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The beautiful and terrible animals known as the Cat Tribe stand out as 
a distinct family. They are all noted for their grace and beauty and won- 
derful strength. They are flesh-eaters, destructive in their mode of obtaining 
food, and in habits stealthy, silent of foot, quick of ear, and swift of attack. 
Members of this group are found in every part of the world, and vary in size 
from the mighty lion and tiger to the domestic cat. 


First comes the Lion, the king of the beasts. The only remaining 
stronghold of this largest animal of the cat species is in Central Africa. The 
time was when it wandered through Persia, Syria, and India, but owing to 
strong persecution it has almost vanished out of Asia. 

The lion is an open-country hunter. It is to be found, as a rule, in the 
lon<j grass and bush-lands, or on the outskirts of the deserts. Its color is a 
beautiful yellowish-brown, which matches its surroundings so perfectly that it 
is enabled to steal upon its prey unseen. A favorite trick 01 the lion is to lie 
in wait upon some rock near a path where deer and antelope pass on their 
way to drink. Its color here again serves to keep it concealed, for it lies so 
still that even the timid deer are deceived, and do not see their enemy crouch- 
ing in ambush. As the deer pass by, the lion springs among them and drags 
a victim down. 

The lion has earned his regal title from his strength. It is said that a 
full-grown male will attack and pull down a buffalo. It easily drags the 
body of the largest horse over the roughest ground. When a lion makes an 
attack it springs upon its victim's neck, and at the same time deals a fearful 
blow with its paw. 

Many are the stories told showing this trait, and one of the most inter- 
esting comes from the late Dr. Livingstone: 

A number of natives had found a lion concealed in a long grass swamp. 
Forming a circle, they closed slowly in, beating tom-toms all the while. As 
the circle became very narrow, the lion suddenly broke cover with a roar, and 



made off for the nearest shelter. The natives scattered right and left, but 
one man, unable to get away quickly enough, was knocked down by the 
lion. When the hunt was over .the doctor returned expecting to find the 
man only stunned, when, to his surprise, he found his shoulder broken and 
his skull crushed like an e^sr-shell from the blow he had received. 

The lion is not a sneak like the tiger, for instead of seeking cover it 
comes boldly out into the open, and it is killed that much easier. An instance 
of the nature of the lion is here shown in the following story : 

A hunter camping in Abvssinia was one evening surprised when a native 
told him that a few minutes before he had passed quite close to a full-grown 
lion. " You were not afraid ? " asked the hunter. " No," replied the native. 
" Why should I be ? The lion never attacks us unless he is very hungry or 


This last story shows an odd trait in the lion's character. The lion has 



no desire to interfere with man ; in fact, one never hears of a man-eating lion. 
Why this should be nobody has ever yet been able to say for certain. Many 
hunters claim that should a man fall into a lion's clutches and be killed, the 
body will not be eaten, although the lion may have fearfully mangled it in its 
rage. The natives say that the white man's flesh' is distasteful to the lion. 

With regard to the lion not being a sneak, there are always exceptions to 
prove the rule, for while it does not hesitate to boldly raid a cattle corral in 
broad daylight, there are times when it prefers to sneak upon its prey. A 
story showing this comes from a young man who had recently taken service 
in South Africa : 

He left his camp, one fine evening about dusk, for a stroll, and, passing 
near a small pond, he sat down on the edge. Suddenly looking across, he 
saw three pairs of green eyes on the other side watching him. Being new to 
the country, he did not at once realize his danger. The eyes belonged to 
lions who had come there to drink, who, on seeing him, divided, coming 
round the pond slowly, and creeping toward him. The young fellow, who 
was smoking, placed his pipe beside him on the rock, and as he turned to 
watch the eyes he upset it into some dry grass, which took fire at once. The 
lions, thus exposed to view, glared at him, and then turned tail and made off, 
like great skulking cats. Needless to say that was the last evening stroll the 
young man took while in those parts. 

The lions set a bad example to the rest of the animal kingdom, for they 
are very quarrelsome. Two or three lions will combine to attack a rhinoce- 
ros or buffalo, but afterward they will always fight over the division of the 
spoil, and not infrequently one of the lions that has helped to gain the victory 
will be driven off without getting a share. A hunter once wounded a giraffe, 
but before he could fire a second shot the giraffe rushed off over a hill-side. 
The hunter followed as fast as he could, and to his astonishment he found the 
giraffe in a deadly combat with some lions. After making frantic efforts to get 
away, the bullet took effect and the giraffe fell dead. The lions, thinking 
that they had gained an easy victory, had a grand battle between themselves 
for the possession of the carcass. 

Great authorities on Africa are of the opinion that the lion will become 
extinct within the next hundred years, unless it is strictly protected. In spite 
of the fact that the lioness gives birth to six or seven cubs at a time, these 
animals are steadily vanishing before the advance of man. For the hunters 
of big game it will be a pity when this mighty beast no longer roams the 
desert, or breaks the stillness of the tropic night with its deafening roar. 







The Tiger hunt is the royal sport of India, because it is attended with 
greater danger than any other kind of hunting in the world. Books could be 
filled with stories of the tigers ferocity and recklessness, its wild charges upon 
elephants and horses of the hunting-party and its violent struggles to get away, 
once it has been cornered by its foes. There is an old saying which runs : 
" You are never sure of a tiger until he is dead, and not always then." The 
striped skin of the tiger is of great use to him as a protection, just as much as 
the brown fur of the lion helps it to hide among the sand-hills and rocks. 
The tiger haunts the thickest jungle, and its brilliant yellow and black striped 
skin harmonizes splendidly with the reeds and grasses in the fierce lights and 
shadows of the Indian day. 

Much is written of the man-eating tiger by people who do not realize that 
it is only the lame or aged beast, unable any longer to pull down a buck, 
that attacks man. When the tiger has once tasted human blood it becomes 

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a confirmed man-hunter, and holds the country round in terror. The women 
no longer dare go into the fields along, and even the men travel from place to 
place in well-armed parties of three and four. 

Nothing is more wonderful about the tiger than its ability, in spite of its 
enormous size, to move quietly over twigs and leaves. A good illustration 
of this, and its sneaking habits, is the following story : 

A hunter decided to watch the ford of a stream where a tiger had been in 
the habit of coming down to drink. He posted an armed native on the oppo- 
site side, and then hid himself. After several hours of watching, during which 
time he saw nothing of the tiger, he called to his companion. The man did 
not answer and the hunter became alarmed. There was an uncanny stillness 
in the air. He hastened across, and there he saw the footprints of a huge 
tiger just behind where the man had been standing. He followed up the 
tiger's trail, and about one hundred and fifty yards away he fell over the 
native's bod}'. He was quite dead, with a clawed and broken neck. Al- 
though the hunter was only a short distance off, he had heard nothing of 
the tiger's approach. 

Two ladies left their bungalow one evening, and walked to the top of a 
hill to view the sunset. While they were returning, a full-grown tiger 
stepped out into the road. One lady, in her terror, suddenly opened her red 
sun-shade. The unusual sight startled the tiger, who bounded into the jungle 
once more. 

This story only goes to show that the fiercest animals in the world can be 
frightened by simple objects which they do not understand. All the cat tribe 
are cautious, and will never approach anything that looks to them suspicious. 

Another story is told of an Indian officer, who had to pass through a 
lonely piece of road near a jungle, while going to visit some friends. He was 
riding a bicycle. Suddenly a large tiger sprang out behind him, and followed 
him with much the same gait that a cat uses when crossing the street. Strain 
as hard as he could, the rider was unable to increase his lead on the tiger, 
who seemed not to be making the least effort. Near the end of the road a 
number of officers were waiting for the expected guest, and were astonished 
at the speed he was making. When they saw the tiger behind him they 
rushed for their guns. At the same time the tiger seemed to think that he 
had come far enough, and, uttering a loud roar, gave three huge springs, 
which brought him up with his victim, and down went tiger, bicycle, and rider, 
in a heap. A lucky shot finished the tiger, and the officer escaped with a 
torn scalp and a broken arm. 


It is about as hard to catch a Lkopard asleep as to sprinkle salt on the 
tail of a bird. The beautiful spotted creature is the most cunning and daring, 
of the cat tribe. Although much inferior in strength and size to the tiger, it 
will attempt deeds that the latter would shun as too dangerous. 

An Indian story runs that a dead sheep was hung up near a sentry's box, 
and in a short time it was missing. On the ground directly beneath where 
the sheep had hung were footprints of a leopard, and yet the soldier on 
guard had not heard a sound. After that he kept a better watch, and an- 
other sheep was hung up. Suddenly, with a roar, up sprang a leopard, from 
nowhere it seemed, and seizing the sheep it made off, after viciously laying 
about it with its paws, wounding several natives, and leaving the soldier 
half dead. 

Leopards do not hesitate to attack in broad daylight, and will carry 
small animals off from under their keeper's very nose. On one occasion a 
leopard sprang into the middle of a camp at midnight, and dragged off a pair 
of wolf-hounds that were fastened together. After carrying them some hun- 
dred yards or so, it was forced to drop its prey. One dog was dead, with its 
skull smashed in, and the other was so badly injured that it had to be shot. 

Leopards have a fondness for eating the flesh of dogs, and resort to many 
clever tricks to gratify their taste. 

The pariah dogs, which swarm about every Indian village, on hearing the 
leopard growling, will rush toward the spot with loud barkings. The leopard 
lets them approach, and then suddenly springs out on the nearest dog and 
bounds off with it. 

Another clever device they resort to is in catching antelopes. A great 
failing of all the antelope tribe is curiosity. This the leopard well knows, so 
he hides in a small clump of grass near a herd of the swift-footed animals, 
and slowly moves his body back and forth sb as to make the grass wave. 
This attracts the attention of the antelopes, who come forward to see what it 
is, their curiosity leading them to swift death. 

If a leopard is chased by dogs it will take to a tree. In fact a large 
part of its life is passed off the ground, preying upon the birds and monkeys 
that live in the upper branches. Leopards are seldom or never found in for- 
ests where there is no undergrowth. They climb a tree and lie out on the 
larger limbs, and from there leap upon anything that passes below. 

One of the most wonderful stories of a leopard comes from India. A 
native woman, who was working among the corn, had left her baby asleep 
beneath a large tree. When she had finished her work she went to get her 




child and found that it had vanished. On the ground round about were the 
footprints of a large leopard. She followed these up and found that they led 
to a jungle near by. After a long search she came to a sheltered rock, under 
which she found her baby sound asleep among three leopard cubs, which were 
playing together. The woman seized her child and rushed off, but she had 
not gone far when she heard something bounding after her. In her terror she 
rushed for an open space where there was a small fire left by some wood- 
choppers. She threw some leaves on it so that it blazed up ; at the same 
instant the leopard appeared. It stopped, looked at the fire, and lowered its 
eyes. At last it turned tail and went off. The woman waited until help 
came from a village hunter, who had seen the smoke of the fire rising above 
the trees. It is impossible to say why the leopard had not killed the child, 
but the fact remains that it was none the worse for its adventure. 

Considering the fact that the child had been carried some distance by the 
leopard shows that it must have been handled as carefully as if it had been 
one of her own cubs. 

The leopard is regarded everywhere as a pest, and in India especially is 
it troublesome. Many people are of the opinion that a large part of the black 
deeds charged to the tiger are really the work of the sly, cunning leopard. 


The Jaguar takes the place of the tiger in the South American tropics. 
In habits, however, it is more like the Eastern leopard. It is not as large 
as the tiger, but it is much heavier and more powerful than the panther. 

There are many instances on record where jaguars have been tamed. A 
captain in the British navy had a two-year-old jaguar that would eat from his 
hand, and was allowed to roam the ship at large. In spite of its size, it was 
as playful as a kitten, and was never better pleased than to find someone 
with whom to have a game of romps As time wore on, the romps became 
rather dangerous, owing to the jaguar not understanding what a frail playfel- 
low a man was. This animal afterward lived many years in England. 

The jaguar roams through the jungles from Paraguay to the Equator, and 
nothing seems too large or too powerful for it to attack. It will kill any- 
thing from a horse down to a lizard. 

Jaguars swim well, and are very fond of fish. They lie on a branch over- 
hanging a stream, and watch till a luckless fish swims within reach of their 
deadly paws. The favorite food of the jaguar is the flesh of the monkeys that 
swarm in the forests. The easiest time to catch monkeys is at night. The 
jaguar climbs into the trees and stealthily prowls among the branches. Sud- 
denly, the stillness of the night is broken by the fierce roar of the jaguar and 
the terrified yells of the monkeys, showing that it has found a sleeping colony. 
When the jaguar attacks a large animal, such as a deer, it springs upon its 
back and grasping the head with its powerful paw, dislocates its neck with a 
single wrench. 

When the jaguar wishes to cross a river it resorts to a very clever trick to 
get the alligators out of its way. It takes up a position on the bank and begins 
to howl. The alligators hearing the noise come swimming up to listen. 
When the jaguar sees that they have arrived, he sneaks off and swims the 
river lower down in safety. This trick is played over and over again and yet 
the alligators never seem to understand it. 

The jaguar is a very suspicious and cautious animal, and will never make 
an open attack on man or beast. Should a party of hunters travel through the 
forest, it will follow their steps for days together, in the hopes of picking up a 

In the early days of settling countries inhabited by the jaguar, it was 
found almost impossible to keep anything alive in the way of stock. Now the 
hunter is making slow but sure progress, and the jaguar is being forced back 
into the dense, trackless forest. 




The Puma (sometimes spoken of as the mountain lion, panther, and cou- 
gar) is the largest cat of North America. It is also found far down in South 
America. Its head is small for its body, and it does not look as formidable 
a beast as it really is. It does not hesitate to attack man, if it can do so sud- 
denly, without being seen. 

One day some hunters in California were creeping toward a small herd of 
deer, when they saw a puma doing the same thing. So intent was the animal 
on its prey that it did not notice the hunters being near. Suddenly the deer 
became alarmed, and at once the puma sprang and brought down a young 
doe. One of the hunters fired, but missed, and the puma, seizing its prey in 
its mouth, made off across the loose scree with amazing rapidity. 

The puma causes great havoc among the small live-stock, and should a 
bullock get stuck in the mud the puma will attack it. It is not dangerous if 
you can keep it in sight, and you can even prevent it springing by gazing 
at it steadily. It will turn its head from side to side trying to avoid the look. 



MARBLED CAT (>s Natural Size). 

The Marbled Cat is an inhabitant of Malacca. It is like the ocelot, 
though much smaller in size. 

The Ocelot is found throughout the whole of tropical America. It is 
hunted a great deal - for its beautiful fur, which is in exeat demand. 

OCELOT (>/,„ Natural Size). 


EGYPTIAN CAT (</ 6 Natural Size). 

The Egyptian Cat might easily be mistaken for the ordinary cat, both in 
size and looks. It is claimed that this is the species that received so much 
veneration from the ancient Egyptians. A story is told that the Egyptians 
once refused to attack an invading army because they carried these sacred 
cats with them. It is also supposed that the punishment for maiming or 
injuring one of these cats was death. 

Recent explorations have revealed mummies of cats, some that had been 
buried with great pomp, proving that great respect was shown even to the 
dead. In Egypt privileges were given to cats that were denied to workmen. 


Perhaps the best known of all the felines is the Wild Cat. It is quite a 
common mistake to confuse the domestic cat that has run wild with the true 
wild cat. The latter is found all over the world. It is very rare in the British 
Islands, on account of its having been killed by the preservers of game, and it 


WILD CAT (7,0 Natural Size). 

is astounding what damage one of these creatures will do, for when they enter 
a preserve, they leave a bloody trail of victims in their wake. A wild cat was 
once caught in a trap that had been set in a rain-storm drain, and when the 
keeper found it, he had to shoot the poor beast before he could go near, so 
fierce was its resistance. The young stay with the parents until full grown. 

Many stories are told showing the fierce temper of the wild cat, and one 
of the most interesting of them relates how one was cornered in a hen-house, 
and, when disturbed, set upon the man so that he had to beat a hasty retreat. 

A gentleman was taking a walk in a lonely canon in one of the coast val- 
leys of California, and on looking up saw, on a dead tree-stump, some eight 
feet above him, a huge wild cat. They both eyed each other suspiciously, 
while the former drew near and moved his hand very slowly toward his hip- 
pocket, which contained a .38-calibre revolver. He drew the weapon out care- 
fully, and still the cat did not move. But the instant he took aim, the cat 
crouched, and, as the trigger was pulled, it sprang. The bullet smashed one 
of its front paws and broke its spring, or the result might have been serious, 
for it is doubtful if a cheap .38-calibre revolver is a good enough weapon to 
tackle a wild cat with. 








When one sees a sleek, lazy, contented Cat stretched out asleep in front 
of the fire, it is hard to believe that she is first cousin to the tiger. If you 
want proof of the cat's relationship to the tiger, watch her stalking sparrows in 
the roadway. She creeps nearer and nearer her prey, taking advantage of any 
shelter, while her eyes blaze with excitement, and ever)- muscle stands out 
rigid and ready for the fatal spring. Again, look at the infinite patience of the 
cat watching a mouse-hole. It sticks to its post for days together, until the 
poor mouse is caught. 

Pussy is one of the most affectionate of animals. As far back as history 
goes she has always been a household pet. In Egypt cats were worshipped. 

Hundreds of instances might be given of the cleverness of cats and kit- 
tens. Cats will learn to open latched doors, to pull knockers, and ring spring 
bells. They will pick up odd friendships with puppies and dogs, and have 
been known to befriend canaries, rats, pigeons, chickens, guinea-pigs, frogs, 
and other strangers. 

There is a well-known story in France of a cat who, after sitting in its 
sick mistress's room until she died, visited the grave and was found lying 
dead there, apparently of grief. 

Cats are very fond of their young, and watch over them just as human 
beings do over their babies. An interesting story of a cat's bravery is the fol- 
lowing : 

Some kittens belonging to a farmer's pet cat were playing in the yard, 
when a sparrow-hawk swooped down and carried one off. Without an in- 
stant's pause, puss flew off to the fir-wood, where she knew the hawk's nest 
was. She came to the tree and scrambled up it, and in the large nest at the 
top she found her kitten unharmed, nestling down among the young hawks. 
She seized it in her mouth and carried it home. When the hawk appeared 
again the cat was on the watch, caught the thief, and, in spite of the claws and 
beak of the hawk, rolled it about on the ground until it was glad to make 
its escape and let the kittens alone. 

The domestic cats are of many colors and sizes, and are found all over 
the world. In America, the Chinese look upon the cat as an emblem of luck. 
Cats are excellent hunters, and are much used to keep rats and mice away 
from houses. They are nocturnal in their habits, like the rest of their tribe, 
only instead of roaming the jungles, they parade the roofs of houses, and keep 
people awake with their mournful cries. 




The European Lynx is a beautiful animal, much sought after for its fur, 
which is finest in the depths of winter, for it is fuller and richer then. The lynx 
is famous for its quickness of sight, which has indeed become proverbial, like 
the hearing of the blind mole. Sheep often fall victims to the lynx, but it 
find its chief food among hares, rabbits, and other small animals. It is also an 
excellent climber of trees, and chases its prey among the branches with ease 
and success. Should one of these animals be suddenly surprised, it endeavors 
to sneak off, although it is formidable enough when brought to bay. 

The Caracal belongs to the tribe of lynxes, and is one of the surliest 
and most untamable of all animals. Although powerfully built, and capable of 
pulling down anything of its size, it does not hesitate to feed upon the re- 
mains of a carcass slain by a larger animal. 

The Southern Lynx is another beautiful specimen of the species which 
inhabits the warmer countries, such as Spain and Portugal. From the leopard- 
like spots with which its ruddy chestnut fur is covered, it derives the name of 
Pardine or Spotted Lynx. 








The Cheetah or hunting leopard is a magnificent-looking creature, stand- 
ing higher than a leopard, but without the latter's enormous strength. The 
head is small for the body, and the limbs are long and slender. The cheetah 
is found in Asia and Africa, and in the former is regarded with favor. It was 
noticed in India that whenever the creature caught a deer, it commenced at 
once to suck its blood. Hence the idea to use them in hunting. 

The cheetah is blindfolded and carried in a native cart until some game is 
sighted. Then the bandages are removed, and the animal usually spies the 
game at once. The cheetah moves forth with a swift, stealthy motion, never 
risking showing itself until it is quite close. Then it gives one powerful 
spring, and seldom misses. The keepers hurry up and entice it away with 
some favorite food, or the blood of the deer. The cheetah is then rehooded 
and taken back to the cart until more game is found. 



The Spotted or Laughing Hyena is the most famous of its kind This 
animal is the kino- of scavengers, and in hot countries, where carcasses are 
allowed to rot in the sun, it is of immense use. The name laughing hyena 
arises from the idiotic, hysterical laugh which it pours forth, accompanying it 
with the wildest gestures of body and limbs, howling and dancing about on 
its hind legs in the greatest excitement. As long as the hyenas confine them- 
selves to scavenger-work they are looked upon as a blessing ; but when they 
become too numerous they do fearful damage among the flocks and herds. 
In spite of the fact that they are armed with jaws of surpassing strength, they 
never attack an animal in front. A good illustration of this is the following 
story : 

A Boer farmer noticed a spotted hyena sneaking about his cattle-corral 
shortly after he had railed it up for the night. The hyena passed by a cow, 
who, too weak to escape, stood at bay, and attacked a large bull, which had 
turned to run away. After the fashion of hyenas, the brute did not spring, but 
fixed its teeth in the flank of its victim. The Boer ended the matter with a shot. 



The largest and most formidable of the ape tribe is the Gorilla. The 
animal is black, with dark gray eyes with a wicked lustre in them. For many 
years the reports of these terrible beasts had reached Europe, giving the im- 
pression that it was a myth or legend of the slave-traders. Travellers who 
returned to Europe brought news of a gigantic race of hairy savages living on 
the west coast of Africa. Then Paul Du Chaillu, the great explorer, brought 
home a true account of the huge ape, which evidently the ignorant natives had 
taken to be a race of men; but even then the truth was doubted. At last 
Du Chaillu brought home the skin and skeleton of a gorilla. This set all 
doubts at rest. The specimen was found to stand nearly six feet high, with 
shoulders three feet wide, and arms that reached almost to the ground ; but, 
above all things, stood out the unsurpassed strength of these apes. 

In the hunting-ground Dr. Chaillu was surprised to find complete silence 
over everything. Calling to mind the sayings of the natives, that nothing 
could live near the gorilla, he found no birds in the forest, and even the noisy 
tree-frogs were silent. The hunters assured him that these signs meant that 
the game must be near. After walking in single file through the forest for 
awhile, they stopped to consult, and noticed that the gun-carrier, who was the 
last man of the party, was missing. Before any questions could be asked, the 
man's dead body suddenly fell from the branches far above them. They had 
passed right under where a gorilla was sitting, and with its hind foot it had 
gripped up the last man and killed him. This proved to be a favorite trick 
that the gorilla plays on the natives, who always held that the great ape was 
more to be feared than the lion. 

The gorilla in this instance broke cover with a roar, and made off through 
the branches with astonishing speed, in spite of its great bulk and weight. 

A female and young one were found, and a great battle began. One 
hunter had his gun snatched from him by the brute, and Du Chaillu was as- 
tounded to see it bent and twisted in the creature's hand like a cane. The 
female showed an immense store of vitality, for after being shot several times 
she still fought. When at last she could not rise, the young one threw itself 
upon its mother's breast with a strangely human cry. This baby gorilla was 



brought to England and caged with a bull terrier, with whom it made great 
friends ; but in spite of all the care and attention it died. 

Another illustration of the enormous strength of the gorilla is the escape 
of a specimen which had been shipped to England, and placed in the Zoologi- 
cal Gardens. The keeper had closed up for the night, never doubting but that 
his charge was safe. The next morning he was astonished to find that the 
extra strong steel-bars of the cage had been wrenched apart, and the occupant 
was nowhere to be seen. When the news leaked out a panic ensued in the 
Garden ; but the gorilla was found in the tunnel under the roadway. The 
strong cage that it had been brought in was still handy, and the huge beast 
was coaxed mto it once more. 


The Chimpanzee is also an inhabitant of the west coast of Africa, being 
fairly numerous in the Gaboon country. It was supposed at one time to be a 
young gorilla, but it has since been clearly placed in a class by itself. The 
chimpanzee has the most intelligent face of all the ape tribes, using its lips 
to show hate, pleasure, or rage. It is not able to stand erect, but moves along 
resting its hands knuckles down, instead of on the palms. It has been proved 
that the chimpanzee has one singular habit in common with the orang-utan 
of Sumatra, namely, that of building a sort of hammock-nest. Only the female 
and young occupy this nest, while the male stations himself on top. Chim- 
panzees are really ground apes, preferring rocky, broken country to the forest. 
Their food consists entirely of vegetable matter, and it is impossible to raise 
any crops near one of their colonies. 

Many travellers have claimed that the chimpanzees carry clubs, and there 
seems to be no reason to doubt it. They may have copied the natives they 
have seen, for their imitative ability is well known, but as it has been proved 
that they cannot stand erect, it is almost impossible for them to use clubs to 
fight with. They have enormous strength in the arms, but greatest in the 
hands. A chimpanzee is able easily to' snap a branch that would be far be- 
yond the strength of a couple of men. 

Another curious thing about these apes is that they live in social bands, 
and at sundown may be heard barking and yelling before they settle down for 
the night. Though a chimpanzee would not risk a fight alone with a panther 
or other large animal, yet even an elephant will turn aside rather than face an 
angry crowd of these apes. Chimpanzees seldom travel alone, and if one is 



attacked it raises a shrill cry, and at once all the chimpanzees near by flock to 
the rescue. When a band of these apes is engaged in feeding, they set a sen- 
tinel to guard, who, on the slightest sign of an alarm, utters a loud cry, which 
is said to resemble a human being in agony. It is promptly answered by 
loud barks and yells, which are increased as the alarm spreads. They flock to 
battle, for they are very ferocious, or else decamp rapidly. 

A fine specimen of a chimpanzee, better known now as the late lamented 
" Sally," lived for many years at the Zoo, in London, where, from the fact that 
it was so intensely human, being able to do almost everything but talk, it was 
very popular. 


The Orang-Utan, or Mias, is a native of Sumatra and Borneo. It is 
quite large, standing often five feet high, with arms that reach the ground, and 
its body covered with long, coarse, reddish-brown hair. Perhaps of all the 
great apes it is the most unsociable and indolent. The orang-utan is able to 
weave a nest of branches with amazing rapidity, and likes to sleep in it un- 
til disturbed, or hunger compels it to move. In spite of its indolent nature, it 
is a frightful antagonist when roused. Its strength surpasses that of the great- 
est animals in its own country, while it is possessed of terrible dog-like teeth, 
which, as it is only a vegetable-eater, are only used for purposes of attack or 

Russell, the great naturalist, was one of the first men to call attention to 
the orang-utan, and he is said to have captured the first of these live ani- 
mals which was seen in England. Owing to the ape's resistance, it is 
often fatally wounded before it can be captured. When young, the orang- 
utan display great affection, but become morose and sullen as they grow 
older. A young orang-utan was brought to England on a ship from Su- 
matra, and was very fond of annoying the other monkeys on board. Owing 
to its strength it held sway, and the sailors had often to prevent it from throw- 
ing a youngster overboard. 

One day a sailor left a large pot of white paint unguarded on the deck. 
The orang-utan saw it, and, seizing the brush, fell like a thunder-bolt among 
the astonished monkeys, and scattered the paint right and left. The whole 
thing took only a few seconds, but hardly a monkey escaped a daubing, while 
the orang-utan scrambled up the mast to a safe distance and surveyed the 
scene, shaking and chattering with excitement. 



GIBBONS (/s Natural Size). 

The Gibbons are the fairy- 
monkeys of the trees, spending al- 
most as much time in the air as 
among the branches. The gibbon 
forms a link between the great apes, 
the baboons, and lesser monkeys. 
Like the other apes, they are tail- 
less, and have an enormous devel- 
opment of arm-power. The gigan- 
tic gorilla and chimpanzee are both 
cree-dwellers, but neither of them would attempt feats like the gibbon, 
which is able to spring through space in travelling from tree to tree. Ow- 
ing to this wonderful power, ;t has been given by the naturalists the name ot 
" hylobate," meaning " tree traverser." 

The Silvery Gibbon derives its name from the silver-gray color of its fur. 


On some parts of the body there 
is a trace of brown, while the 
hands are dark - colored. The 
eyes of all the gibbon family are 
large and deeply sunk in the 
', head. The gibbon's size is about 
i thirty inches. The Malaccas are 
the home of the gibbons, where 
they live their gay life amid the 
high trees and cane-fields. 


The Entellus Monkey is 
a native of India. It is not small, 
by any means, measuring nearly 
thirty-six inches in length, not 
counting the tail. They belong 
to the family of Indian monkeys 
that is sacred. This fact makes 
them very bold and impudent. 
They enter villages, sit in the 
porches and sills (preferably 
those of the pastry - cook and 
corn - sellers), and from there 
steal when the master's back is 
turned, while the poor pastry- 
cook is not allowed to revenge himself, but simply sighs and keeps a better 

The origin of this monkey-reverence is said to lie in the fact that its skel- 
eton bears some resemblance to man, and the natives believe that the souls of 
the departed come back, and are reincarnated in the monkeys. To molest 
one would rouse the whole village to fury, and there are many instances on 
record where hunters have come to grief by doing so. 

Though these monkeys live a secluded life under human protection, 
there is always one deadly enemy on the watch, the snake, which crawls 
stealthily after them among the branches. The monkey, grown careless 
through life with man, falls an easy victim to the snake's fangs. When a 
snake is discovered, the w T hole neighborhood boils with excitement, and the 

GIBBON (',.,„ Natural Size) 


yelling band pelts and : y!^$M^:M/^^^^^:^\^V harasses the invader, al- 
ways keeping well out ' : J ^^^''^^^^^'-}^ of its way, however. 
Occasionally the tables '' -t^" /a' ; '^ f^ are turned, for if a mon- 

key finds a snake asleep o^i.^pTOiii - : G n a high tree, it creeps 

down to assure itself ,M '-- that it is no trick. Then 

it will do one of two things, either push the snake off suddenly from its perch, 
hoping that the fall will injure it, or, boldly seizing it behind the head, scam- 
per with it to the ground. There it will dash its head against a, wall or among 


stones, pausing every once in awhile to see how the work is progressing. 
Once the fangs are crushed, so as to be harmless, the poor reptile is thrown 
among the young monkeys, who torment it still further, until it is dead. 
When the entellus monkey is not living near a village, it carries on its 
raids in much the same manner among the jungle-folk. Should a tiger ap- 
pear, the monkey climbs to the highest branches, and from there insults the 
royal beast below. 

The long tail of the species does not seem to be of much benefit to the 
owner, unless, perhaps, for balancing purposes ; but as a fifth arm it is never 
used. The general color of this monkey is a dark grayish-brown, although 
when young it is several shades lighter. The hands and feet are black, and 
there is also some black around the head. 


The Green Monkeys are natives of Senegal, on the west coast of Africa. 
They are often seen in Europe and America, owing to their being well 
adapted to our rigorous climate. They are famous for the beauty of their 
silky fur. They are not liked by the natives, owing to their thieving habits. 
One green monkey is not a serious thing, but a number will work fearful 
havoc in a very short time. They destroy ruthlessly, tearing clown more than 
they can eat or carry away. 


Who has visited any zoological collection and failed to see the beautiful 
white-bearded Diana Monkey ? This spotless, fussy little creature is the 
most beautiful of all the monkey tribes. Although the diana monkey is a 
tropical animal, it lives well in captivity, and, from the cleanliness of its habits, 
makes a good pet. A proof of its fussy habits is shown in the following : 

A diana monkey was once given a peach through the bars of its cage, and 
on account of the angry mutterings of the monkeys around it, the little creat- 
ure feared it would be stolen from it. After the peach was eaten, the stone had 
been cracked and the kernel extracted and finished, the white beard under its 
chin was stained with peach-juice. The monkey was much disturbed, and 
went to work and cleaned it until every speck of dirt and stain had gone, and 
its fur stood out as fluffy as before. 

■ - - ■ "' 



The Macaques are a larqe 

— o 

family of monkeys that dwell in 
Asia. They are found all over 
India and Ceylon, where they are 
protected as sacred beings. Their 
name macaque comes from the 
word macaco, which, on the coast 
of Guinea, means the same as our 
English word monkey. They are 
bright, active, and insolent in the 
extreme. The natives regard 
them as sacred, therefore the 
white man does not dare interfere 
or beat them off, for fear of rais- 
ins; the anger of the natives. 

These monkeys delight in 
gathering in large bands, and 
then seeking out some being to 
torment. A poor old, sleepy 
crocodile offers fair sport, and 
they shout and yell at him. This 

DIANA MONKEY (# Natural Size). he pUtS Up with patiently, bllt 

when the insolent monkeys begin to hurl cocoa-nuts, mud, stones — anything 
they can lay their hands to — he returns grunting to a quieter part of the river. 
It has been said that the macaques will hustle dogs away, although a fox-ter- 
rier would easily out-match a single macaque. 


The Rhesus Monkey — the monkey made famous by Kipling in his 
Jungle Stories — is the true Bander of the Hindoos. They have a restless, 
quarrelsome disposition, and appear to lead aimless lives. As they are an- 
other branch of the sacred monkeys of India, they feel at liberty to plunder 
the stores and gardens of their protectors without showing the slightest fear. 
It has been agreed on all sides that for cunning and insolence they have no 

A district magistrate in Bengal had a number of fine peach-trees, the fruit 
of which he was very proud, and therefore anxious to save. Now the local 



Rhesus monkeys had also taken a fancy to these same peaches, and forthwith a 
war began between the man and the beasts. First of all, a Hindoo was put 
on guard, but the monkeys cared little or nothing for him, well knowing that 
his caste and religion forbade him injuring them. Now the white man in In- 
dia does not care an atom for the monkey, for he has no scruples about their 
sanctity, and if they steal from him, he punishes them as much as he dares 
without offending the natives. So a white man mounted guard over the peach- 
trees. The monkeys came into the orchard boldly enough, but the man 
chased them off, using his stick freely. The marauders, astonished beyond 

RHESUS MONKEYS ('4 Natural Size). 

measure, retired to the top of the high trees to consult. For a long time they 
coughed, chattered, pulled tails, and shook the branches with excitement and 
rage until they agreed upon a plan. They divided into bands. First one 
would pretend to enter the orchard, and when the guard flew at them another 
band would swarm over the bamboo fence and scramble up the trees, shaking 
the branches and causing a shower of ripe, golden peaches. Meanwhile others 
would scamper round on the ground, grabbing up what they could, and then 


once more retire, chattering with delight, to the safety of the high trees. The 
sun being hot and the man out of breath, he naturally lost his temper and 
went for a gun. This did not trouble the monkeys, for they had seen weapons 
pointed at them before, but never fired. The man rushed to the fence upon 
which a number of monkeys were still perched, and, picking out one offender, 
he fired. The poor creature set up a howl of pain as it fell, and then, to the 
amazement of the man, held out to him its bloody, shattered, little hand. In 
a moment or two it toppled over dead, and, regardless of the danger, the 
other monkeys scrambled over the fence and bore the body away. The result 
was that the monkeys retired from that spot, and the magistrate gathered his 
peaches in peace ; but the man never after raised a gun to a monkey. 




The Barbary Apes, or Magots, are inhabitants of Northern Africa, 
fhey also have the only ape foothold in Europe, on the Rock of Gibraltar 


There is a very fine legend among the Arabs to the effect that these apes 
crossed from Africa to Gibraltar by climbing to the top of a peak on the Afri- 
can side, and taking hold of tails until a long chain was formed, and then 
swinging back and forth until the end monkey caught hold of the Rock of Gib- 
raltar. The others passed over on the bridge thus formed, and the apes on 
the African side let go. This is an excellent story ; but the Straits of Gibral- 
tar are nearly twenty miles wide, and the Barbary apes have no tails. It is 
believed that these apes were brought to Gibraltar by the Moors. 

The size of this ape is about twen- 
ty-eight inches, and its general color is of 
a grayish -brown. They are fairly com- 
mon in a domestic state in Europe, fre- 
quently being seen in an undignified 
position on top of an Italian barrel-or- 
gan. While young, these apes are very 
gentle, but as they grow older they be- 
come morose and fierce. In captivity 
they frequently lose their natural intelli- 
gence and liveliness, and relapse intc 
utter stupidity. Like many other species, 
the Barbary apes swarm with parasites, 
and it is an odd sight to see them care- 
fully examining each other's fur. They 
are never so pleased, when in captivity, 
as to be allowed to over-haul a dog, or 
other animal, every now and then chuck- 
ling as they find something. The climb- 
ing cats stir things up among the apes 
of Gibraltar, and though it is difficult to 
approach near enough to watch their 
actual doings, a strong glass brings them within observation range. 

A wild cat was stealthily making its way toward a group of apes, when it 
was discovered, and a shrill yell from one of the apes threw the whole colony 
into the wildest excitement, the old males first hurried the females off, who 
carried the young with them, and then lined up in formidable array. The cat 
looked disgusted, and tried to assume a different air, as if it had stumbled upon 
them quite by accident. The apes, chattering loudly, advanced a step or two. 
and thereupon the cat, with a fierce snarl, retired. After awhile matters 

WAXDEROO (V,o Natural Size). 


quieted down, but within an hour that same cat sprang in among a group of 
apes, seized one, and before .the chattering mob could recover from its surprise, 
the marauder had fled. The night-time is when the wild cat commits the most 
havoc among the apes. The apes live on the Mediterranean side of Gibraltar. 
They are tolerably secure there, as hardly anyone would venture out upon the 
terrible precipices. 

The military authorities have done their best to protect the apes. They 
are not of any use, but as they are the only members of the ape family in 
Europe, they think it would be a pity to allow them to be shot. 


The Wanderoo lives in Ceylon, and is famous for the curious growth of 
hair around the face, which gives it 
a venerable appearance. It has a 
curious custom of always filling its 
pouches with food before satisfying 
its hunger. In captivity it is ex- 
ceedingly treacherous and ill-tem- 


The Tee-Tee is a tiny little 
creature that lives in Brazil. It is 
one of the most intelligent of all 
the monkey tribes, and therefore 
makes a delightful pet. There is 
one serious drawback, however, 
and that is that the tee-tee is very 
delicate, and unless it is carefully 
watched it will die. Even when 
kept about a Brazilian house, the 
tee-tee must not be placed near 
draughts, or anything damp. It is 
seldom seen in this country. 

TEE-TEE (}j Natural Size). 




We now come to another famous branch of the monkey tribes, the 
Baboons, whose chief home is in Abyssinia and Nubia. They live among 
rocks and cliffs, but at the same time are excellent tree-climbers. These dog- 
faced creatures are considered one of the greatest curiosities living. They 
are worth watching when in captivity, for they sit with an almost comically 
grave expression on their faces, or else walk around with a curious swagger- 
ing gait. The baboons have a mane, more or less developed in various spe- 
cies, which gives them a most evil appearance when wild. They live in large 
colonies, and absolutely rule the country around them. They walk on all 
fours, very much like a dog, and when disturbed break into a swift gallop. 


GELADA (' ia Natural Size). 

Baboons, great and small, arc armed with terrible teeth, both from a point 
of strength and sharpness. Many explorers testify to the tricks which these 
creatures will play on their enemies. When hunted, baboons always try to 
run off, but should they be cornered, they turn on the hunter, grip him by the 
throat, and then tear themselves away, causing a terrible wound, which is al- 
most immediately fatal. The Gelada of this family is specially famous for its 
strength and length of mane. Like all the rest of the baboons, it is very 
quarrelsome, and always ready to attack an enemv. The mothers carry the 
young ones on their back until they are strong enough to go alone. 


The Mandrill is the mightiest of the baboons. There is hardly any 
other creature in the animal kingdom that is so extraordinarily marked, for on 
either side of the snout (which, by the way, is colored a fiery red) are broad 
bands of purple, blue, and scarlet. The effect is hideous, showing an animal 
utterly brutal and ferocious. So terrible is the mandrill that it drives every- 
thing away, including the elephant, while lions have been known to succumb 
to an onslaught from these beasts. 

They live in the forests, and from there frequently descend upon the vil- 
lages. They care little about the natives, plunder everything in sight, and 
carry their booty away to the woods. 

When caged the mandrill shows a marked preference for female visitors, 
and may be approached bv them when men would not dare to venture. It is 
exceedingly jealous, and, curiously enough, displays fierce anger if attentions 
are shown to any of its lady favorites. It is absolutely untamable, and if in- 
jured will go off into the wildest gusts of passion, which have been known to 
end in death. It will nurse a revenge for months, and even feign mildness, 
stealthily waiting for an opportunity to retaliate. 


The Howling Monkeys of South America have earned a bad name for 
themselves. Owing to a curious formation of bones in the throat they are able 
to utter a loud cry with great force. These monkeys collect in vast numbers, 
and, unlike the Asiatic and African monkeys of similar habits which cry singly, 
they howl in chorus, apparently under a leader, and the effect on a still night 
can be imagined. They are good imitators, frequently mocking the jaguar. 
Hour after hour they keep up the concert, which can be easily heard a mile 

The natives of Brazil have a curious way of catching these monkeys. 
They fasten an empty cocoa-nut shell to the ground, fill it with rice that the 
monkeys love, and which can only be gotten out through a hole just the size 
of the monkey's hand. The natives retire and watch, and down comes the 


inquisitive monkey. As soon as it discovers the hole it pushes its hand in and 
grasps a fist full of rice, and, of course, it cannot draw the hand out. The na- 
tives run up, and the monkey is actually too stupid or greedy to let the rice 
go, and so is easily captured. 



The Sai Monkeys belong to the Capucin family, and are famous for their 
bright, active ways, and gentle dispositions. All of this family of monkeys is 
found in great numbers in Brazil. The Sais' tails are very strong, and, as in 
the case of a great many South American monkeys, they use them to swing 
by. These little fellows prefer vegetable matter to eat, but will not refuse 
insects and eggs. In all the forests near the Equator, when you hear a great 
uproar among the colonies of nesting birds, it generally means an invasion 
from a snake or a prowling sai. They are clever and intelligent, and are fre- 
quently seen in this country in a tame state. 


The curious owl-eyed little animal 
in the picture, called the Night Mon- 
key, is an inhabitant of the South Amer- 
ican forests. During the heat of the 
noon-day sun it sleeps in a hollow tree ; 
then at twilight it stretches itself, and 
comes out, and from that time to day- 
light the forest has no more bright, act- 
ive little hunter. Hence the name, 
" night monkey." Its voice is very loud 
considering its size. It also emits a 
kind of a roar, not unlike the jaguar, 
which causes great excitement among 
the other monkeys. The night monkey 
can mew like a cat, and, which is most 
wonderful of all, can accurately imitate a 


NIGHT MONKEY (■+ Natural Size). 

snake's hiss. When the night 
monkey is angry or excited it 
breaks into a loud, chattering 
bark. They do not live in colo- 
nies, but keep in pairs, except 
when the little ones are born. 


The Slender Loris is a 
quaint little creature hailing from 
Madagascar, Ceylon, and the 
Malayan Islands. The loris is 
barely nine inches high, and its 
limbs are slightly built, hence 
arises its surname, " slender." It 
is a Q-ood hunter in its own ior- 
ests, moving through the trees 
with marvellous swiftness and 




Sonnerat, the trav- 
eller, while in Mada- 
gascar, captured a little 
animal that he had 
never seen before. He 
showed it to the na- 
tives, who were greatly 
surprised, and clapped 
their hands with cries of 
astonishment, and from 
that the Aye- Aye got 
its name. The little 
creature is brown, with 
black feet, large eyes 
and ears, is almost des- 
titute of hair, and has 
claws of great length 
and delicacy. In ap- 
pearance it is rather 
like a rat, with a large 
bushy tail and slender 
claws. It differs from 
all other species. The 
naturalists now believe 
it to be the missing 
link between the mon- 
key and the gnawing 
animals. It is very shy 
and very rare, being 
only found over a small 
part of Madagascar, and 
considering its strictly 
nocturnal habits, it is 
not so wonderful that the natives had never discovered it. One great point 
where the aye-aye differs from the rest of the four-handed animals, is that the 
latter suckle their young from the breast, but the aye-aye never does this, its 
milk-giving organs being in the lower part of the abdomen. Its Latin name 
means " mouse-handed." 

AYE-AYES (</ 3 Natural Size). 


The Galago is another nocturnal little 
creature living near the Limpopo River in 
South Africa. It leaps, monkey - fashion, 
from tree to tree, with great accuracy. 


The Colugos, popularly known as the 
" flying foxes," seem to come between the 
four-footed animals and the wing-handed 
animals. A hunter who pursued one of 
these little creatures chased it into a tree, 
when, to his surprise, it took a flying leap 
into the air and landed into another tree, a 


Natural Size). 

COLUGO (% Natural Size). 

distance which, on measurement, 
proved to be eighty yards away. 
He managed to shoot the colugo, 
however, and found that its front 
and hind feet were joined by a 
fur-covered natural skin, similar to 
the bat's, instead of a membrane, 
as he believed. In walking, this 
skin is so closely wrapped to the 
body that it hardly attracts atten- 
tion. The colugo flies like a kite, 
always starting for a point lower 
than its starting-place. 

The Vampire Bat is a native 
of South America. It is very fond 
of the blood of human beings 
and animals. At one time it was 
believed that people died from 
wounds given by them. Chickens, 
cats, and dogs die from such attacks, 
but nothing larger. The vampire 
alights on the toe of a sleeping 



VAMPIRE BAT (% Natural Size). 

man, makes a tiny puncture with its sharp tooth, and proceeds to draw the 
blood, but in the cases of horses and cattle it selects the shoulders and flanks 
to operate upon. After all, the main diet of the bat species is insects. It is 
interesting" to examine the ground near where bats are resting and see the 
marvellous collection of beautiful insect wings scattered around. Bats make 
their homes in church-steeples, barns, and out-houses, where they lay quietly 
all day, hanging head down, after the fashion of their kind. Then as the sun 
goes down they come out in thousands. In the country they fly over the rich 
meadows and edges of the woods, while in cities they buzz around the electric 
lights, which attract vast numbers of insects. Bats have always been a source 
of much superstition and dread. In many parts of England a bat flying in at 
a window is supposed to foretell a death, or if one should alight upon a 
horse or cow the owner will expect some bad luck. The scientific name of 
the bat means " wing-handed." 


The true home of the Civet is in Abyssinia, although it is found over the 
whole of Northern Africa. This curious creature carries a. scent-pouch, under 
the abdomen and near the tail, from which is obtained a precious secretion, 
which is much prized on account of its perfume. At one time the civets were 
killed, and the secretion extracted ; but it proved too expensive, for the quan- 
titv was very small. A much better plan was put into operation ; namely, that 
of keeping the animal carefully caged, and removing the perfume as it was 
produced. This latter operation is no easy task, for a civet is so built as to 
be able to turn any way, and use its claws and teeth with dangerous effect. 
On attempting to handle one of these animals it backs away with angry 
growls, and fights desperately. It is said that the secretion is extracted now 
by placing the civet in a narrow box, where it cannot turn and bite back. 
Naturalists have never determined yet to what use the secretion was put, for 
when the civet is in its wild state it forms into a mass about the size of a nut, 
and the secretion is periodically discharged. 

In habits the civet is nocturnal, and is very hard to rouse during the day- 
time. If poked up with a stick it only settles again, and if the persecution is 
continued it growls, but will not bestir itself. 

The length of the civet is usually three feet. It is beautifully marked 
in black and white, while its eyes are of a dark shade of brown. 


The Ichneumon plays much the same part in Egypt that trie moongus. 
does in India. It is a veritable reptile-destroyer, and also turns its attention 
to rats, mice, lizards, and other pests. In Egypt one of the most dreaded of 
creatures is the crocodile, and odd as it may seem, the ichneumon is its most 
deadly enemy. These clever little creatures watch where the crocodiles hide 
their eggs, and then directly they are left unguarded they creep down to the 
place and dig them up and eat them, with the result that each year hundreds 
of young crocodiles are thus destroyed. 

The ichneumon is regarded with much favor, and does not hesitate to ap- 
proach human habitations. The ichneumon is capable of moving about very 
quietly. A man might be in the same room with one, yet he would not hear 
it running to and fro across the floor. 

Rats and mice, which, by the way, have excellent smell and hearing, never 
seem to notice the approach of their stealthy enemy until it is upon them, 
therefore the people of Egypt like to let the ichneumon wander about in their 
graneries and storehouses to drive the vermin out. It is also capable of pro- 
ducing a scented secretion, like the civet, although it does not seem to be of 
any great value. An ichneumon was seen to chase a rat among some rocks, 
and when it dived down into a small crevice, the ichneumon followed, thus 
showing that in spite of its apparent size it is capable of squeezing into a 
ridiculously small opening. It captures a great deal of its prey in this man- 
ner, the victim believing itself safe in a small burrow or other hiding-place. 
The color of the ichneumon is brown, with considerable gray mixed. 



Around every Anglo-Indian home you will see a long-bodied, short- 
legged, perky little creature bristling with importance, and busy prying into 
all sorts of odd corners. It is the Moongus. Indian gardens become the 
abode of numberless reptiles which would soon be uninhabitable but for this 
little creature. 

In ways it bears some resemblance to the cat, being cleanly and well 
disposed to human beings. The moongus is consumed with curiosity ; it 
will pry into everything, and often thereby gets itself into the most laughable 

A Civil Service Judge in Bengal allowed a pet moongus to wander at 
will all over his house. One day the moongus climbed onto the Judge's desk 
to see what it could find. It pushed its nose into the ink-pot, and found the 
ink nasty to drink. Then wherever it put its nose after that it left an inky 
stain. The moongus could not understand where* the black marks came 
from. At last it upset a large pot of gum, and got its feet and tail into the 
mess so that papers began to stick all over its body. With that the moongus 
rushed off in a fright, and rolled itself about in the dust in the garden. It 
was several days before its fur got back into order and neatness. 

In India the little animal is much prized and protected on account of the 
unceasing warfare it wages against all manner of snakes. Every shaded nook 
and drain-pipe affords a lurking-place for the dreaded cobra, and the one ani- 
mal that faces this reptile without fear is the moongus. The lightning rapidity 
with which the little creature moves, and the curious swaying motion of its 
body, enabling it to spring equally well on either side, makes it very difficult to 
say in which direction it will go, and this is its great safeguard in dealing with 
reptiles like the cobra. The moongus endeavors to catch the snake just be- 
hind the head, where it cannot bite back, nor lash with its tail. They roll on 
the ground together until either the snake is killed, or succeeds in shaking its 
enemy off, which very seldom happens. The object of the moongus is to 
reach the snake's back-bone with its sharp teeth, and thus paralyze it. If the 
snake attacks first, the moongus receives its enemy in front, and avoids the 
lightning strikes by springing in the air. Quick as the snake is, it cannot turn 
before the moongus has followed up its miss with a furious attack. 

The moongus does the snakes great harm in other ways besides fighting 


with them. When a cobra lays its eggs it generally does so in some warm 
corner and then, after covering them with earth, leaves the heat of the sun 
to do the hatching. The moongus hunts for these eggs, digs them up and 
eats them. It is on these occasions that the fiercest battles take place, for 
the cunning snake is always on the lookout for enemies. She tries to sneak 
up behind the moongus, but the chances are a hundred to one that it will 
hear her. 

The moongus is a good hunter, for it fears nothing. Should a mole or 
any other subterranean animal appear, the moongus flies at it, and if it seeks 
refuge in its burrow in the ground, will follow it in, and later is seen backing 
out of the excavation, dragging the luckless mole too. 

The only time that the moongus shows an irritable nature toward human 
beings is when it is feeding, being liable to use its sharp little teeth freely; but 
this is not common, because they usually drag their food to secluded spots, 
where they will not be disturbed. When the moongus is angry it spreads its 
tail out like a bottle-brush, and utters a low, quick, chattering noise. 

Its general body-color is gray, with dark hairs intermingled. 

It was claimed at one time that the poison of a cobra was not fatal to the 
moongus, but this is untrue, for should it be unlucky enough to get bitten, the 
consequences would be just as fatal as in the case of any other animal. The 
moongus matches its quickness of foot and eye against the snake's strike. 

One of these interesting creatures was brought to England and allowed 
to run about its owner's house. Of course, it immediately went on a tour of 
inspection, and ran up against the cats, who took it for an extra-sized rat, but 
they quickly discovered their mistake, for the sturdy little animal flew at them 
so fiercely that they were actually driven from the house. This little moongus 
waged a great war on the roaches in the kitchen until they were all extermi- 
nated. One night by accident it was shut out from its warm quarters, and was 
found dead the next morning. Although there was not a trace of frost in the 
air, the cold had been sufficient to cause the death of the little inhabitant of 
the tropics. 

In spite of its sharp teeth, Indian children like to make a pet of the moon- 
gus, for it is fond of a game. It is good-tempered, as a rule, but can be teased 
until it becomes dangerous. There is one thing which always rouses the 
moongus's wrath, and that is to pull its tail. It will snap angrily at anyone's 
finger after that. There have been many attempts to introduce the moongus 
into other snake-infested countries, but with very little success, for it does not 
thrive well out of the tropics. 


This large and important group of animals embrace not only wild and 
domesticated dogs, but also the wolves, foxes, and the jackals. 

The dog is found all over the world, and everywhere is the friend of man. 
Let us first look at an interesting animal of the wild dogs. 


The Dhole is found in the western portion of the Indian Empire. It is a 
mysterious animal. Even in localities which are favored by its presence, the 
dhole is seldom seen, and by many Indian residents it has been thought to be 
a fable of the natives. 

The most wonderful thing about the dhole is its fondness for hunting. 
There is nothing peculiar in the fact that dholes should unite in great packs 
and run down big game, for many of the dog tribe have that habit, especially 
the wolves. But the dhole is the only animal who, though inferior in strength 
and size, has sufficient pluck to hunt the terrible tiger and destroy it. 

It seems that no animal in India can face the dhole except the elephant 
and rhinoceros. Even the boar is easily killed. The leopard saves itself by 
taking to the trees. In their attacks upon such animals as the tiger and the 
boar, the pack is greatly thinned out by the crashing blows of the tigers' paws 
or the stabs of the boars' tusks, but, nevertheless, the remainder doggedly keep 
up the fight until one or the other wins. The dholes do not increase at any 
great rate, the reason being that these continual battles thin their ranks down 
so. The dhole is very swift-footed. Some naturalists believe that it can out- 
run its cousin, the wolf. The dhole does not assault men unless it is attacked. 
It is of a rich brown color, while its eye is bright and its face very intelligent. 


The first of the domesticated dogs is the Grevhound. This graceful 
creature is formed entirely for speed and endurance. It has long, slender legs, 
a deep chest, and a sharp-pointed nose. 

The chief use to which the greyhound is put is in "coursing." A pair of 


greyhounds race after a hare to see which can kill it first. The speed of the 
greyhound is much greater than that of the hare, but the latter, owing to its 
short front legs, is able to dodge and turn more quickly. 

There are several varieties of greyhounds, such as the Irish greyhound, 
the Scotch greyhound, the Russian greyhound, the Persian greyhound, and, 
last of all, the smallest and most beautiful of all, the Italian greyhound. 


This magnificent beast gets its name from the country to which it belongs. 
It is a wonderful swimmer. There are hundreds of cases on record where people 
have been saved from drowning by one of these plucky dogs. The attachment 
which this magnificent creature feels toward mankind is almost unaccountable, 
for it has been known to go out into snow-drifts and rescue someone it has 
never seen before. 

The people of. Newfoundland utilize the strength of this dog by making it 
draw sleighs of wood and stone, and it is sad to relate that the treatment the 
dog receives is brutal in the extreme. It is nearly always seen at its best in 
England or Canada where its fur is cared for. 


This dog belongs to the Arctic regions. It is powerfully built and well 
adapted for travelling over the ice. The Esquimaux use these dogs to draw 
their sleighs. All Arctic explorers have carried them on their expeditions. 
At times a kind of plague will break out among them, so that a whole pack 
will die in a few hours. 


The Spaniel is largely used as a sporting dog. It is fond of water and, 
in consequence, is much favored by duck-hunters. It is intelligent and plucky, 
and will seldom retreat before any foe. A spaniel has been known to beat off 
a puma which had tried to steal her puppies. While hunting, the spaniel has 
a habit of wagging its long, hairy tail, and when it runs its tail goes from side 
to side, keeping time with its feet. It is a large dog, often weighing between 
thirty and forty pounds. 

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This magnificent dog gains its name from a famous monastery in Switzer- 
land, where it has been taught to rescue people lost in the snow, and thereby 
earned for itself world-wide fame. Whenever a snow-storm occurs the monks 
in the monastery send their dogs out to look for belated travellers. When the 
dog finds anyone it bays loudly, all the while scraping the snow from the 
frozen traveller. The monks then set out to the rescue. 

In the United States the St. Bernard thrives very well, and some magnifi- 
cent dogs can be seen about the streets. Its temper is a little uncertain. 


The Bloodhound gains its name from the wonderful sense of smell it 
possesses, which enables it to scent a person's trail for miles over any country. 
The trail is often slight, but the bloodhound's instinct is unerring. 


This dog is short, strongly built, and smooth-skinned. It has been so care- 
fully bred that it has nearly reached the height of perfection. In England it 
lives in packs and is kept in beautiful kennels, and looked after carefully. The 
height of the foxhound is abort twenty to twenty-five inches. 


These are the three famous shooting dogs. The Pointer is a rather large, 
muscular, smooth-skinned animal. It gets its name from a curious habit it has 
of" pointing " when out hunting. If it finds a covey of quail it stands perfectly 
still, with its nose in exact line where the birds are hiding. The hunter there- 
fore keeps his gun pointed readv in that direction. 

The Setter is another favorite hunting doe. It is a beautiful, long-haired 
creature. A curious fact about the setter is its fondness for water. While hunt- 
ing, it will not go on with its work unless it can wet its coat periodically. II 
there is no water nearby it pants and puffs with heat and exertion. The set- 
ter is better tempered than the pointer, but it has an annoying habit of forget- 
ting all it has ever learned. There is nothing to do but for the hunter to go 
over its lessons again. The ruddy-brown Gordon setter is the most beautiful 
and valuable of this species. 

, - 



The Retriever Dog is 
so called on account of its 
value in recovering or " re- 
trieving" game that has fallen 
out of the reach of the sports- 
men. There are two breeds 
of retrievers; one obtained 
by crossing a Newfoundland 
and a setter, and the other 
by crossing a terrier and a spaniel. The latter is naturally the smaller of the 
two. To train a retriever for hunting purposes is rather a difficult task, de- 
manding great patience. The greatest obstacle is to break the dog of its habit 
of barking when it is excited. 


This dog is an example of combined brute strength and good temper. 
Its extraordinary courage is well-known; it may be said that there is hardly 



any breed of sporting dog which does not owe its pluck to an infusion of bull- 
dog blood. The instinct of fight is strong in the bull dog, for there seems to 
be no animal that it will not attack. 

On the other hand, the bull dog is gentle and will permit itself to be 
roughly hauled about by children. The bull terrier is a cross between the true 
terrier and the bull dog. 


The Fox Terrier has been termed the "gentleman" among the dogs. 
It is an animal combining all the good qualities of the canine family, being 
graceful, strong, saucy, affectionate, dignified and playful. The terrier is com- 
mon all over the United States and England, where it has been carefully bred. 
A great many inferior curs that have a trace of terrier in them are to be seen 
sneaking about the streets, but they only bring discredit upon the family. 


This little dog has become a great household favorite. Its face is fierce- 
looking, showing unmistakable signs of having descended from the bull dog, 
but in reality it is mild and harmless. The pug is a pet, and useless for any 
other purpose. It is cheerful and amusing in its ways and shows great affection, 
but it is also jealous in disposition and will frequently snap at strangers. 


The Poodle is another pet dog. It is in great vogue in France, where 
they shave the back and cut the hair off its tail, so as to leave rings and tufts. 

The poodle, therefore, is placed lower down in the scale of " good " dogs 
than it ought to be. 

It is really an exceedingly bright and clever dog, and can be taught to 
perform endless tricks. It is affectionate and docile. 


The Dixgos of Australia are one of the many forms of life which make that 
continent mysterious. These animals, half dog, half fox, live in great numbers 
near the sheep ranches, where they thrive marvellously, in spite of the unceas- 
ing warfare waged against them by man. They steal sheep and lambs to an 


alarming extent, and so far no means has been found to check their ravages. 
When they become very numerous in one locality, they divide up into bands, 
each one covering certain ground. They are very swift-footed, and always 
prefer flight to giving battle ; but still, if cornered, they make a fierce resist- 
ance. At night they surround the sheep-corrals and bay at the moon like any 
dog. Perhaps their most remarkable trait is their store of vitality. 

A hunter on one occasion discovered a dingo caught in a trap ; he struck it 
heavily with the butt-end of his gun, and then, lifting the body out of the trap, 
left it for dead, as he thought, and walked away. By chance he happened to 
look back, when he saw the creature rise up, shake itself, and limp off. 

The dingos are very expert thieves and will carry off common articles, 
such as harness, boots, rugs, clothes, etc., from under their owner's very nose, 
and will return the next day to repeat the outrage. The Australian ranchmen 
very justly believe that the dingos, like the cats, have nine lives. 

The color of the dingo is a reddish brown, which .matches wonderfully 
with its natural surroundings in the bush. 


Jackals are the first of the true hunting dogs to be considered. These 
animals are natives of Africa, but are very common in India and Ceylon. 
They are scavengers, and will eat anything they can get. One of their curious 
habits is that of dogging the steps of larger animals, like the lion and tiger, to 
feed on the remains of their feast. They will sit down at a respectful dis- 
tance, and hungrily watch the hunter devour its prey. Then when it is 
gorged it moves off, and the jackals swoop down upon the remains, quarrel- 
ing furiously among themselves, 
or with the hungry kites and vul- 
tures attracted to the scene. Sir 
Samuel Baker mentions having 
found jackals in Africa with their 
paws bitten off, and the natives 
declare that it is done by the lion 
as a punishment for daring to in- 
terfere with its feast. The jackal 
is an expert thief, as the following 
_ _ storv will snow : 

A sentinel, on duty in the 
fortress at Agra, observed one of 
3H these creatures on the prowl. He 
took no notice of it at the time, 
but soon after was surprised to 
see the intruder crawl off with a 
j|jt pair of little puppies in its mouth. 
Under an arch-way a bitch was 
asleep with her litter, and the 
bold thief had cleverly taken two of her young ones from beside her without 
making anv noise. 

When very young the jackal may be tamed like a dog, and, curiously 
enough, it loses the strong, offensive smell it has when wild. The natives 
look upon the jackal with contempt, on account of its sneaking habits. As far 
as human beings are concerned, the jackal is harmless, but among small live- 
stock they are terrible pests, being as cunning as bold, and, like the cat, pos- 
sessed of nine lives. They hunt in bands, and often come to a comrade's 
rescue when it is pressed by an enemy. 



The day of the Wolf is past in Europe. When France, and even 
England, were overrun with this terrible creature a price was put upon its 
head, with the result that it was all but exterminated. In Russia, occasionally, 
some lonely, outlying village is attacked by wolves, who, ravenously hungry, 
are driven there by the severe winter. 

The wolf's jaws are of marvellous strength, and are used in a different 
manner to other great animals; like the lion, for instance. Instead of closing 
the jaws tightly, they snap them, tearing dreadful wounds. The wolf is cruel 
and unsparing, even among its fellows, turning and hurting a wounded member 
of its own pack. Its power of endurance has been handed down in legend, 
until it has become proverbial. The long, tireless, shambling gallop of the 
wolf will run any living creature down. A horse may run swiftly and start off 
at a much greater rate of speed than the wolf, but presently it will show signs 
of distress; then it will pluck up courage and take a new lease of life, but the 
dogged foe behind will sooner or later win the race. 

The most disconcerting thing is to display before a wolf something it is 
unused to. Suspicion is their watch-word, and a piece of red or white cloth 
tied to any dead game is sufficient to keep the band off; for, unless they are 
perfectly sure that there is nothing harmful in that piece of cloth, they will not 
go near it. 

A notable instance showing the suspicious nature of the wolf is told by a 
Russian gentleman who was driving a two-horse sleigh, when his beasts sud- 
denly snorted with terror and broke into a wild gallop. The traveller knew 
well enough that they had scented wolves, and presently he heard a faint howl 
far away. Ere long the cruel green eyes of the leader appeared behind, and 
just at that instant the sleigh collided with a tree-stump that was covered with 
snow. In an instant the traveller was thrown out, and the horses, freeing 
themselves, rushed madly on. The man, nearly frantic with terror, waved a 
piece of red rag which he gripped in his hand, and, to his intense astonishment, 
the wolves stopped, dropped their tails, and eyed him suspiciously. Slowly, 
the man backed to a tree and sprang to the lower limbs, just in time to save 
his skin. The pack then divided; one half started after the horses, while the 
remainder, with hungry eyes and tongues lolling out, settled down under the 
tree, knowing that the frost would soon do its work. At daylight some men 
found the sleigh with broken harness attached, and around it the marks of a 
great battle. A strong force of men went up the road and rescued the 
benighted traveller just in the nick of time. 


Each pack of wolves runs under a leader, whose maxim is, " He who takes 
it, keeps it." The chief wolf's authority lies solely in its jaws, and woe to the 
poor creature when accident or age begins to tax its strength. At the first 
chance it is set upon and torn to pieces by its followers, while confusion and 
unending battles take place, until another wolf, by sheer strength and pluck, 
fights its way to the front rank; then obedience reigns once more. In time this 
leader is deposed, too, and so on. These fierce battles among the rivals in the 
pack keep the wolves from becoming very numerous. When wolves are kept 
in captivity, they often form close friendships with their natural enemy, the dog, 
and not infrequently breed. The young of such a union are sly and ferocious, 
combining the evil qualities of both animals. 

The Indian Wolf is built a good deal like the Russian and American 
wolf, except that its fur is a good deal thinner. It is very fierce, only one does 
not hear so much of it as there are so many other terrible animals in India, 
such as the tiger, elephant, and rhinoceros. The Indian wolf hunts in a well- 
organized pack, which is under the direct command of a leader. The wolf is 
found more in the open country, near the jungle, than in the jungle itself. 




Everyone who has crossed the Western plains of America must have seen 
the Coyote, the gray wolf of the West, which sits upon a knoll and looks 
impudently at the passing train, well knowing that it has no time to stop and 
interfere with him. Campers in Arizona, New Mexico, and California wake 
suddenly in the night and grip their rifles when they hear the most long-drawn- 
out, unearthly yell imaginable. It is merely a coyote serenading the moon. 
This animal is plentiful enough, in spite of the way it is hunted down. It is a 
typical wolf, keen of eye and swift of foot, besides being the king of thieves. 
The coyote will quietly pull the blanket off you as you sleep, and at the first 
sign of waking, with a whisk of its tail, it vanishes. They are clever ventrilo- 
quists, and use their power in many curious ways. For instance, two coyotes 
howling together make you think that there must be a band of twenty in full 
swing. If two coyotes wish to rob a chicken-ranch which is guarded by dogs, 
one of them stations itself at the gate and sets up a howl. Out rush all the 
dogs, and away goes the serenader, quietly keeping the lead of the hounds in 
full cry behind. Then the second coyote rushes into the ranch and steals the 


chickens. When the first coyote thinks that it has run far enough it doubles 
and trebles its speed, and the dogs are left far behind to make their way home. 
The two thieves then meet and divide the spoils. All Westerners testify to the 
insolence and cunning of this creature. A coyote was seen about eight o'clock 
one morning to kill a cat on a private lawn, within four miles of Los Angeles, 
California. If one crosses your path it will let you come comparatively near, 
but should you attempt to use a weapon it vanishes like magic. If a coyote is 
suddenly cornered, it will feign death, and often carries out this trick so cleverly 
that hunters of the greatest experience are deceived. Sometimes a coyote, 
when feigning death, will lie in the same position for hours, until it is sure 
that you are not looking. During this time its body will assume a wonderfully 
lifeless look. 

Young coyotes are quaint-looking little creatures, seeming to be mainly 
composed of a mouth and two 

absurdly big ears. When captured ^^^\ ; ^^%^^'^^^ 

very young, coyotes can be tamed *^«3fe 

and chained to a kennel. They 
often become affectionate and docile 
when they get over their natural 
shyness. But remember, their teeth 
are always sharp ! 


The Fox has managed to make 
an immense reputation for itself in 
the world. The old legends have 
always shown Master Reynard as 
the spirit of mischief and cunning, 
and not without good ground, for 
there are few animals that it cannot 
outwit. When put to the test it will 
display a sound sense of judgment, 
mixed with an audacity that is 
amazing. In England the fox is protected by law for hunting purposes. It is 
a great pest to the farmers, but the hunting landlord prefers to pay the damage 
rather than have the game destroyed. 

The fox has a strong, unpleasant odor, which is exuded from glands near 

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the tail. It is so pungent that a barn will retain the smell for weeks after a 
fox has been there. Milk left standing near will be ruined, while as long as 
the smell remains dogs, horses, and cats become very restless. It is this curious 
scent that is followed by the hounds in the hunt, and the fox will display great 
ingenuity in throwing its pursuers off its trail, such as going up the bed of a 
stream, or doubling back on its tracks; then giving a powerful leap to one side 
to break the connection of the run. It has often been known to sneak through 
herds of cattle, hoping to gain a little headway by the confusion which must 
follow when the eager pack comes rushing up. 

In a distant part of Pembrokeshire, in Wales, a pack of hounds had fol- 
lowed the same fox for several hunts. The cunning old fellow seemed to 
enjoy the fun, and when it had had enough, it made for the sea-coast and van- 


ished over the cliffs. The ground was examined and the cliff proved to be 
one hundred and fifty feet high, so if it had jumped down to the beach it must 
surely be killed. The huntsmen determined to press closer the next time the 
fox appeared. Again the hunt came off, and, as usual, Mister Fox made for 
the coast and went over the cliff like a flash, the pack following close behind, 
with the result that about half of them were killed. It was afterward seen that 
the cunning rascal used to slide quickly down the cliff on all fours for about 
fifty feet, until it was checked by the stump of a bush, and neatly concealed by 
this was the entrance to its hole. 

Another instance worthy of notice is that of a fox which, when almost run 
down by a pack in full cry, came to a railway just as a freight train was coming 
along at full speed. Without hesitating, the desperate creature sprang on to a 
flat-car and soon left the hunt far behind. 

On one occasion a hungry fox passed by an open farm-house door just as 
the family were about to sit down to dinner. It gave one hasty look around to 
see that there were no dogs likely to catch it, and then it sprang boldy across 
the room and right onto the dinner-table, and, seizing the joint of meat, it 
scrambled safely out of the door again before anyone could prevent it. This 
is only one of the many instances which show that the fox is capable of carry- 
ing out the most daring schemes. 

The foxes dig holes called earths, generally among the roots of large trees, 
and here they bring up large families of bushy-tailed, snubby-nosed little cubs. 

When the cubs are about half-grown they are hunted ; this is called " cub- 


The Arctic Fox stands a little apart from its numerous family. It is 
found in the most northern part of America, Greenland, and the great Arctic 
islands. It is especially famous for its fur. During the late fall it is a beauti- 
ful gray color, which makes it valuable in the market. In the depth of winter 
it is very heavy and silky and turns to a pure white, but at other times of the 
year it changes its coat very rapidly, assuming unsightly colors. Explorers 
and naturalists who have visited the Arctic regions at various times have 
described it as the " pied " fox, others as the "sooty" fox, and others as the 
"blue" fox; but it has since been proved that they are one and the same 
animal seen at different times of the year. 

They are over-bold, being easy to approach within gun-shot, and they do 
not display the clever tricks for keeping out of traps like their brethren. They 
live in burrows, like the red fox, and in size are slightly smaller, measuring 
about three feet, including the tail. 

Owing to persecution, the Arctic fox is not nearly as plentiful as it was; in 
fact, it has already vanished from some localities, where it used to live in great 
numbers. If the demand for its fur continues, it will probably be exterminated. 


The Hyena-Dog, or Hunting Dog, forms a connecting link between the 
canine family and the hyenas. It has many of the traits of the dog, but in 
appearance and habits it is like the hyena. It is something of a scavenger, and 
loves to roam about the country in bands; hence the Boer settlers near the 
Cape of Good Hope have nicknamed it the "hunting dog." It is smaller than 
the true hyena, and is much inferior in strength. It will steal when it gets a 
chance, but will never attack a man. 

While the speed of the hyena-dog is nothing like as great as the wolf, still 
it is able to run down many animals, such as the slower deer and antelope. 
When on a chase, it relies on numbers to terrorize the prey, for a pack of hyena- 
dogs look very formidable when they are in full cry. The white settlers of South 
Africa consider the animal a coward, and, therefore, treat it with contempt. 

The hyena-dog is about the size of a large spaniel, but it weighs a good 
deal more. Its color is a dirty gray, with white and black patches. Its ears 
and the extremities of its paws are also black. 


Next in order come the Weasels, Skunks, and Badgers. Members of 
these different families are found in every part of the globe. They have snake- 
like habits, long, flexible bodies, capable of being twisted and turned into any 
shape, short legs, and immense strength for their size. 

Two well-known members of the weasel family are the martens. 


The Pine-Martem is a beautiful creature, living, as its name denotes, deep 
in the heart of the great pine forests of Northern Europe and the wilder parts 
of America. It is very shy and wary, never showing itself if it can possibly 
help it, and is, therefore, considered much rarer than it really is. It lives almost 
entirely among the trees, travelling from branch to branch rather than going 
over the ground. In pursuit of its food it is sly and silent. Birds, squirrels, 
rats, and mice fall easy victims to its powerful claws. 



A hunter, passing near a large tree, was attracted by the excited shrieks of 
a colony of birds that had built their nests among the upper branches. The 
cause of the trouble proved to be a pine-marten. As soon as the man and 
beast saw each other, they stopped and silently eyed one another. The marten 
was contemplating a dash for safety, while the hunter, who was only armed 
with a shot-gun, was wondering if he could get within range before his prey 
could try to escape. They both made up their minds at the same instant, for 
the hunter made a dash forward and the marten scurried down the tree with 
amazing rapidity. Below this tree was a deep gully which would cut off all 
chance of pursuit, so the hunter stopped running and fired both barrels, while 
the marten, which was evidently 
hurt, gave a superb spring and 
dropped forty feet into the tree- 
tops below. The small branches 
swayed and creaked as it made 
off, and the poor creature was 
found dead the next day, about 
three miles away. It measured 
thirty inches in length, including 
the tail. 


The Beech, or Stone-Mar- 
ten, is another member of this 
family. It is not as shy as the 
pine-marten, and is much more 
numerous. Owing to its not be- 
ing afraid of man, it is a great 
nuisance, silently killing and car- 
rying off large numbers of chick- 
ens. The beech-marten can be 
tamed and even become affec- 
tionate, but never quite loses its 
thirst for blood. It is cruel and 
fierce when wild, often falling stone-marten (Vl . Natural size). 

upon a weaker animal that has obtained prey, seizing it and killing the victim. 
The beech-marten will kill an animal and be so gorged from a previous meal 


that it will leave its victim without touching a drop of its blood. But it is just 
as ready to kill the next animal it meets. The beech and pine marten are very 
much alike, except that the white fur is more marked in the former. 


SABLE (' „ Natural Size). 

The Sable is famous for its fur. It is not a common animal, even where 
it is best known. It is found all through the most northerly part of Canada, 
and again in Europe and Russia Hunters have lost their lives in seeking it, 
for its fur is only valuable during the cold winter months, when the snow begins 
to cover the great forests of Siberia, and the danger is Qreat. The awtul snow- 
storms cover up the tracks in a very short time, and the violent winds pile up 
huge drifts until it is impossible to move along. The forests are dark, and 
once the hunter loses his way he is lost. Nevertheless, quite a number of 
sable-skins come to this country each year, showing that brave men still go 
out, in spite of all the risks. The sable's feet are large in proportion to the 
rest of its body, and in consequence it leaves a foot-print in the snow which 
might be easily mistaken for a small bear. The sable can be tamed, but it 
makes a poor pet. Its fur always looks untidy, for all the gloss, which makes 
it so beautiful, disappears. 


One never hears of the Pole-Cat without thinking of something horrid. 
Its utter wanton cruelty and ferocity have made its name famous wherever it 
has lived. Although it is not a large animal (coming in size between the 
marten and the true weasel), it does not hesitate to wage war on birds, etc., 
several times its own size, such as turkeys, geese, ducks, chickens, and num- 
berless hares and rabbits. With regard to rabbits, it is doubtful if they have 
a more terrible enemy. 

The pole-cat is very scarce in England ; it is destroyed because of the 
havoc it makes among the wild birds and animals that are being preserved for 
game shooting. But when a pole-cat does visit any game preserve, it leaves 
a fearful trail behind to mark its progress. It always kills everything it can catch 
and will only suck the blood of its victim. Often hares and rabbits are found 
lying dead that would make a meal for twenty pole-cats. 

The animal is small and therefore does not worry man seriously, except 
by killing his chickens; but if the creature was the size of a tiger, just imagine 
the scourge it would be. There is only one thing the pole-cat is afraid of, and 
that is the gun. It only lives on sufferance, and has hard work to keep its 
race from being utterly destroyed. 

When a pole-cat has almost run an animal down it is so intent on the chase 
that it may be easily approached. This is common among all the weasels. 
The pole-cat has a brownish-yellow fur, varying to black on the paws and tail. 




■■■ ; w\ i 

The Ferrets are the best known of all the weasel family. Cruelty is the 
birthright of these curious creatures. They destroy wantonly and viciously, 
and yet ferrets prove that, when properly handled, they can be tamed, and are 
capable of great affection. The ferrets are best recognized by their lithe, 
creamy-white bodies, pointed noses, and fierce little pink eyes. At one time it 
was thought that the ferret and pole-cat were the same animal, but now it is 
well known that they are not. The pole-cat lives in the North, while the ferret 

originally came from Africa. When living 
fegltg ' ■'■■ in captivity, these little creatures must be 
;"' .-"pj % " kept very warm, for if by chance they get 
shut out of doors and the weather turns 
cold they will die. Set a thief to catch a 
thief holds good with the ferret, for it is 
counted as vermin itself, and yet it is used 
to kill rats. A large rat is nearly a match 
for the ferret, and it has been said that after 
a ferret has been mauled by one it will 
never face a stand-up fight again. 

There are really two kinds of ferrets, 
the one a beautiful creamy-white creature, 
the other larger, fiercer, and with a good 
deal of black in its coat. This last one is 
a cross between a true ferret and a pole- 
cat, and is often used in rat-catching, while 
the smaller species only in rabbit-hunting. 
H§ The game-keeper carries the ferret to the 
rabbit-warren in a small bag in his out- 
side pocket, and when taken out it is muz- 
zled. It would never do to let the ferret 
run loose down in the burrows, for it would 
kill the first rabbit it came across, and could 
not be coaxed out until it had had a meal. For this reason they are taken into 
the field hungry, so as to keep them active. In rabbit-hunting the burrow 
holes are covered with a slack net, and when the ferret is turned into the 
ground it begins at once to chase the inhabitants through all the wind- 
ings and twistings, until the bunnies, in terror, fly out of their holes only to 
get tangled up in the net. When the ferret comes out it is put back in the 


A ferret that did not return from one of the burrows was given up for lost 
by its owner. A week later a servant of the manor house (which, by the way, 
was a mile and a half from the field) found the little ferret on the kitchen door- 
step, very cold and hungry, patiently waiting to be let in. 


The Mink is another little animal which is famous for its fur. It lives 
near lakes and rivers, and was once thought to belong to the otter family; but 
it is really a weasel In many places 
it is spoken of as the water pole-cat. 
It swims well and readily. It is 
found throughout Northern Europe 
and America, near the rivers in the 
spring and the lakes in the fall. 
Like the rest of its family, it is a 
fierce fighter and a might)- hunter 
Everything of its size in the forest 
flees before it. The color of the 
mink is dark brown, but it often va- 
ries many shades lighter. 

Hunters tell many curious sto- 
ries showing the cleverness of the 
mink. In one district where the 
mink had been hunted to such an 
extent that it had almost disap- 
peared, a hunter was very anxious 
to catch one that was larger and 
fiercer than anv he had seen before, 
and had so far defied all attempts 
to kill it. 

The hunter put up a spring gun 
with a bait attached to a wire and 
trigger, which would fire off the MINK ( ' ' Natural 3,ze) ' 

minute it was moved. The mink smelled the bait, but when it saw the wire it 
became cautious at once. After watchinq- the bait for awhile it be^an to die 
the earth out from underneath the bait, which soon fell into the hole, and the 
gun exploded harmlessly. The mink then trotted off with its prize 



The Weasel is the smallest, commonest, and most dangerous member 
of its family. Its length, including the tail, is less than a foot. It is a great 
hunter, attacking even as large an animal as the hare. Weasels often hunt in 
couples, or bands, and when thus engaged, they become so absorbed that they 
can be easily approached. On one occasion a man noticed a rabbit rush across 
a meadow-path, evidently in terror of something following it, when suddenly 
a weasel appeared so close that it almost ran over the foot of the watcher. At 
about fifty yards the weasel caught up with 

the rabbit, leaped upon its neck and in a ; ^".^■■5^ . ■.:. M'/'-^ ' j./\ ' 
second or two it was dead. The man now 
came up, and the weasel sat upon its haun- 
ches and looked impudently at him. It 
seemed very loath to be driven from its 
prey, and the instant it was left alone it 
speedily dragged the rabbit under a bush. 
This last fact shows the strength of the 
weasel, for a rabbit weighs two or three 
times what a weasel does. 

This little creature seems to have a 
knowledge of human ways, for the manner 
in which it will approach a man seems 
very rash; but on second thought one 
sees that they have a great deal of shrewd- 
ness. Owing to the weasel's fondness for 
young birds and eggs, the farmers kill it 
whenever they get a chance. But, on the 
other hand, the weasel proves very useful 
in destroying vermin, and the good it does 
exceeds its evil deeds. In summer the 
weasel hunts in the long hay and growing 
corn for rats and mice, but in winter it visits the barns, where they have gone 
for warmth and shelter. 

Where the weasel is most dreaded is in the game preserve, for it is so 
cunning that it is next to impossible to shoot it down. The usual way of kill- 
ing the weasel in the woods is by the steel trap. They love to frequent the 
storm ditches, probably because they can move along the bottom of them and 
approach the game without being seen. So the game-keeper leaves a baited 
trap right in the path, and after many provoking failures, Master. Weasel gets 


caught. Now a weasel fights hard 
for its life, and it plays a number 
of tricks, such as shamming death. 

On one occasion a keeper came 
across a weasel which was, as he 
thought, lying dead in a trap, and 
to make sure he struck it several 
times with the butt of his gun. He 
loosened the spring of the trap, and 
taking the body out, threw it to one 
side, and walked away without giv- 
ing the matter a second thought. 
Half an hour later, when he passed 
that way again, he noticed that the 
weasel had gone, and wondered 
who could have taken it. However* 
about six weeks later he caught 
another weasel which looked re- 
markably like the first. He served 
it as he had served the one before, 
and threw it on the ground. This 
time he did not leave, but hid be- 
hind a bush. As nothing happened 
for some time he was just on the point of going home when he saw the weasel 
move, then sit up, sneeze, and calmly begin to put its fur in order, and then 
trot leisurely off. The blows that the keeper had struck it would have crushed 
many a larger animal. 

Again a little weasel was caught by its front foot in a trap, and in its fran- 
tic struggle to get away it tore its foot off altogether. Although so badly 
maimed, that three-legged weasel became the scourge of the woods. Every day 
a partridge's nest was destroyed or a pheasant dragged down, and do what 
they could, the keepers failed to trap the little beast. When the snow came 
they saw its curious three-foot prints everywhere, but never a sight of the 
weasel. At last, nearly eighteen months later, it was found fighting with a tame 
cat that had run wild, over a dead rabbit. A charge of shot laid both the fight- 
ers out, but the damage had been done by that time. For a year and a half 
that weasel had defied every scheme to catch it. There is an old saying 
which runs, " Never leave a weasel till you have nailed it to the barn door." 



The much-hated, thieving Stoat 
and the beautiful Ermine are one and 
the same animal. In summer the 
stoat's fur on its back is brown, while 
underneath it shades to a beautiful 
lemon color ; but when the frosty 
weather comes it turns to a creamy 
white, except the end of the tail, which 
remains black. Of course it is at this 
time that it is most valuable. People 
used to think that the whiteness in a 
stoat was caused by its dark summer 
coat comin"- out and the white fur 
growing, but it has been proven that 
the darker fur simply turns white. 

The stoat is a great deal larger 
than the weasel, but very much like it 
in its habits. Wherever there is game 
around the stoat is sure to be found, 
for it dearly loves to eat pheasants 
and rabbits. On one occasion a stoat came upon a hare, and the latter, in- 
stead of dashing off, as it would in case it met a man, merely hobbled about 
slowly, with the stoat following close behind. After awhile the hare settled 
down on the ground, while its enemy crept closer and closer, until it sprang on 
its victim's neck, killing it with a single bite. The hare is by no means a cow- 
ard, often fighting fiercely against animals larger than itself, but with the stoat it 
seems unable to help itself. The effect that the stoat has on birds, hares, and 
rabbits is a kind of fascination like that of a snake. 



Everyone knows the Skunk, with its beautiful black and white fur, and 
the terrible name it has for the smell which issues from its body. The glands 
which contain this disagreeable liquid in many cases have been removed, 
leaving the skunk, which is naturally good-tempered, a jolly little playfellow. 
The skunk is easily tamed, and will live contentedly about a garden. 


■ iSiii 

In a Western double-framed house a family of skunks lived between the 
outer and inner shells of the wall, and as night came on they were to be heard 
running over the beams after prey. They destroyed every living thing, from 
rats down to blackbeetles, and were never offensive to the household unless 
suddenly disturbed by one of the cats. As a matter of fact, the skunks had 
their own way, and the cats, with great wisdom, kept at a distance. Neverthe- 
less, there was a collision at times, and the skunk made the neighborhood 
aware of it. Baby skunks are the prettiest of little things, looking very innocent 
as they frisk about. Except for color they look like young squirrels. 

Skunks are strictly American animals, and are known all over the country. 
In some places they reach as great a total length as eighteen inches, but the 
average is much smaller than 
this. They have strong bur- 
rowing claws, and when wild 
live in holes that they dig out 
for themselves. They sleep 
all day and come out at night 
to hunt' for food. If suddenly 
met by a man they show little 
concern, and will often look 
at the intruder impudently. 
Their lack of fear comes from 
their knowing that no one will 
interfere with them. When 
they become too numerous 
they are best cleared out with 
a gun, but the hunter must be 
skilful at his work, for they 
must be shot dead. If only 
wounded they will crawl un- 
der a house or barn and make 
it impossible for anyone to 
come near them. Their pe- 
culiar odor is very strong, 
clinging for months together 
to horses, cattle, dogs, cats, 
and garments that have come 

in Contact with it. SKUNK (/ Natural Size), 



On a warm summer e\'ening, if you go to some quiet spot where no one 
passes, and there are lots of trees, you may see a Badger, whose beautiful 
black and white coat glides in and out among the grass like a will-o'-the-wisp. 
Although harmless and good-natured, the badger is a great fighter when 
aroused. In olden times it used to be matched against several dogs at once, 
and often gave a good account of itself. It has short, stubby legs and a dog- 
like snout. Its teeth are vety strong and sharp. A badger mother rears her 
young in a burrow, generally among the roots of trees. This is dug out by 
the male badger, and serves for a living-place and store-house. When the 
badger is busy burrowing you can come quite close to it, for it is so intent 
upon its work that it does not notice anything around it. Many people imag- 
ine that the badger is stupid, but in reality it is very clever, and anyone who 
has attempted to trap one will agree in this. It is easily tamed, and becomes 
quite affectionate. The badger is not as rare as many people think. Its habits 
are quiet, and it moves along so stealthily that you might be within a few 
yards of one andnot know it. It is more often betrayed by its strong smell 
than by any sound it will make. 


The Wolverine, or Gluttom, is found over the coldest parts of America, 
Northern Europe, and Siberia, and is everywhere considered a curse and a 



scourge. It is cruel and ferocious, killing many more animals than it can 
possibly eat. It is hated among the trappers of North America, because it 
slinks after their trails and tears to pieces victims already caught in the traps. 
All the summer long the glutton wages war upon the beavers, stealthily gliding 
in upon them or dashing suddenly among a colony. But in winter the terrible 
cold freezes the beaver's hut so hard that even the glutton cannot get into it. 
Its paws are very large, and make a footprint in the snow that is often mis- 
taken for a bear. Sometimes the glutton lies upon an overhanging branch un- 
til some poor deer comes along, when it springs upon its victim's neck and 
hangs there, in spite of all its struggles, until the quarry is brought down. 

Should a hunter be unlucky enough to corner a glutton it will offer a 
fierce resistance. It is said that the glutton is the most difficult animal of its 
size to capture. Traps are almost useless to destroy it, and the only sure 
method is to watch with infinite patience and shoot it down. 


HONEY RATEL ('6 Natural Size). 

The Honey Ratel lives on the honeycombs of wild bees. It is cov- 
ered with a thick skin which serves as a protection against the stings of the 
bees. The honey ratel has strong digging claws, and it can bury itself in a few 
minutes. This is the way it escapes from the angry bees. 


The Bear has withstood the attacks of man better than any of the large 
animals, and this is probably because its habits are so quiet. Its real food con- 
sists of roots, berries, and young leaves, and flesh, only when it finds it freshly 


One of the bear species has been foolishly named the Sloth bear, but it 
is the most active of all. It inhabits the tropics, therefore it never has to sleep 
throughout the winter, and what is more, it has to work very hard, digging up 
ants' nests, to get its daily food. Curiously enough, it is about the only bear 
that goes out of its way to attack man. Hunters state that the sloth bear is so 
full of life that when anything comes in sight which it believes it can safely 
tackle, it rushes in to attack at once. When caught young and tamed, the 
sloth bear makes an excellent pet. 



There are several kinds of bears to be found in America, but the most 
famous is the Grizzly. Through some parts of the States hunters call all 
bears grizzlies, but it seems now that the only true grizzly is found in the Si- 
erra Nevada Mountains of California. 

All summer long the bear is busy eating until it gets very fat, and then 
when winter comes it makes a burrow in the ground, very cunningly hid- 
den, and quietly goes to sleep from November to April. When it gets up it 
looks very miserable and thin from having had nothing to eat, and all the gloss 
has gone off its fur. At this time it is very fierce indeed. The bear hunts for 
food, and in a short time it begins to grow fat again, and the skin no longer 
looks several sizes too large for its owner. 

The spring is a bad time for bear-hunting, firstly because its fur is not 
in good condition, and secondly because it is too dangerous an antagonist. 
Should a grizzly's anger become aroused by a wound, it will attack men and 
horses without discrimination. It lays about itself with its huge paws, while its 
claws will smash through almost any substance, as if they were made of steel. 
So tenacious of life is the grizzly bear that, unless it is wounded in some vital 
spot it will fight on, although its body may be riddled with bullets. 

All California hunters fear the grizzly, and with good reason, for no other 
animal on the American Continent matches it for size and strength. 

Men who have travelled all over the world believe that a grizzly is more 
than a match for either a lion or a tiger, in spite of their superior agility. 

A full-grown male grizzly frequently weighs as much as fourteen hundred 
pounds, but the female weighs a good deal less. 


The Brown Bear is fairly common in Europe and Asia. In a wild state 
it grows to a very large size, but directly it is confined in a cage it ceases to 
develop and remains comparatively small all its life. 

The brown bear lives mainly upon roots, leaves, and honey, consequently, 
it does not make many inroads on the farmers' cattle. 

The brown bear is easily tamed and becomes verv affectionate, and will 
follow its owner about like a dog. It is frequently seen with shows and cir- 
cuses, where it is made to dance upon its hind legs. 






The Black Bear is found all over America. There was a time when 
this bear was hunted for its flesh, which was considered a great delicacy. 

A curious habit of the black bear is that if it is very fat, about November, 
it will not hibernate at all, but spend the winter above ground. 

The track which the black bear leaves in the snow is very large. It also 
has a habit of passing over the same tracks many times, and the hunter is fre- 
quently led to believe that he is on the trail of some larger animal. 


In the Arctic regions lives the Polar Bear. This mighty animal is as 
large as any of the bears found in warmer countries. It lives entirely on 




flesh and fish, its chief food being seals, which it has a very clever way of 
catching. Finding a number of seals asleep on a piece of floating ice, the 
bear quietly swims toward them, and then suddenly appears right under their 
noses. If the frightened seals leap into the water the bear will have them 
before they can get away, while if they try to escape over the ice, their swift- 
footed enemy quickly climbs out of the water and catches them before they can 
reach a place of safety. This trick is played over and over again. 

The polar bear can stay under water for quite a long time. Its swimming 
powers are greater than those of any other animal except, of course, the whale, 
dolphin, and seal. A polar bear has been known to swim from one island to 
another, a distance of over fifty miles. Moreover, it is very expert in the 
water, and can catch the largest and swiftest fish with ease. 

The polar bear makes a dangerous enemy, for its temper is uncertain, and 
it will attack man without any reason. Its jaws are of great strength, while its 
claws will tear their way through the hardest wood. Its fur is enormously thick, 
right down to the extremities of its feet, and consequently it is well protected 
from the Arctic cold and from the sharp pieces of ice that it walks over. Its 
color varies from a pure white to a pale yellowish tint. 


O TTER (', , Natural Size). 

Sometimes toward evening, when you are walking near a river, you will 
be surprised to see a large salmon floating by, with a small part of the flesh on 
its h^ck torn away. It is sure to be the work of the Otter. This great fish- 
hunter inhabits the river-banks of many countries, and is usually much hated 
for the damage it does to the river-folk. In England otter-hunting is a 
national sport. A pack of wire-haired shaggy hounds swim or wade in the 
stream, while terriers run along the bank to start the game. Hunters with 
long poles follow on foot, and the poor beast is chased until it is brought to 

The otter is cunning and brave, fighting desperately for its life or cubs. 
Its body is long and very supple, and its fur is of a fine texture. On land it 
makes a good stand against its enemies, but in the water it is a match for any- 
thing its size. The otter, if taken while young, is easily tamed. 

Some years ago a Scottish gentleman owned an otter, which he taught to 
catch fish at his command. The otter would take not only salmon from the 
river, but it would take cod out of the sea, swimming bravely through the 
waves in search of prey. When it got tired, nothing would induce it to go 
into the water again. It was always given part of the fish as a reward, and 



then it would fall down asleep, and have to be carried home. This ani- 
mal became so tame that if it was frightened it would rush to its master for 

An otter in the London Zoo had two little cubs, which had fallen into a 
tank full of water. Although they could swim splendidly, there was danger of 
their being drowned when they got tired. The mother otter made an attempt 
to get them out by reaching down from the top. At last, however, she got 
into the tank herself, and making a natural bridge of her back and fore- 
paws, the youngsters were able to scramble up in safety. 

The river otter is not very rare, and anyone who is willing to spend an 
hour or so sitting perfectly still near a shaded woodland stream, may see the 
cunning creature busily searching for prey. The length of the otter's body is 
about two feet, and, including the tail, nearly three feet. 

The Sea Otter is nearly twice the size of the land otter. It lives on the 
Northern Pacific coast, and is very rare, feeding entirely on sea fish and what 
it can pick up on the shore. Its fur is very valuable. 

The Coaiti is a curious 
little South American ani- 
mal, that loves to roam 
about in the night search- 
ing for eggs and sleeping 
birds. Its snout is long 
and flexible, and is used 
for digging up worms and 
insects. In drinking it 
laps like a dog, keeping its 
snout up out of the liquid. 
The coaiti always comes 
down a tree head first, 
holding on by its sharp 
curved claws. 


Have you ever seen a Raccoon? Perhaps you would understand better 
if you were asked, have you ever seen a coon? This curious animal is a liv- 
ing lesson to all boys and girls. It is the cleanest little animal known. It 
keeps its fur speckless, and carefully washes every bit of food before eating it. 
It has no table to come to with dirty hands, but, nevertheless, takes pride in 
keeping itself, oh, so clean ! Its paws are hand-shaped, which gives it a strong 
grip on anything it wishes to hold, and this is very useful to Master Coon 
when he is busily washing a piece of meat back and forth in the water. 

If the coon is treated kindly, it will become very tame. A gentleman kept 
one in his yard with a number of other wild animals, and the coon was by far 
the tamest, being allowed to run about; but, at the same time, all the chickens 
had to be kept out of its way, for it had a habit of killing them wholesale. It 
is said that the raccoon is rather a spiteful animal, and will store up a grudge 
against anyone who has in- 
sulted it. 

The raccoon roams over 
the sea-shore at night in search 
of shell-fish and oysters. It is 
quite clever at opening the 
latter. Sometimes it is un- 
lucky enough to get a foot 
caught by an oyster, and then 
it is drowned in the rising tide. 

The colored people in the 
Southern States think a coon- 
hunt great fun. They walk 
quietly through the woods un- 
til a coon is located in a tree. 
Then one of the party climbs 
up into the branches and 
shakes the poor little creature 
off its perch. As it falls to the 
ground it is set upon by the 
men and dogs, who soon kill 
it. The flesh of the raccoon is 
considered very good to eat, 
while its skin makes beautiful 

rU S S - RACCOON {% Natural Size). 


The Molp: is the first of the true insect-eating animals living almost en- 
tirely under the ground. Its fur is very fine, and, as the hair has no grain, 
none of the particles of soil through which it passes sticks to it. Its eyes are 
very poor, — in fact, unless you know where to look for them you would fancy 
it did not have any. However, if you sprinkle a little cold water on its head, 
it will show two small, black, beady eyes. Its muscles are very strong and its 
diggers large for its size. The mole is able to bore through the earth with 
amazing rapidity. It feeds largely on worms, and herein is seen its wonderful 
skill. Its strong diggers enable it to chase the worms through all their wind- 
ings in and out, following them by smell and sound. The hearing of the mole 
is proverbial, while its sense of smell is delicate. It uses its nose to find the 
softest earth to burrow through, and often does some of the work too like a 

The mole is fierce and quarrelsome. The males far outnumber the 
females in this family, so when the pairing season comes round there are fierce 
battles' between the males. On one occasion a hunter noticed some grass 
moving in an odd way, and going 
up to see what was the cause of it 
he found two moles in mortal combat. 
They were so absorbed in their fight 
that they did not notice the stranger, 
and indeed they came within an 
inch of his toes during the struggle. 

After awhile one of the moles began 
to beat a hasty retreat. The other 
followed it, and with every show of fe- 
rocity began to tear it to pieces. The 
mole makes a bad pet, as it never 
displays any liveliness except at 
meal-times, and then, having gorged 
itself, it goes to sleep again. It does 
a great deal of damage to lawns and 
gardens by tunneling under the top 
soil. These tunnels are often hun- 
dreds of feet in length. At the same 
time many people believe that the 
earth is all the better for having been 
stirred up, and turned over. 

MOLE (*/ 2 Natural Size). 

ELEPHANT SHREW {'4 Natural Size). 


The Elephant Shrew, so called 
for its trunk-like nose, lives in South 
Africa. It is famous for its speed, for 
when alarmed it hurries to safety with 
wonderful swiftness. Its burrow is 
generally placed in some shady place, 
difficult to find. It feeds on insects, 
and in the day-time, too. 


The Agouta lives in Hayti, in 
the West Indies. It has the head 
and tail of the opossum. The length 
of the agouta is about eighteen 
inches, including the tail. This ani- 
mal, when running, might be mis- 
taken for a huge barn-rat. It is one 
of the insect-eating family. 

The agouta is very silent and 

wary. Should it hear anyone approaching the spot where it is feeding, it will 
listen to ascertain from which direction the noise comes, and then sneak qui- 
etly off the opposite way. Its front claws are long and slightly curled, and 
are used for digging up roots, etc., and holding its prey. 

AGOUTA (' /4 Natural Size). 


If you have a garden you should keep a Hedgehog, for there is no ani- 
mal that destroys so many slugs, caterpillars, and beetles. Next to'the porcu- 
pine, the hedgehog has the most wonderful skin of spikes in the world, and if 
you make it angry, or set a terrier at it, it simply rolls itself up into a ball, and 
you cannot get at it anywhere. The hedgehog uses its spikes in more ways 
than one. Of course they are most important in keeping off its enemies, and 
are also used in getting down from high places. Many people have seen a 
hedgehog come to the top of a wall, in some cases as high as twelve feet, and, 
after peering down cautiously, roll itself into a ball and fall over. The shock 
of striking the ground is broken by its spikes. Then the hedgehog quietly 
unrolls itself and trots off about its business. In England gypsies have a curi- 
ous way of cooking the hedgehog. They cover it all over with clay like a ball, 
and then bake it in a fire. When the hedgehog is cooked they break the clay 
ball into two parts, the spikes stick to the clay, and the flesh can then be 
eaten. The hedgehog is usually about six inches lon< 



Natural Size). 


This animal is called the 
Sugar, or Flying Squirrel. 
It has a curious growth of skin 
between its limbs which, when 
spread out, acts as a kite, and 
enables it to leap from one 
tree to another. 


Although the Australian 
Bear belongs to the kangaroo 
family, it lives in the trees. 
It seems to be a very gentle 
creature and can be captured 
without any difficulty ; but, 
like all gentle animals, it oc- 
casionally goes off into gusts 
of passion. It is about the 
size of a bull-terrier. 




The Kangaroo lives in Aus- 
tralia. It is usually found in small 
companies, and always in charge of 
a leader. The kangaroo was first 
discovered by Captain Cook, in New 
South Wales, in 1770, and it is said 
that when the sailors asked the na- 
tives the name of the strange animal 
they replied, " Kangaroo," which, as a 
matter of fact, meant in their lan- 
guage, "What do you say?" How- 
ever, this name has remained un- 
changed ever since. 

The skin of the kangaroo makes 
very fine leather, and its flesh is good 
to eat. The native Australians say 
that it affords the best hunting on 

the continent. The men ride on 

horse-back, while a pack of large, 

fierce hounds follow the kangaroo, 

which goes over the ground at a 

curious gait, consisting of a series of immense leaps. Its hind legs are of 

great size and strength, and when brought to bay the creature defends itself 

with kicks. The front legs are very small, and do not seem to be of much use 

except to convey food to the mouth. When a kangaroo is chased by hunters, 

it has an odd habit of looking back over its shoulder, and instances have been 

known where it has collided with a tree, and thus brought itself to an untimely 


Perhaps the most wonderful part of the kangaroo is the pouch in which it 
carries its young. The baby kangaroo, when first born, is not much over an 
inch or two in length, and for about eight months it lives in this pouch, until it 
is strong enougfi to hop about beside its mother. The doe kangaroo is very 
watchful of her young, for at the least suspicion of danger, the youngster 
scrambles into the pouch, and away goes the mother in gigantic leaps. The 
kangaroo thrives well in England. Quite a number have been brought from 
Australia, and are now to be seen in some of the parks, hopping about quite 
comfortably. They breed freely, too, and appear to stand the damp climate 
very well. When Captain Cook first discovered the kangaroo, they roamed 



everywhere in great numbers from 
little ones, the size of a rabbit, to 
the old fellows, as tall as a man ; 
but now they are becoming very 
rare, and it looks as though many 
species might become extinct. 

At present the kangaroo is lim- 
ited to the less frequented bush 
lands, far from the towns. 

The kangaroo can be taught to 
box with boxing-gloves. This is 
sometimes seen in a circus, but the 
show is always attended with some 
little danger, for the instant the kan- 
garoo thinks it is getting the worst 
of it, it will kick, and a kick from 
a full-grown kangaroo means great 
injury, if not death outright. 


In New Guinea is found the 

Tree Kangaroo. It seems odd 

to think that one of this curious 

tribe of animals should be able to 

climb trees, but nevertheless it is a fact. The tree kangaroo scales the trees 

with great ease in its search for leaves and wild fruit, on which it lives. 

The natives of New Guinea always try to avoid killing the tree kangaroo. 
Any native who should be unlucky enough to kill one by accident is imme- 
diately sent away into the < forest by his companions, for fear of his bringing bad 
luck to the tribe, and no one is allowed to go near him, or take him any food. 
As venomous snakes and dangerous wild animals abound in the jungles the 
native exile seldom comes back again. 

But little is known of this animal in its wild state, beyond the fact that it 
is very sly and silent. Its fur is beautiful, and of a rich dark color. There is 
also another climbing kangaroo which lives among the rocks, and by its ex- 
traordinary power of leaping from one bowlder to another, defies all pursuit. 
This is its way of escaping when chased by a pack of dingo dogs. 


WOMBAT (' , Natural Size). 


The Wombat, 
much like a beaver, 
natives for its flesh. 

although it belongs to the kangaroo family, looks very 
It is common all over Australia, where it is killed by the 
As a rule, the wombat will not fight when it is caught, 
and if treated well becomes very tame indeed. An Australian ranchman kept 
a wombat around his house instead of a cat. It would sit upon its hind legs to 
get its master to take it on his knee. When there it would curl itself up and 
go to sleep. This creature at times would become very angry, and use its 
sharp claws and chisel-like teeth. 

The wombat is not particular as to what it eats, but prefers lettuce and 
cabbage to anything else. When wild it lives in burrows of immense depth, 
which it digs out. They are bad animals to have near roads and walls, for in 
a short time they will honeycomb the earth so thoroughly as to make it very 
dangerous to walk upon. The natives of Australia say that when a wombat 
comes to a river and wishes to get across, it does not appear to be the least 
put out, but walks right into the water and so reaches the other side, and con- 
tinues its journey as if nothing had happened. It is easily able to defend 
itself from the snakes which abound in the bush, but it never seeks a quarrel 
with a snake or other animal. In New Holland naturalists have found the 
fossil of a gigantic wombat which must have been nearly as large as a 
rhinoceros when alive. 



TASMANIAN WOLF (>/„ Natural Size). 

The Tasmanian Wolf is found in the island trom which it takes its name. 
It is not exactly like the wolf of India, America, and Europe, but, neverthe- 
less, it fills its place. It is not as fierce as the true wolf, but at the same time 
it becomes a very formidable animal when urged by hunger or danger. 

As soon as civilized inhabitants took up their abode in Tasmania the wolf 
made great inroads upon their sheep-flocks, until the colonists, in self-defence, 
were forced to begin a war of extermination. By degrees the Tasmanian wolf 
was driven back from its former haunts, where it once reigned supreme, and it 
is seldom seen now outside the copses and jungles. 

Curiously enough, the Tasmanian wolf is found in the mountains as high 
up as six thousand feet, for it does not seem to suffer from cold. The home 
of the Tasmanian wolf is always made among rocks, where the mother-wolf is 
comparatively safe, while the cubs can sleep all day until nightfall makes it 
safe for them to go out. The wolf's total length is about four feet, of which 
the tail takes up about fifteen inches, 




No animal in the world has so richly deserved its name as the . 
Devil. The ferocity of this creature can hardly be conceived except b y 
who have come in contact with it. Even in captivity its sullen and purpose, 
anger is easily excited. It is absolutely untamable. Should anyone approacu 
its cage, it will tear at the bars with its teeth and claws in its frantic efforts to 
get out, all the while keeping up loud screams of rage. 

In the early days of Tasmania the devil caused great losses to the farmers 
through its wholesale destruction of sheep, pigs, and fowls. Many a man has 
been nearly torn to pieces trying to defend his live-stock from one of these 
animals. A curious thing about the Tasmanian devil is that it does not know 
what fear means. When beaten off by an enemy stronger than itself, it returns 
to the attack until it is killed, or at least maimed. No animal in that country 
will face it. The strength of jaw in the Tasmanian devil is so great that it can 
easily crush bones that would defy many a larger animal. 

The Tasmanian devil is nocturnal in its habits. If brought into a strong 
light it blinks stupidly and always seeks the darkest corner of its cage. When 
wild it digs for itself a deep burrow in the ground, in which it lives the year 
round. Its hind feet are formed something like those of a bear, so that it is 
able to sit up on its haunches and eat with its fore paws. Its color is black, 
with large white patches. 

TASMANIAN DEVIL ('/, Natural Size). 


- -- ->. 

If every youngster does not 
know the Opossum, most of 
them know what " playing 'pos- 
sum " means. When an opos- 
sum is suddenly cornered, it 
will feign death so cleverly as 
to deceive many old hunters. 
The opossum is always hungry, 
and never seems to have had 

enough to eat. 

As long as the 

woods afford }oung leaves and 
birds, and eggs, and the lakes 
are filled with young frogs, it 
keeps out of man's way; but 
when winter comes and the 
supply in the forest runs short, 
Master Opossum has to turn to 
villages to get a meal. The 
easiest thing for it to attack is 
the hen-roost. As the opossum is one of the best climbers in the world, it is 
useless to build walls and fences to keep it out, and the only thing that will 
protect the hens is a tightly closed door. At night one often hears a scream 
from the fowl-house, and investigation shows the nest-eggs sucked and the 
setter dragged off to the woods. 

In the Southern States the 'possum hunt is considered fine sport by the 
colored folk. Dogs chase the opossum, which, by the way, is not a swift ani- 
mal, and force it to take to a tree. Then one of the party climbs while the 
opossum goes to the topmost branch in its endeavor to escape its enemies. 
At last it loosens its hold and is shaken from the tree to the ground, where it 
is quickly killed. 

The little opossums when first born are very delicate indeed. For many 
days they are both blind and deaf, but as they grow stronger thev are carried 
around on the mother's back, holding on with their little tails tightly coiled 
around her tail, and thus they are taken through the trees and taught to hunt. 
The mother opossum watches over her young very tenderly, and will resort to 
many clever tricks when pressed by danger. The nest of the opossum is usu- 
ally built in a hollow tree-stump. 


Now we come to the Seal. This animal breathes air, and yet lives in the 
water. The structure of the skeleton of a seal is something between a mam- 
mal and a whale. Its body is long and tapers to the end. It has four 
imperfectly formed feet called "flippers," with which it swims. Seals are 
found in almost every part of the world, but mostly in the Arctic regions. 
Seals have a very fine fur, which is much sought after in the market to make 
jackets. As a matter of fact, the fur is double, and when the seal swims it is 
pressed close against its skin, the two coats thus keeping the water away. To 
make the fur waterproof an oily substance is secreted in the body, which covers 
the roots of the fur. The seal has a thick layer of fat which protects it from 
the cold when swimming in the Arctic seas. Its brain is large, which accounts 
for it being a very intelligent creature. It is docile and affectionate, and can 
be taught to do numberless tricks. It is in the water that the seal is most at 
home. It swims almost entirely with its hind flippers, and pursues the swift- 
est fish with great success, for its curious pointed teeth, firmly imbedded in 




the jaw, make it almost impossible for anything to get away once it is fairly 


The Walrus is the mightiest specimen of the seal family. It measures 
between fourteen and twenty feet long and weighs several tons. All Arctic 
explorers agree that the walrus is a dangerous animal. On land its move- 
ments are slow and clumsy, but in the water nothing will attack the walrus if 
there is a way of escape. On either side of the walrus's jaw are two large tusks 
of ivory. With these the walrus drags itself out of the water onto the ice, but 
when cornered it uses them as weapons of defence. 

On one occasion a party of hunters spied a number or walrus lying op an 
ice-floe. On attacking them most of the creatures escaped into the water; but 


one old bull faced around and, in spite of its lance-wounds, fought its enemies. 
At last it slid into the water and began to swim away. The hunters hastily 
launched a boat and prepared to follow, when the old fellow suddenly turned 
on them and with his tusks fairly ripped the side out of the boat, throwing" all 
the men into the water. When a man gets into difficulty with a walrus, such 
as having a boat upset, all the other walruses round about come up to help and 
make short work of the victim. The walrus lives to a «;ood old aefe with his 
mate, and is an affectionate parent. 


The most grotesque of all the seal family are the huge Sea-Elephants, 
so called not only on account of their curious, trunk-like nose, but also on 
account of their size. Some specimens of the sea-elephant have been capt- 
ured which were over twenty-five feet in length and as much as fifteen feet 
in circumference. 

The sea-elephants are found over a large area of water south of the equator. 
Like the seals, these animals migrate to the south as summer approaches, and 
northward when the cold weather sets in. They are easily tamed when capt- 
ured very young, and show great affection toward their owners. They are 
much shyer and rarer than the common seals. 


The Sea-Lion is another well-known member of the seal-folk. If you 
ever visit San Francisco you will be sure to see the seal-rocks where the sea- 
lion lives. As a matter of fact, the sea-lion is common in many parts of the 
world, and especially so on the coast of Southern and Lower California. As 
its skin is not used for fur, nor its flesh good to eat, it has never been per- 
secuted by the seal-hunter. Anyone who has visited a great rookery of sea- 
lions can never forget it. 

Off the coast of California, about one hundred and fifty miles out to sea, 
there is a mysterious island called St. Nicholas. It is low, sandy, and almost 
bare of vegetation and water. There, among vast numbers of pelicans, loons, 
and gulls, lives the sea-lion in its undisturbed glory. Throughout the night 
its loud roars are heard above the boom of the mighty ocean breakers or 
the whistle of the wind. The confusion of animal and bird noise gives one a 
bewildering impression of the island when reached by night. Once an explor- 
ing party went ashore and walked toward the rocks on which the large 


SEA-LION ('/so Natural Size). 

rookery stands. Immediately all was confusion. The old bulls stood their 
ground while they hurried the youngsters and females into the water. Find- 
ing that no harm was intended, they quieted down and did not seem to mind 
people walking among them. However, one bull charged without the slight- 
est warning, and received four bullets before he was checked. This specimen 
measured over nine feet from nose to tail, while its teeth, including the part 
buried in the jaw, were about four and one-half inches long. A little while 
later one of the party found a baby sea-lion not much bigger than a good- 
sized kitten. It was carried down to the boat, when the mother was seen 
following close astern. The poor creature kept right alongside, and after 
the boat had reached the ship she kept swimming around and around, with 
her eyes always turned toward the deck, where her baby was being admired. 
The mother sea-lion continued watching and crying until the little young- 
ster was put back into the -water, when she promptly lead it off toward the 


Sea-lions sometimes leave the herds and travel in twos and threes, or 
even singly. Their advent to the coast can always be seen by anyone with a 
sharp pair of eyes. The small seals, which usually feed upon the shallow- 
water fish, depart hastily, and before the fish have fairly noticed that they are 
being left alone, they find themselves pursued by a fiercer and hungrier foe. 


The Crested Seals are curious animals, being chiefly remarkable for the 
odd structure which they have on their heads. The real object of these crests 
has never been discovered. The onset of a herd of enraged seals is much 
to be dreaded, for they are very fierce when their anger is aroused. Their 
strength is great, while their teeth are strong and sharp. 

As spring comes around there are fierce battles among the old bulls for 
the possession of the females. The rookeries on the coast of Greenland, which 
are strictly inhabitated by these animals, show traces, such as skeletons with 

The length of the 

crushed skulls, of fearful conflicts having taken place 
crested seal is about ten feet. Its fur is not of any great value. It has never 
been much persecuted by man. The Esquimaux hunt the crested seals with 
harpoons having a line and air-bladder which will float attached that they may 
always locate their prey. 


Did you know that the Whale was an animal, in spite of its living in the 
sea, and not a fish ? A fish can stay under water for any length of time, but a 
whale must breathe, and if it were prevented from doing so, it would be 
drowned just the same as a man. 

From the skin or blubber of the whale is obtained a splendid oil, and from 
its jaw comes whalebone. In fact, almost every part of the whale is of some use 
to man. The whalebone forms a screen on each side of the mouth, and after 
the whale has taken in a mouthful of little fishes out of a shoal, it strains the 
water out and the whalebone keeps the fishes in. Sometimes when you go 
to sea you must keep a sharp look-out for whales, and you will generally find 
where they are by watching for the animal's spouts rising in the air. 




There are many whales in all parts of the world, but the most valuable is 
the Sperm-Whale. Every year ships put out from Scotland through the 
Antarctic Ocean, while from Japan the ships search the North and South 
Pacific, and from the New England coast the whalers go up toward Greenland. 
The method of hunting the whale is very simple. A man is kept at the mast- 
head of the ship to watch, and when he spies a whale, he yells, " There she 
blows ! " Instantly all is bustle ; a couple of boats are launched hastily, but 
quietly, and rowed toward the unsuspecting whale. These boats are very strong 
and built double-ended, so that they can be backed as easily as sent forward. 
In the bow stands the harpooner with his weapon in hand; then come four or 
five rowers and the steersman, and the barrels containing the carefully coiled 
rope which has been attached to the harpoon. The rowers spread their feet 
far apart to allow the rope to run between them. The rope is so tied that as 
soon as one barrel runs out another begins, and it must be remembered that 
each boat contains about three thousand feet of rope. Terrible accidents take 
place every now artd then,' when some poor fellow gets his foot caught in a 
loop of rope and is whirled overboard. Before any help can be given, he has 
been carried hundreds of feet below the surface. In case the rope in the whale- 
boat shows signs of being entirely exhausted, the officer in command calls up 
another boat and makes his end of the rope fast to theirs, thus doubling its 

The whale is probably asleep, so the men have to row quietly for fear of 
waking it. As the boat approaches within a few yards, the harpooner throws 
his barb-headed weapon into the whale's side, and at the same time shouts, 
"Back water!" The whale, feeling the pain, dives like lightning. Then the 
skill of the steersman is seen, for if the whale should turn the least to either 
side, over will go the boat and be instantly destroyed. Presently the whale 
gets tired, runs short of wind, and slowly rises to the surface to breathe. The 
boat immediately begins to take in the slack rope, and the second boat has its 
turn. Rowing up like its companion, a second harpoon is thrown, and away 
goes the whale again, with two boats fast to it now. Sometimes a whale keeps 
on the surface instead of diving, and tows the boat behind it at a great speed. 
This is very dangerous, especially if the sea is running against the boat. 

The rowers sit balancing the boat and watching the steersman, for it is on 
his nerve and accuracy that every life depends. After the whale has been 
attacked in this manner several times, it begins to grow feeble from loss of 
blood. So the boats row up alongside, and thrust lances into its vitals until 
it is killed. Sometimes the whale will turn on its enemies and charge them 










^J. j. Si'it ■ ..': li l li'iitM''ii|l'i L j l ; 



with open jaws. This is always a time of great peril, for should the steers- 
man's nerve fail him for one instant, the frail boat would be crushed to pieces 
in the monster's jaws. The whale usually makes one gigantic effort called a 
" flurry," to free itself before it finally gives up the fight. 

The look-out on the ship keeps a sharp eye on the boats, and directly it 
is seen that a " kill " has been made, the ship sails toward the spot with all 
possible speed. But, as is often the 
case, the weather is dead calm, and 
there is nothing for the men in the 
boats to do but to make a rope fast 
to the carcass and tow it to the ship. 
This is, perhaps, the worse part of 
the job, for a whale tows like a dead harpoon (»/„ Natural size), 

weight, and the fight with the monster has left the men all but exhausted. 
When the whale is brought up alongside of the ship, it is made fast by huge 
chains round its neck and tail. Then the head is cut off and hoisted on deck. 
This is a work of great labor, as the head is frequently twenty feet long anl. 
weighs as much as ten tons. From the inside is taken a large quantity of 
valuable oil, and from the jaws, the whalebone. When there is nothing of 
value left the fastenings are cut loose, and the motion of the ship rolls the 
head overboard. Then the body is attended to. A platform is rigged over the 
side, upon which men stand with sharp knives in their hands. They cut down 
in the skin, or "blubber," as it is called, until they get a part of it loose. To this 
they make fast a block and tackle, and as the strain is put on the blubber is 
loosened from the body with knives. The blubber is frequently taken off in large 
pieces, sometimes twenty feet square. This is promptly sliced up and put to boil 
in large pots to extract the oil. When all the blubber has been stripped off 
the whale, the body is cut loose and allowed to float off, where it is rapidly torn 
to pieces by thousands of sharks that have been patiently waiting for it. 

It requires several days to take all the oil from the whale and get the ship in 
working order again. The oil is stowed away in large " tuns " down in the hold. 
The ship's carpenter examines the boats for strains and leaks, the harpooners 
test the ropes and lances, while the crew clear the mass of filth and flesh off the 
decks. Then the ship's course is shaped again and another whale hunted for. 

The Greenland Whale is not hunted for by the whalers chiefly because 
it has nothing of value about it, and, moreover, it is fierce and shows battle. 
Should a boat attempt to go near it, it is almost certain to be destroyed by a 
mighty sweep of the huge black monster's tail. 




The Hump-backed Whale is found in great numbers in the Arctic seas. 
It is a large animal, often reaching a length of seventy-five feet. It has a 
curious depression in the middle of its back which makes it appear to be 
hump-backed. This whale yields a great quantity of oil, which is almost as 
fine as sperm-oil. Nevertheless, the whalers avoid the hump-back as much as 
possible. Once it has been wounded it pursues a boat until it has destroyed 
it. It is seldom that the harpooner can kill the hump-back outright, even 
with an explosive bomb-lance, and if he misses his stroke altogether, the boat 
is certain to be destroyed with a sweep of the huge creature's tail. 


The Rorqual is the giant among the whales, for it is larger than either 
the sperm or Greenland whale. It is seldom found far from the Arctic regions. 
As it is not a valuable whale, it is not hunted. The rorqual will go out of 
its way to attack man, and its onslaught is so terrific that it will dash a boat to 
pieces almost before its occupants are aware that their enemy is nearby. 


The Narwhal, or Sea Unicorn, as it is sometimes called, gets its name 
from the extraordinary ivory horn which springs from the middle of its fore- 
head. It is a large animal, growing as long as thirty feet, and is found chiefly 
near the Arctic circle. It seems to be agreed that the narwhal uses this horn 
to fight with its fellows and not for spearing the fish upon which it feeds, as 
was at first believed. Many travellers report having seen shoals of these ani- 
mals playing together, crossing horns like men fencing. The ivory of the 
narwhal's horn is of a very fine character. It retains its pure whiteness 
after the elephant's ivory has turned yellow. The hardness of the ivory is 
well illustrated by the fact that a narwhal drove its horn through the ten- 
inch oak keel of a schooner. The horn snapped off and was found embedded 
in the wood when the ship was dry-docked. 

It has been asserted that the narwhals will mob the Greenland whale by 
swimming on each side of it and beneath it, thus preventing it from turning out 
of its course or diving. A whale has often been seen swimming rapidly upon 
the surface, when the most natural thing for it to do would be to dive to escape 
from its enemies. The food of this animal consists of the larger fish, such as 
the cod and halibut, which abound in the Arctic seas. 


Everyone who has been to the sea-shore must have seen a Porpoise, ior 
this peculiar animal seldom goes far from the coast. It follows or goes ahead 
of ocean-going ships to catch the fish started up by them, and you get a good 
chance to watch them jumping in and out of the water. If you stand up in the 
bow of a vessel you will soon see that, no matter how fast the ship may be 
going, the porpoise keeps a few feet ahead, and goes on with tireless energy 
from hour to hour, seldom leaving its post except to dart at an unwary fish. 

There are places all over the world which are famous for the porpoise, but 
perhaps the best known is the Gut of Gibraltar. As the Mediterranean is full 
of porpoises, which come from the Atlantic, they are bound to go back and 
forth through the Straits of Gibraltar. It is a common sight to see thousands 
of them together, from the youngsters of two feet up to the old fellows eight 
and nine feet long. The shoals race for dear life, jumping, gambolling, and 
twisting in every possible shape, and hardly have you a good sight of them 
when they vanish. 

The porpoise is hated by all fishermen because it kills the fish, as it is ail- 
ways hungry ; it is continually on the move, looking for food. It pursues the 
shoals of herring up to the shore-line, and drives the terrified fish into the shal- 
low waters. Not content with this, the porpoise goes off and watches until the 
little fishes have recovered from their fright and formed themselves into shoals 
again ; then it suddenly appears among them and the race for life begins once 


more. When the fishes in a locality have been utterly destroyed, the porpoise 
departs in search of other hunting-grounds. It often happens that the shoals 
of fish are driven out of the water up onto the beach in their frantic haste to 
get away, and sometimes the porpoise follows them. The porpoises flop 
about helplessly, and fall an easy prey to the fishermen. The hide of the 
porpoise, when tanned, makes a tough leather, while the coating of fat under 
the skin, when melted, makes a fine delicate oil. 


The Grampus belongs to this same family, although it is a very different 
creature. In the first place, it is much larger than the porpoise, often meas- 
uring twenty-five to thirty feet in length. What the porpoise is to the small 
fish of our shores, the grampus is to the large ones of the Arctic regions, pur- 
suing them with an appetite which never seems satisfied. On several occasions 
young dolphins and porpoises, as well as cod, skate, and halibut, have been 
found in the grampus's stomach. One of their favorite amusements is mob- 
bing the huge Greenland whale. They spring out of the water and catch the 
whale with blows of their tails. It is said that the sword-fish also joins in 
the fun and prevents the whale from diving by threatening it with its sword. 
This cannot be proved, but it has been noticed that the whale takes a series 


of little dives and rises quickly to the surface, which shows that something 
below keeps it from sinking to a depth where the grampus could not follow. 


The Dolphin has been called the poet of the sea. Shakespeare wrote 
about the " mermaid on a dolphin's back, uttering such dulcet and harmonious 
breath, that the rude sea grew civil at her song." As a matter of fact, there is 
nothing poetical about the dolphin. It is a great big hungry beast, always 
racing up and down the ocean like the rest of its family, in search of some- 
thing to eat. Its swimming is very graceful, and when it comes alongside a 
ship one cannot help admiring its magnificent sweeping motion. The fear- 
lessness of the dolphin often gets it into trouble, for sailors are very fond of 
harpooning them with a steel trident. The dolphin swims quite close to the 
ship when it is satisfied that no harm is intended, and then suddenly it is har- 
pooned from the bows and hauled kicking on deck, where it is quickly killed. 

Men frequently amuse themselves at sea by shooting with revolvers at a 
dolphin. The bullets never do any harm, for they cannot pierce its tough, 
leathery skin. 

The brain of the dolphin is very large, and it has shown great intelligence 
in captivity. The eyes of the dolphin are small and are covered with eyelids; 
the pupil is heart-shaped. 



The Manatee is a curious-looking creature. At first sight one might 
imagine that it was a mixture of the hippopotamus and the seal. There are 
several kinds of manatee, one of which is found on. the west coast of Africa; 
the others live in America. They are generally found at the mouths of large 
rivers, such as the Amazon and the Orinoco in South America. They feed on 
the grass and herbs that grow so abundantly in the tropics. The skin of the 
manatee is very valuable, and when tanned it is thick and flexible like cow- 
hide, and can be cut into long strips. One of the most extraordinary features 
of the manatee is the fleshy disk at the end of its nose. It is said that as the 
manatee feeds entirely on grass and herbs, this disk protects its nostrils from 
getting filled up. There was a time when the manatee was quite plentiful 
around the coast of Florida, and especially at Tampa Bay, but it has almost 
entirely disappeared, and it looks now as if it would become extinct. The 
Seminole Indians used to hunt the manatee a great deal, and it was they who 
started the war which has all but driven the poor creature out of existence. 

The Indians near the mouth of the Orinoco River harpoon the manatee. 
They build a platform in the water near the grasses where the manatee feeds. 
The creature, when it approaches, can easily be seen by the Indians, who hurl 
their weapous, which have bladders attached. These float upon the water and 
show where, the quarry lies. 


The main difference between the manatee and the Dugong is in its tail. 
The manatee's tail is rounded, while the tail of the dugong is sharp like a fish. 
The dugong lives in Ceylon, and is said to be the cause of the many Indian 
mermaid stories. This animal has a curious way of sitting upright in the 
water, and during the breeding-season clasping its young to its breast like a 
woman holding a child. If alarmed it instantly dives, throwing up its fish-like 
tail. Many hunters admit that the likeness of the animal to a human being, 
when seen at a distance, is very startling. It is huge in size, and one speci- 
men has been killed reaching twenty-six feet in length. 

The dugongs are of an affectionate disposition. Should a female dugong 
be shot, the male will remain near the body and cannot be frightened away. 
Whenever hunters find dugongs in pairs, they try to kill the female first. 

There was a great specimen of the dugong family discovered on an island 
in the Behring Strait in the year 1741, and shipwrecked sailors found these ani- 
mals good for food and without weapons of defence. The news soon spread, 
and other vessels stopped at the island and killed the animals mercilessly. 
The result was that when the Russian authorities examined into the condition 
of the animals in 1768, twenty-seven years later, they found that every speci- 
men had been killed. 



The Rat is the first member of the gnawing animals we come to. They 
are a very much larger family than you would suppose, for nearly one-third of 
all the animals in the world belong to the rodents, or gnawing animals. The 
origin of the name "rodent" comes from the fact that animals classed under 
this head have sharp, chisel-like teeth. Of course, the habit of gnawing is 
always wearing the teeth down, and to prevent the animal being left without 
anv teeth at all, a substance is formed in the jaw which helps to grow very 
quickly. Lots of cases have been known where the upper tooth in a rat's jaw 
has become broken. There is nothing to prevent the lower tooth from grow- 
ing as fast as it likes. The result is that the teeth take the most wonderful 
shapes, such as a circle, or like a boar's tusk, and its poor owner, not being 
able to use its mouth, dies of starvation. Rats gnaw wood ; so do mice, 
squirrels, beavers, and porcupines ; therefore, they are rodents. 

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BROWN RAT (h Natural Sue/. 


The rat is the strongest and fiercest of the family for its size. It is a 
match for almost any animal, while its fellows have wonderful ideas of com- 
bination. Quite a number of rats will attack a dog or a man who is pushing 
one rat too hard, yet should the same rat be unlucky enough to fall into a 
steel trap, its fellows immediately pounce upon it and tear it to pieces instead 
of helping it out. 

The female rat is loving to her young and very watchful, for the male rat 
is always on the lookout for a chance to eat up its young ones. Rats multi- 
ply quickly, for they often have three broods of young in a year, and as many 
as twelve and sixteen at a time. 

There are many crimes for which rats are hated. They live in drains 
and bring disease into houses. On the other hand, though, rats sometimes act 
as a warning to the householder, for should he discover rats running about 
in his cellars, it is generally safe to say that they come from the drains, prov- 
ing thereby that there is a leak. Their voracious appetites cause them to 
make inroads into stores, granaries, and warehouses, where they commit great 
damage. A hay-rick often becomes honey-combed by rats without the slight- 
est outward sign of it. There is nothing for the farmer to do but to pull his 
rick to pieces and rebuild it on piles surrounded by water. The farmer need 
not take the trouble to shake the rats out of the hay, because, being very thirsty 
animals, they will jump down to the ground to obtain water, and be unable 
to get back again. 

Rats are intelligent creatures and easily tamed. They will follow their 
master about and do lots of tricks, such as pulling a little toy-cart. Boys have 
carried rats to school, and they have laid so snugly and quietly in their sleeves 
that they have escaped the teacher's eye. Tamed rats can be caged together, 
but every now and, then their instinct gets the upper hand, and they have fierce 
battles among themselves, in which one or more are frequently killed. 


The Mice, like their cousins, the rats, live in both town and country. In 
the cities the mice do a great deal of damage, but in the country they are 
harmless. They are bold and playful, as anyone can witness who has 
watched them running about a room. They are just as curious as cats, and 
will always examine strange objects or new furniture in a room. They run 
squeaking and shuffling in their playful way through the walls and plaster 
just as if they owned the whole place. Mice are very easy to tame, and if 


:d, will run about everywhere with the utmost confidence. The 
they are kept should be clean, as mice, in spite of public opinion, 

p people quarrel very much about the "singing mice." There is 
no doubt that mice can make a chirping noise. The Rev. J. G. Wood tells a 
story of a family of mice that lived 
in his kitchen. Instead of killing 
them, they were allowed to run 
about, and merrily they took ad- 
vantage of the permission. In the 
same kitchen lived a singing canary, 
and he noticed that by degrees the 
chirp of the mice changed to an exact 
imitation of the canary's song. One 
mouse was much cleverer than the 
others at it. The result was very 
pleasing, for while the canary's notes 
were stronger and sweeter, that of 
the mice was softer and more deli- 
cate. The imitation was so complete 
that guests at night, when the mice 
were out, would look toward the 
canary's cage, saying, " Is the bird 
singing: ? " when it would be sitting 
with its head tucked under its wing-. 

Mice have countless enemies. 
While they stay in the barns, there is 
always the danger of being trapped; in the houses there are the cats; in the 
yards, the dogs ; while out in the open fields the hawks and snakes and 
weasels are forever watching for them. In the winter-time numbers of mice 
die from cold, or for want of food, but in spite of all these troubles, they seem 
to thrive and prosper. 

There are many varieties of mice which boys make pets of; for instance, 
the white mice. But they become a great nuisance if they get out of control. 
A boy once allowed a pair of white mice to escape, and in a short time the 
house was overrun with numbers of the little creatures. These mice kept on 
rapidly increasing, in spite of cats and traps, and even spread to the garden, 
where they were seen running over the rocks and flower-beds. 

MICE (Natural Size). 


The tiny Lemming is one of the most mysterious little creatures in the 
world. The Norwegians and Laps believe that these animals' come from 
the clouds, because they are only seen in periods of from four to fifteen 
years, when they come in millions and sweep over the land like an invading 
army. Nobody seems quite to know where they come from. The damage 
they do is fearful, for they march in a straight line, allowing nothing to check 
their course. Should a man or beast 
be unlucky enough to cross their path, 
they rush into the attack at once. 
They make the land look as though a 
plague of locusts had visited it. The 
small animals, such as the rats and 
mice, fly before the army. Although 
a rat is more than a match for a single 
lemming, the numbers of the latter 
are so great that the rat is left no 
alternative except flight. 

Even fire will hardly check the 
lemming. It has been proved that 
cows and reindeer will not eat the 
grass that a lemming has walked 
over. The reason of these wonderful 
migrations has been a puzzle to nat- 
uralists for many years. Some claim 
it is hunger, and that an overwhelm- 
ing instinct drives the lemming on- 
ward. These little animals arc readily 
devoured by scores of kites and crows 
which follow their movements, while the fish make fearful havoc in their ranks 
when they cross the lakes and rivers. These marches generally end in the 
sea, where the few that have survived the perils of the journey are drowned. 
The lencrth of the lemming is about six inches and its tail half an inch. 

It is strange that there always seem to be enough lemmings left to save 
the species from extinction, and in a few years they are as plentiful as ever. 

There is a species of lemming found in America up around the Hudson 
Bay country; in fact, it is sometimes called the Hudson Bay lemming. In the 
winter its fur, which is light brown during the summer months, turns to a 
snowy white. It is very valuable then. 

LEMMING (H Natural Size). 


The Hamster is an animal something like the lemming, but there is a 
big difference in their sizes, for the hamster reaches a length of fifteen inches. 
This animal is a great pest in Northern Europe. It systematically collects 
grain and corn from the fields for a winter store. The way it does it is to pull 
down a stalk to get the fruit, and stuff its pouch as full as it can, and then go 
to its burrow, empty it, and return for more. When occupied in this way the 
hamster becomes so absorbed that anyone can walk up quite close to it and 
watch its actions, provided no noise or sudden movement is made. 

As the hamster's skin is of some value, many hunters are employed to rid 
the farmer of the pest, and also to supply the market with the fur. The dam- 
age that the hamster does to the farmer can be realized by the fact that when 
a burrow has been dug out, as much as sixty pounds of corn and one hundred 
pounds of beans have been found. It is quite a common thing for the farmer 
to dig out the burrows to recover stolen wares. 

The hamster is dull and ferocious. It will fight anything without respect 
to size or strength. When one has been crushed by awheel or stone, it will 
turn and bite it. The hamster will worry the end of a stick as if it were a liv- 
ing animal. When startled by any noise, the hamster has a curious habit of 
sitting up on its haunches like a rabbit, and staring in the direction from which 
the sound came. 

BEAVERS AT WORK, (i/io Natural Size.) 


The Beaver has one of the most beautiful skins in the world. Its fur has 
become famous in Europe and America. The beaver is also noted for its 
skill as an engineer. As a rule, the beaver lives on the banks of small creeks 
and rivers, and to prevent the supply of water from running short, it makes 
wonderful dams. When an engineer wishes to dam up a stream, he usually 
begins by pile-driving; but this little animal-engineer goes at it another way. 
It lays the logs (which are from six to fifteen inches thick, and from two to six 
feet long) flat on the bed of the stream, and then heaps stones and mud upon 
them to keep them down. Gradually a dam rises out of the water. So clever 
are the beavers that they make the wall of the dam round if the current is very 
swift, so that the water cannot bear too much strain on one spot. If the water 
is sluggish, the dam is built straight across the stream. The skilful engineer- 
ing of the beaver is displayed best when a large dam is built, one as large as 
two hundred and fifty or three hundred and fifty yards in length. The bark 
of the logs is stripped off and stored away for the winter's food. 

The beavers themselves live in curious little houses called " lodges." 
They look for all the world like Esquimau huts. The walls are composed 
of moss, branches, and mud. While the house-building is going on in the 
spring, the beaver is open to attacks from its enemies, especially the wolver- 
ine, which is ever on the watch for the unwary ones. But when winter has 
set in, the beaver is safe. The fearful cold of the North turns the damp moss 
and mud of the lodge into a solid wall, which even the wolverine's strong 
claws cannot break through. As many as half a dozen beavers live in a lodge, 
each having a separate bed. The young are born early in the spring, and as 
soon as the ice breaks up they come out and accompany their parents. 

One often hears of beaver canals and wonders what they are for. Should 
a number of large trees, that the beaver needs, grow some distance from the 
dam, it digs a canal up to the place. It has very sharp teeth, which enable it 
to gnaw through the trees needed for its building purposes. These it cleverly 
fells so that they fall near the right spot; then it saws them with its teeth into 
proper lengths and floats them down to the dam. These canals are often 
over six hundred feet in length. This work can only be done when the 
ground is perfectly level. 

Toward spring, when the frost allows the beavers to come out once 
more, they look very thin and scraggy, but in a month they grow just as fat 
and plump as ever. The length of the beaver is from three to four feet. Its 
legs are short and it is a clumsy walker, and will never travel by land if it can 
go where it wants to by water. 



MUSK-RAT ('/, Natural Size). 

The Musk-rat is a native of North America and makes its home near 
the large rivers. It is a bright, playful, gentle little creature, but as its fur is 

RACOONDA {% Natural Size). 


of a fine grade, it is persecuted by the trappers. The musk-rat is a clumsy 
walker, and is seldom seen more than a few yards from water. It is an expert 
swimmer, but does not use its powers to prey upon fish. It feeds upon vege- 
table matter. 

The Racoonda takes the place of the musk-rat in South America. It is 
easily tamed, but when angry is more than a match for a small dog. 

The teeth of the racoonda are very sharp, and are used to gnaw through 
branches of trees. The bark of the trees is stored away for food. 


One always thinks of the Porcupine as living entirely in the tropics. As 
a matter of fact, it is found from the equator to Southern Europe. As it never 
comes out in daylight, it is thought to be much rarer than it is. 

The teeth of the porcupine are chisel-like and very sharp, capable of cut- 
ting' the hardest wood ; yet it seldom uses them when defending itself against 
its enemies. The nose of the porcupine is very sensitive, and the creature can 
be easily stunned by a blow on it; hence its first instinct is to protect its head. 
Like the hedge-hog, the porcupine curls itself up into a ball when it scents an 
enemy, and, sticking out all its quills, it presents a formidable front. The ends 
of the quills are barbed. They separate from the porcupine's body very easily 
and if stuck into the flesh, work their way in. Large animals, like the leopard, 
have been killed in India and found to contain the ends of quills, showing 
that, after all, the leopard is no match for the porcupine. 

The porcupine lives in burrows in the earth. It is quite a common sport 
in India to hunt them with dogs. Having found one end of the porcupine's 
burrow, the hunter stuffs it up with straw and sets fire to it. The porcupine 
growls angrily, but is soon smoked out and makes a rush from its hole at the 
other end. Immediately it falls into the clutches of the terriers watching for it. 
But quicker than a flash the porcupine tucks its head in, puts out its quills and 
rolls among the dogs, who bound away with yelps of pain. Frequently the 
battle ends in favor of the porcupine, whose patience outlasts the thirst for 
blood of the terriers. The beast cannot be lifted up, as it is quite heavy and 
its quills come out of the skin so easily. The only thing to do is to roll it 
with a stick to the nearest water, where it will be compelled to swim and 
expose itself to attack or be drowned. It is a curious fact that in a battle of 
this kind the porcupine seldom uses its teeth, which certainly would afford it 
as great a protection as its quills. It seems to rely wholly on the latter. 




PORCUPINE, (i/io Natural Size.) 



The Capybara is the largest of the rodents. Its size is equal to a iuige 
pig. This eurious creature is found all over Central and South America. 

A capybara can stay under water nearly ten minutes, and when it does 
come to the surface it only pushes the end of its nose out. It is quite safe in 
diving, except from animals as expert as itself, and these are few indeed. A 
hunter relates his experience with a herd of these animals. 

They were all feeding near a deep and broad stream when something 
alarmed them. Instantly a large male, which seemed to be the leader, gave a 
cry, something between the bark of a dog and a grunt, and away the herd flew 
into the water. The enemy proved to be a huge anaconda snake, which glided 
into the water like lightning after the capybaras. The herd scattered at once 
and then the hunter was able to see their marvellous diving habits. The 
hunter noticed that the huge snake landed on the other river-bank and made 
off quietly. In a moment or two first one and then another capybara popped 
its head up, and then all swam to the shore and began eating. Shortly 
afterward, they became uneasy again, and without the slightest warning, a 
jaguar sprang among the group and pulled down one poor beast. Just as the 



jaguar had gripped its victim in its jaws to carry it off, it came face to face 
with the hunter. Astonishment gave place to anger, and it dropped its prey 
with a snarl. At the same instant the hunter raised his rifle and fired. 


The Agouti lives in the West Indian Islands and South America. It is 
a great pest in gardens, for it will devour every kind of vegetable that comes 
in its way. It is a little smaller than a hare, and when running might be mis- 
taken for the latter. Although it is easy to tame the agouti, it will never 
become popular, for its teeth are too sharp. It will gnaw its way through an 
ordinary oak door with ease; and, moreover, has a habit of trying its teeth 
upon everything that comes within 
its reach, such as tables, chairs, 
trees, etc. While light and active 
when wild, it becomes utterly 
stupid when caged, never taking 
much notice, whether it is kindly 
or cruelly treated. 


The common Hare is a 
beautiful, graceful creature, well 
known all over Europe and 
America. Although the family is 
a large one, there is a strong like- 
ness between them all. The 
name "timidus" has been at- 
tached to the hare, but it is not j| 
exactly just. In fact, with a rea- J 
sonable chance, the hare is quite « 
brave. Should a young hare be agouti (»/, Natural size). 

capered, the parents will sometimes go to the rescue, even if it is in the hands 
of a man. Among themselves the hares have fierce battles, during which thev 
become so absorbed that they may be approached without the slightest notice 
being taken of the intruder. The hind legs of the hare are very long and 
possess great strength. When running, the hare sometimes takes a series of 


THE HARE ('/« Natural Size). 

immense leaps, and so great is the spring that they often lose their balance in 
alighting, and roll quite a distance before they can recover themselves. Many 
people believe that the hare is cleverer than the fox. Whether this is true or 
not, the hare certainly does a number of tricks which entitle it to some repu- 

Hares are hunted in England (much in the same way as foxes) with hounds, 
called "harriers." Under these circumstances, the hare is forced to show all its 
shrewdness. Although it is swift on its feet and capable of a long chase, the 
dogged persistence of the harriers often bring them closer to Master Hare than 
he likes. When the hare is hunted, it chooses its ground carefully and will 
cross a ploughed field, leaping lightly oyer the furrows, which will not bear the 
weight of the dogs and horses. Of course, its idea is to gain time. Another 
favorite trick is to double back for a couple of hundred yards on its track and 
then leap aside near some bushes. After awhile the dogs come up and are 
thrown into a state of wild confusion by finding the scented track checked. 
In the meantime, the hare leaps back on its trail and flies off in an opposite 


direction. Hares can swim, and quite a long distance, too, if neqessary, but 
they hardly ever enter the water, unless it is to try a bold escape. 

They do not burrow like the rabbit, but live entirely upon the ground. 
They make what are called "forms," just a few twigs and leaves pulled 
together, which are so marvellously like their own color that you might pass 
within a yard of a hare sitting in a form without noticing it. That explains 
the mvsterious way in which the hare seems to rise from the ground at your 
very feet, and before you can collect your wits half a dozen wild bounds carry 
it out of sight. In winter, when the ground is covered with snow, the hare is 

o o 

generally found in some dark spot near the roots of trees, and always on the 
sheltered side. 


ALPINE HARE ('/„ Natural Size). 

The Alpine Hark is famous for its coat, which turns white in the winter. 
It is found in the colder parts of North America. Its white coat serves as a 
great protection, for it cannot be distinguished from the snow upon the ground. 
In size it is a little larger than the common hare. The Alpine hares are killed 
in large numbers each year and shipped to the markets. 





I— I 


The Rabbit is one of the best-known animals in the world. It is easily 
tamed and has therefore become a great pet. There is hardly any boy who has 
not, at some time or other, kept rabbits in a cracker-box hutch. In its wild 
state the rabbit is a bright, clever little creature. They live in great colo- 
nies, where the earth is honey-combed with hundreds of burrows, called " war- 
rens," and in the early morning or just at sunset it is a great sight to watch 
them running about. They hop in and out of their holes, while some sit up. 
listening intently. Then, without an instant's warning, the whole party will 
dash off and pull up again before 
they have gone any distance. They 
fight among themselves and chase 
each other madly through the twist- 
ings and turnings of the burrows. 
Rabbits have very sharp ears and 
for a short distance can run swiftly, 
and upon these two talents they are 
mainly dependent for their safety. 
They have countless enemies, for 
men, dogs, cats, foxes, stoats, wea- 
sels, hedgehogs, crows, hawks, rats, 
snakes, and owls all murder the 
rabbit, one half by day, the other 
half by night; so there is not much 
peace for the poor bunny. On the 
other hand, the rabbit multiplies at 
a great rate if it is not kept down. 
For instance, the rabbit was intro- 
duced into Australia and allowed 
to run wild in the bush. As the 
climate of Australia is very mild and enemies are few in number, it soon 
overran the land, and it has already cost the British Government millions to 
exterminate it. 

In parts of California the rabbit is a great nuisance, and the people have 
adopted a curious method for keeping down their number. Twice a year 
hundreds of men from Fresno County meet together for a rabbit-drive. An 
enclosure, about one hundred yards square, is made, with an entrance to it 
ten yards wide. From this entrance the fence-work then spreads outwards in 
a huge V. At a certain signal, the men form a line at the wide end of the V 


and proceed, yelling and shouting, to drive all the rabbits down to the corral at 
the bottom. Numbers of rabbits try to break through the line and are instantly 
killed. At last the frightened creatures are driven into the corral, where they 
are easily killed. Some idea of the size of these drives may be gained from the 
fact that between twenty and thirty thousand rabbits are killed in a single day. 

The favorite method of killing rabbits in England is by shooting them 
In winter they are hunted with ferrets, which are turned into the warrens, 
while terriers watch the holes. Poachers catch rabbits by attaching loops of 
brass wire to the mouth of the burrow. Once a rabbit gets its head into a 
loose wire noose it does not know enough to draw back, but pushes on, strug- 
gling frantically, until it chokes itself. 

The tame rabbits are quite distinct from the wild rabbits. They have 
been so carefully bred that there are a number of fine species. Their ears, 
which stick up so straight when they are wild, soon begin to lop or hang 
down when they have been confined in hutches, free from the danger of prowl- 
ing foxes and cats. Rabbits do a great deal of damage to property. They 
gnaw the bark off trees, and at times completely girdle them. 

They steal all sorts of garden stuff, and destroy acres and acres of grain 
which happen to be near their warrens. But, after all is said and done, it 
would seem that the rabbit is more sinned against than sinning. Writers of 
all countries have loved to endow the rabbit with great shrewdness and 
sagacity. Uncle Remus in this country gives the rabbit a great reputation 
at the expense of that shrewd rascal, the fox. 

Mr. Mounteney Jephson, who crossed the Dark Continent with Stanley on 
his last expedition, found that the Uncle Remus rabbit-stories were known by 
the curious little race of pigmy people he met, who had never been visited by 
white men before. It is perfectly true that the rabbit is clever. One has only 
to watch it march from the woods some frosty morning. Out it comes with a 
hop, but never does its vigilance forsake it for an instant. You will notice 
that it will always keep its path open back to cover along the thin, hard snow, 
so there is no danger of its slipping or losing its way, and yet it keeps far 
enough away to prevent a lurking fox from springing upon it. 

There is one animal the rabbit is in constant terror of, and that is the 
weasel. Directly a rabbit knows that a weasel is upon its track, it gives a little 
scream of terror and dashes off. Now if the rabbit was to keep on running it 
would soon leave the weasel far behind, but this it does not do. It runs back 
and forth in a state of panic and dives into the burrows, from which the other 
bunnies drive it out. The weasel doggedly follows everywhere, until the rabbit 


direction. Hares can swim, and quite a long distance, too, if necessary, but 
they hardly ever enter the water, unless it is to try a bold escape. 

They do not burrow like the rabbit, but live entirely upon the ground. 
They make what are called "forms," just a few twigs and leaves pulled 
together, which are so marvellously like their own color that you might pass 
within a yard of a hare sitting in a form without noticing it. That explains 
the mysterious way in which the hare seems to rise from the ground at your 
very feet, and before you can collect your wits half a dozen wild bounds carry 
it out of sight. In winter, when the ground is covered with snow, the hare is 
generally found in some dark spot near the roots of trees, and always on the 
sheltered side. 



ALPINE HARE ('A Natural Size). 

The Alpine Hark is famous for its coat, which turns white in the winter. 
It is found in the colder parts of North America. Its white coat serves as a 
great protection, for it cannot be distinguished from the snow upon the ground. 
In size it is a little larger than the common hare. The Alpine hares are killed 
in large numbers each year and shipped to the markets. 





i— i 


The Rabbit is one of the best-known animals in the world. It is easily 
tamed and has therefore become a great pet. There is hardly any boy who has 
not, at some time or other, kept rabbits in a cracker-box hutch. In its wild 
state the rabbit is a bright, clever little creature. They live in great colo- 
nies, where the earth is honey-combed with hundreds of burrows, called " war- 
rens," and in the early morning or just at sunset it is a great sight to watch 
them running about. They hop in and out of their holes, while some sit up, 
listening intently. Then, without an instant's warning, the whole party will 
dash off and pull up again before 
they have gone any distance. They 
fight among themselves and chase 
each other madly through the twist- 
ing^ and turnings of the burrows. 
Rabbits have very sharp ears and 
for a short distance can run swiftly, 
and upon these two talents they are 
mainly dependent for their safety. 
They have countless enemies, for 
men, dogs, cats, foxes, stoats, wea- 
sels, hedgehogs, crows, hawks, rats, 
snakes, and owls all murder the 
rabbit, one half by day, the other 
half by night; so there is not much 
peace for the poor bunny. On the 
other hand, the rabbit multiplies at 
a great rate if it is not kept down. 
For instance, the rabbit was intro- 
duced into Australia and allowed 
to run wild in the bush. As the 
climate of Australia is very mild and enemies are few in number, it soon 
overran the land, and it has already cost the British Government millions to 
exterminate it. 

In parts of California the rabbit is a great nuisance, and the people have 
adopted a curious method for keeping down their number. Twice a year 
hundreds of men from Fresno County meet together for a rabbit-drive. An 
enclosure, about one hundred yards square, is made, with an entrance to it 
ten yards wide. From this entrance the fence-work then spreads outwards in 
a huge V. At a certain signal, the men form a line at the wide end of the V 


and proceed, yelling and shouting, to drive all the rabbits down to the corral at 
the bottom. Numbers of rabbits try to break through the line and are instantly 
killed. At last the frightened creatures are driven into the corral, where they 
are easily killed. Some idea of the size of these drives may be gained from the 
fact that between twenty and thirty thousand rabbits are killed in a single day. 

The favorite method of killing rabbits in England is by shooting them 
In winter they are hunted with ferrets, which are turned into the warrens, 
while terriers watch the holes. Poachers catch rabbits by attaching loops of 
brass wire to the mouth of the burrow. Once a rabbit gets its head into a 
loose wire noose it does not know enough to draw back, but pushes on, strug- 
gling frantically, until it chokes itself. 

The tame rabbits are quite distinct from the wild rabbits. They have 
been so carefully bred that there are a number of fine species. Their ears, 
which stick up so straight when they are wild, soon begin to lop or hang 
down when they have been confined in hutches, free from the danger of prowl- 
ing foxes and cats. Rabbits do a great deal of damage to property. They 
gnaw the bark off trees, and at times completely girdle them. 

They steal all sorts of garden stuff, and destroy acres and acres of grain 
which happen to be near their warrens. But, after all is said and done, it 
would seem that the rabbit is more sinned against than sinning. Writers of 
all countries have loved to endow the rabbit with great shrewdness and 
sagacity. Uncle Remus in this country gives the rabbit a great reputation 
at the expense of that shrewd rascal, the fox. 

Mr. Mounteney Jephson, who crossed the Dark Continent with Stanley on 
his last expedition, found that the Uncle Remus rabbit-stories were known by 
the curious little race of pigmy people he met, who had never been visited by 
white men before. It is perfectly true that the rabbit is clever. One has only 
to watch it march from the woods some frosty morning. Out it comes with a 
hop, but never does its vigilance forsake it for an instant. You will notice 
that it will always keep its path open back to cover along the thin, hard snow, 
so there is no danger of its slipping or losing its way, and yet it keeps far 
enough away to prevent a lurking fox from springing upon it. 

There is one animal the rabbit is in constant terror of, and that is the 
weasel. Directly a rabbit knows that a weasel is upon its track, it gives a little 
scream of terror and dashes off. Now if the rabbit was to keep on running it 
would soon leave the weasel far behind, but this it does not do. It runs back 
and forth in a state of panic and dives into the burrows, from which the other 
bunnies drive it out. The weasel doggedly follows everywhere, until the rabbit 


The Rabbit is one of the best-known animals in the world. It is easily 
tamed and has therefore become a great pet. There is hardly any boy who has 
not, at some time or other, kept rabbits in a cracker-box hutch. In its wild 
state the rabbit is a bright, clever little creature. They live in great colo- 
nies, where the earth is honey-combed with hundreds of burrows, called " war- 
rens," and in the early morning or just at sunset it is a great sight to watch 
them running about. They hop in and out of their holes, while some sit up, 
listening intently. Then, without an instant's warning, the whole party will 
dash off and pull up again before , ; ^, r . ~> — --- ;_■■-.. 

they have gone any distance. They 
fight amonor themselves and chase 
each other madly through the twist- 
ings and turnings of the burrows. 
Rabbits have very sharp ears and 
for a short distance can run swiftly, 
and upon these two talents they are 
mainly dependent for their safety. 
They have countless enemies, for 
men, dogs, cats, foxes, stoats, wea- 
sels, hedgehogs, crows, hawks, rats, 
snakes, and owls all murder the 
rabbit, one half by day, the other 
half by night; so there is not much 
peace for the poor bunny. On the 
other hand, the rabbit multiplies at 
a great rate if it is not kept down. 
For instance, the rabbit was intro- 
duced into Australia and allowed 
to run wild in the bush. As the 
climate of Australia is very mild and enemies are few in number, it soon 
overran the land, and it has already cost the British Government millions to 
exterminate it. 

In parts of California the rabbit is a great nuisance, and the people have 
adopted a curious method for keeping down their number. Twice a year 
hundreds of men from Fresno County meet together for a rabbit-drive. An 
enclosure, about one hundred yards square, is made, w r ith an entrance to it 
ten yards wide. From this entrance the fence-work then spreads outwards in 
a huge V. At a certain signal, the men form a line at the wide end of the V 


and proceed, yelling and shouting, to drive all the rabbits down to the corral at 
the bottom. Numbers of rabbits try to break through the line and are instantly 
killed. At last the frightened creatures are driven into the corral, where they 
are easily killed. Some idea of the size of these drives may be gained from the 
fact that between twenty and thirty thousand rabbits are killed in a single day. 

The favorite method of killing rabbits in England is by shooting them 
In winter they are hunted with ferrets, which are turned into the warrens, 
while terriers watch the holes. Poachers catch rabbits by attaching loops of 
brass wire to the mouth of the burrow. Once a rabbit gets its head into a 
loose wire noose it does not know enough to draw back, but pushes on, strug- 
gling frantically, until it chokes itself. 

The tame rabbits are quite distinct from the wild rabbits. They have 
been so carefully bred that there are a number of fine species. Their ears, 
which stick up so straight when they are wild, soon begin to lop or hang 
down when they have been confined in hutches, free from the danger of prowl- 
ing foxes and cats. Rabbits do a great deal of damage to property. They 
gnaw the bark off trees, and at times completely girdle them. 

They steal all sorts of garden stuff, and destroy acres and acres of grain 
which happen to be near their warrens. But, after all is said and done, it 
would seem that the rabbit is more sinned against than sinning. Writers of 
all countries have loved to endow the rabbit with great shrewdness and 
sagacity. Uncle Remus in this country gives the rabbit a great reputation 
at the expense of that shrewd rascal, the fox. 

Mr. Mounteneyjephson, who crossed the Dark Continent with Stanley on 
his last expedition, found that the Uncle Remus rabbit-stories were known by 
the curious little race of pigmy people he met, who had never been visited by 
white men before. It is perfectly true that the rabbit is clever. One has only 
to watch it march from the woods some frosty morning. Out it comes with a 
hop, but never does its vigilance forsake it for an instant. You will notice 
that it will always keep its path open back to cover along the thin, hard snow, 
so there is no danger of its slipping or losing its way, and yet it keeps far 
enough away to prevent a lurking fox from springing upon it. 

There is one animal the rabbit is in constant terror of, and that is the 
weasel. Directly a rabbit knows that a weasel is upon its track, it gives a little 
scream of terror and dashes off. Now if the rabbit was to keep on running it 
would soon leave the weasel far behind, but this it does not do. It runs back 
and forth in a state of panic and dives into the burrows, from which the other 
bunnies drive it out. The weasel doggedly follows everywhere, until the rabbit 


becomes paralyzed with fear and allows its enemy to catch up. It is a 
curious fact that when a weasel has singled out a rabbit to chase, it will not 
touch the others, although it brushes quite close to them in the passages 
of the burrows. 

Many people have wondered of what use to the rabbit is the little white 
fur which has given rise to the name "cotton-tail." The most likely reason for 
its existence is that at the sign of danger the parents dash off, and the white 
is a guide for the little ones. Everyone who has shot rabbits knows that it 
serves as a mark to aim at. 


Why the Guinea-pig should have been so called is a puzzle, for it is not 
a pig at all, nor does it come from Guinea, but from South America. It is 
very brightly and irregularly col- 
ored, and very often has large dabs 
of orange, black, and white upon it. 

The guinea-pig breeds freely, 
but the young are very delicate for 
the first few days after they are born. 
This little animal is clean and doc- 
ile, but stupid, and its intelligence 
is far below that of the rabbit. On 
the whole, the guinea-pig may be 
said to be practically of no use to 
man, as its flesh is too coarse for 
food, and its skin, owing to the 
slight manner in which the hair 
is attached, is of no value to the 

The guinea-pig has always been 
a popular pet with children. It re- 
quires but little attention and will 
eat any kind of vegetable food. 

The guinea - pig sometimes 
shows a spark of courage, if a cat or dog should come too near its young 
ones, but as its teeth are not sharp, it is practically unable to defend itself 
from enemies of any size. 


GUINEA-PIG (H Natural Size). 



The Chinchilla lives in the 
high mountain ranges of South 
America. Its fur is of a very fine 
quality, and has a beautiful shade 
of gray over it. They live in large 
colonies, which, however, are not 
stationary, like the rabbit's, for 
sometimes a whole band will for- 
sake a certain locality where they 
have lived for years. 


The Gerboa is a little animal 
about the size of a rat. It lives in 
Northern Africa and is chiefly fa- 
mous for its long legs and tail. 


CHINCHILLA (•{ Natural Size) 

GLKUUH (,>j Natural Size). 

The gerboa is capable of making im- 
mense springs utterly out of propor- 
tion to its size and strength ; in fact, 
it is so agile that it can out-distance 
a greyhound when once it is fairly 
started. It is a burrowing animal, 
and usually prefers a sandy bank 
j\ facing the sun. Gerboas live in col- 
li! onies, and are very sociable, playing 
jt together, and toward sundown may 
i|||^j|g be seen jumping about in a start- 
ling yet graceful manner. Although 
^WR; the gerboa comes out in the day- 
time, it does not feed until nightfall. 
Its food consists strictly of herbs 
and grain. Its teeth are very sharp, 
and will even cut through a thin 
layer of stone. 


The Dormouse is fairly common all through England and the Continent. 
It is one of the prettiest of the rodents, for its fur is brown on the back, while 
underneath it is a yellowish white. Its head is large and its eyes are bright 
and beady. The dormouse sleeps all day long, so soundly that you could 
pick one up without disturbing it. Don't you remember the dormouse in 
" Alice in Wonderland," which kept falling asleep ? At night the dormice 
come out to hunt for food. Go to any quiet, wooded country lane, keep very 
still, and you will get a good chance to watch them. By and by you will 
hear their funny little squeak and then 
a rustling among the leaves, and if you 
do not move they will almost run over 
your very feet. 

The nest of this little animal is a 
compact and beautiful affair. It is like 
a ball of platted grass, with just one lit- 
tle hole at the top, and is usually built 
several feet from the ground amon^ 
the corn - stalks. When you come 
across one dormouse's nest, you will 
be sure to find others near-by, for they 
like to live together. It is a lively lit- 
tle creature, leaping lightly from twig 
to twig as it goes in search of acorns, 
nuts, and haws. 

The dormouse hibernates through- 
out the winterjust like the bear, sleep- 
ing in its nest. It collects a lot of food 
toward autumn and grows exceed- 
ingly fat, which enables it to stand dormice (Natural size). 
the months of fasting. When a mild spell of weather comes in the middle of 
winter, the dormouse wakes up, nibbles some food, and then goes to sleep 
again. It does not use much of its larder until spring. The dormouse is 
awake long before the nuts and berries are ripe, so, you see, the little animal 
wisely keeps a store on hand, or else it would soon starve to death. It can 
carry food in its mouth, is able to sit upright, and can also hang by its feet, 
and may often be seen comfortably munching nuts in this position. 

The dormouse makes an excellent pet. It is a good-tempered, affection- 
ate and cleanly little animal, and if treated kindly becomes very tame. It will 
eat almost any food except meat. 


The Red Squirrel is a splendid little creature, typifying wild, careless 
gayety and absurd shrewdness and gravity. It is common all over Southern 
Europe and especially so in England. It lives in small numbers in the beech 
and fir woods, or near the great oaks. Its size is about that of an overgrown 
kitten. Its eyes are bright and black, while its ears, which are large and 
upright, have a tuft of hair on the ends. 
Its tail is large and bushy and is usu- 
ally carried curled over its back. Like 
the dormouse, it sits upright when eating 
or playing sentinel. 

The squirrel builds a nest which at 
a distance looks like a crow's. In fact, 
it sometimes uses an old crow's nest 
instead of building one of its own. The 
nest is carefully lined with moss and 
leaves, and here the young squirrels are 
born and brought up. They are the 
prettiest little creatures, very gentle, and 
make excellent pets, but are hard to raise 
in cages. In the early morning, the squir- 
rel comes down from the trees to feed 
on the wind-blown chestnuts and acorns. 
Then, as the sun gets higher, it goes 
back to the trees. The squirrel rarely 
comes to the ground except to feed. If 
alarmed, it races along the ground with 
a jumping v " 
the trees 

springs from branch to branch with as- 
tounding leaps. If, by any chance, it 
misses its footing, it spreads out its bushy tail and comes sailing down as 
light as a feather. 

The squirrel has many enemies. The game-keeper shoots it for gnaw- 
ing the bark from the young trees. Then the weasel and stoat are ever on 
the watch to pounce upon it while feeding, and up in the branches there 
is always a danger of being swooped down upon by the sparrow-hawk. Last 
of all is the persistent small boy. Throughout all parts of rural England it 
is considered great sport to hunt the squirrel. The usual method is to wait 

& allop, but when it reaches 
nothing can follow it. It 


Until a squirrel comes down to feed, and then slyly get between it and the 
woods and bo contrive to drive it to an isolated tree. Then one of the boys 
climbs up into the tree while the others form a circle around the trunk. The 
squirrel mounts higher and higher into the thin branches, chattering with rage 
all the while. At last it is shaken from its perch and leaps wildly into the air. 

Immediately, caps, sticks, and stones ....„._ _._ ..._. , 

are thrown at it, and often after the 
confusion is over Master Squirrel is 
seen scampering back to the high 
trees. The squirrel's chance of get- 
ting away is good ; but sometimes 
the boys are accompanied by a half- 
dozen curs, and then the little creat- 
ure has a hard time to keep from 
being worried by them. 



The Gray Squirrel is found 
in the warmer parts of the United 
States. Eor instance, it is very 
common throughout California. It 
is a bright, playful little creature, 
and very active. The gray squir- 
rels live in small colonies, choosing 
by preference rocky ground. They 
dig the earth away from between 
the rocks, so as to make sheltered 
burrows, and then well-cleared paths are made leading to the burrow-holes. 

These squirrels, although they will take up their abode within a stone's 
throw of a house, are very cautious and hard to approach. They always post 
one of their number on high ground to act as sentinel, and the moment it 
sees anything it does not understand it gives a shrill bark and all the squirrels 
rush off to their burrows, chattering shrilly. This happened times out of num- 
ber at a certain ranch-house where a number of squirrels had made a burrow 
in the rocks at the rear. Several times a day the dogs woidd rush up and try 
to take the squirrels by surprise, but every time the latter proved too nimble. 
In fact, the dogs were never known to catch a single squirrel. 

RED SQUIRREL (% Natural Size). 


The bright little Chipmunk is 
another burrowing rodent. It is very 
common near the woods, where it can 
be seen scampering along through 
the undergrowth, making the curious, 
chirping noise from which it gets its 
name. It is almost defenceless, while 
its coat is so bright and pretty, just 
the sort to attract prowling enemies. 
All the summer long it is busy stor- 
ing up food in the shape of nuts and 
haws for the winter. The chipmunk 
nearly always carries four nuts in its 
mouth at a time, which, considering 
the size of the animal, is a huge load. 
When out looking for food it must 
leave its shelter, and is thus laid open 
to attacks from the polecat and hawk. 
Nevertheless, there is hardly any little animal which, to human eyes,, seems so 
completely happy. It is never seen except it is whisking its tail about in the 
liveliest manner. 


Now we come to a distinctly American animal, the Prairie-dog. These 
strange creatures live together in vast colonies, or dog-towns, which are gen- 
erally situated where the soil is soft and sandy. Its name, prairie-dog, comes 
from two sources : first, because it lives on the prairies, and second, because, 
when alarmed, it gives a tiny bark like a dog. The dog-towns are often very 
large and present an odd appearance. Outside the burrow is a mound which 
has been thrown up in digging. While the prairie-dog is busy burrowing its 
tunnel and throwing the earth out, another prairie-dog will rush up, fill its paws 
w r ith earth, and ram it into the hole upon the digger and then scamper off. 
After awhile, the other prairie-dog comes scratching out of its burrow snorting 
with anger, goes in search of its enemy, and then there is a fight. Wherever 
there are prairie-dogs, there are always rattlesnakes and owls. It was thought 
at one time that the animal, snake, and bird lived peaceably together, but that 
is not true. The owl and rattlesnake live with the prairie-dog simply because 


THE PRAIRIE-DOG (X Natural Size). 

the latter is not strong enough to put them out. They use its burrow, kill its 
young, and often slay the owner. The prairie-dogs are very cautious. They 
always have a sentinel on watch, and when it sees anything it does not under- 
stand it gives its bark, and the dogs disappear into the burrows. It would 
seem as if the place was utterly deserted. After awhile the dogs poke their 
noses out of their holes, and if they think the enemy has gone, they soon come 
out of hiding once more. 


The Marmot is a sort of European cousin to the prairie-dog. It is found 
all over the northern part of Finland, Norway, and Russia. It is another of 
the animals which goes to sleep in the winter and wakes up in the summer. 
It is dull and stupid in spite of its timidity, but has a keen sense of hearing. 
It lives in a burrow which it digs out itself. Its tunnel is about eight feet long, 
and branches off into two parts. The one forms a storehouse and the other 
the living part. This storehouse is filled with grain and nuts, which it has 
been busv collecting all the summer. As soon as the marmot is ready to take 
its long winter sleep it stuffs up the burrow with sticks and earth, so that the 
cold may not creep in. 




The Buffalo, or Bison, has been called the " King of the Prairies," but, 
alas ! it is king no longer. The march of man across the plains has driven the 
buffalo out of existence. It is a dull and stupid animal, which accounts for 
allowing itself to be so easily tracked ; but, on the other hand, it has immense 
strength and great speed. The Indian found that the buffalo supplied him 
with almost everything he needed : hide, wool, fat, and meat. Armed only 
with a bow and arrow, he killed but few of the vast herds which roamed the 
plains north of the Platte River. Then came the white man with the rifle, and 
the result is that the buffalo has vanished. Not a single wild specimen lives 
to-day. In a few shows, notably Buffalo Bill's, in private collections both in 
this country and in England, and in the Yellowstone Park, the buffalo still 
lives, guarded jealously from harm. Thirty years ago it was a common sight 
to see countless thousands of these mighty creatures together. The huge col- 
lection of skulls and bones testify to what their numbers must have been. 
Many methods were used to kill the buffalo wholesale, and one was to take 
advantage of the large ravines through which the western rivers run. The 
herds were surrounded on three sides, leaving the only avenue of escape over 
the precipice. At a given signal, all the men would rush in, yelling and 
waving hats. The herd would promptly rush off. As soon as the leaders 
reached the edge of the precipice, they would try to back away, but the num- 
bers behind would force them on, and thus it was an easy matter to wipe out 
a whole herd. 

The white man usually hunted the buffalo from horseback. This method 
is much more successful. It takes pluck to enter a herd and separate a mem- 
ber and shoot it down while going at full speed. In spite of its timid nature, 
the buffalo is a terrible foe when brought to bay. 

M JmmQ <%w&M&W 




The Aurochs is the buffalo of Europe, but like its relative it is scarce. It 
is claimed that outside of a few which are still wild, the only herd left is in 
Russia, where the Czar keeps them under his special protection. Owing to 
there being hardly any females born in captivity, the herd is slowly vanishing. 


There are several curious things about the animals which come under the 
head of Oxen. They have divided hoofs instead of claws ; they also have 
horns which grow out of their foreheads, and, last of ail, they are able to bring 
back food from the stomach to the mouth, which is called " chewing the cud." 

In many parts of the world, such as Palestine, America, and Europe, oxen 
are used to plough the land and draw the carts. In Spain, oxen are usually 
harnessed in pairs to unwieldy wine carts having solid wheels. The owners 
decorate their beasts with bells and ribbons, and they move along the country 
road at a solemn pace, the wheels creaking loudly. 

The domestic cattle have been bred to a wonderful state of perfection. 
The bulls are large and solidly built, possessing all the strength and courage 
of their wild relatives. The chief use of the cow is its supplying men with 
milk. As a rule, a farmer keeps a number of cows, so that he may supply the 
nearest city or village with milk. Every morning and evening the cows are 
milked and then turned out again to graze in the fields. 

In Spain there lives a small, long-horned, fierce bull, which is bred for the 
sole use of bull-fighting. When the people are all assembled in the arena, the 
gayly dressed bull fighters and a number of men called " capeadors " take their 
stand around the ring, and at a given signal the door is unlocked and the bull 
rushes into the ring. The animal is bewildered at first, but the instant it gets 
used to the glare of the sunlight, it charges the nearest capeador. He waves a 
red cloak in front of the brute and steps nimbly aside. In a few moments, by 
throwing darts and lances, with fireworks attached, into the bull's shoulders, 
they have it lashed into a pitch of fury. Then the fighters, or picadors, come 
in mounted on poor, miserable horses, which are blind in one eye, so they 
cannot see the bull when it charges. Often as many as fifteen horses are 
killed by one bull, while the men are seldom hurt. When the bull becomes 
weak from loss of blood, the matador, armed only with a sword, pierces it 
between the shoulders and kills it. A team of mules drag the body of the 
bull out of the ring and the fight begins over again with a fresh animal. 
















The Buffalo of Asia, Africa, and India is a magnificent animal. The 
horns of the Indian variety frequently measure as much as twelve feet from 
tip to tip. The strength of the animal is enormous, and its thick-set limbs 
are capable of great endurance. Its speed for its size and build is almost 
incredible. The buffaloes love water, and can always be found near swampy 
ground, where they roll themselves in the mud until their skin is thoroughly 
caked. This serves to keep off flies and mosquitoes. The temper of the buf- 
falo is uncertain, as may be gathered from looking into its face, which always 
shows the same scowling ferocity. The hunting of this animal is very diffi- 
cult, as its skin, which looks at a distance like rubber, is so tough that it will 
almost turn a bullet away. To kill a buffalo with a single shot is nearly 
impossible. Should the brute be only wounded, it will charge at once. When 
fairly roused its fury is frightful to behold. It tears up the ground with its 
horns and wreaks its vengeance upon the nearest thing at hand. Whether 
the buffalo is dealing with man or beast, it never leaves its victim until it has 
trampled every trace of life out of it. The great hunter, Sir Samuel Baker, 
mentions having seen a buffalo beat off a pair of lions which had attacked it. 
On another occasion he saw a buffalo pulled down by four lions, but only after 
a battle which lasted a couple of hours. 

In the spring the old bulls have great battles among themselves for the 
possession of the females. They become so absorbed in the fight that one can 


come easily near them; but should they happen to catch sight of the intruder, 
they are liable to both drop their quarrel and charge together. Unless a tree 
is handy, and a thick one at that, the result is unpleasant. When a bull has 
defeated its rival and driven it off the field of glory, the old rascal sets out to 
look for another one to fight. On one occasion a victorious buffalo was seen 
to drive its long horns into the flanks of its foe and kill it. 


The Bantenge is a native of Java. It takes the place of the buffalo in 
that country. It is exceedingly shy, living in the thick jungles near the water. 
The small bands place a sentinel to keep watch for any enemy. The natives 
of Java have managed to catch the bantenge and tame it until it has become 
quite a useful animal. The work of ploughing the heavy, sodden rice-fields 
could hardly be done by any other creature. 


The Zebu is one of the famous sacred animals of India. It is also found 
in parts of Southern Asia and even in Madagascar, though its true home is in 
India. It is rather a pretty and intelligent animal, about the size of a Jersey 
cow. It has a hump on its shoulders and short horns. English people who 
live in India look upon the zebu as a great nuisance, but owing to its being 
sacred they dare not interfere with it. The zebu is allowed to run wild 
wherever it pleases. It is quite a common sight to see one of these animals 
going through the village streets with a comical air of dignity. It will pause 
to examine anything that will catch its eye or help itself to fruit from a Hindoo 
vendor's stand, and no one will raise a protest. If it wants anything it demands 
it with a grunt, and if not attended to quickly it is apt to use its horns. Some- 
times the zebu falls asleep in a narrow roadway so as to completely block it 
up, and nothing can pass along until the beast awakes. Therefore the English 
people dislike the animal, but the Hindoos still hold it in awe. 

The zebu is not blessed with a good temper. If it sees any man or woman 
doing anything that it does not like, or wearing clothes of a red color, it will 
charge them without warning, and all the natives can do is to fly until they 
reach a tree or wall upon which they can climb. The Hindoos which crowd 
the streets will not attempt to turn the zebu from its victims, but simply draw 
away to one side and let it pass on. 



The Yak, or grunting ox, gets its name from the peculiar noise it makes. 
This magnificent creature lives in the Pamirs, or high country between the 
Himalayas, Russia, and China. These vast plains reach for many miles, and 
are more elevated than the European snow-line. That is why the Pamirs are 
called the roof of the world. Over the immense tracks of Thibet the yak wan- 
ders, either in small companies or just by itself. It feeds upon the grasses 
which are found in summer, and in winter digs them up out of the snow. Its 
nose is strongly built, so that it can push away the snow which covers its food. 
Its sense of smell is also very keen, and enables it not only to detect its food 
when covered, but also to scent enemies at a great distance. 

In the early spring the female gives birth to a single calf, which, when 
young, is said to resemble a Newfoundland dog. At this early age the calf is 
in great danger from the hungry packs of wolves, which would not hesitate to 
attack the old bull yaks themselves. The people of Thibet have managed to 
tame this great creature and turn it into a beast of burden. For the country it 
lives in it is very useful, but it is doubtful if the white man would put up with 
its whims and temper. Its skin is beautiful, the fur growing to a great length 
on the sides, while its bushy white tail is largely sought after for cap decora- 


tions and fans for the Chinese. There is a species called the "plough" yak, 
which is not as line an animal as the true yak. It is a poor, ill-used beast, and 
is generally without a tail, which its cruel master has cut off and sold. 



The Musk-ox is a peculiar animal which lives in the tip-top of North 
America. It is not nearly as large as one might suppose from the picture, for 
it is covered all over with a shaggy coat of hair. It is rather a dangerous ani- 
mal to hunt, for it often leads its pursuers over rocky ground, and then turns 
upon them when it has them at a disadvantage. It is very agile and has excel- 
lent smell and hearing, but in spite of this it is a dull animal. Hunters say 
that the report of a rifle will not frighten it, provided it does not smell the gun- 
powder. It also is very curious and will come up to examine a white flag or 
any other wavy object that it has not seen before. Hunters frequently take 
advantage of this habit to lure it within gun-shot. The flesh is good eating, 
except for a short time of the year, when it has a peculiar musky smell. Hence 
the name, musk-ox. 



The Antelopes represent a large and important group of animals which 
are more or less common in all tropical parts of the earth. The antelope 
comes nearest to the goat. 

Perhaps the best-known member of this family is the pretty and graceful 
Gazelle. The gazelle relies wholly for its safety upon its great speed. They 
are usually found in large bands, protecting each other from the attacks of 
hyenas and jackals, and the smaller animals. Against the lion, the leopard, 
and man, their three greatest enemies, they are almost helpless. In spite of 
the wary sentinel, which always keeps watch, the cunning lion works its way 
toward the gazelles until it can spring upon one or. at any rate, reach it with 
a couple of bounds. The lion knows perfectly well that it must creep up within 
striking distance, for should it be seen, the gazelles will gallop oft" at" a pace 
which the great cat could not keep up for fifty yards. 


In parts of Syria and Araoia a species called the "aerial" gazelle is held 
in great favor as a household pet. It is a pretty little creature, with large, lus- 
trous eyes, docile and good-tempered. 


The Oryx is famous for its beautiful horns. These weapons have a grace- 
ful curl to them and are often three feet long. They are covered with rings, 
while the ends are smooth and very sharp. It is fairly common all over South 
Africa, living, like the gazelle, in bands. It is not nearly so timid as the former, 
and when wounded shows considerable spirit. It is apt to lie quite still until 
the hunter comes near, then suddenly charges with lowered head and horns 
well out. These wounds usually prove fatal. 

In the early days of South Africa the oryx used to wander over the land 
in huge herds. So many thousands travelled together that everything green 
was eaten till the country looked as though it had been swept by locusts. 



The Chamois is 
perhaps the most famous 
member of the antelope 
family. It is quite wrong 
to class this little animal 
among- the goats, al- 
though it is like them in 
appearance. The home 
of the chamois is in the 
highest Alps, where it 
feeds upon the grass that 
grows near the snow- 
line. Everyone has 
heard of the speed and jumping power of the chamois, and 
last, but not least, its wonderful sense of smell. It will scent 
a man at a distance which one would hardly believe possible. 
When the wary creature is alarmed, it will stand like a statue 
and stare in the direction in which it smells danger. The 
instant it sees anything move, it rushes up the mountain-side. 
The rate at which it disappears is something astonishing. The 
chamois is just as clever at getting down hill as it is going up. 
Hunters sometimes chase the animal until they think they 
have it cornered, and then it will escape being caught by 
sliding down what seems to be a perpendicular precipice. 

The affection of the doe chamois for her young is well 

shown by the story of a hunter who chased a chamois and her 

J ' young toward the end of a rock which was separated from its 

v : surroundings by a deep chasm. The hunter wanted, of course, 

A to catch the young ones alive. To his surprise, he saw the 

mother spread her legs across the chasm between the two 

rocks, and then make a sign to the young ones to climb on her back. The 

youngsters soon made a bridge of their mother, and were quickly out of 

harm's way. 

The chamois, like all antelopes, are found in small bands, which are always 
guarded by a sentinel. Its height is about two feet, and its skin is a brownish 
black, streaked with white around the face. Its horns, which are about six or 
eight inches long, are turned back in two sharp hooks. They are jet black and 
beautifully polished. In the spring-time there are sharp battles among the 



chamois before they pair off for the season, but once summer comes they all 
live happily together. There have been many attempts to tame the chamois, 
but they have only been partly successful. It is so shy that it will not allow 
anyone to touch it; but, on the other hand, like a true antelope, it is con- 
sumed with curiosity, peeping and prying into everything. 



The American Spring-buck is an antelope which is found on the prairies 
of the Western States. They move about in great herds, which are sometimes 
seen in one district, then they vanish and appear in an entirely new locality. 

The African Spring-bok is still found in great numbers throughout the 
Transvaal and Orange Free State. As late as 1891 the spring-boks made a 
migration north toward the Zambesi River. They took several days to pass an 
up-country station, and the sheep-herders, who are accustomed to accurately 
guess the numbers of herds of animals, estimated that there must have been 
over half a million spring-boks on the move. These migrations are not regu- 
lar, but generally take place when the food in the plains gives out. 




Here is an animal called the Gnu, which seems to be made up of odds 
and ends — the legs of an antelope, the body of a horse, the tail of a mule, and 
the head of a bull. The early Dutch settlers in South Africa called the animal 
"wildebeest," and they had good reason for it. This strange animal's way of 
living is almost as odd as its appearance. Like most antelopes, it is very 
curious, and all a hunter has to do when he wants to get a shot at one is to 
lie down in the grass and wave a red handkerchief. The startled creatures at 
once gallop off as if they never meant to stop, then suddenly they all pull up 
and look at each other as if trying to find out who said " run " first. Before 
they can make up their minds, some of the males will begin fighting, and the 
band will look on as though there was not a waving red handkerchief within 
miles. Then the whole band will begin whisking their tails and kicking up 
their heels like colts and dash off again. Now this is where the curiosity 
comes in. Apparently they have forgotten all about the red handkerchief, but 
they have not. The band will come back to where they started from and gal- 
lop furiously round and round the concealed hunter, always narrowing the cir- 
cle until they come within easy gunshot. Sometimes they come too close and 
one old fellow will charge furiously. The hunter has to look out for himself 
then, for the temper and strength of the gnu are not to be tampered with. 


The gnu is often found in the company of other animals. In fact, it is a com- 
mon sight to see them rushing over the veldt in the midst of zebras, antelopes, 
and ostriches. They appear to live peaceably together. 


The Hartebeest is another South African antelope. It is chiefly famous 
for its horns, which, you will notice, turn straight back like a hook. It is not 
nearly so swift as the other antelopes, but, nevertheless, it shows considerable 
speed when pressed. The only danger in hunting the hartebeest is that when 
wounded it is apt to turn upon its enemy and charge with lowered head. Of 
course, the sharp-pointed horns become terrible weapons, being used to rip 
upward like the boar's tusks. It is a large animal, standing as high as five feet 
at the shoulder, while its head is held erect. 

The hartebeest is usually to be found in large bands, which roam over the 
veldt. These bands move slowly from place to place, always being guided by 
the search for food. 




The Koodoo is the most imposing" of all the antelopes. It is a large and 
thick-set animal, which is not usual with this light and graceful family. The 
koodoo's sides are striped in a striking manner, while along the top of its back 
runs a ridge of black hair. The horns of the koodoo are very beautiful, being 
strong and highly polished, branching out in two large corkscrew turns over 
the top of the forehead. 

As the koodoo is not a very swift animal, it is hunted by white men in a 
curious manner. One man starts out with a relay of horses in pursuit of the 
game. As soon as one horse is tired he mounts another, and in a very short 
time the poor koodoo gives in and allows its enemy to come up. To hunt the 
koodoo in this fashion, it is necessary to have a large, open track of country, for 
it has most wonderful springing powers. It will easily leap over a fence eight 
feet high. Therefore, when pursued, it always tries to find rocks and bushes 
where it can be safe from danger. 

The koodoo is frequently seen in zoological collections, but it never looks 
as fine as it does in its native country. The beautiful gloss of its skin van- 
ishes when it is kept in captivity. 


The Elavd is even larger than the koodoo. It is said to weigh as much 
as an ox. It is by far the largest of the antelopes. It is hunted for its flesh, 
which is tender if used directly it is killed. This is a great luxury, as nearly all 
the meat found in the eland country is dry and tasteless. 

The natives of South Africa chase the animal on horseback until it is all 
but tired out, and then drive it toward their camp before they kill it. In this 
way they save themselves the trouble of bringing the carcass home. 

It is a curious fact that the eland can live for months without water. It 
has been known to spend a large part of the year on the sandy, rainless wastes 
of the Transvaal near the Zambesi River, where it could not have found water 
if it had wanted it, and yet it did not seem to suffer. Specimens killed during 
this time were found to have a little water in their stomachs. 

The eland might be easily tamed and made useful to man if it was not for 
its large appetite, for what it lacks in water it makes up in food. It will eat 
huge quantities of dry grass. In fact, no one has ever known an eland to get 
enough to eat. As fodder is often scarce in South Africa, owing to the uncer- 
tain rainy season, it would never pay to keep an eland. 

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The Goats and Sheep are closely allied to each other. The general rule 
among goats is that their horns are erect or curve slightly backward or outward, 
having a ridge on the edge. The males are larger than the females and more 
pugnacious. They have bearded chins ; there is also a rank odor about them. 

The sheep, on the other hand, are not as restless in disposition as the 
goats, and are not so strongly built. The horns of the rams form a sharp 
spiral curve on the forehead. 


The domestic Sheep have been so interbred and divided into so many 
varieties that the original forms are entirely lost. The sheep are as good 
climbers as the goats, and it is a common sight to see a whole flock pass over 
a steep mountain-side upon which a man could not get a foothold. 

Sheep are generally believed to be cowards, but this is not so. If a flock 
of mountain sheep is disturbed they suddenly form themselves into a com- 
pact mass and present a bold front to the intruder. The rams will charge if 
the enemy comes too close. Even a single ram is no mean fighter when he 
is thoroughly angry, and his charge is sometimes fatal. Goats always fight by 
rearing up on their hind legs and butting sideways. Sheep never do this, but 
always charge head downward. 

Sheep will follow a leader, and no matter where the leader goes they will 
follow. If the leader swerves as it runs along the path, each sheep will also 
swerve when it reaches that spot. If a sheep suddenly comes across a snake 
it will jump over the snake, and, although the snake glides off into the grass 
and is not seen by the rest of the flock, each one will leap over the spot as 
their leader did. Shepherds take advantage of this habit of following a leader 
and always make a pet of one sheep, teaching it to follow at their heels. Then 
they know that wherever they go the pet will follow them and the rest will 
obediently trot on behind. 

The chief use of the sheep is in providing man with wool. Vast territories 
of country, such as the Western United States, South America, and Southern 
Europe, are entirely given up to wool raising. There is no animal in the 
world that is of so much use to man. Every part of the sheep is turned to 
account. The flesh is eaten, the wool is spun into cloth, while from its skin is 
made the beautiful Russia leather. 





The Angora Goat is chiefly noted for its beautiful wool, from which the 
nnest material is made. This animal is a native of Arabia, where it has been 
carefully preserved for hundreds of years for the sake of its wool. There have 
been many attempts made to introduce it into the countries of Southern Europe 
but so far none of them has been successful. Directly the Angora is taken out 
of Arabia the quality of its wool deteriorates. Its horns are very fine, being 
marked with rings and curling gracefully over its head. 


The Rocky Mountain Goat is hunted in the Western mountains of the 
United States. It is a wonderfully agile animal, and prefers to live on the 
precipices near the snow-line. Its wool is of a very fine texture and nearly 
pure white, while its skin is made into valuable leather. Its head, which 
appears small for its body, is surmounted by two little horns which curl back- 
ward. Its sight is excellent, and its power of scent is very keen. 


The Argali is the king of the goat family and lives in Siberia It fre- 
quently measures four feet in height at the shoulders, and is proportionately 
large all over. In fact, it is built more like a small ox than a goat. Its horns 
measured on the curve, are about two feet long. The argali is found chiefly in 
the southern mountains of Siberia and as far west as the Caucasus Mountains. 


The Aoudad is closely allied to the argali. In fact, it is often spoken of 
as the bearded argali, although it is not as large an animal. The aoudad has 
a curious growth of hair like a mane, stretching from the chin down between 
the forelegs. 

The aoudad is found in Tunis, Algeria, and Morocco, but its greatest 
stronghold is in the Atlas Mountains. Like the argali, the aoudad is remark- 
ably active, and is only caught in its native mountains with the greatest diffi- 
. culty. Curiously enough, when kept in captivity, the aoudad does not become 
sullen as so many of its family do, but remains active and playful It is full 
of curiosity, has a gentle disposition, and is capable of affection. It is a laro- e 
animal, often measuring three feet in height at the shoulders. 



"■"■y "'■:■■ -v,-' ■' 



It is generally be- jjjjg 
iieved among naturalists 
that all the goats have 
sprung from the Ibex. 

Many years ago this 
beautiful creature was 
common in the Alps and 
the Pyrenees Mountains, 
but it has now vanished, 
except where it is pro- 
tected by law. Its true 
stronghold is in the 
Himalaya Mountains of 
India. The ibex is fa- 
mous for its horns, the 
use of which is doubtful. 
It was thought at one 
time that when the ibex 
used to make its gigan- 
tic leaps, it broke the 
shock of the fall by land- 
ing upon its horns, and 
no one has yet proved 
otherwise. Ibex- shoot- 
ing is one of the great 
sports of India. Only 
strong men can attempt 
it, for they have to go 
fourteen thousand feet 
hi<jh to reach the erame. 
Then the ibex is as cautious and wary as the chamois and exceedingly difficult 
to approach. They are usually found in small bands, which are led by an old 
male who keeps an eagle eye upon his charges. At the first sign of alarm they 
always dash up toward the snow-line. 

The ibex lives quite comfortably in captivity. Some years ago one was 
kept in London and became as tame as a nanny-goat. It would follow its 
keeper around and was trained to draw a small cart. This animal had been 
captured in India when it was quite young, its mother having been shot. 



The Moufflon is found in the mountains of Sardinia. It is a fine-looking 
creature, having two thick, three-sided horns curling back toward the shoulders 
with a graceful sweep, and, although a true sheep, is much larger than any 
of the family that are 
tame. Although large- 
ly hunted, it is by no 
means extinct. 

Its sight, hearing, 
and smell are all good, 
and one has only to at- 
tempt to shoot a mouf- 
flon to find this out. 
The slightest odor of 
man in the wind or the 
gleam of a gun-barrel 
is enough to ruin the 
shooting; for the rest 
of the day. Once the 
leader of the flock has 
sighted an enemy, he 
not only runs away, 
but keeps his eye open 
to prevent a second 
attack being made. 

On one occasion a 
hunter fired at a flock of 
moufflons and brought 
one down. He spent 
the rest of the day, 
from early morning to 
sunset, trying to catch 
up with them again. 
But every time he came 
to any high ground the 
old leader was watching for him and promptly gave the alarm to the flock, who 
immediately dashed off among the rocks. Although the hunter followed the 
moufflons for three days he never got a second successful shot. The moufflon 
shows considerable courage if it is cornered or its young ones injured. 



The Bighorn is found both in the Sierra Nevada and the Rocky Moun- 
tains It is much sought after by hunters. Like all the rest of the family, it is 
found at very high altitudes. 

A close variety of the bighorn lives on the islands off the coast of 
Southern California. The Catalina goats (named after the island upon which 
they are found) are rapidly becoming famous. They are slightly smaller than 
those found in the Rocky Mountains. They live on the very highest parts of 
the mountains, never caring to take the risk of coming down to the valleys. 
They feed upon the grasses which are found upon the ledges of the precipices. 
When a flock of these goats are seen feeding far up the mountain-side, it often 
puzzles the hunter to know how they could have got there. And yet if he fires 
his rifle the goats will rush off and leave not a trace of their presence behind, 
except a cloud of dust and loose stones rattling down the face of the precipice. 
When these goats were first discovered they were bold and fearless, coming 
up to examine anyone who approached them; but now they have learned 
what a rifle means. 

It often happens that if a bighorn has been shot it will scramble swiftly 
away and die on some rocky ledge, where the hunter cannot reach it. 



The Giraffe is the tallest of all animals, not excepting the elephant 
This is chiefly due to its wonderful neck. A full-grown giraffe often exceeds 
twenty feet. On the top of its head are two curious bones. They are an out- 
growth from the skull and not horns, as you might think. Also, farther down 
on its forehead is another bone growth, somewhat like the small horn of the 
unicorn. Its white skin is oddly marked with brown patches, which really 
serve as a protection, for when standing near a tree-trunk the colors match so 
well that it is hard to see a giraffe. The skin is also very thick, and tough 
enough to turn a rifle-bullet, unless it is well aimed. The Zulus make their 
war-shields from the hide of the giraffe. The tongue is long and thin, and as 
its owner feeds upon leaves it is of the greatest use to pick out just those that 
it wants. Its eye is of a dark brown color, and is mild and pleasing. The 
giraffe, like the kangaroo, is silent, never uttering a sound, even after it has 
been badly wounded. In spite of its long legs it is not a swift runner, but at 
the same time it defends itself and keeps off the hyena, jackal, and other small 
animals by kicking all around with lightning speed. When one thinks of the 
range of a giraffe's heels, it is clear that they might become formidable. 

A hunter on one occasion watched a lion creeping toward a fine old bull 
giraffe, but just as it was about to spring its victim must have caught sight of 
it, and like a flash the giraffe sprang round and kicked furiously. One blow 
caught the lion full in the chest, and to the hunter's surprise, the " king of 
beasts " beat a hasty retreat. This giraffe had a fearful wound in its flank, 
where the claws of the lion had struck it, but, on the whole, it seemed well 
pleased with its work. 

On another occasion three lions were seen to steal toward a small herd 
of giraffes, and singling out one bull, they all attacked it together. One lion 
sprang on its flank and was immediately kicked off, but before the giraffe could 
gain any advantage another lion sprang on its back. The giraffe made a 
frantic struggle to reach the forest, but before it could get far the third lion 
sprang upon its neck, and the first lion, which had been kicked off, hung on 
its flank again. By their combined weight they managed to pull their victim 
down. Few animals could have withstood the attack of three lions for such 
a length of time. 

The giraffe causes much fun in the zoological gardens by stealing the 
artificial flowers from the tops of the ladies' hats. The visitors stand near the 
enclosure thinking they are safe, but forget that the creature's long neck 
enables it to reach clean over the railings. The giraffe is good-tempered, and 
soon gets to know its keepers. 




The Moose or Elk is the largest of the deer family. In America it is 
called the moose, in Europe the elk. It is justly famous for its horns. When 
young the large growth of the horns is not so noticeable, for they do not really 
assume their magnificent branching stage until the owner is about twelve 
years old. The moose moves over the ground with a swinging, ungainly 
trot. At first it would appear that its pace is not very great, but when the 
length of the stride is measured it is found to be enormous. Clumsy as the 
great creature is, it can out-race a hunter, especially over broken ground. 

On one occasion two hunters followed a moose which had taken flight, 
with the hope of bringing it to bay. They thought they had it cornered when 
they saw it deliberately make for a large open space covered with fallen trees. 
To their surprise, the moose did not alter its pace, but trotted over the tree- 
trunks as though it was on level ground. Of course, the hunters were left far 
behind, with nothing to do but to wonder and measure the trunks. Some of 
the latter proved to be nearly six feet in diameter. 

When the snow begins to melt and the frozen crust will no longer stand 
the great creature's weight, it is then at the mercy of the hunter, who can skim 
over the frozen plains on snow-shoes, while the moose plunges through to its 
shoulders at every step. When running, the moose makes a curious, snapping 
noise which is caused by its divided hoofs coming together. The scent and hear- 
ing of the moose are both good, and on the slightest suspicion it will run off. 

In places where man never goes the moose has adopted a curious method 
for defending itself from the attacks of other animals. A number of the great 
creatures collect together and trample the snow down over a large area, and 
thus construct what is known as an " elk yard." The trees and grass inside 
give them food, and they are safe, for no other animal will willingly provoke an 
open quarrel with them. Packs of wolves hang around, snarling and watching, 
but not daring to attack the monarch of the forest ; but should one of them 
venture out into the soft snow the hungry wolves soon tear it to pieces. 
Although the moose does not attack man of its own accord, it becomes a terri- 
ble opponent if wounded. Should its mad stampede be arrested by a bullet, 
it turns at once and charges again and again as long as its enemy is in sight. 
Its horns are used against everything in its utter blind fury. 



The Reindeer is found in Northern Europe. The people of Lapland 
have succeeded in taming the reindeer and making it take the place of the 
horse in their country. It is not a majestic creature, as one might think, but 
on the contrary, suffers itself to be handled and bullied in a way that no horse 
would put up with. In the summer it suffers severely from flies and other 
insects. As winter approaches its fur turns to a grayish brown, and grows 
long and thick and, if it is cared for, handsome. 

In a wild state the reindeer makes annual migrations. In summer the 
herds, which often number several thousand, go upon the mountains to feed, 
and when the first heavy fall of snow comes, return to the plains. 

Whenever it is necessary to travel over ice or snow fields the reindeer is 
most useful. It moves along with a clumsy, shambling trot, but it really gets 
over the ground very quickly. 

The reindeer is bad-tempered. It will try to bite any other animal which 
is kept near, and also it uses its horns, which are very dangerous weapons. 


I— I 







. •*•. 

The Caribou is the American variety of reindeer. Unlike its European 
cousin, it has never been tamed and made to serve man. 

The caribou has been chased by hunters for a week together and then, 
after all, escapes. A favorite trick of this animal when hard pressed is to 
make for a frozen lake. The hunter always gives in, for, in spite of its clumsy 
movements, nothing can overtake the caribou once it starts across the ice-fields. 

The caribou is persecuted by the red and white men for its valuable skin. 
The little Esquimaux have a novel method of catching several of these creat- 
ures at once. They dig a pit and arrange a slab of ice over it, so that when 
the caribou passes that way it will be tilted into the pit below. As the slab 
is pivoted it returns to its original position, to be ready for the next victim. 

The horns of the caribou are very heavy. In the spring the males have 
fierce battles among themselves. Sometimes the horns break off, and then the 
poor caribou, being defenceless, is speedily killed. 



Almost everyone knows the general appearance of the Red Deer, with 
its strong, though slender, limbs, its full, dark eye, and its noble head, with 
branching horns. The splendid antlers are rounded and bear three branches 
(or tines, as they are called) and a crown consisting of three or 'more points. 
These points increase in number with the age of the animal, and when the 
number is twelve the deer is then known as a royal stag. 

This deer is an inhabitant of many temperate countries. It was once 
quite common all over England, being protected by severe forest laws, its 
life being regarded as more valuable than that of a man. Now, however, it 
has almost disappeared from there, except in a few private parks. But it still 
roams among the wilder parts of the Scottish Highlands and Western Isles, 
the finest specimens being found in the forests of Sutherlandshire. 

During the month of August the stag begins to mate, and is then very 
cross. The battles over the female often result in the death or maiming of 
one of the combatants. Although the stag is easily tamed, this fighting 
instinct comes out strongly in captivity, causing it to turn against those it 
most cares for. Nearly every year at this time one or more serious accidents 
happen through people disturbing the stag, from ignorance of its habits. 

The red deer is shy and wary, with a very keen sense of smell. This 
renders the pursuit of deer-stalking very difficult ; the hunters have to study 
carefully the direction in which the wind blows, lest the deer should scent the 
approach of his enemies. Though he flies from his pursuers, if possible, still, 
when brought to bay, he will fight the dogs with desperation ; and these ani- 
mals are trained to annoy and perplex him as much as possible, while keep- 
ing out of his reach and giving the hunters a chance to catch up. 

The female is very timid, and is a careful mother to her graceful little 
fawn, which (while young and feeble) she likes to hide from the male for fear 
of his killing it. The red deer go in flocks, herds of females and half-grown 
males being often seen under the leadership of one stag, who is the master 
over them all. 


Fallow Deer are often seen in private parks. They become very tame 
and will allow strangers to approach them. The herd is always under the 
command of a leader, who holds his place by means of hard fighting. When 
the leader gets old there is a contest among the young bucks as to who shall 
succeed, which lasts until one deer is found which is more powerful than any 
of its fellows. 






The Axis Deer is found in India and Ceylon. It moves about mostly 
in the night, hence, not being seen so much, it is believed to be rarer than it 
really is. Although a pretty little creature, it is not as active or intelligent 
as the fallow deer. It can run very fast, but is not able to keep it up for any 
great distance. The axis deer is constantly hunted by tigers, because they 
find it much easier to pull down than to fight a full-grown buffalo. 


Another beautiful little deer is the Roebuck. Although easy to tame, it 
makes a bad pet, as it is apt to use its horns upon anyone it does not like. 
When wounded it never offers any resistance, which is contrary to its family 
instinct. The roebucks live in large herds and pair off in couples. In con- 
trast to the fallow deer, the roebuck is found in the mountains and never in 
the plains. It is an intelligent creature and rapidly adapts itself to change. 
It is another of the deer family that is used ornamentally in parks. 




The Camel has been called the " ship of the desert," and for a very good 
reason. The mighty sandy wastes of Africa and Asia would be untravelled 
but for this useful creature. 

Its stomach, upon which the life of the camel depends during its long 
journeys, is constructed in a wonderful fashion. It contains a number of cells 
which carry a great quantity of water. When drinking, the camel takes in suf- 
ficient to fill all these cells, which is enough for a six or seven days' journey, 
and when the camel gets thirsty it draws upon this supply. It is thus able to 
live a week while crossing the blinding, sandy wastes without stopping for 
water. Some naturalists have claimed that the camel has never been wild, for 
as far back as history can trace it has always been in the service of man. 

In parts of Arabia, on the great steppes of Russia, and the plateaux of 
Central Asia, camels are sometimes seen in a wild state, but they have prob- 
ably escaped from some of the tame herds. An attempt was once made to 
introduce the camel into the United States. The animals were taken out to 
Arizona and New Mexico. The plan was a failure and the herd rapidly 
diminished by decease. A few of the beasts escaped and for years afterward 
were seen from time to time in various parts of Arizona. 

The Arabian camel has a single hump, while the Bactrian, or camel of 
Asia, has two humps. These humps are formed of fat. The Arabs can tell 
the condition of a camel by its hump. After a long journey it becomes flabby 
and sometimes disappears altogether, while the hump of a camel in good 
health should be firm and solid. The feet of the camel are splendidly built 
for the work it has to do, as most of its journeys are over small, loose rocks 
and shifting sand. Its toes are wide apart and well padded beneath, so that it 
has a firm foot-hold. It has always been the custom to load the camel kneel- 
ing, hence it has developed a hard, leathery surface over its knees, which 
serve as a protection against sore places being formed. The camel has been 
credited with greater speed than it really has. There is one species called 
the " heirie," which can trot at the rate of ten miles an hour and keep it up 
from sunrise to sunset, but the common camel's stride is seven feet, and 
taking them on the average of thirty-six to the minute makes its speed about 
three miles an hour. 

It would be hard to find a creature with a more morose and ugly disposi- 
tion. It is great fun to watch a camel being loaded, for its temper is worst 'at 
this time. The Arab comes in front of his beast, taking care to keep out of the 
way of its teeth, and coaxes and begs the animal to get down on its knees. If 
this has no effect, he gets a big stick and whacks and pokes it until it obeys. 



He must tie it down by the muzzle or it will rise the minute his back is 
turned. Then the patient Arab piles his boxes on top of a saddle and straps 
them there, while the camel keeps up a gurgling and grunting, all the time 
trying to bite its master's legs. When the loading is finished, the camel rises 
to its feet. If it is in an extra bad temper, it will buck the load off its back. 

The camel lives to a great age, and in some parts of the world is held in 
great veneration. Sometimes a white camel is born. These animals are always 
very highly prized. The dervish warrior, the Madhi of the Soudan, rode upon 
a white camel. The beast is said to have been a magnificent specimen, being 
larger than any of the commoner species. It was afterward killed in battle. 
In the deserts they take the place of regular cavalry. 


The Bactrian is the two-humped camel of Asia. Although it is larger 
than its Arabian brother, it is not as enduring an animal. It can tightly close 
its nostrils and so prevent being suffocated in the dust-storms. These camels 
are killed by the Tartars for their skin and flesh, but as they are very wild and 
wary, they still survive in some numbers. 


The Llama and Alpaca are natives of South America. From their wool, 
which is valuable, is spun various cloths, among which is the famous alpaca. 

Both these animals are gentle in 
temper and disposition and are used 
as beasts of burden. It is said that 
they can carry as heavy a weight as 
one hundred pounds. 

When the Spaniards conquered 
South America they found that the 
Indians had already succeeded in 
taming the llama. The Spaniards 
used the creature to carry the treas- 
ures of silver and gold from the 
mountains down to the coast. These 
| animals are quite large, frequently 
standing six feet hi^h. 


The Horse, as far back as history goes, has always been in the service oi 
man. It is believed that the forefathers of the horse came from Central Asia, 
and from there spread all over the world. In Tartary the horse is not only 
ridden, but is kept for its milk and killed for its flesh. 


North and South America are the home of the wild Mustang. These 
horses are found in herds of many thousands in number. Each herd is in 
direct control of a leader, and the leader keeps his place by right of battle. 
The young males are not allowed to enter the herd, but have to live solitary 
lives until a sufficient number of them get together and form another herd. 
In some extraordinary manner the leader horse is able to instantly convey his 
commands to his companions. At any rate, it is well known that the whole 
herd will take alarm simultaneously and wheel or pull up suddenly in a com- 
pact mass without the slightest confusion. 

The usual method of capturing the mustang in North America is with the 
rawhide lasso. The mustang is pursued until the rider gets close to it, when 
he throws the loop of the lasso over its neck and draws it tight. The rider's 
horse pulls up and the rider takes a couple of turns of the rope around the 
horn of the saddle. The result is that the strain on the rope throws the mus- 
tang head over heels, and before it can recover itself it is safely secured. 

In South America the mustang is captured with a bolas. The bolas is 
made of rawhide, like the lasso; but instead of having a loop at the end, it has 
two short pieces of rope attached, which have small stones fastened at the ends. 
When the bolas is thrown and comes in contact with the mustang's legs, the 
stones naturally wind round and round until the beast is so tangled up that it 
cannot move. 


Throughout the East the horses are all descended from the famous Arab 
Horses. These creatures are noted for their beauty and good temper. The 
Arabs are very proud of their horses and take great pains to keep them up to 



the standard of perfection. The stock has been crossed with other species, 
which has resulted in giving us many of our most famous race-horses. 


The Race-horse and the Trotting-horse are the finest examples of the 
perfection to which animals can be brought by good training and breeding. 
The training of the race-horse is a special business which requires great 
knowledge and patience. The horse has to run a certain distance on a certain 
day at a given time. Consequently the horse must be in. perfect condition 
at that hour; it must have just the right amount of rest and food, or else it 
will not win the race. It must be remembered that the race-horse will have 
to contend with other horses which are its equal in speed and training. 

The trotting-horse is trained in much the same way as the race-horse. 
Some idea of the perfection to which the trotter has been brought can be 
gained from the fact that a good horse can run a mile in a little over two 
minutes. This is half the speed of the fastest express trains. 


The Hunter is a thoroughbred horse especially adapted for running 
across country, jumping hedges, stone walls, and gates. The hunter is more 
strongly built than the race-horse and can therefore stand a greater strain. 
The idea of the race-horse is to get out of it a short burst of speed, while that 
of the hunter is to obtain endurance. 


The Cart-horse is a splendid creature. It is large, broad-chested, and 
of great weight, while its strength is enormous. It is an intelligent animal, as 
anyone knows who has ever seen its behavior in a crowded street, or watched 
it struggling to get a heavy load up a hill. 


Every boy loves to ride the Shetland Pony. This little creature runs 
wild in the islands off the north of Scotland, from which it takes its name. 
Anyone who can catch a Shetland pony on its native hills has the right to 
keep it. They are hardy and live well when brought South. 











The Wild Asses all over the world hold a place of honor. There is 
hardly any other animal that is so much prized in the East. Its greatest use 
lies in its speed, for a greyhound or a thoroughbred Arabian horse cannot 
overtake the wild ass in a fair chase. It is also very sure-footed, so that it 

can travel among rocks and places where a 
horse would be unable to tread. 

The common ass or donkey is a good old 
friend to every boy and girl. In Europe and 
America it has been made stupid by ill-treat- 
ment and its intelligence blunted by brutality. 
It is exceedingly clever, obedient, and willing, 
and possesses greater endurance and strength 
than the horse. In the East, where the ass has 
had good treatment, its development has been 
wonderful. There the bright-eyed, sleek, clean- 
cut creature is 
quite a con- 
trast to the 
poor, unkempt 
little animal of 
England. The 
donkeys would 
have vanished 
if they were not 
endowed with 
such wonderful 
strength. They 
learn clever 
tricks, and can 
be taught not 
to go outside a 
given bounda- 
ry ; and if they 
do trespass on 
the sly, they 
make every en- 
deavor to cover 
their tracks, 



and will hide things, steal 
when they can, open doors, 
and work pump - handles 
to obtain water. Donkeys 
have been known to drown 
dogs which have worried 
them, while, on more than 
one occasion, they have 
beaten off a full-grown 
leopard by nimbly using 
their heels. 

Anyone who has vis- 
ited Cairo or Constanti- 
nople must have noticed 
the little donkeys. Di- 
rectly you land, the loud- 
mouthed driver-boys shriek their beasts' praises until you are deafened and 
bewildered ; and you make a bargain in true Eastern fashion, paying about 
one-fifth of the sum asked. After climbing into the saddle you are off. The 
donkey trots along through the narrow alley-ways, nearly killing you or some- 
body else every few feet,, first by brushing against a wall, or knocking down a 
fat Arab, or going under a low arch-way, while the driver behind plies his stick 
vigorously, all the while shrieking, " Room for my lord ! " " Boy, get out of the 
way! " At the end of your journey you find yourself warm and jolted, but, on 
the whole, well pleased. It is impossible to walk around an Eastern bazaar 
without being nearly run over, and as everyone rides you may as well take a 
donkey too. After awhile, instead of looking at the animal as a simple ass and 
your enemy, you will find that he is a shrewd little rascal and capable of play- 
ing you many a trick unawares. 

In Arizona, where the ass is called the burro, it is still used by the Span- 
ish-Indian folk. It was found most useful in the early days, when the roads 
were nothing but stony and sandy trails. 

The Wild Ass of India is a large, beautiful animal, very cautious and 
timid, and like all timid animals it is also extremely curious. If it sees an 
object that it does not understand it will at first run away, but on seeing that 
the object does not move it will return and walk round and round it in ever- 
narrowing circles until it comes quite close, and then it will sniff at it. If 
there should be any peculiar smell about the object it will take fright and 







gallop away. It is thought great sport to shoot the wild ass, and to accom- 
plish this the sportsman must start off to the plains long before daylight 
and find some place to conceal himself from view. As the hour of dawn 
approaches he hears the wild asses calling one another with a curious, short 

bray. When it is light enough to see, the herds begin to move, and unless 
there is no food near they do not hurry. If the hunter has good luck they 
may come toward him and all he has to do is to lie very still until they get 
within ran^e. Sometimes the herd will take fright and will rush over the 
spot where the hunter lies concealed. Even if a rifle is fired close to them 
it will not turn them once they are started, and the hunter will be trampled 
to death. If, on the other hand, the herds move away from the hunter, he 
must creep after them, taking great care to expose himself as little as pos- 
sible. If he succeeds in bringing an ass down he is content, for he knows 
he is not likely to get another shot that day, for the herds have rushed 
off in great panic, from which they will not get over for some hours. The 
leaders of the herd never allow themselves to be taken by surprise a 
second time. 

The speed of the wild ass is very great. It can outrun a swift horse. In 
fact, it relies on its swiftness for its safety. Its skin is made into valuable 
leather and its flesh is good to eat. 






The Zebra is by far the handsomest of the ass tribe. This curious ani- 
mal is a native of Southern Africa. The home of the zebra is on the high 
land among the rocky hillside, but it is often found in the plains. Its color is 
a creamy white, marked with black velvety stripes. The disposition of the 
zebra is bad, being both obstinate and ill-tempered. There have been many 
attempts among the colonists of Southern Africa to tame it like the horse, 
but so far it has been with poor success. In some cases the zebras have been 
broken to harness and driven two abreast, or six in a team. But it is danger- 
ous work, as the animal is uncertain and liable at any instant to forget all its 
training and to dash off at break-neck speed. In spite of all its fierceness the 
zebra is a timid animal. Should anything approach that it does not fully 
understand, it kicks up its heels and dashes off for shelter. 

Sometimes vast herds of antelopes, hartebeest, zebras, and ostriches are 
often found together, fire or drought having driven them out in search of water. 
In the early spring, the male zebras fight fiercely together for their mates. 

The zebra in size is between the donkey and the horse. The young are 
striped like the parents, and when born are smaller than a horse's foal. 









The Elephant has a greater hold upon the friendship of the world than 
any other animal. Story-books are full of instances of its wonderful intelli- 
gence and strength. Then again, its huge size makes it so imposing that one 
cannot possibly behold it without awe. Its friendship and fidelity to man 
are well known, also its wonderful memory, recognizing friends sometimes 
after years of separation. The question is often asked if the elephant is more 
sagacious than the dog, and Sir Samuel Baker has given a good answer : 
" The dog is a man's friend, the elephant is his slave." It is very doubtful 
if an elephant would save its master from attacks of an enemy such as a dog 
has been known to do. The elephant moves to orders obediently enough, 
but never will do anything of its own accord. 

The two great branches of the elephant tribe are the Indian and African 
species. Their habits are much the same, though they differ greatly in build. 
The African elephant is the larger of the 
two, the tusks are longer, the ears are 
immense, and from the crown of the head 
to the tail a continuous slope downward, 
the body, if anything, being highest right 
at the point of the shoulder. Now in the 
Indian variety the head is lower than the 
shoulder and the higl 
of the body is the ba 
have examples of ho 
Indian elephants may becom 
but the African eleph 
been hardly more than 
mented with. The c 
seems to lie in the _ 
lack of facilities for 
obtaining the huge 
creatures in quan- 
tities. The instinct 
of the natives is to 
kill, and for the 
sake of an ivory 
tusk they will de- 
stroy a beast which 

might become of 


so much use to them. The only marvel is that the white settlers in Africa have 
so far not turned their attention to elephant taming. 

Although elephants arc strictly tropical animals, they suffer greatly from 
heat. Directly an elephant is released from duty it will make for the nearest 
shade, or if on a long march will strip a large tree-branch to shade itself and 
brush away the flies. The dark color of the elephant, together with its huge 
size, absorbs a great amount of the sun's rays, and the creature resorts to a 
curious way of keeping itself cool. By inserting its trunk in its mouth it draws 
up a large quantity of water from its stomach, and squirts it over itself. Oddly 
enough this water is perfectly sweet, haying no odor at all. The elephant has 
no strong smell, such as the lion or the horse. You can rub its skin with your 
hand and not be able to detect any odor. 

These huge creatures are exceedingly fond of water, being able to swim 
the widest rivers. It is a grand sight to see a herd of them sporting together. 
The leader bowls into the water first and the rest follow, and then the fun be- 
gins in earnest. One would suppose that the native drivers (called mahouts) 
must surely get drowned, for sometimes they stand ankle deep on their ele- 
phants' backs, the elephant being entirely under the water, except for the tip of 
his trunk, which he leaves out for breathing purposes. The elephant's dislike 
for heat and love of water naturally go together, and nothing is so enjoyable to 
it as its morning bath, which is more liberal than is generally supposed. In 
spite of the great thickness of the elephant's skin, it is exceedingly sensitive, 
and can only be kept healthy by constant attention. The order of the bath is 
as follows : The mahout goes over the elephant with a soft brick and carefully 
cleanses all the corners, the patient enjoying the operation immensely, and 
adapting itself to its attendant by obediently turning from side to side. Then, 
that part finished, the elephant rises and squirts buckets of water with its trunk 
on its back and sides. It now appears a beautiful black, but spoils the whole 
thing by pouring dust all over itself. It is curious to note that the elephant 
uses dust to cure all its troubles. Should a part of its head become tender 
or a sore appear on its back, it promptly covers the place with dust, which 
hardens and forms a solid protection against the onslaught of flies and insects. 

The capture of elephants is very exciting, although it is more of a business 
than a sport. Imagine a "round-up" of elephants similar to one of steers in 
the West. Once it is apparent that more elephants are needed, a regular drive 
is decided upon. A huge V-shaped corral is built, which at the point opens 
into a circular enclosure made of huge baulks of timber. A decoy elephant, 
which is used to attract the game, sets out on a tramp through the jungle and 



the wild elephants begin to follow in its wake. The leader goes steadily for- 
ward while the huge herd trails behind. When enough are gathered, the leader 
quietly makes for the V-shaped corral, the ends of which are carefully concealed 
by trees. The first elephant soon gets suspicious, but the crowd behind push it 
forward. Then the leader goes right down to the tip of the V and enters the 

second corral, and the herd follows. When 
all are in, the gigantic gates are shut and 
the great beasts realize that they are caught. 
ifg^ A scene of wildest excitement ensues, for 
the great concourse of people which natu- 
rally gathers for such a fete, yell and beat 
tom-toms until the noise is deafening. The 
flaring of torches, the rattling of chains, the 
shrill shrieks of children, mixed with the 
shouts of men, and the wild trumpeting 
of the elephants make a wonderful scene. 
The terrified prisoners rush madly round, 


seeking an exit, and here is illustrated 
a curious fact: elephants seem to have 
no idea of combining. Strong as the 
stockades are built, they would go down 
like match-wood before a charge of the 
maddened beasts, and yet this is an 


exceedingly rare occurrence. Then the task of securing the likeliest specimens 
now begins. Tame elephants, with men on their backs, armed with long ropes 
and chains, enter the corral, and the elephants huddle at the other end. The 
mahout promptly singles out a large animal for his own use and then 
urges it forward to prod out one of its brethren with its tusks till it is separ- 
ated from its companions. Then, with infinite skill, one of the men slips 
a nooss over a hind foot while the other end is made fast. The elephant 
does not notice this at first until it tries to rejoin the herd, and then comes a 
period of frantic pulls and struggles, with much squealing, but all of no use. 
Its other feet are shackled and it finds itself bound, a helpless prisoner. While 
this is going on the elephant sometimes exhibits great violence, especially 
when a mother is trying to get to her squealing youngster, or an old bull ele- 
phant, in its blind, dumb fury, is lashing out in all directions with its trunk. 
When discretion gets the better part of bad temper and the captive gives in, 
which is generally after being tied up for many hours without food, it is 
chained between two tame elephants and led off to be broken to harness and 
taught its other duties in life. The finest elephants having been selected from 
the catch, the others are turned loose, to be recaptured in a year or two, when 
their ivory is in a more perfect condition. 

What are the uses of the elephant? A great many and various. The 
most magnificent creatures are purchased by the Rajahs to be used on 
great state occasions. The government employs others in the great teak 
forests, while more become hunting elephants. The Indian rulers take great 
pride in their elephants, and adorn their harness with elegant silks and gold 
trappings. Then a large number are used by the British Government in the 
artillery. A mounted battery drawn by two elephants is a fine sight, but, after 
all, the elephant is not always to be relied upon, because it is liable to stam- 
pede at any instant when the firing begins At pulling and hauling the ele- 
phant has no equal. A traveller watched a number of tuskers at work in a 
teak forest in Burmah. One old fellow was particularly interesting. It would 
hoist a gigantic baulk of timber nicely balanced on its tusks, keeping it there 
with its trunk, and then carry it to the pile. After laying the burden down in 
place, the old fellow would cock his eye along the stack to see that it was 
straight, pushing and butting the timber with its head into place until it was 

The elephant is in great request for tiger-shooting; why, it is hard to 
understand, unless because of its great size and strength, but surely not on 
account of its pluck, for it is a wretched coward. The trunk of the elephant is 


the most sensitive and delicate 
part of its body, and any injury 
thereto causes it intense agony. 
Should a tiger spring on a hunt- 
ing-elephant, as it is very apt to 
do, the trunk naturally bears the 
brunt of the attack. It is well 
known that it is never safe to 
take into the field an elephant 
that has been once badly clawed 
by a tiger, for at the first sign of 
the enemy it will turn tail and 
rush off in a disgraceful panic. 
As an elephant can easily run 
from fifteen to eighteen miles an 
hour, and is very tall besides, 
while the branches of the trees 
are low, the hunters naturally 
fare badly. But a tiger will 
hardly ever face a line of ele- 
phants. When a part of the jun- 
gle is to be beaten, the elephants 
are placed ten feet apart and 
moved forward in a steady line, 
before which every living creat- 
ure must fly or be crushed to 
death. Gradually the space to be 
covered grows smaller and the 
elephants, in the wildest excite- 
ment, press forward, till the tiger breaks cover with a roar. Then is the time 
to witness the skill of the mahouts in keeping their huge, quaking charges in 
line. The hunters are on the lookout, and a bullet should end the sport. 

A traveller speaks of a case where a tiger sprang upon the head of an 
elephant which succeeded in shaking it oft". As the tiger bounded away a 
bullet in the shoulder brought it down. As soon as the elephant recovered 
from its first fright and saw its enemy lying helpless, it became unmanage- 
able with fury and charged down upon the tiger, crushing every spark of 
life out and then literally performed a w r ar-dance on the body. The hunters 




were flung off right and left from the elephant's back, so violent were its 
actions. Directly the elephant sniffs danger it curls up its trunk to keep it 
out of harm's way. 

It is generally estimated that an elephant lives about one hundred and 
fifty years, but does not attain its full growth of size and ivory until about its 
fortieth year. Its weight often reaches six or seven tons, while its tusks turn 
the scales at six hundred pounds. When in captivity the regular allowance 
of food for an elephant is six hundred pounds a day, and it has four teeth 
with which to grind it. When wild, it is exceedingly capricious in its tastes, 
and will destroy acres of forest, apparently out of deviltry. Being nocturnal 
in its habits, it must find its food by touch and smell alone. It will eat only 



the bark of some trees, while it will carefully strip the bark off others, throw it 
away, and select the wood inside. 

Like our domestic deer, there is a period of about three months in the 
year when it is not safe to go near the elephant. It is called the "must" 
time. During his temporary madness all signs of affection leave the beast 
and he is alternately sullen and treacherous, liable to break forth into awful 
fits of anger. Many instances are on record where a " must " elephant has 
broken loose, destroyed life and property, and then reverted to its old state 
again. It is then that it is more dangerous, for having a knowledge of the 
ways of man, it descends upon unprotected villages, carrying death and 
destruction in its wake. To show that this side of its nature is only tem- 
porary, elephants that have escaped during the " must " time, after being 
recaptured, have become peaceable and trustworthy servants once more. So 
we have seen that the quiet, solemn, clucking elephant can be terrible at 
times. All elephants have a dread of insecure ground and will not cross a 
bridge until they have first tested its strength. If urged forward they become 
sulky, when simply nothing can move them, or else they lash out with their 
trunks or feet. It is an astonishing fact that an elephant can kick with light- 
ning swiftness, both back and front, often reaching as high as a man's head. 



The Tapir forms a link between the elephant, rhinoceros, and the swine. 
It has a trunk much smaller than that of the elephant, and yet larger than the 
hog's. Its body is heavy, its skin is thick and hairless, while its tail is stumpy. 

The American tapir inhabits the tropical countries south of the equator, 
where it lives in great numbers in the densely wooded region near the rivers. 
It swims and dives well, being able to walk on the river-bed. In spite of its 
large size and weight, the tapir has no strong weapon of defence, and, there- 
fore, frequently succumbs before the onslaught of animals like the jaguar. On 
these occasions, when a jaguar springs upon its back, the tapir rushes to the 
nearest river and rolls over and over until its enemy is forced to loose its 
hold or be drowned. But in many cases the jaguar has finished its work 
before its victim can reach a stream. The tapir has a gentle disposition and 
will not attack human beings unless brought to bay, and then it uses its teeth 
fiercely. The tapir is a silent animal, seldom uttering its curious shrill 
whistle. Its hearing, sight, and scent are equally good. During the daytime 


it hides in the deep brush-wood, but at sundown it goes out in search of food. 
A curious fact, is that this strange animal makes long journeys at night and 
always travels in a straight line, climbing banks, going through forests, or 
swimming rivers. Its neck is covered with a short, black mane, while its 
general color is of a sombre brown, which does not change with the seasons. 
The young, however, are beautifully marked with yellowish fawn spots and 
stripes upon a coat of rich, brown-black color. 


The Malayan Tapir inhabits Java and Sumatra. The broad, white band 
on its flanks is its most conspicuous feature. In size it is rather larger, if any- 
thing, than its American brother, while in habits the two are exactly alike. The 
Malayan tapir does not swim as much as the American species, but, neverthe- 
less, among the natives it is known as the river-horse, a term also applied to 
the hippopotamus of Africa. 

The natives usually catch the tapir in pit-falls, for their bows and arrows 
are not strong enough to penetrate its skin. 

3 >;'.;"■'■ i 




Pigs are omnivorous — that is, they will eat anything ; their teeth are 
accordingly designed for procuring many kinds of food, and at the same time 
to act as weapons of offence and defence. On the whole, pigs are affectionate 
toward their young and each other, living peaceably in herds. On the other 
hand, pigs fight fiercely when angered. They possess great strength, keen 
noses, sharp ears, but are not noted for good eyesight. The family is large, • 
having members scattered in every portion of the world. 


The Wild Boar is the king of the pigs. It is honored all over the world, 
from Germany to India. It is a curious fact that few large animals will attack 
man; the lion, dignity and all, turns aside, and so does the tiger; but not so 
the boar. This mighty pig fights for the very love of it. The size of the 
enemy seems to matter very little, for it has been known to put a tiger to 
flight. The boar is armed with two tusks about ten inches long; five inches 
of the tusks are firmly set in the jaw, while the other five appear for work. 
Although these tusks seem a poor sort of weapon, it is astounding what dam- 
age they are capable of doing. The boar's neck is short and thick-set, and 
when cornered, it has a habit of jerking its head upward and sideways, the 
tusks ripping through everything they encounter. 

Pig-sticking is a favorite sport in India. A hunter mounts a fleet horse 
and arms himself with a strong bamboo pole having a steel spear-head at the 
end ; then he rides into " pig country " and puts up his quarry. The pig 
breaks cover and the race for life begins. At first sight you would not sup- 
pose that the pig was making any great headway, but when the horse tries to 
run it down the mistake is found out. The short, stubby legs of the boar can 
carry it over the ground at a great rate, but unless it can reach cover at a 
reasonable distance its pace begins to flag and the hunter gets his chance. 
Riding up alongside the fleeing animal, he plunges his spear between the 
boar's shoulders and kills it at once. 

Sir Samuel Baker says : " There is an immense amount of character in a 
pig.'' The boar is thoughtful and clever, and, moreover, it knows its own 
mind and acts like a flash. Sometimes when the native Hindoos are out 





beating up a tiger, they will disturb a boar. The old rascal sniffs the air and 
makes up its mind which way it will go. If it is forward, away it dashes. But 
sometimes it awaits events and quietly sneaks into a piece of dense jungle. 
When the beaters come quite close, the pig charges, and immediately there 
are shrieks and yells and a wild scrambling to right and left. Then stones are 
seen to fly, and with a few angry grunts the pig vanishes. 

Ceylon is the true home of the pig, for it grows larger and fiercer there 
than anywhere else in the world. Everyone has heard of " learned pigs." As 
a matter of fact, the domestic swine show great intelligence and are quite 
clever. Their hearing is good, and their sense of smell is very delicate, while 
they are capable of great affection. Pigs run swiftly and can leap several feet in 
the air. A wild hog has been known, when pressed, to clear a nine-foot fence. 


The Peccary is one of the famous animals of the world. It is so fierce 
that no man can withstand its attacks. It is not much larger than an ordi- 
nary pig, but, nevertheless, wherever it lives it rules over everything. 

The peccary is found in Brazil, and there it is sometimes shot for its flesh. 

-^a^aiwa^^^^^; On one occasion a jaguar 

-^ :" J r^X -., jfe? 1 sprang upon a peccary, whose 

angry grunt soon brought its 
friends to the rescue, and be- 
fore the jaguar was aware of it, 
it was set upon by the fierce 
little herd, who simply tore it 
to pieces. Many a hunter has 
been forced to take to a tree, 
and has been kept a prisoner 
there by angry peccaries. They 
are obstinate, ignorant, and 
stupid, for, while they fight 

,_._ „.,„ . . bravely, they learn no wisdom 
from their victories and defeats 
beyond that of keeping together and always attacking the common foe. 

The home of the peccary is usually in the hollow of some tree. The 
natives of Brazil take advantage of this fact and lie hidden nearby, and shoot 
the peccaries as they come home. The peccaries always back into their hollow, 
first one, then another likewise, the last one keeping watch at the opening 



The Babyroussa lives in the Celebes Islands. Besides two ordinary 
tusks, like the boar, it has two extra ones above its nose which grow backward. 
It is a powerful animal, very fierce, and grows as large as a small donkey. It 
is a good swimmer, often staying hours in the water just for pleasure. 

On one occasion a party of hunters were crossing a stream at a spot 
where the shadows were very dark, when they suddenly found themselves 
face to face with a huge babyroussa. The animal stared at them in astonish- 
ment for a moment or two and then, with a fierce grunt, charged. The party 
scrambled right and left, but one hunter, who was standing knee-deep in the 
stream, fell over just as the babyroussa reached him. The creature made a 
sharp lunge with its tusks, but missed a vital spot and ripped open the 
hunter's thigh instead. The beast then turned and tried to trample the man 
to complete his work, when another hunter put his rifle just in front of the 
animal's ear and killed it. The native hunters who were with 'the party were 
much surprised to see how easily the great pig put the white man to rout. 

On another occasion a babyroussa charged into a camp just as some 
hunters were about to eat their evening meal. The men rushed for their rifles, 
but before they could get a single shot the beast had vanished. As it did not 


return to the attack, the hunters thought that it must have been frightened 
with the clatter which the tin dishes made in being knocked about in the wild 

Throughout the Celebes group the natives have a great fear of the baby- 
roussa. It is not a common animal, and is but seldom seen because its home 
is in the thickest part of the forest. Owing to its peculiar color, it is a very 
difficult animal to see when standing near tree-trunks or rocks. 


The Bush-hog belongs to South Africa. It is usually found in the 
thickest forests, where it lives in holes which it makes for itself. The bush- 
hog often visits outlying stations and does immense damage in a single 
night. It will root up young trees, eat all the vegetables it can find, while it 
tears its way through gates and fences to get at what it wants. Although a 
large and powerful animal, it is not as fierce as the babyroussa, nor as clever 
as the true boar. The bush-hog can best be distinguished by the broad, white 
band upon it, starting from the top of its head and reaching down to the tail. 
It is sometimes shot for its flesh, which is considered good eating. 



( ,sgS;. 


The Vlacke-vark is another of the swine family belonging to Africa. 
In spite of its fierce looks it can be easily tamed. The keepers in the London 
Zoo drive them about like pigs. In Abyssinia the vlacke-vark lives in bur- 
rows, which resemble a huge rabbit-warren. If its home is invaded, it will 
charge from one of the openings, and woe to anyone who is near. 

The usual method of hunting the vlacke-vark is for one man to take up a 
commanding position near the mouth of one of the burrows, and then watch 
while a native throws a lighted ball of oily cotton into the mouth. When the 
smoke becomes very thick inside, the vlacke-vark comes out snorting with 
rage. Now is the hunter's time, and he must be very cool-headed and a good 
shot, for the vlacke-vark will surely come at him, even if he is perched up 
among the rocks. The bones of the beast's skull are very heavy, and unless 
a rifle-bullet is placed in exactly the right spot, it will only wound the animal, 
increasing its fury without stopping its charge; hence, there is great danger in 
hunting this mighty pig. The vlacke-vark is a very swift animal and can 
easily outrun a horse if the ground is at all rough. It is frequently spoken 
of as the Abyssinian wart-hog. 





It is sometimes thought that the Rhinoceros must have been the animal 
which the ancients called the unicorn. This famjly is quite numerous, having 
members in India, Java, Sumatra, and Africa. The Indian variety is famous 
for the wrinkled folds of skin which cover the shoulder and leg joints, and give 
good protection to the owner. The skin of the rhinoceros is so tough that a 
lead bullet will not pierce it, while the bones of its skull are the thickest of 
any animal. The African variety has a smooth, tough skin without any shoul- 
der-folds. Throughout Abyssinia the rhinoceros's skin is largely used for 
war-shields. When rubbed down and oiled it becomes semi-transparent, like 
dull amber. The horn of the rhinoceros is formed of countless hairs growing 
together in a compact mass. This horn is quite independent of the skull, for 
a few days after death it will drop off. It is much sought for to make sword 
and axe handles, as it is one of the toughest things in the world. 

All the rhinoceros family are bad-tempered. Without any reason they 
will attack a beast or dead object, whichever is nearest. The rhinoceros has 
been seen to caper about, squealing with rage, and attack a bush, tearing it up 
and trampling it to pieces. The furious beast will drive its horn into the 
ground and then rush along until the earth looks as though a huge plough 
had been over it. Sometimes a lion, or tiger, or a leopard is foolish enough to 
attack a rhinoceros, but the battle generally ends with the victory to the latter. 



The elephant and rhinoceros stand somewhat in awe of each other. The ele- 
phant is nervous and excited when the rhinoceros is near, and even this black, 
quarrelsome beast will turn aside if it hears an elephant coming, though the 
rhinoceros will often attack an elephant. The size, weight, and length of tusk 
of its opponent makes it too risky to fight in a fair battle, but, instead, the 
crafty rhinoceros lies in wait and rushes upon the elephant unawares, and rips 
it open with its powerful horn. The elephant cannot see sideways very well, 
and the rhinoceros, knowing this, lies in wait for its victim until it turns its 
body to the right angle. But if, by any chance, the rhinoceros misses its 
strike, a terrific battle takes place, which generally ends in a victory for the 

The African natives have a curious way of killing the rhinoceros. They 
place a strong looped rope in a shallow pit near the feeding-ground. The rhi- 
noceros, in walking along, puts its foot into the loop and, becoming alarmed, 
rushes off. At the end of the rope a huge baulk of timber is fastened. It soon 
gets tired of dragging this weight after it, and often gets it wedged between 
two trees. The log leaves a clear trail which the natives follow the next day 
until they find their victim. They then kill it with spears. Sometimes the 
rope by which the beast is caught breaks, and then things become exciting. 









The Hippopotamus 
lives in Africa. , It is to be 
found in the great lakes 
and on the banks of the 
Zambesi and the Nile 
rivers. A few years ago 
the hippo was found many 
miles north of Khartoum, 
but it has vanished before 
civilization. It is the next 
largest animal to the ele- 
phant. Sir Samuel Baker 
tells of having killed a bull 
hippo nearly fifteen feet 
long. Its body is so dense 
and he,avy that the instant it is shot it sinks. The beast feeds upon the water- 
plants which grow so profusely in the tropics, and when searching for food it 
is able to run on the bottom of the river. 

Its feet have four toea, each having a sharp nail, which enables the huge 
creature to easily drag its body up the slippery mud-banks. Its jaws, which 
are larger than those of any other animal, contain huge teeth. The ivory is in 
great demand for dentists' work and for making delicate instruments. While 
the hippo is a sulky beast and rather stupid, it has gleams of sense once in 
a while. When it has been wounded it suddenly dives under the water, and 
on coming up to breathe it only allows the tip of its nose to stick out. The 
brain of this mighty animal is no larger than a man's hand. The hippo is ill- 
tempered and quarrelsome. It will attack boats without reason, rushing at 
them with open jaws and smashing the frail wood-work in pieces. Should the 
hippo be surprised asleep upon a bank, it will run headlong for the water. 
They have been seen to jump down a bank sixteen feet high, and one can 
imagine what a splash there was. 

It seems that there is never any war between me crocodile and the 
hippo, as the latter's skin is too tough for the reptile's teeth. Often a croco- 
dile, or even a lion or a leopard, will carry off a baby hippo, but not without 
great danger, for the mother fights fiercely for her young. 

The Arabs have m2,ny ways for catching the hippo, but the best known is 
with the harpoon. Two swimmers go out toward the hippo and throw their 
harpoons, which are attached to a rope. The hippo dives at once and the 








swimmers make for the shore. Directly the creature rises it sees the strange 
float by its side, dives once more, and rushes up and down on the river-bed 
trying to rid itself of the harpoons. In the meanwhile, a canoe puts out from 
shore and fastens ropes to the float, and then the fun begins. Sometimes the 
hippopotamus deliberately leaves the water and charges its enemies. The 
wily Arabs throw sand in its eyes so that it cannot see and thus force it to 
take to the water again. It does not take long to kill the beast once it is 
brought into shallow water. 

The various expeditions up the River Nile have been seriously hampered 
by the hippo, which would swim out under the light, shallow-draught boats and 
either upset them or crush their bottoms in. Before the late war in the Sou- 
dan, the hippo used to be seen feeding far down the Nile, but now it has van- 
ished, except in the parts of the river above Khartoum. Now that Khartoum 
is in the hands of civilized people the hippo will probably be driven back 
altogether to the great lakes. It seems that at one time the hippo lived 
as far north as Cairo, until it was exterminated by man. Livingstone men- 
tioned having seen immense numbers of hippos feeding along the shores of 
the Albert and Victoria Nyanza. The method of killing the hippo used by 
the natives living near the lakes was so crude that the vast number of the 
creatures never seemed to be reduced. 


THE CUCKOO, (yi Natural Size.) 



The Armadillo is found in Paraguay, where it is quite common. This 
creature is covered with a suit of armor which protects it from its enemies. It 

PICHICIAGO ('/. Natural Size;. 

ARMADTLLO ('A Natural Size). 

runs very swiftly, and easily beats off any 
animal that attacks it. A jaguar has been 
seen to roll an armadillo over and over 
many times without being able to get any 
grip for its teeth. It is easily tamed and 
will run about a house without fear. 


Here is a little animal called the Pichi- 
ciago, which seems to be a cross between a 
mole and an armadillo. Its back is covered 
with a thick, horny skin, which is exceedingly 

The claws of this animal are long and 
powerful, which enable if to burrow through 
the hardest soil with great rapidity. Like 
all the rest of its family, it lives on the 
ground and is nocturnal in its habits. Its 
length is about twelve inches. 



The Aardvark is a true ant-eater and lives in South Africa. This ani- 
mal is not often seen, for it rarely comes out before nightfall. Its claws are 
very powerful, and are used in digging up ants, upon which it feeds, also in 
making the huge burrow in which it lives. 

Many writers have given accounts of this strange creature, but much of 
the information must be fiction. Although the aardvark is quite large, it has 
no means of defending itself except with its claws. These, of course, are 
very dangerous, but, owing to the animal's short reach, they can only be used 
when the enemy is close to it. The aardvark depends mainly for safety upon 
its ears. Directly it hears a suspicious noise it slinks quietly away. It is a 
curious fact that the aardvark moves very silently for so large an animal. It 
is said that one of these creatures will pass quite close to a man without his 
being aware of it. Its nose is very sensitive, and when attacked its first 
instinct is to tuck its head in between its fore-legs, so as to protect that organ. 
The eye of the aardvark is large and lustrous, and of a dark hue. Its fur is 
thick and matted, which protects it from the attacks of the ants. The top of 
its skull and ears have curious wrinkles in them, and are perfectly bare. 



The Great Ant-eater belongs to 
South America. It differs from the 
aardvark in that it has much smaller 
ears and a huge, bushy tail nearly 
three feet long. The coloring of this 
tail is so odd that when the animal is 
seen asleep it looks like a bundle of 
hay loosely thrown down. The 




creature is seven feet lon^ 
earned its name from its habit of feed- 
ing on ants. 

A gentleman who was returning 
from an orchid hunt in Brazil had a fine 
chance to watch one. The sun had 
already gone down and darkness set in 
quickly, as it does in the tropics, and the 
moon had risen, so there was enough 
light to see by. The hunter walked 
some distance until his eyes met a 
strange - looking clump of grass, as he 
believed. Suddenly he realized that it 
was an ant-eater. The creature awoke, stretched itself, and rose to its feet. 
The ant-eater always walks on the sides of its feet, for its claws are too long 
to stretch out like a man's toes. This ant-eater hobbled off toward a gigantic 
ants' nest, and standing on its hind legs, dug its claws into the top and crum- 
bled the wall down. Immediately the ants came pouring out in all directions. 
The ant-eater's tongue then swept them into its mouth. This tongue is long 
and thin, and is covered with a slimy substance to which the ants stick. It 
twists and turns this tongue about so swiftly that one might imagine it was a 
wricfsfling snake. When the ant-eater had eaten all the ants in this nest it 
moved off to another, where the same thing happened as before. Many of the 
ants swarmed over their enemy, but it did not seem to mind them at all, although 
thay were large and powerful, and in a short time would have finished off a large 
carcass. The hunter, in watching the ant-eater having its supper, suddenly 
remembered his own, and went on his way, leaving his friend in peace. 

The Lesser Ant-eater, while differing from his relative in looks, has 
much the same habits. This creature can climb trees and will boldly attack a 
wasp's nest, and in spite of the stings of the insects, will speedily eat up all the 



grubs. None of this family have any teeth, so they must rely wholly on the tongue. 
Although such a large animal, it' is helpless against the attacks of the jaguar, 
which is its greatest enemy. The eyes of the ant-eater are a beady black and 
have a very cunning expression. When an ant-eater chooses to look anyone 
straight in the face you feel at once that it might be a very treacherous creature, 
but really it is quite innocent. 


The Little Ant-eater 
seems to be the link between 
the sloth and the true ant-eater. 
These little creatures inhabit 
the trees and feed upon the 
ants which are always travel- 
ling up and down the tree- 


Sloths are found in me 
West India Islands and South 
America. They live in the trees, 
hanging from the branches by 
their curiously shaped toes. Al- 
though they are called sloths 
(which in English means lazy 
people), they are very active. 
On the ground they can hardly 
walk, but in the trees they run 
from branch to branch like 
monkeys. They travel best in 
windy weather, for the trees are 
then blown together, which en- 
ables them to get from one to another. The worst enemies of the sloths are 
the harpy eagles, which fly at them and knock them to the ground, where they 
are helpless. 

Some species of sloth have two toes, notably those in the West Indies, 
while those found in Central and South America have three toes. 



From North Australia comes one of the strangest creatures in the world, 
called the Duck-bill. It is twenty inches long, and has a loose, furry skin 
like the beaver, and webbed feet and a duck's bill. 


The Echidna is 
another North Austra- 
lian animal. At first 
sight it looks some- 
thing like a hedge-hog. 
It is covered with long 
hair and rolls itself in- 
to a ball when alarmed. 
For its size it is one of 
the strongest animals 
known. Its muscles 
are large and its feet 
have strong digging 
claws. But the most 
wonderful thine about 

'infill!'! y 

the echidna is that it is the only egg-laying animal known to exist. It lays 
three eggs about an inch long, containing a yolk like a bantam's egg. 

IGUANA. (1/16 Natural Size.)