-hj 
inipiirt, in short, a better character to Hie wliolo t 
The result!) of tbia experiment did not nonfirin tl 
of its promotei's, Tba eivl« ol* Iwei ^ 
of spirituous liquors wna "" 




i an '. 

W WUIj i^^H 


mf»nf br ^ 

Kcperation bnt a, few weelcs. when Sidney SmiUi wTot'>: ''The 
"lew Ueor-bill has begmi its opprattons. Ereryliodj is ilruuk. 
niose who are not siD^ng are epiawling. The eovereign peo- 
n a beaslly Htsl«." 

In one year the number of beer shape increased 30,000, 
iHthont auy diminution of the epirit stores. In a short 
B the (jnontity of distilled liquors conanmed was niuuli 
target tliua the gain in the consumption of beer. Tlie 
"^ i»l reports to parliaiueut show that ; 

ibe ten yeora preceding the piLsaago of the Beer- 
e Act, the quantity of mult Deed for biewing wiw 26S,139,~ 
D busliols; during the T«n years immediately sncceediug tbo 
.H 344,143,050 bnshels, showing au inprease of 28 
r PMit, Daring the ten juara 1821-1830 the quaotity of 
bitlsh Bpirita-ronBimied was 57,970,963 gallons, and during 
« next tcu years it rose to 76,797,365 galloas— an increase of 
B pet cent." 
'■ TiiB liceasefl for the sale of spirita— of which in 1830, 48,901 
tt giBDted— nimibered in 1833, 50,828; being nn increnae of 
In Sheffield 300 beer-diopB were added to the old com- 
lUMit of public-hanses ; and it ia a striking fact that before 
w tevood yaitr had transpired, not less than 110 of the keepers 
t theao houses Lad applied for spirit liceHieg, to satiaty tlie da- 
' a for ardent spirits." 

I There couhl be no more startling demonstration of the 
lily on whicli tlie Beer Act was based, — the expectation 
" free l)ecr," would diminish the demand for ardent 
i, Ooiicomiiig titeee beer houses, Lord Brougham 
^d, in 1839, in Iho Ilouse of Lords : 

" To what gowldvas it that tbo legislatnio should paas laws 
I JKiuish cHnii>, or that their Lordships should occupy them- 
BtOB In fludtug ont modes of improving the morals of the 
Hple by giviu^ them eduoaCiou 1 What could be the nae of 
nrhig a little s»ed here and plucking np a weed tliem, if those 
ifit^dps wuto to be continaed that they might go on to sow 
gi mmIs of linmoTalit.y broadcast ovar the land, germinating 
iB must frightful produce that ever had been allowed to grow 
' 1 a oiviliKud conntiy, and, he was ashamed to add. luiiler 
e fl)8tt!ttuE *an* of Piirliurnent, nnd tluowiog its ljal«6iL iu^ 
t/w whoh (>oiiiuiiUiil,y." 

360 MaaTi(X Xn BMwT^. ^ 

Sabpci)Hent reports made to Parliametit, anil to rartooil 
IIousGB of Convocation in tLe several Ecclesiaalical Pw * 
vincea nl' England, have all Bliown that uniform teetimoiiy 
is liome to the fact that the heer-housea aro in theinwlvea J 
the sources of poverty, imtnorality find crime ; that thefl 
never diminish tbo demand for ardent spirits, bat itivaaab^| 
inurease that demand.* 'fl 

The English Colonists brought the License System witll 
them and incorpoiuted it iuto thoir Colonial Laws wlt^fl 
they settled in America, Perhaps the earlieet attempt iS 
legislation on l.hie gnhject in this country, was a law agftinjtM 
drunkenness, passed by the Plymonth Colony antboritio% ,i 
July 1, 1033 : " That the person in whose house any wenr | 
found or suffered to drink drunk be left to the. arbitrary fiau 
and punishment of tho Qovemor and Council, according ^H 
the nature and cireumstances of tho same.'' f H 

The flrat mention of plaoee wherein sales were alloi^fl 
ed is in a law of the same colony, passed in 1636 ; " TIu^| 
none be suffered t« rettul wine, strong water, or beer, cicb<^| 
within doors or without, except in inns or viatualUii^| 
houses allowed." % ^| 

Ten years later, the Massachusetts Colony onactod: H 

"ForaaiDacli as dmnkenneBB ia a liee Ui he ubluimd of RflH 
nations, mpocially of those who hold ont and profess thn ljiiflp^| 
of Christ Jeaus, and seeing any strict law will not prc\'ul nn^l 
less the cause he taken awaj'," ordered that *' no lunri'liiinl^l 
cooper, or any other person whatever, ahallsell any winuundt^l 
one quartet cask, neither liy quart, gallon, or any otli>>r nwa^J 
nre, hat only snch tarerns ns are licensed to sell by the gaUan." j 
And it forbade "Any person licensed to soil stroiig waters, orj 
any jiriviite hnnselcoBper, to ponnit any person to ait drlnlcinnj 
or tippling strong waters, wine or strong beer in their houBea.''^H 

* Teetotullcr's Companion, pp. 21, 327. Samnelson, p. 1G^| 

Smith's I'rize Essny, p. 202, Alcohol ajid the Stat«. B^| 

Robert C. Pitinim. LL.lJ., p, 266. 9 

t Plymouth (Colony Huoords, Vol. I. p. IS. ^| 

X Jhid, 1. p. 31. S 

' jiafa68aphtiaettsColon^ReM«a«,'^*-T.^-v'VTt- V 

I At Long Island, the people at East Hampton, aliinned 
; tlie progress of the evils of intemperante, pftSMe<l aa 
er at a town ineotiug held in 1651 ; 

That no raan ahali sell any liqnor but such ai are ilepul«d 

by the ton'U ; and euch luen aball not let jouths, aud Buuh as 

B nnder other nieti's muiiageinent, reiuaiu drinking at nnrea- 

bonrs ; and anch pt^rso□H shall not bave above balf-a- 

I time among four men." • 

Q 1665, in Massachnsetta Colony, and in 10G7, in Ply- 
rath Colony, rider is placed among the intoxicautfi not to 
3. without a license. Attempts multiply as thi! popu- 
Ifttion of the colonies increases, to Tcstraiu the evile of 
drinlung by malting more stringent regulations, the Tori- 
ona lawa having such prefacea as these : " Upon complaint 
of the groat abuses that are daily committed by the retiiil- 
OTB of strong waters, this Court doth order, etc," 1601- 
i " To prevent the mischiefe and great disorders happening 
k^hily by the abuse of such hooses, it is further enacted, 

^^r"Wboreaa, divets petsons tbat obtain Ikense ftir the retail- 
^^^ag or wine and strong liquors out of doors only, aud not to bo 
spent or drunk io Ibeir honsea, do not withstan ding take upiin 
tiem to givoymtortiiinmenta to persona to ait drmking and tip- 
pling tliere, and otbers who bave no lii-enas at all ore yet so 
rdy a» to run upon tbe law, in advmitnring to aell without, 
klding to tbo great inoieaeo of drunkonneaa and other de- 
'tocheiies, Stc." 1694. 

pA year lftf«r, a law is passed aimed against " diTere ill- 
Ipoaed persons, who the pains and penalties in the laws 
,. ready made not regarding, are so hardy as to presume to 
aatl and retail strong beer, ale, cider, sherry wine, rum or 
^e; strong liquors or mixed drinks ; '' and sentences such 
frbepnnislieilat "the whippingpost," In 1098, it hecomos 
Bsaary to pass a law " Tor the Inspecting and Suppress- 
ing of Disorders in Licensed nouse8;"and in 1710. it waa 
ordered that no person shall be licensed to sell liquors 

without a "certificate from the Selectmen nf (lie toi 
wl](>r6 tliey rfwi'U, of tlioir recomraeiwlatjon of litem to 
poi'Bons of sober eonversutioii, suiUibly qnalifiod and p 
vidctl for suuh an emijloymeut." Tlie same law aleo p 
vidod lliat 

"No to'mi, exrejit the maritime tirwits, shntl liaremon th 
OHfi ian-baldur and <me retjiilcr ut one and the sa,me timn, nuL 
tlie Poloctmti) of the t'lwn ahall judge there ia need of more i 
the huttirc ucconuuodatioa of tra-celleni." 

But thia Hces not eeem to have produced the deaiied i 
enlt, for in lf*ll, there was pa^ed "Aii Aut s^uiut ] 
temperance, Immorality, and Profaueneas, and for Re& 
matioD of Manners," ia the preamble to wliicli oooius £ 
Bad coofeHsion of the failnre to regulate and restraJn t! 
evily of drinking aud the greed of those who arc licensed 

"For reclaiming the over ^eut nnmher of licomod horn 
mnny of whioll are chiefly used fur revelling and tipjillog, m 
become nnrH3rie« of intemperance and debancheriea, isdalgi 
b J the masters or keepers of the aome Ibr the soke of gain," 

And Bn on tlirough the remainder of the colonial pcrio 
there are confesxious uf failure as moro and more Btriii^ 
regulations arc adopted and tben abandoned. Jotin Jii\ 
writes in his Uiary, in 17G0 : " Few tbiugB, I believe, lit 
deviated bo fur tiiim the first design of tlieir iuBtitntii 
are bo i'ruitful of destructive evils, or so needful of a spec 
regulation, as licensed honseB." * Wluit wm aw 
MaaBuchuBotta was also true in nil the Colonies. Tbu tt 
tie was licensed everywhere aud licensed becansa h v 
oonfpsBedly an evil whioli it would nut do to luivo mi' 
siriiined; and all restraints in the way of rearnUlion, wi 
BO weak aiid inoperative, tluit the licenBe laws wvtw la 
continual state of ameudmeiil and ohiuige. In ]*cint« 
vaiiia., altliougli Uocnscs were granted iu 1710, oniy 
thotjo who wore " first recoinniended by Iho Quail4it Si 

Lkeiise Laioa. 


VMons to ihn Governor," it liecamo necessary liy additional 
legislntion to protect " minors" agaiust tlio grocd of lIiobo 
liouoralily recommonded men. Shortly aft«r, tlic Graud 
Jury of Pliiladelphiu Oounly preBeateil tUe bouses kept by 
suuli persone as ''a great iiuiBonco," and ivprcBeuted " that 
tUnre are upwards of a liundrod houses licensed, which, with 
all tho retuilerg, make the houses which sell drink nearly 
■p tenth part of tho city." 

H In 1703, tho Governor was petitioned to moke such 
^pldldonal regulations aa would " prevent youth Ijom com- 
^nttin^ eKcessoB to their own ruin, tho injury of tlieir nias- 
Htais, and the ofOiction of their parents and friends ; " and a 
BB ttle later there are loud and hitter complaints to the au- 

^K''' Tliat the multiplication of inns, taverns and drani-shopa is 
Hp obvious nikCiouitl evil,whic1i calk loudly for lugialative iutcr- 
^Hteuee ; in no country are tbey moro numeious or more uuiver- 
^BUy liuaeful.*' 

^K Since tho successful close of tho War for Independence 
^n« License system lias been in some period of their his- 
^Kry, the polity of all the tjtate Govenunents iu dealing 
HStli thfi liquor traffic. But without exception, this has 
^■Kn done on the ^ouud that tlio safety of community re- 
^Hires tikat tho traffio shall bo made difficult ; and without 
^KmptioTk, also, no regulation has made it auiBciently diffi- 
^Elt to secure the desired safety. Over one hundred 
HBccnse Laws have been enat^ted in Massachusetts, and 
^KDoi 1G82 to 16Td, 34'2 statutes and changes Lave been 
^Ekde in Pennsylvania ; and still the wisdom of leirislators 
^B-vabily taxed to revise, and alter and amend. The same 
^K true everywhere; no license, law standing long on the 
^KUtute books without being greatly moditied in order to 
^fccnring its greater efficiency. Why these niunerous ex- 
periments fail, it will lie moro pertinent for us to eliow else- 
^Mleni ; but that thi^ have not yet douo what it wae ex- 
^fccEed they would, is confessed in all commuaitice, o.n4 b^ 

" The Swedish Licensing Act of 1855," contaius soniff 
nniqno features, and ought, therefore, to Im briefly dt*- 
Bcribeil here, before we paaa to mpatjan other propoeed 
remedies fur the evil of inti'rai'erance. Under tiiat law thfr 
parochial authoritiea, or tXus town councils, iix, anuiUilly, 
the tinmlier of places where spirits muy be sold ftt iPtstil, 
subject to approval by the Governor of tJie Proviiiois. Tbe 
licwnswsB are of two classes, tha one for shops, and iho other 
for public-houses, including restatmuits. The farmer puy 
for the privilege of selling in tpionrities of not less ihatt' 
half a kail (three-tenths of a gallon) not to bv drank on 
the pi^emiaeB, at the rate of eleven cents a gallon ; lUe lat- 
ter to flpll in unlimited qniwitides, and to be drunk U div 
sired, on the premises, pay seventeen cents per galloiL, 
These licenses are sold by aaution, for a term of three 
years, to those wlio offer to pay the required tax on tii» 
greatest number of kons, estimating beforehand what thmC 
Bales may he, but not boiind to pay for any exeesa of sat(4 
beyond tho number aotnally stipulated to l>e paid fat ta 
their bids. The law also provided tliat, with c-ertain guar- 
antees, to be approved by tho Governor of the Provinep, tlii 
authoritieB may, without an aiietion sale, dispose uf tlii 
whole nnmbor of pnblic-boiiflo or rentaiinint licenses, to auj 
company that may organize for the purpose of attvniGiig U 
their distribution. Many of the parisbeB instruct their lui 
thorities to grant no licenses, and in oonaoijneiice, in a pop' 
ulation of three and a half millions of |ieople, there ore imly 
450 licensed placea. In Gothenburg, the secuntl city In 
Sweden, with a population of about 50.000, thi 
fixed on the nnmber of licenses tind (uihl rhcm at anotiopu 
After pnrsuing this method For ten years they vfvo 
fronted with such a condition of demoralJK&tion (list llw. 
Town Council was impelled to appoint d emnmHttm (o m' 
quire into the causes of increasing dpgradalion iiiid pa* 
pcrisin. Tho chief cause Ibpy foonii to bo inInn[)on» 

JAcense LaKs. 36o 

" That public-lionseB aliould no lougfir be roudocted by iri'Ji- 
'niilB far tlie sake of prollt, but by bq iiasodiiUon, uljicli 
old neither brin^ iudividaal profit to the peraous io as9ui:in- 
"o Uioperaons who should manage the itilTotent CHtnli- 

I Stioli a company was goon organized, and avowed tlmt 
" e following ww^ ite leading objects : 
" Fint. — To reduce the nniuher of pnhlip hoasea. 

rf.— To iiuprovo their condition as to light, TeiitUation, 

Wrd. — To mitlie pnblio-honBes oating-hooBes, wheie warn, 
d food sliould be procurable at tuoilerate priueg. 
r " Fowlk, — To refuse salo of spiritH on creilit or pledge. 

"J^A. — To emplof as managera respeciablu nersons wbo 
ftoold derive no profit from the sale of spiilta, but should he 
d to profits &om the aule of food und oUier refresbmenta, 
g malt llquura. 

I-— To aecnre atrlot Hnperviaion of all poblic-honaeB by 
tors of their otvn, in udilition to the police. 

—To pay to the town treaeory all the net ptofita of 
la of Bpirits." 

\ company went into operation in 1805. At once 

extingnislied one-third of the numhor of licenses, and 

6 tliere were evidences of an improved condilidn of 

. But it was soon apparent that the relief wae only 

cary ; the " ugly etatiaties " of pauperiBm and ciinie 

a allowed that these frnite of the traffic were as prolific as 

I, Tho fact that the shop licenaes were still iinder the 

1 of the pity authorities, wae supposed to account for 

8 in part ; and another canae was confessed at last to l>e 

md in the nnliceuBod and free beer shops. ITie shop 

3 were, therefore, transferred to the company, who 

lished some of them, and tranaforred the ruraainder 

ate ,wine merohanta, who, it was clairaod, kept their 

" OJtcl naively for tiie Bale of the higher class of 

birits nud Hijunrs not in ordinary nse by the working 

Tlie 400 froo-!.eer shops were snpposed Io he 

iffpod Out hy a change in (he law, " placing malt lifvunra 

* rtieetirao rogiihiiuw^ as wino." "W^^^\e ft^ft \\i:ft\««», 

366 Mx^vHw BMoiry. 

were sold at auction hy tbe anthoritiee, the city i 
annually about £7,000J or $35,000. In 1875, the Ct,mM 
pauy paid to tho city as the not profits oa the traffic £35,O0Q^V 
or $175,000. In roply to a statement in the Britiah Uoiuafl 
(if Goiuuious, that the Gothenburg eyt«tom was ni 
Imt that drunkcmieas was on the iu<3:ease in that city, ■ 
Gothenborg paper, The HtsHdcVs Tidning, at Maroh 2(^'9 
1877, pronounced the atateinent misleadiag ; liut made tl 
following confei^eion that there was a gain in I 
of liqaor consumed : 

" The figures for the year Oetober 1st, ISTS, toOctohar li 
1876, whiuh we lately gave, show a total sals of bHIn-riii 6UgM 
60S Itana, of which on 'seUing off shops' 357,445 ; theiefbre fj 
pnbUc-boases 257,163 ^ans, ot 11,000 more than tbo fotn ' 
year. The sale of spirits of higher class was 63,788 kana, i 
1,000 more thau last year." 

This consumption of intoxicants is nearly f 
per capita of the popnlation of Gothenburg, and its fimitt 
are manifest in the annua! arrests for dnmltennesa of o 
in abont twenty-six of the population,* In comnioa wi 
all License Laws of modem times, the Swedish law pEd 
hibits the sale of intoxicants on Sunday, and alao sets J 
limit to the hours of evening husinefis. 

IX. PEOHisiTOEr Laws. — As of other efforta to i 
press the traffic in and use of intoxicants, so also uny il 
said of the proliibition of their sale, traces of it are to I 
found in very ancient tinifis. DuUaldo is autliorilyforli 
following with regard to China: " Under the govemmtf^ 
of I'm or T(i I'm, 2207 B. C, an ingnnions farmer inrrat^i 
wino from rice. The Enipnror, seeing that Ita i 
likely to be attended with evil consequences, espreSBly R 
bade the manufacture or drinking of it linder ihe i 
penalties! "^"^ ''^■*"' ronoonoed ita uso himBolf, and * 
missod his cop bearer, lest tho prinoea should bo <]<'tjion 
iaod by it." + 

ProhUntory Lawn, 367 

In Mann's Institutes of Hindoo Lnw, Book IX, vcrst' 2"J5, 
tile following ; " Selk-rs of Bpiritiioio liijiiora eliiill lie 
aewd with gamesters, revilera of ncriptnro, etc., and shall 
I infltantly lianislied from the town." And it is aihled, 
22G: *' Those wretchea, larking like nnscGn tliiovos in 
B dominion of a prince, continually hamas his good sub- 
lets with their vicious condaut," Picart * assigns as the 
ason for this prohibition : 

"Tho high Benae which the ancient Brahmins entortainod 
r virtiie, tlieir strong aversion to auytliing which niiglit ilis- 
der tha aenaca and tuad 1o irregalaritieB. A tliink that woold 
Ltingnish rvitaun luiust lie pernicious, thoy said, and they felt 
>liged to inapire their people with mmilar bi 

Al, Henderson, speaking of the honeea of entertainment 

e, " in which all kinds of prepared liiinors were 

old," says that they became so oi)noxi(mB, that "In tlio 

pgn of Clandiua an edict was issuml for their suppress- 

n." t Morewood, p. 15G, Baya that ■'Urunkennosa in 

EyBOre (South India), from Tari, a liiiuor i-striK'ted from 

le wild palm tree, incjeased to siieh an estcnt that the Sul- 

n Tippoo issued an order that all the trees be cut down." 

'artial I'rohlbition — the prohibition of the sale of ardent 

jirits — ^was vigorously maintained in Sweden, in 1753- 

750, and again in 1772-1775. J 

la the early history of America, special emergencies sev- 

1 times ocoasioncd partial, if not absolute pn)hibition. 

'. W, Frasor Ilae, in his rei«nt work, culitlod " Xpw- 

mdland to Manitoba," gives (p, 10) the following clanso 

to the commission of King Charles I. for the goveraniont 

f the tiahormeu of Newfoundland, in 1030 : 

" That no pwBon ilo set op any tavern for selliug wine, beer, 

Vtmug wi^rUls, cyder OF tobacco to entrurtain the lldhuminn; 

natua It is foimil that by such ineimH Uiey are liBliiviifhrrl, 

Bgluotiiig tlii'ir la.bour, imii ihjop ill-go vcmed uicu iii)t only 

• Rcliipoiis Ceremiiniua, Vol. III. p. 27i. 

t History of Aiicicnt anil Moiluni\ViliftS,'?.lSiV. 

lAieohol and the State, p. 308. 

Maihd in Bt^my. 

apend most port of tlioii ^arca hefnre Ihey eotuo boute. itpon I 
which the lilo iind luaiutoiiiHiire of (Jipir wiviis luni cLU4»b« da* J 

pond, liut aro likuwisn linrtful in ilivyrs other wajfs, oa b{ J 
ueglectinjj ami luakiog thpraselves onlit fur tlipir laliour, liy I 
liiu'lomiiig HJid Btenluifr from their owners, nnd mak-Icg nnluif^ J 
ful eliifts to supply their disorders, which disorders tbey C 
qiiently follow since these occaaiuna have presented theoiMilTBS. 

In 1637, the General Court of SfsiSaaohttsetts ma<Ie t 
following order r " In regard to tlie great alxu^c in 
nonceii, it ie ordered tbut no orrlinarv keejicr sLall i 
eitlier saclt or etrong -water,"* In 1676, in a new ■ 
stitution of Virginia, '■ The sale of wines and ardent s| 
was absolutely proLibited [if not in JamestowiL, yet otlu 
wise] throughout the whole country." t 

As early as 1805, the Pa^icr Makers Aseotuadon i 
Philadelphia, before referred to, (see chapter II.) (' 
the principle of prohibition, in these words: 

'' The quantity of liqnor dninli by those who hav 
sity for it, will always bear some propurtiuQ to the laciKty q 
getting it. Tllia fact la aufficicntly proved by daily eix|>erieiM 
and will refnte that silly plea by wMcli Tetailcrs attempt ■ 
justify theMBelveB, viz. : ' If a man want* liqnor be will bi 
and if X don't sell it to him another will.' Au orgnment t 
might aa well be naod to justify Belling opinm, < 
lunatfc.'' t 

So in the "Address to the Chnrchea and Congregatiot 
in 1813, the fa«t ia recognized that 

" To the great and increasing numliora of tavecoa and d: 
shops, may he traced many of thn evils of iotompenmoe. 
ore at once, cansea and effects of these miscbieia. TItidr t 
existence xmivoa that the thirst Ibr ardent Bpirite ii 
satiable; andwbilctbey strongly indioiito,thuy greatly iitae 
the disonac. ... It cannot be safe to provide ho many Cwdltti 
for hard drinking." p. 22. 

As the modem Temperance moTcmeut progretiKe^ I 
WHS natural that the liquor traffic should appear to tli04 

•Reror<i«, Vol. I. 
\ Cfnicnnvftl Ttnwpoi'M 
■4 Sampson ftlioYn, A 

Pr^iS^iory Lawa. 369 

) were trying lo rescue its victims, as an immoral and 

ujgeroua business ; ani) ibat as this conviction deepened 

) slioald be a growiug repn^ancs to its being sauc- 

bned by law- Tliia iiiBt uiado itsulT manifest by ibe witb- 

olding of llcensog, and snbseqnently by tbe passage of 

tringent lawa forbidding tLe uale of inloxicants. As early 

a 1829, the town of Harwich, Masa,, instructed its eeloct- 

Q Dot to grant licenses. At onco the traders gave iip 

B traffic, but unprindplod men re-opcned it, until proge- 

ed by a committee appointed in town moetinjf, tbty 

indoned the business. Subsequently other towns in 

aeea^huaetts, and several cities and tovma in Maine, 

ennont, Connecticut, Bbode Island, and other alates, for- 

bde the granting of licenses. The legislatures of Con- 

mtf Uiohigan and New York 8nbmitb?d the question 

F license to the popular vote of the people. In Couneeti- 

: 200 out of 220 towns elected Temperance Oommis- 

noTB. In Michigan a minority of the towns voted no 

In New I'ork more than five-sixths of the towns 

nd cities gave overwhelming majorities against License. 

In 1832, prohibition was advocated in the columns 

" The Ge.Dins of Temperanoe," a weekly paper, and iho 

Temperance Agent," semi-weekly, both published in New 

ork city, Many of the Annual gathering's of the vaiioua 

r»testant chuK'hes, " proclaimed the immorality of the 

quor traffic and it* ntter inconsistency with the spirit 

id retjniretncnts of the Christian religion." Near the 

Ota of the Bftme year. General Cass, then Secretary of 

'ar, issued an order forliiddiug the introduction of ardent 

irits into auy foil, eamp or garrison of the United States, 

td prohibiting their sale by any entler to the troops. 

mintmt atatesmen, juristA and divines gave utterance to 

dr cuBTicttons of the immoraltty of the traflio. Said 

ov. Dr. Hnmphrey, of jVmberst College : 

t is plain to me ns the s'lQ in a clear summer sky tbat the 
sa laws of our country winstitnte one of tlia main ijillaca «n. 
jh tbe Mujiaudoua luliric of iutumpntiuicti iww soti\»^' ' 

.Meokd in Hwtory. 

Baid the Hon. F. FrelisghnjseD : " If men trill engage i 
thiB deatractiTe traffic, if tbcy will Moop to degrade tlieii rea 
■on aiid reap tlie wagtw of iniquity, let tliem do longer huve tlia I 
lav-took as a pillow, nor quiet conacience by Uie opiate of a 

Judge Pratt mode the declaiation : " The law which lirenMS-l 
the Bale of ardeut Bpiiita la an impeditiient to tbo tempera&Mj 
reformation, and the time will come when diani-ehopa wiU IMS 
indictable at common law aapitbHe nai»anee»." 

Siiid the Grand Jury of tlie city of New York, af(«rfl 
recorfing tlieii deliberate jndgroent tliat if drinlcing were J 
at an end tliroe-quarterB of tLe crime and panperiam n'ooUl 
be prevented : 

" It is OUT Bolenin impression tliat the time has now i 
when OUT pnblic autboritiea should no longer Huuctiou t 
complained of by granting licenses for the purpose of v 
ardent spirits, thereby legalizing the troffla at the e 
out moral and pliysical power." ' 

Tiio first National Temperance Convention of Ameriod 
was held this year, and one reealt of its deliberatiniie i 
the avowal that the traffic in ardeut ejiirit?, in ha osed 8 
beverage, is momlly wrong, and ouj^lit to be nniveTSsllJiJ 
abandoned. In lfi34, Congrees, in a law paBsed " For tl 
Protection of tlio Indian Tiibes," prohibited the sale of a 
strong liqnors to the red men, and onforoed its prohibitiffl 
by instmcting the Indian agents to seize and destroy t 
BUch liquors introdnced for sale into the Indian territory. 

The steps which led to the first attompla at proliib 
legislation by State authority were taken by men w 
moral convictions wore outraged, not simply by tho ]t(|iu 
traftic, bnt qnito as violently by the theorioM of BunM 
fesscd Temperancfl advocates. In 1832, a Slate T«np» 
Society was formed iu Maine, On thf then common basis ■ 
Moderation. As tho cause progresieed elsewhere and higli 
ground than this was taken, the leaders in 3laiiiH fP-^ 
more and more conservative, and finally cotDprninisi-d r 
fatally with wioe drinkers. As a iirotest agaiuai MM^b S 

Prohilntory Ldws. 371 

tnal ahandoninenl of tlie wort, nncw Sorit-Iy was ors^nnized 
Ml tiko baeis of Toial Alistiaenoe, an<] one of tfic tii-si acts 
9 loaders was to attempt to st-uare prohibitory k'gidlo- 
They mado tlieir first appuaranco in tlio Iiogislatiiro 
pf tbat 8tate in 1837, when they presented a MiiDnrial, 
drawn up by Gcu. James Appleton, of Portland. Id this 
locnmeut tliey demanded, not only an abrogation of all 
liuense law"a, " as tho support of the traflio," liut also " an 
e prohibition of all sale, except for medicine and tlie 
, for the same reason that the State rojikes laws to 
" prevent the sale of nnwholeaome meats, or for the removal 
if onytltiDg wliidi endangers tho health and life of the 
^tizen, or which threatens to eabvert our civil Hghts or 
jTorthrow the government." This appeal iailed to i:roal« 
b Iftw, bat it produced a discussion which paved the way 
' T future saccesB. 

In 1844, a petition printed and circulated at tho pergonal 
cipeueo of Hon. Neal Dow, praying for a stringent law, 
nd " that the traffic in intosicating drinks might be held 
nd adjudged as an infamous crime," waa presented to the 
jOgislature, and the committee to whom it was referred, 
'reported a bill favorable to Mr, Uow's views, which 
laaaed the House, bat was unsuccessful in tho Senate." 
Tie following year aimilar petitions mot a like fate ; and 
Sea it was det(irmined lo take an appeal directly to the 
ieopl(<^ A. vigorous oanvasA followed, a Tempei-ani o Legis- 
btBTO wae elected in 1846, 40,000 citizens petitioned for 
trnbibition, " and a bill abob'ahing the license system, and 
Wving all sale forbidden, was pasaed by a vote of 81 to 
'8 in the Konse, and 23 to 5 in the Senate." 

Thin Buecess, and tho advanced sentiment on Tcmperauoe 
k other locjilities, rouaeJ tho determined opposition of the 
qnor dealers in several States, Three suits at law wnre 
Otmnenced : Thurlow fs, thn State, in Maasaclmsftta ; 
riotuher vs. the Ktato ui Illiode It-land ; and Piei'tie vs. 

B Btatn ia New Hampuhire. Thehiwer Courts sustained 
tho poijHtiiiitifniality of the luwa m \\iQft6 ie»^eOK'«>i 'fexaiss., 


aBBEmfX'in'' aVitlAn)- 

wlion-iipim appeitl wna lakon to ihe Snpremo Court of tho 
United Stati-a. Sis of tlie nine Ju^ee weie on llio 
beuch, au<l tLeir detnsiovB fully BUBtained tho right at t)iB 
StttUi to Tegnlate to any oxtont the sale of intoxicants. 
Sttid Chipf-,TuBlice Taney : 

" Every State may regulate ita own internal ttoifiCf Mcurd- 
ing t^i ilsown jiiilgnipnt, anil ujion its own viewa of the int«r<!«t 
and well-beuig of its citizana. I am not awart> that UiMe plio- 
ciiilea havo ever l)<«n questioned. If any Btatc liii^tna the rcuiil 
snil interaul trafflo in ardent Hpirits injurious to its citieetu, 
and ciilcnluted to produce idlcnoBs, vice, or dobauohery, I sm 
notbing in tlie CotJStttiition of tho Uuited 6tnt«a to proveui il 
fnini regulnting and restrainiuR tlie traSic, or from pri>lu)iitiiig 
it altogotlier, if it thinks projier." 

"Tho law of New HampahirB la a valid law ; foraltliaagh tl 
gin sold was an import fioui another Stat«, Congreaa alieMlj 
hns the power to rpKnlate fiueh importations ; yet, as CaosWfti 
hns inado no rpgiilatioua ou (he subject, the tiaHic in the ttrtiub: 
nijiy be Inwfnlly repUdted by the State as soon as it is landed 
ill ilB territory, and a tax Imposed npou it, or a. liceiue rWjn&v^i 
"r He mlt prohihUed, according to the policy uhieh the HtaM 
niay sappoBe to be ita interest or ita duty to pursue." 

The opinions of the Aesociate Judges were In hanoonf 
with this. Said Judge Catron 

" If the StHte bnE the power to restrain by licenses to my *^- 
tent, ihe hits the discretionary power to Jndge of its limits, and 
may go to the extent of prohibiting aUugether." 

" It Is not neoeaaary," said Judge GHer, " lo array the appil* 
liog Btatietios of misery, pauperism and erimv, wfaicli hav*. 
their origin in the use or abuse of ardent tipirit«. TltB iH^rs' 
power, which is exclusively in the Stjiles, is alono compot^fr 
to the correction of theae great evilB ; and all mcaaunw <il' »• 
Btraixit or prohibition oeceaaary to effect the {inrjioso. aru irltliln 
the scope of that authority. If a luas of revenue ahunlil afvrut- 
to the United 8tates Stoia a diininiBhed conaumptiaD nf Bfdaat 
ftplrits, she will be the guinec a thonawid told in Uic IwaJibi 
wealth, and happineaa of tile people." 

Judgf? Daniel, in reply tu the iirgnmcnt that, biicanse tlio 
m]>iirter ha4 paid bis duties, he had a right U> eeil whivh 
State could not taJoa """ " 

PrvhibUory Lama. 


No Ancli right as the one eopposeil, U purvhnfiuil l>y the im- 
ter, njid no injury ia lui,? Qccurnte eonse in iiitlicteil en liiiu, 

ij deuyiiig to Liiii tliH power dciuaniled. Ha bii4 uot purotiased 
id cannot pareliaao froni tlie govemmtint lliat wMeL it could 
it iiiADro toliiin, a ml.; independently ofllulaict and polieg of the 
atf," Of all importa, Uo aaid: "They are like all otliar 
«pert;«f tile pitiEBD, and alionid be eqniUlf the eiibjRct* nf 
imeBtic To^lntion and tnxution, wbetber owni^d liy an iin- 
irter or his vendor, or may bave bpon pnrcliawnl liy rargn, 

Acbage, liole, pieoe, or yard, or by bogsbead, cask, ot bottles." 

Judge M'Lean, on ihe ri^ht of the State to eeise and de- 
roy intoxioanta, said : 

" Tbe suknowledged power of a State extends often t« tbe 
of ]iroperty. A nnisonce niny l>e abated. It Ib tbe 
)ttled cunstTuctiuu of every regulation of commerce, tbat no 
itaaa can introiluce into a commimity malignant dJGc.iHea, 
' aujtbing wliioh contaiuinates its morals, or euditn^jierB ita 
if^ty. ladividnals in the eujoymeiLt of tlicir own rigbta must 
k ORXoAi] Dol to injuTQ thu rlgbta of otLera," 

To the same etTect, Judge Woodlmry Boid; 
" i'hB laws sube tbe infected cargo and cast it overboa,rd, not 
om any power whiL'b the 9tate nSBUmes to rt'gulaie conimeree, 
I inter&ro witli tbe regnlations of Congress, but beoanse 
»liyo laws for tbe prevention of erimo, and proteutiun of tbe 
ibliu welfare, niUHt of DBcesHity bave &ee and full oporatiou, 
icording to tbe exigency tbat reqaires tbeir interferenoe." 

The mora] power of tliese decistoiia v/aa manifeet in tho 
merol advaaue of TempenmcQ eeutimeut throogLDut tlie 

In 1847 tlie Ijegislaiure of Delaware paused a Proliibi- 
ity Law, refprriti^* it to the jieople, Sobsoquently, on (ic- 
lunt uf tliiB n-fitrouce tu the [leoplo, the Law was set aside 
r the Coiu't, as uuconstitutional. In 1855, the Legiskr- 
ra created it nt'W prohibitory enactment, which the 
nnrU BostAiued. It was repealed and a lieensu law sub- 
italed, in 1867. 

In 1&46, iho Now TIatiiptihiro Legislatm'e Bubmilted to 
« peujilo to virtH ou the csjieditmcy of n pTOhibitoiy Law, 
boToto thwa^haixt the State wa9A\g\il,\)va ftmserlwoSta 

of tlie votes cast were in iavor of tte proposed lawi Th» 
following year, tlie Legieliitare enacted a Proliibitory Iaw. 
A still TOfiro Btringent luw was pftsaed in 1855. 

la 1840, Wiscaniiiii enucteil a law ponnitting no person 
to vend or retail spiritnoaa liqiiore nntil he shall have given 
bonds to pay all damages the cotamunity or individuals 
may sustiun by iho ti-affie — 

" To aapport all paDpera, widows, and orpliaoB, and pay tht 
oxpenacB of all civU and cdnunol prosecution growing out of or 
justly attribntabie to such traffic. A married woman may sos 
for dnmnges done to bei Lusbaad. and no suit shall be nuiin- 
taiuod for liquor bills." 

Tbo nest year, an additional provision made it the duty 
of Supervisors to prosecnte nuusellers in cases of paiip(!r- 
isni and crime. In 1855, the Legislature passed a Prohihi- 
tory Law, hut the Governor vetoed it. In 1872 atringwit. 
laws were enacted, which, in 1873, were eo modified ae to 
break their force. 

In 1850, the people of Michigan pnt into their new Ctta- 
stitntion, the following provision : "The Legislature si lall 
not pass any act authonzing the grant of license Cot the 
sale of ardent spuits or other intosdcating liquors." In 
1SIS3, a Prohibitory Law was enacted, which was deolurfd 
unconstitutioaal by the Supremo Coort. In 1S50 a now 
law was passed, which was repealed in 1875, 

The Constitution of the State of Ohio, ratified tr Uie 
people in 1851, contained tho following provision: "S* 
license to traffic in intoxicating liquors shall hereafter lift 
granted in this State, but the General Assenibly may, by 
law, provide agaiuBt evils resulting therefrom." Bat>ed no 
this the Bo-caUed Adair Law was enacted in 1854, a, law 
making owners or leasees of bnildings rented fur tlie sale of 
liquors, KB also tho sellers thomaelvea, respoweible for Aatu- 
ages resulting from such sales, Subiteipiontly ttiis wmt su 
amended as to require lliat before such penuius am lie held 
respoDBible, thev oinut first receive notice from tbo ]>ennnc 

Pj-oliiintory Law 


liable to commit tbo injury wlit-ii iiit(ij(icii.teil. A law lias 
> bepti pftSBBfi ivliirii allowB l.hp wile of native winca 
tuid cider, and toltce from corpomtinns tlie power to pro- 
.hibit ale, beer, ami porter-lioiist«, 

Tlie eame year, IPiil, a more tlmrough and jM^rAjct law 
Was adopted in Maine. It wae repealed in 185(>, bnt n.-cn- 
Acted in 1857, and hjw from time to time Ireeu Btrcngtbened 
rby amendment^ as oui'aeion hue required. 

In March, 1852, 3linnesota, wiiilc yet a Tenitory, poeeed 
K PvoUTbitory Law, with a proviso for its ratifioation by the 
poi^flOf whicli wot) accoinplisliod tlio same year; whero- 
npoD the BuprcDio Court decided that the Bubmission of tlie 
A-Ot to the vote of the people was nnconstitutional. 

In !lS7t, a law Was paeacd prohibiting tbe Bale of intox- 
8 near tlie line of the Northern Pacific Raili'ond daring 
^e construction thereof. 

In May, 1^53, the Legislature of Ithnde Island paiiiited 
b Pn>hilrttori' Law, wlufli it made mere stringent the fill- 
ing month, and Htill further ptrt'eoted in 1S53. It was, 
iowever, declared uniMmetltutional by the Supreme Court. 
U IS74 another I'rohibitory Law was adopted, but was re- 

1 1875. 

In May, 1852, the Legislatare of MnsHachnsftts made 

' nohibition the Law in that Oommonwealtli. Borne i»f the 

oviidona of the law haviny been df-i-Ureil nuciinsfitulional 

)y tire Supremo Jndioial Court, in 1854, the law was tlinr- 

mglily rerined in 1855, and hue since that lirao trium- 

thftJltly Btood the test of the alMtrpeat juilicinl couti'Sls and 

In 1868 it wan ropealod, and a license hi-w \V!ta 

libiitittitcd, but in 18(i'J tlie License law was rnjwaled and 

B Prflliibitory law was re-enaotcd, with malt liquors cs- 

Oliangps iu the modifications in fav.r cf mult 

1870, but tl.o law ^ 
.878. ' In 1S75 a license law aupplnntod a 
Eon, wttik a provisii that cities und towns 

Vemiont kilisn pasai'd a ProWbitory ljv« 

.-as rcj.n, 

11 Oll<T 

Ufd in 

in 1S53, waa ratified hy the direct vote of the iieojilc. 
In 18W0 the law lins been made raore atrin^nt \iv llie 
ena^'tiupnt of s, Nnisance Act, tlie moat significant Hectioiia 
of wUiuli uro tbo ful lowing : 

" SfC. 1. Every anloon, rest^araiit, grocery, cellar, shop, 
billiard-room, linr-rooin nad every driiildug-pla<!e or room Med 
as a plnvo of resort, wliere intoxicatiug liquor is mUavfdUj 
suld, furuisbed, or givou awaf, or kept fat eelling, fumiahitig, 
or giving awnj unlawfttUy, and every place or room niaed or 
resorted to for guinbling, shall be held to bo a coaunou oni' 
saoce, kept in violation ot'Iaw. 

" Stc. 2. When, opon trials it is proved that iotoxiroHng 
liqiior is Itept for iiulawful sale, fumishiug, or giving nwsy, or 
is unlawfully sold, fumialied, or given away iu a place named 
in the preceding aootion, or thnt gambling is done in aiicii ^lace, 
tlio conrt shall adjndgesuch place to boa pommunnniBniice, and 
tbesnine shall besbnl npand abated by the order of tbe court; 
nod the person k^eiiing the same shaTI lie ailjTidgnd by tbs 
court guilty of Jieeping and maintaining a conimuu nuianncn, 
and shall be lined not loss thun twenty didlors, nur nioni ttiui 
I wo hundred, or Iio shall boliahle tu a line nut ejiectvllng 
ttrenty dollars, and imprisonment not li'ss t)ion one nionlh, imr 
tuore than thrne montlts, in the discretion of tlis court. 

" See. fi, Thu State's attorney, wbenench a liontl is furfiiibMl, 
shall prosecute and recover tbo amount so forfaitotl on bebalf ^ 
the State, and when snch duty is neglootod hy tUo State's Bt- 
toniey for six months after being notiliod of sncU forfidtiico. 
iiny other jterson may institute proctodjngs for ancb recovetyia 
an action of debt in the name ol' thfl Slftte, find snch ptrsun. 
ijponrocoveryand the payment of such amount bito the trtuto 
treasury, shall be allowed ouc-half tfan ainanut thoroiit 

" Sec. 8. A pe™on who knowiogly lets u building, louemeol. 
pjaco, or room, owned hy bini or under Ida conlrol. for any of 
tito porposes named in the first section of this net, or kiir'wlDuly 
punnits the same, or a part thttr«o£ to he so lisorl, shnll Iio Ilti«d 
not Icaa than twenty dollars nop ntiiro than two hnndroil ilnilon, 
i<e ho shall lie liable to a fino of twtnty dullaw, uad Imiit^D- 
ment not less than one mouth and not more than tLnwinootluL" 

In 185H, tbe Lpgislalnre of Conaoctiimt pusKod « Problb- 
itiiry Law, which was vetoi-d hy GDvenior Seymour; but 
t!iu following' year it enacted aaotbor, wMcli wm 

Prohibitory Luws. 377 

In 1853, llio IiKliima J^gislatnro pasBecl a Proliihitory 
law, wUli a provision tlmt it ho snbniitted to ihe p«>|ilc, 
E claoeo which tho Supreme Court pronounced uncoiistitn- 
tional. la 1855 iho Legislature! pasEcd anotlier Law, but 
tbo conflicting opinions aniJ wuaknesaca of its coiirtu have 
reudereil it inoperative. A liwuso hiw took its plaoo in 
1874. In 1854, a Prohibitory Law wa» paased by the 
Logislattire of New York, and was vetoed by Governor 
Horatio Seymonr. The nest year the law was re-ena«ted, 
"bat BOtne of its provisions being pionoonced imvonBtitntional 
"by the Court of Appeals, the Le^latora Bnbstitated a 
])c«nfie Uw, iu 1857. 

In 1855, Illinois enacted a law, which, so iar as it was 
l^ipliaablo to drain-drinking was prohibitory. It alloweil, 
lowever, the free manafautnre of cider and wine, and tlieir 
Bale in iinantities not less than five gallonH. On its being 
subniittod t« the approval of the people, it was rojectod. 

Iowa also passed a Prohibitory Law, the same year 
rhich was ratified by the vote of the people. In 1858 
femifiiited liquors were excluded from its prubibitione, and 
ihe law is thereby badly crippled. 

In the Territory of Xebraska a Prohibitory Law was 
tnaoted in 18.^^5. 
Ab experience has shown that all statutes are liable to 
Ificatinns and to repeal ; tliat partisan zeal accepts, if 
it does not solicit, the influence of numbers, regariileaa of 
ihe price paid, and is so bent on immediate Bucceae as to be 
drilling to make any compromise in order to secure it ; and 
^Iiat Oonatitutional Amendments which merely deny to the 
Ijegialatnre the power to license the evil of the liquor traflic, 
a often pnworleBS tit prevent the free stile of the bqunrs 
which produce dmnkcniioBa ; — efl'urls are now being made 
til place in the Constitution a of the several States, a pro- 
Vision alwolutoly [irohiliitiujr the manofaclnre of^ and the 
Straflio in intoxieauts na a beverage. 

The first of these attempts aa yet crowned with snocess, 
WustB KmiBOS, wiiere in theNovember e\ect,w'aul\%'Wi,>!Bft 

following amendment to th« CoiisUlutJon. was aiJapted li 
ihc people • " TLe maniifactiiro and sale gf iatoxicoiiu 
liijuora aliaJl he foievei prohibiioil in lliie State, excejit £ 
medical, Bcientific, and mechanical purposes." 

In ]d81 the people of Iowa ailopted ttie followin 
amendment : 

" Ho person shall mannfactoie for sale, sell, or ke«p Sir 8it 
as a, beverage tiny intoxicating Iii|Uors whutever, inclmlingal 
wine, and lieer. Tbe Genej al Assembly dIihI!, by law. prescdl 
regnlatioQS for the enfortement of the prohibitions liertiin off 
tuineil, and shall thereby provide snitoblepenalliea for Tiolntia 
of the proTisionB thereof." 

In 1884 the State of Maine incorporated ioto its Conil 
tution the following : 

"The manufacture of intoxipatinKliqTion, not inclndlngcidt 
and the aale and keeping for aale of intoxicating liqiton, at 
and shall bo forever prohibited; except, however, tlut ti 
Bale and keeping for sale of snch liquors for mediral andmechti; 
ical porposes and the arts, and the sale and keeping for Ba]e ( 
cider may be permitted nndei such regulations ait til« I-cglsI 
tore way provide." 

In 1885, the following became a part of the Coustitntio 
of nhode Island : 

"The mannfactnre and sole of intourtitisg liquors to Ito 
as a beverage sbnll be prohibited. The General Aaaemhlj i 
provide by law for carrying this Article into efi^ot." 

Attempts in thin direction are also being mxdo in othe 

X. Local Option Laws. — In a'veral Statee, where 
has been found impoasiblo to obtain prohibitory legislation 
laws Imve been enauted, allowing the people of tUe 
towns and cities, to determine by popular vote whether tbl 
sale of iutoxicauts as a beverage, kIiivII be alli 
bidden. In some iu&tancos this privilege of Looal Optlo 
covera all ports of the State, while In othei'S, portlculf 
localities are exempt from the operation of tlie law. Tl 
following is believed to be an acuuratu Hlatemeut of 
mjdar and extent oE w 

Loccd Opium Latos. 379 

The honor of iuaiigaxating this form of relief is due to 
e Stale of Kansas, whose Legiehituru, paHsod a law in 
!67, for the rpgulatinn arid control of the liquor-traOic, iu 
bich WOB the proviBioQ : 

" That no license should be gTaJite4 to any individaal to sell 
itoxioating liquoM within the Slot* until the piirty applying 
iihe livenae, slionlil present to tho proper untboritioH a, peti> 
i fop the same, Bi)pi(ii1 by m^ority of tlio arliilt titLionB, 
male and femnle, of his district, or, if iu a city, tho ward 
which lie proposed tooagttge in tho bnaineaa." 

In 1871, on the failoTe to ohtain a general law from the 
ieg^ature of Now Jersey, several townships had their 
) granted for special Icgisbition giving this privi- 
t to their I'espective localities. An additional number 
r tovna obtained the samo right in 1873. 
In 1872, tho Logislatni'e of Pennsylvania passed a Local 
ptiOQ law, requiring the vot* to lie taken by cities and 
indes, and nut by wards and townships. Special tuls 
■assed allowing the Thirteenth, Fonrteenth, 
^i^uth and Twonty-niiith Warda of Philadelphia to de- 
e the matter for thoinaelvos, irrospei.'tivo of the aggro- 
I vote of the entire city. The following year, tUo 
^uoiHlealerB made violent efforts for the repeal of the law, 
it without effect J and on the bringing of a test ease to 
b notiue of the Supreme Court, tho law was prononnoed 
OiBtitutional. Subssquenlly the law was repealed by the 

The same year (1872), the Now York Le^slatnro passed 
dmilar law, apphcable to towns only, but it waa vetoed 
' die Governor. 

In 1873, action was had in the following States : The 
yland Legiabvtnre refnaed to grant the petition of the 
opl« for a general law, bnt enacted one for five oonnties, 
id ft nnmber of districts in others. A year or two later 
lUtlonal coimtiea were included in the privilege of Local 
Iu Kctitvcky, s hw was passed letyuinng &"& *?it'i'C\wi ^a 

1 iL- lifM in every district, town, or oily, upon the applicatiui) 
C'l' twonty le^l voters; and il' a majority of vutt« 1 
Bgiiiiirft tUe s*le, then tliu traffiu eljalt be uulawfnl, Tl 
(list opportTinily for the application of the law, reBnlla 
in tUo ordering of elections in '25'd towiitj, 207 «]f wblct 
voUuI against the sitle of intosicauts. 

In North Cftrolina, a Local Option law wae passe^ 
which in 1874, was amended hy a proviBion that, when 
])roliihition hat< been carried by a vote of the people,: 
sliall etand good until the liquor interest ovorturns it I ' 
calling an election and voting it down. 

KissiBsippi enacted a statute containing this clause: 

" That DO license shaJl be frronted or reneweil mtleas mgu 

by a majority of the male i^itiaona over twonty-iiue .veareof Sg 

ami a, imi^iorit; of female citiKiius over uighteen yeura of nge i 

sidpnt in tlia stiimrvisor's tlistriut, iuLiorpornlod city or wwn-" 

The Alabama Legislature refused to grant a law covt 
ing the whole State, but gave epecial laws to many of 
towns. 8ul)seqnently the law was niaile applicable to ac 
eral counties. 

The Legislature of TennsBeee passed a, st.rong law, I 
large majorities iu both Ilouscs; but it was Idlleil by t) 
Governor's veto. 

Indiana euaeted a simJlai' law, whidi wue repealed i 
year or two later. 

In 1874, the following States took nction : 

In Georgia, the Legislature passed a liill envering fort 
counties, in which the sale of liqaorB was probiliitcd onlefl 
two-thirds of the projierty boldcra agreed thcr«^to in writinA 
At the same Bei^cion I-^ocal Option was uKl«iilotl to i' " 
coniiHps. and to twenty-five innallpr Imuditieis. 

In Oregon a bill was passed prohibiting the sale tif liipiaa 
nnleaa a majority of tlie legal voteiB shall petition iter 

In 1S75, the Legiptaturc of MaeHachnwtta pmvidpil lb 
[lie local authorities of t.iwns and cities niiglt {! 
iiohl iiri'Drti-^. ll a\fti) posaiil 

Loccd Option Laws. 3Sl 

lu tho DmnJnion of Caniuia, »l'ter Bevenil iiiiBiiccesafiil 

brlB in forniur yuan, biiciil'BS wua aitaincil in passing a 

ical Option law, applitmlilo to the two largu provineoa 

Ontario and Qnebec, in 1864. T!ie law provides tbat : 

" OntliBpetitiouoftliirty rate-payers the mnnicipal council of 

city, town or tonnsliip U obliged lo submit u l>y-Iaw to tiio 

tors, usking tbem to vote eitbur for or aguinst a prohil>it«ry 

uriaw for such city, town, or township, na tlte case maylie. 

Ly-law parsed can only bo repealed iu the aame way, and 

»maiu in force at least one year." 
A large nmnlier of lownflhips, and several entire counties 
both provinces, have eatabliahed local prohibition under 
is law. In 1878, thin law was amended by providing, 
lang other things, tbat when the by-law is once adopted, 
I cannot be repealed for a period of three years." The 
jality of tbe law baving been queationed, the Supremo 
inrt of Appeal have decided on its conetitntionalitj-. 
Tn Great Britain a struggle bas been going on since 
63, to induce Parliament to pasB a Permissive Probibitory 
ijnor Bill. The idea originated with tbe General Council 
tbe United Kingdom Alliance, and being laid before 
r Wilfrid Lftwson, was put into the form of a law, uHtb 
B following preamble : 

" tfheraai, The sale of iatoxicftting liquors ia afiTiitfulsonree 
otittie, Immorality, pftuporiam, diaanae, tuaanity, and prema- 
M death, -whereby not only the iudividuala who give way to 
ing hahilB are plDn^iMl iota misery, bat grievous wrong is 
to the peraons anit property of her Majesty's aubjecta at 
rge, and the pntilie rates and taxes are greatly au;paentod ; 
"ier«M| it ia right and expedient to confer on tbe rate-pay- 
HofditicA, borou^H, parishes and townabipatljopowcT to pro- 
lit MKlteommoD sale as aforesaid; belt therefore enacted," etc. 

Tlie bill then provides tbat, on application of any district, 
e vote of tho ratepayers tihall im taken as to tho oKjie- 
ency of ado^iting the provisiona of tlie act, but (hat two- 
lirda of the voW-s taken elmll bo nee*'saary in order to 
ftke an affinnalivo decieion. After many dofuatB, the bill 
RepMsod to ha Btioond reading in tb(;isumtuet«{\<^^^i,«.'n&. 
' h»peg are cateilaiued tbat il may soonXwicMRio «.\w« - 


The Eight and Dnty of the State to Prohibit the Liquor T 
— Ptohibitiou a Snctess. — Obstaclea and Objectioi 
hibitioD coDsideied. — ConcIuHion. 

THE power of the State to deal with the liquor ti 
hy laws scekiDg' to reetriot and reetrain it, Laa t 
ooufe^eil, — aa Bee the preceding sketch of the histo^ fl 
IiIcenBe laws, — for more than four hundrod yoaia, by t 
English-speaking people. More than this, the duty i 
aaing' that power has been acknowledged, and ae the 1 
dreds of License lawB whioli have ht'en enacted hliow, t 
heen j>erformed according to the light and wisdota fl 
varions forms of human government have poBaesBcd. 
for the reasons annonneed hy Sheldon Amoa, 
ing on Licensed Prostitution, all license of a ( 
ovU liaa wrought mischief and has failed to seiiore ibli 
which it was hoped that it would reach. Says Bbel 

"The merits of legialati on cannot he judged bythehiHlMtM 
tive of its oiiginatora, but wholly b; reference to then 
knoim operation npon man's nittiue of cnuees with wlllctl t 
arc familiar. The whole eystem of regulutiug vice, by a 
taining the conditions it mn j ftlone ho inilii];;«c] in witllnat n 
fringing police rulea, gives a tranflpnreut legality or 'rigbta 
ness' to it, when «o iinjsiiod, whieh nocouuter Bxiilniiatiini]|| 
apologiea can evnr dUsipnte. It olrTBys B«eius lu bo rocjtotli 
by those who iwlvoniit^^ these systwrnB that there are miflli^Miq 
flttoDg incentives to viee already existing, whirh it U ( 
hardest effort ef oivUiiaifiowto Qovm\«taet." "Tlia Hoe 

Liquor Traffic and the State. 383 

I &(-t that there are forms of licentiouHn^ss wliicli are 
in strict accordnuce with lavi. Becaaso luvr ia too iiupotetit 
to ponish, there can ho no iohbod why liiw makera shonid 
go to tbo other extreme and protect anil encoiiriige." , . 

" In all other caBea it ie admitted tliat where 

law cannot keep pace with the promptiugs of morulity, it must 
at the least, help, suhatantiate, and never contradict, coiuiuou 
moral masImB." . . . . " It ia only in conntrieB -wlioro a, 
H-Btfiu of licensing and regulating, pre-rnils, that, while the 
la of morality archeldtobo absolnte in furor of virtue, tho 
la of law lire eiinally decisiTe only when vice ia prac- 
d onuide ceitaiu arbitrary limita aesignod. Within these lim- 
h ft gieftt State muchinecy, constmcted at enotmoua coat, exigte 
X det«rmiiling the peraons for whom, and the places, the times, 
d tlie oonditions within whicli profligacy may be fteely in- 
Iged in without risk of interference with law. Tice ia antici- 
1, provided for. paid for, and hedged round with peoulinr 
jfentities by the Statu." . ■ , "Be it remembered, in tho 
g system there is no oae foaturu which might grodoally 
^k In favor of ita own tennination, and of the abolition of 
lorality, and which must finally secure them. On the con- 
r, dvory feature tends to aggravate inmiornlity, whether 
<T without its attendant disoases, and to consolidate it 

a long na tlie nation can Inst." 

« of tho absolutp immorality — eomea tlie i 

muTHlity only in vertaia places, at ci 

icrtain conilitious." , . . " It is at 

lltbi of view that a law shoald aeem to ninety-i 

Iti «f ft hnnilred ti 

d In Aiot favor it . . . 

» »» 1« Of tU« esseuoe of vice 

flutes moral law, ami you m 

It ia lit*' a miclity rivi 

jh* torrent whose fiiry yuu 

la £it slialt thon go aud n 

tese atat«Dents, written, as li 
n ailment against legalized prostitnti 
[fia, 6B osperictico sadly attests, 

of its telu- 
times, and 
from many 
that it 

oornlity, ( 
. " You would regulate vice, 

a reftiae to bo regulated. Vice 
y expect it will tnmagreaa human 
c that baa overSownita banks. It 
lanuot arroat. Tou cannot say, 
I farther.' It mocks at all your 

tLe basis 

e equally 

the legftlizpd eiile 

• " C'linparntivfi Survey of Lnwa in Force for the Prohibition, 
I, and LiceuainK of Vice in Engluud aaiA tl\jiv%T tn'olL- 
ill. W, 11, L-, :JSJ, M, UM), 227, 2ti, 

384 Jkohdm Btehry. ■ 

of intosicantB as a bevera^o ; for, heyonil .-dl diapatp, lb^| 
whole liiHtury of ouch tnitHii, is a history of waste, of sliuniMH 
and of sin, with no redeeming feature whatever, to ivlieV^H 
thii) darknesB and horror, Foi4»bly, and tmt probalilnH 
alcohol may have a luefiil and remedial ploue as admiiiiniM 
tered by akillful pbysidana in Botne caspB of dieeaee, bnt J 
thie IB very differpnt from ite plfl«e and work as a bevsia^ 1 
The license eyetem which provides for tbe sale of inioxi- I 
cauta at hotels, saloons, or grog<^ries of wbaf^ver ntuns^ 1 
is Dot a systttm devised or perpetuated fur the benefit of 1 
the siiHc ; nor with any reference to them wbntever; but if I 
has its place and power wholly with reference to the d^'^ 
praved and peTvertcil appetitos of those who seekintoxtj 
cants as a beverage only. And in view of the inevitable , 
consequences of such indulgences, — the poverty, crime, 
general demoralization nnd wreck of manhood — the Mute 
which legalizes sncli traffic, is, no matter what it may sup- 
pose itaelf to be doing, a gnilty provider for and n, dirrot 
participant in the consequences which flow tram its lioen- 

" But free sales," it is said, " ought not ia lie allowed; 
wo should be overrun with dnmkenncaa if tliat were the 
case ; besides, a trattic which coubob punperisni and crime 
ought to be mode to pay the expenses of its mischief, anil 
hence the license fee is a fund to this end." The reply t" 
this la the simple statement of the fact that, never, in the 
whole history of the traffic, has licetieing diminished dnink- 
ennesa j and also, that the liceuBe fee never has fnraishwl 
more than a drop in the bucket of esppnHe which thn 
licensed evil has filled. As compared with wTiat the snher 
and induBtrioua portion of community pay for the coDho- 
quencea of licensed liquor drinking, and wlmt the lu-cnwd 
dealer pays for the privilege of selling, tlie dili'erencp !■ .".It 
per cent,, n^ainst one per cent., an appalling result in i 
humftnitarian point of view, u stupid bliiui^-r in ihv \ig)A 
of political economy. 

i must also bo ea-W, v\ia.^ fe(« Tan.\,Vj ' 

Liquor Traffic and Me State. 3S5 

e toleration of the sale of intoxicants l>y law, is not a 
t on tlie part of our Inw-makere, but eiiuply a 
leglect, a negative act; wUile tolerafiou isoverBluiJ|iL'il tbe 
luuieat the law ie made to interfere by pW'ing llm trafRo 
ader reguliWJons, wilh llifl avowed intent of legalizing tbe 
tklee and protecting tlio seller from iuterferenci*. la Hiidi 
iCftae, aa Slioldon Amoa woll says: 
"Uthe law is kiiciwiiigl<r allawcd to inpline, ou tbe vliole, in 
iViU of ajkiiumiirnl fiuitimeot, or ifsnch un interpretatiou nf 
Ih aUoweil to be aci miicb ofi possilile, it is. one of the moat 
riaous of mural offvneps of which a Btite or ita rulers can he 
Urilty. The peiierul miirsl Bentiraenta of n people are ilojx^ud- 
Bk «n a Toat varietj" of snbtle and incHlenluhle influences ; 
tUHC teUgUin, thuic Iraditianal cuatoms and institutions, their 

Kiinl hahits, their historical antecedents, the amount and 
ftiacter of their intercuorso with foreigners, the doraioHnt 
Menlative thoaries, and the prevalent educational pntcrptiBss, 
ombine to create and enforce the moral seutimentfi of the 
'{ while these sontimenta themiielvea react powerfally npon 
U UiMfl influences. But, no one of those influences is so om- 
|ipIW«nt, no enduring, so petsausive, so direotly anthoritativn, 
lathe voice of the State uttered either in its laws or its admin< 
Urattve acts. These laws and acts speak with a delibeTateneaa 
f piUPpDse and a ma^iloqiience of style which, while they 
ompd the attention of all, powerfully impress the imagination 
p a way uo other privata or pnhlio utterance can." ' 

Said Rev. Albert Barnes, in Lie sermon on ' The Thnme 
if Iniquity : ' 

" An evil always becomes ■wome by beinjc sustained hy the law 

if tba land. It is much to have the sanction of law and the 

BDraJ iotce of law in favor of any course of hnman condni't. 

I( tho estimation of many persons, to make a thing Irgal is to 

lake it morally ri^M, and an employment which is 10};al ia pur- 

■■ d by them with few rehnliea of conscience, anrl with little 

[lutiuliancR from any reference to a Uigbor than human author- 

Horeu\t>r, this fact does mnch to deter others iVora oppoa- 

nj; thojuvil, tind from eudi^avoring to turn the public indi^cno- 

D aaainst it. It is an uuweleorae thinR for a (rood man ever 

aethlniBclf iigaittst tins laws of the l.iuil, and to dcnoimoo 

an it'TOWj; wliirb Ihny allirm to be jight." 

• lltLd, p. -Jaj. 

Akdiidt in Bistory. 

t of tbe present license law ii 
saciiuaettH," saya Jud^e ritouoi. " 1 wiwhuldiug u term utcuiul 
vliuu a Ucjiuty Hbt>[i[rgn.iil to luii uuo mormn^: '1 huTe jut 
sueu a ami Hif;lil— a follow jiersiiailiug s relnntunt oonitade I 
eutvr a groK-sliop.' 'Coiue uliinfCi' b.iLI he, 'tliiaia 
apectiilile A pluce us au^ ; Ihe Cummonn-eolth of MaBBUcIiiuetli 
says BO.'"* 

lu tlio liglit of all morjil reaBoning, tlio license c 
sale of iiitflxicants as a beverage ia an unmitigated t 
and Llie question ^vbl!tllM' tLe 8tate haa tlio riglit to p 
eiicL sale, can aiiniil of Imt one answer: It is clearly t 
province of law to interfere with and forbid whatever j 
panlizes the liberty, proeperity, and property of its i 
Vice of every tind is in antagonism with these, and is t 
proper siihjeut of legislation ; how much more, then, i 
a traffic confesaedly the most prolifio of all things i 
moting vice, he declared a crime. "Virtno," saya . 
Newman, *' must come from mtbln; to this probl 
religion and morality must direct themselves. Bat \ 
may aome/rom withuul; to hinder this i 

The following are accepted principles in the Science C 

"Tho trne miwiou of Govemraent is to rogiilnte the equiteUl 
relutions ol'uiuu. Tliia it does liy protecting the weak s 
tbn Btriing, unil by secimug tu each tneuiliur of the (<ammim]ty tl 
unillstiirbed possession of liis natural and (.'ivil riglits. 
1y limitation to the rtglita of the individual h wlicu he Btiff 
in any ealling that inturfpita with the rights of others, c 
gers tholr lifn or prfiperty." 

Saya Benthiun : " The BoIe objeul of goveminent ong 
the greatest ha jipiuess of the greatest nnmber uf the c 
nity. This uud ia ]irouio1e<l by enrouragiiig every iadnstCflH 
institntion calculntcil to confer lienelit ; and Aiscauragiug, i 
evon sternly topreasing, those of a jiemieiouB, hnmorolf OJ 
dimgi-rons elinrnrti'r; in a word, liy snch 'Wise legislution I 
ali:ill I. Till to proiiiotL' lliu pliysioal health, tiie wcial c 
ii.ucl llie intelleotiinl enjoymentB of tho people." ( 

* Alcohol and tliic Wivlo,-p.^6V 

/ Our Niiluiii's I'vti-i, \i; V'lu^'wiA't Ssft 

lAqu&r Tmjic mid L'.c Slate. 3B7 

r Ijord Clieeterfield, in the Di<batca in Parliament in 17-13, 
on the Bill to reduce tlio Diitiee on Spirits, eaiil ; 

" Tba spudous preti-nco on which this bill in foomlwl, and 
indveil the 011I7 pruCence that iliwervea tu be tailed epeciooH, ia 
the praprietf of tsxiai; vice ; IrattbiH maxim of soTcmmenl haa 
on Ihis oucuAion beeuoither mistaken or perverted. Vice, 017 
Lonla, is not properly to bu taxed, bnt siippreBsod; and heavy 
taxes are iiomotiiDits tha only meauB hy which that soppresaion 
can 1i« attained- Lnxnr;, my Lonli, ortheexceosofthat which 
IH poroJL'iaita only by its excess, may very pro[>erly bo taxed, 
that such oxcesa, though not strictly nnlawful, may bo mada 
more diffleiilt. Bnt the ubo of thtso things which are einiply 
hitrtfiil, hortfal in their own natnro and in every degree, is to 
be prohibited. None, my Ijords, ever hRitnl in nay nation of n 
tax on theft or ndnltery, beoaitse a tax implies a license gmnt(.'d 
for the uae of that which is taxed, to all who shall bo willing 
to pay for it. Drnnkenneaa, my Lords, U nniversally and in all 
ciroumslnnces an evil, and therefore onght not to be taxed, bat 
pnuishod; and the means of it not to ho made eagybya slight 
impost which none ean feel, but to be removed out of the roach 
of the people, and secured hy the heaviest taxea levied, with the 
utmost rigor. I hope those t« whose care the religion of tho na- 
tion is particnlariy consigned, will nnanimoasly Join with ma 
I la tnitintaiuini; the necesisity not of taxing vioe, but suppressing 
1 tluite for the r^ection of a bill by whii'h the fiitnre us 
A present happiness of thonsands must be destroyed."* 
' III ^e same debate, the Bishop of Oxford said : "To leave 
A niltiOQ in its present state, which is allowed on all hnnds 
9 l>e a state of eormption, seems to fio tho utmost ambition of 
ihe of the noble turds who have plcojled with tho greatest 
WMUiUl fur this bill; lur he i^onclnded with an airof trinmphhy 
iBkiog, how we cun he c^ousllted for only siiDeiing the nation to 
Wtilino iu its former state 1 We may be, in my opinion, my 
, eonsnrod as traitors to our trust and enemies of onr 
e permit any vice to prevaU, when it is in onr pow- 
a siippresa it. We may be cursed, with justice, hy posterity 
as tbi? abettors ofthut debanohory by which poverty and disease 
shall bo ontailod n|>on thern ; contemned in the present as the 
I llattcrerA of those appetites which we onght to regiilato, and 
Lfiiualted by that populace which wo dare not oppose.'' t 

Tliis principle nf thn right anil doty of law-niakera tu 
logislate agiunst sneh a tratUi', is also declared by Bisliop, 
a liigb authority on crirainal liiiv t 

' ' The State, in tho eiuuitiDeiit of ita lawH, must cseniM Us 
judgment coutermng what acts ti>nd to uoErupt the paliUc mur- 
ola, iiniioverisli the commnnity, <tiBtnrl> tliepiibliu repoee, iujnre 
the public interest, ur eren impair thr^ eomfort uf itwUvitluiil 
tninnliers over whuat ita protecting watch anil caro am nti]^iilrMl. 
Aail tliepowor tojudgeof tUia question is neeesHftrily ritpowd 
alone in the legiidatuie, from wboso decision no appeal can be 
tahea, direotl^ ot iodirectiy, to uuy otbei dcptirtmenl of tko 
Govcmiiient- When, therefore, the Legialatare, witll diis es- 
rlusive authority, lins exercised its right of judging (^oacem- 
in^vtbislegialutive i^iiestioii, by thoenactnu^nt of prohibitJnnB J 
like those discussed in this nbaptcf, alt other deimrtinenls 0(''i 
the Qovemment me bound by the deoi^oo, nrhicb no co 
jurisdiction to roview." ' 

It was in perfect agreement with, and in defence of tU 
principle, that the Judges uf the H^upreme Court ^vc the 
deciaion on the riglit of tho Statu to prolilliit the Bale of 
intoxicants, as quoted ill the previous chapter. 

A. still later decision, rendered by Chief-Jnstice Harriiip- 
ton, of Delaware, in the case of '' Tlie State vs. AUmoud," 
nut only aiHrms this pnaciple, but also declarts tliat it I 
never been judicially deniotl : 

" Wb haTe seen no adjudged caae wliicli d«inieB llio poimof *1 
State, in the exercise of its sovereignty, to regulate tho tnilB 
Itquorfor restraint aa well as for revenue; and aa a poUos n 
Bure, to restrict ai prohibit t>ho8.ile of liitnor as iujiuinua l» t 
lie morals or dangerous to public pnaee. The sitbjoi'tiun wl 
vate property, iii the mode of its onjojiuoat, to the piiblio p 
and its subordination to geoersl rtghta liable to bn h^~ 
its iinreatiicted use, ia a principle Ijring at tbo roiinil. 
goyemiuMnt. It is ucouditimi of tliOBociHl ■' 
Its ciijoyiiicnt; oiiteriugiutii tUo very «tiii 
eodet,v;pxiatiQii liy tiecessity fcritn jirBfturii 
ed by llii' Constitution in the ti^nn* of its ■ 
right nf HPiiniriug uud ptoteiiting ii5patu.tioii and pi- [i 

Liquor Trajh and (he. State, 3p9 

I tlinir fondition wit.Iiniit iii- 

On tliis principle all Prohibitory I^gislatioa lias l>eiii 
1, anil tLo eomTOoij-scnwe argnmeniB in ita fnvor ai'o 
itablo. Even Herhert S]>eiiiicr, rinlically tli'fi-fiivc as 
definition of a Stato !b, and ahoukiiig' to all mtintl HonHe 
d experience as ia Kis dt-i^laratiuu that " GuvemnienL is 
Loral," declareB that tliose who arc ■' voluii- 
[y asflooiateil " iu a State, are so associatwl " foj' Tiiiitual 
iteetion;" a declaration, which, — imperfect as it is as a 
I definition of the purpose of State govemmeiil, — ie suf- 
ionily broad and explicit to refato his position that eani- 
y regulations are " a violation of rights ; " and that " the 
ite has no right to educate ; " -\ and also, in its suggestion 
tie inquiry, "Pmtection" from whatt neceBsitates the 
i(dti8ioD that it is the province of the State to prohibit a 
"" which pats in jeopardy the life, liberty and property 
every citizen. 

And John Stnart Mill, in his Esaay on " Liberty," giving 
itittUy the same definition of the pnrpoMO of Govem- 
t that given by Hpenoer, and objecting to all laws 
where the object of the interference is to make it inipos- 
diflicuit to obtain a particular commodity," (p, 185.) 
id carrying his ideas of personal liberty to suuh an estrenie 
to declare that, " Fornication, for example, must be lol- 
lit«d) and so most gambling," (p. lUl ;) yet in his chapter 
I the " Limits to the Authority of Society over this Indi- 
Idoal," euja : 

""Law iit to prevent infiiiifjcenient npon personal ri^htn, and 
tnalttf eocli pereon bfuLt Iiis ahare of the labor anil aatrltli's 
Rttlrad fbr defuuiling the society or its members from injury 
molMtatlnn. . . Assonu aa any part of a person's rnodiii't 
heta prtjniliciallytlie int^rosta of others, Hicii!t<r hns jiiriediu- 
H) over it. Tim <|iioHtion is thnn open wliethnr the jteneial 
will, or will not, be promoted by iut«rfecing witJi it. 

* CU«d iu Alcohol and tlia Stat«. p. 106. 
tBvBial Stutios, iij) 230, 303, 'iX>\ ««. 

Ahohi in Sietw^, 

. . Wlienever in short there is a definite dauingB, 
ilumnge, to .in individunl or tu the pablk^, the I'use is Xtaka 
uiil of the domuiu of liberty und phitjed in that of moralitj <i 

To be Bura, he clfumfl that there is no Bn?h "definite 
dama^, or risk of dduiage," in the liqaor traffic ; 1 
fhia W is contradicted by all the history of crime, si 
ptinperism. If the liquor traiBc produces no " defii 
darua^ " to both the " individual " and the " pnbUe," 
absurd to attribute " damage " to auy sourw ; as 
observation it is obvious that " definite damage " from I 
souTco, to say nothing of indefinite «.«■., incalculable, ' 
limited," " damage," is greater and more horrilde than fi 
any other Bonroe tnoira to man. And tiie fact, tliat, i 
centuries this traffic has been placed in tbe " domain ( 
morality and law," is conolaijive proof that the JiidgmHIf 
of mankind in regard to the damagiitg character of tl 
traffic, is wholly opposed to Mr. Mill's nusupported assertitq 
in regard to it. 

In tho preceding chapter a brief atetch is given of t 
history of Prohibitory legislation, indicating not only tl 
order, in point of time, of Bnch biwa in different localities 
but also tho fact that such legii^lalion has often ' 
repealed in toto, or eo modified by amendments as to Xm 
its foi'oe. Such an experieuee luads many to conclude tl 
tho Prohibitory prindple thus applioil, is a failure \ 
therefore, whatever may seem platisiblc, or even joflt 
desirable in theory, cannot sncceed whon appUi'd, 

We now proceed to show that such a conclnsiot 
warranted by well attested facts. 

I. Alexander Balfour, in a letter addressed to Mr. Ola 
stone, says of the operation of the Pennisaive Proldb!: 
Act operative in parts of Swi'ilon : 

igoronsly \\a.vf tile pfoplp 

mitnnd jiruliihit. Ibut 4 
as of jieople there am only d50 pli 

This it i» which ban bo 'Mi\ 
and mat*riul pt'istrnVXi of I 

Liquor Traffic and the State. 391 

istence of such general indications in that country of comfort 
and independence amongst all classes." (pp. 36-7.) 

Of tho Btill earlier attempts at Prohibition in Sweden, the 
Cliief of the Statistical Office in the Department of Justice, 
wrote to the Massachusetts Board of Health, as appears in 
their Second Report : 

" A vigorously maintained prohibition against spirits'in 1753- 
1756, and again in 1772-1775, proved the enormous benelits 
effected in moral, economical, and other effects, by abstinence 
fi-om spirits." 

In Great Britain, large land-owners have power to pro- 
hibit the traffic in intoxicants on their premises. Many nse 
this power, and the results are most definite and satisfac- 
tory. In the Province of Canterbury, having a population 
of over 14,000,000, the Committee of the Lower House of 
Convocation, reported, in 1869 : 

"Few, it may be believed, are cognizant of the fact — which 
has been elicited by the present inquiry— that there are at 
this time, within the Province of Canterbury, upwards of one 
thousand parishes in which there is neither public-house nor 
beer-shop, and where, in consequence of the absence of these 
inducements to crime and pauperism, according to the evidence 
now before the committee, the intelligence, morality, and com- 
fort of the people are such as the friends of temperance would 
have anticipated." 

Of other sections of the Kino^dom a writer in the Edin- 
burgh Beview for January, 1873, says : 

" We have seen a list of eighty-nine estates in England and 
Scotland where the drink-trafilc has been altogether suppressed, 
with the very happiest social results. The late Lord Palmerston 
suppressed the beer shops in Komsey as the leases fell in. We 
know an estate which stretches for miles along the romantic 
shore of Loch Fyne, where no whislvcy is allowed to bo sold. The 
peasants and fishermen are llourishiug. They all liavo their 
money in the bank, and tlid'y obtain higher wages than their 
neighbors when they go to sea." 

At Low Moor, a settlement e8tablisl[ied \>n ^ W^^- ^q>\.^ss^ 
Manufactming Arm^ prohibition is ngvAVy e^xiio^^^^* Qjr^^ 

392 Jlmhol in ffistory. 

of tho members of tto firm writes under date of Febrnaiy 

•27, 1671 1 

" Wo Bead Bome Bccoizitt of tlie comuianity at Low Hoot, 
trliicli wo nre liuppy to «ty still reiuoiuB without a beei-eUi^ ot 
Ik ]>nlilie-Iu>n8e. ... It has uoithei stocks nor gaol nor 
Iwlcup, Wc bavu a population of aljout 1,100, Our pi^uijtpfan 
Bleep with thuir duors open, and we have tOie Ihieet fruit in 
the district, in season, iu ouc mill windows, (which ore nevnr 
fastened) wilhoitt 0113' ever being stolon. Our dmtb-nite is 
pethiiiis the lowest iu the liingdom ; talcing the avnTBgn of lbs 
last tWL'lvc years, it is under sixteen iu the thousand." 

A BimiUr experience is known at SulCaire, a town Iie- 
longing to Six Titus Salt. Baii., and bavin* alxwt 5,000 
inhftbitants. All the workmen of tlie town nro in tho mi' 
ploy of tho landholder, who, Jroia a desire to protuoto 
physical comfort anil the moral well-being of ihe poop] 
banished the lii[uor-traffio from the town. The best pi 
bio itsulta followed, viz., an entire absence of dninketliii 
crime and pauperism, and the positive lilos^ugs of healtl), 
coiui'oi't and oleanliness. After a tjme, liomo worknies 
broiig'ht fi-om a diatanco, with a view of cjirrying out cei^ 
tain improvenientM in the town, riiiseil sni'li an nntin^ 
agfdnst being deprived of their cuatomarj? beverage tiai 
Mi. Salt anthorizeiJ five grocerH to sell small lieor, not Ul 
Lo drunk on tho premises. Such were the efi'crte, Ineuboi- 
diuation among tbe men, and dronkenuess among the 
vomen, that licenses were not renewed aft^r the t-xplmliuo 
of the iirat year. Of the present condition of the town, Air. 
Hoyle, in his " Homos of the Working-i'hiesL'fi,'' eitys ; 

" One tiling there is which is not to be found in Sultnirr, and 
Mr. Salt tlcBRrvea us much prtiiao for ila absence km Ue doiM fuT 
anything whii'li lie hnit ]irov)ili>il. Not a public-liouM or btiiF- 
housii is there. And what me ihercsnltK t Briefly thcsi<, lliore 
arc Hourcoly ever Ruy uru'ors of rent. Infant mortalll? Ih Ywy 
low UB cuiuparnil with Hint of flraiTronl, from jdaco 
niajiirity of tlic hands h.ive come, lllngitimnli' bliilm nro 1 
The tone and siilf-respect of the work-]»o]ile an' mnrli bt«>I 
«ia;j thiit of riU'ic»rv--hiviul» K'-'i-v.m-; , T^^.■^^ —.>■;. ■ ■ 


My ■ 


Proliiinivm in Maine, 393 

*e tliuu tliey coiili] elaiiwhere, owiog to tlio fafilitius 
placed within tlieir rouah, and tlio ikbsencD of ilrinliiag-liouscs." 

I'yrono County.. Ireland, U also iinder striut Prohibitory 
Of it, Lord Cliindo Iljiinillon aaid, at a Dcblic moct- 
:, in 1870 : 

" I am hero aa teprescntiiijt the conuty, to assure you that tbo 
te atatdU legnrdin'; the Euvue^ of prohibition there ore per- 
fectly accDTute. Tlieni ia u diatrict iu that county or aisty-nna 
« miles^ inhabited by nearly toil thousand ])oojilo, liaviug 
« great roiula coalman icitting with market towns, in which, 
o pnblic houses, entuvly owing to the solf'-ottioit nf 
« inhabitants. The resnlt haa beeo that whereas those hixh- 
■n former times coustnat scenes of strife and drunk- 
I, necessitating tho presenco of n very conaidumbla noiu- 
>F of police to be located in the district, at present there is not 
Kflingle policeman in that district, the poor-rates are half what 
« before, and all the police oud niagistl'atea testify to 
LB great abeonco of crime." 

So alBO of Bcaabrook, Ireland, a town of about 4,000 m- 
uTHteuta. John GruLb ILiuhai-dHou, a member of tlie 
Bootet/ of Friends, ia solo proprietor of the town. " The 
" tdngalutiiog fealm'e of the tuwu, is tlio alisence of drink- 
(bnpft, and conspijuently tlie absence of crime, jiauporism, 
Mtvn-sliops, anri polioemen." 

In tliB Uniti-d Statea the results Iiavo been none tSio lesa 
i&ve and Batiefactory. 

Uaote has liail the hingeet experience andor Prohibition, 
nil the euccees of tho law is l»oyond all (iweatiou. In his 
Mldreaa to tlie Legishitiire, in 1874, Governor Diiiifley 

r " This •yatem bM Iind a trinl «f only twonty-twn j-enra; yet 

u thin brief period bits, on the whole, been so much 

Mkt»r MiHu l.hal of nil; other pluu yet daviaed, thai prohibi- 

a nmy l>a said t* Iw aocuptuil by a large mnjority of tbo 

heupb) of tbl« ^tate Ha tlio proper jioltry towards itriokiug- 

sa unil lippliaff-sbqia. 
. " Whnro our prohibitory Itws havo been well enforced, few 
HU duiiy ibiit iJirv Jmvo iH'tompliahml iitcat ^iwA. \.ii.«Mst*. 
n Uuwfuartlia of tijo J^tutii, ospucliiUs \u tW iL»tu.\ ^«itOv«»*, 

AlofAoL ia Hhslanj. 

pnblio sentiment hns scptireil fiiicli an enforcomcnt of thMi 
1a'm« that thorn nre now in thexo <IinlTicta tev open lixTs; . 
evnn secret saloa are so mnKli roiltu'od tliat druukeuueas iu 
mrnl tiiwna is comparatively rare." 

And ugivin, to tLo Legislature, in 1875, ho said : 
"The Attomoy-^enarul emboftieH in his report c 
tions from the several county Bttomeys, famisliing iia 
official statements and stntistiCB relating to the eufbrMiniflDt Ol 
the laws prohibiting diinkiug.houseB and tipiiliiic-sbops. 
statistics show that doling tba post ;enr, iu tbn Pnpmnifl C 
alone, there have lioeu 276 convirtiona, 41 cominitmunts to 
and $30,898 coUect«d in fines niidcr thcso laws — mure uf fi 
than in any othtr year, and fonr times aa many conviptfons ni 
ten times as much in fines aa in 1866, when tlio genital ei 
ment of these laws vas resumed aftci the cIubo of tbo i 
which had engrossed, the pnlilio attfinlion nud vaitf^«%, 
significant, also, that during' these luiici or tnii years of gfsdtui 
incieasiug efllciency in tlio enforcoraunt of Iho liitrs a^itiii 
droiD-eliops, the number of convicts Jn the State Itlson 1 
iollen \}S more than one-fourth. 

" The report of the AttoiTiay-GeiiPTal nad tlic etntiatir 
eompanying conclusively sboirtbut the laws proliibltiugd: 
ing-houses oud tippliug-isb(i|w huva for the most part I 
enfurcod during tho post year moro geoemlly and eficetin 
than ever before, and witli eorrasponrtuig satisfncitoTy n 
(lie diminution of diajn-^hopa and iiittrmijetance. Thea 
are due, to a considccable exttmt, to the increased e 
given to these laws by the elicriff-i-nforcenient net, li 
espectulty to lUe iiuprovod tcmpcruuce s^'atimcnt wblpb I 
been created by the morul efTorta put forth in tikis fttaUi T 
a few years. It is gnttifying to kuuw that thiH senlimi 
became so predomioant astoseonrethovcry gencntl supj 
of known drnm-shopa, and the eouBeqiieut marked mil 
of the evils of iatumpcrance iu foar-Gflbsof tbe State." 
Sabseqiiently Lo puhlishod the following : 
'"Tbo recent Bmenduieata of the Maine law, ju'oliibidngd 
shops, so lis to inereuGO tho cfllcivncy of its unforeoHii>ut, al 
calling forth n showet of assaults on proliihitiou. So ititi-T« 
in onr prohibition policy lias heoonie tUn wliolo counlrj, I 
not onlymauy of the UobIoq pupurs, bill, even tlie Nn — 
Timit and Tribane, hiivc joine-rt la tint cry Ibiit ' I'rolilbill.iN 
B failure iu Maine.' In roajioiisi- tu liiiinlric* fivra ull j 
the country, as \a Van tiutb nf tlwso aJioijii 
d tho following Biguilitant. ta^»v 

ProhiHtlon in Maine. 335 

"1. The foot thiit onr proliibttory eyatoiu lioa Htonil in our 
fttutea BtnoB 1851— with tlw esooption of two yaara <18je unil 
!57), wbou license waa trieil in ita place— oad Iim stciuUly in- 
'enBeilin|ioiial3rity(iDtiliiopiirtyiliirc9 to go before tbepuoiila 
1 tite iaeaeof its rajieril, id coiicliiiuvo cviilniK^i! tlial tLt' Kf^^t 
>dy of tbo [KKiplo of Muiiie. who liava hadtltolH>8toii|i(>rtiii>ity 
I judge of its practical workings, l)olicve thiit it in tlin ijioat t>Ql- 
flnt leg&l policyoverdevised ttsaaiippleinoiit of inonil iij;<nirie9 
1 dealiug wilili the ovUh arising fzma the use uud s:ilp nf intux- 
atluR liquors. No onu expeota that it am tuUe tlie place of 
oral aso■l*li'''*^ but tliat it iaaimplyanndjuiictofthem— just aa ~ 
hw^ pruiiibitiug houaiiit of iU-fttma and gnmblini; resorts, are 
iljancta to moral lueiins iu promoting virtue. No oue olaims 
Atit cim entirely extirpate tlio rlram-shop evil, any more tlian 
u laws ptoliibitiuK tui>l punittliiag tlitift or murder e&n uproot 
«Be erluiua. All tlieso liiws aid ia remoTinj; temptation anil 
opoatittg a heiiUhior public sentiiuout, und mate it easier to 
I ligbt ftml harder to do wrong. 

" 2. Out prohibitory laws bave tmriuostionnbly niilcil materi- 
[y ia creating a better public sentiment iu the mutter of tba 
IB of iutokioutiug liquors thuti exisiu in any Stut^ which has a 
'ease law. Whatever is prohibitHd by law, either dirvctly or 
Lilireotly, Is tlifroby deprivoil of a certain appearanpc of 
speetatnlity wliiuh attaches to (•vnrythiDj^ thnt is nnder ]<>gal 
otiwtion. Mr. Qaper, the distinguished Englishiunn, who 
out apiuo tiiLie iu Mainn and other parte of this country a few 
titW ago, stali'.d iu a public speech that he did not believe 
ere vroa in the whole civilized world a Stat«of like population. 
fCea ns ours from the ovili of intomperauce, or one possessed 
BO Uoaltliy a public fientinienl iu the matter of llio iise of 
[UOn as Br beverage. 

"3. Prohibitibn h'\» stopped cffpntunlly the tnnnnfaetnre of dia- 
kiid feroiuut«<l liquors in Maine. In 1830, wLpnourpopn- 
titm WU9 lusa than two-thirds of what it is lo-(lHy, there were 
irtfim distilleties in tliis State, which uianiifiiiCtiired uvor two 
Hon* of nuu to each inhabitant, nearly nil uf wluch was con- 
tnedin tin Stiito. To-day there is liot a single distillery or 

a in Maine, 
rolliliitinn has well-nigh etoppml the traffic in iatoxlcat- 
gli^nonin the riirol distriets of Maine. Forty-live yoaj's ago 
■ tlie nountry taverns had ojHiubara.iinilMH thetouiilry sLni'es 
111 Lntosienting liquors as freely iis molasses or ciilico. Tor 
noiple. the town of Buzlmm, with less than 1,500 iuUnbitauts, 
d tn 1S33 aevea liuenaod grog-aUopa. 'to-i\a's IWto \a "nn^i ^ 
•>p ufUquor gold in town. Eeadfield "haA m VfSH ac^ea. o'^tsj. 

Mdohd in Sisfory. 

bai9, nt wliicb were sold 3,300 gnllons of spirits nimiinllj'. 
nuiio is BiiliI tu be nstNl us a bcveritgc, Minut (tbi>u tnclndliij 
Aiibnru), witb a popMlatiou of 2,903 in 183S, hnd ttiirliM>ii gi-o^ 
sbu])B, Now tbesD tonus, witb n. populiilioB of 10,000, tiairiB n 
a single pluce wbove liquor ia known to bo sold, as a berorage. i 

" B, Fifty yeiira ago, even in onr nirBl diatrifta, licarl,v o- 
male drank lii|nuT. Lienors w^re kejit in must of tlio bn 
lit treat oallorB, Nobody tbought of having eomjiitny, i 
niising, wilhont a enpply of ardent spirits. Al mHst^n 
oflier public gHtberiugs, djTmkonneBs niid driinkpu afltoya -w 
conunon. Now, tbree-fonrtbs of the mnles iu the rami i 
triclsnro total abstinonts, and tLe pra("tiflo of keeping li 
ill IiouBcs to treat callers hns prarticnlly reaewi. It would li 
ooDsidered on nupardonnble olfenee U> fnmisli s|>il 
lie nieoling. At large public gatherings, vxisva of 
ara snrprisionly few, and ilmnkon nlti^icatioDs rare. Thia ii 
provenjHnt isattiUioBlysliowubyBtatiatica. lii 1833, 8m 
Pond, iif tbe Maine Temperance Asaoointinu, reported t 
the town of Alfri'il thore were llft.y-five man and tbt«e wob 
aeoustomed to get be:istly drunk ; in Keuneliii 
notorious driiiikurda ; in T(i|>s)iiun (pnpuliition l,li6t}, 
drnnkarde ; in Kew GlonceBter, furty; Famiingtoii, eij 
Wayne, thirty. Roi-ent reports IVoiii theaiitowiisabaw tliat ll 
present number of nntutious ili'imkaidaintheseiindothU'towi 
is uotone-oiRbtb, iind many towiis siiy unt ouo-tnnlh, of wh 
was forty years age. The reports also show a niorkikl Intpi 
ment in the condition of Ibe people. 

" 0. In the cities and larger villages, mpccB«nliiig Ii 
one-fourth of the popnlatinii of Ma)n<>, the imprfireuinnt l« li 
marked thiin in the rural distrif^te. oltboiigh unde>iialil]r n 
oven there. There Eire thre« reaKoiis fur tliia less iimrkMl li 
prorement : the greater ttuilitiee that vieo ha«' t« hide i 
erowdol popnlations; tbe Poiir«ntrntinii tlicm of a liir^ t^ 
population, whiuh bM rome into this i^tate within thirty yi 
and tlie resort to the eity of the drinking lonii, stiJl left Ih II 
xurnl regions, for supplies of liqnor. If the e 
held their own under these citMunBtattPes, it woijil b« n 
gain. 13iit they have done more tbau this, Ajt a rule, itii 
no open drani-sbopH even liote. Oevuaivnully, tbraujth I 
failure to eler.t both eity (illiciala tvaA county sberiiTa U 
prDliibUion. the law is ucgleelfld iind opon draiu-al 
TIi!>t has lieun tbi> enito during the pust 
i-ilioB ivlwae condition is being iiooti-d t« 
Urge part of tlio State wlMsTa ti 
tvii^iully hpu;iliiiig. nvot ■ 

Prohihllian iit Maine. 31)7 

Bid ouly «nrrei>ti lion sly, and uto to bu fonuil quI.v by tlniai who 
w tbo signs lujil pasa-words of the liiiitor fraternity — i""! 
1, maioly. in iibLccs kept hy faroiganrB. Tliero an- few open 
riiu-h1i(>|>8 to ti>mpt- In tlie citioti uf LowiHton auil Aiibnni, 
II )iii|>iiIatioii nf iLoarlv aO,GOO, tlietu is tiot a Biuftl"' oi'i'ii 
rain-sLop, .tud no liutel liaa even a secret bar. Id tbe Inrgrr 
' iea there are luaoy cnaoa of drnnkeimedR, but a uiiii,jority of 
Bm nro of foreipoots, who Eesort to tlie most ili>Hporat« i'\iib- 
!tita to obtain a supjily iif liquor. Aa conlinned iuchiiates io 
B rural diatriuts arc obliafd to roeott to the eitits to olitnia 
Bir potatioiis, it ftenuantly hnppens tbiit tho polico repi rta of 
;. eity Uko Portland show nearly all tlie caacu of drimkeiinesB 
t » pvpnlons county. 

" T. Tlia chnrgn is frequently mode that, bo far as tl><i citiea 
e coneerned, the traffic Irns been mmply driveu out of sight 
inn If natbing moi'e lind been gained, itisBomethiuff to )> iniah 
le temptations of the dram-aliop vliere only those at eking thorn 
tl flml them. It is also occasionally alleged that I'liib-roomi, 
re dau^oroua than ilruin-ehops, have taJien tlio place of the 
t*r. AftM c.arofiil inqniry, we cannot loam thut club-rnoma 
iat Olltside of u. few citici in Maine, and evpn there, not so 
UUUiTely na in many cities of similar size in license States, 
e new uneitilinetits to the proliibilory law will reiteh tbis 
lUanpttoo-vadeilaproTiaions, aad aoon serve to in.ike drinking 
I acnzce. Setting aside the largo foreign populatioa in otir 
I) it is conceded that the improvement in the drinking 
iWta of the remainder is markeil. This is uapeeially so with 
10 htme luid muBcIe of the native population. 
"8. It ia difficult to obtain relinhlo statistips of tho extent to 
Uit)h the Burreptidona Bile of tiqnnrs is still oatriiid on in 
RJDD. Some of the enemies of prohibition el»im that u million 
d a i]ttaTtt>r dullnrs' worth are xold hero annnally. Btit allow- 
l; even Uiis, and we have $2 vet inhabitant now, against $25 
r inlmbitant forty years ago, an<l tlS poi iuhnbititnt us the 
l-eragA foe tho irnion to-day. This shows that not more than 
nUi as much liquor, proportion all yi is consimieiL iu Maine 
I llitfe wM forty years ago, and not tnoro than one-eighth a» 

OS in the coiiutry at large to-day. 

"Oa tliia point the roveuue coll i*cted by the Unitnd fitntes, 

It tlut manufactniv and sale of intoKicatlug lirynors in Maine, 

;i>iiipaTliW>n with tliat eoUecled iu license States, sheds some 

ght. Prohibitory ^tiiitK' has itiiuut the aumn iHipnliilion aa 

Knw Jersey ; ycit tbe liipioi' tax in tho fhrmor State ia 

lly (iim uonta per iuhabitiint, wlinu\nttui\a,\,\«t VAoSa \W* 

ItHMad ia the country at large tl.83. Iu xtxA'j \n •Cue Matst- 



sold only »iurreiititioi>:v. ;.: ".«:-:• • : ' " - 

Ivuow the .si*nis aij«l v--*-".'.: ' - : :1 . - : • * — 
thcD, miiiuiy. in III;-'.'-' ':• ■ : ' ' : jr.-:- Z ■ : ' 
dram-.sLo^!S to rr!wT»T. I:. :".- .■-* : '.. " •" 
with a ]:o])iilutiuu « :" i.*- :i" • " .*:- •:".•.- 

dram-sbop, and in» lu^iel L.i- »- ". . -^ :• : .: I " - *. ' 
citic8 tbera are many .?a» - • :' «'.:.:->.-:.:.•■— .: . 
tbeiu are of foreiim'-r.-. v. ";..• :. - r: " • :'..- :..-■•'--' -. • - 
dients to obtain a slip' I'v •:"'. . ';. A- -.* : • " • . 

the rural districts ai:.* «i]i'.:i:tMi :•.. r»— :::••■:!.• * - " " • 
their potations, it friMHieni I- 1. -•]'•■:.*''.. i'. '':.- » . . •-. : 

a city like Portland >ao'x i.i.-ai'.y all i'lk ..-.-#•:: .:..•- .. -t 
for a iwpnlous coimty. 

'* 7. The cbarjie U lieqi:«^i.ily ziiid*r :! i*.. .-• : .r - * .- 
are concerned, the t.urtii.* h: •» ^'-n >': :::'■!•. •!:.••. •:. .- - - _ * 
Even if nothing moix- bud bf-i :. ^' ii:.»-;. :• :- -^:... -1.. . _• -• 
the temptations of the dram--l:"T» T.-:n-r»- « -.1. .^- * • . _• - 
will find them. It is I:l^o oi^i ;•..»: oiiallv all. .:» 1 :!. .-. .1 -. ■ ■ -. 
moro dan'Torons than •tuii-^Iums. !i.»vt- 1..'.:-:. •'.. - 1 • : -1. - 
latter. After careful inquiry, wr i-annot i-irzi :1. .• • • -. •• . .- 
exist outside of a few ciiicf in M.i:n»*. a::*! »■-.• n t1.» :.•.*-• 
extcnsiA'ely as in many citit-4 of Mniiiar .-!/.#• i:. I: •-:.*.- >-.--. 
The new amendments to ibe )!roliibiT<»ry la v.- - :ll j.- .1. •',,* 
attempt to evade its laovi-iiou?. and siKin jm-fv*- ♦!» u. .k.- i.: ./.. :.^ 
clnbs scarce. Settin.«x iLside ibf bir;^*? I'oniirn ]nty..\..' '.*.:, .:. i .r 
citieS| it is conceded that the iinprovi.-i'.*:!: i:i tIm- • :::.1^:::^ 
habits of the remainder is iiiark'fil. Tbi-* !>i «-iMM.:..lly > » 'a ith 
the bone and muscle of the niitivi* pojnilatitm. 

"8. It is difficult to obtain n-liiblo .«t:iti«ti'-4 (*f *l:f i-xtiTit to 
which the surreptitious sale of liijiior.s i.-* >Till rarrlid m:i in 
Maine. Some of the enemies of prohibitbiii ilaiiu ib.ii a T;;ir.:»>n 
and a quarter dollars' worth are sold h».-ri' annually, lir.t alb»w- 
injj even this, and we have $2 ]>rr inhabitant imv.-. ol: .in-t ^"25 
l)er inhabitant forty years a^o, and .f IG )M'r inhabitant as the 
average for the Union toHlay. Tbi:* slmws that ni»t imnv than 
one-t^ith as much liquor, proportionally, is ionsunu'«l in Maine 
as there was forty years apo, and not move than om'-rit-ibib as 
much as in the country at laT<;e tt.»-day. 

"On this point the revenue eollei'ted by the Initrd {States, 
from the manufacture andnale. of intoxii-atin^X Hqnors in Maine, 
in comparison with that colleet<Ml in license States, sb«nls st»nio 
light. Prohibitory IJaine has ;ibout ibe sanu- |H»pubili(»n as 
license New Jersey; yet the liquor tax in the fovuioi* Stale |^» 
only three cents per inhabitant, wluAe m WwAaWc^ '^VaV^^ ^'^^^^ 
$aL4H and in the country at large n.8a. lu x*iv^>f ^.*^ ^"^^ "^ 

Jlcoliol in History. 

tiou (liat toliappo and. opinm-eating arc taking tin {iiace at | 
liqiinr-drmkia^ in Maine, -wc may mention that tile toltaccu Ln 
paid l>j MaiDu ia only seventeen cents per inhnbitunt, wliilu I 
Qveruge for the coiintij ia ^ per inhabitant; Rodtlint i 
eating is far less prevalent here than in other Eiutera Ktaleti 
"9. While itis uudoiiinble that great temperaace prognss hi 
been niado in Maine with the help of onr prohibitsry iiolifTJ 
yet iia ono claima that either the sale or use of iutoxicutinf 
liqiioTB hna been banished flroni onr bonlets. They have li 
^eatly lioLited, and the great body of the people recogoiEo o 
prohiliitury laws as easontial aids in this good work. ButH 
remains to he done. Experienue is showing weak sputs in 
laws, and from time to time these are lieing atrongtheneil. 
lecent amendments will increase the efficiency of the Ijnrs, n: 
secnre better results. In spite of jeers, iu spite of oppOHitiooS 
in spite of declarations that the temperance cause is rutrogrui 
ing instead of advancing, the good wort will go i) 
and year by year will show now trhimpha iu the great hatlli 
against King Alculiol." 

And still more recently, lie has puhlislieil the followmgd 
"In 1830, thirteen distilleries In the State mannfiictnred o 
mitlioii gallons of rum (tnogallous toeai-b hill abi tun t,) t«gl^th( 
with 300,000 gftUona iinported^uot iuclniliug •■ider find ollw 
formenteii liijuors. Now there is not a distillery nr brcwur 
the State. In 1833 there were 500 taverns, ull but JO of Uiuj 
having open bars. Now there ia not a tavern in thv t^tnli* 
an open bar, and not one in ton of them sella liquor tefr 
In 1830 every store sold liquor as freely as molasaea ; uuw, nM 

"In 1832, with a population of only 450,000, there «-eTO?,n 
places where intoxicating liijnors were sold — oue grog-«1iap i 
every 225 of the population. Theirsalcs amounted to flt),O0O,ni 
annnally, or $20 for oach inhabitant. Last year Ibe nggri%ai 
sates of 100 town agencies was $100,000, or fiflc<in r<>ntsi>et Inbal 
itant. Including clandestine sales, even the enemies of tcmpif 
anca do not claim that the aggregate aalea in the StAto «x 
(1,000,000, leas thaf 83 per inhabitant. This is but wi.-i 
what the sales were forty years ago, an<I but anv-iHithlS i 
they are on the nverago in the rcniaindm of the Uiiion, irlilch M 
$16 per inhabitant. Liqnur-eelling is almost wholly eoaflaiiil ■ 
the live or six cities of the State, eo that hani ilrinkifra an 
pelted to jonraoy thither fur Ihi^ir drains. M?uc>n moet of II 
druDkennesa of the State Uooacentrateq in f.ho<w «\tija t 
tba polico arrest a.11 ^msiMift w 

ProfdUtioii in Maine. 30t) 

maktog ibe niimbor of nrri'sts for ilnmlicnneBs efoih V.MgK In 
romparisoii witll pluces wliero few airfsts are ituulo Ibr tlua 

'■ In 1856 weTe 10,001) peranna (one ont of every forty- 
firo of the popnlation) arcuHtotnpcHo get boaatly drtuik; tliere 
Wpre 200 deaths from deliriuro tremtna annaally {eqnivaleut to 
900 now ; ) there were 1,500 paupers {eqiiivulent to 2,200 now) 
made thus by drink ; there were 300 eonvicts in State prison 
Bad jiiila (equivalent to 450 now;) ami intumijeranfo was do- 
Btroyiug a large proportion of the homes throughout tho State. 
TStrK not one in 300 of the population ia a drunkard — not ono- 
aistli ae many ; the deaths from delirium tremens uiiniially are 
not fifty ; and erlminals and paupers (not including runiaeUprfl) 
are largely reduced, notwithstanding the great inflox of for- 
eigners and tramps." 

The Hon. W. P. Frye, member of Congress from the Lewistou 
district, mid ox- Attorney-General of Maine, also (1873) writes: 
" I ean and do, tiom my own personal observation, nnhesitat- 
ingly nlSrm that the eoustimption of intoxicating liquors in 
Maine is not to-day one-fourth so groat as it waa twenty years 
ago ; that, in the country portiuna of the [>tate, the sale anil nse 
Ikave almost entirely ceatiud; that the law itself, under a vigoroiiB 
enforcement of its provisions, has created a temperance senll' 
ment which is marvelluDS, and to which opposition is luiworleaa. 
la my opinion, onr remarkable temperance reform of to-day is 
the legitimate child of tlio law." 

The Hon. Lot U. Morrill, United States Senator Irtnn Maine, 
viitt^: "1 Jinvo the honor uuhesitutingly to concur in the 
opfnions oxpresseil in the foregoing by my colleagne, ITon. Mi, 

The Hon. J. G. Blaine, Speaker of the House of Itopresentii- 
tiyesiwrites; " I concur iu the foregoing statenionta; and on 
tlte point of the relative amount of liquor sold in Mniue and in 
those Stu-tes whore u aystom of license prevails. I Dm viiry siu:e, 
ifiom porsonal knowledge and observation, that the siiloa are 
IlDlneaanrahly less in Maine." 

The Hon. Haunil>al Uamlin, United Status Seuator and ex- 
Vioo-Presidcnt of the tinited States, writes: "I concur in the 
stutoawutH made by Mr Frye. In the great good produced Uy 
Uu» Probibitiiry Liquor Law of Maine, no man can doubt who 
liaa aecn its result. It has been of immense value." 

The Hon. .iuha A. Peters, the Hon. John Lynch, Hud Ibi; lion. 
JGogene Ball, members of Congress from Maine, substantiate the 
SoTBgoiog testimODj. 

MocM in Siston/. 

Mr. Frve fortliir tPHtifiea 

' ' The ' Maiuo Law ' hue not lieon a fnilure in that, 1h^ n InM 
roado ritmBPlliiiK a crime, bo that only the lowest and moat 
di>baeml will now engage iu it. 2d, The mui-buyer is a partici- 
pator in a t'ritnu, and thi* large mnjority of moderate respect- 
able drinkers haya heeomo iihstoiners. 3d, It hna giadmllj 
created n public erntiirK^nt agninnt hntb selling and drlnkiDf;. 
4th, In all of the country portions of the State, where, twnn^ 
yenre ago, there wcis a groL-ery or tavern at every font rometa, 
and within a eircrtit of two miles iiupainted house^ bisben 
winilowa, neglected flimis, poor school-houses, broken Iiowta 
and honies, it has banished olmoBt every siieli grooaTy- and 
tavern, and introduced pence, plenty, happiness, and pruspciity. 
These two tldugs, making tho rora-tniffic disgracefnl liotli to 
seller and buyer, the renovating and reforming of all the conn- 
try portion of the State, are the worthy and well-oanied tropliiM 
of our Maine Liqnor Law, and commend it to the praymn 
and good wialies of all good citizens. . . , Of this law I 
Lave been prosecuting attorney for ten yeara, and piiecTftiUy 
bear witness to its efflcienry, whenever and wherever Ctithftdly, 
adminiaterod. It hna done more good than any law on pnr 
etatnte-bnok, and is still at work. With its provisioua you cim 
effectually uloae every liquor-ahop outside yoiy cities, and il» 
them make the selling of ardent spirits a very duugi-rona nod! 
risky business. Tliei'o cannot lie found a ninn in lilatiie, who tl 
not prejudiced by reason of being a seller, or drinker to excQM. 
or by party jiossion. who will not cononr with me iu sayinjt tbui 
its blessings have been incBlciilable, nor it resjiectablo noaiui 
who does not pray for its continnnnce. Thus briefly I Iwia 
given my testiuiuny, and I know wliereof I affirm." 

Hon. Woodbury Davis, Jiidgo of tlie Snprome Conrt of 
the Rtato of Maine, thus replies to tlip cbarg^ that '' tho 
Maine Law is a failure ; " 

'■ So its opponents have oft^Q alleged. ' The wish is father t« 
the thought..' So its friends sonwtimca liavn almost DOOcadmL 
Tliuy have l)eea too ensiiy lUsconragnd. Tliey have hoiwd for 
rcHidl-s ton large, and too smm ; and thr-y have linen diaupiiolulnd. 
The law has not been a fnilure. II. has already accutupUHbBd 
gn'ut n-Hulls, thoughit has hut just p.isseil the orrleal uf politi- 
£'.i\ a;it;itiiin and.inilicinl confltnicrimi, in its fitvii;;gln fnr ]<iir' 
innncat life. Bvory new system, though it may cidn pn»iwt- 
onslr in its find mwic^aa, \% sn^ijwV V).M>s " - -. — 

mail i-L'I'-T 1\ii} lifts, and koii^om - " "^ '' 

ProkibttuM in Maine. 401 

KnioK Liiw hna Iwen no eipoption. Even in Maine, as n-o shall 
, its Cricnda have liecu, aJiil atill are, compelled to speini 
macli of iheir sfrcngtli iu wrin^iig from its pncmioB amend- 
inenta needed for its Buecesa, inHtoml of Kivinfr tbcir timo for ir« 
eofoli^enient. llacli haa been done in tills roapoct Btnto tlio lavr 
WM originally enuetcil ; but Bome tliin^js remain jct to bo done. 
Tbe period of growth is not the time for &uit, tispoeuJly when 
the whole RDuntiy has boen swept liy the storm of eivil strife. 
That as mnch hnn been aecomplislipd oa ought to have beau ex- 
acted, all eicaminntion of the circumstaneoa will show.'' 
"The Maine Law, in its prohibitory form, but without thfi 
Boaich and soiznre claases, was first enacted in thl^ State in 
Tliia first law was cxt«Qatvely enftireed ; and it pri'jiaied 
the way for that of 1801. Before that time, the old TemperaacB 
Tufbrm, and the Wuahiugtotiiau movement, b^ each euccesa- 
iTOly re-ached its climax. And, notwithHtauding all the good 
Omt ytaa done iu reforming the habita of the people, there wcra 
Btni larf^e nnmberB acruBtomed to use intosieuting lii^norB ; tmd 
le really no legnl restraint npon the sale. It was per- 
mitted in almost every town; nearly every tavern, in couutry 
aadinolty, bud its "bar," at almost every village and "corner" 
B n grog-shop ; and, in must places of that bind, moro tliaa 
one, where old men and young, epcut their earnings in dissipOi- 
itjon: ; men helplessly dnuik in the streets, and hy the waydde, 
)mmon sight; and uteleotions, at military trainings and 
mnslers, and at othor pnbUo gatherings, there were scenes of 
dcbanehery and riot enough to uioku one ashamed of his race. 
"What huB beonme of thia mass of cortuptioQ and disgusting 
rieoT It seems so muchUlce some horrid dream of the p.iet that 
■o etu hardly roaline that it was real and visible uulil twenty 
WW* »go. Tlio Maine Lftw haa swept it away forever. lit 
nne afonroitieH something oftbe kind may still hoaeen. But in 
iHirM-foarths of the towns in thia State such scenes woold now 
nonM»e))e tolerated than would the revolting orgies of savages. 
L Btnuager may pass through, stop at a hotel in each city, walk 
" « stnetfl in itnmo of tbem, and go away with the belief that 
ir law ia a fiiiliiro. But no observing man who has lived iu 
tile @>ti<tu for twenty yean, and baa had n.n opx>ortuBity to know 
n tueta, can donbt that the Maine Law has produ<'ed a hitn- 
lied tlniiw mote visildu improvement In the charncter, condi- 
I, nud prosperity of our people than any other law thot wiia 
IVtT wiaeteiL" 

Hoii. Xeal How, in a epeecb made in July, 1875, eiiid: 
rtOTwjPtwy tlio Hiiinu Law Imsfixilod, ovcnui^iBne., "Siiwi, 

JkcM in Hit^avy, 

Mr. Presidrat, ladios and gentlemen, there is not a word ot 
trutli in tlint ; it is nil taX&a ftam begiunlug to eiiil. Tlin UbIiui 
Lnw hes not fnilud, dliuctly or iudirci'tly. Is there not un; 
liquoi' sold m Miiino or In any of the other MainG-La\T tital«s t 
Yes, there ia; but yon di> not infer, tbeiei'oie, tluitit is a iiulare. 
If j'ou can show that there ia na ninilt Hqimi aold in propcittioo 
to the population nitli the Siime offet't us thei'e was Ijutbtv the 
&1aine Law, that would show tholawto be a failuco. But in tli« 
Btute of Haine there is not one-tenth part an muvU of liiiuo 
Bold as there waa befoie tlie Maine Law. The whole cliniDctvi 
of the population is changed, as the lesult of that ]iiw. Thne ii 
liqnor gold in Maine, but only secretly. I live iii the largvat 
town iu Maine, and you see do eign of li<£uiiT-6<.'Iliug luiywhpce 
at all. If onoweut into a hotel bad aeked for u gliias of liqiioi, 
I do not know but that a person who knew the topca might gel 
it. They declare, however, thattliej honestly Uoop the law, 
and apparently they do, WliereTerliqnor ia siispectnd uf liciiig 
kept with intent to soil in violation of law, the otiieeta Bcnrck 
for it aud seize it. Evury two or three dayHw 
nre, hut usually in very aniall quautities— u qnnrt, n (rnjlon, lutd 
sometimes only the btittio l^m the pocket of a man who iiitenda 
to sell that way. 

" 1 remember the time when there wcro Berwi dietillMiu ia 
Portland, running uight uud day ; at tlie eame limu \aM iinan- 
tities of liqnor were imported, eapeciiilly in the ehip Sfargartt, 
one of the most famous ships ia New liluglaud, whoae car)^ of 
St. Croii rum was spread out upon the whatvos. How u il 
DowT Wo have not a distiJlflry miiiiigg in nil the StaUs at 
Maine, nor ia there a punelieou of rum iinpotted. 1 should b* 
warranted in saying that there is not (uie-liltiHth part of the 
quantity of liquor sold now as wub sold prerious to the p 
of the prohibitory law, but I wiU aaj cme-teulh. Seoalois and 
representulivi-a in Congress, judgca of cotiTts. tniuistcrs and 
merc'hants, hSYO eigneil cortificntoB whioh wMe aoiit to lCuglflnil» 
in wlii^h they Hny the quuntlty of liquor aold la not one-1«iilbso 
great as was Bold before." 

Ro, writing to the " A((m>ice," in the fell of 1880, Mr, 
Dow says : 

"The evasiuns of the law are ron&neil nlnioat outlroly to iha 
cities and larger towns, -nliic^b contain n uuusjderiiblil foMign 
populiition. The sot-ret niin-shops llmt exist mori" nr l(*f In lliuw 
phici-H, are kiijit Hlinodt exclusively by tlinw (loiijili'. Tlipwi 
sbojB coulinuoin thoir illioit ttndo fer lack nt a inn addilwim 

Prohibition in Maasackiisdta, 


bTBTreriea, and wine factories are all snpprpBsodi there ia not 
le wonftining in Ihe State. There were man j of them formerly. 
. tbe smallci tonus, rillagea, iind mral (luttriotB of the SCiite, 
e liquor tiaffio is quite unknown. Before tbo luw it esiatuii 
I OTer the Btat«, ou n large scale, wholesale and tetuil. The 
mattiee of tlio law, ae they now ate, aufBoe to supprcaa en- 
•.tAy the nim-Hliopa in aniall towns. One line of a, huuilred 
>IIaiB will use up a country inmscUer; but in the larfcer cities it 
ill requiro loufrur terms of jail to do it, in addition to the flues, 
lebenelllH resulting &ODI the law are ao great and maoifest, that 
organized or respectable opposition to it, in any 
lUfteT, or by any party." 

MA.BSAC HIT SETTS, tioB reached siniilar results. In a 

port made to the Senate of that State, in 18C5, one of the 

>lest lawyers in the Commonwealth said : 

"Tbie prohibitory atatate, known !□ its earliest form as the 
le I.AW, is the liuit of much experience, avoids the practical 
IM discovered by hostile lawyers in the earUer statntes.tB 
jfkatOt thorougb., and comprehenaivo, and is believed to be tho 
dy criminal law where tho Lejpalatnre has provided forms 
' pEoooedings : in short, as those who have administered it 
kve testilietl, it is aa perioct ua a otiniinal statute well con 

Baid tho Constable of the Commonwealth : " Up to the 6th 
'. Novomher (186T), there was not ao open bar known in tho 
itije Slate, and the open tetnil liquor traffic had almost en- 
nty OMMed. The traffic, as ench, had generally secluded itself 
I sneta on ostont that it was no longer a public, opan offouce, 
)d no longer an inviting temptation to the pnsser-by." 
iBbCirenlar iasoed by that official, in Oct. 1S6T, he said: 
To ua who are daily oliservers of the efiects of these prosecn- 
nw, tlie fiict is not to be wiuked at or argued out of ^gbt, 
ist very many of the liiiuor-doalors are utterly disaouraged, 
id wets it Dot for tho hopo tbattho approaching elections may 
Ibid them some relief, they would at once abandon the 

This hope was tiasod on the orgnjiization of all interested 
I the liqnor tra65ii, and the lavish nse of money in tho 
Ibrt to elect an aiii!-|*roLiliituiy Lugialatiire. The effort 
ioce^od, but [irtor to the eleetion, an aihh'eaa to the 
^p\p wiw pat forth by Upvb, GiWiert ^ict^^, K. ^ 

404 JkoM in B&ftWy. 

Miner, E. P. Marvin, and JnJgc Pitioan, containing facts 
ill rogard to tlip Prohibitory Law and its opci-atitm, wWcli 
it was iinpoesible to conlroverl. Tbo AddiesB said ; 

"The Pmhibitor; Law went Intn effect in all the townaof llw 
Commonweal th. It wna tuacoH-d in «yery city except Cbnrtw- 
town and Boston. It received tlio npproval of Bveiy l«|^lutate. 
It was carried np to onr Snpivme Courti, and leceiveil tho in- 
dorscmiait of Cliief-J usttce Shaw noil his aeBociatea. It wm 
attacked in Congrees and in tlio Snpreme Conrt of the United 
States, and Ijotli the national legislatnre and natiunal wurt 
reeo)^ized its legality. Wbite thns asuiiled \\y iutereated enc- 
miea, it was parrying lilessinsa through all the Couiniouwealtli. 
I'hree-fourtha of one towns, iorlndin^ neaxly everjr small vil- 
lage and most of dot large towns, were Hitliont any pnbUS 
burs. Almost a generation has |nx)wn up id tbe«e pla^fifi wilJb> 
out beholding theopeli sale of intoxicating spililfi, | 

" Ah a conseqnenct> of tliia law, paiip^sm and criioa ~ 
greatly decreased in all localities where i^ wiie obsvrviiL 
not a few of even onr largeat towns the alms-lioiiso had 
an obsolete institution. 

" The State constabulary waa eatabliBlied, and b^ siippi 
the sale of spirits in many of our cities, and greatly rediwad It 
in the city of Boston. During the last two years it liaa 
hundreds of dram-shops. It has abolished mure than tw(intj 
five hnndied open bars in this city. It has paid into tlie 
Bury of the State within the nine months endjuf; Oct. Ist, 
in fines, $L9S,4ai 64; in valae of liquors aeized and «oM, 
less tlian *lf),00O— a sum amounting to one hundred aotl 
thousand dollars more than all the expenses of the poUee." 

The fostimony of Major Jones, fonncriy chief of Bt 
Police, was: 

" The law is 38 well enforped generally through the StBte a 
any other law ; but in Boston the liquoi^Bellen aail ilni^MI J 
!ipcnd money fteely and are well orgaiiiised. Tbi>ro ar« nlxnl I 
tlirra hundred and sixty toWna, and in three hundred of t1 
tlio law is well cnforcod, and it exercises un inUiicure upon the 

General B. F. Butler snfd: "This law waa enfbr(u<d In nil 
the cities and towns, with the exception of a fnw tri Ihn Inrffur 
cities, OB nin<^b and as generally as lliu laws ugniust Inrcfny." 

Jiev. Wni. M. T\m\in:, Seatetary (if tLc State AUl 


Prohibition in Mamachuadts. 405 

"Previous to theNoTemlicrelectionof 1867, the StotocooBtnbles 
uforced thi' Prohibitory I,;iw bo tLoroaglilj in ISomnu, tlijit tlia 
vt ou liqnors at tbo mt«nial rereiiiio district No. 3, iucluiliug 
lost of tile roOTSelling portion of the city, was reduced, torn 
B3,000 per niuQlli to W.OOO. Tbo niooth umnedialcly sitcceed- 
•i% tlie •iMtion, the receipts at tlie MUie o£G(ie on liiiuors 
dvanctil again to nearly K^.OOO, BhowiU); tliat a, groat iutiubas 
fas lifteA f^oin tliu trnOic by the ticrnac triiunjib. 

"Thapositivo tcaliinony ufovpr 250U)wiiBiuthe Slutt' viait* J 
Ence iMt Noveuib'.T by mjnelf or Bumu of tho agents uf the 
I to the very tuurked iiicreaBc of inteinperanta. 
Irelk tii« nniiller and more retirod nitul districts have not os- 
iped ttke direful couseqnences of ' free nim.' lu one smiill 
>wtl, sittiated five miles from the neuxost railroad station, ou a 
atnrday nigbt just previous to our visit, eleven intoxieated 
len were counted upon the principal street. The oldest inlialt- 
snt tememberB no aucb sG«no of iutoucation as that. 

" In tilti comity nf Biif)'nll<. on the 1st of September, 1867, there 
leas tban 900 plaices where lI<]noi was sold, and most of 
ItukdMtinely. On the first day of .September, 1868, nearly 
,500 liliuor shcips were opened on the same territory, a fai:t 
'hich priwes how utterly false was the plea of tbe license 
' reeatst, that their object was to diminish the tralGc." 

OUver AtnOB and Son, one of tlie largest bntdnesa firma 
3 Maaeacliusetta, said: 

"WehaveoverlOOmeninourworliabero. Wo find that the 
ceteirt License Law bna a very bad eil*ect ivmong onr employees. 
ITe fiml on (Kmipuiing onr prorlnction in May anil June of this 
ear (1868), with that of the uorrespondiufc months of last year 
1867), that in 186T, with 375, we prodnced eight (8) per I'ent. 
lore goods than we did in the same months in I8ffi with 400 
icn. We attribute this large feillnK off eotiruly to the repeal 
£ tbo Piobihitory Law and the large inrretme in tbo use of ia- 
oxicatlng ihiiiha among onr men in conBcqnence," 

Governor ClnfliD, in hia meesago to tho Le^alatnre, 
lOniiiLry, 1869, said : 

" Tbe iucrcitsc of dninlicnness and erime during the laat six 
ivdOia, as compared with the wiiue peiiod of 18GT, is very 
larlceA and deciaive as to tlio operation of the law. The State 
sisoas, jdila, and houses of correetiiin are being rapidly fitlei], 
Dil will soon require enlargt>d iiQOommodiition if tbo comtnit- 
lenU contlnno to increase as they lia\6 sine* tta -eTewiiA Nsw-h 
'but into Cwfe." 

406 Akokd in Hi^mj. 

Tiio Chaplain of the State Prison, in his Annnal RqK«1 
for 1808, says : - 

" The prison never has heon so fiiU as at the pxewnt Vaa 
If tkeTB]iiilly inereuBmgtiileof inteiupernace, so greatly snollf 
by the preeciit wretched liceasa law. Is saffereil to rash on ui 
chocked, there will be a fearful incrcatie of crime, and the 8tft 
mOBt soon extend the llniitd of the priaon,-or erect anotJiei-'' 

The Chief Conatnhle of tho Commonwealth, in hie Ai 
nual Report for 18C9, said : 

"TluB law hna opened and legalized in the Tarions cities ai 
towns abont two thousand five hundred open bars; and un 
one thousand other places where liquors are presnniod not ' 
he sold hy the glass." 

The Legislature re-enacted the Prohibitory Law ; but i 
1870 it made a fatal exception in favor of the eale of beei 
but returned to the policy of entire prohibition in 187i 
In hia Report, January, 1874, the Oldef of State Polit 

"The law is only partially onforoed, bnt in one-half the towi 
it has OQtirely euppresBud tbe sale. There njp live hundred l« 
places in Boston foe tho sale of liquor than theto wero tn 
years ago." 

The District Attorney for fiuffollt County bore witnei 
tiiat : 

" Tlie law ia enforced generally throughout tJio Stat« in tb 
conntry towns, and with good effect. Tho shutting np of tl 
open har is certainly productive of ii great reduction in dihi] 

Jndge Pitman, writing on the practiiiiJ worTsing of ih 
law in New Bedford, «nii showing from official reports, 
decrease of 37 per cent, in cases of dmnkenncM nnAvt pn 
hibition, and an increase of 140 percnit. in'trnsce of dnml 
ennosB when license prevailed, deduced tho folloivliig wii 
elusions ; 

" First. It has been fully demonstrated that the prohllitlM 
law can lio enforced to ihe amae e^Xmit a» oilier criuilujj ' 
!■ "Second. That sne^ 6ufoTceioBnt-vii«'ii\ 

ProJtibUum in Bkode Island. 407 

diininntion of rrime in general, and the prnmotiou of peitco ami 

"Third, Thai this ca,D }i(i eBlecteAhj electing me* to do it, and 

" Faarth. That to allow the BaJo cif malt liqnors is a complete 
flimendur of the battle^ and opena the door tv all tlie evils of a 
ftoe liqnoc traffic." 

Of the working of the Prohibitory Law in Vermont, 
governor Peck, also Judge of the Supreme Cotirt of that 
State, says: 

" In aonie parts of the State there has been a laxity in enforc- 
ing it, bnt in other parts of the State it haa beeu tborotigbly 
tnforoed, nnd there it has driven the tralHii out. 1 tiiiuk the 
le of the law has been salutary in diminishing dranken- 
iteaa anil disordcTS arising therefrom, Itnd also crimes generally. 
n cannot chaufju the habita of a people momentririly. The 
law las had an effect npon our cnstoma, and has done uway 
Htti that of treating and promiBCUoiis drinking. The law hiu 
aided ig mural meana, but inorni means have uJflo beon 
rondertiilly strengthenod by the law. 

I think the law is educating the peotdo, and that a mnoh 

B^er number now support it than when it was adopted; in 

Mt, the opposition ia dying uut> All the changes in the law 

e been in the direction of greater etringency. In attending 

•t fur ten years, I do not remember to have eeen a drunken 

Governor Convers said : 

"Tlie prohibitory law has teen in force abont twenty-two 

lOn. I'he enforeemeut has been uniform in the Stat« since its 
Jtauluient, and I consider it a very desirable law, 1 think tke 
W itself ednciites and advances public sontimcDt in favor of 

mp«iaii<^e. There is no question about the decreaae in the 
DDSumptlon of liquor. I speak Erom persoual knowledge, hav- 

g always lived in tho State. I live in Woodstock, aisty miles 
n here, and there no man having the least rugord for himself 
^1 admit aeOmgruui, even though no penalty attached to 

lo Bbiidb Island, Governor Howard, aiidreasing a 
Pemperaun,' Convontion, said : 

I am (uiru to-night enpeeially for the purpose of aayini;;, not 
s Ube ataudpolal of a, tcraiieramu tnon; \»tv\, xi a 'jiiW.Vt vawi. 

with a full sense of tlio rtsponsiliility wbicli attttcLes ti 
fi'oin my rcjitus^Qlutive pubiliuB, Uiat to-day the piuliiiiilory 
]uw8 of tliu Slate, if not a ccini|det« Bncoeas, are a success Ita- 
yoticl the fondesl iisticipatioii of nny friend of temperAnoe, in 
my opinion. 

" Lndics and gentlemen, prohiblMiy legjalatian in Rhixle 
lalanil in n itnccess to a, uiurvulloiia extent. 1 have di^sirod, I 
have teU it incumbent upon me to tnalie tliat declaratiuii, ajid I 
desinj that it Bhall go abroad aa my soteuin usaa'tion." 

The Providence Journal said, just after the law went in- 
to efibct : 

"Whatever may be the nllimat-e results of the prohibitory 
and constabulary acts, it eonnot ho denied that up to this tiion 
their working has been mthur salutary- There may be as niiiah 
liquor lirunk in private club-rooms and other ont^of-the-wsy 
places aa formerly, bnt if it la so the dealers are clearly taking 
pains to keep their worlcmanahip out of sight. There hue not 
been for years such an exemption from the iudecenries of int 
ioation in our streets and the highways of onr villages, as 
have enjoyed for the last two months." 

Similar resiilte were also notiueaWe in Connbcticti. 
Governor Button said of tlio law, after it had been ii 
ation a few mouthe : 

''The law has been thoroufihly executed, with much 1ms dliB' 
(tnlty and opposition than was expected. In n 
seizure produced any general excitement. Kcsislaufe to tl 
law would be unpopular, and it has t>een found in vain to vft fC 

In 1855, in Iub annual raeasage to the General Assf 
lily, Governor Button said : 

"Thorp is scarcely an open grog-shop in the State, tile j< 
are fast heconjing tenanlless, and B dehghtfol uir of security ll 
everywhere enjoyed." 

Governor Miller, in 1856, said : 

"From my own knowledge, and from inlbrroatiou from d 
parts of the State, 1 have reason to believe thut <lie law liM 
been enforced, and the daily traffic in linnoro hns been hro 
np and abandoned." 

Rev/ Dr. Bacou of New Ilavon, after ttjo law 1 

Prokibilum a Sticcc^. 409 

The operation of the PniLibitory Law for ono yciif i» n mat- 
terof obseivtitiou lu nlJihoinhiitiitiinU. ttseffvctiaptouioting 
peace, ordn, qaiet, and general prosperity, uo mtm con deny, 
Jfaner/or ttteiily year* has our rity btm to qaitt an undo' Us aotion. 
~ U no longer siniplj' a question of tempelnDPe, liut il Jfuvuru- 
tutal questiDu — oite of iegialiitive foieaigLt an<l uiurulitj." 

Edwards County, Illinois, decided twenty-live yt'aJH ajju, 
that no liquor should bo sold in their tomtory. Ueeenlly 
(Le Circuit Court aaya : 

" Theie htui not been a licensed saloon in this eonntj* for otoi 
tventy-flvo jears. During that time our jail hiia not avcruced 

leoocupaat. This conn t; never sent but one iienon to tlie 
^«njtentiary, and that man was sent up for kill ing hia wile while 
ftmok un whiskey ohtainod &om a licensed saloon in auutlier 
vmnatf, Wehaverery few paapara in our poor-house— somo- 

ei only thieo or fonr. Oni toscs are abonl 35 pec cent, lower 

n they ore in adjoining couuties where saloons are licenscil. 

r people are prosperous, peaceitble and sober, there being 
rery little driDkin^ except near GrayriUe, a license town of 
White comity, near our border. The diiferent terms of our cir- 

it ennrt occnpy three or four days each year, and the dockota 

} oleored. Our people are so well satisfied with the preseut 
(ate of things that a very large majority would bitterly opposo 
n aSbrt node toward license under auy circumstances." 

In TenneBHee the hiws prohibit the eBtablishmenl: of the 
^QOF trade within " four miles of chartered educational io- 
titntiotis which are not located in incorporated towns." 
ieainng to rid theiuBelves of the curse of the trafiic, the 
)wn of Tazewell had their charter abolished, that they 
light ootno wider the beneficent operation of this law. A 
^rreepondent of the Moiristown Gazette, after mentioning 
Diong the irnniediate results, " a noticeable Jimlnntion of 
ninkennoBH, rowdyism, (quarrelling, and profanity," adds : 

"Men ore improving their property; jieople— good citizens — ere 
loring iulo town; oiti^ena who linve long endured this i.-Qrso 
•!• Ditrniiragcil to plan for the future, nnd Invest iitcordinftly. 
bu people of ILe county are likuwiow encoumpi'il; Iihvi! hope 
Utt tlio niorivL delMisemeiit oceutjiosed by tluH iuicinilous trnlUe 
:"■<"""»■', "-tfi JJ"^t LiM ■■^n^l £piUj -iBiltj-agiLJii pm- 

410 Meohd in H^oiy. 

Qnite recently, Thomas Hnghes, Esq., of England, find- 
ing tliB IrtBt intprcats of the colony wh'icli he ip eirtablishing 
ill TcnneBsoe, icterfcrud ^sith hv llif pi^raietunce of liquor- 
eollere iu plying ibtir buuini-sa la the vicinity of bi» aettlo- 
mont, iins nvaik'd himEelf ol' this law, eetahlishcd a iihor- 
tcrcd Huhdol, and bo delivtrca liiij peuple from tlio iiulaauce, 
The littest informatiim in regard to TennesBee Xjiwh is 
from the pou ol' Mr. A, A. Huhhard, of that Slate, and 
puhlished in " Tho National Temperance Advocate," for 
January, 1881 : 

'■ Some twelve years since the LeKisIatnre of Tennee«ee en- 
acted that liconBe ahonld not be gruntfiil for the a;ile of iutoxi- 
catltig drinkB within six miles of any blast furnace iu tLis 
State, which law has proved of great advantage to the uniuer- 
ons blaat-fumacea withiu onr borders. Again, five years u^o, 
oar Legialfltoro iurtlier enacted that the aula of intoxicating 
liquors ehould not bo licensed within four luiles of any churtend 
academy in this State, and also that any of oar comiuon oi 
distTict schools might charter as snch by ninking dne appticB- 
tion 1o the Secretary of State, which apxilication tnaat be signed 
by at least five persons, who propose to become tmsteee of ths 
Boid chartered aeudeiuy; and the resnlt is that very many ofoar 
couattM are so honey-combed by chartered scLouIa that tliore 
is no room left in which to set np a groggery ; and still th» 
chartering goes on at ainpid rate, and if academies are a aaca 
index of iutelligeuce, we bid fair to noon outstrip tho Now 
England States, A very tntereetiog fea tore of this b asi dosh la tlitt 
the greati*t proportion of sihooU are being oharltrod in loi'uli- 
ties where muoushining has licun very common, and whore OYM 
now vnrj lew men can bo £ound who would aigii a tenipenutcs 
pledge ; und when iishod why tiivy apply for ilie i-hart^ring of 
their schooU, reply that it ia tar the protection of tltcli (^lilldtitD. 

" Oiu' Siipii'mo Court haa decided that whenever a school ia 
chartered nU Jiceiujea fur thoaale of liqaors within fourmlTcanf 
the said arbooi-hoHses at once become void; and as the penalty 
for a violation isouohiinilred dollars and three monlhsin a irorh- 
hoDse ov juil. many a vernier of the vile stnff at once rwaorw ta 
a poitiiia i.f till- cijTmty where them is iipum tu .n-U I'ur Llin »■ 
nii.iiidcr of liulimii for wliir.hho";i- -w otira 

thepi;i-,|'l>.<(.t't1vihb>i'iillly will at i<ii' ' ! lh<St 

ecJ!iu»4_andjiOi.lj^''. J^oah'". '^V 

ProliilA'A'jii a Cuaxss. ill 

' tbo IioQiids of n chartered city or Tilluf'e. an<1 in ponsnqiicnt^n of 
tliifl, Tory many — I think between tifty and sHveuty— of our 
iluTtered villages, dniing the iast Besaiou ofthe Legiidiitiiro, siir- 
nndeTDd their DhorterB, and, us ta many of them there were 
Blready chartered high-schools, tiie iiunseU«n beat a hasty 
Potter Ooonty, PennBylvania, liaH been under a Proliibi- 
I many years. Hon. Jolin 8, Mano, bears this 
testimony to tbe reenlts of its operation : 
"There it stands, a shield to all the youth of the eoimty 
fainat the temptation to foim driukiug habits. Under its l>e- 
li^ influence the nnmber of tipplers is steadily decreasing, and 
\twet young men begin to drink tlia.n when licensed houses 
« resiiectabUity to the habit. There are but ftw people who 
p Uq.nor in their houses for private use, and there is no indi- 
fttlon ^lat the numbor of them is iucreasedsince the traffic was 
tcrfiibited. The law is as readily enforcoil as are the lawsagainst 
Axabting, licentiousneaB, and othera of similar charnctor. 
"Its effect as regards ertmo is marked aod conspicuous. 
Inrjail i* wilhoM inmates, cxixpl the aAcrijf, for more than half 
e time. When liquors were legally sold, there vere always 
ore oi less prisoners in the jail," 

The same is true of Caroline County, Maryland. Mr. 
Imersoa, of Denton, says of its operation ; 
"There ianotadropof alcoholic Btimiilantssold in this county, 
idtlio contrast between the past andpceaent is a wonder to those 
laastomed to behold the scenes of bntafew years ago aiid now. 
mtoad of nTftngHngs, black eyes nnd bloody noses, enmity and 
■ifb, drunken brsiwls and midnight dobaocliery, we have a 
ncoAiI and quiet oommunity here and thronglioiit the ontbs 

^At tlie late sitting of the grand jury for this connty there 

m not a aln glo coso of aBsault and battery before them, nor a 

(lOmpIaint of a violation of the public peace. Onr jail is 

ithout a tenant, and han Iiccn for the past six months. At the 

cent ttCAaion of our circuit court, had it not been for the old 

less whieh had aRCtunulatsd under the whiskey reign, the 

would not have lasted thh^a days. The operation of the 

W has wronglit a completii rsvolntion here, and It is the great- 

l boon ever I'ouferred njion onr people by le<!:islBtivB enact- 

It Is a rare sight now to aoe any one under thoinflnenoe 

'ttroag dtiak. Bvfbie the operation oEtin)\a.-w,\'5.-«i».'iisft«*> 

Jleahfi in History, 

to CI 

n contact vitli bi 

a ttiiB I 

At Vmcland, New Jereey, a colony was commenceii l>y I 
Mr. Laudif, in 1861. From the first he determined \liitA 1 
tlie territory ehould not be mrsed by the liquor traflio. Hb I 
says, in an article prepared for and published in Frasa's 1 
Mayasine fur January, 1875, that he is not a total abstincnud J 
man, Dor did he impose this condition of refriiining- t 
the traffic, on the part of those who purchased hia It 
from any philanthropic principle, bat wholly j 
operation, and " solely ae it would fiflec.t the induBlrial a 
cesB of liia eottlement," He hail obnerved that the iavei 
was the consumer of the industry of Its patrons, and t 
enemy of their homes. And as liie own success '* dependt 
directly on the success of eaeh individual who Bhoold t 
a farta" from him, so whatever militated agaioBt that s 
eesa, must be forbidden. He " Lad long perceived tha 
there was no such thing as reaching the result by r 
influence brought to bear on ^ngle individuals ; that t 
benefit an entire community the law or regnlatio 
Lave to extend to the eutii'e conim unity." " In the f 
place, I decided to theorize and reason with nobody. 
I woold make the fixed priDciples of my plans of inprovaj 
ment the subject of contract, to be signed and sealed." 

This settlement numbers a population of 10,500, wliil* 
have come to it from all parts of America, from Gemisoyfj 
Franco, England, Ireland, and Scotland. Mark the a 
nificant result of Prohibition among such a peoplo. ' 
Constable and Overseer of the Poor, in his Report for 11 

" Tliongh we have a popninljon of taa -thonannJ prvple, fori 
the period of six: monUiB DO settler or citiKim uf Vinalnnd liA»y 
received relief at my Lands as overseeT ef the piM.r, ^Vilhiaf 
seventy days therp Ims 1'tieii only one ri,*c, nmong what wo 
the floating popiiluiion, at i.lio oipeusc iif M. 

"Purinf- the entire yuai tlieo' has only been one Jnillftui 

Frohibifum a Success. 


ro the firsH in Vinpland that we have no need of a 
fite <l«piirtnieut. There luia Lona oiily one Iiovmo biinitJ in a 
sar, anil, two slight tires, whkli wern suun pnt out. 
" We prnctical!)- have no ileht, mid our tasoa nro only oun 
9t cent, an the vnlitalion. 

"The polite eijietuaes of Vinelandammint to 875 a year, Ilia 
paid to ine ; and onr jtoor exxxinara a oiere trillk>. 
I ascribe this remarkalile state of thiiigH, so nearly ap- 
wihing the golden age, to the ludiiatrj of oni pooide and the 
latw of Kiug Alnahal.** 

A more recent colony, foanded upon temperance prin- 
nplea, with a porpotnal proviso agaiiist liqtior troflic, is 
freeley, Colorado. Like Viii^Iaiid, it Iiae a luiecellancoas 
(^nlaljon, altoiit 3,000, and is rapidly increasing in niiiu- 
Efibrts Luve fnim time to time been made to inlro- 
a U»e sale of alcoliolic l«3verageB, bat with little succl'ss. 
Fo6 long after the colony was foundMl, a fair was held, 
b3. the proceeds ($91) put into a fund for the poor. Two 
MtB and a half aftenvardtt tbcro still rc-mdned of this 
ind unappropriated andwith no calls tfaerefor,$84. Mean- 
'hlle, several churches, Fresltyteriaii, Baptist, Methodist, 
nd XpiBcopal, three schools, two banks, sevoral extensive 
, two weekly jouniala and one monthly, and two 
tetary sodetipe, have been eslablished, and are in a 
Ddri jiing condition, N, C. Meektr, Esq., of the Greeley 

;, projector of the cohmy, wiitea, Sept., 1873 ; 
"Ho liqnOris sohi in the town nor on the colony domain. A 
n-ebop was started the first year, and it was burned down in 
oul daylight. A few montJis ago one was opened livo miles 
nn town, and one night all the liqnor was destroyed." 

Similjir testimony in regard to the success of Prohibition 
I these and other localities, might be almost indefinitely 
inllipliod. It has never failed to diminish crime and pau- 
I, and has always eeuiu'ed and increased prosperity 
Dd comfort.* 

•SeuThe Prohibilionist'sTest Book :"Ali:nliol and (ho State," 
AOut "Atgnawat of A. A. Miuei, U. 1)., licfuro the Cuouuittum 
Iha il»»in-liii8t>tl« Leuiiidatore, April 2, Vi%1.'" 

Alco?iol in HiMor 

n. The efficiency and bucoosb of Prohibitory Lawe 
fttrlher evident in the opfiosition of the various branches 
the liquor traffic to them. " The United States Brewcs 
ABStieiiition" wua organized in 1863, *" To foster and pro- 
tect the trade from many threatening dangers." Thai 
snl)siH|iient proceedings show that those dangers 
chieiiy two; viz.: Prohibitory Ivegislation, and hoa« 
taxes levied by the Greneral Gtovemnjeiit. The introdop 
tion to their Conatltution, eontains the following ^niflcaS 
declarations : 

" Tliiit tlie owuuns of brewerioEi, siipiautely, are nnaLle to 
cieo a proiierinfluoneoia tlieiuterostofthocraflinthalai 
turn aud public adminlstraition. 

"That it appean especially neceBsary for the hroirtng tn 
that its inter^Hta be vigoroualj and euergetitisUy prosoented 
fate the legislative and executive departments, as tlus 
of bnatneaB is of oonaiderable political nndfiuiincia] imp) 
tuai/liing national intereata generally, and exerting A direct 
well lis an indtrout influeuee on political and sucia] relatlaiui. 

" Finally, tbat the tmtb, baaed upon the experience of 
olvUized nations generitlly, should be viudicateil — that thn b 
of fermented beverages prevents inteiniierance and 
real temiierance, and thus the mantenvrea of the tempenin 
party, which aima at the suppression Of freedom of 
and of trade, be defeated." 

At the opening of tLe seventh seBsiiin, in 18C7, the 
siding offi.ccr said : 

'* Tlie Aaaooiation la oppoaed by a dangnroas foe. t 
with a iliaplay of means and power, not only endenvoni 
hinder tbe development of onr trajle, bnt thiuateus all 
to dcatroy it. It will, therefore, be necessary to ioimtuUs 
eomo to some conclnsion which will give oviilence of the streii 
energy and perseverance with which ww follow vur purjiusc, 
thereby exert anuh a pressure npon oor Legialnlnrss, tliAtU 
terution or revouation of tbo obnoxjoos law may ]n> expeoUd> 

The following resolution waa also adopted : 

" Whfirma, The action and influence of the 
in in diri-et opposition to the priuciplos of individiMl IV 
and j)oIitii!B,l iHiaaiUy, npon ■m\nBii.o\ix kuuift'^mv Uidoa U 

ProfiibUion a Success. 415 

XemJvcd, That we viH iibb nil moaus to stay tlio progress cif 

&iiatioaI psitj. aiul to eeriire qui iiiiUvidunl liglitD an titi- 

, and that ve will suBtaiu no caiiiliiliitp, nf wliatovcr Jiutt y, 

any election, who is iu aay way dispoBml towocd iLe total 

At the eighth Besfiioii, 1868, they 

"Sesolved, Thnt wo will cantinno in the fntiiro, na wc hnvn in 
ihe past, to hftttio for the promotion of the pause of civil uuil 
eligiooa liherty thronghoiit the [Jnited States, that wo will use 
til honorable niewis t« ileprive the political and puritanical 
emperance men of the puwer they ha,\-i^ si> long exerviHod in the 
ooucils of the political parties m tlua conutry, and that for 
t pnrpoao we will Buppotl no candiilato for any oliice who ia 
dentifted with this illiberal aud nan'ow-ralodcil element. 
"Besoh-^i That an eSective organisuition of brewers and of their 
i» liiondH should bo niMntained in every State and conu- 
f, and that thii same shoiOd act in concert with every uthur 
y And orgnnixation whoso object ia to nphoM oud prucnote 
« of civil and religions liberty, and that a eoinmiltee of 
e be appointed for onch State, with fnll power to organize 
J BO0ietie« uod luUl u State Convention whenever nei^nsunry. 
"BtfUQlvrd, Thai ne will patronise and sustain all papers 
idrocBiting the same views entertained by na, and that we will 
I bast esertiona to lirin^ to the notice of oar enlightened 
ftJoat) pnlilic the great advantage this conntry wonld de- 
■0 from a settled governmental policy adopted in accordance 
fitb our views." 

In 1869, they " reiterated and affirmed " the above, " iis 
jr etanding creed and nnchan^nhle purpoae." 
In 1871, they aim " reiterate : " 

" fTAoVtM, Fanatics ami religiouB hypocrites continue tboir 
Mm and avowed agitation for restrictive and sumptnacy laws 
pdnat Ihtt tiB^ of uialt and fbrmentod liquors as a hevera^ ; 
" fi«solvei. That wo reiterate," (etc., etc., as by the Hth Bca- 
an, 1H6K.) 

" StMlt>fd, That in order to carry out the views and the nb- 
expressed in the siiid pruaiublo and resolutions, the (."oin- 
.tteeau Agitation ia hereby niithuri^ied and directed ti> >i>i|iii<(. 
MWti Congressinnnl District, three lirewecs. residing tliur< in, 
nIlOl^al and Provistonsl Orgunisiing Conimtttee foreiich ills- 
Itda. whose duty it shall be. npo^laeeelrt\IVl^s^\l■^lW¥l\^s«.l^ta^lE^,, 
by means best siiited to ttio \oi-.ol\\.-^, iiiWei too.-? 


Akc^ in Siaiaiy. 

dcl(>miine< in tlieir diwrclioii, all tlie ' diifeniliM^ of the rights of 
mail, of the liberty i>f uoaBcieuou and tlio inviolability of 
gutimuteed cighls of petsun uui] jimpertf,' in order to dvl 
at lUt eIe«tiDUB any ciuididalo fui ofllce, whose ancoeaa va 
f^ivo uucouragemeut to temperance fsuiaticx und religious liyjio 
critic to cairy out their prupnsucl proBcriptive, iujnrioui aiij 
(tiLugeroua plana. These loviil-distrirt oTganizatioDs are fiutliet 
requested to agitate the qaestion of a liberal change ia tlu Uwa 
of their locality fur a prupur licensing aytttem, foi a(lfig.Dsl< 
police regulntious, for the better protootiua of our trade and uH 
those in any iriiy onguged iu it, cmd fur tho eatahlisliuient of IJm 
principle tliat the sale of beer as a hererage is as legitimate k 
trade as the galo of any other nsefiil commodity of Reneial coo- 
sumption, and ought not to be subjected to any other restrict- 
ions than trade and vomtnercc in general. 

" A'molved, That all coiKlidat^ia for public ofticc, of whftUvi 

political party, who accept these views as eipressed anil reil' 

TUted iu these resolutions, aad pledge themselvee to aSoi 

• them for tlieir rule of ofBcial action, whenever anil 

applicable, ore hereliy tei^ommeuiled to our meinbe.Ta fer thet 
earnest snpport, and such candidates may firmly rely upon it.' 

In 1872, the Espcutive Committee imported : 

" Many dangers threatening ftam the proposed enactment a| 
laws to i«gulat« the sale of intoncating iliinks. whirh liarj 
been attempted in nearly all the States of the Union, under tin 
pretense of providing a saibgaard for public morals. 

"You should be well prepared to meet all attempts onth 
partof Ilicse temperance fanatics; they strike at out tnuIeJIIU 
to undermine our manly dignity Hud influeuoe. 

"No trade, iu view of its political power, is better oalcolBtej 
to exercise a marked ioQuence on the elections than ynutai ani 
it is your duty and a matter of self-defenre tu take a direct Mni 
active part iu the political revolutiou luid tranalbiination ol 
parlies, BO that iu this direction, too, the desii'eU refiuud 
■nay be achieved." 

In 1874, the rresideiit, in his address, said 
" Itepoal your present laws — tliey are nselcss ; encourage uiS 
foster malt liquors aniLlight wines, fur they ure tUo true 
urn of tompurivncc. 

" I'tgo upon your leKislatunw to abolish all piuliibilorir l»wti 
and instead jiass hcoltJiy lireuse laws. Instnad of co^idHiiiiJui 
and jirosecii ting the nftVooti-Uwiiut, i5>mm»Vi llw driintuird»,. 
to rpcDgcize tliem as gMiUeiueu, 4t\.D.t v\ii«v 

ProltHntuM a Swcess. 417 

dis&ancbiee tJiem at the palls. Conilemii them to sweep tho 
)nr fit; with <?liui]i and ball fjiatoiied to tbeir fnet. 
:a dninkanla criniinala, lint not tbe liouest pradnceis iind 
■yon of a neuvaaitf cf lUb." 
In 1875, althougli tlii> Proeident of the sofleion doclared 
" prohibition haa failed, iind will ever fail; " and the 
if the Agitaliun Committee, expressed himeelf 
^^ 1 that " the evils of intemperance omild not be cured 

by prohibitory laws," the itflicial reportH sbowe*! a rednction 
u the number of breweries during the year of nearly thirty 
In 1873 there were 3,554 breweries, and la 
¥74, »iilj' 2,524. There wne also a decrease of 30,104 
farrele manufactured during the year. The imuse of this 
ednction va« confegeed by Mr. Schade, in his address, as 
^ng the exjsteoco and operation of those laws which the 
fre«ll«nt ha<l s^d, have " failed, and will ever ^il." Ur. 
Scliardd Baid: 
"yery severe is the injury which the brewers have recwred 
I ti)e ao-caUed temperance States. The local-option low of 
^Mineflvaaia reduced, the number of breweries in that State 
a 1873, to 346 in 1374, thus destroying 154 breweries 
louoycar. In Mifihigau it is even wotsc^; lor of 202 breweries 
1 1833, only 68 remained in 1874. In Oliio tbe crusaders de- 
■myt,A 68 out of 296. lu Indiana Ilia Bast«r law atopjiad 86 
nt of 1&8. In Maryland <hu breweries were ruduceil liom 7^ to 
Mine few of those stopped lying iu Iboae couafiiis in whicb 
' bave a local-vptioa law._ We siuceroly hope that the 
yland Democracy, wliicb bad yielded loo mach to the 
'omen orusadun!, will take an uariy opportunity to eradicnto 
mjDst law whicb permits Ibu people of a jKirtion of the 
tnte to be put nnder the tyranny and despotiBm of those 

"Thpre is no doubt that the tomperanco agitation and pro- 
ibituty laws art^ tbe chief causes of the docTease compared to 
to preceding ypsa. Had ooi Meuda iu Massaohusetts been free 
I oarry uu their bnsinuss, and bad not tbe State authorities 
lUstfljatly inl^rfurcd with the bitter, there is no doubt that in- 
6od of idiowisgailecreairtof 116.583 barrels in one year, they 
onld have iucieaaudatlhoaame rate as they did the preceding 

Hi* Agiuaitig Cumiutttce alao Ttpotlei \\ift te^ji- <A ■&« 

Local Option Law of Pennsylvania, as a part of tlirar soc- 
ceasfal work. Tbe Association also : 

"Eegolved, Thut wLtre TBstrictive and prohiliit«ty enuetmenU 
exist, evety possible uieaauro bo taken to oppose, reaiat and 
peal theia." 

So in 1877, the ExocutiTe Committee reported ; 

"Yonr Executive havo closely ivutcliod and deteiminatdr 
tracked the efforts tbat are being wade by the Bo-called temper* 
anoe party in nearly eTcry State iu the Union ; tbey bave tidcea 
Btringenl meaanreB to thwart many of tbe Bohomea Ilieyliavfl 
adopted to hamper onr trade, and in most cases have been 
cessfnl ; but we forbear entering into details wbioh are dn^ 

At the Baine scBsIon, Mr. McAvov, delegate from Chir 
cago, informed the AsBooiation : " The brewers of IlIinoiB 
have oxpended $10,000 to beat tbe temperance pai^ t 
the elections." Mr. Pahet, of Milwaukee, remarted ! 

"The brewers of Milwanliee tare also expended a 
omonnt of money to oppose the t«aiprrHnr.e party." And 
Preeidont said: "Almost every looul Bseooiation lias oxpen 
large amounts for this pnrpoee." 

So in 1878, Mr. Schado said : 

" In my last year's report to you I urged the necessity of 
government protecting its printtipul tox-payera agaiuot prohil 
itory State legislation. I showed that if section SHiS, " 
Statutes, would bo so amended as to deny the States tbo ]fti^ 
legue therein contained to interfere with the coustitntionsl 
of Congress to ' lay and collect taiLSs, duties, iuiposta, and 
cises to pny the dubta and provide for tho common d(ifiinc» 
welfare of the ITnitod States,' nil your present troublaa, 
by tho fanatics, would toase at once," 

Vice-President Lanor, a pioneer brewer, made an a 
in which, thongh ho proolaimeil the " failure ^ of prolitU 
tory le^alation, urged — as a most singular comment i 
6nch pretended failure — tho " greatest vigiliinpe nn tho p 
of tbe National Brewers' Asaoeiatiot 
protection against Ibe enoroochiueuta of fauaticiein uuil n 
directed teuiperaiwe a 

Prohibitum Amendmeiit to the Constitution, 419 

And Mr. Lewis Schade, of Waabington, thus refcrn>d to 
the efforts to secure a National Commission of Inquiry : 

" For the last four years the temperance fanatics have, at the 
beginning of every session of Congress, introduced iiiiiiicii.40 
numbers of petitions from all parts of the coimtry, every 0110 of 
them asking for the appointment of a CominisHiou of Fivf to in- 
vestigate the liquor traffic. At the first glance one might sup- 
pose that such a commission could do no harm, iiut wouhl the 
fanatics renew their efforts for such a conmiission every year, 
if they meant no harm f Is it not apparent that that is to bo 
the stepping-stone to bring this question into the National Con- 
gress f Suspecting everything coming from that quarter, I 
have, through my paper, the Washington Sentinel, and also in 
pei'ton, strenuously opi>osed the adoption of such a bill, and 
though the latter has passed the Senate two or three tinioH, it 
has always failed in the House. In the i)resent session a simi- 
lar effort has been made by the Senate, Imt fortunately there 
is less hope for a passage of the bill by the House than ever 

At the session in 1879, a table showing the quantity of 
beer made in each State and Territory, mentions that 
Maine, which formerly manufactured annually from 7,000 
to 10,000 barrels of beer, produced the preceding year 
" seven barrels?^ 

After passing resolutions condemning the " Advocates 
of Prohibition," who " continue to wage indiscriminate war 
against the manufacture, sale, and consumption of alcoholic 
beverages, both distilled and fermented 5 '' the Association 
also adopted the following : 

" Whereas, The near future may bring issues gravely affecting 
the welfare of the brewing business of this country, and requir- 
ing imited action and strenuous exertion ; therefore, 

" Resolved, That it is the duty of every member of this Asso- 
ciation, by persistent personal effort, to extend its membership 
and influence as far as possible, and that it is a matter of duty 
and self-interest for every one directly or indirectly connected 
with the brewing trade to join its ranks and to labor for the 
advancement of its aims and objects." 

Those anticipated " issues " in " the near future," were 
douhiless, in a large meaBure, the Coix^\i\;atv:>tk»).l axci^^ud- 

430 MaAol M Biglon/. 

luoat.^ then bouig conaidored liy tlie Leg'islntnrre of Ion* 
auki Kaunas. At all ovftnts, lUc Boer Brewers of Iowa litUd 
a Convention in 1870, at wliicli they dennunct'd tlio pro- 
po».'il (juaetitutionol Amendment, aad raJBUil a liind wUIl 
wliicii to try and dufeut it. They said : 

" Never wns it more neoeasary for ua to defend our Ln 
Kever was onr liiiwuesa in greotec dsnjjsr than at present, 
it is for na to decide nlictlier we will stuj idle and let on 
DCBB (tieretofon- uolmowlriilged ua a legitiniate and lej;al one) ly 
niined by niuiist aud hyponritipal legislation ildiI cLiraaeiT, 
or wbetlier tre will, as men and fatheis. protect our tradi 
na our wives and cliildren, and niainti^ our liberty and o«R 

Thcuo declared purpoeea, reiterated reaolntioits of 
tiun to cany them ont, oonfeasioBB of tke iieo«^iy fi 
lection against Prohibitory State Legislation, refiorta rf 
dimage already received, and of tronlilea anticipated, 
nnrniatakable coiifesaions that Prohibitoiy Laws, ii 
executed, are a uucceBs. 

But not the Brewera alone are active to prevent 
itor^ Lcgialilion- The " Wine and Spirit I'rwIetB* 
of the T_niteii Slates," is composed of men of great abilitj 
in the commercial world, and of immense wealth j Imvii 
its President, several Viuo-PrenideutB, a Council of twen 
members, many standing Oommittoes, eminent legnl eott 
eel, and a Committee on Jjegishttiun. Uouorarv inemb* 
ship is granted to persons and biiBiiiesB iirma doing himwt 
outside the United States, by the payment of one Iti 
dollars, a privilege which many of tlie largest mani 
turers of intoxicante in varions parts of Eiimpe, 
availed themselves of. There are also raaiij- Slate " " 
lyeagiiea," " Saloon -Keepers' Assoeiations," '■ Protoctll 
Unions," etc., ^opreseutiug the variona brauclies of thft 
in Ardent Spirits, all of which are active in atlumpU 
manipulate Legislatan-s, and to nbstriiet nnd defrat I 
pper.itiona of the Itiwu ag'ainst the inanulacturo und sale 

iriy in 1879,-w^t.\a 

ObjeoHons to Prohihiiion. 421 

nion," composed of tlie whiskey dealers of Tojjeka, Ku.u- 
e, issued the followiag^ circular : 

" Dk^b Sin ; Wo iiavc nrgimixed a sociBty la tbis city 
lown as the Merclianfa' i'roleciivc Union, for tlie purpose of 
ileating tiio prolubition ameDduieDt to the CuoatitiiUoii uf 
le State of Kansas, wlilcli is to ba voted on in ISSO. Wh pro- 
lae OrftaiiUiiigsiBiJlarsoeittieB in each city anil tovp-n tliroTigh- 
rt the Stiite, and for the pnipoae of organizing the different 
oloties in QDiaon with each other, wo tliiiUf it necessary to 
ill a Toasa convention, to be held in this city at an enrly date, 
I tti»t all parties interested may liare an opportunity of advis- 
ig each otiier as to the liest plan of canying on our campaign. 
r« therefore iirgeBtly request that yon confer with all par- 
es interested in your vicinity, giving as youi views tu early 

" Tours very respectftilly, 

■' C. E. Jones, 

" CorrK«jponding Sfcretarg." 

In accordance with this call, a Convention was lield, at- 
mded by onp hundred and thirty-eight delegates, who or- 
Uiized B Society ooHed : " The People's Grand Protective 
'nion." Thoy unauimouBly adopted the following: 

"Se»olmd, That the Pi'olilliifiioit AroendmeDt to the Conetitu- 
on of the Btalo of Knnaaa, if adoptad, wonld be a law, in its 
eaotical application, far beyond the public sentiment of the 
~ I, and would be inoperative ; that its adoption would take 
lie wlivie aabjeut of temperance out of the power of the Legislft' 
ire, leaving the people withont a remedy. Laws so sttini;ent 
!t»t ISey cannot be enforced are destruetivo of all good, bo- 
inae it toa(!beB men not to respect the restraining'powerof law. 
!he laws new upon ttie stattitcs of the State are as stringent aa 
Ml he enforced, and may be amended or repealed as public in- 
tb end public aentiiuent shall demand. The amendment, if 
Qoptod, \roiiId do wliat no Cunstitution in any l^tate of ibis 
^^^ " a ; It would legalize the mannflietwre Mid sale of 

^tiDF, (Uirestrained by law, and the liijuor once purchased and 
1 tlui bands of the purchaser, its use cannot bo controlled, 
hdroliy offeriug a premima 10 falsehood, pei^jury, and inlempe- 

TTjo Ohio State Liquor Dealers' Aaaociatioa ajdo^tBiftiei 
loHin^ reiulutiuTt : 


" fie»olrtid, Tliat TTo. the liquor dcnlera of Ohio, ta oonrenti 
HBftembleil ill Akrtiii, do liereby pledge iind affirm that ia I 
future we will not BnpporC aiij' but tbo most onlspoken. Ijimr 
anil jiist noting aud tliinldiig men inbehiilf of libeiallegialut 
on tbo liquor traffic." 

In Cliicago they have org'aiiized what ia called " Tl 
Spirit and Wine MannfactnTerB" and Dealenj' Society," m 
the following oliject : 

" To enoomage aocietios and co-apemtion among tbe tradn 
other placra; to odvotate a national organization; to tvniov 
anjiist, oliatructive, and needlessly complicated laws; to devla 
oppropriate legislation, local and national; to oppose mW 
ranee and fanaticism; to see tbat the laws are respei^t^d nnd 
forced; to support the broHdest libertios coDBiBtunt with gi 
gOTenunoiit and social tranqnilllt;." 

There is also, " The Saloon-Keepers' and Liqnor Dca 
ers' AsBOoiation of Illinois," wliicli, at it Convention lie 
in Chicago, September, 1880, adopted the follewing: 

" Reaolved, That tbia iwsor.latiou vill watdh, -crith tbo grM 
est Tigilasce, the action of our Tepreeentativea in tli« balls 
the legialatnre, holding them to a stiict aocoimt for eroiy vol 
or neglect to vote upon all laws respeiiting our libt>Tt.v Und Jl 
rights; and that we will nao onr united powt«r, and (but if 
friends, aa well as that at iiJ) onr (eaonrcea, to iiritviait 
election of men either too cowardly tn resist tbn allnmiui--iiM> 
temporanoe women, or too stupid U) comprahciul Uie rial 
effects of Homptnary legislation." 

The following was issued ns its date inilioates : 

" Kashvili^, Tekk., Augiut, 1881 
"Deak Sir — We beg to coll your attnntioii l-o tho bn] 
of co-operation among licjaoc deolvra throngbint tbo Atillu, 
secnre, if possible, anch loprcsentation in tbe next Liigisln 
as will not he opposed to our iutcresta. The indicutiima nr« I 
determined eflbrta will be made to necLin] tlK> pnsHagdiuf Li 
Option, oi Prohibitory Laws, and to repeut in the Stttto 
folly and failure of somptu^iy legislatiou, wtitcli Itas iu tli« ] 
been produutive of no substantial or moral good, IwJ luw a 
barnaaed tbe maascs, and deatroyed tlicir uiattrt*! intvR 
without tjeneilt to those for whoso ccforniotion tbo law* 
passed. If yoii will tjiTft'^ttivT o.WewV>n.^<l^^., ■)«»■«, 
to the Legislatnro wW aie not \i\ (ivm ol "" ' " 

Objections to Prohibilioji. 423 

10 inlBrfere Willi a truffle in whicli Ibpro is iiiv*st«(l noiiiii'li 
BBpftol, niid wliieh ia the cUicf eoiirto of rnvniim- lo our (^Uili-. 
V« suggest tliat yon consult -wIlli liquor cl«:ilein. anil rritiiiln hi 
tonally, and oudeavor to eenil fair lueii tn llie uuxt (iitiwrul 
Aasembly wlio itic practical anil ToaiHina.blH, mid not disjiosi^d to 
u foot a coilo of laws to malie criminiila of yourselves ami 
Mliera eDgagiHl in tlio llqnor Irafflc, and destroy the bnaioeiss, in 
'the absiitd and ever falling attempt to etadirate the evil of 
Arimbeimeae by law. 

" Eeapectfnlly, LiqunR Dealbhs of Nashviluj. 

"Thiacommimination is cnnfidnntiiil, and for your onnailviae- 
i&ieiit, aad ia not iuteniled for pnlilifntion." 

After the adoption of the Contititntional Amendment in 
KanESs, prohibiting tbo Manufiictiire aiid Sale of Iiituxi- 
caotfl ill thitl State, "The Weetem Brewer," piibliehed 
iHveral artideB in its issue of N'ovemher 15, 1880, ia which 
it bemoaned the fate that awaited its buuuees there. In one 
Uttole it eaii : 

"Kansas has become the Maine of the West by the derree 
»f a minority suEHoiejitly large to appal the friends of perBuuul 
Hlom and protp'eEHioii thioughoat tlie world. The new uct 
lOfnea a part of the organic law of the State — a part of the 
gonstitntion — sh re wdly voted upon in thinBliapeby the fanatii's, 
a Older th»t it oannot be repealed or blown away, even after 
jMir oppressive majoilty leaves them, and people get sick of 
thtdi bargain, except by a two'thiids vol«. It 1?, theiefore, safe 
to inlet, that however great a revolution may oceur in the switi- 
ntmito of Uxe oiti/ena of Kansas, the piiiseut [reueration will not 
aett the law repented. What action the fhirty-llvo brewers of 
laa will now take, ri-'inains to be boou. There is hut one 
9«Mibte way for tlieni to do. They nnist close their doora, put 
It their tires, and leek ether lands for an opportunity to oain 
bnHMl for their oliitdren by practicinR the only trade they have 
!^«d, and by means of which nloue they can make a liviu<;. 
. , . These men are forced to ruin Viy n power unknown in 
ay despotic country, any eOet.e monatcihy; t)ie power of a 
^oritg, which the American |ieople are slowly coming tu iiu- 
•Mt-And is It personal dcs]>ot, of less conscience anil in^ater 
leanaof opprcaaiou than any rul or, bo he Kmnau. or llonrboner 
^nalph. ■ • . Iowa comM next. The piei^eilunt rata til iiiliod, 
It is no longer a ni3tti!r of reiiBOHiaWo AouVrti Uow ttvat, SAa-ttt wUl 
jWe en a siuiiiur law. Iowa loUa u'p a 'taW)X\*.A Wiiivi"ciV3 

alirajs anil nveiy time, to glorify the saints sod advHDn« llw 
growtli ol' iitug liair. . , , It was largely aouonniliahed lij 
motley conU'lbuteil hj tem\ieraiiao ^natica, 
thiinsand dollars alouo hiiviuf; been coutriliutfd liy tlie bIiikI- I 
bnirud. Rog^'i'^'y*"' ""'^ '"^ t«ni|ierance Troues of Baston." 

And in nnotlier ai'ticlc : 

" The tliirty-Hve brevreries Id Kunsaa will uo7 pnt irat their | 
firen and luolc up thoii doors. Moth and rust will take p 
inu. TliB proprietora, maii.T of whom liavQ speul'ii lifetimi^ in 
liiiilcliiig lip thoir biiBiuesB, will havu to luolt i^larn-liere for litead 
for thrir t'tiildren. 1^ aay the p«^opl<^ of Kansas at the polls. 
There is do despotism like the docqiotisiu of the mofority." 

And again : "WTien aud where will fanatirieni in this eonn- 
try lio chepltertf Apparently not at tlin polls. BallotH Lava J 
Bettlad the brewers in Kan sua," 

And once more: "No wonder prohibition won in KanBWi.| 
At WinGeld the poUs were taken charge of by the wonioa, i 
appeared in full forces, and remftinod all day with tooketa urM 
their hands, Eoliciting votes for the amendment with li 
their eyea. They wilUzed ronnd the ballot boxea, ogled tlu> qU)»s 
(mllnes, iind lilted their dresses jimt high enough to kii«p t' 
oat of the tob.ieco .jiiiee. At home their hnsbanda cared far tbu 
yelling infanta, And waslii^d up the dishes. And this is t 
reason why Kansas has bBcomo Maine. Not even the ballot-In 
t'on withstand petliooats." 

How all tliis venom indicM^s tbttt the busineaa wbichf 
mokes tome a liell for woman, dreads ProUibittiry Law ! 

III. Tbe testimony of men wlio have hoA great expt 
ence in various departments of Temperance work, us tu (Iiq 
neeGBsity and valno of I'rohibition, ie no aliglit proof of it 

Of Dr. Lyman Beeiiher, one of tbe most able and ACtlvafl 

piont-PiB in the Temperance work, Dr. Oharlea Jtiwctt tuyB,.! 

in Ilia " Forty Tears Figlit with tbe Drink Demon," re<wrd-f 

ing an incident wliicb occurred in 18Q9! 
"At oneof the prayer meeting's held at tile Old Pitulh Thnri^b, I 

ha gave a terrible shock to the nfiuiil lioeorum wliirh piiurTO-l 

toriscd Uioso meetings, by ulmrst of eLthnsiiiBni Over the ftlaiii«| 
Law. He Imd pielurei, aa Vie irtiX'S ctmW, "Cm Rtinfllnt « 
liad leea "-uiu" on in lhe\lTvivetaBtotMaVa3iui«.V' 

weis of ligLt and dailciie^B, of gotkl uud eril. nntl tbe auxiety 
il ituuiuij ivhicli lie, as wi'll uh uiiJliouH oloLliiirH, Lad. Tult iit 
uue, uutliwitlutiiudijig tLuir Irusl iu (iuil ami tlio pruuiitw^ of 
a wold, ill view of the liercenosa of clie «lFuggle aud tbu secai- 
•ig lulvaulugB suiu«>tiiueB guuiud hy the jto'Kers of evil. ' Hut, 
n*tliTeii,' said lie, ' l«t ds nijoira and be glud, fur tlio jiowert 
if lifU ore jiiat u»w in diamaf. That glorious Maine Lu\t whs 
^ equaie unci grand blow right between tbo very lioms iif the 
Dcnl, and &oqi llie momeut of iU reoeptiun I seem Ui see liim 
illliiiK hack. — stulilionj ami terrible, but falling harik !— and the 
Daeoratcd host of Ciod'H el^pt ]>ressiiig close npon hiui!' 
bile tlins giving vent to emotioDH too strong for word* alone 
> eirptvea, the grand old man was adv-anring on the linnr, 
iwinging hia hig cane with a powerful energy, which showed 
i^etj dearly iho spirit in whitrh he would Bght the biggest 
Beril in eust^nr^e had he been there. He wound up mogulll- 
(MaiUy. 'So shall it be, brethren — I believe it — I nee it — they 
irill crowd him back, and crowd him back — (still advancing 
I swinging his ciino) — until they shall pnsk him over the 
tdements, and send him back to the hell &om which he came 
fbrthl And then shall come np from a redeemeil earth the 
Aout, 'Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace and 
Ipkod will to men.'" Pp. 363-4. 

In llie eajae work. Dr. Jowett, one of the moBt efficient 
Dhunpinne of the Temperance cause, thoa utters hia avra. 
convictions : " Go(l be thanked Ut the Sloine Law ! and 
be grand inspiratinJ, energy, and Loneat devntiim to the 
^blio weat liy which it was created ! May no I>a<!kwanl 
top ever lie taken in that noble State, which now hears 
ne fiag of prohibition, !n the advance of our temperance 

at." r. 324. 

Bmd Fatlier Mathew : 

" The question of ]irohibittng the sale of ardent spirits, and 
rbe many otbur intoiieuttug drinks which ore to be I'onnd in 
inr country, is not new to me. The principla of jiroliililtion 
«Btus tU bo the only safe audcerl.ain remedy for the ovilaof in- 
Amponuico. Thb npininn has bnun ntren|i:tlioned and ronflrmcd 
»y the Iwtril lalmr iif moi* twenty years in the temperance 
liiDse. [ rejoico in the whIcobio jatelliijenee of the formation 
if a Mhiiiu Law Alliauiic, which 1 trnst will be tliu means 
tndix God of destroying this ftultAil souice of orinie and 

Jiilui B. Googli, on I 
bm'ylj, Hcollaiid, said : 

"1 wish to put myBelfrightoniiroliibitiOD- I sun a tliocoi>uh 
proliibitioQiatj for \ie must doL only ubstuui, but educute pulilio 
tipiuion to vote liglit ul the buUut-liox oil this quostiou. W« 
ot'tun hear it said that the Maine law is u fuiJiire ; that ia I'»Ub, 
Ibi it ia u gnmil succbbb. True, in Muasachusetts il hus becu ttn 
versed; but why? Sinjiily bowiiiHO tempetunce ppople sat »( 
ease after tho law was ptiBsed and iieglacteil to educate the ria- 
iug genezutioii, so that wIiqd the vote eanie we were in ■ 
minority. Let ua sink all difterence^, let bygonea be bygODM. 
and by education of personal abstineuce for tiie iudividnid, 
and prohibition for the nation, aucceaa ia ceitoiu." 


I tfae ocoasion 
10 yeard ago, 

-r ly 

Said Rev. Henry Ward Bee*her, i 
pasBflgB of tlie Prohibitory Law, so 
State of New York : 

"We might be baffled imd ballied a great while before v4 
could make all the teetb of tliin law meet wjtii it good aubjpct 
between them ; we might have to deal with muu wlio wonld 
come, imd disappear, as spirita do ; but there wis o 
they could Dot reverse : after years of diacuHaioui the ppople ll 
this Empire State had declared, that the nialciti^ and m '" 
intoxi rating drinks, for aiich pnrpoBea, was u crime. The pHl 
ciple was bom ; and there woa nothing bom on the thee a' 
earth that carried such joy aa the birth of a moral priuRijile." 

Ui.n. Henry Wilson, said, in 1867 : 

" Do you tlimk that Christian men cnn pray for the lliWM 
lawt Does Hny man dare take that law into hie olnset, K 
read hin Bible, and on bended knee aak Ood to blcsa i' 
like to see the man who wonld do it. I tell you. 
that what the people of MasHachiisiitta, the fj^reat nut 
pray God for, cannot go on tbo statute book vf tills Btat% » 
atay there." 

Said Dr. Henry A. Eeyuolds : 

" I always voted for Prohibition, and I always intend to, 
hope if God ever sees me start with b bnliot tor lii'nQiH* n' 
rnu, He will take my life liefoie lie permits It in tllo t 

Frauds Miirp\iy,mai\ KMtesi g.N«aw,lUe Intonialtl 
mperauuo Confere 


PTohilnfr>}-7/ Lnics. 4ii7 

commencod by eulcifn^ing tlm Pri)liiljit<>rj' Law of 
laine. conclndiiid tlius : 

'•Every HSProd fueling to na Btandfi up nvrayud iigninfit tho 
|nor-traffic. Tlie CoDStitntion of the eitaatry hIuhiIb nt^uiiiiit 

In the conrtH of the natioa, whore the honor of the iialiiru 
a li«eu viii[Urut«(l, ruin Lusbeen hrouji^bt to the bur of ju^lk'o. 
d I ttaunk tldil to-Dight that the legal piofceflion, the joca 
dto b&ve buon draped with the [.inuitie nf tho Jadge, who huvu 
~t npon tho seat of justica, hare boen equal to thiiir diiliva, 
d stand to-iUiy heforc tbb uatiiiu the pride aud houor of il in 
B BdiuiiiiBtiittioii of jnstiae for right ugainst this cursed traf- 

8ay8 Rev. Joseph Cook: 

■" Whilo we pmbrnce every opportunity to i-ull out tho offorts 
\ tlie i^hiiri'h in perMinul visitiition of the poor, and in the 
nnding of Aelt-mipporting religions iDstitiitioaa, let us not 
t'get the fesponaibility of tlie civil arm for thu shutting up of 
» deoa of temptation." 
Miaa Frances E. Willarfi, as President of llio "lllinoiB 
romsn's Christian Temperance Union/' tliue, in an article 
l-tbo Arpanet, urging the closing of the lic|iioF shops by 

', ^TOB Bxpression to tho general sentiment of the wo- 

D who are actively at work in the cause of Temiieranco. 
I' The salooue that were closed are open ouco more — and 
Bewaso the laws of a Christina repiiblie malio liquor 
iiog reputable. Tho tens of thoiisauda who yearly, since 
r*, have been reformed by offorts of tho Women's Chrlstiiin 
BlMIBnco Unions, have uiauy of them gono hack to their 
^^ I, mai why I Largely booiinno, on evory street comer, the 
te-Opeu door of the saloon, sheltered under the mgis of law, 
rlt«9 thtuu liack to the old indulgence and tho coveted cora- 
deahip. Boys and young nten iu the nlippory path of inexp«- 
Ki and the Rpecial danger of imagined strength are forming 
ia of drinking in far greater unmhecs than moderate and 
uuiderato drinkers are forming habits of eobriety, and why f 
Dnnso, ogato, ho long as the traffic in any onmmodity is re- 

otabla — and in some States nothing short of 'a good, luural 
inMtoi ' entitles a man— by the 1»w — to be a Baloou-keepoT ! 
lonf; will it be respectable to buy and use that eomuiodity. 
Mn nil thl^BO hurd facta of experience the temperance women 
flUlonis have dddnccd a. very lutiuTval tiiurAvwiott, nfcuioUi-, 
Tt (i*ywlUuM thy great iMut\noui\it5tt\ciitiiavi\\\^w*fe'tY^«i- 

Jkahd in Huiorif. 

lie Beutiment to li.ostea the time wbon the liqiior-trafflc shall )i| 
put under bun by tlio laws of Illinois. Tliey hjvo oflca » 
tlivir whole year's work on the luoritl Biinsioa line miil:ui»(Tti 
or npset by the folsenesa to principle of the averngo voter n 
election day came axmmd. They have bI^en taught ' 
urgntuent of defeat' that yon mnst light Are with tiru ; mcpvt U 
enomy in his stronghold of power by OTecwheluiing numbeid 
nn<l tiSset bad votera by good ones, if ever the liqiior-trufilo fl 
to go down. Thciefore, they are rltiing iip iu thu might ft 
moral power and Christian womanhood, and sayiQg : " On this 
qnestiou of license we want the buUot. We ask it mil'j oa thii 
one Usae; as temperance women we have uotliing to ilu wiiJi 
otlier phnsea of the mooted question of women's rights, and no 
matter what onr private opinions on the geuurni qncsUon m 
be, wo do not bring them into this tlisuussiun. The \i 
for • Home Protautioa,' so far us regatda license or do 
the grog-shop, merits the Hpproval of all good men. 
OB that tbcy like the phrase and are glad that the p 
a votu on the qnestion bears the name of ' Home Protci 
Petition.' " 

And Jadge Pitman, in the cloung chapter of liis n 
ly work on "Alcohol and tLe State," after pajwi 
review the varions luetLods wliioli liave bocotue liiau 
tlie treatment uf this great problum of ltit<miperanM, a) 
showing that the extinction of the evil "roquipes t 
intervention of law, and that monil e 
and religioufi inBtninientalitice, ore all iuiwleijnatu tvitk 
the aid of legislation," thns hopefully concludes : 

'' Beforu the aronaed conscience of the people, wiolding 4 
indomitable will of a State, the miDisi^rs t- 
of innocence, the destroyers of soul and body, sfanll go 4 
fbr ever." (p. 405.) 

Ho had previously said: "Mny I not rightly siun iipthedi 
of those who beliL-ve the liquor traflit' to I'lr a nurws lU t* 
Wherever license prevails, conl«st every inch of lnnitai]r y for prohibition ; where proliibitiou prevnlia, ii»' 
dor ou inch to lic«nse, except from dire ueceudty." 

In England, ra-Bailic I-ewif, after mpcaking of I 
euergy and zeal ot t\ve t\iQ-siAi, t\v« motal clTnrla id T 

ProMbUory Latos. 429 

Edinburgh, and the increase of intemperance, in spite of all 
these, says: 

• " The conclusion of the whole matter is this — until there is 
snfficient patriotism among the leaders of the people to demand 
the statutory prohibition of this license enormity, society must 
make np its mind to hear all the accumulated horrors of tlio 
drink curse." * 

In a memorial not long since presented to the Arch- 

hishop of Canterbury and the other Bishops, members of 

the House of Lords, asking for a law for the stop of the 

sale of intoxicants, and signed by over thirteen thousand 

clergymen of the Church of England, occurs this significant 

sentence : 

*' We are convinced, most of us, from an intimate acquain- 
tance with the people, extending over many years, that their 
condition can never be greatly improved, whether intellect- 
ually, physically, or religiously, so long as intemperance exten- 
sively prevails amongst them, and that intemperance will 
prevail so long as temptations to it abound on every side." f 

Dr. Temple, Bishop of Exter, puts it thus: '^Men who are 
hard at work, whose frames are exhaust-ed by their toil, who 
feel within them the natural weariness and lassitude that labor 
produces, and who are then shown something that will give 
them temporary relief; who know, that for at any rate a short 
time, they may have something like real pleasure, though it be 
but of vicious kind — ^men who are worn and weary, and taken 
as it were at their weakest moment — is it just to thrust in 
their faces this temptation, which in their own consciences 
they, know they ought not to approach." 

Said Archbishop (now Cardinal) Manning : 

" I agree most heartily and cordially, that the great curse 
which withers our people, that the pestilence which is devour- 
ing them, is drunkenness. I feel that to labor to put it down 
is our duty, and I am convinced that to put it down, legislation 
is absolutely necessary J'^ X 

And Canon Farrar, in his brave utterances on the sub- 
ject, has said ; 

* Cited in Alcohol and the State, p. 14S. Hhid^ ^« 146. 

/ Cited in Bacchua Dethroned, p. 2S&. 


Jloafai vn. Sialory. 

" 1 aay imhe8itntJngl<r, thnt the graonils on wLii'li Pitrlianu 
dona tiot iuteilere wibb tbc oulc of drink are lUeorctioally n 
tennlite as well aa ptuuticullj' ilisastrons." . 
bill," (Sit Wilftid Lawsou's,) " is ainiply inteniled to eiialilo A 
people tu protett theuMtelves fh>iu tbnt which they have 
hj long nnd bitter experieD(>e to be on O't'erwbeliuiUfC pvri 
Bithert^i Parliatueiit baa utterly refused to belp us. They o 
not und nil] not rofuee if the demand comes to tliem i 
nation's voiue, and if that voine epeak in the acr^en 
who ate resolntely and- itidignantly determined to 
means tn their power to siive a new geneiatiou Crom a 
has been, to an extent so utterly deplorahio, the roin 
ol' this generation in which our lives are cost." * 

'■If the PermiBaive Bill be so 'bad' ae statesmen hare told j 
it is, why, in heaven's name, does not some slatesuuui » 
forward and give us a better f 1 am perfectly sure Sir WUfi^ 
Lawaon — who ought tu have the sympathy iif all good mm 
because he baa the abuse of all bad meti — I am ijniie ai 
would lie the very Hrst Ui welcome auch a bill. And 1 
very sure the atateamaa who should pass such a 
wear through the rest of iCnglanil's history a greener lani 
than was worn even by Chatham's self. Oil 1 for one " 
strong man in a hiatant land,* who is not afraid of prtjoi 
ofabuse, or to fight the battle of the people in the fight 1 
their besetting sin." t 

But, notwithatancling aJl tliese (lonceeaiona on tlie | 
of Temperance leaders, and all the fears of tlioBe into 
in the liquor traffic, it is obvious thiit many Teinpen 
men put ubata^les in the way of the cniu;tmeDt and enfoni 
raent of Prohibitory Lawa, and that the Hiinor iiiten^st 1 
a unit in both arguing and working ogaioEt them. WH 
18 thia T What are tbe grounde of this oppoBition I a 
what are their validity ^ 

1, It ia not unjust to say — since it is so fully avowtHl ■ 
tbe quotations already iiia<le ftxim tlteir uumemtiB dMla 
tions — tliat self-intereet ie at the bottom of ihit oppr 
tion of the liquor maker and the liquov ; 

• TalltB on TempeiaucE, *jacncm\ nAitltui- 
fi The Dutj of tli6 Ctuic\i, eLiBBnowo.5J^ 

Opjxisition to Prohihitury Laics. 431 

not tliis &1bo the basis of oppoeiticm t« all law ou the 
ipart «r the wroag-door, of Bvery Ime and gradiif The 
puldbber of obscene literature, the keeper of the brothel, 
tiie proprietor of the gambUng-LoiiBe, the counterfeiter, 
the burglar, the highwayruan, and each and every man 
and woman who, like the shrine'iuakerB of Epbeatiii, 
"get great gain" from their crnj't, pnt in the same plea 
figaioBt inturferentio with their bnsineBB, 

" No rogue o'er felt the hnltor draw, 
With good opifflion of the law." 

Bnt, by coiniuozi consent, it ia tho buBinesB of the Legis- 
latore to suffer no man's Belf-Loterest to war against the 
raoral good ; and il muat be obvious to all who are can- 
Id ID the exnminatioQ of the appalhug facts which show 
lAt panperism, crime, burdening xases, and innuiuorable 
rila, legitimately flow &om the liquor trafiic, that less than 
ill others can those who engage in that traflic be justly 
fliiehled by iJie plea of eelf-interefit. The old legend of 
3ie man who was tempted by the devil to do one of three 
lliogs, either to kill his neighbor, commit adultery, or 
Bome intosieated, and who, thinking that Iio was uhoaing 
) lesser evil, elected to get drunk, and so was led both 
(» adultery and mnrdcr, is no exaggeration as illustrative 
T flie fact that druukouneaa leads to all other Crimea. 
ml the Dfily legitimate and radical ground for law-makers 
p titke ia tliat such a tratlic should bo iirushed out, no mat- 
r irhfit poverty comes to the fow by so doing; and thftt, 
'aure'tlian a few ore interested in it, by just so muoh-as 
) incieaso facilities for dnmkennese, should the laws 
e-tsM^ tliorougli and unsparing. The State has no right 
I Otcoarago any monojioly, and least of all to protect a 

win warring agamst everything that iu of interest and 

irardi to the people at large. 

"It appears tn me," sniil Loril CliesterGeld, in dehatinji Hiis 
uatimi te ttin KrttioL I'srliument, "Ihiil. alucu Ifie nijicita 
lili'li tbi.' ilistillera produce are aHowuiA to isnSeft"u\a \^i» "Vi^Mi, 

48S AfcdkrH in SJ^tonj. 

and Titiato tho bloo^, to pervert tlie heart luid oliscaro llie t 
tellcct, that the uiiniper (li distUlera ahould b« uu aigimumt 
tUeii ^vor ; for 1 ]i«v«r heu,!!! thut a Liw agaiuBt theft « 
pealed oi delayed bocaoee thieveB ^eie uumeroiis. It ujipea 
to lue, m; lordB, that if so formidable a hody are conredraul 
ogaiust the Yirtiiu or the lives of thoir fullow-c: 
tu pot on end to the havoc, and to luterpose, while i% in jet 
our ])owcr to stop the deattaotion. 

" As IJttiD, iny lorda, am 1 affected with the merit «if tba wi 
derful skill which the distillerB are asiid to have attained, tt 
it is, in my opinion, no faculty of gtent use to mankind, to ^ 
pare palatable poison ; nor shall 1 evei oontribulu my inter 
for the reprieve of a Buardcrer, beoanse he ha«, by lonjg pnuiti< 
obtained great dexterity \a his trade. If their liiiuo 
delicious that the people ore tempted to thuir own deatmctio 
let ns at lengtb, my4orda, secure theui &om the &ttiil diailgli 
by bursting tbc rials that contain them ; let us erush, at o 
theae artieta in slaughter, who have reconciled tlieir eoaaB 
nion to sickness and \o niiu, und aprevl over the pit&lls o 
liuaohery such baits as cannot be reeisteil." * 

And Lord LonsdalG Buiil, is ttie same debate .- 
" Wlien it is once granted that spirits vorrupt tlie miv 
weaken the limba, impair virtue, and shorten life, any otg 
mcnta in favor of thuae who mannflicture them c 
aiatmno advantage can be equivalent to the loss uflianettyK 
life, When the noble lord bae urged that the diatilkv; ompk 
great numbeiB of hands, and therefore ought to be envoiuagq 
may it not upon his own conceaaion he replied, that tbooe uui 
bers are employed in murder, and that Ihvir tra^U ought, li 
that of other murderers, to tw stopped t Wbcn be nrgce tl 
much of our grain is eonsuuted in the still, may we not atiaw 
and answer irresistibly, tliat it ia rnusiimed by being tun 
into poison, instead of bread f And can a stron^^t nrgiiina 
be iinagiuod for the suppression of this detestable busiQU 
than tbat it employe multitndea, and that it ia gaiufnl and I 

Theso consHeratiittiB lose notbing b_v their age, ittr ihi 
voice tlio moral souse of all tlie ages, and a. failiira to hti 
and lieed tliem is sure to (leinorallKe and reodi-r wortlila 

•'B Maga-Aue, Jiai.-aan,'fi 
t IMd, r*B^i3, VIW.. V W- 

Opposilvm to Prohiliinry Laus. 


pll Liuit our civilization TDakes pneailili? t» any foiin f.rid 
pitminiiitaition of Imman govurnment. The great Ciimmt'ii- 
i American Law, lays down and dcfende tho same 
hnnciplc : 

"The Government may, by general reKnlnliouB, iiitprdiet 
is of jiropertj db wonid crcnte mijwlnci-a, nnil lioriiine 
iugi>ruuB to tlie livoa, or Lealth, or peare, or comfiirt of the 
UnirhDlCBonie trades, Blaughler-housue, openiliuas 
to tho BuuNOB, tho deposit of powder, the Imililiii); nith 
mbustililo materials, nud the burial of the deiid, may be in- 
dicted hy Inw, in the midst of ilenBe masses of population, 
I the geiif^ra] and rutlonal principle that every person oii^fbt 
e his property as not to injarohis neighbors, and that 
rivate intereet must be made subservient to the general iuler- 
it of the ciuumuuity." f 

[. Another gw)nnd of upposition to Proliihitory Lawn is, 
they inr.erftTo wilb personal liberty. By this is 
mt, if anytbing, that the faet that a man has engaged 
1 any tralSc, etstablishefl, of itself, liia right to continue in 
^at traffic. Bnt this is too glaringly aljsnrd to dcoeive 
f one. It cannot possibly Iw a nniversal rule, else every 
a lionee might be exjiosed to a noisaiice, every raecality 
I among men would liave a valid plea for noti-inter- 
ci, protection of life and property would be an impoa- 
hltility, law could take uo cognizance wliatcver of such a 
Uilng as the public good. This is so self-evident that there 
a who does not demand that his family, his neigh- 
terliood, and himself shall be protected by laws which 
lall interfero with this liberty of others to do just as they 
teO- Hence, oa this principle of ae!f-pi'otectioii, wo liave 
B piohihicJng tho lutlo of imniatttro or tainted meats, pro- 
hibiting lotteries, gambling and gnmbling-honses, brothels, 
|te sale of noiaonous or adnlterated drags, the traffic in nn- 
Ht'holeaome and lighl-woightod bread, and many other 

In sburt, all law proueeds on tho fact tkul thero is some 

f Kanl;, II., p. 240. — 


Mcohd in nistory. 

wrong or some dajirrer of vntm^ wliicli t!n' piililic must be J 
gouriled agftinet. " Tlje lair," sujs an ineipired aatliurityf f 
" ia moAe for tlio Ltwk'sa and tUBolicilisnt, for tlie nngodlyl 
and for siunerd, fur unliiily aud profane, for murderers of J 
fatiicTui, and muriierL-rs nf mothers, for luacielayers, Toti 
wliovoniongere, for tlicm tlint dofilo themBelves willi m&a-l 
liindj for num- stealers, for liars, for perjnred pwsons." (I'J 
Tiniotliy, i. 0.) And every appliralion or enJfnroi.inent o' 
tlie law mterferea with llie offeader'a freedom to do tli 
tidiigg wliiub tiiB law is aimiid ogainet ; and liocanae of ibis 
we uphold, vindicate, and rejoico in the law ag protoctin^ 
ourselves and all others, and making true liberty n | 

Wo say, then, that tbo plea of jierBonal liberty AVilillf 
no man anything, if in the esoi-cise of that liberty he i 
jeopiirdiziug the rights, tbe seonrity and the happmesB o 
others. The safety of th« people must alwaj's, in at 
equitable government, be the swpretne law ; and under iJ 
ancient bnt perpetually significant rule, the liquor tri^ 
must be outlawed, put beyond the pale 
crushed out, as being, more than all things else tliat c 
be mentioned — since it is the incitement to all conceivably 
evil — tbo curse of tbe laud and the deatroycr of its peo] 
Butter, far bettor, that wo allow this [dea of Personal I 
crty as a bar against interfering with any other known vic« 
tlian that wo listen to and heed U as urged by the 1 
seller" in defence of Lis vile truftie. He is, of all olliers. tl 
greatest foe to the liberties of tUe land, and to the )ir<M[W 
ity and pi-olection of the homes aud the lives of thtt p 
■ and therefore, his Personal Liberty to do at* he plea 
establishing an<l perfiutuating his traffic, ought to b« iotn 
fered with an<l forliidden. 

Mr. Gladi^tone is reported as having said, nnd j 
that tho sphere of govei'nmcnt in regard to mnn In " 
make it easy I'or him to do what is right, and difflmlt f 
hfdi to do wrnns!;;" ani\ A''* ivW mnawe, tliia "stinv-* 

Oj^osUioti to ProhiLi'ory Late 


Htanke its continnance an impoBsubility. This, Proliibition 
^K'l'B to do, unil nt less radical ileuling witli the vico can, 
^np intends to, atiuomplLeb tJiia. 

III. Somewhat akin to this lust conei<I«red objection, is 
the pica that Piohibitory Laws aro of the nature of a Sump- 
tatay Xjiw, Becking to interfere with and determine what a 
shall eat or drini. This, if not wholly a mifltako, ia 
t^ually valid against all laws for the paniahment of drnnk- 
I, and especially against euah oit the Drewci'8' Assolu- 
ipn (aa Bee previous quotations, boja their proeeedings in 
Wi,) desire to have enforced against drunkards. 
But in point of fact, no law for the Prohibition of the 
ffio in intosioatiug liquors, has ever said, or ever in- 
mded to say that the liberty of any man to drink Intoxi- 
mts ehall be interfered with, any more tban the law 
teunst the sale of immatnre meats, poiijonons or adultera- 
Ited drags, unwholesome or light-weight bread, aliall be an 
(latecfercnce witli a man's eating or using alLthat ho wants to 
■ 6f fluoh onnbolesome and cheating things. Bnt, inasunch 
as tlio traffic in these exposes the people to disease, or is 
the praetioo of a. fraud upon them, the law, which ia in- 
tended to aldeld the people from liarm and imposition, pro- 
"""'" '3 trade in ench nosious and frandulent articles. 
To cure the people of any disposition to indulge in tUe 
aemnption of such tilings, thoy need, it ia true, to be 
igbtened with i-egard to the personal injury which they 
" I, ami, especially in the case of the use of drugs for 
&&: than medicinal jturposes, their moral sense must also 
B appealed to. Bat, a failure to so enlighten and con- 
pce, or a perversity, arising either from love of indulgence 
i bnitfnl thing, or of weakness of will to resist the 
tuptation to indulgence, does not alter the fact that either 

(freo cr licf.^nscd trafGi 
lDg»r and niiachiof to the 
e bo forbidden. 
o if it, tin prcciecly the i 

things, ia fiiinght with 
■, and should there- 

I piinw\i\|^sriVXi \l\\fc 'vA*i\A 


jRcokol in History. 

and operation of Prohibitory Liqnor Lawa. Tliey are in tcQ, 
sense a dictation to any man as to what he shall not drink, 
They are tlie espression of the decision of the law-malier 
that the traffic, because it creates disea'se, panjierism, c: 
general inaecurity of life, constant jeopardizing of property' 
increased taxation, and an nneettling and disturbance of tt 
very foundations of society, is incompatible with the i 
fare and safety of the State, and therefore sbotild not I 
allowed. If men will nse snoh liquors, let thera do so, iunt 
let them obtain them as they may ; but tlio State, eatiafioj 
of the rainons consequences of such use, as just describe^ 
has a right to say, and is giiUty of iiijustico to its citizens 
if it does not say, ''the sale of such a suurre of mischifl 
shall bo prohibited." If men are tempted to drinlc and 
pcraiat in drinking, either from love of the oblivions condj 
6on into which drunkenness places them, or from inability) 
on account or self-enfeebled will, to resist, or from inheiitei 
tendencies and weakness, or from any other caufie, whatpven 
they are to bo directly reached by enll^htei. 
and conflcience, by moral suaMon, by mediciil trentmuQ 
and care, or by any other personal appeal, and ottenlliiiij 
and the fact that the Slate wisely docs its duty " in mafe 
ing it diiKcnlt t'ur them to do wrong," is a powerful help i 
the use of these agencies ; hut if even with all these ii 
mentalities and this facility for thfir nse, reform i 
effected, the duty of the State remainB the same, the rigb 
of the citizens to protection against the e\"il8 of the tinffl 
is unchanged, and its proluLhion is none the less m, di 
and a ueceseuy, 

IV. It is frequently nrged that Prohibitory Laws *re 
war with the financial interests of the country, inannni 
as the Genera! Govemmonl dwrivps a large rovwino fi 
the duties and tax paid on imported and homo Uiuunractn 
intosicants, and euoh State, ti^wn or city, in enricbnl ti 
the fcps piiid for liecnsoa, \^ iVw f«w"(-^'>\*..M.vV(H 
is fnie, auil i'.i;ii l\i'"' ■ ' ■ ' ' '" ' 

Revenue from the Liquor Trnfflc 437 

of drinking, to bp paid ont of tlieee reeelptH, tlie mere f;n;t 
of rovpmie nnd tux would not tio n wise argument for ac- 
oeptiiig or continning it, ulIobb it could bo bIiowu tbat tlit- 
liquor traffic was productive of iiioro good [ban bann to tbe 
conntry at large, or to any particular Bection of it, But 
I tbia is impossible, since, as bas boon abnndantty 
shown in preceding pages, tbo biatory of tbo traffic ia unre- 
lieved by a aingle inatance of good result, but all is sbanie- 
' All and i-ninons, tbe fact of revenue derived tlicrefrom ia no 
leason f r its continuance f or if it is urged as a reat^on, it 
noro valid plea than lias any otLor crime and out- 
isdfy ir,self because of its iviJltngneaa and desire to 
; "put money in tbe public treaenry. Tbere is no conceivable 
immomlity or crime which wonld not glaflly pay for the 
priTJlego of an nnraolested career, oven a larger sum than 
the liquor traffic pays. 

But, so fearful are the offsets of personal loss, general 

.domoraliKUtiotL, and actual expense paid in dollars and 

Meats for the detection and punisbmont of crime, and tbe 

rapport of paaperism, occasioned liy tbe driuk traffic, titut 

BO (tnblio treasroy is in any aenae enriehed by tbo duties, 

) and license fees, which that traffic produces. Pitt 

justly cbamcterizod tbe attempts of the British Ministry to 

tax America, aa miaerable financiering, " a boast of fetch- 

H peppereom into the escbeqner at the loss of miUiona 

to the nation!" Our plea of Revenue from the Liquor 

tlVlffio is Btill more short-sighted. Our liqnor dealers pour 

at A beverage for tbe citizens, tlie use of which incapaci- 

itos them for labor, reduces their families to beggary, 

lakea the drinker a nuisance and a criiuiual, and Iruiu tbo 

ntoney tlios received, for which no useful equivalent has 

liGcn givon, turns over tlie'worse than wasted capital of tho 

couatry into the public treasury, to become less than a 

*'pupperuom," in the " millious " wliicb must iio paid for 

tbe dil-ect and indirect results of tbe traffic. The men' bisa 

DU labor idime, from the use of livjnoT \i\ t\io Y vvWpA 'fe\»s,t*, 

huw/ fin iu-ti!ii\ vi'ii^us rcfimiB of tbo vaViu oK vVwVAiw lA ' 


Mctiid in EMory. 

those pngnged in the boBiness, time lost during dninkec 
ness, the ineanityj idiocy, ^cknees anil death, cnosed by ii 
temperance, is atuiually $1,244,395,000, as a retnm fur the I 
priWlege of causing which, the liquor manufactutcra pay f 
the General Government, $61,225,995.63, and the liquiir 
eeUer jiavB the States for licenses, $50,000,000, leaTing an I 
esuBHS iif loss for the privilege of receiving this insigniiicant I 
revenue, of $l,133,16!J,n04.47. Add to this the direct t 
penscs of pauperism and o.iimo, and we have a showingJ 
that should satisfy anylicuiy of the blunder and crime of | 
any attempted revenue from the lii|uor traffiu. 

We may approximate an idea of the expeDses throngb-fl 
out the (country in snpporting the pauperism, and pn>seout-l 
big the crimes caused by intemperance, by ouo iustanoe.! 
Albert Barnes says, in a note to his dlacom^e on ' 
Tlirone of Iniquity : " " Tlie exact sam received in the cit] 
and county of Philadelphia for tavern licenses in tLo jeaj 
ISiJl, was $66,302 ; the whole sum in the State was abi 
$108,000, The expenses for prosecuting the crime, s 
fur tbe support of jjaaperism, consequent on intemperance 
in the city and county, was, lor tbe same year, aa oeontateljj 
as it can be computed, $305,000." That is, for 6V» 
$181.05 paid into the city and county treasury aa a canttji 
bution to the revenue by the liquor tmffic, the treasu 
paid out $1,000 for poverty and crime occasioned hy t 
traffic. A wonderful enrichment ! 

And what is true in tbe United States, is equally tmc 
oilier countriofl. In Great Britain the revenue from the It 
on Intosicatiug Liquors, " amounted, in 1868-9, to f 25,6i 
IfiO. Now what does it cost the nation to get at this si 
Probably £259,000,000, eqnivalecttojjayiugl.OOOiiprct 
for collecting the tax. The follo.wing are the [lartiimlon i ■ 


t ol' ctJTue 

I'lViisci! liy iutt'iuiKirninin,. , ,. .-. 

III poor-rules dwd pijlife-rate«, extxa on »o- 

ol" ilnuikeCCCBa, u,ui\ Aimlt-iooAio ^iMt 

Bevefnuefrom the lAquor Traffic^ 439 

4. Losses incurred through intemperance to 
shipping, commerce, and the productive 

industry of the nation 112,070,000 

5. Cost of disease, physical and mental, both in 

puhlic hospitals and in private practice 6,000,000 

6. Voluntary taxes, in support of ragged schools, 

local charities, etc 6,000,000 

7. Extra expenses incurred through intempe- 

rance in the army and navy 2,422,000 

3. Cost of com imported to replace that de- 
stroyed in distillation, etc 16,000,000 

Total *....; £259,092,000 

No wonder, that, in view of this enonnous waste, the 
London Times should have said, in 1853 : 

" Neither supplying the watMra? trawf« o/ wan, nor offering an 
adequate substitute for them — a system of voluntary and daily 
poisoning — ^no way so rapid to increase the wealth of nations 
aud the morality of society could be devised, as the utter anni- 
hilation of the manufacture of ardent spirits, constituting, as 
they do, an infinite waste and an unmixed evil.*' 

And the Daily Telegraph confessed, in 1862, that : " Our rev- 
enue may derive some unholy benefit from the sale of alcohol, 
but the entire trade is, nevertheless, a covenant with sin and 

Similar to this is the opinion of the Courts in the United 
States : 

" The whole course of legislation on this subject prevents any 
presumption being indulged that this traffic, like other eini)loy- 
ments, adds to the wealth of the nation, or to the convenience of 
the public. The presumption is thus declared in almost ex- 
press terms, to be that the traffic is injurious* U> the public interests , 
and hence the rule protecting other employments does not 
apply to this one, and therefore it cannot be said to be within 
the rule." — Supremo Court of Indiana, Harrison et al, v. Lock- 

And Justice Grier, as before cited: "If a loss of revenue 
should accrue to the United States from a diminished consump- 
tion of ardent spirits, she will be a gainer a thousandfold in the 
health, wealth, and happiness of the people." 

* Bacchus Dethroned, p, 251, 

And r!ladjnti>iie is rejHtrted to have said to ft depnlafu 
ol" lin-wt-rti, wlien lliyy triiimpliautly uskeJ lijin wliat 1 
would do ivithout llie liquor I'pvpnuo : " Give nie a natit 
of sober EiiglisliineB, and I will ttike care of tlie revenue 

I'uwell qiioU's the lato Canon Stowell, as saying, in 
lettiiro : 

'' If tbe (lovemmeat cnu contiol dtiuihenneBB, it oagbt M i 
BO. If it does nut, it is afraid, of its I'evenue. What will be io 
will come book toiifolil, in conseq ueuce of tho pioiootion t 
honeet industj'}'.'' Anil he adila : " Tliu opiniuti received nm^ 
coiifinuntion some years' ago in Ireland, wliere, tbroagh H 
labors of Ftitlier Mntbew Bud otbcr gront and good men, U 
eoDBumption of liqnor decieaaed aiOAziagl;, aud jret ti 
revenue improved. In tlio year ending January Eth, iSjt 
sliOTtly bufore wliieh period the tefumintiim coiumoncDd, tl 
produec &um liceiwea waa £138,494. Tear by year tljd« ainoo) 
WBB rudnced, till the joar ending January Bth, 18*3, tio pn 
drito wag only £95,980, Iwtng a total rednetion niKm (be OUi 
ycnn of £32,514. In tbo year ending January 5tb, 1639, tl 
amuunt received iiom tbe tax on malt was, i;2{j9,868: in tl 
year ending January Bth, 1342, it stood at ^iriBiIfkl, m»kiiig 
total deiBmiso in the tluree years, of £124.711!. With regnrd t 
Bpirits, tbe revenue for tbe year ending January HOm, 1830, Wl 
£1,510,093; in the yesrr ending January Sth, 1S13, the' nmoni 
was reduced to £9&1,T11, being a di^creuse in tbe three yean t 
£545,3S1. The whole decrenae of the revenue from epiij 
licenses, malt, and spirits, dnvln^; the five yeiiTs mding JuM 
ary 5th, I"43, amounted to £682,611. Ti.t notwithatan fling tttf 
rtfry heavy redaction, arising [rata Uie Bueccss uf tills 
anoe movement, there was a large increase of revenue fTmn I 
inorensed produce of other esc iaable articles; tlic roveniw : 
1»11 was. £4.107.866, which increased in 1842, to £4,198,6 
showing n total increase of £90,823. The revenno on too *k 
for the year ending January 5th, 1$13, bod inac«aMd 

There i^ probably, thorefure, no more B«nKeleaa pli 
than that the revennoa of a countiy will fall off if t 
liijuor traJHii is deetroyod ; as tlieru is certainly wo urn 
false prcienco than that duties, taxes, and license fcpe I 
intoxicants, pnricli any |)iililic treasury. 

Profubi^ry Jjiquor Laws. 


V. A very common olijeotion, and oue sometimefl urgeil 

ite OB j»iBisteDl1y by luoi who cluim. to be opposed to 

t liquor traffic, as by tlioito engaged in tbat traffic, ie, 

,t. a Prohibitory Law is in advance of, and opposed by, 

Riblic opinion. If it be conceded, for the puqxee of a fnll 

Uid f^ oonisi deration of tbiii objection, that public opinion 

I opposed to Frofaibituiy Liquor Laws, we ehall alao bo 

Wn&onted by this fact: that there is nothing pecnliar in 

lob laws to diatiagoish them &om legislation levelled 

gaioat other vices antagonistic to private and pnblio good, 

nd that the fact that ethii;al laws in general, aronse 

q)poiUtion, is never urged by right-minded men agfunst 

heir enactment and enforcement. Says the Rev. James 

Jmitli, M. A. : 

" Among the ancient Jews and the early Christiana, etbical 

inciplox had to l>o applied in au age and in oircumstanooH very 

Krent £tom ours ; tint these principles tbomselvea do not par- 

alie of the narrowness by wlucli every indlvidnal. nationality, 

* peiiod, mast be more or \esa cliiuacterised ; they ara catholio 

I thair character and adaptation, and are at all times in ad,- 

aui:« of the lu){heBt altiLlaed morality. They pnsscaa, mere- 

ver, an edncatlug and el^vaiing ponori so that tijo honest ap- 

lieation of them, in tbe most untoward ci renin 8tan(56s, and 

m the very lowest starting point, will tend to ameliorate the 

iditiun and to elevate thu uharaeter of thoae who apply 

Take the laws set forth in the Ten CoraniandmentB, aa 
laatratave of the truth of this. ThE^so laws, ^ven prima- 
ly to the IsracIitoB, were promulgated at the time of their 
iQBt inanifoBt lack «f hamiony with an endorsement of 
Kmi ; and tlioy were held to a rigid observance of their re- 
ts, even when with almost entire unanimity they ,. 
Itfiiapted to violate thora, and often fimliehly tbouglit 
leniselves succosBful in their revolt. Centuries of slaverv 
id degraded and demoralized the Hetirewa, and the 
l^tdons formed )n sach a state of servitude, were for'u 

'*Th»Tefflpct!inre Reformation and its olftiws wjontbeChtift- 
kn Chntth. J'p. 2o&-l, 


\c'ag time in oppo^tiou to the liigb dcmanilB of the lawfl^ 
of Jeliovah. But by degrees tlieae laws became their 
odiicatoTB, and led them to tetter thoughts and to purer 
doeda. ttlio shall «ay that Almighty Wisdom was at 
fault in framing laws go far in advance of popular ojiiuiou T 

Wo have already seen that thoae who Lave been most 
active in the Temperance cause, and oBpecially tboBe who 
have faithfully advocated Moral Suasion, and have BonghtJ 
by Buch means to educate the popular mind, uonfeas a c 
Tiction that law ia needed to supplement their efforts evt 
in this direction. Their judgment is certainly cntitleii 1 
consideration. The practical operation of the Prohibitoiy 
Law confirms the wiailom of that judgment. Senator Fryo, 
State Attorney of Maine, for ten years, Bays of dio law ia 
that State : 

"It bag grailnallf created s puMic gentimeiit against both 
Helling and drinldiig, bo that tlie large majoiity of uudorat^ ■ 
Tespoctinble drinkers, have became atiatainera." And. Jib addss 
"No law will enforce itself, but if enforced, its t^udenoj' is to 
creat'O public Bentimeul." 

And Judge Davis, of the same State, says of tho Prohi- 
bitory Laws : 

A» tenuliera of tlio pnblic consciMice, the standard of which is 
eeldom higher tban hnman law, their value is above all pricu. 
Many a man reliains from bajing intoxicatia(; Uqiiurs wbcn bn 
wants tbem simply because be must buy of a viitlntt^r i-f llix 
law ; and tliis m uflen the secret of his oppusitiuu to tbo liiii . 
He does not like to give his conacionws a chanci" to appeul \a 
such a law. It tends to niako both liupng Hud selling diBio]in' 
talile. It holds up the etnndard of rights and puts Ibo liranil uf 
infamy upon the mnrng. He is a blind oli^rver of tlio l'urc<3> 
that goTcm in human life who doea not see the moral j'on'ur of 
penal Inw, even irlien extensively violated, in teaching vlrtao 
and roBtraiuing vice." 

1110 quotations previously made from the wrilJa^ nf 
Sheldon Amos, show conclusively that all license Iuwh 
demorolizo public sentiment, by giving to vico llm ? iiir'vin 
of Je^.iJized protectWe \t:g\a\a\\oii. A review erf lli- M i"i/ 

Prohibitory Liquor Laws. 443 

the fact that law is a raost effective educator. When the 
politicians of 1850 secured the enactment of the infamous 
Fugitive Slave Bill, how it debauched and demoralized the 
public opinion of the country. Everywhere it made 
eminent men and women leaders in society, bitter pro-sla- 
very apologists. But since that law has been abolished, and 
laws in defence of universal liberty have taken its ]>lace, 
what a change has come over public opinion ; for who is 
not now a defender of such liberty, and also quite solicitous 
to be regarded as having always maintained that position ! 
Sheldon Amos has some remarks on this subject, which 
are worth remembering : 

"This subtle agency of public opinion does not owe its power 
to the width, the rei>re8entative character, uor still less to the 
inherent worth of the opinion itself. It owes its i)ower rather 
to the nearness of the public concerned, and to the concentra- 
tion of its movements. Thus to a school-hoy, his school-fellows, 
at least as much as his masters, and far more than his parents, 
supply the guage of right thinking and right acting. To a 
workman, his fellow-operatives ; to a soldier, his comrades; to 
a lawyer or doctor, the members of their several professions ; to 
a whole people, their public writers, their magistrates and their 
legislators, determine the standard not only of right or wrong 
conduct in the greater crises of action, hut of just or unjust, 
benevolent or harsh, becoming or unbecoming, thinking, feeling, 
and acting at every moment of life. Tlie bearing of this on 
the present subject, (Legalized Prostitution,) is obvious. Vice 
grows quite as much by moral as by material opportunities. 
A clear and broadly diffused public sentiment in favor of purity 
is one of the strongest fences against impurity ; while on the other 
hand, public callousness, not to say laxity, on the subject, is a 
vehement stimulus to vice. It need then hardly be pointed out 
that, whether in the language of law or of literature, all formal 
recognition of social vice as anything but an evil determinedly 
to be combatted at every point, as a gross, temporary and unnat- 
ural excrescence on civilized society, buoys up the interested 
public opinion already pledged to countenance it, and affords to 
vice itself the most direct and unremitting stimulus."- -Pp. 12, 

The application of this to public opimou Ciw \Xv^ ^\kk%i^ 
of Temperance, especially its \)©ai\xig Wi ^x^^vSio^^Rsrq 


Akohd in History. 

Ij-gisliition, ia as signifiimnt aa it possibly can be to auy 1 
DtlK^r tUeme. Kegloct of the use of every eduuKtionaJ I'a-J 
cility, ani) eapecially neglect or roltisaJ tu ptit the IcgiatntivSil 
siatiip of crime oa the liquor traffic, vitiates and deBtroysl 
all efi'ort at iutelleutnal ealightecmciit or moral sna^ioa:- 
wliile ilotcrmi nation to denl with it \iy law, as an uppalluigj 
vicni anil a foe to the intetrats of society, ie the best luid n 
est gaide to n just public opinion in regard to its eDonnity.'l 

VI. Another comnjon objection to the Prohibitory Law, ] 
IB, that it is not, and cannot bo, enforced, Thia i 
quputly Slated by the various Liquor Aaaociationa, as aea% 
pri?cedtng extracts from their proceedings. Why, llien, thft J 
creation of each asBociatiouB on purpose to prevent the en-f 
actnient of such a law T Why the confessed expenditure (if I 
tens of thonaauds of dollars to liefeat attemjiteil legislatioal 
of this kind f Aro not such facts far more Biguilloant of V 
wbat is true In regiinl to the efficiency of the law, than t 
bbii^teriug denials of its power can bef Men a 
likely to baud togetlier and lavishly speud money ii 
sition to tliat which is inoperative. " The children of thii 
world " are far too wise to be guilty of such fully ; and ( 
may be sure, that, whatever tlieir pretensions to th« c 
trary, they aio not thus fighting what they believe to bo I 

But, if it could he made to appear that ihe I'rohibitfliy 
Law ia successfully evaded in aome localities, tliat a 
tempted proseoutionB of its violations failed of convieti< 
in Bome iuBtance.s, that combination b, eeuvey, the thniditv 
or difihenesty of the officers of the Inw, or any other couM 
operates to produce the nim-enforcement of Prcihibitoi^ 
Laws, what then 1 Is that a late peculiar to thuM* luvt 
and unknown to other enuctnieutst Or, is it tuit just Whi 
happenfi to all kinds of mminal legiflladoi 
yoo, tht-refore, repeal all i:riniinal law f And if m>[, *hj 
tnnhu an exceplUm m V^ v 

Fiv'iiLiilofy Liqnor , 


"Tliosc who Ufuumive tLo Moiue Law, becaase it in not cn- 
l, little know liow pluinly U cud bo seeu nhut apiiit thej 
TUo wliole eeiTBt of llioir opposiliou jb guiierallj' a fear 
t will lie eat'orced, or a 'laaire lor iuilulguueu, witbout 
g thut the; are causing it to be violated. For tiioy ru« 
ULore liiBsnltslied wlisu it is cnfutuud. lu tliia State the 
(vaaoSBcated vigoroualj from I80I to 1856 — a rather loug 
, Dr. Bacim might preaiime, for the Uroom to • sweep 
' beoatuw it ■vras 'new.' And it hiiB never boon so 
rangU; oxecut^cl aa it was m 18[i5, when Che e:mia meu wiim 
1 their opposition who now oppose it un the ground 
Lt it is not eufuroed. 

1 thej show Che same inconsistoncj' in auotliei way. 
• there ^^ other laws, of which they never complain, to 
Sch this objection might be made with pquol force. 

1 laws are divided ioto two cJassBS in this respect. 
(HID cluss are oaforced without nay general eflort in 
Gonuntiuity ; while those of the other class are not. The 
I «aaily stated. 

. WheatheoffeDceinjnres some one, in person, or proporly, 
«l»reenj', arsou, or murder, the friends of tlio injured party, 
d tba vliole commimitj, are interested in briuging the offcu- 
It to pnnishuit'ut. 

'"S. But in the other class of crimes, lilie gambling, licon- 
selliiig intozioating Itqnors, there is no injured 
J unxious to have the gailty pnnisbcd. These offences can 
i aucrotly; anil oU the parties are interested in 
aliag them. They are, therefore, detected witli difficulty, 
B punished only Ly special effort. And, especially in 
M and largo lovms, the laws aRainst them are but partially 

"TbR Maine Law ia not pecitltar in this respect. There is 
' a lorga city in the country in which there arc not scores of 
latiUog-housea and houses of il!-fanie, the cxjateui.'o of which 
U Itaowii to the iiihiihitants, and to the authoFitiLVt ; and 
t tbe laws agaiusti them are not cnftirciid. Are tho laws, 
;, wronR I And ought they to he changed into license 
TTio truth ia (and Tpmix-Tanco iticn miwt not forget it,) 
■ of Liwa wii] always be estenBively Tiolatwl, Tho 
« Law, even uoiv. k tnfonml Ilir more thoroughly than the 
In pro]iortion to lUo uiiniher of people 
[tinipntiiig in the erit lu lie siipjircnsod, it is enforced as well 
' Ls State as are tiku laws to prevent licentiousness." * 

Elsewhere ho is roporteii to have Buid, and at a. Iut«rdiiti? 
tlian the above : 

" The Maine Low has proilupotl oiio humlred times more viai- 
IjIb iinprovouipnt in the chani-cler, condition, and. prosperity of 
otic puople tlian any otliet law that wita evfr wiueted," 

Hecently, (the Fall of 1880,) there have been Bimio 
crooked esperioii<%s in the exeuation of the \a.w in uue 
locality in Maine. Hon. Noal Dow, thns calls atloacioD ta 
wiiat is said of them, and to reasons espluiuing them, in the 
"Advance : " 

" The following parograph is cat froni the CmisrcjaUannliiil. 
Similar paragrapIiH have beoa going tlio ronnds of the ruligloi 
And BecuJai presa, the object Iieiog, I snppose, to sliow' tUat tb»] 
liiiaoi traffic, the Kfog-shnp, the dninkard-fnetories, nruinot 
eupprwwflil by law, iior evnn dtminiHlieil in number ; and that, 
therefore, they onght to be licenBed by the State, anil eanc-tilleil 
liy Btatnte. It seems to me not a littlo siuguliir tliat many of 
tlie papers which eagerly give ourreni^y to sndi pumgropha as 
tills, aflbrd no room tor anything tipon tho teoijiOTnilcu sido. 
Now for the slip allnded to : 

" 'A moat trnstworthy ■Western friend, whoha«lieensiHiQditi<; 
some little time in Bangor, Me., and who had consiiloTtiUlii itt- 
tereat in satisfying himself how the 'Maine law 'is now wurtiiiii! 
in practice in a place of that size, informed ua, tliis wvek, thut 
be is satisfied that there are from two to three handxeil pinc"* 
in that city where intoxicating liquors are Huld as ojinnly u* In 
Boston or New York. As tliero mnst bo nearly or t|nite SU,^)!) 
inhabitants in fiangor, that would give an BV«rn^ of imo iit>°a 
mm-sbop (say) to abont every tightij4bree inliubitants. llu 
fnrt}ier stated that the nsnal intoxicauts hnd their nsnni plii«e 
Tipon the printed bill of faro at the hotel where lie lioimlBd. 
w^ould seem to bn In order for some one to rise and eoqtlain.' 

" I'be writer of the above para^aph gives it as a sarapli 
the way the ' Maine Law is now working in practleo ! ' I 
der the writer did not see that it was a sample only of Thn 
the grog-shops flonrish in places whent the Maine taw doeti 
work at all, where it is not enforced. PorUanil lias a ]ir>piilatl< 
of about 35,000; why did not the writer point to it ns a dmnol 
stration of the failure of tbe lowl Ifeto (Portland) thft i 
and police hant mtuftnllccB vigoronaly, wi*sl from tbum 
fines, iind inflict upon ttvem 'Voti^ \*mvia 
Bangor the officora and Vtie ttftWoT\ft» 

.he J 

ProMbibm/ Lujuor Laws. 


r-ohmdies msentiiif; to it, niuhe bnrgikins with the nimsi.OlerB, 
Siving l.bum iuiaiuuUy rrtiui tlie luw iu exoliuuge fur votes. 
Bangor iseminuntlj e, city (if cbnrclies and picly— I oicsin wliut 
S l)j tLat naiue — aud yet th» wouiou aiiil uhildi'oQ uud tho 
dourcGt iutecosta uf tbousaudHof the iieople tUere, lire di-librr- 
fttely jfiven up to wretchediieHs and ruin, in oxcliange for vutCT. 
iThafa the way ' the Mtdne law operateB,' say« the writM of the 
ftbave parugruph, and tliouauuda of othois as foolish, ns 
'VunightlrsB, as illogical aa hd. 
^^ "No, that is the way ' Ucfsafle ' oporotes ; the understanding is 
Iketween the aiitiioiitios and the rumaellers, that the ehopa aliiiil 
e Btiut op, sbarii, ut ten o'clocli nt uJght, and that no drnnliea 
U shall bo pt^rmitted to come out of them iuto the street. Tlio 
City onthoritiea have deliberately resolved that the Maine law 
Ihall not ' work ' tln're at all, directly or indirectly. They delUi- 
tMtely violate their oath of office, which recpiirefi them tn enforce 
tlto law— all laws. They dolilrarfttely nullify the law ; they de- 
^berately assume tii set aaide tbuauthurity of the Logialuturo UDd 
jto trample tJie oonstitntion under foot. By doing this they de- 
jibeiatdy, in the full knowloilge of what they do, sot un exjun- 
plB to every rowdy, bliuikgwaril and rascal, of di»I*gard of law 
;Wd order, of contempt for lair, and tho rights of tlie people. It 
ia the right of the people that the lows sball be observed! '* ia 
'tho right of every raau to eiijoy the protection of the low Bgninst 
the liquor trade, ' the gigantic crime of crimes.' lint iill this is 
Jgoorttd in Bangor, with the delitieratL> aeaent and consent of 
iBangOE piety and morality, witllolit which it could not be 

This, thou, is the Bocret of alleged failnre, — ^tlie Buccesa 
of iBteroBted Equor dealera in debaucLing public officers 1 
iStBOgglers might, perhaps, have in sotuo instiiuces, tlitie 
iBorrupted onstoms oificersi, and with equal justice nnd fair- 
nOM boaet of nnBucooasfiil revenno laws, but tlie bojist is nnt 
to tfae credit of eitber tlio tempters or the tera]>tcd, and least 
flf all doee it argue defect in tJio law. A eonspiniey to 
fivertlirow tlin (loveramcnt is no proof that the Contstittitiun 
HkCtbe land is weak nnd wiirthlesH. 

Somotbinw (il;in to tliis dutermmjitron ou Ibo part of 
flioeo inieresled in the infamous buaineuii \--\ bii^ik diiwn 
ide foriie of tlie luw against thcii; trade, v.'ua.wviiwCt's^-tvi'.wX'i 
« kiiDflml and fifty years ag!;o, iw (iie&t "ft'n.'uc--!".. ^s^'S. 


448 Alcohoi Ml History. 

ChosterfiplU, in tlip faiaous Parliamentary dobatos alreaJy 
referred to, in answer to an argument tliat in isonacquonuu 
of ihe non-ciiforccnicnt of tlio provieiuua of tlio Oin law, 
another and iHiTereut euoctment was ucoestuiry, aaid: 

"Innrder to 
miiHt fifdt be iaqnircd nhy tlio prusent law is uf iio fiireu f Fur, 
my IvnlB, it will be fbimd. on ieilt>ctian, that tliere aie coctlUn 
ilegrecB of oorruptiou tliat may hinder the eS'ei^la of tbe best 
lavm. The magistratea may be viciouB and fortiear to BotOta 
that la\r by which themHelves are coadeamod ; they amy be In- 
dolRUt and inclined rather to connive at wickcdnL-ae, by whioh 
tiiey are not injnred themselyea, tlian to repreas it by a laboii- 
oUB exertion of their authority ; or they may bo tiiDuroiis, aud, 
instend of awin)( the vicious, may bo awed by ttiom. In nay 
of these caaeB, my lords, the law is not to l>e condoiimcd fur its 
iuellii.'ieni.'y ; eince it only fails by tho detect of those \tho tOM 
to direct its operatioUR, The best and most imiiortant laws will 
cionlributc very little to tlio Boi'urlty or happiuesa of a iieoiilo, if 
no judges of integrity and spirit can bo fuund uiuoogsl tliomt 
Even tbe tno«t bDneflrial and uaofDl bill that ministers ciui pon- 
eibly imagine : a bill for layinK on our estates a tas of a fifth 
part of their yearly value, would be wholly without effcflt,!! 
collectors could not be obtaiued, I am, therefore, niy lonla, yHl 
doubtflil whether Ibo ineflicacy of the law now esistinK imcm- 
sarily obligna ua to provide another; for tboau that depjurwl it 
to be useless, owned at tile sitnio time that no man eudeavorwL 
to enforce it, bo that perhaps its ouly defect ni.iy he that it itiU 
not OKocnt* il-self." ' 

And Lord Carteret, after citing tlie altemjite of the ]i<]Qar 
aellers to weaiy out the Magistratea hy eulmiittrng to tlia 
tincH and imprisonnienta for violations of the law, and a£ 
nure i>utting8ome other Bailer in their shops, thns deseriljcs 
another cxpodient resorted to \ij them to rendttr Uiu law 

" At length, my lordti, instnad of wearyitig the inftpiBt»nt«», 
they grew we.iry tliemsL'lvi.'s. and deteruiiuKd nu lonfcer to bwu 
peisocutioii for their rujoynicnts, but \a zetatl Ihikt )iiw wlikh 
they ro'itd uot evade, and lo which t^^l•y wiadd luit wiNutit. 
They thitmfurt) determined to ninrk out all tboso vtba by tlieir 

• Gentleman's MagaiVne, 3BiiQa.T's,\1^^*-^.j 

Frohibiiory lAquor Lam. 

fbrmntion promotod its cxeontioD, as public 

tclics vtirn ibr tli« 8ak» of n tewatd, carrioJ on a trsiilo of 

njnry auil pi<rBecTitluti, anil who liaruoaed thi^ir inuot-'^nt 

igbbara onlj- for cnrrj-ing on a. lawful uiupIoymcQt for bii(>- 

<• tlic wautK of the poor, lelii^Tiiig tho weaiiuess of tlio 

et, admin iateTing eolace to tho dejected, and conliula to 

ack. The word was tliereforo given that no iiiibiuier 

il lie spared ; nnd wheu an ofl'ender was Buuuiioned by tho 

oBlt't>TB, crowds wuteLeil at tho door ol" tho magistrate %a 

a the piieoDor, and to discover and seize the witness upon 

e teatintony ho was convicted ; aiul uufoitunate was the 

Cetch who, with the hnpntation of tUia crime upon him, full 

o their hands. It is well remembered by every man who tit 

time was converssjit in this pity, with whut outctiea of 

tnnce an informer wns pursued in the pablic streetA, and 

B open day : with what eKi'lamationa of ttinmph he waa 

1, njid with what rage of cruelty ho waa tormented. One 

uce of their <:ruoIty I very porticulaily remember. Aa 

a waa passing along the streets, the alarm waa given that 

•M nn informer ngainst the retailers of spiritnona liqnora. 

i6l»pnlnce were immediately gathered aa in a time of com- 

) danger, and nuited in the puiam't as of a beast of prey, 

h it was criminal nut to destroy- Tho muu discovered, 

r by conscionsncss or intelligence, his danger, and fled 

fc bis life "with the utmost precipitatidU ; hut no housekeeper 

nt afford him shelter; theory increased upon him ou all 

~ I, and the populace rolled after him like a torrent not to 

listed, and he waa upon the point of l)eing overtaken, and. 

ome others, destroyed, when one of the greatest peisona in 

ition, heuriug the tumult, and inquiring the reason, opened 

'» dooTa to the distrijaaed fugitive, and sheltered him &om a 

nel Aeittli. Boon afterwards there wub a stop put to all in- 

1 nil luiin dared afterwards, for the sake of reward, 

self to the fury of the people, and Iho nse of theae 

motive liquors waa no longer obstructed." * 

I VII. Brit [lerliaps the most formitialile obstacle to the sue- 

S of I^oLibiiiiry Law, ia found in lliu fwt tliat tlio liquor 

fcafiio liaa olitaiuiid control of tlic great polhkitil parties of 

a TJnited Slatee, The action, so often repi!Hlo(l, <if tbe 

rowers' Assocliitiou, iu resolving to vote for no man of 

fcy jjWtj" wlio ia in fiivor of Prohibitory liOgialalion, Las 

Atcoki^ fti W^oTff. 


lieen no idle and iiumoiiiiing boast ; Ijut liaa been carried 
into effect not only liy lliomselvea, l>m vciy gt^uerally I 
thoBB engaged in vurioua branohea of the liijiiwr trad 
Aud the rosnlt has been two-fold, — tbo inimcdiate Ka<Mt 
of the party whitih lias nomiuated men known lo IJavof tH 
liijuor interest, — and a zealoTis effort ou the part of 1 
crats and Bopnblicans to bid for and HeiMire the vuieB e 
the liquor-makers and tho liquor-eelleis. Escept in % 
State of Maine, where for Boveral years it has been irapa 
Biblo for any party to carry an election without the aid « 
the votea of Prohibition iats, the Democracy has for i 
years uniformly arrayed itself on the hquor side. 

The Domouratio Naticaial C'mvention, in 1876, declared^ 
"The vital principle of the Ei?ptiblic is .... 1: 
liberty of individual condnct from Hnraptiiary laws." 

Occasionally, as in Massackusotte, in the nomination g 
Thomas Talbot for Governor, the Repnblieane have <I 
to put forth rrohibitory candidalee ; but since tho resolt fl 
the special a<'tiiin just indicated — l!ie desertion of a 
cient number of Repnblioan distillera, hrtiwerB and liqiw 
sellers to the Democratic side, and the consequent d 
of Mr. Talbot, — the osperinient ia not repeated. 

The Bepublicau National Convention of 1872, made tl 
following declaration in its platform : 

"TlieEopu1]lioan party jiropoee to rospeut tlio rights k 
Ly tlie people to themB(^lFes hb carelnlly f» (be powers delegafa 
by them to the State Bud to the FedernI Gnvemiuent. 
proves of a resort to uncotistilutional laws for the putpOB* i 
removing evila l)jr inteiference with tlie righta not antroiur 
by the people to either Stnta or National Uovernment." 

"What did thiB mean ^ was a qneBtion eooH urpfrJ with' 
much persistenoe in various quarters, as to elicit an vav 
from its author, in wliieh, silUiongh he was coiifroiitoil 
the liict tliat every Prohibitory law submitted lu tint hig-bi 
tribunals in the land, — the Supreme Court of llii- XTntI 
States, and tb« Conns ol YmsCi Ki^^ftJ,/ 
SUilfs, tJiC'V li;vA di;c"VaTcA ■iWV iVaaft" 

Prohibitory Liquor Laws. 451 

itli the Constitution, — lUe uutlicr of tlio resolution, Mr. 
■, of llUuijis, gave lUia esplaiiatiou of ite meaning : 
It wae adopted by the platform committee witli liie full 
Id explicit niiilerBt.andiiig tliat its purpose was iho dia- 

intenanoing of all Bo-mlled temperance (proliibitory,) 

i Simday laws." 
The "Brewers' Aasociation," in session the same month, 
. New York City, were addressed by their President, in 
tgtad to party politics. Alluding to the Uemocratio 
Uty, he said : 

■"The Presidential election ■wliich takes place this fall may 
ange the aspects of ^at party. At the Cincinnati Convention 

y havB plaeed at tbe heul of their ticket, a man (Horace 
y,) whose antecedents will warrant him a pliant tool lu 
IsoftlieTemperimcoParty ; nndnonuofyoo, gentlemen, 
nimpport liim. It is necessary for yon to make an issne at this 
Ktlon throtigbont the entire eonntry : and although I have 
tonged to the Demooratic party ever since I have had a vote, 
wonld sooner vote for the Kupublienn ticket than cast my 
^ot for Buob a candidate.'' 

The Esecutive Committee also reported concerning the 
dangers which threatened their trade " from adverse 
;isIation, and added: 

'No trade, in view of its political poteer, is better calculated 
exeroiae a marked inflnence on the oleirtioTU) tlian yours, and 
la you duty and a matter self-defence to take a direct and 
Bt« part in the political revolution and transformation - of 
ttles, 80 that in this direction, too, the desired reforms may 

The leading pnhlic jonmals of the Eepuhlican party 
torae this non-prohibitory poution of that party. In 
TB, Harpers' Weeldi/ eaid : 

I'Tlie Republican party is not a prohibition party. As the 
<i eentliuent uf the conutiy agrees that the subject shall be 
islatively treated by aiitboriziug a license eystem, tbe Ke- 
bllconjs would make that system as just and efflcient ns prac~ 
able. Turther than this as a national party it will not go, 
i t)i^ nttfuipt to buy the prohiliition unij^iort.'Vi'^^'ftvist » 
iibltioa jilatfbrm, could end only mtba 4fi6tta.c'Cvwa. ^A 'Coa 

party. This is perfectJy well utirteretood hj tlie bulk of Bus 
litaiia, anil they will act accordingly."' 

And again, referring to those iutcrestpd in tbe li^ 
traffic, it aaiii : 

''tJnleaa the Eopublicnn party ia ready 
doath, it camiot consent to legialato ailvo 
of this claaa of people." 

The Sew York. Tirne$ eaid: "Noue of the probable Candida 
are likely to be iu favor of prohibitory liiws. The temperai 
Bocictiea could not possibly f;ot an ouC-and-ont teroporiuuie id 
nominated. They know this ua well as we do." 

And the Chicago Tribvne: "More than the third t 
tnan the Credit Mobilicr, uiore than salary iprubbln^, more lb 
Butlerism, mure tJian all nthot eiiuscH put togetb^c, Prohibita 
has imdennined and doHtroyed the Repnbliuan purt; ; Prdhl 
tion must be prohibited by the Republican party." 

In view of this, how marvellous it is thut whenever , 
attempt is made to induce independent actioit on tliis gn 
queation of tlie liquor traffic, the cry is invaiiablv raisei 
" Do not thnB jeopardize the RacceBS of the Repufolioa 
party, for it alone ia the party favoraMo to tenipet&tij 
views, tlie only party from which the ProhibitioniBta a 
Lope for legislation favorable to their viows." And \igi 
stapid professed temperanue men in tlie Kepublic^ 
are to believe and act on Buch an aasurance.* And what 
deception in practised wben the assertioD is made, as it 
oiten is, that all the Prohibitory Legislation we have ev 
had hae been made for us by the Bepublicans, The tat 
ill tlie case are not difficult to Bacertain. See how plnfs 
they put the stamp of falsehood on this assertion i 

" lat. Not a BinjTle Prohiliitory law, (we don't ainau qaaUib 
licensed now on a. statate book in this cooutry, is tlie wutk ( 
the ICepublioan party. It aiUHt be recnlleuiiid tliut the Rejut 
liciiQ party is less than twcuty-live years old, dutiug bock oil 
to 1856, and every Prohibitory statute we n 
before that time. The liomocruCa coutrolled Muini:, wb^u U 
Jaw of tliat State was adopted, as tbey did the BtAte of Ohl 

Proliihiiury JAquor Laws. 453 

th« provUion against Uroaso was iDBorted in its conatitu- 
, To tile Dcmoi: ratio, Wliig, itnU Amorifiin piirlicM, and 

quantly to a coiubinalion, are all our prusent Proliibifory 
tiiteH attriliiitable. In MuBsauhuaettB, auil one or two ol.licr 
!, the Hepabllcao party bos done bomb teinperaiico legin- 
ingi but wlion tlio lager boor pressure was lirougfit to boar 
11 it, it has tuitde haste to ccveiso its action. 
Sd. Wbile the Gepublicnn party has uiliied notliiag to 
list of Prohibitory laws, it has, on the other hand, niatc- 
/ reduced it. In KUoliigon, Coanectirut, MaeaachusiittB 
L Rhode Island, it iB responsible for thu repeal of such laws, 
8 vail'yllig four 8tatea over to Riun's side. In Pennsylr^nia 
.qd the Govurnor uud Senate, while the Demoorata had the 
ir Ronse, when local Option was stricken down. In a nnm- 
of the &tatea, including New York, it has made important 
ielative conooaaion to the Rum interest. 
Srd. But the Republican party ia chargeable with more 

1 four mmBBlling States. During the lime it bos liud tba 
er, the President and both Hoiisos of Congreaa being of its 

itioa, Boverat new States bare been added to the Union, the 
aoental laws of which it rontrolled. but all of which it haa 
Q under the liuui curse. In ouu inittauce, it 
I ear«nil to iusist that the couatitution of a new State with 
I thAD liitj negroes and mnlattoca should huTQ a perpetual 
llibition againat slavery : but rei|uircd nothing ogainat 
a, attbough over one thousand gin mills wore ia operation 
ha dia:trict legislated on. 

^tli- And beside new (States, it haa organized several Terti- 
m, f<)X oil of which u Republican Congress has made the 
t. Mid in not one of which is Kiirasolling prohibited. The 
it oriine of the Donioeratio party, in Bepubliean eyes, osed 
a that it was willing to let slavery enter new Territory. 
Stbi For nearly twei^ty years, the Bepnblican party haa 
rolled und legislated for tlie District of Columbia, and dur- 
thu xbole of that time the Kation liaa lieen diahonorcd by 
^rtoiu dtoukenneaa under the very shadow of the Capital. 
6tlt. For nearly twenty years it haa permitted intoxicating 
» to be openly brought into the country, and the quantity 
itlnlly imported has been constantly increasing. 
7th. It has been the first national party to put a plank in 
»I of Rum, and ugainst the Sabtwith in its national platform. 
I Ibo Kith resolution of Uie Pliiladelpbia Platform of 1872, 
ftA author's eiplanation, elsewhere given.) 
Stli. lu maay States it hua legislated diiecttj \n Oio vtiHjKw»."i. 

Alcohol in History. 
of Emn. In New York it put the Wine and Spirit Ttadeta' act 

"9th. lu luauy states it has got l!ie vote of tonperanee peo- 
ple for ita tiuket oq the espteas promiae tliat it would, if siic- 
cossful, legialnte for Prohibition, (in New Turk and. Ohio iU 
promise to give Local Option is welt known,) nod then liuB 
purjiosely violated ita word, und worked directly for Bum." 

This is the record of the i)ai1y which makes such botute 
of intercstedness in the Temperance cauae. This is the 
manner in whiuh it hae helped along the latnse of Prohibi- 
tion ! The following table, compiled Ijj Hon. Jiiiuue 
Black, of Lancaster, Pennsylvania, shows when, and hy 
what political parties the several Prohibitoiy Laws have 
been enacted : 


. l!)lB..An<lei«in. 

. lafil. Hubbard. 

miri.MiaDeHHii nuDD. leCS-.Kimiej-. 

ard.Kbods Inland. -Msr 7. IBS^.-Allao. 

4th,.l>lsiBlithusetu.M>y£9, IStS. . Wlnthran. 

Hh-Vei-monl. Nor, SS, 18fiS..FBi7lli>nfai. 

eth..Mliib1mD Feb. IS. IB!>3..MeC)eJlaDi! 

701 Caniujecieut. . Jose 16. 1R54. 
eih..Indimii» P*^.^ \l^. 




Politlcml Polities) Quu. 
BUlua of Le^ilitnre. 

. .Democrat . , DemocrH 
,Vniig Wbis 

. - Domoml . - neoiacrBi 
..Demoent. Demornl 


.-Whiff .- ..Whig 
..ntimornti , -Democrat 
.Whig Ilsm, AAU'IIati 

..Arrl, 18l!!l..l!!iird 

..Al>r8, laSB. Clwlt 

. July 14. 18BG..Melu1f.. 
..Fob. 18. ISSf.. ■ ... 

. _, _...^ __, i..AiDer. & BcIidIl 

Ulb.-Ulinois Fob. 18. ISSf.. ■ — AmeAcui. .Vhlg Ic Mt-Seti 

The laws in these States numbered one to fourteen, were 
all in operation when the Ropublipan Piw+y became ft 
National Party, in nominating John C. Fretnont for Pniai- 
dent in 1S56. Those laws, except in the States of Maine, 
Iowa, Vermont and Now Hampshire, have all lioen ropuaW 
by the Republican Party. Behold ita leoord, and buast of 
it if you can! 

CoNCLcsios. — We have thnfl passed in review the IJiii- 
tory of this great Si:fmrge, Intempiimiicff; linv<i put 'i«f- 
eelyes in poseeHsion of some idea of its niunertitw itiBOV-^ 
mentalities, oC iU ^S^> c^Un^, «.\\\ &t«.A^«\M intloeura 
wlierever it existB-, ^&\ e TaoVA. 'Vk^ gSwa. vm. ^;i^;B«fc,,'m 

Condtmon. 455 

edacation and general welfare ; its responsibility for crime, 
pauperism, idiocy, and all other forms of disease and 
degradation ; and gained a glimpse of its enormous drain 
on the resources and prosperity of the nation, and its 
damage to the physical, mental and moral vigor of the 
individual. We have also traced the history and develop- 
ment of the many agencies, which, from most remote anti- 
quity to the present time, have been employed for the sup- 
pression of the Drink Traffic and of Drinking Customs and 
Habits ; and have seen the inadequacy and worthlessness 
of many of them ; the character and extent of the opposition 
arrayed against those which are most efficient 5 the blind- 
ness of political parties to the great evil, and their willing- 
ness to sacrifice the best interests of Society at the bidding 
of the Rum Power. 

From all this array of evidence, we shall, if wise, draw 
some conclusions both with regard to fact, and to duty. 
The following are believed to be legitimate and neces- 
sary : 

I. The Liquor Traffic is an unmitigated cm-se, without 
one bright spot or redeeming feature in all its history, 
and ought, therefore, to be regarded and treated as a 

II. Total Abstinence from all Alcoholic beverages, is 
the only wise rule for any man or woman to adopt. 

III. The State, if it does its duty to its citizens in 
relieving them from oppressive taxation, from the peril of 
insecurity in their possessions, of danger to their persons, 
of general demoralization and shame, must prohibit the 
manufacture and sale of all intoxicants as beverages. 

IV. Every citizen, knowing that, in a Republic, he is a 
part of the Government, and that everything pertaining to 
its laws and their execution, is determined by the citizens' 
votes^ must feel and manifest a peraoiiaL Tea^oiLalblllty for 
what the State is and does ; andkiio^iig,a\ao^^^J^^^^^°!^ 

456 Alcolwl in History. 

perance is a Crime more seductive and far-reachiiig in its 
influence, and more disastrous in its results than are all 
other evils that can possibly oppose the best interests of a 
people, must, in his political theories and acts, be a Pro 

V. Provision should be made in all our educational in- 
stitutions, for the instruction of the young in the Nature 
and EiOTect of all Alcoholic Beverages. 


i, Intoxicants n 
jhh, John, Ou tbo I 

roller anil evils of lipensod honsea, 

I, Joseph, On wine as inflaming thu paMioue, 229, 
Btiona of winee, and other iutoiicnnts, W-72. 
t, latoxiuanU used in, 34, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, il. 
ua, Local Option in, 380. 
ukokam, iDtosicauts made frorti, 33. 
cohol, Not created by distillation, 56 ; Pcrcontage of in Ta.ri- 

A liquors, 59 ; Significance of the word, 57, 
), Amonnt brewed in Englund. in 1688, 168 ; Different names 
r, 160; 8ong in praise of, in 16tb century, 1^. 
I, Beligions fairs, so oitHed. 154. 
t, Intoxicants made Irom, 33. 
I, Inloxieants made bom, 31. 
I, Intosii'antB made from, 33. 
Utiekitea, Intemperance of, 123. 

li St., On wtne and sonsnaliam, 229. 
iD Temperance Society, Organized. 285, 
n Touiporanne Union, Orgnnined, 310; Disbanded, 3-I8. 
aican Totnl Abstinenco Pledge, Adopted in Euglanil, 311, 
^ Olirer and Sons, On contrasted effi'cts of license and 
B prohibition, 405. 

a Mnscarla, Disgnsting intoiicants made from, 31. 
I, tba Prrijihct, Deuooncoa the use of wine, 121. 
I, Sheldon, On tho evils of liconae, 382, 3S5 ; On public 
nioD, 443. 

an, Intoxicnnta made frran, 33. 
iaf^O-BttXim, Common dinner cuatomB. 145; MnnBfit«ries und 
niiisericBof vice, 144; Koyal feiist of tho, 145. 
lio, Dr., His detlnition of moderate drinking, 27; On tun- 
ytfdriDking to desttoj oonBciBiice, ^30. 


AntidotoB to itmukiMinesSi 260. 

Ante, Laud in i^wc-'.eu to Aa\ot brundy, 33. 

AiiiilcSi lutuxii^uto made £t<jm, 32, 

Aiiuinua, Thoiims, &t., DcliuDii temperancA, 31 

Arubia, luUixiuuuta uaeil in, 33, 34, ST, 40; 

ArmiJiuca, luMucnnta mniii.> f^oia, 33. 

Arrut^k, An iutuxiuuut nsad in i'ersia, 92. 

Arilnat RjiiriU. noasonB jji'i'Pii ("^ t^" "se of, i 

Aimstrong Bar. Lebbeua, Organizer of early TempenuLce So- 
ciety, 281. 

Arnold, Arthnr, On airack dtiuking in F 

Artiieht^ea, Intoxicnnt-a mado from, 32. 

Aryan RaveB, lutflxicautia uiiedby, 33. 

Asia, Intoxicants used in, 39. 

Atlienu'iiB, His bauijiiet of tbe learned, a 
drinking; eustoms, 96; Descnlwa a Ron 

AtliHuiau Wiaaen, Drualtennoss of, 109. 

Anatrin, IntoKit-ants used in, 34. 

Ava, Intosifttnts mado from, 32. 

Babylonians, Intemperance of the, 12.^. 

Baccbua, Ancieut iHgoud on bis experiments with tha Tina, 
98; Called tiio '"Muny Named," 99; Festivals of, aappTcas«4 
by law, 100 ; His drunken foateF-f^tlier, 99 ; How represMileil 
in ancient paintinffs, 90 ; Identified by Ilerodotna witJi Oiiu*, 
94 ; Mysteries tituRlit by, 97 ; Origin of the vine attributed to, 
9g; Said to have invented wine out of revenge, 98. 

Bacon, Lord, On ivine as a fuel to senHiioua desires, 229. 

Bat^on, Bev. Dr., On snccess of probibition in Conliii(>tt(tl)t, 

Bananas, latjixicantH made &om, 33. 

Band of Hope, The, 312. 

Bniiga, A. oommon intoxicant used by the aucieut Peraiiuu, HO. 

Baugueb, A Pnrsian Intoxicant, 92. 

Bikrberries, Intoxicaiita made from, 33. 

Barbary Sliitos, lutoxicnntB used in, 32, 36, 37. 

Barboiii's Slattsties of iiitomxMranne in tlie chnrcbes, 309. 

Iturlcy, Iat«xicaata laade from, S3, 93. 

Biitiit-i Boot, Intoxiiianls made £roni, 34, 

Beaumont, Dr., £s[ierinionts oa llie ed'octs of alcehvl 
Martin, HOi. 

Eoei'luT. Key. Dr. Lyman, On tlio injiiriona effieclH of luv 
driuLing, 17; On pFuhibitiou, 424. 

BeetJier, Ei-v. H. W,, On prohibition, 426. 
Benr, Adnlf.eratiiias of, 10; .VWo^nrkrca o^,^ 
lOlb I'l'Uluiy, i;vj; V.m'- ■- ■ "^ - 

Indes- 459 

liceiiBe of aale of, 151 ; Jnlian'a epigram on, 141 ; Mannfactnre 
ot, in New York and oq the Deliiware, prohibited in 1644, 
190; Percentage of alcohol in, 54; Price of, in England in 
1200, llxed by law, 151 ; Pruduclion of, in the woriil, in 1879, 
aO; Pnblic tastere of, appoiuted, 151 ; The common rlriuk in 
Paris np to the sixth century, 141 ; The nae of, creates a de- 
mand for distilled liqnora, 135. 357; Eegnlatious for the brew- 
ing and sale of, by women, 151. 

BBT lawB in England, in 1S30, 368 ; Eipec-ted advautagefl of, 
3&S; Increased drunkenncHa cansed by, 359. 
Mta, Intoxicants toade &om, 34. 

snezet, Anthony, Writes in 1TT4 against the use of ardent 
gpints, 278: Attacks the nae of fertueoted drinks, 27S. 
entbam, On the object of government, 3S6. 
Id Ales, 155. 

irch Sap, IntaxieaDU made from, 34. 
Irmau Eni])irB, Punialiment of inturapetance in, 271. 
Lahop of Oxford, On tlis duty of government to supproaa vice, 

oni&ee, St., Complains to the Archbishop, against intemper- 
ance, 143. 

Draeo, Intoxicants nsed in, 32. 

candy, From what made, 32, 33, 34, 36, 37, 38, 40, 43. 
cazil, Intoxicants used in, 32, 33, 34, 39, 40, 41. 
WFWeTB, Confession of, that beer eontuins no nutritions quali- 
ties, 62 ; I''^audB by, in the United States, 206. 
roiveTy, One established by temperance men in 1828, 285. 
rldgett, Eev. T. E,. See THscipIino of Drink. 

Hon. John, On the point where, in the nse of iotoxi' 
cante, it becomes a Bin, 28. 
ritJab American Order of Good Templars, 344. 
Atiiti and F.oretgn Society for the aupprcaaion of Intemper- 
anoc, 316. 

Fltlah Teetotal Temperance Society, 316. 
rttish Troops in Boston, Drunkenness of, 196. 
titOtlB. Doinoralization of, by the Roinnns, 141. 
Fonghani, Iiotd, On tho impoasibility of improving the morals 
of the people, while fostering the beertruilo, 359. 
EOwn, Dr., On hereditary inflnejjce of intemperance, 252. 
rowne, Sir W. A. F., On hereditary inflneiico of intemperance, 

mgei, A curions sign over a brewery in, 135. 

atlcx, Hon. B. v., On euforeempnt of the prohibitory law in 

UoBsacbiiMtts, 404. 

txlou, Ciutrli'a, Esq., bi» leslimony on v\vue\fia «i ■ovift»^'s.^» 

; Od tb« uust BQil 

lit drinking in Eng- 

CadeU of Toinper»Q<'e, The, MO. 

C'anadii, Emly ModeratiturSociety iii,28tj; Uitoxiotints Dsud in, J 

CaBterbuTir, Abp. of, Liqnora cotuntaed at Lis eutlironement, I 

Catoltno Co., Md., SocHfla of pmhibition in. 
Carouse, SisTu^icaiice of the word, 1'2S, a. 
Carpentei'. Dr. Wm. B.. On injniiaiis efi'ecU of luodinite driuL-.l 

ibg, IS ; On relations of Jnteiape rADce to dueaav, 211. 
Ctirtuiet, Lord, On poaonal violence indicted bjr EogL 

liquoi sellers, 448. 
Cashev-DHt, lulosicants made &oin, Si. 
Cssaada, Intu:^icauta nuido ttom, 2i. 
Catholic temperance mavement in the U S., 293, 334. 
Catron, Jndge, On the coiiBtJl.;ttionality of probibition, 3T2. 
Cancvnts, Intoiii'outs osed in. 3t, 12. 
Cava, Intoxicants nmde Qcno, 35. 
Cebatha berries, IntosicanU made fixmi, ^. 
Chambers, Dr., On ii^inrioiis offeclg of moderate drinking, 20- 
Cbapjti, Eev. Calvin, On Snacamenlal n " 
Cbardin, Sir Jobii, On cheapness and profuse osa of wiiMi ii 

Persia, 91. 
Charlos U., DmnkeDUess o^ and of lii& e9nrtr 106. 
Cherries, Intoxicants made from, 35. 
Chesterfield, Lord, On Ihp follj- of taxiaj? viro, 387; On a 

tnont that large nnmbers nre eii{;a;;ed in tkie liquor t 

431 ; On the reason why etringeut liquui'-lawa are ti 

forced, 443. 

Cheyne, Dr., On the relation of intempet&uce to disaaw, 2U. 
Chicago, JavenUe drinkinjc iii, 206. 
Chicago Times. The, on damage to the EepabUoan party I 

prohibition, 452. 
Chili. Intoxicants osed in, 33, 37,-39. 
China, Intoxicants iiHetl in, M, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40; Intemlinniiifld 

in, 75 : Penalties indivted on drnnkards iu, 283; rrohiliiti 

io, 308. 
CholotB, The iiiteinpurate fall an eas.y ]iroy to, 303. 
Chrintmaa, Drunken observaace of in (vntrnJ N. T. in 11 
Church Ale-1, 155 : The Siibbatli .lesocraU-d l.,v, 155. 
Church b^lla, Ringing of, by 4Lniukpu l^ii|;llkluniili in t 
-century, 163. 

, Bwboot'R W 

Index. 461 

attitoile of, one Tcatoo for Ihe abandonment of Moilcraticjii 
acietjeii, 305. 
ninrcli of England, The clergy of. on probibition, 4l'0. 
si«, IntosicQDts used in, 39. 

n. Got., Oniuoreused flmnkenneas in MaBs.ichuBt-Cls iiuilvr 
l<t«ns«, *05. 

lark, Tti. B. J., Instrumental in organizing early teiniicrnneo 
■oi^iety, 286. 
terk Alea, lira, 

torgy of England, The, deiuniaced for froqut-nting tiivcinB, 
152, 2T4 ; Disaolntn tnannera of, 156. 

Inhg, NtiiueB of some of the must dmnken mid infamooB, in 
England, 168, 170. 

Dnoaniitrmllk, Intoxioants made from, 35, 
»ffee-HonBeB, 3Sl. 

Dok, Capt., On diBgiiBting dtink used in llio Friendly Islands, 

Book, Rev. Joseph, On prohibition, 427. 
loleB, Bolwiti Cnriona puiiiBhment of, for dmnkenness, 272. 
Bombe, Dr. Andrew, biB testiuionv against umdcnite drinking, 

hmolnBionB drawn from the facts tmticod in tttit volnme, 456. 
iongreBH, 8ku t'uiled States. 

engresnonal Temperanoe Society, Organization of, 386 ; Reor- 
ganimd, 32B, 

ntient, I^andingoframin, in IKO, r(«igted, 1!I0; Prohibi- 
tion in, 376, 408 ; Formers of, asaociate to disconiage nse of 
ardent Bpiiita, 197. 

PB, Got., On resnlte of prohilntlou in Yennont, 407. 
tpeland, Dr., On injnrions effectB of miKliiriite drinlting, 16. 
9S, Or. Hiram, On the relation of inttunporanru to itmanity, 250. 
imo OBuaed by intcmpoTaneu, 216, 229. 

rown Lands, hold on condition of supplying the King with 
llqiMTB, 146. 

LB drinkers, 14S. 
Iniel, Jndge, on vonatitationality of prohibitory laws, 372. 
irby, N. y.. Early temperance society in, 286. 
■shftWHye, This, temperant-o soL'iet;, so called, 345. 
fttes, Intoxicants made from, 35. 

ftrldi King of Tsrael, domestic reasons for his ri'probiiting tho 
iwe of -wine, US. 

Rvia, Hon. JndKO Woodbury, nn piililic opinion created li.v the 
M^nu law, 411 ; On tlie suocessful entbtcemunt uf Ihv ia.-s^ 


Death-rate of the inteinpeiate compared witli that of the g 

era! population, 246. 
DofoucrlB, Drunken Diahop, epitaph on, 136. 
Dulaware, Prohibition ui, 373. 
Delavan, E. C, On ildnlAng in modern Home, 115. 
Demooraitio National Conventioa of 1ST6, denoniioea pro 

tion, 450. 
Democmtia party opposes prohibition, 160. 
Democritua, Ilia delinitiiin of modernte diinldng, 28. 
Denmark, Intosiounta used in, 34, 11. 
Do Hohan, On German drunkeuiiefis, 130. 
De Thuw, On the same, 130. 
DinglD3', Gov., On Bueccaa of Maine Law, 393. 
Dionj-aua, The name originally given to Bacchas, 99, 
Discipline of Drink, The, by Rev. T. E. Bridgett; qnotfttv 

from, 132, 143, 111, 150. 

Diacaso cauaed by intemperance. 240, 302. 

Distillation, Amount of, iii England, in 1681, and iRRteaso id 

to 1735, 168; Amount of, and revenue from in U. fi. \u 17Sl-| 

199; Amount of,' in 1810, 202; Trora 1802 to 1812, 203; Fia 

experiment in, 56; Forbidden to the Dntt'h on the Delavn 

190; Forbidden in Ireland, 165. 

Distilled liqnoia, Use of, introduced into England, 164. 

DietJIlolies, Attcmpta to stop, in Pennaylvania, 197 ; Caag 

calls on the States to auppreaa, 197 ; liicroaae of, during y 

American Revolution, 196 ; Eariy establishment of, in North'^ 

America, ISl. 

Doila, Dr. R. O., On evils of moderate drinking, IG. 

Dorau's Tal)le Tiaita, Extriki^ts from, on drunktMUiesa in QSB 

many, 133. 
Dow, Hon. Noal, Ou evoaiou of the Maine Lair, 446 ; On its ai 

coea, 101. 

Drinking, Anoient excuaea for, 110 ; CimtoniB of, in the Sonthsn 
States at the close of the American Revulatiun, 201; Ex«4i 
sivo, itt Koine, 113. 
Driafciag Code of the Gormana, 129. 
Drinking habits, Canso of, in Pennsylvmiift, 191. 
Driuklng pledges among the Germans, 129. 
Driuking Song in Euglaml, in 16th century, in praise iif Aid 


Dnmk for a penny, Sign pnt up at Engli»1i ciu ahuptt, IRS. 

Drunkards, Penaltiea inflicted ou, by law of Muiiii, 2614 ! To tri 

etonod to dentli by law of Moses, 2^1; To V'put to ilonUi it 

Diuuteimoba, Auwug Uie "« 

A tvV\usu£i, Vl» \ Kn>i>bK»4 

Index. 463 

260; Defined by the Saxons, 143; Of Noah, 116; Of Lot, 116; Of 
the British troops in Boston, 196 ; Personal iienalties for, 261 ; 
Sermon by Dr. Increase Mather, on the sin of, 189. 

Drunkenness, Punishment of, In ancient Greece, 265; Komc, 
266; By the Mahometans, 267; In Germany, 268; England, 269 ; 
Scotland, 269 ; Ancient Mexico, 270 ; Sweden, 270 ; Society Is- 
lands, 271 ; Birman Empire, 271 ; North America, 271 ; Of 
Robert Coles, in Massachusetts, 1631-1634, 272 ; In Plymouth 
Colony, 272 ; In Pennsylvania, 272 ; By Ecclesiastical law, 273. 

Druggists, Largely engaged in the sale of intoxicants, 207. 

Dunlap, John, Temperance work of, in Scotland, 287. 

Dutch, The, in N. Y. and on the Delaware, accused by the In- 
dians of teaching them intemperance, 178. 

Dutton, Governor, On success of prohibition in Connecticut, 

East Indies, Intoxicants used in, 34, 41. 

Ecclesiastical penalties for drunkenness, 273. 

Edgar, the King, his efforts to diminish intemperance, 147. 

Edmund^, Dr. James, On the relations of intemperance to dis- 
ease, 242 ; To insanity, 250. 

Edwards county, Illinois, Success of prohibition in, 409. 

Edwards, Rev. Dr., On the failure of the moderation pledge, 

Egypt, Intoxicants used in, 33, 36, 37, 38, 39; Invention of 
drugged wines, in, 94 ; Conflicting testimony in regard to the 
early intoxicants of, 93 ; Wine used by the Pharaohs of, not 
intoxicating, 94 ; Testimony of the monuments and frescoes 
of, to the early cultivation of the vine for wine purposes, 95. 

Elah, King of Israel, Loses his life while intoxicated, 119. 

Elder-berries, Intoxicants made from, 37. 

Elizabeth, of England, Extravagant drinking at her banquets, 
161 ; Increase of drinking; and of taverns in her reign, 162. 

Emerson, Mr., On success of prohibition in Caroline County, 
Maryland, 411. 

England, Intemperance in, 140, 176; Filthiness of common living 
in, in 16th century, 157 ; Drinking song of, in 16th century, 159; 
Extent and consequences of drinking in, in the reign of Eliza- 
beth, 160 ; Drunken debaucheries in tlio court of James I., 103 ; 
Introduction of use of distilled licjuors in, 161; Tiivcrn fre- 
quenting in the 17th century, 165 ; Drunkenness of, in tine 
of Charles II., 166; Drunken clubs in, in 17th century, 1C5; 
Amount of ale brewed in, in 1688, 168 ; Gin drinking in, 103 ; 
Lecky on the consequences of gin dtrnkin^ m,\^^ \ K\«^svNX\s!i% 
state of morala in, in 1735, 170, 112 •, IxiaxiiS^cveiJL^i^ ^il^'S^^^ 

46t Met. 

force then 171, Liquors used at elections in 1780, 173; CoB 
ai)iQptian of hqaora in the 19Ib ceutuiy, 173 ; Drutk nui 
ol, for uiie yea,t, VIA ; Ponishntent of (Imulieniios in, i 
Moderation boi-ioties in, 291 ; Tlieir failiim. 300 ; l^itol AlistI 
ueucc hocietita in, 311 ; Beet laws of, see Beet laws. 
ru^rbsii laborers. Proportion of wages, apeut by, for into 

EpictetuB, His definition of moderate drinking, 28, 
Epiloliitun, Intoxicants made from, 37. 
Etliiopia, IntoxicautB niind in, 34. 
Europe, lUegitimaey in, 233 ; PaupOTism in, 233, 

FairSeld Aasocistlon, Addrcaa of, tu 1813, on tfa« evils sf Lniei 

peiance, 383, 297. 
Furmr, Canon, On prohibition, 430. 
Fermentation, Identical ivith deoompoaltian, 54. 
Foniicntfd drinks, Drunkeuneas on, iu the United States, i 

1832, 299. 
Figs, Intoxieantamade ftom. 37. 
Fleet Prison Marriages, Number and iniquity of, 172, 
Flint, Dr. Austin, On inteiDperunce and mental diAeasd, 249. 
Floroiice, Intomperanre in, 115. 

Forbes, Henry, Early temperance 'n'orker in England, 291. 
Formosa, Intoxicants made by tie woinen of, 41. 
Framjee. On wine drinking of the Pnraeee of Indin. 63. 
France, Intoxicants nsed iu, 32, S4. 37, 38, 40, 41 ; Annoal eta 

sumption of intosicamta in, 208; Fuupehstn in, 238. 
Friendly Inns, 351. 

Friendly Islands, Intoxicanta used in, 35. 
Frieoda, Fftther Mathew joins tba Total Abatin«nce Society 

in Ireland, 323. 
Frye, Hon. W. P,, On success of tbe Maine law, S99. 400; ' 

pulilic sentiment created by the Mains law, 442. 
Fnni^rals in England in the 14th century, PTOviiiion fo 

cants at, made by the dying, li>3. 

Gennnns, Atieient, Debated important mutters irliila tt 

in/liicnce of liqaor, 12S. 
GerniuQicus, Ilia victory over tlie drunken GennBti Morala: 

Germany, Intoxicnnt* ww* m, ?i^,%,?n\Y.iw\-5 intomperaiH 
ill, 124; Tbe eHUbUa\i«icDi «5 Wie \B.onB».\.fflt\.»,STx, » - 

Index. 465 

intompBTance, 131; Drinkiiig liabits of tlie atndentH of, 136; 
^eieaae of drimkeituess in, l-il; AddoaI uonBumption of in- 
'toxicantB In, 308 ; FuiiUhiDeDt of iatemperauce in, 268 ; Modo- 
Z3l6 drinkia^ societies in, 276. 
in drbUtiug, See Englantl. 

Lailstoae, On the busiaiisit of {;oTeTiim«it to make it difflcoJt 
for man to do wrong, 434 ; Oiu Englisli Hevenue not depea- 
dunt on the liquoc traffic, 440. 

\, Used iu adulterating beei, 71. 
ad S&nutritans, Tlie, :U2. 
lod Templnra, The, 343. 

irdon, Dr., On effectH of modoiata drinking, 16. 
Mslpa, KMort to tavonia in England and France in the 15th 
century, 153. 

)agh, Joliii B., On prohibition, 426. 
race cnp in Eogliali Uuiveraicies, SignUiciuioo of, 144. 
rapes. Intoxicants made from, 37. 

teat Britain, Intoxicants iih«i1 Ib, 32, 34, 40, 41 ; Intemxierance 
in, 140, 176 ; AnnnaJ connuniptioa of intoxicants in, 208 ; Pau- 
perism in, 233; Alcoholic death-rate of, 3ti; Total abstinence 
OTgasizatiDns in, 311 ; Sucoeas of local prohibiti