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•KPAL. Hiu. 

est JItrginta PniUersitg 

In memory of 
Charles McCamic 

West Virginia University Libraries 
F 247.B5A4 aprm 

Aler's history of Martinsburg 

3 0802 000696338 1 

West Virginia University Library ' 

This book is due on the date indicated below. 

xOGT 2 2 

DEC 2 3 ^9T8 

O-'-' -IjuN 2 8 1983 
MAY 7 '986 

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Court House, Marti nsburg, Berkeley County. 








From the origin of the Indians, embracing their Settlements, Wars and 
Depredations, to the first White Settlement of the Valley, also 
including the Wars between the Settlers and their mode 
and manner of living. Besides a variety of valua- 
ble inforinatioti, consisting of the past and 
present History of the County, including 
a complete sketch of the late Wars, 
Strikes, early Residents, Organi- 
zations, etc., accompanied by 
personal sketches and in - 
teresting facts of 
the present 


Price $2.00 ; Sold Only by Subscription. 



\ / 



West Virginia UniversW 

Entered accordmg to Act of Congress, in the year 1888, by 

F . V E IX N O N A L E n , 

in the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 
A/l Rights Reserved. 



In idle wishes fools supinely stay, 
lie there a will, then wisdom tinds a way. 

— Burns. 

1^^"* N presenting tliis work to tlie pulDlic I feel 
that a great responsibility lias been undertaken. 
^^ It may, no doubt, meet with the harsh criticism of 
1^ many ; but as a consolation I feel satisfied that 
nothing but facts have been stated, and that every reader 
interested in the growth, prosperity and history of 
Berkeley County will appreciate this honest attempt. I 
have ventured this work on the market, feeling confident 
that the interested class — the people that have labored 
for our City and County— the ones that owe and feel a 
debt of gratitude to their forefathers for the present 
stage of their existence and welfare of the County — will 
sustain me in my efforts. 

The present generation, now enjoying the benefits of 
this soil, perhaps, have a very small conception as to the 
manner in which it was settled, cultivated and reared to 
its present state of prosperity. Perhaps many may doubt 
the credibility of these chapters, but I would ask a peru- 
sal and careful examination of early history, and by in- 
formation from our old citizens, you will find my collec- 
tions have not fallen far short* of facts. Several attempts, 
in various ways, have been made to give a history and 
reminiscence of our County ; but as yet none had been 
published full and complete, until the introduction of 
this work. It will be found to contain from the origin 
of the Indian and White Settlers, and their early war- 
fares, to the present day, accompanied by a complete 
history of both Martinsburg and Berkeley County. 

Preface. 11 

For days, weeks and montlis, and at times into the mid- 
hour of night, constant and laborious work has been a 
theme and pleasure, to dive into the torn and rusty- 
pages of an old Court docket — some half-printed histo- 
ries, published over half a century ago — or some old 
newspapers upon which ink "was almost invisible, and 
then to scan the hand- writing of years gone by, that one 
would hardly recognize as the English language. 

To the following gentlemen, Berkeley's most able and 
respected citizens, I owe a debt of gratitude for their as- 
sistance in the work of publishing this small history : 
Senator C. J. Faulkner, C. W. Doll, Esq., James M. 
Vanmetre, Esq., Capt. Wm. Hoke, Hon. E. B. Faulk- 
ner, J. W. Curtis, Esq., and Stuart W. Walker, Esq., 
who acted at times as my critic and rendered valuable 
assistance. Considerable information has been taken 
from a small history of the valley published by Samuel 
Kercheval in 1833. 

I look around me and see the young of both sexes with 
hearts bounding high with hope, forms elastic with 
health and eyes bright with the enjoyment of life, and 
then the thought of the rude settlements, life and civili- 
zation of our fore-parents touches the tenderest chord. 
To tell them of how they performed the journey of life, 
hand in hand, interrupted now and then by the savage 
warfare, and after all lived in harmonious companion- 
ship, I have published this work. It has been with me 
an honest and earnest task, in the object of which I am 
sure you will feel interested. I only hope that you will 
iind little to criticise and nothing to condemn, in the na- 
ture and style of the means by which I have sought to 
accomplish it. Then I shall feel that my undertaking 
has been crowned with success by a non-condemnatory 
people in a worthy and honest purpose. 
Yours very truly, 

F. Veenon Alee. 



Intrudiictoiy 15 


Origin of tlie Indian Settlements. The different Tribes. Tlieir 

Wars, Customs, Habits, etc 25 


First Settlements of the Valley. Locations, Land Titles, Dwellings, 

etc 82 

CHAl'TEPv in. 
The Indian Warfare. Forts F^stablislied, etc. The Wars between 
the Settlers and Indians, and the manner in which they carried 

on their Barbarism .'58 

Houses, Furniture, Diet and Dress of the early Settlers. Interest- 
ing and amusing Scenes of centuries back of our Foreparents... . 47 
Northern Neclc of Virginia. Berkeley County laid off. Tlie Land 
Grants, etc., from Lord Fairfax's tinii; to the establishment of 

the County 54 

Martinsburg established. The Lots laid off hy the first Commission- 
ed Sheriff. Sale of Lots, with terms to i)urchasers fil 

Report of H')U. C. J. Faulkner on Adjustment of tiie Boundary Line 

between Virginia and Maryland 67 

Historical Sketches of the early Inhabitants, etc., by the late Hon. 

Charles James Faulkner 87 


Slavery— Mode and Manner of Punishment— Freedom 200 

The late War of the Rebellion. The different Companies of Berkeley 
County, Federal and Confederate, witii full Names, Happenings, 

etc 20!) 

Historical Reminiscence of Martinsburg from 1835 until the year 

1801, by John W. Curtis) 24!) 

Cuuttnts. 13 



Commencing and ending of Strikes. A full and complete detail of 

the Happenings, Incidents, etc 300 


Life of the late Hon. Charles James Faulkner, by Col. Frank A. Burr. ;il4- 


The Churches— Organization and present Condition ;;4;^ 

Berkeley County in 1810. Topographical Description. Natural 
Curiosities. Jlineralogy and Lithology. Inhabitants, Towns, 

Manufactories, etc ;>(i(J 

Present situation of the Town and County— Journalism in the 
County — County Court and Officials— Martinsburg Schools — 

Ho,me Organizations, Lodges, etc 377 

Personal Sketches of the Enterprising Public and Professional Men 

of the present day 397 

Biography of Martinsburg's Business Men 412 


?^S!k<S^ HE Indian origin and settlements contained 
'^'^^y^^ in tlie following chapters will be found to em- 
>\^ brace every imrticular trait and detail so famil- 
'^^ iar to the race. Berkeley County, without doubt, 
will be found to be among the most historic pages of the 
world's history. For centuries its soils were inhabited 
by the most barbarous races, whom, it seems, carried out 
the habits and customs of ages past to their fullest ex- 
tent. From what particular part of the old world the 
aboriginals found their way to this continent is a ques- 
tion which has given rise to much disquisition among 
philosophical and learned historians. However, it ap- 
pears to be a settled opinion that America first received 
its inhabitants from Asia, and in Mr. Snowden's History 
of America many able and ingenious arguments are ad- 
vanced in support of this opinion. This is a matter, 
however, familiar to our people of the present day, and 
to describe the customs of the old world, from whence 
they originated, will perhaps, prove of interest to the 
reader. Mr. Snowden states : 

" The custom of scalping was a barbarism in use with 
the Scythians, who carried about them at all times this 
savage mark of triumph. A little image found among 
the Kalmucs, of a Tartarian diety mounted on a horse 
and sitting on a human skin, with scalps pendant from 
the breast, fully illustrates the custom of the ancient 
Scythians, as described by the Greek historian. The 
ferocity of this race to their prisoners extended to the 
remotest part of Asia. The Karatschatkans, even at the 
time of their discovery by the Russians, put their priso- 
ners to death by the most lingering and excruciating tor- 

16 Introductory. 

mems. A race of the Scytliians were named Anthropo- 
phagi, from their feeding on human tiesh/ The people 
of Nootka Sound still make a repast on their fellow 
creatures. The s^avages of North America have been 
known to throv/ the mangled limbs of their prisoners 
into the horrible caldron and devour them with the same 
relish as those of a quadruped." 

These usages were continued for centuries, and have 
been described by many as of a horrid experience. 
Among the aboriginal Americans these practices are said 
to be in full force at the present day. 


After giving the foregoing brief sketch of the proba- 
ble origin of the Indians in America, it is deemed an im- 
portant part of this work to give a brief history of the 
first settlement of Virginia, and the laws then in force, 
which will not be unacceptable to the general reader. 
The author, having access to the large law libraries of 
Faulkner & Walker, has been enabled to gain much val- 
uable information, and would refer the reader wishing 
to make a deeper research, to Hening's Statutes at Large, 
vol. 1, page 57. 

Charters to two separate companies called the "Lon- 
don and Plymouth Companies," for settling colonies in 
Virginia, were granted by James I, King of England, on 
the 10th day of April, 1606. On the 20th of December, 
1606, Capt. Christopher Newport was sent to Virginia 
by the London Company with a colony of one hundred 
and five piersons, and instructions to settle on the island 
of Roanoke, now in North Carolina. However, by stress 
of weather, they were driven North of their destination, 
and entered Chesapeake Bay. From here they ascended 
what they called the James River, and on a beautiful 
peninsula commenced the settlement of Jamestown about 
May, 1007. This was the first permanent settlement in 

Introductory. Yl 

the country. King James granted several subsequent 
cliarters to the company for the better ordering and gov- 
ernment of the colony, "and in the year 1619 the first 
legislative council was convened at Jamesto"\vn, then 
called 'James City.' " The following is the commission 
to Sir Francis Wyatt, the first Governor under that ordi- 
nance and constitution, to call a meeting of the General 
Assembly : 

"T'/ie Treasvrer and Company\'i Commission to Sir 
Francis Wyatt, Governor, and Council, which said 
Council are to assist the Governor in the administration 
of justice, to advance Christianity among Indians, to 
erect the colony in obedience to his majesty and in main- 
taining the people in justice and christian conversation, 
and strengthening them against enemies. The said Gov- 
ernor, Council and two burgesses out of every town, hun- 
dred or plantation, to be chosen by the inhabitants, to 
make up a General Assembly, who are to decide all mat- 
ters by the greater number of voices ; but the Governor 
is to have a negative voice, to have power to make orders 
and acts necessary wherein they are to initiate the poli- 
cy of the form of government, laws, customs, manner of 
trial and other administration of justice used in England, 
as the company are required by their letters patent. No 
law to continue or be of force till ratified by a quarter 
court to be held in England and returned under seal. 
Alter the colony is well framed and settled, no order of 
quarter court in England shall bind till ratified by the 
General Assembly." 

''Dated 24th July, 1621." 

^'■Instructions to Governor Wyatt^ 

"By instructions dated 24th July, 1621 : To keep up 
religion of the Church of England as near as may be ; to 
be obedient to the King and do justice after the form of 
the laws of England, and not to injure the natives ; and 
to forget old quarrels now buried. 

'"To be industrious and suppress drunkenness, gaming 

.18 Iniroduciory. 

and excess in deaths ; not to permit any but the Coim- 
'cil and heads of hundreds to wear gold in their cloaths 
•or to wear silk till they make it themselves. 

"Not to oilend any foreign princes; to punish pira- 
cies ; to build fortresses and block-houses at the mouths 
of the rivers. 

"To use means to convert the heathens, viz., to con 
verse with some ; each town to teach some children lit 
for the college intended to be built. 

"After Sir George Yeardley has gathered the present 
year's crop, he is to deliver to Sir Francis Wyatt the 
imndred tenants belonging to Governor's place ; Yeard- 
ley' s government to expire the ISth November next, and 
then Wyatt to be published Governor ; to swear the 

"George Saudis appointed treasurer, and he is to put in 
execution all orders or court about staple commodities ; 
to whom is allotted fifteen hundred acres and fifty ten- 
ants ; to the marshal], Sir ^Yilliara Newce, the same ; to 
the company's deputy the same; to the iDhysician five 
hundred acres and twenty tenants, and the same to the 

' 'To review the commissions to Sir George Yeardley, 
Governor, and the Council, dated ISth November, 1618, 
for dividing the colony into cities, boroughs, &c., and to 
observe all former instructions (a copy whereof was sent) 
if they did not contradict the present ; and all orders of 
court (made in England.) 

"To make a catalogue of the peoi)le in every planta- 
tion, and their conditions ; and of deaths, marriages and 

"To take care of dead persons' estat8S for the right 
owners ; and keep a list of all cattle, and cause the sec- 
retary to return copies of the premises once a year. 

"To take care of every i^lantation upon the death of 
their chief ; not to plant above one hundred pounds of 
tobacco per head ; to sow great quantities of corn for 

Iiitroduclory. 19 

their own use, aud to sui:)port the multitudes to be sent 
yearly ; to inclose lands ; to keep cows, swine, poultry, 
&c., and particularly kyne, which are not to be killed 

"Next to corn, plant mulberry trees and make silk, 
and take care of the Frenchman and others sent about 
that work ; to try silk grass ; to jolant abundance of 
vines and take care of the vignerors sent. 

"To put prentices to trades, and not let them forsake 
their trades for planting tobacco or any such useless 

"To take care of the Datcli sent to build saw- mills, and 
seat them at the falls that they may bring their timber 
by the current of the water. 

"To build saw-mills aud block-houses in every planta- 

"That all contracts in England or Virginia be per- 
formed, and the breaches punished according to justice. 

"Tenants not to be enticed away ; to take care of those 
sent about an iron work, and esi^ecially Mr. John Berke- 
ley, that they don't miscarry again, this being the great- 
est hope and expectation of the colonies. 

"To make salt, pitch, tar, soap, ashes, &c., so often 
recommended and for which materials had been sent ; to 
make oyl of walnuts and employ apothecaries in distil- 
ling lees of beer and searching after minerals, dyes, 
gums and drugs. &c., and send small quantities home. 

"To make small quantity of tobacco, and that very 
good; that the houses appointed for the reception of 
new-comers and public storehouses be built, kept clean, 
&c.; to send the state of affairs quarterly and a duplicate 
next shipping. 

"To take care of Capt. Wm. Norton and certain Ital- 
ians sent to set up a glass house. 

"A copy of the^treatise of the x)lantation business and 
excellent observances made by a gentleman of capacity 

20 Iidroductory. 

is sent to lie among the records, and recommended to 
tlie councillors to study. 

'*Mr William Clayborne, a surveyor, sent to survey the 
j)lanters' lands and make a map of the country. 

'•Chief officers that have tenants reprimanded for 
taking fees, but require that the clerks have fees set for 
jmsses, warrants, copies of orders, &c. 

"Governor and Council to appoint proper times for 
administration of justice, and provide for the entertain- 
ment of the Council during their session, to be together 
one whole month about state affairs and lawsuits ; to 
record plaints of consequence ; to keep a register of the 
acts of quarter sessions and send home copies. 

"If a Governor dies, the major part of Council to choose 
one of themselves within fourteen days, but if voices be 
divided the Lieutenant Governor shall have the place, 
and next the marshal], next the treasurer, and one of 
the two dei^uties next. 

"Governor and chief officers not to let out their tenants 
as usual. 

"The Governor only to summon the Council and sign 
warrants and execute, or give authority to execute 
Council orders, except in cases that do belong to the 
marshall, treasurer, deputies, &:c. 

"The Governor to have absolute authority to deter- 
mine and punish all neglects and contempts of authority 
except the Council, who are to be tried at the quarter 
sessions and censured. Governor to have but the cast- 
ing voice in Council or court, but in the Assembly a neg- 
ative voice. 

"That care be taken that there be no engrossing com- 
modity or forestalling the market. 

"All servants to fare alike in the colony, and their 
]3nnishment for any offences is to serve the colony in 
public works. 

"To see that the Earl of Pembroke's thirty thousand 
acres be very good. 

Introductory. 21 

"To make discoveries along the coast and lind a fisli- 
ery between James River and Cape Cod. 

"As to raising staple commodities, the chief officers 
ought to set examples and to aim at the esiablishment 
of the colony. 

"And lastly, not to let ships* stay long, and to freight 
them with walnut and any less valuable coii^modity. 

The Governor administered the follotving oath to the 
Council : 

"You shall swear to be a true and faithful servant 
' unto the king's majesty, as one of his Council for Yir- 
' ginia. You shall in all things to be moved, Ireated, 
' and debated in that Council concerning Virginia or 
' any the territoiies of America, betw^een the degrees of 
' thirty-four and forty-five from the equinoctial line 
' northward, or the trades thereof, faithfully and truly 
' declare your mind and opinion, according to your lieart 
' and conscience ; and shall keep secret ail matters com- 

• mitted and revealed to you concerning the same, and 
' that shall be treated secretly in that Council, or this 
'Council of Virginia, or the more i)art of them, publi- 
' cation shall not be made thereof ; and of all matters of 
'great importance, or difficulty, before you resolve 
' thereupon, you shall make his majesty's Privy Coun- 
'cil acquainted therewith, and follow their direction 
' therein. You shall to your uttermost bear faith and 

* allegiance to the King's majesty, his heirs, and lawful 
' successors, and shall assist and defend all jurisdictions, 
' preheminences, and authorities granted unto his ma- 
' jesty and annext unto the crowm against all foreign 
' princes, persons, prelates or potentates whatsoever, be 
' it by act of parliament or otherwise ; and generally, 
- in all things, you shall do as a faithful and true ser- 
' vant and subject ought to do. So help you God and 
' the holy contents of this book." 

The foiegoing instructions were drawn up by the 
Council, and it appears, v/ere intended as the general 

22 Introductory. ' 

principles for tlie government of the colony. Tliey go 
far to prove tliat liopes were entertained that the Indians 
were disposed to be at peace, and evidences an amicable 
state of feeling towards the natives. Unfortunately 
their hopes were blasted, for lo ! in less than one year 
after, this state of peace and tranquility was changed 
into one of devastation, blood and mourning. On the 
22nd of March, 1G22, the Indians committed the most 
bloody massacre on the colonists recorded in the annals 
of our country. This year has been stated by historians 
as the American revolution, and was remarkable for 
massacres of the colonists by the Indians, which were 
executed with the utmost subtility, and without any re- 
gard to age, sex or dignity. 

In 1G23, the following year, the Colonial General As- 
sembly, by statute, directed ''that the 22nd day of March 
be yearly solemnized as holliday," to commemorate the 
escape of the colony from entire extiri)ation. These 
bloody massacres produced, on the i^art of the whites, 
a most deadly and irreconcilable hatred toward the na- 
tives, and accordingly, we lind that a long continued and 
unabating state of hostility was kept up. x\t the legis- 
lative session of 1623, laws were enacted in relation to a 
defense against the savages. About one hundred years 
later the Indians were driven east of the Blue Ridge 
Mountains, and scattered over the surrounding country, 
hence, their origin on Berkeley soil. 

The foregoing extracts are considered sufficient to 
enable the reader to form some opinion of the spirit, 
character and customs of the early settlers of our coun- 
try ; particularly as it relates to their sufferings and 
difficulties with the Indian tribes, and goes far to prove 
their origin in our country and the veracity of the con- 
tents of this book. 

Some may ask, of what interest are the extracts from 

■ Hening's Statutes at Large? In return I would ask, who 

would place confidence in my work without it was based 

Introductory. 23 

on a reliable foundation % The extracts, after given a 
stady and careful consideration, will prove of much in- 
terest and enable the reader to form a quaint idea of the 
origin and introduction of our laws, customs, religion, 
habits, manufactures, etc., of the jiresent day in our 
country and county. 

Prior to the Independence of the United States, the 
popular branch of Virginia Colonial Legislation was 
known as "The House of Burgesses." It enacted its 
laws under the x)rovincial charter granted by the English 
government, to whom its allegiance was due. The 
"House of Burgesses," by its enactments from time to 
time laid off the territory into counties, as the interests 
of its increasing population demanded. 

At a session of the legislature, Frederick and Augusta 
were laid off about the year 1738, and included all the 
vast region of country west of the Blue Ridge mountain. 
Previous to that time the county of Orange included all 
the territory west of the mountains, and was taken from 
Spotsylvania in 1734, which had previously crossed the 
mountain and took in considerable part of what is now 
known as Page County. Spotsylvania was laid off in 
1720, and was reduced by the laying off of Frederick 
in 1738. The first court of justice was held in this county 
in 1743. The county of HamxDshire was next taken from 
Frederick and Augusta in 1753. The first court held in 
this county was in December 1757. Berkeley and Dun- 
more were taken from Frederick in 1772, and in 1777 the 
name of Dunmore was altered to Shenandoah. 

I deem it a particular and interesting part of this work 
to give the dates of the establishment of these counties, 
as the following chapters in various ways relate 
to them. It will be noticed that Berkeley was among 
the earliest, and many incidents happened on its soil, 
before the laying off of other counties. It included all 
that territory composing Jeffersod County from 1772 
until 1801, a period of nearly thirty years. MartinSburg 

24 Introductory. 

was laid off in the month of October, 1778, by Adam 
Stephen, Esq., and consisted of one hundred and thirty 
acres. In October, 1786, Charlestown (then in the county 
of Berkeley and now the seat of justice for the county of 
Jefferson) was established. It consisted of eighty acres, 
and was laid off by Charles Washington, a brother of 
the illustrious George Washington. He laid off his own 
land into lots and streets, and in honor of his act the 
town bears his christian name to the present day. In 
the month of October, 1787, Middletown, (now called 
Gerardstown,) in the county of Berkeley, was estab- 
lished, with one hundred lots laid off by Wm. Gerard. 
Darkesville, also in Berkeley County, was laid off in Oc- 
tober, 1791. The establishment of these towns are among 
the earliest of the valley. 


p|^30M ancient history it appears that this entire por- 
p^ tion of conntry (Berkeley County) was inhabited by 
various tribes of Indians. From tbe best evidence ob- 
tained from deep researches, we find tlie settlement of 
this valley and present county was commenced in the 
year 1732. Long and bloody wars were carried on by 
contending tribes of Indians known as the Delaware and 
Catawba tribes. They were engaged in these wars at the 
time the valley was Hrst known ])y the white p^^ople, and 
continued for years after the county was numerously 
inhabited by white settlers. 

The two great branches of the Potomac and Shenan- 
doah rivers seem to have been the favorite jtlaces of resi- 
dence of the Indians. Along these streams are to be 
found numerous bigns and relics at the present day. In 
the bank of the river, a short distance below the forks, 
human skeletons and articles of curious workmanship 
are constantly being unearthed. Indian Uiounds are 
scattered over the entire county, and it is no unusuul oc- 
currence to hear that Indian i^ipes. tomahawks, axes, 
utensils, etc., are being y^t found. Their caps and pots 
were made of a mixture of clay and shells, and though 
the vv^orkmanship was rude, yet they were strong in tex- 
ture. There are many other places on all our water 
courses, to wit, Cedar Creek, Stony Creek and Opequon, 
as well as the larger Avater courses, that exhibit evidences 
of ancient Indian settlements. 

This portion of the conntry was inhabited chiefly hy 
a tribe known as the Tuscarora Indians, their place of 
residence beino; on Tuscarora Creek, from which the 

26 Origin of the Indian Settlements. 

creek derived its name. Along tliis stream are a num- 
ber of Indian graves now marked, while many have 
been plowed down. Skeletons and bones of unusual size 
have been turned up by the x)low. It appears to the author 
that no reflecting man can view so many burying places 
broken up — their bones torn up with the plow— reduced 
to dust and scattered to the winds — without feeling some 
degree of melancholy regret. It is to be lamented for 
another reason. If those mounds and places of burial 
had been permitted to remain undisturbed, they would 
have stood as lasting monuments in the history of our 
country.' Many of them were doubtless the work of 
ages, and future generations would have contemplated 
them with great interest and curiosity. But these mem- 
orials are rapidly disappearing, and the time, perhajos, 
will come when not a trace of them will remain. 

It is in no way wonderful that this unfortunate race of 
people reluctantly yielded, and with all their force re- 
sisted the intrusion made upon their rightful and just 
possessions by peoi)le who were strangers to them from 
a foreign country. But, perhaps, this was the flat of 
Heaven. lu the creation of this globe God probably in- 
tended it should sustain the greatest possible number of 
his creatures. And as the human familj^, in a state of 
civil life, increases with more rapidity than a people in 
a state of nature or savage life, the law of force has been 
generally resorted to, and the weaker compelled to give 
way to the stronger. It is a fact undeniable that the 
greater portion of our country has been obtained by the 
law of force. However, as a matter of consoling reflec- 
tion, there are some exceptions to this arbitrary rule. 
Several respectable individuals of the Quaker society 
thought it unjust to take possession of these lands, and 
adopted measures to efi'ect some way of compensating 
the Indians for their just rights. Upon inquiry no par- 
ticular tribe could be found that claimed a i)riority over 
the soil. It was considered by the various tribes a com- 

Origin of the Indian Settlements. 27 

mon hunting ground, and neither claimed authority to sell. 

To confirm the authenticity of this statement it is 
deemed proper to publish the following letter, written 
by Thomas Chaulkley to a monthly meeting that was 
held on Opequon on the 21st of May,^ 1738, and is a 
strong evidence. The following is from the original 
copy : 

"ViEGi2^iA, AT John Ciieagles, 21st May, 1738. 
" Jb Friends of the Montlily Meeting at Opequon : 

Dear friends iclio inhabit Shenandoah and Opequon : 
Having a concern for your welfare and prosperity, both 
now and hereafter, and also the prosperity of your chil- 
dren, I had a desire to see you, but being in years and 
heavy, and much spent and fatigued with my long jour- 
neyings in Virginia and Carolina, makes it seem too hard 
for me to perform a visit in person to you, wherefore I 
take this way of writing to discharge my mind of what 
lies weighty thereon ; and 

''First. I desire that you be careful (being far and back 
inhabitants) to keep a friendly correspondence with the 
native Indians, giving them no occasion of offense, they 
being a cruel and merciless enemy, where they think they 
are Avronged or defrauded of their rights, as woeful ex- 
perience hath taught in Carolina, Virginia and Maryland, 
and especially in New England, etc.; and 

"Second. As nature hath giv^en them and their fore- 
fathers the possession of this continent of America (or 
this wilderness) they had a material right thereto in jus- 
tice and equity ; and no people, according to the law of 
nature and justice and our own principle, which is ac- 
cording to the glorious gospel of our dear and holy Jesus 
Christ, ought to take away or settle on other men's lands 
or rights without consent, or X)urcliasing the same by 
agreement of parties concerned ; which I suppose in your 
case is not yet done. 

"Thirdly. Therefore my counsel and christian advice 

*The people of that day numbered the month. 

28 Origin of the Indian Settlements. 

to you is, mj dear friends, that the most reputable 
among you do with speed endeavor to agree with and 
purchase your lands of the native Indians or inhabitants. 
Take example of our worthy and honorable late proprie- 
tor, AVilliam Penn, who by his wise and religious care 
in that relation hath settled a lasting peace and com- 
merce with the natives, and through his prudent man- 
agement therein hath been instiumental to plant in i^eace 
one of the most flourishing provinces in the world. 

"Fourthly. Who would run the risk of the lives of 
their wives and children for the sparing a little cost and 
pains':! I am concerned to lay these things before you, 
under an uncommon exercise of mind, that your new and 
flourishing little settlement may not be laid waste, and 
(if the providence of the Almighty doth not intervene,) 
some of the blood of yourselves, wives or children be 
shed or spilt on the ground. 

"Fifthly. Consider you are in the x>rovince of Virginia, 
holding what rights you have under that government, 
and the Virginians have made an agreement with the 
natives to go as far as the mountains and no further ; 
and you are over and beyond the mountains, therefore 
-out of that agreement, by which you lie open to the in- 
sults and incursions of the Southern Indians, who have 
destroyed many of the inhabitants of Carolina and Vir- 
ginia, and even now have destroyed more on the like 
occasion. The English going beyond the bounds of their 
agreement, eleven of them were killed by the Indians 
while we were ti'aveling in Virginia. 

"Sixthly. If you believe yourselves to be within the 
bounds of William Penn's patent from King Charles the 
Second, which will be hard for you to prove, you being 
far southward of his line, yet if done that will be no 
consideration with the Indians without a purchase from 
them, except you will go about to convince them by fire 
and sword, contrary to our principles ; and if that were 

Origin of the Indian Settlements. 29 

done they would ever be implacable enemies and the 
land could never be enjoyed in peace. 

"Seventhly. Please to note that in Pennsylvania no 
new settlements are made without aa agreement with the 
natives, as witness Lancaster County, lately settled, 
though that is far within the grant of William Penn's 
patent from King Charles the Second ; wherefore you 
lie open to the insurrections of the Northern as well as 
Southern Indians ; and 

"Lastly. Thus having shown my good will to you and 
to your new settlement, that you might sit fvery one 
under your own shady tree where none might make you 
afraid, and that you might prosper naturally and spirit- 
ually, you and your children ; and having a little eased 
my mind of that weight and concern (in some measure) 
that lay upon me, I at present desist and subscribe my- 
self, in the love of onr ^6\j Lord Jesus Christ, your real 
friend, *T. C." 

This good man proves, through his most excellent let- 
ter, that Quakers were among our earliest settlers, and 
that they were early disposed to do Justice to the natives 
of the country. It is highly probable that the white 
people might have obtained possession of the soil grad- 
ually without so much loss of blood if they had first 
adopted and adhered to this humane and ju?t policy of 
purchasing the Indians' lands. 

Historians and records give considerable evidence of 
X)roof that repeated purchases were made, covering the 
lower portion of the county, while records show that 
nearly all of the upper portion was purchased. Tradi- 
tion relates that several tracts of land were purchased by 
Quakers, near what is now known as Apple-Pie Ridge, 
and that the Indians were never known to disturb them 
while residing on the land so purchased. 

It, however, affords matter of curious speculation and 
interesting reiiection to the inquiring mind, to notice in 
this chapter several of the wars that took place in and 

'SO Origin of the Indian Settlements. 

near this county. That nations are frequently urged to 
war and devastation by the restless and turbulent disi:)o- 
sition so common to mankind, particularly among their 
leaders, is a question of little doubt. The glory and re- 
nown (falsely so termed) of great achievements in war, is 
probably one x^rincipal cause of the wars frequently car- 
ried on by x)eoi5le in a state of nature. 

We have already stated the Indians that inhabited this 
portion of the country were known as the Delawares and 
Catawba tribe. Tradition relates that these two tribes 
of Indians exterminated a tribe called the Senedos that 
resided on the Shenandoah River, near this county. An 
aged Indian frequently visited the settlers, and on one 
occasion informed an old settler, Benjamin Allen, that 
these "tribes of Indians had killed his whole nation, 
with the exception of himself and one youth ; that this 
bloody slaughter took place when he (the Indian) was a 
small boy." From the tradition it is probable the affair 
took place some time shortly after the middle of the 
seventeenth century. Tradition also relates that an old 
Indian visited Maj^or AndreAv Keyser's grandfather, of 
Pennsylvania, and asked for something to eat, appear- 
ing to be much agitated. After refreshing himself he 
was asked what disturbed him. He replied, "The South- 
ern Indians — Delawares and Catawbas — have killed my 
whole nation." History states that evident signs of the 
truth of this tradition are yet to be seen — that near the 
place of residence of the Senedos, on the north fork of 
the Shenandoah River, an Indian mound, when first 
seen, "svas IS or 20 feet high, but is now ploughed down. 

The Delawares were afterward in constant wars with 
the Catawbas, and at times inflicted the most cruel pun- 
ishments. The former, we are told, was a much larger 
and stronger tribe than the latter, and tortured the Ca- 
tawbas to death with all the wonted barbarity and 
cruelty peculiar to the savage character. 

A party of Delaware Indians, as tradition relates. 

Or ig hi of ih e India n Settlements. 3 1 

crossed the Potomac near Oldtown, in Maryland, witli a 
female Catawba prisoner. A short distance from this 
place occurred a very remarkable instance of their sacri- 
fices. They cruelly murdered their prisoner and moved 
on. The next day several of them returned and cut off 
the soles of her feet in order to prevent her from pursu- 
ing and haunting them on the march. 

This great tribe made the last sacrifice of their Catawba 
prisoners, near Pennsylvania. A number of i^risoners 
were slowly tortured to death, and during their pro- 
tracted and cruel sufferings their tormentors used the 
most insulting language, tantalizing and threatening them 
with the terrible vengeance of their nation as long as they 
could speak. 

This bloody tragedy soon reached the ears of the Gov- 
ernor of Pennsylvania, and he at once commanded and 
required all the authorities, both civil and military, to 
interpose and prohibit a repetition of such acts of bar- 
barity and cruelty. 

IpN \he year 1733, Joist Hite with his family, and his 
p^ soiis-in-]aw,viz ; George Bowman, Jacob Chrisman and 
Paul Froman, with their families ; Robert McKay, Robert 
Green, William Duff, Peter Stephens, and several others, 
making sixteen families in all, removed from Pennsylva- 
nia, cutting their road from York and crossing tlie Co- 
hongoruton"-'' about two miles above Harper's Ferry. 
Hite settled on the Opequon. Peter Stephens and several 
others settled at Stephensburg and founded the town. 
The several families settled in the same neighborhood, 
adjoining each other, where they could find wood and 
water most convenient. The most authentic information, 
handed down from one generation to another, leads ns to 
believe that Hite and his partj^ of immigrants were the 
first settlers west of the Blue Ridge. 

Jobn and Isaac Vanmetre next obtained a warrant 
from Governor Gooch for locating 40,000 acres of land, 
in the year 1730. They sold or transferred part of -their 
warrant to Joist Hite ; and from this warrant emanated 
several of Ilite's grants. Of the titles to the lands on 
which Hite settled, with several other tracts in the neigh- 
borhood of Stei)hensburg, the originals are founded on 
this warrant. In 1734 Richard Morgan obtained a grant 
for a tract of land in the immediate neighborhood of 
Shepherdstown. Tbefirst settlers on this tract numbered 
about twenty-five. 

Tradition relates that a man by the name of John How- 
ard, and his son, i^revious to the first settlement of our 

*Cohoiigoruton is the aucient Indian name of tlie Potomac, from its 
junction with the river Shenandoah to the Alleghanoy ^Mountains. 

First Settleinents of the Valley. 33 

valley, made explorations and discovered the cliarming 
Son til Brancli Valley. They crossed the Alleghaney 
nionntains, and on the Ohio killed a very large buffalo, 
■which they skinned, and stretching his hide over ribs of 
wood made a kind of boat. In iliis frail bark they de- 
scended the Ohio and Mississippi to iSTew Orleans, where 
the French apprehended them as suspicious characters. . 
and made them jmsoners. However, they were dis- 
charged, from whence they crossed over to England. 
Lord Fairfax,* living in England at the time, heard of 
Mr. Howard's arrival, and sought an interview with him. 
Mr. Howard gave him a descrii^tion of the fertility andi 
immense value of the South Branch, which determined? 
his lordship to secure it at once in manors. Notwith- 
standing the sellish monopoly on the part of Lord Fair- 
fax, numerous tenants were induced, by the great fertility 
and value of the country, to take leases, settle and im- 
prove the lands. At an early period many immigrants 
settled on Gallon, (anciently called Cacaphon, which is 
said to be the Indian name) ; also on Lost river. Along 
Back Creek, Cedar Creek, and Opequon, pretty numer- 
ous settlements were made. The two great branches of 
the upper forks of the Shenandoah were among our ear- 
liest settlements. Surveys were made on a warrant along 
the Opequon, north of Winchester, to Ap)ple-Pie Ridge, 
by an enterprising Quaker, named Ross. Numerous im- 
migrants of the Quaker ^irofession removed from Penn- 
sylvania, and as early as the year 1738 held regular 
monthly meetings on Opequon. The west side of the 
Shenandoah below the forks were first settled by over- 
seers and slaves. Another survey was granted, which 
lies immediately below the above lines, running a con- 
siderable distance into the county of Jefferson. The 
greater i:)ortion of the country between North mountain 
and the Shenandoah River, at the first settling of the 

*Tlie reader should note Lord Fairfax, as considerable mention is made 
in the following chapters. 

o4 First Stiilevients of tJie Valley. 

Valley was one vast prairie, and alTorded the finest pos- 
sible i^asturage for wild animals. The country bounded 
in the larger kinds of gam^», such as the buffalo, elk, 
deer, bear, panther, wild-cat, wolf, fox, beaver, otter, 
and all other kinds of animals, wild fowl, etc., common 
to forest countries, were abundant. 

The country, now the county of Shenandoah, between 
the Fort and Xorth Mountains was also settled very 
early. The settlements through the valle}^ progressed 
without interruption for about twenty three years. The 
Indians suddenly disapx^eared in the year 1754, and 
crossed the Alleghaney mountains. Settlers west of the 
Alleghaney moved into their midst and invited them to 
move off. The Indians did not object to the Pennsylva- 
nians settling the country, from the fact of "Williani 
Penn's treatment toAvard them. They believed all Penn's 
men to be honest, virtuous, humane and benevolent ; but 
fatal experience taught them quite a different lesson, and 
they soon found Pennsylvanians were little better than 
others. The natives held in utter abhorrence the Vir- 
ginians, whom they designated as "Long Knife," and 
were literally opposed to their settling in the valley. 
Tradition informs us of the fact, that the Indians and 
white people resided in the same neighborhood for sev- 
eral years after the first settlement, and that the Indians 
were friendly and peaceable. During this period many 
good, substantial dwelling houses had been erected, and 
the settlements were in a flourishing condition. 

^ome years previous to the first settlement of the val- 
ley, a man by the name of John Yanmetre, from New 
York, discovered the fine country ontheWai^patomaka, 
(the ancient Indian name of the South Branch of the 
Potomac.) He was a kind of wandering Indian trader, 
and became well acquainted Mdth the Delawares. A 
comi)any was formed among them, and under his com- 
mand marched to the South for the purpose of invading 
the Catawbas. However, the Catawbas had anticipated 

First Settlements of the Valley. 35 

tliem and encountered and defeated tliem witli immense 
slaugliter. Wlien Mr. Tanraetre returned to Xew York, 
he advised his sons, that if they ever migrated to Vir- 
ginia, to secure a part of the South Branch bottom. He 
described it as "The Trough," and the finest, body of 
land he had ever seen. One of his sons, Isaac Yanmetre, 
who was about to migrate, took his father's advice, and 
about the year 173G or 1737, settled in Yirginia. Mr. 
Yanmetre returned to New Jersey shortly afterward, and 
in 1740 came back, only to find other settlers on his place. 
He went back to ISTew Jersey again, and in 1744 returned 
with his family to make a permanent settlement. In the 
meantime a large number had settled in the neighbor- 
hood, and already much progress could be noted. 

Maj. Isaac Hite once stated, "that numerous parties 
of Indians in passing his grandfather's house on Opequon, 
would call, and that but one instance of theft was ever 
committed." The Indians charge the white people with 
teaching them the knowledge of theft and other vices. 
After the chiefs had received information of a theft search 
was made until the article found, and the one in posses- 
sion of it was imnished severely. These facts go far to 
show their high sense of honesty and summary justice. 
An educated old Cherokee chief in a conversation with 
Col. Barrett, one of the commissioners for running the 
boundary line of Indian lands in 1815-16, remarked : 

' ' That before their fathers were acquainted with the 
whites, the red x)eoi3le needed but little, and that little 
the Great Spirit gave them, the forest sui)plying them 
with food and raiment ; that before their fathers were 
acquainted with the white people, they never got drunk, 
because they had nothing to make them drunk, and 
never committed theft because they had no temptation 
to do so. It was true that when j)arties were out hunt- 
ing, and one pkrty was unsuccessful, and found the game 
of the more successful party hung up, if they needed 
j)rovision they took it ; and this vras not stealing — it was 

36 First Seitlements of iJie Valley. 

the law and custom of the tribes. Red x:)eop]e never 
swore, because they had no words to express an oath. 
The red people meet once a year, at the feast of new corn, 
extinguish all their fires and kindle up a new one, the 
smoke of which ascends to the Great Spirit as agreateful 
sacrilice. Now what better is your religion than ours? 
The white people have taught us to get drunk, steal, lie, 
cheat and swear, and vrith a knowledge of these vices 
they ux3hold them ; therefore, we are injured by acquain- 
tance with them." 

To say the least of this untutored old man, his opinion, 
religion excepted, was well founded and conveys a severe 
rebuke upon those wdio boast of superior advantages of 
the lights of education and a knowledge of the religion 
of God. From this digression let us again turn our at- 
tention to the early settlers. 

In 1763 many of them were giving their time and atten- 
tion to rearing large herds of horses, cattle, hogs, etc. 
Some of them became expert, hardy and adventurous 
hunters, and depended chietly for support and money- 
making on the sale of skins and furs. Considerable 
attention was given to the culture of the pea vine, which 
grew abundantly fat in the summer season. The Hites, 
Frys, Vanmetres and others raised vast stocks of horses, 
cattle and hogs in those days, upon which Lord Fairfax 
highly commented at times. 

The majority of our first immigrants were principally 
from Pennsylvania, composed of native Germans or Ger- 
man extraction. A number, however, were direct from 
Germany, and several from Maryland, New Jersey and 
New York. These immigrants brought with them the 
religion, customs and habits of their ancestors. They 
constituted three religious sects, viz: Lutherans, Men- 
onists and Calvanists, with a few Tunkers, and were very 
strict in their worship. 

Land was the object which invited the greater number 
of these peojile to cross the mountain ; for as the saying 

First Setihments cf the Valley. 37 

then was, "it was to be had here for tbe taking up." 
Buikling a cabin and raising a croi3 of grain, however 
small, of any kind, entitled the occupant to four hundred 
acres of land, and a pre-emption right to one thousand 
acres more adjoining, to be secured by a land office war- 
rant. This right was to take effect it there happened to 
be so much vacant land, or any part thereof, adjoining 
the tract secured by the settlement right. There was, at 
an early period of our settlements, an inferior kind of 
land title, denominated a "tomahawk right," which w-as 
made by deadening a few^ trees near the head of a spring, 
and marking the bark of some one or more of them vrith 
the initials of tlie name of the x:)erson who made the im- 
provement. These rights were often bought and sold. 
Those who wished to make settlements on their favorite 
tracts of land, bought u^:* the tomahawk improvements, 
rather than enter into quarrels with those who made 
them. Other improvers of the land with a view to actual 
settlement, and wlio hapi)ened to be stout veteran fel- 
lows, took a very different course fiom that of purchas- 
ing these rights. AVhen annoyed by the claimants under 
the tomahaw^k rights, they deliberately cut a few good 
hickories, and gave them what was called in those days 
" a laced jacket," or a sound whipping. 

The buildings occupied a low situation, and the tops 
of the surrounding hills were the boundaries of tbe tracts 
to which the family mansion belonged. Our forefathers 
were fond of farms of this description', and believed that 
they were attended with the convenience, "that every- 
thius: comes to the house down hill." 

IPpBOUT tlie year 1756 this whole frontier was left ex- 
3||^ posed to the incursions of the Indians and French, 
who had returned to this neighborhood after the defeat of 
General Braddock by the French and Indians combined. 
In the spring of the year a pa^'ty of fifty or more Indians, 
with a French ca^Dtain at their head, crossed the Allegha- 
ny Mountains, committing on the white settlers every 
act of barbarous war. Capt. .leremiah Smith, living in 
what is now known as Frederick County, raised a party 
of twenty men and marched out to meet the savages. At 
the head of Capon River he fell in with them, when a 
fierce and bloody battle was fought. Smith killed the 
captain with his own hand. After having killed live 
other Indians and wounding a number, the savages gave 
way and fled. Only two of Smith' s men were killed. On 
searching the body of the Frenchman a commission and 
written instructions were found in his possession to meet 
another party of about oO Indians at Fort Frederick*, to 
attack the fort, destroy it, and blow up the magazine. 
Fortunately, the other jDarty of Indians were encountered 
low down on the North Branch of the Capon River by 
Capt. Joshua Lewis, with a i^arty of* IS men, when one 
Indian was killed and the others broke and ran off. 
Previous to the defeat of this party they had committed 
considerable destruction of the i)roperty of the white 
settlers, and took a Mrs. Horner and a girl about 13 
years of age prisoners. Mrs. Horner was the mother of 
seven or eight children, and never returned to her family. 

*rort Frederick is situated about 12 miles from Martinsburii-, in Mary" 

The Indian Warfare. 39 

The girl, Sarali Gibbons, was a prisoner 8 or 9 years be- 
fore she returned home. 

These Indians dispersed into small parties, and carried 
the work of death and desolation into several neighbor- 
hoods, in the counties nov/ Berkeley, Frederick and 
Shenandoah. About 18 or 20 of them crossed the North 
Mountain at Mill's Gap, in the county of Berkeley, killed 
a man by the name of Kellj^, and several of his family. 
This massacre occurred about one mile from Gerards- 
town. The Indians then i^assed on to the present site of 
Martinsburg, About two miles from the latter place a 
stockade was built, and known as the John Evans fort, 
in which the neighboring people generally took shelter. 
(The land on which this fort stands is now situated south 
o£ our town, and owned by a Mr. Fryatt.) A small party 
of Indians attacked the dwelling house of a Mr. Evans, 
a brother to the owner of the fort ; but being beaten off 
they went in pursuit of a reinforcement. In their ab- 
sence, Mr. Evans and his family made their escape to the 
fort. The Indians returned and fired the house, which 
was situated three miles south of town, near the Big 
SiDriug. These Indians took a female prisoner on the 
same day, at John Strode' s house. A boy by the name 
of Hackney, on his way to the fort, met and advised her 
not to go to the house, as Strode's entire family had gone 
to the fort, and the Indians had possession of the house. 
She disregarded the advice of the boy, went to the house, 
was seized by the Indians and made a i3risoner. The boy 
went back to the fort and told what had happened : but 
the men had all turned out to bury Kelly, and went in 
pursuit of the Indians, leaving nobody to defend the fort 
but the women and children. ]Mrs. Evans armed herself, 
and called on all the women, Vvdio had firmness enough to 
aim, to join her ; and such as were too timid she ordered 
to run bullets. She then made a boy beat "to arms" on 
a drum. The Indians became much alarmed at this, and 
after firing Strode's house made a hasty retreat, when 

40 The Indian Warfare. 

tliey discovered the party of white men just mentioned 
and fired upon them, to no effect. The latter finding the 
Indians too strong for them, retreated to the fort. 

After a captivity of three years, the girl spoken of as 
being made a prisoner, returned to her home. Mrs. 
Evans is the great-grandmother of our worthy and esti- 
mable citizen, ]\Ir. James M. Yanmetre, now living a 
short distance south of town, and other brothers scattered. 
Tillitson Evans, six brothers, and many others of her 
great-grand children are living at the present day. 

The Indians, from thence, passed on to Opequon, and 
the next morning attacked Neally's fort, massacred m.ost 
of the people, and took a number of prisoners, among 
whom were a Mr. Colioon and wife, and a family of small 
children. Mrs. Cohoon being unable to travel fast 
enough, her husband was forced ahead, in order to mur- 
der her. Cohoon, however, heard her screams, and that 
night made his escape. 

The Indians proceeded as far as the vicinity of Fort 
Pleasant" with several prisoners, and then divided them- 
selves into two parties, in order to watch the fort. At a 
late hour in the night, Mrs. Neff, a prisoner, escaped to 
the fort and informed the inmates of the Indians where- 
abouts. On the following day another party joined the 
fort, and on the next morning sixteen men, well mounted 
and armed, left the fort with a view to attack the Indi- 
ans, who were soon discovered by their camp fires. The 
whites sei)arated in two parties, intending to close in 
upon the Indians, but however were discovered by the 
latter, who were alarmed by the barking of a dog. The 
Indians cautiously moved off between the two parties of 
white men unobserved, and taking a position between 
them and their horses, opened a most destructive fire. 
The whites stood their ground with great firmness and 

*rort Pleasant was a strong stockade Avitli l^lock houses, ere«t«d on the 
lands formerly owned by Isaac Yanmetre, on the South Branch of the 

The Indian Warfare. 41 

bravery, and a desperate and bloody conflict ensued. 
Seven of the wliites were killed and four wounded. 
Three Indians fell in this conflict and several were seri- 
ously wounded. The men of the fort were compelled to 
retreat, and their horses were secured by the victors. 
Just before this action commenced. Mr. Yanmetre. an 
old man, mounted his horse, rode upon a high lidge. and 
witnessed the battle. He returned vv-ith all sp^ed to the 
fort and gave notice of <he defeat. ITe vras killed by the 
Indians in 17o7. 

Near about this year a Jilr. Williams resided on Pat- 
terson's Creek. Hearing of the approach of the Indians 
he repaired with his neighbors to Fort Pleasant for secu- 
rity, a distance of nine miles. After remaining here a 
few days, supposing their houses might be revisited with 
safety, Mr. W., with seven others, crossed the mountain 
for that purpose. On reaching the creek they s^^parated 
and Mr. Williams went to his farm alone. Having tied 
his horse to a bush lie commenced salting his cattle, 
when seven Indians stepped between him and his horse 
and demanded a surrender. His only answer was a ball 
from his rifle that laid one of their number low to the 
ground. The Indians then retreated to the housn. and 
barricading the doors began flring through the windows. 
Mr. Williams hid behind a hominy block in a corner, 
from which he flred at his assailants through the cracks 
of the building, as opportunity off'^red. In this vray he 
killed Ave out of the s^ven. The remaining two would 
not give up their prey, but resolved to proceed more cau- 
tiously, and going to the least exposed side of the house, 
one was raised upon the shoulders of the other to an 
opening in the logs some distance above the level ot: Mr. 
Williams, who consequently did not observe their manoe- 
uvre, and in this way the Indian shot him. His body was 
instantly taken, cut in quarters and hung to the four 
corners of the baiildlng. His head was stuck ui-»on a 
fence stake in front of the door. 

42 The Indian Warfare. 

In the year 1757, a niimerons body of Indians crossed 
the Alleghany, and, as usual, divided themselves into 
small parties, hovering about the different forts, and 
committing many acts of murder and destruction to 
property. IN' ear about the year 1758, a j^arty of about 50 
Indians and 4 Frenchmen penetrated into the neighbor- 
hood of Mill Creek, novt^ in this county. This was a 
pretty thickly settled neighborhood, and among other 
houses, George Painter had" erected a large log one, with 
a commodious cellar. On the alarm being given, the 
neighboring people took refuge in this house. Late in 
the afternoon they were attacked. Mr. Painter attemi^ted 
to Hy, but had three balls shot through his body and fell 
dead. The others surrendered, and the Indians then 
dragged the dead body back to the house, threw it in^ 
plundered the house, and set fire to it. While the house 
was in, consuming the body of Mr. Painter, they 
forced from the arms of their mothers four infant chil- 
dren, hung them up in trees, shot them in savage sport, 
and left them hanging. They then set fire to a stable, 
containing a parcel of sbenp and calves, thus cruelly ajid 
wantonly torturing to deaili the inoffensiv^e dumb ani- 
mals. The Indians then made a hasty retreat, taking 
with them about 48 prisoners. After six days' travel 
they reached their villages west of the Alleghany moun- 
tains. A council was held and determined upon to sac- 
rifice their helpless jirisoner, Jacob Fisher, a lad 12 or 13 
years old, who was, with his parents and other children, 
taken captivesi. They first ordered the boy to collect a 
quantity of dry wood. The poor little felloAV shuddered, 
burst into tears, and told his father they intended to 
burn him. "I hope not," said his father, and advised 
him to obey. When he had collected a sutRcient quan- 
tity of wood to answer their purpose, they cleared and 
smoothed a ring n round a sapling, to which they tied 
him by one hand, tlien formed a trail of wood around the 
tree and set it on lire. The poor boy was then compelled 

The Indian ^Yarfare. 43 

to run around in this ring of fire until liis lope wound 
him up to the sajDling, and then back until he came in 
contact with the flame, whilst his infernal tormentors 
were drinking, singing, and dancing around him with a 
horrid joy. This was continued for several hours, during 
which time the savages became beastly drunk, and as 
they fell prostrate to the ground, the squaws would keep 
up the fire. With long, sharp poles, prepared for the 
pur^DOse, they would pierce the body of their victim 
when he flagged, until the i^oor, heli)less boy, fell and 
expired with the most excruciating torments. The family 
were compelled to be witnesses of the heart-rending 

These outrages of the Indians drove many of the white 
settlers below the Blue Ridge, and broke up the settle- 
ments through this locality. About the year 1758 there 
were two white men who disguised themselves in the 
habit of Indians, and appeared in the neighborhood of 
the present site of Martinsburg. Suxii303ed to be Indians 
they were jDursued and killed, and it was no uncommon 
thing for scoundrels and rascals to act in this manner. 
Their object was to frighten x:>eoi)le to leave their homes, 
that they might rob and plunder them of their valuable 
articles. At Hedge's fort, on the i^resent road from Mar- 
tinsburg to Bath, west of Back Creek, a man was killed 
while watching the spring. In the years 1773-74, nu- 
merous conflicts and bloody battles occurred between 
the whites and Indians. About the 1st of May, 1774, 
during Gov. Dunmore's reign, the whites were growing 
in strength, and in large numbers commenced war on the 
savages with marked effect. 


[Extract from an historical address delivered by the 
late Hon. Charles J. Faulkner, at the University of West 
Virginia, in June, 1S75 :] 

"There is one incident connecteJ with the early his- 

44 Tlie Indian Warfare. 

tory of the county in wldch I reside which may possibl;,' 
prove interesting to the fairer portion of my audience. 
It rests upon authentic evidence. I spoke of the mas- 
sacre of Neally ;Fort, on the Opequon Creelv, in the 
county of Berkeley. It was about daylight, on the 17th 
of September, IT.OG, that a roving band of Indians sur- 
prised that little fort and murdered and scalped all they 
found in it. On their return from this bloody work they 
j)assed the house of Wm. Stocktoa, east of the North 
Mountain, who, about one hour before their arrival, un- 
oonscious of danger, had gone with his wife about two 
miles distant to perform the last duties to a dying neigh- 
bor, leaving their children at home. Tlie Indians seized 
two of these children, George, a boy of fourteen years, 
and Isabelki, a girl then ten years of age, and carried 
them off as ca])tives to the north. George, who was ^ 
youth of remarkable energy and spirit, after a captivity 
of three years, made his escape and returned to his home 
in Berkeley County, with his feelings deeply embittered 
against the Indians and their allies, the French. Isa- 
bella Stockton, after being with them something up- 
wards of a month, was sokl. by them t;) a wealthy Cana- 
dian trader, who took her to his home near Montreal, 
and being touched by the artless manners and prepos- 
sessing qualities of tlie child, bestov\'ed, with his wife, 
every care on her educaiion and training which the con- 
dition of the country then permitted. At sixteen years 
of age she had developed into a girl of extraordinary 
beauty and attractions. At this time there arrived from 
France a nephew of the trader of the nam.e of Jean Bap- 
tiste Plata, a young man highly educated and of the no- 
blest and most cliivalric traits of character Living in 
the same house with Isabella, a mutual attachment soon 
sprang up between them, and in about one year he made 
known tc; his uncle his purpose to ask her hand in mar- 
riage. The uncle approved his purpose, and the young 
man opened the subject to Isabella. She told him that 

The Indian Warfare. 45 

slie could not disguise from him lier deep attachment to 
Mm, but fehe felt compelled to disclose to him what she 
had never before breathed to any human being — some- 
thing of her early history. When but ten years of age 
she had been torn as a captive from her i)arents b}'- the 
Indians, and had been sold to his uncle. The images of 
her dear father and mother had been continually present 
to her mind from that day to this. Her dreams had 
kept their faces and features as fresh and vivid in her 
memory as if she had seen them every day, and she did 
not feel that she could, with satisfaction to herself, 
change her relations in life until she had once more revis- 
ited her home in Virginia, and if her parents were still 
alive, to ask their consent to the proposed marriage. 
The young Frenchman promptly offered to take her to 
her parents, not for a moment doubting that they would 
cordially ratify his union with their daughter He ac- 
cordingly procured the necessary horses from his uncle, 
and they started on their long and perilous journey. 
They arrived safely in the county of Berkeley, and he 
delivered her into the embraces of her astonished and 
delighted parents. For a few days all was gladness and 
joy. But as soon as it was communicated to them that 
the young Frenchman was engaged to and desired their 
daughter in marriage, then all the animosity of the per- 
secuted settler sprang up in their bosoms. A Frenchman 
at that day was more hateful to a West Virginia back- 
woodsman than even a Shawnee Indian, for they regarded 
them as the instigators and fomenters of all the cold- 
blooded murders and barbarities which had drenched 
their settlements in blood. His proposal of marriage 
was rejected ; he was even ordered to leave the house, 
but he lingered long enough in the neighborhood to ma- 
ture an arrangement with Isabella by which he might 
effect her escape and both return to Canada. Availing 
himself of the opportunity when the father and George 
were absent on a hunt across the Xorth Mountain, the 

46 The Indian Warfare. 

two lovers started upon their journey northward. The 
day after their dex)arture the father and son returned, 
when the enraged father, discovering the flight, gave his 
orders to the fiery and impetuous George to go imme- 
diately in pursuit and "to bring Isabella back, dead or 
alive, for he would rather see her a corpse than hear of 
her marriage with a Frenchman." Meanwhile the fugi- 
tives had crossed the Potomac; they had forded the 
Juniata, and they had reached the^vest bank of the Sus- 
quehanna, in the county now called Lycoming, in Penn- 
sylvania, where they were detained by a sudden rise in 
the waters of that river. Here the furious and maddened 
George, whose temper had not been improved by a three 
year's servitude among the Indians, overtook the aston- 
ished lovers. The scene that followed was as brief as it 
was bloody. He demanded the return of his sister. She 
refused to go back. Her lover interposed, and in two 
minutes the brave and chivalrous Frenchman lay a bleed- 
ing corpse in the arms of the agonized Isabella. History 
does not inform us what disx:)Osition was made of the 
dead body of Jean Baptiste Plata, but the lovely Isabella, 
crushed in all her earthly affections, was brought almost 
a raving maniac to her fa ther" s house. Ten years elapsed 
before her mind recovered its accustomed tone and vigor, . 
when she married a gentleman of the name of Wm. 
McC leery, and they removed from Berkeley to Morgan- 

However, for quite a lengthy period afterward the In- 
dians continued hostile and bitter in their depredations. 
Powerful armies of the w^hites were raised, and have at 
last succeeded in almost terminatinor Indian existence. 




ffvr<l CORRECT and detailed view of the origin and 
^J^f^ mode of living, and their progress from one condi- 
tion or point of wealth, science and civilization, to 
another, is always highly interesting, even when received 
through the dusky medium of history. But when this 
retrospect of things past and gone is drawn from the rec- 
ollections and experiences of old and venerable citizens, 
and handed down to the rising generation, the impres- 
sions it makes on the heart are of the most vivid, deep 
and lasting kind. The municix)al, as well as ecclesiasti- 
cal institutions of society, whether good or bad, in con- 
sequence of their long continued use, give a corresponding 
cast to the public character of society, whose conduct 
they direct, and the more so because in the lapse of time 
the observance of them becomes a matter of conscience. 
The settlement of a new country in the immediate neigh- 
borhood of an old one, is not attended with much diffi- 
culty, because snpjjlies can be readily obtained from the 
latter ; but the settlement of a country very remote from 
any cultivated region, is a very different thing ; because 
at the outset, food, raiment, and the implements of 
husbandry, are obtained only in small sux)plies and with 
great difficulty. The task of making new establishments 
in a remote wilderness, in time of profound peace, is 
sufficiently difficult ; but when, in addition to all the 
unavoidable hardships attendant on this business, those 
resulting from an extensive and furious warfare with 
savages are superadded ; toil, jDrivations and sufferings, 
are then carried to the full extent of the capacity of men 

48 Houses, Furniture, &c., of the Ecirhj Settlers. 

to endure tlieni. Sncli was tlie wretched condition of 
our forefathers in making their settlements here, and to 
all their difficulties and privation", the Indian war was a 
Aveigh*y addition. 

The following history of the poverty, labors, suffer- 
ings, njanners and customs, of our foiefathers, will 
appear like a collection of "tales of olden times," with- 
out any garnish of language to spoil the original portraits, 
by giving tljem shades of coloring which they did not 

A spot was selected on a piece of laud for their habita- 
tion, and a day appointed for commencing tlie work of 
building their cabin. The fatigue party consisted of 
choppers, whose busine^s it was to fell the trees and cut 
them off at proper lengths — a man with his team for 
hanling them to the place and arranging them — and a 
carpenter, if he might be called such, whose business it 
was to search the woods for a proper tree for making 
clapboards for the roof. The materials for the cabin 
were mostly prepared on the lirst day, and sometimes the 
foundation laid in the evening ; the second day was 
allotted for the raising. In the morning of the next day 
the neighbors collected for the raising. The first thing 
to be done was the election of four corner men, whose 
business it was to notch and place the logs, the rest of 
the comjiany furnishing th(-m with the timbers. In the 
meantime the boards and puncheons were collected for 
the floor and roof, so that by the time the cabin was a 
few rounds high, the sleepers and floor began to be laid. 
Openings vrere afterward made for the door, windows 
and chimney. The roof was formed by making the end 
logs shorter until a single log formed the comb of the 
roof. On these logs the clapboards were placed and laj)- 
ped over each considerable distance, which were held in 
their proper places by logs being placed upon them. 

The Germans were more nniform in the building of 
their cabins, and their barn was usually the best build- 

Houses^ Furniture, <f-c., of the Early Settlers. 49 

ing on the farm. Their dwelling houses were seldom 
raised more than a single story, with a large cellar un- 
derneath. In the upper floor garners for holding grain 
were very common. A piazza was a very common appen- 
dage, in which their saddles, bridles and very frequently 
the wagon or plow harness were hung up. 

In the above has been given a description of the dwel- 
lings of the early settlers, and to make mention of the 
furniture, diet and dress used in those days may proba- 
bly prove of interest. The furniture for the table for 
several years after the settlement of this locality consisted 
of a few pewter dishes, plates and spoons, but mostly of 
"wooden bowls, trenchers and noggins. If the latter were 
scarce, gourds and hard- shelled squashes made up the 
deficiency. The iron pots, knives and forks were brought 
from the east side of the mountains, along with the salt 
and iron, on pack-horses. The table was generally fixed 
in one corner of the stove room, with permanent benches 
on one side. Their beds were filled with straw or chaff, 
with a fine feather-bed for the covering. 

These articles of furniture corresponded very well with 
the articles of diet on which they w^ere emi)loyed. Hog 
and hominy were proverbial for the dish of which they 
were the component parts. Johnny cake and pone were, 
at the outset of the settlement of the country, the only 
forms of bread in use for breakfast and dinner. At sup- 
per milk and mush were the standard dish. When milk 
was not plenty, which was often the case, owing to the 
scarcity of cattle or the want of proper pasture for them, 
the substantial dish of hominy had to supply the i)lace 
of them. Mush was frequently eaten with sweetened 
water, molasses, bear's oil, or the gravy of fried meat. 
Every family cultivated an acre or more, which they 
called "truck i)atches," and raised a variety of vegeta- 
bles. The natural result of this kind of rural life was to 
produce a hardy and vigorous race of people. It v/as 

■BD Houses, Furniiure, <f-c., of the Early Selilers. 

itliis race of people who had to meet aEcL breast the vari- 
ous Indian wars and the storms of the revolution. 

On the frontiers, and particularly amongst those who 
were much in the habit of hunting, and going on scouts 
and campaigns, the dress of the men, resembled partly 
that of the Indian and the civilized nations. The hunt- 
'iiig skirt was universally worn. This vras a kind of loose 
frock, reaching about half way down, with large sleeves 
and a belt. This skirt was generally made of linsey, 
sometimes of coarse linen, and a few of dressed deer 
-skins. A pair of moccasins answered for the feet much 
libetter than shoes, and were made of dressed deer skin. 
In the latter years of the Indian war the young men be- 
came enamored of the Indian dress, and adopted it almost 

The reader will, naturally, desire a sketch of the dress 
adopted by the women ; and the younger minds will more 
especially desire an idea of the 'weddings of those days. 
A description of the ceremony adopted will, doubtless, 
prove very interesting, in which will be described also 
the women's dress : 

For a long time after the first settlement of this locality, 
the inhabitants in general married very young. There 
was no distinction of rank and very little of fortune. 
On these accounts the first impressions of love resulted 
in marriage, and a family establishment cost nothing 
more than a little labor. The practice of celebrating the 
marriage at the house of the bride began at an early 
period, and it should seem with great propriety. She 
was also given the choice to make the selection as to who 
should perform the ceremony. In those days a w^edding 
engaged the attention of a whole neighborhood, and both 
old and young engaged in the frolic with eager anticipa- 
tion. This is not to be wondered at, when it is told that 
a wedding was almost the only gathering which was not 
accompanied with the labor of reaping, log-rolling, build- 
ing a cabin, or planning some scout or campaign. 

Houses, Furniture^ etc., of the Early Settlers. 51 

On the morning of the wedding day, the groom and 
Ms attendants assembled at the house of his father, for 
the purpose of reaching the mansion of his bride by noon, 
which was the usual time for celebrating the nuptials, 
and which for certain must take place before dinner. Let 
the reader imagine an assemblage of people, without a 
store, tailor or mantuamaker, within an hundred miles, 
and an assemblage of horses, without a blacksmith or 
saddler within an equal distance. The gentlemen dress- 
ed in shoepacks, moccasins, leather breeches, leggins, 
and linsey hunting shirts, all homemade. The ladies 
dressed in linsey petticoats and linsey or linen bed-gowns, 
coarse shoes, stockings, handkerchiefs, and buckskin 
gloves, if any ; if there were any buckles, rings, buttons 
or ruffles, they were relics of old times, family pieces 
from parents or grand-parents. The horses were capari- 
soned with old saddles, bridles or halters, and pack- 
saddles, with a bag or blanket thrown over them— a rope 
or string as often constituted thegirth as a piece of leather. 

The march, in double tile, was often interrupted by the 
narrowness and obstructions of the horse paths, as they 
were called, for there were no roads. These difficulties 
were often increased, sometimes by the good, and some- 
times by the ill will of neighbors ; by felling trees and 
tying grape vines across the way. Sometimes an ambus- 
cade was formed by the wayside, and an unexpected dis- 
charge of several guns took place, so as to cover the 
wedding comi^auy with smoke. Let the reader imagine 
the scene that followed this discharge— the sudden spring 
of the horses, the shrieks of the girls, and the chivalric 
bustle of their partners to save them from falling. Some- 
times, in spite of all that could be done to i^revent it, 
some were thrown to the ground ; if a wrist, elbow, or 
ankle hai^pened to be spiained, it was tied with a hand- 
herchief, and little more was thought or said about it. 

Another ceremony commonly took place before the 
party reached their destination When the party were 

52 Houses^ Furniture, etc., of the Early Settlers. 

within about a mile of the bride's house, two young men 
would single out to run for the bottle ; the worse the^ 
path, the more logs, bush and deep hollows, the better, 
as these obstacles afforded an opportunity for the greater 
display of intrepidity and horsemanship. The English 
fox chase, in point of danger to the riders and their 
horses, was nothing to this race for the bottle. The start 
was announced by an Indian yell, when logs, bush, mud- 
holes, hill and glen, were speedily passed by the rival 
ponies. The bottle was always filled for the occasion^ 
and there was no need of judges. The first that reached 
the door was handed the prize, and returned in triumph 
announcing his victory over his rival by a shrill whoop. 
The bottle was given the groom and his attendants at the 
head of the troop, and then to each pair in succession, to 
the rear of the line. After giving each a dram, he placed 
the bottle in his bosom and took his station in the com- 
pany. The ceremony preceded the dinner, which was 
a substantial backwoods feast of beef, pork, fowls and 
sometimes venison and bear meat, with plenty of cab- 
bage, potatoes and other vegetables. 

After dinner dancing commenced with four handed 
reels or square sets and jigs, and generally lasted until 
the next morning. About 9 or 10 o'clock a deputation 
of the young ladies stole off the bride and put her to bed. 
This would be unnoticed by the hilarious crowd, and as 
soon as discovered a deputation of young men in like 
manner would steal oft' the groom and place him snugly 
by the side of his bride. The dance still continued, and 
when seats happened to be scarce, which was often the 
case, every young man, when not engaged in the dance, 
was obliged to offer his lap as a seat for one of the girls, 
which was sure to be accepted. During the hilarity the 
newly married couple were not forgotten. Late in the 
night one would remind the company that the new cou- 
ple stood in need of refreshments. The bottle was then 
called "Black Betty," which was sent up the ladder, 

Ho'uses, Furniture, c&c, of the Early Settlers. 53 

generally accompanied by a quantity of beef, bread, pork 
and cabbage sufficient to afford a good meal for balf a 
dozen hungry men. During the festivity "Black Betty" 
was called out, and in taking a dram they would say, 
"Here's health to the groom, not forgetting myself, and 
here's to the bride, thumping luck and big children." 

Being in perpetual hostility Avith the Indians, big chil- 
dren were considered of much importance, and this ex- 
pression was thought to be of a very proper and friendly 
wish. It often happened that some neighbors or rela- 
tions, not being asked to the wedding, took offense, and 
as a mode of revenge they adopted the plan of cutting off 
the manes, foretops and tails of the horses of the wedding 
company. The feasting and dancing often lasted several 
days, and on their return the race for "Black Betty" 
was the same as before. After these ceremonies several 
days rest were required before they could return to their 
ordinary labors. 

Some of my readers may doubt the veracity of this 
statement, but I would state, that in presenting this 
book to the public, I have tried to give the facts as cor- 
rectly as possible. This extract has been sketched from 
an old history published in 1S33, and is vouched for by 
several very old citizens You may ask why this un- 
pleasant portrait of our forefathers has been presented ? 
In turn I would ask why are you pleased with the his- 
tories of the blood and carnage of battles, and delighted 
with the fictions of poetry and the novel romance ? It 
is a true state of society and manners which are fast van- 
ishing from the memory of man, depicted with a view 
to give the young people of to-day a knowledge of the 
advantage of civilization. 


H^HARLES II, King of England, granted to tlie ances- 
1^ tors of the late Lord Fairfax all the lands lying be- 
tween the head- waters of the Rappahannock and Potomac 
to Chesapeake bay. This immense grant included the 
territory noAv comprising the counties of Lancaster, Nor- 
thumberland, Richmond, Westmoreland, Stafford, King 
George, Prince AVilliam, Fairfax, Loudon, Fauquier, 
Culpeper, Madison, Page, Shenandoah, Hardy, Hamp- 
shire, Morgan, Berkeley, Jefferson and Frederick. It is 
said that the first grant to the ancestors of Fairfax was 
only intended to include the territory in the Northern 
Neck, east of the Blue Ridge ; but after Faixfax dis- 
covered that the Potomac river headed in the Alleghaney 
mountains, he returned to England, and instituted his 
petition in the Court of King's Bench for extending his 
grant into the Alleghaney mountains, so as to include 
the territory composing the present counties of Page, 
Shenandoah, Hardy, Hampshire, Morgan, Berkeley, Jef- 
ferson]and Frederick. A compromise took place between 
Fairfax and the Crown, but previous to the institution 
of Fairfax's suit, several individuals had obtained grants 
for large bodies of land west of ihe Blue Ridge, from the 
colonial government of Virginia. In the compromise it 
was expressly stipulated that the holders of lands, under 
what v^ere then called the King's grants, y/ere to be 
quieted in their right of possession. 

Joist Hite and his i^artners had obtained grants for a 
large body. Fairfax, under the pretext that Hite and 
others had not complied with the terms of their grants, 
took it upon himself to grant away large quantities of 

Nortliern JSeck of Virginia. 55 

these lands to other individuals. This high handed pro- 
ceeding on the part of his Lordship, produced a law suit, 
which Hite and his ^Dartners instituted in the year 1736, 
and in the year 17S6 it was decided. The jjlaintiffs re- 
ceived a large amount of money for the rents and proiits, 
and a considerable quantity of land. 

In the year 1736 Fairfax entered a caveat against Hite 
and his partners, alleging that 'the lands claimed by them 
were within the bounds of the Northern Neck, and con- 
sequently his property. This was the begiiming of the 
controversy, and led to the suit instituted by the latter. 
However, all the parties died before the suit was decided. 
The immense Fairfax estate has passed out of the hands 
of Fair'fax's heirs. The lands, (as observed in a preced- 
ing chapter,) were granted by Fairfax in fee simple to 
his tenants, subject to an annual rent of two shillings 
sterling per hundred acres, which in the aggregate 
amounted to a very large sum. To this Fairfax added 
and required the payment of ten shillings sterling on 
each fifty acres (what he termed composition money,) 
and which was paid on issuing the grant. In the year 
1742 he opened his office in the county of Fairfax for 
granting out land. A few years after he removed to the 
county of Frederick, and settled at what he called 
"Greenway-Court," about 12 or 14 miles south-east of 
the i^resent Winchester, where he kep)t his land office 
during his life. He died in the autumn of 1781, very 
soon after the surrender of Cornwallis. It is stated that 
when he heard of the capture of Cornwallis, he called his 
servant to assist him to bed, saying, "It is time for me 
to die." He never left his bed again until consigned to 
the tomb. He had, prior to his death, made a donation 
to the Episcoi^al society of a lot of land, upon which a 
large stone building was erected as a j^lace of jniblic 
worship. To the church was attached a large burial 
ground, in which his remains were interred. 

In the year 17S5 the legislature of Virginia passed an 

56 Nortliern A'ecJc of Virginia. 

act in which, among other provisions, (in relation to the 
Northern Neck,) is the following : 

^'And he it furilier enacted^ That the landhoklers 
within the said district of the Northern Neck shall be 
forever hereafter exonerated and discharged from com- 
position and quitrents, any law, custom or usage to the 
contrary notwithstanding.'- This action of the State 
freed the peoj)le from a vexatious and troublesome tax- 
ation. Fairfax's representatives soon sold out their in- 
terest in his private estate in this country, and it is be- 
lieved there is no part of this vast landed estate remain- 
ing in the hands of any branch of the Fairfax family. 
Chief Justice Marshall, the late Kaleigh Colston, Esq., 
and the late Gen. Henry Lee, purchased the riglit of 
Fairfax's legatees — who were then in England — to what 
is called the Manor of Leeds, which contained about 150,- 
■ 000 acres ; South Branch Manor, 55,000 acres ; Patter- 
son's Creek Manor, 9,000 acres, and various otlier tracts 
of land of iiimense value, the most of which had been 
leased out for long terms of lives. 

This profligate manner of granting away lands in im- 
mense bodies was unquestionably founded in the most 
unwise and unjust policy. Such are the blessings of 
kingly governments. It tended more to tie and bind 
down the speedy settlement and improvement of the 
country, instead of advancing its interests for a more 
rapid development. But, alas, the disgusting, high- 
sounding title of "My Lord" is no longer ax)plied to poor, 
frail humanity. 

It appears that Lord Fairfax, among others, was an 
attentive officer in the tim.e of the Indian wars. He had 
more at stake and the command of greater funds than 
any other individual of his day, therefore it behooved 
him to be active. The Indian hostilities retarded the 
settlement of his large domain, and of course lessened his 
revenue. It is said that he was remarkable for his eccen- 
tricities and singularity of disposition and charact^', and 

JS'ortliern JVec/i of Virginia. 57 

that lie bad an insatiable passion for lioardiDg up Englisli 
gold. He never married, and of course left no cliild to 
inherit his vast estate. All his property, or the greater 
portion of it, vras devised to his nephew in England, the 
Rev. Denny Martin, on condition that he would apply 
to the Parliament of Britain for an act to authorize him 
to take the name of Lord Fairfax. This was done, and 
Denny Lord Fairfax, like his uncle, never marrying, he 
devised the estate to Gen. Philip Martin, who, never 
marrying and dying without issue, devised the estate to 
two old maiden sisters, who sold it to Messrs. Marshall, 
Colston and Lee. 

It is proper, before the subject of Lord Fairfax's grant 
is dismissed, to inform the reader that a few years after 
the war of the revolution an attempt was made to confis- 
cate all that part of his landed estate devised to his 
nephew, Denny Martin, (after Denny Lord P'airfax.) 
But Messrs. Marshall, Colston and Lee having purchased 
the estate, a compromise took place between them and 
the State Government. The sale of the estate of Lord 
Fairfax by his legatees in England, and the devise and 
sale of the real estate of the late Col. T. B. Martin, is the 
last of the history of the Fairfax interest in the jSTorthern 
Neck, a territory comprising; about one- fourth of the 
whole of the ]>resent limits of Virginia. 


The two counties ot Frederick and Augusta were laid off 
at the session of the Colonial Legislature in the year 
1738, and included all the vast region of country west of 
the Blue Ridse. Previous to that time the County of 
Orange included all the territory west of the mountains. 
Orange was taken from Spotsylvania in the year 1734, 
the latter having previously crossed the Blue Ridge and 
took in a considerable part of what is now the County of 
Page. Previous to laying off the County of Orange the 
territory west of the Blue Ridge, except the small part 

58 Noriliern Neclc of Virginia. 

which lay in Spotsylvania, does not appear to have 
been included in any county. 

Thus it appears that a little more than one hundred 
years ago SiDotsylvania was a frontier county, and that 
the vast region west of the Blue Ridge, v/ith its millions 
of people, has been settled and improved from an entire 
wilderness. The country for more than a thousand miles 
to the west has been, within this short period, rescued 
from a state of natural barbarism, and is now the seat of 
the line arts and sciences, of countless millions of wealth 
and the abode of freedom, both religious and politi- 
cal. Judging from the past, what an immense prospect 
opens itself to our view for the future. Within the last 
half century this great portion of country has poured 
out thousands of emigrants, who have contributed to- 
wards peopling the North, East, South and West, and 
immigrations still continue. 

It has been already stated that Frederick County was 
laid off in the year 1738. Berkeley was taken from 
Frederick in the year 1772. The first Sheriff Avas Adam 
Stej)hen, who was constituted and appointed by a com- 
mission from the Governor for Berkeley County on the 
18th day of April, 1772. A number of justices were ap- 
pointed for the county, and their commission for their 
appointment is herewith given, as taken from the origi- 
nal copy now on lile in the Clerk's Office, which doubtless 
will prove of interest to the reader : 
''Berkeley County, s. s. 

"Be it remembered that at the house of Edward Bee- 
son, the Nineteenth Day of May, Anno Domini 1772, a 
Commission of the Peace and a Commission of Oyer and 
Terminer from his excellency Lord Dunmore dated the. 
17th Day of April in the year,aforesaid directed to Ralph 
Wormley, JacoVHite, Yan Swearengen, Thomas Ruther- 
ford, Adam Stex)hen, John Heavill, Thomas Swearengen, 
Samuel Washington, James Hourse, William Little, 
Robert Stephen, John Briscoe, Hugh Lyle, James 

Northern NecTc of Virginia. 59 

Strode, William Morgan, Robert Stogdon, James Seatou, 
Robert Carter Willis, and Thomas Robinson, Gentle- 
men and also Dedimns's for administering Oaths, directed 
to the same Persons or any two of them ; where pro- 
duced and read, whereupon the said Van Swearengen, 
having first taken the usual oaths to his Majesty's Per- 
son & Government repeated and subscribed the Test 
taken, the Oaths of a Justice of the Peace, of a Justice 
of the County Court in Chancery & of a Justice of Oyer 
and Terminer, which were administered to him by the 
said James House & William Little, he the said Van 
Swearengen, then administered the same oaths unto 
Thomas Swearengen, Samuel Washington, James Hourse, 
William Morgan, William Little, James Strode, Robert 
Stephen, Robert Stogdon, Robert Carter Willis, & James 
Seaton, who severally took the same & Repeated & Sub- 
scribed the Test : Court Proclaimed^ at a court held for 
Berkeley County the 19th Day of May, 1772. Present : 
Van Sioearengen, James Strode, 

TTios. Sioearengen, Robert Steplien, 

Samuel Wasliington, Hohert Stogdon, 

James Hourse, Robert C. Willis, 

William Morgan, and, 

William Little, James Seaton, 

Gent. Justices. 
William Drew was the first clerk of the Court, and 
was ax^pointed by a commission from Thomas Nelson, 
Esq. James Theith, John Magill, George Brent, George 
Johnston, Philip Pendleton and Alexander White were 
the first attorneys licensed to practice law in the court 
of the colony. Alexander White was appointed the 
first deputy attorney for this coanty under commission 
of the Attorney General of the colony. In those days 
when courts of law were resorted to as a means of jus- 
tice, it vv^as to be had at but little trouble, and the offen- 
der was dealt with in the most strict and hurried man- 
ner. In lookino- over the first court docket of this 

<30 Northern Keck of Virginia. 

county the author could surprise the people of the pres- 
ent generation were he to make mention of the most cruel 
manner in which punishments were inflicted. Slavery 
was then carried out in its true senee, regardless of na- 
ture or humanity. Again, it is much of a curiosity to 
see the manner in which the proceedings were conducted. 

iARTINSBURG was establislied in the month of 
October, 1778, and was named after Col.fT. B. 
Martin, of whom mention has been made in the previons 
chaiiter as the last holder of the estate of this portion of 
country prior to its being laid off. The following is an 
extract from the law at the time our present city was es- 
tablished : 

"Whereas it hath been re^Dresented to this present 
General Assembly that Adam Stephen, Esq., hath lately 
laid off one hundred and thirty acres of land in the 
county of Berkeley, where the Court House flow stands, 
in lots and streets for a town, etc.; Be it enacted, etc., 
tl^at the said one hundred and thirty acres of land laid 
out into lots and streets, agreeable to a plan and survey 
thereof made containing the number of two hundred and 
sixty-nine lots, as by the said plan and survey, relation 
thereunto being had, may more fully appear, be and the 
same is hereby vested in James Mc Alister, Joseph Mitch- 
ell, Anthony Noble, James Strode, Robert Carter Willis, 
William Patterson and Philip Pendleton, gentlemen, 
trustees, and shall be established a town by the name of 

Tradition relates an animated contest that took place 
between Sheriff Adam Stephen and Jacob Hite, Esq., in 
relation to fixing the seat of justice for this county and 
by which the latter lost his life. It may probably prove 
interesting to the reader : 

Hite contended for the location thereof on his own 
land at what is now called Leetown, in the county of 
Jefferson. Stephen advocated Martinsburg, and pre- 

62 Martinshurr/ Established. 

vailed upon it until Hite became so disgusted and dis- 
satisfied that he sold out his fine estate and removed to 
the frontier of South Carolina. His removal i)roved 
fatal, for he had not long settled in that State before the 
Indians murdered him and several of his family in the 
most shocking and barbarous manner. It is said that 
the evening before this bloody massacre took place, an 
Indian squaw who was much attached to Mrs. Hite, 
called on her and warned her of the intended plot, and 
advised her to remove with her little children to a place 
of safety. Mrs. Hite immediately communicated the in- 
telligence to her husband. He would not believe the 
information, observing "the Indians were too much 
attached to him to do him any injury." The next morn 
ing, however, when it was fatally too late to escape, a 
party of Indians, armed and painted in their usual war 
dress, called on Hite and told him they were determined 
to kill him. It was in vain that he pleaded his friend- 
ship for them and the many services he had rendered 
their nation. Their full purpose was fixed and nothing 
could apx)ease them but his blood and that of his inno- 
cent, unoffending and helpless wife and children. They 
commenced their barbarous work by the most cruel tor- 
tures, cutting him to pieces, a joint at a time, and while 
he was thus in the most violent agonies they barbarously 
murdered his wife and several of her little offspring. 
After they had dispatched Mr. Hite, his wife and sev- 
eral of the children, they took two of his daughters, not 
quite grown, and all of his slaves as prisoners. They 
also carried off what plunder they choose, and their booty 
was considerable. Mr. Hite kept a large store and dealt 
largely with the Creek and Cherokee tribes. It was 
afterward stated that a man by the name of Parish, who 
was an intimate friend of and went to Carolina with 
Hite, grew jealous of the latter's i)opularity with the In- 
dians, and instigated the savages to commit the murder. 
On the 20th day of August, 1779, on moti>:3n of Adam 

Martinshurg Estahlislicd. 03 

Stex^lien, Sheriff, tlie plat for Martinsburg was ordered 
to be recorded, with terms to purchasers, as follows : 
''The purchasers of any of the lots in the above town is 
to build on the purchased lot a good dwelling house, to 
be at least twenty feet long and sixteen feet wide, with 
stone or brick chimney to same, in two years from the 
time of purchase, and, on failure, the lot to return to the 

The first court was held in the dwelling house of Ed- 
ward Beeson, situated on the land now owned by Mr. A. 
J. Thomas, at the north end of the city. The building 
was a rude log house and consisted of one story and a 
half. The first Court House erected was built of stone, 
(and a very odd looking one at that,) and located where 
the present fine structure now stands. The first jail was 
a log building, erected in the middle of the Square, with 
the Market House attached to the rear end. The first 
church built west of the Blue Ridge Mountain is the one 
standing at the present day on Tuscarora, about two 
miles from the city. The Falling Waters church was 
the next. A number of the buildings, solidly constructed 
of stone and of early date, are yet standing at an age of 
over one hundred and fifty years, and presenting an air 
of defiance to the ravages of time. From their present 
state there is but little doubt that they will perhaps 
stand the trials and tribulations of the world for centu- 
ries to come. 

Among the early settlers a number of old commissions 
were issued by prominent Governors and Lieutenant 
Governors of Virginia, appointing sheriffs, justices and 
overseers of the iioor, dated from the expulsion of 
George, Earl of Dunmore, his Majesty's Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor of the colony of A^irginia, and Vice-Admiral of the 
same, in 1772 to the Governorship o£ Henry A. Wise in 
1859. There are two x)apers signed by Patrick Henry, 
the young orator who rebelled against the British Ministry 
and stirred within the breast of the American people an 

64 Martuisljurg Estahlished. 

independence that led to deeds of valor. These uere dated 
"Council Chamber, Williamsburg, Dec. 9th, 1776." The 
next was signed by Thos. Jefferson, who afterward be- 
came President, and as an example for model simplicity 
but few after Presidents have ever attained to. This 
paper bears an impression of the first wax seal of the 
Virginia Commonwealth. Benjamin Harrison was the 
signer of two commissions. Beverly Eandolph (1788,) 
James Wood (1793,) and Robert Brooks (1799,) also sent 
commissions. Among the number are the wel] -known 
signatures of Jno. Tyler, who succeeded Harrison as 
President, and James Monroe, also afterward President. 
Among the signatures of the Governors discernible were 
the names of Geo. W. Smith, James Barbour, James P. 
Preston, Lieutenant Governor Peter V. Daniels, Lieu- 
tenant Governor Tate, John Randolph, Henry A. Wise, 
(Virginia's war Governor,) Tillitson Tozewell and James 
McDowell. Among the men were statesmen and patriots 
whose noble traits are revered by many of the Virginia 
people. Many pages of American history have been 
scattered broadcast containing their acts of heroism and 

Among the early residents were three noted generals 
of the revolutionary war — Horatio Gates, Alexander 
Stephen and Charles Lee. As an evidence of the well- 
known eccentricity of the former, is the following ex- 
tract from his will, copied from the original, and on file 
in the office of the County Clerk : 

"I desire, most earnestly, that I may not be buried in 
any church or cliurch yard, or within a mile of any 
Presbyterian or Anabaptist meeting-house ; for, since I 
have resided in this county, I have kept so much bad 
company when living that I do not chuse to continue it 
when dead. I recommend my soul to the creator of all 
worlds and all creatures, who must, from his visible at- 
tributes, be indifferent to their modes of worship or creeds 
whether Christians, Mohammedans or Jews; whether 

Martins'burg Established. 65 

more or less absurd ; as a weak mortal can no more be 
answerable for his persuasions, notions or even scepti- 
cism in religion, than for the color of his skin." 

The will was presented to the Berkeley County Court 
for record April 15th, 1783, in his own hand- writing. 
Another extract is taken from the County Court records 
under date of Noveniber 20th, 1776 : 

"Proclamation being made for the trial of a negro man 
belonging to General Horatio Gates, committed to the 
goal of this county, and for breaking open the cellar of 
the said General Gates and feloniously taking from 
thence a chest of money and clothes ; who being brought 
to the bar and it being demanded of him whether he was 
guilty of the offense whereAvith he stands charged, or 
not guilty, he says he is guilty. It is, therefore, the 
judgment of the Court that he be remanded back to the 
goal from whence he came, and there to continue till 
the third Friday in December next ; then from thence to 
be taken and hanged by the neck till he is dead. It is 
the opinion of the said Court that the said slave is worth 
seventy pounds." 


Each one of these noted Generals was cashiered. 
Alexander Stephen for becoming drunk and neglecting 
to bring his troops forward to the supjDort of the balance 
of the army at the battle of Monmouth. His remains 
lie buried upon the ju-emises of the late Hon. C. J. Faulk- 
ner, on the south edge of town. A monument was com- 
menced to his memory, but was advanced no further 
than the placing of three broad stones. It was supposed 
that the other portion was used to a more apj)ropriate 


Gen. Lee was at one time a rival of Gen. Geo. "Wash- 
ington, and an aspirant for the position of Commander- 
in-Chief of the army, and while the latter modestly urged 
upon Congress to relieve him from the resjionsibility and 

66 Martinali'iirg Esiahlishecl. 

appoint some one whom lie imagined could more credi- 
tably fill the position, the former, by intrigae and with 
importunity, sought and failed to obtain it. This led 
Gen. Lee to entertain feelings of envy and hatred toward 
Gen. Washington, much to the latter' s regret, who did 
his utmost to dispel them. Gen. Lee at this time lived 
about ten miles from Martinsburg, in a long, low house, 
the back room of which was his bed-room, the next the 
dining-room, then the kitchen, in which Ms slaves and 
dogs remained, and in front was a sort of sitting or re- 
ception room. Gen. Washington at one time, with the 
intention of trying to regain the good will of Gen. Lee, 
wrote to him informing him that, trusting that it would 
be agreeable, he would do himself the honor of dining 
with him on the following day. Upon his arrival, how- 
ever, he found the house closed, and fastened to the front 
door was this message : "No bread or bacon cooked to- 
day.'' There wasn't much of the boasted hospitality of 
the dominion exhibited by this, but it is excusable from 
the fact that General Lee came from England and had 
not been a resident of the Commonwealth long enough 
to become addicted to the habits of the people. 

The three heroes— Gates, Stephen and Lee— were in 
the habit of frequently meeting at the residence of the 
latter, in the summer and fall of 1782, and crack jokes, 
drink wine and compare notes of their army experience. 
Upon one occasion, after a lengthy sitting and free in- 
dulgence in the spirits, which were ardent, General Lee 
obtained the floor and remarked : ' 'The County of Berke- 
ley is indeed to be congratulated. She can claim as citi- 
zens three noted Major Generals of the revolutionary 
war. You, Stephen, distinguished yourself by getting 
drunk Avhen you should have remained sober, and was 
cashiered for advancing when you should have been re- 
treating, while your humble servant covered himself with 
glory and laurels and was cashiered for retreating when 
he should have been advancing.'' 


'HE State of Maryland, in 1832, set up a claim to a 
I considerable tract of territory on the north-west 
border of Virginia, including a part of the Northern 
Neck, It was then the late Hon. Charles James Faulk- 
ner distinguished himself, and won the respect and es- 
teem of his i)eople. Maryland pushed the claim with 
much earnestness, and the Executive of the State in 
appointing a commission to collect and embody the nec- 
essary testimony, on behalf of Virginia, selected Mr. 
Faulkner. This gentleman, in taking up this interesting 
question, worked with an untiring zeal and energy, and 
on the 6th day of November, 1832, made a most able re- 
port on "the settlement and adjustment of the western 
boundary of Maryland." The author deems it of suffi- 
cient interest to every Berkeley citizen, to insert in this 
work the rejiort in fnll. It is as follows, from the origi- 
nal copy : 

''''Report of Charles James Faulkner relatwe to the 
Boundary line between Virginia and Maryland : 

Maetinsburg, Nov. 6, 1832. 
Sir : — In execution of a commission addressed to me 
by your Excellency, and made out in pursuance of a 
joint resolution of the General Assembly of this State, 
of the 20th of March last, I have directed my attention 
to the collection of such testimony as the lapse of time 
and the nature of the inquiry have enabled me to procure 
touching "the settlement and adjustment of the western 
boundary of Maryland.'' The division line which now 

68 Boundary Line. 

separates the two States on the west, and which has 
heretofore been considered as fixed by positive adjudica- 
tion and long acquaintance, commences at a point where 
the Fairfax stone is ph^nted, at the head sx)ring of the 
Potomac River, and runs thence due north to the Penn- 
sylvania line. This is the boundary by which Virginia 
has held for near a century ; it is the line by which she 
held in 1786, when the compact made by the Virginia and 
Maryland Commissioners was solemnly ratified by the 
legislative authorities of the two States. 

An effort is now made by the General Assembly of 
Maryland,' to enlarge her territory by the establishment 
of a different division line. We have not been informed 
which fork of the South Branch she will elect as the new 
boundary, but the proposed line is to run from one of the 
forks of the South Branch thence due north to the Penn- 
sylvania terminus. It is needless to say that the substi- 
tution of the latter line, no matter at which fork it may 
commence, would cause an important diminution in the 
already diminished territorial area of this State. It 
would deprive us of large portions of the counties of 
Hampshire, Hardy, Pendleton, Randolph and Preston, 
amounting in all to almost half a million of acres — a sec 
tion of the Commonwealth which, from the quality of its 
soil, and the character of its population, might well ex- 
cite the cupidity of a government resting her claims upon 
a less substantial basis than a stale and groundless pre- 
tension of more than a century's antiquity. Although 
my instructions have directed my attention more partic- 
ularly to the collection and preservation of the evidence 
of such living witnesses "as might be able to testify to 
any facts or circumstances in relation to the settlement 
and adjustment of the western boundary," I have con- 
sumed but a very inconsiderable p)ortion of my time in 
any labor or inquiry of that sort, for who indeed, now 
living, could testify to any "facts or circumstances" 
which occurred nearly a century ago ? And if such indi- 

Boundary Line. 69 

viduals were now living, wliy waste time in taking depo- 
sitions as to those ''facts,'' in proof of which the most 
ample and authentic testimony was faken in 1730, as the 
basis of a royal adjudication ? I have consequently 
deemed it of more importance to procure the original 
documents Avhere possible; if not, authentic copies of 
such papers as would serve to exhibit a connected view 
of the origin, progress and termination of that contro- 
versy with the Crown, which resulted, after the most 
accurate and laborious surveys, in the ascertainment of 
those very " facts and circumstances'' which are now 
sought to be made again the subjects of discussion and 
inquiry. In this pursuit I have succeeded far beyond 
what I had any ground for anticipation ; and from the 
almost forgotten rubbish of past years, have been ena- 
bled to draw forth documents and papers whose interest 
may survive the occasion which redeemed them from 

To enable your Excellency to form a just concejjtion of 
the weight and importance of the evidence herewith ac- 
companying this report, I beg leave to submit with it a 
succinct statement of the question in issue between the 
governments of Virginia and Maryland, with some ob- 
servations showing the relevancy of the evidence to the 
question thus presented. 

The territory of Maryland granted by Charles I, to 
Lord Baltimore, in June, 1632, was described in the grant 
as "that region bounded by a line drawn from Watkins's 
point on Chesapeake Bay to the ocean on the east ; thence 
to that part of the estuary of Delaware on the north 
which lieth under the 40th degree, where New England 
is terminated ; thence in a right line by the degree afore- 
said, to the meridian of tlie foundation of the Potomac ; 
thence following its course by its farther bank to its con- 
fluence." {MarshalV s Life of Washington, xol. 1, ch. 
LI, pp. 78 — 81, Ist edition.) 

It is plain that the western boundary of this grant was 

70 Boundary Line. 

the meridian of the fountain of the Potomac, from the 
point where it cut the 40th degree of north latitude to 
the fountain of the river ; and that the extent of the 
grant depended upon the question, what stream was the 
Potomac? So that the question now in controversy 
grows immediately out of the grant. The territory 
granted to Lord Baltimore was undoubtedly within the 
chartered limits of Virginia : {See IH Charter of Ayril, 
1606, sec. 4, and the 2rZ CToarter of Maijy 1609, sec. 6 ; 
\st Hen. Stat, at Large, x>p. 58 — 88.) And Marshall says 
that the grant "was the first example of the dismember- 
ment of a colony, and the creation of a new one within 
its limits, by the mere act of the Crown ;" and that the 
planters of Virginia presented a petition against it, 
"which was heard before the privy council (of England) 
in July, 1633, when it was declared that Lord Baltimore 
should retain his patent, and the petitioners their remedy 
at law. To this remedy they never thought proper to 

Whether there be any record of this proceeding ex- 
tant, I have never been able to learn. The civil war in 
England broke out about ten years after, and perhaps 
the journals of the proceedings of the privy council were 
destroyed. Subsequently to this, we are informed by 
Graham, the planters, " fortified by the opinion of emi- 
nent lawyers whom they consulted, and who scru^oled 
not to assure them that the ancient patents of Virginia 
still remained in force, and that the grant of 2Iaryland^ 
as derogatory to them, loas utterly void, they presented 
an application to the Parliament, complaining of the un- 
just invasion which their privileges had undergone." 
{Graham'' s History, xol. 2,2^- 12.) But as the Parlia- 
ments of those days were but the obsequious ministers 
of the Crown, that application, it is presumed, likewise 
shared the fate of their former petition to the privy 

The present claim of Maryland, then, must be founded 

Boundary Line. 71 

on the sui^position that the stream which we call the 
Potomac was not ; and that the stream now called the 
South Branch of the Potomac, loas in fact tlie Potomac 
intended in the grant to Lord Baltimore. I have never 
been informed which fork of the South Branch she claims 
as the Potomac (for there is aXorth and a South fork of 
the South Branch) ; neither have I been able to learn 
what is the evidence, or the kind of evidence, on which 
she relies to ascertain that the stream which is noio 
called the South Branch of the Potomac, but which at 
the date of the grant to Lord Baltimore was not known 
at all, and when known, known for many years only as 
the V/a2?pacomo, was ^7ie Potomac intended by Lord Bal- 
timore's grant. For this important geographical fact I 
refer to the numerous early maps of the chartered limits 
of Virginia and Maryland, some of which are to be seen 
in the public libraries of Washington and Richmond. 

The question, which stream was the Potomac 'i is sim- 
ply a question which of them, if either, bore the name. 
The name is matter of general reputation. If there be 
anything which depends wholly upon general accepta- 
tion which ought and must be settled by prescription it 
is this question which of these rivers was and is the Po- 
tomac I The accompanying jDapers, it is believed, will 
ascertain this fact to the satisfaction of every impartial 

In the tvventy-lirst year of Charles II. a grant was 
made to Lord Hopton and others of what is called the 
JSorthern Keck of A^irginia, which was sold by the other 
patentees tj Lord Culpeper, and confirmed to him by 
letters patent in the fourth year of James 11. This grant 
carried with it nothing but the right of soil and the inci- 
dents of ownership, for it was expressly subjected to the 
jurisdiction of the government of Virginia. Of this 
earlier patent I believe there is no copy in Virginia. The 
original charter from James II. to Lord Culpeper ac- 
companies this report, marked Xo. 1. They are both 

72 ' Boundary Line. 

recited in the colonial statute of 173C, (1 Hev. Code, cli. 
89.) The tract of country thereby granted was "all that 
entire tract, territorj^ and parcel of land lying and being 
in America and bounded by and within the heads of the 
rivers Tappahannock cdias Rai^pahannock, and Quir- 
iough alias Potomac rivers, the course of the said rivers 
as they are commonly called and known by the inhab- 
itants and description of their parts and Chesapeake 

As early as 1729, in consequence of the eagerness with 
which lands were sought on the Potomac and its tribu- 
tary streams, and from the difficulties growing out of 
conflicting grants from Lord Fairfax and the Crown, the 
boundaries of the Northern Keck proprietary became a 
subject which attracted deej:) and earnest attention. At 
this time the Potomac had been but little explored, and 
although the stream itself above its confluence with the 
Shenandoah was known as the Cohongoroota, or Upper 
Potomac, it had never been made the subject of any very 
accurate surveys and examinations, nor had it yet been 
settled by any competent authority which of its several 
tributaries was entitled to be regarded as the main or 
pricipal branch of the river. It became important, there- 
fore, to remove all further doubt upon that question. 

In June 1729, the Lieutenant Governor of Virginia ad- 
dressed a communication to the Lords commissioners of 
trade and plantation affairs, in which he solicits their at- 
tention to the ambiguity of the Lord proprietor's char- 
ter growing out of the fact that there were several streams 
which might be claimed as the head springs of Potomac 
River, among which he enumerates the Shenandoah, 
and expresses his determination "to refuse the sus^ien- 
sion of granting of jjatents, until the case should be fair- 
ly stated and determined according to the genuine con- 
struction of the proprietor's charter." This was fol- 
lowed by a petition to the King in council, agreed to 
by the house of burgesses of Virginia, in June 1730, in 

Boundary Line. 73 

which it is set forth, among other matters of complaint, 
"that the head springs of the Rappahannock and Poto- 
mac are not vet known to any of yonr Majesty's sub- 
jects ;'' that much inconvenience had resulted to grantees 
therefrom, and praj^ing the adoption of such measures 
as might lead to its ascertainment to 'the satisfaction of 
all parties interested. 

Lord Fairfax, who, by his marriage wi.h the only 
daughter of Lord Culpeper, had now succeeded to the 
proprietorship of the Northern Xeck, feeling it like 
wise due to Ids grantees to have the question relieved 
from all further difficulty, preferred his petition to the 
King in 173H, praying that his majesty would be pleased 
to order a commission to issue, for running out, marking 
and ascertaining the bounds of his patent, according to 
the true intent and meaning of his charter. An order 
to this effect was accordingly directed l^y the King ; and 
three commissioners were ajipointed on behalf of the 
Crown, and the same number on behalf of Lord Fairfax. 
The duty which devolved upon tliem was to ascertain 
by actual examination and survey, the true fountains of 
the Eappahannock and Potomac Rivers. To enable them 
more perfecth' to discharge the important trust confided 
to them, they were authorized to summon persons before 
them, to take depositions and affidavits, to search papers 
and employ surveyors, chain- carriers, m.arkers, and other 
necessary attendants. The commissioners convened in 
Fredericksburg, on the 26th of September, 1736, and pro- 
ceeded to discharge their duties, by taking depositions, 
appointing surveyors, and making every needful and 
requisite preparation for the survey. They commenced 
their journey of observation and survey on the 12tli day 
of October, 1736, and finished it on the 14th of Decem- 
ber, of the same year ; on which day they discovered 
what they marked and reported to be the lirst fountain 
of the Potomac River. Separate reports were made by 
the commissioners, which reports, with all the accom- 

74 Boundary Line. 

panying documents, papers, surveys, plans, &c., were, 
on the 21st of December, 1738, referred to tlie council for 
plantation affairs. That board, after hearing counsel, 
made a report on the 6th day of April, in which they 
state, "that having examined into the several reports, 
returns, plans and other papers transmitted to them by 
the commissioners appointed on behalf of the Crown, as 
likewise of Lord Fairfax, and having been attended by 
counsel on behalf of your Majesty, as likewise of Lord 
Fairfax, and having heard all that they had to oii'er 
thereuiDon, and the question being concerning that boun- 
dary which ought to be drawn from the first head or 
spring of the river Rappahannock to the lirst head or 
spring of the river Potomac, the committee do agree 
humbly to report to your Majesty as their opinion, that 
within the words and meaning of the letters patent, 
granted by King James II, bearing date the 27th day of 
September, in the fourth year of his reign, the said boun- 
dary ought to begin at the first spring of the South 
Branch of the river Rappahannock, and that the said 
boundary be from thence drawn in a straight line north- 
west to the place in the Alleghany Mountains where thai 
part of the Potomac River, which is nom called Cohon- 
goroota, iirst rises.'''' The Cohongoroota is known to be 
the stream which the Maryland writers term the North 
Branch of the Potomac, but which is recognized in 
Virginia, and described on all the maps and surveys 
which I have ever yet seen, as the Potomac River, from 
its first fountain, where the Fairfax stone is located, to 
its confluence with the Shenandoah ; there being, prop- 
erly speaking, no such stream as the North Branch of 
the Potomac. This rex)ort of the council for plantation 
affairs was submitted to the King in council on the 11th 
of April, 1745, and fully confirmed by him, and further 
order made, directing the appointment of commissioners 
to run and work the dividing line agreeably to his de- 
cision thus made. Commissioners were accordingly ap- 

Boundary Line. 75 

pointed, wlio, having provided themselves with surveyors, 
chain- carriers, markers, &c., commenced their journey 
on the ISth of September, 1746. On the 17th of October, 
they planted the Fairfax stone at the s^^ot which had 
been described and marked by the preceding commis- 
sioners as the true head spring of the Potomac River, 
and which has continued to be regarded, from that pe- 
riod to the present time, as the southern point of the 
western boundary between Maryland and Virginia, A 
joint report of these proceedings was made by the com- 
missioners to the King, accompanied with their field 
notes ; which report w^as received and ordered to be filed 
away among the records of his Majesty's privy council. 
Thus terminated, after a lapse of sixteen years, a pro- 
ceeding which had for its object, among other matters, 
the ascertainment of the first fountain of tJie Potomac 
River ^ and which resulted in the establishment of that 
"fact" by a tribunal of competent jurisdiction. This 
decision has now been acquiesced in for near a century ; 
and all the topographical description and sketches of the 
country have been made to conform to it. I say acqui- 
esced in, for it is impossible to regard the varying, fluc- 
tuating legislation of Maryland upon the subject, at one 
session of her General Assembly recognizing the line as 
now established, {see comjKict of 1785, session Acts of 
1803, 1818 and others,) at another authorizing the ap- 
pointment of commissioners to adjust the boundar3^ as a 
grave resistance of its conclusions, or such a continual 
claim, as under the usage of international law would bar 
an application of the principles of usucaption ^tl^ 'pres- 
cription. {See Yattel, -p. 251. Grotius, lib. 2, cap. 4. 
Wolf us. Jus. Nat. par. 8.) 

Jurisdiction in all cases relating to boundaries between 
provinces, the dominion and proprietary government, is 
by the common law of England exclusively vested in the 
King and council (1 Ves. sen /?. 447.) And notwith- 
standing it may be a question of boundary between the 

76 Boundary Line. 

Crown and a Lord proprietor of a province, (such as that 
between Lord Fairfax and the Crown,) the King is the 
only judge, and is presumed to act with entire im- 
partiality and justice in reference to all persons concern- 
ed, as well as those who are parties to the proceedingbef ore 
him, as others not parties who may yet be interested in 
the adjustment. {Vesey, ih.) Such is the theory and 
practice of the English Constitution ; and although it 
may not accord precisely with our improved conceptions 
of jnridicial practice, it is nevertheless the law which 
must now govern and control the legal aspect of the pres- 
awt territorial dispute between Virginia and Maryland. 
It does not appear by the accompanying papers, that 
Charles Lord Baltimore, the then proprietor of Maryland, 
deputed an agent to attend ujyon Ms part in the exarni- 
7iaiion and survey of tlie Potomac Mixer. It is possible 
he conceived his interests sufficiently protected in the 
aspect which the controversy had then assumed between 
Lord Fairfax and the Crow^n. Certain it is, that it no- 
"whei e appears that he ever considered himself aggrieved 
by the result of that adjustment. That his government 
was fully apprised of what was in progress, can scarcely 
admit of a rational doubt. For it is impossible to con- 
ceive that a controversy sodeef*!^' affecting not only the 
interests of Lord Baltimore, but all who were concerned 
in the purclmse of land in that section of the country, 
and conducted with so much solemnity and notoriety, 
could have extended through a period of sixteen years, 
without attracting the attention of the government of 
Maryland — a government ever jealous because ever doubt- 
ful of the original tenure by which her charter was held. 
But had Lord Baltimore even considered himself ag- 
grieved by the result of that settlement, it is difficult 
now to conceive upon what ground he would have ex- 
cepted to its justice or questioned its validity. Could 
he have said that the information upon which the de- 
cision was founded was imperfect ? Or that the proceed- 

Boundary Line. 17 

ings of tlie conimissioners were characterized by haste, 
favoritism or fraud % This the proceeding of that board 
still XDreserved, would contradict For never was there 
an examination conducted with more deliberation, pros- 
ecuted with more labor, or scrutinized with a more jeal- 
ous and anxious vigilance. Could he have shown that 
some other stream ouglit to have been fixed upon as the 
true head spring of the Potomac '. This, it is believed, 
is impossible, for although it may be true that the south 
branch is a longer stream, it nevertheless wants those 
more important characteristics which were then consid* 
ered by the commissioners and have been subsequently 
regarded by esteemed geographers as essential in distin- 
guishing a tributary from the main branch of a river. 
{^See Flint's Geography^ vol. 2, p. SS.) Lastly, would he 
have questioned the authority ol the Crown to settle the 
boundaries of Lord Fairfax's charter without having pre- 
viously made him a party to the proceeding^ T have 
before shown the futility of such an idea. Besides, this 
would have been at once to question the authority under 
which he held his own grant, for BaltitLore held by vir- 
tue of an arbitrary act of the second Charles. His grant 
was manifestly made in violation of the chartered rights 
of Virginia, and carried into effect not only without the 
acquiescence, but against the solemn and repeated re- 
monstrances of her government. Was Virginia consulted 
in the "dismemberment" of her territory;! Was she 
made a party to that proceeding by which, '"for the first 
time in colonial history, one new province was created 
within the chartered limits of another by the mere act of 
the Crown f' But the fact is that Charles Lord Balti- 
more, loTio lived for six years after the adjustment of this 
question, never did contest the i)roimety of the boun- 
dary as settled by the commissioners, but from all that 
remains of his views and x^roceedings, fully acquiesced 
in its accuracy and justice. {See treaty loitli the'Six Na- 
tions of Indians at Lancaster in June, 1744.) 

78 Boundary Line. 

The first evidence of dissatisfaction with the boundary 
as established, which the researclies of the Maryland 
writers have enabled them to exhibit, are certain instruc- 
tions from Frederick Lord of Baltimore, (successor of 
Charles) to Governor Sharp, which were presented by the 
latter to his council, in August 1753. I have not been 
able to procure a copy of those instructions, but a recent 
historian of Maryland, and an ingenious advocate of her 
present claim, referring to them, says. "His instruc- 
tions were predicated upon the supposition that the sur- 
vey might possibly have been made with the Tiiioioledge 
and concurrence of his predecessor., and hence he denies 
the 2yower of the latter to enter into any arrangement as 
to the houndaries, which could extend beyond his life 
estate, or conclude those in remainder." {M^ Mai ton' s 
History of 3Iaryland, p. o3. ) 

What were the i:)recise limitation of those conveyances 
made by the proprietors of Maryland, and under which 
Frederick Lord Baltimore denies the power of his prede- 
cessor to enter into any arrangement as to the boundaries, 
which could extend beyond his life estate, I am not able 
to say — my utmost researches having failed to furnish 
me with a copy of them — but they were so far satisfac- 
tory to his Lordship's legal conceptions, as to induce 
him to resist even the execution of a decree pronounced 
by Lord Hardwicke, in 1750, (1 Ves. sen. 'pp. 444 — 46) 
upon a written compact as to boundaries, which had 
been executed by his predecessor and the Penns, in 1732. 
To enforce submission to that decree, the Penns filed a 
bill of reviver in 1754, and after an ineffectual struggle of 
six years. Lord Baltimore was compelled Avith a bad 
grace to submit, and abide by the arrangement as to the 
boundaries which had been made by his predecessor. 
To this circumstance, in all probability, was Lord Fair- 
fax indebted forhis exemption from the further demands 
of the proprietor of Maryland. For Lord Frederick, no 
ways averse to litigation, had by this time doubtless be- 

Boundary Line. 79 

come satisvlied that iha x>oicer of liis predecessor did not 
extend beyond liis life estate, and might even conclude 
those in remainder. Be that as it may, however, certain 
it is that the records of Maryland are silent npon the 
subject of this i:)retension, from September 1753, until 
ten years subsequent to the compact between Virginia 
and Maryland in 1785. ' 

An opinion prevails among some of our most distin- 
guished jurists, resting solely upon traditionary infor- 
mation, that about 1761, Frederick Lord Baltimore 
presented a petition to the king and council, praying a 
revision of the adjustment made in 1745, which petition 
was rejected, or after a short time abandoned, as hope- 
less. If there ever was such a proceeding, I can find 
nothing concerning it in the archives of Virginia. 

Be that as it may, it is certain that ever since 1745 
Lord Fairfax claimed and held, and the commonwealth 
of Virginia constantly to this day has claimed and held 
by the Cohongoroota, that is by the northern branch, as 
tlie Potomac ; and whatever Lord Baltimore or his heirs, 
and the State of Maryland may have claimed., she has 
held, by the same boundary. There was no reason why 
Lord Fairfax, being in actual possession, should have 
controverted the claim of Lord Baltimore, or Maryland. 
If Lord Baltimore or Maryland, ever controverted the 
boundary, the question must, and either has been deci- 
ded against them, or it must have been abandoned as 
hopeless. If they never controverted it, the omission to 
do so, can only be accounted for, upon the suppo- 
sition that they know it to be hopeless. If Maryland 
ever asserted the claim — seriously asserted it, I mean — 
it must have been before the revolution, or at least during 
it, when we all know, she was jealous enough of the ex- 
tended territory of Virginia. The claim must hate had. 
its origin before the com2)act between the tioo states, of 
March 1785, {See 1 Bev. Code, ch. 18.) We then held 
by the same boundary by which we now hold ; we held 

so Boundary Line. 

to what ice called and now call the Potomac ; she then 
held to what loe call the Potomac. Is it possible to doubt 
that this is tJie Potomac recognized by the compact ? 
That compact is now 47 years old. 

I have diligently inquired whether, as the Potomac 
above the confluence of the Shenandoah was called the 
Cohongoroota, the stream now called the south branch 
of the Potomac ever had any peculiar name indexjend- 
ently of its relation to the Potomac — I mean, of course, 
any peculiar name known to and established among the 
English settlers — for it is well known it bore the Indian 
name of Wappacomo. L never could learn that it was 
known by any other name but that which it yet bears, 
the south branch of the Potomac. Now that very name 
of itself sufRciently evinces that it was regarded as a 
tributary stream of another river, and that river the Po 
tomac, and that the river of which the south branch was 
the tributary, was regarded as the main stream. 

But let us for a moment concede that the decision of 
the King in council was not absolutely conclusive of the 
present question ; let us concede that the long acqui- 
escence of Maryland in that adjustment has not pre- 
cluded a further discussion of its merits ; let us even 
suppose the compact of 1785 thrown out of view, with 
all the subsequent recognitions of the present boundary 
by the legislative acts of that State, and the question be- 
tween the two streams now for the first time presented 
as an original question of preference ; what are the facts 
upon which Maryland would rely to show that any other 
stream than the one now bearing the name is entitled to 
be regarded as the main branch of the Potomac X It 
were idle to say that the south branch is the Potomac 
because the south branch is a longer or even larger stream 
than the north branch, which Virginia claims to hold 
by. According to that sort of reasoning the Missouri, 
above its confluence with the Mississippi, is the Missis- 
sippi, being beyond comi:>arison the longer and larger 

Boundary Line. 81 

stream. The claim of the south branch, then, would 
rest solely upon its greater length. In opposition to this 
it might be said that the Cohongoroota is more frequent- 
ly navigable, that it has a larger volume of water — tliat 
the valley of tJce south hrancli is, in the grand scale of 
conformation, secondary to that of the Potomac —tha^ 
the south branch lias not the general direction of that 
riner, lohich it joins nearly at right angles — that the 
valley of the Potomac is wider than that of the south 
branch, as is also the river broader than the other. And 
lastly, that the course of the river and the direction of 
the valley are the same above and below the junction of 
the south branch. {See letters accompanying this re- 
port. No. 26.) These considerations have been deemed 
sufficient to establish the title of "the father of waters" 
to the name which he has so long borne. {See History 
and Geography of Western States, vol. 2, Jlissoicri.) 
And as they exist in an equal extent, so shoald they 
equally confirm the pre- eminence which the Cohongo- 
roota has now for near a century so proudly and peace- 
fully enjoyed. 

The claim of Maryland to the territory in question is 
by no means so reasonable as the claim of the great Fred- 
erick of Prussia to Silesia, which that prince asserted 
and maintained, but W'hich he tells us himself he never 
would have thought of asserting if his father had not 
left him an overflowing treasury and a powerful army. 

With this brief historical' retrospect, presented as ex- 
planatory of the accompanying testimony, I will now 
lay before your excellency, in chronological order, a list 
of the documents and papers referred to in my x:>rece- 
ding observations. 

No. 1. Is the original grant from King James II to 
Thomas Lord Culpeper, made on the 27th September, in 
the fourth year of his reign. 

No. 2. Copy of a letter from Mayor Gooch, Lieuten- 

82 Boundary Line. 

ant Governor of Virginia, to the lord's commissioners 
for trade and i:)]antations, dated at Williamsburg, June 
29tli, 1729. 

No. 3. Petition to the King in council in relation to 
^the Northern Neck grants and their boundaries, agreed 
>to by the house of burgesses June 30th, 1730. 

No. 4. The petition of Thomas Lord Fairfax to his 
Majesty in council, preferred in 1733, setting forth his 
•grants from the crown, and that there had been divers 
disputes between the Governor and Council in Virginia 
and the petitioner, and his agent, Robert Carter, Esq., 
touching the boundaries of the petitioner' s said tract of 
/land, and praying that his Majesty would be pleased to 
order a commission to issue for running out, marking and 
ascertaining the bounds of the petitioner's said tract of 

No. 5. A copy of an order of his Majesty in his privy 
council bearing date 29th of November, 1733, directing 
William Gooch, Esq., Lieutenant Governor of Virginia, 
to appoint three or more commissioners, (not exceeding 
live,) who in conjunction with a like number to be named 
and deputed by the said Lord Fairfax, are to survey and 
settle the marks and boundaries of the said district of 
land, agreeably to the terms of the patent under which 
the Lord Fairfax claims. 

No. 6. Copy of the commission from Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor Gooch to William Byrd, of Westover ; John Roh- 
inson., of Piscataway, and John Grymes^ of Brandon, 
appointing them commissioners on behalf of his Majesty, 
with full povv^er, authority, &c., &c. 

[I have not been able to meet with a copy of the com- 
mission of Lord Fairfax to his commissioners— they were 
William Beverly., William Fairfax and Charles Carter. 
It appears by the accompanying report of their proceed- 
ings that "his lordship's commissioners delivered to the 
King's commissioners an attested copy of their commis- 
sion," which having been found upon examination more 

Boundary Line. 83 

restricted in its authoritj^ than that of the commission- 
ers of the Crown, gave rise to some little difficulty which 
was subsequently adjusted.] 

No. 7. Copy of the instructions on behalf of the right 
honorable Lord Fairfax to his commissioners. 

No. S. Minutes of the proceedings of the commission- 
ers appointed on the part of his Majesty and the right 
honorable Thomas Lord Fairfax, from their first meeting 
at Fredericksburg, September 25th, 173G. 

No. 9. Original correspondence between the commis- 
sioners during the years 1736 and 1737, in reference 
to the examination and survey of the Potomac River. 

No. 10. The original field notes of the survey of the 
Potomac River, from the mouth of the Shenandoah to 
the head spring of said Potomac River, by Mr. Benja- 
min Winslow. 

No. 11. The original plat of the survey of the Potomac 

No. 12. Original letter from John Savage, one of the 
surveyors, dated January 17, 1737, stating the grounds 
up)on which the commissioners had decided in favor of 
the Cohongoroota over the Wappacomo as the main 
branch of the Potomac. The former, he saj^s, is both 
wider and deej^er than the latter. 

No. 13. Letter from Charles Carter, Esq., dated Jan- 
uary 20, 1737, exhibiting the result of a comparative ex- 
amination of the north and south branches of the Poto- 
mac. The north branch at its mouth, he says, is twenty- 
three poles wide, the South branch sixteen, &c. 

No. 14. A printed map of the Northern Neck of Vir- 
ginia, situate betwixt the rivers Potomac and Rappahan- 
nock, drawn in the year 1737, by William Mayo, one of 
the King's surveyors, according to his actual survey in 
the preceding year. 

No. 15. A printed map of the courses of the rivers 
Rappahannock and Potomac, in Virginia, as surveyed 

8-1 Boun dary L ine. 

according to order in 1736 and 1737, (supposed to be by 
Lord Fairfax's surveyors.) 

No. 16. A copy of a separate rej^iort of the commission- 
ers appointed on behalf of the Crown. [I have met with 
no copy of the separate report of Lord Fairfax's commis- 

No. 17. Copy of Lord Fairfax's observations upon 
and exceptions to the report of the commissioners of tlie 

No. 18. Copy of the report and opinion of the right 
honorable the lords of the committee of council for plan- 
tation affairs, dated 6th April, 1745. 

No. 19. The decision of his Majesty in council, made 
on the 11th of April, 1745, confirming the report of the 
council for plantation affairs, aiul further ordering the 
Lieutenant Governor of Virginia (o nominate three or more 
persons (not exceeding five) who, in conjunction with a 
like number to be named and deputed by Lord Fairfax, 
are to run and mark out the boundary and dividing line, 
according to his decision thus made. 

No. 20. The original commission from Thomas Lord 
Fairfax to the honorable \Vm. Fairfax, Charles Car- 
ter and William Beverly, Esqs., dated 11th of June, 

[Col. Joshua Fry, Col. Lunsford Lomax and Maj. 
Peter Hedgeman, were appointed commissioners on the 
X)art of the Crown.] 

No. 21. Original agreement entered into by the com- 
missioners iDreparatory to their examination of the Po- 
tomac River. 

No. 22. The original journal of the journey of the com- 
missioners, surveyors, &c., from the head spring of the 
Potomac in 1745. [This is a curious and valuable docu- 
ment, and gives the only authentic narrative now extant 
of the planting of the Fairfax stone.] 

No. 23. The joint report of the commissioners ap- 

Boundary Line. 85 

pointed as well on the part of the Crown as of Lord Fair- 
fax in obedience to his Majesty's order of 11th April, 

No. 24. A manuscript map of the head spring of the 
Potomac River, executed by Col. George Mercer of the 
r.egiment commanded in 1756 by Gen. Washington. 

No. 25. Copy of an act of the General Assembly of 
Maryland passed February 19th, 1819, authorizing the 
appointment of commissioners on the part of that State, 
to meet such commissioners as may be appointed for the 
same purpose by the Commonwealth of Virginia to set- 
tle and adjust, by mutual compact between the two gov- 
ernments, the western limits of that State and the Com- 
monwealth of Virginia, to commence at the most icestern 
source of the north branch of the Potomac River, and to 
run a due north course thence to the Pennsylvania line. 

No. 26. Letters from intelligent and well informed in- 
dividuals residing in the country watered by the Poto- 
mac and its branches, addressed to' the undersigned, sta- 
ting important geographical facts bearing upon the pres- 
ent controversy. 

There are other papers in my possion not listed nor 
referable to any j'jarticular head, yet growing out of and 
illustrating the controversy between Lord Fairfax and 
the Crown ; these are also herewith transmitted. 

There are other documents again not at all connected 
with ray present duties, which chance has thrown in my 
way, worthy of preservation in the archives of the State. 
Such, for example, as the original '■'■ plan of the line be- 
tween Virginia and, North Carolina, which loas run in 
the year 1728, in the spring and fall, from the sea to 
Peters' s Creek, by the Hon. Wm. Byrd, Wm. Dandridge 
and Richard Fitzwilliams, Esqrs., commissioners, and 
Mr. Alex'r Irioine and 3Ir. Wm. Mayo, surveyors, and 
from Peters'' s CreeJc to Steep RocJc CreeJc, loas continued 
in the fall of the year, 1749, by Joshua Fry and Peter 

86 Boundary Line. 

Such documents, should it accord with the views of 
your excellency, might be deposited with " the Virginia 
Historical and Philosophical Society," an institution of 
recent origin, yet founded upon the most expanded views 
of public utility, and which is seeking by its patriotic 
appeals to individual liberality, to wrest from the rava- 
ges of time the fast- perishing records and memorials of 
our early history and institutions. 

With sentiments of regard, I am, very respectfully, 
your obedient servant, 

Charles. Jas. Faulkner. 

To John Floyd, Esq., Governor of Virginia. 

The controversy between the two States pended for 
some time after Mr. Faulkner's report, and in addition 
to Col. John B. D. Smith, of Frederick, and John S. 
Gallaher, Esq., of Jefferson, were appointed commission- 
ers on the part of Virginia. 






IJUpHESE i)apers were prexDared and written over fifteen 
p^ years ago, and like nearly all of Mr. Faulkner's 
writings, relate in some manner to Berkeley County. 
Among the papers, the author found one package marked 
"Memorabilia" — or things to be remembered. Mr. 
Faulkner x^repared these sketches to accompany the 
"Berkeley Centennial Celebration," but the x">^niphlet 
was never x^ublished. 


A Major General in the army of the United States. 
He was a native of England. He was with Braddock at 
the time of his defeat, 1755, and was shot through the 
body. He then purchased an estate in Berkeley County, 
Virginia, ^vhere he resided until the commencement of 
the American war in 1775, when he was appointed by 
Congress Adjutant General, with the rank of Brigadier 
General. The success which attended his arms in the 
capture of Burgoyne in October, 1777, filled America 
v/ith joy. Congress passed a vote of thanks, and ordered 
a medal of gold to be presented to him by the President. 
August ICth, 17S0, he was defeated by Cornwallis at 
Camden, He was superceded by General Greene, but in 
1782 restored to his command. After peace, he retired 

88 Historical Pen SJieiclies. 

to his farm, called "Traveler's Rest," in Berkeley Coun- 
ty, where he remained till 1790, when he went to reside 
at New York. He died on the 10th of April, 1806, aged 
77 years. 


Born in Paisly, Scotland, July 6th, 17G6 — emigrated 
to the United States, July 14th, 1794— settled in the 
County of Berkeley, now in West Virginia, shortly after 
his arrival, as a weaver. His residence here was marked 
by great x^overty, and does not seem to have left very 
pleasant impressions on his mind, if we may judge by 
the following lines extracted from one of his poems — 

Farewell to Virginia— to Berkeley adieu, 
Where, like Jacob, our days have been evil and few, 
So few — they seemed reallj' but one lengthened curse, 
And so bad that the Devil only could have sent worse. 

He was a man of unconquerable resolution and energy, 
and of enthusiastic devotion to natural science. He had 
comiDleted the seventh volume of his great work on orni- 
tholigy before he died, and was engaged, when seized 
with his last illness, in collecting the materials for the 
eighth volume. Of the many active men whose biogra- 
phies are before the public, there is not perliaj)s one 
whose life presents such heroic resolution in the pursuit 
of science. He died August 23, 1813, and was buried in 


Was born in the County of Berkeley, ujDon the farm 
known as "Retirement," near Leetown, on the 28th of 
May, 1792, and was the eldest son of Richard and Anas- 
tatia McSherry, who both lived and died on the estate. 
He was educated at an academy at Fredericktown, Mary- 
land, then at Hagerstown, and lastly at Georgetown Col- 
lege, D. C, where he went through a full course of 
instruction. He commenced the study of medicine under 

Hlstoriccd Pen Sketches. 89 

Dr. Samuel J. Creamer, a graduate of Edinburg, and a 
very accomplished pliysician, residing at Cliarl^stown. 
From thence he went to Philadelphia, and entered the 
office of Prof. Nathaniel Chapman, of the University of 
Pennsylvania, at which University he graduated in med 
icine in 181C. Meantime, while attending the lectures, 
the war of 1812 broke out, and he joined a company from 
his native county, and marched, to encounter our British 
invaders ; and upon the de^th of the medical officer at- 
tached to the command, he was commissioned in his 
place, and served as a surgeon in the army until the end 
of the war. Tn 1816, he commenced the itiactice of his 
profession in Martinsburg, and enjoyed an extensive and 
lucrative practice until 1871, when he withdrew from the 
practice. He was married in January, 1817, to Miss Ann 
C. King, daughter of Mr. George King, Georgetown, 
whose family were of the early Maryland colonists. He 
died in Baltimore, at the residence of his son, on the 20th 
of December, 1873, and his remains were interred in the 
Catholic cemetery of Martinsburg. 

No man enjoyed a more enviable reputation than Dr. 
McSherry. Asa physician he stood in the first rank of 
his profession and by constant study, kept progress with 
the advance of medical science. His mild and amiable 
temper, bland and courageous deportment to all, made 
him a general favorite. His reading extended beyond 
the scope of his professional studies, and his familiarity 
with history and general literature, made him at all 
times an agreeable companion. He was kind and charit- 
able, and bore throughout life a reputation of unsullied 


Born in the County of Berkeley, about the year 1765, 
and lived all his life in the mountainous districts of the 
county. He was a man of striding appearance, about 
six feet, four inches in height, with no superfluous flesh, 
and with a countenance indicating creat natural intelli- 

90 Historical Pen Skeiclies. 

gence and intrepid daring. His wliole life was spent in 
liunting bears, deer and otlier game of tlie forest. He 
was universally known by the name of "Hunter John 
Myers." The chase was his i^astime and his means of 
support. His rifle was unerring in its aim, and rarely 
did a wolf, bear or deer escape him. There was a savage 
wilderness in his features, which indicated very clearly 
how little he had mingled in the haunts of civilized life. 
If he was not the original from which the novelist Cooper 
painted his celebrated character of Natty Bumppo, or 
Leather-Stocking, he has by the force of imagination 
delineated with extraordinary accuracy the hunter of 
Berkeley. Myers, like Leather-Stocking, stands half way 
between savage and civilized life ; a man with all the 
freshness of nature about him, and whose like is only 
to be seen at this day, amidst the wild and unbroken 
forests of the west. He died about the year 1835. 


For nearly half a century this gentleman held the office 
of deputy Sheriff of this county. Each successive senior 
magistrate as he attained the Sheriffalty, was pleased, as 
the law then stood, to farm out for a fixed compensation 
the discharge of its duties to one so distinguished for his 
honesty and humanity as Charles D. Stewart. Few men 
ever passed through so protracted an official service with 
so little complaint of his conduct. He was prompt in 
the execution of process, tender, yet firm and decided, 
and he administered his charities so quietly and silently 
that his left hand scarcely knew what his right had be- 
stowed. He died of the cholera in 1854. 


Was born in England ; married Elizabeth Marshall, 
sister of Chief Justice John Marshall ; purchased a large 
estate upon the Potomac River in the County of Berke- 
ley, upon which he erected a handsome mansion. He, 
in conjunction with his brother-in-laws, John and James 
Marshall, purchased from the devisees of Thomas Lord 

Historical Pen Sketches. 91 

Fairfax, all their proiorietary rights in the Northern 
Neck of Virginia. Lord Fairfax being an alien at the 
period of our revolution, and the State of Virginia treat- 
ing him as such, and alien creditors and landlords having 
acquired rights under the treaty of peace of 17S3, and 
Jay's treaty of 1764, much perplexity and difficulty ex- 
isted in this and other counties embraced in the North- 
ern Neck as to their land titles. These difficulties were 
adjuted by a compromise between those purchasers and 
the Commonwealth of Virginia, made on the 10th of 
December, 1796, by which the State confirmed the title 
of all persons claiming under Fairfax to the lands which 
had been specifically approi^riated or reserved by Lord 
Fairfax or his ancestors for his or their use ; the pur- 
chasers relinquishing their title to all the waste and un- 
appropriated lands in the Northern Neck. Under this 
compromise, patents were issued without controversy for 
all lands not then covered by patents from Lord Fairfax. 

Mr. Colston was a man of literary tastes, and of large 
commercial information, and took an active interest in 
the cause of religion. On the 13th of June, 1814, he was 
elected president of a Bible Society then organized in the 
County of Berkeley, and his address to the public in 
support of that cause, published in the Martinsburg 
Gazette, of that period, is a document marked by literary 
ability and deej^ Christian feeling. He died in 1823, and 
was buried at Iloneywood, his county seat, in this 

He left a large family of sons and daughters, among 
whom were Edward Colston, a representative in Congress 
from this district ; Mary, a lady of extraordinary beauty 
and accomplishments, married to John Hanson Thomas, 
of Maryland, a lawyer of great genius and promise, who 
died in early life, and Susan, married to Benjamin Wat- 
kins Leigh, one of Virginia's distinguished sons. 


Son of Col. Moses Hunter, was born in Berkeley county.. 

92 Historical Pen SJietches. 

When quite a young man he was appointed an officer in 
the United States army, and was assigned to duty on the 
northern frontier. He was killed on the 11th of Novem- 
ber, 1813, near Williamsburg, on the shores of the St. 
Lawrence, Canada. He was advancing with great intre 
l^idity upon a formidable column of one of the best ap- 
pointed detachments of the British Army, under a show- 
er of musketry and grape shot scarcely ever equaled, 
and was exhorting his men to behave in a cool and de- 
termined manner, when he was struck by a canister shot, 
which in a few minutes terminated his existence. 


Was born in Berekley County. When in his sixteenth 
year he ran away from home and joined a company of 
volunteers and served throughout the revolutionary war. 
He was captured at the battle of Brandy wine on the 11th 
of September, 1777, and was detained as a prisoner of 
war until the British army evacuated Philadelphia in the 
summer of 1778. After his exchange as a prisoner of 
war, although he had suffered incredible hardships du- 
ring his captivity, he promptly returned to the army. — 
He bore the rank of ensign during the war, and was ap- 
pointed Navy Agent at Gasport, Virginia, by President 
Jefferson, and remained in office during his administra- 
tion. When the old frigate Constitution was dismantled 
he purchased the masts, which were used in the portico 
of the house Avhich he built near Shejdierdstown, and 
which house, then the property of Edmund I. Lee, who 
had married his daughter, was, by order of General 
Hunter, burned during the late civil war. He was a man 
of vigorous and original mind, with a decided talent for 
poetical satire, and lines from some of his poems are, 
after a lai)se of nearly half a century, in the memory of 
many persons. He died at his residence near Shepherds- 
town in March, 1818, aged 54 years. 


A captain in the revolutionary war. He volunteered as 

HiMtorical Fen SJceicJies. 93 

a private in June, 1775, in the Berkeley County company, 
commanded by Hugh Stephenson. He was elected a 
lieutenant of that company in the place of Lieut. Thomas 
Hite, who declined the commission, and marched with 
the company to Boston in July, 1775. At the expiration 
of its term of service, which was one year, he was com- 
missioned the senior captain in a rifle regiment comman- 
ded by Col. Hugh Stephenson. He was very energetic 
in tilling his company, having enlisted out of the old 
company twenty men to serve for three years, and return- 
ing to Berkeley in a short time enlisted seventy- one and 
marched them to the tield of operations in the north. 
On the 4th of October, 1776, he arrived with his company 
at Bergen Point, opposite New York, where he found 
Col. Rawlings in command of the regiment, Stephenson 
having in the meantime died. On the 12th of Novenber 
he was engaged for three successive days in severe skir- 
mishing at King's bridge. On the 16th he was engaged 
in a severe action with the enemy, in which Col. Raw- 
lings and Maj. William.s were severely wounded and 
taken from the field, and the command of the regiment 
devolved npon him. Finding himself overpowered by 
superior numbers he returned slowly to Fort Washing- 
ton, about half a mile distant from the scene of action. 
The fort was ca^^tured and all in it made prisoners of war. 
Cap. Shepherd remained a iirisoner nntil May, 1778. He 
then returned to Berkeley County and remained there 
nntil 1779. In the meantime the fifteen Virginia regi- 
ments were, by a resolve of Congress, reduced to eleven, 
and many of the^officers became supernumerary. Capt. 
Shepherd called upon Gen. Washington and claimed his 
right to be in active service as a senior captain in the 
Virginia line. Gen. Washington regretted the necessity 
that compelled so many valuable officers to retire as su- 
13ernumeraries, and added that if the country should 
hereafter want their services they would be notified to 
join the army. Capt. Shepherd consequently retired 

94 Historical Pen Sketches. 

from active service as a supernumerary for the remain- 
der of tlie war. He received a letter from Gen. Wasli- 
ington but two months before the General's death, speak- 
ing of him as a "valuable officer in the revolutionary 
war." He never filled any public civil employment, but 
was an active supporter and liberal contributor to local 
improvements. He died on the 7th of September, 1822, 
in the 60th year of his age. 


Born in Bedford, Pa., on the 20th of October, 1773, 
emigrated to Berkeley County on the 4th day of July, 
1799. He was commissioned a magistrate in 1807, and 
was twice com^missioned sheriff of Berkeley County. He 
was the presiding justice of the county court for more 

than twenty years. He died on the nth day of 1863. 

He bore the reputation of an intelligent magistrate and 
of an upright man. 


Born in Berkeley County on the 22dday of July, 1769. 
He was for many years an active magistrate and member 
of the County Court of Berkeley, and in 1821, 1822, 1830 
and 1831, was elected a member of the House of Dele- 
gates of Virginia. He was highly respected and esteem- 
ed, and died at his residence on Mill Creek in the County 
of Berkeley on the 9th of September, 1743. 


Was born in the County of Berkeley on the 4tli of May, 
1781. He was for many years one of the most influen- 
tial citizens and magistrates in the county. The grasp 
and power of the intellect were admitted by all who come 
into contact with him. He was in ]S19, 1820 and 1828 
elected to the legislature from this county, and always 
discharged his public duties with singular fidelity and 
conscientiousness. He resided near Bunker Hill, on Mill 
Creek, where he died on the 17th of February, 1837. 


Was born in Martinsburg, Berkeley County about 

Historical Pen SlceicJies. 95 

the year 1795. He was the son of George Wolff, Esq., 
one of our most conscientious and respectable magistra- 
tes. When the writer of this sketch first became ac- 
quainted with the sou in 1822, he was working at his 
trade of saddler in Martinsburg, then in the 2Sth year of 
his age. His intelligence, extensive reading and liter- 
ary attainments, were the subject of general remark ; 
while his frank and fascinating manners, social tempera- 
ment public and unaffected piety, made him a universal 
favorite. Every enterprise looking to the educational 
moral and religious interests of this community found 
in him an ardent advocate and energetic supporter. It 
was therefore not a matter of surprise when it became 
known, that he, then in the 36th year of his age, decided 
to devote himself to the office of the holy ministry. — 
After several years of preparatory study in the theolo- 
gical seminary of the German Reformed Church at York, 
Pa., he received a call to the reformed Church at Easton, 
in that State. In this field he labored for nine years, 
and in the spring of 1845 was called to take charge of the 
Third Reformed Church in Baltimore. A vacancy occur- 
ring in the theological seminary at Mercersburg, he was 
elected to fill the vacant position, and in 1854 entered 
upon his duties as professor of dogmatic and pastoral 
theology. Owing to declining health, he resigned his 
professorship in 1864, and removed to Lancaster city. — 
Here he devoted much attention to the interests of Frank- 
lin and Marshall College. About two years before he 
died, he was attacked with paralysis and his active labor 
on earth ceased. Gradually failing in his physical 
strength, but with his mental powers still active,, he 
calmly and peacefully dex)arted this life on the 31st day 
of October, 1870, while the last rays of an autumn sun 
was illuminating the western sky with a flood of 

Bernardo. Wolff' was no ordinary man. He was the 
model of a christian gentleman, always kind and cour- 

06 Historical Pen SJceicJies. 

teoiis, yet lirm and decided in his i)rinciples, and untir- 
ing in liis work. His views of the ministry were of the 
most exalted character, and his conduct and conversa- 
tions in the life fully corresponded with his concep- 
tions of its divine mission on earth. 


Was born in York, Pennsylvania, on the 3rd of May, 
1761. Sometime during his early boyhood his parents, 
came to Virginia and settled near the site of Martins- 
burg, on what is still known as the "Red House Farm." 
The precise date of his coming is unknown, but there is 
reason for believing that the settlement was made du- 
ring the Governorship of Lord Dunmore, and before the 
establishment of Berkeley County in 1772. 

David, the youngest son of the family, acquired the 
rudiments of his education, in a log school house loca- 
ted near the present crossing of Queen and Burke streets, 
walking the whole Avay from his father's house (about 
two miles to the northward) through unbroken forests. 
Of his earlier life the traditions are few and vague and 
scarcely worth reading. He was for sometime employed 
as deputy assist mt in the Clerk's office of Berkely 
County, held by his brother, Moses Hunter, between the 
years 1735 and 1748. About the year 1787 or '88 he went 
to England on some business connected with the inter- 
ests of his family, and after his return about 1792. he 
married Elizabeth, eldest daughter of Philip Pendleton, 
and sister of the late Philip C. Pendleton. The county 
Clerkship becoming vacant by the death of his eldest 
brother, David Hunter, competed for the x^l^ce with 
Major Henry Bedinger. Bedinger was elected by the 
vote of the magistrate, but it being apparant that some of 
the electors had been controlled by improper influences, 
the election was contested by Col. Hunter in the courts. 
After several years of litigation his case was sustained, 
and he was put in possession of the office in 1803, and 
held it until his death. About the year ISll while walk" 

Historical Pen SketcJies. 97 

ing out with some friends on the Walnut Flats, near 
Stephen's Dam, he attempted to leap a narrow gulley, 
fell and broke his leg, from the effects of which he was 
lame for life. Hence the cane and limp which are re- 
membered by all who knew him in his latter days. 

As the fiow^er of his life passed during the interval be- 
tween the Revolution and the War of 1812, Colonel Hunter 
was never in the military service and his title w^as jDroba- 
bly derived from a commission in the militia, and while 
he was one of most generally esteemed and influential 
men in the district, the possession of the resx)onsible and 
(then) lucrative Clerkship, effectually debarred him from 
seeking loolitical distinction, then, as now, more honora- 
ble than profitable. He was nevertheless, like most of 
the gentlemen of his circle at that day, a strong Federal- 
ist, and when that party rejoiced in the downfall of 
Napoleon Bonaparte in 1813, he was chosen to preside at 
a barbecue dinner given in honor of the event by the 
Federalists of Berkeley and adjacent Counties of Virgin- 
ia and Maryland. This celebration took place on the 
16th of September, ISl.S, at Swearengen's Spring on the 
Potomac River above Shepherdstown, and was cleverly 
caricatured as "the Cossack Celebration" in some satiri- 
cal verse written by a gentleman of the opposite party, 
and well remembered to this day. The motives and jus- 
tification of the assembly are set forth however, in a 
document, still extant, bearing evidences of the sincerity 
and ability of its framers, and well worth perusal at this 


Colonel Hunter died on the 22nd of March, leaving a 
large family of sons and daughters, only one of whom it 
is believed, is still living. 

From the traditions of his earlier life, we learn that 
Colonel Hunter was a person handsome, athletic and 
graceful, courteous and dignified in manner ; in conver- 
sation full of humorous and entertaining anecdotes, the 
result of travel and observation, rather than reading and 

98 Historical Ten Sketches. 

books, lie was especially remarkable for his strong 
IDractical sense and keen insight into character, rarely 
erring in his judgment of men with whom he came in 
contact ; yet kindly and generous withal — leaving the 
impression both in physique and character, of one of the 
finest types among our early settlers. 


Was born in the County of Berkeley, in 1788 and en- 
tered the army in 1808 as a second lieutenant of the sev- 
enth infantry. So rapid was his promotion, that in 1812 
he was brigade major, and acting adjutant general to 
Brigadier General Hull. In 1813 he was major of the 
lOtli infantry ; transferred in 1814 to the 25th infantry 
as brevet lieutenant colonel, for distinguished and 
meritorious bravery in the battle of Chij^pewa, of the 
5th of July, 1814. In November of the same year, he 
was breveted colonel for gallant conduct and distin- 
guished skill in the battle of Niagara, of the 25th of July, 
1814, in which he was severely wounded. On the reduc- 
tion of the army in 1815, we was retained in the first 
infantry, and in 1817 was lieutenant colonel of the third 
infantry. In 1818 he was appointed adjutant general 
with the rank of colonel ; and the same year, Quarter- 
master General, with the rank of Brigadier General ; and 
was breveted Major General in May, 1828, for ten years 
meritorious service. He was assigned to the command 
of the army in the Creek nation, Alabama, in 1836, and 
succeeded Gen. Call in Florada on the 8th of December, 
1836 ; was wounded in action with the Seminole Indians 
near Jupiter Inlet on the 24th of January, 1838 ; and was 
succeeded by Col. Z. Taylor on the 15th of May 1838 ; 
whereupon he returned to the duties of his department, 
which he managed with distinguished ability. 

He continued at the head of the Quartermaster's de- 
partment of the United States, until the period of his 
death, which occurred on the 10th day of June, 1860. — 
The writer of this sketch, who was himself at one time 

Historical Pen Sketches. 99 

Chairman of the committee on military affairs of the 
House of Representatives, knew Gen. Jessup well, and 
had an ox3portunity of estimating his valuable services to 
the country. To his fine military capacity in the field, 
he added great administrative ability. In the manage- 
ment of the vast concerns of the Quartermaster's depart- 
ment, he evinced great foresight, but the labor developed 
upon him by the Mexican war, in managing the details 
of the campaign in a far distant country, can only be 
properly apx^reciated by those who shared in its difficul- 
ties and responsibilities. A grateful country must ever 
bear in honorable remembrance the services of the vet- 
eran soldier and gentleman whose name and fame will 
go down to posterity as a portion of the brightest mili- 
tary records. 


The son of Robert Cockburn, of Cockburn Hill, east of 
Martinsburg, was born in 1775. When I first knew the 
father he was, at least SO years of age. His long, flowing 
white hair, covering his shoulders and reaching far down 
his back, and his snowy beard sweeping to his waist, 
gave a striking and picturesque appearance to the old 
man. It was said, that he had been college-bred ; that 
he had been educated in the best schools in Scotland and 
that he had amassed a rich fund of classical lore and his- 
torical knowledge. 

"Cockburn Hill," as it was thcD called, with its exten- 
sive orchard of cherries was well known to every boy in 
Martinsburg ; and often has many an idle and truant 
urchin roused the excitable temx)er of the old hermit by 
pillaging his fruit before it was quite ripe. When ma- 
tured and proper to be eaten, no one could be more 
generous and liberal than he was in the license granted 
to gather it. 

He had two sons, Adam and Robert. Adam was a 
dull and stupid boy ; Robert the genius of the family, 
and upon him did the hopes of the old man repose. He 

100 Historical Pen SketcJies. 

was smarr, loquacious, disputatious, and brimful of 
egotism, pertness and conceit. He liad an extravagant 
idea of liis scliolarship and of Ms poetical talents. He 
selected the vocation of a schoolmaster. The birch and 
the ferule were no idle implements in his hands. He 
was self indulgent to his own vices, but inexoiably severe 
on the peccadilloes of his pupils. He had all the learn- 
ing at that period of our educational history, deemed 
necessary to an instructor of youth. 

'TAvas certain Le could write aud cj-pher, too, 
Lauds he could measure, terms aud tides presage 

Aud e'eu, the stor}^ rau, that he could guage. 
In arguiug, too, the parson owned his skill. 
For e'en tho' vanquished he could argue still. 

But it was not in his character of a schoolmaster that 
he became entitled to be noticed in these humble 
sketches. His gay, frolicsome and social temper — his 
familiarity with all games and pastimes at rural enter- 
taiments, his capacity for extemporaneous rhyming — 
made him the hero of all apple-butter boilings, quilting 
parties, cotillion assemblies and corn-husking festivities, 
for miles around. No party was deemed complete unless 
graced by the presence of ''Bob Cockburn." He sang, 
played on the fiddle, told funny stories and extemx)orized 
verses for the relief of those who were amerced in poetical 
forfeits. But such a round of dissipation in those days 
of apple-jack and whisky — when no temjierance lecturer 
had ever been heard of in the land — in the course of a 
few years began to tell on the habits of the frolicsome 
pedagogue — his nose began to blush — his eyes became 
weary and inflamed — and he soon fell under the domin- 
ion of that tyrant who has never been known to show 
mercy or comjDassion to his helpless victims. 

Bob was a patriot as well as a X)oet ; at least I am jus- 
tified in thinking so from a poem of his which I have 
seen in an old number of the Martinsburg Gazette and 
what is the only specimen of his poetical genius which 

Historical Pen Sketches. 101 

lias survived "the wreck of the matter and the crash of 
worlds." I can only take a short extract from it. 

It was written in June, 1818, one of the gloomiest pe- 
riods of our last war with Great Britian. Norfolk, Ports- 
moujth and all the towns and cities on the Chesapeake 
Bay and James River were threatened by a powerful 
navy and military force of the enemy. Two of the finest 
companies from " old Berkeley " were then at the scene 
of battle, encountering the pestilential air of the swamps 
of Norfolk, and the fire of the enemy, in protecting the 
sacred soil of Virginia from invasion, pillage and mur- 

The poem commences by representing a Berkeley 
youth deeply enamored of a charming girl dwelling on 
the crystal waters of the Tuscarora. He vows his love 
in most passionate terms ; declares that for years her en- 
chanting image has wholly absorbed his heart, and asks 
in a delirium of despair, what he shall do to assure him 
of the reward of his long and devoted affection for her. 
The Tuscarora maiden, in the-spirit of Boadicea. thus re- 
plies to him : 

If j'ou siucei'ely wish ray favor 

Then you possess a patriot mind ; 
Your country droops, advance to save lier, 

Nor sigliing, linger liere beliind. 
Hear the inspiring shouts of praise — 

On to glory ! — loud they call you I 
See youthful heroes crowned with bays 

Their envied lot may yet befall you. 

Robert Cockburn diedonCockburn Hill in 1824, in the 
49th year of his age. 


Was born in 17SS, in Bermuda, the son of Dr. Stephen 
Cooke and Catharine Esten. He came, with his i:)arents, 
to Alexandria, thence to the vicinity of Leesburg, where 
his father had a x^lace called the '"Forest." He never 
went to college, as his eyes suddenly failed him whilst 

102 Historical Fen Sketches. 

preparing for it. He settled in Martinsburg about 1810, 
where lie commenced the practice of law. In 1814 he 
was elected to the House of Delegates from the county. 
He married in Martinsburg a daughter of Col. Philip 
Pendleton, and continued his residence there for a period 
of nearly twenty years. He subsequently removed from 
this county to Winchester, thence to Baltimore and 
thence to Richmond. Enjoying a high degree of popu- 
larity, political position might with him have been a mat- 
ter of easy attainment, but, earnestly devoted to his i)ro- 
fession, he resisted the appeal s of that character whi ch were 
frequently made to him. He was, with great unanimity, 
elected a member of the Constitutional Convention of 
Virginia of 1830, and there exhibited the nerve and abil- 
ity to grapple with such intellectual giants as Leigh, 
Upshur, Randolph and Tazewell in the discussion of the 
great question of extended suffrage and equal represen- 
tation before that body. His jDrofessional abilities w^ere 
of the highest order and universally recognized. In the 
celebrated Randolph will case, argued in 1836, his great 
and peculiar powers of argumentation were strikingly 
exhibited. E. V. Sparhawk, the re^Dorter of that trial, 
a very competent judge, and who heard all the argu- 
ments in the case, thus speaks of Mr. Cooke's effort: 
"It was a masterly production. He classifies and ex- 
IDOunds his facts with great strength and clearness, and 
arranges his authorities and arguments in the most for- 
cible manner. His m.ethod of arguing is superior to any 
man at the bar. Instead of dividing his strength upon 
the se'parate points, his whole speech was but one point, 
for the support of which all the other various facts and 
considerations of the case were brought together in pyra- 
midal strength and harmony." 

Mr. Cooke v/as a bold, trenchant and vigorous writer. 
His able and elaborate pamphlets xjnblished in 1825 en- 
titled "The Constitution of 1776," followed by "The 
Convention Question," in 1827, and then again by "An 

Historical Pen SketcJies. 103 

Earnest Apxjeal to the Friends of Reform" in 1828, at- 
tracted the attention of the whole State to him and 
largely contributed to the passage of the law organizing 
the Constitutional Convention of 1829 and 1830, of which 
he himself was an active and conspicuous member. Mr. 
Cooke Oldened the " great debate" in that body by an 
unsparing attack upon the then existing constitution of 
Yirginia, and asserted for himself, beyond all question, 
the position of leader of the friends of reform in a body 
composed of the ablest men from AVestern Virginia. 

In 1835 he yielded to the importunity of his friends 
and very reluctantly accepted the AVhig nomination for 
Congress in this District. Once accepted, however, he 
entered into the canvass with his usual and characteristic 
energy and jDluck. His address to the people in the sev- 
eral Court Houses of the district were models of lucid 
statement, pungent, invective and eloquent demonstra- 
tion. The writer of this heard his address in Martins- 
burg. The court-room was crowded to excess. Not a 
man stirred or left the hall during the two hours that he 
was speaking. It was one of the most logical, perspicu- 
ous and powerful arguments that he ever hurled from 
the hustings. 

No one was better qualified to judge of his intellectual 
merits than the late James Marshall, of Winchester. In 
1866 he thus spoke of Mr. Cooke to a friend : 

" The finest faculty of his mind was his power of rea- 
soning — his clearness of judgment. His narrative in a 
case was the best I ever knew. It might be said of him 
as AVebster said of Hoffman, that his case " once stated, 
w^as already argued." He was very rash in his charities, 
unbounded I may say in liberality. His power of labor 
was very iincommon. I never saw such great labor. He 
had the clearest mind I ever saw. If a witness or any 
one in a case was acting dishonestly, he attacked him 
without mercy. He was remarkable in philiiDi^ie. He 
had a very keen appreciation of equity, morals and man- 

104 Historical Pen Sketches. 

ners, and if they were wanting on sucli occasions lie con- 
ceived a great contempt for the individual and denounced 
him bitterly and powerfully. He had a great practice." 

David Holmes Conrad, in a letter, refers to him as 
" the model of lofty courtesy, chivalry and generosity." 
Another said that when he died "he did not leave an 
enemy on the bosom of the spacious earth." 

This apparent hyperbole is undoubtedly near the truth. 
He was a man of extraordinary suavity and amenity — of 
unvarying sweetness of temper. In social life he rarely 
exhibited any feelings of anger, and was characterized 
by a remarkable patience and benevolence. His gener- 
osity knew no bounds. He seemed to place no value 
upon money. He gave it away to everybody and to 
every object. 

He died in the city of Richmond in December, 1S54, 
in the 67th year of his age. 


Was born in Berkeley County in 17G0. He was a man 
of sui3erior intelligence and a farmer by occupation. He 
was twice elected from the county to the House of Dele- 
gates of Virginia, in 1797 and 1798. He was commis- 
sioned a magistrate in 1799, and twice commissioned 
Sheriff of the county in 1819 and 1820, and elected to the 
House of Delegates in 1803, 1809 and 1810. He had much 
of the old Virginia character about him in his tastes and 
habits. He was fond of dogs and horses, and in his 
younger days a keen fox hunter. His house was the 
abode of a generous hosj^itality, and the lovers of whist, 
music and the dance could always find an opi^ortunity 
there to gratify their apj^etites for pleasures. 

In January, 1815, he announced himself a candidate 
for Congress for the district composed of the counties of 
Berkele}^ Jefterson, Hardy and Hampshire, and he was 
triumphantly elected. His address to the freeholders of 
the district prior to the election is all that now remains 
of this gentleman to show the temper of the man and 

Historical Pen Sketches. 105 

the character of his intellect, and certainly his descend- 
ants have no reason to be ashamed of it, either upon the 
score of its sentiments or of its ability. AVe give it 
entire : 

" To the freeholders of the district composed of the coun- 
ties of Berkeley, Hamjoshire, Hardy and Jefferson : 
Fellow Citizens :— I offer myself to your considera- 
tion as a candidate to represent you in the next Con- 
gress of the United States. It is possible the curious 
may be disposed to inquire why I have become a candi- 
date without the sanction of a committee. To this in- 
terrogatory I answer that the recent method of nomina- 
ting candidates by committee, however highly I may in- 
cline to appreciate the practice, is, nevertheless, as it 
seems to me, no way preferable to the ancient custom 
which everyone understands. Again, I have been in- 
duced to declare myself at this time and in this way by 
the request of my friends, who think with me it is the 
wish of a majority of the freeholders of the district. If, 
however, we should be mistaken in this particular, what- 
ever the result may be, I will cheerfully submit to when 
fairly ascertained on the day of election. All I desire is 
to give the people an opportunity of making a selection, 
and all I ask is an unbiased expression of public opin- 
ion. This manner of proceeding appears perfectly con- 
genial with the first princii^les of our government, Avith 
all our political institutions, and consequently can be 
liable to no rational objection. Here, perhaps, it may 
not be improper to premise that I trust my deportment 
on this occasion will be found fair and manly, and that 
if I should meet with an opponent he shall receive from 
me all the politeness and decorum due from one gentle- 
man to another. 

To those gentlemen in the upper parts of the district 
with whom I have not the pleasure of a personal ac- 
quaintance, I am pursuaded I shall be exonerated from 
the charge of egotism and of complimenting myself when 

lOG Historical Pen SJtetcJies. 

they are iaformed that I am a farmer, in the middle 
walks of life, and that if honored with their suffrages 
my circumstances are such that I will neither be driven 
from the path leading to the prosperity of our country 
by want or poverty, nor allured from it by avarice or am- 

Citizens of the district, if an ardent attachment to my 
native soil ; if many friends and relatives av horn I esteem 
and venerate ; if a numerous progeny intertwined with 
every moral perception of my heart ; if either or all these 
considerations firmly combined can rivet a man to his 
country and to liberty — these motives, these induce- 
ments, which, in my estimation, are the most powerful 
that can operate on the human mind, shall be left by 
me, as pledges." 

He was associated in his legislative labors with such 
men as Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, John C. Calhoun, 
William Lowndes, John Randolph, William Gaston, 
Philip P. Barbour, Henry St. George Tucker and a host of 
others, all members of that House almost equally distin- 
guished by their geniuses and reputations. In those 
days the committees of the House were few and small, 
and the active business of the body was left in the hands 
of its leading statesmen. Not as now, when every man 
in Congress, no matter how inferior, must have his hour, 
and grind out that hour in a written speech, whether lis- 
tened to or not, or whether written by himself or by a 
clerk in the departments. The rule now is to put every 
member on some committee. The rule then was to put 
on committe duty only the most competent and distin- 

Mr. Tate lived almost two and a half miles southwest 
from Martinsburg, on a farm since purchased by Wm. 
Walker. He left a large family of sons and daughters. 

He died on the 30th of March, 1S23. 


Father of Gen. Elisha Boyd and a native of England, 

Historical Pen SJcetclies. . 107 

was one of tlie earliest settlers in the County of Berke- 
ley. He acquired Ms land in this county by original 
grant from Lord Fairfax, the patents of which are still 
preserved by his descendants. He resided near the North 
Mountain, about five miles west of Martinsburg. He was 
a man of herculean frame of body, and some anecdotes 
are related of his hand to hand conflicts with the Indians, 
which demanded all his activity and strength, but in 
which he was generally victor. 

He was married about the year 1754, to Sarah Gryfyth, 
a native of AVales, and died in the year 1800, leaving 
eight children, born in the following order, to wit : 
Charles, Margaret, Fulton, John, William, Rachel, Bay- 
ley, Elijah, Mary, Munford and Elisha ; the first born on 
the 13th of April, 1756, and the last on the 6th of Octo- 
ber, 1769. 

His widow, Sarah Boyd, survived him some years, dy- 
ing in 1S06. With the exception of Elisha, the children 
were among the earliest emigrants to Kentucky. It is 
said that Hon. LennBoyd, of Kentucky, for several years 
Speaker of the House of Representatives, was one of 
that stock, and his striking resemblance to Gen. Boyd 
in stature, feature and general apjDearance would seem 
to confirm that remark. 


most generally known as "Burgess Billy Smith," was 
born in Sleepy Creek about the year 1747, in that por- 
tion of the colony of Virginia which was subsequently 
embraced in the County of Berkeley. He had an insa- 
tiable ambition to become a member of the legislature. 
Shortly after the creation of the County of Berkeley in 
1772 he became a candidate for the House Burgess, and 
continued his candidacy, without success, for several 
years, from which he acquired the soubriquet of " Bur- 
gess Billy." After the revolutionary war was ended and 
the State constitution of 1776 was adopted, dividing the 
legislative det:)artment into a Senate and House of Dele- 

108 Historical Pen Skeiclies. 

gates, lie pressed his claims for election to the House of 
Delegates from year to year, but still without success. 
When Morgan was formed into a separate county in 1820 
he regularly entered the field every year for a seat in the 
legislature. At the April election in 1830 the aspirations 
and struggles of a long life were gratified by an election, 
but the adoption of the new constitution in the follow- 
ing August set aside the election and dashed and disap- 
pointed the hopes of his life. He never afterward had 
the heart to aspire to the jDlace, and died a few years 
afterward, deeply impressed with the incapacity of the 
peoi^le to select competent and proper agents to serve 
them. He was a man of remarkable astuteness and cun- 
ning, and although unable to read or write, no one was 
ever found smart enough to take advantage of those de- 
ficiencies. He was said to have been the first child born 
in the Sleepy Creek Valley. 


When this illustrious statesman was Secretary of State 
under the younger Adams, and when, like the an tiered 
monarch of the forest, he was almost driven to bay by 
the fierce blood-hounds of party under the foul and loath- 
some cry of "bargain and corruption," he sought, in 
July, 1827, a temporary refuge from this pitiless storm 
of calumny in a visit to some of his cherished friends in 
Berkeley County. He spent some days in Martinsburg, 
and it is needless to say that he was received here with 
all the enthusiasm due to his exalted genius and patriot- 
ism. He decided to pay a brief visit to the Berkeley 
Springs, and a gentleman now residing in our county, 
accompanied him in a carriage. When, about 2 o'clock 
in the day, they reached what was called the Halfway 
House, a sort of tavern kept by Dick Sheckles, a man of 
enormous proportions, fat and unwieldy, and weighing 
near four hundred pounds, they found the old landlord 
sitting in the shade before his house, indulging in his 
usual habit in the hot days of summer, of kee2:)ing him- 

Historical Fen Sketclies. 109 

self cool by burying liis feet in the earth and piling it 
up around liis legs nearly as high as his knees. The 
arrival of the carriage did not in the least disturb the 
I)lacidity of the unwieldy landlord. When Mr. Clay ap- 
proached the house his traveling companion presented 
him to Mr. Sheckles, saying : " Permit me to introduce 
to you the present Secretary of State, Henry Clay, of 
Kentucky." With that the old gentleman gazed for a 
moment at the tall, spare and erect figure before him, 
and rising to his feet said : " Did you say this was Henry 
Clay, of Kentucky ? Why, I thought he was a great big 
man like a king ! " "No, Mr. Sheckles," said Mr. Clay, 
" you are more kingly in your ^proportions than I am. 
You see in me nothing but a broken down public ser- 
vant, worn almost to a skeleton by State and the calum- 
nies of my enemies." 

In May, 1844, Mr. Clay was invited by a public mass- 
meeting of his friends in this county to visit Martins- 
burg and to partake of the hospitalities of the county. 
We take an extract from the letter of invitation, as it 
contains some facts worthy of remembrance : 

Maetixsbukg, Va., March 14th, 1844. 
To the Hon. Henry Clay : 

SiK — The County of Berkeley boasts of some historical 
recollections connected with your fame, which she is not 
disposed shall at the present jDeriod be lost sight of or 
forgotten. She looks with a becoming pride to that sa- 
gacity which prompted her sons some twenty years ago 
to seek to give in your person that direction to public 
sentiment which it is now receiving from the patriotism 
and sagacity of the whole Union. It was here, in this 
very county — by action of the people in primary assem- 
bly, on the 14th of June, 1824, that your name was first 
presented to the people of Virginia, as a candidate for 
that exalted station, for which you now stand nominated 
in the hearts of near two millions of your admiring coun- 
trymen. It was here — in this county— that the electoral 

110 Historical Pen SJieiclies. 

ticket was framed and announced, which presents your 
claim to the suffrages of your native State. The short 
period which elapsed after the annunciation of that 
ticket, connected with the circumstance, that your claims 
were brought in competition with an elder of the Repub- 
lican party, holding the same general principles of policy 
with yourself, and also a native of this State, prevented 
your receiving that support in this commonwealth, which 
none at that time denied to be due to your patriotism, 
exalted character and eminent public services. Still 
Berkeley by her recorded vote, preferred you then, as 
she has ever preferred you since and as she prefers you 
now, to all living statesmen, as the representative of her 
princiijles in the administration of the national govern- 
ment. She gave you her confidence without reserve in 
1824, and she has continued that confidence without 
change or shadow to the present hour. She has with an 
abiding faith sustained you amidst all the fierce and 
bitter conflicts of party, confidently looking forward to 
the day now reaching its meridian splendor — when your 
name would kindle its just enthusiasm in every patriotic 
bosom, and all sections of this vast country hail you as 
the hope of this great Republic. 

The invitation was declined for the reason set forth in 
his reply : 

Wasiiingto:n-, D. C. May 1st, 1844. 
Gentlemen : 

I feel greatly flattered, honored, and obliged by the 
invitation which you have transmitted to me to visit 
Berkeley County and partake of its hospitality, and by 
the friendly sentiments which accompany it. I feel, 
with gratitude, and acknowledge with pleasure, my great 
obli2;ations to Berkeley, for its uniform and ardent at- 
tachment and confidence for me ; and I should be most 
happy, under other circumstances, to meet and exchange 
friendly salutations with my fellow citizens of that coun- 
ty ; but considerations, both of a public and i^rivate 

Historical Pen Sketclies. Ill 

nature, in my judgment, require oi me hereafter to avoid 
attendance upon large assemblages of my fellow citizens 
and I hope that the determination, to which I have rome, 
on that subject, will command the approbation of you, 
gentlemen, and of those whom you represent. So numer- 
ous and constant are my occupations and so frequent 
have been the invitations which I have received, and am 
still receiving to public assemblages, that lam compelled 
to be much briefer, in my replies, than I would Avish 
to be. 

I pray you gentlemen to accei)t yourselves and tender 
to those whom you represent my respectful and grateful 
acknowledgments. I am with great respect, 

Your friend and obedient servant, 

H. Clay. 

Mr. Clay's second visit to the County of Berkeley was 
in January, 1848. He was then going to Washington to 
argue a case before the Supreme Court of the United 
States. Having some days to spare, he determined to 
spend a short time in this county, with a friend. The 
presidential question was then agitating the public mind, 
and it had not been determined whether the nominee of 
the Whig party would be General Taylor or himself. 
The private mansion at which he stopped was freely 
opened to all his friends and there are many now living 
amongst us who will remember with delight, the wonder- 
ful power and fascination of his conversation, when in 
unrestrained intercourse with his friends. 

He spoke with his characteristic frankness and free- 
dom of the pending Presidential canvass ; made no secret 
either of his work or of his expectation of receiving the 
nomination of the approaching Whig convention ; read 
a correspondence between himself and Gen. Z. Taylor, 
embracing several letters in which the old hero of Buena 
Vista whilst freely conceding the superior party claims 
of Mr. Clay to the nomination, and expressing his indi- 
vidual wishes that he might receive it, declares that he 

112 Illsiorical Pen Sketches. 

liad no agency whatever in having his name X3resented in 
competition with Mr. Clay's, yet with modest firmness 
stated, that it was not his business to interfere with the 
progress of public sentiment, and the convention must 
be left free to make its selection in the best interests of 
the party and country. 

The writer of this has never known Mr. Clay to be 
more joyous and cheerful than upon the occasion of this 
last visit to the County of Berkeley. He felt indeed 
that he was in the house of his friends. He seemed 
eager to promote universal enjoyment around him. He 
encouraged the dance, music — caressed the children, told 
amusing anecdotes to the ladies ; and when in his graver 
moments, he retired to the library, and there, surrounded 
by many of our citizens, portrayed the characters of our 
leading public men and expatiated upon what he deemed 
the true policy of the Government, all felt that they were 
in the presence of a patriot, orator and statesman, of 
whom the country might indeed be justly proud. 

I have pondered over the inquiry. How was it that this 
bold and unequalled leader of a great party, this noblest 
type of American manhood, this most prominent orator, 
patriot and statesman of his day, could never reach the 
goal of his lofty andhonorable ambition — the Presidency? 
Was he too bold, too independent,, too little of the poli- 
tician to suit the then cravings of party cupidity ? Is it 
a position only suited to men of inferior and moderate 
abilities 'l Are all of our really great men to be hereafter 
excluded from the enjoyment of its honors ? Was it 
attributable to the secret influences of rival candidates, 
that Mr. Clay lost his nomination ? Was it to be ascribed 
to that natural jealousy which great, brilliant and com- 
manding minds attract ? Was it to the office seeking 
demagogues who fill our conventions, and who are ever 
on the alert to find out whom they think the most 
"available" candidate, without regard to merit? Or 
was it to that cax)rice and ingratitude which so often 

Historical Pen Sketches. 113 

darkens tlie history of Republics, and wliicli causes tliem 
to banish from their confidence, a citizen because they 
are tired of hearing everybody styling him "Aristides 
the Just ?" These are questions which it may be well at 
some future day to consider, and to find their solution if 


Eighth President of the United States, made a visit to 
Martinsburg ia 1830, whilst Secretary of State under 
General Andrew Jackson. He stopped at the Globe 
Hotel, then kept by William Kroesen. The writer of 
this sketch made a respectful call upon him, and spent 
a pleasant evening in his company. His trip was one 
simply of recreation. He spoke of the j)leasure which 
he derived from his excursion, and was emphatic in his 
praise of the soil and scenery of this Valley. He was 
not at that time much of a favorite with our people, of 
either party, and but little enthusiasm was manifested 
at his j)resence. 


This distinguished orator and statesman, at the close 
of the session of Congress of 1796, being then in feeble 
health, j)aid a visit to the warm springs in the County of 
Berkeley, in the hopes of obtaining some relief from his« 
increasing debility. He thought he derived much benefit 
from drinking the water ; also from our pure and fresh 
mountain air, and relaxation from the unremitting cares 
of public life. In this visit he was the object of the most 
friendly and respectful attention, individual ajad public. 
Contrary to his expectations, he found many friends of 
the Washington administration during this visit, not. 
withstanding the lead taken by the Representatives of 
Virginia in opposition to that policy. In one of his let- 
ters from Berkeley he observes "Virginia has been mis- 
represented to us, as much as the measures of govern- 

114 Historical Fen SJieicJies. 

ment have been to them ; and many good men are here 
to be found friendly to the federal cause." 

From his visit' to Berkeley in 1796 his health continued 
to decline, with partial and flattering intermissions until 
death. He was a striking example of magnanimity and 
patience under suffering. Retainicg always the vigor 
and serenity of his mind, he appeared to make those re- 
flections which became his situation. When speaking 
of his illness, he observed, "I trust I realize the value 
of those habits of thinking which I have cherished for 
-some time. Sickness is not wholly useless to me. It 
has increased the warmth of my affection for my friends. 
It has taught me to make haste in forming the i3lan of 
my life, if it should be spared, more for private duties 
and social enjoyments, and less for the s^Dlendid empti- 
ness of imblic station, than yet I have done." 

After an extreme debility of two years, the frame 
which had so long tottered was about to fall. With 
composure and dignity he met the apj)roach of his disso- 

Fisher Ames will ever rank among the great statesmen 
of this country. Excepting Daniel Webster, I know of 
no public man of the North whose fame rests upon a 
more indisputable basis of genius and merit. His speech 
in the House of Representatives on the British Treaty of 
1790 has been regarded as one of the flnest specimens of 
Congressional eloquence ever uttered in that body — and 
many ]3as sages of it of sur^Dassing brilliancy are remem- 
bered and quoted to this day, although near a century 
has elapsed since they were delivered. 


In his visit to the Berkeley Springs, sjjent several days 
in Martinsburg, going and returning in the summer of 
1824. He was in the early part of that year, beyond all 
question, the most formidable candidate for the Presi- 
dency. He had withdrawn from the canvass in favor of 

Historical Pen Slietclies. 115 

Mr. Monroe and was considered in some sense his des- 
tined successor. He was nominated as sucli by a Con- 
gressional caucus on tlie 14tli of February, 1824 — tliat 
being the mode which up to that day had been adopted 
by the Democratic party to indicate its choice for the 
Presidency. But the i^owerful opx^osition of four Demo- 
cratic competitors — Calhoun, Jackson, Adams and Clay 
— followed by a severe attack of paralysis, blasted his 
prospect of election, he receiving but the solid votes of 
Virginia and Georgia and portions of the votes of IsTew 
York, Maryland and Delaware. 

It was to get relief from this crushing affliction that he 
visited the Berkeley Springs in the summer of 1824. But 
the healing waters of those celebrated springs were im- 
poetnt to give the desired relief. During his passing 
visits to Martinsburg he received the warmest sympathies 
of its citizens, who vied with each other in showing him 
■every attention and respect. 


Was born in Kentucky, and was a favorite protege of 
the distinguised Dr. Lewis Marshall of that State. He 
became a resident and citizen of this county about the 
year 1820, He practiced his profession as a physician 
for about ten years in Martinsburg, but his excessive 
devotion to literature and history caused him to become 
indifferent to the practice of his x^rofession, and after his 
marriage to the daughter of a very wealthy farmer of the 
county, he abandoned it altogether and retired to the 
country. He was a man of acute and powerful intellect, 
of extensive reading and a vigorous and forcible writer. 
In literary attainments and in profound historical re- 
search, he was almost without an equal. He left here 
for Natchez in 1843, with a view there of resuming the 
XDractice of his profession. Within a month after his 
arrival there, the yellow fever broke out with fearful 
mortality, and he fell a victim himself to the fearless 

116 Hlsiqrlcal Pea Sketches. 

discliarge of his professional duties. The writer of tliis 
I)aid a visit to liis grave in January, 1845, and dropped a 
tear to the momory of one of the noblest and truest of 
men. He founded the Martinsburg Library, which for 
so many years was supported and cherished in this place ;' 
and in the important session of 1831 represented this 
county, with signal ability, in the House of Delegates of 


Was born in Martinsburg, Berkeley County, Va., De- 
cember 1st, 1796. His only school education was ob- 
tained between the ages of five and twelve, in the old 
stone school house in the north-eastern portion of the 
town, under the tuition of "an excellent Irish gentleman 
of the olden time," Capt. Jas. Maxwell, long the County 
Surveyor. On the fourth day of April, 1809, he entered 
the printing office of Mr. John Alburtis, editor of the 
Berkeley and Jefferson Intelligencer, afterwards the 
Martinsburg Gazette. 

After an apprenticeship of five years, Mr. G. worked a 
few w^eeks in Baltimore, principally ujDon Nile's Meg is- 
ter. In August, 1814, being in Charlestown, in charge of 
the Farmef s Repository, while its editor, Capt. Rich- 
ard Williams, was in the military service at Norfolk, 
Mr. G. joined the volunteer rifle company of Capt. 
George W. Humphrey's, and served a month. In the 
course of this service the company had part in the sharp 
conflict at the White House Bluff, on the Potomac, in 
which Com. Porter undertook, with a few small field 
pieces and some riflemen, to stop the British vessels then 
descending the river, ladened with flour and other stores 
caiDtured at Alexandria. On the conclusion of his mili- 
tary service, Mr. G. worked about a year in the office of 
the National Intelligencer, the model newspaper con- 
ducted by those well known gentlemen, Messrs. Gales 
and Seaton. 

Historical Pen Sketclies. Ill 

In iMay, 1821, Mr. Gallalier, with his younger brother, 
Robert, (who died in August following, after only four 
days' sickness, of a malignant fever then prevailing,) 
commenced the publication of the Harper's Ferry Free 
Press, now the Virginia Free Press — a paper which ac- 
quired great popularity. Mr. G. also published for four 
years, a literary paper called TJte Ladies'' Garland. 

In 1827 he purchased the Farmef s Repository, at 
Charlestown, and merged it with the Free Press, now 
published by his brother, H. N. Gallaher, and his nephew, 
W. W. B. Gallaher. 

In the spring of 1830, Mr. Gallaher was elected a mem- 
ber of the Virginia House of Delegates, with the veteran 
Daniel Morgan as his colleague. The amended Consti- 
tution of 1829 being adopted, this election of delegates 
was set aside, and in October, 1830, John S. Gallaher and 
Edward Lucas were chosen. In this first session under 
the new Constitution, much of the legal talent of the Old 
Commonwealth was in requisition, and it was deemed no 
light honor to be a colleague of such men as Benjamin 
Watkins Leigh, Richard Morris, Thomas Marshall, Jas. 
M. Mason, James McDoAvell, etc. 

Mr. Gallaher was re-elected for four successive terms, 
with slight opposition, except in 1833, when, having 
given a "State's Right's Vote'' (in the nullification era), 
which displeased some of his ultra "Whig supporters, a 
spirited canvass ensued, but he was re-elected by an 
increased majority. In the spring of 1835 he declined 
further legislative service, and removed to Richmond to 
take chief management of the Ricliviond Compiler, 
which he held for nineteen months. 

At the close of his term, the elder Governor Floyd, in 
1832, appointed Charles James Faulkner, of Berkelej^, 
John S. Gallaher, of Jefferson, and John B. D. Smith, of 
Frederick, Commissioners to settle, inconjunction with a 
like number from Maryland, the boundary line between 
the two States, but Maryland did not appoint Commis- 

118 Historical Pen SA'eicJies. 

sioners, and nothing was done. Mr. Faulkner has since 
had the matter in charge under a new appointment, and 
has made much jDrogress in the collection of interesting 

In January, 1S37, Mr, Gallaher purchased a third in- 
terest in the E-ichmond Whig, and for three years was 
associated with those eminent journalists, John Hamp- 
den Pleasants and Alexander Moseley. In 1840 he sold 
his interest in the WJiig to his partners, and published 
for nine months a popular campaign paper — the Yoeman, 
in support of Harrison and Tyler. In the contest of 
that year the Whigs came within 1,400 votes of carrying 
the State. 

In the autumn of 1841 Mr. Gallaher returned to Jeffer- 
son, in connection with his favorite Free Press, and in 
the spring of 1842 was again elected to the House of 
Delegates, and served two sessions. In 1844 he v,^as 
nominated for the Senate by a Whig convention, and was 
elected in the then Democratic district of Jefferson, Fred- 
erick and Clarke, by a majority of 62 votes, in op^josi- 
tion to John Bruce, a gentleman of ability and scholarly 
attainments — his predecessor, Robert Y. Conrad, an 
eminent lawyer, having declined a re-election. This dis- 
trict, the same year, gave Mr. Polk a majority of one in 
the Presidential election. 

In connection vvitli Mr. Gallaher s career as a State 
Senator, it may not be out of place to mention, that near 
the close of President Tyler's term, in a conversation on 
the subject of the annexation of Texas, so confident was 
the President of the success of that measure, and of the 
consequent war with Mexico, that he offered Mr. G. a 
command in the army. This comi^liment was resi3ect- 
fully declined, for two reasons ; first, that his term of 
civil service had not expired, and secondly, that his 
military aspirations had been satisfied with the command 
of a well- drilled company of riflemen at Harper's Ferry. 

In 1848 Mr. Gallaher was again nominated for the Sen- 

Historical Pen Sketches. 119 

ate, and after an active canvass, was defeated by a 
majority of 22 votes, tlie principal opiDOsition to liim 
being on account of a school bill for the County of Jef- 
ferson, matured by him and carried through both Houses. 
Jefferson County having a.n area about 25 miles square, 
is particularly well adapted to an experiment with free 
schools ; and the system, by the aid of the remakable 
John Yates, a wealthy land holder, and the largest tax 
payer in the county, was successfully put into active 
operation, and resisted several attempts to rejpeal the 
act. Mr. Gallaher, in his retirement, had the proud sat- 
isfaction of seeing 27 schools, free for the poor, firmly 
established and successful until broken up by the disas- 
trous four years' war, which also destroyed the labors of 
forty years of his life. 

On the 22nd of October 1849, Mr. Gallaher was ap- 
pointed by President Taylor to succeed that eminent ac- 
countant Peter Ilagner, as Third Auditor of the Treasury, 
who had held the position from its creation in 1817, a 
period of 32 years. Declining health was the cause of 
Mr. Hagner's retirement. 

Mr. Gallaher served as Auditor through President 
Taylor and Fillmore's terms, and was removed in April 
1858, by President Pierce, to make room for Francis 
Burt, of South Carolina, a personal friend of Jefferson 
Davis, then Secretary of War. This change was made 
in opposition to the wishes of many prominent Demo- 
cratic members of Congress, who were satisfied with the 
incumbent, and strongly protested against his removal. 

Being prevented by the exigencies of the war from re- 
turning to Virginia, as he desired to do, Mr. Gallaher, 
accei)ted a i)osition in the office of the Quartermaster 
General, at Washington, which position he continued to 
hold until a few months before his death, when age and 
disease rendered him unable to discharge its duties. 

He died at his residence in the city of Washington on 
the 4th of February 1877, and his remains were conveyed 

120 Historical Pen Sketclies. 

to the Presbyterian churcli in Cbarlestown and interred 
in Edge Hill cemetery, in sight of his beloved hills, and 
beneath the soil of his native State. 

No one took a livelier interest in the ''Berkeley Cen- 
tennial Celebration" than Mr. Gallaher. It seemed to 
touch the innermost chords of his heart, and to wake up, 
in vivid coloring, all the reminiscences of his early life. 
He anxiously desired to be present at the ceremonies of 
the day, but circumstances put it out of his power. For 
a few weeks preceeding the celebration scarcely a day 
passed that the Chairman of the Committee on Corres- 
pondence did not receive some communication from him ' 
— referring in that kind and genial spirit, so character- 
istic of the man— to those old citizens of the county, 
whom he had known, loved and resjDected in his younger 
days. It is due to him and cannot fail to interest our 
readers to make some extracts from this correspondence. 

Washik^gtoi^t, D. C, June 13, 1872. 
Hon. C. J. Faulkner, Chairman, Martinshurg, W. Va.: 

Dear Sir : I am piroud of my native county and have 
had frequent occasions to refer to her honored history. 

It would be egotistical in me to recount the ordinary 
events of my schoolboy days during my attendance un- 
der twelve years of age in Capt. James Maxwell's old 
school house, in the northeastern i:»ortion of Martinsburg, 
over the site of which the locomotive now plies its busy 
wheels. The teacher being an ade])t in mathematics, and 
County Surveyor, had a number of grown up young men 
as students. I recollect Tillitson Fryatt, Robert V. 
Snodgrass, Jacob Myers, Dennis McSherry and Lawrence 
Wilmer among these. Three of tJiem I met, after a lapse 
of twenty years, in the legislature of Virginia. 

Among my earliest recollections of eminent public 
men I may cite a discussion at the old Court House in 
Martinsburg between Alfred H. Powell, Federalist, and 
Henry St. George Tucker, Republican, for the position 
of State Senator. It was a ricli, intellectual treat to me, 

Historical Pen Sketches. 121 

a discussion between two courteous and iDolislied gentle- 
men, strongly impressed on my youtlifal memory as a 
model of forensic eloquence. Both these gentlemen were 
afterward eminent members of the national House of 

My memory naturally carries me back to the era in 
which prominent men of Berkeley were in the vigor of 
life and usefulness, such as Col. Elisha Boyd, Judge 
Philip C. Pendleton, Col. William. Gregory, Maj. An- 
drew Waggoner, Maj. Jas. Faulkner, Capt. Rob't Wil- 
son, Capt. James Mason and others, who were in mili- 
tary service in the war of 1812. 

Among the regular army ofTicers of 1812 who went to 
the northern frontier from Berkeley, I remember Capt. 
Lewis B. Willis, Capt. Hiram Henshaw, Lieuts. John 
Strother and David Hunter, the latter of whom was 
killed in Canada. 

I cannot omit a reference to an early friend who kindly 
stimulated my ambition when struggling with adverse 
fortune— I mean the late JohnR. Cooke, eminent at the 
bar, and in the Constitutional Convention of Virginia — 
a gentleman in every sense of the term, "with a heart 
open to melting charity." Nor do I forget my appren- 
tice days on the old Martinsburg Gazette, x'>nblished by 
John Alburtis, one of the most even-temrered gentlemen 
I ever knew, and who, like my old teacher, Capt. Max- 
well, seemed ever gratified at my success. 

Well do I remember the venerable Edward Beeson — 
Beeson's mill, Beeson' s orchard, (from which urchins 
like myself, of tender years, often were supplied with 
fruit) and Beeson's meadov/, on Tuscarora Creek, upon 
which an Indian tribe of that narne had frequent san- 
guinary battles with other tribes. The tradition on this 
subject is sustained by the frequent finding of arrow 
heads and various implements of Indian warfare. Other 
objects of interest abound. This recital may not be 
worth the time to read it, but the very suggestion of 

122 Historical Pen Sketches. 

one's birtli-place awakens memories of hills and valleys, 
teeming fields and gushing fountains, such as old Berke- 
ley is blessed with most abundantly. 

It would be interesting to ascertain how many now 
survive who trod those hills and valleys and laved in 
those waters, 

Just one liundred years ago ! 

Yours truly, 

John S. Gallaiier. 
In another letter of the following day he mentions : 
"Ephraim Gaither, the dignified and gentlemanly pro- 
prietor of the Globe Hotel ; Philip Nadenbousch, long a 
magistrate, whose sons vv'orthily represent the name ; Col. 
George Porterfield, also a popular magistrate and 
the Chesterfield of the County Court; Charles D. 
Stewart, for over fifty years the faithful deputy 
sheriff of the county ; Rev. William Riddle, the 
preacher and teacher ; Michael McKewan, Luke 
Pentiney, iVlexander Cooper, Thomas C. Smith, Dr. 
Erasmus Stribling, Dr. J. S. Harrison, Jacob Hamme, 
Geo. Doll, Geo. Wolff, Adam Young, Wm. Somerville, 
the well remembered postmaster ; Conrad Roush, An- 
thony S. Chambers, James P. Erskine, Jacob Poisal, 
John H. Blondell, W. Long, Ezekiel Showers, John 
Stewart, Conrad Hogmire, Daniel Burkhart, John Mat- 
thews — but my pen must stop; columns would not suf- 
fice to make up the record of my old friends and ac- 

John S. Gallaher was a man of strong and vigorous in- 
tellect, disciplined and improved to the highest point of 
which it was susceptible. His judgment was sound, 
X)ractical and discriminating ; his temper mild, just and 
generous ; his habits those of constant and assiduous 
labor. Free from his business employments he delighted 
in history and Belles Letters, and his taste in literature 
was refined and chaste. He was patriotic and public 
spirited, and liberal in all his views of national and State 

Historical Pen SkeWies. 123 

policy. He was a careful and correct, but not dasliing 
and flowing writer. He liad none of tlie qualities of a 
pnblic speaker, yet lie always liad at command such a 
fund of practical good sense, and was so familiar with 
the recognized maxims of human life that a few short, 
pithy sentences from him from the stump reached their 
mark more effectually than more accomplished oratory, 
and his sayings were remembered and treasured up by 
his audience. He was kind, grateful, charitable and 
whole-souled, and was universally esteemed for his in- 
tegrity and for his merits and attainments as a self-made 


Was born on Back Creek, in the County of Berkeley, 
on the 11th of September, 1777. His father was a native 
of England, who settled in early life in the valley of Vir- 
ginia. In 1780 he removed to Kentucky. The early 
childhood of Mr. Grundy was passed amid the perils and 
sufferings of Indian warfare. A striking picture is given 
in his own eloquent language in a speech delivered by 
him in the Senate of the United States in February, 1820, 
from which, however, we can only take a very short ex- 
tract : 

" Mr. President, I was too young to participate in these 
dangers and difficulties, but I can remember when death 
was in almost every bush, and every thicket concealed 
an ambuscade. If I am asked to trace my memory back 
and name the first indescribable impression it received it 
would be the sight of my eldest brother, bleeding and 
dying under the wounds inflicted by the tomahawk and 
scalping knife. Another and another went in the same 
way. I have seen a widowed mother iflundered of her 
whole property in one single night, and from affluence 
and ease reduced to poverty in a moment, and thereby 
compelled to labor with her own hands to educate her 
last and favorite son, who now addresses you." 

He was educated at Bardstown Academy, studied law. 

124 Historical Pen Skeiclies. 

and soon became distinguished at the bar. He com- 
menced his public career at the age of twenty-two, as a 
member of tlie convention for the revising of the consti- 
tution of Kentucky ; was afterward, for six or seven 
years, a member of the legislature of that State. In 1805 
he was elected one of the judges of the Supreme Court 
of Kentucky, and was soon after made Chief Justice. In 
1807 he removed to Nashville, Tenn., and became emi- 
nent as a lawyer. From 1811 to 1814 he was a represent- 
ative in Congress from Tennessee, and during that period 
gave to the war measures of President Madison against 
Great Britain such ardent support that he was familiarly 
know as the "war hawk" of democracy. From 1829 to 
1838 he was United States Senator, and in the latter year 
was ajopointed by President Van Buren Attorney Gen- 
eral of the United States; in 1840 he resigned this posi- 
tion and was again elected Senator. He died at Nash- 
ville, Tenn , Dec. 19th, 1840. Whilst a member of the 
Senate he made a visit to Berkeley County to examine 
the spot where he had passed his early boyhood. But 
he found nothing but a dilapidated stone chimney to 
mark the place where had stood the cabin with its clap- 
board roof which had shielded his childhood from the 
storms of winter. 


AVas born in Ireland. His enemies contended that he 
had been a Corsair in early life, but this was believed to 
be an idle slander. Certain it is that he spent some years 
amidst the perils of the sea, in the British service, and 
he there acquired the reputation of an expert sailor and 
skilful navigator. He was familiar with the dead lan- 
guages and thoroughly versed in some of the higher 
branches of mathematics. He emigrated to the County 
of Berkeley about forty years x^reviousto his death, and 
purchased a large body of land on Cherry Run in that 
county, his dwelling-house having been built on the 
western side of that small stream. He was one oC the 

Historical Pen Sketclies. 125 

most zealous and indefatigable magistrates of the coun- 
ty, and took special and peculiar pride in the discharge 
of all the duties of that position. When the County of 
Morgan was formed in 1820, and Cherry Run made the 
dividing line between it and Berkeley, thus throwing 
him into the County of Morgan, he promptly abandoned 
his substantial residence in that county and erected a 
new dwelling house on the Berkeley side of that run, a 
few yards distant from his former residence, that he 
might preserve his domicil in Berkeley and continue his 
magisterial functions. His strange and peculiar features 
and appearance, and his indomitable will and imperious 
temper; the ardor with which he entered into the exam- 
ination of every case before him, and the shar^Dness and 
point with which he commented upon the law and far^ts 
as they arose in the progress of the trial, made his court 
at the old Robert Snodgrass tavern, on Back Creek, a 
place of great attraction and resort for the neigborhood 
for many miles around. He was elected high Sheriff of 
the county, and died in 18 — , leaving a will emancipating 
his slaves, providing for their transportation to the colo- 
ny of Liberia, and appointing Chas. James Faulkner his 
agent, with full power to carry his benovelent views into 
effect. But a testator often intends what he cannot ac- 
complish. He could emancipate, but he could not trans- 
port without the consent of his freedmen. They received 
their emancipation papers with becoming gratitude, but 
they declined his generous offer to transport them across 
the ocean to that fiery continent from Avhich their ances- 
tors had been probably torn more than a century before. 
They concluded that this country was quite good enough 
for any white or black man to live in. 


Was born in Berkeley County in the year 1740 ; in 
early life he was once or twice exposed to the imminent 
risk of losing his life from the Indians then inhabitating 
or making incursions into this county. His brother 

12C Historical Pen SJi etches 

Charles, then a youth about twenty years of age, was 
killed not far from his father's house by a body of In- 
dians who had the previous day attacked Nealy's fort, 
near the Opequon, massacred the inmates and took off 
several prisoners on their retreat. Mr. Porterfield was 
among the most popular magistrates of the county, and 
Avhen acting as senior justice of the county court, pre- 
sided with unusual dignity. He was Sheriff of the county, 
and in 1808 and 1810 one of its representatives in the 
legislature. In 1814 he was elected chairman of the 
meeting for the organization of the Berkeley County 
Bible Society, He was remarkable for the equanimity 
of his temper and for his invariable courtesy, x-)leasant 
address and politeness. He died in 1824. 


Born in Berkeley County ; a lady of great intelligence, 
brilliant conversational powers, and of great religious 
fervor and piety. No person was ever more universally 
loved and esteemed in this community ; and of the hun- 
dred and eleven estimable persons who fell victims to 
the cholera pestilence in the fall of 1754, there was not 
one whose death was so universally lamented. She left 
a will, bequeathing a large portion of her estate to chari- 
table purposes. Among seven other bequests contained 
in her will was one for the founding of an academy in 
Martinsburg ; but this, with all the other bequests in 
her will for charitable purposes, was declared by the Su- 
preme Court of Appeals of West Virginia, to be invalid 
and thus, an institution which in anticii3ation of this 
fund, and to do honor to her memory, was incorporated 
as the Martinsburg Cooper Academy, perished under the 
illiberal policy and stern decree of the court. She j)ub- 
lished some time before her death a small work compos- 
ed of original and selected matter, that gave evidence of 
high literary taste, and which i^roved that she was as 
graceful in composition as she was brilliant in conver- 

Historical Fen Sketches. 127 

sation. She died in October, 1854, of an attack of tlie 


Was born on March 20, 1764. He commanded a com- 
I)any in the disastrous defeat of General Arthnr St. Clair 
in 1791, when thirty-eight officers and five hundred and 
ninety- three men were slaughtered by the Miami In- 
dians, and twenty- one officers and two hundred and forty- 
three men were badly wounded. He was present at the 
quelling of the whiskey insurrection in Pennsylvania, 
and was jDromoted to the office of Brigade Inspector. He 
served in 1800, 1801 and 1802 as a delegate from Berke- 
ley County to the Virginia Assem.bly, and Avas a repre- 
sentative in Congress from this district from 1803 to 1805, 
from 1809 to 1811, and again from 1822 to 1825. He 
raised a large and interesting family of children, boys 
and girls, and lived in the house now owned and occu- 
pied by D. H. Conrad. He died in August, 1833. An 
anecdote is told of an arranged duel between Major 
Stephenson and General Darke, both men of tried and 
approved courage. They were to fight with swords. 
StejDenson, who was a small man, came to the ground 
armed with a rapier. Darke, a man of gigantic propor- 
tions, brought with him a broad sword, as large as an 
ordinary mowing scythe. When the seconds were about 
to place them in position for the combat the disparity 
of size of both the men and of their weapons was so irre- 
sistably ludicrous that the seconds burst into an uncon- 
trolable fit of laughter, which soon communicated its 
effect to the principals ; the duel was averted, all j)oints 
of honor settled and the two brave old soldiers shook 
hands and continued warm friends the rest of their lives. 


Was born on the Tusoorora Creek in Berkeley county. 
He was distinguished for his courage as an officer in the 
last war with Great Britain ; soon after the struggle he 
w^as appointed Eegister of the Land Office, in Missouri ; 

128 Historical Fen Sketclies. 

subsequently elected Governor of the State, and was a 
Representative in Congress from 1837 to 1843. Died near 
Florissant, Missouri, March 13, 184C. 


Born in Berkeley county, Virginia, October 29, 1778 ; 
graduated at Dickenson College when quite young ; 
studied law and was admitted to the bar at the age of 
twenty; in 1798 he settled in Chillicothe, Ohio, devoted 
himself to his profession, and holding many j^ositions of 
public trust. He w^as the first Secretary of State, for 
Ohio ; and was a Delegate in Congress from 1813 to 1817, 
and again from 1827 to 1833. Died at Chillicothe, October 
8, 1851, having for many years x>reviously declined all 
public office. 


Was born in Berkeley county. The following extract 
is taken from an original certificate executed on the 17th 
of June, 1791, by William Darke, late Lieutenant Colonel 
commanding in Virginia Line, now in the possession of 
the writer of this sketch : 

"I was, and am well acquainted with Captain John 
Kerney, of the county of Berkeley, Virginia ; he en- 
gaged in the American service as first Sergeant to a com- 
pany in July, 1775, in Col. Hugh Stevenson's regiment of 
infantry ; he was taken prisoner at Fort Washington, 
suffered a long and painful imprisonment after which he 
continued in the American army and behaved as a brave 
and distinguished soldier, 'til he was appointed a lieu- 
tenant in a State Regiment, commanded by Col. Joseph 
Crockett, after which he succeeded to the command of a 
company in said regiment, and served until it was dis- 
banded, which was not until the end of the war. During 
his whole service, he merited the esteem of his superior 
officers, and of his country." 

Subsequent to the w^ar, he returned to the county of 
Berkeley, held the position of a justice of the peace and 

Historical Pen S7ietc7ies. 129 

member of tbe County Court, until about the year 1S05 
he emigrated to Kentucky, where he died. 


Was born in Boston, June 1780, When twenty-one 
years of age he established the first uewsx)a]Der in Mar- 
tinsburg, which was called the Berlzeley Intelligencer. 
He continued to edit that paper until 1803, when he sold 
out to John Alburtis, left Martinsburg, removed to Port- 
land, Maine, where he established the Eastern Argus. 
He was an active journalist for many years. He finally 
moved to Boston and died there May 26, 1870, nearly 
ninety years of age. It has been supposed by some that 
his distinguished son, N. P. Willis, the poet and jour- 
nalist, was born whilst his father resided in Martinsburg, 
but this is an error. JST. P. Willis was born in Portland, 
Maine, Jan. 20, 1806. 


Was born in Martinsburg, and commissioned 2nd 
Lieutenant of infantry in the regular army of the United 
States on the 8th of March, 1827 ; promoted to the rank 
of first Lieutenant in July 1839; commanded in sortie 
from Fort Brooks, Orange Creek, March 2nd, 1S41, 
against the Seminoles ; was breveted as captain in 
August 1842, "for gallantry and good conduct in war 
against the Florida Indians ;" was killed 11th of March, 
1847, by a cannon shot at the siege of Yera Cruz. 


Son of Major James Stephenson, born in Martinsburg; 
entered the military academy at West Point in 1818 ; 
graduated with great distinction, and commissioned sec- 
ond Lieutenant of infantry in July 1822 ; jDromated to a 
first lieutenancy October 1825 ; commissioned a captain, 
December 1831. Died 26th of November, 1841, at Pilat- 
lea, Florada. ^ 


Son of Major Andrew Waggoner, of Revolationary 

130 Historical Pen Sketches. 

memory, was born near Bunker Hill, in the County of 
Berkeley, on the 24tli of October, 1779. I have no infor- 
mation of his occnpations and employments in early life. 
He was elected a member of the House of Delegates from 
this county, ISll. When war was declared in June 1812, 
hj the United States against Great Britain, all the heroic 
qualities of his nature, and which he had so largely in- 
herited from his gallant father, i^roraptly developed them- 
selves. He first volunteered as a private, soon was pro- 
,moted to a captaincy, and then commissioned as a major 
•of infantry. He was on Craney Island, in command of a 
battalion of the 4tli Reg. of Va. Infantry, when the at- 
tack upon that Island was made by a combined military 
iind naval British force, on the 22nd of June 1813, and 
although from the successful operations of the Artillery 
in repelling the attack, both by land and witer, the in- 
fantry was not called into action, yet, all were impress- 
ed with the daring courage, and animated by the noble 
patriotism which he disj^layed on that occasion. He had 
to an extraordinary degree, the confidence of those under 
his command. Popular in his manners— frank and man- 
ly in his bearing— decisive in his movemens— with a face 
beaming with intrepidity and devotion to his country, 
he was the idol of the soldiery. No one doubted, had 
the enemy reached the Island, how gallantly he would 
have borne himself amidst the storm of battle. 

After the war he removed from the County of Berke- 
ley, to the vicinity of Point Pleasant, in Mason County, 
Virginia, to take x^ossession of some valuable land on the 
Ohio River, in that county, which had been granted to 
his father in consideration of his Revolutionary service. 
He was elected a member of the House of Delegates of 
Virginia, from the County of Mason in 1836. He soon 
became as great a favorite among the members of the 
Legislature, as he had been among the soldiers. All 
local measures for the benefit of his constituents were 
carried without opposition and almost by acclamation. 

Historical Pen SJietclies. 131 

It being understood that lie was on Graney Island, during 
that battle, a resolution was introduced into the body, 
without his knowledge, to vote him some signal honor 
for his assumed services in that conflict. But he prompt- 
ly put a stop to the intended comi)limentby saying : "It 
is true I was on that Island during the attack ; but my 
command was not called into action. The artillery did 
the w^ork, and I cannot be the instrument of robbing: 
Major Faulkner who had supreme command of the ar- 
tillery, of the honor and merit which belong to him." 
After this frank and manly declaration, all further j^ro- 
ceedings in his honor, were dropi^ed. 

His estate was contiguous to Point Pleasant, the county 
seat of Mason, and he was almost a daily visitor of that 
interesting and old fashioned Virginia town. No man 
in the county was more generally loved and respected, 
and none whose sudden death was more universally la- 
mented. He was killed on the 30th of March 1863, by a 
iire from a detachment of Federal soldiers, stationed in 
that neighborhood, as he was passing from the town to 
his farm. His son, Charles B. Waggoner, was a member 
of the recent Constitutional Convention of this State, 
and now holds an important office in the county. 


Was chiefly remarkable for his longevity. He was a 
native of Oxfordshire, in England, but had resided in 
this county about eighty years. He died in Berkeley 
County, Feb. 17th, 1796, aged 116. During his life, he 
never knew sickness. 


Youngest son of Dr. John S. Harrison and Holland 
Williams Stull, was born in Martinsburg, Va., February 
19th, 1823. Entering the naval service of the United 
States as Midshipman February 28th, 1838, he acquired 
experience in his profession under various commanders 
in the AVest Indies, Brazil, the Coast of Africa and the 
Pacific Squadron. In 1844 he was promoted to the rank 

132 Historical Pen Sketches. 

of Passed Midshipman, and under Commodore Stockton, 
during tlie Mexican war, he was distinguished among 
the younger officers for courage and ability. He here 
took part in the land expedition which rescued General 
Kearney's command from a desperate position and on 
another occasion, having volunteered to carry an impor- 
tant message to a distant command in an ojDen boat, he 
was carried out to sea and unable to make land for five 
or six days. The violence and persistence of the storm 
was matched by the firmness and skill of the young sailor, 
who finally brought back his boat and crew unharmed. 

In 1S50 he was on duty at then Washington Observa- 
tory and in the year 1S53 promoted to a lieutenancy and 
served as naval store keeper in the East Indies, Japan 
and on the coast of Africa. 

In 1862 Lieut. Harrison was placed in command of the 
gun boat "Cayuga," attached to the Mississipiw Squad- 
ron under Com. Farragut. In his dispositions for for- 
cing the passage of the river, the Commodore arranged 
his fleet in three divisions, and in this iDrogramme, the 
Cayuga being a light armed vessel of only seven guns, 
stood last in the first division. 

This undistinguished position was a Source of great 
mortification to her gallant commander, who, neverthe- 
less prepared to do his duty with joatriotic resignation. 
In the meantime Capt. S. P. Lee, who had volunteered 
to lead the attack, objected to Capt. Bailey making the 
"Oneida ' his flagshi J), fearing that the presence of the 
Division Commander would obscure his own position. 

Baily promptly^ ordered the Oneida to the rear of his 
division, and proposed to Lieutenant Harrison, to make 
the "Cayuga" his flagship. 

This unexpected transfer to the van of battle and post 
of danger was hailed with great delight. Just before day- 
break on the 28d of April, 1862, Lieut. Harrison led the 
advance of the national fleet. Passing Forts Jackson 
and St. Philiji, with their hundred blazing guns, the 

Historical Pen Sketches. 133 

"Cayuga" rushed into tlie midst of the enemy's ileet of 
iron-clads, rams and tire sliips above the forts, and there 
sustained herself for half an hour unsupported. 

During this brief and unequal fight, she repelled all 
attacks and destroyed three vessels of the adverse flotil- 
la, and when relieved by the advance of the national ves- 
sels, she jjassed up the river with forty shot holes in her 
hull and rigging, and only six men wounded. She next 
covered the . encampment of the Chalmette Regiment 
with her guns, and forced it surrender, with six thous- 
and men. Next day, alone, she attacked the Chalmette 
Batteries, and persisted until the Hartford came up and 
the Batteries surrendered. 

Captain Bailey, in his ofiicial report says : ' 'From 
first to last, Lieutanant Commander Harrison showed a 
masterly ability in steering his vessel past the Forts 
under a hurricane of shot and shell, and, afterwards, in 
maneuvering and tighting her among the gun-boats, I 
cannot say too much of him." 

The chivalric courage and intelligent coolness exhibi- 
ted by Commander Harrison in this tremendous engage- 
ment, imi:)ressed all who were near him, and won for 
him the resfject and admiration of the whole service. 
The following characteristic anecdote is currrent among 
his brother officers : During the hottest fire he found a 
gunner skulking ; seizing the recreant by the collar, and 
dragging him before Captain Bailey, he said, "Captain, 
here's a fellow skulking ; shall I shoot him or boot him'i" 
The commander recommended the lighter punishment 
and the man was expedited back to life post with a vig- 
orous kick. The remedy was efficacious and the man 
stuck to his gun afterward doing good service. 

In recognition of his conduct in this engagement. Lieu- 
tenant Harrison was advanced to the rank of Commander, 
his commission bearing date July 15th, 1862. 

He was soon after ordered to the "Mahaska." of the 

134 Historical Pen Sketches. 

James River fleet, and rendered efficient service during 
McClellan's oi)erations at Harrison's Landing. 

Late in tlie same year, in command of tlie flagsliip 
"Minnesota, lie was ivitli the North Atlantic Squadron, 
and took an active part in the naval operations on the 
coast of South Carolina, terminating in the evacuation 
of Charleston. 

Alter the peace Commander Harrison had charge of 
the navy yard at Portsmouth, New Hampshire, where 
he remained until 1868. On the 2Sth of April, this year 
he was commissioned Cajotain, and soon after ordered to 
duty at the Annapolis Navy School as Commandant of 
Midshipmen. From here, one year later, he was order- 
ed to the command of the "Congress," flagship of the 
North Atlantic Squadron, While at Key West the 
"Congress" encountered a terrible norther, and in his 
solicitude for the safety of the vessel. Captain Harrison 
so exposed himself to the storm that he died two days 

His remains are buried in Oak Hill Cemetery, George- 
town, D. C, and he leaves behind him the reputation of 
a gallant, able and faithful officer and an honorable, 
amiable and agreeable gentleman. 


The first Judge appointed for the Berkeley circuit after 
the close of our late civil war. He was far advanced in 
life when elevated to the bench, but i^reserved much of 
the vigor and eccentricity of his mind. He was eminent- 
ly fitted to perform the duties expected of him at that 
sad i^eriod of our history. He was aslave to i^opular 
i:)rejudice, intoierent in his opinions and overbearing in 
his conduct. He was inordinately vain of his judicial 
position, and brought his autliority to bear on the unfor- 
tunate rebels, if not with the bloodthirstiness, certainly 
with all the buffoonery and vindictiveness of a Jeffrey. 
The character of his judicial administration may be in- 
ferred from the following extract fi'om one of his opin- 

Historical Pen SJcetclies. 135 

ions : ' 'Common fame is iDi'ima facie ground for putting 
a i^erson on trial for an offense. It is the duty of a mag- 
istrate to arrest on such evidence, and the onus X)roJ)an- 
cli of innocence is on the accused." There was much 
freshness and originality in the character of his mind, 
while his heavy and grotesque figure, his bombastic and 
theatrical airs upon the bench, with the quaint and char- 
acteristic opinions to which he gave utterance, offorded 
a rich fund of entertainment to the usually crowded 
court room. A keen sense of the ludicrous was irresista- 
bly inspired by his appearance. He presided on this 
circuit from March 1865 to March 1SG6 ; but even his 
own i)arty could tolerate him no longer. An accurate 
sketch of his personal appearance, has been preserved 
by one of our best native artists, and as we have rarely 
had such a specimen of judicial eccentricity, if not 
monstrosity, in this section of the country, he may be 
regarded as the natural outgrowth of the diseased and 
disjointed period in which he officially flourished ; it is 
hoiked, that the picture may be engraved and perijetua- 
ted, as a reminiscence of times never to be seen again. 

He died at his residence near Leetown, in the County 
of Jefferson, in 1868. 


AYas born in Virginia on the 3rd of March, 17C9. In 
1785, he entered HamiDden Sidney College. He gradua- 
ted at that college in 1788, and was licensed to preach 
the gospel by the Presbytery of Hanover, July 10th, 1790. 
Immediately after his license, he settled in Berkeley 
County. Hisstated field of labor was missionary ground, 
and though his labors here were j)rosecuted through 
many discouragements, they were marked by great vigor 
and boldness, and were followed by highly imi)ortant 
results. He had already acquired a high reputation as a 
commanding and effective pulpit orator. In January 
1800 he left his residence in Berkeley County, and took 
charge of the Presbyterian Church in Winchester. In 

136 Historical Pen Skeiclies. 

1816 the degree of Doctor of Divinity was conferred upon 
him by Dartmouth University. He died on the 16th of 
November 1852, in Winchester, in the 84th year of his 
age. His funeral sermon was preached by the Rev. A. H. 
H. Boyd, D. D. 

His power as an extemporaneous preacher was very re- 
markable. He had not the learning and the close logical 
reasoning of Rice, nor the chaste and flowing style of 
Speece, nor the sj)lendid imagination of Kirkpatrick ; 
but there was a combination of excellencies in his preach- 
ing which made him a great favorite. His commanding 
person, his clear and powerful voice, the vividness of his 
conceptions, the distinctness and pungency of his ap- 
peals, and the deej) earnestness visible in his counte- 
nance and manner of delivery, impressed his audience 
with the conviction that what he said was truth, and 
such truth as involved their most vital interest. 


Was born in the County of Berkeley in 1796 ; emigra- 
ted to Ohio, and settled in Ross County in 1798. In 1803 
he was a member of the State Constitutional Convention. 
He was a Senator in Congress, from Ohio, from 1803 to 
1807, and again from 1810 to 1814, when he resigned ; and 
from 1814 to 1817 he was Governor of Ohio. After his 
retirement from that office, he \yas appointed a member 
of the first Board of Canal Commissioners in which 
capacity he served until Lis death, which occurred 1827. 


Was born in Berkeley County, Virginia, and elected 
a representative in Congress from 1819 to 1821. He died 
in 1823 from a fatal bilious fever, which carried off the 
most prominent citizens of Shepherdstown. 


Was born near Belfast in the north of Ireland in 1738. 
He emigrated to this country about 1762, landing at 

Historical Pen Sketcltes. 137 

Philadelphia, and thence removing to the Camberland 
Yalley, Pa He volunteered in the Revolutionary army 
in the beginning of the war, was promptly commissioned 
as captain, and continued in service until its close. At 
the battle of Brandywine, he fell, severely Avounded, 
charging at the head of his company. 

The battle of Brandj^wine (so called from the small 
creek near which it occurred) was fought on the 11th of 
September, 1777, and was one of the most interesting of 
the early conflicts of the Revolution. It grew out of the 
determination of General Washington to save, if i^ossi- 
ble, from capture, the city of Philadelphia, then the 
capital of the States, and the seat of the Continental 
'Congress. If the magnitude of the j)rize at stake, the 
number of the troops engaged and the character of the 
military leaders on both sides, could give dignity to any 
battle, this possessed those elements in an eminent de- 
gree. General Sir Wm. Howe, aided by LordCornwallis 
and Gen. Knyphausen, had landed from the British fleet 
a well discix3lined and admirably equipped army of 18,000 
men — looking to the capture of Philadelphia. General 
Washington, assisted in his command by Gens. Green, 
AVayne, Muhlenburg, Sullivan. Stephens and Maxwell, 
with an inferior force of 13,000 poorly equipped men, 
was equally determined to save the city. The hostile 
armies met near the Brandywine Creek. The battle was 
flerce and bloody. On our side there was a loss of 1,000 
killed and wounded. On the side of the British but 
546 killed and wounded, this disparity of loss resulting 
from the superior arms and equipments of the enemy. 
Among the wounded was the Marquis de Lafayette. 
Our army was defeated, Philadelphia fell into the hands 
of the en^my. Washington made a masterly retreat and 
few prisoners were taken— none but those who were left 
severely wounded on the field of battle. Among those 
was Capt. Wm. Mackey. After several months impris- 
onment, he was exchanged, when he joined his regiment. 

138 Historical Pen SJcetcJies. 

still suffering from liis wounds, and contiuued in service 
until liostilities ceased. 

Shortly after tlie close of the war- he removed to Mar- 
tinsburg, where he continued to reside until his death. 
He had two children, William Mackey, and Sarah, mar- 
ried to James Faulkner, His residence was in the house 
directly opposite the Episcopal Church in Martinsburg. 

After the termination of the Revolutionary war, being 
entitled by his service and piosition to be a member of 
the Society of the Cincinatti, composed exclusively of the 
officers of that army, who had served until the end of 
the war, he received his diploma as such, which bears 
the honored signatures of George Washington, as 
President and General Henry Knox, as Secretary and 
which may be seen gracing the walls of Chas. James 
Faulkner, his grandson, at Boydville. 

As there may not be any future occasion to refer to 
this Society of the Cincinnatti, an institution which has 
excited so much attention and even hostile discussion in 
this country, a brief reference to it may not be uninter- 

It w^as an association founded by the officers of the 
American Kevolutionary Army, after the peace of 1783. 
Its object was to commemorate the success of the Revo- 
lution and to perpetuate sentiments of patriotism, be- 
nevolence and brotherly love, and the memory of hard- 
ships experienced in common. The original draft of the 
Constitution was made by General Knox and it is still 
extant. At the second general meeting of the Society in 
1787, Washington v/as elected President General, and 
was re-elected trienially during his life. He was suc- 
ceeded by Hamilton and the Pinckneys, and the Society 
was in all its vigor during the last visit of Gen. Lefayette 
to the United States, in lS24-o, who was then its only 
surviving Major General. It has branches in several of 
the States, but the general Society meets trienially in 
New York, of which Hamilton Fish is at this time the 

Historical Pen SJ^etclies. 139 

President. It admits of honorary membership, among 
whom are to be found the names of Benj. Franklin, 
Andrew Jackson, Winheld Scott, Z. Taylor, U. S. Grant, 
etc. The oldest male decendant of any officer of the 
Revolution is entitled to regular membership. 

William Mackey died in Martinsburg in 1812, and was 
buried with military honors. His wife preceded him to 
the grave a few years, she having died on the 23 of Oct. 
1810. His will bears date the 2Sth of April, 1812, and is 
recorded in the Clerk's office of the County Court of 
Berkeley. By it, he devises his projDerty generally to 
his grandson, J. H. Mackey, and his military lands in 
Ohio, to which he became entitled by virtue of his Revo- 
lutionary services, to his grandson, Charles James 

The Martinsburg Gazette, of Friday, the 23rd of Oc- 
tober, 1812, contains the following notice of his death : 

"The deceased was born in Ireland, thongh no native 
son of America was ever more attached to the institutions 
of this country. He was one of the few surviving heroes 
of the Revolution that gave independence to the coun- 
try. He entered the contest soon after the commence- 
ment of hostilities, and continued his useful services in 
the arduous struggle until our liberty was established. 
No one of equal grade rendered greater service to the 
country, and but few suffered as much. Blest with a 
strong constitution and tilled with that ardor and enthu- 
siasm, so natural to his countrymen, his zeal was uncon- 
querable. At the memorable battle of Brandy wine he 
had the command of a company, posted in one of the 
most important and dangerous situations ; this post was 
supported by Capt. Mackey and his brave company, un- 
til every individual in it, except himself and one of his 
subordinates were killed. In this dreadful conflict Capt. 
Mackey was shot through the breast and made a prisoner. 
He was soon after exchanged, but a considerable time 
elapsed before the severity of his wound enabled him 

140 Historical Pen SJietcltes. 

again to join the army. He was engaged in many other 
severe trials in which he was always distinguishecl for 
his determined courage and usefulness." 


Was born in Berkeley County. During the French 
war he distinguished himself by his bravery and good 
conduct, and was much noticed by Gen. AVashington, 
who obtained for him an ensign's commission. He was 
a captain in Forbs' expedition in 1758. He was half 
brother to Col. Hugh Stephenson, of Berkeley county, 
who commanded a rifle regiment in 1776. At the com- 
mencement of the revolution, he raised a regiment by his 
own exertions, and held the commission of Colonel in 
the Continental Army. He was one of the bravest men 
on the frontier, and often took the lead in parties against 
the Indians, across the Ohio. In 1782, he accepted the 
command of an expedition to ravage the Wyandott and 
Moravian Indian towns on the Muskingum. On this ex- 
pedition he was taken prisoner and put to death by the 
most excruciating tortures. 

Dr. McKnigiit, a fellow prisoner, who subsequently 
made his escape, and who was an' eye witness of the 
scene, thus describes the death of the brave Col. Craw- 
ford : "He was stripped naked, severely beaten with 
clubs and sticks, and made to sit down near a post which 
had been planted for the purpose, and around which a 
fire of poles was burning briskly. His hands were then 
pinnioned behind him, and a rope attached to the band 
around his wrist and fastened to the foot of a post about 
fifteen feet high, allowing him liberty only to sit down 
or walk once or twice around it, and return the same 
way. His ears were then cut off, and while the men 
would apply the burning ends of the poles to his flesh, 
the squaws threw coals and hot embers upon him. For 
three hours he endured these excruciating agonies with 
the utmost fortitude. When faint and exhausted, he 
commended his soul to God. and laid down on his face. 

Historical Fen Sketclies. 141 

He was then scalped and burning coals being laid on Ms 
head and back by one of the squaws, he again rose and 
attempted to walk, but strength failed him, and he sank 
into the welcome arms of death. His body was thrown 
into the fire and consumpd into ashes." 

Of the Eevolutionary Army, born in Berkeley county. 
In June 1775, under a resolution of Congress, he raised 
a company of volunteers in Berkeley county to serve one 
year in the Continental Army. William Henshaw, Geo. 
Scott and Thomas Hite were elected Lieutenants of this 
company. Among the privates were Robert White, after- 
wards Judge of the General Court of Virginia ; Joseph 
Swearingen, Gen. Samuel Findlay, Maj. Henry Bedinger, 
Maj. Michael Bedinger, Abraham Shepherd and Nathan- 
iel Pendleton, Esq., of New York. A few days previous 
to the departure of this company for Boston, Lieut. Hite 
resigned his commission and Abraham Shepherd was 
elected Lieutenant in his place, by the unanimous vote 
of the company. The company marched to Boston in 
July, 1775. Before the expiration of its term of service 
General Washington recommended to Congress the rais- 
ing of a rifle regiment, which was accordingly organized 
by the appointment of Hugh Stephenson as colonel, 
Rawlings as lieutenant colonel. Otho H. Williams was 
the senior captain of the regiment. In August, 1776, 
Col. Stephenson died and was succeeded in the command 
of the regiment by Col. Rawlings. Stephenson's will, 
now on record in the County Court of Berkeley, bears 
date the 20th of July, 1775, to which there is a codicil 
annexed, bearing date the ord of March, 1776, and ex- 
ecuted at "Roxbury Canif), New England." The v/ili 
was presented for probate on the 20th of November, 1776. 
Among the executors appointed by the will is the name 
of his half brother. Col. Wm. Crawford — the bravest of 
Indian fighters, whose sad and excruciating death is men- 
tioned in another part of these sketches. 

142 Historical Pen SJieiclies. 


Born in Virginia, Febrnary 15, 1752 ; in 1787 moved to 
tlie county of Berkeley. He resided in this county for 
upwards of thirteen years, and acquired great popularity 
as a minister throughout this section of the State. In 
1801, in consequence of the failing health of Mrs. 
Hoge, he left the county of Berkeley for a more southern 
climate. In 1807, he was appointed President of Hamp- 
den Sidney College. In 1810, as a testimonial of his 
great learning and eminence as a minister, the degree of 
Doctor of Divinity was conferred upon him by the col- 
lege of New Jersey. He possessed a mind of uncom- 
mon vigor, capable at once of accurate discrimination 
and profound research, and richlj^ stored with scientific 
knowledge. He died on the 5th of July, 1820, in the 
69 th year of his age. 


Was born in Berkeley county in 1788. He was a llep- 
resentative in Congress from the State of Louisiana from 
1841 to 1843, and again from 1851 to 1853. Died in 
June, 1861. 


Born in Berkeley county, Virginia, March 2, 1804 ; was 
a lawyer by profession, and practiced in Parkersburg, 
Virginia. He was a member of the Virginia Constitu- 
tional Convention, assembled at Richmond in 1850, and 
was a representative in Congress from 1853 until his death, 
which occurred w^hile trying a case in Court in Parkers- 
burg, June 5th, 1854. A sketch of his private, professional 
and political character may be seen in the Congressional 
Glote of the 9th of June, 1854, made by Hon. C. J. Faulk- 
ner, then a member of the House of Representatives in 
announcing his death to that body. 


For many years principal of the Martinsburg Academy. 
He was a native of one of the ISTew England States, but 

Historical Pen SketcJies. 143 

possessed but few of tlie cliaracteristics of that steady 
aud cool headed i^eople. Striking and intellectual in his 
physiognomy, he labored under the same deformity in 
one of his feet that tortured the soul of Lord Byron dur- 
ing his life. In many respects the temx)er and character 
of the two men were not unlike. Fiery and intractable 
in his temper, constantly laboring under the suspicion 
that his club foot was an object of observation, his ex- 
treme sensitiveness especially in society, generated the 
most painful feelings in those around him. And yet, 
when he could forget his deformity, he was replete "with 
wit, vivacity and good humor. He Avas a profound 
scholar, and did ample justice to the youths whose edu- 
cation was entrusted to him. He died in 1831. 


A son of Benjamin Strother, was born at Park Forest, 
in Berkeley county, November the ISth, 1792. At thir- 
teen years of age he was placed in the county clerk's 
office at Martinsburg, and became an inmate of the family 
of David Hunter, then clerk of Berkeley county. AVhen 
war was declared against Great Britain, in 1812, he vol- 
unteered for the defence of Norfolk, as second lieuten- 
ant in Capt. Faulkner's artillery company, but having in 
the meantime applied for a commission in the regular 
army, he received a notification of his appointment to a 
lieutenancy in the 12th infantry, in camp near Fredericks- 
burg. He thereupon resigned his commission in the 
State comx^any, was succeeded by Edward Colston, join- 
ed his regiment on the Canada frontier, was engaged 
under Wilkinson in the unsuccessful enterprise against 
Montreal ; participated in the famous passage of the Long 
saut of the St. Lawrence, and was in the command of his 
company at the battle of Crisler's Field, where out of 
twenty-four men present for duty, the company lost eight 
killed and wounded. For good conduct in the battle, he 
was promoted, and afterwards appointed adjutant of the 
regiment. After the war, he returned to Martinsburg, 

144 Historical Pen Slietchef, 

and on ilie 8tli of September, 1815, was married to Eliza- 
betli Pendleton, eldest daughter of David Pendleton. In 
1829 lie was elected clerk of the County Court of Berke- 
ley made vacant by the death of David Hunter, and held 
that office until 1S3:>, when a change in the constitution 
of Virginia making a new election necessary, he was 
superseded by Harrison Waite, Esq. In 1832 he was ap- 
pointed by Judge Richard Parker to the Clerkship of the 
Supreme Court of law and chancery for the county of 
Berkeley, and continued in that office until by another 
change in the Constitution it became elective by the peo- 
ple, when he declined competing for the office, and re- 
tired from its duties after having been connected with 
the Berkeley clerkship for forty-live years. Constrained 
by the limited income of his office, and by ill-health, 
brought on by the close confinement to his clerical duties, 
he had some years previously, in 1833, opened a board- 
ing house at Berkeley Springs, and latterly, between 
1845 aud 1848, erected a large hotel at that place. The 
remainder of his business life was devoted to that enter- 
prise, in the recent troubles which agitated the country, 
he was a firm and intrei)id champion of the rights of the 
Union, and asserted his opinion with a courage that com- 
manded the respect of both friends and enemies. He 
died at the Berkeley Springs on the 16th of January, 
1862, in the midst of his family, his last words express- 
ing solicitude for his beloved country, and his absent son, 
then serving in the Federal army. His remains were 
carried to Martinsburg, where they were interred with 
masonic and military honors. 


Was one of the most highly educated and accomplish- 
ed physicians that up to that day had sought a home in 
Berkeley county. Descended from one of the most re- 
spected of the old families of Maryland, he was born on 
West river, Anne Arundel county in 1790. At the age of 
thirteen, he was sent to St. John's College, in Annapolis, 

Historical Pen Sketches. 145 

and there spent six years in completing his elementary, 
classical and scientific studies. At the age of twenty he 
was sent to Europe, where he spent four years in the 
medical and surgical instructions of France and England, 
preparing himself for the practice of his profession. In 
1805 he was married to Holland Williams Stull, the niece 
of that distinguished patriot and hero of the Revolution, 
General Otho, Holland Williams, after whom she was 
named. In 1806 he removed with his young bride to 
Martinsburg, which he sought as a permanent home, pur- 
chasing as a residence the property at the northwest cor- 
ner of King and German streets, which he occupied dur- 
ing his life. 

His XDleasant and social manners, frank and manly de- 
portment, with the general recognition of his high 
attainments in his profession soon introduced him to a 
profitable practice ; and as there were no iDhysicians at 
that time in the county, beyond the limits of Martins- 
burg, his practice was soon co- extensive with the county. 
His patients had unbounded confidence in his skill and 
judgment and his opinion upon all medical questions 
soon came to be regarded as oracular. 

He was a man of ardent temperament and gave expres- 
sion to his views on all subjects with frankness and de- 
cision. He was a Jeffersonian Democrat, and regarded 
as one of the acknowledged leaders and representatives 
of that minority party in this county. 

At that day what were called the "Federalists" had 
complete control of the county. Most of its then leading 
and influential families adhered zealously to the princi- 
ples of that party, such as the Pendletons, Hunters, 
Colstons, Waggoners, Porterfields, Orricks, ISTewkirks, 
Shearers, Snodgrasses, Campbells, Vanmetres, Gorrells, 
Burns, Boyds, Tabbs, Stephensons, Wevers, Tates, &c. 
There was much exclusiveness in the distribution of pat- 
ronage, and it rarely happened that one of the opposite 

146 Historical Pen S/ielches. 

party was Lonored by any official or political preferment. 

The Federalists wrecked tlieir party by violent oppo- 
sition to tlie war of 1812-13 w^ith Great Britain. The 
military and naval victories of that war and its glorions 
and triumx)hant results ntterly annihilated all opposition 
to the conquering Democracy. From that time a more 
conciliatory spirit was manifested by the ruling party, 
and among the first evidences of that change of policy 
was the recommendation in 1818, of Dr. Harrison for a 
seat as a justice of the i:)eace, upon the bench of the 
County Court of Berkeley. He accepted the position 
and for near ten years discharged its duties with intelli- 
gence and promptness. 

Upon the death of Maj. Faulkner in 1817, he qualified 
under his will, as one of his executors, and by his kind, 
generous and parental attention to the writer of this 
sketch, justified the confidence reposed in him. 

For some years before his death he was confined to the 
house by a severe attack of gout, under which he suffer- 
ed until he expired in October, 1838. 

He left a large and interesting family of children, some 
of whom and the descendants of others are still in this 


Second son of Gen. Elisha Boyd, was born at Martins- 
burg, in the year 1814. He received his academic edu- 
cation at Martinsburg and Middleburg ; when fourteen 
years old, he entered the junior class of Jefferson College, 
and graduated with distinction in 1830. Shortly after 
entering college he joined the Presbyterian Church and 
resolved to ptreach the gosi^el. After graduation in Jef- 
ferson College, he spent two years at New Haven, to 
IDerfect himself in particular studies ; completed a regular 
course of theological education thereafter at Princeton ; 
and subsequently visited Europe and attended lectures 
delivered by the celebrated Dr. Chalmers and Sir AYil- 
liam Hamilton in Edinburg, Scotland. He was licensed 

Historical Pen SJietches. 147 

to preacli tlie gospel by the Presbytery of Wincliester in 
1837 ; entered upon his first charge over the churches of 
Leesburg and Middleburg in 1838 ; accepted a call to 
Harrisonburg in 1840 ; and to Winchester in 1842. He 
was called, during all i^arts of his ministry to a number 
of distinguished churches in the great cities, but being 
wholly independent in his jDecuniary circumstances, pre- 
ferred to remain in Winchester, to the people of which 
city, and the County of Frederick, he exhibited a strong- 
attachment. His prominence as a citizen during the late 
civil war, residing within the Confederate limits, caused 
him to be seized as a hostage, and held in retalliation for 
the arrest of other citizens attached to the cause of the 
Union. He bore the illegal and unjustifiable imprison- 
ment consequent upon this seizure with all the patience 
and fortitude of a Christian minister, but a fatal blow 
was given to his health by the rigors of his long impris- 
onment. He never enjoyed a day of perfect health after 
his restoration to liberty. His valuable ministry of three 
and twenty years at Winchester was terminated after a 
mournful and protracted illness on the 16th of December, 
1865. A funeral address was pronounced over Ms re- 
mains by Rev. Joseph C. Stiles, of Georgia, which was 
published in x>amphlet form and is worthy of extensive 

Dr. Boyd was a man of fine intellect. He was endowed 
with quick and clear perception, a sound, discriminating 
and comprehensive judgment, and especially with strong 
and active reasoning faculties. He loved study and ever 
felt both its necessity and obligation. He was a man of 
extensive and useful information. On almost every 
topic of literature and science he discoursed like one who 
had given exclusive attention to those subjects, while in 
his pro^Der department of didactic and polemic theology, 
ecclesiastical history and biblical criticism, few men in 
the country had made such eminent attainments. 

During his illness the presbytery met in Winchester 

148 Historical Pen SkeicJies. 

and appointed a committee to convey to Dr. Boyd their 
christian salutations and to assure him of their sincere 
condolence in the painful and protracted trial which he 
was then enduring. He received the distinguished atten- 
tion with such humble and touching gratitude to his 
brethren, and in such calm and assured submission to the 
will of God, that on the return of the committee the 
chairman reported to presbytery that "he had seen Bun- 
yan's Pilgrim on the banks of the river, joyfully await- 
ing his transportation to the opposite shore." 


Son of Wm. and Ann M. Maslin, was born in Gerards- 
town, Berkeley County, on the 2Sth day of October, 1808. 
At the early age of fifteen years and with but a very lim- 
ited education, he was placed in a store at Harper's Fer- 
ry and continued there and in similar situations until in 
1830, when he removed to Moorfield. In 1831 he com- 
menced the mercantile business in that place without 
capital and relying exclusively upon his oAvn energy, in- 
tegrity and capacity for business. In this pursuit he 
continued actively and successfully for a period of thirty 
years. In 1837 he was commissioned a magistrate of 
Hardy County, and continued to hold that office until the 
magistry became elective under the constitution of 1850. 
Under that new system he was elected to the same office, 
and was made presiding justice of the County Court until 
the County of Hardy was embraced in the newly created 
State of West Virginia. When the Bank of the Valley 
established a branch at Moorefield, in 1853, he was elect- 
ed a director and made President, and re-elected every 
year until the bank was closed by the war. In ] 861 he 
was elected by an almost unanimous vote of the people 
to rej^resent the County of Hardy in the Virginia State 
Convention, called together by the exigencies of the 
opening civil war. In 1871 he was elected by a large 
majority to represent the counties of Hardy and Grant in 
the Constitutional Convention of West Virginia. He 

Historical Pen SA'eicJies. 149 

also filled various otlier offices in that county — was trea- 
surer of one turnpike company and President of another. 
He died at Moorfield on the 21st of September, 1878, 
after a protracted illness of more than a year. 


For many years one of the most efficient and active 
magistrates in the County of Berkeley. He resided in 
Martinsburg, and kept his office in the frame building 
attached to the Stewart Hotel. He was a man of strong 
mind, with clever common sense views of the law. Few, 
if any, appeals were ever taken from his decision, for all 
had abounded confidence in his integrity and sense of 
justice. He possessed much quaint and original humor. 
His memory was stored with anecdotes, and being a bach- 
elor, with none of the cares of a family about him, his 
office, in which he also slept, was the regular resort of a 
coterie of visitors during the long evenings in winter. 
He died after a short illness, in 1SB6, to the regret of all 
who knew him. 


There is now upon the lands of Charles J. Faulkner 
and within the recently enlarged limits of Martinsburg, 
the remains of a monument, under which repose the ashes 
of this distinguished soldier and patriot. By whom this 
structure was erected — whether by the executors and 
legatees of the deceased, or by the grateful contributions 
of his countrymen, is not known. There is nothing in 
the will nor in the detailed account of the executors to 
throw any light on the subject. The design of the mon- 
ument is obviously a rectangular pyramid, with abase of 
twenty feet square. Its sup^Dosed altitude from the ver- 
tex to the plane of the base may have been from six to 
nine feet. It has now an elevation of a little more than 
four feet. The large stones used in its construction — 
some of them twelve feet in length, are hard silicious 
mountain stones, and must have been transported, at 
great expense, from a distance, as they are not natives 

150 Historical Pen SJieiclies. 

of this valley. I think a careful examination of the re- 
mains will lead to the conclusion (contrary to the present 
popular belief) that the monument was once finished ac- 
cording to its original design, but being much exposed 
and unprotected — a play spot for the boys — the apex was 
first thrown off, and stone after stone injured and re- 
moved, leaving only what remains of the original struc- 
ture. It is at i)resent within the limits of our city, and 
since it has been in the possession of its present proprie- 
tor since 1339, (now thirty-three years ago) has been pro- 
tected from further injury. 

General Stephen' s life and fortunes are intimately iden- 
tified with the County of Berkeley. He was one of the 
earliest immigrants to this locality — he became the own- 
er of large tracts of land in this neighborhood ; he was 
one of the most active agents in having the County of 
Berkeley established, and one of the most prominent 
actors in its early civil and judicial history. It was nj)on 
his land that the city of Martinsburg was located ; here 
he lived a long and prosx)erous life, and in her soil have 
his remains been interred. The people of Berkeley, there- 
fore, should feel an interest in learning something of his 
history, and a i)leasure in seeing his memory vindicated 
from any unjust and unmerited rex^roach cast u^^on it. 

General Stephen was born about the year 1718, and is 
believed to have been a native of Pennsylvania. He em- 
igrated to this x:)ortion of Virginia about 1738, a few years 
after the first settlements were made in this valley. He 
must have derived the most of his land by direct grant 
from Lord Fairfax. 

Military History. 

The earliest notice we have of the military movements 
of Adam Stephen, is in immediate conneciion with Wash- 
ington. Information reached the colonial authorities at 
Williamsburg, that the French and Indians had taken 
XDOssession of the northwestern x^ortion of Virginia, on 
the Monongahela, murdering and driving away the set- 

Historical Pen Skeiclies. 151 

tiers of that section. The General Assembly authorized 
the raising of six companies for the recovery of that ter- 
ritory. The command of this force was tendered to 
"Washington, but because of his youth he declined it in 
favor of Col. Joshua Fry, an experienced English officer, 
and Washington became Lieutenant Colonel. Stephen 
had raised a company from the settlers hereabouts, and 
by Washington's order, met him with his comx3any at 
Winchester on the 20th of March, 1754. This assembled 
force started for the frontiers, but Col. Fry having died, 
the command necessarily devolved upon Washington, 
and Stephen, in June, 1854, was appointed Major. On 
August the 14th, same year, the regiment was re-organ- 
ized with Washington as Colonel, Stephens as Lieut. 
Colonel and Andrew Lewis as Major. They pursued 
their difficult and wearisome march through the wilder- 
ness until they reached the Great Meadows, and there 
unexx^ectedly encountered a hostile force, greatly supe- 
rior to their own, and were defeated in battle. They 
took shelter in Fort Necessity, but they were, after a 
gallant resistance, com^Delled to surrender, but upon 
terms which allowed them to march out with flying col- 
ors and with all the honors of war. Col. Stephen was 
then placed in command of Fort Cumberland, the frontier 
out post of that period. In 1755 he was in the memora- 
ble battle of theMonongahela, usually called Braddock's 
defeat, and was wounded, though not seriously. In 1756 
he resumed his comtnand of Fort Cumberland. In 1757 
he accompanied Washington in his expedition to Fort 
Du Quesne, where they recovered possession of that ter- 
ritory, and captured Fort DuQuesne, which they subse- 
quently named Fort Pitt, the site of the present city of 
Pittsburg. In the same year he proceeded, by order of 
Congress, to the South, to quell the hostilities of the 
Creek Indians in that section. In August, 1763, the col- 
onial government ordered out a force of 1,000 men — 500 
of whom were to be raised from this section of the colony 

152 Historical Fen SJcetches. 

and were placed under the command of Stephen, for ser- 
vice on the North-western frontier ; and 500 to be raised 
in Greenbrier and the adjoining counties, and i)laced 
under the command of Col. Andrew Lewis, to i^rotect 
the South-western portion of our territory. The object 
of these expeditions was to repel an attack upon our 
people, by a formidable alliance of Shawnees, Delawares, 
Wynadotts and other Indian tribes, acting in alliance 
with Pontiac. 

Sir Jeffery Amherst, then in command of all the British 
forces in America, thus notices these expeditions in a 
letter of the 27th of August, 1763, addressed to Sir Wil- 
liam Johnson, Superintendent of Indian affairs : 

''An effectual stop will be jout to these outrages ; par 
ticularly as Col. Stephen with a body of 500 men of the 
Virginia militia, is advanced as far as Fort Cumberland 
and Bedford, with a view not only of covering the fron- 
tiers, but of acting offensively agains-t the savages. That 
public-spirited colony has also sent a large body of the 
like number of men under the command of Col. Lewis 
for the defence and protection of the South-west fron- 
tiers. What a contrast this makes between the Penn- 
sylvanians and Virginians, highly to the honor of the 
latter ; but x^laces the former in the most despicable light 

Again, in a letter of September the 14th, 1763, to the 
same person, he says : 

'' The attempts against the Shawnees are certainly very 
necessary, and I heartily wish Col. Stephen success in 
his expedition. His chief danger will be his retreat up 
the river." 

Mr. Bancroft thus describes the sad condition of our 
frontier in June, 1763, which it was the object of the 
expedition under General Stej^heu to avenge and re- 
dress : 

"Nor was its garrisoned stockades only that eucouu- 
the fury of the savages. They roamed the wilderness. 

Ilistor leal Pen Sketches. 153 

massacring all wliom they met. They struck down more 
than a hundred traders in the woods, scalping every one 
of them ; quaffing their gushing life blood, mutilating 
their bodies. They prowled around the cabins of the 
husbandman on the frontier, and their tomahawks struck 
alike the laborer in the field or the child in the cradle. 
They passed the mountains and spread death even to 
Bedford. The unhappy emigrant knew not if to brave 
danger or to leave his home and his planted fields for 
■wretchedness and poverty. Nearly live hundred families 
from the frontiers of Virginia fled to AVinchester, unable 
to find so much as a hovel to shelter them from the 
weather, bare of every comfort, and forced to lie scat- 
tered in the woods." {vol. 5i7i, page 124.) 

After aiding to quell these hostile Indian movements, 
Col. Stephen returned to the east and was placed in com- 
mand of Fort Loudon at Winchester, charged with the 
protection of our entire Northwestern frontier. 

All further dangers being removed from the frontiers, 
our trooi:)s were disbanded and Col. Stephen, now a Brig- 
adier General in the State Militia, returned in 176S to his 
home in Berkeley County — after fourteen years of al- 
most continuous service in defense of the people and ter- 
ritory of Virginia. 

That General Stephen at that period enjoyed in a high 
degree the confidence of Washington is not only obvious 
from the preceding narrative, but is farther shown by 
the fact that when, in 1756, he was required to visit Bos- 
ton on important public business, he left Col. Stephen 
in command of all the troops in the service of Virginia. 

In continuation of the history of his military service 
we pass for the present over the intervening period of 

At the commencement of the revolutionary war he was, 
in December, 1775, commissioned by Virginia Colonel of 
one of the regiments raised by that State. Isaac Reed 
was at the same time chosen Lieut. Colonel, and Robt- 

154 Historical Pen SJcetclies^ 

Lawson Major of this regiment. On the 13th of Febru- 
ary, 1776, he was transferred, with his regiment, to the 
Continental line. On the 4th of September, 1776, he 
was appointed by Congress a Brigadier General of the 
Continental troops, and on the 9th of February, 1777, 
promoted to the rank of Major General. Gen. Ste^^hen 
was with Washington in 1776, at the battles of Trenton 
and Princeton — in his celebrated retreat of ninety miles 
through the Jerseys — the most critical and disastrous 
campaign of the war, but which was marked by brilliant 
stratagems and daring exploits. He continued with him 
in 1777, and at the battle of Brandy wine was in 'com- 
mand of a division as IMajor General, giving entire satis- 
faction by his bravery and good conduct. 

We now approach the most painful period of the mili- 
tary history of General Stephen. On November the 4th, 
1777, was fought the battle of Gerraantown. Washing- 
ton was defeated. The enemy triumphed. Gen. Ste- 
phen was charged with " unofficer-like conduct,*' and 
the specification was that he was " intoxicated" on that 
day. lie was found guilty and dismissed from the army. 

The friends of General Stephen, whilst not questioning 
a fact ascertained by a court of competent jurisdiction, 
have neverthless complained of the harshness and un- 
kindness of the sentence of dismissal. They thought in 
view of his long and valuable military services and in 
view of the farther fact, that his intoxication in no wise 
contributed to the disasterous befeat of that day, it 
should have been overlooked, or a milder penalty inflic- 
ted. They say, further, that as strict a deciplinarian as 
Washington was, he was more than usually severe and 
exacting in this case, with a view of creating a vacancy 
in that high grade of the army, for his friend and favor- 
ite, the Marquis de Lafayette. On the 26th of November, 
1777, he wrote to the President of Congress, urging for 
military and political considerations, the appointment of 
Gen. Lafayette to a division of the army. This authority 

Historical Pen Sketches. 1 55 

was given to liim by Congress on the 1st of December, 
and in three days afterwards it was proclaimed in general 
orders that he was to take command of the division re- 
cently under General Stephen, who had been dismissed 
from the army. 

I have read with great interest, the account of the 
battle of Germantown, as given by our best historians to 
see if our defeat was in any way attributable to the mis- 
conduct of General Stephen, or of the division of which 
he had commanded, and I cannot find a single imputa- 
tion upon his conduct, personally, during the battle — 
none upon his division except what is satisfactorily ex- 

Washington Irving in his ''Life of Washington," re- 
ferring to the delay of General Knox, in this battle, says: 

"This half hour's delay of nearly one half of the army, 
disconcerted the action. The divisions and brigades 
thus separated from each other, by the skirmishing upon 
Chew' s house, could not be reunited. The fog and smoke 
rendered all objects indistinct at thirty yards distance ; 
the different parts of the army knew nothing of the jDosi- 
tion or movements of each other, and the commander-in- 
chief could take no view nor gain any information of the 
situation of the whole. 

"Green and Stephen, with their divisions, having had 
to make a circuit, were late in coming into action, and 
became separated from each other, \)^Yt of Stephen' & 
division being arrested by a heavy fire from Chew's house 
and pausing to return it. 

"At this moment a singular panic seized our army. 
Wayne's division, which had pushed the enemy nearly 
three miles, was alarmed by the approach of a large body 
of American troops on its left fiank, which it mistook for 
foes, and fell back in defiance of every effort of its officers 
to rally it. In its retreat it came upon Stephen's divi- 
sion, and threw it into a panic, being in its turn mistaken 

156 Historical Pen Ske iches. 

for tlie enemy ; thus all fell into confusion and our army 
fled from its own victory." 

Mr. Bancroft, wlio may be regarded as one of the most 
impartial and perhaps one of the most censorious of our 
historical critics, in describing that battle, utters not a 
word in disparagement of Gen. Stephen. 

" His (Washington's) plan was to direct the chief at- 
tack on the enemy's right, to which the approach was 
easy ; and for that purpose, to Greene, in whom of aU 
his generals he most confided, he gave the command of 
his left wing,. comjDosed of Greene and of Stephen, and 
flanked by Macdougall's brigade." 

Again, " Greene should by this time have engaged the 
British right, but nothing was heard from any i:)art of 
his wing." Again, "and where was Greene? From 
some cause, which he never explained, he reached the 
British outpost three quarters of an hour later than the 
troops of Washington ; then at a very great distance from 
the force, which he was to have attacked, he formed his 
Avhole wing, and thus in line of battle, attempted to ad- 
vance two miles or more through marshes, thickets and 
strong and numerous post and rail fences. Irretrievable 
disorder was the consequence ; the divisions became 
mixed and the line was broken." 

Again, " Greene on that day, ' fell under the frown' of 
the Commander in-Chief. Had the forces entrusted to 
him acted as efficiently as the troops with Washington, 
the day might have been fatal to Howe's army." 

Thus Greene and Woodford are censured by the histo- 
rian, for their conduct in this battle ; not a word of 
censure is cast upon Gen. Stephen. From all which I 
infer, that whilst he may have been proved to have been 
intoxicated on the day oi" battle, there is nothing in these 
accounts to show that his intoxication disqualified him 
for command, or that the country sustained any injury 
from his improper indulgence in the use of liquor. 

Thus ended the militarv career of this distinQ:uished 

Historical Fen Sketclies. 157 

soldier, after a service of 14 years in ligliting the French 
and Indians, and two in fighting the enemies of our lib • 
erty and indej)endence. I have seen no evidence in his 
l)revions career, and none in his subsequent life, that he 
was habitually addicted to the use in excess of ardent 
sx^irits. For this one violation of military discipline he 
seems to have been treated with unusual harshness. 
Civil History. 

After the return of Gen. Stephen from military servi- 
ces, in 176S, he gave his attention to his private affairs, 
and was chielly instrumental in having the county of 
Berkeley created, by an act of the General xissembly. 
Its limits w^ere so arranged as to make the present site of 
Martinsburg about the centre of the county. So perfectly 
was this understood that the justices appointed by Lord 
Dunmore assembled at that point on the 19th of May, 
1772, and formed the first court of the county. Genejcal 
Stephen was one of the justices so appointed and also at 
the same time commissioned first High Sheriff of the 
county. Promx)t arrangements were made for the erec- 
tion of all the necessary county buildings, and there 
being no town then established, it was only known as the 
Berkeley Court House. Gen. Stephen being withdrawn 
from the county, by his services in the Revolutionary 
army, no steps were taken for the establishment of a 
town, until his return in 1777. In 1778 Martinsburg was 
by an act of General Assembly laid out on 130 acres of 
land, granted for that purpose by Gen. Stephen. 

Mr. Bancroft, incorporated into his great historical 
work, a letter of Gen. Stephen, written in advance of 
the war, vindicating the position then being taken by 
, the colonies, that would have done honor to the patriot- 
ism and public spirit of a Henry or a Jefferson. 

In 1788 Gen. Stephen and Gen. Darke were elected by 
the voters of Berkeley county to the convention which 
assembled in Richmond on the 2nd of June of that year 
to determine whether Virginia would give her consent to 

15S Historical Pen Sketcltes. 

tlie adoption of our present Federal Constitution. It is 
difficult to imagine a higher and more important trust 
that could have been confided to two of her citizens. 
The convention was nearly equally divided on the ques- 
tion of the ratification or rejection of that Constitution. 
In favor of its adoption were such men as Jas. Madison, 
John Marshall, Edmund Pendleton and Geo. Wythe ; 
for its rejection were such men as James Monroe, Patrick 
Henry, George Mason and Theodore Bland. The vote 
stood 89 for adoption, 79 against it. It is almost un- 
necessary to say that the delegation from Berkeley stood 
by the Constitution in all their votes from the beginning 
to the end of the session. For this alone, if for nothing 
else, we owe them a debt of gratitude. 

The speech delivered by Gen. Stephen in favor of the 
adoption of the Constitution may be seen on pages 642, 
643 and 644 of Elliot's debates of that convention, and 
does great credit to his ability, eloquence and patroit- 
ism. The speech is so honorable to him that it should 
be incorpoT-ated into this sketch but it is too long for 
present publication. 

Gen. SStepheu, died in Martinsburg in 1791, possessed 
of a large real and personal estate. His will, bearing 
date the 5th of June, 1791, was admitted to-record in the 
Winchester District Court, at the September term, 1791. 
He has left many descendants in the States of Virginia 
and West Virginia, and many collateral relatives, the 
grand children of his brother Robert. 

Gen. Stephen, at his death, musthaveleft many valua- 
ble papers in the hands of his executors, and especially 
his military correspondence. But after inquiry I learn 
that not a single paper has been jDreserved to throw light 
upon his long and eventful career. A sketch of his life 
can only be gleaned from the general histories and pub- 
lic records of the country. 


Born in 1790, was the son of Moses Hunter, one of the 

Historical Fen Sketclies. 159 

early clerks of Berkeley, County, and one of the Presi- 
dential electors who cast the vote of Virginia for George 
Washington, He was educated at Princeton, New Jer- 
sey, and after completing his collegiate course com- 
menced the study of law in Winchester, under Henry St. 
George Tucker, his brother in law, at that time one of 
the most eminent and successful practitioners in Vir- 
ginia. When admitted to the bar he took up his resi- 
dence for a brief period in Martinsburg, but his tastes at 
that time being more to literary than to legal pur- 
suits, he removed to his line estate called the "Red 
House" farm, inherited from his father, about one mile 
north of the town. 

The "Red House" was a well-known spot in the 
annals of Berkeley County. It was, as stated, the prop- 
erty of his father, Moses Hunter, and it was here that 
the court held its session from May 19, 1772, until by 
virtue of a writ obtained by Gen. Stephen from the Sec- 
retary's office its sessions were removed to Morgan's 
Spring, near the present site of Martinsburg. 

The jail, a temporary wooden structure, was located in 
the public square, where the old market house subse- 
quently stood, near the property of Admiral Boarman. 
The Clerk's office was at the corner of Queen and John 
streets. Where the stocks or whipping post and pillory, 
(an essential inheritance from our English ancestors) 
were placed, I have no means of ascertaining. I can well 
remember its dark and menancing outline when I was a 
boy. It stood directly opposite the Court House door — 
about thirty feet from the present curbstone, and more 
than once have I witnessed the writhings and contortions 
of human flesh, both of whites and blacks, under the lash 
of the jailor, as I passed to and from old James Ander- 
son's school house. The pillory as a x^unishment, was 
established in England as early as the reign of Henry 
III, and only abolished during the reign of the j^resent 

160 HlstorlGxl Pea Sketches. 

Queen, Victoria, in June, 1837, a few years subsequent 
to its abolition in this State. 

The residence of Mr. Hunter in the country Avas in no 
wise profitable to him. He had no taste for agriculture ; 
he lived extravagantly, spent his money wastefnlly; and 
his house and furniture having been consumed by fire, 
he determined to return to Martinsburg and enter earn- 
estly upon the practice of his profession. His circuit 
embraced the counties of Berkeley, Jefferson, Morgan 
and Frederick ; especially the District Court of Chan- 
cery, held at Winchester, which had jurisdiction over 
some fifteen or twenty counties. It was in Jefferson that 
he seemed to make his deepest impression upon the pop- 
ular mind, and there, that he attained his largest and 
most lucrative practice. 

When I first recollect Mr. Hunter, which was in 1825, 
he was of medium height and strongly tending to corpu- 
lency, but for a person of his bulk, active and alert on 
his feet. His countenance, when in one of his gay and 
pleasant humors, beamed with a benevolent expression ; 
his eye sparkled with wit and intelligence, and his 
demeanor was marked by courtesy and affability, but in 
his crabbed and disagreeable moods — and they were by 
no means uncommon — his face became as dark as a thun- 
der cloud, his tongue was tipped with venom and sar- 
casm, and his manners were repellant, morose and offen- 
sive. He had some of the finest qualities of an orator — 
a rich and poetic fancy, a brilliant imagination, wit, hu- 
mor — a taste enriched by classical reading and high 
powers of logical analysis. His voice was the most agree- 
able that I have ever heard at the bar — musical from its 
lowest to its highest tones — and was admirably adopted 
to give effect and emphasis to whatever he said, whether 
in the department of wit, humor, sarcasm, pathos or de- 
nunciation. His powers of vocal mimicry were extraor- 
dinary, and if there was anything peculiar, quaint or lu- 
dicrous in the voice or deportment of the witnesses, he 

Historical Pen SketcJies. 161 

could reproduce them at the bar in a manner to covulse 
the court room with laughter. He was the only lawyer 
lever saw who could literally "laugh a case" out of 
court. His keen sense of the ridiculous Vas such that 
he would seize upon every incident in the prgress of a 
trial that was capable of being perverted into a source of 
humor and fun, and drive the poor plaintiff or defendant . 
out of court amidst the laughter of bench, bar, jury andi 
bystanders. His style of writing was rich, classical, . 
perspicuous and condensed, the best specimens of whichi 
that I have seen were his 4th of July oration delivered ic/ 
1825 and printed in the Martinsburg Gazette of that pe- 
riod, and his Masonic oration, delivered in 1826 in the 
old Presbyterian church on King street, now a ruin. I 
heard them both, and was delighted with their delivery, 
and have often since read them with much pleasure. 

When a youth, just from college, the writer of this 
sketch would often saunter to the Court House to hear 
the able lawyers then practising at this bar. The cases 
which now dwell most especially in his memory were 
those of James Parsons vs. James Gibson, and William 
Vance ts. James Parsons, all leading and influential men. 
They were both celebrated causes and removed from 
Hampshire to this county, and both cowhiding assaults 
and batteries, growing out of the same ugly feud. 
Among the counsel engaged were Alfred H. Powell, John 
E,. Cooke, Moses Hunter, Wm. Nayler and Elisha Boyd. 
They gave rise to much eloquent speaking, but were 
finally compromised to the satisfaction of all parties. 

The case of Alexander Stephens and Isaac S. Lauck vs. 
Matthew Ransone, was also among the causes ceWbres in 
its day. Both plaintiffs and defendants were owners of 
large merchant mills near Martinsburg, and all were men 
of large influence and great wealth. Ransone was 
charged with deliberately diverting the Tuscarora stream 
so as to deprive the lower rival mill of its proper supply 
of water. The case was fought with determined zeal and 

162 ■ Historical Pen SJceicJies. 

obstinacy on both sides. Cooke's opening was in liis 
finest style of perspicuous narrative. Powell and Boyd 
IDut forth their strongest powers in the defense. Hunter 
commenced his closing argument with the quotation : 

"When Greek meets Greek, 
Then comes the tug of war," 

alluding to the wealth, energy and influence of the con- 
testants, and followed it with one of the most striking 
and masterly arguments that I ever heard at our bar. 
The jury brought in a small verdict for the jjlaintiffs — 
but it was accepted without costs — a sort of drawn battle. 
The first civil case in which I ever appeared at the bar 
was an action of ejectment, brought by my client, Jonas 
Hedges, vs. the well known Hunter John Myers, to re- 
cover a tract of land on the Meadow Branch, west of the 
North Mountain. Both had patents for the same land, 
but Hedges held the elder patent. The case was in the 
county court. Hunter was my opjionent. He vehemently 
assailed the validity of the Hedges' patent for vagueness 
in its entry and irregularity in its issue. He dwelt with 
power and effect upon the ungenerous conduct of Hedges 
in securing his patent in the manner he did, and upon 
the noble and primitive virtues of the great Natty Bump- 
po, of Berkeley. It was in vain that I presented the 
clear and indisi^utable law bearing on the subject — he 
carried court and jury by storm. The law was submerged 
under the flood of his eloquence. My client was turned 
out of court. But his triumph was only short lived. I 
removed the case by writ of supersedeas to the Superior 
Court, where the ruling of the county court, admitting 
improper evidence and giving wrong instructions, were 
reversed, the verdict set aside and the case sent back 
with such instructions as precluded all further contro- 
versy. Hedges recovered his land, with costs in both 

Some idea may be formed of the high powers of Mr. 
Hunter, as an advocate and jurist, when we find the fol- 

Historical Pen SkeicJies. 1G3 

lowing notice of his first effort at the bar, in a written 
opinion, delivered by Chancellor Carr in the District 
Court of Chancery, held at Winchester : 

" These points were maintained with great abilitj^, and 
I must be permitted to say that I have seldom heard so 
powerful an argument as that delivered by the ojDening 
counsel. It gives me pleasure, in i^assing, to pay this 
just tribute to the first essay in our court of a young 

A high compliment to be embraced in a judicial opin- 
ion from the pen of Dabney Carr. 

Mr. Hunter was a Democrat, and as such, had given 
his ardent support to Mr. Clay in 1824. His speech in 
support of the Kentucky statesman, iii the Berkeley 
Court House, was much admired at the time, and X)re- 
sented some of the most cax)tivating views of Mr. Clay's 
noble and lofty character. But he had an unextinguish- 
able hatred to the Adams family, and when Mr. Clay by 
his vote and influence made John Quincy Adams Presi- 
dent in 1825, Mr. Hunter gave him up and joined the cry 
of that opposition, which in the language of Richard M. 
Johnson, had combined to crush the administration for 
the " original sin of its election, even tho' its acts should 
prove it as pure as the angels of heaven." 

Although the storm of political excitement was raging 
wildly in the Spring of 1827, in Tennessee, Kentucky and 
some of the Northern States, its influence was not felt in 
the county of Berkeley. We had then no railroads, tel- 
egraphs, or telephones — few newspapers were taken 
beyond the county, and outside intelligence reached us 
slowly through the weekly or semi-weekly lumbering 
stage coach. An evidence of the total absence of party 
feeling is found in the fact that in April, 1827, Edward 
Colston, Federalist, and a Clay man, and Moses T. Hunt- 
er, Democrat, and a Jackson man, were both elected to 
the House of Delegates without opposition, and with the 
concurrence of all the voters of the county. 

164 Historical Fen Sketches. 

Mr. Hunter' s career in tlie Legislature opened brilliant- 
ly, but terminated painfully. He made some speeches 
wMch gave liim higli reputation— whilst his attic wit, 
his captivating conversational powers, his w^ealth of an- 
ecdote and his pungent satire, made him a great favorite 
in the social circle. But Richmond was not at that time 
a safe place for one having the tastes and propensities of 
Mr. Hunter. He relapsed into habits of dissiimtion, 
under which his system became disordered, and he was 
attacked with a serious, and which proved fatal malady. 

He returned to Martinsburg in bad health and died, 
after a long and painful illness, on the 4th of June, 1829, 
at the residence of his brother-in law. Chancellor Tucker, 
in Winchester, in the 39th year of his age. 

There are some now living in this county, who can re- 
call with pleasure the many occasions when they have 
hung with rapture upon the glowing eloquence, powerful 
argument, brilliant and irresistable flashes of wit and 
humor that marked his professional efforts. 


AVas born at Honeywood in the County of Berkeley, 
in 1788. He graduated wirli distinction at Princeton 
College, New Jersey, in 1806. He passed through a reg- 
ular course of legal studies, municipal and international, 
with no view to the practice of the profession, but to 
qualify himself for the intelligent discharge of any pub- 
lic duty which in a Republic like this, the people might 
devolve upon him. He was an ardent Federalist, in 
perfect accord with the predominant sentiment of this 
county, and as a young man of talent and high promise, 
■was cordially welcomed as an im^Dortant accession to the 
party. At twenty -five years of age he was elected a 
member of the House of Delegates ; and when but twenty 
nine years old, elected a member of the United States 
Congress from the district composed of the counties of 
Berkeley, Jefferson, Hampshire and Hardy. 

In June, 1814, he was married to* Jane Marshall, daugli- 

Historical Pen S/i etches. 165 

ter of Charles Marshal], of Fauquier County. She died 
on the 5th of March, 1S15, in giving birth to a child, ten 
months after marriage, and in the 21st year of her age. 
The papers of that day are full of tributes to her many 
virtues and entrancing loveliness. The child was buried 
in the same grave with the mother. 

When Mr. Colston took his seat in the 15th Congress 
(1st Monday of December, 1817), he found himself asso- 
ciated in his legislative labors with many distinguished 
men, among whom were Henry Clay, General Harrison, 
subsequently President ; Henry Baldwin, John Sergeant, 
PhiliiD P. Barbour, John Floyd, R. M. Johnson, subse- 
quently Vice-President ; Henry St. George Tucker, 
Charles Fenton Mercer, etc. Although but a young man 
and a young member, he took an active and prominent 
part in the proceedings of that body. His speeches on 
the "Commutation of soldiers' pay," for relief to the 
" Surviving Revolutionary soldiers," in favor of "the 
Internal Improvement powers of Congress," upon "the 
Migration of Slaves," upon " the Reduction of the Staff 
of the Army," and especially his elaborate speech on the 
resolution of the Military Committee condemning the 
conduct of General Jackson, for the execution of Arbut- 
not and Ambrester in the Seminole war, show not only 
his ability and self reliance, but the extent of his infor- 
mation, and his capacity to take a leading XDart in any 
deliberative assembly. He seems to have participated in 
all the discussions of that body ; to have grappled in 
debate with the foremost intellects, and to have main- 
tained his opinions with firmness and ability. 

After the close of his most creditable service in Con- 
gress, Mr. Colston found it necessary, in consequence of 
the increasing age and infirmities of his father, to give 
his attention to the Honeywood estate in this county and 
also to the extensive landed possessions of his father, in 
Virginia and Kentucky. 

Mr. Colston was elected to the House of Delegates from 

166 Historical Pen SketcJies. 

this county in 1823 and 1824, and was again a candidate 
for Congress in 1825. In this contest lie was defeated by 
Wm. Armstrong of Hampshire. The Martinsburg Ga- 
zette of the 2Sth of April, 1825, in referring to the defeat 
of Mr. Colston : 

"We were present on Monday last and heard Mr. 
Colston address the voters. He exposed in a concise, 
eloquent and convincing manner the glaring calumnies 
that had been industriously circulated against him, and 
left a deep impression on the minds of the people of the 
gross injustice which had been done him by those slan- 
ders and which had resulted in his defeat." 

No doubt Mr. Colston was grossly caluminated in that 
canvass, but the real cause of his defeat was the disor- 
ganization and disruption of the party of which he had 
been so conspicuous a member. The Federalists ceased 
to exist as a National party after the close of the war 
with Great Britain, and whilst that may not have been 
the direct issue involved, yet he had been too distin- 
guished in its history, not to be made to share the conse- 
quences of its fall. Some amend, however, was made to 
his disappointed ambition by his unanimous election to 
the House of Delegates, in 1826, by the voters of Berke- 
ley. He was again re-elected in 1827, 1833 and 1834. 

Whilst in Richmond he formed the acquaintance of 
Miss Sarah Jane Brockenbrough, the intelligent and ac- 
complished daughter of Judge William Brockenbrough, 
to whom he was married — from which marriage has re- 
sulted a highly educated and interesting family of sons 
and daughters. 

Mr. Colston was commissioned a magistrate of the 
County Court in 1818, and no one could have taken a 
more lirely interest in the performance of its important 
and resp)onsible duties than he did. llis intelligence, 
his knowledge of law, his integrity, his high sense of 
justice, gave to all his decisions, whether on the Bench 
or ill ij'zis, a weight and authority accorded to bat few 

Historical Pen SJcetclies. 167 

of his bretliren. He was also commissioned High Sheriff 
of Berkeley County and acted as such in 1844 and 1845. 

Although a Federalist and concurring with his party 
in opposition to the declaration of war against Great 
Britain, yet when war was declared by the constituted 
authorities, he volunteered as a member of Captain Faulk- 
ner s Artillery Company, soon reached the rank of Lieu- 
tenant and was present, near jN'orfolk, when the combined 
military and naval attack was made by the British upon 
the defences of that important city. He bore the repu- 
tation of a brave and conscientious soldier. 

Mr. Colston was a member of the Episcopal church — a 
sincere and practical Christian and an ardent promoter 
of all institutions and enterprises looking to the advance- 
ment of religion, and to the spread of the life saving 
doctrines of the Redeemer of the world. 

Mr. Colston died suddenly — unexpectedly, in the 
twinkling of an eye — from some affection of the heart, 
on the 23d of April, 1851. He left a will, devising his 
whole property, subject to the payment of his debts, to 
his estimable widow, Sarah Jane Colston, and appointing 
her, Chas. J. Faulkner and his brother-in-law, Willough- 
by jN'ewtoD, of Westmoreland County, Va , executors of 
his will. 

An intelligent gentleman from Eastern Virginia, who 
had just come from spending two weeks at Honey wood, 
thus speaks to the Avriter of this sketch, of Mr. Colston, 
in 1838 : 

"I consider Edward Colston, the finest specimen of a 
country gentleman whom I have yet met in Virginia. 
His manners are courteous, polite and dignified ; his con- 
versation highly instructive and interesting, and his hos- 
pitality free and cordial, without being oppressive. He 
is fond of agriculture, history and general literature. He 
has a noble inheritance and a magnificent library. He is 
loved by all his neighbors, for his kindness and charities 
and they look up to him as a friend, adviser andcoun- 

168 Historical Pen SJcetclies. 

sellor. He lias a charming family and a delightful resi- 
dence. What more need any man want to ensure his 
happiness in this world V 

It is deeply to be regretted that Mr. Colston did not 
himself cherish the views expressed by this intelligent 
visitor. He was unhax)pily not content with the rich 
blessings v/hich then surrounded him. The activity of 
his mind led him to engage in milling enterprises and 
speculations. He became, in the honesty and unsuspect- 
ing integrity of his heart, the sport of fortune, and the 
victim of accomplished villains, and that " noble inheri- 
tance" has thus passed from his widow and children, to 
discharge forged obligations and unfortunate specula- 
tions in trade. 


Son of George and Rebecca Faulkner, was born on the 
2nd of April, 1776, in the county of Armagh, Ireland, a 
few miles from Newry. The family, as the name itself 
sufficiently indicates, was of English origin, their ances- 
tor having emigrated to Ireland in the reign of William 
and Mary. Having been left an orphan by the death of 
both his parents, at the early age of ten years, he accep- 
ted the kind offer of Richard McSherry, a friend of the 
family, to accompany him upon his return to America. 
They arrived in the port of Baltimore in the latter part 
of 1786. 

Richard McSherry had some years before emigrated 
from that x^art of Ireland, and had gone to tlie Island of 
Jamaica to improve his fortunes. He was a man of ener- 
gy and enterprise, and soon got occupation as the manager 
of a large sugar plantation. He remained there for sever- 
al years, until he succeeded in accumulatiog quite a res- 
pectable fortune. He then visited the United States, and 
purchased a fine farm in the then County of Berkeley, 
near to the present village of Leetown. Not being able 
to get immediate possession of his purchase, he availed 
himsels of the interval to pay a visit to his old home in 

Historical Pen SJietches. 169 

Ireland. It was upon his return from this visit, that the 
boy Faulkner accompanied him to America. It is said 
that Richard McSherry was the first person who intro 
duced from Jamaica into this country, the tomato and 
okra, as esculents for the table. 

Young Faulkner was brought to Martinsburg and 
placed under the charge of Michael McKewan, an Irish- 
man, who then kept a retail store in that town. He re- 
mained in his service until he was of age, in 1797, when 
he purchased the property at the southeastern corner of 
Burke and Queen streets, and commenced business on his 
own account. 

On the 15th of December, 1S03, he was married to 
Sarah Mackey, only daughter of AVilliam Mackey, of 

He was not particularly fond of the mercantile busi- 
ness, and from 1804 until ISOS, he spent much of his time 
in correspondence with Hon. James Stephens, and Hon. 
John Morrow, the representatives in Congress from this 
district ; with Henry Dearborn, the Secretary of "War, 
and President Jefferson, in endeavoring to gratify his 
military tastes by procuring a commission in the regular 
army of the United States. But our army was then small 
— there were few vacancies or promotions, and his efforts 
in that direction were unsuccessful. 

Towards the close of Mr. Jefferson's administration in 
1809, the relations between this country and Great Bri- 
tain had become very critical. The affair of the Chesa- 
peake had occurred ; the sensibilities of the nation were 
deeply aroused by the habitual impressment of our sea- 
man ; by the contemptuous deportment of England to 
our repref=entatives, and by the destruction of our com- 
merce, and an intense war spirit prevaded the land, 
which was alone held in check by the extraordinary in- 
fluence of Mr. Jefferson, and by his determined peace 
policy. It nevertheless became apparent to all men, that 
unless Great Britain altered her conduct to this county, 

170 Historical Pen SJieiclies. 

wliich was hardly anticipated, war would be inevitable 
in a year or two. It was under these circnmstances that 
Mr. Faulkner, unable to procure a position in the regular 
army, determined to organize a volunteer artillery com- 
pany in Berkeley County, to meet any of the x^robable 
demands of war. This was promptly accomplished. 
James Faulkner was elected Captain, Robert Wilson 1st 
Lieutenant and William Long 2nd Lieutenant. xVmong 
the names familiar to our people who thus volunteered 
as iDrivates, were John R. Cooke, Edward Colston, John 
Alburtis, Alexander Stephen, William Campbell, James 
Newkirk, Tillotson Fryatt, Adam Young, Jacob Snyder, 
John Mathews, Jacob Poisal, Chas. Pendleton, James 
Shearer, Nicholas Orrick, and some fifty others. It will 
be conceded that no other vounteer company in the State 
was better drilled ; was composed of more reliable ma- 
terial, or could boast of men more determined to stand 
by their country in any hour of difficulty or trial. 

On the ISth of June 1812, war was declared by the 
United States against Great Britain. During that year 
and the earlier part of 1813, the fighting was mainly con- 
fined to the Canada frontier, where notwitstanding some 
brilliant victories upon our part, the British, aided by 
the Northwestern Indians under Tecumseh, inflicted 
some severe defeats upon our armies. 

In the Martinsburg Gazette of the 7th of February, 
1812, is found the following extract from an address to 
the artillery company : 

"You have upon two former occasions, volunteered 
your services to the government, the commander hopes 
your patriotic and military pride will not be damped by 
the circumstance that you have not been ordered into 
actual service. lie flatters himself that as there is now 
every i^robability of a war that you ,will authorize him to 
offer your services to march wherever you may be require 
ed. He returns his thanks to those patriotic young men 
not belonging to the company, who enrolled themselves 

Historical Pen SketcJies. 171 

to march with him on a former occasion, and Hatters him- 
self that they, and others who feel a desire to serve their 
country in the ranks of its defenders, will come forward 
and join the parade on Saturday, the 22nd inst., the an- 
niversary of the birth of the immortal Washington. 

James Faulknek, 

Feb. 1th, 1812 Captain 1st M. Artillery. 

As early as March, 1812, there were satisfactory rea- 
sons to believe that a formidable military and naval dem- 
onstration of the enemy would, in the course of the 
summer, if not earlier, be made upon Norfolk and Ports- 
mouth, in Virginia. Accordingly general orders were 
issued on the 24th of March, for the assembling of a con- 
siderable x)ortion of the State militia at those points. 
AmoDg the companies so ordered into service was Captain 
Wilson's Berkeley Artillery, for such it then was. Cap- 
tain Faulkner had been, early in March, promoted to the 
rank of Major of Artillery, was thus separated from his 
company ; and was ordered by Governor Barbour to re- 
port to him at Richmond, and to take command of all 
the artillery companies then assembled at the capital. 
He reported to the Governor on the 10th of April, and 
taking command of these companies he proceeded with 
them to the seat of war. 

Early in June Admiral Warren with a large naval and 
military force arrived in the Chesapeake Bay ; the land 
force being under the command of Gen. Sir Sidney Beck- 
with. The appearance of this formidable force in the 
Chesapeake Bay created much uneasiness in the more 
considerable cities situated upon its waters. Baltimore, 
Annapolis and Norfolk were threatened. But the fleet 
directed its course toward Hampton Roads, and it was 
evident that the cities of Virginia were to receive the 

About four miles west of Norfolk and commanding 
the approach to that city, lay Craney Island, This was- 
the exposed outpost of our military line —the nearest in 

172 Historical Pen Sketches. 

contact with the enemy — a position of great importance 
as the key to the harbor, and which it was indispensa- 
ble that the enemy should possess before they could reach 
the cities of Norfolk and Portsmouth. 

Among the general orders issued by Major General 
Taylor, Commander-in-Chief, on the 13th of June, are 
the following : 

"Major Faulkner of the regiment of Artillery will to- 
morrow take the command of all the artillery and fortifi- 
cations of Craney Island. 

The commander of artillery will direct Capt. Wilson's 
company of artillery to some place near the entrench- 
ments in the rear of Fort Norfolk." 

On the 22nd of June occurred the battle of Craney 
Island. I am not disposed to repeat the details of that 
battle. They can be seen in the various histories of the 
late war with Great Britain, and in the recently illustra- 
ted history of that war by Benson J. Lossing, which con- 
tains a portrait and autograph signature of Major Faulk- 

It can also be seen in the elaborate report of a Com- 
mittee of the House of Delegates of Virginia, who were 
appointed to take testimoney, and to make a thorough 
examination into the details of that battle, and which re- 
port, with the resolutions and evidences accompanying 
it, unanimously concurred in by the House, is thex)roud- 
est monument that coukl be erected to the memory of 
Major Faulkner. 

It is sufficient to say the battle of Craney Island was 
won ; that it was won exclusively by the artillery enga- 
ged in its defence ; that a force of near 3,000 British 
soldiers were signally repulsed ; that the cities of Nor- 
folk and Portsmouth were saved and that the results of 
that battle were hailed throughout the country as a 
National balm for our defeats on the northwestern 

On the 5th of July Major Faulkner was placed in com- 

Historical Pen SkeicJtes. 173 

niand of Forts Barbour and Tar and a mile of breastwork 
extending between the two forts, with his headquarters 
at Norfolk. 

Major Faulkner was not a man of robust constitution, 
but rather of delicate physical organization, and the effect 
of that low-land summer climate, with the fatigues and 
exposures of the service, gave a shock to his system from 
which he never recovered. He was an invalid from the 
close of the war until his death, which occurred on the 
11th of AjDril, 1817, in the 41st year of his age. He was 
buried with military and masonic honors in the Norborne 
cemeterj^, w^here a granite monument now stands erected 
to his memory. 

Postcript.— When the facts connected with the battle 
of Craney Island were under examination by the Legisla- 
ture of Virginia, Major Faulkner' s official report of that 
battle was not before the committee. Indeed, it was not 
known that any copy of it had been preserved or was in 
existence, as the substance of it had been incorporated 
into the account of the battle as given by Major General 
Robt. B. Taylor, then Commanderin Chief. Since that 
that time a copy of it has been found, in the hand- writ- 
ing of the author, inclosed in a letter to Col. ElishaBoyd 
under date of the 6th of July, 1813. It is deemed un- 
necessary to publish it in full, as in all its prominent 
facts it is in harmony with the received histories of that 
battle and in accord wdtli the conclusions of the legisla- 
ture. Had it been before the committee it would have 
removed all doubt upon one point upon which the com.- 
mittee expressly refrained from announcing any opinion ; 
that was to whom the credit was due for the successful 
shot which sunk Admiral Warren's barge. 

The committee say : 

" Scarcely had the enemy been driven, by our well di- 
rected fire, from their assailing position on the land, when 
fifty of their largest barges, filled with men from the 
ships supi^osed to contain about 1,500 sailors and ma- 

174 Historical Pen 

rines, begun to approacli witliin the range of our artil- 
lery. Tliey were advancing towards the island, in col- 
umn order, in two distinct divisions, one following the 
channel between the island and the main land, led on by 
Admiral Warren's barge, the Centipede, a boat upwards 
of fifty feet in length, rowing twenty-four oars, with a 
brass three pounder in her bow, under the command of 
Capt. Hanchett, of his Majesty's ship Diadem ; the other 
directing its course to some point on the north of the 
island. Whilst the barges were api^roaching. Captain 
Emerson observed to Major Faulkner 'Are they near 
enough to lireT 'No, sir,' replied the commander of 
artillery, 'let them approach a little nearer.' In a few 
moments afterwards the word ' fire ' Avas given, when our 
whole battery, except the disabled pieces, opened upon 
the nearest division of boats a brisk and heavy discharge 
of grape and canister. The barges, however, continued 
to advance in the face of this destructive fire until they 
could no longer maintain themselves under it, when the 
Centipede and the boats immediately following her were 
observed to change their direction toward the division of 
barges aiming at the north of the island, at which mo- 
ment the Centipede w^as sunk by a shot from one of the 
guns passing through the boat, in the wake of the after- 
thwart, w^ounding several, and among them Capt. Han- 
chett, the commanding officer of the division, severely in 
the thigh. At this time, so quick and galling was our 
fire, that the enemy were thrown into the greatest con- 
fusion, and the order was soon after given for a hasty re- 
treat to the ships." 

Again the committee say : 

"Much of the eclat which attached to the guns under 
the immediate command of Lieut. Neale, resulted from 
the general impression and belief that it was a shot from 
the 18-pounder which passed through and sunk the Cen- 
tipede. Whether that result was produced by a shot 
from the eighteen, or one of the six-]30unders, this com- 

Historical Pen Slietcltes. 175 

mittee will not undertake to determine. Tliere are strong 
and confident statements and opinions sustaining either 
view, which will be found in the appendix accompany- 
ing this report." 

Had this report been before that body there could have 
been no doubt announced on this point, for Major Faulk- 
ner expressly states in his report: "Captafln Emerson 
and Lieutenant Neale informed me that their guns were 
pointed and in readiness to bear upon the leading boat, 
which proved to be the Admiral's barge. I immediately 
ordered them to fire, when the second fire of Lieut. Neale 
had the desired effect and sunk the barge." 

He concludes his report as follows : 

"The officers principally enged in the action were 
Captain Rook, of the ship Manhattan ; Lieut. Neale, of 
the frigate Constitution ; Capt. Emerson, Lieuts. Howie 
and Godwin and Sergeants Young and Butt, of the Ports- 
mouth Artillery, who, for their skill and bravery in re- 
pelling so large a force of the enemy, deserve the thanks 
of the country. Lieuts. Shubrick, Saunders and Breck- 
enridge, of the Constellation, with their crews, as brave 
and determined a set of men as I ever saw, gave substan- 
tial aid and assistance in the defense.'.' 


Was born at Little York, Pennsylvania, October ICth, 
1753. His father emigrated to Berkeley County in 1758. 
In June, 1775, he volunteered in a company raised in the 
County of Berkeley, under the command of Capt. Hugh 
Stephenson, which marched in July of that year to the 
siege of Boston. At the expiration of one year, their 
term of service having expired, this company was dis- 
banded. Immediately thereafter a rifle regiment was or- 
ganized, of which Hugh Stephenson was appointed Col- 
onel and Abraham Shepherd commissioned as senior Cap- 
tain of one of the companies. Young Bedinger was 
commissioned as Third Lieutenant in this company, and 
his original commission as such signed by John Hancock, 

17G Historical Pen Sketclief, 

President of Congress, may be seen, framed and hanging 
in tlie liouseof his grandson, H. B. Davenport, Esq., near 
Charlestown. After three days' severe fighting at King" s 
Bridge, this regiment, then commanded by Colonel Raw- 
lings, was forced to capitulate, and surrendered them- 
selves as prisoners of war in the capture of Fort Wash- 
ington. TIms occurred on the IGth of November, 1777, 
and Lieut. Bedinger was confined as a prisoner on Long 
Island until the summer of 1781. After having thus en- 
dured the rigor of" imprisonment for four years, he was 
exchanged, and, returning to the army, he was commis- 
sioned a Captain in the 4th Virginia Regiment and or- 
dered to Yorktown, but before he reached that point the 
surrender of Lord Cornwallis and his army had taken 
place. At the close of the revolutionary war he returned 
to Shepherdstovvn, then in the County of Berkeley, and 
there entered into the mercantile business. Upon the 
death of Moses Hunter he was, in August, 1798, elected 
Clerk of the County Court of Berkeley, when he removed 
to Martinsburg, its county seat. Prior to this time he 
had been elected and served one year as a member of the 
House Delegates of Virginia. The validity of his elec- 
tion as Clerk of the County Court was vigorously con- 
tested by Col. David Hunter, his competitor for that 
office. This led to protracted litigation, in which the 
ablest counsel in the United States were emj)loyed — John 
Marshall, Luther Martin and Walter Jones being of the 
number, and party spirit then running very high, Bedin- 
ger being a Jeffersonian Republican, and Hunter an ar- 
dent and prominent Federalist, the contest excited deep 
interest throughout the country. The venue of the trial 
of the case was changed by the General Court of Virginia 
at its November term, 1799, from the Winchester District 
Court to Staunton, but subsequently sent back to Win- 
chester. The suit resulted in a judgment, rendered De- 
cember, 1803, setting aside the election of Major Bedin- 
ger and the transfer of the ofiice to his oj^ponent. Col. 

Historical Pen Sketches. 177 

Hunter. Some of the remains of that litigation are to be 
seen upon the records of our courts as late as 1S30. He 
was a member of the Society of the Cincinnatti, and his 
diploma as such, handsomely framed, still adorns the 
parlor of one of his decendants. After his amotion from 
the office of Clerk, he removed to his fine estate "Pro- 
tumna," live miles south of Martinsburg. He was a 
careful farmer and an enthusiastic cultivator of line fruits. 
He possessed an extraordinary memory and delighted in 
his hospitable mansion to dwell upon the incidents of 
our revolutionary war. He could remember, with great 
distinctness, even in very advanced life, the company, 
regiment, rank and service of almost any officer in the 
Virginia line, and it was through his retentive' memory 
that many received that justice from their country which 
otherwise, from lost and mutilated records, they could 
never have obtained. He bore the reputation of a pa- 
triot and good citizen up to the i)eriod of his death, which 
occurred on the 14th of May, 1843, then nearly ninety 
years of age. 


Was among the earliest of those who presented their 
licenses and qualified as practitioners of law in this coun- 
ty. This was on the first day that the first court was 
held in Berkeley county. May 19th, 1772. The proper 
oath of an attorney-at-law was duly administered to him, 
Philip Pendleton and four others. On the same day, as 
the record reads. 

"Alexander White having produced a commission from 
the Attorney General of this county, appointing him 
deputy attorney for this county, the same being read, he 
having taken the usual oath, and sworn Deputy King's 
attorney for this county." 

Mr. White was elected the first member of Congress 
from this District, under the present Constitution of the 
United States. He was a man of marked punctuality 
and system, and a slight evidence of this may be seen in 

178 Historical Fen SJceidies. 

the fact, that lie was the only member of Congress from 
Virginia who vras present on the first day of its session. 
The Annals of Congress are meager in the debates of that 
l^eriod, although accurate so far as they give the sub- 
•stance of the remarks made — a practice that should never 
have been departed from. Mr. White took a prominent 
part in all the debates of that term of Congress, and as 
our enlightened statesmen were then laying the founda- 
tion of our legislative system, the subjects before them 
were necessarily numerous, important and interesting. 
He bore the reputation of a man of learning, of great 
.ability and of ardent patriotism. 

Mr, White was re-elected to the 2nd Congress in 1791, 
Ovef his two competitors, Generals William Darke and 
James Wood. 

In 1798 he was commissioned as magistrate of Berke- 
ley county. 

Mr. White was dragged from his retirement to repre- 
sent the county of Berkeley in the House of Delegates 
of Virginia, during the imjDortant sessions of 1799 and 
1800, when the celebrated report and resolutions of Mr. 
Madison were the subject of such earnest debate, and 
which gave such an impulse to the Revolution which 
brought Mr. Jefferson into power. 

As has been already stated Alexander White was the 
first representative in Congress from this District under 
the present Constitution of the United States. That 
election occurred on the 2nd of February, 1789. At that 
time no census had been taken of the population of the 
States, and the Constitution provided "until such enum- 
eration was made," Virginia should be entitled to ten 
members in the House of Rejpresentatives. The General 
Assembly therefore laid off the State into ten districts, 
making the counties of Berkeley, Hampshire, Shenan- 
doah, Hardy, Monongalia, Ohio, Randolph and Fred- 
erick the first district. It was from this district that Mr. 
White was elected in 1789, and re-elected in February, 

Historical Pen SJcetches. 179 

1791. After the census of 1790 was completed and Con- 
gress had fixed the ratio of reiDrsentation, Virginia be- 
came entitled to 19 representatives and the legislature 
then divided the State into 19 districts making "Berke- 
ley and Frederick" the first District, which so continued 
until after the census of 1800. The first election under 
this apportionment was on the third Monday in March, 
1793, when Robert Rutherford was returned. He was 
re-elected in 1795, General Daniel Morgan in 1797 ; and 
David Holmes, subsequently Governor of Mississippi 
und U. S. Senator from that State, was then elected and 
continued in Congress until the District was changed 
under the apportionment of the census of 1800. 


Of Berkeley was elected to the 3rd Congress in 1793, 
from the District composed of the counties of Berkeley 
and Frederick. He w^as re-elected to the 4th Congress 
in 1795, thus serving four years as a representative in 
■Congress from this District, He was a candidate for re- 
election to the 5th Congress but was defeated by General 
Daniel Morgan. He contested Morgan's election before 
the House, but the decision was in favor of the right of 
Morgan to the seat. 

Mr. Rutherford does not seem to have participated 
very actively in the general debates of the House, and 
yet, in January, 1794, he delivered quite an elaborate 
speech on "The Commerce of the United States," and in 
March, 1776, participated in the great debate of that 
period u^Don the "Constitutional Powers of Congress," 
in reference to treaties and in April, 1696, gave his views 
at large in oioposition to the jDrovision for carrying the 
British treaty into effect. All his views would seem to 
class him with the Democratic rather than the Federal 
side of the House. 

It might afford some interest to take a few extracts 
from these speeches (especially as the re^oorter declares 
them to be authentic, they "having passed the revision 

ISO Historical Pen Sketches. 

of the Speaker") as illustrative of Mr. R's. views and 
opinions, but they must be passed by for tlie present. 

Feeling that he was, in his public course, acting in op- 
position to the recommendations of Washington, he thus 
refers to their personal relations : 

"Much stress has-been laid on the patriotism of the 
President, which makes it necessary for me to reply, lest 
I may be taken for one uninformed. I have had the 
honor of the President's acquaintance well nigh, or quite, 
forty years, and he has supported every character with 
merit, dignity and unswerving attention. I have acted 
with him on trying occasions, sometimes equal, often- 
times in a subordinate sphere, and tho' senior in point of 
years, yet, I uniformly looked up to him as a parent — 
my head and my guide; yet I am independent of the 
President — an unchangeable friendship excepted." 

Judging of Mr. Rutherford by the impression made 
upon me by his speeches in Congress I would say that he 
was a man of strong and original mind — honest and sin- 
cere in all his convictions — upright and independent in 
his bearing, but not of much mental cultivation, nor 
deeply imbued with the facts of history, nor the lessons 
of statesmanship). 

I have heard traditionally and seen in jorint many an- 
ecdotes of Mr. Rutherford illustrative of his homely 
manners, the simplicity of his dress, the frugality of his 
mode of living, and of his awkwardness in society, but 
these stories may or may not be true — and as they touch 
none of the substantial merits of a man — are not worthy 
of being remembered or repeated. 


Represented this county and district in the 5th Con- 
gress of the United States — that is from 1797 to 1799. 
The military history of this distinguished soldier, has 
been so frequently written and is so familiar to the pub- 
lic mind, that it need only here be briefly glanced at. 

Historical Pen Sketches. 181 

He is mentioned in these sketches only because of his 
connection with the County of Berkeley. 

He was born in New Jersey in the year 1737. At the 
age of eighteen, he emigrated to Virginia and obtained 
employment from farmer Roberts, of Berkeley County. 
He delighted in the management and use of his team, 
and acquired throughout life, the subriquet of the " old 
wagoner." He shared in the perils of Braddock's de- 
feat, probably as a wagoner, and was wounded by a bul- 
let through his neck and cheek. The profit of his busi- 
ness as a wagoner enabled him to i:)urchase a tract of land 
in Frederick County, where he lived at the commence- 
ment of the Revolutionary War. In June, 1775, he was 
appointed a captain by Congress. He was in the expedi- 
tion against Quebec, and contributed to the capture of 
Burgoyne. He defeated Tarlton in January, 1781, in the 
battle of Cowpens, taking upwards of 500 x)risoners. For 
this action Congress voted him a gold medal. Soon af- 
terwards he retired from the army and returned to his 

The excise, or as it is most usually called ''The whis- 
key Insurrection," is an interesting episode in our early 
history. It was the first open, defiant and formidable 
opposition of the Federal government, after the adoption 
of our present constitution. It grew out of an act of 
Congress imx)osing an internal revenue duty on distilled 
spirits. Much dissatisfaction existed throughout the 
United States at the imposition of this excise duty. But 
it was in Western Pennsylvania, and especially in the four 
counties of Alleghany, Washington, Green and West- 
moreland, that this dissatisfaction broke out in open re- 
bellion. The revenue officers were seized, tarred and 
feathered. The houses and barns of those supposed to 
be friendly to the Government were burnt. Many acts of 
extreme violence were perpetrated. No civil process 
could be executed. Lawlessness universally prevailed. 
Armed bands of forty and fifty, and even as high as five 

182 Historical Pen Skeiclies. 

hundred, were organized to resist the government. It 
was boldly asserted that the insurgents could bring into 
the field seven thousand well armed troops. It could not 
be supposed that such men as President Washington 
and Secretary Hamilton would tamely submit to see the 
new Government thus paralyzed and defied in the per- 
formance of one of its most important and vital functions. 
A proclamation was issued by President Washington, 
calling upon the insurgents to disperse. This not being 
obeyed, a requisition was made upon the States of Penn- 
sylvania, New Jersey and Virginia for 15,000 troops to 
crush the insurrection. The requisition was promptly 
comjplied with. General Henry Lee, of Virginia, was 
l)laced in command of the army. Gen. Morgan was as- 
signed to the command of the Virginia troops. Hamilton 
left the Treasury Department and remained during the 
expedition at the headquarters of the commanding gen- 
eral. Washington proceeded toward the scene of strife 
as far as York, and designed taking command in person, 
but public business (Congress then being in session) called 
him to Philadelphia. The appearance of this formidable 
army in the disaffected district under such able, popular 
and experienced commanders soon brought the insurgents 
to their senses. They rapidly disbanded and dispersed. 
Some of the leaders were indicted for treason, but no con- 
victions followed, and Gen. Morgan, with a body of Vir- 
ginia militia, was left for some time in the disaffected 
district to see that no further violence Avas attemi:)ted. 

In 1797 Gen. Morgan was elected from the district com- 
posed of the counties of Berkeley and Frederick, as a 
member of the 5th Congress. His opponent was Robt. 
Rutherford, whom he defeated. The election was con- 
tested before the House, but the committee re^Dorted in 
favor of Morgan, and as Rutherford did not appear to 
contest the conclusions of the report, it was unanimously 
concurred in by the House. 

General Morgan submitted no motion and made no 

Historical Pen SJcetcJies. 183 

sjpeecli during his term of service. He was a rougli, un- 
educated man, and while he felt perfectly at home on 
the field of battle, he, with sensible modesty, knew his 
deficiencies in civil life, and felt like a child in the pres- 
ence of the enlightened statesmen then around him. But 
if he did not know how to s^^eak, he knew how to vote 
with his party, and if the records of Congress be searched 
there will be found no name that adhered so loyally to 
its allegiance to the Federal organization as Daniel Mor- 
gan. He had able and accomplished leaders in the per- 
sons of Harrison, Grray, Otis and Robert Goodloe Har- 
per, to point out to him the path of party duty, and he 
follow^ed them with the same unfaltering fidelity with 
which he had followed "Washington in the field of battle. 
He voted for the bill tox3unish "usuriDation of Executive 
authority," and against the repeal of the alien and sedi- 
tion laws, and at the close of his term published an ad- 
dress to his constituents vindicating the administration 
of the elder Adams. ISTo one doubts that he was an hon- 
est and conscientious politician, however much they may 
differ in opinion from him. 

When, in view of a war with France, a provisional 
army was organized in 1798, President Adams favored 
the appointment of General Morgan to its command, sub- 
ject, of course, to the supreme command conferred upon 
Washington, But General Washington insisted upon 
that position being given to Hamilton, which was ac- 
ceded to with a bad grace by Adams, as he hated Hamil- 
ton most cordially, 

Morgan died in W^inchester on the Gth of July, 1802, 
aged 65 years. 


Born in Winchester, was the son of Col. Joseph 
Holmes, of Frederick County, Ya., and a brother of 
Major Andrew Hunter Holmes, so distinguished during 
the recent war with Great Britain for his talents and 
high military qualities. He was killed in the battle of 

184 Historical Pen SkeicJies. 

Mackinaw, on the northern frontiers, on the 4th of x\u- 
gust, 1814, and a sword voted to his heirs by the General 
Assembly of Virginia, in consideration' of his gallantry 
and good conduct. Also brother to Judge Holmes, who 
occasionally presided in this judicial circuit, and brother 
to Ann Holmes, married to Gen. Elisha Boyd, of this 
county. He was a member of the 5th, 6th, 7th, Sth, 9th 
and 10th Congresses. 

At the close of his service in Congress he was, in 1809, 
appointed by President Madison Governor of the terri- 
tory of Mississippi, and when admitted into the Union 
as a State he was elected Governor by the people. He 
was subsequently, in 1820, elected a Senator in Congress 
for six years, from the same State, but resigned before 
the end of his term of service. He died in Winchester 
on the 20th of August, 1832. 

Although twelve consecutive years a member of the 
House of Representatives, and six in the Senate, the 
records of Congress show nothing but his votes. It does 
not appear that he ever submitted a motion or made a 
remark in either body. And yet there must have been 
something very remarkable in the intellect and bearing 
of a man who could, with a different constituency, thus 
pass so triumi:)hantly through all the stages of political 
life, without any of the advantitious aids of public 
speaking. When elected to the Sth Congress he was a 
resident of Shenandoah. Gen. Morgan then represented 
Berkeley and Frederick in that Congress. In 1799 (6th 
Congress) Holmes having removed back to Winchester, 
was elected from the district of Berkeley and Frederick ; 
so in the 7th Congress he represented this district. 
When the district was re-arranged after the census of 
1803, he represented Frederick and Shenandoah from 
1803 to 1809, thus consecutively representing three dis- 
tinct districts of the State within the twelve years of his 
service in the House. 

Gov. Holmes was a man of modest and retiring habits. 

Historical Pen Sketches. 185 

but of captivating manners, and bore the reputation of 
marked ability and of great integrity of cliaracter. He 
was tlie uncle of David Holmes Conrad, now residing in 
this county, after whom he was named. 


Was born in the County of Berkeley, at the eastern 
base of the North Mountain, on the 6th of October, 1769. 
Up to the age of 14 he enjoyed only the limited means 
of education which the common country schools of that 
period afforded. During that time he attended a small 
school not far from the present site of Martinsburg. Our 
thriving town was then a forest, and whilst its eligible 
locality, its gushing springs and valuable water power 
invited to such a destiny, few, if any at that time, con- 
templated it as a seat of population, manufactures and 

In 17S5 he was entered as a student of Liberty Hall 
Academy, (so baptised amidst the revolutionary fires of 
1776,) in Rockbridge County, Ya., a most excellent and 
patriotic institution then under the rectorate of the Rev. 
William Graham, largely patronized throughout the 
south, and yielding a rich harvest of patriots and states- 
men. Although bearing the modest title of an academy, 
it had all the attributes of a college, with power to hold 
land, confer degrees, etc. Like the great Virginia State 
University, springing from the germ of "Albemarle 
Academy," it grew into "Central College," and then 
reached its present grand proportions ; so did this spir- 
ited academy, expanding in dignity, reputation and im- 
ptortance, first develop into "Washington College," and 
recently— in 1S71— into "Washington and Lee Universi- 
ty." Amongst those well known in our State who were 
associated with young Boyd as schoolmates, were Dr. 
Archibald Alexander, of Princeton, Hon. John Baker, of 
Jefferson County ; Chancellor John Brown, Judge John 
Coalter, Col. James McDowell and many others distin- 
guished for their worth, learning and abilit}'. 

186 Historical Pen Sketclies. 

He studied law in the office of Col. Philip Pendleton, 
one of the earliest as well as one of the ablest lawyers 
that ever qualified for practice in our courts. Mr, Boyd 
was elected to the House of Delegates in 1797, with Rich- 
ard Baylor as his colleague, and also in 1796, with Wil- 
liam Lamon as his colleague. In 1798 he was chosen by 
the County Court of Berkeley as its attorney for the 
State, which office he continued to fill for forty years. 
He was married in 1795 to Mary, the daughter of Major 
Andrew Waggoner of revolutionary memory, by whom 
he had one child, a daughter, Sarah Ann Boyd, who was 
married to Philip C. Pendleton on the 25th of November, 
1813. For forty years he gave his almost undivided time 
10 the X3ractice of his profession and to attention to his 
several farms in this county, varied at occasional inter- 
vals by military service, a seat in the House of Delegates 
and Senate of the State, and in the Constitutional Con- 
vention. During all this time he had probably the 
largest and most lucrative practice of any lawyer in this 
section of Virginia. 

Some years after the death of his first wife he was, in 
1806, married to Ann Holmes, daughter of Col. Joseph 
Holmes and sister of Gov. Holmes and Major Andrew 
Hunter Holmes. By her he had four children— Ann Re- 
becca Holmes, married to Humphrey B. Powell, of Lou- 
don County ; John E. Boyd, Rev. Andrew H. H. Boyd 
and Mary, married to Charles J. Faulkner. 

Mrs. Ann Boyd died on the 20th of July, 1819. An 
eloquent and impressive funeral sermon was i)reached 
over her remains by the Rev. J. B. Hoge, which was 
printed in pamphlet form, and copies of it are carefully 
preserved hy the family. 

He had command of the 4th Regiment of Virginia mil- 
itia in 1814 during the war with Great Britain, when the 
cities of Norfolk and Portsmouth were threatened by a 
second attack of the British land and naval forces. The 
Norfolk Herald, 1814, contains an interesting correspond- 

Historical Pen SketcJies. 187 

ence between the officers of that regiment and Col. Boyd 
when the term of service of that regiment was about to 
expire. It bears date the 1st of August, at Camp Peach 
Orchard. The officers say that they cannot permit the 
occasion to pass by "without paying to Col. Boyd the 
tribute of their highest respect and esteem." "They 
have at all times felt confident that when the hour of 
danger arrived that on his patriotism and courage they 
could, with the utmost confidence, rely to lead them on 
in defense of the country." They also take pride in de- 
claring that w^hatever military knowledge they have ac- 
quired is due to that strictness of military discipline 
which has uniformly characterized the 4th Regiment 
since he had the command of it. "And if they ever 
should again be called into the service of their country, 
it is their wish that they should be placed under his com- 
mand." To this complimentary letter Col. Boyd re- 
plied, which is also published in the same paper. He 
was subsequently elected a brigadier general by the Gen- 
eral Assembly of Virginia. He was a member of the 
convention of 1829-30, which framed the first amended 
Constitution of Virginia, serving in that body with Mad- 
ison, Monroe, Marshall, Giles, Tazwell, Leigh, Barbour, 
Johnson and many other of the most distinguished men 
of Virginia. 

In the election which occurred after the adoption of 
the "Amended Constitution" in 1830, he was chosen 
without opiDOsition, and by the unanimous vote of the 
counties of Berkeley, Morgan and Hampshire, to a seat 
in the Senate of Virginia. 

He was commissioned a magistrate of the County of 
Berkeley, in 1838, upon the resignation of his office of 
State's attorney. 

He was an earnest and sincere advocate for a reform of 
the "Old Constitution" of Virginia, and for placing its 
government upon a moTe liberal and republican basis. 
He was generally selected as Chairman of the county 

188 Historical Pen Sketches. 

meetiDg held here, and a delegate to the State Reform 

He took an active interest in the educational institu- 
tions of the county ; and had the principal agency in es- 
tablishing the Martinsburg Academy, not far from his 

He was a third time married and then to Elizabeth 
Byrd, of the Westover family, who died on the 16th of 
N'ovember, 1839, leaving no issue. 

Gen. Boyd departed this life on the 21st day of Octo- 
ber, 1841, and was buried in the family graveyard ad- 
joining Norborne Cemetery. 

He was a man of vigorous mind, and of indomitable 
energy and perserverance. His power at the bar consis- 
ted in his unflaging attention to business, his thorough 
capacity to master details, and in his earnest, direct and 
manly appeals to the common sense and intelligence of 
courts and juries. He was a man of perfect system and 
of extraordinary capacity for labor ; and he commanded 
universal confidence by his stern and unbending integri- 
ty of character. 


Vvas born in Berkeley County, .Virginia, about the 
year 1769. He was entered as a student of Liberty Hall 
Academy, Rockbridge County, Va., between the years 
1783 and 1789, and among his fellow students of that 
period, were Dr. Alexander, of Princeton, and General 
Boyd of this county. He took up his residence in Shep- 
herdstown, on the Potomac River, then the most flourish- 
ing town in the lower valley, and soon rose to the dis- 
tinction of an able and accomplished lawyer. 

He was nominated by the Federal party, and elected 
to the 12th Congress from the District of Berkeley, Jef- 
ferson and Hampshire, embracing the term from 1811 
to 1813. 

The Annals of Congi'ess give no report of any speech 

Historical Pen SJcetclies. 189 

made by him, yet tlie Martinsburg Gazette, of January 
the 24th, 1812, publishes some very forcible and eloquent 
remarks made by him in Committee of the Whole, on 
the 26th of December, 1811, in favor of pensioning the 
surviving officers and soldiers of the Revolutionary War. 
The omission of this speech from the "Annals" is to be 
explained by the fact, that it was delivered in the Com- 
mittee of the Whole, and no report, it seems, was usual- 
ly made at that time of speeches made in the Committee. 

On the 4th of February, 1812, he presented a petition 
from Jefferson County, asking Congress to make certain 
improvements near Georgetown, that would give to the 
farmers of the upper county a choice of markets for their 
flour between Alexandria and Georgetown. It was sta- 
ted that 300,000 barrels of flour were then annually con- 
veyed to market by the river, in boats, and the trade 
was increasing. 

Mr. Baker was an ardent and uncompromising Feder- 
alist, and voted steadily with his party against a declara- 
tion of war against Great Britain, and all other measures 
in aid of that belligerent movement. He was one of the 
34 members of Congress who published, after the rising 
of Congress, an able and elaborate defence of their oj)- 
position to the war. The Federalists of Berkeley were 
much pleased with his votes and on the 12th of 
August 1812, gave him a public dinner to express their 
approval to his course in Congress. Among the toasts of ■ 
that occasion was the following : 

"The war rashly and unnecessarily begun. May it be 
speedily terminated by an honorable peace." 

The sentiment announced in honor of Mr. Baker was 
"A disciple of Washington and true to his principles." 

In the summer of 1813 Shepherdstown was visited by 
a violent bilious epidemic, scarcely less fatal than the 
yellow fever. Many of her most prominent citizens fell 
under the terrible visitation. Among the number was 
Hon. John Baker, who died on the ISth of August, 1823, 

190 Historical Pen Sketdies. 

leaving an estimable widow and an interesting family 
of children. One of his daughters was married to T. W. 
Gilmer, Governor of Virginia, and Secretary of the 

Mr. Baker was universally respected for his high at- 
tainments as a lawyer — for his many virtues as a i^rivate 
citizen — for his courage, firmness and consistency as a 


Was born in Martinsburg on the 24th of March, 1809, 
tind after enjoying the advantages of a collegiate educa- 
tion at Jefferson College, was admitted to the Berkeley 
bar, in 1831. Shortly after wads he became the proprie- 
tor and editor of the Martinsburg Gazette^ and continued 
as such until March 1845, when he was succeeded in the 
control and management of the paper by James E. Stew- 
art, Esq. 

On the 2nd of August, 1832, he was married to Martha 
Crawford, daughter of Captain John Abell, an intelli- 
gent and highly esteemed farmer of Jefferson county. 
The author of this sketch participated in the ceremony, as 
first groomsman, and for some days enjoyed the kind 
hospitality of that charming and interesting family. 

This may be an appropriate occasion to notice very 
briefly the history of that venerable journal. It was es- 
tablised in 1801 by Nathaniel Willis, the father of the 
distinguished poet, N. P. Willis and then called the 
Berkeley Intelligencer. In 1803, he disposed of his in- 
terest in the paper to John Alburtis, who at first styled 
it the Berkeley and Jefferson Intelligencer., but a news- 
paper soon making its appearance in the recently formed 
County of Jefferson, its name was changed to the Mar- 
tinsburg Gazette., which name it retained until the open- 
ing of our civil war, when its publication altogether ceas- 
ed. It was under the control of John Alburtis from 1803 
until 1823, of Washington Evans from 1823 until 1833, of 
Col. Edward P. Hunter, from 1833 to March, 1845 ; of 

Historical Pen SJceicTies. 191 

James E. Stewart and subsequently of Stewart & Gregg, 
from March 1845 to March 1847. It then passed into the 
hands of Charles H. Lewis, and lastly under the control 
of A. T. Haupin, boasting, a continuous and prosperous 
existence of sixty years. 

In May 1832, he attended as a member the memorable 
"Young Men's Convention," in Washington city, upon 
Avhich occasion Mr. Clay appeared before that body and 
electrified it with one of his most eloquent and stirring 

General Boyd having held the office of county attorney 
for forty years, resigned it at the March court, 1838, 
when an animated contest took i)lace for the succession, 
between Edmund P. Hunter and David Holmes Conrad. 
The power of appointment was then vested in the county 
court, and the justices having been all summoned for 
the x^nrpose, a full court was present. The contest exci- 
ted unusual interest and for a time its result was deemed 
doubtful. But Hunter obtained a majority of the votes 
and was declared elected. It is unneceseary to say that 
he filled the office for many years, not only with ability, 
but with justice to the State and with judicious clemency 
to the accused. 

He enjoyed a high degree of popularity in the county, 
and was elected a member of the House of Delegates of 
Virginia, in 1834, 1835, 1839 and 1841. Plis course as a 
member of that body gave great satisfaction to his con- 
stituents, as it was uniformly marked by dilligent atten- 
tion to their local interests, and by a faithful expression 
in their sentiments on all the questions of State and na- 
tional policy. 

He was Colonel of the 67th Regiment of Virginia mili- 
tia and took a deep interest in all the details of its or- 
ganization. When dressed in full military costume it 
would be difficult to find a more striking realization of 
im]Dosing manhood than he presented. 

He was an ardent and enthusiastic member of the 

192 Historical Pen Sketclies. 

Masonic order, and worthily rose to the highest honors 
of the craft in Virginia. 

He was in the latter portion of his life a sincere and 
exemplary member of the Episcopal Church, and exhib- 
ited in his conduct, a thorough conviction of the truths 
of revealed religion. 

In September, 1854, the Asiatic cholera — that terrible 
pestilence ''which walketh in darkness, and wasteth in 
noonday" — struck the affrighted population of Martins- 
burg. There are those amongst us yet, who can well 
remember the alarm and terror which its unwelcome ap- 
pearance excited here. Hundreds tied from the place 
with, precipitation. Many families whose wealth and 
means ought to have caused them to stand by their 
friends in their sad affliction, abandoned their homes for 
the mountains and cities. The carnage was that of a 
battle field. One hundred and eleven of our citizens fell 
victims to its fury. Among the first of those who per- 
ished was the lamented Colonel Edmund P. Hunter, who 
died on the 7th of September, 1854, in the 45th year of 
his age. 

Edmund P. Hunter was not endowed with any very 
high or extraordinary quality of intellect, but he pos- 
sessed such a rare combination of excellent qualities, 
both moral and intellectual, as more than compensated 
for the want of any particular brilliancy of parts. He 
was a man of sense and of good judgment ; lucid in his 
mental perceptions, and capable of expressing his con- 
victions with clearness and force. Superior to all artifice 
himself, he was proof against the arts of sophistry and 
deception in others. He was a fair speaker and a sound 
and manly reasoner, and these, with his open-heartedness 
and honesty of character, made him always formidable 
at the bar. He had something of his father's fondness 
for broad humor and a joke, wiiich occasionally flashed 
out in the trial of a case, but was more particularly ob- 
servable in the social circle. All his impulses were kind 

Historical Pen SJcetches. 193 

and generous. His liosiDitality was proverbial. He was 
a stranger to envy, hatred, malice, and all uncliaritable- 
ness. He was firm and steadfast in liis friendsliip, and 
ever outspoken and candid in the expression of his opin- 
ions. I dare not penetrate the domestic sanctuary and* 
speculate, to what extent, his loss must have agonized' 
that sacred circle ; but I can truly say, that his friends i 
and brethren of the bar have never ceased to lament the^ 
day that deprived them of his joyous presence and at- 
tractive companionship. 

The sweet remembrance of the just 
Shall flourish when he sleeps in dust. 

\_By Virgil A. Lewis, of Mason City, W. Va.,in IV. Va. School Joiirnal.'\ 

In the settlement of the western wilderness, what is 
now West Virginia can boast of pioneers whose names 
are as honored and should occupy as high a place upon 
the temple of fame as any that appear in the pages of 
pioneer history. But alas ! many of them have been 
lost in oblivion, while those known to us, some who 
merit enduring monuments, scarce found a tomb. The 
great Roman lyric poet informs us that, "The names of 
the heroes who flourished before the days of Agamem- 
non were lost for want of a recording pen." This is true, 
too, of many of those who first planted the standard of 
civilization within the present confines of West Virginia. 
What a valuable contribution to the literature of the 
State would the record of their lives be % But much is 
irretrievably lost. Then let that which has survived the 
lapse of a century, be carefully preserved and cherished 
by a generation now enjoying the fruits of the toils and 
privations of the men and women who reared the first 
cabin homes within the confines of the " Little Mountain 

194 Historical Pen SJietcltes. 

On the bank of Middle Creek, a tributary of Opeqiion 
River, in the southern part of Berkeley County, stands 
the little village of Darkesville, which was made a town 
"by an act of the Virginia Legislature December 7, 1791, 
when Washington had served two years of his first term 
as President of the United States. Who that now visits 
the little town or sees dimly marked on the map of the 
State, "Darkesville P. O." stops to enquire why it was 
so called ? And who, that does, will not be surprised to 
learn that it commemorates one of the most distinguished 
names which appear in frontier annals — that of General 
William Darke. 

He was born near Lancaster, Pennsylvania, in 1736, 
and in 1741, when but five years of age, accompanied his 
j)arents south of the Potomac, where they reared their 
cabin home within a few miles of the present site of 
Shepherdstown, now in Jefferson County, W. Ya. Here 
they were on the outmost boundary of civilization, while 
to the west of them lay the vast, untrodden American 
wilderness. Their nearest neighbors appear to have been 
Thomas Shepherd, the founder of Shepherdstown, and 
Robert Harper, whose name is preserved in that of Har- 
per's Ferry. Here, among wild solicitudes, young Darke 
grew to manhood. Nature made him a nobleman ; he 
was endowed with a herculean frame ; his manners 
rough ; his mind was strong but uncultivated, and his 
disposition was frank and fearless. From infancy he 
was familiar with " war's dread alarm," for throughout 
his youthful years he had listened to the recital of the 
bloody drama then being enacted on the frontiers of 
Virginia and Pennsylvania. This familiarity with the 
story of savage warfare aroused within him a spirit of 
adventure and daring, and he longed to engage in "strug- 
gles fierce and wild." The oiDportunity soon came. In 
the spring of 1755, General Edward Braddock arrived in 
Alexandria, Virginia, with an army of two thousand 
men, consisting of the 44th and 48th Royal Infantry 

Historical Pen SketcTies. 195 

Regiments. This force i^roceeded up tlie Potomac, and 
at Fort Cumberland— now Cumberland City, Maryland 
— was joined by a regiment of Virginia Provincials, in 
the ranks of which were many Valley men, one of them 
being AVilliam Darke, then but nineteen years of age. 

The march into the wilderness began. Slowly the 
splendid pageant moved on ; the long line of scarlet 
uniforms contrasting strangely with the verdure of the 
forest, w^hile strains of martial music filled the air — 
sounds so strange beneath the dark shades of the Ameri- 
can forest. It was the evening of the 8th of July, 1775, 
when the English columns for the second time reached 
the Monongahela, at a x)oint ten miles from Fort Du- 
quesne. On the next day a crossing was effected, and 
once across the stream the order to march was given, but 
scarcely was the column in motion when Gordon, one of 
the engineers, saw the French and Indians bounding 
through the forest. At once a deadly fire was poured in 
upon the English, who returned \i with but little effect. 
Braddock formed the regulars into squares, as though he 
had been maneuvering in the fields of Europe, and thus 
they were shot down in heaps. Of the twelve hundred 
men wdio crossed the Monongahela, sixty-seven officers 
and seven hundred privates were either killed or wound- 
ed. Braddock was among the fallen, and of all his aides, 
Washington alone was left. Many Virginians were among 
the dead, but a sufficient number were left — among 
whom was William Darke — to form a line and cover the 
retreat of the shattered army back to Fort Cumberland, 
whence Colonel Dunbar marched the regulars back to 
Philadelphia, and the Virginians returned to their fron- 
tier homes, there to withstand a storm of warfare then 
raging fiercer than ever before. 

During the next fifteen years, Captain Darke was en- 
gaged in defending the Virginia frontier against the in- 
cursions of the savages, and associated with him in the 
same daring and noble work, were many destined to leave 

19G Historical Pen SJietclies. 

a name behind tliem, and some to leave an impress upon 
tlie age in whicli tliey lived. Among them were George 
Washington, George Rogers Clark, William Clark and 
Andrew Lewis. 

When the storm of revolution came, Captain Darke 
hastened to join the patriotic army in which, because of 
meritorious service, he Avas soon promoted to the rank of 
lieutenant colonel. He, together with the greater part of 
his regiment, was taken prisoner at Germantown and de- 
tained on board a prisonship until November 1, 1780, 
when he was exchanged and returned to his post in the 
army. During the next spring he recruited his regiment 
(known as the "Hampshire and Berkeley regiment") at 
the head of which he marched to Tidewater, Virginia, 
and was actively engaged during the siege of Yorktown, 
at which place, on the 19th of October, 1781, he witness- 
ed the surrender of Cornwallis' army to the combined 
forces of America and France. At the close of the Revo- 
lution, Colonel Darke, like his illustrious chieftain, re- 
turned to his home and engaged in agricultural pursuits 
until called upon to serve his State in another capacity 
than that of a soldier. 

Soon it was seen that while the Articles of Confedera- 
tion had bound the country together in the time of war, 
they were not adai)ted to the new order of things ; and 
for the purpose of forming "a more perfect union," the 
Federal Constitution was framed. Its firmest supporters 
w^ere the great men who had led the armies of the Re- 
public and achieved its independence. 

The convention which assembled in Richmond in June, 
1788, to ratify that instrument, was composed of some of 
the most illustrious men of Virginia. The names of Mar- 
shall, Madison, Monroe, Mason, Nicholas, Henry, Ran- 
dolph, Pendleton, Lee, Washington, Wythe, Harrison, 
Bland, Grayson and a host of others, shed a lustre on 
the deliberations of that august body, which has never 
been surpassed in the annals of the Old Dominion. The 

Historical Pen Sketches. 197 

debates display a degree of eloquence and talent, cer- 
tainly, at that time unequalled by any gathering of pub- 
lic men in this country. There sat General Adam Ste- 
phen, the founder of Martinsburg, and General William 
Darke, as the delegates from Berkeley county. Both 
were ardent Federalists, and both voted for the ratifica- 
tion of the Federal Constitution, despite the powerful 
opposition at the head of which was the immortal 

From the halls of the convention General Darke re- 
tired to his Berkeley county home, where he continued 
his agricultural pursuits until the renewal of the Indian 
war in 1791. With it came the call to arms and once 
more General Darke, aroused by the military spirit within 
him, entered the army as colonel commanding the Sec- 
ond Virginia Regiment. Descending the Ohio his force 
reached Fort AVashington — now Cincinnati — where the 
army was collecting for invasion of the Indian county. 
General Arthur St. Clair was placed in command, and in 
October of the above named year the march into the 
wilderness began. 

On the Hrd of November the army encamped near the 
j)resent boundary line between Indiana and Ohio, on the 
bank of the St. Mary's river, a tributary of the Wabash, 
but which St. Clair believed to be a branch of the Miami 
of the Lake. Here, at day break the next morning, it 
was attacked on all sides by the combined strength of 
the western tribes, at the head of which was the distin- 
guished chief tan Little Turtle, and for live dreadful hours 
was continued a slaughter unparalleled in the annals of 
forest warfare. 

At the time of the attack Col. Darke's regiment, 
together with two battalions, occupied the second line, 
and when the first gave way his regiment received almost 
the entire shock of battle, the men executing every order 
of command. During the dreadful hours which followed. 

19S Historical Pen SJietcJtes 

tie was the coolest man on that bloody and chaotic field, 
and his escape seems to have been almost miraculous. 
Possessed of a tall, striking figure, in full uniform and 
mounted on horseback, he headed three desperate charges 
against the enemy, in each of which he was a conspicu- 
ous mark. His clothes were cut in many places, but he 
escaped with only a slight flesh wound. In the last charge 
the ensign of his regiment, a youth of seventeen, was 
shot through the heart and fell in the rear of the regi- 
ment, which was then returning to its original position. 
An Indian, attracted by his rich uniform, sprang up 
from the grass and rushed forward to scalp him. Col. 
Darke, who was then at the rear of the regiment, sud- 
denly wheeling his horse, dashed at the savage and clef fc 
his skull with his broadsword. By this act he drew upon 
himself the rapid discharge of more than a dozen rifles, 
but escaped and joined his regiment, though forced to 
leave the body of the ensign to the enemy. Among the 
killed in this charge was Captain Joseph Darke, the 
youngest son of the Colonel. At length the troops yet 
alive began a rapid retreat which was covered by Darke's 
regiment to Fort Jefferson, a distance of thirty miles, 
which they reached the same night. Here a council of war 
was held and Colonel Darke urged the expediency of an 
immediate attack, believing that the savages flushed with 
victory were unprej)ared for a second contest, but he was 

Stowed away among the archives in the office of the 
Secretary of War at Washington, deposited there dur- 
ing the administration of that office by General Henry 
Knox. "The Artillerist of Revolution," is a production 
in which is told a melancholy tale of sadness and woe. 
It is the official report of General St. Clair, written after 
the return of the shattered army to Fort Washington, 
and bearing date November 9, 1791. In it he speaks at 
length of the heroic bravery exhibited by his men when 
hundreds of them were being shot down on the banks of 

Historical Pen SJcetclies. 199 

the St. Mary — falling under the fierce fire of an unseen 
enemy — and then says : 

"Colonel Darke was ordered to make a charge with a 
part of the second line and to turn to the left fiank of 
the enemy. This was executed with great spirit, and at 
first promised much success. The Indians instantly gave 
way and were driven back three or four hundred yards ; 
but for want of a sufficient number of riflemen to joursue 
this advantage, they soon returned, and the troops were 
obliged to give back in their turn. At this moment they 
had entered our camp by the left flank, having pursued 
back the toops that were stationed there." 

From the same sad recital we are, told farther on, that 
Col. Darke's Virginians made a second charge, in which 
every commissioned oflicer of the regiment) was killed 
except three, and of them — CaxDtain Greaton — was dan- 
gerously wounded. Of the Virginians who yielded up 
their lives on that fatal field, eighty are said to have been 
from Berkeley county, now in West Virginia. Long 
years after the mournful story of their fall was rehears- 
ed around the hearthstones in the mountain homes of 
West Virginia, old soldiers chanted "St. Clair's Defeat," 
Avhich told in plaintive accents how 

"We lost uiue hundred men ou the banks of the St. Mary." 

From Fort Washington Col. Darke returned to Berke- 
ley county, which he almost continuously represented in 
the General Assembly until his death which occurred 
November 20, 1801, when he found a grave near the spot 
where early in life he had found a home. 

Thus passed to rest a representative of the Pioneer 
Age, which was to AVest Virginia what the Heroic Age 
was to Greece. The men with whom he lived and acted 
were as fearless and hardy a race as ever braved the per- 
ils of the wilderness. Time has waged a merciless war- 
fare uiDon the memorials of the age in which they lived, 
and that which has survived should be placed beyond 
the XDOSsibility of destruction. 

jiiilSTORY records no data for the introduction of 

Negroes, or slaves, that were held in bondage in 
this county, earlie^^ than the time of Lord Fairfax, about 
the year 1738. It will be noticed that in several of Fair- 
fax's grants, a number of slaves were included, at which 
period he kej^t over a hundred at one time. They were 
then sold and purchased at that day, in the same manner 
as we would handle dumb brutes at the jDresent day. 
The earliest Court record concerning slavery, dates back 
to April 17, 1772, when a commission was received by the 
first justices who were appointed to transact the business 
of the county, by the Governor of the Colony. The fol- 
lowing is taken from the original copy, now on file in the 
County Clerk's office : 

" Virginia,sct. : John, Earlof Dunmore, his majesty's 
lieutenant and governor general of the colony and domin- 
ion of Virginia, and vice-admiral of the same. To Ralph 
Wormley, Jacob Hite, VanSweaiingen, Thomas Ruther- 
ford, Adam Stephen, John Neville, Thomas Swearingen, 
Samuel Washington, James Hourse, William Little, 
Robert Stephen, John Briscoe, Hugh Lyle, James Strode, 
William Morgan, Robert Stogdon, James Seaton, Robert 
AVillis and Thomas Robinson, gentlemen of the County 
of Berkeley ; greeting : Whereas, pursuant to an Act 
of Assembly, made at a General Assembly, begun and 
liolden at the capitol, in the city of Williamsburg, in the 
fifth year of his i^resent Majesty's reign, entitled an act 
for ' amending the act entitled an act directing the trial 
of slaves committing cajntal crimes, and for the more 
effectual punishing of conspiracies and insurrections of 

Slavery. 201 

them, and for the better government of Negroes, Mulat- 
toes and Indians, bond or free,' the governor, or com- 
mander-in-chief of this colony, for the time being, is 
desired and empowered to issue commissions of Oyer and 
Terminer, directed to the justices of each county, respect- 
ively, empowering them, from time to time, to try, con- 
demn and execute, or otherwise punish or acquit all 
slaves committing capital crimes within their county : 
Know ye, therefore, that I, the said John, Earl of Dun - 
more, by virtue of the powers and authorities to me given 
by the said act, as commander-in-chief of this dominion, 
do assign and empower you, the said [the above named 
parties] or any four or more of you, whereof any of you, 
the said [the above named j)arties] shall be one, justices, 
in such manner, and by such ways and methods, as in 
the said acts of the General Assembly, are directed, pre- 
scribed and set down, to enquire of and to hear and de- 
termine, all treasons, petit treasons, or misprisons thereof, 
felonies, murders or other offences, or capital crimes 
whatsoever, committed or perpetrated within the said 
county, by any slave or slaves whatsoever ; for the better 
performance whereof, you, or any four or more of you, 
as aforesaid, are hereby required and commanded to meet 
at the court house of the said county, when thereunto 
required by the sheriff of the said county, for the trial of 
any slave or slaves, committing any of the offences above 
mentioned, and any such slave or slaves, being found 
guilty, in such manner, and upon such evidence, as the 
said acts of the General Assembly do direct, to pass 
judgment as the law directs for the like crimes, and on 
such judgment to award execution, or otherwise to ac- 
quit, as of right ought to be done, or to carry into execu- 
tion any judgment by you given on such trial. Given 
under my hand, and the seal of the colony, at Williams- 
burg, the 17th day of April, 1772, iu the twelfth year of 
the reign of our Sovereign Lord, George the Third. 


202 Slavery. 

The first offence committed and recorded is as follows : 
"Phil, Sambo, Joe, Will, Jack, Sam, Anthony, Ede, 
Hannah, Peggy, Betty and Peg, negroes, belonging to 
Mathew Whiting, being bound to appear at this court 
for stealing hogs, the property of John Cranes, appear- 
ed according to their master's recognizance ; on hearing 
the same it is the oi^inion of the Court that the said Jack, 
Joe, Phil and Will, are guilty of the said offence, and it 
is ordered that the sheriff give them thirty-nine lashes 
on their bare backs, at the public whij^ping-post, well 
laid on, and that the others are not guilty ; ordered that 
they be discharged." 

To give the reader, an idea of the treatment toward 
slaves, in this section of country, it may prove of inter- 
est to publish the following extract as told by Samuel 
Kercheval : "My residence was in a neighborhood where 
slaves and convicts were numerous, and where tortures 
inflicted upon them had become the occurrences of almost 
every day, so that they were viewed with indifference by 
the whole population of the neighborhood as a matter of 
course. I had not been long in my new habitation, be- 
fore I witnessed a scene which I shall never forget. A 
convict servant, accused of some trivial offense, was 
doomed to the whip, tied with his arms axtended up- 
wards to the limb of a tree, and a bundle of hickories 
thrown down before him, which he was ordered to look 
at, and told that they should all be worn out on him, 
and a great many more, if he did not make confession of 
the crime alleged against him. The operation then be- 
gan by tucking up the shirt over his head, so as to leave 
his back and shoulders naked. The master then took 
two of the hickories in his hand, and by forward and 
backhanded strokes, each of which sounded like a wagon 
whip, and applied wifh the utmost rapidity and with his 
whole muscular strength, in a few seconds lacerated the 
shoulders of the poor miserable sufferer with not less 
than fifty scourges, so that in a little time the whole of 

Slavery. 203 

his slioulders Iiad the appearance of a mass of blood, 
streams of which soon began to flow down his back and 
sides. He then made a confession of his fault, one not 
worth naming ; but this did not save him from further 
torture. He put his master "to the trouble of whipping 
him and he must have a little more." His trousers were 
then unbuttoned and suffered to fall down about his feet ; 
two new hickories were selected from the bundle, and 
so applied, that in a short time his posteriors, like his 
shoulders, exhibited nothing but laceration and blood. 
A consultation was then held between the master and 
the bystanders, who had been coolly looking on, in which 
it was humanely concluded "that he had got enough." 
A basin of brine and a cloth were ordered to be brought, 
with which his stripes were wased, or salted as they 
called it. During this operation the suffering wretch 
writhed and groaned as if in the agonies of death. He 
was then untied and told to go home, and mistress would 
tell him what to do." 

" It frequently happened that torture was inflicted 
upon slaves and convicts in. a more protracted manner 
than that above described. When the victim of cruelty 
was doomed by his master to receive the lash, several of 
his neighbors were called on for their assistance. They 
attended at the time and place appointed. A jug of rum 
and water were provided for the occasion. After the 
trembling wretch was brought forth and tied up, the 
number of lashes which he was to receive was determined 
on. Who should begin the operation was decided by 
lot or otherwise, and the torture commenced. A.t the 
conclusion of the first course the operator, pretending 
great weariness, called for a drink of rum and water, in 
which he was joined by the company. A certain time 
was allowed for the subject of their cruelty " to cool," 
as they called it. When the allotted time had expired 
the next hand took his turn, and in like manner ended 
with a drink, and so on until the appointed number of 

204 Slaxsry. 

lashes were all imposed. This operation lasted several 
hours, and sometimes half a day, at the conclusion of 
which the sufferer, with his hands swollen with the cords, 
was unbound and suffered to put on his shirt. His exe- 
cutioners, to whom the operation was rather a frolic than 
otherwise, returned home from the scene of their labor 
half drunk. Another method of jiunishment still more 
protracted than this was that of dooming a slave to re- 
ceive so many lashes during several days in succession, 
each whipping, except the first, being called "tickling 
up the old scabs." Wagoners in the neighborhood have 
been known to fasten the slaves, and, with a Jug of rum, 
amuse themselves by making the deepest scores on their 
back for wages." 

It has been stated by several in their writings that 
through the Shenandoah Yalley slaves were treated with 
the utmost cruelty, and the further South it penetrated 
the worse the barbarity. 

The following is taken from an old court docket of 
1792 : "At a court held in Berkeley County the 4th day 
of November, 1792, for the examination of Nell, a Mulatto 
woman slave, on suspicion of feloniously stealing from 
Amos Davis one muslin sheet, one white linen sheet, one 
girl's slipp, one flannel petticoat, a large shawl, one 
white linen handkerchief ruffled, and one black lace tip- 
pett. Pkesent : John Cook, David Hunter, James Max- 
well, John Kerney and Nicholas Orrick, Gentlemen Jus- 
tices. The Prisoner being led to the bar, and it being 
demanded of her whether she was guilty of the facts 
wherewith she stood charged or not guilty, said that she 
was in nowise thereof guilty. Whereof sundry witnesses 
were examined, on consideration of whose testimony, 
and the circumstances attending the same, it is the oj^iin- 
ion of the Court that she is guilty of petit larceny onlj^ 
Therefore it is ordered that the sheriff do take her to 
the public whipping post and there give her thirty-nine 

Slavery. 205 

lashes on lier bare back, well laid on, and then discharge 

The old dockets show a number of similar cases, in 
which both male and female were treated with the utmost 
and most cruel barbarity. 

I might here relate many other methods of torture, 
such as the thumb screw, sweating, the birch, etc. ; but 
it is enough — the heart sickens at the writing of such 
cruelties. There are several incidents that occurred in 
our i)resent town, worthy of note, of which Capt. Wm. 
Hoke, now living, is my informant : 

For a long while a whipping post and pillory stood in 
front of the Court House, (the present site) and was con- 
siderably used. It was afterwards removed to the East 
side of the present jail, and stood between it and the 
building adjoining, then used as the Clerk's office. 
Capt. Hoke says he saw three negroes whipped here, 
Hannah Henson, Taylor Pi^Der and George Casion ; and 
Jim Piper placed in the pillory. The pillory was built 
above the whipping post, about ten feet from the ground 
and had a small platform. It was composed of an upright 
piece, and a top i)iece laid crosswise, in the sha]3e of a 
cross. In the top piece was a hole large enough to admit 
the neck, while a smaller one on each side was made for 
the two arms. Casion had committed a petit larceny of 
some kind, and was doomed to the pillory for three or 
four hours. The day was very rainy, and a number of 
small boys formed a brigade, under the command of 
Adam Cockburn, somewhat larger. They then proceeded 
to rob the hen-nests that were expected to hatch in a 
short while, and carried off the contents. With their 
hats nearly filled with eggs, they marched to the pillory 
and formed in a line in front. Here quite a lively time 
was had by firing at Casion' s head, and occasionally, 
when a rotten egg would strike, a loud yell went up. 
In those days this was considered big sport, and partici- 
pated in by nearly all the boys of the neighborhood. 

206 Slavery. 

I asked the Captain whether the authorities made any 
objection, to which he replied, "No, and I wouldn't 
doubt but what the authorities put the boys up to it." 

Many wars, bastiles, prisons, crosses, gibbets, tortures, 
scourges and fires, in the hands of despots, have been 
the instruments of spreading desolation and misery over 
the earth. Those means of destruction, and their exten- 
sive use in all ages, are regarded as indices of the de- 
pravity and ferocity of man. From the bloodstained 
pages of history, one now turns with disgust and horror, 
and pronounces an involuntary anathema on the whole 
of his race. The time came, however, in which the mas- 
ter and slave changed situations. The American Revo- 
lution was the commencement of a new era in the history 
of the world. The issue of that eventful contest snatch- 
ed the scepter from the hands of the monarch, and 
placed it, where it ought to be, in the hands of the 

After the foreign war conducted by the United States 
(which ended February 2, 1848,) the slavery question 
was considerably agitated, and as years went by the dis- 
cussion of its merits increased in bitterness. As the 
country grew rapidly in wealth and population, many 
began to hope for some comj)romise that might preserve 
the national peace, and deemed the abolition of slavery 
expedient. As each presidential election went by the 
issue became more clearly — that of slavery or freedom. 
In 1860 Abraham Lincoln was elected President by the 
Republican Party on a platform which, while leav- 
ing to each State the right to order and control its 
own domestic institutions, insisted that freedom was 
the normal condition of all the territory of the United 
States. On the other hand, the Southern States had 
made the declaration that the election of a President 
pledged to oppose the extension of slavery would be a 
violation of their constitutional rights and a moral inva- 
sion of the slave States. In adherence to this declara- 

Slavery. 207 

tion, in December, 1860, South Carolina seceded from the 
Union, and her example was followed by Mississippi, 
Georgia, Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, Texas, Virginia, 
Arkansas, Tennessee and North Carolina. Shortly after, 
(April following,) hostilities were opiened by the Confed- 
erates and a severe conflict ensued. On the 1st of Janu- 
ary, 1863, President Lincoln issued the Emancipation 
Proclamation. The war continued until April, 1865, in 
the conduct of which nearly 1,800,000 Union soldiers had 
been enlisted and a debt of $2,000,000,000 was incurred. 
During this conflict the negro, (with all due respect to 
liis race) took his stand, and no sooner had the order "to 
arms" been given than he had taken up in defense of the 
Union. Numbers have fallen and shed their blood upon 
the battle plain with a courage that far surpassed many 
of the white soldiers. 

A few weeks after his inauguration for the second 
terra, in April, 1865, President Lincoln was assassinated 
at Washington, D. C, by J. Wilkes Booth, who was 
hunted down and killed a few days later. Vice-Presi- 
dent Johnson became President, and the work of politi- 
cal reconstruction was begun. The Thirteenth Amend- 
ment to the Constitution, abolishing slavery within the 
United States and places subject to their jurisdiction was 
duly ratified and proclaimed. In April, 1866, the Civil 
Rights Bill was passed by Congress over the President's 
veto, thus insuring protection to the freed slaves and giv- 
ing to the federal courts enlarged jurisdiction in the mat- 
ter. In the following June the Fourteenth Amendment 
was passed, whereby equal civil rights were guaranteed 
to all, irrespective of race or color. 

At the present day this race of people is represented 
in almost every trade and j)rofession throughout the 
country. Our county is largely inhabited by them, 
among whom are to be found energy and enterprise. 
Some own considerable property and are well to do. 
They have built and ably sui)port churches and schools 

208 Slavery. 

of tlieir own, and deserve mucli credit for the manner in 
wliicli they have prospered nnder such marked disad- 





^ISTORY indicates that the old County of Berkeley 
&| was well represented in the different wars, for 
nearly one hundred and thirty years past, which form so 
imiDortant apart of the country's history. First, in the 
year 1755, the French and Indian war broke out, before 
this county was formed, and the citizens of this section 
shared in the disastrous defeat of General Braddock. 
They afterwards served under George Washington, the 
illustrious Colonel who built Fourt Loudon in the fall of 
that year, and established himself at Winchester, Fred- 
erick County. A terrible conflict with the Indians fol- 
lowed, and these intrepid men took a gallant part, con- 
tinuing to serve their country against the frequent attacks 
of the cruel savages, while their depredations lasted. In 
1774, two years after the county was formed, a full rep- 
resentation of Berkeley's gallant sons shared in the 
dearly bought victory over the Indian allies of the Brit- 
ish Government, at Point Pleasant. It occurred in the 
Summer of that year, and was virtually the first battle of 
the Revolutionary War. About eighty of the volunteer 
soldiers from Berkeley, under Colonel Drake, were 
killed in St. Clair's defeat by the Indians. The pages of 
the country's history, during the Revolutionary War, 
have been embellished and brightened by the heroic 
deeds of many of Berkeley's patriotic sons, who aided 
materially in the cause. The names of many of her gal- 
lant sons, who enlisted and served during the long, dark 
days of that struggle, are not mentioned in history, but 

810 War of th e JRehelUon. 

Its pages record their deeds. A number of tliem arose to 
llie highest distinction in tlie army. Tliey were again 
called upon in the War of 1812, and the county was rep- 
resented by about 200 men, in the troops which gained 
one of the most brilliant victories of this war — at the 
.1)25ttle of Craney Island, June 22, 1813. In 1844-45, in 
thtf war with Mexico, the valorous deeds of Berkeley 
and Jefferson County men are an important matter of 

On the 17th day of April, 1861, Virginia x)assed the 
ordinance of secession at Richmond, and the people of the 
State weire called upon to take a decided stand upon one 
■ sife m other in this important issue. Credit must be 
^iren those who, after a calm deliberation, and from 
principles which their best judgment declared to be 
ifgliteous, took up arms, or exercised their best talents 
In advocating the cause of the State. Too much credit 
eannot be given to those who sundered the tender ties 
that bound them to the homes of their nativity or adop- 
tion, sacrificed or endangered all their property interests, 
and devoted their lives to the defense of the Union — 
from a high sense of loyalty to the General Government. 
^' Greek met Greek," brother encountered brother, friend 
stood opi)Ose£l to friend upon many a hard-fought and 
Moody battle-field on the soils of Berkeley and Jefferson 
Counties, and southward in the valley. The adoption of 
a neutrality was attempted by some, who, jDerhaps, were 
the ones to suffer most in the sacrifice of property during 
the war. They were looked upon with susijicion, and 
little leniency was shown them by either party. The 
character of the questions at issue were deemed to be too 
grave and important to be regarded with indifference by 
any citizen. 

The minds of the grandsons of Berkeley were pervaded 
in 1861, by the same sj^irit which animated the heroes of 
1776 and 1812, and emulating their noble example, a full 
representation volunteered who were veiling to take up 

War of the Rebellion. 211 

arms, and, if need be, sacrifice their lives in defense of 
the i:»rinciples wliich they had adoi^ted. These heroic 
men enlisted on both sides. Men equal in intelligence 
and courage, honesty of pur^Dose and stubborn determi- 
nation, whose forefathers had fought side by side for the 
independence of their country during the Eevolutionary 
War ; only differing, perhaps, in the circumstances and 
influences which had educated them into a decided opin- 
ion upon the great questions then at issue. This state of 
affairs was not by any means confined to Berkeley and 
Jefferson Counties, as it was very general along the bor- 
der, and notably so here. These men, as heroes, met 
each other in battle, and did not i3ause to consider 
whether the quondam friend, in deadly array against 
him, came there " through error, perversity, conscience, 
weakness or chance," but duty of the hour which gov- 
erned them was to do or die for the ca^^se which they 
had espoused. 


Berkeley and Jefferson Counties saw much of the war, 
being located at the northern portal of the Shenandoah 
Valley — that bloody arena where so many tremendous 
conflicts occurred. Details of the marching and counter 
marching of armies, and their frequent engagements, 
which are incident to this locality, can be read in many 
a well-written work, and no attempt will be made to 
record them here in full, but an account of some of the 
interesting occurrences will be given. 

The following reflections of "A Virginian," as he 
leaves the home of his boyhood, to take up arms in de- 
fense of his country, against his native State, but echo 
the sad thoughts entertained by thousands of others, 
who, through a lofty devotion to principle, abandoned 
their homes and cut asunder the closest ties of kindred 
and friendshij), to follow where their duty called them. 
From the front porch of a house at Fairview, (on the 
turnpike,) can be had a beautiful and comprehensive 

212 ^^ar of the Rebellion. 

view of tlie Slienaudoali Valley, extending as far up as 
the Massanutten Mountain, above Front Royal and 
Strasburg. The towns of Williamsport, Martinsbnrg, 
and Shepherdstown are distinctly visible, while the sites 
of Harper's Ferry, Charlestown and Winchester can be 
distinguished. Upon this azure map the whole circuit of 
the late campaign could be satisfactorily traced. An old 
resident living near by stated to the author that he often 
visited this spot, and that "each field, each house, each 
clump of trees, recalled some friendly face, some youth- 
ful sport, some genial hour of past delight. There, from 
childhood to maturity, I had lived, opulent in friend- 
ships and social sympathy. That fair valley was now 
the land of mine and my country's enemies ; among them 
I could see whole squadrons of my kindred and former 
friends — the kindly and generous companions of the 
olden times. It mattered little to me now how they came 
to be there— through error, perversity, conscience, weak- 
ness or chance. The Potomac that flowed between us 
now, rolled a fathomless gulf of blood and fire. On this 
side I was alone. There was neither friend nor kinsman, 
nor neighbor to whom I might turn for countenance or 
counsel in those hours of soul- weariness, which ox^i^ress 
one whose individuality is too heavily taxed. On this 
side I found none nearer to me than the acquaintances of 
yesterday, marching together as champions of a common 
cause, but strangers to the heart. I felt the weight of 
my position. . I was an exile indeed — poor, weary and 
dispirited. Yet I had taken my course after calm and 
full deliberation. I had asked no man's counsel, and 
confided my conclusions to one alone." 


On the 13th of June, 1861, General Johnston, who in 
command of the Confederate Army of the Shenandoah, 
had occupied Harper' s Ferry, after burning the railroad 
bridge and other property at that place, retreated to 

^Var vf the Rebellion. 213 

Winciiester. At this time, General Patterson was ad- 
vancing, with his army, from Pennsylvania, en route 
through Maryland, for Virginia ; General McClellan was 
also on his way, through Western Virginia, toward the 
valley. General (afterward "Stonewall") Jackson (in 
anticipation of the arrival of the Federal troops) was 
sent, with his brigade, to the neighborhood of Martins- 
burg, to aid Stewart's cavalry in destroying what they 
could of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad stock, and 
thus check the advance of these opposing armies. 

What was known as the "Colonnade Bridge," a beauti- 
ful structure, erected in Martinsburg by the company as 
an esx^ecial compliment to the city, vras at that time des- 
troyed. The citizens who witnessed it will never forget 
this, the first appearance in the city of the terrible reali- 
ty of the war which followed. The bridge was fired one 
calm and beautiful evening, about eight o'clock, and the 
saddening efliect upon the minds of the large concourse 
of people who witnessed the destruction was a lasting 
one. After the burning of the bridge, the troops, by 
fire, partially destroyed thirty-five large locomotives that 
stood in the yards west of the bridge. This was a sad 
error on the part of the Confederates, for there was noth- 
ing to i)revent their running these engines to Winchester, 
via Harper's Ferry and the Winchester and Potomac 
Railroad. Some time afterward, these same engines had 
their wheels furnished with broad iron tires, by the Con- 
federates, and were hauled a distance of twenty-two 
miles, over the Martinsburg and Winchester turnpike to 
the latter place, where they were put in repair and used. 
Thirty-two horses were required to each engine, to ac- 
complish this feat, and the task of getting them up the 
hills, through the streets of the city, and on to the 
straight road to Winchester was accompanied with great 
difiiculty. At the same time the machinery of the rail- 
road shops was taken, and used in the arsenals at the 
South during the war. It is a remarkable fact that this 

214 War of ilie Rebellion. 

macliinery and all the locomotives but one were regain- 
ed by tlie company after tlie close of the war. 


On the 2nd of July, 1861, Patterson and his troops 
forded the Potomac at Williamsport, and advanced, by 
the main pike, towards Martinsburg, and Jackson, at the 
same time, fell back toward Falling Waters, over the 
main road leading from Martinsburg to that village. On 
the morning of the 3rd of July, a company of Patterson's 
infantry encountered a small force of cavalry near a 
school house, a few miles north of Martinsburg, where a 
skirmish ensued, and one of the Confederates was killed, 
the balance retreating. In the afternoon, the whole col- 
umn marched into Martinsburg, amid demonstrations of 
joy and welcome on the i)art of the great majority of her 
citizens. A detachment of troops was sent forward to 
reconnoitre, and Jackson was encountered in a position 
where he had formed his men in line of battle, with four 
guns directly across the turnpike, along which the for- 
mer were advancing. A sharp encounter here ensued, 
which lasted about an hour, when Jackson continued his 
retreat, joining the main army under Johnston, at Win- 

An order which had been issued to Patterson to ad- 
vance to Winchester and give battle to the Confederates 
under Johnston, vras countermanded, and on the 9th of 
July, the former renewed a previous application to trans- 
fer his army to Leesburg, making that his base of opera- 
tions, which was granted, but an order from General 
Scott directed him to continue demonstrations in front 
of AVinchester, until after the battle of Manassas, which 
was expected to occur on the 16th. On the loth, Patter- 
son' s army i:)roceeded to Bunker Hill, where it remained 
two days ; thence to Charlestown, where they remained 
in position until the 23rd, when they marched to Har- 
per's Ferry, and, the time of the three months men hav- 
ing expired, they returned home, many of them to re- 

Wai- of the Rebellion. 215 

enlist for the war. It was on the 23rd, that the news^ 
so disheartening to the Union Cause, of the defeat at Bull 
Run was received. 


One of the saddest nights of the war, to many of the 
citizens, was soon after the first battle of Manassas. Two 
brothers and a cousin fell in that fight, at almost the 
same moment, and side by side. The brothers (Holmes 
and Tucker Conrad) were the sons of an old and esteem- 
ed citizen — a lawyer of rare ability — Holmes Conrad, 
Esq. Previous to Virginia's act of secession, Mr. Conrad 
had taken an active part in favor of adherence to the 
Union, and made a most eloquent and stirring speech in 
the Court House, which had great influence, and was 
afterward i)ublished in the National Intelligencer. His 
two sons, both quite young, left their home without the 
knowledge of their father, and nearly the first news 
which reached him concerning them was the intelligence 
of their death. One of the participants iu the last sad 
rite says : "We buried them, with their cousin. Captain 
Peyton R. Harrison, together in one tomb 

••By the strnggliug moonbeam's mist}' liyht ; 
Our lanterus dimly Iniruing I" 

"This circumstance is worthy of mention, as the name 
was a beloved one in our country, and, although we lost 
many noble ones, on both sides, none more fair, bright 
and promising than these." 

A great awe seemed to have quelled the spirits of the 
people at this time. 

Those who had deceived themselves, or had been de- 
luded by others into the belief that the dismemberment 
of the nation would be accomplished without bloodshed, 
now began to realize the true character of the contest 
that was opening. In the first ebullition of their zeal, 
the elite of the Virginia youth had rushed to the field, 
many serving as privates in the ranks. The slaughter 

216 War of the Rebellion. 

at Manassas fell heavier, proportionately, upon this class 
than any other. In many an aristrocratic mansion, hor- 
ror and monrning veiled the joy of victory for a season. 


On the 25tli of May, 1862, occurred Banks' disastrous 
defeat by Jackson, at Winchester, and his retreat, via 
the Martinsburg and Winchester turnpike, to the Poto- 
mac. Those who witnessed the rush of the panic-stricken 
troops through Berkeley and Jefferson counties will nev- 
er forget it. Hundreds of wagons, loaded with commsi- 
sary, quartermaster, medical, ordnance, and other mili- 
tary stores and supplies, were scattered all along the 
route, greatly to the delight of many, who, on account 
of the difficulty of obtaining them, had been living on 
short rations, and with a scant supply of blankets and 
clothing. IS'otwithstanding the efforts of the retreating- 
troops to destroy them by burning the wagons, many 
of these supplies fell into the hands of those who no 
doubt badly needed them. For some time afterward, 
the skill of the dyer was called into requisition, to ob- 
literate the tell-tale material blue, and hardtack became 
a popular article of diet. This celebrated retreat occur- 
red on Sunday — a day that seemed destined as a season 
of excitement in this section. Early in the morning, 
cavalrymen made their appearance in squads of two or 
three, and about 11 o'clock a. m., four-horse wagons, 
carrying pontoons, tilled with absconding negroes, swept 
through the streets at a full gallop. It was one of the 
most disgraceful scenes of the war. In due time, the 
General and his staff arrived, and dismounting at the 
principal hotel in town, went into the parlor. Looking 
into a mirror (the first glimpse, no doubt, which he had 
caught of himself for several days) Banks remarked : 
"Well, General, you do look worsted." 


D. H. Strother, (Porte Crayon), in his "Personal Rec- 
ollections of the war," contributed to Ilarpef s Mordlily^ 

War of the RehelUon. 217 

lias the following to say, regarding this quasi- mili- 
tary band, that was organized in the sjDring of 'Gl : "Not 
to fall behind the times, the citizens had formed a vol- 
unteer Home Guard, for the purpose of police duty and 
watching over the general welfare of the community. 
They kept their headquarters at the Court House, sat 
up of nights, arrested each other, and everybody they 
found prowling about. It was shrewdly suggested that 
the peace of the lonely village might have been better 
preserved if everybody went quietly to bed and minded 
their own business. But, in times of revolutionary ex- 
citement, people cannot keep quiet, even in view of their 
own safety, and along the border every man seemed to 
supx^ose he had the right to constitute himself a si)ecial 
constable, to arrest and cross question every other man 
he met, with whose business he was unacquainted. One 
night, Dick Ganoe, a harmless and well-meaning citizen 
of the Home Guard, arrested a stranger who was riding 
into town from the direction of Winchester. Dismount- 
ing his prisoner, Ganoe led the way to the Court House, 
lounging along with his musket under his arm, and his 
hands in his pockets, as was his wont. The stranger, 
who followed in apparent acquiescence, quietly drew a 
pistol and blew the citizen's brains out, then mounted, 
and continued his journey northward. This shot also 
terminated the volunteer labors of the Home Guards. 
It abdicated, and was heard of no more." 


Business was almost entirely suspended in Martins- 
burg during the first years of the war, and at times a 
great deal of distress prevailed, for lack of the necessa- 
ries of life, which were hard to obtain. Considerable 
damage was done to buildings, but not as much as would 
naturally be supposed, considering the fighting that was 
done here, and the length of time the town was occupied 
by soldiers. From the commencement of the war to the 
close, there w^ere camps of either Union or Confederate 

218 War of the Rebellion. 

soldiers in the town. Every churcli and public building 
was used as barracks, hospital or stable. The court house 
was continually occupied by troops, during which time 
valuable papers and records were ruthlessly destroyed. 
This unwarranted act has caused endless trouble, and it 
is doubtful if the effects of it can ever be remedied. 
Fourteen volumes of records of court proceedings and 
deeds, and many valuable papers are missing from the 
office of the Clerk of the County Court, and numerous 
others are badly mutilated. 

A great many self-appointed detectives, or spies, ex- 
isted at this time, who found excellent opportunities to 
gratify some petty spite against a neighbor, and at the 
same time cover themselves with glory and obtain great 
credit for patriotism either in the Union or Confederate 
cause, as the case might be. A short experience with 
these enthusiastic reformers, however, and the investiga- 
tion of cases reported to them, led the officers in authori- 
ty, upon both sides, to treat them with deserved con- 

It frequently occurred that a change of occupants 
would occur in the city several times in one day. At one 
time, "Hampton's Brigade" (then' under command of 
General "Jeb" Stuart,) numbering about 3,000 cavalry, 
came into tovv^n, and at noon they were driven out by the 
cavalry under General Kilpatrick ; the latter was in turn 
dislodged in the evening, and forced to retreat across the 
Potomac at Shepherdstown, fighting all the way — a dis- 
tance of ten miles. Quite a remarkable occurrence haj)- 
pened upon this occasion. The only piece of artillery 
that Kilpatrick had with him was commanded by the 
grandson of the late Philip C. Pendleton, then one of the 
oldest and most respected citizens of the town. It was 
planted on the eminence which is now occupied by Green 
Hill Cemetery, and the first shot that was aimed by the 
young man at the Confederates, as they retreated south- 
ward, penetrated the cone of the roof of his grand 

War of the Rebellion. 21& 

father's liouse, witliout, however, doing any material 
damage. The citizens had many shells left with them as 
mementos, during the frequent skirmishes that hapi^en- 
ed about the town. One of them penetrated the walls 
of the Catholic Church, without exj^loding, where it re- 
mained until several years after the war, before it was 


After the battles of Antietam and Gettysburg, Martins - 
burg became one grand hospital. Many of the churches 
were occupied in this way ; in many instances, their in- 
teriors were comi)letely destroyed. The citizens were as 
loyal as any situated near the border, and Union soldiers 
were as kindly treated, and as faithfully nursed, when 
wounded, sick and suffering, as many of them could 
have been in their own homes, and the same kindness, 
was shown to those of the Confederate army. There are 
many of them living to-day, who bless the good citizens 
of Martinsburg for their unselfish acts of kindness at this 
time. The honored dead of the contending armies lie 
buried in the city cemeteries, and large numbers were 
committed to their last resting place with the beautiful, 
sublime service of the Episcopal church. At one time, 
the rector of Trinity church was the only minister in 
town, and officiated for all parties for whom his services 
were required. The German Evangelical Church was 
composed of Germans, or those of that descent, many of 
whomv/erein the United States service. On the even- 
ing of February 13 th, 1863, Captain G. AV. Hicks, of the 
Ninth Virginia Infantry, arrived in the city, as escort of 
a government train from Winchester, and quartered in 
the church building owned by this society valued at 
§3,500. Through the carelessness of the occupants, it 
caught fire and was burned to the ground. 


The renowned Black Horse Cavalry figured frequently 

220 War of the Rebellion. 

duriug the war in Berkeley and Jefferson counties. Their 
organization was commenced in Fauquier County, Vir- 
ginia, June 18th, 1859. The first service which the com- 
mand was ordered to perform was to report to Governor 
Henry K. Wise, at Charlestown, West Virginia, at which 
point were being collected the volunteer comxmnies of 
the State, to insure the execution of John Brown and his 
associates. A detachment of this company escorted the 
prisoners to the place of execution, while the rest of the 
command w^as employed in keeping the streets clear, for 
it was feared, even to the last moment, that an attempt 
would be made to rescue Brown. The day before the or- 
dinance of secession w^as passed by Virginia (April 16th, 
1861,) orders were received by Lieutenant Robert Ran- 
dolph, commanding the Black Horse Cavalry, and by 
Captain Turner Asliby, of the " Mountain Rangers," to 
assemble their respective commands and proceed at once 
to Harper's Ferry for the purpose of capturing the stores 
and munitions of war stored there. After remaining there 
for several da^'s on picket duty they were ordered on 
similar service to Berlin Bridge. They took a prominent 
part in the battle of Manassas, and soon afterward were 
selected as the body-guard of General Joseph E. John- 
ston. Jackson was accompanied by this cavalry in his 
expedition to Williamsport, Martinsburg and Harper's 
Ferry. They continued in the service during the entire 
war, and became renowned for their exploits. 

Considerable time and labor has been given to deep 
researches concerning our military organizations during 
the late war. The above mentioned cavalry was organ- 
ized in Fauquier County, but figured prominently in 
Berkeley. The different companies organized in this 
county, with the names of the participants, happenings, 
etc., are given below. Among the names included are 
mostly those vrho enlisted at the time of organization. 
A number of our men enlisted in other companies, but 
in nowise pertaining to a Berkeley organization. 

War of the RehelUon. 221 


"^United States Army.'] 

The members of this company were enlisted in the 
United States service, mainly from Martinsbnrg and 
Berkeley County. This regiment was organized by the 
consolidating of a number of companies that had already 
seen much service, at Charlestown, West Virginia, in 
December, 1863. From there they marched to Parkers- 
burg, and thence were transported to Martinsburg. Here 
it began its summer campaign under Sheridan, through 
all of which it followed him, i)articipating in all its bat- 
tles and skirmishes. The history of the regiment is 
written upon every page that records the contiicts and 
victories of the Middle Military Division. Its story can- 
not be more eloquently told than in the simple list of 
battles it has fought. Among the names upon its ban- 
ners are: Carter's farm, Newton, Winchester, Bunker 
Hill, Martinsburg, Hagerstown, Hancock, Moorefield, 
Martinsburg (second,) Bunker Hill (second,) Buckles- 
town, Bunker Hill (third,) Stevenson Dei)ot, Winchester 
(second,) Fisher's Hill, Mount Jackson, Brown's Gap 
(two tights,) Milford (two fights,) Front Royal and Mount 
Jackson (second.) The enlistments were as follows : 

Captain, Peter Tabler. 

First Lieutenant, John E. Bowers. 

Second Lieutenant, Albert Teets. 

First Sergeant, Jas. W. Kneedler. 

Second Sergeant, John Falkenstein. 

Third Sergeant, Michael Ferrel. 

Fourth Sergeant, Sylvester Eidgway. 

Fifth Sergeant, Edmond Wagely. 

Sixth Sergeant, Wm. Clendening. 

Seventh Sergeant, Levi J. Welshaus. 

Eighth Sergeant, Edward N. Loy. 

First Corporal, Levi F. Miller. 

Second Corporal, Adam Wolf. 


Wa?- of the lieliellion. 

Third Corporal, James O. Ross. 
Fourth Corporal, Alex. Horner. 
Fifth Corporal. Ulysses Davis. 
Sixth Corporal, William Deets. 
Seventh Corporal, Benj. F. S tatter. 
Eighth Corporal, Franklin Spencer. 
Bugler, David Kiser. 
Bugler, Alfred Porter. 

Anderson, Eri. 
Anderson, Jas. W. 
Allison, John. 
Butt, David. 
Burcli, George. 
Bartlilow, William. 
Bricker, Levi. 
Butt, William. 
Colbert, Jesse. 
Colbert, Clarkson. 
Cross, Jolin A. 
Cockran, Hiram. 
Cockran, CliarlesC. 
Crowe, James B. 
Deets, James. 
Fravel], John. 
Fizer, John T 
Frushour, Wm. A. 
Fleming, Wm. 
Gardener, John W. 
Hart, Jacob H. 
Hays, Jos. H. 
Hower, Edmund. 
Homer, Robert. 
Jenkins, George. 
Kline, John W. 
Kiser, Isaiah. 
Kiser, John. 


Lamaster, Theodore. 
Lamaster, John H. 
Lazzel, Wm. G. 
Long, George. 
Miller, Isaac. 
Myers, Wm. C. 
Myer, William. 
Muri^hy, John W. 
Murphy, James W. 
Murray, Samuel E. 
Morgan, Edmund. 
Morgan, Elijah. 
Morgan, Robert. 
Myers, Samuel. 
Myers, Jacob. 
Novington, John W. 
Piles, Edgar C. 
Price, George L. 
Ridenour, James. 
Ridenour, Charles. 
Racey, William. 
Ramsburg, Elijah. 
Reynolds, Elijah. 
Stansburry, H. R. 
Stafford, John. 
Shrout, Andrew J. 
Smith, John. 
Stoneking, Lewis S. 

War of tlie Rebellion. 


Stoker, Thomas. 
Strawson, H. AV. 
Street, William J. 
Teets, Elislia. 
Ticlmal, Samuel. 
Taylor, James. 
Taylor, Samuel H. 

Taylor, Epiiriam. 
Vanansdal, Jerry. 
Woodward, Clias. 
AVise, Thomas. 
Wister, Beuj. K. 
Welsh, Patrick P. 
Welsh, Thomas S. 


Benson, Joseph A. 
Shaw, William B. 


Stahl, Jonathan. 
Wade, Alexander 


Conger, Seymour B., to Perry, James S., 
Major, July 29, 1863. Lieutenant. 


to First 

Barnes, Lemuel. 
Barthlow, Joshua. 
Curry, AlonzoH. 
Deen, George W. 
Green, David S. 
Hart, Jacob. 
Kines, W. E. 
Mercer, Marshall. 
McKinney, Alex. 
Myers, Enos. 


Awman, Benjamin. Shaffer, 

Hickman, Gilaspie. 


Smith, Mathias B. 
Yolgarmott, Moses. 


Dill}^ John R., killed in action May 10, 1864. 
Hoffman, John E., killed in action Nov. 24, 1863. 
Johnson, Moses, died Oct. 9, 1862. 
Light, Isaac J. killed in action April 24, 1862. 
Mock, James M., " " Aug. 7, 1864. 

Morgan, Enoch. 
Perry, James S. 
Pullin, William. 
Pressman, William. 
Roby, Middleton, 
Rude, George W. 
St. Clair, James P. 
Shaffer, Balser. 
Statler, Andrew J. 


Butler, Thomas J. 
Fitzpatrick, David. 

224 V/ar of the Jlehellion. 

Pitclier, Joliii W., killed in action Aug. 7, 1864. 
Piles, Osborne U., died October 9, 1862. 
Pitclier, Clias. W., died Nov. 19, 1864. 
Siler, Philip, killed in action Aug. 7, 1864. 
Slater, Henry M., killed in action May 10, 18d4. 
Teets, John, " '' " Oct. 11, 1863. 

Yolio, Ezra, " '' ^' Aug. 7, 1864. 


[ TJnUecl States Army.'] 
This organization was mustered in under Col. Ward 
Lemon, and organized at Williamsport, Md., May 17th, 

1861. At the time of its organization it was composed 
entirely of Berkeley County citizens. The company was 
uniformed at Williamsport, where it first entered service 
to guard a wagon train to Martinsburg. They next re • 
turned to the former place, from whence they were or- 
dered to Hancock, Md. Upon crossing the river they 
were attacked by Ashby's Cavalry, when Lieutenant 
Hancock was wounded. 

The next order received was to proceed to Dam No. 4, 
and upon their arrival they learned that the Confederates 
were robbing the store of A. McQuilken, at Hard Scrab- 
ble. A number of the company were detailed and cross- 
ed the river, wounding two men and capturing a horse. 
From here they again returned to Hancock, where they 
had several skirmishes. From Hancock they were or- 
dered to Orleans Road, thence back to Williamsport, 
thence to Shaffer's Mill on the river, thence to Falling 
Waters, and from here to Baltimore, where they arrived 
on the 5th day of February. Three days afterward they 
were transferred to the 3d Maryland Regiment, under 
command of Col. David D. Witt. From Baltimore they 
were transferred to Harper' s Ferry, on the 23d of May, 

1862, and after a skirmish on Bolivar Heights, they fell 
back to Maryland Heights. From here they proceeded 
to Kernstown, thence to Cedar Creek, thence back to 

Wa r of til e Rebell ion. 225 

AVarrington. Ya. At the latter place Captain Joseph 
Kerns and Lieutenant James Fayman tendered tlieir res- 
ignation. The company was them ordered to Little 
Warrington, Ya. Among the i^rincipal battles fought 
upon its banners are : Cedar Mountain, Antietam, Win- 
chester, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Three Days 
Fight at Gettysburg, Raccoon Ford, and others. Shortly 
after these battles the company was divided — one half 
serving under Grant, and the other half under Sherman, 
until the surrender at AxDpomattox. The entire company 
had bravely participated in all the imx^ortant tights 
thronghout the war, and history records many valorous 
deeds of this company, though their names are not men- 

Berkeley County was most ably represented, and 
many of her noble and heroic sons have died upon the 
field in the defense of their country. Like those of the 
centending enemy, they believed their principles to be 
just, and took up arms against friend or foe. As far as 
the roll can be ascertained from surviving members, it is 
given as follows : 

Ca2ytain, Josex)h Kerns. 

First Lieutenant, James Fayman. 

Second Lieutenant, John Lowman. 

First Sergeant, D. J. Weaver. 

Second Sergeant, Wm. Smith. 

Third Sergeant, Robert Lowery. 

Fourtli Sergeant, Jerome E. Pompeii. 

First Corporal, M. H. Harman. 

Second Corporal, Robt. Thompson. 

Third Corporal, Harry Strausbaugh. 

Fourtli Corporal, J. Lewis Cleary. 

Fifth Corporal, Benj. Lowery. 


Ashkettle, J. Bender, Jno. 

Adams, Frisky. Bishop, Jno. 

Batch, C. Burriss, E. 


War of tlie Rebellion. 

Ball, Jno. 
Bateman, C. 
Brown, Wm. 
Clevinger, E. 
Coyle, James. 
Colbert, Geo. 
Cann, P. 
■Claspey, James. 
Dickeiiiofli, Isaac, killed. 
Dailey, Arthur. 
Denan, A. 
jDitman, Jno. 
Davis, Joseph. 
Davis, Samuel, killed. 
Ebaugh, C. 
Espenhine, G. 
Fahey, Thomas. 
Finigan, Patrick. 
Gagle, John. 
Giser, Christopher. 
Goodman, John. 
Grace, Israel. 
Grindes, R. 
Harker, C. 
Hipper, A., killed. 
Henry, R. 
Harman, Hewitt. 

Henlane, Henry. 
Ingless, Joseph. 
Ingram, John. 
Israel, Edward. 
Johnson, John. 
Jones, James. 
Jphnson, Wm., hung. 
Killgore, C. 
Korcross, John. 
Lincoln, C. 

Lui^man, Daniel, killed. 
Lowery, Benj., killed. 
Lowery, Robert. 
MuriDhy, Denis. 
Mathews, Frank. 
Martin, John. 
Prescit, B. F. 
Perkins, C. 
Potter, R. 
Shirk, John. 
Sadler, John. 
Smith, David. 
Sisco, John, killed. 
Sisco, Joseph. 
Thompson, Samuel. 
Unger, John. 
Yanmetre, Isaac. 


[^Confederate States Army. 'I 
Under the supervision of J. Q. A. iS^adenboush, Esq., 
this company was organized October Hist, 1859. It was 
composed almost entirely of Berkeley men, who volun- 
teered their services in defence of what they deemed a 
just cause. This company acted on duty during the 
Brown raid, and stood guard at Charlestown during the 

War of the Rebellion. 227 

hanging of Brown's men, on the 16th of March, 1860, 
It was first ordered into service by the Governor of Vir- 
ginia, to report at Harper' s Ferry on the night of April, 
1861. It participated in all the important battles fought 
by the famous "Stonewall Brigade," and ably represent- 
ed its county. Among its ranks were Berkeley's most 
gallant and heroic sons. Like all the different companies, 
the author has been unable to obtain the roll accurately, 
and with the assistance of surviving members, gives it at 
the time of organization, as follows : 

Cax>tain, J. Q. A. Nadenbousch, wounded at second 
battle Manassas, August, 1862, — promoted Colonel Sept. 
17th, 1862. 

First Lieutenant, P. S. Cunningham. 

Second Lieutenant, Robt. W. Hunter, promoted Ad- 

Third Lieutenant, Peyton R. Harrison, killed at first 
battle Manassas, July 21st, 1861. 

First Sergeant, Maj. Israel Robinson, resigned to take 
his command in 67th Virginia Militia Regiment. 

First Sergeant, Jno. A. Dugan, wounded at first battle 
Manassas, July 21st, 1861. 

Second Sergeant, C. W. Welsh. 

Tliird Sergeant, E. L. Hoffman, wounded at battle of 
Kernstown, March 23rd, 1862, — promoted Cajitain. 

Fourth Sergeant, S. H. Fowler. 

Fifth Sergeant, Holmes E. Conrad, killed at first battle 
of Manassas, July 21st, 1861. 

First Corporal, E. Ryneal. 

Second Corporal, Wm. Kline, promoted Sergeant, Aug. 
4th, 1861. 

Third Corporal, T. Bentz. 


Armstrong, Jno. S., wounded at first battle Manassas, 
July 21st, 1861. 
Albin, Wm. B. 
Austin, Thos. 

228 War of tlie Rebellion. 

Albin, James, killed at second battle Manassas, Aug. 
27tli, 1S62. 

Blake, V. B. 

Brady, Peter. 

Bell, Alfred. 

Bales, Adam S. 

Boyd, B. R. 

Brocies, Wm. 

Bucliannon, Thos., wounded at first battle Manassas, 
July 21st, 1861. 

Barnett, A. J., killed at battle Mine Run, November 
27tli, 1863. 

Carlysle, Jas. A. 

Cline, David A., promoted Corporal August 4tli, 1861. 

Conrad, H. Tucker, killed at first battle Manassas, 
July 21st, 1861. 

Cage, James. 

Custer, Ephraim G., j)romoted Sergeant Aug. 4th, 1861. 

Coi^enliaver, T. 

Chambers, R. D. 

Chambers, Jno. M. 

Caskey, Wm. 

Chevalley, . 

Day, Jas. W. 

Drebbing, C. L. 

Doll, R. M. 

Dielfenderfer, Wm. 

Dugan, Jas. A., wounded by accident in camp, June 
28th, 1861. 

Dandrigde, E. P., wounded at first battle Manassas, 
July 21st, 1861. . ^ ' 

Dalgarn, S. S., slightly wounded. 

Englebright, Jno. 

Earson, Joseph. 

Fisher, James. 

Fisher, John L., killed at battle Chancellorsville, May 
3rd, 1862. 

War of tlie Rebellion. 229 

Fravel, Geo. 

Fryatt, John T., killed at Manassas, July 21st, ISGl. 

Griffin, Michael, wounded at battle Cold Harbour, 
June 27th, 1861. 

Gardner, Jarvus. 

Glass, G. 

Hollis, T. \Y. 

Hodges, N. 

Homrich, Jas. M. 

Hollis, J. 

Hollis, T. P. 

Halem, M. 

Hill, Joseph. 


Hedges, Owen T., killed at battle of Gettysburg, July 
23d, 1863. 

Hunter, John C, promoted Sergeant, August 4th, 1861, 
— wounded at first battle Manassas, July 21st, 1861. 


Harman, Wm., wounded at battle of Kernstown, March 
23d, 1862. 

Harrison, John S. 

Hambleton, Wm., promoted Corporal, August 4th, 

Huff, Benj., killed. 

Harley, Patrick, wounded at battle Cold Harbour, 
June 27th, 1862. 

Joy, J. F. 

Kilmer, George H. 

Kearfott, William P. 

Kearfott, James L. 

Koiner, L. K,, wounded at battles of Payne's Farm, 
Wilderness, and Seven Days' Fight around Richmond. 

Kearns, Joseph, deserted. 

Lewis, Walter, wounded at second battle Manassas, 
August 27th, 1862. 

Larkins, Thomas. 

230 TTar of tlie Rebellion. 

Lesliorn, James W., wounded at first battle Manassas, 
July 21st, 1861. 

Light, William H., wounded at first battle Manassas, 
July 21st, 1861. 

Lewis, Lewis, killed at second battle Manassas, August 
27tli, 1862. 

Leathers, John H. 

Meachem, Richard, killed at battle Chancellorsville, 
May 3d, 1862. 

Maupin, T. A., deserted, June 30th, 1861. 

Moody, John P. 

Miller, Jonathan. 

Matthews, Henry C. 

McMullen, Charles. 

Mclntire, John F., wounded at first battle Manassas, 
July 21st, 1861. 

MeCleary, Trip, wounded at first battle Manassas, July 
21st, 1861. 

McGeary, William, wounded at first battle Manassas, 
July 21st, 1861. 

Muhlenburg, Charles. 

Marikle, John B., wounded at second battle Manassas, 
August 27th, 1862. 

Marikle, Thomas T. 

McWhorter, James W. 

Marikle, Joseph S., killed at second battle Manassas, 
August 27th, 1862. 

Nicholson, Thomas. 

Oden, Archibald. 

Painter, Joseph. 

Phillips, William. 

PilDer, John R. 

Parker, Richard. 

Rust, William. 

Simmons, W., wounded at first battle Manassas, July 
21st, 1861 ; discharged Dec. 5th, 1861. 

Scheig, George. 

War of the Rebellion. 231 

Staub, R. P. H. 

Sailes, , died of disease. 

Sndditli, Joseph. 

Smith, John, deserted July oth, 1861. 

Smith, William. 

Sherrer, George. 

Suiter, Charles. 

Siler, John. 

Steward, T. W. 

Staub, John F. 

Smeltzer, C. W. 

Saville, Albert, killed at second battle Manassas, Au- 
gust 27th, 1862. 

Thrush, John M. 

Titlow, R. 

Vorhees, George F., wounded. 

Weaver, Charles, wounded by accident in camp, June 
28th, 1861. 

Weaver, George. 

AVebster, R. A. 

Wollf, C. A. 

Weaver, John, killed at second battle Manassas, Au- 
gust 27th, 1862. 

Whitson, Geo. D., wounded at first battle Manassas, 
July 21st, 1861. 


E. B. Hooper, Drum Major. 

Wm. Hayden, Assistant Drum Major 

E. G. Tabler. 

Samuel Hutchinson. 

Charles Shober. 

While Jackson was retreating from Winchester, by 
direction of Capt. Hoffman, Lewis Lewis fired the first 
shot at a Federal scout on the famous Fisher's Hill, where 
one of the most important battles was fought. 

232 War of tlie Rebellion. 


{Confederate States Army.'] 

This company was organized in November of 1859, im- 
mediately after John Brown's raid upon Harper's Ferry, 
and was named in honor of Governor Henry A. Wise, of 
Virginia. The first section of this battery was stationed 
at Charlestown during the execution of John Brown. 
On the evening of the 18th of April, 1861, Capt. E. G. 
Alburtis received orders from Governor John Letcher, of 
Virginia, to prepare his battery for the march and pro- 
ceed early the next morning, via. Baltimore and Ohio 
Railroad, to Harper's Ferry, and there report for duty. 
History records many heroic and valorous deeds of this 
comj^any, which participated in the most severe strngles 
during the war. Its simple list of battles fought, as 
placed among the names upon its banners are : battle of 
Manassas, Williamsburg, Seven Pines, seven days' fight 
around Richmond, Cold Harbor, Savage Station, Frazier 
Farm, Malvern Hill, Second Battle Mannassas, Boons- 
boro' Gap, Sharpsburg, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, 
Gettysburg, Chattanooga, Seigeof Knoxville, Tenn., Wil- 
derness, Spottsylvania Court House, second battle Cold 
Harbor, Drewey's Bluff, Five Forks, Siege of Peters- 
burg, Yfi. The company surrendered with the Army of 
Northern Virginia at Appomattox Court House, April 
9th, 1865, The enlisments were as follows : 

Caytain, E. G. Alburtis, resigned 1861. 

First Lieutenant., James S, Brown ; promoted Cap- 
tain, January, 1862 ; — wounded at battle of Sharpsburg, 
June, 1862. 

Second Lieutenant, Geo. H. Murphy, transferred to 
cavalry, 1861. 

Tliird Lieutenant, Witherow, resigned in 1861. 

Lieutenant, J. C. Pelham, instructor; promoted Cap- 
tain and chief Stewart's Horse Artillery, 1861. 

Surgeon, Dr. J. D. Newman. 

Bugler, Jos. Sherrer. 

War of ill e Rehdlion. 233 

Ensign, Jolm R. O'Neal. 

First Sergeant, Frank Smith, transferred. 

Second Sergeant, Oliver King, " 

Third Sergeant, Robert Lowery, " 

Fourth Sergeant, John Maxwell, promoted Second 
Lieutenant, January, 1862 ; — transferred to cavalry. 

Fifth Sergeant, J. R. Couchman, promoted Quarter 
master Sergeant, January, 1862. 

First Corporal, Henry Wentz, x^romoted First Ser- 
geant, 1862. 

Second Corporal, Barney Stewart, promoted First 
Sergeant, May, 1861. 

Third Corporal, John Hines, transferred. 

Fourth Corporal, John S. Robinson, promoted Third 
Sergeant, June, 1861. 

Fifth Corporal, John H. Weddell, i>romoted Second 
Sergeant, November, 1861 ; promoted Second Lieu- 
tenant, June, ] 862; promoted First Lieutenant for gal- 
lantry upon the field of battle, May 1st, 1863; wound- 
ed at United States Ford, May 3d, 1863 ; wounded April 
5th, 1365. 

Sixth Corporal, Joseph Lantz, promoted First Corpo- 
ral, June, 1861,— killed at battle of Gettysburg, July 3d^ 


Alburtis, Samuel, transferred. 

Auld, Charles. 

Armpriest, Wm. 

Boyer, John A. 

Blakeney, Edward. 

Blakeney, Harry, wounded at battle of Antietam, 
June, 1862. 

Blanchfield, John. 

Beard, Geo., wounded at Seven Days' Fight Around 
Richmond, June 27th, 1862, — wounded in front of Ber- 
muda Hundred, February, 1865. 

Bell, Harry, promoted Sergeant, 1862. 

234 War of the RebelUon. 

Britton, Edward, transferred to Cavalry. 

Bowers, Jolin, transferred. 

Chambers, G. W., wounded at battle of Sjoottsylvauia 
Court House, and died, June, 1864. 

Clarke, Wm., wounded Seven Days' Figlit Around 
Richniond, June 27tli, 1862. 

Conway, James, discharged, 

Commiskey, Thos. 

Cox, Samuel. 

Cunningham, David. 

Causemenia, , wounded and died, June, 1864. 

Faulkner, E. Boyd, wounded at first battle of Manas- 
sas, July, 1861, — i^romoted Captain, 1861, — transferred. 

Feaman, James, discharged. 

Frazier, James. 

Fiske, James, dischargecl. 

Fultz, Thornton, discharged. » 

Gruber, J., discharged. 

Hedges, B. S. 

Herndon, Thomas. 

Harley, James, killed, April 29th, 1863, at Chancel- 

Helan, Patrick, discharged. 

Hazard, Charles, killed at Cold Harbor, 18G4. 

Helferstay, Wm. 

Hess, Aaron T. 

Hill, Christopher. 

Iradella, , discharged. 

Israel, Gilbert. 

Johnson, Wm., discharged. 

Kisner, Wm., discharged. 

Kisner, Wash., discharged. 

Kearns, Cyrus, promoted 3d Lieutenant, April, 1862, — 
killed at Seven Days' Fight Around Richmond, June 28thj 

Kearns, Robert, discharged. 

Keyes, John. 

War of the Rebellion. 235 

Lucas, Charles, killed, at Seven Days' Fight Around 
Richmond, June 27th, 1862. 

Lucas, Benj., promoted 1st Sergeant. 

Lucas, O. M., promoted Corporal, January, 1862. 

Lowery, Benj., discharged. 

Lantz, Christian. 

Lowman, James, discharged. 

Lowery, Wm., discharged. 

Landers, Michael, discharged. 

Mahoney, Patrick, promoted Commissary Sergeant, 
January, 1862. 

McLaughlin, Franklin. 

Mulligan, Patrick. 

Murray, Patrick. 

Moore, J. 

Moore, Andrew M. 

Markel, Samuel, promoted Corporal, 1S62. 

Mooney, J. B. 

Myers, Wra. 

Nolan d, Wm. 

Palmer, Kearney. 

Prior, Thomas. 

Pendleton, P. C. • 

Rose, A. P. 

Ryneal, P. 

Ridenour, Martin. 

Reardon, John. 

Robinson, Edgar. 

Reed, John. 

Reed, J. F. 

Strayer, A. P. 

Sullivan, Edward. 

Schultz, Wm. 

Sisco, John. 

Sisco, Peter. 

Shea, John. 

Seibert, Joseph. 

236 V^'ar of the Rebellion. 

Suter, T. C. 
Sclieig, Adolplius. 
Strainey, Edward. 
Titlow, Robl. 
Tate, Eobt. 
Thomas, B. 
Tabler, Martin. 
Vogel, John. 

Walker, E. M., promoted 1st Lieutenant, January, 
1862, — transferred to cavalry. 
Walker, G. W., promoted Corporal, 18G2. 
Wert, H. T. 

Wollett, P., discharged. 
Wann, John. 

Westphall, Chas., discharged. 

Whitehurst, James, killed at Knoxville, Teun., 1S63. 
Young, John. 


{Confederate States Army.'] 
About the year 1860 this company was organized, with 
John Blair Hoge as Captain, and took an important part 
in the battles of the late civil strife. Composed of loyal 
and intelligent men, its part was well played. Upon its 
banner are to be found the names of the largest and most 
importaant battles fought. The first conflict for which 
they were ordered out, was the battle of Manassas, which 
occurred July 21st, 1861. After this they Avere engaged 
with the Confederate troops in the various long and 
bloody battles fought. Among the number are : Battle 
of Seven Pines, (or seven days fight around Richmond), 
Wilderness ; Fredericksburg ; Second Battle of Manas- 
sas ; Antietam ; Gettysburg ; Spotsylvania Court House; 
Petersburg, Five Forks, and others. Berkeley was ably 
represented by this command, of whose number, many 
have strewn the battle-Field with blood and life in de- 

War of the Rebellion. 237 

fense of their just i3rinciples. With the army of Northern 
Virginia, they surrendered at Appomattox, April 9th, 
1865. The enlistments at the time of organization are as 
follows : 

Caiytain, G. N. Hammond, killed at Yellow Tavern, 
May 12th, 1864. 

First Lieutenant, Wm. K. Light. 

Second Lieutenant, Wm. T. Noll, promoted as first 
Lieutenant, — wounded at Gettysburg, July 4, 1863. 

First Sergeant, John B. Seibert, discharged. 

Second Sergeant, Charles Weller, discharged. 

Third Sergeant, Robert H. Stewart, promoted as 2d 
Lieutenant, — wounded at Mt. Olivet, October 10, 1864. 

First Corporal, James N, Cunningham, jDromoted as 
Captain, — wounded at Front Royal, August 21, and at 
Rood's Hill, November 23, 1864. 

Second Corporal, Aquila Janney, detailed in Quarter- 
master's Department. 

TJiird Corporal, James W. Cushwa, promoted as 2d 


Armstrong, Archibald, wonnded at SiDottsylvania, May 
8, 1864,— killed at Martinsburg, July 1, 1864. 

Auld. Thos. E. 

Boley, Benj. F., wounded at Rood's Hill, November 
23, 1864. 

Bowers, Richard H. 

Boyd, John E., promoted as Fourth Sergeant. 

Breathed, James W., transferred, — promoted as Cap- 
tain and Major of the Stuart Horse Artillery. 

Bryarly, Robert P., promoted as Third Corporal, — 
wounded at Tom's Brook, October 9, 1864. 

Buchannon, J, C. 

Burkhart, R. C. 

Carper, Geo. W. 

Catrow, John W., wounded at Slatersville, May 9, 1862. 

Chapman, Jacob A., transferred. 

238 War of the Rebellion. 

Combs, J. L. E., bugler ; discliarged. 

Concilia an, David, wounded at Slatersville, May 9, 

Cunningliam, Charles, killed at Winchester, Septem- 
ber 19, 1864. 

Cunningham, W. L., wounded at Gettysburg, July 4, 

Cushen, R. D. 

Cushwa, Daniel. 

Cusliwa, David, promoted as 1st Corporal, — wounded 
at Eood's Hill, November 23, 1864. 

Cushwa, Seibert 

Frieze, A. J., wounded at Spottsylvania, May 9, 1864. 

Frieze, George. 

Gageby, John N., promoted as 1st Sergeant. 

Gladden, George. 

House, Thomas. 

Janney, W. H. H. 

Jefferson, William M. 

Kearfott, James, killed at Rood's Hill, November 23, 

Kearfott, John P., wounded at Kennon's Landing, 
June 5, 1864. 

Kilmer, B. S., wounded at Mount Olivet, October 10, 

Kilmer, Daniel. 

Kilmer, David, wounded at Yellow Tavern, May 11, 

Kilmer, H. D., transferred. 

Lemen, W. M., Medical Sergeant. 

Lyle, R. G., discharged. 

Manning, Dennis, wounded at Raccoon Ford, October 

Marshall, Geo. W., promoted as 3d Sergeant, — wounded 
at Spottsylvania, May 9, 1864. 

Marshall, Joseph, died from disease. 

Mason, James A. 

War of the Rebellion. 239 

McClary, Geo. W, 
McKee, Mayberry. 
Miller, Daniel. 

MoDg, "Wendel, promoted as 4tli Corporal. 
Murphy, James B., killed at Rood's Hill, Sept. 19, 1864. 
Murphy, Richard. 
Myers, W. H. 
Payne, J. Trip. 

Payne, Martin L., wounded at Anandale, Sept. 1861, 
at Spottsylvania, May, 1864, and at Cedar Creek, 
February, 1865. 
Payne, O. F., wounded at Mount Olivet, Oct. 10, 1864. 
Rainer, George. 
Roberts, E. S. 
Roberts, Geo. D. 

Roberts, William, wounded at. Cedar Creek, October 
19, 1864. 

Roush, Charles, wounded at Winchester, Aug. 28, 1864. 

Seibert, Abraham, wounded at Manasses, July 21, 1861, 
— discharged. 

Seibert, Eli. 

Seibert, John B., discharged. 

Seibert, Wendel, promoted as Second Corporal, — 
wounded at Spottsylvania, May 9, 1864. 

Shepherd, James, transferred. 

Showers, George E. 

Silver, Frank, wounded at Rood's Hill, Nov. 23, 1864. 

Silver, Henry. 

Small, David. 

Small, William 

Strayer, D. J. R,, wounded at Manassas, July 21, 1861. 

Strode, P. H. 

Stump, JohnH., wounded at Yellow Tavern, May 11, 

Tabb, E. W. discharged. 

Thatcher, David, killed at Buckland Mills, Oct. 19, 1863. 

Thomas, Jacob. 

240 War of tJie Rebellion. 

Weaver, Charles. 

Weaver, George, killed at Slatersville,Va., May 9, 1862. 


{Confederate States Army.'] 

This company was organized in the fall of 1859, in the 
town of Hedgesville and vicinity, immediately after the 
John Brown raid, when the Southern people became im- 
XDressed with the idea that their institutions were men- 
aced by northern fanatics. M. C. Nadenbousch, Esq., 
was its first Captain, and R. T. Colston, a graduate of 
the Virginia Military Institute, was First Lieutenant. 
Capt. Nadenbousch having had no military training, 
very shortly resigned, and Lieutenant Colston succeeded 
to the captaincy and brought the company to a high 
degree of proficiency. When the war cloud burst. Cap- 
tain Colston was ordered to report, with his company, at 
Harper's Ferry. Company "E" was assigned to the 2nd 
Virginia Regiment, which formed a part of the famous 
' 'Stonewall Brigade, ' ' and participated in all the battles in 
which that gallant corps was engaged. It contained with- 
in its ranks some of Berkeley's bravest sons, always bear- 
ing itself bravely in every fight. The following is a roll of 
the company, as near as can be gotten at this late day, 
obtained from surviving members thereof : 

Captain^ Raleigh T. Colston, i^romoted to Lieut. Col. 
in 1862,— to Col. in 1863, and killed at the battle of Mine 
Run, Nov. 23d, 1863. 

First Lieutenant, David Manor, killed at the first bat- 
tle of Manassas, July 21st, 1861. 

First Sergeant, Wm. B. Colston, wounded at Kerns- 
town, March 23rd, 1862, — promoted to First Lieutenant, 
April, 1862, — wounded at Fredericksburg, Dec, 15th, 
1862,— promoted Captain, May, 1863. 

Second Sergeant, John T. Hull, promoted Second 
Lieutenant, Ax)ril, 1862, — wounded at Chancellorsville. 

War of the BeielUon. 241 

Third Sergeant, Clias. W. Manor, wounded at first 
battle of Manassas, July 21st, 1861,— promoted Orderly 
Sergeant, April, 1862. 

Fourth Sergeant, W. H. Lingamfelter. 


Bane, Newton. 

Basore, Emanuel. 

Blamer, James. 

Brown, Charles. 

Criswell, John L. 

Couchman, Geo. W., wounded at second battle of 

Dugan, James L., lost arm at Seven Pines. 

Eversole, John W. 

Eversole, Jacob H., wounded *it Chancellorsville. 

Eversole, Isaac, killed. 

Fiery, James, killed at Chancellorsville. 

Guinn, James V. 

Haines, John J., j)romoted First Lieutenant, April, 
1862,^ — wounded at Fredericksburg, Dec. 15th, 1862. 

Hill, Abraham. 

Hull, Geo. W., wounded. 

Hull, Dallas, wounded at Port Republic. 

Hunter, David, killed at Fisher's Hill, 1864. 

Hunter, John A., detailed on signal service. 

Jenkins, Asa. 

Johnson, William. 

Keisecker, Newton, killed at Chancellorsville. 

Keyser, John, killed at Fredericksburg. 

Lanham, Jeremiah. 

Light, Wm. E. 

Merchant, Isaac N., wounded at Chancellorsville. 

Miller, Geo. W., killed at first battle of Manassas, July 
21st, 1861. 

Myers, Cromwell L., wounded at Kernstown. 

Miller, Harvey A. 

Merchant, W. S., wounded at Cedar Mountain. 

242 War of ilie JRehellion. 

O'Connor, Michael . 

Pike, Frank, Jr., killed at Kernstown, March 23d, 1862. 
Pryor, John, wounded on several occasions. 
Porterfield, Milton, wounded at battle of Wilderness. 
Porterfield, Alexander, killed. 
Perregory, William. 
Riddle, John, killed. 

Rockwell, Geor<;e W., i^romoted 3d Lieutenant, 1863. 
Sperow, Jacob, killed at Kernstown, March 23d, 1SG2, 
Sperow, George. 
'Snodgrass, Porterfield. 
'Sharff, Nicholas. 
Stuckey, Samuel A. 

Stuckey, John W., killed at second Manassas, 1862. 
Small, Reuben. 
Small, John M. 
Turner, William, killed. 
Triggs, Harrison. 
Wilson, Valerius. 

Weddell, Geo. W., wounded at Kernstown, March 23d, 
1862,— at Monocacv in 1864. 


This company was organized in October, 1861, at Mar- 
tinsburg, princix)ally of* Berkeley County men, with a 
number from the surrounding counties. It was first sta- 
tioned at Martinsburg, and acted on x)icket duty along 
the border, where it remained until about February 24th, 
1862. From here they proceeded to and around Win- 
chester, and afterward fell back up the valley. They 
next went to Strausburg and Woodstock, afterwards 
serving on picket duty several days at Millwood and 
White Post. They were then ordered to Middletown, 
Harrisonburg and Two Bridges, and from the latter x)lace 
a detachment of fourteen men were sent to Fort Repub- 
lic to guard the bridge and prepare it for burning. Here 

War of the Rehellion. 243 

they engaged in two very severe fights, which occurred 
on the 11th and 12th of May, at Cross Keys and Lewis' 
Bottoms. From here they went down the valley in rear 
of Jackson's army and fought at Winchester on the 24th 
of May of that year, with a part of the company acting 
on picket duty at Front Royal. They again returned 
to the border and remained about three days, from 
whence they fell back with Jackson, who then crossed 
the Blue Ridge and went into Virginia. This company 
participated in all the important battles fought during 
the late civil strife, and many of Berekeley's brave and 
heroic sons have fell within its ranks in defense of what 
they deemed a just and worthy cause. It was known 
during those days as the "Wild Cat Company." 

It has been an impossibility to obtain its roll of mem- 
bers full and correct, as the author has been unable to 
gain any other information than that given by several 
survivors of the company. The following is a list of 
Berkeley County men, with officers, etc., as can best be 
ascertained : 

Captain^ G. W. Myers, of Baltimore, Md. 

First Lieutenant^ George Wells. 

Second Lieutenant, Murray, of Baltimore. 



Brittner, Thad, killed. 

Blondel, Charles. 

Bets, James. 

Butler, John. 

Carney, J. Y., wounded at Darkesville, Sept. 17th, 

Chax)mau, . 

Gore, , killed at Buckner s Station, May 23d, 


Hedges, Anthony, killed. 

Kensel, John J. 

Leech, Sid. 

244 Wa?' of tlie Rebellion. 

Miller, Harvey A. 

Mingle, John. 

McNemar, Michael, wounded. 

Patterson, Frank. 

Ronk, Benj., killed at Mt. Jackson, 1863. 

Seibert, J. B., promoted Lieutenant. 

Strode, Joseph. 

Saderfield, . 

Sayles, William. 

Seckman, T. 

Turner, John A., promoted Captain. 

Teack, S. 

Wilson, J. L., killed at Warrington Springs. 

This Company left Martinsburg with about 50 mem- 
bers, and was composed of men from Berkeley, Morgan, 
Frederick and Jefferson Counties, with several from 

' ' By the How of the inland river, 

Whence tlie fleets of iron have fled, 
Where the Ijlades of the grave-grass quiver. 
Asleep are the ranks of the dead ; — 
Under the sod and the dew, 

Waiting the judgment day ; 
Under the one, the Blue ; 
Under the other, the Gray. 


" There, in the robings of glory, 
Those in the gloom of defeat. 
All, with the battle-blood gory, 
In the dusk of eternity meet ; — 
Under the sod and the dew, 

Waiting the judgment day ; 
Under the laurel, the Blue ; 
Under the willow, the Gray. 


" From the silence of sorrowful hours. 
The desolate mourners go. 
Lovingly laden with flowers. 

War of the Rebellion. 245 

Alike for the friend and the foe ; — 
Under the sod and the dew, 

"Waiting the judgment day ; 
Under the roses, the Blue ; 
Under the lilies, the Gray. 


So, with an equal splendor, 

The morning sun-rays fall, 
With a touch, impartially tender, ' 
On the blossoms blooming for all; — 
Under the sod and the dew. 

Waiting the judgment day ; 
Broidered with gold, the Blue ; 
Mellowed with gold, the Gray. 


• So, when the summer calleth. 
On forest and field of grain, 
"With an equal murmur falleth 
The cooling drip of the rain;— 
Under the sod and the dew, 

Waiting the judgment day; 
Wet with the rain, the Blue; 
Wet with the rain, the Gray. 


■ Sadlj-, but not with upbraiding, 
The generous deed was done ; 
In the storm of the years that are fading. 
No braver battle was won ; — 
Under the sod and the dew. 

Waiting the judgment daj- ; 
Under the blossoms, the Blue; 
Under the garlands, the Gray. 


' No more shall the war-cry sever, 
Or the winding rivers be red ; 
They banish our anger forever. 
When they laurel the graves of our dead ; 
Under the sod and the dew, 

Waiting the judgment day ; 
Love and tears, for the Blu:e ; 
Tears and love, for the Gray. 


People's National Bank 

— ^aS- OF -B=^— 




A.J.THOMAS.Pres. J. B. WILSON, Cashier. 

Capital, $80,000. Surplus and Undivided Profits, $20,000. 



^H-^ coiLiaijE:cTiOasrs h^-^ 


Domestic and Foreign Exchange Bought and Sold. 












\_Written especially for the author of this work, and copyrighted accord- 
ing to law. All rights reserved. ~\ 

I^^URING my early cliilclliood days there were still 
^i§ many Revolutionary heroes, old, and in many cases, 
decrepid, who would often entertain company at the 
hotel, by relating personal experience of the times 
through which they had passed ; also, many yet who 
had been engaged in the Indian wars. Among them was 
one Peter Cook, who had been in St. Clair's defeat in 
Ohio Territory. He would exhibit the effect of a terrible 
struggle which left him maimed for life, and was one of 
only 123 that reached the white settlement from the 
defeat. His right foot was cut off diagonallj^ up to the 
instep of the foot, leaving only the little toe. He shot 
an Indian who feigned death, and went to get his arms, 
when the Indian arose with tomahawk and cleft his foot 
off at one blow. He had a severe struggle, and finally 
getting the tomahawk, he Iniiied it in the top of the In- 
dian's head. 

Many thrilling instances of escape, as well as personal 
struggle in border warfare, would be related in which the 
parties were personally engaged. There seldom passed 
a week that more or less Indians, in their native dress 
and natural ferociousness of character, came through 

250 Reminiscence. 

town. They would be fully equipped witli bow and 
arrows, and tomaliawk, with knife hanging to a band of 
undressed deer hide around their waist. They would 
often shoot at coin placed in a split stick — if hitting, it 
was theirs ; upon missing, they would throw on the 
ground the same coin. Our silver coin at that time "was 
the Picayune, or 6i cent i)iece. The bit of 12* cent i^iece, 
and the Hispanola of Pillar, 25 cent piece, were all Span- 
ish coin. The Mexican Pillar or Spanish, and the Amer- 
ican silver dollar, copj^er half and one cent pieces, were 
used as American coin. I have no early recollection of 
seeing the American five, ten, twenty-five and fifty cent 
pieces until after passing uj^ to full youth. 

The Indians generally x)assing through our valley were 
from Kentucky and Tennessee, and were enormous eaters. 
On one occasion four arrived and stopped at the hotel. 
Three at once commenced shooting at coin, and the other 
came in and asked for food, A full large loaf of bread, 
with an ordinary size ham, was placed before him, and 
he was left to help himself. Upon returning nothing was 
left except the bone of the ham. 

When a child the whipping j^ost occupied ground di- 
rectly in front of your present, and also old Court House 
door. One Christmas morning it was found blown to 
pieces. Parties had bored holes in the stock and charged 
them heavily with powder, destroying it for all future 
use. A new one was afterward erected in the space be- 
tween the jail and next house east, which was then the 
Clerk's office. 

The first event to make a lasting impression and fix 
itself upon my mind was of a political character, and will 
show the devices resorted to at that period to claim and 
hold party fealty. It was in my fourth year, and had 
my home at a large hotel, the headquarters of the Dem- 
ocratic and Republican parties. During the congressional 
canvass of 1832 General Jackson was President, and a 
procession and barebcue was held late in the evening. 

Jleminiscence. 251 

and the Democracy addressed from a stand in front of 
the hotel. On the street was a wagon drawn by six 
horses, beautifally caparisoned, and fixed upon it was 
a good- sized hickory tree in full leaf and foliage. Upon 
each twig, branch, limb, in fact all over it, was hung the 
American silver dollar, tied by blue ribbons, and at every 
vibration of the tree the delightful tingling money sound 
would strike upon the ear. This device was to show the 
Democrats' hostility to the then Federalists' financial 
system and United States Bank, which had absorbed and 
held in its vaults nearly, if not all, coin in the country, 
ruinous to all commercial pursuits and crippling the 
Government very seriously in its Treasury Department. 
My entire boyhood days were spent at this hotel, and up 
to almost middle life it was the headquarters of the 
Democracy, and every meeting of the county was held 
there. Old Tammany or Billmire's Hotel was situated 
on the southwest corner of King and your present Ger- 
man streets. It was not for many years that any other 
streets had names, excejDt King and Queen, they being 
then as now, the iDrinciple business streets. 

The other hotels were the Globe, Wm. Kraesen, x^ro- 
prietor, occupying the site on King street opposite your 
St. Clair Hotel, as far up as Grantham Hall east, and ad- 
joining property now owned by E. Herring, Esq.; a hotel 
with different jDroxDrietors, called the Claycomb House, 
where the i^resent Lambert saloon is, on Queen street ; 
the Gardner House, owned by Peter Gardner, an eccen- 
tric good old German, which is now the Eagle Hotel, on 
Queen street ; also the Kelley House, (proprietor un- 
known) located on your present Martin street, directly 
opposite the home of Dr. Myers. The old town up to the 
year 1837 was what might be called a good- sized village, 
Avith possibly 800 and could not have exceeded 1,000 in- 
habitants. Each day four stages arrived and departed — 
one to Hagerstown, one to Shepherdstown, one to Win- 
chester, and one to the Warm Springs, now known as 

252 Reminiscence. 

Berkeley Springs. All traffic and trade Avas carred on 
by wagons and teams. Every hotel tried to secure tlie 
custom, and it was very evenly divided. No such tilings 
as a railroad was thought of in our every-day life, al- 
though occasionally I could hear among the drivers of 
teams nbout the horse railway from Baltimore to Elli- 
cott's Mills. The manufacture of wools was carried on 
largely at a factory belonging to the Gibbs family. It 
occupied the present locality of or abour your pump- 
house for water works ; also a large foundry on same lo- 
cality, of which the Gibbs were proprietors, and super- 
intended by John Keys, who raised a large family, one 
of whom, Philip, is now living at Keyser. Distillers for 
whisky and fruit were scattered around, the principle 
one being Flaggs', east of town. Flour was largely man- 
ufactured and shipped. The Stevens mill, now owned 
by Geo. M. Bowers ; the Ransom mill, now Hannis' ; the 
Tabb and Ilibbard mills on Tuscarora, west of town, now 
Kilmer and Bender' s mills, were all large grinders. Each 
farmer had his own grain ground for toll, and sold the 
flour as needed at home, or else hauled it to Baltimore 
markets, bringing back for the merchants dry goods, 
groceiies, etc. At the site of the present Fitz mill was 
an oil mill, where flax-seed was ground and oil extracted 
for sale. Blacksmithing, wagon-making, furniture man- 
ufacturing, cooperage, saddle and harness making, tai- 
loring, shoe making, watch repairing, house carpentry, 
tinning, white-smithing or lock making, brass foundry 
and copper kettle making were carried on extensively, 
and many manufactories had wagons on the road selling 
their articles of trade. 

Our fathers and mothers were an active, busy i^eople. 
The mode of x)reparation of food by cooking was of an 
entire different character than at present. We had no 
stoves and knew nothing about them, except the old ten- 
plate All our cooking was done in stew pans with long 
handles, Dutch ovens, spitts, frying pans, etc., on an 

Hemimscence. 253 

open LeartL, using live coals from the chimney wliere 
full cord wood had been burnt down. Our bread was 
baked in ovens specially built for such purposes. In 
preparation for baking, batch was set in large dough- 
trays over night and worked out in the morning into 
loaves, each of which was placed in a bread-basket made 
of straw, closely knit together by hickory withs. In 
these baskets the bread was again raised for baking, and 
afterwards turned upon a large paddle used in placing 
it in the oven, where it rested upon the heated floor, and 
generally came out with a crisp, nice crust, and was fit 
for the stomach of an epicure. 

The sports of the day were of similar character to the 
present. Boys jDlayed town, ring and corner ball, ran 
the fox, and at certain seasons played marbles in \"arious 
games, shooting in holes being much in vogue ; in winter 
enjoying skating. A large pond of water was near town, 
known as the Waite lot, where many days of sport in 
skating were enjoyed. Hop, skid and jump, mumbly 
meg, hide and seek, and manj^ other games were indulged 
in. The older boys took much delight in flying large 
kites, sending up hot air paper balloons, throwing fire 
balls, etc. The men would get up bull baits, where they 
would have a large, tierce bull tied by the horns with a 
cable rope, and fastened securely to a stake planted 
deeply in the ground. They would try the metal and 
ferocity of a class of tierce bull dogs. One to three at a 
time turned on the animal, and which ever dog took a 
nose hold and threw the bull, received the reward of 
champion, and possibly its owner some compensation. 
Much betting was engaged in as to the merits of the 
different dogs. There was also a w^eekly chicken or cock 
main fought somewhere in town. They also passed much 
time in pitching quaits, wrestling and jumping, and 
on everything betting was prevalent. Much drink- 
ing was done, — persons usually buying liquor by the pint 
or half pint, and drinking it at a table from little tin 

254 lieminiscence. 

caps called jiggers. This was tlie general custom up to 
1S37, Avlien drinking at the bar by glasses became custo- 
mary. No liquor was sold except at regular licensed 
hotels, and no license granted except upon condition, 
that stable room for not less than three horses and beds 
for nine men, were on the premises ; and they were then 
licensed as ordinary'' s, not as hotels or inns. 

The school accommodations of the times were limited, 
in the extreme. Old Capt. Maxwell taught for years in 
a house on your present Burke Street. In ihe basement 
of the Lutheran Church different jDersons taught. My 
first day at school was under the present church site, the 
teacher being a Mr. Young, who by his filthy habit of 
profuse tobacco spitting on the floor, was disrespectfully 
called by the scholars "Old Peal Garlic." He was better 
known by that than his own name. He was succeeded 
by a Mr. John Byers, from Shepherdstown, who contin- 
ued a long time as tutor, and many of my age then going 
to him, owe him a deep and mighty debt for his loving 
care over us, both as to morals as well as the secular 
knowledge he gave us. I think your good citizens, J. 
E. Hill, Joseph Painter, Jacob Swartz, and possibly 
others will join me in his praise. On the hill near the 
Catholic and Episcox^al cemeteries was a stone building 
called the accademy, then taught by a Mr. Bascom, suc- 
ceeded by a Mr. Caney and others whose names have 
passed from memory. In the building now occupied by 
the priest, in charge of the Catholic Church, a Mrs. 
Little taught exclusively, a female school. This embra- 
ced all the schools of the town, until after the year 1840, 
Avhich I will enumerate when I reach that year. 

The Presidential campaign of 1836, with Martin Yan 
Buren for President, and R. M. Johnson- for Yice-Presi- 
dent, as Democratic candidates, with Henry Clay as the 

^Johnson was called old Tecumseh, having the repiitation of killing this 
great Indian Chief in the Indian war of 1834, in the then territory of 

Beminiscence. 255 

Whig candidate, passed without much excitement, al- 
though the great questions of the day being as is now. 
The Whig measure was Tariff for Protection, or Tariff 
for Eevenue, with incidental protection a Democratic 
policy. The Democratic measure was the recharter of 
the old U. S. Bank, advocated by Henry Clay, as against 
the Sub-Treasury system. The Democrats being success- 
ful in the election of Van Buren and Johnson, with a 
large majority in the lower House and Senate, everything 
remained quiet politically. 

In 1S37 the old town was moved wonderfully. A large 
camp, having 37 canvas tents, suddenly appeared on 
level ground beyond the present Green Hill Cemetery. 
They proved to be the Surveying corps, locating the 
route of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, among 
whom were a Mr. Latrobe as principal, and his im- 
mediate officer in charge, a Mr. Shipley, and many 
others with whose names I was once familiar, but have 
now pjassed from memory. It gave new life and impetus 
to everything. The house, known afterward as Everett 
House, was improved and converted into a hotel, of 
which my uncles, John and Mike Billmire, became ^vo- 
prietors for the years 1838 and 1839. This house became 
headquarters in town for Civil Engineers when from 
camp. They removed their camp to the ground now oc- 
cupied by IMr. J. W. Bishop, above the Fitz mills, and 
remained there for several years. On the 22d of Febru- 
ary, 1839, the citizens of the town tendered an honor to 
the Civil Engineers, which they accepted, and a grand 
ball was held at the old Tammany House, to which my 
uncles were caterers. The military spirit of the peo- 
l^le of Martinsburg was always good, and at that 
time the Lafayette Guards, under command of Cai:)t. 
John S. Harrison, was a crack company. Under 
superior drill and beautifully uniformed, was present 
also many soldiers from Cumberland, Md., belong- 
ing to a comx^any called the Continentals. Their 

256 Rem in Iscen ce. 

dress consisted of navy blue clotli, with buff facing 
on tlie breast ; buff vest, many of yellow tanned deer 
skin ; short knee breeches with white hose attached by 
large buckles, and low slippers, something like an Indian 
moccasin. They made a beautiful appearance, and tak- 
ing all in all, the ball was a grand occasion. 

The churches of the town from 1832 to 1840 remained 
unchanged. There was on the corner of John street and 
the graveyard an old log building, which had been occu- 
pied in common by the Lutheran and German Keformed 
denominations, services being conducted in the Dutch 
language. It was abandoned when I first knew" it. In- 
side it was weatherboarded to the apex of the roof, with 
the entrance on the corner. The quaintest high back 
pews were placed diagonally across the church, in order 
to face a iDulpit nearly, if not fully, fifteen feet high, as 
it was reached by 17 steps, ascending spirally from the 
corner of the chancel. It was capped by a box that came 
above the waist of an ordinary sized man, and just big 
enough for him to stand in without a seat, from which 
he delivered his sermon. Above the entrance was a gal- 
lery in which was a large X)ipe organ, and above w^as a 
small belfry. The bell used here is said to be the one 
now in use on the German Eeformed church, at least 
when that church was erected it was so stated. The M. 
E. Church had a stone building on East John street, and 
is now occupied as a residence. The Presbyterians had 
a church on King street, which was destroyed by soldiers 
during an early period of our late civil strife, the lot 
being still unoccupied. The German Reformed wor- 
shipped in this church for a number of years. The 
Catholics had a stone church located near the centre of 
their present]cemetery. Protestant Episcopal church had 
an abandoned church structure of stone, and its location 
was at the entrance to their present cemetery. I cannot 
recall where they worshiped until the present church 
was erected, which was near 1850— although I knew the 

Hemuiiscence. 257 

pastors in cliarge of Parish, a Mr. Johnson and Tallifaro, 
after which came Rev. Mr. Chishohu, who volunteered 
and nobly entered in company with the then Catholic 
Priest, Rev. Mr. Plnnkett, as nurses for afflicted yellow 
fever patients in Norfolk and Portsmouth, both of whom 
died in discharge of christian duty and charity. The 
Lutheran Church has always occux')ied the present site 
on corner of Queen and Martin Streets, much imi^roved 
from its original structure, which was very plain andl 

During the j^ears 1S3S, '39 and '40, business began to 
expand and stretch away from the centre of the town. 
All the stores, dry goods, groceries, druggists, etc., 
had been on the now Grantham corner, also Wil- 
son and Boreman property, up to the business house 
now occupied by Frank Doll & Co., and were confined 
within that limit. Railroad contractors began to come 
in, and established stores in order to supply their em- 
ployees, selling and trading with the public just as the 
regular established merchants. In 1832 we had but one 
drug store, located in Commodore Boreman' s house, with 
Israel Young as proprietor. Grantham Hall corner was 
occupied by Thos. C. Smith ; Wilson corner, by John K. 
Wilson and William Anderson ; Continental corner, by 
Isaac Locke; oiiposite corner, now Sheriff's office, by 
Alex. Robinson ; Frank Evans tobacco store, by Daniel 
Burkhart and Geo. Doll ; store house of C. Thumel, by 
Wm. Long & Sons ; Frank Doll & Go's stand, by a Mr. 
Hogmire. The corner of the then Faulkner projDerty, 
now occupied by the People's National Bank, was used 
by Robt. Rush, a son-in-law of Daniel Burkhart. Jacob 
Hamme and James Stevens did business in the old Baker 
building. Their trade Avas general merchandise, grocer- 
ies, hardware, queensware, and whatever people w^anted. 
No one branch was confined to itself as is now often the 
case. It is a noted fact, often spoken of in my presence 


258 Memirdscence. 

as true, that every merchant doing business under the 
old regime and system failed. 

In the fall of 1838 Wm. Lucas, father of Hon. I). B. 
Lucas, was the Democratic candidate for Congress. His 
opponent was a Col. Barton, of Frederick County, the 
Whig candidate. Mr. Lucas was elected, the district 
being 'overwhelmingly Democratic, embracing, if my 
memory is not at fault, the counties of Jefferson, Clarke, 
Page, Warren, Frederick, Berkeley, Morgan, Hampshire 
and Hardy. The system of voting was tiva xoce, or 
open spoken ballot. The right of suffrage was only given 
to land owners and other projDerty qualification. A land 
owner could vote in each county where his name was en- 
tered in the Land Book if he could reach a voting place 
within three days, for which time the polls were kept 
open. This system continued up to the year 1851 and 
1852, at which time the new Constitution was adopted, 
that extended the right of suffrage to every white man 
21 years of age and over, not disqualified by pauperism 
or mental incapacity. The elections were confined ex- 
clusively to Presidential, Congressional, State Senate 
and Legislature. All county officers were appointed by 
the Governor of State. Berkeley County was one of the 
reliable old Federalist and Whig counties of the State, 
and Democracy was frowned upon with apparent con- 
tempt. Under the old regime of restricted suffrage all 
the wealthy and leading citizens seemed to belong to that 
party. General Boyd, whom I just remember, Col. Ed. 
Colston, Mpses Hunter, Col. E. P. Hunter, Judge Philip 
Pendleton, Capt. Van Doren, Col, R. V. Snodgrass, Col. 
Jacob Myers, Benjamin Comeqy, Wm. T, Snodgrass, 
Samuel Henshaw, William Cunningham, Andrew Mc- 
Cleary, Dr. Allen Hammond, Hon. C. J. Faulkner, Til- 
litson Fryatt, Barton Campbell, Jacob Weaver and many 
others were leading, wealthy citizens, and each one an 
ardent Federalist and Whig. On the other side ardent 
Jackson Democrats were such men as Col. Robinson, 

Reminiscence. 259 

James W. Gray, Wm Barney, George, Jacob and David 
Seibert, Moses S. and Lewis Grantham, lame Mike Sei- 
bert, Dr. John Hedges, Dr. John S.. Harrison, Dr. Thos. 
S. Page, Dr. Chas. Magill, John and Jacob Painter, 
Alex, and Geo. NeAvcomer, Abraham Williamson, Geo. 
and William Sperow, Rev. John Light, Jacob, John and 
Daniel Lefever, Samuel and Hezekiah Hedges, Peter 
Gardner, John and Michael Billmire, and many others. 
The Democrats never failed having a candidate in the 
field, but invariably met with defeat in county elections 
for Legislature. For the State Senate the District was 
always reliably Democratic, as was also the case for Con- 
gress. The Presidential election of 1840, — M. Van 
Buren, Democratic candidate, with W. H. Harrison and 
John Tyler as candidates of the Whig party, was the 
most exciting and strongest contest and furor that this 
county has possibly ever passed through. General Har- 
rison was a noted successful Indian warrior, and very 
popular as the Governor of Northwest Territority. He 
lived in a plain log cabin on the prairies of Indiana, and 
gave full, free entertainment to whomever called. His 
customary drink was hard cider, handed in a common 
gourd cup. His cabin was covered with coon skins. 
This gave the Whig party the opportunity to build log 
cabins on a wagon — the interior holding in large casks 
his favorite drink, with live coons confined by chains on 
the roof or wherever they could get a foothold. The 
Democrats tried to bring the canvass within the province 
of principles and discussion of political questions, but 
w^ere overthrown by the public furor and excitement of 
honoring a good old soldier who had spent the flower of 
his life in dangerous p)ublic service on the frontier. 
They could not be drawn from giving him the deserved 
honor. He was a Whig President without policy or 
chart, and only lived one month. When dying he was 
succeeded by John Tyler, the elected Vice-President, 
who had, all his previous life, been recognized as a Dem- 

260 Reminiscence. 

ocrat, and it was no surprise wlien in forming liis cabi- 
net, with tlie exception of Daniel Webster, Secretary of 
State, that his selection should be of the conservative 
Democratic element. He was cursed by the Whigs, but 
ardently supported by Democrats. 

The year 1841 was uneventful, except the fact that 
process of grade and bridge building on the railroad was 
in progress, with a large number of employes, most gen- 
erally of a foreign element. From, about Vanclevesville, 
on the East, to North Mountain, west of toAvn, the em- 
ployes were all from Ireland. Beyond that to near Sleepy 
Creek, they were German— growing out of the fact that 
contractors were Irish at one place and German at the 
other. A Mr. Win. O'Neal had the contract East of 
town, from Green Hill Cemetery to about one mile East 
of Opequon Creek. Immediately through the town a 
Mr. Eads was contractor, and beyond Dry Run, West, a 
German by name of Rotterman, was contractor. I knew 
them all personally, as they were boarders at my home. 

On St. Patrick's day of this year, an old gentleman by 
name of Gallaher, was honored by the jokers of the town 
in having a "paddy" hung upon a tree in front of his 
residence. He took it in as a good joke, and carefully 
taking it down, gave it to us school boys that were pres- 
ent, provided we would carry it upon a board as a bier 
and he would walk as chief mourner on the street to the 
Everett House, which we did. The "x^^^^^j" was left 
there in the care of a colored man for future use. On the 
night of the 31st, "paddy" was removed to Tuscarora 
Creek, at foot of John street, — carefully placed in the 
water with one foot showing boot sole near the to]3, and 
the balance of the body seen under water, which to every 
appearance was a drowned man. Wm. Reed, on his way 
to the factory, made the discovery. He immediately re- 
ported the fact to the Coroner, Mr. Anthony Chambers, 
who summoned a jury of inquest, and to the disturbance 
of many a breakfast. Citizens of the town hastened to 

Reminiscence. 261 

this f^hastly sight. The jury was i)laced solemnly on 
each side of the bridge, and parties detailed to bring the 
body out for view before them. One seized hold of the 
floating leg, when off came the boot, exposing the straw 
filling of the "paddy." At this moment arose the cry 
loud and long, "April fool." It would be impossible to 
describe the angry, vengeful excitement of the coroner, 
jury and citizens, who had been so fearfully fooled. 

In the month of December of this year, 1S41, the trial 
of a colored man name John, charged with the murder 
of a white man named Colbert, who lived near the mouth 
of Opequon Creek, occurred before the County Court. 
Jacob Weaver was Chief Magistrate, with four Associate 
Justices, and the full bench were present. He was con- 
victed and sentenced to be hung — time fixed in February, 
of 1842. It was the only public execution that had taken 
place since about 1S30, of which event I only have a tra- 
ditionary knowledge. Three colored men were charged 
and convicted of highway robbery, and were executed by 
hanging on the Winchester road near town. They claim- 
ed innocence, and xjredicted that it would be attested by 
a fearful storm before the people disx)ersed from the 
ground. It seemed to be a well established fact that 
such storm did occur - of wind, rain and hail, which was 
very destructive to growing corn, and also grain crops, 
just harvested. The sympathy of the x">ublic was much 
excited in behalf of this poor colored man John, and 
great efforts were made for his reprieve, but without 
avail. '\ ime arrived for execution, and an immense crowd 
assembled to witness it. He was placed upon his coffin 
in an open barred ladder wagon at the jail door, and was 
guarded by the Lafayette Guards, squad walking in close 
double file on either side. Immediatelj'" following were 
the sheriff and Deputies — C. D. Stewart, D. C. Burns 
and Cornelius Comeqy, with Rev. Charles Martin, of the 
Lutheran Church, his spiritual adviser. The column 
commenced moving, John, singing in a quiet, plaintive- 

262 Reminiscence. 

toucliicg tone the hymn "When I can read my title clear 
to mansions in the skies, I'll bid farewell to every fear 
and wipe my v/eeping eyes," which he kept up until the 
gallows was reached. The place was just beyond Nor- 
borne Hall, or Cumberland Valley Depot, in a deep 
ravine surrounded by rising rocky ground. I witnessed 
his ascent to the platform — and farewell with the minis- 
ter, and immediately hastened away. The rope broke 
and a fearful cry arose from the lookers on. John was 
helped up and again ascended to the platform, from 
which he was soon suspended. He was buried beneath 
the gallows, from where his remains were removed and 
dissected by the physicians of the tov/n, in an old aban- 
doned brew house on Spring alley, near Liberty Spring. 
He was skinned and his hide tanned by a colored man 
named Wm. Piper, who gave to a friend of mine a strij;) 
of the hide that I have often seen used in sharpening a 
razor. Nothing unusual, that I can recall, occurred this 
year, 1842. 

As usual and according to law, in the month of May 
each year, the militia met for field evolution and march- 
ing, and to answer to the call of their name from the 
record of the regiment, as a member of the militia of the 
State. It was preceded by four days drill of officers, 
Captain and Lieutenants, with Major, Adjutant, Colonel 
and other officers. Sometimes the General of Divis- 
ion would be present. General Carson, of Winchester, 
is the only live militia general that I had ever seen. Our 
Colonels of Regiment C9, during my early days, were E. 
P. Hunter, R. V. Snodgrass, and last, Jacob Sencindi- 
ver, who was in command on last general muster in May 
1861. During the years 1842 nnd '43, rail-laying began 
and passed beyond the town. One of the most wild and 
excited times, occurred on general muster day, in one 
of these two years. The regiment had just been formed 
in marching order, when suddenly, and for the lirst time, 
the iDiercing whistle of a steam engine broke upon the 

Reminiscence. 2C3 

ear. Regiment, officers and men broke ranks, and run- 
ning pell-mell, ^Yere soon on the kill beyond tke mill now 
owned by Geo. M. Bowers, waiting with anxiety the 
arrival of this monster. There was no more mustering, 
and the day was given up to general drinking, carousing, 
rioting and fighting. 

In 1843 I became fully identified with the business of 
the town, entering the store of R. P. Bryarly & Co. The 
other merchants were G. and C. W. Doll, John H. Li- 
kens, Mevorel Locke, D. S. White, Hamme & Stevens, 
John W. Boyd, John Jamison, Washington Kroesen and 
possibly others ; drug stores, Wm. Dorsey, W. H. He- 
zeltine, and Adam Young. We had no clothing stores. 
Cloths and cassimeres were manufactured into clothing by 
regular tailors, who were Hiram Bowen, Hugh McKee, 
Pat. Cunningham, Ezekiel Showers, AVm, Billmire and 
John and Wm. Hoke, each of whom emjiloyed journey- 
men vath many apprentices. One confectionery and 
cake stand was kept by George Raenhal. During this 
year one freight train with a passenger car arrived in the 
early morning, and returning East in the afternoon. The 
depot was a small shed roof building, occupying site of 
stone wall on your present xDlatform, and Mr. John Jami- 
son was the agent. At or about this time Archibald 
Oden opened his house as a hotel, where the present St. 
Clair stands, and it became the leading hotel of the town. 
Wm. L. Boak occupied the Everett House as an hotel. 
The market house for the town occupied a space in front 
of King Street Hall, which was then the M. E. church. 
It was a rough stone structure, with roof reaching > very 
near the ground, and open lattice wood- work for the 
front — standing square on Queen street on a line with 
Commodore Boreman's residence. There was space all 
round for market wagons. A good joke was x^layed oil 
by the bad boys of the town upon two eccentric charac- 
ters named Gano, father and son. Jim and Dad were the 
only names I ever heard for them. They attended mar- 

264 Reminiscence. 

ket often, and would drive their wagon beliind the mar- 
ket house, and there leave it for the morning. On this 
occasion they were loaded with buckwheat flour. The 
boys unloaded the wagon, detached the wheels, taking it 
by pieces upon the roof and there replacing it in perfect 
running order, carried up the buckwheat, reloaded it and 
left. The opening of market was from 2 to 3 o'clock A. 
M. On this particular morning it was dark, rainy and a 
heavy fog i^revailing. The wagon being missed an alarm 
was raised, and ofRceis of the town employed to find the 
stolen property, without avail. When daylight came,lo, 
and behold ! on the roof of the building was found the 
stolen property intact with nothing missed. Ever after, 
however. Dad and Jim took good care to drive their 
Yv'agon into the hotel yard. Another good and surpiis 
ing joke was perj^etrated sometime previous to this. A 
Mr. Wm. Thompson had running at large, and very tame, 
a small jackass. The boys got hold of him one Saturday 
night, took him uj) in the Court House, and from the 
floor of the gallery raised him by block and tackle into 
the steeple, and placing his head out of a window just 
below the hall, secured him and left. He was a great 
animal for braying and gave always a very hideous soun'd. 
On Sabbath morning, the people on their way to church, 
were greeted by him looking out of the steeple window. 
Mr. Thompson and the town authorities ofl'ered large re- 
wards to discover who committed this offence, however, 
without success. Nothing that I can recall of moment 
occurred during this year. 

In 1844 came on the Presidential election. The Dem- 
ocrats presented James K. Polk for President and George 
M. Dallas for Vice-President. The Whig party Henry 
Clay and Theodore Frelinghuysen. The contest was 
carried on fairly and honorably, with each advocating 
clear and distint principles much animated, but no furor 
and excitement. The question of admission of Texas as 
a State being advocated by the Democrats and bitterly 

liemhviscence. 265 

opposed by tlie "Wliigs, seemed to be the leading qnes- 
tioD, and gave success to tlie Democracy. It is my im- 
pression that before Polk took his seat, on March 4th, 
1845, Texas was admitted hj action of the Senate and 
lower House, and approved by President John Tyler. 
Early in 1845 John C. Fremont raised a company of vol- 
unteers for the purpose of exi^loring the Rocky Moun- 
tains. Among the number was a native of our county, 
Henry Vincenheller, a millwright by trade, which iden- 
tified us with the grand undertaking and claimed our in- 
terest with its success or failure. No one ever appeared 
to know what became of him. Many of the volunteers 
perished before Freemont was heard from, as the con- 
queror of California in part. There was great activity in 
raising recruits for the army, and many of our young- 
men enlisted, only two of whose names I can recall — 
Samuel Caskey and John Myers. During the fall months 
the question of war with Me.xico was constantly before 
us, finally reaching a climax by the call of the Govern- 
ment for volunteers. In the month of December daily 
the fife and drum passed through tbe streets, morning 
and evening each day, a new face appearing in the 
company. Capt. E. G. Alburtis, Daniel Poisal, Otho 
Harrison, a Mr. Gray, William Sherrard, Samuel K. 
Stucky, John and Jim Bear, John Gallaher, John Ott, 
a young Blondell and John Jamison were among the first. 
After several weeks a company of 46 men was formed, 
of which Dr. John H. Hunter and Wm. Keefe were part. 
Col. Hamptrammeck, of Shepherdstown, Hon. C.J. Faulk- 
ner and others spoke at a public meeting, and it was not 
a great while until a company was fully formed and left 
for Fortress Monroe, the place of rendezvous for Vir- 
ginia volunteers. One came back, not x^assiog examina- 
tion from loss of one eye. One, the young Blondel men- 
tioned, died at the fort. xVll the others, I believe, re- 
turned after peace was declared without injury in any 
way, except Lieutenant Gray, of whom no information 

260 Reminiscence. 

was ever given as to liis fate. The war closing, the 
country v/as prosperous and largely extended in territory. 
The year 1849 arrived, at which time came wonderful 
reports of gold discoveries in California. Nearly every 
one seemed disposed to strike out for the wealth said to 
lay on the surface of the ground, only waiting to be 
picked up and brought into use, Many of our young 
men joined companies and left, very few of whom have 
ever returned, and many have perished from disease, 
want, and neglect to provide and equip themselves for 
such a trip through the wilds of the Rocky Mountains, 
which previous to Fremonts's exploration was termed 
the Great American Desert. From the year 1844 up to 
the year 1849, I occupied the position of Deputy Post- 
master under John H. Likens, and the position gave me 
wonderful ojiportunity to know the pteople of both town 
and county. In the Presidential year of election, 1848, 
the Democrats presented Lewis Cass for President — 
name for Vice-President not remembered. The whig 
party presented the grand old warrier. General Taylor, 
with Millard Fillmore for "Vice-President. Owing to 
dissension in New York, M. Van Buren was run on a 
local state question to some extent, and brought up for 
the first time the question of Free Soil on Free Territory, 
as against the Extension of Slavery. James Birney also 
ran as an avowed slavery Abolition candidate — the result 
being the defeat of Cass and success of Taylor ; the sla- 
very question entering largely into the contest nationally 
for the first time in my knowledge. Taylor lived but a 
short time and was succeeded by Millard Fillmore, Vice- 
President, who was a good man — conservative and na- 
tional in his recommendations and acts, but not popular 
with the extremists of the south. There was wonderful 
agitation and excitement, and almost war, which was 
averted only by a compromise measure offered by Henry 
Clay, but which opened up a question called the Missouri 
Compromise, and again in a few years opened up the 

Reminiscence. 267 

full agitation of the slavery question. Tlie South was 
kept in a continuous condition of excitement, by the 
strong and vicious talk of war for the protection of sla- 
very. The rights of the South and their violation by 
the North, was a constant theme of discussion, both 
public and private. There was no peace or quietness to 
be found in any community south of the Potomac Iliver. 
In the year 1S51, a convention for constitutional change 
was called for and held. The delegates from our district 
elected, were Dr. Dennis Murphey, Hon. Andrew Hunter, 
Hon. C. J. Faulkner and one other, whose name I forget. 
The constitution was presented before the people and ap- 
proved by i3opular vote, which extended the right of 
suffrage to every white man not disqualified by mental 
incapacity or pauperism. This gave Berkeley County 
a large Democratic majority for the first tinie in its his- 
tory, except on two occasions by dissension among the 
Whigs, during the years 1846, '47 and '48 ; growing out 
of arbitrary action by the County Court against the pro- 
test of many Justices, who resided outside of town. The 
bridge crossing on South Queen street was washed out 
by a great flood. The County Court, without summon- 
ing a full bench, appointed a committee to rebuild, also 
to place under contract, Avhich was greatly opi)Osed. 
However, the contract was given to Wm. Lester, and a 
large debt created against the county. At a full bench 
of Justices, the bonds of the county were issued upon 
a very small majority vote This gave lise to the cry 
"Court House Clique, "a lid many positiveWhigsdetermin 
ed to defeat thenn in any nominations they might present 
for Legislature. James E. Stewart, now Judge in Page 
County, ran as an independent candidate as against 
Whig nominees, and was elected, I believe. At the next 
Legislative election, Dr. A. C. Hammond was an inde- 
pendent Whig, who joined with Lewis Grantham, Demo- 
cratic nominee, and they were elected, defeating Col. E. 
P. Hunter and Col. Edward Colston, AVhig nominees. 

268 Rem in iscen ce. 

The election for county officers, under the new constitu • 
tion, came off in May, 1852. Jacob Van Doren, Jr., 
Whig, was elected Sheriff ; E. G. Alburtis, County Clerk, 
and Israel Kobinson, Circuit Court Clerk, Democrats, 
which party was generally successful for all officers in 
the county and for State Legislatur<^, all through my ' 
early boyhood days. The County Clerks office and re- 
cords were kept in a small stone house, east of the pres- 
ent jail. About the year 1848, the county erected the 
brick house on public square, now owned and occupied 
by Dr. W. D, Burkhart as a residence and store, which 
was used for County and Circuit Clerks' office until after 
the new Court House was erected. The clerks. Circuit 
Court, Col. John Strother, under appointment for years; 
and Harrison AYaite, County Clerk, after whose death 
Capt. Jacob Van Doren became successor, held offices 
until ne\Vly elected officers' terms commenced. 

The Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, about the year 1849, 
commenced the foundation for an engine ho use and machine 
shops, and made Martinsburg a first-class station. "Wash- 
ington Kroesen erected a log store house directly opposite 
the present depot, facing the railroad with switch coming 
U13 to platform of house. He did a large grocery busi- 
ness, and commenced the erection of the stone building, 
formerly the Railroad Co's. depot and freight house, 
which was occupied first by W. H. Cronise & Co. They 
did a rushing business, but soon failed, and John H. 
Likens, my employer, was engaged in business therein, 
I being his chief clerk and salesman. At this time the 
Martinsburg and Potomac turnpike was put under con- 
tract— M. C. Kyne and P. J. Mussetter, contractors for 
first 5 miles ; Henry Haines, 2 miles ; Charles Downs, 4 
miles ; and Jeremiah Sullivan, remainder to the river. 
Daniel Burkhart was President, and John H. Likens, 
Secretary, the records and books being kejit by myself 
as his clerk. Messrs. Kyne and Mussetter threw up the 
contract, which Burkhart and Likens took up and finish- 

Rem ill iscence. 269 

ed. Then I became time keeper and i^aymaster to the 
employes. The State subscription was three-fifths, and 
personal subscription two-fifths. Collections from the 
State were secured by approval of report by members of 
the State Board of Improvement, and upon their requisi- 
tion the money was drawn from the old Valley Bank in 
Winchester. The members of the Board were a Mr. 
Pendleton, of Clarke Co., and Gen'l Carson, of Frederick 
Co., and it invariably devolved upon me, in person, to 
visit and secure their names and order for payment of 
money from the bank — thus becoming closely identified 
with this, the first turnpike road in the county. The 
Winchester pike was commenced a few years later. 

The town then began to expand. J. W. Boyd pur- 
chased the vacant land on the south side of East Burke 
street, and subdividing in lots, they were soon owned 
and improved by buildings. The first, just beyond the 
bridge, was purchased by Jeremiah Smith, an old rail- 
road employe. On the opposite side J. W. Hooper pur- 
chased, and immediately erected a building and ten-pin 
alley, which was the first drinking saloon that I can re- 
call. He also erected a brick dwelling beyond. A Mr. 
Chevally purchased a large body of land, and commenced 
a vegetable and fruit garden. A Mr. Lohr erected a large 
brick house, which stood alone for several years on the 
present High street. Benj. R. Boyd erected the stone 
building east of the railroad, on Queen street, and C. M. 
Shaffer the stone store house, now occupied by C. M. 
Shaffer & Son. Daniel Burkhart erected the small brick 
houses on the south side of the street. The only house 
between the railroad and Daniel Burkhart' s old residence 
was a small wooden structure, owned and occupied by 
Mrs. Kane and family, mother of Bishop Kane. A Mr. 
Strine came, and purchasing from Mr, Burkhart, im- 
j)rovement by building immediately commenced. This 
I think was after 1S50 or 1851. The old mill, then a grist 
or corn mill, consisted of about one-story, 16x20 feet, and 

270 lieminiscence. 

occupied tlie present Fitz mill site witli a saw- mill oppo- 
site. The water way from each ran on either side of a 
tongue of land, on which was a fine large spring of clear, 
cold water. The streams joined a short distance below, 
and formed a wide, shallow water, through which the 
street ran. The hill from town was very rough and 
rocky, and the means of crossing was a narrow log on 
either side of this tongue of land, on which was the 
spriDg. Where the railroad crosses Tuscarora was a 
spring, and when the bridge was built, an arch was left 
open in the side of it so as to give access to the spring, 
which I suppose is still to be found there. John H. 
Likens erected the large stone building on the south side 
of the railroad. About this period my direct business 
relations with the town ceased. I moved to Bedington, 
(Sulphur Springs,) yet was in town every week, more or 

Circuit Court being in session in the spring of 1852, 
and contest for nominations of congressional candidates, 
Henry Bedinger, having been our representative for sev- 
eral previous terms, was bitterly opposed, and Wm. 
Lucas sought the nomination in his stead. Democrat® 
were greatly divided in sentiment, and Bedinger suc- 
ceeded in securing the nomination. At the dinner table 
of old Tammany were all, or nearly all, leading Demo- 
crats of the county. The subject came up, and many, 
if not all, expressed their determination not to vote for 
Bedinger. Some one suggested that Mr. Faulkner be 
urged to run as an independent candidate, and in that 
conference it was determined if he would give to them 
certain pledges regarding his vote for speaker they would 
vote for him. A committee was informally appointed, 
and before the hour of the next morning a circular was 
posted announcing Mr. F. as an independent union can- 
didate for Congress. He was elected, and again re- 
elected as a full-fledged Democrat for the next term. 
About this period Hon. John Blair Hoge, in his young 

Bemin iscen ce. 271 

manhood, took unequivocal positions as a Democrat. 
The Presidential election approaching, there arose in 
Philadelphia a party naming themselves the "American 
Party,'' who announced themselves as hostile to the vote 
of foreigners— naturalized citizens coupling with that 
hostility to the Catholic Church, denying them the right 
to vote or hold office. The national conventions having 
met, the Democrats presented for President Franklin 
Pierce, and for Vice-President Wm. R. King. The 
Whigs nominated General Winfield Scott for President ; 
Vice-President not remembered. Previous to this elec- 
tion in the fall, Hon. Henry A. "Wise was nominated for 
Governor by the Democrats, and Hon. AV. L. Goggin by 
the Whigs — election occurring in May. 

During the month of February, as one would pass on the 
street, he would notice a large number of small three- 
cornered pieces of paper with the word Sam written 
thereon. During the evening, towards dark, citizens 
would be asked to take a walk, and would find them- 
selves generally introduced into a long, one story stone 
building, used as a school-house by a Mr. Webster, and 
located on Raleigh street, near C. V. Depot. There, if 
disposed, they would join the Darklantern Knownothing 
Organization, known publicly as the American Party. 
Personally, I was solicited time and again to take the 
walk. When the exposure came by a withdrawal of a 
number of Democrats, I then became familiar with their 
mode of securing adherents. Wise was elected Gover- 
nor with the entire Democratic ticket. In the fall Pierce 
and King were elected with almost unanimity, Scott 
carrying only three or four States. The administration 
proved very popular with both North and South. 

About the year 1853 the cholera visited Hari)er's Fer- 
ry, and an epidemic violent in form. Many citizens left 
for safety. A family by the name of Crowl, owning a 
farm in the vicinity of Gerardstown, moved part of the 
family — the old gentleman, wife and three daughters. 

272 Rem in iscen ce. 

They brouglit the disease with them, and all died, be- 
sides many in the neighborhood. A son coming from 
the Ferry hired a horse and bnggy from George Swimley, 
proprietor of the Everett Honse. It was a very popular 
hotel and filled with permanent boarders. On one Sun- 
day evening the son returning, drove up in front of the 
hotel, but remained sitting in the buggy. Same one, 
upon going to him, found him in what is termed a col- 
lapsed state of cholera. The alarm was raised, and Mr. 
Swimley coming forward, took the man in his arras and, 
carrying him in, proceeded to his own bed-room, where 
he i)laced him in bed and sent for physicians. Imme- 
diately the guests began to leave, when Mr. Swimley 
came to the head of the steps and announced that all 
might leave — that he would care for the sick man, let the 
consequences be what they might. His house was closed 
for three days by the to^'u authorities, except at one 
door on Burke street, at the end of which it was an- 
nounced the young man was getting well. The alarm 
ceased, and he was deservedly more popular than before. 
He exhibited the true charity of the good Samaritan, and 
although his manners were unrefined and his habits pos- 
sibly would not meet the approval of many, yet, thank 
God for such unselfish Christian characters as he. 

Coming into Martinsburg in the early morning 
for market, in the latter x^art of June or early in July, 
1854, I heard proceeding from the house on corner of 
Race and Queen streets, the most piercing screams. 
Proceeding up Queen the same sounds of agony came from 
a house o]3posite the present Valley House. Turning 
the corner of Martin Street, the same greeting met me 
from the house in the rear of the Lutheran Church. 
Being at my old home, I learned that Mrs. Geo. Raen- 
hal had died from cholera, and upon going down town, 
by nine o'clock, I found that nine persons were dead 
from cholera. On the Monday previous, Miss Kate 
Homrich and Thos. Turner died. From thistiftie forward 

Reminiscence. 273 

the town was ia a fearf al condition, more or less deaths 
occurring every day, until toward the latter part of 
August when it abated. It again broke out in violence 
about the middle of September, and continued with less 
fatal effects until some time in November. The first 
body buried in Green Hill Cemetery was that of Mrs. 
Geo. Raenhal or Horace Woodward, an engineer in the*, 
railroad service, who also died from this fatal disease., 
A lawyer of the town, David H. Conrad, organized a re-- 
lief or nurse body of volunteers, wiio would agree to- 
give two nights a week, if necesrary, in waiting upon the- 
sick and seeing the dead properly jjreparedfor the grave. 
It proved an important aid to physicians. In the month 
of November, B, L. Jacobs, Railroad agent, being very 
ill, solicited me to take charge of the Railroad ticket 
and freight ofhce for him temporarily, which I did ; the 
freight depot being on North Queen street, about where 
X:)resent house stands, and the x^assenger and ticket sta- 
tion being at foot of Martin street, as at present. Wash- 
ington Kroesen built a brick hotel, which became a pas- 
senger eating house, and w^as conducted by Henry Staub 
for several years, during which time the railroad company 
built a fine brick hotel on North Queen street opposite 
Bishop's store. They removed and located the passen- 
ger and freight business at that point, where it remained 
until the property was burnt in early part of civil war. 
The years 1855, '5G and '57 were uneventful, except for 
rapid progress in business and population. During the 
years 1858, '54 and ""^^.^ Mr. Sam'l Fitz j)^^rchased from 
Daniel Burkhart the old oil mill, and began improve- 
ment by sinking Tuscarora and building the present 
grand mill in j^art, and his foundry and machine shops ; 
the creek being spanned by the bridge, and the street 
tilled to its present level. In 1858, my connection with 
town and county business by being elected teller of the 
Bank of Berkeley, gave me an opportunity for gathering 
much knowledge of the business affairs of the county an(i 

274 lieminiscence. 

surrounding countr}'. During and i^receding tliis period, 
from x^ossibly 1S4S, flour was manufactured and shipped 
to Eastern markets in very large quantities. Alfred 
Ropji, D. D. Rees, James McWhorter, and some one 
from the J. E, Boyd mill, at Bunker Hill, were large 
shippers ; as also the Newcomer mill, on the Opequon ; 
the Hibbard and Tabb mills, west of town ; the Geo, H. 
McClure, now Hannis mill ; and the Bower s mill, in town, 
and Thos. G. Flagg, east of tovrn. Daniel Burkhart had 
a small distillery on Dry Run, where the present large 
Hannis distillery now stands, and F. G. Flngg distilled 
liquor at his place east of town. 

On the morning of the 9th of October, 1859, a citizen, 
W. N. Riddle, Esq., was seen to hastily enter the Court 
House, and soon the bell was x>ealing forth a rapid and 
excited sound, which only occurred in case fire was pre- 
vailing. Citizens began hastily to collect, and as they 
assembled it was announced that Harper's Ferry Armory 
had been captured, and citizens of the town were being 
shot down upon the streets, and were calling for aid to 
caj)ture and discover what it meant. It was announced 
that a train of cars would be ready to proceed there, car- 
rying volunteers, who would arm themselves with such 
weapons as they could. In a short time CaT)t. E. G. 
Alburtis, an old Mexican war veteran, was selected to 
command, and other officers appointed. By 11 o'clock 
they were ready, and going to the depot, took the train, 
which p)roceeded to the Ferry, accompanied by a large 
number of unarmed citizens. Our men were stoj^ped 
this side of the Ferry, and ordered to enter the Armory 
yard at west end, and there remain for farther orders. 
Instead of which, in impetuosity, they jDressed forward 
until they came under fire from Brown's men, who had 
been driven into the small engine house, from which the 
Marines under General Lee captured them. George 
Murphy, our Prosecuting Attorney, was wounded 
through the calf of his leg ; J. X. Hammond, our Dep- 

Reminiscence. 275 

uty Sheriil, liad the point of liis hip shot off; a young 
man in the railway service was shot through the stomach ; 
George Wollett, assistant in the service, was shot through 
the hand ; and George Richardson, a raih^oad watchman, 
had his right eye shot out. It was always claimed, that 
if they had been properly supported, they vv-ould have 
succeeded in caiDturing the invaders before the marines 
arrived. No one could describe the excitement prevailing. 
At about C o'clock in the evening, our wounded boys 
came back. They and the citizens could only say that 
it w^as a negro insurrection commenced, wdiich only in- 
creased the excitement and alarm. During the night it 
was announced that the marines had captured them, and 
that old John Brown, known as a Kansas Free State 
Fighter, was the leader, with negro and white men as 
abettors. It was remembered with alarm that for months 
a deaf and dumb strange negro man had appeared in pe- 
culiar dress upon the streets of the town, marching as if 
under military orders, always near sundoAvn. His plug 
silk hat was adorned with a feather from a turkey's tail, 
and a. band of red flannel round the body of the hat. 
He was generally supxwsed to be insane, and no atten- 
tion was ever j)aid him. It is certain, however, from this 
day forward he was never seen again. Hence he has al- 
ways been coupled, in my mind, as an aider of the Brown 
gang. From this day forward, until the final close of the 
civil strife by surrender of General Lee, in April, 1SG5, 
we w^ere under military surveilance and control. The 
business of the town, although disturbed, still continued 
unobstructed. Personally, I removed from town to the 
residence of my mother in-law, on the Potomac River, 
going to and from town each day and familiar with what 
was occurring. Scouts and military organizations w^ere 
going fo and returning from different points along the 
Potomac every day, on the lookout for further forays by 
such wicked fanatics as John Brown and his gang. Daily 
reports of a startling character being stated of a large or- 

270 Reminiscence. 

ganization of rescuers of Brown, who was in Jefferson 
County jail, were coming in on ns at any hoar. It was 
a period of unrest and disquietude, indeed. 

The Presidential election of ISGO coming on. Demo- 
cratic dissension placed John C. Breckenridge and Ste- 
phen A. Douglass before the people. The then lately 
organized party, under the name of Republican having 
absorbed the Whig party North, selected Abraham 
Lincoln as their candidate — the Union Party, as called, 
presenting John Bell, which largely absorbed the Whig 
element South. The election came off, resulting as 
known in the selection of Lincoln. The already inflamed 
and excited people of all parties flew almost at once into 
an attitude of war in the South. In the early months of 
the year 18G1, we were startled with news of the burning 
of Government j)roperty at Harper's Ferry, by the 
officers and soldeirs, who had been stationed there as 
guards, and their ra2)id movement to Washington. In 
a few days it developed, why it had been done by the 
concentration of military forces, representing as stated, 
state authority. It had been distroyed by orders from 
the war department, in order to defeat its capture of 
arms and ordinance stored in the Armory, by the 
Southern men. From this time forward. Harper's Ferry 
was the scene of many exciting circumstances. Shortly 
after this the Armory proper was dismantled, — all the 
machinery for arms and manufacture were removed; 
some said to Richmond, others to North Carolina. 

Our yearly General Regimental parade coming on in 
month of May, 1861, occasioned wonderful excitement. 
TliQ officers determined to march under the State Flag, 
discarding the stars and stripes of the country. Perso- 
nally, being an ardent supporter of the Government as 
against secession, I joined with others in securing a large 
j)art of the Regiment, who carried and marched under 
the grand old Stars and Stripes, in defiance of orders 
from the officers. It almost brought on personal rioting 

Reminiscence. 277 

and ligliting, and if arms had been at command, it is 
probable much blood would have been shed. This gave 
occasion for officers in command at Harper's Ferry to 
send a military company here to keep down the Union 
sentiment. It was the Rockbridge Guards, under com- 
mand of Capt. Letcher ; and they proved good fellows, 
largely in sympathy with the Union sentiment Capt. 
Letcher was ordered to burn the Railroad bride crossing 
Opequon Creek. He refused to obey orders, was put 
under arrest and removed, his company also returning to 
Harper's Ferry. In their stead the Clarke County Greys 
were sent up, and under orders they burnt the bridge. 
This incensed Union men very much, and members of the 
company would, individually, receive an unexpected 
lick or knock-down whenever opportunity occurred in 
the hotels of the town. They had headquarters in Gran- 
tham Hall building, and every afternoon would drill in 
the square. One Saturday afternoon it was noticed that 
many persons, citizens, and employes of the Railroad 
Company, collected on the Court House pavement. The 
military formed as usual in time, in front of the Col. 
Hoge, now J. B. Wilson residence, facing the crowd. 
On the Court House pavement commenced loud and 
vociferous comments upon their ajopearance and drill, and 
finally some one threw a stone, striking a gun in the 
hands of a member of the company. Many in the com- 
X^any brought their guns to shoulder, ready to shoot. 
The crowd made a break toward them, but before reach- 
ing them, they had dispersed and were mounting steps 
to their headquarters. The crowd hooted and howled 
for some time, but the soldiers kept within their quar- 
ters, and finally the crowd dispersed. This was the 
only assault on the military I ever witnessed in town. 

A Regiment of cavalry, under the command of J. E. 
B. Stewart, came next, and camped in the county, scout- 
ing along the Potomac River. They were seldom in a 
body in the town — hence, no collision ever came up. 

278 Rem in iscence. 

Still continuing my trips daily, to and from town, at- 
tending my bank duties, I i:)assed tlirongh cavalry camp 
morning and evening ; tliey being in tlie orcliard ot' 
John C. Small, on Martinsbnrg and Williamsport pike. 
Holding a j)3,ss from Col. Stewart, I was surprised one 
evening upon arrival at picket i)ost by arrest, being 
conducted to Col. Stew^art's tent. I was met with the 
charge of being dangerous in conveying news to the 
enemy, then in force on the Maryland side of the river ; 
my residence being in sight of the river and my senti- 
ments being hostile to the South. I offered simply inno- 
cence of having conveyed information, or of having such 
disposition. Hoge being iDresent, appealed in my be- 
half, and I was released with a more far reaching pass 
than I had before. On the 2nd day of July, 1861, the 
Bank closed up its business, all its funds, books, bonds, 
etc., being placed in the hands of a committee for safe 
keeping. From this time forW'ard to 1872, I was only a 
casual visitor to the town. In 1863, I became identified 
with the railroad service, located at Cumberland, Md. 
In January 1864, I was in charge of Harper's Ferry 
agency, and was every week a visitor to your tov/n in 
transaction of business for the company vvith the mili- 
tary authorities — hence, I know but little of the history 
of the town after 1861. 

The fight between General Jackson and Patterson's 
forces, near Falling Waters, was under my view. Shortly 
after it opened, in company with John Marshall and 
Henry Myers, who lived at Bedington, we passed out to 
see what was on fire, a dense smoke appearing, and found 
Wm. Porterfield' s barn burning. The Confederate' s were 
in battle array on the hill between Mr. Hill's residence, 
just where the road turns off to the Falling Waters 
church. Unexpectedly we found ourselves captured by 
the 4th Wisconsin Regiment, who were flanking to the 
south side of the burning barn. When w^e recovered 
our surprise the Confederates had retired, and we sup- 

Reminiscence. 279 

l)osecl, continued their retreat to and beyond Martins- 
burg. On our way to liave a hearing one dead man with, 
a ball through his head was seen lying on the pike, and 
was a member of the 4tli Wisconsin regiment. At Mr. 
Porterfield's residence was found five severely wounded 
Federals, and under an apple tree was a dead man, sup- 
i:)osed to be a Confederate by his dress. At the house 
of John Gonter three wounded Federals were found, one 
of whom had the most singular appearance I have ever 
seen. His head lay perfectly level on the right shoul- 
der, and on his neck, nnder the left ear, appeared a large 
blood blister. His body was i^aralyzed. The surgeon 
said it was caused by abrasion— a small sized six-pound 
canon ball having passed between the ear and shoulder, 
not striking, but just rubbing against the skin. The 
wounded Federals were placed in ambulances and went 
back to Maryland. The dead Confederate was buried in 
the field back of Porterfield's barn. 

The seasons, winter and summer, in our latitude, are 
generally uniform, but there have been excejptions. I 
cannot recall the year, but it was from 1836 on to 1840 — 
one summer it was uniformly cold, with frost occurring 
more or less in each sum^mer month — during which, about 
the middle of July, an old revolution iry veteran was 
buried. His remains were taken to a graveyard in the 
country, possibly at the old Baptist Church, near the 
Newcomer mill ; anyhow it was out that way. Being 
buried with military honors, the boys of the town natu- 
rally would be present. I distinctly recollect the fact 
that whilst the salute over the grave was being fired, it 
commenced snowing and continued until the ground was 
covered fully three inches, becoming fiercely cold. The 
past year, 1SS7, being a noted year for fierce blizzards 
and wonderful snow storms in various i)arts of our coun- 
try, calls my attention to a wonderful snow storm which 
we had in 1842, in the early part of February. It com- 
menced snowing on Friday, about noon, falling rapidly 

280 lieminiscence. 

and continiiiDg all day Saturday, Sunday and Monday ; 
and in the afternoon of Monday, still snowing, a fierce 
driving wind came on. On Tuesday morning the entire 
country was blocked up, and in front of my home, on 
the southeast corner of Shaffer's property, a large drift 
was standing which reached the roof of the house. A 
gentleman by the name of Yincenheller, seizing me, 
caught me by the clothing and threw me into this drift 
headforemost. Unfortunately, I fell too far near the 
edge, sustaining a wounded right shoulder by striking on 
the ground. I could not rise, and he becoming alarmed, 
had to take a snow bath through the drift in order to re- 
lieve me. This accident gave me the pleasure of a daily 
sleigh ride all over the county, as he was fond of the 
sport and had a fine team to make amends for his act, 
and would take me with him. No fences could be seen 
in any direction, and in many places in the woods the 
lower limbs of the trees were hid under the snow. This 
was the most severe snow storm we may have ever 
had in the valley. In 1856 there were great snow falls, 
and the railroads, also country roads, were blocked up, 
but no such continuous storm as that of 1842, 

The resident ministers of the town from 1828 to 1861, 
as far as I can recall, were : Lutheran — C. P. Krauth, Sr., 
Medtart Schaffer, Weizer Martin, Sprecher Seip, "Winter 
Krauth, Jr., Schonucker Fenk Kopp ; 18C1, C, Martin. 
German Reformed — Revs. Robt. Douglas, Daniel Bra- 
gonier ; both these churches vrere united usually w^ith 
Shepherdstown. Presbyterian — Revs. Peyton Harrison, 
John Boggs, a Mr. Berry and A. C. Hopkins. Protest- 
ant Episcopal — Revs. Johnson, Talifaria. Chisholm, 
Davis, Sprigg and others. Methodist Episcopal — Revs. 
Riley, Watts, Hodges, Goheen, Coffin, Dulin, Mercer, 
March, Moorehead and many others. Baptist — Revs. 
AVm. Herndon, W. S. Penick and others. Catholic — 
Rev. Wheelan, afterward Bishop of Diocese of W. Va.; 
Revs. Plunkett, O'Brien and Talty. 

Iteininiscence. 281 

Among the professional men were : Physicians — Drs. 
Richard McSherry, Kownsler, Hollingsworlli, John S. 
Harrison, Sr. and Jr., Charles Magill, Dennis Murphy, 
F. D. Bellinger, Wm, Snodgrass. Thos. S. Page and E. 
B. Pendleton. Dentists— John Little and W. P. With- 
row. Judges of Circuit Court — J. R. Douglass, of Jef- 
ferson County, and Richard Parker, of Frederick Coun- 
ty. Lawyers— D. II. Conrad, E. P. Hunter, C. J. Faulk- 
ner, Edmond Pendleton, J. Blair Hoge, Frank Thomas, 
Norman Miller and Andrew Kennedy. Editors— Wash- 
ington Evans, Col. E. P. Hunter, James E. Stewart and 
Norman Miller, of Gazette; E. G. and Samuel Alhurtis 
and Major Israel Robinson, of the Virginia Repiihlican. 

From my earliest days the parish, (now called the poor- 
house,) occupied the X)resent building known as Norborne 
Hall. A Mr. James ]\Ioon was the keeper, and supplies 
were furnished by J. W. Boyd. At one time there was 
quite a political scandal in regard to the improper use of 
inmates, and the enormous profits made in supplying the 
house, which finally resulted in the Court buying the 
present farm and buildings on Tuscarora. I think this 
was about the year 1850. The old Court House occupied 
in part the locality of the present one. It did not come 
to the corner of Queen street, but left a space fully thirty 
feet. The corner was occupied by a frame building with 
brick back dwelling house, and was the best store stand 
in town. It occupied the space now about \vhere Sher- 
iff's oflice stands. 

The first telegrai)h office that we had in town was in a 
frame buildicg, occupying the corner of Grantham Hall, 
the line coming direct up King street and diverging from 
the railroad at the Bower's mill. I was boarding at the 
corner of Spring and King streets, and opposite on the 
jail steps, upon one occasion, sat two of our aged men, 
Jesse Hayden and Adam Schoppert. 

Adam says: "Jesse, how does this thing woik, any- 

2S2 Reminiscence. 

how \ I have been watching it for the hist hour and 
nothing has ^rone over it yet/' 

Jesse replied : •• Why, Adam, it is a liquid and flows 
inside the wire, and you cant see it. When it gets to 
the end it comes out."' 

'•How's that," says Adam. "I seen Joe, my son, get a 
telegraph from Harper's Ferry, and it was just like any 
other letter.'' 

■' \Yell," replied Jesse, '* it is a d— d puzzler, anyhow, 
and I believe a fraud." 

Without -solving the problem of the telegraph they 
closed their conversation, and I exjDect they were not the 
only ones who were puzzled over the same matter. 

We had many eccentric characters about town, and 
amongst others was one Adam Cockburn. He owned 
and lived on the property now owned by E. Herring, di- 
rectly opposite Green Hill Cemetery. Every day Adam 
was in town, usually visiting the various bar-rooms until 
full, and he would then perambulate the streets, making 
fun for everybody. Personally, I only have a vague 
knowledge of him and his habits. His place was long 
used as a resort for the boys of the town» as a play 
ground- Zvlany a pleasant hour have I passed with my 
boy friends in playing ball on the familiar Cockburn Hill. 
The community yet has in it a rex)resentative of the long 
ago. Alexander Grimes. He has always been a peculiar 
character. His home for a long time was with my rela- 
tives at old Tammany. Much of the filling, grading and 
macadamizing of King and Queen streets was done with 
his assistance. His habits for a long time were very dis- 
sipated. However, he made uj) his mind to quit drink- 
ing, and purchasing a pint of liquor he took it to his 
sister Polly, telling her he would only drink from that 
bottle, and that she should refuse to give it to him. The 
l^lan v.'orked sx)lendidjy, and from that day to the pres- 
ent I have never known him to be under the influence of 
liquor. (If seen he will verify this statement.) He has 

Reminiscence. ' 283 

always been noted for sharp repartee, and quick to take 
advantage in a bargain. I recall an occurrence betAveen 
himself and one of our jDromiuent lawyers. He was oc- 
cupying a house, the owner of which wished to dispossess 
him, and he apj^lied to this lawyer for advice, receiving 
and acting upon it. He retained the i)roperty, and the 
lawyer told him his fee was five dollars — all right. Some 
weeks after, in passing the garden of the lawyer, he 
found the wife assisting in measuring off beds, by hold- 
ing the tape line for her husband. He was invited to 
come in, and the lawyer taking him around, showed him 
what he wished to do, and would every now and then 
say, as an old gardener, do you think that would suit :; 
Aleck, (as he is called,) would give his opinion, and the 
lawyer would thank him. After j)assing some rime Aleck 
says, "I believe I owe you five dollars for your advice 
about the house." The lawyer said " yes,'' and looked 
expectantly at the prospective coming fee, but was sur- 
l)rised to hear Aleck say, "Well, my fee for garden 
advice is ten dollars, so you are in debt to me live." The 
lawyer honoring it as a good joke, immediately paid him 
the difference. Another good and sharp practice occur- 
red between Aleck and a Jew, by the name of Pfeiffer. 
They occupied the sam.e house on Queen g;reet, where 
Lambert's saloon now is. The Jew had a cord of wood 
to be cut for stove use, and he applied to Aleck, who did 
that kind of work, but would not agree on the price de- 
manded. Finally Aleck agreed to cut the wood for the 
chips, which Pfeiffer agreed to. They used in common 
the cellar, and Aleck had his children picking up the 
chips and throwing them down. Commencing, he would 
cut two-thirds of the stick into chips and the remainder 
into stove wood. When Pfeiffer discovered the fraud 
jDracticed, he sued Aleck, but his bargain was such that 
Aleck gained it. 

We had a very good but </ccentric character, James 
Hutchinson, engaged in watch and clock repairing at the 

284 Ilemmiscence. 

present Hyde stand. lie never walked on the street, but 
was invariably in a run. A noted cliaracter, Smith, the 
razor strap man, visited our town, and his cry was always 
'• only a few more left — Avho takes the next '. " He sold 
at auction on the street, and Mr. H. desiring one of the 
wonderful straps, started in his usual running gait. 
Catching the words "only a few more left," he called 
out, "Save me one." Smith seeing him and hearing 
what he said yelled out, " Only one more left." Mr. H. 
quickened his run, and reaching the crowd took the 
"one more." Looking down he noticed seven baskets 
full, and left at once, muttering as he jjassed, " Oh, what 
a liar ! " The first railroading that I ever saw occurred 
v.'ith himself and family. The track was laid as far as 
the bridge at the foot of Green Hill Cemetery, and a 
truck was standing on the tr,ack chucked. The old gen- 
tleman, on his way to church on Opequon, jJaced his 
Avife and j'ounger children upon it, and himself and 
eldest son pushed it. After passing a short distance a 
down grade commenced. The old gentleman or son 
could neither stop the car, or \et keep up with it. It 
^ot aAvay from them, and mother children soon passed 
out of sight. Brown Calvin and myself being near 
Flagg's Mill, /.folloAved the car and found that it had come 
to a halt near Opequon, having struck a rising grade. 
After some time the old gentleman came in sight in his 
usual run, and vras very grateful, apparently to Calvin 
and raj^self, iov saving his family. 

Peter Gardner, the old hotel keeper whom I mentioned 
before, was a grand caterer to his guests, and no one ever 
set a better prepared or moi'e plentiful suppl}^ upon a 
table. On a court occasion his country guests were de- 
tained on account of a German boarder whom he would 
not delay. He jilaced upon the table a good-sized roast 
pig, and the single boarder took his seat and helped him- 
self. After awhile Mr. G., upon going to the room, was 
surprised to see none of the pig left, and the boarder, in 

liemhilscence. 285 

a deexj German accent, said, "Have you any more little 
hogs? Hikes 'em." Mr. G. at once dismissed tlie 
boarder as unprotitable. 

Very few of the old landmarks of my boyhood days 
are left around or in the town. The Burkhart property, 
Hannis mill, Bowers mill, Boyd's store, in Young's, now 
Herrings property; Lamberts saloon, formerly Clay- 
comb Hotel ; Eagle Hotel, formerly Lutheran Church ; 
Blondel dwelling, Dunn property, opposite Market 
House ; Long property, now owned by C. Thnmel; brick 
store-house adjoining Continental Hotel ; Boreman prop- 
erty, Conrad, McSherry, Cunningham, Stewart, Reed, 
Campbell, Pendleton and Harrison Waite, on Queen 
street, are all improved considerably, but some are recog- 
nizable as they were in the thirties. On King street the 
Diffenderfer, Rouscb, Shaffer, Wolff, Swartz, Snodgrass, 
old Harrison, Shaffer, Poisal, Somerville, now Shaffer ; 
Locke, now Young ; Alburtis, jail, old stone house cor- 
ner opposite jail. Seaman, Gerard and Bowers' mill and 
dwelling, all improved but still recognized as of old. On 
Water street, where the Riddle and Show^ers properties 
are now situated, was a long one story building used as 
a bark shed for Divinney's Tannery, and long owned by 
James Brown. On the opposite side was a general stone 
quarry for the town. Tuscarora was noted as a line fish- 
ing stream. Many a line sucker and eel have I seen and 
caught therefrom. Above the Hannis mill was called 
Ransom's Bottom, and the evidence of a great Indian 
battle having been fought there v/as very clear. Many 
a skull and bone of a dead Indian have I seen j)loughed 
up, and the only tomahawk I ever recollect of handling 
was one found by a young boy named Alex. Gregory. 
We were fishing and inlaying, when in tumbling he struck 
the handle and drew it out. Your Dr. John H. Hunter 
may recall this, as I think he was one of the com^^any. 

It was a very great x)leasure during my young days to 
visit in the surrounding country, near town, on the V7in- 

286 Reminiscence. 

cliester road, the families of Martin Ronscli, Snodgrass, 
old Jimmy Beard and Jolin Jamison. On Tuscarora road 
the Kearneys, old Jacob and George Seibert, the Mong 
family, Barley Tabb, Hugh Campbell, the Cushwas, Kil- 
mers, Ilibbards, Janneys, "Wellers and Walters families, 
all of whom would welcome you cordially and entertain 
you royally. Hospitality and good fellowship was the 
order of the times. There has always been an idea that 
there was more real honesty and integrity at that period 
of our history than since. It is a noted fact that farm- 
ers would loan each other money without passing any- 
thing more than their vv'ord on such a day it should be 
returned, and very seldom a failure of promise would 

Many of our people of the present day do not recollect 
the beautiful stone pillowed bridge that occupied the 
ground now iilled with solid stone structure, from Burke 
street to beyond the Bowers mill. The rebels destroyed 
it in their frenzy of insanity and destruction of 
railroad property during the civil war. Quite 
a number of engines were fixed up and per- 
mitted to run off into the street below, which was 
obstructed for a long time. One of the most unusual 
siglits was witnessed in our town during the war. The 
Rebels wishing to get some engines to Winchester, 
hauled them by horse-power over the road. They had 
hitched to one engine from twenty to twenty-four horses, 
a driver being provided for each four. They succeeded 
in getting them through, but it must have been a difficult 
job. The destruction of railroad proi^erty was immense 
around and in Martiusburg. As a matter to satisfy my 
curiosity, I rode from Tabb' s crossing to road crossing 
just above town, and in that si:)ace counted over four 
hundred cars destroyed by lire, the rails removed and 
ties burnt. At one point I found a rail wound around a 
tree four times. They had heated the centre, and then 
taking hold of ends, wound it round and round. The 

Reminiscence. 287 

station and hotel buildings at bead of Queen street, and 
tlie engine and machine shops, were destroyed and dis- 
mantled. It was my misfortune to be absent from town 
when this was done, but the wrecked and ruined condi- 
tion was seen by me often. It afterwards became my 
duty as an employe at Cumberland of the Company, to 
see that material for rebuilding the track and bridges 
was sent forward, so tliati became very familiar with the 
whole subject. 

The subject of fires is one that, from your present effi- 
cient organization and water supply, gives your people 
very little uneasiness. When I was a boy we had a hand 
engine, and our water supply was from cisterns on i^nb- 
lic streets — one at Court House, one at Lutheran Church 
corner, one at Presbyterian Church on King street, now 
vacant lot. Each family was furnished with two leather 
buckets, one of which hung out at the door, and was to 
be filled with water every night, the other kept conveni- 
ently inside, also filled up. This was the instruction 
from the town authorities. We had no Mayor and Coun- 
cil then, that I can recall. The first fire that I recall was 
the burning of a laig'e stable belonging to the Globe 
Hotel, and occupying site of your present public school 
in third ward. It was about noon that alarm was given, 
and quite a number of horses, belonging to country peo- 
ple, were burned. After this the factory at lower end of 
town, where water Avorks now stands, was burnt, and 
occurred late at night. It was never thought possible to 
save a house, and all effort was directed toward saving 
the surrounding i)roperty. Next came the destruction 
of the Globe Hotel, after which the corner house, then 
occupied as a telegraph station and located on site of 
Grantham Hall, was burned completely up. The most 
•darming hre that I can recall was the burning of four 
houses on King street, opposite the late J. M. Wolff resi- 
dence, which commenced between 12 and 1 o'clock, P. 
M., in the cabinet-maker's shop of Andrew Bowman. 

288 Reminiscence. 

The wind was blowiEg almost a liurricane from the West, 
and it was but a few moments until tlie entire row of 
houses was In a blaze. Shingles were on fire and sparks 
innumerable were settling everywhere, and in a short 
time, on South side of street, fully twenty house-roofs 
were on fire. It became necessary for from ten to fifteen 
persons to be upon each house, in order to save them. I 
doubt if your old town has ever experienced a more ex- 
citing time from fire. The buildings burnt were very old 
and dilapidated. The Kelley Hotel on Martin street, a 
very large weatherboard building, was also burnt, be- 
longing to Capt. Gardner. He was vexed about the loss, 
and coming to the church corner, tried to throw supply 
hose out of the cistern. In doing so he slipped and pas- 
sed into the cistern feet foremost, but being a large man 
he was caught about the hips and there held, until he 
was relieved after great efforts. Col. Strother's house, 
on site now occupied by H. C. Berry, was burnt one night 
in the month of February, when it was so cold the water 
froze in the hose and disabled the engine. 

The water supply of our old town was from public 
wells on the streets. One was in front of Lambert's sa- 
loon, one at the Schoppert corner, one on the corner of 
Burke and German streets, one in front of the Janney 
property on King street, which belonged to Conrad 
Rousch, and one at John Shaffer's residence. Many per- 
sons had wells upon their own premises, and large sup- 
X)lies were hauled daily from the various springs around 
town. It was between 1S4S and 1S60 that the system of 
cisterns was introduced. Messrs. S. B. and N. Mead 
brought into use the cement and concrete cistern, which 
is still much in use by builders. The condition of coun- 
try around the town has changed wonderfully. At the 
road leaving the pike at lime kiln, north end of town, 
there was a nice grove of woodland, frequently patron- 
ized by Sunday School pic-nics. Just above the Hannis 
Mill, where the Cumberland Valley bridge crosses the B. 

Reminiscence. 289 

& 0. R, R., woods commencecl, and yoa could keep in 
woodland without break until you reached Hedgesville. 
On Tuscarora road, just beyond toll-gate, a heavy piece 
of woodland occupied the ground. Immediately in rear 
of Gen'l Boyd's residence, coming up to his yard, wood- 
land commenced and continued without break above the 
Big Spring, except one field. Then a good deal of cleared 
land, belonging to the Tate and Snodgrass families. Then 
came in a body of woodland on the west side of the Win- 
chester road, which extended almost without a creak 
until Apple Pie Ridge was reached, where the Lyle's, 
Henshaw's, and other large farmers lived with much land 
cleared and cultivated. Just back of the Jamison, late 
Bentz farm, a body of woodland commenced and contin- 
ued to the mountain with very few, if any breaks. 

Out near the present residence of A. J. Thomas was 
a grand grove, where almost every celebration of the 4th 
of July was held, in barbecue style. But few, if any of 
the new generation are familiar with the system of a bar- 
becue, and I w^ill therefore try to describe the manner 
of preparation of the food. The entire carcass of a num- 
ber of sheei3 and hogs, and sometimes the full carcass of 
a steer, would be prepared for the feast. A deep pit was 
dug and filled with such fuel as would burn down to a 
bed of live coals. This was spanned with bars of iron, 
on which was laid the carcass for broiling, and along side 
would be a large pot filled with liquid butter, lard, etc., 
which w^ould be a^Dplied by a mop to the cooking meat. 
As one side became partially done, the other would be 
turned to the fire by heavy pieces of wood, used as a 
crowbar. When fully roasted or broiled, no one ever 
tasted sweeter food. It generally came, however, after 
fatigued marching and late in the afternoon, hence was 
always ai^preciated. The meat was always accompanied 
with good bread, and generally new potatoes and beans 
— "Oh, for one more old-fashioned fourth of July cele- 

^90 Ueriiiniscence. 

I have given a few names of farmers in the immediate 
vicinity of Martinsburg. It was my good fortune to be- 
•come well and familiarly acquainted with jDersons who 
lived at a distance, and whose representatives are still in 
your county. No more clever class of people could be 
found than many in and around Arden, among whom 
were the Chenowiths, Millers, Gladdens, Lyles, Hen- 
shaws, Sencindivers, Sanakers, Thomas, McDonalds, 
Daniels, Throckmortons, Irelands, Meyers, Bayarlys, 
Tablers, Campbells, Walkers, Pitzers, "of the old 
stock" ; — and again on Tuscarora and Dry Run, Thatch- 
er's, Small's, Noll's, Lame Mike Seibert, Chistj-'s, Em-' 
merts, Dubles, Gush was, Walters, Gross, Groves, 
Tabbs, Porterfields and a host of others, whom it gives 
me pleasure to recall. On Williamsportroad lived J. C. 
and Henry Small, Ben. Comeqy, Geo. Reynolds, Sam'l 
and Ben. Harrison, James Turner, Henry Haines, Andy 
Mclntire, Wm. Hill, Daniel Lamaster, Dr. John Hedges, 
Henry River, Andrew McCleary, Wm. Porterfield, Jacob 
Lafevre, Rev. John Light, Jacob Light, Peter Growl, 
Dan'l B. Morrison, Hamilton Light, Ghrist. Tabler, Jas. 
L. and S. O. Gunningham, Joseph linger and others of a 
pleasing disposition, many of whom have passed on to 
eternity — only one or two now^ living. They were true 
and honorable in life, and are still respected in death. 

Along the mountain range were A. and Jas. Robinson, 
H. J. Seibert, Mike Seibert, Josiali and Hiram Hedges, 
Rev. L. F. Wilson, Gasper Weaver, Josiah Harlan, and 
Bro. James Griswell, Jacob and Aaron Myers, Gonrad 
Robbins, Jacob Lingamfelter, Willonbey Lemon, W. O. 
Gunningham, Ghrist, Tabler, Elliott Tabb, William and 
Benj. Gouchman, Henry Myers, Mike Gouchman and 
other noble men of the olden time. In enumerating the 
old farmer citizens of the county, on the lower or Jeffer- 
son line, I was not so well acquainted, yet I take i^leas- 
ure in naming some whom I did know, viz : the Billmire 
family, Conrad, John, Solomon, David and IMartin, all 

, Reminiscence. 291 

of whom were good, true men, and successful in life ; 
Maj. Lewis B. Willis, a retired army officer ; James Ma- 
son, George and John Holliday, Jacob and ^Vra. Rush, 
I. Van Doren, Drs. Vorhees and Magruders, S. B, and 
Tlios. Vanmetre, A, R. McQuilken, who is yet one of 
your townsmen, Janifer Hudgel, E. B. Southworth and 
others whom I cannot just now recall. In the Northern 
end of the county were Jacob and Daniel Ropp, Poland 
and Amos Williamson, Col. Ed. Colston, Jacob Price, 
William Wilson, G. W. Robinson, Adam Small, AV. H. 
Harley, Wm. Leigh, Robt. Lemon, Peier Light, Wm. 
Jack, Wm. Hitzer, Wm. Sperow, Joseph Criswell, John 
Horner, Warner Emerson, Jacob Basore, Dr. A. C. Ham- 
mond and Jacob French. I kDew them all personally, 
and at some j^eriod of my life transacted business with 
the larger number. They have left representatives in 
almost every case, and their descendants can claim the 
respect which is always due an honorable and true life. 
The second election for county officers, under the new 
Constitution, came oft' in May, 1854. The Democrats 
nominated Barnet Cushwa for Sherift', and Alex. New- 
comer, a professed Democrat, ran independent. It was 
a very animated canvass, and the result very close, Mr. 
C. having only seven majority. A contest v/as held be- 
fore the County Court, and they decided that no one was 
elected, calling for another election in July, which was 
held. In the meantime, >S'am, or the Know-Nothing 
party, became very active in behalf of Newcomer, and 
for the first time in our county's history, steeped men 
with whiskey and cooped them up in out-of-the-way 
places, so as to control their votes on election day. It 
was discovered, and every active Democrat was on the 
alert to expose and thwart their viiliany. I was present 
at the break-up of one crop, near Whiting's Neck, where 
nine unfortunates were held. They were taken out, and 
by the next morning were over the mountain near Shang- 
hai, where they were comfortably cared for in a farmer's 

292 Reminiscence. 

house, and voted there the Democratic ticket as they all 
wished to do, except one who wished to vote for Cushwa 
and the other portion of the ticket opposite. After a 
hard fight Cushwa was elected by 67 majority. This 
election was also contested, and it is supposed would 
have been annulled, but cholera intervened and court ad- 
journed without action. Before it convened again the 
law gave Mr. Cushwa the office. He proved to be one of 
the most efficient officers we ever had before, and his 
efficiency secured Democratic rule in the county up to 
the beginning of the civil war. 

After 1852 it became apj^arent that Martinsburg was a 
town of importance and prosperity. Business began to 
expand largely — G. Baker and Bro. opened a wholesale 
grocery in the Shaffer room, east of B. & 0. R. R. ; D. 

E. Shipley, Conrad & Son, M. and N. Stine, R. S. Pen- 
dleton, D. E. White, Hughes & Baker, Vanarsdale & 
Gosnell, Wm. T. and Ezra Herring, AV. H. Wilkens, J. 

F. Harrison, Robert, and Thos. Turner, Jno. F. Staub, 
Mason & Smith, Jas. W. Grantham and hosts of others 
were engaged in business. The town also improved in 
school facilities — John Sellars, J. F. Gardner, W. S. Saf- 
fell, J. W. Page, Mrs. Phelps, Mrs. Armstrong and Miss 
Chisholm taught schools. Rev. Wm. Love completed 
an old blacksmith shop, located where Hon. W. H. H. 
Flick's house now stands, and taught therein. It was 
only one story in height. About this time the town be- 
came wonderfully excited by a ghost, which walked the 
street all night rattling a chain. Many of us young men 
determined to find out the mystery. Preparing ourselves 
with pistols, loaded alone with powder, and being nine 
in company, we stationed ourselves on the corner of Burke 
and German streets, dividing each in companies of three. 
We soon heard the chain approaching, as it turned the 
corner toward King street. Some placed themselves 
directly in its rear, while others on either side of the 
street kept pace quietly in his rear. When about half 

Reminiscence. 29 H 

way to King, the three in the centre of the street, fired 
their pistols. The ghost commenced running, and one of 
those in the street fell, leaving only two of the crowd to 
continue the chase. We all followed and soon found 
our two chums looking carefully among a lot of wagons, 
plovrs, etc., in front of the shop located where Flick's 
residence now. stands, but failed to find his ghostship. 
It was, however, his last appearance in that character, 
yet it afterward came out fully, and the party came near 
being our representative in the pen at Richmond. 

It was my good fortune to know many of the older 
citizens West of the Mountain, and among the number 
I recall that noble old gentleman, Wm. Barney, who has 
two sons, John and William, yet in your midst ; also 
Lewis and Moses Grantham ; Robert K., George W. and 
Israel Robinson ; Jacob, Samuel and Michael Stuckey ; 
Peter Keys and his brother Philip, Mrs. Jones and Miss 
McKeever, B. M. and Henry G. Kitchen, at each of whose 
residences I have been hospitably entertained in the 
regular old Virginia style. There was a noted hunter 
who was given the name of Wolff Myers. He lived at 
Meadow Branch, and almost every week during the win- 
ter he would be in town with venison, bear and other 
wild meat, also wild turkeys by the dozen. He also had 
a secret which I have no doubt died with him. Time 
and again have I seen him sell to the stores native lead, 
which he would smelt and bring in in square blocks. No 
one could ever get his secret from him, and it is a strong 
evidence that the native ore exists somewhere in the vi- 
cinity of his residence. A representative of his family 
still lives at Meadow Branch ; at least he was there a few 
years ago, and is a grandson of Thomas Myers. About 
fifteen years ago I personally gave attention to the min- 
eral interests of our county. There is, on the property 
of the late J. W. Chenowith, near Arden, a wonderfully 
rich deposit of ore, also on the i3roperty of the late Hon. 
C. J. Faulkner, at south end of town. The latter was 

294 Reminiscence. 

developed and worked for a short period, and found to 
contain not only a rich deposit of iron ore, but with it a 
fair per cent, of zinc. This is an interest that your peo- 
ple should endeavor to develop, and in concluding my 
reminiscence I could do no better than to encourage 
greater honorable efforts for full development of the 
grand old county — rich in good lands, well cultivated 
farms, and laying undeveloped almost every source of 
wealth which man may demand. 

In the past years Martinsburg boys would have their 
sport in swimming during the summer season. The 
places of resort near town were at the old oil mill dam, 
now Fitz's mill ; the Bowers dam, directly opposite the 
railroad shops, and to the small boys a place called the 
"slip," just above the residence of Mr. Frazier and 
back of your present planing mill. These places at that 
time were very private and retired. No residences were 
around the entire space from John Fitz's residence to 
Ransom's, now Hannis' mill, it being an open common. 
The larger boys and young men frequently went to the 
Opequon, at a place called the " turn hole," possibly a 
mile or more above the county bridge, crossing at Van- 
metie's, on the Shepherdstown road. It was a very dan- 
gerous place for bathers, and I have witnessed some ter- 
ribly exciting scenes there in efforts to rescue those in 
danger, often proving successful, but in several instances 
the reverse. I recall the drowning of a young man by 
the name of Hugh McGackey. The family resided in the 
property on Queen street adjoining Commodore Bore- 
man's residence. The father was a contractor, who, with 
a partner by the name of Scott, erected the stone bridge 
crossing the Tuscarora, on B. &. O. E.. R., below the 
cemetery. Hugh went off on Sunday morning with 
other boys of the town, and the father and family went 
to the old Presbyterian Church, on King street. About 
noon, as the congregation was dispersing, a horseman ar- 
rived and informed the father that Huo-h was drowned. 

Rem in Iscence. 295 

I have never seen sucli agony as tlie father, mother and 
sister exhibited. They fainted and were carried a]3pa- 
rently dead to their home, all the congregation follow- 
ing. In a short time his body was brought in, which 
was certainly a solemn occasion. He was a bright young 
man, just turning into full manhood,, and very popular 
in the community. 

This being a period of much excitement on the temper- 
ance question, I purpose giving my knowledge of the first 
temperance organization which existed. In 1842, an an- 
nouncement was made that a reformed drunkard from 
Baltimore would address the jpublic in the Presbyterian 
Church, and especially inviting those who drank to ex- 
cess. It being a new thing under the sun, everybody 
went Wm. Dorsey was made chairman of the meeting, 
and I then learned for the first time that there was a 
society pledged to refrain from drinking whiskey, brandy, 
gin and rum, but allowed to drink every kind of wine. 
My knowledge of the business was such that, boy as I 
was, I laughed at the idea, as I could see the effects of 
wine — not quite so quick but equally potent, and when 
once under wine influence, more difficult to sober up than 
even with heavier drinks. However, the reformed drunk- 
ard in a plain, square, unvarnished manner, told his life 
experience, and stated that in Baltimore, in a bar-room, 
twelve men just like himself had pledged each other to 
quit drinking and go out through the entire land, exhort- 
ing their fellow men to do the same. He also said they 
called themselves Washingtonians. He called upon any 
one present, who knew they were drunkards, to rise, and 
if any one wished to give their experience, they should 
raise the right hand. Several did so, and a very large 
number rose ux), showing their honesty. At the x)resent 
time, if you would ask in a large assembly for any one 
to rise and acknowledge they were drunkards, not one 
would do so ; and yet there are more to-day, especially 
among young men, than there were then. A very large 

296 Reminiscence. 

number signed tlie pledge, and I am proud to say, tliat 
nearly all j)roved faithful. I recollect one j)articular 
case. He was terribly given uj) to the habit, and for 
three days he remained in his shop, his meals being 
carried to him by members of his family. On the fourth 
day he came out and made for the back yard of my 
uncle's house. He came in with a frightened look upon 
his face, and at once began to beg for a drink. My uncle? 
although engaged in the trade and continuing in it for 
years, says : "No, Mike, you want to quit, and I know 
it is for your good. Now jiledge me right here again, • 
that you will not drink liquor of any kind, and then 
come with me." After a little hesitation, Mike took the 
pledge. My uncle took him to the kitchen and gave him 
a good meal, with plenty of good, strong coffee, and for 
years after this man was true to his obligation. The 
Washingtonians were succeeded by the "Sons of Tem- 
perance," and the " Boys' Cadets of Temperance." They 
did a great deal of good in reforming and keeping men 
from intemperance. The subject of prohibition had fre- 
quently been advocated under the old State before the 
war, and at one time it was thought would be embodied 
in the Constitution of 1851 and '52. 

In my young childhood, John H. Blondel, generally 
called "Tebeaus," was a young man and associated with 
the circle of females and males, young men and women 
who were familiar with my relatives. He was a sj^lendid 
performer on almost any character of musical instrument, 
and although of a very quiet manner, I expect had more 
real fun and sport in him than any one I ever knew 
about our town. For many years he was the leader and 
trainer of our bands, and had the reputation of being the 
finest i^erformer on the bugle that could be found. Often 
at night has the old town been enlivened from some of 
the surrounding hills by his delightful music, sometimes 
from the bugle, accompanied by the claironet, flute, etc. 
He usually had a number of companions with him. 

Reminiscence. 297 

Many of your older citizens will recall with pleasure tlie 
amusing and laughable stories he would relate, among 
which were " Old Mrs. Schoppertandher song or hymn," 
accompanied by the violin ; " Snuif -taking, sneezing and 
pipeing voice of conversation ;" " Capt. Foley's visit and 
dinner at the residence of Gen'l E. Boyd ;"' " The coon 
hunt, with black dogs of old man Stuckey ,'' and many 
others that I cannot recall. It was a pleasure to meet 
him in a comj)any, and wherever found he was sure to be 
a source of much amusement. He was a good and worthy 
citizen, filling his position of life with honor and credit 
to himself and family. I have frequently heard him re- 
late that his mother and father were in San Domingo 
when the terrible Negro Insurrection arose, and that his 
mother, in order to save herself and him from death, 
walked out into the sea until the water touched her chin, 
and for several hours held him aloft out of the water in 
her raised arms until she was rescued by a vessel. Hus- 
band and wife were separated, neither knowing the other 
was living. The vessel that rescued Mrs. Blondel sailed 
for Philadelphia, and she, knowing her husband had 
relatives there, called to see them and found her husband 
safe. It was a joyful meeting to both. They moved to 
Martinsburg ; and during my younger days, I had occa- 
sion to see them frequentlj^ The shop occupied by him, 
in the tin and brass foundry business, was a small wooden 
structure, occupying the same corner now having upon 
it the fine brick building, in which the son of John H. 
still carries on the tin business. 

In enumeration of worthy and good citizens I entirely 
forgot a section of the county, that possessed some grand 
men, — the upper Opequon region. Among the residents 
were Samuel Miller, John Burns, Benj. Boley, Joseph 
Gorrell, Joseph and John Burns, Isaac Franklin ; Joshua, 
Daniel and John Burns, all of whom moved to Missouri 
years ago. There was also Jacob Vanmetre, called Easy 
Jake ; Joseph Hoffman ; the Roberts family, William, 

298 Reminiscence. t 

Edward F. and Josiali ; Abram Williamsou, John P. 
Kearfott, Abram Deck, Morgan Vancleve and others,— 
all worthy gentlemen, and whose posterity in many cases 
are still citizens of your county. 

The system of lights at night were entirely different 
from the present. Every family used the candle on a 
candlestick, and in many families nothing but the small 
grease lam j) was used. A piece of cotton cloth would be 
cut about two inches wide, doubled together, and lard 
put in a small cup made of iron with a sharp prong, 
which would be put in a crack, usually of the chimney 
jam. In the stores and hotels the walls would be hung 
with sconces, made of tin, in which a candle was burnt. 
In some of the wealthier families they burned sperm oil 
in lamps. The churches were often lighted by side wall 
lights of candles, in sconces. It was a singular thing 
if any of the younger generation could define and give 
the meaning of the word sconce. Between 1840 and 1850 
etherial oil was introduced, which gave a bright and 
beautiful light, but a very dangerous one as it was more 
liable to explode than the present kerosene so much in 
use. We knew nothing about gas, and in fact coal w^as 
not much in use, except by blacksmiths. Most generally 
charcoal was used. 

The trade in charcoal and tar was carried on exten- 
sively in our pine regions. It is very doubtful whether 
one charcoal kiln is now burnt in the county in a year. 
At one thne hundreds of them could be found in what 
was termed the Pine Hilis. The mode of making char- 
coal is not fully understood, hence I can only give the 
fact that logs of medium size would be placed in a pit in 
the ground and covered over with earth, with only one 
vent hole to give draft to fire. It would be closed up 
after the kiln was fully fired, and kept constantly cov- 
ered with earth until the smoke ceased to rise. It gen- 
erally made a mound from six to eight feet high, which 
gradually sank almost to a level. When it was opened 

Reminiscence. 299 

and occasionally sprinkled with water, the wood looked 
to be solid, but when stirred it broke up into lumps pos- 
sibly three or four inches. A kiln generally yielded 
from 500 to 800 bushels of coal. 


^^HE incidents bearing npon tlie beginning of trouble 
^^ witli tlie Baltimore & Ohio Railway began about the 
16 th of April, 1877. All along the line tramps, commun- 
ists and turbulent organizations liad given rise to much 
dissension among the railroad employes. John W. Gar- 
rett, a business man of acquired reputation, was made 
president of the company in 1856. He found its stock 
quoted low, its dividends small, and the road in a very 
poor condition. Mr. Garrett proved to be the right man 
in the right place, and displayed splendid executive 
ability during the civil war, which came on shortly after- 
ward. He surrounded liimself with capable assistants, 
and having considerable influence with the Secretary of 
War, secured the most i^roli table contract that, in a short 
while, fully restored the credit of the corporation and 
extended the road until it became one of the largest and 
most prominent lines in the country. However, about 
the month of July clouds began to hover about the pres- 
ident's head. A storm was impending which, before it 
could be controlled, would involve the nation from the 
Atlantic to the Paciiic and from Pennsylvania to Texas, 
in untold loss and misfortune. At a meeting convened 
on the 11th of July, '77, by means of an official circular, 
the president informed the employes that a preamble and 
resolutions had been adopted to the effect that all officers 
and operatives of the road receiving sums in excess of 
one dollar /^er diem would be reduced ten per cent., and 
after the 16tli of the same month the change would take 
effect. Every man engaged upon the main line and 
branches east of the Ohio River was embraced in this 

The B. & 0. B. R. Strikes. 301 

rule, including the trans-Oliio division and the roads 
leased by the company. It was stated in the notice that 
action in this direction would be postponed until after 
their competitors had made similar retrenchments, hop- 
ing that business would revive in a short while and a de- 
crease of expenses be avoided. They were disappointed 
In this, and the principal reason brought about the action 
taken, which was on account of general depression of busi- 
ness interests over the country. The earnings of all rail- 
ways were unavoidably and seriously affected. A change 
had to be made — in fact the call for it was imperative. 

Persons superior to those of the ordinary observer, by 
means of information, supposed that the low wages move- 
ment was undoubtedly canvassed along the great trunk 
lines and decided upon by representatives of various 
roads directly after the close of Vanderbilt's freight war 
in the spring. During the month of May the Pennsyl- 
vania road put it in force, and the reduction of ten per 
cent, was accepted by the employes. This was followed 
by the Erie and New York Central roads, to take effect 
July 1st, and in both cases they were duly informed be- 
forehand of the changes to be made. As asserted in its 
circular, the Baltimore and Ohio road was nearly the 
last to take action in this matter, and several days before 
the rule was to be enforced a number of the firemen at 
once decided to strike. They declared their intention 
that they could not and would not stand any reduction 
from their wages. The Trainmen's Union was in full 
blast all along the line, which had been effectively insti- 
tuted previously by a traveling delegation from the Penn- 
sylvania road, and taking advantage of affairs, a real 
strike began. 

The workingmen claimed that their grievances were 
unbearable — that the treatment received at the hands of 
merchants and boarding-house keepers along the route, 
for such necessities as trainmen were compelled to have, 
was inordinately rash. Their belief was that whatever 

302 The B. & 0. B. B. Strikes. 

torn made in affairs could not make tliem much worse 
off. Their earnings were low, rents high, and for their 
heavy demands at the scanty stores at the stations, ex- 
travagant prices were charged. Extortion pressed them 
on every side, and coupled with comxDulsory credit pur- 
chase from month to month, they began to nurse a hatred 
and antagonism against the company and general public. 
At this time the road carried a moderate amount east- 
ward, but owing to competition were unable to get suffi- 
cient to the westward to load its cars. This caused a large 
reduction of the hands employed, and created much 

President Garrett, Vice-President King, and second 
Vice-President Keyser, upon learning of the strike, and 
the movements of the Brotherhood of Engineers and the 
Trainmen's Union, pronounced it untimely, ill-advised, 
and fated to meet no great success. The road, like all 
others, was now passing through the darkest days of its 
experience. A financial stringency "was staring it in the 
face, and business falling off where an accession had been 
calculated upon— the results of competition and unpro- 
ductive extensions of line. The officials stated that a 
reduction had to be made for the curtailment of expenses, 
and when the demands of the strikers were made known, 
they promptly refused them. Knowing that a stoppage 
would lead to heavy losses, yet they preferred to let the 
road stand idle, rather than be dictated to and cause a 
reinstatement of the former rates of wages. On account 
of this, the strike was simply suicidal on the i^art of 
those engaged in it. Meetings were held by the Brother- 
hood of Locomotive Engineers — advicegiven and received, 
and many were led to believe that they would take no 
part in the strike. With the consent of this organiza- 
tion, the Trainmen's Union assisted in starting the im- 
portant movement all along the line. On the 16th of 
July, 1877, the day that the reduction of wages on the B. 
& O. R. P. was ordered to take effect, the strike was 

The B. & 0. li. R. Strikes. 303 

commenced in our city and the first actual violence com- 
mitted. Here occurred the first important incidents of 
the great strikes of '77, on the night of July 16th. No- 
tice had been given ihe crews of all trains, by the stri- 
kers, that after a certain hour no person should move an 
engine under penalty of death. Engineers on the road 
were paralyzed, — while the managers hastened to make 
good their usual trips and secure men to take the places 
of the strikers. However, they met with only partial 

It was in our happy neighborhood, which had rested 
in peace and quietude since the war, that the combination 
of railroad men imbued their hands in blood and met 
their first loss of life, in attempting to carry out their 
communistic ideas. On Monday morning, the 16th of 
July, a large number of train hands left Baltimore, and 
with those coming in from the West, began to concen- 
trate at Martinsburg. Near the dispatcher's office could 
always be found a number of locomotives on the tracks, 
and it was no unusual occurrence for employes to congre- 
gate there. But at this time it was noticed that some- 
thing more than ordinary was transpiring, or about to 
transpire, when the men collected in groups at the depot, 
the machine-shops, the switch-stands, along the tracks 
and other localities. An explanation of these mysteri- 
ous gatherings was, in a short while, made very plain, 
when a fireman notified the dispatcher that a cattle- train 
was compelled to stop there, as the entire crew had struck 
and no one could be found to take the vacant places. 
The fireman also stated that he thought no more trains 
would be allowed to move from this point in either di- 
rection. The news soon sjoread, and in a short while 
people began to collect from all directions to see what 
was going on. The policemen put in their appearances, 
and sauntered leisurely around, waiting to see if their 
services would be called for. In a short while the engines 
were detached from the trains, and run into the round- 

304 The B. & 0. R. R. Strikes. 

house. Wlieii questioned by the officials concerning 
their action, the strikers replied that no more trains would 
be run over that road, in any direction, until the company 
withdrew the ten per cent, reduction of trainmen's wages. 
They intended to refrain from work, and would not allow 
their places to be tilled by a new set of men. The freight 
trains were kept on a stand-still, while the mail trains 
were allowed to pass, but eventually they were stopped. 
The increased crowd of spectators, by this time, was 
stirred with interest, and the news spread until it reached 
every citizen. It was taken up by the press and soon 
scattered broad- cast over the country. 

The Mayor, Captain A. P. Shutt, and the policemen 
were sent for, who iDromptly put in their appearance, 
and backed by a trio of municipal guardians, held a con- 
ference with the railroad officials. Mayor Shutt, willing 
to do all in his power, proceeded to speak to the strikers, 
using mild and temperate language, and advised them to 
return to their work and trust to the fairness of the com- 
Xoany in the settlement of their grievances. But the mob, 
following the general rule, had reached that point where 
reason ceased to be a virtue, and their madness and vio- 
lence had only been increased. The Mayor was hooted 
at, derided, and his good counsel turned to ridicule. He 
failed to impress the strikers with any of his mild-man- 
nered notions, and could not make them understand that 
it would be best to run their locomotives to their desti- 
nations. In fact, his speech only served to add fuel to 
the fires already fiercely burning, and, giving it up as a 
hopeless task, he ordered his policemen to arrest the ring- 
leaders. Frantic efforts to obey were made by the pow- 
erless policemen, while the strikers laughed in their faces. 
The Mayor's appeals were equally fruitless — the men re- 
fused to work — and the engineers found an excuse for 
refusal by saying they dare not enter their cabs. The 
firemen and trackmen would not allow others to take 
their places, holding back with all their strength. Fi- 

The B. & 0. I?. B. Strilces. 305 

nally the Mayor and policemen withdrew from the scene, 
leaving the situation at the imdisiDuted command of the 
strikers. The machine shops, depot and round-houses 
were all deserted by midnight, except by a number of 
Union men who were left to guard the tracks and see 
that no trains were allowed to pass that point. The 
strangers from Baltimore were j)rovided for by their fel- 
low-strikers, and a number lodged at the hotels. The 
telegraph manager communicated the information of the 
strike to President Garrett and Vice-President King, of 
Baltimore, and after midnight Capt. Thos. B. Sharj), 
General Master of Transportation, was brought to the 
spot. After carefully surveying the condition of affairs, 
which was in no wise difficult of comprehension, a full 
report of his investigation was telegraphed to the princi- 
pal office. The matter was duly considered by the Balti- 
more officials, who prepared a telegram and at once dis- 
l^atched to Governor Mathews, stating the facts as here 
given, and asking him to provide some method to aban- 
don violent measures and allow trains to move in safety. 
Through the promptness of the Governor, a telegram was 
sent to Col. C. J. Faulkner, at Martinsburg, dated at 
Wheeling, about midnight, ordering him if necessary, to 
call out his command, the Berkeley Light Infantry, to 
aid and protect the civil authorities, and to make due 
report to the executive office of the existing state of 
affairs and his operations. 

Col. Faulkner was informed of the Governor's wishes 
July 17th, about 12:30 A. M., and returned answer by 
telegraj)h. stating that the strikers would not allow trains 
to move either east or west from Martinsburg, and asked 
if his instructions extended any further than merely pro- 
tecting the peace — if so, he desired an answer in full. 
Meanwhile the Colonel issued orders for an immediate 
assemblage of the militia command, prepared for active 
duty, at their armory. The call was promptly responded 
to by the militia, among whom were many railroaders, 

306 The B. & 0. JR. B. StriJtes. 

and ijossibly connected v.'itli the Trainmen's Union. A 
number of the militia, as well as niimerons citizens, felt 
a deep and hearty sympathy with the men engaged in 
the strike. In a short while Col. Faulkner received 
another message from Governor Mathews, advising him 
if x)ossible, to avoid using force, and at the same time 
give all necessary aid to the civil authorities, and see 
that the laws were duly executed. At the conclusion of 
the message the Governor stated : "I rely upon you to 
act discreetly and firmly." 

Mr. Sharj), Master of Transportation, lixed upon 5 
o^ clock as the hour for moving trains on Tuesday morn- 
ing, and secured an engineer and fireman, who agreed to 
take the stock-train through to its destination, if proper- 
ly protected. A request was then made of Col. Faulkner, 
his command of militia. Mayor Shutt and x^olice, County 
Sheriff and posse, to be present and see that the strikers 
did not interfere. Col. Faulkner, before retiring from 
the scene, asked Governor Mathews by telegraph : " Must 
I protect men who are willing to run their trains, and see 
that they are permitted to go east and west V In a short 
while the Governor answered : "I am informed that the 
rioters constitute a combination so strong that the civil 
authorities are powerless to enforce the lavv-. If this is 
so, prevent any interference by rioters with the men at 
work, and also prevent the obstruction of the trains." 

Upon receiving this communication, Col. Faulkner at 
once repaired to the armory to take charge of his com- 
mand, knowing plainly what his duty was. The known 
orders for the gathering of militia, the marching of uni- 
formed men on the streets bearing arms, accompanied by 
the excitement of the strike, caused such a restlessness 
that there was but little sleep visited the ej'elids of the 
citizens on that eventful night. Groups of persons, white 
and colored, could be seen gathered on the corners in 
knots, discussing the unusual state of affairs, and won- 
dering what the morrow would bring forth. The city has 

The B. & 0. B. M. StriJces. 307 

never experienced such a sensation since the close of the 

At about live o'cloclv the next morning, "SV. H. Harri- 
son, Master Mechanic of the company, with Mr. French, 
arrived here from Cumberland. A consultation was held 
with Capt. Sharp and the remaining local force of the 
road, after which a locomotive was fired up and attached 
to a cattle- train, and with an engineer and fireman they 
were ready to start matters anew. At about sunrise the 
attempt was made to set the driving wheels once more in 
motion, but was prevented by the strikers guard from 
the round-house, who swept down upon them and order- 
ed the non-striking men to hold hard or they would be 
killed. The throttle was promptly shut and the engine 
brought to a stand-still, which x^robably saved their lives. 
However, the men remained with the train for a short 
time, expecting to rush it through, but finally left. Up 
to this time the militia and town officials had not made 
their appearance. The president and officers of the com- 
pany were informed of the circumstances, and at once 
instructed Capt. Sharp to make the attempt until his 
efforts were crowned with success. The consequent 
sounding of the shrill steam whistle, in the early dawn 
of the day, startled the excited inhabitants of the city, 
and in a short while the streets were flocked, all anxious 
to learn what was going on. Among the citizens were 
the strikers belonging to the city, and reinforced by 
those from Baltimore and the West. They congregated 
about the basement doors of the present depot, and 
gathered in small squads over the surrounding ground. 
It seemed as though the railroad men, by agreement, 
separated from the others, and concentrated a formidable 
force near the company's buildings. Mr. Harrison, the 
Master Mechanic, conversed with them and endeavored 
by every means in his power to influence their minds 
peaceably, and bring about an amicable adjustment of 
the prevailing troubles. A number of employes were 

308 The B. & 0. B. B. Strikes. 

well disposed towards Harrison, but exhibited no change 
of heart. Harrison finally returned to Sharp, after ex- 
hausting his arguments, and reported that the rioters 
would not change their decision in regard to stopping all 
freight trains, and if anything, their resolution had be- 
come more firm than ever. Mr. Sharp was a cool, deter- 
mined man, of iron will, and upon receiving this infor- 
mation, concluded that no favorable or peaceful solution 
of the surrounding difficulties would be reached. The 
strikers had accused Sharp of being at the bottom of the 
rough treatment to which they were subjected, and be- 
lieved him to be the cause of the reduction in wages. In 
truth, he was bitterly opposed to the cutting-down sys- 
tem, and in favor of restoring the pay to its original 
amount. The enemies were ignorant of this, and when 
they saw him walk up to a locomotive -ind order the en- 
gineer forward to his destination at all hazards, they cast 
scowling glances upon him and were greatly enraged. 

The engine had not moved a single length of rail, be- 
fore the mob swarmed upon the foot- board, over the coal 
in the tender and thence into the cab, driving the newly- 
engaged men from their positions. The locomotive was 
uncoupled from the train and run into the round-house, 
leaving the cars on the track no nearer their destination 
than before. By this time their numbers had increased 
several hundred, and no further damage was done. The 
crowd then gathered nigh, in almost a solid mass, to 
watch the proceedings. The engineer and fireman had 
escaped, and again Sharj) was defeated, of which he 
informed the company as before. Meantime the crowd 
of spectators and array of strikers continued to increase. 
At about 9 o'cjock, four hours later than the appointed 
time, the sound of fife and drum was heard, and pres- 
ently the gleaming arms and accoutrements of the Berke- 
ley Light Infantry were seen advancing towards the 
depot,' headed by Col. Faulkner. Loud hurrahs and 
shouts of welcome went u^ as the m.ilitia filed dow^n the 

The B. & 0. li. R. StriJces. 309 

steep steps and marched to the round-house unoi^posed. 
The engineer and firemen had again been discovered and 
brought to the spot, and another cheer went np. They 
were closely followed by their wives and children, who 
threw their arms around their husbands necks, franti- 
cally embracing and urging them to refrain from the per- 
ilous attempt. But they tore themselves from the grasj) 
of their families, and started on a swift pace to 
the round-house, where they mounted the engine, which 
had already been fired up. The engine was then 
moved out, with soldiers on either side, bayonets fixed 
and guns loaded, and proceeded in the direction of the 
distillery. Squads of the militia had been arranged and 
several placed on the engine. Their progress was slow 
and snail-like, owing to the pressure of the close forward 
ranks of the strikers. At this moment the rioters rose 
to white heat, when the third experiment was made for 
starting with the trainmen guarded. At the suggestion 
of Mayor Shutt, Col. Faulkner then proceeded to ad- 
dress the mob, and if possible stay further violence. In 
a courteous, firm and impressive manner, he warned 
them of the result if they interfered any further, and 
if they touched the engine it would be at their own peril. 
They only laughed at him, as though they would accept 
none other than brute force to obtain their rights. 

The isngine was moved in the direction of the distillery, 
where it was attached to a cattle train on the siding. A 
switch led this track upon the main road, which, it 
seems had been tampered with by the strikers. The 
train was made up about 10 o'clock, and squads of 
militia were placed on the engine, and on either side of 
the train. John Poisal, a militiaman was sitting on the 
cow-catcher, and as the train steadily and slowly drew 
near the switch, his attention was attracted by the posi- 
tion of the switch ball. Unless some change was made, 
Poisal knew the train would be thrown off the right 
track. With musket in hand, he immediately jumped 

310 The B. & 0. R. R. StriJces. 

to the ground, and ran to tlie switch. Just as he was in 
the act of reversing it, William Yandergriff, a striking 
fireman, who had tampered it and was standing near to 
see the result, yelled out : 

"Don't you touch that switch!" 

'Tm not going to see the train run on a siding 
if I can prevent it," replied Poisal, as he firmly 
grasped the iron. Before Poisal could change the 
switch, Vandergriff had drawn a small pocket-jDistol 
from his belt,, and fired two shots in rapid suc- 
cession upon him. One of the bullets plowed a jag- 
ged furrow on the side of Poisal' s forehead, just above 
the ear, while the other flew wide of its mark. Upon 
receiving the shot, Poisal quickly raised his gun, and 
with a steady aim fired on Vandergriff. Another soldier 
near by fired at the same time, and both balls lodged in 
Vandergriff' s body, one in the arm and the other pene- 
trating the thigh. He fell, mortally wounded, which 
was followed by the explosion of several small arms, but 
no injury done. At this onslaught the mob pressed closer 
on the soldiers, while a lively scattering was made among 
the woman, children, and more j^eaceably disposed citi- 
zens. Poisal and Vandergriff were taken to their homes, 
and medical aid XDrocured. In a short while the strikers 
again had things all their own way, completely over- 
powering the militia. The sound of fire-arms drew larger 
crowds from the city, and the excitement was more in- 
tense than ever. By this time the fireman and engineer 
had escaped from the train, and left the locality. 

Col. Faulkner fully a^Dpreciated in a minute, that his 
militia, however brave and trustworthy, under these cir- 
cumstances would not attempt to kill their relatives and 
friends. He at once rejiorted to Cai)t. Sharp, stating that 
his men were powerless and many in sympathy with the 
strikers, and that he would have to march them back to 
the armory. They were then ordered home, and the road 

The B. &■ 0. R. R. StriJces. 811 

left blocked up with trains of loaded cars, subject to the 
caiDrices of the infuriated and angry mob. 

For several days afterward Vandergrifl: lay upon his 
bed, suffering terrible agony. The best nurses and phy- 
sicians the country afforded attended him, and every- 
thing iDOSsible was done for his recovery. However, on 
the 28th of July he breathed his last, and on the Sunday 
following was buried in Green Hill Cemetery. Poisal, 
whose Injury was slight, made his appearance on the 
street in a few days, appearing as well and hearty as 
usual. The story of this incident was s]3read abroad by 
the press, and if credit was given them, one would suj)- 
pose that civil "war surely reigned in Martinsburg. The 
actual number of strikers was estimated to be upwards 
of seventy-five or eighty, but were backed by many citi- 
zens and other working classes. The press greatly ex- 
aggerated this strike, and in a few days the torch of 
communism was burning brightly throughout the whole 

After the militia had left the scene, the confusion 
ceased, and the railroaders retired to their former posi- 
tion at the shops. The locomotive, as before, was un- 
coupled and returned to the round-house. Col. Faulk- 
ner became disgusted with the part he had been forced 
to take in the riots. He had given his men no orders to 
tire, and therefore run no risk of his commands being 
disobeyed. His desire was to perform his duty and en- 
force the law without shedding blood, but met with no 
success. Information was at once furnished Governor 
Mathews of the proceedings and results. Later on Col. 
Faulkner telegraphed the Governor that it was impossi- 
ble for him to do anything further, and that a number of 
his command, being railroad men, would not respond. 
The Governor, in response, dispatched that law-abiding 
citizens must be protected, and the peace preserved, by 
whatever means was necessary to accomplish it. He also 
stated that he could furnish a comi:)any from Wheeling, 

312 The B. & 0. B. JR. Strikes. 

who would be used in tlie supx)ression of riot and execu- 
tion of the law, and also spoke very highly of Col. 
Faulkner's appeal to the rioters. 

The mob had full possession of all the railroad prop- 
erty from Monday night until the succeeding Wednesday 
morning, July 18th. At about 7:30 o'clock, the Math- 
ews Light Guard arrived from AVheeling, under com- 
mand of Col. Delaplaine, and a conference was held be- 
tween Attorney-General White, Wm. Keyser, Second 
Vice-President, Col. Sharp, and others.. During this 
time the rioters made no further demonstration, but re- 
mained quiet and apj)arently content with the work they 
had done. The Trainmen' s Union at Baltimore, Grafton, 
Cumberland, Pittsburgh, and other points were kept 
posted by the strickers concerning their doings. 

The strikers visited the railroad shops on the evening 
of the 18th of July, and ordered the laborers then at 
work to stop, which they refused to do. In the mean- 
time the mail trains were allowed to pass unmolested 
either way. Finally the cars loaded with cattle were ar- 
ranged for by Mr. Mantz and shipped over the Cumber- 
land Valley and Western Maryland roads. The AYheel- 
ing Light Infantry had charge of the town for several 
days, encamped at the Court House and railroad, and no 
action was taken by them with the strikers, as it was 
deemed best to await reinforcements. On the 18th of 
July Governor Mathews, at the urgent request of Mr. 
Garret, telegraphed President Hayes, and after explain • 
ing the situation, asked for United States troops. ISTo 
freight operations were started until Brevet Major- Gen- 
eral W. H. French, Colonel of the Fourth U. S. Artillery, 
arrived with two hundred men armed as infantry, and no 
sooner had they reached the town than quiet and order 
reigned supreme. 

^ President Hays issued, previous to this, his proclama- 
tion, and directed it to the citizens of West Virginia. 
He admonished all good citizens in the United States and 

The B. & 0. B. B. Strikes. 313 

within its territory of jurisdiction, against aiding, coun- 
tenancing, abetting or taking part in such unlawful pro- 
ceedings. A warning was given those engaged in or con- 
nected with said domestic violence and obstruction of the 
laws, and orders given them to disperse and retire peace- 
ably to their respective abodes on or before 12 o'clock 
meridian, of the 19th day of July, fit bore the signatures 
of President Hayes and F. A. Steward, Acting Secretary 
of State, accompanied by the great seal of the United 
States. This permanently settled affairs at Martinsburg, 
and the rioters had to retire, as they could not fight the 
Government of the United States. 



" Time, hath, my Lord, 

A -wallet at his back, -svhereiu he puts alms. 

For Oblivion's sake. 

These scraps, are good deeds past, 

Forgot, as soon as done." 

'fAD Shakespeare liis normal inspiration wheu he 
penned these lines I And is it true that good deeds 
live to spur succeeding generations to emulation and suc- 
cess \ It is the general judgment of the world that notable 
acts survive forever,andburnishedbythe]apse oftime,are 
brighter when picked vc^ from the dust of years. Of such 
a one I write. One whose life has been full of strange 
vicissitudes and bustling activities. It is now sloping to 
a close, as calmly as the sun goes down after a stormy 
day. He began life in an humble way. When eight 
years of age he was left an orphan, with no kith nor kin 
on this broad continent. He grew to manhood, and to 
old age, in the little town in which he was born, and in 
which he now lives. His home to-day is almost within 
the shadow of the grave of a grandfather, shot down in 
the Revolution, and of a father, who perished from ser- 
vice in the war of 1812. His mother died before he could 

Life of the late Hon. C. J. .Faulkner. B15 

hardly understand the value of a mother's care, and his 
father was buried before he could comprehend the mean- 
ing of the word " orphan." He was reared by strangers, 
and whatever he has been or is, he chiefly gained for 
himself, by as hard a struggle with the world as a man 
ever made. Perhaps it was best for him that his lot was 
cast in rough places, and that he had to make the jour- 
ney of life alone. His father's advice and influence 
might have given his character a different bent, and a 
less fortunate one. He was a soldier, a major of artillery, 
and was filled with a soldier's ambition, and a soldier's 
honhomie. Therefore, he died poor, and left his son, 
when a child, to make his own way, with no other capi- 
tal than the sturdy qualities inherited from good Scotch- 
Irish stock on both sides of the family tree. 

The village doctor gave him a home, but he himself 
learned the valuable lessons of industry and self-reliance 
that have stood him so well in hand through all his busy 
years. Like many of the youth of the country, when 
impelled by vague, yet strong ambitions, he early began 
the study of law, at the famous law school of Chancellor 
Tucker, in Winchester, and in much less than the usual 
time of probation and reading, he was admitted to the 
bar. He was never accounted a brilliant boy, nor has 
he ever been noted for that quality as a man. He got 
his start in life by untiring industry and close ax)plica- 
tion ; he early trained his mind to methodical effort. 
While others slept he worked, and it has been a tireless 
energy, more than any single quality of his nature, that 
has made him a name and fame as a successful man. 

He had little more than attained his majority when he 
took a leading position at the bar, and in the politics of 
his native county. 

The decade beginning in 1830 was filled with impor- 
tant history, and with its opening year ]\Ir. Faulkner 
XDractically began his public life. 

The Constitutional Convention of that year had com- 

316 Life of tlie late Hon. C. J. Faulkner. 

l^leted its work and the people of Virginia were to de- 
cide whether the Constitution of 1830, largely the work 
of Watkins Leigh, was to be the fundamental law of the 
State. There was a strong feeling for and against it. 
The famous Tom Marshall, of Kentucky, was one of its 
most bitter opponents. He had been living a year or 
more in Berkeley County, on a visit to his relations, the 
Colstons, and had gone to Richmond during the sessions 
of the Constitutional Convention. There he had engen- 
dered an intense dislike for Watkins Leigh. When he 
, returned to Martinsburg he took open ground against the 
instrument and assailed it as " Watkins Leigh's Consti- 
tution." By the time the canvass came on, when the 
people were to decide for or against it, he had aroused a 
good deal of feeling in relation to its provisions, and it 
was thought best by those who favored it that a great 
public public meeting should be called, at which its pro- 
visions should be discussed before the people. Mr. 
Faulkner had taken a position in its favor, believing it 
^an improvement on the old, and it was arranged that he 
and Tom Marshall should present its merits or demerits 
^to the people at a meeting in Martinsburg, the county 
town. A great crowd gathered to hear the debate. It 
was the first public discussion of Mr. Marshall, as well 
as the first of Mr. Faulkner. Each young man appeared 
at his best, but Mr. Marshall, at that early day, gave 
ample evidence of those great powers of mind and tongue 
that afterwards made him so famous. The discussion 
lasted for several hours, and Mr. Marshall carried the 
crowd by his Mdt and eloquence ; but Mr. Faulkner, by 
his industry, secured for the Constitution a large major- 
ity at the polls of Berkeley County. 



An important decade in our national history began 
with the adoi^tion of the new Constitution of Virginia. 
The nullification schemes of Calhoun were being hatched 

Life of the late Hon. C. J. FauTlcner. HIT 

in its first year, and in 1832, when Mr. Faulkner was 
called to liis first public position. President Jackson liad 
just issued liis famous "proclamation of force," which 
boldly asserted the supremacy of the Government of the 
United States over the government of any State. And 
there was then such imminent danger of armed resist- 
ance to the Federal authority that Congress placed in the 
hands of the President the jDower of military coercion. 
Clay was then engaging the i^ublic attention with his 
scheme of protection ; then, too, Andrew Jackson was 
IDUshing tricky Martin Yan Buren for the Presidency, 
and sitting upon the aspirations of Calhoun with the 
whole power of his administration. It was amidst these 
striking events and upon the threshold of the Presiden- 
tial election of 1832 that Mr. Faulkner took his place in 
the Virginia House of Delegates. He was then only a 
boy in age and appearance, but a man in mind. The 
Virginia Legislature of that pieriod was composed of men, 
who in their day and in the great era following, left their 
imj^rint on the annals of their time. With those men 
Mr. Faulkner took a leading position, and at once gave 
evidence of his power to originate ideas, coupled with the 
courage to proclaim them. Taking heed of the differ- 
ences between Jackson and Calhoun, looking at the then 
condition of Virginia and seeing in the temper of the X)o- 
litical factions the seeds of a contest u^Don the slavery 
question, he submitted to the Legislature and advocated 
a proposition for the abolition of slavery upon Xh^ i:)Ost 
natl principle. The north had liberated its bondsmen 
u^Don the same princij)le, and by the provisions of his 
pro^DOsition all children of slave yjarents were to be born 
free after July 1st, 1840. He supported this proi)osition 
in a speech of great power, which was widely circulated 
and was severely condemned by the radical slave-hold- 
ing element. It did not, however, greatly shock public 
opinion in Virginia at the time, and in many sections of 
the State the idea was received with decided favor. The 

318 Life of the late Hon. C. J. Faulkner. 

slave-holding element undertook, however, to make it an 
issue the following year, when he was a candidate for re- 
election, but he w^as returned ui^on that issue by what 
was practically a unanimous vote. 

Comment upon this speech and action of Mr. Faulkner 
was not confined to the South alone. It was extensively 
read throughout the country. Once a year for many 
years after it was delivered, William Lloyd Garrison 
printed that speech in full in the Liberator., amused him- 
self by sending Mr. Faulkner a copy, and circulated it 
widely as evidence of the growing sentiment in the South 
against slavery. 

The opening of the year 1833 witnessed the beginning 
of the abolition crusade, and it seemed to destroy all the 
sentiment there ever was in the South in favor of eman- 
cipation, gradual or otherwise. It had the effect to com- 
bine all elements together in resistance, forcible and 
positive, to the attempted legislative encroachment upon 
the established institution of the South. I have often 
heard Mr. Faulkner say, "but for this impertinent and 
illegal intermeddling of Northern fanatics, emancipation 
would have become the predominant sentiment of Vir- 
ginia, and would have worked out its results without 
ruin and bloodshed." 

Mr. Faulkner finished his llrst legislative experience in 
1833, and after declining a third election was appointed 
a commissioner on behalf of Virginia, to examine and re- 
port on the disputed question of the boundary line bet- 
ween Maryland and Virginia ; the controversy embraced 
all of that rich section of country lying between the 
north and south branches of the Potomac River. Mr. 
Faulkner's re^Dort w'as extensive and conclusive ; it set- 
tled the controversy between Maryland and Virginia, 
giving to the old mother of States a clear title to large 
proportions of the present counties of Hampshire, Min- 

Life of the late Hon. (J. J. Faulkner. 319 

eral, Hardy, Grant Pendleton and Randolph, for wliicli 
Maryland was contending.* 

Mr. Faulkner first met Andrew Jackson while engaged 
upon this famous report. The interview was character- 
istic and interesting. It was in that nullification era 
when Congress had delegated to the President the power 
of coercion, and he had used it to crush South Carolina' s 
secession proclivities. John Floyd, then Governor of 
Virginia, and Mr. Tazewell, then in the Senate, were, al- 
though still members of the party, bitterly denouncing 
Jackson's nullification proclamation, and pressing their 
theory of State Rights. Governor Floyd had asked 
Mr. Faulkner to go to Europe to obtain data from the 
original records in relation to the boundary line, but hav- 
ing no funds to pay the expenses of the voyage, he re- 
quested him to call upon the President, explain his pro- 
posed visit to England, and request that he be given pas- 
sage as Virginia's representative, in a government ship. 
Mr. Faulkner visited the President, for this jjurpose, 
and as soon as he stated the object of his visit. "Old 
Hickory" replied : 

"Certainly, sir, I will grant you passage in the shij) 
Delaware, now lying in the Potomac, about to sail for 
England," but, he continued, "doesen't it strike you as 
a little strange that Governor Floyd, with his peculiar 
notions of States Rights, and ideas of the limited powers 
of the National government, should ask a service of this 
kind from it, in a purely State matter? I will grant the 
request with pleasure, but I cannot helj) thinking that it 
is an apt illustration of the absurdity of the doctrine of 
State Rights, as Governor and Senator Tazewell declare 
them." Mr. Faulkner at once transmitted anofiicial an- 
nouncement of the success of his application to the Presi- 
dent, and at the same time wrote a letter to governor 
Floyd, which he marked "private and confidential," 
giving his conversation with the President. Floyd sent 

*The report here mentioned will l)e found on page G7. 

320 Life of ilie late Hon. C. J. Faulkner. 

to Tazewell, and together they became greatly incensed. 
Floyd returned the letter to Mr. Faulkner, with the re- 
quest that he strike out the words "private and confi- 
dential," that Tazewell might make it the basis of an 
attack for both of them, upon Jackson and his adminis- 
tration, upon the floor of the United States Senate. Mr. 
Faulkner refused, and years after Governor Floyd 
thanked him, as did Tazewell, for saving them from the 
premature open quarrel with "Old Hickory" which they 
had resolved ujion having. The circumstances, however 
kept Mr. Faulkner from going to Europe on the vessel, 
and his rej^ort on the boundary question was made Avith- 
out consulting the archives of the mother country. 



In 1S33, after the completion of the report on the boun- 
dary, Mr. Faulkner was married to the daughter of Gen. 
Boyd, an old and distinguished Virginian, who for many 
years had taken an active X3art in her public affairs. For 
the next fifteen years jDolitics commanded little part of 
his time and attention. He devoted himself with great 
zeal to the practice of his profession, and in a short time 
took a leading place at the bar of Virginia, which was in 
those days one of the strongest in the Union. His cases 
were many and his fees large, and bo^ore he again ap- 
peared in public life he had acquired a fortune wiiich 
has enabled him to live independently ever since. Hav- 
ing acquired this independence, he again turned to poli- 
tics, partially for relief from the exactions of legal work, 
and partly because he was ambitious to leave something 
behind him besides money ; because he believed that an 
ambition for public service was a laudable one after a 
man had acquired a competency. This ambition for a 
place in history was in perfect keeping with his charac- 
ter, and he devoted himself to it with the same earnest, 
untiring energy that he had brought to bear upon every 
task he had undertaken, from his childhood up. This 

Life of the late Hon. C. J. Faulkner. 321 

very quality, wliicli x^eople applaud in most of the rela- 
tions of life, has been belittled and derided by many not 
broad enough in mental grasp to comprehend the fact 
that in politics, as in business, a man winssuccf'ssby the 
efforts which he makes to deserve it. 

In 1841, he responded a second time to the call of his" 
fellov/ citizens, and was elected to the State Senate of 
Virginia. Finding, however, that the office made too 
great demand upon his time, he resigned, in the spring 
of 1842 ; he did not, however, cease to take an active in- 
terest in public affairs. In 1843 he was an earnest advo- 
cate of the annexation of Texas, and in 1846, was one of 
the earliest and warmest supporters of the Mexican war. 
In the raising of troops from Virginia, for service in 
Mexico, Mr. Faulkner was prominent and successful, 
but all these, and many other public acts, were merely 
incidents in a life which, during this period, was chiefly 
devoted to the practice of the law. In 1348, however, 
Mr. Faulkner was again elected to the House of Dele- 
gates of Virginia. Daring that session he introduced 
into the Legislature a bill which was passed, and by the 
Legislature transmitted to the Senators and Representa- 
tives and became the famous Fugitive Slave Law passed 
by Congress, in 1850. Indeed, it was his avowed pur- 
pose, in being elected to the Legislature, to do all in his 
power to bring the whole moral force of the State of Vir- 
ginia to demand from Congress, a law for the protection 
of slave property. During this session he was chairman 
of the special committee of the Virginia Legislature 
charged with the investigation of the whole fugitive slave 
question, and it would have been unnatural if he had not, 
from the beginning of that session, been a central figure 
in a Legislature of strong men. But it was not only in 
the discussion and consideration of this grave question, 
that Mr. Faulkner was prominent. In the revision of 
the code of State laws, which was the chief work of that 
Legislature, he took a leading part. His service in this 

322 Life of tlie late Hon. C. J. FaidJmer. 

Legislature, and liis work in a previous term was memo- 
rable for himself and fruitful to tlie State. During all 
the years after his entrance into public life it had been 
apparent to him, as to every thinking man, that the Vir- 
ginia Constitution, of 1830, was not sufficient to meet 
the demands of a rapidly advancing civilization, and 
when the reform Constitutional Convention of 1850 as- 
sembled, it found Mr. Faulkner one of its members. This 
was the first occasion during his public life that an op- 
portunity had been afforded him to combat the yiersis- 
tent discriminations of the government of Virginia 
against that portion of the state which lay west of the 
Blue Ridge. Eastern Virginia had always borne heavily 
ui)on the western portion of the State in taxation, in the 
distribution of public improvements, and had defrauded 
her out of her proper representation by establishing a 
mixed basis of population and property, vrhich alone 
could give the Eastern slave holding section of the State 
the power to control the policy of the entire State. 



Mr. Faulkner's contest against these unjust discrimi- 
nations began vi^hen he first entered the Legislature, and 
never ceased while he had a voice in that body. It 1841 
his opposition to the unjust attitude of the majority to- 
■\vards the section of which he was a native was such 
that he presented a proposition to reraove the capital 
from Richmond to some jDoint in the Shenandoah Valley. 
But while these contests vexed the public mind in the 
East, because they served to call attention to the hard- 
ships endured by Western Virginia, there were no prac- 
tical means j)resented of striking at the root of the evil 
until the reform convention of 1850 was called. 

The j)roceedings of this convention were very impor- 
tant, and Mr. Faulkner was prominent in its sessions. 
He paid little attention, however, to the abstract or theo- 
retical questions which arose, no matter what might be 

Life of the late Hon. C. J. Faulkner. 323 

their seeming importance, but reserved all Lis influence 
and energy for a bold advocacy of the rights and inter- 
ests of Western Virginia. To this, his native section, 
taxation and the basis of representation were far more 
important matters than any other questions before that 
body. The importance of these issues had been recog- 
nized by all sections of the State, and strong men from 
the East, as well as the AVest, had been sent to deal •with 
the important issues to be decided by that assemblage. 
Governor Henry A. Wise, John Y. Mason, John Minor 
Botts and George W. Summers were a few of the great 
men in that convention. Mr. Faulkner's most signifi- 
cant battle in that body was upon the basis of represen- 
tation, and in the debate uj^on that question he ran coun- 
ter to all the leading men rex3resenting the eastern sec- 
tion of the State. This was especially the fact in his 
course upon the question of representation ; it was to 
his great honor that at that early day he was the stead- 
fast and eloquent champion of basing representation 
ux)on voters and not upon chattels ; that he demanded 
rep)resentation should be wholly upon the free whites 
and not in part upon j^roperty, whether slave or other- 

In his advocacy of this measure his speech was able 
and exhaustive ; he commanded the close attention of 
the convention during the two days which were occupied 
by its delivery. It made a profound impression, and de- 
ciding the question under consideration in consonance 
with Mr. Faulkner's views, gave to Western Virginia 
that position in the Councils of States to which she was 
entitled. The debate in relation to taxation was equally 
interesting and important. Mr. Faulkner bore the brunt 
of that task, as \Vell as the debate upon representation. 
Henry A. AVise was the champion of Eastern Virginia 
ideas and interests on the subject of taxation, while Mr. 
Faulkner stood in the same relation to Western Virginia. 
The debate between these two leaders of diverse inter- 

324 L)fe of the late Hon. C. J. Faulkner. 

ests lias been preserved and was regarded as a leading in- 
cident of tlie convention, and liis position was sustained. 
Witli this eminent service to Ms State, and especially to 
his native section of the Old Dominion, Mr. Faulkner 
broadened into the domain of national politics. 

The compromise measures of Mr. Clay of 1850 changed 
the political affiliation of many men, especially in the 
South. Mr. Faulkner was one of those who drifted to 
the side of the Union in the ensuing division. The South, 
equally with the North, was dissatisfied with the terms 
of the compromise ; the North with relation to the Fugi- 
tive Slave Law clause, and the South because of the feel- 
ing that too much had been conceded to the anti-slave 
power. The planting States, with South Carolina in the 
lead, were ready then to secede, but they could not de- 
jDend upon the help of the other Southern States, and 
hence there was no open revolt. This may be said to 
have been the opening of the division in the South upon 
the question of union or disunion. 

In 1851 Henry Beddinger, of Jefferson County, was a 
candidate for Congress in the district in which Mr. Faulk- 
ner lived. He took the position of South Carolina on the 
compromise measure of 1850 as his platform. Mr. Faulk- 
ner was brought out as an indepedent candidate against 
him, in behalf of the Union cause and against further 
sectional agitation. Ben Hill, of Georgia, was a candi- 
date the same year in his State on the same x)latform. 
The first contest of Mr. Faulkner for a seat in the national 
legislature was a memorable one. Mr. Beddinger was 
the regular Democratic candidate, with a majority in the 
district of several hundred in his favor, and he made w^ar 
to the knife against his opponent. Extracts from Mr. 
Faulkner's speech in favor of the abolition of slavery in 
1832 were printed in red letters and posted everywhere 
in the district, and every j)ossible effort was made to 
array public opinion against him on account of the first 
conspicuous act of his political life. With that unweary- 

Life of tlie late Hon. C. J. Faulkner. 325 

ing industry and zeal wliicli have always been character- 
istic of Mr. Faulkner, he entered into this light and made 
an active canvass, holding a public discussion with his 
opponent at least once in every county of the district. 
He was elected to Congress by a good majority in a dis- 
trict which was largely Democratic, but where the Union 
sentiment was at tliat time ronsed into fervid action. 



When he took his seat in Congress the old parties were 
undergoing rapid disintegration, and in July, lSo2, Mr. 
Faulkner, in an address to the people of the country, 
joined Alexander H. Stephens and Robert Toombs, of 
Georgia, and several other "Whig Representatives in Con- 
gress from the South, in declaring that as General Scott 
was the candidate of the Free Soil wing of the Whig 
Party, opposed to the compromises of 1850, they could 
not supjDort him for the Presidency. Thus Mr. Faulk- 
ner, with those other great Southern leaders, left the 
Whig Party and joined his political fortunes with De- 
mocracy. In the heated discussion of the hour the Whig- 
party charged the Democracy with opposition to the 
compromise measures of 1850. To refute this charge Mr. 
Faulkner prepared and delivered a speech in Congress, 
August 2, 1852, which, in the printed edition, was enti- 
tled " The Compromise — The Presidency — Political Par- 
ties.'' It was a great effort, an exhaustive review of the 
issues wh'ch had disrupted the Whig party, and a com- 
plete refutation, from a Democratic standpoint, of the 
charge that the Democracy, as an organization, was op- 
posed to the compromise measures. It was also a splen- 
did effort in behalf of Mr. Pierce for the Presidency. 
This speech at once attracted public attention, and was 
made a campaign document by the Democratic party. 

Mr. John C. Rives, the noted Congressional jDrinter, in 
a letter written in December, 1852, says : "I printed for 
the National Democratic Committee 93,000 copies of Mr. 

32C Life of the late Hon. C. J. FaidJiiier. 

Faulkner's si^eech, made in Congress before the close of 
its last session. I would have printed more if I could 
have procured paper in time. Although I have been en- 
gaged in the printing business here twenty odd years, I 
do not rerollect to have printed so many cojDies of any 
other speech. The speech was printed at other offices, 
but I do not knov7 how large the editions were." 

The fact is that more than 125,000 copies of the speech 
Avere printed and distributed, and it Vv^as the text for 
every stump orator for the Democracy during the memo- 
rable campaign of that year. This change of Mr. Faulk- 
ner of his political afhliations naturally created him new 
adversaries at home, and he returned there to combat 
them. lie took the stump, and in a series of speeches 
justified his course, carrying his district for Pierce by a 
handsome m.ajority. This fixed his position definitely in 
the Democratic party. For four successive terms he was 
elected to Congress over popular candidates, and as early 
in the service he had attained, so to the end he main- 
tained a leading position in the national legislature. He 
was made chairman of the Military Committee of the 
House at the beginning of his second term, and had a 
leading place on other important committees. His eulo- 
gy upon Henry Clay attracted great attention, as did his 
speech in favor of opening the way to promotion in the 
army to merit, without reference to the place of educa- 
tion, which was intended to be, and was, a blow at the 
military oligarchy which has its origin at West Point. 
Naturally there are many others in Congress and upon 
the stump worthy of equal commendation, as it was 
known of him that he was the most ceaseless of workers, 
and his only recreations during his public life were at in- 
tervals to take x^art in those social reunions where he 
could enjoy contact with the best minds of the nation. 
It was also true of him that at home, as well as when en- 
grossed in the cares of public life, he gave close aj^plica- 
tion to his private affairs and the interests of his clients. 

Life of tJci late Ron. C. J. Faulkiitr. 827 

His law office was near, but apart from his house, and 
that office had been his workshop for more than half a 
century. It was a trite saying in the little town in 
which he lived that the light was never oat in that office 
until after each new day was born. 

When the Know-Nothing craze was at its height Mr. 
Faulkner made a memorable canvass in Virginia in con- 
junction with Henry A. Wise, the key-note of which was 
the declaration, in the language of Mr. Faulkner in Con- 
gress, " I am not, never have been and never exj^ect to 
be, a member of any oath-bound, secret iDolitical associa- 
tion. I claim communion with but one political organi- 
tion — and that is the great National Democratic Party of 
this country — a party that has shown itself, after the 
most ample exx3erience, broad enough to embrace all the 
vast interests of liberty and humanity, and strong 
enough to uphold in its firm and conservative grasp the 
Constitution of my country and the Union of these States." 

Mr. Faulkner followed this struggle against the intol- 
erance of Kn-jw-Xothingism by attending the jSTational 
Democratic Convention in Cincinnati, in 1S56. He was 
with a majority of the Virginia delegation in his prefer- 
ence for Mr. Buchanan as the nominee of that body. 
For the consi)icuous services he had rendered the party 
he was chosen Chairman of the Democratic Congressional 
Committee for the conduct of the Presidential campaign. 
But for the action of the Electoral College of Virginia, 
in recommending John B. Floyd as the preference of the 
State for a Cabinet x^osition, Mr. Faulkner would have 
been made Secretary of War upon the accession of Mr. 
Buchanan to the Presidency. The new President, how- 
ever, tendered the distinguished Virginian the hardly 
less inferior position of Minister to France. But Mr. 
Faulkner was in Congress, and Hon. John Y. Mason, 
of Virginia, who was a personal friend, was the Minister 
of the United States in France. Mr. Faulkner therefore 
declined the mission, rather than disturb an old friend 

328 Life of tlte late Hon. C. J. Faulkner. 

in liis place. Mr. IMason having died, during the pen- 
dency of the canvass of 1859, Mr. Faulkner was nomina- 
ted and confirmed as our new Minister to France, and 
repaired at once to his new post of duty. 



His services as a diplomat were useful to his country 
and honorable to himself ; it was through his efforts that 
the right of expatriation was first admitted by the gov- 
ernment of France, and naturalized citizens of the United 
States given the right to visit the land of their birth with- 
out molestation, or fear of military espionage The 
great bulk of Mr. Faulkner's dispatches while a foreign 
minister have never been given to the public by the State 
Department, but when, in 1S6C, the Senate called for the 
correspondence of that Department upon the great ques- 
tion of the claims of European governments* to exact 
military service from naturalized citizens of the United 
States, those of Mr. Faulkner were presented, and in 
this wa}" the general public was for the first time made 
aware that in less than a month after his presentation at 
the Court of Napoleon III., he presJred the issue upon 
that sovereign to a conclusion in harmony with the wishes 
and demands of the United States, despite the strenuous 
opposition of M. Thouvenal, the French Minister for 
Foreign Affairs. For this he received the thanks of the 
President in his annual message to Congress. During 
his term of service at the French Court, there were no 
great overshadowing questions, excejDt the one to which 
allusion has been made, between the two countries, until 
the armed conflict between the North and South in this 
country becameimminent. The symi^athies of Napoleon, 
it is v/ell known, were early enlisted upon the side of 
the South, and this fact naturally made the position of 
Mr. Faulkner at the French Court exceedingly delicate. 
As a citizen of the South, whatever he might do, or omit 
to do, was sure to meet with misrepresentation at "Wash- 

Life of the late Hon. C. J. FauRntr. 329 

ington. But lie was so circumspect in his conduct tliat 
he was not only held blameless, hut received tlie thanks 
of the government for his services. 

It was not to be expected, however, that in a period so 
stormy, his services, however meritorious a^id conspicu- 
ous, would protect him from detraction ; malignant as- 
persions upon his loyalty to his country and fidelity to 
his olTicial trust, were carried from Paris to AVashington, 
and these became so frequent and i")ersistent that soon 
after the inauguration of President Lincoln, Mr. Faulk- 
ner took notice of them in a letter to Mr. Seward, Secre- 
tary of State, in which he took occasion to deny in strong 
terms that either in his official or private capacity, he 
had been disloyal to the United States. It is unneces- 
sary to present in derail the leading acts in Mr. Faulk- 
ner's service as a diplomat ; but it was always creditable, 
for in all his mental characteristics he was eminently 
fitted for such a career. A man of great self-poise, equa- 
ble temperament, and while of strong convictions, know- 
ing how to hold them in check, it is not singular that he 
was able to walk in the paths of diplomacy without 
danger or difficulty, either to himself i^ersonally or the 
country he represented. Besides the power of present- 
ing his points strongly, he could put them adroitly, and 
had the rare qualit}'- of making words persuasive. He 
showed this attribute early in life. In his many contests 
in a district that might oftentimes be called turbulent, 
Mr. Faulkner not infrequently softened the asperities of 
political warfare and won enemies to his support A 
good story is told of him in his native village, wliich 
illustrates this point. Old Daniel Burkhardt, a conspic- 
uous personage in the business circles of Martinsburg, 
was a quiet and eccentric man. He was exceedingly 
critical, and was at times in favor of Mr. Faulkner, while 
at other periods he opposed hiai. In one closely contest- 
ed election he severely criticised some of Mr. Faulkner's 

330 Life of the late Hon. C. J. Faulkner. 

political acts, when one of that gentleman's friends said 
to hini : 

" Mr. Biirkliardt, you ought not to be against Mr. 
Faulkner. Why don't you see him, and he will explain 
toyour satisfaction the matter of which you comi^lain." 

''Of course he will," was the prompt reply. "He 
never did anything in his life he could not explain to the 
satisfaction of anybody. That is the reason I keep out 
of his way." 

Mr. Faulkner, however, did not xoermit Mr. Burkhardt 
to escape him, but made the explanation of which the 
latter was in fear, and thus gained his support. This 
incident not only illustrated the persuasive power of Mr. 
Faulkner, but it also allowed his extraordinary gift in 
gaining and ever afterwards retaining, the friendship of 
those who had been personally or politically inimical to 

Mr. Faulkner was relieved of his diplomatic duties 
early in 1801, by Hon. Wm. L. Dayton, of New Jersey, 
who had been appointed as his successor by President 
Lincoln. He left France with the respect of the govern- 
ment to which he had been accredited, and the good 
wishes of the many American citizens with whom he had 
been brought into personal or official relations. He had 
so conducted himself in his delicate relations to the 
French government, growing out of the anomolons con- 
dition of affairs in his own country, that there was not 
even a pretence that he had been unfaithful in his con- 
duct. He, from the first, refused to discuss these matters 
with M. Thouvenal, and never but once expressed an 
unofficial opinion as to the action of the government to- 
ward the seceding States. Just before his departure M. 
Thouvenal asked him if he believed his government 
would use coercion to preserve the autonomy of the 
Union. To this Mr. Faulkner said that he did not, but 
added that he felt compelled to decline to discuss the 
policy of his government, as Mr. Dayton was then on his 

Life of the late Hon. C. J. Faulkner. 331 

way to France, with definite instructions from Washing- 
ton upon that and cognate matters. 



After Mr. Faulkner returned to the United States, 
some American newspapers contained long accounts of 
Mr. Yancey and other Confederate diplomatic commis- 
sioners having been received by Mr. Faulkner, presented 
to the French Minister of Foreign Affairs, and even to 
the Emperor himself. It is needless to say that these 
were all fabrications, for Mr. Faulkner did not meet the 
Confederate Commissioners until two months after he 
had ceased to be Minister, and left France, and then, by 
accident, on the Derby race course in England. On that 
occasion Mr. Yancey never intimated to Mr. Faulkner 
the nature of his mission abroad, and the relation of the 
Confederate States to the European Powers was never the 
subject of discussion between them. "When Mr. Faulk- 
ner returned to the United States the war had been for 
some time in ]3rogress. He went direct to Washington, 
to pay his respects to the President and Secretary Sew- 
ard, and settle his account with the Government. While 
in France he had been entrusted with a large contingent 
fund, to meet the expenses of other missions besides his 
own. He settled all his accounts, received the balance 
due him from the Government, and having made his 
final visit to the State Department, was about to leave 
for his home in Martinsburg, when be was arrested and 
thrown into prison. He demanded of the Secretary of 
War, to know upon what charge he had been arrested 
and detained. He received the follov/ing reply : 

"You are held as a distinguished citizen of Virginia, 
as a hostage for James McGraw, State Treasurer of Penn- 
sylvania, who, while searching for the dead body of a 
friend on the battle-field of Bull Run, was taken and 
thrown into prison, by the people of your State, now in 
rebellion against the authority of the Government, and, 

332 Life of Vie late Hon. C. J. Faulkner. 

so help me God, you sliall never be relieved nnlil Jaraes 
McGraw and his party are set at liberty and are safe. 
" SiMOX Camerox, Secretary of War." 

The characteristic ans^.ver from Gen. Cameron settled 
the question inthe mind of Mr. Faulkner, and fully con- 
tradicted the story that he had been arrested because of 
infidelity to his trust while Minister to France. After 
being confined in Washington for a month he was trans- 
ferred to Fort Lafayette. While imprisoned there he was 
offered his liberty upon the condition of taking the oath 
of allegiance to the United States. He refused to accept 
his liberty upon those terms, for the reason that he had 
been guilty of no offence, and had been confined without 
any charge having been made against him, and that he 
would submit to no conditions for his release. SSoon 
after this he learned that Mr. McGraw, of Pennsylvania, 
had been set at liberty and was at home. He then ad- 
dressed a note to Gen. Simon Cameron, Secretary of War, 
requesting a fulfillment of the promise to release him, 
when Mr. McGraw should be again safe within the 
Federal lines. Gen. Cameron promptly rei)lied, saying : 

"You are no longer in my custodj\ Yon have been 
transferred to the Secretary of State, as a political 
prisoner. " Simox Ca:m:ekox, Secretary of War." 

Mr. Faulkner's offence against the State was that he 
had refused to take the oath of allegiance. Soon after 
this occurred he was lemoved to Fort Warren, in Boston 
harbor. While he was in confinement there Mr. Ely, of 
New ITork, a Congressman who liad been captured while 
a spectator at the battle of Ball Run, began to j-jress the 
Government to secure his release. Tt was proposed to 
exchange Mr. Faulkner for Mr. Ely, biU Jeff Davis, in 
his annual message, at Richmond, Ya., declared he 
would make no exchange for Mr. Faulkner, but would 
make his arrest a ground of arraignment before the civil- 
ized world. After considerable parleying it was finally 
decided that IMr. Faulkner should be granted a parole of 

Life of the late Hon. O. J. Faulkner. 333 

thirty days, to go to Riciiniond and effect, if possible, 
an exchange between himself and Mr. Ely. His arrival 
in Richmond caused gieat exceitement ; he was greeted 
by the Governor, Mayor of the city and a large con- 
course of x)eople, and called upon to make a public ad- 
dress, which he did. His interview with Jefferson Davis 
was interesting, as showing the relative position of the 
two men at that period. During the conversation Mr. 
Faulkner said : "Mr. Davis, I fear we are just begin- 
ning a long and bloody Avar ; a struggle in which, I can- 
not help thinking, the South will be unsuccessful." 

"I agree with you sir," Mr. Davis replied, "that we 
are at the outset of a protracted and desperate conflict, 
but I do not agree with you that it will be an unsuccess- 
ful one." 

This decided difference of opinion did not have the 
effect of making the interview altogether j)leasant, and 
Mr. Davis did not, at any subsequent period, take kind- 
ly to Mr. Faulkner. Finally, but with great reluctance, 
Mr. Davis consented to the exchange of Mr. Ely for Mr. 
Faulkner, and when that had been accomplished the lat- 
ter retired to his home in Berkeley County, but remain- 
ed there but a few days, he having received a letter from 
General Stonewall Jackson, who invited him to become 
a member of his staff. He was accordingly, by Lieut. 
Gen. Stonewall Jackson, appointed his chief of staff, 
with the rank, Lieut. Colonel. He wrote all of the offi- 
cial reports of that distinguished soldier, Avhich have al- 
ways been regarded as models of military literature. 

While he was absent from his home, during the war, 
Martinsburg, near which he lived, was alternately in pos- 
session of the Federal and Confederate forces, and al- 
though his two sons were in the Confederate army, 
Ms property "was not seriously injured. His old home, 
around which clustered the associations of a century, was 
ordered to be burned, by Gen. David Hunter, and an 
officer apiDeared to carry this comm.and into effect. The 

334 Life cf the late Hon. C. J. Faulkner. 

liouse was saved by a telegraphic order from Abraham 
Lincoln, to whom an appeal was made by Mrs. 
Faulkner' v/ho had resided there during all the war. 
The close of the war found Mr. Faulkner near Ap- 
pomattox, where Lee surrendered to Grant. One of 
the first acts of Mr. Lincoln after the surrender of Gen. 
Lee, w^as to request Mr. Faulkner to return home, and 
he sent Col. Ward Lamon with a message to him, for 
that xJ^i"Pose. Mr. Faulkner, after the close of hostili- 
ties, returned to his home in Berkeley County, the un- 
timely and tragical death oF Mr. Lincoln having jireven- 
ted the conference which the President had intended to 
have with Mr. Faulkner, when, no doubt, the opinion of 
the latter on the subject of reconstruction, which had 
become one of absorbing interest at the close of the war, 
would bave been given due consideration. 


The State of West Virginia had been created out of 
the Old Dominion when Mr. Faulkner returned to his 
home. There were new men at the helm, and a new 
order of things in general. The sting of war had left its 
rankling in the statutes of the new State, and he found 
himself not only debarred from the inherrent right of 
American citizenship, but even of practicing his profes- 
sion as a lawyer. 

At that time this section of the country, almost more 
than any other along the border, was disturbed by the 
receding waves of civil war, and the legal, no less than 
the constitutional, standing of the new State was often 
called in question. Noth withstanding the great changes 
which the war had wrought, and the bitter animosities 
of the hour, of which at this time there can be but a faint 
idea, Mr, Faulkner, regarding the sei3aration as irrever- 
sible, at once took strong grounds in favor of the new 
State of Virginia, which was the offspring, not of revo- 
lution, but of civil war. He held, and with the spirit of 

Life of the Jate Hon. C. J. Faulkner. 385 

propliecy upon Mid, that time would soften the asperi- 
ties of the armed conflict, and that West Virginia, freed 
from the unjust discriminations of the dominant section 
east of the Blue Ridge, would speedily become one of 
the most ilourishiDg commonwealths in the sisterhood 
of States. 

The contest had commenced in 1S32, for the overthrow 
of the unjust discriminations against the section of the 
State where he had been born, and where were all his in- 
terests, social, business and political, had been ended by 
the sv.'^ord severing the section west of the Blue Ridge 
from what was then called, and is yet known, as the Old 

It is needless to describe in detail his many public 
acts from lS6o to 1872 in behalf of the New State. Of 
these the most significant and important was his stand in 
favor of the two rich counties of Jefferson and Berkeley 
being attached to West Virginia. The old State of Vir- 
ginia sued for them as a part of her domain, claiming 
that they were not legally attached to the new State 
when created. Mr. Faulkner showed his fidelity to the 
western section by taking positive grounds in favor of 
the right of West Virginia to these counties. Virginia 
instituted her suit in the Supreme Court of the United 
States, and Hon. Reverdy Johnson was retained as the 
leading counsel for West Virginia, but he was made 
Minister to England before the case came on for argu- 
ment, and Gov. Boreman, at the request of the delega- 
tion from those counties, engaged Mr, Faulkner to take 
Mr. Johnson's place. The case was argued before the 
Supreme Court of the United States, in February, 1S71, 
The argument of Mr. Faulkner was an exhaustive i^res- 
entation of the equity of the claim of West Virginia to 
the two counties, and they were awarded to her by the 
decision of the Court. In January, 1872, Mr. Faulkner 
was a member of the Constitutional Convention of West 
Virginia, which framed the present fundamental law of 

336 Life of the late Hon. C. J. FaulTcneT. 

the State. This was the first even quasi-political office 
he had held since the war. He was chairman of the 
Judiciary Committee on Revision, the two most impor- 
tant in the body. It is needless to say that he was one 
of the leaders in the debates and work of that body. . 

In June of the same year his political disabilities were 
removed by special act of Congress, and in the fall of 
1874 he was elected to the House of Representatives, by 
3,436 majority, in a district until that time doubtful. He 
served on the important committees of Foreign Rela- 
tions and Education and labor, and took a leading posi- 
tion in the debates on all important questions. As his 
term was drawing to a close he declined a re-election, for 
the purx^ose of becoming a candidate for United States 
Senator, and in the contest f(^r that position wdiich fol- 
lowed, in the Legislature, he secured a plurality of the 
Democratic votes in caucus, but was defeated in the Leg- 
islature by a combination of the Republicans with a 
number of Democrats in favor of his opponent. lie was, 
at a subsequent period, mentioned as a candidate for 
Governor, but was again defeated by a combination of 
hostile interests, and then withdrew from public life. 



' 'Madam, I am ordered to burn this house to the ground. 
You will have one hour to leave it ; you will be permit- 
ted to take nothing away except the wearing apparel of 
yourself and daughters." 

Thus spoke General Martindale, an officer of the First 
New York Cavalry, who was at that time serving as a 
staff officer to General David S. Hunter, who was in com- 
mand of the Union forces in the Shenandoah Valley dur- 
ing the eventful years of 1863-64. The house was one 
of those quaint ancestral mansions seen nowhere but in 
the South, and there so common as hardly to attract at- 
tention. It was odd ; it was almost rude in its architec- 
ture, but even its rather faded exterior gave evidence of 

Life of tJie late Hon. C. J. Faulkner. 337 

the wealth of hosiDitality, and accumulations of rare 
work, both literary and artistic. In its historical treas- 
ures it was especially rich, and besides the great array of 
valuable books it contained many manuscripts even 
then of great worth, which were to become more valua- 
ble with the lapse of time. 

This house filled with treasures and crowded with 
sacred memories, had been the home of the lady ad- 
dressed, and of her progenitors for generations. To her 
every room — nay, every corner and part of every room 
— was iDeopled by happy, wholesome memories. It is 
not strange, therefore, that to her the words of the officer 
which doomed her home to the torch were freighted with 
no common sorrow. 

But she was not a woman to sit down and wait for mis- 
fortune to overwhelm her. She had little time to do any- 
thing to save her house ; little chance that anything she 
might do would be successful. But she determined to 
make an effort to save her home, and she did what many 
others did in these distressful days ; she made by tele- 
graph an appeal to the patient, sympathetic, forgiving 
Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States. A 
messenger galloped to the town, and the fateful message 
was instantly flashed to Washington. The distracted 
lady could only wait and each moment of that hour 
seemed to her laden with the anxiety of a century. 
Meanwhile the officer and his soldiers lounged uxDon the 
beautiful lawn that stretched out before the old mansion 
to the main road, fully a quarter of a mile away, waiting 
for the apiDointed time to apply the torch. They knew 
nothing of what the Mistress of the mansion had done, 
and if they had known would not have been greatly 
concerned. They were only obeying orders and had so 
little liking for their work that they would be glad of 
some excuse for not doing it. 

The moments came and went with exasperating speed ; 
the old clock in the hall seemed to count the minutes 

338 Life of the late Hon. C. J. FaulJcner. 

into tlie past witli malignant and unusual speed. The 
servants were hastily packing trunks with the few arti- 
cles to be spared I'rom the iiames, but the lady herself 
seemed to take no notice of what was going on about her. 
She sat at a window, which commanded a view of the 
road leading to the town, as if to catch the first glimpse 
of a horseman flying to her relief. 

The three quarters had gone ; the lady still strained 
her eyes at the window, the soldiers still lounged list- 
lessly under the shade trees, but their talk was becom- 
ing more subdued and their dislike for the task before 
them was becoming more apparent. 

Suddenly the clatter of the horse's hoofs in full gallop 
was heard down the road. The lady sprang to her feet 
with an expression of mingled hope and fear upon her 
face. The soldiers hardly noticed the rax^id approach of 
the courier, for they could not be aware that the incident 
had any interest for them. The messenger came into 
plain view and the lady saw that he was waving a letter 
in his hand as he urged his horse to greater speed. In 
an instant more the messenger sprang from his horse and 
rushed up the broad graveled path to the house. The 
lady met him at the door. He handed her the telegram. 
She tore it open. It was a brief message of only a few 
words, but it had the potency of a kingly command. 
It said : 

" The property of Charles James Faulkner is exempt 
from the order of General David S. Hunter for 
the burning of the residences of three prominent citi- 
zens of the Shenandoah Valley, in retaliation for the 
burning of the Governor Bradford's house in Maryland 
by the Confederate forces." 

(Signed) Abraham Lincoln. 

The lady handed the telegram to Captain Grey Martin - 
dale. He read it and raised his cap in salutation. Turn- 
ing to his men he gave the orders which put them in 
their saddles, and in a moment more he and his small 

Life of the late Hon. C. J. Faulkner. 339 

command were clattering down the dusty road toward 
their camp. Thus was her home saved ; thus did Abra- 
ham Lincoln add another to the many acts of kindness 
with which he illumed and softened the rugged road of 
civil war w^hich it w^as his hard- fate to tread. Thus was 
the painful duty of Captain Martindale accomplished. 
The orders to burn houses had not been confined to this 
single home, and when he appeared on the scene which 
has been sketched in the above lines the officer and his 
command had just come from the burning of other resi- 
dences of other prominent Virginians. General David 
S. Hunter, who issued these orders, was one of those old- 
time soldiers who believed that war was not a holiday 
pastime. Among the homes which had been first burned 
were those of Hon. Alexander R. Boteler, near Shep- 
herdstown, along the Potomac river, formerly a member 
of Congress, and who for a time before the Avar had de- 
feated Mr. Faulkner in one of the most desperate and 
closely contested Congressional elections which had ever 
taken place in that section Another house burned was 
that of Andrew Hunter, a member of the Confederate 
Congress and a cousin of General Hunter. He found his 
consanguinity to the Union commander was no protec- 
tion for his property. There seemed to be some of the 
irony of fate in these occurrences of the war. 

At that time the rebels held as a prisoner Mr. Ely, a 
member of Congress from New York, who had been one 
of the many who had gone down from Washington to 
see the rebellion crushed at Bull Run. They saw another 
sort of spectacle and Ely was captured, and the rebels 
clung to him as a prize of great value. Finally the 
friends of Mr. Ely hit upon the plan of exchanging him 
for Faulkner, and by their importunities finally gained 
the consent of the Government at Washington to their 
scheme. Mr. Faulkner was to be released upon parole, 
and went to Richmond to effect the desired exchange. 
He was successful. Mr. Ely was restored to his home. 

340 Life of tlie late Hon. C. J. FauJTcner. 

and lie was released and sent within tbe Confederate 

After a short stay in Richmond, where his arrival had 
caused great excitement, Mr. Faulkner retired to the 
home of his daughter, near Appomattox, where most of 
his time during the continuance of the rebellion was 
sj)ent. He served for a time, however, upon the staiJ of 
General Stonewall Jackson, and wTote most of the orders 
and reports of that officer which received such general 
praise as models of military literature. After the close 
of the war he returned to his home near Martinsburg, 
where he has ever since continued to live. Soon after 
his return he began to take an active interest in the pub- 
lic affairs of the new State of West Virginia, which was 
that portion of the Old Dominion which had always en- 
listed his heartiest sympathies and best efforts. 

It is worthy of being added that General Cameron and 
Mr. Faulkner had broken the bread of reconciliation 
since the war. Both w^ere far advanced in years, the one 
having passed four score years, the other fast approach- 
ing that advanced age. There was one more incident. 
Soon after the war Mr. Faulkner and Mr. Magraw, al- 
though the lines of their fates had so crossed each other 
at a stirring period, met for the first time, and their in- 
terview was interesting and pleasant to both. It is queer 
how time softens the asperities of this life and brings 
together those who were far separated by the circum- 
stance of war. The old mile-j)osts that tell the story of 
that conflict are fast falling and crumbling into decay. 
The history of one is full of interest, but w^here is there 
one that furnishes more good thoiights and facts than 
the one in that old house that Grey Martindale was or- 
dered to burn. 


The death of Charles James Faulkner occurred at his 
residence, Boydville, Martinsburg, at fifty minutes past 
six o'clock Saturday morning, Nov. 1st, 1SS4. It was 

Life of the late Hon. C. J. Faulkner. 841 

the belief of liis physicians that he would have passed 
away several days before but for a restless energy which 
ever stirred within him, and which he in iDarticular sum- 
moned up in the last hours of his life. But his end was 
come and, surrounded by all the members of his family, 
he drew his last breath and passed peacefully away. 
There were i^resent at his death his two sons, Hon. E. 
Boyd and Judge Chas. James Faulkner and families ; his 
six daughters, Mrs. S. P. F. Pierce, Mrs. Thos, Bocock, 
Mrs. Jno. P. Campbell, Mrs. Dr. W. S. Love, Mrs. Joel 
AY. Flood and Mrs. Dr. J. W. McSherry ; also Dr. W. 
S. Love and family, Hon. Thos. S. Bocock, Mr. Faulkner 
Pierce, Mrs. Jas. Booker, Miss Boiling Flood and Miss 
Ella Bocock. As soon as he was dead the sad news was 
sent over the wires to his friends around, and many were 
the words of consolation and sympathy returned to the 
bereaved family. The services of his funeral took place 
on Monday following and were largely attended. Among 
the prominent men present were Judge W. S. Clark, 
Judge Richard Parker, Hon. Holmes Boyd, attorneys P. 
H. Boyd, H. H. Boyd, John E. Norris, James E. Norris, 
Capt. Powell, T. B. Kennedy, President, and Superin- 
tendent Boyd, of the Cumberland Valley Railroad ; Mr. 
Gallaher, of the Free Press \ J. Rufus Smith, Esq., 
and a large number of others. Nearly a hundred of the 
Masonic fraternity, of which order he was a member, 
turned out, and headed by the City Band marched at 3 
o'clock, the hour of his funeral, to solemn music to the 
residence, around which had gathered by this time more 
than two thousand people. The body of the venerable 
Chas. James Faulkner lay in the parlor in a handsome 
casket, decked with wreaths of beautiful flowers ; floral 
crown, cross and inscrijotion of Father made of roses 
and rare flowers were placed upon the casket cover. 
After all had viewed in procession the honored remains, 
the Presbyterian choir sang " Rock of ages cleft for me;" 
prayer was offered by Rev. Pitt, after which Rev. F. M. 

342 Life of the late Hon. C /. Faulkner. 

Woods delivered a funeral oration on the late deceased, 
a tribute to his memory. Rev. R. C. Holland followed 
with prayer, and reading of hymn " Nearer my God to 
Thee," by Rev. Andrews, which was sung by choir and 
benediction by Rev, F. M. Woods. After the sermon 
the funeral cortege marched to the Episcopal Cemetery, 
next to the lawn, led by the City Band, followed by 
nearly 100 members of the Masonic fraternity under the 
auspices of Equality Lodge, the remains carried by the 
pall bearers, Blackburn Hughes, J. L. W. Baker, P- 
Showers, C. P. Matthaei, J. W. Pitzer, D. Hedges, A. J. 
Thomas, C. W. Doll, C. M. Shaffer, Wni. Kilmer, Jacob 
Miller, J. W. Thatcher, M. S. Grantham, Casper Stump, 
Col. J. Q. A. Nadenbousch, J. H. Gettinger and J. N. 
Abell ; the ushers, Messrs. E. J. Simpson, H. L. Doll, 
Stuart W. Walker, G. C. Janney, G. C. Swartz, A. S. 
Hughes, and D. C. Hunter, who followed bearing floral 
tribute of Father, Grandfather and Rest with cross and 
crown, the immediate members of the family, two sons, 
six daughters, thirteen grandchildren — only three absent 
— the near relatives of the deceased, the bar and officers 
of the Court, the City Council and corporation officers 
and over two thousand citizens. The services at the 
grave were conducted by the Masons with beautiful and 
impressive ceremony such as is usual on occasions of 
Masonic burial. Never perhaps in the history of Mar- 
tinsburg were there so many people gathered together to 
pay their last tribute of respect to the honored remains 
of a venerable citizen, one who was successful as a jurist, 
politician, diplomatist, and statesman, whose life will 
live after him, and his deeds be recorded on the pages of 
the world's history. 




IpT lias been stated in a former chapter that the Tusca- 
m rora Church, about two miles from the city, was the 
first place "where the gospel was publicly preached and 
divine service performed west of the Blue Ridge Moun- 
tain. This was and still remains a Presbyterian edifice. 
Among the early settlers a number of Irish Presbyterians, 
with a few Scotch and English families, removed from 
Pennsylvania and settled along Back Creek, the North 
Mountain and Opequon. The Baptists were the next to 
establish a public worshi]^, which was done about the 
year 1764. Mr. Stearns, a preacher of this sect, with 
several others, removed from New England, and under 
the care of Rev. John Gerard, formed a Baptist Church 
on the Opequon, the first founded this side of the Blue 
Ride. The Baptists were not among the earlist emi- 
grants ; but in the years 1742 or 1743, about fourteen 
families of that persuasion migrated from New Jersey 
and settled in the vicinity of what is now called Gerards- 
town. From this date other denominations sx^rang up, 
and at the present day our entire county is supplied with 
well regulated and disciplined churches of nearly every 
sect. The following sketches are given of our churches, 
that have sown their seed broad-cast and been the means 
of establishing religion throughout the county : 


On a bright Tuesday morning, April 3d, 1888, 1 mount- 
ed a bicycle and wended my way in the direction of the 
old Presbyterian Church, situa ted on Tuscarora. I seated 

344 The ChiircTics. 

myself on a bench near by, and carefully scanned the 
small stone building of one story, on which every trace 
of mortar, betT^^een the stone, seemed to speak of the 
years, yea a century or more, through which it has stood 
the test of time — the wintry blasts and the rainbeat of 
bygone days. Then I would pause, upon looking at the 
wood w^ork, which, when compared with the workman 
ship of the i3resent day, presents rather a rude appear- 
ance, and one can readily imagine that the erection of 
buildings in those days consisted of hard labor, with 
poor tools to work with. Next, I directed my attention 
to the stone steps in front, the weather-beaten doors, and 
the old shingled roof, which plainly show that by their 
use they were not over-estimated by the workmen. Sit- 
ting beneath a small birch tree, I began to wonder, as if 
in a dream, whether the early settlers that erected this 
grand old building, ever gave thought to the fact that 
their good works and deeds would be handed down to 
rising generations for centuries to come. But then my 
dream was interrupted and awakened by the peck of the 
wood- chuck, the chirp of the sparrow, and the warble of 
the robin overhead. 

I turned my gaze heavenward, then looked around me 
over the beautiful landsca^De of improved and cultivated 
soil, the neat dwellings — and then glancing at a marble 
slab before me, I thought of His blessed word on high : 
"Surely their good works do follow them." Interrupted 
by the warbling notes of the bird overhead, I looked up 
at it, and with its little throat swelled it seemed to say, 
that happiness in His sight is the Goddess of all nature 

Truly, it was a grand sight — with the briglit shining 
sun above, to announce the coming of spring, — the bud- 
ding of trees around, stirred now and then by a fresh 
breeze and sending forth a fragrant odor, — the sod be- 
neath spirouting up, and beginning to don its coat of 
green — all of which seemed to teach a soul-comforting 

The CI lurches. 345 

lesson: "A great and loving Father, creator of lieaven 
and earth, hath endowed us with these blessings of na- 
ture." And then upon reading a slab before me, I was 
again reminded : "According to the manner in which 
thou hast lived, so shalt thou be judged, at the judgment 
bar of God, He that hath endowed us with all these 
blessings." Here I was interrupted and awakened from 
my reverie by an inquirer, who wanted to know my busi- 
ness at this lone spot, and at such a time. After satisfy- 
ing him with my object and reason, he walked off ; and 
again I was left alone, save my God, with the tombs of 
the dead. I raised my eyes, and found myself confront- 
ing the tomb of Rev. Louis F. Wilson, on which were 
these words : "Died March 24th, 1873, in his 04th year 
— Our Taithful pastor for 37 years." This aroused a 
deep sense of feeling within me, and I began to wander 
amongst the tombs, of perhaps, many loved ones, en- 
deared to both God and mankind. I noticed particularly 
an old slab, rustic and covered v.ith moss, and propped 
up at each end by small foundations. With a small 
stick I cleaned it as best could be done, and with a pen- 
cil traced the letters in order to make them out. The 
stone has been washed by the storms, until the letters can 
hardly be found. It read thus: "Under this marble 
rests the bodj- of Rev. Hugh Yance, a faithful minister 
of the Gospel of Christ 26 years. Born in the year 1736. 
Died in the year 1791. *rjive the life if U would die the 
death of the righteous. This stone is erected to preserve 
and perpetuate the Memory of this AYorthy Man by his 
affectionate friends in Berkeley County, Virginia." 

Nearby stood a number of wooden slabs, almost rotted 
and decayed, and it is to be supposed that at an early 
day these tombs were enclosed by a fence, as four snags 
of posts are still standing. I became interested in the 
names and dates of the slabs, and began to note some of 
which I thought might prove interesting to the reader. 
Among them were John Chenowith, died October Sth, 

346 The Churches. 

1842, aged 63 years ; Thomas Miller, died November 30tli, 
1S54, aged 64 years ; James Chenowitli, did 1836, aged 
53 years ; Emily Marker, died 1838, aged 21 years ; Mar- 
garet Hull, died August 31st, 1846, aged 57 years ; Wm. 
Slauter, died April 28tli, 1834, aged 52 years ; Robert 
Lyle, died 1786, aged 34 years ; Robert Brighton, died 
September 10th, 1797, aged 60 years ; Margaret Brighton, 
died September 20th, 1786, aged 47 years ; Margaret Herd, 
died July 26th, 1794, aged 27 years ; David Miller, died 
Sej)tember 15th, 1825, aged 51 years ; the next was an 
old blue lime stone marked: "Here lies the body of 
Hugh Lyle, who departed this life April 14th, A. D., 
1790, aged 84 years." Another was an old sand stone, 
the letters almost washed away, and bore the name of 
Hugh Lyle, Jr., died February 27th, 1797, aged 42 years. 
In a large stone vault were contained Wm. Snodgrass 
and wife. The date of his death was May 13th, 1836, at 
an age of 61 years ; and his wife died in 1852, aged 76 
years. There was a large marble tomb with the Holy 
Bible engraved upon it, and the name of Sarah Ireland, 
who died January 20th, 1857, aged 79 years ; also her 
son Alexander who died April 29th, 1800, at an age of 9 
years. A number of graves were marked with small 
rocks and wooden slabs — and there was nothing to desig- 
nate the name of the dead or date of death. Some of 
the slabs were rustic and almost entirely covered by moss, 
or washed by the storms until the letters are invisible. 
In places the grave has been entirely lost by the growth 
of the monster oak. Near the center stands a large 
brick enclosure — the wooden roof entirely rotted away, 
and the walls fast going to ruin. Beneath this, I am in- 
formed, a number of persons were buried, but nothing 
remains to give information as to who they were. 

After strolling around to my heart's content, I return- 
ed to the church and took my seat in a side door. I 
looked over the profile of stones and slabs, some of which 
have fallen down, and others broken and decayed — and 

The Churches. 347 

then pondered long in meditation, whether the present 
generation knew who and which of their foreparents 
might be buried here ; or whether many, perhaps, given 
up for lost, might be sleeping under this sod. At this 
moment the sweet notes of a little bird, perched nearby, 
thrilled my soul : 

I looked arouud, o'er tlie tombs of the dead, 
And thought their spirits, from overhead. 

Were looking down with earnest eye. 

On tombs in which their bodies lie. 
When lo, the stillness seemed to saj', 
Man is mortal — his life a day. 

The church is still used for public worship by the 
Presbyterian denomination, and has a small membership. 
Interments are still made in the old graveyard, and fine 
marble stones are taking the place of the old slabs. The 
present pastor is the Rev. J. H. Gilmore, of Hedgesville, 
who also has charge of the Falling Waters church, 
another very old edifice. 

This sketch was written by the author of this book 
especially for the history of the old graveyard. Amongst 
the dates will be found some who were born nearly two 
centuries ago, and have been buried on this sjDot nearly 
a century. There were others, doubtless older, but no 
trace could be found to identify them. However, I feel 
confident that those mentioned will prove of interest and 
value to the reader. 


This is one of the oldest congregations in the Valley 
of Virginia. It was founded and formed here in 1775 by 
German emigrants from Pennsylvania and Maryland. 
In 17S2 a church record for the exclusive use of the Lu- 
theran congregation was obtained, and still remains in 
the archives of the church. The first regular pastor was 
Rev. Christian Streit, who took charge of a Lutheran 
congregation in Winchester, Va., July 19th, 1785. The 
circuit over which he had charge embraced the counties 
of Berkeley, Jefferson and Frederick. He acted in the 

348 The Churclies. ■ 

capacity of Bishop or overseer of the Lutheran Interest 
in these sections, ministering until 1790. 

Succeeding Rev. Streit, and the first pastor who resided 
here, was Rev. J. D. Young, who took charge of the 
congregation December 12th, 1790, in which position he 
served until 1800, when after an absence of two years he 
returned and served it from November 3d, 1802, up to 
tlie time of his death, which occurred February 10th, 
1804, at an age of 54 years. He was the originator of the 
first known constitution or form of government for the 
congregation, which was signed hj 103 members. The 
congregation vvas next supplied by Rev. F. W. Jazinsky 
for about one year, and who was succeeded by Rev. John 
P. Ravenack, the second resident pastor. Rev. John 
Kackler became pastor December 1st, 1817, and continued 
until 1819. Rev. C. P. Krauth took charge in the au- 
tumn of 1819 and served six years, resigning in 1827. 
His successor was Rev. Jacob Medtart, who entered upon 
his pastorate in 1827, which position he filled success- 
fully until 1835. when he resigned. The following is the 
list of pastors as they succeeded each other, and their 
terms, to the present date : Rev. Reuben Wiser, from 
March 1st, 1835, to 1837 ; Rev. Charles Martin, March 
29th, 1837 to 1842 ; Rev. Samuel' Spreecher, Feb. 13th, 
1842, to 1843 ; Rev. Joseph A. Seiss, May 29th, 1843, to 
to 1846 ; Rev. John Winter, November 23d, 1845, to 1847 ; 
Rev. C. P. Krauth, Jr., November 8th, 1847, to 1848; 
Rev. B. M. Schmucker, May 21st, 1848, to 1852 ; Rev. 
Reuben A. Fink, April 1st, 1852, tol855; Rev. Wm. Kopp, 
November 25 th, 1855, to 1857 ; Rev. Edwin Dorsey, 
April 1st, 1858, to 1860 ; Rev. Charles Martin, October 
21st, 1860, to 1861. Here an interruption was made by 
the late war, and the pastorate duties again resumed by 
Rev. J. S. Heilig, August 9th, 1866, to 1868 ; Rev. M. 
L. Caller, December 1st, 1869, to July 24th, 1881, and 
was succeeded by Rev. R. C. Holland, the present pas- 
tor, November 23rd, 1881. 

The Churches. M^ 

Tlie first church edifice was ttie joint property of the 
Lutheran and Reformed congregations, and was located 
on the corner of Church and John streets, being built 
entirely of logs. It was constructed for a tavern by Jacob 
Shortel, but afterward purchased by the congregations 
on the 20th of March, 1786, and then completed as a house 
of God for religious worship. The two lots lying between 
King and John streets were also purchased at the same 
time for the same owner, and have since been used as a 
graveyard. At that time nails were too expensive, and 
the plastering lathes were fastened by grooves cut into 
the logs. A pipe organ was afterward purchased, the 
bellows of which was worked by ropes and weighted 
down by stones. 

Rev. R. C. Holland, the i^resent pastor, is a zealous 
and earnest worker in the cause of religion. In his inter- 
course V7ith his members and brethren, in religion, he 
has won their friendship and esteem, and as a citizen the 
respect of the people. The present membership of the 
church is over 300, and the Sunday School numbers over 
275 scholars. Mr. Geo. Knapx^, for a number of years, 
has successfully officiated as Sunday School Superinten- 
dent. The following is a list of the Deacons and Elders : 
Deacons— G. S. Hill, D. A. Cline, Geo. D. Whitson, Jas. 
H. Small and Geo. A. Mason. Elders — H. N. Deatrick, 
Geo. Knapp, Geo. P. Walters and M. Y. Small. 

The old graveyard is an object of deep and tender in- 
terest to this city and much of the surrounding country, 
as many have some relative or friend buried there. The 
first cup of which there is any knowledge, which was 
used by the congregation in the ministration of the Holy 
Communion, is still in existence, bearing the date 1791, 
and the mysterious inscription : " P. K. - B. K. M." 

In 1815 a subscription was taken up in the two churches 
amounting to 83,059.00, for the purpose of building a 
new church fo*r their joint use. This jjroject, for some 
cause, had never been carried out Later on the present 

350 ^ The Ghurclies. 

site was purchased from Jacob Sclioppert, and an edifice 
erected at a cost of S3, 786. 50, and was dedicated June 
lOtl], 1832, Rev. Abram Reck officiating. The church 
was improved again in 1854, and a large bell placed* in 
the tower. During the late war the congregations were 
considerably scattered, and the church very much injured. 
In 1884 the church was remodeled, and extensive and 
important changes made. The corner stone was laid 
July 12th, 1884, with impressive services, by Rev. M. L. 
Culler, the former pastor, and other clergymen assisting 
the pastor. Rev. R. C. Holland. The cost of this im- 
provement amounted to $10,000. 


The lirst Baptist Church of Martinsburg was originally 
organized in 1858, with ten members. Rev. J, AV. Jones 
was chosen pastor, and, for nearly two years, jireached 
in the stone academy that stood near the Episcopal Cem- 
etery. In 1859 the lot on West King street, where the 
present building now stands, was bought, with a view of 
building a church edifice, but soon after the late war be- 
tween the States came on, and but little was accomplished 
until after the close of the war. During this time the 
society had a mere nominal existence, and nothing wor- 
thy of note occurred in its history ; but preaching was 
held at intervals in the Geraian Reformed and Lutheran 
Churches. In the spring of 1SG9, ground was broken and 
work commenced for the erection of a church building. 
The corner stone was laid Aug. 24th, 1869, with imposing 
Masonic ceremonies. Rev. J. A. Haynes, of Middleburg, 
was present, and delivered an appropriate and elo- 
quent address. The work was then continued without 
interruption, until the building was under roof. In the 
month of May, 1870, the lecture room was completed, 
and the first sermon was preached in the new house of 
worshi]_D on the third Sunday of that month, by the pas- 
tor, Rev. W. S. Penick. At this time the church was 
reorganized for active work with Rev. W. S. Penick, as 

Tlie Churches. 351 

pastor, and W. M. Van Cleve and Joseph B. Kearfott as 
deacons. On the second Sunday in June, 1S70, the Sun- 
day School was permanently established. The building 
was completed in March, 1S74, and on the 29th day of 
that month it was dedicated, with an appropriate sermon 
by Rev. J. W. M. Williams, D. D., of Baltimore. The 
total cost of the building, including furniture, etc., was 
§7,364.43, for which a collection of 8656.50 was taken up 
at the dedication services. The entire indebtedness has 
since been paid off. 

Rev. W. S. Penick served the church as pastor from 
1869 to July 1st, 1874. Rev. P. P. Murray, of Buchanan, 
W. Va., succeeded the former and entered upon his pas- 
torate with the church October 18th, 1874, continuing 
until November 17th, 1875, when he resigned and was 
succeeded by Rev. A. E. Rogers, who entered upon his 
mission work in September, 1876. Since the advent of 
the latter pastor the church has been constantly increas- 
ing. During the fall of 1881, both the interior and exte- 
rior of the building have been greatly improved, and the 
entire front changed, at a cost of over 8500. OO. 

Rev. A. E. Rogers was shortly afterward tendered a 
call to Missouri, which he accepted. Rev. Rogers was 
then succeeded by Rev. R. H. Pitt, of Richmond, Ya., 
Nov. 1st, 1883. Rev. Pitt served the church until 1886, 
when he resigned and returned to his former people. 
He was succeeded by Rev. F. P. Robertson, of Grafton, 
(W. Ya.,) church, formerly of Yirginia, in May, 1886, 
who has still charge of the church, and is doing a grand 
and noble work. Rev. Robertson is a kind, courteous 
and affable gentleman, and has the esteem and love of 
his entire pastoral charge. He is an excellent preacher, 
of an intelligent mind, and educated ability. The fol- 
lowing names compose the deacons of the church : B. F. 
Fiery, Samuel Aler, Sr., Jos. Y^est, Y". L. Pearl, J. B. 
Kearfott, T. B. Grove. 

F. S. Emmert is the Sunday School Superintendent, 

352 The ChurcJies. 

wliicli capacity lie lias filled for five years. The cliurcli 
membership is 200, and the average Sunday School at- 
tendance 112. 


By an Act of Assembly, in the year 1769, this parish 
and county were taken from Frederick. The original 
parish included all the territory now embraced by the 
counties of Jefferson and Berkeley, and contained within 
the limits, probably three churches. About the year 
1740, one was built at Mill Creek, or Bunker Hill, and 
founded by Morgan Morgan— the first Episcopal Church 
erected in the valley. A short time before the parish 
was formed, a chaiDel was erected at Hedgesville. The 
other was erected in Mecklenburg, (now Shepherd stown) 
and built by Van Swearingen. The original parish con- 
tained these three churches. The first Episcopal Church 
in Martinsbnrg was built about the close of the war, and 
was erected by Philip Pendleton, Esq., a zealous church- 
man. It was built at the entrance to Norborne Ceme- 
tery, which was laid out by Adam Stephen, and estab 
lished by law in 177S. Upon the formation of Jefferson 
County in 1801, which was taken from Berkeley, that 
territory was cut off from Norborne Parish. This re- 
duced the latter, and it contained but the three churches. 

The old church that stood in the Cemetery became un- 
safe for use, and in 1S35, measures were taken to erect 
another in the town. The lot was donated, and about 
1838 or 1839, the present edifice, on West King street, 
was commenced. There was no stated place of worship 
in the town, for eight years or more before its comple- 
tion. The following memorandum is taken from the old 
church record : "Trinity Church, Martinsbnrg, was con- 
secrated by E,t. Rev. William Meade, Bishop of Virginia, 
on Thursday, August 10th, 1843. Present and assisting, 
the following of the clergy : Revs, Alexander Jones and 
J. Chisholm, of Virginia, and Revs. James A. Buck and 

The CTiurches. . 353 

Theodore B. Lyman, of Maryland. Sentence of conse- 
cration read by the rector of the parish." 

The church was badly damaged during the late war, 
and in 1SG5 it was found necessary to renovate it before 
it could be used for divine worship. The present vesti- 
bule and iron railing were j)laced in front of the church 
in 1SC9. There are many breaks in the succession, re- 
garding the clergy of the parish, and it is supposed there 
were no ministers in charge at those times. The parish 
was organized in 1769, and no indentification of the 
clergy as its Rector can be found until the year 1771. 
Rev. Daniel Sturges was then licensed by the Bishop of 
London as Rector for Norborne Parish. Rev. Mr, Yea- 
sey succeeded him in 1786, and was followed by Rev. 
Mr. Wilson. Rev, Bernard Page was the Rector in 1795, 
and who. it is said, in his ministerial work, was far be- 
yond the standard of the parish. He Avas succeeded by 
Rev. Emanuel Wilmer, about the year 1806. Between 
the lai:)se of 1811 and 1813, Rev. Mr. Price was made 
rector. Here a temporary stop was ]Dut to all clerical 
effort by the war of 1812, and in 1815, Rev. Benjamin 
Allen took charge of the parish. While in Martinsburg 
he contributed largely to the CliristiarC s Magazine and 
LaymarC s 21agazine, church papers published in the 
valley. He was also an author of marked ability, having 
I)ublished six volumes of poems, and running through 
three editions of a history of the Reformation. He was 
the first to propose a division of the diocese, and the fol- 
lowing committee was appointed to confer with the 
Bishop and standing committee on this subject : Rev, 
Enoch Love, Edward Colston and Robert Page, He had 
spent a while afterward in England for the benefit of his 
health, and on a homeward bound vessel died. 

The first confirmation, of which there is any knowledge, 
was held in the Martinsburg Church by Bishop Meade, 
in 1830. The number confirmed composed a class of 
nineteen. West Virginia became a seiDarate diocese in 

354 27^6 Cliurclies. 

1878, since whicli time tUe cliarch lias rapidly increased. 
In 1848 Norborne Parish was divided and was made to 
include Mt. Zion Cliurch, Hedgesville, and Calvary 
Churcli, Back Creek ; the other, Trinity Church, Mar- 

After the death of Rev. Allen, this parish was supplied 
by Rev. Thomas Horrel, in 1810, who remained there 
years, and from this date was succeeded by ministers as 
follows : Revs. Enoch Love, Edward R. Lippett, 1823 ; 
John T. Brooke, 1826 ; James H. Lyng, 1830 ; William 
P. C. Johnson, 1832 ; Cyrus H. Jacobs, 1836 ; Charles C. 
Taliaferro, 1837 ; James Chisholm, 1842 ; D. Francis 
Si)rigg, 1850 ; Richard T. Davis, 1855 ; W. D. Harrison, 
1860 ; John W. Lea, 1875 ; and Robert Douglas Roller, 

1879, who served the parish until April 1st, 1888, when 
lie resigned to accept a call at Charleston, W. Ya. 

The present edifice has been handsomely renovated 
and refurnished in an artistic manner. The cliurch now 
has a membership of 170, and an average Sunday School 
attendance of ^'^. The Superintendent is Wm. B. Col- 
ston ; Senior and Junior Wardens, J. T. Young and B. 
S. Lyeth ; Registrar, J. L. W. Baker ; Treasurer, J. H. 
Doll; Yestrymen, J. T. Y'oung, B. S. Lyeth, J. L. W. 
Baker, Geo. A. Chrisman, W. B. Colston, John M. How- 
ell and J. H. Doll. 


This church was organized in 1825, and is the daughter 
of the venerable old church on Tuscarora, about two and 
a half miles from town. The church was organized in 
April and seems to have been without a pastor for the 
first year. But in the year 1826 or 1827, the Rev. John 
Mathews, who had been serving the churches of Shep- 
herdstown and Charlestown jointly for twenty years, 
gave up his charge with Shepherdstown and removed to 
Martinsburg. He divided his time equally between these 
two churches until he removed to the west in 1831. JMr. 
Alex. Cooper was the first ruling Elder, who was also an 

The Churches. 355 

Elder in the old cliurch in the county for some time be- 
fore the separation. Rev. Wm. C. Mathews became 
acting pastor in April, 1831, and served the congregation 
1835. During the years 1836 and 1837, the pulpit was 
vacant, and in the spring of 1838, Rev. Peyton Harrison 
was called to the pastorate of the church, and remained 
in this city for six years. In April, 1838, the name of 
Mr. Samuel Baker appears in the records as a Ruling 
Elder. Rev. John Bogg became pastor in 1845, who, 
probably remained only a few months, though possibly 
longer, for there is a blank in the Records from April, 
1845, to April 1847. At this latter date Rev. Wm. Love 
took charge and served as pastor until 1849. During 
this year he was succeeded by Rev. R. L. Berry, who 
continued to serve the church for nerly ten years. In 
August, 1858, Mr. Berry resigned, which was accepted 
by the church with much regret. During his pastorate 
the death of Mr. Alex. Cooper occurred, who for forty- 
live years had held the office of Ruling Elder, and nearly 
all that time had charge of the sessional records. On the 
23rd of the following April, 1853, Mr. James N. Riddle 
and Mr. John F. Harrison were ordained to the office of 
Ruling Elders in the church. On the 19th of April, 1855, 
Mr. Peyton R. Harrison, a son of Dr. Peyton Harrison, 
the former pastor, was also chosen by the congregation 
to the same office. 

After the resignation of Mr. Berry, the congregation 
called successively Rev, J. G. Hanner, D. D.; Rev. Lewis 
C. Baker, of New Jersey, and Rev, M. B. Riddle, then 
quite a young man. None of these ministers found the 
way clear to accept the call. In April, 1859, Rev. A. C. 
HoxDkins, was tendered a call, which was accepted, and 
on the 6th of Dec. following Mr. Hopkins was ordained 
and installed pastor. At a meeteng held on the 19th of 
January, 1861, Mr. Geo. Tabb and Mr. John M. Har- 
mon w^ere unanimously elected Ruling Elders. On the 
2nd of May, 1866, Mr. G. Boyd Harlan, of Falling Waters 

Sr-G ' The CJiurcltes. 

Chinch, and Mr. Wm. X. Riddle were chosen to the 
office of Ruling Elders in this church. Rev. Mr. Hop- 
kins resigned this pastoral charge in Aug., 1865, and on 
the 2nd of June, 1866, a call was accepted by Rev. Jas. 
E. Hughes, who was afterwards installed by a commit- 
tee of Winchester Presbytery. On the 23rd of Sept., 
1SG7, he died, and since the birth of this congregation, 
in 1825, this was the first time God had called them to 
bury their pastor. 

In the following spring, 1SG8, Rev. Dr. Riddle, of 
Lebanon, Pa., began his ministry in Martinsburg, in this 
church, and continued until April, 1877, when he resign- 
ed on account of infirmity of health. On the 14th of 
July, 1879, the congregation for the thirteenth time in 
its history was called upon to select another shepherd. 
The lot fell upon the present pastor, Rev. F. M. Woods, 
who has for the past nine years been endeavoring to re- 
alize this responsible trust. Within these nine years 
there has been an encouraging increase in this church, 
along with her sister churches, that gives a pleasant 
pro]3hecy of the future of their active, busy town. The 
congregation of the church have built a most delightful 
and commodious manse at a cost of nearly $6,000. The 
church membership now numbers over 200, with a Sun- 
day School attendance averaging 75. Mr. C. W. Wisner 
is the j)resent Sunday School Superintendent, with Hugh 
A. White, as assistant. The Elders are Jacob Miller, 
Blackburn Hughes and J. L. E. Combs. 


The first services held by this denomination were in the 
house of John Timmons, now located on Race Street. 
Mass was said in this house for a period of nearly nine- 
teen years, from about the year 1810 to 1830. The first 
church was then built where St. Joseph's Cemetery is 
now located, by Rev. J. B. Gildea. with a membership 
consistiag of about fifty families. The cost of the build- 
ing amounted to nearly 84,000 and the ground was given 

Tlie Churches. 357 

by Richard McSlierry. The Sisters of Charity were es- 
tablished here by Father ^Yhelan years ago, but after- 
wards left, as the congregation was too small to sup- 
port it. 

The stone work of the present church was begun by 
Father Plunkett, but was suspended for the want of 
means. Rev. Andrew Talty, his assistant, finished the 
church to the extent of the funds, and placed a pair of 
wooden steps in front. Rev. J. J. Kain afterwards re- 
placed them Avith stone, and also finished the basement. 

During the war, the Jessie Scouts used it for a stable 
in which they kept about 70 horses, and used the Sacris- 
ty rooms as ptrisons. Capt. H. Kyd Douglas was con- 
fined here for a period of six months. The wooden steps 
were very frail and inconvenient, and were only used by 
the soldiers twice. It is said the erection was commen- 
ced about 1845, the subscription paper dating Feb., 17th 
1850, in which year the corner stone was laid. At a cost 
of about $40,000, the church was dedicated by Bishop 
McGill, Sept. 30th, 18G0. 

The names of those in charge, from its earliest exis- 
tence to the present date, are as follows : Rev. Father 
Cahill, Rev. Readman, Rev. J. B. Gildea, Rev. Whelan, 
Rev, O'Brien, Rev. J. A. Plunkett. At different times 
a number of distinguished churchmen had charge, 
among whom were Bishoj^s Whelan, of Wheeling ; Beck- 
er, of Wilmington, Del.; and Kain, of Wheeling, each 
remaining several years. During the early period, at 
intervals, i)riests from Hagerstown and Frederick, Mary- 
land, visited the mission. History records no names of 
the pioneers of Catholicity in this county, and there is 
no doubt that the communion members of the church of 
Rome came to this section in the decline of the last 

The present edifice, situated on South Queen Street, is 
a strong and substantial building, with a massive stone 
front. The interior is handsomelv frescoed and furnish- 

358 Tlie Churches. 

ed, and contains a beautiful marble altar. In 1883, the 
denomination purchased the Judge Hall property at a 
cost of $5,000, and made imx3rovements to the amount of 
$2,200. The parochial school was taught in the base- 
ment of the church for a long while, but upon the pur- 
chase of this property the Sisters of Charity, from Em- 
mittsburg, took charge Sept. 1st, 1883. The school now 
has an average attendance of over 200 children, and is 
very successful. The present church membership num- 
bers over 1500, with a large Sunday School attached. 
Rev. J. McKeefry is the present pastor, with Rev, Fred. 
J. Lucke, as assistant. Rev. Lucke entered upon his 
mission here March, 17th, 1887, and continued until April 
1st, 1888. At the earnest request of Bishop Keane, Rec- 
tor of the Catholic Union of America, he was called ujDon 
to take charge of the St. Augustine Cathedral, at Flori- 
da. He will succeed Rev. Dr. Pace, who takes the chair 
in the Theological Union. Father Lucke was held in the 
highest esteem by the people of all denominations. 


This is one of the oldest congregations in the valley, 
•md was founded by German emigrants, who migrated 
principally from Pennsylvania. This society, in con- 
nection with the Lutherans, worshipped together in a log 
building, about the year 1776. (See sketch of Lutheran 
Church.) This church used jointly by the two congre- 
gations for many years was found to be too small, and 
in 184(3 the German Reformed congregation, XDrocured a 
more suitable site on Burke Street, and erected an edi- 
fice, the present one, at a cost of about $5,000. The 
services were formerly conducted in the German 
language, but have now been supx^lanted by the English. 
The old members of the church adhered to the use of 
their mother tongue in conducting their services, and 
thereby caused a number of their descendents to con- 
nect themselves with the English speaking congregations. 
The first church bell introduced in this section of 

The ChurcJies. 359 

country was purcliased by this denomination in 1808. 
The pastors as they succeeded each other areas follows : 
Revs. George Adam Geting, Jonathan Rahauser, Lewis 
Mayer, from ISOS to 1820 ; Samuel Helfersty, 1820 to 1824; 
JacobBeecher, 1826 to 1831; RobertDouglas,lS34 to 1845 ; 
Daniel F. Bragunier, 1845 to 1860 ; William D. Lafever, 
186G to 1SG9 ; Stephen K. Kremer, 1870 to 1874, and 
John A. Hoffheins in 1875, who is now the present pastor. 
The elders are H. Seibert, John Fitz, Chas. Matthaei, 
James H. Myers. Deacons, Harry Cushwa, Lewis 
Bentz, D. M. Kilmer, G. R. Shoafstall and Wm. W. 
Cushwa. The present church membership now num- 
bers about 250, with D. J. S. Boak as Sunday School 
Superintendent, and a scholarship of about 100, average 


The first Methodist j)reaching in this State west of the 
Blue Ridge Mountain was commenced by Bishop Francis 
Asbury. On the 2nd of June, 1782, he stopped in Mar- 
tinsburg on his way westward over the mountains, and 
delivered the first sermon in the Market House. In 1789 
the first circuit west of the Blue Ridge was formed with 
Martinsburg as the centre, and which continued unbro- 
ken until the civil war opened in 1861. Shortly after a 
number of societies were organized in Martinsburg and 
throughout Berkeley and adjoining counties. The first 
building occupied by this congregation is still standing, 
located on John street, south of the jail. The congrega- 
tions of this society Vv'ere assembled by blowing a tin 
horn, as they were bitterly ox)posed to ringing church 
bells. The laws of the church were strongly anti-slavery, 
and on account of which fact they met with much oppo- 
sition, then universal in the South. A division in the 
church was caused by this subject, which occurred in 
1846, and the society known as the M. E. Church South 
was afterward organized. 

Many were the obstacles and oppositions that encoun- 

H60 ' The Churches. 

tered tliis society ; but, notwitLstancling, it grew and 
ilourislied. From the time it became thorouglily estab- 
lished until 1850 its membership numbered nearly a hun- 
dred. It became popular on account of making no dis- 
tinction in its admission and encouragement of members, 
and was at that time termed the common people. 

In 1850 the Martinsburg society became an independ- 
ent church, and being set olf from others in the county, 
it was known as Martinsburg Station. During this year 
the Baltimore Conference appointed Rev. Henry Furlong 
as j)astor of the church, who completed the reorganiza- 
tion. He remained with the church nearly eleven j'ears, 
during which time the membership increased to over tAvo 
hundred. In 18G1 the civil war broke out and the society 
was completely broken up, causing almost an entire sus- 
pension of religious services. In fact, such was the case 
generally throughout the State. From the Spring of 
1861 until 1863 the Methodists held no religious services 
in the county excepting at irregular intervals, by some 
itinerant Southern preacher at different places. 

The church was again reorganized throughout the 
county in the latter part of 1863 by Dr. John Lanahan, 
Presiding Elder for the Virginia portion of the Baltimore 
Conference. At this time Dr. John M. Green (since de- 
ceased) became j^astor in charge of Martinsburg, since 
■which time Methodism has ra^Didly increased throughout 
the county, and especially in Martinsburg. Since the 
ruins of the church building from the effects of the war, 
their pioperty has advanced upwards of 850,000. During 
1850 only two Methodist preachers were employed in the 
county, which so continued until 1801. 

The following is a list of the pastors as they succeeded 
each other : Revs. H. Furlong, 1850 ; David Thomas, 
1851-1852 ; G. W. Cooper, 1853-1854 ; J. H. Brown, 1855- 
1856 ; J. Landstreet, 1857-1858 ; S. McMullen, 1859-1860 ; 
C. A. Reid, 1861 ; J. M. Greene, 1862-1863 ; J. H. SAvope, 
1864-1865 ; H. C. McDaniel, 1866-1867 ; E. D. Owen, 

TheChurclies. 3G1 

i8CS-1869 ; S. V. Leecli, lS70-lS7i ; A. R. Reil}-, 1872 
J. F. Ockerman, 1S73-1874 ; J. W. Cornelius, 1875-1876 
J. E. Amos, 1877-1878-1879 ; M. F. B. Rice, 18S0-1881 
G. V. Leech, 1882-1883 ; A. S. Hank, 1884-1885-1886 
Jolin Edwards, present pastor, 1887-1888. The present 
trustees of the church are AVm. II. Mathews, Henry 
Crim, Luther Miller, Jacob Eversole, "Wm. Westrater, 
Wm. McElroy and I. L. Bender. The missionary h^ocie- 
ty is comi:)Osed oi; A. D. Darby, President ; F. A. Cham- 
bers, Vice-President ; C. David Darby, Secretary ; Miss 
Lilly Mathews, Treasurer. The present church member- 
ship numbers 401, with a Sunday school attendance of 
330. Sunday School Superintendent, Lee M. Bender ; 
Assistant Superintendent, Frank Weaning. 


This society was organized in December, 1866, by Revs. 
David Shoat and John A. Kearn, with a membership 
numbering fifteen. They worshipped in a small school 
building on King street for nearly a year, and in the fall 
of 1867 completed an edifice on German street, (now Ma- 
ple avenue,) at a cost of ^3,50(', where they worshipped 
until January, 1886. The demand for a better house of 
worship had long been felt by those of Southern Metho- 
dist persuasion, and the effort to procure one culminated 
in the " Centenary or thank offering," lifted December 
21st, 1884, for the purj^ose of improving or building a 
new church. The amount realized was §2,000, which 
gave such an impetus to the enterprise that those having 
the matter in charge determined to build a new church 
that would be an adornment to the town and a credit to 
the congregation. The ])resent site on West Martin 
street was purchased from Mr. Fred. Becker in April, 
1885, and the work of laj^ing the foundation was imme- 
diately commenced after the removal of several old build- 

The corner-stone v.-as laid with Masonic rites Sept. 
19th, 1885, and addresses were delivered in the Presby- 

362 The Churclies. 

terian Church by Grand-Master Shyrock, of Maryland, 
and others. The Mayor and City Council attended in a 
body, and the City Band furnished music suitable to the 
occasion. In the meantime the old church was sold by 
the trustees, after which the congregation worshipped 
in the Court House and Feller's Hall, until the opening 
of the lecture room in the new edifice, March 21st, 1S8G. 
This was dedicated by Rev. John L. Clark, of Virginia, 
the first station preacher this charge ever had, and who 
was largely instrumental in organizing the society here. 
On this occasion a collection amounting to si, 700 Avas 
taken \r^. 

The new edifice was completed and dedicated Sunday, 
October 2nd, 1SS7, and services conducted morning and 
night by Bishop Alpheus W. AVilson, of Baltimore. Col- 
lections were lifted on both occasions amounting to 
$2,100. The building committee was composed of Rev. 
J. R. Andrew, pastor, C. M. Shaffer, N. T. Fisher, G. 
W. Buxton, H. Wilen, G. S. Rousch and J. H. Shaffer. 

The first i^astor in charge was Rev, John L. Clark, who 
served from 1869 to 1871, and was succeeded as follows : 
Thomas B. Sargent, 1S71 ; John S. Maxwell, 1872 ; Wes- 
ley Hammond, 1873 ; Louis C. Miller, 1874 to 1877 ; John 
Poisal, D. D., 1877 ; Presley B. Smith, 1875 ; O. C. Beall, 
1879 ; J. H. Davidson, 1880 ; John Landstreet, 1881 to 
1884 ; J. R. Andrew, 1884 to 1888, with Rev. H. H. Ken- 
nedy as the present pastor. The church membershix) 
now numbers 211, with a Sabbath School attendance of 
200. The Sunday School Superintendent is Mr. R. F. 
Barr, and the Stewards are G. S. Rousch, N. T. Fisher, 
H. T. Hopper, John Young, Eugene Newton and Joseph 
H. Shaffer. 


The Church of the United Brethren in Christ was 
founded by William Otterbein and Martin Boehm about 
the middle of the eighteenth century. The former was 
a distin2:uished theologian and minister in ihe German Re- 

T?te Clmrchss. 363 

formed Cliurcli, and the latter a member of the Mennon- 
ite Church. They had grown tired of the cold formal- 
ism and inactivity of the churches to which they be- 
longed, and began the work of promoting revivals and 
insisting upon a spiritual membership. They were emi- 
nently successful in their labors. These two devoted 
christian men were for the first time brought together 
at a great union meeting which was being held in Isaac 
Long's barn, at Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. Mr. 
Boehm preached the first sermon, and one of great power. 
At the close of his speech Mr. Otterbein arose and, em- 
bracing the eloquent speaker, he exclaimed : "We are 
brethren." The multitude that witnessed it was deeply 
and favorably impressed at this exhibition of christian 
fellowship and good will. Here originated the name 
" United Brethren." The words " In Christ" were af- 
terward added, to distinguish the church from the Mo- 
ravian United Brethren. In 1774, with Mr. Otterbein as 
pastor, the first organization occurred in Baltimore, Md., 
about which time the first church was built, and is used 
to this day by a German United Brethren congregation. 
The first conference was held in 17S9, and since has made 
a steady and permanent growth. She has forty-eight 
annual conferences in the United States and territories, 
also one in Canada, one in Germany and one in West 
Africa. They have established at Dayton, Ohio, a print- 
ing oflace worth nearly §250,000, which is clear of debt 
and annually turns over to the church thousands of dol- 
lars. In 1858, with a few hundred members, the West 
Virginia Conference was organized, and at the close of 
the late war it was found the number had considerably 
decreased. The membership in this Srate now numbers 
over 7,500, with three presiding elder districts and thirty- 
six fields of labor. 

In 1856, the society in Martinsburg was formed, and 
in 1857, the present edifice was completed. It is located 
in "Strinesville," the Northern part of the city, and is 

364 The Churches. 

well furnished. During the war it was considerably 
damaged, but since has been put in complete repair. 
The present membership numbers nearly 150, with a 
Sabbath School attendance of about 100. Rev. J. R. 
Ridenour is the present pastor, with Mr. Philip Rimel 
as Sunday School Superintendent, and Messrs. Joseph 
Long and James Buchanan as Stewards, John Anderson 
General Steward. 


This church was organized shortly after the war by the 
Home Mission Society, and was built under the super- 
vision of Miss A. S. Dudley, of Maine, who was then 
engaged in school teaching and general missionary work 
among the colored people. With the assistance of Revs. 
IN". C. Brackett and A. H. Morril, considerable aid was 
given the church in its early struggle. The present 
church was built directly after its organization, at a cost 
of 82,500, and a j^arsonage connected at a cost of $800. 
Its location is on North Raleigh street, — an excellent 
brick building, vrith a seating capacity of 400. The 
present pastor, Rev. A. F. Adams, is a refined and schol- 
arly gentleman, and a graduate of Storer College, Har- 
l^er's Ferr}', W. Va. The membership of the church 
number 110, and has an average Sabbath School attend- 
ance of 97. I^fr. G. W. Green is the Sabbath School 
Superintendent. The church trustees are J. H. Yeney, 
Wm. Marshall, Minor Duval, Henry and J. F. Carter. 
Deacons, J. R. Yeney, Stephen Elam, Thomas Ellis and 
Brown Freeman. 


No records are to be found to show any exact date for 
the establishment of this denomination in our county, 
but like the other colored church, it was not founded 
until after the late war. The first building was erected 
on West Martin street, (the site of the present edifice,) 
in which public services were held. It has since been 
torn conipletel}^ down, and a large, commodious brick 

The Churches. 365 

building erected in its stead. The church is very ably 
supported, and with a present membership of about 125, 
is doing a grand work. The Sunday School, with Mr. J. 
W. Corsey, as Superintendent, has an average attendance 
of nearly 100 scholars. The j)resent pastor is Rev. F, F. 
Wheeler, who succeeded Rev. J. H. Smith in 1887. Rev. 
Mr. Wheeler is an earnest worker and jDossesses marked 
ability for his ministerial duties. The Stewards are 
Samuel Hopewell, James Willis, John Shaw, Wm. Ford, 
Chas. Brooks, Z. Silvers, Henry McGill and John Low- 
man. Trustees, Samuel Hopewell, James Clayton, Frank 
Corsey, James Willis and John Shaw. 



iHROUGH the courtesies of Mrs. M. W. Faulkner, 
the author has been enabled to secure from the 
memoranda of her husband, the late Hon. C J. Faulk- 
ner, a large amount of historical facts. The following 
sketch of Berkeley County in 1810, was taken from an 
old printed pamphlet, now in the possession of Mrs. 
Faulkner. This chapter, when compared with the fol- 
lowing one, will give the reader a general idea of our 
county 78 years ago, and also of the manner in which it 
has improved. 


Lies between the 39th degree and 18 minutes North lati- 
tude, and extends 20 miles in length and about 18i 
in breadth, and is bound to the North, inclining to the 
East, by the river Potomac, which divides the States of 
Virginia and Maryland ; to the East, iaclining to the 
South by said river, and Jefferson County ; to the South, 
inclining to the West, by Frederick County ; to the 
West, inclining to North, by the county of Hampshire, 
and the river Potomac. Martinsburg is the capital and 
the seat of justice of this county. 


It contains 484 square miles, or 319,760 acres. 


The same as in Frederick County. 

Inliahitants, Towns, &g. B67 


When the hist census was taken in 1800, this county 
and Jefferson were but one ; it then contained 15,000 
white inhabitants and 3,600 slaves; suppose that I of 
the white population has been taken to form the county 
of Jefferson, 10,000 would still remain to Berkeley. It 
is supposed that half the above number of blacks fell to 
Jefferson County, although the division of the whites 
was not so equal. There is now in this county 2,100 
tithables, or males above 10 years of age, paying the 
poor tax. 


First — The North Mountain ; it is remarkable on ac- 
count of its raising immediately like a wall. It has a 
summit beautifully undulated in all its length. It might 
be computed to be about 500 feet perpendicular at its 
greatest height. It is not cultivated. The East side 
could be planted with vines. Mr. Edward Tabb, living 
immediately under that side of the mountain, exhibited 
an European vine which resisted the coldest win- 
ters, and without either pruning or cultivation, afforded 
large quantities of lucious grapes every year. 

Second — The third Hill and Sleepy Creek mountains 
are nearly joining, and both run parallel to the North 
Mountain ; they are not cultivated, except in the mid- 
dle of the two, where issues a stream of water, called 
Meadow Branch, and where the plantation of a hunts- 
man is seen. The heighth of both mountains is about 
700 feet from their base. 

Third — The Warm Spring ridge, is broken in several 
places ; it is about 300 feet high ; it divides Berkeley 
County from Hampshire. These ridges succeed each 
other in the above order, running Westerly from the 
North Mountain. 


The Potomac is the only river in this county : it divides 
this State from Maryland. 

36S Iiihahlianis^ Toicns, &c. 


The creeks are, Opequoii, Mill, Middle, Tuscarora, 
Back, Sleepy, and the Warm Springs. The three first, 
as well as part of the Warm Spring Creek, are never- 
failing streams, owing to the springs that feed them 
being in limestone land, which is deep and spongy, and 
suffers the rain water to penetrate it. The water is there- 
fore kept there, as it were, for the supply of the springs, 
while those creeks, which have the head springs, on slate 
or rocky bottoms that do not i)ermit the water to pen- 
etrate their substance become dry in the hot seasons of 
the year. This circumstance does not, I think, corrobo- 
rate that system already spoken of respecting the springs 
receiving their supply from the sea by subterraneous 


I have thought that in order to give an accurate idea of 
the qualities of the soil of this county, I ought to divide 
it into three parcels or valleys. 

First — The first parcel is nearly all limestone, of an 
excellent quality ; excex)t on the ridge, where, I think 
that a mountain existed, and where the Sulphur Springs 
are to be found. This ridge continues its course through 
this county, but it has been washed by the rains more 
than in Frederick County and lies lower. The quality 
of the soil is good, and by means of clover and plaster of 
Paris, I think, will grow more valuable yet. 

Second — This parcel contains the valley of Back Creek, 
and is watered by it. I will observe that there is a tract 
of land marked on the map with the sign of a hill, on ac- 
count of being higher than the other part of the valley, 
and extends froni Mr. Gaunt' s to Mr. Robertson's mill, 
on the Warm S^Dring road, and on a breadth of about two 
miles, which is of a good limestone land. The remain- 
der of it is slate and Mountain land, except the bottom 
on the creek, which is a loam. The whole is susceptible 

Inhabitants, Towns , &c. 369 

of great improvement, and will become very valuable by 
attention to agriculture. 

Third— Is the valley of Sleepy Creek watered by the 
said creek. Some part along the Warm Spring is lime- 
stone ; some bottoms on the creek are loam ; the rest is 
slate and mountain land, which, however, imx3roved by 
the plaster of Paris and clover, would afford, in my opin- 
ion, good crops of small grain. 


As part of this county is limestone, marble will conse- 
quently be found in it, sooner or later. ' ' I have seen spars 
of different kinds in the limestone land, near Martins- 
burg ; there are some in the form of a column, with sides, 
and truncated, white and transparent. On Ai3ple-pie 
Ridge, there are masses under ground of these spars, of 
different forms. The people on whose lands these stone 
are seen, believing them to be gypsum, (plaster of Paris), 
had them ground and spread on their lands ; indeed, 
many bushels, they said, had been sold as such. I went 
to those places and obtained specimens of those stones, 
and made a trial on them, which is commonly used for 
detecting the true gy^DSum from the common stone : I 
XDut them in contact with lire, and I found, after several 
experiments, that the most intense heat had not the least 
immediate effect on them, in causing them either to lose 
their transparency or hardness, and consequently, I took 
them to be rather a carbonate of lime (of the nature of 
limestone) instead of being the sulphate of it, (of the 
nature of pilaster,) and in order to make the people on 
whose land these stones are found better acquainted with 
the nature of the true plaster of Paris, I shall extract 
I)art of a chapter of ChaiDtal's on chemistry. He ex- 
presses himself thus : The plaster loses its transparency 
by calcination, at the same time that it becomes pulver- 
ulent, and acquires the property of again seizing the 
water of which it had been dejprived, and resuming its 
hardness ; it does not give fire with the steel, nor effer- 

370 InJiab Hants, Toions, &c. . 

vesce with acids. He says farther, 100 parts of gypsam 
contains 30 jDarts of sulphuric acid, 32 calcarins earth, 
and 38 water ; it loses nearly 27 per cent, by calcination. 
It is soluble in 600 times its weight of water, at the tem- 
perature of 60 degrees of Fahrenheit. When it is ex- 
posed to heat, its water of crystalization is dissij^ated ; it 
becomes opaque, loses its consistence, and falls into pow- 
der. If it be moistened, it becomes hard again, but does 
not resume its transparency ; a circumstance which ap- 
pears to prove that its firm state is a state of crystaliza- 
tion ; if it be kept in fire of considerable intensity, in 
contact with powder of charcoal, the acid is decomposed, 
and the residue is lime, &c." 

Upon the principle above stated we learn that plaster 
and lime are both calcareous earth, and we might draw 
a conclusion from them, that if any virtue is attributed 
to the former in promoting the growth of clover and 
other plants, it is owing to the sulphuric acid that the 
plaster contains, and that both a pyretous and limestone 
ground is required for the formation of it. 

I will add for information, also, that as the plaster, 
when calcinated, looks nearly as white as any other cal- 
careous matter, and in order that one might be known 
from the other, pour some drops of water on both. It 
will cause an immediate efferverscence on the lime, while 
the plaster will receive no effect from it. Besides, when 
the plaster, after calcination, is pounded, j)ulverized and 
sifted, it can be formed, with the addition of water, into 
a paste which will grow solid by drying, while it will not 
be so with any other calcareous substance. 

"Near the mill of Mr. Stephens, on Tullis branch, I 
found a kind of soft lime-stone, that the people also took 
for plaster of Paris, which being easily reduced into 
powder, either by pounding or grinding, or made into 
lime by fire, may probably answer to improve lands. 

"Another kind of lime-stone I found also, atMr. Samuel 

Inhabitants, Towns, &c. 371 

Hedges', in Sleepy Creek Valley, wliicli would perhaps 
answer tlie same jmrpose as the above described." 

" I have seen at Mr. Sheerer' s mill, on the Potomac, flag 
stones, that he raised from the bottom of that river, near 
his house, which surpass in color, beauty and size, any 
shistus (slate stone) I have ever seen. Those slabs can 
be polished and sawed easier than marble, and Mr. 
Sheerer has used them in its stead to embelish his new 
house. AVhen the navigation of this river shall be im- 
proved, no doubt that they will be boated down to the. 
cities beloAV, and will constitute a- branch of commerce. 
Those stones would be of great service in the raising of 
dams and locks on this river, for the improvement of 
navigation, in the same manner as spoken of in the 
article of, Rivers in Frederick County." 


On the banks of Opequon, near the house of Mr. John 
Yanmetre, two or three miles from Martinsburg, is found 
a kind of sulphate of iron, (copperas,) which immediately 
turns leather black. It is found between the slates, but 
not in abundance ; however, when a diligent search is 
made much may be found. 

Iron, copper, as well as silver ores, are found on Sleepy 
Creek Mountain, but the last ore is not found in quanti- 
ties sufficient to be worthy of exploring. No search yet, 
with a x)articular view to obtain these ores, has been 
made by any chemist on those mountains. The waters 
of Sleepy Creek contain the iron in solution to such a 
degree that the stones on its bed are covered with the 
oxide of it. 


There is a natural reservoir bearing the name of Swan 
Pond, in this county, the waters of which run off in a 
stream for some distance and then sink all at once, and 
no more is seen of them until near the mouth of Opequon 
Creek, where, in a hollow or jiit of about 100 feet deep 
and 300 feet in circumference, you hear theai pass under 

372 Inlidb Hants ^ Toidiu, &c. 

tlie rocks of the bottom of that pit, and going undoubt- 
edly to Join Opeqnon Creek. 


There are in this county upwards of 50 grist or mer- 
chant mills, as many saw mills, several fulling mills, an 
oil mill and one paper mill. 


A large and convenient stone-built merchant mill on 
Tuscarora and joining Martinsburg has been bought lately 
from Mrs. Hunter by Messrs. Hibbert and Gibbs for the 
purpose of establishing a wool and cotton manufactory. 
Mr. Hibbert is a fuller by trade ; he has already erected 
all the apj)aratus for fulling, dressing and dying all sorts 
of cloths on a pretty large scale. Mr. Gibbs is an ingen- 
ious mechanic ; he has moved from his cotton manufac- 
tory at Hagerstown all his^ machinery for carding and 
spinning both wool and cotton, to place them in this 

Mr Jonathan Wickersham, a fuller, the proprietor of 
a fulling mill and carding machine established on Mid- 
dle Creek, near the precincts of Bucklestown, has added 
lately to his factory a jenny of fifty spindles to spin 
wool, and having at hand a number of capable weavers, 
he intends to carry on a complete factory of cloth. I 
hope these two infant manufactories may be encouraged 
so as to become permanent establishments and add to 
the stock of wealth of the country. 


There are several of the sulx)hur kind on Opequon, in 
this county, but the most remarkable is the one occupied 
by Mr. Minghini, about 8 miles from Martinsburg, this 
house is well fitted for accommodation, and several 
hundred i^ersons resort there every season. 

There is another, also, at two miles distance from Mar- 
tinsburg, on which the citizens of Martinsburg have be- 
stowed some trouble and expense to render it convenient 

Inliahitanis, Toicns^ &c. 373 

and useful to visitors. They liave put up a shower bath, 
which is used by the neighbors and townsmen. 

The most conspicuous one is at Bath Town, under the 
Warm Spring Ridge, from the foot of which and by dif- 
ereut channels issues a torrent of water capable to 
turn a mill. Water cannot be more limj)id and beauti- 
ful than this is. This place, though agreeably orna- 
mented and cai)able of contributing to the pleasures of 
the gay and healthy, as well as convenient and salutary 
to the sick and invalid, might be greatly improved and 
embellished by taste and liberality if the Legislature of 
Virginia was disposed to encourage any practicable 
scheme to raise money for that purpose. Nature has 
been lavish of her favors to this spot of country, for in 
addition to those medicinal springs, she has showered 
her bounties upon the whole neighborhood by spreading 
over it a magnificent variety of the most finished and 
grand scenery. 

The soil around this place, as a mountainous country, 
has the appearance of sterility, but by proper attention 
to culture might be made productive and rich. 

I will not attempt to elucidate the properties of these 
waters ; I will only say that the country in this valley 
looks barren and is uncommonly dry, and as under the 
surface of the earth there generally exists a hard rock, 
which prevents the rain water from penetrating so as to 
produce permanent springs, my curiosity was so much 
awakened as to induce me to look for the source of this 
spring, and after much pains, I was informed by the 
neighbors and hunters living on the Ca- Capon Creek, 
that the waters of that creek were sinking at about 10 
miles from its mouth, and formed a vortex. This spot 
lies to the South-west of the Warm Springs ridge, and 
of the Ca-Capon mountain, and at the distance of about 
9 miles in a straight line from Bath Town. This seemed 
to me the more probable, as these springs are never in- 
fluenced either in their temperature, or quantity, by the 

374 Inliab Hants ^ Toicns, &c. 

warm, or cold, or wet, or dry weather, and probably after 
having sojourned and passed throngh the mazes of the 
subterranean cavities under the Ca-Capon mountain, as 
well as under the valley which lies between the Ca Capon 
mountain and the "Warm Springs ridge, the soil of which 
is calcareous and having been in contact with the differ- 
ent pyrites composing their bed, receives by their decom- 
position, the degree of heat, that those waters contain, 
as well as the gases with which they are impregnated, 
and after a due liltration through the sandy rocks, of 
which the basis of that Warm Spring ridge is composed, 
they arrive at this spot. 

These waters, when boiled, have strong incrustations 
on the sides of the vessel, which plainly evince that they 
are highly mineralized, and consequently possessed of 
the virtues for which they have been so much extolled, 
in relieving or removing complaints. I took with me, 
last fall, some of those sediments to Philadelphia, and 
•gave them to Dr. Barton, who, an eminent chemist, will 
give a fall analysis of their contents. 

I have inserted this in order to counteract the opinion 
of those, who, without taking any pains in the investiga- 
tion or analysis of these waters, have advanced, that they 
contain no minerals in solution, neither in a state of oxide 
nor gas, and consequently, are totally destitute of any 
X)roperties whatever, more than common water. 


Is the cai^ital of the County of Berkeley ; it contains 
about 200 houses, and nearly 1,200 inhabitants ; it is the 
seat of justice, and has for that purpose a handsome 
Court House and Jail of stone, and a Market House, well 
supplied with the necessaries of life. The situation of 
this town is remarkably pleasant and healthy, on account 
of its standing on an elevated spot, and for having the 
Creek of Tuscarora watering its precincts, which could 
be carried in pipes throngh the town for the convenience 
and comfort of the inhabitants, if desired. The streets 

Inlidbitants^ Towns, &c. . 375 

are wide, and partly planted witli Lombardy poplars, and 
have a very fine apj)earance. Eiglit taverns are kept in 
tliis place ; one of them has the reputation of being one 
of the best in the United States, and is well known by 
those who resort to the Warm Springs. Here is kept a 
coffee house, where, almost all the papers in the United 
States are read ; 8 large stores, one printing office ; there 
are also five X3nblic meeting houses for worship, one Eng- 
lish Episcopalian, a Catholic, a German Lutheran, a 
Presbyterian, a Methodist and a Bai)tist ; three English 
schools, several manufactories, and every description of 
artificers and mechanics. 

Latitude, North 39 degrees, 32 minutes. It is 22 miles 
from Winchester, 20 from Hagerstown, 100 from Balti- 
more, 81 from the Federal City, 117 from Staunton, 171 
from Philadelphia, 172 from Richmond, and IG from 


Situated on a level soil, partly limestone, one mile and 
a-half from Mill's Gap, under the North Mountain, to 
the East side of it, and nearly at the head of Mill Creek. 
It contains about 40 families; a physician and a Presby- 
terian clergyman reside here ; several large stores are 
kept in this town, for the supply of the farmers around 
it ; here are also a number of mechanics. There is in 
this x)lace a handsome brick church, built by the Presby- 
terians, This town is 10 miles from Martinsburg, and 15 
and a-half from Winchester. 


Lies 7i miles from Martinsburg, on the road to Win- 
chester ; 15 miles from that place, and on Middle Creek, 
a never-failing stream, w^hicli crosses this place. There 
are 30 dwelling houses, 4 taverns, 3 stores, 2 blacksmiths, 
2 weavers, one tailor, one cabinet maker, one wagon 
maker, one distillery of whiskey ; a Methodist meeting 
house stands at the North end of this town. 

376 InJiabitants, Toions, &c. 


Situated immediately under the East side of tlie Warm 
Spring ridge, 6 miles from the Potomac, in a narrow val- 
ley, watered by the stream which runs from the "Warm 
Springs. Several years ago this town was handsome, 
but the houses, as being built with wood, have decayed, 
and on account of the celebrity of its waters, was yearly 
visited by above 1,000 of the hecm monde. It had lost 
its reputation on account of some diseases which raged 
during one season, occasioned by a pond where the waters 
were stagnating ; but, since the cause was removed, it 
has regained Its character. Last year, 1779, it was vis- 
ited by above 500 people, and no doubt will increase each 
year. Here are live large, convenient and handsome 
taverns, or boarding houses, kept for the accommodation 
of visitors and invalids ; 26 families are living in this 
place ; among the number various branches of mechanics. 
Here are several stores and a manufactory of leather. 

I must not omit to mention, for the information of the 
people, who are to visit this watering place, that besides 
the above springs, there is a sulphur sx)ring, 4 miles dis- 
tant from this place, near Sleepy Creek. It is but 
slightly impregnated with sulphur, and no accommoda- 
tion near it, and a chalibiate spring ,on this ridge, about 
half a mile from this town. It is 25 miles from Martins- 
burg, 35 from AYinchester, 34 from Hagerstown, 106 from 
the Federal City, 108 from Baltimore, 185 from Rich- 
mond, and 196 from Philadelphia. 


Is situated in Back Creek Valley, and has only the 
name of a town ; for it contains only a few scattering 
houses, without regularity. It is about 13 miles from 

The larger portion of this chapter was taken from old 
pamphlets, from which no evidence can be found as to 
the writer. 


^IpARTINSBURG is, geograpliically, admirably sit- 
^^Ss uated as the countv seat of Berkeley County, which 
ranks third in size and amongst the first in number of 
acres of improved land and value of farm products in the 
State. Topographically the city lies nestled near the 
foot of the Little North Mountain, which ever sends 
fresh, sweet air and clear, pure wat^r to invigorate and 
strengthen our people. This same mountain stands as a 
bulwark to the west and north against the rough blasts 
of winter, and protects the valley from the f ary of de- 
structive storms. 

The town of Martinsburg is contained within the fol- 
lowing boundaries, to wit : Beginning on the middle of 
the county bridge crossing the Baltimore and Ohio Rail- 
road, south of Green Hill Cemetery and corner to Mar- 
tinsburg, Arden and Opequou districts ; thence with the 
line of Opequon north 11^ degrees east, 66 poles to a 
stake at the angle of the fence and in an original line 
between the land of Ezra Herring and the lot of C. Henry; 
thence north 5h degrees east, passing through the lands 
of E. Herring, A. Quinzel, P. Strine's second addition, 
and the south east corner of A. Roth's lot, 253 poles to a 
stake in the field ; thence north 60 degrees west, passing 

378 Siiuation of Town and County. 

along the line between the additions of James A. Boyd, 
John Strine and Hockinberry 62 poles to a stake in a 
stone fence on the west side of the M. & P. turnpike ; 
thence passing through the lands of David Hess, H. S. 
Hannis & Co., south 88 J degrees west, 162 i)oles to a stake 
in the low grounds, on the east side, and about 3 poles 
from the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, and on the land 
of John W. Stewart, and corner of Opequon, Hedgesville 
and Martinsburg districts ; thence with the line of 
Hedgesville in part, and finally with Arden district, 
south 361 degrees west, 245 three tenths poles to a stake 
in the grade at the west end of King street ; thence south 
90 degrees east, 176 poles to a stake about two rods south- 
west of a stone house on the lands of Hon. C. J. Faulk- 
ner ; thence south 71i degrees east, 84 poles to a stake at 
the south end of Queen street ; thence north 92 degrees 
east, 224 poles to the beginning, it being the present lim- 
its of the town. 

The place is just 100 miles from Baltimore, 80 miles 
from Washington, 22 Winchester, 19 from Harper's 
Ferry, 70 from Cumberland, on the 1st division of the 
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, and is the southern termi- 
nus of the Cumberland Valley Railroad. For business 
and trade it is the centre of a large territory of country. 
The machine shops of the B. & O. are located in the city, 
and give employment to several hundred hands. The 
Tuscarora Creek passes directly through, which fur- 
nishes considerable jjower for manufacturing x^urposes. 
The Hannis distillery, one of the largest branches in the 
country, and the Tuscarora x\gricultural Works, owned 
by John Fitz, are located on this stream, and also em- 
X)loys a large number of hands. Pay is good, and 
monthly thousands of dollars are expended for labor. 

The surface of the western part of the county is moun- 
tainous, but is being well cleared and cultivated. The 
most valuable forests abound, and excellent qualities of 
coal, iron ore, limestone, etc., are to be found. 

Situation of Town and County. 


Tlie county is divided into seven districts or townships, 
witli assessable buildings and real estate as follows : 


Value of 

Value of 
Land and 




Falling Waters . 



S 871,142.00 


s 5,277.34 

Mill Creek 






The loresent population of the entire county, as near as 
can be estimated from the last two censuses, is 19,860. The 
city district will number nearly 8,000. 

There are a number of towns and villages within the 
districts supi^lied with well regulated schools, churches. 
Post Offices, etc., and which contain a number of the 
usual business places, thereby making a direct communi- 
cation and the mail facilities very convenient. The places 
in direct communication with Martinsburg, the county 
seat, are as follows : Bedington, Hedgesville, Falling 
Waters, Vanclevesville, Glengary, Darkesville, Bunker 
Hill, Gerardstown, Shanghai, Jones' Spring, Little George- 
town, Soho, Tomahawk, Ganotown and North Mountain. 
The roads are in a fine condition and well kept up. 

The soils throughout the county are loams and clay, 
and in the west are thinner and less productive ; but in 
the east there is a large amount of highly productive and 
improved calcareous lands. The depth of the soil varies 
from two to four inches on the hills and 12 inches or more 
on the levels. The grains specially adapted to the lands 
are wheat, corn, oats and barley. The principal indus- 
tries are stock farming and grain raising. Principal ex- 
ports are wheat, corn and stock. 

The public buildings and private residences will stand 

380 Situation of Toion and County. 

a favorable comparison with any town of proportionate 
size, and will far surpass many of the larger cities. The 
older buildings are fast disappearing, and in a few years 
our town will be composed entirely of the latest modern 

It may be of interest to mention here some of the late 
improvements to our city. The old Carpenter lot and 
building on West King street, which had probably stood 
for centuries, was purchased by Messrs. Dr. J. B. Snod- 
grass and B. F. Fiery, and two fine large and commodi- 
ous dwellings erected in its stead. Messrs. Dr. J. W. 
McSherry, John Fitz, E. Boyd Faulkner, C. W. Doll, 
Senator C. J. Faulkner, Emmert & Fiery, John Dunn, 
James H. Walker, E. E. Herring, C. P. Herring, D. W. 
Shaffer, E. C. Williams, Jr., J. W. Bishop and a num- 
ber of others have made big improvements. Two large 
and handsome hotels are well supported in the town ; 
the St. Clair, under the management of Geo. W. Ramer, 
and the Continental, under the management of Wm. Rut- 
ledge. Both are run and furnished in the best of style, 
with rates from §2.00 per day upwards. 

Mr. John Fellers has latel}^ built a large town hall 
called the ''Academy of Music," which is generally well 
patronized. There is also a City Hall, erected by the 
corporation for its own use. The town is well graded 
and the streets kept in an excellent condition. 

Two of the largest and finest banks in the State are 
supported in this city, viz.: The People's National Bank 
and the IS'ational Bank. Both are well managed, and 
for promptness and dispatch of business cannot be sur- 

The corporation officers are C. O. Lambert, Mayor ; 
Councilmen, First Ward, Dr. J. W. McSherry and M. 
W. Martin ; Second Ward, A. Staubley and F. C. Wil- 
liams ; Third Ward, AV. H. Kaufman and Geo. W. De- 
Grange ; Fourth Ward, G. Wellinger and M. Y. Green ; 
Fifth Ward, Arthur Stephens and J. A. Bowers ; Clerk, 

Situation of Town and Comity. 381 

C. A. Young ; Sergeant, Henry Wilen ; Policemen, C. 
R. O'Neal, Thos. F. Ahern and John AV. Poisal ; Attor- 
ney, J. Nelson Wisner ; Engineer AVater Works, Jacob 
M. Shaffer. 


Gerardstown. — The town of Middletown was estab- 
lished about the year 1787, and soon afterward its name 
was changed to Gerardstown in honor of its founder. Rev. 
David Gerard, who laid it off into one hundred town lots. 
William Henshaw, James Haw, John Gray, Gilbert Mc- 
Kow^n and Robert Allen were appointed trustees. The 
towm is located eleven miles southwest of Martinsburg, 
and one mile east of North Mountain, on Mill Creek. 
The present population numbers nearly 300, with one 
free and one high school. There are four churches in the 
town, owned acd occupied by the Presbyterians, Luther- 
ans, Methodist Episcopal and the Methodist Episcopal, 
South. The town contains a number of stores, a large 
tannery and other important industries. Two new^spa- 
pers are published here — the Times and the West Vir- 
ginia Good Templar^ by J. B. Morgan. 

Shanghai. — This village is located one mile w^est of 
Back Creek, and contains several stores, blacksmith shops, 
etc. A large factory is owned and run here by a joint 
stock company called the Shanghai Manufacturing Asso- 
ciation, for the purpose of manufacturing lumber and 
grinding sumac, tan bark, etc. The Presbyterian Church 
and one free school are also located in the town. 

Ganotown. — This place is situated on Back Creek, three 
miles south of Shanghai. The Methodist Episcopal 
Church was built here in 1871, and has a large congrega- 
tion. This place was originally called Jamestown, the 
first settlement in the district being made on the site of 
the present village. Several stores and various other in- 
dustries are supported. 

Jones'' Spring. — Located near the north line of the 
district, at the foot of the ridge, about one mile west of 

382 Situation of Town and County. 

Back Creek. It contains several blacksmith shops, stores, 
etc. In 1872 the church edifice of the Episcopal society 
was purchased by the Calvary Church, United Brethren, 
and is used by this denomination at the present day. 

DarJiesville.—Thls village was laid out in October, 
1791, and is situated at the junction of Middle Creek, on 
the Martinsburg and Winchester turnpike. It was 
named in honor of Genernl Darke, who was then a resi- 
dent. The place was formerly knotvn as Bucklestown, 
named after General Buckles, who resided there. It con- 
tains a number of stores, blacksmith shops, etc. 

BimJcer ITiJl. — Situated at the junction of Mill Creek 
and on the Martinsburg and Winchester turnpike. It 
contains two churches, occupied by the Methodist and 
Ej^iscopal denominations. During the late war between 
the States, this locality became a historic spot on account 
of the many important events that occurred. 

Hedgesville. — This town is located seven miles North 
of Martinsburg, one mile West of the B. &. O. R. E.., 
and is situated in what is now known as Skinner's Gap, 
in North Mountain. It was laid out in 1830 by Hezekiah 
Hedges, and named after his family who long resided 
there. One of the first Episcopal Churches erected in 
the valley, known as "Hedges' Chapel," was located 
here. It has been authentically stated, that while on 
his surveying expeditions in this locality, several years 
prior to the opening of the Revolutionary War, the illus- 
trious George Washington worshipped here. The town 
is w^ell laid off and consists of fine dwellings, churches, 
schools, stores, etc. 

Bedington. — This village is located on the C. V. R. R., 
about four miles North of Martinsburg, and is noted as 
a resort during the summer months. Near by is a large 
grove, containing the most valuable mineral waters, 
among which are the noted Sulphur Springs. The town 
is composed of several stores, schools, churches, etc. 

Falling Waters. — Located about seven miles North of 

Situation of Town and County. 8S3 

Martinsburg, on the C. Y. R. H., and near tlie Potomac 
River. This place was the scene of many important in- 
cidents during the late war. One of the oldest churches 
in the county was erected here by the Presbyterian de- 
nomination, which is standing and occupied at the pres- 
ent day. Within its limits are to be found several large 
flouring mills, stores, churches, schools, etc. 

Gle7igary . — '&\i\\?itQdi between the North Mountain and 
dividing line, about sixteen miles Southwest of Martins- 
burg. It is composed of schools, churches, stores, etc. 

Little Georgetoion. — This place is noted as a great fish- 
ing resort, and is located on the Potomac River, above 
Dam No. 5, and about nine miles North of Martinsburg. 
Schools, churches, stores, etc., are to be found Avithin its 

SoTio. — Situated in the extreme North-west end of the 
county, about sixteen miles from Martinsburg. It is 
composed of well-regulated churches and schools, and 
contains stores,- etc. 

Toviahaiolt. — Situated six miles South of Hedgesville, 
and contains stores, churches, schools, etc. 

North Mountain. — Located on the B. & O. R. R., 
about six miles North-west of Martinsburg, and contains 
store, churches, schools, etc. This place is also a ship- 
ping point for Tomahawk and Hedgesville. 

There are anumber of smaller villages scattered through- 
out the districts ; but my object has been to locate those 
in direct communication with Martinsburg, the county 
seat, and of greater importance. All are rapidly in- 
creasing in size and population, and are inhabited by an 
industrious and energetic people. 


Martinsburg Gazette. 

The first newspaper jmblished in Berkeley County was 

the Martinsburg Gazette., which was established in May, 

1799, by Nathaniel Willis, father of the renowned poet, 

Nathaniel Parker Willis. Long before the advent of 

384 Sihiaiioii of Town and County. 

the telegraph, telephone, railroad and steamship, this 
imper commenced its publication, and considering this 
fact, it is astonishing to observe how the columns of the 
early files are crowded with interesting news. As an 
evidence of enterprise on the part of the prox)rietors, it 
contains the details of many important events that oc- 
curred throughout the country but a short time previ- 
ously. One feature of special importance is the war of 
1812, and the stirring events happening on the western 
border, — the historic achievements on the banks of the 
historic Maumee, in North-western Ohio, by General 
Harrison and Anthony Wayne. The publication of these 
articles were made within twenty days after their occur- 
rence. In January, 1811, John Alburtis became editor 
and proprietor, and continued its publication until Octo- 
ber 25, 1822, when he was succeeded by Washington 
Evans. In December, 1833, Mr. Alburtis commenced 
the publication of the Journal^ at Shepherdstown. 
Martinshurg Independent. 

At the close of the war of 1861, the lirst paper pub- 
lished in Martinsburg, was the Berkeley Union., an ad- 
vocate of Republicanism, with Mr. J. Nelson Wisner as 
its editor until April, 1873. In 1866, the Neio Era, a 
Democratic paper was started, and closed its career with 
Messrs. Shaffer & Logan as editors, in xVpril, 1873. From 
the consolidation of these two papers grew the Mar tins- 
hurg Independent, April 1st, 1873. Until April, 1876, it 
was published daily and weekly, and since that date it 
has been published weekly. From the time of its estab- 
lishment until April, 1876, it was controlled by the In- 
dej)endent Printing Company, when it iDassed into the 
hands of Wisner & Logan. This firm continued the 
publication until March, 1885, when Mr. Logan, on ac- 
count of illness, was compelled to withdraw from the 
business, and his entire interest was purchased by Mr. 

Its name and motto indicates its independence on all 

Situation of Town and County. 385 

subjects, and its aim to benefit the public welfare. It is 
useless to comment on its past record, as tlie fact of its 
being the oldest established paper in the county and of 
nearly twenty-five years duration, will speak for itself. 
Its forty- eight columns are always full to the brim with 
interesting and important news, live editorials, and wide- 
awake advertisers. The office and various departments 
are complete in every detail, and skilled workmen exe- 
cute every branch of the business. The Independent 
has a very large circulation and controls a vast influence. 
It is of good clear print, and shows every evidence of 
marked ability on the part of its present editor and pro- 
prietor, Mr. J. Nelson Wisner. Mr. U. S. Grant Pitzer is 
at present acting in the capacity of assistant editor, and 
Mr. H. C. Mathews, as foreman, with Edward Wild, C. 
C. Pitzer and Walter M. Aler as comx)ositors. 

As an act of appreciation on the part of the author of 
this work, he takes this ojjportunity and pleasure in 
stating that on this paper he acquired the greater portion 
of his learning, and served his apprenticeship under the 
instructions of Mr. H. C. Mathews, a veteran typo of 
some forty years experience. He was taken from the 
associations of the average wild boy at an early age, and 
under Mr. Wisner' s training was given every advantage 
of the art of printing and journalism in general, besides 
access to libraries of books. Through the care and in- 
terest manifested on the part of this gentleman, a deep 
and lasting impression has been made, which shall ever 
retain a sacred place to his memory. 

Martinshurg Statesman. 

This paj)er is amongst the oldest established in the 
county, and has been from its infancy a staunch advocate 
of Democratic principles — in fact the only Democratic 
paper in the county. It has always been conducted under 
strict management and party princii^les, and has been a 
pai^er used to the interest of the public of both town and 

386 Sittiation of Town omd County. 

Ill public affairs it is always ready to take a stand, and 
has been the means of accomx^lishing considerable enter- 
prise on the part of the citizens. 

This paper originated from the Valley Star, which was 

established by James W. Robinson, in the year , 

It was x^urchased in 1869 by D. S. Eichelberger, and the 
name changed to the Martinsburg Statesman, under 
which name it has continued to the present day. 

During Mr. Eichelberger s control, the paper was well 
published, and contained an excellent and large run of 
advertisements, which it still holds at the present day. 
Through its columns can be found numerous items, arous- 
ing the citizens of the county to a state of enterprise, 
and industry. The heading of the i)aper contained a 
cut of the present Court House, before the late improve- 
ments were made. 

In 1883, the plant was purchased by Capt. W. B. 
Colston, who is the present editor and i^ublisher. Since 
taking charge of the pajoer, Capt. Colston has improved it 
considerably, both in print, size and make-up. He has 
equipped the office with new material, and allowed the 
cylinder press to take the place of the hand press. The 
Statesman is ably edited, and deserves joatronage of 
the public in general. Job printing of every description 
is also executed in the most workmanlike manner. 

The Statesman has the proud distinction of having 
been the first newspaper, as far as the writer knows, to 
suggest the name of Grover Cleveland for the Presiden- 
cy, after his phenominal run for Governor of New York 
in 1882. To form an idea of the Statesman) s worth and 
value to the community, it is only necessary to glance 
over the file papers of the past, and then comx^are the 
improvement of both town and county of the x;)resent day. 
Mr. John S. Robinson, is at present acting in the cax^a 
city of local editor and foreman, with Thos. W. Leigh, 
John Y. Sloan and Harry H. Sharffs as compositors. 

Situation of Toion and County. 387 

Martinshurg Herald. 

In the year ISSl, this valuable paper, commenced 
publication under the control of Messrs. A. S. Goulden 
and John T. Riley. This end of the state was for a long 
time without a Republican i^aper, and the party was 
more or less dependent in xDolitics. The Herald was 
continued as a conservative Republican paper, under the 
above management, until 1885. During this year Mr. 
Riley purchased the entire interest of Mr. Goulden, and 
associated with himself Mr. Geo. F. Evans, one the lead- 
ing Republicans in this end of the State. From that 
time the Herald has gained ground, irrespective of poli- 
tics, and by prudent, conservative management, has re- 
ceived the supiDort of the best people of the county and 
State. It has several times been enlarged in size, during 
its publication, and is a neat and clear print. The pres- 
ent proprietors, Messrs. Riley &, Evans, have speared 
neither pains nor money, to make the Herald a newsy 
and interesting sheet, and under the editorial control of 
Mr. Riley, it commands considerable influence. Their 
office, in all its branches, is complete in every detail with 
material, and they execute job printing in the most 
artistic manner. 

These gentlemen deserve much credit, and the patron- 
age of every Berkeley citizen, for the manner in which 
they have labored for the interest of both town and 
county. The paper contains reliable advertisers, and 
news of interest to all. Like all the county papers, its 
worth and value can be obtained by judging from its 
files of the j)ast, the manner in which it has aroused the 
public industry. The compositors engaged on this paper 
are George W. Ryneal, W. C. Riddleberger, C. K. Cham- 
bers, and A. M. Staubly. 

Pioneer Press. 

Under the management of J. R. Clifford, (colored,) this 
paper was established in 1883, with a circulation of 100. 
The Press is a neat, 4-iDage paj^er, and is jDublished 

3SS Situation of Town and County. 

monthly, but will sliortly merge into a weekly 
journal. From tlie date of its existence Mr. Clifford has 
labored hard to make it a newsy and interesting sheet. 
It is the only journal in the State devoted to the colored 
race, and now has a large and excellent run of reliable 
advertisers, with a circulation upwards of 1,000. His 
energies have been crowded with a marked success, both 
as an editor and manager. The paper was printed at the 
Independent office until the spring of 1888, when hei^ur- 
chased the entire outfit of the Hardy Express., Moore- 
lield, W. Va., and erected a building near his residence 
on West Martin Street, where he now publishes his 
paper. Politically, the Press is Republican, and com- 
mands considerable influence among both races. 
Central Methodist. 

In 1887 this paper was founded by the Typographical 
Association, of the colored M. E. Church Corference. It 
is devoted entirely to the local interests of the District 
Conference, and has a circulation of nearly 500 ; which 
is rapidly increasing. The paper is x>ublished at the 
Independent office, under the management of Rev. F. F. 
Wheeler, pastor in charge at this place. Its editors are 
John A. Holmes, T. A. White and F. F. Wheeler. 
Gerardstoicn Times. 

The Times was established in the year 1870, and has 
been continued to the • present day, by J. B. Morgan, 
proprietor and editor. It is a neatly printed four col- 
umn quarto, and is w^ell managed and edited. Its poli- 
tics are neutral, and is devoted princix^ally to home news. 
This paper is published every Saturday, with an excel- 
lent list of subscribers. 

West Virginia Good Templar. 

This paper is the official organ of the I. 0. G. T., and 
circulates through all parts of the State. It is a four 
colun^i quarto, devoted strictly to the order, and is 
published every other week by J. B. Morgan, editor and 

Situation of Town and County. 389 


As lias been stated in a former chapter the first Court 
was held at the house of Edward Beeson, situated on 
the land now owned by Mr. A. J. Thomas. The first 
Court house was built where the present buildicg now 
stands. From the old records we obtained the following 
list of officers as the}^ succeeded each other from its 
earliest existence : 

Judges of Circuit Court : — Robert White, Wm. Bro- 
kenbrough, John Scott, Richard E. Parker, Isaac R. 
Douglass, John W. Kennedy, L. P. W. Balch, 
Ephriam B. Hall, Joseph Chapman, E. B. Hall, Jno. 
Blair Hoge, Chas. J. Faulkner, Jr., and Frank Beckwith 
the present Judge. 

Attorney s for the Commonioealth : — Alexander "White, 
Elisha Boyd, David H. Conrad, Edmund P. Hunter, Jno. 
E. Norris, George W. Murphy, Joseph T. Hoke, J. Xel- 
son Wisner, H. H. Blackburn, Edmund Shaw, Reuben 
M. Price, Luther M. Shaffer, W. H. H. Flick, Perry A. 
Rohrbaugh, Wm. S. Henshaw, x\lex. S. Hughes and Geo. 
W. Feidt, iDresent Attorney. 

Clevks of Circuit Court: — Obed Waite, John Strother, 
Israel Robinson, John Dunn, Joseph Burns, JohnCanby, 
E. S. Troxell, three successive terms, and S. H. Martin, 
who is now ably filling the duties of a second term. 

Clerlis of County Court : — W^illiam Drew, Moses Hun- 
ter, John Strother, Harrison Waite, Norman Miller, 
•Jacob Van Doren, — E. G. Alburtis, two terms, and 
James M. Robinson, Leaman Gerard and Bernard Doll, 
as Recorders, — and the present Clerk, C. AV. Doll, who 
is now serving his third term. 


Members of tlie Legislature: — George M. Bowers and 
George H. Ropp. 

Judge of the Circuit Court — Thirteenth Judicial Dis- 
trict, Frank Beckwith. Clerk of the Circuit Court, S. 
H. Martin. Commonwealth's Attorney, George W. 

390 Situation of Town and County. 

Feidt. Sheriff, Robert Lamon. Deputy Sheriffs, W. T. 
Noll, Charles R. Hollis and George L. Sincindiver. Dep- 
uty Sheriff and Jailor, John Dumf ord. 

Commencement of Terms of Circuit Court — Second 
Tuesday in January, April and October. 

County Court of Berkeley — Jacob AV. Seibert, Presi- 
dent ; B. Kitchen and Wm. Kilmer, Commissioners. 
Clerk of Court, C. W. Doll. 

Commencement of Terms of County Court— First Mon- 
day in March, June, September and December. 

Commissioners in Chancery— John T. Picking and C. 
W. Doll. 

Surveyor of Lands — Geo. W. Yanmeter. Deputy Sur- 
veyor of Lands, James W. Robinson. 

Assessor First District — David Dodd. Second Dis- 
trict — Charles H. Miller. Commissioner of School Lands, 
(vacant). General Receiver, Henry J. Seibert. Coro- 
ner, Frank D. Staley. Sealer of Weights and Measures, 
Geo. W. Swartz. 

Resident Attorneys— E. Boyd Faulkner & M. T. In- 
gles, W. H. H. Flick & D. C. Westenhaver, Chas. J. 
Faulkner & Stuart W. AValker, J. Nelson Wisner. Geo. 
W. Feidt, Blackburn Hughes & Hugh A. White, A. C. 
Nadenbousch and U. S. Grant Pitzer. 

Justices of the Peace— Martinsburg, Wm. McKee and 
Chas. P. Matthaei ; Mill Creek, Chas. Stucky, (va- 
cant ;) Gerardstown, A. J. Bowers ; Arden, James 
M. Billmyer ; Opequon, G. W. M. Tabler and G. W. D. 
Folk ; Hedgesville, R. R. Coffenberger ; Falliug Waters, 
S. O. Cunningham and H. Cox. 

Constables— Martinsburg, J. D. Turner and C. R. 
O'Neal; Mill Creek, AVm. Lemon; Gerardstown, (vacant); 
Arden, T. A. Potts; Opequon, A. H. A. Gardner; 
Hedgesville, John L. Emerson; Falling Waters, Jacob 
V. Carney. 

Overseers of Poor — Martinsburg, Henry Wilen ; Mill 
Creek, M. L. Payne, Gerardstown, G. W. McKown ; 

Situation of Town and County. 391 

Arden, H. H. Miller ; Opeqiion, W. H. Myers ; Hedges- 
ville, George T. Kreglow ; Falling Waters ; A. R. Por- 

County Superintendent of Free Schools — I). H. Dodd. 

Local Board of Health— Dr. J. W. McSherry, M. S. 
Grantham and E. L. Hoffman. 


The public schools of the city were first organized in 
1S65, but were not in full operation as such until 1866, 
when a part of the old " Kruzen projoerty," located nea» 
the centre of the city, was purchased at a cost of $7,500, 
and started as a grammar school. Dr. Irwin, W. H. 
Matthews and Geo. R. Wisong were the first commis- 
sioners. About 500 pupils were accommodated, taught 
by a corps of eight teachers. Four grades Avere taught 
as a preparatory to the grammar dex)artment, which oc- 
cupied the second story, containing a large school room 
and two recitation rooms. The grammar department 
occupied the lower story, which contained two school 
rooms and a recitation room. As the population increas- 
ed new houses were erected, as follows : one in the Sec- 
ond Ward at a cost of $6,900 ; one in the Fourth Ward 
at a cost of 85,200 ; one in the Fifth Ward, cost $4,800 ; 
and also a property for a High School at a cost of $7,500. 
Three of the ward buildings are composed of brick and 
one of stone ; also, a neat brick building for the colored 
school. The colored schools were simultaneously organ- 
ized with the other schools, and are governed by the 
same board. The Legislature passed an Act in 1870, 
requiring the German language to be taught in the free 
schools of the city, and that a capable teacher of both 
languages be emx)loyed. In 1875 an Act was passed by 
the Legislature, making Martinsburg an independent 

In 1884 the High School building was erected, on a 
beautiful location, on South Queen street. All the 
b^iildingsare well furnished, with heating apparatus, mod- 

392 Situation of Toion cmd County. 

em conveniences, etc. The Giij educates nearly all its 
own teacliers, and always gives tlie preference to gradu- 
ates of tlie Higli Scliool, wliicli lias resulted in a unity of 
system and harmony of action, as to place our schools on 
equal standing and make them as thorough and efficient 
as any in the State of West Virginia, Twenty-two 
teachers are employed in all — twenty white and two col- 
ored, all of which are zealous, arduous and comi^etent, 
thereby placing our schools in a more prosperous condi- 
tion than ever. Martinsburg has every reason to feel 
proud of her school officers and system, and to effect, in 
the future, a more rapid advancement than ever experi- 
enced in the past. 

The present Board of Education is composed of John 
Grozinger, President; N. T. Fisher, J. H. WLitson, N. 
H. Snyder and E. S. Barton. 

Board of Examiners: J. A. Cox, President ; W. A. 
Pitzer, J. L. E. Combs. City Superintendent, J. A. 
Cox, A. M. 

Faculty of the High School : J. A. Cox, Principal ; 
Jennie L. Ditto, 1st Assistant ; Annie O'Neal, 2nd As- 
sistant ; Annie E. Hill, 3rd Assistant. 

Faculties of the Ward Schools— Second Ward : W. A. 
Pitzer, Principal ; Lillie Mathews, Lula Y. Muth, Bettie 
M. Day, Assistants. Third Ward : O. F. Ryneal, Prin- 
cipal ; Jennie Alburtis, Jessie McElroy, Kate M. Bate- 
man, Assistants. Fourth Ward : J. L. E. Combs.. Prin- 
cipal ; Kate A. Ahern, Lottie V. McKee^Lenora Smurr, 
Asssistants. Fifth Ward : Alice Y. Wilson, Principal ; 
Jennie E. Mann, Ada M. Rodrick, Clara Y, Cutting, 
Assistants. Colored School : J. W, Corsey, (colored) 
Principal ; Geo, W. Green, (colored) Assistant. Num- 
ber enrolled in the various free schools in the city 
High school, 173 ; Second Ward, 281 ; Third Ward, 227 
Fourth Ward 355 ; Fifth Ward, 232 ; colored school, 130 
Total, white children, 1,168 ; Grand total, white and 
colbred, 1,298. 

Situation of Tuicn and County. 393 


This scliool, wliich lias been in successful operation for 
many years, is located in Martinsburg, "West Virginia, 
and which combines the advantages of accessibility, 
healthfulness, good society, and general attractiveness, 
to a degree unsurpassed by any City in the State. The 
course of instruction embraces all the primary and ad- 
vanced studies, essential to a thorough and accomplished 
female education, and such as are taught at similar insti- 
tutions of the highest grade. 

The standard of proficiency is high, and the ambition 
of jDupils is encouraged by means of monthly reports to 
parents, showing their standing in their various classes. 
In the department of music no pains are spared to give 
pupils every advantage necessary to a thorough musical 
education. A firm and wholesome discipline is main- 
tained, together with a conscientious regard for the moral 
and religious welfare, the health and comfort, of all 
pupils entrusted to their care. 

A rigid system of marking is adoj^ted in every depart- 
ment, and reports candidly exhibiting the standing and 
conduct of the pupils, are sent home every month. Gen- 
eral averages are obtained by adding together the average 
for each study, and dividing by the number of studies. 
This school has been established for quite a lengthy pe- 
riod, and is taught and managed by its very able and 
efficient prinoipals, Mrs. Peyton R. Harrison and Miss 
B. J. Hunter. The school and residence is situated on 
West King street. 


Martinsburg Fire Department was organized in 1870. 
Officers : C. E. Dieffenderfer, Chief Marshal ; C. O Lam- 
bert, Assistant ; P. C. Curtis, Commander ; H. C. Mc- 
Dowell, Treasurer ; C. J. Thomas, Secy. ; Engineers, J. 
M. Sh-iflfer and David Westall ; Assistants, George T.Shaf- 
fer, David Fitz ; number of Members, 110. The Com- 
pany is equipped with a Silsby engine ; has four Reels, 

394 Situation of Town and County. 

with 2,000 feet of hose ; has recently purchased a new 
Reel for 4th Ward. Firemen have been recently equip- 
ped with fine dress uniforms and belts. 

The Farmers' and Mechanics' Mutual Fire Insurance 
Co. of West Virginia. Officers : James M. Homrich, 
Pres't; H. N. Deatrick, Vice Pres't ; E. S. Troxell, 
Sec'y ; W. A. Cushwa, Treas. Directors, Charles P. 
Matthaei, Wm. A. Cushwa, Geo. P. Blessing, Geo. W. 
McKown, Geo. O. Sperow, Joseph H. Shaffer, C. T. But- 
ler, M. V. Small, Geo. P. Riner. Executive Committee, 
James M. Homrich, Charles P. Matthaei, Joseph H. 
Shaffer. Surveyors— -H. T. Cushwa, Berkeley County ; 
J. B. Kearfott, Albert Diehl, Jefferson County. 

This Company was organized Dec. 18th, 1877, and has 
been in successful operation since that time, being pa- 
tronized by a large majority of the most substantial citi- 
zens of Berkeley County. 

Equality Building Association. — Officers, H. T. Cush- 
wa, President ; Wm Edwards, Sec'y; W. O. Nicklas, 
Treas. Meets every Friday night. 

Central Building and Loan Association. — Officers, C. 
O. Lambert, President ; F. D. Staley, Vice-Pres't ; Fer- 
dinand Gerling, Sec'y; G. W. Feidt, Treasurer; J. N. 
Wisner, Attorney. Meets every Tuesday night. 

Enterprise Building Association. — Officers, H. T. Cush- 
wa, President; Wm. Edwards, Jr., Sec'y; W. O. Nick- 
las, Treas. Meets every Tuesday night. 

Equality Lodge, Xo. 44, A. F. and A. M., meets 2d and 
4th Tuesdays from October 1 to July 1, and second Tues- 
day from July 1 to October 1, northwest corner Queen 
and Burke streets ; entrance on Burke street. 

Robert White Lodge, No. 57, A. F. and A. M., meets 
2d and 4th Monday evenings from October 1 to July 1, 
and 4th Monday from July 1 to October 1, southwest cor- 
ner Queen and King streets, Grantham Hall. 

Berkeley Consistory, No. 21, A. and A. S. R., meets 3d 

Situation of Town and County. 395 

Tuesday evening of each month in hall of Equality Lodge 
No. 44, A. F. and A. M. 

Palestine Commandery,No. 2, meets 1st Monday of each 
week in hall of Robert White Lodge No. 57, A. F. and 
A. M. 

Lebanon Royal Arch, chapter No. 2, meets 2d Monday 
evening of each month in hall of Equality Lodge No. 44, 
A. F. and A. M. 

St. Joseph's Society, President, John Dumford ; sec- 
retary, John Farrin ; treasurer, James Cox. 

St. Patrick's, President, W. J. O'Connor; secretary, 
Thomas O'Brien ; treasurer, Joseph E. A hern. 

Tuscarora Lodge, No. 24, I. O. O. F., meets every Sat- 
urday evening, northwest corner Queen and Burke 
streets ; entrance on Queen. 

Horeb Encampment, No. 12, I. O. O. F., meets 2d and 
4th Tuesday evenings of each month in hall of Tuscarora 
Lodge No. 24, I. O. O. F. 

Bethany Lodge, No. 7, D. of R., K. AVestrater, N. G.; 
E. E. Grazer, V. G.; M. A. Rathman, R. S.; G. V. Rath- 
man, F. S.;E. E.Crist, T. 

Lincoln Post, No. 1, G. A. R., meets every Thursday 
evening in G. A. R. Hall, southeast corner Queen and 
Burke streets; entrance on Burke, People's National 
Bank Building. 

Prosperity Lodge, No. 29, 1. O. G. T., meets every Mon- 
day evening in G. A. R. hall. 

Franklin Assembly, No. 2373 K. L., meets every Satur- 
day night in G. A. R. hall. 

Key Council, No. 432, Royal Arcanum, meets 1st and 
3d Friday evenings in G. A. R. hall. 

Washington Lodge,iNo. 1, K. of P., meets every Thurs- 
day evening in K. of P. hall, southeast corner Queen and 
Burke streets ; entrance on Burke, People's National 
Bank Building. 

Knights of Honor Lodge, No. 62, meets 2d and 4th Fri- 
day nights in hall of K. of P. 

396 Situation of Town and County. 

Brancli No. 29, Order Iron Hall, meets 2d and 4tli 
Thursday niglits in hall of K. of P. 

Berkeley Lodge, No. 173, Order of Tonti, meets 1st and 
3d Thursdaj^s of each month in hall of K. of P., People's 
National Bank Building. 

Mt. Pisgah Lodge, No. 3, A. Y. M., (coi'd) meets every 
Thursday evening on South College street. 

Federal Lodge, No. 152, K. of W., meets in People's 
Bank Building 2d Tuesday in each month ; Chairman, 
II. B. Foard ; secretary, ^ . Corsey. 

The Martinsburg Gas Company was organized in 1873 ; 
President, H. N. Deatrick ; Vice-President, J. H. Shaf- 
fer ; Secretary and Treasurer, F. S. Emmert ; Superin- 
tendent, D. Rawlinson. 

Mechanics' Band.— The High Street Band, W. H. 
Frankenberry, organizer and leader, was started about 
1871, and changed to the Mechanics' Band about 1SS2 ; 
reorganized and incorporated February 6th, 1886. 

The Martinsburg City Band was organized on the 18th 
of December, 1883 ; Mr. P. C. Cartis is the genial man- 
ager, and Prof. Fred. Luscomb, musical director. 


Pomono Grange No. 2, located in Martinsburg District ; 
meets last Saturday in each month. 

Cherry Grove Grange No. 13, located in Opequon Dis- 
trict ; meets first and third Saturdays of each month. 

Tuscarora Grange No. 14, located in Hedgesville Dis- 
trict ; meets second and fourth Tuesdays of each month. 

Swan Pond Grange No. 22, located in Opequon Dis- 
trict ; meets second and fourth Saturdays of each month. 

Mill Creek Grange No. 26, located in Gerardstown Dis- 
trict ; meets first and third Tuesdays of each month. 






ipN May, 1887, Mr. Faulkner was elected to the United 
1^ States Senate, at wliicli time lie was on the bench, 
and resigned to accept the honor conferred upon him. 
As a representative, he has the respect and esteem of the 
people throughout the State, who feel proud of his mark- 
ed ability and energy. Among the representatives of the 
country at the National Capital, he is fast gaining prom- 
inence and favor. After his election to the Senate he 
associated with him, Stuart W. Walker, an able and 
prominent young lawyer, for the practice of law, which 
firm now commands a large and excellent i^ractice. 

Senator Faulkner is the younger sou of the late Hon. 
C. J. Faulkner, the eminent jurist and statesman, both 
of whose sons give promise of attaining the legal and 
political prominence of their father in State and National 
affairs. Senator Faulkner was born at the ancestral 
home at Martinsburg, Va., now West Virginia, on the 
21st of September, 1847. He accompanied his father, 
who was Minister to France, in 1859, and had the advan- 
tage of attending noted schools in Switzerland and in 
Paris. He returned to the United States in August, 1861, 
and was with his father at the time of his arrest, in 
Washington ; the story of which has become a matter of 
National history familiar to all. When he learned that 
Ms father had been arrested, he immediately started 
South, making his way resolutely and determinedly 
through all the difficulties incident to those troublous 

398 Personal Sketclies. 

times. In 1862, when a boy of fifteen, he entered the 
Virginia Military Institute at Lexington. He served 
with the Cadets in the battle of New Market, w^here he 
was distinguished for his ardor and daring. And later, 
served as aide on the Staff of GeneralJ. C. Breckenridge, 
until he was made Secretary of War. His courageous 
and resolute bearing, allied to one so young in years, 
won for him the admiration of officers and soldiers, and 
made him a general favorite. He was afterward ap- 
pointed aide to General Henry A. Wise, and surrendered 
with him at Appomattox, after which he returned home. 
Then began a course of mental training under his father's 
direction, and the foundation was there laid for a suc- 
cessful public life. The bent of his instruction and 
watchful care, was toward the field of law, in which the 
father occupied through all his life a leading place in the 
Circuit and Supreme Courts. Thus prepared by so able 
a preceptor, he entered the University of Virginia, in 
Oct., 1866, and graduated therefrom in June, 1868. He 
was admitted to the bar in Sept., 1868, immediately after 
attaining his majority. His mental endowments were of 
such high order that he at once became a member of 
recognized ability, and of such prominence as that led 
from the bar to the bench. He was elected judge of the 
13th Judicial Circuit, composed of the counties of Berkeley, 
Jefferson and Morgan, in Oct., 1880, at the age of 33 years, 
being one of the youngest Judges in the State. He has pre- 
sided over these courts with credit to himself and to the 
universal satisfaction of the people, by whom he is held in 
the highest regard and esteem. His judicial record gave 
assurance of still higher attainments in his chosen pro- 
fession. His rulings and decisions have evidenced so im- 
partial a sense of justice and so thorough a knowledge 
of the law, that a distinguished lawyer and political op- 
I)onent said of him, "I would not hesitate to trust to 
Judge Faulkner's decision in his legal capacity ujoon any 
political question." His prudence and good judgment 

Personal SketcTies. 399 

were not unnoticed in politics, in wliicli, while not taking 
an active part, lie manifested considerable interest. Sen- 
ator Faulkner was cliairman of the Democratic County 
Committee for a number of years before going on the 
bench, and is also widely and prominently known and 
esteemed in tbe Masonic fraternity, having been Grand 
Master of the Masonic Grand Lodge of "West Virginia 
during the years 1879-80. By the last will of his father 
he inherits "Boydville," the old homestead, after the 
death of his mother, a place full of historical interest to 
citizens and strangers. He has built for himself a fine 
residence adjoining "Boydville," the house now occu- 
pied by his venerable mother. 

HON. W. H. H. FUCK. 

Mr. Flick was born in Cuihoga County, Ohio, Febru- 
ary 24th, 1841. His youthful days were silent in the 
common schools, and a term at Garfield School, Hiram, 
Ohio. After that he worked on a farm until the war 
broke out, when he entered the army in July, 1861, serv- 
ing in the 41st Ohio Regiment. He was dangerously 
wounded at Shiloh, April 7th, 1862, and joined the re- 
cruiting service. After his discharge he taught school 
to earn money enough to take uj) the practice of law, and 
then entered the Cleveland Law School, graduating and 
being admitted to practice in his native county in 1865. 
Upon his admission he settled in Moorefield, W. Ya., for 
the practice of his profession, which he followed there 
in 1865 and 1866. In the Spring of 1867 he went to Pen- 
dleton County, where he married and has one child. He 
served two terms in the Legislature as representative in 
that county. In 1870 he introduced what is known as the 
"Flick amendment." He was appointed to fill an unex- 
pired term as prosecuting attorney of Grant County in 
1872, and elected to the same position in Pendleton 
County in that year. In 1874 he moved to Martinsburg, 
and has served in various official capacities since. In 
1886, Hon. W. H. H. Flick made a strong run for Con- 

400 Personal Sketches. 

gress in tlie Second West Virginia District, and came 
within ninety votes of election. Shortly afterward he 
associated with him in the practice of law Mr. D. C. 
Westenhaver, one of the shining lights of the Berkeley 
Bar. Mr. Flick is an able and efficient talker, and en- 
joys a legal knowledge that but few can surpass. The 
lirm now has an able and extensive practice in the various 
courts. It is almost needless to speak of Mr, Flick's 
popularity, as he is generally known throughout this and 
the surrounding States. He is of a clever and genial dis- 
position, and makes one feel x^i^rfectly at home while in 
his presence. 


E. Boyd Faulkner was born in July, 1841. He received 
his early education at Georgetown College, and Univer- 
sity of Virginia, and traveled extensively in Switzerland 
and Italy. He attended lectures upon constitutional law 
in Paris, and at the age of eighteen was acting as Secre- 
tary of the American Legation at Paris — an unusual and 
complimentary preferment to one so young — and which 
gave evidence of rare mental attainments, and of that 
strongly marked mind and character which distinguishes 
the man of to-day. He returned to the United States in 
1861, was appointed aide on Gov. Letcher's Staff, but 
resigned shortly afterward and became an officer of dis- 
tinction in the Confederate Army, until his capture at 
Port Republic, in June, 18G4, when he Avas taken with 
other prisoners to Johnson's Island, where he was con- 
fined a year, being released in June, 1865. In 1867, he 
went to Hopkinsville, Ky., where he formed a law part- 
nership with Judge Petree, and the firm had an extensive 
practice. By his energy and talent Mr. Faulkner soon 
earned for himself a line reputation as a lawyer and 
speaker, and in the Seymour Campaign of 1868, was ap- 
pointed an Elector for the Second Congressional District 
of Kentucky. In 1872 inducements were offered him to 
return to his native State, and he located permanently in 

Personal Sketches. 401 

Martinsburg. He is well known at liome and abroad as 
a gentleman of nnswerving integrity of cliaracter, and 
his sx)lendid abilities as a lawyer and public speaker in 
his professional and political career, are so well and fa- 
vorably known to the people of this section and through- 
out the State as to require no commendation. He was. 
elected td the Legislature in 1876, where he served with 
distinguished prominence and ability, and with a faith- 
fulness to the interests of the people which will long be- 
remembered, and especially noteworthy was the legisla- 
tion by him to relieve the bonded indebtedness of Berke- 
ley County. Under the arrangement made by the court 
and through the legislation of Mr. Faulkner, on the 2d 
of January, ISSl, the 8 per cent, bonds were paid off or 
exchanged, and the county relieved of an annual drain 
upon it for interest and commission alone of about $3,465, 
besides having the bonds bear their just x3rox)ortion of 
the taxes which weighed so heavily upon the people. 
Such was the universal esteem in which Mr. Faulkner 
was held that he was elected to the Senate in 1873, upon 
the expiration of his term in the Legislature. He was 
an eminent member of that body, and held in the highest 
regard by his fellow Senators. He declined the Presi- 
dency of the Senate, and remained where the work was 
to be done, becoming chairman of important committees, 
and his record was such as has been referred to with just 
pride and pleasure, and led to his being urged to become 
a candidate for the nomination of Governor of West Vir- 
ginia in 1834. 

At the present time his extensive and important law 
practice occupies all his time and attention. President 
Cleveland tendered to Mr. Faulkner the office of Consul- 
General and Agent to Egypt, which, at the earnest so- 
licitation of his friends throughout the State, he decided 
not to accept. He was then tendered the Mission to 
Persia, which he likewise declined. For several years 
friends of Mr. Faulknei" in every part of the State have 

402 Personal S/ielches. 

been urging liis candidacy for Governor of West Vir- 
ginia. That lie would receive a large vote and discharge 
the dignity and duty of the position in the most courtly 
and x)opular manner, is admitted by all. 


Mr. Feidt was born in Washington County, Md., and 
same to Martinsburg in 1872. In his younger days he 
worked on the farm and taught school and studied law. 
He finished his law course with Blackburn & Lamon, in 
this x^lace, and was admitted to the bar in 1875. In 1S77 
he was appointed Register in Bankruptcy on the recom- 
mendation of Chief Justice Waite. He occupies various 
positions indifferent organizations, and takes an active 
part in the interests of the town. Pie is a sound Repub- 
ikau, and no one does more enthusiastic work for the 
party than Mr. Feidt. He was elected Prosecuting At- 
torney of Berkeley County in 1880 by 14G majority, and 
has satisfactorily transacted the business of the office 
with skill and the best of legal ability. He is a worthy, 
affable and learned gentleman, and is a credit to his 


Mr. Walker, though young in years, is considered very 
old in experience and legal knowledge. He is now one 
of the most able and successful practitioners at the West 
Virginia Bar, and an influential i^olitician. He is of a 
clever disposition, social and agreeable to all who come 
in contact with him. Any one having a business connec- 
tion will not hesitate to speak of him in the best terms. 
This able and creditable representative of the legal pro- 
fession is a son of James H. Walker, now a retired 
farmer. He ^vas raised on the farm with two other 
brothers. Much to his credit he possessed an ambition 
for future usefulness with intent to serve his people. He 
was educated at the Berkeley Academy, formerly in this 
city, and decided to make law his profession. This he 
successfully accomplished by taking a two years' course 

Personal Sketches. 403 

in one year at the Washington and Lee University, Lex- 
ington, Va. Upon liis arrival home he was given a tho- 
rough examination by Judge C. J. Faulkner and Judge 
Armstrong, of Romney, who were then on the bench. In 
this he passed with honors, after which he was admitted 
to practice in the courts of the district. Through his ener- 
gy and talent he at once became interested in and repre- 
sented many of the most important civil and criminal 
cases before the courts. His success in the various courts 
attracted the attention of Judge Faulkner and led to his 
rapid advancement. He is an excellent talker, has a fine 
delivery and a jiersuasive and argumentative bearing. 
He is well known all over the State, having delivered 
siDeeches and addresses in every county. He is a man of 
self-confidence, and is always prex)ared to speak on any 
topic at a moment's notice. In May, 1SS7, Mr. Faulkner 
was elected to the United States Senate, immediately 
after which he formed a law x^artnership under the firm 
name of Faulkner & Walker. This move of business on 
the part of Judge Faulkner, while adding much labor to 
the firm by a heavy increase, encouraged Mr. Walker 
with more than usual zeal. He has since represented the 
cases and produced the ablest arguments that have ever 
been laid before our courts. Important cases have taken 
him to many counties in the State. 

Mr. Walker has been identified by birth with the Dem- 
ocratic Party, and has always taken great interest and 
worked with untiring zeal for its advancement. During 
the campaign of 1884 he spoke for weeks, daily, and 
often twice a day, throughout the Thirteenth Senatorial 
District. His friends, irrespective of party, are urging 
him to accept i)ositions of responsibility and trust. For 
him to accept any nomination will insure a victory to his 
party. The stand he has taken has led the x^eople to be- 
lieve that he will mete justice fairly and honorably to 
all. His j)ast career has been a most honorable and suc- 
cessful one, through which he now enjoys the confidence 

404 Personal Sketches. 

and esteem of his x3eox)le. Mr. Walker lias the vigor 
and confidence that will achieve the greatest results. 


It v/as when the conflict of contending armies was ex- 
pending its force during the late civil war that the sub- 
ject of this sketch was born. He is a native of this 
county, and has lived here since his birth. His father 
was a farmer, and consequently his early education was 
confined to such branches of information as are usually 
taught in the average country school. His nature was 
not such to be content with this, and with an innate de- 
sire for a higher and more comprehensive knowledge, we 
find him aiming at and striving for a greater degree of 
excellence. He taught school, and at the same time pur- 
sued a course of instruction in law under private tutors. 
This merely opened to him a view of the wide field be- 
yond, into which he boldly plunged alone, and, unaided 
any more by such private instructions as he previously 
had. We can say nothing better for him than that few 
persons, through their own personal efforts and ability, 
have ever raised themselves to such a degree of high 
public esteem and in so comparatively short a time as has 
Mr. Westenhaver. 

He completed his law course at the Georgetown Law 
School, taking a two years' course in one and graduating 
with honor. The thesis upon which his essay for this 
occasion was written was " Ex]3atriation and Naturaliza- 
tion," and which gained for him the first prize from the 
above institution. 

Upon entering the active duties of his chosen profes- 
sion he assumed a partnership with Hon. W. H. H. 
Flick, under the firm name of Flick & Westenhaver, 
the firm remaining so constituted at the i)resent time. In 
1886 he was appointed Prosecuting Attorney of Berkeley 
County to fill an unexpired term, and fulfilled the trusts 
of that office with great satisfaction to the people. Mr. 
Westenhaver' s mental attainments are of the highest 

Personal SA-etc/ies. 405 

order, and tliougli a young man, his place is a conspicu- 
ous one at the Bar, as well as among recognized leaders 
of his political school in this count}'. In politics he is 
a Democrat. In oratory he can boast of but little excel- 
lence ; his persuasive powers in this direction are effec- 
tive, not because of any brilliancy of speech, but because 
of clear and unequivocal argument. His past career as a 
lawyer has been pre-eminently successful. His is an ex- 
ample of a self-made man. His future career cannot but 
make him a successful leader and an honored and re- 
spected citizen. 


This able representative of the Berkeley Bar was born 
in Cumberland County, Ya., and educated at Hampden 
Sidney College, Virginia, graduating from that institution 
in June, 1859, with the Speaker's medal from the Union 
Society. He studied law in Judge Brockenborough's 
Law School, in Lexington, Ya., in 1860 and 1861. He 
first practiced in the courts of his native county, and for 
a short time in Richmond, but removed to Berkeley in 
the fall of 1867, and after the repeal of the test oaths he 
was admitted to the Bar of this county, in which he has 
ever since occupied a leading place in talent and the 
regards of his fellow members and the people in general. 
Personall}^ he is a very agreeable gentleman, and takes 
an active interest in all iDublic matters. He has tilled 
several important trusts in church and State conventions. 
He was elected a member of the County Court in 1880, 
and on its organization was elected its President, to 
which x^osition he has been re-elected each succeeding 

Politically, Mr. Hughes has always been closely iden- 
tified with the Democratic Party, though conservative in 
his views and liberal to all men, however widely differ- 
ing on public questions His name was prominently 
mentioned in connection with the State Senatorship from 
the 13th District in 1886. In 1887 he associated with 

406 Personal Sketches. 

himself Mr. Hugh A. White, an able and energetic young 
lawyer, and they are now engaged in a good practice 
before the courts of this district. 


Is a son of the late John S. Bowers, one of the leading 
citizens of the county. He was born at Gerardstown and 
received his education at the Martins burg High School. 
When but a mere shool boy he showed promising busi- 
ness qualities and made extensive purchases and sales on 
his own account. Upon the death of his father he ad- 
ministered the estate (which was a very large one) and 
made a prompt and satisfactory settlement of everything. 
He took charge of the Eureka Mills, in this city, in 1884, 
and is yet carrying on the most extensive milling busi- 
ness in the city. He has considerable interest in real 
property and also in various organizations, manufactories, 
etc. On the 17th of March, 1888, ]ie was elected a di- 
rector of the C. V. and M. R. R., and is one of 
the most prominent directors of the National Bank. 
In politics he is a Republican and commands a large 
influence. By his zeal and energy he has won the es- 
teem and respect of the Berkeley people, and in 1884 he 
was made Chairman of the Berkeley Delegation to the 
Parkersburg and Grafton Convention. His success and 
ability in this placed him before the people of the State, 
and through which he has achieved the loudest praise. 
In 1886 he was nominated on the Republican ticket for 
Legislature, and was elected by the largest majority ever 
given one man in the county. During his term of office 
he has not once failed or shirked any responsible duty 
that has fallen his lot. He is now Vice-President of the 
National Republican League for the State of West Vir- 
ginia. His name is now being urged for State Auditor, 
and if nominated, there is but little doubt as to his elec- 
tion being a successful one, and a victory for the party. 

Mr. Bowers has a large friendship and acquaintance 
among the farmers and laboring class of people. His 

Personal SJcetcJies. ' 407 

kind, affable mauners, and sound reasoning and persua- 
sive powers has endeared him to the hearts of his peo- 
I)le. He possesses the ability, and will execute any re- 
sponsibility thrown upon him in the most successful 

PROF. J. A. cox. 

Born in Ohio Co., Va., (now W. Va.,) May 30, 1858; 
graduated at Bethany College, W. Va., in 1882, with the 
degree A. B., taking the first honor of his class ; received 
the degree A. M. one year later ; is now, as Superinten- 
dent of the Martinsburg City Schools and Principal of 
the High School, in his sixth year in the profession of 
teaching ; was two years Principal of the AYest Liberty 
State Normal School, at the end of which time the stu- 
dents almost nnanimously petitioned the State Superin- 
tendent and Board of Regents for his re-appointment ; 
was Principal of King wood Academy five months, which 
X30sition he resigned to take charge of the city schools of 
Martinsbnrg ; was given a letter of endorsement signed 
by all his Kingwood students, by his assistant teachers, 
and by all the trustees of the school ; "won a first premi- 
um in a mathematical contest with 955 competitors, thus 
becoming one of the authors of "The New Arithmetic," 
j)nblished by Eaton, Gibson & Co., Buffalo, New York ; 
has written considerably on educational and other topics ; 
and is the autlior of a neat little pamphlet on arithmetic, 
entitled "Two Hundred Practical Problems." Prof. 
Cox has given universal satisfaction at Martinsburg, so 
much so that his salary was raised several hundred dol- 
lars by the Board. 


Mr. Matthaei, the genial and agreeable Justice, is a 
native of Germany, and was born in the year 1835. He 
came to this country in the year 1854, and entered the 
confectionery business in Baltimore, Md., where he re- 
mained about six years. In 1860 he removed to Martins- 
burg and opened up a confectionery store in the building 

408 Personal SketcTies. 

now occux^ied by Chas. D. Matthaei, next to Court House. 
After twenty-tliree years of business success, lie retired, 
and turned tlie business over to Charles D., who has con- 
tinued to the present day. 

During his early days, his advantages for an English 
education were very limited, and Mr. Matthaei may cred- 
itably be termed a self-made man. In the fall of 1884 he 
was elected Justice of the Peace, which office he now 
holds. During his term of office, he has filled the posi- 
tion ably and creditably, and has given general satisfac- 
tion to the public. Mr. Matthaei is a close observer, of 
sound, practical judgment, and a genihl and agreeable 
gentleman. He has held positions of honor and public 
trust, and acquitted himself creditably to the satisfaction 
of his constituents. Mr. Matthaei is considerably inter- 
ested in the organizations, societies and corporations of 
the city, and is the owner of a large amount of 2:)roperty. 
He is well known throughout the State, nnd a very pop- 
ular gentleman. 


Mr. Lambert, the present Mayor of Martinsburg, was 
born at Frederick City, Md., in 1838, and is a sou of 
Frederick Lambert, Esq. He was educated in the public 
schools of that city, and at the age of fifteen years, en- 
tered the butchering business under Charles D. Schell. 
Here he served his time as an aj^prentice, acquiring every 
art and branch of the business. In 1857 he moved to 
Shepherdstown, and there carried on business for him- 
self until the commencing of the war in 1861, when he 
enlisted in the Confederate Calvary, 12th Virgiuia Regi- 
ment. After the close of the war in 1865 he came to 
Martinsburg and entered business with his brother, 
George D. Lambert, where he remained until 1869, and 
then entered business for himself — continuing at the 
present day. Mr. Lambert was elected Councilman from 
his ward in 1878, and afterwards served three terms of 
two vears each — five years and a half of which he served 

Personal SketcTies. 409 

as Mayor ^;>?'o ^6772. In 1884 he v,-as elected Mayor by an 
excellent majority, and conducted the affairs of the city 
creditably and with ability. His services in this official 
capacity were appreciated in such a manner, that in 1886 
and 1888, a demand was made by the people for his re- 
election, which was successfully accomplished. As 
Mayor of the City, Mr. Lambert has proven Jiimself 
worthy of the office, and his services are appreciated by 
the people in general, who hold him in the highest es- 
teem. He is a Democrat in politics, and of a genial and 
clever disposition. As evidenced by his past career, Mr. 
Lambert is what may well be termed a self made man. 
He is also at present carrying on business at his old loca- 
tion, No. 23 N. Queen St., where can be found at all 
times fresh meats, groceries, provisions, confectioneries, 
tobaccos, cigars, etc. Mr. Lambert is also considerably 
interested in farming pursuits, and various other enter- 

C. \V. DOLL. ESC). 

C. AV. Doll, Esq., Clerk of the County Court, was born 
in this city in the year 1820. For nearly thirty years he 
was engaged in the dry goods business, after which he 
served six or eight years in the hardware line. He has 
served the County Court as Clerk since Jan. 1st, 1873, 
and has done valuable service to the county in the ar- 
rangement of the many papers and records on file there. 
On his election to this office he received almost the entire 
vote of the Republican and Democrotic parties combined. 
He is a courteous and obliging gentleman, and is held in 
the highest esteem by all who know him. As a citizen, 
he takes a great deal of interest, and is one of the most 
liberal men in the county. 


Mr. Lamon was born in Mill Creek District, Berkeley 
County, about nine miles from the city of Martinsburg. 
He was raised on a farm, and at an early age manifested 
considerable interest and energy- in business and public 

410 Personal Sketches. 

affairs. Pie is a self-made man, having liad advantage of 
no otlier education tlian the common school of his boy- 
hood days. In politics he is a strong and influential 
Democrat, and under Lincoln's administration he served 
in the capacity of Deputy Marshal of the District of 
Columbia. As Secretary and Treasurer, he has been the 
means, to a considerable extent, of building up the M. 
& W. Turnpike, which office he Alls to the present day. 
At the election in 1SS7 he was elected Sheriff of Berke- 
ley County, by a majority of 338, a much larger vote 
than had been polled previously. He has served his 
people faithfully in this capacity, and in his accounts is 
up with the State. lie is of a flne manly bearing, and is 
held in the highest respect. For a number of years he 
has acted as a Director of the People's National Bank. 


Mr. Martin was born in Pottstown, Montgomery Co., 
Pa., in 1S2G, and came to this county in the year 1S40. 
He was a clerk in the store of W. S. Long, at Bunker 
Hill, for a short while, after which he came to this city 
and entered the store of Jacob Van Doren. In 1842 he 
went back to the former place and remained with J. W. 
Grantham until 1851, when he again returned to town 
and clerked for B. R. Boyd. In 1857 he formed a part- 
nership with Ezra Herring and continued until 1859, 
when they dissolved and Mr. Martin continued the store 
until 18G0. Shortly afterward he formed a partnership 
with George Sherrer, which continued until the break- 
ing out of the late war. In 1861 he Avent into the em- 
13loy of the B. & O. R. R. office and remained until 1878. 
In the fall of '78 he was elected Clerk of the Circuit 
Court, which capacity he now fills with credit and ability. 
As a gentleman, he is kind and generous, and is one of 
Martinsburg's most worthy citizens. 


In the person of Mr. Stewart, is represented one of 
Martinsburg's most prominent, wealthiest and influential 

Personal Sketches. 411 

citizens. He was born in this county and raised on a 
farm, acquiring none other than the common school edu- 
cation. He now holds and ably fills the offices of Presi- 
dent of the National Bank, M. & W. Turnpike Company, 
and is also a Director of the C. Y. & M. R. R. Beimr 
largely interested in county enterprises, he devotes con- 
siderable time and attention to industrial development. 




|o^HIS institution was established in 1873 as a People's 
8H Deposit, with a capital of about $12,000. In 1874 
it was re-organized as a National Bank, at which time two 
competing banks were charging 10 and 12 per cent, in- 
terest on money. This bank, after its reorganization, 
began business by charging 8 per cent., and was the first 
of the three to fall to 6 per cent. It was a grand success 
from the day it opened its doors, and has been managed 
with such financial ability that in fifteen years it has ac- 
cumulated a very large surplus and dividend. Its line 
of bank deposits are decidedly larger than those of its 
competing neighbor. In 1882 the present site, on corner 
of Queen and Burke Streets was purchased, and has 
since been improved until it now constitutes one of the 
finest buildings in the city. The interior is elegantly and 
conveniently arranged, and handsomely furnished. The 
vaults are large and secure, and will compare vv^ith any 
in the State. For fifteen years t lie finances of this bank 
have been under the management of Jno. B. AYilson, 
Esq., who has served the institution ably and successful- 
ly as cashier. With A. J. Thomas, Esq., as President, 
it cannot but help insure a successful future. Mr, 
Thomas is an excellent financier and is largely interested 
in various enterprises. Through the energy and zeal of 
Mr. Wilson, cashier, this bank in 1888 gained the top- 
most round on the ladder of success, by being designa- 
ted a Depository of the United States. Mr. Wilson is a 
wide-awake and energetic citizen, populir throughout 

Biography of Business Men. 413 

business circles, and highly esteemed by the people of 
his county. His assistants are Messrs. Geo. Knapp and 
Frank Wilson, who efficiently aid in the transaction of 
affairs, and for a knowledge of general banking business, 
are unsurpassed. By their liberality, caution and finan- 
cial ability, the above gentlemen have* made it a grand 
success, and its reputation at home and abroad is estab- 
lished and its business daily growing larger. 


Mr. John W. Walker, the efficient manager and head of 
this firm, is a son of James H. Walker, Esq., and was 
born in Berkeley County. He was raised on a farm with 
two other brothers. Hunter and Stuart, all of whom are 
well-known throughout the countj^, and are among the 
enterprising citizens. John W. was given the advantage 
of the common schools, and later attended an academy 
taught in Martinsburg by John Sellers, Esq. He next 
entered the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, where 
he remained two years, and afterward started in the 
drug business in Martinsburg. After a decided success 
of two years in the latter jDlace, he removed to Baltimore 
City, and passing a thorough examination before the 
Board of Pharmacy, he opened ui3 in the drug business. 
Here he remained two or three years, when he again re- 
turned to his native county, and started the present 
merchandising firm. As a druggist Mr. Walker ranks 
among the most successful men of the day, having car- 
ried off the highest honors of his classes, and passed 
through the most difficult examinations. Since starting 
in the merchandise business, he has conducted one of 
the finest stores in the State. His place is neatly arrang- 
ed, clean and convenient, and for fresh goods, he is un- 
surpassed by any in the city. Groceries and provisions 
of every variety are kept constantly on hand at the 
lowest possible figures. His present location is on Queen 
Street, National Bank Building. Mr. AYalker is obli- 
ging and accommodating, and generally known through- 

414 Biography of Business Hen. 

out the county as an industrious and enterprising 


Mr. Cunningliam is the eklest son, now living, of 
PhiliiD S. Cunningham, dec'd., who served in the capaci- 
ty of 1st Lieutenant under Col. J. Q. A. Nadenbousch, 
during the late war. P. A. was born in Berkeley County 
about one mile south of the present city of Martinsburg, 
in the year ISCl. In 1S66 the family moved to Fredrick 
City, Md., and returned to this county again in 1877. 
His father died before they moved to the former place, 
in 1865. Patrick A. was given the advantage of the 
Catholic schools in Frederick City, and at an early age 
showed considerable energy and enterprise. Like many 
others, he had the broad world before him, with but 
little assistance to gain a trade or profession. After 
their return to this city, he entered the photograph gal- 
lery under R. J. Rankin, Esq., where he remained about 
two years, — serving the required time as an apx)rentice. 
He next went with P. C. Hunter, and ably assisted in 
building up a standard reputation, about the year 1882, 
and remained for a jieriod of nearly five years. In July, 
1SS6, he purchased the establishment of his former em- 
ployer, Mr. Rankin, and undertook a business routine, 
which he has since successfully accomplished and meri- 
ted. He is a genial and clever young man, and is a 
great deal thought of by the young people in general. 
His pyresent place of business is situated over the Nation- 
al Bank, Queen Street, where photography is finely exe- 
cuted in all its branches. He uses the instantaneous 
process, and guarantees satisfaction. A large and well 
equipped line of picture frames are always to be found 
in stock. His studio is well furnished, and everything 
complete for the trade. He also makes a specialty of 
copying and enlarging. One will find in Mr. Cunni-ngham 
a warm friend, and an obliging gentleman. 

Biograpli y of B us in ess Hen . 415 


This firm lias been long establislied in Martinsburg, 
and lias become one of the leading houses in town. The 
fatlier of the present firm followed car2:»et manufacturing 
in the Cumberland Valley from his youth, and the sons 
have established business houses in several of the lead- 
ing towns in the Valley. One branch after another has 
been added, and enlargements made as the business in- 
creased, until now they have every convenience for their 
extensive trade in carpets, furniture, chamber sets, 
library furniture, walli^apers, &c. Fully prepared to do 
all kinds of upholstering and repairing. Their carpets 
range from the cheaper goods to the best American and 
European manufacture. The most obliging attention is 
given to the trade, and special pains taken to please 
purchasers. Mr. W. O. Nicklas is the manager of the 
firm, and is one of our most enterprising citizens. He 
takes part in various organizations of the town, and has 
built for himself a neat and attractive home on the corner 
of Qaeen and John Streets. The business rooms of the 
firm are at No. 11 Queen Street. 


Mr. Bartlett is a native of Marshal Co., W. Va. He 
located in Cumberland in 1SG7, and was engaged in rail- 
roading, and removed to Martinsburg in ISGG, following 
the same occupation. He was appointed to a position in 
the Hannis Distillery under President Arthur, and ful- 
filled his duties very acceptablj^', remaining until the 
new administration came in. He x>urchased the Book 
store of A. Oden, No. 17 Queen Street, inlSS5, where he 
set to work to build for himself a permanent business. 
He deals largely in books, stationery, daily, weekly and 
monthly j)apers and magazines, tissue paper, drawing 
paper, maj) drawing and sketch books, school supplies, 
water color paints, steel engravings, autotypes, mottoes, 
picture frame mouldings ; picture frames made to order; 
albums and scrap books, scrap pictures, music and mu- 

416 B iograpli y of Bus In ess 21 en. 

sical mercliandise ; agent for all newspapers and maga- 
zines at publishers' prices. 

H. L. DOLL & CO. 

Mr. Doll, the genial manager and iDroprietor of the 
large hardware establishment, situated on the Public 
Square, was born in Martinsburg in the year 1 853, and 
is a son of C. W. Doll, Esq., Clerk of the County Court. 
He received a common school education, and afterward 
entered the hardware business as a clerk with H. A. Rid- 
dle, where he remained nearly ten years. In 1879 the 
firm of H. L. Doll & Co. was formed, and business com- 
menced in the large and commodious building known as 
"King Street Hall," at which place they have continued 
till the present day. Mr. Doll has had considerable ex- 
perience in the business, and has met with a decided suc- 
cess. The firm holds an excellent and most reliable repu- 
tation, and their business is conducted on a strict and 
sound basis. They keep constantly on hand everything 
connected with the hardware line, and make a specialty 
of House Paints, Builders Hardware, Farmers' Supplies, 
etc. They deal largely in Timothy and Clover Seed, and 
furnish every part of the business at the lowest possible 
figures. Their store and ware rooms, occupying two 
large floors, present "a neat and clean apx3earance, and 
everything is arranged in the most convenient and pleas- 
ing manner. Their present location is on the corner of 
King and Queen Sts., Public Square. 


Mr. Barr, one of Martinsburg' s enterprising young 
business men, is a son of Robt. Barr, Esq., a native of 
Virginia, and was born one mile south of Winchester, 
Va., in 1862. His advantages for an education were like 
the majority represented in this work — limited to the 
common school of his day. About the year 1882 he en- 
tered the jewelry business under W. L. Jones, where he 
remained nearly five years ; completing his trade and 
gaining the advantages of the business in all its branches. 

Biography of Business Men. 417 

He then resigned his position and acted as General Sec- 
retary of the Y. M. C. A. After serving this worthy in- 
stitution creditably and deservingly for a jperiod of eight 
months, he decided to enter the jewelry business for 
himself. In May, 1888, he opened up in the J. L. W. 
Baker Building, North Queen street. Any article not in 
stock will be furnished within a short time, and every- 
thing offered on sale will be at the lowest reasonable 
figure. He makes a s^Decialty of line repairing, etc. Mr. 
Barr has had considerable experience in his business,, 
and any one wishing to purchase will find in him a cour- 
teous and accommodating gentleman. He is a young 
man, energetic and industrious, and Martinsburg can 
well feel proud of him as a citizen. 


Dr. Wm. D. Burkhart, the leading j)artner and man- 
ager of the above firm, is a native of Berkeley County. 
In 1852 he graduated in medicine at the University of 
Maryland, and afterwards practiced in this city for about 
three years. As a physician he built up a splendid prac- 
tice and fine reputation. A short while afterward he 
gave up his practice and became teller in the old Bank 
of Berkeley. About the year 1865 he organized the pres- 
ent National Bank, and was elected cashier, which position 
he filled with ability and success. Through his untiring 
efforts this institution continued to progress, until it had 
gained a reliable and wide reputation. He continued in 
the banking business for a period of twenty-five years. 
In 1879 he established the Gflass and China firm, known 
as Burkhart & Co., which he has successfully managed 
to the i3resent day, and gained for it an enviable reputa- 
tion. He is the exclusive dealer in the city, in fine goods 
of his line. The store is neatly and artistically arrang- 
ed with beautiful lamps, fancy goods, etc., of every des- 
cription. Dr. Burkhart is a genial and clever gentleman, 
and one with whom it is a pleasure to deal. Their pres- 

418 Biograplty of Business Men. 

enfc location is on North-east corner of Public Square, 
adjoining Ms residence, and near Continental Hotel. 


Mr. Neer was born in tlie year 1829, and is a native of 
Loudon County, Virginia. His boyhood days were spent 
in farming pursuits, and no other advantages were had 
for an education, excej)ting those offered by the common 
schools. He came to Martinsburg in 1850, and was em- 
ployed as an engine man on the B. & O. R. E,.. until 
1857. He then returned to Loudon County and engaged 
in farming until 1863. Shortly afterward he served as 
sutler in the Fourth Brigade of the 19th Army Corps of 
the 24th and 28th Indiana, and 26th and 27th Ohio Regi- 
ments, commanded by Col. Washburn. About the year 
1865 he engaged in the coal, wood and lumber business 
at Harper's Ferry, where he remained until 1870, when 
he was washed out by the great Hood on the Shenandoah 
River of that year, and incurred a loss of about ^3,000. 
He then commenced farming in Jefferson County, W. 
Va., and continued from 1871 until 1873, when he again 
engaged in the service of the B. & O. R. R., and served 
bhe company until 1887. After a service of twenty- one 
years as engine man on the B. & O., he decided to per- 
manently locate in business. On the 13th of March, 
1888, he purchased the entire stock and fixtures of G. A. 
Smith, and opened up on King street, near St. Clair 
Hotel, a first-class general merchandise store. Every- 
thing in the line is kept always on hand at the lowest 
possible figures, and his store is neatly arranged and 
stocked with fresh goods. He makes a specialty of fine 
cigars, tobaccos and green groceries. Mr. Neer is a 
pleasing and accommodating gentleman, and the general 
public will find in him energy and enter^Drise, — so es- 
sential for the requirements of an upright business. 


Mr. Swartz was born in the year 1829, and is a native 
of Berkeley County. During his early days his entire 

Biography of Business Men. 419 

time was given to the milling business, and with a com- 
mon education, he commenced business in "what is now 
known as the "Swartz'' mill, in 1842. Here he continu- 
ed until ISSO, when he established himself permanently 
in the merchautile business. As a miller, Mr. Swartz 
has few superiors, and wiiile engaged in the business 
met with much success. His patronage extended far 
beyond Berkeley and adjoining counties. In 1880 he 
opened his store in the room adjoining O'Neal's drug store, 
but on account of increasing demands in business, w^as 
compelled to seek larger quarters. Shortly afterward 
he moved to Wysong's Hall, where he remained a short 
while, and then removed to the large and commodious 
room he occupies at present. His place of business is 
centrally located, being next door to the Post-office. At 
all times can be found good, fresh goods, and at reason- 
able ]3rices. He makes a specialty of flour, feed, grain 
and groceries, besides a well supplied stock of general 
merchandise. Mr. Swartz is a genial and clever gentle- 
man, and one with whom it is a jileasure to deal. 


The genial manager of the above Arm, Thomas T. 
Lemen, is a native of Jefferson County, and was born in 
the year 1863. During his boyhood days his entire at- 
tention was given to farming pursuits. In the fall of 
1878 he entered Shepherd College, at Shepherdstown, 
and graduated in 1881. He then resumed farming and 
continued until July 25th, 1887, when he and his brother 
entered business in Martinsburg. They purchased the 
store and fixtures, for many years occui)ied by J. W, 
Roberts on Queen street. Thomas T. is yet a young man, 
and, although young in years he is old in practical busi- 
ness experience. He is a son of M. B. Lemen, Esq., an 
old, experienced and rei)utable farmer, yet residing in 
Jefferson County. During his younger days, Thomas 
manifested and showed considerable ability for business 
qualifications, and at an early age became interested in 

420 Biograxjliy of Business Men. 

many important matters. With liis brother, he is doing 
a large and successful business on a sound basis, com- 
manding an excellent reputation. Their present loca- 
tion is Queen street, next door to Adams Express Office. 
They deal in flour, feed, coal, wood, etc., at the lowest 
possible figures. Mr. Lemen is an obliging and accom- 
modating gentleman, and deserves the patronage of the 
general public. 

u. L. DORN, JR. 
Mr. Dorn, the young and energetic tailor, situated on 
East Martin street, is a son of Martin L. Dorn, Sr., and 
was born in Martinsburg in the year 1861. He was given 
the advantages of the common schools for an education, 
and at an early age entered the tailoring business under 
his father. He applied himself to every branch of the 
trade, and after several years service attended a cutting 
school in New York, under the well-known firm of John 
J. Mitchell & Co. After acquiring the art and its ad- 
vantages, he returned to Martinsburg, and in 1883 estab- 
lished himself permanently in business. Mr. Dorn has 
devoted his entire attention to the trade, and as a cutter^ 
he is unsurpassed by any in the State. He is yet a young 
man, energetic and industrious, and is held in the highest 
esteem by all his acquaintances. His place of business 
is located on East Martin street, where can be found at 
all times the latest styles and best qualities of Cassi- 
meres, fancy suitings and x)antaloonings. At his place 
will be furnished the lowest prices, with a full line of 
•goods always open for inspection. Mr. Dorn is genial 
and courteous, and guarantees satisfaction to all his jiat- 


Messrs. I. L. Bender & Bro. engaged in the lumber 
business about twelve years ago, succeeding H. L. Clip- 
pinger & Co., for whom I. L. was book-keeper. Their 
yard at that time occupied a small leased lot on corner of 
East Eace and Spring streets. They have since, by pur- 

Biography of Business Men. 421 

chase, obtained possession of this and adjoining lots, thus 
extending their yard from a front on East Race along 
Spring, with rear on John street. They have also added 
large buildings and sheds for shops and the storage of an 
ample supply of lumber, doors, sash, blinds, flooring, 
siding, etc., for the demands of their trade. Their own 
railroad siding for loading bark, loading and unloading 
lumber, and their central location and convenience to the 
railroad shops, makes their place of business one of the 
most desirable in the city. In 1881 they added the coal 
and wood business to their already large trade. In this 
they have enjoyed a marked success, owing to their well 
deserved reputation for furnishing the best coal in good 
condition, good weight and prompt delivery. Messrs. 
Bender are among our substantial and reliable business 
men, who have added by their own energy and kind in- 
dulgence much to our city's appearance, as well as to the 
comfort of not a few of our people. 

Lee M. Bender, of the above Arm, was born in Penn- 
sylvania, raised on a farm, and attended public day 
schools during the winters. Later he attended a private 
school at Greencastle, Pa., where he stood among the high- 
est in his class in Latin and the higher mathematics. 
From here, in 1875, he went to the AYilliamsport Com- 
mercial College. After graduating he took the position 
of head book-keeper for the firm of Rowley & Hermance, 
now the largest manufacturers of machinery in the State. 
During the winter of 1876 he was emplyed as Professor 
in the theoretical department of the College High School. 
Coming to Martinsburg in 1878, he entered the lumber 
business in which he is still engaged. 


The above name represents one of Berkeley County's 
most energetic and enterprising young men. Mr. Hill 
was born in the year 1859, in Martinsburg, and is a son 
of James E. Hill, an old established and reputable shoe- 
m.aker. situated on West John Street. He obtained no 

422 Biography of Business Men. 

other advantages for an education than those offered by 
the common schools of his day. At the early age of 
fourteen years he entered the shoe business with his 
father, and served five years. Leaving this he acted in 
the capacity of a clerk from 1879 until 1882, when he 
entered the Post Office as delivery clerk under the effi- 
cient Post-master, J. iSTelson Wisner. He remained here 
about fifteen m^onths, and then went to BpJtimore, where 
he comiDleted a practical clerkship under the reputable 
firm of Geo. K. McGraw & Co., one of the finest retail 
stores in that city. He afterward returned to Martins- 
burg and resumed a clerkship until 1888. Having obtain- 
ed a complete and practical idea of the grocery business, 
he established himself on Queen Street, and opened up a 
first class store. Mr. Hill is well known throughout the 
town and county, and is a popular young man. He pos- 
sesses a kind and courteous disposition, is honest and 
upright in his dealings, and is agreeable to all. His place 
of business is located on Queen Street, next door to 
Crump's hardware store. At all times can be found a 
fresh and well supi)lied stock of groceries, provisions, 
etc., at reasonable prices. 


A short sketch of the jewelry establishment of Mr. H. 
S. Hyde, its past history, and present dimensions, may 
be of interest to the reader. 

Vast contrasts are presented as between the jewelry 
house of H. S. Hyde as it is now and as it was in 1823, 
when Jas. Hutchison, a practical silversmith, established 
it. It was then the first enterprise of its kind in the Val- 
ley ; its patronage was but limited, and its trade came 
from a sparsely settled country, whose inhabitants had 
little use for jewelry, and whose possessions of silver 
plate were usually limited to a modest array of articles 
that now-a-days would seem primitive enough. The 
premises occupied by Mr. Hutchison were small — only 
about 12x15 feet, but for a long series of years they af- 

Biography of Business 2Ien. 423 

forded ample room. ' In 1854 a son, Samuel Hiitcliispn, 
succeeded to the business, and in 1870 tie remodeled tlie 
building and enlarged the salesroom to 17x24 feet. Upon 
Mr. Hutchinson's death Mr. Hyde purchased the business, 
the stock then invoicing about 81,500. Mr. H., by the 
Avay, is a native of Strasburg, Ya., (on the Shenandoah.) 
Working on his father's farm until he was 20 years of 
age, he determined upon another field of labor and so 
entered the jewelry business. In 1872 he went to Spring- 
field, Ohio, where he completed his trade under the in- 
struction of Benj. Allen, a leading jeweler in that city. 
In 1874 we find Mr. Hyde in Martinsburg connected 
with the firm of Welland & Hyde, and in 1877 he pur- 
chased the pioneer jewelry store of this section — a house 
whose trade has wonderfully developed under his man- 

Upon entering the store (which was recently enlarged, 
so that now the salesroom is upward of fifty feet deep) 
one's eyes are greeted with the glitter of gold and the 
sheen of silver, while one's second self is reflected from 
numerous mirrors adorning the walls. The contents of 
the numerous show cases naturally arrest attention ; in 
one case we see gold and silver watches, and precious 
stones ; the contents of the adjoining case are in x)art a 
duplicate of the first — here also are gold pens, pencils 
and other articles. Case No. 3 is chiefly devoted to jet 
and initial jewelry ; No. 4 to fine silver ware ; No. 5 to 
fiat ware ; Nos. G and 7 to granite ware, statues and toilet 
sets ; No. 8 to French clocks ;■ No. 9 to American clocks ; 
No. 10 to novelties of various kinds. "We also notice one 
of Lillie's improved safes, a massive iron and steel affair, 
weighing 3,900 pounds — a fire and burglar jiroof recep- 
tacle for valuables. 

Another thing we notice is the "Regulator," over 7 
feet high, its huge pendulum swinging to and fro as it 
slowly and solemnly ticks out the moments. The room 
is handsomely finished and painted ; the ceiling is espe- 

424 Biography of Business Men. 

cially noteworthy, with its centre pieces of inlaid wood 
from which depend globed chandeliers ; in brief, the 
apartment is a model of good taste. 

In addition to the local trade and the large repair busi- 
ness that is had — this latter department receiving Mr. 
Hyde's careful attention — the house controls a consider- 
able jobbing business, filling orders in widely different 
parts of the country, and we fancy that Mr. Hyde has 
every reason to be satisfied with the aggregates of his 

Mr. Hyde is still a young man, being only 33 years old. 
He is what may be styled a "self-made" man. Of the 
three jewelers who were carrying on business here in 
1876 he alone remains. He has certainly accomplished 
a decided success thus far, and four young jewelers grow- 
ing uj) insure success in business. His present establish- 
ment is said to be the largest between Baltimore and 
Wheeling, and is known as Hyde's Building, Nos. 48, 
50 and 52 Queen street. 


Mr. Lamar, the genial and popular livery- man, is a 
native of Maryland, and was born in Frederick County 
in 1857. During his early days he was given no other 
advantages for an education excepting those offered by 
the schools of Frederick. His life during his younger 
days was given to business pursuits of various kinds, and 
in this way he obtained an education and idea of general 
business affairs. In 1882 he engaged in general merchan- 
dising near Shepherdstown, Jefferson County, W. Va.i 
and continued about three years. Disposing of his mer- 
cantile business, and about a year later, he opened up a 
livery and sale stable at Charlestown, in 1884. He con- 
tined here about two years, and taking advantage of the 
opportunity, he decided to move to Martinsburg, where 
the trade was completely monopolized by one livery-man. 
In 1886 he announced his opening at the St. Clair Hotel 
stables, where he has continued to the x^resent day. 

Biography of Business Men. 425 

Since opening a first-class livery, Mr, Lamar lias had tlie 
general run of patronage, whicli is well evidenced by liis 
fine turnouts of liorses and vehicles. Mr. Lamar is a 
genial and agreeable gentleman, and is a very pojjular 
man. He can be found at tlie St. Clair Hotel, where he 
makes his office, at all times ; and for a fine turnout, at 
the lowest figure, he can accommodate all. 


The above name represents one of Martinsburg's ener- 
getic and industrious young menr Mr. Kershner was 
born in Hedgesville, this county, about the year 1853, 
and is a son of George M. Kershner, Esq. His advanta- 
ges for an education were limited to that of the common 
school. At an early age he apprenticed himself at the 
plastering business, under his father's instructions, and 
applied himself to the trade in all its branches. A few 
years later he entered business for himself, and has suc- 
ceeded in establishing a ""reliable business. His present 
location is on Williamsport Pike, near Moler Avenue. 
Mr. Kershner is prompt, energetic and industrious, and 
fair in all his dealings. 


Mr. Stewart is a son of J. W. Stewart, Esq., and was 
born in Martinsburg in 1865. His education was limited 
to the common schools of his early days, and as a pupil 
he ranked among the highest of his classes. He appren- 
ticed himself at an early age to the butchering business, 
under William R. Kline. After remaining with Mr. 
Kline for some years, and obtaining the advantages of 
the trade, he opened up business for himself. His pres- 
ent place of business is located on Qaeen street, North 
B. & O. R. R. crossing, where fresh meats of all kinds 
are kept constantly on hand. Mr. Stewart is yet a young 
man — energetic, genial and industrious, and will give 
general satisfaction to all who may favor him with their 

426 Biography of Business Men. 


Mr. B. F. Fiery, the senior member of this firm, is a 
native of Washington County, Md., and was born in 
1830. He commenced business at Funkstown, Md., in 
1S64, where for nearly eight years he was engaged in 
merchandizing. About the year 1872 he came to Mar- 
tinsburg and enaged in business with Samuel Emmert, 
father of the present F. S. Emmert. The firm continued 
a successful business for nearly six years, when F. S. 
purchased his father's interest. 

Mr. F. S. Emmert, of the x)resent firm, is also a native 
of Washington County, Md., and was born about the 
year 1852. He came to Martinsburg in 1872, and remained 
under the old firm until 1878, when he purchased his 
father's entire interest. 

Since the present firm has been constituted it has en- 
joyed a reputable and successful business. From 1878 
they occupied, for a period of nearly nine years, the 
room now used by Frank Doll & Co., and on account of 
the increasing demands of their trade they were com- 
pelled to secure larger quarters. In the spring of 1887 
they purchased the site adjoining the Market House, and 
in the fall moved into one of the largest and finest build- 
ings in the State. Through their untiring energy and 
business zeal they now own and occupy the most credita- 
ble building in the city. It is a handsome brick struc- 
ture of three stories, modern plan, and conveniently ar- 
ranged with steam, gas, lights and many other improve- 
ments. The dimensions of their store room are 100 feet 
deep by 23 feet wide, and is elegantly finished. Their 
specialties consist in part of dry goods, ladies' wraps, 
dress goods, carpets, &c. Everything in this line can be 
had at their place, and with their motto, "good goods 
and low prices," they will guarantee satisfaction to the 
trade. This firm is an old established one of an excellent 
reputation, and their past record will insure a successful 
future. Both gentlemen are among the popular, enter- 

Biography of Business Men. 4'27 

prising citizens of the county, and are interested in va- 
rious enterprises. 


Messrs. J. William and C. A. Miller, the enteri^rising 
managers of this firm, are sons of J. H. Miller, Esq., and 
were born respectively in the years 1S58 and 1863, in 
Hedgesville, Berkeley County. The common school of 
their day was the only advantage obtained for an educa- 
tion. The greater portion of their time was given to 
mercantile pursuits, and under their father's instruction 
they received a general and thorough business knowl- 
edge. In 1886 they entered the mercantile business, 
purchasing the large warehouse they now occupy, and 
supplying it with a large stock of agricultural imple- 
ments. Through a well deserved integrity they have 
succeeded in establishing one of the most reputable and 
successful houses in the city. Their trade daily increased 
until now, by additions to their stock, they are handling 
a large line of improved agricultural implements, fertil- 
izers, buggies, phaetons, sulkies, harness, coal, wood, 
feed, etc. Their location is on North Queen street, at B. 
& 0. R. R. crossing, where the lowest possible figures and 
reasonable inducements are ofi'ered to purchasers. These 
gentlemen are energetic and abreast of the times, and 
by their perseverance will push their trade to the highest 
degree of success, which they justly merit and deserve. 
Both are jDopular in the county, courteous and obliging, 
and are held in the highest esteem by their people. 


Mr. Gilbert represents one of Martinsburg's indus- 
trious and enterprising young men. He is a native of 
Middleway, W. Va., and was born in 1859. His father, 
John Gilbert, Esq., is among the successful farmers of 
Jefferson County. Arthur was given the advantage of a 
good education, and at an early age entered the drug 
business under AYm. Dorsey, Esq., where he remained 
several years. Here he applied himself to every branch 

428 Biograplty of Business Men. 

of tlie business, gaining a thorough knowledge of ijhar- 
macy and business tact. In April, 1883, he entered busi- 
ness for himself, at his present location, on corner of 
Queen and Race streets, where he has built up an exten- 
sive trade. By steady application to business he has 
made a grand success and gained an excellent and wide 
reputation. Mr. Gilbert is yet a young man, sociable 
and agreeable, and one with whom it is a pleasure to deal. 
He possesses the necessary energy and vim so essential 
for a successful business, and from present prospects he 
is destined to make his mark in the drug business. At 
his place can be found Tit all times and at reasonable fig- 
ures everything kept in a first-class drug store. For 
compounding prescriptions he has but few, if any, su- 

p. C. HUNTER. 

Mr. Hunter, well-knowu throughout business circles, 
is a native of White Hall, Baltimore County, Md., and 
was born in 1844. He received his education in the pub- 
lic schools of that county, and was raised on a farm. 
Hardly had he arrived at the age of 16 years when his 
father, P. G. Hunter, Esq., died. This threw a great 
responsibility upon the young man — managing the affairs 
of a large farm and family of younger children. Pos- 
sessing self-confidence and vim, he heeded it not, and in 
a short while found himself at the helm of success. At 
the age of 28 years he went under the instructions of Mr. 
Henry Pollock, the leading photographer of Baltimore 
city. After mastering his chosen profession in its vari- 
ous branches, he launched out for himself, and entered 
business in Baltimore in 1872. In Aj^rii, 1881, he moved 
to Martinsburg, and opened up a first-class lohotograph 
gallery, where he now enjoys the success of a reliable 
and wide reputation. His past business career has been 
a grand success, and by steady application he intends to 
surpass his rivals in the future. Mr. Hunter is agreeable, 
sociable, and an industrious gentleman. He is an adapt 

Biography of Business Men. 420 

in portraiture in all its branches, sucli as oil, pastel, 
crayon, India ink and water colors, in varions styles 
and sizes. His present location is on Queen street, three 
doors South of Market House. 


Mr. Feller, the genial and clever proprietor of the 
"Academy of Music'' and an energetic citizen, is a native 
of Hessen, Germany, and was born in 1820. He was edu- 
cated in the schools of that place, and emigrated to 
America in 1844, In 1855 he located at Martinsburg, 
and entered the mercantile business. In this he was 
very successful for a number of years, when he disposed 
of his business and built the hotel, known as the Shen- 
andoah House, corner Race and Queen streets. He con- 
tinued in the hotel business for a period of about 16 
years, gaining a popular and well-deserved reputation. 
About the year 1858 he built the large and commodious 
hall, known as "Feller's Hall," on the same site. In 
1879 the hall was burned down, and afterwards rebuilt. 
However, at this time, Martinsburg contained no public 
hall or building of any importance, and consequently Mr. 
Feller, in erecting a building of this kind, met with the 
approval of the general public. In 1887 the increasing 
demands for a larger and better hall, caused him to en- 
large and remodel the building in elegant style. An 
addition of 40 feet was added, making it 100x44 feet in 
dimension. The building is of two large stories, with a 
double entrance, and contains all the modern conveni- 
ences and improvements. It is handsomely frescoed, 
well ventilated, elegantly lighted with gas, heated by 
steam, and comfortably furnished. It contains a stage 
22x37 feet, arranged with fine scenery, and well lighted. 
The name of the hall has since been changed, and nov/ 
enjoys a wide and established reputation, known as the 
" Academy of Music." This hall is conceded to be one 
of the finest in the State, and is ably supported by the 
general public. Mr. Feller is well known as an energetic, 

430 Blogrcqyhy cf Business 3Ien. 

clever and obiigiDg gentleman, and is very popular 
among the peoi^le of liis county especially. 

L. A. L. DAY, M. D., 

Homceopatliist, Martinsburg, W. Ya. — Office near the 
Presbyterian Church, makes the treatment of Chronic 
Diseases a si^ecialty. 

Doctor Day is a graduate of Pulte Homceopathic Medi- 
cal College, Cincinnati, Ohio, graduating first in his 
class, receiving the Faculty Prize, a gold medal, and 
also the first Clinical Prize for i^assing the best clinical 

In 1797 Hahnemann, the founder of Homoeopathy, an- 
nounced the principle which has made him famous. 
xVlthough it has been received with derision by a vast 
majority of the medical world, it has steadily progressed 
in favor, overcoming obstacle after obstacle, until to-day 
the system of medicine founded upon it, numbers among 
its patrons and steadfast friends a large jiroportion of 
the more intelligent and cultivated of each community. 
It is recognized in some of our universities. Our State 
Boards of Health are in part composed of Homoeopa- 
thists. Some of our state institutions are controlled by 

Homoeopathy is the system of medicine in unison with 
Nature's Law, based on the law of similars, indicating 
that the drug to be curative must be given to the sick 
for symptoms similar to those produced by the drug on 
the healthy person, the motto of Vhich is Similia Slmili- 
bus Curantur. The progress of Homcoopathy has been 
very rapid considering the jDrejudice with which it has 
had to battle. Ninety-one years have elapsed since 
Hahnemann promulgated his discovery, that which has 
made him so honored by the millions of suffering hu- 
manity. A law that has caused the greatest revolution 
ever before or since in the history of medicine. The 
progress has been so rapid that it is £)racticed in every 
portion of the civilized world, and at home here in the 

Biograpliy of Business Men. 431 

United States. Although it is but about sixty-live years 
since Dr. Gramm, the first Homoeopathic Phj^sician, 
first settled in New York — and to-day we have eleven 
Homoeopathic medical colleges, one Ophthalmic and Oto- 
logical college, 17 Periodicals, 43 Homoeopathic Hospitals, 
26 State Medical Societies, 99 county societies, 43 free 
dispensaries, probably 10,000 Homoeopathic Physicians, 
and patronized by the hundreds of thousands. The 
printed literature of the Homoeopathic school is number- 
ed by the millions of pages. 

Isopathy is a system of medicine, the law of which is 
often mistaken by many as being the Homwopatliic laio. 
The Isopathic law is the prescribing of a medicine for 
the cure of a disease that was caused by the same medi- 
cine. For example, if a man is poisoned by arsenic he 
Avill be given more arsenic to cure him. The homoeo- 
pathist, in treating such conditions will give an emetic 
and proper antidotes. This is based on chemistry and 
can only be treated chemically. 

Accessory treatment is that branch of therapeutics 
which is not medicinal, and people must not think that 
this treatment belongs to any school of medicine, for they 
are based on chemistry, physiology, hygiene and mechan- 
ics. Mechanical or operative surgery and obstetrics are 
the same and do not belong to any system.. Let this fact 
be remembered, that homoeopathy differs only from other 
systems of medicine in medicinal treatment. Many have 
the sm.all dose of homoeopathy as an objection to the sys- 
tem, which varying from drop doses of the pure tincture 
to portions of a drop or grain at frequent intervals, thus 
avoiding the sickening, weakening and grave physiologi- 
cal effects produced by medicine when given in large 
doses. "How does so small a dose act?" it is asked. 
" How does a large dose act ? " Neither can be exx^lained, 
for it cannot be told how they act. AYho can tell how 
the miasm, an unseen influence, the product of decay, or 
putrefacti-on of animal or vegetable substance pro- 

482 Biograpliy of Business Men. 

duces intermittent fever, (tlie so called malaria,) or 
the infinitesimal germs too small to be seen with the 
microscope, yet a fruitful source of disease ; or who can 
tell how the child inherits the much-tobe-dreaded scrof- 
ula, or the tendency for consumption from a parent'^ Yet 
such is known to be the fact in many instances, but it 
cannot be explained like the first question. How does 
the small dose act? or many other facts in science. 
The small dose has cured and is curing where the large 
one utterly fails. Under the observation of a conscien- 
tious, intelligent and devoted class of physicians, the 
dose needs no defense, for it is established beyond con- 
tradiction both in theory and practice. 

In disease the small dose of medicine will assist na- 
ture, because nature is trying to remove the cause of 
disease from the system, therefore the homoeopathic 
remedy, by assisting her efforts, removes the disease, 
where the larger dose of medicine Tvill weaken the 
system and thus retard recovery. The healthy eye can 
endure a very bright light, wdiile the diseased eye will 
have to be protected, showing that it takes a far less 
quantity of medicine to have an effect on the diseased 
body than on the healthy, because the one acts in unison 
with nature's law, while the other acts contrary. 


Mr. Jarnes F. Thompson, senior m.ember of the above 
well-known firm, was born in Martinsburg, W. Va., 
(then Virginia,) September loth, 1859. He is the eldest 
of the thirteen children of Samuel J. and Sallie Thomp- 
son — a quiet, industrious couple. AVhen the war closed 
and the school system was in its incipiency, .lames en- 
tered the old Third Ward School, on John street, and 
began to drink dee^D at the fountain of knowledge. He 
was naturally a bright boy, but his father's family was a 
large one, and rather than throw the entire burthen of its 
support upon him, James worked hard during the sum- 
mer months and studied earnestly and late during the 

BiograpliT/ of Business Men. 433 

long winter nights, — laying the foundation of a good 
business and general education. He was ambitious, 
however, and soon left Martinsburg to work with his un- 
cle, Jno. W. Dalgarn, in the office of the Spirit of Jef- 
ferson, at Charlestown, Here, for over three years he 
worked at odds, steadily advancing from "devil" to com- 
positor and assistant editor, and winning a splendid 
reputation for business qualities, earnestness and sobriety, 
and making numerous influential friends. But he loved 
old Martinsburg — the scene of his boyhood, the hope of 
his future. Once more, working hard and persistingly 
for a livelihood in the humblest spheres of labor, (but 
still attending the Grammar School during the winter,) 
he won the commendation and esteem of the watchful 
public of his native town. His, energy and determina- 
tion were not lost sight of by business men. When 
Louis Bouton opened his large store at the now Berry 
stand, young Thompson was employed by him. A hard 
man with whom to get along, James retained his position, 
while old clerks went out and new ones came in everj^ 
month. He remained with Mr. Bouton about two years 
and a- half. Then Mr. H. N. Deatrick obtained his ser- 
vices. "Jim" stood up to his new avocation, and soon 
became the leading salesman in town. Persons knew he 
would npt deceive them. He remained with Mr. Deat- 
rick until he closed out his stock, after which he sought 
more suitable quarters and went in with Mr. David 
Weil, in the clothing business, occupying the confiden- 
tial x">osition of manager of the store in the Staley Build- 
ing. By dint of carefulness and push, he advanced in 
the estimation of Mr. Weil to such an extent, that in one 
year he held a partnership in the business. His success 
was x3henominal. Soon afterwards Mr. Weil retired, and 
James, or "Jim" as the boys familiarly call him, con- 
tinued the business, taking in as a partner Mr. M. G. 
Tabler, a clerk under the old firm, and a pushing, watch- 
ful young gentleman. These two worked up an enor- 

434 , Biography of Business Hen. 

mous trade. Their quarters grew too small, and the 
stocks was removed to their present handsome location 
in the Homricli building, on Queen street, where pros- 
perity has followed them. Mr. Thompson is a self- made 
man — the success he enjoys is the result of years of at- 
tentiveness and toil. No man in Martinsburg has an 
equal knowledge of all the details of the clothing busi- 
ness. He seems to be a .part of the business. He is a 
good Judge of material ; has a quick insight into the 
markets, — knows when to recommend, — keeps the best 
makes of clothing, and treats poor and rich with equal 
courtesy and attention. "Can't" is a word not to be 
found in his dictionary ; and business tact is a farnily 
trait. With the sjoheres of his usefulness ever widen- 
ing, he enjoys the confidence of the entire community, 
and lends a helping hand to every laudable enterx:)rise. 
He was mainly instrumental in establishing the celebra 
ted See Chair Factory here, and when the company went 
out of organization, in comi)any with Messrs. H. C. Berry 
and Dr. L. A. L. Day, he jDurchased the business, and 
will si)are no means or time to x)ush it to activity and 
paying advantage. Mr. Thompson was married to Miss 
Minnie S. Ray, of Shepherdstown, on February ^8th, 
1888, and now resides on West King street, in one of the 
DeGrange buildings. 

Mr. M. G. Tabler, tlie junior member of the firm of 
Thom];)son & Tabler, is the eldest son of James W. and 
Amelia Tabler, of Berkeley County. His father is an 
enteri)rising and thrifty farmer, and instilled within the 
very being*of his sou, the essence of thrift and push that 
made his own life so successful.* Mayberry was born 
November 8th, 1862, in the neighborhood of Darkesville, 
and spent the days of his early manhood on his father's 
farm But he felt that his sphere of usefulness was too 
limited on the farm, and when eighteen years old, came 
to Martinsburg and entered the Berkeley Academy. 
Here he applied himself diligently for two years, winning 

Blograpliy of Business 3Ien. 435 

the esteem oi:" Prof. Dieffenderler, and going to the iront 
in his class. His teacher said: " Tabler had an oric-i- 
uality of conception, an acute insight, was energetic and 
attentive, and had every indication of possessing the 
essentials going to make up a good business man." He 
was quiet and industrious, watchful of the small things, 
and thorough in his work. After leaving the Academy, 
he entered the services of Mr. J). Weil, then conducting 
a flourishing clothing business in the Staley building. 
Here he met Mr. Jas. F. Thompson, and formed those 
mutual lies of confidence and friendship which linally 
united the two young men in the business they now so 
successfully pursue. Mr. Tabler is careful and honest. 
His face is an index of his character, and a warrant from 
him, as to the quality of goods, is as good as gold. Being 
a young man and x>ossessing a large circle of acquain- 
tances, he has done 'much to make the business of the 
lirm stable and permanent. The country people feel that 
in him they can depend. Under the careful training of 
his more experienced partner, and possessing natural 
qualifications for the business, he has developed into a 
safe and careful salesman, and an efficient business man. 
None complain of his dealings. . Having made, moulded 
and fashioned his own character, winning his deservedly 
popular name of " fair dealer," he goes on quietly in the 
even tenor of his way, contented to see his patronage 
increasing and his customers satisfied. 

The business of the lirm is steadily increasing. The 
store room is one mass of handsome novelties, fine suits, 
and the general concomitants of the business. Conduct- 
ing a large "made to order" feature with the well-known 
firm of M. Friedman & Sons, of Baltimore, Md. , the suits 
they turn out are i^erfect in fit and material. Theirs is 
undoubtedly the soundest and best trade in town. Sat- 
isfaction always follows the sales, and their x)atronage is 
not limited to counties, states or ages. The growth of 

436 Biograjjliy of Business Men. 

the business is tlie result of tlie old saying : " By indus- 
try, true worth thrives." 


Mr. Bowers, one of Martinsburg's enterprizing citizens 
and business men, is a son of Jno. A. Bowers, Esq., and 
was born in Martinsburg in 1857. He received his educa- 
tion at the common schools of his day, and in 1872 enter- 
ed the B. & 0. R. R. machine shops as an apprentice, 
where he remained four years— serving the required 
time and acquitting himself creditably. Shortly after- 
ward he was called to Garrett City, Indiana, where he 
commanded an excellent position in the B. & O. shops. 
After remaining about one year, he was compelled to 
leave on account of ill health, and returned to the shops 
at this city. In 1885 he established himself in the 
merchandise business on North Queen Street, and has 
continued to the present day. His store occupies the en- 
tire floors of a two-story building, wherein an enormous 
stock of goods is kept aBpd a successful! business trans- 
acted. His stock consists of staple and fancy goods, 
groceries, canned meats, fish, fruit, vegetables, imported 
and domestic pickles, sauces, choice teas, coffees and 
spices, relishes and other condiments and delicacies, in 
fact all the necessaries and luxuries of the table, as well 
as the latest novilties in the dry goods line, including 
the most popular dress patterns, imiDorted and domestic 
hosiery, underwear, ladies and gentlemen's furnishings, 
trimmings, embroideries, sewing materials, white goods 
and notions. His present location is on North Queen 
Street, near B. & O. R. R. crossing. Mr. Bowers is a 
shrewd business man, energetic and industrious, and of a 
genial and clever disposition. He takes considerable 
interest in various enterprises, and has won the resjDect 
and esteem of his people. 


Mr. Morrow, one of Hedgesville's enterprising and 
energetic business men, is a native of Jefferson County, 

Biography of Business Men. 437 

is a son of James W. Morrow, Esq., and was born in 
the year 1S4G. His advantages for an education were 
those offered by the common school of his day. At an 
early age he entered the milling business under his 
father, and remained for a period of about seven years. 
Afterward he returned to school, attending during the 
winter season and milling during the summer months. 
In 18G4 he entered the military company under Captain 
Kobt. Baylor, in Company "B," 12th Regiment, Vir- 
ginia Cavalry, and served until the close of the war, a 
period of about one year* After the war he followed the 
pursuit of farming for about two years, when he entered 
the silversmith business under Wm. Johnson, of Fred- 
erick, Md. Here he remained two years and gained 
every advantage offered in the business. In the spring 
of 1887 he opened up in Hedgesville, and from that date 
has continued until the present day in a successful busi- 
ness. His present location is on Main street, and con- 
veniently arranged for the benefit of the general public. 
Mr. Morrow first opened in the silversmith business and 
afterwards added the saddler business, repairing of ma- 
chinery and sale of Hour and feed. In his trades he is a 
skilled workman of talent and energy, and is doing a 
thriving business. Considerable amount of repairing on 
jewelry, watches, etc. , is sent him from the larger cities. 
Mr. Morrow can well be termed a self made man, and as 
an industrious and clever gentleman, holds the highest 
respect and esteem of his peoj^le. 


Mr. Hopewell represents one of the energetic, clever 
and industrious colored citizens of Martinsburg. He is 
a native of Jefferson County, W. Va., and was born at 
Shepherdstown, December, 17th, 1826. He was a son of 
Henry Hopewell, Esq., who was well known throughout 
Jefferson County for his sobriety and uprightness. 
During Samuel's early days the advantage for an educa- 
tion was very limited with his race, and consequently he 

438 Blogrcipliy of Business J^len. 

obtained no other learning than tliat given him by his 
friends. He was employed on a farm, where he remain- 
ed for nearly twenty years, and made many warm friends. 
He afterward acted as a caterer and carried on barbering 
for a number of years. ' During the late war, in 1SG3, he 
was conscripted by the Eastern Maryland Regiment. 
However he served but a short while, and was exempted 
from service on account of ill health. He then returned 
to Martinsburg, from which place he went to St. Louis, 
Mo., and remained until after the surrender at Rich- 
mond. Mr. Hopewell is well known throughout the 
community, and takes an active part in business affairs. 
AVith his race he stands high in their estimation, and 
has won the resi)ect of a large circle of acquaintances. 
During the past twenty years he has successfully follow- 
ed barbering, and continues at the present day on East 
Martin Street. As a tonsorial artist he cannot be sur- 
passed in hair cutting, shami^ooning, dying and shaving. 
He employs two skilled workmen regularly, and has his 
shop conveniently arranged. 

594 9