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Full text of "The Algonquian series"

LIBRARY 

OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 

GIFT OF 



Class 



V 
THE ALGONQUIAN SERIES 

Blgonqutan IRamca of tbc Siouan 
bribes of IDirainia 



EDITION 250 COPIES 



THE ALGONQUIAN NAMES 

OF THE 

SIOUAN TRIBES OF VIRGINIA 

With Historical and Ethnological Notes 



BY 
WILLIAM WALLACE TOOKER 



NEW YORK 

FRANCIS P. HARPER 
1901 




COPYRIGHT, 1901, 

BY 
FRANCIS P. HARPER. 



THE ALGONQU1AN NAMES OF 
THE SIOUAN TRIBES OF VIR 
GINIA.* 




|HE issue, almost simul 
taneously, of two valu 
able bulletins from the 
Bureau of American Ethnology 
The Siouan Tribes of the East, 
by James Mooney, and The Ar- 

* Read before Section H, American As 
sociation for the Advancement of Science, 
at Springfield, Mass., September 3, 1895, 
and printed in the American Anthropolo 
gist for October, 1895, vol. viii. pp. 376-392. 



OF THE 

UNIVERSITY 

OF 




204775 



6 The Algonquian Names of 

chaeology of the James and Poto 
mac Valleys, by Gerard Fowke 
brings to my desk such a collation 
of facts, historical, geographical, 
and archaeological, that it enables 
me to supplement their efforts from 
another field of research, and at the 
same time to contribute additional 
memoranda to the nomenclature of 
our native races, by presenting 
analyses of the Algonquian appella 
tives of these people, whose tribal 
synonymy, confederacy, and migra 
tions have been carefully discussed 
by the first, and the archaeology of 
whose territory, from personal re 
searches and excavations, has been 
the theme of the second. 



The Siou&n Tribes of Virginia. j 

When Captain John Smith and 
his companions first discovered the 
falls of the James River, in May, 
1607, the native guides who accom 
panied the explorers related remark 
able stories of a nation living farther 
up the stream toward the moun 
tains, called the Monacans, who, at 
the time of the falling of the leaf, 
came down and invaded their coun 
try. The fear of these Western 
Indians was such that no induce 
ments the discoverers made could 
persuade these Powhatans to guide 
them to the habitations of these 
people. The stories, however, 
made so deep an impression upon 
the minds of the adventurers that 



8 The Algonquian Names of 

in the following spring Captain 
Smith was assigned to the command 
of sixty men, in order to discover 
and to search for the commodities 
of the Monacans, so as to load a 
ship for home. But so unseason 
able was the time and so opposed 
was the captain of the vessel to 
load with anything but the " phan- 
tastical gold/ as it is expressed, 
which he, as well as others, believed 
was obtainable among the Mona- 
cans, that it caused much ill-feeling to 
arise among the colonists ; for Cap 
tain Smith, having been of a more 
practical and conservative nature 
than many of his associates, pre 
ferred to load the ship with cedar, 



The Siouan Tribes of Virginia. g 

which he justly claimed was a more 
" present dispatch than either durt 
or the reports of an uncertain dis 
covery." After considerable delay 
the ship was finally loaded with 
cedar, and the attempt to discover 
the country of the Monacans was 
postponed.* In the fall another 
effort was made, when Captain 
Newport, with one hundred and 
twenty men, went forth for the in 
vasion of the unknown country. 
Arriving at the falls, they marched 
by land some forty miles in two 
days and a half, and then returned 
by the same path. They discov 
ered two towns of the Monacans, 
* Arber s Smith, p. 106. 



IO The Algonquian Names of 

called Massinacack and Mowhe- 
menchouch. On their return they 
were delayed by searching in many 
places for supposed mines, which 
was really the object of the expedi 
tion ; having with them a refiner, who 
persuaded them to believe that he 
extracted a small amount of silver 
from the rock, and, as they relate, 
better stuff might be had for the 
digging.* 

Smith condenses the information 
which he subsequently gleaned from 
the natives as follows : " Vpon the 
head of the Powhatans[ James River] 
are the Monacans, whose chiefe habi 
tation is at Rasauweak ; vnto whom 
* Ibid., p. 438. 



The Siouan Tribes of Virginia. 1 1 

the Mowhemenchughes,\.\\z Massinna 
cacks, the Monahassanughs, the Mon- 
asickapanoughs, and other nations 
pay tributes. Vpon the head of the 
river of Toppahanock [Rappahan- 
nock] is a people called Mannaho- 
acks. To these are contributers the 
Tauxamas,ihe Shackaconias, the Ont- 
p one as, the Tegninateos, the Whon- 
kenteaes, the Stegarakes, the Hassin- 
nungaes, and divers others, all con 
federates with the Monacans, though 
many different in language, and be 
very barbarous, liuing for the most 
part of wild beasts and fruits."* 

* Ibid., pp. 366, 367. Powhatan (Arber s 
Smith, p. 19), also called these people col 
lectively the Anchanachuck ( Mass. Ad- 
chan-achu-uk) " those that hunt in the 



12 The Algonquian Names of 

One of the Mannahoacks, belong 
ing to the tribe called the Hassin- 
nungaes, whom Smith captured upon 
the upper waters of the river Rappa- 
hannock, when interpreted, said that 
the Monacans were their neighbors 
and friends, and did dwell, as they, 
in the hilly countries, by small 
rivers, living upon roots and fruits, 
but chiefly by hunting. 

This brief summary embraces 
nearly all the knowledge that we 
possess relating to these tribes dur 
ing the period of settlement. After 
1609 although undoubtedly often 

mountains " or "the mountain hunters" 
a term corresponding to that given them 
in later years by the five nations, viz., 
Todirichroones. See Note p. 45. 



The Siouan Tribes of Virginia. 1 3 

in contact with the settlers through 
trade and otherwise nothing what 
ever was recorded or preserved re 
lating to them for over sixty years. 
Even the significations of these 
tribal appellatives, correct interpre 
tations of which are absolutely 
necessary for an exhaustive and 
conclusive study of these people, 
have been forgotten for many 
generations. 

The questions that now arise, and 
which I shall endeavor to answer, 
are these : First, what were the 
commodities of the Monacans that 
Smith was instructed to search for? 
Second, what was it that gave rise 
to lasting impressions in the minds 



14 The Algonquian Names of 

of the Virginia colonists that valu 
able mines of copper, iron, gold, 
and silver were to be found in the 
same region ? Third, Can any of 
the Mannahoacks be identified with 
tribes or peoples of a later historic 
period ? Fourth, To what language 
must we assign these and other 
names of Captain John Smith ? 

Mr. James Mooney, in his Siouan 
Tribes of the East, has ably demon 
strated by his synopsis of early his 
torical references, by his identifica 
tion of the geographical locations 
of the tribes in after years, and by 
his conclusions derived therefrom, 
that the Monacans were not the 
ancestors of the Tuscaroras, as has 



The Siouan Tribes of Virginia. 1 5 

been accepted ever since the time 
of Jefferson, the sponsor for this 
baptism, but were the progenitors 
of those people, who were subse 
quently, by a fortunate series of 
circumstances, identified by Horatio 
Hale as speaking a primitive dialect 
of the Siouan tongue, thus indicating 
that the original home of the Siouan 
family must have been in the east. 
Therefore it is unnecessary at this 
time and place to elaborate further 
on these points that Mr. Hale has 
so learnedly presented from linguis 
tic sources and which Mr. Mooney 
has augmented and confirmed from 
historical channels, but to accept it 
as an incontrovertible conclusion 



1 6 The Algonquian Names of 

that the Monacans and their tribal 
confederacy as such, including por 
tions of the Mannahoacks, must be 
assigned to the Siouan linguistic 
stock.* 

These truths accepted, I will pro 
ceed to analyze those terms, descrip 
tive in their character, which we 
have found applied to these people 
in the early days of the period of 
colonization. These appellatives 
were bestowed upon them by their 
neighbors on the east, the Pow- 
hatans and their confederates, who 
are well known to have been a 

* Siouan, from Sioux, is a corruption of 
the Algonquian word " nadowe-ssi-wag, 
the snake-like ones, the enemies" (Trum- 
bull). 



The Siouan Tribes of Virginia. 17 

branch of the Algonquian linguistic 
stock. Therefore there ought to 
arise no question whatever in the 
mind of the critical student of 
Smith s works against the dictum 
now submitted, that every one of 
these terms, without a single excep 
tion, are necessarily Algonquian, 
and consequently should be ana 
lyzed and translated by the aid of 
that language, no matter what the 
nativity of the people themselves 
may have been. This declaration 
will also apply to every aboriginal 
name occurring upon Smith s map 
of Virginia, for he was never in con 
tact with other than an Algonkin 
long enough to learn a name. Be- 



l8 The Algonquian Names of 

sides, the historical evidence would 
seem to indicate that the greater 
number of these terms were heard 
spoken from the lips of the Pow- 
hatans long before the colonists saw 
a Monacan. For instance, Captain 
Newport s guide and interpreter 
was a savage of the Powhatans called 
Namontack* Newport named a 
mine six miles above the falls after 
him because he discovered it.f 
Smith s interpreter while among the 
Mannahoacks was an Algonkin, as 
was also his Tockwogh interpreter 
while interviewing the Sasquesa- 
hanoughs. His very brief parley 

* Arber s Smith, p. 438. 
f Strachey, p. 31. 



The Siouan Tribes of Virginia. 19 

with the Massawomecks, as he re 
lates, was entirely by signs.* There 
fore it seems to me that failure 
would be necessarily foreordained 
in seeking for other than Algon- 
quian elements in any of the ab 
original names of Virginia as be 
queathed to us by Captain John 
Smith. 

William Strachey, secretary of 
the colony, 1609 to 1612, who was 
more or less familiar with the lan 
guage of the Powhatans and has 
left us a valuable vocabulary of that 
dialect, derives the name Monacan 
from Monohacan (or Monowhaufc), 
"a sword, "f while Heckewelder, 
*Arber s Smith, p. 422. f Mooney, p. 26. 



2O The Algonquian Names of 

through the Delaware, translates it 
as " a spade or any implement for 
digging the soil," corrupted from 
Monahacan* Heckewelder is so 
rarely correct in his place-name ety 
mologies that he should have due 
credit for this suggestion, for the 
fact appears that both of these 
authorities are correct in their iden 
tification of the verbal element of 
the name, but not in the grammar, 
application, or true analysis of the 
term as applied to a people. 

The prefix Mona is undoubtedly 
the verb signifying " to dig," occur 
ring in the same primitive form in 

* Heckewelder s Names, ed. by Reichel, 
p. 280. 



The Siouan Tribes of Virginia. 21 

many Algonquian dialects, from the 
Cree Moona, in the far north, to the 
Narragansett Mona, on the east, 
and is reproduced at the south in 
the Povvhatan Monohacan, " sword," 
literally a digging instrument, from 
Mono, " to dig," prefixed to -hacan, 
an instrumentive noun suffix used 
only as a terminal in compound 
words denotive of things artificial,* 
so designated because so used by 
the Indians when purchased from 
the settlers. The same verb figures 
in other Powhatan cluster words, 
thus revealing its identity ; for in 
stance, in Monascunnemu, "to 
cleanse the ground to fit it for 
*Howse, Grammar of the Cree, p. 182. 



22 The Algonquian Na<mes of 

seed," making it the equivalent of 
the Narragansett Monasktinnemun ; 
Delaware Mundskamen, " to weed." 
It will be found by analyzing care 
fully the various synonyms of the 
term Monacans, or Monanacans* 
with its English plural as displayed, 
that it resolves itself into the com 
ponents of Mond-ack anough, from 
Mona, "to dig;" ack, " land or 
earth," with its generic plural of 
-anough, " nation or people " that 
is, " people who dig the earth " 
the phonetic sounds of which were 
shortened into Monacans by the 
English, which may be freely and 
correctly translated as the " diggers 
* Arber s Smith, p. 1. 



The Siouan Tribes of Virginia. 23 

or miners." The term as such prob 
ably designated the whole confeder 
acy collectively. This abbreviation 
of the sounds of tribal appellatives 
is characteristic of English notation, 
as in Mohawks, from Mauqua uog ; 
Mohegans from Manhigan-euck ; 
Pequots, from Pequtto og, and others. 
The "chiefe habitation" of the 
Monacans, according to both Smith 
and Strachey, was at Rasauweak, or 
Rassawek a statement that is fully 
confirmed by analysis of the name. 
Its earliest notation, however, ap 
pears in the Relation of Captain 
Gabriel Archer,* which Professor 
Arber suggests may be the official 
* Arber s Smith, p. xlvi. 



24 The Algonquian Names of 

report presented by Captain New 
port on his first return, in July, 
1607, therefore possibly antedating 
Smith, in the very corrupt form of 
Monanacah Ra/towacah, w hich, to fol 
low Smith, should have been more 
correctly printed as Monacanough 
Rassauwek, thus indicating that 
there was originally a grammatical 
continuity between the words as 
uttered by the savages of the 
lower James. Frequently the 
sounds represented by w in some 
of the northern Algonquian dia 
lects are replaced by r in the Pow- 
hatan and other cognate dialects. 
Allowing for these alternating 
sounds, or what Dr. Boas terms 



The Siouan Tribes of Virginia. 25 

alternating apperceptions of one 
and the same sound,* the deri 
vation of Rassauwek is probably 
from wassau, " it is bright, it 
glistens or shines," which, with a 
suffix applicable to the object de- 
scribed,f was a term much employed 
by many Algonquian tribes to 
designate any kind of white metal 
or mineral, but which in this case, 
I believe, for many reasons, was a 
synonym for micaj an article of 
trade and highly valued by the 
tribes of the west and east, as indi- 

* American Anthropologist, vol. ii. p. 52. 

f looker, American Antiquarian, vol. 
xvii., p. 8. 

| Compare Wosogolumin , mica, and 
Woseantechk, glass, Micmac (Rand). 



26 The Algonquian Names of 

cated by its discovery in the mounds 
of Ohio, in the graves of Virginia, 
and elsewhere. The terminal affix 
-wek or -weak (= Massachusetts 
wek or week), "the house or home," 
is the conditional third person 
singular of the verb " when (or 
where) he is at home." Thus we 
have, in accordance with this anal 
ysis, Mond-ackanough-wassau-wek, 
" the home of the mica-diggers," 
or " home of the people who dig 
the earth for something bright." 
Gerard Fowke * informs us : 
" Several mica mines have been 
opened within a mile of the court 
house [Amelia County]. The 
* Archaeologic Investigations, p. 10. 



The Siouan Tribes of Virginia. 27 

miners report that in digging they 
sometimes discover small piles of 
mica which have been detached 
from the rock and heaped together. 
These pieces, usually of poor qual 
ity, as if rejected by the workers, 
are doubtless from aboriginal ex 
cavations, as they lie beneath 
several feet of accumulated earth, 
and there is no tradition of early 
mica-mining in this section by the 
whites." * 

* Professor Holmes remarks (Fifteenth 
Ann. Report Bureau of Ethnology, p. 105): 
" So far as we can learn, mica was not ex 
tensively used by the Chesapeake-Potomac 
Peoples ; but it cannot be safely affirmed 
that it was not used in some quantity in 
nearly every given locality since the 
material is not sufficiently durable to be 



28 The Algonquian Names of 

Although this discovery is not 
exactly in the direction of Rassau- 
wek, as indicated by Smith on his 
map, it is in the territory of the 
Monacans, and fully confirms the 
foregoing interpretation, in the fact 
that mica-mining was one of the in- 
preserved save under favorable conditions. 
Mica does not occur in form suitable for 
working within considerable distances of 
tidewater sites. It is said to have been 
worked by the natives in several counties 
of southern central Virginia, and in Penn 
sylvania and the Carolinas. The processes 
of mining, as observed in the mines of 
North Carolina appear to have been much 
the same as in the quarrying of steatite. 
The deposits were uncovered and the mass 
ive crystals were broken up with hammers, 
and the best sheets secured to be used as 
mirrors, or cut into desired shapes for 
ornaments." 



The Siouan Tribes of Virginia. 29 

dustries carried on by the early 
occupants of this valley. The exact 
site of Rassauwek has not been as 
yet fully established. Smith locates 
it between the two branches of the 
river ; but Mr. Fowke, who has de 
voted considerable personal atten 
tion to the question, says the point 
of land between the two rivers is 
irregular, infertile, rather difficult 
of access, and nothing is found to 
show that it was ever occupied by 
the Indians. On the other hand, 
Elk Island, in Goochland County, 
just below Columbia, bears every 
indication of Indian occupancy, and 
many specimens of steatite pottery 
some rough, others tolerably well 



30 The Algonquian Names of 

finished have been found on the 
island, whereas such are extremely 
rare elsewhere in the vicinity. 
From which he concludes : " Alto 
gether it is very probable that the 
main town of the Monacans was on 
Elk Island." But he describes an 
other Indian settlement, farther up 
upon the left bank of the Rivanna, 
between that river and the James, 
which corresponds more to Smith s 
location. While suggesting this 
may have been the site of Rassau- 
wek, he thinks the evidence favors 
Elk Island. Smith s location of 
tribes out of the horizon of his own 
researches and explorations must 
be regarded as approximate only, 



The Siouan Tribes of Virginia. 31 

although the relations of the 
Indians, which were his sources of 
information as regards unknown 
countries, were in the main quite 
accurate, as later discoveries bore 
witness. From Mr. Fowke s de 
scription of the island, it may have 
been at one time the abiding place 
of another wing of the confederacy, 
which the occurrence of steatite 
vessels would seem to indicate. 

This wing of the Monacans, the 
Monahassanughes, were noted down 
by Smith both on his map and in 
his works. Strachey* places them 
at the foot of the mountains. It 
will be observed that we have here 
* History of Travaille, p. 48. 



32 The Algonquian Names of 

precisely the same verbal prefix as 
in the former term, and it should 
unquestionably sustain the same 
derivation of Mona, " to dig." Now 
as to the second component, 
-hassan. In the Massachusetts and 
in some other dialects hdssun, 
hdssin, or dssin, with or without 
the English aspirate, signifies " a 
rock," which, together with its 
generic plural of -anough, " peo 
ple," gives us Mond-hassun anough, 
"people who dig the rock" that 
is to say, they were " miners or 
quarrymen," which fully describes 
in a most remarkable way those 
people who excavated in the 
steatite or soapstone quarries. 



The Siouan Tribes of Virginia. 33 

Many of these quarries, situated in 
the valleys and among the hills 
and forests once occupied by these 
primitive miners, have been investi 
gated by Mr. F. H. Gushing, Mr. 
Gerard Fowke, and others. The 
accumulated debris of the diggings, 
the abandoned pot-forms, the frag 
ments of steatite vessels, and the 
rude digging implements of stone 
bear witness of aboriginal labor 
through a long series of years under 
like conditions. The quarries, es 
pecially of Amelia County, studied 
by Mr. Gushing, were of consider 
able extent, and must have been 
worked long anterior to the period 
of colonization a period from 



34 The Algonquian Names of 

which we must necessarily date 
its decline.* 

In Nahyssan of John Lederer, 

* For a full, detailed description of these 
steatite or soapstone quarries which have 
been uncovered within the last decade in 
Virginia, the various tools used in excavat 
ing, the mode of working, and illustrations 
in half tones of the quarries themselves, 
the reader is referred to the splendid 
monograph, by Professor William Henry 
Holmes of the United States National 
Museum, entitled The Stone Implements 
of the Potomac-Chesapeake Tide-water 
Provinces, in the Fifteenth Annual Report 
of the Bureau of Ethnology. He says (p. 
109) : "In cases where the floor and walls 
of a well-developed quarry are fully ex 
posed, as in the Clifton and Amelia County 
quarries in Virginia, the details of ancient 
operation are clearly displayed. In some 
cases it is seen that the task of cutting out 
the mass was just begun when operations 
in the quarry closed, while in others it was 
well under way and the bulbous nuclei 



The Siouan Tribes of Virginia. 35 

and Hanohaskie y of Batts, * we find 
synonyms of Mond-hassan anough, 

stand out in bold relief. In cases where 
under cutting has taken place the rounded 
form resembles a mushroom on its stern 
and is ready to be removed by a blow ; 
while in many other cases we see only 
roundish depressions in the quarry surface, 
in the bottom of which are stumps or scars 
indicating that removal of the mass had 
taken place. It often happened that the 
work of cutting was stopped by the dis 
covery of defects in the stone. In very 
many cases defects were not discovered 
until too late, and the operations of removal 
at, the last moment became abortive ; 
instead of breaking off at the base, as was 
intended, the cleavage of the stone was 
such that the body split in two, leaving a 
portion remaining attached to the stem." 
Professor Holmes gives a drawing in 
Plate LXXVI, which gives a more satis 
factory idea of the whole range of this 
phenomenon than can any mere description. 
* Batts, in his Journal and Relation of 
a New Discovery in Western Virginia 



36 The Algonquian Names of 

as suggested by Mr. Mooney ; for 
the guides and interpreters of both 
of these travelers were Algonkins 
or spoke the language, and these 
were forms undoubtedly current 
among the settlers and traders in 
their time. 

(Col. Hist. N. Y., vol. iii. p. 194), when 
at the limit of his travels, speaks of a 
"place on the River side, being a piece of 
very rich ground whereon ye Mohetons had 
formerly lived," and when he returns to 
the Tolera town, they found a Mohetan 
Indian there, who " informed them that 
they had been from the mountains half 
way to the place where they now lived, 
and yt ye next town beyond them lived on 
a plain levell from whence came abundance 
of salt." Some writers have concluded this 
tribal name should be Mohegan, and Win- 
sor (Cartier to Frontenac, p. 229) fell into 
the same error. Mr. Mooney (Siouan Tribes 



The Siouan Tribes of Virginia. 37 

Farther to the northwest, as laid 
down on Smith s map and referred 
to but once in his history, appears 
another tribe of the Monacans, under 
the appellative of the Monasukapa- 
noughs, or Monasickapanoughs. As 

of the East, p. 37) has suggested the name 
Mohetan, from Siouan root terms denoting 
" a country town "; but as the name seems 
to have been a familiar colloquial term, as 
used by Batts, it seems more likely to have 
been a survival of the last portions of the 
Algonquian term bestowed by the Carolina 
or Roanoke Indians in 1585, viz.: Chaunis 
Temoatan, "the salt-making town " (Ameri 
can Antiquarian, vol. xii. pp. 1-15, Tooker). 
In my paper I may have exceeded the dis 
tance and located the town too far west, 
and if so, the valley of the Kanawha, in 
West Virginia, would have been better. 
And being thus identified the Mohetans 
must have been a tribe of the Shawnees. 



38 The Algonquian Names of 

is evident to all, we have here dis 
played another name with the same 
verbal prefix, as in the other cases, 
signifying to dig. Surely this con 
federacy well deserved the title 
bestowed upon it collectively 
of being the " diggers." Analysis 
of this word, as in the previous 
terms presented, gives us Mona- 
sukaparianough, " people who dig 
the sukapan or sickapan" What is 
the " sukapan " ? is the problem 
that now confronts us. This is 
comparatively easy of solution, 
although seemingly difficult at the 
first glance. The native of Has- 
sunungae, when interpreted, stated, 
among other matters, that the 



The Siouan Tribes of Virginia. 30 

Monacans did dwell as they and 
lived upon roots. The generic 
name for roots, tubers, or bulbs was 
pen, varying in some dialects to pun, 
pan, pin, pon, or bun. Therefore 
the " sukapans" were the tubers of 
a plant which these barbarous peo 
ple dug for food and was perhaps 
their staple product. We, no 
doubt, find the parallel of " Suka- 
pan " in Sagapon (or Sackapuri), a 
component of a place name on 
Long Island, New York, in the 
term Sagapon ack, now applied to 
a post-office and hamlet in the 
town of Southampton, from the 
first syllable of which the village 
of Sag Harbor derives its name. 



40 The Algonquian Names of 

The Micmac (Rand) Segubun, "a 
ground-nut," is another parallel. 
One of the towns of the Kuskar- 
awaokes (later known as the Nanti- 
cokes), on the eastern shore of the 
Chesapeake, had the same name. 
Smith says:* "Here doth in- 
habite the people of Sarapinagh 
(= ground-nut people), Nause, 
Arseek, and Nantaquack the best 
Marchants of all other Salvages." 
On Long Island the name was 
applied to the common ground-nut 
(Apios tuberosa, a leguminous, twin 
ing plant, producing clusters of 
dark purple flowers and having a 
root tuberous and pleasant to the 
*Arber s Smith, p. 415. 



The Siouan Tribes of Virginia. 41 

taste), which are still to be found 
in great abundance at a swamp 
in the vicinity known as " Sagg 
swamp." 

The prefix which denotes the 
species cannot in all cases be 
identified, but the generic name 
with its localizing affix is easily 
recognizable. Not long since, while 
in conversation with an intelligent 
Chippeway Indian in regard to this 
particular prefix, he informed me 
that it denoted a species which were 
"hard or difficult to get out of the 
ground." While the Massachusetts 
siogkke, "hard or difficult," may 
resemble the Long Island sagga (or 
sackd) in sound, I am inclined to 



42 The Algonquian Names of 

believe he was mistaken, and that 
the Long Island sagga and the 
Powhatan suka (or sickd) are identi 
cal, and are the parallel of the Cree 
sugge, "thick, close together"* a 
derivation that fully describes the 
tubers of the Apios tuber osa, which 
grow close together, strung in 
clusters on a fibrous root. It was 
probably the same plant discovered 
by Captain Gosnold on one of the 
Elizabeth isles, on his visit to the 
New England coast in 1602, which 
John Brierton, one of the voyagers, 
describes as " ground nuts as big as 
egges, as good as Potatoes, and 40 
on a string, not two ynches vnder 
*Howse, Grammar of the Cree, p. 40. 



The Siouan Tribes of Virginia. 43 

ground."* Dr. J. W. Harshberger, 
of the University of Pennsylvania, 
informs me that "Apios tuberosa, 
or, as it is now called, Apios apios, 
by the recent upheaval in system 
atic names, is a plant of wide dis 
tribution and occurs abundantly in 
Virginia. I have two recorded 
localities for it Jamestown and 
southwestern Virginia and it is 
therefore to be found on the upper 
James." It was undoubtedly the 
same plant seen by Hariot on the 
Roanoke,f viz.: " Openauk are a 
kind of roots of round forme, some 
of the bignes of walnuts, some far 

* Arber s Smith, p. 334. 
f Narrative, p. 26. 



44 The Algonquian Names of 

greater, which are found in moist 
and marish grounds, growing many 
together, one by another, in ropes, 
or as thogh they were fastened with 
a string. Being boiled or sodden, 
they are a very good meate." Asa 
Gray, the eminent botanist, said : 
" Had civilization started in Amer 
ica instead of Asia, our ground-nut 
would have been the first developed 
esculent tuber, and would have 
probably held its place in the 
first rank along with potatoes and 
sweet potatoes of later acquisition." 
Thus the Mona-sukapari aiiough were 
" a people who dig ground-nuts." 
Compare Otchipwe (Baraga) Nin 
Mond apini, " I dig potatoes." In 



The Siouan Tribes of Virginia. 45 

the historic name of Saponi, * as 
applied to a tribe in the annals of 
Virginia and North Carolina, and as 
evident by its generic pan, we have 
all that remains of the original 
appellative, and I believe Mr. 
Mooney (p. 27) is correct in sug 
gesting its derivation therefrom. 

The two tribes visited by Captain 
Newport, and mentioned by Smith 

*They were called by the five Nations 
the Todirichroones, Toderichrone, or 
Thoderighroonas, as it is variously spelled 
in the records. The term probably denotes 
the "hunting-people," Onondaga Hoto- 
radhe-roni. The proposition of the 
Governor of Virginia to the five Nations 
September 10, 1722, says: "The Chris- 
tanna Indians whom you call Todirich 
roones that we comprehend under the 
name, the Sapom es, Ochineeches, Stenke- 



46 The Algonquian Names of 

as the Mowhemenchuglies (or Mou- 
hemenchoucJi) and the Massinacaks, 
do not seem to come under the 
same head as the others in being 
" diggers," although they were con 
federate or tributary with them. 
The description of some as being 
very barbarous, living for the most 
part on wild beasts and fruits, 

nocks, Mezpontskys & Toteroes, all the 
forenamed Indians having their present 
Settlements on the East Side of the high 
Ridge of Mountains and between the two 
Great Rivers of Potomack & Roanoke, 
which you call Kahongaronton and 
Konentcheneke, etc." (Col. Hist. N. Y., 
vol. v. p. 673). "Those Indians called by 
the English Cattabaws (Catawbas) are 
called by us Toderichroone, are a false and 
treacherous people" (Answer of the Five 
Nations, etc., Col. Hist. N. Y., vol. v. p. 491). 



The Siouan Tribes of Virginia. 47 

shows that they were not to any 
extent agriculturists, and furnishes 
us a clew to the meaning of the 
term, when divided into its com 
ponents of Mowhe-mench ughes. 
The verbal prefix Mowhe (or Mouhi) 
in its sounds is identical with the 
Delaware mawe, Narragansett Moivi 
(or Motiwi\ " to gather," " to bring 
together," "to pick up," etc. Mench 
is evidently the generic for small 
fruits or grain, in the plural form, 
the parallel of the Narragansett 
meneash, Micmac Menich, Delaware 
Minak, " fruit or berry," which gives 
us with its animate plural affix -uk 
(or -ugli), Mowhe-mencJiugh, " those 
who gather fruit " that is to say, 



48 The Algonquian Names of 

they were a hunting people, who 
lived to a great extent on fruit or 
wild berries. There is a possibility, 
which I would suggest, that in the 
Mahoc, who occupied the territory 
between the falls of the river and 
the mountains at the time of 
Lederer s visit in 1670, were the 
survivors of the Mowhe-mench ughes 
of Smith, and that in the term 
"Mahoc" we find a survival of the 
Algonquian term for the fruit- 
pickers. 

Massinacack is marked as a king s 

residence on Smith s map. Strachey 

says : * " The neerest called Mow- 

hemincke, the farthest Massinnacock, 

* Hist, of Travaille, p. 131. 



The Siouan Tribes of Virginia. 49 

distant one from another fourteen 
miles." Its other synonyms are 
Massinnacacks* and Massinacak.^ 
This term differs from the others in 
being simply a place-name, showing 
no action as performed by a verb as 
displayed in the previous interpre 
tations and as evidenced by its loca 
tive termination. As to its analy 
sis, I would suggest that m is the 
impersonal particle, assin, " stones," 
which, with its substantival ac and 
locative suffix ak (= Narragansett 
auk-it, Massachusetts ohkit, Dela 
ware hacking), gives us M assin-ac-ak, 
" at the place of stones." It is quite 
possible that it may refer to the 
* Smith, p. 71. f Ibid., p. 438. 



i^O The Algonquian Names of 

" pyramid of stones " which John 
Lederer observed in 1670 near the 
village of Monacan, ten days travel 
above the falls. He was told that 
it represented the number of a 
colony which left a neighboring 
country because of over-population, 
a condition easily reached among 
hunting tribes. The emigrants, 
having been chosen by lot, had 
come to the present location under 
the leadership of a chief called 
Monack, from whom they derived 
the name of Monacan. Mr. Mooney 
comments on this statement : * " As 
the explorer stopped with them only 
long enough to learn the road to the 
* Siouan Tribes, p. 29. 



The Siouan Tribes of Virginia. 51 

next tribe, his version of their migra 
tion legend must be taken with due 
allowance." This pyramid of stones 
was probably erected for reasons sim 
ilar to that mentioned in the patent 
for Livingston Manor, New York, 
dated November 4, 1684:* "Place 
called by the natives Wawanaquas- 
sick (or, better [pp. 696, 697], Ma- 
wanaquassick = * place where stones 
are gathered together ), where the 
heaps of stones lye .... the said 
heaps of stones upon which the 
Indians throw upon another as they 
passe by from an ancient custom 
among them." 

The Mannahock or Mannahoack 
*Doc. Hist. N. Y., vol. iii. p. 624. 



$2 The Algonquian Names of 

confederacy consisted of perhaps a 
dozen tribes, of which the names of 
the principal eight have been pre 
served, although only four of them 
are shown on Smith s map. Smith s 
own acquaintance with them seems 
to have been limited to an encounter 
with a large hunting party in 1608. 
Smith, however, was a man who 
knew how to improve an opportu 
nity ; and having the good fortune 
to take one of the Hassinnungaes 
prisoner, he managed to get from 
him, by the aid of his guide and 
interpreter Mosco, a very fair idea of 
the tribes and territories of the con 
federacy, their alliances and warfare, 
their manner of living, and their 



The Swuan Tribes of Virginia. 53 

cosmogony, and succeeded before 
his departure in arranging a precari 
ous peace between them and their 
hereditary enemies, the Powhatan 
confederacy. 

Smith s interpreter on this occasion 
was a savage of Wighcocomoco t at 
the mouth of the Potomac river, and 
the names of these Mannahock tribes 
are of his rendering, and, as the fact 
appears, are Algonquian interpreta 
tions of Siouan names. Mannahock, 
however, is an exception, and is 
evidently his descriptive term for 
the whole of these people collect 
ively and did not indicate a separate 
tribe. I would suggest its analysis 
from the indefinite particle m pre- 



54 The Algonquian Names of 

fixed to the verbal radical an, " to 
be more than, to surpass," united 
to the verb hahdnu or ahdnu, " he 
laughs " ; ahdnuock, " they are 
merry " ; or, as the term would be 
rendered in the Massachusetts or 
Narragansett, M anahdnuock, " they 
are very merry, or a very merry 
people." The verbal root is prob 
ably imitative. Smith remarks, in 
striking confirmation of this deriva 
tion : * " And so we left foure or 
five hundred of our merry Manna- 
hocks singing, dancing, and mak 
ing merry." Dr. Hale remarks of 
Nikonha, from whom he discovered 
the Siouan affinity of the Tute- 
* Arber s Smith, p. 429. 



The Siouan Tribes of Virginia. 55 

los : * " A wrinkled, smiling counte 
nance. Not only in physiognomy, 
but also in demeanor and character, 
he differed strikingly from the grave 
and composed Iroquois among 
whom he dwelt. The lively, mirth 
ful disposition of his race survived 
in full force in its latest member. 
His replies to our inquiries were 
intermingled with many jocose re 
marks and much good-humored 
laughter." In a verity, his portrait 
shows all these characteristics of his 
race, which, together with the trans 
lation of their Algonquian appella 
tive, is collateral evidence as to the 
Siouan affinity of some of these tribes. 
*Tutelo Tribe and Language, p. 9. 



56 The Algonquian Names of 

There is but little known as to 
the tribes of this confederacy. The 
pressure of the cruel Iroquois on 
the north and the advancement of 
civilization on the east probably 
compelled them to migrate early to 
the southward ; therefore I shall 
devote but a few words to the less 
interesting. The savage whom 
Smith captured said that * " he and 
all with him were of Hassininga, 
where there are three kings more, 
like vnto them, namely, the king of 
Stegora, the king of Tauxuntania, 
and the king of Shakahonia, that 
were come to Mohaskahod, which is 
onely a hunting town." These are 
* Arber s Smith, p. 427. 



The Siouan Tribes of Virginia. 57 

the four tribes marked on Smith s 
map ; consequently must have been 
considered the most important. 
The Hassinnungaes * or Hassinuga 

* In my paper on The Problem of the 
Rechahecrian Indians of Virginia (American 
Anthropologist, vol. xi. p. 268, 89, appears 
the following, relating to this tribe : " These 
people, on supposition only, have been 
relegated to the Siouan division, although 
so far no direct evidence has been dis 
covered that would connect them with that 
group. In fact, as named by Smith, our 
knowledge of the after history of this 
particular people is absolutely nothing, 
except as here inferred. Neither Lederer 
nor Batts mentions a tribe living in Virginia 
who can be identified with them by name. 
Lederer, in speaking of those people he 
encountered, whom we now know belong to 
the Siouan linguistic group, writes: The 
Indians of these parts are none of those 
which the English removed from Virginia 




58 The Algonquian Names of 

is derived from hassun, " a rock " ; 
wdnogk, " hole or den," which, with 
the terminal of the animate plural, 
denotes " those who dwelt in caves 
or holes of the rocks," thus indi- 

a statement leading us to believe that those 
not mentioned were among those so re 
moved, and that the Hassinnungaes were 
the westerly Runnegados assembled in 
1621, under the command of Itoyatin, at 
the lonely place of Rickahake. Lederer 
(1669-1670) expressly mentions, however, 
that I have heard several Indians testify 
that the nation of Rickahohokans, who 
dwell not far to the westward of the Apala- 
tean Mountains, are seated upon a land, as 
they term it, of great waves, by which I 
suppose they mean the sea. 

4 As he travels further southwest Lederer 
learns that over the Suala Mountains lay 
the Rickohocans. This nation, thus located 
in this indefinite way, is believed to have 
been those now designated as Cherokees, 



The Siouan Tribes of Virginia. 59 

eating a low state of barbarism, 
as Smith truthfully observes. Its 
equivalent is found in the Massa 
chusetts Hassunnegk, " cave " (Eliot), 
Gen. xxix. 7, 17; Hassunonogqut, 

and that the term is one of the early syn 
onyms for that people, as before stated. 

" In summing up the questions involved 
in the foregoing presentation of tradition, 
story, and fact, we find that if these Ricka- 
hokans of Lederer were originally those of 
Rickahake under Itoyatin and were the 
Indians driven out of Virginia by the 
colonists about 1623, and who were again 
the invaders of 1656, as mentioned by the 
early Virginian writers and by Powell, as 
the foregoing would seem to make them, 
we can then account for the association of 
the Cherokees of Haywood s traditional 
story with the Powhatans of eastern Vir 
ginia. A striking confirmation of the 
identity of the Hassinnungaes with the 
Cherokees is presented by the translation 



60 The Algonquian Names of 

11 holes of the rocks," Jer. xvi. 16. 
A number of these caves, once 
inhabited by red men, have been 
discovered in Virginia. William 
H. Holmes * describes one of these 
typical rock-shelters, situated in 
Harrison County, due west from the 

of the Algonquian appellation of the first 
as a people who live in caves, as com 
pared with the translation of the epithet 
bestowed upon the Cherokees by members 
of the Iroquoian linguistic family. 

" Schoolcraft says : * Their traditions are 
replete with accounts of these war parties 
against the Oyada or Cherokees. They 
called the Cherokees by way of derision, 
We-yau-dah and O-ya-dah, meaning a 
people who live in caves. Morgan says: 
4 O-ya-da-ga-o-no, the Iroquois name for the 
Cherokees, signifies " The people who live 
in caves." 
* American Anthropologist, vol. iii. p. 217. 



The Siouan Tribes of Virginia. 6 1 

home of this tribe. (Strachey, how 
ever, states that they lived farther 
west than Smith locates them.) 
This shelter displayed on its rear 
wall some interesting petroglyphs, 
and in the debris of its floor were 
found potsherds, arrow points, paint- 
stones, and other objects, both 
natural and artificial. Professor 
H. C. Mercer, of the University of 
Pennsylvania, has explored many of 
these rock-shelters of Virginia, which 
showed no great antiquity in fact, 
he was astonished by the compara 
tively modern evidence of their oc 
cupancy by the red men. 

The Stegarakies or Stegoras 
( stegan-ac anoughs] survived as 



62 The Algonquian Names of 

the Stenkenocks, as mentioned by 
Governor Spotswood, in 1711, as 
one of the tribes living near Fort 
Christanna, in Virginia, which the 
colonial government desired to 
secure from the further attacks of 
the Iroquois.* This name is un 
doubtedly Algonquian, as its ter 
minal indicates, but so far I have 
been unable to identify its prefix. 

The Tauxanies, Tanxsintania, or 
Tauxuntania were probably those 
mentioned by Lederer as the Nun- 
taneuck, speaking the same language 
as the Monacan, Nahyssan, Saponi, 
and others. This term in one form, 
Tauxanies ( = Taux-anoughs), seems 
* Mooney, p. 21. 



The Siouan Tribes of Virginia. 63 

to denote a " people of a short 
stature"; Powhatan, Taux or Tanks, 
" small, little " ; Delaware, Tangitto, 
" short, small," while its longer forms 
seem to contain the radical -itan, " a 
flowing stream or river"; hence 
Taux-itarianoughs, " people of the 
little rivers," as referred to by Smith. 

The Shakahonia or Shackaconias 
were " the stone people " ; Shaca- 
hocan-anoughs, Powhatan (Strachey), 
Shacahocan (Smith), Shacquohocan, 
" stone." This meaning as rendered 
by these two authorities is not the 
literal one, for its instrumentive 
generic suffix -hocan indicates some 
thing artificial.* It denoted possibly 

* Howse s Grammar of the Cree, p. 182. 



64 The Algonquian Names of 

a stone prepared for slinging, toss 
ing, or rolling, according to the 
meaning of its prefix shacka or 
shacquo-, which I have not been able 
to identify to my satisfaction. In 
the name Shoccories of Lederer and 
Lawson we find probably its 
synonym of a later period. They 
were living in close proximity to the 
Occanteches and Enos. Possibly the 
latter were but another village of the 
Shoccories when visited by Lederer, 
as they were only fourteen miles 
apart, with the same customs. They 
were devoted to an athletic game, 
described by Lederer, in 1672, as 
" slinging of stones"; and in 1701, 
when seen by Lawson, the two tribes 



The Siouan Tribes of Virginia. 65 

were united, and had not forgot 
ten their old game mentioned by 
Lederer, which may be recognized 
as the universal wheel-and-stick 
game of the eastern and southern 
tribes ; for Lawson says in his nar 
rative they were much addicted to a 
sport they call chenco, which is 
carried on with a staff and bowl 
made of stone, which they trundle 
upon a smooth place, like a bow 
ling green, made for the pur 
pose.* 

The Ontponeas(= Ontpori anoughs) 

were another " people of roots or 

tubers," as shown by its generic pon. 

The species indicated by its prefix 

*Mooney, p. 63. 



66 The Algonquian Names of 

ont I have been unable to identify. 
It was probably but another descrip 
tive term for the sagapon, for 
Strachey gives us Otih-punnawk, " a 
ground-nut." The Meipontksey of 
Governor Spotswood, who in 1722 
were living, under the protection of 
the English, near Fort Christanna, 
were probably a remnant of these 
people.* 

The Tegninateos or Tegoneas, as 
Smith varies their name, are but 
briefly mentioned. They were prob 
ably a people dwelling at that time 
far off in the mountains or, as Smith 
remarks, " in the hilly countries." 
The name evidently contains the 
* Ibid., p. 37. 



The Siouan Tribes of Virginia. 6? 

Algonquian element -atin, " hill or 
mountain," and the terminal of 
-aiiough or -anies, " people." The 
prefix Tegni or Tego is seemingly 
from the same verbal root as the 
Narragansett tagu, " to go up," and 
possibly related to the Massa 
chusetts tohkoo, to climb"; hence 
Tego-at in aiiough, people who climb 
the mountains, or " the mount 
aineers," as we might put it. It is 
quite possible that the Toteras or 
Toleras, who are represented in 
Batt s manuscripts * as a " mountain 
tribe," were the descendants of this 
nation. 

The Whonkentyaes or Whonken- 
* Col. Hist. N. Y., vol. iii. p. 194. 



68 The Algonquian Names of 

teas are another tribe of the Man- 
nahocks, or tributary to them, who 
are unplaced on Smith s map. The 
phonetic sound of this appellative 
suggests that they were probably 
the ancestors of the Akenatzies, or 
Occaneeches, as it is varied, who 
were living, as Mr. Mooney has in 
dicated, on an island just below the 
confluence of the rivers Dan and 
Staunton, in Mecklenburg County, 
Virginia, when visited by John Led- 
erer in 1670. I would suggest that 
the derivation of the term Whon- 
kente -as or Whon-kenchi-aneas as 
from the Narragansett awdun, Mas 
sachusetts auwon, " there is some 
body," /. e., who is strange or differ- 



The Siouan Tribes of Virginia. 69 

ent from those speaking.* The 
second component -kentie, -kenatzie, 
or -caneeche, seems to have its paral 
lel in various forms of the verb " to 
talk " or " to speak," as in the Long 
Island unkenchie, " the strange 
talker " ; Narragansett awdun-ken - 
taunchem ? " Who are you that dis 
courses?" Delaware niechsin, "to 
speak "; Powhatan kekaten, " you 
tell," which, with its terminal, gives 
us whon-kentie-anies, " people of a 
strange talk, or another speech." 
This analysis confirms Smith s state 
ment that the Mannahocks were 
"many different in language." 

*See Trumbull s Algonkin Names for 
Man, p. 14. 



7<D The Algonquian Names of 

Again, in noticeable corroboration 
of this derivation, the Occaneeches 
seem to have been of a different 
linguistic stock from their Siouan 
neighbors. Mr. Horatio Hale, quot 
ing the Virginia historian, Beverley, 
says : * " The general language here 
used is that of the Occaneeches, 
though they have been but a small 
nation ever since those parts were 
known to the English ; but in what 
their language may differ from that 
of the Algonkins I am not able to 
determine. Further on he [Bever 
ley] gives us the still more surpris 
ing information that this general 
language was used by the priests 
*Tutelo Tribe and Language, p. 12. 



The Siouan Tribes of Virginia. yi 

and conjurers of the different Vir 
ginia nations in performing their re 
ligious ceremonies in the same man 
ner [he observes] as the Catholics 
of all nations do their mass in 
Latin." Now, it appears to me, on 
careful consideration of this state 
ment of Beverley s in all its aspects, 
that it is open to only one construc 
tion that is to say, if the term 
Whonkenties is a translation by an 
Algonquian interpreter of a Siouan 
description of a nation of another 
or different speech, residing among 
and tributary to them, and is also, 
as I suggest, a synonym for Occa- 
neeche or Akenatzie, it would surely 
lead us to infer that the language of 



72 The Algonquian Names of 

the Occaneeches was not Siouan, but 
was really nothing more nor less 
than a dialect of the Algonquian. It 
is evident that traders living in the 
English settlements, closely associ 
ated with the Powhatan Indians and 
employing them as guides, would 
not be likely to speak other than 
their language in bartering with the 
outlying tribes. 

So far as the religion of the Vir 
ginia Indians is concerned, Mr. 
Mooney observes : * " Lederer s ac 
count of their religion is too gen 
eral to be definite, and he neglects 
to state to what particular tribal 
language the Indian names be- 
* Siouan Tribes of the East, p. 33. 



The Siouan Tribes of Virginia. 73 

long." * In answer to this observa 
tion, I would remark, all that is neces 
sary in order to identify tSie language 
to which these names belong is to 
compare Lederer s narration with 



* There is absolutely no question about 
the identity of the Indian names used 
by Lederer ; he also says (p. 9) : " The 
Apalataean mountains called in Indian 
Paemotinck .... Those promontories 
because lower than the main ridge are 
called by the Indians Taux Paemotinck." 
Being in Indian, and that Indian Algon- 
quian, precludes any other. Paemotinck 
= Powhatan, Pomotawh, " a hill," or 
"mountain"; Abnaki, Pemadend, " au 
desuss de la montague " ; Taux Paemo- 
tinck, "little hill," literally, "a sloping 
hill," one that deviates from a straight 
line; "aslant," "twisted"; Delaware, 
pimen, "slanting," "oblique" (See Trum- 
bull s Com. Ind. Geo. Names, p. 40). 



74 The Algonquian Names of 

that of Captain John Smith. Led- 
erer says : * " They worship one 
God, creator of all things, whom 
they call Okaee, others Mannith ( 
Narragansett Manit) ; to him alone 
the high priest, or Periku, offers 
sacrifice, and yet they believe he has 
no regard for sublunary affairs, 
but commits the government of 
mankinde to lesser deities, as Quia- 
cosough and Tagkanysough that is, 
good and evil spirits. To these, in 
ferior priests pay their devotion and 
sacrifice, at which they make reci 
tals to a lamentable tune of the 
great things done by their ances 
tors." 

* Discoveries, p. n. 



The Siouan Tribes of Virginia. 75 

On the other hand Smith says : * 
" This sacrifice they held to be so 
necessary that if they should omit it 
their Okee, or devel, and all their 
other QuiyoughcosugheS) which are 
their other gods," etc. The term 
Okee of these two early authorities 
is undoubtedly related to the Massa 
chusetts Ohke, " earth," the passive 
inanimate producer; Ok-as, the pas 
sive animate producer or agent of 
production. f Spelman^: calls this 

*Arber s Smith, pp. 78, 374. 

f See Trumbull s Notes 49, 50, Narr. 
Club, ed. R. Williams Key. 

\ Arber s Smith, p. cv. 

When I wrote this paper in 1895, I over 
looked the names of the gods as mentioned 
by Spelman, and printed on the margin of 
this page, viz., " Caukewis, Manato, Tauk- 



76 The Algonquian Names of 

god Cakeres, seemingly a variation ; 
related also to the Delaware " Kick- 
eron, who is the original of all, who 
has not only once produced or made 
all things, but produces every day," 
which Dr. Brinton terms the eter 
nally active, hidden part of the uni 
verse.* Hence Smith may have 
been in error in assigning to the 
god Okee the attributes of his satanic 
majesty a god whom Lederer more 
correctly termed " the creator of all 

ingesouke, Qutausack" which are identi 
cal with those mentioned by Lederer, but 
antedating him by over half a century. 
This is proof positive that the lan 
guage used in their religious ceremonies 
was nothing more nor less than Algon 
quian. 
* Lenape and their Legends, p. 133. 



The Siouan Tribes of Virginia. 77 

things." * In addition, Smith in 
his brief vocabulary gives us Okee, 
" gods " ; Quiyoughcosughes, " pettie 
gods and their affinities." The latter 
term, as well as Lederer s two, with 
the terminal in -osough, is what 
Howse f terms the form of the ad 
jective animate verb (= Massachu 
setts -ussu; Narragansett -esu; Cree, 

* Governor Winslow in his Narrative of 
the Plantation, 1624, says of the New 
England Indians : " For as they conceive 
of many diverse powers, so of one, whom 
they call Kichtan, to be the principal maker 
of all the rest ; and to be made by none. 
He, they say, created the heavens, earth, 
sea, and all creatures contained therein ; 
also that he made one man and one woman, 
of whom they and all mankind came ; but 
how they became so dispersed, that they 
know not." 

f Grammar of the Cree, p. 25. 



78 The Algonquian Names of 

-issu, " he is," or " it is "). Hence we 
have Quiyoughcosugh, " he is lesser 
or little," which may be related to 
the Massachusetts Ogguhsussu, " it 
is lesser or little." To this god the 
Powhatans offered yearly a sacrifice 
of children.* Tagkanysough (= 
Tackan-issu), " he is of the wilder 
ness," " god of the forest." This 
agreement of Smith and Lederer, 
together with the analysis of the 
names, proves beyond question that 
the general language used by the 
Virginia tribes in their religion, and 
in their intercourse with alien tribes, 
must have been necessarily Algon 
quian. The fact that Beverley, as 
* Smith, p. 375. 



The Siouan Tribes of Virginia. JQ 

he remarks, was unable to determine 
the difference between the language 
of the Occameches and that of the 
Algonkins would indicate to my 
mind that they were practically 
identical, with only an archaic differ 
ence a difference similar to that 
mentioned by Mr. Mooney as exist 
ing between the Cherokee language 
and that used in the sacred formulas 
of their shamans. Mr. Mooney 
says : * " They are full of archaic 
and figurative expressions, many of 
which are unintelligible to the com 
mon people and some of which even 
the shamans themselves are now 

* Seventh Annual Report of the Bureau 
of Ethnology, p. 343. 



80 The Algonquian Names of 

unable to explain. These archaic 
forms, like the old words used by our 
poets, lend a peculiar beauty which 
can hardly be rendered in a transla 
tion. They frequently throw light 
on the dialectic evolution of the lan 
guage, as many words found now 
only in the nearly extinct Lower 
Cherokee dialect occur in the formu 
las which in other respects are writ 
ten in the Middle and Upper dia 
lect." These archaic traits have 
been observed by Hale,* Gushing, f 
Matthews,;); and by other explorers 

* Iroquois Book of Rites, p. 46. 

f Second Annual Report of the Bureau of 
Ethnology, p. 12. 

\ Fifth Annual Report of the Bureau of 
Ethnology, p. 456. 



The Siouan Tribes of Virginia. 8 1 

into the secret rites of tribes of 
other linguistic stocks ; and all things 
being taken into consideration, this 
solution of the Occaneeche problem 
is open to fewer objections than to 
accept the unlikely supposition that 
the Algonquian tribes of Virginia 
used the Siouan language in their 
religious ceremonies. 

It is perhaps needless for me to ob 
serve, after the foregoing presenta 
tion of the points under discussion, 
that the questions as to what were 
the commodities of the Monacans 
and what gave rise to thoughts of 
mines, as well as questions third and 
fourth, have been fully answered. 
The fact is that a partial knowledge 



82 The Algonquian Names of 

by the colonists of the language of 
the Powhatans, acquired during the 
first few months of the settlement, 
gave them but an insufficient idea as 
to what the Monacans dug from the 
earth, and as their knowledge in 
creased and they became more 
familiar with the language, habits, 
and customs of the natives, they 
learned that the Monacans mined 
absolutely nothing desirable. As 
time grew apace, the truth soon 
dawned upon their minds that the 
necessaries of life were to be pre 
ferred to the phantom gold and 
other will-o -wisps of an unknown 
country, and as these prime essen 
tials were procurable from the indus- 



The Siouan Tribes of Virginia. 83 

trious native agriculturists nearer 
home, to this food-quest, more than 
to any other, was the remainder 
of Smith s stay in the colony de 
voted. 




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